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University of California. 

FROM THE LIBRARY <)F 

DR. FRAxNCIS LIEBER, 

■■■'"'•••"*""""'"' ~: 

THW GIFT OK 

MICHAEL REESE, 

Of San Framis.o. 



^tbrajy. 



California- 




THE 



AMERICAN ALMANAC 



REPOSITORY 



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, 



FOR THE TEAR 



1855. 



^^,ir.. 



Lihrcirij, 

2^ Ciilif rms 



V. 




BOSTON: ''^ftf.v'^ 

PHILLIPS, SAMPSON, AND COMP ANt!;r>\.-T* 

LONDON: 

SAMPSON LO-W, SON, AND COMPANY. - ,'■. ^ 

PARISr ' J 

HBCTOB B0S8AN9B. -^ ^ jj 

• 1855. ^K ■, -^ 






^ JBntered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by 
GxoEoi P. SAiraxB, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



/tS 



V 



OAltII]tI0<l8: 
MOTCALF AND COMPANY, PRINTBRS VO TRS ONrVBRftlTT. 



PREFACE. 



Trs tweotyHiixtfa TdlttBMi of th« Ameriosn AioMiiao, b«iiig tli« ahith 
Toliime of the third series, it now offered to the poblic. U|iweati#d peine 
has been taken to eollect full, authentic, and raried infbrmation eoncem- 
ing the complex afikirs of the general and State gwrerniaents *, and a mass 
of official docuoients and private correspondence has been digested relating 
to the government, finances, legislation, public institutions, internal im- 

Sroyements, and resources of the United States, and of the several States. 
t is hoped that the present volome will be found equal to its predecessors 
in fhln«s6 and accuracy, and that it will sustain the high character of the 
American Almanac as a trustworthy manual for reference and a full repos- 
itoiTT of nseflil knowledge. 

The Asti*otteraic»l Department has been prepared by Mr. George P. Bond, 
Asnstant Observer at the Cambrid^ Obeefvatorjr. The article upon <* At- 
mospherical Electricity/' with its full details, will be found to be instrue- 
tive and liseftil. 

In the Second Part ^ the volome will be found fbll KsU of the Exeen* 
live and Judiciary of the General Government, including the chief oflioeis 
•nd derks of the several Departments ; of Collectors of Customs, of Pott- 
masters in the principal cities, of Army and Navv Pension Agents, and of 
tiie Indian' Supertntendents and Ag|ents: of the Intneetors of Steamboats 
snd their IMstricts ; of the Arm^r, and the irarious Military Departments 
and Posts under the new organization ; of the Navy, the public vessels, 
and the Marine Corps ; of our Ministers and Consuls in Foreign Countries, 
and of Foreign Consuls in the United States. These have all been cor- 
rected from official sources to the latest dates possible for publication. Later 
changes are noted in the '* Additions and Uorrections,* at the end of the 
volume. The titles Commerce and Navigation, and Revenue and Expen- 
diture, published each year in the Almanac, are full and complete abstracts 
of the poblic documents of the same name, and the tables connected there- 
with, and with the Post-Office, Mint, and Poblic Lands, show the receipts 
and expenditures of the Government under their several heads, the public 
debt, the inoports, exports, tonnage, coinage, sales of land, and the opera- 
tions of the Post-Office Department, for each year since the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution. The exports for the last four years are given in de- 
tail. The rates of postage are under the new laws, — and these, with the 
inland and foreign mail service, are believed to be complete and correct. 
The Titles and Abstracts of the Public Laws and Joint Resolutions have 
been carefully prepared, and are sufficiently full, except for professional 
use. Among those this year of special interest are the acts relative to the 
Warehousing System and the establishment of Private Bonded Warehous- 
es, — to organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kanzas, — to regulate thn 
pay of Deputy Postmasters,— conce'rning the surveying of the public l^-" 



IV PBEFACE. 

in New Mexico, Kanzaa, and Nebraska, and donatiom to actua tettlera 
therein, — making provision for Postal Service in California, Oregon, 
and Washinffton, — to graduate and reduce the price of the Public Lands 
to actual selUers and cuTtiyators, — to increase the paj of the rank and file 
of the Army, — and to carry into effect the Reciprocity Treaty between the 
United States and Great Britain. The tabular view of the railroads in the 
country is continued from the last volume : and the comparative view of 
the debts, property, and general financial condition of all the States, has 
been corrected with great care from the latest official returns. The infor- 
mation concerning the Individual States 10 as full as in former years. It is 
believed that nowhere else can be found such foil details respecting the 
Executive and Judiciary, the finances, schools, charitable institutions, and 
pauperism and crime, of the several States. Should any one note inacca- 
racies or deficiencies therein, he is urgently requestecf to correct them. 
The European part of the work, revised from tne best authority to late 
dates, gives the several States of Europe, with their form of government, 
the name^ title, and date of accession of the reigning sovereigns, the area 
and population of the several ■ countries. It also gives the fioyal F%uul^, 
the. Ministry, and the Judiciary of England. The Ministry of France is 
added. A Foreign Obituary for 1853 and 1854 is given, which it is intend- 
ed toeontinue hereafler. TJM obituary notices and Chronicle of,^y«i|t0 
have been prepared with care. The space is so limited, tliat many nipi^ee 
and events which otherwise would be given are necessarily omittea. 

The thanks of the Editor are particularly due to the Heads of Deparl- 
ment at Washington, and to his many contributors and correspondenls, tp 
whom the work is indebted for a |$reat part of its value. A continuance 
of their favors is respectfully solicited. A work emfaracing such a multi- 
tude of focts nwst necessarily jcontain errors ; persons who nmr detect any 
are earnestly requested to communicate them to the Editov. ft is particn- 
larly desirable that these, communications should not be anofi^^ous. It is 
frequently a source of regret to the Editor, that he cannot suttmy< acknowl- 
edge the yaiuable' hints and'assistanoe of anonymoae oorr^spondenta.- It is 
« matter of some public interest, that a peraodiibal which oirculatee so wider 
•ly, both in Europe and .America, and which is so universally trunteid M« 
manual forireferenoa, should be rendered as.aoeumte asiposaitilB i andthit 
•ad can be obtainai only by the co-operatioii of. many iifdividuals. Cqi»- 
muqicationa should be addressed tp th^ <* Editor of the Aii»t|ioan< Alnuir 
iia6,'VBostOA.> •' • . • !. - « 

Boston, Massif Ddtemb&^ieU, < '. 




CONTENTS. 



PAB.T I. 

CjAMSPAB. and CsUtSTLU. PHBNOlinrA FOR TBI YUAM 186& 



BiAftttBraa, Jcc., 8 

Gelestial Phenomena, Signs, ftc. , 3 

QiroaolMical Cyclm, 4 

Sipifl of the Zodiac 4 

Banning and Length of the Seasons^ . . 4 

MovaUe Festivals of the Church, 5 

Jewish Calendar, 6 

Mahometan Calendar 6 

Height of the Greatest Tides in 1865, .... 7 

Ciuekdar: — January, &c., 8-31 

Phenomena hi 1855, 32-36 

Ectipses in 1886, 35-37 

ElementBoftbsjBclipiieeof theSun, .... 37 

Occultations, 38 

Discs of Venus and Mars «. 39 

Eelipees of Jupiter's SateUites in 1866,... 39 



Rings of Saturn, •.•- 41 

Latitude and liongitude of Obsenraiories, 41 
Latitude and liongitude of Places, ... 48-46 

EphemerisoftheSun, ..'^ 47-68 

Apparent Places of the Pble Star,.... 63-66 
Places of the Principal Fixed Stars, .«66 - 68 

Dr. Young's Refractions,. .., 63 

Sun's Parallax in Altitude 64 

Atmospherical Electricity, 66 

Mbtborological Information: — Tables 

for Cambridge, Worcester, Providence, 

LambertviUe, Savannah, Muscatine, 

Knox Hill, Fia., and Sacramento, .. 76 -S3 

Rain at King George's CoiirvHouse, Va., . . 83 

Rain at Church Hill, Miss 84 

Flowering of Fruit-Trees in 1854, 84 



PART ^)^^ 

ITl^ITBD StANS. 



L UstofPMsidents 87 

2i EMfiitive Obvemment, 87 

Officers in the DeDUtments, .... 88-90 
Cbroroission 16 adjust Private Land 

ClaiiDsln'Oalllbmia, 90 

Postmasters in Chief Towns a& Cities. 90 

Collecton of Customs ^93 

NavalOfflcers, 96 

Begisten, Bee's, 4to.. in Land Office, 96 
Surveyors-General or Public Lands, . 96 

Indian Superintendents, &c., 97 

Army Pension Agents, 98 

Navy Pension A^mts, 99 

Supervising InsMGtojn of Steam- 
boats, and their Pistricts, 99 

Light-House Board 99 

a Army List. 100 

OiBcers of Corps and Regiments, • . 100 

MUitary Commands 101 

Arsenaia 102 

Military Posts, 102 

MiUUaFofcaoftheUnitedStates,.. 104 



Ffty, ftc. of Army OiBceiV, 106 

4. Nary List, 1: 106 

Commanders of Sqiiadrons, &c lOS 

Pay of the NAry, 107 

YesseUiofWaroftheNavy, 108 

5. The Marine Corps ..*.' 109 

6. TheJudiciary, 110 

Sutirsme Court, 110 

Circuit Couvu, 110, 111 

District Courts. 112-116 

7. Intercourse with Foreign Nations. . . 116 
Ministem. &c in Foreign Countries, 116 
Consuls, AC in Foreign Countries, .117 
Foreign Ministers in the U. States, . 190 
Forsi^ Consuls in the U. States 181 

a Titles and Abstracts of Public Laws, 127 
Appropriations for 1864 and 1866, 127, 123 

'9.' Public Resolutions, 143 

10. Revenue and Expenditure 144 

Duties, Revenue, ftc, for 1862 and 

1863, 144-148 

Revenue and Expenditure for 1864,.. 148 



Tl 



CONTENTS. 



Debt oftheUnitad States, 149 

U. S. Expenditure from 1789 to 1863, 150 
U. S. Revenue from 1789 to 1853, .. 151 
Imports, Exports, and Debt, for 63 
Years * 152 

11. Oommerce and Navigation 153 

Value of Imports, 1892-53 163 

Value of Imports for five Yean, 1 56 

Value of Exports, 1850-1853, 157 

Imports from and Exports to Foreign 

Countries in 18S2- 53, 159 

IndirectTrade 160 

Tonnage of Vessels in Foreign Trade, 160 
Imports and Exports of each State, 162 
Vessels built in U. States, and their 

Tbnnage,in 1853, 162 

Oomparative View of Tonnage from 

1815 to 1853 163 

Commercial Marine of United States, 163 
Vessels built, and theirTonnage, from 

1815tol863, 164 

12. Post-Office Department, 164 

Mail-service for 1893, 166 

No. of Post-Offices, &c., since 1790, .. 167 

Foreign Mail Service, 163 

Receipts and Expenditures for Con- 
tract, year, in detail, ..«^ 169 

J)o. under old imd new Laws 169 

Revenue underTostal Treaties, .... 170 

Compensation of Postmasters 171 

Rate* of Postage in United Stales, . . 172 

Privilege of FranUng 173 

Rates of Foreign Letter and News- 
paper Postage, ftc, 174-178 



Foreign Magasioe and Pamphlet 
Postage, 178 

Receipts and Expensee from and for 
Postages in each State in 1863, ... 179 

13. Congress, 179 

Senate, 180 

House of Representatives, 182 

Alphabetical List of Representatives, 185 

14. Population of the United States, 187 

15. Slaves in the United States, 187 

16. Seventh Census of United States,.... 188 

17. Population ofsome Principal Cities, 189 
la Mint 189 

Officere of Mint, and Coinage, 190 

Coinage of the Mint since 1792, .... 191 

19. Religious Denominations...... 192 

20. State Elections, &c., 192 

21. Governors of States and Territories. 193 

22. Finances of the States 194,195 

2a OoUeges, &c, in the United States, . 196 

Annual College Expenses, 199 

Theological Schools^ 200 

Law Schools, 200 

Medical Schools, 901 

24. Smithsonian Institution, 901 

25. Railroads in the United States, .902-906 

26. Public Lands 9Q6 

Sales of Public Lands M 

27. Banlcs in the United States, 90 

2S. American Securities held abroad, .... 916 
29. Fineness and Value of certain Foreign 

Coins, 217 



Imdiyiduai. Statss. 



1. Mahie 219 

2. New Hampshire, 

3. Vermont, 

4. Massachusetts, 

6. Rhode Island %» 

6. Connecticut 240 

7. New York, 243 

8. NewJeraey, 251 

9. Pennsylvania, 253 

10. Delaware, 258 

11. Maryland, 259 

12. Virginia, 263 

13. North Carolina, 267 

14. South Carolina 268 

15. Georgia, 272 

16. Florida, 274 

17. Alabama, 276 

18. Mississippi 278 

19. Louisiansk, , 280 

2a TaCBi, 283 



I 21. . 



Aitensas, • 

Tennessee, , 

226 '23. Kentudcy,. 

Ohio, 



285 



21. 



Michigan, 294 

Indiana, 296 

niinois, 301 

Missouri 304 

Iowa, 306 

Wisconsin, .' 308 

California, /^ 310 

Oregon Territory, 313 

Minnesota Territory 313 

Utah Territory, 313 

New Mexico Territory, 313 

Washington Territory 314 

Kanzas Territory, 314 

Nebraska Territory, 314 

District of Columbia, . , 315 



AmBRICAM 8T4T98t . 



Governments of'North America, 315 | Governments of South America, 316 

West Indian Qovemmenta, 316 | Population of the Globe, 316 

ElTROFB. 

Reigning Sovereigns of Europe, 317 I Great Britain, 319 

States of Europe, 318 | Ministry ef France, 323 



American Obituary 323 I Chronicle of Eventa 343 

Foreign g^Uuary, ........... M 336 | Additions and Corroctioos, 362 



INDEX. 



AlMUMtaflfPablicLawa . 

▲ddkiaoi and Oomctions . 



AmericaaOUtwy. 

' ftSacurtoiM held absoad . 



9AJBM rA«a 

. 127 Enginaan ia Nayjr, Pa7 of* 107 

• 352Eavo]ra Exiraordiaary, &c 116, 120 

. 275EplMmanaof thaSua i/.fiB 

. 323Ena, 4c. 8 

. 815Ei]iDiMaBSlataa 318 

. 315£Tedb, QaQaEal,inl863 838 

885 " " 1854 ai6 

1^ BxactttlTe Govemmaat of U. S 87 

^ 8S£zpeiiditura8ofU.&lbr65yaara ISO 

ApproncfatioM^ ^8., for 1854, 1856. . 127, 188 ExpemlituMa of aach Slat 196 

AmjrUat 100 Expoita of aach Slata ibr 1668-68 .••••. 108 

An&]rCMlioan,P»7oC llOExporta^Tataa of, in 1860-63 167 

AraijBaaak»AgaBta.« 98 Ez]>orta to ForaicnCoaiiilriaa^« •••»«••• 169 « 

AiBjr.AetloioonaaaBajofjnakibfflaaf UlEzportaior631^am 168 

AiMula ia tba-UaitodStaiea.. 108 Fedeial RaprasaotatiTa PbpiiUttioa 168 

AaaisUBt TEaaauran SSFeatiTalaofthaChuBch...^.^ 6 

AunoaphaviCBl Etetridlj es Finaacaa of tba Statca 194.196 

Atloraoyaof U.&O0111U. 118|FizedSuun,ApporaatPlacaaof Pri^|^ 66 



ApportiooraaDtof U. & BepreaaBtatirea 
Apprainca at Lane. • 



Baaka ia the Uoitad Slatea 

See the aeveial Stataa. 



, 210!Ftorida .TTTr. 874 



Cabinat, Oficaia 



the aeveial Stataa. IFlowarinff of Fniit-tieaa in 1864 84 

Obaenratiooa 76.63;FoKign Gooda imported in 18a2. 168-166 

wiainthe 87 Foieign MaU Sarrice 168 



Oalendar: Januai7,4fec 8-3|!Fof«ignMiaiaUn,^., inU. S. 190 

Oalifiinija. 310'Foreiga NaUooa, Jntercoona with 115 



OaUfomia Gold..... 190'Foreign Obituary 



338 



„ My» 

CalifbcniaLandGtahna, Oommiaaion.... J90 Foreign Trade, Countriea of 159-161 

Gapitala of States ^ ]921Franca 388 

Oaaaaa of U. Stataa (SeTeoth) ISS^FranlcingPnrilega 173 

OaleatialPheBoaena, Signs, ftc aGeneialEvente in 1863 343 

Chronicle of ^Feata 343 " " 1664 846 

CbieoDloffical Cydae 46eoTgfa 879 

Church Fastivala,,, 5 GoTeroment, Saata of. in different Statea . 198 

OiienitOourta.,,,^.,, 110, 111 Govemmanta. Annual Ezpauaa of State. 196 

Citiea, Principal, Poputetion of. 189'GoreKnoreof StateB,frc.TenaaandSilariea 198 

Clerkaof CircaitOoartaofU.S. 113 Great Britain 819 

Clerl»ofDiatriaCeurtaofU.& llSIUinoia 301 

Ooodi and Wioda in 1863 76-83;imi)orts, Value of, in 1868-63 168 

Comage of Mint since 1798.,,. 191 Importa for 63 Years 158 

GofaM^Finenessand Talua of certain tneign 817 Importo of each State for 1858- 53 168 

OoUeeloa of Caatoms Odllmporto paying ad ▼aloramDutie8...153- 166 

Orileges in United States '.... 196 Imports free of Duty 158 

CoOi^gies, Annual Expanses in 199 Indian Superintendents and Agenta. 97 

CommereeofU.S. 153 Indiana 896 

Oommercial iUenta ia Foreign Ceuntriea 117,Superviaing InapaetofB of Steam-Teasela . 99 

Ooinmarciallaarineof theuTa 163 Intercourse with Foreign Nations 116 

Qp inm i s a ion ara, U.&, iaftoreign Cbuntriee I16'lnterior,Departnieniofthe 89 

Oongvses, Thirty*Tbird,8ilSassioB 179-]65Iowa. 306 

Coanecticot 840 Jewish Calendar 6 

GiMia«la,Foreiga«iaU.«. 121Judge8 of U.S. Circ. and Diet. Courta 110-115 

OneaUiaFonignObimlrias 117- 190 Judiciary, U. S 110 

Qmectione and Additions 352 Jupiter'e SateUites, Edlpsea of. 39 

Oovatiiea whence Goeds an brought.... 159 Kansas Territory 814 

Aabi of the United States ^ 149 Kansas Territory, Act establiahing 130 



of theStatea .•••.«.. 194, tOSKentucIrr . 

Land-Oinee, Regtsters, Raceirera, ice. 



Beiawaia 

Bepartoent of the interior. • 
Department of StaU ■ ^. ..... , 

Bepartonnta, Offiant In the 

Biatrict Ooasta. 

District oi GolamUa 



Bdipaeaia 1866 ..,.««.,« 35, 37 Law Schools.... 7. 800 

Bclipae of Moon, May 1 * d 36 Laws, TiUes and Abstracts of Public .... 127 

Eellpae of Moon, October 26 36 Legislatures, Suu, Meeting of. 198 

Eclipse ofSun, Partial, May 15 36 Letters, by Sea-gohig Vesads 179 

Eclipse ofSon, Partial, NoTember 9 .... 37 Libraries, CoUeee. 106 

Eiectiona, State 192 Lighthouse Bdord 99 

Electricitj, Atmoepherical 66Loui8iana 880 

BtemenUofthaEclipseeofSun 37 Mahometan Calendar 

Engineers, Oorpa of, Ac 100, 105 Mall Serrlce for 1863 



96 



89 Lands, Public 

88 Lands, Public, Act to gnduateand reduce 

88-90 Priceof 141 

12- 1 15 Latitude and Longitude of Obser?atories 41 
315 Latitude and Longitude of Places. . . . 48-46 



TUl 



IHDIX. 



MaUSarriea, Foptigii 

Maine..™ 

Marine, Gommerciol, of the U. S. 

. MarioeCorm 109 

Mars and Venuf , Discs of. 39 

Marahals. U. S. 

Maryland • 

Maasachusettfl 

Massachuaettfl, Railroads of. 
Medical Schools 



Meteorological Infonaatiou. 

Michigan 

Military Commandi 

MiUtary Posts 

Militia Force of tlie U.S. 

Minnesou Territory 

nfiaistera of U. & in Foreigu Countries, 

*Minlsten,Foi«ign,in U.S. 

Mint 



Mint. Oflkers of, Gbinage, kc 
Mis^ppl...^: 



Naral^fcer** 
ntion . . . . 



laBlPiAlie Lands, and Sales of. 908,909 

919 PnUic Lands, Surreyors-Oeneral of. 96 

163 Public Laws, Tities and Abstracts of 197 

Public Resolutions of Congress 143 

Railroads in New England 202-204 

113 Railroads in Construction in New England 904 

269 Railroads in the U.S. 202-208 

229 Receivers and Registers of Land-Office . . 96 
202 Replprocity Treaty, Act to carry into Ef- 

201 feet 149 

76 1- 83 Religious Denominations 199 

""' Representatives, Alphabetical List of.... 186 

Representatives, House of. 182 

102 Representatives, State, No. of, and Tenaas 193 
104 Representatives, U. S., Apportioomenl of 188 

— '- • • »ns, PubUc, of Congress. Hd 

and Expenditure 144-159 

U.&, for 65 Years 16 

ind 936 

I'sRings 41 

Fund of States. 195 

304|S8aaons, Beginning and Length of 4 



313 Resolutions, 
116 Revenue I 
120 Reveni 

189 Rhode 

190 Saturn's 
978 School] 



.160, 164 



Navigat 

Navy Department 

Navy List 

Navy Officers, Pay of. 

Navy, Vessels of War in ... . 

Navy Pension AgenU 

Navy Yards, Conunandeia of 

Nebraslca Territory 314 

Nebraska Territory, Act establishing. ... "^ 

NewHampehire 

New Jersey 261 

New Mexico Territory 313 

Newspapers, Postage on - ^'^~i^ 

New York,*iMirauta in!!I!!.'!!!.'^ 

North Carolina 

Obituary, American, in 1863. 

1854 

Obituary, Foreign, in 1853 and 1864 .... 
Observatories, Latitude and Longitude of 41 

Occulutioos 38 

Ohio 

Oregon Territory 

W Oregon Territory, Postal service in 

Pftmphlets and Magazines, Postage on.... _., 

Parsilax in Altitude of ihe Sun 64 

Pennsylvania 1 

Pension Agents, Army and Navy 98, 

PlaneU, Signs of the 

Pole Star, Apparent Places of the 

Population orthe Globe 

FopulaUonoftheU.S. 187, 

PopulaUoaof Chief aUes in U. S. 

Postage, Rates of Inland <. 

Postage, Foreign 174-_ 

Postage to Oregon and California, Foreign 174 
Postmasters in Chief Towns and Cities. .. 90 
Postraasteni, Compensation of.. 136, 167, 171 

Post-Office Department 90,164 

Post-office Distributing Offices OO-"^ 

Poet-Office Rec's and Expend's in 1862, '63 ' 

Pbst-Office Sutistics since 1790 

Post-Office Reveoue. _ 

Presidento of the U. S 87 

Property of States 196 

Public Lands, Act to graduate and reduce 
Price of 141 



95|Secretaries of Legation ^^^'1% 



lue, U. b 
» Island. 



Senate of the. U. S 180 

89 Senators, Sute, No. of, and Terms. 193 

106 Slaves in the U.S 187 

107 Smithsonian Institution 201 

108 South Carolina 266 

99 Southern Railroads 90r 

106 Sovereigns of Europe 317 

314 Specific Duties. Set Imports. 

133 State Department 88 

229 State Elections, &e 192 

State Finances, Debfas, &c 194, 196 

313 Steamboat Inspectors 99 

Sun, Ephemens of the 47-62 

243 Sun's Parallax in Altitude. 64 

2n5Supreme Court, U.S... ..«...« 110 

267 Surveyors of Land-Office 96 

323 Surveyors General in NewMexico,Kanns, 

329 andNebraska 137 

336Tenne8see 286 

Texas 283 

Theological Schocds ».,, 200 

290 TidesVHelght of Greatest, in 1866 7 

313 Titles and Abstracts of PubHc Laws 127 

138 Tonnage of the U.S 160-164 

178 Tonnage, Comparative View of, for 89 

64 Years 163 

253 Trade, Foreign, Countries of 160 

99 Treasurers, Assistant 88 

3 Treasury Department 88 

63 United Sutes, Seventh Census. ^188 

316 Utah Territory 313 

189 Venus and Mara, Discs of 38 

189 Vermont « 226 

172 Vessels and Ibttnage from 1815 - 1663 163 -164 
178^VesselsofWarlnU.aNavy 106 

Viiirinia 963 

90 War Department 80 

Warehousing ^stem. Act eooceming, ... 130 
Washington Territory, 314 

93 Washington Territory, Postal Service In. . 138 

169 Western RaUroad 208 

167 West Indian Governments 316 

169 Winds and Clouds...* 76-83 

Wisconsin 308 

Young's Refractions 63 

Zodiac, Signs of the 4 



AMERICAN ALMANAC, 

FOR 

. 1855. 



PART I. 



THE 

AMERICAN ALMANAC, 

FOB THB TSAR 

1855, 

Being the latter part of the 79th, and the heginning of the 80th year 
of the Independence- of the United States of America; 

** the 6568th year of the Julian Period ; 

" the latter part of the 5615th, and the heginning of the 5616th 
year since the creation of the world, according to the Jews ; 

** the 2608th year (according to Varro) since the foundation of 
Rome; 

*^ the 260-2d year since the era of Nahonassar, which has been as- 
signed to Wednesday, the 26th of February, of the 3967th 
year of the Julian Period, which corresponds, according to 
the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the astron- 
omers, to the 746th year before the birth of Christ ; 

" the 2631st year of the Olympiads, or the third year of the 658th 
Olympiad, beginning in July, 1853, if we fix the era of the 
Olympiads at 775^ years b^re Christ, or at or about the 
beginning of July of the year 3938 of the Julian Period j 

'' the latter part of the 127l3t and the beginning of the 1272d 
year (of twelve lunations) since the Hegira, or flight of Ma^ 
homet, which, as is generally supposed, took place on the 
16th of July, in the year 622 of the Christian era. 



CALENDAR AND CELESTIAL PHENOMENA FOR 
THE YEAR. 



SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c. 



The Sun. 
_ The Earth. 
• B0< The Moon. 
{^ Mercury. 
$ Venua. 




3|L Jupiter. 

n Saturn. 

]^ Herachel or Uranus. 

t^ Neptune. 

^ A fixed star. 



i Conjunction, or having the same Longitude or Right Ascension, 
n Quadrature, or differing 9a> in »• " " 

^ Opposition, or differing 180° in «* " " 

^ The ascending, ^ the descending node. 



4 CHROKOLOOICAL CYCLES, SIONS OF THE ZODIAC, ETC. [1859. 

The sign -f~ is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of the Sun, or 
other heavenly body, when north, and the sign — when sotOh; but the 
former prefixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude indicates 
that she is approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north 
pole of the ecliptic. 

The letters M. j9., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon, 



CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. 



Dominical Letter, . G 

Kpact, 12 

Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 13 



Solar Cycle, 
Roman Indiction, . 
Julian Period, . 



. 16 
13 

6568 



Spring 



Summer 
signs. 



SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC. 



:i. Y Aries. 

y Taurus. 

H Gremini. 
[4. 23 Cancer. 
[5. SI I^eo. 
[6. 15^ Virgo. 



Autumn 
signs. 

Winter 
signs. 






Libra. 

Scorpio. 

Sagittarius. 
riO. ip Capricomus, 
(11. nat Aquarius. 
[12. K Pisces. 



BEGINNING AND LENGTH OF THE SEASONS. 



Sun enters 1^ (Winter begins) 1854, Dec. 2l8t, 
" »' Y (Spring " ) 1855, March 20th, 
" " gs (Summer " ) " June 21st, 
»« «» ^ (Autumn " ) »* Sept. 23d, 
«' «» ?)» (Winter « ) « Dec. 22d, 



h. m. 
9 52 A. 
11 A. 
7 41 A. 
9 52M. 
3 40M. 



Mean 
Time at 
" Washing- 
ton Obaer- 
▼atorj. 



d. h. m. 

Sun in the Winter signs, .... 89 1 8 

" *♦ Spring " 92 20 41 

«* " Summer " . . . . 93 14 11 

« «* Autumn " 89 17 48 

^' north of Equator, (Spring and Summer,) 186 10 52 

«« south of " (Winter and Autumn,) 178 18 56 

Length of the tropical year, commencing at ) 

the winter solstice, 1854, and terminating > 365 5 48 

at the winter solstice, 1855, . . ) 

Mean or average length of the tropical year, 365 5 49 



1855.] 



MOTASLS FSSTIYAI& — JXWI8H CALKSn>AB. 



MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHT7RCH IN 1855. 



SeptnBgesiBia Simday, Feb. 4th 
Qainq. or ShzoTe Sunday, Feb. 18th 

Ash Wed., Lent begins, Feb. 21st 

Mid-Lent Sonday, J|far. 18th 

Palm Sunday, April 1st 

EasUr S»mday, April 8th 

Low Sunday, April 15th 



Rogation Sunday, May 13th 

Aacen.Day, or Holy Th., May 17th 
Whitsunday, or Pentecost, May 97th 
Trinity Sunday, June 3d 

Corpus Christi Day, > j^^^ ^^ 
Fdte Dieu, 3 

1st Sunday in Advent, Dee. 9d 



JEWISH CALENDAR. 



(Tha anniTecnrios marked with an asterisk (*) are to be strictly otanrved.] 

Tear. Names of the Months. 

5615 Thebet begins, Deo. 99, 1864 

<« ** 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem, Dee. 31, '* 

«« Sebat begins, . . . , Jan. 90, 1855 

^ Adarbe^s, Fab. 19, «* 

«» «* 11th, Fast of Esther, Mar. 1, «« 

«* •* 14th, Purim, Mar. 4, «• 

«* ** 15th, Schuscan Purim, Mar. 5, «« 

M Nisan begins, Mar. 90, *« 

" " I5th, 'Beginning of the Passover, . . . Apr. 3, " 

** *« 16th, *Second Feast, or Morrow of the Passover, Apr. 4, «• 

« « 21st, *Seventh Feast, Apr. 9, •* 

M » 22d, *End of the Passover, .... Apr. 10, *^ 

" Ijar begins, Apr. 19, « 

** " 18th, Lag Beomer, May 6, »• 

«^ Sivan begins, May 18, «< 

*♦ " 6th, *Feast of Weeks or Pentecojt, . . May 23, " 

** " 7th, *Second Feast, May 24, " 

«< Thammuz begins June 17, ** 

" " 17th, Fast for the taking of the Temple, . July 3, «« 

" Ab begins, July 16, «« 

** *♦ 9th, Fast for the burning of the Temple, . . July 24, " 

" «» Elol begins, Aug. 16, " 

5616 Tisri begins, 'Feast for the New Year, . . . Sept. 13, <* 
" " 2d, 'Second Feast for the New Year, . . Sept. 14, " 

" ♦* 4th,Fa8tofGedaljah, Sept. 16, " 

" «* 10th, *Fast of the Reconciliation or Atonement, Sept. 22, " 

** »• 15th, Feast of the Huts or Tabernacles, . • Sept. 27, " 

1* 



6 ICAHOMETAK CALENDAB. [1855 

Tear. Names of the Monthi. 

5616 Tisn 16th, *Second Feast of the Hats, . . . Sept. 38, 1855 

" " 2l8t, Feast of Palms or Branches, . , . Oct. 3, " 

** «« 22d, *End of the Hut or Congregation Feast, Oct. 4, *' 

" «• 23d, •Rejoicing for the Discovery of the Law, Oct. 5, " 

'* Marchesvan begins, Oct. 13, ** 

" Chisleu begins, . . • Nov. 11, ** 

M « * 25th, Consecration of the Temple, . . Dec. 5, *« 

" Thebet begins, Dec. 10, «* 

" « 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalemi Dec. 19, <« 

«« Sebat begins, Jan. 8,1856 

The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the 
Moon ; but in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veader) is 7 times 
introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year 
nearly or quite correct. 



MAHOMETAN CALENDAR. 

Year. Nameeof the Monthi. , 

1271 Rafoia II. begins, Dec. 22, 1854 

•• Jomadhi I. <' Jan. 20, 1855 

*« Jomadhi II. " Feb. 19, " 

" Redjeb " Mar. 20, " 

*« Chaban " Apr. 19, «* 

«< Ramadan .** (Month of Fasting,) • • May 18, '« 

" Schewall *« (Bairam,) June 17, «« 

'« Dsu'l-kadah «' July 16, " 

" Dsu'l-hejjah « Aug. 15, «» 

1272 Mnharrem «• Sept. 13, «« 

« Saphar " Oct. 13, ** 

« Rabial. »« Nov. 11, " 

" Rabia 11. " ^ Dec* 11, " 

The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 
16th, A. D. 622. 

The Mahometan year is purely lunar ; it consists of 12 synodical periods 
of the Moon, or of 354 days 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and of 355 
days 11 times. The average length of this year is therefore 354^ days, 
which differs only thirty-three seconds from the truth ; a degree of exact- 
ness that could only have been attained by a long series of observations. 
But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a 
tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that 
once in about 33 years the above months will correspond to every i 
and every part of the Gregorian year. 



1855.] 



HBIGHT OF SPRXNO TIDES, 



HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1855. 



Can^mUd by ike Formtda of Laplaee {Meaauque OUmU, Vol. II. pp. 289, 
Paris ed, tmd [2858] Btnod. ed,). 



Washington Mean Time of Hf 


light o( 
»Tide. 




New or FoU Moon. th 


New or FuU Moon. the Tide. 




d. h. 






d. h. 


Fall Moon 


, Jan. 3, 3 M. 


0.72 


New Moon 


, July 13, 11 A. 0.72 


New " 


18, 3M. 


0.98 


Full « 


29, IM. 0.97 


Fall " 


Feb. 1, 11 A. 


0.77 


New «* 


Aug. 12, 2 A. 0.77 


New « 


16, 3 A. 


1.07 


Full «« 


27, 8M. 1.10 


Full « 


Mar. 3, 5 A. 


0.85 


New " 


Sept. 11, 6M. 0.85 


New " 


17, 12 A. 


1.11 


Full " 


25, 4 A. 1.15 


Full «» 


April 2, 9M. 


0.92 


New " 


Oct. 10, 10 A. 0.90 


New «* 


• 16, 10 M. 


1.03 


Full " 


25, 2M. 1.05 


Full « 


May 1, 11 A. 


0.92 


New " 


Nov. 9, 2 A. 0.87 


New " 


15, 9 A. 


0.87 


Full " 


23, 3 A. 0.89 


Full " 


31, 10 M. 


0.87 


New " 


Deo. 9, 5M. 0.84 


New « 


June 14, 2M. 


0.74 


Full " 


23, 6 M. 0.77 


Full «' 


29, 6 A. 


0.88 







The unit of altitude at any place is the height at that place of that tide 
which amves about a day and a half after the time of New or Fall Moon, 
when the Sun and Moon, at the moment of conjunction or opposition, are 
at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plan^ of the celestial 
equator. 

This unit of altitude, which must be derived from obserration for each 
place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of 
the spring tides at that place during the present year. 

By the above table it appears that the highest tides of 1855 will be those 
of Feb. 18, March 19, April 17, Aug. 28, Sept 27, and Oct 26. 

The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much on the strength 
and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, 
which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than 
another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when 
the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great eleva- 
tion, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water 
will be uncommonly great. 

The formula from which these tides were computed is, however, strict- 
ly true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very un- 
certain approximation for the coast of the United States. 



8 JantLary^ First Mouthy begins on Monday, [1855. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




let day. | 


7th day. 


13th day. 


19th day. II 


25lhday. 


Begins 
h.m. 


. Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
b. m. 


Ends 
h. m 


. Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends. Begins 
h.in. h. m. 


. Ends. 
h.m. 


Boston, 


6 48n 


1 6 30a 


6 48m 


6 24a{| 6 48in| 


6 39a 


6 47m 


6 36a 


5 44m| 6 43a| 


N. York, 


640 


623 


646 


636 


646 


6 31 


646 


687 


643 


644 


Wash'n, 


643 


626 


644 


639 


644 


6 84 


643 


639 


6 41 


046 


Charles., 


636 


633 


636 


687 


687 


41 


686 


646 


636 


6 61 


N. Orl's, 


6 31 


637 


683 


640 


684 


44 


688 


649 


633 


664 


S. Fran.,1 


%43 


636 


648 


680 


648 


36 


643 


640 


640 


646 


PHASBS, AND APOOBB AND PBRIOBB, OP THB MOON. 


Full Moon, 3d day, 3h. 11.4m. M. New Moon, ISihday, 3h. 29.7m. M. 

Ust Quarter, 11th '^ 7 5.9 M. Ficst Quarter, 24th " 8 31.1 A. 

Apogee, 5th day, 6h. M. | Perigee, 18th day, lOh. M. 


1 


1 

1 


Bun's «|>perlimbjrMes and seta (cor. for vefr.) Ma^Time. { 


!i 


4 


ii' 


1^' 




1^ 


[I 






ri.es. 
h.m. 


sees. 
h.ra. 


riaea. 
h.m. 


eetB. 
h.m. 


Yiae». 
h.m. 


se<«. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


set*, 
h. m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


riats. 
h.m. 


aets. 
h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


M. 


780 


4 88 


r36 


4 43 


ri9 


149 


7 3 


6 6 


8 60 


6 13 


7 16 


483 


11 8a 


s 


Tu. 


80 


39 


36 


44 


19 


60 







60 


18 


16 


63 


13 


3 


W. 


80 


40 


36 


45 


19 


60 




7 


67 


13 


16 


64 


i 


4 


Th. 


30 


40 


36 


46 


19 


61 




7 


67 


14 


10 


65 


5im 


5 


F. 


80 


43 


36 


47 


19 


63 




8 


67 


14 


W 


06 


140 


6 


S. 


30 


43 


36 


48 


19 


68 




9 


67 


16 


10 

7 10 


67 
4W 


336 


7 


iSfu. 


780 


4 44 


7 26 


4 49 


7 19 


4 64 


7 4 


5 10 


8 67 


6 10 


8iom 


8 


M. 


39 


46 


34 


60 


19 


66 




11 


67 


17 


10 


68 


8 58 


9 


Tu. 


39 


46 


34 


61 


19 


60 




11 


tn 


18 


10 


60 


484 


10 


W. 


39 


47 


34 


63 


19 


67 




IS 


67 


19 


10 


6 


6 15 


11 


Th. 


SB 


48 


34 


63 


19 


66 




13 


67 


19 


10 


1 


6 67 


12 


F. 


38 


49 


34 


64 


18 


69 




U 


67 


30 


15 


3 


41 


13 


S. 


38 


60 


23 


66 


18 


5 




16 


57 


21 


15 


3 


739 


14 


Sa. 


737 


4 61 


7 23 


4 66 


7 18 


6 1 


7 3 


6 16 


6 67 


6 23 


7 16 


6 4 


8 38m 


15 


M. 


27 


62 


23 


67 


17 


3 




17 


67 


23 


14 


6 


9 21 


16 


Tu. 


27 


63 


22 


68 


17 


3 




18 


67 


34 


14 


6 


10 30 


17 


W. 


26 


66 


21 


5 


17 


6 




19 


67 


35 


14 


7 


1182 


18 


Th. 


36 


66 


21 


1 


16 







30 


60 


86 


13 


8 


ossa 


19 


F. 


36 


67 


90 


3 


16 


7 




3D 


60 


36 


IS 





140 


20 


S. 


34 


66 


SO 


8 


16 


8 




31 


66 


« 


13 


10 


S87 


21 


Sfu. 


734 


6 


T 19 


6 4 


7 16 


6 


7 1 


633 


666 


5 38 


7 13 


6 11 


ssoa 


22 


M. 


33 


1 


19 


6 


14 


10 




38 


66 


39 


11 


13 


4 18 


23 


Tu, 


S3 


3 


18 


7 


14 


U 




34 


66 


39 


11 


W 


6 6 


24 


W. 


31 


3 


17 


8 


13 


13 




36 


64 


30 


10 


15 


6 61 


25 


Th 


31 


6 


17 


9 


12 


IS 


660 


36 


64 


31 


9 


10 


687 


26 


F. 


30 


6 


16 


10 


12 


14 


60 


37 


64 


33 


9 


17 


734 


27 


S. 


19 


7 


15 


11 


11 


16 


66 


38 


68 


83 


8 


18 


8 IS 


28 


Stt. 


7 18 


6 8 


7 14 


6 12 


7 10 


6 17 


668 


639 


S68 


534 


7 8 


6 19 


9 4a 


29 


M. 


17 


10 


13 


14 


9 


18 


67 


80 


63 


35 


7 


30 


960 


30 


Tu. 18 


13 


12 


16 1 8 
16 1 8 


19 


67 


81 


63 


86 


7 


S3 


10 40 


31 


W. 16 


13 


11 


30 


66 


83 


61 


87 





38 


1180 



1655.] January hat 7%trty-on« Day*. 91 


Panage of tha Maridiao (mean time) and DacUnatlon of tha Flanala. | 


9 


l8t day. 1 


7ih day. | 


ISthday. || 


19lh day. 1 


25lhd.y. 


90tUh9 

h.m. 
11 16m 


Dec. 

O 1 

— 34 IS 


aouiha. 
h. m. 
1133m 


Dec. 

O i 

— 34 39 


souths. 
h. m. 
U 6im 


Dec. souths, 
o , h. m. 
—38 56 lOa 


Dec. souths. Dec. 
o 1 h. m. o 1 
— 3899 039a — 30 7 


9 


034a 


— 38 35 


83a 


— 93 83 


4ia 


—31 U 


49 


— 19 83 


056 


-17 33 


1 


1 S8 


—30 40 


184 


—19 80 


139 


— 18 13 


136 


— M4B 


130 

s 

os7a 


-3118 


1 


138a 


—30 


1 3ia 


— 19 41 


1 sa 


— 19 31 


46a 


—19 1 


—18 80 


h 


9 61 


--30 17 


936 


--30 15 


9 I 


--30 14 


8 86 -|^0 13' 


8 13 


f30 13 


» 


768 


- -16 31 


734 


I--16 90 


7 10 


K -16 19 


6 40 -f-U 19 


638 


-1-16 19 


1 


Mood rises or seta. Mean Tlm^ 


HighWaUr. Mean Time. > 


1 


i' 


1^ 


1^ 




\^ 


1 


r 


h 






h. m. 


aeu. 
h.m. 


•ete. 
h. m. 


aets. 
h.in. 


aets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


ham 




h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


1 


6 13m 


6 7m 


6 im 


6 43m 


5 86m 


6 im 


56m 


6 47m 


6 19a 


9 90m 


3 


rises. 


rtses. 


rises. 


rtses. 


rises. 


rises. 


10 43 


784 


643m 


10 7 


3 


449a 


4fl6a 


6 4a 


633a 


6 88a 


6 15a 


11 33 


8 16 


738 


10 48 


4 


649 


666 


6 3 


630 


639 


6 13 


4a 


866 


8 4 


1139 


5 


649 


665 


7 1 


7 17 


736 


7 11 


039 


9 31 


839 


4a 


6 


7 61 


766 


8 1 


8 14 


8 31 


8 11 


1 16 


10 7 


9 15 


040 


iSL 


864a 


8 67a 


9 la 


9 13a 


9 16a 


9iia 


16ia 


10 48m 


9 6im 


1 16a 


8 


966 


958 


10 1 


10 6 


10 10 


10 9 


334 


11 16 


10 34 


149 


9 


10 66 


10 68 


11 


11 3 


11 4 


U 8 


356 


1160 


10 68 


333 


10 


. • . 


• • • 


• • • 


1160 


11 59 


m . . 


837 


039a 


1187 


8 3 


11 


3m 


3m 


im 


. a . 


a a a 


9m 


4 16 


1 8 


16a 


3 41 


12 


1 8 


1 6 


1 4 


58m 


57m 


1 13 


5 3 


1 54 


1 3 


4 37 


13 


3 19 


3 16 


3 13 


3 3 


159 


330 


6 8 


366 


3 8 


638 


S. 


3S8m 


839m 


8 34m 


8 lom 


3 6m 


8 3im 


6 37m 


4 9a 


8 7a 


6 sm 


15 


449 


448 


487 


430 


4U 


444 


746 


6 14 


433 


7 10 


16 


6 4 


6 67 


6 61 


6 33 


636 


6 67 


866 


6 31 


639 


838 


17 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


10 


6sm 


6 om 


936 


18 


6 18a 


630a 


6 97a 


6 45a 


6 54a 


640a 


10 56 


760 


658 


10 33 


19 


687 


643 


648 


7 3 


7 10 


7 


1149 


8 41 


749 


11 14 


20 


7C8 


8 3 


8 6 


8 16 


8 31 


8 17 


41a 


983 


8 41 


6a 


S. 


laa 


9 18a 


030a 


934a 


9 37a 


9 39a 


139a 


10 31II1 


1 9 39m 


0548 


22 


10 39 


10 39 


10 39 


10 39 


10 80 


10 88 


3 16 


11 8 


10 16 


141 


23 


1139 


11 88 


1187 


1133 


1133 


1144 


3 S 


11 65 


11 3 


398 


24 


. . a 


• • • 


a • • 


a • a 


> • • 


• • • 


3 48 


40a 


1148 


8 IS 


26 


48m 


046m 


43m 


86m 


34m 


5om 


4 33 


134 


033a 


3 57 


26 


1 67 


1 68 


149 


187 


1 33 


165 


5 31 


3 13 


131 


446 


27 


8 4 


350 


353 


337 


3 33 


369 


6 50m 


8 17 


335 


560 


5. 


4 7m 


4 im 


3 56m 


3 86m 


3 80m 


3 59m 


7 om 


4 99a 


8 37a 


6 35m 


29 


6 6 


459 


463 


488 


436 


466 


8 16 6 48 


456 


7 41 


30 


660 663 


6 46 


634 


6 17 


5 47 


9 31 6 88II 


1 5 41 


8 66 


1 31 


6 46 6 88 


6 83 


6 18 


6 7 


685 


10 98 7 90 > 6 98m! 9 53 



10 February, Second Month, begins on Thursday. [1865. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




Isi day. 


7th day. 


13th day. 1 


I9th day. 1 1 


25th day. 1 


Begina 


. Ends. 


Begins. 


Enda 


Begins. 


Ends. 


Begins. 


Ends. 


degins. 


Ends. 




h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.ro. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


Boston, 


588D 


1 660a 


683m 


6 66a|| 6 36m 


7 8a 


6 18m 


7ioa 


6 9m 


7 na 


N. York, 


6»7 


6 61 


6 81 


6ffr 


636 




6 18 


7 10 


6 10 


7 16 


Wafih'n, 


686 


6ftl 


6 81 


666 


636 




6 18 


7 10 


6 10 


7 16 


Charles., 


6 81 


667 


637 


7 I 


638 




6 17 


7 11 


6 10 


7 16 


N.Orrs, 


6 39 


669 


636 


7 8 


6 31 




6 16 


7 12 


6 11 


7 16 


S.Fran., 


6 86 


668 


680 


666 


6 36 




6 19 


7 10 


6 11 


7 16 


PHASBS, AVD APOOXB AMD PXRIOBB, OV THB MOON. 


FuU Moon, Itt day, lOh. 33.7m. A. New Mood, 16th day, Ih. 39.7m. A. 


Last Quarter, 9th " 9 62.8 A. First Quarter, 23d " 26.1 A. 


Apogee, 1st day, 7h. M. | Perigee, 16th day, 9h. A. | Apogee, 28th day, 3h. A. 


1 


t 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 1 


II 


i 




h 


1 


1 


9 


4i 


"S 


'S 


e 


■ 


is 


1^ 


|ji 


II 


1 


1 


■ 




» 

£ 


1 




2 








risea 


sets. 


rise*. 


seta. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 


rtses 


sets. 








h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.jfa. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


1l m. 


1 


Th. 


7 14 


9 14 


7 10 


6 18 


7 7 


6 33 


6 66 


6 88 


6 61 


6 88 


7 6 


534 


tf 


3 


F. 


18 


16 


10 


19 




38 


66 


84 


60 


88 


4 


35 


34m 


3 


S. 


13 


17 




30 




34 


64 


36 


49 


89 


8 


36 


1 9 


4 


Su. 


7 11 


5 18 


7 6 


6 31 


7 4 


6 35 


6 63 


6 36 


649 


6 40 


r 3 


527 


1 63m 


5 


M. 


10 


19 




33 




36 


63 


36 


48 


41 


1 


38 


388 


6 


Tu. 


9 


30 




34 




37 


63 


38 


47 


43 





39 


3 U 


7 


W. 


8 


33 




36 




38 


61 


38 


47 


43 


5 60 


80 


866 


8 


Th. 


7 


38 




36 





39 


60 


80 


46 


43 


06 


81 


488 


9 


F. 


6 


36 




38 


6 69 


80 


49 


40 


46 


44 


57 


83 


6S8 


10 


S. 


4 


96 




39 


68 


83 


49 


41 


46 


45 


66 


83 


6 13 


11 


Su. 


7 3 


6 37 


7 


6 80 


6 67 


6 83 


6 48 


6 43 


644 646 


8 65 


634 


7 6m 


19 


M. 


1 


38 


6 06 


81 


66 


84 


47 


43 


43 


46 


64 


36 


8 6 


13 


Tu. 





80 


67 


83 


64 


36 


46 


44 


43 


47 


63 


87 


9 9 


14 


W. 


660 


81 


66 


83 


68 


86 


46 


46 


41 


48 


63 


88 


10 16 


15 


Th. 


66 


83 


64 


86 


63 


87 


44 


46 


40 


49 


61 


80 


ill 19 


16 


F. 


66 


88 


68 


86 


61 


88 


48 


46 


89 


60 


60 


40 


18a 


17 


s. 


66 


86 


63 


87 


49 


40 


43 


47 


88 


61 


48 


41 


1 14 


18 


Su, 


663 


6 86 


6 61 


688 


6 48 


6 41 


6 41 


548 


688 


6 61 


6 47 


6 43 


3 6a 


19 


M. 


63 


87 


49 


40 


47 


43 


40 


49 


87 


63 


46 


48 


366 


30 


Tu. 


60 


88 


48 


41 


46 


48 


89 


60 


86 


63 


46 


44 


8 48 


21 


W. 


49 


89 


46 


43 


44 


44 


88 


61 


86 


64 


43 


45 


480 


29 


Th. 


47 


41 


46 


48 


48 


46 


87 


61 


84 


64 


43 


46 


6 19 


23 


F. 


46 


43 


48 


46 


41 


46 


85 


63 


88 


66 


40 


47 


6 9 


24. 


s. 


44 


48 


43 


46 


40 


47 


84 


68 


83 


66 


89 


48 


660 


25 


Su. 


648 


6 46 


640 


8 47 


6 89 


5 49 


6 83 


6 64 


6 81 


666 


688 


6 60 


7 6ia 


96 


M. 


41 


46 


89 


48 


87 


60 


83 


66 


SO 


67 


86 


61 


843 


27 


Tu. 


89 


47 


38 


49 


86 


61 


81 


66 


39 


68 


86 


63 


983 


98 


W. 


38 


48 


86 


60 


86 


63 


80 


66 


38 


58 


84 


63 


10 90 



18d5. 


] February has 


TwaUy-eight Days. 11| 


Passag»ofthsMaridian(iiiewitiiDe)ai>dDKliiutionof t]MFIuMl& | 


*i 


l8t day. 1 


1 7th day. 


13ih day. 19th d 


ly. I 
Dec 

o /I 
-8 9 


25ih day. | 


souiks. 
h.111. 

om 


Dec 

O J 

— 16 10 


souths.: Sw. soMths. Dec. < souths. 
h.m-} o» h-m.; o/'l^ra. 
1 7a — ^11 66 1 loa i — 7 16 1 1 19a 




h.111. 
I 9a 


Dec 

O 1 

— 064 


9 


1 


8 


—14 48 


1 8 — ^19 19 


IB ,— »»l| 


1 17 


— 698 


1 91 


— 896 




1 14 


—13 95 


1 8 


—1143 


1 9 


— 968 


56 


— 8 9 


• 60 


•^•18 


1 










1 
1 






6 19m 


— »OT 


.«. 


— »41 


1 





«a 


— 18 13 


ii4Bm 


1 

— ^11 60^ 11 Sim 


-^17 97 


11 urn — ^17 8 


10 66m 


— MSO 


h 


744 


--90 13 


79oa 


4-90 14; 


6 56a 


--90 16 


6 3Sa 


--90 18 


6 loa - -90 91 


V 


5 65 


--16 90 


5 39 !+16 99|| 


6 9 


- -15 94. 


4 46 


--15 37 


4 98 I--16 36 


4 
1 

1 


Moon rises or ssu. Meai^Tlme. 


High Water. Mean Time. | 


4 


i' 


1^ 


|4 


S5 


* 

J* 


4 




1^ 


Mi 




rises, 
h. m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
Km. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


km. 


1 


4 4ia 


4 47a 


4 54a 


6ioa 


6 19a 


6 4a 


11 16m 


8 7m 


7 16m 


I0 40m 


2 


644 


6 49 


564 


6 8 


6 16 


6 4 


1168 


846 


758 


11 16 


3 


6 47 


6 61 


665 


7 6 


7 11 


'i 


7 4 


099a 


9 91 


899 


1164 


«. 


749a 


769a 


76ia 


8 la 


8 K 


8 8a 


I 9a 


9&4m 


9m 


097a 


5 


890 


8 61 


863 


866 


850 


9 1 


181 


10 93 


9 81 


066 


6 


063 


963 


963 


9 61 


963 


10 


9 3 


10 66 


10 8 


198 


7 


10 56 


10 66 


10 64 


10 48 


10 4T 


11 9 


983 


1196 


10 88 


1 58 


8 


. . • 


• • • 


1156 


1149 


1146 


. . • 


3 6 


1168 


11 6 


9 81 


9 


4m 


im 


. • • 


... 


• • • 


6m 


3 41 


033a 


1141 


3 6 


10 


1 14 


1 » 


1 6m 


63m 


48m 1 18 


4 91 


1 18 


9ia 


846 


8, 


399in 


9 93m 


9 17m 


lasm 


153m 


9 93m 


6 8a 


9 oa 


1 8a 


483a 


12 


343 


385 


398 


8 8 


8 1 


334 


6 16 


8 8 


9 16 


6 41 


13 


450 


443 


436 


4 16 


4 7 


440 


668m 


4 33 


3 41 


6 93m 


14 


653 


646 


688 


6 n 


6 9 


649 


898 


6 6 


5 18 


768 


15 


64S 


6 89 


633 


6 11 


6 8 


636 


949 


6 4im 


698 


.9 14 


16 


sets. 


sas. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


10 49 


7 41 


6 49m 


10 14 


17 


6 47a 


660a 


6 63a 


7 9a 


7 5a 


7 4a 


1141 


833 


7 41 


11 6 


8. 


6 4a 


8 5a 


8 ea 


8 9a 


8i9a 


8 16a 


osia 


9 93m 


8 8im,ll 56m 


19 


9 91 


990 


990 


9 17 


9 17 


998 


1 14 


10 6 


9 14 


39a 


20 


10 83 


10 31 


10 99 


10 99 


10 90 


10 86 


1 56 


10 48 


956 


1 91 


21 


1144 


1141 


1137 


1196 


1193 


1143 


986 


1198 


10 86 


9 1 


22 


. . • 


• • • 


• * • 


, , , 


• . . 


■ « • 


3 15 


7a 


11 15 


9 40 


23 


oeam 


47m 


43m 


099m 


094m 


048m 


359 


044 


11 59 


3 17 


24 


1 69 


1 64 


148 


199 


193 


1 59 


484 


1 96 


34a 


3 59 


8. 


3 om 


963m 


947m 


9 98m' 9 9im; 9 5im 


6S0a 


993a 


180a 


4 56a 


26 


366 


349 


848 


833 


8 16 


846 


6 8m 


840 


9 48 


6 IS 


27 


443 


487 


480 


4 11 


4 4 


434 


783 


6 11 


4 19 


6 68m 


28 


0S3 


5 17 


6 11 


463 


4 47 


6 13 


9 9 


5 64111 


543 


827 



12 March^ Third Months begins on Thursday. [1855. 


Twm«ht begins and ends. Meantime. 




let day. 


7th day. | 


ISlh day. 


19th day. 


asthday. 


Begins 


1.1 Ends. 


Begins. 


Ends. 


Begins. 


Ends. 


Begins.! Ends. 


Begins.! Ends. 




h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


b. m. 


1 h. m. h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


Boston, 


5 ami 7 ssa 


4 68III 


7 39a 


4 48m 


7 87a|| 4 83m| 


7 46a 


4 30m|7 69a| 


N. York, 




733 


464 


738 


444 


786 


434 


7 43 


433 


749 


Waah'n, 




7 31 


466 


737 


446 


784 


486 


7 40 


436 


748 


Charles., 




7 19 


460 


T34 


4 61 


739 


448 


7 88 


484 


788 


N. Orl's, 




7 19 


6 


733 


468 


737 


446 


7 31 


437 


786 


S. ]g'raii., 




7 31 


4 67 


736 


448 


7 83 


! 438 ' 


7 39 


438 


744 


PHASfiS, AMD PBRIOBS AND APOOBB, OF THB MOON. 


Pull Moon, 3d day, 6h. 0.3m. A. New Moon, 17tliday, llh. 37.6ra. A. 
Laat Quarter, 10th " 10 61.8 A. First Quarter, 26th " 6 17.7 M. 


Perigee, 16th day, 6h. M. | Apogee, 28th day, 6h. M. 


1 


i 


Sun's upper limb rises and seu (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


H 


^ 


{• 


1 


1 


g 




1 


1 


1 


r 


U 


h 


11 




"^ 


rises. 


UU. 


ruea. 


•ets. 


rises. 


•ets. 


rUn. 


nta. 


rises. 


sete. 


rue». 


$tu. 








h. m. 


b.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


b.m. 


h. m. 


b.m. 


h.m. 


1 


Th. 


6 86 


5 60 


686 


6 61 


6 38 


5 63 


6 39 


6 67 


6 37 


6 60 


183 


6 64 


11 6a 


2 


F. 


85 


61 


88 


63 


83 


64 


37 


68 


36 


6 


81 


64 


1160 


3 


S. 


83 


63 


81 


68 


80 


66 


36 


69 


34 




80 

638 


66 

6 66 


<P 


4 


S!tt. 


6 33 


5 63 


680 


6 64 


5 39 


6 66 


636 


6 


S33 


6 1 


83m 


5 


M. 


30 


64 


38 


66 


37 


67 


38 





33 




27 


67 


1 13 


6 


Tu. 


38 


66 


37 


W 


36 


68 


33 


1 


31 




36 


56 


164 


7 


W. 


37 


67 


36 


66 


34 


60 


31 


3 


30 




34 


69 


386 


8 


Th. 


36 


66 


34 


60 


38 


6 


SO 


8 


19 




33 


6 


3 31 


9 


F. 


38 


60 


S3 


6 


31 




18 


4 


17 




31 


1 


4 8 


10 


S. 


31 


6 


31 




X 




17 


4 


16 




10 


3 


6 


a 


fiftt. 


6 19 


6 1 


6 19 


6 3 


6 18 


6 3 


6 16 


6 6 


6 16 


6 6 


6 18 


6 8 


6 66m 


12 


M. 


18 




17 




17 




15 


6 


14 




16 


4 


656 


13 


Tu. 


16 




16 




16 




13 


7 


18 




16 


6 


760 


14 


W. 


15 


5 


14 




14 




13 


7 


13 






6 


9 1 


16 


Th. 


IS 




13 




13 




11 


8 


10 






7 


10 1 


16 


F. 


11 




11 




11 




10 





9 






8 


10 66 


17 


S. 






9 


8 








9 


8 


10 






6 10 


1160 


18 


Su. 


6 8 


6 10 


B 8 


6 10 


6 8 


6 10 


6 7 


6 10 


6 7 


6 10 


6 8 


4ia 


19 


M. 




11 


6 


11 








11 


6 


11 




11 


180 


20 


Tu. 




13 


4 


13 




13 




13 


6 


11 




13 


3 19 


21 


W. 




13 


S 


13 




18 


3 


13 


8 


13 




18 


8 8 


22 


Th. 




14 


1 


14 




14 


3 


18 


3 


18 




14 


360 


23 


F. 


669 


16 


660 


16 


5 60 


16 





14 


1 


13 


560 


14 


4 61 


24 


S. 


67 


16 


68 


16 


66 


16 


550 


14 





14 


66 


' 16 
6 16 


648 


25 


Sa. 


666 


6 18 


566 


6 17 


5 66 


6 17 


558 


6 16 


5 58 


6 14 


5CT 


686a 


26 


M. 


64 


19 


64 


18 


66 


18 


66 


16 


67 


15 


66 


17 


737 


27 


Tu. 


63 


30 


63 


19 


63 


19 


66 


16 


56 


16 


64 


18 


8 16 


28 


W. 


60 


31 


61 


30 


63 


19 


64 


17 


54 


16 


63 


10 


9 3 


29 


Th. 


48 


33 


49 


31 


60 


30 


63 


18 


63 


17 


61 


19 


947 


30 


F. 


47 


33 


48 


33 


49 


31 


61 


18 


63 


17 


60 


X 


10 39 


31 


S. 


46 


34 


46 


33 


47 


33 


49 


19 


61 


18 


48 


31 


11 11 



1855.] March has Jlarty-one 


Days 


^ 13| 


Fknage of the Maridian (maan tinw) and DKlination of the PtaneU. 




l8t day. 1 


7lh day. | 


13th day. | 


lUth day. | 


26tliday. 


southa. 
h.m. 


Dec 

O 1 


souths. 
h. m. 


Dec 

O 1 


souths. 
h. m. 


Dec 

o / 


souths. 
h. m. 


Dec 
o / 


souths. 
h.m. 


Dec 

o / 


$ 


40a 


— 066 


1167m 


— 160 


U 16m 


— 697 


10 47m 


— 746 


10 Sim 


— 849 


9 


133 


— 131 


137a 


+ 146 


i8oa 


-|-4 61 


184a 


--76B 


ia7a 


--10 40 


$ 


046 


— 6 3 


040 


— 8 9 


088 


— 1 16 


090 


4-689 


030 


--983 


1 


646m 


— 039 


636m 


— 9 8 


6 8m 


— 846 


4 4im 


— 8 19 


4 ism 


— 760 


1 


10 48m 


— 16 33 


10 34m 


—16 69 


10 6m 


—16 86 


9.47ro 


— 16 11 


999m 


— 14 47 


h 


5 5da 


--90 33 


6 3Sa 


-H»37 


6 loa 


--90 31 


448a 


--90 36 


436a 


--90 41 


¥ 


4 8 


--16 83 


846 


--16 36 


333 


--16 40 


8 


--16 46 


387 


--16 60 


1 
■8 
1 


Moon rtaea or seu. Mean time. 


High Water. Mean Time. 


{ 


i' 


1^ 


j^. 


h 


h 


S 


i' 


1^ 






aet9. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
b. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


h.m. 


li.m. 


iLm. 


h. m. 


1 


6fi7m 


6 69m 


6 47m 


633m 


6 98m 


6 48m 


10 13m 


7 4m 


6 13m 


9 87m 


3 


634 


630 


6 16 


6 4 


6 


6 18 


10 06 


760 


668 


10 38 


3 


rtses. 


rises. 


rtses. 


rtses. 


rtses. 


rtses. 


1186 


837 


786 


11 


S. 


644a 


6 46a 


6 47a 


66oa 


6 63a 


6 66a 


8a 


9 om 


8 am 


1188m 


5 


7 47 


7 47 


748 


7 47 


749 


766 


088 


980 


888 


8a 


6 


8 61 


8fi0 


8 49 


846 


846 


8 67 


1 6 


9 67 


9 6 


080 


7 


906 


966 


964 


9 47 


046 


10 1 


1 86 


10 97 


986 


1 


8 


11 6 


11 3 


10 69 


10 46 


10 43 


11 4 


3 4 


10 66 


10 4 


199 


9 


. . • 


. . . 


• • • 


11 61 


11 46 


• • • 


334 


1136 


10 84 


169 


10 


18m 


p ism 


7m 








19m 


8 10 


9a 


11 10 


386 


8. 


1 S9m 


1 33m 


1 17m 


OfiOm 


63m 


1 99m 


349a 


4ia 


1149m 


8 14a 


12 


337 


330 


333 


3 8 


1 66 


938 


437 


139 


87a 


4 3 


13 


839 


3 33 


836 


8 6 


9 68 


339 


6 48 


340 


14B 


6 13 


14 


4 81 


436 


4 19 


4 


864 


4 31 


636m 


4 17 


836 


6 im 


15 


613 


6 7 


6 8 


4 40 


'4 44 


6 6 


8 17 


666 


6 4 


743 


16 


646 


643 


638 


638 


6 96 


6 41 


943 


684m 


643 


9 7 


17 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


10 40 


783 


6 40m 


10 6 


8. 


663a 


6 63a 


6 64a 


6 63a 


6 66a 


7 3a 


11 98m 


8 90m 


7 38m 


10 63m 


19 


8 8 


8 7 


8 6 


8 1 


8 1 


8 14 


iia 


9 8 


8 11 


1186 


20 


933 


917 


9 11 


9 7 


9 6 


994 


063 


944 


863 


na 


21 


10 83 


10 39 


10 36 


10 13 


10 8 


10 81 


137 


10 19 


997 


063 


22 


1143 


1138 


1189 


11 16 


11 10 


1137 


3 6 


lOffT 


10 6 


130 


23 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


. • • 




340 


1189 


10 40 


3 6 


24 


49m 


43m 


S6m 


onm 


iim 


40m 


3 17 


oa 


11 17 


343 


S. 


1 48m 


143m 


136m 


1 16m 


1 8m 


1 88m 


4 oa 


63a 


oa 


3 36a 


26 


330 


333 


336 


3 6 


1 69 


998 


460 


143 


060 


4 16 


27 


833 


3 17 


3 10 


363 


946 


8 19 


6 9 


3 1 


9 9 


684 


28 


366 


863 


3 47 


830 


3 94* 


848 


6 66m 


434 


849 


6 90m 


29 


496 


433 


4 17 


4 4 


4 


4 19 


838 


6 1 


6 9 


768 


30 


463 


460 


4 46 


436 


483 


4 47. 


948 


6 66m 


6 6 


9 8 


3 


tl 


6 


14 


6 13 


6 10 


6 4 


6 9 


6 19 


|l0 97 


7 19 


6 37m 


63 



14 UprtZ, Fourth Manthj begins on Sunday. [1855. 


Twiiif ht begioa and endg. Mean Time. 




let day. 


7ih day. 


13ih day. 


191 
Begi 


.hday. II 


25th day. 


Beginc 


1. Ends. 


Begins. Ends 


. Begins. 


Ends. 


ns. 


Kada. 


Begins 


. Ends. 




h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


|h.m. 


b.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


Boston, 


4 70 


A 8 la 


856m 


8 9B|| 8 48m| 


6 18a 


&8ixa 


8 37a 


8 19m| 8 37a 1 


N. York, 


4 U 


767 


860 


8 5 


848 


6 14 


887 


839 


836 


880 


Wash'n, 


4 15 


768 


4 4 


8 1 


868 


8 9 


848 


8 17 


388 


835 


Charles., 


435 


743 


4 16 


749 


4 7' 


7 55 


860 


8 


8 61 


8 6 


N.M's, 


439 


789 


431 


744 


4 18 


749 


4 6 


768 


866 


766 


S.Fran., 


4 18 


760 


4 7 


7 68 


3 66 


8 6 


8 47 


8 18 


387 


8 31 


PHABB0, AND PKUOKB AMD APOOBB, OF TBB MOOM. 


FuUMooo, 2d daT, 9h. 21.0m. M. 1 New Moon. 16th day, 91i. ST.Om. ML 
Last Quarter, 9th *^ 4 28.0 A. | First Quarter, 24th ". 0.49 M. 


Perigee, 13th day, Ih. M. | Apogee, 26th day, Ih. M. 


J3 




Sun's upper limb rises and seu (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


. 


1 


1 




II 


s 




h 


h 


1^ 


h 


1^ 


1 


1 


J 




1 


^ 




S5 






rises. 


se<«. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises. 


seU. 


rises. 


sets. 








h.m. 


Ii.m. 


h.m. 


b.m. 


h.m. 


Im. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


Su. 


548 


6 35 


5 44 


6 34 


5 46 ( 


i38 


5 49 


630 


i 50 


6 10 


5 46 


633 


1153a 


3 


M. 


41 


96 


48 


35 


44 


34 


47 


31 


48 


19 


45 


33 


i 


3 


Tu. 


40 


37 


41 


36 


43 


35 


46 


31 


48 


90 


43 


34 


8410 


4 


W. 


88 


39 


89 


37 


40 


36 


44 


33 


46 


90 


43 


35 


1 18 


6 


Th. 


86 


80 


88 


38 


39 


37 


4B 


33 


45 


31 


40 


36 


3 5 


6 


F. 


84 


81 


86 


39 


37 


38 


43 


33 


44 


33 


38 


37 


366 


7 


S. 


88 


83 


?5 


31 


36 


39 


41' 


34 


43 


33 


87 


38 


3 51 


8 


Su. 


5 81 


6 88 


688 


6 33 


5 84 


3 80 


5 89 


635 


5 41 


6 38 


6 85 


639 


4 60in 


9 


M. 


80 


84 


81 


w 


83 


81 


88 


36 


40 


38 


84 


80 


5 51 


10 


Tu. 


98 


86 


39 


84 


81 


33 


87 


36 


80 


94 


88 


31 


603 


11 


W. 


96 


87 


38 


85 


80 


88 


36 


37 


38 


35 


81 


33 


7 61 


12 


Th. 


34 


88 


36 


86 


38 


34 


34 


38 


87 


35 


30 


33 


8 47 


13 


F. 


38 


89 


35 


87 


37 


35 


33 


38 


36 


36 


38 


34 


989 


14 


S. 


31 


40 


33 


88 


35 


36 


S3 


39 


35 


36 


37 


35 


10 39 


15 


Su. 


530 


6 41 


533 


6 89 


5 34 


5 37 


5111 


630 


5 84 


6 37 


5 36 


686 


11 18m 


16 


M. 


18 


43 


30 


40 


33 


38 


39 


80 


83 


38 


94 


37 


6a 


17 


Tu. 


16 


43 


19 


41 


31 


39 


38 


81 


81 


38 


33 


88 


066 


18 


W. 


16 


44 


17 


43 


19 


40 


27 


83 


30 


39 


31 


89 


146 


19 


Th. 


13 


45 


16 


43 


18 


41 


36 


33 


39 


39 


30 


40 


388 


30 


F. 


13 


47 


14 


44 


17 


43 


36 


33 


38 


80 


19 


41 


333 


21 


S. 


10 


48 


18 


45 


16 


43 


34 


34 


97 


31 


17 


43 


436 


22 


Su. 


5 8 


6 49 


5 11 


6 46 


5 14 


6 44 


533 


635 


5 36 


6 31 


5 16 


643 


6 186 


23 


U, 




60 


10 


47 


13 


45 


33 


36 


35 


33 


15 


44 


6 9 


24 


Tu. 




7 1 


8 


48 


11 


46 


30 


36 


34 


88 


18 


45 


666 


25 


W. 




3 


7 


49 


10 


47 


19 


87 


38 


83 


13 


46 


749 


.26 


Th. 






6 


50 


9 


48 


18 


37 


33 


84 


11 


47 


835 


27 


F. 






4 


51 


8 


48 


17 


38 


33 


84 


10 


47 


9 6 


28 


S. 






3 


63 


6 


49 


16 


89 


31 


85 


8 


48 


9 47 


29 


Su. 


460 


7 7 


5 3 


668 


5 5 


6«0 


B 15 


6 41 


5 91 


6 85 


57 


649 


10 90a 


30 


M. 


67 




1 54 


4 


51 


14 


43 


30 


36 


6 


60 


11 18 



18S5.] April has TUrty Days. 15{ 


Fk«a«« of th< Meridiu (meu liow) tni DacllMlloD 


of the PI 

day. 


laneu. 




l8t daj. 1 7th daj. 


13lh daj. V 
sowMs.i Dec li 


I9th 


2r»ih day. 


souiMs, Dec -sotcfA*. Dec 


roMlAs. Dec 


SMflAs. Dec 




h. m. o 1 h. m- ' o 1 i h- m. 1 o < ' »» »• o • «>. m. , o # 


^ 


M)9im — 7 68 10 asm — 6 i losim — s i6:iO40iii — osi lO asm-f- s 4s! 


9 


1 43a . -14 9 1 4rai -|-ie ss 


1 osa 1+18 03 1 na -f-« ss 


S 5a+99Ssl 


i, 


13 - - 4 43 ' • 

1 \\ 


4-030 


11 «6m 


+ 8 16 11 fl8m+9fl0 


11 4Sm+ll 88 

1 


ft 


s fiom — 7 15 


39Un 


— 043 


3 om 


— 8 SS4ml — 34 

1 


1 
Tin*— 4 60 


1 


9 Tin'— 14 31 


848m 


— ^13 59 


1 8sem 


— 13 88- 8 om- 


-IS 18 


7 4om — ^19 


>^ 


4 la - -30 47 


3 40a -H»53 


3 19a 


--30 68! 3 56a - 


-31 4I 


3 87a +31 10 


9 


3 11 rf-lS 50 


140 1+10 3 


1 36 


+10 7 1 4 - 


-10 isl 43 +10 19{ 


o 

1 


Moon rises or seta. Mean Time. 


High Water. Mean Time. | 


4 


!• 


1^ 


1^ 




|i 


4 


1- 

1' 


u 


III 




rises. 


risee. 


rtses. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 












h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h. in. 
11 sm 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


fir. 


6 37a 


638a 


5 39a 


5 49a 


5 43a 


5 47a 


755m 


7 sm 


10 38m 


2 


643 


643 


41 


638 


039 


049 


1134 


830 


734 


10 60 


3 


749 


7 47 


745 


738 


7 87 


753 


{ 6a 


866 


8 


1131 


4 


858 


855 


8 61 


840 


887 


866 


1 033 


935 


833 


11 58 


5 


10 8 


10 3 


966 


944 


9 40 


10 5 


1 4 


950 


9 4 


039a 


6 


11 31 


11 15 


11 9 


10 53 


10 46 


11 15 


186 


10 38 


980 


1 1 


7 








11 ff7 


11 60 






3 9 


11 1 


10 9 


1 34 


JS. 


33ID 


35m 


18m 


* . . 


. . . 




33m 


3 47a 


11 39m 


10 47m 


3 13a 


9 


135 


138 


131 


69m 


53m 


134 


380 


033a 


1180 


365 


10 


338 


333 


3 15 


156 


160 


3 18 


435 


1 17 


035a 


350 


11 


3 13 


3 7 


3 1 


345 


339 


3 3 


544 


336 


144 


5 


12 


3 47 


343 


339 


335 


8 31 


340 


6 37m 


4 17 


835 


sm 


13 


4 10 


4 18 


4 10 


4 3 


859 


4 13 


8 13 


540 


454 


737 


14 


440 


439 


488 


434 


4 35 


4 41 


936 


6 lem 


550 


8 51 


fif. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


losom 


7 13m 


osora 


045m 


16 


669a 


6 67a 


e55a 


6 47a 


6 46a 


7 sa 


11 4 


758 


7 4 


10 39 


17 


8 10 


8 7 


8 3 


7 53 


749 


8 10 


1143 


8 35 


743 


11 8 


18 


933 


9 18 


9 13 


866 


853 


9 19 


33a 


9 15 


833 


1148 


19 


10 33 


10 36 


10 30 


10 3 


966 


10 35 


1 


9 53 


9 


035a 


20 


1180 


1139 


1133 


11 3 


10 66 


11 30 


1 85 


10 85 


9 85 


1 


21 


. . . 






11 58 


1160 




3 11 


11 11 


10 11 


1 86 


5. 


33m 


36m 


19m 


. . . 


. . . 


3im 


3 5ia 


11 48m 


10 51 m 


3 16a 


23 


130 


1 14 


1 7 


47m 


4om 


1 8 


8 33 


34a 


11 33 


3 57 


24 


1 66 


153 


146 


139 


133 


148 


4 31 


1 13 


osia 


846 


25 


339 


334 


3 19 


3 5 


3 


3 31 


533 


336 


183 


456 


26 


356 


3 53 


3 48 


336 


3 33 


349 


6 16m 


353 


3 


036 


27 


3 10 


3 16 


3 13 


3 


8 3 


8 15 


740 


5 13 


430 


7 5m 


28 


339 


388 


336 


8 33 


8 81 


3 39 


863 


6 15 


533 


7 18 


5. 


3 59m 3 69m 


4 69m 


3 68m 


3 68m 


4 sm 


9 43m 


6 86m 


6 4a 


9 sm 


30 


4 19 1 4 30 


4 31 


434 


436 


435 


10 31 


7 18 


6 3ira 


946 



16 May, Fifth Month, begins on Tuesday, [1855. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. 


7th day. 


13th (lay. 


, 19th day. 


25th day. 


Begins 
h. m. 


. Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. 
1 h. m. 


£nds. 
ti. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Boston, 


3 7n 


1 8 47a 


3 66m 


8 57a|| 3 46m| 


9 7a 


3 86m 


9 na 


3 36m 9 28a 


N. York, 


8 14 


840 


a 4 


849 


364 


866 


346 


9 8 


386 


9 16 


Wash'n, 


833 


883 


a 18 


840 


a 4 


848 


356 1 


J67 


3 47 


9 7 


Charles., 


843 


8 11 


886 


8 17 


838 


8 34 


8 33 8 30 


8 17 


887 


N.Orrs, 


8 61 


8 8 


846 


8 8 


888 


8 14 


888 i 


»30 


338 


828 


S.Pran., 


337 |897 


8 18 


8 36 


3 9 


8 43 


8 8 61 1 


363 


9 1 


PHASES, AND PBRIOSB AND APOOEB, OP THB MOON. 


Full Moon, 1st da7, lOh. 65.6m. A. Finit Quarter, 23d day, 6h. 64.0m. A. 
Last Quarter, 8th «« 9 6a7 A. Full Moon, 3l8t " 9 39.7 M. 
New Moon, 15th <' 9 5.1 A. 


Perigee, 8th day, 7h. A. | Apogee, 22d day, 8h. A. 


•5 

f 


i 

1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


Is 


4 


!• 


1^ 


h 


55 


1^ 


h. m. 


teta. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m: 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises 
h. m 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises 
h. m. 


sets 

h.m 


rises 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Tu. 


456 


6 69 


169 


6 66 


5 3 


6 63 


5 13 


6 41 


6 18 


637 


5 4 


6 61 


iisoa 


d 


W. 


64 


7 


66 


67 


1 


63 


13 


43 


17 


88 


2 


63 


<P 


3 


Th. 


53 


1 


57 


68 





64 


11 


43 


16 


88 


1 


63 


6om 


4 


h\ 


51 


3 


65 


69 


169 


66 


10 


43 


16 


39 





64 


1 44 


5 


s. 


50 


3 


64 


7 


68 


66 


9 


44 


14 


89 


468 


66 


343 


6 


s«. 


4 49 


7 4 


463 


7 1 


4 67 


6 67 


6 8 


646 


6 13 


640 


4 67 


666 


3 46m 


7 


M. 


48 


6 


63 


3 


66 


68 


8 


46 


12 


41 


66 


67 


4 46 


8 


Tu. 


46 


7 


60 




66 


69 


7 


46 


11 


41 


66 


66 


6 46 


9 


W. 


46 


8 


49 




64 


7 


6 


47 


11 


42 


64 


68 


643 


10 


Th. 


44 


9 


48 




63 


1 


6 


48 


10 


43 


63 


69 


736 


11 


F. 


43 


10 


47 




53 


1 


4 


48 


9 


4B 


i53 


7 


834 


12 


S. 


43 


11 


46 




61 


3 


3 


49 


8 


44 


63 


1 


9 11 


13 


4 41 


7 12 


446 


7 8 


150 


7 3 


5 8 


660 


5 8 


6 46 


4 61 


7 3 


9 69m 


14 


M. 


40 


13 


44 


9 


49 


4 


3 


61 


7 


45 


60 


8 


10 46 


15 


Tu. 


39 


14 


43 


10 


48 


6 


1 


51 


7 


46 


49 


4 


1186 


16 


W. 


88 


15 


43 


11 


47 


6 





53 


6 


47 


48 


5 


27a 


17 


Th. 


87 


16 


41 


13 


46 


7 





63 


6 


47 


47 


6 


1 30 


18 


F. 


86 


17 


40 


13 


46 


8 


4 69 


64 


6 


48 


47 


6 


3 14 


19 


S. 


85 


18 


40 


13 


44 


9 


69 


64 


4 


48 


46 


7 


8 8 


20 


Su, 


434 


7 19 


4 39 


7 14 


143 


r 9 


4 66 


6 66 


6 4 


6 49 


446 


7 8 


4 oa 


21 


M. 


88 


30 


38 


16 


43 


10 


67 


56 


a 


60 


46 


9 


449 


22 


Tu. 


83 


31 


87 


16 


43 


11 


67 


66 


3 


50 


44 


9 


6 36 


23 


W. 


81 


23 


36 


17 


41 


13 


66 


57 


3 


61 


43 


10 


6 19 


24 


Th. 


SO 


33 


35 


18 


40 


13 


66 


68 


2 


62 


43 


11 


7 1 


25 


F. 


80 


34 


36 


19 


40 


14 


66 


68 


2 


62 


43 


13 


7 43 


26 


S. 
Su. 


39 


36 


34 


SO 


39 


14 


65 


69 


1 


63 


43 


IS 


82l 


27 


439 


7 36 


134 


7 31 


4 39 ' 


r 16 


4 66 


7 


5 1 


6 63 


4 41 


7 13 


9 6a 


28 


M. 


38 


37 


83 


31 


38 


16 


64 








64 


41 


14 


969 


29 


Tu. 


27 


27 


33 


23 


38 


17 


54 


1 





54 


40 


15 


10 39 


30 


W. 


27 


38 


82 


23 


37 


18 


63 


1 


65 


40 


16 


11 32 


-^1 


Th. 


36 


39 


32 


24 


37 18 1 


63 


3 


66 


40 


16 


8 



1855.J May has TUrty-one Dayt. 17 


Fkanga of tba MMidian (mean tinu) and Dacllmtlon of tha PlaneU. 


ii 


Irtday. 


7th day. 


i;^h day. || 


Idihday. || 


96th day. | 


90UllU. 

iLm. 
11 «m 




Dec. 

O 1 

\r% 3 


h.m. 

uaom- 


Dec 

o / 
-18 66 


h. m. 

11 67m 




Dec. souths. 

o 1 h. m. 
-18 871 97a 


Dec setflAs. 

o # b.m. 

4-3990 066a - 


Dec 

O 1 

-94 4B 


9 


s 13a 


--^63 


319a - 


-94 47 


3 97a 


--46 16 


9 86 


--96 3911 


343 - 


-96 1 


■ I 


1138m 


- 


-13 13 


iissm- 


-U41 


1196m 


- -16 6 a lom 




-17 34 


11 ism- 


-18 85 


\ • 
















6 64 


— 16 63 


636 - 


—16 49 


1 


1401II 


496 


1 ism- 


-866 


044m 


— 896 


16 


— 8 


ii43a - 


— 387 


y. 


7Mm 


— 13 41 


7 8m- 


-13 36 


648m 


— 13 11 


6 97m 


—1169 


6 «D- 


—1148 


\ 


3i«a 


--91 16 


1 66a - 


-3131 


1 85a 1- -31 96 


1 16a 


--31 83 


064a - 


-9187 


¥ 


19 


--16 35 


11 67m- 


-16 31 


11 35m --16 87 11 18m 


--16 48 


10 6im - 


- -16 49 


1 


Mood rises or sets. Mean Time. | 


High Water. Mean Time. | 


4 


h 

£ 


t' 


1^ 




_ 


h 


a 


f' 


1^ 


Ik 

1^^ 




h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


h.in. ' 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


... 


... 


• • • 


. • . 


• . . 


• . . 


10 67m 


749m 


6 67m 


10 33m 


2 


7Ma 


769a 


7 47a 


7 86a 


7 3ia 


7 64a 


115r7 


8 19 


737 


10 63 


3 


9 8 


9 3 


866 


840 


834 


3 


8a 


866 


8 8 


1138 


4 


10 31 


10 14 


10 8 


949 


949 


10 13 


086 


938 


886 


la 


5 


1139 


1133 


11 16 


10 64 


10 47 


11 19 


1 11 


10 8 


9 11 


086 


S. 


• • . 


. • . 


• • > 


llOBa 


1146a 


... 


1 6ia 


i0 43ra 


9 5im 


1 16a 


7 


96m 


19m 


iini 






16m 


996 


11 37 


10 86 


3 


8 


1 13 


1 6 


1 


43m 


87m 


1 9 


396 


17a 


1196 


960 


9 


149 


1 44 


1 40 


1 36 


133 


143 


497 


i 19 


037a 


3 53 


10 


390 


9 17 


3 14 


3 4 


3 1 


3 16 


6 47 


989 


147 


6 13 


H 


344 


943 


343 


336 


334 


343 


6 88m 


4 7 


3 16 


6 6em 


12 


3 8 


8 8 


3 8 


3 6 


8 7 


8 11 


768 


6 33 


480 


7 18 


S. 


3S0m 


3 3im 


8 SSIK 


1 3 85m 


8 38m 


3 36m 


8 69m 


6 na 


6 36a 


8 34m 


14 


863 


366 


869 


4 6 


4 11 


4 4 


960 


649m 


6 13 


9 16 


15 


sets. 


sets. 


s^i^. 


sets. 


sets. 


SftS, 


10 87 


799 


6 37m 


10 9 


16 


8 14a 


8 8a 


8 3a 


7 46a 


7 40a 


8 8a 


11 18 


8 10 


7 18 


10 43 


17 


933 


9 16 


9 9 


860 


843 


9 14 


11 69 


8 61 


759 


1134 


18 


10 93 


10 16 


10 8 


948 


940 


10 10 


88a 


980 


888 


8a 


19 


11 13 


11 6 


10 60 


10 89 


10 33 


11 1 


1 14 


10 6 


9 14 


089 


5. 


1165a 


1149a 


1143a 


1134a 


11 17a 


1144a 


1 63a 


10 4411 


1 963n 


1 17a 


21 


• 


• • • 


• • . 


. • ■ 


11 67 


• • • 


380 


1133 


10 80 


166 


22 


osom 


36m 


oion 


1 sm 


. • . 


9om 


3 13 


4a 


11 13 


387 


23 


068 


064 


049 


036 


0S3m 


060 


4 1 


063 


la 


336 


24 


133 


1 19 


1 16 


1 6 


1 8 


1 17 


467 


149 


67 


499 


25 


143 


140 


1 88 


133 


181 


140 


6 6 


968 


3 6 


6 81 


26 


3 1 


9 1 


9 


1 68 


1 68 


9 8 


6 44m 


4 9 


8 17 


6 om 


& 


3 3im 


333m 


3 93n 


1 3 34m 


336m 


9 96m 


7 46m 


6 7a 


4 15a 


7 lom 


28 


3 43 


344 


3 46 


346 


366 


9 61 


8 41 


6 1 


6 9 


8 6 


29 


3 4 


3 8 


8 11 


330 


836 


8 17 


9 31 


6 93Q: 


1 5 63 


866 


30 


rises. 


rues. 


T%ses 


. rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


10 11 


7 8 


6 11X1] 


946 


31 


8 6a 


7e9a 


7 63a 


780a 


7 98a 1 7 67a 


10 64 


746 


664 


10 19 



16 


June, Sixth Month, begins an Friday. [1855. 




Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time 


Ith 


1 




i 


let day. I 


7th day. 


. 13th day. 


IS 


day. 


2ethday. 


begins 


. Ends. 


Begins. 


Ends 


Begins. 


Ends. 


Begins. 


Ends. 


Begins.|£Dd8.| 






h.m. 


h.m. > 


b.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


b.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


Boston, 


3 17« 


1 9 87a 


3isni 


9448 


k 3 9m 


9 60a 


9 ODQ 


9 54a 


9 0IIl|9 66a| 


N. York, 


3 39 


935 1 


335 


9 81 


338 


991 


993 


940 


998 


9 41 


Wash 


'n, 


3 41 


918 1 


387 


9 19 


388 


9 94 


986 


997 


988 


998 


Charles., 


a 18 


8 41 


8 10 


846 


8 10 


8 50 


8 10 


669 


8 U 


868 


N.OrPs, 


8 34 


880 ! 


833 


884 


893 


8 88 


833 


840 


398 


8 41 


S. Fran., 


3 40 


9 8 ; 


348 


9 18 


343 


9 18 


9 41 


9 91 


949 


939 




PHA8B8, AMD PBRIOBB AMD APOOBB, OP THB MOON. 1 


Last Quarter, 7th daj, 2h. 40.1m. M. First Quarter, 29d daj, llh. 44.2m. M. 
New Moon. 14th " 9 20.6 M. FuUMoon, 29th" 6 6.8 A. 




. Perigee, 3d day, 8h. A. | Apogee, 19th day, Ih. A. | 


1 

1 


1 

1 


San*B upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr. ) Mean Time. 




4 


1' 




1^ 


1^ 


h 
a' 






rises. 


sete. 


riaea. 


sete. 


rises. 


eeta. 


naea. 


eeis. 


rises. 


sete. 


rises 


sete. 








h.m. 


h.nK 


h.m. 


h. m. 


b. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


F. 


436 


7 80 


4 81 


7 34 


436 


7 19 


4 58 


7 3 


4 60 


6 66 


489 


7 16 


8im 


2 


S. 


35 


80 


80 


36 


86 


90 


69 




50 


66 


89 


17 


184 


3 


Su. 


435 


7 81 


480 


7 36 


486 


7 90 


4 53 


7 4 


4 60 


6 67 


439 


7 17 


9 87m 


4 


M. 


34 


83 


80 


37 


36 


31 


53 




69 


67 


88 


18 


389 


5 


Tu. 


34 


83 


39 


37 


36 


33 


53 




66 


66 


38 


19 


488 


6 


W. 


34 


83 


39 


38 


36 


33 


63 




66 


66 


88 


19 


583 


7 


Th. 


3S 


84 


39 


38 


34 


33 






56 


60 


87 


90 


699 


8 


F. 


38 


85 


39 


39 


84 


93 






68 


60 


87 


90 


7 9 





S. 


98 


85 


38 


80 


84 


94 






66 


7 
7 


87 

4~8r 


91 

7 91 


766 


10 


Su. 


433 


7 86 


4 38 


780 


484 


7 94 


4 61 


7 7 


4 56 


843m 


11 


M. 


33 


86 


38 


81 


84 


95 






66 




zt 


93 


980 


12 


Tu. 


33 


37 


SB 


81 


84 


95 






66 




87 


33 


10 90 


13 


W. 


33 


87 


38 


83 


84 


96 






66 




87 


33 


11 11 


14 


Th. 


S3 


88 


38 


83 


34 


96 






68 




87 


33 


6a 


15 


F. 


33 


88 


38 


83 


.«* 


97 






66 




87 


34 


089 


16 


S. 


33 


88 


38 


88 


34 


97 






66 




87 


34 


1 83 


17 


Su. 


4 33 


7 89 


4 38 


7 88 


434 


7 97 


4 61 


7 10 


4 66 


7 8 


4 87 


794 


3 43a 


18 


M. 


33 


89 


SB 


88 


34 


38 




10 


66 




87 


35 


880 


19 


Tu. 


38 


89 


38 


84 


34 


98 


63 


10 


69 




87 


35 


4 14 


20 


W. 


38 


40 


38 


84 


84 


98 


53 


11 


50 




87 


35 


466 


21 


Th. 


38 


40 


39 


84 


84 


98 


63 


11 


69 




37 


95 


687 


22 


F. 


38 


40 


39 


84 


85 


99 


69 


11 


60 




88 


36 


8 17 


23 


S. 


38 


40 


39 


85 


85 


99 


53 


11 


S 




88 


96 


866 


24 


Su. 


434 


7 40 


4 39 


7 85 


435 


7 99 


4 68 


7 11 


5 


7 4 


4 88 


7 96 


7 4ia 


25 


M. 


34 


40 


80 


85 


85 


99 


63 


11 






89 


96 


837 


26 


Tu. 


34 


40 


80 


86 


86 


99 


63 


11 






89 


96 


9 18 


27 


W. 


35 


40 


80 


86 


86 


99 


64 


19 






89 


96 


10 14 


28 


Th. 


35 


40 


81 


87 


86 


99 


64 


19 






40 


96 


11 18 


29 


F. 


35 


40 


81 


87 


37 


99 


64 


19 






40 


96 


i 


30 


S. 


36 


40 


83 


87 


37 


99 


64 


19 


9 




40 


96 


3om 



18&5 


.] /wie An* TTnrty Days. 19| 


P»mt» of the MMdiu (warn tim) uid Dwllnatlon of tha PUmu. | 




Irtday. 


7th day. 1 


lah^y. II 


19th day. 1 25th day. 1 


mmik». 


Dec 


99Utk0, 


Dec «o«/Ac| 


Dec aautha.\ 


Dec \aoutha.\ 


Dec 




k. 


m. 1 


O 1 


iLm. 


O 1 


h.m. 


. o ' 


h.in. 


o i' h-m. 1 


O J 


$ 


i9«a 


--»« 


i«ia - 


-45 


i4Ta - 


fl8 85 


144a - 


-4145* 


i8ia 


--19 89 


9 


S49 


--94 7 


S55 - 


H»55 


8 -Ml38|| 


8 4- 


-19 88 


8 7 


- -17 96 




11 


em 


--19 51 


11 om- 


-40 48 10 04m|-f-91 88|{ 


10 49m- 


-9131' 


10 48m 


--9I56 


j ' 


5 10 1 


— 15 M 


487 - 


-15 85 


4 87 - 


—16 41 


4 17 - 


-16 03 


855 


— 10 11 


1 


11 


sa 


— sn 


i0 4ia — 


-3 7 10 isa |- 


-3 1 


945a - 


-» al 


9 18a 


— 9 6 


)^ 
















6 48m -|- 7 51 


5S7m 


+ 7« 


V 


• 40in 


— ^1159 


17m — 


-1188 


4 60m- 


—1180 


4 8im- 


.1139 


4 sm 


— ^1181 


h 


oaia 


4-3143 


loa 4 


-31 47 11 50 |- 


-3151 


1180 - 


-3155 


11 10 


4H3158 


9 


10 ssm 


-f-16 55 


10 3m|4 


-17 1 


940 1- 


-17 6 


9 18 - 


-17 111 


866 


-|-17 15 


1 


MooQ riaw or sets. Mean Time. 


High Water. MeanTlroa. { 


4 


1' 


i 
r 


1^ 


1^ 
2 


h 


4 


!• 


u 


111 




risf. 


rise.. 


riaea. 


risea. 


riaea. 


riaea. 












h.m. 


h-m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. in. 


h.in. 


h.m. 


1 


9 17a 


9ioa 


9 8a 


84Sa 


8S5a 


9 8a 


11 84m 


836m 


7 84m 10 59m 


2 


10 19 


10 13 


10 5 


945 


988 


10 9 


16a 


9 8 


8 16 111 41 


5. 


uioa 


a 4a 


10 56a 


10S9a 


10 88a 


11 la 


57a 


949m 


8 57m 33a 


4 


11 50 


1145 


1140 


1135 


11 30 


1148 


144 


10 86 


944 


1 9 


5 


. . . 


• • • 


• • . 




• • • 


• • • 


383 


1134 


10 83 


157 


6 


ossm 


19m 


16IX] 


501 


im 


ism 


838 


090a 


1138 


353 


7 


OM 


48 


46 


088 


087 


048 


438 


1 30 


038a 


358 


8 


1 14 


1 18 


1 18 


1 10 


1 11 


1 16 


585 


337 


185 


5 


9 


1 85 


1 86 


187 


1 88 


140 


1 40 


6 13m 


840 


^48 


6 18 


5. 


1 firmi 


1 flom 


3 3m 


3 710 


3 iim 


3 6m 


7 19m 


440a 


848a 


6 44m 


U 


S31 


335 


339 


388 


344 


384 


893 


544 


459 


7 47 


12 


SM 


355 


8 


8 14 


8 31 


8 7 


919 


6 iim 


5 47 


844 


13 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


10 11 


7 8 


6 iim 


986 


14 


8 loa 


8 sa 


756a 


786a 


739a 


8 la 


10 58 


780 


658 


10 38 


15 


9 6 


950 


853 


8 81 


834 


855 


1141 


888 


7 41 


11 6 


16 


903 


945 


989 


9 19 


9 18 


9 41 


038a 


9 15 


838 


1148 


5. 


10 39a 


10 33a 


10 18a 


10 la 


954a 


loioa 


1 oa 


9 53m 


9 om 


035a 


18 


10 M 


10 54 


10 50 


10 85 


10 81 


10 51 


188 


10 80 


988 


1 8 


19 


1134 


1130 


11 17 


11 5 


11 3 


11 18 


3 14 


11 6 


10 14 


189 


30 


1147 


1145 


1143 


1184 


1183 


1144 


354 


1146 


10 54 


3 19 


91 


. • . 


. • • 


• • • 


. • . 


.. . . 


. . • 


886 


038a 


11 86 


8 1 


23 


7m 


7m 


5m 


im 


im 


7m 


430 


1 13 


30a 


8 45 


23 


035 


035 


036 


035 


036 


030 


5 10 


3 3 


1 10 


485 


S. 


044m 


4om 


47ro 


5om 


53m 


5im 


6isa 


8 4a 


3 13a 


587a 


35 


1 5 


1 8 


111 


1 19 


138 


1 6 


6 4im 


4 3 


8 10 


6 6m 


36 


lao 


185 


ISO 


151 


1 57 


145 


788 


456 


4 6 


7 8 


37 


S 


3 6 


3 13 


337 


386 


330 


886 


6 57 


5 5 


8 1 


38 


340 


347 


354 


8 18 


8 33 


8 4 


9 83 


6 34m 


558 


8 57 


39 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


10 33 


7 14 


6 33m 


9 47 


30 


9 3a 


855a 


8 49a 


880a 


833a 


9 58a 


11 13 


8 4 


7 13 


10 87 



20 Jidy^ Seventh Manih, begins on Sunday. [1855. 


Twilight bef ins and ends. Maw Time. 




let day. 


u 7th day. 


If 13th day. | 


19ih day. 1 


25lhday. 


1 


kffins. 


End 


B.HBegios. 


Ends. 


Begins. ] 


Elods. 


Begins. 


Ends. 


Begins.! ^ada. 




h.m. 


h.m 


. h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


Ii-m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


Boston, 


3 13m 


964 


a 3 19m 


9 48a|| 3 96m| 


44a 


386in 


9S7a 


3 44m| 9 S8ft| 


N. York, 


3 36 


940 


383 


986 


389 


9 81 


346 


935 


364 


9 18 


Waah'n, 


3 80 


937 


344 


934 


3 61 


9 10 


366 


9U 


8 6 


9 7 


Chftrles., 


8 13 


663 


8 17 


8 61 


893 


8 48 


837 


846 


383 


840 


N. Orrs, 


8 36 


841 


839 


889 


888 


8 87 


887 


884 


843 


880 


S. Fran., 


3 46 


9 31 


349 


9 19 


366 


9 14 


8 3 


9 9 


8 9 


9 S 


PHA8BB, AMD PBRIOU AND APOOBB, OP THB MOON. 


UsiQinrter, 6th daj, 8b. 20.5m. M. | FlntQuutar, SSd day, Sh. 43.6m. M. 
New Moon, 13th " 7 63.3 A. | Full Moon, 29lh " 1 laS M. 


Perigee, let day, 2h. A. | Apogee, 17th day, 3h. M. ] Perigee, 29th day, 8h. A. 


1 


1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. | 




^ 


i 


1 


|s 


1 




■5 

1 


"5 

1 


1 


r 


J^ 


h 

as 


n 






riaee. 


MtS. 


rues. 


sets. 


rtsea 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 


rtsea 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 








h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


b. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


fiftt. 


436 


7 40 


4 83 


7 86 


488 


7 29 


4 66 


713 


6 3 


7 6 


4 41 


726 


195m 


2 


M. 


37 


40 


88 


86 


88 


S9 


66 


13 






43 


36 


337 


3 


Tu. 


37 


40 


83 


84 


89 


S9 


66 


13 






43 


36 


836 


4 


W. 


38 


40 


84 


84 


89 


39 


66 


13 






43 


26 


4 18 


5 


Th. 


39 


40 


84 


84 


40 


38 


67 


11 






48 


35 


6 7 


6 


F. 


39 


40 


86 


84 


40 


38 


67 


11 






43 


35 


664 


7 


S. 


80 


89 


86 


38 


41 


38 


66 


11 






44 


36 


^41 


8 


-Si*. 


480 


7 89 


4 87 


7 88 


443 


T37 


4 68 


7 11 


6 6 


7 4 


4 46 


724 


7 38m 


9 


M. 


81 


88 


37 


88 


43 


27 


60 


11 






45 


24 


8 16 


10 


Tu. 


83 


88 


88 


83 


43 


27 


69 


10 






46 


24 


9 7 


11 


W. 


83 


86 


88 


83 


44 


36 


6 


10 






47 


23 


i 969 


12 


Th. 


83 


87 


89 


83 


44 


36 




10 






47 


33 


|10 63 


13 


F. 


84 


87 


40 


31 


46 


35 










48 


32 


1146 


14 


S. 


86 


86 


40 


81 


46 


35 










48 


23 


087a 


15 


Su. 


486 


7 86 


4 41 


7 80 


446 


7 24 


5 3 


7 9 


5 9 


7 3 


449 


7 21 


1 35a 


16 


M. 


86 


85 


43 


39 


47 


34 








3 


60 


21 


3 11 


17 


Tu. 


37 


34 


43 


39 


48 


33 






10 


3 


61 


20 


364 


18 


W. 


88 


84 


43 


38 


49 


38 






10 


1 


63 


30 


3 84 


19 


Th. 


89 


88 


44 


37 


49 


33 






11 


1 


63 


19 


4 14 


20 


F. 


40 


83 


46 


37 


60 


31 






11 





63 


18 


464 


21 


S. 


41 


31 


46 


36 


61 


31 






13 





64 


18 


536 


22 


Su. 


443 


7 30 


4 47 


7 36 


463 


7 30 


5 7 


7 6 


6 13 


6 60 


465 


7 17 


6 19a 


23 


M. 


43 


39 


48 


34 


63 


19 






13 


69 


66 


17 


7 6 


24 


Tu. 


44 


39 


48 


38 


63 


19 






14 


68 


66 


16 


756 


25 


W. 


46 


38 


49 


33 


64 


18 






14 


68 


66 


16 


866 


26 


Th. 


46 


37 


60 


33 


66 


18 






16 


67 


OT 


15 


9 59 


27 


F. 


47 


36 


61 


31 


66 


16 


10 




16 


67 


68 


14 


11 4 


28 


S. 


48 


36 


83 


30 


'tn 


16 


10 




16 


66 


69 


13 


g 


29 


Su. 


449 


7 34 


4 63 


7 19 


468 


7 14 


& 11 


7 1 


5 17 


6 66 


6 


7 12 


om 


30 


M. 60 


33 


64 


18 


69 


13 


12 




17 


66 


1 


11 


1 10 


31 


Tu. 61 


31 


66 


17 


i 


13 


13 


660 


18 


64 


3 


10 


3 7 





























18K.] Jmfy ims Tkirtf^^me Dmft^ « 




PiMtr «4' tte Hiw^M (MMB use 


*ai D«. atfxvt -•:' ;be PjL.i«>jL 




1 A ^jr. 7tk ^T. 


ijCi 


CAC- 


,.'.\ ^» 


«rw^ lip;. 




tMM. Dec .»«ite^; Ok. 


i^smtAs. IKC 


«»«.'««- . Upc 


h. 


«- Cf^B. ciiLm. .eikK.| oi^b^ -# 


8 1 


-a - 


-»]» tsa -MT» ii«m+nii 11 ma- 


-17 M am- -» IT 


9 » 


8 - ^» 7 9 8 +« «» S 8a-|-9» S «*,' 


-7 » S m --438 


^ m sm-f'a s m tmir-f^B o n «m-|-A » m bbbt 


-S6» i8nm--B8; 


g » « — u » s 9 ' — n s 9 M — ^n « s n — » a» i u -— » a^ 
Q Bsn — sn 8xa' — 9 si 8 ml— j« isft — « • tuk — sm 


J s 


am+ia 4«Di-{-Ttf 4 9aii-|-TS& 4 onij-f-TU saaB*-|-<«ii 


L^f «4«iii — u» snm — lit? aun — um aam^ia « 9 4m — u i» 


jl^lO* --S110 99 --B4108 .--96 9« I--M9 9ST '-|-M 10* 


•9 8 s -\-n 19 8 10 - -n 9J 7 « j- -n 97 7 91 '- -n 9d 79 +17 » 


.1 



1 


Moon riaes or seta. Mean Time. 


HifhWftttf. Mout-noM. 




4 




!' 


1^ 


1^ 
2S 




4 


i' 


1^ 


fc| 


i 




r»». 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. . 










b. m. 


Km. 


h.m. 


ILDL 


iLm. 


h.m. ' h.m. 


b.m. 


h. m. ' h. m. j 


«. 


948a 


9«3a 


9 878 


9 9ia 


9 158 


9 40a r la 


8S8m 


8 im 11 96m; 


2 


10 33 


10 19 


10 15 


10 9 


968 


10 17 


1 063 


944 


8 89 17a 




3 


10 53 


10 60 


10 48 


10 39 


10 37 


10 60 


1 1* 


10 31 


939 1 4 




4 


11 18 


1117 


11 16 


11 13 


11 19 


11 19 


! 399 


11 91 


10 99 . 1 64 




5 


1141 


1141 


1143 


1143 


1144 


1146 


\^,l 


isa 


1191 9 40 




6 


... 


• . • 


. . • 


• • -4 


,. . . 




4 16 


1 7 


168 3 40 




7 


sn^ 


6ID 


7m 


oiim 


16m 


iim 


610 


9 9 


1 10 4 86 




& 


38m 


039m 


83m 


4im 


047m 


038m 


6 9a 


3 la 


9 98 < 6848 




9 


068 


068 


1 3 


1 16 


1 33 


1 9 


6 43m 


4 4 


8 13 1 6 801 


1 


10 


191 


1 80 


136 


163 


3 1 


144 


743 


6 10 


4 18 


7 7 




n 


3 1 


3 8 


3 16 


384 


344 


336 


8 61 


6 14 


633 


8 16 




12 


345 


363 


3 


8 31 


3 81 


8 10 


963 


6 44m 


6 18 


9 17 




13 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


10 43 


786 


6 43m 10 8 




14 


838a 


833a 


8 16a 


766a 


7 6ia 


8 17a 


11 80 


633 


7 80 !l0 66 




s. 


9 la 


866a 


8 6ia 


836a 


8 8ia 


8 638 


oiia 


9 3m 


8 lim 11 36m 




16 


997 


993 


9 19 


9 7 


9 3 


990 


048 


9 40 


848 


188 




17 


960 


9 47 


944 


9 86 


983 


946 


1 34 


10 16 


934 


049 




18 


10 10 


10 8 


10 7 


10 3 


10 1 


10 9 


1 67 


10 49 


9 67 


199 




19 


10 99 


10 39 


10 39 


10 97 


10 38 


10 33 


330 


1133 


10 30 


1 66 




20 


10 48 


10 49 


10 6^ 


10 63 


10 64 


10 64 


8 4 


11 66 


11 4 


999 




21 


11 8 


11 11 


11 13 


11 19 


1133 


11 17 


843 


084a 


11 43 


8 7 




S. 


iisoa 


1184a 


1188a 


1147a 


11 63a 


11 43a 


433a 


1 14a 


0338 


8 478 




23 
24 


llffi 












6 8 
6 6 


3 

3 67 


1 8 
3 6 


488 
680 




52m 


7m 


3im 


38m 


14m 




25 


osim 


088 


044 


1 3 


1 10 


063 


6 80m 


4 4 


3 13 


6 4m 




26 


1 16 


194 


131 


161 


3 1 


141 


7 46 


6 14 


433 


7 10 




27 


3 13 


3 31 


339 


3 61 


3 1 


3 40 


9 


636 


688 


836 




28 


rtses. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 

8 12a 


10 4 


6 66ra 


4m 


939 




S. 


8 19a 


8 14a 


8 loa 


766a 


7 6ia 


11 3m 


7 64m 


7 3m 


10 37m 




30 


8 63 


8 49 


645 


835 


8 33 


848 


1168 


8 46 


7 68 ill 16 




31 


9 19 


9 17 


9 16 


9 10 


9 


19 


49a 


34 


8 43 1 7a 





S2 August^ Eighth Months begins on Wednesday. [1855< 



Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 



25th day. 



Boston, 

N. York, 

Wash'n, 

Charles., 

N.OrPs, 

S.Fran., 



Ist day. 



Begins. 
h. m. 
3 66m 
8 4 
8 U 
889 
848 
8 18 



Ends, 
b. m. 

9 na 

9 8 
866 
888 
834 

8 64 



7th day. 



Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends. 
h.<n. 


3 6m 


9 6a 


8 14 


866 


833 


848 


846 


635 


864 


8 16 


8 36 


846 



13th day. 



Begins, 
b. m. 


Ends. 
h.in. 


8 16m 


8 63a 


333 


846 


880 


888 


860 


8 18 


869 


8 9 


888 


886 



I 19th day. 



Begins, 
h. m. 
334m 
8 33 
888 
8 66 
4 4 
8 41 



Ends, 
h. m. 
8438 
884 
8 38 
8 10 
8 3 
8 36 



Begins, 
h. m. 

3 34m 
840 
346 

4 3 
4 8 
848 



Ends 
h. m. 
880a 
834 
8 18 
8 3 

7 66 

8 16 



PHA8B8, AND APOOBB AND PBBIOBB, OP THB MOON. 

Last Quarter, 4th day, 4h. IS.Sna. A. I First Quarter, 20th daj, 3h. 27.6m. A. 

New Moon, 12th <' 1 46.2 A. | FuUMooo, 27th <' 8 14.2 M. 

Apogee, 13th day. Oh. A. j Perigee, 27th day, 5h. M. 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 



12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



27 



30 
31 



§ 



W. 

Th 
F. 

S. 



rues. 

h. m. 

463 
68 
64 
M 



M. 

Tu. 
W 
Th. 
F. 

S. 



4 66 
67 

66 

69 

6 

1 
3 



Su 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

F. 

S. 



Su. 

M. 

Tu. 

W 

Th. 

F 

S. 



Su. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

F. 



Sun's tqiper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 



7 16 
14 
13 
11 
10 
8 
7 



6 8 

4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 



5 11 
13 
13 
14 
16 
16 
17 



6 18 
19 
30 
31 
33 
33 



sets. 

h. m. 

7 30 
19 
17 
16 



7 6 
4 
8 
1 


6 68 
67 



6 56 
64 

63 
61 
49 

48 
46 



644 

43 
41 
39 






rises. 
h. m 
466 



sets. 

h. m. 

7 16 
16 
14 
13 



6 6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
13 



6 13 
14 
16 
16 
17 
18 



630 
31 
33 
33 
34 
36 



7 3 
1 

6 66 
67 
66 
64 



6 63 
61 
60 
48 
47 
46 
44 



6 43 
41 
39 
87 
36 
84 






rises. 
h. m. 
6 

3 
8 



6 4 
6 
6 
6 

7 



7 7 
6 
6 

4 
3 
1 




6 10 
11 
13 
IS 
14 
16 
16 



6 16 
17 
18 
19 
30 
31 
33 



sets. 

b. m. 

7 11 
10 
9 
8 



rises. 

h. m. 

6 13 
14 
16 
16 



5 16 

17 
18 
19 
19 
30 



6 60 
49 
47 
46 
44 
43 
41 



6 40 
39 
37 
35 
34 



6 31 
31 
33 
33 
34 
34 



37 



30 



5 30 
31 
33 
33 
33 
34 



sets. 

h. m. 

6 66 
67 
67 
66 



6 66 
64 

63 
63 
61 
60 
49 



5 31 
31 



6 48 
47 
46 
46 
44 
48 



6 41 
40 
39 
37 
36 
36 
84 



6 33 
31 
30 



rises. 

h. m. 

6 18 
19 
90 
90 



6 35 
36 
36 
37 
38 
38 



5 39 

•to 

30 

81 



83 



5 S3 
34 
34 
35 



371 85 
361 86 



sets. 
h. m. 
6 68 



61 



rises. 
h.m. 
6 3 7 
8 

4 
6 



6 50 
49 
49 
48 
47 
46 
45 



6 44 
43 
43 
41 
40 



6 37 
36 
35 
34 
33 
81 
30 



sete- 
h.m. 
9 
8 
7 
6 



|6 6 

7 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



7 6 
4 
3 
3 


669 



6 13 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
17 



36 



6 67 
fi6 

64 



6 48 
47 
45 
44 
43 
43 
40 



6 39 6 34 639 

38 35 88 

37 96 36 

96 34 

97 83 
38 81 



IP 
Is 



h. m. 
3 69m 

3 49 

4 87 
6 94 



6 13m 

7 4 
766 
84B 
9 41 

10 88 

11 93 



9a 

63 

1 38 
3 18 

3 53 
8 83 

4 16 



4 69a 

5 48 

6 43 

7 41 
644 
948 

10 60 



11 49a 

g 

44m 

1 37 
337 

3 17 I 



1855.] August has TMrty-one 


Days. 23| 


Paasage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets. | 


1 


Irtday. 1 


7th day. II 


13th day. 


19th iliiv. 


25th day. | 


souths. 

iLm. 
10 44m 

3 67a 

10 6m 

1 18 

«49a 


Dec 

O 1 

4-30 32 
-- 1 16 

— 30 16 
— 4 6 


souths. 

h. m. 
10 68m 

3 6ia 

10 om 

060 
6 37a 


Dec 

+30 86 

— 126 

— 31 5 

— 484 


souths. Dec. 
h. m. 01 
11 lam +19 36 
243a — 4 2 
9 63m4-98 1 
30 — 3156 
6 6a — 6 6[ 


souths. Dec. 
h.m. * 

11 88m +17 43 
38Sa — 639 
946m +43 30 

11 46a — 33 47 


souths, 

h.m. 

la 

330 

9 89m 
11 17a 


Dec. 

+13 49 
— 843 
4-9154 
— 38 34 


J 


s 


8m 


+ 6 9 


3 48m 


--627 


3 17m- 


-487 


1 6im- 


-889 


134m 


--3 14 




1 asm 
9 a 

635 


—12 33 

4-22 12 
4-17 86 


644 
1 7 
843 
6 12 


+ 638 
— U48 
--23 13 

--17 87 


636 - 
41 - 

8 31 - 
6 48 - 


.-640 
-13 6 

-22 14 
-17 38' 


6 6 - 
14 - 
8 - 
625 - 


-644 445 
—18 33 11 4Sa 
■^lA 1 38m 
-17 89 6 1 


--644 

—13 41 

--53 16 
^ -17 39 


1 

1 


MooQ rises or seta. Mean Time. | 


High Water. Mean Time. | 


J 


es. 
8a 


\' 




J4 


1^ 

S5 


J* 


4 




1^ 


Jil 


1 


h.1 
94 


rises. 
h. m. 
943a 


rises. 
h. m. 
9 4Sa 


h!T' 

9 43a 


rises. 
h.ni. 
948a 


rises. 
h.in. 
9 46a 


h.m. 
13Ba 


h.m. 
I0 30m 


h. m. 
9S8m 


h. m. 
68a 


2 


10 6 


10 7 


10 9 


10 13 


10 16 


10 18 


3 14 


11 6 


10 14 


189 


3 


10 38 


10 31 


10 84 


10 43 


10 46 


10 49 


3 3 


1164 


11 3 


397 


4 


10 64 


14)68 


11 8 


11 16 


11 31 


11 9 


346 


37a 


1146 


8 10 


S. 


11 36a 


iisia 


1186a 


11 6ia 


11 6oa 


1143a 


483a 


124a 


03Sa 


3e7a 


6 


13 


. . .' 


• • . 


. . • 


. . . 


. . • 


633 


3 14 


133 


447 


7 


• • • 


7m 


14m 


osm 


L 049m 


033m 


663m 


833 


330 


566 


8 


4sm 


61 


068 


I 19 


139 


1 8 


7 6 


487 


3 46 


6 3im 


9 


183 


140 


148 


3 9 


330 


160 


836 


667 


6 5 


7 61 


10 


338 


386 


348 


8 4 


3 14 


364 


943 


634m 


6 9 


9 7 


11 


380 


337 


844 


4 8 


4 13 


366 


10 37 


739 


687m 


10 3 


8. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


11 3im 


8 13m 


7 3im 


10 46m 


13 


7 66a 


76aa 


763a 


7 89a 


736a 


7 60a 


11 68 


860 


768 


1133 


14 


8 16 


8 18 


8 11 


8 6 


8 6 


8 13 


3ia 


933 


8 31 


1166 


15 


884 


898 


838 


830 


8 31 


8 36 


1 3 


964 


9 3 


37a 


16 


868 


864 


864 


866 


8W 


866 


133 


10 34 


9 33 


067 


17 


9 13 


9 14 


9 16 


9 31 


934 


930 


3 3 


10 64 


10 3 


127 


18 


983 


9 36 


940 


949 


966 


946 


333 


1135 


10 83 


1 68 


8. 


9 66a 


10 3a 


10 7a 


losoa 


10 37a 


10 13a 


3 4a 


11 66m 


11 4m 


339a 


20 


10 38 


10 84 


10 40 


10 66 


11 6 


10 47 


389 


3ia 


1188 


3 4 


21 
33 


11 6 
1164 


11 13 


1130 


1130 


1148 


1138 


430 
6 11 


1 13 
9 3 


30a 

1 11 


345 
486 


23 


• • • 


3m 


oiom 


osaa 


i 043m 


8m 


638 


330 


338 


658 


24 


66m 


1 6 


1 14 


137 


146 


136 


7 um 


4 47 


866 


686m 


25 


3 14 


3 31 


330 


3 48 


366 


3 41 


840 


6 14 


633 


8 5 


S. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises 


rises. 


rises. 


9 68m 


6 45m 


634a 


9 18m 


27 


7 16a 


7 18a 


7 11a 


7 3a 


7 la 


714a 


10 63 


744 


6 63m 


10 17 


28 


743 


7 41 


740 


737 


737 


744 


1141 


833 


7 41 


11 6 


29 


8 6 


8 7 


8 8 


8 9 


8 11 


8 11 


03Ba 


930 


638 


11 63 


30 


8*99 


8 81 


884 


840 


844 


838 


1 9 


10 1 


9 9 


084a 


31 


863 


856 


9 


9 10 


9 16 


9 6 


161 


10 43 


9 61 


1 16 



24 September^ Ninth Months begins on Saturday. [1855. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




I si day. 


7ih day. 


II 13th day. 


1 19th day. |] 25th day. 1 


Begin 
h. m. 


9. Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. 
h.m. 


Ends. Begins., Ends, 
h. m. h. m. i h. m. 


r™"" 


-£nd8.l 
h.ro. i 


Begins. Ends., 
h. m. h. m. 1 


Boston, 


a44E 


a 8 16a 


3 6im| 8 4a|| 3 5om| 


7 63a 


4 7xn 


740a 


4 1601 7 38aj 


N. York, 


849 


8 11 


366 


8 


4 8 


7 49 


4 10 


787 


4 18 


736 


Wash'n, 


364 


8 6 


4 


766 


4 7 


7 46 


4 14 


784 


4 31 


7 28 


Charles., 


4 8 


763 


413 


748 


4 17 


7 34 


423 


735 


428 


716 


N.OrPs, 


4 14 


746 


4 17 


789 


4 31 


7 81 


435 


722 


480 


7 14 


S. Fran., 


866 


8 4 


4 3 


766 


4 8 


7 44 


4 16 


784 


4 31 


738 


PHA8B8, AND APOOBB AND PBRIOBB, OP THB KOON. 


Last Quarter, 3d day, 3h. 16.9m. M. First Quarter, 19th day, Ih. 64.2m. M. 
New Moon, *llth " 5 46.7 M. FuU Moon, 26th " 4 18.2 A. 


Apogee, 9th day, 3h. A. | Perigee, ailh day, Sh. A. 


1 


1 

1 


Sun'a upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Meaa Time. 


IP 
II 


J 

( 


' 


> 




1^ 


1^ 

S5 


i 






rUea. 
iLm. 


sete. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


seto. 
h.m. 


rtsea 
h.m. 


seto. 
h.m. 


riaea 
h. m. 


seto. 
h.m. 


nae$. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises, seta. 
h.m.lh.m. 


h. m. 


1 


S. 


634 


6 34 


536 


6 83 


538 


6 81 


584 


635 


587 


633 


539 


6 80 


4 7m 


d 


8u. 


636 


6 38 


537 


6 81 


539 


6 39 


586 


634 


587 


633 


580 


638 


4 66m 


3 


M. 


36 


81 


38 


39 


80 


37 


86 


S3 


88 


SO 


81 


36 


660 


4 


Tu. 


31 


39 


39 


38 


81 


36 


86 


31 


88 


19 


83 


36 


644 


5 


W. 


38 


38 


80 


37 


83 


34 


87 


30 


89 


18 


88 


34 


787 


6 


Th. 


39 


36 


81 


35 


83 


38 


87 


19 


89 


17 


84 


33 


839 


7 


F. 


SO 


34 


83 


38 


84 


31 


88 


17 


40 


16 


84 


30 


9 19 


8 


S. 


83 


38 


88 


31 


84 


30 


89 


16 


40 


14 


86 


19 


10 7 





8u. 


688 


6 31 


584 


6 19 


586 


6 18 


689 


6 14 


S4I 


6 13 


5 86 ;6 17 1 


i0 6im 


10 


M. 


84 


19 


85 


18 


86 


17 


40 


18 


41 


13 


91 


16 


11 88 


11 


Ta. 


86 


17 


86 


16 


87 


16 


41 


13 


43 


10 


88 


15 


13a 


12 


W. 


86 


16 


87 


16 


88 




41 


11 


43 


9 


89 


13 


068 


13 


Th. 


87 


14 


88 


14 


89 




43 




43 


8 


40 


13 


183 


14 


F. 


88 


13 


89 


11 


40 




43 




43 


7 


41 


10 


3 U 


15 


S. 


89 


10 


40 




41 




43 




44 


6 


41 


9 


367 


16 


8u. 


640 


6 9 


5 41 


6 8 


543 


8 7 


544 


6 6 


5 44 


6 6 


5 43 


6 7 


8 44a 


17 


M. 


41 




43 




43 




46 




46 


3 


43 


6 


435 


18 


Tu. 


43 




48 




48 




46 




46 


3 


43 


4 


5 81 


19 


W. 


48 




44 




44 




46 




46 


1 


44 


3 


680 


20 


Th. 


44 




46 




45 




46 




47 





46 


1 


783 


21 


F. 


46 




46 


5 59 


46 


S60 


47 


6 56 


47 


6 56 


46 


5 59 


883 


22 


S. 


47 


6 56 


47 


56 


47 


66 


48 


67 


48 


tn 


47 


56 


989 


23 


Su. 


648 


5 66 


5 48 


5 56 


5 48 


»66 


6 48 


6 56 


5 49 


5 66 


5 46 


5 66 


lossa 


24 


M. 


49 


64 


49 


66 


49 


54 


49 


66 


49 


65 


49 


64 


1131 


25 


Tu. 


60 


53 


50 


63 


60 


58 


60 


68 


50 


63 


60 


63 


g 


26 


W. 


61 


61 


61 


61 


61 


61 


60 


63 


60 


63 


51 


61. 


12m 


27 


Th. 


63 


49 


53 


49 


63 


49 


61 


50 


61 


61 


68 


49 


1 8 


28 


F. 


63 


47 


58 


48 


53 


48 


61 


49 


61 


50 


53 


48 


154 


29 


S. 


54 


46 


64 


46 


53 


46 


63 


48 


53 


48 


68 


46 


3 47 


30 


Su. 


566 


5 44 


5 66 


5 44 


5 64 { 


146 


5 68 


5 47 


5 63 


6 47 


5 54 |5 45 1 


8 40m 



1655.] Sej^ember hag Thirty Days. 25 


Paasaga of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets. 




let da,. II 


7th day. 


' 13th day. 


lirthdav. !| )ft>th Jay. | 


souths 
h. m. 


Dec. so«KAs.i Dec 
o 1 b-na. 1 . o 1 


souths. 
h.m. 


Dec 

O 1 


soulhs. 
h.m. 


Dec. 

O 1 


UsirtA. Dec 
,h.m. o 1 


. 8 


ossa 


+ 783 


86a ,-f- 3 50 


05oa 


— 146 


1 oa 


— 6 e 


{ 1 81 —10 10 


? 


S 1 


—10 51 


140 I--13 18 


1 15 


— 19 57 


046 


— 19 55 


10 10 —19 3 


il 


ipaom 


-hi 4 


39m -{-90 15 


14m 


+10 38 


9 6m 


+18 98 


' 8 9mi+n 91 




10 44a 


—38 58! 10 17a — 94 38 


048a 


—44 89 


9 Ma 


—94 87 


, 9 oa 


—94 8^ 


5 


98Sm 


4-1 


\ 
034m — 


11 6ia 


— 144 


ii9oa 


— S 8 


10 86a 


— 4 81 


5 


490 


--5 41 


8 57 1+5 84 


8t4m 


+ 535 


8 lom 


+ 510 


, 9 45m 


+ 458 


:t 


11 13a 


—14 10 40a 1 — 14 15| 


loioa 


— 14 98 


984a 


— U89 


\ oa9a 


—14 48 


h 


7 ism 


--33 15 


6 5im'- -99 15| 


690m 


--99 15 


6 7m 




544m 


+99 14 


9 


484 


- -17 89' 


4 10 +17 88 


846 


--17 87 


3 99 


-1-17 86 


958 


Tn«« 


's 

1 


Mood rises or seu. Mean Time. 


1 High Water. Mean Time. 


4 


£ 


!^ 


1^ 


1^ 

2: 


rists. 
h. m. 


1 


i 


1^ 


III! 

SSl 
1 (K 1 




rises. 
b. m. 


rises 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


risa. 
h. m. 


rists 
h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 1 b. m. 


1 


OKA 


osia 


087a 


8 5ia 


06ea 


9 48a 

10 19a 


9 8ia 


1133m 
8a 


i0 8im; 1 86a 
11 11m 9 86a 


S. 


57a 


10 4a 


10 loa 


10 sea 


10 87a 


8 ua 


3 


10 80 


10 47 


10 54 


11 14 


11 34 11 4 


353 


044 


1153 


8 10 


4 


1137 


1185 


1143 


• • • 


... 11 54 


440 


189 


04oa 


4 5 


5 


• ■ • 


. . . 


■ • • 


5m 


15m ... 


5 47 


380 


147 


5 19« 


6 


ossin 


8on 


1 osom 


050 


1 04om 


6 8im 


4 


8 17 


556m 


7 


138 


180 


188 


1 57 


3 7 148 


8 1 


588 


4 40 


796 


8 


396 


383 


339 


355 


3 4 


360 
8 49m 


036 


6 16m 


555 


8 51 


& 


3 3Bm 


8 380 


k 838m 


3 5im 


358m 


10 i8m| 7 lom 


6 18m 1 48m{ 


10 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. sets. 


11 3 


755 


7 8 


10 96 


11 


689a 


688a 


6 87a 


683a 


6 83a 6 40a 


11 86 


898 


786 


11 1 


12 


6fi8 


656 


650 


658 


7 7 3 


7a j 8 50 


8 7 


1189 


13 


7 17 


7 40 


730 


734 


736 7 34 


083 


935 


838 


11 58 


14 


787 


740 


743 


7 51 


755 748 


1 3 


954 


9 


097a 


15 


780 


8 4 


8 8 


890 


8 36 8 18 


1 131 


10 38 


9 31 ! 56 


S. 


830a 


839a 


6S8a 


8 53a 


9 oa 8 44a 


1 58a 


10 50m 


9 5em 138a 


17 


1 


8 


15 


983 


048 


933 


328 


11 30 


10 99 


158 


18 


045 


058 


10 1 


10 33 


10 83 


10 13 


3 3 


11 54 


11 3 


337 


19 


10 41 


10 40 


10 57 


11 19 


1180 


11 


346 


088a 


11 46 


8 11 


20 


1180 


11 58 


. • • 


. • • 


. . • 


. . . 


4 41 


188 


4ia 


4 6 


21 


• . . 


• . • 


6m 


37m 


0S7m 


lom 


6 7 


350 


3 7 


5 83 


23 


1 7ni 


1 i4in 


131 


1 80 


1 48 


184 


6 54m 


485 


348 


6 lom 


S. 


33000 


384m 


3 50m 


3 54m 


3 im 


353m 


8 34m 


6 4a 


5 19a 


750m 


24 


853 


856 


350 


4 


4 14 


4 11 


945 


6 37m 


6 13 


9 10 


25 


rises. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


10 37 


720 


6 87m 


10 3 


26 


03oa 


osia 


683a 


686a 


688a 


686a 


1130 


8 13 


730 


10 45 


27 


054 


6 57 


7 1 


7 


7 14 


7 6 


sa 


654 


8 3 


11 37 


28 


7 31 


736 


7 31 


748 


760 


787 


43 


034 


843 


7a 


29 


788 


750 


8 5 


833 


880 


8 13 


1 23 


10 14 


033 


047 


30 


888a 


840a 


8 48a 


7a 


9 na 


8 56a 


3 oa 


10 63m 


10 om 


196a 



^ 



26 October^ Tenth Months begins on Monday. [1855. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 


1 


l8t Day. 


7th day. 


13th day. || 


19th day. 
Begins., Ends. 


25lh day. 


Begins. 


l^nd;i 


• Begins. 


Ends. 


1 Begins. 


Ends., 


Begins. 1 Ends. 




ti. m. 


h.m 


i h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 1 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. ' h. m. 


BosUm, 


i33m 


7 17 


SI 4 8001 


7 6a 


487in 


6 55a> 


4 44m| 6 46a{ 


4 66m 6 38a 


N. York,j 4 35 


7 15 


488 


7 4 


488 


664 


444 


646 


460 


638 


Wash'n,!4 27 


7 18 


488 


7 8 


488 


664 


444 


646 


460 


639 


Charles., 


183 


7 8 


436 


7 


440 


669 


*« 


645 


449 


N.Orrs, 


184 


7 6 


487 


656 


4 41 


6 51 


445 


645 


448 


640 


S. Fran., 


139 


7 18 


488 


7 3 


488 


666 


448 


6 47 


4i0 


689 


PHABBg, AMD APOOBB AND PBKIOBB, OP TBB MOON. 


Last Quarter, 9d day, 6h. 57.8m. A. First Quarter, 18th dar, lOh. 31.1m. M. 
New Moon, lOlh " 10 17.7 A. FuU Moon, 26th '^ 2 19.7 M. 


Apogee, 6th day, 12h. A. | Perigee, 22d day, 8h. A. 


1 

• 


t 

1 


Sun's upper limb rises and seu (cor. for refr.) Mean TIbm. 




4 




1^ 


1^ 


1^ 

2: 


i 






riM8. 


sete 


rises 


seu. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises, sets. 








h. m. 


h.m. 


Im. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. h m 


h.m. 


1 


M. 


6M 


5 43 


i» 


5 43 


5 55 


5 44 


6 54 


5 46 


5 68 


6 46 


5 65 644 


4 85m 


2 


Tu. 


57 


40 


57 


41 


56 


43 


54 


44 


53 


45 


66 43 


530 


3 


W. 


66 


88 


56 


89 


67 


40 


55 


43 


54 


48 


67 40 


634 


4 


Th. 


6 


87 


59 


88 


66 


39 


66 


41 


55 


43 


66 


89 


7 15 


.5 


F. 




85 


S 


36 


60 


87 


57 


40 


55 


41 


60 


88 


8 3 


• 6 


S. 




34 


1 


35 


6 


36 


57 


89 


66 


40 





87 


8 48 


7 


Su. 


6 8 


5 83 


S 3 


5 88 


6 1 


5 34 


5 68 


5 87 


5 57 


6 89 


6 1 |5 85 I 


9 Sim 


8 


M. 




80 


8 


81 


3 


33 


69 


86 


67 


88 


3 


88 


10 13 


9 


Tu. 




38 


4 


39 


3 


81 


S 


85 


66 


86 


3 


83 


10 69 


10 


W. 




37 


5 


38 


4 


30 


. 


84 


66 


85 


8 


81 


1189 


11 


Th. 




35 


6 


36 


6 


38 


1 


33 


60 


84 


4 


39 


isa 


12 


F. 




34 


7 


35 


6 


37 


3 


31 


6 


83 


5 


S8 


056 


13 


S. 


10 


33 


8 


33 


7 


35 


8 


30 




83 


6 


96 


143 


14 


Su. 


6 11 


5 30 


6 10 


5 23 


6 8 


5 34 


6 8 


5 39 


6 1 


6 81 


6 7 535 


9aaa 


15 


M. 


13 


18 


11 


30 


9 


33 


4 


37 




80 


a\ 98 


896 


16 


Tu. 


18 


17 


13 


19 


10 


31 


6 


36 




39 


9' 93 


494 


17 


W. 


15 


15 


13 


17 


11 


19 


6 


35 




38 


10 ! 30 


638 


18 


Th. 


16 


14 


14 


16 


13 


18 


6 


34 




37 


11 19 


638 


19 


F. 


17 


13 


15 


M 


13 


16 


7 


33 




36 


13 1 17 


7 21 


20 


S. 


16 


11 


16 


13 


14 


15 


6 


33 




36 


18 ! 16 


8 16 


21 


sir. 


630 


5 9 


6 17 


5 11 


6 15 


5 14 


6 9 


5 31 


6 6 


5 34 


S 14 5 16 


9 ea 


22 


M. 


31 


8 


18 


10 


16 


13 


9 


SO 




38 


16, 14 


96* 


23 


Tu. 


23 


6 


19 


9 


17 


11 


10 


18 




33 


16 13 


10 49 


24 


W. 


33 


6 


30 


7 


18 





11 


17 




31 


17 11 


1189 


25 


Th. 


34 


8 


33 


6 


19 


8 


13 


16 




30 


18 10 


g 


26 


F. 


35 


3 


33 


6 


30 


7 


13 


U 




19 


19 9 


D3im 


27 


S. 


36 





34 


4 


31 


6 


18 


14 


10 


18 


30 8 


135 


28 


Su. 


aTm" 


450 


8 35 


5 3 


633 


5 5 


S 14 


5 18 


6 11 


5 17 


6 31 6 7 


3 3im 


29 


M. 


30 


56 


36 





34 


4 


15 


13 


13 


16 


33 1 ^ 


3 18 


30 


Tu 


80 


57 


37 


469 


35 


3 


16 


11 


13 


16 


38 4 


4 18 


31 


W. 


33 


55 


36 


66 


36 


1 


17 1 10 


18 


14 


34| 8 


5 7 



1856. 


] Oeiober has TMrty-one Days. 27 1 


Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets. | 




90tt 


1.1 day 11 


7th day. || 


13th day | 


19lh day. 


*^Mh (<Kv 1 


Uhs. 


Dec. i 


wuths. 


Dec 


souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 1 


SOUthi^. 


bee. 




h. 


m. 


O 1 


h.m. 


( 


b.m. 


1 


h.m. 


1 


h.ip. 


1 


^ 


1 14a 


—18 46 


Iisa - 


-16 40 


1 laa 


—19 S 


1 108 —40 36. 


0498 


— ^D 8 


9 


11 Mm 


— 10 33 


looom- 


— 8 14 


10 98m 


— 6 4 


10 im 


-4 16. 


9 40m 


— 8 




84B 


+16 3. 


8 89 +16 16 


899 


+14 7 


8 19 +1366| 


8 9 


+1146 


E 


8 


Ma 


-x^^ 


8 Ua -HM 18 


7688 


—33 64 


7898 


—38 99 


7188 


—31 8 


1 


loaoa 


— 6 61 


10 oa - 


-7 7 


98«a 


— 8 18 


9 88 


-999 


8438 


—10 18 


5 


3 19ID 


+ ^4I 


1 69m + 4 94| 


1 96m 


+ 4, 


66m + 8 48| 


98m 


+ 88-i 


Jtf\9 


sa 


— 14 66 1 


888a - 


—16 J 


8 148 


— 1» 4 


7608 


—16 4 


7 378 


—16 2 


ll 1 6 311D 


-^2i 14 ' 


46em - 


-99 14 


4 86m 


-|-M1! 


4 nm 


-99 18 


8 47m 


--33 13 


9 |334 


- -17 8i 1 


9 10 - 


-17 98 


1 46 


-|-n« 


I 91 


■-17 95 


066 


- -17 18 


1 

1 


Moon rises or seta. Mean Time. | 


High Water. Mean Time. 


i 


i' 


1^ 


1^ 


2: 


1^ 


4 




|i 


1^- 




rises. 


rises. 


uses. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 












h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h,m. 


h.m. 


1 


9 19a 


937a 


9868 


9 678 


10 78 


9468 


3388 


11 80m 


10 88m 


9 38 


2 


10 13 


10 90 


10 S8 


10 60 


11 1 


10 89 


8 19 


118 


11 19 


941 


3 


11 13 


11 91 


1138 


1148 


11 69 


11 40 


4 9 


1 1 


98 


384 


4 


. « ■ 


• . • 


• • • 


• • • 


» . . 


• • • 


6 14 


9 6 


1 14 


489 


5 


15m 


99IE 


1 098m 


46m 


66m 


4om 


6 4m 


8 40 


948 


6 18 


6 


1 17 


1 98 


198 


148 


1 60 


139 


786 
866m 


6 19 


490 


7 om 


S. 


9 90m 


3 9411! 


1 9 99m 


9 40m 


9 46m 


9 89m 


6 918 


6998 


898 


8 


S31 


894 


899 


884 


8 39 


386 


968 


6 46m 


6 13 


9 18 


9 


439 


494 


496 


498 


4 81 


483 


10 30 


799 


6 80m 


966 


10 


'sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


11 8 


7.66 


7 8 


10 38 


11 


648a 


6 46a 


648a 


6 648 


6 688 


6 69a 


11 31 


898 


7 31 


10 66 


U 


6 4 


6 6 


6 13 


699 


698 


6 17 


08 


869 


6 


1196 


13 


680 


686 


6 41 


664 


7 9 


6 46 


29 


9 31 


699 


11 64 


8. 


7 9a 


7 9a 


7 16a 


7 888 


7 498 


7 988 


1 oa 


959m 


9 om 


968 


15 


743 


760 


7 67 


8 18 


829 


8 7 


1 31 


10 93 


9 81 


066 


16 


883 


8 41 


8 49 


9 11 


999 


869 


3 4 


10 66 


10 4 


199 


17 


988 


946 


964 


10 16 


10 96 


10 <f 


348 


1186 


10 43 


9 8 


IB 


lOflO 


10 67 


11 6 


1134 


1184 


11 8 


897« 


198 


11 27 


969 


19 


. . . 


• • • 


. . . 


• • • 


• • . 


• . • 


428 


1 90 


988 


8 63 


20 


8m 
197m 


i4n 


1 9om 


86m 


43m 


93m 

147m 


6 


969 


9 


696 


S. 


1 8in 


1 1 86ra 


147m 


1 64ro 


6 5ora 


4 80a 


3 888 


6 16m 


22 


346 


349 


3 61 


368 


3 9 


8 9 


893 


647 


466 


7 47 


23 


4 8 


4 4 


4 6 


4 6 


4 8 


4 U 


994 


6 lom 


6 49 


8 49 , 


24 


rtses. 


rtses 


. nses. 


rises. 


rtses. 


rises. 


10 18 


7 6 


6 ism 


9 88 


25 


ft lea 


6 99a 


6 968 


6868 


6 49a 


6 898 


10 54 


7 46 


664 


10 19 


26 


640 


6 64 


6 


6 14 


6 93 


6 8 


1137 


899 


787 


11 3 


27 


636 


689 


680 


6 67 


7 6 


8 47 


168 


9 8 


8 16 


1141 


S. 


7 9a 


7 17a 


7 948 


7 458 


7 668 


7 848 


55a 


947m 


8 66m 


0908 


29 


8 


8 8 


8 16 


838 


848 


897 


184 


10 96 


984 


069 


30 


860 


9 7 


9 16 


986 


946 


936 


9 14 


11 6 


10 14 


1 39 


31 


10 8 


10 10 


10 17 


10 86 


10 48 


10 38 


966 


11 48 


10 66 


9 91 



28 November, Eleventh Month, begins on Thursday. [1855. 


Twilighi beKina and ends. Mean Time. 




1 SI (lav. 1' 7ih day. |l 1 :3th day. 


19th dav. 


25th day. 


Begin 
h. m. 


:«. iMidd.l Begins 
h. m. , h. m. 


lMidd.||iiegms.i 
h. m. I ! h. m. | 


l!.n4ls 
h.m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Bopton, 


4fi6I 


n 68oa 


1 6 6X1] 


6 38a 


6iim 


6 188 


6 nm 6 14a 


' 6 9Bm| 6 iia 


N. York, 


407 


6 81 


l5 4 


634 


6 10 


6 19 


6 16 6 16 


6 91 


6 18 


Wash'n, 


4 67 


6 81 


|6 8 


696 


6 8 


6 91 


6 18 6 18 


6 19 


6 16 


Charles., 


464 ' 684 


1460 


699 


6 3 


636 


6 7 638 


^13 


633 


N.Ori's, 


468 1 686 


,466 


6 31 


6 1 


638 


6 6 636 


6 9 


636 


S.Fran., 


466 683 


l6 3 


637 


16 7 


633 


6 n 6 19 


6 17 


6 16 


PRA8B9, AND APOOBB AND PBRIOBB, OF TBS MOON. 


Ust Quarter, 1st day, Oh. 9.6m. A. f Firei Quarter, 16th day, 6h. Mm, A- 
New Moon, 9lh " 2 23.8 A. | Full Moon, 23d " 2 43.5 A. 


Apogee, 3d day, 5h. A. | Perigee, 19th day, 7h. M. 


1 


1 

'5 

1 


Sun's tqajper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Ttme. 










!^ 


1^ 




1^ 






rues. 
h. m. 


sets 
h. ra. 


rtses 
h. m. 


sets 
h. ro. 


rises 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. Ill 


nses 
h.m 


sets. 
h.pi. 


nses 
h.m. 


sets 
b.in 


rises.] seU. 
h. m.|h.m. 


h.in. 


1 


Th. 


683 


4 64 


630 


4 67 


637 


6 


6 17 


6 


6 14 


6 13 


636 6 S 


6 67in 


2 


F. 


84 


68 


31 


66 


96 


460 


18 




16 


13 


36! 1 


644 


3 


S. 


86 


61 


83 


66 


39 


66 


19 




16 


13 


37; 


797 


4 


Su. 


686 


4 50 


633 


463 


630 


4 57 


630 


5 7 


6 16 |6 11 


6 38 4 60 


8 9in 


6 


M. 


88 


49 


85 


63 


81 


66 


31 




17 


10 


39 


68 


8 49 


6 


Tu. 


40 


48 


36 


61 


83 


56 


33 




18 




30 


67 


939 


7 


W. 


41 


47 


37 


60 


33 


64 


33 




18 




81 


66 


10 9 


8 


Th. 


43 


46 


38 


49 


86 


63 


34 




19 




88 


66 


10 69 


9 


F. 


43 


44 


39 


46 


86 


63 


36 




30 




84 


64 


1187 


10 


S. 


44 


43 


41 


47 


87 


61 


36 




31 




35 


68 


09ia 


11 


Su. 


645 


4 43 


6 43 


446 


638 


4 60 


636 


5 1 


6 33 


6 6 


6 36 ;4 63 I 


1 9oa 


12 


M. 


46 


41 


43 


46 


39 


49 


37 




38 




87 


61 


2 18 


13 


Tu. 


48 


40 


44 


44 


40 


48 


38 




33 




88 


60 


3 18 


14 


W. 


49 


39 


45 


43 


41 


47 


39 




34 




89 


49 


4 16 


15 


Th. 


60 


89 


46 


43 


43 


47 


80 


4 60 


36 




40 


49 


6 16 


16 


F. 


63 


88 


48 


43 


43 


46 


81 


66 


36 




41 


48 


6 U 


17 


S. 
Su. 


68 


87 


49 


41 


45 


46 


33 


68 


37 




48 


47 


7 8 


18 


6 54 4 36 


»dO 


4 40 


6 46 


4 44 


6 33 


4 58 


6 38 


5 3 


6 44 |4 47 1 


7 63a 


10 


M. 


55 


85 


61 


40 


47 


44 


84 


67 


38 




46 


46 


8 40 


20 


Tu. 


56 


84 


63 


39 


48 


43 


35 


67 


39 




46 


46 


938 


21 


\V. 


68 


84 


64 


38 


49 


43 


36 


66 


80 




47 


46 


10 18 


22 


Th. 


60 


83 


66 


88 


60 


43 


86 


66 


81 




48 


46 


11 10 


23 


F. 


7 


83 


66 


37 


61 


43 


87 


66 


33 




40 


44 


* 


24 


S. 




33 


67 


87 


63 


41 


88 


66 


33 




60 


44 


6111 


25 


Su. 


7 3 


181 


6 56 


4 37 


6 63 


4 41 


6 39 


4 66 


B88 


» 1 


6 61 4 48 1 


1 sm 


26 


M. 




81 


69 


86 


64 


40 


40 


66 


84 




63 


48 


160 


27 


Tu. 




81 


7 


86 


66 


40 


41 


66 


86 




63 


48 


366 


28 


W, 




80 


1 


36 


66 


39 


43 


64 


86 




64 


43 


346 


29 


Th. 




30 


3 


35 


67 


39 


48 


64 


87 




66 


43 


486 


30 


F. 




39 


8 


34 


68 


89 44 


64 


88 




66 


43 


639 



1855 


.] Naoamber has Thirty Days. 29 


PtangB of the Meridiaa (omb Uim) •ad DwliiMtioo of the PUnele. | 


Uitffte. Dec. U 
h-m. o •• 
9 11MII~U»1 


niidir. i; laibdij. i 


19th dav. 1 


tetkiiaj. 


wMtkB. Dec 
1 m* — ^18 S9 


»mit*e. 

rh.m. 

!10S9ID 


Dec 

O 1 

— lor 


h-m. 

Msom- 


Dec 

O 1 
—1141 


«eirt*s. Dec 
'»!.«. O 1 
10 S4m — U 15 


J.tll 390<tl0 1 S9«i9 1 

> 7« 4-10 »1 7 41 i-|-9ft!7S» 

S ' • sia • — M » 1 6 asa :— 4i 44 1 

5 11! 


-S6t 
+ 7« 


854 — S67 

734 -|-«40 


t 8 00 — 5 16 

l7ia +5 87 

1 ' 
• 




8 14a 11 14 j 

11 49 -)- > >^ ^ 
7 14 86 


7 5ia ; — 11 64 
1 30 -f"* * 
S 88 — ^14 49 


7 SSa —18 Sf 

:i0 5i -}-s ] 

6 16 —14 8f 


7 6a — IS 60 
10 33 -|-3 2 
6 54 — 14 37 


1 

6 458 — IS 7 
;966 -l-S 6 
i 5 83 i— 14 IS 


»l 


S 19in - -SS 13 


3 64m - -32 15 


339m 


--ai li 


3 4m - -32 12 


1 1 som - -32 13 


V 


» - -17 Ml 


OS - -17 IC 


1185a 


- -17 I 


11 loa |- -17 1 


.10 458 r -16 31 


i 
1 


Moon riaea or eeta. Meaa Time. 


High Water. Mean Time. | 


4 




1^ 


1^ 


1* 


1* 


4 


!• 


li 




1 


met. 
h.in. 
11 6a 


Tiaes. 
h-m. 
11 isa 


mes. 
h. m. 
u 18a 


ritta. 
h.m. 
1134a 


rises, 
h. m. 
1143a 


rises, 
h. in. 
1130a 


h.ro, 
8 448 


h.m. 
368 


h.m. 
1144m 


h.m. 
8 98 


3 


... 




. . . 


• . • 




. 


4 48 


185 


0488 


4 8 


3 


9m 


oum 


19m 


osim 


088m 


38m 


6 8 


3 


3 6 


683 


& 


1 ism 


1 16m 


1 19m 


1 38m 


183m 


138m 


6 6im 


4238 


8 818 


6 16m 


5 


3 14 


3 16 


3 18 


328 


336 


326 


8 8 


6 81 


439 


783 


6 


8 16 


8 17 


3 17 


8 18 


330 


836 


9 8 


6 om 


6 31 


883 


7 


4 19 


4 19 


4 18 


4 16 


4 16 


426 


960 


643 


6 8 


9 16 


8 
9 


638 

sets. 


636 

sHs, 


634 

seis. 


6 17 

sets. 


5 15 

sets. 


6 31 

sets. 


10 34 
10 67 


7 16 
7 49 


6 34m 
667 


949 
10 39 


10 


5 3a 


5 6a 


5 16a 


6 81a 


639a 


633a 


11 28 


830 


738 


10 63 


S. 


6 4ia 


6 48a 


6 56a 


6 16a 


6 35a 


6 6a 


la 


8 63m 


8 im 


11 96m 


12 


630 


686 


6 46 


7 8 


7 19 


666 


086 


928 


636 


18 


13 


730 


788 


746 


8 8 


8 18 


768 


1 11 


10 8 


9 11 


86 


14 


8 41 


848 


966 


9 16 


926 


9 7 


1 49 


10 41 


9 49 


1 14 


15 


958 


10 4 


10 11 


10 38 


10 86 


10 23 


388 


1136 


10 33 


1 68 


16 


U 13 


11 18 


1133 


1186 


11 43 


1184 


398 


168 


11 38 


9 48 


17 














428 


190 


988 


8 63 














S. 


29m 


33m 


36m 


44m 


49m 


46m 


6 63a 


3 448 


1 528 


6 178 


19 


1 45 


147 


148 


151 


1 64 


168 


6 82m 


4 6 


3 13 


6 67m 


20 


359 


3 3 


359 


356 


3 69 


3 8 


7 62 


6 17 


435 


7 17 


21 


4 15 


4 18 


4 11 


4 6 


4 4 


430 


863 


6 11 


6 17 


8 18 


22 


533 


699 


635 


6 16 


6 11 


6 82 


944 


6 36m 


6 7 19 9 


23 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


10 83 


794 


6 3Sm 


9 67 


24 


469a 


6 6a 


6 14a 


5 88a 


6 4ia 


6 3ia 


11 10 


8 8 


7 16 


10 41 


& 


648a 


6d6a 


6 4a 


6 26a 


6 36a 


6 14a 


11 56m 


8 48m 


7 56m 


11 Sim 


26 


644 


653 


7 


7 21 


7 82 


7 11 


888 


9 3 


888 


88 


27 


7 47 


764 


8 3 


823 


8 33 


8 13 


1 17 


10 9 


9 17 


49 


28 


8 51 


866 


9 4 


9 21 


9 30 


9 16 


167 


10 49 


9 67 


133 


29 


906 


10 1 


10 6 


10 20 


10 37 


10 17 


3 39 


11 31 


10 39 


3 4 


30 


10 59 


11 S 


H) 7 


11 17 


11 82 


11 17 


828 


16 


11 99 1 3 48 



3* 



[30 Decemher, Tiveyth Month, begins an Saturday. [1855. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 


] 


lai day. 


7th day. 


ISihday. | 


I9th day. i( 


25th day. | 


Begins 
h. m. 


. Eodd.; 
h. m. 1 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins 1 
, h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins 
h.m. 


. Ends, 
h. m. 


Boston, 


d39n 


1 6 9a 


6 35m 


6 9a 1 6 40m{ 


6 18a 


643m 


6 loa 


6 46m| 6 14a| 


N. York, 


6-27 


6 II 


638 


6 11 


637 


6 11 


6 41 


6 18 


644 


6 16 


Wash'n, 


6 25 


6 13 


530 


6 14 


1 684 


6 14 


68a. 


6 16 


6 41 


6 19 


Charles., 


6 17 


6 21 


622 


632 


696 


6 28 


630 


636 


683 


638 


N. Orrs, 


6 13 


626 


6 18 


626 


6!24 


6 27 


626 


629 


628 


683 


S. Fran., 6 94 


6 14 


628 


6 16 


1 6 82 


6 16 


686 


6 18 > 


689 


6 91 


PHASES. AND AP008B AND PBRIGBB, OF THB MOON. | 


Uiitt Quarter, 1st day, 9h. 3.6m. M 
New Moon, 9th " 5 10.1 M 
FiMt Quarter, 16th " 1 48.7 M 


Full Moon, 23d day, 5h. 31.3m. M. 
Last Quarter, 3l8t '^ 6 66.6 M. 


Apogee, Isi day, Ih. A. | Perigee, 13th day, llh. A. | Apogee, 29ih day, lOh. M. 


jd 

1 


i 

o 
m 
>» 

a 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


IS 


4 

a 

s 


1' 


a 

r 


1^ 
i 


55 


San Francis- 
co, Ac. 






rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h.ra. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
b. m. 


rises. 
b. m 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises 
h. m 


sets. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


s. 


7 9 


4 29 


7 4 


4 34 


668 


4 30 


6 44 


4 64 


6 39 


5 


6 54 


4 43 


6 4m 


2 


7 10 


4 28 


7 6 


4 33 


669 


4 38 


646 


464 


6 39 


6 


666 


4 41 


6 44m 


3 


M. 


11 


28 


6 


33 


7 


38 


46 


64 


40 




OT 


41 


734 


4 


Til. 


13 


28 


7 


33 


1 


38 


47 


64 


41 




68 


41 


8 4 


5 


W. 


14 


28 


8 


88 


2 


38 


48 


64 


42 




60 


41 


846 


6 


Th. 


15 


28 


9 


38 


3 


38 


49 


54 


43 




7 


41 


939 


7 • 


F. 


16 


28 


10 


33 


4 


88 


49 


64 


43 




1 


41 I '10 17 1 


8 


S. 


17 


28 


11 


38 


6 


38 


50 


54 


44 




2 


41 ! 


1110 


9 


Sii. 


7 17 


4 28 


7 12 


4 38 


7 6 


i 38 


6 61 


464 


S45 


6 1 


7 3 


4 41| 


7a 


10 


M 


18 


28 


IS 


33 


7 


38 


62 


64 


46 




4 


41 { 1 8 


11 


Tu. 


19 


28 


14 


38 


8 


38 


62 


65 


46 




6 


41 ;| 2 10 


12 


W. 


20 


28 


16 


33 


8 


38 


63 


66 


47 




6 


42 '! 3 10 


13 


Th. 


21 


28 


15 


33 


19 


39 


64 


65 


47 




6 


49 '! 4 7 


14 


F. 


22 


28 


16 


34 


10 


39 


64 


55 


48 




7 


42;j6 
42 1 6 50 


15 


S. 


22 


29 


17 


34 


11 


39 


65 


56 


49 




8 


16 


Su. 


7 23 429 


7 18 ,4 34 


7 11 


4 40 


6 66 


466 


6 49 


6 3 


7 8 


4 43 j 6 37a 


17 


M. 


24 


29 


18 


34 


12 


40 


66 


67 


60 




9 


43|i7 24 


18 


Tu. 


25 


29 


19 


36 


13 


41 


67 


67 


60 




10 


44 |: 8 13 


19 


W. 


25 


30 


20 


35 


14 


41 


66 


67 


51 




11 


44 1 9 3 


20 


Th. 


26 


30 


20 


30 


15 


41 


66 


68 


61 


4 


12 


44 


9 65 


21 


F. 


26 


31 


21 


36 


16 


42 


69 


56 


62 6 


12 


45 


10 60 


52 


S. 
Su, 


27 31 


21 


37 


16 


42 


59 


59 


62 




13 


46 


11 46 


23 


7 27 ,4 32 


7 22 4 37 


7 16 


4 43 


7 


4 59 


6 63 


6 6 


7 13 


446 


g 


24 


M. 


27 


82 


22 


38 


17 


43 





5 0. 


63 




M 


46 


48B1 


25 


Tu. 


28 


83 


22 


38 


17 


44 








64 


. 


14 


47 


187 


26 


W. 


28 


34 


23 


39 


17 


45 


1 


1 


64 




14 


48 


238 


27 


Th. 


29 


34 


23 


40 


18 


45 


1 


1 


54 




16 


48 


3 15 


28 


F. 


29 


35 


24 


40 


18 


46 


2 


2 


66 




16 


49 


369 


29 


S. 
Su. 


29 


36 


24 


41 


18 


46 


2 


3 


66 


10 


16 


49 


4 40 


30 


729 


4 36 


7-24 


4 42 


7 19 


4 47 


7 2 


5 4 


6 66 


6 10 


7 16 


4 60 


6 lora 


n 


M. 


80 


37 


24 


42 


19 


48 


8 


4 


66 


11 


16 


61 


668 



18&5.] December has Thirty-ont Bays. 


- 311 


Ftasa^ of the Meridian (meaa lime) and Declination of the Pluneu. | 




let day. 


7lhday. jl 


13th day. 1 


ISlhday. 1 


26th day. 


90Uih9. 


Dec. 


souths* 


Dec. 


souihs. 


Dec. 


iouths 


Dec 


souths. 


Dec. 




h. m. 


O 1 


h. m. 


O 1 


h. m. 


O f 


h. m. 


1 


h.m. 


o # 


^ 


10 4Sm 


—nil 


10 66m 


— 19 66 


11 iim • 


■-39 13 


1197m- 


—93 61 


1146m 


— 94 41 


J 


8 47 


— 649 


846 


— 838 


846 - 


—10 94 


846 - 


—19 16 


848 


— 14 7 


i 


7 1 


+ 4 1. 


648 


+ » ■> 


6 86 +9 Ol 


638 +066 


6 9 







6942 


— 18 19 


6 4a 


—13 34 


646a - 


—18 34 













938 


+ 8 18 


9 1 


+ 884 


886 +366II 


8 iia +4 30| 


7 47a 


+ 461 


21 


6 18 


— 13 67 


4 93 


— 18 40 


4 39 - 


—13 30 


4 13 - 


—13 60 


368 


—19 86 


h 


1 ism 


--33 12 


47m 


--33 13 


39m- 


-93 13 


1163 - 


-93 13 


1196 


--93 11 


w 


]0 2ia 


4-16 68 


9 66a 


+16 60 


9838 - 


-16 46 


9 8 - 


-16 43 


848 


- -16 41 


1 


Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 


High Water. Mean Time. 


1 


!■ 


1 

r 


1 

u 


h 

S5 


1^ 


4 


!• 


1^ 






Tua. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 












h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m 


h. m. 


1 




• • • 








. . . 


4ioa 


1 3a 


loa 


3 35a 


s. 


sm 


8m 


6m 


ism 


18m 


15m 


6 8a 


3 oa 


1 8a 


48Sa 


3 


1 8 


1 4 


1 6 


1 8 


1 10 


1 13 


6 31 


8 18 


3 31 


646 


4 


S 4 


3 4 


3 4 


3 3 


3 3 


3 11 


6 66m 


430 


338 


6 3im 


5 


3 7 


8 6 


8 4 


360 


368 


3 10 


767 


6 18 


496 


733 


6 


4 M 


4 11 


4 8 


869 


366 


4 16 


863 


6 11 


6 19 


8 18 


7 


633 


6 19 


6 16 


6 3 


4 68 


630 


940 


683m 


5 69 


9 6 


8 


sets. 


sets. 


sets, 

4 39a 


sets. 


sets. 


s ts. 


10 18 


7 10 


6 18m 


943 


S. 


4 38a 


4 8ia 


4 68a 


6 loa 


4 60a 


10 68ro 


7 60m 


6 68m 


10 33m 


10 


530 


638 


636 


6 8 


6 9 


6 48 


11 40 


883 


7 40 


11 6 


11 


639 


687 


6 44 


7 6 


7 15 


667 


18a 


9 10 


8 18 


11 43 


V2 


744 


7 61 


786 


8 10 


8 35 


8 10 


1 3 


954 


9 3 


3Ta 


13 


9 3 


9 7 


9 13 


9 7 


9 34 


934 


147 


10 39 


9 47 


1 13 


14 


10 30 


10 34 


10 38 


10 7 


10 43 


10 88 


333 


11 25 


10 33 


1 68 


15 


11 86 


11 38 


11 60 


11 6 


U 48 


11 60 


836 


17 a 


11 35 


360 


& 


. . . 






. . . 


. . . 


. • . 


433a 


1 14a 


23a 


3 47a 


17 


049in 


49m 


60m 


6om 


6im; 69m| 


696 


3 17 


1 35 


460 


18 


3 3 


3 3 


3 1 


1 66 


1 65 


3 9 


636 


8 27 


340 


6 


19 


8 17 


3 14 


8 n 


3 3 


3 


3 19 


7 7m 


434 


843 


6 33m 


20 


480 


436 


4 31 


4 8 


4 4 


498 


8 15 


640 


446 


7 40 


21 


643 


6 37 


6 31 


6 U 


5 8 


688 


9 17 


6 9m 


6 44 


843 


22 


rises. 


rtses. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


10 8 


7 


6 8m 


988 


S. 


4 8ia 


4 39a 


4 47a 


6 9a 


6 30a 


4 66a 


10 60m 


7 6im 


6 60m 


10 34m 


24 


683 


640 


6 47 


6 8 


6 18 


639 


1146 


888 


746 


11 11 


25 


686 


648 


660 


7 8 


7 18 


7 1 


97a 


9 19 


837 


11 63 


26 


740 


7 46 


7 61 


8 6 


8 14 


8 3 


1 8 


10 


9 8 


33a 


27 


846 


849 


864 


9 6 


13. 


9 8 


147 


10 89 


9 47 


1 13 


28 


9 47 


960 


963 


10 1 


10 6 


10 S 


328 


11 16 


10 33 


148 


29 


10 60 


10 69 


10 64 

11 62a 


10 67 


11 


11 1 


8 1 


11 68 


11 1 


3 36 


S. 


11 6ia 


11 6ia 


11 63a 


1164a 


1160a 


3 39a 


3Ja 


11 39m 


3 4a 


31 














4 31 


1 13 


9ia 


8 46 



82 



PHBNOMBNA. 



[1855. 



PHENOMENA, 1855.^ 
Mean Timt, Washington. 





d. h. m Q , 


JANUARY. 


18 8 39m b great elong. is 6 E. 


d. h. m. 


19 11 66a 5 <5 9 ? 7 11 S. 


1 4 iia O in Perignee. q , 


30 10 4m g <5 9 §*8 3D N. 


I 90Mi ^ i Jll ^088S. 

1 fiaa > greatest Hel. Lat. S. 
3 6 14m $ ^^dAquarii^ICO 3 S. 


31 8 18a H 3 C 9 8 S. 
33 6 66m S D Q. 


33 10 17a I2 <{ C I2 8 87 S. 


6 13m b in Aphelion. 

6 9 34m 2 6c $ 18 49 N. 


34 11 Mm b Stationary. 


36 4 4im ^ ({ y $ 11 60 S. 


6 4 63a Qin Perihelion. 


37 4 8m li D ©. 


13 1 4oa 9 in Aphelion. 

17 1146a 5 <J <C g 339N. 


38 7 67m y greatest Hel. Lat N. 


38 8 11m ;; <$ <^ ${ 4 89 N. 


16 48a 9 ^ :;; 9 47 S. 
18 4 18a ^ ^ <C 4? 4 20 N. 






18 43Ba93C 9843N. 


MARCH. 


19 7 nm ^ ^ C J 4 7 N. 

30 3 86a B in Sup. i Q. 

30 ona 5 <5^iSagi.*(4-.6)E. 


d. h. m. ; 


4884a?<J^ ?744S. 


6 6 34m ^ in Inf. i ©. 


30 11 36a 9 stationary. 


6 6 62m ^ greatest Hel. Lat S. 


31 8 46a <J 9 $ 17 66 N. 


13 9 3a ? <J ©. 


33 10 3oa g i fi^ Sagit.^lc s N. 


16 9 88m Jl i iL J2^ 4 41 N. 


366 4m g^:;; ^184S. 


16 11 6em 5 3 C a 7 3 N. 


35 10 9m ^ greatest Hel. Lat. S. 


18 6 nm ^ 3 C J 3 60 N. 


36 11 89m 9 ({ C 9 13 N. 


18 4 la § stationary. 


36 1 la ^ in Perihelion. 


19 8 80a 9 <$ <C 9 I8ON. 
30 11 oa © enters V. co-S^If... 


978 83ali<5<C 17838S. 


37 8 sia ^ {{ 9 ^^ ^^ ^* 
99 9 40a J7 ^ ©. 


31748m9<$C 9036S. 


33 9 um >i 3 <C li 8 61 S. 




33 7 8oa b in Q. 
36 6 63m S stationary. 




FEBRUARY. 

d.h.m. 

1 11 la H D O* 

3 3im 5 <J«Aquar.*(o-.8)E. 


39 11 sa 5 <5.XAqna.*(8F-j>)W. 


APRIL. 


4 10 37m 9 greatest Hel. Lat. S. 


d.h.in. 


7836m9<J^ io8iS. 
7 10 88a y ^ ^ g occulted. 
83 66ai;<$9 ${oa7N. 


1 6 7a 9 in Q. 

3 63m g <5 TT Capri. * (8P-.7)W. 

3 63a g<JwCaprL^(3-.3)E. 


9 9 63m ti stationary. 


3 8 na y great, elong. S7 46 W. 


13 6 um 2 ^ 0. 


3 8 36a 4/! <J ;t Capri. )|c 3 N. 


13 10 7m g in Q. 

li IU2L JH i iC Jj; 4 36 N. 

17 6 18m ^ ^ <C jj 8 60 N. 
17 86a ^ 3 $ ^ 9 46 S. 


s 11 96a y in Aphelion. 


8 6 62mjS<J^Capri.3|c((P-.8)W. 
4 7 Mm a <5 V Capri, sfc 7 S. 


79 7a9<59 9089N. 


17 3 17a 9 3 C 9 8 19 N. 


9 10 48a > <5 ©. 


17 4 33a {{ ({ C i2 6 68 N. 


13 3 nm i 3 <C JJ? 4 43 N. 


17 11 48a § in Perihelion. 


14 11 4om g in Q 



1855.] 



d. Il in. 



PHXNOMBNA. 



Mean Time, 1Fm$kingtam, 



15 Mm 9 in Aphelion. 



18 6 96m ^ 6 <L 

n 8 3ia 9 3 <C 

18 794a 9 6 <L 

19 II sa h 6 €. 

91 10 om ^ i ^ 



1 iN. 



^ laoN. 

9 38 S. 
9 88S. 
^4 SS. 
$ 5 60S. 



7 35m 9 <5 AiTauri*(6-.6)W. 
9 95m ^ greatest Hel. Lat S. 
9 45m 9 (JviTauri* (0^.3) E. 
11 7m 9 3 wiTaiiriJIc o 9 S. 



d. h. m. 
1 . . 




MAY. 

<C eclipsed, Tis. at Wash"* 

6 h 9 a 44' N. 

in Perihelion. 

S t Tauri * 4 N. 

(JO. 

K 85 S. 

:j;4 34N. 



6 

6 _ 

D 0. 

6 ¥ 
. in 8. 
IS 7 i5m $ in Sup. 

IS 6 43m ^ <J C v^ 

15 . . . O eclipsed, inv. at Wash". 

15 8 3m 9 <$ C! 9 47 S. 

16 4 19m ^ 3 <C ^ 48 S. 

16 11 4a § in Perihelion. 

17 s 9om J <5 ¥ <y 19 N. 
ni53ali<JC >i4i8S. 

18 11 95a 9 6 C 9 3 8 S. 



9 4N. 

©. 

^ oaeS. 



;s3 e 



7 sm Q j O int. of light 0.815. 

6m 9 ^ cGemi.^lC occulted. 

53m 9 3 c Gemi. sj: (o"".2) W. 

6 M 4; D ©. 
irm^ i h 538 N. 

37 4 5im 9 greatest Hel. Lat. N. 

7 19m ^ greatest Hel. Lat. N. 
9om g in Q. 



JUNE. 

5 9 9a y ^eGemin.*(3-.5)E. 

t oamjjf i <L J2;4i7N. 

6 9 9om C 3 tf Gemin. 3|c 4 N. 



d. h. m. 

10 A 14a 12 ^ O* o , 

11 5 5sa 9 ^ C 9 67 S. 

13 11 34a $ ({aPiscium 3|c(4P'.i)E. 
u 3 16m ^ ^ C ^ > 1 S* 

14 49m$3<C ^49lS. 

14 7 07a § great elong. 94 36 E. 
16 11 S7m § ^ <C 9 4 * S* 

18 1 38m 9 ^ <C 9 * 11 S* 

19 9 4im § D O* 

19 6 45a 5 i<^ 8- 

31 7 4ia enters 25. 
99 7 13m Jll stationary. 
» 10 43m 5 stationary. 
99 10 4oa § in Apheuon. 



JULY. 

d. h. m. 

3 4 98a fi stationary. ^ , 

8 8 10m ^ <$ C .2^ 3 58 N. 
3 10 53a O in Apogee. 

6 10 8om i 6 h ^ 1 87 N. 

7 1148m 9 ^aLeonis;|c{8F»-j6)W. 

9 1 53m 9 <$ C 9 1 13 S. 
11 5 9a l2 ^ C V*mS. 
11 10 55a ^ ^ C! ^ 3 10 S, 
13 11m ^ in Inf. i 0. 

18 11 3om 9 ^oLeoni8;|c(7"-u))W, 

13 9 48a ^ <5 C; y 9 86 S. 

17 6 la 9 <Jx^^"i**(«^-*)E. 
n 10 5ia 9 ^ C; 9 4 18 S. 

18 10 53a jj stationary. 

90 8 4om S greatest Hel. Lat. S 

91 353a $ <5vCeti5|c(5-.i)W. 

93 6 83m 9 ^^ Q- 

3-2 3 3ia ^ Stationary. 

38 5 9m 9 great elong. 46 36 E. 

94 6 53m 9 stationar^r. 

37 8 59m 9 ^ r Leonis 3|C 3 S. 
37 10 35m 9 ^r Leonis 5|c(o"'.9)W. 
80 8 sa Jj; <J C :Sr345N. 



AUGUST. 

d. h. m. 

1 6 63m 2 ^ a>Pi8cium:|c (6"*.8)E. 

O I 

1 9 16m 5 great, elong. 10 19W 

8 1 ssm ^ D 0. 

59 4m9^C 9139S. 



84 



PHBKOMENA. 



Mean IVme, WaMngton, 



[1855. 



d. h. m. o I 

84 37111 >2^<C >J468S. 

8 8 37m y in Q. 

II 3 lom § ^ <C $ 4 as S. 

IS 10 soa 8 in Perihelion.' 

15 11 46m g j O int. of light 3.387 

14 3 7m H D O* 
i« 11 40m 9 D 0« 

16 6 nm 9 <{ C $ 6 36 S. 
31 3 18m ^ g Q. 

38 6 8om $ greatest Hel. Lat. N. 

35 7 34m 9 ^^ Aphelion. 

35 8 43m 9 A^ greatest brilliancy. 

98 11 13m ^ in Sup. ^ 

96 7 36a 4i^ ^ <r 

37 35m n stationary. 

31 6fl2a g ^41 Capri. *(8«»-.6)E. 



^'3 46 N. 



SEPTEMBER, 
h. m. 
7 Sim $ <5XPiscium3|c(3"\7)E. 

o I 

4 36a 9 ($ C 9 1 49 S. 

3 43a >i ^ C >i 6 19 S. 

10 4wn $ 6 €. ^ 4 11 S. 



<J Capri. 3|c(7-.3)W. 
9 stationary.^ 
stationary. 
<5 C g 333S. 

^ C 9 10 35 S. 

S O int. of light 0.666 
in C- 

greatest Hel. Lat. S. 
(5 9 a 8 33 N. 

<J C ^3 66N. 

n ©. 

9 63m O enters £i:. JZ\nL, 
9 67a S in Aphelion. 

10 isa 5 <5 aVirg. 3|c(8"'.4)W. 
3 4m n stationary. 

11 34a ^ in f^, 

I imjgi i <£ 9 1 67 S. 



1 63a 

6 60m 
6 63m 

18 9m 
3 6im 

638a 

6 la 
3 8m 
6 33m 
1 um j^ 
ssom I2 






? 
5 



OCTOBER. 

d. h. m. 

1 16 14II1 9 in Inf. ^ ©. , , 

3 iim h ($ <r b 6 »4 S. 



3 11 40m $ ({i/rScorp.3|c(9^-.8)W. 



d. h. m. 

6 1 ism $ ($ ^ Aquarii 3|c(o^'.7)E. 

O / 

6 4 3Sm ^ i <L ^ 3 66 S. 

9 8 47m 9 6 <C 9 10 58 S. 

11 1 ssm ^ great elong.. 34 66 K 

13 435a 12 stationary. 

13 1 11m ^ ({ C ^ 3 13 S. 

16 7 65a ^ greatest Hel. Lat. S. 

19 10 4om jI stationary. 

19 4 soa 9 stationary. 

90 7 38m 21 6 ^ 21 A aN. 

90 457a ^ <JaLeoni8^(ii"''.8)W. 

33 6 Sim b stationary. 

34 6 6sm ^ greatest Hel. Lat N. 
34 . . . <C eclipsed, vis. at Wash"* 
36 3 4m g<5 f Capri. *(7"-.8)W. 

36 9 5im 9 ($ C 9 1 64 S. 

99 8 46m h 6 ^ 1^ 6 38 S. 

31 3 im ^ f int. of light 0.861. 



NOVEMBER. 

d. h. m. 

3 7 4im g in Inf. <$©.,», 

6 € <? 3 S. 

stationary. 



3 losaa 

3 10 e9a 

4 7 53m § in Q, 
6 11 oa 9 <5 C 

6 

8 4S5a 

8 935a 

9 
11 
13 



9 4 13 S. 

3 sm 5 &t greatest brilliancy. 

5 <J C a 1 84 N. 

^ in Perihelion. 
. . . O eclipsed, inv. at Wash"' 
1 55a 9 ^ ©. 
3 4m ^ stationary. 

15 333m J ^x^®®'^*®*(*"'*'')^" 

13 9 65m 9 in Q* 

14 6 18m ft D ©. 

16 9 33m g <5 jji? 
16 3 48a 2 6 C 
16 6 sia 21 U ©. 
18 4 7m (J <5 cr Leonis 5|c 4 S. 

18 ssa ^ itr Leonis 5|c (o"*.?) W. 

19 6 43m \i greatest Hel. Lat. N, 
19 7 ssa ^ great, elong. 19 83 W. 
33 6 4ia ]g[ ($ <C 9 1 47 S. 
33 6 52m 9 <5 d Virg. 3|c (4"m) E. 
36 38a 4i?<J/ACapri.3|c(5"'«.3)W 
35 3 6ia I2 ^ <r I2 6 31 s. 
80 63a ^ greatest Hel. Lat. N. 



ft 6 14 S. 

^4 6N. 



1855.] 



BGLtPSSfi or THE BUN IN 1855. 



$5 



Mean 7Im<, WmikinfUm. 


DECEMBER. 


d. h. m. 

2Q 8 40m enters VJ. co^i^I,, 


d h. m. o 1 


2a 9 12m 5 <5 ©. / 


3 3 iia ^ <i <C <J 1 80 S. 


228 48al2<5C h»»N. 


32 9 14a ^ m Aphelion. 

28 »Ma > c5 7Virg.*(8F^.9)W. 


59 8in9($<C 9imN. 


8 6 44m 9 ^ <C ^ >*13 N. 


24 6 asm ^ stationary. 


10 7 9oa 9 <J«Virg.5|c(8--.7)E. 


26 4 2a S ($ y 9 11 16 N. 


11 Sfioa 9 great elong. 46 48W. 


98 6«a ^ <5yVirg.*(«F-.7)E. 


13 a 14a i in 93. 


98 10 8ia ^ D ©. 


14 8i4m:5^ <5 C JJ^smN. 


81 4 17m ^ ($ <C ^0 18 N. 


w 7 69a 9 in Peahelion. 


81 7 24m in Perigee. 


18 «3]a \i g ©. 


81 6 2Ba ^ in Sup. <$ ©. 


19 11 36a 9 3 <C 9 1 46 S. 





ECLIPSES OF THE SUN IN 1856. 



Iw the year 1855, there will be two eclipsefl of the Sun, and two of the 
Mood. 

I. A total eclipse of the Moon, May 1st and 2d, 1855, vittble at Wash- 
ington. 

Furst contact with the shadow, May Ist, 9h. 6.1m. A. ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
Middle of the eclipgc, 10 56.8 A.>^j^j ^^ 

Last contact with the shadow. May 2d, 47.4 M. j 

This eclipse will be visible in most of North Atnerica, in South Amer- 
ica, and partially in Europe and Africa. 

The following table contains the times for the beginning and end for the 
places indicated. 





Eclipra begins. 


Eclipse ends. 






h. m. 




h. m. 


Albany, 


May 1st, 9 19.1 A. 


May 2d 


,1 0.5 M. 


Baltimore, 


4C 


9 7.7 


a 


49.1 


Boston, 


U 


9 29.9 


•t 


1 11.3 


Charleston, S. C, 


M 


8 54.4 


ct 


35.8 


Cincinnati, . 


•< 


8 36.3 


•• 


17.7 


Detroit, . 


M 


8 41.9 


u 


23.3 


Halifax, N. S., . 


•( 


9 59.7 


tt 


1 41.1 


LoQiaville, Ky., 


U 


8 32.1 


iC 


13.5 


Mobile, 


U 


8 18.1 


May 1st, 11 59.5 A. 


Montreal, . 


«i 


9 19.8 


May 2d, 


1 1.2 M. 


New Orleans, 


U 


8 14.1 


May Ist, 11 55.5 A. 


New York, 


«« 


9 18.1 


May 2d, 


595 M. 



$6 



ECLIPSES OF THE SUK IN 1856. 



[1855. 



Philadelphia, 
Portland, . 
St. Louis, 
San Franciaoo, 
Savanoah, . 
WaahingtOD, . 



Ectipas begins. 

Maj Ist, 9 13.'4 A. 
•* 9 335 
*« 8 13.1 
" 6 43 
" 8 49.6 

May 1st, 9 6.1 A. 



Eclipse ends. 

Maj2d, 0*54'% H. 

« 1 14.6 
May 1st, 11 54.5 A. 

« 9 45.7 
May 2d, 31^0 M. 
May 2d, 47.4M. 



II. A partial eclipse of the Sun, May 15th, 1855, invisible at Wash- 
ington. 

Begins on the earth generally, May 15th, 6h. 54.7ni. A. mean time at 
Washington, in longitude 203^ 55' W. of Washington, and latitude 25® 16^ N. 

Greatest eclipse at 8h. 53.0m. A. Magnitude (sun's diameter » 1} = 
0.77, in longitude 266P l& W. of Washington, and latitude 62P 54' N. 

Ends on the earth generally. May 15th, lOh. 51.2m. A., in longitude 
370 14' W. of Washington, and latitude 58^ 56^ N. 

This eclipse will be visible in Asia, in part of Europe, and in the north- 
ern part of North America. 

III. A total eclipse of the moon, October 25th, visible at Washington. 

First contact with the shadow, Oct. 25th, Oh. 35.6m. M. ^ ||^^^ ^.^^ ^^ 
Middle of theeclipw « 2 21.0 M.j^^^j 

Last contact With the shadow, •< 4 6.4 M. ) 

This eclipse will be visible chiefly in North and South America. 
The times of bef^nning and end are as follows. 





Eclipse begins. 


Eclipse ends. 




h. m. 




h. m. 


Albany, . . 


Oct. 25tb, 48.7 M. 


Oct 25th, 4 19.5 M 


Baltimore, 


" 37.3 


u 


4 8.1 


Boston, 


" 59.5 


u 


4 30.3 


Charleston, S. C, 


«« 24.0 


ct 


3 54.8 


Cincinnati, . 


« 5.9 


<t 


3 36.7 


Detroit, . 


" 11.5 


4« 


3 42.3 


Halifax, N. S., . 


" 1 29.3 


ti 


5 0.1 


Louisville, Ky., 


" 1.7 


U 


3 32.5 


Mobile, . . 


Oct. 24th, 11 47.7 A. 


<« 


3 18.5 


Montreal, 


Oct. 25th, 49.4M. 


<C 


4 20J2 


New Orleans, . 


Oct. 24th, 11 43.7 A. 


U 


3 14.5 


New York, . 


. Oct. 25th, 47.7M. 


U 


4 18.5 


Philadelphia, 


«« 43.0 


u 


4 13.8 


Portland, 


" 1 2.8 


it 


4 33.6 


St. Louis, . 


Oct 24th, 11 42.7 A. 


u 


3 13.5 


San Francisco, 


" 9 33.9 


u 


1 4.7 


Savannah, 


Oct2$th, 19.2 M. 


cc 


3 50.0 


Washington, . 


. Oct 25th, 35.6M. 


Oct 25th, 4 6.4 M. 



EUBXBNTS OF THB SCUPSE8 OF THE BtTK. 



97 



1855.] 

IT. A partial eclipse of the San, Noyember 9tb, 1855, inTiaible at 
WashiDgton. 

Begios OD the earth generally, NoTember 9thy Ob. 27.0m. A., mean time 
at Washington^ in longitude 111^ 20' W. of Washington, and latitude 
31° 21' S. 

Greatest eclipse at 2h. aOm. A. Magnitude (sun's diameter » 1) 0.494, 
in longitude 16P 53' W. of Washington, and latitude 62P 37' 8. 

Ends on the earth generally, November 9th, 3h. 50.9m. A., mean time 
at Washington, in longitude 28QP 24' W. of Washington, and latitude 
68P52'S. 

This eclipse will be yisible partially in Australia and in New Zealand. 



ELEMENTS OF THE ECLIPSES OF THE SUN. 



1855. 


May 16. 


November 9. 




h. m. a. 


h. m. a. 


Washing* M. Time of i in R. A. 


9 87 43.5 


8 8 37.5 


O and <C 's Right Ascension 


8 39 7.57 


14 57 43.95 


C '8 Declination . 


N. 99 4 08.1 


_, O 1 » 
S. 18 11 15.4 


0*8 Declination 


N. 18 06 48.3 


S. 16 58 55.8 


<C 's Horary Motion in R. A. 


88 30.4 


8139.4 


0*8 Horary Motion in R. A. 


3 38.3 


3 81.3 


C 'b Horary Motion in Declin. 


N. 10 88.3 


S. 11090) 


O's Horary Motion in Declin. 


N. 8«.3 


S. 43.9 


<C *8 Equatorial Horizon. Par. 


«7 8.5 


06 14.6 


0*8 Equatorial Horizon. Par. 


6Ji 


8.7 


<t 's True Semidiameter 


15 86.1 


15 31.5 


O's True Semidiameter 


16 61.3 


16 11.8 



38 



OCCULTATIONS. 



[1855. 



OCCULTATIONS. 

Elements for faeilUating the CaleulaUon of OeeuUatiotu vUiile at Washing' 
Urn, in 1856. 



Day of 
Month. 



Name of 
Star. 



I 



Washington 
Obaervatorjr, 

Mean Time 

of Con June in 

R. A. of Moon 

and Star. 



Apparent 

Ka. 

of Star. 



ATOMuent 

Declination 

of Star. 



MooaN. 

orS.of 

Star. 



Limiting 

PUaUeia 
between 
which the 
OcculLis 
risible. 



Jan. 1 



139 Tauri 
10 y Viroinis 
" 125Tauri 
31 IX Cancri 



Feb. 3 

7 

Mar. 2 
11 
29 

Apr. 18 
30 

May 5 
10 

28 

JuDe28 
30 

July 7 
28 

Aug. 6 
28 

Oct 4 
21 
29 

Nov.19 
26 

Dec.20 
24 
25 



7 Leonis 
B Virginia 

3579 B.A.c. 
A Ophiachi 
42 Leonis 

Venus 
6 Virginis 

3 Sagittarii 
T* Aquarii 
\ Virginis 

3 Sagittarii 
r Sagittarii 

Piscium 
7077 B.A.C. 

Ai Tauri 
^* Aquarii 

o^ Cancri 
^ Aquarii 
136 Tauri 

27 Piscium 
47Geminor. 

32 Tauri 
c Geminor. 
>i Cancri. 



h. m. a. 
9 19 89A. 

6 91 47M. 

7 1 SA. 

8 788 

68 MM. 
4 3 17 

6 34 6A. 
4 36 87M. 

9 40 97 A. 

7 33 83A. 

18 4M. 

4 28 34M. 
6fi6 43 

8 31 ftA. 

9 46 S7A. 

3 43 36M. 

6 39 IM. 
8 80fi0A. 

4 80 SIM. 
147 83 

1 10 aOM. 
10 11 46A. 

3 88 88M. 

38 16M. 
8 80 40A. 

8 48 15A. 

730 40 
3 41 47M. 



h. m. B. 

5 49 0.M 

13 84 18.48 

6 80 48.74 
8 1186.46 

969 36.34 
18 3 36J)7 

10 31 4.66 
17 6 36.96 
10 14 8.39 

8 44 8.76 
IS 3 38.09 

17 38 37.89 
33 41 64.63 

14 11 17.76 

17 38 38.47 

18 67 66.69 

1 37 46.18 
90 34 16.61 

8 66 8.61 
38 10 34att 



36 66 6TJ»N. 
89 13.18. 
36 48 46.6N. 
34 38 83J» 

17 38 3.3N. 
4 46 68.68. 

16 4 69.6N. 

96 98 9.68, 
16 43 18.4N. 

90 38 9.3N. 
4' 46 60.98. 

97 46 30.48. 
14 31 34.6 
13 43 17-1 



31 60N. 

40 89 
30 8 
33 19 

6 ON. 
66 40 

33 36N. 
38 41 
84 8 

87 69N. 

41 87 



o o 
66N. 13N. 
86 68. 
66 I 
69 8 

48N.808. 

86 UN. 

69N. 168. 
61 6 
86 4 

r. SN. 



60 9gN. 
64 11 76 
14 68 



97 46 99.08. 69 49N, 
97 69 41.6 36 48 



8 36 41.8N. 
96 96 47.88. 



91 41 9.6N 
9 66 9.58. 



7 63 10.91 36 47 11.3N. 
98 10 95.06 9 68 10.48. 
6 44 16.16 97 34 99.7N. 



93 61 17.68 
7 9 97.16 

848 92.37 
7 36 90.49 
7 99 13.61 



4 91 93.18. 
97 6 36.6N. 

39 3 46J)N. 
26 7 27U) 
95 47 4.6 



90 SON, 
68 48 

47 98N. 
93 7 

96 97N. 
19 98 
8 16 

3 668. 
81 89N. 

» UN. 
33 48 
16 66 



, 7N, 
10 
SIS. 

9N. 



69N. 

69 108. 

64N.9S8. 

66 18N. 

90N.16 
03 348. 

76N. IN. 
69 978. 
47 16 

40N.478. 
84 IIN. 

68N. lis. 
ION. 
63 88. 



1855.] 



ECUPSES OF THE SATELLITES OF JUPITER. 



39 



A TmbU shawittg the lUtaninated Portions of the Discs of Venus and Mars, 

Thb numbers in this table are the versed sines of that portion of the 
discs which, to an observer on the Earth, will appear to be illuminated, 
the apparent diameters of the planets at the time being considered as 
unity. 

To a spectator on the Earth, Venus appears most brilliant when her 
elongation is about 45°, and she is approaching her inferior conjunction, or 
receding from it} in 1855 in August and November. Mars is most bril- 
liant about the time of his opposition to the Sun, being then also nearest 
to the Earth ; in which position he will not be this year. 



1855. 


VenuB. 


Mara. 


1855. 


YenuB. 


Mara. 


January 


15 


0.991 


0.987 


July 15 


0.531 


0.982 


February 


14 


0.968 


0,994 


August 15 


0.343 


0.969 


March 


15 


0.929 


0.999 


September 15 


0.078 


0.952 


AprU 
May 


15 


0.865 


1.000 


October 15 


0.066 


0.934 


15 


0.780 


0.998 


November 15 


0.337 


0.917 


June 


15 


0.667 


0.992 


December 15 


0.521 


0.905 



ECLIPSES OF THE SATELLITES OF JUPITER IN 1855, 

Visible in tho United States between Sunset and Sunrise^ Mean TVmf , Wash- 
ington Observatory (Astronomical account). 



Osttt. 


Mean Time. 


Phase. 


Sat. 


Date. 


Mean Time. 


Phase 


Sat. 




d. 


h. m. 8. 






d. 


h. m. 8. 






March 


2 


20 31 12.4 


Im. 


3 


May 8 


17 18 25.3 


Im. 


1 




7 


18 43 17.4 




1 


13 


12 27 36.8 




3 




14 


20 37 8.4 




1 


14 


16 49 27.1 


Em. 


4 




23 


16 69 21.7 




1 


17 


13 40 36.8 


Im. 


1 




25 


16 64 65.3 




2 


20 


16 27 8.4 




3 




30 


16 53 7.1 




1 


21 


13 42 26.9 




2 




31 


16 2 35.1 


Em. 


3 


24 

28 


16 34 22.0 
16 17 38.7 




1 
2 


April 


1 


19 31 28.5 


Im. 


2 












6 


20 46 50.4 




1 


June 2 


11 56 36 1 


Tm. 


1 




7 


16 29 19.3 




3 


4 


18 52 42.3 




2 




8 


16 15 16.2 




1 


7 


19 22 0.3 




1 




8 


22 7 51.4 




2 


9 


13 50 26.5 




I 




14 


20 29 4.0 




3 


16 


10 46 8.2 




2 




15 


17 8 58.3 




1 


16 


15 44 22.1 




1 




19 


14 2 25.1 




2 


18 


10 12 53.8 




1 




22 


19 2 39.5 




1 


18 


12 40.2 


Em. 


3 




24 


13 31 2.7 




1 


22 


13 19 54.2 


Im. 


2 




26 


16 38 18.8 




2 


23 


17 38 22.1 




1 




27 


16 56 48.8 




4 


26 
25 


12 6 65.3 
12 27 13.8 




1 
3 


May 


1 


15 24 43.6 


Im. 


1 


25 


16 21.0 


Em. 


3 




3 


19 14 2.5 




2 


29 


16 64 36.3 


Im. 


2 




6 


12 1 44.8 


Em. 


3 


30 


19 32 27.6 




1 



40 



ECLIPSES OF THE SATELLITES OF JUnTES. 



[1855. 



Bate. 


Mean Time. 


Phase. 


Sat. 


Data. 


MeuTime. 


Phaee. 


Stt. 


d. 


h. m. 8. 






d. 


b. m. 0. 






July 2 


14 1 2.2 


Im. 




September 26 


15 40.0 


Em. 


2 


2 


16 27. 6.1 






27 


9 44 20.1 




1 


3 


17 31 19.2 














6 


18 29 15.1 






October 1 


1« 88 0.0 


fin. 


1 


9 


15 55 15.4 






4 


11 39 66.7 




1 


11 


10 23 45.7 






6 


6 8 54.4 




1 


16 


17 49 35.1 






7 


6 64 16.1 




2 


17 


10 21 10.7 






12 


6 47 13.4 


Im. 


4 


18 


12 18 7.1 






12 


11 16 46.6 


Em. 


4 


20 


11 41 16.3 






13 


8 4 366 




1 


20 


' 16 22 48.5 


Em. 




14 


9 30 10.3 




2 


23 


19 44 2.1 


Im. 




18 


4 46 43.6 


Im. 


3 


24 


12 66 48.9 






18 


8 14 19.8 


Em. 


3 


26 


14 12 35.9 






18 


15 31 20.1 




1 


S6 


7 17 






20 


10 18.9 




1 


27 


8 41 17.8 






21 


12 6 15.1 




2 


31 


8 29 46.1 






22 


4 29 13.0 




1 


31 


16 30 28.6 






26 


6 48 21.0 


Im. 


3 










25 


12 16 30.4 


Em. 


3 


Attgast 1 


18 7 12.2 


Im. 




27 


11 66 4.1 




1 


3 


10 36 66.2 






28 


14 42 30.2 




2 


7 


12 30 26.3 






29 


6 28 48.7 




4 


7 


18 6 10.8 






29 


6 24 68.3 




1 


8 


18 1 56.4 














10 


12 30 42.5 






November 1 


4 423 


Em. 


2 


11 


7 22 32.7 






1 


12 60 36.8 


Im. 


3 


12 


6 69 23.0 






3 


13 51 49.8 


Em. 


1 


14 


16 31 7.8 






5 


8 20 44.1 




1 


15 


19 56 49.1 






8 


6 37 12.6 




2 


17 


14 25 37.1 






12 


10 16 29.6 




1 


18 


9 57 22.2 






14 


4 45 29.3 




1 


19 


8 64 19.7 






15 


9 13 52.5 




2 


21 


6 38 58.9 


Em. 




19 


12 12 ia4 




1 


24 


18 36 29.4 






21 


6 41 12.6 




1 


26 


16 22 6.6 






22 


11 60 41.9 




2 


26 


13 6 13.5 






23 


4 23 19.9 




3 


28 


7 34 3.6 






28 


8 36 63.6 




*1 










30 


4 59 7.1 


Im. 


3 


September 1 


17 67 4.6 


Em. 




30 


8 24 44.6 


Em. 


3 


2 


15 23.7 














4 


9 29 15.7 






December 6 


10 32 32.1 


Em.*^ 


1 


6 


7 14 36.0 






7 


5 1 23.1 




1 


6 


8 5 62.3 






7 


9 1 11.3 


Im. 


3 


9 


16 55 40.9 






7 


12 26 16.3 


Em. 


3 


10 


11 24 34.7 






in 


6 23 13.7 




2 


12 


9 49 43.2 






12 


12 28 6.7 




1 


12 


12 7 11.7 




n 


14 


6 66 66.9 




1 


13 


6 53 20.9 






17 


9 29 9 




2 


18 


13 20 0.1 






18 


7 63 19.3 


Im. 


4 


19 


12 25 9.3 






18 


12 6 35 


Em. 


4 


19 


16 8 68.4 






21 


8 62 26.3 




1 


20 


7 48 47.9 






23 


3 21 19..1 




1 


26 


12 31 41.3 


Im. 




24 


11 37 63.1 




2 


26 


15 15 308 


Em. 




28 


10 47 60.8 


1 


25 


17 4 24.5 




4 


30 


5 16 4. .2 


1 



1855.] LATITUDS AKD LONGITUDE OF OBSERVATORIES. 



41 



PosUian and MagnUude of the Rings of Saturn^ aeeording to Bessd and 
Struve^ for every FortiiSUi Day in the Yemr^ at 7 hours in the Morning, 



Mean Time at Washington. 


a. 


b. 


p. 


/. 


P. 


7h. M. 
1855, January 


1 


45^92 


-20"27 


~l2d.3 


-S&lf.5 


-SM3i.4 


February 


10 


43.22 


19.12 


4 13.3 


2614.9 


2637.3 


March 


22 


40.20 


17.95 


4 25.2 


26 31.2 


2642.0 


May . 


1 


38.11 


17.20 


4 53.7 


26496 


2645.6 


June 


10 


37.38 


16.93 


5 28.3 


2656.3 


2648.0 


July 


20 


38.07 


17.14 


5 59.5 


2646.1 


2649.3 


August 


29 


40.09 


17.85 


6 21.0 


2626.7 


2649.3 


October 


8 


43.07 


19.04 


6 29.5 


2613.9 


2648.0 


November 


17 


45.86 


20.34 


6 24.0 


26 20.0 


2645.6 


December 


27 


46.65 


20.93 


6 7.9 


2639.3 


2642.0 


u 


32 


46.55 


20.91 


6 5.5 


2641.7 


2641.6 



a denotes the outer semi-transverse axis of the outer ring. 

b *' ^ outer semi-conjugate axis of the outer ring, positive when the 

northern suiface is visible, ne^tive when the southern. 
p denotes the inclination of the northern semi-conjugate axes of the rings 

to the circle of declination; -4- when East, — when West. 
I ** *' angle of elevation of the Earth above the plane of the rings, 

as seen from Saturn ; -f- when North, — when South. 
I* *' " angl^of elevation of the Sun above the plane of the rings, as 

seen from Saturn ; 4- when North, — when South. 
The inner semi-transverse axis of the inner ring is ttoo thirds of a, di- 
minished by 0''.07. The inner semi-conjugate axis of the inner ring is two 
thirds ofb. 



LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF THE PRINCIPAL FOREIGN 
OBSERVATORIES. 

[The Longitudes are from Greenwich.] 



Observatories. 


Latitude. 


Longitude in Time. 


Altona, . . 
Armagh, . 
Berlin, . 
Brussels, . 
Cambridge, . 
Cape of Good Hope, 
Dorpat, . 
Dublin, . 
Edinburgh, . 
Gottingen, . 
Greenwich, . 
Konigsberg, 
Munich, 
Paris, . 
Pulkowa, 
Rome, 
Turin, . 
Vienna, 










&^&N 

54 21 13 N. 
52 30 17 N. 

50 51 11 N. 

52 12 52 N. 
33 56 3 S. 

58 22 47 N. 

53 23 13 N. 

55 57 23 N. 

51 31 48 N. 
51 28 38 N. 

54 42 50 N. 
48 8 45 N. 
48 50 13 N. 

59 4619 N. 
41 53 52 N. 
45 4 6 N. 
48 12 35 N. 


h. m. 8. 
39 46.2 E. 
26 35.5 W. 
53 35.5 E. 
017 27.6 E. 

23.5 E. 
113 56.0 E. 

1 46 55 E. 
25 22 W. 
012 43.0 W. 
39 46.1 E. 
0.0 
122 0.5 E. 
46 26.5 E. 
9 21.5 E. 

2 118.7 E. 
49 54.7 E. 

30 48.4 E. 

1 5 31.6 E. 



4* 



42 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONOITtTDE. 



[1865. 



LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES 
IN THE UNITED STATES, etc.* 

(Tha LongitudM ore VDckoned from Qnonwich.] 

I%6 Cdpitah {Seats qf Government) of the States and Territories are designated 
6y Ldiic Letters. 



Placa. 



Acapuico, 



Mex. 
N.Y. 
Va. 
Mass. 

Md. 

N.Y. 

Ga. 

Me. 

Mci». 

Md. 

Me. 

Mass. 

S.C. 



Alexandria^ 

Amherst (College Chapel), 

AnnapoiUs (State-House), 

Auburn, .... 

Augusta, .... 

Augusta (State-House), 

Baker's Island (Lights), 

Baltimore ( Wasnington Mon .), 

Bangor (Court-House), . 

Barnstable (Cupola), . 

Beaufort (Arsenal), . 

Bellevue, Am. Fur Co.'s trad- 
ing post, 

Boston (State-House), . 
Do. (Light), . 

Brazos Santiago, . 

Brent's Fort, 

Bridgeport (South Spire), 

Bristol (Court-House), 

Brooklyn (Navy Yard), . 

Brunswick (College), • 

Buffalo, 

Burlington, 

Burlin^on, .... 

Cambridge (Observatory), . 

Camden, .... 

Canadian River, Head-waters of^ 

Canandaigua, . N. Y, 

Cape Ann, Thatcher's Island 

(North Light), * . Mass. 
Do. (South Light 



Mass. 

Tex. 

Conn, 
R.L 

N.Y. 

M6. 

N.Y. 

N.J. 

Vt. 

Mass. 

S.C. 



Cape Cod (Long Point Lieht), Mass. 42 
Cape Island, Lake of the Woods, 
Cape Hancock (Mouth of Co- 
lumbia River), . 
Castine, .... 
Cedar Keys, Depot Island, . 
Chapel Hill (University), . 
Charleston (St Mieh.'s Ch.), 
Charlestown (Bun. Hill Mon.), 



Me. 

N. C. 

S.C. 
Ma8s.|42 



Latitude, 
North. 



42 39 3 
38 49 
42 22 15.6 

38 58 40.2 
42 55 

33 28 
44 18 43 
42 32 9.6 

39 17 47.8 
44 47 50 

41 42 13.1 
32 25 57 

38 824 

42 21 27.6 
42 19 38.8 
26 6 
38 238 
4110 30 

41 40 10.5 

40 42 2.4 
4353 

42 53 

40 4 51.6 
44 27 
42 22 48.3 

34 17 
37 133 
42 54 9 



42 38 19 4 
42 38109 
157.1 
49 36 42 



4616 35 
44 22 30 
29 727 
35 54 21 
32 46 33 
22 33.1 



LoD^tudA, Wast, 



inPegTBes. 



o I M a. m. B. I 

99 49 96 3916.6 
73 44 494 54 59.3 



77 4 



5 816 



72 31284 50 6 
76 29 95 45 56.61 



76 28 
8154* 
69 50 



5 5 52 
527 36 
439 20 



70 46 504 43 7 3 
76 36 395 6 26.6 



68 47 



435 8 



70 18 424 41 14.8 
80il235 22 45j6 



95 
71 
70 
97 

103 
73 
71 
73 
69 
78 
74 
73 
71 
80 

104 
77 



47 466 23 
3 304 44 



54 43 
0628 



33156 54 



11 
16 

58 31 
55 1 
55 



455 
439 
5 15 
52 374 59 



10 



7 404 44 



33 



37 326 58 
17 5 



70 34 
70 34 
70 9 



104 
104 
474 



458 



124 1 
68 45 
82 56 
79 17 
79 55 
71 32C 



125 
305 
385 



In Time. 



Diet. fr. 
Waeh. 



m. B. IMilee. 



4 52 
5445 



4 52 



5 22 



11 

14 

32.3 

48 

13 

44.3 

4.3 
54 
40.1 
40 
30.5 
40 
30.71 
12 
30.1 

8 



42 6.7 
42 16.7 
40 39.2 



16 7 

4 35 
31 45 
1710 
19 42.5 

4 44 13.3 



376 

6 

383 

37 
339 
580 
595 
452 

38 
661 
466 



432 



284 

409 
227 
568 
376 
156 
440 
431 
467 

336 

470 

507 



544 
433 



* The positions contained in this uble have been derived from that given in the Ame^ 
ican Almanac for 1841 ; with additions and corrections from the determinations of the Coast 
Survey, and of the United States Topographical Engineers. 



1855,] 



TABUS OF LATITfTl^lfi Aim LOKGlTtmS.* 



48 



Place. 



Latitude, 
North. 



Longitude, West, 
in Degrees, in Time. 



Diet. 

from 

Wash. 



Mil 



Chagres (Centre of Plateau), . 

Chicago, . .III. 

Cincinnati (Fort Washington), Ohio. 

Columbia^ . . . . S. C. 

Columbusj . * . . . Ohio. 

Cdneard (State-House), . . N. H 

Corpus Christi, . . . ^ Texas. 

Dalles of the Columbia, Missionary 
Station, .... 

Dayton, . . . . Ohio. 

Dedham (Ist Cong. Ch.), . Mass. 

Depot Key, Fa. 

Detroit (St. PauKs Ch.), . Mich. 

Dorchester (Ast. Observ.), Mass. 

Dover, .... Del. 

Dover, N. H. 

Easton (Court-Honse), . Md. 

Eastport, .... Me. 

Edenton (Court-Hoase), N. C. 

Ewing Harbor, . . O. T. 

Exeter, . . N. H. 

Falls of St. Anthony, U, S. Cottage, 

Falls of the St. Croix, 

False Dungeness Bay, . Wash. Ter. 

False Washita, Head- waters of, 

Fort Bois^e, . . . Oreg. 

Fort Gibson (old Block-House), 

Fort Hall, .... 

Fort Laramie, 

Fort Leavenworth (Landing), 

Fort Nez Perc6, . 

Frankfort, .... 

Frederick, .... 

Fredericksburg, . 

Frederickton, 

Galveston (Court-House), 

Georgetown, 

Gloucester (Univ. Ch^, 

Do. (E. Point Light), 

Do. (Ten Pound Isl. Light), 

Great Salt Lake, Island in, 

Greenfield (2d Cong. Ch.), 

Hagerstown, .... 

HaBfax, .... 

Hallowell, . . 

Harrishurg, 

Hartford (State-House), 

High Plateau between waters 
of Atlantic and Gulf of Cal., 42 2 

Holmes's Hole (Spire), Mass. 

Hudson, . .NY. 

Hudson (West. Reserve Coll.), Ohio. 

Hnntsvilie, .... Ala. 



Oreg. 

M^'. 

Va. 
N.B. 

Texas. 
S. C. 

Mass, 



Mass. 

Md. 

N.S. 

Me. 

Pa. 

Conn. 



2l) " 



554 
57 
57 

12 29 
47 17.8 

35 55 
44 
14 57 

730 
19 45 
19 10 
10 
13 

4610 
54 

3 27.4 

44 21.7 
58 

58 40 
30 10 

7 52 
25 41 
49 22 
47 34.8 

1 30 
1210 
2114 

3 46 
14 
24 
34 

3 

18 14 5 
21 

36 45.8 
34 47J2 
36 4.8 
10 42 
3516 
37 

39 20 
17 
16 

45 59 



^ i: 

87 35 
84 27 
81 7 
83 3 
7129 
97 27 



120 55 
84 11 
71 10 59{4 
83 2 456 
83 2 30 
71 4 194 

75 30 
70 54 

76 8 
66 56 
76 35 485 

124 28 528 

70 55 

9310 306 

92 40 06 
123 27 21 
101 5 
116 47 

95 15 106 
112 29 54 
104 47 436 

94 44 06 



06 
37 



84 40 
7718 
77 38 
66 45 
94 46 346 
79 17 
70 39 394 
70 39 334 
70 39 364 
11221 5 
72 36 324 
77 35 
63 36 404 
69 50 
76 50 
72 40 454 



20 5 
50 20 
37 48 
24 28 
3212 
45 56 
29 48.1 

3 40 
36 44 
44 44 
3211 
32 10 
44 17.3 

2 
43 36 

432 
27 44 

6 23.1 

17 55.5 

43 40 

12 42 
10 40 

13 49.2 

44 20 
47 8.2 

21 0.7 
29 59.6 
59 10.9 

18 56 

3840 

912 

10 32 

27 

19 6.3 
17 8 
42 38.6 
42 38.2 
42 38.4 
29 24 3 
50 26.1 
10 20 

14 26.7 
39 20 

720 
50 43 



2712.9 

14 

14 42 
36 



107 3 7 812 
70 35 594 42 24 
55 4 
8125195 25 413 

47 48 



86 57 



44 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. 



[1855. 



Place. 



IndiattapoUSf . Ind. 

Ipewich (Eastern Li^ht), . Mass. 
Ipswich- (Western Light), . Mass. 

Jackson^ Miss. 

Jalapa, .... Mex. 

Jtjferson^ .... Mo. 

Kanzas River, Mouth of, . 

Key West (8. W. Pt.), . 

Kejr West Light, 

Kingston, .... 

KnoxvUle, .... 

Lancaster, .... 

La Vaca, . . • • 

Lexington, .... 

LUtleRoek^ 

Lockport, .... 

Louisville, .... 

Lowell (St. Anne's Ch.), 

Lynchburg, 

Lynn High Rock, . 

MachiasBay, 

Marblehead (Black-top Ch.), . 

Do. (Li«ht), . 
Mexico, City of; . . 
Middletown (West. Univ.), 
MUUdgeviUe^ 

Milwaukee, .... 
Missouri River, Mouth of. 
Mobile (Episcopal Ch.), 
Monclova, .... 
Monomoy Point Light, . 
Monterey, .... 
Monterej, .... 
Mon^elier^ .... 
Montreal, .... 
Nag's Head, 

Nantucket (South Tower), 
JVa«Ai7iZ2« (University), . 
Natchez (Fort Panmure), 
Nebraska or Platte River, Junction 

of North and South Forks, 
Newark, .... 
New Bedford (Baptist Spire), 
Newbem, .... 
Newburg, .... 
Newbury port (Harris St. Ch.), 



Fa. 
Fa. 
C. W. 

Tenn. 
Pa. 
Tex. 
Ky. 

Ark. 

N.Y. 

M^iA. 

Va. 

Mass. 

Me. 
Mass. 

Mex. 

Conn. 
Ga. 

Wise. 

Ala. 

Mex. 

Mass. 

Mex. 

Cal. 

Vt. 

C. E. 

N. C. 

Mass. 

Tenn. 

Miss. 



N.J. 

Mass. 
N.C. 

N.Y. 
Mass. 



Do." (Plumb Is. E. Light), 

Newcastle (Spire Episc. Ch.), Del. 

JVino Haven (College), . . Conn. 

New London, (Light- House,) Conn. 

JVeio Orleans (City Hall), . La. 

Newport (Spire), R. I. 

New York (City Hall), . . N.Y. 



Latitude, 
North. 



Longitude, West, 
in Degrees, in Time. 



5.7 
4.9 

8 



39^ 
42 41 
42 41 

32 23 
19 30 

38 36 

39 6 
24 32 

24 32 58 
44 8 

35 59 

40 2 36 
28 37 
38 6 

34 40 
4311 
38 3 
42 38 46 

37 36 
42 28 3 
44 33 

42 30 23.7 

42 3014 
19 25 45 
4133 8 

33 720 

43 3 45 

38 5136 

30 41 26.2 
2654 

41 33 33 

25 40 13 

36 36 24 

44 17 

45 31 

35 55 43.7 
41 16 54 

36 933 

31 34 



41 5 
40 45 
4138 
35 20 
4131 

42 48 
42 48 

39 39 
4118 
4118 
29 57 
4129 

40 42 



10.2 



29.9 

25 

36 

27.7 

57.6 

30 

12.2 

43 



^ b 
70 45 
70 45 
90 8 
96 54 
92 8 
94 32 
8147 
8148 
76 40 
83 54 
76 20 

84118 
9212 

78 46 

85 30 
7119 

79 22 
70 56 
67 22 
70 50 
70 50 
99 5 
72 39 
8319 

87 57 
90 

88 1 
101 39 

69 59 
100 25 
12152 

72 36 

73 35 
75 35 

70 5 

86 49 
9124 



h. m. 8. 
544 20 
43 2.6 
43 3.0 
6 032 
27 38 
6 832 
6 18U.Q 
"27 10 
75'27 12.5 
5 6 40 
535 36 
335 5 22.2 



394 

464 

6 

306 

54 
305 



59 



Dist. 

from 

Wash. 



573 

462 

1035 
980 



5 3712 

6 8 48 
5 15 4 
5 42 

24 45 16 

517 28 
284 43 45.9 

429 28 

324 43 22.1 

394 43 22.6 

66 36 20 

450 36 
455 3319.0 

5 51 48.0 
406 2.6 
295 52 5.9 
186 46 37.2 

4 39 57.3 477 
366 4142.4 
258 730 

4 50 24 

4 54 20 

52 24 

364 40 22.4 

35 47 16.2 



456 
516 
109 



534 
1068 
403 
590 
439 
198 
441 

450 

448 

325 
642 
700 

1033 



524 
601 



490 
714 



42,6 5 38.81146 



101 
74 
70 
77 
74 
70 
70 
75 
72 
72 
90 
71 
74 



21 24 6 45 

10 4 56 

55164 43 

5 5 8 

1 456 

52 34 43 

48 404 43 

33275 2 

55 244 51 

5 44 48 

06 

18 29U45 

314 56 



25.6 
40 
41.1 
20 

4 
28.2 
14.7 
13.8 
41.6 
20.3 





215 

429 

337 

282 

466 

469 

103 

301 

354 

1203 

13.9^ 403 

0.21 226 



1855.] 



TABLE OF LATITUDE ANB LONGITUDB. 



46 



Nobsaue Point Licht, . 
Norfolk (Farmers^Bank), 
Northampton (Ist Cong. Ch.), 
Norwich, .... 
Ocracoke Light-House, 
Panama Cathedral 
Pass Washington, . 
Pensacola, .... 

Perote, 

Petersburg, 

Philadelphia (Girard Coll.), . 
Do. (High School Obs.), 
Pittsburg, .... 
Pittsfield (1st Cong. Ch.), 
Platte River, Mouth of. 
Do. June, of N. &, S. Forks, 
Plattsburg, .... 
Plymouth (Court-House), . 
Point Conception (C. S. ObfiJ, 



Place. 



Mass. 
Va. 
Mass. 
Conn. 

N.C. 
Mex. 

Fa. 
Mex. 
Va. 
Pa. 

Pa. 
Mass. 



N.Y. 
Mass. 
Cal. 



Wash. Ter 



Mex. 
Me. 

N.H. 

N.y. 

Min. 
N.J. 
R.I. 
Mex. 



Point Hudson, 
Point Loma, 
Popocatapetl, . , . 
Portland (Mount Joy), . 

Do. (E. Li^ht), . 
PortsmouUi (Unitarian Ch.), 

Do. (White Is. Light), 
Poughkeepsie, 
Prairie du Chien, Am. Fur 

Co*B. House, . 
Princeton (Nassau HalH, 
Providence (College Hill), . 
Puebla de los Angeles, 
Punta de los Reyes (Sir F. Drake's 

Bay), ... . Cal. 

Qjiebec (Citadel), . . . C. E. 
Racine, . . . . Wis. 
Raleigh, . N. C. 

Remedies, Harbor de los, . 
Riekjiumd (Capitol), . Va. 

Rochester (Rochester House), N. Y. 
Sabine River, entrance of South 

or outer extremity of Bar, Tex. 
Sable (Cape), . .Fa. 

Sackett's Harbor, . N, Y. 

Saco (Church), . . . Me. 
Sacramento City, . . Cal. 
St. Au^stine, . . Fa. 

St. Croix River, Mouth of, 
St. Joseph, .... 
St. Loms, .... Mo. 
St Mark's Light, . .Fa. 

St. Paul, .... Min. 
St. Vrain*B Fort, . 



Latitude, 
North. 



4!3b5& 
36 50 50 
4219 I) 
4133 

35 6 31.6 
8 57 20 

36 322 
30 24 
19 28 57 
3713 54 
39 58 24 

39 57 9 

40 32 

42 26 55 

41 3 13 

41 5 5 
44 42 
4157 23 

34 26 56.3 
48 7 3 
32 40 13.3 

18 59 47 

43 39 54 
43 33 56 
43 4 35 

42 58 
4141 

43 3 6 

40 20 41 

41 50 17 

19 015 

37 59 34 
46 49 12 

42 49 33 

35 47 
37 24 15 

37 3217 

43 817 

29 40 48 
24 50 
43 55 

43 30 1 

38 34 42 

29 48 30 

44 45 30 
23 3 13 
38 37 28 

30 4 25 
44 52 46 
40 16 52 



Longitude, West, 
in Degrees, in Time. 



7l 
76 
72 
72 
75 
79 
108 
87 
97 
77 
75 
75 
80 
73 

101 

73 

70 

120 

122 

117 

98 

70 

70 

70 

70 

73 



J II h. m. 
38 59442 
18 475 5 
38154 50 

7 4 48 
58275 3 
29 17 5 17 
56 07 15 
10125 48 

8156 28 



DIst. 
from 
Wash. 



35.9 
16.1 



450 
217 



9 


520 
15 364 53 



5 

9545 
10 375 



2124 
26 
39 47 
25 33 



335 876 
362 
53.8 
57J2 
44 

4.81050 
33 
20 
39.6 
42.5 

8 

2.3 



6 45 25.6 
4 53 44 
4 42 39.1 
8 142.2 
44 33810 58.9 
13 1517 48 53 
32 516 34 11 



14 34 
1141 



4 40 58.3 
4 40 45.2 
45 504 43 3.3 
37 454 42 31 
55 4 55 40 



196 



91 9 
74 39 
7123 40 
98 2 



304 



216 



4.^.3 
58 38 
4 45 34.7 
9 



225 



122 57 40 

7116 

87 40 

78 48 
135 53 41 

77 27 28 

77 51 

93 49 
81 15 
75 57 
70 26 14 
12140 5 
8135 

92 45 
109 40 44 

901516 
84 10.37 

93 4 54 
10512 23 



8 II 50.7 

4 45 4 
50 41.5 

5 1512 

9 385 
5 9 49:9 
51124 

615162 

525 

5 348 

4 41439 
8 6 40.3 

526 20 

6 11 5 

7 18 43 
6 1 0.7 

5 36 42.5 

6 12 19.6 

7 48 1.1 



46 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. 



[1855. 



Place. 



Latitude, 
North. 



Longitude, West, 
in Degrees. In Time. 



Diet, 
iram 
Wash. 



Salem (tall Spire), . . . Mass. 
Saltiilo, .... Mex. 
San Antonio, . . Tex. 

San Bias, Arsenal, 
San Dieeo, Public Square (C. S. Obs.), 



Sandwich (1st Con^. Ch.), 

San Francisco (Presidio), 

San Luis Obispo, 

San Pedro, 

Santa Barbara, . 

Santa Cruz, . 

Santa F6, . 

Savannah (Exchange), . 

Scarboro' Harbor, 

Schenectady, 



Mass. 
Cal. 



N.M. 
. Ga. 
Wash. Ter. 

N.y, 



Snake River, above Amer. Falls, 



jpringfield (Court-House), . Mass. 

Squam Harbor (Licht^, Mass. 

Straitsmouth Island (Light), Mass. 

Stratford- Hill, . . . Conn. 
Sweet Water River, N. Fork 

of Platte River, Mouth of, 
TaUakasstt^ . . . .Fa. 

Tampico, Bar, . Mex. 

Taunton (Trin. Cong. Ch.), . Mass. 
Tlamatb Lake, . 

Toronto or York (Observ.), C. W. 
TVenton, . . .N.J. 

Trinity Bay, . . Cal. 

Troy, N. Y. 

Tuscaloosa^ . . . Ala. 

University of Virginia, . . Va. 

Utica (Dutch Church), . N. Y. 

Vandalia, .... 111. 

Vera Cruz, . . . Mex. 

Vevay, .... Ind. 

Victoria, .... Tex. 

Vincennes, .... Ind. 

Washinotov (Capitol), . D. C. 

Do. (Observatory), 

Washington, .... Miss. 
West Point (Military Academy),N. Y. 



Wheeling, 
Williamstown (Con 
Wilmington (Town- 
Wilmington, . 
Worcester (Ant. Hall), 
York, . 
York,. 
Yorktown, 



. Ch.), 
all), . 



Va. 

Mass. 

Del. 

N.C. 

Mass. 

Me. 

Pa. 

Va. 



^Sil'i) 
25 26 22 

29 25 22 
2132 34 

32 4158 
414526 

37 47 35.6 

35 10 37.5 

33 43 19.6 

34 24 24.7 

36 57 26.9 

35 41 6 
32 453 
48 2180 
42 48 
42 47 5 

39 48 
42 6 4 
42 39 41 
42 39 42 
4113 6 

42 27 18 

30 28 
2215 30 
4154 11 

42 56 51 

43 39 35 
4014 

41 5 40 

42 44 
3312 

38 2 3 

43 6 49 
38 50 
19 11 52 
38 46 
28 46 57 
38 43 

38 53 20 
3853 39.: 
3136 

41 23 31.! 

40 7 

42 42 49 

39 44 27 
34 11 
42 16 17 
4310 
39 58 
3713 



7% 
101 

98 
105 
117 

70 
122 
120 
118 
119 
122 
106 

81 
124 

73 
112 



53^4 43 34.5 
1456 44 7 
57 



Miles. 
446 



291 



6 33( 



15 247 1 
13 227 48 
29 394 41 

26 488 9 



43 31 
16.03 



8 
7 53 



40 187 58 
0108 8 
1227 4 
5145 24 

3712818 



55 



4 55 



40 137 30 



89 33 



5 58 



72 35 454 50 

70 

70 

73 



140 34 

134 58 



4 42 
4 42 



8SU 



53.5 
58.6 
47.2 
54.1 
4.2 
41.2 
0.7 
5.5 
31 
28.8 
40 
40.9 
12 
23 
42.3 
19.9 
34.4 



107*45 27711 1.8 
38 24 
31 27 
44 23.6 



84 36 



.t^ 



97 51516 ; 
71 5 554- 



79 21 30 5 17 26 
74 39 4 58 36 



73 40 

87 42 



Ai 



7513 



5 
5J 

96 8 3661 
84 59 151 



54 40 
50 48 
78 3129514 5.9 
52 
56 8 
24 34 
39 56 



87 25 5 
77 0155 
77 2 485 



9120 
73 57 31 
80 42 
7313104 

75 32 425 
7810 
7148134 
70 40 

76 40 
76 34 



49 40 
8 1 
8 11.2 
520 
55 50.1 
22 48 
52 52.6 
210.8 
12 40 
47 13.3 
42 40 
6 40 
616 



456 



662 

391 

801 
357 
466 
471 

287 



896 

415 

500 
166 

383 

858 
124 
383 

781 

556 



1146 

264 
406 
111 
416 
394 
500 
87 



1855.] 



EPHEHERIS OF THE SUN. 



47 







M Apparent JVoon al Greenwich 


. 




JANUARY. 1 


FEBRUARY. | 


IT 




& D. culm. 


. 


D. 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


H 




1 M 


m. 8. 




1 u 


m. 8. 


1 


16 1&S 


1 114)9 


J 


2 


16 15.7 


18.17 


1 


3 
5 


18:3 

18.S 


10.99 
10.88 


0^ 00 00 flood 


4 
6 


164 
154) 


7.94 
7.71 


rixontalPan 

10th, Sm 
20th, 8.67 


7 
9 


18.2 
18.1 


10.76 
1041 


8 
10 


14.7 
14.3 


7.48 
7416 


11 


18.0 


10.46 


& 


12 


184) 


74)8 


& 


13 
15 


17.8 
17.7 


10.39 
10.11 




14 
16 


18.5 
18.1 


6.83 
6.61 




ti 


6 


17 
19 
21 
33 
25 


17.6 
17.4 
17.3 
17U) 
16.8 


9.83 
9.73 
9.51 
9M 
94)8 


7 of the Ecllpti 
230 27> 36.18* 
36.33 
35.53 
35.77 


18 
20 
22 
24 
26 


13.7 
13.8 
11.8 
11.4 
104) 


6.40 
6.31 
64)3 
5.84 
5.67 


hi 
1^^ 


27 
29 
31^ 


16.6 
16.3 
164) 


8.86 
8.63 
8.40 




28 
30 


104» 
104) 


6.63 
5.37 


D. 


DecUnatioa 
South. 


Equa. of Time 
tobe added to 
[Appar.nme. 


Sidereal 

Time at 

meaiinoon. 


D. 


Declination 
South. 


Equa.ofTime 
tobeaddedto 
Appar. Time. 


Sidereal 

Time at 

mean noon. 




O f H 


m. s. 


h. m. 8. 




O 1 « 


m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


1 


SS 3 16.4 


843.68 


18 43 17.35 


1 


17 10 16.3 


18 514)3 


30 U 80.54 


2 


23 67 11.1 


4 11.85 


18 46 13.81 


2 


16 68 6.7 


13 664)8 


30 48 374)9 


3 


33 6188U 


4 39.73 


18 60 10.36 


3 


16 86 89.6 


14 5.71 


30 63 33.65 


4 


33 45 88.4 


6 7.30 


18 54 6.93 


4 


16 17 664) 


14 11.68 


30 56 30.30 


5 


33 89 11.4 


6 34.37 


18 68 8.48 


5 


16 69 63.7 


14 16.84 


31 16.76 


6 


33S3 17J» 


6 0.93 


19 3 04)4 


6 


16 4186.9 


14 31*31 


31 4 13.31 


7 


33 34 66.9 


6 37.13 


19 6 66.60 


7 


15 38 34) 


14 34.78 


31 8 9.87 


8 


33 17 9.8 


663.63 


19 9 63.16 


8 


15 4 13.4 


14 37.56 


31 13 6.43 


9 


33 8 66.5 


7 184)5 


19 18 49.71 


9 


14 45 74) 


14 39.66 


31 16 3.98 


10 


33 17.1 


7 43.74 


19 17 46.37 


10 


14 35 47.7 


14 80.80 


31 19 69.54 


11 


31 51 UJ9 


8 6.88 


19 3143.83 


11 


14 6 18.6 


14 31.38 


31 33 66.09 


12 


31 41 41.3 


8 80.45 


19 35 894)9 


12 


18 46 35.1 


14 80.99 


31 37 6S.65 


13 


31 81 45.8 


8 58.43 


19 39 35.06 


13 


13 36 38.1 


14 39.96 


31 81 49J30 


14 


31 3L 34.8 


9 15.78 


19 83 83.51 


14 


18 6 7.9 


U 38.18 


31 85 45.76 


15 


31 10 88.6 


9 374K) 


19 87 39.06 


15 


13 46 89.9 


14 35.68 


3139 43.31 


16 


30 69 38.6 


66.55 


19 41 35.63 


16 


13 34 694) 


14 33.44 


31 43 38.87 


17 


30 47 54.4 


10 18.93 


19 45 33.18 


17 


13 4 74) 


14 18.48 


31 47 85.43 


18 


30 85 66J» 


10 88JS7 


19 49 18.74 


18 


1148 8.6 


14 13.83 


31 51 81.98 


19 


30 38 85.1 


10 67.50 


19 63 15.30 


19 


11 31 48.8 


14 8.46 


31 66 984K) 


20 


30 10 60.7 


11 15.68 


19 87 11.86 


20 


11 38.8 


14 3.40 


3169 354)9 


21 


19 67 43.6 


11 33.10 


30 1 8.41 


21 


10 88 47.7 


13 66.67 


33 8 31.64 


22 


19 44 14.3 


11 49.75 


30 6 4.97 


22 


10 17 3.4 


13 48.37 


33 7 18.90 


23 


19 80 23.8 


13 5.60 


30 9 1.63 


23 


9 66 7.7 


13 40.33 


33 11 14.75 


24 


19 16 9.8 


13 30.64 


30 13 584)9 


24 


9 33 4.3 


18 81.54 


33 15 11.30 


25 


19 185.7 


13 34.88 


30 16 544)4 


25 


9 10 63.1 


13 33.34 


33 19 7.86 


26 


18 46 40.7 


13 48.39 


30 30 51.30 


26 


8 48 31.9 


13 134)4 


33 93 4.41 


27 


18 81 35.8 


13 0.88 


30 34 47.75 


27 


8 36 4.1 


13 1.86 


39 37 0.97 


28 


18 16 49.9 


13 13.64 


30 38 44.31 


28 


9 3 39.1 


13 fi0.ao 


99 30 S7.fi* 


29 


17 69 54.9 


13 33.66 


30 83 40.87 










30 


17 48 40.7 


13 83.66 


30 86 37.43 










91 


IT 97 It 


« dion 


<m m »».flA 


1 









48 



EPHEMSRIS OF THE BUK. 



[1855. 







^t Apparent Jfoon at GretntoUh. 




MARCfi. 


APRIL. 1 


D^ 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


. 


D. 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


. 




1 n 


m. 8. 




1 y 


m. 8. 


2 


16 10.0 


16.37 


a 


1 


16 1.9 


1 4.48 


a 


4 


9.6 


6.38 


1 sss 


3 


1.4 


4.63 


1 SSS 


6 


0.0 


6.10 


j 4i 


5 


0.8 


4.W 


1 ~ 1 


8 
10 


8.6 
7.9 


4.98 
4.87 


7 
9 


0.3 
16 69.7 


433 
44» 


12 


7.4 


4.77 


& 


11 


69.1 


4.77 


& 


14 
16 


6.9 
6.3 


4.60 
4.83 




13 
15 


66.6 
66.0 


4.86 
AM 





^ 


«j 


18 
20 
22 
24 


6.8 
6.3 
4.7 
4.1 


4.61 

4.47 
4.46 


1 sss 


17 
19 
21 
23 


67.6 

66.6 
66.0 


MS 
6.16 
6JX) 
6.44 


1 SS9 
1-85 ■ 


26 


3.6 


4.44 


"8 oa 


25 


66.6 


6.67 


"s oa 


28 
30 


3.0 
3.6 


4.46 
4.46 


1 s li 


27 
29 


66.0 
64.6 


6.73 

6.87 


\m 


32 


1.9 


4.48 


31 


64.0 


64)3 


D. 


Declination 
South. 


Eciua. offime 
tobe added to 


Sidereal 
Time at 


D. 


DnclinatioQ 
North. 


Eq.o{Ti. to be\ 
added to Ap. 


Sidereal 
Time at 




Appar. THme. 


mean noon. 




7\Vn«lim6th. 


mean noon. 




O 1 II 


m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 




O 1 1 


m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


1 


7 40 47.1 


13 88.30 


33 34 64jOe 


1 


4 36 13.3 


4 3.83 


37 733 


2 


7 17 66.6 


13 37.10 


33 38 60.63 


2 


4 49 18.7 


8 46.66 


41 8.79 


3 


6 65 4.0 


13 14.49 


S3 43 47.18 


3 


6 13 30.0 


3 37.40 


46 034 


4 


6 83 3J» 


13 14» 


23 40 43.74 


4 


6 86 159 


3 9.40 


48 664)0 


5 


6 8 67.7 


1147.85 


33 60 40.39 


5 


6 58 6U) 


3 61.68 


68 63.45 


6 


6 45 46.8 


1133.80 


33 64 36.84 


6 


6 30 60.0 


3 33.94 


66 60.00 


7 


6 33 81.3 


11 19.60 


33 66 33.40 


7 


6 43 37.6 


3 16.60 


1 4636 


8 


4 60 11.3 


11 4.73 


33 3 39.96 


8 


7 6 58.3 


1 60.30 


1 4 43.11 


9 


4 36 47.3 


10 49.68 


33 6 36.51 


9 


7 38 33.1 


1 43.36 


1 8 38.66 


10 


4 13 19.7 


10 34.10 


33 10 334)6 


10 


760 38.4 


1364t6 


1 13 36.23 


11 


3 48 48.9 


10 18J10 


33 14 19.61 


11 


8 13 46.9 


1 0JZ5 


1 16 83.77 


12 


3 35 15.3 


10 3.19 


33 18 19.17 


12 


8 34 47.4 


63.14 


1 30 2933 


13 


3 1 39.1 


9 45.80 


33 33 13.73 


13 


8 56 39.4 


37.35 


134 36.88 


14 


3 88 0.7 


9 39.14 


33 36 0.37 


14 


9 18 33.6 


31.89 


138 23.43 


15 


3 14 30.7 


9 13.33 


33 30 6.83 


15 


9 89 66.7 


+ 6.76 


133 1839 


16 


1 60 39.8 


8 65.06 


33 34 3.38 


16 


10 1 31.3 


— -0 8.01 


1 36 16.64 


17 


136 67.0 


8 37.73 


33 37 68.98 


17 


10 33 35.8 


33.41 


1 40 13.10 


18 


1 3 14.1 


6 30.18 


33 41 65.49 


18 


10 43 40^2 


36.43 


144 8.65 


19 


39 81.0 


8 3.44 


33 45 53.04 


19 


11 4 33.9 


60.08 


148 6.31 


20 


S. 16 48.1 


7 44.55 


33 49 48.59 


20 


11 35 16.7 


1 34)3 


1 63 1.76 


21 


N.O 7 64.3 


7 36J»1 


33 63 45.16 


21 


11 45 48.3 


1 16.16 


165 6833 


22 


3186.4 


7 8AI 


33 67 41.70 


22 


13 6 8.0 


1 384)7 


1 69 6437 


23 


65 15.4 


6 60.07 


138.35 


23 


13 36 16.8 


140.67 


3 3 61.48 


24 


1 18 63.5 


6 31.69 


6 34.81 


24 


13 46 11.3 


153.13 


3 7 4738 


25 


1 43 39.5 


6 13.35 


9 31.36 


25 


13 6544) 


3 3423 


3 11 4434 


26 


3 6 3.0 


6 54.76 


13 37.91 


26 


13 35 33.8 


3 13.85 


3 16 41.09 


27 


3 39 83.6 


6 36.33 


17 34.47 


27 


13 44 40.3 


3 344)1 


3 19 3735 


28 


3 53 1.1 


5 17.68 


31 31.03 


28 


14 3 48.1 


383.68 


3 33 84.30 


*?9 


3 18 35.0 


4 59.15 


35 17.57 


29 


14 33 334) 


3 43.86 


3 37 80.76 


> 


3 39 46.1 


4 40.64 


39 14.13 


30 


14 41 6.7 


3 614»1 


3 31 3731 




4 3 0.9 


4 32.19 


83 10.68 


31 


14 59 37.0 


3 5935 


3 36 3837 



1855.] 



EPHEMERIS OF THE BUN. 



JStt J^fparent J{ocn at Greenwiek. 



MAT. 


juta. 1 


^ 


Semidiam. 


& D. culm. 


> 


D^ 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


1 




1 u 


m. 8. 




/ n 


m. 8. 


1 


15 54.0 


16.03 


_0 


2 


15 48.1 


16.44 


3 


53.6 


6.18 


1sS^5? 


4 


47.8 


8.64 


£ «odo6ao' 

Im 


5 


«.l 


6JM 


P^ 00 00 od 00 

hiii 


6 


47.6 


8.64 


7 


82.7 


6.60 


8 


4741 


8.73 


9 


53J2 


6.66 


.2'^So5eo 


10 


47.1 


8.79 


11 


61.8 


6.83 


S 


12 


46.9 


8.86 


13 
15 


61.4 
50.9 


6.99 
7.16 




14 
16 


46.7 
46.6 


8JI0 
8.93 




o 


«5 


17 
19 
21 


60.6 
60.3 
49.8 


7.32 
7.48 
7.83 


IS 


18 
20 
22 


46.4 
46.3 
46.3 


8.96 
8.97 
8.66 


1 888 

3-^ 


23 


49.5 


7.78 


24 


46.1 


8.96 


25 


49.3 


7.98 


% 


26 


46.1 


8.93 


"s OS5 


27 
29 
31 


48.9 
48.6 
48.3 


8.07 
8.30 
8.33 


o 


28 
30 
32 


46.0 
46.0 
46.0 


6.88 
8.83 
8.79 


1 SSig 


D. 


Declinatioa 
North. 


Eqiia. of Time 
to be 8ubtr.fr. 


Sidereal 
Time at 


D. 


Declination 
North. 


Bq.ofTi.to^ 
siibtr. fr. Ap. 
Time tiU loth. 


gider«al 
Time at 




Appar. Time. 


mean noon. 








O 1 u 


m. a. 


h. m. 8. 




O 1 H 


m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


1 


14 59 37.0 


3 59.65 


2 35 23.87 


1 


22 1 24.4 


3 34.18 


4 87 37.14 


2 


15 17 33.4 


3 7.26 


2 39 20.43 


2 


22 9 39.9 


3 36.37 


4 41 38.69 


3 


15 35 23.7 


3 14.31 


3 43 16.98 


3 


22 17 laa 


2 16.97 


4 46 80.36 


4 


15 62 67.7 


3 20.81 


2 47 13.64 


4 


23 34 31.6 


3 6.38 


4 49 36.61 


5 


16 10 17.1 


3 36.74 


2 61 104)9 


5 


32 31 97.3 


1 66.31 


4 63 33.37 


6 


16 27 90.6 


3 32.10 


2 65 6.65 


6 


23 37 69.6 


1 46.79 


4 67 19.93 


7 


16 44 7.6 


3 86.87 


2 69 3.20 


7 


33 44 8.0 


1 36.03 


6 1 1648 


8 


17 38.2 


8 41.07 


3 2 69.76 


8 


22 49 63.7 


1 28.96 


6 6 13.04 


9 


17 16 51.9 


3 44.67 


3 6 66.32 


9 


22 65 134 


1 13.58 


6 9 94K) 


10 


17 32 48.6 


3 47.68 


3 10 62.87 


10 


23 9.9 


1 0.92 


6 13 6.16 


11 


17 48 27.6 


SfiO.10 


3 14 49.43 


11 


23 4 42.3 


49.00 


6 17 3.73 


12 


18 3 49.0 


8 61.93 


3 18 46.99 


12 


23 8 60.2 


36.86 


6 90 69.26 


13 


18 18 63.3 


3 53.15 


3 23 42.54 


13 


23 13 33.8 


2449 


6 24 65.88 


14 


18 33 37.2 


3.53.80 


3 26 39.10 


14 


23 15 53.7 


— 11.96 


638 634» 


15 


18 48 3.4 


3 53.97 


3 30 35.66 


15 


33 18 47.1 


4-0 0.72 


6 82 48.96 


16 


19 3 10.6 


3 53.36 


3 34 33.21 


16 


33 21 16.8 


13.63 


6 36 46.61 


17 


19 15 66.6 


8 52.28 


3 38 28.77 


17 


23 23 21.6 


2643 


6 40 43.07 


18 


19 29 36 J» 


8 50.65 


3 43 25.33 


18 


23 25 1.7 


39.42 


6 44 38.68 


19 


19 43 35.3 


8 48.46 


3 46 31.68 


19 


23 26 174) 


52.44 


5 48 35.19 


20 


19 55 23.6 


3 45.73 


3 60 1844 


20 


23 27 7.4 


1 6.49 


6 63 31.74 


21 


90 7 61.6 


3 43.46 


3 64 164N) 


21 


23 27 334) 


1 18413 


6 66 38*30 


22 


SO 19 58.6 


3 38.67 


3 68 114S6 


22 


33 27 33.7 


1 31.61 


6 34.86 


23 


20 SI 45.3 


3 34417 


4 2 8.11 


23 


23 27 9.6 


14446 


6 4 31.43 


24 


20 43 10.3 


8 39Ji7 


4 6 4.67 


24 


23 26 20.8 


1 67.33 


6 8 17.98 


25 


20 64 14.1 


3 24.38 


4 10 1.33 


25 


23 25 7.1 


3 104)7 


6 13 14.64 


26 


31 4 66.3 


3 184J0 


4 13 57.79 


26 


23 23 28.7 


2 22.70 


6 16 11.10 


27 


21 16 16aS 


3 13.24 


4 17 64.35 


27 


23 21 26.7 


2 35.30 


6 30 7^ 


28 


31 96 154) 


3 5.63 


4 31 60.90 


28 


33 18 66.1 


3 47.53 


6 24 4.31 


29 


91 34 61.1 


9 06.34 


4 25 4X46 


29 


23 16 6.9 


3 59.68 


6 28 0.77 


30 


9144 4.8 


9 60.73 


439 44je8 


30 


38 13 494 


8 11.63 


6 81 ff74» 


31 


31 63 66J0 


3 43.66 


4 83 40.98 


31 


38 9 84 


3 38414 


6 85 68 



EFHEMERIS OF THE SUN. 



[1855. 







^t .Apparent J{bon at Greenwich. 




JUtY. 1 


AUGUST. 1 


Jl 


Semidiam. | 


S. D. culm. 


i 

£ *o6od« 


D. 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


1 ill 


2 

4 

6 

8 

10 


1 It 

15 46.0 
46.0 
46.0 
464) 
46.1 


m. a. 

1 8.76 
8.67 
8.58 
8.48 
8.36 


1 

3 
5 

7 
9 


1 u 

15 47.9 
48.1 
48.4 
48.7 
404) 


m. 8. 

16.67 
6.60 
64» 
6.16 
6.98 


12 


46.2 


8.34 


s 


11 


49JI 


6.81 


& 


14 
16 


46.» 
46.4 


8.11 




13 
15 


49.6 
604) 


64» 
6.49 




o 




18 
30 
22 
24 
36 


46.6 
46.7 
46.8 
47J) 
47.3 


7.83 
7.67 
7.53 
7J5 
7.19 


1 ==85? 


17 
19 
21 
23 
35 


50.4 
50.8 
61.3 
614i 
50.0 


6.34 
5.30 
64)6 
4.93 
4.80 


1 gss 


28 
30 


47.4 
47.7 


7.03 
6.84 


t **^ 

o 


27 

29 


53.4 
63.9 


4.68 
4.07 


Im 


32 


47.9 


6.67 


31 


53 J3 


4.47 


6 


D. 


Declination 
North. 


Equa. of Time 
to be added to 
Appar. Time. 


Sidereal 

Time at 

mean noon. 


D. 


Declination, 
North. 


Bqua. of Time 
to be added to 
Appar. Time. 


Sidereal 

Time at 

mean noon. 


""^ 


O 1 n 


m. s. 


h. m. 8. 




t u 


m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


1 


93 9 8.4 


3 38U)4 


6 35 53.89 


1 


18 7 99.1 


6 ZM 


8 88 7.18 


2 


33 6 3.3 


3 34.83 


6 39 60.45 


2 


17 69 19.9 


6 69.82 


8 43 3.74 


3 


33 33.9 


3 46.06 


6 48 47.01 


3 


17 36 464) 


6 66.61 


8 46 0.99 


4 


33 ft3 40.4 


4 67.03 


6 47 43.56 


4 


17 91 1.9 


5 60.83 


8 49 56.85 


6 


33 50 33.1 


4 7.71 


6 51 40.13 


5 


17 5 0.9 


545<44 


8 68 63U1 


6 


33 44 41.8 


4 180)8 


6 65 36.68 


6 


16 48 43.3 


6 39.49 


6 67 49.96 


7 


33 38 86.9 


4 38.13 


6 60 33.34 


7 


16 33 94) 


5 33.95 


9 146.63 


8 


33 33 8.4 


4 37.83 


7 3 39.80 


8 


16 16 18.8 


5 35.86 


9 6 48.07 


9 


33 35 16J) 


4 47.16 


7 7 36JI6 


9 


16 68 13.7 


6 18.19 


9 9 89.63 


10 


33 18 1.3 


4 66.13 


7 11 92.91 


10 


15 40 61.1 


5 9.95 


9 18 36.19 


11 


33 10 33.9 


5 4.68 


7 15 19.47 


11 


15 93 1441 


6 1.16 


9 17 32.74 


12 


33 3 31.6 


5 13.81 


7 19 16.03 


12 


16 6 92.7 


4 51.79 


9 31 99.30 


13 


31 53 57.5 


5 90.40 


7 33 13.59 


13 


14 47 16.5 


4 41.S7 


995 35.86 


14 


31 45 10.9 


5 97.79 


7 37 9.16 


14 


14 98 66.9 


4 31.40 


9 39 33.41 


15 


31 36 3.0 


5 34.46 


7 31 5.70 


15 


14 10 324) 


4 904)8 


9 33 18.96 


16 


31 36 30.8 


6 40.70 


7 35 3.36 


16 


13 51 34.3 


4 8.81 


9 87 15.83 


17 


31 16 37.8 


5 46.43 


7 38 68.83 


17 


13 33 33.4 


3 66.70 


9 41 134)8 


18 


31 6 33.1 


6 51.63 


7 43 66.88 


18 


13 13 19.6 


3 44.06 


9 45 8.63 


19 


90 55 46.9 


6 66.38 


7 46 51.94 


19 


13 53 53.3 


3 30.94 


9 49 6.19 


20 


90 44 49.6 


6 0J» 


7 60 48.49 


20 


13 34 14.8 


3 17.98 


9 63 1.74 


21 


90 33 31.3 


6 3.90 


7 54 46.05 


21 


19 14 944) 


3 3.19 


9 66 66.30 


22 


90 91 52JJ 


6 6.83 


7 58 41.61 


22 


11 64 99.7 


9 48.48 


10 64.86 


23 


90 9 53.9 


6 9.19 


8 3 38.17 


23 


11 34 9.7 


9 334)7 


10 4 51.41 


24 


19 57 33.4 


6 10.95 


8 6 34.79 


24 


11 13 46.7 


9 17.81 


10 8 47.96 


25 


19 44 63.9 


6 19.11 


8 10 81.98 


25 


10 53 11.9 


3 1.83 


10 13 444)3 


26 


19 31 54.8 


6 13.68 ' 


8 14 97.84 


36 


10 39 96.3 


145.40 


10 16 41.07 


27 


19 18 36.3 


6 13JI4 


8 18 94.40 


37 


10 11 31.6 


1 38.57 


10 30 87.08 


28 


19 4 58.6 


6 134)0 


8 99 90.95 


28 


9 60 97.0 


1 11J7 


10 94 34.18 


29 


18 51 3.1 


6 10.76 


8 96 17.61 


39 


9 99 18.1 


063.83 


10 98 30.73 


30 


18 36 47.1 


6 8.99 


8 30 14.07 


80 


9 7 60.1 


864)1 


10 S3 97.39 


1 


18 33 13.6 


6 649 


8 84 10.69. 


31 


8 46 184) 


17.68 


10 86 33.84 



1665.] 



EPHEMEBIS OF THE SUN. 



51 







Jit J^^parent Jfoon at Greenwich 


• 




SEPTSMBER. 


oorowa. i 


^ 


Semidiam. 


& D. culm. 


. 


D. 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


. 




1 N 


m. a. 




1 M 


m. 8. 


3 

4 

6 

8 

10 


15 53.8 
54.3 
54.8 
55.2 
56.7 


1 4.88 
4.80 
4.28 
4.17 
4.13 


1 S?Sfe 


2 
4 
6 
8 
10 


16 1.6 
3.3 
3.7 
3.8 

8.8 


14.88 
4.48 
4.59 
4.71 
4.84 


1 m 


12 


66.7 


4M 


S 


12 


4.3 


4.96 


n 


14 
16 


56.7 
67.3 


4.06 
4.05 




14 
16 


4JB 


5.18 

5.80 


• 


.; 




18 
80 
22 
24 
26 


67.8 
56.3 
56.8 
59.4 
16 0.0 


4.05 
4.06 
4.08 
4.13 
4.17 


f of the Eclipti( 

& 27 3?.26 
37.38 
37.40 


18 
20 
22 
24 
26 


6.0 
6.6 
7.1 
7.7 
8.3 


5.47 
5.65 
5.85 
6.04 
6.35 


1 feS2 


28 
30 


0.5 
lU) 


4.23 
4.80 


1 ill 


28 
30 


8.7 
9.3 


6.47 
6.69 


•g ^•'^•S 


32 


1.6 


4.38 


32 


9.7 


6.91 


» 


Declination 
North. 


Equa. of Time 
tooesubtr./r. 
Appar. IHme. 


Sidereal 

Time at 

moan noon. 


D. 


Declination 
South. 


Equa. of Time 
tobestdar.fr. 
Appar. Time. 


Sidereal 

Timaat 

mean noon. 




O / 1 


m. s. 


h. m. 8. 




O / // 


m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


1 


8 34 38.0 


0.86 


10 40 30.40 


1 


3 4 4.6 


10 13.66 


13 38 87.01 


2 


8 3 49.5 


19.68 


10 44 16.95 


2 


3 37 33.1 


10 31.73 


13 42S3J» 


3 


7 40 63.0 


88.77 


10 48 13.51 


3 


3 50 89.4 


10 60.48 


12 46 30.12 


4 


7 18 49^ 


58.11 


10 53 lOUM 


4 


4 13 68.3 


11 8.90 


12 60 26.67 


5 


6 56 87.7 


1 17.68 


10 56 6.61 


5 


4 87 4.3 


11 36.05 


13 54 33.33 


6 


6 34 19.4 


187.48 


11 3.17 


6 


5 11.8 


1144.63 


13 68 19J78 


7 


6 11 54US 


157.47 


11 3 59.73 


7 


* 5 38 15.9 


13 1.90 


13 3 16J» 


8 


5 49 33.4 


3 17.65 


11 7 56J28 


8 


5 46 16.0 


13 18.76 


13 6 13.88 


9 


5 36 46.S 


3 37.98 


11 11 53.63 


9 


6 9 11.6 


13 85.19 


18 10 9.44 


10 


5 4 3.6 


866.47 


11 15 49.88 


10 


6 83 3.5 


13 51.17 


13 14 6.99 


11 


4 41 1&7 


3 19.10 


11 19 45.94 


11 


6 54 48.3 


18 6.69 


18 18 3.55 


12 


4 18 32.9 


8 89.85 


1133 43.49 


12 


7 17 38.3 


13 31.73 


13 31 69.10 


13 


3 56 25a» 


4 0.71 


11 27 89.04 


13 


7 40 3.4 


13 36.37 


13 35 55.66 


14 


3 83 34.0 


4 31.66 


11 81 85.60 


14 


8 3 80.0 


18 60.30 


13 29 52.21 


15 


8 9 18.7 


443.68 


11 85 83.15 


15 


8 34 60.9 


14 33) 


13 33 48.76 


16 


3 46 10^ 


5 8.76 


11 89 28.71 


16 


8 47 4.6 


14 16.77 


13 37 46.32 


17 


3 33 56.3 


634.87 


11 48 35.36 


17 


9 9 10.6 


14 39.18 


13 41 41.87 


18 


160 43.6 


5 46.01 


11 47 31.81 


18 


9 81 8.7 


14 41.01 


13 46 38.43 


19 


186 36.6 


6 7.14 


11 51 18.87 


19 


9 53 66.4 


14 52.35 


18 49 34.96 


20 


1 13 7.6 


6 28.35 


11 55 14.92 


20 


10 14 89.3 


15 2.90 


13 53 31.53 


21 


049 46^ 


6 49.83 


11 59 11.47 


21 


10 86 10.9 


15 12.93 


13 57 38.09 


22 


36 34-7 


7 10.38 


13 3 8.03 


22 


10 67 33.1 


15 22.29 


14 1 34.64 


23 


N. 8 1.5 


7 31.35 


13 7 4.58 


23 


11 18 45.3 


15 31.01 


14 5 21.20 


24 


S 030 33.5 


7 63.06 


13 11 1.13 


24 


11 39 47.3 


15 39UJ5 


14 9 17.76 


25 


43 46.9 


8 13.74 


13 14 57.69 


25 


13 38.7 


15 46.40 


14 13 14.31 


26 


1 7 IM 


8 88.36 


13 18 54.34 


26 


12 21 19.0 


15 53.03 


14 17 10.86 


27 


130 35.7 


8 53.60 


12 33 50.79 


27 


12 41 47.9 


15 68.93 


14 21 7.43 


28 


1 53 59.5 


9 18.78 


12 26 47.36 


28 


13 3 6.1 


16 4.08 


M35 3.97 


29 


3 17 33JS 


9 83.63 


13 80 43.90 


29 


13 33 lOJO 


16 8.47 


14 39 0.68 


30 


340 44.8 


9 53.38 


13 84 40.45 


30 


13 43 3.5 


16 120)8 


14 82 67.08 


31 


a 4 44 


10 13.66 


13 88 87.01 


31 


14 142U> 


16 14.91 


14 36 63 



5) 



EPHEMERIS OF THE BUN. 



[1855. 







M Jjpparent JVdon ot GfBtmwt^. 




NOVKMBKK. 




_D^ 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


H 


D. 


Semidiam. 


S. D. culm. 


. 




/ // 


m. 8. 




/ // 


m. s. 


1 


16 9.7 


1 6.91 


i 


1 


16 15.8 


1 10.27 


a 


3 
5 


10.1 
10.6 


7.14 
7.88 


1 sss 

1 5 ^5 


3 
5 


16.1 
16.4 


10.44 
10.59 


A^ooodoood 


7 


11.1 


7.61 


7 


16.6 


10.76 


9 


11.6 


7.86 


1 *-^fe 


9 


16.8 


10.87 


l^ssg 


11 


12.0 


8.09 


l§ 


11 


17.1 


10.98* 


& 


18 
15 


13.4 
13.9 


8.83 
8J)6 




13 
15 


VIA 
17.6 


11.08 
11.16 




o- 




17 


18.S 


8.80 


1 SSe: 


17 


17.6 


11.33 


o — 


19 
21 
23 


18.7 

•14.1 

U.6 


9.03 
9.26 
9.48 


19 
21 
23 


17.8 
17.9 
18.0 


11.36 
11.29 
11.39 




25 


14.9 


9JSd 


25 


18.1 


11.38 


97 
29 


15.3 


9.89 
10.09 


1 565 
1 ^^§5 


27 
29 


18.3 
18.3 


11.35 
11.30 


mt 


31 


16.8 


10.97 


O 


31 


18.2 


11.14 


o 


D. 


Declination 
South. 


Equa. of Time 
tobesubtr.fr. 


Sidereal 
Time at 


D. 


Declination 
South. 


Eq.ofTi.<o6e 
9ubtr.fr. Ap. 
7Ym«tm25th. 


Sidereal 
Time at 




Appar. Time. 


mean noon. 




mean noon. 




O / // 


m. 8. 


h. m. s. 




O / // 


m. s. 


h. m. a. 


1 


14 31 6^ 


18 16.93 


14 40 60.20 


1 


31 46 58.1 


10 63.74 


16 89 6.90 


2 


14 40 30.7 


16 18.18 


14 44 46.75 


2 


31 66 13;7 


10 80.97 


16 43 8.46 


3 


14 69 19J0 


16 18J>1 


14 48 43.81 


3 


33 6 3.1 


10 7.56 


16 47 Oj03 


4 


16 18 3.8 


16 18.05 


14 69 89.86 


4 


33 13 35.9 


9 43.68 


16 60 66.68 


5 


16 86 81.6 


16 16.76 


14 66 86.42 


5 


33 31 33.8 


9 18.89 


16 64 68.14 


6 


16 64 46.0 


16 UJSi 


15 82.97 


6 


32 38 56.7 


8 63.68 


16 68 49.69 


7 


16 13 43.5 


16 11.66 


16 4*29.53 


7 


33 86 1.3 


8 274« 


17 3 46.35 


8 


16 80 38.8 


16 7.88 


16 8 26.09 


8 


32 42 40.3 


8 1.67 


17 6 42.81 


9 


16 47 48.8 


16 8.16 


15 12 22.64 


9 


32 48 52.8 


7 84.93 


17 10 89.37 


10 


17 4 66.7 


16 67.68 


16 16 19.20 


10 


33 64 87.4 


7 7.76 


17 14 86.98 


11 


17 31 46.6 


16 51J37 


15 30 16.76 


11 


32 69 55.8 


6 40.14 


17 18 83.49 


12 


17 38 17.6 


16 44.06 


15 24 12.31 


12 


33 4 45.7 


6 13.16 


17 32 29.05 


13 


17 64 31.0 


16 86.01 


15 28 8.87 


13 


33 9 8.6 


5 43.88 


17 36 25.60 


14 


18 10 26.7 


16 97.11 


15 32 5.42 


14 


33 13 3.8 


5 15.31 


17 30 23.16 


15 


18 26 1.2 


16 17.39 


15 36 1.98 


15 


33 16 31.1 


4 46.33 


17 34 18.72 


16 


18 41 17.0 


16 6.85 


15 39 58.54 


16 


33 19 30.5 


4 17.17 


17 38 15.38 


17 


18 66 12.9 


14 5549 


15 43 55.10 


17 


33 22 1.9 


3 47.81 


17 42 11.84 


18 


19 10 48.4 


14 43.30 


15 47 51.65 


18 


23 24 6.1 


8 18.38 


17 46 8.40 


19 


19 35 3.2 


14 30.31 


15 51 48.21 


19 


23 35 40.3 


2 48.62 


17 60 4.96 


20 


19 38 66.9 


14 16.53 


16 65 44.77 


20 


23 36 47.0 


2 18.84 


17 54 1.62 


21 


19 62 29.1 


14 1.93 


16 69 41.32 


21 


33 97 25.6 


1 48.98 


17 67 68.08 


22 


20 5 39.6 


13 46.58 


16 3 37.88 


22 


33 27 35.9 


1 19.07 


18 1 54.68 


23 


20 18 27.7 


13 30.36 


16 7 34.44 


23 


23 37 17.9 


49.14 


18 6 51.19 


24 


20 30 63.6 


18 13.39 


16 11 31.00 


24 


33 36 31.6 


— 19.39 


18 9 47.76 


25 


20 43 56.6 


13 55.66 


16 15 27.55 


25 


33 35 17.1 


+n3:;s3 


18 13 44.81 


26 


30 54 86.5 


13 37.17 . 


16 19 24.11 


26 


23 33 34.3 


40.45 


18 17 40.8f7 


27 


21 6 52.9 


12 17.93 


16 23 20.67 


27 


23 31 23.4 


1 ]0.15 


18 21 37.43 


28 


21 16 45.6 


11 57.96 


16 27 17.23 


28 


23 18 44.3 


1 39.71 


18 35 33.99 


29 


31 37 14.8 


11 37.36 


16 81 13.79 


29 


23 15 37.1 


2 9.11 


18 39 80.56 


30 


31 87 18.6 


U 15.84 


16 86 lOJM 


30 


33 13 3.0 


2 38.83 


18 88 37.11 


n 


31 46 68.1 


10 63.74 


16 89 6.90 


31 


33 7 58.9 


8 7.81 


18 87 23.66 



1855.J FIXED STABS. 

TWie AfpwraU PUee$ of the PoU Star far every Day qf the Year. 
Epoch. — The Upper Culminatioii at Greenwich. 



68 





JANUAKT. 


FSB&UAItT. 


MABGH. 


APKIL. 


MAT. 


» Ursn Minoria 
iPolarit). 


• UnaBMInoris 
(Potefig). 


«UnuBMmorit) 
iPolaria). 


> Una Minoria 
iPolaTU), 


4 Una Minoria 
(Poterw). 


Day 
of thA 
Month. 


i 


I 


i 


\ 


i 

i. 


5? 


t 


\ 


\ 


*t 


1855. 


h. 

1 


& 


h. 

1 


o 

88 


h. 
1 


8l 


h. 
1 


el 


1 


8l 


1 


m. a. 
6 10198 


f u 

33 38.4 


m. B. 
6 63.18 


/ u 
33 38.4 


m. 8. 
6 33.03 


/ M 

33 38.5 


m. a. 
533.97 


/ a 
33 14.6 


m. a. 
6 39.89 


83 6.7 


2 


17.40 


38.6 


61.38 


96.3 


33.60 


98.3 


33413 


14.3 


39.81 


6.6 


3 


16.66 


38.6 


60.63 


33.3 


31.99 


98.0 


384» 


14.0 


30.34 


5.3 


4 


16.72 


38.7 


49.74 


38.1 


31.49 


93.7 


33^ 


13.7 


80.68 


64) 


5 


14.88 


38.7 


484)7 


384) 


314)1 


33.4 


38.67 


18.4 


81.14 


4.8 


6 


14J08 


38.8 


48410 


37.8 


30.66 


33.3 


38.68 


18.1 


81.61 


4.6 


7 


18.18 


38.9 


47.48 


37.7 


30.10 


31.9 


\^ti\ 


li^il 


83.10 


4.9 


8 


1S.88 


38.9 


464n 


37.6 


39.66 


31.6 


33.70 


134) 


83.60 


4.0 


9 


11.48 


39.0 


46.93 


37.4 


39.33 


31.4 


38.78 


114) 


33.11 


8.8 


10 


10U8 


39.0 


46.19 


37.3 


38.81 


31.1 


38.88 


11.6 


33.63 


3.6 


11 


».77 


394) 


44.46 


37.1 


38.40 


90.6 


33.90 


11.3 


84.16 


8.4 


12 


SJBl 


39.1 


43.73 


36.9 


98.03 


90.6 


34.13 


11.0 


84.70 


ZJt 


13 


SJ» 


39.1 


434» 


36.8 


37.66 


90.3 


34.36 


10.7 


35.36 


3.9 


14 


1J9 


99.1 


434» 


36.6 


37.31 


304) 


34.43 


10.4 


35.83 


3.7 


15 


6.38 


99.3 


41.60 


36.4 


36.96 


19.7 


34.69 


10.1 


36.41 


3.6 


16 


6.48 


99.3 


40.93 


36.3 


36.66 


19.4 


34.78 


9.8 


37.00 


3.3 


17 


4.63 


36.3 


40.34 


36.0 


36.85 


19.1 


34.98 


9.6 


37.60 


3.1 


18 


8.77 


S9JI 


89.67 


36,8 


36.06 


18.9 


35.30 


9.3 


38.31 


M 


19 


2J92 


39.3 


38.03 


36.6 


35.78 


18.6 


36.44 


9.0 


88.84 


1.8 


20 


3.07 


39.3 


88.98 


96.4 


35.63 


18.3 


36.60 


8.7 


39.47 


1.6 


21 


1*93 


39.1 


87*64 


96.3 


35.39 


184) 


36.96 


8.4 


40.11 


1.4 


22 


0.38 


39.1 


37.03 


96,0 


35.06 


17.7 


36.34 


8.1 


40.75 


\Sl 


23 


6 68.64 


39.0 


36.41 


94.8 


34.84 


17.4 


36.53 


7.9 


41.41 


1.1 


^ 


66.70 


39.0 


36.81 


34.6 


34.64 


17.1 


36.84 


7» 


43.08 


04) 


25 


97.86 


38.9 


36.33 


34.4 


34.47 


16.8 


37.16 


7.3 


43.76 


0.7 


26 


67,08 


38.9 


34.66 


34.3 


344)1 


16.6 


37.60 


7.1 


48.46 


0.6 


27 


66.90 


38.8 


844)9 


33.9 


34.17 


16.3 


37.85 


6.8 


44.14 


0.4 


28 


66.87 


38.3 


334M 


33.7 


344)4 


16.9 


38.31 


6.5 


44.84 


0.3 


29 


64.66 


98.6 


33.03 


33.6 


33.93 


16.6 


98.68 


6.3 


45.55 


0.1 


30 


68.74 


98.6 






33.83 


164) 


38.66 


64) 


46.37 


0.0 


31 


6838 


98Ui 






33.74 


16.p 


394)9 


5.7 


46.99 


31 69.9 


32 


63.18 


38.4 






33.67 


14.6 






47.72 


69.8 



54 



FtXSD STABS. 



[1S55. 



True Apparent Places of the Pole Star for every Day in the Yettr, 

Epoch. — The Upper Culmination at Greenwich. 





JUHB. 


JULY. 


AUGUST. 




OCTOBBR. 


» UrssB Minoris 
iPolariay 


(Po/oris). 


»Urae Minoris 
{JPolarifty 


«Ura» Minoris 
(Potoris). 


«Ut8» Minoris 
(Po/or«). 


oftL 

Month. 


i 


1 


i 


\ 


i 
1 


\ 


% 


\ 


1 


\ 


1856. 


h. 
1 


o 

88 


h. 

1 


^ 


h. 
1 


8l 


h. 

1 


^ 


h. 
1 


^ 


1 


m. B. 
5 47.72 


/ // 

3169.8 


m. 8. 
6 13.06 


1 H 

3166.7 


nL fl. 
6 87.66 


89 3.7 


m. B. 
6 67JW 


89 ll'.l 


7 8.83 


t u 
33 31.0 


2 


48.46 


69.7 


13.90 


68.7 


88JI5 


S.9 


66.47 


11.5 


0.01 


33.8 


3 


49.31 


69.6 


13.75 


66.8 


39.11 


8.1 


68.98 


11.8 


0.18 


22.7 


4 


49.97 


69.5 


14.69 


68.8 


89.86 


8.8 


60.48 


13.1 


0.34 


23.1 


5 


fiO.78 


69.4 


16.44 


68.9 


40.60 


3.5 


60.07 


19.5 


0.48 


23.4 


6 


61.IX) 


60.3 


16.9P 


60U) 


41.34 


8.8 


7 0.40 


19.8 


0.61 


38.8 


7 


fi8.98 


60.3 


17.14 


60.0 


43.07 


4.0 


0.0f 


13.i 


0.72 


94 J3 


8 


68.06 


60.1 


17.00 


60.1 


43.80 


4.3 


IJ^ 


13.6 


0.89 


94.C 


9 


68.84 


60.0 


18.84 


60.3 


43.63 


4.4 


1.83 


18.8 


0J>1 


964> 


10 


64.68 


68.9 


10.60 


60.8 


44.34 


4.7 


3.98 


14.1 


0.00 


26.4 


11 


65.49 


68.8 


30.64 


60.4 


44.95 


6.0 


9.71 


14.6 


lOJM 


36.8 


12 


66.39 


68.8 


31.38 


60.5 


46.65 


6.8 


8.19 


14.8 


10.10 


26.9 


13 


OT.08 


68.7 


92JW 


60.6 


46JM 


5.5 


8.69 


U.9 


10.14 


98.6 


14 


ff7.84 


68.7 


33.06 


60.8 


47J» 


6.7 


8.01 


16.5 


10.17 


37.0 


15 


66.66 


68.7 


33.80 


69.0 


47.71 


6.0 


4.90 


16.0 


10.18 


27.4 


16 


60.47 


66.6 


34.73 


33 0.0 


48J8 


6.3 


4.97 


16.8 


10.18 


97.8 


17 


6 0.39 


66.6 


35.66 


0.1 


AQJUa 


6Ut 


6M 


16.7 


10.17 


28.9 


18 


1.11 


66.6 


36.80 


0.3 


40.70 


6.8 


5.88 


17.0 


10.14 


28.6 


19 


1.94 


66.5 


2T.31 


0.4 


60.36 


•7.1 


6.71 


17.4 


10.10 


98.9 


20 


2.77 


68.6 


28.03 


0.5 


60.99 


7.4 


6.08 


17.8 


10.04 


99.3 


21 


3.61 


68.5 


38.85 


0.7 


6K63 


7.7 


634 


18.1 


0.96 


29.7 


22 


4.44 


68.5 


39.61 


0.9 


53JM 


8.0 


6.66 


18.6 


0.90 


30.1 


23 


1^.98 


66 JS 


80.48 


I.l 


63.86 


6.8 


6^ 


18.8 


9.81 


30J» 


• 24 


6.13 


68.6 


31.99 


1.9 


68.46 


8.6 


7.98 


10.9 


0.70 


. M 


25 


6.96 


66.5 


33.09 


1.4 


64.04 


8.9 


7<46 


10.6 


0;58 


31.9 


26 


7.80 


66.5 


83.89 


1.6 


64.63 


9.3 


7.T3 


»A 


0.44 


31.6 


27 


8.65 


66.5 


33.68 


1.7 


65.31 


9.6 


isn 


90«4 


ojn 


S2U> 


28 


9.60 


66.6 


84.47 


1.9 


65.78 


0.8 


8.90 


90.8 


0.13 


324 


29 


0.85 


68.6 


86.35 


3;1 


664M 


10.1 


849 


91.9 


8J» 


32.7 


30 


1.90 


66.6 


86.08 


2.8 


66.89 


10.4 


8.68 


91.6 


8.77 


83.1 


31 


2.06 


68.7 


36.8] 


2.6 


67.43 


10.7 


8.83 


91 J) 


8.68 


83.5 


32 






87.66 


2.7 


67.95 


11.1 






8.37 


33.8 



1855.] WaXD 9TAB8. 55 

3Viw J9pp0remt Plmee$ efihe PoU Stmr fw every Day^ mnd of 7%trfyf0wii rf 

the Principal Fixed Stars for every TetUk Day^ of the Year, 

Epoch. — The Upper Culmiaation at Greenwieh. 















^Uiw 


Minoris. 








BBCniBBR. 




3 




I 












oft^e 


1 


1 


i 

1 


1 


• UmeMinoris 


• UrssMinoils 




iPolaris). 


iPotaria). 


Month. 


^ 


i 


Dar 
of the 
Month. 


1 


1 


1 


i . 




18S5. 


h. 
18 


8§ 





^ 




1 


i 


i 


Jan. 1 
U 


m. B. 
18 4833 


86 60.7 


m. 0. 
63.76 


i M 

17 963 




h. 




h. 




. 4836 


473 


53.69 


96.6 


1855. 


1 


88 


1 


88 


21 


49.63 


433 


63.60 


343 




m. 0. 


/ M 


m. fl. 


/ // 


31 


61.06 


403 


6338 


333 


1 


7 8J7 


83 88.8 


6 66J03 


33 433 


Feb. 10 


63.33 


883 


63.99 


313 


2 


8.14 


84.3 


66U3 


U.1 


20 


6631 


863 


S2M 


193 


3 


7.90 


84.6 


6431 


443 


Mar. 2 


69.00 


843 


63.10 


183 


4 


IJU 


86J) 


64.19 


443 


12 


19 337 


833 


53.19 


16.7 


5 


7.88 


86.8 


68.ff7 


443 


22 


6.90 


833 


6834 


163 


6 


7.10 


86.7 


6334 


46.1 


Apr. 1 


933 


33.7 


6834 


143 


7 


e.81 


88U> 


68.99 


463 


11 


1333 


83.4 


63.48 


183 


8 


6.fi0 


86.4 


6138 


463 


21 


16.96 


84.7 


69.07 


183 


9 


6.17 


86.8 


6036 


453 


May 1 


18.74 


86.6 


6939 


19.9 


10 


6.83 


87.3 


6039 


46.1 


11 


3136 


883 


63.16 


183 












21 


3333 


413 


68.46 


143 


11 


(U9 


87.6 


4931 


463 


31 


.34.08 


443 


64.79 


16.1 


12 


6.U 


87.8 


4B31 


463 


JunelO 


34.60 


473 


54.18 


163 


13 


4.77 


88J3 


4830 


403 


20 


34.64 


60.7 


6438 


183 


14 


4J0 


88.6 


47.49 


473 


30 


3334 


633 


6638 


903 


15 


8.99 


88J) 


46.78 


473 


July 10 


33.68 


673 


66.17 


333 


16 


8.A8 


89.8 


• 4636 


473 


20 


9038 


693 


6639 


363 


17 


3.16 


89U) 


4633 


473 


30 


18.16 


86 3*6 


56.78 


97.6 


18 


3.73 


89.9 


4437 


473 


Aug. 9 


16.33 


63 


66,06 


80.1 


19 


3.39 


40.3 


4833 


483 


19 


1136 


7.0 


66.97 


89.7 


20 


1^ 


40.6 


4836 


483 


29 


8.13 


83 


66.46 


36.9 












Septs 


4.11 


93 


6630 


873 


21 


IM 


403 


4330 


483 


18 


18 6030 


103 


66.71 


893 


22 


0.88 


41.1 


4138 


483 


28 


6538 


103 


66.77 


413 


22 


0.89 


41.4 


40.76 


48.7 


Oct. 8 


61.36 


103 


6630 


483 


24 


6 60.89 


41.8 


8936 


463 


18 


4630 


93 


66.79 


463 


25 


69.87 


43.1 


88.17 


493 


28 


43.93 


83 


66.76 


46.7 


26 


66.84 


49.4 


8637 


49.1 


Nov. 7 


89.13 


63 


6639 


473 


27 


66.39 


43.6 


8737 


493 


17 


86.71 


4.7 


6630 


483 


28 


67.73 


43.9 


86.76 


493 


27 


33.T7 


33 


6639 


493 


29 


67.17 


48.3 


8636 


493 


Dec 7 


8039 


36 693 


66.88 


49.1 


30 


66j00 


48.6 


86.18 


493 


17 


38^ 


66.1 


60.96 


493 


31 


664» 


48.8 


84.30 


49.7 


27 


97.54 


633 


56.11 


483 


32 






83.46 


493 


37 


97.98 


483 


56.96 


47.7 



56 
2Vir« 



FIXED STABS. [1865. 

Places of JTtiHy'Semn of ike Prkuipal Fixed Starsf9r tntry 
Tenth Day of the Year. 





Epooh.— 

/SGMi. 
2.3 


The Upper Culmination at Greenwich 








• Arietis. 
3 


-Ceti. 
2.3 


• Tauri 
iAldebarany, 


• Aurin 
CCapelta). 


of the 
Month. 


i 

i 


i 


i 


< 


i 
1 


1 

i 


1 


1 

i 


Pi 


^ 


1865. 


h 



ii 


h. 

1 


o 

22 


h. 

2 


§ 


h. 

4 


o 
16 


h. 

5 


o 

45 




m. 8. 


/ // 


m. 0. 


/ // 


ra. 8. 


/ // 


m. 8. 


/ // 


m. 8. 


./ // 


Jan. 1 


M 17.83 


47 13.2 


68 69.96 


46 33.7 


64 43.13 


31 4.3 


27 36.67 


13 64.0 


6 69.66 


60 603 


U 


17.71 


13.6 


60.67 


83.4 


43.03 


8.6 


86.64 


63.9 


69.66 


61.9 


21 


17.W 


13.7 


69.74 


32.0 


41.93 


8.0 


86.48 


63.7 


69.66 


63.3 


31 


17.4» 


13.6 


69.69 


81.4 


41.79 


3.6 


864)8 


63.5 


66.46 


643 


Feb.lO 


17.40 


13.3 


69.46 


80.7 


41.66 


2.1 


36.36 


63.3 


60.39 


66.1 


20 


i7ja 


11.6 


69.81 


39.8 


41.61 


1.6 


86.00 


68.1 


694)6 


66.7 


Mar. 8 


17.97 


10.6 


69.18 


390) 


41.87 


1.6 


864)3 


63.9 


6836 


66.9 


12 


17.36 


9.4 


69.08 


38.1 


41.34 


1.6 


85.76 


68.7 


66.61 


66.9 


22 


17.36 


8.0 


. 69.01 


37.3 


41.14 


1.7 


86.60 


63.6 


66.»7 


66.6 


Apr. 1 


17.83 


6.1 


66.96 


36.6 


414)6 


3.0 


86.46 


62.4 


66.14 


64.9 


11 


17.41 


4.3 


66.99 


36.0 


41412 


3.6 


86416 


62.3 


67.95 


64.1 


21 


IIM 


3.1 


69.04 


36.6 


41.03 


8.3 


86.37 


634) 


67.80 


633 


May 1 


17.78 


46 60.8 


69.17 


36.4 


414)6 


4.1 


86.34 


62.4 


67.70 


61.8 


11 


17.96 


67.4 


69.33 


35.6 


41.16 


6J) 


86.36 


63.6 


67.66 


60.6 


21 


18.30 


66.0 


69.64 


36.0 


41.30 


6.6 


864)1 


62.9 


67.66 


49J3 


31 


18.49 


63.6 


69.78 


36.7 


41.49 


8.1 


8643 


63.4 


67.77 


47.9 


JunelO 


16.79 


60.1 


60 0.07 


37.6 


41.71 


9.7 


86.66 


64.1 


67.93 


463 


20 


19.13 


473 


OM 


38.8 


414)6 


11.6 


86.77 


64.9 


66.13 


46.6 


30 


19.46 


46.7 


0.71 


30.2 


43.33 


13.3 


864)0 


66.7 


68.39 


44.6 


July 10 


19.79 


43.8 


1.05 


81.8 


43.63 


16.2 


86.36 


66.7 


66.69 


433 


20 


30.11 


43.3 


1.39 


88.6 


43.64 


174) 


86.64 


67.8 


60.03 


43.3 


30 


30.43 


40.9 


1.73 


88.4 


43.16 


18.7 


86.64 


66.9 


69.41 


43.8 


Aug. 9 


30.71 


89.9 


3.06 


87.3 


48.47 


30.31 


87.16 


60.9 


6030 


43.6 


19 


30.96 


89.3 


3.36 


80.2 


48.77 


31.7 


87.47 


18 0.9 


6 0.31 


42,7 


29 


31.18 


89.0 


3.64 


41.0 


444)6 


S8.0 


87.79 


14) 


0.64 


43.9 


Sept. 8 


31.86 


89.0 


3.90 


43.6 


44.34 


34.0 


88.10 


3.7 


L07 


43.8 


18 


31WW 


89.4 


3.13 


44.6 


44410 


34.7 


88.41 


8.4 


1.49 


433 


28 


31.60 


40.1 


8.31 


46.1 


44.81 


3&JI 


88.71 


44) 


L91 


443 


Oct. 8 


31.67 


414) 


8.48 


47.6 


464)1 


36.4 


86.99 


4.4 


34)1 


45.4 


18 


31.70 


43.1 


8.61 


48.7 


46.18 


S6.4 


89.35 


4.7 


3.70 


46.4 


28 


31.60 


43.4 


8.70 


49.6 


464» 


36.3 


89.49 


4.9 


8.06 


473 


Nov. 7 


31416 


44.7 


8.77 


60.7 


46.44 


34.8 


89.70 


4.9 


8.40 


463 


17 


31.60 


46.0 


8.80 


61.4 


4649 


34.3 


89.89 


4.9 


8.70 


60.2 


27 


31.63 


47.2 


3.81 


63.0 


464Se 


33.7 


404K> 


4.6 


8.96 


61.7 


Dec. 7 


31.48 


48.3 


8.78 


63.3 


46.60 


384) 


40.17 


4.7 


4.16 


63.3 


17 


31.83 


49.3 


8.73 


63.6 


46.69 


33.3 


40.36 


4.6 


431 


64.7 


27 


31.33 


60.0 


3.65 


63.5 


46.66 


31.6 


40.39 


4.3 


4.41 


66.3 


37 


31.10 


60.6 


8.64 


63.3 


46.48 


30.9 


40.38 


4.1 


4.44 


67.7 



•J raXO 8TAB8. 

TnUk Ikty wf ikt Year, 
Epoch. — Tbe Upper Cafaniiuilion at Gnenwieh. 




5a FIXED STABS. [1865. 

TriM Jippareai Places of JTiirttfsevm qf the Prmapal Fiaud Stars for svenf 
Tenth Day of the Year. 

Epoch. — The Ujpper Culmination at Greenwich, 



oftL 

Moath. 


•2 Geminorum 
iCa8tor). 

^ 1 

1 i 


*Cani8 Minoris 
iProcj^n}. 

i"t 
i i 


CPoUuaf). 
2 

^ 1 
1 i 


• Hydiw. 

^ 1 

1 1 


• Leonis 

1 1 


i856. 


k. 
7 




32 


h. 

7 


o 
5 


h. 

7 


^ 


h. 
9 


1 


h. 
10 


o 

12 




m. 8. 


/ // 


m. 8. 


/ // 


m. 8. 


t u 


m.. 8. 


/ M 


m. a. 


/ // 


Jan. 1 


36 21.33 


13 9.6 


3143.07 


36 40.e 


36 36.88 


23 23.2 


30 27.94 


149.3 


39.90 


40 98.4 


11 


31.38 


10.1 


43.21 


80.4 


27.06 


23.4 


38.17 


61.6 


89,17 


27.6 


21 


31.49 


10.8 


43.30 


88.3 


27.17 


33.8 


38.35 


63.7 


8941 


26U) 


31 


31.53 


11.6 


43.34 


87.4 


27.22 


24.3 


28.49 


66.6 


38.60 


26.1 


Feb.lO 


21.62 


13.3 


48.33 


86.7 


27.22 


24.9 


38.68 


ff7.3 


89.74 


24.6 


20 


31.46 


13.2 


43.37 


86.2 


27.18 


26.6 


38.63 


68.9 


89.63 


34.1 


Mar. 2 


31.36 


14.0 


43.18 


36.9 


27.08 


26.3 


38.61 


2 0.1 


88.88 


94.0 


12 


31.90 


14.7 


48.06 


86.7 


26.94 


26.9 


28.56 


1.1 


88.88 


24.2 


22 


21.08 


16.4 


42.91 


86.6 


26.78 


27.5 


28.48 


1.9 


89.83 


34.6 


Apr. 1 


30.86 


16.8 


42J6 


86.7 


36.61 


28.0 


28.37 


2.4 


89,76 


94.9 


11 


20.66 


16.3 


43.69 


36.9 


36.48 


28.4 


28.26 


2.6 


39,66 


' 35.4 


21 


20.48 


16.3 


42.44 


86.2 


36.36 


28.6 


38.13 


2.6 


20M 


36J» 


May 1 


30.33 


16.3 


42.30 


86.6 


26.11 


38.8 


27.98 


2.6 


8943 


96.6 


11 


20.20 


16.2 


43.19 


87.1 


26.98 


38.8 


27.85 


2.1 


39.31 


27.1 


21 


30.11 


16.9 


43.10 


87.6 


36.88 


38.7 


27.73 


1.6 


89,90 


27.7 


31 


20.06 


16.6 


43.06 


88.3 


35.82 


38.4 


97.62 


0.8 


89.09 


3B.2 


JunelO 


20.04 


14.9 


42.03 


89.0 


35.80 


38.1 


27.54 


1 69.9 


a9U)0 


98.7 


20 


30.07 


14.3 


42.06 


89.7 


36.82 


27.7 


27.47 


66.9 


88.92 


39.1 


30 


30.14 


13.7 


42.10 


40.6 


26.88 


27.3 


27.43 


67.8 


88.87 


394 


July 10 


90.26 


13U) 


42.18 


41.4 


26.97 


96.8 


97.42 


66.7 


88.84 


29.6 


20 


30.42 


12.2 


42.31 


42.2 


36.13 


26.2 


27.43 


66.5 


88.83 


29.7 


30 


20.61 


11.6 


42.46 


43.9 


36.30 


36.6 


2747 


64.3 


88.84 


99.7 


Aug. 9 


90.84 


10.7 


42.64 


43.6 


36.50 


25.0 


97.53 


63.2 


88.88 


20.6 


19 


21.09 


10.0 


42.84 


44.1 


36.73 


24.4 


97.64 


62.1 


88.95 


29.4 


29 


21.37 


9.2 


48.07 


44.6 


36.99 


33.7 


27.76 


61.2 


89.05 


98.9 


Sept. 8 


21.ff7 


8.4 


43.32 


44.6 


37.97 


33.0 


97.92 


60-6 


80.18 


38.3 


18 


31.99 


7.6 


48.68 


44.6 


27.67 


33.3 


28.10 


60.2 


890)4 


974 


28 


33.33 


6.8 


43.87 


44.2 


27.89 


21.4 


28.32 


60.2 


89J» 


964 


Oct 8 


33.68 


6.0 


44.16 


43.7 


28.23 


90.6 


28.56 


60.6 


89.76 


95.3 


18 


33.04 


6.3 


44.47 


43.9 


28.66 


19.7 


28.83 


61.1 


40U)0 


38.8 


28 


33.41 


4.6 


44.78 


41.9 


38.94 


18.8 


29.13 


62.1 


40.28 


33.3 


Nov. 7 


33.78 


4.0 


45.09 


40.7 


39.29 


18.1 


29.44 


634 


40J>9 


30.4 


17 


34.14 


3.6 


4640 


89.3 


39.64 


17.3 


29.76 


66.1 


• 40.91 


18U» 


27 


34.48 


3.2 


45.69 


87.9 


20.96 


16.8 


80.09 


67.0 


41.26 


16.6 


Dec. 7 


34.80 


3.0 


46.96 


864 


30.29 


16.3 


8041 


69.1 


41.60 


14.8 


17 


36.08 


3.0 


46.21 


84.9 


30.67 


16.0 


80.72 


2 1.3 


41.93 


13.0 


27 


36.32 


8.2 


46.41 


33.5 


30.81 


15.9 


81.00 


8.6 


42.25 


11.8 


37 


36.63 


3.6 


46.66 


33.2 


81.01 


16.0 


81.25 


6.9 


42.66 


9.8 



1855.] FIXED STABS. 59 

Thte JJpparerU Places of Thirty^even of the Prindped Fixed SUtr$for every 
TefUh Day of the Year. 





Epoch.— 


• The Upper Culminatioii at Greenwich 


• 






vUnsBMajoris. 


^LeoniB. 


• Tirginia 


• Bootie 


•SLitea. 




1.2 


2.3 


iSpicay. 

i i 


UrcturuM}. 


3 


S:l 


Bight Abc. 
Dec. North. 


i 


I 


i 


1 * 


i 


1 


Month. 




1 


i 


1 


1 


i 




h. 


o 


h. 


o 


h. 


o 


h. 


o 


h. 


o 


1855. 


10 


62 


11 


15 


13 


10 


14 


19 


14 


15 




m. B. 


/ // 


m. B. 


/ // 


m. 8. 


/ // 


m. 8. 


/ tt 


m. 8. 


/ 


Jan. 1 


54 4&67 


3146.6 


4139.3rt 


33 66.4 


17 83.46 


34 6.4 


9 1.78 


58 14.6 


43 60JI1 


36 7.9 


11 


46.a 


47.0 


39.63 


63.7 


33.79 


8.6 


3.13 


13.1 


60.64 


9.6 


21 


40.78 


47.9 


39.94 


69.3 


33.13 


10.6 


3.48 


10.1 


60.88 


11.9 


31 


47.10 


49.8 


40.91 


61.1 


38.43 


19.6 


3.79 


8.4 


61.93 


184) 


Feb. 10 


47J»] 


61J2 


40.44 


60.4 


88.78 


14.6 


8.11 


7.1 


'61.65 


I44i 


SO 


47.78 


68.4 


40JB 


49.9 


38J» 


18.3 


3.41 


8.3 


61.86 


18J3 


Mar. 2 


47JM 


66.8 


40.78 


49.8 


84J33 


17.8 


84r7 


84) 


63.16 


17.7 


12 


47J» 


68.4 


40.88 


60.0 


84.41 


19.1 


84)1 


80 


69.49 


194) 


22 


47.98 


S3 1.1 


40iM 


60.6 


84.67 


90.3 


4.11 


8.5 


69.86 


90.1 


Apr. 1 


4735 


8.6 


40.98 


61.1 


844B 


91.1 


4.38 


7.3 


64.86 


91.1 


11 


47.06 


0.0 


40.94 


61.9 


84.76 


91.7 


4.41 


8.4 


684)4 


313 


21 


47.49 


8.0 


40JW 


69.8 


84.83 


93.3 


AM 


9.7 


63.18 


33.4 


May 1 


47.14 


0.8 


40.64 


63.7 


UJB6 


93.4 


4.68 


11.1 


68 JO 


993 


11 


46.88 


11.1 


40.76 


64.6 


84.87 


33.6 


4.81 


19.7 


68.89 


98.9 


SI 


40.60 


19.0 


40.67 


66.5 


84.86 


93.5 


4.03 


14.3 


68.40 


983 


31 


40.17 


13.4 


40jn 


66.8 


84.89 


33.8 


4.60 


16.7 


68.49 


98U 


JunelO 


46.88 


19 J} 


40.40 


674) 


84.76 


33.1 


4.66 


17.0 


68.60 


98.4 


20 


45M 


11.7 


40.88 


67.8 


84.69 


31.7 


4.48 


18.3 


63.48 


983 


30 


4A.90 


10.7 


40J98 


66.0 


84.6(y 


31.8 


4.40 


19.3 


68.43 


38.1 


July 10 


46.06 


9.3 


40.19 


66.3 


84.61 


30.8 


4.39 


30.1 


68.85 


394) 


20 


44.86 


7.8 


40.11 


66.3 


34.41 


30.3 


4.17 


30.7 


68.28 


33.6 


30 


44.79 


6.1 


40U)fi 


66JI 


84.80 


19.7 


44)4 


31.0 


68.16 


39.9 


Aug. 9 


44.64 


3.6 


40.00 


664) 


34.19 


19.1 


8.90 


314) 


634)3 


213 


19 


44.61 


8169.7 


89.97 


ff7.6 


34.09 


18.6 


8.70 


30.7 


69.80 


91.4 


29 


44.84 


66.6 


89.96 


66.9 


34.01 


18.0 


8.83 


30.3 


69.78 


30.9 


Sept. 8 


44.74 


68.1 


89.98 


664) 


38.94 


17.5 


8.63 


19.8 


62.83 


90.6 


18 


44.90 


49.7 


40.13 


{«.7| 


33.89 


17.2 


8.43 


18.3 


694a 


20.0 


28 


46.14 


46.4 


53.4 


33.88 


17.1 


3.84 


16.7 


62.43 


19.7 


Oct. 8 


46.44 


48.1 


40.35 


61.8 


33.91 


17J 


8.80 


164) 


63.87 


19.6 


18 


46.81 


89.8 


40.43 


60.0 


88.98 


17.4 


8.30 


18.0 


63.86 


19.4 


28 


46.34 


86.8 


40.63 


484) 


84.10 


17.9 


&\ 


\\li\ 


63.39 


19.4 


Nov. 7 


46.78 


84:o 


40.87 


46.8 


84.37 


18.7 


3.46 


8.0 


63.48 


193 


17 


47.gfr 


81.6 


41.16 


43.6 


34.48 


19.8 


8.81 


6.3 


63.62 


903 


27 


47.88 


99.4 


41.46 


41.3 


84.78 


31.2 


8.80 


9.6 


. 62.80 


21.1 


Dec. 7 


48.41 


97.8 


41.80 


39.0 


864)9 


33.8 


44)6 


65 69.8 


634)4 


33.2 


17 


4»M 


96.7 


49.14 


88.8 


86414 


94.6 


4.88 


67.0 


63.31 


38.4 


27 


40.70 


90.9 


49U9 


34.7 


86.68 


36.6 


4.68 


64.3 


68.61 


243 


37 


60.98 


96.81 


49.88 


82.8! 


364)3 


38.7 


4.96 


61.9 


63.94 


20.4 



90 FIXED STABS. [185d. 

Tnu AnpuToa Plaeu of Thtrty-awm of the Pruuipal Fixed Stars for wenf 
Tenth Day of the Year. 

Epoch. — The Upper Culmination at Greenwich. 





3 


jB Libra. 
2.3 


aOoiQiwBoro* 

alia. 


MSeroeatis. 


31 Scorpil. 
8 


of the 


il 


1 


i 


1 


2 

8 

< 


1 


1 


1 


^ 1 


Month. 


1 


I 


i 


I 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 1 




h. 


o 


h. 


o 


h. 


o 


h. 


o 


h. 


o 


1855. 


14 


74 


15 


8 


15 


27 


15 


6 


15 


19 




m, 8. 


/ // 


m. a. 


/ » 


m. 8. 


/ « 


m. a. 


/ // 


m. a. 


1 // 


Jan. 1 


51 9.09 


44 36.4 


9 10.84 


50 41.2 


28 81-42 


13 9.3 


37 6.09 


58 0.6 


66 58.66 


94 leja 


11 


9.80 


33.0 


11.16 


43.9 


31.72 


6.6 


6.31 


52 68.8 


68J7 


17.1 


21 


10.66 


31.2 


11.48 


44.6 


32.04 


4.2 


6.63 


66.4 


59.99 


18.3 


31 


11.66 


30.0 


11.81 


46.3 


82.38 


2.3 


6.08 


54.6 


50.69 


19.5 


Feb. 10 


12.47 


29.6 


12.1^ 


47.9 


32.71 


0.8 


7.26 


58.1 


B»M 


90.7 


20 


13.36 


99.8 


12.46 


49.3 


33.04 


11 60.6| 


7.86 


51.9 


67 OJW 


91.9 


Mar. 2 


14.ia 


30.7 


12.76 


60.6 


33.36 


69.3 


7.86 


51jO 


0.03 


98.0 


12 


14.93 


32.1 


13.02 


61.6 


33.66 


60.3 


8.15 


50.6 


0.06 


34.1 


22 


16.58 


34.1 


1 13.97 
13.49 


62.3 


38.93 


69.9 


8.41 


50.3 


1.33 


36.0 


Apr. 1 


16.10 


36.5 


63.8 


34.17 


12 0.9 


8.64 


50.8 


1.60 


Si.7 


11 


16.49 


89.3 


13.69 


58.1 


34.38 


2.2 


8.86 


61.0 


1.75 


36.4 


21 


16.74 


43.3 


13.86 


68.2 


34.66 


8.9 


9.04 


51.8 


1.07 


26.9 


May 1 


16.86 


46.4 


14.00 


63.2 


34.71 


5.9 


9.20 


52.7 


2.16 


fttji 


11 


16.81 


48.6 


14*11 


68.1 


34.8W 


8.0 


9.33 


58.R| 


3.88 


37.7 


21 


16.63 


61.4 


14.20 


52.8, 


34.90 


10.1 


9.48 


66.1 


3.48 


9(1.9 


31 


16.83 


54.1 


14.25 


62.6, 


34.94| 


13.3 


9.80 


56.3 


9.66 


38.1 


JunelO 


16.91 


66.6 


14.27 


62.1| 


34.96 


14.3 


9.54 


57.8 


3.66 


98.3 


20 


16.39 


68.7 


14.27 


51.7) 


34.92 


16.3 


9.56 


66.7 


3.70 


28.3 


30 


14.78 


45 0.3 


14.34 


51.3, 


34^ 


18.0 


9.68 


69.9 


3.70 


28.3 


July 10 


14.10 


1.4 


14.18 


60.9 


34.78 


19.5 


948 


53 0.9 


iM 


983 


20 


13.3Q 


9.1 


14.10 


60.4 


34.66 


90.7 


9.40 


1.6 


2.03 


98.3 


30 


13.69 


3.2 


14.00 


50.0 


34.53 


31.6 


9.30 


2.4 


8.69 


28.3 


Aug. 9 


11.80 


1.8 


13.88 


49.6 


34.36 


93.1 


9.17 


8.0 


3.40 


28U) 


19 


110)9 


0.8 


18.74 


49.8 


34.19 


33.3 


9.04 


8.3 


3.37 


27.8 


29 


10.36 


44 69.3 


13.60 


49.0 


34.01 


33.1 


8.89 


8.4 


2.19 


27.5 


Septs 


9.63 


&1A 


13.47 


46.6 


88.88 


31.6 


8.74 


8.4 


1.96 


97JI 


18 


8.86 


66.0 


13.36 


48.6 


88,67 


30.7 


8.60 


8.1 


1.8] 


26.9 


28 


8.35 


52.2 


13.24 


48.6 


38.62 


19.4 


8.47 


3.8 


1.67 


26.6 


Oct 8 


7.76 


49.0 


13.17 


48.7 


38.39 


17.8 


8.37 


1.8 


1.56 


96.3 


18 


7.36 


46.6 


18.13 


46.9 


38.30 


16.R 


8.30 


0.8 


1.46 


96.0 


28 


7.11 


41.8 


13.18 


49.4 


33.36 


18J> 


8.27 


53 50Ji 


i.a 


95.8 


Nov. 7 


7.03 


IPiSi 


18.18 


60.0 


83.36 


10.9 


8.38 


58.0 


1.45 


3S.8 


17 


33.6 


13.30 


61J0 


83.33 


7.8 


8.35 


66.3 


1.51 


95.9 


27 


7.23 


29.7 


13.45 


53.1 


83.48 


4.9 


&47 


54.1 


1.68 


96JI 


Dec. 7 


7.88 


96.0 


13.66 


58.4 


38.60 


1.8 


8.64 


534) 


1.80 


96.8 


17 


8.08 


23.6 


13.90 


54.9 


33.81 


11 58.8 


8.85 


40.8 


9.09 


97.4 


27 


8.70 


19.6 


14.18 


56.5 


84.07 


56.8 


9.10 


47.6 


9.28 


98JI 


37 


9.44 


16.8 


14.48 


56.3 


34U)6 


58X 


9.88 


45.4 


2.61 


90.3 



1855.] FIXEB BTABS. 61 

Drue JfpjmrttU Piaees •f Tkirty'seven of tke Principal Fixed fitor» for emry 
Ta^ Day cf the Year, 





Epoch.- 


- The Upper Calibiiiatioii at Greenwich 






Dar 
ofihtt 


* Scorpli 
iAntar€sy 

^ 1 
1 t 


• OphiocbL 
2 

i 1 
1 ] 


i t 

1 i 


1 '^ 

i 

1 


•1 

1 


• AquilflJ 

iAltuir), 

l.a ^ 


ISS^l 


IB 


^ 


17 


& 


h. 

18 


3l 


ig 


§ 


19 


& 




in. «. 


1 it 


m, B. 


f ff 


'm. a. 


t ft 


m. a. 


1 it 


m. a. 


i it 


Jan. 1 


30 2»,M! 


fi 3GL4 


ag 10.24 


4a 0J'31 *P.43 


38 66.7 


IS 0,D7L»ST*3 


43 40J8 


-20 US 


n 


29.1T 


31J) 


10,4fi 


39 M.fi 


S9.afi 


63.a 


9,18| B*,0 


40.4* 


9,8 


21 


mJB 


21,7 


lO.ee 


dfl-6 


, fl9.73 


M.4 


9.3-3 


31.2 


40,S7 


8.1 


31 


3(f.i9 


3a,e 


10,&4 


fi4,5 


49.94 


47.6 


9J0 


30,8 


40,73 


6.6 


Feb JO 


30.4a 


aa-s 


11.52 


fi3»S 


33 O.lfl 


45.0 


9.70 


31,7 


40.90 


5.3 


SO 


30.S3 


^^ 


l\M 


fll.4 


0.4S 


42.0 


9.^ 


30,7 


41,10 


4,0 


Mar. 3 


31, IS 


35.5 


ii,ei 


60.6 


0.79 


41,3 


10.1& 


30.1 


41.33 


3.1 


12 


3i.ai 


36.4 


12.12 


4»,9 


. 1,11 


40.3' 


10,45 


29,7 


AIM 


2.6 


2S 


ai,83 


27.3 


12,42 


49,fl 


1.45 


39.7 


10.73 


39.6 


41.86 


2.4 


Apr. 1 


3<2.ia 


mi 


12.71 


flO.O 


1.79 


39.9 


11,0^1 


20.9 


43.14 


2.6 


U 


35,41 


2B.9 


12.99 


60,1 


3.13 


40,6, 


11,32; 


30 J> 


43.43 


3.1 


21 


3^66 


me 


13.33 


61,7 


3,4^ 


41.9^ 


11.^ 


31.3 


43,73 


4.0 


May 1 


32.80 


30.3 


i3.ao 


fi3,0^ 


3.77 


43.a 


11.93 


33J5 


43.04 


5,3 


U 


33J0 


30,9 


13-73 


M.e 


3.06 


45.8 


13,31 


33.9 


43.34 


0.6 


21 


33.2T 


31.4 


13^ 


6a,3 


3.33 


4fl.3 


13.49 


35,4 


43.63 


6,5 


31 


33,41 


33J) 


1445i 


W.3 


3,55 


ai.i 


13.7 S 


37.1 


43,f»0 


10,4 


JttttelO 


aa.fli 


33.4 


14*33 


4iO 0,1 


3.74 


64iJ 


12,98 


38.8 


44.1fl 


12,4 


20 


33.57 


33,9 


14.32 


1.9 


3,88 


ffJJO 


13,19 


40.ft 


41.37 


14.4 


30 


33.S0 


33,2 


14.36 


3.7 


3,07 


30 0,1 


33JMJ 


42.2 


44.56 


IG.fl 


July 10 


53.&9 


33.6 


1440 


S,4 


4,03 


3.0 


13.49 


43.e 


44.71 


16.1 


30 


33^ 


33,a 


14.3© 


6S 


4.01 


6,8 


13*57 


45.3 


4J.a3 


30.3 


30 


33.46 


34 JO 


H,33 


8.3 


3.9fi 


8.4 


ia,6t 


46.0 


44.BS 


2^iiO 


Aug, 9 


33.34 


W.i; 


14*34 


9.3 


3.8d 


, 10.7 


13,62 


47.7 


41.90 


33.5 


19 


33/20 


34.0 


14p12 


10,3 


3,70 


i3.e 


13.66 


48.7 


44.fi7 


34.8 


m 


33,04 


33,B 


i3.pT 


lO.S 


3.63 


14,3' 


13,50 


49.4 


44^1 


35.9 


Sept 8 


33.87 


33.d 


13-81 


11,3 


3.30 


^J 


13.3» 


BO.O 


44.73 


26.8 


18 


3-2,70 


33,3 


13,&^ 


11.31 


3.06 


]a.3j 


13.35 


60.3 


44.S9 


37,4 


28 


3^,34 


33,& 


I3*4e 


n.Oi 


3.S1 


36.5 


13.10 


50,5 


44.41 


37.8 


OcL 8 


3^,41 


32.4 


13.2fl 


10.5; 


2.50 


16,1 


12,94 


60.4 


44.3fi 


37,9 


18 


33^1 


3l.§ 


13,J4 


9,7 


2,m 


US 


13-77 


50,3 
49,S 


44, U 


27.8 


28 


32*34 


314 


13J)a 


e.6 


2.00 


14.7 


12^3 


43.96 


37,4 


Nov, 7 


33.93 


31.0 


12.33 


7.3 


1.89 


13. 1 


12.49 


49.1 


43.81 


963 


17 


33.07 


30.7 


12.89 


6.6 


1,73 


11.3 


ia.se 


46,3 


43.69 


36.0 


27 


^2m 


30.& 


13.89 


3.8 


i,ea 


8.9 


12,31 


47,3 


43.60 


34,9 


Dec. 7 


3'lSJl 


30.a 


ia.fl3 


1,7 


1.B5 


0.3 


12.2S 


4fl.5 


43.64 


33.7 


17 


3J.73 


30.7 


13JM 


3oas.3 


1,63 


3,3 


13,58 


44,9 


43.53 


33,5 


S7 




31.0 


13.18 


57,0 


J .57 


0.1 


12:.32 


43.6 


43.64 


30,T 


37 


it,£ 


13.36 


64 .7 


1,6S 


^ 03,fi- 


12,40 


42al 


43.59 


19,1 




62 FIXED STABS. [1855. 

JVue JipparetU Places of TUrty-Mven cf tite Prmeiptd Fixed Siars far tnery 
Tenth Day of the Year, 





Epoch.- 


-The Upper 


Culmination at Greenwicli 


. 




of the 


« Pjgnl. 


.«Oe|ibo!. 


1 ^Aqmrll. 


Apisc.AwatralMi 




i 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 ^ 
ig 


1 1 


i 


I ^ 




*» 

pg 


1 


«* 


1 


1 P^ 


^ ! 


1 


i 


1 




ii. 


o 


h. 


o 


1 ^ 


o 


h. 


o 


h, 


o 


18ii& 


20 


44 


21 


61 


' 21 


1 


22 


30 


22 


14 




hl fc 


,f fl 


ni. 8, 


J n' 


tu. ■► 


t ti 


m. B. 


1 iv 


m. a. 


' tf 


Jan. 1 


36 30.90 


i»4dJi 


IQ 3J3 


66S3J 


eeiejo 


1 30.1 


'it 36.06 


23 19,6 


ff7 30J7 


ffiSM 


11 


aMfi 


40.6 


tm 


».4 


18.30 


30J 


3fl.27 


30. t 


1 30.66 


saj 


ai 


ai.Bfl 


«.T 


3.ia 


17.4 


1 18,36 


31.7 


1 3fl.31 


36.4 


{ 30J1 


ml 


31 


aB.« 


40.< 


3.41 


J4.9 


1 ia.37 


35,3 


39.18 


974 


36.77 


3ftj 


FebwlO 


3t^ 


37.4 


343 


10.7 


' 3841 


33.D 


36.16 


WA 


»*7B 


S«b6 


SO 


37.ia 


34.7 


3.A4 


7.a 


18.50 


33^ 


36.21 


34.71 


mje 


34^ 


Mar. 3 


57.^ 


33.3 


3.7S 


4.^ 


18.61 


33.5 


36.28 


dSM 


3OJ0 


Sft-4 


12 


^JS& 


^A 


3.90 


1.0 


1 1B.T6 


3.4 


[ 3648 


31 J) 


30,BB 


23.6 


2S 


27^ 


28.i? 


4.33 


*7 68J 


18.93 


33.1 


30.63 


90aJ 


31,9U 


31.9 


Apr. 1 


aa.M 


37.0 


4.13 


58,0 


i^in 


as.fl 


M.71 


ae-e 


31.10 


fll.7 


11 


98^ 


^43 


6.18 


6&S 


1&.37 


3U7 


30*D3 


34.5' 


31.35 


21,8 


*21 


28.95 


27,8 


6-au 


Sfl.4 


19-03 


304} 


37,19 


32,2 


31.67 


22.3 


Maj^ 1 


20^ 


as.fi 


e.i7 


60.a 


« n^wi 


2&,a 


3746 


19.il 


31.83 


33.1 


11 


20 TO 


29-9 


fi.||0 


57.3 


ao-aa 


f7*a 


37.70 


n.T 


32.12 


24.2 


%l 


30^ 


3i.e; 


7.ai 


6^.6 


1 ao^^ 


J5.a' 


38.18 


i&Ji 


3243 


35,7 


31 


3MI 


34.1 


7.7W 


56 0^ 


! 30^ 


ai.o! 


3849 


mA 


sa.76 


S7-4 


JunelO 


30.73 


36.8 


8.13 


a.H 


3147 


23.0! 


38-aa 


11.7 


3SJ37 


mA 


2tJ 


31.01 


38*7 


a,53 


5^ 


ai^ 


^4\ 


39*113 


10*1 


33*4ft 


31.6 


30 


31.^ 


4J.B 


8.M 


e.7 


aU76 


18,1 


3».M 


BS 


33.71 


u^ 


July 10 


3Ufi 


46-9 


o.^a 


15.0 


: s3.oa 


16.3 


39*90 


7.S 


34-00 


3iMZ 


20 


3U^ 


4f-a 


0.+i 


15^ 


1 M.36 


14*0 


40-30 


7.3 
7-0 


W.27 


38^ 


30 


ar.ffT 


^ij 


s-ae 


l»,-i 


^44 


ia-0 


40*47 


34*61 


40.8 


Aug. 9 


»i.eo' 


66-0 


£^.63 


3^^ 


33.00 


11*6^ 


40-70 


7,1 


34-71 


43-0 


19 


3],0g: 


59^1 


9-61 


ao-t 


23,71 


111.5 


4OW90 


1.6l 


34-07 


45-1 


29 


31.56 


-«r 1-S^ 


S-5i 


39.9 


23.77 


8.0 


4J4J2 


6.3 


34.9B 


47-D 


Septa 


3 J. 44 


^'i 


9^3 


33.1 


22.7© 


B.i 


4140 


9*1 


^M 


4S-7 


18 


ai^OQ 


^ 


94)0 


3a.o 


3^J.77 


e.s 


4144 


10^ 


36,09 


60-2 


se 


31*05 


ns\ 


B.-iS 


38.6 


22.72 


e.i 


4143 


US 


35 J» 


614 


Oct e 


30.ei 


m 


8-41 


40.8 


1 2-J.&4 


8^ 


41.0S 


12.9 


3i),06 


324 


18 


B0,5S 


m' 


S.D© 


42.g 


22.64 


S.0 


4HJ0 


14.3 


34.99 


63,1 


28 


30.M 


lO^^'j 


T-63. 


4».e 


2-2.42 


8.3 


40.eo 


16^ 


34 J 1 


53.6 


Nov. 7 


3G'04 


10^' 


iJ-n 


44^ 


itLm 


ae^ 


40-70 


16.8 


34.81 


63.8 


1 17 


^.7ft 


10,2 


fl.7fl 


44.S 


2-3^17 


ff.i 


40-03 


17.9 


34,iS 


63.8 


1 27 


ffl*6B 


fl.l 


6*38 


44,11 


aajjft 


9*7 


40411 


18.7 


S4.M 


53.5 


Bee. 7 


M^ 


7.d' 


S.0O 


43.3 


21.94 


3041 


40-34 


10-^ 


34.46 


63.0 


17 


as.ti 


h,b 


6.66 


41^' 


^1^ 


11,1 


40*3? 


Tfl.5 


34^ 


A2.3 


27 


3IM» 


3.1 


6.35 


2&.6 


ai.78 


11. a 


40,10 


19.^ 




fiL4 


37 


Q&.oa 


0.4 


^10 


37.0 


2U74 


19.S 


40.00 


19-5: 


34.1* 


00.4 



1855.] 



DR. young's refractions. 



68 



Dr. Young's Refractions^ the Barometer being at 30 incheSy and the internal 
Thermometer at 50, or the external at 47 degrees ; with the Corrections for 
-|- one inch in the Barometer, and for — one degree in the Thermometer of 
Fahrenheit. From page 19 of Vol. I. of Pearson's Practical Astronomy, 



< 






o 

7 


i 


Ss 




o 

7 


^ 
^ 






7 

ii 

15 


i 


Si 


b 


7 

.1 


< 


r 


74 


// 
8.1 


< 

O / 

3 


P 


P 

// 
30 


2.3 


1 


r 


1 


|S 


tin 
2 


O / 




/ // 
33 51 


1 it 
14 35 


o / 
8 


/ // 
6 35 


13.3 


u 

.85 


O / 

14 


/ // 

3 49.9 


7!70 


II 

.469 


6 


33 53 


71 


7.6 


5 


14 19 


29 


3.3 


10 


6 38 


13.1 


.83 


10 


3 47.1 


7.61 


.464 


10 


31 56 


69 


7.3 


10 


14 4 


39 


3.2 


30 


6 31 


12.8 


.83 


30 


3 44.4 


IM 


.466 


15 


31 5 


67 


7.0 


16 


13 60 


38 


2.1 


30 


6 14 


12.6 


.80 


30 


8 41.8 


7.48 


.468 


30 


30 18 


65 


6.7 


20 


13 35 


38 


2.1 


40 


6 7 


12.3 


.79 


40 


3 39.2 


IM 


.448 


25 


39 34 


63 


6.4 


25 


13 31 


27 


2.0 


60 


6 


12.1 


.77 


60 


3 86.7 


7.36 


.444 


80 


38 37 


61 


6.1 


30 


13 7 


27 


3.0 


9 


5 54 


11.9 


.76 


15 


3 34.3 


7.18 


.439 


85 


37 51 


59 


5.9 


35 


13 53 


36 


3.0 


10 


5 47 


11.7 


.74 


30 


8 27.3 


6.95 


.434 


40 


37 6 


58 


5.6 


40 


13 41 


36 


1.9 


90 


5 41 


11.5 


.78 


16 


3 30.6 


6.78 


.411 


45 


36 34 


56 


5.4 


45 


13 38 


35 


1.9 


30 


5 36 


11.3 


.73 


80 


3 14.4 


6.51 


.399 


50 


35 43 


55 


5.1 


60 


13 16 


35 


1.9 


40 


530 


11.1 


.71 


17 


3 8.5 


6.31 


.386 


55 


35 3 


53 


4.9 
4.7 


55 


13 3 


25 


1.8 


60 


5 36 


11.0 


.70 
.60 


30 


3 3.9 


6.13 
6.94 


.874 


1 


34 35 


63 


4 


11 53 


24.1 


1.70 


10 


6 30 


10.8 


18 


2 67.6 


.863 


6 


33 48 


60 


4.6 


10 


1180 


33.4 


1.64 


10 


5 15 


10.6 


.67 


19 


3 47.7 


5.61 


.340 


10 


33 13 


49 


4.5 


30 


11 10 


32.7 


1.68 


30 


5 10 


10.4 


.65 


30 


3 38.7 


5.81 


xek 


15 


33 40 


48 


4.4 


80 


10 50 


32.0 


1.63 


80 


5 5 


10.2 


.64 


31 


3 80.5 


5.04 


.805 


90 


33 8 


46 


4.3 


40 


10 83 


31.3 


1.48 


40 


5 


10.1 


.68 


33 


3 28J3 


4.79 


.390 


35 


3187 


45 


4.0 


60 
5 


10 16 


30.7 
20.1 


1.43 
1.38 


60 


4 66 


9.9 
9.8 


.63 


33 


3 16.6 


4.OT 
AM 


.976 


80 


31 7 


44 


3.9 


966 


11 


4 61 


34 


3 10.1 


.364 


85 


30 38 


43 


8.8 


10 


9 43 


19.6 


1.34 


10 


4 47 


9.6 


.59 


36 


3 4.3 


4.16 


sm 


40 


30 10 


43 


3.6 


30 


927 


19.1 


1.30 


30 


4 43 


9.6 


.68 


36 


1 58.8 


3.97 


.341 


45 


19 43 


40 


3.6 


30 


9 11 


18.6 


1.36 


80 


4 39 


9.4 


jn 


97 


1 58.8 


3.81 


.380 


SO 


19 17 


39 


3.4 


40 


858 


18.1 


1.33 


40 


4 85 


9.3 


.66 


28 


149.1 


8.65 


.319 


55 


18 53 


39 

38 


3.3 
3.3 


60 

eTo 


845 


17.6 
17.2 


1.19 
1.15 


60 


4 31 


9.1 
9.00 


.55 


29 


144.7 


8.60 
3.36 


.309 


3 


18 39 


832 


13 


4 28.1 


30 


140.5 


.901 


5 


18 5 


37 


3.1 


10 


820 


16.8 


1.11 


10 


4 24.4 


8.86 


.648 


31 


136.6 


3.33 


.193 


10 


17 43 


36 


3.0 


30 


8 9 


16.4 


1.09 


30 


4 20.8 


8.74 


.541 


32 


133.0 


8.11 


.186 


15 


17 31 


36 


3.9 


30 


7 68 


16.0 


1.06 


30 


4 17.3 


8.63 


.533 


33 


1 39.6 


3.99 


.179 


30 


17 


35 


3.8 


40 


7 47 


16.7 


1.03 


40 


4 13.9 


8.61 


.534 


34 


136.1 


3.88 


.173 


35 
30 


16 40 


34 
33 


3.8 
3.7 


60 

7 


737 
727 


15.3 
15.0 


1.00 
.98 


60 


4 10.7 


8.41 
8.30 


.517 


35 


1 33.0 


3.78 
3.68 


.167 


16 31 


13 


4 7.5 


86 


130.0 


.161 


35 


16 3 


33 


3.7 


10 


7 17 


14.6 


.95 


10 


4 4.4 


8.30 


.603 


37 


1 17.1 


2.58 


.155 


40 


15 43 


33 


3.6 


30 


7 8 


14.3 


.93 


30 


4 1.4 


8.10 


.496 


38 


1 14.4 


2.49 


.149 


46 


[l5 35 


33 


3.5 


80 


659 


14.1 


.91 


30 


3 58.4 


8.00 


.490 


39 


1 11.8 


2.40 


.144 


50 


16* 8 


81 


3.4 


40 


6 51 


13.8 


.89 


40 


3 65.5 


7.89 


.483 


40 


1 9.3 


2.32 


.139 


M 


14 51 


ao 


3.8 


60 


643 


18.5 


.87 


60 


3 52.6 


7.79 


.476 


41 


1 6.9 


2.24 


.184 



64 



SUNS PAUALLAX IN ALTITUDE. 

Table of Refraaians, continued. 



[185& 



i 






o 

7 


i 


1^ 


+ 


o 

1 


i 


ii 




o 

7 


i 


ii 


+ 


o 

1 


1 


1^ 


r 


|£ 


< 


r 


1 


i^ 


.83 


1 


t^ 


r 


|<S 


o 
43 


/ u 
1 4.€ 


%u 


tf 
.180 


o 
66 


40.8 


L86 




o 
67 


34.7 


o 
79 


11.3 


a 
.88 




43 


1 2.4 


3.00 


.136 


66 


88.3 


1.81 


jyjd 


68 


38.6 


.79 


.047 


80 


10.3 


.34 


931 


44 


1 0.8 


2M 


.130 


67 


87.8 


\M 


JTIQ 


69 


33.4 


.76 


jm 


81 


9.3 


.81 


.018 


46 


66.1 


1.96 


.118 


68 


86.4 


1.33 


jm 


70 


31.3 


.71 


.048 


83 


8J1 


.37 


0)16 


40 


66.1 


LOB 


.113 


60 


86U) 


1.17 


jono 


71 


19.9 


.67 


UMO 


88 


7.1 


.34 


.014 


47 


64J1 


1.81 


.108 


00 


88UI 


LIS 


.067 


73 


18.8 


UB 


UB8 


84 


6.1 


.30 


.013 


48 


69.8 


1.76 


.104 


61 


83.8 


1.08 


M6 


73 


17.7 


.60 


SM 


86 


6.1 


.17 


.010 


40 


00.6 


1.00 


.101 


63 


81.0 


1.04 


.063 


74 


16.6 


.66 


.083 


86 


4.1 


.14 


.006 


00 


48.8 


LOS 


jtm 


63 


39.7 


.99 


.060 


76 


16.6 


.63 


sa\ 


87 


8.1 


.10 


.006 


Al 


47.1 


1.08 


UNM 


64 


38.4 


.96 


J0S1 


76 


14.4 


.48 


.039 


88 


3U) 


.07 


.004 


63 


46.4 


1.63 


.090 


66 


37.3 


.91 


M5 


77 


13.4 


.46 


.037 


69 


IJ) 


.03 


M2 


63 


43.8 


1.47 


.068 


66 


36.0 


Jen 


jm 


78 


13.3 


.41 


.036 


90 


0.0 


M 


JOOO 


64 


43.3 


1.41 


.066 






















1 



The correction for an increase of altitude of one inch in the barometer, 
or for a depression of one degree in the thermometer, is to be added to the 
tabular refraction *, but when the narometer is lower than 90 inches, or the 
thermometer higher than 47 de^prees, the correction becomes suttraaive. 

When ffreat accuracy is required, 0.003 inch should be deducted from the 
observed neight of the barometer for each degree that the thermometer 
near it is above 50 degrees, and the same quantity added for an equal 
depression. 



Ji Table of the 9un*s Parallax in AUitude, 



Sun's 
Altit. 


Sun»» Horiaontal Parallax. 


Sun'. 

Allit. 


Sun's Horizontal Parallax. 




U 


II 


« 


II 


II 




// 


» 


H 


H 


M 


o 



8.4 


8.6 


8.6 


8.7 


8.8 


o 
46 


8.4 


8U» 


8.6 


8.7 


8.8 


8.40 


8.60 


8.60 


8.70 


8.80 


6.94 


6.01 


6.08 


6.16 


6.39 


6 


8J7 


8.47 


8.67 


8.67 


8.T7 


60 


6.40 


6.40 


6.68 


6.60 


6.66 


10 


8.37 


8Jr7 


8.47 


8.07 


8.67 


66 


4.83 


4J8 


4.93 


4.99 


6.06 


16 


8.11 


8.31 


8.81 


8.40 


8.60 


60 


4.30 


4J26 


4.30 


4.86 


4.40 


ao 


7.89 


7.99 


8.08 


8.18 


8.37 


66 


8.66 


8.60 


8.63 


3.6B 


8.T2 


36 


7.61 


7.70 


7.79 


7.88 


7J8 


70 


3.87 


3.91 


3.94 


3.98 


8.01 


80 


7.38 


1M 


7.46 


7.68 


7.63 


76 


9.17 


9.30 


3.38 


3.36 


3.38 


86 


6.88 


6.96 


7.04 


7.18 


7.91 


80 


1.46 


1.48 


1.49 


1.61 


IJB 


40 


6.44 


6.61 


6.69 


6.66 


6.74 


86 


0.78 


0.74 


0.76 


0.76 


0.77 


46 


6.94 


6.01 


6.08 


6.16 


6.33 


00 


0.00 


0.00 


04» 


04» 


0.00 



Logarithm for converting Sidereal into Mean Solar Time + 9.996819& 
" '« *« Mean Solar into Sidereal Time + 0.0011874. 

A second of time at the Equator contains 1521 feet 



1856.] ATMOSPHERICAL ELECTRICITY. 65 

ATMOSPHERICAL ELECTRICITY. 

By Professor Joseph Lovering of Harvard University, 

In the last volame of this Almanac, I gave an exposition of the electrical 
states of the earth and its atmosphere ; of the ways in which these electri- 
cal states are produced, and the various methods contrived for studying 
them. I propose in the present or the next volume to add some remarks 
on the physical cause of thunder and lightning, considered as the yisible 
tokens of electric discharge ; on the- danger of being struck by lightning ; 
on the protections against it, natural and artificial, which have been pro* 
Tided by Providence or human agency ; on lightning-rods, and their effi- 
cacy ; and on the effects which electricity may possibly produce when and 
where it chances to strike. 

Aristotle speaks thus of the phenomena to be discussed : *' We, how- 
ever, say that the same nature upon the earth is wind, but in the earth is 
an earthquake, and in the clouds is thunder."* Aragot has defined thunder 
and lightning as a phenomenon or meteor which is exhibited when the 
heavens are covered with clouds ; and which manifests itself first by light 
and then by noise. I will not dwell upon the fanciful distinctions on tnis 
subject made by the Etruscans, renowned as they were in the ancient 
world for their knowledge of these things. Pliny divided lightnings into 
public and private. He also distinguished between those which came from 
the stars and those which rise out of the earth. But Aristophanes, in the 
Clouds, ridicules the idea that thunder ever cemes from the earth. 

Regarding thunder and lightning as an atmospheric phenomenon, reveal- 
ing to man*s senses the violent discharge of electricity between one cloud 
and another, or between the earth and a cloud, I proceed first to inquire 
into the peculiarity and height of thunder-clouds. Arago mentions, as one 
peculiarity, a kind of fermentation, which Forster compared to that of cheese 
when full of maggots. Peytier and Hossard, while engineering upon the 
Pyrenees, observed that, even when the clouds were smooth underneath, 
they were often rough above. 

The effects of the lightning*s stroke have beeii found on the highest 
mountains. Humboldt recognized them in South America ; Saussure dis- 
covered them on Mont Blanc ; Ramond, Peytier, and Hossard met them on 
the summits of the Pyrenees ; and Bouguer and Condamine on the Cordil- 
leras. But it is not safe to presume that thunder-clouds reach as high as 
the effects of their explosion. For the lightning may strike from a lower 
cloud t^ to a higher peak as well as downward. There is a church in 
Styria, standing upon a prominent mountain-top. On May-day, 1700, a 
physician at that place noticed a dense black cloud below him ; the sky 
above was a clear blue, when a flash of lightning ascended from the cloud, 
struck the church, and killed seven persons. Murray says he has seen 
lightning ascend in a spiral line. « 

But even if it were admitted that the height of thunder-clouds is co- 
equal with the marks of lightning, it would still be necessary to inquire 
wnether thunder-clouds rise to that hei||ht in level countries. To answer 
this question, resort is had to an observation of the interval which elapses 
between the flash and the report. But unless the angular elevation of^the 
cloud above the horizon is recorded, and is taken into the account, the 
observation gives, and can only give, the distance of the cloud from the 
observer, and not its perpendicular elevation above the earth's surface. 
And this distance is correct only on the supposition that the sound is made 
in the daudy and not along the whole line of discharge. Subject to these 
corrections, a large number of illustrative cases, compiled by Arago, may 

* y. 536. t Annutdre, 1633. 

6* 



66 ATMO8PHBRI0AI. ELBCTBICITT. [1855. 

be used to answer the question in regard to the height of thunder-clouds, 
and to show an extreme height of ^500 feet On the 5th of Jul^, 1788, 
Saussure and son had a thunder-storm aboye them, although their tents 
were pitched in one instance 3,471 metres, and in another 4,500 metres, 
above the level of the sea. On one occasion, Massena and Suwarrow were 
fighting a battle on the St. Gothard in clear sanlicht, while nature's artil- 
lery, in the shape of a thunder-storm, was exploding below them. If, 
therefore, the effects of lightning, and lightning itself, are known to exist on 
high mountains, and even above their surface, frequently, if not generally, 
thunder-clouds are much nearer the sea, and sink often to distances not 
exceeding 1,000 feet above the earth's level surface. 

Aristotle, Lucretius, Pliny, and Seneca, all have sought curiously into 
the nature of lightning. Sleneca says : " Fire is produced by the percus- 
sion of flint and steel, or by the friction of two pieces of wood. It may 
happen, therefore, that the clouds, hurried away by the wiud, are likewise 
innamed by means of percussion and friction." * The Clouds of Aristoph- 
anes embodies the same idea. 

Lightning and thunder are the momentary effects i>roduced by the pas- 
sage of atmospherical electricity, as the common electrical spark and snap 
betray the orainary discharge of electricity from an artificial electrical ma- 
chine. It is not necessary, therefore, in this connection, to ask how or why 
it is that the light marks the path of the lightning so plainly, that this effect 
has come even to designate the cause which produces it. 

The flashes of lightning which we see are indications of the oassage of elec- 
tricity, sometimes between a eloud and the earth, but more frequently from 
cloud to cloud. Gay-Lussac determined the length of the flash to be some- 
times three miles in extent.t The electricity is restrained upon a cloud as 
upon the prime conductor of an electrical machine, not by the pressure of the 
air, but by its non-conducting character. When it is considered that a large 
prime conductor will not collect and retain electricity sufiicient to give a spark 
more than two or three feet in length, it is wonderful, if not inexplicable, 
how the lightning can dart from the cloud over such spaces. Leslie t be- 
lieved it to be carried, by a process analogous to the convection of heat, by 
the vapor itself in its descent. If it is not carried by convection, but by 
common conduction, the particles of moisture or rain may compose a chain 
of communication from point to point. Hence the lightning strikes to the 
around more easily afler rain ; and whenever it strikes before rain, it is 
because it has extraordinary force, and so on such occasions it causes un- 
usual havoc. Gay-Luasac makes a distinction between electricity on a 
cloud and electricity on the prime conductor of an electrical machine. § 

An interesting question may be started at this stage of the inquiry, viz. 
whether lightning always starts from the cloud towards the earth, and 
never leaves the earth to go to the cloud. It would be impossible to an- 
swer this question, either in regard to lightning or artificial electricity, by 
direct observation, because the fluid passes so rapidly over the longest 
spaces that its whole track will be illuminated at once. Still, individuals 
tnink sometimes they can see the flash start, and sometimes start first from 
the earth, Kaemtz saw the spark leave two clouds and unite in the middle. 
I am inclined to explain these results as subjective phenomena. If, for 
any reason, one part of the flash is brighter than the other, it will require 
less time to make its impression upon the eye. Now, I have recently seen 
flashes which appeared the brightest, at the lower end, because the upper 
was partially veiled by a cloud. And often the tioo extremities of an elec- 
trical spark are brighter than the middle. 

But the direction in which bodies have been scattered by lightning has 

* avast. Nat., Uv. IT. §22 t Ann. de Ch. et Phys., XXTX. 106. 

t Edtn. New PhU, J9um., XT. 1824, pp. 26, 27. « Ann. de Ch et Phye,, XXIX. 105. 



1855.] ATMO0PHBRICAL EJLSCTRICITT. 67 

beea principaUy relied on to ghow the probable direction of the li|^htniog. 
And because pavements have been torn up, hair and books carried into 
trees, a hat transported to the roof, the barks of trees detached below, 
leaves erieped on the under side, which was convex, and sods turned up on 
all sides, it has been concluded that the flash sometimes ascends. But 
the double burr which is seen on a card through which a Leyden jar has 
been discharged, and the marks of explosive power which generally char- 
acterize the mechanical execution of lightning, should be our caution not 
to give too much weight to such facts as have been briefly alluded to. It 
will not be thought necessary now, however, to say, with Maflei, who, a 
century ago, advocated ascending thunderbolts, that he could reconcile his 
views with Scripture, which speaks of the *' fire falling from heaven." If 
it is simply required to know whether the cloud or the earth represents the 
positive end of the discharging line, we have only to place a steel needle 
at right angles to its course, and observe the disposition of the poles after the 
flash. Beccaria attempted to do this, by placing the steel^arallol to the 
course of the lightning, and applying the experiments of Franklin, Dali- 
bard, and his own. 

Arago has divided the spark of atmospherical electricity into three kinds. 
1. The zigzag. 2. Sheet-lightning. 3. Ball-lightning. The zigzag path 
is commonly manifested, if at all, between the earth and a cloud, and not 
between cloud and cloud.- Sometimes a barbed form, as in the point of an 
arrow, has been attributed to it. When it divides, as is occasionally the 
case, into two branches, it is called forked. Less frequently, three prongs 
have been seen. The division of the charge is oflen inferred from the 
simultaneous destruction of difl^erent objects, even when it has escaped de- 
tection by any visible branches in the illuminated track of the darting elec- 
tricity. Iflgpe branches of the zigzag course of the lightning are very 
small, it produces an efiect known under the name of cbain-lightning. 

Logan * believed that the zigzag shape of forked lightning was an il- 
lusion, to be referred to the irregular refractions produced by clouds and 
vapors. But Arago justly remarks upon this, that astronomers, when they 
observe celestial objects through the same clouds and vapors, do not witness 
such extraordinary influences upon li^ht. In this zigzag movement the 
angles are very acute, so that, if lightning were regarded as a projectile, the 
law of continuity would seem to be strangely violated. But if we consider 
lightning as moving by an undulation of some description, as light and heat 
are propagated, then these irregularities and this multiplicity of direction 
may, perhaps, derive some explanation from the action of crystals on light. 
But, may it not be that the path of the lightning takes its direction from the 
accidental lines in which the conducting particles of vapor are arranged, as 
in the well-known experiment of the spotted tubes f Howard has seen 
lightning in its course aouble back upon itself, in a curve not unlike that of 
the planets in their changes from direct to retrograde motion, and back 
again. The zigzag flashes, which the Italians call " saette," carry gener- 
ally destruction with them. 

The second kind of lightning in the classification with which I started is 
sheet-lightning. <' In the calmest nights," says Seneca, ** with the stars 
shining bright, you nsay see lightnings flash, but doubt not in the direction 
of the lishtning there will be found clouds which the spherical form of the 
earth hides from our view. The flash ascends on high, and appears in the 
bright and serene sky, being withal elaborated in some obscure and dark 
cloud." t Bergman says, that in Sweden these flashes are called *' light- 
nings of the barley." This silent lightning is rarely seen when the sky is 
cloudy. It is much fliinter than streak-lightning, as we see when the two 

♦ Phil, Trans. XXXIX. 240. t ft- N. 11. 26. 



68 ATMOSPHERICAL ELECTRICITY. [1855. 

kinds are visible at the same time. Lozeran de Fesc, in his dissertation on 
thunder, to which the Academy of Bordeaux awarded its prize in 1736, 
supposed these summer, heat, or silent lightnings to be reflected. 

This silent lightning has frequently been supposed to be the reflection 
of distant storms below the horizon of the observer. It has been objected 
to this view, that a reflected light, inferior to common lightning in the same 
proportion that twilight bears to daylight, would be too feeble to aflfect the 
eye. But Arago summons to the aid of the first supposition the fact, that, in 
1739, while Cassini and Lacaille were making experiments on the velocity 
of sound, a discliarge of cannon near the light-house of Cette was seen 
where both the town and light-house were concealed by Mount St. Bauzeli. 
Again, in 1803, Baron Zach was flashing gunpowder on the Brocken, as a 
signal for longitudes. The flashes were seen on Mount Kenlenberg, 180 
miles off, although the mountain itself was below the horizon. Moreover, 
when guns are fired at the Hotel des Invalides, in Paris, the li^ht is seen 
in thegardensof Luxembourg, where no part of the first building is in view. 
In many cases, it is known that a storm has been raging below the horizon, 
betraying itself to the observer by no clouds or noise, but only by the re- 
flected lieht. On the 10th of July, 1783, the town of Geneva was visited 
by a terrible thunder-storm. From the Hospice du Grimsel, Saussure saw 
the light, without any clouds or noise, in that direction. It is not so easy 
to dispose of those instances in which heat-lightning has played for a.whole 
night on all sides of the horizon. Can we suppose a storm all around, 
while over our heads is an oasis of serenity ? Moreover, Deluc mentions 
instances in which one flash from a visible cloud was attended by a stun- 
ning noise, and the next, though equally bright, was inaudible. May it 
not be, that in some cases the thunder is inaudible because the electric dis- 
charge occurs between cloud and cloud, in regions of highlj •refied air ? 
Arago proposed to test the reflection of the light by his poTariscope. 

Arago says, in regard to ball-lightning, that many questions might be 
asked of it, in presence of which science would stand mutio. From the 
works of Boyle, ne has gleaned an accident which occurred to the ship 
Albemarle, near Cape Cod, in 1681. A flash of lightning was seen, and 
something fell upon deck which the men could not extinguish or sweep 
overboard. Deslandes relates, that a church was struck near Brest, and 
three balls of fire were seen, each three and one half feet in diameter. In 
1772, such a ball was seen to oscillate in the air, and then fall. On the 
7th of December, 1838, the Royal ship Rodney was struck, with a sound 
equal to that of a thirty- two-pounder. Two men were killed, and their 
clothes burnt off. Their comrades said they saw balls of fire, and ran afler 
them to throw them overboard. In 1848, such a ball came slowly up and 
exploded upon the mainmast of a United States ifhip in the Gulf-Stream. 
Joseph Wasse, in Northamptonshire, thought that, in 1725, he heard the 
noise of the motion of one ball through the air. These balls are visible 
from one to ten seconds. They are said sometimes to strike the earth and 
rebound. Are thejr subjective phenomena^ originating in a dazzline bril- 
liancy of the lightning, or are tney agglomerations of ponderable substan- 
ces ? Fusinieri states, that he has onen found iron in various degrees of 
oxidation, and sulphur, in fhe powdery dei>osits around the fissures through 
which the lightnins has entered. As pertinent to the statement that thun- 
der-stones, so called, are found in the trunks of trees, Arago asks the ques- 
tion, whether thunder has introduced toads into the trunks of trees. 

To ascertain the duration of lightning in its various phases, Arago pro- 
poses to use a wheel of a definite number of spokes, which shall be turned 
by clock-work. The duration will be given either by the velocity neces- 
sary to make the whole circular area appear illuminated, or by the arc illu- 
minated with a fixed velocity. Arago credits this contrivance to Wheat- 
stone. I will remark, in regard to the color of lightning in general, that 



1855.] ATM08PHSRICAL EJLKCTBICITY. «9 

wheD tlie diachaiging cloodi sre near the earth, the light is white ; and 
when they are at a great height, the light is reddish or violet. 

I may premise what I have to say od the subject of thunder, by observ- 
ing that soand, in general, is a vibration, sometimes oricinatisg in an aerial 
disturbance, and, at least, generally transmUud by the air, whatever its 
origin. Some physical writers have been anxious to determine the way in 
which the original disturbance is created. Is thunder produced in the 
cloud ? or is it produced by the passase of the electricity from cloud to 
cloud, or from a cloud to the eartli ? There are those who lay stress upon 
the exceeding velocity 6f electricity, and imagine that, as it rushes along in 
the air, it leavei behind itself a vacuum into which the air dashes with a 
great noise, as in the bladder-glass experiment with the air-pump. Others 
attribute the noise of thunder to the sudden compressions and dilatations 
which the air undergoes. Pouillet thinks the passage of a cannon-ball 
through the air with the same speed would make as great a sound as that 
of thunder. He also suggests^ whether the conduction of electricity by such 
a substance as the earth's atmosphere may not consist in a rapid induction 
from particle to particle ; aad whether the alternate decompositions and 
reoompositions involved in these suocessive molecular inductions may not 
be the violence which produces the sound. If, in a single instance, the 
elevation of a thunder-cloud were computed by tlie interval between the 
flash and the report, and on the assumption that the sound- originated in 
the cloud, and this calculated height compared with the true height as 
known in other ways, — as, for example, hy the position of the cloud 
in respect to a steeple or <yUier object whose height was known, — it 
would be possible to determine at least upAcrs, if not how, the sound wa» 
made. 

Aristotle says of the sound, *' For thus in clouds, a separation of the 
pneumatic substance taking place, and falling against the density of the 
clouds, produces thiuader." Pliny suggests, whether thunder may not be 
caused by shoetiag-stars, hissing as hot iron does when pat in water. But 
he wisely adds, " These thincs are hidden with the majestv of nature, and 
reserved within her cabinet. Lucretius compares thumier to the sound 
which accompanies the tearing of pi^ier, silk, or parchment. He thought 
Tiolent winds squeezed it out of the clouds. Descartes thought that an 
upper and a lower stratum rushed together, as he had sometimes seen to 
happen in the Alps. And we might say, with Seneca, '* If clapping the 
hands makes such a noise, what must we hear when two clouds come to- 
gether with a rush ? " Fey tier and Hossard observed that the thunder from 
clouds in which they were immersed sounded like the blaze of powder 
when set on fire in an open space. Richard, in his Histoire de I'Air, com- 
pares it to the sound made by the rolling of a heap of nuts upon wooden 
planks. But as soon as he rose above the clouds, the thunder was loud 
again. 

Aristophanes ridicules the meteorological speculations of the ancients in 
the foUowlnc passage from the Clouds : — 

^ Strepnadet. But tell me, who is it that thunders .' That makes me • 
terribly afraid. 

*< Socraiea. The clouds, as they roll along, give birth to the thunder. 

** Sir^, How ? O most audacious man I 

<' Soe. When they are saturated with much moisture, and are compelled 
to be borne along, and, full of showers, lower themselves from necessity > 
if, in this heavy state, thev dash against each other, thev explode and crack. 

" Strep, But is it not Jupiter that compels them to Be borne along? 

'* Soe, By no means ; but the etherial vortex. 

*' Str4!p, Vortex ? It certainly had escaped my notice that Jupiter had 
ceased to be, and that Vortex now reigned in his stead. But you have, as 
yet, told me nothing concerning the noise of the thunder. 



70 ATMOSPHERICAL ELECTRICITY. [1855. 

'* Soe. Have yoa not beard me say, that the eloudSf when full of moist- 
are, dash against each other, and resoand by reason of their density? 

*^ Strep, How am I to believe this ? 

" Soe. I will prove it to you from your own case. Have you not, after 
you have been stuffed with broth at the Panathenaie festival, then felt a 
disturbance in your belly, and a rumbling has suddenly resounded through 
it? 

** Strep. Yes, by Apollo, I have ; and it has played the mischief with mj 
inside. 

'' Soe. And is it not probable that the air, being boundless, should make 
a much more mighty thundering ? *' 

Every one distmguishes between a clap of thunder and the pealing sound 
which frequently is heard. This prolonged noise sometimes lasts from 
thirty-six to forty-five seconds. Captain Scoresby, near Lake Killarney, 
observed that the sound of a pistol-shot continued thirty seconds. In the 
neighborhood of Paris, where the echo is not remarkable, the report of a 
cannon was audible from twenty to twenty-five seconds. Many think the 
rolling sound of thunder sufficiently explained, when they refer it to a 
complicated system of echoes. It is not a fatal objection to this view that 
the thunder rolls also at sea, because the clouds can reflect as well as the 
solid mountains of the earth. The report of a cannon or pistol is repeated 
in a lowering sky, when it is not in clear weather. The French acade- 
micians, while making their experiments upon sound, observed that, when- 
ever clouds were between their two stations, the signals were reverberated 
so as to sound like thunder. Peclet, however, argues that the rolling of 
thunder cannot proceed from the reflection of sound from the clouds, be- 
cause at sea the report of a cannon is never repeated in that way. 

Dr. Hooke, in 1706, started the explanation given in Herschers Treatise 
on Sound.* He rests his theory upon the moderate velocity with which 
sound travels through the air. This distinction between the velocity of 
the luminous and acoustic radiations of bodies is thus described by Pliny, 
thouffh referred to the wrong cause : " That the lightning is seen before 
the thunder-clap is heard, although they come indeed jointly together, it is 
certainly known. And no marvel, for the eye is quicker to see light than 
the ear to hear a sound. And yet nature doth so order the number and 
measure, that the stroke and the sound should accord together ; . . . . neither 
is any man stricken who either saw the lightning before or heard the thun- 
der-clap." Lucretius knew better why the sound comes after the flash. 
But the question has been raised, whether the lightning strikes before it 
is visible. Arago brings forward many cases of persons who were struck, 
and yet heard and saw nothing. 

If we suppose an electric disturbance to take place, not at a single focus, 
but along a ereat lensth of cloud or moist air, the audible efiects of this dis- 
turbance will reach the ear from the different points of its origin in succes- 
sive instants ; so that a sound which, at its departure, is contemporaneous in 
time, but diffused in space, produces an impression upon the organ of sen- 
*Bation, local in maee^ nut prolon^d in time. Dr. Robinson illustrates this 
view by a very long file of soldiers, and by the multiplied sound which 
would be heard by one placed in the same line beyond, if their guns were 
all fired together. Lardner has objected to this analogy, that in the latter 
case we should not have a succession of sounds, but a note of a certain 
pitch. 

If Hooke's account of rolling thunder is adopted, it will be necessary to 
suppose the train over which the electric discharge runs to be three or four 
leagues long, in some remarkable storms. As all the peculiarities of sound, 
and the combination of sudden claps and rolling peals, depend on the con- 

* Eneycl. Metr. 



1855.] ATMOSPHERICAL BLECTBICITY. 71 

fi|rttratio& of the elouds with respect to the point addressed by the noise, we 
may say, with Kaemtz, that every observer hears lus own thunder as he 
sees his own rainbow. 

It has already been stated, that siUtU lightning is not unfreciuent. It is 
no leas true that there is invisibU thunder; that is, thunder without light- 
ning, or even clouds. Seneca says, that it thunders sometimes without 
lightning. In 1751, this was frequently observed at Martinioue. We 
moat exclude from the account earthquake countries. In St. Fe de Bogota, 
the thunder-mass is pronounced every year. The obvious explanation of 
Invisible thunder is, that it proceeds from clouds below the horizon. In 
pursuing this view, we are arrested by the fact, that thunder is never heard 
at any very great distance, and that clouds in which the discharge of elec- 
tricity is audible, but invisible, must therefore be excessively near to the 
earth's surface. De I'lsle once counted thirty-two seconds between the 
flash and the report. Arago finds no instance recorded greater than forty- 
nine seconds. If this method of calculation is accurate, it would appear 
that thunder has never been heard to a greater distance than fifteen 
miles. The remarkable limitation of this maximum distance is proved by 
other means, perhaps less exceptionable. On the 25th of January, 1757, a 
steeple in Cornwall was struck. The great eoeineer, Smeaton, who was 
only thirty miles distant, saw the light, but heard no noise. Muschenbroek 
says it thunders at the Hague when no sound is heard at Leyden or Rotter- 
dam, which are only ten and thirteen miles ofi^. Also, thunder at Amster- 
dam is not heard at Leyden, which is removed from it twenty-two miles 
and a half. It certainly is strange that the sound of thunder, which, in 
many cases, has been compared to one or two hundred pieces of artillery 
booming at once, should be inaudible at distances exceeding fifteen or 
twenty miles, especially when we consider that cannonading has been heard 
two hundred miles. The Emperor Kanghi* was surprised that thunder could 
be heard only ten leagues, when he had heard artillery thirty leagues. 
The distinguished meteorologist, Howard, relates that, in 181^ when a 
continuous stratum of mist prevailed, he could hear the carriages on the 
stones of London streets, when he was five miles away. The great bell of 
St Paul's cathedral is heard at Windsor, over a distance of twenty -four 
miles. 

Now, in a level country, an object can be seen at the distance of fifteen 
miles, if it is vertically raised as much as one hundred feet above the earth's 
surface. Hence we are driven to the conclusion, either that invisible thun- 
der comes firora clouds which are less than one hundred feet in elevation, 
or else that the electric discharge can take place in an apparently serene 
sky, and that it may be accompanied with a heavy report without a corre- 
sponding flash. Can there be an electric discharge from a clear and serene 
sky ? In reply to this question, Arago has marshalled many cases related 
by Pliny, Suetonius, and Crescentius, in which lightning was described as 
flashing from a clear heaven ; but nothing is said about the thunder. An- 
aximander believed that it might thunder from a serene sky, for he at- 
tempted to find out the cause. There is not so much difficulty when 
thunder, unaccompanied by lightning, is heard in the presence of clouds, for 
then possibly the discharge may be in higher regions of clouds, the view of 
which is screened from the hearer by mtervening strata too dense to be 
penetrated by the lightning's flash. But many would prefer the alterna- 
tive of supposing that thunder-clouds are sometimes less than one hundred 
feet above the earth's surface, to admitting that it can thunder with or 
without lightning from a serene blue sky ; especially if, soon afterwards, 
clouds appear. Volney relates, that, at Pontchartrain, he heard peals of 
thunder, out saw no clouds, even in the horizon. But in the course of an. 
hour, majestic hail-clouds rose into sight. 

♦ Mem. o/Miaa. to China, IV. 



72 ATMO&PHBBICAL ELECTMCITT. [1855. 

The destruction aotually cacned by thainter and Ughtnifig 'w wiioliy dts- 
proportioned to the apprehensions which are felt concerning them. But 
fear of evil is itself a real evil, and whatever inspires confidence is the ocea* 
sion of as much happiness as if it reallj protected and saved. 

According to the calculation of chances, and in a general view of tb« 
subject, the danger that any particular individual, building, or ahip will be 
struck by lishtning within a specified time is certainly very small. But 
small as this liability is, it has sometimes been said that a man bad three 
chances of being killed by lightning to every single chance which he could 
expect of drawing a prize in a lottery; bo that whoever parebases a ticket 
may feel assured that he is likely to be killed three times by a thunderbolt 
while he is drawing one prize ! 

Some spots of the earth's surface, from geographical and geological pecu- 
liarities, as well as meteorological exposure, are in much less danger of 
being struck than elsewhere. In Lima, there is little thnnder, and the sky 
is almost always clear. Those natives who have not* travelled do not 
know what thunder and lightning are. Foor eases only of thnnder are oo 
record since 1652, and these were considered so extraordinary that the 
epochs are preserved. In L. Islande there is supposed to be no thunder, 
and in fact, during two years, from 1833 to 1835, thunder was heard there 
only once. Ermah states, that at Meta there are no thunder-storms in 
winter, and rarely in summer; while at Udskiz thev are firequent and 
violent. He also alludes to the thunder in winter at lerbinsk. Scoresby 
says there is no lightning seen at Spitzbergen.. Gisecke heard thunder but 
once in Greenland durmg a residence of six years. Many navigators, 
among whom may be mentioned Phipps, Scoresby, Parry, and Rois, are 
of opinion that less thunder is heard as you approach the poles. In 1827, 
Parry did not hear it once. It never thunders above the parallel of 75^, 
and rarel]jr between those of 7QP and 7b°. Scoresby says that lightning is 
seldom witnessed north of the arctic circle, and its occasional flashes are not 
accompanied with thunder. Thence, as you approach the tropics, the thun- 
der-storms become more frequent. Ross and Scoresby observed that the 
electrometer was rarely affected in the arctic regions; and, in 1819, Parry 
noticed that the electrometer chain on the mast did not affect the pithballa 
of the instrument. In England, France, and Germany, it thunders twenty 
days in a year ; in Rio Janeiro and I'lnde, it thunders fifty days annsally. 
Pliny relates that it never thunders in Egypt. Plutarch makes the same 
statement in regard to Ethiopia. But at the present day thunder is not 
uncommon in Uairo and Alexandria ; and as tnunder occurs in the coun- 
tries adjacent to Ethiopia, it may be supposed that it occurs there also. 
The scanty data which exist indicate that thunder is more common on land 
than on water. Arago thinks that at a certain distance from land it never 
thunders ; but he allows that more facts are wanting. 

Thunder-storms are more frequent in summer than in winter, though, 
according to Schubler, the electrical charge of the air is less intense at that 
season in clear and even in cloudy weather. Pliny remarks, that lightning 
is more common in autumn and spring than in summer or winter. But 
Arago infers that thunder-storms, if less frequent,, are more dangerous in 
winter than in summer, from the following facts, compiled from Harris's 
papers. Out of all the ships struck by lightning between the Mediterranean 
and the coast of England, from 1681 to 1832, twenty-three cases belong to 
the first four months of the year ; sixteen occurred in the last four months 
of the year, and only four in the other months. 

It has been conjectured, that, in countries where there are mines« there 

are fewer thunder-storms.* But, on the contrary, no one willingly inhabits 

, El Sitio de Tumba barreto, on account of the frequency of the lightning- 

* DUlwyn. 



1^5.3 ATMOSPHEBlCAIi ELECTRICITY. 73 

Strokes. This place is near ^Id mines, and many miDera are killed 
there. BoussiogauU found that a thunder-storm was ielt there almost 
eTery day. lo the month of May be counted twenty days so distinguished. 
His own guide was struck to the ground. The Loma de Pitago, near Po- 
payan, enjoys the same melancholy celebrity. * A Swedish botanist, per- 
sisting, contrary to advice, in crossing it during a storm, met bis death in 
the attempt. It has been conceded to the Popayannais ^^ to have the best 
thunder in the republic." In Europe, the <'lnfames Scopulos," as Horace 
calls them, of the Acroceraunian mountains, which Cassins Dio calls the 
Citadels of Thunder, have a terrible reputation. 

Pliny mentions a tower so often struck that its renewal was finally aban- 
doned. A school- house in Lammer Muier was struck on three different 
occasions. In 1826, the same house, in Wethersfield, Conn., was struck 
twice in an interval of only two or three days. Hutchinson says, that at 
Jamaica the clouds at noon cover the mountains of Port Koyal ; it then 
thunders so loudly that the sound is heard at Kingston. At half-past two, 
P. M., the sky is clear again. These changes of weather are rung every 
day for five months, from November to April, in Boston, the same steeple 
has been struck repeatedly. In 1763, the steeple of Antrasroe was struck 
twice during the same storm. On the 25th of April, 1760, the lightninir fell 
tbreiB times in twenty minutes on the buildings of Notre Dame de Ham. 
On the night of the 14th of April, 1718, twenty-four steeples were struck 
along the coast of Brittany; and on the lltn of January, 1815, twelve 
steeples suffered a similar fiite in the Rhenish Provinces. In 1783, a Ger- 
man antiquarian in this province of meteorology found that, yvithin the 
period of thirty-three years, 386 steeples had been struck and 121 ringers . 
killed. 

There is a great difference of exposure observable in varions departments 
of France. And the fatality of smgle years is not the same even at the 
same place. In 1805, only one individual is known to have been killed in 
France by lightning. In 1797, twenty-four were struck, and seventeen 
killed. In 1819, twenty-two were killed. In other places, nine individ- 
uals have been killed at once, and eighty-two wounded. On the 18th of 
February, 1770, all the inhabitants of Keverne, in Cornwall, who were in 
church, were thrown to the ground. In 1797, between June and August, 
eighty-four accidents and seventeen deaths occurred in the United States, 
from thunder and lightning, as Volney found from the newspapers of this 
country. I have preserved accounts of three persons killed in 1850, in this 
country, fourteen in 1851 (and five churches struck), six in 1852, thirteen 
in 1853, and twenty-two in 1854, besides many injured. At GK>ttingen, 
in a century, only three persons have been killed by lightning ; in Halle, 
only two. In 1838, 1839, and 1840, forty deaths by lightning occurred in 
England, and forty-six in Wales. In 1815, twenty-rour persons were strtick 
by lightning in the Low Countries. 

If the statements of the ancient historians and poets are to be credited, 
thunder-storms have degenerated, and accidents fi*om lightning are less 
common and less disastrous now than formerly. In Virgil, Ovid, and Pro- 
pertius, more r^arkable men are said to have met their fkte in this way 
than can be counted up during the last two thousand years, notwithstand- 
ing the casualties which have befollen the ancient records. Araso thinks 
that fiicts render some support to the theory of degeneracy, and at least 
that thunder does not now so frequently as formerly officiate as Minister of 
War. Herodotus relates that the army of Xerxes was struck by lightning 
near Troy, and many men were killed. Paiisanias records the same acci- 
dent of the Lacedemonian army near Ar^os. 

In estimating the destruction by lightning, property as well as life must 
be taken into the account. In 1417, the steeple of St. Mark, in Venice, was 
Btnick by lightning, and burned. It was rebuilt, and again reduced to ashes 
7 



74 ATMOSPHEBICAL ELECTRICiTY. [1855. 

on the 12tb of Ausust, 1489. It was afterwards bailt of atone, and was stmck 

again on the 23a of April, 1745. The repairs this time cost eight thou- 
sand ducats. On the 27th of July, 1759, lightning burnt all the wood- 
work of the roof of the cathedral of Strasburg*. It was proposed to place 
conductors upon it, but ther6 was some objection on account of the expense. 
On the 14th of August, 1833, it was struck three times within one quarter 
of an hour, and so much damaged that the repairs cost six millions of dol- 
lars. There was still some hesitation in regard to lightning-rods, when it 
was struck once more on the 19th of July, 1834. Rods were placed upon 
it in 1835, at an expense of only $ 3,000. On the 10th of July, 1843, it was 
struck twice, but the rods saved it.* On the 18th of August, 1769, the 
tower of St. Nazaire, at Brescia, was struck, and the subterranean powder- 
magazine, containing 2,076,000 pounds of powder, belonging to the repub- 
lic of Venice, was exploded. One sixth of the whole town was laid in 
ruins, and the rest was very much injured. Three thousand pessons per- 
ished. The property destroyed amounted to two million of ducats. The 
magazines of Malaga and Tangier have been fired by lightning. On the 
26tTi of June, 1807, the powder-magazine of Luxembourg, containing 
2d,000 pounds, was struck, and, besides thirty persons killed and two hun- 
dred wounded, the town was ruined. Stones were thrown a league. Sir 
W. Snow Harris quotes from Fuller's Church History the following : 
** Scarcely a great abbey in England exists which, once at the least, was 
not burned down with lightning from heaven." 

Arago had compiled, in 1838, a catalogue of seventy-two vessels which 
had been struck oy lightning. Mr. Harris has published an account of 
235 ships of the British navy struck by lightning between 1793 and 1839. 
During fifteen months of the years 1829-30, in the Mediterranean alone, 
five ships of the British navy were struck. In a pecuniary view alone, the 
loss is very great. The lower mast of a frisate costs $ 1,000, and of a 
ship of the line $2,000. When the Logan, of New York, was consumed 
by liehtning, the loss exceeded $ 100,000. The sacrifice of property was 
equaUv great when a similar fate befell the Hannibal, of Boston, in 1824. 
Sir W. Snow Harris says : 'Mt appears, from the records of the navy, 
that the destructive efiects of lightning on his Majesty's ships involved 
in former years an expenditure of not less than from iC 6,000 to iS 10,000 
annually ; in 200 cases only, 300 seamen were either killed or hurt ; and 
above 100 large masts, valued at the time at from JC 1,000 to X 1,200 
each, entirely ruined. Between the years 1810 and 1815, no less than 
thirty-five sail of the line, and thirty-five frigates and smaller vessels, were 
completely disabled." In the autumn of 1846, the ship Thomas P. Cope, 
bound from Philadelphia to Liverpool, was struck by lightning and fired. 
It was forsaken, and left to its fate. It had no conductors. The same 
calaiaity happened, in 1853, to the Golden Light, of Boston- 

I may also add to Arago's catalogue, besides many of which I have kept 
no account, the schooner Forest, of Boston, which was struck, and one 
seaman killed ; the schooner E. S. Powell, of Washington, which lost one 
seaman ; the ship Audubon, at New York; the bark Emily Miner, in Mo- 
bile Bay, which was scuttled and sunk ; the schooner Eglantine ; the 
Young Tell, in the Penobscot; and the ship Shirley, of dtston ; and, in 
1853, three ships at New Orleans, viz. the Josiah Bradlee, of Boston, Rar- 
itan, of Kingston, and the Desdemona; also. Gem of the Seas, saved from 
much damage by the burning sacrifice of her conductor. In 1854, pilot- 
boat New York, the schooner Emma Hotchkiss, of New Haven, and 
ship Southport, at Savannah, were struck. Besides these, Mr. Harris men- 
tions ten vessels destroyed by lightning since 1838, and thirteen injured. 



♦ Rive. Arch, de VEtec. IH. 436. 



1855.3 ATMOSPHERICAL ELECTRICITY 75 

none of which are in my catalogae. When the barqoe Matagorda was 
■track, the captain and his wife were killed. 

Still, after we have made as complete an inventory as possible of the 
loss of life and property on land and sea, throush the agency of lightning, 
we must admit that danger from the tliunderboh is one of the smallest 
liabilities to which a man is exposed in this world. Arago thinks the 
danger no greater than that of being killed by the falling of a fiower-pot or 
chimnejT'top. Why, then, he asks, this exa^erated apprehension ? Let 
Arago give the answer. If a loud detonation informed a whole city when- 
ever a flower-pot or chimney-top fell, everybody wonld fear for his own 
head when be heard the noise. Besides, the noise itself affects the nerves 
as well as signalizes the danger. Moreover, if the lightning strikes any- 
where but rarely, 'its inoffensive flashes are innumerable. Ausustus, it is 
said, was so timid in this respect, that he sought refuge from lightning in a 
cave. So much for the courage of a great Roman Emperor. The ancients 
believed that lightning did not penetrate into the solid earth more than five 
feet. But the vitreous tubes hereafter to be mentioned prove that it pen- 
etrates sometimes to the depth of one hundred feet. 

(To he cavUinued.) 



II. METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION. 



I. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR CAMBRIDGE, Mass. 

Summary of the Meteorological Observations made at the Observatory of 
Harvard College during the Year commencing January let, 1853, and end- 
ing December dOth, 1853. By Wm. Cranch Bond, 

Lot. 42° 22' 48".6 JV., Long. 71° 7' 30" VT. 

1. Mean Barometric Pressure and External Temperature. 



1 


Mean Height of the Barometer. 


External Thermometer. 


1 , « 

1 : t 


IS 


CO 


a* 




1 


< 


CO 






1853. 
January, 
February, 
March, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 


Inch. 1 Inch. 
29.944 ' 29.988 
29.951 i 29.960 
29.810 1 29.817 
29.902 , 29.901 
29.912 29.917 
29.995 1 29.988 
29.941 ; 29.956 
29.926 1 29.944 
29.966 1 29.960 
29 942 29.946 
30.174 30.193 
29851 29.864 


In. 
.056 
.071 
.059 
.055 
.045 
.045 
.044 
.046 
.042 
.040 
.059 
.031 


Inch. 
29.9:32 
29.889 
29.758 
29.846 
29.872 
29.943 
29912 
29.898 
29.918 
29 906 
30.134 
29 833 


Inch. 
29.979 
29 909 
29.803 
29.883 
29.940 
29.961 
29.939 
29.916 
29.940 
29.931 
30.192 
29.856 


Inch. 
29.961 
29.927 
29.797 
29.883 
29.910 
'^.972 
29.937 
29.921 
29.948 
29.931 
30.173 
29.851 


22°1 
249 
307 
38.5 
50.4 
56.9 
61.3 
61.6 
55.9 
42.5 
37.2 
23.3 


24°2 
29.1 
36.6 
47.2 
66.6 
71.9 
73.8 
71.7 
63.4 
50.4 
40.5 
24.6 


32^2 
637 
41.6 
61.9 
64.4 
75.8 
78.9 
70.9 
70.0 
50.6 
42.2 
31.9 


25°6 
29.2 
34.3 
42.8 
64.0. 
62.5 
68.2 
65.8 
56.6 
47.5 
38.3 
26.0 


o 
25 77 
29.22 
35.80 
46.10 
66.35 
66.77 
70.56 
67.50 
61.22 
47 76 
39.65 
26.45 


Ann. Mean, 


29.943 1 29.953 


.049 


29 903 


29.937 


29.934 


42 11 


49 17 


63 6b 


40.82 47.67 



The barometer has been corrected for capillary attraction and reduced to the temperaiure 
of 320 Fahrenheit, but not for sea level. The height of the cistern of the barometer is 71 
feet above the mean level of the eea at Charlestown navy yard. 

Barometer highest, Jan. 29, 9 A. M., 30.692. Thermometer highest, June 21, 3 P. M., -f-97o. 
lowest, Dec. 29, sunrise, 29.089. " lowest, Jan. 27, sunrise, + 2P. 



Range, 



1.603. 



Range, 



95. 



2. Rain, Winds, and 


Clouds, 


Monthly Means 




Months. 


Force of Wind, 0—6. 


Quantity of Clouds, 0-10. 


l-i 


i 


1^ 


s 


S 




i 


S 


g 


S 




1853. 


1 


< 


CO 


a; 


S 


a 

9 

en 


< 


CO 




B 




January, 


1.23 


1.58 


2.00 


1.12 


5.831 4.8 


4.2 


4.7 i5.5 


19.2 


3.876 


February, 


1.04 


1.62 


2.17 


1.46 


6.29 


5.3 


6.3 


6.0 ' 5.4 


23 


5.700 


March, 


1.48 


2.00 


2.00 


1.15 


6.63 


5.2 


5.7 


5.0 . 5.6 


21.5 


3.306 


April, .... 
May, .... 


1.47 


1.89 


2.12 


1.14 


6.62 


5.3 


5.2 


42 4.5 


19.2 


3.695 


1.29 


1.97 


2.12 


1.19 


6.57 


6.8 


5.6 


5.6 |5.5 


22.6 


6.455 


June, .... 


1.10 


1.69 


2.31 


1.19 


6.29 


6.2 


49 


4.4 1 5.3 


19.8 


0.555 


July, .... 


0.94 


1.62 


208 


1.16 


5.79 


4.7 


4.9 


6.0 4.8 


19.4 


3.021 


August, .... 


1.20 


1.25 


1.60 


1.08 


6.03 


4.9 


5.4 


5.7 6.7 


21.7 


8588 


September, . 


1.30 


1.81 


1.96 


1.00 


6.07 


5.8 


62 


5.4 5.7 


231 


5.947 


October, .... 


1.36 


1.62 


1.97 


1.16 


6.1C 


4.1 


4.3 


5 4 1 3.6 


17.3 


3.486 


November, . 


1.27 


1.12 


1.92 


1.42 


5.73 


6.4 


6.8 


6.4 6.6 


24.2 


4.911 


December^ 


1.36 


1.37 


1.33 


1.15 


5.21 


5.4 


6.5 


6.7 . 4.7 


22.3 


4.294 



Quantity of rain during the year 53.834 inches. 



1855.] MSTBOKOLOGICAL INFOBMATIOV. 77 

H. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Summary of Meteorological Observations made at Brown University. Lot. 
410 49' 22" JV., Lvng, 71o 24' 48" W. from Greenwich, Barometer re- 
duced to the Sea-level, and to 32^ Fahr.^ and corrected for Capillary Action, 
By Prof, A. CaswelL 

1853. 



Months. 


Barometer. —Means of three «laily 
Observations. 


External Thermometer. — Means of 
three daily Observations, whh 
Maximum and Minimum. 


1'' 




o 


II 


H 


p; 


PU 

o 


fl 


1 

& 
66 
62 
67 
87 
95 
88 
90 
85 
68 
70 
46 


J 

8 

7 
10 
32 
38 
46 
68 
52 
35 
32 
16 

4 


1853. 
January, 
February, 
March, 

ftwy,* 
June, 
July,^ 

September, 
October, 
November, 
December, 


inch. 
29.96 
29.95 
29.81 
29 92 
29.93 
30.00 
29.98 
29.93 
29.97 
29.96 
30.20 
29.87 


inch. 
29.91 
29.99 
29-77 
29.88 
29.91 
29 99 
29.95 
29 92 
29.98 
29.92 
30.16 
29.62 


inch. 
29.92 
29.89 
29.80 
29.92 
29.90 
30.00 
29 96 
29 93 
29.96 
29.93 
30.19 
29.86 


inch. 
29 93 
29.91 
29.79 
99.91 
29.91 
30.00 
29.98 
29.93 
29 97 
29.94 
30.18 
29.85 


2?.7 
26.8 
323 
39.7 
51.7 
60.8 
66.4 
64.9 
680 
43 3 
38.2 
24.6 


33°6 
354 
40.5 
62.0 
66.7 
77.6 
79.3 
76 8 
70.6 
58 
49.7 
34.4 


27°1 
29.2 
35.1 
41.5 
52.6 
623 
667 
660 
59.4 
47.0 
39.8 
26.8 


28°4 
30.6 
36.0 
44.4 
67.0 
66.9 
70.8 
692 
62.6 
49.4 
42.6 
286 


Ann. Mean, 


29.96 


29.93 


29.93 


29.94 


44.3 


56.2 


46.1 


48.9 


96 


4 



WiRDS, Clouds, and Rains. 



Months. 
1853. 


Number of Days in which 
the prevailing Winds came 
from any Point between 
N. &E.,E.&S.,S.&W., 
W. &N. 


Quantity of Clouds, 
from 0—10. 


P 




1 


1 


1^ 

1 
en 


1 


< 
to 


PU 


o 


II 


January, 
February, . 
March, . . . 

June, . 

July.' . . . 

Augost . . 

October, . . 
November, . 
December, . 




2 
8 
2 
6 
3 
5 
1 
2 
1 

6 



8 
3 
9 
12 
14 
14 
17 

\l 

15 
10 
5 


14 
13 
17 
7 
6 
4 
11 

11 
10 
10 
19 


4.9 
5.0 
4.4 
4.9 
5.3 
5.1 
5.9 
6.3 
5.8 
3.5 
5.9 
5.6 


5.2 
5.5 
4.7 
5.3 
4.6 
3.3 
5.6 
5.1 
6.9 
4.2 
68 
5.6 


6.2 
6.2 
4.7 
44 
3.6 
4.6 
4.1 
6.3 
•4.3 
3.5 
6.1 
4.7 


6.1 
5.2 
4.6 
4.9 
4.4 
4.3 
6.2 
6.2 
6.0 
3.7 
5.9 
5.3 


9 
10 
10 
13 
8 
9 
10 
12 
6 
7 
6 
8 


4.27 
6.76 
1.35 
6.05 
4.96 
0.90 
637 
8.38 
3.80 
4.15 
440 
3.90 

4.44 


Annual Mean, 


6.7 


2.9 
35 


12.1 


10.3 


5.1 


4.9 


4.6 


4.9 


9 


Total for the Year, 


68 


135 


124 










108 


53.27 



The greatest helj;ht of the barometer (reduced as above) was 30.69 inches, on 
January 6th; on November 11th it rose to 30.67. The least, 28.84, on the 23d of January. 
Extreme range for the year, 1.85 inches. 

The maximum temperature was 95o on the 21st of June. The minimum 4^ on the 29th 
of December. 

The greatest fall of rain at any one time occurred on the 4th, 5th, and 6th of August. 
Quantity. 3.04 inches. The total quantity for the year was 63.27, which is about thirteen 
and a half inches above the mean annual amount. The average for a period of twenty- 
three years is 39.71 inches. An extraordinary fall of snow occurred on the 29th of Decern- 
ber, being from 16 to 18 inches on the level, accompanied with high wind and intense cold. 

* Three days were not observed. 
7* 



78 METEOROLO0IOAL IKFOBMATIOK. [1855. 

III. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR LAMBERTVILLE, N. J. 

Lot. 40° 22' 45" JV., Long. 74° 55' 30" W, Barometer 96 feet abate 
Mid-tide. By L. H. Parsons. 





1. Summary for 


THl 


Year ending June 30, 1854. 








ThemMOJeter, 


Bammeler. 


Mean. 1 . . 








Mean. 














\ ^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 






1 


1 


E 


1 








ja 








Mnathff, 


!g 


^ 


^1 ^ 


€ 


^ 


fi^r. 


K 


g 


^ 




^ 


B 


•s 


1 




< 




Sll 


l!l 


1 


1 








1 


1 




^ 


L80a, 


o 





O 1 G 


1 D 




c- 


hith. 


Inch. 


inth. 


iiitti. 


Wl. 


inch. 




in. 


Jiity, 


70.9S 


HbM 


59,(52^% 


glfe 


13 


ak 


^Jii,u4i. 


JO.tM^ 


*i,ojy 


:*i.^: 


^J 


'Ji).7&i 


16 


.49 


i^epleniljer, 


S-J.7I 


^\M 


6ii.ay96|Jl 


Jj3 


30 


4:^f 


^^.97 J 


ay.9»- 


mmi 


30,19 


S4fi 


a9,eifi 


ts 


,53 


SI. 16 7.^.53 


iitJ^m 


s 


37 


3U 


59 


moor, 


^xm 


mxmw>^ 


12 


aa.si 


IS 


.7d; 


October, 


l'i,3-'j^.42 


m,i^77 


31 


2S 


31 


4fl 


liow; 


*rio3& 


^ffi,0fl3.;30.39 


;*> 


29.52 24 


.tt7 


?foT«mt«r. 


ly.iS 


7yXm 


13.1071 


aj 


1^1 


-iJi 


m\ 


;ifXi74 


JQ.JG7 


31J.IW,30.5N 


'Jf3 


mss^ia 


1.0B 


Daceinber. 

la'ii. 

Jantiary, 


^.6i 


J9.3I 


1 


11 


l"i 


20 


44* 


:ia90i.f 


-39,910 


^9.323^^0.31^ 


21 


^^.1^18 


LH 


^J.9?- 


17.37 


23.31 .66^ 


12 


M 


3 


641 


30.0-19 


mo65 


3O.Oe4l3O.S6 


45 


20.41U 


1.1s 


Febniary, 


ij.-j? 


m, iti 


:jUfiSG6|' a 


W 


5 


5f5+ 


aa.wi 


30,fiB:2 


mfl.=W5 


;«fif 


28 


29. S6 


{> 


1,00 


MarcL, 


MA^ V7,l^ 


37.72:7? ,10 


m 


23 


57' 


29.923 


29.938 


23 965 


30.33 


t% 


29,25 


17 


l.Ob 


'^t 


la.sti 


<^;m 


xh.ti'M m 


25 


3 


m 


29.93*2 


aSSN2 


^9.364 


:w.6i 


3 


29.46 


10 


LIS 


'^^.i£^ 


rj.ai 


.j9.26:*g 


2S 35 


7 


GO 


aa.Mi 


■as.g-iB 


2B.<M2 


30.Sf 


23 


29.66 


3 


.T3 


XIUH, 


!J?.46 


S4iX,» 


fi3je|!J3 


'i!7 «^ 


I 


45 


m937 


maai 


as>.3a9 


30.16 


I 


^29. 67 


S 


.38 


Te*r, 


\%m 


ei.TU 


13 95]9a 


37* ]| 


_»f 


^e^ 


29.999 


29.999 


30.019 


mss 


iSil^aa&lisi 


U40 



" June. 



t January. 



S November. 



§ December. 



2. Weather for Year ending June 30, 1854. 



Months. 
1853-54. 


« 


♦ 


c 
1^ 


P 


Months. 
1854. 


♦ 








July, 1863, 

August, 

September, * 

October, 

November, 

December, 

January, '54, 


3 
3 
4 

8 
4 
4 
4 


1 
1 
1 
7 

4 


13 

8 
6 
6 
4 
6 
8 


6.595 
3.300 
3.237 
4.320 
2170 
1.72S 
1.890 


February, 
March, 

June, 


3 
2 

4 
3 


5 
3 
7 
3 
2 


9 
9 
13 
12 
7 


6.375 
1.320 
6.547 
4.406 
4.960 


Year, 


42 


44 


101 


46.840 



The Peach blossomed on the 24th of April; the Cherry on the 24th; and the Apple 
on the 1st of May. 



* Perfectly clear, not a cloud being seen, - 
during the whole day. 



-or entirely cloudy, no clear sky being seen, •^ 



1855.3 MBTEOROLOGICAL. INFOBMATION. 79 

IV. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR SAVANNAH, Ga. 

For the Year ending May, 1854. By Dr, John F, Posey, 

1. Barometer. 

Barometer cistern with constant level, No. 465, by J. Oreen. Scale, English inchee, cof 
rected for temperature reduced to the freezing point. 42 feet above half-tide in tbe river. 





Highest. 


Lowest. 


Monthly Mean 
for each Hour. 


^ . 


1 








H 




^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 




^ S 


^ 


1 


^ 


^ 


^ 


s 


& 


< 


eu 


PW 


S 


1 


< tu 


A^ 


< 


A4* 


Pk 




*>• 


ot 


a> 


tv ' o» 


a» 


t* 


« 


o» 




186a 




inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch, inch 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch, 


inch. 


inch. 


June, 


3 


30.22 


30.20 


:».2I 


30.210 


18 


30 00 29.91 


29.99 


29.967 


30 12 


30.06 


30.09 


30 095 


July, 


29 


30.19 


30.17 


30.20 


30187 


16 


29.97 29.88 


29.94 29.930 


30.08 


30 00 


30 06 


30 059 


August, 


27 


30.15 


30.10 


30.11 


30.120 


19 


29.79 29.74 


29.81 29 780 


30.03 


29.99 


30.02 


30.013 


Se^. 


26 


3019 


30.16 


30.19 


30.180 


14 


29.97 29.87 


29.89 29 910 


30.04 


30.00 


30.04 


30.024 


October, 


11 


30.13 


30.20 


:J0.2030.197 


20 


29.62 29.53 


29.62,29 590 


30 02 


30.00 


mo4 


30.026 


Nov. 


7 


30.32 


30.36 


m43 30.370 


13 


29.88 29.83 


29.91 29 873 


30 20 


3015 


30.19 


30179 


Dec. 

1854. 
January. 


21 


30.46 


liO.-M 


30.3330.377 


17 


29.68,29.46 


29.53 29.557 


30.04 


29.98 


30.03 


30.016 


24 


30.61 


30.51 


30.51 30.543 


12 


29 60 29.73 


29.87 29.733 


30.21 


30.17 


30.20 


30191 


Feb. 


17 


30.40 


30.38 


30.46,30.413 


20 


29.65 29.62 


29.64,29 635 


30.15 


30.12 


30.15 


30 128 


March, 


19 30.43 


30.36 


:».30 30.395 


17 


29.81 29.71 


29.68129.731 


3011 


30.06 


30 06 


30 087 


ADril, 

May, 


3 30.58 


30.53 


30.5530.552 


16 29.57 29.52 


29.71,29.597 


30 05 


30.00 


30.04 


30 028 


130.22 


30.17 


30.17 


30.187 


7 


29.78|29.77 


29.84|29 797 


30.01 


29.97 


29.99 


29.989 


AnM'n. 


30.33 


30.29 


30.31 


30.311 


29.77 29 71 


29.79129 758 


30 088 


30.043 


30.076 


30.069 



Barometer was highest, January 24th, 1854, 30.61 inches. 

" " lowest, December 17th, 1853 29.46 " 

Difference, 1.15 " 



2. Thermometer. 
Made by J. Green, New York ; housed as directed by the Smithsonian Institution. 





Highest. 




Lowest. 


Monthly Mean 
for each Hour. 




h 


aa 


1 














it 


B 




^ 


s 


^ 


d 




^ 


^ 


^ 


i 


^ 


^ 


^ 


i 


B 




C4 




1 


& 


I- 


<N 




< 




at 


'It 


(3 


1853. 
June 


23 


7§.8 


9§9 


88.7 


82.8 


, 


68.0 


7§1 


733 


73 5 


7^0 


86.5 


76.6 


7§.0 


0.787 


5 


July 


11 


78.8 


98.1 


79 5 


85.1 


22 


71.4 


78.1 


75.9 


75 1 


77.0 


88.8 


786 


81.5 


6.464 


12 


Aug. 


6 


79.0 


94.2 


80 3 


84.5 


29 


69 7 


82.4 


74.0 


75 4 


75.4 


85 3 


77.3 


79 3 


8.168 


18 


Sept. 


7 


75.1 


91.2 


79.5 


81.9 


30 


57.0 


76.6 


65.4 


66.3 


70.9 


82.7 


73.9 


75.8 


9.427 


9 


Oct. 


1 


638 


816 


71.5 


72 1 


25 


39 4 


57.2 


48.0 


48 2 


589 


716 


62.9 


64.3 


2.888 


11 


Nov. 


18 


586 


76.4 


61.9 


65.3 


26 


414 


62.1 


52.3 


51.9 


54.7 


67 7 


.->6.4 


604 


3.096 


7 


Dec. 
1854. 
Jan. 


7 


52.6 


71.0 


59 5 


61.0 


20 


30.6 


42.0 


33.4 


35.3 


42.7 


55.7 


47.3 


48.4 


6.882 


11 


18 


62.4 


76.8 


704 


69.9 


9 


31.7 


46.9 


38.8 


391 


47 2 


58.7 


52.0 


52.6 


2.529 


7 


Feb. 


26 


66.1 


74.1 


670 


69.0 


4 


320 


50.9 


40 


41.0 


48.2 


62.6 


53.7 


.54.8 


2.530 


R 


March 


16 


656 


86.4 


76.1 


76 


27 


39.0 


58.2 


491 


48.8 


54 4 


73.4 


634 


64.R 


2.030 


4 


April 
May 


23 


65.0 


89.9 


71.5 


75.5 


a 


37.9 


56.1 


47.7 


46.9 


57.1 


72.6 


61.5 


63.8 


1985 


6 


27 


72.7 


89.7 


77.5 


80.0 


1 


51.0 


70.3 


57.9 


59.7 


68.9 


81.2 


71.2 


73.7 


6.513 


12 


Mean, 




68.3 


85.2^ 


73.0 


75.4 




47.4 


63.2 


54.6 


55.1 


60.8 


73.9 


64.6 


66.5 


63.302 


100 



Thermometer vraa highest, July 11th, 1853, 98.1 

" " lowest, December 20th, 1853, 30.5 

DifliMrance, 67.6 



80 METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION. [1855. 

V. METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, MUSCATINE, Iowa. 

For the Year 1853. By T. S. Parvin. 

Lot. 41° 25' JV., Lang 92P 2' fF. — Proximate, ^ 

Barometer 72.21 ft. above low water in (and 586.21 ft. above the mouth of) the Misstssippi 

River. 



Months. 




Barometer. 


0^ 


Thermometer, detached. 


Clearnesafr.OtolO. 


i 

c 


< 




1 

c 


< 


S 

PU 


s 

eC 


u 


1 
2 


a 

s 
S 
'5 


1 

c 


< 


PU 


^ 
fu 




m 


o» 


CO 


o» 


cc 


O) 


CO 


Oi 


S 


^ 


. C5 


CO 


Oi 


1853. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


o 


2§.2 


o 


2?.0 


o 


o 


o 










January, 


29.61 


29.64 


29.63 


29.64 


21.2 


34.6 


27.05 


54 


- I 


5.5 


6.4 


7.6 


6.9 


Feb'ry, 


.50 


.45 


.43 


.42 


16.6 


24.0 


30.1 


227 


23.36 


55 


11 


4.6 


5.8 


5.8 


5.8 


March, 


.60 


.60 


.46 


.49 


26.5 


30.7 


43.3 


323 


33.24 


66 


5 


5.4 


5.7 


6.0 


7.0 


^/;^ 


.61 


.61 


.49 


.60 


40.0 


50.0 


56.0 


45 2 


47.81 


71 


27 


4.4 


5.4 


5.1 


5.0 


.69 


.66 


.'62 


.67 


48.9 


68.4 


61.3 


53 8 


55.65 


81 


34 


5.4 


5.9 


5.7 


5.8 


June, 


.68 


.61 


.68 


.57 


61.7 


75.2 


83.6 


65.3 


71.22 


91 


49 


7.0 


67 


7.1 


6.9 


July, 


.68 


.68 


.69 


.65 


69.2 


72.1 


78 3 


64.8 


68 82 


87 


46 


7.6 


6.9 


6.4 


7.4 


August, 


.41 


.61 


.69 


.53 


62.9 


74.4 


90.8 


660 


71 .OS 


92 


41 


7.3 


6.8 


7.2 


7.3 


Sept'ber, 


.62 


.61 


.68 


.58 


64.1 


64.4 


70.(^ 


60.2 


62.21 


89 


37 


6.0 


6.0 


6.7 


7.2 


October, 


.66 


.66 


.63 


.63 


35.3 


44.4 


58.3 


49.8 


45.46 


75 


10 


6.6 


7.2 


7.2 


7.2 


Nov'ber, 


.65 


.99 


.99 


.64 


36.6 


39.3 


45.0 


37.9 


39.73 


60 


16 


2.9 


4.5 


4.8 


6.9 


Dec'ber, 


.68 


.57 


.57 


.67 


22.3 


24.7 


33.8 


256 


26.67 


48 


1 


4.6 


4.6 


5.0 


6.8 


An.M'n, 


29.57 


29.53 


29.59 


29.56 


40.4 


48.6 


56.2 


45.8 


47.78 


71 


21 


5.1 


5.9 


6.2 


6.6 



Winds, Clouds, Rains, etc. 





WltvAm, Fofcfl and 
Pirscttaii. 


CUmdii, Velocity aiid Courss. 


Weather 
tdaya). 


Rail), 


Slow. 


Mflfiths. 
1853. 


1 




fh 

A K 


i4 


^ 

ti 


^ 

» 


1 






^ 
^ 

m 


i 



i:-' 


1 

a 




it! 


JaiiMafy, 


(.B 


1.7'fi.O 


L8 7 


6 


10 


11? 1-5 


L4 


1.2 1,3 3 


9 


S 


M 


2 


18 


2; .3 


2 


1.0 


F'>b'ry, 
Marth, 


1.7 


2.01-^.0 


iJ> 


2 


4 


13 8! 8,0 


8.1 


a,s' ra, i 


rti 


a 


6 


e 


is' 21 .7 


3 


20 


i.e 


L8\'U 


aj> 


4 


H 


16 3i 2.S 


2% 


2.1 ■ 1.7 


I s 


B 


14 


6 


11 : ^i .7 


I 


3,0 


^!^ 


1.^ 


LU 


2 A 


2J] 


n 


5 


9; 4] i.e 


1.9 


2,0 LS 4 


s 


y 


tf 


9 


12 


tOill.8 






L5 


l.H 


■iO 


1.4 


s 


S 


12 6 L4 


1.6 


2:0 i.a ; s 


4)11 


fi 


10 


5 


16 


iLt 4.& 






J.mo, 


1.4 


t.7 


J.0 


1.4 


a 


IS 


nil i,8 


L6 


1.9 ! 1.6 


1 


^ 


& 


10 


12 


2 


16 


» a4 






J^iy. 


J. 4 


1.5 


l.fi 


lA 


G 


8 


& ? 1.6 


1,4 


1,8 ', h& 


^5 




s 


11 


11 


a 


17 


n B.G 






Au^uwl. L4 


US 


1.7 


1.2 


:^ 


9 


S J 3.' 1.4 


i.e 


1.5 2.E1 


6 


I 


a 


5,lfi 




16 


5j 1.7 






Sapt'berjl.S LR 


1.0 


J.fi 


7 


ICl 


^ 


a; L8! i.a 


il 


L4 


£ 


2, 


9 


h!i3 


6 


II 


7 1* 






October, '1.4 Lfi 


1.5 


1.4 


r^ 


U) 


11 


7; ijj; L5 


4L0 


l,a 


} 


5j 


a 


3,14 


4 


n 


i .2 






?f<>Vl«r,fhf> 


1.7 


1-8 


L6 


Q 


A 


% 


S, 8ft 1.8 


LT 


3.0 1 1 


jS 


3 


111 fi 


fl 


16 


B LI 


3 


J?,0 


Diit^bar, 1.5 


l.-I 


L6 


lA 


4 


4 


\3 


10 l,fi , IM 


1,7 


a.a! 1 




5 


10 


11 


T 


13 




a 3.2 


An.ai'n, LBh.C 


L3!l,i 5 


7 


10 


9 1.7 IJ 


1.9 


1,61 8 


I 


8 


9 


11 


6ll4 


b's.!} 


2 34 



Ldweit Lempfsraiune, February 8LI1. ^IP ; HiiihesL, Auirti^t lllh, D^. HaneEC, 1^9°, 
LowQsi iMiicht (if hAnnnt^ler. Febnutry 25 jh. !i?.36 loirhfls ? iliermometer au^faftd. 3.^ ; 
rrente-'ji., Ni»vember 84il^ ^.00 Liichea]. ihurinoineier aUacbad^ 4*tP. Bvagt, 164 Inches 
BTenn, 29 377 inches 
BIl^l^l P|jS clDsad, Detccnher L^ih ; opflned, February 25^1. Ckww] CO days. Last ytsar^ 70. 
PftMi. laai tn th*; apririK- May 251 h; firsUii thn fall, StiptanilNir IfHh. 

ipjii* Pa;i[jfi in flowtf, Miiy 3d ; Chorty, May lat f J^p[jl&^ May 8th; Plsitii^ JVfay 3d; and 
fllw* Pwur, MiijF 6ih, 

J Tu'jil q»i,uirily of mm In Inrb&t, 43.3: IS 4 l&s^a than in 1*^3. April rWtr Ycty Iciff itolil 

Ittirt (oat "f V hits niont^. Heavy rains wx la on the ^lh^ and from !^ ^ la ^ 4> iftches Fell on 

ilrtf acci**Ms in lii hauw, and il.8 dimfjg vtif* mDiith. August, camct vidible durinir th& 

jMt^oelG <>'^ lbl4 nujnib, R^pttjmlwr Mrti, liet^L'^n '^ ikrirt 4 A W, 3 5 inrlie* of water' fell. 

fiJfttftbiiP, m* fn Lbe 2tl. Nt)vnmt»ur. low water. Fr^iltjf of all kindd la abundancft this yutr, 

I ttB »biind«aL hirvesk Miiru eicknosj, but to^ ratalily, this aurnniH- tbim aaul. 



1855.J MXTSOBOLOGICAL INFORMATION. 81 

VI. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR WORCESTER, Mass. 

Lot. 42° W 17" JV. ; Long. 7V> 48' 13" W. ; devotion 536 feet. Hours of 
Observation^ 6 ^, M., 2 and 30 P. M, 





i 


. 


^ 














1 




^ 


S 


1852-53. 




s 


P 


inch. 


^ 








S 


§ 


JS 


i 


g 




inch. 


inch. 


^ 


inch. 


1 

inch. 


1 

inch. 
29.52 


1 

inch. 


-3 


1 


inch. 


inch. 


1 




inch. 


inch. inch. 




^7 


29.47 


29.39 


29.42 


29.33 


23.3J^ 


20.41 


29.47 


29 47129.47 


29.44129.63 




Mean at ^2. 


29.50 


29.36 


29.3y 


29.25 


29 33 


29.39 


29.49 


29.44 


29.43-29.44 29.41 29.64 




9 


29.4i 


29.42 


29.36 


29.33 


29.31 


29.42 


29.49 


29.46 29.47,29.60;29.46,29.62 




TTtermometer. 


o 








o 


o 


o 





o 


o o 


o o 


o 


{"^ 


30.5 


21.7 


25.0 


31.4 


42.7 


52.9 


63.8 


67.3 


&1.7 57.6 


43.3 36.0 


-4)5 


Mean at ^2 


39.5 


31.2 


29.3 


40.9 


51.6 


67.5 


75.7 


84.7 


71.0 


63.5 


57.5 \4BJ2 


92.5 


(9 


33.0 


25.7 


27.7 


33.0 


42.6 


54.3 


63.3 


70.5 


66.9 


59.2 


45.9 |38.4 




72 30 


60 04 


54.67 


48.29 


52 03 


63 96 


60.26 


65.8376.83 


77.43 


66.25 65.76 




Mean at ^2 


66.40 


64.70 


68.50 


50.3 


49.36 


49.19 


47.46 


47.6l!6l.70 62.36 


53.96 51.66 




^9 


69.36 


64.00 


56.21 


49.96 


59.83 


69.67 


63.33 


63.38 78.22 80.63 


65.64 


55.80 




Cloudiness. 


























Mean at 2 
(9 


56 


51 


5 6 


4.5 


3.7 


37 


3.8 


3.7 4.1 


6.1 


3.2 


6.9 




6.8 


4.8 


49 


.3.9 


4.7 


3.7 


3.9 


3.3 i 4.7 


4.8 


4.5 


5.3 


^ 


6.2 


4.6 


4.4 


3.3 


3.9 


4.4 


30 


5.1 , 4.1 


3.6 


2.6 


5.4 


E 


Inches of rain, 


4.78 


1.7i 


6.98 


060 


4.92 


5 45 


1.01 


3.2910.71 


5.26 


6.20 


5.30 


54.22 


" snow-water, 





l.3i 


l.U 


3.0(* 


























5,43 


" snow, 


4.00 


lO.OC 


ii.a 


8.0G 


























33.00 


19 


22 


18 


23 


16 


20 


14 


13 


12 


17 


18 


16 


208 


& 


9 


7 


8 


7 


11 


8 


13 


15 , 16 


12 


11 


12 


129 


E. 


6 


7 


6 


5 


4 


6 


7 


4 1 11 


5 


3 


8 


72 


W. " 


24 


23 


21 


26 


24 


23 


23 


27 19 


24 


28 


22 


284 



VII. AMOUNT OF RAIN AND SNOW REGISTERED AT THE 
STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, WORCESTER, MASS., FOR 
TWELVE YEARS. 



Year. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


I.a 


H 


^1 


Is 


I.E 


l| 


ia 


1^ 


2 6 


^E 


N 




MS 


=1 


Jl 


M& 


II 


13 


Mi 


M& 


II 


MS 


1841-42 


4.77 


6.0 


1.35 


5.0 


4.13 


3.0 


2.24 


4.0 


2.82 




3.24 


1842-43 


5.30 


26.0 


5.05 


2.0 


4.45 


30.0 


5.23 


26.0 


3.13 


10.0 


1.73 


1S43-44 


2.28 


23.0 


3.14 


13.5 


1.44 


12.0 


3.80 


18.5 


0.36 




3.67 


1844-45 


2.66 


8.0 


4.17 


12.0 


2.61 


20.0 


3.29 


10.0 


1,61 




3.23 


1845-46 


5.39 


13.0 


2.92 


13.0 


2.50 


30.0 


3.33 




1.34 




6.85 


1846-47 


2.87 


9.0- 


4.66 


5.0 


4.08 


17.0 


3.89 


9.0 


1.67 




1.63 


1847-48 


4.93 


10.6 


3.08 


4.5 


1.61 


25.0 


3.89 


6.0 


1.52 


5.0 


6.82 


1848-49 


393 


25.0 


0.98 


2.0 


1.30 


14.5 


6.30 


3.0 


1.95 




3.56 


1749-60 


3.12 


8.5 


4.79 


15.0 


323 


2.0 


3.67 


20.0 


5.53 


13.0 


7.50 


1850-51 


4.19 


23.5 


2.07 


2.5 


4.01 


1.5 


1.40 


18.0 


6.76 




4.73 


1851-52 


2.30 


5.5 


5.44 


15.5 


2.46 


11.5 


3.42 


13.5 


10.77 


23.0 


3.15 


1852-53 


4.78 


4.0 


3.02 


10.0 


8.09 


11.0 


3.60 
3.67 


8.0 


4.92 




5.45 


Means. 


3.86 


12.9 


.3.33 


8.3 


3.32 


14.7 


11.2 


3.53 


4.2 


4.14 



HBTEOSOIiOOICAI. INFOBMATION. 
VII. CONTINUKD. 



[1865. 



Year. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


October. 


November. 


Total. 


-1 


I.S 


Ms 


H 


Is 


^t 


"li 


^S 


Ie 


H 




a& 


Mi 


MS 


£<S 


M& 


Jl 


l« 


II 


l<s 


Mi 


1841-42 


4.93 


1.96 


7.12 


3.60 


0.83 




3.36 




40.25 


lao 


1842-43 


4.15 


3.39 


9.19 


1.26 


5.19 




3.63 




51.69 


94.0 


1843-44 


1.92 


8.50 


3.39 


3.68 


7.34 




3.06 


5.0 


37.57 


72.0 


1844-49 


3.14 


2.91 


2.36 


2.67 


4.44 




6.77 


4.0 


39.66 


54.0 


1846-46 


2.37 


3.61 


2.44 


0.90 


2.19 




4.08 


6.0 


37.12 


61.0 


1846-47 


6.29 


4.86 


4.20 


7.17 


2.87 




3.75 




46.94 


39.0 


1847-4S 


1.31 


3.13 


3.19 


2.36 


6.76 




1.94 


8.0 


39.53 


59.0 


1848-49 


1.25 


1.60 


4.28 


2.49 


6.45 




4.11 




38.20 


44.5 


1849-60 


3.36 


3.75 


6.05 


7.92 


3.37 




2.14 


0.6 


64.42 


59.0 


1860-61 


3.16 


2.17 


1.97 


2.50 


7.04 


4 


6.68 


6.6 


45.68 


65.0 


1861-62 


3.63 


3.42 


11.38 


3.36 


3.89 




5.88 


4.0 


69.00 


73.0 


1862-63 


1.01 


3.29 


10.71 


6.26 


6.20 




6.30 




59.69 


33.0 


Means. 


2.96 


3.14 


6.52 


3.69 


4.63 


3 


4.14 


2.6 


45.80 


55.0 



VIII. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR SACRAMENTO, Cal. 

For the Year ending March 31, 1854. Lot. 38o 34' 42'' JV*., Long. 120^ W. 
EUoati4m ahavB the Level of the Sea 39 feet. By Thos, M. Logan, M. D. 















M 




1 


^ 




inch 






1853-64. 


i 

inch 


i 

inch. 




t 

inch. 


5 

inch. 


(% 


i 

inch. 


2 
inch 




1 

inch. 


inch. 


Inch- 


Barometer. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


Maximum, 


30.3G 


30.28 


30.20 


30.20 


ao.o6 


30.10 


30.4Q 


30.46 


30.46 


30.45 


30.40 


30.40 


30.45 


Minimum, 


29.86 


29.88 


28.88 


29.96 


29.85 


29.9C 


29.9G 


29.30 


29.70, 


29.70 
29.11 


29.70 


29.86 


28.88 


Mean, 


30.13 


30.09 


29.79 


30.06 


30.30 


29.85 


30.16 


30.05 


30.13 


30.17 


29.05 


29.97 


Thermometer, 
Maximum, 


7^ 


7^8 


9^ 


& 


& 


9% 


8^8 


7% 


& 


S 


6^ 


S 


9^7 


Minimum, 


60 


54 


68 


62 


68 


64 


58 


46 


32 


19 


38 


37 


19 


Clear, 
Cloudy, 


61 


68 


77 


76 


71 


76 


73 


63 


48 


43 


51 


63 


62 


16 


19 


27 


26 


22 


28 


26 


13 


21 


19 


10 


13 


239 


7 


6 


2 


2 


8 


1 


4 


10 


6 


6 


5 


9 


66 


r%/ 


7 


6 


1 


4 





1 


1 


6 


4 


7 


13 


9 


69 


3 


2 


3 











1 





2 


4 


3 


4 


22 


N.W. " 


8 


7 


13 


4 


1 


9 


23 


13 


16 


16 


10 


B 


128 


W. 


1 

















1 





1 


1 


1 


2 


7 


S.W. " 


7 


10 


7 


2 


3 


5 


3 


4 


2 


I 


1 


6 


60 


S. 


3 


4 


4 


1 


2 


4 


1 


6 


1 


3 


1 


8 


37 


&E. " 


7 


7 


3 


24 


26 


9 


2 


6 


2 


6 


6 


1 


96 


E. 


1 


1 











1 





3 


■ 2 





4 


1 


U 


N.K « 

















2 








4 


1 


4 


2 


13 



RsM AKKS. Bj clear dajs is meant that no clouds were visible at the times of observa- 
tion ; bj cloudj, that some were visible ; and by rainy days, that some rain fell then without 
reference to quantity. I'he greatest amount that fell at any one period was on the 22d of 
February. The last rain of the past season occurred on the 20th of May, 1863. There was 
a slight sprinkle afterwards on the 26th of June^ and on the 17th and 21st of July. The first 
rains of the present season occurred on the 15th of September and the 10th of October. The 
regular rainy season, however, did not set in until the 14th of November. About the middle 
of January tlie sea^coast range of mountains presented the novel appearance of being covered 
with snow. The degree of cold during this month was unprecedented. Sutter Lake was 
fcoxen over on the 6th and on the 2ist of January, and remained so all day on the 22d. 



1855.] HKTBOBOLOOICAI^ IKI-ORMATIOM. 88 

DL METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR KNOX HILL, Fa. 

LkL 30^ acy JV., £.01^. I8G0 W. us feet above the Sea. Barometer corrected 
for 320 Fakr. By J. Newton. 





Mean of three daily 




Mean of three dally 


ISmaSm. 


Observationa. 


Months. 


Obaervailona. 


1^3. 








1353. 










Barom. 


Thcr. 


Rain. 




Oarom. 


Ther. 


Raio. 




inch. 




inch. 




Inch. 





Inch. 


May, . . . 


29.&48 


746 


1.8489 


December, . 


29.922 


61.0 


4999S 


Jiiii . . 


29.903 


78.6 


3.4545 


January, 1S54, 


30.140 


64.4 


2.6302 


^uly; . . . 


29.910 


79.8 


7.5198 


February, . 


29.967 


66.6 


6.2393 


(Ansust, . 


29.860 


79.9 


6.1003 


March, . 


29.914 


64.6 


3.1367 


September . 


29.855 


76.8 


6.1396 


April, . 


29.966 


60.8 


1.7696 


October, . . 


29.900 


67.0 


2.6193 










November, . 


29.955 


62.9 


0.9774 








46.2360 



The 
The 



coldest day, mean 35.60, December^, 
warmest day, mean 84.6°, Jaly 17. 



X. RAIN AT POWHATAN HILL, KING GEORGE CO., Va. 



Inches. 


Inches. 




Inches. 


Inchea. 


1853, July 6.280 


Oct. 2.945 




1354, Jan. 2.680 


April 3.2C5 


Aug. 3.335 


Nov. 0.920 




Feb. 4,256 


May 2.256 


Sept. 2.345 


Dec. 1.160 




Mar. 1.665 


June 3.790 


10.960^ 


5.025 




8.600 


9.310 


• 


10.960 




January 1 


8.600 


July to December 15.985 


to July 17.810 


January to July 12.816 








Total rain in 


1863 28.800 








1st quarter. 


. 2tL 


3d. 


4th. 


TotaL 


1850 6.720 


a93a 


15.11 


7.190 


37.95 Inchaa. 


1851 7.960 


8.250 


6.17 


4.550 


26.93 " 


1852 5.065 


10.656 


11.63 


10.470 


37.72 " 


1853 5.635 


7.180 


10.96 


6.025 


28.80 " 


1854 8.500 


9.310 









Rains of half an inch and over in 1853 and to July I, 1854. 

1853, Jan. 12, 0.636; Feb. 6, .875; March 1, .825; 17, .686; April 3, 4, .965; 16, 17, .876; 
24,25, .595; May 21, 26, 1.60; July 6, .875; 10, .60; 11, 12, .61; 20,21,1.386; 26,1.30; 
Augusts, 1.26; 17, .665; 18, 1.12; Sept. 9, 10, 1.675; Oct. 24, 1.376; Nov. 9, .60. 

1854, Jan. 11, 12, 0.766; Feb. 8, 1.045; 15, 16, .695; 20, 21, .92; 26, 1.66; March 22, .82; 
April, 14, 16, 16, 2.316; 28, 29, .695; May 22, .65; June 7, .60; 19, 1.47. 

In 1863, thermometer highest July 1, 9SP; Dec. 24, 18P. First frost Oct. 4. 8now, Oct. 
24 and Dec. 29, 1 inch ; Dec. 30, 2 inches. Ice, Nov. 26, } of an inch thick. 

In 1864, theimometer highest June 28, 91^; Jan. 9, 18°; 24, 160; March 29, 23P; April 
16, 32P ; 17, 290 ; 29, 370. Snow, Jan. 1, 4^ inches deep ; Feb. 20, 4 to 6 In. ; March 22, 28, 
and 30, and April 17, 1 in. Ice, Jan. 4, 3 inches thick ; 6, 4^ to 6 in. ; 24, 2 in. ; 25, 3 in. ; 
Much 19, ^ io. ; 24, i in. ; April 3, ^ in. ; 19, crust. Latest frost, May 1. 



84 M£T£OBOL06ICAL INFORMATION. [1865. 

XL RAIN AT CHURCH HILL, JEFFERSON CO., Miss. 

During the Years 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, and to July 1, 1854. By Dr, F. B. 

Coleman, 



Mouths. 


1830. 


1851. 


1852. 


1853. 


1854. 


January, 
February, . 
March, . 

^^.- . ■.-. 

June, . 
July, . 
Auj^st, 
September, 
October, 
November, . 
December, . 


inches. 
7.37 
4.95 
2.41 
6.87 
5.49 
8.09 
3.55 
3.78 
0.70 
0.20 
2.47 

11.52 


inched. 
2.35 
9.85 
2.83 
1.61 
0.96 
1.03 
1.91 
5.16 
0.46 
3.27 
8.09 
6.64 


inches. 
1.57 
4.57 
3.03 
339 
1.31 
0.24 
3.38 
0.89 
2.27 
1.89 
5.10 
8.81 


inches. 
0.75 
7.92 
5.23 
2.08 
4.75 
1.97 
7.92 
9.13 
1.37 
4.19 
2.68 
4.83 


inches. 
2.68 
3.23 
6.17 
2.46 
7.66 
4.25 


Total, . 


57.40 


44.16 


37.00 


52.72 





XII. FLOWERING OF FRUIT-TREES IN 1854. 



Places. 


Plum. 


Pear. 


Peach. 


Cherry. 


Apple. 


Cambridge, Mass., 


April 30 
May 10 


April 30 


May 3 


May 6 


May 10 


Woodstocic, Vt., 






May 15 


May 22 


New Haven, Ct., 






April 25 




May 6 


Lambenville, N. J., 






April 24 


April 24 


May 1 


Perth Amboy, N. J., 


April 30 




April 26 


April W 


May 3 


King George Co.,Va.,* 




April 8 


March 17-22 


April 5 


April 15 
March 1 


Savannah, Ga.,t 


Feb. 16 




Feb. 15 




Muscatine, Iowa, 


May 3 


May 6 


May 3 


May 1 


Mays 



. * The fruit was generally killed by the excessively cold weather in April after a very mild 
March. Snow and ice April 15 ; frost May 1. 
t Frost early in April icilled the early firuit. 



AMERICAN ALMANAC, 

FOB 

1855. 



PART II. 



UNITED STATES. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES FROM THE 
ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 









Term Began. 


Term Ended. 


1. 


George Washington, 


Virginia, 


April 30, 1789, 


March 3, 1797. 


2. 


John Adama, 


Massachusetts, 


March 4, 1797, 


March 3, 1801. 


3. 




Virginia, 


March 4, 1801, 


March 3, 1809. 


4. 


James Madison, 


Virginia, 


March 4, 1800, 


March 3, 1817. 


5. 


James Monroe, 


Virginia, 


March 4, 1817, 


March 3, 1825. 


6. 


John Quinc7 Adams, 


Massachusetts, 


March 4, 1825, 


March 3, 1829. 


7. 


Andrew Jackson, 


Tennessee, 


March 4, 1829, 


March 3, 1837. 


8 


Martin Van Buren, 


New York, 


March 4, 1837, 


March 3, 1841. 


9. 


William Hemy Harrisonj^t 


Ohio, 


March 4, 1841, 


April 4,1841. 


10. 


John Tyler, 


Virginia, 


April 4,1841, 


March 3, 1845. 


11. 


James Knox Polk, 


Tennessee, 


March4, iai5, 


March 3, 1849. 


12. 


Zachary Taylor,* 


Louisiana, 


March 4, 1849, 


July 9, 1850. 


13. 


Millard Fillmore, 


New York, 


July 9, 1850, 


March 3, 1863. 


14. 


Franklin Pierce, 


New Hampshire, March 4, 1863. 





II. EXECUTIVE GOVERNMENT. 

The 17th Presidential tenn of four years, since the establishment of the 
government of the United States under the Constitution, began on the 4th 
of March, 1853; and it will expire on the 3d of March, 1857. 



Salary 

$25,000 

8,000 



FRANKLIN PIERCE, of New Hampshire, President, 
Vacancy,! Vice-President, 

The Cabinet. 
The following are the principal officers in the executive departmefiU of the 
government, who ferm the Cabinet, and who hold their offices at the will 
of the President. 

New York, Secretary of State, $ 8,000 

Kentucky, Secretary of the Treasury, 8,000 

Mississippi, Secretary of War, 8,000 

North Carolina, Secretary of the J^avy, 8,000 

Robert McClbllakd, Michigan, Secretary of the Interior, 8,000 

Jambs Campbeli., Pennsylvania, Postmaster- General, 8,000 

Caleb Coshino, Massachusetts, Attorney- General, 8,000 

* Died in office. 

t Hon. William R. King, of Alabama, the VlcePreeident of the United States, died on the 
I8th of April, 1863. 



William L. Marct, 
James Guthrie, * 
Jefferson Davis, 
James C. Dobbir, 



88 



UNITED STATES. 



[1855. 



Department of State. 
William L. Marcy, Secretary. 

A. Dudley Mann, Assistant Secretary, salary, ^3,000. 

Salary. 



William Hunter, Chief Clerk, $ 2,000 
Abel French, Claims Clerk, 2,000 
Francis Markoe, Princ'l Clerk, 2,000 



Robert S. Chew, 


do. 


2,000 


Alex. H. Derrick, 


Clerk, 


1,600 


H. D. Johnson, 


do. 


1,600 


James S. Mac Kie, 


do. 


1,500 


John P. Polk, 


do. 


1,400 


George J. Abbot, 


do. 


1,400 


Robert S. Chilton, 


do. 


1,400 


William C. Reddall, 


do. 


1,400 


George Chipman, 
George Hill, 


do. 


1,400 


do. 


1,400 





Salary. 


Clerk, 


$1,400 


do. 


1,400 


do. 


1,200 


do. 


1,200 


do. 


1,000 


do. 


900 


do. 


800 



Augustus C. Gillet, 

Wm. E. Stubbs, 

Charles V. Gordon, 

C. G. Baylor, 

Henry D J. Pratt, 

George Bartle, 

Wm. J. Bromwell, 

Edward Stubbs, Disburs. Agent, 1,450 

Louis Fitzgerald Tasi8tro,7ra7ts- 

lator, 1,600 

Edmund Flagg, Superintendent 

of Statistics, 2,000 



Treasury Department. 

James Guthrie, Secretary. 

Peter G. Washington, Assistant Secretary, salary, $ 3,000. 



Gilbert Rodman, Chief Clerk 
of the Treasury Department, $2,200 

Comptrollers. 

Elisha Whittlesey, 1st Comp., 3,500 
James M. Ramsey, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
John R. Brodhead, 2d Comp., 3,000 
Tobias Purringlon, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Auditors. 

Thos. L. Smith, Ast Auditor, "3,000 
David W.Mahon,CAw/acrA:, 2,000 
Philip Clayton, 2d Auditor, 3,000 
William Mechlen, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
Robt. J. Atkinson, 3^ Auditor, Z,000 
Samuel S. Rind, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
Aaron i^.'D^.yXovl,Ath Auditor, 3,000 
A , J. O Biinnon, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
S u^ |j 1 1 , 1 M e asanton , hth Auditor, 3,000 
mwm Muslin, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
llHTm. r. Phillips, Auditor of 

Trtamtryfor P. 0. Depart., 3,000 
OS. J. Johnston, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Commissioner of Customs. 

Hugh J. Anderson, 3,000 

^ommYex^n, Chief Clerk, 2,000 



6eo. F. Emery, T 
G. W.Pomeroy, [Jippraisers 
H. C. Loughlin, [ «< ^^8^' 
Wm. P. Pouder, 
S. J. "QriAgQ, Appraiser- General 
for tlie Pacific Coast, $ 6,000 

Treasurer's Office. 
Samuel Casey, Treasurer, 3,000 

W. B. Randolph, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Assistant Treasurers. 
I. W. Beard, Boston, 2,500 

John J. Cisco, Jfew York, 4,000 
Daniel Sturgeon, Philadelphia, 2,500 
B. C. Pressly, CJiarleston, 2,500 
John M. Bell, JVeio Orleans, 2,500 
Isaac H. Sturgeon, St. Louis, 2,500 
Jacob R. Snyder, §aiifomia. 

Register's Office. 

Finley Bigger, Register, 3,000 

Charles T. Jones, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Solicitor's Office. 
Ferris B. Streeter, Solicitor, 3,500 
B. F. Pleasants, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Coast Survey. 
Alex. D. Bache, Superintendent, 6,000 



1855.] 



EXECUTIVE GOVEKNMENT. 



89 



War t)KPARTMENT. 

Jeffenon Davis, Secretary. 
Salary. 



Arch. Campbell, Chief CUrk^ $2,300 
Mjtttant'GeneraVs OgUe. 

Samael Cooper, CoL, Adjutant- 
General. 

W. G. Freeman, Major^ Assist. 
Adj. 'Gen. 

J. F. Brown, Chief CUrk^ 1,800 

Qitartermaster- General* s Bureau, 
T. S. Jesup, Brev. Maj.-Gen.^ 

Qttartermaster- General. 
Charles Thomas, Brev. Ltj-CoL^ 

(Quartermaster. 
Wm. A. Gordon, Chief Clerk^ 1,800 

Pay Bureau. 
B. F. Larned, Col., Paymaster- 

General. 
W. D. Beal, Chief Clerk, 1,800 

Subsistence Bureau. 
Geo. Gibson, Brev. Maj.-Gen., 

Com.-Gen. of Subsistence. 
A. E. Shiras, Capt. 4th Art., As- 

sist. Com. Subsistence. 
Richard Gott, Chitf Clerk, $ 1,800 



Salaiy. 
Medical Bureau. 

Thomas Lawson, Brev, Brig." 

Gen., Surg.- Gen. 
H. L. Heiskell, Surg. ^ Assist. 

Surg. -Gen. 
R. Johnson, Chief Clerk, $1,800 

Engineer Bureau. 
J. G. Tolten, Brev. Brig.- Gen., 

Chief Engineer. 
J. D. Kurtz, Lieut. ^ Assist. 

Chief Engineer. 
F. N. Barbarin, Chief Clerk, 1,800 

Topographical Bureau. 
John J. Abert, Col, Chief Top. 

Engineer. 
T. J. Lee, Capt., Assist. Chirf 

Top. Engineer. 
Geo. Thompson, Chief Clerk, 1,800 

Ordnajue Bureau. 
Henry K. Craig, Col., Chief of 

Ordnance. 
W. Maynadier, Capt. ^ Assist. 
Geo. Bender, Chief Clerk, 1,800 



Natt Department. 
James C. Dobbin, Secretary. 

Charles W. Welsh, Chief Clerk, 2,200 

Joseph Smith, Chief of the Bureau of Docks and J^avy-Yards, 3,500 

Charles Morris, do. do. Ordnance and Hydrography, 3,500 

John Lenthall, do. do. Construct., Equip., ^Repairs, 3,000 

William Sinclair, Chief of the Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, 3,500 

William Whelan, do. do. Med. and Surgery, 3,000 

Lient. M. F. Maury, Superintendent of Observatory at Washington, 3,000 

Daniel B. Martin, Engineer in Chief. 3,000 

Department of the Interior. 
Robert McClelland, Secretary. 



Geo. C. Whiting, Chief Clerk, $2,200 

General Land-Office. 
John Wilson, Commissioner, 3,000 



Chas. S. Frailey, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
Jos. S. Wilson, Principal Clerk 

of Private Land Claims, 1 ,800 



90 



UNITED STATES. 



[1865. 



Salary, 
John M. Moore, Principal Clerk 

iff Surveys^ $ 1,800 

Julias N. Granger, Recorder, 2,000 
Sydney Webster, Secret, to Prea. 
to ngn Land Patents, 1,500 

Indian Office. 
G. W. Manypenny, Commiss., 3,000 
Charles £. Mix, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Pension Office. 
Loren P. Waldo, Commissioner, 3,000 
Samuel Cole, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Patent Office. 
Charles Mason, Commissioner, 3,000 
S. T. Shugert, CkirfCUrk, 2,000 

George C. Schaffer, Examiner, 2,500 



Henry Baldwin, 


do. 


2,500 


Leonard D. Gale, 


do. 


2,500 


Jonathan H. Lane, 


do. 


2,500 


Titian R. Peale, 


do. 


2,500 


T.J.Everett, 


do. 


2,500 



Salary. 
De Witt C. Lawrence, jSm. Ex., $ 1,600 



Daniel Breed, 
J. M. Henry, 
Alfred Herbert, 
Edward Foreman, 
W. C. Langd6n, 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do. 



1,600 
1,600 
1,600 
1,600 
1,600 



A. L. Mclntire, Draughtsman, 1,600 
D. J. Browne, Agricult. Clerk, 1,500 
Vacant, Machinist, 1,250 
Wm. W. Turner, Librarian, 1,200 

Superintendent of Census. 

J. D. B. De Bow, 3,000 

Public Buildings. 

B. B. French, Commissioner, 2,000 

Penitentiary. 

Thomas Thornley, Warden, 1,500 

Harvey Lindsley, Inspector, 100 

Richard Jones, do. 100 

Samuel Pumphrey, do. 100 



Commission to adjust Private Land Claims in California. 



AlpheusFelch, of Michigan, 8,000 
Robert A. Thompson, of Va., 8,000 
Seth B. Farwell, 8,000 



Jno. H. McKune, Aa'yfor U. S, 
Louis Blanding, Ass*t Law Agent. 
George Fisher, Secretary, 



Post-Officb Department. 
James Campbell, Postmaster- General. 
Horatio King, 1st Assistant Postmaster- Gen., Appointment Office, 3,000 

Wm. H. Dundas, 2d do. do.. Contract Office, 3,000 

John Marron, Zd do. do.. Finance Office, 3,000 

John Oakfbrd, Chief Clerk P. O. DepU, and Chief of Inspection Office, 2,200 
Wm. F. Phillips, Auditor of the Treasury far the Post-Office, 3,000 

T. J. Johnston, ChUf Clerk of the Auditor, 2,000 

Postmasters in the Chief Towns and Cities.* 

[Corrected Iq the Poat-Office Department, October 10, 1864.] 



Cities. 
Augusta, Me. 
Bangor, Me. 
Bath, Me. 
Brunswick, Me. 
Calais, Me. 
Castine, Me. 
Eastport, Me. 



Posimasters. 
Wm. S. Badger. 
Isaac C. Haines. 
Joseph C. Snow. 
Robert P. Dunlap. 
Edgar Whidden. 
Charles Rogers. 
W. Hathaway. 



Cities. 
Hallowell, Me. 
•Portland, Me. 
Robbinston, Me. 
Saco, Me. 
Thomaston, Me. 
Wateryille, Me. 



Postmasters. 
T. W. Newman. 
N. L. Woodbury. 
J. W. Cox. 
Charles Nutter. 
A. Lermond. 
H. Barrett. 



Charlestown,N.H. C. Messinger. 



♦ The offices marked thin (*) are the distrlbuttng offices. 



I, 



1855.] 



POSTMASTERS. 



91 



Cities. 
Coneord, N. H. 
Dover, N. H. 
Exeter, N. H. 
Hanover, N. H. 
Keene, N. H. 
Manchester, N. H, 
Nashua, N. H. 
Portsmouth, N. H. 
Bennington, Vt. 
Brattleboro*, Vt 
Burlington, Vt. 
Middiebury, Vt. 
Hontpelier, Vt. 
Rutland, Vt. 
Windsor, Vt 
Amherst, Mass. 
Andover, Mass. 
*Boston, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Dedham, Mass. . 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Greenfield, Mass. 
Lawrence, Mass. 
Lowell, Mass. 
Ljrnn, Mass. 
Nantucket, Mass. 
New Bedford, Ms. 
Newburyport, Ms. 
Northampton, Ms. 
Pittsfield, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Salem, Mass. 
Sandwich, Mass. 
Springfield, Mass. 
Taunton, Mass. 
Ware, Mass. 
Williarostown, Ms. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Newport, R. I. 
Pawtucket, R. I. 
•Providence, R. I. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
'Hartford, Conn, 
Litchfield, Conn, 



Postmastere. 
Jacob Carter. 
B. F. Vittum. 
D. Melcher. 
D. F. Richardson 
J. D. Colomy. 
Thos. P. Pierce. 
George Bowers. 
G. H. Rundlett 
Truman Heiling. 
Samuel Dutton. 

D. A. Danforth. 

E. R. Wright. 
Chas. G. Eastman 
J. Cain. 

P. G. Kinner. 
Seth Nims. 
H. Clark. 

E. C. Bailey. 
Wm. Caldwell. 
Chas. B. Rogers. 
Elisha Thayer. 
John Todd. 

D. N. Carpenter. 
Benj. F. Watson. 

F. A. Hildreth. 
J. C. Slickney. 
Charles P. Swain. 
Joseph C. Kent. 
J. M. Cooper. 
Amos H. Bullen 
Phineas Allen, Jr. 
M. Perkins. 
Geo. B. Loring. 
Charies B. Hall. 
A. W. Chapin. 
A. M. Ide, Jr. 
Addison Sanford. 
R. Danforth. 

E. Bannister. 
Joseph Joslen. 
H. Fisher. 
W. B. Sayles. 
E. B. Goodsell. 
W. J. Hamersley. 

G. H. Baldwin. 



Cities. 
Middletown, Ct 
New Haven, Ct. 
New London, Ct. 
Norwich, Conn. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Batavia, N. Y. 
Binghampton,N.Y. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
^Buffalo, N. Y. 
Canandaigua, N. Y. 
Catskill, N. Y. 
Cooperstown, N.Y. 
Elmira, N, Y. 
Geneva, N. Y. 
Hudson, N. Y. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Lockport, N. Y. 
Newburg, N.Y. 
*New York, N. Y. 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. 
Oswego, N. Y. 
Owego, N. Y. 
Plattsburg, N. Y. 
Poughkeepsie,N . Y , 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rome, N.Y. 
Saratoga Sp., N.Y. 
Schenectady, N. Y. 
Sharon, N. Y. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Troy, N. Y. 
Utica, N. Y. 
Watertown, N. Y. 
West Point, N. Y. 
Whitehall, N. Y. 
Burlington, N. J. 
Newark, N. J. 
N. Brunswick, N.J. 
Paterson, N. J. 
Princeton j N. J, 
Trenton, N. J. 
Carlisle, Pa. 
Chambersburg, Pa.. 
Easton, Pa. v 



Poetmaaters. 
Norman Smith. 
L. A. Thomas. 
James B. Lyman. 
JohnW. Stedman. 

C. Vosburgh. 
£. P. Ross. 
Wm. Seaver. 
Virgil Whitney. 

D. Van Voorhis. 
James G. Dickie. 
N. G. Cheesebro. 
J. Joesbury. 
C. J. Stillman. 
Daniel Stephens. 
L. Kelly. 
J. S. Anable. 
A. S. Johnson. 
Asher Torrance. 
Jos. Casterline, Jr. 
Isaac V. Fowler. 
Luke Baldwin. 
S. R. Beardsley. 
H. A. Bepbe. 
Chas. S. Mooers. 
.A. S. Pease. 
H. S. Allis. 

A. J. Rowley. 
Lewis P. Close. 
Luke Dodge. 
H. Beekman. 
H. J. Sedgwick. 
Wm. W. Witman. 
Isaiah Tiffany. 
W. H. Sigourney 
Mary Berard, Jr. 
Atherton Hall. 

B. B. Antrim. 
Charies T. <iray. 
Henry Sanderson. 
William D. Quin. 
Robert L. Clow. 
W. A. Benjamin. 
John B. Bratton. 
John Noel. 
John J. Herster. 



92 



UNITED STATES, 



Cities. Postmasters. 

•Erie, Pa. B. F. Sloan. 

Harrisburg, Pa. John H. Brant. 

Holliday8burg,Pa. W. G. Murray. 

Kensington, Pa. Peter Rambo. 

Lancaster, Pa. H. M. Reigart. 

Meadville, Pa. J. £. McFarland. 
*NortbiimberIand,Pa. Jacob Ulp. 
•Philadelphia, Pa. John Miller. 

•Pittsburg, Pa. Robt. Anderson. 

Pottsville, Pa. John Clayton. 

Reading, Pa. Lewis H. Wunder 

Uniontown, Pa. A. Hadden. 



Wilkesbarre, Pa. 
Dover, Del. 
Newcastle, Del. 



John Reichard. 
G. Stevenso^. 
J. Dunkin, Jr. 



Wilmington, Del. John McClung. 
Annapolis, Md. Aug. Gassaway. 
•Baltimore, Md. Jacob G. Davies. 
Cumberland, Md. Wm. A. Taylor. 
Frederick, Md. J. J. Smith. 
Hagerstown, Md. Saml. Ridenour. 
Georgetown, D.C. H. W. Tilley. 
•Washington, D.CJames G. Berret. 
Abingdon, Va. Leonidas Baugh. 
Alexandria, Va. T. W. Ashby. 
Charlottesville, Va.Twy man Wayt. 
Clarksburg, Va. B. S. Griffin. 
Fredericsburg, Va. R. T. Thom. 
•Kanawha C.H.,Va.D. H. Snyder. 
Lynchburg, Va. Robt. H. Glass. 



I 



•Norfolk, Va. 
•Petersburg, Va. 
Richmond, Va. 
•Wheeling, Va. 
VVinclieat^r, Va. 
*ABliviJle, N. C. 



Alexander Gait. 
Wm.. N. Friend. 
Thos. B. Bigger. 
Geo. A. Cracrafl. 
Geo. B. Graves. 
W. H. Hilliard. 



FayettHville, N. C. Josiah E. Bryan. 
GreeoBboTo'jN. C. B. C. Graham. 
HilUboro', N. C. J. M. Palmer. 
Newbern, N. C. J. C. Stevenson. 
*RBleigb, N. C. Wm. White. 
Wilmirigion, N. C. Daniel Dickson. 
G^mdati, H. C. J. S. Gamewell. 
•Charleaion, S. C. Alfred Huger. 
C^^lQnibia, B. C. James B. Glass 



[1865. 

Cities. Postmasters. 

Georgetown, S. C. Wm. McNulty. 
•Yorkville, S. C. Samuel Melton. 
Athens, Ga. John Crawford. 

•Augusta, Ga. J. M. Smythe. 
Columbus, Ga. R. C. Forsyth. 
Darien, Ga. G. Adams. 

Macon, Ga. J. A. Nisbett. 

Milledgeville, Ga. Thos. M. Cook. 
•Savannah, Ga. Solomon Cohen. 
Apaiachicola, Fa. B. F. Simmons. 
Key West, Fa. J. C. Whalton. 
Pensacola, Fa. Dillon Jordon. 
Tallahassee, Fa. Miles Nash. 
Florence, Ala. Geo.W. Sneed. 
Greensboro', Ala. H. Kohnen. 
•Huntsville, Ala. C. D. Kavanaugh. 
Mobile, Ala. T. L. Toulmin. 

*Montgomery,Ala.M. P. Blue. 
Tuscaloosa, Ala. Wm. D. Manrast 
•Tuscumbia, Ala. John L. Bunch. 
Jackson, Miss. S. Davis. 
•Natchez, Miss. Ricbard Edward. 
Pass Christian, Mi. Sarah A. Hiern. 
Port Gibson, Miss. R. Shoemaker. 
*Vicksburg, Miss. W. H. Sparke. 
Baton Rouge, La. Jos. McCormick. 
Donaldson ville. La. A. Gingry. 
"Natchitoches, La. T. Lacoste. 
*New Orleans, La. Wm. G. Kendall. 
Austin, Tex. Benj. F. Johnson. 

Corpus ChristijTex.C. Cahill. 
•Galveston, Tex. John B. Root. 
Houston, Tex. O. L. Cochran. 
Fort Gibson, Ark. Wm. P. Denckla. 
Little Rock, Ark. Wm. F. Pope. 
Columbia, Tenn. E. F. Lee. 
Knoxville, Tenn. J. E. Helms. 
•Memphis, Tenn. Wm. H. Carroll. 
Murfreesboro*,Ten.J.M. Leathermam. 
•Nashville, Tenn., S. R. Anderson. 
•CumbM Gap, Tenn. J. G. Newlee. 
Frankfoft, Ky. Benj. F. Johnson. 
Lexington, Ky. Squire Bassett. 
•Louisville, Ky. J. W. Brannon. 
MaysvUle, Ky. W. S. Pickett. 



1855.] 

Cities. 
Chillioothe, Ohio, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Cleveland, Ohio, 
'Columbus, Ohio, 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Marietta, Ohio, 
Newark, Ohio, 
Sandusky, Ohio, 
Steubenville, Ohio, 
•Toledo, Ohio, 
Zanesville, Ohio, 
Adrian, Mich. 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
•Detroit, Mich. 
Jackson, Mich. 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Lansing, Mich. 
Pontiac, Mich. 
Evansville, Ind. 
•Indianapolis, Ind. 
Lafayette, Ind. 
Madison, Ind. 
New Albany, Ind. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
•Vincennes, Ind. 
Alton, 111. 
•Chicago, 111. 



COLLECTORS OF CUSTOMS. 



93 



Postmasters. 
John Hough. 
John L. Vattier. 
J. W. Grey. 
Thomas Sparrow. 
Edward A. King. 
Nathaniel Bishop. 
W. Parr. 
John M. Brown. 
,Thos. Brashears. 
John E. Hunt. 
J. L. Robb. 
C. B. Backus. 
H. D. Bennett. 
T. F. Brodhead. 
R. S. Cheney. 
Wm. H. De Yoe. 
V. S. Murphy. 
S. W. Denton. 
Benj. Stinson. 
W. W. Wick. 
Jacob Walker. 
RoIIa Doolittle. 
F. M. Gwin. 
Joseph O. Jones. 
J. Dick. 
R. W. English. 
Isaac Cook. 



Cities. 
Galena, 111. 
Jacksonville, 111. 
Kaskaskia, 111. 
Peoria, 111. 
Quincy, t\\. 



Postmasters. 
Bernard Gray. 
Samuel Hunt. 
Ferd. Unger. 
Peter Sweat. 
Austin Brooks. 



•Shawneetown,Ill.G. H. McKeaig. 
Springfield, III. Isaac R. Diller. 
Independence, Mo. P. McClanahan. 
Jefferson Bar., Mo. E. Thompson. 
Jefferson City, Mo. W. H. Crawford. 
*St. Louis, Mo. D. H. Armstrong. 
Muscatine, lo. Henry Rcece. 
Burlington, lo. James Tizzard. 
Madison, Wise. John N. Jones. 
Milwaukee, Wise. J. A. Noonan. 
St. Paul, Min. W. H. Forbes. 
Santa F6, N. Mex. D. Whiting. 
Salt Lake City, Ut. Willard Richards 
Benicia, Cal. T. T. Hooper. 

Monterey, Cal. A. Randal. # 
Sacramento City, Cal. Ferris Forman. 
San Diego, Cal. G. Lyons. 
San Francisco, Cal. Thos. J. Henley. 
San Jos6, Cal. John A. Patrick. 
Stockton, Cal. John S. Evans. 
Astoria, Oregon, T. P. Powers. 
Oregon City, Or. W. W. Rjick. 



Ports. 
Bangor, Me. 
Bath, Me. 
Belfast,* Me. 
Castine, Me. 
Eastport, Me. 
Ellsworth, Me. 
Kennebunk, Me. 
Machias, Me. 
Portland, Me. 
Saco, Me. 
Waldoboro*, Me. 
Wiscasset, Me. 
York, Me. 



Collectors of Customs 

[Corrected in the Treasury 



IN THS Principal Ports. 

Department, Oct. 10, 1854.] 



Collectors. 
George P. Sewall 
Chas.N.Bodfish. 
£. K. Smart. 
R. H. Bridgham. 
Bion Bradbury. 
Thomas D. Jones. 
John Cousens 
Dan. W. Dorman. 
Ezra Carter, Jr. 
Nath. M. Towle. 
Edmund Wilson. 
John Babson. 
Luther Junkins. 



Ports. 
Barnstable, Ms. 
Boston, Ms. 
Edgartown, Ms. 
Fall River, Ms.' 
Gloucester, Ms. 
Marblehead, Ms. 
Nantucket, Ms. 



Collectors. 
S. B. Phinney. 
Chas. H. Peaslee 
Jos. T. Pease. 
P. W. Leland. 
W. H. Manning. 
Wm. Bnrtnll. 
E. W. Atl^jii. 



Portsmouth, N. H. Zenas Clement. 



New Bedford, Ms. C. B. H. Ft^^stmden. 
Newburyport, Ms. James Bloc mJ. 
Plymouth, Ms. ^ E. P. LUile. 
;SaIem, Ms. Ephraim F I^lllJer. 

|Bristol, R. I. G. H. K'-.y nofd*. 

j Newport, R. I. Georgf ^I'urner* 
[Providence, R. I. Gideon DrmffiMfd^ . 



f)4 



UNITED STATES. 



[1855. 



Ports. 
BurliDgton, Vt. 
Fairfield, Ct 
Middletown, Ct. 
New Haven, Ct. 
New London, Ct. 
Stonington, Ct. 
Buffalo, N. y. 



Collectors. 
D. A. Smallejr. 
Wm. S. Pomeroy 
Wm. D. Starr. 
M. A. Osborn. 
Henry Hobart. 
Ezra Chesebro. 
John T. Hudson. 



C. Vincent, N. Y. Alfred Fox. 
Lewiston, N. Y. A.V. E. Hotchkiss, 
New York, N. Y. H. J. Redfield. 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. Horace Moody. 
Oswego, N. Y. E. B. Talcott. 
Plattsburg, N. Y. Henry B. Smith. 
Rochester, N. Y. Jas. C. Campbell. 
Sacket's H*r, N. Y. T. S. Hall. 
Sag Harbor, N.Y. S. L. Gardiner. 
Bargaintown, N. J. Thos. D. Winner. 
Bridgetown, N. J. Wm. S. Bowen. 
Lamberton, N. J. John A. Sherrad. 
Newark, N. J. Edwd. T. Hillyer 
Perth Amboy, N.J. Fr. W. Brinley 



Tuckerton, N. 
Erie, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Annapolis, Md. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Oxford, #fd. 
Vienna, Md. 



Steph. Willets. 
James Lytle. 
Charles Brown. 
Jesse Sharpe. 
James Sands. 
P. F. Thomas. 
R. B. Willis. 
G. A. Z. Smith. 



Georgetown, D. C. Robert White. 
Alexandria, Va. Edwd. S. Hough. 



Eastville, Va. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Petersburg, Va. 

Richtnoad, Va. 



John S. Parker. 

Saml. T. Sawyer. 

Vacant. 

W. M. Harrison. 



Taj]p[iliri[inock,Va.Geo. T. Wright. 

Yorklovvn, Va. P. J. Barziza. 

BeiiLiffjrt, N. C. J. E. Gibble. 

Eden ton, N. C. Edmund Wright. 

Eliza'h CUy,N.C. L.D.Starke. 

Newbf'rn, N. C. T. S. Singleton. 

Ocracukc, N. C. OMver S. Dewey. 



Ports. Collectors. 

Plymouth, N. C. Joseph Ramsey. 
Washington, N. C. H. F. Hancock. 
Wilmington, N.C. Jas. T. Miller. 
Beaufort, S. C. B. R. Bythewood. 
Charleston, S. C. Wm. F. Colcock. 
Georgetown, S. C. Thomas L. Shaw. 
Darien, Geo. Woodford Maybry. 

Savannah, Geo. John Boston. 
St. Mary's, Geo. J. A. Baratte. 
Apalachicola, Fa. Geo. S. Hawkins. 
Jacksonville, Fa. J. D. Dell. 
Key West, Fa. Jas. P. Baldwin. 
Pensacola, Fa. Joseph Sierra. 
Port Leon, Fa. Hugh Archer. 
St. Augustine, Fa. Paul Arnan. 
Mobile, Ala. Thad. Sanford. 

Natchez, Miss. Edward Pickett. 
Shieldsboro', Miss. D. W. Johnston. 
Vicksburg, Miss. D. Walker. 
Franklin, La. R. N. McMillan. 

New Orleans, La. Thos. C. Porter. 
Galveston, Texas, Hamilton Stuart. 
La Salle, Texas, D. M. Stapp. 
Point Isabel,Tex. Stephen Powers. 
Cleveland, Ohio, Robert Parks. 
Toledo, Ohio, Jos^ah Riley. 
Sandusky, Ohio, James A. Jones. 
Chicago, III. W. B. Snowhook. 

Detroit, Mich. John H. Harmon. 
Michirck, Mich. Alexander TolL 
Milwaukee, Wise. John White. 
Pembina, Min. T. Philip Beauprie. 
Benicia, Cal. L. B. Mizner. 

Monterey, Cal. Isaac B. Wall. 
Sacramento C, Cal. Chas. C. Sackett. 
San Diego, Cal. O. S. Witherby. 
San Francisco, Cal. R.P.Hammond. 
Stockton, Cal. Jas. M. Scofield. 
Astoria, O. T. John Adair. 
Gardiner, O. T. A. C. Gibbs. 
Olympia, W. T. J. N. Eby. 



1856.] BEGISTEBS AND RECEIVERS OP THE LAND-OFFICE. 



05 



Natal Officers 
Names. Districts. 

John McClintock, Portsmouth, N. H 
Nicholas Brown, Newburyport, Ms. 
Charles Millett, Salem, Ms. 
Charles G. Greene, Boston, Ms. 
Silas A. Comstock, Providence, R. I 
MiltoD Hall, Newport, R. I. 

J. R. Brodhead. New York, N. Y 
Nath. B. Eldred, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Office, Oct. 1854. 

Names. Districts. 

John Kettlewell, Baltimore, Md. 
0. C. Robinson, Norfolk, Va. 
Wm. N. Peden, Wilmington, N. C. 
Henry M.Howard, Charleston, S. C. 
Thos. L. Hamilton, Savannah, Ga. 
Joseph Genois, New Orleans, La. 
Wm. B. Damaron, San Francisco. 



Reoistebs, Receivers, Surveyors, and Geologists connected with 
THE Land-Office. 



Names of Registers and Receivers in Office, 


Oct. 1854. 


Slate. 


Place. 


Registers. 


Beceiyera. 


Alabama, 


St. Stephens, 
Cahawba, 


James Magoffin, 
Eldridffe Gardner, 
James H. Ware, 


Saml. S. Houston. 


C( 


Wm. W. Fambro. 


U 


Huntsville, 


John S. Nance. 


(( 


Tuscaloosa, 


Monroe Donoho, 


James W. Warren. 


M 


Sparta, 


E. W. Martin, 


James Larkins. 


U 


Demopolis, 


Lewis B. McCarty, 
Thos. O. Glascock, 


S. T. Torbert. 


c< 


Montgomery, 


Nimrod E. Benson. 


cc 


Lebanon, 


J. Cunningham, 
Wm. W. Lewis, 


A. Snodgrass. 


Arkansas, 


Batesville, 


J. C. Claiborne. 


u 


Little Rock, 


Robt. A. Watkins, 


B. F. Danley. 
Charles B. Mitchel. 


u 


Washington, 


Benj. P. Jett, 

L. C. Blackemore, 


u 


Fayetteville, 


D. W. C. Yell. 


cc 


Helena, 


Henry L. Biscoe, * 


James C. Tappan. 
John J. Horton, 


Ck 


Clarksville, 


Oliver Basham, ^ 


cc 


Champagnolle, 


William J. Owen, 


Wm. T. Sergeant. 


California, 


Los Angelos, 


H. P. Dorsey, 


Andreas Pico. 


u 


Benicia, 


Wm. W.JGift, 


P. Bequette. 
John W. Argyle. 


Florida, 


Tallahassee, 


Selim W. Myers, 


u 


St. Augustine, 


James M. Gould, 


F. P. Ferriera. 


u 


Newnansville, 


P. McCormick, 


J. G. Reardon. 


Illinois, 


Shawneetown, 


J. M. Cunningham, 


Saml. K. Casey. 


(( 


Kaskaskia, 


Danl. P. Roberts, 


William Adair. 


cc 


Edwardsville, 


Michael G. Dale, 


Wm. A. J. Sparks. 


cc 


Vandalia, 


Arthur J. Gallaher, 


Daniel Gregory. 
Robert C. Wilson. 


cc 


Palestine, 


Harman Alexander, 


cc 


Springfield, 
Danvnie, 


John Connelly, 


Edward Connor. 


cc 


W. P. Davis, 


Wm. E. Russell. 


cc 


auincy. 


Aug. C. Marsh, 


Damon Hauser. 


cc 


Dixon, 


Hugh Wallace, 


John Dement. 


cc 


Chicago, 


James Long, 


Eli B. Williams. 


Indiana, 


Jeffersonville, 


John F. Read, 


George W. Carr. 


cc 


Vincennes, 


John R. Jones, 


John C. Hebard. 


cc 


Indianapolis, 


James Talbot, 


Calvin W. Ruter. 


cc 


Winamiic, 


Daniel A. Farley, 


Wm. M. Patterson. 


Iowa, 


Dubuque, 


George McHenry, 


Patrick Quigley. 



96 



UNITED STATES. 



[1855. 



State. 
Iowa, 


Place. 


Registers. 


Receivers. 


Fairfield, 


James Thompson, 


J. W. Culbertson. 


t( 


Iowa City, 


John Clark, 


Gil man Folsom. 


i( 


Fort Desmoines, 


Thomas A. Walker, P. M. Casaday. | 


(( 


Kanesville, 


L. W. Babbitt, 


Enos Lowe. 


It 


Chariton, 


Robert Coles, 


N. G. Sales. 


u 


Northern, 


Geo. L. Nightingale, 


Eliphalet Price. 
S. M. Ballard. 


u 


Missouri River, 


J. H. D. Street, 


Louisiana, 


New Orleans, 


Lewis Palms, 


Henry W. Palfrey. 


(( 


Opelousas, 


James G.Fitzgerald, 


Eugene Martelle. 


u 


Ouachita, 


William Shannon, 


Peyton G. King. 
John M. Vernon. 


u 


Greensburg, 


Cade D. Strickland. 


u 


Natchitoches, 


John B. Cloutier, 


J. B. O. Bruard. 


Michigan, 


Detroit, 


Daniel J. Campan, 


Elisha Taylor. 


(t 


Kalamazoo, 


Thos. S. Atlee, 


L. Van de Walker. 


u 


Gene^g^, 


William M. Fenton, 


Russell Bishop. 


€t 


Ionia, 


Alexander F. Bell, 


Frederic Hall. 


U 


Sault Ste. Marie, 


Ebenezer Warner, 


William A. Pratt. 


U 


Duncan, 


C. H. Taylor, 
Thom. W.Newman, 


H. A. Rood. 


Mississippi, 


Washington, 


Wm.N.Whitehurst. 


(( 


Aususta, 
Jackson, 


Drury Bynum, 
Joseph Bell, 
Samf. M. Hawkins, 


Oliver C. Dease, 


C( 


Wm. M. Gillaspie. 
Robt. S. Gollaclay. 


C( 


Grenada, 


ct 


Columbus, 


Kiel ding L. Dowsing, 
A. J. Edmondson, 


Robert D. Haden. 


K 


Pontotoc, 


James W. Drake. 


Missouri, 


St. Louis, 


D. C. Tuttle, 


Richard B. Dallam. 


t( 


Fayette, 
Palmyra, 


Leland Wright, 


E. £. Buckner. 


(( 


Wm. P. Harrison, 


Joseph P. Ament. 


ct 


Jackson, 


Thos. B. English. 
Asa S. Marvin, 


George M. Beatie. 
Nathl. B. Holden. 


tt 


Clinton, 


C( 


Springfield, 
Plattsburg, 


Richard M. Jones, 


Henry Fulbright. 


(t 


James H. Birch, 


William Brown. 


(( 


Milan, 


Jacamiah Sean&an, 


Wesley Haliburton. 
Theodore Sherer. 


Ohio, 


Chillicothe, 


Jas. S. McGinnis, 


t( 


Defian#>, 


Nathan M. Landis, 


Reuben H. Gilson. 


Wisconsin, 


Mineral Point, 


Joel C. Squires, 
John A. Bryan, 
Jacob H. Kimball, 


Henry Plowman. 


C( 


Menasha, 


Benj. H. Mooers. 


(( 


Milwaukee, 


Jonas Whitney. 


u 


Stevens Point, 


Abraham Brawley, 


Albert G. Ellis. 


l( 


La Crosse, 


Cyrus K. Lord, 


Tho. Rodolph. 


(( 


Willow River, 


John O. Henning, 


Otis Hoyt. 


MiXXSOTA, 


Stillwater, 


Thos.M.Fullerton, 


William Holcomb. 


H ' 


Sauk Rapids, 


George W. Sweet, 


Wm. H. Wood. 


44 


Brownsville, 


J. R. Bennett, 


J. H. McKenney. 


u 


Minneapolis, 


M. L. Olds, 


R. P. Russell. 


It 


Winona, 


D. Upman, 
W. W. Phelps, 


L. D. Smith. 


t* 


Redwing. 


C. Graham. 


OregosTer. 




R. Wilcox, 


J. Guthrie, Jr. 


^WAflfl^T^R. 




H. C. Mosely, 


E. Yulee. 



Surveyors- General of the Public Lands. 
DIstrtcts. Names of Surveyors. Rasidence. 

Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan, Leander Chapman, Detroit, Mich. 

Iltinms and Missouri, John Loughborough, St. Louis, Mo. 

Louisiaijjt, Wm. J. McCulloh, Donaldsonville. 



1855.] 

Arkansas, 

Wisconsin and Iowa, 

Florida, 

California, 

Oregon Territory, 

Alabama, 

Sonth of Tennessee, 

New Mexico, 

Washington Territory, 

Kanzas and Nebraska, 



INDIAN I>EPARTM|NT. 

George Milbourne, 
Warner Lewis, 
John Westcott, 
John C. Hays, 
Charles K. Gardner, 
James H. Weakley, 
C. A. Bradford, 
W. Pelham. 
J. Tilton. 
J. Calhoun. 
Recorder cf Land TUles, 



97 



Rockport. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
St. Augustine. 
San Francisco. 
Oregon City. 
Florence. 
Jackson, Miss. 



Adolphe Renard, St. Louis, Mo. 



Indian Defabthxnt. 

[Corrected la Office of Indian Aflairs, Oct 10, 1854.] 
SuperitUendencUs. 

Superintendent. Salary. Superintendeocy. Superintendent. Salary. 
Southern, Thomas S. Drew, $2,000 
Minnesota, W. A. Gorman, ex officio. 



Superintendency. 

Northern, F. Huebschmann, $ 2,000 

Central, Alired Cummins, 2,000 



Jlgeneies. 



Designation of Agency. 


Tribes in each Agency. 


Name of Agent. 


Bond. 


Salary. 


Chickaeaw Agencj, 


Chickasaws, 


Andrew J. Smith, 


•20,000 


$1,600 


Choctair " 


CbociAwe, 


Douglas H.CoofMr, 


20,000 


1,600 


Creek " 


Creeks, 


Wm. H. Garrett, 


20,000 


1,600 


Cherokee 


Cherokoes, 

Indians, Upper Platte and 


George Butler, 


20,000 


1,600 


Upper PUtte " 










Arkansas, 
Pottawatimies and Kanzas, 


John W. Whitfield, 


20,000 


1,500 


Pottawatlfnie " 


George W. Clarke, 


40,000 


1,600 


Sac and Fox " 


Sacs and Foxes, Otuwas, 
Swan Creek, and Black 










Rirer Chippewas, 
Indians on the Upper Mis- 


Burton A. James, 


20,000 


1,600 


Upper MiMonri'* 










souri, 


Alfred J. Vaughan, 


6,000 


1,600 


Winnebago " 


Winnebagoes and Menomo- 










nies. 


J. E Fletcher, 


20,000 


1,600 


Chippewa 


Chippewas of the Mississip- 
pi and Lake Superior, 
Indians in Michigan, 
Ossges, Quapaws, Senecas, 
and Shawneesand Senecas, 










David B. Herriman, 


20,000 


1,600 


Mackimus " 


Henry C. Gilbert, 


20,000 


1,600 


Neoeha 










Andrew J. Dom, 


10,000 


1,000 


OoagaRirer " 


Weas, Piankeefaaws, Kas- 
kaskias, Peorias^and Mia- 










mies, 


Eli Moore, 


10,000 


1,000 


Kfttv^m (( 


Shawnees, Delawares, Man- 
sees, Stockbridges, and 
Wyandols and Christian 
Indians, 










Benj. F. Bobinaon, 


10,000 


1,000 


Great Nemeha ** 


Eickapooe, lowas, and Sacs 
and Foxes of the Missouri, 










DanL Vanderalice, 


10,000 


1,000 


OooncUBluffii " 


Ottoe:?, Mi8sourias,Omahas, 








• 


and Pawnees, 


Richd. G. Murphy, 


30,000 


1,000 


Saint Peters " 


Sioux of Minnesota, 


60,000 


1,000 



Robert S. Neighbors, George T. Howard, and George W. Hill are 
Special Agents for Indians in Texas. Their bonds are $ 5,000 each, and 
their nUary $ 1,700 per annum. 
9 



98 



UNITED STATES. 



[1856. 



JV*gi0 Mexico, 
David Merriwether, Governor and ex Officio Superintend, of Indian JSffairs. 

Agents. Salary. Bond. Agenia. Salary. Bond. 



Christopher Carson, $ 1,550 
Henry L. Dodge, 1,550 
Michael Steck, 1,500 



Lorenzo Labady, $ 1,550 $ 5,000 
Saml. H.Montgomery 1,500 10,000 



$5,000] 
5,000$ 
10,000 
Utah. 

Brigfaam Young, Governor and eX' Officio Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 
Garland Hurt, ^o^enr, iSalary $ 1,550 Bond $20,000 

Stephen B. Rose, Sub-agent^ " 750 «« 2,000 

California. 
Thos. J. Henley, Superintend, of Ind. Affairs^ Salary $ 4,000 Bond $ 100,000 

Oregon Territory. 
Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Ind. Affairs^ Salary $2,500 Bond $ 20,000 
Samuel H. Culver, Agent, " 1,500 *» 6,000 

Robert R. Thompson, " " 1,500 " 5,000 

Josiah L. Parish, " « 1,500 ** 5,000 

Wm. J. Martin, of Salem, P. F. Thompson, of Lafayette, and W. W. 
Raymond, of Astoria, Sub-agents, with a salary each of $ 750. 

Washington Territory. 
Isaac J. Stevens, Crovernor and ex-Offi^io Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 
Aquilla Jones, Agent, Salary $ 1,500 Bond $ lO/HK) 

R. H. Lansdale, «* " 1,500 " 10,000 

Andrew J. Bolen, Sub-agenty " 1,000 «* 5,000 

William H.Tappen, " " 1,000 " 5,000 

Sub-agents East of Rocky Mountains and Korth ofJ{ew Mexico and Texas, 
Marcus H. Johnson, Sub-agent for Indians in 

mw York, Salary $ 750 Bond $ 5,000 

John V. Suydam, " at Green Bay, " 750 10,000 

James W. Washburn, Seminole Sub-agency, " 750 5,000 



Akmt Pshsioh-Agsnts in Office, October^ 1854. 



I 



Name. Place. 

Wm. E.Woodruff, Little Rock, Ark 
W, P. Deockla^ Fort Gibson, " 
Wm. H. Moore, Huntsville, Ala. 
Jfl*, H. D earing, Tuscaloosa, " 
James Perrinir, Mobile, •* 

Charlep L. Waller, San Franci8C0,CaI. 
Beih Bclden, Hartford, Ct. 

John McClung, Wilmington, Del. 
Arthur M. Reed, Jacksonville, Fa. 
Francis H. Thsg, Tallahassee, " 
James S Mord, Savannah, Ga. 
J. W. Ch^ipindn, Madison, Ind. 
0, C* KfloU New Albany, Ind. 



Name. 
A. F. Morrison, 
David Raleigh, 
Isaac .B. Curran, 
Isaac Caldwell, 
Leon Chabert, 
George F. Emery, 
Wm. C.Anderson, 
Isaac O. Barnes, 
John S. Gittings, 
D. N. Barrows, 
Ed. N. Fuller, 
Geo. Minot, 
V. B. Livingston, 



Place. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Evansville, Ind. 
Springfield, III. 
Louisville, Ky. 
New Orleans, La. 
Portland, Me. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Boston, Mass. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Jackson, Miss. 
PorUmouth, N. H. 
Concord, N. H. 
New York, N. Y. 



1855.] 



UGHT-HOU8E BOABD. 



99 



NaoM. Flues. 

James M. Freficli» Albany , N. Y. 
J. F. £. Hardy, AshviUe, N. C. 
James Haske, Fayetteville, N.C. 
Phil. Dickinson, Trenton, N. J. 
Joel C. Green, Cinoinnati, Ohio. 
£. Hessenmaeller, Cleveland, Ohio. 
D. Sturgeon, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Grayson, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Parts Hill, Providence, R. I. 

John C. Cochran, Charleston, S. C. 
C. C. Abemathy, Pulaski, Tenn. 
J. L. H. Tomlin, Jackson, ** 



Name. Place. 

Wm. K. Blair, Jonesboro*, Tenn. 

Isaac Lewis, Knoxville, ^* 

Joel M. Smith, Nashville, «' 
W. H.H.Bingham, Montpelier, Vt. 

C. F. Staniford, Burlington, Vt. 

M. D. Newman, Richmond, Va. 

G.S.Thompson, Wheeling, <« 

Elisha Taylor, Detroit, Mich. 

C. H. Larkln, Milwaukee, Wise. 

P. C. JefTries, Ottumwa, Iowa. 

R.W. Latham, Washington, D. C. 
Arch'd McKinlay, Oregon City, O.T. 



Natt Psnsioit-Agxhts in Office, October^ 1854. 



Name. Place. 

George F. Emery, Portland, Me. 
Nehemiah Moses, Portsmouth, N.H. 
Isaac O. Barnes, Boston, Mass. 
Paris Hill, Proyidence, R. I. 

Seth Belden, Hartford, Ct. 

Conrad Schwackheimer,N.York,N.Y. 
P. Dickinson, Trenton, N. J. 

Alfred Day, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Grayson, Pittsburg, Pa. 
John McClung, Wilmington, Del. 



Name. Place. 

John H. Briscoe, Baltimore, Md. 
George Loyall, Norfolk, Va. 
B. D. Heriot, Charleston, S. C. 

Walker Anderioo, Pensacola, Fl. 
Isaac Caldwell, Louisrille, Ky. 



Joel C. Green, 
filisha Taylor, 
W. C. Anderson, 
Albert G. Allen, 



Cincinnati, O. 
Detroit, Mich. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Washington, D.C. 



Chas. L. Weller, San Francisco, Cal. 



SUPBRTISIHO InSPXCTOBS OP STEAMBOATS, AND THXIK DxSTXICTS, 

October, 1854. 

Salary § 1,500 each, and reasonable travelling expenses. 



No. or 

Diet. 


Inspector. 


District. 


1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 

S. 

6. 
7. 

a 

9. 


WHliam Burnett, of Boston, 
Cbartes W. CopelaDd, of New York, 

W. E. Muir, of New Orleans, 
Daris Embree, of Su Louis, 

John Shalcross, of Louisville, 

Benjamin Crawford, of Pituburr, 
Isaac Lewis, of Monroe (Mich.), 

Augustus Walker, of Buf&lo, 


Maine to Connecticut, inclnsire. 

and the Hudson River as far north as Troy. 

Delaware Bay to Gape Sable, Florida 

Cape Sable to the Klo Grande ; Mississippi 
River lo Baton Rouge ; California ft Oregon. 

The Mississippi above Baton Rouge and iu 
tribuuries, excluding the Ohio, and includ- 
ing the Missouri River. 

The waters of the Ohio River to the Ken- 
tucky River. 

Waters of the Ohio above the Eentuckv River. 

Ttie waters north and west of Lake Erie, in- 
cluding the Illinois and Mississippi, above 
Missouri. 

The waters of Lake Erie, Ontario, and the St. 
Lawrence to Champlain. 



LiQHT-HoDSE Board. 
James Gatfarie, Secretary of the Treasury, President ex officio, 
A. D. Bache, 



Wm. B. Shabrick, U. S. N. 
Samuel F. Dopont, U. S. N. 
Job. 6. Totten, U. S. Eng. Corps. 
JuDM Kearney, V. S. Topc|;. Eng. 



Joseph Heary. 

Secretaries. 
Thornton A. Jenkins, U. S. N. 
E. L. F. Hardcastle, U. S. Top. F* 



100 



UiriTXD STATSa. 



III. ARMY LIST.li 



[1855. 



1. WiNFiELD Scott, Major- Generaly (commisBioned Jane 25, 1841,) Gen- 

ertU-in- Chief. Head-quartera at New York. 
*Jobn £. Wool, Brigadier- QeiunU^ commiaaioiied June 85, 1841. 

•David E. Twiggs, •* " June 30, 1846. 

Samuel Coooer, Col. and Mj.-Gen.^ << July 15, 1852. 

tSylvester Cnurcbill, Col, and Inspector- Gen.^ ^ June 25, 1841. 

J. K. F. Mansfield, Col. and Inspector- Gen.^ «« May 28, 1853. 
•Thomas S. Jesup, Brig.-Gen.^ and Quarter- 

master-Ooneral, «* May 8,1818. 

•George Gibson, Col. and Comnussaru-Gen., '* April 16, 1818. 

tThomas Lawson, Col. and Surgeon-Gen.y '< Nov. 30, 1636. 

Beni. F. Lamed, Col. and Paymaster-Gen,^ «< July 20, 1854. 

fCoI. Joseph G. Totten, Chief Engineer^ ** Dec. 7, 1838. 

Co\. ^. J. AbeTtfChief Topographical Engineer^ '< July 7,1838. 

Col. Henry K. Craig, Chirf of Ordnance^ «< July 10, 1851. 

Brevet-Major J. F. Lee, Judge Mvocate^ *^ Mar. 2, 1849. 

2. FisLD Opficxrb or the Corps of EnoiHisits, Topographioak 

EveiHssRS, AHD Ordnamcx, aud of Reoimxhts. 



Engineers, 
f Col. Joseph G. Totten, 
|Lieut.-Col. Sylvanus Thayer, 

•« Ren6 E. De Rnssy, 
(Major John L. Smith, 
«« William H. Chase, 
«< Richard Delafield, 
** Cornelius A. Ogden. 
Topographical Engineers, 
Col. John J. Abort, 
Lieat.-Col. James Kearney, 
§ Major Stephen H. Long, 

" Hartman Bache, 
§ ^ James D. Graham, 
t <' William TurnbuU. 

Ordnance Department, 
Col. Henry K. Craig, 
Lieut.-CoI. Rufus L. Baker, 
§ Major James W. Ripley, 
" John Symington, 
«« William H. Bell, 
** Edward Harding. 
First Dragoons. 
Col. T. T. Fauntleroy, 
1;Lieut.-CoI. E. Y. Sumner, 
§ Major Benjamin L. Beall, 
" G. A. H. Blake. 



Second Dragoons, 
f Col. William S. Harney, 
Lieut.-Col. Philip St G. Cooke, 
Major Marshall S. Howe, 
^ Enoch Steen. 

Mounted Bifiemen, 
•Col. Persifor F. Smith, 
(Lieut-Col. Wm. W. Loring, 
Major Geo. B. Crittenden, 
*' John S. Simonson. 
First Jlrtillery, 
Col. I. B. Crane, 
tLieut.-Col. J. L. Gardner, 
(Major Justin Dimick, 
«« Allen Lowd. 

Second Artillery. 
tCoI. James Bankhead, 
Lieut.-Col. John Erving, 
(Major John Munroe, 
( " Harvey Brown. 

Third Jlrtillery. 
Col. William Gates, 
(Lieut.-Col. F. S. Belton, 
Major Charles S. Merchant 
§ ** George Naumon. 

Fourth Jlrtillery, 
tCol. J. B. Walbacb, 



11 We are greatly indexed to the AdjutanVGenenl for correcting thia Llat to Oct. 1854- 
»Maj.-aen.b7teeTOt 1 3rig^Qen. by breret. XOoLbybnpeU § UeuU-CoL by bnrat. 



1855.] 

tLieot.-Col. M. M. Payne, 
Major Giles Porter, 
•« William W. Morris. 

First Infantry, 
Col. Joseph Plympton, 
i(ieut.-Col. Henry Bainbridge, 
Major Edgar S. Hawkins, 
§ ^ Thoni|i8on Morris. 

Second Infantry, 
tCol. E. A. Hitchcock, 
Lieut.-Col. J. J. Abercrombie, 
Major Hannibal Day, 
§ •* Win. R. Montgomery. 

Tlnrd Infantry. 
Col. Thomas Staniford. 
Lieat.-CoI. Dixon S. Miles, 
Major Gouyemeur Morris, 
'' Electus Backus. 

Fourth If^antry. 
Col. William Whistler, 
Lieut.-Col. B. L. E. Bonneville, 



ARMT LIST. 



101 



tMajor George Wright, 
«* Gabriel J. Rains. 
Fifth Infantry. 
Col. Gustavtts Loomis, 
tLieut.-Col. Carlos A. Waite, 
Major Thomas P. Gwynne, 
'< Jos. H. La Motte. 
Sixth If^antry. 
tCoI. Newman S. Clarke, 
tLieut-Col. Francis Lee, 
§ Major William Hoffman, 
(« Albemarie Cady. 
Seventh Ii^antry. 
Col. Henry Wilson, 
Lieut.-Col. Pitcaim Morrison, 
Major George Andrews, 
§ «* Joseph R. Smith. 

Eighth h^fantry, 
tCol. John Garland, 
Lieut-Col. Washington Seawell, 
^fedajor Edmund B. Alexander, 
** Thomas L. Alexander. 



3. Military Commands.* 
Department of the East, 
The country east of the Mississippi River; head-quarters at Baltimore, 
Md. Brevet Brig.-Gen. James Bankhead, Commander. 

Department of the West, 
The country west of the Mississippi River, and east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, except the Departments of Texas and New Mexico ; head-quarters 
at St. Louis, Mo. Brevet Maj.-Gen. David E. Twiggs, Commander. 

Department of Texas, 
The State of Texas, except the country north of the 33d degree of north 
latitude; head-quarters at Corpus Christi, Texas. Brevet Maj.-Gen. Per- 
nibr F. Smith, Commander. w 

Department ofjfew Mexico. 
The Territory oftNew Mexico, except the country west of the 110th 
decree of west longitude; head-quarters at Santa F6, New Mexico. Brevet 
Bng.-Gen. John Garland, Commander. 

Department of the Pacific, 

Th« coantry west of the Rocky Mountains, except the Territory of 
Utah and the Uepartment of New Mexico ; head-quarters at Benicia, Cal- 
Ubmia. Brevet Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool, Commander. 

The bead-quarters of the army are in the city of New York. Major- 
General Winneld Scott, Commander. 

* Tlia fimMf amufBOMOt of Militarj Geographical DiFisiona and DepartmenU waa abol* 
iabed, and theae HUilary Gonunanda w«re aubaliiuted therefor, by a General Order dated 
Octobtf M, 166a 

9* 



103 



UXITED STATES. 

4. Arsxitals. 



[1855. 



Poatt. 



Kennebec, 
Watertowni 
Watervliet, 
New York, 
Allegheny, 
Frankfora, 
PikesYille, 
Washington, 
Fort Monroe, 
St. Louis, 
Baton Rouge, 
Mount Vernon, 
Detroit, 

North Carolina, 
Charieston, 
LitUe Rock, 
San Anlonio, 
Benicia, 



State or Territory, 



Maine, 

MaasachuMtts, 
New York, 
New York, 
PenneylTania, 

Maryland, 

Diet, of Ck»lambia, 

Virginia, 

Missouri, 

Louisiana, 

Alabama, 

Michigan, 

North Carolina, 

South Carolina, 

Arkansas, 

Texas, 

California, 



Post-Office. 



Permanent Commanders. 



Augusta, 
Watertown, 
West Troy, 
New York, 
Pittsburg, 
Bridesbuig, 
Pikesville, 
Washington, 
Old P. Comfort, 
St. Louis, 
Baton Rouge, 
Mount Vernon, 
Dearbomville, 
Fayetteville, 
Charleston, 
Little Rock, 
San Antonio, 
Benicia, 



Bn. Capt. F. D.Callender, 
Bn. Lt.-Col. J.W. Ripley, 
Maj. John Symington, 
Capt. R. H. K. Whiteley, 
Bvt. Mai. A Mordecai, 
Bn. Maj. P. V. Hagner, 
Bn. Col. a Hugar, 
Maj, W. H. Bell, 
Bn. Maj.Q. D. Bamny, 
Maj. Edward Harding, 
IstLieuU T. J. Rodman, 
1st Lt. Josiah Gorgas. 
IstLl. R. A. Wainright, 
Bn. Mai. T.T.S. Loidley, 
Ist Lt. Cf. P. Kingsbury, 
Bvt. Capt. A. B.Dyer, 
Ist Lt. John McNult, 
Bvt. Capt. C. P. Stone, 



Regiment 
and Corps. 



Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 
Ordnance. 



There is a national armory at Springfield, Mass., James S. Whitney, Civil Superintendent, 

and one at Harper's Ferxy, Va., , Ciril Superintendent. The Champlain Arsenal 

and Ordnance Depot at Vergennes, Vt. ; the Rome, at Rome, N. Y. ; the Augusta, at Augus- 
ta, Geo. ; the Apalachicola, at Chattahoochee, Fla. ; the St. Augustine, at SU Augustine, Fla. ; 
and the Santa FA, at Santa FA, New Mexico, are under charge of military store-keepers. 
The Bellona Arsenal is not «sed at prosent. An Ordnance Sergeant is at the post in charge 
of the buildings and grounds. 







5. 


MEiLiTART Posts. 






NoTB. —The garrisons of the posts marked thus * are given in the list as they will be \ 




ifter ceruln changes, now (Oct. 1, 1854} being made, are completed. 


• 




Posts. 


State or Terri- 
tory. 


Post-Office. 


Permanent Com- 
mander. 


Garrison. 






Dbpa&tmbnt ov 














THB East. 














Fort SaUivan, 
Fort Preble, 


M-J». . 


Portland', 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 






Fort Constitution, 


N. Hampshirt, 


Porumouth, 


(1 


(( 






Fort Independence) 


Massachusetts, 


Boston, 


Bn.Maj.Seott,4thart. 


4th artillery. 






Fort Warren, 


(( 


tt 




Not garrisoned. 






Fort Adams, } 
Fort Wolcott, S 
Fort Trumbull, 


Rhode Island, 


Newport, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 






Connecticut, 


New London, 


tt 


tt 






Fort Hamilton, 


New York, 


New York, 


BvtMaj.Morris,4art. 


4th artiUeiy. 






Fort Columbus, 


N.Y.HaAor, 


Lt. 




Recruits. 






Fort Wood, 


tt 


tt 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 






^ort Lafeyette, 


It 


tt 


(( 


(( 






Sort Niagara, 


New York, 


Youttgstown, 





f( 






^rt Ontario, 
iadison Barracks, 
^lattsburg Barracks, 
tort Mifflin, 
aurUsIe Barracks, 


(( 


Oswego, 


Capt. McGown, 4 art. 


4th artillery. 






tt 


Backet's Harb., 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 






tt 


Plattsburg, 
Philadelpliia, 


i« 


(( 






Pennsylvania, 


tt 


tt 




«j 


n 


Carlisle, 


Bvt.BT.Gn.Hitchcock 


2d infantry. 






|IOrt McHenry, 
i!0rt Washington, 


Maryland, 


Baltimore, 


Bvt.Col.Gardner,l art. 


lstfc2darL 






(f ' 


F.Washington, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 






JrtMonroe, 


Virginia, 


Old P. Comfort, 


Col. Crane, 1st arL 


1st artillery. 


j 




»rt Johnson, > 
)^t Caswell, \ 


North Carolina, 


SmithviUe, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 


1 




brt Macon, 


(f 


Beaufort, 


" 


tt 






fert Moultrie, 


South Carolina, 


Charleston, 


Bn.Ool.Dimick, 1 art. 


1st artillery. 






istlePinckney, ) 
PJJl Sumter, \ 


u 


« 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 





1855.] 



ABKT UBT. 



103 



Posta. 



O^ethorpo Barracks, 

Fort Caproa, 

Key West Rirxacks, 

Fort Myers, 

Fort Meade, 

Fort Brooke, 

Fort Pickens, 

Barrancas Barracks, 

Fort McBee, 

Fort Marion, 

Fort Mo^;an, 

Baton Rouge Barracks, 

Fort Pike, 

Port Macomb, 

Fort Jackson, 

New Orieans Barracks, 

Newport Barracks, 

Fort Brady. 

Port Mackinac, 

Fort Gratiot, 

Dbparthbnt of thb 

Wbst. 
Fort Qibsob, 
Fort Smith, 
Fort Washita, 
Port Arbackle, 
Fort Leavenworth, 
Port Scott, 
FortRipl^, 
Port Snellinf , 
Port Ridgely, 
Port Riley, 

Port Laiamle, 

Port Keaamjf 

Dbpaktmbbft of 
Tbzab. 
PortMerrin, 
Port Brown, 

Ringgold Barracks, 

Port Mdntosb, 

Port Duncan, 
Port Clark, 
Port Inge, 
Port McKavett, 
Fort Ctaadbourne, 
Port Belknap, 

DxPAEtMSMT OF NbW 

Mbzico. 
Fort Bliss, 
Fort Union, 
Port Maicy, 
.Fort Craig, 
jFort Ffllmoxe, 
.Fort Defiance, 
Fort MasaachnsetU, 
LasLunas, 
Albnqueique, 
Cantonment Bnrgwin, 
PortTliom, 
Rajado, 



Sute or Terri-|i 
toty. 



Georgia, 
Florida, 



Louisiana, 



Kentucky, 
Michigan, 



Arkansas, 

It 
II 

Missouri, 

Minnesota Ter, 

i( 

II 
Nebraska Ter., 

Oregon Route, 



Texas, 



Savannah. 
Indian River, 
Key West, 
Via Tampa, 

Tunpa, 

Pensacola, 

St. Augustine, 
MobUe, • 
Baton Rouge, 
Port Pike, 
New Orleans, 

II 
Newport, 
Sault S. Marie, 
Mackinac, 
Fort Gratiot, 



New Mexico, 



Fbet-Office. 



BvL'MaJ. Haskin, 1 art. 
OapL Vogdes, Ist art. 
Capt. Pratt, 2d art 
Bn. MaJ. Arnold, 2d art. 
BvL Goi. Manroe, 2d art. 

Ll-CoI. J. Erving, 2d art. 

Garrison 

Capt, W. F. Barry, 2d art. 
Garrison 



Port Gibson, 
Fort Smith, 

Fort Washita, 
11 

F.Leavenworth 
Fort Scott, 
Fort Ripley, 
Fort Snelling, 
Trav.des Sioux, 
Via Fort Leav- 
enworth, Mo. 
Via Independ- 
ence, Mo., 
Fia Austin, lo.. 



r.Corp. Christi 
Brownsville, 

R. Grande City, 

Laredo, 

r. San Antonio, 



P. San Antonio 
P.Inde{>'ce,Mo. 

11 
V. San Antonio. 
r.Indep'ce,Mo. 



Permanent Oomrnaadera. 



Ist artlUery. 
1st artillery. 
2d artillery. 
2d artiUery. 
2d artillery. 

2d artiUery. 

withdrawn. 
« 

2d artiUery. 
withdrawn. 



Maj. Backus, 3d Inf. 
Capt. Clarke, 4th art. 
BvLMaj. WiUiams,4th art. 
Garrison 



Recruits. 
4lh artillery, 
4tb artillery, 
withdrawn. 



Lt-Col. Morrison, 7th inf. 
Col. Wilson, 7lh inf. 
Bvt. Lt.-Col. Bragg, 3 art. 
Maj. Andrews, 7th inf. 
Capu Hunt, 4lh Art. 

Garrison 
Bvt.Maj. Patten, 2d inf. 
Capt. Sherman, 3d art. 
Major Day, 2d inf. 
Bvt. Lu-Cbl. Montgomery, 
2d inf. 

Bvt.Lt.-Col.Hoflfman,6 inf. 
Oapi. Wharton, 6th inf. 



Bvt. Lt. -Col. PorUr,riaes, 
Maj. Porter, 4th art. 

OpL Loomis, 5th inf. 

Bvt. CoL Loring, 6th inf. 

Col. Plympton, 1st inf. 
Lt.Col Bainbridge, Ist inf. 
Maj. Simonson, rifles, 
Bvt. Col. May, 2d drag. 
Capt. Calhoun. 2d drag. 
Major Steen, 2d drag. 



B vt.L. Col. Alexander.8 inf. 
Capt. Macrae, 3d inf. 
Bvt. Maj. Brooks, 3d inf 
Bvt. Lt.'CoI.ChandIer,3inf 
Capt. Johns, 3d inC 
Brt. Maj. Kendrick, 2 art. 
Bvt. Lt.Col. Brooks, 2 an. 
Capt. Ewell, Ist drag. 
Bvt. Maj.Carleton, Istdrag. 
Maj. Blake, 1st Drag. 
Bvt.Mai.Rlchardson, 3 inf. 
1st Lt. Davidson, 1st drag. 



Garrison. 



7th infantry. 
7th Infantry. 
2d&3darU 
7th infentry. 
4th artillery, 
withdrawn. 
2d infantry. 
3d artillery. 
2d infantry. 

2d infantry. 

6th infantry. 
6th infantry. 



Mtd. rifles. 

4th artiUery. 

' Mtd. rifles, 4 

art, & 5 inf. 

Mtd. rifles, 1 

art., & 5 inf. 

fart. &l inf. 

1st infantry. 

Mtd. rifles. 

2d dragoons. 

2d dragoons. 

2 drag. & 7 inf. 



8th infantry. 
3d infantry. 
3d infantry. 
3d infantry. 
Idrag.&Sint: 
2 art & 3 inf, 
2d artillery. 
Ist dragoons. 
I drag. & 3 inf. 
1st dragoons. 
3d in&ntry. 
1st dragoons. 



104 



UNITED STATES. 



[1855. 



Posta. 



dspartmbnt of the 

Pacifio. 
Fort Yuma, 
Mission of San Diego, 
Fort Wilier, 
Presidio of S.Francisco, 
Benicia Barracks, 
Fort Reading, 
Fon Jones, 
Fort Humboldt, 
Fort Orford, 
Fort Lane, 
Fort Vancourer, 
Fort Datles, 
Steilacoom, 
Military AcADBanr, 
West Point, 
Rbgbuitino Dbpots. 
Fort Columbus, 
Jefferson Barracks, 
Newport Barracks, 



State or Terri- 
torj. 



California, 



Oregon, 

Washington T. 
it 
tt 

New Tork, 

New York, 

Missouri, 

Kentucky, 



Post-Office. 



Via San Diego, 

San Diego, 

Stockton, 

San Francisco, 

Benicia, 

Cottonwood, 

Yreka, 

Bucksport, 

Port Orford, 

Jacksonville, 

Vancouver, 

DaUesofCol»bla 

Nesquaily, 

West Point, 

New York, 
Jefftrson Baxr. 
Newport, 



Permanent Commander. 



Bn. Maj. Thomas, 3d art. 
Capt. Burton, 3d art. 
1st Lt. Loeser, 3d ait. 
Capt. Keyes, 3d art. 
Bvt.Lt.-Col. Nauman, 3art. 
Bvt. Col. Wright, 4th inf. 
Capt. Judah, 4th inf. 
Bvt.L.Col.Buchanan.4 inf. 
2d Lt. Kauiz, 4ih Inf. 
Capt. A. J. Smith, let dra^. 
Li.-Col. Bonneville, 4 inf. 
Maj. Rains, 4ih inf 
Bvt. Maj. Larnard, 4 inf. 

Bvt Col R.E.Lee,Engin*8 

Lt.-Col. Abercrombie,2 inf. 
Bvt. Col. Sumner, 1st drag. 
Maj. Backus, 3d inf 



Garrison. 



Ist Jb3dart. 
1st & 3d art. 
3d artillery. 
3d artillery. 
3d artillery. 
3dartac4ihinf 
4th infantry. 
4th infantry. 
3d artillery. 
1st dragoons. 
3dart.&4thinf. 
3dart.&4thinf. 
4ih infantry. 



Recniits. 
Recruits. 
Recruits. 



6. Militia Forcs of thi United States. 



Abstract of the United States Militia, from the Army Register f 


9r 1854. 


and 
Territories.* 


For 
what 
year. 


Gen- 
eral 
Offi- 
cers. 


General 

Staff 

Officers. 


Field 

Officers, 

&c. 




Total 

Gbmmis- 

sioned 

Officers. 


Non-commis- 
sioned Offi- 
cers, Musi- 
cians, Artifi- 
cers,Privatea 


AggTB' 

gate. 


Maine, 


1«52 














66,024 


N. HampshiiB, 


1863 


13 


64 


307 


877 


^'^\ 


S'SS 


33,576 


Massachuseiu, 


1863 


10 


42 


27 


605 


584 


139,772 


140,356 


Vermont, 


1843 


12 


61 


224 


801 


1,088 


22,827 


23,915 


Rhode Island, 


1862 


6 


23 


53 


29 


111 


15,858 


15,969 


Connecticut, 


1862 


3 


13 


66 


213 


294 


54,097 


64,391 


New York, 


1862 


100 


329 


1,600 


5,926 


7,966 


281,351 


289,306 


New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, 


1862 














81,984 


1862 


64 


58 






212 


13,116 


*3.^ 


Delaware, 


1827 


4 


8 


71 


364 


447 


8,782 


9,229 


Maryland, 


1838 


22 


168 


544 


1,763 


2,397 


44,467 


46,864 


Virginia, 


1853 


31 


165 


1,422 


4,974 


6,492 


118,629 


125,121 


North Carolina, 


1845 


23 


133 


657 


3,449 


4,267 


75,181 


'^^•^ 


South Carolina, 


1843 


19 


96 


452 


2,024 


2,591 


62,618 


65,209 


bSriS^ 


1860 


39 


91 


624 


4,296 


5,050 


73,649 


78,689 


1846 


3 


14 


95 


608 


620 


11,602 


12,122 


Alabama, 


1851 


32 


142 


775 


1,883 


2,832 


73,830 


76,662 


Louisiana, 


1861 


16 


81 


190 


987 


1274 


61,956 


53,230 


Mississippi, 


1838 


16 


70 


392 


348 


825 


B'^t 


*'2gS 


Tennessee, 


1840 


25 


79 


869 


2,644 


3,607 


67,645 


71,252 


Kentucky, 


1862 


43 


145 


1,165 


3,617 


4,870 


84,109 


88,979 


Ohio, 


1846 


91 


217 


462 


1,281 


2,061 


174,404 


176,455 


Michigan, 


1862 


30 


124 


401 


2,203 


2,793 


61,906 


64,669 


Indiana, 


1832 


31 


110 


666 


2,154 


2,861 


61,052 


63,913 


Illinois, 


1861 


30 


99 


1,297 


3,192 


4,618 


165,741 


170,359 


Wisconsin, 


1862 


16 


3 


114 


282 


414 


39,151 


39,566 


Missouri, 


1844 


45 


94 


790 


2,990 


3,919 


^I'Si 


61.000 


Ijkansas, 


1843 


8 


29 


310 


762 


1,109 


16,028 


17,137 


1847 


15 


45 


248 


940 


1,248 


18,518 


19,766 


giifornia, 


1853 


12 


9 






21 


201,379 


201,400 


Minesou Ter., 


1861 


2 


5 






7 


1,996 


2,003 


OUh Ter., 


1863 


2 




48 


235 


285 


2,636 


2,821 


D. of Columbia. 


1852 


3 


10 


28 


185 


226 


7.976 


8,201 


Tot*l. 




"758" 


2.407 


13,787 


49,337 


66.289 


2.064.740 


2,269,037" 



* No returns from Iowa, and the Territories of New Mexico, Dragon, and Washington. 



1855.] 



AXMT U8T. 



105 



7. Tablb of Pat, Subsistihcb, 


FORAGS, 


«TC. OF Arxt Officsri. 




Pat. 


Subsist- 

BNCB. 


FORAOB. 


Sbrvants. 




20 cants 


•8 p. mo. 


^^liir- 




for each 


for each 


^ 


Rank ano GLAssiFicAnoH ov 




Ration. 


Horse. 


Private.* 


£ 




1^ 


SI 


1 


8 * 


II 


Officbbs. 


^ 


1 c 


Of 1^ 






i 


II 




c . 


= 1 
II 


1 


Major-General, 


^ooSo 


16 


^M 


"T 


w 


4 


962.00 


i376.00 


Senior Aid-de-camp to General- In-chief, 


60.00 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


Aid-de-camp, besides pay of Lieutenant, 
Brigadier-General 


24.00 


1 


6 


1 


8 






38.00 


104.00 


12 


72 


3 


24 


3 


46.50 


216.60 


Aide-de-camp, besides pay of Lieutenant, 
Adjutant-General, —Cblonel, . 


20.00 






1 


8 






28.00 


90.00 


6 


36 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


183.00 


Assistant Adj.-General, ~ LieuL-Colonel, 


75.00 


6 


30 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


162.00 


•' « ' Major, . 


60.00 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


ti tt Captain, 


50.00 


4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.60 


9a50 


Judge- Adrocate,— Major, . 


60.00 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 




90.00 


6 


36 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


183.00 


Quartermaster-General, — Brig.-General, 
Assistant Quarterm.-Gen., — Colonel, . 


104.00 


12 


72 


3 


24 


3 


46.60 


246.60 


90.00 


6 


36 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


183.00 


Deputy Quarterm.-Gen.,— Lieut-Colonel, 


75.00 


6 


30 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


162.00 


Quartermaster, — Major, 


60.00 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


Assistant Quartermaster, — Captain, 


ffl.lK.' 


4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.60 


98.60 


Conunissary-Gen. of Subsistence, — CoL, 


dl.l.hf 


6 


36 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


183.00 


Assist. Commissary-Gen., — LieuL-Col., 


7'iiw' 


6 


30 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


162.00 


Commissary of Subsistence, —Major, 


6'i<f> 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


" «' Cftptain, 
Assistant Comm'y, besides pay of Lieut, 


QH,lMi 


4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.60 


98.60 


2i.i.f. 














20.00 


Paymaster-General, «2,500 per annum, . 
















208.33 


Deputy Paymaster-General, . 


7r^ ^11 > 


5 


30 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


162.00 


Paymaster, 


6'>..:^i 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


Surgeon-General, $2,500 per annum, . 
















208.33 


Surgeons of 10 years* service, . 


eiKi!) 


8 


48 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


165.00 


Surgeons of less than 10 yeara' service. 
Assistant Surgeons of 10 yeara' service, . 


&\iMI 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


Sr'.-Kt 


8 


48 


1 


8 


1 


16.50 


122.60 


" of 5 yeara' service. 


fri.fyl 


. 4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.50 


98.60 


Assist. Surg, of less than 6 yeara' service. 


3:1 cj 


4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.60 


81.83 


EhGIMBBRS, ToPOO. EnOINBBBS, AMD 


















Okonamcb Dbpartmbmt. 


















Colonel, 


9U.f,0 


6 
6 


36 
30 


3 
3 


24 
24 


2 
2 


33.00 
33.00 


183.00 
162.00 


Lieutenant-Colonel, .... 


75.00 


Major, 


fOfV) 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


Captain, 


r.i^i-} 


4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.60 


98.60 


First Lieutenant, 


:^/-;3 


4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.60 


81.83 


Second Lieutenant (Brevet the same), . 


:-i:i 3 


4 


24 


1 


8 


1 


16.50 


81.83 


MouMTBD Dragoons and Riflbmbn. 


















Colonel, 


iio.r-o 


6 


36 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


183.00 


Lieutenant-Colonel, 


7.1. rO 


6 


30 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


162.00 


Major, 


(ii>.iO 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


33.00 


141.00 


Captain, 


f.iP.rO 


4 


24 


2 


16 


1 


16.60 


106.50 




::] :t3 


4 


24 


2 


16 


1 


16.60 


89.83 


Second Lieutenant (Brevet the same), . 


l^\ :i3 


4 


24 


2 


16 


1. 


16.60 


89.83 


Adj.& Reg. Q'rm'r, besides pay of Lieut, 


)|>JJ0 














10.00 




















Colond, 


7o.00 


6 


36 


3 


24 


2 


31.00 


166.00 


LieutenantpCdonel, 


60.00 


6 


30 


3 


24 


2 


31.00 


145.00 


Major, 


60.00 


4 


24 


3 


24 


2 


31.00 


129.00 


Captain, 


40.00 


4 
4 


24 
24 






1 
1 


15.50 
15.50 


79.60 
69.60 


First Lieutenant, 


30.00 


Second Lieutenant (Bravet the same), . 
Adj.and Reg.Q'rm'r, besides pay of Lieut., 


25.00 


4 


24 






1 


15.60 


64.60 


lOiOO 






1 


8 






18.00 



On January 1, 1854, the whole number of commissioned ofiicera in the r^ular army was 
952; of non-commissioned offlcera, musicians, artificera, and privates, 9,377; total, 10,329. 

♦ For the increased pay of the rank and file of the army, see " Titles and Abstracts of tha 
PttUic Laws," No. 73, Ch. CCXLYH., post, p. 141. 



106 



UNTTBD STATES. 



[1855. 



IV. NAVY UST» 

1. COMMAHDERS OF SQUADRONS. 



John T. Newton, 
Wm. D. Salter, 
William Mervine, 
Silas H. Stringbam, 
Isaac MayO| 
Matthew C. Perry, 
Cadwalader Ringgold, 



Commodore^ 



Commander, 



Home Sqnadroo. 

Coast of Brazil. 

Pacific Ocean. 

Mediterranean. 

Coast of Africa. 

East Indies. 

N. Pacific Expedition. 



Joseph Smoot, 
F. H. Gregory, 
Charles Boarman, 
Charles Stewart, 



2. Commanders of Naty Yards 

Portsmouth. 
Boston. 
New York, 



George W. Storer, 



Hiram Paulding, Washington. 
S. L. Breese, Norfolk. 

Lawrence Rousseau, Pensacola. 



Philadelphia. 

3. Naval Asylum. 
Governor^ 



Philadelphia. 



4. Naval Academy. 
Louis M. Goldsborough, Superintendent^ 



Annapolis, Md. 



5. Officers of the Navy. 
Captains, — 68. 



Charles Stewart. 
Charles Morris. 
Stephen Cassin. 
George C. Read, 
a £. Ballard. 
Jesse Wilkinson. 
T. Ap C. Jones. 
W. B. Shubrick. 
Lawrence Kearny. 
Foxhall A. Parker. 
Da?id Conner. 
John D. Sloat. 
Matthew C. Perry. 
C. W. Skinner. 
John T. Newton. 
Joseph Smith. 
Lawrence Roussoau. 



John J. Young. 
Frederick Varnum. 
Joseph R. Jarvis. 
Saml. W. Le Compte. 
Charles T. Piatt. 
Wm. M. Armstrong. 
William F. Shields. 
G. J. Pendergrast. 



George W. Storer. 
F. H. Gregory. 
Philip F. Voorhees. 
David Geisinger. 
Isaac McKeever. 
J. P. Zantzinger. 
William D. Salter. 
Charles S. McCauley. 
T. M. Newell. 
E. A. F. Lavallette. 
John PerciraL 
John H. Aulick. 
W. V. Taylor. 
Bladen Dulany. 
•S. H. Stringham. 
Isaac Mayo. 
WiUtam Merrine. 



Thomas Crabbe. 
Thomas Paine. 
James Armstrong. 
Joseph Smoot. 
Samuel L. Breese. 
Benjamin Page. 
W. K. Latimer. 
Hiram Paulding. 
Uriah P. Levy. 
Charles Boarman. 
French Forrest. 
William Jamesson. 
Charles Gauntt. 
William Ramsay. 
Henry Henry. 
Henry W. Q^den. 
Thomas A. Conover. 



■ Commanders, — 97. 



William C. Nicholson. 
Ed. W. Carpender. 
John L. Saunders. 
Joseph B. Hull. 
John Stone Paine. 
Thomas Petigru. 
John S. Chauncey. 
John Kelly. 



William H. Gardner. 
David G. Farragut. 
Richard S. Pinckney. 
Stephen B. Wilson. 
T. Aloysius Domin. 
Rob. B. Cunningham. 
James Glynn. 
Joseph Myers. 



John C. LoDff. 
John H. GranaiD. 
James Mc. Mcintosh. 
JosiahTattnalL 
Hu(;h N. Page. 
William Inman. 
Stephen Champlin. 
Joel Abbot. 
Lewis E. Simonds. 
Harrison H. Cocke. 
William J. McCluney. 
John B. Montgomery. 
Horace B. Sawyer. 
Cornelius K. Stribting. 
Joshua R. Sands. 
Charles H. Bell. 
Abraham Bigelow. 



Thomas R. Gedney. 
Victor M. Randolph. 
Frederick Engle. 
John Rudd. 
Robert Ritchie. 
William W. McKean. 
Franklin Buchanan. 
Samuel Mercer. 



♦ Corrected in the Navy Department, October, 1854. 



1855.] 



NAVY U8T. 



107 



L. M. Goldsborough. 
George N. HoUins. 
DuQcan N. Ingiaham. 
Joha MarsUxi. 
Hency Braces 
Beiuy A. Adams. 
William a Walker. 
George F. Pearaon. 
James T. Gerry. 
John S. Nicholas. 
Samuel F.Du Pont. 
William L. Hudson. 
George A. Blagruder. 
John Pope. 
Lenn HLPowelL 
Charlea Wilkee. 



EUsbaPeek. 
Thomas J. Manning. 
Thomas O. Selfridge. 
Henry Euie. 
Andrew KT Long. 
G. J. Van Brunt. 
WiUiam M. Glendy. 
George S. Blake. 
Z. F. Johnston. 
WiUiam Green. 
Samuel Barron. 
TimothT G. Benham. 
Oscar Bullus. 
Charles H. Jackson. 
Andrew A. Harwood. 
Theodorus Bailey. 
Hugh Y. Purriance. 

6. Pay or the Navt, ftr annum. 

Pay. 



George Adams. 
Cadwalader Binggold. 
Wm. F. Lvnch. 
Henry W. Morris. 
Isaac S. Slerett. 
Francis B. Ellison. 
Edw. B. Boutwell. 
Sidney Smith Lee. 
Wm. C. Whittle. 
Thompson D. Shaw. 
Robert D. Thorburn. 
Samuel Lockwood. 
Lloyd B. NeweU. 
William S. Ogden. 
Frederick A. Neville. 
Charles C. Turner. 



John Manning. 
Jamas L. Lardner. 
Rotiert G. Bobb. 
John Colhoun. 
Thomas T. Craven. 
Andrew H. Foots. 
Wm W. Hunur. 
Amasa Paine. 
Edg. O. Tilon. 
James H Ward. 
Henry K. HoflT. 
Murray Mason. 
Charlea H. Davis. 
Ebenezer Farrand. 
Henry H. Bell. 
Wm. Smith. 



Captains, 6S, the senior one in service, • 4,500 



" on leave, 

Oiptains of squadrons. 

Other captains on duty, 
" on leave, 

CoMaiANDRHS, 97, in sea service, 
" at navy yards, or on 

other duty, 
" on leave, &c., 

LiKUTEif AMTS, 327, Commanding, 
" on other duty, 

" waiting orders, 

SuBOBOiffs, 69, 1st 5 years in com., 
" in navy yards, &c., 

" in sea service, 

" of the fleet, 

" 2d 5 years, on leave, 

" at navy yards, &c., 

" In sea service, 

" of the fleet, 

" 3d 5 years, on leave, 

" at navy yards, Ac, 

" in sea service, 

" of the fleet, 

" 4th 5 years, on leave, 

" at navy yards, Ac., 

" in sea ssrvlce, 

of the fleet, 
" 20 years and upwards, 

" on leave, 

" at navy yards, &c 

" in sea service, 

" of the fleet, 

Pabsbd Assistant Svbobons, 37. 

Assistant Subobons, 43, waiting or> 
ders, 
alter passing, &c.. 



%m 



3,600 
4;000 
3,500 
8,600 
2,500 

8,100 
1,800 
1,800 
1,500 

i; 

1,000 
1,250 

1,500 

1,200 

1,600 

1,600 

1,800 

1,400 

1,760 

1,' 

2,100 

1,600 

8,000 

2,133 

8,400 



1,800 
8,260 
8,400 
8,700 



660 
860 



Assistant Suboboms, at sea, 

" after passing, 1,800 

at navy yards, 060 

" after passing, 1,160 

PUBSBBS, 64, from •! ,600 to 3,600 

CHAPLAiNS,84,ln seaserv.orat oavy-yds, 1 ,600 

" on leave, Ac., 1,000 

Pbofbssobs of Mathematics, 13, 1,600 

Mastbbs in the line of promotion, 14. 

Passbo Midsbzpmbn, 194, on duty, 760 

" waiting ordeis, 600 

MiDSHiPMBNi 66, in sea service, 400 

on other duty, 360 

on leave, &e., 300 

ACTIMO MlI^BIPMBN, 137, 

Mastbbs, 17, of ship of the line at sea, 1,100 



on other duty, 
on leave, Ac., 
Sbcond Mastbb, 1, in sea service, 
on other duty, 
on leave, 
M^stbb's Matbs, 8, on duty, 
on leave. 



Boatswains, 36 

GUNNBBS, 47 

Gabpbntbbs, 68 

SAlLM^XBBS, 40 . 



on leave, or waking : 



1,000 
760 
760 
600 
400 
460 
300 

600 



shore duty, 700 

sea service,4i 900 

CHiBFENOiNBSBS,18,on duty,lst6 years, 1,600 
" after 6 years, 8,000 
on leave, 1st 6 years, 1,800 
" after 6 years, 1,400 
1st Assistant Enoinbbbs, 88, on duty, 1,000 
on leave, 860 
8d Assistant Enginbbbs, 29, on duty, 800 
on leave, 600 
3d Assistant Enoinbbbs, 41, on duty, 600 
on leave, 400 



NoTB. One ration per day only is allowed to each officer when attached to vessels for pea 
service, since the passage of the law of the 3d of March, 1835, regulating the pay of the navy. 

• They have an addition of 8 per cent, upon the foregoing rates for every year's sea service, 
•nd an addition upon sea pay of 10 per cent, when serving in ships with 400 men. and 20 oer 



I upon sea pay 

cent, when serving in ships with 900 men. 



108 



UNITED STATES. 



[1855. 



7. Vxf ssLi or Wak of the Uititxd States Nayt. — Oct., 1854. 
[The officers marked thus (*) hare the rank of Commandera ; thus (t), Lieutenants ; 







the rest are Ct^ttains.} 




Name and fate.— Guna. 


Where and when builL 


Commanded by 




Ships qf the Line, 
PennsTlTaniA, 


U. 










15» 
80 


Philadelphia, 


1837 
1819 


In ordinary, 
♦Andrew K. Long, 


Rec^ ship, Norfolk. 


OhioT * 


84 


New York. 
Philadelphia, 


1820 


S^'^Vbo*-^ 


North Oandiaa, 


84 


1820 


*ElishaPeck, 


Delaware, 


84 


Norfolk, Va., 


1820 


In ordinary. 


Norfolk. 


Alabama, 


84 


• • . 




• • • • 


On stocks, Ports'th. 


Vermont, 


84 


Boston, 


1848 


In ordinary. 


Boston. 


Virginia, 


84 


. • • 




• • • • 


On stocks, Boston. 


New York, 
New Orleans, 

rrigates. 13. 


&i 






" Norfolk. 


84 
66 


. 




" SacHar. 
Pacific Ocean. 


Boston, 


1814 


Josiah Tatnall, 




60 Philadelphia, 


1797 


Inordinary, 
*John Rudd, 


Norfolk. 


Oonstitntion, 


60 Boston, 


1797 


Coast of Africa. 


Potomac, 


60 


Washington, 


1821 


In ordinary. 


Norfolk. 


Brandy wine, 
Columbia, 


60 


«« 


1826 


In ordinary, 
♦Stephen B. Wilson, 


New York. 


50 


(( 


1836 


Home Squadron. 


Gong fees, 


60 


Portsmouth. 


1841 


In oralnary. 


NewY^k. 




60 Boston. 


1842 


♦A. A. Harwood, 


Mediterranean. 


Savannah, 


60 


New York, 


1842 


♦Samuel Mereer, 


Coast of Braail. 


Raritan, 


60 


Philadelphia, 


1843 


In ordinary. 


Norfolk. 


Santee, 


60 


• • > 


, 


* . • . 


On stocks, Ports'th. 


Sabine, 


60 


. 




• • • • 


N. York. 


St. Lawrence, 


60 


Norfolk, 


1847 


♦W. W. Hunter, 


Pacific Ocean. 


Sloops of War. * 


W. 










CoostellatioQ, 


22 Norfolk, 


1864 


In ordinary. 


Norfolk. 


Macedonian, 


22;Capt'd 1812, reb't 1836 


Joel Abbot, 


East Indies. 


John Adams, 




1842 


In ordinary, 
♦Edw. B Boutwell, 


Boston. 


20Charleston,S.C. 


,11799 


Pacific Ocean. 


Vincennes, 


20iNewyork, 


1826 


tHenry Rolando, 


N.Pacific Expedition. 


Falmouth, 


20 Boston, 


1827 


♦T. D. Shaw, 


Home Squadron. 
East Indies. 


Vandalla, 


20 Philadelphia, 


1828 


♦John Pope, 
♦Henry W. Morris, 


St. Louis, 


20 Washington, 


1828 




Cyane, 


20 Boston, 


1837 


In ordinary. 


Boston. 


Levant, 


20lNewYork, 
22{Portsmouth, 


1837 


*C. C. Turner, 


Mediterranean. 


Portsmouth, 


1843 


♦T. A. Domin, 


Pacific Ocean. 


Plymouth, 


22 Boston, 


1843 


♦John Kellf , 


East Indies. 


St. Mary's, 


22 Washington, 


1844 


♦T. RaileyT 


Pacific Ocean. 


Jamestown, 


22Norfolk, 


1844 


In ordinary, 
♦James T. Gerry, 
♦Wm. F. Lynch, 


Philadelphia. 


Albany, 


22'NewYork, 


1846 


Home Squadron. 


Germantown, 


22 Philadelphia, 


1846 


Coast of Braxil. 


Decatur, 


IB New York. 
16 Portsmouth, 


1839 


♦Isaac S.StereU, 


Pacific Ocean. 


Preble, 


1839 




Naval School Ship. 


Marion, 


16 Boston, 


1839 


♦HuffhY.PurvianCe, 
♦Wiaiam C. Whittle, 


Ooast of Africa. 


Dale, 

Brigs. 4. 

Dolphin, 


16 Philadelphia, 


1839 


Coast of Africa. 


4 New York, 


1836 


In ordinary. 


Norfolk. 


Porpoise, 


4iBoston, 


1836 


tA. B. Davis, 


N. Pacific Expedition. 


Bainbridge, 


6l " 


1842 


tC. G. Hunter, 


Coast of Brazil. 


Perry, 


elNoEfolk, 


1843 


In ordinary. 


Norfolk. 


Schooner. 




• 








Fenimore Cooper, 


3 


Purchased, 


1853 


tH. E. Stevens, 


N.Pacific Expedition. 


Steam Frigates.i 


6. 










Franklin, 
Mississippi, 


51 






Rebuilding, 


Portsmouth. 


10 Philadelphia, 


1841 


♦S.S.Lee, 


East Indies. 



t Rebuilt at Norfolk, in 1831. 

§ Under the act of the last session of Congress, authorising the construction of six steam 
frigates, they are building as follows : the Merrimack at Boston ; the Niagara at New York ; 
the Wabash at Philadelphia; the Minnesota at Washington; the Roanoke and the Colorado 
"4^ Norfolk ; each to carry 60 guns. 



L^-_ 



1855.] 



THE MABINB CORPS. 



109 



sod Rate. — Gnna. When ood wlien buill. 



Fbwl 

Sni Jacinto, 

Fnltoii, 

Michigan, 

Alleghany, 

Len than Id CZoae, 

Yizea, 

Waier- Witch, 



Philadelphia, 
Norfolk, 
Portsmouth, 
New York, 



S New York, 1S43 
^Boaton,rat)iiilt, 1861 

New York, 

Erie, Pft., 
10Pitubiug,Fh., 



Engineer, 
John Hancock, 

Storeaikjw. 7. 
Warren, 
Belief, 
Lexington, 
Soathampum, 



Fredonia, 



John P. Kennedy, 

PermanentRee*gye» 

Ontario, 

Union (Slfeamer), 



1860 «F, 



. Buchanan, 
IdeOiWm. J. McCluney, 

) John C. Long, 
1850|c. K. Slribling, 



1837 1: 



John K. MitcheU, 
1843 *J. S. Nicholas, 
ordinary, 



1846 In 



Purchand, 
Washington^ 
Transfd from W. D. 



1845 



Purchased, 
2 Boston, 

Boston, 
Philadelphia, 
New York, 
Norfolk, 
Purchased, 

Purchased, 
.2 

18 Baltimortt, 
'Norfolk, 



1S46 
1860 



1826 
1836 
1825 
1845 



Commanded by 



♦aEagto, 



1846 In ordinary, 

tTbomas J. Page, 



f R. W. Meade, 
Tbnder, 
tJohn Rodgen, 



tD. McDougal, 
tS. C. Rowan, 
tJno. J. Olasson, 
tJ. J. Bof Je, 
tArthur Sinclair, 

1846 tT. D.Johnston, 

1863tN. OoUins, 

18l3*RobertG. Robb, 
1842 »Frederick Engle. 



Where stationed. 



East Indies. 
East Indies. 
Mediterranean. 
Baltic. 

Home Squadron. 

Home Squadron. 

Lakes. 

Washington. 

Nsw York. 

River La Plata. . 

Paciflc. 

Norfolk. 

N.PaeificBxpedltioo. 

Sui Francisco. 

Snail. 

East Indies. 

East Indies. 

East Indies. 

Valparaiso. 

N.AciflcEzpsdiUon 

Baltimore. 
Philadelphia. 



V. THE MARINE CORPS. 

The Manae Corps has the organization of a brigade. The pay and al- 
lowances of the officers of the Marine Corps are similar to those of offioars 
of the same grades in the infantry of the Armyi except the adjutant and in- 
spector, who faa^e the same pay and allowances as the paymaster of the 
Marines; namely, about $2^800 per annum. The Marine Corps is subject 
to the laws and regulations of the Navy, except when detached for serrice 
with tfae Amy by the order of the President of the United States. The 
head-quarters of the Corps are at Washington.* 

f Archibald Henderson, Colonei'Cammandanl. 



General Staff. 



t Parke G. Howie, 
7 William W. Russell, 
t Aug. A. Nicholson, 
§ George F. Lindsay, 

Miller. 
Mi^ort, 
John Harris, 



MjutatU ^ Jfupeetor. 

Paynutster, 

Qparternuuter. 

JlssUtant i^rtermaster, 
James Edelin, 
William Dulany, 
Thomas S. English. 



* There are 13 Capuins, 20 First Lieutenants, and 20 Second UsutenanU. The number 
of non-commissioned officers, musicians, and pri rates Taries; it may arerage 1,100 men. 
t BrigadierGeneral by breret. 1 With the rank of Major. § With the rank of Captain. 
10 



110 tmiTED STATES. [1855. 

VI. THE JUDICIARY. 

SuPRSMs Court. 

Residence. Appointed. Salarj. 

Roger B. Taney, Baltimore, Md., Chief JustUe, 1836, $5,000 
John McLiean, Cincinnati, Ohio, Associate Justice^ 1829, 4,500 

Jameg M. tVayne, Savannah, Ga., " 1835, 4,500 

John Catron, Nashville, Tenn., " 1837, 4,500 

Peter V. Daniel, Richmond, Va., « 1841, 4,500 

Samuel Nelson, Cooperstown, N. Y., " 1845, 4,500 

Robert C. Grier, Pittsburg, Pa., « 1846, 4,500 

Benj. Robbins Curtis, Boston, Mass., ^ 1851, 4,500 

John A. Campbell, Mobile, Ala. <« 1853, 4,500 

C. Cashing, of Mass., Washington, D. C, Attorney- General, 1853, 8,000 
Benj. C. Howard, Baltimore, Md., Reporter, 1843, 1,300 

William T. Carroll, Washington, D. C, Clerk, Fees, &c. 

The Supreme Court is held in the city of Washington, and has one ses- 
sion annually, commencing on the 1st Monday of December. 

Circuit Courts. 

The United States are divided into the following nine Judicial Circuits, 
in each of which a Circuit Court is held twice every year, for each State 
within the Circuit, by a Justice of the Supreme Court, assigned to the Circuit, 
and by the District Judge of the State or District in which th^ Court sits. 

Presiding Judge. 
Ist Circuit, Mafn«, N. Hampshire, Mass., and R. I., Mr. Justice Curtis. 
Sd ** Vermont, Connecticut, and New York, Mr. Justice Nelson. 
3d •* New Jersey and Pennsylvania, Mr. Justice Grier. 

4th '* Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia^ Mr. Ch. Justice Taney. 
5th ^* Alabama, Louisiana, and Kentucky, Mt. Justice Campbell. 
6th " N. Carolina, S. Carolina, and Georgia, Mr. Justice Wayne. 
7th ** Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, Mr. Justice McLean. 
8th ^' Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri, Mr. Justice Catron. 
9th ** Mississippi and Arkansas, Mr. Justice Daniel. 

The States of Florida, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin, and California have not yet been attached 
to any Circuit, but the District Oourts have the power of Circuit Courts, ^d the District 
Judges act as Circuit Judges. There Is a local Ciccuit Court held in the Di9rict of Colum- 
bia, by three judges specially appointed for that purpose. This Chief Justice of that Court 
sits also as District Judge of that District. 

Places ▲iro Times of Holding thx CIrcvit Coubxs.* 
Maink, • . . ' . Portland, 23d April and 23d September. 
New Hamip801RE) . Portsmouth, 8th May ; — Exeter, 8th October. 
VERMONT, .... Windsor, 21st May ; — Rutland, 3d October. 

* For the Terms in iheiStates not attached to any Circuit, see Terms oflhe District Courts 
in those Sutes. For the Terms in the District of Columbia and the Territories, tteejoost. 
Part in. 



1855.] 



JUDIGIABT. 



Ill 



MASSACBirBBTTS, 

Rhsok Islahd, * . 
jCoitskcticut, . 

N. York, S. Dist., . 



N. York, N. Dist., 



New Jkrset, . . 
Pens., E. Dist., 
Pehh., W. Dist., . 

Delaware, . . . 
Martlard, . . . 
YiRGiRiA, £. Dist., 

YlRGIRIA, W. Dist., 
North Carolira, . 

South Carolira, . 

Georgia, N. Dist., 
Georgia, S. Dist., . 

Alabama, . . . 

Mississippi, . . . 
Louisiana, . • . 

Terressbs, . . . 



Kentucky, 
Ohio, . . 

MiGHIGAV, 

Irdiara, . 
Illirois, . 



Missouri, . 
Arxarsas, 



1, 15th May and 15th October. 
JWtoporl, 15th June ; — Providence, 15th Noyember. 
JV«t0 Haven, 4th Tuesday in April ; — Hartford, 3d 

Tuesday in September. 
JVeto York, 1st Monday in April and 3d Monday in 
October ; and a special term for criminal cases and 
suits in equity on the last Monday in February. 
Albany, 3d Tuesday in October and 3d Tuesday in 
May ; — Canandaigua, Tuesday next after 3d 
Monday in June. 
Trenton, 4th Tuesday in March and September. 
Philadelphia, 1st Monday in April and October. 
Pittsburg, 2d Monday in May and November; — 
WiUiamspori, 3d Monday in June and September. 
J^eufcastle, 3d Tuesday in June and October. 
Baltimore, 1st Monday in April and November. 
Richmond, 1st Monday in May and 4th Monday in 

Noyember. 
Lewisburg, 1st Monday in August. 
Raleigh, 1st Monday in June and last Monday in 

November. 
Charlton, Wednesday preceding the 4th Monday in 

March ; — Columbia, 4th Monday in Noyember. 
Marietta,* 2d Monday in March and September. 
Savannah, 2d Monday in April ; — MiUedgemlUj 

Thursday after 1st Monday in Noyember. 
Mobile, 2d Monday in April and 4th Monday in 

December. 
Jackson, 1st Monday in May and November. 
Jfeu) Orleans, 4th Monday in April and Ist Monday 

in November. 
JfashviUef 1st Monday in Mar^ and September ; -— 
KnoxviUe, 3d Monday in April and October; — 
Jackson, 2d Monday in October and April. 
Frankfort, 3d Monday in May and October. 
Columbus, 3d Tuesday in April and October. 
Detroit, 3d Monday in June and 2d Monday in Oct. 
IndiafutpoUs, 3d Monday in May and November. 
Springfield, Ist Monday in July and 3d Monday 
in December ; — Chicago, 3d Tuesday in April 
and Ist Tuesday in October. 
St. Louis, 1st Monday in April and (special) Oct. 
UttU Rock, 2d Monday in April. 



* This eoart is held by the District Judge, with special authority to exercise the powers 
and JunadictioB of a Judge of the Circuit CoorU 



112 



UNITED 8TATBS. [1855. 

* WSrKKTT COUBTB:— JUDGES, AITOBNBYS, 



Districts. 



[ Dist 

iMalna, 
2lN. Han 



Judges. 



Residence. 



[ Atu 

Georael 
JohnH. 



Attornejrs. * 



Residence 



Hampshire, 
Vermont, 
Moseachiisetts, 



AshurWan, 
MaUhew Harreyi 
Samuel Prentiss, 



Oonnecticut, 
New Jersey, 

p.. j^*' 

Delaware. 
Maryland, 
V. 5E. Dist. 
^■- {W.Dist. 
North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 
^3^ (N.Dist. 
***• J& Dist. 



WtL 



N. Dist. 

S. Dist. 
N. Dist 
M.Dist. 
& Dist 



John 

Charles A. IngersoU, 
Nathan K. Hall, 
Samuel R. Betto, 
Philemon Dickerw>n, 
John K. Kane, 
Tliomas Irwin, 
WiUani HaU, 
Wm. F Giles, 
Jas. D. Hallyburton, 
J.W.Brockenbrough, 
Henry Potter, 
Robert B. Gilchrist, 

|joh&GNicoIl, 

Isaac R Branson, 

William ManHn, 
> John Gayle, 



Dist Thomas 



Portland, 

Concord. 

Montpelier, 

Boston, 

Providence, 

New Haven, 

Bufialo, 

New York, 

Paterson, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Wilgnington, 

Baltimore, 

Richmond, 

Lexington, 

Fayetteville, 

Charieeton, 

Sayannah, 



F. Shepley, 
John^. George, 
Lnclus B. Peck, 
Benj. F. Hallett, 
Georre H. Browne, 
W. D. Shipman, 
8ami B. Oanrin, 
John McKeon, 
O. S. Gannon, 
James C. Vandyke, 
Charles Shaler, 
Thos. F. Bayard, 
Wm. M. Addison, 
John M. Gregory, 
Fleming B. Miller, 
Robert P. Dick, 
Thoe. Evans, 

George S. Owens, 



MiM SN.Dist. 
^'•••Js. Dist 
r_ 5 E. Dist. 
^ ?W.Dist 
Texas, 

(W.Dlst 
Tenn. < M.Dist 

(E. Dist. 
Kentucky, 
Ohio, 

35 Indiana, 

36 Dlinois, 
*** Missouri, 

Michigan, 



{sam 



Ark. ' 



fi.Dlst. 
W.Dlst 
N.Dlst 
M.Dist 
S. Dist 
WiscoDsii 

CaL 



lowa^ 



( N. Dist 
{S. Dist 



Samuel J.Gholson, 

Theo. H. McCaleb, 
Henry Boyce, 
John C. Watrous, 

> W. RHumphreys, 

Thomas B. Monroe, 
H. H. Leavitt, 
E. M. Huntington, 
T. Drumnionclj 
Robert W. Wells, 
Ross Wilkins, 

> Daniel Rlngo, 

John S. Dyer, 

Andrew G. Miller, 
Ogdenl!bfllman,Jr. 
Isaac S . K. Og ier, 



St August'e, 

Key West, 
Mobile, 

Athens, 

N. Orleans, 
Alexandria, 
Galveston, 

NashvlUe, 



>1 



Frankfort, 

Steubenville, 

Cannelton, 



Jeifson CSty, 
Detroit, 

Little Rockj 

Dubuque, 

Milwaukee, 
S. Francisco, 
Los Angeles, 



Portland, 

Concord, 

Montpelier, 

Boston, 

Providence, 

East Haddam, 

Utica, 

New York, 

Bordentown, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Wilmington, 

Baltimore. 

Richmona, 

Fincastle, 

Greensboro, 

Marion, 

Savannah, 



Chandler C. Yonge, 

Wm. R. Hackley, 
( Geo. S. Walden, 

( A. J. Requier, 
S John A. Orr, 
?H. J. Harris, 
E. Warren Moise, 
Peter Alexander, 
Samuel D. Hay, 
Richard J. Hays, 
Thos. B. Childress, 
J. C. Ramsey, 
C. C. Rogers, 
Daniel O. Morton, 
Benj. M. Thomas, 
Thomas Hoyne, 
Thos. C Reynolds, 
Geo. E. Hand, 
J.W.M'Oonaughey, 
Alfred M. Wilson, 

Joseph C. Knapp, 

J, R. Sharpstein, 
S. W. Inge, 
Pkclfieos Ord, 



Mariana, 

Key West, 
Centre, 

Mobile, 

Ripley, 

Vicksburg, 

New Orleans, 

ShreveiMrt, 

Huntsvilie, 

Jackson, 

Nashville, 

Knoxville, 

Lexington, 

Toledo, 

Vincennes, 

Chicago, 

Si. Louis, 

Detroit, 

Searcy, 

Fayetteville, 

Keosauqua, 

Madison, 
San Francisco, 
Los Angeles. 



Placei ahd Timss or Holdihg the District CouRTi.f 

Maive, WiscoBStt^ lit Tueadaj in September; — Portland^ 

iBt Tuesday in Februarj and December ; — Banr 

gor^ 4th Tuesday in Jane. 
New Hahpihire, . Portsmmttk^ 3d Taesday in March and September ; 

— JSxeter, 3d Tuesday in June and December. 
Vermovt, . . • i{tt<2aiu2, 6th October;— ^ini2f or, 24th May. 
Massachusetts, . Boston^ 3d Tuesday in March, 4th Tuesday in June, 

2d Tuesday in Sept., and 1st Tuesday in Dec. 



* Corrected at the office of the Attorney-General, October 20, 1864. For the Judges, &c. of 
the Territories and District of Columbia, see the Territories, ftc respectively, pott, Fttrt IH. 
t For the District of Columbia and the Territories sse posT, Put 111. 



1855.] 



JUDICIABT. 



113 



BiABSHALS, AND CLERKS. 



Geo. W. Stanley, 
Samuel Tillon, 

3 Charles Chapin, 

4 Watson Freeman, 

5 Francis C. Gardiner, 
Curtiss Bacon, 
John M. Mott, 
Abrm. T. Hillyer, 
George H. Nelden, 
Francis M. Wynkoop, 
Weatley Frost, 

Wm. Morrow, 
13 John W. Watkins, 

John F. Wiley, 

J. T. Martin, 
16 Wesley Jones, 
17|Thoma8 D. Condy, 

i John R. Johnson, 



20 



Marshals. 



Residence. 



Elias R Blackburn, 

F. J. Moreno, 
Benj. Patteson, 



Cade M. Godbold, 
Charles B. Jordon, 
Richard Griffith, 
Joseph M. Kennedy, 

28 Henry H. Womack, 

29 Benj. McCulloch, 

30 Robert J. Chester, 
Jesse B. Clements, 

32 Wm. M. Lowrey, 

33Tbos. J. Young, 
Jabez W. Fitch, 

35|john L. Robinson, 
/Wilton, 

37 Thomas S. Bryant, 
Geo. W. Rice, 
John Quindley, 

40 Samuel M. Hays, 

41 

42 

43 

44 & y. R. Ableman, 

45 Wm. U. Richardson, 

46 Edward Hunter, 



Laurel Summers, 



Auy:u7£li^ 
SaubofEiurn Br, 
BfatHeiiord, 

Bi"=iijji, 
Pn-'Vicli^rir.f^ 
aiii]i]letnwii, 
LjinsijpSibiir^, 
New Yhck^ 

, PhHuiJulplil.'s, 
iBnjwDsvilli!, 
,Wi!mifig1oii, 
'BahJTiiorBi 
JAmeliaC, H. 

Cilarltistonj 
SavajTiDnhj 



MontlceUd^ 

Ivej WeBl, 
HimtHViilH, 

Stocktpn, 
A ah Crcfekj 
JackNfui, 
Nei¥ Orleang, 

GalvesiMi^ 
Jiick^oii, 

OneotivjiJe, 

Fmnkfyri:, 
Cft]ve<laiul, 
iiidjannpolijs^ 

Cbica^D, 
J^fTDnjoii Ciiy, 
iC.ilariiBj^j-it, 

Duver^ 

Le Claire, 

J^n Francisco, 



Pay. 



»200t 
200t 
200t 

* 

200t 
200t 
200t 

* 
200t 

200t 

20Qt 

* 



200t 
200t 

* 

200t 

200f 
200t 

200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 



200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200f 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 

200t 

200t 
200t 
200t 



Clerks. I 



Wni.P. Preble, Jr. 
Albert R. Hatch, 
Edw. H. Prentiss, 
Seth E. Sprague, 
John T. Pitman, 
Alfred Blackman, 
Aurelian Conkling, 
Goo. W. Morion, 
Philemon Dickerson 
Thomas L. Kane, 
John D W. While, 
L. E. Wales, 
Thomas Spicer, 
P. Mayo, 

Erasmus Stribling, 
John M. Jones, 
H. Y. Gray, 
W. H. Hunt, 

^ George Gten, 

tGeo.W.Hutchins,! 

I G. N. Fairbanks, 

I Joseph S. May, 
R. B. Smith, 

. A. Pinkney, 
B. F. Moore, 
P. H. S. Gale. 
John Fitts, 
R. W. Edmundson, 
W. H. Brown, 
N. R. Jennin^, 
T. H. Thompson, 
James Love, 
James L. Talboll, 
Jacob McGavock, 
Jas. W. Campbell, 
John A. Munroe, 
William Miner, 
John H. Rea, 
William Pope, 
Jason Harrison, 
Wm. D. Wilkins, 

William Field, 

T. S. Parrin, 

R. K. Miller, 
John A. Monroe, 
A. S. Taylor. 



Residence. 


Pay. 


Portland, 


Fe«^ 


Portsmouth, 




Montpelier, 


tl 


Boston, 


" 


Providence, 


(1 


New Haven, 


(( 


Auburn, 


<( 


New York, 


" 


Paterson, 


<« 


Philadelphia, 


(( 


Pittsburg, 


« 


Wilmington, 


« 


Baltimore, 


'« 


Richmond, 


(( 


Staunton, 


H 


Edenton, 


t< 


Charleston, 


tt 


Marietta, 


(I 


Savannah, 


tt 


Tallahassee, 


*< 


St. Augustine, 
Apalachicola, 


tt 


tt 


Tallahassee, 


tt 


Key West, 


tt 


Tuscaloosa, 


tt 


Mobile, 


u 


Pontotoc, 


It 


Jackson, 


tt 


New Orleans, 


tt 


St. Joseph's, 


tl 


Galveston, 


tt 


Jackson, 


tt 


Nashville, 


tt 


Knoxville, 


tt 


Frankfort, 


tt 


Columbus, 


tt 


Indianapolis, 


tt 


Springfield, 
Jefferson City, 


tt 


tt 


Detroit, 


tt 


Little Rock, 


tt 


Bloomlngton, 


It 


Milwaukee, 


tt 


San Francisco, 





Rhodz Iblakd, . . J^Tewporty 2d Tues. in May and 3d Tues. in October; — 
Providence, 1st Tuesday in February and August. 

Connecticut, . . Jfew Haven, 4th Tuesday in February and August ; 
7- Hartford, 4th Tuesday in May and November. 

New York, S. Dlst, Jfew York, Ist Tuesday in each month. 



* Fees, &c. t And Fees. 

2 The Clerks of the Cirtuit Courts, where they are not also Clerks of the District Courts, 
are as follows: — Portland, Me., George F. Emery. Boston, Mass., Henry W. Fuller. 
New York, N. Dist., A. A. Boyce ; S. Dist., John W. Nelson* Pennsylvania, E. Diet., 
George Plitt ; W. Dist., Henry Sprowl. Virginia, W. Dist., R. W. Moore. North Carolina, 
W. H. Haywood. Louisiana, E. Diet., J. W. Garley. Kentucky, John A. Moore. Indiana, 
Horace Bassett. Michigan, John Winder. Missouri, B. F. Hickman. Florida, S. Diet., 
T. A. Piaknef . Oftlifbrnia, SamMl Pbwer. 
10» 



114 



UNITED STATES. 



[1855. 



Nbw Jersbt, 



Delaware, . . 
Marylaitd, . . . 
ViROiiriA,E. DiBt., 



New York, N. Diit, Albany, 3d Tuesday in Janoarj ; — UUea, fid Tuesday 
in July ; — RoekuUr^ 3d Tuesday in May ; — ^tt- 
hum^ 3d Tuesday in August ; ^ Buffah^ 2d Tues- 
day in November; — one term annually in the 
county of St. Lawrence, Clinton, or Franklin, 
at such time and place as the Judge may direct 
TrentoUf 3d Tuesday in January, April, June, and 
September. 

PEVifSYLTANiA, E. Dist., PkUoddphia, 3d Monday in February, May, Au- 
gust, and November. 
Penkstlvaitia, W. Dist., Pittsburgh 1st Monday in May and 3d Monday in 
October ; — WUUamtport, 3d Monday in June and 
1st Monday in October. 
JftweoMtUyOn the 2d Tuesday of January, April, June, 

and September. 
Baltimore^ 1st Tuesday in March, June, September, 

and December. 
Richmond J 12th May and 12th November ; — Abr- 
folk, 30th May and 1st November. 
ViROiHiA, W. Dist., StauntoHj 1st May and 1st October ; ^ WytkeoHU^ 
Wednesday after 3d Monday in April and Sep- 
tember; — Charleston^ Wednesday after 2d Mon- 
day in April and Sej^mber ; — Clarksburg^ last 
Monday in March and August ; — Whedmgy Wed- 
nesday after 1st Monday in April and September. 
Edenton^ 3d Monday in April and October; —JV*si0- 
6en», 4th Monday in April and October; — ffil' 
mingtoHf 1st Monday after 4th Monday in April 
and October. 
South Caroliha, E. Dist, Charleston^ 3d Monday in March and Sept^ 

Ist Monday in July, and 2d Monday in Deo. 
South Carolina, W. Dist., Laurens Court-House, the next Tuesday after 
the adjournment of the Circuit Court at Columbia. 
Marietta^ 2d Monday in March and September. 
Savannah^ 2d Tuesday in February, May, August 

and November. 
Tallahassee^ 1st Monday in January ; — Apalaehieola 
1st Monday in February ;*— Pensacola^ 1st Mon- 
day in March ; — St. Augustine, 1st Monday in April. 
Key West, 1st Monday in May and November. 
HunUmlUy 2d Monday in May and November. 
AlarahAj Mid. Dist., Montgomery, 4th Monday in May and November. 
Alarum A f 3. Dist., Mobile, 4th Monday in April and 2d Monday after 

4th Monday in November. 
Miflii»sir>*i) N. Dist., Pontotoc, Ist Monday in June and December. 
MiasiasirFi, S. Dist., Jackson, 4th Monday in January and June. 



North Carolina, . 



Geoeoja, N. Dist, 
Georgia, S* Dist.« 

Florida, N Dist., . 



Florida, 3, Dist., 
Alabama, N. Dist, 



1655.] INTEBCOUltSS WITH rOBBIOK KATIOITO. lift 

LouiMAHA, E. Digt., JV«io OrlMiw, 3d Monday in Febmaiy, Maj, and No- 

rember. 
LovisiAiTAy W. DiBt., Opdtnuaw^ Ist Monday io Augasi ; ^~ MtxandriUf lit 

Monday in Septembor ; •«- 54rev<jiorf , lat Monday 

in October; — Monroe^ Ist Monday in NoTomber ; 

— St, JoBcpVMj lat Monday in December. 
Texas, .... CtolvtsUm^ Ist Monday in February, and once in each 

year at Aostin, Tyler, and Brownsville. 
TzvHKSSBK, E. Dist., KnoxvUle, 3d Monday in April and October. 
Tenkkssse, M. Dist, MuhvUU^ 1st Monday in March and September. 
Teitiibssee, W. Dist., JiuksoHf 2d Monday in October and April. 
Kehtvckt, . . . Fran/tfitrt, 3d Monday in May and October. 

Ohio, CMumftttf, 3d Tuesday in April and October. 

MiGHXOAir, • . • DetraUf 3d Monday in June and 2d Monday in Oct 
IvDXAVA, .... IndianapoUSf 3d Monday in May and Noyember. 
iLLiHOia, «... Springfield^ Ist Monday in July and 3d Monday id 

December; — Chicago^ 3d Tuesday in April and 

1st Tuesday in October. 
Missonu, .... Jeftrson CUfff 1st Monday in March and September. 
Aekahsas, E. Dist, LiUU Roek, 1st Monday in April and October. 
AnXAffSAS, W. Dist, Van Bttren, 2d Monday in May and Norember. 
Iowa, N. Dist., . . Dubuque^ Ist Monday in January and July. 
Iowa, Mid. Dist., . Jowa City^ 1st Monday in May and October. 
Iowa, S. Diet., . . Burlington^ 3d Monday in May and October. 
Wxsooirsiir, . • • MUtoaukee^ 1st Monday in January ; — Madison^ 1st 

Monday in July. 
CALiromriA, N. Dist, San Frtmdseop Ist Monday in June and December ; 
Califoriiia, S. Dist, Afoiilsrey, 1st Monday in June; — Lot Jingdes^ laX 
Monday in December. 



VII. INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. 

The pay of Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary is 
$9,000 per annum, as salary, besides $9,000 for outfit The pay of 
Secretaries of Legation is $ 2,000 ; of Ministers Resident, $ 6,000. 

The United States are represented by Minbters Plenipotentiary at the 
courts of Great Britain, France, Russia, Pmssia, Spain, Mexico, Brazil, 
Chili, Peru, and Central America ; and by Ministers Resident at the courts 
of most of the other foreign powers with which this country is much con- 
nected by commercial intercourse. 



116 



UHITBB STATSS* 



[1855. 



1. MlHMTBRS AVD DIPLOMATIC AoXHTS OF TBE UnITXD StATBS 

19 FoRKiOH Countries. 

[Oomcted in the Department of Suite, OctDber, 1664.] 

Enooyg Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary. 



James BachaDan, 
Thos. H. Seymour, 
John Y. Mason, 
Pierre Soul^, 
Peter D. Vroom, 
James Gadsden, 



William Trousdale, 

David A. Starkweather, Ohio. 

John R. Clay, 





Appointed. 


Pa. 


1853 


Conn. 


1853 


Va. 


1853 


La. 


1853 


N.J. 


1853 


S.C. 


1853 


Tenn. 


1853 


Ohio. 


1854 


Pa. 


1853 



Foreign Sutes. 
Great Britain, 
Russia, 
France, 
Spain, 
Prussia, 
Mejiico, 
Central Amer. 
Brazil, 
Chili, 
Peru, 



Ministsrs Resident. 



Carroll Spence, 
Theodore S. Faj, 
August Belmont, 
John M. Daniel, 
Henry Bedinser, 
Henry R. Jackson, 
J. J. Seibels, 
Robert D. Owen, 
Francis Schroeder, 
John L. O'SuUivan, 
Lewis Cass, Jr., 
John W. Dana, 
Philo White, 
James A. Peden, 
James 8. Green, 
Charles Eames, 
John L. Marling, 
John H. Wheeler, 



Robert M. McLane, 
Dayid L. Gregg, 



Md. 

Mass. 

N. Y. 

Va. 

Va. 

Ga. 

Ala. 

Ind. 

R.I. 

N.Y. 

Mich. 

Me. 

Wise. 

Fa. 

Mo. 

DC. 

Tenn. 

N. C. 



Appointed. 
1853 
1853 
1853 
1853 
1853 
1853 
1853 
1853 
1849 
1853 
1848 
1853 
1853 
1854 
1853 
1854 
1854 
1854 



Foreign Bute. 
Turkey, 
Switzerland, 
Netherlands, 
Sardinia, 
Denmark, 
Austria, 
Beiffium, 
Naples, 
Sweden, 
Portugal, 
Rome, 
Bolivia, 
Ecuador, 
Buenos Ayres. 
New Granada. 
Venezuela. 
Guatemala. 
Nicaragua. 



Danl. E. Sickles, 
R. A. Erving, 



Commissioners. 
Appointed. Foreign States. 
China, Canton. 
( Hawaii, Ho- 
( nolulu. 
Secretaries of Legation 



Md 
111. 



1853 
1853 



Capitals. 
London. 
St. Petersburg. 
Paris. 
Madrid. 
Berlin. 
Mexico. 

Rio Janeiro. 

Santiago. 

Lima. 



CapluL 
Constantinople. 
Berne. 
Hague. 
Tunn. 

Copenhagen. 
Vienna. 
Brussels. 
Naples. 
Stockholm. 
Lisbon. 
Rome. 
Chuquisaca. 
Quito. 



Salary. 
$5,000 

5,000 



Horatio J. Perry, 
Frederick. A. Beelen, 
William G. Mann, 



Spain. 

Chili. 

Brazil. 

Mexico. 

Peru. 



England. 
Russia. 
Peter Parker (and Chinese 

Interpreter)^ China. Salary, $ 2,500 John Cripps, 
Donn riatt, France. James C. Marriott, 

O. J. Wise, Prasma. 

John P. Brown, Dragoman^ Turkey. Salary, $2,500. 
Commission^ under Convention wicA Great Britain qf 1853, on the SuJbjeet of 

Gaims, 
N. G. Upham, of New Hampshire, Jhnerican Commissioner. Salary not to 

exceed $ 3,000 per annum. 
John A. Thomas, of N. York, ^gsnt to Commission, Salary not defined. 



f 



1855.] 



INTEBCOUBSS ITXTR VOEBIOir KATIOim. 



U7 



2. List of Consuli and Commercial Aosvts of wz United States 

ur FoREioN Countries, and the Places of tpeir Residence. 

[Oorroetal in the Departmeot of State, October 12, 1864.] 

tor Thoae marked thus (*) are Cbmmercial Afeots. 



Africa* 
*Jame8W.Lugenbeel,MonTOTia. 
— -, RWer Djeb. 

John F. Webb, Zanzibar. 

*John G. Willis, St. Pauls de Loando. 

Argentine Republic, or Buenos 

Atres. 
Joseph Graham, Buenos Ayres. 
Wm. H. Smiley, Rio Negro. 

Austria. 
George W. Lippett, Vienna. 
William A. Buffnm, Trieste. 
D. Macaully, Venice. 

Baden. 
, Mannheim. 

Bar^art States. 
George V. Brown, Tangier ,Mor'co. 
Wm. P. Chandler, Tunis, Tunis. 
M. J. Gaines, Tripoli, Tripoli 

Bataria. 
Chas. Obermeyer, Augsburg. 
Philip Geisse, Nuremberg. 

Beloium. 
Alob D. Gall, Antwerp. 

Brazil. 
Henry B. Dewey, Para. 
William Lilley, Pemamboco. 

RobL G. Scott, Rio Janeiro. 

Robert S. Cathcart, St Catherine's Id. 
Alfred H. Hanscom, Rio Grande. 
John R. Bennett, Bahia de San SalT 
Alez. Thompson, Maranham Isl. 
Central America.' 
., Guatemala. 

C Omoa and Tru- 
I zillo (Hond.). 

iSan Juan de Ni- 
caragua. 



Chili. 
Reuben Wood, Valparaiso. 

William Crosby, Talcahuano. 
Saml. F. Hariland, Coquimbo. 

China. 
Paul S. Forbes, Canton. 

Thomas H. Hyatt, Amoy. 
Townsend Harris, Ningpo. 
Caleb Jones, Fouchon. 

Robt. C. Murphy, ShanghaL 
Robt. P. DesiWer, fMacao 
Fred. T. Bush, IHong Kong. 

Costa Rica. 
M. L. Hine, San Jos6. 

Denmark. 
— , Copenhagen. 

H. T. A. Rainals, Elsineur. 
D. Kohlsaat, Altona. 

WestlndieM. 
Dayid Rogers, Santa Cruz. 

^Chas. J. Helm, St. Thomas. 

Ecuador. 
M. P. Game, Guayaquil. 

EoTPT, Pofkalie qf. 

Edwin D.L.on. {SS)^''' 

^William ^ndguist, Suez. 

« France. 
McRae, Paris. 
Wm. H. Vesey, 
Levi K. Bowen, 



A. Follin, 

*Joiu W. Fabens, 

U. C. Matsdil, La Union, S. Salrador. 



*Wm. F.Boone, 
George S. Pardee, 



Realejo. 

S. Juan del Sud. 



J. B. C. Antoine, 
William Day, 
Hypolite Roqnes, 
EUlw. B. Buchanan, 
John P. SulliTan, 

C. Audouy, Napoleon Vendee. 

Wtsl Jndiet. 

!Pointe4-Pitre, 
Gua^aloope. 



Havre. 

Boardeauz. 

Maiseilles. 

Sedan. 

Lyons. 

Nantes. 

LaRochelle. 

Bayonne. 



John W. Fisher, 



Coionj. 



I EngUeb Cokmy. 



U8 



ITKITBD STATES. 



[1866. 



Alex. Campbell, ^Martinique. 
AmenR. 
, ' Cayenne, French 

Guiana. 

•George Hughes { ^'-q^l^.' ^^'^ 

Africa. 
John J. Mahony, Algiers. 
Great Britain. 
England. 
Robt. B. Campbell, London. 

Nathaniel H.w.ho™., I Jj-^{* 

Francis B. Ogden, Bristol. 
August W. Scharit, Falmouth. 
Geo. A. Brandreth, Plymouth. 

Joseph E.Cro.key,{So«h-Pr 
Albert Davy, Leeds. 

Scotland. 
James McDowell, Leith. 
Thomas Steere, Dundee. 

Philip T. Heartt, Glasgow. 

Jrdand. 
Robt. L. Loughead, Dublin. 
John Higgins, Belfast. 

, Londonderry. 

Hugh Keenan, Cork. 

, Galway. 

In and near Europe and Africa. 
Horatio J. Sprague, Gibraltar. 
Wm. Winthrop, Island of Malta. 

G. S. Holmes, Cape-Towir, C. G. H. 
*Geo. W. KimbaTt, Isl. of aflPelena, 

William H„^ Jr.. { ^^f FZc'e!'"' 

Jforth America. 
Canfield Dorwin, Montreal. 
Israel D.Andrew., 5 |^-^°^„^^. 

Robert W. Fraser, Halifax, N. S. 
B. H. Norton, Pictou, N. S. 

Wm. S. H. Newman, St. John, N. F. 

West Indies. 
F. B. Wells, Act. Bermuda. 
John F. Bacon, Nassau,Bah.l8l. 

John L. Nelson, Turk's Island. 

Robt. M. Harrison, Kingston, Jam. 
*Tohn R. Thurston, St.Christopher*8. 



R. S. Higinbotham, Antigua. 
Noble Towner, Barbadoes. 

Edw. B. Marache, Isl. of Trinidad. 

South America. 
C. W. Denison, Demarara, B.G. 

*Wm. H. Smiley, Falkland Islea. 

Australia, 
James H. Williams, Sydney. 
James M. Tarleton, Melbourne. 

Van Diemen^s Ijind. 
Eiisha Hathaway, Hobart Town. 

East Indies, 
Charles W. Bradley, Singapore. 
Edward Ely, Bombay. 

Charles Huffhagle. Calcutta. 
*John Black, Isl. of Ceylon. 

China, 
James Keenan, Hong Kongi 

Grssck. 
Jonas King, Act. Athens. 

loNiAK Republic. 
Amos S. York, Zanle. 

Hafseatic or Free Cities. 
Orson W. Bennett, Hamburg. 
William Hildebrand, Bremen. 
Samuel Ricker, Frankfort. 

Hanoyer. 
Robert S. Cassatt 

Hessx-Cassel and Hesse- 
Darmstadt. 
Samuel Ricker, Frankfbrt. 

Hayti, o& St. DoMixGo. 
*Joseph N. Lewis, Port au Prince, 
*Sidney Oaksmith, Aux Cayes. 
*John L. Wilson, Cape Haytien. 

.Jonathan Elliot, j^'^^'^f"* 

LfBERiA. See Africa. 
Mexican Republic 
John Black, Mexico. 

William B. Barry, Matamoras. 
Franklin Chase, Tampico. 

John T. Pickett, Vera Cruz. 
— , Chiffuahua. 

Robert R. Gatton, Mazatlan. 



James A. Pleasants, Minatitlan. 
Charles L. Denman, Acapulco. 
G. W. P. Bissell, San Bias. 



1855.] 



INTBBCOT7RSB WITH FOREIGN NATTONB. 



119 



Guayamas/ 



David R.DiffeDderfer,Paso del Norte 
^.C.Pe.ki„U.„. pl^CX. 
R. Juanes y Patrullo, M erida &, Sisal, 
Wm. Uubottes, Lagana, Carman Isl. 

Mod SNA, Ducky. 
WUiiam Walton, Carrara. 
Moftocco J Empire of, 
*J. S. Levy, Tetaan. 

*Me8hod Abecasis, Larach^ & Arrila. 
Muscat, JDomtmbn of the Imavm of. 
Wm. McMulien, Island of Zanzibar. 
, Moscat. 

JWvMtt. 

SamaelRicker, { '^XJ^r'"'"''' 
Thk Netherlands, or Holland. 
R. 6. Barnwell, Amsterdam. 

Wm. S. Campbell, Rotterdam. 

Colomes, 
Francis W. Cragin, Paramaribo. 
*James H. Young, Curaqoa. 
Alfred A. Reed, Batavia, Java. 

•H. O. Claughton, Isl. St. Martins. 

New Granada. 
John A. Bennett, Bogotd. 
Ramon L. Sanchez, Carthagena. 
Thos. W. Ward, PanamA. 
Geo. W. Fletcher, Aspinwall. 
John Capela, Jr. Turbo. 

Nicaragua. 
Wm. F, Boone, Realejo. 
Loomis L. White, San Juan del Sud. 

Pacific Islands, Independent, 
Darius A. Ogden, Honolulu, Sand. Isl. 
Geo. M. Chase, Lahaina. 

Thomas Miller, Hilo. 

Charles B. Wastfbrd, Bay of Isl., N.Z. 

V.B. William., {^Tett^'j- 

David Whippy.[|;-g--4-|: 

CApia, 



William H. Kelly, Society laiiands 

PARAeUAT. 

Edward A. Hopkins. 



Peru. 

Joseph W. Clark, Arica.* 
William Miles, Lima. 

F. M. Ringgold, Paita. 

Saml. J. Oakfbrd, Tombez. 

Portugal. 
Nicolas Pike, Lisbon and all Portugal. 

Islands, 

Chas. W. Dabney, Fayal, Azores. 
John H. March, Funchal, Madeira. 

— , Macao. 

— , Mozambique. 

•T^k^r- \Kr\\y\» i St. Paul's de Loan- 
John G. Willis, J do. W.Africa. 

Prussia. 

Isaac C. Bates, Aix-la-Cha|^eire. 

Fred. Schillow, Stettin. 

Rove, or Pontifical Btatss. 

, Ravenna. 

Franklin Torrey, Carrara,Modena. 
Russia. 



William L. Winans, St. Petersburg. 
Alex. Schwartz, Riga. 
Edmiuid Brandt, Archangel. 
John Ralli, Odessa. 

Reynold Frenckell, Helsingfors. 
Sandwich Islands. See Paoific 
Islands, Independent. 
Sardinia. 
A. Herbemont, Genoa. 

J. B. Wilbor, Nice. 

Saxe-Mein. Hildburghausen. 
Louis Lindner, Sonneberg. 

Saxony. 
Arnold Graef, Dresden. 

John G. Flagel, Leipsic. 

Spain. 
Wm. L. Giro, Alicante. 

Max. de Aguirre, Bilboa. 
Alexander Burton, Cadiz. 
John Morand, 



Ezra M. Stone, 

Pablo Anguera, 

Manuel Barcena, 

Thomas Trenor, 

Spiridion Ladico, 



Denia. 

Malaga. 

Barcelona. 

Vigo. 

Valencia. 
C Port Mahon, 
I Isl. Min. 



ISO 



JJKTSED 0TATB0. 



[1855. 



Cuba. 
Roger Barton, Havana. 

Edward Worrell, Matanzag. 
S. M*Lean, Trinidad de Caba. 

Stephen Cochran, Santiago de Cuba. 

. Puerto Rieo, 
Jamea C. Gallaher, Ponce. 
George Latimer, St. John's. 

Other Spanish Jslande, 
Joseph C. Hart, Teneriffe, Canary. 
W. P. Peirce, Manilla, Philipp. 

Saml. J. Masters, Goam, Ladrones. 

Sumatra. 
*Franklin D. Reed, Padang. 

SWEDKH AHD NoRWAT. 

C. D. AHwedson, Stockholm. 
Alex. Barclay, Gothenbui|f. 

Helmich Jaason, Bergen, Nor. 

SWITZERLARD. 

I>aTid 8. Lee, Basel, or BAle. 

Geo. H. Goundie, Zurich. 

TVRKXT. 

£. S. Offley, ' Smyrna. 



C BeyrontfDamas- 
Henry Wood, < cu^ and Saida, 

^ in Syria. 
Merino de Mattey, Cyprus. 
George Mountfort, Caodia. 

TUSCANT. 

J. A. Binda, Leghorn. 

Amasa Hewins, Florence. 

Two Siciuxs. 
Alez. Hammett, Naples. 
J. Jenkins Roa, Palermo. 
F. W. Behn, Messina. 

UrUOVAT, or ClSPLATim Rs- 
PUBLIC. 

Robt. M. Hamilton, Monte Video. 

VXHRZUXLA. 

Southey Grinalds, Puerto Cabello. 
Isaac T. Golding, Laguayra. 
Roland Dubs, 

Joseph B; Austin, 



Maracaibo. 

{Angostura, or 
Ciudad Bolivar. 

WURTXMBERO. 

Max. Stettbeimer, Stuttgart. 



The only Consuls who reoeive salaries are those for London, Tangier, 
Tunis, and Tripoli, each of which have $2,000 per annum, the Consul for 
Beyrout, $500, and for Alezandria, $ 5,000. The Consuls for the five 
treaty ports in China receive $ 1,000 each for judicial duties. 

3. FoRzioff Ministers and their Secrxtari'xs, 
^^credited to the Go9emmeni of the United States. 
Foreign States. EnToyi Ex. and Mia. P)en. Secretariee, &c. 

. Brazil,. ^ The Commander F. J. de Car- J. M. P. Peizoto, 



valho Moreira. v 

Chili, Senor Don Manuel Carvallo. 

Cf}s{a Rica, Senor Don F61ipe Molina. 
France, M. le Comte de Sartiges, 



F. X. da C. Aguiar de An- 
drada, Attachi. 



Britaia, John F. Crampton, Esq. 



M. G. Boilleau, Secretary. 

M. de Gilibert, Chancdlor. 

M. de St. Ferriol, JtiaehS. 

Philip Griffith, Sec. of Leg, 

Edwin Corbett, AttachS. 
latcmula, Senor Doq Felipe Molina, Min. Plen. 
reiko^ Seiior Gen.t)on J. N. Al- M. J. M. Gonzalez de la Ve- 
^1^ monte, ' ga, See. Leg. 

i ■ ■■ _ Antonio Sierra, 2d See. 

Gregorio Barandiaran, Jltt. 



1855.] DrrsBCOURBis with tobeign nations. 

San Salvador, Senor Don Felipe Molina, i¥tit. Plen. 
Spain, 



181 



Cheyalier L. A. de Cueto. 

Don JO06 Maria Magallon, 1st See. 

Leg. 
J. £. de NaYarra, 2d See. Leg. 
Don T. Moi«no, AUacki, 
Don Luis PotesUd, AUaehi. 
SeEor Don Lacio Pulido, Min, Pltn* 
MiniBterB BesidenU 
R. Schleiden. 

Com. J. C. de Figaniere 6 Morao. Sen. G. Ferreira dos Santos, 

JittaehL 
Sen. F. F. de la Figaniere, Maeh6, 
Baron Grabow, See. Leg. 
Count R. Goschutz, JUach6. 
Count Renaud, JlttaM. 



Venesnela, 

Bremen, 
Portogal, 



Pmasiay Baron Fr. von Gerolt, 



. Charge d'Afi&ires. 
Anstria, Chevalier Hiilsemann. 
Belgium, Henrj Solvyns, ad interim, 
Denmark, M. Torben de Bill^. 
Ecuador, Senor Gen. Don Jose de Vilamil. 
Netherlands, M. Jean Comeille Gevers. 
New Granada, Senor Don Victoriano de Diego Paredes. 
Parma, Don Jos^ Maria Magallon. 

Peru, Don Juan Y. de Osma. 

Russia, Edward D. Stoeckl, 



Mr. M. Cramer, 1st See. 
Mr. Cataiazes, 2d See. 



Sardinia, Marquis Taliacame. 

Sweden and Norway, Chevalier George Sibbem, and Consul^ General. 

4. Foreign Consuls and Vice-consuls in the United States* 



Those marked thus (*) are Consuls- General 
Argeniine RepubUe, or Buenos Ayres. 
S. Livingston, New York. 

Fitzhenrj Homer, Boston. 
Motte A. Pringle, Charleston. 
N. Frazier, Philadelphia. 

Carlos M. Stewart, Baltimore. 

Austria. 
Chas. F. Loosey, and 

Act. Con.- Gen. f New York. 
J. W. Langdon, Cons. Agt., Boston. 
tS. Morris Wain, Philadelphia. 
tH. W. Kuthman, Charleston. 



; thus (t) Vice-Consuls; the rest are Consuls. 
Jacob H. Eimer, New Orleans. 
tAndrew Low, Savannah. 

f J. M. Wright, Apalachicola. 

Samuel John Gower, San Francisco. 
t J. E. Duroont, Mobile. 

Baden m 
J. W. Schmidt, New York. 



tF. T. Schmidt, 

HifEimer, 

t Jacob H. Eimer, 

tE. C. Anfelrodt, 

C. F. Hagedorn, 



New York. 
New Orleans. 
New Orleans. 
St. Louis. 
Philadelphia;. }i^ 
-^1 



* This list 
Washington, 



is corrected from the record of their exequaturs In the Department of &ii^'>' 
October 12, 1864. .. ^ -'•'y-A^ 



11 



■•>* 



Ifi2 



UNITED STATES. 



C. F. Adae, Cincinnali. 

Bavaria. 
G. Heinrich Siemon, New York. 
C. Fred. Hagedorn, Philadelphia. 
John Smidt, Louisville. 

F. L. Brauns, Baltimore. 

Chas. F. Adae, Cincinnati. 

Belgium. 
•Auguste Moxhet, New York. 
tH. E. Laacelles, Eastport. 
Ives G. Bates, Boston. 

tHippolyte Mali, New York. 
M. J. Mange, Philadelphia. 

G.'O. Gorter, Baltimore. 

£. O. Holting, Richmond. 

tAuguste Branda, Norfolk. 
Geo. A. Hopley, Charleston. 
W. O'Driscoll, Savannah. 

T. A. Deblois, Portland. 

tWilliam G. Porter, Apalachicola. 
to. M. Wells, Key West. 

Charles Auz6, Mobile. 

Hubert Meugens, ' New Orleans. 
J. F. Melino, Cincinnati. 

Charles Hunt, St. Louis. 

M. Hachette, San Francisco 

A. Poucelet, Chicago. 

Brazil 
•A. J. de M. Falcao, New York. 

,ArchibaldFoB.er.{M^„f^Hi»<' 

tL. F. Figaniere, New York. 

tEdw. S. Sayres, Philadelphia. 

C. O. O'Donnell, Baltimore. 

tHerman Baldwin, Richmond. 

tMyer Myers, Norfolk. 

tGustayus Street, Charleston. 

B. Watts, New Orleans. 
A. C. Paes de Adraede, San Francisco 

C. GriflBii, New London. 

Bremen, 
•Alb. Schumacher, Baltimore. 
Edwin A. Oelrichs, New York. 
C. H. F. Moering, Boston. 
John Leppien, Philadelphia. 

A. C. Cazenove, Alexandria. 



[1865. 

E. W. de Voss, Richmond. 
Lewis Trapman, Charleston. 
William Crabtree, Savannah. 
Fred. Rodewald, New Orleans. 
J. Wolff, St. Louis. 
Diedr. H. Klaener, Galveston. 

H . A. H . Runge, Indianola, Tei. 
C. A. C. Duisenburg, San Franeiflco. 

Brunsunck and Luneburg. 
*G. J. Bechtel, New York. 

Carl Wendt, Milwaukee. 

J. Sampson, Mobile. 

R. K. Topp, Cincinnati. 

C. F. Hagedorn, Philadelphia. 

A. Rettberg, Cleveland. 

A. E. Koels, St. Louis. 

Buenog ^yres. 
C. F. Zimmerman, New York. 
IN. Frazier, Philadelphia. 

F. Homer, Boston. 
CM. Stewart, Baltimore. 

ChUi, 

Henrique F. Fallon, Boston. 
Theodore W. Riley, New York. 
R. B. Fitzgerald, Baltimore. 
Jas. H. Causten, Washington. 

F. S. Alvarez, San Francisco, 

G. Cleeman, Philadelphia. 

Costa Rica, 
*Royal Phelps, New York. 

Patrick Grant, Boston. 

S. Morris Wain, Philadelphia. 
E. J. Gomez, Key West. 

Joseph Mitchell, New Orleans. 
Samuel H. Greene, San Francisco. 

Denmark. 

n -M T-k.^K^.!. $ Mass., Me., N. H., 
G. M. Thacher, J ^^ jj ^ ^^^^^ 

T?j T> 1 ( N. Y., Conn., and part 
Edw. Beck, ^^fj^/jjj^^ York, 
f Godfrey Weber, Philadelphia. 
fHen. G. Jacobsen, Baltimore, 
f James Dempsey, Alexandria. 
tP. K. Dickinson, Wilmington, N. C. 
tWm. H. Ladson, Charleston. 
Henry Frellsen, New Orleans. 



1S55.] 



INTKBCOT7BSB WITH FOBBIGN NATIONS. 



129 



fj. F.-Meline, Cincinnati. 

Joseph Ffontin, San Francisco, 

t J. E. Sehoetae, St. Lonis. 

Eeumdar, 
*Aan» H. Palmer, Washington. 
W. D. Thompson, New York. 
Seth Bryant, Boston. 

James H. Caasten, Washington. 
Edward F. Sweetser, Philadelphia. 
Daniel Wolff, San Francisco. 

J. Gardfitta, New Orleans. 

France. 
•C. F. F. Marquis de Montholon, N. Y. 
tLonis Borg, New York. 

E. P. le Frohon,Cim«..^^«., Portland. 
Bf . de la Forest, Boston. 

iJames Lemonier, Boston. 
tFauvel Gouraud, ConsJigt.^tievrpOTt 
A. Durand St. Aadr^, Philadelphia. 
tHenry Vermott, Baltimore. 
Alfred Paul, Richmond. 

tPascal Schisano, Norfolk. 
^ Count X. de Choiseul,CharIeston. 
fR. de Leaumont, Charleston. 
tL. Barr6, Savannah. 

tF. J. Moreno, Key West. 

A. de la Forrest, Mobile. 
tA. S. Dnm6e, Mobile. 

Aim^ Roger, New Orleans. 

tH. Germain, New Orleans. 

tH. de St, Cyr, Galveston. 

C. T. Taylor, Cons, Agt.^ Louisville. 
tJ. F. Meline, Cincinnati 

tF. T. Kuneman, St. Louis. 
Patrice Dillon, San Francisco, 

f £. Guys, San Francisco. 

Jules Lombard, Cons. AgtA ]^y ^ai. 

Frankfort on ike Maine, 
Fred. Wysmann, New York. 
Arnold Halbach, Philadelphia. 
C. F. Adae, Cincinnati. 

Qreal BrUttin. 
tW. D. Sherwood, Eastport. 

• ^. C Maine dsN.H. 

James Grignon, J PorUand. 



E. A. Giattan, Boston. 

tWm. Elliot, Boston. 

tC. Grinnell, New Bedford. 
Anthony Barclay, New York. 

George B. Mathew, Philadelphia. 

Henry G. Kuper, Baltimore, 

G. P. R. James, Norfolk. 
tH. C. Smith, Alexandria, 

o u _.» u (N.C.andS.C, 

Robert Bunch, J Charleston. 

tG. W. Davis, Wilmington. 

«r lut T\ C Flor. and Ala., 

W. M. Dyer, J ^^^^^^^ 

Edward Molyneuz, Savannah. 
William Mure, New Orleans. 

Arthur T. Lynn, Galveston. 
Charles Rowcroft, Cincinnati. 
George Aikin, * San Francisco. 

Greece. 

Henry G. Andrews, Boston. 
Leouidas Prassacackij New York.* 
Nicholas Benachi, New Orleans. 

Guatemala. 
•Bartolomeo Blanco, Now York. 
Patrick Grant, Boston. 

S. Morris Wain, Philadelphia. 

E. J. Gomez, Key West. 

Joseph Mitchell, New Orleans. 

Samuel H. Greene, San Francisco. 

Havnhurg, 
*Alb. Schumacher, Baltimore. 
Ferdinand Lorenz, Philadelphia. 
C. H. F. Mooring, Boston. 
Ferdinand Karck, New York. 
Henry Ludlaw, Richmond. 

Lewis Trapman, Charleston. 
H. A. Schroeder, Mobile. 
tC. Knorre, Boston. 

tR. W. Welch, Key West. 

William Vogel, New Orleans. 

J. W. Jockusch, Galveston. 
Henry Rnnge, Indianola, Tex. 

Alfred Godefiroy, San Francisco. 

Hano9tr. 
^Edward Stucken, New York. 
L. H.Myer, New York. 



124 



imiTISD STATES. 



John Leppien, 
Edward Uhrlaub, 
H. W. Kubtman, 
Aug. Reichard, 
Theodore Schwartz, 
Charles Boll man, 
Carl F. Adae, 
Adolphus Meier, 



Philadelphia. 

Baltimore. 

Charleston. 

New Orleans. 

LooisviUe. 

Pittsburg. 

Cincinnati. 

St. Louis. 
( Mich.,Ind.,Ill., 
C. H. H. Papendick, J Wise. , «fe Min. 
( T.,Milwaukee. 
Julius Frederich, Galveston 
Otto Frank, San Francisco. 

C. H. F. Moering, Boston. 
A. Rettberg, Cleveland. 

K. H. Muller, Savannah. 

Hawaiian hlanda. 
*Sch. Livingston, • New York. 

.Gra„villeS.01dfield.|M^,«»^„»«l 

tCina. E. Hitchcock, San Francisco. 

EUcUfrate of Hesse, 
Conrad W. Faber, New York. 

Grand Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt, 
Anton Bollerman, New York. 
E. C. Angelrodt, St. Louis. 

C. F. Hagedorn, Philadelphia. 

C. F. Adae, Cincinnati. 

J. Smidt, Louisville. 

Lubee. 
Fred. A. Schumacher, New York. 
C. H. F. Moering, Boston. 
Hermann von Kapff, Baltimore. 
Friedrich Kirchhoff, New Orleans. 
Died. H. Klaener, Galveston. 
Mecklenburg- Schwerin, 



[1855, 

tFelix Merino, Philadelphia, 

t J. A. Pizarro, Baltimore, 

t Juan Herbert, Pittsburg. 

1 Charles L. Le Baron, Mobile. 
tRafiiel de Rafael, New Orleans. 
fIgnacioOropera, New Orleans. 
J. J. Castillo, Brownsville, Tex. 

Guadalupe Miranda, New Mexico. 
Luis del Valle, San Francisco. 

Montevideo. 
Frederic B. Graf, Baltimore. 
Bartholomew Watts, New Orleans. 

Jfassau. 
*Wilh. A. Kobbe, New York. 
Fred. W. Frendenthal, New Orleans. 
F. W. Steit, Galveston. 

A. Witzleber, San Francisco. 
E. C. Angelrodt, St. Louis. 

C. F. Adae, Cincinnati. 

Jfetherlands, or Holland. 
•J. C. Zimmerman, New York. 
J. E. Zimmerman, Chanc., New York. 

B. H. Dixon 



'^L. Herckenrath, 
Wilhelm Prehn, 
H. Schultz, 

C.H.H. Papendick, 



Charleston. 
New Orleans. 
Galveston. 
lnd.,in.,Mich., 
la., Wise, Min. 
T.,Milwaukee. 
San Francisco. 
Cincinnati. 



J. de Fremery, 
J. F. Meline, 

Mexico. 
*Francisco de Arrangoiz, New York, 
t J. £. F. Fallon, Bostoo. 



C Mass., Me., N. H., , 



and R. I., Boston. 
Geo. M. Thacher, Deputy Consul. 
Henry Bohlen, Philadera, Pa. & Del. 
D.L.Kurtz, Philadelphia. 

Frederic B. Graf, {^t^^J!' 

Th.L.Wr.gg. {S,%«„,^;„f: 

tOliver 0*Hara, Key West. 

Myer Myers, Norfolk. 

J.J.VaaWanroy. {Xto!t 

P. J. Gildmeester, La. & Mi., N. O. 

Charles Hess, { S'D"e«o^ 

F.R.Toewater. \'\^^t' 
G. Van Steenwijk, Milwaukee. 
J.P. H. Gildemeester, San Francisco. 

JV*ete Granadfk. 
*Jose M. Gaitan, New York. 
Greg. Dominguez, New York. 
J. M. R. de Porras, Philadelphia. 
Robert A. Fisher, Baltimore. 



IKTEBCOURSB WITH FOBBIGN NATIOKS. 



1855.] 

I. Aogaflbis Mocatta, San Franciaoo. 
J. £. Beylle, New Orleans, 

Jficaragtuu # 
*Annorj Edwards, New York. 
Oliver O'Donaeli, Baltimore. 
E. G. Gomez, New Orleans. 

OldenAurg. 
*J. W. Schmidt, New York. 
£. Pavenstedt, New York. 

H. Muller, Savannah. 

C. F. Hagedorn, Philadelphia. 

Henry Oelricfas, Baltimore. 

Wm. Vogel, New Orleans. 

Charles T. Lowndes, Charleston. 
Carl F. Adae, Cincirilftiti. 

JoliuB Frederich, Galveston. 

CWisc., Mich., 
C. H. H.Papendick, < Iowa, and Min 
( T., Milwaukee. 
C. Kirchhoff, San Francis, for Cal. 
H. F. von Lengerke, San Francisco. 
E. C. Angelrodt, St. Louis. 

Parma. 
J. M. Satrustegui, San Francisco. 

Peru. 
JuanYgnaciade Osma, Wash'n, D.C. 
Thomas Galway, New York. 
Chapman Biddle, Philadelphia. 
James S. Fisher, Baltimore. 

M. M. de Castillo, New Orleans. 
)C. B. Polhemus, San Francisco. 

Portugal. 
•C. H. S. d^ la Figaniere, New York. 
ID. A. G. Vega, Boston. 

tAugust. L. Baptista, Baltimore, Md. 
tEdw.SmUhSayre8,{PV^ly'*N. 

< Dist. Columbia and 



125 



J. W. Schmidt, 
G. Gossler, 

tF.A. Hirsch, 
t George Hussey, 
J. Leppien, 
Ludwig Brauns, 
Wilhelm Vogel, 
Lewis Stanislaus, 
J. W. Jockosch, 
Mr. Von Berries, 
£. C. Angelrodt, 
C. Kerchhoff, 



J. A. Siotaa, 



Wilmington, N.C. 
Prussia, 



New Yojrk. 
Boston. 
Boston. 
New Bedford. 
Philadelphia. 
Baltimore. 
New Orleans. 
Cincinnati. 
Galveston. 
Louisville. 
St. Louis. 
San Francisco. 



jRom«, or Poniifieal States. 

Loui A. Binsse, New York. 
tNicholas Reggio, Boston. 
f George Allen, Philadelphia. 

J. Parkin Scott, Baltimore, 

fj. L. Roger, Charleston. 

C. J. Daron, New Orleans. 

Russia. 

Alex. EvBtaphiff, New York. 
tGeo. E. Runhardt, 
tRobert B. Storer, 
F. Whittle, 
t Jos. Leland, 
t John R. Wilder, 
t Joseph £. Murrell, 

E. Johns, 
t J. S. Haviland, 
W. Schaer, 

F. Moreno, 
Peter Kostromilinoff, 



fChrist. Neale, 



I Alexandria, Va. 



tManoel A. Santos, 
tHenriq. T. Street, 
J. G. Doon, 
^Charles Le Baron, 
tJose A. Barelli, 
John Searle, 



Norfolk.1 
Charleston. 
Savannah. 
Mobile. 
New Orleans. 
San Francisco. 



New York. 
Boston. 
Norfolk. 
Charleston. 
Savannah. 
Mobile. 
New Orleans. 
Philadelphia. 
Baltimore. 
Key West. 
San Francisco. 
Salvador, 
R. Phelps, New York. 

R. W. Heath, San Francisco. 

Sardinia, 
Louis Mossi, Washington. 

C. V. Bouland, New York. 

1C. Fabbricotti, New York. 



t And for all other ports iq Virginia except Alexandria. 
11* 



IM 



rOTTBB STATES. 



fVittorioSanori. { ^^'S^i!. miaS"' 
tC. A. Williamson, Baltimore. 
tE. L/Trenholm, Charleston. 
tGeorge Aite, Mobile. 

tE. Jose Gomez, Key West. 

Joseph Lanata, New Orleans. 

tM. Ravena, Galveston. 

tJ. F. Meline, Cincinnati. 

tL. A.J. Baptiste Paris, St. Louis. 
L. Cipriani, San Francisco. 

Saxe AUenburg, 
C. £. Hinrichs, New York* 

SaoM CobuTgand Goiha, 
•C. £. L. Hinrichs, New York. 

Saxe-Weimar. # 
•F. A. Mensch, New York. 

Edward Stucken, New York. 

Saxony. 
*Ferdin. L. Qrauns, Baltimore. 
R. H. Douglas, Baltimore. 

J. W. Schmidt, New York. 

George H. Mecke, Philadelphia. 
J. F. C. Ules, New Orleans. 

E. C. Angelrodt, St. Louis. 

C. F. Adae, Cincinnati. 

Schwarzburg'Rudolsiadt, 
C. E. Borsi^orf, New York. 

Schwarzburg'Sondenkausen. 
C. E. Borsdorf, New York. 

Spain. 
tT. A. Deblois, Portland. 

tWm. B.Parker, Portsmouth. 
A. G. Vega, Boston. 

Francis Stoughton, New York. 
*Don Pablo Chacon, Philadelphia. 
Geronimo Roca, Philadelphia. 

tV. de Anto. Larranaga, ^ c.',Ch*8ton. 
tJ. Anto. Pizarro, Baltimore. 
fDuncan Robertson, Norfolk. 
tFred. B. Lord, Wilmington. 

fF. Moreno, Pensacola. 

Eusebio J. Gomez, Key West. 
tM. Leiva y Daroca^ Sarannah. 



[1855. 

f Manuel Crozat, Mobile. 

A. M. Segovia, New Orleans. 

tRobt. H. Betts, St. Louis. 

J. M. Satrufltegui, San FraiiGisco. 

Sioeden and J^oneay. 
tE.L.S.B.nzon. {'«J,i«o;:^»„': 

G. Nayler Vickers, JieL, Boston. 
tC. E. Habicht, New York. 

T. Heyerdahl, Act, New York. 
tRich. Seldener, Philadelphia. 

tFrederic B. Graf, Baltimore. 
tJames Dempsey, Alexandria. 
tW. P. Vincent, Norfolk. 

tFran.%1. Wilman, Savannah. 
fJos. A. Wintbrop, Charleston, 
t Ambrose Lanfear^ New Orleans. 
fAsa F. Tift, Key West, 

t J. D. Reymert, Wise., Denoon. 

tR. Westfeldt, Mobile, 

t James P. Meline, Cincinnati, 
t Poly carpus von Schneidaer, Chicago. 
H. L. Hoffman, St. Louis. 

tFred. von Kantzow, St. Louis. 
J. J. L. Herrlich, San Francisco. 

Switzerland. 
John Hitz, Washington. 

Ad. £. Bandelier, St. Louis, Mo. 

P T Fr«na J Mich., Wis., lowa, 
P. J. Frans, J ^.^^^ ^^^ ij^jj.^jj 

T. C. Kuhn, Texas, Galveston. 

Jea„Z„>au, { '"tiJi^.^ ^^- 
R. Kellersberger, San Francisco. 

Turkey. 
Joseph lasigi, Boston. 

Tuscany, m 

W. H. Aspinwall, New York. 
Carlo G^ Manzoni, New Orleana. 

Tujo SieUies. 
M. Mantioo, New York. 



1855.] TITLES ANI> AB8TRA0T8 09 THE FT7BLI0 LAWS. 127 



IP. D. Aleasandro, 
tB. D. Potter, 
flra Clisbe, 
t J. C. Vertu, 
C. Gaillard, 
tG. Persico, 
tA. C. Rhodes, 
IN. E. Fowleg, 
tG. A. Trenholm, 
tGoffiredo Barasley, 
to. Wolff, 
tJ. A. Barelli, 

Uruguay. 



BOBtOB. 

Providence. 

New Haven. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Norfolk. 

Baltimore. 

Diet. Columbia, 

Charleston. 

Savannah. 

Mobile. 

New Orleans. 



•Juan Darby, 
C. Soule, Jr., 
tG. F. Darby, 
B. W. Frazier, 
P. Morguiondo, 
fG. L. Lowden, 
tC. G. Mansony, 



(Bartholomew Vails, New Orleans. 
tF. A. Stokes, Galveston, Tex. 

T. P. Hamilton, San Francisco. 



New York. 
Boston & Salem. 
New York. 
Philadelphia. 
Baltimore. 
Charleston. 
Mobile. 



Venezuela. 



Victor de la Cora, 
Silas G. Whitney, 
Joseph Avezzana, 
Jose C. Keef, 
J. F. Strohm, 
Aaron Milhado, 
Geo. B. Dieter, 



Washington. 

Boston. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Baltimore. 

Norfolk. 

New Orleans. 



Wurtemberg, 



^Ferd. L. Brauns, 
Frederick Klett, 
Leopold Bierwirth, 
Carl. Fred. Adae, 
F. Honold, 
E. C. Angelrodt, 



Baltimore. 
Philadelphia. 
New York. 
Cincinnati. 
New Orleans. 
St. Louis. 



J. Smidt, Kentucky at Louisville. 



VIII. TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF THE PUBLIC LAWS, 

Passed at the First Session of the 33d Congress. 

[The raferoQces by Chapters are to Little k Brown's authorized edition of the Laws of the 
United States. The omitted Chapters are private acts.] 

Appropriations /or the Years ending June 30, 1854, and June 30, 1856.* 

For Civil and Diplomatic Expenses. For the year ending June 30, 1854. June 30, 1855. 

Lc^/ar»ve.— Congress, pay of members, . . . • $843,372.60 8 451,662.80 
" '^ " Officers and Clerks of both 

Houses 57,930.00 91,470.00 

" Contingent expenses of Senate, including print- 
ing and publiahing proceedings and debates, . 202,000.00 330,600.00 
" Contmgent expenses of House, including print* 

ing, binding, &c., 148,527.00 323,796.00 

Library of Congress. — Purchase of books and publication of 

papers, 32,000.00 23,210.75 

" " Incidental expenses, .... 8,600.00 6,500.00 

Eseetaive. — President and Vic»-President of the United States, 30,000.00 26,500.00 

BapartmeQt of State, 67,445.07 83,55aC 

Treasury Department, 374,725.63 598,678.f 

Department of the Interior, 300,477.66 382,6r' 

War Departmeot, 100,990.00 112,71 

Navy Department, 86,030.00 94,81 

Post-Office Department, 234.350 00 172,^ 

Amount carried forward, 02,485,348.16 82,696,41 




* The lidlimiog amounts are nearly accurate. 



128 tJNITED STATES. [1855. 

For the year ending June 30, 1854. June 30, 1855. 

Amount brought forward $2,486,348.16 $2,698,467.86 

Sarveyora-General and their Clerks, 105,720.00 128,615.00 

Mint and Branches, 279,600.00 583,450.00 

Judiciary, . 859,000 00 861,528.88 

Territorial GoTemroenls, 145,955.00 ^9,020.00 

Lighthouse Establishment, 878,392.72 993,495.43 

Surveys of Public Lands, 554,992.25 909,240.00 

Intercourse with Foreign Nations, 630,691.68 488,800.00 

Custom HouMse, 924,210.00 3,347,301.59 

Coast Survey, 417,500.00 386,000.00 

Independent Treasury , &c 59,900 00 68,100.00 

Public Buildings and Grounds, including EzecuUve Buildings, 1,163,559.83 1,368,290.96 

Public Lands, 206,520.00 266,000.00 

Marine Hospitals, 660,300.00 

Miscellaneous, 840, 166.04 821.000.87 

ToUl for Civil and Diplomatic Expenses, . . . Si;,i>bi,585.68 $ 13,809,610.59 
For deficiencies in appropriations for the years ending June 30, 

1853. and June 30, 1854, . . .... 2,353,909.56 1,901,284.06 

Navy Pensions, 25,000.00 

Invalid and other Pensions, 910.000.00 850,700.00 

Military Academy, • . . 149,696.00 161,281.00 

Army Appropriation, 9,767,413.44 10,403,469.63 

Navy Appropriation, 8,209,260.77 9,306,806.19 

Lighthouses, Lightboats, Buoys, ^c 325,660.00 1,542,078,00 

Indian Department and Treaty Stipulations with Indian Tribes, 1,728,822.73 2,023.832.72 

Post-Office Department, 9,928,500.00 10,379,000.00 

Mails by Ocean Steamers 2,086,250.00 

Fortifications and other Works of Defence, 1,005,500.00 

Relief of sundry Individuals, 112,183 41 

Public Buildings and Roads in Minnesota, .... 70,000.00 

Military Roads in Oregon, . 40,000.00 20,000.00 

Bringing Electoral Votes to Washington, .... 20,000.00 

Equestnan Statue of Washington, ^^99JU!^ 

Territorial Government of Washington, .... 10,00^0 

Six first class Steam Frigates, 3,000,000.00 

Treaty of 1853 with Mexico, 10,000,000.00 

Roads and WeUs in New Mexico, 82,000.00 

Miliurv Roads in Utah, 25,000.00 

Indian Hostilitiea in Utah and Oregon, 95,940.65 

Improvement of Cape Fear River, N. C, . . . . 4O,00ft0Q 

Total, i 45,338,281.59 $64,651,492.84 

No. 1. Ch. I. An Act concerning the District Courts of the United StcUes in California. 
A District Judge is to be appointed for the Southern District. The sessions of the District 
Court at San Jose, Stockton, and Sacramento are abolished. January 18, 1854. 

No. 2. Ch. n. An Act to continue in force the Act entitled *< An Act to ascertain and 
settle the private land claims in the State of Calif omiaj** and for other purposes. The 
act is continued for one year from March 8, 1854, for the Commissioners to determine the 
claims presented to them under the act. The Commissioners may appoint not exceeding 
tkin [.. L , i to take testhnony to be read before the Board, thdr pay not to exceed $10 
p«r day (?riH h , to be established by the Commissioners. January 18, 1864. 

No. 3. VAi. VII. An Act to provide a place for the holding of the Courts of the UniUd 
Statirs in ih( Saixthem DistriU of New York^ and other purposes. The Secretary of the 
Jnhfrior mav hire, from year to year, or for a term of years, rooms in New York dty, fbr 
Qie U t] S k«] SUtea Courts, and for the judges, attorney, clerks, and marshal. All processes, 
fhr that District may be dated, tested, and made returnable at the United States Court 
Koom In that tiity, and shall be returned to the room where the Court is actually held, 
februarj 2. h64. 

Wo. -4. ri]. vm. An Act granting the Franking Privilege to the Superimtendent of the 
Vkioxi iStfri-i'//^ and the Assistant in charge of the Office of said Coast Surveff. Fehmary 3, 
ISM. 

No- fi. (^h. IX. An Act to constitute Quincy^ in the SteUe ofJUinois^ a Port ofDeUoery. 
Tbfl apppinbinjiit of a Surveyor of Customs is provided for. The port of deUvery is ao- 
t2g»d to ilia New Orleans CoUeetiion District. Febnnayll, 1864. 



f 



1855.] . TITLES AND ABSTBACTB OF THE PUBLIC LAWS. 1«9 

No. 6. Oh. X. An Act giving fw/iker tSuM far $atisfffing daims for BamUf LandSy 
and for other purpous. The act of Jnlj 27, 1842 (Acts 1842, Ch. 69), and fh« two acts of 
Jmoxuay 27, 1835 (Aots 18S6« Ch. 6 and 7), am rariTed, and continued in foroe for five 
years frcMn Jane 26, 1868. Febraaiy 8, 1854. 

No. 7. Ch. XI. An Act to reguiate the dubttrsenunt of the Contingent F\ind of the 
Senate, and for other ptirpoaes. The SeeietaTy of tha Senate is made a diabardng of&oer, 
and giTee bond to the United States in $^,000, with one or more suxeties, witliin tliirty 
days after he enters on the duties of liis office, and before he makes any requisition on the 
treasury. Ail moneys appropriatecTfor the pay of members and officers of tlie Senate, and 
for the contingent expenses, sliall be paid on his requisition upon the Treasury, and he 
shall deposit the same with the depositary designated by the Secretary of the Treasury 
for other disbursing officers ; and all payments to Senators, on account of pay and mileage, 
and to their officers, and for contingent expenses, shall be made by drafts drawn by the 
Secretary on such depositary. Februaxy 10, 1864. 

No. 8. Ch. Xn. An Act to indemnify the State of Indiana for the failure of title to a 
township of land granted to said State on her admission into the Union in 1816. The 
Governor of the State may select out of the pablio lands in said State, subject to prirate 
entry, 19,040 acres of land, in legal subdivisions, and, upon his certificate, patents shall 
issue to the State ; the proceeds thereof, when sold, to remain for ever a fund for the use 
of the Indiana University. February 23, 1854. 

No. 9 Oh. Xm. An Act to extend the Kmiis of the Port of New Orleans. The port of 
New Orleans is extended so as to embrace the right bank of the Mississippi Rirer, as for up 
Bidd bank as it now does the left Ixank. February 23, 1854. 

No. 10. Oh. XrV. An Act supplemental to an Act entitled, " An Act to ascertain and 
settle the private land claims in the State of California^" approved March B., 1851. An 
extension of time of six months ftom the passage of this act is given to twelve persons 
nam^ in this act, or either of them, or their representatives, to present their claims before 
tiie Commissioners under the act of 8d March,' 1851, if limited to certain estates, and ac- 
quired prior to the said 3d of March. February 23, 1854. 

No. 11. Ch. XVn. An Act for the extension of the Tfe-emption Privilege in the State 
of California. The provisions of the act of 4th September, 1841 (Acts 1841, Ch. 16), as 
made appBcafole to Califomia by act of 8d March, 1858 (Acts 1858, Oh. 145), are fhrther 
modified, so that the third proviso in Section 6 of Act of 8d March, 1858, shall extend to 
settlements made prior to, and within two years after, the passage of this Act. March 1, 
1854. 

No. 12. Ch. XXrV. An Act for the relief of the XTnited States troops who were sufferers 
hy the recent disasters to the Steamship San Francisco. To each of the officers, non-com- 
missioned officers, and privates, and to any officer or seaman of the navy, on board, under 
orders, there shall be paid a sum equal to his pay and allowance for eight months. If, 
before receiving the payment, any die from the consequences of said disaster, the widow, 
if one, and if not, the minor children, if any, shall receive a sum equal to the pay and 
allowuices for rix months. The widows- and minor children of those who perished by, or 
ftom disease in consequence of. this disaster, shall have pensions. March 27, 1854. 

No. 18. Ch. XXY. An Act for the relief of settlers on lands reserved for railroad 
Purposes. Every settler on public lands which have been or may be with^bawn from mar* 
ket in consequence of proposed railroads, and who had settled thexeon prior to such with- 
drawal, shall be entitled to pre-emption at the ordinary minimum to the lands settled on 
and cultivated by them, if they shall prove their rights according to such rules as the Sec- 
retary of the Interior may prescribe, and pay for the same before the day fixed by the 
Prerident's proclamation for the restoration of said lands to maricet. March 27, 1854. 

No. 14. Ch. XXVI. An Act to amend an Act entitled " An Act to divide the State of 
Arkansas into two Judicial Districts, approved March 3, 1851. The Counties of Sevier and 
Sebastian are made part of the Western Judicial District. Convicts in the Western District 
of offences, punishable by imprisonment, shall be punished by imprisonment with hard 
labor, and the sentenee be exeented upon them in the State penitentiary in the Eastern 



130 UNITBD STATES. [1855. 

Tbe 26tti Bectloa of the Act of dOth June, 1884 (Acts 183i, Ch. lei), th&a not extend the 
laws for the District of Colombia to the Indiaa Cowitiy. Nothing in the aoth section of the 
mid act shall extend to any Indian, committing said offiences in the Indian country, or to 
any Indian committing any o£fonce in the Indian country who has been punished by the 
local law of the tribe, or in any case where, by treaty stipnlati<His, the exchudve jurisdic- 
tion over sttoh oOences may now« or lyreafter, be secured to said Indian tribes. 

If any white person shall set fire, or attempt to set fire, to any building in said Indiaa 
country, to whomsoever belonging ; and if any Indian shall set fire to any bmlding, in said 
Indian country, belonging to or in lawful possession of a white person, in whole or in part, 
and whether the same be consumed or not, he shall be deemed guilty of felosy, and shall 
be punished by confinement to hard labor, for not more than twenty^one nor less than two 
years. 

If any white person shall assault an Indian, or other per8(»i, or if any Indian shall assault 
a white person, within said Indian country, with any deadly weapon, with intent to kill or 
maim the person so amaolted, he shall be deemed guilty of felony, and shall be punished 
with confinement to hard labor, for not more than five years, nor less than one year. 

In all criminal cases, upon indictment, for oflfonces committed in said Indiaa countxy, 
prior to the creation of said Western District, now pending in the United States Circuit 
Court for the £astem District, process for witnesses residing or to be found in the Western 
District, may issue to the marshal of the Eiutem District, and be executed by him in any 
part of the Western District. The fees of all witnesses so summoned shall be paid by the 
United States. March 27, 1864. 

No. 16. Ch. XXX. An Act to extend the Warehousing System by estaJbiishing Private 
Bonded Warehouses^ and for other purposes. Any goods, wares, or merchandise, sul^t 
to duty, and duly entered and bonded for warehousing, except perishable articles and ex- 
plosive substances, may be deposited, at the option of the owner, importer, consignee, or 
agent, at his expense and risk, in any public warehouse owned or leased by the United 
States, or in the private warehouse of the importer, if used exclusively to store waiehoused 
goods of his own importation or to his own consignment, or in a private warehouse used 
solely as a general warehouse for the storage of warehoused goods ; the place of storage to 
be designated on the warehouse entiy, whep entering the goods, &c. at the Custom House ; 
the private warehouse to be first approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, and to be 
placed in chaxge of an oflicer of the customs, who, with the owner, will have the joint cus- 
tody of the merchandise stored therein. All labor on such merchandise must be done by 
the owner or proprietor of the waxehouse, and at his expense, under the supervision of 
such oi&oer. Cellars and vaulte of stores for the storage of wines and distilled spuits only, 
and yards for the storage of coal, woods, and lumber, may, at the discretion of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, be made bonded warehouses for the storage of such articles, under 
the same regulations, &c. as other merchandise ; the cellars and vaults to be exclurively 
so used, and to have no entrance except one firom the street, on which the Custom House 
oi&oer and the owner shall place and keep different locks. Before such private stores or 
cellars axe used as such warehouses, the owner, occupant, or lessee thereof shall give bond, 
to be approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, to hold the United States and its officers 
hannless firom all risk, loss, or expense, arising ftom the deposit of swdi merchandise 
therein. All importo deposited in any such public or private warehouse, shall be at the 
sole risk of such owner or importer. 

Unclaimed merchandise, which Collectors must by law take possession of, may be stored 
in such public or private bonded warehouse ; and all expenses on such merchandise, not 
to exceed in any case Uie regular rates for sueh otgecto at the port in question, must be 
pa!d before delivery, on due entiy \sj the claimant or owner ; or, if sold, as unclaimed, iox 
the duties, such expenses are to be paid out of the proceeds of such sale. Any Collector, 
under regulations firom the Secxetary of the Treasury, may sell, upon due notice, at public 
auction, any unclaimed goods so deposited, when, In his opinion, firom depreciation from 
any cause, they may be likely to prove insufficient, when scdd, to pay duties and charges, 
if kept for the full period allowed by law for unclaimed goods. 

JUL merchandise heieafter entered for warehousing under bond, and all now remaining 



1855.] TITLES AND ABSTHACTS OF THE PUBLIC LAWS. 181 

in vaieboiises under bond, may confciniie !n wnK^ouse, ivithont payment of datfes, for 
tfaiee years ftom the ori^nal importation, and may be withdrawn for consmnptlon on 
mtry and paym^t of the duties and charges, or upcA entry for exportation, on paying the 
dtarges iritiioat the duties, at any time within sueh peilod. If the duties ha^e been paid 
npon any goods entond for oonramption, fhey (rtutU not be reminded on exportation of 
such goods witfckoat the United States* There sfaail be no abatement of duties, or allow- 
anee made for any damage or loss, snstained by any goods, while so d^KWited in any public 
et private bonded warehouse. 

Any mercliawHse, so entered for warehousing, may be withdrawn under bond, without 
tiie payment of the duties, from any such war^ouse, in any CoDection District, and carried 
to and re-warehoused at any such warehouse in any other Collection District. They may be 
earried thither by land, or water, or both, OTer such routes as the Secretary of tlie Treasury 
may pn M cribe, or over any foreign territory throi!^ which a right of way has been, or sliall 
be, granted by treaty. To guard against frauds upon the revenue, on foreign goods trans- 
ported overland tluough foreign territory, between ports on the Atlantic and the Pacific, 
Oe Setmtary of the Treasury may appoint special sworn agents, as inspectors of the cus- 
toms ; at a eompensatien, in the aggregate, not to exceed $ 6,000 annually, to superintend 
the km^Unif and shipping of such goods. The Secretary ct the Treasury shall prescribe the 
form of th« bond to be given for such transportation, and the time for the delivery ; and 
for a failure to txansport and d^ver such bonded goods witbin the time limited, an ad- 
dltSonal duty of KK) per cent., to be secured by bond, she^ be levied and collected ; or the 
merchandise, and the vessel, or vehicle, in which they are carried, may be seised and 
forfeited. 

Upixi aatiiAustOTy proof of the actual injury or destruction, in whole or in part, of any 
merchandise, by any casualty, while m the custody of any ot&cev of the Customs, or in 
tranapoitation under b<md, to the Secretary of the Treasury, he may abate or refund the 
amount of impost duties paid or accruii^ thereon, and may canod any warehouse bond, 
or enter oatlsfaotfam thereon, in whole or in part. 

All ksMB of stores for stixing warehoused or imclaimed goods, now held by the United 
States, shall be eaacelled at the earliest possible time ; nor shall any such store be leased 
alter July 1, 1865, in any p<wt where tiiere may be any private warehouses. Buildings 
may be hired for the use of the public appraisers ; and collectors, with the approval of the 
Seeretacy, may hire stores for Custom House purposes, at any of the smaller revenue ports 
of tlm United Stetes. No oflteer of the Customs shall contract ibr the use of any building 
to be tbereafbor erected as a public store ; and no lease of any building, for such use, shall 
be tak0B for more than tiiree years, and, in no case, shall any rent be paid in advance. 

nw Secretary of the Treasury may establish such rules and regulations, not inconsistent 
wiOi law, for the due execution of this act, as he may deem expedient and necessary. 
UmxA 28, 18&4. . 

No. 16. Ch. XXSM. An Act to autfumze the eonstmetion of six firBt-dass Steam' 
Frigates^ and for other purposes. Such vessels are to be provided with screw propellors, 
■ad, with the maebtinery, may be built by contract, or in tiie Navy Yards, as tiie Secretary 
of tlie Navy thinks best for the public interest. For this purpose, and to alter, make 
ready, and launch the frigates Santee, at Kittery, and Sabhie, at New York, $8,000,000 
■le ai»propriated. April 6, 1864. 

No. 17. Ch. XXXm. An Act for the benefit of citizens and occupants of the Tovm of 
Council BbtjtTS) in lows, April 6, 1864. 

No. 18. Oh. XXXY. An Act to establish additional Land Districts in the Territory of 
MSnnesotet. Four additional land districts are created ; the Root River, Winona, Redwing, 
and MinneapoliB Districto ; and a reefer and registw may be appointed for each district ; 
and tlie location of the offices may be established and chimged by the President, as the 
pnUlc good requires. April 12, 1864. 

No. 19. Ch. XLYI. An Act establishing a Land Offite in the lower Peninsula of Mich- 
igan. A new land district is created, called the Cheboygan Land District, and the appoint- 
ment of a renter and receiver is authorifled. April 20, 1854. 
No. 20. Oh. XLyn. An Act to authorise the School Commissioners of fractional 



1S2 tmiTBD STA'nBS. [1855. 

Toumihip Number Otu^ of Eang« Nmnker Tm, JOur, in Akiba$na^ to loeate One Half- 
teetion of land for School Purposes. April 20, 18&4. 

No. 21. Gh. LII. An Act to amend the third section of the " Act making appropria- 
turns for the dvU and diplomatie expenses of govenunent for the fear ending June SOtA, 
lS6i," and for other purposes. The Mkoies of tho clerks, u established by the third 
seotioa ofthat act, aie altered, so that^eiks of the first daas receive 111,200 per aaunim ; 
or the second daas, 91,400; of the third elaas,^ 1,000. Clerks in the Oensos Bareaa shaU 
be rated, for pay, as of the second class ; 20 per cent, is added to the pay <tf sundry govern- 
ment employees in Washington. The Saperfntendent of the Census, and the Assistant 
Postmastras-Oeneral, shall each have the same salary as the Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury. AprU22, 18M. 

No. 22. Ch. LIY. An Act making appropriations for the support of the MSUtarif 
Academy for the year ending June 80th, 18M. 9 161,281 are appropriated. The pay <a the 
Haster of the Sword is made S 1,200 per annum. Blay 10, 18M. 

No. 28. Ch. LIX. An Act to organize the Territories ofNdmuka and Kanxas. 

BouNDABixs, &c. All the tenitoiy of the United States within the fcdlowing Utiits, ex- 
cept such portions thereof as axe hereinafter expressly exempted tnm the operations of 
this act, to wit : beghming at a pohit in the Missouri river where the parallel of 40ON. 
crosses the same ; thence west on said parallel to the east boundary of the territory of 
Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains ; ttienoe on said summit northward to the 
IMnllel of 490 N. ; thence east on said parallel to the western boundaiy of the territory of 
Minnesota ; thence sonttiward on said boundary to the ICissouri river ; thence down the 
main channel of said river to the place of b^;inning, is constituted the territory of Nelnas- 
ka; " and when admitted as a State or States, the said territory, or any portion of the 
same, shall be received h&to the Union with oar without slavery, as their constitution may 
prescribe at the time of th^ admission : Provided^ That nothing in this act contained 
shaU be construed to inhibit the government of the United States firom dividing said ter- 
ritory into two or more territories, in such manner, and at such times, as Congress shall 
deem convenient and proper, or tnm attaching any portion of said territory to ai^ other 
State or territory of the United States ; Providedfurther^ That nothing h& this act contained 
shall be construed to impair tiie rights ot person or property now pertaining to the In- 
dians in said territory, so long as such rights riiall remain unextinguished by treaty be- 
tween the United States and such Indians, or to include any territory which, by treaty 
with any Indian tribe, is not, witiiout the consent of said tribe, to be included within the 
territorial limits or Juri8dicti<m of any state or territory ; but all such territory shall be 
excepted- out of the boundaries, and constitute no part of the territory of Nebraska, until 
said tribe shaU signify their assent to the President of the United States to be included 
within the said territory of Nebraska, or to aJSect the authority of the government of the 
United States to make any regulation respecting such Indians, their luids, property, or 
other rights, by treaty, law, or otherwise, which it would have been 6(nnpetent to the 
government to make if this act had never passed." 

YoTXRS. Every free white male inhabitant, 21 years old, an actual resident in the terri- 
tory at the time of the passage of this set, and wltii the qualifications herdnafter pre- 
scribed, may vote, and be chosen to any territorial office at the first election ; after which, 
the qualifications of voters and for office shall be fixed by the Le^slative Assembly ;-' 
provided the right of sulbage and of holding office be exercised only by citiaens of the 
United Stetes, and those who have declared, on oath, their intention to become such, and 
have taken an oath to support the Constitution of the United Stetes and the provisions of 
this act. No person belonging to the aimy or navy of the United Stetes can vote, or be 
elected to, or hold, any civil office or appointment in the territory, by reas<ni of bring on 
service therein. 

LxaiBLATiVB Assembly. The Legislative Assembly shall consist of a Coundl and House 
of Bepresentetives. The Council shall consist of thirteen members, with the qualifications 
of votoB chosen for two years, by a plurality vote of the people, in districto. The represen- 
tetives, twenty-six in number, with the qualifications of voter^, shall be chosen for one year, 
by a plurality vote ; but the Legislative Assembly may increase the number to not more 



1855.] TITLE8 Ain> ABSTRACTS OP THE PUBLIC LAWS. 18S 

than thirty-nine. Members of ^ther body mnat reside in their district, and every district 
shall be represented in proportion to its qualified voters. A census slxall be taken before 
the first Section, and tiie Governor sliall appoint the^laces of voting, the ndmber of coon* 
eilloTS or representatives to a district, the manner of conducting ttie election, and the 
place of meeting of the Assonbly. In case of a tie, or of a vacancy, the Governor shall 
order a new election. Thereafter, tiiese points shall be regulated by the Assembly ; but 
no session shall exceed forty days, except the first, which shall not exceed sixty days, and 
there shall be but one session annually, unless the Governor orders otherwise. 

No law shall be passed hiterfering with the primary disposal of the soil ; no tax shall be 
imposed on the property of the United States ; nor shall the property of non-residents be 
taxed hic^her than that of residents. Members of the Assembly receive 8 3 per day, and 
$8 for every twenty miles' travel. The presiding officer of each house receives 88 a day 
•additional. The chief Clerk has $4 a day ; the other officers, i. e. an Assistant Clerk, 
Sergeant-at-arms, and Door-Keeper for each house, $ 3 a day. The first session of the 
Assembly shall be held at a time and place appointed by the Governor, at which session 
the Govenoor and Assraibly may establish the seat of govemmmt. No member of the 
Assembly, except the first Assembly, shall be appointed to any office created or increased 
in pay during his term, or for one year thereafter ; and no officeholder under the general 
gov«nunent, except Postmasters, shall hold office under the territorial government, or be 
a member of the Assembly. All township, district, and county officers, not otherwise 
provided for, shall be elected or appointed as the Assembly may direct ; and all other offi- 
cers, not otherwise provided for, shall be appointed by the Governor, with the advice 
and consmt of the CounciL 

EzfiCDTXVZ, &c. The Governor, appointed by the President and Senate for four years, 
and until his successor is appdnted and qualified, unless sooner removed by the President, 
shall reside within the territory ; shall receive a salary of $5,500 ; shall be commander-in- 
chief of the militia; may grant pardons and respites for ofifences against territorial laws, 
and r^rievee, until the decision of the President be known, for offences against the laws 
of the United States, and sliall commission all officers appointed to office under the laws of 
the territory. He has the veto power ; but any vetoed bill may be passed by two thirds 
vote of both houses, taken by yeas and nays, and entered on the journal of each house. If 
a bill presented to the Governor, for signature, be not returned within three days (Sundays 
exioepted), it shall become a law, unless the Assembly, by adjournment, prevent its return, 
irhea it shall not become a law. If the Governor vacate the office, or be necessarily absent 
from the territory, his place shall be fiUed by the Secretary, who is appointed by the Pres- 
kimt and Senate fbr five years, unless sooner r^noved, and whose salary is $2,000 per 
amram. Tiie Secretaxy shall record and preserve all laws, &c., and shall transmit, within 
thirty days after the end ot each session, one copy of the laws and journals of the Assem- 
bly, and, (m the first days of January and July, one copy of the executive proceedings, to 
ttie President, and two copies of the laws to the President of the Senate, and to the Speaker 
of the House, to be deposited in the libraries of Congress. 

JunioiAL Powxa, &c. There shall be a Supreme Court, District Courts, Probate Courts, 
and Justices of the Peace. The Supreme Court shall consist of a chief justice and two as- 
sociates, at an annual salary each of $2,000, appointed by the President and Senate for 
four yean, and until their successors are qualified, — two of whom shall constitute a quo- 
rum, and who shall hold an annual term at the seat of government. The territory shall 
foe divided into three districts, in each of which one of the three Justices shall reside, and 
hold a Itetrict Court, at prescribed times and places, having the jurisdiction of United 
States DisMctand Circuit Courts, in all cases arising under the laws or Constitution of 
the United States, for Jury trials, subject to writs of error, exceptions, and appeal to the 
Supreme Court, in which issues of law only are heard. Prom the Supreme Court, writs of 
error and appeiUs shall lie to the Supreme Court of the United States (as from a Circuit 
Court), where the matter in dispute exceeds in value $ 1,000, except hi cases involving 
title to slaves, or in questions upon any writ of habeas corpus, involving the question of 
personal freedom ; but noting herdn contained shall apply to or affect the provisions of 
the " act Kspeeting ftig^tives from justice, and parsons escaping from the services of their 
12 



184 T7NITBD STATES. [1855. 

masten," approyed February 12, 1798, and the act to amend the same of September 18, 
1850 ; and the proyisions of said acts are declared to extend to, and be in foil force within 
the limits of the territory. Both th(^ District and Supreme Courts shall possess chancery 
powers. Each Judge may grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases in which the same are 
granted by the United States Judges in the District of Columbia ; and the first six days of 
ereiy term of said Courts, if so much be necessary, shall be deroted to the trial of causes 
arising under the said Constitution and laws. Justices of the Peace shall have no juris- 
diction where the title to land is concerned, or where the sum chdmed exceeds $100. The 
judicial districts shall be defined, the judges assigned to them, and the times and places of 
holding the courts appointed, by the Goyernor, subject to alteration by the L^;islatiye 
Assembly. An Attorney and Marshal shall be appointed by the President and Senate, for 
four years, and until a successor is qualified, unless sooner removed by the President. 
The courts may appoint their own clerks, who, as well as the Attorney and Uarshal, shall 
reoeire the same fees as the like officers in Utah. 

All civil officers, before they enter upon office, shall be duly sworn to the proper dis- 
charge of their duties, and to support the Constitution of the United States, and the oath 
shall be recorded. The salaries under this act are to be paid quarterly ; no payment to 
be made until the officers have entered upon the duties of their appointments. 

Sufficient sums shall be appropriated annually by Congress, to de&ay the neoessaryi 
contingent, and incidental expenses of the territory ; and for the erection of suitable pub- 
lic buildings, and the purchase of a library. In the expenditure of moneys, the Governor 
and Secretary shall be governed solely by the instructions of the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and shall account to him semiannually. No expenditure by the L^^Iature of money ap- 
propriated by Cmgress sliaU be made, except as authorized, nor beyond the appropriations 
therefor. All disbursing officers shall give bond, as the Seraetary of the Treasury may 
prescribe. 

A delegate to Congress shall be chosen by a plurality of votes, for two years ; but tha 
first delegate shall hold only for the term of Congress to which he is elected. When the 
lands axe surveyed, sections sixteen and thirty-six in every township shall be xeswved for 
schools. 

" The Constitution and all laws of the United States which are not locally inapplicable, 
shall have the same force and effect within the said tenitary of Nebraska as elsewhere 
within the United States, except the eighth section of the act preparatory to the admiasian 
of Missouri into the Union, approved March 6, 1820, which, being inconsistent with the 
principle of non-intervention by Congress with slavery in the states and territories, aa 
recognized by the l^islation of 1850, commonly called the Compromise measures, is hereby 
declared inoperate and void ; it being the true intent and meaning of this act not to legis- 
late slavery into any territory or state, nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people 
thereof perfectiy free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in tiieir own way, 
subject only to the Constitution of the United States : Provided^ That nothing herein con- 
tained shall be construed to revive or put in force any law or regulation which may hav« 
existed prior to the act of March 6, 1820, either protecting, establishing, prohibiting, or 
abolishing slavery." 

Boundaries of Eanzas, &c. All the territory of the United States included within the 
following limits, except such portioius thereof as are hereinafter expressly exempted firom 
the operations of this act, to wit : begiiming at a point on the western boundary of the 
State of Missouri, where the parallel of 37^ N. crosses the same ; thence west on said par* 
aUel to the eastern boundMry of New Mexico ; thence north on said boundary to latitude 
thirty-eight ; thence following said boundary westward to the east boundary of the Terri- 
tory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains ; thence northward on said sununit 
to the parallel of 40^ N. ; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State (rf 
Missouri ; thence south with the western boundary of said State to the place of beginning, 
is constituted tlie Territory of Kansas ; and, when admitted as a State or States, the said 
territory, or any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or without 
slavery, as their constitutions may prescribe at the time of their admission. 

The exemptions of territory, tiie provisos a£ to a future division of the territory, the 
Miormtion of TncUan rights, axe the same aa in Nebraska; and, in a word, the portion 



f 



1855.] TITLES AND ABSTBACTS OP THE PUBLIC LAWS. 185 

of fhe act organidng Kansas, with the exception of the boundaries, is pxeclselj the same as 
that portion of the act which oiganizes Nebraska, a complete abstract of which is aboTe 
given. May 30, 1864. 

No. 24. Ch. LX. An Act to tupply deficiencies in the appropriations for the service of 
thejiseal year ending June SO, 1864, and for other purposes. $1,901,284.06 are appronri- 
ated. The office for paying privateer pensions in Boston is abolished ; the time limited 
for the appointment of Commissioner, Surveyor, and Chief Astronomer, by the act of May 
16, 1860 (Ch. 10), is extended to June 80, 1866. The seal of the Department of tlie Interior 
is recognized as legal ; when a seal is made necessary by any law of Congress, the seal may 
be affixed by making an impression therewith direotiy on the paper, and this shall be as 
valid as if made on wax. When there are different printers for the House and Senate, each 
tbaH do the printing ordered by the house which elected him. May 31, 1854. 

No. 26. Ch. LXI. An Act regulating the pay of Deputy-Postmasters. In lieu of their 
present compensation, the Postmaster-General may allow Deputy-Postmasters commissions 
at the following rates, — on the postage collected each quarter at their offices, and propor- 
tionally for less than a quarter. On any sum not exceeding $ 100, 60 per cent. ; and when 
the mail arrives regularly between 9 o'clock, P. M., and 6 o'clock, A. M., 70 per cent. ; on 
over $100, and not exceeding $400, 60 per cent.; on over $400, but not exceeding 
$ 2,400, 40 per cent. ; on ail sums over $2,400, 16 per cent. ; and two mills for delivery to 
subscribers of each newspaper not chargeable with postage. On the amount of postage on 
letters and packi^es received at a distributing office for distribution, 12^ per cent. Post- 
masters receiving not over $600 per quarter, shall have one cent for every free letter de- 
Uvered firom his office, except such as are for himself.* Postmasters who are required to 
keep a r^i^ter of the arrival and departure of the mails, shall receive ten cents for each 
* mOntidy return. Additional allowances may be made to the Postmasters at distributing 
and separating offices, to defray actual and necessary expenses, when the commissions, 
allowances, and emoluments are insufficient for that purpose. June 22, 1864. 

No. 26. Ch. LXn. An Act to authorize the selection of School Districts in lieu of the ' 
Sixteenth Sections, within the Twelve Miles Square Reservation, in the State of Alabafma. 
June 22, 1854. 

No. 27. Ch. LXVni. An Act confirming certain land claims in Louisiana, in the 
Bastrop Grant. June 29^1854. 

No. 28. Ch LXTX. An Act to reimburse to the Common Council of New York City 
expenditwes made for the First Regiment of New York Volunteers. An amount not ex- 
ceeding $ 8,672.90 is appropriated. June 29, 1854. 

No. 29. Ch. LXX. An Act to authorize the issue of Registers to Vessels oumed by the 
" Accessory Transit Company." Rasters may be issued in the name of the President of 
the Company, wtiich is incorporated by the State of Nicaragua, for steamboats or vessels 
owned by the Company, and employed in the transportation of merchandise and- pasf>en- 
gers between the Atlantic and Pacific ports^ through the territory of said State ; the Pres- 
ident first making oath that the vessel is owned by said Company ; that all the officers, 
and at least two thirds of the crew, are citizens of the United States, or not subj#ts of any 
foreign power ; that all the officers and directors of the Company are citizens of the United 
States, and tiiat two thirds of the stock is owned by such citizens, and giving satis&ctory 
bond in the sum of $ 26,000 for the proper use of the vessel and her register ; and satisfy- 
ing the Secretary of the Treasury tiiat the vessel wafl wholly built and equipped in the 
United States. The register is to be good but for a year, unless the President renews the 
oath. June 29, 1864. 

No. 80. Ch. LXXI. An Act to enable the President of the United States to fulfil the 
thud article of the Treaty between the United States and the Mexican Republic, of Decern- 
her 20, 1858, as amended by the Senate of the United States. $10,000,000 are appropri- 
ated ; $7,000,000 upon the exchange of the ratifications of the treaty, and S 3,000,000 as 
■oon as the boundary line is surveyed, marked, and established. June 29, 1864. 

No. 81. Ch. LXXH. An Act to aid the Territory of Minnesota in the construction of a 
Raibroad therein.* There is granted to the Territory of Minnesota for the purpose exclu- 

' •Repealed. See No. 72, p. 141. 



186 tJlSnTED STATES. [1855. 

slTely of aiding in the constnaetion of a railroad firom the Boathom line of said territory, 
commenciog at a point between township ranges 9 and 17, thence by the way of St. Paul, 
by the most practicable route to the eastern line of said territory, in the direction of Lake 
Superior, every alternate section of land designated by odd numbers fat six sections in 
wl(Uh on each side d said road within said territory. In ease any of these lands hare be^ 
preriously sold, or pre-emption rights have attached thereto, an equal quantity may be 
selected in alternate sections, ftom the nearest tier of sections ; but in no case shall the 
lands be selected more than 16 miles from the line of the road. Lands previously reserved 
are exempted from the provisions of this act, e»sept that ttie right of way over the same is 
granted. The sections remaining on each side of the road, for a depth of six miles, shall 
not be sold for less than double the minimum price. When the Secretary of the Interior 
is satisfied that a continuous length of 20 miles of the road is completed, he may issue 
patents to the territory for not exceeding 120 sections ; and so, on the completion of each 
continuous section of 20 miles. If the road is not completed in 10 years, there shall be no 
fiirther sale, and the land unsold shall revert to the United States. These lands shall be 
subject to the disposal of any Legislature of the territory, but they shall not be subject to 
private entry, until they have been first offered for sale at public auction at tiie increased 
price ; nor shall they enure to the benefit of any company heretofore constituted and organ- 
ised. No toll shall be charged tiie United States for the transportation of troops or prop- 
erty over it, and the mail shall be carried over it, at such price as Congress shall fix. 
June 29, 1864. 

No. 82. Ch. LXXIX. An Act for the construction of certain Military Roads and Wells m 
the Territory of New Mexico. $20,000 are appropriated for the construction and repair of 
a road from Taos to Santa Fe ; and $ 12,000 for one from Santa Fe to Dona Am^ of which 
any portion may be applied to the sinking of wells, if required by the necessities of said ' 
road. July 17, 1854. 

No. 88. Oh. LXXX. An Act for the payment of the civil officers employed in the Ter- 
ritory of New Mexico^ while under military government. The civil offlcera in New Mex- 
ico, while it was under military government, shall be paid their salaries from September 
22,1846, until March 8d, 1851, at the rate established by General Kearney ; deductii^ 
what is already pidd by said territory, but no compensation shall be paid to any army 
officer for discharging the duties of a civil office. July 17, 1864.* 

No. 84. Ch. LXXXI. An Act to provide for the continuation of the Military Road 
from Myrtle Creek to Scott^nerg, in Oregon. $20,000 are appropriated. July 17, 1854. 

No. 36. Ch. LXXXn. An Act to provide for the Construction of a Maitary Road in 
the Territory of Utah. 9 26,000 are appropriated to construct a road commencing at Great 
Salt Lake City, and running by way of Prove City, Fillmore City, Paravan Cedar City, to 
the eastern boundary of California, in the direction of the Cajon Pass. July 17, 1864. 

No. 86. Ch. LXXXni. An Act to authonze the President of the United States to cause 
to be surveyed the tract of Land in the Territory of Minnesota belongii^ to the Half-breeds 
or Mixed-Bloods of the Daeotah or Sioux nation of Indians f and for other purposes. The 
Presidentil authorized to obtain, by exchange, the land from the Indians, and then to 
have it surveyed. July 17, 1864. -» 

No. 87. Ch. LXXXIV. An Act to amend the Act approved September 27, 1860, to create 
the office of Surveyor- General of the PtUHic Lands in Oregon., ^c, and also the Act amen- 
datory thereof approved February 19 (14), 1868. Donations hereafter to be surveyed in 
Oregon and Washington Territories, clahned under the act of September 27, 1860 (Ch. 76), 
shall not include a town site, or lands settled upon for the purposes of business, and all 
legal subdivisions, included in whole or in part, in such town sites, &c. shall be subject 
to the act of May 23, 1844 (Ch. 17). The two years* occupancy required by the act of Feb- 
ruary 14, 1868 (Ch. 69), is reduced to one year. The proviso to the 4th section of act of 
27th September, 1850, is repealed, but no sale shall be valid unless the vendor shall have 
resided four years on the land. The pre-emption privilege granted by the act of Sep- 
tember 4, 1841 (Ch. 16), is extended to Oregon and Washington, with certain limitations. 
Two townships of land are reserved fbr Oregon, and two for Washington, for University 
puxpoies. The orphans of parents who would have been entitled to a donation under 



f 



1855.] TITLES AND ABSTKACTS OF THE PUBLIC LAWS. 187 

tiiSfl act, shall be eiititled to a quarter section of good agrioultunl land. A Register and 
BecdTor are to be app<dnted for each of said territories, at a salary of $2,600 each, and 
office rent. Waaliington shall be made a separate sorreying district, and there shall 
be a Snnreyor-General thereof, with the powers and pay of the Surveyor-beneral of OvegnL 
July 17, 1854. 

No. 88. Gh. LXXXV. An Act meiking fwrther appropriiOions for eontinidng the eon' 
struetion of roads in the Territory of Minnesota^ in aeeordanee urith the estimates made hy 
the War Department, 860,000 arejippropziated. July 17, 1864. 

No. 39. Gh. LXXXn. An Act to refund to the Territory of Utah the expenses ineurred 
fty said Territory in suppressing Luiian hostilities. An amount, to be determined by the 
Secretary of War, not exceeding $20,940.66, is appropriated. The hostilities were in 1860 
and 1851. July 17, 1864. 

No. 40. Gh. LXXXVII. An Act to authorize the Secretary of War to settle and adjust 
the expenses of the Rogue River hidian War. July 17, 1854. 

No. 41. Gh. XGIX. An Act regulating the time of holding the sessions of the District 
and Circuit Courts of the United States in the Eastern District of ^jfuisiana. (See times 
and places of holding Federal Gourts, ante, pp. 111-116.) July 20, 1864. 

No. 42. Gh. Gil. An Act making further appropriation for the improvement of the 
Cape Fear River, North Carolina. $120,000 are appropriated, for the year ending June 
80,1866. 

No. 43. Gh. Gm. An Act to establish the offices of Surveyor- General of New Mexico, 
Sanzas, and Nebraska, to grant donations to aetttal settlers therein, and for other purposes. 
The appointment of a Surveyor*General for New Mexico, at a salary of $8,000, and allow- 
ances ibr fhel, &c., with the powers and duties of the Surveyor-General of Oregon, is 
authorised. There is given a quarter section (160 acres) of land to every white male citiaen 
of the United States, or to eyery white male, above 21 years of age, who has declared his 
intention to become a dtiaen, and who was a resident of the Territory January 1, 1868, and 
is still a resident ,* or shall remove to and settle in said Territory between January 1, 1858, 
and prior to January 1, 1868, on condition of actual settlement and cultivation, for not less 
fiian four years. Each donation must i^plude the actual settlement and improvement of 
tbe donee, and be selected in legal sub-divisions within three months affcer the settle- 
ment is made ; or, if there was no survey at the time of the settlement, within three 
months after the survey ; and the IkUure to designate the boundaries within that time 
shall forfeit all right thereto. When the Surveyor-General, or other proper officer, is sat- 
isfied of the proof of settlement and cultivation, a certificate shall be issued to the person 
entitled, on presentation of which, and approval by the Secretary of the Interior, a patent 
shall issue. If the settler dies before the completion of the four years, and has continu- 
ously occupied and cultivated the premises to the time of his death, the patent shall go to 
his heirs at law. If the settier is not a citizen, the patent shall not issue to him until he 
becomes a citiaen. 

None of the provisions of this act extend to mineral or school lands, salines, military or 
other reservations, or lands settled on and occupied for purposes of trade and commerce, 
and not for agriculture ; and all legal sub-divisions settied on and occupied, in whole or in 
p«rt, for purposes of trade and commerce, and not for agriculture, shall be sutijeot to the 
provisions of the act of May 28, 1844 (Gh. 17), whether so settled and occupied before or 
alter the survey of said lands, except said lands shall be donated instead of sold. 

In each township, sections 16 and 86 shall be reserved for Schools ; and in each terri- 
tory, two townships, to be selected in 1^^ subdivisions, of not less than half a section, are 
reserved for the establishment of a University in the territory. The provisions of the pre- 
MDption act c€ September 4, 1841, extend to lands taken under this act, and to all lands in 
Nebraska and Kansas, to which the Indian titie is extinguished ; but notice of the claim 
must be made within three months after the survey. 

The Snrveyor-Qeneral for New Mexico shall aseertdn the origin, nature, and extent of 
all claims to lands under the laws, uss^fes, and customs of Spain and Mexico ; and, for this 
purpose, may issue iwtices, summon witnesses, and administer oaths, and do all other 
r aeti, axid shall report fUly on all such claims, their validity, or invalidity, and 
12* 



138 UNITED STATES. [1865. 

the THfoos grades of title ; aim upon the looality, extent, and popolatfon of all puebkie, 
and the title to lands therein ; bucIi report to be laid before Ctmgresa for its action, a&4 
meanwhile the lands to be reserred from sale, and not suliject to dmatlon under this act. 

▲ Bnireyor-General shall be appdnted for Nebraska and Kanaas, with the powers, du- 
ties, compensation, and allowances as the Surreyor-Genend of Wisconshi and Iowa, who 
shall make the necessary surreys of the rarkms Ibies in these territories ; and the sur- 
veyed lands shall be from time to time exposed to sale, as other public lands. The public 
lands in Nebraska, to which the Indian title shali haye been extinguished, shall oonsti- 
tute the Omaha land district ; those in Kansas, the Pawnee land district ; the oSicm to be 
established where the President deems expedient, and a register and receiyer ^ppcdnted for 
each. July 22, 1854. 

No. 44. Ch. CY. An Act ereaiing a Cotteetion District in New Yorh^ to be catted the 
District of Dunkirk, and constitiUing Dunkirk a Port of Entry, and the ports of Barcelona, 
Silver Qreek, and Cattaraugus Creek Ports of DeUvay. July 27, 1854. 

No. 46. Ch. CTL An Act making appropriations to de/ray the expenses of the Cayuse 
War. 9 75,000 are aH^wed, and no claims shall be allowed which are not presented at the 
Treasury Department within the next fiscal year. July 27, 1854. 

No. 46. Ch. Cyn. An Act to increase the saiaries of Executive and Judiciary Officers 
in Oregon, New Mexico, Washington, Utah, and Minnesota. The salary of the Governor 
of New Mexico is made $ 8,000 ; that of the Secretaries of Oregon, Washington, Utah, and 
New Mexico, $2,000 ; the salaries of the Chief Justice and his Associates, in Oregon, Wash- 
ington, Utah, and New Mexico, $ 2,500, and, in Blinnesota, S 2,000. July 27, 1854. 

No. 47. Ch. CTm. An Act making appropriations for the payment of Invalid and 
other Pensions of the United States, for the year ending June dO, 1856. 9 850,700 are ap- 
propriated. July 27, 1864. 

No. 48. Ch. CIX. An Act making provision for the Posted Service in the State of 
California and in the Territories of Oregon and Washington. The special agents of the 
Department in California, Oregon, and Washington, may appoint lettor caniers for the 
delivery of letters from any post-office in such State and Territories. Tlie carrier may re- 
ceive for carrying and delivering each item of ma^^ble matter, a sum not more than may 
be recommended by the Postmaster for whose (4Bce he is appointed, but not more than 26 
cents shall be changed for any letter, newspaper, ot ounce of other mailable matter. Such 
appointments and contracts shall be subject to the approval of the Postmaster^-Qeneral. 
No letter or mailable matter shall be delivered by any Postmaster to such carriers, unless 
requested in writing by the persons to whom such letters, &c., are directed. All letter 
carrier routes establkhed hereby shall be deemed post routes, during their continuance, 
and the provisiims of law are applicable thereto. 

Dead letters in said State and Territ(»ies, wlilch toaj accumulate after June 90, 1864, 
may be returned in periods of not less than 8 months, to the Post-Office at San Francisco, 
to be there (except such as postal arrangements with other countries axe required to be 
returned unopened to such countries) <^>ened and examined ; such letters as contain valu- 
ables to be disposed of according to law, and the rest to be destroyed. 

The Postmasters in said State and Territories, ftom July 1, 1853, may be allowed suoh 
sums out of the postages collected at tiieir respective offices, as will, in addition to their 
conunissions, &c., be sufficient to defray the actual and necessary expenses of tiieir offices. 
In the settlement of the accounts of Postmasters in California and Oregon, serving at such 
prior to June 80, 1853, all just and reasonable expenses incurred in the dischai^ of th^ 
official duties, shall be allowed ; but the United States shaU not be charged with any in- 
debtedness whatever. July 27, 1854. 

No. 49. Ch. ex. An Act to ascertain and adjust the titles to certain lands in the 
State of Indiana. The Better and Receiver of the Land Office at Tineennes, with a citt- 
zen of Indiana, learned in the law, to be appointed by the President, at $8 per day, are 
constitated Commissioners, to ascertain and adjust the titles of any claimant to land 
gianted by resolve of Congress of August 29, 1788, and by act of March 3, 1791, and the 
acts in aid of and supplimentary^hereto. The Commissioner of the Land-Office shall.is8ae 
general instructions, which the said Register shall pubUsh; and each daimant shall. 



1855.] TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF THE PUBLIC LAWS. 1S9 

iritiiln stK taaaUba ftom meh publication^ file his claim in writiiig, in Bach form as fha in- 
Btroctions shall require. At the expitation of the time allowed for filing claims, Ihe Com- 
missioners shall meet immediately at Tlncennes, and hear and decide all matters respect- 
ing soch claims. Records of the proceedings, and the eyidence in each case, shall be kept. 
They can compel witnesses to attend. Any claimant who can show in himself such a title, 
as woold, in the Courts of Indblna, bar an action of ejectment, shall be confirmed in his 
title. The Ccnnmissioners shall transmit to the General Lond-OfiBce, before September 1, 
1865, a transcript of their decisions in favor of claimants, with a statement of the eyidence 
on which the claim is founded ; and a like transcript and statement of decisions against 
claimants. To each claimant confirmed in his title, a patent shall issue. Those whose 
claims haye been rc|}ected may haye thoca revised, unless \he same land has been con- 
firmed, by the Board, to another claimant. The patent shall <»ily relinquish the title of 
the United States, and shall not abridge the rights of third persons. July 27, 1854. 

No. 50. Ch. CLIX. An Act Buppltmentary to an Act entitled " An Act to authorize 
Notaries Public to take and ^riify Oaths, Affirmations, and Acknowledgments in certain 
cases. The proyiaions of that act are extended to Notaries in the District of Columbia. 
" Notaries public are hereby authorized to take depositions, and do quch other acts in rela- 
tion to evidence to be used in the Courts of the United Slates, in the same manner, and 
with the same eflbct, as Comraiaeioners to take acknowledgments of bail and affidavits, may 
DOW lawfully take or do." Jjily29, 1864. 

No. 51. Ch. CLAviI. An Act making appropriations for the current and contingent 
expenses of the Indian Department, and for fulJUling Treaty Stipulations with various 
Indian Tribes, for the year ending June 20, 1855, and for other purposes. ( 2,023,832.72 
are appropriated. The President may remove or change the location of any superinten- 
dency. The reserve on the Minnesota River, now occupied by the Sioux, of Minnesota, is 
confirmed to them forever. The Secretary of the Interior may, in his discretion, use any 
part of this appropriation for making treaties in Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mex* 
ico. July 31, 1854. 

No. 52. Ch. CLXXXVII. An Act for the purchase of the Copyright of a work pub- 
lished by Thomas H. Sumner, wherein he describes his new Method of ascertaining a 
Ship's Position at Sea. ( 10,000 are paid for the transfer of said copyright to the United 
States ; and when the transfer is made, and the sum paid, the copyright shall become ex- 
tinct, and the book may be published as if no such right had existed. August 2, 1854. 

No. 53. Ch. CLXXXVIII. An Act to provide for the accommodation of the Courts 
of the United States in the District of Massachusetts, and in the Cities of New York and 
Philadelphia, The President may fit up and lease necessary accommodations for the 
United States Courts in those places, until permanent ones can be provided. Suitable sites 
for buildings, to be used as Court Houses and Post-Offices, may be procured by purchase or 
otherwise, in the cities of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia ; and at as early a day as 
practicable, plans and estimates for the same shall be prepared, and submitted to Congress, 
together with any contracts for any such site or sites, such contracts to be conditional, and 
subject to the approval of Congress. August 2, 1854. 

No. 54. Ch. CLXXXTX An Act to establish a Port of Delivery at Lake Port, on Lake 
Pontchartrain, and for other purposes. August 2, 1854. 

No. 55. Ch. CXCI. An Act constituting Madison, in the State of Indiana, a Port of 
Ddivery. It is annexed to the Collection District of New Orleans. August 2, 1854. 

No. 66. Ch. CXCn. An Act to constitute Tuscumbia, in the State of Alabama, a 
Port of Delivery, and for other purposes. Tuscumbia, in Alabama ; Shreveport, in Louis- 
iana; Paducah, in Kentucky ; and Jeffersonville, in Indiana, are made ports of delivery, and 
annexed to the New Orleans Collection District. August 2, 1854. 

No. 57. Ch. CXCIII. An Act creating a Collection District in Texas and Neto Mexico. 
The county of El Paso, in Texas, and the Territory of New Mexico, are made the Collection 
District of Paso del Norte, for which Frontora, in the county of El Paso, is made the port of 
entry and delivery. There shall be a Collector, to reside at Frontera, at a salary of # 2,000. 
All cases under the revenue laws, in said district, shall be under the jurisdiction of the 
Diatrict Court lor the Territory of New Mexico. August 2, 1864. 



140 XTNITED STATES. [1855. 

No. 68. Ch. CXCIV. An Act making appropriations for Light-houses, Light-boats, 
Buojfs, ^c, and providing for the erection and estabUshment of the same, and /or other 
purposes. ( 1,642,078 are appropriated. Where preiiminary surveys are required to deter 
mine the necessity, or the proper site, for a light- house, or otherwise, the examinations and 
surveys on the seaboard shall be made under the direction of the Coast Survey ; on the 
northwestern Lakes under the direction of the Bureau of Topographical Engineers. If 
adverse reports are made, they shall be submitted to Congress at its next session; if the 
reports are iavorable, the work shall be commenced as soon as valid title to the sites and 
State jurisdiction shall be gained. August 3, 1854. 

No. 59. Ch. CXCV. An Act to authorize the State of Illinois to select the residue of 
the lands to which she is entitled under the Act of March 2, 1327, granting Land to aid 
that State in opening a Canal to connect the waters of the Illinois River with those of 
Lake Michigan. August 3, 1854. 

No. 60. Ch. CXCVI. An Act to amend the provisions of the 56th section of the Act 
entitled " An Act to regulate the Collection of Duties on Imports and Tonnage,^' ap- 
proved March 2, 1799. If merchandise is imported from a foreign country, in vessels pro- 
polled in whole or in p^rt by steam, and the bills of lading show that it is to be delivered 
immediately after the entry of the vessel, the Collector may deposit it in a bonded ware- 
house. When the biUs of lading do not show that it is to be delivered immediately, the 
Collector may so deposit it, at the request of the owner, master, or consignee of the vessel, 
on three days' notice to such Collector after the entry of the vessel August 3, 1854. 

No. 61. Ch. CXCVm. An Act to constitute Cairo, in the State of Illinois, a Port of 
Delivery. It is annexed to the New Orleans Collection District. August 3, 1854. 

No. 62. Ch. CXCIX. An Act constituting San Pedro, in the State of California, a Port 
of Entry and Delivery. The counties Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, and San Bernardino 
are made a Collection District, called San Pedro ; and San Pedro is made the port of entry in 
said district, and Santa Barbara a port of deli very. Salary of Collector, 83,000, and $2,000 
additional, if his fees amount to that sum. August 3, 1854. 

No. 63. Ch. CC. An Act to authorize the State of Wisconsin to select the residue of 
the lands to which she is entitled under the Act of August 8, 1846, for the Improvement 
of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. August 3, 1854. 

No. 64. Ch. CCI. An Act to vest in the several States and Territories the title in fee 
of the lands which have been or may be certified to them. Where lands are, or have 
been, granted to any State by a law which does not convey the fee, or require patents to 
issue therefor, the certified lists of such lands, either as originals, or as copies of the orig- 
inals, or records, shall be regarded as conveying the fee simple of all the lands embraced in 
such lists that are of the character contemplated by such act of Congress, and intended to be 
granted thereby ; but when the lands are not of such a character, and are not so intended to 
be granted, such lists shall be null and void, and shall convey no title, August 3, 1854. 

No. 65. Ch. ecu. An Act to constitute Palatka and Bayport, in the State of Flor- 
ida r rf /Delivery, respectively, and Keokuk and Dubuque, in the State of Iowa, 
P.ilulki s^ aiiiiexed to the Collection District of St. Johns; Bayport to that of St. Marks; 
nrul tvFjLik Ilk und Dubuque to that of New Orieans. August 3, 1854. 

Nt>- eo Ck CCIV. An Act to revive the Act approved March 3, 1823, and the Act ap- 
f^vi:d Mt'ifj "Ho, 1824, supplemental thereto, in reference to the Rio Hondo claims to larui 
In LrmisiJina August 3, 1854. 

No 5?- Ch. CCXXVn. An Act making t^proprieUions for fortifications and other 
ffflr^ efd^fsnce, and for repairs of Barracks and duarters, for the year ending June 
30^ IB^f. a ] ,005,500 are appropriated. August 3, 1864. 
* Ko. CS. Ch. CCXXX. An Act to establish certain Post Roads. August 3, 1854. 

K{?H fiP. Ch. CCXLII. An Act making appropriations for the civil and diplomatic 
VSpeifism of Government, for the year ending June 30, 1855, and for other purpose. 
V ] 3 ^00,6 1 tX m are appropriated. For the items, see ante, pp. 127, 12a To many of the ap- 
propTiatioiiF? for buildings, In addition to the usual conditions, of clear title, exclusive juris- 
dictlan, ftftii flipmption from taxation, it is provided that the Secretary of the Treasury, unless 



1856.] TITLES AND AB8TBACTS OF THE PTTBLIO LAWS, 141 

he can contract with sufficient security for the completion of the building within the appro* 
priation, shall not expend any thereof. August 4, 1854. 

No. 70. Ch. CCXLIV, An Act toeraduate. and reduce the price of the public lands to 
actual settlers and cultivators. All public lands of the United Stales, which have been in 
the market for ten years, or upwards, at the time of the application to enter the same under 
the provisions of this act, and still remain unsold, shall be subject to sale at $ 1 per acre ; 
if for 15 years and upwards, at 75 cents ; if for 20 years and upwards, at 50 cents ; if for 25 
years and upwards, at 25 cents ; and if for '30 years and upwards, at 12|- cents per acre. 
This does not apply to lands reserved to the United States, in acts granting lands to States 
for railroad or other internal improvements; nor to mineral lands held at over (1.25 per 
acre. 

Upon each reduction in price, the occupant and settler on the lands sliall have the right 
of pre-emption thereto, at such graduated price, until 30 days preceding the next graduation 
or reduction; and if they are not so purchased, they shall again be subject to the right of 
pre-emption for 1 1 months, as before, and so on from time to time as reductions take place. 
Any person applying to enter any of the aforesaid lands, must make affidavit at the proper 
land office, that he enters the same for his own use, and for actual settlement and cultivation, 
or for the useof an adjoining farm or plantation, owned or occupied by himself, and that, 
together with such entry, he has not acquired from the United States more than 320 acres. 
False swearing under this act, is subjected to the paitft and penalties of perjury. August 4, 
1864. 

No. 71. Ch. CCXLV. An Act declaring the Southern Boundary of New Mexico. 
The territory acquired by the Gadsden treaty is made part of New Mexico. August 4, 1854. 

No. 72. Ch. CCXLVI. An Act for the relief of Thomas Bronaugh, and for the repeal 
of the Act to aid the Territory of Minnesota in the construction of a railroad therein, 
approved June 29, 1854. See ante, No. 31, p. 135. August 4, 1854. 

No 73. Ch. CCXLVn. An Act to increase the pay of the rank and file of the Army, and 
to encourage enlistments. $4 a month is added to the pay of the non-commissioned officers, 
musicians, and privates, to continue 3 years, from January 1, 1856, and until otherwise fixed 
by law. A soldier, honorably discharged, who shall, in one month after his discharge, re- 
enlist, is entitled to # 2 a month, over the ordinary pay of his grade, for the first period of 
five years from the expiration of his previous enlistment, and a further sum of $1 a month for 
each successive period of 5 years, so long as he shall remain continuously in the army. 
Soldiers, now in the army, who have served one or more enlistments, and been honorably 
discharged, are entitled to the benefits of these provisions for second enlistments. Soldiers 
In the war with Mexico, who received a certificate of merit, whether now in the army, or 
enlisting hereafter, shall receive the $2 a month to which that certificate entitled them had 
they remained continuously in the service ; and the noncommissioned officers, who were 
recommended for promotion by brevet to the lowest grade of commissioned officers, but who 
did not receive the benefit of that provision, shall receive additional pay, like those privates 
who received certificates of merit. 

The President, with the consent of the Senate, may confer the brevet of 2d lieutenant on 
■och meritorious non-commissioned officers, as may be found qualified by an army board of 
four officers of rank, for the duties of commissioned officers, and attach them to regiments as 
supernumerary officers. 

The allowance to soldiers employed at work on fortifications, in surveys, in Cutting roads, 
and other constant labor of not less than 10 days, shall be increased to 25 cents per day, to 
men employed as laborers and teamsters, and 40 cents as mechanics, at stations east of the 
Rocky Monntains ; and to 35 and 60 cents per day respectively, at stations west of those 
mountains. August 4, 1854. 

No. 74. Ch. CCXLVm. An Act to repeal the first proviso of the fourth section of 
the Act entitled " An Act granting bounty land to certain officers and soldiers engaged 
in the military service of the United States," approved September 28, 1850. This per- 
mits members of Congress to have the benefits of that act. August 4, 1864. 

No. 75. Ch. CCXLIX. An Act to extend the Right of Pre-emption over unsurveyed 
' land* in Minmsota, and for other purposes. August 4, 1864. 



142 UNITED BTATBB. [1863. 

No. 76. Ch. CCLXVn. An Act making appropriations for the support of the Army, 
for the year ending June 30, 1855. ( 10,403,459.63 are appropriated. The raperintenden- 
cj of the armories is given to civilians. August 6, 1^. 

No. 77. Ch. CCLXVIII. An Act making appropnatione for the Naval Service for the 
year ending June 30, 1855. % 9,306,806.19 are appropriated. The Memphis Navy Yard is 
ceded to the city of Memphis. The two general orden of the Secretary of the Navy, of 
August 31, 1846, and May 27, 1847, upon relative rank, are made law. August 5, 1854. 

No. 78. Cli. CCLXIX. An Act to carry into ^ect a Treaty between the United States 
and Great Britain, signed June 5, 1854. Whenever the President of the United States 
shall receive satisfactory evidence that the Imperial Parliament of Great Britain and the 
Provincial Parliaments of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, 
have passed laws on their part to give full effect to the provisions of the treaty between the 
United Stales and Great Britain, signed on the 5th of June last, he is hereby authorized to 
issue his proclamation, declaring that he has such evidence, and thereupon, from the date 
of such proclamation, the following articles, being the growth and produce of said provinces 
of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward's Island ; to wit : 

Grain, flour, and breadstuffs of all kinds ; animals of all kinds ; fresh, smoked, and salted 
meats; cotton-wool; seeds and vegetables ; undried fruits; dried fruits; fish of all kinds; 
products of fish and other creatures living in the water; poultry; eggs; hides, furs, skins 
or tails undressed ; stone or marble in%s crude or unwrought state ; slate ; butter, cheese, 
tallow; lard; horns; manures; ores of metals of all kinds; coal; pitch, tar, turpentine; 
ashes; timber and lumber of all kinds, round, hewed, and sawed, unmanufactered in whole 
or in part; firewood, plants, shrubs, and trees ; pelts; wool; fish-oil; rice; broom-corn and 
bark ; gypsum ground or unground ; hewn or wrought or unwrought burr or grindstones ; 
dye-stuffs; flax, hemp, and tow, unmanufactured; unmanufactured tobacco, rags; — 

Shall te introduced into the United States free of duty, so long as the said treaty shall renuun 
in force, — subject, however, to be suspended in relation to the trade with Canada, on the 
condition mentioned in the fourth article of the said treaty : And all the other provisions of 
the said treaty shall go into effect, and be observed on the part of the United States. 

f 2. Whenever the island of Newfoundland shall give its consent to the application of 
the stipulations and provisions of the said treaty to that Province, and the Legislature 
thereof and the Imperial Parliament shall pass the necessary laws for that purpose, the 
above-enumerated articles shall be admitted free of duty from that Province into the United 
States, from and after the date of a proclamation by the President of the United States, de- 
claring that he luts satisfactory evidence that the said Province has consented in a due and 
proper manner to have the provisions of the treaty extended to it, and to allow the United 
States the full benefits of all the stipulations therein contained. August 5, 1854. 

No. 79. Ch. CCLXX. An Act making appropriations for the service of the PoM- Office 
Department during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1855. (^ 10,379,000 are appropriated ; 
and $2,344,464 are appropriated to supply any deficiency that may arise in the revenues of 
the Department to meet the foregoing appropriatiens. The Postmaster General is directed 
to continue the steam mail service during the months of August and September, as is now 
done for 10 months in the year, between Charleston and Key West and Havana. The Postmas- 
ter, at Washington, D. C, is allowed the compensation of 1 mill per pound upon the aggre- 
gate weight of public documents mailed firom his ofilce, this allowance to continue for one 
year only, and to be computed (h>m the ascertained weight for January, 1854. Out of such 
commissions, he shall pay the employees in his office, not exceeding f 250 each, per annum, 
as their compensation for services upon these documents. The Postmaster General shall 
establish a daily mail on the Mississippi River, from Cairo to New Orleans, and a mail from 
Keokuk, Iowa, to Galena, in Dlitiois. August 5, 1864. 

No. 80. Ch. CCLXXL An Act to establish certain additional Post-Roads. August 6, 
1854. 

No. 81. Ch. CCLXXIV. An Act authorizing the payment of balance of the Property 
Accounts between the United States and the State of New York, for military stores in the 
War 0/1812. The balance is # 11,929.45. August 5, 1864. 

No. 82. Ch. CCLXXVI. An Act to establish a Land District in the State of Florida^ 
' bs called the District of Tampa. August 6, 1854. 



1855.] PUBLIC RESOLUTIONS. 143 

IX. PUBLIC RESOLUTIONS. 

[The omilied numbers are private resolutions.] 
No. 1. Joint Resolution of Thamks to OenertU John E. Wool. The thanks of Cod- 
gresa are dae, and are hereby tendered, to Brevet Major- General John £. Wool, for his dis- 
tinguished services in the late war with Mexico, and especially for the skill, enterprise, and 
courage which distinguished his conduct at the battle of Buena Vista. The President is 
nqueated to cause a sword, with suitable devices, to be presented to General Wool, as a tes- 
timony of the high sense entertained by Congress of his gallant and judicious conduct on 
that memorable occasion. January 24, 1854. 

No. 3. A Resolution authorizing an increase of the force in the office of the Superin- 
tendent of the Public Printing. February 10, 1864. 

No. 4. A Resolution for supplying nete members of the Senate and House ofRepre- 
sentatives voith such books of a public character as have been heretofore supplied. Feb- 
ruary 23, 1854. 

No. 5. Joint Resolution authorizing a supplemental contract for certain marble for 
the Capitol Extension. March 1, 1864. 

No. 6. A Resolution accejaing certain volumes and medals presetted by her Britannic 
Majesty's Government to the United States. The presentation volumes and medals, illus- 
trative of the Exhibition in London, in 1851, are accepted, and placed in the Library of Con- 
gress. March 27, 1854. 

No. 7. Joint Resolution authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury and Light-house 
Board to determine upon the site, plan, and mode of constructing the Light-house on 
Cohasset Rocks, and for other purposes. March 27, 1864. 

No. 8. Joint Resolution relative to bids for provision, clothing, and small stores for 
the use of the Navy. All such bids may be rejected, at the option of the Department, if 
made by one who is not known as a manufacturer of, or regular dealer in, the article pro- 
posed to be furnished ; which fact, or the reverse, must be distinctly stated in the bids of- 
fered. The bids of all who have failed to fulfil any contracts previously entered into with the 
United States, shall, at the option of the Department, be rejected. If more than one bid be 
offered for the supply of an article on account of any one party either in his own name, or in 
the name of his partner, clerk, or any other person, the whole of such bids shall be rejected 
at the option of the Departmmt. Copartners shall not be received as sureties for each other. 
Whenever it is necessary for the interest of the government, and the health of the crews of 
the United States vessels, to procure particular brands of flour, which are known to keep 
bwt on distant stations, the same may be procured in market overt. March 27, 1864. 

No. 10. A Resolution authorizing the Secretary of the TVeeuury to pay the expenses of 
codifying and revising the Revenue Laws. $ 6,000 are appropriated ; and report of expen- 
diture be made by Secretary of the Treasury, to Congress, in December, 1864. April 6, 1864. 
No. 11. A Joint Resolution authorizing the accounting officers of the Treasury to 
adjust the expenses of a Board of Commissioners appointed by the Territsrial Assembly 
of Oregon f to prepare a code of laws ; also to adjust the expense of collecting and print- 
ing certain laws and archives of the Territory of Oregon. May 3, 1854. 

No. 12. A Resolution for extending an existing contract for carrying the Mail in 
Alabama, May 3, 1354. 

No. 13. Joint Resolution directing the connection of the public surveys in Alabama, 
with the boundary line between the States of Alabama and Florida. June 29, 1864. 

No. 16. Joint Resolution explanatory of the 2d section of a Resolution to establish 
certain Post Routes, approved July 12, 1852. July 17, 1864. 

No. 17. A Resolution providing for the distribution of the Worlm of T%omas Jeffer- 
son. July 20, 1864. * 

No. 18. Joint Resolution to fix the compensation of the employees in the Legislaiive 
Department, and to prohibit the allowance of the usucd extra compensation to such as 
receive the benefits hereof 20 per cent, added to their present compensation. July 20, 1864. 
No. 25. A Joint Resolution directing the presentation of a Medal to Commander 
JhmcanN. Ingraham. It is ibr rescuing Martin Koszta from the Austrian war-brig 
Hoasar. August 4, 1854. 



144 



UNITED BTATBS. 



[1855, 



X. REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 

1. Statement of Duties^ Revenues, and Public Expenditures^ during the Fiscal 
Years ending June 30, 1852, and June 30, 1853. 

[Prom Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury, Jan. 16, 1853, and Dec. 6, 1853. j 



The receipts into the Treasury were as fol- 
lows : — 

From customs, viz. : — 

During the first quarter, ending Sept. 30, $14,754,909.34 
During the second quarter, '* Dec. 31 , 9,601,509.40 
During the third quarter, '< Mar. 31, 12,109,761.80 
During the fourth quarter, " June 30, 10,873,146.08 
Total customs. 

From sales of public lands. 

From miscellaneous sources. 

Total receiots, exclusive of loans, &c , 

Balance in the Treasury, July 1, 1851 and '52, 
Total means 



Year ending 
June 30, 18^ 



47,339,326.62 

2,043,239.58 

345,820^69 

49,728,386.8<) 

10,911,645.68 



The expenditures, exclusive of trust funds, 
were as follows : — 

Civil List. 

Legislature, 

Executive, 

Judiciary, 

Governments in the Territories, 
Surveyors and their clerks. 
Officers of the Mint and branches. 
Commissioner of the Public Buildines, 
Secretary to sign patents for public Euids, 
Total civil list, 

Foreign Intercourse, 

Salaries of Ministers, 

Salaries of Secretaries of Legation, 
Salaries of Charges d' Affaires, . 
Salary of Minister Resident to Turkey, 
Salary of Dragoman to Turkey and contin< 

gencies, 

Contingent expenses of all the missions abroad, 
Contingent expenses of foreign intercourse. 
Salary of the Consul at London, 
Clerks, office, &c. of Consul, London, 
Salary of Consul at Beyrout, 
Salary of Consul at Alexandria, 
Salaries of Consuls at KuanjE Chew, &.C., China, 
Office-rent of Consul at Bale, Switzerland, 
Relief and protection of American seamen, 
Commissioner in China, Sec, & Interpreter, 
Commissioner in China and outfit. 
Secretary and Interpreter to Chinese Mission, 
Certain diplomatic services, 



60,640,032.57 



1,248,017.90 

1,248,011.91 

718,065.44 

77,515.58 

72,528.46 

55,300.00 

2,000.00 

1,500.00 



3,422,939i29 

71,226.71 

16,518.36 

77,278.61 

6,000.00 

4,000.00 

30,311.12 

36,725.62 

2,000.00 

2,800.00 

739.13 

3,000.00 

3,855 50 

100.00 

135,844.16 

6,500.00 



Yearendin 
June 30, ISi: 



15,723,935.71 
11,307,465.45 
16,208,496.82 
15,691,965.54 



58,931,865.52 
1,667,084.99 
738,623.89 



61,337,574.40 
14,532,636.37 



75,969,710.77 



2,015,313.16 

1,611,814.36 

878,309.54 

123,764.86 

98,080.01 

52,550.00 

3,065.00 

1,500.00 



4,784,396.93 

♦ 290,005.74 
24,060.72 

9,000.00 

5,250.00 

51,164.28 

34,399.43 

3,000 00 

2,090.75 

625 00 

6,250.00 

3,000.00 

100.00 

113,146.20 

33,185.39 

3,750.00 

22,014 19 



• TWa includes the salaries of Charges d' Affaires, and outfits of Ministers and Charges- 



1855.] 



REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE* 



145 



Commissioner to Sandwich Islands, . 
A. TenEyck's salary and cent, expenses, 
Intercourse with Barhary powers, . 
Interpreters, guards, <&c. at the Consulates in 

Turkish dominions, .... 

Instalment and interest due May 30, 1852, un 

der Art. 12 of treaty with Mexico, 
Contingent expenses of commissioners, under 

treaty with Mexico, .... 
Do. do. under convention with Brazil, ^ 
Expenses of agent of Sublime Porte, .^ 
Treaty of peace, limits, and boundaries, &c., 

with Mexico, . . 
Awards under the 15th Article of said treaty, 
To enahi^he President to conclude a treaty 

witl^^Bbo, 
LiquiAB^aims against Mexico, . 
Payment under 9th Art. of treaty with Spain, 
Repayments on appropriations where there 

were no expenditures. 
Total foreign intercourse, . • 



MisceUaneous. 
Surveys of public lands, . . . , 
Collecting revenue frem sales of public lands. 
Support and maintenance of light-nouses, &c., 
Buildinc light-houses, &c., . . . , 

Marine liospitals, 

Building marine hospitals, and repairs, 
Public buildings in Washington, &c., 
Repairs Congressional Library, . 

Patent fund, 

Mail service for government. 

Mail service for Congress, &c., 

Deficiency in Post Office revenue, 

Mail service for census papers, 

Selecting certain Wabasn and Erie Canal lands 

in Ohio, act June 30, 1834, . . 
Geologists and survey, &c. of mineral lands 

in Michigan, Iowa, &c.. 
Completing survey of copper region in Mich., 
Pay^ment of war bounty land warrants, 
Building custom-houses and warehouses, 
Expenses of collecting revenue from customs, 
Survey of the coast of the United States, . 
Subdividing Islands on the coast of California, 
Survey of South Florida reefs, dLc, 
Repairs of steamer Bibb .... 
Fuel and quarters of army officers on Cst. Sur., 
Completing east wing Patent-Office building. 
Erecting west wing " " " 

Mint establishment, 

Relief of sundry individuals, 

Auxiliary watch in the city of Washington, 

Expenses incident to loans and Trea8.-noteB. 



Year ending 

June 30, 18^. 



$3,795.90 
1,309.11 
9,312.11 

1,021.78 

3,180,000.00 

950.75 

5,850.00 

51.81 

3,500.00 
529,980.78 



4,132,671.45 



242,883.52 
167,082.14 
597,466.09 
113,103.33 
203,115.23 
128,693.44 
141,406.23 

99,117.00 
865,555.55 
163,888.89 

12,000.00 

1,049.97 

3,610.51 

12,780.77 

5,900.00 

521,491.23 

2,082,633.24 

363,000.00 

30,000.00 



166,117.44 

140,003.02 

185,485.44 

15,295.24 

11,408.33 



Year ending 
June 30, 18^ 



$2,250.00 
13,767.40 

989,77 

13,412.70 

10,914.99 

21.894.12 
544.86 

870.00 

66,655.40 



599,030.14 



295,262.44 
112,220.46 
615,638.42 
325,975.09 
280,750.10 

42,596.53 
127,447.25 

62,500.00 
111,544.87 
900,000.00 
875,000.00 
378,750.00 



1,325.00 

581,554.12 

2,243,377.73 

336,000.00 

20,000.00 

30,000.00 

18,000.00 

• 4,500.00 

123,382jB6 

62,OOO.0P 

153,530.42 

328,133J36 

15,190.00 

12,779.38 



13 



146 



UNITED STATES. 



[1865. 



Expenses incident to Texas indemnity stock, 
Support of the penitentiary in Diet. Columbia, 
Support of lunatics of the Dist. of Columbia, 
Erecting Asylum for insane in Dist Columbia, 
Support of twelve transient paupers, 
Cleaning and deepening Wash. City Canal, 
Repairs of bridges, and draw-keepers, 
Repayment of debt of cities of Dist. of Col., 
Three per cent, to Illinois, 
Three per cent, to Missouri, ^ . 
Two and Three per cent, to Alabama, . 
Two and Three per cent, to Mississippi, . 
Five per cent, to Michigan, • 
Five per cent, to Arkansas, 
Five per cent, to Florida, 
Five per cent, to Iowa, .... 
Five per cent, to Louisiana, . 
Maine, under treaty stipulations, 
Debentures, drawbacks, bounties, &c.. 
Excess of deposits for unascertained duties 

repaid to importers, 

Debentures and other charges (customs), 
Debentures aifll other charges (lands). 
Relief of the cities of the Dist. of Columbia, 
Payment of horses, &c., lost, 
Refunding duties on fbreicn merchandise, 
Tonnage duties on Spanisn vessels refunded, 
Certain duties refunded, .... 
Refunding duties on sugar and molasses, 
Repayment for lands erroneously sold, 
Remnding purchase-money for land sold in 

the Greensbur^; district, Louisiana, 
Settling land claims in California, • 
Northern boundary of Iowa, 
Boundary between Missouri and Iowa, . 
Boundary between Wisconsin and Minesota, 
Locating bounty land warrants, 
Results and acct. of the Exploring Expedition, 
Smithsonian Institution, act Aug. 10, 1846, 
Expenses of mineral land service. 
Salaries of assistant treasurers and clerks. 
Contingencies under act for collect, pub. rev., 
Compensation of spec, agents to ex. accounts. 
All other items of a mbcellaneous nature, . 
Claims not otherwise provided for, . 

Consular receipts, 

Building and e<|uipping six revenue-cutters, 

Hbtorical paintings for the Capitol, . 

Pay to each designated depositary (i per cent.), 

Itiorary for Territory of Wew Mexico, . 

Fublic buildings " " " 

Fublic buildings, Minesota Territory, 

Penitentiary, " *« 

Public Library, Washington Territory, . 

Special examiners of drugs and medicines. 

Taking 7th census, 



Year ending 
June 30, 1852. 



$ 1,000.00 

11,920.00 

8700.44 

2,000.00 
5,000.00 
9,833.38 
60,000.00 
11,833.25 
31,414.33 
17,497.96 

14,643.45 
3,617.06 
1,216.77 
6,464.36 
9,472.00 
60,610.31 
544,452.38 

846,918.86 
113,307.73 

36,868.54 

1,053.05 

138,086.41 

799.50 

719.37 

221,985.87 

49,916.39 

649.91 
50,000.00 
13,342.31 



54,515.30 
20,000.00 
30,910.14 

24,049.59 
7,783.33 
2,706.81 
1,943.29 
9,982.38 
388.75 

2,000.00 

168.24 

4,418.37 

300.00 

10,000. 

10,000. 

5,750.451 
547,385.0'^ 



Year endioe 
June 30, 1853. 



$ 204.18 

9,210.00 

8,982.77 

35,000.00 

2,000.00 

24,607.00 
60,000.00 

17,405.84 
13,875.17 
11,812.99 

8,941.80 
1,865.22 
01.90 
765.73 
11,269.07 
519,680.11 

1,052,086.75 

187,326.19 

1,776.87 

43,378.42 

2,215.01 

19,396.61 



34,035.14 

3,741.83 
49,633.65 
14,724.65 

5,521.34 
600.00 

18,000.00 
30,910.14 
27,317.37 
25,121.41 
16,188.07 



1,161.07 

3,214.95 

31,376J34 

317.60 

564.67 

19,700.00 

6,000.00 

4,000.00 

7,300.75 

127,485.30 



i 



1855J 



REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 



U7 



Year ending 
June 30, 1852. 



Year endin 
June 30, 18i 



5,916 copies Congr. Globe and Appendix 
Purchase of Annals of Congress, . 
1,000 copies Works of John Adams, . 
Reporting and publishing House proceedings 

in Daily Globe, 

Binding 5,500 copies Cong. G. & App. for 2d 

Seas. 31st Cong., 

2d and 3d voIs.,oth series, of Doc. History, 
219 copies 8th vol. Am. Archives, . 
Boundary line. United States and Mexico, 
Reconstructing maps showing Northeastern 

Boundary line, . . 

Returning fugitives from service, . 
Indians in old States, . . . ■ . 
Cherokees that remained in N. Carolina, 
Cemetery in Mexico, .... 
Extension of Capitol, .... 
Military Asylum, .... 
Land north of Post>Office building. 
Geological reconnoissance in Oregon, 
For burial-place of seamen from New York 

hospital, 

Sale of goods by act April 2, 1844, 
Increase of salaries ana pay. 
Redemption loan office certificates, &c., 
Payment to Chickasaws, loss by government 

defaulter, 
Supervising and locol inspectors 
Oregon, defense against Cay use Indians, 
Statues for east front of Capitol, 
Carrying electoral votes to Washington, 
100 sets statutes at large. 
Printing estimates of appropriations, . 
Miscellaneous items, .... 
Total miscellaneous. 

Under the direction of the Depart, of Interior, 

Indian department, 

Fulfilling Indian treaties 

Pensions, war, 

Pensions, naval, 

Claims of the State of Virginia, 
Relief of sundry individuals. 
Total under direction of Depart, of Interior, 

Under the direction of the War Department. 
Army proper, ...... 

Military Academy, 

Fortifications, and other works of defence. 
Armories, arsenals, and munitions of war, 
Harbors, roads, rivers, &c.. 
Surveys, . . . ... 

Arming and equi[>ping the militia. 
Payments to militia and volunteers. 
Relief of individuals and miscellaneous. 

Total under direction of the War Dep't, 



$ 18,540.00 
60,000.00 
10,000.00 

10,001.25 

3,187.50 
20,a59.00 

3,045.41 
85,575.48 



593.86 

1,000.00 

19,975.49 

^9,000.00 

175,000.00 

118,791.19 

9,877.93 



9,824,158.02 



2,114,841.93 
722,410.74 

2,134,220.87 

211,002.99 

16,352.41 



5,198,828.94 



5,931,447.92 
164,057.17 
285,596.71 
848,057.73 
17,059.86 
57,950.00 
260,247.70 
345,682.79 
315,147.04 



^a>5,246.92 



$345,4 



2,080.00 
2,586.29 



3,480.34 
515,000.00 



16,984.25 

5,000.00 

1,070.16 

170,426.04 

4,442.05 

45,592.68 

24,614.36 

84,324.16 

5,830.00 

18,917.50 

3,150.00 

2,970.00 

2,723.44 

,792,369.70 



3,761,102.74 

1,551,923.80 

175,396.30 

20,043 75 

21,069.00 



5,529,535.59 



7,314,491.18 
146,523.53 
112,675.37 
856,421.97 
468,579.30 
208,213.16 
202,399.78 
361,986.18 
276,000.40 



9,947,290.87 



148 



UNITED STATES. 



[1856. 



Under t/te direction of the Navy Department. 
Pay and subsistence, includ'g medicines, &c., 
Increase, repairs, ordnance, and equipment, 
Continjj^nt expenses, .... 

Navy yards, ...... 

Navy hospitals, asylums, and magazines, . 

Nautical Almanac, 

Relief of individuals and miscellaneous, . 

Marine Corps, 

Dry docks, 

Steam mail service, 

Total under direction of the Navy Dep't, 

PvJblic Debt. 
Paying the old public debt. 
Interest on the public debt. 
Reimbursement of Treasury-notes per acts 

priorto July 22, 1846, .... 
Ditto per acts July 22, 1846, and Jan.28, 1847. 
Interest on $ 5,000,000, Texas stock, 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1842, 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1843, 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1846, 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1847, 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1848, 
Premium, commission, &c. on stock redeemed. 
Redemption stock certificates for 4th and 5th 

instalments of Mexican indemnity, . 
Redemption of Treas.-notes purloined, . 
Total public debt, 

Total expenditures, . 

Balances in the Treasury, July 1, 1852 and '53, 



$3,238,191.72 $3,782,236.35 



Year ending 
June 30, 1852 



2,200,861.27 
547,798.75 
741,692.68 
15715.78 
17,776.00 
163,239.78 
387,101.14 
671,796.91 
944,062.02 



8,928,23605 



1,460.31 
*3,750,297.80 

50.00 

t250.00 

250,000.00 

745,637.50 

9.74 

1,070,450.00 

170,063.42 

287,596.76 

6,275,815.53 



46,007,89620 



Year ending 
June 30, 1852 



2,300,607.09 

534,467.31 

693,038.12 

36,428.45 

883,210.56 

364,661.54 

732,056.65 

1,564,933.61 

10,891,639 59 



1,165 91 
"3,665,832.74 

250.00 
100.00 

167,495.60 

4,296,862.50 

68,200.00 

1,668,650.00 

193,300.00 

420,498.64 



200.00 



10,482,555^39 
54,026,818.21 



14,632,136.37121,942,892.56 



2. Statement of Duties, Revenues, and Public Expenditures during the Fiscal 
Year entUng June 30, 1854, agreeably to warrants issued, exclusive of 
Trust Funds and Treasury Kotes funded, 

BEGBIPTS. 

From Cu8tom8,quarter ending Sept. 30, 1853, $ 19,718,822.00 
Dec. 31, 1853, 13,587,821.27 
Mar. 31, 1854, 16,896,724.83 
June 30, 1854, 14,020,822.17 

— : $64,224,190.27 

Sales of public lands, ^'tl^'l^lS 

Miscellaneous and incidental sources, . . . 854,71 b.54 

Total receipts, . ... * ''^'^^'I5^?2 

Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1853, 21,942,892.56 

Total means, $95,492,597,76 



* locludiog Treasury-notes and Mexican indemnity stock, 
t $50 was received for customs. 



1855. J REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 149 

XZPSKDITURES. 

For civil list, $ 4,649,384.98 

" foreign intercourse,* 7,726,677.13 

^' miscellaneous, 13,531,310.33 

Vnder the direction of the Department of the Interior, 2,609,054.79 
«* " " War Department, . . . 11,733,629.48 
« ". " Navy *».... 10,768,192.89 
For public debt, viz. : — 
Interest on public debt, including Treas- 
ury-notes, $ 3,071,016.69 

Redemption of stock, loan of 1842, . . 2,813,769.62 
Ditto, 1843, . 1,397,831.35 

Ditto, 1846, . . 2,2ai,435.59 

Ditto, 1847, . 7,899,950.00 

Ditto, 1848, . . 2,656,958.20 

Redemption of Texan indemnity stock, 520,000.00 

Redemption of debt contracted by cities of 

Washington, Georgetown, and Alexa., 712,800 00 

Premium, &c. on stock redeemed, . 2,991,668.69 
Reimbursement of Treasury-notes, . . 250.00 

24,347,680.14 
Deduct repayments, .... 11,299.48 



Total expenditures, 
Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1854, 



24,336,380.66 
$75,354,630.26 

$ 20,137,967.50 



3. Statement of the Debt of the JMted States on tlie Zd ofDecernber, 1853.t. 



Denomination of Debt 


Rate of 
Interest 
per Cent. 


When 
redeemable. 


Amount. 


Principal and interest ^ the old 
funded and unfunded debt, 
Treasury-notes of 1812, and 
Yazoo scrip. 
Debt of the corporate cities of the 
District of Columbia, assumed 
peractofMay 20, 1836, . 
Outstanding Treasury-notes funda- 
ble or payable, 
Loan of April 15, 1842, 
" March 3, 1843, . 
" July 22, 1846, . 
" January 28, 1847, 
« March 31, 1848, 
Texan indemnity , 
Ditto, ditto, not issued 

Present amount as above, . . 


5* 

6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
5 


On present'ion 

On present'ion 
Dec. 31, 1862 
July 1, 1853 
Nov. 12, 1856 
Jan. 1, 1868 
July 1, 1868 
Jan. 1,1865 


$ 114,ll8.54 

24,000.00 

114,511.64 

6,872,135.54 

92,800.00 

4,048,400.00 

20,738,700.00 

14,444.491.80 

4,887,000.00 

5,000,000.00 


$56,336,157.52 



* (7,000,000 of this amount was payment to Mexico to fulfil the third article of the 
Treaty between the United States and Mexico of Dec. 13, 1853. 
t Public debt outatanding October 1st, 1864, $45,640,606.05. 
13* 



150 



UIQTED STATES. 



[1866. 



4. Statement of the Expenditures of the United Slates for 65 years^ exclusive 
of Payments on account of the Public Debt and from Trust Funds, frac- 
tions excluded. 



I 





CiTil List. 
Fctftign iiilor- 


MUiiafy EfitAb- 




A^;gpegat#af] 


SiXpsi ill t D fn. 


Ycani. 


NmtiI Ertab- ' 






eoMi^^ and 


iSilmiant-t 


luImMQl. 


In e^h Tea r 


Ill aa£h Period 




[V[isfl:#itUfie<JU3 






offflurYoon, 


17B9-ai 


a 1,033,401 


iKi^eia 


§570 


1 1,919,589 




17^ 
1731 




J,223,5ft4 


&:i 


l,!s7T,9ft4 
1,710,070 


« 3,797,493 




17^ 


705,598 


2,733,540 


61,4^ 


3,500,647 




171*5 


1,367:(J37 


8,B73,Cfe59 


AlQ^im 


4.:iai,fi53 




I7S6 
1797 


772,*^ < 


, 1,474,661 
l,i^,CJ65 


274,7c^ 


2:521,330 
2.^23,591 


12,(63,305 




1793 


i,u\sm 


2,13r>,837 


\Mm^ 


AMA.'^m 




17^ 


1,039,393 


^,5H2,&,i3 


a.>if*(,lH2 


6,480,167 




laoo 

1901 


1,111,76;* 


2.^26 ,tH I 
1,755,477 


3,448,716 
2,in,4^ 


7,4ll.3rrO 

4.sei,ee9 


21,33^,361 




l#tt 


l,4«a,9'2S 


i.asH.S'^a 


yi5,56^3 


3.737,080 




1803 


1,^43,(33*5 


^l.flTjS 


1,215,!£11 


4,0(^,825 




teen 
isns 


a,i9i,(ios 


1,072,017 
391,136 


l.W7,600 


4,4,'5a,859 
6.357,2^ 


t7,m,43S 




iao6 


2.831,037 


1,640,431 


1,649,641 1 


e,08[,KJfl 




1^ 


l,e^,W97 


i,€ei.6n 


i.-m.iM 


4,aS4.672 




isos 

19119 


1,5*16.304 


3,I06,9)?5 
3,771,1(« 


L.SM.Ofe 
2,427,75y 


6,5c>4,SJ3 
7,414,672 


23,927.244 




18i0 


1,101,1-45 


2,555.ea3 


1,654.214 


s,3n.as:i 




imi 


1,307.291 


2,aS9,747 


l,96i^56G 


6,532.€04 




isia 


1,693,068 


12,1 ^7,0K 


3,3.^9.BGS 


I7,sa9,499 


36^U7^S7 


1SI3 


l,7Sffl.43a 


19,906,3ea 


fi,4ie,a<o 


23,052,397 




1S14 


£,3oe,oa9 


2(1,6(18,366 


i;<M\;m 


aO,127,GS6 




m\B 


S,SS!!^,S71 


15.;itM,700 


S|ffiO,OfK) 


26,353,571 




, ime 


2,W8&,74a 


16,475,412 


fln,^ 


'2:3,373,432 


108,537,066 


18i7 


3,5ife,S(37 


8.621 ,076 




I6,4c>4j^l0 




\%Y% 


7.ni9,H0 


2^553,635 


13,9a?,©74 




J HI 9 


3,007 ,5iia 


9,355,421 


3,ti47,64(J 


I6,ai0,'273 




\m} 


2.592,022 


fi, 154,61^ 


4,aS7,&3tl 


i3a34,riao 


5^,598,087 


192L 


%^i^,VU 


5,181, 114 


a,3l9,5frl3 


10,723.479 




\fm 


1,957,99B 


£,635,18? 


2,224,4,'ig 


9.^37,643 




\im 


a,OS!a,(i94 


5,258,295 


2.503,766 


9,784,156 




19JH 


7,155.309 
2J4hi,M4 


5.270,255 

5,6ea.83i 


2,904,532 
3,043.064 


15,33(.1,145 
.U,4SW,459 
•l3.06a,3]6 


45,6SS.421 


isiis 




1££M 


2,«00,17^ 


6,at3.2;^6 


4,2IS,902 




13^ 


2,314,777 


li.C75,742 


4,2fi3,l*7y 


ta,2fr1,3y7 




SI 


1 ^i,*^,aDS 


5,701,203 


3,3lH,7d6 


12,506,041 


43,313,313 


3,0et£,214 


6,250 ,5^j0 


3,308,745 


ri.65l,4fl9 




1S3« 


3,22S,41G 


6,75M,titi9 


3,2:t3.4--i9 


13,220,«»4 




1331 


3,0(54,346 


6>J3,ii;ffl 


3,856,183 


13,863,708 




isaa 


4,574 ,H41 


7,9S2.S77 


3.1^,370 


l6,5H,n(=« 


66,^9,sra 


1^33 


5.Dr>1.7^ 


i3,t>3s,jBa 


3,yDl„157 


22,043,296 




lasi 


4.3SD,773 


10,0^,439 


3,956,260 


18,4Ja3,467 




: 1S35 


2.TM),\m 


9,420,313 


3,^1,933 


17,005,413 




isoa 


h;m,2Ti 


i^.4eo:iio 


fi,eOU,763 


i^.6.'iS,M4 


S7,iao,4a8 


, tS37 


E, 534 ,253 


10.417.274 


a, 852.060 


31,733,697 




193^ 


5,666,703 


Ifi.p36.3r-i 


5.975,771 


31,578,7^5 




iS3y 


4,Em,sea 


I4,26S,'J'*1 


K^sm 


25,488,,5.47 




1840 


5,6sl,B78 

fi.|yo,R3i 


Il,e21,4^« 

J3,70J,9HS 


6,124,456 
6.001 ,C^77 


KJ.;t27,772 
26,196,840 


03,i(§s,rai 




L.H4J 


0,775,8*25 


9,188,469 


8:3^,243 


24.3G1 ,337 




«mn,oriS13 


2,8C7,-2a3 


4,15&l,3*l 


3,672,718 


10,69«.391 




1 *[!^4 


5 2ai,?47 


B.asiaiT 

0,633.303 


6,496.931 
6,235,639 


19,96a,0r35 
iil ,370,049 


81,216,©^ 




*lrl4G 


6.7^,000 


13,670,438 


6,450.p*62 


25,813,290 




*1847 


e,7lci,?i54 


4l,aSl,606 


7/J3[,633 


H5,i29.0^ 




1 *L^1^ 


5,5H5,07tJ 
U,017J^0 


27.830,163 
17,290,936 


94oo.7:;r7 

&^,H69,818 


42,81 1 ;970 
57,B31,667 


146,994,4^ 




♦IflSfJ 


14.839.735 


12,801.764 


7,383 313 


43,002,168 




*1SSI 


l7,8r^,B07 


11,^11,733 


8,987,71)8 


48,(XJi5,879 




♦1953 
1 tl^ 


i7,3r!Lt.re'3 

17,175.707 


13,424,075 

I5,4rfi,^rjj 


10,831.640 


16.007,^96 
43,643.263 


194,647.610 





^.* fistt the ywN ern[lng J una 3^>, 
iM |ii|e;|uclinj{ the Oep LrLineia of ilio IjiieriDr fai miil jfiicfi 1B60. 



1856.] REVENUE ANB EXPENDITURE. 161 

1^. SUOemmt rf the Receipts into the National Treasury^ from Cnstoms^ In- 
Umal Revenue and DireU Taxes^ and Sales of Public Lands, -^fractions 
of a Dollar being excluded^— for 65 y ear s^ from 1789 to 1853 inclusive. 



Tears. 



Customs. 



Internal and 
Direct 'Tues. 



Aggregate of Receipts. 



Sales of Lands 



1789-91 
1792 
1793 
1794 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1801 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1813 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 



1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1899 

1840 

1841 

1842 
6 mo. of 1843 
♦1844 
♦1^5 
♦1^6 
♦1847 
♦1848 
♦1849 
>1850 
♦1851 
♦1852 
♦1863 



t^,JK9,473 
3,443,0ri 
4,253,306 
4,aOl,0flS 

7,S19,650 
10^7,y),773 
ia,93S,4gJ' 

H,fie7.6sa 

I6,3€3,&60 

7,390,021 

9,693.309 

t3,ai3,S£23 

8,958,778 

13,2^,633 

6,999,772 

7,282,^2 

36,306,S7& 

S6<283,3ie 

17,176,385 

20,283,609 

l3,0tM,447 
17,589,762 
19,0^,433 
17,S7B,K6 
20,099,714 
S3,il[,3:^ 
19,7ia;2a.1 

22,6S1 ,9GG 
21,fl2i,3yi 

yi'.N:^i^.:Kiia 

ly.i-iyijail 
33^40^,940 
J 1.169,290 
ie,I3g,800 
23j 137,3525 
13,499,502 
14,497,217 
Jfl,I§7,|)09 
7,046,844 
26,lg3,&71 
2r,&24ai3 
26,7r^,6G9 
K:i,747,SS4 
31,757,070 
as,^46,739l 

49,017,663 
47.339,336 
6%03U86S 



• 208,943 

337,706 

274,090 

337,755 

475,290 

575,491 

644,358 

779,136 

1,643,620 

1,582,377 

828,464 

287,059 

101,139 

43,631 

75,866 

47,784 

27,370 

11,662 

19,879 

9,962 

5,762 

8,561 

3,881,482 

6,840,733 

9,378,344 

4,512^288 

1,219,613 

313,244 

137,847 

98,377 

88,617 

44,580 

40,865 

28,102 

28,228 

22,513 

19,671 

25,838 

29,141 

ir,440 

18,422 

3,153 

4,216 

14,723 

1,099 



• 4,836 
83,641 
11,963 

444 
167,726 
1«3,G28 
ia^,67D 
4S7,Sa7 
540.1M 
765, SN6 

6-17 ,B3a 

4-12,252 

69a,5|9 

1,040,283 

71 0,42^ 

rA655 

1,135,971 

I,a37,9fi9 

1,901 .fe26 
2,60(5,605 
3,274,423 
1 ,eii'j,8rii 
l,212,i)fili 

i,«oa,s^ 

9l6,li33 
[K.1,418 

i,2ie,ogo 

l,39[i.7«S 
1,495,345 
t,aiig,3l}9 
1,517,176 
2,329,356 
3,2LO,8|S 
2,623,3^1 
3,9G7,Ba2 
4,a57,(KM 
4,757.601 

4,e77,iyo 

6,863,6M 
3,2t>£,184 
7.1161,113 
3,494,356 
1,470,296 
I,456,a-J3 
1,01S,4S2 
2:320,94i? 
2,241,021 
2,786,570 

3,679,e79 

a,727,eM 

3,707,112 
3,295,412 



• 4,300,473 
3,fiS2,Ol4 
4/i33,012 
6,07&,1S6 
S, 020,216 
7.(34-9, 114 

7,76J,aS3 

n»59,r3S& 

10,634,907 

i2,5(io,ea! 

13,405,328 
10,9(^,15^ 
11,687,231 
13,520,312 
IS,S0a,S09 
ie,350,4GD 

r7,03g,y©9 

7,749,835 
9j 200, 737 
14,363,423 
9,074,968 
14,068,839 
11,017.225 
15,4U;634 
47,4fB.201 
32,786,862 
21 ,003,503 
5i3, 871^6 
16,77y,y3l 
14,31.^79I:^ 
ia48l,9Gl 
20,Q49,J5i36 
ia,900,60G 
21,343.906 
24,763,345 

24,243,S(M 
24,2^,979 
ti4.2^,aSS 
27,452,697 
3U107,M0 
33,(M3,M4 
21,076,774 
aije3,63tj 
4^^,288,210 
18,012, §4 e 
10,373,9^1 

3j,3oy,i>i;^ 

l6,993,^rH 
15,907,512 
19,643.967 

8,oei>,3a6 

28^,619 
29,769, m 
29,490.347 
26,346,790 
35,436,750 
31,(J7I,3.17 
43,375,791;? 
62,31 2, U73 
49J2^,a^ 
C1^337,r.M 



• 8,051,487 



22,642,497 



33.985.647 



48,576.694 



62,427,449 



41,087,963 



87,900.902 



94,440,032 



72,750,896 



91,680,396 



107,065,604 



136,531,972 



84,798,731 



72,171,324 



121,061,921 



176,491,510 



♦ For the year ending June 30. 



152 
6. 



UNITBD STATES. 



[1855. 



StatetnaU of the Debt i^the UniUd StaleM, the TckU Value of Imparts and 
Exports, and the Total Tonnage, for 63 years, from 1791 to 1853, fractions 
excluded, • 



Yean. 


Debt. 


Importa. 


Ezporta. 


Tonnage. 


1791 


$75,463,476 


• 62,200,000 


$19,012,041 


602,146 


1792 


77,227,924 


31,500,000 


20,753,098 


664,437 


1793 


80,352,634 


31,100,000 


26,109,672 


491,780 


1794 


78,427,405 


34,600,000 


33,026,233 


628,817 


1796 


80,747,687 


69,756,268 


47,989,472 


S'''S£l 


1796 


83,762,172 


81,436,164 


67,064,097 


831,900 


1797 


82,064,479 


76,379,406 


66,850,206 


876,913 


1798 


79,228,529 


68,651,700 


61,527,097 


Sf'^ 


1799 


78,408,670 


79,068,148 


78,665,522 


916,408 


1800 


82,976,294 


91,252,768 


70,971,780 


972,492 


1801 


83,038,051 
§0,712,632 


111,363,511 


94,115,925 


1,033,219 


1802 


76,333,333 


72,483,160 


892,101 


1803 


77,054,686 


64,666,666 


66,800,033 


949,147 


1804 


86,427,121 


86,000,000 


77,699,074 


1,042,404 


1805 


82,312,150 


120,000,000 


95,566,021 


1,140,369 


1808 


76,723,271 


129,000,000 


101,636,963 


1,208,735 


1807 


69,218,399 


138,600,000 


108,343,150 


1,268,648 


1808 


65,196,318 


66,990,000 


22,439,960 


^'SS'S^ 


1809 


67,023,192 


69,400,000 


62,203,231 


1,350,281 


1810 


63,173,217 


8^,400,000 

ra,4oo,ooo 


66,767,974 


1,424,783 


1811 


48,005,688 


61,316,831 


J'S^'SS 


1812 


45,209,738 


77,030,000 


38,627,236 


1,269,997 


1813 


65,962,828 


22,005,000 


27,855,997 


1,666,628 


1814 


81,487,846 


12,965,000 


6,927,441 


1,169,209 


1815 


99,833,660 


113,011271 


62,657,763 


1,368,127 


1816 


127,334,934 


] |7JII.L-i"if 


81,920,462 


^'2^'?S 


1817 


123,491,965 


^j:,ii.z'iiK.Hiih 


prff7^ ^"^ 


1,399,912 


1818 


103,466,634 


li>i;7i'iOA*;iU 


oj:2t.i,i3;J 


1,225,184 


1819 


95,529,648 


ft7,] 21^100 


70,142,521 


1,260,751 


1820 


91,015,566 


74,460,tHX> 


Ki,69r.66a 


1,280,166 


1821 


89,987,428 


62,M.">,7'J4 


64,^74.332 


. 1,298,958 


1822 


93,546,677 


ftH^'Jl.i'va 


72,160,2^1 


1,324,699 


1823 


90,875,877 


77,C79,S!Gr 


74,630,030 


1,336,666 


1824 


90,269,778 


80,549,fJ07 


75.5*^6,657 


1,399,163 


1825 


83,788,433 


96,^U.075 


9tf; 535,3^ 


1,423,112 


1826 


81,054,060 


fH. 97-1, 4 77 


77,edS^ 


1,634,191 


1827 


73,987,357 


7^.4Kl.flfi^ 


e2,3»i,sa7 


1,620,608 


1828 


67,475,044 


!S^.;yja.H:i-t 


72.264,886 


1,741,392 


1829 


68,421,414 


71,HI'J,[;y7 


73,358,671 


^•^»S2 


1830 


48,665,406 


7lJ,^7n.i^:ii» 


73,919,50(5 


1,191,776 


1831 


39,123,192 


li':f,lUI.i:l-l 


8U31D,S83 


1,267,847 


1832 


24,322,235 


liiJ.lOLN^ilti 


6^,176,913 


1,439,460 


1833 


7,001,699 


nw.iM;iii 


00,140,433 


1,606,161 


1834 


4,760,082 


\m,mi:^^ 


lM,:i36.pr3 


1,758,907 


1835 


37,733 


I4y.f^'^,7-i'^ 


121,633:^577 


1,824,940 


1836 


37,513 


im3^'\,^^'> 


la!?,a3,G'10 


1,882,103 


1837 


1,878,224 


l40,y^^J:il7 


117,419,376 


1,896,686 


1838 


4,857,660 


1(k5,4.-^.Slfi 


iI3JI7,40i 


1,995,640 


1839 


11,983,738 


] 31,028,410 


(G2,C92.I32 


2,096,380 


1840 


6,125,078 


)3J,&7l,3M 


lr4,*fl.eSH 


2'*»2! 


1841 


6,737,398 ♦ 


327,^^6, 177 


• VllMi^BM 


2,130,744 


1842 


16,028,486 


M»,ISa,087 


\m,m\.sM 


2,092,391 


1843 


26,898,963 


fl4,7Ga.7^9* 


Mxm\m^ 


2,158,603 


1844 


26,143,996 


I0e.43S,O^t 


lLI,aO0,04Ct 


2,280,096 


1845 


16,801,647 


UT,a54,.^t 


ii4,64G,eoet 


2,417,002 


1846 


24,256,495 


1^1.6SI,7a7t 


U3.4SS/jl6t 


2,662,065 


1847 


45,659,659 


Mti>15,K*5t 


l.l!H.&JS,G22t 


2,839,046 


1848 


65,804,460 


irH.a/7,9a^t 


lM,fK:M,4*5t 


3,154,042 


i§g 


64,704,693 


147.8f.7,439t 


145,755.8201 
136, 916,91 2f 


3,334,015 


64,228,238 


l7ai3S,3lSt 


3,636,464 


1861 


62,660,395 


%\^MA,S^m 


2l8,3Si^.O]lt 


3,772,439 


^S? 


67,560,395 


2l2£Hr»412t 


'^^m\ 62f-t 


4,138,441 


am 


56,336,157 


:^r,9^.^,(H7t 


2:ny76,l^7t 


4,407,010 



# Only nine months of 1843. 



f For the year ending June 90. 



1855.] 



COMMBRCK. 



15S 



XI. COmCERCE AND NAVIGATION. 

1. Value or Diffxrxkt Articles Imported. 

Vabu of Goods^ Wares^ tmd Merekdndise imported into tke Unittd Stateo 

in oU Ves9d8,from July 1, 1852, to Juna 30, 1853. 



Species of Mercfaandisa. 



Value. 






Species of MerclModiaa. 



Yalue. 



Febb op Dutt. 
Animals for braed, 
BulHon. 

Gold, 

Silver, 



Gold, 

SUver, 

Modeb of inreatioos and im 
prorements in the arta, 

Teas, 

Goflbe, 

Copper. 
In plates, for sheathing ships, 
For the use of the Mint, 
In ore, 

Gottm, uninanufoctured, 

Adhesive feAt, for slieathing ves- 
sels, 

PaunUn^ and statuary of Amer- 
ican artists, 

Specimens (rfnatund history ,&c. , 

sheathing metal, 

Platina, unmanu&ctured, 

Plaster, unground, 

Peraonal enects of immigrants, 

Personal eflfects, A:c. of citizens 
dying abcoad. 

Old junk, 

Ohkum, 

Garden-seeds, trees, shrubs, &c., 

Products of U. & brought back. 

Guano, 

Articles imporUd for schooU, 

Philosophical apparatus, &c., 
Books, maps, and charts, 
Statues, busts of marble^ &c., 
Paintings and engrarings, A:c., 
All other articles, 
Xotai, 

Patino Dutt. 
Mcmufaeturea of Wool, ^. 
Cloths and casaimeres. 
Merino shawls of wool. 
Blankets, 

Hosiery and arUcIes on frames, 
Worsted stuff goods. 
Woollen and worsted yam, 
Woollen and worsted, embroi- 
dered or tamboured. 
Manufactures of, not specified, 
Flannels, 
Baizes, 

wTlton. Saxony, and Aubusson, 
Brussels, Turkey, and treble* 
ingrained. 



• 56,569 

465,044 
31 

1,963,3I2J 
1,742,390 

2,360 
8,186,217 
15,525,954 

1,155,414 

866 

443,796 

40,447 

14,293 

36,712 
3,054 

676,355 
42,450 
90,427 

151,037 

3,798 
30,868 
1,550 
194,096 
316,793 
96,563 



9,139 
11,671 

3,435 
17,260 
71,038 



31,383,534 



11,071,906 
1,402,582 
1,455,659 
1,047,686 
9,796,387 
280,896 

28,025 

1,096,907 

106,381 

118,203 

92,571 

> 762,487 



Carpeting. 

Venetian and other ingrained, 

Not specified, 
Manufaetum tff Cotton, 

Printed, suined, or colored. 

White or uncolored, • 

Tamboured or embroidered, 

Velvets wholly of cotton, 

Ofcutton and silk, 

Oords, gimps, and gaHoons, 

Hos'y and art. made on frames. 

Twist, yam, and thread. 

Hatters' plush, of silk and cot- 
ton, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Manufacturet of Silk. 

Piece goods, 

Hosiery and articles made on 
frames. 

Sewing-silk, 

Articles tamboured or embroi- 
dered, 

Hats and bonnets. 

Manufactures of, not specified. 

Floss, 

Raw, 

Bolting cloths. 
Silk and worstea goods. 
Camlets of goats' hair dt mohair, 
Manufaeturta ofFitLx. 

Linens,bleachad or unbleached. 

Hosiery and articles made on 
frames. 

Art. tamboured or embroidered. 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Manufacturea of Hemp. 

Sheetings, brown and white, 

Ticklenburgs, oenaburgs, and 
tw flaps. 

Articles not specified, 

Russia sail-duck, 

Holland 

Ravensduck, 
Cotton bagging. 
Clothing. 

Ready made. 

Articles of wear. 
Laces, thread, and insertings, 
Cotton insert'gs, trimmings, kt., 
Floor-cloth, patent, painted, k,z., 
Oil-cloth of all kinds. 
Hair-cloth and hair-seating, 
Lasting and mohair-doth for 

shoes and buttons 
Gunny cloth, 
Matting, Chinese and others of 

flags, &c., 
Hate, Cape, Bonneta, Flats, ^c. 

Leghorn, 8traw,grass,chip,£c., 

Palm-leaf, rattan, willow, &c., 



• 142,817 
229,404 

II 

2;718;846 

3,116,013 

305,589 

18,989 

98,851 

3,002,631 

1,095,518 

66,054 
2,695,554 

22,470,911 

1,124,680 
238,525 

1,318,069 

111,871 

6,130,696 

10,839 

712,092 

40,232 

1,860,918 

9,807 

8,897,317 

3,192 

84,779 

1,250,749 

3,963 

80,015 
314,371 
24,511 
1,268 
40,942 
14,101 

197,359 

2,109,776 

252,170 



95,290 
607,691 

206,756 

1,610,928 
28,220 



154 



UNITBD STATES. 



[1855. 



species of Merchaadiae. 



Maftu/acturea of Iron and Steel. 

Muskets and rifles, 

Fire-arms not specified, 

Side-arms, 

Drawing and cutting knires, 

Hatchets, axes, and •dzee, 

Socket chisels, 

Steelyards and scale-beams, 

Vices, 

Sickles and reaping-hooks, 

Scythes, 

Spades and shoreLs, 

Wood-screws, 

Squares, 

Needles, sewing, darning, Sec, 

Cast-iron butts and hinges, 

Cutlery not specified. 

Other manufactures of, not 
specified, 

Sad-irons, batters and tailors' 
* irons. 

Bonnet-wire, 

Wire not abore No. 14, 

Wire above No. 14, 

Tacks, not above 16 oz. per M. 

Nails, 

Spikes, 

Ciiain-cables, 

Mill, cross-cut, and pit saws. 

Anchors, and parts thereof. 

Anvils, and pEuts thereof, 

Smiths' hammers and sledges. 

Castings, vessels of, 
" all other, 

Braziers' rods, fjrom 3.16 to 
10.16 inches, • 

Nail-rods, slit, rolled, or ham- 
mered. 

Band or scroll iron. 

Hoop iron. 

Sheet " 

Pig " 

Old and scrap. 

Bar, manufactured by rolling. 

Bar, manu&ctured otherwise. 
Steel. 

Cast, shear, and German, 

All other. 
Copper, and Mantjfaeturea of. 

In pigs, bars, and old, 

Wire. 

Copper bottoms. 

Manufactures of, not specified, 

Nails and spikes. 
Brass, and manufactures of. 

In pigs and bars, and old, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
7Vn, and Manufactures of. 

In pigs and bars. 

In plates and sheets, 

FoQ, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Lead, and Manufactures of. 

Pig, bar, sheet, and nl^ 

•^ipis, 
' Lttfactures of, not speci- 



Value. 



$121,802 
374,645 

1,607 
12,298 

1,950 
19,018 

9,230 
50,338 

1,271 
25,932 

6,068 

3,628 

i,r- 

240,061 

39,175 

2,036,038 

4,026,736 

1,935 

4,364 

108,778 

67,669 

757 

133,116 

1,070 

450,835 

32,190 

66,783 

94,227 

11,887 

6,361 

44,774 

61,151 



35,365 
1265,265 
1,122,305 
1,628,031 
• 145,059 
16,402,776 
627,675 

2,343,878 
626,435 

1,529,295 

37 

14,220 

267,838 

30 

12,129 
224,212 

724,233 

4,709,884 

23,576 

44,385 

1,618,058 
120 



1,579 



Species of Merchandise. 



Pewter, and Manufactures of. 

Old, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Manufactures ofgoldand silver. 

Laces, galloons, tassels, &c.. 

Epaulettes and wings, 

Gold and silver lea^ 

Jewelry^ real, or imitations of, 

Genis,diamonds,pearl8,&c. ,set, 
" •* " otherwise, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Glaziers' diamonds, 
Clocks, 
Ciironometers, 
Watches, and parts of, 
Metallic pens. 

Square wire for umbrella stretch- 
ers. 
Pins in packs and otherwise, 
Buttons, metal. 
Other buttou8,and button-moulds, 
Glass, and Manufactures of. 

Silvered and in frames, 

Paintinffs on glass, &c., 

Polished plate, 

Manufactures of, not specified. 

Cut, 

Plain. 

Watcn-crystals, 

Glasses or pebbles for spectacles 

Apothecaries' vials, N. by A. 
16 ounces each. 

Perfumery and fency vials, N. 
by A., 16 ounces each. 

Bottles not above two quarts. 

Demijohns, 

Winaow-glass,not above 8 x 10, 
" w 10x12, 
" above 10 x 12, 

Paper, and Manufactures of. 

Antiquarian, imperi^, super- 
royal, &c.. 

Medium, cap, demy, and oth- 
er writing, 

Folio and quarto post. 

Bank and bank-note paper. 

Binders' boards, box, press- 
ing, and paste boards, 

Copperplate printing and draw- 
ing, 

Playing-cards, 

Papier-mach^, articles and 
wares of. 

Paper hangings. 

Paper boxes and fancy boxes, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 

Bismk books, 
Books, printed. 

In lAtin and Greek, 

In English, 

In other languages. 

Periodicals and illustrated 
newspapers, 

Periodictds and other works in 

the course of publication. 

Leather, and Maniifactures of 

Tanned, bend, and sole. 



Value. 



$5,494 
2,309 

20,643 

i2,a- 

3,746 

642,677 

6,002 

62,8! 

133,9! 

758 

82,092 

22.100 

3,214,364 

108,582 

8,380 
33,593 
123,652 

638,842 

346,826 

1,679 

308,674 

97,680 

76,783 

162,097 

88,088 

6,604 

2,301 

879 

111,697 

29,682 

43,903 

127,960 

310,880 



256,751 

9S 

6,956 

669 



9,996 

43,622 
125,825 
26,664 

119,746 
11,975 

1,342 
649,916 
146,038 

22,328 

3,697 

28,267 



1865.] 



COMMERCE. 



155 



Species of Merchandise. 



Value. 



Species of Merchandise. 



Value. 



Leather, and Manufactures of. 

Tanned and dressed upper, 

Skins, tanned and dre^ed. 

Skins, tanned, not dressed, 

Skivers, 

Boots and bootees for men and 
women, 

Shoes and pumps, for men and 
women, 

Boots, bootees, and shoes for 
children, 

Gloves for men, women, and 
children, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Wares. 

China, porcelain, earthen, and 
stone, 

Plated or gilt, 

Japanned, 

Britannia, 
Silver plated metal, 
Silver or plated wire, 
Saddlery. 

Common, tinned, or japanned, 

Plated, brass, or polished steel, 
Furs, and Manufactures of. 

Undressed, on the skin. 

Hatters' furs, dressed or un- 
dressed, not on the skin. 

Dressed, on the skin. 

Hats, caps, muffs, and tippets. 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Wood. Manufactures of. 

Cabinet ana household fumit'e, 

Cedar, mahogany, rose, satin. 

Other manufactures of. 
Wood, unmanufactured. 

Cedar, grenamlla, mahogany, 
rose, &c., 

Fire-wofld, and other, not speci- 
fied. 

Dye-wood, in sticks. 
Bark of the Cork-tree. 

Corks, 

Other manufactures of, 

Unmanu&ctured, 
Marble. 

Manufactures ofl 

Unmanufactured, 
Quicksilver, 
Brushes and brooms, 
Black-lead pencils. 
Slates of all kinds. 
Raw hides and skins, 
Shoes, &c., silk or satin, 

" prunella, lasting, A:c., 
" mdia-rubber, 
Grass-cloth, 
Gunny-bags, 
Umbrellas, parasols, &c., silk, 

" all other. 

Flaxseed or linseed, 
Angora, Thibet, and other goats' 

hair, kc., 
Wool, unmanufactured. 
Wines, in casks. 

Burgundy, 



9 1,052,120 

436,666 

16,520 

^ 39,760 

53,942 

37,603 

659 

1,363,997 
281,748 



3,178,182 
336,520 
58,396 
21,376 
23,127 
23,683 

104,840 
221,224 

562,737 

1,064,300 

92,351 

1,620 

12,512 

41,594 

56,328 

380,891 



462,818 

412,566 
341,445 

178,321 

150 

13,798 

121,214 

176,990 

17,459 

199,780 

65,554 

109,352 

6,919,391 

1,162 

1,034 

12,901 

28,641 

231,523 

67,138 

1,231 

633,396 

8,888 
2,669,718 

12,409 



»»^r 



Pf^'nes, in casks. 

Madeira, 

Sherry and San Lucar, 

Port, 

Claret, 

Teneriffe ai^d other Canary, 

Fayal and other Azores, 

Sicily and other Mediterranean, 

Austrian and other German, 

Red wines, not enumerated, 

White wines. " 
Wines, in bottles. 

Burgundy, 

Champagne, 

Madeira, 

Sherry, 
• Port, 

Claret, 

All other, 
Foreign Distilled Spii 

Brandy, 

From grain. 

From other materials, 

Cordials, 
Beer, Ale, and Porter. 

In bottles. 

In casks, 
Vinegar, 
Molasses, 
CHI §r Bone offoreign Fisheries. 

Spermaceti, 

Whale and other fish. 

Whalebone, 
Oil. 

Olive, in casks, 

Castor, ^ 

Linseed, 

Rapeseed, 

Neat's-fool, and other animal. 
Spirits of turpentine. 
Teas and coffee, from places other 
than that of their production. 

Teas, 

Coffee, 



Chocok 
Sugtir. 

Brown, 

White, cUyed, or pow^iiod, 

Loaf, and tither ne^HKl, 

Candy, 

Bymp of sug^f-cane. 
iFriiits. 

Almoiidir, 

PNin$ and pruDBSj 
Fi?8, 
Dales j^ 
RjikJDi, 
Nuts, 
Spirts. 
Mace,. 
Nutmegs, 
nfEinamon, 
Ckirea, 
PajjpBr, bloek, 

" radT 



• 105,628 

155,819 

266,005 

482,827 

14,751 

5,982 

45,701 

6,4fH; 

377,482 

305,287 

2,0 
880,712 

6,193 
15,903 

9,109 
157,893 
145,349 

3,251,408 
424,638 
106.601 
45;251 

338,569 

26,933 

6,975 

3,684,888 

7 
265,781 

139,770 

32,104 

1,045,897 

143,875 

14,333 



38,636 

20,032 

167,895 

2,210 

J 1,630,766 

2M.700 

63,310 

5,17^ 

55 

H,7«S 
144,eSt 

4?,S3& 
131,694 

^,^,17.'; 



156 



UNITED STATES. 



[1856. 



Speciea of Merchandise. 



Value. 



Species of Merchandise. 



Value. 



)thJ^pi, 



Pimento, 
Cassia, 

Ginger, ground, 

in root, 

Camphor f Crude, 

Refined, 
Candlet, Wax and spermaceti, 
Tallow, 
Stearine, 
Cheese, 
Soap, other than perfumed, 

Starcli,' 
Pearl bailey, 
Butter, 
Lard, 

Beef and I 
Hams and 
Bristles, 
SaUpetn. 

Crude, 

Refined, or partly refined. 
Indigo, 

Woad or pastel, 
Iirory and bone black, 
Opium, 
Glue, 

Gunpowder, 
Alum, 
Copperas, 
Sulphate of quinine, 

BliVbr Roman, 

Oil of, 
Chloride of lime or bleacjung 

powder, • 

Soda, ash, or barilla, 
Sulphate of barytas, 
Tooacco. 

Unmanufactured, 

Snuff, 

Cigars. 

Manuiactured,other than snuff 
and cigars, 
Paints. 

Dry ochre, 



• 185,012 

178,190 

717 

60,163 

H,341 

316 

6,204 

3,017 

4,414 

70,528 

80,424 

64,114 

30,192 

170 

330,326 

»16 

26,766 

7,455 

253,731 

643,037 

767 

1,282,367 

2,099 

287 

346,643 

10,952 

2,690 

6,706 

1,636 

203,274 

6,873 
111 

161,668 

845,443 

14,417 

855,803 

2,553 

3,311,935 

4,947 

26,708 



Paints. 

Ochre in oil, 

Red and whitalead, 

Whiting and ^aris white. 
Litharge, 
Sugar of lead, 
Cordage, Tarred and cables, 

Untarred, 
Twine, 
Seines, 

Hemp, unmanufactured, 
Manitla, sun, and other hemp of 

India, 
Jute, sisal-grass, coir, &c., 
Cordilla, or tow of hemp or flax. 
Flax, unmanufactured, 
Rags of all kinds, 
Salt, 
Coal, 

Coke or culm, 
Bread-stufs. 

Wheat, 

Barley, 

Rye, 

Oats, 

Wheat-flour, 

Oatmeal, 
Potatoes, 
risk. 

Dried or smoked, 

Salmon, 

Mackerel, 

Herrings and shad, 

All other, 
Merchandise not enumerated. 

*At 6 percent., 

At 10 

At 15 " 

At 20 " 

At 25 " 

At 30 " 

At 40 " 



t 7,160 

69,058 

6,230 

436 

35,204 

82,139 

39,521 

68,546 

404 



1,691,791 

98,541 

16,931 

135,684 

982,837 

1,059,432 

490,010 

16 

821,815 
39,764 
1,825 
174,658 
974,736 
4,363 
92,870 

214,116 
94,341 
329,233 
159,027 
90,143 

2,768,882 
2,510,318 

784,829 
6,234,056 

229,145 
2,938,749 

363,311 



Value of Merchandise paying 
Duties ad vcUorem, 
Free of Duty, 



Total, 



236,595,113 
31,383,534 

267,978,647 



Tmr ending June 3f>, 1^9. 
Merchandisa ai lul rolgr^m, 
" free of duty, 

TtJtlLl, 



»i2I^,i79,T74 
23.377,660 



147,857,43^ 



Year tiding June 30, 1B51. 
Mercbaiidide at nd vslorem, 
♦* free of duty, 



11914 1^3*5 



Year ending June 30, I860. 
[erclmndJBB At ad ra!nr«m, 

*' free of July, 

TnTaf, 






J7lS,138,3ie 



Ytar ending June 30, IS.IS. 
Memhandise at Ad v^nfcireiu, 
** free of duty, 

AmaunL, ^pedes nut relumed, 
Totftl, 



«17ft,P03,flai 






£12,U4$,4 



1855.] 



COMMERCE. 



157 



2. Exports of the Produce of the United States. 
Summary Statement of the Value of the Exports of the Growth, Produce^ and 
Manufacture of the United States, during the Four Years ending June 30. 
1853. 



Thb Ska. 
Fisheriet. 
Dried fish, or cod fbheries, 
Pickled fish, or river fisheries 


Year ending 
June 30,1850. 


Year ending 
June 30, 1851. 


Year ending 
June 30, 1862. 


Year ending 
June 30, 1863. 


%2l^^ 


$367,729 


• 354,127 


♦ 371,607 










(herring, shad, salmon, 










macke^), . '. . ! 


# 91,445 


113,932 


96,883 


89.409 


Whale and other fish oQ, . 


672,640 


882,486 


440 287 


223,247 


Spermaceti oU, 


788,794 
646,483 


1,044,967 
689,662 


809,274 
436,673 


1,418,845 
1,063,706 


Spermaceti candles, 

Total Fisheries, . . 


260,107 
2,sa4,8l8 


195,916 
3,294,691 


143,098 


112,600 


2,282,342 


3,279,413 


Thb Forest. 










Skins and furs, .... 


852,466 


977,762 


798,504 


796,101 


Ginseng, .... 


122,916 


100,549 


102,073 


133,813 


Products of Wood. 










Stares.shingles, boards, scant- 


, 










2,437,079 


*'IS'??i 


2,674,577 


2,578,149 


Other lumber, . 


107,827 


206,190 


123,522 


123,743 


MasU and spars, . 

Oak bark and other dye, . 


62,109 


70,095 


95,459 


129,628 


205,771 


355,477 


160,154 


118,894 




1,948,762 


2,076,395 


2,193,085 


2,294.122 


Naval stores, tar, pitch, xosin, 










and turpentine, . 


l,142,7]aH| 1,063,842 
572,87dP 649,091 


1,209,173 


1,406,488 


Ashes, pot and pearl, . 
Total Products of Wood, . 


507,673 
6,~963;643 


334,321 


6,467,121 


6,768,711 


6,965,345 


AOHICULTTTRB. 










Products of Animals. 










Beef, tallow, hides, and homed 










cattle, . ... 


1,605,606 


1,689,958 


1,600,429 


2,214,564 


Butter and cheese, ... 
Pork Cpickled), bacon, Ian), 


1,216,463 


1,124,652 


779,391 


862,343 


7,660,287 


4,368,015 


3,766,470 


6,202,321 


Horses and mules, . 


139,494 


198,155 


247,550 


246,731 


Total Products of Animals, 


15,763 


18,875 


16,291 


17,808 


22,778 
10,549,383 


. . . 


14.308 


26,667 


7,399,655 


6,323,439- 


9,670,327 


Veg^able Food. 
Wheat, .... 










643,745 


1,025,732 


2,656,209 


4,364,403 


Flour, 


7,098,570 


10,524,331 


11,869,143 


14,783,394 


Indian corn, 


3,892,193 


1,762,549 


1,540,225 


1,374.077 


Indian meal, .... 


760,611 


622,866 


674,380 


709,974 


Eye meal, .... 


216,076 


146,802 


64,476 


34,186 


' Rye, oats, and other small 










grain and pulse, 


121,191 


120,670 


334,471 


165,824 


Biscuit, or ship-bread, 


334,123 


354,286 


318,899 


454,020 


Potatoes, .... 


99,333 


79,314 


115.121 


152,669 


Total Vegetable Food, . . 


24,974 


71,367 


43,635 


107,283 


2,631.557 


2,170,927 
16,877,'844 


• 2,471,029 


1,657,658 


15,»22,373 


19,886,588 


23,793,388 


Tobacco, 


9,951,023 


9,219,251 


10,031,283 


11,319,319 


Cotton, 


71,984,616 


112,315,317 


87,965,732 


109,456,404 


Hemp, 


5,633 


29,114 


18,649 


18,195 


AU otherAgrieuituralProduets. 
Flaxseed, .... 


4,040 


18,988 


66,187 


7,719 


Hops, '..... 


142,692 


11,636 


69,042 


40,064 


Brown sugar, 


23,037 


29,170 


24,067 


33,854 


Indigo, 

Total, other Ag. Products, . 


. . . 


2,803 


910 


36 


169,769 


62,597 


160,196 


81,663 


Makupactubbs. 










Soap and tallow candles, 


664,963 


609,732 


660,054 


681.362 


Leather, boots and shoes, . 


193,698 


45S,838 


428,708 


673,708 


Household furniture, 


278,025 


362.830 


430,182 


714,556 


Coaches and other carriages, 


95,722 


199,421 


172,445 


184,497 


Hats 


68,671 


103,768 


80,453 


QljJ*'^ 



14 



158 



X7KITED STATES. 



[1855. 





Year ending 


Year ending 


Year ending 
June 30, 1852 


Year ending 
June 30, 1853. 

• 48.229 


Saddlery 


June 30,1850. 


June 30, 1851. 


• 20,b93 


• 30,100 


• 47,937 


Wax, 


118,055 


122,835 


91,499 


113,602 


Spiriu from grain, 


48,314 


36.084 


48,737 


141,173 


Beer, ale, porter, and cider, 
Snuff and tobacco, 


62,251 


67,975 


48,052 


64,677 


648,832 


1,143,547 


1,316,622 


1,671,600 


Linseed oil, . . . . 


♦229,741 


♦145,410 


14,981 


15,468 


SplritB of turpentine. 
Cables and corda^, . 

Pig, bar, and naila, 


. . . 


. . . 


137,856 


• 347,492 


61,357 


62,064 
^215,652 


62,903 


103,216 


164,210 


118,624 


181,998 


Castings, . . . . 


79,318 


164,425 


191.388 


220,420 


All manufiictures of, 


1,677,792 


1,875,621 


1,993,807 


2,097,234 




268.290 


239,622 


323,949 


329,381 


Sugar, refined, .... 
Chocolate 


286,056 


219,588 


149.921 


376,780 


2,260 


3,255 


3,267 


10,230 


Gunpowder, .... 
Copper and brass, and manu* 
facturesof, 


190,352 


154,257 


121,580 


180,048 










105,060 


91,871 


103,039 


108,206 


Medicinal druj^, 


334,789 


351,585 


263,862 


327,073 


Cotton Piece Goods. 










Printed or colored, 


606,631 


•1,006,661 


926,404 


1,086,167 


White (uncolored), 


3,774,407 


6,671,676 


6,139,391 


6,926,486 


Twist, yarn, and thread, 


17,405 


37,260 


34,718 


22,694 


All other manufactures of| 
Total of Cotton Goods, 
Plax and Hemp. 
Cloth and thread, . 
Bags and other manufect's of, 


335,981 
4,731,424 


626.806 
7,241,205 


571,638 
7,672,161 


73:^,648 


8,768,894 


20T^ 


6,376 


6,468 
8,164 


2,924 
13,860 


Wearing-apparel, . 
Combs and buttons, . 
Brushes of aU kinds, . 


1,211,894 


250,228 


239,733 


23,987 


27,334 


28,833 


31,395 


2,827 


8,257 


4,386 


6,612 


Billiard-tables and apparatus, . 
Umbrellas, parasols, sun-shades. 


2,295 


1,798 


1088 


1,673 


3,395 


12,260 


8,340 


6,183 


Morocco and other leather not 










sold per pound, . 


9,800 


13,909 


18,617 


6,448 


Fire-engines and apparatus, 
Musical Instruments, 


3,140 


9,488 


16,784 


9,662 


39,242 


71,401 


47,781 


32,250 


21,634 


55,7a> 


67,733 


62,397 


Books and maps, . 
Paper and stationery, 
Paints and rarnish, 


119,475 


153,912 


217,809 


142,604 


99,696 


155,664 


119,636 


122,212 


67,597 


109,834 


85,369 


83,020 


Vinegar, 


11,182 


16,916 


12,220 


20,443 


Earthen and stone ware, 


16,644 


23,096 


18,310 


63,686 


Mdnufacturea of 










§!•«>, 


136,682 


186,436 


194,634 


170,561 


Tin, 


13,590 


27,823 


23,420 


22,988 


Pewter and lead, . 


22,682 


16,426 


18,469 


14,064 


MarUs and stone. 


34,510 


41,449 


67,240 


47,628 


Gold and silver, and gold-leaf, 


4,583 


68,639 


20,332 


11,873 


Gold and silver coin, . 


2,046,679 


18,069,580 


37,437,837 


23,548,535 


Artificial flowera and jewelry, 


45,283 


121,013 


114,738 


66,397 


Molasses 


14,137 


16,830 


13,163 


17,582 


Trunks, 


10,370 


12,207 


15,035 


27,148 


Brick and lime, . . ' . 


16,348 


22,045 


13,539 


32.626 


Salt 


75,103 


61,424 


89,316 


119,729 


Coal» 


167,090 


163,977 


188,906 


336,003 


Lead, 


12,797 


11,774 


32,725 


6,640 


Ice, 


107,018 


106,805 


161,086 


176,066 


Manufactured, . . . 


3,869,071 


3,793,341 


2,877,659 


3,788,700 


Other articles (raw produce), 
Total, 


679,556 


1,166,898 


1,195,776 


1,324,205 


$136,946,912 


• 196,689,718 


• 192,368,984 


• 213,417,697 



♦ This includes spirits of Turpentine. 



1855.] C0MM1SBCE.. 

3. Imposts from and Exports to Foreign Countries, 
Duringr .<Ae Year ending June 30, 1853. 



159 



Coontries. 



Russia, 

Prussia, 

Sweden and Norway, . 

Swedish West Indies, 

Denmark, 

Danish West Indies, 

Hanse Towns, 

Holland, 

Dutch East Indies, 

Dutch West Indies, .... 

Dutch Guiana, .... 

Belgium 

England, 

Scotland, 

Ireland, 

Gibraltar, 

Malta, 

British East Indies, . 

Cape of Good Hope, . 

Mauritius, 

British Honduras, 

British Guiana, 

New Zealand 

British West Indies, 

British American Colonies, 

Canada. 

Hanover, 

Australia. 

Other British Colonies, 

Prance on the Atlantic, . 

France on the Mediterranean, . 
«« French West Indies. 
33 Miquelon and Frencn Fisheries, 
' French Guiana, .... 

Spain on the Atlantic, 

Spain on the Mediterranean, . 

nnerifk and other Canaries, 

Manila and Philippine Islands, 

Cuba, 

Pocto Rico & other Spanish West Indies, 

Portugal 

Madeira, 

Fayal and other Azores, 

Gape de Verde Islands, . 

half generally, .... 

Sicily, 

Sardinia, 

Tuscany, . . . . , 

Trieste «id other Aiutilan ports, 

Turkey, 

Greece, 

Haytl 

Mexico 

Central America, . . . , 

New Granada, .... 

Venezuela, . . . • < 

Bolivia, 

Brazil, 

Oriental Republic, of Uruguay . 



Value of 
Imports. 



1 1,278,501 

47,875 

447,332 

6,876 

184,497 

13,843,455 

1,625,170 

384,683 

409,186 

130,681 

2,732,168 

125,774,232 

4,337,990 

163,118 

61,784 

80.053 

3^581,726 

302,303 



64,533 

241 

1,044,264 

2,272,602 

5,278,116 

218 



30,851,649 

2,604,393 

62,340 

17,717 

635,616 

1,458,879 

84,021 

2,465,063 

18,585,755 

2,800,936 

411,156 

77,698 

10,892 

41,053 

953,714 

863,361 

171,683 

. 856,617 



Argentine Republic, . 



Chi , 

62 Peru, 

63 Ecuaidor 

64 China, . 

661 Asia generally. 



727,516 

4,650 

1,985,624 

2,167,986 

690,937 

663,628 

2,613,780 

14,817,961 

302,980 

2,186,641 

2,214,252 

173,441 

12,600 

10,673,710 

32,721 



Domestic 
Produce. 



Value of Exports. 



• 2,313,175 

26,911 

833,533 

31,024 

82,903 

913,481 

7,409,315 

1,983,723 

202,822 

251,258 

108,389 

2,301,038 

112,778,359 

4,486,826 

613,812 

169,444 

165,319 

503,856 

367,231 

3,338 

318,355 

798,841 

4,056,527 

3,398,675 

4,005,512 

6,290 

4,148,828 

24,268,292 

852,514 

362,513 

9,005 

64,335 

631,494 

3,923,656 

23,215 

64,375 

6,773,419 

810,411 

223,651 

101,524 

21,307 

23,275 

2,173,745 

130,337 

195,380 

15,173 

2,062,464 

207,368 

r,738,413 

2,629,770 
225,856 
753,391 
749,869 
41,672 

3,734,190 
296,088 
618,855 

2,157,320 
657,316 

6,868 



Foreign 
•Produce. 



1 143,478 
1,806 
18,735 
1,191 

41,160 

610,738 

215,773 

180,884 

I8,7S9 

17,694 

907,495 

3,209,261 

154,739 

59,272 

66,670 

JS.237 

63;542 

3,141 

63,006 
38,863 

106,081 
1,912,968 
3,823,687 

138,174 

71,069 

1,380.647 

70,331 

35,738 

1,104 

15,551 

34,297 

1,000 

1,000 

514,540 

64,143 

26,552 

15,574 

4,440 

1,601 

159,833 

24,818 

27,926 

22,640 

171.804 

79,981 



Total. 



$2,456,653 

28,717 

852,268 

32,215 

82,903 

954,641 

8,020,063 

2,199,496 

383,706 

270,047 

126,063 

3,206,533 

115,967,623 

4,641,564 

673,064 

236,014 

187,556 

667,398 

370,372 

3,338 

381,360 

837,704 

4,162,608 

5,311,543 

7,829,099 

6,290 

4,287,002 

71,rj69 

26,648,939 

922,845 

398,251 

9,006 

65,439 

647,045 

3,957,953 

24,215 

65,376 

6,287,969 

864,554 

250,203 

117,098 

25,747 

24,879 

2,333,678 

165,155 

223,306 

37,813 

2,234,288 

287,339 



260,520 

1,029,054 

120,474 

103,079 

94,668 

260,264 
12,368 
262,611 
169,117 
40,261 

624,418 



1,998,993 
3,568,884 
346,390 
856.470 
844,687 
4I,67S 
3,994,444 
308.446 
881,466 

2,a2o,48r 

697,677 

3,736,992 
6,8ei 



160 



UKITBD STATES. 



[1855. 



67 



Countries. 



Africa generally, . 
South America generally, 
Soutti Seas, 
Atlantic Ocean, 
Indian Ocean 
Sandwich Islands, . 
72 West Indies generally, 



Value of 
Imports. 



91,202,966 

19,390 

796 

24 

16,575 



Value of Exports. 



Domestic 

Produce. 



1 1,555,990 
153,451 
660,096 

11,816 

98.125 



Foreign 
Produce. 



• 54,843 
27,060 



29,406 



17,558,460 



Total. 



$1,610,833 
180,511 
696,655 

11,816 
29,406 
98.125 



Total, 



267,978,647 



213,417,697 



2au,976,157 



4. Indirect Trade. 

Value of Imports, ike Prodtiee and Manufacture of the German Zoherein^ 
Hanover, Austria, and Switzerland, during the Year ending June 30, 1853. 



Imported from 


Via the Ports of 


Hamb»g. 


Bremen. 


Holland. 


Belgium. 


France. 


England. 


TotaL 


Prussia, 

Saxony, 

Bavaria, 

Baden, 

Frankfort-on-the- 

Maine, 
Wirtemburg, 
Saxe-Meiningen, 
Brunswick, 
Hesse, 
Mecklenberg- 

Schwerin, 
Bremen, 
Hanover, 

Total Zollrerein, 
Total A«istria, 
Total Switzerland 

Total ralue. 


$373,930 

375,406 

14.049 

6,710 

4,988 

6,318 

2,330 

228 

933 


11,566,973 

1,657,396 

463,838 

48,893 

112,194 
62,324 
40,962 
5,286 
48,9iq 

14,908 


$21,279 
2,104 
8,850 
17,158 

4,187 
1,147 

12,606 


$420,169 
9,942 
4,476 
10,W7 

97,947 
1,476 

12,265 


$1,801,436 
181,589 
49.461 
32,811 

223,019 
16,691 

'260 

88,850 


$ 1,614,635 
156,214 
58,791 
24,032 

52,236 
36,899 

69,061 

14,198 


ft 5,797,421 

2,382,661 

599,465 

139,651 

494,6n 

118,436 

46,540 

5,286 

233,820 

228 
14,198 
15,841 


783,892 

42,734 

931 


4,020,692 
116,365 
793,342 


67,331 
453 
995 


656,321 

869 

10,015 


2,393,816 

8,443 

2,637,377 


2,026,056 

4,921 

2,160,324 


9,848,106 

173,775 

6,392,984 


827,567 


4,930,399 


63,779 


667,195 


5,039,636 


4,181,301 


15,614,867 



5. Tonnage OF Vessels engaged in Foreign Trabz, 
During the Year ending June 30, 1853. 



CSountries. 



Russia, 
^ Prussia, . 
3 Sweden and Norway, 

Swedish West Indies, 

Denmark, 

Danish West Indies, - 
. Hanse Towns, 

8 Holland. 

9 pntch East Indies, 



American Tonnage. 



Entered. 



10,455 

374 

3,563 

1,184 

350 

11,618 

36,561 

10,776 

2,864 



Qeared. 



Foreign Tonnage. 



1-1,9 

3,217 
1,136 
332 
14,032 
26,995 
10,302 
3,526 



Entered. | Cleared. 

293 
6,163 

2,174 
9,571 
86,281 
20,730 
6,606 



1855.] 



NAVIOATION. 



161 



24 



Gbantries. 



Dutch West Indies, 

Dutch Guiana, 

12 Belgium, 

13 England, 

■ ' Scotiand, 

Ireland, 

Gibraltar, 

Malta. 

British East Indies, 

Cape of Good Hope, .... 

Mauritius 

British Honduras, 

British GKiiana, 

British West Indies, 

British American Colonies, . . 

Qmada, . _ 

Panover, ....... 

Australia, 

_ Falkland Islands 

291 Other British Possessions .... 

France on the Atlantic, .... 
_ France on the Mediterranean, . .' . 

32 French West Indies, .... 

33 Miquelon and French Fisheries, . 
^' French Guiana, 

Bourbon, 

French Possessions in Africa, 

37 Spain on the Atlantic, 

38 ^»iQ on the Mediterranean, . 

39 Teneriflb and other Canaries, . 

40 Manila and Philippine Islands, 
" Cuba, 

Porto Rico and other Spanish West Indies, 

Portugal, 

Madeira, 

46 Fajral and other Azores, . . . . 
" Cape de Verde Islands, .... 

Sicily, 

Sardmia, 

Tuscany, 

Pontifical States 

»i Ionian Islands, 

52 Trieste and other Austrian ports, . 

53 Turkey, Levant, &c., 

" Greece, 

HayU, 

Mexico, 



64 

65 
66 

67 Central America, 

68 New Granada, 
Venezuela, . 

60 BoliTia, 

61 Brazil, . 
€2 Oriental Republic of Uruguay, 

63 Argentine KepuUic, 

64 ChUI, 
66 Peru, 
66 Ectuulor, 

China, 

Liberia, 

69| Patagonia, 

70 Africa generally, 

71 South America generally, 

72 South Seas, 

73 Pacific Ocean, 

74 Atlantic Ocean, 

75 Indian Ocean, 

76 Sandwich Islands, 

77 Northwest Coast, . 
78i Uncertain Places, 

TbiaH '' 



American Tonnage. 



Entered. 



17,690 
6,1 10 

28,845 
826,453 

25,892 
2,736 

830 
38,270 
2,041 

4,418 

4,211 

77,687 

112,335 

1,376,927 

442 

150 

589 

174,748 

15,168 

4,047 

630 



14,469 

14,562 

1,641 

16,697 

455,700 

47,838 

3,314 

1,942 

1,691 

901 

25,545 

400 

16,596 

149 
2,660 



23,046 

68,302 

199,599 

17,142 

73,160 

2,319 

11,337 

13,641 

14,965 

503 

65,699 

646 

682 

12,410 

3,998 
28,077 

3,762 

3,203 

18,111 

767 

1,021 



4,004,013 



Cleare d. 
5,988 
6,218 

25,124 
664,892 

27,734 
3.482 
5,242 
2,721 

50,461 
4,705 

*5,1I1 

14,426 

101,808 

266,431 

1,062,086 

56,944 

723 

184,947 

16,234 

13,262 

391 

1,375 

193 

10,768 

7,600 

1,046 

20,598 

365,392 

30,815 

6,476 

3,707 

1,777 

2,181 

5,397 

11,821 

2,192 

218 

149 

11,735 

4,365 

31,339 

30,810 

80,737 

205,602 

12,001 

277 

69,736 

8,700 

10,749 

23,488 

63,246 

226 

66,041 

1,616 

514 

15,162 

434 

3,143 

31,614 

7,788 

4,820 

20,260 

656 



Foreign Tonnage. 



Entered. 



3,602 

1,129 

10,931 

435,830 

76^99 

41,238 



3,908 
901 

1,794 

1,560 

49,^15 

395,693 

748,094 

630 

6,060 

1,184 

31,045 

6,921 

3,702 

205 

323 



14,489 
2,318 
4,541 
37,362 
15,844 
5,973 
369 

1,153 
19,036 
4,656 
1,226 



2,70fe 

558 

116 

10,402 

25,255 

2,543 

5,095 

4,795 

225 

24,447 

1,341 

4,741 

38,511 

17,558 

26,965 

416 
708 



3,914 



3,766,7892,277,930 



Cleared. 



2,298,790 



14* 



162 



UNXTBD STATES. 
IlfPaRTS AUB fiXFORTS OF BACH StATE, 

During the Year ending June 30, 1853. 



[1855, 



States. 


Value of Exports. 


Value of Imports. | 


Domestic 
Produce. 


Foreign 
Produce. 


Total. 


In Amer. 

Vessels. 


In Foreign 
Vessels. 


Total. 


Maine, 

New Hampshire, 


S 1,761,929 


$273,858 


i 2,040,787 


$1,254,039 


$132,550 


$1,386,589 


1,126 




1,126 


24,752 


7,856 


32,608 


Vermont, 


82,376 


11,741 


94,117 


184,512 




184,512 


Massachusetts, 


16,895,304 


3,059,972 


19,955,276 


25,910,403 


15,457,653 


41,367,966 


Rhode Island, 


302,454 


8,031 


. 310,485 


261,719 


104,397 


366,116 


Connecticut, 


497,769 


11,665 


509.434 


474,297 


71,496 


545,793 


New York, 


66,030,355 


12,175,936 


78,206,290 


132,009,768 


46,261,231 


178,270,999 


New Jersef . 
Pennsylvania, 


1,354 




1,354 




3,539 


3,539 


6,255,229 


272,767 


6,627,996 


10,434,563 


8,379,847 


18,834,410 


Delaware, 














Maryland, 


7,768,224 


138,235 


7,906,459 


5,235,659 


1,094,419 


6,330,078 


District of Oolumbia, 


75,4.56 




75,456 


70,086 


i;409 


7L494 


Virginia, 


3;302,661 


4,230 


3,306,791 


255,361 


143,641 


North Carolina, 


314,142 




314,142 


125,779 


145,459 


South Carolina, 


15,400,408 




15,400,408 


1,199,780 


608,737 


1,808,617 


Georgia, 


7,371,883 




7,371,883 


275,968 


232,293 


608.261 


Florida, 


1,698,206 




1,698,206 


18,132 


47,302 


65,434 


Alabama, 


16,786,913 




16,786,913 


297,453 


612,109 


809,662 


Louisiana, 


67,768,724 


623,934 


68,292,658 


10,866,058 


2,774,628 


13,630,686 


Mississippi, 








5,876 




6,876 










256,846 




256,846 


Missouri, 








859,654 




859,654 


Ohio, 


158,418 




158,418 


750,598 


97,162 


847,760 


Kentucky, 








175,358 




175,366 


Michigan, 


295,809 


57,876 


353,685 


207,782 


3,448 


211,230 


Illinois, 


79,139 




79,139 


7,669 




7,659 




669,918 


459,763 


1,029,681 


156,144 


126,315 


281,459 


California,* 








101,312 




101,312 


Oregon, 










85,932 


85,932 


Indiana, 








258,253 




268,263 


Minnesou, 








612 




612 


Total, 


213,417,697 


17,003,007 


230,420,704 


191,688,325 


76,290,322267,978,6471 



7. Vkssbls built, ahd the Tonnage thereof, in thb United States, 
For the Year ending June 30, 1853. 





Class of Vessels. 


Total num- 


Total 


States.! 






Schoon- 


Sloops and 
canal-boats. 




ber of Ves- 


Tonnage. 




Ships. 


Brigs. 


ers. 


Steamers. 


sels builu 


TbAs. 95ths. 


Maine. 


132 


70 


133 


10 


7 


361 


118,916 67 


New Hampshire, 


9 




1 






10 


8,666 11 


Vermont. 






2 






2 


218 33 


Massachusetts, 


73 


1 


126 


3 


2 


205 


83,015 16 


Rhode Island, 


6 




5 






11 


3,170 62 


Connecticut, 


4 




37 


21 


6 


67 


9,022 20 


New York, 


21 


6 


85 


103 


74 


289 


83,224 06 


New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania, 






30 


22 


6 


68 


7,107 71 


1 


4 


28 


102 


66 


191 


31,539 07 


Delaware, 




1 


11 


19 


2 


33 


4,436 64 


Ittaryland. 

District of Columbia, 


16 


9 


97 




1 


122 


16.901 38 








42 




42 


2,743 64 


Virginia, 


3 


1 


11 


14 


11 


40 


6,699 aC 


North Carolina, 




1 


16 


3 


2 


22 


1,746 36 


South Carolina, 






24 


13 


1 


38 


1,993 87 


Louisiana, 






9 


4 


.4 


17 


1,346 la 


Tennessee, 










1 


1 


'46 17 


Missouri, 






1 


10 


11 


22 


3,583 60 


Kentucky, 








I 


29 


30 


8,692 09 


Illinois, 






7 


2 




9 


1,168 36 


Wisconsin, 


I 


1 


10 


2 




14 


2,422 39 


Ohio, 


4 




28 


23 


35 


90 


21,213 36 


Michigan, 




1 


20 




14 


35 


4,304 63 


California, 










2 


2 


160 57 


todiana. 










9 


9 


3,466 81 


Total, 


265 


95 


681 


394 


271 


1,710 


425,572 49 



'"'qtums informal. 



t There are no returna for tb» omitted Sutes and Territories. 



1855,] KAVieATIOX. 163 

8. COMPAIUTITK VfSW OF THB ToilirA«X OF THB UfflTBD StATSS, 

From 1815 to 1853 indusivty in Tons (9Ms not counted). 





Registered 
Toanage. 


Enrolled 


Reg.Tonn. 


Enrolled and Licensed 


Tonnage in 


Tonnage in 


Years. 


& licensed 


in Whale 


Coasting 


Cod 


Mackerel 


Steam 




Tonnage. 


Fishery. 


Trade. 


Fishery. 


Fishery. 


NaTigation 


~~18i5~ 


854,294 


513,833 




435,066 


26,570 






1816 


800,759 


571,458 




479. 979 


37,879 






1817 


809,75i4 


590,186 


4,871 


4-I.357 


63,990 






1818 


606,088 


619,095 


16,134 


fii^U 10 


58,551 






1819 


612,930 


647,821 


31,700 


6'::^..-.,)6 


65,044 






1820 


619,M7 


661,118 


35,391 


6.hN-» 


60,842 






1821 


619,896 


679,062 


26,070 


6>i.rJ5 


61,351 






1822 


623,150 


696,548 


45,449 


67;i,iiSO 


58,405 






1823 


639,920 


696,644 


39,918 


&.N.4')8 


67,621 




24,879 


1824- 


669,972 


729,190 


33,165 


fK-^.'J'S 


68,419 




21,610 


1825 


700,787 


722,323 


35,379 


6-7 ..-^73 


70,626 




23,061 


1826 


737,978 


796,210 


41,757 


f.i:.>^-P20 


63,761 




34,069 


1827 


747,170 


873,437 


■].-r.r-.v; 


7::;i.';J7 


74,048 




40,198 


1828 


812,619 


928,772 


J-l,?121 


7;''i-.u22 


74,947 


'^ 


39,418 


1829 


650,142 


610,654 


r*7.'Z-.\ 


6ifc,ij8 


101,796 




54,037 


1830 


576,675 


615,311 


Ll^.UM 


516,978 


61,554 


3^,073 


64,472 


1831 


620,451 


647,394 


.-^'^Mir, 


539,723 


60,977 


46,S10 


34,446 


1832 


636,989 


752,460 


7'^..-m 


649,627 


54,027 


47,4-37 


90,814 


1833 


750,126 


856,123 


inijrH 


744,198 


62,720 


4^^,725 


101,850 


1834 


857,433 


901,468 


loei,(>nc> 


783,618. 


56,403 


6l,W2 


122,815 


1835 


885.821 


939,118 


S7:Glfi 


792.301 


72,374 


MA42 


122,815 


1836 


^•j::m 


964,328 


i-H <;sii 


873,023 


63,307 


fi4,42r. 


145,556 


1837 


.-hi. 147 


1,086,238 


127 vii 


956,980 


80,551 


m,s\G 


154,765 


1838 


<ji rm 


1,173,047 


li[<':.\ 


1,041,105 


70,1164 


S&,5i9 


193,423 


1839 


.Ni[ j44 


1,262,234 


n\ 1. 


1,153,551 


T-i.-JJia 


35,^^ 


204,938 


1840 


-^^•^.764 


1,280,999 


m,: 


1,176,694 


:;^'..il35 


128,2C9 


202,339 


1841 


-n.^03 


1,184,940 


157,405 


1,107,067 


i'.n,j51 


11,331 


175,088 


1842 


*^;-> m 


1,117,031 


151,612 


1,045,753 


r^t,-»4 


I6,t)y6 


229.661 


1843 


l,iHJLi.:!05 


1,149,297 


152,374 


1,076,155 


i\\:m 


JIJ75 


236,868 


1844 


i,iKi-,r64 


1,211,330 


163,293 


1,109,614 


.'..-.■^24 


1G470 


272,179 


1845 


l,<M.i.l72 


1,321,829 


190,695 


1,190,898 


cri;^'> 


21J13 


326,019 


1846 


1J.^I.-J86 


1,431,798 


186,980 


1,289,870 


72,516 


3&,4ta 


347,893 


1847 


1.1^ ir. ■312 


1,597,732 


193,858 


1,452,623 


711.177 


3l,J.'>l 


404,842 


1848 


l::i''|.-«6 


1,793.156 


192,179 


1,620,988 


&-2,t>51 


43.5,"i5 


427,891 


1849 


1,-; : 41 


1,895,073 


180,186 


1,730,410 


\iiSi70 


7^,853 


462,3»4 


1850 


]■■ ■ n 


1,949,743 


146,016 


1,755,796 


>- rJ46 


5SJU 


525.947 


1851 


i,iM.<m 


2,046,132 


181,644 


1,854,317 


87,475 


mM9 


583,607 


1852 


1,899,448 


2,238,992 


193,797 


2,008,021 


102,659 


7a.M6 


643.241 


1853 


2,103,674 


2,303,336 


193,203 


2,134,256 


109,227 


! B'J,SS<i 


514.098 



No separate returns of tonnage employed in the mackerel fishery were made by the col- 
lectors prior to the year 1830; and none given of steam navigation prior to 1823. 

9. Entries and Clearances of American and Foreign Vessels, with their 

Crews, during the Year ending June 30, 1853. 
Whole number of American yessels entered during the year ending 

June 30, 1853, from foreign countries, . . . . - . 9,955 

Whole number of foreign vessels entered from do., . • .11,722 

Total of American and foreign vessels, .... 21,677 

Whole number of American yessels cleared for foreign countries, 10,001 

Whole number of foreign vessels cleared fbr do., . . . ^1,680 

Total of American and foreign vessels, .... 21,681 

Crews of American vessels entered. Hen, 143,091. Boys, 1,339. Total, 
144,430. 

Crews of foreign vessels entered. Men, 123,053. Boys, 1,536. Total, 
124,589. 

Crews of American vessels cleared. Men, 145,254. Boys, 1,535. To- 
tal, 146,789. 

Crews of foreign vessels cleared. Men, 120,754. Boys, 1,560. Total, 
122,314. 



164 



X7KITBD STATES. 



[1865. 



10. NvKBSit aud Class of Vesssls bqilt, and the Toitvaob thebb- 
OF, IB THE Ubited States, FROM 1815 TO 1853, tnclusive. 







Class of VesselB. 




Total num- 


Total 
Tonnage. 

Tons. 95th 


Yean. 












ber of Ves- 
sels built. 


Ships. 


Brigs. 


Schoon- 
ers. 


Sloops and 
canal'boats. 


SteamecB. 


1815 


136 


224 


6a0 


274 




1,314 


154,624 39 


1816 


76 


122 


781 


424 




1,403 


131,66804 


1817 


34 


86 


659 


394 




1,073 


86,393 37 


1818 


53 


85 


428 


332 




898 


82,421 20 


1819 


63 


82 


473 


242 




850 


79,817 86 


1820 


21 


60 


301 


152 




534 


47,784 01 


1821 


43 


89 


248 


127 




607 


66,856 01 


1822 


64 


131 


260 


168 




623 


75,946 93 
75,007 67 


1823 


56 


127 


260 


165 


16 


622 


1824 


56 


156 


377 


166 


26 


781 


90,939 00 


1326 


66 


197 


538 


168 


35 


994 


114,997 25 


1826 


71 


187 


482 


227 


45 


1,012 


126,438 35 


1827 


66 


133 


464 


241 


38 


934 


104,342 67 


1828 


73 


108 


474 


196 


33 


884 


98,375 58 


1829 


44 


68 


485 


145 


43 


785 


77,098 65 


1830 


26 


66 


403 


116 


37 


637 


68,094 24 


1831 


72 


95 


416 


94 


34* 


711 


8.^,96268 


1832 


132 


143 


568 


122 


100 


1,065 


144,539 16 


1833 


144 


169 


•625 


185 


65 


1,188 


161,626 36 


1834 


98 


94 


497 


180 


68 


937 


118,330 37 


1836* 


25* 


60* 


302* 


100* 


30* 


607* 


46,238 62* 


1836 


93 


65 


444 


164 


124 


890 


113,627 49 


1837 


67 


72 


607 


168 


135 


949 


122,987 22 


1838 


66 


79 


601 


153 


90 


898 


113,135 44 


1839 


83 


89 


439 


122 


125 


858 


120,988 34 


1840 


97 


109 


378 


224 


64 


8TZ 


118,309 23 


1841 


114 


101 


310 


157 


78 


762 


118,893 71 


1842 


116 


91 


273 


404^ 


137 


1,021 


129,083 64 


1843* 


68* 


34* 


138* 


173* 


79* 


482* 


63,617 77* 


1844 


73 


47 


204 


279 


163 


766 


103,53729 


1845 


124 


87 


322 


342 


163 


1,038 


146.018 02 


1846 


100 


164 


676 


355 


225 


1,420 


188,203 93 


1847 


151 


168 


689 


392 


198 


1,598 


243,732 67 


1848 


254 


174 


701 


647 


175 


1,851 


318,075 54 


1849 


198 


148 


623 


370 


208 


1,547 


266,577 47 


1850 


247 


117 


647 


290 


159 


1,360 


272,218 64 


1851 


211 


65 


522 


326 


233 


1,357 


298,203 60 


1852 


255 


79 


534 


267 


259 


1,444 


351,49341 


1853 


269 


95 


681 


394 


271 


1,710 


425,57249 



' XII. POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

1. Post-Office Statistics for the Year ending June 30, 1853. 

Namber of mail routes, July 1, 1853, 6,692 

Length ofmailroates, July 1,1853, miles, 217,743 

Amount of annual transportation in miles, .... 61,892,542 
Cost of same for year ending June 30, 1853, . . . $4,495,068 

Average cost per mile, nearly, $ 0.072 

Amount of transportation on railroads, in floilea, . . . 12,966,705 



♦ For nine months. 



1855.] POST-OFFICB DEPASTMEKT. 165 

Cost of transportation on railroads/ $1,601,329 

Average per mile, . $ 0.123 

Steamboat transportation, in miles, 6,685,065 

Cost of same, $632,368 

Average per mile, nearly $ 0.94 

Transportation in coaches, miles, 21,330,326 

Cost of same, $1,206,958 

Average per mile, $0,056 

Modes not specified, miles, . • 20,890,446 

Cost of same, . $1,055,313 

Average per mile, $ 0.05 

Length of routes, eight in number* connecting this with foreign ) oi 059 

countries, covered by regular United States mail conveyance, i * 
Amount of annual transportation in miles, .... 890,512 

Annual cost of same, nearly, t $2,061,335 

Number of contractors, 5,583 

Route agents, local agents, and mail messengers, .... 974 

Number of post-offices supplied, 22,320 

Increase in length of mail routes, since July 1, 1852, . . . 3,459 
Increase of inland mail transportation since July 1, 1852, in miles, 2,906,814 

Increased cost of transportation, $ 555,997 

Increase of railroad and steamboat service, 2,235,593 miles, or near 12.8 per 
- cent., at an increased cost of $ 452,362, or near 25.39 per cent. 
Do. of coach service, 631,396 miles, or near 3.5 per cent., at an increased 

cost of $ 77,972, or near 6.9 per cent. 
Do. of service in modes not specified, 39,825 miles, or near 1.43 per cent, at 

an Increased cost of $ 25,663, or near 2.49 per cent. 
Gross revenue for the year, ...... $5,940,724.70 

Total expenditures for the year, $ 7,982,756.59 

Excess of expenditures over gross revenue, ... $ 2,042,031.89 

(For details, see post^ page 169.) 

During the year, 1,898 new post-offices were established, and 479 were 
discontinued. 3,850 postmasters were appointed in consequence of resigna- 
tions; 225 in consequence of deaths; 182 for changes of sites of the offices; 
1,898 to new offices ; 2,412 by removals ; in all, 8,567. 

' * September 30, 1853, there were in operation &Q2 lailroad roatas ; aggregate length 
13,410} miles ; cost of maU transportation tbeceon, 9 1,6415,432.33, or at the rate of 
• 120.26 per mile of road : adding pay of mail passengers, route and local agents, the 
whole expense was $ 1,869,264.78, or 9 139.386 per mile of road. 

At the same time the average cost of steamboat service was 934.46 per mile of route; 
coach senrica, 9 22.88 per mile of road ; and modBa not specified, 9 7.86 per mile. 

t This service is paid partly by the Post-Office Department and parUy by the Navy Da* 
fartmenL See page 168. 



166 



T7NITED STATES. 



[1865. 



2. TabU of MaU Service fw the Year ending June 30, 1853.* 





L.n^h 




Total 




States. 










Transpor 


Total 




routes. 


Mode not 


In 


In 


By 


Ution. 


Cost. 






specified. 


Coaches. 


Steamboat. 


Railroad. 








Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


S 


Maine. . . 
New Hampflhlre, 


4,672 
1,821 


1,981 
634 


2,419 
856 


30 


272 
301 


1,648,604 
694,560 


57,141 
29,969 


Yermont, . 


2,448 


752 


1,162 




644 


1,053,641 


60,968 


Mamachusettfl, 


3182 


973 


840 


265 


1,104 


2,332,880 


137,540 


Rhode Island, . 


413 


225 


94 




94 


217,672 


12,446 


Connecticat, 


1,834 


661 


686 




587 


1,092,853 


67,742 


New York, • 


14,969 


6,226 


6,527 


• 1,218 


2,018 


7,975,196 


480,671 


New Jeraej. . 
Pennsylvania, . 


2,746 


893 


1,511 




342 


1,266,192 


80,270 


12,223 


6,^ 


4,921 




774 


4,280,766 


241,363 


Delaware, . 
Maryland,. . 


612 


203 


309 




t 


187,200 


9,730 


2,626 


1,330 


679 




617 


1,399,216 


190,928 


Ohio, . . 
Virginia, . 


13,609 


8,004 


3,816 


247 


1,443 


4,445,016 


399,350 


13,455 


9,142 


2,333 


1,265 


715 


3,402,390 


222,553 


North Carolina, 


8,863 


6,422 


1,881 


311 


249 


2,143,648 


181,368 


South Carolina, 


6,113 


4,025 


510 


990 


588 


1,575,860 


134,619 


Georgia, . 


9,446 


6,641 


920 


1,968 


927 


2,444,790 


223,460 


Florida, . . 


3,938 


1,586 


722 


1>630 




512,930 


67,308 


Michigan, . 


6,303 


3,336 


1,344 


1,033 


691 


1,943,678 


139,081 


Indiana, . 


9,643 


7,631 
7,243 


1,466 


189 


357 


2,093,491 


108,116 


niinols, 


12,287 


4,225 


450 


369 


3,244,592 


194,952 


Wisconsin, 


6,334 


4,130 


2,121 


83 




1,146,639 


56,793 


Iowa, . 


4;292 


2,795 


1,497 






970,996 


42,579 


Missouri, . . 


12,867 


7,941 


3,470 


11,456 




2,675,464 


158,229 


Minnesota, . 


i;66I 


1,212 


179 


270 




94,196 


2,633 


Kentuclcy, . 


9,776 


5,635 


1,807 


« 2,240 


94 


3,556,132 


217,202 


Tennessee, . 


8,929 


6,380 


1,839 


489 


221 


1,870,492 


96,137 


Alabama, 


8,045 


6,291 


1,394 


229 


131 


2,200,848 


196,172 


Mississippi, . 


6,634 


5,175 


916 


484 


59 


1,43L694 


135,896 


Aricansas, 


6,910 


5,578 


363 


969 




1,039,792 


89,081 


Louisiana, . 


4,243 


?'£fi 


391 


11863 


18 


879,632 


97.569 


Texas, . 


10,069 


7,812 


1,087 


1,170 




1,334,374 


144,161 


California, . 


3,667 


2,893 


619 


'255 




585,806 


143,214 


Oregon, , , 


2,036 


1,776 




261 




108,274 


46,522 


New Mexico 


980 


70 


910 






29,080 


28.600 


Utah, . . 


277 


100 


177 






24,968 


2,695 


Total,. 
Route and local 
agents and mail 


2i7;7S 


134,193 


62,780 


18,355 


12,415 


61,892,642 


4,495,968 
















messengers, . 














233,057 


Foreign mails, . 
Total, . 


_8^ 


ireo 




8,699 




268,512 


555,064 


226,402 


134,253 


52,780 


26,954 


12,415 


62,161,054 


5,284,089 



* The entire service and pay are set down to the State under which the route is numbered, 
though extending into other States, instead of being divided among the States in which each 
portion of it lies. 

t The Baltimore, Wilmington, and Philadelphia Railroad is under a Maryland number. 

t This embraces tHe steamboat service from St. Louis to New Orleans. 

$ This embraces the steamboat service from Louisville to Cincinnati and from LouisviOa 
to New Orleans. 

II This includes the route from New Orleans to Mobile. 

IT This is for service from Panama to Aspinwali, performed bj the Panama Railroad Com-, 
pany, at a stipulated price per trip, according to the weight of the mail, and which varies 
irom year to year. The cost of this service for the year ending June 30, 1863, was $ 85,314 



1855.] POST-OFFICB DEPABTMENT. 167 

3. Jfumher of Post-Ofiees^ EaOmU of Post-BouUs^ and Rttaau and £!z- 
penditures of the Post- Office DtiparimaU; wUk the Jhnomnt paid to Poet- 
masters and for Dransportation of the Maily smce 1790. 





No. of 


Extent of 


Beveniie 


Ezpenditiuw 


Amounl 


paidlbr 

Tlransport'n 

oftbeMaiL 


Year. 


Post- 


Poet-Routes 


of the 


^the 


Oampea.of 




Offices. 


in Miles. 




Deputment. 


Poetmast'ts. 


1790 


75 


1,876 


#37,935 


•tt,160 


• 8,198 


•39,061 


1795 


453 


13,907 


160,830 


117,896 


10,973 


75,869 


1800 


903 


30,817 


380,804 


313,994 


60,348 


138,644 


1805 


1,568 


81,076 


431,873 


877,867 


111,553 


339,685 


1810 


3,300 


36,406 


561,684 


495,969 


149,438 


•37,966 


1816 


8,000 


48,746 


1,048,066 


746,131 


341,901 


487,779 


1816 


8,360 


48,676 


961,783 


804,433 


365,944 


531,970 


1811 


8,489 


53,089 


1,003,973 


016,515 


803,916 


580,189 


1818 


8,618 


50,418 


1,180,»5 


1/B5,8n 


846,439 


664,611 


1819 


4,000 


67,566 


1,904,737 


1,117,861 


676,838 


717,881 


1890 


4,500 


73,499 


1,111,937 


1,160,936 


863,396 


783,436 


1831 


4,650 


76,806 


1,069,087 


1,184,963 


887,500 


815,661 


1833 


4,709 


83,768 


1,117,490 


1,167,673 


865,399 


788,618 


1823 


4,043 


84,860 


1,130,115 


1,166,995 


860,409 


707,464 


1834 


5,183 


84,860 


1,197,788 


1,188,019 


883,804 


768,939 


1835 


5,6n 


04,053 


1,306,585 


1,239,043 


411,183 


785,646 


1896 


6,150 


94,063 


1,447,703 


1,366,713 


447,797 


885,100 


1837 


7,003 


105,336 


1,584,683 


1,468,960 


486,411 


943,845 


1838 


7,630 


105,836 


1,669,915 


1,680,945 


548,049 


1,086,813 


1830 


8,004 


116,000 


1,707,418 


1,789,183 


569,337 


1,158,646 


1830 


8,460 


116,176 


1,850,683 


1,033,708 


505,334 


1,374,009 


1831 


8,686 


115,486 


1,997,811 


1,936,122 


635,038 


1,252,396 


1833 


9,305 


104,466 


3,356,970 


2,266,171 


715,481 


1,483,507 


1883 


10,137 


110,916 


3,617,011 


2,980,414 


836,283 


1,894,688 


1834 


10,603 


119,916 


9,833,740 


2,010,605 


897,317 


1,935,544 


1835 


10,770 


113,774 


3,903,356 


2,757,350 


945,418 


1,719,007 


1836 


11,091 


118,364 


8,468,333 


3,841,766 


812,806 


1,638,058 


1837 


11,767 


141,343 


4,936,779 


8,544,630 


891,363 


1,966,797 


1638 


13,519 


184,818 


4,338,733 


4,430,663 


933,948 


8,181,308 


1839 


13,780 


133,999 


4,484,657 


4,636,536 


980,000 


8,385,633 


1840 


13,468 


155,7» 


4,543,683 


4,718,336 


1,028,935 


8,286,876 


1841 


18,778 


156,036 


4,4OT,736 


4,400,636 


1,018,645 


8,160,875 


1643 


18,733 


149,733 


4,546,849 


5,674,753 


1,147,356 


8,087,796 


1843 


13,814 


143,395 


4,396,235 


4,374,754 


1,426,394 


2,947,319 


1844 


14,103 


144,687 


4,937,368 


4,396,513 


1,358,316 


2,938,551 


1845 


14,163 


143,940 


4,989,841 


4,330,733 


1,400,875 


2,905,504 


•1846 


14,601 


163,865 


3,487,199 


4,084,397 


1,042,079 


2,716,673 


•1847 


15,146 


163,818 


8,955,883 


3,979,570 


1,060,238 


3,476,465 


•18I8 


16,169 


163,908 


4,371,077 


4,336,850 




3,394,708 


•l849 


16,749 


163,703 


4,905,176 


4,479,049 


1,330,931 


3,6n,407 


•1850 


18,417 


178,673 


5,563,971 


5,313,968 


1,549,376 


3,965,786 


•l851 


19,796 


196,390 


6,727,867 


6,378,403 


1,781,686 


3,538,064 


•l653 


30,901 


314,384 


6,925,971 


7,108,450 


1,396,765 


4,225,311 


•l853 


33,330 


317,743 


5,940,725 


7,983,757 


1,406,477 


4,906,308 



* Tlie nturns for 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, and 1851 are for the six jfon under the 
U«r of March 3, 1 846. Those for 1852 and 1853 are for the two years under the new law 



168 



UNITED STATES. 



[1855. 



4. Fouiioir Mail Serviob. 

The convei^ance of mail matter between this and foreign coantries, and 
between the Atlantic and Pacific portions of the United States, is a large 
and important branch of the mail service. The ibllowiag table exhibits 
this service. 

Foreign Mail Service of ike United SUUes in Operation October 1, 1853.* 



Distance No. irlpa n/.„. -«-.«— Annual 
in miles, monthly. Contractore. p^^y 



Routes. 



Remarks. 



1. New YorlK, by South- 
ampton, to Bvemen Ha- 
ven, 

2. Charleston, by Savan- 
nah and Itej West, to 
Havana. 

3. NewYorlctoAapinwaU, 
New Orleans to Aspin* 

wall, 
New York, by Havana, 
to New Orleans, 

4. Astoria, by Port OrTord, 
San Francisco, Mont- 
erey, and San Diego, to 
Panama, 

5. New York to Liverpool, 

6. New York, by Cowes, 
to Havre, 



7. Aspinwall to Panama, 

8. New Orleans, by Tarn- 
pico, to Vera Cruz, 



3.760 



2,000 
1,400 

2,000 

4,200 



3,100 



3,270 



60 
900 



Ocean Steam 
Nav. Co., C. 
H. Sands, PlL 
M. C. Mor 
decai. 



O. Law, M. 
O. Roberts, 
and B. R. 
Mcllvain. 

Pacific Mail 
Steam. Co., 
W.RAspin 
wall, Prea. 
26 a year E. K. Collins, 
' a^.Brown. 



la month 



2 « 

3 «* 



Ocean Steam 
Nav.Co.,M. 
Livingston, 
Agent. 

Panama Rail- 
road Co. 

R HCarmick 



•200,000 
60,000 

290,000 
348,250 

858,000 
160,000 

95,336 
69,760 






Under contract with 
Postmaster • Oen., 
ActofMar.3,1845. 

Contracts withP.M. 
G.,ActsMar.3.'47, 
fcJulylO, 1848. 

Contract with Sec 
retary of Navy, 
ActslHar. 3, 1847, 
and Mar. 3, 1851. 

Contract with Soc- 
reury of Navy, 
Act March 3, 1847, 

^andMarch3,1851. 

*Cont.withSecofN. 
Acts Mar. 3, 1847, 
and July 21, 1862. 
Contract with P.M. 
G., Act of March 3, 
1847. 

22 cents per pound. 

Act March, 3, 1851. 
Contract with P. M. 

G., Act of Aug. 30, 

I852.t 



The gross amount received from the mail service to Bremen, via Sonth- 
aropton, from June 1, 1847, to Oct. 4, 1848, was $ 20,082.51 ; for the year 
ending Oct. 4, 1849, it was $ 61,1 14.20 ; from Oct. 5, 1849, to Sept. 30, 1850, 
it was $56,865.60; during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1851, it was 
$94,598.03; during the year ending June 30, 1852, it was $77,219.87; 
and daring the year ending June 30, 1853, it was $ 100,297.79. The net 
revenue by this line for the last fiscal year was $^9,951.45. The postages 
on the Charleston and Havana line, from Oct 18, 1848, to Sept. 30, 1850, 
were $22,406.37; for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1852, $11,958.99; 
and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1853, $ 7,945.63. The postages 
by the New York, Cbagres, and California line for the same year were 
$263,137.58 ; and by the New Orleans and Vera Cruz line, from April 14, 
1853, to June 30, $630.84. 

The gross amount received for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1852, 
for postages on mailable matter from the Collins line, New York and 
Liverpool, was $228,867.61 ; for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1853, it 
was $303,733.70. The net revenue by this line for the last year was 
$192,313.87. 

* The service is substantially the same at the present time, October, 1854. 
f.Tlie service in No. 8 is as yet semi-monthly, and one third of the pay is deducted : and 
Tampico is omitted, and for this one flOh of the pay is deducted. 



1855.} POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 169 

The gross amount received during the year ending June 30, 1852, from 
the New York and Havre line was 80,804,08 ; for year ending June 30, 
1853, it was $ 100,070.44. The net revenue by this Iuub for the same year 
was $71,147.74. 

The letter postage by the Cunard line for the year ending June 30, 1853, 
was $578,033.39; newspaper postage, $20,683.26. 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Post-Office under the old Late (prior to 
1845), under the law of 1845, oiuf under that of 1851. 





Letter Postage. 


Newspapers and 
Pamphlets. 


Total Annual 
Receipts. 


Total Annual 
Expenditures. 


Average of nine 
years under the 
oldlanr. 

Average of the 
six years of the 
law of 1845, 

Average of two 
years under the 
lawoflSSl. 


•3,807,993 
3,900,000 
4.350.009 


•628,979 
791,045 
700,289 


• 4,364,626 
4,833,197 
6,382,352 


• 4,499,696 
4,684,647 
7,645,608 



By reference to the detailed statement of the receipts and expenditures 
of the Post-Office below, it will be seen that the item *' letter postage" in- 
cludes stamps sold, and also h^ the total annual receipts, dtc. are made up. 

Under the Act of 1845 the gross revenue from letter postage fell off in 
1846, the first year of the reduction, $ 988,738.92, or 27 per cent ; in the 
second year, 1847, it increased $ 363^1959.49, or 13i per cent, over 1846. 

In the year ending June 30, 1852, the first after the reduction by the Act 
of 1851, the gross revenue from letter postage ^as reduced $1,185,993.73, 
or 22^4^er cent; in 1853 the increase from the same source over the 
gross revenue from letter postage in the previous year was $251,747.68, 
or 6fij per cent. 

The cost of the transportation of the mails has increased rapidly each 
year. In 1849 it was $2,577,407.71 -, in 1850, $2,965,786 36; in ^1851, 
$3,538,06:^.64; in 1852, $4,225,311.28; in 1853, $4,906,308.05; and 
the estimate for transportation for the year 1854 was $5,506,601. 

The amount of postage stamps sold in 1853 was $ 1,629,262.12. The 
proportion of the different denominations of stamps issued for 1853 was, 
1 cent, 4,736,311 ; 3 cent, 51,461,040 ; 12 cent, 146,655. Of the stamped 
envelopes, there were issued to postmasters for 'sale during the quarter 
ending September 30, 1853 ; 3 cent, note size, 464,350 ; ditto, letter size, 
8,118,250; 6 cent, letter size, 150,000 ; ditto official size, 181,050. 

The following is the detail of the receipts and expenditures of the De- 
partment for the contract year, ending June 30, 1853 : -> 

BxfendUuret, 
Transportationjof mails, 



Letter firt^fi^ including foieiga 

postafB and stamps sold, 
Newspapers and periodicals, 
Fines, except on contractors. 
Excess of emolumenU of post- 
masters, 

15 



• 4,908,308.06 
• 4,473,227^ Compensation to postmasters, 1,406,477.06 
611,333.42 Extra compensation to postmas* 

82.50 . ters, 414,525.10 

Ship, steamboat, and way letters, 23,106.83 

38,386.01 Wrapping-paper, 41,453.94 



170 

Receipts. 

Damages from coDtractors, 
Dead letters, 

Letter-earriert, ^ 

MIscellaoeouB receipU, ^ 
Annual appropriations to pay for 

mail service performed for the 

government, 

Gross revenue for the year, 



UNITED STATES. 

Expenditures. 

i 1,384.00 Office furniture, 
45.00 Advertising, . 
113,017.73 Mail-bags, 
3,248.50 Blanks, 



Mail locks, keys, and stamps, 
New mail locks and keys, 
700,000.00 Mail depredations and special agents, 55,276.43 
6 940 724 70 ^^^^ ^' offices of poatmasters, 609,820.94 



^zeess of expenditures, 



$2,042,031.69 



[1855. 



• 3,241.60 
79,346.00 
49,306.63 
71,056.22 
14,733.80 
18,935.54 



Total expenditure, for the year, r'm^gee.B&f^^^^V^y^'''^ ^^ ^ "«'^« 
'^ . Repayment ofmoney in dead letters, 34.26 



3,864.50 

153.95 

472.41 

113,017.73 

1,670.00 

10,391.03 

139,592.06 

3.565.09 



Postage stamps. 

Stamps returned and overcharged. 
Official letters to postmasters. 
Payments to letter-carriers. 
Poet-office Laws, Lists, &c.. 
Stamped envelopes. 
Miscellaneous British postages, 

Bremen " 
Total expenditures, $ 7,962,766.59 

Revenue under the Postal Treaty with Great Britain. 
The amount of correspondence between the United States and Great 
Britain for the year ending June 30, 1853, ^us as follows : — 

Received. Sent. Total. 

By United States packets, 
By British packeto, 



Total, 



$ 152,065.39 
325,200.33 



$ 191,683.29 
252^33.06 



% 477^.72 $ 444,516.35 $ 921,782.07 



$ 343,748.68 
578,033.39 



$ 34?,748.68 

42,968.58 

$ 300,780.10 

$ 120,423 60 . 
. 6,118.90 

37,811.39 

4,670.80 

$469,804.79 

Bremen, and 

1853, wafl as 



Gross amount letter postage by United States packets, 
Deduct British inland 3-24th8, 



Add for United States inland 5-24ths of $ 578,033.39, amount 

by British packets, 

Newspaper postages, by Collins line, .... 
British closed mails in transit through United States, — 

By Cunard line, 

By Collins line, 

Total, 

The number of letters conveyed by the Cunard, Collins, 
Havre lines of steamers, firom July 1, 1852, to June 30, 
follows : — 



Lines. 


Whole 
number. 


Paid. 


Unpaid. 


Posusre collected in 


No. of 


" United 
States. 


Great " 
Briuin. 


Cunard, 
Collins, 
Havre, 
Bremen, 

Total, 


2,774,423 

1,018,345 

406,126 

412,117 


1,132,536 
410,664 
174,766 
166,124 


1,641.887 
607,781 
231,360 
245,993 


• 356,253.14 
154,188.88 


9 222,780.25' 
79,084.21 


^,034,163 

305,945 

4,967 

3,613 


4,611,011 


1,883,990 


2,727,021 









1855.] 



POST-OFFICB DEPABTMBNT* 



m 



The number of letters to and from Continental Europe in transit through 
the United Kingdom for the same year was as follows : — 



Line. 


Sent. 


Received. 


Total. 


Cunard, .... 


257,258 


57,047 


314,305 


Collins, .... 


111,947 


3,861 


115,808 


Bremen, .... 


9,440 


950 


10,390 


Ha?re, .... 

Total, 


3,427 


926 


4,353 


444,856 



5. CoMPEMSATZOir OF POSTMASTERS. 

The commissions allowed postmasters are as follows, viz.: — 

1. On the postage collected at their respective offices, not 

exceeding $ 100 in any one qttarter^ 60 per cent. 

But if mails arrive regularly at any office between 9 P. M. and 

5 A. M., then i 70 per cent. 

2. On any sum between $ 100 and $ 400 in any qttarter, 50 per cent. 

3. On any sum between $400 and $2,400 in any quarter^ 40 ** 

4. On any sum over $ 2,400 in any quarter, ... .15 ** 

5. On .the amount of letters and packets received for dis- 
tribution at offices designated by the. Postmaster-General for 

that purpose,. . . 10 ** 

6. Box rents not exceeding $ 2,000 per annum. 

The postmasters at New Orleans and Washington have special allow- 
ances for extra labor. To postmasters whose pay does not exceed $ 500 
in any quarter, one cent is paid for the delivery of each free letter or docu- 
ment, except for the delivery of such as are fur himself. 

On postages on letters and packages received at a distributing office for 
distribution, the postmaster may be allowed 12^ per cent. Those postmas- 
ters who are required to keep a register of the arrival and departure of the 
mails, are allowed ten cents for each monthly return made to the Postmas- 
ter-General. Two mills are allowed for delivery of each newspaper not 
chargeable with postage. Additional allowances may be made to the post- 
masters at distributing and separating offices, to defray actual and necessary 
expenses, when the commissions, allowances, and emoluments are in- 
. sufficient. 

The term Utter postage includes all postages received, except those which 
arise from newspapers sent from the offices of publication to subscribers, 
and from pamphlets and magazines. 



172 UNITED STATES. [1865. 

6. Rates op Postage within the United States. 
For a single letter, sent not exceeding 3,000 miles, if prepaid^ 3 cents. 

If not prepaid, 5 *• 

Sent over 3,000 miles, if prepaid, 6 ^' 

If not prepaid, 10 ** 

For such a letter, conveyed wholly or in part by sea to or from 
a foreign country (except all cases where different rates have 
been or shall be established by postal arrangements), sent not 

exceeding 2,500 miles, 10 ^ 

Sent over 2,500 miles, ' . 20 " 

For a double letter there shall be charged double the above 
rates ; for a treble letter, treble the above rates, &c. Every 
letter or parcel not exceeding half an ounce (avoirdupois) in 
weight is a single letter, and every additional weight of half an 
ounce or of less than half an ounce is charged with an additional 
single postage. When advertised, one cent additional is charged 
on each letter. For a letter delivered by a carrier, there is an 
additional charge of not exceeding one or two cents. 

For drop letters (not to be mailed) each, . . • 1 ** 

For ail letters or packages {ship letters) conveyed by any ves- 
lel not employed in conveying the mail, .... 2 ** 

To this charjge of 2 cents is added 4 cents, when the letters 
are not transmitted through the mail, but are delivered at the 

S9st-ofiice where deposited ; and the ordinary rates of United 
tates postage are added when the letter is transmitted through 
the mails. 

Each newspaper, periodical, unsealed circular, or other article 
of printed matter, not exceeding three ounces in weight, to any 
part of the United States, , 1 cent. 

For every additional oance or fraction of an ounce, . 1 ^ 

If the postage on any newspaper or periodical is paid quarterly or yearly 
in advance, at the office where tiie same is either mailed or delivered, then 
half the above rates are charged. Newspapers and periodicals iiT>t weigh- 
ing over one and a half ounces, circulated in the State where published, 
are likewise charged but half of the above rates. 

Small newspapers and periodicals, published monthly or oflener, and 
pamphlets not containing more than sixteen octavo pages each, when sent 
in single packages, weighing at least eight ounces, to one address, and pre- 
paid by affixing postage stanips thereto, shall be charged only half a cent 
for each ounce or fraction of^an ounce, notwithstanding the postage calcu- 
lated on each separate article of such package would exceed that amount. 
The postage on all transient matter, unless prepaid, shall be charged double 
the fir8t-n>entioned rates. 

Books, bound or unbound, not weighing over four pounds, shall be 
deemed mailable maCter, and shall pay. 

For all distances under 3,000 miles, per ounce, ... 1 cent. 

For all distances over 3,000 miles, 2 '' 

FiAy per cent, shall be added in all cases when not prepaid. All printed 
matter cnargeable by weight shall be weighed when dry. The publishers 
of newspapers and periodicals may send to each other from their respective 
offices of publication, free of postage, one copy of each publication ; and 
may also send to each actual subscriber, inclosed in their publications, bills 
ana receipts for the same, free, of postage. The publishers of weekly newt- 
papers may send to each actual subscriber within the county wliere their 
papers are printed and published one copy thereof free of postaee. 

No printed matter shall be sent at the above rates, unless either without 
any wrapper, or with one open at the ends or sides, so that the character of 
the matter may be seen without remoying the wrapper ; or if any written 



1855.] POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 173 

or printed communication is put on the same afler its publication, or upon 
the cover or wrapper, except the name and address of the person to whom 
tile same is sent ; or if any thing else is inclosed in such printed paper. If 
these conditions are not complied with, letter postage shall be charged. 

When any printed matter received during any quarter has been in the 
post-office for the whole of the succeeding quarter, the postmaster shall 
sell it, and credit the amount of the sales, as directed by the Post-Office 
Department. 

The establishment of private expresses for the conveyance of any letters, 
packets, or packages of letters, or other matter transmittible in the United 
states mail (newspapefs, pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals excepted), 
from one city, town, or place, to any other city, town, or place in the 
United States, between which the United States mail is regularly trans- 
ported, is prohibited, but letters, &c, may be carried by carriers in stamped 
envelopes. Contractors may carry newspapers out of the mails for sale or 
distribution among subscribers. A penalty of $ 5,(HK) is imposed on any 
person taking letters through or over any part of the United States for the 
purpose of being sent out of the United States without the payment of 
postage. 

Letters addressed to different persons cannot be inclosed in the same 
envelope or package, under a penalty of ten dollars, unless addressed to 
foreign countries. 

7. Privilegs of Frarting. 

1. The President, ex-Presidents, and Mrs. Harrison, have the franking 
priyilege, as regulated by former laws. 

2. Members of Congress ai# Delegates from Territories, from thirty 
days before the commencement* of each Congress until the meeting of the next 
Congress^ the Vice-President and the Secretary of the Senate, and the 
Clerk of the House of Representatives, during their official terms^ may sentf^ 
and receive free letters or packages not exceefiing two ounces in weight, and 
public documents not exceeding three pounds in weight. 

3. The Governors of States may send free the laws, records, and doca- 
ments of the Legislature to the Governors of other States. 

4. The Secretaries of State, Treasury, War, Navy, and the Interior ; 
Attorney-General ; Postmaster-General and Assistant Postmasters-General -, 
Comptrollers, Auditors, Register, and Solicitor of the Treasury ; Treasurer; 
Commissioners of the different Offices and Bureaus ; Chiefi of Bureaus in 
the War and Navy Departments, General-in-Chief, and Adjutant-General ; 
and the Superintendent of the Coast Survey and his assistant, — may send 
and receive free all letters and»paekages upon official business, but n»t their 
private letters or papers. 

5. The Chief Clerks in the several Departments may send free public 
and official documents. 

& Deputy postmasters may send free all such letters and packages as re- 
late exclusively to the business of their respective offices ; and those whose 
compensation did not exceed $200 for the year ending the 30th of June, 
184o, may also send firee, through the mails, letters written by themselves, 
and receive free all written communications on their own private business, 
not weighing over one half-ounce, but not transient newspapers, handbUle, 
or circoTars. 

7. Exchance newspapers between editors pass free. 

For other nee matter, see Rates of Postage. 

PubUc doeumaUs are those printed by the order of either house of Con- 
gress, and publications or books procured or purchased by Congress, or 
either house, for the use of the members. 

* The commtiicement of each Congress for thia purpose dates ftom the 4th of March 
(I. e. the day next) sacceedinff the urmination of the jii ^Mjlliii Oongiees. -— 

15* ^^ 



174 



XTmTBD STATES* 



[1855. 



8. RaTB8 of FoBEIGV LxTTXR and NlWSPAPlR POSTAGS BKTWXXV AHT 
PoiHTB IN THE UmITKD StATXS AND FoRKIGN CoUNTRIEf. 

Greai Britain and Irdand. * 

Between the United States and Great Britain and Ireland, lettera are 
rated, by weight, as in the United States. Between any office in the 
United States (Oregon and California excepted) and any office in Great 
Britain and Ireland, by either the United States or British line, the entire 
postage is 2i cenu the single letter, prepayment optional. Five cents are 
to be added when to or from Calirornia or Oregon. Newspa]>era 2 cents 
each, to be prepaid. Payment of any thing less t|^an the entire postage 
goes for nothing, and such matter will be treated as wholly unpaid. 

Other Foreign Countries and Cities, 

The places marked (a) are via Southampton ; (b) ria Southampton and India; (e) tIa 
Southampton and Lisbon ; (d) via England ; (e) by private ship, via England ; (/) via Ply- 
mouth; Or) via Falmouth; (A) via Franca; («} via Marseilles; (» by French packet, Tta 
Marseilles ; (A) by closed mail, via Marseilles ; (0 via Trieste. 

In the first two columns of this list, the rates named must in evenr insuoce be prepaid, 
and irith 5 cenu more when the letUr is from Oregon or California. The 21 cent rate is the 
United States inland and Atlantic sea, and the 6 cent rate the United States inland postage 
only. In the Prussian cloeed mail (third and sixth columns), the rales set down are the full 
postage to destination. Newspapers must be prepaid. In the British mail the 4 cent rate is 
United States and British, and the 2 cent the United States postage only. 

In the case of letters to go through France, the Frencn postage is rated by the quarter 
ounce for the single letter. This is ten cents, except on letters for JB^ypt, Syria, and Tunis, 
by French packet, when the single French rate is 20cent8. Therefore, on letters marked " via 
France," or " via Marseilles," the French rate must be doubled for each quarter of an ounca 

The asterisk (*) indicates that prepayment is oii^nal ; in all other cases prepayment Is 
required. 





Ratss of PosUge for Letters weighing 


Kates of Postage for 


Places. 




4 ounce or under. 




Newspapers. 


In open Mail to 
Great Briuin. 


m 


■ % 


P 

(S«OQ 


In Prussian closed 
mail, by either United 
Slates or British Pack- 
et. 


IS 


k 


t 

1 
1 


In Prussian cl 
Mail, by either Ui 
States or British F 
et. 




Cents 


Gents. 


Cenu. 


Cenu. 


Genu. 


Cenu. 


Cents. 


a Aden (Asia), . . 


45 


45 






4 






i do 


65 


65 












Alexandria, . 


31 


5 


♦38 


" 30 


2 


6 


2 


AlgerU, . , . 


21 


6 






2 






AUenburg, 








*15 






2 


Altona, 








♦15 






2 


(i Ascension, . 


45 


45 






4 






Austria and its Slatss, 


21 


6 


♦30 


♦16 


2 


6 


s 


rf Australia, . . . 


45 


45 






4 






s Australia or elsewhere, 


37 


37 






4 






e Azores Islands, . 


63 


63 






4 






Baden, ... 


21 


6 


*80 


♦22 


2 


6 


2 


Bavaria, .... 


21 


6 


*30 


♦15 


2 


6 


2 


Uwlgium, 


21 


6 






2 






sfiourbon and Borneo, 
ifiourbon, . . . 


21 
53 
73 


5 
63 
73 


*40 




2 

4 


R 




fc?wlck, *.*.'. 


21 


5 


•30 


•10 


2 


6 


2 


21 


6 


*30 


*16 


2 


6 


2 


IrBraziljs, 


45 


45 






4 






gSttenos Arras, . 


46 


45 






4 






66 


65 






4 






I^l^'de Verde Islands, 


21 
65 


5 

65 


♦40 




2 

4 


6 





1855.] 



FOST-OFVXCS DKPiJlTMSNT. 



175 







Letters 




FlacM. 


In open Mail to 
Great Britain. 


In 

Prussian 

closed 

Mail. 


Bremen 
Line. 


In 
British 
or open 
Mail. 


In 

Prussian 

closed 

Mail. 


Biemen 
Line. 


ByU.a 
Packet. 


Brittoh 
Packet. 




Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cenu. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cansl, - . . . 








♦22 






2 


Oesme, . .. . 


21 


5 


*40 




2 


6 




aCevkm, 


45 


45 






4 






65 


65 












t China, tzc. Hong Konf , 


65 


65 












a do. ... 


45 


46 






4 






/do 






62 






13 




Coburg, 








♦22 






2 




21 


5 


.♦40 


♦33 


2 


6 


a 


Corfu 








30 








Coxhaven, 


21 


5 


♦30 




2 


6 


s 


DaidanellM, . . 


21 


5 


♦40 




2 


6 




Darmstadt, 








♦22 






2 


Denmark, . . 


21 


6 


♦37 


27 


2 


6 






46 


46 






4 






do. . . 


65 


65 












do. (Eng. poseesa.) 






38 






10 




da all other coun- 
















tries in and beyond the, 






70 






13 




O' Cgypt (except Alexan- 
















dria), .... 


67 


67 






4 






/do. do. 






30 






6 




k do. do. . . 


61 


61 












j do. do. 

France, . 

Frankfort on the Main, 


51 


61 












21 


5 




4^ 


2 




a 


eWata, . . . . 


21 


5 


♦40 




2 


6 




Gallipoli, . . . 
German States, 


21 


5 


♦40 




2 


6 




21 


5 


♦30 




2 


6 




Gibraltar, . 


21 


5 






4 






Gotha, .... 








♦22 






2 


/Greece, . . . 


21 


I 


♦© 


♦33 


2 


6 




1- do. '. . . . 


21 


5 






2 






a do. ... 


67 


67 






2 






Hambnig, . . . 


21 


5 


♦30 


♦16 


2 


6 


a 


Hanover, . 


21 


5 


♦30 


♦16 


2 


6 


a 




33 


33 






4 






Hesse Homburg, . . 








4^ 






a 


Holland, .... 


21 


6 






2 






.Hongjt.a,, . . 


21 
65 


5 
65 






4 






/ do. . . . 






38 






10 




Ibraila, .... 


21 


6 


♦40 




2 


6 




Ionian Islands, . . 


21 


5 


♦37 




2 


6 




Italy 


21 


6 






2 






do. (except Lombardy, 
Modena, Parma, Tusca- 






























ny , and the Papal States) 






30 


33 




6 


2 


a Java, . . . 


45 


46 






4 






» do. . 


65 


65 












Kiel, . . . 










♦22 






2 


Lamsa, . 




21 


6 


♦40 




2 


6 




6Labuan, . 




53 


53 






4 






»• do. ' 




73 


73 












Lippe Detmold, . 










♦22 






2 


Lubec, free city of. 




21 


5 


♦30 


♦16 


2 


6 


2 


Levante, 




21 


5 


30 




2 


6 




Lombardy, 




21 


5 


♦30 




2 


6 




a Madeira, Island ol 


f • 


65 


65 






4 






Bfalto, Island of. 




21 


6 




30 


2 






a Mauritius, 




45 


65 






4 






/ do. ' . 




65 


65 












MecUenbofg Schwerin, 


21 


5 


♦30 


♦16 


2 


6 


2 


Mecklenbuif Strelitz, . 


21, 


6 


♦30 


♦15 


2 


6 


a 


Modena, . 


21 


5 


433 




4 


6 




Moldavia, . . . 


21 


5 


30 




2 


6 




AHoIocSm, . . 


63 


63 






4 







176 



T7VITBD STATICS. 



[1855. 



Places. 


Letters. 


Newspapers. | 


In open Mail to 
Oteat Briuin. 


In 
Prussian 


Bremen 
Line. 


In 
British 


In 

Prussian 

ctossd 

Mail. 


Bremen 
Line. 


By U.S. 

Packet. 


By 
British 
Packet. 


closed 
Mail. 




Gents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Genu. 


i Moluccas, . 


73 


73 












f Montevideo, . . 
Mytllene. . 


46 


45 






4 • 






21 


6 


*40 




2 


6 




Naples, Kingdom of, . 


21 


6 


30 




2 


6 




Nssaau, . . . 








♦22 






2 


/New Soutk Wales', . 
d New Zealand, . . 








♦25 






2 


45 


46 






4 






63 


53 






4 






i do. . . 


73 


73 












aNorthAuslnlia,. . 


63 


53 






4 






ft' do. . . 


73 


73 












Norway 


21 


6 


M8 


♦37 


2 


6 


2 


CNdenbutf, . . . 


21 


6 


*30 


♦13 


2 


6 


2 


Parma, .... 


21 


6 


*33 




2 


6 




Placentia, . 


21 


6 


30 




2 


6 




a PbiUppine Islands, . 


45 


46 






4 






i do. 


65 


65 












Ptoland, .... 


21 


6 


♦37 


♦29 




6 


2 


a Portugal, . 


63 


63 






4 






Prussia, kingd. and pror. 


21 


6 


*30 


♦15 


2 


6 


2 


Reuse 








♦23 






2 


Rhodes. . . . 


21 


6 


*40 




2 


6 




Roman or Papal States, . 


21 


6 


*35 




2 


6 




Russia, . . , . 


21 


5 


*37 


♦29 




6 


2 


Salonica, . . . 


21 


5 


*40 




2 


6 




Saimsum, 


21 


5 


*40 




2 


6 




Sardinia, . . . 


21 


5 


♦30 




2 


6 




Sazonv, .... 
Saxe-Altenburg, . 


21 


5 


*30 


♦15 


2 


6 


2 








♦ 15 






2 


Saze Meiningen, . 








♦22 






2 


Saxe Weimar. . . 
Schauenburg'Li ppe, 
Schwarahurg-Rudolstadt, 








♦22 






2 








♦22 
♦22 






2 
2 


Schwarzbarg-Sonderh., . 








♦22 






2 


Scutari (Asi^), . 


21 


5 


30 




2 


6 




Smyrna, .... 


21 


5 


*40 




2 


6 




Sicily, .... 


21 


6 


30 




2 


6 




Sierm'Leone, ' . ' . ' 


21 
45 


6 
45 


30 




2 

4 


6 




/South Australia, . . 
< Spain, . 7 . 


45 


45 






4 






41 


41 












a do. . 


73 


73 






4 






a Sumatra, . 


63 


53 






4 






















in Indian Archipelago, 


73 


73 












Sweden, 


21 


6 


«42 


♦33 


2 


6 


2 


Switzerland, . . . 


21 


6 




♦26 


2 


6 


2 


a Syria, 


. 57 


67 






4 






J do. . . . ' , 


51 


51 












m do. . . 


61 


61 












Senedos, . . 


21 


6 


>N0 




2 


6 




^Bblzonde, 


21 


6 


♦40 




2 


6 




Kciioza, .... 


21 


6 


«40 




2 


6 




#Tuni8, . 


61 


61 












■Rkey (in Europe) and 
^^kish islands in the 






























• pMiterranean, except 
















jUi herein mentioned, . 


21 


5 


30 




2 


6 




^"&emin»sLand,* . 


21 


5 


♦35 




2 


6 




45 


45 






4 






Invia, .... 


21 


6 


♦40 




2 


6 




■ ▼^nezuela, . 


45 


45 






4 






wnfttian States, . 


21 


5 


♦30 




2 


6 




jnRctoria (Port Philip), 


45 


45 




• 


4 






rabltachla. 


21 


5 


30 


30 


2 


6 


2 


IBfastAustmlla, . 


45 


45 






4 






Hilcmberg, . 


21 


6 


«30 


♦22 


2 




9 



1855.] POST-OVFICB DSPABTMENT. 177 

Od British, sea, and American inland postage, the single better is i oz. ; 
on foreign postage, the single letter is less than ^ oz. Letters weighing 
^ oz. and under i oz. are charged two rates ; J oz. and under }, three rates, 
&c.', an additional rate being charged for each quarter of an ounce. Thus, a 
letter directed to the East Indies by a British steamer, and weighing less 
than 4 oz., will be charged 65 cents postage ; if | oz. or more, and less than 
J oz., 75 cents must be paid ; the foreign postage only being doubled for 
each ^ oz. 

On letters to the following places and countries, prepayment is op- 
tional ; but when prepaid, only the United Slates postage of 20 cents the 
single letter should be prepaid, the/oreign portion being collected of the 
receiver; via. Alexandria, Cairo, Constantinople, Denmark, Greece, east- 
ern towns of Italy, Norway, St. Petersburg or Cronstadt, Sweden, and 
Switzerland. 

On letters to Havre, or any place on the coast of France, to Germany, 
or any port on the Continent, where the United States steam-packets 
stop, the postage is 20 cents the single rate, prepayment required. Letters 
by this line are subject in France to an additional postage of 12 cents if 
weighing under } oz. ; 24 cents, if weighing over i oz. and less than ^ oz., 
&.C. Newspapers 2 cents each, prepayment required. 
Postage to MezicOy South Jlmerica, and the West Indies, from any Point in 
the United States. 

On letters to Chagres, Havana (Cuba), Mexico, Panama, and 
other places where the rates are not fixed by postal treaty, and 
to the British West Indies, viz. Antigoa, BarbadoeSi Bahamas, 
Berbice, Cariaco, Demarara, Dominica, Essequibo, Grenada, Ja- 
maica, Montserrat, Nevis, St Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, 
Tobago, Tortola, and Trinidad, 

If distance from mailing office does not exceed 2,500 miles, 10 cents. 
'* « *' exceed 2,500 miles, 20 << 

Newspapers 2 cents each. The postage on letters and news- 
papers must be prepaid. 

On letters to the West India Islands (not British) except Cuba, 
to Carthagena, Honduras, St. Juan (Nicaragua), or to places in 
the Gulf of Mexico or on the Atlantic coast of South America, 
not in British possession, yiz. Venezuela, Brazils, and Uruguay, 
to be prepaid, 

If distance from'mailing office does not exceed 2,500 miles, 34 '* 
" *" *< exceed 2,500 miles, 44 " 

To St. Thomas and the other Danish islands, by U. S. packet 
to Kingston, the single rate is 18 cents under 2^500 miles, and 28 
cents over 2,500 miles, prepayment required. 

On newspapers sent, the postage (U. S. and British) is 6 cents, 
to be prepaid. On newspapers received, the rate to be collected 
is 2 cents, the British postage beins prepaid. 

The single postage to any part of the Argentine Repu1)lic from 
any point in the United States is (to be prepaid) 45 ** 

Tfte postage on letters to the following places — i. e. to Guaya- 
quil and Q,uito, in Ecuador; to Cobiga ana La Paez, in Bolivia; 
to Copiapo, Huasco, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, and St. Jago, in 
Chili — is (to be prepaid). 

On letters sent, being U. S. and British postage, 48 cents. 

On letters receired, IT. S. postage only, 24 '< 



178 T7KITED STATES. [1856. 

Newgpapers sent, 8 cents each, to be prepaid ; those received, 
4 cents each. 

The postage on letters to Lima, Callao, Arica, Payta, and 
other places in Peru, is, 

On letters sent (to be prepaid), 32 cents. 

On those received, 20 *' 

On newspapers sent, 8 cents each ; on those received, 4 cents 
each. 

On letters sent to Bogota and Buenaventura, in New Granada, 
the postage is 28 cents, to be prepaid. On letters received from 
these places, 20 cents. Newspapers sent, 8 cents *, received, 4 
cents. 

Postage to and from Canada^ A'eio Brunswick, Aboa Scotia, A'eufoundlandt 

Cape Breton, and Prince Edtoard^s Island, from and to any Point in the 

United States. 

On letters sent not over 3,000 miles from the line in the United 
States, 10 cents. 

Sent over 3,000 miles in the United States, ' 15 « 

Prepayment is optional in either country, but all is to be prepaid or none. 
A mail is made up for the British Provinces, via Halifax, from New York 
and Boston, by the English steamers. The postage on a single letter thus 
sent is 5 cents, to be prepaid. The postage on newspapers and periodicals 
to these places is at the regular United States rates, to and from the line, 
to be paid in the United States. Editors may exchange free of expense. 
Postage on Pamphlets and Magazines to and from Foreign Countries, from 
and to any Point in the United States. 

The postage on magazines and pamphlets to all foreign countries, except 
Great Britain, the British North American Provinces, and the west coast 
of South America, is, by whatever line sent, one cent an ounce or fraction 
of an ounce. To the west coast of South America it is four cents an 
ounce or fraction of an jounce, to be collected in all cases in the United 
States. To and from the British North American Provinces the postage 
is the regular United States rate to and from the line, to be prepaid when 
sent, and collected when received. 

On each periodical and pamphlet between Great Britain and the United 
States, the United States postage is 2 cents, if not over 2 ounces in weight, 
and 4 cents per ounce or fraction of an ounce over 2 ounces, always to be 
prepaid. An additional British postage of the same rate, when not exceed- 
ing 2 ounces, must be paid in England ; but the third ounce raises the 
British charge to 6 pence (12 cents), with 2 pence (4 cents) additional for 
each additional ounce. When sent to or received from foreign countries, 
without passing through the United Kingdom, they will be charged with the 
regular United States rates, to be prepaid when sent, and collected when 
received. No pamphlet can be sent weighing over 8 ounces, and no 
periodical over 16 ounces, without being subject to letter postage. 

Newspapers and periodicals to foreign countries, and particularly to the 
Continent of Europe, must be sent in narrow bands, open at the sides or 
end ; otherwise they are chargeable there with letter postage. 



1855.] CONGSBSS. 179 

9. JhiumiUs aetuaUy crtditBd for the Transpariatum of the MaUSf by States 
and Territories^ and the Amount of Postages coUeeted in the same^ in the 
Year ending June 30, 1853. 



StalM andTerriloriea. 


Letter 
Postage. 


Postage. 


^d!" 


Total 
Postages 
collected. 


Trans- 
portation. 


Ken uampsbire, . 


• 6d,300.7S« 16.433.29 


• 41,460.92 


912&.194.94 


• 52,767.88 


43.276.13 10,74077 


27,686.63 


81,703.63 


31,999.45 


Vermont, . 


4i;041.06 12.000.34 


26.697.44 


78,638.86 


62,476.86 




230,62628 3i;0i3.50 


192,427.04 


463,966.80 


130,117.13 


Rhode IsbuMi, . . 


22,337.19 3,164.98 


21,876.62 


47,377.79 


12,139.72 


Ooimecticut, . 


70,646.94 15.166.57 


60,661.98 


146,364 60 


64,173.13 


New York,. . . 


686,609 28 


111,762.43 


377,264.36 


1,176,616.06 


456,019.76 


Delaware, 


9,660.381 1,969.22 


4,661.11 


16,310.71 


9,412.00 


New Jersey. , 
PennayWanla, . 


68,461.42^ 8,639.16 


21,973.59 
163,983.70 


89,074.17 


74,139.66 


273,372 91 


61,001.69 


488.308.30 


238.019.69 


Maryland. . . . 
District of Cduinbia, 


83,189.06 


16,443.91 


63.926.16 


152,168.11 


191,686.20 


18,695.01 


3,191.64 


16.046.24 


37,832.89 




Virginia, . . . 


90,894.86 


28.112.26 


64,466.07 


183,472.19 


313,234.72 


North Carolina, 


28,838.43 


12,107.46 


19,805.63 


60,761.51 


175,630.69 


South Carolina, . . 


41,302.78 


10,144.03 


31,538.94 


82,985.76 


127,169.19 


fs^.-.\ 


76,316.01 


19,079.76 


47,404.38 


142,80ai4 


216,238.78 


8,721.69 


2,447.31 


6,709.83 


16 878.83 


38,661.99 


Alabama, . . ! 


63,804.18 


16,491.93 


26,795.74 


96.091.86 


178,643,35 


Miaeiasippi, . . 


42,228.09 


13,665.44 


17,22468 


73,108.21 


115.924.92 


Texas, 


29,916.73 


8,078 03 


9,169.70 


47,164.46 


139,362.19 


Kentucky, . 


61,080.71 


15,977.08 


35,484.81 


112.542.60 


139,088.15 


Michigan, . . 


63,048.34 


14,470.76 


29.238.09 


96,767.19 


136,260 14 


Wiaconain, . 


44,493.41 


13,132 09 


15,946.33 


73,670.83 


46,608.00 


Louisiana,' . . 


80,822.62 


13.440.96 


33,906.70 


128,170.18 


90,420.73 


Tenneaaee, • 


46,272.79 


13.943.83 


26,484.48 


86,701.10 


92,385.29 


Missouri,. . . 


68,436.03 


12,765.01 


27,681.78 


98,781.82 


140.454.41 


Illinois, . . . 


99,426.86 


28,069.78 


47,861.20 


176,346.83 


181,611.19 


Ohio, ... 


202,317.11 


49,295.44 


24,147.17 


375,769 72 


363,182.37 


Indiana, 


77,620.25 


24,399.02 


35,420.16 


137,339.43 


109.392.96 


Arkansas, . . 


16.188.71 


4,696.27 


4,321.91 


26,105.89 


90,859.16 


Iowa, . ' . . . 


23,77621 


7,234.61 


9,969.40 


40,980.22 


36,393 82 


CUilbmia. . . 


93.961.04 


13,111.56 


16,089.40 


123,152.00 


174,243.02 


Oregon Territory, 
Minnesota Temiory, 


6,276.31 


1,580.35 


1,940.69 


9,797.36 


47,682.16 


1,63011 


560.84 


1,338.91 


3,529.86 


2,386.28 


New Mexico Territory, 


361.17 


85.12 


80.93 


617.22 


19,647.22 


Utah Territory, 


715.15 


41.61 


.199.00 


965.66 


3,269.70 


Nebraska Territory, . 


469.64 


60.64 




62018 




Washington Territory, 

Total,. . 
Add Bremen 


149.66 


ia49 


74.74 


236.89 




2,843,762.06 


611,420.06 


1,629,292.46 


5,084,464.67 


4,199,951.68 


^S^'i.c.'^'*^" 












laneoos entries, 8,712.36 














213.36 86.64 


30.33 






Total, . . 


2,843,963.421 611,333.42 


1,629,262.121 



XIII. CONGRESS. 

Thi CongresB of the United States consists of a Senate and House of 
Rapresentatires, and must assemble at least once every year, on the first 
Monday of December, unless it is otherwise proTided by law. 

The Senate is composed of two members from eachSute ; and, of course, 
the regular number is now 62. They are chosen by the Legislatures of the 
several States, for the term of six years, one third being elected biennially. 

The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate, 
in which body he has only a casting rote, which is given in case of an 
equal division of the votes of the Senators. In his absence, a President 
pro tempore is chosen from among the Senators by the Senate. 

» In dosed nana ; thars wsn, basidaa, 83,1» in tha Pnusian closed mails. 



180 UNITED STATES. [1855. 

The House of Representatives is composed of members from the several 
States, elected by the people, for the term of two years. The Representa- 
tives are apportioned among the different States according to population, 
in the following manner. Under the provisions of the act of Congress of 
May 23, 1850, Ch. XI. §§ 25, 26, the number of Representatives is estab- 
lished at 233. After each decennial enumeration, the aggregate represent- 
ative population of the United States is ascertained by the Secretary of 
the Interior, by adding to the whole number of free persons in all the 
States, including those bound to service for a term of years, and exclud- 
ing Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. This aggregate ie 
divided by 233, and the quotient, rejecting fractions, if any, is the ratio 
of apportionment among the several States. The representative pop- 
ulation of each State is then ascertained in the same manner, and is divid- 
ed by the above-named ratio, and this quotient gives the apportionment of 
Representatives to each State. The loss by fractions is compensated for 
by assigning to as many States having the largest ft-actions as may be ne- 
cessary to make the whole number of Representatives 233, one additional 
member each lor its ft'action. If after the apportionment new States are 
admitted. Representatives are assigned to such States upon the above basis, 
in addition to the limited number of 233 ; but such excess continues only 
until the next apportionment under the succeeding. census. When the ap- 
portionment is completed, the Secretary sends a certificate thereof to the 
House of Representatives, and to the Executive of each State a certificate 
of the number apportioned to such State. The present number of Repre- 
sentatives is 234, an additional representative being temporarily assigned to 
California by the act of July 30, 1852. There are, besides, seven Delegates, 
one each ft-om Oregon, Minnesota, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Kan- 
zas, and Nebraska, who have a right to speak, but not to vote. A previous 
law (Laws of 1842, Ch. 47) requires that in each State the Representatives 
/'shall be elected by districts composed of contiguous territory, equal in 
number to the number of Representatives to which said State may be en- 
titled, no one district electing more than one Representative." For a table 
of apportionments, &c. among the several States, see post, page 188. 

Since the 4th of March, 1817, the compensation of each member of the 
Senate and House of Representatives has been $8 a day, during the period 
of his attendance in Congress, without deduction in case of sickness ; and 
^ 8 for every twenty miles* travel, in the usual road, in going to and return- 
ing firom the seat of government. The compensation of the President of 
the Senate pro tsmpore^ and of the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, is $ 16 a day. 

Thirtt-third Cokgrxss, 2d Sxssioir. 

Thx Sxmatx. 

[The Hgmea dtnote the expiration of the terms of the Se&atori.] 

David R. Atchison, of Missouri, President pro tempore, 

Maine. I JVeio Hampshire, 

Hannibal Hamlin, Hampden, 1857 Moses Norris, Jr. Manchester, 1855 

Wm. Pitt Fessenden, Portland, 1859|yacancy,* 1659 

« Jf«rad S. WilliaixM was appointed viee AtherUm, deceased, but than was no election hj 

t {iftgialature. 



X855.] 



COHGKBfMS. 



181 



VermmU. 

Lawrence Brainerd, St. Albans, 1855 

Solomon Foot, Rutland, 1857 

MasiathMsetta. 

Charles Sumner, Boston, 1857 

Vacancy,* 1859 

Rhode Idand, 

Charles T. James, Proyidence, 1857 

Philip Allen, Providence, 1859 

Connuiieut. 

Francis Gillette, Hartford, 1855 

Isaac Toucey, Hartford, 1857 

JV«io York. 

Wm. H. Seward, Auburn, 1855 

Hamillon Fish, New York, 1857 

Aeto Jersey, 

J. R. Thompson, Princeton, 1857 

William Wright, Newark, 1859 

Pennyslvama. 

James Cooper, Adams, 1855 

Richard Brodhead,£a8ton, 1857 

Ddaware. 

James A. Bayard, Wilmington, 1857 

John M. Clayton, Newcastle, 1859 

Maryland, 
James A. Pearce, Chestertown, 1855 

Thofl. G. Pratt, Annapolis, 1857 

VtrgifOA. 

James M. Mason, Winchester, 1857 
RJII.T.Hunter,LIoyds,Es8ex Co. 1859 

Korth Carolina. 

Geo. E. Badger, Raleigh, 1857 

Vacancy, 1859 

South Carolina. 
A. P. Butler, Edgefield C.H.1855 

Joeiah J. Evans, Society Hill, 1859 

Georgia, 

Wm. C. Dawson, Greensboro', 1855 

Rc^rt Toombs, Washington, 1859 

Mabama. 

Benj. Fitzpatrick, Wetumpka, 1855 

C. C. Clay, Huntsville, 1859 



JfUSflMippl. 

Stephen Adams, Aberdeen, 
Albert G. Brown, Gallatin, 

Louinana, 
John Slide!, New Orleans, 1855 

J. P. Benjamin, New Orleans, 1859 

Arkansas, 
Robt. W. Johnson, Little Rock, 
Wm. K.Sebastian, Helena, 

Tennessee, 
James C. Jones, Memphis, 
John Bell, Nashville, 

Kentucky, 
Archibald Dixon, Henderson, 
J. B. Thompson, Harrodsburg, 1859 

Ohio. • 
Salmon P. Chase, Cincinnati, 
Benj. F. Wade, Jefferson, 

Michigan, 
Lewis Cass, Detroit, 

Charles £. Stuart, Kalamazoo, 

John Pettit, La&yette, 

Jesse D. Bright, Madison, 

Illinois, 
James Shields, Belleville, 
S. A. DougUs, Cluincy, 

Missouri. 

David R. Atchison, Platte City, 1855 
Henry S. Geyer, St. Louis, 1857 

Florida, 
Jackson Morton, Pensaoola, 1855 
S. R. Mallory, Jacksonville, 1857 

Tcms, 

Thos. J. Rusk, Nacogdoches, 1857 
Samuel Houston, Huntsville, 1859 

Iowa. 
A. C. Dodge, Burlington, 
George W. Jones, Dubuque, 

Wisconsin. 
Henry Dodge, Dodgeville, 
\, P. Walker, Milwaukee, 



1857 

W59 



1855 
1859 

1857 
1859 

1855 



1855 
1857 

1857 
1859 

1855 
1857 

1855 
1859 



1855 
1859 

1857 
1859 



* Julius Rockwell, of Pittsfield, was appointed vice Everett, resigned, to serve until the 
Legislature electa or adjourns. 



16 



182 



UKITBD STATES. 



[1855. 



Califomim, 
Wm. M. Gwinn, San Franeisoo, 1855 
Join B. Weller, San Francisco, 1857 

Principal Officers of the Senate. 
Asbury Dickins, Secretary. 



Lewis H. Maehen, Ckitf Clerk. 
Henry Slicer, Chaplain. 
D. R. McNair, Sergeani-^t-drms. 
Isaac HolJand, Doorkeeper. 



HOVSK OP RSPRSSSNTATITSS OF THK ThIRTY-THIRD CoHGRESS, 

which mU expire on the ^ ofMarch^ 1855. 

Hoir. LiKK BoTDi of Kentucky, Speaker. 
tThe Mcond saraion of the 33d Congress commences on the 4th of December, 1854. The 
numbers prefixed to the names of the members show the Districts in each State from 
which they were chosen. The numbers afier the names of the Slates indicate the num> 
her of Represenutives to which, under the present apportionmeot, the Sute is entitled.] 



Maine. — 6. 

4. Benson, Samuel P., Winthrop. 
3. Farley, £. Wilder, Newcastle. 

6. Fuller, Thos. J. D., Calais. 

2. Mayall, Samuel, Gray. 

1 . McDonald, Mosei, Portland. 

5. Washburn, Israel, Jr., Orono. 

Jfew Hampshire. — 3. 

3. Hibbard, Harry, Bath. 

1. Kittredge, Geo. W., Newmarket. 

2. Morrison, Geo. W., Manchester. 

Vermont. S. 

1. Meacham, James, Middlebury. 

3. Sabine, Alvah, Georgia. 

2. Tracy, Andrew, Woodstock. 

Massachusetts. — 11. 

5. Appleton, William, Boston. 

7. Banks, Nathl. P., Jr., Waltbam. 

2. Crocker,SamuelL., Taunton. 
9. DeWitt, Alexander, Oxford. 

10. Dickinson, £dw., Amherst. 

3. Edmand9,J. Wiley, Newton Cor. 
1. Eliot, Thomas D., New Bedford. 

11. Goodrich, John Z., Glen Dale. 

6. Upham, Chas. W., Salem. 

4. Walley, Saml. H., Roxbury. 

8. Wentworth, Tappan, Lowell. 

Rhode Island. — fi. 

1. Davis, Thomas, Providence. 

2. Thurston, Ben j.B.^Hopkinton. 

Connecticut. — 4. 

3. Belcher, Nathan, New London. 
2. Ingersoll, Colin M., New Haven. 
1. Pratt, James T., Rocky Hill 

4. Seymour, Origen S., Litchfield^ 



J^ew yorifc— 33. 
21. Bennett, Henry, New Berlin. 

29. Carpenter, David, Brockport. 

19. Chase, George W., Scheneven. 

2. CummingSyThos.W., Brooklyn. 

8. Cutting, Francis B., New York. 
33. Fenton, Reuben E.fFrewsburg. 

31. Flagler, Thos. T., Lockport. 
. Goodwin, H. G. O.^ 

28. Hastings, George, Mount Morris. 

32. Haven, Solo. G., Buffalo. 

15. Hughes, Charles, Sandy Hill. 

24. Jones, Daniel T., Baldwinsville. 
23. Lyon, Caleb, Lyonsdale. 

20. Matteson, Orsamus B., Utica. 
1. Maurice, James. Maspeth. 

25. Morgan, Edwin B. Aurora. 

10. Murray, William, Goshen. 

26. Oliver, Andrew, Pen Yan. 

9. Peck, Jared V., Port Chester. 
14. Peckbam, Rufus W., Albany. 

17. Perkins, Bishop, Ogdensburg. 

30. Pringle, Benjamin, Batavia. 

18. Rowe, Peter, Schenectady. 
13. Sage, Russell, Troy. 

16. Simmons, Geo. A., Keeseville. 

27. Taylor, John J., Owego. 
12. Teller Isaac. 

5. Tweed, William M., New York. 

3. Walbridge, Hiram, New York. 
7. Walker, William A., New York. 

4. Walsh, Mike, New York. 

1 1 . Westbrook, Theo, R., Kingston. 

6. Wheeler, John, New York. 



1855.] 



OQPGBBB8. 



183 



5. 
2. 
1. 

4. 

7. 

2. 
24. 
20. 
25. 
19. 

6. 

1. 
J5. 
14. 

9. 
22. 

8." 
16. 
18. 
10. 

5. 
13. 
21. 

3. 
17. 
41. 
23. 

4. 
12. 



Lilly, Samuel, I^mbertAlle. 
Pennington, A. C. M., Newuk. 
Skelton, Charles, Trentoii. 
Stratton, Nathan T., Mallica Hill. 
Vail, George, Morristown. 

Femuyhmnia. — 25. 
Bridges, Saml. A., Allentown. 
Chandler, Jos. R., Philadelphia. 
Curtis, Carlton B., Warren. 
Dawson, John L., Brownsville. 
Dick, John, Meadville. 

Dram, Augustus, Indiana. 
Everhart, William, West Chester. 
Florence, Tfaos. B., Philadelphia. 
Gamble, James, Jersey Shore. 
Grow, Galusha A., Glenwood. 
Hiester, Isaac E., Lancaster. 
Howe, Thos. M., Alleghany City 
Jones, J. Glancy. 
Kurtz, Wm. H., York. 
McCulloch, John, ShaTer*s Creek. 
Middleswarth, N., Beavertown. 
M'Nair, John, Norristown. 

Packer, Asa, Mauch Chunk. 

Ritchie, David, Pitftburg. 
Bobbins, J., Jr., Kensington, Phil. 
Russell, Samuel L., Bedford. 
Straub, Christian M., Pottsville. 
Trout, Michael C, Sharon. 
Witte, William H., Richmond. 
Wright, Hendr. B., Wilkedbarre. 

Delaware, — 1. 
Riddle, George R., Wilmington. 

Maryland, — 6. 
Franklin, John R., Snowhill. 
Hamilton, Wm. T., Hagerstown. 
May, Henry, Baltimore. 

Shower, Jacob, Manchester. 
Sollers, A. R., Pr. Fredericktown. 
Yansant, Joshua, Baltimore. 

Virginia. — 13. 
Bayly, Thos. H., AecomacC. H. 
Bocock, T. S., Appomatox C. H. 
Caskie, John S., Richmond. 
Edmundson, Henry A., Salem. 
Faulkner, Ghas. J., Martinsburg. 



4. €£ode, WilliaBO., Boydlim. 

10. Leteher, John, Lexingtoa. 

11. L«wia, C. S. 

13. McMullea, Fayette, Rye Core. 

2. MillaoD, John S.» Norfolk. 

6. Powell, Panlos, Amherst C. H. 

7. Smith, WilUam, Wairentoo. 

12. Snodgraas^JoluiF.fPU'kersbDr;^ 

Jfortk CnvliMm,'-'8. 

3. Ashe, William S., Wilmington. 

7. Craige, Burton, Salisbury. 

8. Clingman,Tho6 L.,Asheville. 

5. Kerr, John, Yanceyville. 

6. Puryear, Rich. C, Huntsville. 

4. Rogers, S. H., Raleigh. 

2. Ruffin, Thomas, Goldsboroogh. 

1. Shaw, Henry M., Indian Town. 

StnUk Orcp/nia.— 6. 

2. Aiken, William, Charleston. 
6. Boyce, W. W., Winnsboro'. 
4.- Brooks, Preston S., Ninety-Six. 

3. Keitt, L. M. Orangeburgh C. H. 

1. McQueen, J., Marlborough C.H. 

5. Orr, James L., Anderson. 

Georgia, — 8. ^ 

3. Bailey, David J., Jackson. 

5. Chastain, Elijah W.,Tacoah. 

2. Colquitt, Alfred H., Newton. 

4. Dent, W. B. W., Newnau. 

6. Hillyer, Junius, Monroe. 

7. Reese, David A., Monticello. 

1. Seward, James L., Thomasville. 

8. Stephens, A. H., Crawfordsville. 

jSlabdma, — 7. 

2. Abercrombie, James, Girard. 

6. Cobb. W. R. W., Beliefonte. 

7. Dowdejl, James F.,ChambersC.H. 

3. Harris, S. W., Wetumpka. 

5. Houston, Geo. S., Athens. 

1. Phillips, Philip, Mobile. 

4. Smith, William R., Fayette C.H. 

Mississippi, — 5. 

5. Barksdale, William, Columbus. 

2. Barry, William 8., Greenwood. 
4. Harris, Wiley P., Monticello. 

3. Singleton, O. R., Canton. 
1. Wright, Daniel B., Salem. 



184 



UNITED STATES. 



Ixntmatus.—- 4. 



1. Dunbar, WiUiam, New Orleans. 11 



Hunt, Theodore 6., New Orleans. 
4. Jones, Roland, ShreTeport 

3. Perkins, John, Jr., Ashwood. 

Arkansas. — 2. 

1. Greenwood, A. B., Bcntonville. 

2. Warren, E. A., Camden. 

TamessBe, — 10. 

7. Bugg, R. M., Lynnville. 

2. Churchwell, Wni. M., Knoxyilie 

4. Cullom, William, Carthage. 
9. Etheridge, Emerson, Dresden. 

6. Jones, Geo. W., Fayetteville. 

5. Ready, Charles, Murfreesbon. 

3. Smith, Samuel A., Charleston. 
10. Stanton, Fred. P., Memphis. 

8. Zollicoffer, F. K., Nashville. 
1. Vacant.* 

Kentucky, — 10. 

1. Boyd, Linn, Paducah. 

8. Breckenridge, J. C.,LexingtDn. 

4. Chrisman, James S., Monticello. 

9. Cos, Leander M., Flemingsburg. 
%, Elliott, J. M., Prestonsburg. 

2. Grey, B. Edwards, Hopkinsville. 

5. Hill, Clement S., Lebanon. 

7. Preston, William, Louisville. 
10. Stanton, Rich. H., Maysville. 

3. Vacant, t 

OAw. — 21. 
16. Ball, Edward, Zanesville. 

18. Bliss, George, Akron. 

3. CampbellfLewisD.jHamilton. 

8. Corwin, Moses B., Urbana. 

1. Disney, David T., Cincinnati. 

5. Edgerton, Alfred P., Hicksville. 

6. Ellison, Andrew, Georgetown. 
20. Giddings, J. R., Jefferson. 

9. Green, Fred. W., Tiffin. 

7. Harlan, Aaron, Tellow Springs. 

2. Harrison, J. S., Cleves. Hamil. Co. 
14. Johnson, Harvey H., Ashland. 
13. Lindsley, W. D., Sandusky City 

4. Nichols, Matthias H., Lima. 



[1855. 

12. Olds, Edson B., Circleville. 

Ritchey, Thomas/ Somerset 
15. Sapp, William R., Mt. Vernon* 
17. Shannon, Wilson, St. CUirsville. 
21. Stuart, Andrew, SteubenvlUe. 
10. Taylor, John L., Chillicothe. 
19. Wade, Edward, Cleveland. 
Michigan. — 4. 

3. Clark, Samuel, Kalamazoo. 

2. Noble, David A., Monroe. 

4. Stephens, Hector L., Pontiac. 

1. Stuart, David. Detroit. 

Indiana, — 11. 

10. Chamberlain, E. M., Goshen. 

7. Davis, John G., Rockville. 

3. Dunham, Cyrus L., Valley Farm.* 
9. Eddy, Norman, South Bend. 

2. English, W^m. H., Lexington. 

11. Harlan, Andrew J., Marion. 

6. Hendricks, Thos. A., Shelby ville. 

4. Lane, James H., Lawrenceburg. 

8. Mace, Daniel, Lafayette. 
1. Miller, Smith, Patoka. 

4. Parker, Samuel W.,ConnersvilIe. 
^ Illinois. — 9. 

7. Allen, James C, Palestine. 

9. Allen, Willis, Marion. 

8. Bissell, Wm. H., Belleville. 

4. Knox, James, Knoxville. 

3. Norton, Jesse O., Joliet. 

5. Richard8on,Wm.A.,Q,uincy. 

1. Washburne, E. B., Galena. 

2. Wentworth, John, Chicago. 

6. Yates, Richard, Jacksonville. 

Missouri, — 7. 

1. Benton, Thos. H., St. Louis. 

7. Carutbers, Saml., Fredericktown. 

2. Lamb, Alfred W., Hannibal 

3. Lindley, James J., Monticello. 

4. Miller, John G., Boonville. 

5. Oliver, Mqrdecai, Richmond. 

6. Phelps, John S., Springfield. 

Florida,^!. 
Maxwell, A. E., Tallahassee. 



« ^ir the death of Bcookine Campbell. 



t By the death ofPradey EwiOf. 



1865.] 



CONGRESS. 



185 



Texas. -- 2. 
2. Bell, P. H., Austin. 

1. Smy the, George W., Jasper. 

Iowa. — 2. 

2. Cook, John P., Davenport. 

1. Henn, Bernhardt, Fairfield. 

Wiscaruin, — 3. 

2. Eastman, Benj. C, Platteville. 

3. Macy, John B. Fond du Lac 

1. Wells, Daniel, Jr. Milwaukee. 

California, — 2. 

2. Latham, M.S., Sacramento City, 
1. McDougal, J. A., San Francisco, 



DSLEGATSS, — 7. 



Minnesota Territory.^-!, 
Rice, Henry M., St. Paul. 

J{ew Mexico Territory. — 1. 
Gallegos, Jose M., Alboquerque- 

Oregon Territory. — 1. 
Lane, Joseph, Winchester. 

Utah Territory. ''I. 

Bemhisel, John M., Salt Lake City. 

Washington Territory. — 1. 

Not yet elected. ^ 

Kanzas Territory. — 1. 

Not yet elected. 

Jfebraska Territory. — 1, 

Not yet elected. 



Alphabetical List of the House of Reprbseictatiyss. 



Abercrombie, J. Ala. 
Aiken, William, S. C. 
Allen, James C. 111. 
Alien, Willis, 111. 

^ Appleton, William, Ms. 
Ashe, Wm. S. N. C 
Bailey, D. J. Ga. 

Ball, Edward, O. 

Banks, N. P. Mass. 
Barksdale, Wm. Miss. 
Barry, W. S. Miss. 
Bayly, Thos. H. Va. 
Belcher, Nathan, Ct. 
Bell, P. H. Tex. 

Bennett, Henry, N. Y. 
Benson, S. P. Me. 

Benton, Thos. H. ' Mo. 
Bemhisel, J. M. Ut.T. 
Bliss, George, O. 

Biasell, Wm. H. 111. 
Bocock, Thos. S. Va. 
Boyce, W. W. S. C. 
Boyd, Linn, Ky. 

Breckenridge,J.C. Ky. 
Bridges, S. A. Pa. 

Brooks, P. S. 8. C. 
Bugg, R. M. Tenn 
Campbell, L. D. O. 
Carpenter, David, N.Y. 
Caruthers, Saml. Mo. 
Caskie, John S. Va. 
Chamberlain,E.M.,Ten. 
Chandler, Jos. R. Pa. 
Chase, Geo. W. N.Y. 
Chastain, E. W. Ga. 



Chrisman, J. S. Ky. 
Churchwell,W.M.Ten. 
Clark, 8amuel, Mich. 
Clingman, T. L. N. C. 
Cobb, W. R. W. Ala. 
Colquitt, A. H. Ga. 
Cook, John P. la. 

Corwin, M. B. O. 

Cox, Leander M. Ky. 
Craige, Burton, N. C. 
Crocker, S. L. Mass. 
Cullom, William, Tenn. 
Cumming8,T.W.,N.Y. 
Curtis, Carlton B. Pa. 
Cutting. F. B. N. Y. 
Davis, John G. Ind. 
Davis, Thomas, ' R. I. 
Dawson, John L. Pa. 
Dent, W. B. W. Ga. 
De Witt, Alex. Mass. 
Dick, John, Pa. 

Dickinson, Edw. Mass. 
Disney, D. T. O. 

Dowdell, Jas. F. Ala. 
Drum, Auffustus, Pa. 
Dunbar, Wm. La. 

Dunham, Cyrus L., Ind. 
Eastman, B. C. Wise. 
Eddy, Norman, Ind. 
Edgerton, Alfred P., O. 
Edmands, J. W., Mass. 
Edmundson, H. A. Va. 
Eliot, Thos. D. Mass. 
Elliott, J. M. Kv. 

Ellison, Andrew, O. 



English, Wm. H. Ind. 
Etheridge, E. Tenn. 
Everhart, Wm. Pa. 

Farley, E. W. Me. 

Faulkner, C. J. Va, 
Fenton, R. E. N. Y. 
Flagler, T. F. N. Y. 
Florence, Thos. B., Pa. 
Franklin, J. R. Md. 
Fuller, Thos. J. D., Me. 
Gallegos, J. M.,N.Mex. 
Gamble, James, Pa. 
Giddings, J. R. O. 

Goode, W.O. Va. 

Goodrich, John Z. Ms. 
Goodwin,H.G.O. N.Y. 
Green, F. W. O. 

Greenwood, A. B. Ark. 
Grey, Beni. E. Ky. 

Grow, Gafusha A. iPa. 
Hamilton, W.T. Md. 

Harlan, Aaron, O. 

Harlan, A« J. Ind. 

Harris, S. W. Ala. 

Harris, W. P. Miss. 

Harrison, John S. O. 

Hastings, George, N. Y. 

Haven, Sol. G. N.Y. 

Hendricks, T* A. Ind. 

Henn, B. la. 

Hibbard, Harry, N. H. 

Hiester, I. E. Pa. 

Hill, C. S. Ky. 

Hillyer, Junius, Ga. 

Houston, Geo. S. Ala. 



16* 



186 

Howe, Thos. M. Pa. 
Hughes, Charles, N. Y. 
HuDt, Theod. G. La. 
Incersoll, Colin M. Ct. 
Johnson, H. H. O. 

Jones, Daniel T. N. Y. 
Jones, Geo. W. Tenn. 
Jones, J. Glancy, Pa. 
Jones, Roland, La. 

Keitt, L. M. 8. C. 

Kerr, John, JN. C. 

Kittred£e,G.W. N.H. 
Knox, James, 111. 

Kurtz, Wm. H. Pa. 
Lamb, A. W. Mo. 

Lane, Jas. H. Ind. 

Lane, Joseoh, O. T. 
Latham, M. G. Cal. 
Letcher, John, Ky. 
Lewis, C. S. Ya. 

Lilly, Samuel, N. J. 
Lindley, J. J. Mo. 

Lindsley, W. D. O. 
Lvon, Caleb, N. Y. 
Mace, Daniel, Ind. 

Macy, J. B. Wise. 

Matteson, O. B. N.Y. 
Maurice, J. NY. 

Maxwell, A. £. Fla. 
May, Henry, Md. 

Mayall, Samuel, Me. 
McCulloch, John, Pa. 
McDonald, Moses, Me. 
McDougal, J. A. Cal. 
McMuiren,F. Ya. 

McQueen, John, S. C. 
Meacham, James, Yt. 
Middleswartb, N. Pa. 
Miller, John G. Mo. 
Miller, Smith, Ind. 

Millson, John S. Ya. 
M'Nair, John, Pa. 

Morgan, E. B. N. Y. 
Morrison, G.W. N.H. 



UKITBD STATES. 



Murray, William, N.Y. 
Nichols, M. H. O. 

Noble, David A., Mich. 
Norton, Jesse O. 111. 
Olds, £dson B., O. 

Oliver, Andrew, N. Y. 
Oliver, Mordecai, Mo. 
Orr, James L., S. C. 
Packer, Asa, O. 

Parker, Samuel W.,Ind. 
Peck, J. V. N. Y. 

Peckham,R.W., N.Y. 
Pennington, A.C.M,N. J 
Perkins, Bishop, N. Y. 
Perkins, John, Jr. La. 
Phelps, John S. Mo. 
Phillips, Philip, Ala. 
Powell, Paulus, Ya. 
Pratt, James T. Ct. 
Preston, William, Ky. 
Pringle, Benjamin, N.Y. 
Puryear, R. C. N. C. 
Ready, Charles, Tenn. 
Reese, David A. Ga. 
Rice, Henry M., Min.T. 
Richardson, W. A., 111. 
Riddle, Geo. R. Del. 
Ritchey, Thomas, O. 
Ritchie, David, Pa. 
Robbins, John, Jr. Pa. 
Rogers, S. H. N. C. 
Rowe, Peter, N. Y. 
Ruffin, Thomas, N. C. 
Russell, Saml. L. Pa. 
Sabine, Alvah, Yt. 

Sag^, Russell, N. Y. 
Sapp, W. R. O. 

Seward, James L. Ga. 
Seymour, O. S. ' Ct. 
Shannon, Wilson, O. 
Shaw, H. M. N. C. 
Shower, Jacob, Md. 
Simmons, G. A. N. Y. 
Singleton, O. R. Miss. 



[1855. 

Skelton, Charles, N.J. 

Smith, Saml. A. Tenn. 
Smith, William, Ya. 
Smith, Wm. R. Ala. 
Smythe, Geo. W. Tex. 
Snodgrass, J. F. Ya. 
Sellers, A. R. Md. 

Stanton, F. P. Tenn. 
Stanton, R. H. Ky. 
Stephens, A. H. Ga. 
Stephens, H. L. Mich. 
Stratton, N. T. N. J. 
Straub, C. M. Pa. 

Stuart, Andrew, O. 
Stuart, David, Mich. 
Taylor, John J. N.Y. 
Taylor, John L. O. 
Teller, Isaac, N. Y. 
Thurston, Benj.B. R.L 
Tracy, Andrew, Yt. 
Trout, M. C. Pa. 

Tweed, W. M. N. Y. 
Upham, Chas. W. Ms. 
Vail, G. N. J. 

Vansant, Joshua, Md. 
Wade, Edward, O. 
Walbridge,Hiram, N.Y. 
Walker, W. A. N. Y. 
Walley, S. H. Mass. 
Walsh, Mike, N. Y. 
Warren, E. A. Ark. 
Washburn, Israel, Me. 
Washburne, £. B. III. 
We]l8,Daniel, Jr. Wise. 
Wentworth, John, 111. 
Wentworth, T. Mass. 
We8tbrook,T.R.,N.Y. 
Wheeler, John, N.Y. 
Witte, Wm. H. Pa. 
Wright, D. B. Miss. 
Wright, H. B. Pa. 

Yates, Richard, III. 
Zollicoffer,F.K. Tenn. 



Principal Officers of the House. 



John W. Forney, 
W. V. McKean, 
A. J. Glossbrenner, 
Z. W. McKnew, 
John M. Johnson, 
Matthias Martin, 
John S. Meehan, 
A. G. Seaman, 



Clerk of tke House, 

Ckitf Clerk. 

Sergeant'Ot'JSams. 

Doorkeeper, 

Posttnaster. 

Uhrarian of the House, 

Librarian to Congress. 

Superiniendeni of Public Printing. 



1855.] 



POFUZJITIOIT. 



187 



XIV. POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 




States. 


1790. 


1800. 


1810. 


1820. 


1830. 


1840. I860.* 

601,793 6«3,ie9 

284,674 317,976 

291,948 314,120 

737,699 994,614 

106,830 147,646 

309,978 370,792 

2,428,921 3,097,394 

373,306 489,555 

1,724,033 2,311,786 

78,085 91,532 

470,019 683,034 

1,239,797 1,421,661 

753,419 869,039 

694,398 668,607 

691,392 906,185 

64,477 87,446 

690,766 771,623 

376,651 606,526 

352,411 617,762 

. . 212,692 

97,674 209,897 

829,210 1,002,717 

779,828 982,405 

1,519,467 1,960,329 

212,267 397,664 

686,866 988,416 

476,183 851,470 

383,702 682,044 

30,945 305,391 

43,112 192,214 

43,712 61,687 

92,697 


Maine, 

New Hampshire, 

Vermont, 

Massachusetts, 

Rhode Island, 

Connecticut, 

New York, 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania, 

Delaware, 

Maryland, 

Virginia, 

North Carolina, 

South Carolina, 

Alabama, 

Mississippi, 

Louisiana, 

Texas, 

Arkansas, 

Tennessee, 

Kentucky, 

Ohio, 

Michigan. 

Indiana, 

niinois, 

Missouri, 

Wisconsin, 

Iowa, 

msL of Columbia, 

California, 


U6,64U 
141,899 

86,416 
378,717 

69,110 
238,141 
340,120 
184,139 
434,373 

69,096 
319,728 
748,308 
393,751 
249,073 

82,648 

*30,791 
73,077 


151,719 
183.762 
154,465 
423,245 

69,122 
251,002 
686,766 
211,949 
602,365 

64,273 
341,548 
880,200 
478,103 
346,591 
162,101 

• '8,850 

105,602 
220.955 
45,365 

* 4,875 
'14,093 


228,705 
214,360 
217,713 
472,040 

77,031 
262,042 
969,949 
249,566 
810,091 

72,674 
380,546 
974,642 
656,600 
416,716 
252,433 

'20,846 
40,352 
76,556 

261,727 
406,511 
230,760 
4,762 
24,620 
12,282 
20,846 

'21,623 


298,331^ 
244,161 
235,764 
523,287 
83,069 
275,202 

1,372,812 
277,676 

1,049,458 

72,749 

407,350 

1,065,379 
638,829 
502,741 
340,987 

127,901 
75,448 
163,407 

*14,273 
422,813 
664,317 
681,434 
8,896 
147,178 
66,211 
66,586 

'33,039 


399,955 
269,328 
280,652 
610,408 
97,199 
297,665 

1,918,608 
320 823 

1,348;233 

76,748 

447,040 

1,211,405 
737 987 
581,186 
516,823 
34,730 
309,527 
136,621 
215,739 

'30,388 
681,904 
687,917 
937,903 
31,639 
343,031 
167,456 
140,445 

'39,834 


Toul, 3,929,872} 


6,305,952 


7,239,814 


9,638,131 


12,866,920 


17,063,363 


23,191^76 



XV. SLAVES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Slates. 



1790. 



1800. 



1810. 



1830. 



1840. 



I860.'' 



Maine, 

New Hampshire, 

Vermont, 

Masaacliusetts, 

Rhode Island, 

Connecticut, 

New York, 

New Jersey, 

PennsylTania, 

Delaware. 

Maryland, 

Virginia, 

North Carolina, 

South Carolina, 

Florida, 

Georgia, 





158 

17 



952 

2,759 

21,324 

11,423 

3,737 

8,887 

103,036 

203,427 

100,672 

107,094 

1»,264 





8 





381 

961 

20,343 

12,422 

1,706 

6,163 

106,635 

946,796 

133,296 

146,161 

69,404 











103 

310 

15,017 

10,861 

795 

4,177 

111,502 

392,618 

168,824 

196,365 

105,218 



Mississippi, 
Louisiana, 
Texas, 
Arkansas, 



3,489 



17,088 
34,660 











48 

97 

10,088 

7,657 

211 

4,509 

107,398 

425,153 

295,017 

258,476 

149,666 
41,879 
32,814 
69,064 



U 







17 

26 

76 

2,264 

403 

3,292 

102,294 

469,767 

235,601 

315,401 

15,501 

217,531 

117,649 

65,659 

109,688 





1 





5 

17 

4 

674 

64 

2,606 

89,737 

448,987 

246,817 

327,038 

26,717 

280,944 

263,532 

195,211 

168,462 



Kentucky, 

Ohio, 

Michigan, 

Indiana, 

Dlinois, 

Missouri. 

Wisconsin, 

Iowa, 

CUiiomia, 

DIst. of Columbia 



3,417 
11,830 



13,584 
40,343 



44,636 
80,561 



1,617 
80,107 
126,732 



135 



3,011 



190 

117 

10,222 



4,576 

141,603 

165,213 



82 



747 

25,061 



19,935 

183,059 

182,258 

3 



3 

331 

68,240 

11 

16 



4,694 















t236 



2,290 

90,368 

472,528 

288,548 

384,984 

39,310 

381,682 

342,844 

309,878 

244.809 

58,161 

47.1tt 

239««i 

210,091 






87,422 




3,687 

3,204,318 



* No slaTes are returoed in the Territories of Minnesota, New Mexico, and Oregon; in 
Utah 26 are returned : fer their population, see p. 188. 
t Appnntlcef by the State act to abolish alavery, of April 18, 1846. 



188 UNITED STATES. [1855. 

XVI. SEVENTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Population of the United States according to the Ssyenth Census, 
AND Representatives in Congress.* 



States. 


White 
Popula- 
tion. 


Free 
Color'd 

Popu- 
lation. 


Total 
Free. 


Slayes. 


Federal 
Represen- 
tative 
Popula- 
tion. 




11 

Si 


Frac- 
tions 
over. 


Maine, 


681,813 


1,356 


683,169 




683, ley 


~6- 


— 1 


22,631 


New Hampshire, 


317,456 


620 


317,976 




317,976 


3 


— 1 


37,707 


Vermont, 


313,402 


718 


314,120 




314,120 


3 


— 1 


33,861 


Massachusetts, 


985,450 


9,064 


994,614 




994,614 


11 


+ 1 


t60,284 


Rhode IsUnd, 


143,875 


3,670 


147,646 




147,645 


2 




t54,I22 


Connecticut, 


363,099 


7,693 


370,792 




370,7ft^ 


4 




t90,523 


New York, 


3,048,325 


49,069 


3,097,394 




3,097,394 


33 


— 1 


14,435 


New Jersey, 


465,513 


23,820 


489,333 


2?2 


489,466 


6 




22.361 


Pennsylvania, 


2,258,463 


63,323 


2,311,786 




2,311,786 


25 


+ 1 


t69,634 


Delaware, 


71,169 


18,073 


89,242 


2,290 


90,616 


1 






Maryland, 
Virginia, 


417,943 


74,723 


492,666 


90,368 


646.886 


6 




t79,771 


894,800 


64,333 


949,133 


472,628 


1,232,649 


13 


—2 


18,160 


North Carolina, 


533,028 


27,463 


680,491 


238,548 


753,619 


8 


— I 


6,235 


South Carolina, 


274,567 


8,956 


283,623 


384,984 


514,513 


6 


— 1 


t47,398 


Georgia, 


521,672 


2,931 


624.503 


381,682 


753,612 


8 




6.128 


Florida, • 


47,211 


924 


48,136 


39.300 


71,720 


1 






Alabama, 


426,486 


2,293 


428,779 


342,892 


634,614 


7 




t73,976 


Mississippi, 


296,718 


930 


296,648 


309,878 


482,574 


6 


+ 1 


15,495 


Louisiana, 


255,491 


17,462 


272,963 


244,809 


419,838 


4 




46,146 


Texas, 


154,034 


397 


154,431 


68,161 


189,327 


2 




2,481 


Arkansas, 


162,189 


608 


162,797 


47,100 


191,057 


2 


+ 1 


4,211 


Tennessee, 


756,753 


6,401 


763,164 


239,460 


906,830 


10 


-1 


t66,023 


Kentucky, 


761,417 


10,007 


771,424 


210.981 


898,012 


10 




t57,206 


Missouri, 


592,004 


2,618 


594,622 


87,422 


647,076 


7 


+2 


t86,537 


Ohio, 


1,955,108 


25,319 


1,980,427 




1,980.427 


21 




18,644 


Michigan, 


396,097 


2,667 


397,664 




397,654 


4 




23,962 


Indiana, 


977,628 


10,788 


988,416 




988,416 


11 


t64,186 


Illinois, 


846,035 


6,436 


861,470 




851,470 


9 


+ 2 


10,663 


Wisconsin, 


304,758 


633 


305,391 




305.391 


3 




25,l•^2 


Iowa, 


491,879 


336 


192,214 




192,214 


2 




; 6,368 


California, 
Total, 


91,632 


965 


92.697 




92,597 
21,767,673 


:2 






19,423,916 


423,3d4 


19,847,301 


3,200,634 


Dlst. of Columbia, 


38,027 


9,973 


48,000 


3,687 










Minnesou, 


6,038 


39 


6,077 












New Mexico, 


61,630 


17 


61,647 












Oreaon, 
Total, 


13,088 


206 


13,294 












11,330 


24 


11,354 


26 










19,653,928 


433,643 


19,987,673 


3,204,847 



Recapitulation. 



Free Siatbiin 

DktriciB 4fi(t Toiriicirlffl 



Toiftt, 



Total Frafi 

FopulaLJon 

in }Mi. 



Slav Eld 
In 



'l\n^l Frse I Sieves 
PfipuktimJ iri 

ill \sm. I isr>o. 



&.65.1^86S LilW, iy,4;il,7yd< iii^ 

7,fi90,719 a,43l,fi3a 6,4 12 .sn3 3,200,412 
117,769! 4,721' 110.2^ 3,713 

l7.0e3,:iT3! 4,487,356 ia;Hts7.573 3^301,34 



LativftPfla 
in 1350L 



8,330,742 



J 1, 767,673 



fa 



— I 



* The aggregate representative population (21,767,673), divided by 233, — - the number of 
representatives established by law, — gives 93,423 as the ratio of apportionment among the 
several States. But this gives only 220 mambers, leaving 13 to be assigned to the States 
having the largest residuary fractions. 

t In the column of fractions, those marked thus, t, entitle the State to an additional Repre- 
sentative, who is included in tlie number given the State in the column of Representatives. 

X By the act of July 30, 1852, an additional Representative is assigned to California, mak* 
ing the whole number of Representatives 234. The ratio of representation remains un^ 
changed. The last published census tables differ slightly from the above, but as the appor* 
tibnment of representation was made by tlie above table, we continue it. 



1856.] 



UJNV. 



13ft 



XVII. POPULATION OF SOME OF THE WtlNCIPAL TITIES, 



According to the several Censuses of the 


UmUd States, 




Cities. 


1790. 


180U. 


1810. 


1820. 


1830. 


\m: 


i&45.* 


msT' 


Portland, Me., 




"pT? 


7,169 


8,&ll 


12,601 


\^:m 




■ ^'?IS" 


Bangor, 






8S0 


1,221 


2,867 


s,e-27 




14,432 


Mancheater, N. H., 






615 


761 


877 


x%^ 




13,932 


Boston, Mass., 


18,038 


24,027 


32,250 


43,298 


61,392 


9:1383 


114,366 


136,881 


Lowen 










6,474 


ail, 796 


S^,@il 


^•^ 


Springfield, " 






2,767 


3,914 


6,784 


10, ass 




11,766 


Salem, " 


7,921 


9,467 


12,613 


12,721 


13,886 


iB^m 




20,264 


Worcerter, 












7,497 




' 17,049 


Providence, R. I., 




7,614 


10,071 


11,767 


16,832 


2ai71 




41,613 


New Haven, a., 






6,772 


7,147 


10,180 


11,890 




20.346 


Hartford, 






3,956 


4,736 


7,074 


l2,7Ud 




13.665 


New York, N. Y., 


33,131 


60,489 


96,373 


123,706 


203,007 


aia,7io 


37L10a 


616,647 


Brooklyn, " 




3,298 


4,402 


7,176 


12,042 


m,^^ 


so'fiee 


96,838 


Albany, " 


3,498 


6,349 


9,356 


12,630 


24,238 


33,731 


41.130 


60,763 


Buflkto, 






1,608 


2,095 


8,663 


1>^M^ 


29,773 


42,961 


Rochester, " 








1,602 


9,269 


^,I£H 


23,a66 


36,403 


Williamsburg," 










1,620 


5,ti^, 




30,780 


Troy, " 






3,885 


6,264 


11,401 


19.334 


51,709 


28,785 


Srmcuse, 
gtica, 












G.a>2 




22,271 








2,972 


8,323 


i2j.5a 




17,666 


Newark, N. J., 








6,607 


10,953 


17,29() 


34,M0 


38,894 


Paterson, 












7,S06 




11,334 


Philadelphia,! Pa., 


42,320 


70,287 


96,664 


108,116 


]■■•: 188 


2r-)037 




^'IS? 


Pittsburg, 




1.665 


4,768 


7,248 


i 42 


VMI& 




46,601 




i3,503 


26,614 


46.655 


62,738 


' "125 


H 1^.313 




169,064 


Washington, D. C, 




3,210 


8,208 


13,247 


E^^27 


2:3,361 




40,001 






6,637 


9,735 


12.046 


[n.i60 


aj,I.W 




27,570 


Charleston, S. C, 


16,369 


18,712 


24,711 


24,490 


'^^:jbi9 


2a,afli 




42,985 


Savannah, Ga., 








7,623 


i?.748 


11,314 




16,312 


Mobile, Ala., 










3,194 


12.&72 




20,616 


Nashville, Tenn., 










.■^.riee 


[J.929 




10,478 


Louisville, Ky., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 






1,357 


4,012 


irij^62 


£1,210 




43,194 




760 


2,640 


9,644 


iH,431 


4e,33S 




116,436 


Columbus, ** 










2,t35 


e.cwa 




^'''SS 


Cleveland, " 






647 


606 


1,076 


6,ciri 




if'S^ 


Detroit, Mich., 








1,422 


2/^22 


9J02 




21,019 


Chicago, III., 
Milwaukee, Wis., 












AA'B 




29,963 












IpTtX) 




20,061 


St. Louis, Mo., 








4,598 


6,862 


}n,\m 


S3,49I 


77,860 


New Orleans, La., 






17,242 


27.176 


46,310^ 


10:i.l93 




116,375 


San Francisco, Cal., 






1 


1 




16,000 



XVIII. MINT. 
It is lawful fi)r any person or persons to bring to the Mint gold and silver 
ballion to be coined; and the bullion so brought is there assayed and 
coined, as speedily as may be after the receipt thereof, and, if of the stand- 
ard of the United States, free of expense to the person or persons by whom 
it has been brought. But the Treasurer of the Mint is not obliged to 
receive, for the purpose of refining and coining* any deposit of less value 
than one hundred dollars, nor any bullion so base as to be unsuitable for 
minting. And there must be retained from every deposit of bullion below 
the standard such sum as shall be equivalent to the expense incurred in 
refining, tooghening, and alloying the same ; an accurate account of which 
expense, on every deposit, is kept, and of the sums retained on account of 
the same, which are accounted for by the Treasurer of the Mint with the 
Treasurer of the United States. 



* By ths Stat» Cenras of this year. 



t Includli^ the County. 



190 



X7KITBD STATES. 



[1855. 



iJfficers of tke Mint at PhUadtlphia. 

Salarjr. Salarj. 

J. R. Snowden, Director^ f 3,500] James C. Booth, Melter and 
Danml StuTfeoD, TVeorarer, 2,000{ Refiner, $2,000 

Franklin Peale, Oiief Coiner^ 2,000 Jas. B. LonEacre, Engraver, 2,000 
Jacob R. Eckfeldt, Assayer, 2,000, W. £. Dubois, Assist, Assayer, 1,500 

Officers of the Branch at Jfew Orleans, La. 
Charles Bienvena, SuperinL, $ 2,5001 A. J. Guivot, Coiner, 
Howard Millspaugh, Assayer, 2,000 James Brewer, Treasurer, 
M. F. Bonzano, MeUer ^ Refiner, 2,000| 

Officers of the Branch at Dahlonega, Ga. 
J. M. Patton, Sup. and Treas., $ 2,0001 John D. Field, Jr., Coiner, 
Isaac L. Todd, Assayer, 1,500{ 

Officers of the Branch at Charlotte, JV. C. 
G. W.Caldwell, Sup. 4/>7Veas.,$2,000l£mmor Graham, Coiner, 
John H. Gibbon, Assayer, 1,500| 

Officers of the Branch at San Francisco. 



$2,000 
4,000 



$1,500 



$1,500 



J. M. Eckfeldt, Coiner, 

J. Uewston, Melter ^ R^ner, 



$3,000 
3,500 



L. A. Birdsall, Superintendent,^ 4,500 
J. R. Snyder, Treasurer, 4,500 

A. Uarrastliy, Assayer, 3,000 

Assay Office, J^Teu) York.-^S, F. Butterworth, Superintendent. 

I. Statement of du Deposits for Coinage, at the Mint of the United Slates 

and its Branches, in the Year 1852. 



Gold. 
Coins of the United States, old 

standard, $14,144 

Foreign Coins, .... 343,440 

United States BuUlon, . . . 65,607,907 

Foreign Bullion, . . . 359,842 

Total of Gold, . • 66,226,333 

Total of Gold and surer, 



SiLTSB. 

United Sutes Bullion, parted 

from gold 6407,133 

Foreign BuUion, deposited, . . 408,713 

Purchases, .... 12,087,625 

Total of SUTer, . f 12,903,470 
$69,128,803 



2. Statement of the Coinage of the Mint of the United States and its Branches 
in Me Fear 1853. 



Denominations. 


Piecey. 


Value, 


Denominations. 


Pieces. 


Value. 


Gold. 
Fine Ban, 
Double Eagles, 
Eagles, 
Half-Eagles, 
Quarter-Eagles, 
Dollars, 

Total Gold, 

CoPPXB. 

Cents, 
Half-Cents, 
Gold and Copper 
Coins, 


4,ff76 

1,883,336 

993,358 

461,019 

1,407,846 

4,384,149 


t 15,885,996 
36,646,630 
3,53i2,&30 
3,306,096 
8,619,615 
4,884,149 


SlLVXR. 

Dollars, 
Half-DoUars, 
Quarter-Dollars, 
Dimes, 
HalfDimes, 
Three cent Pieces, 
Total, 

Total Coinage, in- 
'cluding Fine Bars, 


46,110 
4,860,708 
16,586,330 
18,278,010 
16,705,030 
11,400,000 


46,116 

3,480,354 

4,146,555 

1,837,301 

785,351 

843,000 


7,843,169 

6,641,131 
139,694 


• 55,313,907 

66,411.31 
648.47 


61,871,068 


9,0n,571 


14,613.904 


$56,980,966.78 


76,484,062 


• 64,856,587.78 



From Jan. I, 1854, to Sept. 30, 1864, 750,813 double eagles. 177.574 eagles, 514,697 half- 
eagles, 129,998 three-dollar pieces, 667,769 Quarter eagles, 1,002.303 gold dollars, in fine bars, 
1 9,476,646.62, and in unparted bars, • 4,066,479 were coined. The total gold coinage in value 
for the nine months was •35,990,205.12; silver coinage, •7,051,140; copper. •37,775.89. 
The whole number of pieces coined In the nine months was 35,647,873. Value, • 43,079, 121 .01. 
The entire deposit of domestic gold at the mint and branches to the dose of 1853 was 

«4,«3,334, of which •207,316,177 were from CaUfomia. 



1866.] icmr. 191 

3. Coinage of the Mini of the United SUUe$,from 1792, induimg the Coinage 
of the Branch Mints from the Commencement of their Operations in 1838. 



Years. 


Gold. 


SiLVBB. 


COPPBR. 


Wholb Couvaob. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


No. of Pieces. 


Value. 


1793-95 


$71,485.00. 


• 370,683.80 


$11,373.00 


]S-MA2[) 


• 453,541.80 


1796 


102,727.50 


79,077.50 


10,324.40 


IMVjMTO 


192,129.40 


1797 


103,422.50 


12,591.45 


9,510.34 


].||'J,-..I66 


125.524.29 


1798 


205,610.00 


330,291.00 


9,797.00 


1 .^^'>-.;^41 


545,698.00 


1799 


213,286.00 


423,615.00 


9,106.68 


i,;«r>.f.81 


645,906.68 


1800 


317,760.00 


224,296.00 


29,279.40 


;i,:j,tr.Li72 


571,335.40 


1801 


422,570.00 


74,758.00 


13,628.37 


i..-i7i,,;(90 


510,956.37 


1802 


423,310.00 


58,34a00 


34,422.83 


:ir. 1.^.-69 


516,075.83 


1803 


268,377.60 


87,118.00 


25,203.03 


r 30 


370,698.53 


1804 


258,642.50 


100,340.50 


12,844.94 


■. •■ - -39 


371,827.94 


1805 


170,367.50 


149,388.50 


13,483.48 


-■:..i. -61 


333,239.48 


1806 


324,505.00 


471,319.00 


5,260.00 


l-J5.-r09 


801.064.00 


1807 


437,496.00 


697,44a75 


9,652.21 


'^,7\<] .:t45 


1,044,595.96 


1808 


284,665.00 


684,300.00 


13,090.00 


'ISCA,--^ 


982,055.00 


1809 


169,375.00 


707,376.00 


8,001.53 


2.im.^M 


884,752.53 


1810 


501,435.00 


638,773.50 


15,660.00 


rt.o.xi,4i8 


1,155,868.50 


1811 


497,905.00 


608,34a00 


2,495.95 


L&hM:>70 


1,108,740.95 


1812 


290,435.00 


814,029.50 


10,755.00 


:^,7f>i,646 


1,115,219.50 


1813 


477,140.00 


620,951.50 


4,180.00 


lji->5,;^31 


1,102,275.50 


1814 


77,270.00 


561,687.50 


3,678.30 


J,s:];t.v59 


642,535.80 


1815 


3,175.00 


17,308.00 




&Vi,-67 


20,483.00 


1816 




28,575.76 


28,209.82 


2.S'^^i,l35 


56,785.57 


1817 




607,783.50 


39,484.00 


.'i. 1(1.1.1.^67 


647,267.60 


1818 


242,940.00 


1,070,454.50 


31,670.00 


5.n!*7,Jl84 


1,345,064.60 


1819 


258,615.00 


1,140,000.00 


26,710.00 


rf.ti7.L:23 


1,425,325.00 


1820 


1,319,030.00 


p/)l 6«>n ?r> 


44,075.50 


ft.JLi^.^09 


1,864,786.20 


1821 


189,325.00 


i>-4:'.:r.-4Ai'i 


3,890.00 


aj:r.f..49 


1,018,977.45 


1822 


88,980.00 


iHri;.'i<iM..'rfi 


20,723.39 


:.i..M-.^:-88 


915,509.89 


1823 


72,425.00 


et.ti.a.r-o.'.^i 




•:i.W6.\35 


r^T.rr-oo 


1824 


93,200.00 


\,7m,4nm 


12,620.00 


4.7h;-94 


',-- -^i'F.UO 


1825 


156,385.00 


l,56J, 583110 


14,926.00 


r^.n-^ 7 60 


1 .-.^-iM.oo 


1826 


92,245,00 


i,mi,imm 


16,344.25 


.^.7 74.134 


■ ;h"::y25 


1827 


i^^aes-v.oG 


2,W)9,200.ttO 


23,557.32 


y,(i'.i:.^45 


;^' ^;1 ■t;^i.,3a 


1828 


110J45JM) 


I, ,"5^5,600 00 


25,636.24 


C. ]■.!';, -53 


\ :i\ :i^.\M 


1829 


WB,7\T.m 


U&&4,ri7au(t 


16,580.00 


7,^74.r^l 


-;x<*:-7o.50 


1830 


643.105.00 


2,4%,4rHM:if) 


17,115.00 


B.3&7,191 


3,l5rf.02<>.DO 


1831 


7J4;2i(M>0 


3,175.0<,HM>J 


33,603.60 


11,792,284 


3,02,^,1 rj SO 


1832 


79fl,4,T5.00 


a,57i>.fiHi.i>j 


23,620.00 


9.ISS.387 


3. KM ,{m.oo 


1833 


978,650.00 


a,7fj9,CHHUin 


28,160.00 


]n.;iii7J90 


:i 705 ,7:0.00 


1834 


3,jr>l,370J)0 


3,4lS,{N^ii^) 


19,151.00 


]\f^'>:M3 


7,:t-^T|.4^^L0O 


1835 


2,1^,175.01} 


3,443.riiii;ififi 


39,489.00 


];^W(i,:i42 


e.ocy.GC7.oo 


1836 


4,1.15,700.00 


3,Grir>;!nf,.i.i"H;i 


23,100.00 


]:i,7Hh,:i33 


7,7ftt,fti0.m 


1837 


1,145,305.00 


2,rafi,fiiiHNi 


55,583.00 


l-.i .<.!]'■ "J 21 


3,299,836.00 


1838 


1,1^13.596.00 


2.3a3:n'-iM 


63,702.00 


]:..7Si).:ai 


4/2116/M/l.nO 


1839 


l,35ii,f^,00 


S.iag/iSfi 00 


31,286.61 


i[,SU,'^9i 


3.57G.467.61 


1840 


1, 675313. 50 


J,71K,7aiOO . 


24,627.00 


UMV>8,a40 


X4'lB,f^.!^ 


1841 


1,091 ,fiJi7.8n 


l,l32,7ri^J.OO 


15,973.67 


S..^ll,tJ68 


a,2^D,3£1.17 


1842 


1,634,170.50 


2.332,750 (]() 


23,833.90 


n.7-]^ij53 


4.190.7tVI40 


1843 


S,10S,7B7.JJO 


Z,m,7^M 


24,283.20 


Af>i\f 1^82 


lLW7.fi:30.70 


1844 


Q'Zntm 


2,235,r»50 0n 


23,987.52 


^> .11.^1,^34 


7.&H7,7fi7.fi2 


1845 


3,ruj,..:.«^' 


] ,i^3.2|-Kt,no 


38,948.04 


i,Sfic;j96 


5.fie^..''-97>.54 


1846 


4,034,177.00 


2,558,580.00 


41,208.00 


N),];q.ra5 


G,GXiyf;rlOO 


1847 


20,221,385.00 


3,374,4SfM)0 


61,836.69 


1^,39-^.344 


22 6;T,G7rflB 


1848 


3,77S,5|:a.;lO 


2,cno,05yr»o 


64,157.99 


Ji.r.l9.790 


5.hi79,7^J.4» 


1849 


9.007,7 61. W> 


2.1U.^I0(J 


41,984.32 


vXGCG.f'BQ 


iia(>i,eyn3a 


1850 


31,9Sl,733.5t] 


i^ef^G.im.oo 


44,467 50 


l4^:^N-20 


23.^U-z ■.:^-^l 00 


1851 


62,I5J4,492.M 


774,^JW,riO 


99.635.43 


i'.^.rriLi58 


f,'i ill II 1 iiMMjiin 


1852' 


66,S4fl.ia7,S0 


^3m^.n.'^--^(1^ 


60;630 94 


3::;.i.ni'l9 


68,206^ffiRn 


1853 


65.^iJ:i'.jf)7,0t) 


<JJ>7?.;"i?J.isj 


67,069 78 


:iv3M.'62 


64,358,«OB 


Total, 


292,005,522.00 


88,609,087.90 


1,513,537.17 


508,686,168 


381,128,147.07 



192 



TJjnrXD OTATBS* 



[xm. 



XIX. RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS IN THE UNITED 

STATES, 
According to the Census of 1850. 





No. of 
Churchea. 


Aggragata Ac- 


Av'aga 
Accom- 
odat'na 


Total Value of 
Church Property. 


Average 
Value of 
Propartj. 


BapUat, . . . 


8,791 


3,130,878 


366 


i 10,931,382 


$1,244 


ChruUaa, . 


812 


296,060 


366 


846,810 


1,041 


Oon^ncational, . 


1,674 


796,177 


476 


7,973.962 


4.763 


Datchlefonned, 


334 


181,986 


661 


4.096,730 


12,644 


Epiacopia, . . 


1,422 


626,213 


440 


11,261,970 


7,919 


Frae, . . . 


361 


108,606 


300 


252,255 


696 


Prienda, . . . 


714 


282.823 


396 


1,709,887 


2.395 


*0ermanSefonn6d, 


327 


156.932 


479 


965,680 


2.953 


Jewish, . . . 


31 


16,675 


634 


371,600 


11.967 


^Lutheran, . 


1,203 


631,100 


441 


2,867,886 


2,363 


Mennoaita, . 


110 


29,900 


272 


94 245 


656 


Methodict, . . 


12,467 


4,209,333 


337 


14,636,671 


1,174 


MoreviaiL 
Prmbytenan, . 


331 
4,694 


112,185 
2,040,316 


338 

446 


443,347 
14,369,889 


1.339 
3,135 


Boman GathoUc^ . 


1,112 


620,950 


653 


8,973,838 


2'2S 




16 


6,070 


338 


108,100 


7,206 


Tunkar,. . . 


62 


35.076 


674 


46,025 


885 


Union, . . 


619 


213,652 


346 


690.066 


1,114 


Unitarian, 


243 


137,367 


665 


3,268,122 


13,449 


Univeraallat, . 


494 


205,462 


415 


1,767,015 


3,576 


Minor Sacta, . . 
Total, . . 


325 


116,347 


364 


741,960 


2,283 


38,011 


13,849,896 


384 


• 66,416,639 


$2,400 



XX. Table exhibiting the Seats of Govemnunt, the Times of the Election 
of State Officers^ and the Meeting cfthe Legislatttres, of the several States, 



States. 



Miii , 

N. Hampshire, 

Vermont, 

Maaaachuaetts, 

Rhode laland, 

Oonnecticot, 

New York, 
New Jersey, 
PennaylTania, 
Delaware. 
Maryland, 



Seals of 
Government. 



Times of Holding 
Electioda. 



Times of the Meeting of 
the Legislatures. 



Virginia, 
N. Carolina, 
S. Chrolina, 
Georgia, 
Florida, 
Alabama, 
Mississippi, 
Xouisiana, 
Texas, 
Arlcansas, 
Tennessee, 
Jfontucky, 
Ohio, 
todiana, 
nilnois, 
Hissouri, 
Btichigan, 
fowa, 

Wisconsin, 
California, 



Augusta, 
Concord, 
Montpelier, 
Boston, 
S Providence, } 

HartfUSN.HaT. 

Albany, 

Trenton, 

Harriaburg, 

Dover, 

Annapolia, 

Richmond, 

Raleigh, 

Columbia, 

Milledgeville, 

Tallahassee, 

Montgomery, 

Jackson, 

Baton Rouge, 

Austin, 

Little Rock, 

NaahviUe, 

Frankfort, 

Columbua, 

Indianapolis, 

Springfield, 

Jefferson City, 

Lansinff, 

Iowa City, 

Madison, 

Benlcia. 



2d Monday in September, 
2d Tuesday in March, 
Ist Tuesday in September, 
2d Monday in November, 

let Wadneaday in April, 

lat Monday in April, 
Tu. after lat Mon. in Nov., 
Ttt. after 1st Mon. in Nov., 
2d Tuesday in October, 
2d Tuesday in November, 
Ist Wednesday in Nov., 
4th Thursday in October, 
Ist Thursday in August, 
2d Monday in October, 
1st Monday in October, 
1st Monday in October, 
1st Monday in August, 
1st Mon. and Tu. in Nov. 
Ist Monday in November, 
1st Monday in August, 
Ist Monday in August, 
Ist Thursday in August, 
1st Monday in August, 
2d Tueaday in October, 
2d Tuesday in October, 
Tu. after 1st Mon. in Nov., 
1st Monday in August. 
Tu. after let Mon. in Nov 
Ist Monday in August, 
Tu. after Ist Mon. in Nov., 
Tu. after lat Mon. in Sept. 



2d Wednesday in January. 
Ist Wednesday in June. 
2d Thursday in October. 
1st Wednesday in January. 
S 1st Tuesday in May. 
I Last Monday in October. 
1st Wadneaday in May. 
lat Tueaday in January. 
2d Tueaday in January, 
lat Tueaday in January. 
IstTuea. in Jan.,6>e»fua//y, 
1st Wednesday in Jan.{6tenL 
2d Monday in Jan., btenn. 
3d Monday in Nov., Menu. 
4th Monday in November. 
1st Monday in Nov., bienn. 
Ist Monday in Nov., hienn, 
2d Monday in Nov., bienn. 
1st Monday in Jan., bienn. 
3d Monday in Jan. 
December, bienn. 
1st Monday in Nov., bienn. 
Ist Monday in Oa., bienn. 
Ist Monday in December. 
Ist Monday in Jan., bienn. 
Thuri.af.IstMon.in Jan. ,bi. 
Monday in Jan., bienn. 
Last Mon. in Dec., bienn. 
1st Wed. In Jan., bienn. 
Ist Monday in Dec., bienn. 
Ist Monday in January. 
ist Monday in January, j 



* The German Reformed and Lutheran denominations use the same building in many 
places. 



1855.] GOVERNORS OF TH« STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



193 



XXI. 



GOVERNOHS OF THE SEVERAL STATES AND 
TERRITORIES, 



mth their Salaries, Terms tf Office, and the Expiration of their respective 
Terms ; the Number of Senators and Representatives in the State Legisla- 
tures, toith iJieir respective Terms, 



Maine, 

N. Hampshire. 

VennoDt, 

Maflsachnsetts, 

Rhode Island^ 

Connecticati 

New York, 

New Jersey, 

Pennsylvania, 

Delaware, 

Maryland, 

Virginia, 

N. Carolina, 

S. Carolina, 

Georeia, 

Florida, 

Alabama, 

Mississippi, 

Louisiana, 

Texas, 

Arkansas, 

Tennessee, 

Kentucky, 

Ohio, • 

Michigan, 

Indiana, 

Illinois, 

Missouri, 

Iowa, 

Wisconsin, 

California, 

Oregon Ter., 

MinnesotaTer. 

N. Mexico T., 

Utah Ter., 

WashinstonT. 

Kanzas Ter., 

Nebraska Ter. 



William G. Crosby, 
Nathaniel B. Baker, 
Stephen Royce, 
Henry J. Gardner, 
William W. Hoppin, 
Henry Datton, 
Myron H. Clark, 
Rodman M. Price, 
James Pollock, 
Peter F. Causey, 
Thomas W. Ligon, 
Joseph Johnson, 
Thomas Bragg, 
J. H. Adams, 
Herschel V. Johnson, 
James E. Broome, 
John A. Winston, 
John J. McRae, 
Paul O. Hebert, 
Edmund M. Pease, 
Ehas N. Conway, 
Andrew Johnson, 
L. W. Powell, 
William Medill, 
Kinsley S. Bingham, 
Joseph A. Wright, 
Joel A. Matteson, 
Sterling Price, 
James W. Grimes, 
Wm. A. Barstow, 
John Biffler, 
George L. Curry, 
Willis P. Gorman, 
David Merriwether, 
Brigham Young, 
Isaac J. Stevens, 
Andrew H. Reeder, 
Samuel D. Lacompte, 





.rC 


Salaries. 


n 




u 


$1,500 


1 


1,000 


1 


. 750 


1 


3,500 


1 


400 


1 


1,100 


1 


4,000 


2 


1,800* 


3 


3,000 


3 


l,333i 


4 


3,600t 


4 


5,000 


3 


2,000t 


2 


3,500 


2 


3,000 


2 


1,500 


4 


2,500 


2 


3,000 


2 


4,000 


4 


2,000 


2 


1,800 


4 


3,000 


2 


2,500 


4 


1,800 


2 


1,000 


2 


1,500 


3 


1,500 


4 


2,000t 


4 


1,000 


4 


1,250 


2 


10,000 


2 


3,000t 


4 


2,500§ 


4 


2,500§ 


4 


2,5004 


4 


3,000J 


4 


2,500 


4 


2,500 


4 



lig 

3l!l 
12 1 
30*1 
40'! 
3l!l 
211 



Jan. 1855 
June 1855 
Oct. 1855 
Jan. 1856 
May 1855 
May 1855 
Jan. 1857|322 

1857 20 3 

1858 33' 3 

1859 9' 4 
1858 22 4 

1856 j50' 4 

1857 50; 2 
1856 4514 

Nov. 1855 47 1 
Oct. 1857!l9!4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Dec. 



Dec. 1855 33 
Jan. 1856 32 
Jan. 1858 j 32 
Dec. 1855121 
Nov. 1856,25 



Oct. 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 



1856 
1857 
1856 
1857 
Nov. 1856 
Dec. 1858 
Dec. 1855 
Dec. 1855 
Aug. 1857 
Mar. 1857 
Mar. 1857 
Sept, 1854 
Mar. 1857 
July 1858 
Oct. 1858 



1855 25 

1855 138 

35 

32 

50 

25 

18 

30 

18 

16 

9 

9 

13 

13 

9 

13 



13,2 



S >- 



151 

286 

230 

356 1 

72 1 

215 1 

1281 

60 1 

100 1 

211 

742 

152,2 

120,2 

1242 

130|2 

401 

100,2 

922 

88;2 

66,2 

752 

7512 

1009 

100 2 



66 

100 

75 

49 



59 2 
54 



26|1 



In all the States, except South Carolina, the Governor is voted for by the 
people ; and if no one has a majority of all the votes, in the States in which 
such a majority is required, the Legislature elects to the office of Governor 
one of the candidates voted for by the people. 

* And fees. t With the use of a furnished house. 

I Including $ 1,600 aa Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 
S Including • 1,000 aa Superintendent of Indian Afiairs. 
17 



IM 



PXITBD STATSe. 



[1955* 









XXII. COMPARATIVE VIEW OF 


States. 


Absolute 
Debt. 


Contingent 
Debt 


Total Debt. 


Annual 

Interest on 

Absolute 

Debt. 


Maine, . 


711,500 


t 


711,500 


42,690 


New Hampshire, 




None. 




None. 




Vermont, 






None. 




None. 




BlaMacbusetts, 






1,804,075 


5,049,555 


6,853,630 


100,000 


Rhode Island, 






None. 


382,3a5 


382,335 




Connecticut, 






33,000 


58,212 


91,212 


1,980 


New York, . 






23,356,923 


931,645 


24,288,568 


1,320,000 


New Jersey, 






71,346 




71,346 


4,281 


Pennsylvania, 






40,566,279 




40.566,279 


2^)20,130 


Delaware, . 






None. 




Kone. 




Maryland, 






11,353,177 


3,779,732 


15,132,909 


660,000 


Virginia, . 






22,389,477 


3,906,874 


26,296,351 


1,325,000 


North Carolina, 






2,230,000 




2,230,000 


133,800 


South Carolina, 






1,913,606 


1,051,422 


2,965,028 


102,000 


Georgia, 
Florida, 






2,801,972 




2,801,972 


168,000 






None. 




None. 




Alabama, 






6,168,887 




6,IG3,8&7 


310,000 


Mississippi, 






2,271,707 


5,000,000 


7/271,707 


136,000 


J^uisiana, 






2,069,000 


8,620,128 


io,m%r2:i 


125,000 


Texas, 






12,436,991 




12,436,tnU 




Arkansas, 






1,558,620 




l,55d,t)30 


90,131 


Tennessee, 






5,746,856 


1,353,209 


7,l0(l,0ti5 


325,000 


Kentucky, 






5,726,308 




5,736,308 


343,000 


Ohio, . 






17,165,429 




17,165,429 


1,018,029 


Michigan, 






2,307,850 




2,307 ,H50 


150,000 


Indiana, 






6,891,341 




6,b0l,34l 


298,800 


Illinois, . 






16,724,177 




16,724,177 




Missouri, . 






802,000 




809,000 


60,000 


Iowa, 






81,795 




bl»7;;."> 


. 8,000 


Wisconsin, 






100,000 




100,000 


8,000 


California, 






4,389,075^ 




4,389,075 


300,000 


Totol, . 


. 


191,671,391 


3<M33,ll2 


221,804,503 


9,04y,tf41 


Total, near Jan. 1,1853, 


184,303,865 


3i,86:Mm 


216,167,786 


8,391,334 


Total, " « 1852, 


169,076,638 


33,481,124 


202,557,762 


7,796,Ht3a 


Total, «» " 1851, 


170,535,238 


31,00t>,3d6 


201,541,624 


7,555,351 


Total, " *• 1850, 


169,549,334 


38,7rj(j,ai8 


209,305,552 


7,677,646 


Total, " •• 1849, 


170,749,453 


4().riri^,!»79 


211,252,432 


7,884,005 


Total, «» « 1848, 


169,776,030 


a^.^^a-^.Dos 


205,708,038 


8^21,671 


Total, *• " 1847, 


165,129,900 


51,7dl,ji'4 


216,911,554 


9,07^2,[139 


Total, " " 1846, 


179,635,022 


44:ASS,^Ob 


224,023,827 


9,93n,a'i2 



These tables are believed to be yery accurate, being compiled almost 
exclusively from official reporto made by the Treasurers and Auditors to 
the Legislatures of the several States, near the Ist of January, 1854. The 
account of the State debts, in particular, is full, and may be depended 
upon ; that of the several kinds of property owned by the States of course 
is more defective, — for the State archives seldom afford complete materials 
for accurate accounts of this sort, and the property is sometimes estimated 
at a nominal valuation, virhich is much above its market value. The editor 



1850.] FINANCBS or THE 8TATB8. 

THE FINANCES OF THE STATES. 



its 





Amoani 
of 


Other 

Productire 


OtherProperty 
not now 


Ordinary annu- 
al Expenditure 
exduaire of 




School Fund. 


Property. 


Productire. 


Debts&SchooU 




t 


t 


• 


t 


Maine, . 


116,946 






150,000 


New Hampshire, 




None. 


None. 




80,000 


Vermont, 




None. 


None. 




100,000 


Massachasetts, . 




1^4,284 


9,014,661 


2,077,746 


500,000 


Rhode Island, 




56,017 






50,000 


Connecticut, 




2,049,482 


406.000 




115,000 


NewYoric, . 






6,666,858 


35,115,237 




750,000 


New Jersey, 






393,673 


264,991 


764,670 


90,000 


Pennsylvania, 








^»1S'IS 


321,032 


350,000 


Delaware, 






435,000 


350,638 




11,000 


Maryland, . 






160,543 


12,325,566 


17,172,634 


170,000 


Virginia, . 






1,153,606 


8,011,668 


5,899,958 


600,000 


North Carolina, 








600,000 




75,000 


South Carolina, 








5,504,668 




115,000 


Georiria, 






23,086 


5,000,000 


250,000 


131,000 


Flonda, . 












45,000 


Alabama, 






1,075,818 


700,000 




100,000 


Mississippi, 










2,000,000 


130,000 


Louisiana, . 










2,416,938 


515,000 














100,000 


Arkansas, . 












S'222 


Tennessee, 






1,500,000 


3,654,456 




165,000 


Kentucky, . 






1,400,270 


6,000,000 




250,000 


Ohio, 






1,754,322 


18,000,000 




200,000 


Michigan, . 






500,000 


628,900 




125,000 


Indiana, . 






5,000,000 






80,000 


Illinois, 






799,083 


5,000,000 




125,000 


Missouri, • 






576,668 


272,263 




110,000 


Iowa, . 












25,000 


Wisconsin, 






1,141^)4 






40,000 


California, . 






463,360 




"30,^*03,^78 


500,000 
&.«32,000 


total, . . 




145,015,799 


Total, near Jan.1,1853, 


2:^,im,im 


141,934,707 


21^)55,182 


5,632,000 


Total, *' " 1853, 


t2r>, 170,730' 


134,982,644 


30.r>;+fc;,065^ 


5,812,000 


Total, « «« 1851, 


20,15G,e05 


134,936,578 


2y,B55,ill2 


5,812,000 


Total, « " 1850, 


21,542,683 


125,369,722 


27,5^4,443' 


5,673,121 


Total, " " 1849, 


y 1,420/275 


118,508,448 


26,33(5,755 


5,358,652 


Total, " " 1848, 


20,3:^,SJ6 


111,638,746 


31,41J8,46[> 


5,062,310 


Total, «* « 1847, 


17,631,553 


108,643,384 


30,660,tW5 


5,435,285 


Total, " " 1846, 


1G,60S,719 


110,396,552 


23;a32,715 


5,455,186 



of the American Almanac respectfully invites his correspondents in the 
several States to communicate such errors as they may detect in these 
tables. The object here is to give only a summary of the ftcts, so as to 
afford the means of comparing the States with each other. Their finan- 
cial condition is shown at much greater length under the head of " In- 
dividual States." Official returns published* in this work for 1843 (page 
135) show that the total of the debts of the States in 1842 was $ 198,818,736. 



196 



XXIII. COLLEGES AND PROFESSIONAL 



Name. 



Place. 



Presidenu. 



Foun- 
ded. 



Bowdoln, 
Watenrille* 
Dartmouth, 

UniTenit/ of VermoDt, 
SMiddleburr, 

6 Norwich UniTenity, 

7 Harvard Uairenity, 

8 Williama, 

9 Amheret, 
lOHolyGross.l 

11 Browa University,* 

12 Yale, 
13Trinity,t 

14 Wasleyan UufTerBliy.t 

15 Ooluinbia,t 

16 Union, 

17 Hamilton, 
Madiaon University,* 

19 Hobart Free College,! 

20 University of City of N. Y. 
Unlveniliy of Rochester,* 
St. John's,* 
College of New Jersey, 



Rutgera, 
'iing 



Buriinglon,t 

Unlvewity of Pennsylvania, 

Dlclcinson,t 

28 Jefieraon, 

29 Washington, 

30 Allegheny,! 
Pennsylvania, 
Lafayette, 
Manhail, 

University at Lewisburg,* 
Delaware, 
St. John's, 
St. Mary's,* 
Mount St. Mary's,! 
St. James's,! 

-.v/ Washington, 
41 Georgetown,! 

Columbian,* 

William and Mary.f 

HampdenSidney, 

Washington, 

Univereity of Viiginla, 

Randolph-Macon,! 

Emory and Uenry^ 

Rector,* 

Bethany College, 

Richmond,* 

Vir^rinia Military Institute, 

University of N. Carolina, 

Davidson, 

Wake Forest,* 
56 Charlaston, 

67 South Carolina, 

68 Franklin, 
Sfl Oglethorpe, 
6G Emory,! 

H Mercer University,* 
61 Wesleyan Female, 
63 University of Alabama, 
04 La Grange,! 
'^ring Hill,S 

loward,* 

akland, 

niverslty of Mississippi, 

:i3sisaippi College,* 

ktenary,! 

Charles,! 
>n Rouge, 



65 



Brunswick, 

WaterviUe, 

Hanover, 

Burlington, 

Middlebury, 

Norwich, 

Cambridge, 

Williamsiown, 

Amherst, 

Worcester, 

Providence, 

New Haven, 

Hartford, 

Middlelown, 

N«w York. 

Schenectaayi 

Clinton, 

Hamilton, 

Geneva, 

New York, 

Rochester, 

Ford ham, 

Princeton, 

New Brunswick, " 

Buriington, 

Philadelphia, 

Carlisle, 

Canonsburg, 

Washington, 

Meadville^ 

Gettysburg, 

Easton, 

Mercersburg, 

Lewisburg, 

Newark, 

Annapolis, 

Baltimore, 

Emmetsburg, 

Washington Co. 

Chestertown, 

Georgetown, 

Washington, 

Williamsburg, 

Prince Ed. Co. 

Lexington, 

Albemarle Co. 

Mecklenbut^Co. 

Washington Co. 

Taylor 6)., 

Bethany, 

Richmond, 

Lexington, 

Chapel Hill, _ 

Mecklenburg Co. 

Forestville, 

Charleston, 

Columbia, 

Athens, 

MilledgevlUe, 

Oxford, 

Penfield, 

Macon, 

Tuscaloosa, 

La Grange, 

Spring HilL " 

Marion, " 

Claiborne Co., Miss. 

Oxford, " 

Clinton, " 

Jackson, La. 

Grand Coteau, " 

Baton Rouge, " 



Me. 

N.H. 
VI. 



Maas. 



R.L 
Conn. 



N.Y. 



N.J. 



Penn. 



Del 
Md. 



B.C. 
(I 

Va. 



N. C. 



S.C. 

(( 

Ga. 



Ala. 



Leonard Woods, Jr., D. D. 
Robert E. Pattison, D. D. 
Nathan Lord, D. D. 
Worthington Smith, D. P. 
Beigamin Labaraa, D. D. 
Rev. Edward Bourns, LL. D. 
James Walker, D. D. 
Mark Hopkins, D. D. 
Rev. Wm. A. Steams, D. D. 
Rev. J. Fariy, 
Francis Wayland, D. D. 
T.D.Woolsey, D.D.,LL. D. 
Daniel R. Goodwin. D. D. 
Augustus W. Smith, LL. D. 
Charles King, LL. D. 
Eliphalet Nott, D. D. 
Simeon North, D. D., LL. D. 
Stephen W Taylor, LL. D. 
Benjamin Hale, D. D. 
Isaac Ferris, D. D., Chanc*r, 
AC. Kendrick, D.D.,CA./>ic. 
Rev. John Larkin, 

Thea Frelinghuysen, LL. D. 
George W.Doane, D. D., LL.D. 
John Ludlow, D. D. 
Charies Collins, D. D. 
A. B. Brown, D. D. 
James Ciark, D. D. 
John Barker, D. D. 
H. L. Baugher, 
D. V. McLean. D. D. 
John W. Nevin, D. D. 
Howard Malcom, D. D. 
Daniel Kirkwood, LL. D. 
Hector Humphreys, D. D. 
Rev. O. L. Jenkins, A. M. 
John McCaffrey, A. M. 
John B. Kerfoot, D. D. 
E.F. Chambers, Pra.ofTrus. 
Bernard Maguire, 
Joel S. Bacorx, D. D. 
Rev. John Johns, 
Lewis S. Green, D. D. 
George Junkin, D. D. 
Gessner Harrison, Ch. o/F^. 
W. A. Smith, D. D. 
Rev. Ephraim E. Wiley, 
Charies Wheeler, A. M. 
Alexander Campbell, A. M. 
Rev. Robert Ryland, 
Col. F.H. Smith, A.M., Stqt^t, 
Hon. David L. Swain, LL. D. 
Samuel Williamson, D. D. 
John R White, A. M. 
William P. Finley, A. M. 
James H. Thornwell, D. D. 
Alonzo Church, D. D. 
Samuel K. Talmage, D. D. 
Geo. F. Pierce, D. D. 
John L. Dagg, D. D. 
Rev. £. HTMyeFB, A. M. 
Basil Manly, D. D. 
R. H. Rivers, D. D., 
Rev. F. Gautrelet, S. J. 
S. S. Sherman, A. M. 
Rev. Robert L. Stanton, 
A. B. Longstreet, LL. D. 
* N. Umer, 

Th. SoUer, S. J. 

|R. H. Ranny, 



794 
S20 
769 
791 
.806 
834 
636 
793 
821 
843 
764 
700 
[894 
831 
754 
795 
812 



849 
833 
784 
805 
i880 
842 
783 
792 
1821 
692 
783 
781 
819 
830 



789 



831 



841 



1855.} COIXBQBS. 

SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



nrr 





iu- 

•truct- 

ora. 


No. of 
Alumni. 


JNo.of 
Minia- 
ten. 


Stu- 
dents. 


Volumes in 
Libraries. 


ComnMncement. 


1 


10 


1,124 


200 


177 


27,660 


First WednesdBT in August. 
Second Wednesday in August. 
LastThuiadaTinJulj. 
FirstWednesdBiy in August 
Tiiird Wednesday in August 
3d Wedn. and Thurs. in August 


2 
3 


5 
17 


267 


82 
832 


88 
2S2 


16,600 
30,798 


4 
6 
6 


7 
7 
4 


472 
877 
133 


78 

397 

10 


107 
65 
60 


13,000 
.6,000 
1,400 


7 


34 


^'!H 


1,673 


339 


98,100 


Tliird Wednesday in July. 


8 


9 


f'S? 


440 


231 


17,643 


Third Wednesday in August 


9 


17 


1,094 


479 


237 


18,000 


Second Tliursday in August 


10 


14 


9 




120 


4,220 


Last weelc in August 


11 


11 


1,784 


477 


252 


32,000 


First Wednesday in September. 
Last Tliuiaday in July. 


12 


24 


^'S? 


1,633 


443 


64,000 


13 


13 


300 


130 


79 


15,000 


Last Tliutsday in July. 
First Wednesday in August 


14 


7 


448 


153 


106 


12,170 


15 


7 


I'JS 




169 


14,000 


Last Wednesday in July. 
Fourtli Wednesday in July. 


16 


14 


^'SS 


600 


216 


15,000 


17 

18 


9 


1,097 


274 


109 


9,500 


Founli Wednesday in July. 


8 


353 


1 


93 


12,990 


Third Wednesday in August 
Third Thursday in July. 


19 


7 


178 


42 


62 


7,000 


20 


13 


455 


123 


70 


i'2S2 


Wednesday preceding 4th of July. 


21 
22 


8 
16 


43 




109 
65 


3,000 
12,600 


Second Wednesday in July. 
July 16th. ' 


23 


16 


3,236 


696 


225 


17,800 


Last Wednesday In June. 


24 


7 


513 


77 


85 


10,000 


Fourth Wednesday in July. 


25 


29 






118 


1,200 


September 29th. 


26 


7 


6,142 




88 


5,000 


The 15th, 16th, or 17th of July. 


27 


8 


760 


189 


123 


15,600 


Second Thursday in July. 
Second Wednesday in June. 


23 


8 


1,000 


227 


197 


10,000 


29 


8 


600 




112 


3,300 


Last Wednesday in September. 
First Wednesday in July. 


30 


8 


183 


49 


98 


9,700 


31 


8 


202 


125 


74 


6,721 


Third Thursday in September, 


32 


6 


146 


47 


63 


6,000 


Last Wednesday in July. 
Second Wednesday in September. 


33 


6 


155 


76 


58 


6,000 


31 


7 


14 


8 


83 


2,680 


Third Thursday in August 
Third Wednesday in July. 


35 


7 


78 


42 


37 


7,500 


36 


6 


158 


8 


43 


3,292 


The 22d of February. 


37 


20 


187 




122 


19,600 


rhird Tuesday in July, 
-aai Wednesday in June. 
Last Thursday in July. 


38 


24 


137 




126 


4,000 


39 


11 


24 


6 


72 


6,200 


40 


5 






70' 


1,200 


August 20th. 
16th of July. " 


41 


16 


126 


35 


160 


24,000 


42 
43 


10 
7 


200 




55 
65 


6,000 
5,000 


Second Wednesday in July. 
July 4th. ' 


44 


6 


1,500 




26 


8,000 


Wednesday before 4th of July. 
Thursday befiure 4th of July. 


45 


5 


900 


69 


62 


6,105 


46 


15 


3,500 




466 


19,500 


47 


10 


200 


50 


136 


6,600 


First Thursday in June. 


48 


5 


103 


11 


54 


8,470 


Second Wednesday in June. 
Last Wednesday in September. 
July 4th. ^ 


49 
50 


3 
6 


80 


3 


50 
141 


2,500 
3,500 


51 


5 


5 


1 


60 


1,200 


July 15th. 


52 


10 


201 


5 


130 


5,000 


July 4lh. 


53 


^ 


1,155 


77 


270 


13,700 


First Thursday in June. 
Second Thursday in August. 


54 


4 


155 


32 


81 


6,000 


55 


5 


42 


14 


76 


5,000 


Second Thursday in June. 
Tuesday after 4th Monday in March. 
First Monday in December. 


56 


6 


124 




70 


2,000 


67 


8 


3,000 


3 


120 


21,800 


68 


8 


769 


83 


182 


15,500 


Firat Wednesday in August. 


59 


5 


132 


17 


69 


4,500 


Wednesday ailer 3d Monday in July. 
Wednesday after 3d Monday in July. 


60 


5 


138 


16 


115 


1,700 


61 


7 


74 


17 


106 


3,000 


Last Wednesday in July. 


62 


7 


210 




140 


800 


Wednesday after 2d Monday in July? 
Thursday after 2d Monday in July. 
Second Wednesday in July. 


63 

64 


9 
5 


224 
140 


18 
7 


116 
86 


8,140 
4,000 
7,000 


66 


20 


225 




30 


The 16th of October. 


66 


6 


29 


3 


88 


2,200 


Fourth Thursday in July. 
First Thursday in ApriL 


67 


5 


125 


16 


70 


6,000 


68 


6 






134 


2,460 


Second Thursday in July. 


69 


3 






16 


300 


Friday of3d week in July. 
Last Wednesday in July. 


70 


7 


70 


3 


102 


5,000 


71 


21 


2 




103 


4,000 


July 15th. 


72 


4 






45 


300 


December. 










-■i**" 


ft 


- 



18S 



UlTITXD 8TATBS. 



[185d. 



Nsme. 



Pmnklin, 

Uaiversity of Louisiana, 

Tusculuro, 

WashiDfton, 

Unirersity of NasfaTille, 

Fraaklin, 

East Tennessee, 

Cumberland Unirenltj, 

Jackson, 

Union,* 
83 Transylvania. 
-' St. Joseph's,! 

The Centre, 

Georgetown,* 

KentiickyMilitary Institute, 

Shelby, 

Ohio University, 

Miami University, 

Franklin, 

Western tteserve, 

Kenyon,t 

Granville,* 

Marietta, 

Oberlln College, 

St. Xavier.l 

Ohio Wesleyan University,! 

Wittenbere, 

Urbanna University, 

Indiana State University, 

Hanover College, 

Wabash, 

Indiana Asbury University,! 

lUinois, 

Shurtleff,* 

McKendree,! 

Knox, 

University of St. Louis,$ 

St. Vincent's, 

Masonic, 

Missouri University, 

St. Charles,! 

Fayette, 

University of Michigan, 

St. Philip's,* 

Wisconsm University, 

Beloit, 



Place. 



Opelousas, La. 

New Orleans, " 
NearOreenville, Ten. 
Washington Co., " 
NaahvlUe, " 

Near NashviUe, " 
KnoxviUe, " 

Lebanon, *" 

Columbia, " 

Murfreesboro', " 
Lexington, Ky. 

Bardstown, " 

DanviUe, " 

Georgetown, *' 

Franklin Springs, " 
ShelbyviUe, ' 

Athens, Ohio, 

Oxford, 
New Athens, 
Hudson, 
Gambler, 
GranviUe, 
Marietta, 
Oberiin, 
Cincinnati, 
Delaware, 



'rbanna, 
Bloomington, Ind. 
Hanover, " 

CrawfonisvUle, « 
Greencastle, " 
Jacksonville, 111. 
Upper Alton, " 
Lebanon, " 

Galesburg, " 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Cape Girardeau, " 
Marion Co., " 
Columbia, " 

St. Charles, " 

Fayette, " 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Near Detroit, " 
Madison, Wise. 

Beloit, Rock Co.," 



Presidents. 



Foun- 
ded. 



OthonBoudet, 
Hon. T. H. McCaleb, 
S. W. Doak, D. D. 
E. T. Bard, A. M. 
Felix Robertson, P. of Trua. 
Tolbert Fanning, A. M. 
Joseph Estabrook, A. M. 
Rev. T. C. Anderson, D. D, 
B: F. Mitchell, 
J. H. Eaton, LL. D. 
James B. Dodd, 
Rev. J. B. Emig, 
John C. Toung, D. D. 
Rev. D. R. Campbell, A. M. 
CoL E. W. Morean, Sup. 
A. GuenU, P. D. 
S(^omon Howard, D. D. 
W. C. Anderson, D. D. 
Rev. A. D. Clark, 
George E. Pierce, D. D. 
Sheriock A. Bronson, D. D. 
Silas Bailey. D. D. 
Henry Smith, D. D. 
Rev. Charles G. Finney, 
George A. CarreU, 
Edward Thomson, D.D. 
Samuel Sprechen, D. D. 
Milo e. Williams, Dean, 
Rev. Alfred Ryors, B. D. 
T. E. Thomas, D. D. 
Charles White, D. D. 
Daniel Curry, D. D. 
J. M. Sturtevant, D. D. 
Rev. N.N.Wood, D.D. 
Rev. A. W. Cummin^, D. D. 
Jonathan Blanchard, 
Rev. J. B. Druyts, 
Rev. R. Henesy, 
J. Worthinglon Smith, 
Rev. James Sha|pnon, A. M. 
John W. Robinson, 
Archibald Peterson, 
H. Tappan, 
Mr. Bowens, 

John H. Lathrop, C/kanee//or, 
Rev. Aaron L. Chapin, D. D. 



1839 
1849 
1843 
1796 
1806 
1844 
1798 
1844 
1838 
1848 
1798 
1819 
1820 
1840 
1846 
1841 
1804 
1809 
1824 
1826 
1827 
1831 
1835 
1833 
1840 
1844 
1845 
1850 
I8I6 
1832 
1834 
1837 
1830 
1835 
1835 
1837 
1832 
1843 
1831 
1841 
1837 

1837 
1839 
1848 
1848 



The Colleges marked thus (*) are under the direction of the Baptists ; thus (f), Episeo' 
palians; thus (I), Methodists; thus (f), Catholics. With respect to the Colleges which 
are unmarked, the prevailing religious Influence of those that are in the New England States 
is Congregationalism; of most of the others, Presbjfterianism. 

By Instructors, in the above table, is meant those connected with the undergraduates ; and 
by students, except the Roman Catholic institutions and a few of the Colleges In the South- 
ern and Western States, is meant undergraduates, or members of the four collegiate classes ; 
not including such as are pursuing a professional education, or such as are members of a pre- 
paratory department. Some of the Colleges above enumerated are not in full operation, and 
scarcely deserve a place in the table. The column of Libraries Includes the number of vol* 
nmes in the College Libraries and in the Students' Libraries. 

The above table shows the condition of the colleges near January, 1853, and 1864. Se« 
turns have not been received from some of the colleges to so late date. Any one noticing 
errors or imperfections in the list is requested to send the necessary corrections to the editor. 



1855.] 



couuEiams. 



1»» 





IlUrt 

'on. 


Mo. of 
Alunmi. 


No. of 
Mlnisten. 


dents. 
70 


Volumes in 
Libraries. 




73 


4 
7 
2 










74 
75 


10 


2 


36 




Last Thnrsday in September. 


76 


3 


116 


38 


22 


1,800 


Third Tliuraday in Jul^. 


77 


7 


432 






10,207 


Pint Wednesdaj in October. 


78 


6 


61 


2 


106 


3,500 


July 4th. 


79 


5 


122 




67 


4,600 


Pint Wednesday in August. 


80 


6 


43 


20 


VI 


4337 


Second Thursday in July. 
St. John's Day (June 24th). 


81 


6 


60 


8 


4,100 


82 


5 


14 


4 


110 


1,300 


Third Wednesday in July. 
Wednesday before 3d Friday in August. 
Middle of July. 


83 


7 


eto 




60 


14,000 


m 


17 


218 




80 


6,600 


8& 


7 


394 


103 


189 


6,000 


Last Thursday in June. 


86 


7 


80 


27 


83 


6,600 


Last Thursday in June. 


87 


9 


36 




139 




Third Monday in June. 


88 


6 


4 




44 


300 


June. 


89 


6 


145 


41 


41 


4,600 


First Wednesday in August 

Last Thursday in June. 

Last Wednesday in September. 


90 


8 


503 


184 


119 


8,000 


91 


6 


160 


80 


110 


6,000 


92 


8 


181 


48 


67 


8,000 


Second Thursday in July. 


93 


6 


160 


48 


50 


7,000 


First Wednesday in August. 
Second Wednesday in July. 
Last Thursday in July. 


94 


5 


60 


10 


44 


7,000 


96 


6 


137 


49 


68 


13,700 


96 


12 


224 


128 


64 


5,000 


Fourth Wednesday in August. 


97 


14 


137 


11 


18 


7,500 


July 15th. 


98 


7 


64 


23 


67 


6,400 


Second Wednesday in June. 


99 


7 






37 


4,600 


Third Wednesday in August. 


100 


6 






9 


900 


June 19th. 


lOi 


6 


200 


40 


37 


4,200 


First Wednesday in August. 


102 


6 


162 


91 


100 


6,000 


First Wednesday in August. 


103 


7 


74 


24 


43 


6,400 


Thursday nearest 26th of July. 
Third Wednesday in July. 


104 


8 


120 


3 • 


120 


4,000 


105 


6 


105 


38 


.48 


3,660 


Second Thursday in July. 


106 


6 


17 


7 


40 


1,900 


Fourth Thursday in June. 


107 


10 


78 


24 


79 


7,000 


Third Wednesday in July. 


106 


7 


32 


5 


56 


3,300 


Fourth Thursday In June. 


100 


18 


25 




225 


15,000 


July 15th. 


110 


10 


85 


7 


3 


5,500 


Last Thursday in July. 


111 


6 


13 




46 




Last Thursday in September. 


lis 


8 


200 


1 


180 


1,700 


July 4th. 


113 
114 
115 


4 
2 

17 


17 


21 


20 

76 
64 


'900 


Second Thursday in August. 


91 




6,400 


Third Wednesday in July. 


116 


4 






30 


3,000 


First Monday in October. 


117 


5 






23 


1,200 


Fourth Wednesday in July. 


118 


6 


8 


1 


30 


2,600 


Second Wednesday in July. 



Annual Collkox Expenses. 







Room-rent 


. Total 




Wood, 


Name. 


Instruction. 


and other 


College 


• Board. 


Lights, and 
Washing. 






ColL Exp. 


Charges. 




Bowdoin, 


#24.00 


#22.00 


#46.00 


39 wee^rH 68.50 
38 ^^^^^67.00 


#35.00 


Dartmouth, 


27.00 


13.24 


40.24 


9.00 


Harrard, 


76.00 


15.00 


90.00 


40 " 70^90.00 




Williams, 


30.00 


9.00 


$19.00 






Amherst, 


30.00 


16.00 


-46.00 


40 '* 6oJm 


17.00 


Brown, 


40.00 


23.00 


=63.00 


39 " 6009' 




Wesleyan, 


39.00 


21.00 


60.00 


40 "90.1'20.00 


20-40 


36.00 


11.25 


47.25 


39 " 68.60. 


jjao.oo 


Hamilton, 


26.00 


14.00 


40.00 


38 or 39 w. 68.00 


New Jersey, 


50.00 


28.14 


78.14 


40 weeks, 80.00 


28.00 


Dickinson, 


33.00 


14.00 


47.00 


43 " 76.fl6 


22.75 


University of Virginia, 
North Carolina Unir., 


75.00 


23.00 


98.00 


44 " 110.00 


20.00 


60.00 


11.00 


61.00 


40 " 90.00 


20.00 


TiansylTania, 


40.00 


12.00 


62.00 


40 " 100.00 


26.00 


Western Reserve, 


30.00 


11.00 


41.00 


42 " 60.00 


12.00 



200 



XJVJTJSO BTATB8. 



[18S5. 



2. 


Tbeologioal 


Schools. 












Nuna. 


Pla€fl, 


Penontinall0a. 


Jl 


i 

i. 

i 


p 


11 




Bwieor Theological Semiaary' Ban gnr, Me. lOn^egaiion.J 


iSlfi 


3 


37 


atfc^ 


7,000 
2,000 


Math- Gea. Bill. Institute, 


Concord, N. H.:MpthoJisi, 


1^17 


3 


40 




Gilmsuiton Theol. Samiiiftjyj 


Gilmanlon, " (Congregalinii., 


1835 


3 


23 


es 


4.30O 
2,000 
21,259 
3,000 

s.aoo 


N. Haifiptoi(iTh«oL Seminar/, 


N«w Hamplon," BapUfll, 


1.^ 


2 


3B 




Theotoffical Seminary, 


Antlover, Maaa. Congreialion.^ 
CambridgB, " (Con-. Unit, 


1907 


a 


87 


1,006 


DiviftJty School, PiarF. iTniv., 


1S16 


2 


27 


238 


TbeologicaJ [nstittition, 
Theol. liep Yate Colle^^e, 


New ion, " Baptist, 


lS2Ii 


4 


33 


201 


New Have fi. Conn. 


Gongragaijon., 


ISS 


4 


67 


637 


900 


Theol. Luit- of Oinncclicut, 


East Winder, ^* 


di 


1834 


3 


17 


151 


5,000 


Theal. InsL Epiac. Church, 


New York, N. Y. 


Proi.Epiacop., 


lai? 


5 


Sfll 


430 


H,fl63 
18,000 


UfilOfEi Thefjloffical Seminary, J " *' 


Ffesbylerlan, 


18^ 





106 


211 


ThooL Sem. of Auhiirm Auburn, " 


'm 


mi 


4 


30 


5m 


S,000 


fUmilLon Lii . and The* jL Ti lat, , Hamj I ton , * ' 


Raptial, 


imy 


2 


n 


248 


8,000 


RochesiflrThcoLSeniinary^ Rochester, " 


ti 


isso 


2 


23 


B 


3,000 


Hartwick Seminary, Hartwicfc, *' 
TJieol. Sem. Asa. Ref. Chui^h,;Ne^biirgi " 


Lutheran, 


IS16 


2 


5 


52 


1,250 


Ass. Ref/ Ch., 


J836 


1 


It 


143 


?^^ 


Th. Sein, Dutch Ref, Church, N,BruiW!wkk,NJ. 


nutch H*t, 


1784 


3 


25 


}7Q 


i^SSS 


Tbeot. Sem. TreabyL Church, Princeion, 


Presbyieriaji, 


isia 


S 


153 


Le26 


u,ooo 


SimLiiary, Lulheraa Church, GeuyHhiinir, Pi. 


Evang. LuLb., 


1S25 


2 


20 


250 


7,(XMJ 


Oefman Reformed^ 


Mercerabnrg, '" 


Germ. Ref. Ch. 


18S5 


2 


18 


lai 


S'tSS 


W«^ieru ThwL Seminary, 


AUe-hanyT., " 


Presbylcrian, 


1B2S! 2 


48 


252 


I'ESS 


Theological School, 


Canonaburg, ^' 


Asao. Church, 


1792 a 


33 


147 


?'SS 


Tbeoloj^icai Seminary, 


PitX^hur«, 


A*flo, Kef., 


is2a: 3 


35 


85 


^'SS 


Weaiern Theological School, 


Meadl^lia, '' 


ConK. ITnit.t , 


1844 


4 


40 


y 


8,000 


Theological So mi nary, 
Episc. Theol. School of Va., 
Uniiin TheolnBirjil Semi nary i 


PhiladtMphla, " 
Fairfax Co.. Va. 


Fttjf. Preabyt., 




3 


13 






Proi. Episcop., 


IBSS 


4 


38 


229 


5,000 


Prince Ed. Co,, " 


Preshyleriau, 


im 


3 


20 


175 


f^S22 


Vtrginia BaptieL Seminary^ 


Richmondj 


Baptist, 


1833 


3 


57 




1,000 


TlwMilogical Seminary, 


Columbia, S- C 


Preshyierjan, 


lfl3l 


5 


40 


i;g 


5,23(5 


Tlieolrtgiral Samintiry, 


Usjinglon, 


Lutheran. 


1636 


3 


10 


20 


1,800 


Pu rman T^ieoto^cal Semi nary , 


Fairfield Diflt," 


Bapiiat, 


1326 


Si 


30 


30 


1,000 


Moreer Theohigical Seminary, 


Penflold, Ga. 


it 


1&*4 


2 


fi 


11 


2,200 


Ha ward Theol. Insiiiution, 


Marion, Ala. 


u 


1343. 1 


13 


3 


1,000 


WcHtern Bap, Thoal. InsU I ut. / Cjov i ngtoo , Ky . 
SrtulbweMl TheoL Seminary, iMary ville, Tann. 


n 


im}\ 4 


18 


9 


2,000 


Presbyterian, 


1891 


a 


24 


SO 


6,000 


Uine Seminary, 


Cliiciunait, Ohio J 


" 


1823 


3 


36 


257 


10,500 


Theol. I>cp. Kenyon CoUeE^, 


Gambler, ■* 


Pitit. Episcop.j 


ISSS 


4 


4 


30 


4,fiO0 


Theol. lleir Wea. Rea. ColE^^e, 
Granville TheoL Ikpfmrneiil, 


Hud.Mon, 


Preubytcrian, 


1S3D 


3 


H 




79 


Granville, " 


Baptist, 


lB3i! 


2 


8 




600 


Oberlin TheoL Dejiarimeni, 
Theol. Sem. Aas. Kef. Church. 


Obarlin, 


Cntigrc^atioKi, 
Asio. Kef., 


183G 


3 


2.1 


135 


300 


Ojtford, 


la^a 


I 


12 


31 


1,M»0 


Witieuberf, 


SprinfffieUl. " 


Christian, 


IMS 2 


8 






.•^ e w Al Ijany Theol Semi nary ,, Hafiover, ' I nd. 


PresUyterian, 


1832 3 


16 


m 


4.00O 


Alioti Til* ilogi cal Semi nary , , Upper A Iton , SI L 


Bapiiat, 


1 1835 









3. Law Schools. 



Place. 


Name. 


Professors. 


Students. 


Cambridge, Mass., 


Harvard University, 


3 


143 


New Haven, Conn., 
Albany, N.Y., 
Princeton, N. J., 


YMe College, 


2 


38 


University of Albany, 
College of New Jersey, 


3 


60 


3 


8 


Cariisle, Pa., 


Dickinson College, 


1 


9 


Williamsbufg, Va., 


William and Mary CoUege, 


1 


32 


Albemarle Co., Va., 


University of Virginia, 
North Carolina University, 


2 


78 


Chapel HiU.N.C, 


1 


10 


Tuacaloosa, Ala., 


Alabama University, 


1 




New Orieans, La. . 


University of Louisiana, 


3 




NashTille, Tenn., 


University of Nashville, 


2 




Lexington, Ky., 


Transylvania University, 


3 




LoulsTille, Ky., 


University of Louisville, 


3 




Lebanon, Tenn., 


Cumberland University, 


3 


87 


Cincinnati, Ohio, 


Cincinnati College, 


3 




Bloomington, Ind., 


Indiana State University, 


2 


18 


Greencastle, Ind., 


Indiana Asbury University, 


I 





1855.] 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



201 



4. Medical Schools. 



Name. 



Maine Medical School, 
N. H. Medical School, 
Castleton Medical Ck>Ilege, 
Vermont Medical College, 
Medical School, Hxav.Vnir., 
Berkshire Medical School, 
Medical Inst. Tale College, 
OolL Phys. at Surg., N. Y., 
Med. Inst. Geneva ColL, 
Med. Faculty, Univ. N. Y., 
Albany Medical College, 
Med. Dep. Univ. Penn., 
Jeflbrson Medical College, 
Med. Dep. Penn. College. 
Philadelphia Coll. of Med., 
Med. School, Univ. Md., 
Washington Med. College, 
Med. School, Columb. Coll., 
Med. School, Univ. Va., 
Med. Dep. Hamp.-Sid. Coll., 
Winchester Med. College, 
Med. Coll. State of S. C., 
Med. College of Georgia, 
Med. Dep. Univ. Louisiana, 
Med. Dep. Univ. Nashville, 
Med. Dep. Transylv. Univ., 
Med. Dep. Univ. Louisville, 
West'n Reserve Med. Coll., 
Medical College of Ohio, 
West. Coll. HoRMMiath. Med. 
Starling Medical College, 
Indiana Medical College, 
Indiana Central M^. College, 
Rush Medical College, 
University of Michigan, 
Med. Dep. of St. Louis Univ., 
Med. Dep. ofMissouri Univ. 



Place. 



BrunswickMe. 
Hanover, N.H. 

C— *'r'ton, Yt. 

Piii^flelil, " 
N Hciven, Ct. 

N. York, N.Y. 
Gfinevit " 
N. Vorfc, " 
AlljaiLv. " 
PliniJd., Pa. 



Baliimore^ Hid. 

WaiiF)3n^orLr 

CiiarlEittesviCle, 

Charleston's. C. 
Augusta, Ga. 
N. Orleans, La. 
Nashville, Ten 
Lexington, Ky. 
Louisville, *' 
Cleveland, Oh. 
Cincinnati, " 
Cleveland, " * 
Columtms, " 
Laporte, Ind. 
Indianapolis, 
Chicago, 111. 
Ann Arbor, 
St. I>ouis, Mo. 
Columbia, ** 



Foun 
ded. 



1820 
1796 
1818 
1835 
1782 
1833 
1813 
1807 
1836 
1841 
1839 
1766 
1824 
1840 

1807 
1827 
1825 
1819 
1838 

1833 
1830 
1835 
1850 
1818 
1837 
1844 
1819 
1850 
1847 

1849 
1842 
1837 
1836 
1846 



70 

45 
104 

91 
127 
103 

35 
219 

79 
280 
114 
450 
614 
150 

75 
100 

25 

40 
121 

90 

158 

115 

188 

220 

214 

376 

202 

130 

62 

124 

104 

50 

70 

95 

138 

103 



Orad- 



700 

860 

655 

350 

576 

473 

678 

862 

490 

1,184 

68 

6,316 

2,036 

66 

850 



40 



124 

140 

,351 

53 

411 

331 

17 

63 

19 

28 

16 

141 
13 



February 16th. 
First week In Aug. 
4th Thurs. in Aug. 
1st Th. in March. 
1st Wed. in Nov. 
let Th. in Sepu 
September. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
2d Wed. in Sept. 
3d Mon. in Oct. 
1st Tues. in Oct. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nor. 
nth October. 

October 31st. 
let Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st October. 
October 13. 
1st Mon. in Oct. 
2d Mon. in Nov. 
2d Mon. in Nor. 
3d Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Oct. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Wed. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
Ist Mon. in Nov. 
Ist Mon. in Nov. 
November let. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
Ist Wed. in Oct. 
November Isl, 
1st Mon. in Nov. 



XXIV. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. — November, 1854. 

Mbmbers, ex Officio, 
Franklin Pierce, 
WHliam L. Marcy, 



James Campbell, 
Caleb Cnshmg, 
Roger B. Taney, 
Charles Mason, 
John T. Towers. 



David Stuart, U. S. Representative, 

Rufus Choate, Mass., 

Gideon Hawley, N. Y., 

Richard Rush, Penn., 

John M. Berrien, 6a., 

A. Dallas Bache, ? Members of 

Joseph O. Totten, S Nat. Inat. 



Citizens, 



Jaaoes Guthrie, 
Jefferson Davis^ 
James C. Dobbin, 

Board op Rbobnts. 
Vice-President of the United Sutes, 
Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice United Slates, 
JohnT. Towers, Mayor of Washington, 
James A. Pearce, U. S. Senator, 
James M. Mason, " " 
Stephen A Douglas, '* " 
James Meacham, U. S. Representative, 
Wm. H. English, " 

Ofviobbs. 
The President of the United States, ex Officio Presiding Officer. 
The Vice-President of the United States, ex Officio SecondPresiding Officer, 
Roger B. Taney, Chancellor. 
Joeeph Hennr, LL. D., Secretary. 
Spencer F. Baird, AasMlani Secretary. 
Wm. J. Rhees, " " 

W. W. Seaton, Treasurer. 

Executive Committee. 
Joseph G. Totten, A. Dallas Bache, James A. Pearce. 

Honorary Members. 
Robert Hare, Washington Irving, Benjamhi SiUiman, Parker Cle9 



303 



■a 
I 



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[1855. 



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1865.] 



iunjtejjNi. 



)09 



The IbUowisg nrndt mre 




— 






Name. 


Length. 

Mitea. 


When 
completed. 


Coet. 


Expenses in 
1853. 


Receipts in 

1863. 


AmberstandBelchenown, . 
Danvera and Georgetown, 
Dorchester and Milton, 
Fairhaven Branch, . 
Grand Junction, 
Harvard Branch(to Cambridge) 
Lexington and W. Cambridge, 
Medway Branch, . . 

Peterfooro^ and Shirley, 
Saugus Branch, 
South Reading Branch, 
South Shore, . 
Stockbridge and Pittsfield, . 
Stony Brook (N. Chelmsford to 

GrotmU 
Sloughton Branch, . 
West Stockbridge. . . 


19.50 

a25 
16.07 
6.49 
3.10 
6.63 
3.60 
14.59 
23.00 
8.40 
8.16 
11.50 
21.93 

|iai6 

4.04 
2.76 


1863 

1854 
1847 
1864 
1861 
1849 
1846 
1862 
1861 

1863 
1860 
1849 
1849 

1848 

1846 
1837 


$263,744 

117,798 

1,385,712 
25,701 
232,386 
36,073 
281,721 
263,676 
170,402 
236,227 
436,164 
448,700 

266,184 

93,433 
39,600 


RunbyN.L. W.andP. 

Run by 0. C. 

$36,064 
RunbyFjtch. 

RunbyB.andN.y.Central. 

$26,981 $23,679 
Run byFitch. 

$17,246 ^ 16,139 
21 652 i ' 22,441 
Run by 0. a 24,973 
RunbyHoue. 31,409 
SRunbyNash 
{and Lowell, 

$31,147 24,164 


Total, .... 


165.16 






1 



The Wobum Branch, 2 miles long, belongs to the Lowell road; the Medford Branch, 2 
miles, the Methuen Branch, 3 miles, and the Great Falls Branch (in New Hampshire), 3 
miles, to the Maine ; the West Roxbury and Xtedham Branch, 6.35 miles, and the Pawtucket 
Branch, 4.2 miles, to the Providence; the Brookline Branch, 1.6 miles, the Newton Lower 
Falls Branch, 2.6 miles, the Saxonville Branch, 4 miles, the MiUbury Branch, 3.2 miles, 
and the Milford Branch, 12 miles, to the Worcester; the Marblebead Branch, 3 miles, the 
Gloucester Branch, 13.5 miles, and the Salisbury Branch, 3.4 miles, to the Eastern ; the 
Fresh Pond and Watertown Branch, 10 miles, and the Lancaster and Sterling Branch, 9 
miles of which are completed, to the Fitchburg. The Worcester Branch road is half a mile 
in length, the Bridgewater Branch, 6.5 miles; the Chicopee Branch, 3 miles, and the Granite 
(in Quincy) road, 3 miles. Including such of these as have not been before given, the total 
length of what may be called the Massachusetts roads, is 1,291.66 miles. Besides these, 
HtMn are roads in process of construction, leading from the main lines in Massachu* 
setts into other States. During the session of 1846, the Massachusetts liSgislature char- 
t«red eighteen roads and branches, with an aggregate capital of $ 5,795,000 ; during the 
session of 1847, sixteen, with an aggregate capital of $4,822,000; during the session 
of 1848, nineteen, with an aggregate capital of $7,105,000, and the capiul stock of the 
milroads already in operation was increased, $3,945,000; during the session of 1849, four- 
teen, with an aggregate capital of $2,470,000, and the capital stock of the raihroads in 
operation was increased $1,150,000; during the session of 1860, three roads or branches, 
with an aggregate capital of $ 740,000, and the capital stock of the roads in operation was 
increased $926,000; during the session of 1861, eleven roads or branches, with a capital 
stock of $3,320,000, and the capital stock of the roads in operation was incraased 
$ 1,515,000; during the session of 1862, eleven roads or branches, with a capital stock of 
$2,146,000, and the capital stock of the roads in operation, or chartered, was increased 
$2,240,000; during the session of 1853, six roads or branches, with a capital stock of 
$1,636,000, and the capital stock of the roads in operation or chartered was increased $650,000 ; 
and during the session of 1854, fourteen roads or branches, with a capital stock of $ 3,410,000, 
and the capital stock of one road in operation was increased $60,000. 

By the returns on the Massachusetts roads, it appeara that there were during the year 
74 casualties by which persons were killed, or injured so that they died therefrom, and 38 
easualtiss which did not prove fotal. Of the 74 persons killed, 24 were employees of the road. 
98 were persons walking or sleeping on the track, or attempting to cross it while the trains 
were approaching. Three persons were killed in attempting to get on the cars, aft,er they 
were in motion. Four passengers fell from the care while in motion, and one death was 
sofcide. Of the 38 not fotal casualties, 2 befell employees of the roads ; 3, peraons jumping 
on or off the can while in motion. 18 passengers were killed or fatally injured, and 22 were 
Injured, during the year ; but all, with one exception, on the Boston and Maine, and Provir 
dance and Worcester roads. Mora than 12,000,000 passengara were carried over the roads 
during that period. 



iM, 



mmSD STATES. 



[1865. 



2. Other Completed RaUntads in JV^ England^ Oatober^ 1854. 



State. 


Name of Road. 


Length. 


0>st. 


Receipts 
in 1853. 


Expenses 
in 1853. 






Miles. 


• 


• 


t 


Maina, . . 


Aodroocoggin, .... 


90.00 








i« 


AndroecogffiD and Kennebec, . 
Bangor and Piecataquia (lo Oldtown) 
BucJcfield Branch (AtL & St.Uw. R.) 


55.00 


1,994,429 






cc 


ii.rs 

13.00 


337,194 






« 

C( 


Calais and Baring, 

vllle), 
Grand Trunk Bailway (Port. Oiat.), 
Kennebec and Portland, . 


6.00 

9.00 
149.00 
60.00 


226,429 






U % 


4,649,392 
2,514,067 


200,233 
133,338 




# 


Bath Branch (from Brunswick), . 


9.00 










Portland, Saco, and Porumouth, 
Eastern R. in New Hampshire, . 


52.00 


1,355,500 


206,668 






16.80 


493,082 






" 


Concord (Nashua to Concord), 
AshuelotCS. Vernon, Ms.ioKeene), 


34.50 


1,409,000 


300,805 


163,968 


« 


23.90 








« 


Northem(Ooncord to W.Ri v Junct. ), 
Bristol Branch (Franklin to Bristol), 


69.00 
13.00 


(2,768,400 


370,530 


232,230 


i< 


Manchester and Lawrence,* 


27.00 


815,000 






« 


Portsmouth and Concord, . 
SuHiran (B. Falls to Windsor, Vt.), 


47.00 
25.60 








" 


Wilton (NashriUe to Wilton),t . 


15.00 








Vermont, . 


Rutland (B. Falls to Burlington), 
Vt. Valley (BrattleboK) to B. Falls), 


120.00 


5,577,000 


495,397 


240,000 


(< 


24.00 


1,000,000 






u 


Vt. Central (Windsor to Burlington), 
Vt.& Canada(BurI'ton lo Rousc^s Pt.) 


118.00 
48.00 


12,000,000 






** 


Rutland 9c Washington (Rutland to 

Salem), . . . . . 
Troy and Rutland (Salem to Eagle 

Albany I»/orthcm (Eagle Bridge to 


46.50 
17.50 








«l 








(( 










Albany) 


30.00 








(1 


Western Vt. (Rutland to N. Ben* 












nington), 


51.00 


1,100,000 






tt 


Troy and Boston (North Benning- 
ton to Troy), .... 


32 00 








it 


Rutland and WhitehaU (CaaUeton, 
Vt.. to N. York Sute line, there 
meeting Saratoga & Wash, road), 


7.00 






- 


Rhode Island, 


Providence and Sionlnglon, 

N. Haven, Hartford, and Springfield, 

New Haven and New York (to in- 


50.00 


1,608,000 


283,919 


127,031 


OonnecUcttl, 


62.00 


3,470,000 


639,628 


304;i80 


** 












tersection with Harlem R.), 


62.60 


5,131,948 


961,278 


579,209 


€C 


New Haven and New London, 


50.00 


1,375,912 


96,138 


56,643 


tl 


New London,Willimantic,& Palmer, 


66.00 


1,524,329 


128 J] 6 


66,071 


U 


Middietown (Middietown to Berlin), 
EIouaatonic(Bridgeport to Pittafield), 


11.00 








tt 


110.00 


2,500,000 


324,990 


201,059 


tt 


Danbury and Norwalk, 


23.50 


370,000 


48,830 


28,167 


fl 


Hartford, Providence, and Fishkill,. 


120 00 


4,000,000 






Iblal,. . 




l,705i)5 













3. Prine^Mil Lines of Railroad not comphtedf or in Process of Construction^ 
in New England^ October^ 1854. 

Name. 

York and Cumberland, From Great Falls, N. H., to Portland. Length, about 50 miles. 
Open from Portland to Saco River, 18 miles. 

Boston, Concord, and Montreal, From Concord, N. H., «ta Haverhill, to a point of inter- 
section with some one of the Montreal roads. Length, about 
109 miles. Open to Wells River, 93 miles. 

Conconl and Clareihont, or Merrimack and Connecticut River, From Concord, N. H., to 
Claremont, where it intersects the SuUivan road. Length, 60 
miles. Open to Bradford, 25 miles. 

Contoocook Valley, . Open from Contoocookville, on the Concord and Claremont road, 
to Hillsboro' Bridge, 14 miles. 

New Hampshire Central, From Manchester to its junction with the Ck>ncord and Clare* 
mont road in Bradford. Open to Henniker, 26 miles. 

Cocheco, . . From Dover, N. H., to Haverhill. Open to Alton Bay, 28 miles 



* Worked by Concord road. 



t Worked by Nashua and Lowell road. 



1955.] BAILBOADS. S05 

Great FaBs and Conwsj, Fiom Great FttU* to Conwaj. Opn to Milton, 12.5 milea. 
White Mououins, . Frooi Wells River to White Mountains, open to Littleton, N. H.. 

20 miles. 
Troy and Greenfield, . From Greenfield. Mass., to "Proy, N. Y. 
Connecticut and Paasumpsic River, From Hartford, Vt., up the west bank of the Connecticut, 

to the Grand Trunk Railway. Length about 114 miles. Open 

to St. Johnsbury, Yt., 61 miles. 
Canal, .... From New Haven to Springfield. Open to Tariffville, 45 miles. 

Branch from Farmington to CoUinsville, 7.50 miles. 
Naagatuck, . . Open from Bridgeport, Conn., to Winsted, 62 miles. 

4. JVeio York Railroads in Operation throughout their entire Lengthy Sep- 
tember 30, 1853. 



NaiTwornoad. 


Length. 


^ c 




ill 




fill 


1 






|1 


I| 


IP 


1- 


'ill 






Milea. 


t 


.* 


« 


« 


« 


t 


Bii(!ato,GomInfAN.Y 


90.00 


y32,29a 


I,2t6,i)34 


1,975,421 


es.asa 


ii3,5i2 




Buffalo and N. Y. CJiy, 


SLfJU 


905,710 


2,G&7,877 


3,313,4?3 


194,898 






duffalo^ Niagara Falla, 


'22.0C 


fi64,nr 


71,674 


49-2,130 


]16,9H7 


51,195 


40,462 


RuSalo and Stale Line, 


mM 


J, 100,000 


1,033,130 


2,1^I,5W2 


372,949 


233,4fJ5 


131,805 


CacjAiHJai^ua Jkr Eimtra, 


mm 


42G,U7 


^7,141 


1,147,243 


146,855 


167,aa0 




CAnand* Xia^araf alts, 


^jfi.rs 


l,196,6i9 


£.009,700 


2,6.34,314 


5a,6e*a 


157,419 




Ciiyusa & Susqueliajina, 


35, oc 


G87,0rJ0 


486,722 


l,076,3sil 


100,732, 


82,026 




Hudson Kiverj . - . 


mm 


1^,727,^7 


8,344,439 


1 L,7S0,9M 


1,238,617 


l,4^i,M8 




Lonf Ulantl, ♦ ♦ * , 


84.00 


i,&T5,MS 


G'24,615 


2,478,01! 


329,373 


2!8,9G0 




New YorlE and Erie, . 


iM.m 


io/J9J,oyo 


fi2,S5?^,t;55 


3l,224,d;M 


4,4B4.986 


3,554,290 


252.660 


^aw York afid HarJflm, 


130.06 


B,\27,55ii 


2,i2t,64fi 


7,249,196 


909,366 


64*2,377 


262,236 


^ew Yoric CetiiraJ, . 


534.2a 


32,213,983 


11,564,034 


22,044,529 


3,570,187 


2,105,757 


1,619,299 


*forilierii (O^denaboP:^), 


113.00 


i,Gii,ea7 


3,959,199 


5,081,373 


443,2LS 


477,485 




Jpwego irid Syracuse ^ 


3o.OO 


350,000 


aj)S,76o 


633,69e 


92,563, 


61.779 




leoaselaer dfc SaraLogaj 
SaralJjga &Schenoclady, 


25.00 


GlO.tXiO 


112,000 


80(5,7! 3 


207,971 


140,025 


42,700 


22.00 


3<.Xj,0(¥j 


i2o,oon 


472, IW 


30jl5O 


g,540i 


15,000 


Saratoga iWashingion, 


41.00 


399,800 


999,067 


1,891,993 


164,967 


lG0,a'50 




SackeU'iiH-ir.^Eliisb'g, 


laoo 


167,486' 


3rj6,8l0 


386,8^ 


3,523 


12,764 




Troy and Elenninn^ton, 


5.S5 


73.8CO 


170,677 


240,25a 


15,415 






Troy arid Bojiton, , . 


27 J5 


437,330 


G^iJoT 


1,080.405 


153,202 


iias38 




Tniy and Greenbush, 


6.0f> 






294.796 


84,412 


78,537 




Troy Union 


2.00 


3,000 


500,000 


450,424 








Waifirtawn and B,ome, 


96,00 


1.346,075 


74^,518 


1,957,392 


S34,90l 


203,327 


127,509 


T^ml, 


2^.41 


5i,G^,mi 


S|j4yljS95 


100,963,663 


13,174,147 


10^044,990! 


MM, 771 



The Albany and Schenectady, the Utica and Schenectady, the Troy and Schenectady, the 
Utica and SyFacuse, the Syracuse and Rochester, the Buffalo and Rochester, the Mohawk 
Valley, the Syracuse and Utica Direct, and the Bufialo and Lockport Railroads, are included 
in the New York Central. 

The following New York roads were in process of construction September 30, 1853, and 
their condition is thus stated on that date. There were, besides, 455 miles of road in process 
of construction at that time. 



Name. 


Length. 


Capital 
Stock 
paid in. 


Capital 
Stock. 


Capital 

Stock 

expended. 


Albany and Susquehanna, .... 
Attica and AUeffhany Valley, 

Black River and Uiica, 

Buffalo and Alleghany Valley, . . . 

Coming and Oleaif, 

Erie and New York City, .... 
Lake Ontario, Auburn, and New York, . 
New York and Western, .... 
Ogdensburg, Clayton, and Rome, . 

Syracuse and Binghampton, . . . '. 


Mile3. 
140.00 
74.00 
108.75 
30.00 
84.00 
63 50 
75.00 
232.00 
137.00 
180.00 
80.00 


143,530 
268,805 

68,620 

13.000 
8,500 

29,910 
158,603 

27,900 

28,188 
453,503 


• 

1,400,000 

1,000,000 

1,400,000 

300,000 

860,000 

750,000 

1,500,000 

12,000,000 

2,000,000 

2,500,000 

1,200,000 


1,500,600 
659,850 

1,017,800 
135,000 
85,000 


Toul, 


1,204.25 









18 



S06 



immi) 0TATSS. [1855* 

5. Other SaUroads in the United Staiet* 



Gross 
Receipts 
1852-3. 



Expen 

ses 
186a-3. 



State. 



SUna. 



Miles 

in 
Length. 



Cost. 



N.J. 



PenxL 



Del 
Md. 



Va. 



Burlington and Mi. Holly Branch, 

Camden and Ambor 

IVenton Branch (Trenton to Bordentown)| 
New Brunswick Branch, .... 
Camden and Woodbury, 
Betvidere and Delaware (oMntoMllford), 
Central (Elliabeth Port to fiaston, PtL), 
Morris and Essex (Newark to Dorer), . 
Union (JecseT City to Erie R. at Sufnms), 
New Jersey (Jersey City, to N. Brunswick), 
Philadelphia and Trenton, 
Philadelphia, Germantown, and Norristown, 
Germantown Branch, .... 
Philadelphia City, .... 
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore, 
Philadelphia and Reading (to Pottsrille), 
Philadelphia and Columbia, . 
0>lumbia Branch (Columbia to fiarrishurg), 
Harrisburg and Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania (Harrisburg to Pittsburg, in- 
cluding Portage road from Hollidaysburg 

to Johnstown) 

Valley (Norristown to Ck>lumbia), 
West Chester (to Phil.& Columbia Railroad), 
Cumberland Vall.(Harri8b'g to Chambers'g), 
Franklin (ChambersburgtoHagerstown), 
York and Wrightsyille, .... 
Stnisburg (Cumb. Vail. R. to Strasburg), 
L. SchuylkiU (P. Clint. toTamaq.), open 
Danville and Pottsville, .... 
Williamspoit and Elmira ^. Y.), open 
Blossburg and 0>ming (N^Y.), 
Lackawanna A; Western (Scranton toGt.Bend 
Sunbury and Erie (open to Shamokin), . 
Erie and Northeastern (Erie to State Line), 
Ohio and Pa. (Pittsburg to Crestline), . 

Mt. Offbon, 

Schuylkill Valley and Branches, . 
Schuylkill (SchuylkiU to VaUey R.), 
Mill Oeek (Port Carbon to coal-mine), 
Minehill (Schuylkill Haven to Tremont), 
Mauch Chunk and Branches (to mines), 
Room Run (Mauch Chunk to coal-mine), 
Beaver Meadow (Parryville to mine), 
Beaver Meadow Branch, 
Hazleton and Lehigh, .... 
Nesquehoning (to Lehigh River), . 
Lehigh and Susauehanna, 
Carbondale and Honesdale, . 
L^ken's Valley (Broad Mt. to Millersburg), 

Pine Grove 

Newcastle and Frenchtown, . 
Newcastle and Wilmington, 
Baltimore and Ohio (to Wheeling, Va.), 
Frederick Branch, from Monocacy, 
Washington Branch, .... 
Baltimore & Susquehanna (to (^lumbia, Pa. ) 
Westminster Branch, .... 
Hanover Branch, .... 
Annapolft and Elk Ridge, . 
Winchester and Potomac, 
Richmond, Fredericksburg, & Potomac,* 
Richmond and Petersburg, . 
Pelersbure (to Weldon, N. C), 
Richmond dc Danville (Richmond to Clover), 
(Antral (Richmond to Staunton), 
Chesterfield (Richmond to coal-mines), . 
Orange & Alexandria (Alex. to(3ordon8vine), 






9 
34 
Gi 
36 
38 
31 
30 
17 

6 

e 

99 
93 



904 
10 
56 
22 
13 
7 
20 
44i 
25 
41 
50 
20 
19 
1S7 

25 
13 

9 
12 
25 

H 
20 
12 
10 

6 
20 
21 
16 

H 
17 

5 
380 

3 
31 
57 
10 
12 . 



76 
22i 
64* 
95 
138 
12 
93 



4,300,000 



1^44,207 



t 
1,145^73 



3,200,000 
1,000,000 



149,941 



187,000 

7i,r- 



3,245,700 
500,000 



346,269 



6,800,000 
17,140,000 



868,037 532,000 
2,480,8261,261,967 



1,700,000 
15,600,000 



1,265,143 



200,2491 93,000 

1,943,8271,326,801 

118,617 '76,890 



750.000 

5,600,000 

180,099 

437,600 



62,000 



33,000 



237,384 
800,000 
100,000 



150,000 



1,250,000 
* 230,980 



19,542,307 



2,026,2123,645,609 



1,650,000 
3,370,282 



369,230 
413,673 



181,371 
152,536 



400,000 
1,792,245 



254,367 



141,120 



1,164,000 
1,500,000 
2,000,000 



227,593 
'l76,485 



155,000 
106,060 



1,900,000 



* Acqnia Creek to Richmond. From Washington to Acquia Cnek by 



1855.] 



BAIUtOABfl. 



207 



in 
Length. 



Gross 
Receipts 
1852-3. 



State. 



Vau 



N.C. 
tt 



Ga. 



Fa. 

Miss. 



Tenn. 

m' 
it 

H- 

H 

Oliio, 



Name. 



Clever Hill, ..... 
Maoaasa Gap (M. Gap to Franklin), . 
Appomattox (City Point to Petersburg), 
South Side (Petersburg to Lynchburg), open 
Virginia^ Tenn. (Lynch, to KnoxvilTe),open 
Seaboard & Roanoke (Portsmouth toWeldon) 
Greenesritle & Roanoke(Hick8rord toGaston) 
Gaston and Raleigh, .... 
Wilmington and w eldon, 
Wilmington and Manch^rter, S. C, . 
South Carolina (Charleston to AugusU, Ga.), 
Columbia Branch (Branch?ille to Columbia), 
Camden Br. (from Col. Br. road to Camden), 
Charlotte &&(}arolina (Col. to Charlotte, Va.) 
King's Mountain (S.Carol. R. to Yorkrille), 
Greenville and Columbia, . 
Abbeville Branch, . . . . 
Anderson Branch, ..... 
Central (Savannah to Macon), 
Milledgeville and Gordon, .' . 
Waynesboro' and Augusta, . 
Macon and Western (Macon to Atlanta), 
Georgia (Augusta to Atlanta), . 

Athens Branch, 

Branch (Oimak to Warrenton), 

West, a^tl'c ( AUadta to Chattanooga, Tbn.) 

Rome (to Kingston on the West & Atl. R.), 

E. Tenn. k, Ga. (Dalton to Knoxville), open 

Southwestern (Macon to Columbus), 

Muscogee (Columbus to Butler on S. W. R.), 

Lagrange (Atlanta to West Point), 

Montgomery and West Point, 

Selma and Tennessee (Selma to Gunter's 

Landing), now open .... 
Mobile and Ohio (open to Citronelle), 
Tuscumbia and Decatur, 
Tallahassee and St. Marks, 
Viclcsburg, Jackson, and Brandon, 

Raymond 

Clinton and Port Hudson, 
Mexican Gulf (N. Orleans to Proetonville), 
West Feliciana (Bayou Sara to Woodville). 
Pontchartrain (N.Orleans to Lake Pontch.), 
Carrollton (New Orleans to CarroUton), 
New Orleans, Opelousas, and G West, open 
Nashville and Chattanoo^ (28 miles bi 

steamboat on Tennessee River), . . ■ 
Shelby vilie Bcaneh, 

East Tennessee k (Georgia. (See Georgia.) 
Memphis and Charleston, open to Lagrange, 
Lexington and Frankfort, 
Louisville and Frankfort, 
Covington and Lexington, . 
Ohio ^d Pennsylvania. (See Pennsylvania.) 
Little Miami ((Jincinoatl to Sprfngfield), 
Columbus and Xenia, 
Mad River and Lake Erie, . 
Findiay Branch (from Carey), . 
Dayton and Springfteld, 
Sandusky, Mansfield, uid Newark, . 
Iron (Ironton to Centre Station), . 
Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati, 
Cleveland and Pituburg (open to WeUsrille), 
Hanover Branch, . . . *. 
Akron Branch to Hudson, . 
Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Davton, . 
Dayton and GreemviUe (to Union), 
Dayton & Western (open to Ind. State line), 
Central Ohio (Zanesville to Columbus), 
Hillsboro' and Cincinnati, . 



Hi 
38 
10 
122 
106 
80 
21 



171 

136 

68 

37 

109 

22 

143 

12 

10 

192 

17 

61 

101 

171 

.40 



i 



140 
20 
82 
99 
60 
87 



66 
33 

46 
26 
60 

7 
24 
27 
26 

6 

8 
60 

161 
16 

60 
29 
66 
96 

84 

65 
129 

16 
.24 
116 

13 
135 
100 

.1* 

60 

40 
40 
59 
37 



Cost. 



•109,267 



#284,815 

2,6()b,060 
2,000,000 

6,943,678 

1,500,000 



1,147,104 
115,917 



3,378,132 



1,500,000 
4,500,000 



1,457,634 



1,000,000 
1,330,960 



130,000 



3,i6o;oto 



584,901 



2,700,000 
1,267,000 
4,140,148 



1,865,000 
3,660,000 



408,457 
2,500,000 



925,000 
1,192,326 



47,860 
119,084 
568,899 



945,508 



296,600 
934,124 



67,926 



114,498 
173,542 



106,732 



87,421 
1206,791 



526,000 
237,606 
540,618 



777,739 



15,868 
365,471 



1852-3. 



• 66,631 



208 



UKITK]> 8TATB8. 



[1800. 



Suu. 


Name. 


Milee 

in 
Length. 


Cost. 


Gtoas 
Receipts 
1852-3. 


Ezpen- 
1862-a 


OhioV 

(( 

(( 
(1 

Ind. 
(( 

« 
(( 
fi 
tt 
ff 
<i 
(( 

<« 
II 
II 
II 

III. 
II 
tt 
ti 

(( 

Mich. 

(( 

<i 
Wise. 


Cl«yeland, ZaneeviUe, and Cincinnati, . 
Cincinnati, Wilmington, and ZaiMTiUe, 
Columbus, Piqua, and Indiana, 
Hamilton. Eaton, and Richmond, 
Scioto and Hocking Valley, . 
Toledo, Norwallc, and Cleyeland, . 
Clereland and Erie, 

LA&yette and Indianapolis, 
Jefferaonville (to Edinburgh), 

Shelb/TiUe Branch 

Shelby ville and Knightstown, . 

Rushville and Shelby viUe, 

New Albany and Salem, open 

Crawfordsrille and Wabash, . 

Terre Haute & Richmond (to Indianapolis), 

Indianapolis dc Bellefontaine(open to Union), 

Lawrenceburg and Upper Mississippi, open 

MartinsTllle and Franklin, . 
.Northern Indiana. See Southern Michigan. 
Galena at Chicago Union (open to Freeport), 
St. Charles Branch, .... 

Aurora Branch, 

Chicago and Rock Island, . .- . 
Chicago and Mississippi, 
Great Western, Long Point to Naples, 
[llinois Central (Chicago to Mobile), open 
Central (Detroit to Chicago), 
SouthernMich.^ N.Ind.(Monroe toCThicago), 
Erie and Kalamazoo (Adrian and Toledo), 

Tecumseh Branch, 

Detroit and Pontiac, .... 
Milwaukee dc Mississippi, open 
Rock River Valley Union, . ... 


61 
77 

102 
45 
20 
87 
95 

159 
64 
77 
16 
27 
20 

196 
26 
73 
84 

123;. 
89i 

25 

146 
8 

13 
182 
195 

82 
115 
278 
247 

33 

10 

25 
100 

15 








. 




• 


















• 1,351,714 
2,400,000 






•516,41*4 


§248.319 


1,111,970 






















5,000,000 
1,363,019 


106,944 


'71,446 


1,986,682 






















2,500,000 


472,109 


187,396 








4,500,000 














" 


6,000,000 
6,866,834 
6,000,000 


1,146,537 
1,100,000 


'566,721 
770,000 














2,000,000 








• • . 




Total out of New England and New York, 


9,813* 








Total in the United States, . ... 


17,146i 



XXVI. PUBLIC LANDS. 

The public lands belonging to the General Grovernment are sitaated, — 
iBt. Within the Hmits of the United States, as defined bj the treaty of 1783, 
and are embraced by the Statenof Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wis* 
consin, and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi River, allof which 
have been formed out of the Northwestern Territory, as conveyed with cer- 
tain reservations to the United States by New York in 1781, by Virginia in 
1784, by Massachusetts in 1785, and by Connecticut in 1786 ] also the lands 
within the boundaries of the States of Mississippi and Alabama north of 31^ 
north latitude, as conveyed to the United States by Georgia in 1802. 2d. 
Within the Territories of Orleans and Louisiana, as acquired from France 
by the treaty of 1803, including the portion of the States of Alabama and 
Mississippi south of 31^; the wnole of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, 
and that portion of Minnesota west of the Mississippi River ; the Indian Ter- 
ritory ; tne district called Nebraska ; the Territory of Oregon, and the re- 
gion lying between Oreson and Minnesota, north of 429 and south of 49^ 
north latitude. 3d. Within the State of Florida, as obtained from Spain by 
the treaty of 1819. 4th. In New Mexico and California, as acquired from 
Mexico by the treaty of 1848. 

Within the limits recognized by these treaties and cessions, the public 
lands covered an estimated area of 1,584,000,000 acres. In this is not in- 
cluded any territory acquired from Mexico by the treaty of 1853. Exclu- 



1855.] PUBLIC LANDS. 809 

mve of the Iftods in Oregon, California, New Mexico, Utah, the Indian and 
Nebraska Territories, the entire area of the public domain is stated, after 
a careful examination, to have been 471,8^,439 acres. Up to June 30, 
1853, $ 142,983,478 had aooraed from sales of land to that date. The 
aggregate outlay of every kind upon these lands to the same date, includ- 
ing cost of purchase, of surveying, and of selling, was ^ 88,994,013, leav- 
ing as net profit to the government $ 53,289,465, or an annual average of 
nearly a million of dollars for the lastfifly years. If there should be added to 
this, at the rate of $ 1^ per acre, the value of the land granted for bounties, 
schools, internal improvements, &c., it would amount to more than double 
the above sum. There jjret remain of the surveyed lands 96,940,709 acres, 
worth (net, after deducting cost of selling) $ 116,018,641, and of the un- 
aurveyed lands 137,635,^9 acres, worth (net) $161,873,263. Total, 
$277,891,904. The average cost per acre to the government of acquiring 
titW, d^. to the lands is 14.41 cents; of survev, 2.07 cents ; of selling and 
managing, 5.32 cents ; in all 21.80 cents ; while it receives $ 1.25 per acre, 
or a net profit on each acre sold of $ 1.032. 

The following table shows the sales of public lands and the proceeds 
thereof from the year 1833 to 1853, inclusive. The sales, however, by no 
means show the amount of public lands diroosed of durinc the year ; for 
there were during the year ending June 30, 1853, located with military 
bounty land warrants and other certificates, 6,151,787 acres, donated for 
railroads, 1,427,457 acres, and selected by the States as swamp lands, 
16,684,253 acres. Full details of the present condition of the public lands, 
and of the varioos grants and donations thereof for purposes of education 
and of internal improvement, are given in the American Almanac for 1850, 
pp. 180 et seq. 

The Secretary of the Interior states ''that the principle of granting al- 
ternate sections, and selling those reserved at double the ordinary price, 
has been found by experience to be most salutary." 

iiuantUy of Public Land sold^ and the Amount paid for it, in each Year^ 
from 1833 to 1853, inclusive. 



Yu», 



1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 



4.£res. 



Yeara. 



3,856,227.66 
4i6ri^^l8Jl 
12,564,478^' 
20,1)74,870.92, 
5,601,103,121 
3,414,907.421 
4,{»76,382J7j 
2,236,88iK74 
1,164 ,7fN>.n 
1,1211,217.5^ 
1,605,264.06 



4,972,284 

6,091>,f*81, 
15,9y9jS04, 
25,167,833, 

7,007,523. 

4,305,564. 

6,464,556. 

1,463,304. 
1,417,97a. 
2,016,044. 



lt^4 
18^15 

1846 
1847 
164d 
1649 
1850' 
lyfilt 
185af 
1853t 
Tolai, 



t)D]^fV^ 



1,754,T(>3. 
1,843,5^7. 
2,%3,730. 
9,521 ,3<I:j, 
1,867,553 
1,339,^*02 
76n,;364 
I,y46,B47 
l,fi53,07l 
1,0^M95 



.13, 
,05 

,81' 
591 
.04! 
77' 

.49 

m\ 

21 1 



9,207,678.04 
2,470,303.17 
2,9(J4 ,637.27 
3,2«J6,4Cl4.0e 
2,*iai, 615.26 
1,756,890.42 
a9tt,84l.a6 
2,390,947.45 
1»1*75,65«,.'34 
1^4,65324 



7tija5,y 17.451 100,^212,193.30 



The following table shows the number of land-warrants issued under 
the acts of 1847, 1850, and 1852 ; the number located ; and the number now 
outstanding. 



Acta. 


Number 
ismied. 


Acrea 
therein. 


Number 
located. 


Acrea. 


Number 
Ontstand'g 


Acrea. 


Act of 1847, 
" 1850, 
" 1832, 


86,697 
171,657 

8,888 


12,897,280 

11,992,320 

613.040 


79,286 

116,523 

3,286 

199,096 


19,040.760 

8,376,600 

189,160 


6.311 
65,034 
5,602 


838,620 

3,615,720 

323,880 


Total, . . 


266,042 


25,384.640 


20,606,620 


66,947 


4,77tf,lfi0 



* From Jannary I at to June 30th. 
18* 



t For year ending June 30th. 



210* . UNITED STATES. [1855, 

XXVII. BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Tax fbllowmg abstract of the condition of the State Banks throughout 
Ihe Union is taken from a letter of the Secretary of the Treasury to the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, dated May 6, 1^4, which is 
printed as House Document No. 102. The infbrmation was obtained in 
compliance with a resolution of the House adopted as long since as July 
10, 1832. The following statement of the method of preparing the tablet 
is taken from the ** Letter." 

*' In all the tables prepared in the Treasury Department, the following 
general rules have been observed : — 

^' 1. The net amount of the capital of the banks has been given when- 
ever it could be ascertiuned. So, whenever a bank appears to have bought 
shares of its own stock, that amount has been deducted from its gross cap- 
ital. Bank stock thus bought in stands on the same footing as bank stock 
not paid in. 

" 2. The capital is placed first, and next to it *■ loans and discounts, 
stocks, real estate, and other investments,' to show at one view the whole 
investments of ^ach bank supposed to yield income, and the ratio these 
investments bear to the capital paid in. 

" 3. The next four columns, * sums due by other banks, notes of other 
banks on hand, specie funds, and specie,' comprise all the Immediate means 
of the banks. 

**4. The next three columns, 'circulation, deposits, and sums due to 
other banks,* comprise all the immediate liabilities of the banks. 

(* Under the head of *■ deposits ' are included * dividends unpaid,* and 
all other sums due on demand, as far as could be ascertained. 

*' 5. The four columns, * circulation, deposits, sums dlie to cither banks, 
and other liabilities,* include all the liabilities of the banks, excepting what 
is due to their own stockholders for capital paid in, and profits acquired. 

'* 6. From these general tables the items * profit and loss, surplus and 
contingent funds,* dec, &o., are excluded ; partly because they are, as Mr. 
Gallatin observes, * merely balancing accounts,' and partly because they 
cannot be conveniently introduced on a sheet of the size of that on which 
the public documents are printed.*' 

In the following statements are included, it is believed, all the incorpo- 
rated banks that were in operation in the beginning of 1851 and the begin- 
ning of 1854, a few scattering ones excepted, and these consisting chiefly 
of banks that had but lately commenced business. 

In the State of Texas there is one bank doing a small business, from 
which no returns have been received. 

In the States of California, Florida, Arkansas, and Iowa, and in the Ter- 
ritories of New Mexico, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and Minnesota, there 
are no incorporated banks. 

In the returns from some of the banks of Pennsylvania, and those of 
some other States, a considerable amount of specie is believed to be em- 
braced under the head of *< specie fund,*' but the exact amount cannot be 
-■pertained. 



1855.] BAKU. -211 

1. CofiwaraiU n Vino of the CandUwn of the Banks in the digermd Stateo m 
1850-51, and 1853-54. 



State. 


Date. 


No. 

of 

B'ks. 


No. 
of 
Bran- 
ches. 


Oapital 
paid in. 


Loans yid 
Discounts. 


Stocks. 


Maine, 


Oct., 1850 


32 




$3,248,000 


$5,830,230 






Jan.. 1854 


60 




5,913,870 


11,166,519 




New Hampshire, 


Dec, 1850 


22 




2,376,900 


3,821,120 






I>«c., 1853 


35 




3,376.000 


6,518,188 




Vermont, 


Aug., 1850 


27 




2.197,240 


4,423,719 


♦,f2'?S 




Aug , 1853 


33 




2.914,040 


6,840,932 


117,125 


Massachusetts, 


Sept., 1850 


126 




36,925,050 


63,330,024 






Sept., 1853 


137 




43,270,500 


77,172,079 




Rhode Island, 


Sept., 1850 


63 




11,645,492 


15,492,547 


151,277 




Sept., 1853 


77 




15,917,429 


22,844,911 


121,414 


Connecticut, 


April, 1850 


41 


2 


9,907,503 


15,607,315 






April, 1853 


53 


2 


13,164,594 


24,601,165 


644,962 


New York, 


Sept., 1850 
Feb., 1854 


197 


1 


48,618,762 


107,132,389 


13,177,944 




312 


1 


79,018,980 


203,008,077 


21,453,585 


New Jersey, 


Jan., ia51 


26 




3,754,900 


7,158,977 






Jan., 1854 


38 




5,147,741 


10,663,627 


974,895 


Pennsylvania, 


Nov., 1850 


53 


5 


17,926,222 


39,430,145 


1,428,354 




Nov., 1853 


61 


5 


19,768,864 


48.656,884 


1,141,649 


Delaware, 


Jan., 1851 


6 


3 


1,293,185 


2,264,313 


52,986 




Jan., 1854 


6 


3 


l,"r\^S5 


2,915,602 


62,681 


Maryland, 


Jan., 1851 


23 


2 


8,1,^:^.-31 


14,900,816 


760,417 


# 


Jan., 1854 


25 




9,^.>.-^^l09 


18,358,441 


825,339 


Virginia, 


Oct., 1850 


6 


31 


9, : 45 


19,646,777 


269,914 




Jan., 1854 


16 


39 


12, 56 


24,913,789 


2,259,812 


North Carolina, 


Nov., 1850 


5 


13 


3,: ,:30 


6,056,726 


150,000 




Dec, 1853 


9 


16 


4,.si,7;65 


10,366,247 


64,175 


South Carolina, 


Jan., 1851 


12 


2 


13,'J 13,^131 


23,312,330 


963,611 




Mar., 1854 


16 


2 


I6,v^^,^30 


24,365,690 


2,775,059 


Georgia, 


Dec, 1850 


11 


10 


13,482,198 


11,421,626 


1,574,349 




Dec, 1853 


11 


7 


12.957.fi00 


13,567,469 


2,193,848 


Alabama, 


Jan., 1851 


2 




1 30 


4,670,458 


70,361 




Jan., 1854 


3 




2 m 


5,865,142 


471,156 


Louisiana, 


Jan.. 1851 


5 


20 


12;37i],:i90 


19,309,108 






Jan., 1854 


9 


10 


17,X.li.-J61 


29,320,582 


842,000 


Mississippi, 


April. 1851 


1 




ll>:460 


112,275 






Jan., 1854 


1 




240,165 


362,585 




Tennessee, 


Jan., 1851 


4 


19 


6,881,568 


10,992,139 


432,902 




Oct., 1853 


9 


19 


6,599,872 


11,846,879 


538,042 


Kentucky, 


Jan., 1851 


5 


21 


7,586,927 


12,536,305 


694,962 




Jan., 1854 


9 


26 


10,869,665 


21,398,386 


802,124 


Missouri, 


Jan., 1851 


1 


5 


1,209,131 


3,533,463 






Jan., 1854 


1 


5 


1,215,405 


3,958,055 




Illinois, 


Jan., 1851 


No 


ne. 


None. 


None. 


None. 




April, 1853 


23 




1,702,456 


586,404 


1,780,617 


Indiana, 


Nov., 1850 


1 


13 


2,082,950 


4,395,099 






Dec, 1853 


31 


13 


5,554,552 


7,247,366 


3,257,064 


Ohio, 


Nov., 1850 


57 




8,71^,^66 


17,059.593 


2,200,891 




Feb., 1854 


68 




8,11 Ci^ 154 


17,380,255 


2,808,332 


Michigan, 


Jan., 1851 


5 


1 


7G^,0'22 


1,319,305 


420,521 




Jan., 1854 


6 


1 


l,0d4,718 


2,199,093 


637,725 


Wisconsin, 


Jan., 1851 


No 


ne. 


None. 


None. 


None. 




Jan., 1854 


10 




600,000 


1,163,066 


578,721 



SIS' ITKITBB STATES. [18S5. 

CniiMfVim VUw of UU Condition nf <^ Bank* ts file iifhroot SUOto tH 
1850-51, and 1853-54. 





Real 


Other In- 


Doe by other 


Noteeof 


Specie 


Statof 


Esuiu. 


yesunento. 


Baiks. 


otber B'ks. 


Maine, 


$111,905 




$778,965 


$187,435 








116,842 




1,581,596 


365,490 




New Hampshirey 




43,670 
54,153 




'447,453 

587,859 


91,444 
157,667 




Vermont, . 




94,497 




1,001,789 


127,637 


$2,376 








104,768 


$16,a^ 


1,301,033 


185 999 




Masaacbosetts, 






988,235 
1,090,463 




5,335,003 
6,666,412 


4,048,621 
5,346,161 




Rhode Island, 






283,844 


13,461 


441,164 


537,761 










264,812 


28,145 


1,004,863 


844,329 


V 


Connecticut, 






389,983 


396,035 


1,657,411 


245,349 


103,614 








384,800 


713,414 


1,890,685 


436,538 


202,204 


New York, 






3,321,589 


736,120 


10,403,509 


3,031,957 


10,498,824 








5,272,690 


151,528 


11,529,939 


3,468,890 


18,175,670 


New JersejT, 






270,546 


183,468 


1,578,663 












267,804 


224,448 


432,378 


42,685 


32,849 








1,134,413 


1,230,064 


4,266,916 


2,591,962 


?'^'?1* 








1,007,843 


652,756 


5,375,738 


3,804,410 


3,879,120 


Delaware, 






117,981 


2,000 


306,545 


74,600 


.Si'^ 








124,262 




362,286 


81,511 


177,293 


Maryland, 






405,245 


768 


1,173,200 


965,796 


78,552 








321,007 


28,256 


1,681,036 


158)i27 


1,595,092 


Virginia, . 






764,282 


240,498 


1,925,652 


552,153 








756,551 


26,259 


2,710,180 


1,271,453 


199,848 


North Carolina, 




127,806 


18,785 


1,074,794 


483,947 








137,154 




1,842,569 


643,821 


73,324 


South Carolina, 




338,429 


266,205 


5,020,998 


810,895 


306,909 






419,370 


1,369,682 


1,611,709 


645,639 




Georgia, . 




7,195,063 


2,377,715 


3,117,466 


535,593 


141,300 








8,176,932 


712,950 


1,735,422 


603,957 


247,852 


Alabama, . 






125,697 


81,000 


960,334 


63,865 










65,321 


31,500 


362,084 


111,296 




Louisiana, . 






2,255169 
l,954;i64 


2,042,149 
2,163,055 


2,225,896 
2,416,526 




1,200,000 


Mississippi, 






8,400 




302,641 












9,970 


4,742 


84,049 


13,309 




Tennessee, 






662,520 




1,559,418 


729,186 










516,980 


67,322 


1,443,721 


451,396 


126,890 


Kentucky, 






419,070 


440,127 


2,451,155 


550,879 










416,192 


307,368 


3,284,405 


1,115,780 


543,978 


Missouri, . 






123,928 


273,317 


66,028 


37,510 










116,151 


121,372 


152,781 


282,590 




Illinois, . 






None 
13,202 


None. 


None. 
880,541 


None. 
233,576 


None. 


Indiana, . 






364,283 


108,485 


845,062 


224,842 










289,673 


127,238 


1,985,114 


715,305 


128,860 


Ohio, 






451,593 


460,692 


3,373,272 


1,195,655 


93,460 








332,^09 




3,534,970 


1,438,342 


171,855 


Michigan, . 






221,626 


65,083 


404,691 


109,096 


196 








144,998 


95,170 


742,843 


108,941 


4,282 


Wisconsin, 






None. 


None. 


None. 


None. 


None. 


• 


8,461 




325,946 


151,154 


20,136 



1B55.] BAKK8. .210 

ComparaHw Vwm of the CondUion cf the Banks in ike diferent SUUm m 
1850-51, and 1853-54. 



Nevr Hampshire, 

Venuotitj « 

Ma^achusetta, 

Rhode Island, 

CoDnecticut, , 

New Yorkj . 

New Jeriey, . 

Pennsylvania, 

Delaware, 

Maryland, 

Vlrginiai * 

North CoroHoa, 

South Carolina, 

Georgia, 

Alabama^ 

Loutfiiftna, 

MissisBjppi, 

Tennessee, 

Kentncky, 

MlflSOUTJ, 

Illinois, . 
IndJiioa, 
Ohio, . 
Michigan, 
Wuc^n^in, 



3,56:^T82;21 ,172,369 15 (167,204 
297,661 2,55:i,aei 1 488,5% 
35J),699| 4,896,529 ^.238,856 
640,622 5,253,884 2 31)5,311 
1,145,85710,224,441 a 542,0351 
10,045,330 26,4 I5,r>56 50 774,ia3,2l,873,928!2,984,727^ 
14,1&>,905 32,573,180 75^554,481 20,227,967 5,848,6!37 
622,855 3,046,658, 24n,ti6r 373,453 
aa5,533; 4,917,412 4,i:{3,454, 486,561 



SpeolQ, 



Ciiculaibn. 



$ 475,589 J2,654,20B 
1,132,610 5,317,750 



$1,223,671 

2,446,470 

666,(i34 

866,357 

546,703 

188,173 4,764,439] 734,216 



1S^>,31)9 
180,239 
197,325 



1,8**7,111 
3,021,579 
2,856,027 



DsposiLs. 



Due to olhef' OiliEr 
Banks, Liabiiitlea, 



$48,006 
136,879 



$38,285 
99,202 



2,903, 1 78; 1 7,005,826 1 1 ,176,827 



32,984 
22,136 
6,54!),(*29 
8,608,238 
650,560' 
1,062,615 
468,768 
716,770 



442,084 
474,051 
133,773 
362,729 
38,061 
829,581 



4,327,394 11 ,708,006 , 1 8 4d4,770. 5,^57,740 
~~ ,656 17,420,348 22747,091 4,640,970 



4,331. 

159,773| 833,960 
l33,MJ7j 1,286,033 
2,700,600 3,523,869 
3,405,000 4, 91 8,3d 1 
2,028,17410,2.56,007 
3,721,04214,298,702 
1,645,0281 4,249,883 
1,857,048 7,320,667 
2^21 8,223 1 1,77] ,270 



1,621,073 
2,112,446 
1,576,813 
1,9*^,820 
1,125,954 
5,716,001 
7,468,460 

5,660 

1,456,778 

1,983,700 

2,794,:15I 

4,596,240 

J, 198,263 

037,835 

None. 

410,531 



0,715,783 
0,898,827 
9,518,777 
3,568,235 
3,171,487 
5,050,229 
6,969,807 
161,300 
234,745 
6,814,376 
6,821,836 
7,643,075 
13,573,510 
2,522,500 
2,467,580 

1,351,788 
1,107,880! 3,422,445 
l,8i^l,760; 7,116,827 
2,750,53711,059,700 



2,310,064 
125,722 
357,672 
None. I 
182,482 



9,839,008 
807,:]64 

1,270,989 
None. 
485,121 



502,755 
860,047 
5^838,766 



170,873 
107,075 
1,923,206 



156,878 
36,647 



9,805 
71,645 



8 621 ,052, 2,348,791 

4 717,732 308,841 

6 513,027 635,127 5,405 

042,098 6(1,682 4,825 

1,808,587 186,993 51,013 

3 665,686 3,035,803 23,260 

3 752,26<J 1,878,291 150,193 

a,58<l,826 483,422 1,452,121 

2,5^,227, 722,035 1,080,935 

1,474,!:K>3 106,011 660,732 

1,671,448 663,164 

8,46^1,3801 1,384,232 

11,743,152! 2,022,6362,348,859 

4,500 142,3001 

33 303 

1,917^757 61,638 10,000 
2,20i),022 108,470 447,425 
2.323,657, 1,256,580 100,807 
3,102,159 2,800,031 
1,098,981 76,280 
1,313,744| 226,045 

None- None, 
315,441 14,116 
112,175 
445,350 100," 
,305,830 343^56 



None 

522,4761 

630 ,32;"^ 

1,764,747 

5,310,555 

7,693,610 

416,147 

1,078,606 

None, 

654,423 



1,866,172 m^jm 
42,589, I38,r 



82,406 
None. 



438,48 
None. 
7I0^%4 



For the touUs sea Tables 2 and 3. 



214 



tJNITIX> STATES. 



£1655. 



9. Cm^aroHve Vuw of the Conditiam of the Bank$ tn difermt Seeiians of 
tke Union in 1850-51, and 1853 - 54. 



Saeiioos. 



Banks and 
Braochea. 



18SO-5I. 1863-^. 



Capital paid in. 



1860-51. 



1863-64. 



i 

84,666,433 
114,834,179 
46,646,211 
38,384,363 
16,954.880 



Loans and Discounta. 



1860-61. 1853-04. 



1. E. States, 

2. M. States, 

3. S. Suites, 

4. & W. States, 
6. ^^ 



313 

316 

90 

83 
77 



"STT 



397 
461 
116 
92 
162 



66.299,186 
79,716,960 
40,309,024 
29,917.056 
11,666,338 



108,604,966 
170,886,640 
60,437,469 
61,163,748 
22,773.997 



149.143.789 
283,602,631 
73,213,195 
72,761,629 
28,575,184 



1,208 



227,807,553 



301,376,071 



413,766,7»U 



607,287,428 



Sect 



Stocks. 



1860-61. 1863-64. 



"« 

883,601 
24,468,149 
7,292,894 
2,653,322 
9.062.464 



Real Estate. OthBrlnrestments. 



1860-61. 1863^. 




2,015^,838 
6.993,6062,162,4 
9,490,007 2,903,203^2,108,7 

3,078,7782 

789,243 
22,367,47211 



Bve by other Banks. 



1860-51. 1853^54. 



• 

191,777 
16,419,701 
2,957,874 
1,193,225 
2.62 14 12 
22.388.989 



1,912,134 
6,219,774 
8,426,680 
3.694,784 
1,037,452 



44,360,330 



20,219,724 



9,661 

17,728,833 
11,138.910 
7,666,472 
4,623,025 
50,718,016 



,775 13,032,448 
19,370,777 
7,899.880 
7,743,506 
7,469,414 
55,516,086 



Sections. 



1. 
S. 
3. 
4. 

5. 



Notes of other Banks. 



1860-61. 1853-64. 



6,233,147 
6,664,316 



: 1,381.440 
: 1,529.693 
' 17,196,683 



• 
7,336,184 
7,636,523 
3,164,870 
1,974,371 
2.647.318 
2^,1 



Specie Fund. 



1850-61. 1853-54, 



105,990 

13,493,342 

448,209 

1,200.000 

93.668 

I6,d4i,196 



202,204 
23,860,024 
521,024 
670,868 
325,133 
25,679 253 



Specie. 



1850-61. 1863-54. 



4,663,774 
17.865,051 

8,903,871 
13,164,213 

4,074.139 
18,671 ,C 



6,670,360 
22,845,551 

6,776,876 
16,117,^7 

6,099.509 
59,410,253 



Circulation. 



1860-51. 



32.220,921 
45,619,039 
38,176.977 
25,768,806 
16.379,509 



156.166.261 



1863-54. 



$ 

49,306,107 
61,116.263 
40.854.139 
33,258,966 
20,063,733 



204.689,207 



Deposits. 



1860-61. 



$ 

17,397,742 
78,012.354 
11,906.342 
16,284,247 
6,357.027 



128,957,712 



1863-54. 



Due to other Banks. Other Liabilities. 



1850-61. 



,217 10, 



24 898 036 

1 16,91 7';926 30;i99;200l27; 

14,697,101 

20,064,818 

11,710.868 

[88,188,744 



7,760,! 
1,199, 



3,118.040 
1.460.603 
46,416,92b 



1853-64. 



,546,638 
,811,364 
3,422,446 
5,832,246 
2,709.468 
50,322,162 



1860^1. 




1853-54. 



1.765,563 
5,966,919 
t;306,636 
2,897,091 
1,514.067 
13,439.274 



1. Eastern States. ~ Maine, New Haropsbire, Vermont^ Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut. 

2. Middle States.— New York, New Jenaey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland. 

3. Southern States. ^Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgii^ 

4. Southwestern States.— Alabanoa, Louisiana, Mississip^ Tennessee, Kentucky, Mis- 
souri. 

6. Western States. — nUnois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin. 



1859.] 



AMERICAN 8JSCUBXTIJBS HJBZ.D ABBOAD. 



S15 



3. Campar^ve VUwoftk^ OondiHanofth^BamksintkB IhuUd Staies.aeeord. 


ing to Returns nearest to January 1, in 1837, 1843, 1848, 1851, and 1854. 


' 


1837. 


1843. 


1848. 


1861. 


1864. 


Number of banks, 


634 


. 677 


622 


731 


1,060 


Number of bmachM, . 
Number of banfci and branches, 


164 


114 


129 


148 


'l49 


788 


691 


761 


879 


1,206 


% 


f 


S 


$ 


t ' 


Capital paid in, . 


290,772,091 


228,861,948 


204,838,176 


227,807,663 


301,376,071 


ReeoQieee: — 












Loane and diacounts, . 


625,115,702 


254,644.937 
28,380^050 


^^'^Ih^ 


413,766,799 


607,287,«» 


Siocka 


12,407,112 


26498,054 


22,388,9S9 


44,350 330 




19,064,461 


22,826,807 


20,530,956 


20,219724 


22,367,472 


Other inTeotmente, . 


10.429,630 


13.343,699 


8,229,682 


8,935,972 


6,841429 
65,616,086 


Due by other banks, . 


69,663,910 


20,666,264 


38,904,625 


50,718,015 


Notes of other banks, 


36,633,627 


13,306,617 


16,427,716 


17,196,083 


22,669,% 




6,366,600 


6,678,375 


10,489,822 


15,341196 


26^79^ 


UatHlitSs: — 


37,916,340 


33,616,806 


46»36e;766 


48,671,048 


69,410;^ 


Circulation, 


149,185,890 


58,563,608 


128,606,091 


166,165,261 


204,689,207 


Deposits, .... 


127.397,186 


56,168,628 


103,226,177 


128,957,712 


188,188,744 


Due to other banks, » 


62,421,118 


21.456,523 


^,414,371 


^S'*i&^ 


60,322,162 


Other liabilities, . . 


36,660,289 


7;367,033 


6,601,401 


6,438,327 


13,439)276 


Aggregau of current credits,!.*., 












of circulation and deposits. 


278,583,076 


114,732,236 


231,732,268 


284,122,963 


392,877,951 


Ageregate of immediate liabili- 
ties, i. c, of circulation, depos- 
its, and dues to other banks, 












339,004,193 


136,188,764 


271,146,639 


330,539,691 


443,200,113 


Aggregate of immediate means. 






. 






1. c, of specie, specific funds, 












notes of other banlu, and sums 












due from other banks, 


139,479,277 


74,067,062 


112,191,828 


131,926,342 


163,164,667 


Gold and silver in United Sutes 












treasury depositories, 
Total specie in banks and treas- 
ury depositories. 






8,101,363 


11,164,727 


25,136,252 












64,471,118 


69,836,776 


84,646,606 



NoTB. — In January, 1837, the inflation of paper credits consequent on the deposit bank 
system and other causes had nearly reached its height. The revulsion that fblioised was 
most severely felt in the latter part of 1842 and the beginning of 1843. In 1848 the first de- 
posits of California gold were made at the United States Mint. The sUtement for 1861 in 
this and the preceding uUes is not Uken from that printed in Executive Document No. 132. 
32d Congress, 1st session, but from a report that was prepared with more care, and presented 
to the House of Bepcesentatives in February, 1861, but not ordered to be printed. 



XXVIII. AMERICAN SECURITIES HELD ABROAD. 

On the 4th of April, 1853, the Senate adopted a resolution re(|ueiting the 
Secretary of the Treasury to procure for the Senate the ibllowing informa- 
tion, Tiz. : ^* The aggregate amount of federal, state, city, county, railroad, 
and other corporation bonds and stocks, or other evidences of debt, held in 
Europe or other foreign countries on the 30th of June, 1853, specifying sep- 
arately, so &r as the same can be ascertained, the amount of each of the 
above descriptions of bonds and stocks." On the 2d of March, 1854, the 
Secretary orthe Treasury communicated the results of his inquiries to the 
Senate (Senate Doc. 42), from which we gather the following information. 
In some cases the amounts are estimates merely, but cenerally they are 
from official sources. The column containing Citv, &c. Bonds, is supposed 
to include all of any amount, except those of Albany, N. Y. and Norfolk, 
Va. It is thought that in the column of Bank Capital is included all that 
Ivas held by foreign stockholders at that date. Most of the canals are tha 
property of the several States. The first table shows the aggregate fo^ 
iDdebtednaai ; tha aecoiid gives it more in detail. 



216 trNITBB STATES. [1855« 

1. Aggrtgmie ofAmtriean Seemities kM abroad am the 30tft qfJtme, 1653. 





Tolal. 


Held by 
Foreigaers. 


United States stocks, .... 

State stocks, 

113 Cities and Towns, (bonds,) 

347 Counties, (bonds,) .... 

985 Banks, (stocks,) 

75 Insurance Companies, (stocks,) 
244 Railroad Companies, (stocks,) * . 

" (bonds,) • . 
16 Canal and Navigation Companies, (stocks,) 

15 Miscellaneous Companies, (stocks,) t . 
(bonds,)! 
Total, 


$58,205,517 

190,718,221 

79,352,149 

13,928,369 

266,724,955 

12,829,730 

309,893,967 

170,111,552 

a'>,888,918 

22,130,569 

16.425,612 

2,358,323 


$27,000,000 

72,931,507 

16,462,322 

5,000,000 

6,688,996 

378,172 

8,244,025 

43,888,752 

554,900 

1,967,547 

802,720 

265,773 


$1,178,567,882 


$184,184,714 



2. Amount of the Securities of the eeveral States, ^. held in England and 
other Foreign Oomntriee^'June 30, 1853. 



Sute. 


Stata Bonds. 


Ciiy, TowD, 

and 
Coiipty Bonds. 


Bank 

Capital. 


Capital in 
Insurance 


Railroad Stock 
and Bonds. 


Maine, 


None. 




$48,500 




$510,000 


New Hampshire, 


None. 




100 




196,700 


Vermont, 


None. 




16,145 




« 


Massachusetts, 


$4,000,000 


$4,000,000 


438,150 


$3,000 


5,105,496 


Rhode Island, 


None. 




7,000 






Connecticut, 


None. 




23,500 




140,000 


New York, 


6,758,700 


4,109,372 


1,774,995 


192,352 


2'?!?'22S 


New Jersey, 


None. 


350,000 


2,750 




3,541,750 


Pennsjivania, 


26,584,671 


1,201,500 


167,420 


101,020 


12,076,526 


Delaware, 


None. 










Maryland, 


8,537,917 




323,426 




^'5S'222 


Virginia, 


3,075,909 


125,000 


26,000 




626,032 


North Carolina, 


Not known. 








835,779 


South Carolina, 


937,777 




165,925 




1,914,444 


Georgia, 


72,000 


35,018 


55,550 




69,100 


Florida, 


None. 










Alabama, 


4,397,666 


442,866 


604,100 


81,800 


500,000 


Louisiana, 


8,000,000 


4,000,000 


2,548,400 




74,000 


Arkansas, 


Not known. 










Mississippi, 


Not known. 








P55^. 


Tennessee, 


Not known. 


15,000 


341,500 




48,000 


Kentucky, 


Not known. 


1,036,000 


!^?SS 




200,000 


Missouri, 


40,000 




40,300 






Illinois, 


Not known. 


75,000 






2,016,500 


Indiana, 


2,570,960 


50,000 






1,708,466 


Ohio, 


7,750,000 


5,707,000 






3,637,884 


Michigan, 


Not known. 








1,314,000 


Wisconsin, 


None. 








600!000 


Iowa, 


None. 










Texas, 


195,907 










California, 












Dist of Columbia, 
Total, 


Not known. 




25,015 




$43,169,777) 


$72,931,507 


$21,462,322 


$6,688,996 


$378,172 



* This includes an estimate for twenty-tm> companies from wtwm no returns were received. 

t Tiiase miscellaneous companies, if they are meant to include " all other " corporations, 
are entirely incomplete. In Massachusetts there had been incorporated up to June, 18^ 
1, 115 companies, with a capiul of 1296,397,996, ezcloslre of bsakiof, laraiaacs, sod laii* 
tmd charters. 



1855.] FINENESS AND VALUE OF CERTAIN FOREIGN COINS. 217 

XXVI. FINENESS AND VALUE OF CERTAIN FOREIGN COINS. 

Br the acts of Congress of January 25, 1834, and of March 3, 1843, the 
director of the mint was required to ascertain and report to the Secretaiy 
of the Treasury upon the fineness and ralue of certain foreign coins. Un- 
der the requisitions of the provisions of those acts, he made a report to the 
Secretary under date of January 28, 1854, which report on the 1st of March 
was sent to the House of Representatiyes, and is published as House Doc- 
ument No. 68. The report is giren below : — 

** I submit the following report of the fineness and value of certain forv 
eign gold and silver coins, as required by the acts of Congress of January 
25, 1834, and March 3, 1843 ; said coins being therein made a legal tender 
upon certain conditions, which are contingent upon this report. 

**Gold Coins, — The law provides that ' gold coins of Great Britain, not 
less than 915^ thousandths fine, shall be received at 94.6 cents per penny- 
weight.' In a long series of years, and operating at times upon large quan- 
tities of such coin, we have not been able to find a higher average result 
than 915}, and it was upon this basb that the enactment was framed. But 
under the present management of the British mint, and of its assay depart- 
ment, beginning fairly with the year 1852, there is an upward tendency 
more strictly conforming with the legal standard of 916}. The assay of a 
few pieces of 1852 and 1853 (the course of trade preventing the receipt of 
large quantities here) gives an average of 916},- and the consequent rate 
would be 94.7 cents per pennyweight. But it will evidently require a large 
emission at this rate to make a perceptible improvement in any promiscuous 
parcel ; and some years must elapse befbre the rate fixed by Congress can 
be elevated. 

** The gold coins of France are made current at 92.9 cents per penny- 
weight, provided their fineness be not less than 899 thousandths. Their 
legal standard is 900 ; but the actual fineness, down to 1852 inclusive, can- 
not be rated higher than 899. 

** Gold coins of Spain, Mexico, and Colombia, ' of the fineness of 20 
carats, 3^ carat grains,* equal to 869.14 thousandths, are receivable at 89.9 
cents per pennyweight. While occasionally parcels have been found to 
be of this fineness, or slightly above it, they are frequently not higher than 
866, and would, therefore, appear to be thrown out by the terms of the law. 
Moreover) the gold coins of New Granada, which is a part of Colombia, 
have been minted since 1849 at the new legal rate of 900 thousandths, and, 
upon repeated trials, are found to average 894. But it is very rare to find 
any longer in circulation a gold coin of Spain, Mexico, or Colombia. 

^ The gold coins of Portugal and Brazil, made current upon condition of 
being not less than 22 carats (916} thousandths) fine, are really not higher 
than 914 thousandths ; they are now only known amongst us as curiosities, 
and it is belieyed are scarce even in their own country. 

'^Silver Cains, — The Spanish pillar dollars, and the dollars of Mexico, 
Peru, and Bolivia, pf not less than 897 thousandths fine, and 415 grains in 
weight, and the dollars of Chili and Central America, and those restamped 
19 



»18 



UZaTED STATES. 



[1855. 



in Brazil, of not less fineness than * ten oances fifteen pennyweights in the 
pound,' (895.8 thousandths,) and 415 grains in weight, are receivable at one 
hundred cents each. The present average fineness and ralue of these 
coins, as appearing in our circulation, may be stated as in the ensuing table, 
with some doubt as to the item of Central America, whose coinage is very 
irregular. 



DenomlnatioQ. 


Weight. 


FineoeM. 


Value in cants. 


OfbIub. 


Thouaandths. 


Per piece. 


Per ounce. 


Spanish pillar dollars, 
Brazilian restamped doirs. 
Dollar of Mexico, mixed, 
Dollar of Peru, mixed, 
Dollar of Bolivia, 
Dollar of Chili, 
Dollar of Central America, 


412 

412 

4161 

415 

416^ 

4161 

416 


898 
898 

905 
901 
901 
870 


99.7 
99.7 
100.8 
101.1 
101.1 
101.1 
97.5 


116.1 
116.1 
116.2 
117.0 
116.5 
116.5 
112.5 



*^ The five-franc pieces of France, if not less than 900 thousandths fine, 
and 384 grains in weight, are made current at 93 cents. They continue to 
maintain this average to the year 1852, which is the latest date assayed 
here. 

** It is to be noted that the foregoing Taluations of silrer coin are based 
upon the legal rate of the United States, as fixed by the act of 1837. Un- 
der the act of March, 1853, the mint has been and is now paying a premium 
upon these rates to procure silver for coinage ; consequently, the laws mak- 
ing them current may be considered nugatory and obsolete. The same re- 
mark, for other but obvious reasons, may be applied to all the gold coins 
mentioned in this report, except those of Great Britain and France. 

<* I embrace this opportunity to suggest that there is no longer any pro- 
priety or necessity for legalizing the circulation of the coins of other coun- 
tries. In no other nation, except in the case of some colonies, is this mix- 
ture of currencies admitted by law, either on the score of courtesy or con- 
yenience. When these laws as to foreign coins were passed our coinage 
was inconsiderable, but during the last few years the pieces struck, in num- 
ber and value, it is believed, are scarcely inferior to that of any other coun- 
try. The last year more than seventy-six millions of pieces were struck, 
of the value of upwards of sixty-four millions of dollars. If this sugges- 
tion is approved, and the laws which legalize foreign coins be repealed, it 
would be proper, by a standing regulation of the Treasury Department, or 
by legislative enactment, to require an annual assay report upon the weight 
and fineness of such foreign coins as frequently reach our shores, with a 
view to settle and determine their marketable value. Such a report would 
be a judicious substitute for the one now presented." 



INDIVIDUAL STATES. 



I. MAINE. 

Oovermnentfor the Year ending^ the 1st Wednesday in January^ 1855. 

Sftlaty. 
William G. Crosbt, of Belfast, Governor (term expires on 

the first Wednesday in January, 1855), ( 1,500 



Alden Jackson, 
Samuel Cony, 
Albert Tracy, 
George C. Getchell, 
William Bennett, 
Henry M. Harlow, 
William R. Lincoln, 
James Hovey, 
Thomas Jewett, 
Charles A. Lord, 

Luther S. Moore, 
William Trafton, 
Noah Smith, Jr. 
John J. Perry, 



of Augusta, Secretary of Stofe, 900 

of Augusta, Treasurer J 900 

of Bangor, Adjutant- General^ 200 

of North Anson, Land Agent^ 1,000 

of Ellsworth, Warden of State Prison^ 700 

of Augusta, Sup't of Insane Hospital j 800 

of C.Elizabeth, Sup't of State Reform School. 
ofWaldoboro', > „ , ^ 
ofSo. Berwick, 5 ^"»* Commtssumers. 
of Portland, Sup*t of Common Schools^ $ 1,200 
[and travelling expenses, 
of Limerick, President of the Senate^ $ 4 per day. 
of Alfred, Secretary of the Senate, 

of Calais, Speaker of the House^ 4 m cc 

of Oxford, Clerk of the House. 



Councillors. — William Buxton, of North Yarmouth ; Thaddeus Weeks, 
of Jefferson ; Samuel P. Shaw, of Waterville; Horatio H. Johnson, of Bel- 
fast; Theodore C. Woodman, of Bucksport; Charles A. Ererett, of Milo; 
and Gideon Tucker, of Saco. 



JUBICIART. 



Supreme Judicial Court. 
of Portland, Chief Justice^ 

of Norridgewock, Justice^ 
of Portland, «* 



Ether Shepley, 
John S. Tenney, 
Joseph Howard, 

John AppIetoD, of Bangor, 

Richard D. Rice, of Augusta, 

Joshua W. Hathaway, of Bangor, 
Jonas Cutting, of Bangor, 

George Erans, of Gardiner, 

Solyman Heath, of Waterville, 

The State is divided into three Judicial Districts, denominated the 
Western^ Middle^ and Eastern Districts; and for the purpose of hearing and 
determining questions of law and equity, the terms are held for these dis- 



Attomey- General^ 
Reporter of Decisions^ 



1 1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,000 
1,000 



220 MAnnc. [1855. 

tricts, instead of being held, as heretofore, in the several counties. These 
terms are held annually in Portland for the Western, in Augusta for the 
Middle, and in Bangor for the Eastern District. The other cases are tried, 
as heretofore, in the several counties where they are commenced. 

Municipal and PoUee Courts, 
George S. Mulliken, of Augusta; John L. Hodsdon, of Bangor; Jacob 
Smith, of Bath ; Joseph Williamson, Jr., of Belfast ; Henry Orr, of Bruns- 
wick; George W. Dyer, of Calais; William Palmer, of Gardiner; Samuel 
K. Gilman,of Hallowell; John H. Williams, of Portland; and John C. 
Cochran, of Rockland, are Judges at those places respectively. Some are 
paid by salaries, others by fees. 

Probate Courts. 



Gounties. 



Androscoggin 

Aroostook, 

Cumbeiiand, 

Franklin, 

Hancock, 

Kennebec, 

Lincoln, 

Oxford, 

Penobscot. 

Piscataquis, 

Sagadahoc, 

Somerset, 

Waldo, 

Washington, John 

York, • - 



Judges. 



Nahnm Morrill, 
Joel Wellington, 
Joaiah Peirce, 
Samuel Belcher, 
Parker Tuck, 
Daniel WlUiama, 
Arnold Blaney, 
Timothv Ludden, 
Daniel Sanborn, 
Ephraim Packard, 
Dartd Branson, 
David White, 
Nath. H. Hubbard, 
John a Talbot, 
Joseph T. Nye, 



Residences. 



Sal- 
ary. 



Registers. Residences. 



Sal- 

• 300 
165 
960 
150 
400 
700 
650 
400 

> 560 
125 
300 
300 
300 
400 



Auburn 

MonticeUo, 

Oorham, 

Farmington, 

Buksport, 

Augusta, 

Bristol, 

Norway, 

Bangor, 

Blanchard, 

Bath, 

Skowhegan, 

Frankfort, 

B. Machias, 

Steo, 



•aoo 

160 
700 
150 
375 
450 
500 
225 
360 
135 
200 
250 
200 
400 
400 



Stetson L. HiU, 
Z. P. Went worth, 
Aaron B. Holden, 
Benj. Sampson, 
A. F. Drinkwater, 
Joseph Burton, 
Era8tusFoote,Jr. 
Wm. W. Virgin, 
Henry P. Haynes, 
Asa Uetchel, 
A. T. Thompson, 
Benj. Adams, 
Bohan P. Field, 
Wm. B. Smith, 
Francis Bacon, 



Webster, 

Houlton, 

Caaco, 

Farmington, 

EUawoith, 

Augusta, 

Wiscasset, 

Norway, 

Bangor, 

Kilmanock, 

Bath, 

N. Portland, 

Belfiist, 

Machlaa, 

Buxton, 



Clerks of the Judicial Courts. 



Counties. 


Shire towns. 


Clerks. 


Counties. 


Shire towns. 


Clerks. 


Aroostook, 

Cumberland, 

Franklin, 

Hancock, 

Kennebec, 

Lincohi, 

Oxford, 


Iflfllll 


Cyrus Knapp. 
B. L. StaptM. 
Robsrt A. BiM. 
Isaac Tyler. 
Parker W. Perry. 
Wm. M. Stratton. 
E. B. Bowman. 
Blisha Winter. 


Penobscot, 

Piscataquis, 

Sagadahoc, 

Somerset, 

Waldo, 

Washington, 

York, 


Bangor, 

Dover, 

Bath, 

Norridgew'k, 

Belfast, 

Machias, 

Alfred, 


N.Weston. Jr. 
E. Flint. 
George Barron. 
L. Kidder. 
N. Patterson. 
Albert O.Lane. 
J. O. Mclnlire. 



Finances. 

Amount of receipts for the year ending December 31, 1853, ... 8 361,417.57 

Balance on hand, January 1, 1853, 165,448.23 

526,865.80 
Amount of expenditures from January 1, 1863, to December 31, 1853, . 434,361.09 

Balance January 1, 1854, 92,504.71 

To be further reduced by existing appropriations, . . . . . 62,377.59 
Leaving a balance for further wants in the Treasury of, . . • 30,127.12 

Beyond the ordinary demands upon the Treasury, there hare been paid during the year for 
the completion of the Insane Hospital and the Reform School, and for the cash payment to 
Massachttsetu for her lands, as follows, viz.: — Insane Hospital, (24,000; Reform School, 
1 18,000 ; Massachusetts lands, 1 1 12,500.00 ; total, 1 154,500. For the lands there were given 
in addition to the cash, 10 bonds of $25,000 each,' with coupons attached, bearing 5 per cent. 
Interest, and payable 1 each year from 1863 to 1872 inclusive. ' * 



1855.] 



MAINS. 



221 



Principal Iteau of Expenditure, 

. i44,e28.00|Schoolfttnd,No. 19, . . • 14,645^7 
. 4,786.00 " No. 20, . . . 29,429.67 



Paf of the Leglslatare, 

Pay-roll of the Council, . 

Oontiogent fuad of EzecotiTO, . 4,393.80 Indian annuities, 

" ofTreaanrar, . 1,000.00 Penobscot Indiana fund, 

" of Secretary of State, 200.00 Agricultural produeta to Indiana, 

SUariea, 

Qerka in public <riBcea, 

Rolls of accounta, . 

Printing, binding, and stationery, 

Costs in criminal prosecutions, , 



State Prison, .. 
Trustees of Insane Hospital, 
Insane state paupers. 
Deaf, dumb, and Mind, 
School fund, Nos. 16- 18, 



State taxes, 
County taxes, . 
I^and Office, 
Permanent school fund. 
Duties on commissions. 



221.44 

6,003.07 

767.65 

. 27,839.06 MiUtia pensions, .... 2,377.00 

6,680.60 Maine Reports, .... 1,600.00 

12,822.46 Agricultural Societies, . . 2,106J)4 

5,300.00 Furniture and repairs, SUU House, 2,950.00 

26,333.97 Public debt paid, .... 10,000.00 



. 7,121.00 Interest paid, 42,474.21 

707.00Cash 92,604.71 

. 6,357.61 County Taxes, .... 6,632.63 

. 4,032.60 Fuel and lighta, .... 1,200.00 

. 418.92 To certain loads, .... 3,600.00 

Chief Sourcee of Income. 

. 9191,139.19 Bank dividends, .... 1 800.00 

. 5,663.21 Banic tax, 21,708.36 

. 106,017.74 N. E. Boundary reimbursements, 1,861.37 
872.72 Interest on loan, .... 1,802.04 



2,020.00 Miscellaneous items. 



2,969.98 



Public Debt.-^TYM public funded debt of the State January 1, 1854, was 9711,600. 
There are besides funds to the amount of (257,373.93, held in trust by the State, and for 
which the State must provide the payment of interest. There are other liabilities for un- 
paid warranu, &c., to the amount of 963,562.59; total, 91,032,436.52. Resources of the 
Slate at the same date other than lands, % 692,939,90. 

Common Schoole. — The method of supervision of the schools i« again changed. Instead 
of a Commissioner in each county in the State, there is now appointed by the Governor a 
Superintendent of common schools for the State, to hold office for three years. His duty is 
" to devote his time to the improvement of common schools and the promotion of the gen- 
eral intereste of education in the Stete." He is to hold annually in eaph cojtinty a teachers' 
convention, for one week at least, of which he has the charge, and he iai U\ employ suiteUe 
instructors and teachers to assist him therein. To defray the expenses of these conventions 
9 2,000 are to be appropriated annually. 

School Fund. -rTbe permanent school iiind is 9 116,946.96. The amount apportioned for 
the year 1853 was, 944,027.89; being bank tex, 937,063.44, and interest of school fund, 
96,964.45. The number of scholars was 233,736. The amount apportioned since 1833 is 
9660,317.66. The bank tax for the support of schools is one half of one per cent, on their 
capiuL The apportionment is made ratably among towns making returns. Towns are 
obliged by law to raise annually an amount of school money equal to 40 cento for each in- 
habitent. 

Banks. 

Reeourcee. Dec. 31, '53. June 3, '54. 

Specie, 9 1,132,610 $ 1,163,522 

Realestete, 116,842 123,011 

Bills of banks In the Stete, 240,757 388,090 
Foreign bills, 124.733 166,689 

Bal. due from other banks, 1 ,681 ,666 1 ,681 ,637 
Due Banks excepting bal. 11,166,619 12,114,698 

In June, 1854, the banks had 9 806,690 of bills In circulation under five dollars. At the 
last session of the Legislature twelve new banks were incorporated, and the capital stock of 
twenty-one old banks waa Incraaaed. 
19* 



LiabUUiee. Dec. 31^1853. June 3, 1854. 


Capital stock, 95,913,870 


96,393,370 


Circulation, 6,317,750 


4,623.906 


Deposiu, 2,446,470 


3,816,105 


Do. bearing interest, 99,202 


164,625 


Due other banks, 136,880 


161,692 


Netprofite, 448,886 


477,960 



tf% HEW BAMPBHIBS. [1855. 

JfMCMM Bo&pUal, Augmta. Henrj BL Haitow, SaperiDtaiidnt, Theodon C. Allan, Trmm- . 
nnr and SlewanL Nor. aOlh, 1863, then wvre in the Hospital 84 petients, 60 males and 34 
femsles; nceired during the year, 124, 66 males and 59 females, in aU 208. 89 (54 males 
and 35 females) havs been discharged ; of whom 45 (28 males and 17 ftmales) were recoT- 
ared; U (8 males and 6 females) wora Improved; 15 {T males and 8 females) were unim- 
'pCDfed; and 11 males and 4 females died; nmaining, 119, 61 males and 58 females. Of 
those admitted 31 men and 36 ironien are married; 33 men and 15 women are unmarried; 
lis a widower, and 8 are widows. 86 are nnder 30; 63 between 30 and 60; S3 between 60 
and 70, and 4 oTer 70. 

Since opening the Hospital in 1840 thsrs hare tesn 10S3 patienls. 404 of these have re- 
covered ; 190 impiOTed ; 234 wars nnlmproTsd. Of ths 1033, 194 relapsed, and were admit- 
ted a sscood tims; of theee 79 recorersd, 43 improved, 33 did not improTe, 18 died, and 21 
now fsmain. 60 have been admitted the third time ; of these 26 recovend, 2 implored, 7 
did not Impiore, 2 died, and 13 remain. 17 hare been admitted the fourth time ; of theee 
10 racorered, 1 Improred, 3 did not impioTe, 2 died, and I remains. 11 hare. bean admitted 
tiM flilh time ; of these 8 recorersd, 2 Improred, and 1 remains. 6 hare been admitted the 
sixth time ; of these 4 recorered and I improred. 5 hare been admitted the serenth time ; 
of these 2 recorered, 2 Improred, and 1 remains. 2 hare been admitted the eighth time ; of 
these 1 recorered and 1 died. 1 has been admitted the ninth time, and was discharged nn« 
Ifflpfored. 

Receipts from all sources during the year, % 9,94a25 ; expenditures, 9 9,612.86 ; balance of 
leceipu, 9335.39. 

SiaU Prison, Thomaaion, Number of conricts, December 1, 1862, 77; receired up to 
December 1st, 1853, 21 ; discharged during the earoe period, by expiration of sentence, 19, 
and by pardon 6, in all 26, learing 60 in prieon. 45 are committed for larceny, 5 for man- 
slaughtar, I for forgery, and 2 for arson. are employed in the Ilme-quarry, 9 in the smith- 
shop, 28 are shoemakers, 14 are wheelwrights. There is little demand for the labor of tbe 
prieoners. The labor of tiM slioemaken is let at 30 cents per day. The coet of ' ' keeping " 
each conrict is about 11 cents per day. The cost of clothing is $5 per year for each conrict. 
ReceipU for the year, $9,020.13; expenditures, $15,718.00; balance against the Prison, 
$6,697.96. Since July 2, 1824, 1,079 prisonen hare been receired. Of these there hare 
been discharged, by expiration of sentence, 790 ; pardon, 179 ; death, 28 ; escape, 8 ; remoral 
to Insane Hospital, 4 ; writ of error, 1. 

Stole Reform Sehooi,^T^!a ecfaool Is at (3ape Blixabeth, and is under the superinlen* 
deoce of William R. Lincoln. The fint boy was receired Norember 14, 1853 ; from that dsy 
to April 4, 1854, 25 inmates were receired and 1 was discharged. 6 were from Kennebec 
(Tounty ; 11 from Chimberiand ; 4 from Penobscot ; 2 from Oxford ; and 1 each from Hancock 
and York. 91 were committed for larceny ; 3 for breaking and enuring with felonious intent, 
and 1 as a common runaway. 23 were Americans, and 2 foreigners ; aremge age 13^ yean. 
Each boy Is employed six hours of each day at eome mechanical, agricultural, or domestic 
labor. The ferm connected with the school contains 160 acres. 



II. NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



(hwmmtmt for the Year ending on the Ist Wednesday ofJune^ 1855. 

Salary. 
NatbahulB.Bakbii, of Concord, Governor^ 
John L. Hadley, 
Jesse A. Gove, 
Walter Harriman, 
John Sullivan^ 
John Wadleigh, 
J. Ererett Sargent, ofWentworth, Pret. rf dU SmaU, $2^ per day. 



of Concord, 
ofWeare, 
of Concord, 


Governor^ 

DqnUy See. of SUOe^ 
TVionirer, 


$1,000 

800 

Fees. 

600 


of Exeter, 
ofMeredith, 


AtUmMy-Gtneral^ 
AdjuUmt'GmMTol^ 


1,400 
400 



iBi District, 


2d 


u 


3d 


u 


4th 


cc 


5tli 


cc 



1855.] NKW HAHFBHIBE. 229 

Francis R. Chase, of Lancaster, Speaker of the House, $2J50 per day. 

George C. Williams, of Lancaster, Clerk of the Senate, Fees. 

E. A. Hibbard, of Meredith, Clerk of the Houee, Fees. 

Amos Hadley, of Concord, State Printer. 

James Goodrich, of Portsmouth, Commissary- GeneraL 

Asa P. Gate, of Northfield, > 

Stephen W. Dearborn, of Exeter, S Railroad Commissioners, 

Benjamin H. Plaisted, of Jefferson, ) 

Geo. F. Starkweather, ofKeene, ^ 

Henry F. Wendell, of Portsmouth, > Bank Commissioners, 

John G. Sinclair, ^ of Bethlehem, ) 

Executive Council, 

Counties. Councillors. 

{ ^^^^^^^""'P' "»^ i Abel Haley, of Tuftonboro'. 

Cheshire and Sullivan, Daniel M. Smith, of Lempster. 
Grafton and Coos, Thomas Merrill, of Enfield. 

Judiciary. 

The Supreme Court consists at present of a chief justice and three asso- 
ciate justices. At the session ol the Legislature in June, 1851, provision was 
made for appointing four circuit justices of the Common Pleas. Two only 
are appointed now. If a vacancy, other than in the office of the chief jus- 
tice, occurs in the Superior Court, it is not to be filled, but an additional cir- 
cuit justice of the Common Pleas is to be appointed, until the whole number 
of four is filled up, and after that the Superior Court will consist of the chief 
justice and two associate justices, any two of whom will be a quorum. 
Two terms of the Superior Court are held annually at Concord, on the 2d 
Tuesdays of July and December, for the hearing and determining of ques- 
tions of law and petitions for divorce, ft^m alt the counties in the State. 
This court is also vested with chancery powers. At the trial of capital 
cases two justices of the Superior Court, or one justice of the Superior 
Court and one circuit justice, are required to be present. 

The judges of the Superior Court of Judicature are, ex officio, judges of 
the Court of Common Pleas. This court, before whom all actions for the 
recovery of debts, enforcement of contracts, &c., and all jury trials are 
brought, consists of one of the justices of the Superior Court, or one of the 
circuit justices of the Court of Common Pleas, and of the two county jus- 
tioes, who are generally appointed from among the yeomanry, whose prin- 
cipal duty it is to attend to the ordinary business of the county, expenses, 
Ac, Terms of the Common Pleas are held semiannually in each county. 
Grafton County is divided into two judicial districts, and terms are held 
semiaDDoally, in each district. 



224 



NEW HAHP0HIBB. 



[1855. 



Superior Court, 

Appointad. Salary. 

ofCharlestown, Chief Justice^ 1848 $1,400 

of Bath, Jlssodate Justice^ 1840 1,200 

of Gilmanton, " 1849 1,200 

of Manchester, « 1849 1,200 

of Concord, Reporter^ 1852 400 

Circuit Justices of the Court of Common Pleas, 

Charles R. Morrison, of Haverhill, 1851 1,200 

Josiah Minot, of Concord, 1852 1,200 

Chas-W. Woodman, of Dover, 1854 1,200 

Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, 



John J. Gilchrist, 
Andrew S. Woods, 
Ira A. Eastman, 
Samuel D. Bell, 
William L. Foster, 



Counties. 


Justices. 


Residence. 


Salary. 


Rockingham, 

Strafford, 

Belknap, 

Carroll, 

Merrimack, 

Hillsborough, 

Cheshire, 

Sullivan, 

Grafton, 

Coos, 


( John Scammon, 

I James H.Butler, 

\ George L. Whitehoose, 

l James H. Edgerly, 

i Thomas Co^well, 

\ Henry Y. Simpson, 

i Thomas Rust, 

i Thomas P. Drake, 

{ Aaron Whittemore, 

} John Woodbury, Jr. 

( Martin Heald, 

( William Parker, 

( Horace Chapin, 

Nathan G. Babbitt, 

Ambrose Cossit, 

Martin Chase, 
5 David C. Churchill, 
I Oscar F. Fowler, 
C Nahum D. Day, 

Robert Ingalls, 


Stratham, 

Nottingham, 

Dover, 

Rochester, 

Gilmanton, 

New Hampton, 

Wolf borough, 

Effingham, 

Pembroke, 

Wilmot, 

Temple, 

Francestown, 

Winchester, 

Westmoreland, 

Claremont, 

Washington, 

Lyme, 

Bristol, 

Stratford, 

Shelburne, 


1 

r 

il 

I 

CO 





Courts of Probate, 




Counties. 


Judges. 


Salary. 


. B«gistera. 


Salaiy. 


Rockingham, 

Strafford, 

Belknap, 

Carroll, 

Merrimack, 

Hillsborough, 

Cheshire, 

Sullivan, 

Grafton, 

Coos, 


Ira St. Clair, 
Hiram R. Roberts, 
Warren Lovell, 
Jonathan T. Chase, 
Horace Chase, 
William C. Clarke, 
Larkin Baker, 
John L. Putnam, 
Eleazer Martin, 
James W. Weeks, 


$412 
225 
142 
150 
300 
425 
225 
175 
300 
110 


William B. Morrill, 
John H. White, 
O. A. J. Vaughan, 
Sanborn B. Carter, 
William P. Foster, 
George W. Moor, 
Geo. W. Sturtevant, 
Henry G. Carlton, 
N. B. Felton, 
John W. Barney, 


$550 
300 
183 
200 
400 
575 
300 
225 
400 
135 



FiNANOSS. 

[From Treasurer's Report, June 1, 1854.] 
Chief Sources of Income. 
Railroad tax for 1853, . . $61,590.36|MisceUaQeou8, 
Civil commissions (fees), . . 301.0ol ^ 
Stale tax for 1863, and prerious years, 09,997.661 ^^ receipts, 



. 6,859.19 
. 8138,751.11 



1855.] NEW HAMPSHIRE. 225 

Principai Items of Expenditure. 



Salaries, Ezecmire, Judiciary, &c. $24,787.48 



Legislature, 21,340.7D N. H. Reports 3,703.44 



Education of blind, . . . $460.00 



Railroad tax dir'ds paid to towns, . 31,11 

State debt and interest, . . 9,619.82 

Legislatire resolres, . . . 6,241.412 

Miscellaneous account, . . 2,949.70 



State printers, .... 6,881.14 

Publishing laws 1,108.70 

N. H. Asylum for indigent insane, 2,004.02 
American Asylum, — Education of 
deaf and dumb, .... 1,858.34 

Total expenditures for the year ending June 1, 1854, 1 110,614.38 

Total receipts for the same period, 138,751.11 

Balance in the Treasury, June 1, 1854, $ 23,136.73 

State of the Treaaury, June 1, 1864. 

Total indebtedness, June 1, 1854, 1171,424.60 

Deduct arailable funds, viz. Cash in Treasury and Taxes outstanding, . . 30,429.21 

Amount of indebtedness above arailable funds, 1 40,995.39 

Banks.— Tm condition of the banks, on the first Monday in June, 1854, was as follows: 
~ Capital actually paid in, 13,415,000; real estate, 943,518.47; debta due the banks, 
$6,681,917.87; specie, $176,081.75; bills of other banks, $ 105,716.20; deposita, $902,879.49; 
deposits in other banks for the redemption of bills, $629,459.27; circulation, $3,011,190.00. 
The whole number of banks in the State is thirty<two. There were also sixteen savings 
banks ; deposits, $ 3,222,261.52 ; total means, $ 3,348,326.9a 

Common Schools. 
The present school law is In the eighth year of its existence. At the June session (1850) 
of the Legislature, the office of School Commissioner was abolished, and County School Com- 
missioners were created, to constitute the Board of Education. The Commissioners are, — 



Rockingham.— H. Webster, of Portsmouth. 
Strafford.— Thos. J. Greenwood, of Dover. 
Belknap.— Slug & Hall, of Meredith, Secre- 



Hillsborough.— J. M.Campbell, of Manchester. 
Cheshire.— Harvey Carleton, of Chesterfield. 
Sullivan. — Geo. H. Hubbard, of Washington, 



Carroll. —Benj. M. Mason, of Wolfborough. 
Merrimack. —George S. Barnes, of Concord. 



tary. Grailra. — John S. Woodman, of Hanover, 



Chairman. 
Coos. — D. W. Bowe, of Lancaster. 



The returns for the years ending May 20, 1852, May 24, 1853, and May 1854, give the 
following statistics, to wit : — 

Whole number of school districts reported, . 
Number of scholars above 4 years of age attending school 

no4 less than two weeks, 

Number of scholars in the winter schools, 

Average attendance in the winter schools, . 

Number of scholars io the summer schools, . 

Average attendance in the summer schools. 

Average length of the winter schools in weeks, . 

Average length of the summer schools in weeks. 

Average monthly wages of male teachers, exclusive of 

board, 

Average monthly wages of female teachers, exclusive 

ofbowd, 

Number of male teachers empbyed in the winter schools. 
Number of female teachers employed iu the winter 

schools, 1,060 1,062 1,127 

Amount of money raised by taxes for the schools, $ 150,527.76 $ 163,106.44 $ 166,973.88 
Amount contributed in board and fuel, . . . 14,233.36 14,482.09 12,376.68 
Income of local funds, 8,669.67 8,684.07 10,319.53 



1852. 


1853. 


1854. 


2,284 


2,310 


2,294 


84,900 


90,297 


88,026 


71,232 


69,666 


69,071 


65,770 


64,606 


64,091 


58,805 


67,193 


68,071 


44,664 


44,607 


45,862 


9.11 


9.5 




9.20 


9.8 




$ 16.18 


$16.68 


$16.42 


$6.63 


$6.99 


$7.18 


1,205 


1,166 


1,168 



226 VEBMOKT. [1855. 

1852. 1853. 1854. 

Amoant of literary fund, •13,005.00 f 15,630.00 •16,435.79 

Amouat raised fur tlie Teachers' lastitnte, about . . 4,050.00 

Wliole amount railed for the district schools during 

the year 189,925.79 905,402.60 212,324.00 

Increase abore the preyioQS year, .... 10,860.33 15,476.81 6,921.40 

In 1854 there were 2,669 children between 4 and 14 years of age not attending school any- 
where ,- 42S between 14 and 21 who can neither read nor write, ^^ere were 70 school-houses 
built during the year. The number of incorporated academies is 46; 923,494.30 are paid 
for tuition in academies and private schools. 

State Prison, Concord^ for the year ending May 31, 1854.— Gideon Webster, Warden, 
salary • 800 ; Bar. Eleazer Smith, Chaplain ; William Prescott, M. D., Physician. Whole 
number of conrtcts in prison, June 1, 1853, 100. Receired since, 28. Whole number, 137. 
There have been discharged during the year, by expiration of sentence, 13 ; by pardons, 13 ; 
death, 6; = 32. Leaving in prison, May 31, 1854, 106. Of those remaining in prison, 101 
are males, and 4 are females. 36 convicts are employed in the cabinet shop; 32 in the shoe 
shop; 21 in the machine shop; the 4 females are employed in sewing. The expenditures 
for the year were 1 6,794.63 ; the receipts and earnings were 910,156.26; excess of expen- 
ses over income, • 3,361.63. The prison library consists of about 770 volumes. 

Netc Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, Concord, ^ Joha E. Tyler, Superintendent. 
Since the opening of the asylum, in 1843, there have been admitted, to June 1, 1854, 1,199 
patients ; 161 now remain in the institution. Of these, 77 are males and 84 females. The 
number of patienU admitted during the past year was 141, 72 males and 69 females. 123 
were discharged during the year. Of these, 63 (34 males and 29 females) had recovered ; 24 
(14 males and 10 females) had partially recovered ; 22 (12 males and 10 females) were not re- 
lieved ; and 14 (7 males and 7 females) died. Clauses assigned for the insanity of some of those 
admitted during the year: — ill-health, 28; exposure and excesses, 12; masturbation, 18; 
domestic trouble, 13; pecuniary difficulties, 2; political excitement, 1; intemperance, 12; 
religious, 6. Of the 141 received, all but 16 were residents of the State. Receipts during the 
year, •21,446.31 ; expenses, •20,947.17; excess of receipts, •499.14. 

State R^orm School. — Nothing has been done since last year towards the establishment 
and erection of the school. 



III. VERMONT. 

Oovwmment for tht Year ending October^ 1855. 

Salary. 
Stephen Rotce, of Berkshire, Governor (term endg Oct., 

1855), $750 

Ry land Fletcher, of Cavendish, UBUt.-Gov. fy Pres, Sen,, $4 a d&y 
H. M. Bates, of Northfield, Treasurer, 400 

Daniel P. Thompson, of Montpelier, Secretary of State, 400 

C. H. Hajden, of Rutland, See. Civil and MUttary Affairs, 225 

William M. Pingrey, of Weathersfiel d, Auditor of Accounts, 500 

Joseph H. Barrett, of Middlebury, Secretary of the Senate, 250 

George W. Grandey, of Vergennes, Speaker of the House, $4 a day. 
James M. Slade, of Middlebury, Clerk of the House, '700 

F. F. Hovey, of Montpelier, State Librarian, 125 

Hiram Harlow, of Windsor, Superintendent of State Prison, 500 

L. S. Partridge, of Norwich, Adjutant and Jnsp.- General, 150 

P. D. Bradford, of Randolph, Commissioner of the Insane. 

Daniel Roberts, of Manchester, Bank Commissioner. 

The Senate was established in 1836. The House of Representatiyes is 



1855.] VERMONT. 227 

composed of aboat 230 members, one member from each town. Pay of the 
members of each house, $2.00 a day during the session of the Legislature. 

Judiciary. 
The Supreme Court consists of three judges, and holds its stated sessions 
in each county, once each year, with an additional term, each year, in each 
judicial circuit, at such time and in such county as the court shall direct. 

For the trial of cases in the County Courts (Court of Common Pleas) the 
State is divided into four judicial circuits. The first circuit includes the 
counties of Bennington, Rutland, and Addison ; second circuit, Windham, 
Windsor, and Orange ; third circuit, Chittenden, Franklin, Lamoille, and 
Grand Isle ; fourth circuit, Washington, Caledonia, Orleans, and Essex. 
The County Court is composed of a circuit judge, who is appointed by the 
Legislature, and two assistant judges, in each county, who are elected by the 
people. The salary of each judge of the Supreme Court and each circuit 
judge is $1,375 per annum, and the assistant judges receive a per diem 
allowance. The salary of the reporter is $ 450. 

The Court'of Chancery has two stated sessions annually, in each county, 
and is always in session, except for the final hearing of a cause. An appeal 
from the decree of the Chancellor lies to the Supreme Court. 

Supreme Court, Salary, 

of Windsor, Chief Judge^ $l,i500 

of Bennington, Associate Judge, 1,500 

ofBurlinffton, «* 1,500 

of Cavendish, Reporter , 450 

County Courts, 

Assistant Judges. 



Isaac F. Redfield, 
Pierrepoint Isham, 
Milo L. Bennett, 
John F. Deane, 



First Circuit. Robert Pierpont, of Rutlaad, 

Circuit Judge. 

Assistant Judges. 

J^"'l/p^i3' fBenningtonCoantr. 
tTL^V^nr**' (K«tl«»JO,unty. 
Ku'teS!'*. |Addi»na,«nty. 
Second Circuit. Abel Underwood, of New- 

bury, Circuit Judge. 

Assistant Judges. 



Augustus Young, 
Preston Taylor, 
Nathan Foster, 
Samuel Pennock, 
Gideon H. Rice, 
Jabez Ladd, 



William Harris, 
Emery Wlieelock, 



( Windham County. 



Third Circuit. Asahel Feck, of Burlington, 



Circuit Judge. 



I Franklin County. 

> Lamoille County. 

> Grand Isle County. 

Fourth Circuit. Luke P. Poland, of St. 

Johnsbury, Circuit Judge. 

Assistant Judges. 

> Caledonia County. 
I Orleans County. 

> Essex County. 



A. W. Burroughs, 
Orra Crosby, 
John D. Harding, 
Sabin Kellum, 
Harrey G. Fry, 
Myron S. Chandler, 



Clerks of the Supreme and County Courts. 



Counties. Clerks. Residence. 

Bennington, Sam. H. Brackmer, Bennington. 

Windham, Royal Tyler, Brattleboro'. 

Fred. W. Hopkins, Rutland. 

Norman Williams, Woodstock. 

George S. Swift, Middlebury. 

Samuel M. Flint, Chelsea. 

David B. Buckley, Burlington. 



Rutland, 

Windsor, 

Addison, 

Orange, 

Chittenden, 



Counties. Clerks. 

Washington, Shubael Wheeler, 

Caledonia, G. A. Burbank, 

Lamoille, Carlos S. Noyes, 

Grand Isle, Gary Whitney, 

Franklin, Jos. H. Brainerd, 

Orleans, Hubbard Hastings, Irasburg. 

Essex, Wm. H. Hartshorn, Guildbr' 



Residence. 
Montpelier. 
Danville. 
Hydepark. 
North Hero. 
St. Albans. 



228 VBBMONT. [1855. 

Common Sehoola. ^ Tha achool fund was abolished in 1845, to pay the State debt. Then 
has been no^ State Saperintendent of achools since 1851; and since that year there have 
been no retams of the conditions of the Schools. The returns for 1861 will bb found in the 
American Almanac for 1864, p. 234. 

State Prison. — Tear ending September 1, 1864. — HInun Harlow, Superintendent, salary 

• 600. Number of convicts, September 1, 1853, 76 ; admitted during the year, 22 ; total, 97 ; 
29 were discharged during the year; 20 by expiration of sentence; 5 by pardon; 4 died; 
leaying in confinement, September 1, 1864, 68. The senricea of the convicts are let out to 
contractors. The contract per-diem charge per convict is two shillings. The income of 
the prison for the year was • 6,687.46. Expenditures, including depreciation of propeity, 

• 7,638.77. Balance of expenditoies over income, • 861.31. 

Vermont Aoyium/or the Inoane, Brattleboro'.^VfWWxm H. Rockwell, M.D., Supei^ 
intendeou Snce the opening of the Asylum, there have been admitted, to August 1, 1854, 
2,229 patienu ; 1,840 have been discharged, and 389 remain in the institution. Of the 1,840 
patients discliarged, 1,018 have recovered, equal to 67 per cent Of those placed at the 
Asylum within six months from the attack, neariy nine tenths have rscoversd. During the 
year ending August 1, 1854, the whole number of patients was 636. Admitted, 163 ; dis- 
clkarged, 146; remaining in the institution, 339. Of those discharged, 80 were cured; 40 
died ; improved, 12 ; not improved, 14. There have been 207 State beneficiaries in the 
Asylum during the year, and 162 remained, August 1, 1854. Income during the year, 

• 44,492.33; expenditures, 45,194.20; balance against the Asylum, • 701.87. There is con- 
nected with the Asylum a library of over 1,200 volumes, and a large number oi newspapen 
and periodicals are taken. 

Terms of Admission. — For the fint six months, 92 per week, and #1.75 afterwards. 
When the insanity is connected with epilepsy or paralysis, $2.50 per week. Patients an 
received from other Statee for $2 per week, or • 100 per year. 

Banko, — FTom Bank Commissiooer'B Report, dated September 12, 1864.— Number of 
banks in the State, 40 ; capital paid in, •3,323,826 ; circulation, 93,989,711. Total liabR- 
ities, • 8,145,614. Notes and bills discounted, 96,264,885 ; deposits in city banks, • 1,031,406 ; 
specie, 9^196,699 ; total resources, • 8,476,222. To every • 100 of circulation there is neariy 

• 26 of deposits in tity banks, and • 4.93 of specie. 

ftk the session of the Legislature of 1851 a General Banking Law was adopted, under which 
three banks, the South Royalton, the Bank of Castleton, and the Bank of Woodstock have 
gone into operation. 

By a joint resolution of the Legislature passed in 1849, savings banks are required to report 
to the Auditor their condition on the first Monday of September in each year. On the first 
Monday in September, 1854, there were 13 savings banks in operation, with deposits to the 
amount of 9895,370.13. The expeores of these 13 banks for the year were 91,879.53. 
The avenge dividend was 5 per cent. 

FiNAircxs 

For Fiteal Year ending Augtut 31, 1854. 
Amount received into the Treasury, including balance of 1863, . . • 165,111.84 

". expended, 152.443.36 

Balance in Treasury, Sept. 1, 1854, • 12,668.48 



Principal Heme o/ Expenditure. 



Expenses of the Legislature, $34,039.32 Elections, 531.15 

Contingent expenses, 9,326.03 Repaid loans and Shfety Fund, 10,e2&M 



Library, 



Executive expenses, <— salaries, 2,376.00 Principal Soureee of JUvenue. 

Miscellaneous, 2,121.92 In Treasury, Sept. 1, 1863, • 3^009.93 



Sedaries of Judges, 10,788.25 

Vermont Reports, 1,400.64 

Other Court expenses, including pros- 
ecution of crime, 55,694.80 
Military expenses, 319.60 
Infirm poor, insane, deaf and dumb, 8,291.41 



Financial disbursemenu, •4,749.73 



Peddlera' license moqey distributed, 2,160.00 



From taxes, 139,386.07 

Safety and School Funds, 2,812.50 

Principal collected on same, 2,097.38 

Bank taxes and Interest, 2,861.15 

State Attorneys, 6,041.65 

Court fees by Cftrks, 5,671.67 



Vgricultunl Societies, Ac, 2,6g{7.2o|Peddlen» license money, 2,219.48 



1855.] 



MASSACHUBBTTa. 



State UabUUUSy 5cpf. 1, 1854. 



Indebted to Safety Fund, • 21 ,041. 19 

" " Safely Fund Loan, 6,000.00 

" " Stale Prison Loan, 5,000.00 

Due towna for U. S. surplus revenue, 

over notes on hand, 4,559.90 

Total, • 30,601.09 

Bmourees, 48,349.15 

Balance in favor of the State, 



To meet which, it has, — 
Balance in the Treasury, 
Taxes not collected. 



S29 



i 12,668.48 
35,680.67 

• 48,349.15 



• 17,748.06 
Taxable Property and Taxation. — Aggregate of Grand List of 1853. 



53,23i polls at 1 2, $ 106,468.00 

Real estate (4,916,131 acres), 61,720,414 44 

Personal estate, over debts owe d, 15,281,283,30 

Total real and personal, • 77,001,697.74 



Polls and one per cent, are, 
Deduct for Fire Companies, 
Balance list for State taxes, 



876,484.97 

1,042.00 

$876,442.97 



IV. MASSACHUSETTS. 

Government for the Year ending the let Wednesday in January, 1856. 

Salary. 
of Boston ) Governor, $3,500 

of Concord, lieutenant- Governor, $4 a day. 
ofWesthampton, 5ec. of ComifumtffealcA, 2,000 
of Plymouth, Treas, and Reeeiver-Gen., 2,000 
of Boston, Auditor, 2,M0 

of Roxbury, 
of Newton, 
of Boston, 



Henbt J. Gardner, 
Simon Brown, 
Ephraim M. Wright, 
Jacob H. Loud, 
Joseph Mitchell, 
Ebene2er W. Stone, 
Ebenezer Bradbury, 
Benjamin Stevens, 
William Tufts, ■ 
George Russell, 
Bamas Sears, 

Charles L. Flint, 
Charles E. Cooke,* 
Otis P. Lord,* 
Charles Calhoun,* 
William Stowe,* 



Lemuel Shaw, 

Charles A. Dewey, 

Theron Metcalf, 

Geo. Tyler. Bigelow, of Boston, 

Benj. F. Thomas, of Worcester, 

Pliny Merrick, 

John H. Clifford, 

Horace Gray, Jr., 

Charges R. Train, 

L. F. Brigham, 



Adj.- Gen. ^ Qtiartermaster, 1,500 

Land Agent, 1,000 

Sergeant at Arms, Housed 1,300 

of Boston, 1st Clerk, Secretary of StaU's Office, 1,300 

of Kingston, Ist Clerk, Treasurer's Office, 1,300 

of Newton, Sec. of Board of Education 

and State Librarian, 1,900 

of Boston, Sec. of Board of Agriculture, 1,500 
of Boston, Preset of the Senate, $ 4 per day. 

of Salem, Speaker of House of Rep. " 

of Boston, Clerk of Senate, $10 per day. 

of Springfield, CUrk of House, ** 

JUDICIART. 

Supreme Judicial Court. 
of Boston, Chief Justice, 

of Northampton, Justice, 
of Boston, 



$3,500 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
fe,500 



of Worcester, «« 

of New Bedford, Attorney- General, 

of Boston, Reporter, $ 300 and proceeds of Reports. 

of Framingham, District AUomey, N. Dist. 1,000 

of New Bedford, «» S. »' 1,000 



* Officers at the session of 1854. 
20 



290 



MA8SACHUBBTTS. 



[1865. 



Alfred A. Abbott, 
Ezra Wilkinson, 
P. E. Aldrich, 
Henry A. Dawes, 
George W. Cooley, 



of Danvers, District AUorwy^ E. District, $ 800 
ofDedham, «' S.E. »' 800 

of Worcester, •• Mid. « 800 

of North Adams, " W. «» 800 

of Boston, Commth AU'y for Co. of Suffolk, 2,000 
The Supreme Court consists of six judges, who hold office during good 
behavior. It has exclusive cognizance of all capital crimes, and exclusive 
chancery jurisdiction, so far as chancery powers are given by statute ; and 
concurrent original jurisdiction of all civil cases, where the amount in dis- 
pute exceeds $600 in Suffolk, and $300 in the other counties. It holds 
law terms in eight of the fourteen counties of the State, and nisi^us terms 
in all the counties. 

Court of Common Pleas. 
of Wayland, Chiff Justice, $ 2,300 

of Stockbridge, Associaie Justice^ 2,100 

of Salem, " 2,100 

of Concord, " 2,100 

of Lenox, " 2,100 

ofPittsfield, " 2,100 

. of Boston, " 2,100 

The Court of Common Pleas is held for the trial of civil cases above 
$20, and, except in Suffolk County, has criminal jurisdiction in all cases 
not capital. In Suffolk, the criminal jurisdiction is surrendered to the Mu- 
nicipal Court. There are seven judges, and frequent terms are held in 
every county. Justices of the peace have a limited criminal jurisdiction, 
and in civil cases under $ 100, with the right of either party in all cases 
over $20 to call in a jury of six ', and a right in all cases of appeal to the 
Common Pleas. In those places, as in Boston, where the justices of the 
Police Court on stated days hold a ** Justices* Court,'* Justices of the peace 
cannot try causes. In Boston, a *' Justices' Court" is held every Saturday. 
The Jurisdiction of these courts is like that of justices of the peace. 

Police Court of Bo$ton, 

Johtt G. Itogers, Abel Cushing, Thos. Russell, Justices, salary, $1,500 each. 

Commissioners of Insolvency, 



Edward Mellen, 
Horatio Byington, 
Jonathan C. Perkins, 
E. Rockwood Hoar, 
Henry W. Bishop, 
George N. Briggs, 
George P. Sanger, 



poantj. 


Commissioner. 


Residence. 


County. Commissioner* 


Residence. 


brmttat^ls 


, Simeon N. Small, 


Yarmouth. 


Middlesex, Isaac S. Morse, 


Lowell. 


1 ** 


Timotliy Reed, 


Barnstable. 


" Joslah Rutier, 


Waltham. 


kfkshWa, 


Charles N.Emerson 


, Great Bar- 


Nantucket, George Cobb, 


Nantucket. 


• 




riflgton. 


Norfolk, Francis Hllliard, 


Bozbury. 


1 If 


Lorenzo H.Gainwell, Pillsaeld. 


S. B. Noyes, 


Canton. 


P . 


Shepherd Thayer, 


Adams. 


Plymouth, J.J. Russell, 


Plymouth. 


Irfrtol, 


Edmund H. Bennett, Taunton. 


" Welcome Young, 


East Bridge- 


1^ 


Joshua C. Stone, 


NewBedford. 




water. 


LfeAilt 


Leavlti Thaxter, 


EdgartowD. 


Suffolk, Charles Deraond, 


Boston. 


BLejr, 


John G. King, 


Salem. 


" John P. Putnam, 


Boston. 


X^i 


N. W. Harmon, 


Lawrence. 


" John M. Williams, 


Boston. 


K^flkll:i, 


Darid Aiken, 


Greenfield. 


Worcester, A. H. Bullock, 


Worcester. 


StitntJ'lt--si^ 


Henry Vose, 


Springfield. 


" C. H. B. Snow, 


Fitchburg. 


HjWiipaUini 


sJthamarF. Conkey, Amherst. 


" Thomas G. Kent, 


Milford. 


• i 


Samuel T.Spaulding, Ware. 


'< Charles Brimblecora, Barre. 


mM^.T 


Asa F. Lawrence, 


Cambridge. 







1855.] MASSACHUSETTS. 231 

These Commissionera hold Courts of Insolyency in their respective coun- 
ties as often as they may deem necessaiy . Salary, — fees not exceed- 
ing the amount of $1,500 each. 

Probate Courts, 



Ck)unties. 


Judges. 


Salary 


Registers. 


Salary. 


Barnstable, 


Nymphas Marston, 


$500 


George Marston, 


$550 


Berkshire, 


Daniel N. Dewey, 


4125 


Henry W. Taft, 


600 


Bristol, 


Oliver Prescott, 


500 


John Dasrgett, 
Richard L. Pease, 


800 


Dukes, 


Thomas G. May hew, 


150 


175 


Essex, 


N. S. Howe, 


800 


George R. Lord, 


1,500 


Franklin, 


Franklin Ripley, 


300 


Charles Mattoon, 


450 


Hampden, 


Oliver B. Morris, 


350 


Henry Smith, 


600 


Hampshire, 


Ithamar Conkey, 
Samuel P. P. Fay, 


300 


Samuel F. Lyman, 


475 


Middlesex, 


800 


Alfred A. Prescott, 


1,500 


Nantucket, 


Samuel Mitchell, 


200 


George Cobb, 
Jonathan H. Cobb, 


300 


Norfolk, 


Wm. S. Leland, 


600 


800 


Plymouth, 


Aaron Hobart, 


500 


Joseph S. Beal, 
H. M. Willis, 


700 


Suffolk, 


Edward G. Loring, 


900 


9,000 


Worcester, 


Thomas Kinnicutt, 


800 


Charles G. Prentiss, 


1,500 



Finances. 

Received into the Treasury during the year ending December 31st, 1853, on 

• account of ordinary revenue, . .■ . . . . . , |89S;,SS9.33 

Received on all other accounts (including $ 546,800 5 per cent, temporary lo^a, 

borrowed in anticipation of the revenue), I ^aasooo 76 

Total receipts, B2,Ul,iiQ0rJ7 

Addcashonhand, January 1st, 1854, ^6J44.54 

Total means, tM,:i87.4a4 61 

The entire payments during the year on account of ordinary ezpenditures'^erfl s ^?? i^>^ 7U 
On all other accounts, including $446,800 temporary loans repaid, . . 1 ,3 06,59 1 .26 

Total payments, « 2,1^,454 96 

Excess of revenue for 1863, 4,72[;,6a 

Cash on hand, January let, 1854, % '^l,*M%m 

Of this • 13,409.64 is on account of ordinary revenue, and $ 189,560.02 qo Acc^mnt of tfM 
school and other funds. 

Principal Items of Expenditure, 1853. SUte Prison, 



Gouncillors, 

Legislature, 

Salaries, . , . . . 

Adj'nt and Q. M. General's Dep't, 

Fuel, &c. for State-House, . 

Repairs of do. 

Furniture for do. • 

&ationery for do. 

State Library, . . . . 

Agent for discharged convicts, 

Coroner's Inquests, 

Arrest of fugitives from justice, 

Asylum, for the Blind, 

^ . " " Deaf and Dumb, . 

Eye and Ear Infirmary, 

State Lunatic Hospital, . 

School for Idiots, 



Bounty to militia, .... 29,098.50iAgricultural Societies, • 



9 6, 104 00 Prevention of counterfeiting, 

105,288.50 Pensions, 

84,996.43 State Reform School, . ' . 
3,350.00 Bank Commissioners, 
1,124.43 Alien and pauper Commissionens, . 
5,836 22 Commissioners for various pur[>4i94;fl, 
l,105.13Sundry Indian tribes, . 
3,429.71 Secret Ballot envelopes, &c,, 

804. 13 Sute printing, .... 
1 ,000.00 Newspapers and advertising^ 
1,962.25 Term reports, . . . . 

859.22 County Treasurers, . 
9,000.00 State paupers, .... 
7,567.41 Interest on temporary loans, 
2,500.00 Interest on Sute Kef. School scrtp, 
3,200.00 •' on Western Railroad icripj 
5,000.00 " on 5 per cent, scrip, 




282 



1CA6SACHUSBTT8. 



[1855. 



LoMM repaid, 
School Fuod, • . 
iDterest on aame, 
Western R. R. sinking fond, 
Conrention of 1853, . 
Indexes and Journals, 
Slate Board of Africulture, 



6M,800.Q0|Attomey for 8iifli>lkX3oimt7, . 4,709.70 

260,268.05 Alien passengers, . . . 31,008.61 

49,872.17 Alien estates, .... 2,515.82 

194,400.00 Hawkers' and peddlers' licenses, . 642 00 

154,184.82 Interest on deposits, . 1,861.82 

6, 1 19.37 Western RaUroad dividends, . 65,000.00 
2,131.63 Temporary loans, . . . 646,800.00 
CiMtflas River and W. Bridge Fund, 7,086.87 School ftind, ... . . 239,669.07 
Enlargement of State House, . 48,361.19 Interest on school fund, . . 49,078.22 
New Lunatic Hospital, . *. . 68,228.45 Scrip lent to railroads, . . 62,600.00 
Sute Almshouse, 91,856.37 Western Railroad stock and loan 

sinking fund, Ax. . . . 196,978.34 
C)^ Sourcf of Income. pj^e per cenu scrip, 1868, . 176,000.00 

Bank tax, •443,34a00 Premiums on ditto, . 4,172.60 

Insurance tax, . . . . 6,082.64 State tax, 1853, . . . 286,605.00 

The debt of Massachusetts, on its own account, was, on the 1st January, 1854, • 1,804,176.00 
Liability of the Commonwealth for scrip loaned to the various railroads, . 6,049,555.56 

Total absolute and contingent debt, 96,853,730.56 

The value of the productive property of the Commonwealth, January 1st, 1854, 
consisting of notes, mortgages, stocks and scrip, the Western Railroad 

sinking fund. School fund, &c •3,965,106.98 

Real esute. Ax., unproductive 2,077,796.07 

Mortgages on the various railroads, 5,049,555.56 

Total property of the Commonwealth, • 11,092,457.61 

Total liabilities, 6,853,730.56 

Excess of resources over liabilities, > 4,238,727.05 

The lands in Maine last year estimated at 9616,000 have been sold, and the proceeds 
(1 616,196.19) have been divided between the School and the Sinking Funds. 

Receipts and Expenditures^ and Kinds of Expenditure^ on Account of ordinary 
Revenue^ from 1834 to 1853 inclusive. 



Year. 
1834 


Receipts. 


Expen- 
ditures. 


Govern- 
ment. 


Education. 


ChariUes. 


Correctional 


InteresU 


• 409,968 


9 36t^,:fi0 


«20t=!,[i]3 


9 9,968 


• 91,350 


• Ar.r4l 


• 7,509 


1835 


447,679 


4^.138 


3I7ja2 


9,382 


94,846 


r-.Ol 


4,517 


1836 


406,626 


^3^1,456 


^^S 


14,528 


88,410 


Ki.-^12 


7,184 


1837 


478,239 


r5in,461 


i;3fi,ii29 


13,365 


93,180 


.--,774 


18,213 


ia3R 


422.233 


4iJiM34 


^.'■,i,r^2 


19,958 


82,400 


]ff.-.,^:05 


25,629 


1839 


413,279 


-1MJ96 


•43^:.m 


31,562 


73,300 


Ji>l,112 


36,622 


1840 


405,742 


'lri7.'43 


'j^'Tjm 


29,961 


69.436 


72,150 


28,473 


1841 


416,970 


;r..K.i)50 


l.:iK-« 


24,922 


82,503 


TtJ87 


39,474 


1842 


433,804 


Xv,736 


M",:i78 


16,171 


73,544 


: M.I 69 


45,576 


1843 


381,568 


n:o,:«6 


l<;ii.l37 


9,965 


80,200 


<i?,.-34 


66,229 


1844 


394,099 


■unm 


I01.-.J5 


17,773 


97,115 


7:^,:i49 


71,689 


1846 


605,647 


i IG. t43 


irr.MQ 


16,787 


90,681 


'J\.'40 


59,894 


1846 


602,025 


3^J,125 


VJh'JAT 


10,667 


86,642 


7J.1S6 


64,643 


1847 


600,332 


4r,s,756 


iK>l,3!^ 


10,818 


94.132 


ii:..;®3 


64,086 


1848 


508,395 


514. C75 


2.in,r)ir 


7,454 


118,035 


]:K[80 


64,969 


1849 


490,901 


£>4iG.H04 


2a:^,sa3 


6,634 


138,083 


1-^7.-217 


62,337 


1850 


492,811 


rH;(j.((56 


a 1 7,500 


7,500 
7,805 


161,000 


i-i.rioo 


68,066 


1861 


666,432 


i\U,]05 


311H.836 


145,169 


n.\lf32 


64,364 


1852 


698,170 


C>7\ra2 


2n:>.io4 


10,500 


147,261 


lfL-^.112 


72,346 


1863 


882,289 


^77,r«4 


4^7,rii7 


11,300 


148,906 


l^itt>,l46 


81,196 


• 9,657,112 


09,915,069 


$4,686,305 


• 286,010 


• 2,066,143 


• 1,983,680 


• 902,923 



InatittUionsfor Savings in 185a — In the 60 institutions that made returns, there were 
117,405 depositors, and •23,416,392.73 deposits securely invested ; seven millions in mort- 
gages, and the rest in stocks and loans. The average dividend for the year was a fraction 
over 4.78 per cent. The average annual per cent, of dividends of the last five years is a 



1855.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



238 



fraction orer 6.09 per cent. The whole expense of managing these 60 Sarings Banks was 
f 59,071.27. 

Iruuranee Abstract /or 1853. —Number of stock offices, 34, 19 of which are in Boston. 
Capital, 96,690,100. In United States stocks and Treasury-notes, $31,239.38. Bank stocks 
in Massachusetts, • 4,533,285.02. State Stock, • 151,920;00. Loans on bottomry and respon- 
dentia, 8 30,500. Real estate, •358,555 30. Mortgages on do., $ 1,166,341.06. Loans on col- 
lateral and personal security, 8570,514.91 ; loans on personal security only, 8403,597.79. 
Cash, 8 227,718.02. Resenred or continent fund, 8 509,107.87. Railroad stock, 8 628,879 57. 
Losses ascertained and unpaid, 8182.594.78. Estimated losses in addition, 8461,670.00. 
Premium notes, 82,006,968 43, of which 8 438,686.53 are on ifsks that have terminated. 
Notes bad or dotibtful, but not charged to profit and loss, 8 14,364.87. At risk, marine 
864,058,935.11 ; fire) 888,097,881.07. Premiums on fire risks undetermined, 8691,163.3a 
Average annual dividends for 5 preceding years, or since incorporated, 10.9 per cent. (Bos- 
ton offices, 12.35 per cent.) Fire losses paid last year, 8398,563.^ Marine losses do., 
81)911,069.68. In mutual offices, amount insured on marine risks is 8125,684,694,00}; 
on fire risks, 8208,466,456,48; Asseta of mutual offices, other than premium notes, 
8 12,819,036.84 ; losses paid during the year, on marine risks, 842,196,016.77 ; fire risks, 
8420,649 84. There was also insured within the year by foreign companies, over 
825,000,000. 

Banks. — At the last session of the Legislature a law was passed requiring the banks in 
Boston to report weekly their condition to the Secretary of Stata in the particulars in the 
headings of the columns in the tables given below, and that the Secretary should publish 
these reporta weekly. The same act required the same report to t« made monthly by the 
banltB out of Boston. 

Banks in Boston. 



Week enditig. 



IctiH* 



JuJia 



luty 



^lugiut 



10, 

10, 

17, 

^1, 



September 4^ 

^* as; 

October 2, 
•' ? 
** J 6, 
'* 23, 
" 30j 

November R, 



LJpitfll. •oiacauiiL. Bank 



Due Ijfmi 
01 her 



sis # 

30,a^,orjo'48^o,49a a,f5eO,277 

3(^4 ^Bjm^49, 1 m, I7a|aj>2D,75e^ 
30,r4ii;(]!;^)4a 2«,t>99 2,79*J,9I4 

di\ 7^^,;*^2.49 >2aij<)iJ ] % 1 5 1- 1 , ^v " : 

3ft,.s7n,33S '4 9, iiS^, !>l!:i ■.' . -^ ' :■■ , : :a^ 
30, MS, 16949,3)4,737 '/^;}^i i+4[! 

30.906,4GO 5(L335,Sfl6,i,Wl,OI2 

mtij 4.985 w.mi,7^^mjm,^m- 

^\ ,067 S60 Si ,;m'ij439i2,ga?,634 
3 1 sm. 1 85 SI , iW9,5 3 ti '■2.S7'IJ^% 
31 , 1 06,OS95 5 1 ,SS7j(5S>3 '£,S2e,4 12 

3 1 J a).ft35 yi, Kte, I as ' a, -jsi ,491 

31 ,206,075 51 ,7r>9,W)Slli^295, ( 52 



Due la 
miter 
Ba4Lk«' 



e,7lS,J*l3!0,S5|J925 

P '^7,740lf],l?LJ,r4S 

■V v^:^l.^^,[r7,:J/y 



Dep[?9ite. 



Circula- 
Llon< 



3L4feijOao 
3lf&l3,ns(| 

3L775,fifiO 
32,037,060 
33,031,260 
m, 110^50 



t^,\7b,f^2JSi\JiWf\ 
49 JOe,(XM 2.7a!0,6?S 
50,099,406 3,Q&^, 359 
50,417.090 3.3 12, S5Si 
fi0,9B7,242 3,399,2!^. 
5l,lS3,7ia3,42a,69S' 



^,m%\m}%7WbA7l\ 

T,r:'.:''- '\:i3,e3iii| 

K.' ■•. . "■ ■ ■i".<J,57(j 

d J,s;^,nir> 6.;tf7*6(Je| 
&J 79,1130 ,5, litij^ES 
&,^(M,a53'6,mm5 
9^370,327 6,756,'^ 
9j^,a49l6,*f95.4l7 
e^7et,5Ma [8,017,152 
8,977,444 !G/Mri,tHfi9 



■I":.' .-■■..■h. 

13,7351,605: 

I2,fl7a»m3! 
1:5,15^.1732 
VA.,m7.,H^, 
11^304,7601 
13,367,561 
I3,m477| 
13,132,571 

:i2,4&l,:l-,7 
11,903,930 
12,201^,235 
12,816,^01 
13,7&|,J*713 
114,062,923 
H, 245,487 
14,Jin>,9g9 



9 

■3,277,019 

■ -^1,337 

-j:r>'^,a65 

^,662,122 
^5,54 1, 494 

7,350,255 
H!a07,liWr 
&,1S4,82S 

7,97S,«Sa 

7HtJlJ.n 7f>j 

'> ! 

"im.;itiri 
9,385^ 

Sj2iaj«] 

9JH9,r 

8.8ie,r 

S,713,1 

a56fi»i 

S,53f»JI1 



} .- 



Banks out 0/ Boston. 



"Week ending. 



1354, 
Joly U 

Auj^it S, 
S^pietnbar % 

*' 30, 



Capital. 



Loans and 
DiACOUiitsi. 



I,7W4T 



22,6fi9,1 
2:1,312,1 
2:J45r*3,^37 
22,6l3,aiK40, 
24,814,797 "" 



t 

,ff77m^ 

;T50|42,^W0 5SS 

""i,&6i,goO| 
4 3,344,5 — 



Specif' in 



* 
906,5C0 

929,598 
903,591 
961,402 



Uuo from 
oLhcr 
Banim 



1,^1,912 
'!,»*9,6£f 

1,1^,011 
4^3!jfl,3l I 



Due ta 
Plher 
Badlcs. 



DspnaliA 



4&*,138 5,4SL10G 
4?aSll3 5,4|9,3?S 
4I2,0CKJ ,5,047,773 
450,215 5,315,332 
4S^,lfl7 5,052,^827 



(Jircul 1- 



iG.oe?! 

15,9SJ 
15,37^ 
10, 



30' 



234 MASSACHUSETTS. [1856. 

achooUfor 1863.— The towns xaise by tazatioo for the rapport of achoole, i 963,631.25. 
Aggregate expended for wages, fuel, and superintendence, • 1,072.310.36. Number of children 
in the State from 6 to 15 years old, 201,705. Number that attend school under 5 yeus, 
17,514; orer 15 years, 22,362. Number of public schools in the State, 4,113. Numberof male 
teachers, 2,068. No. of female teachers, 5,007. No. of scholars in summer schools, 187,022. 
No. in winter schools, 202,031. Average attendance in summer, 140,482 ; in winter, 165,716. 
Ratio of attendance to whole number of diildren betwem 5 and 15, .72. Average length 
of the schools, 7^ months. Average wages per month, inclusive of board, paid to male 
teachers, #37. Do. to female teachers, 915.41. Amount of School Fund, December 3l8t, 
1853, • 1 ,244,28105. From\hi8 fund about 1 45,000 is distributed annually among tlie towns 
for the support of schools. There are 64 incorporated academies in the State, with 4,062 
pupils, and an aggregate of 74,283.86 paid for tuition; also, 763 unincarporated academies, 
private schools, &c., with 18,362 scholare, and an aggregate of $ 219,036.78 paid for tuition. 
Amount expended on public and private schools, &e., exclusive of coet of repairing and 
eVBCting school edifices, • 1,387,559.37. There were in 1850 local funds for the support of 
academies, Ac. to the amount of about $360,000, yielding an income of about $20,006. 
The value of the public school-houses in the State in 1848 was $2,750,000, of which 
$2,200,000 had been expended since 1633. There are four Normal Schools supported by the 
State, at an annual cost of about $ 11,000, —one at Westfield, one at Framingfaam, one at 
Bridgewater, and one at Salem, for girls, —averaging annually, in all, 260 pupils. 

The Board of Education consists of the Governor and Lieutenant-Goyernor, and eight 
membera, one being appointsd each year by theOovemor and council for eight years. There 
Is a secretary to the board, who has an assistant, and is the executive officer of the board. 
Teachen' institutes hare been held, under the direction of the secretary, for the instruction 
of teachers ; at which Professors Agasaiz, Ouyot, Mason, and othera have acted as instruct- 
on ; and teachen' associations are held, independently of the institutes. Two agents are 
emfrioyed by the board to visit each town In the State, to gather all information as te the 
condition and necessities of the schools, school-houses, kc. Provision is made by law for 
the education and training young men to be principal teachen in the high schools in the 
commonwealth, by establishing 48 State scholanhips in the colleges of the State, and paying 
$ 100 dollare annually to each. 

Sttae Lunatic HoapUcU, Worcester, — George Chandler, M.D., Superintendent. Number 
of patients, December let, 1852, 532, — 264 males, 268 females; admitted during the year, 
288, — 136 males, 162 females ; remaining in the Hospital, November 30th, 1863, 620, — 266 
males, 254 females. Of those admitted during the year, 241 (113 males, 128 females) 
were commitied by the courts ; 47 (23 males, 24 females) by overseen of the poor ; private 
boarden none. 106 foreignen (i. e. penona having no legal residence in the State), of whom 
37 were males and 69 females, were admitted. 216 foreignen (101 males, 122 females) re- 
mained In the Hospital at the end of the year. 300 patients (133 males, 167 females) were 
discharged during the year ; of whom 146 were recovered, 36 improved, 41 incurable and 
harmless, 37 Incurebleand dangerous, and 41 died. Number of State paupers in the Hospi- 
tal at the end of the year, 216. Receipts during the year, $ 63,988.38 ; balance of cash, De- 
cember 1st, 1862, $22,780.13; total, $76,768.51. Expenditures, $ 53,636.66. Leaving bal- 
ance to new account, $ 23, 1 31 .85. 

Slette Prison. -^Jefteaon Bancroft, Warden; Rev. Henry E. Hempstead, Chaplain ; Wil- 
liam B. Morris, M.D., Physician. The number of prisonen, October Ist, 1862, was 483; 
169 were received during the year ending 30th September, 1863, and 161 were discharged. 
Number of prisonen, 30th September, 1863, 491. Of those discharged, 119 were from expi- 
ration, and 20 from remission of sentence; 2 by pardon; 6 by insanity ; and 4 died. Of 
those in prison, 407 were committed for offences against property, and 84 for ofiences 
against the pereon. 174 are natives of Massachusetts, 148 of other States, and 169 are 
foreignen. There are 62 second-comen, 15 third-comen, 7 fourth-comen, and 1 is a sixth- 
comer. There are 26 negroes, and 11 mulattoes. Average number of convicts for the year, 
484. Of those in prison, 3 are 15 yean of age ; 66 between 16 and 20 ; 149 from 20 to 25 ; 
111 from 25 to 30; 92 from 30 to 40; 40 from 40 to 50; 25 from 50 to 60; 5 from 60 to 70. 



1855.] MASSACHUSSTTS. 285 

• 100 are appropriated each year to parehase booka for the priaon library, which now 
ttumbers 820 volumes. The ordinary expenses have been 81,882.45, and the receipts 
1 63,51 1 .43 ; deficit of recei pts to meet expenses, $ 18,371.02. 

State Reform School, Westborough, — Henry W. Cushman, Superintendent. Boys in the 
school, Dec. 1st, 1852, 311 ; received since, 299 ; discharged during the year, 255 ; remaining, 
November 30th, 1853, 385. Of those committed the past year, 3 were 7 years old, 10 were 
8, 15 were 9, 32 were 10, 24 were 11, 37 were 12, 35 were 13, 47 were 14,. and 50 were 16. 
90 were committed for larceny, 102 for stubbornness, 14 as Idle and disorderly, 16 for 
vagrancy, 3 for shopbreaking and stealing, 5 for assault, 4 as runaways, 16 for shopbreaking 
with intent to steal, 1 as common drunkard, 4 for malicious nflschief, and 2 ibr burglary. 
196 were committed during minority, 1 for 8 years, 16 for 3 years, and the remainder for 
shorter periods. 2c^were received from Bristol county, 10 from Berkshire, 1 from Dukes, 
55 from Essex, 1 from Franklin, 25 from Hampden, 4 from Hampshire, 41 from Middlesex, 
23 from Norfolk, 4 from Plymouth, 47 from Sufiblk, 26 from Worcester. 215 were bom in 
the United States, and 47 in foreign countries. All the boys are employed during a portion 
of the day at some mechanical, agricultural, or domestic labor. They do the washing, 
ironing, and cooking, and make and mend their own clothes. Each day, 4 hours are de- 
voted to school, 6 to labor, 8^ to sleep, and 5^ to recreation and miscellaneous duties. ISO 
acres of land were originally purchased, and since that time an adjoining farm has been 
added. A new wing was added to the building in 1853. The school can accommodate 550 
inmates, and is now (1854) full. The expenses of the institution for the year were $36,887.60. 
The balance in favor of the farm was $447.91. 

School for Idiotic and Feeble-minded Youth. — This school was organized and went into 
operation October 1st, 1848 ; the legislature, after careful preliminary inquiries, instituted 
through a commission appointed for that purpose, having appropriated $2,500 a year for 
three years for its establishment. There were shown to be in 1846-7 about 1,200 idiotic 
persons in the State. The school has been in successful operation since that time. January 
1, 1853, the number of pupils was 37; received during the year, 14; discharged, 9; now 
remaining, 42. 31 are State beneficiaries, and 11 are private pupils. Of those discharged, 
two were much improved. The others were not improved in any considerable degree, and 
were retained only long enough to ascertain that they were not capable of such improvement 
as was to be hoped for in others who were waiting for admission. 

Pauperism in the Year 1853. — The number of persons relieved or suppirir?,] jjr: iwupers 
was 26,414; of whom 8,004 were town paupers, and 14,831 State paupers; oi ih\-?,ii .S^ate 
paupers, 11,874 were foreigners, and of this number 10,014 were natives <\{ Ecif^land and 
Ireland. There were 197 almshouses, with 20,036 acres attached, the w\\r\lti valued at J 
$ 1,307,124. Number relieved in almshouses, 12,251 (the average being J,3[)l), of whom] 
6,365 were unable to labor. Number relieved out of almshouses, 14,398, A I'erage weekly 
cost of each pauper in almshouses, $ 1.109; out of almshouses, $0.93. Net cjtpetjse of sti^ 
porting and relieving paupers, including interest on almshouse establishmenir, 8465j6 
Estimated value of pauper labor in almshouses, 19,679.23. 1,135 foreign paupocs have c 
into the State within the year. 722 insane and 371 idiots were relieved or euppqnod du 
the year. 972 are paupers by reason of insanity or idiocy, and it is probable that 1 
were made paupers by intemperance in themselves or others. There w«re '2/<^-^ jndl^ 
children, under 14 years of age, supported at public charge during the ye&r i'^f^j of wlioisi 
1|537 were males, and 1,093 females. The State has erected three houses, — oiju ui Pulme^ 
one at Tewksbury, and one at Bridgewater, — where the State paupers are now ti^^ 
maintained, and nothing is paid to towns for their support. ** 

Jails and Houses of Correction in 1853. -— Whole number of prisoners, includhig I J ^ 
debtors, 13,927. Of these, 11,625 were males; 2,285 females ; 2,699 minors; 401 co^^red; 
2.901 able to read or write; 50 insane when committed; 1,261 natives of Mn^jachu^tfLt^ ; ^HH 
natives of other States ; 3,142 foreigners; remaining in confinement, Novpieil^^r lai, im3, 
1,405. Average cost of board of each prisoner per week, $1.67. Total uKpt^iii^Ei [nr ih« 
year, $ 89,262.31. Estimated value of labor in Houses of C!orrection, $ 34, 13^1.77. 



236 



RHODE ISLAND. 
Criminal Statistics for the Year 1852. 



[1865. 



Offeacea. 


1 


1 
S 

1 


.2 
2 

< 


i 






S5 


li 


Costa. 


" " not feloniously, 

" ** without ?lolence, 
Other offencM 


83 
497 
241 
851 
1916 


36 
208 
149 
382 
668 


8 
41 

8 
72 
80 


6 
73 
11 
63 
251 


10 
87 
34 
168 
662 


19 
76 

14 

214 


2 

11 
17 
67 


2 
12 

6 

25 

84 


« 6,051 .40 
10,487.73 
6.83160 
22;813.68 
28,587.84 


Total, ..... 


3.688 


1,4481 


209I 


394 


861 


466 


98 128 


#72,772.16 



Births, Marriages, and Deaths, for the Year ending December 31, 1862. — Eleventh 
Registration Report. The number of births during that period was 29,802 ; 15,246 males 
and 14,432 females. Of these births, 10,991 were of foreign parenuge, and the parentage of 
1,666 was not stated. The number of marriages was 11,678. The number of deaths was 
18,482 ; 8,978 males Aid 9,396 females. Their average age was 27.78. An average of ten 
persons have died of consumption each day during the last four years, and twelve a day 
for the year 1852. During the four years 1849-1862 inclusive, 68.29 percent, of the births 
were of American parents; 31.73 of foreign-, and 9.98 of parents whose place of birth was 
unknown. During the same four years there were 3,961 more males than female bom, and 
1,256 more females than males died. Of the marriages during the year, 3,767 were between 
foreigners. In Boston, during the year, the marriages between Americans were 1,161 ; be* 
tween foreigners, 1,488. The Registration gives the following table. 

Influence of Occupation on Longevity. 





Outf ymr.— Fwm Jan, I, ta 


3 veara anfl S mnntba 


, — From 


OccnpaLloM. 


Dae. 3L1^S2 




IVffly 1,lS4au»Dec 


ai, lesa 


NTujtibor. 


AperftE^ie 
Asa 


Age. 
64. 7 G 


Mumtier. 


^'^'^7^\ 


AsfriiLuliuridid, r 


yriH 


KJ.yzti 


6,747 


111,321 


Ei:*.93 


LatioTerif, 


7M 


aaioo 


43.90 


3,739 


I69,a07 


44.99 


MeC'hajiict^ 


l.aeo 


m:33i) 


46 29 


6,521 


29a 669 


4^.95 


TWerchftfiU, . 


SS6^ 


12,544 


4G 81 


i,2ac 


sa,e75 


46.33 


Pauperis, . , * n 


33 


bi,354 


71.36 


220 


1&,293 


eefpj 


im 


6,381 


53 76 


713 


ai.S!^ 


4sia 


Ftiblte liien^ 


122 


^.im 


51 10 


71B 


3-X&33 


mi^ 


Soamfin, 


mi 


12,031 


45X.9 


1.593 


B±3i^ 


12.91 


^ Tumi, . . , , 


iiM7 


ie5.443 


Til 2U 


21.4S4 


IJi>9.Wtk3 




1 Females. . 


110 


4jm 


4i5i 


I'M^ 

















I 



V. RHODE ISLAND. 

Government for the Yeur ending 1st Tuesday in Mayt 1S55. ?a]|iry, 

[LLIAH W. HoPFlZT, of ProvJdence, Gonernfir, $400 

of North Kingston, LietiicMjinf-Go^emoTj 200 

of Providence, See. of SiatCj 1,000 

of Newport, Generaf Treasurer ^ 750 

f Pro vi d e n ce, Miomey- Uenerat^ 1 ,200 

ofCaBlGreenwIch, Comm^r of Public Schools y 800 

of Providence, MajoT-Gr.n. of the Militia. 

of Newport, Speaker of the H&use. 

TIhj Governor^ Lieutenant-Governor, Secrelnry of State, Treasurer, and 

Attorney -General are elected annually on the ]st Wednesday of Aprii, for 

^|i» year commencing the Ut Tuesday of May. The Cora mission er of 



'^oEm J. Reynolds, 
Wn). R, Watson, 
fianincl B. Vernun, 
phri:^topher Robinfon, 
Robi^rt Allyii, 
Amos D. Soiith, 
Henry Y. Cray ton. 



1855.] BHODE ISLAND. 287 

Schools 18 appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the 
* Senate. The Senate consists of the Governor, who presides, the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, and one Senator from each of the thirty-one towns in the 
State. The House of Representatives consists of 72 members. 

Judiciary. 
Supreme Court. .fekdary. 

William R. Staples, of Providence, Chief Justiee^ $1,600 

George A. Brayton, of Warwick, Associate Justice, 1,500 

Alfred Bosworth, of Warren, <' 1,500 

Sylvester G. Sherman, of North Kingston, *( 1,500 

Edwin Metcalf, of Providence, Reporter, 500 

The judges of the Supreme Court hold office until they are removed by 
a resolution passed by both houses, of the Assembly, and voted for by a 
majority of the members elected to each house. By an act passed May, 
1848, the Court of Common Pleas in each of the five counties b hereafter 
to be held by a single judge of the Supreme Court, sitting alone. The as- 
sociate judges of the Supreme Court are to divide this duty among them- 
selves. There are no longer any associate justices elected for each county. 
Clerks of the Supreme and Common Pleas Courts. 



Countiea. 



Newport, 

Providence, 

Washington, 

Bristol, 

Kent, 



Poel-Offic6, 



Newport, 

Providence, 

Kingston, 

Bristol, 

E.Greenwich, 



Clerks of Supreme Court. 



William Gilpin, 
Thomas S. Anthony, 
Powell Helme, 
Massadore T. Bennett, 
Caleb M. Alvord, 



Clprks of Common Fleas. 



William T. Tilley. 
Amasa S. Westcott. 
John G. Clarke, Jr. 
Massadore T. Bennett. 
John C. Brown. 



Sheriffs. 
Newport County, Wm. D. Lake, Newport ; Providence County, Daniel 
K. Chafee, Providence; Washington County, Beriah H. Law ton, Wick- 
ford; Bristol County, Stephen Johnson; Kent County, Philip Arngtd, 
Apponaug. 

Finances ^ 

For the Year ending April 30, 1854. 
Principal Itenu of Expenditure. Chi^ Sources of Income, 



Salariee, 

Senators, . 

Representatives, . 

Expenses of Courts, 

Orders of GoTemor, 

Sute Prison, . 

Orders of General Assembly, 

Public Schools, 

Teachers' Institute, 

Deaf, blind, dumb, and idiots, 

Inrested for Schools, 

Militia, . 

Miscellaneous, 

Balance in Trees., Apdl 30, 1853, 



tl63,3Sd7.00| 



• 7,762.00 Balance on hand last year, 
3,103.00 Peddlers, .... 
6,701.00 Banks, tax on capital, . 

, 15,450.00 " " on increase of Cftjutd^ 
6,869.00 " " on reserved proflti, . 

, 2,500.00 " bonus for new cbartHn, 
29,044.00 hisurance companies, 



4, 700. A 

2.1,615,00 

G59 0O 

6,4.^7.00 

(i.iili^.OO 



1,414.00 From Courts, 5,^'^m 

300.00 Dividend on School Fund, , 
, 1,334.00 Interest of U. S. surplus revenue, 

5,987.00 State tax, 

. 1,855.00 Pawtucket Turnpike, . 
1,023.00 Miscellaneous, .... 
36,979.00 




288 BHODB ISLAND. [1855. 

The United States rarpliu rerenue received bj the State was disposed of thus: — 

Loaned to cities and towns on bond, 9 70,402.60 

Inrested in bank stock, 117,638.67 

Used by State for State Prison and Dorr war, 194,246.88 

Not funded, 48.06 

- Total reeeiTed from the United States, •382,335.23 

The State owes no debt except what it has used of the United States surplus revenue. 

There are about • 40,000 of disputed rerolutionarj claims which are sometimes called the old 

Stale debt. 
Bankt in Rhode Island, September n, 1853. — Number of banks in the State, 77; of 

which 31 were in Providence. Capital, 915,945,896.77. Circulation, • 4,895,529,75. De- 

posiu on interest, • 362,729.14. Deposits not on interest, 2,184,282.58. Dividends unpaid, 

• 64,604,82. Net profits on hand, 9990,965.07. Total liabiUUes, 925,496,643.49. Debts 
due from directors, 9771,377.96; from other stockholders, 9825,000.38; from all others, 

• 21,243,533.09. Specie, 9 359,699.84. Bills of other banks, 9 844,329.36. Deposits in other 
banks, 91,004,863.83. Real estate, 9 264,812.56. Other property, 9 178,026 46. Total re- 
sources, 925,496,643J[9. Amount of bills in circulation under 95, 91,481,663.75. The 
average semiannual dividend of ali the banks was 3.8 + per cent. The increase of capital 
since the last return was 9 1,833,995.77. 

Savinge Banke. — In the 12 institutions for savings, on the first Monday of October, 1853, 
there were : —Depositors. 16,946; amount of deposits, 9 3,299,957.18 ; amount of profiU on 
hand, 9 126,933.97 ; of last dividends, 9 116,286.86. 

Pubiie Schools, —The State has a permanent School Fund, invested in bank stock, of 

961,386.00. By an act passed in 1836, the interest of the State's part of the United States 

surplus revenue (commonly called the Deposit Fund) was set apart for public schools. 

935,000 are annually paid from the State treasury for schools ; and by the act of January, 

1854, 9 16,000 were added to the annual appropriation. By an act pasrad in June, 1848, 

the proceeds of the militia commutation tax in each town are to be applied hereafter to 

the support of public schools. The whole number of school districts in the Sttfte is 379, 

of which 5 are not organized ; 319 of these districu own their school-houses ; in 40 districts 

they STB owned by the town ; and in 29 by proi^etors. There has been expended for school- 

houees during the last nine years, $296,863.50; during the last yeft, • 15,081. No. of 

tcbo\ars, in 1853, 25,905, 14,086 males and 11,819 females; average attendance, 18,696. 

Na of rrjilfl teachers, 278 ; of female, 350. Amount* received from the State, 935,000; 

•stuTtiRt raided by towns, $66,031 ; whole amount from all sources, $ 125,004.70. Expended 

f&r in«itrijciJon, $115,081. Expended for school-houses, 921,901.62. In June, 1851, tte 

licKsl lawa were revised and consolidated, and in many respects much improved. A State 

iorm^t ^hjool was esUblished by the Legislature in May, 1854, on the recommendation of 

R. Potifif, Commissioner of Public Schools. It is at Providence. Dana P. Colbum is 

net pal Teachers' institutes are annually held in different parts of the State, supported 

tho Slate. A copy of the new State map is supplied to each achooi in the State. 

^taie Pnton, Providence. —William Wiilard, Warden ; salary, 9 900. The number of 

^sonefB, Jmuary 1, 1853, was 45; committed to December 31, 1853, 26; whole number 

^ianni? tha year, 71. Discharged by expiration ofeentence, 8 ; by the General Assembly, 14 ; 

(Jtoari njy- in prison, December 31, 1853, 49, all males. The convicts in the State Prison are 

^^inclpfillr employed at cabinet-work ; those in the Providence county jail, in shoe-making. 

"hwi inrome of the prison from January 1, 1853, to December 31, 1853, was 93,764.80; the 

s:rpit!v^£?:^ wiie 94,173.69; excess of expense, 9^06.89. The income from the jail for the 

s^iiH'. |K ri<>d was 9 2,779.93 ; expenses, 9 4,768.36 ; excess of expenses, 9 1,988.43. Number 

• pTfi^rscmH In Providence jail at the suit of the State, December 31, 1853, 55; at the suit of 

H^ chy, a}; debtors, 9; toul, 84. During the year ending December 31, 1853, 260 were 

e»jTnitLi 1 1: l oa sentence, 170 for default of bail, — in all, 430. There were besides committed 

In thii ir.iU u a house of correction, during the same period, 360 pereons, of whom 317 were 

ilKt^Ut. 321 were committed on sentence; 39 in default of balL Whites, 313; colored 



1855.] RHODE ISLAND. 239 

8 : males, 290; females, 31 ; natlyes, 65; fbre'igMTS, 256. The total commltmeots to the 
jail for the year were 1,175 

Butler Hospital for the Insane, Providence, R. I. — Dr. Isaac Ray, Superintendent. On 
the 31st of December, 18S2, there were in the Hospital 142 patients, — 64 males and 78 
females. Admitted during the year, 92, — 45 males and 47 fenudes; whole number during 
the year, 234. Discharged, 98, — 46 males, 52 females ; leaving in the Hospital, December 
31, 1853, 136 patients, —63 males, 73 females. Of those discharged, 44 had recovered ; 27 
wsre improved ; 5 were unimproved ; and 22 died. The disbursements during the year 
were 25,590.35 ; the receipts were 1 28,545.23. The minimum price of board for patients 
is 1 2.25 per week. The Hospital can accommodate about 145 patients. 

The State now makes an appropriation of 1 1,000 per annum to enable the Governor to aid 
the poor insane persons at the Butler Hospital, and it also pays a portion of the expenses of 
such poor insane as the towns may choose to send there. 

Deaf, Dumb, ^c. — The sum appropriated annually to the deaf, dumb, and blind, was in 
January, 1351, increased to 02,000, and idiots were inclpded in its benefits. In June, 1851, 
the sum was further increased to 2,500. The State beneficiaries among the deaf and dumb, 
4 in number, are sent to the American Asylum at Hartford ; those of the blind, 3 in number, 
are sent to the Perkins Institution at South Boston. Four persons (up to January 1, 1853) 
have received the benefits of the State appropriation for idiots and imbeciles, two of whom 
are at South Boston, one at Barre, Mass., and one under the care of Mr. J. B. Richards at 
Philadelphia. 

Providence Reform School. E. M. Cushman, Superintendent. This School was es- 
tablished in 1850, and was opened to receive inmates, Nov. 1, 1850. From that date to 
Oct. 31, 1853, there were committed. 208, — 179 boys, 29 girls. There were in the School, 
Nov. Ist, 1852, 79, — 75 boys and 4 girls ; admitted during the year, 91,— 73 boys and 18 girls. 
Whole number, 170, — 148 boys and 22 girls. Discharged during the year, 66 boys and 10 
girls, and 3 boys escaped. Remaining in the school, Nov. 1, 1853, 101,-89 boys and 12 girls. 
31 were committed for theft; 1 for assault; 11 for vagrancy; 40 for truancy; 2 for safe* 
keeping. 78 were bom in the United States, and of these 55 were from Rhode Island. 7^ 
hours in each day, except Sundays, are devoted to labor ; 6 to school exercises; 2^ to meals 
* and recreation ; 1 to religious exercises ; and 8 lioura to sleep. Their labor has been employed 
in making such articles as are needed in the institution, and in housework. An arrangement 
4s made by the State by which all juvenile delinquents may be sent to this schooL 

Births, Marriages, and Deaths. The first annual report on this subject^ uxidar the ^tty 
Tisions of the Act of January, 1852, is made for the year ending May 31st, IBa3. Foputatton 
of theSute In 1850, 147,549. No. of Births for the registration year, 1^86^,-^2 males!, 
899 females, and 18 unknown. Marriages, whole number, 831. Deatl^i wholti t^ umber, 
1,126, — males, 570 ; females, 545 ; sex unknown, 1 1. The average age at deiiLli of ilm jna\es 
was ^.91 years ; of the females, 28.28 years ; of each individual, 27.41 years. Q(x\\r- hinlm^ 
46 per cent, were of American parentage, nearly 37 per cent, of foreign, and 17 fi«r tciiL of 
unknown. Of the marriages, 65 per cent, were between Americans, 29 per ceriu b(9twcea, 
fi>rei£ners, and 6 per cent between those whose nativities were unknown. Of the itca^ili^i 
70 per cent, was of American nativity, 15 per cent, of foreign, and 15 per conL. at unkn^^wn^ 
Of the causes of death, nearly 21 per cent, died of consumption ; about 7 pqr ceni. or^c4:Lrlt}ir 
fever ; 6 per cent, of dysentery ; 4 per cent, of old age. As regards occupation, agr]cuUiirii?t4 
reached the highest average age, viz., 63.03 years; merchants, 53.23 ^ mecliauiesj 19.Cii^| 
laborers, 42; and professional men the lowest, viz., 40.33. 




240 



OOKNECTICUT. 
VI. CONNECTICUT. 



[1856. 



Govemmtnt for the Year ending on the Ist Wednesday in May^ 1855. 



Henrt Dutton, 
Alexander H. Holley, 
Oliver H. Perry, 
Daniel W. Camp, 
John Dunham, 
Albert Sedgwick, 

John Boyd, 
David B. Booth, 
Green Kendrick, 
Ammi Giddings, 
Francis E. Harrison, 



of New Haven, ' 
of Salisbury, 
of Fairfield, 
of Mlddletown, 
of Norwich, 
of Litchfield, 

of Winchester, 
of Danbury, 
of Waterbury, 
of Plymouth, ; 
of Killingly, ! 



Salary. 

$1,100 

400 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 



Governor^ 
lAeut.- Governor, 
Secretary of State, 
Treasurer, 
Comptroller^ 
CommW of the School Fund^ 1,250 
[and expenses. 
Pres. pro tern, of the Senate. 
Clerk of the Senate. 
Speaker of the House. 

\ Clerks of House of Reps, 



Judiciary. 



$1,300 
1,250 
1,250 
1,250 
1,250 
550 



Supreme and Superior Court. 
Henry M. Waite, of Lyme, Chief Justice, 

William L. Storrs, of Hartford, Associate Justice, 

Joel Hinman, of New Haven, ** 

William W. Ellsworth, of Hartford, " 

David C. Sanford, of New Milford, ** 

William N. Matson, of Hartford, Reporter, 

A term of the Superior Court is held by one judge thee times a year in 
each of the counties of Hartford, New Haven, New London, and Fairfield, 
and semiannually in each other county of the State ; and the Supreme 
Court, ccjii!ithiJtotI ot' the tive judges, mtn^tis Einnimlly in each county. The 
judges of thJi court hoUL iheir oQicea until seventy yearns of Qge. This 
court has jurisdiction in all ceisbs wberij the dnmogeg, or mutter in dis- 
pute, exceed $2I}Q. 

County CoutISm 

Clerlcit. 



Cauntle; 



ew Haven, 

Fftlrfiekl, 

TL-illniid, 



Jmi^fts. 



SamJ. H. Winidrulf: 
Slflph^fi W. Kellogs. 
John D. Park- 
William T. Minor, 
Daniel P. Tylerj 
hfifEitn Oinidwrin^ 
Cliartes Wliitilofjey, 



AltJirfie)'a, 



Jnnailian Sic^djirti, 
Jolio T. Wnii. 
Wi[li;im F. Taylnr^ 
F[iiyJeric lloveyj 
Gulcnn Hull, 

John H^ Brock way^ 



Wail N. Rawlqr, 
Alfred H.Tflrrrs 
JohnT. wait, 
Anios S, TiKjai, 
Uriel Fuller, 
K&mTy B. Grave?, 
A. E. C^Eef, 



Roaridenice. 



HanfbnJ. 

New Hamm. 

N&rwkh- 

Bridgeport. 

Bmokifn* 

Litfhfteld. 



A County Court is hnld by t>ne jiJdgc throe times each year, in the sev- 
Gifal countieiS- The judges of this court iire appointed annualJy by the \^tg- 
filature, and hold ofTice for one year frum the 4th of July of the year of 
Ihoir wppointmeiit. Tliey have juriadiction ui all tuvil actions where the 
jimnagea, or mattt^r in dispute, exceed ^50. In ciWl cases, an appeal lit^s 
in ixW cases from the County to the Superior Court, where the inatter in 
dispute exceeds the sum of ^300. The clerks of Iho County Courts are 
tlltcsviso i;lcrka cif the JSuperiar and Supreme Courta of Lheir Te»pcetire 



r 



1855.] 



CONNECTICUT. 
Finances for 1853-54. 



Items of Expenditure. 
Debenture and contingent expenses 

of General Assembly, . . •32,S09.21 
Salaries ofExecutive and Judiciary, 13,500.00 
Contingent expenses of government, 44,579. 1 7 
Judicial expenses, . . . 44,035.51 
Expense ofsupporting State paupers, 2,200.00 
" superintendence of com- 
mon schools, .... 3,652.63 
Salarj of directors of State Prison, 300.00 
QuartermasterGeneral's Department, 1,781.22 



Public buildings and institutions. 
Other payments, . 



Ut 



$11,238.26 

275.98 

$ 154,071.98 



Chi^ Sources of Income. 
Balance of last year, . . . $64,675.94 

From taxes and other sources, 1 13,433. 1 1 
avails of courts, . • 1,729.72 
forfeited bonds, ace., . . 2,816.34 
dividends on bank stock, . 37,646.00 



1210,301.11 
Total receipts for year ending March 31 , 1854, including balance of preceding year, 210,301 . 1 1 

Total expenditures during same period, . . 154,071.98 

Balance in Treasury, March 31, 1854, . . . #56,2:^.13 

The permanent fund of the Sute, April 1, 1854, consisting of bank stock not transferable, 
or subscriptions to the stock of certain banks which may be withdrawn on giving six months' 
notice, amounted to $ 406,000.00. 

Common School Statistics for the Year ending March 31, 1852. — Number of towns, 
148; of school societies, 217; of school dislricts, 1,642; of children between four and six- 
teen, 96,382; attending school in winter, 74,100; average attendance, 55,100. Winter 
schools were kept in 1,530 districts. Number of teachers in winter, male, 1,060, female, 
730. Summer schools were kept in 1,410 districts. Number of teachers in summer, 
male, 670, female, 1,020. There were in the winter 403 private schools of all grades, with 
8,100 scholars. Average monthly compensation of teachers in winter, exclusive of board, 
males, $18.50, females, $8.20; in summer, males, $22, females, $7.50. Of the teach- 
ers, 220 had at least 10 years' experience ; 430, 5 years' ; 500, 3 years' ; 670 less than one 
year's. 45 schools were broken up from the incompetency of the teachers. $ 73,000 were 
expended in building and repairing school-houses during the year. But one town appro- 
priated any portion of its annual tax to common schools. The amount of dividends from 
the schooKund for the year was $ 143,693.69 ; which gives $ 1.35 to every en n minuted c\\M. 
The school fund in September, 1853, amounted to $2,046,785.19. The LefielaiuTie, ai ilia 
session of 1849, appropriated $ 10,000 for the establishBQent of a State Norvml ScFioot, "for ! 
the training of teachers in the art of instructing and governing the common schoo]! of th« 1 
State." This institution is at New Britain, and is placed under the control tjf ei^'M lru»l 
tees, appointed by the General Assembly, one from each county, and a State nftpixiprfaiinn of 
$4,000 is made annually for its support. The principal of the Normal ScIkk^I, Henry Gh.t^ 
nard, of Hartford, is, ex officio. Superintendent of Common Schools, an oflice herein fnrft at* 
tached to that of Commissioner of the School Fund. The associate princl^l, John D. Ftilt 
brick, has the immediate charge of the school. The number of pupils ia IlinhiK! lo 220 la 
any one term, to be selected one from each school society. Tuition free. The rtuniber i 
pupils in the school since its opening, May 15, 1850, is 681, who have since been em^il^iyei 
in the several school districts of the State. There have been 15 graduates fmm the ichool. 
During the past year there have been in attendance 243 pupils ; 84 males and 159 fentfiteif. 
The expenditure for the year was about $ 4,000. Schools or conventions for tmi ai fig le^ hen 
have been held in each county, generally by the Superintendent of Schools, assbled by the 
teachers of the Normal School. 

State Reform School. ^ At the session of the Assembly in 1851, a State Refonn StihooX wa^ 
established, "for the instruction, employment, and reformation of juvenile oflftntlara*'; Itii 
government to be vested in a board of eight trustees, appointed by the Senate, une fmin each 
county in the State. Boys under the age of 16 years, convicted of offences now punisliAliia 
by imprisonment, may, at the discretion of the court, be sent to this school, ''to Ui krpL. dja- 
ciplined, instructed, employed, and governed, under the direction of the board of miptees/^ 
until they shall either be reformed and discharged, or bound out to service by tliv tmili»», ot 
21 



ut 



CaNNECTICUT. 



[1855. 



remanded to priaon ae incorrigible. The sum of $10,000 was appropriated from the State 
treasurj for the establishment of the school, and a like sum was contributed by individuals. 
It has been located in Meriden. 161f acres of land were purchased at an expense of $ 15,696. 
The buildings were so far completed that the institution was opened March 1, 1854. The 
Superintendent is Philemon Hoadley. Up to May 24, 1853, 28 pupils had been received. 
The building is designed to accommodate 300 pupils. 

Birtha, Marriages, and Deatha. — kn act providing for the registration of births, mar- 
riages, and deaths was passed by the General Assembly in 1848. This act was repealed in 
1852, by a new law upon the subject, but no returns were required until January, 1854. The 
following uUe gives a summary of the registration for the year 1853. 



Counties. 


e 

io 

1 


Births. 


Marriages. 


Deaths. , 


1 


qS 


1 


1 


II 

li 


X 




a 
s . 

1 




1 


(2 


1 


^ 


Hartford, 


69,987 


875 


920 


24 


1,819 


483 


61 


23 


34 


601 


524 


518 


40 


1,0R2 


New Haven, 


65,588 


1,131 


1,051 


34 


2,216 


714 


27 


8 


86 


835 


740 


696 


z 


1,463 


New London, 


5I,S2I 


a»9 


.305 


34 


698 


340 


28 


52 


2 


422 


251 


242 


V 


533 


Fairfield, 


59,775 


620 


541 


29 


1,190 


337 


36 


5 


4 


382 


452 


423 


51 


926 


Windham, 


3I,0S1 


313 


274 


16 


633 


175 


28 


32 


3 


238 


193 


194 


8 


395 


Litchfield, 


45,263 


367 


357 


54 


778 


196 


22 


15 


1 


234 


246 


278 


54 


678 


Middlesex, 


27,216 


269 


264 


28 


561 


230 


15 


1 


4 


250 


163 


151 


17 


331 


Tolland, 


20,091 


211 


189 


7 


407 


141 


19 


6 


8 


174 


138 


137 


13 


288 


Total, 


370,792 


4,175 


3,901 


226 


8,302 


2,616 


236 


14? 


142 


3,136 


2,707 


2,638 1251 


5,596 




Retreat for the Insane, Har\ford. — John S. Bu^pr, M. D., Physician and Superintend- 
ent. The whole number of patients, April 1, 1852, was 181, of whom 88 were males and 93 
females ; 140, 66 males and 74 females, were admitted in the course of the year ; making 321 
in all, 154 of whom were males, and 167 females. 151 were discharged during the year, 
leaving in the Retreat, April 1, 1853, 170 ; 80 of whom were males, and 90 females. Of the 
151 patients discharged, 64 were recovered, 40 improved, 26 not improved, and 21 died. 
Tlia wlii't^ Tiuiuber admitted, from the opening of the institution, in 1824, to April 1, 1853, is 
3,453. 2,2^ bara been discharged ; of whom 1,267 have recovered, 778 have improved, and 
343 hare died. Of the 66 males admitted during the past year, 21 were fiurmers ; and of the 
74 feniiilK), £^l were engaged in domestic occupations. The expenditures of the institution 
pt Lhe } ear were • 36,349.29. 

The itircTi^ of admission are, for patients belonging to the State, with the usual accommo- 

LlioiiSj $3 per week; for those belonging to other Sutes, $3.50 per week. Extra ac- 
^tnmod^].jorj3j $ 4 or i 6 per week. For patients belonging to the State, with accommoda- 
^lloria in iha centre building, and a separate attendant, 910 per week; for those belonging 
~'- atbsr StiilflS] $12 per week. No patient is admitted for a shorter term than three 

^nLhs, an^f payment for that term only must be made in advance. For admission, apply 

thfr Suporintendent. 

\ American Aiylutnfor the Deaf and Dumb, Hartford. —Lewis Weld, A.M., Principal. 
'Tlie nuniber of pupils for the year ending May 1, 1853, was 200; of whom 116 were males, 
ind SI Ttf m.ilea. Of these, 14 were supported by friends, 37 by the State of Maine, 15 by 
Jiew HanjjJHliire, 22 by Vermont, 74 by Massachusetts, 6 by Rhode Island, 29 by CJonnecti- 
fi'Ol, anfl Z iyy the asylum. The cost for each pupil, for board, washing, fuel, tuition, and 
i(icLJent:x[ expenses of the school-room, is • 100 per annum. In sickness, the necessary 
charp^ aro made. Payment must be made six months in advance, and a satisfactory 
JJj&nd for pi:i]LMual payment will be required. Applicants for admission must be between 8 

" as yoard of age, of good natural intellect, capable of forming and joining letters with a 
^n legibly and correctly, of good morals, and free from any contagious disease. Applica- 
tion* for the benefit of the legislative appropriations in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massa- 



•i 



1866.] NEW YORK. 248 

choaetts should be nude to the Secretaries of those States respectirely, statini? the name and 
age of the proposed beneficiary, and the circumstances of his parent or guardian. In the 
State of Rhode Island they should be made to the commissionera of the funds for the educa- 
tion of the deaf and dumb, and in Vermont and Connecticut, to the Governor. In all cases, 
a certificate from two or more of the selectmen, magistrates, or other respectable inhabit- 
ants of the township or place to which the applicant belongs, should accompany the appli- 
cation. The tjme of admission is the close of the summer vacation, on the third Wednei- 
day of September. 

State Prison, Wetherafidd. —Leonard R. Welles, Warden ; R. Fox, Physician ; Charlea 
C. Burr, Chaplain. The whole number ofxonvicta, April 1, 1853, was 181. During tha 
year ending March 31, 1854, 75 were received, and 65di8charged ; leaving in confinement, 191. 
41 were discharged by expiration of sentence, 9 were pardoned, and 15 have died. Of those 
remaining in prison, 182 are males (145 white, and 37 colored), and 9 are females. Of the 191 
prisoners, 14 were committed for murder, 10 for manslaughter, 11 for arson, 12 for attempt 
to Icill, 55 for burglary, 20 for theft, 9 for horse-stealing, 3 for adultery, 6 for rape, 11 for 
attempt at rape, 4 for passing counterfeit money, 3 for forgery. 23 were under 20 yeara of 
age, and 7 were over 60 ; 90 were between 20 and 30. 25 are under a life sentence. 95 are 
natives of the Sute, 36 are foreigners, and the nativity of 4 is unlcnown. The males are 
employed in maldng cabinet-work, cutlery, and shoes; and the females in washing, cooking, 
making and mending clothing, and binding boot«. By an act of 1852, the labor of 20 con- 
victs was let out for five yeara at 45 cents each per day, to be employed in the manufacture 
of school apparatus, and to be paid for in the same apparatus. There is a library belonging 
to the prison of about 1,000 volumes, which are circulated among the prisonen every week. 
Instruction in the rudiments of learning is also given them. There is a Sunday school con- 
nected with the prison. The receipts for the year were •18,268.39; the expenditures, 
1 14,085.85. 



VII. NEW YORK. 
Govemnuntfor the Year 1855. 



Salary, 

Mtron H. Clark, of OntarioCo., Gorenwr (term ends Dec. 31 , 1856), $ 4,000 
Henry J. Raymond, of New York, Lieutenant' Governor^ $ 6 a day. 

Elias W. Leavenworth, of Syracuse, Secretary of State^ 2,500 

James M. Coolc, of Ballston, Comptroller^ 2,500 

^ Elbridge G. Spaulding, of Bufialo, Treasurer, 1,5a0 

Ogden Hofiinan, of New York, Attorney- General, 2^000 

, Leonard Lathrop, of New York, Deputy Attorney- Gcnsrafj 1,200 

John T. Clark, of Albany, State Engineer and SttrttyoTf 2,500 

Isaac Vanderpoel, of Albany, Adjutant- General, 1^000 

Benjamin J. Bond, of Albany, Inspector- General, $5 per day. 

Daniel Lee, of New York, Commissary- Genere!, 700 

Elijah Ward, of West Cheaier, Judge- /Idvocate- Gen fral, 150 

Victor M. Rice, of. Albany, Sup' t of Public InsiraKiionf 2,500 

Joseph J. Chambers, of Albany, Dep. Superintendent^ 1^500 

Daniel B. St. John, of Albany, Sup't of Banking Drpartment, 2,500 
Edward Hand, of Albany, Deputy Superintendent ^ 1,500 

Henry Fitzhugh, of Oswego, Canal Commissioner^ 1,700 

Frederic Follett, of Batavia, " " 1,700 

Cornelius Gardinier, of Fulton, «« " 1,700 

Norwood Bowne, of Delaware Co. Inspector of State PHfonft 1 



344 K£W TOBK. [1855. 

Dariuf Clark, of Canton, Inspector of Stale Prisons, $1,600 

Thomas Kirkpatrick, of Albany, " " 1,600 

Wm. J. Corn well, ofUtica, \ ($ 4 a day, and 

Geo. H. Bougbton, ofLockport, ^ Canal Appraisers, I 5 cents a mile 
Andrew H. Calhoun, of Ithaca, ) ( for travel, each. 

Alexander G Johnson, of Albany, Dep. See. of Stale {r Clerk of 

CommWs of the Land- Office, 1,500 
Philip Phelps, of Albany, Dep. Comptroller, 1,500 

Lock wood L. Doty, of Albany, Dep. Treasurer, 1,300 

Marius Schoonmaker, of Albany, Auditor of Canal Department, 1,500 
Henry S. Johnson, of Ithaca, Dep. Sup't of Common Schools, 1,000 

Alfred B. Street, of Albany, Slate Librarian, 600 

Elisha W. Skinner, of Albany, Assist, *' 600 

Henry W. DePuy, of Albany, PrivaU Secretary of Governor, 600 
Legislature. 
The Senate consists of thirty- two members, who are elected for two 
years, one from each senatorial district. The Assembly consists of one 
hundred and twenty-eight members, elected annually. The pay of Sena- 
tors and Representatives is $3 per day for not over 100 days, and $ 1 for 
every 10 miles* travel. 

Judiciary. 
1. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. 
This court is composed of the President of the Senate (who is president 
of the court, and when absent the chief judge of the Court of Appeals pre- 
sides), the Senators, or the major part of them, and the judges of the Court 
of Appeals, or the greater part of them. It is a court of record, and, when 
sumraori«rl, msets at Albany, and has for its clerk and officers the clerk and 
offici^M of the Senate. If the Governor is impeached, the Lieutenant-Gov- 
BTnoT cannot act as a member of the court. Two thirds of the members 
presuat muat concur for conviction. The judgment of the court extends 
only to removals from or disqualifications for office, or both ', the party be- 

^ng Btill Uuble to indictment. 

2. The Court of Appeals. 
,' This court has full power to correct and reverse all proceedings and de- 
kIohs of the Supreme Court, or of the old Supreme Court and Court of 
Chancery. It is composed of eight judges, of whom four are elected (one 
ftvery second year) by the people at large, for eight years, and four selected 
«ach yciir from the justices of the Supreme Court having the shortest time 

,i^ nervc^ These selections are made alternately from the first, third, fiflh, 

^Qd Heveiith, and from the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth judicial dis- 
iJrictR. The judge (of the four chosen at large) whose term first expires 

. itreeidea as cJiief judge. Six judges constitute a quorum. Every cause 
fbiiet bo decided within the year in which it is argued, and, unless re- 
Afgueii, bcjfbre the close of the term afler the argument. Four terms must 
be held e^ich year, and every two years there must be one term in each 
Judicial dietrict. Each judge has a salary of $2,500 per annum. Th« 
court ^r JS54 is thus constituted : — 



1855.] NEW YORK. 245 

Chosen by the People at Large, Term ezpiret. 

Addison Gardiner, of Rochester, Chief Judge, Dec. 31, 1855. 

Hiram Denio, ofUtica, " 1857. 

Alexander S. Johnson, of New York, « 1859. 

Charles H. Ruggles, of Poughkeepsie, «* 1861. 

Selected from the Justices of the Supreme Court to serve until Dee. 31 , 1855. 
Gilbert Dean, of* Poughkeepsie. Schuyler Crippen, of Cooperstown. 

Augustus C. Hand, of Elizabethtown. Richard P.Marvin, of Jamestown. 
Francis Kernan, of Utica, State Reporter. Salary, $ 2,000. 
Benjamin F. Harwood, of Albany, Clerk, Salary, $ 2,000. 
Russell F. Hicks, of Albany, Deputy Clerk, Salary, $ 1,200. 
3. Supreme and Circuit Courts, 
The Supreme Court has general jurisdiction in law and equity, and power 
to review judgments of the County Courts, and of the old Courts of Com- 
mon Pleas. For the election of the justices, t|ie State is divided into eight 
judicial districts, each of which elects four to serve eight years, with an 
annual salary of $ 2,500. In each district one justice goes out of office 
every two years. The justice in each district whose term first expires, and 
who is not a judge of the Court of Appeals, is a presiding justice of the 
court, and the clerks x>f the several counties serve as clerks. At least 
four general terms of the Supreme Court are held in each district every 
year. Every county has each year at least one special term, and two Cir- 
cuit Courts. Any three or more of the jui^tices (including one presiding 
justice) hold the general terms; and any one or more hold the special 
terms, at which are heard all equity cases, and Circuit Courts, which are 
held exclusively for the trial of issues of fact. 

Justices of the Supreme and Circuit Courts, 

Jusiices. Residence. Tarm «xpim& 

Fi/tft DistricL 

Wm. F. Allen, Oswego, Bsc. 31 j 18^. 



Justices. Residence. Term expires. 

First District. 
Henry P. Edwards, New York, Dec. 31, 1855 



Wm. Mitchell, New York, " 


1857. 


James J. Roosevelt, New York, " 


1859. 


Robert H Morris, New York, 




Thomas W. Gierke, New York, " 


• 1861. 


Second Diatnct. 




Gilbert Dean,* Poughkeepsie, " 


1856. 


John W. Brown, Poughkeepsie, " 


1857. 


Selah B. Strong, SeUuket, <' 


1859. 


William Rockwell, Brooklyn, " 


1861. 


Third District. 




Amasa J. Parker, Albany, " 


1855. 


W. B. Wright, MonticeUo, " 


1857. 


Ira Harris, Albany, " 


1859. 


Malbone Watson, CatskiU, 


1861. 


Fourth District. 




Augustus C. Hand, Elizabethtown, " 


1865. 


L. F. Bowen, " 


1857. 


Cornelius L-AUen, Salem, 


1859. 


J0^ James, Ogdensburg, " 


1861. 



Fred. W. Hubbard, Watertown, 


" im. 


Daniel Pratt, Syracuse, 


" 1B59, 


William J. Bacon, Utica, 


" 1S61. 


Sixth DistricL 




Schuyler Crippen, Coopersto wn , 


" ims. 


W. H. Shankland, Ithaca, 


'* 1857. 


Hiram Gray, Elmira, 


'' ]m9. 


Charles Mason, Hamilton, 


" lyei, 


Seventh District. 




Samuel L. Selden, Rochester, 


" 1855, 


Thomas A. John8on,Coming, 


" lEur, 


Theron R. Strong, Palmyra, 


" J8dJJ. 


Henry WeUes, Pennyan, 


" IBSl. 


Eighth District, 




Rich. P. Marvin, Jamestown, 


'^ ]m. 


Levi Bowen, Lockport, 


" imz 


James Mullett, Bufialo, 


" tfim. 


Benjamin F.Greene,Buflklo, 


*' mu 



* Appointed in place of Seward Barculo, deceased. 
21* 



146 VKW TOBK. [1855. . 

4. County or SurrogaUs* Courts. 

When the real estate, or all the defendants, or all tlie parties interested, 
are in the county, the jarisdiction of the County Courts extends to actions 
of debt, assumpsit, and covenant, when the debt or damages claimed are not 
above $2,000 ; to actions fi>r injury to the person or trespass upon property, 
where the damafes are not above $ 500 ; and to replevin suits, where the 
proper^ claimed Is not above $ 1,000. They have equity jurisdiction for 
the foreclosure of mortgages ; for the sale of the real estate of infants; for 
partition of lands ; for admeasurement of dower ; for the satisfaction of 
judgments where above $ 75 is due on an unsatisfied execution ; and for 
the care and custody of lunatics and habitual drunkards. The Surrogates' 
Courts have the ordinary jurisdiction of courts of probate. 
5. Crimmal CourU. 

These are the Courts of Oyer and Terminer and the Court of Sessions. 
The Courts of Oyer and Terminer, in each county, except in the city and 
county of New York, are composed of a justice of the Supreme Court, who 
presides, the county judge, and the two justices of the peace chosen mem- 
bers of the Court of Sessions. The presiding justice and any two of the 
others form a quorum. In the city and county of New York, they are 
composed of a justice of the Supreme Court, who presides, and any two of 
the following officers : judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the city 
and county ; the mayor, recorder, and aldermen of said city. These courts 
are all held at the same time and place at which the Circuit Courts are held. 
Courts of Sessions are composed of the county judge and the two justices 
of the peace designated as members of the Court of Sessions, and are held 
at the same time and place as the County Courts. 

6. Courts ofJfew York City and County, 

Superior Court, 
Judges. SalsTf. Term ezpirBS. Judges. Salary. Term expires. 

JohnSloasen, $4,000 Dec 31, 1866. Wm.W. CampbeU,* $3,500 Dec. 31,1866. 

Thomas J. Oakley, *' " 1857. J. L. Mason, " " 1867. 

Murray Hoffinan, •* " 1869. JohnDuer, " " 1850. 

Robert G. Campbell, Cltrk. A. Oakley Hall, Ditriet Attomey. 

Common Pleas. 
Lewis a Woodruff, $3^0001)00.31,1865. Charles P. Daly, $ 3,000, Dec 31, 1869. 
Daniel P. Ingraham, " " 1857. Robert B. ConoUy, O^ife. 

Alex. W. Bradford, SurrogaU. Salary, $3,000. Term expires Dec 31, 1867. 
John J. Doane, Regitter. * 

Marine Court. 
Albert A. Thompson, Judge. Salary, $3,000. Florence McCarthy, Judge. Salary, $3,000. 
/Alfred A. Phillips, " " 

Recorder. City Judge. 

r James M. Smith, Jr. Salary, $ 3,000. Sidney H. Stewart. Salary, $ 3,600. 

EducaHon. — The amount of capital and annual rerenue of the sereral funds m>propriat- 
ed to the purposes of education, for the year ending September 30, 1863, was as follows: — 



• Judgss Campb^, Mason, and Duer attend only to cases transferred fiom the Sup 
jCour^..,. 



1855.] NEW TOBK. M7 

Capital. Rerenue. 

Common School Fund, $2,383,257.23 1465,888.50 

United Sutea Deposit Fund, 4,014,620.71 256,227.66 

Literature Fund, 269,060.12 53.70103 

• 6,666,868.06 • 776,8i 7.09 
Common Sehooh. — Of the funds devoted to education, what was exclusively the Common 
School Fund in 1853 may be stated as follows :— 

Ftadoctire capital of the Common School Fund, $9,388^7.23 

Amount from United States Deposit Fund which will produce $166,000, 
the sum annually appropriated therefrom, for the support of Common 

Schools, at six per cent, interest, 2,760,000.00 

Amount from same fund which will produce at six per cent. $ 26,000 an- 
nually, that being the sum reserved by the constitution to be added annu* 
aUy to the capital of the School Fund, 416,666.67 

Malcing a total of $6,549,923.93 

The annual interest on this sum, at six per cent., is $332,995. The balance of the in- 
come of the United States Deposit Fund is appropriated to the support of Colleges, Acad- 
emies, the Normal School, Indian Schools, Teachers' Institute, &c. The income of the 
Literature Fund must, by the constitution, be applied to the support of Academies. 

The whole amount of puUic money received from all sources by the Commissioners of 
cities, and town Superintendents, during the year ending July 1, 1863, was $1,623,376.60. 
Apportioned for teachers' wages, $ 1,273,426.49 ; for libraries, $ 49,499.39. Leaving a balance 
ibrcontingentezpense8,&c of $302,450.62. The amount of taxes levied during the year, 
exclusive of the city and county of New York, for purchasing school-houses was $ 33,877.16 ; 
for building do. $203,118.33; for hiring do. $3,760.82; repairing do. $68,141.17; insur- 
ing do. $6,316.84; fuel, $92,248.35; boolcs, apparatus, &c., $8,976.73. The amount paid 
for teachers' wages, besides public money, was $595,336.74. Aggregate expenditures for 
school purposes during the year, $2,469,248.62. 

SUatittica qfthe Common Schools for the Year ending July 1, 1853. Whole nnmbflr of 
districts, the school-houses of which are situated within the town, ll^fM. NumlKf of 
whole districts in the State, 8,78a Number of parts of districts, 6,992. Eqiutpb wem n- 
ceived from 8,665 whole and 6,717 parts of diatricU. Average length ol Bchool!i in all the 
districts, 7.9 months. Volumes in district libraries, 1,604,210. 86G,Qar> chtlrlren were 
taught during the year. 1,160,632 were returned between 4 and 21 years n( a^^ lS!i,7^B 
pupils attended school less than 2 months; 179,407 attended 2 monthi nhU [tw ibani; 
166,458, 4 and less than 6; 119,809, 6 and less than 8; 62,349,8 and len than 10] I I .'. 
10 and leas than 12 ; and 3,265 attended school for 12 months. There are 1 , C^"^ cot^ i ( i \o' 
dren between 4 and 21 in the 28 colored schools reported. $3,745.49 of public mont^y wris 
received on account of colored schools, and, besides pyblic money, $ 1,851^21 w^rc paid for 
teachera' wages. Number of unincorporated, select, and private schoals r(>porie[d in liie 
districts, 1,617. Average number of pupila therein, 36,844. There are, basldcf, »chnol» for 
the instruction of Indian children in the several reservations. —About 260 aueail lYte Noj-mal 
School at Albany annually. In September, 1863, there were 273 pupils m i|]<] erhool, ^ 
males and 188 females. The whole number of graduates is 692,361 malea and ail l^cnnAlc«« 
In this school in 1862-63, 16 Indian youth, 16 males and 1 female, were laugiu to pr^pai^* 
them for teachers among their own people. Nearly every county in the ^le is reiire^iiftiiitdd. 
in this school. The miscellaneous library in 1862 consisted of 769 volumu^ and I '27 jmti* 
phleu ; that of tex^book8 of 6,464 volumes. The expensee of the school fcir iha ycM y^n 
near $ 14,862.73. Mr. Samuel & Woolworth is Principal of the school. 

FlITANCES. 

Debt of the State. The general Amd and railroad debt, at the close of the riical yt^r sod^ 
ing September 30, 1863, was $6,366,664.37; the canal debt was $ 16,501, 2GU.1G: canst reVK- 
a§m certificates under the law of 1861, $ 1,600,000 ; malcing an aggregate ef $ 23.3^/J^.^. 
—on which accrues, annually, nearly $ 1,320,000 interest. There is also a c^milngent dJe^, 



248 NEW YORK. [1855. 

contUting of Suae stock and compiroUer's bonds, of $931 ,644.83, upon which the Sute does 
not pay interest. This will make the total indebtedness of the Sute • 24,288,668.36. 

The propeny of the State, in addition to the educational funds mentioned above, consists 
of the works of internal iroprorement, which, at their cost raluation (i. e. the amount 
expended upon them to 1851), are worth 135,115,237.75. But the whole amount of tolls de- 
rired (h)m them during the year 1851 was $ 3,179,145.7a This is six per cent. Interest upon 
1 52,985.763, which may be taken as the worth of the works of the State. The arerage net 
annual income for the fire years ending SepUmber 30, 1851, is $ 2,518,044^7, which is equal 
to a capital of •41,967,414.60, at six per cenu interest. The amount of debt incurred for 
their construction and yet unpaid, Is as sUted abore, $15,501,209.16, in addition to the 
1 1,500,000 of canal revenue certificates. The taxable property of New York in 1853 was 
1 1,266,666.190, being 1 1,015,762,791, the assessed value of 28,048,845 acres of real estate, 
and •219,720,727 of personal esute. The State and county taxes were •7,969,279.57 ; the 
town taxes, •1,357,484.40. Total taxation, • 9,326,763.97, — making the rate of State, 
county, and town jlaxes, 7.3 mills on a • 1 valuation. The highest rate was 18.1 mills on 
• 1, in Hamilton County ; the lowest, 2.4* mills in Rockland County. 

General Fund, on which are charged the ordinary Espenaea of Government. 

Revenue for the year ending Sept. 30, 1853, •801,139.54 

Expenditures during same period, •1,032,008.97 

Deficiency Sepu 30, 1852, 188,343.53 

1,220,352.50 

Deficiencyofrevenueonhand, September 30, 1853, 419^12.96 

Increaseofdeficiency for year ending, September 30, 1853, .... 230,869.43 
Ordinary expenditures for 1853 exceeded receipts, 230,869.33 

The amount received and expended at the Treasury during the year was as follows : — 

BaUnce, October 1, 1852, •1,499,147 89 

Receipu from all sources from October 1, 1852, to September 30, 1853, . 5.653,323 63 

7,152,471.42 

Payments during same period, 5,911,774.6 7 

Balance, September 30, 1853, • 1,240,696.75 



Chief Sourtfs of Income to General Fund. 
Awtiion duty, . . . • 94,443.14 

I Ball (July ^ 62,159.85 

I of ScCTcttiTy'a office, 
ddlers' Ikunaos, . . . 1,595.00 
91 ^n mfluraiica companies, . 621.48 
plu4 rdveniue of canals, annual 

pfiTuprialiiJii 200,000.00 

Blax, . . . . . 260,864.50 
larLimJ, .... 48,928.40 

ilempLion a( luncl sold for taxes, 6,585.39 
arst of dotiniy taxes, . . 57,730.31 
Ht on tirr^nm of county taxes, 13,674.88 
ktti? Dtparinnjnt, . . 18,770.87 
aJlmeooa rotoi pts, . . 9,710.76 




Prindpat heme of Expenditure. 

miv*, 48,376.41 

Judiciary 101,932.26 

lilnturti, .... 138,844.15 
laeary'a ^Icpartment, . 9,404.06 

mmntal • 978.00 



Fugitives from Justice, . , 2,911.81 

Apprehension of criminals, . . 1,134.95 

Slate Normal School, Indian youth, 1 ,000.00 
4,194.25 Reformation of juvenile delinquents, 29,000.00 

Slate printing, .... 135,363.95 

Deaf and dumb, .... 29,223.08 

Blind 1U51.40 

Agricultural societies, . . . 7,762.00 

Onondaga Salt Springs, . . 24,826.70 

Slate Prisons, .... 101,637.20 

Slate Library, .... 47,050.00 

Postage, 1,862.24 

Hospitals, 24,300 00 

House of Refuge for Western N. Y., 22,000.00 

Orphan Asylums in Slate, . . 35,300.00 

State Lunatic Asylums, . . 23,373.75 

Asylum for idiots, . . . 12,546.73 

Eye and ear infirmary, . 1,000.00 

New York Volunteers, . . 15,062.00 

Geological survey, . . . 13,463 63 

Miscellaneous, .... 69,976.59 



Mii^i^. — TTione were in the State doing business, December 1, 1863, 60 incorporated 
l«Kk», id^ iMiftt Bwociatlons, and 94 individual bankers. 60 banking associations and 8 
4«dl«1%tiiiil bunkera deposited securities and commenced the busiuess of banking during the 



1855.] 



NEW TOBK. 



249 



year. The following statement shows the conditions of these banks, banking associations, 
and indiridual t>ankers, Sept. 17, 1853. Resources. — Loans and discounts, $ 145,767,770 ; 
due from brokers, « 3,900,349 ; real estate, 95,061,745; bonds and mortgages, •6,198,229; 
stocks, $20,787,197; specie, •12,909,249; cash items, $17,654,305; bills of other banks, 
$3,207,^; due from banks $13,042,264. Z.»a6i/t7te8. — Capital, $76,692,075; profits, 
$10,233,894; circulation,— notes not registered, $335,628, — registered, $32,427,022; de- 
positors, $77,167,075; due banks, $28,262,667; due State Treasurer, $1,640^; other 
does, $4,417,283. 

The amount of circulating notes issued to individual bankers and banking associations 
outstanding Dec. 1, 1853, was $23,743,716; to redeem which the Superintendent of the 
Banking Department had securities amounting to $24,886,737.30, made up of bonds and 
mortgages, $ 5,777,577.39 ; New York State stocks, $10,962,172 42; canal rerenue certifi- 
cates, $1,403,500; Illinois State stocks, $646,687.83; Arkansas do. $327,000; Michi- 
gan do. $172,000; United States stocks, $5,339,149.02; cash, $ 253,650.64. The %mount 
of mutilated notes returned to the Bank Department for destruction during the year was 
$ 9,174,924, being an average of more than $ 29,000 for each business day in the year. One^ 
bank (the Farmers' Bank of Onondaga) failed to redeem its circulation. The securities 
held in trust by the superintendent were sold at public sale, converted into cash, and a 
dividend of 85 per cent, was paid to bill holders. The bonds and mortgages were sold at a 
large discount. The bank was not one of discount and deposit, but of mere circulation. 

The New York city banks now make their returns weekly. The following table shows 
their condition since July 1, 1854. 



Week ending 


Loans 
and Discounts. 


Specie. 


Circulation. 


Deposits. 


July . I*, 


$88,608,491 


$11,130,800 


$ 9,068,253 


$71,457,984 


8lh, 


88,347,231 


12,267,318 


9,195,757 


72,n8443 


15ih, 


90,437,004 


15,074,093 


8,837,681 


75,227,333 


22d, ' 


92,011,870 


15,720,309 


8,76«,289 


75,959,082 


29th, 


92,588,579 


15,386,864 


8,756,777 


74,790,656 


Augusu 5th, 


93,723,141 


14,468,981 


9,124,648 


76,378487 


12th, 


93,435.057 


13,522,023 


8,917,179 


74,620,389 


19th, 


92,880,103 
91,447:075 


14,253,972 


8,855,523 


73,^>8 


26th, 


14,395,072 


8,811,369 


73,731 ;i 79 


September 2d. 


91,391,188 


14,714,618 


8,934,632 


n^Gj7^ 


9th, 


91,528,244 


14,446,317 


8,968,707 


7^S3|,235 


16th, 


91,639 782 


14,4S4,2o9 


8,820,609 


74,467,701 


S?' 


92,095,911 


'2'??'2^ 


8,802,623 


7a,93?,4S3 


30th, 


92,102,013 


12,042,244 


8,712,136 


71,795,423 


October 7th, 


91,380,525 


10,630,517 


8,918,492 


70,2S5,filO 


14th, 


88,618,936 


11,130,377 


8,534,188 


69,141,597 


21st, 


87,092,810 


10,320,163 


8,497,556 


65,627,^8(1 


28th, 


84,709,236 


9,826,763 


8,131,933 


65!,79i^,637 


Norember 4th, 


83,369,101 


10,004,686 


8,238.126 


62,229,011 


11th, 


82,717,052 


10,472,538 


8,197,444 


61,662,;^ 



Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Neto York, — Harvey P. Peet^ Frcaident- Kum* 
her of pupils Dec. 31, 1852, 260; lea during the year, 44; admitted, 62; whoFa nLmt^r, 
Dec. 31, 1853, 278. Of these 192 were supported by New York; 16 by ihe cily of New 
York ; 17 by New Jersey ; 33 by their friends ; and 19 by the InstitutioHn Tbe time &r ad- 
mission is the first Wednesday in September; terms, $130 per annum fot each pupil, 
clothing and travelling expenses excepted, to be paid semiannually in advance, and satisfac- 
tory security for punctual payment of bills and clothing, which, if desired, la furnished by 
the Institution at an additional charge of $30 a year. The receipts of the Institution 
from all sources for the year were $44,256.07. Expenditures, including balance iaat y^at^ 
due the treasurer, of $ 5,272.90, $ 47,717.60. Due the treasurer, $ 3,461 .53. 

State Prisons, at Sing Sing, Auburn, and Clinton. —The whole number of con ^ lets in 
these prisons, Dec 1, 1852, was f,837. Received during the year, 685; dl!4:hnrg«d durlt^ 
the year, by expiration of sentence, 412; by death by disease, 40; by escape, 3; tiy panJon, 



sean 



250 NEW YORK. [1855. 

127; to Lanatic Asjluro, 3; by reversal of judgment, 4; tent to House of Refuge, 1 ; in 
all, 592. Remaining in prison, Dec. 1, 1853, 1,952, of whom 10} were females. There were 
tliree birtlis in the female prison during the year. 

The daily average of all the three prisons was 1,916. There were 101 female jponricts 
In Sing Sing at the end of the year. The number of punishments in all the prisons is not 
reported. The punishments were the shower-bath, cropping the hair, confinement in a dark 
cell, yolring, buclcing, and wearing ball and chain. Of the 659 received at Sing Sing and 
Auburn, 265 were for grand larceny, 47 for petit larceny, 131 for burglary, 18 for robbery, 
8 for arson, 42 for forgery, 9 for manslaughter, 9 for rape, 44 for felonious assaults, 6 for 
bigamy, 8 for incest, 18 for counterfeiting, 7 for receiving stolen goods, 8 for carrying 
slung shot. 6 are sentenced for life, 51 for periods between 10 and 20 years, 102 for 5 and 
under 10 years, and the remainder for shorter periods. 5 were under 16 years of age, 145 
between 16 and 20, 23 were over 50. 636 were natives and 303 were foreigners. The average 
cost of each daily ration at Sing Sing is neariy 8.625 cents ; at Auburn, 7.875 cents ; and at 
Clinton, 8.5 cents. At the Auburn prison the receipts were 992,125.56 Expenditures, 
994,753.67. Excess of expenditures, 92,628.11. At Sing Sing the receipts were 9110,553.05. 
Expenditures, 9 120,818.73. Deficiency, 9 10,265.68. At Clinton, receipts, 9 47,847 26. Ex- 
penditures, 9 49,499.00. Excess of expenditures, 9 1 ,651 .74. 

State Lunatic Asylum, Utica. — N. D. Benedict, Superintendent. The number of patients 
at the commencement of the year (Dec. 1, 1852) was425, — 215 males, 210 females; ad- 
mitted during the year, 424, — 251 males, 173 females; whole number treated during the 
year, 849,-466 males, 383 females. Discharged during the year, 403, — 227 males, 176 
females. Remaining Nov. 30, 1853, 446,-239 males, 207 females. Of those discharged, 
169, 95 males and 74 females, were recovered ; 21, 11 males and 10 females, were much im- 
proved ; 45, 26 males and 19 females, were improved ; unimproved, 129, — 76 males, 53 females ; 
died 39, — 19 males, 20 females. Toul admissions since asylum was opened^ July 16, 1843, 
3,923. Discharged, 3,477. Discharged recovered, 1,625; much improved, 55; improved, 
593 ; unimproved, 753 ; died, 446. Of the 424 admitted during the lasjt year, 215 were 
married, 185 single, 10 widowers, and 14 widows. 69 were farmers; 25 farm laborers; 52 
laborers; 11 merchants; 10 carpenters ; 65 housekeepers; 84 employed at housework; 14 
seamstresses. 64 were made insane by intemperance and vice ; 67 by masturbation ; 14 
bf tpifiLqal rappings ; 30 by domestic trouble. The percentage of recoveries on the whole 
Dumtwr nf admissions since the opening of the asylum, is 41.42 per cent., and on the average 
lUinber of patients 40.90 percent. The receipts during the year were 9 114,807.42. Ex- 
irllLurod, 9 112,246.37. Balance in treasury, 9 2,561.05. 

PfiiipfrUm, — Paupers relieved or supported during the year ending Dec. 1, 1853, 130,027 ; 
Warily p,i'ipers, 112,058; town paupers, 10,452; received into poorhouses, 28,129. The 
iiAiWiiy iyf 90,711 is reported: of these 53,198 are males, and 46,513 are females. 66 are 
^ti^nvt p.^rsDhs; 40,329 are natives of the United Sutes ; 40,993 natives of Ireland ; 4,384 
jjf Eiii^lrtml; 1,128 of Scotland; 9,421 of Germany; 774 of France; 1,795 of Canada. The 
foluE E^nor house expenses were 9641,595.57; do. of temporary relief, 9367,793.08; total ex- 
^ 1,009,747.65. Value of labor of paupers, 965,230.76. Expenses of each pauper 

lyond turnings per year, 9 37.86, or .725 cents per week. 

Joini Slack Fire Insurance Companiea. — For the year ending Dec. 31, 1853. Capital, 

||13.30(j,iXV), Loaned on bonds and mortgages, 912,773,084.25. State and United States 

tllackj^, 8 3a.V03.60. Cash, 9965,633.99. Total assets, 9 16,039,338.96. Total liabilities, 

line:] ul) ill',' losses and dividends, unpaid and borrowed money, — the amount at risk is not 

||Tfo^ — *H, 304,475.38. Income, including premiums, 94,720,945.14. Expenditures, in- 

Cbjnri: 3 1,732,072.14, losses, and 9 1,502,273.99, paid dividends, 94,128,279.79. 



1855.] NEW JERSEY. ^51 

VIII. NEW JERSEY. 

GovemmerU for the Year 1855. 

Term expires. Salary. 

Rodman M. Price, of Hoboken, Governor, January, 1856, $1,800 & fees. 
Thomas S. Allison, of Trenton, Secretary of State, 500 &> fees. 

R.M.Smith, of Hightstown, Treamrer, $ 1,000 and fees. 

John H. Phillips, of Pennington, Superintendent of Public Schools, 500 
Wm. C. Alexander, of Mercer Co., Pres. of the Senate, $ 4.00 a day. 
John W.Fennimore, of Burlington, Speaker of the Jissembly, 4.00 a day. 
Samuel A. Allen, of Salem Co., Secretary of the Senate, 3.50 a day. 
David W. Dellicker, of Somerset Co., Clerk of the Assembly ^ 3.50 a day. 

Judiciary. 
Court of Errors and Appeals, 

This court is composed of the Chancellor, the judges of the Supreme 
Court, and six other judges appointed by the Governor, with the consent 
of the Senate, who hold office for six years, one judge vacating his seat 
each year in rotation. The court holds stated terms at Trenton, on the 
second Tuesday in March, and third Tuesday in June and November. 
The Governor, Chancellor, and the six judges of the Court of Errors and 
Appeals, constitute the pardoning power. A major part of them, of whom 
the Governor shall be one, may remit fines and forfeitures, and grant par- 
dons, afler CQUviction, in all cases except impeachment. 

Term expires. 
Caleb H. Valentine, of Warren Co , Judge, 1854. 

John M. Comelison, of Hudson Co., " 1855. 

Joseph L. Risley, of Salem Co., " 1856. 

MoTOs Wills, of Burlington Co., " 1^57, 

Thomas A rrowsmith, of Monmouth Co., " IrtTid. 

John Huyler, of Bergen Co., " J 859. 

Court of Chancery, 

The Chancellor is appointed by the Governor, with the con^ont of i he- 
Senate, for seven years. This court holds three terms annually Ht Trooton, 
on the first Tuesday in February, and third Tuesday in May and Ociobor, 

Term expires. SrJary. 

Benj. Williamson, of Elizabethtown, Chancellor, 1859, $ 1,800 cind fct^s, 
Daniel B. Bodine, of Trenton, Clerk, 1856, Fogs. 

Supreme Court, 

The judges are appointed by the Governor, with the consebt ofiJie Sgw- 
ate, for seven years. This court holds three terms each year at Trcntfm^ 
on the fourth Tuesday in February, and the first Tuesday in Jtitfo eihiI No- 
vember; and the judges of this court hold Circuit Courts j^iul Courts of 
Oyer and Terminer three times a year in each county, excf:pt Uik countleB 
of Atlantic and Cape May, in which only two terms are held. CourtA of 
Common Pleas are held three times a year in each county, liy judges tip- 
pointed by the Legislature for five years, who receive fees, hul no Halnry, 
and the number of whom is limited to five in each county. 



252 



NEW JKR8ET. 



[1855. 



Term expires. Salary. 
of Trenton, Chief Juttice^ 1860, $1,500 and fees. 
ofPateraon, Associate Justice^ 1855, 1,400 and fees, 
of Hamburg, Associate Justice^ 1859, $1,400 and fees, 
of Trenton, " 1859, 1,400 and fees. 

ofBridgeton, ** 1859, 1,400 and fees, 

of SaJem, AUomey- General, 1857, 80 and fees, 
of Trenton, Clerk, 1857, Fees, 

of Trenton, Reporter^ 1858, $200 

FiVANCBS. 

Balance on hand, January 1, 1853, $7,698.98 

Whole amount receired in 1853, 151,877.75 

• 159,576.73 

Whole amount expended, 150.76a48 

BalanceinTreaaury, January 1, 1854, •8,816.25 



Henry W. Green, 
Elias B. D. Ogden, 
Daniel Haines, 
Stacy G. Potts, 
LuciasQ. C. Elmer, 
Rich. P. Thompson, 
William M. Force, 
A. O. Zabriskie, 



Prin. Items of Expenditure to Jan. 1, 1854. 



Support of deaf, dumb, and blind, • 6,4O1.80| CMef Sources of Income to Jan. 1, 1854. 
Salaries of Exscutire and Judiciary, 16,350.00 Transit duties on railroads and ca. 



State Prison, 9,826.07 

Transportation of prisoners and costs, 9,448. 
Legislature. .... 18,955.66 
Court of Errors and Appeals, 



Incidental account. 



$7,819.69 



, •107,173.00 

Diridenda on stock of railroads and 

canals 21,000.00 

3,723.00 Taxes on capital stock, . . 13,159.60 
Interest on bonds of Camden and 

Amboy Railroad, . 
State Prison surplus earnings. 
Peddlers' licenses. 



2,470.83 

6,000.00 

1,325.00 

637.64 



Printing 7,371.05 

Pensions, . . ... . 935.75 

Commissioners lor House of Refuge, 8,847.37 
Managers of Lunatic Asylum, . 8,392.50 
Public Schools, .... 40,000.00 

Library, 876.05 

State Debt, — The whole amount of the absolute debt of the State January 1, 

1^^, WAA, •65,000.00 

Annual I iltere^t upon absolute debt -. 3,900.00 

^The mlul en he productive property owned by the Sute in 1854 was . . 262,174.12 
lie vulue of Lha State property not now productive, consisting of the surplus 

[ re trriitia leal ID the counties without interest, 764,670.60 

liole aniouni of productive School Fund owned by the State, • 384,873.74 
Tliere]<»bsiides unavailable the sum of .... 11,169.85 

Wlule amount of School Fund, . . . . . . •395,043.f9 

Common Schools, Year ending December^ 1853. — Number of townships in the State, 

\^Wt nLiinber af townships making returns, 166; number of districts in those townships, 

1,413; rcTurna received from 1,331. Children between 5 and 18, 161,611 ; children attending 

Vhcion inoni lit, 41,402; 6 months, 39,145; 9 months, 36,143 ; 12 months, 22,771 ; colored 

lildren lau^ht, 2,288 ; whole number of children taught, 97,137. Average length of schools 

^moiithtf, ^ ; average price of tuition per quarter to each pupil, 92.12. Amount raised 

(jQ Buppor; schools, •182,297.28; received from the Stale, • 76,847.55 <, from other 

i 3 4rt/.>'^6.30 ; total amount appropriated or received for school purposes, •325,219.39. 

ncicTiber of teachers, 1,757,-1,129 males and 628 females. Salary of males per 

SI ^f- females, •205. 

^md. — The available school fund, January 1, 1854, was •384,873.74. There is, 
due tha school fund, but unavailable, the sum of •11,169.85. The receipts of the 
urln? I lie joar, including balance of cash, January 1, 1863, were •64,347.74. By the 
I hn CI f 4^1 • 40,000 are appropriated to the use of schools from the school fund, and 
ti.W^OLHj fr>!rj i h«f Slate Treasury, which sum of • 80,000 is apportioned among the counties 
ij|Kni ifiQ Ij^la of population. . 






lalj^la of 



1855.] naaroxLYANiA. 253 

Bonis, Juljf 1, 18531 — ThecB are X banks (6 organited under the geoeral banking law), 
all of which made retaroa. In these banks there was capital, • 4,593,490.25 ; circulation, 
•4,232,800; deposits, $3,821,660.52; due other banks. $441, 1M.96: surplus, $715,183.38; 
discounts and biUs receivable, $10,371,853.72; due from other banks, $790,18267; specie, 
$1,032,788.50; real estate, $254,201.95; bonds and mortgages, stocks, Ac, $715,183.38. 
Arerage dividend, 8.12 per cent. 

A general banking law was passed February 27, 1850. Under its proTisioos, up to 31si 
December, 1864, 15 banking associations hare been organized, and were in operation. Their 
circulation at that date was S 977,682 ; and the city and Sute stocks deposited as securities 
to redeem the same amounted to $979,959. 

Siau ftunatie Ajn/lum, TVenlen. — R A. Buttolph, M. D., Superintendent. The Asy^ 
lorn was opened for the admission of patienU, May 15, 1848, although the building was not 
then entirely completed. January 1, 1853, there were in the Asylum 182 patients (91 males 
and 91 females). Received during the year, 119 (56 males and 63 females); 96 were dis- 
charged ; leaving, January 1, 1854, 205 (93 males and 107 females). There were under treat* 
ment during the year, 301. Of the 96 discharged, 63 (27 males and 26 females) were re- 
covered; 22 (9 males and 13 females) were improved; 4 were stationary; and 17 (10 males 
and 7 females) died. The expenses of the Asylum for the year were $32,836.13. The re- 
ceipts, $ 32,815.61. Excess of receipts, $9.33. Of the receipts, $ 5,070 were appropriated 
by the State. 

Terms. — Board per week, for those supported at public charge, $2; for those supported 
by friends, $ 3 and upwards, according to the nature of the case and their ability to pay. A 
bond is required in the penal sum of $500, to pay all chA^es for board, kc., and also to pay 
Bot exceeding $50 for such damages to the property of the Asylum as may be done by the 
patienL 

Stat9 Prison, TVen/oa — Wm. B. Vanderveer, keeper. Moral instructor, Rev. Sylvanna 
W. Decker. Physician, Dr. John L. Taylor. Number of prisoners, December SI, 1862, 197; 
received during the year, 141 ; total, 338. Discharged during the year, by expiration of 
sentence, 76; by pardon, 40; by death, 5; in all, 121. Remaining in prison, December 
31, 1353, 217; white males, 173, and females, 3; colored males, 38, a»d females, 3. 8 were 
committed for manslaughter, 9 for murder in the second degree, 11 for rape, 4 for forgery, 
11 for burgUiry, 42 for larceny, 42 for violent assaults, and 11 for robbery. 82 wart uativw 
of New Jersey, 23 of New York, 26 of Pennsylvania, and 68 were foreign trs. The loMj?eil 
sentence is for 20. years, and 3 are under that sentence; 1 is a sixth-coifter ; S nre fowrvh- 
comers. Earnings of the prison, $19,132.50; expenses, $15,427.97; Imkiica, t!^JtH.53.^ 
There are 1,090 volumes in the library of the prison, which are distributed pmuog llii 
prisoners once in two weeks. 



IX. PENNSYLVANIA. 

Government for the Year 1855. 

Term expiroiH Ka^arJ 

James Pollock, of Northmnberland Co., Governor, J smuary^ 1658^ §t3,:^00 
Charles A. Blacki of Greene Co., Sec. of State fy Sup. Com. Schools^ 1,700 
E.S.Goodrich, of Bradford Co., Deputy Secretary of Staity l/i< 

John M. Bickel, of Schuylkill Co., State Treasurer, 1,700' 

Ephraim Banks, of Mifflin Co., Auditor-General, 1^(10 

J. Porter Brawley, of Crawford Co., Surveyor^ General, • li'^Ofl 

Thomas J. Rehrer, of Berks Co., Dep'y Surveyor-Ghieral^ ^iQptl^- 

Geo. W. Bowman, of Bedford Co., Adjutant- General, 
Byron D. Hamlin, of M'Kean Co., Speaker of the Senate. 
£. B. Chase, of Susquehana Co., Speaker of the House* 

• A new Speaker will be elected at the meeting in January, ISuS. 
29 



254 FBMKSTLYANIA. [1855. 

Tenn expires. Salny. 
W. Hopkins, Pres., of Washington Co., J January, 1856, \ 

ThoB. H. Forsyth, of Philadelphia Co., > £*"ti '* 1857, ( f^ 

Henry S.Mott, of , J ^'"- « 1858, j"^*^' 

Judiciary. 
By the amended Constitution, all judges are now elected by the people. 
The judges of the Supreme Court are chosen at large, and for a term of 
fifteen years. The one having the shortest term to serve is chief justice. 
The resident judges of the several Courts of Common Pleas and other courts 
of record, and all other judges required to be learned in the law, are elected 
by the electors of the districts over which they are to preside, and for a 
term of ten years. The associate justices of the Common Pleas hold their 
offices for five years. All judges hold office for their term during good be- 
havior. For reasonable cause, though not sufficient grounds for impeach- 
ment, the Governor may remove them upon the address of two thirds of 
each branch of the Legislature. Any vacancy among the judges arising 
from any cause, is filled by appointment by the Governor, the incumbent 
holding office until the first Monday in December succeeding the next sub- 
sequent genera] election. During their continuance in office the judges of 
the Supreme Court must reside within the Commonwealth, and the other 
judges in the district or county for which they were elected. 

The District Courts are invested with the civil jurisdiction of the Com- 
mon Pleas in their respective districts, in all cases exceeding a certain 
amount. 

Supreme Court. 

Term ezpires. Salary. 

Ellis Lewis, of Lancaster, Chirf Justice, Nov. 17, 1857, $ 1,600 

Waller H. Lc^wrie, o^AWef^eny, Associate Justice^ ** 1860, 1,600 

Geo.W>Woodward,ofLuzerneCo., •« " " 1863, 1,600 

JoKn C. Knoi, of Tioga Co., «« «« " 1866, 1,600 

fjer^miaU S. li lack, of Somerset Co., " «« «« 1869, 1,600 

Francis VV. Hughes, of Schuylkill Co., Attorney-General^ 1855, 300 & fees. 
Ijeorije W. Harris, of Daujihin Co., Reporter of Su' 

preme Court Decisions, July, 1855, Fees. 

Efibcrt Tyler^ Prothonotary for the Eastern District, " 

John Coyle, « " Western " «« 

^William H. Miller, «« «« Middle «« « 

^ 3barJe» F. Pleasants, «* *' Northern " " 

District Court for the City and County of Philadelphia, 

pGeorgR SImrswood, President, Dec, 1861, $2,500 

George M. Stroud, Associate^ " 2,500 

I J. J. Clark Hare, " " 2,500 

District Court for the County of Allegheny. 

Mofl^H H=iMipton, President, Dec, 1861, 2,000 

Henry VV, Williams, Associate, " 2,000 

Courts of Common Pleas. 

Fat tha sessions of this court, the State was formerly divided into 24 dis- 

f 



1855.] SUffK0TI.YAiaA. 255 

trids. In 1853, the number of districts was increased to 25. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the judges. 

Districts. President Judges. Salary. 

I.Philadelphia, Oswald Thompson, $2,000 

Associate Judges, Joseph Allison, Wm. D. Kelley, each 2,000 

2. Lancaster, . . • ^ • . Henry D. Long, 1,600 

3. Northampton and Lehigh,* . • . Washington McCartney, 1,600 

4. Tioga, Potter, McKean, and Elk, . . Robert G. White, 1,600 

5. Allegheny, Wm. B. McClare, 2,000 

6. Erie, Crawford, and Warren, . . .J. Galbraith, 1,600 

7. Bucks and Montgomery, . . . Daniel M. Smyser, 1,600 

8. Northumberland, Lycoming, Centre, and 

Clinton, Alexander Jordan, 1,600 

9. Cumberland, Perry, and Juniata, . . James Graham, 1,600 

10. Westmoreland, Indiana, and Armstrong, James M. Burrell, 1,600 

11. Luzerne, Montour, Columbia, and Wy- 

oming, John N.Conyngham, 1,600 

12. Dauphin and Lebanon, .... John J. Pearson, 2,000 

13. Bradford, Susquehanna, and Sullivan, . David Wilmot, 1,600 

14. Washington, Fayette, and Greene, • Samuel A. Gilmore, 1,600 

15. Chester and Delaware, .... Townsend Haines, 1,600 

16. Franklin, Bedford, Somerset, and Fulton, F. K. Kimmell, 1,600 

17. Beaver, Butler, and Lawrence, . . Daniel Agnew, 1,600 

18. Venango, Clarion, Jefferson, Forest, and 

Mercer, John S. McCalmont, 1,600 

19. York and Adams, Robert J. Fisher, 1,600 

20. Mifflin and Union, .... Abrahams. Wilson, 1,600 

21. Schuylkill, Charles W. Hrglns, 1,600 

22. Monroe, Pike, Wayne, and Carbon, . James M. Porter, 1,600 

23. Berks, J. Pringle Jones, 1,600 

24. Huntingdon, Blair, and Cambria, • . George Taylor, l,Gi)0 

25. Centre, Clearfield, and Clinton, . . James Burn&ido, l^GOO 

Finances. 

The debt of the State was, December 1, 1853, as follows : — 

Six per cenL loans, |r>QSjOiir>,47 

Fire per cent, loans, 3^,953,547.811 

Four and a half per cent. loans, 3S8,2(X).00 

Four per cent, loans, 10(1 OOfiOiy 

Total funded debt • 39,999,^ i;]fiG 

The unfunded debt was as follows : — 

Reliefnotes in circulation, $528,3^1.00 

Interest certificates outsunding, 27,160.31 

" " unclaimed, 4,44a. 3S 

Interest on unclaimed and outstanding certificates to be added to 

them when ftmded, 2,079 CO 

Domestic creditors, 4,430,EO 

Total unfunded debt, — — ■ — rm AJG,^ 

TbtalpuUiedebtdueDec. 1,1853 %4li,^m,MM 

Amount in treasury for cancellation of six per cent, state stocks, interest 

e6rtMcat«f,aMJ., __m^mM 



256 PENN8TLVANIA. [1855. 

Ragalar annual interast on Umum, neariy #2,002,629.72 

Add foaranteed interest on internal iroprorement companies, . . . 17.500.00 

Total interest for the jear, ezcluaiTeof that on interest certificates, &c., nearly, • 2,ftW,I2».72 
The prodocUre property owned by the State is : — 

Stoclc in incorporated companies, #1,673,996.62 

Pennsylrania railroads and canals, 32,492,754.14 

Totel productire property ^. . . . #34,166,750.75 

The State has an unavailable deposit in the United Stetes fianlr, of . . #280,000.00 

And depreciated funds in the treasury, unarailable, 41,032.00 

Total receipte during the year ending November 30, 1853, . . . . # 9,486,770.06 

dalance in Treasury, November 30, 1852, 1,382,611.00 

Total available means, #10,869,381.08 

Total expenditures during the same period, 10,144,963.73 

Available balance in treasury, November 30, 1853, #724,417.35 



Principal Itema o/Expendiiun, 
Public improvemente, . '.#2,765,936 64 
Expenses of govemmenii . . 253,160.39 
Militia expenses, . . . 2,236.37 

Pensions and gratuities, . . 12,857.31 
Chariuble institutions, . . 67,113.58 

Common Schools, . . . 164,852.43 
Commissionecs of Sinking Fund, 605,057.66 



Canal and railroad tolls. 



Ch^fSourcea of Income. 
Tax on real and personal estete, # 1,381,550.59 



Collateral Inheritance tax, 
Tftx on bank dividends, . 
Tax on corporation stocks, 
Retailers' licenses, . 



4,020,»7.26,Tavem licenses, 



Interest on loans. 
Guaranteed interest, . 
Domestic creditors, . 
Damages on public works, . 
Turnpike road companies, . 
Penitentiaries, .... 
Abatement of Sute tax, . 
Counsel fisaa and commissions, . 
Jloitoe^ ciT He rage, 
> Pa.H Tolunt«4n in Mexican war, . 

kiolDgipal jnrrey, ... 

blotilil hecords, &c., -. . . 
cliL cf^nimiraioners, • 

ate Libmrj^ .... 

bblli^ b LI iidlngs and grounds, . 
linenElineiitf to the Constitution, 



2,135,853.78 Brokers' licensee, 



. cabnizallun society, . 
&a£TtculLural society, . 
^simtinn, Births, Marriages, and 

fBeaths, 1,985.19 

Adetphia riote, .... 950.25 
pauHiuieoui, .... 8,848.90 Miscellaneous, 



17,500.00 Other licenses, 

41,185.16|Tax on loans, .... 

24,914.15 Premiums on charters, 
Auction duties, 
Auction commissions, . 
Tax on write, wills, deeds, &c., 
Tax on certain offices, . 

21,000.00 Militia tax, .... 

814.00Lands, . . . 
6,437. 50 Tax on enrolment of laws, . 

17,288.62 Tax on tonnage and passengers. 
Accrued hiterest, . 

Escheate, 

Foreign insurance agencies, . 
Interest on loans. 
Sales of public property, 
Refunded cash. 
Fees of the public offices, 
MiUer'stax, . . . . 
Premiums on loans, 
Annuity for right of way, . 



4,000.00 
31,083.00 
39,052.28 

7,769.16 



7,467.71 
1,350.00 



270.00 
643.61 
625.00 
2,000.00 



1,893.246.50 

4,205,333.33 

155,401.55 

220,004.33 

171,589.92 

177,039.19 

96,992.31 

3,020.43 

28,647.29 

124,068.19 

413,271.25 

66,747.05 

18,12a75 

61,296.16 

24,694.77 

12,718.32 

37,904.09 

6,715 00 

67,227.22 

34.093.25 

735.00 

753.59 

15,027.78 

164,662.54 

2,250.76 

2,49173 

3,727.80 

104,00100 

10,000.00 

2,719.39 



^"The LduI viLluation of the real and personal esute of Pennsylvania taxable for Stete pur- 
690J firthayoar 1851 was #492,898,829; tax assessed, in 1853, #1,686,691.76. Number 
of ta}tiit»Ui i iihabitante in the Stete in 1853, 647,191. 
BankA — Id February, 1853, there were in the Stete, exclusive of the' city of Philadelphia, 
t b»nkd ivHh a capital of # 8,450,551, circulation #7,500,000, specie #2,000,000. la 
^lla^klphia^ there were 15 banks, with a capital of # 10,518,600, circulation #4,600,000, coin 

'^Giftttmuii Schools in 1852. — A system of popular education was attempted in Pennsyl- 
Dd B cvmmon school fund esteblished, in 1831. The Stete was not divided into dir 



1S55.] PENNSTLYANIA. 857 

tricts for ichool parpoaes until 1834, and the act of April Ist of that year ie genertllj coq. 
■idered the first common school law. The whole number of school disiricts reported, ezclu* 
■ir0of the cilj and countj of Philadelphia, for the year ending June 30th, 1863, was 1,&31. 
The whole number of schools was 9,507. The average number of months that schools were 
tanght was 6. Number of male teachers, 7,690 ; number of female teachers, 3,640. Aver- 
age wages per month of male teachers, $ 19.26 ; of female teachers, f 12.03. Number o 
male scholars, 260,269; number of female scholars, 214,286; number learning German, 
11,121. The arerage number of scholars in each school was 42; and the cost of teaching 
each scholar per month, 43 cents. The fimount of tax levied in the accepting districts was 
1 1,021,337.34 ; recelred from the State appropriation, including $31,307.30 paid to Philadel- 
pbia city and county, #184,390.27. The cost of instruction was $731,743.t8; fuel and 
contingencies, f 84,158.76 ; of school- houses, repairs, &c., $ 147,616.73. The number of tax- 
aMes by the triennial return in 1853 was 645,164. The returns of orer 100 districts are not 
included in the foregoing, as they were received too late. Since, and including 1844, the an- 
nual appropriation by the State for the support of schools has been g 200,000. 

Common Schools in Philadelphia in 1853. — The city and county of Philadelphia con- 
atitute the first school district, but are not subject to the general school law. The grades of 
schools are a high school, a normal school and school of practice, grammar schools, second- 
ary schools, and primary schools. The whole number of schools in operation was 286. 
Number of teachers, 840, 80 males and 760 females. Number of male scholars, 25,836 ; num- 
ber of females, 24,249 ; in all, 50,085. $411,303.85 were expended during the year for the 
purpose of education, of which f 223,305.26 were paid to teachers. Average annual cost per 
pupil in aU the schools, $ 7.16; in High School, $32.97 ; in Normal School, $'10.68. 

State Lunatic Hotpitalf Harriaburg. — John Curwen, Superintendent. On the 31st of 
December, 1861, there were 37 patients, — 24 males and 13 females. Admitted during the 
year 118, — sent by public authorities 63, by friends 55; discharged 49 ; leaving in the hos- 
pital, Dec. 31, 1852, 106,-59 males and 47 females. Of those discharged, 13 had recovered, 
16 were improved, 10 unimproved, 7 died, and 2 eloped. Of 155 admissions, 68 were 
married, 11 widowed, 86 single. The forms of insanity were, acute mania 22, chronic do. 
50, epileptic do. 7, puerperal do. 1, monomania 13, melancholy 45, dementia 14, imbecility 1, 
idiocy 2. The disbunsements during the year were $ 38,225.95 ; receipts, $33,385.21 ; bal- 
ance, $159.26. The State appropriates $20,000 per annum to the haspitftl. There ar^ 
apartments for 300 patients, a farm of 130 acres, and a garden. 

ins/i7u/ton/or/AeB;tnd,PAt7ade(pAta.—Wm.Chapin, Principal. 2 prmcipal teacliera^ j 
2 assistants, 4 teachers of music, one prefect, 3 teathers 0f handicrad, 2 matronsf, I aaleemnn, ^ 
The school was opened in March, 1833. Number of pupils, January 1, t^52, ]D7 \ dig; 
charged during the year, 14; died, 2; received, 18; remaining, January 1, I8D3, 109, ^fi3 
males, 47 females. ,0f this nimiber there are from Pennsylvania 75, Maryland L3, Nqw Jet^ 
sey 13, Delaware 4, all other places 4. Number of pupils from its foundntSnn, ^37. Caustut 
of blindness : ophthalmia 74, amaurosis 32, cataract 20, congenital 18, small po]? 10, sccrl^ 
fever 6, other fevers 4, measles 6, accidents from stones, &c. 15, explulon <ir powder 12, 
pistol or gunshot 6, accidents not stated 5, scrofula 3, hydrocephalus, arrovrabuu artd fire 
2 each, kick of a horse, foul air in a well, rheumatism, whooping-cough, pulypus, bculo irc- 
tus, irritable retina, neuralgia, 1 each, unknown, 13. There are 62 claswa in 22 diffur?nt 
studies besides music Value of goods manyfactured, $ 5,755.37 ; sales, $5hCI21 .77. E^fftinaes 
of the Institution, $26,092.24; receipts, $27,330.02. No sectarian faiih h inculcnl^. 
School, music, and work alternately occupy 8^ hours daily. 21 volumes, in niiB«d k-ticrsa 
have been printed. The terms for pay pupils are $200 a year, including bnanl, iafLmctior^i 
and medical attendance. Blind children in indigent circumstances from Fcnn^jlvanta, New 
Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware, are provided for by those States for 8 jtan. PupSI ^ nrs 
not usually received under 10, nor over 17, except for a shorter time than ttia r^^lar caurwe 
of eight years. 

Hotue of Refuge, Philadelphia.— Thomaa G.Rutherford and Elisha Swini^fy, Stiperiit-' 
tendents. Admissions during 1852, 164 boys and 60 girls in the wiiile,, and SG hay^t 
44 girls in the colored department ; total, 304. Discharges, 169 boys and 6S s^dM ^ 
22* 



8M 



DELAWASB. 



[1855. 



white dtpttrtmeiit, and 43bo7i uid-37 fids in the eolond ; total, a07, Remaiiiing, Decem- 
bar 31, 1852, 149 bojrs aod 49 ^it\a in the white and 84 boje and 40 girls in the colorad de- 
partment ; total, 322. The institution is designed for tlie reform of juvenile delinquents. 
Most of the inmates are committed bj magistrates, and a few bj the coonijr couru. The 
bojs are employed In rarious manafectaring occupations. Their earnings amoonted to 
i 6,654.58. The expenses of the year were f 87,912.78, and the receipu 9 87,064*13. 

Staie Pritona. EaUem Penitentiary. ^ John S. Hallo waj, Warden. January 1, 1863, 
there were In the prison 283 convicts ; received during the year, 117 ; in all, 400. Discharged 
tqr expiration of sentence, 97 ; by pardon, 24 ; by removal to Lunatic Hospital, 8 ; revocation 
of sentence, 1 ; by death, 3 ; In all, 133 ; leaving in prison January 1, 1854, 267. Of the 117 
admitted dui^ng the year, 56 were natives of Pennsylvania, and 26 of other States. 36 were 
foreignera; 106 were whites, 101 males and 6 females; 11 ccriored, 10 males and 1 female. 
Of the 117, 21 were temperate; 44 were convicted of larceny; 5 of horse stealing; 4 of 
counterfeiting ; 12 of forgery ; 9 of felonious assaults ; 7 of arson ; 6 of manslaughter ; 3 of 
murder in 2d degree. 3 were sentenced for over 10 yean ; 76 for 2 yean and under. ISnce 
the opening of the prison, October 25, 1829, there have been admitted 3,069 convicts, and 
discharged 2,822, of whom 2,102 were by expiration of sentence ; 446 by pardons ; 228 by 
death ; 4 by suicide ; 14 by writ of error. 

Weatem Penitentiary, -^ A. Beckham, Warden. January 1, 1853, there were in the 
prison 187 convicts ; 184 malee and 3 females ; received during the year, 98 ; in all, 286. 
Discharged during the yesr, by expiration of sentence, 62 ; by pardon, 20 ; by death, 2. In 
prison January 1, 1854, 201. Whole number received since the opening of the prison, July 
1, 1826, 1,746; being white males, 1,447, femalee, 30; colored males, 229, females, 40. Of 
those remaining in the prison, 7 were convicted of arson ; 24 of murder in the 2d degree ; 3 
of manslaughter ; 91 of larceny ; 20 of burglary ; 2 of robbery ; 6 of counterfeiting ; 8 of 
horse stealing ; 7 of felonious assaults ; 6 of aggravated riot ; 7 of rape ; I of bigamy, and 1 
of perjury. 92 were natives of Pennsylvania, and 32 of other States ; 77 were foreigners. 
Since the opening of tlie prison, there have been discharged by expiration of sentence, 1,123 ; 
by pardons, 325 ; by death, 82 ; by suicide, 1 ; by escapes, 24 ; by process of law, 4. 



X. DELAWARE. 
Government for the Year 1855. 
fr.tr.Ei R Cap lETy ofMHford, Governor (term of office Salary, 

tixpirt^a on the 3d Tuesday in January, 1859), $ 1,333| 



yrrtsci V. Hi^binaon, 
ITiinani Cannon, 
eorgo H njckBon, 
li^:Jphn M. Philips, 
vVilltnm Htjffictgton, 
fohn R. McFee, 
Clay tan A. Cowgill, 



laraea Boolh, 



of Georgetown, 
of Bridge ville, 
of Dover, 
of Laurel 1, 
of Dover, 



Secretary of State, Fees and $ 400 



ijaujueJ M, Harrington, of Dover, 



State Treasurer^ 
Jhiditor^ 

President of the Senate, 
Clerk. 

of -Georgetown, Speaker of the House, 
Clerk, 

JUDICIART. 

Superior Court, 
of Newcastle, Chief Justice, 



500 
500 



Associate Justice^ 



Jciijn J, Milligaa, 
£dwnrd Wootten, 
Willanl Sfiulsbtiry, 
S« M. Htirrington, 
, W. Green, 



of Wilmington, ** 

of Georgetown, ** 

of Georgeto w n , Attorney- General, 

of Dover, Slate Reporter, 

of Sussex Co., Prothonotary of Sup, Court, Fees. 



$1,200 
1,200 
1,000 
1,000 
Fees and 500 



1855.] 



MABTLAKD. 



859 



Alexander J. Taylor, 
Wm. G. Whitely, 

Kensey Johns, Jr., 



Peter B. Vanderer, 
Robert W. Reynolds, 
James Anderson, 



Prothonoiary of Syp. Courts Fees. 
" " Fees. 



of Dover, 
of Newcastle, 

Court of Chancery. 
of Newcastle, Chancellor^ 1,100 

Orphans* Court, 
The Orphans* Court consists of the Chancellor and a Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court. 

Probate Court, 
of Newcastle, Register of Wills, Fees, 

of Dover, " ** Fees, 

of Georgetown, " " Fees. 

FlNAlfCES. 

School Fund, .... #15,047.62 
Chi^Sourcea of Annual Income, 



Corporation taxes, bonua, 
Dividends and interest on loans, 
Licenses, forfeitures, ftc. . 



$27,454 68 
19,293.87 
6,948.51 



Principal Items of Expenditure. 

Executive, $3, 

LegisUtire, .... 8,565 32 

Gonrention, 6,64000 

Jndiciarj, 5,500.00 

Internal improvements, . . 18,50000 

Permanent Beaourcee of the State, 

Invested capital, Sute, f 350,637 68 

" school fund, 435,505.83 

Total, #786,143.51 

Conunon Schools. — The system provides a free school within reach of every family. 
The districts are laid off, numbered, and incorporated. 236 of them are organized. Each 
district entitles itself to a portion of the Aind by estaUishing a school, and contributing to- 
wards its support not less than • 25. But any district may lay a tax on itself of i 300 ; or 
(by a special vote) may increase it to any sum deemed necessary for school purposes. 
Towns or papulmis dlatricts may umt« thair resources and form Khools of higher £;rAr!f>ffl ; 
Ihfj only condition w ttiat ibey shnll bo/rf^ Tho numlwr of free ectioola in operation in the 
SiaiB mu 23C \ number DrBcholarc (in a nhilfi population of 71,169}, 10,2^^ ; rece'i|:/t« 
•ctaiioi fund and coiuributiona, f S7^733.*35; ujrpeniiecJ for support of frea BLLboola^ |^0^|&9 

ThQ fallowing Luble gires the atialaticd of Ihfi jcbook In lbs sevecul cuiintlcs^ as Vi^W 
the SUite. 

Free Schools, 



n the ^^^^ 



Coualla. 


ffo. of 
Schools 


No, of 
fichokra. 


Amdun 
Tuition. 


I paid Tor 
Cdnltngisncles. 


Aiuuuiit re 
School 
Fund. 


Cflif ed frtmi i 
Qor^LribuiHi 
Tnr. ' 


Kent, 
Total, 


B.'V 


a97"J 


11,549 68 


isassa 


« 1 2,330. 5-^ 


3.fi<H.7< 


;d3(j 


tU,^30 


8SI32J 


e,a43,2i 




i23,90B4lj 


»4^.46d.30 


9^rj3A'J5 


J 



XI. MARYLAND, 

Government for the Year 1855, 
Thomas W. Ligon, of Howard Co., Govcrnttr {lerm eipires 

the 2d Wednesday in Jan., 1858), Uae of a furnished house, and $ ^JM 
Nalhan icl C oi , of B a I ti more , Se^rftanj of Slate , 

Dennk Claudo, ofAnnnpolis, lYensurer^ 



i,am 



sea 

W. PiokDej Wbyte, 
Jamet Murray, 

Michael McBIair, 
Lemuel Roberts, 
Joshua R. Nelson, 
Moor N. Falls, 
Charles R. Stewart, 
Wm. P. Fonder, 
Richard Swan, 
John N. Watkins, 
Edward Lloyd, 
Elias Ware, Jr., 



HASTXJkND. [1855. 

ofBaltimorv, CompUoUtT oftks TVeofury, 2,500 

of Annapolis, Qammissioner of the Land- 

Ofice^ Fees and 200 

of Baltimore, CommUsianer of Stamps, 750 

of Queen Ann* a Co. ^Commissioner of Lotteries, 
of Harford Co. "J 

Commissioners ofPuhUe 
Works, 



of Baltimore, 
of Savage, 
of Baltimore, 
of Annapolis, 
of Annapolis, 



CO 

^ cia 

15 



State Librarian f 1,000 

Adjutant-General, 5U0 

of Talbot Co., Pres. of the Senate, ) 5 per day dur. ses. 

of Baltimore, Speaker of the House of Delegates, 

[$ 5 per day during session. 

JUDICIABT. 

Court of Appeals, 

Elected. Term expires. Salary. 

John C. LeGrand, of Baltimore, 1851, Chief Justice, 1861, $2,500 
John T. Mason, of Marlboro, 1851, Associate Justice, \d5\, 2,500 

Wm.H. Tuck, ofUpper Marlboro, 1851, *« 1861, 2,500 

JohnB.£ccle8ton,ofChe8tertown,1851, ^< 1861, 2,500 

William A. Spencer, of Annapolis, Clerk, Fees. 

The Court of Chancery, by the new Constitution, was abolished on 
the 4th of July, 1853. It had been continued from the adoption ^of the 
constitution to that date, to give it time to finish its business. The judi- 
cial pow«r of the State is vested in a Court of Appeals, and in Circuit 
Courts. 

TJiG CutirL nf Appeals has appellate jurisdiction only. Its judges, fbnr 

ntirnber, an; elected from districts, by the voters therein, for ten years, 
•anlqtjfl tlit^y i^lmLl before reach the age of 70. They must be above 30 years 

ag^, citl^fteri^ of the State at least five years, residents of the judicial dis- 
tricls from wliich they are elected, and have been admitted to practice in 
the State. Th& Court of Appeals appoints its own clerk, to hold office for 
ftlx jeari^, und may reappoint him at the end of that time. When any 
judge of :LEiy court is interested in a case or connected with any of the par- 
lies by jitBriLLy or consanguinity within the proscribed degrees, the Gover- 
nor may GomEuiiwion the requisite number of persons, learned in the law, 
fbr the trKiL and determination of the case. The Governor, with the advice 
And con^itnt of the Senate, designates one of the four judges as chief jus- 
tice. The aflice of Attorney-General is abolished by the new Constitution. 

Judges of the Circuit Courts. 



€iicu1t. 




ElectMl. 


Term expires. Salarj. 


1, Peter W- Crain, 


of Port Tobacco, 


1851 


1861 $2,000 


2, Nidiolai Brewer, 


of Annapolis, 


1851 


1861 2,000 


3, Mad is on Nelson, 


of Frederic City, 


1851 


1861 2,000 


•^^Thomii* Perry, 


of Cumberland, 


1851 


1861 2,000 



1855.] MARYLAND. 261 

6. Albert Constable, of Perryville, 1851 1861 2,000 

7. Philemon B. Hopper, of Centreyille, 1851 1861 2,000 

8. AraSpence, ofSnowhill, 1851 1861 2,000 
The fifth Cireuit comprises the city of Baltimore. The judges of that 

Circuit, all of whom reside in Baltimore, are : — 

William Frick, Judge of Superior Courts 1851 1861 2^00 

Wm. L. Marshall, Judge of Court of Com. Pleas, 1851 1861 2,500 

Henry Stump, Judge of Criminal Court, 1851 1861 2,000 

Cbas. J. M. Gvrinn, of Baltimore, State Attorney, 1851 1855 

The State is divided into eight judicial circuits, each of which elects a 
judge of the Circuit Court, to hold office for ten years. The qualifications 
of the judges are the same as those of the Court of Appeals, except that 
they must be citizens of the United States, and residents for two years in 
their judicial district There is in the city of Baltimore a Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, with jurisdiction in civil cases between $ 100 and $500, and 
exclusive jurisdiction in appeals from justices of the peace in that city ; and 
a Superior Court, with jurisdiction in cases over $ 5U0. Each of these 
courts consists of one judge, elected by the people fi)r ten years. There is 
also a Criminal Court, consisting of one judge, elected for six years. Clerks 
of the Circuit Courts in each county, and of the Baltimore courts, are 
chosen for six years, and are re-eligible. 

Each county, and Baltimore city, elect three persons as Judges of the 
Orphans* Court, to hold office for four years ; a Register of Wills, for six 
years; Justices of the Peace j two Sherifis, and Constables for two y«ar«. 
Attorneys for the Commonwealth are chosen in each county by tlie people, 
for four years. 

FltfANCSS. 

. State Debt, 

The whole nominal debt of the State was, ^ptember 30, 1863, . . . • 1 &x 1 ^>^ 

The sinking fund of the State, repreaenting, in iact, extinguished 
debt, was, Norember 30, 1853, %%^/3Si,m 

State loan to Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company Included in 
nominal debt, the Interest of which is paid by that company, . 3,616, OH 

Tobacco loans, the Interest of which is paid out of proceeds of to- 
bacco Inspection, ' . . I&3j6d9 

Productive capital of State, consisting of bank stocks, railroad 
stocks and bonds, paying dividends or interest, Including Tide- 
water Canal bonds, about, 5,G^,D6I3 

Leaving, f i.::)U7,3i3t| 

the interest on which must be provided for by taxation. Including the Income frotn ilsa^ 
doctlve capital of the State, the amount to be ndsed In 1854 to meet the Interesii da. 1 
public debt is estimated by the Treasurer to be • 673,837. 

In addition to the produciire property abore described, the State o^nm unpnoducriivp { 
enjt the value of which is estimated at • 17,172,634.16. The new wama^iuti^i irtv^ the ralite 
of the real estate in the State, $ 166,754,455, and personal estate, f 04,]^:v,:£ii:^T ae^n^piiaj 
g 261 ,243,660. The former aggregate valuation was % 192,781 ,579. fncren^ , « Ct$,4e2,4]«| , 
The former rate of taxation was 25 cents on the f 100 ; it is now 15 ceiiit an Llis 1 100. 

The iehod fund on September 30, 1863, amounted to • 160,642 66. 



86t ICASTLAKD. [1855. 

The prorMoM of the oew eonfltHution in ngtoA to the State's ineorrinf new dcbta are as 
Mlowe t— " No debt shall be contracted exceeding 9 100,000, nor vnleai the act creating it 
shall proride for a tax auflkient to pay the interest as it falls due, and the principal in fif- 
teen years. Such taxes shall not be repealed or applied to any other purpoee. The credit 
of tlie State shall never be giren or lent, nor shall the State be In any way concerned in 
internal improrements. The moneys levied to pay tlie public drt)t shall nerer be direrted 
nntil the debt Is paid, or until the sinking fund equals the outstanding debt." 

JUeeiptt and Espenditurm, 
Total receipts during the year ending September 30, 1853, . 
Balance in treasury December 1, ] 



. . tl|000,063.19 
170,452^ 

Total means, ... $1,170,505.47 

Total expenditures for the same period, 825.147 67 

Balance in the treasury October 1, 1853, # 345,367.80 

This balance was subject to changes amounting to 342.6fiO.98 

Applicable to future demands, •2,706.82 



8,300.00 
34,780.33 



70,426.38 



8,284.75 



20,110.87 



OiitfSoureea o/Ineoim. 
Auction duties, . . . . • 14,386.83 
Auctioneers' licenses. 
Bank bonds and dividends, . 
B. and O. railroad Co. ^ recelpta 
from passengers on Washington 
Branch Road, .... 
Do. interest on dividend and ster 
ling bonds, . . . 

Tax, direa and specific, . 
Tur, Civil Oommisslonen, . 
Collateral inheritances, . 
Commissions to executors and 
administrators, 

I Commissions to trustees and 
receivers, ... 
^ Foreign insurance, 
IL Policies of insurance, 
mj Incorporated institutions, . 
^^ On certain oflkers, . 
^m On pUintifb, 
^B Ou protests, 
fP^On Hianvps, .... 
■ On Htate and other stocks, 
m Fur State colonization, < 

Live a Lock sales, 
Lffiteriei- 38,250.00 
State labacco inspections Baltimore, 20, 1 18.34 
Licsnsejii^ Marriage, . . . 
To keepers of ordinaries. 
Hawkers and peddlers, . 
Non*resident8, . 
Wood hucksters, . 



Licenses, Traders, . . . $76,423.69 

Billiard table keepers, . 1,830.59 

Brokers, . . 4,715.28 

Exhibitions, . . 1,987.64 

Road stock, .... 87,600.00 

Susq. and T. W. canal companies, 33,560JX) 

B. and S. railroad company, . 26,000.00 

Excess of officers' fees, . . 1,876.24 

Principal Itenu of Expenditure. 

380,993.73 Interest on public debt, . . $ 431 ,764.32 

1/162.19 Civil officen, .... 12,231.00 

22,602.56 Judiciary, 30,411X6 



Legislature, 
Public printing . 
Postaie, .... 

6,332.55 Fuel and lights, . 

4,854.65 Executive contingent fund, 

3,745.00 Sinking fund. 



76,849.29 
10,436.99 
3,198.71 
2,399.57 
2,702.74 
42,407.21 
Surplus revenue, . . . 34,069.36 

Penllons, 2,834.16 

Colleges, academies, and schools, 13,327.57 



14,967.45 
3,471.21 
1,010.59 
2,430/X) Penitentiary, 



56,238 75 

37,745.76 

» 2,039.56 

10,991.65 




6,000.00 
40,234.44 



6,000.00 
1,147.91 



Penitentiary stock redeemed. 

Militia, .... 

State colonization, . 

Indigent deaf and dumb. 

Tobacco warehouses and inspectovB, 17,882.47 

Contingent fund for library, . . 4,619.45 
9,044.04 Library, increase of, . . . 406.05 
31,613.32 Annapolis and R R. railroad Co., 3,604.52 
2,666.34 
2,97a00 
l,106i>l 



M^yor and city council Baltimore, 



Railroad five per cent, stock re* 

14,921.84 
9,000.00 

State PenitenHary. — O. P. Merryman, Warden. November 30, 1862, there were in con- 
lement, 306 prisoners ; received during the year, 112 ; in all, 417. Discharged during the 
by expiration of sentence, 62 ; by pardon, 10 ; by death, 5 ; by process of law, 1 ; in all, 
leaving in prison November 30, 1853, 349. Of those received during the year, 67 were 
lite and 35 colored ; 102 males and 10 females ; 99 wera first-comers, 8 second'comers, 2 
ird-comers, 2 fourth-comers, and 1 for the eighth time. This^lattar oonvlct ia 46 years of 



1855.] YisoiSEA. fes 

age ; was first sent to prieon at the age of 13, and has stoce spent thera 35 yean. Of the 10 
females 1 is white. 76 were seDtenced for stealing ; 4 for murder ; 4 for manslaughter ; 6 for 
assault with intent to kill ; 5 for burglary ; 6 for horse stealing, and 3 for arson. 263 were 
Americans, and 86 foreigners ; 86 were temperate ; 152 could not read or write ; 56 could 
only read ; 10 receired a good, and 2 a classical, education. For punishment during the year, 
1 j223 stripes were infliaed, and 47 days of confinement in cells were passed. Earnings of the 
prison for the year, • 45,198.22 ; expenses, $ 40,659.98 ; excess of earnings, $4,538^28. 



XII. VIRGINIA. 

Government for ike Year 1855. 

Term ends. Salary. 
Joseph JoH58oif, Governor, Jan. 1,1856, || 5,000 

She] ton F. Leake, Ldeut. Gov. and Pres, ofSenate, ^* $8 per day 

[during the session of the Legislature. 
Willis P. Bocock, Attorney- General, Jan. 1, 1856, $1,500 

George W. M unford. Secretary of th^ ComnumweaUh 

and Librarian, Jan. 1, 1857, 1,620 

Jonathan B. Sto vail. Treasurer, «< 2,000 

George W. Clutter, Auditor of Public Accounts, << 2,000 

William L. Jackson, 2d Aud, and Sup, of Literary Fund, «« 2,000 

Stafford U. Parker, Register of the Land-Office, 2,000 

Charles S. Morgan, Superintendent of Penitentiary, 2,000 

H. St. Geo. Tucker, Clerk of the House of Delegates and Keeper of the Rolls, 
||150 per week during the session, and ||200 annually for keeping the 
rolls. 
Shelton C. Davis, Clerk of the Senate, $ 100 per week during session. 
B. W. Hughes, Sup't of Weights and Measures, $ 300 pqr annum. 

Board of Public Works. 

Term ends. Salary, 

Archibald Graham, President, July 1, 1855, ( (1500 per annum^ and in 
Edward J. Armstrong, ** 1857, < elling expenses, not to Q^ 

Thomas J. Boyd, '*• 1859, ( ceed $250 pGrHnnum. 

William R. Drinkard, Secretary. $ 1,300 per annum. 

The Secretary of the Commonwealth, the Auditor of Public Accounfl _ 
and Register are, ex officio, members of the Board of Commiiu^ioneta of tHd- 
Sinking Fund. 

The GoTcmor and Lieutenlant-Governor are elected by tlio people for 
four years, and at the same election the Attorney-General k eletiedl for 
four years. The Secretary, Treasurer, and Auditor are elecir^jd by joint 
▼ote of the General Assembly for two years. The members iffihc Board 
of Public Works are elected by the people for six years, one every two 
years. The House of Delegates consists of 152 members, elected bie»nmUy 
from single districts, apportioned upon the basis of the wliite population. 
The Senate, apportioned upon the basis of population and ti:tX£iilon com* 
bined, consists of 50 members elected for four years, one half every two ^ 
years, firom single districts. The seasiomi of the legislature are bknntaf' 



2H 



TXBOmA. 



[1865. 



DO MMion can lait moro than 90 days, except by a vote of three fifths of 
all the members ; and then it shall not be extended more than 30 days. 

Judiciary. 

For the administration of justice there are established County Courts, 
Circuit Courts, District Courts, and a Supreme Court of Appeals. The 
County Courts are held monthly in each county, by not less than three 
nor more than five justices. These justices are thus chosen by the people. 
Each county is dirided into districts, and each district elects four justices 
for the term of (bur years. These justices elect one of their own number 
to attend each term of the court. 

The State is divided into 21 circuits. The Toters in each circuit elect '(£ 
judge for eight years, who must be thirty years old and reside in the cir- 
cuit. Two Circuit Courts are held annually in each county by each 
judge. These 21 circuits form 10 districts, and these 10 districts form 5 
sections. The voters of each section elect a judge of the Court of Appeals, 
who must be 35 years old and reside in his section. The judges of these 
^se sections constitute the Court of Appeals; any three of whom may hold 
the court, which has jurisdiction, except in certain specified cases, where the 
matter in controversy is not less than $ 500 in value. This court sits at 
Riekmand from January 5th to March 5th, from April Ist to May 14th, 
from October 15th to December 15th, and at Lewisburg o the 2d Monday 
in July, the term to last ninety days if necessary. 

District Courts are held once every year in each district, by the judges of 
the circuits constituting the section, and the judge of the Supreme Court for 
the section, any three of whom may hold the court. ' 

The Coiire of Appeals and the District Courts appoint their officers, but 
in (lie Circuit and County Courts the officers of the court are elected by 
tho people* 

Court of appeals. 



ffe.of8«cti<jn, NsiM 


Term begins. Term ends. 




SUaiy. 


K WilUiim Daniel, 


July 1, 1852, July 1, 1864, 




$3,000 


3. Richard C. L. Moncure 


, 




3,000 


^&. Green B. Samuels, 


U IC 




3,000 


WL John J. Allen, 


Ci u 




3,000 


^k. George Hay Lee, 


Ci 

CireuU Courts. 




3,000 


S^~ Nftfne of ludge. Tuin ends. 


Salary. jCir. Name of Judge. Term ends. 


Salary. 


1. mcliAni n Bilker, July 1, 1860, 


$2,000|l2. JohnKenney, July 


1,1860, 


•2,000 


a. Jnhn W. NaaK " 


2,000 


13. Richard Parker, 


If 


2,000 


3. Wjinam U3ffh, 


2,000 


14. Robert M. Hudson, 


(( 


2,000 


4, Oeorgc Gil man, " 


2,000 


16. Edward B. Bailey, 


it 


2,000 


S. aiwafd P. Pitta, " 


1,500 


16. Andrew S. Fulton, 


ft 


2,000 


«. Jolm B. ClQpton, " 


2,000 


17. George W. Hopkins, 


tt 


2,000 


a, jQlia A ML'njditb, " 


2,300 


18. George W. Summers, 


" 


2,000 


a lohii T. Ui^iiit, 


2,000 


19. Matthew Edmiston, 


tt 


2,000 


S. JohiiW. Tyk'f, " 


2,000 


20. George W. Thompson, 


tt 


2,000 


It*, Kjelmrii I]. Field, " 


2,000 


21. Gideon D. Camden, 


tt 


2,000 


imH^ l\ rUompson, " 


2,000 









1855.] 



TZROmiA. 



Finances. 



Public DtbU October 1, 1894. 
Arooant of outatanding regiatered stock,* five and six per cent., 
Amount of five and six par cent, coupon bonda issued, . 



9M 



• 11,524,476.54 
. 10,865,000.00 



$22,389,476.54 
Annual interest thereon, •1,325,000.00 

Of this sum • 1,153,606.50 are held by the State for the literary fund. 

The contingent debt consists of liabilities of ilie State on account of the guaranties of 
the Commonwealth to bonds of corporations for the.purposes of internal improrenients ; it 
amounU to • 3,906,874. 

By the report of the Ist and 2d Auditor, March 30, 1853, the productive stocks of the 
State, exclusive of those held by the Board of the Literary Fund, amounted to •8,011,668.66, 
i. e. their income was equal to 6 per cent, upon • 8,011 ,668.66. In addition to this, the report 
of the Senate Committee upon finance and claims sliows stocks now unproductive to the 
amount of 1 5,899,958.63. At the session of 1853, the legislature lent the aid of the Suita 
largely to works of internal hnprovement. 



aOtf Itenu of Reedpta, Oct. 1, 1853. ^ 
1^ on Ucenses, 1853, . . 9235,365.96 
Revenue taxes, .... 935,33293 
Militia fines, .... 11,68137 

Taxes on Uw process, &c., 31,102.26 

Tax on Notarial seals, . . 10,! 

Fees of Register's oflke, . . 7,023.74 
Tax on State seal, . . . 133.00 

Iniportationoftobacce, . . 12,537.69 
Waste and unappropriated land, 10,899.53 
Bank stock dividends, . . 336,067.32 
Bonus on bank capital, . 51,513.08 

Dividends from internal improve* 

menta, 62,495.54 

Premiums on loans, . . . 137,677.90 
Interest on loans to sundry accounta, 183,606. 
Loans obtained during the year, 4,060,486 87 
Temporary kians refunded, . . 193,52184 
One half annuity of old James River 

Company, .... 10,500 

Principal Items of Expenditure. 

Interest on public debt, . . $994,104.83 
Public debt radeemed, . . 114,684.42 



General Assembly of 1862-63, . • 160.180 73 

Officers of government, . . 107,692.79 

Primary schools, . . . 75,00000 

University of Virginia, . . 15,000.00 

Lunatic Asylums, . . . 74,500.00 

Deaf, dumb, and blind asylum, . 27,500.00 

Military School (Lexington), . 9,210.00 

Public guard (Richmond), . . 2l,23a82 

Penitentiary expenses, . . 40,342.12 

Militia expenses, .... 28,550J26 

Commissioners of Revenue, . 47^026 96 

Contingent expenses of courts, 32,577 73 

Criminal charges, . . . £9,6^. S2 

Contingent fund, . . . 26,3^.00 

Capitation tax, 1852, . . 40,000.00 

Washington Monument, . . la^DGe.SO 
Subscriptions and approiMiaiicms 

to internal improvements, , 2,lS3,%9.£Ft 
Loans to internal improvemeitt 

companies, .... L?OQ,000.00 

Temporary loans to do., . lW,OOaoo 
Dividenda paid to old James Eker 

Company 8t6ckholders, , . ^],0l5Mi 

Interest on guaranteed bondi, . SO,74S,00 



Statement of Taxea on all Accounts for 1853, to bt collected in IS&L 

No. Value. Aggregate VaJva. TiJCbS 

Lots improved and unimproved f 91.900.56 

Lands, 4S0,i74.51 

White males of 21 years of age, . 

Free negroes, males between 21 and 56, 

SUtves 12 years and upwards. 

Horses, mules, asses, and jennets, . 

Cattle, sheep, and Imgs, 

Pleasure carriages, stage coaches, kc., 

Watches * . . 37,117 

* This stock is known in the market as " Inscription Stock/^ 
23 



186,687, at 40 cents 


. 


74 ,674 a) 


8,892, at 100 " 


. 


8,692 00 


262,028, at 60 " 




167,216.80 


361,431 . . 


• 17,142,361 00 




1,607,993 . 


. 14,451.20065 




29,860 


2,318srf^^ riO 




37,117 . . 


. l,277,LrG r,f] 





266 TXBOINIA. [1855. 

Ooclcs, 80,018 . . . •405,980.00 

PiaiMMUidbarpt 4,829 . . 709,236.00 

Plata and jewelry, 741,245.42 

Household and kitchen furnitiiie 14,480,06325 

Moneys, secnriiies, &c 43,040,658.31 

Capital In manuActuring or mining, 3,636,111.00 

Moneys, bonds, or other evidences in court, . . 949,083.64 

Capital of incorporated joint siocic Cos. other than banks of circula- 
tion and Internal improrement Cos., and of all insurance Cos. and 
savings institutions which declare no dividend of profits, . . 665,379.25 
Personal property of internal improvement companies, . • * . 377,807.00 
AU othsr articles of personal property, . . . ... . 2,460,287.25 

Aggregate ralues, $102,543,671.87 

$205,111.32 

Fees of office, 1,619.95 

laeomss, 10,406.30 

Interest or profits, 19,044.32 

Dividends, 4,076.07 

ToU bridges and ferries 1,167.27 

Over extensions by commissioners and fractions, 1 14.76 

Taxes of 1862 omitted 195.90 

Collateral inheritances, 4,412.11 

Licenses, . ' 338,030,3 1 

$ 1,397,(^7.08 
Estimated delinquents and overcharges, .... $22,000.00 

Estimated commissions, . .<^ . . 94,000.00 

— : 116,000.00 

Estimated net taxes, $1,281,047.06 

In regard to taxation and the contracting of debts and the payment of the State debt the 
constitution provides as follows : — 

" The yeas and nays shall be taken on all tax and appropriation Inlls. No incorporated 
ceKDpmy %h\U bd released from its liability to the State, nor shall the fiiith of the State be 
fAodf odi fi^r U]': daiits of any company. Seven per cent, of the State debt eidsting Janoary 1, 
i 1352, shall be annually set apart as a sinking fund to redeem said debt. No loans shall be 
^ntnu: Led i rrt!(J«niable for a period of over 34 years. Whenerer a debt is contracted, there 
ihaLl b^ ast KfKift, annually, for 34 yean, a sum exceeding by one per cent, the aggregate 
praouni of \ hti annual interest agreed to be paid thereon at tlie time of its contraction, which 
mtm flHnll hd a port of the sinking fund. Stocks held by the Commcmwealth may be sold, but 
lite proc^tHh niuvi be applied to the payment of the public debt." 

Sihfjf^tiit, — Hia returns are rery imperfect. They show, as regards primary schools, in 140 
coatiiies and G towns, 1,853 commissionen ; In 129 counties and 3 towns, 3,934 schools ; in 
f 00 cniint j&a ai\d 1 town, 55,271 poor children ; In 129 counties and 4 towns, 32,072 poor chil- 
dr^'ii sent LD -gchMl. Amount expended for tuition of poor children at common and other 
■chool^i. icuhulmg books and all other expenses, $69,404.14; arerage attendance of poor 
eblldreii in Tha year, 54 days ; average cost per annum of each poor child, about $2.16. The 
lirurnA ^ i» district free tchooU are from only 10 counties and 2 towns. Number of dis- 
frfets, 3C4 ; of schools, 276 ; general arerage salaries of teachere in 7 counties and 2 towns, 
i 2^i.7^ ; rjuij^Uer of children at school during the year in 10 counties and 2 towns, 13,176 ; 
i^era^a aaiumi cost of these pupils, $5.92; local funds from taxes, contributions, &c, 
1 63,9^^ r>^ ; ricnount applied from school quotas, $6,519.80 ; teachere' salaries and all other 
flTperiMf^:, i}r:-^\2B^.30; tuition in 6 counties and 1 town, $36,065.53; when not otherwise 
Miaied, i]i': f^NdVti returns are from 10 counties and 2 towns. 



1855.] 



KOBTH CAROLINA. 



XIII. NORTH CAROLINA. 



%S7 



Thomas Bragg, of 



Government for the Year 1855. 

-, Governor (term of office, from Jan. 1, i Salary. 



1855, to Jan. 1, 1857), A furnished house and $2,000 

William Hill, of Raleigh, Secretary of State^ $ 800 and Feet. 

Daniel W. Courts, of Rockingham Co., Treasurer^ 1,500 

Stephen Birdsall, of Raleigh, Clerk of the Treas. Dep., 500 

William J. Clarke, of Raleigh, Comptroller, 1,000 

Warren Winslow, of Cumberland, Speaker of the Senate, 
Samuel P. Hill, of Caswell, Speaker of the House of Commons. 

John Hill, of Stoke, Clerk of the Senate, 

James T. Marriott, of Wake, Clerk of the House, 

Council of State, — William K. Lane, of Wayne Co. ; Whitmel Stallings, 
of Gates Co. ; Archibald Henderson, of Rowan Co. ; Wilson S. Hill, of 
Guilford Co. ; Columbus Mills, of Rutherford Co. ; Perria Busbee, of Ra- 
leigh; and Robert S. French, of Robeson Co. 

Pay, $ 3 per diem while in service, and $ 3 for every 30 miles' travel. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court, 



Frederic Nash, of Hillsborough, 
Rich. M. Pearson, of Surry Co., 
William H. Battle, of Chapel Hill, 
Matt. W. Ransom, of Warren Co., 
Perrin Busbee, of Raleigh, 
Edm. B. Freeman, of Raleigh, 
James R. Dodgt, of Morgantown, 



Chief Justice, 
.Associate Justice, 
a 

Attorney- General, 
Reporter, 
Clerk at Raleigh. 
Clerk atMorganiown, 



$2,500 
2,500 
2,500 

300 



Superior or Cireuit Courts, 



Judges, — Salary, $ 1,950 each. 
Thomas Settle, of Rockingham. 



John M. Dick, 
D. F. Caldwell, 
John W. Ellis, 
John L. Bailey, 
M. E. Manly, 
R. M. Saunders, 



of Greensboro*, 
of Salisbury, 
of Salisbury, 
of Hillsborough, 
of Newbem. 
of Raleigh. 



Circuit SolUiiors, 
W. N. H. Smith, of 5f urfreeabom*? 
G. S. Stephenson, of Necvbern. 
M. W. RAnsom, of Warren Co. 
Cadwallader Jones, of Ki n^bordugh, ' 
Robert Strange, of Fay e tte v i I lo ^ * 
William Lander, of Lincoln Co^^ 
Aug. W. Burton, of Cleave land ( 



The Supreme Court holds three sessions in each year; two m ilm city 
Raleigh, — to wit, on the second Monday in June and the bst Monday 
December, — and one at Morgantown, on the first Monday orAijgiiRt,rorth« 
western part of the State; and continues to sit at each term until all th« 
business on the docket is determined, or continued upon good caute shown. 
It has power to hear and determine all cases in law or equity, brought 
before it by appeal, or by the parties. It has original and cxc^luatvo juriflp 
diction in repealing letters-patent,' and also has power to hmm all wrtti 
necessary and proper for the exercise of its jurisdiction. 

The judges of the Supreme and the Superior Courts are ckcicd by joini 



86$ lOUTH CABOLDTA. [1855. 

ballot of both bousns of the General Amemblj, to hold office during good 
behavior. Their saldries cannot be dimiuiished during continuance in office. 

Salary of a solicitor, $ 20 for each court which he attends, and fees for 
conviction. The Attorney-General is solicitor for the third circuit, and 
receives, in addition, ||100 lor each term of the Supreme Court which he 
attends. 

The Superior Courts of Law, and the Courts of Equity, are held twice 
each year in every county of the State. There are seven circuits, of about 
ten counties each, which the judges ride alternately, never visiting, how- 
ever, the same circuit twice in succession. The judges of these courts have 
complete equity jurisdiction. 

FlNARCKS, 

For th§ Two Years ending October 31, 1852. 
ReceiptB and Expenditures of the Public Fund. 
Receipts for the year ending October 31, 1851, . . . . f 285,154.79 
" " " 1862,. . . . 3C6.72S88 

Ajsirre^te receipts forihe two years, $651,883.67 

Expenditures for the year ending October 31, 1851, . . . 366,342.76 

" 1352, . . . 249,254.45 

: 615.597.21 

Balance in the Treasury due public fund. Nor. 1, 1852, #36,266.46 

Receipts and Disbursements of the Literary Fund. 

Receipts for the year ending October 31, 1851, % 129.255.24 

" " " 1868, . . . 137.380.41 

Aggregate leceipts for the two years, -266,635.65 

Exptnditurae for the year ending October 31, 1851, .... 94,596.41 
" " " " 1852, . . . 161.472.33 

256.068.74 

BalarLc* b Treoaory, Nor. 1, 1862, doe this fond, % lu,666.91 

Add lxilAuc«dLjfl this Aind, 118.19267 

B iT^ru:^ dui thi« (bnd, Norember 1, 1852, $ 12d,759 58 

AiM Lj^Lai&ca due public funds, 36 286 46 

Tola! balance, 8 165,U66 04 

The Suti; iiw[)9 stocks in railroads and other internal improremant companies to the 
- IJJlmini oit G'JO^DOO. 

' Bi^if r>^fn. ^ On the Ist of Noveinber, 1862, the debt of the State upon which interest 
Irif payiinla aiuc^iinted to f 1,230,000. During the last session of the Legislature, a further 
delsi of 9 '^.141X000 was authorized to be created by the issue of bonds, as follows : $ 65,000 
jtsr ih:: Nu^Hii utd Tar Rirer Railroad; • 75,000 for the Seaboard and Roanoke Road; 
M ^ /» ^ , i» > M r t he North Carolina Railroad. 

Dmf.nri />!i^. — The building for the North Carolina Institution for the Instruction 
of ine V'.'-x\ iiiiiJ Dumb was commenced April 14, 1848. The Institution is in Raleigh, near 
ih,e Siriie 11 1 > < L '4. The grounds ha^e an extent of four acres. 

hu finite Aiftjittm. — The Legislature, at a late session, imposed a tax of one cent and 
thtat^ qtuvrier^ on erery $ 100 worth of land, and five and aquarter cents on erery taxable poll 
par an EiriTTi, (vr four yean, to raise a fund for building a lunatic asylum. Tba tax will yield 
iDout t SO.UOO i a the four years. 

XIV. SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Government for the Year 1855. 
Joitif L. Mai^kiiio, of Sumter, Governor , (term ends De- Salary. 

cember, 1854), House-rent and $ 3,500 
I U- Ithj, of Lawrence, Liesuteiuml'Goverjun', 



1855.] 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



269 



Benjamin Perry, 

J. D. Ash more, of Columbia, 

William J. Laval, of Charleston, 

£. P. Jones, of Greenville, 

William F. Eivin, of Williamsburg, 

R. G. M. Dunevant, 

C. M. Furman, of Charleston, 

R. F. W. Allston, of Georgetown, 

James Simons, 

W. E. Martin, 

J. T. Sloan, 



of St-Paul's Parish, Secretary of Stofe, Fees. 

ComptroUer-Generalf 2,000 

TreagureTj Lower Division^ 2,000 

" Upper Division^ 1,600 

Surveyor- General^ Fees. 
Jldjvtant and Inspector- General, 

Pres, Bank of the State of S, C, 3,000 
President of the Senate, 
Speaker of the House. 

Clerk of the Senate, 1 ,000 

Clerk of the House, 1 ,000 



of Charleston, 
of Charleston, 



The Grovemor is elected by the Senate and House of Representatives 
jointly, to serve for two years, and is not re-eligible until after the expiration 
of fi)ur years. In case of his death, or removal from office, the Lieutenant- 
Governor acts as Governor. 

Legislature. — Assembles at Columbia, on the fourth Monday in Novem- 
ber, annually. Representatives (124 in number) are chosen for two years, 
on a mixed basis of population and taxation. Pay, $ 3 a day, and 10 cents 
for every mile of travel. The Senate consists of 45 members, who are 
elected for four years ; one half chosen every second year. Pay of Sena- 
t6r8 the same as that of Representatives. 

Judiciary. 

The judges and chancellors are elected by joint ballot of both houses. 
They hold their commissions during good behavior, and receive a compen- 
sation which can neither be increased nor diminished during their contin 
uance in office. Repeated attempts have been made to limii their tenun 
to 65 or 70 years, but without success. A judge or chancellor may order j 
special court, and a chancellor may hear cases, by consent, at cbambera^ 
Chancellors in Equity. 



. 


Appointed, 


SalflfiJl 


Job Johnston, of Newbury, 


1830, 


$3,(MWr 


Benjamin Faneuil Dunkin, of Charleston, 


1837, 


3,<J00 


G. W. Dargan, of Darlington, 


1847, 


3,000 


F. H. Wardlaw, of Edgefield, 


1851, 


3,000 


Judges of the General Sessions and Common Pleas, 




J. B. O'Neall, of Newbury, 


1835, 


3,000 


D. L. Wardlaw, of Abbeville, 


1841, 


3,W)0 


Edward Frost, of Charleston, 


1844, 


3,000 


T.J. Withers, of Camden, 


1847, 


3,000 


J. N. Whitner, of Anderson, 


1851, 


3,000 


T. W. Glover, 


1853, 


3,000 


Robert Munro, 


1853, 


3,000 


Isaac W. Hayne, of Charleston, Attorney- General, 


1,100 and faes. 


W. J. Hanna, Solicitor for Eastern Ciremt, 900 


and fees. 


Henry M*Iver, " fVestern " 


000 


and feci^ 


SimeomFair, ** Middle ** 


900 


and^ 


23* 




r 



i 



870 SOUTH CABOLCfA. [1855. 

T. N. Dawkins, SoUeUarfar J^arthem Chremt^ 900 and fees. 

M. L. Bonbam, " Southern «•' 900 and fees. 

J. S G. RicbardAon, of Smithville, SlaU Reporter, 1851, 1,500 

Late Court ofJlppeaU, and Equity Court ofjSpptals. — Tbe former, con- 
fistiog of all the law judges, for hearing appeals from the courts of law, 
and the latter, of all the chancellors, for hearing appeals from tbe courts of 
equity, are held in Columbia on the first Monday in May and fourth Mon- 
day in Noyember. These courts are also held in Charleston on the second 
Monday in January, for hearing and determining appeals for the Districts of 
Georgetown, Horry, Beaufort, Colleton, and Charleston. 

CUrks. — At Charleston, T. J. Gantt. At Columbia, A. Herbemont. 

Courts fbr the Correction of Errors^ consisting of all tbe judges in law 
and equity, to try constitutional questions, or questions where tbe law and 
equity courts are divided, and which are referred thereto by either of the 
courts, are held at such times, during the sitting of the Court of Appeals, as 
the chancellors and judges may appoint. 

Courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions, — These courts have 
original jurisdiction in all civil cases where legal rights are involved (except 
in matters of contract where the amount is $ 20 or under), and in all crim- 
inal cases affecting free white men ; and appellate jurisdiction in all ap- 
peals from Magistrates' Courts, and in appeals from the Court of 'Ordinary 
in all cases except in matters of account. They are held in each and every 
district of the State twice in each year. The times of holding the court for 
Charleston District are the, first Monday in May, to sit six weeks, and the 
fourth Monday in October, to sit four weeks. Daniel Horlbeck, Clerk for 
Charlsst&H District. 

Courts of Equity take cognizance of all matters belonging to a court of 

equity, ns contradistinguished from a court of law. A term is held by one 

*^mi^tjl|uri Liiit)ually,in each district, except Charleston District, where two 

lerTiiH are li^.-Ld; viz. on the first Monday in February, to sit six weeks, and 

bn tl}Q gecond Monday in June, to sit four weeks. * 

Cittj Ctmtt of Charleston. — An inferior court of limited jurisdiction both 
Id criviL iind criminal causes. William Rice, Recorder. 

QFdiminj9 Court. — Each district has its own Ordinary. The principal 
dutiu^ of the Ordinary are to grant letters of administration ; probate of 
willft - eiamine executors and administrators* accounts, &c. His ofiice is 
t1i$ prnpt^r depository of wills and other papers relative to the administration 
i>fejtui(^ff. An appeal lies from his determination, in matters of account, 
to the Court of Equity, and, in all other cases, to the Court of Common 
Plena. M, T. Mendenhall, Ordinary for Charleston District. 

Magistrtttes' Courts have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of contract of 
and under twenty dollars. 

CotiTt nf Magistrates and Freeholders, for the trial of slaves and free per- 
tfona uf color for criminal offences. 

Finances. 

Total recflipt^ during the year ending September 30th, 1853, . . . . # 381,430.90 

&HLl&tiQQj October 1, 1862, 276,674.40 

toial meKifl, 668^106.30 



># 



Chief Sources of Income. 

General •Taxes, 1851, . . . $4,932.66 

General Taxes, 1852, . . .336,920.59 

Diridende on Railroad and Bank 

shares, . . . ... 33,354.00 

Miscellaneous, .... 1,223.65 

Frindpal Items of BxpendUure. 
Artillery expenses, . . . $1,425.00 
Arsenals and military schools, . 30,100.00 

Claims, 6,591.94 

Charleston and Georgetown Harbor, 1,100.40 
Contingent accounts, . . . 41,844.00 
Catawba Indians, .... 1,500.0() 
Defence of the State, . . 37,310.00 



1855.] SOUTH CAROLINA. 271 

$658,106.30 

Total expeDditures for same period, 482.974.67 

Balance, October 1st, 1853, .$175,130.63 

Indemnity for slaves executed, . $ 1,200.00 
Jurors and Constables, . . . 28,325.50 
Legislative certificates, . . 20,951.98 

Libraries, 3,688.23 

Paupers at Lunatic Asylum, . 850.00 

Improvements to Lunatic Asylum, 30,000.00 
Public buildings, .... 35,633.32 
Public printing, .... 8,725.19 
Quarantine Regulations, . . 1,000.00 
Salaries of public Officers, . . 81,967.72 
State House and grounds, and fire- 

prooftuilding, . . . 52,148.84 

Transient poor, .... 5,00000 

Contingent Fund, . . . 17,000.00 

Military contingencies, . . . 5,000.00 

Delegates to Nashville Convention, 162.00 South Carolina College Chapel, . 10,000.00 

Deaf, dumb, and blind, . . 6,822.41 Orphan at College, . . . 400.00 

Free schools, .... 47,961.96 

State Debt. — The debt of the State is as follows : — 

Three, five, and six per cent. State stocks, 

Six per cent, slock and five per cent, steriing bonds, fire loan, . . . 

Amount of absolute debt, . $1,913,605.64 

Annual interest thereon, . 101,463.26 

The State has a contingent debt of $ 1,051,422.09, being the amount of surplus revenue re- 
ceived from the United States. There is also a temporary indebtedness to the Indians, Free 
Schools, and the Bank, of $ 229,588.02. With all this indebtedness, there is still a balance in 
fevor of the State, of productive property owned by the State, of $2,310,052.74. 

State Bowjfc.— The profits of the bank for the year ending September 30, 1S63, were, 
deducting $29,075.90 to meet doubtful and bad debts, $330,000. From \\m amount ihera 
has been paid $ 52,093.56, for interest on the debt in Europe ; also the in le nest on the 6 per 
cents (fire loan), amounting to $48,869.44; and the sum of $229,037 wa^ iraiisferrad lii^ 
the sinking Amd. 
The aggregate funds of the bank on the 1st of October, 1853, were, $ 7, 01 0.03a.4l» 

From this dedua bank liabilities, viz. : — 

Issues. $2,563,^29,12 

Due Treasury, 187,427.-^ 

Due Treasury for Sinking Fund, redemption of 5 & 6 per cent, stock, 740, 1 89/i8 

Net profits in 1853, 229,037,00 

State Treasury for loan under act for rebuilding Charleston, . 1,741, cr>^.23 

Due banks, 160,190,02 

Due depositors, 843^460.06 

Bills payable, 191,332.37 

Other debts, " 13S,a5a.J0 

Capital, 1,1^,460.73 

7,919,932.49 

Property of the StaU, September 30, 1853. 

Bank ofthe State of South Carolina, for capital, $S,€M,im,01 

" " for sinking fund, 969,2^ 2fl 

" " for the current fund, .... 317.587.44 

Shane in Railroad Companies in the State, ....... 1,34^300,00 

Balances due by tax-collectors, sherilft, &c., 9,331JS 

Hamburg bonds, * . %,WfM 

Total, 10,604,668,41* 



272 



GBOBOIA. 



[1855. 



Tha taxM for the year 1963 were a« follows: — Upon 378,907 daree, $226,98120; on 
2,929 free negroes, $ 5,868 ; on merchandise, f 20,426.44 ; on faculties, professions, &c., 
$8,884.62; on town lots, 67,588.06; on $ 17,145,320 acres of land, ralued at $ 10,207,591, 
$ 40,830.36 ; arrears, &c, $ 1,201. 18. Total, $ 361 ,776.87. 

/Vee SehooU. — Number of schools in 1849, 1,023 ; number of teachers, 1,019 ; number of 
scholars, 9,122. The Legislature ai^ropilates $ 76,000 annually to firee schools. GoTem(Nr 
Bfanning, in his message of November 28, 1863, says, that "under the prseent mode of 
applying it, that liberality b really the profusion of the prodigal, rather than the judicious 
generosity, which confers real benefit." He recommended " the establishment of a Board 
of Education and the appointment of a Commissioner of Public Instruction, whose duty 
it shall be to gather facts with regard to this State, and thoroughly inform himself upon the 
systems of such other governments as educate their people best, and report the result of his 
labors to the Board, who together shall digest a plan, to be submitted to you for ratification 
or rejection." 

State Lunatic Asylum, Columbia. — J. W. Parker, Superintendent. The number of 
patients, Nov. 6, 1851, was 127. Received during the year, 46; whole number, 173. Dis* 
charged during the year, cured, 30 ; and 8 died ; leaving in the Asylum, November 5, 
1852, 135, of whom 72 were males and 63 were females ; of the 135, 73 were paupers, and 
62 pay patients ; January Ist, 1835, there were in the asylum 61 patients, received since, 
645, in all, 696, of whom 260 have been discharged, cured, 70 have been removed, and 12 
died. The receipU during the year were $ 28.539.28 ; the expenditures, $ 23,894.48. , 



XV. GEORGIA. 

Government for the Year 1855. 
Hkrschkl v. Johnbon, of Milledgeville, Governor (term of office Salary, 
expires November, 1855), $3,000 

E. P. Watkins, of Henry Co., Secretary of StaU^ 1,600 

John B. TfTppc, of Putnam Co., Treasurer^ 1,600 

itikiel S. Ciindler, of Carroll Co., Comptroller' General^ 1,600 

Pteus^ani IVI. Compton, of Baldwin Co., Surveyor- General^ 1,600 

Ciirr, of Athens, State Librarian. 

ii$wis Zuelmry, of Newton Co., Keeper of the Penitejitiary, 

I ir Campbell, of Floyd Co., Commissioner of Deaf and Dumb. 
lolm D . St i> 1 1 , of Fayette Co., President of the Senate^ f 8 a day. 

McC. Moorfij of Sumter Co., Secretary of the Senate, 500 

Svhn £. Ward, of Chatham Co., Speaker of House of Rep. fi/^&hdsj , 

W* T. \V affo rdj of Cass Co., Clerk of House of Rep.^ 500 

"S. T. Gil a p man I of Chatham Co., State Printer, 

Tbe pay fvf members of the Legislature is $ 5 a day. The Legislature 
mirats bJtJimi^Lliy, The last Legislature met in November, 1853. 

JUDICIART. 



Qezcr H. Starnes, 
^Joseph IL Liiinpkin, 
Henry L, BLiining, 
Hohftfl E, Mitrlin, 
jriiOflJiJL£obb, 



Supreme Court, 

of Augusta, Judge, 

of Athens, " 

of Columbus, " 

of Milledgeville, Clerk, 

Reporter. 



Term ends. Salary. 

1855 $2,500 

1857 2,500 

1859 2,500 



1855.] GEOBGIA. 278 

The judges of the Sapreme Coart are elected for six years (one every 
two years) by the General Assembly, and are removable upon address of 
two thirds of each house. All causes shall be determined at the first term ; 
and in case the plaintiff is not ready for trial, unless he be prevented " by 
some providential cause,'* the judgment of the court below shall be affirmed. 
Judges of the Superior Court are elected for four years, by the people of 
the district over which they preside, with jurisdiction exclusive in criminal 
cases, and in land cases, and concurrent in all other civil cases. Justices 
of the inferior courts are elected by the people, for four years. Justices of 
the peace are elected by the people in districts. Each county elects an 
*' ordinary,*' who holds office for four years, and has the ordinary jurisdic- 
tion of a judge of probate, and is paid by fees. 

The State is divided into thirteen circuits, with a judge and solicitor for 
each. The salaries of the judges are $ 1,800 each. The Attorney-General 
is the solicitor for the Middle Circuit". 

Solicitors. Residence. 

J. B. Weema, Savannah. 

. J. J. Winne, Thomasville. 

P. F. D. Scarborough, Hawkinaville. 

Wm. J. Peeples, Gainesville. 

John T. Shewmake, Waynestwro'. 

Thomas P. SafTold, Madison. 

Joseph A. Thrasher, McDonough. 

Charles J. Williams, Columbus. 

John J. Word, Cassville. 

L. E. Bleckley, Atlanta. 

John Lyon, Albany. 

W. K. DeGraflenieiJ, Mncon- 

Edward D. ChishoJRi, Vaiiwerl. 
Salary. 
Jno. T. Shewmake, of Waynesboro, .^/tom«i^-G«neraZ, ^250 and perquisite^. 
G. T. Howard, of Chatham Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and Ttr- 

miner. Savannah, $ 1 ,000 

Wm. T. Gould, of Richmond Co., Judge of Court of Oyer end Ter- 
miner ^ Augusta, 1 ,0Q0 

Finances. 

The public debt of the State consists of bonds issued for the constniction nf the W^ftrn 
and Atlantic Etailway. Its aggregate amount may be stated at t^iBOl^ST^, ihd ^to-jter 
portion of which, • 1,756,472, is in federal bonds payable at the treasury) Jind tha rust in 
sterling bonds. The semiannual dividends of interest, as well as the principal of iha eicrUnff 
bonds, are payable in London. The debt is redeemable from 1863 to 1874, The Luinual in- 
terest on the debt is 8168,1 18. The Sinking Fund amounts to $ 166,600. 

The annual receipts Into the Treasury for all purposes average nearly £ TW.OnOj and ths 
annual expenditures, excfusive of debts and schools, are about $ 320,000, The chl£rdoiirci»a 
of income are the general tax, $375,000; a special tax on bank and rallro&d a%atka 
$25,000 ; and the income from the State road, 9300,000. The principal Itflims r»rt:cp&QJitur6 
are, the pay of the Legislature, biennially, about S 50,000; of the civil eslDbEieliimQnl| 
including the judiciary, annually, $50,000; Deaf and Dumb and Lunalic jVi^ytum, atkiiit 
$ 30,000 ; printing, miscellaneous, and contingent, annually, $ 20,000. Ths hnn^^ ofintMrvsi 
on, and reduction of, the public debt are additional. Tlie receipts for tbe» ynir t^rkOlufKiypt. 
30, 1853, were $ 922,140.16 ; the disbursements, $ 900,534.60 } balance, f 2i ,G05.tift, 



Circuit. 


Judges. 


Residence. 


Northern, 


G. Andrews, 


Sparta. 


Eastern, 


Wm. B. Fleming, 


Savannah. 


Southern, 


Peter E. Love, 


ThomasviUe. 


Western, 


James Jackson, 


Monroe. 


Middle, 


W. W. Holt, 


Augusta. 


Ocmulgee, 


R. V. Hardeman, 


Clinton. 


Flint, 


James H. Stark, 


Griffin. 


Chattahoochee, E. H. Worrell, 


Talbottom. 


Cherokee, 


J. Trippe, 


Cuthberu 


Coweta, 


Edward Y. Hill, 


Lagrange. 


Southwestern 


Wm. C. Perkins. 




Macon, 


Abner P. Powers, 


Macon. 


Blue Ridge, 


David Irwin, 


Marietta. 



274 



FLORIDA. 



[1855. 



The producUra propartj ownad by the SUie conslflU ofshuw In the Western and Atkntic 
Railroad, which coat the Stale $ 3,000.000, and are estimated to be worth that amoant. 
There is besides unproductive property owned by the State to the amount of $250,000. 

Common SehooU. — The amount of the School Fund owned by the Stale is 823,066. 
The Poor School Pand Is distributed among the sereral counties, and is paid out to teachers, 
ofachools and academies ratably, reguhUed by the report of the magistratas of each district. 

Public Iiutitutiotu.—ThB State Prison at MilledgeviUe has 122 conricu. The Lunatic 
Asylum at Midway, ne<ir MilledgeviUe, has 120 inmates. The Sute appropriates annually 
• 15,000 to this asylum, and the last Legislature appropriated $25,000 to enlarge and im- 
prove the buildings. The Sute has an institution in Murray County for the education of 
the deaf and dumb and Uiod. 



XVI. FLORIDA. 
Oovemment for tke Year 1855. 
of Tallahassee, Governor (term expires Salary. 

( 500 annually for expenses of residence, and $ 1,500 
of Madison, Secretary of StaU^ Fees and 600 
of Tallahassee, ComptroUer^ 1,100 

" Treasurer^ 800 

** Register of Public Lands^ and 

Sup*t of Schools^ f( 1,200 and travelling expenses, 
of Hillsborough, President of the Senate^ $ 3 a day. 
of Madison Co., Secretary of the Senate, 5 a day. 
of St. Lucie Co., Speaker of the House^ 3 a day. 

of , Clerk of the House, 5 a day. 

of Tallahassee, Private Secretary of Governor^ $ 200 



Jamks E. Broomk, 
October, 1857), 
F. L. Villepique, 
T. W. Brevard, 

C. H. Austin, 
David S. Walker, 

H. V. Snell, 

D. G. Livingston, 
W. F. Russell, 
Hugh A. Corley, 
James H. Buel, 

Thii [iioaibers of the General Assembly are chosen on the first Monday 
j^rOcLaher, biennially. The Assembly meets biennially on the fourth Mon- 
lay in Nov<;iiil>Br. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court- 

Salary. 
Thomas BalLEell, of Tallahassee, Chief Justice, $2,000 

C. H. Dupont, ofQuincy, Associate Justice^ 2,000 

Tldiniri^ I^^'iTglas, of Jacksonville, « " 2,000 

Juliri V \i Savage, Clerk, Fees. 

Tite (lennraJ Assembly of 1850-51 tistablished a separate Supreme 
Cacirt, to consist of a chief justice and two associate justices. The Su- 
])retu<] CotirL holds four sessions annually; one in Tallahassee, on the first 
MoTuUiy in January ; one in Jacksonville, on the third Monday in FebfU- 
arv ; mm in Tampa, on the first Monday in Inarch ; and one in Marianna, 
on tliu Uiinl Monday in March. When any one or two of the judges of 
th« 8tiprti]iJt^ Court are disqualified from sitting in any cause, the vacancy is 
&(lod 1^^ ji corresponding number of the Circuit Judges, who, in such case, 
ctmMHiMPfl a part of the Supreme Court. They likewise passed a law pro- 
VM(i**j5 n>r n rhnnge in the constitution, so as to give the election of justices 
<*f lint J^iipr.Piia Court and judges of the Circuit Court to the people, which 
r twQoroe the law. 



1855.] 



ALABAMA. 



275 



Circuit Courts, S&Iarj. 

Wm. A. Forward, of Jacksonville, Judge, Eastern Circuit, $ 2,000 
J. Wayles Baker, of Tallahassee, '< Middle «< 2,000 

J.J. Finley, of Marianna, " Western •« 2,000 

Thomas F. King, of Key West, *« Southern <« 2,000 

M. D. Papy, . of Tallahassee, AUorney- General and Rep., 500 

[and ^ 250 additional ms Reporter. 
James M. Landrum, of Walton Co., Solicitor, Western Circuit, ( 800 
Samuel B. Stephens, of Gladsden, « Middle «< «« 

James M. Baker, of Alligator, ** Eastern «« «< 

Hardy D. Kendrick, of Tampa, " • Southern ** « 

The State is divided into four circuits. Eastern, Middle, Western, and 
Southern ; and the judges of the Circuit Court, in the order in which 
they are named above, preside in their cespective circuits. 

FHnancea. — Ttie receipts froin all sources are about $60,000 a year, and the annual ex- 
penditures amount to nearly that sum. 



XVII. ALABAMA. 



Government f&r the Year 1855. 
John A. WiirsToir, of Mobile, Governor (term of office ex- Salary. 

pires on the 1st Monday in December, 1855), $2,500 

Vincent M . Ben ham, of Montgomery, Secretary of State, Fees and 1 ,200 

Joel Riggs, of Montgomery, Comptroller of Public Accounts, 2,000 

William Graham, of Lowndes Co., State TVea^urcr, 1|800 

J. J. Mickle, of yLoiiigomery, Adj. and Inspector- General, 2(K] 

A. P. Pfister, of Montgomery, Quaiten?ta5/er- General, 

Michael Tuomey, of Tuscaloosa, State Geologist, 2 

John Whiting, of Montgomery, CommV if Trustee to settle Jlffatrs 

of State Bank and Brancftfs^ 2 
J. A. Pettus, of Montgomery, Private Secretary to Coifrtior 

and Keeper of StatK-Iiau^Cf 
President of Senate, 
Clerk. 

Speaker of the House. 
Clerk. 



William B. Martin, of Benton Co., 
J. H. Phelan, of Coosa Co., 

William Garrett, of Coosa Co., 
M. GrahiEim, of Coosa Co., 

The Senate consists of 33 members, elected for four years, one Jjalf goli 
out every two years. The House of Representatives consists of 1 UO mBU 
bers, elected for two years. The Legislature meets biennialfy in the ciiy j 
Montgomery, on the second Monday of November. The tliird btto^ni 
■ession commenced in November, 1853. The pay of the menibera of h^ 
bouses is $ 4 a day each. 

JUDICIART. 

Supreme Court. ^ 

William P. Chilton, of Tnskegee, • Chief Justice, .f . 

Geo. Goldthwaite, ofMonlgomerj, Associate Justice, ^^mM.i 

Samuel F. Rice, of Montgomery, 



276 



ALABAMA. 



[1866. 



Marion A. Baldwin, of Montgomery, AUomey* General^ Fees and 4525 

J. H. Shepherd, of Montgomery, Reporter, 

John D. Pbelan, of Marion, Clarkf Feea. 

The judgea of the Supreme Court, and tlie chancellors, are elected by a 
joint vote of the two houses of the General Assembly, for six years. The 
Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiciion only, and holds its sessions at the 
seat of government, on the first Monday of January and June of each year, 
for hearing and determining points of law taken by appeal from the Chan- 
cery, Circuit, and Probate Courts. The volumes of reported decisions are 
forty-two in number. 

Court of Chancery. EUarj. 

Wade Keyes, of Montgomery, CkanedUn Southern Dioision^ $2,000 

James B. Clarke, of EuUw, « MiddU «' 2,000 

A. J. Walker, of Talladega, <« J^orthem " 2,000 

The State is divided into three chancery divisions and thirty-nine dis- 
tricts, in each of which one session of the court is held annually, and in 
some of the larger districts two sessions are held. 
Circuit Courts, 



Circuit 


JudgM. 


Salary. 


Residence. 


Sollcitora. 


Ut. 


Aadraw B. Moore, 


• 2,000 


Marlon. 


Henry C. Lea. 


ad. 


Nathan Cooke, 


« 


HaynesvlUe. 


James A. StaUworth. 


3d. 


Georgt D. Shortridge, 


II 


Montevallo. 


William S. Mudd. 


4th. 


John E. Moore, 


11 


Florence. 


John S. Kennedy. 


6th. 


Thomas A. Walker, 


II 


Jackson trille. 


James M. Adams. 


6th. 


Charies W. Rapier, 


II 


Mobile. 


D. C. Anderson. 


7th. 


E. W. Pettui, 


" 


Oainesville. 


A. E. Van Hoose. 


y--... 


J... CiilJSi;}iofler. 


" 


Barbour Co. 


Marion A. Baldwin. 


9th. 


Koben Doisf liertjf, 


*' 


Tuskegee. 


J. J. Woodward. 



This (•oun hm original jurisdiction in all civil and criminal causes in the 
Bliite. TvifD BDagions (epring and rdl) are held each year in every county. 

IThti BoliciiorSf liosided fees, receive a salary of $250, except in the first 
ta|^uit^ where the salary is f 350. The Attorney-General acts as Solicitor 
A^ ihf} eighth clrcutt. 
Id MijUiIti County ibe criminat jurisdiction has been transferred to a 
Citjf Court for Mobile, Salary. 

iUe i: a nd e r Mc K( □ stry , of Mobile, Judge, $ 2,000 

This court holds three terms each year, on the first Monday of Febru- 
vy and Jurve^ and the aecond Monday of October, and has concurrent juris- 
, , djition with the Cirt^uU Cotiri^ except in real actions. 

Ijiudgts of Probata (who are a bo Clerks of the court and Registers of Deeds 
for their respective counties). 
Caunticif. Jut^gei, Coiiinies. Judges. Counties. Judges. 

Aljianga — Emky B r^ t^ n , Faj ctio — John C. Moore, Monroe — Charles H. Foster, 
Bald if ill — Pflirick BjF rno, FrafikHn — Jas. H. Trimble, Montgomery —H. N. Watson, 
Green — Jvnes R. ^vans, 
Ikiicr^ct —John Penn, 
Hvmy — Peter McNaughton, 
J^ckKHi — Juhn C. Dixon, 



Qttlttiin — AlexaiiikT WdcmJa, 
m W. SutLlft, 



Morgan — Wm. H. Campbell, 
Perry — James F. Bailey, 
Pickens— Tristr. S. Thomas, 
Pike— Bird Fitqwtrick, 



1855.] 



ALABAMA. 



277 



CSountiea. Judge*. OounUai. Judgas. Countie*. Judges. 

Butler — Samuel J. BoUi ng, Jefferaoa — Irab Bagley, Randolph — Joseph Burton, 

Chambers — Samuel Pearson, Lawrence — Hen. H. McGhee, Russell — Thomas S^ Tate, 
Clarke — Henry W. Coate, Lowndes — Edward H. Cook, Shelby — J. M. McClanahan, 
Chocuw — Carter N. Wilcox, Lauderdale— W. T. Hawkins, St. Clair — Ross Phillips, 
Cherokee — Wm. £.McDaniel,Lime8tone — Thos. O. Tyus, Sumpter — Benj. J. H. Gainns, 
Coffee — James Clazton, Macon — Lewis Alexauder, Talladega — Alex. J. 

Conecuh — AD. Carey, Madison — F. L. Hammond, Tallapoosa — Marcus C. Lane, 

Coosa — J. W. Suttle, Marion — John D. Terrell, Tuscaloosa — Moses McOuira, 

Covington — Wm, T. Acres, Marengo — James A. Young, Walker — Thos. M. Gabbet, 
Dale — Abel Echols, Marshall — Montg. Oilbreath, Washington — T. S. Parker, 

Dallas — Thomas G. Rainer, Mobile — Edwin Rust, Wilcox — John A. Jacksoo. 

De Ealb— Reuben Estes, 

In consequence of an amendment of the constitution of the State, ratified in January, 
1850, the preceding list of Judges of the Circuit Courts, Judge of the City Court of Mobil*, 
and Judges of Probate were all elected by the peopkj on the first Monday of May, 1860, and 
for a term of six years. 

Finances. 
Foreign debt, June 30, 1853, $4,497,666.00 



Annual interest on the same, nearly . 
Domestic debt, riz: — 

Common school fund, 

University fund, . 

Three per cent, fund, 
Total amount of domestic debt, . 
Annual interest on the same, nearly 



1 1,07^,817.64 
250,000.00 
345,403.33 



230,000.00 



1,671,220.97 
60,000.00 



The State Is also liable for 8 669,088.95, United States surplus revenue. 

Tlie receipts and expenditures for the years 1862 and 1853 were as follows : — 

Receipts in 1862 $699,687.85 

Receipts in 1853, 664,230.32 

ti.aa,aiai7 

Balance in Treasury, November 1, 1851, , ft2n 7-11 06 j 

Total means for 1852 and 1853, %ymfimM 

Expenditures in 1852, . • $ 665,215.08 

Expenditures in 1853 186,274 46 

Si7l,i^ 

Balance in Treasury, 30th September, 1858, ^l^zmM'aM 

Of this balance at least $ 1,000,000 are in the notes of thefitate bank and bmrichi^. WMnn 
these notes are in circulation, they constitute a liability of the State ; when iiuho iretrntury , 
they are only evidence of debts paid. This reduces considerably the batnutu h) the 
Treasury. 



Chief Sources of Income. 

. $1,083,323.78 



Taxes, .... 

Banks, 

Two and three per cent. Funds, . 

Comroon School Fund, 

From United States, for suppressing 

Creek hostilities. 
From United States, expenditures for 

Mexican War, .... 
Taxes on suits in Supreme Court, 
SaleofOodeof Alahama, . 
Other sources, .... 

Principal hema of Expenditure. 
Salaries and expenses of ExecDep., $17,967.67 
24 



Salaries of Judiciary, . . %AAS^Ml 
Pay, &c. of the General Assembly^ M^m'i 16 



12,000.00 One half value of slaves executL^d, 



35,903.13 
87,146.82 

17,762,23 

6,206.89 
6,281.22 
2,976.15 



Public printing. 

Expenses of the Code of Alabama, 

Interest on Common School Fund, 

University Fund, 
Trustees of State Bank& brancbes, a9^3,73a,4! 



Three per cent. Fund, 
Support of prisoners, . 
Alabama Insane Hospital, 
13,217.90 Indigent deaf and dumb. 



Decisions of Supreme Court, 
Prosecution of crime, . 



2S,7l 



278 MISSISSIPPI. [1855. 

Alabama Penitentiary. — At Wetiimpinu Whole number in confinement, Oct. 1, 18S2, 
156, — 1S2 males, 4 females. Received during the year, 93. Whole number during the year, 
219. Discharged by expiration of sentence, 23 ; by pardon, 24 ; escape, 6 ; death, 5 ; error, 1 ; 
in all, 68; leaving In prison OcU 1, 1853, 191, all males, — 190 white, and 1 free colored. 

13 were convicted of murder in the first degree ; 17 in second degree ; 6 of manslaughter ; 

14 of assault with intent to kill; U of negro stealing; 17 of horse stealing; 6 of robbing the 
mail ; 10 of robbery ; 41 of larceny. There were 16 under 20 years of age ; 81 from 20 to 30 ; 
66ftt>m30to40; 21 from 40 to 50; 11 from 50 to 60; 6finm60to70; 1 from 70 to 80. 23 
•rs natives of Alabama ; 25 of Georgia ; 24 of South Carolina ; 11 of Tennessee ; 67 of other 
States; and 41 foreigners. 18 are imprisoned for life; 4 for 20 years; 34 for 10 yearsj and 
103 for 5 years and under. 

Provifitfn was made by the Legislature of 1851 and 1852 for establishing a Sute institution 
called "The Alabama Insane Hospital," and an appropriation was made towards the erection 
of buildings. Also, 1 5,000 were appropriated for *' organizing and susuining an institution 
for the deaf and dumb." 

The sum oft 10,000 was set apart to aid tho State geolpgist in the discharge of his duties. 



XVUI. MISSISSIPPI. 

Government for the Year 1855. 

Term expires. Salary. 

John J. McRAX,ofClark Co., Governor, Jan., 1856, $3,000 

W. H. Muse, of Tishemingo, Secretary of State, Nov., 1855, 1,200 

C. F. Hemmingway, of Carroll, State Treasurer, " 1,500 

Madison McAfee, of Holmes, Auditor of Public Accounts, ^ 1,500 

L. Julienne, Adjutant- General, , 600 

M. M. Smith, Keeper of the Capitol and Librarian, 500 

F. L. Swiinn, Keeper of ike Penitentiary, 1,500 

LKobert JcNMljn, State Commissioner, 1,500 

Judiciary. 

High Court of Errors and Appeals. 

Term ends. Salary. 
otesMTonli P. Smith, of Woodville, Presid, Judge, 2d Dist, 1855, $ 3,000 
Jiaa S. Fiftlmr, of Yalobusha, Judge, 3d Dist., 1857, 3,000 

David C. Glenn, of Jackson, Attorney- General, 1,200 

C- R. Clifton, Clerk, Fees. 

Th<? juttdiiiction of the High Court is appellate exclusively. There are 
two lern^^ each year in Jackson, commencing on the first Monday of 
April and October. The court may continue in session as long as busi- 
ness r£?((3jirest and may order a special term, or adjourn to meet at any time. 
The judg^.^a are also authorized to meet annually on the third Monday in 
June, iri t\m lown of Oxford, to receive the written and hear the oral argu- 
ments of causes from the third district, provided the State is not a party. 
The reporter is elected by the Legislature. The reports are to be called 
the *^ Mi»^3i39ippi Reports/' and are to be printed, bound, and published in 
the i^taie of Mississippi. The common law form of pleading has been 
ftboUflhed, and a system somewhat similar to that of chancery or civil law 



1855.] MISSIBBIPPI. 279 

The Superior Court of Chancery, held at the Capitol at Jackson, is in 
law considered always open. The Chancellor is authorized to hold the 
same at such times and for such periods as business may require, upon giv- 
ing three weeks' notice in the newspapers. The District Chancery Courts 
have concurrent power and jurisdiction, within their respective districts, 
with the Superior Court of Chancery, where the amount in controversy 
does not exceed $500,000, and have the same power as the Chancellor of 
the State, both in term time and in vacation. Special terms of the District 
Chancery Courts may be holden by the Vice-Chancellors, respectively, by 
giving thirty days* public notice. 

The Circuit Court has original jurisdiction in civil cases in which \)ie 
sura in controversy exceeds $50. For each of the seven circuits, a judge 
and attorney are elected, every four years, from November, 1840. It has 
also exclusive criminal jurisdiction. ' 

There is also a Probate Court, with a judge and clerk for each county. 
The Probate Court in most of the counties has a term of from two to six 
days each month. The Probate Clerk is also Register of Deeds. 



Charles Scott, 
John T. Simms, 

Henry Dickinson, 
A..B. Dawson, 

Seldon S. Wright, 



Superior Court of Chancery. 

of , Chancellor^ 

• of Jackson, Clerk, 

District Chancery Courts, 
Vice- Chancellor, Northern District, 
«* Southern DiaLrict, 

« Middle District, 

District or Circuit Courts, 



Salary. 
$2,600 



$2,000 
2,000 
2^ 



s 

1 

2 
3 

4 


Judges. 


District Attomeya 


Q 
■5 
6 
7 


Judges, 


DtalrlctAltcmieyM. 


Stanhope Posey. 
Wiley P. Harris. 
Richards BametL 
John Watts. 


Thomas Y Berry 
John E. McNair. 
Charles E. Hooker. 
George Wood. 


Robert C. Perry. 
HughR.MlUer. 


taham MnrrisonH 
JohjjW.Thomptun 



FllTAlfCKS. 

The total receipts into the Treasury from Jan. 1, 1850, to Dec 11, ISSI , wvrv f S2I ,00^21 , 
of which S 131,646.14 were from the lax of 1850. The disbursement s during itiB eame pe- 
riod were 8223,637.15, showing an excess of disbursements over receipLe oT S2,43£-04. A 
report of the State Treasurer, dated Feb. 16, 1852, shows that there wius due on itiAt Jaie ^-^ 



$95,152.22 



To the sinking fund, 

To seminary fund. 

To two per cent, fund, . 

To appropriation to the common 
school fund, riz : — 
To the 9th of March, 1850, . 200,000.00 

To the 1st of May, 1861, . 60,000.00 

To the 1st of May, 1852, . . 600,000 00 



Amount brought irp» 
79,662.67 To Chickasaw scliool fund, 
8,502.88 



8,712.43 
To three per cent fund, . . 24^896.09 
In the treasury, frtmn all aources, 
February 16, 1852, . i . 483,^13.0$ 

Deficit, . , . , 8^,107.57 



$516,926 22 

Common Schooh.^ There is no uniform Common School dystetb for all the countJsi. 
Each township has a school fund arising from the lease of lands grsnted by Consre-N^ fnr 
common school purposes, — every 16ih section in each townslilp Imvin^ bua «o gmiUeJ* 
These Uuids are leased for rarious periods, but mostly for nindiy-nine years. Tho money 
thence arising ii lotned aiuuaUy at not IflM than 8 nor more than 10 per coat, per ormam 



280 LOUUIAKA. [1865. 

lotarHL This Intaraft ii the tiDoant upiXM to toitioD, fte. ■nnaaUj from the townahip 
fund. Then is aloo a couDtj fund, arisinf from fines, Ibrieitttrei, liceneee, ice., whieh ie 
diatribuied in iboee towoahips that are destitute or have but a small school fund. The 
school sections in some townshipe are worth many thousand dollars, and in others only a 
feer hundreds. Hence great inequality in the funds of the townships, and the necessity of 
tliB above method of distributlof the coonty funds. 



XIX. LOUISIANA. 

GovenunerU for the Year 1655. 

Term ends. Salary. 
Paul O.UsBXRT, of Iberville, Governor^ Jan., 1858, f 4,000 

• • Lieut.' Gov. ^ Pres. of Senate^ «* $ 8 a day, 

[during the session of the Legislatare. 
A. S. Heron, of Baton Roage, Secretary of State, Jan., 1856, 2,000 

Thomas B. R. Hatch, «* Priv. See. to Gov.^ 1,000 

C. E. Greneaux, ** Treasurer, 2,500 

Samuel F. Marks, of West Feliciana, j9tk2i£or of Accounts^ 4,000 

Louis Bringier, of New Orleans, Surveyor- General^ 600 

S. M. Westmore, of New Orleans, Mj. and Insp.- General^ 1856, 500 
L. J. Sigur, of New Orleans, Register of Land-Office^ "250&fee8. 

John N. Carrigan, of Point Coupee, Superintend, of Education,^* 2,000 
George W.Morse, of Natchitoches, SbKs Engineer, ** 3,000 

J. Claiton Taylor, of Baton Rouge, Assistant Engineer, '* 2,000 

Henry Droz, of New Orleans, State Librarian^ " 1,200 

The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are elected by a plurality of 
▼otes, and for four years. The Governor is ineligible for the four years 
succeeding his term of office. The Secretary of State is elected by the 
people for four years, and the Treasurer for two. Senators, 32 in number, 
are elected for four years ; one half every two years. Representatives, 
not less than 70 nor more than 100 in number, are chosen for two years. 
. The Legislature meets annually. The pay of senators and representatives 
I is $ 4 a day. The sessions are not to last more than 60 days : acts passed 
* afler 60 days are invalid. 

Judiciary. 
The chief justice of the Supreme Court is elected by the people of the 
x whole State, and for 10 years : the four associates are chosen for the same 
eriod, but in districts. Their compensation is established by the consti- 
l^tution. ' The Court is in session in New Orleans from the first Monday in 
^November to the end of June. It has appellate jurisdiction when more 
than ( 300 is in dispute, when the legality of any tax or of any fine imposed 
by a municipal corporation is in question, and in criminal cases, on ques- 
tions of law alone, when death, hard labor, or a fine of $ 300 is imposed. 
The attorney-general and the district attorneys are elected by the people 
for four years ; the former by the State at large ; the latter in their respec- 
tive districts. The inferior judges, clerks of court j justices of the peace, 
■heri&, and coroners are chosen by the people. 

* Lieui. Got. W. W. Farmer died of yeUow-lever, Ociober 89, 1851 



\ 



1855.] 



LOUISIANA. 



281 



Thomas Slidell, 

A. M. Buchanan, " 

A. N. Ogden, «» 

C. Voorhies, " 

James Campbell, of Natchitoches, 

Wm. L. Randolph, of New Orleans, 

Isaac £. Morse, " 

Eugene Lasere, *' 

Robert Taylor, of Opelousas, 

Duncan S.Goodwin, of Alexandria, 

Henry H. Bry, of Monroe, 



Supreme Court. 

of New Orleans, Chief Justice, April,' 1863, $ 6,000 

" Associate Justice, 1855, 5,500 

« " 1857, 5,500 

" " 1859, 5,500 

" 1861, 5,500 

Reporter, 2,500 

Attorney- General, 1856, 3,500 

Clerk in Jfeto Orleans, Fees. 

" Opelousasj " 

" Alexandria, «» 

" Monroe, " 



District Courts ofJiew Orleans : — 1st District. 



Districts. Judges. 
1. John C. Larue, 
James N. Lea, 
"Thomas H. Kennedy, 
M. M. Reynolds, 
D. Augustin, 
J. B. Cotton, 
B. S. Tappan, Attorney, 



2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



Term ends. Salary. 
1857, $3,500 
3,500 
3,500 
3,500 
3,500 
3,500 



Qerks. 
D. Scully, 
H. Derbes, 
W. J. Castell, 
W. C. Auld, 
W. A. Nott, 
S. Newberger, 



Term ends. 
Nov., 1858 



John P. Freret, Sheriff. 



Other District Courts. 



Districts. Judges. Attorneys. 

2. Octave S. Etousseau, Louis Lombard. 

3. Victor Burthe, 

4. Albert Duffel, 
6. Jas. L Cole, 

6. Wm B. Robertson, 

7. James L. Sterling, 

8. G. W. Watterston, 

9. Tliomas J. Cooley, 
10. Alonzo Snyder. 



Districts. Judges. Attorneys. 

11. Edward Barry, W. H. Hough. 

12. R. W. Richardson, R. J. Caldwell. 

13. Ralph Cushman, J. Id C. Ihirluw. 

14. Thos. C. Nicholls, S, H McGill. 
16. L. J. Dupr«, P. O. HaRiy. 

16. Chichester Chaplin, Wk J Hamitlqitr 

17. John Young', 

18. Henry M. SpofTord, GeorgfiWiUtaj 



C. P. Dreux. 

E. Legendre. 

J. J. Roman. 

Robert O. Beale. 

W. F. Kernan. 

Geo. H. Penn. 

P. A. Roy. 

James Nolan. 
Education. — The constitution prorides that " free puhlic schools shall bo estabTf sb 
throughout the State ; the proceeds of lands granted for the purpose, and of Eiiiida «ach^ifli 
to the Slate, shall be held as a permanent fund, on which six per cent. inierQ^l AhatL bw \ 
hy the State for the support of these schools." The yearly sum of • 250,000 is approprid 
for the support of the free schools of the State, and is derived from the levy ijf a tax or i 
mill on the dollar, and from the imposition of a poll-tax of S 1 on each wliita imnCft inhubSl- 
ant of the State. The School Fund, January 1, 1854, amounted to 8 3S7.7^.r^, — ihcirif 
• 343,972 57 of capital and • 43,756. 1 1 of accrued interest. There is be? i il t; ^ l fir s 1 1 i n^ ry 
Fund, which at the same date was • 140,627.96, — being • 122,071. &1 iif cipnil, ^nd ' 
1 18,466.32 of interest. But these now are funds of account only, and coDsist n^nrf^L^ of i 
debt of the State to the fund. The number of school districts in the Stat&r Sopiember \ 
1819, was 621 ; number of schools in operation, 704 ; number of children in tha Stnle bettf 
6 and 16, 63,716; average attendance for the year, 22,927. 20,262 children did noi pu 
schooL The average period of tuition was 6 months and 13 days. AmoKni «xpen^«tf \ 
teachers' salaries, $195,389; expended for building, renting, or purchaslni,' echuoE hoiisei', 
$134,689,000. By the Superintendent's Report in January, 1864, it appLiir** Utiisrr fro^e 
62,467 educable children between 6 and 16 years of age in the Sute in 1 S5vt. Thi» nc/H^iin^ 
paid to teachers out of the State apportionment for the year was $ 29,909 1 5. Tha Hchool 
report conulns no other school statistics than these of any general i 

24* 



MS LomsiAHA. [1855. 

FiVATOXt. 

Total raeeipu Into the Treasury Ibrtho year ending Dec 31, 1863, $2,148,407.66 
Balance, DecMDber 31, 1862, 355.704.84 

Tttlal rerenue for the year, 9 2,604,172.49 

Disbureeineate for the same period, 1,340,443.30 

BalanceintheTrearary, December 31, 1853 $1,163,729.19 

The aottrcas of income are direct taxes, aales of public lands, and licenses of trades and 
professions. The principal items of expenditare are the public debt, schools, executive and 
judiciary; erection of public buildings. Charity Hospital, deaf and dnmb^ orphans, ths 
Psailsntiary, &c. 

Chief SoureeM of Ineonu. iDistrict attorneys, . $10,603.18 

Ordinary revenue, general fund, $490,514.07g»Pen«« in criminal prosecutions, 15,384.51 
Sale of Bonds, .... 760,000.00[ro owners of slaves convicted, 1,500.00 

Loans lOO.OOO.Ooff^ P«Wic schools, . . . 343,826.43 

Dividends Banic Stock, . . 166,629.27^*^ Li»»f«7, .... 1,564.10 

Intsrsst from debu due, . . ii,070.09 Priming «>d advertising, . . 33,598i)l 
Geosral government, Mexican war, 7,325.86 Do. for constitutional convention, 16,249.25 

Sale ofslaves out of depot, . . 2,061.15 Sute census 8,536.58 

Sales internal improvement lands, l7,272.0fflCommis8ions to coHectors, . . 40,044.11 
Sales swamp hmds, . 209,170.96peduction8 to collecton, . 42,672.30 

Howl and Levee Fund,. . . 6,r65.73^Compensation to assessors, . . 27,488.77 

MlUtax, 340,076.49 Interest, 70,9880)0 

PoUtax, 38,683XKNP«»i<u»t 11,196.00 

ppropriations for charities, . 83,819.84 

Principal iKetna of Esptnditun, [premiums to builders of vessels 

Executive, .... $22,017.87 in the State 3,809.56 

Oontlngsnt expenses of Executive, 16,036.66 Revision of Statutes, 6,260.00 

Lsgislature, compensation and Advancement of medical educa- 

contingent expeiwes, . 128,023.21 tlon in the State, . . 6,000.00 

Judiciary 86,390.08lRepayment of loans, . . 200,000.00 

Smt Debt, —The Slate debt, properly so called, amounted January 1, 1854, to $ 2,069,000.00 
^ Add tot he Sute's indebtedness for the property banks, . . $8,421,888 

Secarji] MuiiicipaUty of New Orleans, 198,240 

8.620.12800 

TnL;^l S lite debt, $10,tid»,12b.U0 

Fif^. linnkB. — Vp to December 31, 1853, two banks had been organized under the Free 
Bahkiug Law, the Bank of New Orleans and the Southern Bank. The amount of notes 
• Connie r^l^iaed and issued to them was $ 829,000, and city and State securities to that amount 
<vejr^ lodf dd with the auditor. 

Xfi ui^inna Penitentiary. — Baton Rouge. Prisoners in confinement January 1, 1853, 273 ; 
]r«£«ETwj daring the year, 107; in ail, 380. Discharged by expiration of sentence, 78; by 
ps^rfljii, 6 ; by death, 13 ; in all, 97 ; leaving in prison January 1, 1854, 283, — 186 whiles, 82 
tflUirdxi Win, and 15 colored females ; and of these 77 were slaves. 44 were convicted of 
tnunler; '^of manslaughter; 2 of poisoning; 20 of assaulting or stabbing white men; 2 of 
ill veiglin^ slaves; 6 of negro stealing; 7 of horse stealing; 1 of aiding slave to escape; 68 
qfliircciiy -, 6 of burglary ; 27 of robbery. 45 were natives of Louisiana; 129 of other of the 
Untiuti Slates; and 109 were foreigners. The services of the prisoners are let out by 
contract. 

Ihnf find Dumb. —Buildings have been erected for this institution at Baton Rouge, and 

Ihlri^eei pupils were admitted up to March 1, 1853. The State paid $ 10,305 for the educa- 

lu>n oi'Ac f and dumb children in 1853. 

, _^^_5. ^ Jiii?*!. .Uy/um.— The State has erected a building for a State Lunatic Asylum at Jackson, 

^^^nind in 1853 paid $ 8,000 for the support of an Insane Asylum there. 

"^M Charity Hoepitat at New Orleane. — During the year 1853, 13,759 patients were admitted 

V|nto the Hospital ; 10,733 were discharged, and 3,164 died. Of the patients admitted, 12,333 



1865.] TBXAS. 888 

were natiTM of foreign countries, 1,531 of the United States, and ISO unknown. The coet of 
the maintenance of the Hospital for the year was 9 69,805.62 ; its raceipu were $83,141.93. 
There arrired in New Orleans during the year 25,954 adult pessengers, and 8,916 under 
14 years of age. The capitation tax on passengers for the use of the hospital amounted to 
$ 53,482.51. For the first time since 1842 the hospital was free from debt. 



XX. TEXAS. 

Gotemment for the Year 1855. 

Term ends. Salary. 

EdmuhdM.Pease, of Austin, Governor, Dec. 21, 1855, $2,000 

David C. Dicluon, of Anderson, Lieut,'Gov,^ Pres. ofSen.^ 1855, (5 a day 

[during session of Legislature. 
Edward Clark, of Austin, Secretary of SUUe^ 1,800 

Thos. J. Jennings, of Austin, Attorney* General^ 1,800 

James H.Raymond, of Austin, Treasurer^ 1,800 

James B. Shaw, of Austin, Comptroller^ 1,800 

John M. Swisher, of Austin, Auditor , 1,500 

James S. Gillett, of Austin, Adjutant- Genera^ 1,200 

Stephen Crosby, of Austin, Comm, of Land-OffUe^ 2,000 

James Gillespie, oi l^xxnXMsiXle^ SupeHntendent of Penitentiary^ 1,200 
The sessions of the Legislature are biennial, and are held at Austin, be« 
ginning on the first Monday in November. Members receive $ 5 a day, 
and $5 for every twenty-five miles* travel. The fifth biennial session 
met at Austin, November, 1853. 

Judiciary. 

The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and two asBociates, wfi 
are chosen by the people for six years. Sessions are held onec a year, at 
Austin, on the 2d Monday of November; at Galveston, on the let Ali^jndsy 
of January ; and at Tyler, on the Ist Monday in April. The court has ap 
pellate jurisdiction only coextensive with the limits of the State; but 
criminal cases, and appeals from interlocutory judgments, it is undur 1egi«]A« 
tive regulations. The judges of the District Court are elected fur aii years, 
and hold a court twice a year in each county. The District Cource htivo 
original jurisdiction in all criminal cases, and in all suits, both id law and 
equity, in which more than ( 100, exclusive of interest, ii iit stake. In 
criminal cases, if the punishment be not specifically determined by Wvf^ Uio 
jury shall determine it. In equity causes, either party may demand a jwry. 
The judges of both courts may be removed by the Governor on the adrlreg 
of two thirds of each house; or upon impeachment, to be tried by the Sen 
ate. There is also in each county a County Court, sitting once a month 
a Court of Ordinary, and once in three months for the transaciiMii of county 
business. Justices of the Peace, with jurisdiction to the amount <?r $ 10 
are elected in precincts fbr two years. 



284 TEXAS. [1855. 

Supretnt Court. 

John Hemphill, of Aastin, Chief Justice^ 1858, $2,000 
Abner S. Lipscomb, of Independence, Associate Justice, 1858, 2,000 

Royall T. Wheeler, of Galveston, «< 1858, 2,000 

Thomas Green, of Austin, Clerkj Fees. 

p. C.Hartley, of Galveston, Rqxnrter^ Sale of Reports. 

District Courts, 



Judges. Residence. 

1. Nelson H.Munger, San Felipe, 

2. John Hancock, Austin, 

3. R. E. B. Baylor, Independence, 

4. T. J. Devine, San Antonio, 
6. A. W. O. Hicks, Shelbyville, 
6. W. W. Morris, Henderson, 

* 7. P. W. Gray, Houston, 

a W. S. Todd, Clarksville, 

9. John H. Reagan, Palestine, 

10. Fielding Jones, Victoria, 

11. J. L. Ankrim, El Paso, 

12. A. W. Arrington, Brownsville, 

13. Henry J. Jewett, Centreville, 

14. James Webb, Corpus Christi, 



Salary. Attorneys. Residence. 

• 1,750 John A. Wharton, Brazoria, 
1,750 A. H. Chalmers, Austin, 
1 ,750 A. W. Battle, Waco, 
1 ,750 Frank Egan , San Antonio) 
1,750 L. F. Cacey, Shelby ville, 
1,750 S. P. Dowley, Rusk, 
1 ,750 ArthurMiddleton,HuntsTiUe, 
1,750 B. P. Smith, Sherman, 
1,750 John E. Cravens, Palestine, 
1,750 R. E. Williams, Clinton, 
1,760 J. C. Sheldon, El Paso, 
1,750 E. J. Davis, * Rio Grande City, 600 
1,750 Roberts. Gould, Centreville, 600 
1 ,750 J. T. Enoch, Corpus Christi, 500 

Finances. 



Salary. 
• 600 and fees. 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 
600 " 



cla 

^. pn 
^^^^ we 

m 



Ptt6/te Deft/. — By the act of the Legislature of the 20th of March, 1848, all holders of the 
liabilities of the late Republic of Texas were required to present them to the Auditor and Comp- 
troller of Public Accounts " on or before the second Monday in November, 1849 ; and all 
claims that shall not be presented on or before that time shall be postponed." The claims 
presented to and acted upon by the Auditor and Comptroller, under the provisions of this law, 
wears t^ be r«pT>rtetl lo the Legislature at its next session, "for final adjustment." Those 
■t Win not pre wanted and acted upon by the accounting officers before the second Monday 
NuveiiiKier, IrfiVJ, cannot be brought in without further legislative action. 
^The Au[|itor and Oomplroller, November 12, 1861, made a report to the Legislature upon 
ifi iLi.^bL of Tt9XM», which has been recognized and adopted by the State. 
Tli'^ nr^iflLiiiiblo or face value of all the claims filed according to law is • 9,647,253, of which 
ihB pit vnlue \i S 4,807,764 ; and the whole amount not filed •2,789,738, worth • 2,019,614; 
mg the tQLn) ostensible debt • 12,436,991, or • 6,827,278 par. This includes interest. 
1^ Aetyi is ct^aifjed as follows: — FHrai Cleu§. Consisting of audited or ascertained 
limfl. Si^cond Clou. Claims sufficiently authenticated to be admitted to be audited under 
laws of iha Republic. Third CUu8. Claims not sufficiently authenticated toauthor- 
tlieif bet Elf audited under the laws of the Republic 
ATnomil of Ostensible. Par. 

FlmlClaag, •8,587,132.92 $3,817,321.64 

Sflccind CliiBV 962,445.12 892,767.63 

Third Ctaaa, 97,675.10 97.67510 

Totals « 9,647,253.14 •4,807,764.37 

\m i^l oliUJ embraces all consolidated fund, funded debt, treasury bonds, and audited 

piper, JEicludin^ iha claims for naval vessels, loan from United States Bank, &c. The 

end cbu ernbrn^d claims not audited, but for debts contracted by the government under 

"^^ sanction of Tawt, The third class embraces claims not provided for by law, though 

foany (if ihom aro Mghly meritorious. Among them are many claims for losses sustained 

lEturiu':^ thfl war, from the appropriation or destruction of property by the Texan army or 

th»l (jf Mie enemy. •1,114,144.64 of the public debt has been paid. , 

3*hB act of Car]ffra« of September 9, 1850, provided that, as an indemnity for lands ceded 



1855.] ARKANSAS.* 285 

bj that aa, for public property ceded bj annexation, and for relinquishment of all claims 
upon tbe United States, the United States should pay to Texas • 10,000,000, in 5 per cent, 
stock, redeemable at the end of 14 years, with interest payable half yearly. $ 5,000,000 of 
this stock was not to be issued " until the creditors of the State holding bonds and other 
certificates of stock of Texas, for tohich duties on imports trere specially pledged, shall first 
file in proper form, at the Treasury of the United Sutes, releases of all claims against the 
United States on account of said bonds or certificates." The United States has decided that 
all the public debt of Texas created prior to the act of Congress of that republic of the 14th 
of January, 1840, and all the deb( of said republic made receivable lor all public dues, are 
debts of Texas for which the duties on imports are specially pledged, and that releases of all 
claims against the United Sutes for or on account of such debts should be filed in the Treas* 
ury Department of the United States before the President will be justified in issiung any 
of the second five millions of stock to Texas, as provided in the act of Congress of the 9th of 
September, 1850. 
The receipts for the year ending October 31, 1853, were nearly :~ 

Balance ofcash, October 31, 1852, $4,261,651.20 

Received of dues to the late Republic, 3,635.87 

Revenue of state, — Taxes and interest, and premium upon U.S. bonds, 244,278.70 

ToUl, including balance, •4,509,565.77 

The expenditures were : — 

Paid on Treasury warrants, 8 346,694 90 

Debt of late republic from proceeds of United States bonds, . . . 116,460.52 
Balance in cash, October 31, 1853, — In U. & bonds, S 3,628,000 00 
Specie, . . . 418,410.35 

• 4,046,410.35 

$4,509,565.77 



XXI. ARKANSAS. 

Government for the F«ar 1855. 
Elias N. Cowwat, of Little Rock, Governor (term of office Salary. 

expires November, 1856), Use of a house and $ 1,800 

David B. Greer, of Little Rock, Sec. of State^ Perquiaites and 1,000 

Christopher C. DanlejT, «* Jlud, of Pub, Ace^ts^ Fee? and 1,200 

John H. Crease, of Pulaski Co., Treasurer^ Fees and BOQ 

Thos. B. Hanley, President of the Senate. 

Benjamin P. Jett, Speaker of the Hotise. 

The Secretary of State, Auditor, and Treasurer are elected by a Joint 
vote of both houses of the General Assembly. The Legislaturt^ iiicels bt* 
ennially at Little Rock. Number of Senators, 25; of Repreaentalnes, 75. 
Their compensation is $3 a day during the session, and $3 for every 2ii\ 
miles* travel in going to and returning from the seat of government. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court. Term endi. Salary, 

George C. Watkins, of Little Rock, Chief Justice^ I860, $ 1 ,800 

Christopher C. Scott, of Ouachita Co., Associate Justice^ 1858, 1 »@00 

David Walker, of Washington Co., " 1856, 1,80(1 

John J. Clendenin, of Little Rock, Attorney- Gen&ral^ 600 

Ltike £. Barber, «' Clerks Feed. 
Elbert U. fingUtb, " Reporter, 



286 TSNNSSSSB. [185(K 

The Supreme Coort has appellate juriadiction only, except in particular 
casesi pointed oat by the constitution. It holds annually two terms at Little 
Rock, in January and July. The judges are elected by the General As- 
sembly, by a joint vote of both houses, for eight years. 

The Circuit Court has original jurisdiction over all criminal cases not ex- 
pressly provided for otherwise by law ; and exclusive original jurisdiction of 
all crimes amounting to felony at common law ; and original jurisdiction of 
all civil cases which are not cognizable before justices of the peace ; and in 
all matters of oontract, where the sum in controversy is over (100. It 
holds annually two terms in each circuit. The judges and prosecuting at- 
torneys are elected by the people, the former for four, and the latter for 
two years. 

Jud^M. Salary. Prosecuting Attomejrs. Salary. 

1 tt Circuit, Charlaa W. Adanu, • 1 ,500 Benrr A? Baldwlo, Fees and^ 900 

Sd " JohD C. Murray, 1,600 T. F. Sorr«lle, " 300 

3d " Baaufort H. Naely, 1,600 John M. Byen, " 300 

4th " Felix J. Batson, 1,600 Hugh F. Tbomaoop, " 300 

6th " William H. Field, 1,500 John J. Clendenin, tOOO 

6th " ShehoDWaiacm, 1,50» OrriUe Jennings, Fees and 300 

FiVAVCXS. 

Balance iu the treasury, October 1, 1860 $203,961.08 

Received from all sources from September 30, 1850, 1o September 30, 18S2, . 386.767.03 

Total, 690,72«.ll 

EzpendiUires during the same period, 637,263.34 

Balanceintreasury, October 1,1852, $53,464.77 

Of which balance, the sum of $ 16,692 is in specie, and applicable to the redemption of treas- 
ury warrants. The rest belongs tQ specified funds. 

Staie Debt. — The whofe amount of unredeemed State bonds sold by the State 

Bank, Oct. 1, 1852, was $953,000 

Add inurest from July, 1842, to October 1, 1852 * 605.620 

Total amount sf bonds sold by the Stale Bank, $ 1,568,620 

$33,000 of the bonds are due in January, 1867, and 915,000 in January, 1868. 

TasabU Property in 1852. — Number of acres of land 4,108,272; ralue with improve- 
menta, $17,129,613. Value of city, &c. lots and improvementa, $1,735,512. Slaves be- 
tween 6 and 60 years of age, 36,432; yalue, $16,712,357. 198 saw-mills; value, $147,006. 
82 tan-yards; value, $20,203. 42 distilleries ; value, $3,945. Value of pleasure carriages, 
$ 63,237 ; of hones over 2years old, $1,978,250 ; of mules over 2 years, $ 560,360 ; of jwks 
and jennies, $67,023; of neat cattle over 2 years, $1,166,526; of stock in trade of o^^ 
trades, Ac, $ 964,670 ; of loans orer debts, $ 284,431 ; of stearaboata, ferries. Ax.., $ 19,463 ; 
gold watches and jewelry, $39,511. Total value of taxable property, $ 41,000,556. Amount 
of State tax, $ 88,906. 12. Number of polls, 28,238. 



AlTDBBW JoHNSOir, 

ber, 1855), 
W. U. A. Ramsey 
Anthony Dibrell, 
Ajctiinr R. Crozier, 



XXII. TENNESSEB. 
GavemrMnt far tke Year 1855. 
of Greenville, Govertiar (term expires Octo- Sklary. 

$3,000 

of Nashyille, See. of St. fy Int. Imp. Comm'r, 800 A f. 

" Treasurer, 1,500 

" Comptroller of the Trtaawry^ 2,000 



^ 



1856.] 



TSa^ESSBB. 



287 



$1,000 



J. L. T. Sneed, of Memphis, Attorney-Gen, ^ Reporter^ 

Wm. H. Wisener, of Shelby ville. Speaker of the House. 

JuDICIARr. 

Supreme Court, 
A. O. W. Totten, of Jackson, Judge, Western Division, $2,500 

RobertJ.McKinney, of Greenville, " Eastern " 2,500 

R. L. Carathers, of Lebanon, " Middle " 2,500 

Wm. H. Stephens, of Jackson, Clerk, Western " Fees. 

James W. Campbell, of Knoxville, «» Eastern " " 

James P. Clark, of Nashville, »' Middle *' «* 

The judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the people, for the term 
of 8 years. The judges of the inferior courts are elected in the same 
manner, for 8 years. There are 14 Circuit Courts. Salary of each judge, 
$2,000. Each circuit has an attorney, paid by fees, who is also elected by 
the people for 6 years. 

Court of Chancery, Salary. 

Isaac B. Williams, of Paris, Chancellor, Western Dimsion, $2,000 



S. J. W. Luckey, of Jonesborough, 

S. D. Frierson, of Columbia, '* 

Bromfield L. Ridley, of Jefferson, << 

T. Nixon Vandyke, of Athens, . " 

Stephen C. Pavott, of Camden, " 

Circuit Courts, 
Judges. Residence. 

1. David T.Patterson, Greenville. 

2. Eben Alexander, Knoxyille. 

3. J. C. Gaut, Cleveland. 

4. John L. Goodall, Sparta. 

5. H. L. Danielson, Shelbyville. 

6. Nathaniel Baxter, Nashville. 

7. W. W. Pepper, Springfield. 

8. W. P. Martin, Columbia. 

9. Wm. Fitzgerald, Paris. 

10. John Read, Jackson. 

11. J. C. Humphreys, Memphis. 

12. Robert H. Hynds, Dandridge. 

13. A. J. Marchbanks, M'Minnville. G. J. Stuhlfield, 

14. Elijah Walker, Waynesboro*. L. M. Bentley, 

Criminal Court of Davidson County, 
William K. Turner, of Nashville, Judge, 



Eastern 

Middle 

Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 



Attorneys. 
Samuel Powell, 
W. G. McAdso, 
George W. Bridges, 
T. B. Murray, 
J. L. Scudder, 
W. B. Bates, 
J. M. Q^uarles, 
Nathan Adams, 
John A. Rogers, 
D. P. Scurlock, 
G. W. Hardin, 
'M. Thomburg, 



2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 



Residence- 
Rug(3tsviUe. 
Knoxville. 

Sparta^ 
SheibyviLIoi 
GaJlatin. 
CinrkflvilJe- 
PidttsUi* '■ 

DfeBden* 
Jackson. 
Boiiviii. 
New Marke» 
M'Minnville* 
Lawrenctburg. 

Salary i 
$1,500 



# 



Common Laio and Chancery Court of the City of Memphis. 



John P. Caruthers, of Lagrange, Judge, 

Criminal Court of the City of Memphis. 
B. F. McKieman, of Memphis, Judge, 



$1,300 



288 KKNTUOKT. [1856. 

FurAVCBfly 
For tJu Two Yeart ending October, 1853. 

Total amount raceired, •1,202,046.30 

Wbola amount eipendad, 1.218,387.28 

EzccMofezpeDdituraa, •16,340.96 

Balance in the treaaury, Oct. 1, 1861, 222,771.80 

Balance in the trearary, Oct. 1, 1863, 9206,4^0.82 

The propertj of the State, coosieting of etocka In banks, railroads, and turnpike companies, 
amounts to • 3,664,466.66, and Is mosUj productive. The Sute also hoUs mortgages of the 
aerefml railroads as security for lu loans and indorsement of their bonds. The State debt, 
October 1, 1863, waa •6,746,866.66; on which about $326,000 Interest accniee annually. 
The Slate has also the contingent liability to npay the United Slates surplus reTenue, lie- 
ing • 1,363,209. There is a school fund of near $ 1,600,000. 



XXIII. KENTUCKY. 



Ooveminent for the Year 1855. 
Laiarus W. Powbll, of Hendenon Co., Governor (term of office 

expires August, 1855), 
James P. Metcalfe, of Nicholas Co., 
Thomas S. Page, 
James R. Watson, 
Elisha A. Macurdjr, 
R. C. Wintersmith, 
John M. Harlan, 
E. H. Tole, 
Benjamin Selbj, 
John D. Mdthewii, 
A. G, Hoilges Jk. Co., of Frankfort, 
Jf RusaelL Hawkinsi 
*thomas J. HeliP, 



of Frankfort, 
of Frankfort, 
of Frankfort, 
of Louisville, 
of Frankfort, 
of Frankfort, 
of Trimble, 
of Paducah, 



Sdary. 
$2,500 
750 

2,000 
900 

1,250 

1,700 
150 
100 
400 
750 



Secretary of SUUe, 
Jhtditor of Publie JkeomUt, 
Assistant Auditor^ 
Register of the Land-Offiee, 
Treasurer, 
Adjutant' General, 
Q,uartermaster' General, 
State Librarian, 
Sup't of Public Instruction, 
Publie Printers. 
of Franklin Co., Clerk of the Senate, $ 7 per day. 
of Glasgow, Clerk of the House, 7 per day. 

TJie Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Auditor, Attorney-General, and 
egisterof Land'Office, are elected by the people for the term of four years. 
Tbi^ <^>ov^riior iij ineligible for the four years succeeding the expiration of 
ili^ierm. if a vacancy in the office of Governor occur during the first 
two years ofUie term, the people fill it; if during the last two years, the 
Xieutcniirii-GovernOT^ and afler him the Speaker of the Senate, act as Gov- 
enior. The Secretary of State is appointed by the Governor during his 
l«rm. Senator;}, ^^ in number, are elected from single districts for four 
years, one liulf every two years. Representatives, 100 in number, are 
^lifUcd from i^Inglc districts for two years. Sessions of the Assembly are 
^fcsnniaL Tliey cannot continue longer than 60 diys without a two-thirds 
fute of all the tiif^rnbers elect to each branch. The members are paid $3 
1^ dfiji find 12J c€ntH a mile for travel. 

Judiciary. 
Court of Appeals. Salary. 

ElynJi Hiae, of Russell ville. Chief Justice, $1,500 

ThotjTas A. JMarBhoil, of Lexington, Judge, 1,500 



1855.] 


KEMTTtTCKT. 


tSf 


B. Milk Crenshaw, 


of Glasgow, 


J«dge, 


(1,500 


James Simpson^ 


of Winchester, 


U 


1,500 


James Harlan, 


of Frankfort, 


Attorney- General^ 


$300 and fees. 


Jacob Swigert, 


of Frankfort, 


Clerk, 


Fees. 


Joseph Gray, 


u 


Sergeant^ (3 


a day and fees. 


Benjamin Monroe, 


u 


Reporter, 






Louisville Chancery Court, 




Henry Pirtle, 


of Louisville, 


Chancellor, 


f 1,500 


Charles J. Clarke, 


€< 


Clerk, 


Fees, 


Henry Dent, 


tt 


Marshal, 


Fees. 




Circuit Courts, 




Judges. 




Attorneys. 


Heiitlenca. 


1. R, K. WiUiams, 


Mayfield. 


Oscar Turner, 


Blandvjila. 


2. Henry F. SUtee, 


Hopkinsville. 


Lafayette Henry, 


CftdJi 


3. Jesse W. Kinchelo, 


Hardinsburg. 


Alfred Allen, 


Himlinsbiirf. 


4. A. W. Graham, 


Bowling Green. 


Franklin G. Harvey, 


EcoiLiPiik. 


5. Z. Wheat, 


Columbia. 


E. B. Gaiiher, 


Columljja. 


6. William F. Bullock, 


LouisviUe. 


E. S. Craig, 


LoulB^iJIs. 


7. John L. Bridges, 


DanvUle. 


PhiU B. Thompson, 


HiTTiDdBburg. 


8. James Pryor, 


CarroUtOB. 


Robert Hutchinson, 


Covingtoa. 


9. Alrin Duvall, 


Georgetown. 


R. H. Hanson, 


Par]*. 


10. James W. Moore, 


Mount Sterling. 


Benjamin D. Lacy, 


OwJiigiivilk, 


U. William C. Goodl«o, 


Richmond. 


Stephen Noland, 


Irvioe. 


12. Green Adams, 


Barbourville. 


Granville Pearl, 


London. 



The salary of each circuit judge is $ 1,400 ; attorneys, % 300, besides 
perquisites and fees. These officers were elected in May, J 351, to serve 
ontil August, 1856. 

All judges, justices of the peace, and officers of the court are elected hy 
the people; the judges of the Court of Appeals from districts for eight 
years, one every two years, and the one having the shortest time Lo eurvg 
beingchief justice, judges of the Circuit Court for six years, Eind jusiices 
of the peace for four years. The officers of the several courts are eleined 
for the same term as is the presiding judge of their court. 

Fl27ANC£8. 

Sinking Fund. — Certain resources are provided by law for the payment oftUe IntflrHl. 
and principal of the public debt of the State. It is under the management of the GoveTnor, 
who is chairman ex officio, and the Presidents of the Bank of Kentucky and {ii4 Northsm 
Bank of Kentucky. The Auditor is Secretary ex officio. The receipts of tha \u nd d u ring th« 
year 1852 ware 8434,949.08 ; the expeodituies for the same time were • 399,44 1 Gl ; cjcc^oa of 
receipts, 085,504.47. 

Ordinary iZevenue. — Reci|ipts into the Treasury for the year ending 0<;u>twr m, 1862'^ 
$783,885.57; expenditures for the same time, $724,694.77; excess of rsrfi^nd {liicludii^ 
balance of previous year), • 59, 190.80. Value of taxable property in 1852, % 3:^3, U\JiVA\ in- 
crease since 1851, • 16,048,906. The rate of taxation is 17 cents for every S KJO wonh 0$ 
property ; 10 cents of which are appropriated for ordinary expenses, 5 cenib ^\yr the afuklf^g 
fund, and 2 for the school fund. Items of 7'axa/ion. — 20,677,24 1 acres nf londp ^Jilued At^ 
0153.474,334; 36,006 town lots, 037,829,617; 200,867 slaves, $71,580,903; WW^.T^l hi>r?(M[, 
8 13 503,412 ; 51,541 mules, 02,405,480; 2,688 jennies, 0216,696; 590,750 cai:]e, f l^,tiOU,iO&j 
4,075 stores, 10,1 13,006 ; surplus cash, bonds, &c. , 40,993,953. Speeijic Ttimiicn^ 
25 



190 OHIO. [1855. 

a;706 ctfrUfM ud terottcba, i 1 Mch; 1,413 bugglei, BO etntM meh; 1,982 pianos, •! 
Mch; 394 gold tptctadM, 60 centi each; 7,808 gold wttchec, $1 each; 863 silver leT«r 
watcbM, 60 cants each. Total white males over 21 years of af e, who pay a poll tax for 
county purposes, 163,006 ; studs, jacks, and bulls, 2,554, taxed • 6,358 ; average value of 
luid per acre, $4,721 

AMeXMl.->The antire deht of the State, January 1, 1852, was $6,726,^07.80; com- 
poaed of these Items :— To individuals, $4,247,637.40; Southern Bank of Kentnckyfbr 
stock, $160,000; Ciaddock fund, $2,000; Board of Education, $l,3a6,77a4a l\>pay 
which the sinldng fond receives annually a tax from the baain and dividends on atoclcs in 
thesams; premiums on 8uta bonds; dividends on stocks in tnmpilce roads; dividends 
from slack- water improvements ; 6 cents on each $ 100 worth of property listed for taxation ; 
tax on brolcers and insurance companies; excess of revenue at the end of each year over 
$6,000. The Intersst on the Stata debt has been punctually paid, and soma portion of the 
principaL 

Comimon Sdkoe^.— The school fund amounted in December, 18S3» to $1,400,270.01; 
consisting of State bonds and bank stocks, besides an annual tax on property amounting to 
about $ 66,000. 101 counties and 6 cities and towns have made reports to the Superintendent 
for the year 186S. Number of children reported, 194,963 ; average number at school, 69,885. 
Monsy distributed during the year, $ 111,806.4a Number of children in the State betwean 
the ages of 6 and 16 years, 216,196. 

Board of Internal Improvement. — David R. Haggard, of Cumberland, Preeident, salary 
$1,000. John M. Sharp, of Warren County, and Thomas S. Page (Auditor), members. 
The latter is Secretary es officio. There are 95 miles of railroad in actual use from Lexing- 
ton, via Frankfort, to Louisville. The railroad from Covington to Lexington Is finished and 
in operation to Falmouth, 40 miles. The railroad from Lexington to Maysville is finished 
to Puis (18 milee) and In operation. Railroads from Lexington to Danville, from Louisville 
to Nashville, from Lexington to the mouth of the Big Sandy, and from Si^sville to the same 
points, are In the course of construction; also a railroad from ShelbyvlUe to intersect the 
Louisville and Frankfort road. 

SMt% Fn9titHtion»J6r the ReU^of the l/n/brfuna/e. — Lunatic Asylum at Lexington. 
Numt«r of i ntnates, January 1, 1852, 249. — Deaf and Dumb Asylum, at Danville. Pupils, 
67.— Schixtl ^ the Blind, at Louisville. Pupils, 35.— Penitentiary. Number of prisoners, 
JM,--^ Th»rs 1i a second Lunatic Asylum at Hopkinsvllle, and commissioners are appointed 



XXIY. OHIO. 

GottmmmdfoT Hu iTemr 1855. 

Term expiree. Salary. 

, MEt>iLL, ofLancaiter, Govenutr, January, 1856, $1,800 

lames Alyen, of Toledo, U.-Gov, ^ Pres. Stn,^ 1856, ( 5aday 

[during the seasion of the Legislature. 
Willtava Treyitt, ofColumbna, &e. ofSUUemnd SupU of 

SekooU, 1656, 1,400 

Wm, D. Morgan, of New Lisbon, Auditar of Slate, « 1,600 

•Jolin G. Breslin, of Tiffin, Treasurer of SUUe^ «« 1,500 

Geo,W. M'Cook, ofSteuben?ille,j9tt0rfiey-(?eii«niZ, «« 1,400 

H i mm 1 L Barney, Commissimur of Schools, 

Jabez Fjtcsh, Commissary- GenmraL 

fl, W. Ai)drew8, of Columbus, Q^arterma8ter•Generali 200 

P. W. Rice* of Cleveland, Paymaster- General, 

f.a. V.Prentiss, of Mt. Vernon, Adjutant- General. 



r 



1855.] OHIO. m 

• • 

G. y. Dorse J, of Piqaa, Surgeon-GenenU, 

James W. Taylor, of Toledo, Librarian vfthe State Lihrary, $ 600 

Samuel Wilson, of Columbus, Warden of the State Penitentiary, 1^900 

Commissionert of the Board of Public Works. 

Alex. P. Miller, of Hamilton, Jan., 1855, 1,500 

James B. Steedman, of Toledo, Feb., 1856, 1,500 

Wayne Griswold, of Pickaway Co., Jan., 1857, 1,500 

Judiciary. 
Supreme Court, 
The Supreme Court consists of five judges, chosen by the people at 
large, a majority of whom form a quorum. It has original jurisdiction in 
quo warranto^ mandamus^ habeas corpus^ and procedendo^ and appellate 
jurisdiction. It holds at least one term in each year, at the seat of govern- 
ment, and such other terms as may be provided for by law. The judges after 
the first election (in 1851) were classified by lot, so that one should hold 
for one year, one for two years, one for three years, one for four years, and 
one for five years. At all subsequent elections, each of the judges will be 
chosen for five years, and the judge having the shortest time to serve is 
chief justice. 

Term expires. Salary. 
Allen G. Thurman, of Chillicothe, Chief Justice^ Jan. 14, 1856, $ 1,700 
Rufijs P. Ranney, of Warren, Judge^ " 1857, 1,700 

Wm. B. Caldwell, of Cincinnati, ♦• " 1858, 1,700 

Thomas W. BarUey, of Mansfield, «* «* 1S59, 1,700 

J. R. Swan, of Columbus, " " 1860, 1,700 

Kendall Thomas, of Columbus, CVk of Ct. in Bane, and Sup, Ct. Franklin Co, 
Robert B. Warden, of Columbus, Reporter , 20Q 

Courts of Common Pleas, 
The State is divided into nine Common Pleas districts, of whicli tba 
county of Hamilton forms one. These districts are subdivided into threa 
parts, from each of which one judge, to reside while in ofiice in hijj district^ 
is chosen by the electors of each subdivision for B^ve years^. Conns of 
Common Pleas are held by one or more of the judges in every county, and 
more than one court may be held at the same time, in each d Strict. Bis- 
trict Courts composed of the judges of the Courts of Common PJeas of thm 
respective districts, and of one of the judges of the Supreme Court, any 
three of whom form a quorum, are held in each county at ieuat once iQ 
each year. The District Courts have the same original juriaiJJctmn witll 
the Supreme Court, and appellate jurisdiction. There is a Frobatc Court^ 
with the usual probate jurisdiction, in each county, open ut ull titnetf 
holden by one judge, who is chosen by the voters of each county, ftir tJirea 
years. Justices of the peace are elected in each township, for three yeani* 
Clerks of the Common Pleas are chosen in each county, by tlio peojiie, fbr 
three years. 




OHIO. 



[1855. 



IMft. ^ Judges. 

W Carter, 
NeUon CroM, 
Jaroea Parker, 
Ahner Hainefl, 
Ralph & Hart, 
Wm. A. Rogers, 
Benj. T. Mslcalf, 
Joha M. Pslmar, 
Lawrence W. Hall, 

1. Lucius B. Otis, 

2. Samuel Humphrerille, 

3. Samuel Surkweather, 



SL A.0 
a. NelsM 
a James 
CL 
2. {2. ] 
<3. 
il. 
2. <2. . 
(3 



Shepard F. Norris, 
John L. Onsen, 
James L. Bates, 



Residence. 

Cincinnati. 

Cincinnati. 

Cincinnati. 

Hamilton. 

Dayton. 

Springfield. 

Lima. 

Defiance. 

Findlay. 

Norwalk. 

Medina. 

Clereland. 

Georgetown. 

Chillicothe. 

Columbus. 



Roil in C. Hurd, 
James Stewart, 
Martin Welker, 



6. ?2 



Henrf C. Whitman, 

Wm. V. Peck. 

Simeon Nash, 

Richard SilUwril, 

Robert J. Alexander, 

Thomas L. Jewett, 

George W Belden, 

Luther Day, 

Reuben Hitchcock, 
The salaries of these judges are S 1 >S00 each, 
and their terms of office expire on the second 
Monday of January, 1857. 



7. ^2 
(3. 
CI.; 

a )2. ] 

h ' 

9. ^2 



Residence. 

Mt. Vernon. 

Mansfiel*!. 

Miliemburg. 

Lancaster. 

Portsmouth. 

Oalli polls. 

Zanesrille. 

St. ClainiTiUa. 

Cadiz. 

Canton. 

Ravenna. 

Painesville. 



Salary. 

(3,500 

3,500 

3,500 

1,500 



.$2,865,907.61 
693,041.77 



Superior Court oj Cincinnati, 

Term expires. 
Bellamy Storer, JvJge, May 5, 1857, 

Oliver M. Spencer, " «« 1858, 

William T. Gholson, " " 1859, 

Superior Court of Cleveland. 
Sherlock J. Andrews, Judge^ 

FiVAVCXS, 

For the Fiscal Year ending J^ovember l^th, 1853. 
Ths total amount of raceipu for the year ending Not. 15th, 1853, was . 

Balance in Treasury, Nor. 16th, 1863, 

ToUl, •3,45b,94i^.3d 

TduI disburseiiMnls for all purposes during the year, 2,686.118.83 

Balnnca in l^easury. Not. 16th, 1853, •762,830.66 

The coiisiliuUoD pvorklM that " the Suto shall neTar contmct any debt for pupoees of 
ismal tmprotement It may contract debts to meet casual deficits in the reTanue, or az- 
m not otherwise proTlded for, but the aggregate of such debu shall neTer exceed 
1 75<].(MXi. n may further contract debts to repel iaTasion, Jbc, or redeem the present out- 
aiar^ding iMii, but the money afising therefrom shall be applied to the purposes for which it 
WRM mfi^i. and to none other. The credit of the State shall not be lent to any IndiTidual of 
tinrp<:)r.7Uoifi, nor shall the State become a stockholder in any aasoclatkiQ, or aasnme any debt, 
sxo«t^i &iic^ 04 may baTt been incurred in repelling iuTasion, supprsartBg insurrection, or 
dofoiKti 11^ [ 'ii<i Slate in war. The Secretary of Sute, Auditor, and Attorney-General shall be 
lUe €^nnu 1 1 Hr! loners of the Sinking Fund, which shall consist of the net annual income of the 
allc wt^rk-i Buid stocks, and of such Ainds raised by taxation or otherwise as may be pro- 
I by La w, which shall be made suiBclent to pay the accruing interest on the public debt, 
I afinuAl]y not leas than • 100,000. A Board of Public Works, to consist of three mem- 
ton, iholL hi elected, and m classified, thai one member shall be elsctad aanaally, and for 



m 



yeara,'* 

State Debt, 
{Mr c«nt. sUKiks, foreign, 



Principal 


Interest. 


• 1,175,000.00 


$58,750.00 


. 13,742,000.70 


824,520.04 


301,128.70 


17,921.10 


. 1,947.299 21 


116,837.96 


• 17,165,428.64 


i 1,018,029.09 



**^ domestic bonds, 

tfcrtiduciblQ stock, school and trust funds, . 

Ibial StaLfl Jsbt and annual interest, Jan. 1st, 1854, il 7, 165,428.64 

*rhti lrn:ducilie stock funds, upon which the State pays six per cent, interest to the town- 

' ghJpsand ilj»irict8 from which the funds were received, form a part of the State debt which 

Umttobn rapaid. Iq addition to the public works, the Slate owns $2,699,477.27 of turn- 



1855.] OHIO. saa 

pike, milwaj, nd camd stock. Tha net amount collected lirom the canale for the year 1858 
and paid into the treaeurj was % 217,011.77. The total value of taxable propertf , real and 
personal, In the State, for the year 1853, was « 603,396,848, (being #363,490,901 real, and 
9 229,906,947 perHMial,) upon which the State tax was •3,026,323.92. 

Chi^Soureet o/Tneome. 



Tkxes collected by Co. Treas., $ 1,632,239.91 
Delinquent taxes of '51 and forfeiture, 44,584.59 
Canal tolls, water rents, &c., 605,165.62 

Diridends, turnpike, canal, and 45,031.1 



Principal of surplus rerenue, $ 106,394.60 
Interest on surplus rerenue, . 28,792.69 
Canal lands sold, .... 9,402.21 
Elood tolls, .... 46,817.36 



railroad, 73,835.90 School and ministerial lands sold, 149,390.73 

Principal liems of Expenditure. 



Bills drawn for appropriations, • 529,785.37 
Common School Fund to Counties, 200,002.00 
Interest on foreign debt, . . 896,457.62 
" special school and trust funds, 106,361 .00 
Domestic bonds redeemed, . . 104,679.00 
Foreign debt redeemed, . . 343,200.00 



Interest on domestic bonds, . . 1 19,019^21 
Repairs, &c, on canals and public 

works, 436,076.21 

Repairs on National Road, . 36,e2a46 
Repairs, &c. , W. R. & Maumee road, ]3,796.06 
Agricultural fund, . . . 2,521.04 



The number and Talue of the domestic animals In the Sute, by the assessors* returns for 
1853, were as follows : — Number of horses, 616,065, — ralue, 1 27,844,619 ; number of mules, 
3,222, — Talue, •156,538; number of cattle, 1,646,195, — ralue, •17,646,810; number of 
sheep, 4,104,450, — Talue, $6,448,391; number of hogs, 9,496,792, — value, •6,727,790. 
Total Talue of domestic animals, • 57,823,148. The whole Talue of personal property, in- 
closiTe of the above, upon thq duplicates, was •229,906,947. 

Common Sehoole. —Tho constitution proTides that "there shall be a thorough and 
eflident system of common schools established throughout the Sute," and that "the prin- 
cipal of all funds granted or Intrusted to the State for educational purposes shall for ever be 
preserTed InTiolate and undiminished, and the income therefrom shall bs faithfully applied 
to the spscific objects of the original grants or appropriations." The school fund consists, 
C.) of certain /msl/tfnds, the proceeds of lands originally glTsn to certain dbii icia uf LerH^ 
tory in the State, upon which the State pays the interest annually to the severe ecu mi n in 
the proper district, according to the number of youth therein ; (2.) of ibe State Com- 
mon School Pund, which by the act of March 24, 1851, f 30, is made to consist nf " ihs 
interest of the purchase-money of the Salt Lands ; the balance of the Suiplut R«veniiD Fund i 
the interest of the Surplus ReTenue Fund paid by the counties; receipu frnm peddlafsi 
licenses, from auction duties, from taxes upon lawyers and physicians, and vi^m bnn ka uul 
Insurance and bridge companies ; and of such taxes, to be leTied by the OeDc^m] Aiiseiiibly, 
as shall bs sufficient, with the aboTe reTenues, to produce, for annual distribuEiion, iba mm 
of •300,000." The amount of the Common School Fund for distribution for iha j^e^r endiuf 
NoTember 15, 1853, was •201,421.71 ; of this amount there were paid to coutUlc4 1^00,002, 
From the special school and trust funds there were paid •109,770.98, makini^ ihs wbd* 
amount paid by the State for schools, excIuslTe of local expenditures, during the year, 

• 309,772.98. 

StaUetice of Common fiTcAoo/s/or 1852.— Number of townships In th^ State, Ip3lfi^ 
number reported, 1,121. Number of whole districts in the State reportod, B.5^7 ; of tm^ 
tional districts, 1,285; of common schools In the State, 9,916; of m^etsacriAr?, 7»272; of 
fomale, 6,292; of enrolled scholars, males, 240,152, females, 197,560; aTersfo daily attend' 
ance of scholars, males, 144,982, females, 121,286. Wages psid teachers from public fun^n. 
males, •181,379.73; females, •160,316.29. Pftid teachers from all other nurcisfl, m«l«^ 

• 417,807.62; females, •22,642.06. Months that schools were taught, nm)?v, ]J,B08| 
females, 13,954. 171 school- houses were built during the year at a ccet of s 6 1 ,fi37AU 
Amount of building ftands raised, •58,299.11; amount of tax on dupHcalen. 1 309, 738.7% • 
recelTed by reporting counties from State fund, •94,748.62; received frain all somcim^ 

• 126,677.17. 

Ohio Lunaiic Aeylumf Columbue. — E. Kendrick, Superintendent. Numbor in il^ 
25 • ^ 



tH lacnnttAN. [1855. 

Atjlam, Wot e m b f 15, IM; IW, ISO bmIm and 130 ftnudM; fM«!T«d dsrliig tbe year, 239, 
110 oMles and 1S9 lemalafl. Wliola nomber treated, 499; 240 malee, 969 fenaleB. Die- 
etaarged during the fear, 947, 125 males and ISS females. Of theee, 133, 71 males and 62 
femaleSi were recorsrad ; 29, 16 males and 13 females, -were improved; 61, 26 males and 35 
females, wen anlmprored; and 24, 12 males and 12 feoialea, died. Of tboea admitted during 
the year, 48 were single ; 142 were married ; 12 widewed ; 1 unknown. 36, 12 males and 23 
fiNoalas, attempted suicide beiure admission, and 13, 4 males and 9 females, had a strong 
Miicidal propensity. 32 were made insane by religions excitement ; II by spirit rappings ; 
6 by intemperance ; 16 by masturbation. The actual expenses of the institution for the 
jaar wen 931,200. 

Ohio Ptudttntiary^ Co/iaNd«s. —- Samuel Wilson, Wardsn. The number of prleonen, 
Norember 30, 1862, was 508. Numbsr admitted during the year, 238. Whole number dur- 
ing the year, 746. Of thaaa there hare bsen diechaiged by expiration of sentence, 110 ; by 
pardon, 77; by death, 17; by writ of error, 6 ; and by escapes, 6; in all, 215. Number in 
Mofinement, Norember 30, 1853, 531. Of tlieee, 357 were committed for oflences against 
property, including burglary, larceny, counterfeiting, horse stealing, &c., 14 for arson, 14 
lor forgery, and 146 for oflhaces against life or the person. 321 were intemperate ; 192 mai^ 
lied, 339 unmarried; 65 had property, 476 had none; 471 were whitee, 60 blacks; 202 had 
trades, and 329 were without trades ; 121 were 21 yean of ago and under; 36 were orer 60 
yean, and 6 wen over 70, one being 79 when committed. The receipts of the prison for the 
year wen 9 87,376.62. Expenses, $39,186.81. Balance in Ihvor of the prison, % 18,188.71. 
Then is a libmry connected with the prison, for the use of the conrlcts, of nearly 8,000 red- 
umsa. The Institution has, since 1835, supported itself, defreyed the expenses of its buildings, 
and paid to the State in labor and cash a large sum. 

Dm/ and Dumb Atjflum, Co/«m6«t. — Oolllns Stone, Superintendent. The Asylum 
has been in actual operetlon 23 yean, during which time then have been 576 pupils. The 
number preeent, December 5, 1853, was 158, 76 males and 82 females. The expenses of the 
year ynn i 16,906.32. The trustees estimate that then an In the State 160 deaf mutes be- 
sides those in the asylum. Terms of admission i 100 for session often months, payable quar- 
terly in advance, which coven all expenses bat clothing, tnvellittg, and physicians' bills in 
eases of sickness. Session commences first Wednesday in October, and ends last Wednesday 
in July. During racation, board at the Asylum Is $ 1.25 per week. 

Jn9iiiuii0nJ6r the Blind, ColtanbuB. — tiufuM E. Harte, Superintendent. The number, 
including graduates and assistants, In this institution, was, December 6, 1863, 72. During the 
year ending December 31, 1863, then wen 81 pupils in the Institution, 43 males and 38 fe- 
males. The expendituree for the year wen #11,916.13. Applicants for admission must he 
between the ages of 6 and 21. If able to pay, the charges an • 100 for the 10 months' session, 
exclusive of clothing and trevelling expenses. The session is from October 1 to August 1. 

Statulie* of Crime. — From the report of the Attorney-General, December 26, 1853, It ap* 
pean that during the ysar 1853 than were 530 prosecutions, 356 convictions, 93 acquhtala, 
and 1 1 1 wen nol. proaeed. The punishments wen ; — Penitentiary, for life, 7 ; for term of 
yean, 185. The amount of costs, • 14,999.83. The number of crimes committed under the 
influence of spirituous llquore was 40. The ntums an exceedingly hnperfect, and do not 
probably npresent one third of the criminal business of the year. 



XXV. MICHIGAN. 
GatemmMUfoT the Ymtr 1855. 
KivsLBT S. BiHOBAir, of Kensington, Oovtmor (term of oflice ez- suary. 

pires Itt Monday of Janaary, 1857)^ $ 1,000 

William Graves, of Niles, Secretary qf State^ Fees and 800 

JofanSwegles, of Hillsdale, jSudOor-Generdl^ 1,000 

B. C. Wbittemore, of Detroit, Slate Treasurer^ 1,000 

William Hall, of Detroit, Attomey-Qaiumt^ 800 



1855.] MIOHIOAN. f9d 

Francis W. Sherman, of Marshall, Sup't of FMie InBtrueHony 500 

Porter Kibbee, of Mt. Clemens, Comm^r of Land-Office^ 1,000 

John £. Schwarz, of Detroit, Mj.-Gen. and Q. M, Gen., 450 

Peter Dnx, of Birmingham, ^gent of State Prison, 750 

The seat of government is located permanently at Lansing, Ingham 
County, to which place the public offices were removed in December, 1847. 

Judiciary. 

Circuka. Supreme Court. Salary. 

1. Warner Wing, of Monroe, Chief JuHiee, 1 1,000 

2. Charles W. Whipple, of Niles, .Associate Justice, 1,500 

3. Samuel T. Douglass, of Detroit, <« 1,500 

4. David Johnson, of Jackson, " 1,500 

5. Abner Pratt, of Marshall, «* 1,500 

6. Joseph T. Copeland, of Pontiac, »» 1,500 

7. Sanford M. Green, of Flint, »« 1,500 

8. George Martin, of Grand Rapids, '« 1,500 
Randolph Manning, of Pontiac, Reporter, 500 

Finances. 

Balance ia Treasury, Not. 30th, 1851, •97,243.23 

Total receipta into the Treasury for the fiscal year, 451.082 97 

Total available means for the year, 9546,326.20 

Total expenditures during the fiscal year, 431.918.97 

Balance In the Treasury, Not. 30th, 1852, $116,407.23 

The funded and fiindaUe debt of the State, Norember 30, 1852, was • 2,307,850.19 ; annual 
Interest about $ 150,000. Some of the debt bears interest at 7 per cent., biit mo9t of St. U ul 
6 per cent. There is, besides, the sum of • 309,131.59 due the Trust Fund of Hit) Sute. 

The resources and property of the State, other than State buildings, are slai^eJ ki nearly 
• 630,000. 

Common Schools in 1860. — Number of districts, 3,097 ; number reporting, 2 , ^25. N um-, 
ber of children between 4 and 18 attending school during the year, 132,234- NuiDber drsLW* 
ing public money, 125,866. Number of scholars under 4 years of age, 2,056 ; ovtir IS^ S,3i^ 
4,065 scholars haTe attended unincorporated, priTate, or select schools. AiudijeiL of iichwl 
money apportioned, • 42,794.44 ; raised by tax, • 81,392.44. Raised for purchaMFUig, building, 
&C. school-houses, $46,797.01. Received from local ftuids, •5,389.59. Volume^ in towriy 
ship libraries, 84,823. Mill tax for township libraries and support of schoaU , S 1 7 , %7. 30, . 

A State Normal School has been established at Ypsilanti, with an enduivrnuiu of acLiciol 
lands. It is under the control of a Board of Education of six persons, a]i[>jiuted by ihm 
Legislature. It went into operation In April, 1863. 

Asylum for the InsanCt and for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, — By art oT ihu Tiegks1a'> 
ture of 1848, the Michigan Asylum for educating the Deaf, the Dumb, and the Bllud wot 
established at Ealamasoo, and by the same Legislature, the Michigan Asylum Tor t tie lQ3a.nn 
was estaUisbed at Flint. Both institutions are endowed with lauds, and are under Lbe con- 
trol of a board of fiTo trustees, elected by the Legislature. 

State Prison, Jackson, — Feter Dox, Agent. Number of convicts in pmou, d(h\^ Ntr 
Tember, 1882,209; received during the year, 72; discharged daring