(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The American almanac and repository of useful knowledge for the year .."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



► 



STANFORD UNIVERSITYLIBKAKIES 



FAIRBANES'S 

OF EVERY VARIETY, AND FOR ALL. USES, 

Commend themselves to every one in need of weighing apparatus, because : — 

1. They are made on strictly correct scientific principles , "which have been 
proved by experience. 

2. They are made of the best materials. 

3. They are made by the mbst skilful and experienced workmen, who are 
required to do every part of their work in the most thorough manner possible. 

4. They are subjected to a severe and systematic test, by which every part 
is known to be perfect and reliable before being put into use. 

6. They have the universal confidence of the public. 

6. Their reputation has been gained by their uniform and permanent cor- 
rectness; by the thorough and continuous trials to which they have constantly 
been subjected ; by their durability, convenience, and adaptedness to the varied 
wants of the business community, and by judicial decisions based upon un- 
doubted evidence of the above facts. 

7. They are still manufactured by the original inventors, whose long expe- 
rience, devoted only to this branch of manufacture, enables them to discover 
and perfect such improvements as can add to their real value, in point of per- 
manent accuracy or economy, and deters them also from offering to the public 
such modifications as the use of will prove worse than valueless. 

8. They contain many very valuable improvements, essential to the perfec- 
tion of the Platform Scale, — which have been patented, and which cannot be 
used by any other manufacturer with impunity. 

9. The large and constantly increasing facilities of the manufacturers ; the 
valuable machinery, (much of it of their own invention,) which, while it 
lessens the cost of production, increases the unerring precision and accuracy 
of the work ; and their long experience, by which every part of their work is 
accomplished to the best possible advantage, enable them to sell their Scales 
at prices, quality and capacity considered, below any other manufacturers. 

10. They are warranted in the most ample manner, any work found defec- 
tive being cheerfiilly and promptly made good or exchanged; the widely 
known reliability of the manufacturers being a certain assurance that their 
warranty is a perfect safeguard for their customers. 

FAIRBANKS & BROWN, 

34 KiLBY Street, Boston. 



WHEELEE & WILSON'S 



The wide-spread repniation of (bis Machine ia eminenll; dno to ita peculiar 
mcriu, wbich are acknowledged bj ttio best Judges to earpara all othen in the 
nqnisilea for family me. It has become a domestic inaUtntion, and is justl}' looked 
ipon a« a household economj. In all the finer qualities of famil}' sewing, on silk, 
linen, cotton, and broadcloth, in henjmicg, stitching, quilting^, gathering, and all 
:he innomerable ends to which female needlework is applied, the 

WHEELER & WIX.801V 

SEIXriNG KAOBINE 

wnfcEsedl^ occapies a- position of pre-eminence. Those nho have not hitherto 
kTailed Uicmselres of the advantages of this machine are invited to examine its 
iperation, and obtain specimens of its work, at the sales-room. 

In order to place it within the reach of all, it is now offered at REDUCED 
PRICES, and a new i^le at FIFTY DOLLARS. 

So. S2S Wasbinetan Street, Corner ol Summer Street, Boiton, 

J. E. ROOT, Agent. 



THE AMERICAN HOUSE, 



HANOVER STREET, BOSTON, 

IS THE LARGEST AND BEST ARRAHGED HOTEl 

IN NEW ENGLAND, 
Possessing; all the moJern improTements and eonTenieaees for the accomrocHia 
tion of the traTeUing poblic. 

IiEWIS BICE, Proprietor. 



TO PURCHASERS OF PAPER-HANOIHGS. 



REM O V AI.. 



S. H. GEEGORT & CO., 

HAVING REMOVED TO THE ELEGANT STORE, 

225 Wf^hiugton Street, W^Bhii^tou Buildii^, 

Oppotlte th« Head of Ftasklin Street, 

OFFER A MOST EXTENSIVE ASSORTMENT OF 

FBEirCH AND AMEBICAN FAFEB-HANG-INGS, 

EmbraeiDg the richest Goods Importtd, and Ibe choicest and cheapest 
of jtmeriean MaDufoetnre. 

Retailers, and Furcbasera for Private Residences or PuUic Buildings, will find 
our Assortment unequalled and our Prices satiafectory. 

». i. tops,! '°SS^ l«. m. ItKitsoE 



THE 



AMEKICAN 'ALMANAC 



I 

i 



R E p s4aw)e|i Y 



' t^ II '> ^^^/, 



1 r 

OF e>/i^ 



'-«. ■■■ H I . ^r. . tf i^.. 



a^fiirtyxjlZf'yf 



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, 



FOB THE TEAR 



1860. 



^7r^ 



• » ' < • ' * • • • , : ' r .,.•••'• •> > . t 

BOSTON: 
CROSBY, NICHOLS, AND QOMPANY. 

LONDON: 

TRUBNER & CO., 60 Paternoster Row. 

PARIS: HECTOR BOSSANGE. 

1860. 



; 



OCT 14 Wl 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by 
% Geoboe p. Samoeb, 
in the Glerk^s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 

183G10 



*^ 






.1 « * « 



Universi^ Press, Cambridge ; 
Printed by Welch, Bigelow, and Company. 



PREFACE 






TuK THIRTY-FIRST volume of the American Almanac, being the First 
volume of the Fourth Series, is now offered to the public. Unwearied pains 
has been taken to collect full, authentic, and varied information concern- 
ing the complex affairs of the general and State governments ; and a mass 
of official documents and private correspondence has been digested relating 
to the government, finances, legislation, public institutions, internal im- 

Frovements, and resources of the United States, and of the several States, 
t is hoped that the present volume will be found equal to its predecessors 
in falness and accuracy, and that it will sustain the nigh character of the 
American Almanac as a trustworthy manual for reference and a full repos- 
itory of useful knowledge. 

The Astronomical Department has been prepared by Mr. George P. Bond, 
Assistant Observer at the Cambridge Observatory. There are interesting 
papers upon Donati*8 Comet of 18&, the Law of Storms, and the Aurora 
borealis and Australis. The Table of Occultations, the Eclipses of Jupi- 
ter's Satellites, the Ephemeris of the Sun, the True Apparent Places of 
the Pole Star and the rrincipal Fixed Stars, Dr. Young s Table of Refrac- 
tions, and the Sun's Parallax in Altitude, are not given, and it is proposed 
hereafter to omit them, as the reasons originally making their publication 
desirable are not now so pressing, and the space heretofore occupied by 
them can be better filled. 

In the Second Part of the volume will be found full lists of the Execu- 
tive and Judiciary of the General Government, including the chief ofiicers 
and clerks of the several Departments, and of the Court of Claims ; of Col- 
lectors of Customs, of Postmasters in the principal places, of Army and Navy 
Pension Agents, and of the Indian Superintendents and Agents; of the In- 
spectors of Steamboats and their Districts ; of the Army, and the various 
Military Departments and Posts under the new organization; of the Navy, 
the public vessels, and the Marine Corps; of our Ministers and Consuls in 
Foreign Countries, and of Foreign Ministers and Consuls in the United 
States. These lists have been corrected from official sources to the latest 
dates possible for publication. Later changes are noted in the '* Additions 
and Corrections, at the end of the volume. The titles. Commerce and 
Navigation, and Revenue and Expenditure, published each year in the Al- 
manac,' are full and complete abstracts of the public documents of the same 
name, and the tables connected therewith, and with the Post-Office, Mint, 
and Public Lands, show the receipts and expenditures of the Government 
under their several heads, the public debt, the imports, exports, tonnage, 
coinage, sales of land, and the operations of the Post-Office Department, for 
e«ch year since the adoption of the Federal Constitution. The rates 



lY PBEFACE. 

postage, with the inland and foreign mail Benrice, are believed to be com- 

Slete and correct. The Titles ana Abstracts of the Public Laws and Joint 
.esolutions have been carefully prepared, and are sufficiently full, except 
for professional use. Among those this year of special interest are the Acts 
relative to the lien law in the District of Columbia ; the keeping and distrib- 
uting of Public Documents; the admission of Oregon; the incorporation of 
the Washington National Monument Society ; to carry into effect the con- 
vention between the United States and China ; the care and preservation 
of the Washington Water- Works; and the resolution in relation to the re- 
strictions on the Tobacco trade. Tables of Railroads in this country and 
in Canada, and of the surveyed routes to the Pacific ; of Telegraphs and 
Submarine Telegraphs ; of Colleges and Professional Schools in the United 
States ; of the Population of the several States at the decennial periods ; 
of the Debts, Property, and Ef penses of the States ; of the Times of the 
State Elections and the Meetings of the State Legislatures, and of the Votes 
at the different Presidential Elections, are given. 

The alphabetical arrangement of the Individual States has, for obvious 
reasons, been substituted for the geographical. The information concerning 
the Individual States is as full as in former years. It is believed that nowhere 
else can be found collected such full details respecting the Executive and 
Judiciary, the finances, schools, charitable institutions, and pauperism and 
crime, of the several States. Should any one note inaccuracies or deficien- 
cies therein, he is urgently requested to correct them. The European part 
of the work, revised from the best authority to the latest dates, gives 
the several States of Europe, with their form of government, the name, 
title, and date of accession of the reigning sovereigns, the area and popu- 
lation of the several countries. It also gives the Royal Family, the 
Ministry, and the Judiciary of England, and the Ministry of France. The 
Obituary Notices and Chronicle of Events have been prepared with care. 
The space is so limited, that mainy names and events which otherwise 
would be given are necessarily omitted. 

The thanks of the Editor are particularly due to the Heads of Depart- 
ments at Washinf^ton, and to his many contributors and correspondents, to 
whom the work is indebted for a great part of its value. A continuance 
of their favors is respectfully solicited. A work embracing such a multi- 
tude of facts must necessarily contain errors ; persons who may detect any 
are earnestly requested to communicate them to the Editor. It is particu- 
larly desirable that these communications should not be anonymous. It is 
frequently a source of regret to the Editor, that he cannot suitably ac- 
knowledge the valuable hints and assistance of anonymous correspondents. 
It is a matter of some public interest, that a periodical which circulates so 
widely, both in Europe and America, and which is so universally trusted 
as a manual for reference, should be rendered as accurate as possible ; and 
this end can be obtained only by the co-operation of many individuals. 
Communications should be addressed to the ** Editor of the American Al- 
manac,*' Boston. 

Botton^ Mass,, Dteembtr, 1859. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



CaLBNDAR and CSLBrniAI. PHRMOXKlfA FOH TBB TSAR 1860. 



PAOB 

DiflTerent Eras, tec., 3 

Celestial Phenomena, Signa, &c. , 3 

Chroaological G/cIes, 4 

Signs oftheZoaiac, 4 

Beginning and Length of the Seasons, •• 4 

Movable Festivals of the Church, 6 

Jewish Calendar, 6 

Mahometan Calendar, 6 

Height of the Greatest Tides in I860, .... 7 

Calbndar : — January, &c., 8-31 

Eqtiation of Time for Apparent Noon,. . . . 32 

Eclipses in 1860^ 33-35 

Elements of the Bcli pees of the Sun, .... 35 
Discs of Venus and Mars, 36 



PAoa 
Latitude and Longitude of American and 

Poreicrn Observatories, 36, 36 

Latitude and Longitude of Places, ... 36- 41 
Comets, and Donati's Combtof1968, 42 
Prof. Loomis's Gxnbrauzatioms ar 

TO THB Laws OF Storms, 63 

The Aurora Borbalis and Aurora 

australis .• 65 

Mbtborolooical Information :— Tables 
for Portland, Cambridse, Providence, 
Worcester, Lambertvitle, Savannah, 

Muscatine, and Sacramento, 76-85 

Kain at PowhaUnHill, Va., in 1857-69, 86 
Flowering of Fruit-Trees in 1869, .... 86, 392 



PAKT II. 



Unitbd Statbs. 



1. List of Presidents, 89 

2. Executive Government, Cabinet, .... 89 

Officers in the Departments, 90-92 

United States Insane Asylum, 92 

Postmasters in Chief Towns & Cities, 92 

Collectors of Customs, 95 

Naval Officers, 97 

Registers, Rec'rs, &c. in Land Office, 97 
Surveyors-General of Public Iiands, . 98 

Indian Super! ntendents, &c. , 99 

Army andf Navy Pension Agents, 100, 101 
Supervising Inspectors of Steam- 
boats, and their Districts, 101 

Lighthouse Board, 101 

3. ArmyList, 102 

Officers of Corps and Regiments,... 102 

Militarv Commands, 103 

Arsenau, 104 

Military Posts, 104 

Militia Force of the United Stateii, . . 106 
Pay, &c. of Army Officers, 107 

4. Navy List 108 

Commanders of Squadrons, &c, .... 106 

Naval Academy, 108 

Captains and Commanders, 108 

Pay of the Navy, 109 

YeaselaofWarofthaNavy, 110 

6. The Marina Corps, Ill 



6. The Judiciary, 112 

Supreme Court, 112 

Circuit Courts, 112 

District Couru, 112-116 

Court of Claims, 117 

7. Intercourse with Forei^ Nations. . . 118 
Ministers, &c. in Foreign Countries, 118 
Consuls, &c. in Foreign Countries, . 1 19 
Foreign Ministers in the U. States, . 122 
Foreign Consuls in the U. States, .... 123 

8. Titles and Abstracts of Public Laws, 130 
Appropriations for 1869 and I860,.... 130 

9. Public Resolutions 138 

10. Revenue and Expenditure, 139 

Duties, Revenue, &c., for 1857 and 

1868, 139-142 

Revenue and Expenditures for 1869. . 143 

Debt ofthe United States, 144 

United States Expenditure from 1789 

to 1868, 145 

U. S. Revenue from 1789 to 1858, .. H6 
Imports, Exports, Debt, for 69 Years, 147 

11. Commerce and Navieation, 148 

Value of Imports, 1857-58, 148 

Value of Imports for five Years, 1 53 

Value of Exports, 1865 - 1868, 153 

Imports ftom and Exports to Foreign 

Countries in 1857 -68, 165 



Tl 



CONTENTS. 



Tonnage of Vesaels in Foreign Trade, 156 
Quantity and Value of Exports of 

Cotton, Rice, Tobacco, and Bread* 

stufis, since 1820 157 

Prices of Domestic Produce in Nevr 

Yoric in 1856-58, 158 

Imports and Exports of each State, 159 
Vessels built in U. States, and ttieir 

Tonnage, in 1858, 159 

Comparative View of Tonnage from 

1815 to 1858 160 

Commercial Marine of United States, 160 
Vessels built, and tlieirTonnage.since 

1815, and Tonnage sold in 1853,.. 161 
Imports from German 2^11 Verein, &c. 162 
Exports to and Imports from Canada, 

&c., from 1851 to 1858 162 

Imports and Exports and Expenses 

in each Collective District in 1858, 163 

12. Mint, 164 

Officers of Mint 164 

Coinage in 1858 and 1859 165 

Coinage of the Mint since 1792, .... 166 

13. Post-Office Department, 167 

Mailserv ice for 1858 167, 168 

Revenue and Expenditure, 167-172 

No. of Post-Offices, kc. since 1790, .. 169 

Foreign Mail Service, 170 

Compensation of Postmasters, 172 

Rates of Postage in United States, . . 173 

Privilege of Franking, 176 

Rates of Foreign Letter and News- 
paper Postage. &c., 176>184 

Foreign Magazine and Pamphlet 

Postage 184 

Mails from London, 184 

Registration of Letters, 185 

Receipts and Expenses from and for 
Postages in each State in 1858, ... 185 



Post-offices where a surplus of Ooin« 

missions accrues, 186 

Carriers and Dead Letters, IS6 

Overland Mail Route, 18« 

14. Congress, 187 

Senate, 188 

House of Representatives, 189 

Alphabetical List of Representatives, 193 

15. The Leviathan or Great Eastern« . . . 194 
Summary of Statistics of, 197 

16. Votes for Presidents and Vice-Presi- 

dents from 1789 to 1857, 1 98 

Popular Vote, since 1824, 201, 202 

Electoral Votes of each Slate, since 

1790, 202 

Representation of each State by the 

Constitution and each Census, .... 203 



17. Colleges in the United States, 



204 



Annual CoUese Expenses, 207 

Theological Schools, 208 

Law Schools, 208 

Medical Schools 209 

18. SmithsiHiian Institution, • 209 

19. Religious Denominations, 210 

20. State Elections, Legislatures, &c.,.. 210 

21. Governors of States and Territories, . 211 

22. Finances of the States, 212,213 

23. Seventh Census of United States,.... 214 

24. Populationofthe United States, 215 

25. Slaves in the United Slates, ........ 215 

26. Population of some Principal Cities, 216 

27. Public Lands, 216 

Railroad Grants in the States, 219 

28. Banks in the Uniud States, 219 

29. Railroads in the United States, .221-225 

Railroads in Canada, ^5 

Surveys for Railroad to Pacific, 225 

30. Lines of Telegraph and Submarine 

Telegraph, 226 



Individual States. 



, 1. Alabama 227 

2. Arkansas, 229 

3. California 232 

4. Connecticut, 235 

6. Delaware, 240 

6. Florida, 241 

7. Georgia, 243 

8. niinols, 247 

9. Indiana, 251 

10. Iowa, 254 

11. Kentucky, 257 

12. Louisiana, 259 

13. Maine, 264 

14. Maryland 267 

15. Massachusetts, 271 

16. Michigan, 282 

17. Minnesota, 286 

18. Mississippi, 290 

19. Missouri, 292 

20. New Hampshire, 296 

Ambrigan Statbs. 

Governments of North America, 360 I Governments of South America, 361 

West Indian Governments, 361 | Population of the Globe, 361 

ElTROPB. 

Roignin? Sovereigns of Europe, 362 1 Great Britain 364 

States of Europe, 363 | Ministry of France, 366 



21. NewJereey, 300 

22. New York, 305 

23. North Carolina, 314 

24. Ohio, 317 

25. Oregon 323 

26. Pennsylvania, 326 

27. Rhode Island 334 

28. South Carolina, 338 

29. Tennessee, 341 

30. Texas, 344 

31. Vermont, 347 

32. Virginia 360 

33. Wisconsin, 355 

34. Utah Territory, 359 

35. New Mexico Territory 359 

36. Washington Territory, 359 

37. Kansas Territory, 359 

33. Nebraska Territory, 360 

39. District of Columbia, 360 



American Obituary 366 I Chronicle of Events 383 

Foreign Obituary, 379 | Additions and Corrections, 393 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Abstncta of Public Laws 13. 

Additions aad Corrections 4 • 39k 

Alabama..... 2^ 

Americaa Obituary •••.•• 366 

American Siatea • 360 

Aricansaa 2:^ 

Appurtionmants U.S. Repre«enUtives, 203, 214 

Appraisera at Larre 9U 

Appropriations, (;.&, for 1869, I860...;. 130 

Arizona 392 

Army List 102 

Army OiUcers, Pay of 107 

Army Pension Asents ».... KX) 

Arsenals in the United States... 104 

Assistant Treasurera of United States. ... 90 
Aflyiums for Blind, Deaf and Dumb, In- 
sane, and Id iotic fi^ee ttie several Stales. 
Attorney-General, Assistant, autliorized 136 

Attorneys of U. S. Courts 114 

Aurora Borealis and Australis 55 

Bank Notes, Circulation 220 

Banks in the United States 219 

Banks. Stt the several States. 

Barometrical Observations 76 -85 

BreadstufTs, Exports of, since 1820 167 

British North America 360 

Cabinet, Officers in the 89 

Calendar: January, &c 8-31 

California 232 

California Gold 165 

Capitals of Sutes 210 

Capi lol Extension, adornment of 136 

Carriers, letters, &c 186 

Census ofU. States (Seventh) 214 



PA«> 

District of Columbia 360 

Documents, Public, Act concerning 132 

Donati's Comet of 1858 43 

Eastern, The Great 194 

iik^lipses in 1860 33-35 

Elections. State, time of 210 

Electoral Votes at the Presidential Elec- 

tions 198-202 

Elements ofthe Eclipses of the Sun 35 

Engineers, Corps of, &c 102, 107 

Engineers in Navy, Pay of. • 109 

Envoys Extraordinary, Ac 1 18, 122 

Eras, ftc 3 

European States 363 

Eyents, Chronicle of, in 1858 and 1859.. 353 

Executive Government of U. S •••• 89 

Expenditures of U. S. for 70 years 145 

Expenditures of each State. iSeeSutes. 213 

Exportsofeach State for 1867-68 159 

Exports, Valueof, in 1866-68 153 

Exports to Foreign Countries 156 

Exports for 69 Years 147 

Feaeral Representative Population.. 203,214 

Festivals of the Church 6 

Finances of the States. Siee States . . 212, 213 

Flag Officers, 108 

Florida 241 

Flowering of Fruit-trees in 1859 66, 392 

Foreign Goods ImfMrted in 1857 - 56, 148 - 162 

Foreign Mail Service 170, 184 

Foreign Ministers, Ac. in U. S 122 

Foreign Nations, Intercourse with 118 

Foreign Obituary 379 

Foreign Posta£e 176-184 



Celestial Phenomena, Signs, Ac 3,Forsign Trade, Countries of 155, 1 66 

China, Convention with 1^5 France, Ministry of 366 

Chronicle of Events 383!FninkingPrivilege 175 

General Evente in 1858 and 1859 383 



Chronological Cycles 4 

Church Festivals 5 

Ci rcuit Courts of United States 112 

Cities, Principal, Population of some .... 216 — .^......^...». ».„.«.. »»t~*-~ — 

Claims, Court of 117 Governors ofStates.&cTerms and Salaries 211 

Clerks of Circuit A District Courts of U.S. 115 Great Britain 364 

Clouds and Winds in 1856 76-85 Great Eastern, The 194 

CoinageofMint since 1792.. 166 

Collection Districts, Imports, Ac. and Ex- 
penses in each 163 

Collectors of Customs 96 

Colleges in United States i 204 

Collages, Annual Expenses in 207 

Comets 42 

Commerce ofU.S 148 

Commercial A^nts in Foreign Countries 119 

Commercial Marine of the U. S. 160 

Commissioners, U.S., in Foreign Countries 1 18 
Congress, Thirty-Sixth. 1st Session . 187 - 194 

Congress, Pay of Members of. 1 38, 187 

Connecticut ^... 235 

Consuls, Foreign, in U. S 123 

Consuls in Foreign Countries 119 

Copyright, Resuutinns concerning 133 

Corrections an<] Additions 392 

Cotton, exports of, since 1820 157 

Countries whence Goods are brought .... 15B 

Couru, US 112-117 

Couru of 5kate8. £toe Slates. 

Court of Claims 117 

Daeotah 392 

Debt ofthe United States 144 

Debts of the States 212,213 

DeLawars 240 

Department of Sute 90 

DepartflMots, Officers in the 00-93 

nialrir^. rSmtiitfl 1 19-1 1(1 



Georgia 243 

Government, Seats of, in different States . 210 
Governments. Annual Expenses of State. 213 



Illinois....; 247 

Imports, Value of, in 1857-58 148-152 

Imports, Value of from 1854 to 1858 162 

Imports for 69 Tears 147 

Imports free of Duty 148-152 

Imports from German 2k>ll Verein, Ac. . . 162 

Importsof each State for 1857-58 169 

Imports paying ad valorem Duties... 148- 152 

Indian Superintendents and Agents • 99 

Indiana 261 

Indians, number in the U States 99 

Indirect Trade with German Zoll Verein . 162 

insane Asylum, U. S., Officers of 92 

Inspectors, Supervising, of Steam-vessels 101 

Intercourse with Foreign Nations 118 

Interior, Department of the 91 

Iowa .V. 264 

Iowa, Federal Court Districts in 137 

refTerJvm, proposed Territory of 392 

lewish Calendar 6 

Judges of U. S. Circ. and Dist. Courts 1 12 - 114 

Judiciary , U. S. 118 

Kansas Territory 359 

Kentucky 257 

Land-Office, Registers, Receivers, Ac ... . 97 

Lands,Public 216 

Lands enuring to railroads •219 

Latitude and Longitude of Observatories 36, 86 
Latitude and Loi^tude of Places.... 36-^ 



• •• 

vm 



INDBZ. 



paobI paoi 

LawB. Titles and Abstractfl of Public .... 1901 Post-Offices, Surplus of Commissions in, 186 

Legislatures, SUto, Meeting of. 210; Presidents of the U.S • 89 

Letters, by Sea-going Vessels ....... 173, 176 Presidents and V.-Pre8idents,y«»te8 for 198-208 



Letters, Registration of 185 

Leviathan, The 194 

Libraries, Collese aOl-207 

Lien Law in District of Columbia 131 

Lighthouse Board 101 

Lighthouses in place of Light- Vessels... 136 

Loom is on Law of Storms 63 

Louisiana 269 

Mahometan Calendar. ...• 6 

Mail Service for 1868 167,168 

Mail Service, Foreign 176, 184 

Maine 264 

Marine, Commercial, of tlie U. S. 160 

Marine Corps Ill 

Mars and Venus, Discs of. 35 

Marshals. U. S. 116 

Maryland 267 

Massachusetts 271 

Medical Schools in United States 209 

Meteorological Information 76-86 

Michigan 282 

Military Commands 103 

Military Posts 104 

Militia Force of ttie U.S 106 

Minnesota. 286 

Minnesota, Constitution of, 286 

Ministers of U. S. in Foreini Countries.. 118 

Ministers, Foreign, in U. S. 122 

Mint 164 

Mint, Officers of, Coinage, &c 164, 165 

Mississippi 290 

Missouri 292 

Naval Officers *... 97 

Navigation 148-156 

Navy Department 91 

Navy List 106 

Navy Officers, Pay of 109 

Navy, Vessels of War in 110,135 

Navy Pension Agents 101 

Navy Yards, Commanders of 108 

Nebraska Territory 360 

New Hampshire 296 

New Jersey ^ 300 

New Mexico Territory 359 

Newspapers, Postage on 173-184 

New York 305 

North Carolina 314 

Obituary, American, in 1858 366 

" " 1859 372 

Obituary, Foreign, in 1858 and 1859 .... 379 
Observatories, Latitude and Longitude of 36, 36 

Ohio 317 

Oregon, Act admitting 133, 137 

Oregon, and Constitution of, 323 

Overland Mall Route 186 

Pacific Overland Route 186 

Pamphlets and Magazi nes, Postage on 1 73 - 1 84 

Pennsylvania 326 

Pension A^nts, Army and Navy.... 100, 101 

Planets, Signsofthe 3 

Population of the Olobe 36t 

Population of the US 214,215 

Population of Chief Cities in U. S. 216 

Postage, Rates of Inland 173 

Postal, Foreign 176-184 

Postmasters in Chief Towns and Cities. . . 92 

Pontma<<teni. Compensation of. 172 

Post-Office Department 92, 167 

Post-Office, Distributi ng Offices 92-95 

Post-Office Rec'a and Eipend's in 1857-66, 167 

»ost-Office Statistics since 1790 169 

'ost^Office Revenue 167, 172 



Prices of certain articles of Produce 168 

Printing, Public, Provisions coaceming. . 136 
Prisons, &c Sa States. 

Property of Sutes. 213 

Public Lands, and Sales of. 216, 218 

Public Lands, Grants for Railroads 219 

Pu blic Lands, Surveyors-General of. 98 

Public Laws, Titles and Absuacts of 130 

Public Resolutions of Congress 138 

Railroads in Canada 225 

Railroad Routes to the Pacific 225 

Railroads in the U.S. 221-226 

Railroads, Grants of Public lands in aid of 219 
Receivers and Registers of Land-Office . . 97 

Religious Denominations 210 

Representathres, Alphabetical List of.... 193 

Representatives, House of 189 

Representatives, State, No. of, and Terms 214 
Representatives, U. S., Apportionment 

of 209,212 

Resolutions, Public, of Congress 138 

Revenue and Expenditure ...139- 142 

Revenue, U. S., for 70 Years • 146 

Rhode Island , 334 

Rice, Exports of. since 1820....... 167 

School Fund of States. See States. ...... 213 

Seasons, Beginning and Length of ....*. . 4 

Secretaries of Legation 118,122 

Senate of the U. S 188 

Senators, Slate, No. of, and Terms 21 1 

Slaves in the U. S. 215 

Smithsonian Institution 133, 209 

South American Governments 361 

South Carolina 338 

Sovereigns of Europe 362 

State Department 90 

State Elections, &c 210 

State Finances, Debu, &c 212, 213 

Steamboat Inspectore 101 

Supreme Court, U. S. 112 

Surveyors of Land-Office 98 

Swamp-Lands, enuring to States 218 

Tennessee 341 

Texas 344 

Theological Schools 208 

Tides, Heieht of Greatest, in 1860 7 

Titles and Abstracts of Public Laws 1 30 

Tobacco, Exports of, since 1820 167 

Ibbacco Traae, restrictions on 138 

Tonnage of the U. S 156-161 

Tonnage, Comp. View of, for 49 Years . . 160 

Trade, Foreign, Countries of 156, 156 

Treasurers, Assistant 90 

Treasury Department 90 

Treasury Notes, right to issue extended 136 

United States, Seventh Census 214 

Utah Tfrritury 369 

Venus and Mare, Discs of 36 

Vermont 347 

Vessels and Tonnajse from 181 5 - 1858 .... 1 60 

VesselsofWarinU. S. Navy 110 

Virginia 350 

Votes at Presidential Elections 196, 203 

War Department 91 

Washington National Monument Society 134 

Washinston Territory ^ 369 

Waterworks in Washington, Act concwn- 

ing 137 

West Indian Governments... 361 

Winds and Clouds 7B-86 

Wisconsin.. 966 

Zodiac, Signs of the 4 



T H £ 



AMERICAN ALMANAC,. 



FOR 



1860. 



PART I. 



THB • 



J • 



AMERICAN ALMANAC, 

• « 

FORTHSTEAR 

1860, ?. 

« 

Being the latter part of the 84th, and the beginning of the 85th year 
of the-independence of the United States of America ; 

" the 6573d year of the Julian Period ; 

*^ the latter part of the 5620th, and the beginning of the 5621st 

" year since the creation of the world, according to the Jews ; 

" the 2613th year (according to Yarro) since the foundation of 
Eome; 

" the 2607th year since the era of Nabonassar, which has been as- 
signed to Wednesday, the 26th of February, of the 3967th 
year of the Julian Period, which corresponds, according to 
the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the astrono- 
mers, to the 746th year before the birth of Christ ; 

" the 2636th year of the Olympiads, or the fourth year of the 659th 
Olympiad, beginning in July, 1857, if we fix the era of the 
Olympiads at 775^ years before Christ, or at or about the 
beginning of July of the year 3938 of the Julian Period ; 

" the latter part of the 1276th, and the beginning of the 1277th 
year (of twelve lunations) since the Hegira, or flight of Ma- 
homet, which, as is generally supposed, took place on the 16th 
of July, in the year 622 of the Christian era. 



I. CALENDAR AJND CELESTIAL PHENOMENA 

FOR THE YEAR. 

SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c. 



© The Sun. 
© The Earth. 

• l^OC The Moon. 

8 Mercury. 

9 Venus. 



Mars. 

Vesta. 

Juno. 

Pallas. 

Ceres. 



3|L Jupiter. 

li Saturn. 

1^ Herschel or Uranus. 

t|^ Neptune. 

-^ A fixed star. 



i Conjunction, or having the same Longitude or Right Ascension. 

D Quadrature, or differing 90P in " " " 

S Opposition, or differing 180° in " " " 

^ Tne ascending, ^ the descending node. 



4 CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES^ SIGNS OF THE ZODLA.C, ETC. [1860. 

The sign -{• is prefixed to thq latitude, or declination, of the Sun, or 
other heavenly body, wh^n north, and the sign — when south. 
The letters M. ^., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon, 



CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. 



dominical Letters, . .AG 

Bpact, 7 

Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 18 



Solar Cycle, 
Roman Indiction, 
Julian Period, . 



. 21 

3 

6573 



SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC. 



Spring 
signs. 

Summer 
signs. 



1. *Y* Aries. 
|2. y Taurus. 

3. n Gemini. 

4. 25 Cancer. 
'5. SI Leo. 

6. T^ Virgo. 



Autumn 
signs. « 

Winter 
signs. 



7. :£fc Libra. 

8. 1T{ Scorpio. 

9. / Sagittarius. 

10. ^ Capricornus. 

11. sar Aquarius. 

12. X Pisces. 



BEGINNING AND LENGTH OF THE SEASONS. 



Sun enters }p (Winter begins) 1859, Dec. 22d, 

" ) 1860, March 20th, 









y (Spring 
25 (Summer 
^ (Autumn 
})3 (Winter 






) 
) 
) 






June 2l8t, 
Sept. 22d, 
Dec. 2l8t, 



Sun in the Winter signs, 
" Spring " 
" Summer " 
" Autumn " 






north of Equator, (Spring and Summer,) 
south of " (Winter and Autumn,) 

Length of the tropical year, commencing at 
the winter solstice, 1859, and terminating 
at the winter solstice, 1860, . . . ^ 

Mean or average length of the tropical year^ 



l» 


h. m. 

2 55 M. ^ 

3 57 M. 
35M. 
2 44 A. 
8 43M. 


d. h. ni. 
89 1 2 

92 20 38 

93 14 9 
89 17 59 

186 10 47 

178 19 1 


365 


5 48 


365 


5 49 



Mean 
Time at 
Washing- • 
ton Obser- 
vatory. 



I860.] 



MOVABLE FESTIVALS. — JEWISH CALEXDAB. 



MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH IN 1860. 



Septuagesima Sunday, Feb. 5th 
Q,uinq. or Shrove Sunday, Feb. 19th 

Ash Wed., Lent begins, Feb. 22d 

First Sunday in Lent, Feb. 26th 

Palm Sunday, April 1st 

Easter Sunday, April 8th 

Low Sunday, April 15th 



Rogation Sunday, May 13th 

Ascen. Day, or Holy Th., May 17th 

Whitsunday, or Pentecost, May 27th 

Trinity Sunday, June 3d 
Corpus Christi Day, ) 

FSteDieu, ) J"""* ''"• 

1st Sunday in Advent, Dec. 2d 



JEWISH CALENDAR. 

[The anniversaries marked with an asterisk C*^ are to be strictly observed.] 

Year. Names of the Months. 

5620 Thebet begins, Dec. 27, 1859 

<« ^« 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem, . Jan. 5, 1860 

*' Sebat begins, Jan. 25, ** 

•* Adar begins, Feb. 24, " 

" " 13th, Fast of Esther, Mar. 7, " 

" « 14th, Purim, Mar. 8, '* 

•' " 15th, Schuscan Purim, Mar. 9, " 

*^ Nisan begins, Mar. 24, " 

" " 15th, *Beginning of the Passover, . . . Apr. 7, <' 

" " 16th, *Second Feast, or Morrow of the Passover, Apr. 8, »* 

*' " 21st, 'Seventh Feast, Apr. 13, " 

" »« 22d, *End of the Passover, . . . . Apr. 14, «« 

«* Ijar begins, Apr. 23, « 

" " 18th,'Lag Beomer, May 10, « 

" Si van begins, May 22, *' 

" «' 6th, *Feast of Weeks, or Pentecost, . . May 27, " 

" " 7th, *Second Feast, May 28, '« 

'* Tbammuz begins, June 21, " 

" " 18th,Fast for the taking of the Temple, . July 8, " 

«* Ab begins, July 20, »* 

" «' 10th, *Fast for the burning of the Temple, . July 29, " 

«» «« Elul begins, Aug. 19, " 

5621 Tisri begins, "Feast for the New Year, . . . Sept. 17, <« 
«• « 2d, "Second Feast for the New Year, . . Sept. 18, " 

'« " 3d, FastofGedaljah, Sept. 19, « 

<^ '* 10th, *Fast of the Reconciliation or Atonement, Sept. 26, <* 

«« «* 15th, *Feast of the Huts or Tabernacles, . Oct. 1, «« 

" " 16th, "Second Feast of the Huts, . . Oct. 2, « 

1* 



MAHOMETAN CALENDAB. 



[1860. 



a 



«c 



a 



u 

(C 



(( 



u 



Oct. 7,1860 
Oct. 8, " 
Oct. 9, 
Oct. 17, 



(( 



C( 



Tear. Names of the MonfhB. 

5621 Tisri 21st, Feast of Palms or Branches, 

22dy *£nd of the Hut or Congregntion Feast, 
23d, 'Rejoicing for the Discovery of the Law, 

Marchesyan begins, 

Chislea begins, Nov. 15, 

" 25th, Consecration of the Temple, . . Dec. 9, 

Tbebet begins, Dec. 14, 

'* 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem, . Dec. 23, 

^t Sebat begins, Jan. 12, 1861 

The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the 
Moon ; but in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veadar) is 7 times 
introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year 
nearly or quite correct. 



It 



u 



<t 



MAHOMETAN CALENDAR. 



Year. Names of the Months. 


1276 Jomadhi II. 


begins. 


" Redjeb 


(( 


<• Chaban 


u 


*< Ramadan 


u 


" Schewall 


C( 


«' Dsu'l-kadah 


C( 


<« Dsu'Uhejjah 


(( 


1277 Muharrem 


(t 


^ Saphar 


(( 


'• Rablal. 


C( 


" RabialL 


n 


'^ Jomadhi I. 


(I 


" Jomadhi It 


u 


«» Redjeb, 


(( 



Dec. 29, 1859 
Jan. 24,1860 
Feb. 23, »* 
Mar. 23, «« 
Apr. 22, " 
May 21, " 
June 20, '« 
July 20, " 
Aug. 19, " 
Sept 17, " 
Oct. 17, *» 
Nov. 15, «« 
Dec. 15, «* 
Jan. 13,1861 

The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 
16th, A. D. 622. 

The Mahometan year is purely lunar ; it consists of 12 synodical periods 
of the Moon, or of 354 days 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and of 355 
days 11 times. The average length of this year is therefore 354Jo days, 
which differs only thirty-three seconds from the truth ; a degree of exact- 
ness that could only have been attained by a long series of observations. 
But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a 
tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that 
once in about 33 years the above months will correspond to every season 
and every part of the Gregorian year. 



.... 

. . • . 
(Month of Fasting,) 
(Bairam,) 

. . . . 

• . . . 

.... 
. . . . 

.... 



I860.] 



HEIGHT OF SPRING TIDES. 



HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1860. 



Computed by the Formula of La Place (Mecanique dleste. Vol. II. pp. 289, 

Paris ed.f and [2858] Bowd. ed.). 



Washington Mean Time of 


Height of 


Washington 


Mean Time of 


Height of 


New or Full Moon. 


the Tide. 


New or 


Full Moon. 


the Tide. 


Full Moon, 


d. 
Jan. 8, 


h. 
10 M. 


0.93 


d. 
New Moon, July 18, 


9'm. 0.96 


New «» 


22, 


7 A. 


0.77 


Full 




Aug. 1, 


A. 0.82 


Full «» 


Feb. 6, 


9 A. 


1.09 


New 




16, 


5 A. 1.08 


New «♦ 


2i; 


2 A. 


0.83 


Full 




31, 


4M. 0.85 


Full " 


Mar. 7, 


8M. 


1.15 


New 




Sept. 15, 


IM. 1.15 


New " 


22, 


9M. 


0.88 


Full 




29, 


9 A. 0.85 


Full " 


April 5, 


5 A. 


1.10 


New 




Oct. 14, 


9M. 1.10 


New «» 


21, 


IM. 


0.86 


Full 


(( 


29, 


2 A. 0.81 


Full " 


May 5, 


2M. 


0.95 


New 


(( 


Nov. 12, 


7 A. 0.96 


New " 


20, 


2 A. 


0.81 


Full 


(( 


28, 


6M. 0.78 


Full " 


June 3, 


A. 


0.82 


New 


(( 


Dec. 12, 


8M. 0.86 


New " 


19, 


OM. 


0.84 


Full 


ii 


27, 


10 A. 0.83 


Full « 


July 2, 


11 A. 


0.79 











The unit of altitude at any place Is the height at that place of that tide 
which arrives about a day and a haJf after the time of New or Full Moon, 
when the Sun and Moon, at the moment of conjunction or opposition, are 
at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial 
equator. 

This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each 
place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of 
the spring tides at that place during the present year. 

By the above table it appears that the highest tides of 1860 will be those 
of Feb. 6, March 7, April 5, Aug. 16, Sept. 15, and Oct. 14. 

The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much on the strength 
and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, 
which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than 
another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when 
the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great eleva- 
tion, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water 
will be uncommonly great. 

The formula from which these tides were computed is, however, strictly 
true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very un- 
certain approximation for the coast of the United States. 



8 January^ First Months begins on Sunday, [I860. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




Ist day. 


7th day. 1] I3ih day. 


1 19th da 

1 


y- 

Inds. 1 
. m. 


25th day. 


Begins, 
b. m. 


Knds. 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Enils. 
h. m. 


1 Begins. 
' h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begms. £ 
h. m. 1 h 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Boston, 


6 48m 


6 30a 


5 48m 


6 24a 


5 48m 


6 39ai 5 47m 6 35a| 


6 44m 6 43a 


N. York, 


6 46 


6 22 


546 


626 


5 46 


6 31 


5 45 1 6 87 


543 


&44 


Wash'n, 


6 43 


6 25 


5 44 


6 29 


5 44 


634 


5 43 6 89 


5 41 


645 


Charles., 


5 35 


6 33 


5 36 


6 37 


5 37 


6 41 


536 646 


5 35 


6 51 


N. Orl's, 


5 31 


6 37 


5 33 


640 


5 34 


644 


533 


649 


5 33 


6 54 


S. Fran., 


6 43 


636 


6 43 


6 80 


5 43 


6 85 


5 43 


6 40 


540 


646 


PHASBS, AND PERIOBB AND APOOBE, OP THB MOON. 

Full Moon, 8th day, lOh. 1 5m. M. New Moon, 22d day, 7h. 8m. A. 

Last Quarter, 15ih " 1 50 M. First Quarter, 30th " 12 2 M. 

Perigee, 9th day, lOh. A. Apogee, 25th day. Oh. A. 


Days of Month. 


• 

1 

o 
m 

t 


Bun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 






M 

o • 

« 

55 


1. 
1' 


o 

2 . 
9 ^ 


m 

§ . 

• 






rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. ra 


rises. 
h. m. 


seto. 
h. m. 


rises. 
ii. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises, sets. 
h. m. h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Su, 


7 30 


139 


7 25 


4 43 


7 19 


4 48 


7 8 


5 5 


6 56 


5 11 


7 16 


4 61 


6 iia 


2 


M. 


30 


89 


25 


44 


19 


49 


8 


6 


56 


13 


16 


53 


6 65 


3 


Tu. 


30 


40 


35 


45 


19 


60 


a 


6 


56 


13 


16 


63 


7 44 


4 


W. 


30 


41 


35 


46 


19 


51 


3 


7 


57 


14 


16 


54 


837 


5 


Th. 


30 


42 


25 


47 


19 


63 




8 


57 


14 


16 


55 


9 85 


6 


F. 


30 


43 


25 


48 


19 


63 




9 


57 


15 


16 


66 


10 38 


7 


S. 
5m. 


30 
7 29 


44 
4 45 


25 
7 25 


49 
460 


19 
7 19 


54 




10 


57 


15 
5 17 


16 


57 


11 4ia 


1 8 


4 55 


7 4 


5 10 


6 57 


7 16 


4 58 


<? 


: 9 


M. 


39 


46 


24 


51 


19 


56 




11 


57 


17 


16 


59 


44m 


10 


Tu. 


39 


47 


24 


63 


19 


67 




13 


57 


18 


16 


5 


1 43 


11 


W. 


29 


48 


24 


53 


19 


58 




13 


57 


19 


16 


1 


3 37 


12 


Th. 


'28 


49 


24 


54 


18 


59 


3 


14 


57 


30 


15 


3 


8 28 


13 


F. 


28 


50 


23 


55 


18 


5 


3 


15 


67 


31 


15 


3 


4 17 


14 


S. 
Su. 


28 

727 


51 
4 53 


28 

7 23 


56 


18 


1 
5 3 


3 
7 8 


16 


67 


33 
5 38 


15 
7 15 


4 
5 6 


6 6 


15 


4 67 


7 18 


5 16 


6 67 


5 55 


16 


M. 


27 


54 


23 


56 


17 


a 


3 


17 


67 


33 


14 


6 


645 


17 


Tu. 


26 


55 


22 


59 


17 


4 


3 


18 


67 


34 


14 


7 


73a 


18 


W. 


26 


66 


21 


5 1 


16 


6 


3 


19 


57 


35 


18 


8 


8 21 


19 


Th. 


25 


57 


21 


2 


16 


6 


3 


30 


56 


36 


18 


9 1 


9 25 


20 


F. 


25 


59 


20 


3 


15 


7 


3 


31 


56 


37 


13 


10 1 


10 19 


21 


S. 
Su. 


24 
7 23 


5 
5 1 


20 

7 19 


4 
5 5 


15 
7 14 


8 
5 10 


1 

7 1 


33 
5 23 


56 
6 55 


38 
5 38 


13 
7 11 


"1 


U 11 


22 


5 13 


11 59m 


23 


M. 


23 


2 


18 


6 


14 


11 


1 


24 


55 


39 


11 


14 


45a 


24 


T. 


32 


3 


17 


8 


13 


13 





25 


55 


30 


10 


15 


1 38 


25 


W. 


21 


6 


17 


9 


13 


13 





26 


54 


81 


10 


16 


2 8 


26 


Th. 


21 


6 


16 


10 


13 


14 


6 59 


27 


54 


33 


9 


17 


2 48 


27 


F. 


20 


7 


15 


11 


11 


15 


59 


28 


53 


88 


8 


18 


3 37 


28 


S. 
Su. 


19 
7 18 


8 
5 10 


14 
7 14 


12 
5 14 


10 
7 10 


16 


58 


29 
5 30 


53 
6 53 


34 
5 35 


7 
7 7. 


19! 
5 30 


4 7 


29 


5 17 


6 68 


4 49 


30 


M. 


17 


• 

11 


13 


15 


9 


19 


57 


81 


53 


86 


6 


22 


6 S4 


31 


T. 


16 


13 


12 


16 


8 


30 


56 


33 


63 


36 


5 


23 


6 24a 



I860.] 



January has Thirty-one Days, 



9 



Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 



? 

$ 

h 

¥ 



1st day. 



souths. 
h. in. 
10 36m 

1 46a 

7 67m 

63 

3 13 
9 36a 

4 69 



Dec. 

o / 
— 30 47 

— 30 48 

— 14 37 

-|-33 1 

-|-14 16 

-f-30 66 

— 3 30 



7th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
10 38m 

1 63a 

7 48m 

36 

3 47 
9 la 

4 36 



Dec. 

o / 
— 33 6 

— 18 64 

— '16 35 

-|-a3 9 

-j-14 33 

-[-30 64 

— 3 17 



13th day. 



souths. I Dec. 
h. m. I o < 
10 38m — 33 4 



1 68a 



— 16 41 



7 39m — 16 40 



11 64a 

3 33m 
8 37a 

4 13 



-|-33 19 
-|-14 30 
-|-30 63 
3 14 



19tb day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
10 60m 

3 4a 

7 30m 

11 37a 
1 67m 
8 13a 

3 49 



Dec. 

o / 
— 23 30 

— 14 13 

— 17 40 

-f-33 36 

-{-14 39 

-f-30 61 

— 3 11 



25th day. 



souths. 
h. ra. 
11 6m 

3 8a 

7 3im 

11 ooa 

1 38m 

7 49a 
3 36 



Dec. 

o I 
— 33 13 

— 11 29 

— 18 36 

-f-23 33 

-|-14 60 

-j-20 60 

— 3 7 



o 

o 

en 

Q 



s, 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 



S. 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



S. 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



S. 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



S. 
80 
31 



Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 



o 

a 
o 
«-> 

CO 

o 



sets. 
h. Di. 

sm 

1 8 
3 16 

3 23 

4 83 
6 42 
^46 



7 37m 

rises. 

7 34a 
864 

10 11 

11 36 



o . 



sets. 
h. m. 

3m 

1 6 
3 11 
3 18 
427 
6 36 
6 38 



7 Sim 

rises, 
7 38a 

8 66 

10 11 

11 34 



c 
o 

f • 



sets. 
h. m. 

im 

1 3 
3 8 

3 13 

4 31 
6 39 
6 31 



a 
o 

o 



38m 

1 60 

3 3 

4 8 
6 10 
6 1 

6 46 

7 3im 
sets, 

6 49a 

7 60 

8 63 

9 61 
10 65 



11 68a 



36m 

1 46 

3 68 

4 3 
6 3 
6 64 
6 39 



7 16m 

sets. 

6 63a 

7 63 

8 63 

9 60 
10 63 



7 35m 

rises. 
7 4ia 

8 68 

10 11 

11 33 



32m 

1 43 
3 63 

3 66 

4 67 
6 47 
6 33 



sets. 
h. m. 



65m 

1 66 

3 68 

4 03 
609 
6 13 



7 7m 
rises, 

7 6oa 

9 1 
10 11 
U 17 



n 

c 



sets. 
h. m. 



63m 

1 63 
3 63 
3 66 
6 3 
6 6 



.2 
c o 



^ 



sets. 
h. m. 

8m 

1 10 
3 14 

3 18 

4 36 
6 33 
6 36 



11 65a 



1 4m 1 oom 



7 iim 
sets. 

6 66a 

7 63 

8 64 

9 63 
10 61 



11 63a 



65m 



33m 

1 39 

3 36 

4 36 
4 36 
6 37 
6 14 



7 om 
rises. 

7 66a 
9 6 

10 13 

11 17 



6 64m 

sets. 
7 6a 

7 69 

8 66 
948 

10 44 

11 4ia 



43m 



3im 

1 36 

3 30 

4 30 
4 30 
6 30 
6 8 



6 49m 

sets. 
7 iia 

8 3 

8 57 

9 48 
10 43 



7 29m 

rises. 
7 6ia 

9 8 

10 21 

11 31 



4om 

149 

3 67 

4 00 
6 00 
6 60 
6 35 



11 38a 



37m 



7 13m 

sets. 
7 6a 

8 3 

9 1 
9 67 

10 67 



11 68a 



1 im 



High Water. Mean Time. 



o 

a 

o 

m 

& 



h. m. 

4 88m 

5 35 

6 18 

7 18 

8 SO 

9 23 
10 35 



11 3im 


13a 


1 4 


1 61 


337 


3 33 


4 13 


6 6 


6 6 


7 9 


8 13 



9 13 


10 6 


10 66 


11 36a 


• • • 


16m 


61 


126 


3 1 


3 36 


3 13 


3 64 «. 


4 43m 



M 

o . 
Km o 



h. m. 
1 36m 
3 13 

3 6 

4 4 
6 6 



a 
§ • 

so O 



J 



6 9 


7 11 


8 6 


9 


960 


10 36 


11 30m 


9a 


1 


1 13 


3 63 


3 66 


4 68 


6 68 



h. m. 

29m 

1 13 
3 4 

3 7 

4 14 
6 31 
6 36 



lis 



h. m. 
6 4im 

6 33 

7 35 
833 
9 31 

10 14 

11 6 



7 31 

8 16 

9 3 
9 40 

10 31 

11 16m 
4a 



6 53 

7 40 



8 19 

9 3 
9 38 

10 13 

10 46 

11 19 
11 59a 



43m 

1 som 



56 

1 63 

3 68 

4 7 
6 9 
6 7 
6 66 



11 64m 

46a 

1 33 
3 18 

3 8 

4 7 
6 11 



7 37 

8 16 

8 50 

9 33 
9 66 

10 30 

11 6 



6 13 

7 13 

8 14 

9 15 
10 6 

10 50 

11 3ia 



11 47a 



33m 



9m 

46 

1 30 
1 53 
3 38 
3 7 



8 65 

4 49 

5 46m 



10 Febnmry, Second Months begins on Wednesday, [1860. 


Twilight begias aud ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. 1 


7ih day. 


13th day. 


19th 


day. 


25th day. | 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends. 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends 
h. m. 


. Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends. 
Ii. ra. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins 
h. m. 


. Ends- 
fa. m. 


Boston, 


6 38m 


6 60a 


6 33m 


6 66aj 5 36m 


7 3a 


5 18m 


7 loa 


5 9m 7 17a| 


N. York, 


5 37 


6 61 ; 


6 31 


6 67 


6 26 


7 4 


6 18 


7 10 


6 10 


7 16 


Wash'n, 


636 


663 , 


5 81 


666 


5 26 


7 4 


6 18 


7 10 


6 10 


7 16 


Charles^ 


6 31 


6 67 


5 37 


7 1 


523 


7 6 


6 17 


7 11 


5 10 


7 16 


N. Orl's, 


5 39 


669 


6 36 


7 3 


6 21 


7 8 


5 16 


7 12 


5 11 


7 16 


S. Fran., 


6 35 


6 63 


636 


669 


5 25 


7 4 


6 18 


7 10 


6 10 


7 16 


PHABB8, AND PBRIOBB AND APOOBB, OP THB MOON. 


Full Moon, 6th day, 9h. 27m. A. New Moon, 21 at day, 2h. 30m. A. 
Last Quarter, 13th <^ 1 43 A. First Quarter, 29tb " 2 47 A. 

Perigee, 7th day, 8h. M. | Apogee, 2l8t day, 4h. A. 


j 

o 

1 


• 
M 

s 

O 
1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


Is 


• 


•a 


i. 

m 

1 


1' 


m 

h 

• 

2 






risea. 
h. m. 


8tt9. 

h. m. 


risea. 
h. m. 


ads. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 

h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 

I m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


w. 


7 15 


6 14 


7 11 


6 17 


T 7 


5 21 


6 66 


5 33 


S 61 


587 


7 4 


524 


7 18a 


2 


Th. 


14 


16 


10 


18 


6 


22 


65 


84 


50 


38 


8 


26 


8 17 


3 


F. 


13 


16 


9 


30 


6 


23 


64 


84 


60 


89 


2 


26 


9 19 


4 


S. 


11 


18 


8 


31 


6 


24 


64 


36 


49 


40 


2 


27 
6 29 


10 23 


5 


7 10 


6 19 


7 7 


6 33 


7 4 


5 26 


6 63 


6 36 


6 49 


5 40 


7 1 


11 22a 


6 


M. 


9 


30 


6 


33 


8 


27 


63 


37 


48 


41 





30 


^ 


7 


Tu. 


8 


31 


6 


35 


2 


2B 


61 


38 


47 


42 


6 69 


h 


osom 


8 


W. 


7 


33 


4 


36 


1 


39 


60 


39 


46 


48 


68 


82 


1 15 


9 


Th. 


6 


34 


3 


27 


6 69 


30 


60 


40 


46 


44 


66 


83 


2 7 


10 


F. 


4 


35 


1 


28 


68 


31 


49 


41 


46 


45 


66 


34 


2CT 


11 


S. 
Su. 


8 


27 





29 


67 


32 


48 


42 


44 


46 


64 


86 
637 


3 48 


12 


7 2 


6 38 


6 69 


6 81 


6 66 


5 34 


6 47 


643 


S48 


6 46 


6 63 


440 


13 


M. 





39 


66 


83 


66 


35 


46 


44 


42 


47 


62 


38 


6 33 


14 


Tu. 


6 66 


31 


66 


83 


64 


86 


46 


44 


41 


48 


61 


39 


697 


15 


W. 


68 


S3 


65 


34 


62 


37 


44 


46 


41 


49 


49 


40 


7 21 


16 


Th. 


66 


33 


63 


36 


61 


38 


43 


46 


40 


49 


48 


41 


8 16 


17 


F. 


65 


34 


63 


87 


60 


39 


42 


47 


39 


50 


47 


43 


9 7 


18 


S. 


64 


36 


51 


89 


49 


40 


41 


48 


38 


51 


46 


43 
5 45 


9 67 


19 


6 62 


5 87 


6 60 


5 89 


6 47 


5 42 


S40 


5 49 


8 37 


6 62 


6 44 


10 43 


20 


M. 


61 


38 


48 


40 


46 


43 


89 


50 


86 


63 


48 


46 


11 36m 


21 


Tu. 


49 


89 


47 


42 


45 


44 


88 


50 


86 


68 


42 


47 


7a 


22 


W. 


48 


41 


46 


48 


43 


45 


37 


61 


84 


64 


40 


48 


47 


23 


TL 


46 


43 


44 


44 


42 


46 


86 


63 


83 


66 


89 


49 


1 26 


24 


F. 


46 


43 


43 


45 


41 


47 


85 


63 


82 


66 


88 


60 


2 6 


25 


S. 
Su. 


43 


44 


41 


46 


39 


48 


84 


64 


31 


66 


86 


61 
5 62 


2 47 


26 


6 42 


5 46 


6 40 


5 48 


6 38 . 


S49 


S 82 


5 65 


6 30 


6 67 


6 35 


3 81 


27 


M. 


40 


47 


38 


49 


37 


60 


31 


65 


29 


68 


84 


63 


4 1ft 


28 


Tu. 


38 


48 


87 


60 


35 


61 


30 


56 


28 


68 


33 


63 


6 9 


29 


W. 


37 


49 


35 


61 


34 


62 


29 


67 


27 


69 


82 


64 


6 4a 



1860. 


] February has Twenty-nine Days, 


111 


Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 




1st day. 


7th day. 


13th day. 


I9th day. 


26th day. 


souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 


s 


h. m. 
11 34m 


o < 
— 31 58 


h. m. 
11 4im 


O 1 

— 19 60 


h. m. 
11 59m 


o / 
— 16 65 


h. m. 
na 


O / 

— 13 8 


h. m. 
36a 


O f 

— 8 31 


? 


3 13a 


— 8 5 


3 16a 


— 5 3 


3 19a 


— 1 66 


3 33 


4- 1 13 


3 36 • 


4-4 32 


3 


7 iim 


— 19 86 


7 3m 


— 20 32 


6 54m 


— 21 3 


6 46m 


— 31 39 


6 36m- 


--23 11 


:il 


10 3oa 


-f-22 41 


10 3a 


-f-23 46 


9 37a 


+22 60 


9 13a 


4-33 64 


8 47a • 


4-32 57 


\ 


1 


3m 


4-16 


37m 


-|-15 10 


13m 


4-16 20 1 


11 43 


4-16 81 


11 17 • 


-|-16 41 


w 


7 2ia 


-f-30 49 


6 67a 


-|-30 49 


6 34a 


4-20 49 


6 10 


4*20 60 


6 47 ■ 


4-30 51 


^ 


3 





— 3 3 


3 37 


3 68 


3 14 


— 263 


1 61 


— 3 48 


1 38 • 


— 3 43 


•S 

a 
o 

o 
to 

B 


Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 


High Water. Mean Time. 


* 

o 

g 




d 
.So 

1 




h 

J? 


o 
1 


• 

o 

a 


2 






1 


sets. 
h. m. 
2 13m 


sets. 
h. m. 

3 6m 


sets. 
h. m. 

3 om 


sets. 
h. m. 

1 43m 


sets. 
h. m. 

1 37m 


sets. 
h. m. 

2 6m 


h. m. 
5 4im 


h. m. 
sssm 


h. m. 

127m 


h. m. 
6 47m 


2 


3 21 


3 15 


3 8 


3 49 


343 


3 13 


6 46 


3 33 


233 


763 


3 


4 35 


4 18 


4 13 


8 53 


3 45 


4 15 


7 66 


443 


3 50 


9 


4 


6 33 


5 16 


5 9 


460 


4 43 


5 12 


9 6 


6 52 


453 


10 


S. 


6 lom 


6 4m 


5 59m 


5 43m 


5 35m 


6 im 


10 9 


6 56 


6 10 


10 58 


6 


648 


6 44 


6 40 


636 


6 33 


6 41 


11 5 


7 49 


7 6 


11 38m 


7 


rises. 


rises. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


nses. 


11 54m 


8 39 


7 66 


36a 


8 


7 46a 


7 47a 


7 48a 


7 49a 


7 6ia 


7 57a 


40a 


9 28 


840 


1 10 


^ 


9 4 


9 4 


9 3 


9 


9 1 


9 12 


1 35 


10 13 


922 


1 63 


10 


10 33 


10 30 


10 18 


10 10 


10 8 


10 26 


3 9 


10 63 


10 4 


336 


11 


11 37 


11 33 


11 30 


11 18 


11 14 


1137 


3 36 


11 4om 


10 49 


3 83 


S, 


• • • 


« • • 


• • • 


• • « 


... 


. • * 


3 46 


33a 


11 38m 


437 


13 


54m 


49m 


44m 


38m 


33m 


49m 


4 40 


1 38 


3ia 


643 


14 


3 1 


1 55 


049 


31 


034 


1 54 


644 


3 31 


1 31 


660 


15 


8 4 


3 67 


3 51 


330 


334 


264 


6 49 


3 36 


2 87 


756 


16 


3 56 


8 61 


344 


3 34 


3 17 


3 47 


7 64 


4 39 


8 47 


8 67 


17 


444 


4 38 


4 31 


4 13 


4 5 


483 


864 


638 


460 


949 


18 


5 33 


6 18 


6 13 


4 55 


4 50 


6 13 


9 44 


6 81 


644 


10 33 


^. 


5 63m 


5 47m 


5 43m 


5 39m 


5 36m 


6 44m 


10 30 


7 16 


6 31 


11 9 


20 


6 18 


6 15 


6 11 


6 1 


6 67 


6 13 


11 8 


7 53 


7 8 


114ia 


21 
22 


6 39 

sets. 


6 87 

sets. 


6 34 

sets. 


627 

sets. 


636 

sets. 


6 36 

sets. 


11 43a 

... 


8 37 

9 3 


744 
8 18 


... 

16m 


23 


7 44a 


7 44a 


7 44a 


7 43a 


7 44a 


7 5ia 


16m 


9 37 


849 


048 


24 


8 46 


8 44 


843 


8 38 


8 38 


8 50 


049 


10 11 


9 21 


139 


25 


9 49 


946 


9 43 


9 34 


9 33 


9 50 


1 35 


10 45 


9 66 


1 51 


S. 


10 54a 


10 50a 


10 46a 


10 33a 


10 39a 


10 5ia 


3 


11 33a 


10 34 


337 


27 


• • • 


11 65 


11 49 


11 33 


11 26 


11 64 


340 


... 


11 na 


3 13 


28 





• • • 


• • • 


... 


... 


• . • 


8 33 


lom 


I . • > 


4 8 


29 


1 6m 


1 om 


54m 


36m 


29m 


69m 


4 15m 


1 sm 


I 7m 


6 16m 



12 



Marchy Third Months begins on Thursday. [I860.! 



Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. 


7ih day. | 


I3th day. | 


lyth day. | 


25th day. 


Boston, 


Begins, 
h. m. 

5 3m 


Ends, 
h. m. 

7 23a 


Begios. 
h. m. 
4 53m 


Ends, 
h. m. 

7 29a 


Begins, 
li. m. 

4 43m 


Ends, 
h. m. 

7 37a 


Begins, 
h. m. 

4 ssm 


Ends, 
h. m. 

7 45a 


Begins, 
h. m. 
4 20m 


Ends, 
h. m. 
7 53a 


N. York, 


5 4 


722 


4 54 


7 28 


444 


735 


4 84 


7 42 


433 


749 


Wash'n, 


5 6 


7 21 


4 55 


7 27 


446 


734 


4 36 


7 40 


426 


746 


Charles., 


6 7 


7 19 


4 59 


724 


4 51 


729 


443 


7 33 


4 34 


738 


N. OrPs, 


5 7 


7 19 


5 


7 23 


4 53 


7 27 


445 


7 31 


4 37 


736 


S. Fran., 




5 6 


7 21 


4 56 


7 26 


4 47 


7 33 


4 37 


7 39 


4 27 


7 45 



PHASES, AND PERIOKB AND APOOBB, OP THE MOON. { 

Full Moon, 7th day, 7h. SSm. M. I New Moon, 22d day, 8h. 47m. M. \ 

Last Quarter, 14th " 4 M. j First Quarter, 30th " 1 46 M. | 

Perigee. 6th day, II h. A. | Apogee, 19th day, 8h. A. 





4ii 

1 

O 

1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) 


Mean Time. 


• 

as . 


1 

o 
n 

o 


u 


1". 

►2 o 


Bo 

r 


9S 

a 
2 

09 

6 


• 

o 


o 

• 

S5 


• 


« 

CO 


Is 




rises, sets. 
h. m. h. m. 


rises, 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
b.m. 


h. m. 


1 


Th. 


6 35 


5 51 


6 34 


5 53 


6 33 


5 53 


6 38 


5 58 


6 26 


5 59 


6 30 


5 55 


7 aa 


2 


F. 


34 


52 


33 


53 


31 


54 


37 


59 


25 


6 


29 


56 


8 8 


3 


S. 
5m. 


32 


53 


31 


64 


39 


65 


35 


59 


24 


1 


27 


57 
5 58 


9 8 


4 


6 30 


5 54 


6 29 


5 55 


S38 


5 66 


6 34 


6 


6 22 


6 2 


6 26 


10 1 


5 


M. 


28 


55 


28 


56 


37 


57 


33 


1 


21 


2 


25 


69 


10 56 


6 


Tu. 


27 


57 


26 


57 


35 


58 


33 


3 


20 


3 


23 


6 


11 50a 


7 


W. 


25 


58 


24 


59 


34 


59 


30 


3 


19 


4 


23 


1 


<? 


8 


Th. 


24 


59 


23 


6 


32 


6 1 


19 


3 


18 


4 


SO 


8 


43m 


9 


F. 


22 


6 


21 


1 


21 


3 


18 


4 


17 


6 


19 


4 


1 34 


10 


S. 
5m. 


20 


1 


19 


3 


19 


3 


16 


5 


15 


6 


17 


5 
6 6 


3 27 


11 


6 18 


6 2 (6 18 


6 8 


6 17 


6 4 


6 15 


6 6 


6 14 


6 6 


6 15 


833 


12 


M. 


17 


4 


16 


4 


16 


5 


14 


6 


13 


7 


14 


7 


4 17 


13 


Tu. 


15 


5 


15 


5 


14 


6 


13 


7 


12 


7 


13 


8 


6 14 


14 


W. 


13 


6 


13 


6 


13 


7 


11 


8 


11 


8 


11 





6 9 


15 


Th. 


12 


7 


11 


7 


11 


8 


10 


8 


10 


9 


9 


10 


7 3 


16 


F. 


10 


8 


10 


8 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


11 


7 53 


17 


S. 
5w. 


8 


9 
6 10 


8 
6 6 


9 


8 


10 


7 


10 


7 


10 
6 11 


6 
6 4 


13 


8 40 


18 


6 6 


6 11 


5 6 


6 10 


6 6 


6 11 


6 6 


6 13 


9 35 


19 


M. 


5 


12 


5 


13 


5 


11 


6 


11 


5 


11 


3 


18 


10 6 


20 


Tu. 


3 


13 


3 


13 


3 


13 


4 


13 


4 


13 


3 


18 


10 46 


21 


W. 


1 


14 


1 


14 


3 


13 


3 


13 


3 


12 


1 


14 


11 26m, 


22 


Th. 


5 59 


15 





16 





14 


1 


13 


1 


18 


5 59 


15 


6a 


23 


F. 


58 


16 


5 58 


16 


6 58 


15 





14 





14 


57 


16 


47 


24 


S. 


56 
5 54 


17 


56 
5 55 


17 
6 18 


67 
6 65 


16 


5 58 


15 
6 15 


5 58 
5 57 


14 


56 


17 
6 18 


1 80 


25 


6 18 


6 17 


5 57 


6 16 


5 54 


3 16 


26 


M. 


52 


19 


53 


19 


64 


18 


56 


16 


56 


15 


53 


19 


3 6 


27 


Td. 


51 


20 


51 


30 


53 


19 


54 


17 


65 


16 


51 


30 


3 59 


28 


W. 


49 


22 


50 


21 


51 


•SO 


53 


18 


54 


17 


50 


31 


466 


29 


Th. 


47 


23 


48 


23 


49 


31 


53 


18 


52 


17 


48 


33 


5 54 


30 


F. 


45 


24 


46 


33 


47 


33 


60 


19 


61 


18 46 


33 


6 51 


31 


S. 


44 


25 


45 


34 


46 


23 


49 


20 


50 


18 45 


34 


7 48a 



I860.] 



March has Thirty-one Days, 



13 



Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 



1st day. 


7th day. 


13th day. 


souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 


h. m. 
60a 


o / 
— 4 10 


h. m. 
1 6a 


1 ° ' 
-}- 1 12 


h. m. 
1 13a 


1 ° ' 
+ 64 


227 


-[- 6 66 


2 29 


4-9 57 


233 


+12 49 


6 29m 


^—22 83 


6 20m 


— ^22 55 


6 iim 


— 23 12 


8 26a 


-[-22 68 


8 3a 


+22 69 


7 39a 


+23 


10 55 


+15 48 


10 30 


+15 66 


10 6 


+16 4 


6 28 -|-aO 61 


5 5 


+20 63 


4 42 


+20 65 


1 9 


2 38 


46 


— 2 33 


24 


— 2 28 



? 

$ 

h 



tJJ 1 9 i— 



I9th day. 


souths. 


Dec. 


h. m. 
1 8a 


1 ° ' 
+ 9 18 


2 36 

R OTYl 


+16 81 

tw eta 



7 16a 

9 40 
4 19 
1 



+22 69 
+16 10 
+20 67 
— 2 22 



25th day. 



Dec. 

o / 



souths. 
h. m. 
8a 1+10 14 

2 39 +18 

6 53m — 23 34 



6 53a 
9 15 
3 66 



+22 68 
+ 16 16 
+20 68 



11 38m — 2 17 



a 
o 



9 



1 

2 
3 



S. 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

S. 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



S. 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



S. 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Moon rises or sets. Mean time. 



o 

s 
S 

go 



sets. 
h. m. 

3 9m 
3 9 
3 59 



as 



sets. 
h. m. 

2 2m 

3 3 
3 53 



4 4im 

5 16 

5 42 

6 10 

rises. 
9 12a 

10 29 



11 43a 



52m 

1 62 
3 43 
3 23 
3 65 



4 36m 

5 12 

5 40 

6 10 

rises. 
9 9a 

10 25 



11 37a 



4 22m 

4 45 
6 6 

5 25 

6 44 

sets. 

8 46a 

9 60a 
10 67 

• • • 

im 

1 
1 51 
3 36 



46m 

1 45 
3 37 
3 17 
3 50 



4 18m 

4 42 
6 6 

5 36 

6 44 

sets, 

8 4ia 

9 4da 

10 61 

11 56 



63m 

1 46 
3 30 



a 
o 

to 

.£ o 



^ 



sets. 
h. m. 

1 66m 
3 65 
3 47 



4 3im 
6 9 
6 38 
6 9 

rises. 
9 6a 

10 30 



11 3ia 



a 
o 

J3 

o 



sets. 
h. m. 

1 36m 
3 36 
3 39 



4 nm 

4 58 
6 31 
6 7 

rises. 
a 66a 

10 6 



0} 

d 

"J . 
« o 



sets. 
h. m. 

1 39m 
3 39 
3 23 



39m 

1 39 

2 30 

3 11 
3 45 



11 ua 



4 14m 

4 40 

5 3 

6 25 
6 44 

sets. 

8 38a 



2om 

1 18 

2 11 

3 64 
3 31 



4 iim 

4 54 
6 30 
6 8 

rises. 

8 53a 
10 3 



11 8a 



4 8m 


'4 33 


4 69 


5 34 


5 43 


sets. 


8 36a 



9 4ia 

10 46 

11 48 



47m 

1 38 

2 25 



9 36a 

10 27 

11 28 



um 


1 12 


2 3 


2 48 


8 26 


3 69m 


4 29 


4 68 


5 24 


6 42 


sets. 


8 22a 


9 32a 



11 33 



37m 3om 



1 19 

2 9 



1 13 

2 3 



o 
c o 



^ 



sets. 
h. m. 

1 69m 
3 68 
3 60 



4 34m 
6 11 

5 41 

6 13 

rises. 

9 49a 
10 27 



11 38a 



43m 

1 41 

2 31 

3 12 
3 47 



4 16m 

4 41 

5 6 

5 26 

6 45 

sets, 

8 44a 



9 48a 

10 60 

11 62 



49m 

1 41 

2 27 



High Water. 


Mean Time. 


1 
1 


New York, 
&c. 


Charleston, 


San Francis- 
co (North 
Beach). 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


5 16m 


3 4m 


1 6m 


6 24m 


6 27 


8 15 


3 14 


7 36 


7 40 


4 36 


3 33 


8 44 


8 49 


6 35 


4 46 


9 46 


9 49 


6 36 


6 49 


10 86 


10 43 


7 28 


6 43 


11 19m 


11 29m 


8 1 


7 39 


la 


12a 


8 69 


8 13 


44 


67 


943 


8 65 


1 26 


1 42 


10 37 


9 S8 


2 9 


3 33 


11 16m 


10 37 


3 6 


3 33 


9a 


11 16m 


4 8 


4 31 


1 4 


12a 


6 21 


633 


3 10 


1 11 


6 30 


6 38 


3 15 


3 14 


7 36 


7 39 


4 16 


3 19 


833 


8 33 


6 9 


4 18 


9 34 


9 11 


6 67 


6 8 


10 6 


9 54 


6 41 


6 64 


10 40 


10 32 


7 18 


6 33 


11 11 


11 8 


7 62 


7 8 


11 4ia 


11 42a 


8 36 


7 43 


• • • 


• • • 


9 3 


8 18 


16m 


16m 


9 40 


8 63 


48 


63 


10 19 


9 29 


1 32 


1 33 


11 


10 12 


2 


2 17 


11 6ia 


10 69 


3 46 


3 6 


• * • 


11 64a 


8 45 


4 I 


49m 


• • • 


4 68 


5 6 


1 63 


64m 


6 11 


6 13m 


3 om 


] 69m 


7 20m 



2 



14 




Apn 


1,1 

Twi 


hurth Months 


begins on Sunday, 


[I860. 




light begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. 1 


7ih day. | 


13lh day. 


19th day. 


25th day. 


Begins, 
h. in. 


Enda. Begins 
h. m. h. m. 


Ends. 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Boston, 


4 7m 


8 la 


3 55m| 8 9a| 


3 43m 


8 188 


3 3ira 8 37a 


3 19m 8 37a 


N. York, 


4 11 


7 67 


3 59 


8 5 


3 48 


8 14 


387 833 


326 


830 


Wash'n, 


4 15 


7 53 


4 4 


8 1 


3 53 


8 9 


3 43 1 


3 17 


333 


835 


Charles., 


425 


743 


4 16 


7 49 


4 7 


7 65 


3 59 ( 


3 


3 51 


8 5 


N. Orl's, 


439 


7 39 


4 31 


7 44 


4 13 


7 49 


4 5 7 53 


3 58 


7 68 


S. Fran., 


4 17 


7 51 


4 6 


7 9 


3 55 


8 7 


3 46 ) 


3 14 


8 36 


8 33 


PHASBS, AND PBRIGEB AND APO€(BB, OF THE UOON. 


Full Moon, 5th day, 4h. 62m. A. New Moon, 21st day, Oh. 37m. M. 
Last Quarter, 12th " 8 26 A. First Quarter, 28th •' 9 28 M. 


Perigee, 4th day, 6h. M. | Apogee, 16th day, 9h. M. 


JS 

1 

1 


• 

1 

1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean^Time. 


ii 

Is 


• 

1 

1 




o 
3 




• 

55 


■ 




rises. 
h. m. 


stts. 
h. m.- 


rises 
h. m 


. «e/«. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets.Wises 
h. m.[h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Su. 


543 


6 36 


5 43 


6 35 


544 


634 


548 


630 


5 49 


6 19 


543 


6 35 


843a 


2 


M. 


40 


37 


41 


36 


43 


35 


46 


31 


46 


30 


43 


36 


9 S5~ 


3 


Tu. 


39 


38 


40 


37 


41 


36 


45 


33 


47 


30 


40 


27 


10 27 


4 


W. 


37 


30 


38 


38 


40 


37 


44 


33 


46 


31 


39 


28 


11 18a 


5 


Th. 


35 


31 


86 


39 


38 


28 


43 


33 


44 


31 


87 


39 


<? 


6 


F. 


33 


33 


35 


30 


37 


39 


41 


34 


43 


33 


36 


30 


iim 


7 


S. 


3-2 
530 


33 
6 34 


33 
5 33 


31 


35 


30 


40 


35 


43 


33 


34 
5 33 


31 
6 33 


1 5 


8 


6 33 


5 34 


6 31 


5 39 


635 


5 41 


6 33 


3 3 


9 


M. 


38 


35 


30 


33 


33 


S3 


37 


36 


39 


34 


81 


33 


8 


10 


Tu. 


37 


36 


38 


34 


30 


33 


36 


37 


38 


34 


39 


34 


8 68 


11 


W. 


35 


37 


27 


86 


39 


33 


35 


37 


37 


35 


38 


34 


454 


12 


Th. 


33 


88 


25 


37 


37 


34 


34 


38 


36 


36 


37 


34 


546 


13 


F. 


33 


40 


34 


38 


36 


35 


83 


39 


35 


36 


36 


35 


686 


14 


S. 
Su. 


30 


41 


32 


39 


34 


36 


31 


39 
6 80 


34 


37 


34 


36 
6 37 


7 21 


15 


5 19 


6 43 


5 31 


640 


5 33 


6 37 


5 30 


5 33 


6 37 


5 33 


8 4 


16 


M. 


17 


43 


19 


41 


33 


38 


39 


31 


33 


28 


33 


38 


8 46 


17 


Tu. 


15 


44 


18 


43 


30 


39 


38 


33 


31 


39 


30 


39 


9 21 


18 


W. 


14 


45 


16 


43 


19 


40 


36 


83 


30 


39 


19 


40 


10 4 


19 


Th. 


13 


46 


15 


44 


17 


41 


35 


8t 


39 


80 


17 


41 


10 46 


20 


F. 


11 


47 


13 


45 


16 


43 


34 


34 


37 


30 


16 


43 


11 S7m 


21 


S. 
Su, 


9 
5 8 


48 


13 


46 


15 


43 
6 44 


33 
5 33 


35 


36 


31 


15 
5 13 


43 
6 44 


isa 


22 


6 50 


5 10 


6 47 


5 13 


6 35 


5 35 


6 33 


1 2 


23 


M. 


6 


51 


9 


48 


13 


45 


31 


36 


34 


83 


13 


45 


1 65 


24 


Tu. 


5 


53 


8 


49 


11 


46 


30 


36 


33 


83 


11 


46 


3 61 


25 


W. 


3 


53 


6 


50 


9 


47 


19 


37 


33 


34 


9 


47 


8 49 j 


26 


Th. 


3 


54 


6 


51 


8 


48 


18 


38 


33 


34 


8 


48 


4 46 


27 


F. 





55 


3 


53 


7 


49 


17 


39 


31 


35 


8 


48 


5 43 


28 


S. 
Su. 


4 59 
4 58 


56 


3 


53 


6 


50 


16 


40 


30 


35 


7 


49 
6 60 


6 36 ' 

1 


29 


6 67 


5 1 


6 54 


5 4 


6 51 


5 15 


6 41 


S 19 


6 36 


S 5 


7 37 


30 


M. 


56 


59 


4 59 


55 


8 


63 


14 


41 


18 


86 


4 


51 


8 na 



I860.] 



April has Thirty Days. 



15 



Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 



? 



1st day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
7a 

2 44 



Dec. 

-j- 8 30 
-f-ao 34 



7th day. 



Dec. 
o I 



5 40m — 33 40' 



6 37a 
8 47 
380 



-f-22 65 
-j-16 20 
-|-21 2 



souths 
h. m. 

11 29m|-|- 6 17 
2 48a !-|-22 28 
6 3im — 23 40 
6 6a -[-22 62 
-[-16 23 



823 
3 7 



11 12m — 2 11 



-Hi 



10 49m — 2 6 



13th day. 


souths. 


Dec. 


h. m. 
10 67m 


1 ° ' 
-[-2 38 


2 63a 


+24 1 


6 2im 


— 23 38 


6 44a 


-[-22 48 


7 69 


4-16 25 


2 45 


4-21 8 


10 26m 


— 2 1 



19th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
10 36m 

3 67a 



Dec. 

-\- 1 22 
-[-26 14 
5 lOm — 23 34 
-[-22 43 
4-16 25 
4-21 11 
— 1 66 



6 34a 

7 36 
2 22 

10 sm 



25ih day. 



souths. 

h. m. 

10 24m 

3 2a 



Dec. 

4- 1 8^ 

-[-26 4 



4 68m — 23 29 

6 Sa 4-22 88 

7 11 * 
2 
9 40m 



4-16 24 
4-21 14 
— 1 62 



e 
o 



Q 



s. 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 



S. 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



S. 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



S. 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



S. 
30 





Moon rises or sets. Mean Time 




a 
o 


New York, 


Washington, 
&c. 


Charleston, 
dec. 


N. Orleans, 
&c. 


San Francis- 
co, &c. 


sets. sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


h. m. h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


3 15m 3 um 


8 7m 


3 64m 


3 50m 


3 9m 


3 43 


3 40 


3 87 


3 38 


3 36 


8 40 


4 11 


4 10 


4 9 


4 6 


4 4 


4 11 


4 36 


4 86 


4 86 


4 36 


4 37 


4 40 


6 


6 2 


6 4 


6 9 


6 12 


6 9 


rises. 


rises. 


nses. 


rises. 


nses. 


rtses. 


9 19a 


9 14a 


9 9a 


8 63a 


8 49a 


9 16a 


10 33a 10 27a 


10 3ia 


10 3a 


9 67a 


10 26a 


11 39 


11 82 


11 36 


11 6 


11 e 

11 64 

... 


11 29 

« • . 

23m 


34m 


37m 


3om 


im 


1 20 


1 14 


1 8 


49 


43m 


1 10 


1 65 


1 60 


1 46 


1 39 


1 24 


1 46 


3 24 


330 


3 16 


230 


1 69 


3 17 


2 49m 3 46m 


3 43m 


2 34m 


2 3im 


3 44m 


3 9 


3 7 


8 6 


8 


2 68 


8 7 


8 30 


8 30 


8 39 


8 27 


8 27 


8 31 


8 49 


360 


8 60 


8 63 


3 63 


864 


4 8 


4 10 


4 13 


•4 18 


4 19 


4 16 


480 


4 83 


4 86 


445 


4 49 


4 41 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


8 48a 


8 43a 


8 87a 


8 2ia 


8 16a 


8 42a 


9 64 


9 48 


9 41 


9 23 


9 16 


9 46 


10 66 


10 49 


10 43 


10 23 


10 17 


10 46 


1149 


11 43 


11 86 


11 17 


11 


11 89 


86ra 


80m 


34m 


7m 


im 


26m 


1 13 


1 8 


1 4 


60 


46 


1 6 


1 43m 1 40m 


1 86m 


1 26m 


1 23m 


1 39m 


2 11 


' 3 9 


3 7 


2 1 


2 


3 10 



High Water. Mean Time. 



o 

a 

o 
*j 
n 
o 
CO 



h. m. 

7 23m 

8 36 

9 21 

10 14 

11 1 
11 46m 

82a 



M 
£ • 

55 



1 31 

2 12 
8 8 

3 68 

4 66 
6 68 
6 49 



7 41 

8 39 

9 11 
9 62 

10 82 

11 9 
11 48a 



29m 

1 10 

3 4 

2 66 
8 61 

4 51 



h. m. 
4 9m 

6 11 

6 9 

7 1 

7 46 

8 81 

9 19 



10 8 

10 55 

11 49ra 

46a 

1 44 

2 41 
8 36 



fo 

r 



"4S 



h. m. 
3 l-2m 
430 

6 20 
6.16 

7 1 
748 

8 32 



4 27 
6 14 
6 67 

6 39 

7 18 
7 63 
833 



6 65 
6 67m 



9 17 
10 2 

10 48 

11 4ia 

• • • 

39m 

1 39 



2 42 

3 43m 



9 18 
10 7 

10 67 

11 6im 

46a 

1 40 



San Franc 
CO (Nor 
Beach). 


h. m. 


8 27m 


9 26 


10 14 


10 57 


11 86m 


19a 


1 2 


148 


2 39 


842 


4 64 


6 1 


7 


7 66 



2 38 


7 66 


3 83 


8 46 


434 


9 39 


6 8 


10 6 


6 63. 


10 88 


633 


11 11 


7 9 


11 43a 


7 49 


... 


8 80 


3om 


9 13 


1 


9 69 


1 43 


10 60 


3 81 


1144a 


8 83 


• • • 


4 45 


43m 


6 67 


1 41 


7 1 


3 45m 


8 8m 



16 May^ Fifth Months begins on Tuesday, [1860. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 


1 


lat day. 


7th day. 


131 hil 


ay. 


1 19th day. 


25th day. 


Segins 
h. m. 


. Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends 
h. m. 


. Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Boston, 


3 TIG 


I 8 47a 


2 56m 


8 d7a 3 46m 


9 7a 


3 35m ! 


9 na 


2 25m 9 28a 


N. York, 


3 14 


840 


3 4 


849 


3 54 


8 68 


245 J 


» 8 


2 36 


9 18 


Wash'n, 


3 23 


8 32 


3 13 


840 


3 4 


8 48 


2 66 8 57 


2 47 


9 7 


Charles., 


3 43 


8 11 


3 36 


8 17 


3 28 


8 24 


323 i 


3 80 


3 17 


8 37 


N. Orrs, 


3 61 


8 3 


3 45 


8 8 


338 


8 14 


3 33 ( 


3 20 


8 28 


8 26 


S. Fran., 


3 26 8 28 


3 17 8 36 


3 8 


8 44 


2 69 i 


3 52 


2 63 


9 2 


PHASES, AND PBRIOEB AMD APOOBB, OF THB MOON. 


Full Moon, 5th day, Ih. 64m. M. New Moon, 20th day, Ih. SSm. A. 
Last Quarter, 12ih " 2 8 A. First Quarter, 27th " 2 67 A. 

Perigee, 2d day, 6h. M. | Apogee, 14th day, 3h. A. | Perigee, 28lh day, lOh. A. 


■ 

1 

o 
to 

1 


M 

o 
to 

& 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 




s 


•a 

o . 

si 


1 

¥ 
1 


d 

u 

.a 
o 


e 

is 

• 

55 


ff 
B 




rises. 
h. m. 


seta. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets 
h. m 


rises. 
h. m. 


s^s. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Tu. 


4 55 


659 


4 58 


6 56 


5 3 


6 52 


5 13 


6 42 


5 17 


6 37 


5 3 


6 51 


9 7a 


2 


W. 


53 


7 1 


67 


57 


1 


53 


12 


42 


16 


88 


2 


53 


958 


3 


Th. 


53 


2 


56 


58 


4 59 


54 


11 


43 


15 


88 





68 


10 60 


4 


F. 


51 


3 


54 


69 


58 


56 


10 


44 


14 


39 


4 59 


54 


11 45a 


5 


S. 
Su. 


49 

4 48 


4 


63 


7 


57 


56 


9 


45 


13 


40 


58 


56 


c? 


6 


7 5 


4 53 


7 2 


4 56 


6 57 


6 8 


645 


6 12 


640 


4 57 


656 


43m 


7 


M. 


47 


6 


51 


3 


66 


68 


7 


46 


11 


41 


56 


67 


1 43 


8 


Tu. 


46 


7 


50 


4 


54 


59 


6 


47 


11 


42 


56 


68 


340 


9 


W. 


45 


8 


49 


5 


53 


7 


6 


47 


10 


42 


54 


69 


3 35 


10 


Th. 


43 


9 


47 


6 


53 


1 


4 


48 


10 


43 


63 


7 


4 27 


11 


F. 


43 


10 


46 


7 


51 


2 


4 


49 


9 


44 


52 


1 


5 15 


12 


S. 
Su. 


41 
440 


13 


46 


8 


50 


3 


3 


50 


8 


44 


63 


1 


5 59 


13 


7 13 


4 44 


7 9 


4 49 


1 4 


5 3 


650 


6 7 


6 45 


4 51 


7 2 


6 41 


14 


M. 


39 


14 


43 


9 


48 


5 


1 


51 


7 


46 


60 


3 


7 31 


15 


Tu. 


38 


15 


43 


10 


47 


6 


1 


52 


6 


46 


49 


4 


8 1 


16 


W. 


37 


16 


43 


11 


46 


7 





63 


5 


47 


48 


6 


8 41 


17 


Th. 


86 


17 


41 


12 


46 


7 


4 59 


63 


6 


47 


47 


5 


933 


18 


F. 


35 


18 


40 


13 


44 


8 


59 


64 


5 


48 


46 


6 


10 7 


19 


S. 
Su, 


34 
433 


19 


39 


14 


44 


9 
7 10 


58 


56 


4 


49 


46 


7 


10 56 


20 


7 30 


4 38 


7 15 


4 43 ' 


4 58 


6 66 


5 4 


6 49 


446 


7 8 


11 48m 


21 


M. 


33 


31 


87 


16 


43 


11 


67 


56 


8 


50 


44 


9 


044a 


22 


Tu. 


32 


22 


36 


17 


41 


12 


56 


57 


3 


51 


43 


10 


1 42 


23 


W. 


31 


23 


36 


18 


41 


13 


56 


57 


2 


51 


48 


11 


3 41 


24 


Th. 


30 


24 


35 


18 


40 


13 


56 


68 


2 


52 


43 


11 


388 


25 


F. 


39 


24 


34 


19 


40 


14 


55 


59 


2 


52 


43 


12 


4 S3 


26 


S. 
Su. 


38 
438 


25 


34 


20 


39 


15 


66 


69 


1 


53 


41 


13 

7 14 


5 24 


27 


7 26 


4 33 


7 21 


4 38 'i 


' 16 


4 64 


7 


b 1 


6 63 


4 40 


6 14 


28 


M. 


28 


27 


33 


22 


38 


16 


54 


1 





64 


40 


14 


7 3 


29 


Tu. 


27 


28 


83 


33 


37 


17 


54 


1 





54 


40 


16 


7 61 


30 


W. 


36 


29 


33 


33 


37 


18 63 


2 

3 14 59 


56 


89 


15 


8 41 


31 


Th. 


26 


30 


31 


34 


36 


19 53 


65 


39 


16 


9 84a 



I860.] 



May has Thirty-one Days. 



17 



Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 



5 

¥ 



Ist day. 


7ih day. 


13th day. 


souths. 


uec« 


aouths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 


h. m. 

i0 3om 


1 ° ' 
-|-8 7 


h. m. 
10 33m 


1 ° ' 
+ 638 


h. m. 
10 39m 


1 ° ' 
+ 8 64 


3 ea 


-f-36 33 


3 oa 


+26 39 


3 iia 


+36 36 


.4 46m 


— 33 33 


4 33m 


— 23 18 


4 18m 


— 33 18 


4 43a 

648 


-f-23 81 
4-16 32 


4 3sa 

6 25 


+32 34 

+16 18 


4 4a 

6 3 


+22 16 
+16 14 


138 


-f-31 18 


1 16 


+31 31 


63 


+21 25 


9 nm 


— 1 47 


8 64m 


— 1 43 


8 3im 


— 1 40 

1 



19th day. 



souths. Dec. 

h. m. o I 
10 42m +13 43 

3 Ua +36 62 

4 3m — ^28 12 
3 44a +22 6 
6 40 r\-\Q 8 
31 +21 28 
8 8m — 1 87 



25th day. 



souttis. 
h. m. 
11 im 

8 loa 

8 47m 
8 36a 

6 18 
9 

7 46m 



Dec. 

+16 44 
+35 8 
— 33 14 
+31 66 
+16 2 
+31 32 
— 1 84 







Moon rises or sets. Mean Time 


• 


• 


New York, 
&c. 


Washington, 
&c. 


Charleston, 
&c. 


N. Orleans, 
ice. 


San Francis- 
co, &c 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. txi. 


2 36m 


3 86m 


3 36m 


3 84m 


3 36m 


3 39m 


3 


8 1 


8 3 


8 6 


8 7 


8 7 


3 27 


3 30 


8 83 


8 41 


8 46 


8 38 


8 66 


4 


4 6 


4 17 


4 38 


4 13 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


9 19a 


9 18a 


9 6a 


8 47a 


8 4ia 


9 iia 


10 31 


10 14 


10 7 


9 48 


9 41 


10 10 


11 11 


11 6 


10 68 


10 89 


10 83 


10 60 


11 61 


11 46 


1140 


11 38 


11 18 
11 66 

• • • 


11 41 


33m 


18m 


14m 


im 


16m 


60 


46 


043 


033 


39m 


44 


1 iim 


1 9m 


1 7m 


60m 


67m 


1 8m 


1 33 


1 33 


1 31 


1 38 


1 28 


1 34 


1 63 


1 63 


1 63 


1 63 


1 64 


1 66 


3 13 


3 18 


3 16 


2 18 


3 31 


2 18 


3 33 


3 86 


3 36 


3 46 


3 49 


2 42 


3 67 


8 1 


8 6 


3 16 


3 31 


8 11 


3 36 


3 31 


8 37 


3 60 


3 67 


3 44 


1 4 om 


4 6m 


4 13m 4 30m 


4 39m 


4 2im 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


9 44a 


9 88a 


9 3ia 


9 13a 


9 6a 


9 34a 


10 84 


10 38 


10 32 10 6 


9 68 


10 24 


11 14 


11 9 


11 4 !l0 60 


10 46 


11 6 


11 46 

1 


11 43 


11 89 


11 28 


11 34 


11 41 


* * 












14m 


i2ra 


lom 8m 


im 


13m 


40 


39 


39 


36 


36 


41 


1 s 


1 3 


1 8 


1 6 


1 6 


1 8 


1 38 


1 30 


1 33 1 89 


1 43 


1 38 


1 66 


1 69 


2 8 


3 18 


3 18 


2 9 



High Water. 


Mean Time. 


• 


New York, 
&c. 


Charleston, 
See. 


San Francis- 
co (North 
Beach). 


h. m. 


h. Di. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


7 66m 


4 42m 


8 60m 


9 om 


864 


6 88 


460 


9 49 


9 46 


6 83 


6 46 


10 83 


10 36 


7 22 


6 37 


11 14 


11 24m 


8 8 


734 


11 67m 


isa 


9 


8 14 


44a 


1 4 


9 60 


9 1 


1 31 


1 64 


10 89 


9 60 


3 31 


2 43 


11 27m 


10 87 


3 16 


3 32 


9a 


11 3am 


4 20 


4 33 


1 10 


ua 


6 38 


6 11 


1 68 


1 


6 18 


6 1 


3 48 


147 


7 7 


6 49 


3 86 


387 


7 66 


7 38 


4 34 


3 39 


843 


8 34 


6.10 


4 19 


936 


9 10 


6 66 


6 7 


10 4 


9 65 


6 43 


6 66 


10 41 


10 43 


7 37 


6 43 


11 18 


11 37a 


8 10 


7 27 


11 69a 


» • • 


9 1 


8 16 


• * • 


14m 


9 60 


9 3 


46m 


1 4 


10 40 


9 61 


1 33 


1 66 


11 80a 


10 40 


333 


346 


• • • 


11 soa 


3 30 


8 37 


34m 


• • • 


4 36 


4 31 


1 19 


38m 


684 


6 39 


3 16 


1 16 


6 36 


6 36 


3 13 


3 13 


7 33 


7 36 


4 13 


3 16 


830 


8 34m 


6 lom 


4 19m 


9 35m 



9» 



18 Jwwe, Si3cih Months begins on. Friday, [1860. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. 


1 7th day. 


13th day. 


19th day. 


2dth day. 


Begim 
h. m. 


I. Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. 
1 h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
b. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Boston, 


3 nr 


n 9 S7a 


< 3 13m 


944a 


3 9m 


9 60a 


3 8m 1 


9 64a 


3 9m 9 66a 


N. York, 


339 


935 


335 


9 81 


338 


9 37 


333 { 


»40 


338 


9 41 


Wash'n, 


3 41 


9 18 


! 387 


9 19 


336 


9 34 


385 1 


9 37 


3 86 


9 38 


Charles., 


8 18 


8 41 


i 8 10 


846 


3 10 


8 60 


8 10 i 


3 62 


3 11 


8 63 


N. Orl's, 


834 


8 30 


3 33 


884 


3 33 


888 


8 33 8 40 


3 33 


8 41 


S. Fran., 


346 9 8 


3 48 


9 18 


343 


9 18 


3 41 i 


)31 


3 43 


923 


PHASB8, AMD PBBIOBB AMD APOOBB, 09 THB MOON. 


Full Moon, 3d day, llh. 3Sm. M. New Moon, 19lh day, Oh. 16m. M. 
Last Quarter, 11th " 7 66 M. First Quarter, 25th '• 7 28 A. 




Apogee, 10th day. 


lOh. A. 1 Perigee, 23d day, 4h. M. 


i 

1 


1 

o 
• 


Sun's upi 


9er li mb rises and sets (cor. for refr. ) Mean Time. 


Is 


^ 

M 


i. 


c 
o 

r 






1 




riaea. 
h. m. 


8tt8. 

h. m. 


naea. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rMes. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises, sets. 
h. m. h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


F. 


4 36 


7 80 


4 81 


7 36 


4 86 


7 19 


4 63 


7 3 


4 69 


6 66 


4 89 


7 16 


10 sea 


2 


S. 
Su. 


35 


81 


80 


36 


86 


30 


63 


3 


59 


67 


39 


17 
7 17 


11 37a 


3 


4 35 


7 33 


4 30 


7 36 


4 35 


7 31 


4 63 


7 4 


4 69 


6 57 


488 


s 


4 


M. 


34 


33 


39 


37 


85 


31 


63 


4 


59 


58 


88 


18 


036m 


5 


Tu. 


34 


88 


39 


38 


86 


33 


63 


5 


69 


68 


88 


19 


1 28 


6 


W. 


33 


34 


39 


3K 


34 


33 


53 


5 


68 


59 


37 


19 


3 17 


7 


Th. 


33 


84 


39 


39 


84 


33 


61 


6 


68 


69 


87 


30 


8 7 


8 


F. 


33 


35 


38 


39 


84 


34 


61 


6 


58 


7 


87 


30 


8 63 


9 


S. 
Su. 


33 
4 33 


35 


38 


30 


34 


34 


51 


7 


68 



7 1 


37 
4 37 


31 
7 31 


436 


10 


7 86 


438 


7 30 


4 84 


7 38 


4 61 


7 7 


4 68 


5 17 


11 


M. 


33 


86 


38 


81 


84 


36 


51 


8 


68 


1 


37 


33 


556 


12 


Tu. 


33 


37 


38 


81 


34 


35 


61 


8 


68 


1 


87 


23 


6 86 . 


13 


W. 


33 


37 


38 


83 


34 


36 


51 


8 


68 


3 


87 


33 


7 17 


14 


Th. 


33 


88 


38 


83 


84 


36 


61 


9 


68 


3 


87 


33 


8 


15 


F. 


33 


88 


38 


83 


84 


37 


51 


9 


68 


3 


87 


34 


8 47 


16 


S. 
Su. 


33 
4 33 


88 
7 89 


38 
4 38 


33 


84 


37 


51 


10 


68 


8 

7 3 


87 
4 87 


34 
7 34 


987 


17 


7 83 


4 84 


7 37 


4 61 


7 10 


4 56 


10 32 


18 


M. 


33 


39 


38 


84 


84 


38 


61 


10 


59 


3 


88 


36 


11 8om 


19 


Tu. 


33 


40 


38 


84 


84 


38 


53 


11 


59 


8 


38 


35 


3oa 


20 


W. 


33 


40 


38 


34 


84 


38 


53 


11 


69 


3 


88 


35 


1 39 


21 


Th. 


33 


40 


39 


34 


34 


28 


53 


11 


69 


4 


88 


35 


3 36 


22 


F. 


33 


40 


39 


36 


35 


39 


53 


11 


69 


4 


39 


36 


8 20 


23 


S. 
Su. 


34 


40 


99 


36 
7 36 


36 
4 36 


39 


53 


11 


6 


4 


89 


36 

7 36 


4 11 


24 


4 34 


7 40 


4 39 


7 29 


4 63 


7 11 


5 


7 4 


4 39 


6 


25 


M. 


34 


40 


80 


85 


86 


39 


63 


11 





4 


40 


36 


6 49 


26 


Tu. 


35 


40 


80 


36 


36 


39 


63 


13 


1 


4 


40 


36 


6 38 


27 


W. 


35 


40 


81 


36 


86 


39 


64 


13 


1 


6 


40 


36 


7 39 


28 


Th. 


35 


40 


31 


35 


37 


39 


64 


13 


1 


6 


41 


36 


8 22 


29 


F. 


36 


40 


31 


85 


87 


39 


54 


13 


1 


5 


41 


36 


9 18 


30 


S. 


36 


40 


83 


85 


88 


39 


66 


13 


3 


5 


43 


36 


10 15a 



1860. 


] June has Thirty Days. 19 


Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 




Ist day. 


7ih day. 


13th day. 


19lh day. 1 


25th day. 


aoutha. 


X/GC* 


souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 


§ 


h. m. 
11 32m 


-f-21 8 


h. m. 
4a 


1 ° ' 
-|-23 64 


h. m. 
37a 


1 ° ' 
+25 7 


h. m. 
1 6a 


+24 44 


h. m. 
1 29a ' 


1 ° ' 
+23 4 


9 


8 


sa 


-|-23 48 


2 68 


-j-22 84 


2 47 


+^1 16 


2 31 


+19 64 


2 11 • 


+18 87 


$ 


3S6in 


— 23 22 


3 7m 


— 23 36 


2 46m 


— ^23 64 


2 23m 


— 24 20, 


1 66m 


— 24 62 


n 


s 


3a 


-f-21 43 


2 44a 


-|-21 30 


2 26a 


+21 n 


2 7a 


+21 3 


1 49a 


+20 48 


\ 


4 63 


+16 63 


4 30 


+16 44 i 


4 8 


+15 34 


3 47 


+16 23 


3 25 • 


+16 12 


V 


11 48m 


-|-2I 36 


11 2im 


+21 89 


10 69m 


+21 42 1 


37m 


+21 46 


10 15m • 


+21 49 


^ 


7 18 


1 81 


6 65 


— 1 29| 


6 33 


— 1 28 


6 8 


— 1 27 


5 46 • 


— 1 27 


m 

1 


Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 


High Water. Mean Time. 


a 




1 
1 


a 

h 
1 


• 

z 


I 

m 
"o . 

^ o 


• 

a 
o 

& 






• 

.Sua 

g o-^ 




sets. 
h. m. 


seta. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


3 26m 


2 3im 


2 87m 


2 60m 


2 57m 


2 44m 


9 2im 


6 8m 


5 19m 


10 ism 


2 


3 3 


3 10 


3 16 


3 33 


8 42 


3 24 


10 17 


7 4 


6 18 


10 69 


S. 


3 49m 


3 66m 


4 4m 


4 33m 


4 33m 


4 13m 


11 9 


7 63 


7 9 


11 43m 


4 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


11 69m 


845 


8 


8ia 


\ 5 


9 46a 


9 4oa 


9 84a 


9 na 


9 iia 


9 86a 


47a 


9 85 


8 46 


1 16 


6 


10 22 


10 17 


10 12 


9 68 


9 68 


10 16 


1 84 


10 20 


9 30 


2 1 


7 


10 51 


10 47 


10 43 


10 32 


10 28 


10 46 


2 17 


11 


10 12 


2 46 


8 


11 16 


11 13 


11 11 


11 3 


11 


11 12 


3 


11 46m 


10 64 


8 38 


9 


11 36 


11 35 


11 33 


11 29 


11 27 


11 36 


3 41 


28a 


11 34m 


4 81 


1 S. 


11 54a 


11 64a 


11 64a 


11 63a 


11 63a 


11 66a 


4 24 


1 12 


16a 


6 25 


11 


• • ■ 


• • • 


• « • 


• • • 


• • ■ 


• • • 


5 7 


1 65 


67 


6 14 


1 ^2 


ism 


16m 


17m 


19m 


2im 


2om 


6 66 


2 42 


1 41 


7 1 


13 


036 


28 


41 


47 


060 


45 


6 44 


3 31 


234 


7 61 


14 


67 


1 1 


1 4 


1 14 


1 18 


1 10 


7 87 


4 23 


3 28 


8 41 


15 


1 24 


1 29 


134 


1 46 


1 63 


1 40 


8 30 


6 16 


4 26 


029 


16 


1 55 


2 1 


2 7 


2 22 


2 81 


n 


2 15 


9 26 


6 11 


638 


10 16 


S. 


2 85m 


2 42m 


2 49m 


8 8m 


8 171 


2 68m 


10 19 


7 6 


6 20 


11 1 


18 


3 25 


8 31 


8 40 


4 


4 10 


8 61 


11 12a 


7 66 


7 12 


11 44a 


19 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


• • • 


8 48 


8 4 


• • • 


20 


9 iia 


9 6a 


9 la 


8 46a 


8 89a 


9 3a 


2m 


9 39 


8 61 


34m 


21 


946 


9 43 


9 88 


9 26 


9 21 


9 40 


62 


10 27 


9 88 


1 21 


22 


10 17. 


10 14 


10 12 


10 8 


10 1 


10 14 


1 41 


11 14a 


10 26 


2 8 


23 


10 42 


10 41 


10 40 


10 36 


10 86 


10 48 


2 80 


• • • 


11 10 


3 


S, 


11 8a 


11 9a 


11 9a 


11 9a 


11 loa 


11 12a 


8 17 


sm 


11 68a 


4 


25 


11 31 


11 38 


11 35 


11 39 


11 42 


11 40 


4 6 


063 


• • • 


6 3 


26 


11 68 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• ■ • 


• • • 


4 59 


147 


4gm 


6 6 


27 


• • • 


im 


6m 


14m 


igm 


iim 


6 58 


245 


144 


7 4 


28 


27m 


83 


37 


49 


066 


44 


7 


3 46 


2 48 


8 6 


29 


1 1 


1 7 


1 13 


1 29 


1 88 


1 21 


8 2 


4 47 


3 66 


9 6 


SO 


1 43 


1 60 


1 67 


2 15 2 25 2 6 


9 6m 


5 5im 


6 2m 


9 69m 



20 July, Seventh Month, begins cm Sunday, [1860- 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. II 


7th day. 1 


13th day. 


19th day. 


1 25th day. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


£n(ls. Begins 
h. ni. h. m. 


. Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. : 
h. m. 1 


£nds. 
1. ra. 


Begins. J^nds. 
h. m. h. m. 


Boston, 


2 13m 


9 54a 


2 1910 


I 9 49a 


2 26m 


9 448 


I 2 35m 


9 87a 


3 44m 9 28a 


N. York, 


336 


940 


2 32 


986 


2 39 


9 31 


2 46 * 


9 25 


2 64 


9 18 


Wash'n, 


3 89 


937 


2 44 


924 


2 61 


9 19 


2 66 


9 14 


8 5 


9 7 


Charles., 


3 13 


853 


3 17 


8 61 


3 22 


8 48 


3 27 


B45 


3 32 


8 40 


N. Orl's, 


3 35 


8 41 


3 29 


8 39 


3 33 


8 37 


8 37 


3 34 


3 42 8 30 


S. Fran., 


3 45 9 31 


2 49 


9 19 


2 56 


9 14 


3 3 


9 9 


3 10 9 3 


PHASES, AND APOOEB AND PERIGBB, OF THE MOON. 

Full Moon, 2d day, lOh. 69m. A. New Moon, 18ih day, 9h. 12in. M. 
Last Quarter, 11th •' 50 M. First Quarter, 25th " 32 M. 
Apogee, 8th day, 4h. A. Perigee, 20th day, 2h. A. 


Days of Month. 


M 

1 

o 

01 

1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


1 s 


• 

1 
1 




c 
o 

*-» 

1 


u 


a 

Ms 

• 


■ 

1 




rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises, sets. 
h. m. h. m. 


rises, sets. 
h. m. h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets- 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Su. 


437 


7 40 


432 


7 35 


4 38 


7 29 


4 65 


7 12 


5 2 


7 6 


4 42 


7 26 


7 12a 


2 


M. 


27 


40 


33 


34 


39 


29 


66 


12 


8 


5 


43 


26 


g 


3 


Tu. 


38 


40 


33 


34 


89 


29 


66 


12 


8 


6 


43 


36 


7m 


4 


W. 


2R 


40 


34 


84 


40 


28 


67 


11 


4 


5 


44 


25 


058 


6 


Th. 


39 


39 


35 


84 


40 


28 


67 


. 11 


4 


5 


44 


25 


1 46 


6 


F. 


39 


39 


35 


33 


41 


28 


68' 


11 


4 




45 


25 


2 31 


7 


S. 
Su. 


30 
4 31 


39 


36 


33 


41 


.28 


66 


11 


6 


7 4 


45 
446 


35 
7 24 


3 12 


8 


1 38 


4 37 


7 33 


4 42 


7 27 


468 


7 11 


5 6 


3 58 


9 


M. 


33 


38 


38 


32 


43 


27 


69 


10 


6 




47 


24 


4 32 


10 


Tu. 


83 


37 


38 


32 


43 


27 


59 


10 


6 




47 


24 


5 12 


11 


W. 


33 


37 


89 


32 


44 


26 


5 


10 


7 




48 


38 


5 54 


12 


Th. 


84 


36 


39 


31 


45 


26 


1 


9 


7 


8 


49 


23 


688 


13 


F. 


35 


36 


40 


31 


45 


25 


1 


9 


6 


8 


49 


33 


7 26 


14 


S. 
Su. 


36 
4 36 


35 


41 
4 41 


30 
730 


46 


24 


2 


9 


8 


2 

7 2 


50 
4 51 


31 
7 21 


8 18 


15 


7 34 


4 47 


7 24 


5 2 


7 8 


6 9 


9 15 


16 


M. 


37 


34 


42 


29 


47 


24 


3 


8 


10 


2 


51 


21 


10 14 


17 


Tu. 


38 


83 


43 


38 


48 


23 


4 


8 


10 


1 


53 


20 


11 14m 


18 


W. 


39 


33 


44 


38 


49 


23 


4 


7 


11 


1 


53 


19 


isa 


19 


Th. 


40 


33 


45 


27 


50 


22 


5 


7 


11 


1 


54 


19 


1 10 


20 


F. 


41 


81 


45 


26 


51 


21 


6 


6 


12 





55 


18 


2 4 


21 


S. 
Su. 


43 
4 43 


30 
7 39 


46 


25 


.51 


20 


6 


6 


12 


6 69 


55 
4 56 


17 
7 17 


2 55 


22 


4 47 


7 25 


4 52 


7 30 


6 7 


7 6 


5 IS 


6 59 


846 


23 


M. 


44 


38 


48 


24 


53 


19 


8 


4 


18 


69 


67 


16 


4 35 


24 


Tu. 


44 


38 


49 


23 


54 


18 


8 


4 


14 


68 


68 


15 


5 36 


25 


W. 


45 


37 


60 


22 


55 


17 


9 


3 


14 


67 


69 


14 


6 19 


26 


Th. 


46 


26 


51 


21 


56 


16 


10 


2 


16 


67 


5 


18 


7 18 


27 


F. 


47 


35 


62 


20 


66 


16 


10 


2 


16 


66 





13 


8 10 


28 


S. 


48 


33 


53 


19 


67 


15 


11 
5 11 


1 

7 


16 
5 17 


66 
6 55 


1 


12 


9 6 


29 


Su. 


4 49 


7 32 


4 54 


7 18 


4 58 


7 14 


5 3 


7 11 


10 1 


30 


M. 


50 


31 


55 17 


59 


13 


12 





17 


64 


8 


10 


10 53 


31 


IHi. 


51 


30 


56 16 


6 


12 


13 


6 59 


18 


64 


4 


9 


11 4ia 



I860.] 



July has Thirty-one Days. 



21 



Passage ot the Meriiiian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at "J ransit. 



5 

9 



1st day. 



souths. Dec. 
h. m. I Q I 
1 46a -|-20 3() 

1 46 '+17 28 

I ' 
1 Sim 25 28 

4-20 33 



7th day. 



1 sia 

3 4 
9 63m 
t|; 6 21 



-j-16 
-j-21 62 
— 1 27 



souths. 
h. m. 
1 63a 

1 13 

1 3m 

1 isa 

2 43 

9 30m 
4 68 



Dec. 

+17 48 
+16 3] 
— 26 6 
+20 16 
+14 47 
+21 64 
— 1 27 



13th day. 



soutJis 
h. m. 

1 d4a 

36 
33m 
64a 

2 22 

9 am 

4 34 



Dec. 

+14 47 
+16 47 
— 26 43 
+19 69 
+14 34 
+21 67 i 
— 1 28 



19th day. 



o 



CO 

Q 



s, 

2 

3 
4 
6 

6 
7 



S. 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



s. 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



S, 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



S. 
30 
31 



Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 



u 



2 



sets. 
h. m 

2S3m 
3 32 

rises. 

8 60a 

9 17 
9 39 
9 67 



10 18a 

10 39 

11 
11 23 
11 62 

• • • 
26m 






sets. 
h. m. 

2 40m 

3 40 

rises. 

8 46a 

9 14 
9 37 
9 67 



1 13m 

2 8 

3 16 
429 

sets. 

8 44a 

9 11 



10 19a 

10 41 

11 3 
11 27 
11 67 

• • • 
23m 






bo 



sets. 
h. m. 

2 48m 

3 47 

rises. 
8 4ia 

9 11 
9 36 
9 56 



10 19a 

10 43 

11 6 
11 81 



d 
o 



eo p 

I 



sOs. 
h. m. 

3 8m 

4 7 

rises. 

8 29a 

9 2 
9 29 

9 66 



0} 



4) o 



sets. 
h. m. 

3 19m 

4 19 

rises. 
8 2ia 

8 69 

9 27 
9 65 



BO 

^ o 

a " 



(JB 



souths. 
h. m. 

1 46a 

1167m 
2 
36a 

2 1 

8 46m 
4 10 



Dec. 

+12 8 
+16 19 
— 27 16 
+19 40 
+14 20 
+21 69 
— 1 29 



25th day. 



10 2oa 

10 47 

11 14 
1143 



9 36a 
10 2 

10 31 

11 3 
11 42 



30m 



1 35m 

2 36 

3 31 



1 20m 

2 16 

3 22 

4 36 

sets. 

8 42a 

9 11 



9 37a 
10 6 
10 36 

10 9 

11 49 



37m 



1 33m 

2 33 
8 37 



sm 17m 



39 



1 28m 

223 

3 29 

4 41 

sets. 
8 4ia 

9 11 



9 39a 
10 8 

10 40 

11 14 
11 66 



46m 



1 4im 

2 41 

3 44 



66 



10 2ia 

10 60 

11 19 
11 49 



sets. 
h. m. 

2 69m 

3*69 

rises. 

8 43a 

9 12 
9 37 
9 69 



24m 

1 6 



1 48m 
243 

3 49 

4 68 

sets. 

8 36a 

9 10 



9 42a 
10 16 

10 62 

11 30 
• • • 

14m 

1 6 



2 im 

3 

4 1 



1 68m 

2 63 

3 69 
6 7 

sets. 

8 84a 

9 11 



10 22a 

10 47 

11 11 

11 37a 



lom 

49 



9 44a 
10 20 

10 66 

11 88 
• • • 

23m 

1 16 



2 12m 

8 10 
4 10 



1 38m 

'2 36 

3 42 

4 63 

sets. 

8 44a 

9 14 

9 43a 
10 13 

10 47 

11 22 

• • • 

6m 

65 



1 6im 

2 62 

3 66 



souths 
h. m. 
1 29a 



Dec. 

o I 



+10 II 
11 19m +16 7 
— 27 46 
+19 22 
+14 6 
+22 2 
• 1 31 



11 36a 

18 

1 40 

8 23m 
3 46 



High Water. Mean Time. 



o 

e 
o 



h. m. 
10 3m 

10 67 

11 4Sm 

6a 

1 7 
1 46 
228 






8 
8 37 
4 18 
6 6 

6 68 

6 66 

7 68 



9 3 

10 2 
10 68 



h. m. 

6 60m 

7 41 
827 
9 13 
9 63 

10 81 

11 6 



a 
o 



Xi 
U 



11 46m 

24a 

1 6 

1 62 

2 45 

3 42 

4 43 



6 47 

6 49 

7 42 



h. m. 
6 8m 

6 67 

7 44 

8 26 

9 6 
9 42 

10 18 



S OS" 



h. m. 

10 47m 

11 8im 
0.16a 

66 

1 85 



10 64 

11 8om 
loar 

064 
1 44 
244 
3 61 



11 48a 

• • • 


8 33 

9 28 


36m 


10 9 


1 23 


10 66 


2 8 


11 87a 


2 63 


• • • 


8 40 


37m 


434 


1 33 


6 36 


332 


6 40 


3 27 


7 48 


4 34 


8 63 


6 81 


9 49 


6 36 


10 som 


7 26m 



4 68 

6 3 
668 

7 49 

8 86 

9 19 
10 3 



2 18 


2 61 


3 37 


427 


6 19 


6 11 


7 6 


8 2 


9 1 


§51 


10 46 


11 32a 


• • • 

2om 


1 6 


1 60 



10 47 

11 S3a 

• • • 

26m 

1 32 
237 
3 41 



4 49 
6 49 
6 40m 



234 


828 


4 81 


6 86 


6 41 


7 47 


8 62 


9 48 


10 86 


11 16m 



u 



22 



Atigust, Eighth Month, begins on Wednesday. [1860./ 



Twilight begins and enda. Mean Tiroe. 



Ist day. 



Boston, 

N. Yorkyl s 4 

3 14 
3 39 
3 48 
8 18 



Wash'n, 
Charles., 
N. Orl's, 
S. Fran., 



Begins 
h. m. 

3 65m 



Ends, 
h. m. 

9 na 

9 8 
8 58 
8 33 
6 34 
8 54 



7th day. 



Begins, 
h. m. 

3 5m 
3 14 
833 
345 
3 54 
8 36 



Ends, 
h. m. 

9 6a 

8 66 

848 

835 

8 16 

844 



13th day. 



Begins, 
h. m. 
3 15m 
3 33 
3 30 
3 50 
8 59 
883 



Ends, 
h. m. 

8 53a 
845 
8 38 
8 18 
8 9 
8 85 



19th day. 



Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


3 34m 


8 43a 


3 33 


834 


3 88 


838 


3 66 


8 10 


4 4 


8 3 


3 41 


835 



25th day. 



Begins. 
h. m. 

3 34m 
840 
846 

4 2 
4 8 
849 



Ends, 
h. m 

8 30a 
834 
8 18 
8 3 

7 56 

8 15 



Full Moon, 
Last Quarteri 



PEUkSBS, AND APOOBB AND PHBIGBB, OF THB MOON. 



Ist day, 
9th " 



Oh. 25m. 
4 15 



A. 
A. 



Apogee, 6th day, 9h. M. 



N«w Moon, 16th day, 5h. 12m. A. 
First Quarter, 23d •• 7 42 M. 
Full Moon, 31st " 3 49 M. 
Perigee, 17th day, 6h. A. 



5 


• 


g 


S 


^ 


^ 


«M 


v« 


O 


o 


SB 


OB 


^ 


& 



1 

2 
3 

4- 



5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 



12 

13 

14 

15 • 

16 

17 

18 



W. 
Th. 
F. 

S. 



M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

F. 

S. 



Su. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

F. 

S. 



19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26_ 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

F. 

S. 



Su, 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

F. 



Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 



d 

o 

o 



rises, sets. 
h. m. h. m. 



4 53 
53 
54 
55 



4 57 
58 
59 

5 
1 
3 
8 



5 4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



5 11 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



7 19 
18 
17 
15 



7 14 

18 

13 

10 

9 

8 

6 



5 

8 

3 



6 59 

OT 

56 



o 
52 



o 



rises. 
h. m. 

4 57 
58 
58 
59 



5 
1 
3 
8 
4 
5 
6 



6 54 
53 
51 
50 

48 
47 
45 



5 19 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 



6 43 
43 
40 
39 
87 
85 



5 7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
13 
13 



sets. 
h. m. 

7 15 

14 

13 

13 



7 10 
9 
8 
7 
5 
4 
3 



7 1 


6 59 
58 
56 
54 
53 



5 14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
Id 
30 



5 31 
33 
33 
34 
35 
26 



I 

I 



rises. 
h. m. 

5 1 
2 
8 
4 



sets 
h. m. 

7 li 

10 

9 

8 



^ 4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



6 
5 
4 
8 
2 
1 
6 69 



^ 11 
13 
18 
13 
14 
15 
16 



6 63 
50 
49 
47 
46 
44 
43 



6 41 
40 
38 
37 
35 
88 



5 17 
18 
19 
30 
31 
33 
33 



524 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



6 58 
57 
55 
54 

63 
53 
60 



6 49 
48 
46 
45 
43 
43 
40 



6 39 
88 
86 

83 
31 



o 



cd 
U 



rises, 
h. m. 

5 14 

14 

15 

16 



5 16 
17 
18 
18 
19 
20 
21 



6 21 
23 
28 
23 
24 
26 
25 



5 26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
29 
80 



5 31 
81 
83 
83 
83 
84 



sets. 
h. m. 

6 58 

57 

56 

55 



6 55 
54 
58 
•53 
51 
50 
49 



6 48 
47 
46 
45 
43 
43 
41 



6 40 
39 
88 
87 
85 
84 
33 



6 33 
31 
39 
38 
37 
36 



¥ 



rises. 
h. m. 

5 19 

19 

30 

30 



^21 
22 
23 
23 
34 
34 
35 



15 36 
36 
37 
37 
38 
38 
39 



530 
80 
81 
81 
83 
33 
88 



5 84 
34 
35 
35 
86 
86 



sets 
h. m. 

6 58 

53 

51 

51 



6 60 
49 
48 
47 
46 
45 
44 



6 43 
43 
43 
41 
40 
89 
88 



6 37 
86 
84 
33 
83 
81 
30 



6 39 
38 
37 
36 
34 
33 






rises. 
h. m. 

5 5 
6 

7 
8 



6 8 
9 
9 
10 
11 
13 
18 



7 3 
1 
1 

6 69 
58 
56 



5 14 
15 
16 
16 
17 
18 
19 



530 
31 
33 
33 
34 
26 
26 



^27- 
27 
38 
29 
80 
81 



sets. 
h. m. 

7 7 

6 

5 

4 



6 55 

54 
52 
51 
50 
49 
47 



6 46 
45 
43 
42 
40 
89 
87 



6 36 
35 
83 
31 
80 
28 



SB 
Is 



h. m. 

g 

97m 

1 9 
1 50 



330 
3 9 

3 60 

4 83 

6 18 

6 7 

7 1 



7 67 
866 
966 

10 64 

11 fiom 

48a 

1 85 



3 37 
8 19 

4 18 
6 8 

6 5 

7 1 
7 67 



8 49 

9 39 

10 36 

11 8 
11 49a 



g 



I860.] 



AiLgust has Ihirty-one Days, 



23 



Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transii. 



-• 



5 
9 



Ist day. 



souths. 
h. in. 
66a 

10 39m 

10 53a 

11 67in 

1 16a 

7 57m 

8 18 



7th day. 



Dec. 

+ 922 
-|-16 10 
— 28 2 

-f-lS 48 
-f-23 4 
— 1 34 



souths. 
h. m. 
17a 

10 lom 

10 23a 

11 S9m 

55a 
734m 
3 64 



Dec. 

+10 16 
-[-15 24 
— 38 6 
-|-18 39 
-|~13 33 

-faa 6 

— 1 36 



13th day. 



souths. Dec. 
h. m. o 1 

11 36m -[-12 18 

9 48 -|-15 43 

9 67a — 28 1 

11 20m -|-18 19 

35a +13 18 

7 lim-|-22 7 

2 30 — 1 39 



19th day; 



souths. 
h. m. 
11 5m 

9 30 

9 33a 

11 2m 

14a 

648m 
3 6 



Dec. 

+14 28 
+16 2 
— 37 48 
+17 68 
+13 2 
+33 9 
— 142 



25th 


souths. 


h. m. 


10 6im 


9 18 


9 iia 


11 44m 


11 63 


636 


1 43 



day. 



Dec. 

+15 37 
+16 16 
— ^27 28 
+17 37 
+12 46 
+23 10 
— 1 46 



c 
o 

o 

M 



1 
2 
8 

4 



5. 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



IS 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



S. 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



5. 
27 
28 
29 
80 
31 



Moon rides or sets. Mean Time. 



o 

e 
o 
*j 

(0 

sets. 
h. m. 

4 38m 

rises. 
8 4a 

8 33 



8 43a 

9 4 
9 36 
9 53 

10 34 

11 3 
11 53 



63m 

3 3 
8 20 

4 38 

sets, 

7 38a 



8 5a 

8 33 

9 4 
9 43 

10 37 

11 30 



20m 

1 22 

2 fr 

3 32 

4 84 
636 



o • 

2: 



sets. 
h. m. 

4 43m 

rises. 

8 3a 

8 23 



8 44a 

9 7 
980 
9 67 

10 80 

11 10 
11 69 



1 om 

2 10 

3 25 

4 42 

sets, 

7 39a 



8 7a 

8 36 

9 9 
948 

10 84 

11 28 



28m 

1 29 
233 

3 37 

4 37 
6 38 



I 

I 



sets. 
h. m. 

4 49m 

rises. 
8 2a 

8 23 



8 46a 

9 9 
934 

10 2 

10 37 

11 17 



7m 

1 8 

2 17 

3 31 

4 46 

sets. 

7 39a 



8 loa 

840 
9 13 
9 65 

10 43 

11 36 



35m 

1 35 
338 

3 39 

4 41 
6 43 



o 
2 . 

CO 

U 



sets. 
h. m. 

5 3m 
rises. 
7 58a 

823 



8 49a 

9 16 
944 

10 15 
10 63 
1136 



29m 

1 28 
235 

3 45 

4 56 

sets, 
7 4ia 



8 16a 

8 50 

9 28 

10 12 

11 1 
11 65 



55m 

1 63 

2 63 

3 63 

4 48 
6 45 



m 

s . 



sets. 
h. m. 

6 lom 
rises, 

7 58a 
823 



.8 5ia 

9 19 
9 49 

10 22 
U 1 

11 45 



37m 

1 38 
244 
3 63 

6 2 

sets, 

7 42a 



8 I9a 

8 65 

9 35 

10 21 

11 11 
13 6 



1 5m 

2 3 
3^ 

3 59 

4 53 
6 48 



«8 



sets. 
h. m. 

6 om 
rises. 
8 4a 

8 26 



8 49a 

9 14 
9 39 

10 7 

10 45 

11 26 



19m 

1 20 

2 29 

3 43 

4 56 

sets, 

7 44a 



8 15a 

8 46 

9 22 
10 6 

10 53 

11 46 



46m 

1 47 
3 49 

3 51 

4 49 
6 49 



High Water. Mean Time. 



o 
g 

1 


•a 

{So 
55 


Charleston, 
Sec. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


11 3im 


8 6m 


7 2im 


11 69m 


8 46 


8 1 


35a 


9 22 


8 36 


1 10 


9 57 


9 8 


1 45 


10 80 


9 41 


3 30 


11 8 


10 16 


3 67 


11 42m 


10 61 


3 37 


4a 


11 80m 


4 36 


1 13 


ona 


6 20 


2 7 


1 


635 


3 12 


2 U 


7 33 


4 19 


3 24 


8 43 


627 


4 37 


9 44 


6 81 


6 44 


10 40 


7 26 


6 40 


11 28a 


8 10 


7 28 


• • • 


9 


8 14 


13m 


9 44 


8 66 


68 


10 28 


9 39 


1 42 


11 12a 


10 14 


2 29 


• • • 


11 12a 


3 19 


6m 


• • • 


4 14 


1 2 


6m 


6 18 


2 5 


1 6 


6 25 


8 12 


2 11 


7 33 


4 19 


3 24 


834 


6 19 


429 


927 


6 12 


6 25 


10 12 


6 59 


6 13 


10 53 


7 37 


6 53 


11 28m 


8 lom 


7 28m 




'•^ JS 

A 8w 



• • • 


om 


44 


1 26 


2 9 


2 59 


4 8 


6 18 


625 


7 32 


8 87 


932 


10 17 


10 64 


11 28 


om 



24 




September, 


Ninth Month, 


begins on Saturday. 


;i860. 


* Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




I 


lai day. 

kgina. End:}. 
h. m. h. m. 


7ih day. 


1 3th day. 

Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. in. 


19th day. || 


25th day. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends. Begins 
h. m. h. m. 


. Ends. 
h.m. 


Boston, 


3 44m 8 16a 


3 5im 


8 4a 


3 69m 7 63a 


4 7m 


7 40a 


4 16m 7 38a 


N. York, 


3 49 


8 11 


3 66 


8 


4 8 


749 


4 10 


7 87 


-4 18 


7S6 


Wash'n, 


8 64 


8 6 


4 


7 56 


4 7 


746 


4 14 


784 


4 31 


723 


Charles., 


4 8 


7 63 


4 13 


7 43 


4 17 


784 


433 


7 36 


4 38 


7 16 


N. Orl's, 


4 14 


746 


4 17 


7 39 


4 31 


7 81 


436 


733 


430 


7 14 


S. Fran., 


3 66 


8 4 


4 3 


764 


4 9 


7 43 


4 16 


7 83 


433 


722 


PHA8S8, AMD PBRIOBB AND APOOBB, OF THB MOON. 

Last Quarter, 8th day, 5h. 69m. M. First Quarter, 2l8t day, 6h. 17m. A. 
New Moon, 15th "1 1 M. Full Moon, 29lh " 8 32 A. 


Apogee, Ist day, 7h. A. | Perigee, 15th day, 3h. M. I Apogee, 28th day, 8h. A. 


• 

■5 

1 

'5 

1 


"5 

OB 


Sun's upper limp rises and seta (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


II 


• 


•>• 

M 

■ 1 

o 


• 


c 

o 

.So 

r 


a 

Id 

s 


OB 

s 

as 


n 

*o . 
c o 

c o 




r»es. 

h. m. 


sets. 
h. ra. 


rises. 
h. m. 


s^s. 
h. m. 


rues, 
h.m. 


sets. 

ti. m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


s. 

Su. 


5 36 
5*26 


6 33 


6 37 


6 33 


5 39 


6 30 


5 86 


6 34 


5 37 


6 33 


5 83 


637 
6 36 


0S9m 


2 


6 33 


6 38 


6 80 


5 80 6 38 


5 86 


6 33 


5 37 


6 31 


5 33 


1 8 


3 


M. 


37 


30 


39 


38 


81 


37 


86 


33 


88 


30 


83 


36 


1 48 


4 


Tu. 


S8 


38 


30 


37 


83 


36 


86 


30 


88 


18 


84 


23 


330 


5 


VV. 


39 


37 


31 


36 


83 


34 


87 


19 


39 


17 


35 


33 


8 14 


6 


Th. 


80 


36 


33 


84 


83 


33 


88 


18 


40 


16 


36 


20 


4 1 


7 


F. 


83 


33 


33 


33 


34 


30 


88 


16 


40 


15 


36 


18 


4 62 


8 


S. 
Su. 


83 
684 


33 


34 


30 


85 


19 


89 


15 


41 


13 


87 


17 


646 


9 


6 30 


6 35 


6 18 


686 


6 17 


589 


6 14 


5 41 


6 IS 


6 88 


6 16 


6 43 


10 


M. 


86 


18 


86 


17 


87 


16 


40 


13 


43 


11 


39 


14 


7 40 


11 


Tu. 


86 


16 


37 


15 


88 


14 


41 


11 


43 


10 


40 


13 


8 37 


12 


W. 


87 


14 


38 


14 


89 


13 


43 


10 


43 


9 


41 


11 


9 33 


13 


Th. 


88 


13 


39 


13 


40 


11 


43 


8 


43 


7 


43 


9 


10 37 


14 


F. 


39 


11 


40 


10 


41 


10 


48 


7 


44 


6 


43 


8 


11 aom 


15 


S. 
Su. 


40 
6 41 


9 


41 


9 


41 


8 


44 


6 


44 


6 


43 


6 


13a 


16 


6 7 


543 


6 7 


6 43 6 6 


5 44 


6 4 


5 46 


6 4 


6 44 |6 4 


1 6 


17 


M. 


43 


6 


43 


6 


43 


6 


46 


3 


46 


3 


45 


8 


3 1 


18 


Tu. 


43 


4 


44 


4 


44 


3 


46 


3 


46 


1 


46 


1 


3 68 


19 


VV. 


44 


3 


45 


3 


46 


1 


46 





46 





47 \5 59 


3 66 


20 


Th. 


46 





46 





46 





47 


6 69 


47 


5 59 


47 


69 


4 64 


21 


F. 


46 


5 69 


47 


6 59 


47 


5 68 


48 


68 


48 


68 


48 


67 


5 61 


22 


S. 
Su. 


47 
6 49 


67 


48 


67 


48 


67 


48 


56 


48 


66 


49 


56 


6 46 


23 


6 66 


549 


5 66 


6 49 


5 65 


549 


6 66 


649 


5 66 


5 60 ;6 64 


786 


24 


M. 


60 


53 


60 


64 


60 


63 


49 


64 


49 


64 


61 


63 


833 


25 


Tu. 


61 


63 


61 


63 


60 


63 


60 


63 


60 


63 


61 


61 


9 7 


26 


VV. 


63 


60 


63 


60 


61 


60 


51 


61 


60 


61 


63 


49 


9 48 


27 


Th. 


63 


48 


63 


48 


63 


49 


61 


60 


61 


60 


63 


48 


10 38 


28 


F. 


64 


46 


64 


47 


63 


47 


63 


48 


63 


49 


64 


46 


11 8 


29 


S. 
Su. 


66 
6 66 


46 


65 


46 


64 


45 


63 


47 


53 


46 


66 


44 


11 48a 


30 


5 48 


5 66 


5 43 


5 66 5 44 


5 64 


5 46 


5 63 


5 46 |6 66 6 43 1 


g 



I860.] 



Septemher has Thirty Days, 



25 



Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 



5 
9 

$ 



W 



1st day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
10 66m 

9 7 

8 47a 

10 23m 

11 39 
568 
1 14 



Dec. 

-j-'U 48 
-|-16 21 
— 26 57 
+17 13 
-|-12 28 
-f-22 11 
1 60 



7th day. 



Dec. 



o / 



souths, 
h. m. _ 

11 12m'-f-12 6 

9 2 -f-ie 12 

8 29a — 26 28 

10 Sm -4-16 52 

11 8 -|-12 12 
5 35 -["22 11 
60 . — 1 64 



13th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
11 3im 

8 68 

8 13a 

9 46m 
10 48 

6 12 
26 



Dec. 



o / 



4-15 48 
— 25 48 
+16 31 
+11 67 
+22 12 
— 1 68 



19th day. 



souths. 

h. TO.. 

11 49m 

8 66 
7 69a 

9 26m 
10 27 

4 48 

11 66a 



Dec. 

+ 3 80 
+16 7 
— 26 6 
+16 10 
+11 42 
+22 12 
— 2 8 



25th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
4a 

8 66m 

7 46a 

9 7m 

10 6 
4 34 

11 23a 



Dec. 

o J 
— 1 14 

+14 10 

— 24 18 

+15 50 

+11 27 

+22 11 

1 — 2 7 






Q 



s. 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 



o 

o 
CQ 



rises. 
h. m. 

6 50a 



S. 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 



5. 
17 

J5 
19 
20 
21 
22 



7 loa 

730 

7 64 
823 

8 69 

9 44 
10 37 



if 
u 



rMes. 
h. m. 

6 6ia 



a 

I. 
I 



nses, 
h. m. 

6 63a 



114ia 



S. 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 



S. 



63m 

5 11 

8 29 
4 49 

sets. 

6 3ia 

7 2 
7 38 
822 

9 13 

10 12 

11 16 



7 12a 
733 
7 58 
838 
9 6 
9 61 
10 44 



1148a 



7 14a 

7 37 

8 8 
834 

9 12 
959 

10 53 



f 



rises. 
h. m. 

6 64a 



7 90a 
746 

8 16 
849 

9 31 

10 18 

11 13 



11 66a 



69m 


2 16 


3 82 


4 51 


sets. 



1 6m 

2 31 
386 
4 62 

sets. 



2om 

1 25 

2 28 

3 28 
430 
5 80 



6 84a 

7 7 

7 44 

8 29 

9 20 

10 20 

11 23 



6 28m 



26m 

1 30 

2 32 

3 30 

4 81 

5 30 



6 87a 

7 12 
7 60 
786 
928 

10 27 

11 80 



um 

1 21 

2 84 
8 44 
4 65 

sets. 



o 



o 



nses. 
h. m. 

6 66a 



7 28a 
760 

8 21 
6 67 
940 

10 28 

11 22 






rises. 
h. m. 

6 66a 



7 18a 
742 

8 9 
843 
923 

10 9 

11 3 



6 26m 



32m 

1 35 

2 35 

3 33 

4 32 
6 30 



6 46a 

7 24 

8 6 

8 54 

9 48 

10 47 

11 48 



34m 

1 80 

2 40 
349 
4 69 

sets. 



6 25m 



47m 

1 47 
244 
3 38 
484 
5 28 



6 50a 

7 81 

8 14 

9 4 
9 58 

10 58 

11 68 



7m 

1 17 

2 83 

3 46 
6 2 

sets. 



56m 

1 65 
3 50 

3 41 

4 36 
6 29 



6 43a 

7 19 
7 59 
845 
9 38 

10 39 

11 42 



6 19m 6 19m 



43m 

1 44 

2 44 

3 41 

4 40 

5 36 



6 3im 



High Water. Mean Time. 






I 



h. m. 
la 



84 

1 8 
1 46 
326 
3 7 

3 57 

4 66 



M 


a 


b 




«s 


1^ 


.5 


JS 


"Z, 


o 


h. m. 


h. m. 


8 47m 


8 8m 


9 21 


834 


965 


9 6 



S OS 



10 30 

11 8 
11 53m 

45a 
144 



6 3 


2 49 


7 18 


3 59 


820 


6 5 


920 


6 7 


10 14 


7 1 


11 8 


7 47 


11 47a 


8 83 


• • • 


9^ 


32m 


10 7 



9 41 

10 20 

11 1 
11 60m 

46a 



h. m. 

88a 

1 4 
1 86 

3 13 
353 
8 47 

4 63 



130 


10 68 


2 10 


11 48a 


8 2 


• • • 


8 69 


47m 


6 1 


1 49 


6 6 


2 63 


7 8 


8 64 


8 4 


4 49 



1 48 
8 3 
4 14 
6 18 

6 15 

7 3 
7 49 



6 1 


7 9 


8 17 


9 21 


10 12 


10 67 


1187a 

• • • 



883 

9 17 

10 5 

10 66 

11 52a 



20m 

1 8 
1 47 
387 
3 41 



8 64 

9 36 
10 15 
10 53 



11 27m 



6 38 

6 23 

7 2 

7 37 

8 lom 



• • • 


5im 


1 62 


2 57 


3 58 


460 


5 35 


6 16 



6 53 



7 27m 



4 65 


6 8 


7 12 


8 13 


9 6 


949 


10 25 


10 67 


11 28 


11 69m 



26 


October, Tenth Month, begins on Monday. |[1860. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1 


Ist day. 1 


7th day. 


: B 

1 


13th day. | 


19th day. || 


25th day. | 


Segina 
li. m. 


. Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends 
h. m. 


egins. 
i.m. 


lEDnda. 
ti.m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins 
h. m. 


1. Ends, 
h.m. 


Boston, 


4 33II 


I 7 17a 


4 80m 


7 6a|| 4 87in| 


6 65a 


444m 


646a 


4 60m| 6 38 1 


N. York, 


4 26 


7 16 


482 


7 4 


488 


6 64 


444 


646 


4 60 


688 


Wash'n, 


4 27 


7 13 


488 


7 3 


488 


6 54 


444 


646 


4 60 


638 


Charles., 


4 32 


7 8 


436 


7 


440 


6 62 


4 45 


6 45 


4 49 


639 


N. Orl's, 


4 34 


7 6 


487 


6 68 


4 41 


6 61 


4 45 


645 


4 48 


6 40 


S. Fran., 


4 28 1 7 12 


434 


7 2 


438 


6 54 


4 44 


646 


4 60 


6 38 




PHA8B8, AND PBaiOBB AKD APOGBB, OF THB MOON. 1 


Last Qnarter, 7th day, 6h. 67m. A. 

New Moon, 14th " 9 29 M. 

Perigee, 13lh daj, 2h. A. 


First Quarter, 21st day, 9h. 2m. M. 

FuUMoon, 29th " 1 42 A. 

Apogee, 26th day, 2h. M. 


1 
'S 

• 


1 

1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 




• 


,1 


•^ 

!' 




h 


1^ 

r 




riaea. 
h. m. 


«ete. 
hm. 


rtaea. 
h. m. 


aeta. 
h. m. 


rtaea. 
h. m. 


acta. 

b. m. 


rtaea. 
h. m. 


aela. 
h.m. 


rtaea. 
h. m. 


sets, 
h. m. 


riaea. 
h.m. 


aela. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


M. 


5 67 


6 41 


5 67 


6 42 


5 66 


5 42 


5 64 


5 44 


5 53 


645 


5 67 


6 41 


29m 


2 


Tu. 


68 


89 


68 


40 


67 


41 


66 


43 


63 


44 


68 


40 


1 IS 


3 


W. 


6 


88 


60 


38 


68 


89 


66 


42 


64 


43 


69 


38 


1 69 


4 


Th. 


1 


86 


6 


37 


60 


38 


66 


40 


66 


42 


6 


37 


3 48 


5 


F. 


2 


84 


1 


36 


6 


86 


87 


39 


66 


40 


1 


35 


3 40 


6 


S. 
Su. 


3 


38 


2 


88 


1 


34 


68 


38 


66 


89 


2 


83 


436 


7 


6 4 


6 81 


6 8 


532 


6 2 


5 38 


568 


5 36 


5 67 


688 


6 3 '6 82 


680 


8 


M. 


6 


29 


4 


80 


3 


32 


60 


35 


67 


37 


4 


81 


6 26 


9 


Tu. 


6 


27 


6 


29 


4 


80 


6 


34 


68 


86 


5 


29 


7 ao 


10 


W. 


8 


26 


6 


27 


6 


29 


1 


38 


69 


34 


6 


28 


8 13 


11 


Th. 


9 


24 


7 


26 


6 


27 


1 


32 


60 


33 


7 


26 


9 6 


12 


F. 


10 


28 


8 


24 


7 


26 


2 


80 


6 


82 


8 


26 


HX 


18 


S. 


11 


21 


9 


22 


8 


24 


3 


29 


1 


31 


8 


24 


10 49 


14 


6 12 


6 19 


S 10 


5 21 


6 9 


5 23 


6 4 


528 


6 1 


680 


S 9 ;6 23 


11 43m 


15 


M. 


14 


18 


11 


19 


10 


21 


4 


27 


2 


29 


10 


21 


4oa 


16 


Tu. 


16 


16 


13 


18 


11 


20 


6 


26 


3 


28 


11 


20 


1 89 


17 


W. 


16 


16 


14 


16 


12 


18 


6 


24 


3 


27 


12 


18 


2 40 


18 


Th. 


17 


13 


16 


16 


13 


17 


7 


28 


4 


26 


13 


17 


3 40 


19 


F. 


18 


11 


16 


18 


14 


16 


7 


22 


6 


25 


14 


16 


437 


20 


S. 
Su. 


19 
620 


10 


17 


12 


15 


14 


8 


21 


6 


24 


15 


14 


6 30 


21 


6 8 


6 18 


5 11 


6 16 


5 18 


S 9 


520 


6 6 


5 28 


5 16 


6 13 


6 19 


22 


M. 


22 


7 


19 


9 


17 


12 


>M 


19 


7 


22 


17 


12 


7 4 


28 


Tu. 


23 


6 


20 


8 


18 


10 


10 


18 


8 


21 


18 


10 


7 47 


24 


W. 


24 


4 


21 


6 


19 


9 


11 


17 


8 


20 


19 


9 


837 


25 


Th. 


26 


8 


23 


6 


20 


8 


12 


16 


9 


19 


20 


8 


9 7 


26 


F. 


26 


1 


24 


4 


21 


6 


13 


15 


10 


18 


21 


6 


9 47 


27 


S. 
Su. 


28 





26 


2 


22 


5 


14 


14 


10 


17 


22 


5 


10 28 


28 


629 


4 68 


S26 


5 1 


628 


E» 4 


6 15 


5 13 


6 11 


5 16 


6 22 |6 5 


11 11 


29 


M. 


80 


67 


27 





24 


8 


15 


12 


12 


15 


23 


4 


1166a 


30 


Tu. 


81 


66 


28 


4 59 


26 


2| 16 


11 13 
10 13 


14 


25 


8 


g 


81 


W. 


88 


64 


80 


57 


27 


o| 17 


14 


26 


1 


45m 



1860. 


] October has Thirty-^me Days. , 27 


Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. | 




1st day. 


7th day. 


I3th day. 


19th day. 


25th day. " 


80Ut?h8. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. i 


souths. 


l^ec. 


souths. 


Dec. 


souths. 


Dec. 




h. 


m. 


O 1 


h. m. 


O 1 


h. m. 


O J 


h.m. 


O 1 


h. m. 


O 1 


$ 


17a 


— 5 49 


29a - 


-10 7 


40a - 


—14 3 


5ia - 


—17 31 


1 la - 


—20 27 


9 


8 56m 


+13 56 


8 66m- 


f-11 36 


8 58m + 9 38 


8 60m + 7 89 


9 im + 5 37 


$ 


7 33a 


— 33 25 


7 3ia - 


-33 38 


7 lOa — 31 36 


7 oa — 30 17 


6 60a • 


—19 3 


-2^ 


8 47m 


4-15 30 


8 38m- 


j-15 12 


8 8m +14 54 


7 48m +14 37 


7 38m +14 21 


\ 


9 45 


+11 13 


9 24 - 


1-10 69 


9 3 +10 46 


8 43 +10 34 


8 30 +10 33 


9 


4 





-f-23 11 


3 36 - 


f-33 10 


3 13 +33 9 


3 48 +23 8 


324 +23 7 


t|? 


11 


9a 


— 3 U 


10 45a - 


— 3 14 


10 2ia • 


— 3 18 


9 57a - 


— 3 31 


9 33a 


— 234 


1 

o 

1 


Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. High Water. Mean Time. 


■ 

1 


•a 
{So 


1^ 


a 


• 

sz: 


h 

1= 






1 
U 






Tizta. 


n'sea. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 












h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


6 oa 


6 4a 


6 8a 


6 30a 


6 36a 


6 14a 


la 


8 47m 


8 3m 


3a 


2 


638 


6 33 


6 89 


6 53 


659 


6 45 


088 


936 


8 88 


1 8 


3 


7 1 


7 7 


7 14 


7 31 


7 39 


7 30 


1 18 


10 5 


9 15 


1 45 


4 


7 43 


7 49 


7 66 


8 15 


835 


7 64 


3 1 


10 45 


9 66 


328 


5 


833 


8 39 


847 


9 6 


9 16 


8 66 


348 


11 33m 


10 43 


3 33 


6 


9 30 


9 37 


9 44 


10 4 


10 14 


9 55 


3 40 


37a 


11 33m 


4 30 


S. 


10 36a 


10 43a 


10 49a 


11 7a 


11 16a 


11 oa 


4 38 


1 36 


29a 


5 41 


8 


11 60 


11 55 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


* • • 


543 


2 30 


1 30 


649 


9 


• • • 


• • • 


im 


15m 


32m 


13m 


648 


8 35 


236 


755 


10 


1 4m 


1 8m 


1 13 


1 33 


1 28 


1 33 


7 53 


437 


3 45 


855 


11 


3 31 


333 


326 


3 31 


236 


3 36 


8 61 


5 37 


4 47 


9 47 


\% 


3 39 


3 40 


8 41 


3 43 


344 


3 50 


9 44 


6 31 


544 


10 33 


13 


4 58 


468 


4 67 


454 


4 54 


466 


10 35 


7 21 


636 


11 13 


S. 


6 18m 


6 16m 


6 13m 


6 6m 


6 3m 


6 3im 


11 2sa 


8 6 


7 23 


11 56a 


15 


sets. 


sets. 


VW^tf • 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


• • • 


8 57 


8 13 


• • • 


16 


6 13a 


6 19a 


6 26a 


6 43a 


6 53a 


6 36a 


lom 


9 47 


869 


43m 


17 


7 2 


7 9 


7 17 


7 35 


7 45 


737 


1 1 


10 39 


960 


1 39 


18 


8 


8 8 


8 15 


8 35 


846 


a37 


1 54 


iissa 


10 43 


2 31 


19 


9 3 


9 10 


9 18 


936 


946 


9 39 


2 48 


• • • 


11 35a 


333 


20 


10 9 


10 15 


10 33 


10 38 


10 47 


10 38 


3 42 


29m 


• • • 


433 


8. 


11 16a 


11 3ia 


11 26a 


11 40a 


11 47a 


11 36a 


438 


1 26 


39m 


5 41 


22 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


5 35 


223 


1 13 


6 41 


23 


19m 


23m 


S7m 


i 37m 


63m 


36m 


629 


3 16 


3 15 


7 36 


24 


133 


1 25 


1 38 


1 34 


1 38 


1 36 


7 21 


4 7 


3 11 


835 


25 


330 


3 31 


333 


336 


338 


230 


8 8 


453 


4 2 


9 11 


26 


3 31 


3 21 


3 31 


330 


3 33 


3 29 


854 


5 38 


460 


9 49 


27 


4 35 


424 


4 33 


4 18 


4 18 


4 29 


9 35 


6 23 


534 


10 34 


S. 


5 38m 


5 36m 


5 3310 


i 5 16m 


5 13m 


6 29m 


10 15 


7 2 


6 16 


10 68 


29 


630 


6 36 


6 33 


6 11 


6 7 


638 


10 66 


740 


6 66 


11 8im 


30 


rises. 


rises. 


rises 


, rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


11 34m 


i 8 16 


7 34 


6a 


3 


1 


5 4ia 


5 48a 


5 55a 


6 13a 


6 33a 


6 4a 


15a 9 im 


8 16m 


46a 



28 


November, Eleventh Mouthy 


begins on Thursday 


'. [1860.f 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. ( 


£ 


let day. 


7th day. 


I3th day. | 


19th day. || 


25th day. { 


logins. 
1. m. 


Ends 
h. m 


1. Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. . 
h. m. ] 


binds, 
ti. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins 
h. m. 


. Ends. 
h.m. 


Boston, 


4fi6m 


680 


a 6 6m 


6 33a 


6 iim 


6 18a 


6 nm 


6 14a 


6 33ID 6 lia 


N. York, 


4 67 


6 31 


6 4 


634 


6 10 


6 19 


6 15 


6 16 


6 21 


6 13 


Wash'n, 


4 67 


6 81 


6 8 


635 


6 8 


6 31 


6 18 


6 18 


6 19 


6 15 


Charles., 


4 64 


634 


469 


6 39 


6 8 


6 36 


6 7 


623 


6 13 


623 


N. Orl's, 


4 63 


6 36 


466 


6 31 


6 1 


6 38 


6 6 


626 


6 9 


625 


S. Fran., 


4 66 


6 33 


6 3 


6 36 


6 7 


6 23 


6 13 


6 19 


6 18 


6 16 


PHA8B8, AND PXRIOKB AND APOOBB, OF TBB MOON. | 


Last Quarter, 6th day, 4h. 9tn. BI 
New Moon, 12th " 7 28 A 


First Quarter, aOth day, 3h. 44m. M. 
Full Moon, 28th ''^ 6 30 M. 


Perigee, 10th day, lOh. A. 


1 Apogee, 22d day, 6h. A. 


i 

o 
aa 

1 


i 

o 
m 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 


it 

is 

is 


o 

•* 

a 




1 

1 


a 


• 

2 


¥■ 

fa o 




nses. 
h. m. 


seta. 
h. m. 


nsea. 
[Lm. 


sets. 
h. m. 


risea. 
h. m. 


86U. 


rises, 
h.m. 


se/s. 
h. m. 


nsea. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rtses. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


li. m. 


1 


Th. 


634 


4 53 


{81 


4 66 


6 38 i 


169 


6 18 


5 9 


6 14 


6 13 


6 27 


6 


1 37in 


2 


F. 


85 


63 


83 


66 


39 


68 


19 


8 


16 


13 


26 


469 


3 31 


3 


S. 
Su. 


86 


61 


83 


64 


80 


67 


30 


7 


16 


11 


29 


68 
4 67 


3 26 


4 


688 


4 49 


}84 


4 63 


6 31 i 


i 66 


6 31 


6 6 


6 17 


6 10 


6 80 


4 31 


5 


M. 


89 


48 


86 


63 


33 


65 


33 


6 


17 


10 


81 


66 


5 14 


6 


Tu. 


40 


47 


87 


60 


33 


64 


33 


6 


18 


9 


32 


66 


8 6 


7 


W. 


41 


46 


38 


49 


34 


63 


34 


4 


19 


8 


83 


64 


6 66 


8 


Th. 


43 


45 


89 


48 


86 


63 


24 


8 


20 


8 


86 


63 


7 45 


9 


F. 


44 


44 


41 


47 


87 


61 


36 


3 


SO 


7 


86 


62 


8 35 


10 


S. 
Su. 


46 


43 


43 
3 43 


46 


88 


60 


36 


3 


21 


7 
5 6 


87 
638 


61 
4 50 


938 


11 


646 


4 43 


4 46 


6 89 


4 49 


637 


6 1 


6 23 


10 33 


12 


M. 


48 


41 


44 


44 


40 


48 


38 





33 


6 


89 


49 


11 som 


13 


Tu. 


49 


40 


46 


44 


41 


48 


39 





34 


6 


40 


49 


soa 


14 


W. 


60 


89 


46 


43 


43 


47 


80 


469 


35 


6 


41 


48 


I 31 


15 


Th. 


63 


88 


47 


43 


43 


46 


81 


69 


36 


4 


42 


47 


333 


16 


F. 


68 


87 


49 


41 


44 


46 


83 


66 


36 


4 


48 


46 


3 18 


17 


S. 
Su. 


64 


86 


60 


40 


46 


46 


88 


68 


37 


8 


44 


46 


4 10 


18 


6 66 


4 86 


S 61 


440 


6 47 


4 44 


6 34 


4 67 


6 38 


6 8 


646 


4 46 


4 66 


19 


M. 


66 


86 


63 


89 


48 


44 


84 


67 


39 


2 


47 


46 


6 43 


20 


Tu. 


68 


34 


64 


88 


49 


43 


85 


66 


80 


2 


47 


46 


6 94 


21 


W. 


69 


83 


65 


88 


60 


43 


36 


66 


31 


2 


48 


44 


7 4 


22 


Th. 


7 


83 


66 


87 


61 


43 


87 


66 


81 




49 


44 


744 


23 


F. 


1 


83 


67 


87 


63 


41 


88 


66 


32 




60 


43 


834 


24 


S. 
Su. 


3 


83 


68 


86 


63 


41 


89 


66 


33 




61 


43 


9 6 


25 


7 4 


4 31 


S 69 


486 


6 64 


4 40 


640 


4 66 


634 


5 1 


6 63 


443 


9 51 


26 


M. 


6 


81 


7 


86 


65 


40 


41 


65 


85 




63 


43 


10 39 


27 


Tu. 


6 


80 


1 


86 


66 


39 


43 


64 


86 




64 


41 


11 3ia 


28 


W. 


7 


80 


3 


85 


67 


89 


43 


64 


36 





6A 


41 


* 


29 


Th. 


8 


39 


3 


34 


68 


89 


43 


64 


87 





66 


41 


95m 


SO 


F. 


9 


39 


4 


34 


69 


39 


44 


64 


38 





67 


41 


I9im 





































1860. 


] November has Thirty Days, 29 






Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. | 






Ist daj. 


7th day. 


13th day. 


19th day. 


25th day. 




aotUha. 


Dec 


aoutka. 


Dec. 


80utha. 


Dec. 


aoutha. 


Dec. 


aoutha. 


Dec. 






9 


h. m. 

1 iia 


O 1 
— 93 3 


h. m. 
1 16a 


O 1 

— 34 37 


h. m. o i 
1 14a — 34 53 


h. XXL. 

54a - 


O 1 

—94 1 


h. n. 
iia 


O 1 

—3184 






9 


9 


4m 


+ 3 41 


9 6m 


+ 11 


9 8m- 


— 333 


9 iim- 


— 6 69 


9 14m 


— 786 






$ 


6 88a 


— 17 89 


639a 


— 16 33 


6 30a - 


—14 41 


6 iia - 


—13 10 


6 3a 


— 11 86 






y. 


7 


4m 


+14 6 


6 43m 


+13 63 


6 33m +13 43 


6 cm +13 83 


6 88m 


+18 97 






h 


7M 


+10 11 


7 33 


+10 3 


7 11 + 9 64 


6 49 + 9 47 


6 36 


+ 943 






9 


1 65 


+98 6 


131 


+93 4 


1 6 +39 9 


043 +93 


17 


+91 58 






^? 


9 


6a 


— 338 


8 4ia 


— 330 


8 na - 


— 3 39 


7 63a - 


— 333 


7 99a 


— 334 






•1 

4 


i 


Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 


High Water. Mean Time. 






g 

o 


• 

i 
1 


New York, 


Washington, 
&c. 


Charleston, 
&c. 


N. Orleans, 
&c. 


o . 
O 


i 




New York, 
&c. 


Charleston, 
&c. 


San Francis- 
co (North 
Beach). 








riaea. 
h. m. 


rt«es. 
h. m. 


riaea. 
h. m. 


riaea. 
h. m. 


riaea. 
h. m. 


riaea. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 






1 


6 39a 


636a 


6 44a 


7 sa 


7 13a 


6 63a 


59a 


946m 


8 6em 


138a 






2 


796 


783 


7 41 


8 


8 10 


7 63 


146 


10 31 


943 


3 13 






3 


838 


8 35 


8 43 


9 


9 9 


8 53 


3 85 


11 18m 


10 30 


8 6 






S. 


9 40a 


9 46a 


9 63a 


10 6a 


10 14a 


10 3a 


8 36 


13a 


11 9om 


4 13 






5 


10 60 


10 66 


10 69 


11 10 


10 17 


11 9 


430 


1 8 


19a 


5 31 






6 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


5 18 


3 5 


1 6 


635 






7 


4m 


7m 


lom 


18m 


30m 


3im 


6 19 


8 6 


9 6 


7 36 






8 


1 18 


1 19 


1 31 


1 33 


137 


130 


7 19 


4 6 


3 8 


8 31 






9 


3 83 


3 33 


3 33 


3 31 


3 33 


333 


8 16 


6 3 


4 19 


9 19 






10 


3 60 


3 48 


3 47 


3 41 


3 40 


3 65 


9 14 


6 


5 19 


10 7 






S. 


6 8m 


6 6m 


6 3m 


4 6im 


4 49m 


6 lom 


10 9 


656 


6 10 


10 53 






12 


638 


6 34 


6 19 


6 6 


6 3 


627 


11 3 


7 47 


7 3 


1137a 






13 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


11 64a 


8 39 


765 


• • • 






14 


5 48a 


6 60a 


6 68a 


6 17a 


6 37a 


6 9a 


• ■ • 


9 33 


845 


36m 






15 


6 46 


663 


7 1 


730 


7 31 


7 13 


46m 


10 33 


9 34 


1 16 






16 


763 


8 


8 6 


834 


833 


8 18 


1 37 


11 iia 


10 93 


3 4 






17 


9 


9 6 


9 11 


9 36 


934 


9 33 


338 


• • • 


11 9 


3 68 






S. 


10 5 


10 9a 


10 14a 


10 35a 


10 33a 


10 34a 


3 16 


3m 


11 66a 


3 60 






19 


11 9 


11 13 


11 15 


11 33 


11 38 


11 35 


4 3 


51 


• • • 


5 1 






20 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


4 61 


1 89 


49m 


666 






21 


ism 


14m 


16m 


19m 


39m 


i 33m 


5 41 


3 38 


1 97 


6 47 




22 


1 13 


1 13 


1 13 


1 14 


1 16 


1 31 


639 


3 16 


9 16 


786 






23 


3 13 


3 11 


3 11 


3 8 


3 9 


3 18 


7 18 


4 4 


3 7 


833 






24 


3 18 


8 11 


8 9 


3 3 


3 1 


3 15 


8 5 


460 


3 69 


9 7 






8. 


4 15m 


4 13m 


4 9m 


3 68m 


3 55n] 


L 4 14m 


8 53 


5 37 


4 49 


948 






26 


6 18 


5 14 


5 9 


4 66 


463 


5 14 


9 39 


636 


538 


10 98 




• 27 


633 


6 18 


6 13 


5 56 


5 60 


6 17 


10 36 


7 13 


697 


11 6 




: 28 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises 


. rises. 


11 13 


7 65 


7 19 


11 44m 




! 29 


630a 


6S7a 


6 3da 


5 64a 


6 3a 


5 46a 


11 son: 


I 844 


8 


80a 






1 SO 


633 


639 


636 


6 64 


7 4 


6 47 


44a 


933X1] 


L 8 44m 


1 14 





3* 



30 December y Twelfth Month, begins on Saturday. [1860 



Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 



Boston, 
N. York, 
Wash'n, 
Charles., 
N. OrPs, 
S. Fran., 



Ist day. 1 


7lh( 


lay. 


13ih day. | 


19th day. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends. 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


6 3901 


6 9a 


6 86m 


6 9a 


640m 


6 18a 


6 48in 


6 loa 


537 


6 11 


688 


6 11 


687 


6 11 


5 41 


6 18 


636 


6 18 


680 


6 14 


584 


6 14 


588 


6 16 


6 17 


6 31 


633* 


633 


636 


638 


639 


636 


5 13 


635 


6 18 


636 


634 


637 


635 


639 


531 


6 14 


6 39 


6 15 


533 


6 16 


586 


6 18 



I 26th day. 



Begins, 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


6 46m 


6 14a 


6 44 


6 16 


6 41 


6 10 


6 83 


638 


6 38 


6 83 


689 


6 31 



PHASES, AND PBRIGBB AND APOOBB, OF THB MOON. 



Last Quarter, 
New Moon, 

Perigee, 8th day, 3h. A. 



6th day, Oh. SSm. A. 
12th '♦ 7 40 M. 



First Quarter, 20th day, Ih. 2m. M. 
Full Moon, 27th " 10 9 A. 

Apogee, 20lh day, 2h. A^^ 



o 
o 

s 



t 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



S 



s. 



fifu; 
M. 
Tu. 
W. 

Th. 
F. 

S. 



Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time. 



2 

I 



rwes. 
h. m. 

7 10 



7 11 
13 
18 
14 
15 
16 
17 



M. 

Tu. 

W. 

TL 

F. 

S. 



7 18 
19 
30 
90 
31 
33 
33 



8u. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

F. 

S. 



23 


Su. 


7 37 


24 


M. 


38 


25 


Tu. 


38 


26 


W. 


38 


27 


TL 


39 


28 


F. 


39 


29 


S. 
.Su, 


39 


30 


7 39 


31 


M. 


80 



7 33 
34 
26 
25 
36 
36 
37 



acta, 
h. m. 

4 39 



4 38 
38 
38 
38 
38 
38 
38 



4 38 
38 
38 
28 
38 
29 
29 



4 29 
39 
29 
80 
81 
31 
32 



4 33 
33 
33 
84 
85 
86 
86 

4 87 
88 



o . 

o 
S5 



rwes. 
h. m. 

7 5 



[7 6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



[7 13 
14 
15 
15 
16 
17 
18 



17 18 
19 
30 
30 
31 
31 
31 



7 22 
22 
S3 
33 
33 
34 
34 

\l 34 
34 



acta. 
h. m, 

484 



4 88 
88 
88 
88 
88 
88 
33 



4 33 
33 
83 
83 
83 
84 
84 



4 84 
35 
86 
86 
36 
86 
87 



4 88 
88 
89 
89 
40 
41 
43 

143 
•43 







rises, 
h. m. 

7 



1 
2 
8 

4 
6 
6 

7 



7 7 
8 
9 
10 
10 
11 
13 



13 
13 
14 
14 
15 
16 
16 

7 16 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
19 

\l 19 
19 



aeta. 
h. m 



438 
88 
88 
38 
88 
88 
38 



438 
38 
39 
39 
39 
39 
40 



4 40 
40 
40 
41 
41 
43 
43 



4 48 
44 
44 
46 
46 
46 
46 

4 48 
48 



a 
2 . 

I 



rises, 
h. m 

6 46 



646 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 



6 61 
62 
58 
54 
54 
55 
66 



56 
57 
57 
58 
56 
50 
69 



acta 
h. m 

4 64 



rxaea. 
h. m 

S89 



4 54 
64 
54 

64 
64 
64 
64 



16 40 
41 
41 
42 
43 
44 
44 



4 64 

64 
65 
65 
55 
65 
66 



4 66 
67 
57 
58 
68 
68 
59 





1 
1 
1 
3 
3 

\l 3 
8 



5 

1 
1 
3 
8 
8 

5 4 
5 



« o 



|6 45 

46 
46 
47 
48 
48 
49 



K(60 
60 
51 
61 
63 
63 
63 



58 
64 
64 
64 
66 
66 
65 

^ 56 

56 



aeta. 
h.m 

6 



a o 



rtaea 
h. m. 
S 68 



6 




6 50 

7 
1 
2 
8 
4 
5 



5 3 
3 
4 
4 
6 
6 
6 



6 6 

7 
7 
8 
9 
9 
10 

5 11 
12 



[7 6 
6 
7 
8 
8 

9 



f7 10 
10 
11 
11 
12 
13 
13 



7 18 
14 
14 
16 
16 
15 
16 

t7 16 
16 



aeta. 
h. m. 

4 41 



4 40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 



4 40 
40 
41 
41 
41 
41 
43 



4 43 
43 
43 
44 
44 
46 
46 



446 
47 
47 
48 
48 
49 
49 

4 61 

61 






h. m. 
3 16m 



3 11 

4 3 
4 63 
6 43 

6 80 

7 19 

8 11 



9 5 

10 3 

11 sm 

4a 

1 8 

lee 

3 49 



3 36 

4 18 

4 69 

5 89 

6 19 

7 1 
7 48 



830 
920 

10 14 

11 loa 

S 
7m 

1 8 

1 67 
3 49m 



I860.] 



December has Thirty-one Days. 



31 



Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets at Transit. 



9 

\ 

9 



ist day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
11 16m 

9 18 

5 63a 

6 15m 

6 4 
11 48a 

7 5 



Dec. 

o / 
— 18 28 

— 10 7 

— 968 
4-13 23 
+ 9 38 
-j-ai 65 

— 2 36 



7th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 

10 40m 

923 

5 44a 
4 62m 

6 41 

11 24a 
6 42 



Dec. 

o / 

— 17 5 

— 12 34 
— 8 18 
+13 21 
-J- 9 36 
-j-21 63 

— 236 



18th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
10 97m 

927 

6 35a 

4 29m 

6 17 

ID 59a 

6 18 



Dec. 

o I 
— 17 54 

— 14 50 

— 686 
-j-13 21 
-j-9 34 
-|-21 51 

— 234 



I9th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
10 97m 

9 S3 

6 26a 

4 6m 
454 

10 34a 

5 65 



Dec. 

o I 
— 19 41 

—16 55 

— 4 53 
-|-13 24 
-J-9 86 
•431 49 

— 233 



25th day. 



souths. 
h. m. 
10 36m 

940 

5 na 
3 4im 

430 

10 loa 

6 31 



Dec. 

o I 
— 21 34 

— 18 46 

— 8 8 
+18 29 
4-987 
+3147 

— 2 32 



■3 

a 
o 






s. 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

S. 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

S. 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

S. 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

sT 

31 





Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 




■ 

a 


New York, 
&c. 


Washington, 
&c. 




N. Orleans, 
&c. 


San Francis- 
co, &c. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


7 3ia 


7 37a 


743a 


7 59a 


8 7a 


7 56a 


8 42a 


8 47a 


8 5ia 


9 4a 


9 9a 


9 13a 


965 


9 58 


10 2 


10 10 


10 15 


10 12 


11 8 


11 10 


11 12 


11 15 


11 19 


11 22 


19m 


20m 


020m 


020m 


32m 


29m 


1 83 


1 32 


1 31 


1 28 


137 


1 40 


2 48 


2 46 


243 


234 


2 32 


2 50 


4 5m 


4 im 


3 67m 


3 45m 


3 4im 


3 64m 


522 


5 17 


6 12 


466 


4 61 


6 18 


6 35 


629 


623 


6 5 


5 69 


629 


7 41 


785 


728 


7 9 


7 3 


7 38 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


6 4ia 


6 47a 


6 53a 


7 9a 


7 18a 


6 64a 


760 


7 56 


8 


8 12 


8 20 


8 10 


8 56a 


9 oa 


9 sa 


9 13a 


9 18a 


9 I3a 


9 58 


10 1 


10 3 


10 8 


10 12 


10 11 


11 


11 1 


11 3 


11 4 


11 6 


11 10 


« • • 


• • • 


• • • 


11 58 


11 59 


12 6 


om 


om 


om 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


58 


056 


56 


49m 


49m 


im 


2 1 


1 58 


1 56 


1 46 


1 44 


2 1 


3 3m 


2 59m 


2 56m 


2 48m 


239m 


8 om 


4 7 


4 2 


3 66 


343 


8 89 


4 8 


6 12 


6 6 


6 


443 


486 


5 4 


6 13 


6 7 


6 


632 


5 25 


6 4 


7 8 


7 2 


6 56 


6 36 


630 


6 59 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


6 30a 


6 35a 


6 40a 


6 54a 


7 la 


6 52a 


7 44a 


7 48a 


7 53a 


8 la 


8 7a 


8 3a 


8 59 


9 1 


9 4 


9 9 


9 13 


9 14 



High Water. 


Mean Time. 




55 


Charleston, 
&c. 


San Francis- 
co (North 
Beach). 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 33a 


10 19m 


939m 


3 oa 


2 21 


11 6 


10 16 


3 61 


8 9 


11 56m 


11 8 


350 


3 58 


46a 


11 6im 


454 


450 


1 38 


4ia 


5 66 


5 48 


3 35 


1 34 


6 64 


6 47 


3 34 


2 35 


754 


7 49 


4 86 


3 43 


8 53 


8 61 


5 37 


4 47 


9 47 


9 51 


688 


6 61 


10 37 


10 49 


7 33 


649 


11 34a 


11 4oa 


834 


7 43 


• • • 


• • • 


9 17 


830 


13m 


4om 


10 4 


9 14 


1 


1 17 


10 45 


9 66 


1 44 


2 1 


11 37a 


10 38 


3 38 


343 


• • • 


11 17 


3 16 


823 


lom 


11 67a 


4 9 


4 4 


63 


• • ■ 


5 3 


4 48 


1 86 


89m 


6 53 


5 35 


333 


1 33 


6 41 


6 35 


3 13 


3 11 


7 32 


7 18 


4 4 


8 7 


8 32 


8 13 


4 57 


4 6 


9 14 


9 7 


6 63 


5 4 


10 1 


10 3 


648 


6 3 


10 46 


10 55 


7 39 


6 55 


11 80m 


11 48m 


837 


744 


6 16a 


soa 


9 17 


8 80 





1 16 


10 3 


9 U 


1 44 


'3 9a 


10 46ra 


9 57m 


3 29a 



32 



EQUATION OF TIME FOB APPABENT NOOK. 



[1860. 



EdUATION OF TIME FOR APPARENT NOON, WASHINGTON. 

To he added to apparent time when the sign is •{-, To be subtracted from 

apparent time tehen the sign is — . 



Day of 

Month. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 




m. 8. 


m. 8. 


m. B. 


m. 8. 


m. 8. 


in. 8. 


3 


-|- 4 11.18 


-|-13 68.37 


+12 14.04 


+ 8 87.15 


— 3 14.17 


— 3 15.61 


4 


6 6.61 


14 11.15 


11 47.45 


3 51.85 


3 36.61 


1 65.81 


6 


6 0.36 


14 30.64 


11 19.06 


3 16.33 


8 36.80 


184.76 


8 


6 03.19 


14 36.89 


10 49.07 


1 41J6 


8 44.73 


1 13.47 


10 


7 41.97 


14 394» 


10 17.65 


1 8.73 


8 50.39 


4BJ06 


13 


8 39.60 


14 80.00 


9 46.00 


86.69 


8 53^ 


— 34.72 


14 


9 14.65 


14 37.04 


11.38 


+ 6.03 


8 64JI3 


+ 6 O.40 


16 


9 67.36 


14 31.30 


8 36.69 


— 38.35 


8 63.80 


036U)9 


18 


10 37.18 


14 13.53 


8 1.35 


60.93 


3 48.96 


53.13 


30 


11 14.36 


14 1.13 


7 35.41 


1 16.94 


3 43.80 


1 18.81 


33 


11 48.38 


13 47.11 


6 49.04 


1 41.33 


8 84.65 


144.40 


34 


13 19.39 


18 30.51 


613.40 


3 8.68 


3 34Jr7 


8 10.22 


36 


13 47.30 


18 11.48 


6 35J» 


3 34.38 


8 13.18 


336.60 


38 


13 11.73 


13 60.13 


4 66.54 


3 43.94 


3 68.05 


8 0.07 


80 


-|-13 83.90 


4-13 36.61 


+ 4 31.74 


— 3 59.60 


— 3 43.34 


+ 3 33.79 


Day of 
Month. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 




m. 8. 


m. 8. 


m. 8. 


m. 8. 


m. 8. 


m. 8. 


3 


+ 3 46.60 


-|- 5 65.59 


— 89.35 


— 10 60.96 


— 16 18.86 


— 10 7.71 


4 


4 8.04 


5 45.37 


1 18.33 


11 97.56 


16 17.38 


9 19.33 


6 


4 38.38 


ft 33.60 


168.36 


13 3.66 


16 13.38 


8 38v43 


8 


4 67.04 


6 17.63 


3 88.95 


13 36Ur7 


16 8.86 


7 35.63 


10 


6 4.46 


5 0.41 


3 30.18 


13 7.65 


16 63.00 


6 40.77 


13 


6 30.10 


4 41.00 


4 1.83 


13 37.34 


15 86.69 


5 44.44 


14 


6 88.95 


4 19.45 


4 48.78 


14 4.73 


15 17.99 


4 46.78 


16 


5 45.88 


8 55.83 


5 35.68 


14 39.98 


14 55.91 


3 48.11 


18 


5 55.74 


3 30.14 


6 8.03 


14 53.88 


14 30.63 


3 48.73 


30 


6 3.46 


3 3.43 


6 60.04 


15 13.36 


14 1.96 


1 48.93 


33 


6 8.90 


3 33.80 


7 81.80 


15 81.37 


18 30.35 


— 48.96 


34 


6 11.98 


3 1.39 


8 18.16 


16 46.58 


13 65.46 


-|-0 10.86 


36 


6 13.64 


1 38.35 


8 58.94 


15 56.96 


13 17.71 


1 10J4 


38 


6 10.83 


58.53 


9 33.95 


16 8.63 


11 87.10 


3 0.30 


80 


+ 6.66 


-j- 17.86 


— 10 13.03 


— 16 15.04 


— 10 68.73 


-|-8 7.32 



I860.] ECLIPSES. SB 



ECLIPSES IN 1860. 

In the year 1860, there will be four eclipses ; two of the Sun, and two 
of the Moon. 

I. An annular eclipse of the Sun, January 22d, 1860, invisible at Wash- 
ington. 

Eclipse begins on the Earth, January 22d, 4h. 46.5m., Washington mean 
time, in longitude 183P 8M West of Washington, and in latitude 49° 22^.8 
South. 

Central eclipse at noon,^6h. 43.1m., in longitude 277^ 48'.0, and in lati- 
tude 890 I'.O South. 

Central eclipse ends, 8h. 11.3m., in longitude 10*^ 59^.0, and in latitude 
410 52'.2 South. 

Eclipse ends on the earth, 9h. 51.9m., in longitude 49° 30'.2, and in lati- 
tude 15° 7'.0 South. 

This eclipse will be visible in the Southern Ocean, and at the southern 
extremity of South America. 

II. A partial eclipse of the Moon, February 6th, 1860, visible at Wash- 
ington. 

Moon enters Shadow, February 6th, 7h. 55.1m. . Washington Mean ' 
Greatest Eclipse, « « 9h. 21.3m. > ,^^^^ 

Moon leaves Shadow, *' *' lOh. 47.5m. ) 





Eclipse begins. 


Eclipse ends. 




h. m. 


h. m. 


Halifax, N. S., 


8 48.8 A. 


11 41.2 A. 


Portland, Me., 


8 22.3 


11 14,7 


Boston, Mass., 


8 18.8 


11 11.2 


Quebec, C. E., 


8 18.5 


11 10.9 


Montreal, C. E., 


8 9.1 


11 1.5 


Albany, N. Y., 


8 8.3 


11 0.7 


New York, N. Y., 


8 7.3 


10 59.7 


Philadelphia, Pa., 


8 2.6 


10 55.0 


Baltimore, Md., 


7 56.9 


10 49.3 


Washington, D. C, 


7 55.1 


10 47.5 


Toronto, C.W., 


7 45.7 


10 38.1 


Charleston, S. C, 


7 43.6 


10 36.0 


Savannah, 


7 38.9 


10 31.3 


Cincinnati, 


7 25.5 


10 17.9 


Chicago, 


7 12.8 


10 5.2 


New Orleans, 


7 3.3 


9 55.7 


St. Louis, 


7 2.3 A. 


9 54.7 A. 



III. A total eclipse of the Sun, July 17th (18th), 1860, visible as a partial 
one at Washington. 

Eclipse begins on the Earth, July 17th, 18h. 46.4m., Washington mean 



84 



ECLIPSES. 



[1860. 



time, in longitude 25o 28M West of Washington; and in latitude 34<> 40'.4 
North. 

Central eclipse begins, 19h. 49.8m., in longitude 48^ 53^8, and in latitude 
450 40'.0 North. 

Central eclipse at noon, 21h. 0.7m., in longitude 313^ 42'ii, and in lati- 
tude 560 12'.4 North. 

Central eclipse ends, 22b. 46.1m., in longitude 243<^ 52^5, and in latitude 
150 48'.2 North. 

Eclipse ends on the Earth, July 17th, 23h. 49.3m., in longitude 263o 16^.5, 
and in latitude 4^ 8'.9 North. 

This eclipse will be visible in North Ameriom Europe, Africa, and Asia. 
The central line extends from the Western coast of North America, acrosB 
that continent and the Atlantic Ocean, and over the northern part of Africa 
to the borders of the Red Sea. 

The Sun will be totally eclipsed in Oregon near the mouth of the Colum- 
bia River, and thence over a narrow strip of country to Fort York on the 
shore of Hudson Bay, and to the northeastern point of Labrador (Cape 
Chidley), which will be the most favorable station on this continent for 
observing the total phase. 



Cape Hancock (Mouth of Columbia River), 

Portland, Oregon, 

Cumberland House, British America, 

York Factory, British America, 

Toronto, C. W., 

Montreal, C. £., . 

Portland, Me., 

Boston, Mass., 

Albany, N. Y., 

New York, N. Y., 

Philadelphia, Pa., 

Baltimore, Md., . 

Washington, D. C, . 

Richmond, Ya., . 

Ann Arbor, Mich., , 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 

Charleston, S. C, • 

New Orleans, La., 



Ecllpae begins. 


Eclipse ends. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


Before Sunrise 


5 35 M. 


t4 it 


5 39 


5 17 M. 


7 15 


6 


8 4 


6 45 


8 48 


7 12 


9 20 


727 


9 33 


723 


9 29 


7 11 


9 16 


7 10 


9 11 


7 5 


8 59 


658 


8 52 


656 


8 50 


6 55 


8 46 


624 


823 


6 24 


8 11 


6 46 


8 19 


6 IM. 


7 25M. 



lY. A partial eclipse of the Moon, July 31, and Aug. 1, 1860, invisible 
at Washington. 

Moon enters Shadow, July 31st, 23h. 0.6m. -^ «r . . ^ .» 
r,r«atP-t Fniin-- A„l ^J nu i««^ ( Washington Mean 



Greatest Eclipse, Aug. 1st, Oh. 16.6m 

Moon leaves Shadow, '' '* Ih. 32.6m 



■■\ 



Time. 



I860.] I^ATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF OBSERVATORIES. 

ELEMENTS OF THE ECLIPSES OF THE SUN. 



35 



I860. 


January 22. 


July 17. 


Waaliington Mean Time of (5 in R. A. ' 
and (^ 's Right Ascension . 

(^ '8 Declination .... 
0*8 Declination .... 

(C '8 Horary Motion in R. A. 
Q*a Horary Motion in R. A. . 

^ 's Horary Motion in Declination 
0*8 Horary Motion in Declination . 
^ '8 Equatorial Horizon. Parallax 
0>8 Equatorial Horizon. Parallax . 
^ '8 True Semidiameter 
0's True Semidiameter . 


n. m. 8. 
6 43 4.3 
30 18 6.68 

O 1 II 

— 21 81 40.7 
— 19 40 23.6 

8. 

121.76 
10.63 

1 M 

- - 9 34.4 

+ 84JJ 

64 19.6 

8.7 

14 47.6 

16 17.3 


ti. m. 8. 
21 44.4 
7 62 20.87 

O 1 II 

- -21 31 6.9 

- -20 66 68.6 

8. 

149.94 
lOUM 

/ II 

— 9 68.2 

— 36.8 
60 48.8 

8.7 
16 19.6 
16 46.7 



A Table shoviing the Illuminated Portions of the Discs of Venus and Mars. 

The numbers in this table are the versed sines of that portion of the 
discs which, to an observer on the Earth, will appear to be illuminated; the 
apparent diameters of the planets at the time being considered as unity. 

To a spectator on the Earth, Venus appears most brilliant when be- 
tween her greatest elongation and her inferior conjunction ; in which 
position she will be between May and September, 18^. 

Mars is most brilliant about the time of his opposition to the Sun,being then 
also nearest to the Earth. The opposition will take place in July, 1860. 



1860. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



15 
14 
15 
15 
15 
15 



Venus. 


Mars. 


0.897 


0.918 


0.833 


0.898 


0.745 


0.884 


0.625 


0.882 


0.468 


0.903 


0.241 


0.955 



1860. 



July 15 

August 15 
September 15 
October 15 
November 15 
December 15 



Venus. 


Mars. 


0.005 


1.000 


0.186 


0.958 


5.430 


0.892 


0.591 


0.861 


0.714 


0.856 


0.807 


0.867 



LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF THE PRINCIPAL AMER. 

ICAN OBSERVATORIES. 

[The Longitudes are reckoned from Greenwich.] 



Observatories. 


Latitude. 


Longitude in Time. 


Albany, .... 

Ann Arbor, 

Cambridge, . 

Cincinnati, . 

Chnton, Hamilton College, 

Georgetown, 

Santiago, 

Toronto, . 

Washington, . 


42 3() 50 N. 
42 16 48 

42 22 48 
39 5 54 

43 3 
38 54 26N. 
33 26 25 S. 
43 39 35 N. 
38 53 39 N. 


h. m. 8. 

4 54 58.6 W. 

5 34 52.2 

4 44 30.7 

5 37 58 
5 1 37.3 
5 8 17.4 

4 42 18.9 

5 17 33.4 

5 8 11.2 ' 



36 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. 



[I860. 



LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF THE PRINCIPAL FOREIGN 

OBSERVATORIES. 



[The Longitudes are i 


reckoned from Greenwich.] 


Observatories. 


Latitude. 


1 

Longitude in Time. 


Altona, 


^3 Sb 4'5 N. 


h. m. 8. 

39 46.2 E. 


Armagh, . 






54 21 13 N. 


26 35.5 W. 


Berlin, .... 






52 30 17 N. 


53 35.5 E. 


Brussels, . 






50 51 11 N. 


17 27.6 E. 


Cambridge, . 






52 12 52 N. 


23.5 E. 


Cape of Good Hope, . 






33 56 3 S. 


1 13 56.0 E. 


Dorpat, .... 
Dublin, 






58 22 47 N. 


1 46 55 E. 






53 23 13 N. 


25 22 W. 


Edinburgh, . 






55 57 23 N. 


012 43.0 W. 


Gottingen, . 






51 31 48 N. 


39 46.1 E. 


Greenwich, . 






51 28 38 N. 


0.0 


Konigsberg, 






54 42 50 N. 


122 0.5 E. 


Munich, 






48 8 45 N. 


46 26.5 E. 


Paris, .... 






48 50 13 N. 


9 21.5 E. 


Poulkova, 






59 46 19 N. 


2 1 18.7 E. 


Rome, 






41 53 54 N. 


49 54.7 E. 


Turin, . 






45 4 6 N. 


30 48.4 E. 


Vienna, .... 


48 12 35 N. 


1 5 32.5 E. 1 








• 









LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES 

IN THE UNITED STATES, etc.* 

[The Longitudes are reckoned from Greenwich.] 

The Capitals (Seats of Government) of the States and Territories are desig* 

noted by Italic Letters, 



Place. 



Acapulco, Mex. 

Albany (Dudley Observatory), N. Y. 

Alexandria, .... Va. 

Amherst (College Chapel), Mass. 

Annapolis (State-House), . . Md. 

Ann Arbor (Observatory), Mich 

Auburn, . . . . N. Y. 

Augusta, . . . Ga. 

Augusta (State-House), . Me. 

Austin^ Tex. 

Baker's Island (Lights), Mass. 

Baltimore (Washington Mon.), Md. 

Bangor (Court-House), . . Me. 

Barnstable (Cupola), . . Mass. 

Baton Rouge, .... La. 

Benicia, . . . . Cal. 



Latitude, 
North. 



1% 5i) I'i 
42 39 50 
38 49 
42 22 15.6 

38 58 40.2 
42 16 48 
42 55 
33 28 
4418 43 
30 13 30 
42 32 9.6 

39 17 47.8 
44 47 50 
41 42 13.1 
30 26 

38 3 21 



Longitude, West, 



in Degrees. 



in Time. 



9^4b '6 
73 44 39 
77 4 
72 3128 
76 29 9 
83 43 
76 28 
8154 

69 50 
97 39 

70 46 50 



h. m. s. 
6 39 16.6 

4 54 58.6 

5 816 

4 50 5.9 

5 5 56.6 
5 34 52.2 
5 5 52 
527 36 
4 39 20 
630 36 
4 43 7.3 



68 47 



76 36 395 6 26.6 



435 8 



7018 424 4114.8 



91 18 
122 7 138 



Dist. fr. 
Wash. 



Miles. 

376 

6 

383 

37 

339 
580 
595 

452 

38 

661 

466 



5 12 

8 28.9 



* The positions contained in this table have been derived from that given in the Aroe^ 
ican Almanac for 1841 j with additions and corrections from the determinations of the Coast 
Survey, and of the United States Topographical Engineers, and from other sources. 



I860.] 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. 



87 



Place. 



Beaufort (Arsenal), . . S. C. 

Bellevue, Am. Far Co.*s trading post, 

Boston (State-House), . . Mass. 
Do. (Light), . 

Brazos Santiago, . . . Tex. 

Brent's Fort, 

Bridgeport (South Spire), . Conn. 

Bristol (Court-House), . R. I. 

Brooklyn (Navy Yard), . . N. Y. 

Brunswick (College Chapel), Me. 

Buffalo, . . . . N. Y. 
Do. (Light^House), . 

Burlington, . . . N. J. 

Bariin^on, .... Vt. 

Cambridge (Obserratory), . Mass. 

Camden, . . . . S. C. 

Canadian River, Head-waters of, 

Canandaigua, . . . N. Y. 

Cape Ann, Thatcher's Island 

(North Light), . Mass. 
Do. (South Light), . 

Cape Cod (Long Point Light), Mass. 

Cape Elizabeth (Light-House), Me. 

Cape Flattery, Wash. T. 

Do. (Lieht-Hause), 

Cape Hancock (Mouth of Co- 
lumbia River), . 

Cape Hatteras (Light-House), N. C. 

Cape May (Light-House), . N. J. 

Castine, .... Me. 
Do. (Dice's Head Light-House), 

Cedar Keys, Depot Island, . 

Chapel Hill (University), . N. C. 

Charleston (St. Mich.'s Ch.), S. C. 

Charlestown (Bun. Hill Mon.), Mass. 

Cbagres (Centre of Plateau^, 

Chicago (Roman Cath. Ch.), III. 

Cincinnati (Observatory), . Ohio. 

Cleveland (Light-House), . Ohio. 

Columbia, . • • . S. C. 

Cohtmbus, .... Ohio. 

Qmeord (State-House), . . N. H. 

Corpus Christi, . . . Tex. 

Council Bluffs, . Neb. T. 

Dalles of the Columbia, Missionary 
Station, .... 

Dayton, .... Ohio. 

Dedham (1st Cong. Ch.), . Mass. 

'Depot Key, . . Fa. 

'Deg Moines, . . lo. 

Detroit (St. Paul's Ch.), Mich. 

Dorchester (Ast. Observ.), . Mass. 

Dover, .... Del. 

Dover, N.H. 



Latitude, 
North. 



38 
42 
42 
26 
38 
41 
41 
40 
43 
42 
42 
40 
44 
42 
34 
37 
42 

42 

42 
42 

43 

48 
48 

46 
35 
38 
44 
44 
29 
35 
32 
42 
9 
41 
39 
41 
33 
39 
43 
27 
41 

45 
39 
42 
29 
41 
42 
42 
39 
43 



2U'f 

824 

2127.6 

19 38.8 

6 
2 38 

10 30 
40 10.5 
42 2.4 
54 29 
53 
50 

4 51.6 
27 
22 48.3 
17 

133 

54 9 

3819.4 
3810.9 
157.1 
33 36 
22 
23X5 

16 35 
15 

55 45 
22 30 
2312 

727 
54 21 

46 33 
22 33.1 
20 

53 48 
554 
31 
57 
57 
12 29 

47 17.8 
30 

35 55 
44 
14 57 

7 30 
35 

19 45 
19 10 
10 
13 



Longitude, West, 



in Decrees. 



in Time. 



80 41235 22 45.5 
95 47 466 2311.1 
71 3 304 44 14 
70 53 54 43 32.3 
97 12 06 28 48 
103 33156 54 13 
7311 44 52 44.3 
7116 54 45 4.3 

73 58 31 4 55 54 1 
69 57 24 4 39 49.6 
78 55 5 15 40 
78 59 5 15 56 

74 52 374 59 30.5 



73 10 



4 52 40 



71 7 404 44 30.7 



80 33 



5 2212 



104 37 326 58 30.1 



7717 

70 34 
70 34 
70 9 
7011 
124 45 
124 43 



5 9 8 



104 



10 

474 

364 



54 



42 16.7 
4 42 16.7 
40 39.1 
40 46.4 
8 19 
8 18 55.6 



124 1458 
75 30 5 

74 58 334 
68 45 4 
68 49 304 

82 56125 
7917 305 

79 55 385 
71 3204 

80 121 
87 37 476 
84 29 315 
8151 5 

81 7 5 

83 3 5 
7129 
97 27 26 
95 48 

120 55 

84 11 
7110 
83 2 
93 40 
83 2 
71 4 

75 30 
70 54 



45 

30 
19 



16 7 
2 

59 54.2 
35 

3518 
3144 8 

17 10 

19 42.5 

44 13.3 

20 5.4 
50 31.2 
37 58 
27 24 
24 28 
3212 

45 56 
29 48.1 
2312 



8 3 40 

5 36 44 
594 44 43.9 

6 3211 
14 40 
32 10 
44 17.3 

2 
43 36 



6 
5 
4 
5 



Dist. 

from 

Wash. 



Miles. 

629 
432 



284 
409 
227 
568 
376 

156 
440 
431 
467 

336 

470 

507 



544 
433 

763 

497 

500 
396 
474 



422 



526 
432 
114 
490 



38 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. 



[1860. 



Place. 



Easton (Court-House), . Md. 

Eastport, .... Me. 

Edenton (Coart-House), N. C. 

Ewing Harbor, . . . Oree. 

Exeter, . . . . N. H. 

Falls of St. Anthony, U. S. Cottage, 

Falls of the St. Croix, 

False Duneeness Harbor, Wash. T. 

False Washita, Head-waters of, 

Fort Bois^e, . . . Oreg. 

Fort Gibson (old Block-House), 

Fort Gratiot (Light-House), Mich. 

Fort Hall, .... 

Fort Laramie, . . . Neb. T. 

Fort Leavenworth (Landing), Kan. T. 

Fort Nez Perc6, . . . Oreg. 

Frankfort^ .... Ky. 

Frederick, .... Md. 

Fredericksburg, . . . ' Va. 

FredericktOHj . . . N. B. 

Galveston (Court-House), . Tex. 

Georgetown, . . . S. C. 

Gloucester (Univ. Ch^, . Mass. 
Do. (E. Point Light), 
Do. (Ten Pound Isl. Light), 

Great Salt Lake, Island in, 

Greenfield (2d Cong. Ch.), 

Hagerstown, .... 

HaiifaZf .... 

Halfowell, .... 

Hanover (Dartmouth Coll.), 

Harrisburg, 

Hartford (State-House), 

High Plateau between waters 
of Atlantic and Gulf of Cal., 

Holmes's Hole (Spire), 

Hudson, .... 

Hudson (West. Reserve Coll.), 

Huntsville, .... 

Indianapolis^ 

Ipswich (Eastern Li^ht), 

Ipswich (Western Light), 

Jackson^ .... 

Jalapa, 

Jefferson City^ 

Kansas River, Mouth of. 

Key West (S. W. Pt.), . 

Key West Light, 

Kingston, 

Do. (Court-House), 

Knoxville, .... Tenn. 

Lancaster, .... Pa. 

Lansings .... Mich. 

La Vaca Tex. 



Mass. 

Md. 

N. S. 

Me. 

N.H. 

Pa. 

Conn. 



Mass. 

NY. 

Ohio. 

Ala. 

Ind. 

Mass. 

Mass. 

Miss. 

Mex. 

Mo. 

Fa. 
Fa. 
C. W. 



LatitudOi 
North. 



44 
36 
42 
42 
44 
45 
48 
35 
43 
35 
42 
43 
42 
39 
46 
38 
39 
38 
46 
29 
33 
42 
42 
42 
41 
42 
39 
44 
44 
43 
40 
41 

42 
41 
42 
41 
34 
39 
42 
42 
32 
19 
38 
39 
24 
24 
44 
44 
35 
40 
42 
28 



4'6 l'6 
54 
3 27.4 

44 21.7 
58 

58 40 
3010 

7 52 
25 41 
49 22 
47 34.8 
55 

1 30 
1210 
21 14 

3 46 
14 
24 
34 

3 

18 14.5 
21 
36 45.8 
34 47.2 

36 4.8 
10 42 
3516 
37 

39 20 
17 

43 30 
16 

45 59 

2 

0712.9 

14 

14 42 

36 

55 

41 

41 

23 

30 

36 

6 3 
32 
32 58 

8 

8 
59 

236 
43 

37 



5.7 

4.9 

8 



Longitude, West, 
in Degrees, in Time. 



M 



Dist. 

from 
Wash. 



h. 
5 



m. 8. 

432 

4 27 44 



7% fe 

66 56 

76 35 4815 6 23 
124 28 52817 55 

70 55 

93 10 30 

92 40 
123 27 21 
101 5 
116 47 3 

951510 

82 22 
112 29 54 



4 43 40 
612 42 
610 40 
8 13 49. 

6 44 20 

7 47 8. 

6 21 0. 

5 29 28 

7 29 59. 



6 
104 47 436 59 10.9 



94 44 



618 56 



84 40 5 
7718 5 
77 38 
66 38154 
94 46 346 
7917 5 
70 39 394 
70 39 334 
70 39 364 
112 21 57 
72 36 324 
77 35 5 
63 36 404 

69 50 4 
7218 4 
76 50 5 

72 40 454 

107 3 7 

70 35 594 

73 '46 4 
8125195 
86 57 5 
86 5 5 
70 45 394 
70 45 464 
90 8 6 
96 54 306 
92 8 6 
94 32 546 

8147 305 

8148 75 
76 40 5 
76 28 375 

83 54 5 
76 20 335 

84 29 



3840 
9 12 
10 32 
26 33 
19 6.3 
17 8 
42 38.6 
42 38.2 
42 38.4 
29 24.3 
50 26.1 
10 20 
14 26.7 
39 20 

49 12 
720 

50 43 



812 

42 23. 
55 4 
25 41. 
47 48 
44 20 

43 2. 
43 3. 

032 
27 38 

832 
1811. 
27 10 
2712. 

6 40 

5 54. 
35 36 

5 22. 
37 56 



Miles. 
80 
778 
284 

474 



551 
43 
56 



482 
462 
466 
463 

396 

68 

936 

593 

110 
335 



457 
345 

726 
573 
462 

1035 

980 



•456 

516 
109 



I860.] 



TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITTTDB. 



S9 



Place. 



Lexington, . . • . Ky. 
Little JRocky .... Ark. 

Lockport, N. Y. 

Los Angeles, . . • Cal. 

Louisville, .... Ky. 
Lowell (St. Anne's Ch.), . Mass. 
Lynchburg, . . . Va. 
Lynn High Rock, . . . Mass. 
MachiasBay, . . • Me. 
Madison (Pome of Capitol), Wis. 
Marblehead (Black-top Ch.), . Mass. 

Do. (Light), . 
Matagorda (E. end Island), . 
Mexico, City of, 
Michigan City, . . 
Middletown (Wesl. Univ.), 
MiUedgeviUe, 

Milwaukee (Spire Cath. Ch.), 
Missouri River, Mouth of. 
Mobile (Episcopal Ch.), 
Monclova, .... 
Monomoy Point Light, . 
Monterey, .... 
Monterey, . . . 
Montgomery, 

MonipeUer, .... 
Montreal, .... 
Nag*s Head, .... 
Nantucket (South Tower), 
Jfashville (University), . 
Natchez (Fort Panmure), 
Nebraska or Platte River, Junction 

of North and South Forks, 
Newark, . . 

New Bedford (Baptist Spire), 
Newbem, .... 
Newburg, . . .- . 
Newburyport (Harris St. Ch.), 

Do. (Plumb Isl.E. Light), 
Newcastle (Spire Episc. Ch.), Del. 
Jfew Haven (Uolleffe), . 
New London (Light-House), 
New Orleans (City Hall), . 
Jfewport (Spire), 
Newport (Light- House), 
New York (City Hall), . 
Nobsaue Point Light, 
Norfolk (Farmers^ Bank), 



Texas 

Mex. 

lo. 

Conn. 

Ga. 

Wise. 

Ala. 

Mex. 

Mass. 

Mex. 

Cal. 

Ala. 

Vt. 

C. E. 

N. C. 

Mass. 

Tenn. 

Miss. 



N.J. 

•Mass. 

N. C. 
N.Y. 
Mass. 



Conn. 
Conn. 
La. 
R.L 

N.Y. 
Mass. 
Va. 



Northampton (Ist Cong. Ch.), Mass. 
Norwich, .... Conn. 
Ocracoke Lighthouse, . . N. C. 
Oedensburg (Lighthouse), N. Y. 

Olympia, .... Wash. T. 
Omnia City, . . . . Neb.T.]41 



Latitude, 
North. 



o 
38 

34 

43 

34 

38 

42 

t37 

42 

44 

43 

42 

42 

28 

19 

41 

41 

33 

43 

38 

30 

26 

41 

25 

36 

32 

44 

45 

35 

41 

36 

31 

41 
40 
41 
35 
41 
42 
42 
39 
41 
41 
29 
41 
41 
40 
41 
36 
42 
41 
35 
44 
47 



40 
11 

3 15 
3 

38 46 
36 

28 3 
33 

4 31 
30 23.7 
3014 
20 48 

25 45 
43 25 
33 8 

720 

2 33.9 

5136 

4126.2 

54 
33 33 
40 13 
36 24 
22 
17 
31 

55 43.7 
16 54 

933 
34 

5 5 
45 
3810.2 
20 

31 

48 29.9 

48 25 

39 36 
18 27.7 

18 57.6 
57 30 

29 12.2 

26 30 
42 43 

30 55 
50 50 

19 9 
33 

6 31.6 
45 

3 
16 



Longitude, West, 
in Degrees, in Time. 



M 



o I 

84 18 

9212 6 

78 46 5 
118 10 447 

85 30 5 
7119 24 

79 22 5 
70 56 284 
67 22 4 

89 23165 
70 50 324 
70 50 394 
96 23 576 
99 5 66 

86 54 215 
72 39 4 
8319 455 

87 54 225 

90 406 

88 1295 
101 39 186 

69 59194 
100 25 366 
12152 258 

8618 5 

72 36 4 

73 32 564 
75 35 595 

70 5 364 
86 49 35 
9124 426 

10121246 

74 10 4 
70 55164 
77 5 5 

74 1 4 
70 52 34 
70 48 404 

75 33 27 
72 55 24 
72 5 4 
90 
7118294 
7124 244 

74 34 
70 38 594 
7618 475 
72 38 154 
72 7 4 

75 58 275 
75 30 5 

122 55 8 
95 59 |6 



m. s. 
37 12 
8 48 
15 4 
52 42.9 

42 

45 161 
17 28 

43 45.9 
29 28 
57 331 
43 221 
43 22-6 
25 358 
36 20.4 
47 37.4 

50 36 
3319 

51 37.5 
2.7 

52 5.9 

46 37.2 

39 57.3 
41 42.4 

7 29.7 
4512 
50 24 
54 11.7 
2 23.9 

40 22.4 
4716.2 

5 38.8 



45 25. 
56 40 
43 41 

820 
56 4 
43 28 
4314 

213 
5141 
48 20 


4513 
45 37 
56 
42 35 

515 
50 33 
48 28 

3 53 

2 
1140 
23 56. 



2 

7 
.8 
6 



,9 
7 
2 
,9 



8 







Dist. 
from 
Wash, 



Miles, 
534 

1068 
403 

590 
439 
198 
441 



450 

448 



325 
642 



1033 
477 



524 
601 

490 

714 

1146 



215 
429 
337 
282 
466 
469 
103 
301 
354 
1203 
403 

226 
450 
217 
376 
362 



6643 



40 



TABLB OP LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE, 



[1860. 



Place. 



Ottawa, C. W. 

Panama Cathedral, . . Mex. 

Pass Washington, . 

Pensacola, .... Fa. 

Perote, Mex. 

Petersburg, . . . Va. 

Philadelphia (Girard Coll.), . Pa. 

Do. (High School Obs.), 

Pittsburg, .... Pa. 

Pittsfield (1st Cong. Ch.), . Mass. 
Platte River, Mouth of. 
Do. June, of N. &> S. Forks, 

Plattsburg, . . . . N. Y. 

Plymouth (Court-House), . Mass. 

Point Conception (C. S. Obs), Cal. 
Point Hudson, . . Wash. Ter. 

Point Loma (Light-House), . Cal. 

Popocatapetl, . . . Mex. 

Portland (Mount Joy), . • Me. 

Do. (£. Light), . 

Portland, .... Oree* 

Portsmouth (Unitarian Ch.), N. H. 

Do. (White Isl. Light), 

Poughkeepsie, . . . N. Y. 
Prairie du Chien (Am. Fur 

Co.'s House), . . . Wis. 

Princeton (Nassau Hall), . N. J. 

Providence (College Hill), . R. I. 

Puebla de los Angeles, Mex. 
Punta de los Reyes (Sir F. Drake's 

Bay), .... Cal. 

Quebec (Citadel), . . . C. £. 
Racine (Dome of Court-Hou8e),Wi8. 

Raleigh, . . . . N. C. 

Remedios, Harbor de los, . 

Richmond (Capitol), . . Va. 

Rochester (Rochester House), N. Y. 
Sabine River, entrance of South 

or outer extremity of Bar, Tex. 



Sable (Cape), 
H 



Fa. 

N.Y. 

Me. 

Cal. 

Mich. 

Fa. 



Sackett's Harbor, 

Saco (Church), 

Sacramento, 

Saginaw Bay (Sand Point), 

St. Au^stine, . 

St. Croix River, Mouth of, . 

St. Joseph, .... 

St. Louis, .... Mo. 

St. Mark's Light, . . Fa. 

St. Paul, .... Min. 

Salem (tall Spire), . . Mass. 

Salem, • . , . . Oreg. 

SaltiUo, .... Mex. 



Latitude, 
North. 



Longitude, West, 



I II 

8 57 9 

36 322 
30 24 

19 28 57 
3713 54 
39 58 24 

39 57 9 

40 32 

42 26 55 

41 313 

41 5 5 

44 42 
4157 23 

34 26 56. 
48 7 3 
32 40 13 

18 59 47 

43 39 54 
43 33 56 

45 30 
43 4 35 

42 58 
4141 

43 3 6 
40 20 41 
415017 

19 015 

37 59 34 

46 49 12 

42 43 45 

35 47 
37 24 15 
37 3217 

43 817 



29 40 

24 50 
43 55 
43 30 
38 34 

43 54 

29 48 

44 45 
23 3 
38 37 

30 4 
44 52 
42 31 
44 56 

25 26 



48 



1 
41 
39.8 
30 
30 
13 
28 
25 
46 
10 

22 



in Degrees. 



o f 

75 42 

79 29 
108 56 

8710 

97 8 
77 20 
75 9 
7510 

80 2 
7315 

10121 
73 26 
70 39 
120 25 
122 44 
11712 

98 32 
7014 
7011 

122 27 
70 45 
70 37 
73 55 



u 



45 



2 
17 
715 
48 
28 
5 9 
5 

520 
364 53 



175 

7 

125 

156 

54 
375 



246 45 
4 53 
474 42 



33 
33 



227 48 



51 
34 
41 
30 



196 



91 9 
74 39 30 
7123 40 
98 2 21 



408 



154 



122 57 
7112 

87 47 4 
78 48 
135 53 41 

77 27 28 
77 51 



93 49 
8115 
75 57 
70 26 
121 27 
83 20 
8135 

92 45 
109 40 

9015 
8410 

93 4 
70 53 

123 1 
101 1 



14 
44 
44 



in Time. 



h. m. 



Dist. 
from 

Wash. 



8 I 
8 10 



6 34 

4 40 
4 40 
8 9 



504 43 
454 42 
455 



a. 
48.3 
57.1 
44 
40.8 
33 
20 
39.6 
42.5 

8 

2.4 

25.6 
44 
39.1 
42.2 
58.2 
49.5 
11.4 
58.3 
46.7 
50 
3.3 
31 
40 



4 37.3 
4 58 38 
4 45 34.7 
6 32 9.4 



1150.7 
44 49.0 
5 51 8.3 
51512 
9 3 34.7 
5 9 49.9 
51124 



3615 
525 
5 3 
4 41 
8 5 
533 
526 
611 
44718 
166 1 
375 36 
54612 
384 43 
308 12 
456 44 



16.2 


48 
44.9 
51 
23.0 
20 


43 

1.1 
42.6 
19.6 
34.5 

6 

7 



Miles. 



1050 

144 
136 

223 
380 



539 
439 



542 

491 
301 



177 
394 



781 
286 

122 

361 



407 
527 



841 

856 



446 
6687 



I860.] 



TABLE OF ULTITUDB AND LONGITUDE. 



41 



Place. 



Salt Lake City, . . . Utah. 
San Antonio, . . . Tex. 

San Bias, Arsenal, 

San Diego, Public Square (C. S. Obs.), 
Sandusky (Light-House, Marble 

Head), .... Ohio. 
Sandwich (Ist Con^. Ch.), Mass. 

San Francisco (Presidio), . Cal. 
San Luis Obispo, 
San Pedro, .... 
Santa Barbara, . 
Santa Cruz, . 
Santa F^, . 
Savannah (Exchange), 
Scarboro' Harbor, 
Schenectady, 

Snake River, above Amer. Falls, 
Springfield^ ... 

pringiield (Court-House), 



Latitude, 
North. 



% 



N.M. 
. Ga. 
Wash. Ter 

. N.Y. 



Squam Harbor (LishQ, 

d (L" 
Stratford Hill, 



Straitsmouth Island (Light), 



111. 

Mass. 

Mass. 

Mass. 

Conn. 



Sweet- Water River, N. Fork 

of Platte River, Mouth of, 

TaUakasseej .... Fa. 

Tampico, Bar, . . Mex. 

Taunton (Trin. Cong. Ch.), . Mass. 
Tlamath Lake, . 

Toronto or York (Observ.), C. W. 

Trenton, . . . . N. J. 

Trinidad Bay, . . . Cal. • 

Troy, N.Y. 

Tuscaloosa, . . . Ala. 

University of Virginia, . . Va. 

Utica rDutch Church), . N. Y. 
Vandalia, . . . .111. 

Vera Cruz, . . Mex. 

Vcvay, .... Ind. 

Victoria, .... Tex. 

Vincennes, .... Ind. 

Washington (Capitol), . D. C. 

Do. (Observatory), 

Washington, .... Miss. 

Waukegan, . . III. 

West Point (Military Academy ),N. Y. 

Wheeling, .... Va. 

Williamstown (Cong. Ch.), Mass. 

Wilmington (Town-Hall), . Del. 

Wilmington, . . . N. C. 

Windsor, . C. W. 

Worcester (Ant. Hall), . Mass. 

York, Me. 

York, Pa. 

Yorktown, .... Va. 

4* 



4132 
4145 
37 47 

35 10 

33 43 

34 24 

36 57 

35 41 
32 4 
48 21 
42 48 
42 47 
39 48 
42 6 
42 39 
42 39 
4113 



4846 
29 25 22 
2132 34 
32 41 58 



30 
26 
35.6 
37.5 
19.6 
24.7 
26.9 
6 
53 
49 



4 
41 
42 

6 



42 27 18 

30 28 
2215 30 
415411 

42 56 51 

43 39 35 

40 14 

41 5 40 

42 44 
3312 
38 2 3 

43 6 49 
38 50 
19 11 52 
38 46 
28 46 57 
38 43 
38 53 20 

38 53 39. 

31 36 
42 21 44 

41 23 31. 
40 7 

42 42 49 

39 44 27 
34 11 

42 16 17 

43 10 
39 58 
3713 



Longitude, West, 



in Degrees. 



n% 



in Time. 



11 h. m. 8. 
87 28 24.5 



98 2915 
10515 24 
117 13 22 



82 

70 

122 

120 

118 

119 

122 

106 

81 

124 

73 

112 

89 

72 

70 

70 

73 



394 



4215 

29 

26 48 

43 31 

16.03 

4018 

010 

122 

514 

37 

55 

4013 

33 

35 45 

40 34 

34 58 

8 51 



128 



107 45 27 
84 36 
97 5151 
71 5 55 

79 23 21 
74 39 
124 5 
73 40 
87 42 
78 3129 
7513 
89 2 
96 8 36 
84 59 



87 25 
77 
77 2 
9120 
87 50 
73 57 
80 42 
7313 

75 32 
7810 
83 2 
7148 
70 40 

76 40 
76 34 



15 

48 

11 
31 

10 
42 


13 



6 33 57 

7 1 1.6 
7 48 53.5 



5 30 
41 
8 9 
8 2 
7 53 

7 58 

8 8 
7 4 
5 24 

18 
455 
730 
558 
4 50 
4 42 
4 42 
452 



49 
58.6 
47.2 
54.1 
4.2 
41.2 
0.7 
5.5 
20.9 
28.8 
40 
40.9 
12 
23 
42.3 
19.9 
35.4 



7 11 1.8 

5 38 24 

6 31 27.4 
4 44 23.7 



17 33 4 

58 36 
16 20 
54 40 
50 48 
14 5.9 
52 
56 8 
24 34.4 
39 56 



5 49 
5 8 

5 8 

6 5 
5 51 
4 55 
522 

52 

2 

12 

32 

47 

42 

6 

6 



4 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
5 
5 



40 

1 
11.2 
20 
20.7 
50.1 
48 
52.7 
10.8 
40 

8.0 
12.9 
40 
40 
16 



Dist. 

from 

Wash. 



Miles. 



456 



662 

391 

801 
357 
466 
471 
287 



896 

415 

500 
166 

383 

858 
124 
383 

781 

556 
693 

1146 



264 
406 
111 
416 

394 

500 
87 



42 COMETS, AS1> DONATl'S COMET OF 1858. [1860. 

COMETS, AND DONATPS COMET OF 1858.* 

The first characteristic presented in the phjrsical aspect of comets is that 
they are mainly, and perhaps in most instances entirely, composed of an ill- 
defined gaseous or nebnloos substance, endowed with properties so extraordi- 
nary that it can scarcely be classed with matter, in the ordinary acceptation 
of the term. Of its extreme attenuation and lightness, there can be no ques- 
tion. The planets, and among them our earth, must again and again have 
traversed unharmed the tails of comets. In October last, the d^Wis of the 
magnificent train of the comet swept over the region occupied by the earth 
a few weeks earlier. Instances of more Immediate proximity are of too 
common occurrence to allow us to suppose that we are always to escape an 
actual collision; but it is inconceivable that any disastrous consequences 
could ensue to our earth or its inhabitants therefrom, any more than firom 
contact with sunlight, or with the ether of the planetary spaces. 

A second chiaracteristic is their internal condensation. All comets present 
this in a greater or less degree. Most of them have a minute stellar point, 
called the nucleus, which occupies the position of maximum density. There 
are others in which this latter feature is wholly wanting. But the number 
in which it cannot be detected with a powerful telescope is much smaller 
than has commonly been supposed. This centre of condensation, or bright- 
est point, is, with rare exceptions, placed on the side which is nearest to the 
sun. It is always, however, very close to the centre of gravity, as is proved 
by the fact of its motion about the sun, in accordance with the law of gravi- 
tation. 

The nucleus itself is a minute point compared with the immense volume 
of light-giving substance of which it is the controlling centre. Whether it 
is solid or not, is still undecided. As far as the eye alone is to be trusted, 
there are comets as truly solid as the planets or stars themselves. In size and 
weight, however, the true nuclei, apart from their surrounding nebulosity, 
are probably quite small, measured by the standard of the larger planets. 
Still, it is possible that there may have been instances in which the mass of 
these bodies has been comparable with that of the earth, and yet they may 
have completed their circuit around the sun, leaving no appreciable trace of 
their disturbing influence, — the only sure test by which their mass could be 
detected. The evidence from the fact that the smaller stars shine freely 
even through the most condensed portions of comets, adduced by astronom- 
ical writers in proof of their transparency, and, by inference, of their extreme 
tenuity, has a certain value when applied to the class of feeble telescopic 
comets, but is scarcely applicable to one like the comet of Donati, which 
overpowered all but the brighter stars in the neighborhood of the nucleus 
by its superior brilliancy. 

The feature next in importance to the nucleus is the train, or tail, as it is 
usuall^r called (although often preceding the nucleus in its motion), projected 
at an immense distance from it, and usually, although by no means inva- 
riably, in a direction opposite to that of the sun. The agency of the nucleus 
in the formation of the train, but still more in the subsequent control which 
it retains over it, is one of the most curious phenomena presented in nature. 
Often, several of these appendages are seen radiating at once from the same 
nucleus. The greatest variety in curvature of outline, length, brilliancy, and 

* This article is the substance of a pamphlet entitled '* An Account of Donati's Comet 
of 1858," by Mr. George P. Bond, and is printed by his permission. The account of the 
comet was prepared by Mr. Bund for the Mathematical Monthly. The pamphlet is illus- 
trated by engravings and plates, which greatly aid the reader in understanding the 
condition, course, and appearance of the comet. 



I860.] BONATl'S COMBT OF 1868. 48 

Other pecaliarities, is presented by different comets, or by the same one in 
different parts of its course. The portions near the axis are usnallj darker 
than the edges, giving at times the appearance of a division with a stream of 
light on either side. Ordinarily, the convex and brightest side of the tail is 
presented to the region towards which the comet is moving. 

The larger bodies of this class exhibit a wonderful complication of phe- 
nomena in the region contiguous to the nucleus. Of these, the most promi- 
nent are the interposition between the nucleus and the sun of one or more 
well-defined and rounded screens, or caps of dense nebulosity, called enve- 
lopes, partially but not entirely surrounding the nucleus, and the emission of 
streams or jets of luminosity, bright sectors, &c., in a direction inclined or 
opposite to that of the tail. With great variety of detail in other respects, 
these have all a well-marked tendency to appear in the first instance on the 
side of the nucleus next the sun. The great comet of the present year un- 
doubtedly takes a foremost rank in respect of the multiplied and most curious 
changes which it has exhibited, and especially in the complete illustration 
which it has afforded of the origin, construction, and final dissipation of a 
succession of envelopes. In these phenomena, the process of the formation 
of the tail, from the substance in immediate contact with the nucleus, is inti- 
mately concerned. The astronomer, night by night, sees the work of evolu- 
tion going on with an amazing rapidity, and seemingly in defiance of the 
best established properties of matter, the laws of gravitation and of inertia. 
The results are evident to all, but the secret cause is a profound mystery, 
admirably calculated to stimulate speculation and intelligent investiga- 
tion. 

As regards the motion of comets in space, it is a well-established fact, so 
far as our present means of observation extend, that their nuclei alone move 
in obedience to the attractive force of the sun and planets. This property, 
which has been recognized with consistency and uniformity, is not the least 
singular peculiarity of their constitution. Immense volumes of matter, 
apparently of the identical substance of the nucleus, go to compose the 
enveloping nebulosity and the tail, but from the moment of leaving the cen- 
tral body their motion is perfectly inexplicable without assuming them to be 
under the influence of laws of force which greatly modify that of gravitation. 
The shape of the cometary orbits described about the sun is nearly that of 
a parabola, or of an elongated ellipse, with periods of revolution varying 
from a few years to many centuries. The point in the orbit which is nearest 
the sun is called the perihelion ; the distance of this point from the sun, the 
perihelion distance; and the time of the comefs passing it, the perihelion 
passage. 

Donati's Comet. — On the 2d of June, 1858, a faint nebulosity, slowly ad- 
vandne towards the north, was descried by Dovtati at Florence, near the 
star X Ijeonis. This was the earliest observation of the great comet of 1858. 
Its distance from the sun was then about two hundred millions of miles, and 
from the earth it was more remote. Being, at firet, inclined to question 
whether it might not be- identical with another comet just before seen in the 
same quarter of the heavens (the third comet of 1858), he communicated the 
discovery with a suitable reserve, as "perhaps new;" and in a second 
despatch he said, " It is possible that this comet is the same as that discov- 
ered in America on the 2d of May." This conjecture, fortunately for Donati, 
did not prove true; although the apprehension of the Italian astronomer, 
from the rival zeal of his Transatlantic brethren, was not without reasonable 
foundation, for no sooner had the moon withdrawn from the evening sky so 
as to allow the comet to be seen, than it was detected almost simultaneously 
at three different points in America, each observer being at the time unaware 
of its previous discovery in Italy. It was seen by Mr. H. P. Tuttle on the 
evening of the 28th of June, and an accurate determination of its place was 



44 donati'b comet of 1858. [1860. 

made on the same night at the Observatory of Harrard College. On the 
29th, it was detected by H. M. Parkhurst, Esq., of Perth Amboy, N. J., and 
on the 1st of July, by Miss Mitchell, of Nantacket. 

Three geocentric positions, obtained on the 7th, 11 th, and 13th of Jane, 
famished Donati with the means of computing approximate elements of the 
comet's motion, from which its interesting character was quickly recognized. 
There was considerable difficulty in fixing the precise time of perihelion pas- 
sage, a most necessary condition in predicting its path as seen from the 
earlii. While in other respects the results deuced by yarious compaters 
were sufficiently accordant, they showed wider discrepancies in designating 
the place of l^e comet in the orbit. By the middle of August, however, its 
future course, and great increase of brightness in September and the early 
part of October, had been ascertained with entire certamty. 

Up to this time it had remained a fiiint object, not even discernible by the 
unassisted eye. It was distinguished from ordinary telescopic comets only 
by the extreme slowness of its motion, in singular contrast with its subse- 
quent career, and by the vivid light of the nucleus. 

Traces of a tail were noticed on the 20th of Aug^t, and on the 29th it 
was seen with the naked eye as a hazy star. For a few weeks it occupied a 
position in the heavens where it rose before the sun and set after it, becoming 
thus a conspicuous object both in the morning and evening sky. This dr- 
cumstance gave rise to the erroneous notion that two different comets had 
appeared. The statement, which was widely circulated, that this was the 
return of the comet of 1264 and of 1556, supposed by some to be identical, is 
equally incorrect. If it had ever before been seen by man, it must have been 
far back in history, since the most recent computations assign a time of 
revolution of about twenty-five hundred years. 

On the 6th of September was first noticed the curvatare of the tail, which 
subsequently, at the time of its greatest expansion, became one of its most 
impressive features. It is remarkable that this peculiarity should have been 
strongly enough exhibited to be distinguished at the above date, when the 
earth was close to the plane of the comet's orbit The observation cannot, 
in fact, be reconciled with the commonly received opinion that the curvature 
of the tail lies in the plane of motion about the sun. 

For the following details, relating to the appearance presented by the comet 
in the telescope or to the naked eye, use has been made principally of the 
manuscript records of the Observatory of Harvard -College, the results of 
observations made elsewhere not being accessible through the ordinary chan- 
nels of information at the time of writing. 

There was a marked increase of brilliancy, accompanied by an equally per- 
ceptible lengthening of the tail, between the 10th and the 25th of September. 
Its sudden »ivance in size and splendor during the week following the latter 
date was in perfect keeping with the oflen repeated history of bodies of its 
class. On the 8th, the diameter of the nucleus was ascertained to be two 
thousand miles. In immediate contact with it was an intensely brilliant neb- 
ulosity, having a diameter of about three thousand miles, while the surround- 
ing diffused light extended forty or fifty thousand miles towards the sun. 
Measured by ordinary standards, this latter distance appears largo, but it was 
manifestly insignificant compared with the effusion of nebulosity in the direc- 
tion of the tail. Indeed, the comparative absence of any considerable collec- 
tion of diffuse light on the side nearest the sun, outside of the above radios, 
was so noticeable as to excite remark on several subsequent occasions. . The 
fact of the position of the nucleus, precisely in the vertex of the train, must 
have been generally noticed. At this date the tail had acquired a length of 
sixteen millions of miles. 

^ To ascertain the true dimensions of the nucleus, and to compare the inten- 
sity of its light with that of a star of equal brightness, the comet on the 



I860.] DONATl'S COMET OP 1858. 45 

morning of the 9th was kept in the field of the great refractor hj the clock- 
work motion, and tne effect of the approach of daylight npon it carefully 
noted. 

In the early twilight the nucleus resemhled a star of the fifth magnitude, 
subtending an angle corresponding to a diameter of five thousand miles ; 
but owing partly to atmospheric disturbances, and partly to the difficulty of 
distinguishing its precise border, this proved to be much too large, for it 
diminished to less than half that amount when the daylight had become 
snfi&ciently strong to obliterate all but the true centre, which continued in 
sight until twelve minutes before sunrise; the light, however, no longer 
retained the scintillating, starlike character which distinguished it when seen 
on the background of a dark sky. At this time, therefore, the nucleus must 
have been nearly of the size of our moon, and probably shone with somewhat 
inferior intrinsic brightness. 

Sept. 12. " A rapid increase in brightness, and length of train, — the 
latter covers an arc of 6^. The intensity and the quantity of light ema- 
nating from the nucleus Are the most distinctive features. To the naked 
eye, aided by the light of the envelope and contiguous part of the tail, it was 
as bright as a star of the third magnitude. In the telescope the light concen- 
trated within a circle of IC diameter, or six thousand miles, resembles that 
of a star of the fifth or sixth magnitude diffused over an equal space.'' The 
view of the comet on the morning of the 13th was still more satisfactory, 
owing to its greater elevation and the absence of moonlight. 

To the naked eye on the 1 7th, the head equalled a star of the second mag- 
nitude. Its southern side (on the left hand and below as seen in the evening) 
was decidedly the brightest. A similar contrast was noticeable through a 
considerable extent of the tail for several weeks following ; the convex out- 
line being both brighter and more clearly defined than the opposite side. 
Ultimately this distinction disappeared, or rather it was reversed ; the change 
taking place gradually, and becoming most noticeable after the 6th of 
October. 

The commencement of a most important epoch in the physical history of 
the comet dates in our records from the 20th of September. It is probable 
that symptoms of approaching changes, faintly indicated, may have appeared 
somewhat earlier ; they were not, however, noticed on the 17th and 18th, on 
both of which occasions the comet was observed, though particular attention 
was not then given to the condition of the nucleus. 

On the evening of the 20th, the train at its origin was plainly bifurcated, 
issuing from the head in two unequal streams forming its two sides, and 
leaving between them a dark space behind the nucleus. Their outline was a 
curve resembling an arc of the parabola or hyperbola. The southern stream 
was so much the more brilliant of the two, that in strong twilight this alone 
would have been seen as a short tail inclined by 30^ or more to the true axis. 
'* Between the nucleus and the sun is interposed an obscure crescent-shaped 
outline, within which the light is unequally distributed, and has a strangely 
confused, chaotic look ; the details are too undecided for precise description. 
There is also an elongation of the nucleus, which is singularly brilliant, or 
perhaps a ray extending a few seconds from it on the following or upper side. 
The exact character of these phenomena cannot be made out, but they seem 
to indicate the presence of some internal disturbing force." 

Sept. 23d. " A fine clear sky, with the moon nearly full. To the naked 
eye the head of the comet is as bright as a star of the first magnitude, and 
the train, notwithstanding the moonlight, is 6° or 8° long. It is already a 
brilliant object half an hour after sunset. The telescopic view is most ex- 
traordinary. The nucleus has diminished in size, being now only 3'', or 
1300 miles, in diameter. Its light is exceedingly intense, and somewhat 
more concentrated than on the 20th. Outside of it is a bright envelope, with 



46 donati'b comet op 1868. [1860. 

its vertex in the direction of the sun, and \5"t or 6,400 miles, distant This 
is boanded on its onter margin by a dark band. The boundary of a second 
and less brilliant envelope is distant at its vertex about 30'', or 12,800 miles, 
from the nucleus, and is terminated by a similar dark arch, outside of which, 
again, is an atmosphere of faint, diffused nebulosity rapidly shaded off. 
The outlines can be distinguished through an arc of 220^ or more, reckoned 
from the nucleus, but they extend considerably farther into the train on the 
following or bright side." 

Sept. 24th. The train is 7° in length, and evidently curved. The tele- 
scopic view showed a decidedly dark axis to the tail, extending close up to 
the nucleus, which was elongated in a direction perpendicular to the axis. 
The inner envelope south of the nucleus was in part separated from it by a 
darker space, and was twice as bright as the one next outside of it, which la 
turn was much brighter than the exterior nebulosity. 

On the 25th the nucleus presented itself under a new aspect, in the*act, as 
it -afterwards proved, of disenga^ng a new envelope, or rather in a stage 
preparatory to that event. This perhaps is the first instance where an 
envelope has been seen in embryo at the surface of the nucleus, and has been 
traced through successive stages to a full development. The same phenom- 
enon was subsequently illustrated in the case of the present comet by several 
exhibitions of a similar nature ; their history has a peculiar value, because it 
affords an insight into the mysterious processes by which the train is thrown 
out from the nucleus, under the jstimulating influence of the sun^s light and 
heat, or possibly of some unknown emanation from the same source. The 
following were the most conspicuous gradations of light recognized in its 
neighborhood. Commencing with the dark axis, we have, first, a narrow, 
well-defined dark stripe penetrating quite up to the central body. Next in 
order towards the sun is the nucleus, on the eve, as we may say, of an erup- 
tion. The expression is fully warranted by its subsequent history. When 
seen to best advantage, two little streams of luminous matter were observed 
issuing from it, one on each side, doubtless on their way to supply material 
to the tail now so rapidly expanding. Outside of the nucleus and of the 
nebulosity, apparently adhering to it, was a comparatively dark space, suc- 
ceeded by envelopes, with intervening dark bands, and, lastly, over the whole 
a thin veil of diffuse light, the latter attaining a distance of seventy thou- 
sand miles. If we include the dark axis, and the dark background of the 
sky, we have nine alternations of light and shade, of various grades of 
intensity. At a distance of about three hundred thousand miles from its 
origin, the breadth of the tail was found to be one hundred and forty thou- 
sand miles. Its extreme length was 11^, and the breadth where widest 1^. 

Sept. 27th. " The outline of a new envelope is clearly distinguished. In 
form and position it is a miniature of that which has hitherto been the inner- 
most. Like the latter it sets awry, inclining to the right-hand side of the 
axis. The narrow dark stripe in the axis, having its vertex precisely at the 
nucleus, is a remarkable object *, " its width near its origin was found to be 
1,800 miles. 

The tail had now attained a length of 13°, or eighteen millions of miles. 
A new appendage in the forta of a long, narrow ray issuing from its convex 
side was seen, not following the curve of the tail proper, but projected nearly 
in a straight line from the sun. Its appearance simultaneously with the 
throwing off of a new envelope suggests the possibility of the two phenomena 
being in some way connected with each other ; both, it will be noticed, lie on 
the same side of the axis. Supposing it to have started from the head of the 
comet on the 25th, its velocity must have reached eight or ten millions of 
miles daily. Other comets have exhibited similar rays. That of 1843 shot 
out its streamers to a much greater distance. One which appeared in 1744 
is said to have had no less than six, spread out like a fan. 



I860.] DONATl'S COMET OF 1858. 47 

On the 28th, the image of the nadeus in the focns of the large refractor 
afforded distinct photographic action, bnt the sarrounding laminosity was 
not intense enough to form a pictnre. " The dark opening in the axis of the 
tail occapies about one twelfth of its breadth at a distance of 1° from the 
nncleus ', it may be traced distinctly one or two degrees. The head of the 
comet, seen with a small telescope in strong twilight which obliterates all 
but this brightest portion, is crescent-shaped. The tail is 19° long, or 
twenty-six millions of miles, with a streamer as on the 27th/' 

Sept. 29th. Between this date and the ^th, the comet passed its point of 
nearest approach to the sun, being distant about fifty millions of miles, and 
not quite seventy millions from the earth, which it was still rapidly ap- 
proaching. " Marked changes have occurred since the 27th. The little hUAf- 
moon envelope, then closely shrouding the nucleus, has elevated itself above 
it, and become the most conspicuous feature in the telescopic view. It is 
brightest near its outer edge," an indication that it was about to separate from 
the central nebulosity. There was also a general aspect of confusion, sug- 
gesting the idea of internal disturbances. It was afterwards observed, that, as 
the nebulous matter rose higher and higher above its origin, it became uni- 
formly blended, as if, when relieved from the immediate neighborhood of the 
nacleas, it was disposed to an even and symmetrical arrangement 

Sept. 30th. " The edge of the envelope nearest the nucleus is very dis- 
tinct, and may be traced through an angle of 270°, reckoned from the nncleus. 
The latter is truncated, as it has often before been seen on the side opposite 
to the sun, giving it a half-moon shape. The dark axis, which at its origin 
is almost black, and is of even breadth with the nucleus, completes the re- 
semblance to a phase and shadow/' There are objections to this explanation, 
although at first sight it is very plausible. Each new envelope as it emerges 
from the nncleus has the same phase-like form, while it is certainly every- 
where permeated by the sunlight. A very small envelope still adhering to 
the nucleus would thus explain the peculiar form of the latter. The dark 
axis occupies a larger proportion of the whole breadth of the train at a 
distance of several degrees from the nucleus, than can with any probability 
be attributed to the defect of light intercepted by so small a body. It is 
moreover curved, which could not happen to a sensible amount in the 
shadow. 

Perhaps two phenomena are here superimposed ; a comparative- deficiency 
of nebnlosity towards the central regions of the tail, and an actual shadow 
perceptible a short distance only, close to the head of the comet, where at 
any rate we must assume the existence of a considerable collection of nebu- 
lous matter, sufficient to exhibit the outlines of a shadow cast upon it, if such 
really exists. This view receives some confirmation from a note of a later 
date. '* The outlines of the axis-band are straight lines near the nucleus, but 
at a little distance they begin to blend with the general deficiency of light in 
the middle of the train.'' It seemed here to be conceivable that the shadow- 
margin and the outlines of the axis were distinct phenomena. 

The tail to the naked eye was 22° long, or twenty-six millions of miles, 
and from 2° to 3° broad near its extremity, where also its rate of curvature 
was pretty suddenly increased. The upper outline was throughout brightest 
and best defined. 

Oct. 2d. No new envelope had yet been formed, nor were any indications 
of its approach manifested, although they were carefully looked for, in the 
expectation that one would shortly appear. The nucleus, however, was 
nnnsually bright, and rounded on the side toward the sun. An increase of 
brilliancy in the nucleus was afterwards recognized as the precursor of a 
fresh eruption from its surface. Its diameter, perpendicular to the axis, was 
found to be less than 1,600 miles. There were three dark openings in the 
innermost envelope, between which it was intersected with bright rays. The 



48 DONATl'S COMET OF 1858. [1860. 

breadth of the brightest part of the tail, at a distance of 144,000 miles from 
the nucleus, was 90,000 miles, and its extreme length 25^ to 30^. 

The date of the next observation was the 4th. Another envelope was 
then rising, having already attained a diameter of above nine thonsand 
miles within forty-eight hours. The nucleus was smaller and less bright 
than on the 2d. The secondary tail was 35°, or thirty-four millions of miles 
long. On the 5th of October, the comet attained its greatest brilliancy. Its 
head was close to Arcturus, a star of the first magnitude, to which it was 
but little inferior in brightness, Although the contrast in the intensity of their 
light was very evident In Europe the two must have been seen still nearer 
to each other than they were in America, the nucleus passing a little to the 
south of the star, and the brightest part of the tail over it. The extremity 
of the train reached over Benetnasch and Mizar, the two southernmost stars 
in the tail of the Great Bear. It could be traced through an arc of 35°. Its 
breadth was 5° or 6°. With a little attention two additional streamers 
could be seen, one of which was between 50° and 60° long, or above fiftj 
millions of miles, with a slight curvature. 

The interest of the telescopic view, taking all the circnmstances into ac- 
count, — the size of the instrument, the perfect purity of the atmosphere, and 
the splendor of Uie object, — has rarely been surpassed. The nucleus and 
the outline of its nearest envelope were visible in full sunshine with the large 
telescope. The head of the comet could be seen with the naked eye at 
twenty minutes after sunset, at which time the second envelope was discern- 
ible with the telescope. It is most remarkable, that, with all this accession 
of brightness, the nucleus itself had now diminished to a diameter of only 
four or five hundred miles, scarcely one fifth of what it was on the morning 
of the 9th of September, by a very careful determination. Its volame had 
thus diminished to one twentieth part only. The remaining nineteen twen- 
tieths had, in the intervening period, expanded into the taU, or had gone to 
form the envelopes which now encux^led it, by a process which hi^ been 
fully illustrated in the preceding pages. But are we then to conclude that 
the nucleus, the focus of these mysterious operations, had in this way ex- 
pended the greater part of its substance ? To this inquiry the best reply is 
a consideration of its subsequent condition. After several more eraptions 
from its surface, similar to those above described, it receded from oar view 
about the 20th of October, with an evident increase of size compared with its 
condition two weeks before, and still shining with its accustomed intensi^. 

Examined in the daytime on the 5th, with the highest powers which it 
would bear, no indication of a phase could be seen. The dark spot had ex- 
panded in about the same proportion with the whole envelope in which it 
was situated. From near the vertex, and from the sides of the latter, there 
seemed to be an escape of jets of luminous gas, which streamed off like light 
spray thrown up against an opposing wind and driven before it. 

It will not be necessary to enter into the details of the history of other 
envelopes further than to indicate some of their leading features. Between 
the 2d and the 20th of October inclusive, four of them rose in succession 
from the nucleus ; — one, which was first seen on the 4th as just described, 
one between the 8th and 9th, another on the 15th, and a fourth on the 20th. 

A change in the relative proportion of light distributed on the two sides 
of the principal axis of the comet had been progressing up to abont the 6th 
of October. At this date, although there may still have been a little more 
light on the right-hand side, the difference was not nearly so large as it had 
been. The diameter of the nucleus was then 800 miles. On the 8th, its 
diameter was 1100 miles. The envelopes were most distinct on the left- 
hand or preceding side. The change was a permanent one, and for the 
future this became the brightest half of the head of the comet. It is carious 
to observe a corresponding change in the inclination of the envelopes to the 



I860.] DONATl'S COMET OF 1858. 49 

axis. Tbey now inclined even more decidedly to the left hand than they 
had at first done to the opposite side. The last two, those of Oct. 15th and 
20th, seem in fact in the first instance to have issued as luminous jets or 
streams from the side, rather than from the vertex of the nucleus. A similar 
reversal in the order of brightness was evident in the part of the train near 
the nucleus. 

The tenth was the day of nearest approach to the earth, but the comet 
was manifestly on the wane, though expanded over a larger extent of the 
sky than before. Five envelopes, reckoning the exterior haze as one, could 
be traced through the whole or $ome part of their outline. The dark stripe 
of the axis was becoming less conspicuous, the central regions of the train 
being occupied with diffused light; on the 11th it was barely discernible. 
The last of the envelopes was thrown off on the 20th. The comet had now 
passed far to the south, and its low altitude prevented the continuance of the 
observations. 

We must add a few words on the appearance presented by the tail be- 
tween the 6th and the 10th of October. At the date first named, one of the 
supplementary rays attained a distance of 55^, or fifty millions of miles from 
the nucleus, somewhat exceeding that of the principal taU, and in a direc- 
tion as usual, nearly in a line from the sun. Others less perfectly devel- 
oped could be discerned near a point where the curvature of the main stream 
was pretty suddenly changed. On the 8th, five or six transverse bands 
could be distinguished in the tail half a degree or less in breadth, with clear, 
well-defined outlines, and perfectly resembling auroral streamers, excepting 
that they kept their position permanently, — that is, without motion sensible 
to the eye, they diverged from a point between the sun and the nucleus. 

The train attained its largest apparent dimensions on the 10th, when the 
main stream of light could be distinguished through an arc of 60^, corre- 
sponding to a length of fifty-one millions of miles, or rather more than half 
the distance of our earth from the sun. The distribution of its light at a dis- 
tance of 20^ or 30^ from the nucleus in parallel or slightly diverging bands, 
alternating with dark spaces, was strongly exhibited. They were 5^ long, 
and 20' or 30' wide, and might aptly be compared either to the streamers 
which often break up the continuity of an auroral arch, or to a collection of 
five or six tails of small comets, forming from the remains of the large one. 
Whatever may have been their real nature, the impression to the eye invol- 
untarily suggested the comparison. These bands were visible for one or 
two succeeding evenings, but were soon overpowered by the moonlight. 

Wevwill conclude with a review of some particulars relating to the comet 
which seem to deserve special attention. The dimensions of the tail, and 
of the nucleus and envelopes on the several dates of observation, are given 
below. Apparent variations in the size of the nucleus were sometimes 
caused by disturbances in our own atmosphere, but in most cases the changes 
were undoubtedly real ones. The presence of moonlight, or of the slightest 
haze in the sky, had a very perceptible effect in diminishing the arc through 
which the tail could be traced. This will sufficiently explain the irregulari- 
ties noticed in comparing its proportions from night to night. 

Breadth at extremity. Remarks. 



Date. 


Length of tail. 


1858. Aug. 29 


2° = 14,000,000 miles. 


" Sept. 8 and 9 


4 =16,000,000 " 


"12 


6 = 19.000,000 " 


" "17 


4 =10,000,000 " 


" " 23 


7 = 12,000,000 ** 


« " 24 


7 = 12,000,000 « 


« « 25 


11 =17,000,000 " 


c( cc 2^ 


13 — 18,000,000 " 



Moonlight. 
1,500,000 miles. 



it 



50 DON ATI's COMET OF 1858. [i860. 

Data. Ijeagth of tail. Breadth at extremity. Bemarks. 

1858. Sept. 28 19^ = 26,000,000 miles. 

" " 30 22 =26,000,000 " 8,000,000 miles. 

" Oct. 2 25 =27,000,000 " 5,000,000 *' 

" " 5 35 =33,000,000 " 5,000,000 " 

" " 6 50 =45,000,000 " 

" " 8 50 =43,000,000 " 7,000,000 " 

" " 10 60 =51,000,000 " 10,000,000 " 

" " 12 45 =39.000,000 *« 

" " 15 15 =14,000,000 '* Moonlight 

Date. Length of *' Streamen." Breadth at extremity. 

1858. Oct. 4 35^ = 34,000,000 miles. 1,000.000 miles. 

" " 5 55 =53,000,000 " " " 

" " 6 55 =50,000,000 " ". " 

In compating the above, the carvatnre has not been regarded. It most 
be borne in mind that we have taken for the extremity of the tail the far- 
thest point at which it was possible to detect a trace of it. It wonld scarcely 
have been noticed beyond 30^ or 35^, even between the 5th and 10th of 
October, withont a particular effort of the attention, and some training of 
the eye. The streamers, or additional rays, might easily have escaped no> 
tice altogether, from their faintness. In making a comparison of the size of 
this comet with others, it will be best to limit the extent of the tail to the arc 
over which it was plainly visible, which would give a length of abont thirty- 
five millions of miles. The shortening of the tail between the 12th and the 
17th of September is due entirely to the effect of moonlight. The more 
abrupt change between the 10th and 15th of October is partly due to the 
same cause, but there must also have been a great diminution in brilliancy. 

For the nucleus we have the following measured diameters : — 1858, July 
19. Diameter 5'' = 5600 miles. This probably includes the dense nebu- 
losity immediately surrounding it, not distinguishable at the time from the 
true centre, on account of the low altitude of the comet 

Aug. 19. "Nucleus equals a star of the seventh magnitude." Aug. 29. 
Head of the comet visible to the unassisted eye as a star of the sixth magni- 
tude. Aug. 30. Diameter 6'' = 4660 miles. This result perhaps includes 
more than the true nucleus. 

Sept. 8, 9. Diameter 3" = 1980 miles. Taken just before sunrise, when 
all of the comet, excepting the nebulosity next outside, which w£ 3300 
miles in diameter, was obliterated. On a dark sky the apparent diameter 
was 5280 miles, and the light equivalent to that of a star of the fifth magni- 
tude. 

Sept. 12. To the naked eye the head of the comet appeared as a star of 
the third magnitude. On Sept. 17th, it equalled a star of the second mag- 
nitude. Sept. 23. " To the naked eye the head of the comet is brighter 
than a star of the first magnitude." Its brilliancy at this date (one week be- 
fore its perihelion passage, and seventeen days before its nearest approach 
to the earth) had reached a maximum. It is interesting to remark, that 
between the 17th and 23d was first noticed the characteristic formation of 
envelopes, which plainly operated as a check upon the accumulation of 
brightness at the central point. The nucleus, daring the remaining period 
of its visibility, went through a series of periodic changes, acquiring more 
light just before an eruption, and suddenly diminishing after it. The varia- 
tions, although evident to the eye, could not be accurately measured on ac- 
count of the smallness of the angle subtended, and its want of precise defini- 
tion. Its diameter, which appeared to be less than usual, was 3" = 1280 
miles. Sept 24. Diameter 2".5 •• 1039 miles. 



I860.] 



DONATl'S COMET OP 1868. 



51 



Oct. 2. Diameter 5".2 = 1560 miles. Oct. 4. Nucleus evidently smaller 
than on the 2d. Oct. 5. Diameter V'.5 = 400 miles ; "it is certainly less 
than 2" = 540 miles." This determination was made under most favorable 
conditions. Oct. 6. Diameter 3" = 800 miles. The head of the comet 
nearly equalled Arctdrus. Oct. 8. Diameter 4''.4 = 1120 miles. *'The 
nucleus is decidedly brighter than on the 6th, and is preparing to throw off 
a new envelope." Oct. 9. The nucleus had diminished in size simultane- 
ously with the appearance of a new envelope. Oct. 10. Diameter 2".5 = 
630 miles. Oct. 11. Diameter 2" = 510 miles. Oct. 15. The head of the 
comet was as bright to the naked eye as a star of the third magnitude. Oct. 
18. Diameter 3" = 900 miles. Oct. 19. Diameter 3 = 920 miles. The 
nucleus was compared with three stars of the sixth magnitude at the same 
altitude, and found to be far brighter than either of them. It was probably 
at least as bright as a star of the fifth magnitude, while to the naked eye the 
bead nearly equalled one of the third magnitude. Oct. 20. Diameter 2" => 
660 miles. A new envelope was forming. As before remarked, the least 
observed diameter of the nucleus* 400 miles, occurred on October 5th, the 
evening when the comet reached its maximum of brightness. 

In order to exhibit the progressive motion of the envelopes from their 
point of origin, we give below in one view the distances of their vertices 
from the nucleus at difierent dates. The distances were measured in the 
line from the nucleus towards the sun. The better to distinguish them, we 
will use Uie following notation : — 

a' s= Vertex of envelope first seen on Sept. 20. 







b' 


^ ", 


tt 


tt 


it 


tt 


23. 








cf 


S3 


ti 


<t 


it 


it 


27. 








df 


=S 


K 


ti 


ti 


Oct. 


4. 








e' 


= 


tt 


tt 


ti 


(( 


9. 








f 


XSSI 


tt 


It 


tt 


it 


15. 








V 


= 


tt 


tt 


tt 


tt 


20. 




Distances 


in miles from 


I the nucleus (n) to 


the vertices of the 


envelop* 


a, 6, and c : - 


— 






















naf 




rib' 


nd 


ndf 


im' 


«/' 


Sept. 


23 


* 


13000 




*6400 










ft 


24 




13400 




5800 










it 


25 


* 


18000 




7100 










ti 


27 








8400 


3500 








(t 


29 








10500 


6000 








Oct. 


2 




* 




13200 


7500 








it 


4 










8900 


3050 






tt 


5 








14200 


9550 


4210 






ti 


6 










10100 


4270 






H 


8 










12400 


7160 






tt 


9 










13200 


8650 


1910 




tt 


10 










14100 


8780 


2760 




tt 


11 












* 10200 


*4200 




tt 


15 












* 11400 


8160 


3200 


tt 


18 












* 14500 


9950 


4400 


<i 


19 














11200 


5500 



The vertex g' had barely left the surface of the nucleus on the 20th. 

The comet of Donati, although surpassed by many others in size, has not 
often been equalled in the intensity of the light of the nucleus. The diameter 
of the surrounding nebulosity, on the other hand, was unusually small, never 



• The numbers marked with an asteriak are lesa reliable than the othen. 



52 DOXATI'S COMET OF 1858. [1860. 

mach exceeding one hundred thousand miles, while that of the great comet 
of 1811 was ten times larger, — its envelope attaining an elevation of more 
than three hundred thousand miles above the central body, exceeding by 
more than twenty times the largest of our measurements given above. Still 
it would be difficult to instance any one of its predecessors which has com- 
bined so many attractive features. 

Its early discovery enabled astronomers, while it was yet scarcely dis- 
tinguishable even with the telescope, to predict, some months in advance, the 
more prominent particulars of its approaching apparition, which was thus 
observed with all the advantage of previous preparation and anticipation. 
The perihelion passage occurred at a most favorable moment for presenting 
the comet to good advantage. Its situation in the latter part of its course 
afforded also a fair sight of the curvature of the train, which seems to have 
been exhibited with unusual distinctness, contributing greatly to the impres- 
sive effect of a full-length view. Frequent allusion has been made to the 
influence of the light of the moon on the visibility of the comet. Pew readers 
will be aware how much of its splendor and vast dimensions, daring the first 
ten days of October, we owe to the fortunate circumstance that, at this crit- 
ical period, the moon was absent from our evening skies. The effect of the 
presence of a full moon, though simply optical, and due only to the force of 
contrast, would have been quite as prejudicial as if the comet had lost two 
thirds of its train, and as large a proportion of the brightness of the remain- 
ing third ; above all, we must have lost those most singular phenomena^ 
the supplementary rays, and the alternating bright and dark bands in the 
train ; the latter seem to have been new in cometary history. Supposing 
the substance of the tail to be driven off into space, never again to return to 
its original source, the inquiry at once arises. What then becomes of it ? The 
appearances in question show plainly enough a process of separation into 
distinct masses, and in each of these a tendency to condense about a central 
axis. 

It is remarkable that the aggregation should have been around separate 
axes, rather than about one or more central points, and that the axes should 
have manifested a disposition to diverge from the sun. The increasing 
moonlight and low altitude of the comet would not allow their being fol- 
lowed to a more complete development. 

The condition of the nucleus and neighboring region has received a large 
share of attention in the preceding pages, because it has afforded so ample 
an illustration of phenomena of which, up to the present time, very little has 
been certainly known. The comets of 1744 and of 1811 had well-formed 
envelopes, but the observations upon them were too imperfect and discon- 
nected to afford much more than a basis for conjecture as to their origin and 
destination. That of Halley, at its apparition in 1835-36, furnishes an ex- 
ample more nearly parallel to the present one, but its phenomena were on a 
comparatively feeble scale. 

Tne most recent intelligence leaves no room to doubt that the comet of 
Donati is periodical, having a time of revolution of about two thousand 
years. The following are the results arrived at by different computers : — 



Watson, 2415 years. Graham, 1620 years. 

Bruhns, 2102 " Brunnow, 2470 

Lowy, 2495 " Newcomb, 1854 



(C 



The last two determinations are based upon longer intervals of observa- 
tion than the others. The remaining uncertainty in the period will be 
materially reduced, when observations have been received from the south- 
em hemisphere, where the comet was in sight after it had become invisible 
to us. 



I860.] THE LAWS OF STORMS. 53 

The snbjoined table contains the distances of the comet from the san and 
from the earth, and its hourly rate of motion : — 



Ififlfi 


Distance from Sun 


Distance from Earth 


Hourly Velocity 


10*J0« 


in miles. 


in miles. 


in miles. 


Jnne 2, 


215,000,000 


240,000,000 


65,000 


July 2, 


173,000,000 


240,000,000 


72,000 


Aug. 2, 


127,000,000 


220^000,000 


84,000 


Sept I, 


82,000,000 


160,000,000 


105,000 


"11, 


70,000,000 


130,000,000 


115,000 


"21, 


60,000,000 


95,000,000 


124,000 


Oct. 1, 


56,000,000 


66,000,000 


128,000 


"11, 


61,000,000 


52,000,000 


123,000 


« 21, 


71,000,000 


67,000,000 * 


114,000 



Supposing its last perihelion passage to have occurred at the beginning of 
the Christian era, it must have passed its aphelion in the early part of the 
tenth century, at a distance of 14300 millions of miles from tne sun, its 
velocity at that point being 480 miles an hour. 



PROFESSOR LOOMIS'S GENERALIZATIONS AS TO THE 

LAWS OF STORMS. 

At the Springfield Meeting of the American Association for the Promo- 
tion of Science, August, 1859, Professor Loomis, of New York, presented an 
elaborate investigation of a storm which was experienced in Europe about 
the 25th of December, 1836. This storm was selected for investigation, 
partly on account of its intrinsic interest, and partly on account of its sup- 

?08ed connection with a violent storm which had been experienced in thd 
Inited States about the 20tli of the same month. A thorough investigation 
of both storms has shown that the two were entirely independent of each 
other. The European storm evidently originated in Europe ; and the Amer- 
ican storm gradually wasted away, and probably could not be traced beyond 
the middle of the Atlantic. 

The European storm of December 25 was remarkable for its superfidal 
extent, for its duration, and for its violence. It covered neari^ every portion 
of Europe, from Norway to Southern Italy, and from Spain to the Ural 
Mountains. It commenced on the 22d of December, and was not entirely 
concluded on the 28th. From the 24th to the 27th the storm was sensibly 
stationary in position, its centre being nearly over Mont Blanc, in Switzer- 
land. 

Throughout a considerable portion of Europe, this storm was one of great 
violence. In the southeastern part of England it was attended by one of 
the greatest falls of snow ever recorded in that country. The roads were so 
obstructed by the snow-drifiis that for two whole days communication be- 
tween London and the southern part of England was almost wholly inter- 
rupted. 

By comparing the European storm of December 25th with the American 
storm of December 20th, and also the storms of February 4th and 16th, 1842, 
Professor Loomis has been led to the following generalizations. Some of 
these conclusions are substantially the same as given by Mr. Espy, in his 
Fourth Meteorological Report; but several of Mr. Espy s conclusions are 
only true when applied to American storms. 

1. The area covered by a violent storm of rain or snow is sometimes nearly 

5* 



54 THE LAWS OF STOBMS. [1860. 

circular in form ; sometimes its form is very mach elongated or elliptical, its 
length being two or three times its breadth ; and frequently its form is very 
irregular. In the winter storms of the United States, the north and south 
diameter is generally very much greater than the east and west diameter. 

2. When storms are circular in form, the area of rain or snow is sometimes 
fifteen hundred miles in diameter ; when their form is elliptical, the area of 
rain or snow is sometimes one thousand miles wide, and two or three thou- 
sand miles long. 

3. Violent storms sometimes remain sensibly stationary four or five days, 
but generally the centre of a storm has a progressive movement along the 
earth's surface. The rate of this progress has been observed to vary from 
zero to forty-four miles an hour. From our limited number of observations, 
it seems probable that American storms travel more rapidly than European 
storms. 

4. Within the limits of prevalent westerly winds, when violent storms 
advance with considerable rapidity, the direction of progress is always from 
west to east. This direction is not absolutely uniform, but has been observed 
to vary from about due east to north fifty-four degrees east. 

5. Great storms of rain and snow are accompanied by a depression of the 
barometer near the centre of the storm, and a rise of the barometer near the 
margin ; but this rise is not generally uniform along the entire margin. 

6. The depression of the barometer at the centre of a storm sometimes 
amounts to more than an inch bdow the mean height ; and the rise along 
some portion of the margin sometimes amounts to more than an inch above 
the mean height. 

7. Winter storms commence gradually, and generally attain their greatest 
violence only after a lapse of several days. After a time their violence gradually 
diminishes, and at length they disappear entirely. This succession of changes 
requires a period of several days, sometimes one or two weeks, and possibly 
even longer. Sometimes all these changes are experienced over the same 
country ; that is, the storm makes no progress from place to place. More 
commonly, however, the storm travels along the earth's surface ; and although 
the same storm may continue for one or two weeks, or even longer, its dura- 
tion at any one place may not exceed one or two days. 

8. For several hundred miles on each side of the centre of a violent storm, 
the wind inclines inward towards the area of least pressure, and at the same 
time circulates around the centre, in a direction contrary to the motion of the 
hands of a watch. 

9. In Europe, as well as in the United States, on the north side of a great 
storm, the prevalent winds are from the northeast, while on the south side 
they are from the southwest. 

10. The force of the wind is proportioned to the magnitude and sudden- 
ness of the depression of the barometer, but very near the centre of a violent 
storm there is often a calm. 

11. On the borders of the storm, near the line of maximum pressure, the 
wind has but little force, and tends outwards from the line of greatest pressure. 

12. The wind uniformly tends from an area of high barometer towards an 
area of low barometer ; and this is probably the most important law regu- 
lating the movement of the wind. 

13. In a great storm, the centre of the area of high thermometer frequently 
does not coincide with that of the area of low barometer, or with the centre 
of the area of rain and snow. In the United States, on the northeast side of 
a storm, at a distance of over five hundred miles from the area of rain and 
snow, the thermometer sometimes rises even twenty degrees above its mean 
height. 

14. The storms of Europe are very much modified, and sometimes con- 
rolled, in a great measure, by the Alps of Switzerland. By the interposition 



I860.] OX THE AUBOBA BOBEALIS, ETC. 55 

of these mountains, the air which sweeps over them is forced up to a great 
height, where it is suddenly cooled ; its vapor is condensed ; heat is accord- 
ingly liherated, by which the surrounding air is expanded, and rises above 
the usual limit of the atmosphere. It thence flows off laterally, leaving a 
diminished pressure be.neath the cloud ; that is, the barometer shows a dimin- 
ished pressure in the neighborhood of the mountain. The mountain thus 
becomes the centre of a great storm, and the storm may continue stationary 
for several days, being apparently held in its place by the action of the moun- 
tain. 



ON THE AURORA BOREALIS AND THE AURORA 

AUSTRALIS. 

By Professor Joseph Lovering, of Harvard University. 

The name of Aurora Borealis was given by Gassendi to an appearance in 
the heavens, now familiar, on the exhibition of it September 2, 1621. The 
phenomenon is called in the Shetland Islands " The Merry Dancers." The 
Indian thinks it the spirit of his fathers. Gmelen calls Siberia the birthplace 
of the aurora. 

The various features of the aurora, a greater or smaller number of which 
may be detected in any aurora, are, 1. Auroral twilight. 2. Arches run- 
ning nearly from east to west. 3. Streamers. 4. Crown around that point 
of the sky to which a perfectly free magnetized needle points. 5. Waves. 
6. Auroral clouds. The late Professor Olmsted, after enumerating these 
specialities, remarks : *^ In different exhibitions of the aurora borealis 
the various forms above enumerated are sometimes seen single, bnt com- 
monly more or less combined. In the most magnificent examples they are 
all seen in company. At first, usually at an early hour of the evening, 
appears the northern twilight^ as though the sun, after he had set, was rising 
prematurely in the north. If a large bank of luminous vapor (which is so 
peculiar in its external properties, and so distinct from watery vapor, as to 
warrant the denomination of auroral vapor) rests on the northern horizon, 
we may expect to see the aurora put on, successively, more of its higher 
forms ; — streamers will begin to shoot upwards ; a dark, smoky front will 
cover the auroral vapor, exhibiting here and there changeable and transient 
white spots, which suddenly swell out, and often as suddenly disappear ; 
then large columns of a clear, silvery lustre will form in the northwest and 
northeast, simultaneously, which will sometimes meet and span the heavens 
with an entire arch ; suddenly the columns and clouds of auroral vapor will 
assume a crimson hue ; next all the columns and streamers will rush towards 
a point a little southeast of the zenith, corresponding to the pole of the dip- 
ping-needle, and wreathe themselves around it in a splendid coronet, — and 
finally auroral waves will begin to flow upward from the horizon toward the 
same point in surprising undulations, which are often continued a great part 
of the night. Meanwhile the magnetic needle is violently agitated, and 
deflected from its normal position." * 

Mr. Olmsted divides auroras into four classes. A first-class aurora displays 
corona, arch, brilliant crimson streamers and waves. A second-class aurora 
unites only two or three of these four most impressive characteristics; a 
third-rate aurora exhibits only one of them ; a fourth-rate aurora, or an ordi- 
nary aurora, is distinguished by neither of these more dazzling peculiarities 
of the grandest displays. 

* Smith. Gontr., VIII. 5. 



56 ON THIS AUBOBA BOBEALIS [1860. 

7he distingaishing features of a rich aurora, notwithstanding the ten thou- 
sand varieties, can be recognized in the various descriptions thev have 
received from the man of science, the poet, and the superstitious beholder. 
We have already given the words of science. This is the language of a 
poet, describing the aurora in Sweden: "And now the Northern Lights 
begin to burn, faintly at first, like sunbeams playing in the waters of the 
blue sea. Then a soft, crimson glow tinges the heavens. There is a blush 
on the cheek of night. The colors come and go, and change from crimson 
to gold, from gold to crimson. The snow is stained with rosy light Two- 
fold from the zenith, east and west, flames a fiery sword : and a broad band 
passes athwart the heavens, like a summer sunset. Soft purple clouds come 
sailing over the sky, and through their vapory folds the winking stars shine 
white as silver."* 

Next follows the account, by Rev. Thomas Prince, of the Northern Lights 
when first seen in England, m 1716 : — 

*^ I'here seemed to be a great stream of smoky light rising in the north- 
east, reaching from near the earth, ascending and waving like the light of a 
great house or bonfire in a dark evening about half a mile off, which we 
therefore thought it at first to be ; but soon altered our minds when we saw 
it increasing in breadth, length, and brightness, and pushing forwards, re- 
treating and advancing in the shape of a hroad-sword, and like the shooting 
vibrations of a verv high blaze, until it extended to the point over our heads. 
As it increased in bigness, so did it likewise in the swiftness and fury of its 
motion, and grew by degrees into a bluish, red and fiery color, almost like 
to that of the flame of brimstone. Both the color and figure continually 
changed, I know not how, till at length, on a sudden, it brake forth into the 
appearance of a raging and mighty torrent of bloody waters, that at first 
looked like the sudden giving way of a dam, and the sea bearing all irre- 
sistibly before it. Whereupon all that part of the heavens over us turned of 
an inconceivably bright rainbow color, and immediately run into an admi- 
rable, inexpressible confusion of an infinite variety of motions, that were 
amazingly quick and terrible to behold. 

'* I know not how to give you an idea of this part of the appearance ; 
unless you may conceive something of it by the various and most violent 
motions that are in a great body of waters, when an higher stream happens 
to descend and impetuously rush into another. Sometimes they ran into 
circular forms, sometimes into ovals ; sometimes the circles and ovals were 
variously comprest on their sides by their approaching nearer to one an- 
other, or the greater interflux of the nameless and unknown matter. Some- 
times they ran winding within and hastily pursuing one another in the 
manner of whirlpools, and sometimes they ran roimd and crossed like an 8, 
and in numberless other different figures ; that something resembled the 
various quick and confused rambles of flies in the midst of a room, or of 
spiders on the surface of a pond ; or the perplexing contortions and turn- 
ings of a great heap of living eels just covered with water in-the bottom of a 
boat ; or as the little foldings and ridges at the tops and bottoms of the 
fingers ; or to mention no more comparisons, like the figures it is probable 
you have seen of Cartesius's vortices, 

" All this while, the brightness, bloodiness, and fieriness of the colon 
before mentioned, together with the swiftness of the motions, increased, inso- 
much as we could hardly trace them with our eyes ; till at length almost all 
the whole heavens appeared as if they were set on a flame, which wrought 
and glimmered with flashes in a most dreadful and undescribable manner. 
It seemed to threaten us with an immediate descent and deluge of fire, filled 
the streets with loud and doleful outcries and lamentations, and firighted a 



• Longfellow in N. A. Review, XLV. p. 157. 



I860.] AND THE AURORA AUSTRALIS. 57 

great many people into their houses : and we all began to think whether 
the Son of God was next to make his glorious and terrible appearance, or 
the conflagration of the world was now begun. For the elements seemed 
just as if they were melting with fervent heat, and the ethereal vault to be 
burning over us like the fierce agitations of the blaze in a furnace, or at the 
top of a fiery oven ; and the glimmering light looked as if it proceeded from 
a more glorious body behind, that was approaching nearer and about to make 
its sudden appearance to our eyes. 

" While we expected and wondered what would be the next alteration, 
and dreaded the consequence, all on a sudden the flaming body above us 
brake into innumerable spears of light, that at first darted every way and 
across one another; but in a little while they conformed to the same point 
of motion, and played in a regular and astonishing manner. At first it 
seemed as if the very frame of the world was a dissolving ; but afterwards 
one would have thought that there was a furious battle of invisible spirits, 
that the powers and principalities of the air had broke out into a fierce con- 
tention, and that, transforming themselves into angels of light, they were 
converted into seraphic flames and figures that are said to resemble their 
natures. 

" These distinct and various lights were in the shape of swords, and their 
several bodies did not appear entirely at the same time, but seemed to begin 
at one end and shoot a prodigious way to a sharp point in a moment^like 
one continued blaze of a flying firebrand. As they continually appeared 
and streamed, so they continually vanished like the lucid path of a rocket, 
while others were incessantly making their appearance in different places 
round about. The motion of them all was now pointed upwards, and 
reached some a greater and some a lesser extent ; but none above more 
than from about eight or ten degrees of the horizon to about six or eight from 
the zenith. For the most part they flashed unequally ; but sometimes they 
seemed to begin, shoot and blaze all together, ana made the earth almost as 
light as day. And then their appearance was like a thousand great swords 
or blazing stars shooting upwards from all sides of the hemisphere, but leav- 
ing, where their points ended, a vacant space in the centre of about ten or 
twelve degrees diameter, and sometimes of a roundish and sometimes of 
various multangular figures, directly over our heads. For there seemed to 
be a remarkable part of the heavens above us which they all violently pushed 
at, but could never enter. 

" Thus they continued their exercise for about a quarter of an hour, hut 
decreased by degrees both in number, quickness, and brightness, till they left 
the heavens as they were before, and indeed all the time of this amazing 
appearance almost as clear I think as ever I saw them. It was the more un- 
accoantable and wonderfal that there was no palpable cloud hung over us, 
but we s&^ the stars shining very plainly all the while in the intervals of 
the spears and in the very places where they were, as* soon as ever they van- 
ished ; unless when the brightness of the apparition was so excessive as to 
drown their light." 

I shall arrange what I have to b&j upon the aurora under these differ- 
ent heads. I. Periodicity, geographical extent, and locality of the aurora. 
II. The effects of the aurora, such as its light, sound, smell, magnetic and 
electrical properties. III. Its height and real configuration. TV. Its 
causes. 

I. 1. It is said in Holmes's Annuals,^ that the aurora was first seen in 
New England on December 17, 1719. The author refers to Dr. Trumbuirs 
Century Sermon, preached at New Haven on January 1, 1801, in which 
occnrs the following note : t " The aurora borealis, or northern light, is a 

♦ I. p. 523. t Page 6. 



58 ON THE AURORA BOREALIS [1860. 

new appearance, in the heavens, to this coantrj, pecaliar to the eighteenth 
century. It had been seen in Great Britain, especially in the north of Scot- 
land, for many centaries past, bat even in that country it had not appeared 
for eighty or an hundred years until March 6, 1716. Its first appearance in 
New England was on the 17th of December, 1719. It appears to have been 
a great light, and began about eight oVlock in the evening. It filled the 
country with the greatest alarm imaginable. It was the general opinion that 
it was the sign of the coming of the Son of man in the heavens, and that the 
judgment of the great day was about to commence. According to the ac- 
counts given by the ancient people who were spectators of it, there was 
little sleep in New England tnat night." 

An anonymous account of this aurora by an eyewitness, dated December 
15th, 1719, has. been republished in the Collections of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society.* The author says in the first paragraph, ^* And I hope 
(though I believe I shall differ from some) I shall say nothing that shall be 
inconsistent either with Divinity or Philosophy." The aurora was seen 
from 8 o'clock in the evening, until an hour or two of daybreak the next 
morning. Its appearance at 11 o^clock ''was somewhat dreadful: some- 
times it looked of a fiame, sometimes a blood-red color : and the whole 
N. E. horizon was very light, and looked as though the moon had been near 
her rising." The description ends in these words : ** Thus I have given you 
the best account I am able of this meteor ; which, though very unusual here, 
yet in northern countries more frequent, and seems to me to be what 
our modem philosophers call Aurora Borealis." He adds, after some 
attempt at an explanation, of less value than his observation, "As to 
prognostications from it, I utterly abhor and detest them all, and look 
upon these to be but the effect of ignorance and fancy : for I have not so 
learned philosophy or divinity, as to be dismayed at the signs of heaven : 
this would be to act the part of an heathen, not of a Christian philosopher." 
See Jer. x. 2. 

I would suggest, in this connection, whether the following extracts do not 
indicate the appearance of an aurora in New England at a much earlier date 
than the one commonly assigned to its first appearance : — 

" About midnight three men, coming in a boat to Boston, saw two lights 
arise out of the water near the north point of the town cove, in form like a 
man, and went at a small distance to the town, and to the south point, and 
there vanished away." " The like was seen by many, a week after." In the 
second case : " A light like the moon arose about the N. E. point in Boston, 
and met the former at Nottles Island, — and there they closed in one, and 
then parted, and closed and parted divers times, and so went over the hill in 
the island and vanished. Sometimes they shot out flames, and sometimes 
sparkles."! This was on the 11th and 18th of April, 1643. 

The reader is, no doubt, surprised to learn that the aurora w§8 observed 
for the first time, with the possible exceptions just mentioned, in New Eng- 
land in 1719. For th^nference is that no good example of it had occurred 
since the settlement of the country. The people of New England were too 
much inclined to dwell upon unusual phenomena in the heavens to have 
overlooked or been silent in regai*d to so strange a spectacle as an aurora, 
had they had the opportunity of beholding one. That the aurora had been 
uncommon in old England during the preceding century appears from the 
fact that the great astronomer. Dr. Halley, was, as he says, dying to see one, 
and expected to die without seeing it. At last the opportunity came, on 
March 17, 1716, when Halley was sixty years old. In his description of it J 
he says : ^^ This was the only one I had as yet seen, and of which I began to 



* TT. pp. 17-20. ^ Phil. Trans., XXIX. p. 416. 

t Winthrop'g Hist. of-New England, II. pp. 152, 153. 



I860.] 



AND THE AURORA AUSTRALI8. 



50 



despair, since it is certain it hath not happened to any remarkable degree in 
this part of England since I was born. He adds that the like is not re- 
corded in the English annals since 1574, or for 140 years. It was then seen 
two nights saccessively, on November 14th and 15th. It was not so uncom- 
mon in the reign of (^iieen Elizabeth. It was seen at London on January 
30th, 1560, and on October 7th, 1564. It was seen twice at Brabant, in 1575. 
In Germany, in 1580, it was seen seven times in the space of twelve months. 
In 1621 it appeared in France, and was described by Gassendi under the 
name of Aurora Borealis. Though it was seen, on the last occasion, at 
Rouen and Paris, and in the northerly part of the horizon, it was not ob« 
served in England, so &r as Halley knew. Since then, for eighty years, no 
account of it, at home or abroad, could be found by Halley, although the 
Philosophical Transactions had been published for half that period. 
Mairan's very laborious researches, however, have since accumulated 176 
recorded appearances in Europe, between 1621 and 1716. But the same 
researches have collected 1,118 exhibitions for the thirty-five years fol- 
lowing 1716, and only 98 for the thirty-five preceding years. Of these 
appearances, 116 were in a single year (1730), and 100 in another single 
year (1732). In the year 1699, which belongs to the period of infrequent 
auroras, there were 40, although for the few years preceding and following 
they were very rare. 

Notwithstanding this infrequency of the aurora in England for a long 
period prior to 1716, John Huxham observed it at Plymouth in eighty-one 
instances between 1728 and 1748."^ Celsius says that it was also rare in 
Sweden before 1716, although between 1716 and 1732 there are found 316 
observations of it, and 224 independent appearances. Kirch has collected 
106 appearances of the aurora at Berlin, between the years 1707 and 1735. 
Weidler has made a list of 95 appearances at Wittemberg, in Saxony, be- 
tween 1730 and 1751. Delisle has furnished a record of 233 appearances 
at St. Petersburg between 1726 and 1737. Zanotti and Beccari have 
found 52 appearances in Bologna, or other parts of Italy, between the years 
1727 and 1751, and 36 more of doubtful cases. Zanotti, in a description of 
an aurora which was seen in Italy, as well as in England, on December 5, 
1737, remarks : " The Aurora Borealis which was formerly a rare phenom- 
enon and almost unknown in this our climate (Italy), is now become very 
frequent. A great number have been observed for some years past." t In 
1737 Thomas Short speaks of tlie current year as ''having been the most 
irregularly constituted year of any in my time : not one month but what had 
the weather of all the seasons, and that not by gradual transitions, but by 
sudden jerks ; '* and then says : " I shall only add that our northern 
lights have been much seldomer and fainter both in appearance and mo- 
tion than formerly : and whether they will dwindle away and vanish wholly 
for some years, or whether they have had their former periodic returns, is 
not certain.** J 

This periodicity in the occurrence of the aurora, which seems to be indi- 
cated by what has gone before, was confirmed by the comprehensive review 
of the subject which Mairan took in his Traitd Physique et Historique de 
VAurore Bor^aU^ published by the French Academy, first in 1731, and a 
second edition in 1754. Mairan was incited to his great labor by the re- 
markable aurora of October 19, 1726. Mairan has collected 1,441 ap- 
pearances, as has already been mentioned (2,137 recorded cases, of which 
some are duplicates), between the year 583 and the year 1751, and he 
makes out twenty-two unusual epochs of returning frequency in the course 
of that long interval. 

* Amer. Joiirn. of Sci., XXXI] I. p. 297. 
t lb. pp. 605*690. 



t Pbi]. Trans., XU. p. 593. 



60 ON THE AURORA BOREALIS [1860. 

I will now consider how the obserrations of the last hundred jears bear 
upon this question of periodicity. Dalton has collected two hundred and 
twenty-seven appearances of the aurora in Kendall and Keswick, between the 
years 1 787 and 1 793, of which only twenty-nine are duplicates. * In Dalton's 
catalogue t of auroras observed in Great Britain and Ireland between 1793 
and 1834, only sixty-five occurred before 1820, and one hundred and twenty 
between 1820 and 1834. If a comparison were made in regard to the num- 
bers of brilliant auroras, the disparity is still more in favor of the latter period. 
Between 1806 and 1827, a remarkable aurora was observed only nineteen 
times, and not at all in the years 1807, 1809, 1810, 1811, 1812, 1813, 1815, 
1822, 1823, and 1824. In 1817 and 1820 there were brilliant or extensive 
auroras. On the other hand, from 1827 to 1834, a much shorter period, the 
aurora was observed one hundred and eleven times, and thirty-two times in 
one year (1830). In this latter period eight are designated as grand^ and 
many others as Jine. Singer says, in his Elements of Electricity,' published 
in 1814, that the aurora was then rarely visible in England. | . 

This, in fine, is the European history of the aurora for the last three cen- 
turies. For ten years in the neighborhood of 1560, it was common. Then 
an interval of forty years with scarcely any. About 1620 there were several. 
Then another intermission for eighty years. Next the eighteenth century 
abounds in them. In 1707 they were seen in Ireland, Copenhagen, and 
Berlin. In 1708 they were seen in London. In 1710 they were seen in 
Leeds. In 1716 they were seen in England, and then several times again 
before 1723, when they were visible even at Bologna. In 1726 there was an 
aurora which excited Mairan to his great undertaking. In 1736 Maupertuis 
saw one at Oswer Zomea, which he thus describes : " I saw a phenomenon of 
this kind that, in the midst of all the wonders to which I was now every day 
accustomed, excited my admiration. An extensive region towards the south 
appeared tinged of so lively a red that the constellation Orion seemed to be 
dyed in blood. This light was for some time fixed : but soon moved, and 
after having successively assumed all the tints of violet and blue, it formed a 
dance of which the summit nearly approached the zenith in the southwest 
In this country, where there are lights of so many different colors, I never 
saw but two that were red, and such are always taken for presages of some 
great misfortune." In 1765 there was another red aurora. Another was 
seen in France and Pennsylvania in 1769. In 1814 an aurora with a bright 
arch was seen all over Great Britain. In 1825, 1827, 1828, 1831, 1833, 1835, 
1836, 1837, 1839, 1843, 1847, and 1848, there were splendid auroras visible 
in Europe.^ It has been concluded, therefore, from European observations, 
that there is a secular periodicity to the aurora. " A period of this kind is 
comprised between 1707 and 1790: it attained its maximum about 1752; 
there was then a series of twenty years during which they were more rare, 
but from the year 1820 they have again become more common." || When, 
in September, 1827, a bright aurora was witnessed in Paris, it was stated, by 
Arago, that none had been seen there before for twenty years. 

It may be interesting to inquire how the case stands in the western hemi- 
sphere. I have mentioned the surprise excited by the aurora of 1719 in New 
England. After that there are scattered accounts of die aurora during nearly 
the remainder of the century. Mr. Greenwood,ir then HoUis Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Harvard College, described one 
which was seen in 1730, at Cambridge. His successor, Professor John Win- 
ihrop,** records nine exhibitions of it between 1741 and 1767. Mr. Caleb 
Gannett has described an aurora, accompanied by the eastern and western 

* Met. Ob; and Essays, p. 54. t lb., p. 248. t P. 253. 

f Thomp8oii»8 Met., p. 350, &c. |J Kaeintz's Met., p. 458. 

IT Phil. Trans. Abridg., VI. p. 115. *♦ Amer. Journ. of Scl., XL. p. 204. 



I860.] AND TB£ AURORA AUSTHALIS. 61 

arch, 'wbich was -seen at Cambridge on March 27. 1781.^ Mr. Manasseh 
Cntler noticed the aurora repeatedly at Ipswich in 1781.t Auroras were 
seen at Salem, November 17 and 24, 1720, January 1, and October 2, 1728, 
and an extraordinary one October 22, 1730. On December 29, 1736 (prob- 
ably), Dr. Holyoke saw an aurora of which he says: "The first aurora 
borealis I ever saw. The northern sky appeared suffused by a dark blood- 
red colored vapor, without any variety of different colored rays. I have 
never seen the like. Northern lights were then a great novelty, and excited 
great wonder and terror." On August 6, 1768, a bright streak of light ex- 
tended from the west-northwest to the southeast, almost as bright as a rain- 
bow. On July 19, 1769, there was an aurora of unusual brightness.^ On 
April 21, 1750, the aurora was seen as far south as Charleston, S. C. " We 
had a most extraordinary appearance of the aurora borealis. One half of the 
sky seemed like a beautiful streaked liquid flame, lo terrible to many of the 
female inhabitants that some of them were thrown into fits." § 

It is well known that Dr. Holyoke, of Salem, kept a Meteorological Journal 
from 1754 to 1828. That part which relates to the weather has already been 
published in the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 
Boston. I have consulted the manuscript records of Dr. Holyoke, which he 
presented to the Academy, and have selected from them all the instances he 
has recorded of auroras observed by him. Unfortunately, the copy which 
the Academy possesses is not the original, until the year 1786 ; and, being 
prepared for a special purpose, does not contain any record of auroral ap- 
pearances before 1786. But the Academy possesses the original manuscript 
Journal of Meteorology kept at Cambridge by Professor John Winthrop, 
from 1742 to 1779; and also that of Professor Edward Wigglesworth, kept 
at Cambridge from 1782 to 1793 ; and that of Dr. Enoch Hale, kept at Bos- 
ton from 1818 to 1848. In all these Journals, except the last, the auroras are 
noted with great care ; and all together cover more than a century, in which 
only two years are wanting, namely, 1780 and 1781. From this storehouse 
I have been able to collect 501 recorded examples of auroras, of which only 
92 are duplicates, leaving 409 independent auroras, of which 400 have never 
before appeared in print Professor Winthrop has recorded 116 exhibitions 
of the aurora. Professor Wigglesworth 123, and Dr. Holyoke 262. As 
these observations have been made at two places only a dozen miles apart, 
they are strictly comparable with each other, and furnish an almost uninter- 
rupted record of the aurora for one hundred years in this immediate vicinity. 
The result of my discussion of these observations is, that during the thirty- 
three years from 1793 to 1827 there were only 17 recorded examples of the 
anrora. For the thirty-three years preceding 1 793 there were 336 ; and in 
several instances, a single year of the latter epoch furnishes more cases than 
the whole of the former epoch ; and in one year (1789) there are more than 
twice as many exhibitions of the aurora as in the whole thirty-three years 
next preceding 1827. Further details will appear in Volume VIII. of the 
Memoirs of the Academy. 

Professor C Dewey, then of Williams College, observed auroras, in 1818, 
on May 23 and 28 ; also from June 6th to 10th, on September 24 and 25, 
and October 6 and 7. || 

The examination of Dr. Holyoke^s Journal furnishes positive testimony in 
favor of a conclusion which had been adopted already from negative evidence ; 
the absence, that is, of any description of remarkable auroras during the 
present century before 1827, although the Memoirs of the American Academy 
and the Transactions of the Philosophical Society, and, after 1818, Silliman's 



* Mem. Amer. Acad., II. p. 13B. f lb*, I. p> 366. 

t Pelt's Hist, of Salem, It. p. 137. $ <Sent. Mag., XX. p. 418, and XXI. p^39. 

{ Mem. Amer. Acad., IV. p. 391. 

6 



€2 ON THB AUBOSA BOBBALXS [18^. 

Journal, were in existence, and would fombh a proper medinm for any sach 
description. Tlierefore, as Olmsted remarks, " the splendid arch and other 
striking accompaniments of the aurora of August, 1827, took us by surprise, 
and were viewed with wonder by nearly all the existing generation of the 
countries where it was visible." * Mr. Felt says it caused much apprehension 
lest the end of all things had come. The arch which signalized this aurora 
had been seen by Dr. Holyoke, who was then ninety-nine years old, only twice 
before, namelj, in 1755 and 1769. The sight of a magnificent aurora was so 
unusual that in August, 1827, the bells were rung in Salem to call attention 
to it. On the contrary, for a period of seventeen years succeeding 1831, 
780 anroras were visible in the State of New York, of which 10 were of the 
highest order, and 35 others only a little inferior. In the single year 1840, 
there were seen 75 anroras. In 1838, there were 42 in all, and 7 of a high 
order. This period of brilliant auroras still continues : there were four in 
1847 and in 1848, three in September, 1851, one in February, 1852, two in 
1853, and those of August 28 and 29, and of September 2, 1859. 

The discussion of the American anroras leads to the same general conclu- 
sion as is suggested by the European observations : namely, that there is a 
sectdar periodicity, consisting of twienty years or more of abundant exhibitions, 
separated by intervals, equally long or longer, when the phenomenon, if not 
wholly wanting, is unaccompanied by any of its more striking characteristics. 
Though there is a general parallelism in the fiicts collected on the two con- 
tinents, the correspondence is not probably so exact as to allow us to disre- 
gard in this discussion geographical locality altoge^er. 

The question has also been entertained, whether there were indications of 
a yearly and (kdly period in the exhibitions of the aurora. Mairan states that 
out of the 1,441 appearances of the aurora which he collected between the 
years 583 and 1751, 972 were in the six months following October I, and 
469 in the remainder of the year. Olmsted states that of the 780 auroras 
observed during the seventeen years between 1832 and 1848 inclusive, 346 
were in the winter half of the year and 434 in the summer half Out of 3S6 
auroras observed by Professor Winthrop and Dr. Holyoke at Cambridge or 
Salem between 174^ and 1827, the winter half of the year claims only 174 
and the summer half 212. 

Mr. Olmsted remarks : " In regard, however, to intensity , the balance has 
always been in favor of autumn, the greatest auroras having been most nu- 
merous in September and November, (August, also ?) while they have never 
occurred in June ; but in respect to number, the balance between the seasons 
of late years has been just the opposite of what it was a centnry ago, the 
minimum instead of the maximum number having of late occurred during 
the winter months ; and this is the more remarkable, since the greater length 
of the winter nights wonld, of itself, lead us to expect a greater number of 
auroras at this season of the year." And in a note : " Great auroras about 
the middle of November in 1574, 1607, 1835, 1837, 1840, 1841, 1844, and 
1848." 

In regard to the diurnal periodicity , the general fact is observable, that, 
although grand auroras, as tnat for example of August 28, 1859, may last 
through me whole night, generally the aurora dies out before midnight; 
and even the best displays usually attain their maximum before 10 and 11 
o'clock. 

2. Next, as to the geographical relations of the aurora. And first, its area 
of visibility. The aurora of September 12, 1621, was seen in France, Ven- 
ice, and Syria. The aurora of October 19, 1726, was seen at Moscow^ 
Petersburg, Warsaw, Rome, Naples, Madrid, Lisbon, and perhaps Cadiz, t 
That of January 5, 1769, was seen in Pennsylvania and France. % The arch 



• SmiMi. Oontr., YIII. p. C t J>sltra'f Metaorology, p. 990. t Kaemts'f Mot., p. 456. 



I860.] AND THE AURORA ATTSTRALIfl. 69 

of August 28, 1827, was seen in New England and in Scotland. The auroras 
of 1830 and 1831 were common to Europe and America."*!^ The aurora of 
Kovember 7, 1835, was seen from Montreal to Mississippi, and from New 
England to Cincinnati Those of January 7, 1831, Febmarv, 1837, and 
September 3, 1839, were visible in Europe and America. The splendid 
aurora of May 27, 1841, was seen at Cambridge, Philadelphia, New Maven, 
Toronto in Canada, and Greenwich in Great Britain. The aurora of No- 
vember 17, 1848, was witnessed in Asia, Europe, and America ; in Odessa 
in the east, and San Francisco in the west. Difference of latitude has more 
effect upon the appearance than difference of longitude. The auroral dis- 
plays of August and September, 1859, were witnessed in England, Germany, 
Italy, as well as throughout the central and southern portions of North 
America. Humboldt remarks : ** Many nights may be instanced in which 
the phenomenon has been simultaneously observed in England and in 
Pennsylvania, in Rome and in Pekin.'^f 

Another circumstance to be mentioned in connection with the geographical 
characteristics of the aurora is, that it becomes more frequent as the mag- 
netic latitude increases, and in Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland, on the 
shores of the Slave Lake, and in Northern Canada, it is of nightly occurrence 
at certain seasons of the year. Lottin and his scientific associates observed, 
in the winter of 1888-39, in Finmark, in 10^ north latitude, 151 displays 
in 201 nights, t Scoresby says that in Iceland the aurora may be seen 
almost every clear night in winter. Franklin had 142 examples of it in six 
months in the Arctic sea. 

As the frequency of the exhibition increases with the proximity of the 
observer to the magnetic, and not to the geographical pole, auroras abound 
(according to Scoresby, who observed there in 1822) between the parallels 
of 62^ and 70^. It is not seen best in the very highest latitudes. As 
the longitude of the magnetic pole is about 97 W. from Greenwich, places in 
America are nearer to it than places in Europe on the same parallel. Ac- 
cordingly the aurora is less frequently seen in Italy than in parts of the 
United States in the same latitude. Erman states that the aurora is not 
common at Tobolsk ; he thinks the double magnetic pole affects the position 
of it. 4 The aurora is more frequent in New England than in Great Britain, 
though the latter is 10^ farther north. The^ greatest number Dalton ob- 
serve in England in one year was 30, in the year 1830. In Massachusetts 
there were 56 observed in the same year. || 

3. At the beginning of the seventeenth centnry, Gassendi gave the name 
of Aurora Borealis to the appearances under consideration, because of the 
auroral light and the position of the meteor in the northern point of the hori- 
zon. Although the lights may begin at the north, they frequently extend 
round to the east and west and up to the zenith, and, continuing down to the 
south, inflame the whole firmament. Parry noticed that on one occasion the 
aurora was more remarkable at the south than at the opposite point of the 
horizon. Captain John Ross relates that, in 1818, while his ships were 
moving south from the parallel of 74^ to 66^, he observed the aurora to be 
in the southern parts of the horizon ; but when the ship was sonth of 66^ 
then the aurora appeared in tlie. northerly parts of the horizon. If the aurora 
borealis culminates at the magnetic pole, we might expect such a transition 
of the maximum splendor from the southern to the northern point of the 
horizon as Ross describes. 

Corresponding to the Aurora Borealis in the northern hemisphere, there 
is the Aurora Australis in the southern hemisphere {SUdlichier of the Grer- 
mans). Forster, who accompanied Captain Cook IT to the South Seas, says 



• Amer. Joum. Science, XXII. p. 143. t Coemoe, I. p. 193. 

' Voyages, &c., p. 543. « Travels in Siberia, I. p. 394 and p. 470. 

Amer. Joani. Science, XX. p. 979. if Voyage, &e. Preface, Ixv. 



J 



64 OV THS AURORA BORBALIS [1860. 

that no one before Captain Cook and himself had noticed it Thej saw it 
in 1773, when between 58° and 60° of south latitude, on February 18, and 
again on six other nights between that date and March 16th. In 1745 it 
was seen off Cape Horn by Utloa, and described to Mairan in a letter ; pos- 
sibly it was also seen in 1712.* The Aurora AustraUs was seen in 1820 by 
SimanoiF, astronomer to Bellinghansen's expedition, t It was seen repea^ 
edly by Commander James C. IU)ss X in his Antarctic expedition in the years 
1839-43, and also by Captain Charles Wilkes in the United States Explor- 
ing Expedition." § The Aurora AustraUs is better seen in the latitude of 
68° than farther south. If no account can be found of an aurora austraUs 
comparable with the richer examples of aurora borealis, the want may be 
explained by the fact that observers approach the high latitudes of the south- 
em hemisphere but seldom, and then only in the southern summer^ the 
short nights of which are unfavorable for any grand display. 

The Aurora AustraUs was observed by Dalton in England || and the Au- 
rora Borealis has been seen as far south as Mexico and Peru. ^ On January 
14, 1831, Lafonde, when in latitude of 45° south, and in the longitude of the 
centre of New Holland, saw a brilliant aurora in the northern part of the 
horizon, which he described to Arago. ** 

II. Effects of the Aurora. 1. The brightness of the auroral light may be 
judged from the &ct that it is sometimes seen in the daytime. " Lowenom, 
on June 29, 1786, recognized the coruscation of the polar light in bright sun- 
shine." ft Parry aOw the great arch of a northern light continue throughout 
the day.|| Perhaps the arch seen at noon in England on September 9, 1827, 
was of the same kind, as an aurora followed it in the evening.f^ Bichardson 
saw, near Bear Lake, the pulsations of the aurora before the end of daylight: 
during the day he had noticed clouds assuming the form of the auroral 
arches and columns. Graham, at Aberfoyle, in Perthshire, observed the same 
thing on Eebmary 10, 1799. He says, the coruscations were as instanta* 
neons and as distinctly perceptible as in th6 night. |il| Ussher, after describing 
the aurora of May 24, 1788, adds, that on the next day he saw white rays 
ascend from all points of the horizon to the pole of dip, where they formed a 
crown similar to that of brilliant nocturnal auroras.^ Col. Force, in his 
Record of Auroral Phenomena has adduced another example of an aurora seen 
in the daytime, about 1806. At 11 o'clock, observers were astonished to see 
the streaks and flashes of the aurora borealis, occupying the same place that 
they had done the night before.*** 

The observations made very near the magnetic poles do not indicate that 
the light is n\pre intense or frequent there than at some distance from them. 
In Hudson's Bay the brightness of the northern lights is equal to that of a full 
moon, and in Lapland and Sweden they enliven and illuminate the path of the 
traveller. Keiguelen describes the night as being as brilliant as the day in 
north lat 50°. The auroras are in oriental magnificence, " the heavens being 
on fire with flames of red and white light, changing to columns and arches, 
and at length confounded in a brilliant chaos of cones, pyramids, radii, sheaves, 
arrows, And globes of fire." On September 3, 1839, the aurora was so bril- 
liant at New Orleans as to call out the firemen with their engines. Mr. 
Thompson, after describing the blood-colored aurora of March 26, 1847, the 
light of which was brilliant in London, says : "And such was the vigilance of 
the metropolitan firemen, that upon tills, as on other occasions, they set out 
to extinguish the aurora." ttt 

* Mairan, p. 441. f Edin. Joum. Science, T. p. 347. 

t A Voyage, &c., I. pp. 166, S61, 265, S83, 311; 11. 209, 214, 358, 368. 

I I. p. 151, and II. 323, 398, 360. || Phil. Trans., No. 461. lb., zliv. 

IT Humboldt's Cosmos, I. p. 193. ** (Euvres de Arago. — Notic Sci., I. p. 600. 

tt Humb. Cosmos, I. p. 190. ft Joum. of a Second Voyage, 1831-3, p. 156. 

i^ Joum. R. Inst.. 1828, p. 4S9. nil Trans. Soc. Roy. Edin., V. 

Ifir Trans. Irish Acad., II. p. 189. •** Smith. Contr., VHI, p. 3. 

ttt Introd. to Met, p. 356. 



I860.] AND THE AURORA AU6TRALIS. 65 

To ascertain whether the light of the aurora is direct or reflected light, 
physicists have resorted to the test of polarization. Although Arago had 
found slight traces of polarization in an aurora, and Baudriment claimed the 
same result for the aurora of October 22, 1839, Arago still hesitated to say 
that the light was reflected, on account of the possibility of foreign light 
being mixed with it, or the auroral light itself being reflected after it left the 
aurora.^ Biot attempted in vain to find traces of polarization in the light of 
the aurora seen by him at the Shetland Islands, August 27, 1817.t Brewster 
stated to the British Association in 1837 that the light of the aurora was not 
reflected. Henry, | in 1839, failed to find any evidence of polarization either 
with Savart's or Arago's polariscope. Rankine made a more decisive ex- 
periment of a positive character. Having failed to get any sign of polariza- 
tion in the direct rays of the aurora, he next examined the auroral beams 
when reflected from the surface of water, and found that the light was bright 
enough to show traces of polarization. § He used a NicoFs prism. 

2. The aurora was first known simply by its light. In 1740, two Swedish 
, observers, Celsius and Hiorter, observed at Upsal that, during the exhibition 

of the aurora, magnetic needles were agitated in a way not observed when 
the needles were made of any unmagnetic substance, as copper. Wargentin, 
in 1750, made a similar observation. Since then the same thing has been 
noticed by Van Swinden, Bergman, Biot, Gay-Lussac, Hansteen, Dalton, 
and too many others to be specially mentioned. Back observed, on one oc- 
casion, a change of 8° in the declination. These disturbances by the aurora 
are felt- not in the declination only, but also in the dip and intensity of mag- 
netic force. Examples of this association between the aurora and magnetism 
have been given in the Almanac for 1857, page 84. Dalton says, '* I have 
never observed any considerable fluctuation of the needle in any evening 
but when there was an aurora visible, except once."|| The large magnetic 
disturbances observed at Cambridge, IT. S-, in May and August, 1841, were 
accompanied with brilliant displays of the aurora.^ 

Arago has studied this relation with great assiduity, and discovered, as 
early as 1819, that the influence of auroras upon the magnetic needle 
extends to places which their light does not reach ; so that an aurora seen 
in the north of Europe, or even in the Southern Ocean, telegraphs itself on 
invisible wires to Paris. The fact that Foster, at Port Bowen, living in the 
very beams of the aurora, saw no agitation of the magnetic needle, is explained 
by the general irregularity of magnetism at that place, or by the disturbance 
being adapted there to act on dip^ and not on declination. 

3. The electrical effects of the auroral flashes are next to be mentioned. 
These are not of a statical^ but a dynamical kind. The statical electrical 
state of the air has been examined, and generally nothing unusual has been 
found at the time of an aurora. However, on November 17, 1848, (during an 
aurora at Pisa,) Matteucci observed decided signs of statical positive electricity 
in the air. Cavallo informs us that the aurora did not afl^ect his experiments 
with the electrical kite, but that Canton frequently collected electricity in a 
considerable degree, on such occasions, by means or an insulated rod."^ But 
the flashing of the auroral beams produces the same electrical current in- 
duction in the telegraph wires as is produced by lightning, only more per- 
sistently and regularly, on account of the rapid succession of the flashes. 
This fact was observed in this country on March 19, 1847, also in September, 
1 85 1 , and in February and April, 1 852 . The aurora of last August interfered 
with the telegraphic operators in Canada and New England so seriously as 



♦ (Euvres, 8. N., I. p. 603. f Precis. Elemen. de Phyg. Exp., II. p. 100. 

t Amer. Journ. Sci., XXXIX. p. 366. $ Phil. Mag., IV. P- 452. 

(1 Met. Essays, p. 73. IT Mem. Amer. Acad., II. p. 54. 



*• Cavallo on Elec, I. 75 and II. 38. 

6* 



6$ ON THS AUBOBA B0BSAZJ8 [1860. 

to delay the transmission of the news bj the steamer Indian. ** On the wires 
between Portland and Boston the operators were enabled to hold conversa- 
tions, and transmit and receive business, on the current induced by the 
auroral waves, the usual batteries being disconnected from the wires." 
Between the Cambridge Observatory and Congress Street, Boston, the wire 
of the Messrs. Bo^ was traversed by waves of a minute in duration. The 
effect was observed even in the daytime. The semi-weekly New York 
Evening Post of September 28, 1859, has the following paragraph : — 

'' The splendid auroral display of the night of Sunday, August 28th, was 
witnessed throughout Germany, where also, as well as in other parts of 
Europe, its peculiar freaks with the electric telegraph were observed. This 
was particularly the case at Olmutz, Vienna, Oldenburg, Parduwitz, Cracow, 
and Brussels. The operators at Antwerp were aroused from their slumbers 
by the ringing of the signal-bells. At Paris, London, and Berlin, commu- 
nications were interrupted till 1.30 a.h., while the submarine line between 
Dover and Ostend remained undisturbed. The anrora was also seen at 
Rome and other parts of Italy." 

The telegraphic engineer of the London and North Western Railway has 
commented upon a remarkable effect upon the telegraphic wires by the 
anrora of November 17, 1848. He says, ''A telegraph passing through 
Watford Tunnel, (1,600 metres in length,) the wires of which extended out 
400 metres at one end, and 800 at the other end, was put hors de combat for 
three hours.*' * He adds that such an action of the aurora is common ; that 
it is sometimes manifested in the daytime when the anrora is not visible. 
On the same occasion (November, 1848) Matteucci states that the operators 
at the telegraph office in Pisa were surprised to find the armatures cling to 
the magnets of the registers on the line from Florence to Pisa ; though the 
apparatus was in good order, no messages could be sent, even when the 
battery was increased. Occasionally the armature would drop and tbe pen 
would strike, but the manipulation was performed by the aurora.t 

4. It has long been under discussion whether the aurora was audible as 
well as visible. All may not be satisfied with the satirical remark of Hum- 
boldt in his Cosmos: ''Northern lights appear to have become less noisy 
since their occurrences have been more accurately recorded."^ Some com- 
pare the noise to the rustling of silk stuff; others to the crack of the electric 
spark ; and many to the noise of a roaring fire. 

Gmelin, the botanist, describes the splendid exhibitions of aurora he had 
witnessed in Siberia as follows : " It begins with solitary pillars of light, 
rising in the north and almost at the same time in the northeast, which, 
gradually swelling, at last comprehend a large part of the firmament, rush 
about from place to place with incredible velocity, and finally cover the whde 
sky up to the zenith, and produce ^e impression of a vast tent hung in the 
heavens, and glittering with gold, rubies, and sapphire. A more beautiful 
spectacle cannot be imagined. But whoever should see such a northern 
light for the first time could not behold it without terror. So constandv 
accompanied is it, as I have been informed by several intelligent persons^ witk 
hissings and cracklings like those of fireworks. The hunters who go in 
search of the blue fox to the confines of the Frozen Ocean are frequently 
surprised by the unexpected appearance of this meteor; their dogs are 
frightened by it to such a degree that they fall to the ground and will not 
move till the noise has ceased." § The inhabitants have a phrase to express 
this particular noise, which translated means, " The raging host is passing." 
Cavallo, referring to the aurora, says : ** Sometimes these coruscations, 



♦ Arago, CEuvres, Notic. Sci., I. p. 705. 

t Rive, Elec, III. p. S86. Arago, N. S., I. 702. 

X Cosmos, I. p. 194. $ Voyage en Siberie, IE. p. 31. Reise durch Siberien, III. p. 135. 



IB60.] ASD THE AUBOKA AU8TBALI8. 67 

when strong, are accompanied with a sort of crackling noise distinctly, as I 
remember to have heard it more than once/' * In the Edinbargh Encyclo- 
psedia we read : " When the anrora appears low, a crack is heard like that of 
the electrical spark. The Greenlanders think that the souls of the dead are 
beating the air."t Edmonston, in an account of a remarkable aurora which 
he observed at Unst, on November 1, 1818, states as follows : " I am now in 
company with two credible persons who, on a vovage from London to the 
Shetland Islands, were driven by winds to the latitude of 63^°, near the 
northernmost extremity of the island. While they were in this latitude an 
anrora borealis appeared; the noise with which it was accompanied was 
anch that the sailors were afraid to remain on deck." 

Edmonston said to Biot that he had himself frequently heard the noise, 
and thought it most like that proceeding from a large fire. Belknap wrote in 
1783, from Dover, N. H., to the Philosophical Society in Philadelphia as 
follows : '^ Did you ever, in observing the Aurora Borealis, perceive a sound ? 
I own I once looked on the idea as frivolous and chimerical, having heard 
it at first from persons whose credulity I supposed exceeded their jndgQient.'* 
He adds, that two years before, while listening to the flashing of a luminous 
arch, he thought he ** heard a faint rustling noise like the brushing of silk." 
Last Saturday evening, he adds, I had fiHl anricular demonstration of the 
reality of this phenomenon. | 

Murray says : we ** can remember, in our boyish days, to have heard this 
sound most distinctly, while numbers in Scotland can attest the same thing, 
— a species of fanning sound, like a thin curtain waving in the breeze." § 
Kamm, inspector of the forests in Norway, wrote to Hansteen under date of 
1825, that, ^' in the year 1766, 1767, or 1768, he heard the noise of the aurora 
borealis. Ramm, who was then only ten years old, remarked this efiect 
while traversing .a prairie in which there was no forest. The ground was 
covered with snow and hail. The noise always coincided with the appear- 
ance of the luminous jets." 1| Wargentin states that two of his pupils. Dr. 
Gisler and Hellant, who inhabited for a long time the north of Sweden, re- 
lated to the Academy of Stockholm that " the matter of the aurora borealis 
descends so low sometimes as to touch the ground : on the summit of high 
mountains it produces on the body of the traveller an e£fect like that of the 
wind.'* 

Dr. Gisler adds, *' that he has frequently heard the noise of the aurora. The 
noise resembles that of a strong wind, or the noise that some chemical sub- 
stances make in the act of decomposition." Olmsted states that on one 
occasion his pupils thought they detected a noise proceeding from an aurora, 
bat he found that they heard the same sound on the next night, when there 
was no aurora. T In 1737, and on several occasions since, it was urged that 
a smell could be perceived in the aurora.** 

Besides this positive testimony, we have that of Parrot, Nairne, Abrahamson, 
Brooke, Dr. Henderson in Iceland, Jameson in Shetland and on the main- 
land of Scotland, and Heame at the mouth of the Coppermine Kiver. This 
jBound is said to have been heard in Connecticut in 1781 or 1782,tt and in 
the fine display of aurora on August 28, 1827, it was mentioned as having 
been heard in Rochester and Utica, N. Y., and also in New Haven, Conn ^ 

Muschenbroek reports from the last century that the same fact is generally 
affirmed by sailors employed in the whale fishery on the coast of Greenland. 
Biot afi^rms that among the inhabitants of the Shetland Islands the testimony 

* Elements of Nat. Phil., III. p. 445. t X. 488. | Trang., II. p. 196. 

' A Treatiae on Atmos. Elec, p. 41. 
Phil. Mag. for 1896, p. 177. Arago, Notic. ScL, p. 556. 
Smith. Contr., Vllf. p. 30. „^„ ^ ^^ , 

** Amer. Joiim. Sci., VIII. p. 392. Arago, N. 8., I. p. 558. Phil. Train., XLI. p. 593. 
tt Ciibd by Thompeon. tt SiHiman'i Joum., XIV. 101. 



{ 



68 OK THE AUBORA B0REALI8 - [1860. 

was no less fall and complete. Sir John Bichardson, who accompanied Sir 
John Franklin to the Polar Seas, relates that the natives of these northern 
shores, Crees, Copper Indians and Esquimaux, with the older residents in 
that country, testified that sound was emitted during the display of auroral 
lights. Hansteen observes : *' We have so many certain accounts of the noise 
attending the polar lights, that the negative experience of southern nations 
cannot l^ brought in opposition to our positive knowledge.""^ And Biot, in 
view of facts like these, observes : '* I am well aware how little reliance is to 
be placed on common opinion under curcumstances calculated to inspire ter- 
ror, or when influenced by the frightful appearance of rapid and unexpected 
commotions : but the assertions thus made, like all others, possess a degree 
of credibility ; and if it is unphilosophical to believe without proof, it is 
equally so to reject without examination ; *' and again : " If any one will 
inquire, without bias or prepossession, into the reality of the sounds alleged 
to proceed from the Aurora Borealis, I am persuaded that he will not hesi- 
tate to adopt the common opinion, so striking is the coincidence of testimony 
on this subject.'* And still again : '^It seems probable, after this mass of 
testimony, that the meteor sometimes descends so low as to allow us to hear 
the noise proceeding from it." t 

The alleged reality of these auroral sounds has been questioned on the 
following grounds : Arago quotes Patrin, who passed nine winters in different 
parts of Siberia, and saw very beautiful auroras without hearing any soand 
from them. Patrin remarks that, "neither Bishop Eggede, who lived 
fifteen years in Greenland, of which he has given the natural history and 
meteorology, nor the pastor Horrebow, who has described 116 aurorse bore- 
ales which he observed in Iceland, make any mention of these noises and 
cracklings." J 

Lieutenant Hood, who accompanied Franklin to the Arctic regions, ob- 
serves : " We repeatedly heard a hissing noise, like that of a musket-bullet 
passing through the air, which seemed to proceed from the aurora, but Dr, 
Went^ assured us that the noise was occasioned by severe cold succeeding 
mild weather, and acting upon the surface of the snow previously melted in 
the sun's rays. The temperature was then — 35°, and on the two preceding 
days it had been above zero." The same sound was heard the next day, 
when there was no aurora. 

Sir John Franklin himself relates that, at Cumberland House in latitude 
of 54° north, the aurora was displayed almost every evening, but no noise 
was heard even when it was most active. The residents at the factory, how- 
ever, assured him that it was frequently attended by a rustling sound. But 
it is so natural to associate the idea of noise with that of a rapid motion, that 
observers might easily be carried away by the delusion. Captain Lyon has 
said : " It is impossible to obsdi've the sudden apparition and the great motion 
of masses of light such as compose the aurora, without imagining that they 
are accompanied with a certain rustling : I am convinced, however, that the 
sound is an illusion. I have frequently remained upon the ice, far from onr 
ships, for hours, with a view of verifying, without having heard anything." § 

I)e la Rive has the following passage: '*Necker, who has described a 
great number of auroras which he observed in 1839-40, in the Isle of Sky, in 
Scotland, never heard the noise. But he remarks that the noise has been 
heard very frequently by a person in charge of the meteorological observa- 
tions at the lighthouse of Swenburghead (at the southern extremity «of 
Shetland). |i Siljestrom one of the Commission Scientijique du Nord, says : 
" As to the pretended noise, I cannot deny it. But there is reason to snspect 
an illusion easily explained. In fact, seeing the whole heavens covered with 



* See Thompson's Met. t Precis. Element, de Pbyt. Exper., II. 

* Bibl. Brit., XLV. p. 89. Arago, (Buvres, Notic. Sci., I. p. 559. 
Private Journal, p. 100. || Electricity, III. p. 285. 



I 



I860.] AND THE AUROBA AUBTliAJLUK 69 

flames, as happens in the finest auroras, and beholding the changeable lights 
and the rays rapidly darting, it seems to me natural that the spectator (espe- 
cially if not accustomed to precise observations upon nature) should be fed 
into error, so that in the appearance of fire he should imagine the crackling, 
and thus refer to the ear what he has discovered by the eye. The illusion, 
once entertained, would spread rapidly.=i^ 

Martins adds : " On returning to France, through Lapland and Sweden, 
Bravais and myself inquired of all the intelligent persons that we met. To 
our question. Have you heard the noise of the auroras boreales ? their 
answer was almost luways affirmative; but when we inquired what the 
nature of this noise was, we obtained the most contradictory replies. When 
we insisted on the possibility of confounding it with the noise of the wind, 
that of agitated trees, the rustling of snow swept before the wind, or the 
murmur of the waves of the sea, we arrived at the conviction that these ob- 
servers were not on their guard against all such causes of error ; these noises 
struck them in the silence of the night, and because they were concomitant 
with a brilliant phenomenon, which attracted their attention. Thus these 
persons themselves were finally led to. share in our incredulity, and to con- 
fess that they had adopted the received opinion, but that their conviction was 
not the result of an attentive and faithful observation.'' t 

Biot, though he favored the positive side of this question, nevertheless 
heard no sounds on occasion of the aurora which he beheld at Unst, in the 
Shetland Islands, in 1817. He explained the failure by the noise of the sea 
at the time. Scoresby, Back, Koss, Franklin, Richardson, never heard the 
noise in the north, nor Thienemann in Iceland, | Gieseke in Greenland, 
X<ottin, Bravais, &c., near the North Cape ; neither Wrangel and Angin on 
the Siberian coast of the Polar Sea, though they were familiar with the scenes 
of greatest auroral display. Wrangel and Gieseke were convinced that the 
'sound they heard was to be ascribed to the contraction of the ice and the 
crust of the snow, on the sudden cooling of the atmosphere.^ 

III. The height of the aurora above the earth's surfiioe has been variously 
estimated. Mairan has given the estimated heights of twenty-three different 
auroras, seen between the year 1621 and the year 1750. These heights vary 
from 47 French leagues to 275. The average is 175.(1 Bergman, of Sweden, 
calculated one seen in 1760 at 334 miles, and another seen in 1764 at 254 
miles. Cavendish estimated the height of the auroral arch witnessed in 1784 
at from 52 to 71 miles. Paitonlf computed the height of an aurora in 1793 
at 150 miles, and of that of 1826 at 100 miles. Potter calculated the height 
of one in 1823 at about 200 miles. Dr. Burney, in 1830, found the height 
between 99 and 134 miles. Airy made the height of two, seen in 1833, 60 
and 50 miles. Chevallier has computed the height of an aurora in 1841 and 
of two others in 1847, at about 160, 175, an 106 miles respectively."** 
Bravais has worked up the observations collected in 1838-9 by the Scientific 
Commission of the North, and comes to the conclusion that the auroras there 
▼ary in height from about 60 to 100 miles {betwem 100 and 200 kilometres.) tt 
Twining calculated the height of an aurora seen in this country in 1835 at 
about 42 miles; and of two others in 1836 at 100 miles, and 144 miles. || 
Lyman calculated the height of an aurora in 1852 at between 140 and 280 
miles. 4§ 

Some doubt has been thrown on these and similar results bv the statement 
of J*arry, ||j| that on one occasion he observed " a bright ray of the aurora shoot 

■ ■ ■! » I ■ I ■ I .1. I I I , . . . ■ III. I , , ■■ ■ I ... ■ 

* Voyage, &c., p. 559. t Kaemta's Met., p. 460. J Ediu. Phil. Joum., X. 367. 

$ Coemos, I. p. 195. || Mairan, pp. 433, 434. 

1r Met. Essays, pp. 68, 69. and p. 231. Phil. Trans., 1828. 

♦♦ Thompeou's Met., pp. 360, 361. ft Aurora Borealis, Lottin, &c., p. 549. 

tt Anier. Jonm. Bci , XXXII. pp. 220, 2S7. $$ lb., XV. p. 55. 
Till Third Voyage, p. 61. 



70 "^N THB AX7ROBA BOREALIS [i860. 

saddcniy downward from the general mass of light, and between us and the 
land, which was then distant only 3,000 yards." Parry adds : *' Had I wit- 
nessed this phenomenon by myself, I should have been disposed to receive 
with caution the evidence even of my own senses, as to this last fact ; bnt 
the appearance conveying precisely the same idea to three individuals at 
once, all intently engaged in looking toward the spot, I have no doubt that 
the ray of light actually passed within that distance of us." 

Mr. Hardisty communicated to Capt. Lefroy this fact, in relation to the 
aurora of 1850 : " It appeared between me and the trees on the opposite 
side of the river, which could not have been 40 feet above the level of the 
stream, the trees toward the top of the hill being high above it"* An ac- 
count is given in the American Almanac t of a similar case observed in 
Vermont. " We had not viewed it long, before we observed the eastern 
part of it had settled so low as actually to be between us and the highland 
on the north side of White River, at the distance from us, perhaps, of about 
one mile and a half. The meteor (aurora borealis) we apprehended must 
have been nearly perpendicular to White Biver, and distant about half a 
mile.*' 

Farquharson, of Scotland, has insisted upon the low elevation of the aurora, 
assigning it in one case a height of only 5693 feet. | Liais computed the 
height of an aurora seen at Cherbourg in 1853 at about 2^ miles. § Hood 
and Richardson concluded, from a comparison of their observations, that the 
aurora was not more than six miles high. Thienemann, Wrangel, and 
Struve also assign to the aurora an inconsiderable elevation. i| 

To reconcile results so widely at variance with each other, some suppose 
that the height of the aurora varies very much at different places or at differ- 
ent times. Dalton has criticised the statements of Farquharson and Parry, 
as inconsistent or insufficient. Humboldt, Forbes, and Thompson think the 
strange fact mentioned by Parry was an optical deception, explained by the 
persistency of sensation in the eye after the object is removed, as in the case of 
lightning flashes or fire-balls. Bravais remarks : ** The aurora may give so 
strong an illumination to light clouds that these clouds may seem to disap- 
pear, and the aurora be thought between them and the ground. Also the 
rays may appear to extend down in front of a mountain, bnt the prolonga- 
tion is caused by the reflection by the 8now."Tf 

It is generally conceded, however, that the usual method of computing die 
height of inaccessible objects, namely, by the parallactic angle between the 
two directions in which two different observers see the same objects, is ex- 
posed to great difficulties in its special application to the aurora. The rule 
is worth nothing, unless the two observers can be sure that they are looking 
at the same objective reality, and at the same moment. Many of the phases 
of the aurora are effects of ce&stial perspective. As each observer has his own 
perspective, this picturesque part of the exhibition is not adapted for deter- 
mining parallax ; and hence distance. In regard to objective realities^ they 
are so changeable and complex that there is difficulty in establishing the 
identity of any particular feature. Possibly the whole phenomenon may be 
subjective instead of objective. In this case, every observer has an aurora all 
to himself, as every man sees his own rainbow, and no one another's. This 
supposition would preclude all determination of parallax. Arago maintained 
this opinion, he says, many years ago, in his " Lessons on the Physics of the 
Globe," given to the Polytechnic School. He does not claim it*as original 
with him, having found, in Memoirs 100 years old,")^ the idea advanced that 



* X,iefroy*8 Second Report, p. 14. t For 1832, p. 109. 

I Phil. Trans, for 1839, p. 103. $ Comp^ Rend. 

II Kaemtz, p. 459. If Aurora Borealis, Lottin, p. 531. 
** Perhaps he refers to Halley, who says, in 1716 : " Hence also it will be eaaily under- 



18^.] AND THE AURORA AUftTRALIS. 71 

the aurora of one place is not the aurora of another place. Some have sap- 
posed that although the crown of the aurora could not be used for parallax, 
because it was a perspective phenogtenon, the eastern and western bow might. On 
this subject Arago remarks : " Vorientation rmignetique of the arc of the aurora 
proves nothing except that the exhibition is arranged symmetrically in regard 
to the magnetic axis of the earth. As to the kiml of displacement which the 
centre of the cupola undergoes with the change in the observer's position, it 
cannot be explained by any plauof parallaxes. This displacement is such, 
that an observer who goes from "raris towards the north magnetic pole sees 
the centre of the cupola, which is to the south of his zenith, rise higher and 
higher above the horizon. Now this is precisely the opposite to what would 
occur if the cupola was a radiating summit, and not a simple effect of per- 
spective."* He adds, "As soon as it is established that one part of the ap- 
pearance is a pure illusion, we do not see why we should suppose that the 
luminous bow of Paris is the same as that seen at Strasbourg," &c. 

It has been noticed that the breadth of the same bow is greater at its 
highest point than at its feet. Bravais computed from this difference the 
height of the aurora, according to a method of Hansteen, and found it about 
60 miles.t The method of Liais, which he practised in the case of the aurora 
of October 31, 1853, consists in measuring the different times which the arc 
of the aurora requires to run over the same angle, first near the horizon, and 
then near tEe zenith, on the assumption that the real velocity is constant. | 

IV. The explanations of the aurora have been various. Some may be 
passed over lightly ; such as that of the ex-King of Sweden, who imagined 
the light was ground out by the friction of the earth on its great axle.4 
The savatu of the 17th century supposed that the beams of the aurora 
might be exhalations from the solid earth. Halley, whose interest in the 
subject, and late opportunity for witnessing the phenomenon, have alreadv 
beeq recited, submitted the following explanation, suggested by Des Cartes s 
theory of magnetism, and the radiant lines assumed by the iron filings 
sprinkled around the pole of a magnet: — That a delicate substance issues 
from the north pole of the earth, which gave the planet its magnetic polarity, 
and, in certain degrees of intensity or velocity^ becomes self-luminous and 
betrays itself to the eye in the aurora. |i At a time when the arrangement 
of the auroral beams in parallelism with the local resultant of the earth's 
magnetic force, and the action of the auroral flashes upon the direction of a 
compassrueedle, had not yet been noticed, there was a felici^ in what Hum- 
boldt calls *'the bold conjecture hazarded 128 years since by Halley," that the 
aurora borealis was a magnetic phenomenon. Did not Halley come near 
anticipating the geometrical conclusions of Cotes and Dalton, when he says : 
'* Nor is it to be doubted but the pyramidal figure of these ascending beams 
is optical, since according to all likelihood they are parallel-sided, or radier 
tapering the other way." IT 

Cotes, of whom Newton said, " If he had lived we should have known 
something," was a young contemporary of Halley, and after observing at Cam- 
bridge, in England, the aurora of 1620, he gave an exact description of it, 
which he accompanied with some generalizations upon the subject, of great 
value geometricaily, though no improvement npon the physical view of Halley. 
Vaporo, fermentation, winds, furnish the materials and the motion of the 
aurora. To Cotes belongs the great merit of seeing, with a geometrical eye, 
the actual framework of the machinery, and deducing its whole complicated 

Mtood that this corona was not one and the same in all places, but was different in every 
differing horizon : exactly after the same manner as the rainbow seen in the same cloud 
is not the same bow, but different, to every several eye." — Phil. Trans., XXIX. p. ^5. 
♦ CEavres, Notic. 8ci., I. p. 554. t Aurora Borealis, par Lottin, &c., pp. 480, 481 
t Compt. Rend., XXXIII. p. 302. « Ampr. Journ. Sci., V. p. 178. 
II PJiU. TrajM., XXIX. p. 482. ^ Phil. Trans., XXIX •»• 495. 



72 ON THE AURORA BOREAIJS [1860. 

perspective from the foreshortening and projections of parallel colnmns npon 
the spherical background of the spectators firmament.^ Contemporaiy 
writers missed of the happy physical hint of Halley and the geometrical 
clearness of Cotes. They contrived mixtures of nitre and sulphur, which 
exhaled vapors of gunpowder. These, ascending high in the atmosphere, 
were inflamed by pressure or motion, causing the cloud, light, sound, and 
motions which characterize the exhibition.f 

When Mairan published, in 1733, f the great work on the aurora, to which 
allusion has already been made, he discarded all the theories which had 
been broached, and advanced a cosmical theory of the aurora, elaborated 
with great care, and supported with an immense array of circumstantial 
evidence. The sphere of attraction of the earth, within which it exercises 
undisputed sway, extending to 186,000 miles, Mairan supposed that the 
zodiacal light, which in his view is the sun's atmosphere, is entered some- 
times by the earth in its revolution round the sun, and that parts of it, 
becoming entangled in the earth's atmosphere, go to compose the aurora. 
This was not a lazy conjecture, but an hypothesis carefully examined and 
cross-examined from manifold points of view, in the defence and illustration 
of which the great height and the annual and secular periodicities of the 
aurora were turned to the best advantage. 

We have seen when and why the aurora was associated with magnetism. 
It was also, in the latter half of the same century, associated witli electricity. 
Dr. Priestley says : " That the Aurora Borealis is an electrical phenomenon, 
was, I believe, never disputed from the time that lightning was proved to be 
one.*' § Cavallo also says : " The aurora borealis, or northern light, was 
soon attributed to electricity, on observing that by this that flaming light 
may be imitated, and that the aurora borealis, when very strong, has been 
known to disturb the magnetic needle, which is also an effect of elec- 
tricity." II 

In 1779 (?) Franklin wrote this in a paper on the Aurora Borealis : '* May 
not, then, the great quantity of electricity brought into the polar region, by 
the clouds, which are condensed there, and fall in snow, — which electricity 
would enter the earth, but cannot penetrate the ice, — may it not, I say, {as a 
bottle overcharged), break that low atmosphere, and run along in the vacuum 
over the aiv towards the equator, diverging as the degrees of longitude enlarge, 
strongly visible where densest, and becoming less visible as it more divei^ges ; 
till it finds a passage to the earth in more temperate climates, or is mingled 
with the upper air ? If such an operation of nature were resdiy performed, 
would it not give all the appearances of an aurora borealis.'' If Mr. Rowell 
has recently attempted an explanation of the aurora, which is no improve- 
ment upon this of Franklin.** 

Thiencmann, who resided in Iceland in 1820, refers the aurora to electrical 
discharges in feathery clouds in regions where thunder is unknown. Singer 
expresses thus the association of the aurora with electricity : ^' When elec- 
tricitv passes through rarefied air, it exhibits a diffused luminous stream, 
which has all the characteristic appearances of the northern lights. There 
is the same variety of color and intensity, the same undulating motion and 
occasional coruscations ; the streams exhibit the same diversity of character, 
at one moment minutely divided in ramifications and at another beaming 
forth in one body of light, or passing in distinct broad flashes ; and when the 
rarefaction is considerable, varions parts of the stream assume that peculiar 



* Phil. Trans., No. 365. Abridged, VL p. 83. 
" Phil. Trans., No. 395. Abridged, VI. p. 94. 

Mairan, Trait6 Physique et Historiqiie, pp. 4, &c. 

Hist, of Electr., p. .376. || Sparks's Edition, VL p. 420. 

Cavallo on Elec, 1. 75. ♦* Edin. Phil. Joum., XLII. p. 561. 



I860.] 



AND THE AURORA AUSTRALIS. 



73 



glowing color which occasionally appears in the atmosphere and is regarded 
by the uninformed observer with astonishment and fear."^. 

In 1773, Dalton, after a careful study for six years of the appearances pre- 
sented by anroras, published a theory which he supposed to be entirely 
original. He was no reader, and was not aware of the geometrical generali- 
zation of Cotes, though attention had recently been called to it by Caven- 
dish, t or of the physical theory of Halley, which, crude as it was, neverthe- 
less associated the aurora with magnetism. He, therefore, reasoned out 
originaUyy and by the laws of optics, the same conclusions as Cotes had pub- 
lished long before, namely, that the real beams were parallel, and that converg- 
ence of rays, crown, and bow were all the wonderful effects of celestial perspec- 
tive. With such clear notions of geometrical optics, he was prepared to study 
the aorora of October 13, 1792, which first suggested to him (and, as he sup- 
posed, to any one) the relation between the aurora and magnetism. He says : 
^' When the theodolite was adjusted without doors and the needle at rest, it 
was next to impossible not to notice the exactitude with which the needle 
pointed to the middle of the northern concentric arches ; soon after, the 
grand dome being formed, it was divided so evidently into two similar parts, 
by the plane of the magnetic meridian, that the circumstances seemed ex- 
tremely improbable to be fortuitous ; and a line drawn to the vertex of the 
dome, being in direction of the dipping-needle^ it followed, from what had been 
done before, that the luminous beams at that time were aUparalld to the dipping^ 
needle.** X These facts, as well as the disturbance which the aurora had been 
observed to exert over the compass needle, led Dalton to the conclusion that 
the beams were guided and held in position, not by gravity^ but by terrestrial 
magnetism. Before Dalton wrote the Preface to his Essays, he had discovered 
the views which Halley had published, of which he says : *' The light of the 
aurora he is pretty much at a loss to account for, as electricity was then but 
imperfectly known." $ We may infer from this casual remark to what origin 
Dalton would look himself, for the luminosity of the aurori^ lines. In Uie 
appendix to the second edition of the Essays, published in 1834, he says 
expressly : " In fact, the light of the aurora exactly con'esponds with that of 
the electric spark, when sent through a tube in which the air has been rarefied 
to as high a degree as can be effected by a good air-pump." || 

Two other questions now arise. 1. What are the auroral lines, to be in- 
fluenced as they are by the earth's magnetism ? and 2. Whence the electricity 
which runs over and illuminates them 1 This is, in substance, Biot's answer.l 
The atmosphere is filled, at times, with metallic (Dalton says, ferruginous) 
particles, highly pulverized. These particles are magnetized by the earth, 
and then arranged, like so many floating needles, in parallelism with the 
local resultant of the earth's magnetic forces. These files of needles make a 
favorable channel for the discharge of electricity between the higher and 
lower strata of the atmosphere. Eor these strata are known, by the kite 
experiment and otherwise, to be unequally charged with electricity. 

As the columns of needles are broken, the passage of the electricity through 
them will be marked by light. In high magnetic latitudes the columns are 
nearly vertical, and connect strata of unequal elevation and intensity of 
charge. Near the magnetic equator the lines of needles will lie horizon- 
tal and wholly in the same stratum, and hence ofier no facility for the 
electric discharge. 

The theory of De La Hive, though based upon the laws of electricity and 
magnetism as well as the one which has just passed under consideration, 
combines these laws in a different way to reach the result. He says : ^' We 



* Elements of Elec, p. 251. 
t Dalton, Met. Essaya, p. 148. 
n P. 244. 

7 



t Phil. Trans., 1790, p. 103. 
lb Preface 
Prilcis Element. Ac. Physique, II. p. 107, &c. 



^ 



74 OV THE AURORA BOBEALIS [1860. 

have seen that the atmosphere is constantly charged with positive electricity, 
famished by the vapors which rise from the ocean, particalarly within the 
tropics, and that the earth is left in a negative state of electricity. The recom- 
bination and neutralization of these separated electricities is effected throagh 
the instrnmentality of the moisture diffused between the extreme layers of air 
or between the upper layer and the earth itself But it is especially in the 
polar regions, where the eternal ice prevails, and where the aqueous vapors 
will be promptly condensed, that the electrical recomposition will taice place. 
The heavily charged equatorial current, originally at a high elevation, ap- 
proaches the surface of the earth as it approaches the pole. There must be the 
great centre of the electrical discharge, with the accompaniment of light when 
the charge is intense ; if, as is always the case near the poles, and sometimes 
in the higher parts of the atmosphere, it meets in its path with the minute 
frozen particles which form fogs and very elevated clouds/*'* De La Rive 
adduces, in confirmation of his views, the experience of Bixio and Bairal, 
who, ascending to a great height in a balloon through a serene and cloudless 
sky, found themselves suddenly in the midst of a transparent veil of small 
frozen needles, so minute as to be hardly visible. De La Rive goes on to 
say, that these columns of frozen particles, when employed as the carriers of 
electricity between the earth and clouds, must be acted upon by the magnetic 
poles of the earth in the same way as a powerful magnet (arf electro-magnet, 
for example) acts upon a jet of artificial electricity directed upon its extrem- 
ity. In this experiment, the electricity does not descend indiscriminately 
upon the end, but comes only to its circumference and forms a luminous 
ring about it. Moreover, the ring rotates in its own plane round the pole of 
the magnet Bravais noticed a rotation of the auroral arch in the direction 
of west, south, and east. The absolute diameter of the ring must be greater 
as the distance of the magnetic pole from the surface of the earth doumward 
increases. Only observers on the same magnetic meridian would have the 
same identical summit to their arch. De La Rive is at no loss to account 
for the noise and the smell which are said sometimes to attend upon the 
aurora, according to the analogy which he thinks to establish between the 
great case of nature and the artificial, experimental illustration. The lunar 
halos which often precede the aurora, and the fall of rain or snow in the 
high latitudes which precedes or follows the aurora, all these alleged facts De 
La Rive considers as favorable to his hypothesis. 

The late Professor D. Olmsted of Yale College, who published, in 1856, 
a valuable contribution * on the " Recent Secular Period of the Aurora Bo- 
realis," favors the theory of Mairan to the extent of supposing the aurora to 
have a cosmical origin. He argues against the telluric origin and for the cos' 
mical origin of the aurora : 1 . Because of the great extent of country over 
which the same aurora is displayed. 2. Because the principal phases occur 
on aU meridians f not at the same absolute instant, but at the same local times, 
3. On account of the great velocity of the motions. 4. On account of the 
periodicity of the aurora, especially the secular period. Therefore the mate- 
rial of the aurora is foreign to the earth, being the zodiacal light, as Mairan 
supposed, or some other nebulous patch which the earth encounters in its 
motion round the sun. As the aurora is susceptible to the earth's magnetism, 
this matter is magnetic certainly, and perhaps ferruginous. It may be illu- 
minated by electricity or by the friction of grinding against the earth's 
atmosphere. Its own motion and those of the earth are so accommodated 
to each other, that at one period the earth almost escapes it, at another 

{)eriod barely grazes it, and at still a third period cuts directly into this nebu- 
ous substance. Mr. Olmsted observes : ** The occurrence of these exhibi* 
tions at certain hours of the night, that is, the diurnal periodicity, (a cirenm- 

• Elec, Iir. p. 988. ♦ Smith. Coatr., VIIL 



I860.] AND THB AURORA AUSTBALIS. 75 

Stance which belongs to auroras of the polar regions, when it is continual 
night, as well as to lower latitudes,) plainly indicstes that the phenomenon has 
some relation to the position of the sun, although, after much reflection, I have 
not been able to satisfy myself as to the precise nature of that relation. The 
most promising chance of solution of the case, which has suggested itself to 
my mind, is that which connects it with the zodiacal light, which is known to 
maintain a nearly constant position with respect to the sun.^'M' As early as 
1837, Mr. Olmsted published his opinion that the origin of the aurora **• is 
to be sought for in a source extrinsic to the earth." t He does not think that 
the recent theory of Kev. George Jones, namely, that the zodiacal light is a 
ring around the earth, and not around the sun, will diminish its avaUability 
for supplying the auroral material. 

Mr. Olmsted quotes the following passage from Humboldt, to show that 
the latter treated the cosmical origin of the aurora with some favor. ''If we 
regard falling stars and meteoric stones as planetary asteroids, we may be 
allowed to conjecture that, in the streams of the so-called November phe- 
nomena, when, as in 1799, 1833, and 1834, myriads of falling stars traversed 
the vault of heaven, and the northern lights were simultaneously observed, 
our atmosphere may have received from the regions of space some elements 
foreign to it which were capable of exciting electro-magnetic processes. % 

Whatever may be the origin of the material which composes the auroral 
beams, it is, during the time of action, so far within the earth's atmosphere 
as to be subject to the earth's rotation. Biot found, in September, 1817, that 
the aurora did not move to the west with the stars, but midntained the same 
position in the visible firmament. Bravais also concludes his discussion of 
the aurora as follows : '^ It seems to me to be the result of our observations, 
that the aurora borealis has its seat at heights generally more than 100,000 
metres, near the limits of the atmosphere, and that it must be considered 
amenable to its general movements of rotation and translation. But it is 
impossible at present to declare the nature of the matter which generates it. 
The analogies which ally the aurora borealis to terrestrial magnetism, those 
which seem to associate it with the cirrus doud of high regions of the air, and 
also to the shooting stars, may put us upon the track of new observations, 
but they are not sufficient to close this important problem." $ 

I would remark, in conclusion, that there is not, necessarily, any incon- 
sistency in the terrestrial and cosmical theories. The matter may come from 
the zodiacal light. But after the earth has obtained possessioi^ of it, it may 
arrange and illuminate it in accordance with the laws of magnetism and elec- 
tricity, as applied to the case by Dalton and Biot 

When Mairan resolved the aurora into the zodiacal light, he left its light 
to be explained as that of the zodiacal light itself may be : in any way pos- 
sible. He also supposed that the tails of comets were streamers of the zodi- 
acal light in which these strange bodies had arrayed themselves. Euler, || on 
the contrary, thought to explain the zodiacal light, the aurora borealis, and 
the tails of comets, all upon one principle : the impulse of the sun's rays. 
This impulse, acting on the sun's atmosphere, repelled some of it in a zodia- 
cal ring ; acting upon the comet's atmosphere forced Some of it to form a 
tail ; and acting upon the earth's atmosphere carried it high enough above 
the earth to be outside of its shadow, and to be in sunshine even at night. 

Sir William Herschel, in his remarkable paper on the solar spots, pub- 
lished in 1801,^ has thrown out the suggestion, that the same causes which, 
in intense activitv, produce the light of the sun, operating on the earth upon 
a diminutive scale excito the light of the aurora. His language is, ** But it 



• Smith. Contr., VIII. pp. 50-51. f Amer. Joum. Sei., VII. pp. 197 - 898. 
X Coflmos, III. p. 50. $ Aurora Bor6ales. par Lottin, Bravais, < 

II Acad. B«rUiL 1748. U Phil. Trans., XCI. p. 904. 



76 



METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION. 



[1860. 



should be remembered that, on account of the great compression, arising 
from the force of gravitj, all the elastic solar gases must be mnch condensed; 
and Ibat, consequently, phenomena in the sun's atmosphere, whidi 4b was 
would be mere transitory coruscations, such as those of the attrora borealis, 
will be so compressed as to become much more efficacious and permanent" 
If the analogy here suggested is a real one, it cannot be said whether our 
knowledge of the origin of the aurora or of the sun's light will be the greater 
gainer by it 

Captain John Ross, in the Appendix to the account of his second Yoyi^e, 
published in 1833, attributes the aurora to the sun*s rays reflected from Sie 
ice and snow round the poles. The effect on the magnetic needle he attrib- 
utes to the heat of these rays, as the same effect, in his opinion, was pro- 
duced when the rays of an artificial flame were condensed upon it Mr. 
Wharton had the same view as Koss, because the aurora came from a place 
in the same azimuth as the sun, and converged to the opposite point above. 
Boss derives the color of the aurora from the brilliant colors of the ice. In 
the southern hemisphere, the ice is not colored, (according to the statement 
of Captain Cook,) and the aurora is white. 



METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION. 



I. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR PORTLAND, Mis. 

For the Year ending December Zlst^ 1858. By Henry Willis. 
LaL 430 39' 24".49 JV., Long, 70° 15' 24" W, 

1. Barometer. 

Barometer cistern with constant level, No. 1225, by J. Green, N. T. Scale, English inches, 
reduced to 32° Fahr. Station 87.6 feet above the mean level of the sea. 



Months. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Monthly Mean for 
each Hour. 


Mean for the 
Month. 


• 


• 
• 

< 

inch. 
30.73 
30.26 
30.29 
30.24 
30.41 
30.11 
30.25 
30.24 
30.34 
30.55 
30.35 
30 39 

30 35 


■ 
• 

inch. 
30 66 
30.37 
30.16 
30.16 
30.29 
30.04 
3018 
30.27 
30 33 
3049 
30.33 
30.45 

30.31 


o» 

Inch. 
30 56 
30.37 
29.97 
30.12 
30.25 
30.01 
30 05 
30 28 
30 35 
30.44 
30.38 
30.56 

30,28 


4 

m 

inch. 
30.65 
30.33 
30.14 
30.17 
30.32 
30.05 
30.16 
3026 
30.34 
30 49 
30 35 
30.47 

30.31 


> 

1 


• 
• 

< 


inch. 
29.29 
29 20 
28.97 
29.34 
29.32 
29.66 
29.63 
29 57 
29.75 
29.63 
29.44 
29.27 

29.41 


• 
« 

o» 

inch. 
29.31 
29 41 
29.18 
29.36 
29.55 
29.79 
29.67 
29 59 
2915 
29.33 
29.47 
29.63 

29.46 


i 

i 

Inch. 
29.38 
29 28 
29.05 
29.38 
29.44 
29 66 
29.64 
29.59 
29 55 
29.56 
29.47 
29.31 

29.44 


« 
• 

< 


• 

01 


a* 


January, 

February, 

March, 

X: 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 


23 

1 

20 

19 

3 

9 

6 

13 

19 

17 

2 

12 


4 
10 

9 
14 
24 
11 
22 
29 
16 

7 
24 
22 


inch 

29.55 

29.22 

28 99 
29.43 
29.44 
29.54 
29.62 
29.62 
29.70 
29.81 

29 50 
29.03 

29.46 


inch. 
30.000 
29.889 
29.764 
29.845 
29.946 
29.915 
29 914 
29.947 
29 994 
29 992 
29 817 
30.014 


inch. 
29.939 
29.819 
29.671 
29.793 
29.912 
29 873 
29.886 
29.900 
29 935 
29.963 
29.777 
30.011 


inch. 
29.962 
29.862 
29.761 
29 827 
29.973 
29 892 
29.892 
29.972 
29 970 
29.955 
29.804 
30.016 


inch. 
29.956 
29.866 
29.721 
29 822 
29.944 
29.897 
29897 
99.940 
29.S67 
29 970 
29.799 
30.010 


An. Mean, 


1 


29 918 


29.873 29.907 


89.898 



Barometer highest, Jan. 23d, at 7 A. M., 30.73 in. ; lowest, March 9th, at 2 P. M., 28.97 in. 



ICETZOKOI.OOI0AI. INTOBKATIOir. 

2. TUKHKOHEIIK. 





NumbtrofDiri 


P 


fj 


Wi™.(-NDmberorD«7. ] 


Mooth.. 


^ 




1 


'•' 








1 


J 


i 


i 


1 




i 


i 


^ 


1* 


1^ 


1 


1 


1 


k 


i. 


^ 


i 




1 


^ 


"tl 


„ 


S996 


g 


''I 








ft 


„ 


11 






























































sff;:- . 
























































































































[ 




W 


't 


^m^ 




iJ 






Ifi 




IB 




,^ 






























































Itecfatar, 






■a 


Id 


4.919 




au 




u 








1 


Id 


■IWal, 


ir 


65 


aasi 136 


41421 


63.0 Il68 


130 iw isr liio 


199 


TO 


114 



tba mmiLh or JumarT. March 3d, I P. M., xhock or ui einhquakr 
■SDck of ui nnhmiBlie, luting fmm all In 10 Hcondg, commencing i 
Math ixh. 4 A. M., anolhcr ilichi shnek al an nnhriuake. Marc 



; 1.60 P M., 
ilh 1 auitdan 



h, e P. M., 

■""■Si 



14ih, ?P. M.u 

li^'ufram a la'p. M.'io s.'io'p, M." 'kv^mbU'^p' M?." m 

ani Dtmrved for mo bniira; Ian anon in Iha aprlng. Mai 7\ 
lunra viailile. Ma^ !9lh,30lh. and 3lal. whlia frast, A. M. . 
aaaain. Ocl. IBlli, . _ — 

h, tee (brmed Ihlii 






a abnrved. 



erdcaedwl 



ir thrn 



: Melt«d anow inclg 



78 



METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION. 



[iseo. 



II. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR CAMBRIDGE, Mass. 

Summary of the Meteorological Observations made at the Observatory of 
Harvard College during the Year commencing January Ist^ 1858, and 
ending December Slst^ 1858. By William Cranch Bond, 

Lot. 429 W 48" JV., Long. 71© 7' 40" W. 

1. MxAV Barometric Pressurx and External Temperature. 



1 


Mean Height of the Barometer. 


... . , 
External Thermometer. , 




Q 

In. 

.077 

.077 

.061 

.042 

.028 

.040 

.034 

.030 

.031 

.057 

.048 

.050 


• 

0<l 


• 


ti 




• 

IS 

• 

•< 


• 


• 
• 




1858. 
January, 
February, 
March, 
April, 
May, 
Juue, 
July. 
August 
September, 
October, 
Norember, 
December, 


Inch. 

30.055 

29.958 

29.853 

29.886 

29.971 

29.952 

29.952 

29.969 

30.045 

30.041 

29.870 

30.163 


Inch. 

30.068 

29.958 

29.828 

29.859 

29.971 

29.948 

29.943 

29.974 

30.033 

30.041 

29.876 

30.106 


Inch. 

29.991 

29.881 

29.767 

29.817 

29.943 

29.908 

29.909 

29.944 

30.002 

29.984 

29.828 

30.056 


Inch. 

30.031 

29.924 

29.821 

29.850 

29.975 

29.926 

29 925 

29.964 

30.012 

30.019 

29.869 

30.063 


Inch. 

30.036 

29.929 

29.817 

29.820 

29.965 

29.933 

29.932 

29.962 

30.022 

30.021 

29.858 

30.098 


2^.7 
17.6 
25.7 
39.3 
48.8 
63.2 
64.9 
622 
66.3 
47.9 
32.3 
24.7 


fS.2 
21.5 
31.1 
45.0 
53.7 
68.6 
70.2 
67.6 
62.8 
63.2 
34.9 
26.4 


36.7 
28.1 
39.0 
52.5 
69.6 
76.5 
77.1 
73.6 
69.3 
69.8 
40.4 
33.0 


o 

30.9 
21.7 
30.6 
44.2 
49.6 
64.1 
67.2 
63.0 
5a9 
51.5 
33.5 
27.7 


9(?88 
22.22 
31.60 
45.25 
62.90 
67.85 
69.90 
66.66 
61.82 
53 01 
35.02 
2B.0I 


Ann. Mean, 


29.985 29.967 


.043 


29.919 


29.947 


29.949 


42.47 


47.02 


63.71 


45.24 


47.08 



Barometer. 

Mean pressure for 1858, 

Maximum, Dec 24th, 7 A. M., 
Minimum, March 9th, 7 A. M., 

Range, 



Inch. 
29.949 

30.923 
29.080 

0.843 



External Thermometer. 

Meanof the year 1858, . 

Maximum, July 8th, 2 P. M., 
Minimum, Feb. I9th, 7 A. M., 

Range, . . . 



o 
47.08 

91.00 
1.00 

92.00 



The Indications of the Barometer are given corrected for capillary action, and reduced to 
the temperature of 32o Fahrenheit, but are not corrected for its height above the sea-level, 
which is 71 feet. 



2. Rain, 


Winds, , 


A.frD Clouds, Monthly Means of Observations, 




Force of Wind, 0—6. 


Quantity of Clouds, 0-10. 




Months. 


« 


• 














. 1 


Amount 




S 


^ 




^ 


^ 




S 


S 


^ 1 ^ 


of Rain, 


1858. 


• 

< 


-< 


!» 


pi 


a: 


S 

9 


• 

< 


< 


0U cu 


in 
Inches. 




»* 


o» 


Q 


(N 


o» 


GO 


5 as 


a* 
4.84 


C4 a> 




January, 


1.67 


1.70 


+.19 


2.19 


1.35 


6.76 


4.97 4.45 


3.439 


February, 


1.53 


2.00 


.47 


2.21 


1.39 


7.13 


3.71 


3.82 


4.14 ,4.39 


1.862 


March, 


1.22 


1.61 


.39 


1.97 


0.93 


5.73 


3.67 


3.64 


3.36 4.16 


1.767 


f^\' 


1.33 


1.93 


.60 


2.13 


1.03 


6.42 


6.43 


4.03 


5.86 :6.50 


3.809 


1.32 


1.63 


+.36 


2.00 


1.13 


6.13 


6.06 


7.00 


6.87 4.26 


3.714 


June, 


i:«{ 


1.30 


—.03 


2.10 


1.20 


6.93 


6.43 


4M 


6.20 


6.70 


7.6S2 


July, 


1.19 


1.61 


+.42 


1.87 


1.12 


5.79 


6.48 


5.00 


6.67 


4.80 


4.360 


August, 


1.19 


1.70 


.51 


1.96 


0,83 


6.68 


5.12 


5.26 


6.80 4.93 


6.567 


September, 


1.26 


1.70 


.44 


1.93 


0.96 


686 


2.86 


2.00 


3.43 1 2.86 


6.111 


October, 


1.26 


1.32 


.06 


2.03 


0.93 


6.64 


6.00 


5.06 


4.58 : 4.93 


2.869 


November, 


1.40 


1.60 


.20 


2.20 


1.16 


6.36 


6.13 


6.03 


6.46 5.36 


2.376 


December, 


1.29 


1.48 


.19 


1.90 


1.13 


6.80 


5.51 


6.90 


6.87 6.54 


3.040 



Amount of rain during the year, 45.465 inches. 



I860.] 



MBTEOROLOOICAL INFORMATION. 



79 



III. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Summary of MetearologieaL Ohservations made ai Broum University. Lot. 
410 50' 17" JV., Longr. 71© 23' 40" W. from Greenwich. Barometer re- 
duced to the Sea-level, and to 229 Fahr., and corrected for Capillarity. By 
Prof. A. Caswell. 

1. Mean Barometric Pressure and External Thermometer. 



Months. 


Barometer. 
Means of three daily Observations. 


External Thermometer. 

Means of three daily Observations, 

with Maximum and Minimum. 


S *• 

i < 

«a to 


• 


• 

o 


2d 


S ^ 

W to 


• 


• 

p; 

o 

o 
31.7 

23.1 

30.8 

424 

49.8 

64.5 

66.7 

64.0 

69.3 

61.6 

36.7 

31.6 




• 

1 

47 
60 
69 
76 
91 
93 
80 
86 
82 
68 
68 

93 


• 

S 

c 

g 
g 

3 
2 
30 
41 
49 
67 
49 
39 
33 
21 
14 

2 


185d. 
January, 
February, 
March, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 


Inch. 
30.09 
29.97 
29.83 
29.91 
29.99 
29.97 
29.93 
29.99 
30.05 
30.07 
29.90 
30.11 


Inch. 
30.03 
29.93 
29.81 
29.86 
29.97 
29.95 
29.96 
29.99 
30.02 
30.02 
29.86 
30.08 


Inch. 
30.08 
29.96 
29.87 
29.89 
30.01 
29.97 
29.99 
30.02 
30.07 
30.06 
29.90 
30.09 


Inch. 

30.067 

29.953 

29.837 

29.887 

29.990 

29.963 

29.977 

30.000 

30.047 

30.057 

29.887 

30.093 


20.1 

27.6 

40.5 

49.6 

62.6 

66.3 

62.2 

66.6 

49.0 

34.3 

28.3 


o 
38.3 
30.3 
40.3 
54.7 
60.7 
76.2 
77.6 
73.1 
70.6 
61.9 
41.7 
36.4 


31°1 
24.6 
32.9 
46i3 
63.3 
67.7 
69.8 
66.4 
62.2 
64.2 
37.2 
32.1 


Ann. Mean, 


29.990 


29.957 


29.992 


29.980 


43.9 


55.1 


46.9 


48.13 



2. Winds, Clouds, and Rain. 



Months. 
1856. 



January, 
February, 
March, . 
April, . 
May, 
June, . 
July, . 
August, 
September, 
October, 
November, 
December, 



Monthly Mean, 
Total for the Year, 



Number of Days 

in which 

the prevailing Winds 

came from 

some Point between 






4 

6 

2 

5 

14 

11 

6 

12 

6 

8 

8 

5 



7.2 



86 





• 


03 


^ 


1 


e 




ce 


» 


09 


2 


10 


.0 


6 


2 


8 


I 


9 


2 


7 


3 


13 


3 


14 


1 


11 


2 


14 


1 


12 





4 


3 


7 


1.7 


9.6 


20 


115 



s 



15 
17 
19 
16 

8 

3 

8 

5t 

8 
10 
18 
16 



11.9 
142 



Quantity of Clouds, 
from 0—10. 



o • 

CO 



4.4 
3.5 
3.4 
4.7 
6.0 
5.2 
6.2 
5.7 
2.8 
4.9 
5.8 
5.6 



4.9 



• 

1^ 


^ 


»: 


a; 

o 


0« 


4.0 


5.2 


4.2 


4.3 


4.0 


3.6 


6.3 


6.1 


6.0 


5.3 


46 


4.6 


5.4 


5.0 


6.3 


4.7 


3.2 


2.3 


4.6 


3.5 


5.8 


4.2 


6.0 


5.6 


5.0 


4.4 





*i» 9 



4.6 
4.0 
3.7 
6.0 
6.8 
4.8 
5.5 
5.2 
2.4 
4.3 
5.3 
5.7 



4.7 



o o 

&^ 
<» a 



i 



7 

8 

6 

10 

14 

8 

7 

13 

6 

8 

II 

14 



9.2 



111 



ns o 



;g 



GO 



3.33 
2.80 
2.05 
3.63 
2.36 
6.55 
4.90 
8.20 
3.06 
2.80 
2.40 
3.45 



3.71 



44.61 



Remarks. The greatest height of the barometer (reduced as above) was 30.74 inches, 
on the S23d of January. The least S9.13 Inches, on the 9th of March. Showing the 
extreme range for the year to be 1.68 inches. 

The maximum temperature was 93° on the Ilth of July, which was also the hottest 
day of the season ; the mean of three daily observations being 81^3, wind southwest. 
On the evening of the same day there was a very heavy thunder-shower. The minimum 
temperature was 2° on the 4th of March. The coldest dav was March 5th, the mean of 
three daily observations being lO^, with a cutting wind at northwest. Range for the 
year, 91**. 

• Observations are made at 6 A. M. ftom April 1st to October 1st, and at sunrise from 
October to Aoril. 



80 METEOBOLOOICAL INFOBBfATION. [1860. 

IV. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR WORCESTER, Mass. 

Lot. 439 16' 17'' JV. ; Long. 7]o 48' 13" W. ; eUvaiion S36fe€t. Hours of 

Observation, 7 ^. M.^ 2 and 9 F. M. 





1 


^ 


■ 














1 


• 

S 


1857-68. 


1 


1 


1 


d 
a, 


& 

^ 


• 


1 


< 


§ 
1 


;< 

H 


J^trmometer, 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o • 


.6. 


& 


p 





i7 


90 


28 


18 


27 


40 


42 


65 


67 


56 


3 


Mean at < 2 


36 


36 


29 


41 


53 


59 


76 


77 


72 


68 


92 


(9 


28 


30 


21 


30 


44 


50 


65 


67 


63 


57 




Barometer. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 




i7 


29.603 29.496 


29.442 29.344 


29.424 


29.459 29.448 ;29 472 


29.488 


29 609 




Mean at < 2 


29.483 29 472 


29.410 29.354 


29.329 


29.431 


29.413 


29.424 


29.427 


29.46S 




(9 


29.615 29.517 


29.362 29.432 


29.337 


29.422 


29.416 


29.462 


29.465 


29.506 




Cloudinest. 
























w7 


6.5 


5.0 


51 


6.0 


5.2 


6.4 


4.5 


50 


5.2 


2.7 




Mean at < 2 


6.4 


6.0 


5.6 


65 


6.2 


6.6 


3.7 


4.0 


6.7 


4.2 


• 


^9 


5.4 


3.6 


3.5 


4.2 


5.2 


6.5. 


4.0 


4.0 


4.7 


2.9 


1 


Inches of rain, 


5:« 


2.13 


1.10 


2.29 


3.37 


4.13 


5.16 


4.18 


4.00 


5.70 


^4 


" snow-water 


0.78 


0.93 


0. 


0. 


0.77 


0. 


0. 


0. 


0. 


0. 




" snow, 


9.1 


8.5 


4.5 


0. 


5.00 


0. 


0. 


0. 


0. 


0. 




No. of Days 
























Clear, 


1 











2 











1 


3 


7 


Cloudy, 


30 


31 


28 


31 


28 


31 


30 


31 


30 


27 


297 


Rainy, 


15 


7 


8 


11 


12 


17 


9 


9 


14 


7 


109 


Days of 
N.&NW.wind 


2 


1 


1 


4 














3 


6 


16 


W.&SW. " 


3 


2 


2 


3 


« 


3 


2 


2 





1 


25 


S.&S.E. " 














1 








2 


1 


4 


E.&N.E. " 


3 


1 


1 





2 





2 


2 

* 


6 


2 


19 



Remarks. By clear days is meant entirely clear, i. e. no cloud whatever being visiUe. 
By rainy days, that more or less rain fell, without any reference to quantity. 



V. AMOUNT OF RAIN AND SNOW REGISTERED AT THE 
STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, WORCESTER, MASS., FOR 
SEVENTEEN YEARS. 



Year. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


Inches laches 


Inches Inches Inches Inches 


Inches Inches 


Inches Inches 


Inches 




Rain. 


Snow. 


Rain. 


Snow.! Rain. Snow. 


Rain. Snow. 


Rain. 


Snow. 


Rain. 


1841-42 


4.77 


6.0 


1.36 


6.0 


4.13 


3.0 


2.24 


4.0 


2.82 




3.24 


1842-43 


6.30 


26.0 


6.06 


2.0 


4.45 


30.0 


5.23 


26.0 


3.13 


10.0 


1.73 


1843-44 


2.28 


23.0 


3.14 


13.5 


1.44 


12.0 


3.80 


18.6 


0.35 




3.67 


1844-45 


2.05 


8.0 


4.17 


12.0 


2.61 


20.0 


3.29 


10.0 


1.61 




3.23 


1845-46 


5.39 


13.0 


2.92 


13.0 


2.50 


30.0 


3.33 




1.34 




5.85 


1846-47 


2.87 


9.0 


4.66 


6.0 


4.06 


17.0 


3.89 


6.0 


1.67 




1.63 


1847-48 


4.93 


10.5 


3.06 


4.5 


1.61 


25.0 


3.89 


6.0 


1.62 


6.0 


6.82 


1848-49 


393 


25.0 


0.98 


2.0 


1.30 


14.5 


6.30 


3.0 


1.96 




3.66 


1849-50 


3.12 


8.5 


4.79 


15.0 


823 


2.0 


3.67 


20.0 


5.53 


13.0 


7.60 


1850-51 


4.19 


23.5 


2.07 


2.5 


4.01 


1.6 


1.40 


18.0 


6.76 




4.73 


1861-52 


2.30 


5.5 


6.44 


15.5 


2.46 


11.6 


3.42 


13.6 


10.77 


23.0 


3.50 


1852-53 


4.78 


4.0 


3.02 


10.0 


8.09 


11.0 


3.60 


8.0 


4.92 




4.46 


1853-64 


3.79 


20.5 


2.82 


7.6 


6.62 


15.5 


3.45 




6.69 




6.78 


1854-55 


3.43 


15.5 


8.11 


9.0 


4.48 


8.0 


0.23 


4.0 


5.39 




1.64 


1355-56 


6.90 


10.5 


4.60 


27.5 


135 


9.0 


1.69 


102 


334 




6.55 


1856-57 


4.03 


3.0 


4.48 


290 


2.24 


6.6 


2.80 


11.75 


8.87 




4.56 


1857-58 


5 33 


9.0 


2.13 


8.5 1 1 10 


45 


2.29 




3 37 




4.13 


Sums, 


169.45 220.6 


62.81 


181.5 66.70 221.0 


54.62 160.95:71.03 


51.0 


74.20 


Means, 


' 4.08 1 12.9 


3.69 


1.06 3.27 13.0 


i 3.20 9.46 4.17 


3.0 


4.36 



UETEOBOLOQICAL 

V. CoBiinni 























Yesr 


Juna. 


Julj. 


August 


&pt. 


Oclotnr. 


Not. 


mtar. 


Td»1. 1 


TS^E^ 




Tiiil^ 




inchulnchu 


ian^ 




Wh« 


l^Hh^ 






K»iii. 


Rain. 




Rain. 




Rain. 




Bain. 


Snow. 


■-^i"-«" 








it 




■oisT 




X3S 




-40:^ 


Tao 


S42-43 




























sa-ii 




3,50 














3:06 


6,0 


K 




n'.o 


844-4S 






X 








444 














S46-4S 












» 
















Ma- 47 




4.88 




















94 


39.0 


847-43 




8.13 










6.76 






8.0 


3! 






843-49 








8 




40 


e.46 














849-60 




sjs 














214 




6. 


4S 




860-51 




2.17 










7.M 


4 


5.B9 


6.S 








861 -5S 








jS 




a 




















aiao 
























863-64 


XI6 


6X8 










b:o3 




9:8a 




61 


!1 


4BJ) 


S54-5S 








6 




20 








2,0 






38.6 














» 


















344 


3. BO 
























1867-68 




418 




















30 




Sum.. 


~3:w" 


~iw 






TOi" 




7d:ra" 


"SF 


Ira^i 


"^7:96 


m™.. 


~B 




"389" "4:70" 


"sT 


ilo" 


"2:25 


47.26" 


""wiaa 



VI. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR LAMBERTVILLE, H. J. 



1. Sdmmirt r 



a AooDST 31, 1659. 



82 



METEOBOLOGICAL INFORMATION. 



[1860. 



2. Weather for Year endimo August 31, 1859. 



Months. 
1858-59. 


* 

• 

6 


* 

i 


Rain or 
Snow. 


Water, in 
Inches. 


Months. 
1859. 


* 


t 

.2 
O 


Rain or 
Snow. 


Water, In 
Inches. 


September, 

October, 

November, 

December. 

January, '59, 

February, 

March, 


3 
5 


3 

1 

4 


2 
o 

7 
11 
8 
6 
4 


5 
8 
9 
13 
11 
14 
13 


1.335 
1.980 
3.892 
4.130 
4.889 
3.167 
5.916 


May, 
June, 
July, 

August, 


3 
3 
2 

I 


6 
8 
6 
4 
1 


16 

11 

7 

9 

9 


4.702 
1.261 
3.014 
4.040 
3.010 


Year, 








41.326 



3. Average Monthly Mean for 22 Years, from 1837 to 1858 inclusive. 



Month. 


• 
• 

< 




• 


Month. 


• 


2 P.M. 


• 
• 


Month. 


7 A.M. 


2 P.M. 


• 

a* 

o 
60 03 

49.77 

40.12 

30.82 


Jan. 
Feb. 
March, 
April, 


24?69 
24.82 
32 10 
43.54 


o 
36.19 
36.13 
45.66 
57.62 


28°92 
28 52 
36 83 
46.37 


May, 
June, 
July, 
August, 


55°32 
65.46 
70.87 
67.19 


63.88 
78.82 
84.00 
80.56 


55°93 
64.69 
€9.88 
67.82 


Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

JL/CC« 


o 
5821 

45.25 
36.02 

27.87 


73.64 
60.43 
48 96 
37.90 



4. Annual Mean and Extreme Temperature for 22 Years. 



Year. 



1837 
18^ 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 

ia<>o 

1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 



22Yrs, 



7 A.M. 



47.02 
47 01 
50.00 
48.66 

45 41 

46 20 
48.48 
44.49 
45.50 
45 62 
46.25 
47.08 
45.02 
45.65 
45.08 
45.49 
47.32 
46.29 
46.26 
43.03 
44.47 
45.46 



46.17 



2 P.M. 



58.28 
57.76 
60 03 
58.41 
55.52 
57.29 
66.40 
57.64 
53.25 
69.08 
59.67 
61.11 
59 39 
60.11 
59.92 
59 56 
61.73 
62.77 
59.89 
59.05 
59.43 
60.46 



59.62 



9 P.M. 



45.89 
48.58 
48.95 
47.19 
46 88 
47.52 
47.05 
47.49 
47.86 
48.05 
49.64 
51.22 
49.87 
49 83 
49.97 
49.84 
49.28 
49.16 
47.66 
46.21 
46.73 
48.75 



Max. 



91.0 
97.3 
95.0 
89 5 
92.5 
88.0 
94.5 
94.0 
985 
96.0 
93.8 
97 
96.8 
95.0 
95.0 
97.0 
98.5 
100.0 
100 
1015 
98.4 
98.3 



48.34 Il015 



Day. 



August 8 
July 11 



July 

July 

June 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

June 

June 

June 

Sept. 

June 

June 

July 

June 

July 

July 

June 



19 
16 

8 
27 

2 
14 
16 
11 
18 
17 
27 
20 
12 
16 
22 
21 
29 
18 
13 
26 



Min. 



§0 
0.0 
1.0 

- 6.0 
0.7 

lO.O 
4.5 
0.2 
3.0 
1.0 
4.0 
4.0 

- 6.2 
8.0 

-16.5 

- 8.6 
6.0 
10 

- 5.0 
-10.0 
-20.0 
-8.7 



—20.0 



Day. 



Range. 



February 14 
December 31 
January 1 
February 6 
January 4 
February 17 
December 14 
January 28 
February 9 
February 527 
January 13 
January II 
January 11 
February 6 
December 27 
January 20 
January 16 
November 22 
December 7 
January 9 
January 24 
February 24 



85.0 

97.3 

94.0 

955 

91.8 

78.0 

90.0 

938 

95.5 

95.0 

89.8 

93.0 

103.0 

87.0 

111.5 

105 5 

92.5 

99.0 

105.0 

1116 

118.4 

107.0 



121.5 



5. Quantity of Water from Rain and Snow, and Depth of Snow, for 21 Years 



Year. 


Water 

from 

Raln& 

Snow. 


Depth 

of 
Snow. 

t 


Rain 

or 

Snow. 


Year. 


Water 

frum 

Rain& 

Snow. 


Depth 

of 
Snow. 

t 


Rain 

or 
Snow. 


Year. 


Water 

from 

Rain& 

Snow. 


Depth 

of 
Snow. 

t 


Rain 

or 

Snow. 




Inches. 


Inch. 


Days. 




Inches. 


Inch. 


Days. 




Inches. 


Inch. 


Days. 


1833 


37.997 




86 


1845 


42.884 


39 


129 


1852 


45 210 


14 


116 


l^^ 


44.008 


18 


97 


1846 


45.199 


29 


134 


1853 


42.924 


24 


97 


1840 


41.612 


66 


110 


1847 


51.034 


10 


108 


1854 


43 135 


30 


99 


1841 


57.365 


22 


142 


1848 


34.138 


38 


108 


1855 


45 174 


96 


lis 


1842 


41.865 


29 


139 


1849 


43.731 


17 


101 


1856 


32.319 


37 


93 


1843 


61.320 


25 


137 


1850 


53.254 


11 


118 


1857 


48 657 


31 


126 


'H4 


40.319 


26 


131 


1851 


32.450 


47 


85 


1858 40.415 1 


32 


108 



Perfectly clear or entirely cloudy during the whole day. 
[Hiring the season tnding each year aslndicated. 



IKFORUATIOH. 



VII. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR SAVANNAH, Gi. 
For tht Year coding May, 1859. By Dr. John F. Posey. 




2. Thesmdhetkb. 

w York; houBsd ■■ d1rec1«l bf tb« SnithaoniBn In 



84 METEOROLOGICAIi INFOBMATION. [18G0« 

VIII. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR MUSCATINE, Iowa. 

For the Year I808. By T. S. Paryin, Smithsonian Observer, 

Lot. 41° 25' JV., Long. 92° 2' W, (proximate). 

Barometer 72.21 ft. above low water in (and 686.21 ft. above the mouth oO the Mieeissippi 

River. 



Months. 


Barometer, 
Height reduced to . 
Freezing Point. 


Thermometer, 
in the Open Air. 


Force of Vapor. 


Relative 
Humid- 
ity. 


• 

< 


1 

a* 


• 

0» 


11 


• 

< 


■ 

IS 

0« 


• 

o» 

2$3 
15.1 
36 1 
41.4 
55.4 
66.1 
72 
723 
62.0 
60.7 
316 
222 


2e 
|S 


29.96 

15.98 
38.71 
46.12 
54.31 
70.62 
78.80 
79.89 
66.93 
51.99 
32.61 
25.53 


• 

i 

a 


1 

a 
*s 


« 
• 

< 


• 
• 

on 


• 


■ 
• 

< 

to 

67 
61 
71 
83 
80 
89 
87 
86 
85 
87 
76 
67 


■ 

• 

a. 

66 
66 
73 
84 
87 
88 
82 
81 
81 
83 
70 
63 


a; 

63 
63 

74 
80 
86 
66 
89 
87 
83 
89 
72 
64 


1858. 
January, 
Feb*ry, 
March, 
April, 
May, 
June, 

July, 

August, 

Sept'ber, 

October, 

Nov'ber, 

Dec'ber, 


inch. 

29.51 
.69 
.64 
.47 
.45 
.47 
.49 
.52 
.53 
.47 
.51 

29.52 


inch. 

29.48 
.68 
.62 
.45 
.46 
.42' 
.46 
.63 
.62 
.46 
.49 

29.58 


inch. 

29.S2 
.60 
.63 
.37 
.60 
.38 
.44 
.49 
.62 
.44 
.60 

29.69 


inch. 

29.60 
.68 
.62 
.43 
.44 
.40 
.46 
.50 
.61 
.45 
.60 

29.60 



24.7 

10.8 

31.5 

41.3 

56.0 

67.4 

67.8 

65.2 

55.7 

46.9 

29.6 

20.1 


22.1 
47.6 
52.6 
57.4 
76.3 
84.8 
81.3 
72.9 
56.6 
37.2 
31.2 


46 
70 
78 
81 
96 
89 
93 
87 
85 
52 
48 

73 


"8 

-17 

1 

24 

39 

52 

62 

46 

42 

30 

4 

-15 


inch. 
.380 
.306 
.430 
.289 
.417 
.696 
.745 
.661 
.549 
.380 
.293 
.345 


inch. 
.439 
.333 
.629 
.316 
.433 
.800 
.801 
.759 
.573 
.381 
.317 
.466 


inch. 
.429 
.368 
.517 
.323 
.603 
.724 
.809 
.781 
.582 
.389 
.342 
.434 


Means, 29.51 


29.50 


29.49 


29.50 


43.0 


64.7 


46.1 


49.29 


22 


1 .435 


.5161 .517 


78|n 79 



Clovds, Rains, Winds, etc. 



Months. 


Clouds, Amount and Course. 
Amount from 10 to 0. 


Weather 
(days). 


Rain. Snow. 


Winds, Direction and 
Force. t 
Force from to 10. ( 


• 


1 


« 


p4 


• 






• 




c 
<-> S 


d 


«w'^N 


• 






1858. 


S 


^ 1^ 


^ 


OQ 


oi ? 1 


•: 


>» 
"o 


-§ 


n 






^ 


(M|aj 


2 
t 


S 


^ 


S 




• 

< 


. 1 


1 

• 


1 


1 


1 


t 


3 



is 


&§£& 


« 
9Q 


1 

• 


1 


1 

• 

14 


< 


Ck 


(U 




2.7 


« 


o» 


^ 


H 


cc 



19 


— 

6 


> 
7 


Q 


< 





a .2 


1 


2 14 


1.5 


1.5 


a» 


January, 


2.6 ' 2.2 




3 


1 


6 1.60 






1.5, 


Feb'ry, 
March, 


1.7 


2.2 


1.6 








3 


18 


3 


7 


12.00 3 


18.00 


4 


4 4 


16 


1.3 


1.3 


1. 81 


2.6 


3.3 


3.3 






3 


3 


15 


6 


10 


6 2.20 




2 


11 7 


11 


1.3 


1.8 


1.5! 


r;; 


4.6 


4.9 


5.8 


4 


2 


6 


6 


7 


16 


7 


II 


5.67 1 


2.00 


5 


9 5 


11 


1.4 


1.9 


1.5! 


4.9 


4.9 


5.6 


2 




4 


5 


6 


19 


6 


21 


8.40 ; 




6 


9 6 


10 


1.4 


1.6 


1.7 


June, 


2.9 


3.2 3.9 






11 




11 


9 


10 


6 6.671 




3 


8 


15 


4 


1.0 


1.3 


1.0 


July, 


6.0 


6.8 1 6.6 


4 




13 


5 


6 


19 


6 


167.30 




6 


11 


9 


5 


.9 


1.0 


.6 


August, 


2.5 4.1 


2.6 




1 


6 


11 


15 


6 


10 


8:4.12 






10 


5 10 


6 


.9 


1.0 


.9 


Sept'ber, 


1.7 ! 1.5 


1.8 


2 




7 


1 


20 


4 


6 


76.10 






3 


2,17 


8 


1.1 


2.0 


1.1 


October, 


6.3 


6.6 6.3 


3 


1 


5 


1 


9 


14 


18 


13!4.95 






2 


9:11 


9 


1.4 


1.9 


1.3 


Nov'ber, 


8.0 


7.3 1 6.4 


2 




3 


2 


4 


19 


7 


11 


4.00 


8 


6.40 


11 


2, 3 


14 


1.2 


1.4 


l.I 


Dec'ber, 


3.6 
3.9 


4.1 4.3 


1 





6 
5 


2 
3 


14 
12 


10 


7 


5 


1.70 


3 


12.00 


2 

4 


1 


18 


10 


1.3 
1.2 


1.7 


1.1 


An.M'n, 


4.2 


3.9 


10 


8 


9 


4.56 


4 


9.35 


6 


10 


10 


1.2 



Lowest Temperature, February 10th, — 17o. Highest, June 22d, 96o. Range, 113o. 
Mean, 490.29. Average Mean fur 19 years, 47o.i2. Greatest Range of mean temperature, 
60.39. Lowest beieht of barometer, April 8th, 28.66 inches ; thermometer attached, 450. 
Greatest, January 7ih. 30.17 inches; thermometer attached, 250. Range, 1.51 inches. 
Mean height, 29.50 inches. 

Frost, last in the spring, April 26th ; first in the fall, September I2th. Disappearance of 
frost from the ground, April Ist. Depth of ground frozen, 1 foot. Thickness of ice in the 
river, 9 inches. 

January, temperature mild ; heavy snow first week ; good stage of water and boats all the 
month. February, dry, with some severe cold weather ; boats in the early part of the month ; 
river then full of ice. April 13th^ snow and hail storm ; last half of month very wet ; five 
inches rain. May, very wet ; rivers high ; farmers unable to plough. Jane, very wet ; 



UBTBOKOLOOICAI. rarORHATIOM. 

Dw lands OTflTflovfid, and tut lEtlla com planted. Jalj, cnntlnued n: 
iugual, first hair 'erT hoi, and laal half Tti^ nwL Seplemlier, 11m bi 

wheat and oali 'rsllad. Ociaber, finit hiLf of moiLih pleaaant weaili 
grseibJE, and <illh the whole of Norember, cOLitlnued ralna. Dec 



IX. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR SACRAMENTO, CiL. 

For lie Year tndiitg Mwch 31ri, 1859. Lai. 28° 34' 41" Jt., Long. 121° 
27' 44" W. EUvalim above the Level of the Sea, at tht Lnu in front of 
the City, 40 fat. Height i^ ike loaer tarfaet of At MercitTy, 41 feel 
ahave the Sea at San Frandaco. By Thomat M. Logan, M. D. 



adoplnl bj Ih. 

comcuid ibr lu hsifht abaVe ihe ei 

rain fall during Ihs month. The la 
June. The fim nin of 1S5S-69 
record for thai period. From Itiii 

April. The laal fnat of Iha eeawin of IS67-E3 Hai tf 
attao Bitsr, owing w the laleoeia of the melllng oi 
nach iu bl^iaal pi^nt until the Z4tb of Har, 1869. 



llmei a Say. conlonnaUj DJIli the hoora 



86 



METEOROLOGICAL INFOBMATION. 



[1860. 



X. RAIN AT POWHATAN HILL, KING GEORGE CO., Va. 



1867. 
1857. 



iBt quarter. 
0.86 



July, 

August, 

September, 



Inches. 
6.085 
4.975 
1.016 

12.106 



2d. 
8.32 

Rain fell. 
11 days. 
9 " 
6 " 



3d. 
12.106 



4th. 
8.726 



Total. 
30.01 inches. 



Inches. 
1857. October, 2.015 
November, 1.28 
December, 6.43 



Rain felL 
6 days. 
5 " . 
11 « 



1858. 



1st quarter. 
2.835 



26 

2d. 

&94 



(C 



6.726 21 



CI 



1868. 



January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 



Inches. 
0.636 
1.745 
0.466 
2.67 
6.146 
1.126 



Rain felL 

6 days. 

8 

6 
12 
16 

8 



3d. 

8.315 
1868. 



u 
tt 
tt 
I* 



4th. 
9.91 

July, 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 



Total. 
30 incites. 



Inches. 
1.635 
3.226 
3.466 
1.80 
3.83 
4.28 



Rain fell. 
7 days. 
9 
8 
8 
10 
14 



(« 



tt 



tt 
It 



1869. 



1859. 



1st quarter. 
7.735 



2d. 
12.965 



Total. 
In 6 months, 20.7 inches. 



Inches. 
January, 3.27 
February, 1.77 
March, 2.696 



Rain fell. 

9 days. 

9 " 
12 " 



Inches. 
April, a99 
May, 2.846 
June, 6.13 



Rain fell. 
13 days. 
8 " 
12 " 



Heaviest Rains from July to December, 1857. 



Aug. 4th and 6th. 3.005; July 11th, 1.79; 1st, 1.685; Dec. 30th, 1.205; Oct. 16th, 1.065; 
Dec. 17th and 18th, 1.075; July 31st, 1.005. — Three rains over I^ inches, 4, from 1 to 
li inches, 6, from ^ to 1 inch, 32, under ^ inch. 

Snow. — Dec. 25th, 2 inches. 

Fro8t. — Sept. 30th, Oct. 1st, and 21st, killing frost ; Nov. 19th, severe. 

let. — Oct. 2l8t, a skim ; Nov. 21st, 1 inch : Dec. 11th, a skim. 

Heaviest Rains in 1858. 

Sept. 16th and 16th, 1.505 ; Aug. 18th, 1.415 ; Nov. 3d. 1.12 ; May I8th, 1.085; Sepu lUh, 
1.075; Dec. 29th, 30th, and 31st, 1.025; Dec 7th and 8lb, 1.02. — One rain over U iachi», 
6 from 1 to U inches, 12 from |^ to 1 inch^ 75 under ^ inch. 

Snow. — Feb. 13th, 5 inches; 20th, 2mclies; March 6th, ^inch; 8th, 6 inches; April 
26th, ground white. 

Pro8t. —April 24th and 26th, frost ; Oct. 9th, 26th, 27th, 28th, killing frost. 

/ee.— Jan. 19th, a skim; 23d, | inch: 30th, a skim; Feb. 6th, i inch; llth, i inch; 
'17th, 2i inches ; 18th, 3 inches ; 23d, 3 inches ; Nov. 19th, i inch; Dec. 1st, i inch; 9ib, 
i inch ; 23d, a skim ; 26th, f inch. 

Heaviest Rains from Janwiry to July, 1859. 

June 17th, 2.385 ; 16th, 2.345 (4.73 inches in 2 davs) ; April 28th, 1.075 ; 22d and 23d, 
1.045 ; Jan. 21st, 1.03. — Two rains over 2 inches, 3 from 1 to U Indies, 8 from i to 1 inch, 
43 under ^ inch. 

Snow. — Feb. 26th, 1 inch. 

Frost. —April let, 2d, and 6th, killing ; 7th and 9th, killine : 19th, May 2d, and June 5tb. 

/ce.— Jan. 2d, a skim ; llth, 3 inches ; 24th U inches ; 26th, 2 inches nearly. 

Flowering of Fruit Trees in 1858. 

Apricot, March 22d. Peach, April 3d to 5th. Plum, April 5th to 8th. Cherry, April 
5th to 8th. Pear, April 9th. Apple, April 13th to I7th. 

Flowering of Fruit Trees in 1859. 

Apricot, March 12th. Peach, March 18th to 23d. Plum, March 23d to 28th. Cheny, 
March 28th. Pear, April 4th. Apple, April 12th. —Fruit of Apricot, Plum, and aome 
Peaches destroyed by frost of April 9th. 



•** The Table of the " Flowering of Fruit Trees in 1859,»' for want of space here, i« 
transferred to the " Corrections and Additions," at the end of the volume. 



THE 



AMERICAN ALMANAC, 



r o R 



1860. 



PART II. 



UNITED STATES. 



I. PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES FROM THE 
ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 



1. George Washhtoton, 

2. John Adams, 

3. Thomas Jefferson, 

4. James Madison, 
6. James Monroe, 

6. John auiNCY Adams, 

7. Andrew Jackson, 

8. Martin Van Buren, 

9. William H. Harrison,* 

10. John Tyler, 

11. James Knox Polk, 

12. Zachary Taylor,* 

13. Millard Fillmore, 

14. Franklin Pierce, 

15. James Buchanan, 



Virginia, 

Massacliusetts, 

Virginia, 

Virginia, 

Virginia, 

Massachusetts, 

Tennessee, 

New York, 

Ohio, 

Virginia, 

Tennessee, 

Louisiana, 

New York, 

New Hampshire, 

Pennsylvania, 



Term Began. Term Ended. 

April 30, 1789, March 3, 1797. 

March 4, 1797, March 3, 1801. 

March 4, 1801, March 3, 1809. 

March 4, 1809, March 3, 1817. 

March 4, 1817, March 3, 1825. 

March 4, 1825, March 3, 1829. 

March 4, 1829, March 3, 1837. 

March 4, 1837, March 3, 1841. 

March 4, 1841, April 4,1841. 

April 4, 1841, March 3, 1845. 

March 4, 1845, March 3, 1849. 

March 4, 1849, July 9, 1860. 

July 9, 1860, March 3, 1853. 

March 4, 1863, March 3, 1867. 
March 4, 1857. 



II. EXECUTIVE GOVERNMENT. 

The IStli Presidential term of four years, since the establishment of the 
government of the United States under the Constitution, began on the 4th 
of March, 1857; and it will expire on the 3d of March, 1861. An elec- 
tion in each State throughout the United States for Electors of President 
and Vice-President, for the 19th Presidential term of four years from the 
4th of March, 1861, will be held on the Tuesday next after the first Mon- 
day of November, 1860 (November 6th). 

Salary. 
JAMES BUCHANAN, of Pennsylvania, President^ $25,000 

John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, Vice-Presidenty 8,000 

The Cabinet. 

The following are the principal officers in the executive department of the 
government, who form the Cabinet, and who hold their offices at the will 
of the President. 



Lewis Cass, 
Howell Cobb, 
John B. Flotd, 
Isaac Toucet, 
Jacob Thompson, 
Joseph Holt, 
Jeremiah S. Black, 



Michigan, 

Georgia, 

Virginia, 

Connecticut, 

Mississippi, 

Kentucky, 



Secretary of State, 
Secretary of the Treasury , 
Secretary of War, 
Secretary of the Navy, 
Secretary of the Interior, 
Postmaster- General, 



Pennsylvania, Attorney- General, 



$ 8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
8,000 



8* 



* Died in office.. 



90 



XJNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Department of State. 
Lewis Cass, Secretary, 

John Appleton, AatistaiU Secretary, salary, $3,000. 

Salary. Salary. 

William Hunter, Chief Clerk, $ 2,200 Hugh C. McLaughlin, Super- 
Edward Stubbs, DUburs. Agent, 2,000 intendent of Statistics, $ 2,000 



Treasury Department. 

Howell Cobb, Secretary. 

Philip Clayton, Assistant Secretary, salary, $ 3,000. 



Gilbert Rodman, Chirf Clerk 
of the Treasury Department, $2,200 

Comptrollers. 

William Medill, let Comp., 3,500 

W. H. Jones, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

James M. Cults, 2d Comp., 3,000 

Thos. J. Cathcart,CAtc/ CfcrAt, 2,000 

Auditors. 
Thos. L. Smith, 1st Auditor, 3,000 
David W. Mahon, Chief CUrk, 2,000 
Thos. J. D.. Fuller, 2d Auditor, 3,000 



Robt. J. Atkinson, Zd Auditor, 3,000 
Samuel S. Rind, Chief aerk, 2,000 

A. J. 0*Bannon, Ath Auditor, 3,000 
T. Hunter, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

B. Fuller, 5«A Auditor, 3,000 
Thos. M. Smith, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
Thomas M. Tate, Auditor of 

Treasury for P. 0. Depart., 3,000 
H. St. Geo. Offutt, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Commissioner of Customs. 

Samuel Ingham, 3,000 

Thomas Feran, Chief Clerk, 2,000 



:- 



Appraisers 
Large. 



Geo. F. Emery, 
Moses F. Qdell, 
Chas. V. Hagner, 
J. W. Baughman, 
Richard Roman, Appraiser- General 
for the Pacific Coast, $ 6,000 

Treasurer*s Office. 

Samuel Casey, Treasurer, 3,000 

W. B. Randolph, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Assistant Treasurers. 

Edward C. Pratt, Boston, 2,500 

John J. Cisco, JVew York, 4,000 



William Mechlen, CAief CZarfc, 2,000 Jas. H. Walton, Philadelphia, 2,500 



B. C. Pressly, Charleston, 2,500 
Ant. J. Guirot, Aew Orleans, 2,500 
Isaac H. Sturgeon, St. Louis, 2,500 
Jacob R. Snyder, California. 

Register's Office. 

Finley Bigger, Register, 3,000 

Charles T. Jones, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Solicitor's Office. 

Junius Hillyer, Solicitor, 3,500 

B. F. Pleasants, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Coast Survey. 
Alex. D. Bache, Superintendent, 6,000 



Office of Attorney-General. 

Jeremiah S. Black, Attorney- General. 

Alfred B. McCalmont, Assistant,* Salary, $3,000. 



* For the act creating the Assistant Attorney-General, see ** Titles and Abstracts of 
Public Laws," No. 33, post, p. 136. 



I860.] 



W. R. Drinkard, ChUf Clerk, $2,200 

Mjutant' General* s Office, 
Samuel Cooper, Col., Adjutant- 

General. 
E. D, Townsend, Major, Assist, 

Adj. 'Gen. 
J. L . A ddison, Principal Clerk, 1,800 

Quartermaster- General's Office, 
Thos. S. Jesup, Brev. Maj.-Gen., 

Quartermaster- General. 
E. 8 Sibley, Major, Quartermaster. 
Wm.A.GoTdon,Principal Clerk,lfiOQ 

Paymaster- General* s Office. 
Benj.F.Larned, Col, Paymaster- Gen. 
W. D. Beall, Principal Clerk, 1,800 

Subsistence Office. 
Joseph P. Taylor, CoL, Acting 
Com.- Gen. of Subsistence. 



EXEQUTIVIC DEPARTMENT. 

Department op War. 

John B. Floyd, Secretary. 
Salary 



91 



Salary. 
Medical Bureau. 

Thomas Lawson, Breo. Brig," 
Gen., Surg.- Gen, 

Robert C. Wood, Surgeon Assist- 
ant to the Surgeon- General. 

R. Johnson, Principal Clerk, $ 1,800 

Engineer Bureau, 
Joseph G. Totten, Brev. Brig.- 

Gen., Chief Engineer, 
H. G. Wright, Capt., Assistant. 
F. N. Barbarin,PWnct/»aZ CUrk, 1,800 

Topographical Bureau. 
John J. Abert, Col., Chief Top, 

Engineer. 
I. C. Woodruff, Cap*., Assistant. 
Geo.Thomp8on,Prtncipfl/ aerA,l,800 

Ordnance Bureau. 

Henry K. Craig, Col, Chief of 

Ordnance. 
W. Maynadier, Capt., Assist. 
Geo. Bender, Principal Clerk, 1,800 



A. E. Shiras, Capt., Assistant. 
Richard Gott, Principal Clerk, 1,800 

Navy Department. 

Isaac Toucey, Secretary. 
Charles W. Welsh, Chief Clerk, 2 200 

Joseph Smith, Chief of the Bureau of Docks and Mivy-Yards, sjsoo 

D. N. Ingraham, do. do. Ordnance and Hydrography, 3*500 

JohnLenthall, do. do. Construct., Equip., ^Repairs, 3,500 

Horatio Bridge, do, do. Provisions and Clothing, 

William Whelan, do. do. Med. and Surgery, 

Commander M. F. Maury, Super, of Observatory at Washington, 
Samuel Archbold, Engineer in Chief, 

Department of the Interior. 
Jacob Thompson, Secretary. 
MosBB Kelly, Chief Clerk, $ 2,2001 W. V. H. Brown, Principal 



3,500 
3,500 
3,000 
3,000 



Peter Lammond, Disbursing 
Clerk, 

General Land- Office, 



2,000 



Samuel A. Smith, Commiss., 3,000 Julius N. Granger, Recorder, 2,000 



Jos. S. Wilson, Chief Clerk, and 
Principal Clerk of Private, 
Land Claims, 2,000 



Clerk of Public Lands, 1,800 
Asa F. Chapin, Principal Clerk 

of Surveys, 1,800 



J. B. Leonard, Sec. to Pres. 

to sign Land Patents, 1,500 



92 



UKITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Salary. 
Indian Office. 

A. B. Greenwood, Commiss.^ $3,000 

Charles E. Mix, Chief Clerk^ 2,000 

Pension Office. 
Geo. C. Whiting, Commissioner, 3,000 
John Robb, Chief Clerk, 2,000 

Patent Office. 
Wm. D. Bishop, Commiss., 3,000 
S. T. Shugert, Chief Clerk, 2,000 
R. R. Rhoades, Examiner, 2,500 
Henry Baldwin, 
Henry King, 
James S. French, 
Titian R. Peale, 
R. D. Clarke, 
A. B. Little, 

De Witt C.Lawrence, do. 
J. M. Henry, 
William B. Taylor, do. 
Edward Foreman, 
H. P. K. Peck, 
J' Van Santvoord, .Assist. Exam., 1,800 
Thos. Antisell, do. 1,800 

Edward Shaw, do. 1,800 



do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


2,500 


do. 


. 2,500 


do. 


2,500 



Salary. 
A. M. Smith, Assist. Exam., $1,800 



H. N. Taft, do. 

A. T. Jenckes, do. 

I. D. Toll, do. 
Jos. H. Adams, Jr., do. 

S. E. Coues, do. 

Henry Wurtz, do. 

Elias Yulee, do. 

Alfred Herbert, do. 



1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 



A. L. Mclntire, Draughtsman, 1,600 
D. J. Browne, AgriculU Clerk, 2,000 
Samuel P. Bell, Machinist, 1,600 

Wm. W. Turner, Ubrarian, 1,600 

Pvblic Buildings, 
John B. Blake, Commissioner, 2,000 

Penitentiary. 

C. P. Sengstack, Warden, 1,800 

Peter Force, Inspector, 250 

Robert Ould, do. 250 

George Parker, do. 250 

United States Insane .Asylum. 

C. H . Nichols, Superintendent, 2,500 
W.F.Young, Jr.,.as8*t Physician, 700 



Post-Officx Department. 

Joseph Holt, Postmaster- General. 

1st .Assistant Postmaster- Gen., Appointment Office, 3,000 
2d do. do.. Contract Office, 3,000 

3d do. do.. Finance OffiM, 3,000 

B.N. Clements, Chief CVk P. 0. DepU,and Chief of Inspection Office, 2,200 
Thomas M. Tate, Auditor of the Treasury for the Post-Office, 3,000 

H. St. George Offutt, Chief Clerk of the Auditor, 2,000 



Horatio King, 
Wm. H. Dundas, 
A. N. Zevely, 



Postmasters in the Chief Towns and Cities.* 



[Corrected in the Post-Office Department, November 



Place. Postmaster. 

Abingdon, Va. Henry W. Baker. 

Adrian, Mich. C.B. Backus. 

•Albany, N. Y. C. Comstock. 

^Alexandria, La. £. R. Biossat. 

Alexandria, Va. T. W. Ashby. 

Alton, 111. R. W. English. 

Amherst, Mass. Seth Nims. 



Place. 
Andover, Mass. 
Annapolis, Md. 
Ann Arbor, Mich 
Apalachicola, Fa. 
Ashville, N. C. 
Astoria, Oregon, 
Athens, Ga. 



1, 1869.] 

Postmaster. 
H. Clark. 
Aug. Gassaway. 
. H. D. Bennett. 
B. F. Simmons. 
W. L. HiUiard. 
T. P. Powers. 
Thos. Crawford. 



♦ The places marked thus (*) are distributing offices, and those thus marked were ail 
the distributing offices, November 1, 1859. 



I860.] 



POSTMASTERS. 



93 



Place. Postmaster. 

Auburn, N. Y. C. W. Pomeroy. 

*Augusta, Ga. J. M. Smythe. 

Augusta, Me. Wm. S. Badger. 

Austin, Tex. William Rust. 

'Baltimore, Md. Jacob G. Davies. 

Bangor, Me. L. Jones. 

Batavia, N. Y. Wm. Seaver. 

Bath, Me. Joseph C. Snow. 

Baton Rouge, La. Jos. McCormick. 

Benicia, Cal. T. T. Hooper. 

Bennington, Vt. Truman Heiling. 

Binghampton,N.Y. Virgil Whitney. 

*Boston, Mass. Nahum Capen. 

Brattleboro', Vt. Asher Spencer. 

Bridgeport, Conn. E. B. Goodsell. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Wm. H. Peck. 

Brunswick, Me. Robert P. Dunlap. 

'Buffalo, N. Y. James G. Dickie. 

Burlington, Iowa. James Tizzard. 

Burlington, N. J« H. Hollenback. 

Burlington, Vt. D. A. Danforth. 

•Cairo, 111. L. G. Faxon. 

Calais, Me. Edgar Whidden. 

Cambridge, Mass. Wm. Caldwell. 

Cambridgeport, Ms. Samuel James. 

Camden, S. C. Thos W. Pegues. 

Canandaigua, N.Y. G. M. Chapman. 

Carlisle, Pa. John B. Bratton. 

Castine, Me. Charles Rogers. 

Catskill, N. Y. J. Joesbury. 

Chambersburg, Pa. John Ligget. 

'Charleston, S. C. Alfred Huger. 

Charlestown,Mass.Chas. B. Rogers. 

Charlestown, N.H.J. H. Hubbard. 

Charlottesville, Va. W. M. Eellinger. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. H. T. Phillips. 

•Chicago, 111. W. Price. 

Chillicothe, Ohio, John Hough. 

•Cincinnati, Ohio, John L. Vattier. 

Clarksburg, Va. B. S. Griffin. 

•Cleveland, Ohio, Benj. Harrington. 

Columbia, S. C. James B. Glass. 

Columbia, Tenn. E. F. Lee. 

•Columbus, Ga. Henry M. Jeter. 

•Columbus, Ohio, Thomas Miller. 

Concord, N. H. Jacob Carter. 



Place. Postmaster. 

Cooperstown, N.Y. C. J. Stillman. 
Corpus Christi,Tex.Wm. J. Moore. 
Cumberland, Md. Sam. H. Taylor. 
Cumb'd Gap, Tenn. J. G. Newlee. 
Darien, Ga. Wm. T. Thorp. 

Dayton, Ohio, Edward A. King. 
Dedham, Mass. L. W. Tower. 
Detroit, Mich. Henry N.Walker. 
Donaldson ville, La. A. Gingry. 
Dover, N. H. P. H. Burns. 

Dover, Del. Tim. C. Killen. 

•Dubuque, la. H. H. Heath. 

Easton, Pa. W. H. Hutten. 

Eastport, Me. W. Hathaway. 

Elmira, N. Y. Daniel Stephens. 

Erie, Pa. B. F. Sloan. 

Evansville, Ind. C. B. Rudd. 
Exeter, N. H. D. Melcher. 

Fayetteville, N. C. James G. Cook. 
Fitchburg, Mass.^ J. W. Mansur. 
Florence, Ala. John A. Smith. 
Fort Gibson, Ark. Thomas Lanigan. 
Frankfort, Ky. Benj. F. Johnson. 
Frederick, Md. C. B. McCaffrny. 
Fredericsburg, Va. R. T. Thom. 
Galena, 111. B. B. Howard. 

•Galveston, Tex. John B. Root. 
Geneva, N. Y. S. H. Parker. 
Georgetown, D. C. H. W. Tilley. 
Georgetown, S. C. Wm. McNulty. 
Greenfield, Mass. D. N. Carpenter. 
Greensboro', Ala. H. Kohnen. 
Greensboro*, N. C. B. C. Graham. 
Hagerstown, Md. Saml. Ridenour. 
Hallowell, Me. T. W. Newman. 
Hanover, N. H. S. W. Cobb. 
Harrisburg, Pa. Geo. W. Porter. 
Hartford, Conn. W. J. Hamersley. 
Hillsboro', N. C. J. M. Palmer. 
HoUidaysburg, Pa. W. G. Murray. 
Houston, Tex. O. L. Cochran. 
Hudson, N. Y. Henry C. Miller. 
Huntsville, Ala. W. P. A. Murray. 
Independence, Mo. P. McClanahan. 
•Indianapolis, Ind. John M. Talbot. 
Ithaca, N. Y. O. B. Curran. 



94 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Plaqe. Postmaster. 

Jackson, Mich. J. P. Shoemaker. 
Jackson, Miss. C. R. Dickson. 
Jacksonville, 111. Samuel Hunt. 
Jefferson Bar., Mo. E. Thompson. 
Jefferson City, Mo. John M. Dixon. 
Kalamazoo, Mich. Wm. H. De Yoe. 
•Kanawha C.H.,Va. D. H. Snyder. 
Kaskaskia, 111. P. W. Unger. 
Keene, N. H. J. D. Colony. 

Kensington, Pa. Peter Rambo. 
Key West, Fa. J. C. Whalton. 
Knozville, Tenn. C. W. Charlton. 
Lafayette, Ind. Thomas Wood. 
Lancaster, Pa. H. M. Reigart. 
Lansing, Mich. J. M. Griswold. 
Lawrence, Mass. Benj. F. Watson. 
Lecompton,Kan.T. Jas. S. Rucker. 
Lexington, Ky. Jesse Woodruff. 
Litchfield, Conn. G. H. Baldwin. 
•Little Rock, Ark. John £. Reardon. 
Lockport, N. Y. Asher Torrance. 
•Louisville, Ky. F. S. J. Ronald. 
Lowell, Mass. F. A. Hildreth. 
Lynchburg, Va. Robt. H. Glass. 
Lynn, Mass. Leonard B.Usher 

Macon, Ga. £. L. Strohecker. 

Madison, Ind. RoUa Doolittle. 
Madison, Wise. John N. Jones. 
Manchester, N. H. Thos. P. Pierce. 
Marietta, Ohio, A. W. McCormick. 
Marysville, Cal. W. C. Dougherty. 
Maysville, Ky. Benj. O. Picket. 
Meadville, Pa. J. £. McFarland. 
•Memphis, Tenn. Wm. H.Carroll. 
Middlebury, Vt. Wm. P. Russell. 
Middletown, Ct. Sam. Babcock, Jr. 
Milledgeville, Ga. E. S. Chandler. 
Milwaukee, Wise. Mitchell Steever. 
Mobile, Ala. Loyd Bowers. 

Monterey, Cal. Wm. Curtis. 
•Montgomery, Ala. Thomas Welch. 
Montpelier, Vt. T. P. Redfield. 
Muscatine, Iowa, J. A. McCormick. 
Murfree8boro*,Ten.Wm. R. Butler. 
Nantucket, Mass. Charles P. Swain. 
'Napoleon, Ark. Jas. T. Porter. 



Place. Postmaster. 

Nashua, N. H. George Bowers. 
•Nashville, Tenn. S. R. Anderson. 
Natchez, Miss. Richard Elward. 
Natchitoches, La. Fairman F . Taber. 
New Albany, Ind. F. M. Gwin. 
Newark, N. J. Charles T. Gray. 
Newark, Ohio, James £. Lewis. 
New Bedford, Ms. John Fraser. 
Newbern, N. C. J. C. Stevenson. 
N. Brunswick, N.J. Henry Sanderson. 
Newburg, N. Y. Jos. Casterline, Jr. 
Newburyport, Ms. Geo. W.Jackman. 
Newcastle, Del. J. Dunkin, Jr. 
New Haven, Ct. L. A. Thomas. 
New London, Ct. Stanley G. Troth. 
*New Orleans, La. Saml. F. Marks. 
Newport, R. I. James Atkinson. 
•New York, N. Y. Isaac V. Fowler. 
•Norfolk, Va. A. M. Vaughan. 

Northampton, Ms. H. H. Chilson. 
Northumberland, Pa. Jacob Ulp. 
Norwich, Conn. JohnW. Stedman. 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. Thomas Bacon. 
Olympia,Wa8h.T. Rufus Willard. 
Omaha City ,Neb.T. W.W.Wyman. 
Oswego, N. Y. Alfred B. Letty. 
Owego, N. Y. H. A. Beebe. 

Oregon City, Or. W. W. Buck. 
Pass Christian, Mi. Archibald Clark. 
Paterson, N. J. William D. Quin. 
Paw tucket, R. I. C. A. Leonard. 
Pensacola, Fa. Dillon Jordon. 
Peoria, 111. Geo. W. Raney. 

Petersburg, Va. Wm. E. Bass. 
'Philadelphia, Pa. Nath. B.Browne. 
•Pittsburg, Pa. Robt. Anderson. 
Pittsfield, Mass. Phineas Allen, Jr. 
Plattsburg, N. Y. Chas. S. Mooers. 
Plymouth, Mass. C. A. S. Perkins. 
Pontiac, Mich. S. W. Denton. 
Port Gibson, Miss. W. S. Morris. 
Portland, Me. S. Jordan. 

Portsmouth, N. H. G. H. Rundlett 
P't Townsend,W.T. F.W.Pettygrove. 
Pottsville, Pa. Henry L. Acker. 
Poughkeepsi6,N.Y. G. P. Pelton. 



I 



I860.] 



COLLBCTOBS OF CX7ST0MS. 



95 



Place. Postmaster. 

Princeton, N. J. Robert L. Clow. 
Providence, R. I. Albert S. Gallup. 



Quincy, 111. 
•Raleigh, N. C. 
Reading, Pa. 
^Richmond, Va. 
Robbinston, Me. 



W. H. Carlin. 
George T. Cooke. 
PbiUp K. Miller. 
Thos. B. Bigger. 
J. W. Cox. 



Rochester, N. Y. Nicholas E. Paine. 
Rome, N. Y. D. £. Wager. 

Rutland, Yt. J. Cain. 

Saco, Me. Charles Nutter. 

Sacramento, Cal. J. R. Hardenberg. 
Salem, Mass. I. S. Perkins. 

Salt Lake City,Ut Elias Smith. 
San Diego, Cal. J. W. Robinson. 
Sandusky, Ohio, John M. Brown. 
Sandwich, Mass. Charles B. Hall. 
*San Francisco,Cal. Chas. L. Weller. 
San Jos^, Cal. John W. Patrick. 
Santa F6, N. Mez. D. Y. Whiting. 
Saratoga Sp.jN.Y. Thos. G. Young. 
*Savannah, Ga. Solomon Cohen. 
Schenectady, N. Y. Luke Dodge. 
Sharon, N. Y. H. Beekman. 
Shawneetown,Ill. Sarah J. Seabolt 
Springfield, 111. Morris Lindsay. 
Springfield, Mass. A. W. Chapin. 
Steubenville, Ohio, Thos. Brashears. 
*St. Josephs, Mo. Wm. A. Davis. 
*St. Louis, Mo. John Hogan. 
Stockton, Cal. P. Edward Conner. 



Place. 
St. Paul, Min. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
Tallahassee, Fa. 
Taunton, Mass. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
Thomaston, Me. 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Trenton, N. J. 
Troy, N. Y. 
Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Tuscumbia, Ala. 
Uniontown, Pa. 
Utica, N. Y. 
Yicksburg, Miss. 
Vincennes, Ind. 
Ware, Mass. 
"Washington, D.C. 
Watertown, N. Y. 
Waterville, Me. 
West Point, N. Y. 
"Wheeling, Va. 
Whitehall, N. Y. 
Wilkesbarre, Pa. 
Williamstown, Ms. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Winchester, Va. 
Windsor, Vt. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Yorkville, S. C. 
Zanesville, Ohio, 



Postmaster. 
W. H. Forbes. 
H. J. Sedgwick. 
Miles Nash. 

A. M. Ide, Jr. 

B. H. Cornwell. 
A. Lermond. 
John E. Hunt. 
W. A. Benjamin. 
James R..Fonda. 
Wm. D. Marrast. 
Samuel Fin ley. 
A. Hadden. 
Joseph M. Lyon. 
Wm. B. Sloan. 
John Moore. 
Addison Sanford. 

William Jones. 
W. H. Sigourney. 

E. L. Getchell. 
Mary Berard. 

F. H. Feeney. 
H. W. Buel. 
E. R. Collings. 
John M. Cole. 
Henry F. Askew. 
Daniel Dickson. 
Geo. B. Graves. 
P. G. Skinner. 
E. Bannister. 

J. R. Alexander. 
J. B. Roberts. 



COLLXCTORS OF CuSTOMS IN THE PRINCIPAL PoRTS. 

[Corrected in the Treasury Department, November 1, 1859.] 



Port. Collector. 

Alexandria, Va. Edwd. S. Hough. 

Annapolis, Md. J. T. Hammond. 

Apalachicola, Fa. Robert J. Floyd.' 

Astoria, Oregon. John Adair. 



Baltimore, Md. 
Bangor, Me. 
Barnstable, Ms. 
Bath, Me. 
Beaufort, N. C. 
Beaufort, S. C. 
Belfast, Me. 



J. T. Mason. 
D. F. Leavitt. 
S. B. Phinney. 
Joseph Berry. 
J. E. Gibble. 
B. R. Bythewood. 
J. D. Dickerson. 



Port. Collector. 

Benicia, Cal. T. B. Storer. 

Boston, Ms. Arthur W. Austin. 
Bridgetown, N. J. Wm. S. Bowen. 

Bristol, R. I. G. H. Reynolds. 

Buffalo, N. Y. Warren Bryant. 

Burlington, Vt. J. B. Bowdish. 

C. Vincent, N. Y. Theop. Peugnet. 

Castine, Me. John R. Redman. 

Charleston, S. C. Wm. F. Colcock. 

Chicago, 111. B. F. Strother. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Robert Parks. 



96 



UNITBB STATES. 



[1860. 



Port. Collector. 

Darien, Geo. Woodford Maybry. 
Detroit, Mich. M. Shoemaker. 
Dunkirk, N. Y. O. T. Dickenson. 
Eastport, Me. Robert Bums. 

Eastvilie, Ya. John S. Parker. 

Edenton, N. C. Edmund Wright. 
Edgartown, Ms. C. Norton. 
Elizabeth City, N.C. L. D. Starke. 
Ellsworth, Me. Thomas D. Jones. 
Erie, Pa. Murray Whallofi. 

Fairfield, Ct. Wm. S. Pomeroy. 

Fall River, Ms. P. W. Leiand. 
Fernandina, Fa. Felix Livingston. 
Franklin, La. R. N. McMillan. 

Galveston, Texas, Hamilton Stuart. 
Gardiner, Oreg. B. J. Burns. 
Georgetown, D. C. H. C. Mathews. 
Georgetown, S. C. John N. Merriman. 
Gloucester, Ms. G. Babson. 
Jacksonville, Fa. Thos. Ledwith. 
Kennebunk, Me. John Consens. 
Key West, Fa. John P. Baldwin. 
Lamberton, N. J. H. J. Ashmore. 
Las Cruces, N. Mex. S. J. Jones. 
La Salle, Texas, D. M. Stapp. 
Lewiston, N. Y. G. P. Eddy. 
Machias, Me. A. F. Parlin. 

Marblehead, Ms. Wm. Bartoll. 
MichilVk, Mich. J. A. T. Wendell. 
Middletown, Ct. Patrick Fagan. 
Milwaukee, Wise. G. W. Clason. 
Mobile, Ala. Thad. Sanford. 

Monterey, Cal. James A. Watson. 
Nantucket, Ms. E. W. Allen. 
Natchez, Miss. John Hunter. 
Newark, N. J. Edwd. T. Hillyer. 
New Bedford, Ms. C. B. H. Fessenden. 
Newbern, N. C. W. G. Singleton. 
Newburyport, Ms. James Blood. 
New Haven, Ct. M. A. Osborn. 
New London, Ct. J. P. C. Mather. 
New Orleans, La. F. H. Hatch. 
Newport, R. I. Gilbert Chase. 
New York, N. Y. Augustus Schell. 
Norfolk, Va. J. J. Simkins. 

Ocracoke, N. C. Oliver S. Dewey. 
Ogdensburg,N. Y. Horace Moody. 



Port. Collector. 

Oswego, N. Y. O. Robinson. 
Oxford, Md. Tench Tilghman. 

Pembina, Min. T. J. McFetridge. 
Pensacola, Fa. Joseph Sierra. 
Perth Amboy, N.J. Amos Robins. 
Petersburg, Va. Timothy Rivea. 
Philadelphia, Pa. Joseph B. Baker. 
Plattsburg, N. Y. Henry B. Smith. 
Plymouth, /Ms. W. Wadsworth. 
Plymouth, N. C. Joseph Ramsey. 
Point Isabel, Tex. F. W. Latham. 
Portland, Me. M. Macdonald. 

Port Leon, Fa. A. B. Noyes. 
Port Orfbrd, Oreg. Benj. Brattain. 
Portsmouth, N. H. Augustus Jenkins. 
Port Town8end,W.T. M. H. Frost. 
Providence, R. I. James A. Abom. 
Richmond, Va. W. M. Harrison. 
Rochester, N. Y. P. M. Bromley. 
Sackett'sH'r,N.Y. Wm. Howland. 
Saco, Me. A. A. Hanscom. 

Sacramento, Cal. Lewis Sanders, Jr. 
Sag Harbor, N.Y. J. M. Terbell. 
Salem & Beverly, Ms. Wm. B. Pike. 
San Diego, Cal. Henry Hancock. 
Sandusky, Ohio, Geo. S. Patterson. 
San Francisco, Cal. B.F.Washington. 
San Pedro, Cal. P. H. Downey. 
Savannah, Ga. John Boston. 
Shieldslftro', Miss. Robert Eager. 
Somerspoint, N. J. Thos. D. Winner. 
St. Augustine, Fa. Paul Arnau. 
St. Mary's, Ga. J. A. Baratte. 
Stockton, Cal. Andrew Lester. 
Stonington, Ct. Benj. F. States. 
Tappahannock,Va. Geo. T. Wright. 
Toledo, Ohio, E. D. Potter. 
Tuckerton, N. J. I. S. Jennings. 
Vicksburg, Miss. Wm. D. Roy. 
Vienna, Md. Wm. S. Jackson. 

Waldoboro', Me. J. H. Kennedy. 
Washington, N. C. H. F. Hancock. 
Wilmington, Del. Jesse Sharpe. 
Wilmington, N.C. Jas. T. Miller. 
Wiscasset, Me. T. Cunningham. 
York, Me. Luther Junkins. 

Yorktown, Va. Wm. F. Presson. 



I860.] REGISTERS AND RSCBIVERS OF THE LAND-OFFICE. 



97 



Natal Officers in Office^ JN'ovember, 1859. 



District. Name. 

Baltimore, Md. Levi K. Bowen. 
Boston, Ms. Charles G. Greene. 

Charleston, S. C. John Laurens. 
Newburyport, Ms. Nicholas Brown. 
New Orleans, La. Joseph Genois. 
Newport, R. I. William Rider. 
New York, N. Y. A. Birdsall. 
Norfolk, Va. C. C. Robinson. 



Difstrict. Name. 

Philadelphia, Pa. C. McKibben. 
Portsmouth, N.H. S. B. Lord. 
Providence, R.L Thos. J. Gardiner. 
Salem, Ms. John Ryan. 

San Francisco. F. Tilford. 
Savannah, Ga. S. P. Hamilton. 
Wilmington, N.C. Wm. N. Peden. 



Registers, Receivers, Surveyors, and Geologists connected with 

THE Land-Office. 



J^ames < 


of Registers and Receivers in Office, November 1, 1859. 


State. 


Place. 


Register. 


Receiver. 


Alabama, 


St. Stephens, 


James Masoffin, 
John K. Henry, 


John Peebles. 


CC 


Greenville, 


B. Lloyd. 


C( 


Huntsville, 


James H. Ware, 


John S. Nance. 


CC 


Tuscaloosa, 


Monroe Donoho, 


James W. Warren. 


(t 


Elba, 


Joseph P. Baldwin, 


Richard F. Cook. 


ci 


Demopolis, 


Lewis B. McCarty, 
Thos. O. Glascock, 


S. M. Torbert. 


CC 


Montgomery, 


E. M. Hastings. 


CC 


Centre, 


N. M. Warren, 


L. M. SUflr. 


Arkansas, 


Batesville, 


Wm. W. Lewis, 


Wm. A. Bevins. 


9 

CC 


Little Rock, 


Henry A. Powers, 


Peter T.Crutchfield 


(C 


Washington, 


William Moss, 


Daniel Griffin. 


tc 


Fayette ville. 


L. B. Cunningham, 


J. L. Dickson. 


CC 


Helena, 


Robert Maloney, 


James C. Tappan. 


C4 


Clarksville, 


Oliver Bashan, 


Moreau Rose. 


CC 


Champagnole, 


William J. Owen, 


Wm. T. Sargent. 


CALlFdRNIA, 


Los Angeles, 


W. T. Harvey, 


A. Olivera. 


CC 


San Francisco, 


Ira Munson, 


P. Bequette. 


(C 


Marysville, 


E. O. F. Hastings, 


J. Hopkins. 


tc 


Humboldt, 


W. McDaniel, 


G. W. Hook. 


CC 


Stockton, 


A. C. Bradford, 


W. B. Norman. 


CC 


Visalia, 


E. P. Hart, 


Thomas Baker. 


Florida, 


Tallahassee, 


E. T. L. Blake, 


A. L. Woodward. 


CC 


St. Augustine, 


James M. Gould, 


F. P. Ferreira. 


CC 


Newnansville, 


L. G. Pyles, 


George Helvenston. 


CC 


Tampa, 


Jesse Carter, 


Madison Post. 


Illinois, 


Springfield, 


W; E. Keefer, 


A. G. Herndon. 


Indiana, 


Indianapolis, 


George McOuat, 


C. C. Campbell. 


Iowa, 


Fort Dodge, 


J M. Stockdale, 


T. Sargent. 


CC 


Sioux City, 


S. P. Yeomans, 


Andrew Leech. 


CC 


Fort Des Moines, 


J. W. Griffith, 


Isaac Cooper. 


a 


Council Bluffs, 


L. S. Hills, 


A. H. Palmer. 


Louisiana, 


New Orleans, 


Lewis Palms, 


Henry W. Palfrey. 


(( 


Opelousas, 
Monroe, 


Robt. Benguerel, 


John Posey. 
Chris. H. Dobbs. 


CC 


J. McEnery, 


CC 


Greensburg, 


Thomas Bennet, 


J. B. McClendon. 



9 



98 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



State. 



Place. 



lodisijhta, 
Michigan, 

(C 
C( 
C( 

(( 

Afississippi,* 
(( 

i€ 

u 
« 

Missouri, 
cc 

C( 

cc 
cc 

Ohio, 
Wisconsin, 

cc 
a 
tt 
cc 
cc 

Minnesota. 
cc 

cc 

cc 

cc 

cc 

cc 

cc 

Oregon. 
cc 

Kansas Ter. 

(C 
(C 

cc 
Nebr. Ter. 

cc 

cc 
cc 

Wash. Ter. 

New Mexico 



Natchitoches, 

Detroit, 

East Saginaw, 

Ionia, 

Marquette, 

Traverse City, 

Washington, 

Auffusta, 

Jackson, 

Grenada, 

Columbus, 

St. Louis, 

Booneville, 

Jackson, 

Warsaw, 

Springfield, 

Utiillicothe, 

Menasha, 

Hudson, 

Stevens Point, 

La Crosse, 

Superior, 

Eau Claire, 

Cambridge, 

St. Cloud, 

Cbatfield, 

Forest City, 

St. Peter, 

Henderson, 

Portland, 

Ottertail City, 

Oregon City, 

Winchester, 

Lecompton, 

Kickapoo, 

Fort Scott, 

Junction City, 

Omaha City, 

Brownsville, 

Nebraska City, 

Dahkota City, 

Olyrapia, 

Santa F^, 



Register. 



John B. Cloutier, 

C. F. Heyerman, 
M. B. Hess, 

J. C. Blanchard, 
Peter While, 
Jacob Bams, 
J. G. G. Garrett, 
Drury Bynum, 
Joseph Bell, 
Saml. M. Hankins, 
Francis G. Baldwin, 
Paris Pipkin, 
H. L. Brown, 
Charles A. Davis, 
M. L. Means, 
W. H. Graves, 
Jas. S. McGinnis, 

D. R. Curran, 
Orpheus Everts, 
H. Brawley, 
Charles S. Benton, 
Wm. McAboy, 
W. T. Galloway, 
C. H. Wagner, 
W. A. Caruthers, 
John R. Bennett, 
T. E. Massey, 

S. Plumer, 
J. C. Dow, 
J. S. Watrous, 
G. B. Clitheral, 
B. Jenninffs, 
Lafayette Mosher, 
Ely Moore, 
J. W. Whitfield, 
J. Morin, 
S. B. Garrett, 
John A. Parker, jr., 
G. H. Nixon, 
A. Hopkins, 
J. N. H. Patrick, 
W. B. Rankin, 
W. A. Davidson, 



Receiver. 



Thos. C. Hunt. 

J. Beeson. 

W. L. P. Little. 

H. J. Wilson. 

E. Warner. 

Oscar A. Stevens. 

Wm.N.Whitehurst 

A. R. Carter. 
R. A. Clarke. 
John J. Gage. 
Robert D. Haden. 
J. S. Dougherty. 
E. E. Buckner. 

J. J. Turnbaugh. 
Nathl. B. Holden. 
T. J.3i8hop. 
Thomas McNally. 
Samuel Ryan. 
J. D. Reymert. 
Albert G. Ellis. 
Theo. Rodolf. 
T. R. Spencer. 
N. B. Boyden. 
M. H. Abbott. 
S. L. Hays. 
J. H. McKenney. 
J. D. Evans. 

B. F. Tillotson. 
Christ. Graham. 
John Whipple. 
William Sawyer. 
A. L. Lovejov. 
William J. Jnartin. 
William Brindle. 

D. Woodson. 

E. Ransom. 

F. Patterson. 
P. F. Wilson. 

C. B. Smith. 

E. A. Deslonde. 

G. B. Graff. 
Selucius Garfield. 
W. A. Street. 



Surveyors- General of the Public Landsy Jfovemher ls«, 1859. 



District. 
Illinois and Missouri, 
Louisiana, 

Wisconsin and Iowa, 
Florida, 
California, 
Oregon, 



Surveyor. 
John Loughborough, 
Wm. J. »fcCulloh, 
Warner Lewis, 
F. L. Dancy, 
J. W. Mandeville, 
W. W. Chapman, 



Residence. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Donaldsonville. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
St. Augustine. 
San Francisco. 
Salem, Oregon. 



♦ B, W. Edmundson, Clerk of tlie Courts, Pontotoc, Mississippi, is Keeper of the Ar- 
chives of the old Pontotoc Land District. 



I860.] 

District. 
New Mexico, 
Washington Territory, 
Kansas and Nebraska, 
Utah Territory, 
Minnesota, 



INDIAN DBPABTMBNT. 



Surveyor. 
W. Pelham, 
J. Tilton, 
Ward B. Burnett, 
S. C. Stambaugh, 
C. L. Emerson, 

Recorder of Land Titles. 
Adolphe Renard, St. Louis, Mo. 



99 

Sesidenoe. 
Santa F^,N.M.Ter. 
Olympia, W. Ter. 
Lecompton, K.Ter. 
Salt Lake City. 
St. Paul, Min. 





Indian Department.* 






[Corrected ia Office of Indian Afikirs, Noyemberi 1859.] 






SuperitUendencies. 




Saperintendencj. 


Superintendent. Bond. 


Salary. 


Northern, . 


W. J. Cullen, $ 100,000 


$2,000 


Centra], 


A. M. Robinson, 75,000 


2,000 


Southern, 


Elias Rector, 75,000 


2,000 


Utah, 


Jacob Forney. 50,000 
Agencies. 


2,000 


Designation of Agency. 


Tribes in each Agency. 


Name of Agent. 


Bond. 


Salary. 


CerUral Superintend. 










Delaware, 


Dela wares. 


Thomas B. Sykes, 


#76,000 #1,500| 


Kansas. 


Kansas, 


M. C. Dickey, 


10,000 


1,600 


Upper Arkansas, 


Upper Arkansas, 


W. W. Bent, 


20,000 


1,600 


Kickapoo, 
Blackleet, 


K ckapoos, 

Blackfeet and other neigh- 


Wm. P. Badger, 


20,000 


1,600 


»* # 


9 


# 


* 


boring tribes. 


A. J. Vauffhan, 
Thos. S. Twiss, 


20,000 


1,500 


Upper Platte, 


Arspahoes, Cheyennes, Sec, 


10,000 


1,600 


Poitawatomie, 


Pottawatomies, 


W. R Murphy, 


20,000 


1,600 


Sac and Fox, 


Sacs and Foxes, Ottawas 
of Swan Creek, and Black 










River Chippewas, 


Perry Fuller, 


15,000 


1,600 


Upper Missouri, 


Sioux, &:c., &c.. 


Bern'd Schoonover, 


20,000 


1,600 


Osage River, 


Weas, Piankeshaws, Eas- 
kaskias, Peorias,and Mia- 










mies, 


Seth Clover, 


20,000 


1,600 


Shawnee, 


Shawnees and Wyandotts, 


B. J. Newsom, 


76,000 


1,600 


Great Nemeha, 


lowas, and Sacs and Foxes 










of Missouri, 


Danl. Vanderslice, 


10,000 


1,600 


Omaha, 


Omahas, 


Wm. E. Moore, 


20,000 


1,600 


Ottoe and Missouria, 


Ottoes, Mi8sourias,and Paw- 










nees, 


W. W. Dennison, 


16,000 


1,600 


Southern Superintend, 










Yancton Sioux, 


Yancton Sioux, 


A. H. Redfield, 


60,000 


1,600 


Choctaw & Chickasaw, 


Choctaws and Chickasaws, 


Douglas H. Cooper, 


70,000 


1,600 


Creek, 


Creeks, 


Wm. H. Garrett, 


20,000 


1,600 


Cherokee, 


Cherokees, 


George Butler, 


20,000 


1,600 


Neosha, 


Osaees, Qaapaws, Senecas, 
and Shawnees, 










Andrew/. Dom, 


40,000 


1,600 


Seminole, 


Seminoles, 
Witchitas, 


S. M. Rutherford, 
S. E. Rlain. 


6,000 


1,600 


Northern Superintend. 










Winnebago, 


Winnebagoes, 


C. H. Mix, 


20,000 


1,600 


Chippewa, 


Chippewas of the Missis- 


■ 








sippi, 


J. W. Lynde, 


20,000 


1,600 


Saint Peters, 


Sioux of Minnesota, 


J. R. Brown, 


60,000 


1,600 


Oreen Bay, 


Menomonees,Oneidas,Stock- 










bridj^es, and Munsees, 


A. D. Bonesteel, 


10,000 


1,000 




Lake Superior Indians, 


C. K. Drew, 


20,000 


1,600 


Miacellaneour A geneiee. 










Mackinac, 


Ottawas and Chippewas, and 
Chippewas of Lake Supe- 










• 

rior, 


A M. Fitch, 


40,000 


1,600 


New York, 


Indians in New York, 


B. H. Colegrove, 


6,000 


1,000 



• The number of Indians within the territory of the United States in 1853 was estimated 
by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at 400,764. 



100 



maTBD STATES. 



[1860. 



New Mexico, 
James L. Collins, Sup.oflnd. Affairs. Salary $2,000. Bond $ 30,000. 



Agent. Salary. Bond. 

Christopher Carson, $ 1 ,550 $ 5,000 

Michael Stock, 1,550 5,000 

S. M. Yost, 1,550 10,000 



Agent. 
D. Arcbaleta, 

Silas F. Kendrick, 

J. Walker, 



Salary. Bond. 

$1,550 $5,000 

1,500 10,000 

1,500 10,000 



Utah, 



Hcoh Forney, SuperirOend. of Ind. 4fairs. Salary $2,000 Bond $50,000 
Andrew Humphreys, Agent, « 1,550 20,000 

Frederick Dodge, « " 1,000 " 5,000 

W.H.Rogers, «« « 1,000 " 5,000 

California. 
James Y. McDuffie, Super, of Ind. Affairs, Salary $4,000 Bond $J200,000 
J. R. Vineyard, Agent, « 3,000 " 20,000 

D. E. Buel, " « 3,000 " 20,000 
V.E. Geiger, « " 3,000 " 20,000 

Henry L. Ford, M. B. Lewis, and H. Heintzleman, each Sub-agents, 
salary $ 1,500, bonds $20,000. 

Washington and Oregon Territory. 

E. R. Geary, Superintendent oflnd. Affairs, Salary $2,500 Bond $ 70,000 
John F. Miller, Agent, 
Daniel Newcomb, '* 
A. P. Dennison, 
M. T. Simmons, 
R. H. Lansdale, 
Andrew J. Cain, 

Joshua B. Sykes, G. H. Abbott, and John Owen, Sub-agents, with a sal- 
ary each of $ 1,000, and each giving bonds in $2,000. 

S. P. Ross and M. Leeper are Special Agents, for Indians in Texas. 
Their bonds are $ 5,000 each, and their salary is $ 1,500 per annum. 



u 



(C 






({ 



t( 



C( 



u 



u 



Ci 



1,500 


C( 


5,000 


1,500 


tc 


10,000 


1,500 


cc 


10,000 


1,500 


M 


10,000 


1,500 


U 


20,000 


1,500 


(( 


10,000 



Army 

Plftce. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 
Bradford, Vt. 
Burlington, Vt. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Cleveland, Ohio, 
Concord, N. H. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Fayetteville, N.C. 
'ort Gibson, Ark. 
urtford, Ct. 



Pension- Agents 

Name. 
Isaac Vanderpoel. 
John S. Gittings. 
Isaac O. Barnes. 
B. F. Blodgett. 
Chas. F. Warner. 
John C. Cochran. 
Joel C. Green. 
E. Hessenmueller. 
George Minot. 
H. C. Kibbee. 
W. G. Broadfoot. 
Thos. Lanigan. 
Seth Belden. 



in Office, Kovember, 1859. 

Place. Name. 

Huntsville, Ala. Wm. H. Moore. 
Indianapolis, Ind. Wm. Henderson. 
Jackson, Miss. D. N. Barrows. 
Jackson, Tenn. Jos. B. Freeman. 
Jacksonville, Fa. Arthur M. Reed. 
Jonesboro', Ten. Wm. K. Blair. 
Knoxville, Tenn. Isaac Lewis. 
Little Rock, Ark. P. T. Crutchfield. 
Louisville, Ky. J. B. Einkbead. 
Madison, Ind. J. W. Chapman. 
Milwaukee, Wis. C. H. Larkin. 
Mobile, Ala. James A. Miller. 

Morgantown,N.C. R. C. Pierson. 



I860.] PENSION AGENTS, STEAMBOAT INSPECTORS, ETC. 



101 



Place. Name. 

Nashville, Tenn. Joel M. Smith. 
New AIbaD7,Ind. B. C. Kent, 
New Orleans, La. S. W. Dalton. 
New York, N. Y. V. B. Liyingston. 
Oregon City, Or. A. L. Lovejoy. 
Ottumwa, Iowa, P. C. Jeffries. 
Philadelphia, Pa. Joseph £. Devitt. 
Pittsburg, Pa. John Grayson. 
Portland, Me. George F. Emery. 
Portsmouth, N.H. A. H. Hoyt. 



, ./Place. Name. 

Richp^d, Va. M. D. Newman. 
SanlP£aii(;ifco,Cal. P. Bequette. 

Savanmih. Ga. Geo. A. Mercer. 

• " • 

Springfield, 1)1. Harry Wilton. 
St. Louis, Moy ; Thos. H. Clarke. 
Tallahassee, Fla-'Trancis H. Flagg. 
Trenton, N. J.« • "j^hil. Dickinson. 
Tuscaloosa, Ala. Moa'roe Donoho. 
Washington, D.C. G. W^ Rigg^. 
Wheeling, Va. s! Si^^. 



Providence, R. I. A. M. Warner. 

Navt Pension-Agents in Office^ JCovember^ 1659. 



Place. Name. 

Baltimore, Md. J. S. Gittings. 
Boston, Mass. Isaac O. Barnes. 
Charleston, S. C. John C. Cochran. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Joel C. Green. 
Detroit, Mich. H. C. Kibbee. 
Hartford, Ct. Seth Belden. 
Louisville, Ky. J. B. Kinkhead. 
New Orleans, La. S. W. Dalton. 
New York, N.Y. V. B. Livingston. 
Norfolk, Va. E. Pendleton. 



Place. Naiaeii* 

Philadelphia, Pa. Joseph E. D§v6|^ 
Pittsburg, Pa. John Graysom 
Portland, Me. George F. Emery. 
Port8mouth,N.H. A. H. Hoyt. 
Providence, R.I. A. M. Warner. 
San Francisco, Cal. P. Bequette. 
Savannah, Ga. Geo. A. Mercer. 
St. Louis, Mo. Thos. H. Clarke. 
Trenton, N. J. Phil. Dickinson. 
Washington, D.C. G. W. Riggs. 



Pensacola, Fa. A. £. Maxwell. 

Supervising Inspectors of Steamboats, and their Districts, 

Jfovember^ 1859. 
Salary $ 1,500 each, and reasonable travelling ezpensea. 



No. of 
Diet. 

1. 
2. 

3.' 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 
& 

9. 


Inspector. 


District. 


William Burnett, of Boston, 
Charles W. Copeland, of New York, 

John S. Brown, of Baltimore, 
0. A. Pitfield, of New Orleans, 

Charles Ross, of Cincinnati, 

John Shalcross, of Louisville, 

Benjamin Crawford, of Pittsburg, 
Isaac Lewis, of Monroe (Mich.), 

Augustus Walker, of Buffiilo, 


Maine to Connecticut, inclusive. 

New York to Delaware Bay and tributaries, 
and the Hudson River as far north as Troy. 

Delaware Bay to Cape Sable, Florida. 

Cape Sable to the Rio Grande ; Mississippi 
Kiver to Baton Rouge ; California it Oregon. 

The Mississippi above Baton Rouge and its 
tributaries, excluding the Ohio, and includ- 
ing the Missouri River. 

The waters of the Ohio River to the Ken- 
tucky River. 

Waters of the Ohio above the Kentucky River. 

The waters north and west of Lake Erie, in- 
cluding the Illinois and Mississippi, above 
Missouri. 

The waters of Lake Erie, Ontario, and the St. 
Lawrence to Champlain. 



Lighthouse Board. 

Howell Cobb, Secretary of the Treasury^ President ex officio, 

Joseph Henry, Sec'y Smithson. Inst. 
Edward G. Tilton, U. S. N. 

Seeretetriea. 
Raphael Sinimes, U. S. N. 
W. B. Franklin, U. S. Top. Eng. 



JMembMra. 
•Wm. B. Shubrick, U. S. N. 
A. H. Bowman, U. S. Enff. Corps. 
A. A. Humphreys, U.S. Topog. Eng. 
A. D. Bache, Sapt. Coast Survey. 



* Com. Kearney has been appointed temporarily, but Com. Shubrick has not been relieve) 



102 



UNITBSu STATES. 



[1860. 



III. ARMY LIST.H 

1. WiNFiELD ScoTT,ir Major^Gefurol, (commissioned June 25, 1841,) Genr 
eral'in- Chief. Head^utirters at New York. 

*John £. Wool, Brigadier- General^ commissioned June 25, 1841. 



«c 



a 
cc 



June 30, 1846. 
June 14, 1858. 
July 15, 1852. 
June 25, 1841. 
May 28, 1853. 



'David E. Twiggs, 
William S. Harney, 
Samuel Cooper, ^Cot.im<£ Adj.'Gtn.^ 
tSylvester Churchill, Col. and Inspector- G en. ^ 
Jos. K. F. Mans^eld, Col. and Inspector- Gen., 
*Thoma8 S.^Jfsup, Brig,- Gen. f and Quarter- 
master- General, 
*George Gi5dipn, Col. and Commissary- Gen., 
tThomas Lawson, Col. and Surgeon-Gen., 
Beni. F.Xarned, Col. and Paymaster- Gen., 
tCol. Jdiieph G. Totten, Chief Engineer, 
Co\ j[.. J. Abert, Chief Topographical Engineer, 
Col. Henry K. Craig, Chief of Ordnance, 
Bte'vet-Major John F. Lee, Judge Advocate, 

2, Field Officers of the Corps of Engineers, Topographical 
Engineers, and Ordnance, and of Regiments. 



cc 
a 
it 
It 

(C 

tc 
cc 
cc 



May 8,1818. 
Aprin8,1818. 
Nov. 30, 1836. 
July 20, 1854. 
Dec. 7, 1838. 
July 7, 1838. 
July 10,1851. 
Mar. 2,1849. 



cc 
cc 
cc 



Engineers. 

f Col. Joseph G. Totten, 
(Lieut.-Col. Sylvanus Thayer, 

" Ren6 E. De Russy, 
Major Richard Delafield,^^ 

Henry Brewerton. 

Alexander H. Bowman. 

John G. Barnard, 

Topographical Engineers. 
Col. John J. Abert, 
Lieut.-Col. James Kearney, 
§ Major Stephen H. Long, 

^* Hartraan Bache, 
§ " James D. Graham, 

" Campbell Graham. 

Ordnance Department. 

Col. Henry K. Craig, 

Lieut.-Col. James W. Ripley, 

Major John Symington, 
<« William H.Bell, 
<* Alfred Mordecai, 

} '*• Benjamin Huger. 

First Dragoons. 
Col. Thomas T. Fauntleroy, 
Lieut.-Col. Benjamin L. Beall, 
Major George A. H. Blake. 
Enocn Steen. 



cc 



Second Dragoons. 
Col. Philip St. G. Cooke, 
Lieut.-Col. Marshall S. Howe, 
t Major Charles A. May, 

Lawrence P. Graham. 



C( 



First Cavalry. 

Col. Edwin V. Sumner, 
Lieut.-Col. J. £. Johnston, 
Major Wm. H. Emory, 
** John Sedgwick. 

Second Cavalry. 

tCol. Albert S. Johnston, 
tLieut.-Col. Robert E. Lee, 
§ Major Wm. J. Hardee, 
" Geo. H. Thomas. 

Mounted Riflemen. 

Col. Wm. W. Loring, 
Lieut -Col. Geo. B. Crittenden, 
Major John S. Simonson, 
/< Charles F. Ruff. 

First Artillery. 

Col. John Ervingy 
tLieut.-Col. John L. Gardner, 
Major Robert Anderson, 
*^ Erasmus D. Keyes. 

Second Artillery. 

Col. Matthew M. Payne, 
(Lieut.-Col. Justin Dimick, 
(Major Harvey Brown, 
§ " Martin Burke. 

Third Artillery. 

Col. William Gates, 
Lieut.-Col. Chas. S. Merchant, 
§ Major George Nauman, 
John B. Scott. 



cc 



* Major-Oaneral by brevet. 
X Colonel by brevet. 



t Brlgadie^GeneraI by brevet. 
f Lieutenant* Colonel by brevet. 



II We are greatly Indebted to the Adjutant-General for correcting this List to Nov. let, 1869. 

\I't-Gen. by brevet, from March 29, 1847, by joint resolution of Feb. 15, 1866. 

** Superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, with local rank of Colonel. 



I860.] 



ARMY LIST. 



lOS 



Fourth ArtiUery* 
Col. Francis S. Belton, 
tLieut.-Col. John Munroe, 
Major Giles Porter, 

William W. Morris. 



«c 



First InfaTUry. 
Col. Joseph Plympton, 
Lieut.-Coi. Gouverneur Morris, 
Major Samuel P. Heintzelman, 
^ Sidney Burbank. 

Second Infantry, 
Col. Dixon S. Miles, 
Lieut.-Col. J. J. Abercrombie, 
Major Edgar S. Hawkins, 
*' Hannibal Day. 

Third Infantry, 
Col. Benjamin L. E. Bonneville, 
Lieut.-Col. Electus Backus, 
Major Nathaniel C. Macrae, 
" Caleb C. Sibley. 

Fourth Infantry, 
Col. William Whistler, 
Lieut.-Col. Thompson Morris, 
Major Gabriel J. Rains, 
§ *' Robert C. Buchanan. 

Fifth Infantry. 
• Col. Gustavus Loomis, 
t Lieut.-Col. Carlos A. Waite, 



Major Thomas P. Gwynne, 
Seth Eastman. 



44 



Sixth Infajitry, 

tCol. Newman S. Clarke, 
Lieut.-Col. George Andrews, 
§ Major William Hoifman, 
'* Albemarle Cady. 

Seventh Infantry, 

Col. Henry Wilson, 
Lieut.-Col. Pitcairn Morrison, 
§ << Joseph R. Smith, 
" Isaac Lynde. 

Eighth Infantry, 

fCol. John Garland, 
Lieut.-Col. Washington Seawel]| 
Major Thomas L. Alexander, 
*' Theophilus H. Holmes. 

Mnth Infantry, 

Col. George Wright, 
Lieut.-Col. Silas Casey, 
§ Major Edward J. Steptoe, 
Robert S. Garnett. 



a 



Tenth Infantry. 
Col. Edmund B. Alexander, 
tLieut.-Col. Charles F. Smith, 
§ Major Wm. H. T. Walker, 
Edward R. S. Can by. 



(( 



3. Military Commands. 

Department of the East. — The country east of the Mississippi River ; 
head-quarters at Troy, N. Y. Brev. Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool, Commander. 

Department of the West. — ^ The country west of the Mississippi River, 
and east of the Rocky Mountains, except that portion included within the 
limits of the Departments of Texas and New Mexico ; head-quarters at 
St. Louis, Mo, Colonel Edwin V. Sumner, 1st Cavalry, Commander. 

Department of Texas. — The State of Texas, and the territory north of 
it to the boundaries of New Mexico, Kansas, and Arkansas, and the Ar- 
kansas River, including Fort Smith. Fort Bliss, in Texas, is temporarily 
attached to the Department of New Mexico ; head-quarters at San An- 
tonio, Texas. Brevet Maj.-Gen. David E. Twiggs, Commander. 

Department of JVeio Mexico. — The Territory of New Mexico ; head- 
quarters at Santa F6, New Mexico. Colonel Thomas T. Fauntleroy, 1st 
Dragoons, Commander. 

Department of Utah. — The Territory of Utah, except that portion of it 
lying west of the 117th degree of west longitude; head-quarters, Camp 
Floyd, U. T. Brevet Brig.-Gen. Albert S. Johnston, 2d Cavalry, Com- 
mander. 

Department of Oregon. — The Territory of Washington and the State 
of Oregon, excepting the Rogue River and Umpqua districts in Oregon ; 
head-quarters at Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory. Brig.-Gen. Wil- 
liam S. Harney, Commander. 

Department of California. — TY\e country west of the Rocky Mountains 
except those portions of it included within the limits of the departments 
of Oregon, Utah, and New Mexico ; head-quarters at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. Brevet Brig.-Gen. Newman S. Clarke, 6th Infantry, Commander. 

The head-quarters of the army are in the city of New York. Brevet 
Lieut.-Gen. Winfield Scott, Commander. 



104 



X7NITED STATK8. 



[I860' 



4. Arsenals. 



Arsenal. 



Kennebec, 

Watertown, 

Watervliet, 

New York, 

Alleghany, 

Frankford, 

Pikesville, 

Washington, 

Fort Monroe, 

North Carolina, 

Charleston, 

Mount Vernon, 

Baton Rouge, 

Tezaa, 

St. Louis, 

Benicia, 



State or Territory. 



Maine, 

Massachusetts, 

New York, 

New York, 

Pennsylvania, 
<< 

Maryland, 

Dist. of Columbia, 

Virginia, 

North Carolina, 

South Carolina, 

Alabama, 

Louisiana, 

Texas, 

Missouri, 

Otlifornia, 



Post-Office. 



Augusta, 
Watertown, 
West Troy, 
New York, 
Pittsburg, 
Bridesburg, 
Pikesville, 
Washington, 
Old P. Comfort, 
Fayetteville, 
Ctiarleston, 
Mount Vernon, 
Baton Rouge, 
San Antonio, 
St. Louis, 
Benicia, 



Permanent Commander. 



1st Lieut. J. W. Todd, 
Capt. R. A. Wain Wright, 
Maj. A. Mordecai, 
BvuMaj. W. A.Thomton, 
Maj. John Symington, 
Bvt. Maj. P. V. Hagner, 
Bvt. Col. B. Huger, 
Bvt. Maj. G. D. Ramsay, 
Capt. A. B. Dyer, 
Capt. J. A. J. Bradford, 
Capt. Josiah Gorgas, 
Bvt. 2d Lt. G. C. Strong, 
Ist Lt. W. R. Boggs, 
Capt. R. H. K. Whiteley, 
Maj. W. H. BeU, 
Capt. F. D. Callender, 



Regiment 
and Corps. 



Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordnance. 

Ordn^ce. 

Ordnimce. 

Ordnance. 



There is a national armory at Springfield, Mass., James S. Whitney, Civil Superintend* 
ent, and one at Harper's Ferry, Va., Henry W. Clowe, Civil Superintendent. The De- 
troit Arsenal, at Dearbonvilie, Mich.; the Champlain Arsenal and Ordnance Depot at 
Vergennes, Vt. ; the Rome, at Rome, N. Y. ; the Augusta, at Augusta, Ga. ; the Appaiachi- 
cola, at Chattahoochee, Fla. ; the Little Rock Arsenal, Ark. ; and the Santa F6, at Santa 
F6, New Mexico, are under charge of military storekeepers. The Bellona Arsenal is not 
used at present. An Ordnance Sergeant is at the post in charge of the buildings and 
grounds. 

5. Military Posts. — October 5th, 1859. 
The places designated by asterisks (*) are upon the St. Louis and California overland mail route. 



Post. 


State or Terri- 
tory. 


Post-Office. 


Permanent Commander. 


Garrison. 


Dbpartment of thb 


East. 








Fort Sullivan, 


Maine. 


Eastport, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 


Fort Preble, 


(( • 


Portland, 


(( 


(( 


Fort Constitution, 


N. Hampshire, 


Portsmouth, 


tt 


tt 


Fort Independence, 


Massachusetts, 


Boston, 


Bvt.Maj.L.G.Amold,2art. 


2d artillery. 


Fort Warren, 


(( 


t( 




Not garrisoned. 


Fort Adams, 


Rhode Island, 


Newport, 


Bvt.Lt.-Col.Magruder,lar. 


1st artillery. 


Fort Wolcolt. 
Fort Trumbull, 


Rhode Island, 


Newport, 




Not^rrisoned. 


Connecticut, 


New London, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 


West Point, 


New York, 


West Point, 


Col. Rich'd Delafield, engs. 


Engineers. 


Fort Hamilton, 


(( ' 


Fort Hamilton, 


CoL Martin Burke, 


2d artillery. 


Fort lAfayetle, 


<t 


New York, 




Not garrisoned. 


Fort Columbus, 


N. Y.' Harbor, 


(( 


Major T. H. Holmes, 8inf 


Recruits. 


Fort Wood, 


it 


(( 




Not garrisoned. 


Fort Niagara, 


New York, 


Youngstown, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 


Fort Ontario, 


(( 


Oswego, 


(( 


(( 


Madison Barracks, 


(C 


Sackett's Harb. 


tt 


(( 


Plattsburgh Barracks, 


(C 


Piattsburgh, 
Philadelphia, 


Capt. H. A. Allen, 2art. 


2d artillery. 


Fort Mifflin, 


Pennsylvania, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 


Carlisle Barracks, 


• 


Cariisle, 


Maj. L. P. Graham, 2 drag. 


Recruits. 


Fort McHenry, 


Maryland, 


Baltimore, 




Detachment. 


Fort Washington, 


(( 


F.Washington, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 


Fort Monroe, 


Virginia, 


Old P. Comfort, 


Bvt. Col. H. Brown, 2 art. 


1,2, 3, & 4 art. 


Fort Johnson, ) 
Fort Caswell, $ 


North Carolina, 


Smithville, 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 


Fort Macon, 


({ 


Beaufort, 


(( 


(( 


Fort Moultrie, 


South Carolina, 


Charleston, 


Col. J. L. Gardner, 1 art. 


1st artillery. 


Castle Pinckney, 
"^ort Sumter, 


C( 


(( 


Garrison 


withdrawn. 



I860.] 



ABMT LIST. 



105 



Fbst. 



Oglethorpe Bar'cka, 

Kej Weal Barracka, 

Fori Pickens, 

Barrancas Barracks, 

Fon McKee, 

Fort Marion, 

Fori Morgan, 

Baton Rouge Barracks, 

Fon Pike, 

Fori Macomb, 

Fon Jackson, 

New Orleans Barracks, 

Newport Barracks, 

FortBrady^ 

Fon Mackinac, 

Fort Gratiot, 

Dbpartm^t of thb 
Fon Ripley, 



Slate or Terri 
tory. 



TS XAS. 

Texas, 



Fon RIdgely, 
Fort Randall, 
Fort Leaveaworth, 
Fort Riley, 
JefferaoQ Barracks, 
Fort Smith, 
Fort Arbuckle, 
Fort Wasiiiia, 
Fort Kearny, 
Fort Laramie, 
Prairie Dog Creek, 

Dbpartmbnt of 
Fort Belknap, 
Fort Chadboume, 
Camp Colorado, 
Fort Lancaster, 
Fort Davis, 
Fort Quitman, 
Camp Hudson, 
Camp Verde, 
San Antonio Barracks, 
Fort eiarlt. 
Fort Inge, 
Fort Mason, 
Camp Stockton, 
Fort Cobb, 

Obpartmsnt of Nbw 
Fort Garland, 
Cantonment iSurgwin, 
Fort Union, 
Port Defiance, 
Fort Marcy, 
Albuquerque, 
Los Lunaa, 
Fort Craig, 
Fort Stanton,* 
Fort Fillmore, 
Fon Bliss, 
Fort Buchanan, 

DSPARTHBtfT OF 

Fort Brldger, 

Camp Floyd, 

Dbpartmbnt of Orb oon. 
Harney Depot, "' 

Escort to N. W. Bound 

ary Commidsion, 
Fort Walla. Walla, 
Fort Vancouver, 



Georgia, 
Florida, 

Florida, 

tt 

Alabama, 
Louisiana, 

« 

(( 

Kentucky, 
Michigan, 

tt 

West. 
Minnesota, 



Nebraska, 
Kansas, 



(( 



Missouri, 
Arkansas, 
Choctaw Na'n, 
Chickasaw " 
Nebraska, 



tt 
tt 



tt 
It 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
it 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 

Mbxico. 

New Mexico, 
({ 

(( 

tt 

tt 

tt 

tt 

tt 

tt 

tt 

Texas, 
New Mexico, 

Utah. 
Utah Ter., 



Washington T. 

if 
tt 
tt 



Post-office. 



Savannah, 
Key West, 

Pensacola, 

St. Augustine, 

Mobile, 

Baton Rouge, 

Fort Pike, 

New Orleans, 
<( 

({ 

Newport. 
Sault S. Marie, 
Mackinac, 
Fort Gratiot, 

Fort Ripley, 
Fort Ridgely, 
Via Sioux Cit 
F.Leavenworth 
Fort Riley, 
Jefferson B'ks, 
Fort Smith, 
Fort Arbuckle, 
Fort Washita, 
Fort Keamjr, 
Fort Laramie, 



Fort Belknap, 

V. F.Belknap,* 

F.San Antonio, 

Fort Lancaster, 

Fort Davis, 

Fia Fort Davis, 

V. San Antonio, 
it 

San Antonio, 
Fort Clark, 
V. San Antonio, 



Permanent Commander. 



Garrison 
Capt. J. M. Brannan, 1 art. 

Bvt.Lt.-Col. Winder, 1 art. 

Garrison 
(( 

Capt. J. B. Ricketts, 1st ar. 
Garrison 

(( 
tt 

Major S. Burbank, 1 inf. 

Garrison 
Capt. H. C. Pratt, 2 art. 

Garrison 

IstLt.A. J.Perry,2art. 
Maj. W.W.Morris, 4 art. 
y , Iowa, Bvt. Col. Munroe, 
Bvt. Col. Dimick, 
Bvt. Lt.-Col. Brooks, 2 art. 



Capt. W. R Prince, 1 inf. 
Capt. T. J. Wood, 1 cav. 
Bvt. Col. May, 2 drag. 
Capt. C. S. Lovell, 2 inf. 
Capt. N. Lyon, 2 mf. 



Garrison. 



(( 



*F'.St.Loui8,&c. 



r»a Santa Fd, 
(I 

Fort Union, 
Via Santa F6, 
Santa F6, 
Albuquerque, 
r. Albuquerque, 
Fort Craig, 
F.AIbuquerque, 
Fort Fillmore,* 
Fort Bliss,* 
Ft. Buchanan,* 

P^SiJosephjMa 
Salt Lake City, 

r.F.Walla-Wal 

(( 
i( 

Vancouver, 



Capt. G.W.Wallace, 1 inf 
Bvt. Maj.VanDom, 2 cav. 
Capt. R. S. Granger, 1 inf. 
Ll.-Col. W. Seawell, 8 inf 
Rvt. Lt.-Col. Bomford, 
Bvt. Major L. Smith, 
Major S. P. Heinlzelman, 
Capt J. H. Kine, 1 inf. 
Bvt. Major W. H. French. 
Capt. R. P. Maclay, 8 inf 
2d Lieut. W. Owens, 
Capt. S. D. Carpenter, 
Maj. W.H. Emory, Icav. 

Capt. A. W. Bowman, 3 inf 
Capt. T. Duncan, Mt. rifl. 
Capt. J. G. Walker, 
Major J. S. Siraonson, 
IstLt. M. Cogswell, 8 inf 
Capt. J Trevitt, 3 inf. 
1st Lt. Whistler, 3 inf 
Bvt. Lt.Col A. Porter, 
*Major C. F. Ruff, 
Bvt. Maj. Gordon, 3 inf 
Capt. W. L. Elliott, 
Bvt. Lt.-Col. J. V.D.Reeve, 

Bvt. Lt..Col. Canby,10inf 
Lt.-Col. C. F. Smith, 

la, Bvt.Maj.P.Lugenbeel, 



withdrawn. 
Ist artillery. 

1st artillery. 

withdrawn. 
(( 

1st artillery. 

withdrawn. 
(( 

tt 

tt 

Recruits, 
withdrawn. 
2d artillery, 
withdrawn. 

2d infantry. 
2d.3d,&4thart. 
2d & 4th art. 
2d art., 2d inf 
Ist cav., 2d inf 
Not garrisoned. 

Ist cav., 1st inf 
1st cavalry. 
2d drag., 2d inf 
2d drag., 2d inf 
2d infantry. 

Not garrisoned. 
I st infantry. 
2d cavalry. 
1st infantry. 
8th infantry. 
8th infantry. 
8ih infantry. 
1st infantry. 
1st infantry. 
Ist irtillery. 
8th infantry. 
2d cavalry. 
1st infantry. 
Ist cav., 1st inf 

3d infantry. 
Rifles, 3d inf 
Mtd. rifles. 
3d infantry. 
8th infantry. 
3d infantry. 
3d infantry. 
Mtd rifles. 
Mt. rifles, 8 inf 
3 inf Idr. rifles. 
Mt. rifles, 8 inf 
Ist drag., 8 inf 

2dr.,7&10inf 
2 dr., 4 art., 5, 
7, & id inf. 

9th infantry. 



Capt. D. Woodruff, 9 inf 

Col. Georee Wright. 9 inf 

Lt.-Col. T. Morris, 4 inf |3art.. 4inf , Idr 



9lh Infantry. 
Idr.,3art.,9inf 



2. 



106 



X7NITXD STATES. 



[1860. 



Post. 



Fort Dalles, 
Fort Yamhill, 
Fort Hoskias, 

San Juan Island, 

Dbpartmknt of Cali 
Fort Umpqua. 
Fort Humboldt, 
Fort Crook, 
Benicia BarrackS| 
Fort Tejon, 
Fort Yuma, 
Fort Gaston, 
New San Diego, 
Fort Mojave, 
Presidio San Francisco 



Oregon, 



Sute or Terri- 
tory. 



(( 



Washington T. 

PORNIA. 

Oregon, 

California, 
(( 

(( 

(( 

C( 

tt 
It 

New Mexico,* 
Qalifomia, 



PostOffice. 



Dalles of Col'ba 

Dayton, 

Portland, 

V. Pt.Towns'd, 

Umpqua City, 
Bucksport, 
Am. Ranch, 
Benicia, 
F.Los Angeles,* 
Fort Yuma,* 
F.Ft.Humboldt 
San Diego, 



Permanent Commander. 



Capt. H. M. Black, 9 inf. 
Capt. D. A. Russell, 4 inf. 
Capt. C. C. Augur, 4 inf. 

Lieut.-Col. S. Casey, 4 inf. 

Mai. J. B. Scott, 3 art. 
Maj. G. J. Rains, 4 inf. 
Capt. J. Adams, 1 drags. 
Bvt. LieuC-Col. Hoffman, 
Lt.-€ol. B. L. Beall, Idr. 

Capt E. Underwood, 
Capt. W. S. Ketchum, 
Bn. Maj. L. A. Armistead, 
Lt.-Col. C. S. Merchant, 



Garrison. 



9th infantry. 
4th inf., 1st dr. 
4th infantry. 
^3aru,4&9inf, 
( det. of engrs. 

3d artillery. 
4th infantry. 
Ist dragoons. 
6th infantry. 
Ist dragoons. 
6th infantry. 
4th infantry. 
6th infantry. 
6th infantry. 
3d artillery. 



6. Militia Force of ths United States. 



Abstract of tkt United States Militia^ from the Army Register for 1859. 



Stfite 

or 

Territory.! 



Alabama, 

Arkansas, 

California, 

Connecticut, 

Delaware, 

Florida, 

Geor^iai, 

Illinois, 

[ndiana, 

Kentucky, 

Louisiana, 

Maine, 

Maryland, 

Massachusetts, 

Michigan, 

Minnesota, 

Mississippi, 

Missouri, 

N. Hampshire, 

New Jersey, 

New York, 

North Carolina, 

Ohio, 

Pennsylvania, 

Rhode Island, 

S)uth Carolina, 

Tennessee, 

Texas, 

Vermont, 

Virginia, 

Wisconsin, 

D. of Columbia, 

Utah Ter., 

Total, 



For 


Gen- 
eral 
Offi- 
cers. 


General 


Field 


Com- 


what 


Suff 


Officers, 


pany 


year. 


Officers. 


&c. 


Officers. 


1851 


32 


142 


776 


1,883 


1S54 


10 


39 


128 


955 


1857 


18 


126 


11 


175 


185S 


3 


9 


82 


199 


1827 


4 


8 


71 


364 


1845 


3 


14 


95 


508 


1850 


39 


91 


624 


4,296 


1855 










1832 


31 


110 


666 


2,154 


1852 


43 


145 


1,165 


3,517 


1868 


16 


129 


642 


2,101 


1866 


13 


52 


36 


203 


1838 


22 


68 


544 


1,763 


1858 


10 


47 


125 


421 


1854 


30 


323 


147 


2,353 


1351 


2 


6 






1838 


15 


70 


392 


348 


1853 


• 


17 


4 


67 


1854 


11 


202 


119 


895 


1852 










1856 


93 


299 


1,601 


6,495 


1845 


28 


133 


657 


3,449 


1845 


91 


217 


462 


1,281 


1855 










1858 


2 


22 


106 


26 


1856 


20 


135 


535 


1,909 


1840 


25 


79 


859 


2,644 


1847 


16 


45 


248 


940 


1843 


. 12 


51 


224 


801 


1858 










1855 


15 


8 


215 


904 


1852 


3 


10 


28 


185 


1353 


2 




43 


235 




608 


2,596 


10,309 


40,076 



Total 
CbmmiS' 
sioned 
Officers, 



2,832 
1,132 
330 
293 
447 
620 
6,050 

2,861 
4,870 
2,788 

304 
2,397 

603 

2,858 

7 

826 

88 

1,227 

7,388 
4,267 
2,051 

166 
2,599 
3,607 
1,248 
1,088 

1,142 
226 
285 

63,589 



Non-commis- 
sioned Offi- 
cers, Musi- 
cians, Artifi 
cers,PriTate& 



73,830 
34,922 
207,400 
51,312 
8,782 
11,602 
73,649 

61,062 
84,109 
88,496 
73,248 
44,467 

152,660 

94,236 

1,996 

35,269 

117,969 
32,311 

329,847 

75,181 

174,404 

16,655 
33,473 
67,645 
18,518 
22,827 

60,179 
7,976 
2,636 



2,036,620 



Aggre- 
gate. 



76,662 
36,064 

207,730 

61,605 

9,229 

12,122 

78,689 

267,420 
63,913 
88,90 
91,264 
73,662 
46.864 

163,463 

97,004 

2,003 

36,084 

118,047 
33,538 
81,964 

337,236 
79,448 

176,456 

147,973 
16,711 
36,072 
71,262 
19,766 
23,916 

150.000 

6i;321 

8,201 

2,821 



2,727,486 



t No returns from Iowa, and Oregon, and the Territories of New Mexico, Waahingtoo, 
Kansas, and NebrasluL 



I860.] 



ABMY LIST. 



107 



7. Table of Pat, Subsistence, Forage, etc. of Army Officers. 





Pay. 


SUBSIST- 
BNCB. 


FORAOB. 


Sbrvantb. 


• 


30 cents 


•8 p. 


mo. 


Pay, &c. 






for each 


for each 


of a 


> 


Rank and Classipication of 
Otfigbbs. 




Ration. 


Horse. 


Private. 


pL, 

! 


c 


tions. 

Com- 
valua 


i 


• • 

IS 
^1 


t 

m. ■ 


Com- 
valua 




i 




5~ 






2.i 


i 









1- 





'a S 




• 


1^ 


^ 




Pk 


i 


p 

Se 


6 


si 


^ 


3 

ss 


& 


Lieutenaut-Oeneral, .... 


•2701)0 


40 §360 


4 


•9UJU0 


•770.00 


Aida-de-camp, and mllitaiy Secietarj to 


















Lieutenant-General, each. 


80.00 


6 


45 


3 


24 


2 


45.00 


194.00 


Major-General, 


220.00 


16 


136 


3 


24 


4 


90.00 


469.00 


Senior Aidenle-camp to Oeneral-in-ctaief, 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


Aide-de-camp, besides pay of Lieutenant, 


24.00 






1 


8 






32.00 


Brigadier-General, 


124.00 


12 


108 


3 


24 


3 


67.60 


323.60 


Aide-de-camp, besides pay of Lieutenant, 
Adjutant-Gteneral, — Colonel, . 


20.00 






1 


8 






19.00 


110.00 


6 


54 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


236.00 


Assistant Adj.-General, — Lieut.- Colonel, 


95.00 


6 


46 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


211.00 


" " Major, 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


" " Captain, 


70.00 


4 


36 


1 


8 


1 


23.50 


137.60 


Judge- Advocate, — Major, . 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


Inspector-General, —Colonel, . 


110.00 


6 


64 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


236.00 


Quartermaster-General, — Brisv-General, 
Assistant Quarterm.-Gen., —Colonel, . 


124.00 


12 


106 


3 


24 


3 


67.60 


323 60 


110.00; 6 


64 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


235.00 


Deputy Quarterm.-Gen. ,'Lieut.-Colonel, 


95.00 


5 


45 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


211.00 


Quartermaster, — Major, 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


Assistant Quartermaster, — Captain, 


70.00 


4 


36 


1 


8 


1 


23.60 


137.60 


Commissary-Gen. of Subsistence, — Col., 


110.00 


6 


54 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


236.00 


Assist. Commissary-Gen., — Lieut.-Col., 


96.00 


6 


45 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


211.00 


Commissary of Subsistence, — Major, 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


" " Captain, , 
Assistant Comm'y, besides pay or Lieut., 


70.00 


4 


36 


1 


8 


1 


23.60 


137.60 


20.00 














11.00 


Paymaster-General, 92,740 per annum, . 








( 








228.33 


Deputy Paymaster-General, . ^ , 


95.00 


5 


45 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


211.00 


Paymaster 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


Surgeon-General, $2,740 per annum, . 
















228.33 


Surgeons of 10 years' service, . 


80.00 


8 


72 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


223.00 


Sureeons of less than 10 years' service, 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


Assistant Surgeons of 10 years' service, . 


70.00 


8 


72 


1 


8 


I 


23.60 


173.50 


" of 6 yean' service. 


70.00 


4 


36 


1 


8 


1 


23.60 


137.60 


Asstst. Surg, of less than 5 yeara' service. 


53.33 


4 


36 


1 


8 


1 


23.60 


120.83 


Enginbbrs, Topoo. Enoinbbrs, and 


















Obdnancb Dspartmsnt. 


















Colonel, 


110.00 


6 


54 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


236.00 


Lieutenant-Colonel, .... 


95.00 


6 


45 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


211.00 


Major, ....... 


80.00 


4 
4 


36 
36 


3 

1 


24 

8 


2 

1 


47.00 
23.60 


187.00 
137.60 


Captain, 


70.00 


First Lieutenant, 


53.33 


4 


36 


1 


8 


1 


23.50 


120.83 


Second Lieutenant (Brevet the same), . 


53.33 


4 


36 


1 


8 


1 


23.60 


120.83 


MouMTBD Dragoons, Cavalry, Riflb- 


















MBN, AND Light Artillbrt. 


















Colonel, 


110.00 


6 


64 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


235.00 


Lieutenant-Colonel, ..... 


95.00 


6 


45 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


211.00 


Major, 


80.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


47.00 


187.00 


Captain, 


70.00 


4 


36 


2 


16 


1 


23.60 


145.60 


First Lieutenant 


53.33 


4 


36 


2 


16 


1 


23.60 


128.83 


Second Lieutenant (Brevet the same), . 


53.33 


4 


36 


2 


16 


1 


23.60 


128.83 


Adj.dc Reg. QVm'r, besides pay of Lieut., 


10.00 














10.00 


Artillbrt and Infantry. 


















Colonel, 


95.00 


6 


54 


3 


04 


2 


45.00 


218.00 


Lieutenant-Colonel, 


80.00 


6 


46 


3 


24 


2 


45.00 


194.00 


Major, 


70.00 


4 


36 


3 


24 


2 


45.00 


175.00 


Captain, , . 


60.00 


4 


36 






1 


22.60 


118.50 


First Lieutenant, 


50.00 


4 


36 






1 


22.60 


108.50 


Second Lieutenant (Brevet the same), . 


45.00 


4 


36 






1 


22.60 


103 60 


Adj. and Re«r.Q'rm'r, besides pay of Lieut., 


10.00 


r 1 


I 


8 






18.00 



_ 

MUUary Storekeepers attached to the Quartermaster's department, at armories and at 
anenals of construction, the storekeeper at Watertown arsenal, and storekeepers of ord- 
nance serving in Oregon, California, and New Mexico, $ 1,490 per annum, being $ 124.16 

per niimtta : at all other arsenals $ 1,040 per annum, being J 86.66 per month. 

On Januaiy 1, 1859, the whole number of commissioned offlceis m die je««lf' |"ny 'ff ,■ 
1 jw>^ . -« — 1 J t„t.^^A ^mm^^ «nn«i<.i*na artlflrflrs. and Dnvates. 11,859; total, 



108 



UmTED STATES. 



[1860. 



IV. NAVY LIST. 

1. Commanders of Squadrons. [Flag Officers.] 



Wm. J. McCiuney, Home Squadron. 
Joshua R. Sands, Coast of Brazil. 
J. B. Montgomery, Pacific Ocean. 



E. A. F. Lavallette, Mediterranean. 
Cornelius K. Stribling, East Indies. 
William Inman, Coast of Africa. 



2. Commanders of Navy Yards. 



John Pope, 
William L. Hudson, 
S. L. Breese, 
Charles Stewart, 



Portsmouth, 
Boston. 
New York. 
Philadelphia. 



Charles H. Bell, Norfolk. 

James Mc. Mcintosh, Pensacola. 
R. B. Cunningham, Mare Isl., Cal. 



G. N. Hollins, 



Franklin Buchanan, Washington. 

3. Natal Asylum. 
William W. McKean, Governor^ 

4. Natal Academy. 
-George S. Blake, Superintendent ^ 

5. Officers of the Naty. 



Captains. {Active List,) — 80. 



Wm. B. Shubrick. 
Lawrence Kearny. 
Joseph Smith. 
Lawrence Bousseau. 
George W. Storer. 
Francis H. Gregory. 
Charles S. McC^uley. 
£. A. F. Lavallette. 
John H. Aulick. 
Silas H. Striog^hazn. 
Isaac Mayo. 
William Mervine. 
Thomas Crabbe. 
Thomas Paine. 
James Armstrong. 
Samuel L. Breese. 
Hiram Paulding. 
Uriah P. Levy. 
French Forrest. 
William Ramsay. 



Charles Stewart. 
George C. Read. 
Jesse Wilkinson. 
John D. Sloat. 
Charles W. Skinner. 



Edw. B. Boutwell. 
Sidney Smith Lee. 
Wm. C. Whittle. 
T. Darrah Shaw. 
Robert D. Thorburn. 
Samuel Loclcwood. 
William S. Osrden. 
Charles C. Turner. 
James L. Lardner. 
Robert G. Robb. 
John Colhoun. 



Thomas A. Conover. 
John C. Long. 
James Mc. Mcintosh. 
Josiah Tatnall. 
William Inman. 
William J. McCluney. 
John B. Montgomery. 
Cornelius K. Stribling. 
Joshua R. Sands. 
Charles H. Bell. 
Joseph R. Jarvis. 
Wm. M. Armstrong. 
G. J. Pendergrast. 
William C. Nicholson. 
Joseph B. Hull. 
John S. Chauncey. 
John Kelly. 
William H. Gardner. 
David G. Farragut. 
Stephen B. Wilson. 



T. Aloysius Domin. 
Rob. B. Cunningham. 
James Glynn. 
Victor M. Randolph. 
Frederick Engle. 
John Rudd.^ 
Robert Ritchie. 
Wm. W. McKean. 
Franklin Buchanan. 
Samuel Mercer. 
Charles Lowndes. 
L. M. Goldsborough. 
George N. Hollins. 
Duncan N. Ingraham. 
John Marston. 
Henry A. Adams. 
William S. Walker. 
Gteorge F. Pearson. 
John S. Nicholas. 
Samuel F. Du Pont. 



Captains. ( Reserved List. ) — 20. 



Philip F. Voorhees. 
David Geisinger. 
William D. Salter. 
Thomas M. Newell. 
John Percival. 

Ctyntmanders, 

Thomas T. Craven. 
Andrew H. Foote. 
Wm. W. Hunter. 
Edward G. Tilton. 
James H. Ward. 
Henry K. Hoff. 
Murray Mason. 
Charles H. Davis. 
Ebenezer Farrand. 
Henry H Bell. 
WiUiam Smith. 



William K. Latimer. 
Charles Boarman. 
William Jamesson. 
Henry W. Ogden. . 
John H. Graham. 



(Active List,) — 114. 

Charles H. McBlair. 
John W. Livingston. 
William E. Hunt.* 
Archibald B. Fairfax. 
Henry K Thatcher. 
William D. Porter. 
William McBlair. 
John S. Missroon. 
Richard L. Page. 
Frederic ChatanL 
Benjamin J. Totten. 



Sackett's Har- 
bor, N. y. 

Philadelphia. 
Annapolis, Md. 



William L. Hudson. 
George A. Magruder. 
John Pope. 
Levin M. PowelL 
Charles Wilkes. 
Thomas O. Selfridge. 
Henry &igle. 
Andrew K. Long. 
G. J. Van Brum. 
WiUiam M. Glendy. 
George S. Blake. 
Samuel Barron. 
Andrew A. Harwood. 
Theodorus Bailey. 
Hugh Y. Purviance. 
Cadwalader Ringgold. 
Wm. F. Lynch. 
Henry W. MorriB. 
Isaac S. Sterett. 
Francis B. Ellison. 



Hugh N. Page. 
Stephen Charaplin. 
Lewis E. Simonds. 
Harrison H. Cocke. 
Horace B. Sawyer. 



Arthur Sinclair. 
Robert B. Hitchcock. 
C H A. H. Kennedy. 
Thomas W. BrenU 
Joseph Lanman. 
John K. MitchelL 
Thomas Turner. 
Charles H. Poor. 
James F. Schenck. 
Matthew F. Maury. 
Timothy A. Huou 



I860.] 



NAVY LIST. 



Sylranus Wm. Godon. 
Jamea S. Palmer. 
William Radford. 
Samuel F. Hazard. 
John M. Berrien. 
George A. Prentiss. 
John C. Carter. 
Alfred Taylor. 
Samuel Phillips Lee. 
John P. Gillis. 
Simon B. Bissell. 
Samuel Swartwoat. 
John J. Glasson. 
Raphael Semmes. 
James P. McKinstry. 
Oliver S Gliason. 
John A. Dahlgren. 
Stephen C. Rowan. 



Edward R. Thomson. 
Guerl Gansevoort. 
Robert Handy. 
Charted Green. 
Edward L. Handy. 
Melancton Smith. 
Cicero Price. 
J. R Golddborough. 
Charles S. Boggs. 
A. H. Kilty. 
William Chandler. 
Theodore P. Green. 
John R. Tucker. 
Riehard W. Meade. 
Thomas J. Page. 
George Minor. 
Percival Drayton. 
Robert F. Pinkney. 



Thomas R. Rootes. 
Edward M. Yard. 
Alexander Gibson. 
Williams Young. 
Joseph F. Green. 
John De Camp. 
Charles W. Pickering. 
Overton Carr. 
William M. Walker. 
John A. Winslow. 
Benjamin M. Dore. 
Henry Walke. 
Thornton A. Jenkins. 
John Rodeers. 
John B. Marchand. 
Wm. Rogers Taylor. 
Henry J. Hartstene. 



109 

Benjamin F. Sands. 
Henry French. 
Henry S. Stellwagen. 
James L. Henderson. 
Daniel B. Ridgely. 
William T. Muse. 
Charles Steedman. 
James Alden. 
Augustus L. Case, 
Roger Perry. 
Aloz. M. Pennock. 
George F. Emmons. 
Edward Middleton. 
Thomas T. Hunter. 
Gustavus H. Scott. 
David McDougal. 
Chas. F. Mcintosh. 



John J. Young. 
Samuel W. Lecompte. 
Charles T. Piatt. 
Ed. W. Carpender. 



Commanders. {Reserved List) — 16. 



John L. Saunders. 
Joseph Myers. 
Henry Bruce. 
Elisha Peck. 



William Green. 
Timothy G. Benham. 
Oscar BuUus. 
Charles H. Jackson. 



Lloyd B. NewelL 
Frederick A. Neville. 
John Manning. 
Amasa Paine. 



tt 



Pay. 
Captains , 100, the senior one in service, $4,500 

3,500 

4,000 
3,500 
2,600 
1,250 
2,500 



6. Pay of the Navy, per annum. 

Note. — One ration per day only is allowed to each officer when attached to vessels for sea 
service, since the passage of the law of the 3d of March, 1835, regulating the pay of the navy. 

Passed Assistant Surgeons, 39. 
Assistant Surobons, 41, waiting or* 

ders, $ 660 

after passing, &c., 850 

at sea, 950 

" aRer passing, 1,200 

at navy yards, 950 

" after passing, 1,150 

Pursers, 64, from #1,500 to 3,500 

CHAPLAiNS,23,inseaserv.oratnavy-yd8. 1,600 

" on leave, &c., 1,000 

Professors of Mathematics, 11, 1 ,500 

Masters in the line of promotion, 34. 

Passed Midshipmen, 2, on duty, 

" " waiting oraers, 

Midshipmen, 49, in sea service. 

Midshipmen, on other duty, 

" on leave, &c.. 

Acting Midshipmen, 194. 

Masters, of ship of the line at sea, 

** on other duty, 

** on leave, &c.. 

Boatswains, 40 1 on leave, or wait 

Gunners, 46 I ing orders. 

Carpenters, 46 j shore duty, 

Sailmakers, 41 J sea service,! 

Chief ENOiNEERS,26,on duty,lst 5 years,l ,600 

" " " after 5 years, 2,000 

" " on leave, Ist 5 years, 1,200 

Chief Engineers on duty after 6 years, 1,400 

1st Assistant Engineers, 36, on duty, 1,000 

" " on leave, 850 

2d Assistant Engineers, 21, on duty, 800 

" " on leave, 600 

3d Assistant Engineers, 95, on duty, 600 

" •• on leave, 400 



on leave. 
Captains of squadrons (flag officers), 
Other captains on duty, 
" on leave, 

" on furlough, 

Commanders, 130, in sea service, 
<< at navy yards, or on 

other duty, 
" on leave, &c., 

*' on furlough, 

Lieutenants, 362, commanding, 
" on other duty, 

" waiting orders, 

" on furlough, 

Surgeons, 69, 1st 5 years in com., 
in navy yards, &c.} 
in sea service, 
of the fleet, 
2d 5 years, on leave, 
at navy yards, &c., 
in sea service, 
of the fleet, 
3d 5 years, on leave, 
at navy yards, &c., 
in sea service, 



If 
(I 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
ft 
tt 
tt 
tt 
fi 
(I 

(I 
(( 
II 



2,100 
1,800 

900 
1,800 
1,500 
1,200 

600 
1,000 
1,260 
1,333 
1,600 
1,200 
1,600 
1,600 
1,800 
1,400 
1,750 
1,866 



3d 5 years, of the fleet, 2, 100 



4th 5 years, on leave, 

at navy yards, &c., 

in sea service, 

of the fleet, 
20 years and upwards, on 
leave, 

at navy yards, &c. 

in sea service, 

of the fleet, 



1,600 
2,000 
2,133 
2,400 

1,800 
2,260 
2,400 
2,700 



CI 

(( 
II 

CI 

11 



750 
600 
400 
850 

aoo 

1,100 

1,000 

750 

600 

700 
900 



t They have an addition of 2 per cent upon the foregoing rates for every year's sea 
service, and an addition upon sea pay of 10 per cent when serving in ships with 400 men, 
aad 20 per cent whan serving in ships with 900 men. 

10 



lit) 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



7. VsssELS OF War op the United States Navy. — JVbw. 1, 1859. 

[The officers marked thus i*) hare the rank of Cotnmandera ; thus (t), JLieutenanU / 

the rest are Captaina.} 



Name. — Guns. — Ton.' Where and when built. 



Ships of the Lint. lu. 
Penns'vania, 120 3,241 Philadelphia, 



2,633 
2,633 
2,305 
2,633 



Columbus, ' 80 
Ohio, . 84 
N. Carolina, 84 
Delaware, 84 
Vermont, 84 
New Orleans, 84 
Alabama, 84 
Virginia, 84 
New York, 84 

Frigata. 10. 
Constitution, 50 1,607 
United States, 50 1,607 
Potomac, 50 1,726 
Brandy wine, 50 1,726 
Columbia, 50 ~ 

Congress, 50 
Raritan, 60 

St. Lawrence, 60 IJ726 
Santee, 50 ' 

Sabine, 50 

Sloops of War. 
Cumberland, 24 
Savannah, 24 i;726 
Constellation, 22 1,452 
IVIacedonian, 22 1,341 
Portsmouth, 22 
Plymouth, 22 
St. Mary's, 22 
Jamestown, 22 



2,480 Washington, 
2,757, Brooklyn, 
2,633l Philadelphia, 



Commanded by 



Gosport, 
Cbariestown, 
Sackett's Harbor, 
Kittery, 



2,633'Ctiarlestown, 
2,633 Gosport, 

Charlestown, 

Philadelphia, 

Washington, 
(< 

tt 

Kittery, 

Philadelphia, 

'Gosiwrt, 
I,726iKiiiery, 
1,726, Brooklyn, 
21. 
l,726|Charlestown, 



1837 *Frederick Chatard, 
1819 In ordinary, 
18201 *WiUiam Smith, 
1820; ♦James H. Ward, 
1820{In ordinary, 
1848 In ordinary, 
1815lOn the stocks, 
1818, On the stocks, 
1818 On the stocks, 
On the stocks. 



1,726 
1,867 
1,726 



Germantown, 22 
Saratoga, 20 
John Adams, 20 
Vincennes, 20 
Falmouth, - 20 
Vandalia, 20 
St. Louis, 20 
Cyane, 20 

Levant, 20 

Decatur, 16 

Marion, 16 

Dale, 16 

Preble, 16 

Brigs. 3. 
Bainbridge, 6 
Perry, 6 

Dolphin, 4 

Schooner. 
Fenimore j « 
Cooper, ) 

Steamers. 
Screw, 1st Class. 



1,022 
989 
958 
985 
939 
882 
700 
700 
703 
783 
700 
792 
792 
666 
666 
566 
566 

259 
280 
224 



Brooklyn, 

Rebuilt, Gk>3port, 

Gosport, 

Kittery, 

Charlestown, 

Washington, 

Gosport, 

Philadelphia, 

Kittery, 

Rebuilt, Gosport, 

Brooklyn, 

Charlestown, 

Philadelphia, 

Washington, 

Charlestown, 

Brooklyn, 



(( 



Charlestown, 
Philadelphia, 
Kittery, 

Charlestown, 

Gosport, 

Brooklyn, 



1818 

1797 
1797 
1821 
1825 
1836 
1841 
1843 
1847 
1855 
1855 

1842 
1842 
1854 
1836 
1843 
1843 
1844 
1844 
1846 
1842 

lasi 

1826 
1827 
1828 
1828 
1837 
1837 
1839 
1839 
1839 
1839 



In ordinary, 

In ordinary. 

In ordinary. 

In ordinary. 

In ordinary, 

L. M. Goldsborough, 

In ordinary, 

In ordinary. 

In ordinary, 

Henry A. Adams, 

In ordinary^ 
Joseph R. Jarvis, 
John S. Nicholas, 
Uriah P. Levy, 
♦John Colhoun, 
♦Thomas T. Craven, 
♦William D. Porter, 
*C H. AH. Kennedy, 
♦Richard L. Page, 
*Thomas Turner, 
♦Murray Mason, 
♦Benjamin J. Totten, 
In ordinary, 
♦Arthur Sinclair, 
♦Charles H. Poor, 
♦Samuel Lockwood, 
♦William R Hunt, 
In ordinary, 
♦Thomas W. Brent, 
In ordinary, 
*T. A. Jenkins, 



95 



Niagara, 12 

Roanoke, 40 
Colorado, 40 
Merrimack, 40 
Minnesota, 40 
Wabash, 40 

Franklin, 50 
Stevens' war ^ « 
steamer, y 
Screw, 2d Class. 
San Jacinto, 13 
Lancaster, 18 
Pensacola, 16 
Brooklyn, 14 



1842 tMaxwell WoodhuU, 

1843 tR. L. Tilghman, 
1836 ♦Charles Steedman, 



Purchased, 1862 



8. 
4,580 Brooklyn, 
3,400 Gosport, 
3,400 " 
3,200 Charlestown, 
3,200 Washington, 
3,200 Pliiladelphia, 
3,680'Kittery, 

4,683 Commenced in 

6. 
1,446 Brooklyn, 
2,360 Philadelphia, 
2,158 Pensacola, 
2,070 New York, 



1865 
1866 
1855 
1866 
1865 
1866 
1864 

1842 



fJ. M. Brooke. 



In ordinary, 
Wm. H. Gardner, 
In ordinary, 
♦Robt. B. Hitchcock, 
In ordinary, 
Samuel Barron, 
In ordinary, 

Building, 



1860 Wm. M. Armstrong, 
1 868' John B. Montgomery, 
1858|In ordinary, 
1868,David G. Farragut, 



Where stationed. 



Rec'g ship, Norfolk. 

Norfolk. 

Rec'g ship, Boston. 

N. York. 
Norfolk. 
Boston. 

Sackett's Harbor. 
Kittery, Me. 
Boston. 
Norfolk. 

Kittery, Me. 

Norfolk. 

New York. 

New York. 

Norfolk. 

Brazil Squadron. 

Norfolk. 

Philadelphia. 

Kittery, Me. 

Home Squadron. 

Kittery, Me. 
Home Squadron. 
African Squadron. 
Mediterranean. 
Coast of Africa. 
Practice ship.N. Acad. 
Pacific Squadron. 
Home Squadron. 
East India Squadron. 
Home Squadron. 
East India Squadron. 
Coast of Africa. 
New York. 
Pacific Ocean. 
Home Squadron. 
Pacific Squadron. 
Pacific Squadron. 
NavyYardjMarelsl'd. 
African Squadron. 
Portsmouth. N. H. 
Home Squaaron. 

Brazil Squadron. 
Coast of Brazil. 
Brazil Squadron. 

Surveying in Pacific. 



New York. 
Home Squadron. 
Boston. 
Pacific Ocean. 
Boston. 

Mediterranean. 
Kittery, Me. 

Hoboken, N. J. 

African Squadron. 
Pacific Squadron. 
Pensacola. 
Home Squadron. 






I860.] 



MABINE CORPS. 



Ill 



Name. — Guns. — Ton. 



Hartford, 14 1,990 
Richmond, 14 1,929 

Screw, 3d Class. 14 
Maasachusetta, 9 
John Hancock, 2 
Mohican, 
Narraganseit, 
Iroquois, 



6 
3 
6 
6 
6 
6 
3 
8 
6 
6 
6 
6 



765 
382 
994 
809 

1,016 
997 

1,289 
996 
801 
549 
464 
464 
464 
464 

2. 

558 
217 



Where and when built. 



Boston, 
Norfolk, 



1858 
1858 



Transf d from W. D. 



Wyoming, 

Pawnee, 

Dacotah, 

Seminole, 

Crusader, 

Mystic, 

MohawK, 

Sampler, 

Wyandott, 

Sereto T^enders. 
Despatch, 
Anacostia, 
Side-toheel, 1st Class, 3 
Mississippi, 10 1,692 
Susquehanna, 15 2,450 
Powhatan, 9 2,415 
Sidciffheel, 2d Class, I 
Saranac, 6 1,446 

Side-wheel, 3d Class, 3. 
Fulton, 5 698 

Michigan, 1 582 
Saginaw, 3 453 

Side-wheel Tenders. 2. 
Water- Witch, 1 378 
Pulaski, 395 

Store Vessels, 3. 
Relief, 2 468 

Supply, 4 547 

Release, 1 327 

Permanent Store and 



Receiving Ships. 



Independence, 

Alleghany, 

Princeton, 

Warren, 

Fredonia, 



2,257 
989 
900 
691 



Charlestown, 

Kitiery, 

fioston, 

New York, 

Philad'phia, 

Philad'phia, 

Gosport. 

Pensacola. 

Purchased, 

K 
(C 
i( 



Purchased, 

u 



Philadelphia, 

Gosport, 

Kittery, 

Brooklyn, 
Erie, Penn., 
San Francisco, 

Washington, 
Purchased, 

Philadelphia, 
Purchased, 



1860 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1868 
1868| 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 

1855 
1858 

1841 
1860 
1850 

1848 

1837 

1844, 
1859 

1845 

1868 

1836 
1846 
1855 



Commanded by 



Charlestown, ' 1814 
Pittsburg, Penn., 1847 
Rebuilt, Boston, I85I 
Charlestown, 1826 
1846 



80G|Purchased, 



Charles Lowndes, 
In ordinary, 

In ordinary. 
In ordinary, 
♦Sylvan us W. Godon, 
♦Timothy A Hunt, 
♦James S. Palmer, 
♦John K. Mitchell, 
Preparing for sea. 
Preparing for sea. 
Preparing for sea. 
tJno. N. Maffitt, 
tWilliam E. LeRoy, 
tT. Aug. Craven, 
tJames F. Armstrong, 
fFabius Stanly, 

In ordinary, 

fT. S. Fillebrown, 

Wm. C. Nicholson, 
In ordinary, 
George F. Pearson, 

Robert Ritchie, 

In ordinary, 
^Joseph Lanman, 
♦James F. Schenck, 

tL. C. Sartori, 
tWm. H. Macomb, 

♦Benj. M. Dove, 
♦Henry Walke. 
fG. W. Harrison, 



Where stationed. 



East Indies. 
Norfolk. 

Mare Island. 
Mare Island. 
Coast of Africa. 
Pacific Squadron. 
Mediterranean Squad. 
Pacific Squadron. 
Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia. 
Pensacola, 
Home Squadron. 
Coast of Africa. . 
Home Squadron. 
Coast of Africa. 
Home Squadron. 

Norfolk. 

Washing'n & Norfolk. 

East India Squadron. 

New York. 

East India Squadron. 

Pacific Ocean. 

Pensacola. 
On the Lakes. 
East Indies. 

Home Squadron. 

Brazil Squadron. 

Home Squadron. 
Coast of Africa* 
Brazil Squadron. 



♦Simon B. Bissell, 
♦W. W. Hunter, 
♦Henry K. Hofl^ 
tJunius J. Boyle, 
t James M. Watson, 



Pacific.receiving ship. 
Rec'gship, Baltimore. 
Rec'g ship,Philadel'a. 
Panama. 
Pacific Squadron. 



V. THE MARINE CORPS.* 

The Marine Corps has the organization of a brigade. The pay and al- 
lowances of the officers of the Marine Corps are similar to those of officers 
of the same grades in the infantry of the Army, except the Adjutant and In- 
spector, who has the same pay and allowances as the Pavmaster of the 
Marines; namely, about $3,000 per annum. The Marine Corps is subject 
to the laws and regulations of the Nnvy, except when detached for service 
with the Army by the order of. the President of the United States. The 
head-quarters of tne Corps are at Washington. 

John Harris, Colonel- Commandant, 
General Staff. 



f Henry B. Tyler, ^dj. fy Inspector. 
t Wm. W. Russell, Paymaster, 
t Dan. J Sutherland, Quartermaster, 
t W. A. T. Maddox, Assistant Quar 

termaster. 



James Edelin, Lieutenant- Colonel. 
William Dulany, 
Thomas S. English, I j^^ .^, 
Ward Marston, f -^ 

Benjamin Macomber, ^ 



* There are 14 Captains, 20 First Lieuienanis, and 20 Second Lieutenants. The number 
of non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates varies; it may average 1,100 men. 
t With the rank of Major. J With the ranic of Capuin. 



112 UKITBD STATES. [1860. 

VI. THE JUDICIARY. 

Supreme Court. 

Residence. Appointed. Salary. 

Roger B. Taney, Baltimore, Md., Chief Justice, 1836, $6,500 

John McLean, Cincinnati, Ohio, Associate Justice, 1829, 6,000 

James M. Wayne, Savannah, Ga., ** 1835, 6,000 

John Catron, Nashville, Tenn., " 1837, 6,000 

Peter V. Daniel, Richmond, Va., " 1841, 6,000 

Samuel Nelson, Cooperstown, N. Y., " 1845, 6,000 

Robert C. Grier, Pittsburg, Pa., " 1846, 6,000 

John A. Campbell, Mobile, Ala., << 1853, 6,000 

Nathan Clifford, Portland,' Me., « 1858, 6,000 

Jeremiah S. Black, Washington, D. C, Attorney- General, 1857, 8,000 

Benj. C. Howard, Baltimore, Md., Reporter, 1843, 1,300 

William T. Carroll, Washington, D. C, Cl&rk, Fees, &c. 

- The Supreme Court is held in the city of Washington, and has one ses- 
sion annually, commencing on the 1st Monday of December. 

Circuit Courts. 

The United States are divided into the following nine Judicial Circuits, 
in each of which a Circuit Court is held twice every year, for each State 
within the Circuit, by a Justice of the Supreme Court, assigned to the Circuit, 
and by the District Judge of the State or District in which the Court sits. 

Presiding Judge. 
1st Circuit, Maine, Mass.,N. Hampshire, and R. I., Mr. Justice Clifford. 
2d " Connecticut, New York, and Vermont, Mr. Justice Nelson. 
3d " New Jersey and Pennsylvania, Mr. Justice Grier. 

4th " Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, Mr. Ch. Justice Taney. 
5th '' Alabama, Kentucky ,'N' and Louisiana, Mr. Justice CampbeU. 
6th " Georgia, N. Carolina, and S. Carolina, Mr. Justice Wayne. 
7th *' Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio, Mr. Justice McLean. 
8th '* Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee, Mr. Justice Catron. 
9th *' Arkansas, and Mississippi Mr. Justice Daniel. 

California Circuit, Matthew H. McAllister, of San Francisco. 

Tlie States of Florida, Iowa, Minnesota, Oregon, Texas, and Wisconsin, hare not yet been 
attached to any Circait, but the District Courts have the power of Circuit Courts, and the 
District Judges act as Circuit Judges. There is a local Circuit Court held in the District 
of Columbia, by three judges specially appointed for that purpose. The Chief Justice of 
that Court sits also as District Judge of that District. 

Places and Times of Holding the Circuit CouRTS.t 

Alabama, . . . Mobile, 2d Mon. in April and 4th Mon. in Dec. 
Arkansas, . . . Uitle Rock, 2d Monday in April. 

* The Judge of the 5th Circuit holds the Circuit Court for the District of Kentucky in 
the absence of the Judge of the 8th Circuit. Stat. 1849, Ch. 120. 

t For the Terms in the States not attached to any Circuit, see Terms of the District 
Courts in those States. For the Terms in the District of Columbia and the Territories, 
"^ee post, Part III. 



I860.] 



JUDICIARY. 



113 



California, N. Diet., San Francisco^ Ist Monday in January and July. 
California, S. Dist., Los Angeles, 1st Mbnday in March and September. 



Connecticut, . . 

Delaware, . . . 
Georgia, N. Dist., 
Georgia, S. Dist., . 

Illinois, N. Dist., 
Illinois, S. Dist., 
Indiana, . . . . 
Kentucky, . . . 
Louisiana, . . . 



J{ew Haven, 4th Tuesday in April ; — Hartford, 3d 

Tuesday in September. 
Wilmington, 3d Tuesday in June and October. 
Marietta,* 2d Monday in March and September. 
Savannah, 2d Monday in April ; — Mitledgeville. 

Thursday afler 1st Monday in November. 
Chicago, 1st Mon. in July and 3d Mon. in Dec. 
Springfield, 1st Monday in January and June. 
Indianapolis, 3d Monday in May and November. 
Frankfort, 3d Monday in May and October. 
Jfew Orleans, 4th Mon. in April and Ist Mon. in Nov. 



Maine, .... Portland, 23d April and 23d September. 



Maryland, . . 
Massachusetts, 
Michiga!^, . . 
Missi^ippi, . . 
Missouri, . . 
New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, . 



Baltimore, 1st Monday in April and November. 
Boston, 15th May and 15th October. 
Detroit, 3d Monday in June and 2d Monday in Oct. 
Jackson, 1st Monday in May and November. 
St, Louis, 1st Monday in April and (special) Oct. 
Portsmouth, 8th May ; — Exeter, 8th October. 
Trenton, 4th Tuesday in March and September. 
N. YoitK, S. Dist., . JVeio York, 1st Monday in April and 3d Monday in 

October ; and a special term for criminal cases and 
suits in equity on the last Monday in February. 
Albany, 3d Tuesday in October and 3d Tuesday in 
May ; — Canandaigua, Tuesday next aAer 3d 
Monday in June. 
Raleigh, 1st Mon. in June and last Mon. in Nov. 
Cleveland, 2d Tuesday in July and November. 
Cincinnati, 3d Tuesday in April and October. 
Philadelphia, 1st Monday in April and October. 
Pittsburg, 2d Monday in May and November ; — 
Williamsport, 3d Monday in June and September. 
Jfeioport, 15th June ; — Providence, 15th November. 
Charleston, Ist Monday in April ; — Columbia, 4th 
Monday in November. 
Tennessee, M. Dist., J^ashviUe, 3d Monday in April and October. 
Tennessee, E. Diet, Knoxville, 3d Mon. in May and 4th Mon. in Nov. 
Tennessee, W. Dist., Jackson, 1st Monday in April and October. 
Vermont, .... Windsor, 4th Tuesday in July ; — Rutland, 3d Oc- 
tober. 
Virginia, E. Dist., Richmond, 1st Mon. in May and 4th Mon. in Nov. 
Virginia, W. Dist., Lewisburg, 1st Monday in August. 



N. York, N. Dist., 



North Carolina, . 
Ohio, N. Dist., . . 
Ohio, S. Dist., . . 
Penn., E. Dist., 
Penn., W. Dist., . 

Rhode Island, 
South Carolina,* . 



♦ This court is held by the District Jadge, with special authority to exercise the powers 
and Jurisdiction of a Judge of the Circuit Court. 

10* 



114 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



* DISTRICT COURTS: — JUDGES, ATTORNETS, 



19 
20 
21 



1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Ala. 



District. 



' N. Dist. 
M.Diat. 



\ 



Ark. 



S. Dist. 
K Dist. 



Cal. 



W.Dist. 
, ( N. Dist. 
'• IS. Dist. 
Connecticut, 
Delaware, 

C N. Dist. 
Fa. \ 

(S, Dist. 
ri^ SN. Dist. 
^'®°- } S. Dist. 



16 Indiana, 

17|Iowa, 

18 Kentucky, ' 



La. 



?W. 



Dist. 
Dist. 



Maine, 

22 Maryland, 

23 Massachusetts, 

24 Michigan, 
Minnesota, 



25 
26 
27 
23 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
31 
35 
36 
37 
33 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
i^ 
49 
50 



Mo. 



E. Dist. 
, W.DisU 

N. Hampshire, 
New Jersey, 
»j «. ^N. Dist. 
"• *• JS. Dist 
North Carolina, 

"*>»°' I S. Dist. 
Oregon, 
p^ QE. Dist 
^^ } W. Dist 
Rhode Island, 
South Carolina, 
C W.Dist. 
Tenn. < M.Dist. 
( E. Dist. 

( E. Dist. 

f W. Dist. 
Vermont, 
y (E. Dist. 
^*- J W.Dist. 
Wisconsin, 



Tex. 



Judge. 



W. Q. Jones, 

Daniel Ringo, 

gden Hofftnan, 
Isaac S. K. Ogier, 
Charles A. Ingersoll, 
Willard Hall, 
McQueen Mcintosh, 

William Marvin, 

John C. NicoU, 

Thos. Drummond, 
Sam. H. Treat, Jr., 
E. M. Huntington, 
James M. Love, 
Thomas B. Monroe, 
Theo. H. McCaleb, 
Henry Boyce, 
Ashur Ware, 
Wm. F Giles, 
Peleg Sprague, 
Ross Wilkins, 
R. R. Nelson, 

I Samuel J.GhoIson, 

Samuel Treat, 
Robert M. Wells, 
Matthew Harvey, 
Philemon Dickerson, 
Nathan K. Hall, 
Samuel R. Betts, 
Asa Biffgs, 
H. V. Willson, 
H. H. Leavitt, 
M. P. Deady, 
John Cadwalader, 
W. McCandless, 
John Pitman, 
A. G. Magralh, 

W. H. Humphreys, 

John C. Watrous, 
Thomas H. Duval, 
David A. Smalley, 
Jas. D. Hallyburton, 
J.W.Brockenbrough, 
Andrew J. Miller, 



Residence. 



Mobile, 

Little Rock 

S. Francisco, 
Los Angeles, 
New Haven 
Wilmington 
Jacksonville, 

Key West, 

Savannah, 

Chicago, 

Springfield, 

Cannelton, 

Keokuk, 

Frankfort, 

N. Orleans, 

Alexandria, 

Portland, 

Baltimore, 

Boston, 

Detroit, 

St. Paul, 

Aberdeen, 

St. Louis, 

JefFson City, 

Concord, 

Paterson, 

Buffiilo, 

New York, 

Williamston, 

Cleveland, 

Cmcinnati, 

Winchester, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Providence, 

Charleston, 

Nashville, ) 

Galveston, 

Austin, 

Burlington, 

Richmond, 

Lexington, 

Milwaukee, 



Attorney. 



C M.^. Tumley, 

i A. J Requier, 
John M Harrell, 
Alfred M. Wilson, 
P. D. Torre, 
J. R. Gitchell, 
Wm. D. Shipman, 
Daniel M. Bates, 
Chandler C. Yonge, 

J. L. Tatum, 

Joseph Ganahl, 

H. S. Fitch, 
Wm. K. Parish, 

D. W. Voorhees, 
Joseph C. Knapp, 

C. C. Rogers, 
Henry E. Miller, 
J. H. New, 
George F. Shepley, 
Wm. M. Addison, 
Chas. L Woodbury, 
Joseph Miller, Jr., 

E. M. Wilson, 
F. J. Lovejoy, 

. Vacant, 
Calvin F. Bumes, 
A. M. Lay, 
A. S. Marshall, 
Garrett S. Cannon, 
Jas. C. Spencer, 
Theod. Sedewick, 
Robert P. Dick, 
G. W. Belden, 
Stanley Matthews, 
A. J. Thayer, 
James C. Vandyke, 
R. Biddle Roberts, 
George H. Browne, 
James Conner, 
Alex. W. Campbell, 
Thos. B. Childress, 
J. C. Ramsey, 
George Mason, 
Jas. F. Warren, 
H. E. Stoughton, 
John M. Gregory, 
Fleming B. I^iller, 

D. A. J. Upham, 



Residence. 



Talladega, 

Mobile, 
LitUe Rock, 
Fayetteville, 
San Francisco,^ 
Los Angeles, 
Hartford, 
Wilmington, 
Mariana, 

Tampa, 

Savannah, 

Chicago, 

Springfield, 

Terrehaute, 

Keosauqua, 

Lexington, 

New Orleans, 

Baton Rogue, 

Portland, 

Baltimore, 

Boston,- 

Kalamasoo, 

Winona, 



St. Louis, 

JetTersi^n City, 

Concord, 

Bordentown, 

Ogdensburg, 

New York, 

Greensboro, 

Canton, 

Cincinnati, 

Portland, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Providence, 

Pharleston, 

Jackson, 

Nashville, 

Knoxville, 

Galveston, 

Tyler, 

Bellows Falls, 

Richmond, 

Fincastle, 

Milwaukee, 



Places and Times of HotoiNG the District Courts4 

Alabama, N. Dist., HuntsmUe^ 2d Monday in May and November. 

Alabama, Mid. Dist., Montgomery^ 4th Monday in May and November. 

Alabama, S. Dist., Mobile, 4th Monday in April and 2d Monday after 

4th Monday in November. 

Arkansas, E. Dist., LUtle Rock, Ist Monday in April and October. 



* Corrected at the office of the Attorney-General, November, 1859. For the Judges, 
&c., of the Territories and District of Columbia, see the Territories, &c., reepeetively, 
post. Part III. 

t The Attorney for the Northern District acts for this District. 

X For the District of Columbia and the Territories, see post, Part IIL 



I860.] 



JUDICIART. 



115 



MABSHALS, AND CLERKS. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 



Marshal. 



Benj. Patteson, 

t 

Cade M. Oodbold, 
J no. S. Halliburton, 
Benj. J. Jacoway, 
Perrin L. Solomon, 
S. C. Pennie, 
Curtiss Bacon, 
Wm. Morrow, 

Elias E. Blackburn, 



1 1 Fernando J. Moreno, 
{g i J. M. SpuUock, 

14 Charles E. Pine, 

15 Wm. L. Dougherty, 

16 John L. Robinson, 

17 Laurel Summers, 

18 Thos. R. Dnhoney, 

19 Joseph M Kennedy, 

20 Samuel M. Hyams, 
21 1 William K. Kimball, 
22;john W. Watkins, 
23! Watson Freeman, 
24 J S. Baeg, 

2.5 W. B. Gere, 

26 W. H. H. Tiaon, 

27 Richard Griffith, 

28 T. S. Bryant, 

29 S. L. Jones, 

30 S. W. Dearborn, 

31 Greorge H. Nelden, 

32 S. B. Jewett, 

33 Isaiah Rynders, 

34 Wesley Jones, 

35 Matthew Johnson, 

36 L. W. Sifffird, 

37 Adolphus B. Kanna, 
3S Jacob S. Yost, 

391 James G. Campbell, 
40| Francis C. Gardiner, 
41Id. H. Hamilton, 
42JHamd«n McClonahan, 
43.Jease B. Clements, 

44 Wm. M. Lnwry, 

45 HAnry E. McCulloch, 

46 William C. Young, 

47 Lewis L. I^rtridge, 
4S John F. Wiley, 

49 J. T.Martin, 

150 J H Lewia, 



Residence. Pay. 



Huntaville, 

Mobile, 
Little Rock, 
Van Buren, 
Sonora, 
San Josd, 
Middietown, 
Wilmington, 

Monticello, 

Key West, 

Savannah, 

Chicago, 

Springfield, 

Indianapolis, 

Le Claire, 

Columbia, 

New Orleans, 

Natchitoches, 

Paris, 

Baltimore, 

Boston, 

Detroit, 

Chatfield, 

Pontotoc, 

Jackson, 

St. liouis, 

Memphis, 

Exeter, 

Newton, 

Clarkson, 

New York, 

Raleigh, 

Cleveland, 

Cincinnati, 

Portland, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Providence, 

Charleston, 

Jackson, 

Nashville, 

Greenville, 

Galveston, 

Sherman, 

Norwich, 

Amelia C. H. 

Monndsville, 

Milwaukee, 



•200t 

200t 
200t 
200f 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 

200t 

200t 



200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 

* 

* 

200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 

200t 
* 

200t 
200t 
20Ot 
200t 

200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 
20Ot 

anot 

200t 
200t 
200t 
200t 



Clerks.! 



B. F. Moore, 
P. H. S. Gayle, 
R. B Owens, 
William Field, 
A. McLean, 
H. Y. Gray, 

C. Sims, 

Alfred Blackman, 
L. E. Wales, 

\ B. Wright, 

f Hugh A. Corley, 
Jos. B. Browne, 

\ W. H. Hunt, 

/ Charles S. Henry, 
W. H. Bradley, 
G. W. Lowry, 
John H. Rea, 
T. S. Parvin, 
John A. Munroe, 
N. R. Jennings, 
A. Lastrappes, 
Wm. P. Preble, Jr. 
Thomas Spicer, 
Seth E. Sprague, 
Wm. D. Wilkins, 
G. W. Prescott, 
R. W. Edmundson, 
W. H. Brown, 
Thos. H. Reynolds, 
Jason Harrison, 
Albert R. Hatch, 
Philemon Dickerson 
Aurelian Conkling, 
Goo. F. Betts, 
John M. Jones, 
F. W. Green, 
J. M. McLean, Jr., 

Jno. M. Jones, 
J. S. Bailey, 
Henry Pitman, 
H. Y. Gray, 
James L. Talhott, 
Jacob McGavock, 
C. W. Crozier, 
James Love, 
Matthew Hopkins, 
William H. Hoyt, 
John T. Francis, 
;J. W. Caldwell, 
John M. Miller, 



Residence. 



Tuscaloosa, 

Montgomery, 

Mobile, 

Little Rock, 

Van Bnren, 

San Francisco, 

Los Angeles, 

New Haven, 

Wilmington, 

St. Augustine, 

Tallahassee, 

Key West, 

Marietta, 

Savannah, 

Chicago, 

Springfield^ 

Indianapolis, 

Muscaime, 

Frankfort, 

New Orleans, 

Opelousas, 

Portland, 

Baltimore, 

Boston, 

Detroit, 

St. Paul, 

Pontotoc, 

Jackson, 

St. Louis, 

Jefl!erson City, 

Portsmouth, 

Paterson, 

Buffalo, 

New York, 

Albemarle, 

Cleveland, 

Cincinnati, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Providence, 

Charleston, 

Jackson, 

Nashville, 

Knoxville, 

Galveston, 

Austin, 

Burlington, 

Norfolk, 

Clarksburg, 

Milwaukee, 



Pay. 



Fees, 
(( 

ti 

€1 
tt 
tt 

H 

n 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 
tl 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 
tl 
tt 
II 
(( 
{( 
(( 
(( 
u 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 
ft 
(( 
It 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 
tl 



Arkansas, W. Dist., Van Bureriy 2d Monday in May and November. 

CALiroRNiA, N. Dist., San FranciscOy Ist Monday in June and December. 

California, S. Dist., Monterey^ 1st Monday in June ; — Los Angeles^ 1st 

Monday in December. 

Connecticut, . . JVeto Haven^ 4th Tuesday in February and August ; 

— Hartford, 4th Tuesday in May and November. 



• Fees, tc. 

t And fees. 

i The Marshal for the Southern District acts for this District. 

$ Besides the above list of clerks. John T. Francis is Clerk at Norfolk, Va. ; B. F. Hays 
at Alexandria, La. ; R. J. Wilson at Monroe, La. ; W. H. Ganretson at St. Joseph, La. ; 



116 UNITSD STATES. [1860. 

Delawirx, . . . Wilmington, 2d Tuesday of January, April, Jane, 

and September. 

Florida, N. Dist., . Tallakasseej 1st Monday in January ; — ^palackicoUij 

Ist Monday in February; — Pensacola, 1st Mon- 
day in March ; — St. Augustine, 1st Monday in April. 

Florida, S. Dist., . Key West, 1st Monday in May and November. 

GxoRoiA, N. Dist., Marietta, 2d Monday in March and September. 
Georgia, S. Dist., Savannah, 2d Tuesday in February, May, August, 

and November. 
Illinois, N. Dist., . Chicago, 1st Monday in July and 3d Monday in 

December. 
Illinois, S. Dist., . Springfield, 1st Monday in January and June. 

Indiana, .... Indianapolis, 3d Monday in May and November. 

Iowa, N. Division, Dubuque, 3d Tuesday in April and October. 

Iowa, W. Division, Desmoines, 2d Tuesday in November. 

Iowa, S. Division, Keokuk, 3d Tuesday in March and September. 

Kentucky, . . . Frankfort, 3d Monday in May and October. 

Louisiana, E. Dist, JVeto Orleans, 3d Monday in February, May, and No- 
vember. 

Louisiana, W. Dist., Opelousas, 1st Monday in August; — Alexandria, Ist 

Monday in September; — Shreveport, 1st Monday 
in October; — Monroe, 1st Monday in November ; 

— St, Josephf 1st Monday in December. 

Maine, Wiseasset, Ist Tuesday in September ; — Portland, 

Ist Tuesday in February and December; — Ban- 

gor, 4th Tuesday in June. 
Maryland, . . . Baltimore, 1st Tuesday in March, June, September, 

and December. 
Massachusetts, . Boston, 3d Tuesday in March, 4th Tuesday in June, 

2d Tuesday in Sept., and 1st Tuesday in Dec. 
Michigan, . . . Detroit, 3d Monday m June and 2d Monday in Oct. 

Minnesota, . . . Preston, 1st Monday in June ; — St. Paul, Ist Mon- 
day in October. 

Mississippi, N. Dist., Pontotoc, 1st Monday in June and December. 
Mississippi, S. Dist., Jackson, 4th Monday in January and June. 

Missouri, E. Dist., St. Louis, 3d Monday in February, May, and No- 
vember. 
Missouri, W. Dist., Jefferson City, 1st Monday in March and September. 

New Hampshire, . Portsmouth, 3d Tuesday in March and September ; 

— Exeter, 3d Tuesday in June and December. 
New Jersey, . . Trenton, 3d Tuesday in January, April, June, and 

September. 
New York, N.Di8t.,.^2^nyf 3d Tuesday in January ; — Utica, 2d Tuesday 

in July ; — Rochester, 3d Tuesday in May ; — Jhi- 
bum, od Tuesday in August ; — Buffalo, 2d Tues- 
day in November; — one term annually in the 
county of St. Lawrence, Clinton, or Franklin, 
at such time and place as the Judge may direct. 

Wm. Davenport, at Tyler, Texas; and F. J. Parker, at Brownsville, Texas. — The 
Clerks of the Circuit Courts, where they are not also Clerks of the District Courts, are 
as follows : Portland, Me., Geo. F. Emery ; Boston, Mass., Henry W. Fuller ; New 
York, N. Dist., A. A. Boyce, Utica ; S. Dist., Kenneth G. White, New York ; Pennsrl- 
vania, E. Dist., Ben. Patton, Philadelphia ; W. Dist., Henry Sprowl, Pittsburg ; Virginia, 
W. Dist., Thos. L. Moore ; North Carolina, Henry R. Bryan, Raleigh ; Louisiana, 
E. Dist., J. W. Gurley, New Orleans; Indiana, Horace Bassett, Indianapolis; Michi- 
gan, John Winder, Detroit ; Missouri, B. F. Hickman, St. Louis. 



I860.] JUDICIARY. 117 

New York, S. Dist., New York, let Tuesday in each month. 

North Carolina, . Edenton, 3d Monday in April and October; — JS'et/?- 

bem, 4th Monday in April and October; — fVil' 
mingtonj Ist Monday after 4th Monday in April 
and October. 

Ohio, N. Dist., . . Cleveland, 2d Tuesday in July and November. 

Ohio, S. Dist., . . Cincinnati, 3d Tuesday in April and October. 

Oregon, .... Salem, 2d Monday in April and September. 

Pennsylvania, E. Dist., Philadelvhia, 3d Monday in February, May, Au- 
gust, ana November. 

Pennsyltania, W.Dist., Pittsburg, 1st Monday in May and 3d Monday in 

October ; — IVilliamsport, 3d Monday in June and 
1st Monday in October. 

Rhode Island, . . Jfetoport, 2d Tues. in May and 3d Tues. in October ; — 

Providence, 1st Tuesday in February and August. 

South Carolina, E. Dist, Charleston, 1st Monday in January, May, July, 

' and October. 
South Carolina, W.Dist., Greenville Court-House* Ist Monday in Aug. 

Tennessee, E. Dist., Knoxville, 3d Mond. in May and 4th Mond. in Nov. 

Tennessee, M. Dist., Nashville, 3d Monday in April and October. 

Tennessee, W. Dist., Jackson, Ist Monday in April and October. 

Texas, E. Dist., . Galveston, 1st Monday in May and December; — 

Brownsville, 1st Monday in March and October. 

Texas, W. Dist., . Austin, Ist Monday in January and June ; — Tyler, 

4th Monday in April and 1st Monday in November. 

Vermont, .... Rutland, 6th October ; — Windsor, Monday next 

after 4th Tuesday in July. 

Virginia, E. Dist., Richmond, 12th May and 12th November; — Nor- 
folk, 30th May and Ist November. 

Virginia, W. Dist., Staunton, Ist May and 1st October ; — IFyihe Court- 

House, 4th Monday in May and October ; — 
Charleston, 19th April and 19th September ; — 
Clarksburg, 24th March and 24th August ; — 
Wheeling, 6th April and 6th September. 

Wisconsin, . . . Milwaukee, 1st Monday in January ; — Madison, lai 

Monday in July. 

COURT OF CLAIMS.t 

Judges. Appointed. Salary. 

Isaac Blackford, of Indiana, Presiding Judge, 1855, $4,000 

Geo. P. Scarburgh, of Virginia, Judge, 1855, 4,000 

Edward G.Loring, of Massachusetts, " 1858, 4,000 

Ransom H. Giliett, of Dist. of Columbia, Solic.for U. States, 1858, 3,500 

Daniel Ratclifie, of Dist. of ColvimbiSL, Assist. Solicitor, 1856, 3,500 

J. D. McPherson, of Dist. of Columbia, Deputy Solicitor ^ 1856, 2,500 

S.H.Huntington, of Connecticut, Chief Clerk, 1855, 3,000 

Edgar M. Garnett, of Florida, Assistant Clerk, 1856, 2,000 



• TWa Court has Circuit Court Jurisdiction, except in appeals and writs of error, 
t This Court holds its sessions at Washington, D. C. 



118 



UNITED 8TATSS. 



[1860. 



VII. INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. 

By the Act of Congress of Aug. 18, 1856, "To regulate the Diplomatic 
and Consular Systems of the United States," (see Public Laws, No. 56, Ch. 
CXXVII., American Almanac for 1857, pp. 147-152,) the Ministers and 
other Diplomatic Agents of the United States in foreign countries are paid 
by salaries, and the outfit is abolished. 

1. Ministers and Diplomatic Agents of the United States 

IN Foreign Countries. 

[C!orrected at the Department of State, November 1, 1859.] 

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary 



George M. Dallas, Pa. 
Francis W. Pickens, S. C. 
Vacant. 

William Preston, Ky. 
Joseph A. Wright, Ind. 
Robert M. McLane, Md. 
Richard K. Meade, Va. 
John Bigler, Cal. 

John R. Clay, Pa. 

John £. Ward, Ga. 

James Williams, Tenn. 
Theodore S. Fay, Mass. 
Henry C. Murpny, N. Y. 
John M. Daniel, Va. 
James M. Buchanan, Md. 
J. Glancy Jones, Pa. 
Elisha Y. Fair, Ala. 

Joseph R. Chandler, Pa. 
Benj. F. Angel, N. Y. 
George W. Morgan, Ohio, 
John P. Stockton, N. J. 
John C. Smith, Conn. 

Chas. R. Buckalew, Pa. 
John F. Cushman, Ga. 
George W. Jones, Iowa. 
Edward A. Turpin, N. Y. 
Beverly L. Clarke, Ky. 
Alexander Dimitry, La. 
Townsend Harris, N. Y. 



Appointed. Salary. 



1856 


$17,500 


1858 


12,000 




17,500 


1858 


12,000 


1857 


12,000 


1859 


12,000 


1857 


12,000 


1857 


10,000 


1847 


10,000 


1858 


12,000 



Foreign State. 
Great Britain, 
Russia, 
France, 
Spain, 
Prussia, 
Mexico, 
Brazil, 
Chile, 
Peru, 
China, 



Ministers Resident, 
1858 $7,500 Turkey, 



1853 
1857 
1853 

1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1857 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1859 
1859 
1858 
1858 
1859 
1859 



7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
9,000 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 



Switzerland, 

Netherlands, 

Sardinia, 

Denmark, 

Austria, 

Belgium, 

Naples, 

Sweden & Nor. 

Portugal, 

Rome, 

Bolivia, 

Ecuador, 

Argentine Confl 

New Granada, 

Venezuela, 

Guatemala, 

Nicaragua, 

Japan, 



Capital. 
London. 
St. Petersburg. 
Paris. 
Madrid. 
Berli/i. 
Mexico. 
Rio Janeiro. 
Santiago. 
Lima. 
Canton. 

; Constantinople. 

Berne. 

Hague. 

Turin. 

Copenhagen. 

Vienna. 

Brussels. 

Naples. 

Stockholm* 

Lisbon. 

Rome. 

La Paz. 

Quito. 

Parang. 

Bogota. 

Caraccas. 

Guatemala. 

Nicaragua. 

Yedo. 



Commissioner, 
James W. Borden, Ind. j 1858 | $7,500 [Sandwich Isl. [Honolulu. 

Secretaries of Legation.* 

Salary. Salary. 

Philip N. Dallas, England, $2,625;G. W. Ryckman, Chile, $ 1,500 



John E. Bacon, Russia, 
W. Wallace Ward,t China, 
W. R. Calhoun, France, 
E. G. W. Butler, Jr., Prussia, 
Geo. W. Lippitt, * Austria, 



1,800 
3,000 
2,625 
1,800 
1,800 



John P. Brown, Sec*y of Legation 



Robert W. Woolley, Spain, 1,800 
G. L. Brent, Arg. Confed., 1,500 

Romaine Dillon, Brazil, 1,800 
Henry R. LaReintrie, Mexico, 1,800 
Z. B. Caverly, Peru, 1,500 

and Dragoman, Turkey, $ 3,000. 



''' Secretaries of Legation are authorized in each country where there is a Minister 
Plenipotentiary or Minister Resident. Appointments have been made only to the above- 
named places. Assistant Secretaries are authorized at London and Paris. ,The Assist- 
ant Secretary at London is Benjamin Moran, salaiy $ 1,500 : at Paris, J. B. Wilbor, Jr., 
salary $1,500. ▼ » * » » 

cJ ^v Wells Williams is Interpreter in China, salary $5,000: Frederic Jenkins at 
Shanghai, salary $1,500 ; T. Hart Hyatt, Jr, at Amoy, salary $1,000. An Interpreter 
18 authorized at Ningpo, salary $ 1,500. ^ ^ t k 



I860.] 



INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. 



119 



2. List of Consuls-General, Consuls, and Commercial Agents of the 
United States in Foreign Countries, and the Places of their 
Residence. 

[Corrected at the Department of State, Noyember 5, 1859.] 

^^ Those marked thus (*) are Commercial Agents. Consuls only at places marked 
thus (t) are at liberty to transact business. 



Africa. 
Algiers, 



*W. H. Browne, fMonrovia, 
Daniel H. Mansfield, -fZanzibar, 
* , jGaboon, 



Salary, 
fees. 

$1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



W. Walker,t Gaboon, 

W. D. Miller, fSt. Paulo de Loando, 1,000 
*Daniel R. B. Upton, jBathurst, fees. 

John Seys, Agent, fLiberia, 1,500 

Argentine Republic, or Buenos 

Ayres. 

Wm. H. Hudson, Buenos Ayres, £2,000 

Wm. H. Smiley, -fRio Negro, fees. 

♦Benjamin Upton, Rosario. fees. 

Austria. 

Edward C. Stiles, Vienna, 1,500 

Stephen S. Remak, Trieste, 2,000 

Ferdinand h. Sarmiento, fVenice, 750 

Baden. 

, t^arlsruhe, fees. 

Barbary States. 
Geo. V. Brown, Tangiers, Morocco, 3,000 
G. W. S. Nicholson, Tunis, Tunis, 3,000 
Marcus J. Gaines, Tripoli, Tripoli, 3,000 
*Jada Sol. Levy, fTetuan, Barbary, fees. 
, fLaracb^ & Arzila, Morocco, fees. 

Bayaria. 
Andrew Ten Brook, Munich, 1,000 

Chas. Obermayer, fAugsburg, fees. 

Philip Geisse, fNuremberg, fees. 



J. W. auiggle, 
Lewis Joel, 



fNuremberg, 
Belgium. 

Antwerp, S,500 
Bolivia. 

fCobiJa, 500 
Borneo. 

, t^nini, fees. 

Brazil. 

Robert G. Scott, Jr., Rio Janeiro, 6,000 

Walter W. Stapp, Pemambuco, S,000 

£ben P. Bailey, ^Funy 1,000 
Robt. S. Cathcart, fSt. Catherine's Isl. fees. 

George F. Upton, fRio Grande, 1,000 
J. B. Gillmer, fBahia de San Salv. 1,000 

Wm. H. McGrath, fMaranham Isl. 1,000 

W. T. Wright, Jr., fSantos, fees. 

Brunswick. 
, jBrunswick, fees. 



Chili. Salary. 

William Trevitt, Valparaiso, $3,000 

Albert G. Blakey, fTalcahuano, 1,000 

, fCoquimbo, fees. 
China. 

Oliver 11. Perry, Canton, 4,000 

Thomas H. Hyatt, ^ Amoy, 3,000 

Charles W. Bradley, Ningpo, 3,000 

S. L. Gouvemau, Jr., Fouchou, 3,500 

W. L. G. Smith, Shanghai, 4,000 

G. Nye,t tMacao,^ fees. 

James Keenan, fHong Kong,ir 3,500 

Costa Rica. 

Marquis L. Hine, fSan Jos^, fees. 

Denmark. 

J. P. M. Epping, Elsineur, 1,600 

, . t^openhagen, fees. 

L. A. Hecksher,|| Copenhagen, 

Diedrich Kohlsat, fAltona, fees. 

West Indies. 

Robert P. Waring, St. Thomas, 4,000 

Robert A. Finlay, ^SdJiU. Cruz, 750 

Ecuador. 

J. N. Casanova, fGuayaquil, 750 

Egypt, Pachalietff. 
Edw. DeLeon, Coiu-Oen., Alexandria, 3,500 

France. 
Henry W. Spencer, Paris, 

Havre, 



Gabriel G. Fleurot, Bordeaux, 
Thos. W. Rountree, La Rochelle, 
Joel W. White, Lyons, 
Alexander Derbes, Marseilles, 



fSedan, 



Hypolite Roques, fNantes, 
, fBayonne, 



5,000 
6,000 
2,000 
1,500 
1,500 
2,500 
fees, 
fees, 
fees. 

Charles Audouy, f^^^pol^oi^ Vendee, fees. 
West Indies. 

i tPointe-i-Pitre, 
Charles W. Kimball, j ^uadaloupe, f««»- 

Alex. Campbell, fMartinique, fees. 

jinericu, 

t tCayenne, Fr. , 
Samuel E. Fabens, J Quj^na '^* 

I tSt. Pierre, Mi- ^ 
•George Hughes, j q^gj^^^ fees. 

.^(frica. 
f Algiers, fees. 



t Vice Com. Agent. § Portuguese Colony. IT English Colony. || Vice-Consal. 



120 



UNITBD STATES. 



[1860. 



Frankfort on the Main. See 

Hanseatic or Free Cities. 

Great Britain. 
England. 

Robt. B. Campbell, London, 
Beverly Tucker, Liverpool, 
Duncan Macauley, Manchester, 
William Thomson, Southampton, 
Albert Davy, Leeds, 
Samuel Ward, jBristol, 
, fFalmouth, 



Salary. 

$7,500 
7,500 
8,000 
3,000 
S,000 
fees, 
fees, 
fees, 
fees. 



Thos. W. Fox, Jr., tPlymouth, 
, fNejycastle, 

Scotland, 

Joseph B. Holderby, Dundee, 3,000 

George Vail, Glasgow, 3,000 

James McDowell, fLeith, fees. 

Ireland. 
Theodore Frean, Belfast, 3,000 

Robert Dowling, Cork, 3,000 

Samuel W. Talbot, fDublin, fees. 

Alex. Henderson, fLondonderry, fees. 
Thomas M. Persse, fGalway, fees. 

In and near Europe and Jifrwi, 
Geo.H.Fairfield, Fort Louis, Mauritius, 3,500 
Horatio J. Sprague, f^'ibraltar, fees. 

Wm- Winthrop, f^^land of Malta, fees. 
Gid. S. Holmes, fCape-Town, C.G.H., 1,000 
Geo. W. Kimball, flsl. of St. Helena, fees. 

JWeA Jlmeriea, 
Wyman B. S. Moor, Con,- ) 

Gen. Br. jr. A. Prov,, {Montreal, 4,000 

C. Dorwin, Dep. Con.'Oen,^ Montreal, 
Albert Pillsbury, Halifax, N. S., 
Albert G. Catlin, P. E. Island, 
, fSt. John, N. B., 



3,000 
1,000 
fees, 
fees. 

fees. 



Benj. H. Norton, Pictou, N. S., 
Wm. S. H. Newman, fSt. John, N. F., 

, fGaspd Basin, C.E., fees. 

We9t Indies, 



Isaac J. Merritt, 
James B. Hayne, 
Isaac Wendon, 
F. B. Wells, 
«E. S. Delisle, 



Nassau, N. P., 3,000 

Turk's Island, 3,000 

Kingston, Jam., 3,000 

fBermuda, fees. 
fSt. Christopher's, fees. 

*R. S. Higinbotham, fAntigua, fees. 

Noble Towner, fBarbadoes, fees. 

R. S. Newbold, flsL of Trinidad, fees. 
South Ameriea. 

A. V. Colvin, Demerara, B. G., 3,000 

*Wm. H. Smiley, fFal^Iand Isles, 1,000 
Australia, 

James F. Magnire, Melbourne, 4,000 

Robert D. Merrill, fSydney, N.S.W. fees. 



Tasmania^ or Van DtemejCs Land, Salary. 

, fHobart Town, fees. 

JVev ZMdand, 

, . tBay of Islands, $ 1,000 

East Indies, 
Chas. Huffnagle, Con.- { Calcutta, 6,000 

Oen, ofBritigk India, > 
A. H. Rhodes, Jr., Vice Con,-Oen. Calcutta, 

3,500 
fees, 
fees. 

3,500 
1,000 
fees, 
fees. 



John P. O'Sullivan, Singapore, 

Luther H. Hatfield, fBombay, 

*John Black, flsl. of Ceylon, 

Chineu 
James Keenan, Hong Kong, 

Greece. 

John D. Diomatari, fAthens, 

Guatemala. 

James S. Peacock, -fGuatemala, 

Hanover. 

, fHanover, 

Hanseatic or Free Cities. 

Saml. Ricker, Con,- Oen., Frankfort, 3,000 

John B. Miller, Hamburg, 3,000 

Isaac R. Diller, Bremen, 3,000 

Hawaian Islands. See Pacific 
Islands, Independent 

Hayti and St. Domingo. 

* Joseph N. Lewis, Port au Prince, 3,000 

« Jonathan Elliot, St. Domingo, 1,500 

^Richmond Loring, fAux Cayes, . 500 

*G, Eustis Hubbard, fCape Haytien, 1,000 

Hesse-Darmstadt4 

Samuel Ricker, f^rankfort, feee. 

Honduras. 

A. Follin, fOmoa & Truxillo, 1,000 

( f Comayagua & 

» ( Tegucigalpa, "*®'- 



'''Gilbert S. Miner, Amapula, 
Ionian Republic. 
Amos S. York, jZante, 

Japan. 
, Con,-Oen,f Simoda, 



fees. 

5,000 
fees. 



*£lisha E. Rice, fHakodadi, 

Liberia. See Africa. 

Mecklenburg Schwerin and 
strelitz. 

, fSchwerin, fees. 

Mexican Republic. 



Isaac S. McMicken, Acapulco, 
R. B. J. Twyman, Vera Cruz, 
John Black, fMexico, 

Richard Fitzpatrick. fMatamoras, 

Franklin Chase, t'^<^°ipi<^0) 

fChihuahua, 



Edward Conner, jMazatlan, 
A. C. Allen, tMinatitlan, 



3,000 
3,500 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
fees, 
fees, 
fees. 



t Including Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, and Hesse-Homburg. 



I860.] 



IKTESCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. 



121 



Joseph Walsh, 
E. P. Johnson, 
Rafael Freciat, 



Salary, 
fees, 
fees. 
$500 
fees. 



fSan Bias, 

fMonterey, 

fTabasco, 

fCaonpechd, 

, fAguas Calientes, fees. 

Robert Rose, fGuayamas, fees. 

Day.R. Diffenderffer, fPaso del Norte, fees. 

Charles R. Webster, fTehuantepec, fees. 

R. J. y Patrullo, fMerida & Sisal, fees. 

» fLaguna, fees 

Wm. Foster, tManzanillo, fees. 

^Thomas Spragae, fLa Paz, fees. 

Moldavia. 
H. T. Romertze, fGalatza, fees. 

Muscat, Dominion of the Sultan qf. 

Daniel H. Mansfield, flal. of Zanzibar, 1,000 

» fMuscat, fees. 

The Netherlands, or Holland. 

1,000 

2,000 



Leonard 6. Sanford, fTumbez, 

Portugal. 

John F. Porteous, Oporto, 

, fLisbon, 

Islands, 
John H. March, Funchal, Madeira, 1,500 



Salary. 
$500 

1,500 
fees. 



Chas. W. Dabney, t^ayal, Azores, 
, fMacao, 



R. G. Barnwell, Amsterdam, 

Wm. S. Campbell, Rotterdam, 

Colonies, 
Henry Sawyer, tPi^ramaribo, 

*Moees Jesuran, 

Henry Anthon, Jr., 



fees. 
fCura^oa, fees. 

fBatavia, Java, 1,000 
Midang, fees, 

tisl. St. Martin's, fees. 



Nicolas Danies, 
♦E. M. Uribe, 



^Charles Rey, 

New Granada. 
Charles J. Fox, Aspinwall, 2,500 

Amos B. Corwine, Panamdl, 3,500 

Henry L. Jessup, f^ogotd, fees. 

Albert Mathieu, fCarthagena, 500 

John Capela, Jr., fTurbo, fees. 

, fSanta Martha, fees. 

, fSabanilla, 500 

fRio Hacha, fees. 

tMedellin, fees. 
Nicaragua. 

..^^ « « ,. { San Juan del Norte 

Thomu S. Bell, \ ^ p„„^ ^„„„ 2,000 

John Priest, San Juan del Sur, 2,000 

Oldenburg. 
, tOi<leiiburg, fees. 

Pacific Islands, Independent. 

Abner Pratt, Honolulu, S. Isl., 4,000 

Anson G. Chandler, Lahaina, <* 3,000 

Thomas Miller, fHilo, " fees. 

*J. B. WiUiams, tLanthala,Fej. Is]., 1,000 

...T ^ •».. . ^ ( fApia, Navigators'* 

•J. C. Dmctaon, j ^ j.^.^^ * j,^_ 1,000 



Clarimundo Martins, fBissao, 
, tMozambique, 



750 

fees. 

fees. 

fees. 

( tSt. Jago, Cape 
W. H. Morw, j ^ y%^^ 750 

( tSt. Paulo de Loando, 
•J- G. WiUfa, I ^ ^. Africa, '.«» 

Prussia. 
Abel French, Aix-la-Chapelle, 2,500 

Rudolph F. Schillow, fStettin, 1,000 

Rome, or Pontifical States. 
Horatio de V. Glentworth, fRome, fees. 

, fAncona, fees. 

, , t^avenna, fees. 

, fCarrara, Modena, fees. 

Russia. 



Francis S. Claxton, Moscow, 
John Ralli, Odessa, 
Charles A. Leas, Revel, 
Caleb Croswell, St. Petersburg, 
, tHiga, 



2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
fees, 
fees, 
fees. 



Vieesimus Turner, fTahiti, Soc. Is!., 1,000 

Paraguay. 
Louis Bamberger, fAsuncion, 

Peru 
William Miles, Callao, 

John T. Lansing, fArica, 

Fayette M.Ringgold, jPaita, 

11 



fees. 

3,500 
fees. 



Edmund Brandt, fArchangel, 
Reynold Frenckell, tHolsi^S^'Q'^* 
H. T. Romertze, jGalatza, Moldavia, fees. 
*Perry McD. Collins, jAmoor River, 1,000 

Sandwich Islands. See Pacific 
ISLA^NDS, IndependenL 

San Salvador. 

Joseph W. Livingston, fLa Union, fees. 

Sardinia. 

W. L. Patterson, Genoa, 

, tNice, 



1,500 
fees. 

Robert H. Leese, t^pezzia, 1,000 

Saxe-Meiningen Hildburghausen. 

fees. 



Louis Lindner, 

P. A. Stockton, 
J. J. Springer, 

H. R. Pollard, 

T. T. Tunstall, 
J. Somers Smith, 
Wm. L. Giro, 



John Morand, 
Ernest Volger, 
500 Manuel Bareena, 



fSonneberg, 

Saxony. 

Leipsic, 1,500 

IDresden, fees. 

SlAM. 

fBangkok, fees. 

Spain. 

Cadiz, 1,500 

Malaga, 1,500 

fAlicante, fees. 

fBilboa, fees. 

fDenia, fees. 

fBarcelona, fees. 

fVfgo, A»es. 



122 



TTKITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Peter Mofand, 



tValeDcia, 



Salaiy. 
fees. 



Spiridion Ladico, } igj. Min., '^~- 

liouii Gallo, fSantander, fees 

John Cunniiigliain, fSeville, fees. 

Cuba, 
Chaa. J. Helm, Con.-Oeii., Havana, $6,000 

T. Savage, Dep, Cim.-Om., Havana, 
Hugh Martin, Jr., Matanzas, S,500 

John A. Kooken, Trinidad de Cuba, 3,500 
Stephen Cochran, Santiago de Cuba, S&,500 

Puerto Bico, 
James C. Gallaher, Ponce, 1,500 

Charles De Bonceray, St. John's, 3,000 

Other SpoMish Islands, 
Felipe Bodmann, f'^enerifTe, Canary, fees. 
Chas. Griswold, fBfanilla, Philipp., fees. 

Sumatra. 
— — , fPadang, fees. 

Sweden and Norwat. 
A.W.Fre8Udius,Jr., fStockholm, fees. 

F. Cyrus, t^^®>ib^S> '<bM' 

—I fBergm, Nor., fees. 

, fPorsgrund, Nor., fees. 

Switzerland. 
John Endlich, Basel, or B&le, 3,000 



6a]^ay. 

$1,500 
fees. 



Wm. F. Giles, Jr., Geneva, 

Geo. H. Goundie, fZurich, 

Turkey. 
, Con,-Cfen.t Constantinople, 3,000 

3,000 

1,500 

3,000 

1,000 

1,000 

fees. 



Jerem. A. Johnson, Beyrout, 
John W. Gorham, Jerusalem, 
E. S. Offley, Smyrna, 

W. L. Ellsworth, fCypnis, 
Augustus Canfield, f^andia, 
Edward P. Peters, fTrebizond, 

Tuscany. 
J. A. Binda, Leghorn, 

*E. J. Mallett, t^orence, 

TWO Sicilies. 
Alex. Hammett, Naples, 
Henry H. Barstow, Palermo, 
C. H. Morgan, Messina, 

Uruguay, or Cisplatine 
Richard H. Gayle, t^<^^ Video, 

Venezuela. 
Andrew J. Smith, Laguayra, 
WiUiam Bliss, fPu^rto CabeUo, 

R. H. Swift, t^araoaibo, 

Henry Tay, 4Ciudad Bolivar, 

WURTEMBERGt. 

Tapley W. Toung, fStuttgard, 



1,500 
fees. 

1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
Republic. 
1,000 

1,500 
fises. 
fees, 
fees. 

1,000 



3. Foreign Ministers and their Secretaries, 

Accredited to the Government of the United States. 

Foreign State. Envoy Ex. and Min. Plen. Secretaries, 9cc. 

Belgium, M. Blondeel Van Cue- M. Alfred Bergbmaos, See. Leg, 
lebrouk. M. Valere de Braband^re, Attcuhf. 

Brazil, The Commander M. M. Montezuma, Sec. of Le^^otton. 

M. Lisboa. 

Costa Rica, Senor Luis Molina. 

France, M. le Comte de Sartiges. M. le Vte. Treilhard, Ch. d^^ffairet, 

Chas. de Hell, Sec. Leg, 
M. Paul Hocmelle, Attachi. 
M. de Vaugrigneuse, ChanceUer. 

Gt. Britain, Lord Lyons. Hon. W. Douglas Irvine, Sec, Leg, 

Hod. Ed. Monson, Priv. Sec. 
M. Manley, Clerk. 
Guatemala, Senor Don J. A. de Yrisarri, Jlftit. Plen. 
Mexico, Sen. J. M. Mata. 

New Granada, Senor Gen. P. A. Her- Don Rafael Pombo, Sec. Leg. 

ran. 
Sefior Louis Molina, 

Chargi ad. in. Don Jeronimo Perez, Sec, Leg. 

Baron rr. Von Gerolt. Baron Guido de Grabow, Sec. Leg. 

Alexander Gau, Sec. de Ckancell, 
The Commander J. C. de Figaniere 6 Morad. 
Edward de Stoeckl, Baron d'Osten Sacken, 1st Sec Leg, 

M. Waldemar de Bodisco, 2d See. 



Nicaragua, 

Prussia, 

Portugal, 
Russia, 



I860.] 



IKTERCOURSB WITH FOBSIGX NATIONS. 



123 



Foreign State. Envoy Ex. and Min. Plen. ^ Secretaries, Sec. 

San Salvador, Senor Don J. A. de Yrisarri, Min. Plen. 
Spain, Senor Don Gabriel Gar- Don Carlos Villalbai Ist See* Leg. 

cia y Tassara. Don F. Moreno, AttaclU. 

Don F. Barreyro, Priv, Sec. 
Ministers Resident. 
Aastria, Cbev. J. G. Hiilsemann. 

Bremen, J. M. R. Schleiden. 

Netherlands, Tbeodore Marinus Roest van Limburg. 
Peru, Senor Don Cipriano C. Zegarra. 

Sweden, Baron Wetterstedt. 

Charges d'Affiiires. 
Denmark, W. de Raasloff. 

Sandwich Islands, Schuyler Livingston. 

Sardinia, Chevalier Bertinatti. * 

Two Sicilies, Chev. P. Massone. 



4. Foreign Consuls and Vice-Consuls in the United States.| 

Those marked thus ('*') are ConstUa- General; thus (f) Vice-Conaule; the rest are Cotuule. 



AnkaU'DessaUy Ducky of. 
New York, Herman Gelpcke. 

Argentine Republic. 
Baltimore, Carlos M. Stewart. 
Boston, S. C. Bello, act, 

Charleston, Motte A. Pringle. 
New York, S. Livingston. 
Philadelphia, N. Frazier. 

Austria. 
New York, *Cha8. F. Loosey. 
Apalachicola, tJ. M. Wright. 
Baltimore, fJ. D. Kremelberg. 

tF. A. Hirsch. 

tB. S. Wilkins, act. 

fJulius Eauffman. 

tJ. £. Dumont. 
New Orleans, Jacob H. Eimer. 
N. York, Henry Kohen, Chancellor. 
Norfolk, IE. T. Hardy. 

Philadelphia, fS. Morris Wain. 
Richmond, fE. W. de Voss. 
San Francisco, C. Fischer, Cons.Agt. 
Savannah, tAndrew Low. 
St. Louis, tE. C. Angelrodt. 

Baden. 
New York, *J. W. Schmidt. 



Boston, 
Charleston, 
Galveston, 
Mobile, 



Baltimore, W. Dresel. 
Cincinnati, C. F. Adae. 
Louisville, John Smidt., 
Milwaukee, Emil. Spangenberg. 
New Orleans, Jacob H. Eimer. 
New York, t Leopold Schmidt. 
Philadelphia, C. F. Hagedom. 
St. Louis, £. C. Angelrodt. 

Bavaria. 

*C. Fred. Hagedom. 

W. Dresel. 

Chas. F. Adae. 

John Smidt. 

L. von Baumbach. 
New Orleans, J. H. Eimer. 
New York, G. Heinrich Siemon. 
St. Louis, Mo., E. C. Angelrodt. 

Belgium. 

New York, *Henry W. T. Mali. 
Apalachicola, fWilliam G. Porter. 
Baltimore, G. O. Gorter. 
Boston, Ives G. Bates. 

Charleston, C. E. Stewart. 
Chicago, J. F. Henrotin. 

Cincinnati, J. F. Meline. 
Green Bay, J. B. A. Mass^. 



Philadelphia, 

Baltimore, 

Cincinnati, 

Louisville, 

Milwaukee, 



t Tills list is corrected from the record of their exequaturs in the Department of State, 
WastaingtoD, November, 1859, and by correspondence. 



124 



UKITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Key West, Oliver O'Hara. 
Mobile, Hy. V. H. Voorhees. 

New Orleans, Joseph Degnoott. 
New Orleans, fA. P. Noblom. 
Norfolk, Duncan Robertson. 

Philadelphia, M. F. Mange. 
Philadelphia, tG. £. Matile. 
Richmond, £. O. Nolting. 
San Francisco, Jales May. 



Savannah, 
St. Louis, 

New York, 
Baltimore, 



tAdolphT.Kieck 
hoefer. 



Wm. C. O'Driscoll. 
Charles Hunt. 
Brazil. 

*L. H. F. de Aguiar. 
tC. Oliver G'Donnell. 

^NT'&'nSneJ'Archib.ldFoster. 

Charleston, tEogenio Esdra. 

New Orleans, Andres F. Walls. 

New York, f L. F. de Figaniere. 

Norfolk, f Myer Myers. 

Pensacola, t W. Henry Judah. 

Philadelphia, t£dw. S. Sayres. 

Richmond, tHeman R. Baldwin. 

Washington, 
Geors., & Al- 
exandria, Va., 

Bremen. 

*Alb. Schumacher. 

F. A. Hirsch. 

J. L. H. Thiermann. 

Julius Kauffman. 
Indianola, Tex. H. A. H. Runge, 
New Orleans, Fred. Rodewald. 
New York, F. W. Keutgen. 
Norfolk, Myer Myers, Cons. Agt. 
Philadelphia, John T. Plate. 
Richmond, £. W. de Voss. 
San Francisco, C. A. C. Duisenberg. 
Savannah, Heinrich Miiller. 
St. Louis, J. Wolff. 

Brunswick and Luneburg. 
Cincinnati, R. K. Topp. 
Chicago, F. A. Hoffman. 

Cleveland, A. Rettberg. 
Louisville, H. Beckurts. 



Baltimore, 
Boston, 
Charleston, 
Galveston, 



Milwaukee, Jacob Mahler. 

Mobile, J. Sampson. 

New Orleans, F. W. Freodenthal. 

New York, "G. J. Bechtel. 

Philadelphia, C. F. Hagedorn. 

St. Louis, E. C. Angelrodt. 

St. Paul, James Wenz. 

Buenos Ayrts. 

Baltimore, C. M. Stewart. 

Boston, . 

New York, C. F. Zimmerman. 

Philadelphia, tN. Frazier. 

CkUe. 

Baltimore, R. B. Fitzgerald. 

Boston, H. V. Ward. 

New York, E. F. Fallon. 

Philadelphia, F. V. Cleeman, 

San Francisco, F. S. Alvarez. 

Washington, Jas. H. Cansten. 

Costa Rica, 

New York, 'Royal Phelps. 

Boston, Patrick Grant. 

New Orleans, . 

Philadelphia, S. Morris Wain. 

San Francisco, Samuel H. Greene. 

Denmark. 

Alexandria, t James Dempsey. 

Baltimore, tHen. G. Jacobsen. 

Boston, Ma8s.,Me., > p p h„^^^, 
N. H., & R.I., 5 *" ^- Hammer. 

Charleston, tWm. H. Ladson. 

Chicago, tG. V. Hanson. 

Cincinnati, t J. F. Meline. 

Mobile, R. B. Searing. 

New Orleans, Henry Frellsen. 

N.Y., Conn., and part ) u t\ h 
ofN. J., N.York, JH.DolIner. 

Philadelphia, t Godfrey Weber. 

San Francisco, G. 0*Hara Taafe. 

St. Louis, f J. E. Schuetze. 

St. Paul," fC. W.Borup. 

Wash'ton, D.C., G. P. Todson. 

Wilmington, N. C, tP. K. Dickinson. 

Ecuador. 

Washington, *Aaron H. Palmer.t 



t Charged with the affairs of the Legation at Washington. 



I860.] 



INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. 



125 



Baltimore, James J. Fisher. 
Boston, Setb Bryant. 

New Orleans, J. Gardette. 
New York, Gregorio Dominguez. 
Philadelphia, Edward J. Fisher. 
San Francisco, Daniel Wolff. 
Washington, James H. Causten. 

France. 
N. Y., *C.F.F.MarqaisdeMontholon. 
Baltimore, fM. Arbeltier. 
Boston, J. £. Souchard. 

Charleston, M.St. Croix deBelligny. 
Charleston, tM. Fauconnet. 
Cincinnati, fJ. F. Melina 

Galveston, . 

Key West, W, Pinkney, Cons. Agt. 
Louisville, J. J. Perrin, Cons.Agt 
Mobile, A. de la Forest. 

Monterey ,Cal, J. Lombard, C(ms.jSgt. 
New Orleans, tH. Germain. 
New Orleans, M. le Comte de Mejon 
New York, tLouis Borg. 
Newport^ tFaavel Gouraud. 

Norfolk, tPascal Schisano. 

Philadelphia, F. C. A. L. de la Forest. 
Portland, E. T.leTrohon, Cons. Jlgt. 
Richmond, Alfred Paul. 
San Francisco, Albert F. Gautier. 
San Francisco, t£. Guys. 
Savannah, . 

St. Louis, F. J. Kunemann. 

Frankfort on the Maine. 
Chicago, F. A. Hoffman. 

Cincinnati, C. F. Adae. 
Milwaukee, A. C. Willmans. 
New York, Fred. Weissmann. 
Philadelphia, J. H. Harjes. 
St. Louis, F. A. Reuss. 

^ Great Britain. 

Alexandria, tJames P. Smith. 
Baltimore, Hy. W. Ovenden. 
Boston, Mass., Francis Lousada. 
Buffalo, Denis Donahoe. 

Charleston, fBenjamin Walker. 
Charleston, N. ) „ , . „ , 
C.ands!c.,5^*»^®''*^"°^*'- 

11* 



Chicago, 111, John E. Wilkins. 

Cincinnati, ■ 

Darien, Wm. CookeyCons.^gt. 

Eastport, tG. D. Sherwood. 

Galveston, Arthur T. Lynn. 

Mobile, Flor. > r«k i m i* 
and Ala., J Charles Tulin. 

Nantucket, W. Barney, Cons. Agt. 

N. Haven (N.Y.), fFred. A. Bartlett. 

New Qr leans, William Mure. 

New York, Edward M.Archibald. 

New York, tPierrepont Edwards. 

Ogdensburg (N.Y.), fChas.W. Bartlett. 

Oswego (N.Y.), tC H. H. Castle. 

Pensacola, fH. T. Ingraham. 

Philadelphia, C. E. K. Kortright 

Portland, Me. ) t n • 

andN.H.. ] James Gngnon. 

Portland, fGeorge H. Sfarr. 

Richmond, Va., George Moore. 
San Francisco, Wm. Lane Booker. 
Savannah, Ga., Edmund Molyneux. 
Wilmington, tG. W. Davis. 

Greece. 
Boston, Henry G. Andrews. 

New Orleans, Nicholas Benachi. 
New York, 9. Botassis. 

Guatemala. 
New York, *BartoIomeo Blanco. 
Boston, Patrick Grant. 

Key West, E. J. Gomez. 
New Orleans, Joseph Mitchell. 
Philadelphia, S. Morris Wain. 
San Francisco, Samuel H. Greene. 

Hamburg. 
Baltimore, *AIb. Schumacher. 
Baltimore, F. Rodewald. 
Boston, F. A. Hirsch. 

Charleston, Lewis Trapman. 
Cincinnati, J. F. Meline. 
Galveston, J. W. Jockusch. 
Indianola, Tex, Henry Runge. 
Mobile, H. A. Schroeder. 

New Orleans, Charles Kock. 
New York, G. E. Kunhardt. 
Philadelphia, Charles Lorenz. 



126 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Richmond, Henry Ladlaw. 
San Francisco, N. T. Stockfleth. 
Savannah, J. N. Hudtwalker. 

New York, *Adolpb Grosling. 

Baltimore, Edward Uhrlaub. 

Boston, Francis A. Hirsch. 

Charleston, G. C. Baurmeister. 

Cincinnati, Carl F. Adae. 

Cleveland, Ad. Rettberg. 

Galveston, Julius Frederich. 

Louisville, Theodore Schwartz. 

Milwaukee, 111., ^ 
Ind., Mich., > A. C. Willmans. 
Min.,&Wisc., ) 

New Orleans, Aug. Reichard. 

New York, L. H. Meyer. 

Philadelphia, C. C. Schottler. 

San Francisco, Otto H. Frank. 

Savannah, K. H. Muller. 

St. Louis, Adolphus Meier. 

Hawaiian Islands, 
New York, *Sch. Livingston. 

^Bfi&S;!,! tGranvilleaOldfield. 

Boston, H. A. Pierce, 

Olympia, Or., W. •. Dunlap. 
Oregon City, G. F. Allen. 
San Francisco, fChas. E. Hitchcock. 
Electorate of Hesse-Cassel and Grand 
Ducky of Fvlda, 

wll^et' lra.es. }*E.C.Aagelrod.. 

Cincinnati^ C. F. Adae. 

Galveston, Th. Wagner. 

New Orleans, R. Thiele. 

New York, Fred. Kiihne. 

St. Louis, E. C. Angelrodt. 

Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 

Baltimore, W. Dresel. 

Cincinnati, C. F. Adae. 

Galveston. tJ* W. Jockusch, 

Louisville, John Smidt. 



Baltimore, 

Boston, 

Charleston, 

Cincinnati, 

Galveston, 

New York, 

New York, 



New Orleans, A. Reichard. 
New York, F. W. Keutgen. 
San Francisco, G. Ziel. 
Hoi^uras, 

Uppe^ Principality of. 
New York, Frederick Kiihne.* 

Lubec, 

Hermann von Kapff. 

H. C. Lauterbach. 

J.L. H. Thiermann. 

J. F. Meline. 

Died. H. Klaener. 

Fred. A. Schumacher. 

Geo. £. Kunhardt, Aa. 

New Orleans, Friedrich Kirchhoff. 

Philadelphia, F. H. Harjes. 

San Francisco, H. Ernst. 

Meckle:nburg'Sch'werin. 

Charleston, *Leon Herckenrath. 

Boston, F. A. Hirsch, 

Cincinnati, J. F. Meline. 

Galveston, H. Schultz. 

Milwaukee, Ind., ^ 
111., Mich., la., > L. von Baumbacb. 
Wis., Min., 3 

New Orleans, Wilhelm Prehn. 

New York, H. Gelpcke. 

Philadelphia, ^ 
for Pennsyl., > F. H. Haiies. 
N.Y.,&Del.i 

San Francisco, J. de Fremery . 

St. Louis, £. C. Angelrodt. 

Meeklenburg'Strelitz. 

New York, Frederick Kiihne. 

Mexico. 

New Orleans, 'X^Francisco Ribaud. 

Baltimore, tJ. A. Pizarro. 

Boston, fS. Cancio Bello. 

Brownsville, Tex., C. M. Trevino. 

Charleston, 'fF. Montanez. 

Franklin, N. Mez., fR. Ramires. 

Galveston, Tez.,t H. de Saint Cyr. 

Mobile, tCharles L. Le Baron. 

New Orleans, O. L. Dabelsteen. 

New Mexico, t Guadalupe Miranda. 



I860.] 



INTESCOnRSX WITH FOKBIGN NATIONS. 



127 



New York, J. M. Duran. 
Philadelphia, tFelix Merino. 
Pittsburg, t Juan Herbert. 

San Francisco, J. Mugarieta. 
Santa F6, M. Armendair. 
St. Louis, tP* J* Marallano. 

Montevideo, 

Baltimore, Frederic B. Graf. 
New Orleans^ Bartholomew Watts. 



New York, 
Cincinnati, 
Galveston, 
Milwaukee, 



Jfassau. 

•Wilh. A. Kobbe. 

C. F. Adae. 

F. H. Steil. 

Wilh. Finkler. 
New Orleans, Fred. W.Freudenthal. 
New Braunfels, Tex., F. Moureau. 
San Francisco, A. von Witzleben. 
St. Louis, £. C. Angelrodt. 

JieiherlandSf or Holland, 
New York, *R. C. Burlage. 

B^^J°^;*^J^^-JciaasVoc 
Charleston, fCarl Epping. 

Gal veston,Tex., Edward Kauffman. 
Key West, tOliver O'Hara. 

**&F?;rii} J-J-VanW«.roy. 

New York, f J. Z.Zim merman, CAanc. 

Norfolk, Myer Myers. 

Philadelphia, Pa., G. K. Ziegler. 

Philadelphia, fD. L. Kurtz. 

Portage City, f 
Wiscjfor Mich., > J. P. V. Dorselen 
Wi8C.,&Minn., ) 

%SVw.; }•'•«• Toe Water. 

San Francisco, P. H. Gildemeester. 
Savannah, tCarl Epping. 



JV*eto Granada. 

New York, *I. M. Gaitan. 
Baltimore, Robert A. Fisher. 
New Orleans, J. E. Beylle. 
New York, tAnibal de Mosquera. 
New York, Greg. Dominguez. 
San Francisco, 0. H. Burrows. 

Jficaragua, 

Baltimore, Oliver O'Donnell. 
New Orleans, E. G. Gomez. 



New York, 



•Armory Edwards. 

Oldenburg, 

•J. W. Schmidt. 
Henry Oelrichs. 
Charles T. Lowndes. 
Carl F. Adae. 
Julius Frederich. 
Theo. Schwartz. 



New York, 

Baltimore, 

Charleston, 

Cincinnati, 

Galveston, 

Louisville, 

Milwaukee, f 
Wise, Mich., > E. Spangenberg. 
la., & Min., ) 

New Orleans, R. Thiele. 

New York, fG. Jansscn. 

Philadelphia, C. F. Hagedorn. 

San Francisco, fj^r Cal., H.Hansmann. 

San Francisco, H. F. von Lengerke. 

Savannah, Heinrich Muller. 

St. Louis, E. C. Angelrodt. 

Paraguay. 

R. Mullowny. 

Parma, 
San Francisco, J. M. Satrustegui. 

Peru. 
Baltimore, R. B. Fitzgerald. 
Boston, Santiago C. Bello. 

Charleston, A. A. Cay. 
New Orleans, M. M. de Castillo. 
New York, Felipe N. Casado. 
Philadelphia, A. S. Christian. 
San Francisco, N. Fejerina. 
Wash'n, D.C., C. C. Zegarra, M. R. 

Portugal. 
New York, *Tho8. R. dos Santos. 



New York, 



128 



UNXTSD STATES. 



[1860. 



Baltimore, Md., f C. Oliver 0*Donnell. 

%;!:'i'^;:}tA~hib.ldFo.ter. 

Charleston, fEugenio Esdra. 

Mobile, tCharles L. Baron. 

New Orleans, tAntonio J. de Silva. 

New York, tL. E. Amsinck. 

Norfolk,^ fRob. W. dos Santos. 

Pensacola, Jule Pescay. 

Philadelphia, ^ 
Pa., Del., & StEd W.Smith Sayres. 
N. Jersey, j 

San Francisco, Jona. Searle. 

Savannah, fJos^ J. Martin. 

St. Augustine, W. H. Allen. 

Wilmington, J. A. Sintas. 

Prussia. 



New York, 

Baltimore, 

Boston, 

Charleston, 

Cincinnati, 

Galveston, 

Louisville, 

Milwaukee, 



•J. W. Schmidt. 

L. Brauns. 

F. A. Hirsch. 

Wm. H. Trappman. 

C. Fr. Adae. 

J. W. Jockusch. 

J. Von Borries. 

£. Spangenberg. 
New Orleans, A. Reichard. 
New Bedford, t George Hussey. 
New York, E. von der Heydt. 
Philadelphia, T. Schottler. 
San Francisco, H. Hansmann. 
Savannah, F. N. Hudtwalcker. 
St. Louis, £. C. Angelrodt. 

RetisSf Prince ofj Senior and Junior 
Line, 

New York, *Hy. Schondorif. 
Rome^ or Pontifical States. 
Baltimore, fB. T. Elder. 
Boston, tNicholas Reggie. 

Charleston, tE. Mottet. 
Cincinnati, — . 
New Orleans, C. J. Daron. 
New York, "Louis B. Binsse. 



Philadelphia, 

New York, 

Baltimore, 

Boston, 

Charleston, 

Galveston, 

Mobile, 

New Orleans, 

Philadelphia, 

San Francisco, 

Savannah, 



Russia. 

*J. de Nottbeck. 
t Augustus Kohler. 
tRobert B. Storer. 
Thomas H. Deas. 
tF. Wolff, 
t Joseph £. Murrell. 
E. Johns. 



fPeter Kostromitinoff. 
t John R. Wilder. 



Salvador. 

New York, "R. Phelps. 
San Francisco, R. W. Heath. 

Sardinia. 

New York, *G. Bertinatti. 

Baltimore, tC. A. Williamson. 

Boston,Ma8.,Me. 7 i-kt* u i -d 
N.H., &R.L, 5 ^Nicholas Reggie. 

Charleston, fE. L. Trenholm. 

Cincinnati, tJ. F. Meline. 

Mobile, tL. O. Townsley. 

New Orleans, Joseph Lanata. 

New Orleans, tWm. Pinckney. 

New York, G. Yalerio. 

Norfolk, fD. Robinson. 

Philad., Penn., > .«... • a _. • 
N.J.,indDel., 5*VmonoSarton. 

San Francisco, B. Davidson. 

San Francisco, tF. Biesta. 

St. Louis, tL.A.J. Baptiste Paris. 

SaTce-Menburg. 

New York, C. E. L. Hinrichs. 
New York, Frederick Kiihne. 
St. Louis, E. C. Angelrodt. 

Sasce-Cohurg and Gotha. 

New York, *C. E. L. Hinrichs. 

Chicago, Francis A. Hoffman. 

Cincinnati, A. Eggers. 

New York, Frederick Kuhne. 

Philadelphia, C. F. Hagedom. 



t And for all other ports in Virginia ezeept Alexandria. 



I860.] 



INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS. 



129 



St. Louis, £. C. Angelrodt. 

Saxe-Weimar, 
Chicago, Francis A. Hoffman. 

Cincinnati, F. Augustus Eggers. 
New York, H. Gelpcke. 
Philadelphia, C. F. Hagedorn. 
St. Louis, £. C. Angelrodt 

Saxony. 
New York, *J. W. Schmidt 
Baltimore, W. Dresel. 
Cincinnati, C. F. Adae. 
Galveston, J. Eauffman. 
Louisville, John Smidt 
Milwaukee, F. A. Borchardt. 
New Orleans, T. Hamman. 
Philadelphia, J. T. Plate. 
San Francisco, J. Kreyinhagen. 
St Louis, £. C. Angelrodt. 

Schaumburg'Lippe. 
New York, C. B. Richard. 

Sekwarzhurg'RudoUtadt and Schwarz- 
burg-Sondershausen. 

New York, C. E. Borsdorf. 

Spain. 

New York, ^Francis Stoughton. 

Baltimore, fJos^ Pizarro. 

Boston, tL. L. de Arze y Noel. 

Charleston, ) « * * t - 
N.C.&S.C, I ^' ^^^^' Larranaga. 

Galveston, tJos^ de Espinar. 
Key West, Mariano Alvarez. 
Mobile, J. G. Miranda. 

New Orleans, Juan Callejon. 
New Orleans, fA. Farando. 
New York, tCarlos Chacon. 
Norfolk, fDuncan Robertson. 

Pensacola, fFrancisco Moreno. 
Philadelphia, Geronimo Roca. 
Portland, J. AvendaSo. 

Portsmouth, tWm. B. Parker. 
San Francisco, Camilo Martin. 
Savannah, fFrancisco Uncilla. 
St. Louis, fRobt H. Betts. 
Wilmington, N.C., tFred. B. Lord. 

Sweden and Korway. 
Wa8hington,D.C., *N.W.Wetter8tedt. 



Alexandria, fJames Dempsey. 

Baltimore, fFrederic B. Graf. 

Boston, Mass., ) xo _, , « v i 
Me., & N. H., 5 ^^*^°* Schlesmger. 

Charleston, t Jos. A. Winthrop. 
Chicago, fP. Van Schneidaer. 

Cincinnati, t James P. Meline. 
Key West, fAsa F. Tift. 
Madison, Wise, tG. Bjornson. 
Mobile, tR. Westfelt 

New Orleans, fAmbrose Lanfear. 
New York, C. E. Habicht. 
Norfolk, ID. Robertson. 

Philadelphia, tE. S. Sayres. 
San Francisco, G. C. Johnson. 
Savannah, tFran. H. Wilman. 
St Louis, t W. de Kantzow. 

Switzerland. 

Washington, for) 
D.C.,Del.,Md , S *John Hitz. 
and Va., 3 

Charleston, N. C, ) u • m^r 
S.C.,Geo.,&Flor.; 5 "«»" ^''y'""- 

Detroit,Mich.,Wisc., 7 riu r* • x 
Iowa,\fcMin., 'jCh.Domin6. 

HighIand,Ill.,Mo.&Ill., C. Rilliet. 

Louisville, Ind., \ 

Ohio, Ky., 5 • 

N. Orleans, Ala., Miss., > « -n* 
La„ Tenn., & Ark., \ ^^ ^»Set. 

New York, New ) , ^.,- r» Tk ¥ 
England &N.Y. 5 ^^"'^ ^- ^® L"^®- 

New York, fA. Iselin. 

San Francisco, t A. de Stouz. 
San Francisco, H. Hentsch. 
Texas, Galveston, J. C. Kuhn. 



Baltimore, 
Boston, 
New York, 



Turk^. 

G. Porter. 
Joseph lasigi. 
J. Hosfbrd Smith. 



Tuscany. 
New York, G. B. Talliaferri. 
New York, fW. H. Aspinwall. 
New Orleans, Carlo G. Manzoni. 



130 



UNITED STATES. 



Two Sicilies. 
New York, *C. A. di Licignano 
Baltimore, t A. C. Rhodes. 
Boston, f N. Reggio. 

Charleston, fJ. H. Holmes. 
Dist. Columbia, IN. E. Fowles. 
Key West, fWm. Pinkney. 
New Haven, flra Clisbe. 
New Orleans, f J. T. Barelli. 
New York, tL. Contencin,Coii«.4^£. 
Norfolk, tL. Schisano. 

Philadelphia, fVito Viti. 
Richmond, Daniel Groning. 
San Francisco, t W. A. Darling. 
Savannah, tG. C. Michels. 

Uruguay. 
New York, "G. F. Darby. 
Baltimore, P. Murguiondo. 
Boston & Salem, tC. Scale, Jr. 
Galve8ton,Tex., fF. A. Stokes. 
Mobile, tC. G. Mansony. 



New Orleans, tA. F. Vails. 
Philadelphia, John F. Cabot. 
San Francisco, T. P. Hamilton. 

Venezuela. 
Washington, * Victor de la Cova. 
Baltimore, J. F. Strohm. 
Boston, Silas G. Whitney. 

New Orleans, Geo. B. Dieter. 
New York, Simon Comacho. 

Norfolk, . 

Philadelphia, W. G. Boulton. 

JFurtemberg. 
Baltimore, W. Dresel. 
Cincinnati, Carl. Fred. Adae. 
Louisville, John Smidt. 
Milwaukee, L. von Baumbach. 
New Orleans, Ch. Honold. 
New York, Leopold Bierwirth. 
Philadelphia, W. Dresel, J3et. BalL 
San Francisco, Friedrich Frank. 
St. Louis, £. C. Angelrodt. 



Vni. TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OP THE PUBLIC LAWS, 

Passsd at ths Second Sjession of the 35th Cohorjbss. 

[The references bj Chapters are to Little, Brown, & Co/s authorized edition of the Laws of 
the United States. The omitted Chapters are private laws.] 

General Appropriationa for the Years ending June 30, 1869, and June 30^ 1860. 

June 30, 1869. June3D, 18Ga 

Deficiencies for year 1858, 89,704,209.89 

Military Academy, 182,804.00 1 179,58a00 

Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Expenses, . . . 6,067,878.61 6,976,833.77 

Consular aud Diplomatic Expenses, 912,1^.00 1,047,746.00 

Civil Expenses 6,897,148.07 3,374,637.37 

Expense of Collecting Revenue firom Oustoms, . . 3,600,000.00 

Naval Service Appropriation, 14,608,364.23 10,627,163.65 

Army Appropriation, 17,186,806.46 16,279,845.76 

Post-Office Appropriation, 17,636,620.00 

Ocean Mail Steamers 1,460,760.00 341,229.16 

Indian Department and Treatv Stipuhitions with Indian Tribes, 2,298,061 .85 2,418,46&e2 
Deficiency in Indian Appropriations for 1858, . . . 339,695.00 
Deficiency for Paper, Printing, &c., for 33d and 34th Congresses, 341,189.68 

Invalid and other Pensions 769,600.00 868,000.00 

Miliury and Wagon Roads in Territories, . . 30.00000 

Treaty with Denmark 408,731.44 

Lighthouses, Light- Boats, Buoys, &c., 331,607.70 

Reliefof Sundry Individuals, 76166.27 88,604.76 

Miscellaneous, 622.000.00 26.400.00 

Total daanite Appcopriatioos for the yean 1869 and 1860, $ 81,829,826.40 $ 41,443,82&59 



I860.] TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF THE PUBLIC LAWS. 181 

Some of the principal items of the appropriations for legislative, executive, and judicial 
expenses for the two years are as follows : — 
LtgiakUivt.— Congress, paj of members and mileage, • 743,000.00 • 1 ,667,861 .72 

" « " Officers and Clerks of both 

Houses, .... 166,992.00 167,639.60 

" Contingent expenses of Senate, including en- 
graving, reporting, stationery, newspapers, Ax. 196,126. 70 216,191 .28 

" Contingent expenses of House, including as 

above, 439,064.60 267,305.00 

<' Paperand printing of both Houses, . . 184,614.00 170,000.00 

" Library of Congress. » Books and expenses, . 17,600.00 17,000 00 

iSTMCtfttve. — President of the United Sutes, . . . 31,450.00 31,450.00 

Tice-President 8,000.00 8,000.00 

BepartmentofSute, 82,400.00 86,625.00 

Treasury Department, 703,310.00 670,163.60 

Department of the Interior (exclusive of SurveyorGeo. & clerks), 637,970.00 618,870.00 

Surveyors-General and their Clerks, 137,020 00 102,870.00 

War Department, 123,670.00 126,720.00 

Navy Department, 102,140.00 102,140.00 

Post-Office Department, 200,800.00 172,800.00 

Attorney-General's office, 24,600 00 18,967 00 

Territorial Governments, 196,000.00 126,275.22 

Mint and Branches, and Assay Office, 497,256.00 606,423.50 

Independent Treasury, 48.800.00 46,300.00 

Office ofSuperintendent of Public Printing, . . 14,614.00 13,615.92 

Paper and Printing for Exeeutive Departments, . . . 56,000 00 68,500.00 

Public Lands, Collection of Revenue from, .... 120,000.00 356,800.00 

Executive Buildings, 66,763.00 54,463.00 

Judtei^.—Judges, Attorneys, and Marshals, . . 207,100.00 209,100.00 

Law Expenses and Prosecutions for Crime, . • • 1,053,300.00 835,000.00 

Penitential, 22,63026 22,530.00 

Auxiliary Guard and Police, 19,400.00 44,930.62 

Court of Claims 36,300.00 36,300.00 

Na L Ch. I. ./In Act to coridnue the Office of Register <(f the Land Office at Vxneennea, 
Indiana, The office of Register is continued for three years ; a Register is to be ap- 
pointed to act as register and receiver, with a salary of $500 and fees, to reside at Yin- 
cennes, and give the usual bond. Dec. SI, 1858. 

No. 3. Ch. V. Jin Jiet to confirm the Land CXaim qf certain Pueblos and Toions in the 
TarriUny iff JVew Mexico, The claim of the United States alone is relinquished, and all 
adverse rights are saved. Dec 22, 1858. 

No. 3. Ch. VI. An Act making Appropriations for the Support qf the MiUtarf Academy 
for the Tear ending June 30, 1860. $ 179,588 are appropriated. Jan. 12, 1859. 

Na 4. Ch. VIII. An Act to r^eal an Act entitled " An Act authorizing the Secretary qf 
the TVeasury to change the Jfames qf Vessels^ m certain Cases,** Approved March 5, 1856. 
Jan. 17, 1859. 

No. 5. Ch. X. An Act to aiuihorite the President to make Advances of Money to Siram 
Powers, Partial payments may be made, from time to time, under the contract for cer« 
Uin statuary. Jan. 19, 1859. 

No. 6. Ch. XI. An Act authoriting the Issue of Registers to the SteamaMps AmeHca and 
Caneday and to change the JVames qf said Steamskips. The America is to be called the 
« Mississippi," and the Canada the " Coatzacoalcos,'* and both are to be deemed United 
States vessels. Jan. 19, 1859. 

No. 7. Ch. XIII. An Act to Provide for Holding the CourU qf the United States in the 
8taU of Alabama. In case of the disability of the Federal District Judge, the Federal 
Supreme Judge for the fifth circuit, upon notice, may hold general or special terms of the 
Federal District Court. This act to be in force until March 4, 1861. Jan. 25, 1859. 

Na 8. Ch. XVII. An Act for the Enforcement qf Mechanics* Liens on Buildings, and so 
forthy m the District of Columbia. Any person hereafter performing labor, or furnishing 
materials, engine, or machinery, to an amount exceeding $20, in constructing or repair- 
ing any building, under a contract with the owner, or agent of such owner, shall have a 
lien therefor on such building, and the lot of ground on which it stands, to certain limits, 
upon filing notice in the Circuit Court Clerk's office for the district, after commencing, 
and within three months after completing the building or repairs, setting forth specifl- 



132 UNITED STATES. [1860. 

cally his claim, and his intention to hold a lien, and bringing his action in said Circuit 
Court to enforce such lien, within one year after completing the building or repairs, if the 
claim is then due ; and, if not, within three months after it falls due. All having liens on 
the same building may join in the action ; and if several such actions are brought, the 
Court may order them consolidated. The notice is to be recorded in the Clerk's Office. 
When suit is brought, due notice is to be given to those interested. If the premises have 
been sold, the purchaser may be made defendant. The proceedings in such action shall 
be the same generally as in other actions. 

Liens by this act have priority over all other liens created subsequent to the notice. 
If upon sale on execution the proceeds are not sufficient to satisfy the liens, the Court 
shall order payment jro rata ; and other property of defendant may be taken on the 
execution, and sold for the amount. 

When any person has a Hen, and his claim and costs are paid, or tendered to him, he 
shall, within six days, enter satisfaction in the said Clerk's office ; and if he fails to do 
80, he shall pay $ 50 to those aggrieved, and all damages they may suffer. The lien may 
also be discharged by the defendant's giving security, approved by the Court, to pay any 
judgment and costs that may be recovered in the action. 

Any person in possession of, and performing labor on, any article of personal property, 
at the request of the owner, or of the person in possession, may, in the absence of any 
special agreement, have a lien thereon for his reasonable charges for such labor, and may 
retain possession thereof until such charges are paid. If he parts with the possession, 
he loses his lien. The Act of 1833, ch. 80, and all inconsistent Acts, are repealed. Feb. 
a, 1859. 

No. 9. Ch. XVIII. An Act to provide for the Lighting toith Oas certain Streets across 
the MaU, The streets are Four and a-Balf, Seventh, and Twelfth Streets. The Act 
takes effect from its passage. 1 6,400 are appropriated. Feb. 2, 1859. 

No. 10. Ch. XIX. An Act to fix and regulate the Compensation of Receivers and Regis- 
ters ef the Land-Offices under the Provisions of the Act approved AprU 20, 1818. Their pay 
is to be Commissions on moneys received, not to exceed, in the aggregate, $ 2,500 per 
annum each, and pro rata for any quarter or fraction of a quarter, to commence when 
they begin to discharge their duties. Feb. 2, 1859. 

No. 11. Ch. XX. An Act avihorhing the Secretary tf the Treasury to grant a Register 
for the Schooner <' WiUiam A, HamUL" Feb. 2, 1859. 

No. 12. Ch. XXI. An Act providing for the Payment cf the Expenses of InvestxgaHng 
Committees of the House ef Representatives, $10,000 are appropriated, no part to be pa^ 
for constructive mileage for summoning witnesses. The mileage for serving precepts of 
either House shall not exceed ten cents for each mile necessarily and actually travelled. 
Feb. 5, 1859. 

No. 13. Ch. XXII. .^n Act providing for Keeping and Distributing all Public Docu- 
ments. The Secretary of the Interior is to receive, keep, and distribute the printed 
journals of the two Houses of Congress, and all public documents now or hereafter 
printed or purchased for Government use, except those printed for the particular use 
of Congress, or of either House, or of the Executive, or any department, and except 
« Wilkes's Exploring Expedition." Proper rooms in the Patent Office Building are to be 
set apart for this sole purpose, whither all such documents shall be removed, and where, 
and whence, they shall hereafter be delivered. A register thereof shall be kept, show- 
ing the quantity and kind received, and what, when, and to whom distributed : and a 
report of the same shall be made at the first session of each Congress. The Secretary of 
the Interior shall deliver the same only on the written order of the persons authorized 
to receive them, except when he is required by law to deliver them without such reqai- 
sition. The books and documents shall be distributed hereafter, for the purposes now 
prescribed by law. Those for colleges, &c, shall be sent to such institutions in the 
several States, &c., as the Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, shall designate to 
the Secretary of the Interior, to be sent first to those districts to which there has been 
no distribution heretofore. When such books, &c., are received at the proper offices, 
libraries, fcc, they shall not be removed thereftom. 



I860.] TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF THB PUBLIC LAWS. ISS 

All matten pertaining to Copyright are transferred to the Department of the Interior, 
and all books, &c., heretofore deposited for copyright, are to be sent thither, — the law 
requiring a copy of every publication to be sent to the Smithsonian Institution and the 
Congressional Library is repealed. The joint committee on said libraiy may dispose of 
" duplicate, injured, or wasted books, or any other matter not deemed proper to it," as 
they may deem best. Of the Statutes at Large, in said library, ten copies shall be re- 
tained there for the Judges of the Supreme Court ; and of the remainder, one-thiid shall 
be sent to the Senate, and two-Uiirds to the library of the House of Representatives. 
Feb. 5, 1859. 

No. 14. Ch. XXIII. An, Act for ike Pwniskmemt of the Crimo (ffForgorjf qfor CoufOor- 
friiing Military Bountff-LaMd Warrants, Military BowUig'Land Certificates, Certificates of 
Loeattan^ Certificates of PureAase, and JReceivere* Receipts, Such forgery, and the know- 
ingly uttering such forged papers, &c, is made a felony, and punishable by imprisonment 
at hard labor, not less than three, or over ten, yean. The jurisdiction of State Courts 
is not limited hereby. Feb. 5, 1859. ^ 

No. 15. Ch. XXVI. Jin Act granting the J^gkt iff Way over, and Depot Orounds on, 
the Mmtary Reeerve at FoH OratioU, in the 8taU of Michigan, for Railroad Purpoees. The 
grant is to any railroad company, or companies, constructing a railroad or railroads from 
Detroit, to or near Port Huron, and is made in case the President shall deem it not in- 
jurious to the public defence, — the price of the land used to be determined by the 
Secretary of War, and approved by the President. If the price is not paid in thirty days 
after the approval of the President, or if either road ii not completed in three yean, or if 
ever discontinued, the grant shall cease. All the buildings erected shall be of wood ; and 
if the military authorities shall destroy them by fire or otherwise, there shall be notlaim 
against the United States for damages. Feb. 8, 1859. 

No. 16. Ch. XX VIL An Act to provide for the Payment qf the Claims qf ths StaU of 
Maine, for Eacpenses incwrred by that State in organiiing a Regiment of Volunteers for the 
Mexican War. Feb. 9, 1859. 

No. 17. Ch. XXVIII. An Act to awthoriu the Attorney-General to represent the United 
States in the Proceeding in Equity, now pending in the Supreme Court, between the Common- 
wealth Iff Massachusetts and the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He may 
also consent to a conventional line, if the parties agree thereon ; and this line, when con- 
firmed by a decree of the court, shall be taken to be the true boundary line for all pur- 
pores afibcting the jurisdiction of the United States. Feb. 9, 1859. 

No. la Ch. XXXIII. An Act for theAdmiesian of Oregon into the Union. « Whereas 
the peofrie of Oregon have framed, ratified, and adopted a constitution of State govern- 
ment which is Republican in form, and in conformity with the Constitution of the United 
States, and have applied for admission into the Union on an equal footing with the other 

States : Therefore Oregon is received into the Union on an equal footing with the 

other States in all respects whatever, with the following boundaries, to wit : Beginning 
one marine league at sea due west from the point where the 4SP N. latitude intersects 
the same ; thence northerly, at the same distance from the line of the coast, lying west 
and opposite the SUte, including all islands within the jurisdiction of the United States, 
to a point due west and opposite the middle of the north ship channel of the Columbia 
river ; thence easterly, to and up the middle channel of said river, and, where it is 
divided by islands, up the middle of the widest channel thereof, to a point near Fort 
Walla-Walla, where the 46° N. latitude crosses said river ; thence east, on said parallel, 
to the middle of the main channel of the Shoshones or Snake River ; thence up the 
middle of the main channel of said river, to the mouth of the Owyhee River ; thence 
due south, to 42° N. latitude ; theoce west, along said parallel, to the place of beginning." 

The State has concurrent jurisdiction over all waten forming a common boundary 
between it and other States, and all navigable waten are made common highways. 
Until the next census it is entitled to one Representative in Congress. 

The following propositions are offered to the people of Oregon, if accepted, to bind 
both the United Sutes and Oregon: — 1st. Seetions 16 and 36 in every township of 

12 



134 UNITED STATES. [1860. 

public lands, or tlieir equivalent, in case said sections are otherwise disposed of, shall be 
granted for the use of schools. Sd. 72 sections shall be set apart for a State Univeisily, 
to be selected by the Govern<Mr of the State, and to be applied by the Legiidature for this 
purpose, and no other. 3d. 10 entire sections, to be selected by the CSoTMrmnr, in legal 
subdivisions, shall be granted to the State for completing, or erecting, public buildinp at 
the seat of government, under the direction of the Legislature. 4th. All salt springs in 
the State, not over twelve in number, and not otherwise disposed of, with six secticmsof 
contiguous land, to be selected by the Governor in one year, shall be granted to the State 
for its use, under the direction of the Legislature. 5th. Five per cent, of the net pny- 
ceeds of the sales of public lands in the State, sold after its admission into the Union, 
shall be paid the State for public roads and internal improvements, under the directicm of 
the Legislature. JlU qf Ae above propositunu are on the condition that the State shall 
never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil fifithin the same by the United 
States, or with any regulations Congress may make to secure title in said soil to Araa jEds 
purchasers ; and that non-resident proprietors shall not be taxed higher than residents. 
6th. The State shall never tax the lands or property of the United States within the 
State. If any lands herein granted to the State have been heretofore confirmed to the 
territory for the purposes specified herein, the amount so confirmed shall be deducted 
herefrom. The residue of the Territory of Oregon is made part of the Territory of 
Washington. Feb. 14, 1858. 

No. 19. Ch. XXXV. Jin Act for the Relitf of the MokUe and Ohio Railroad Compamg. 
Certain transfers by Alabama and Mississippi are confirmed ; and the time frar complet- 
ing the road is extended to September 20, 1865 ; but no condition of the original act k 
released either to the road or the States. Feb. 18, 1859. 

Na 20. Ch. LVIII. Jin J3et to authorize SetUero upon iGth and 36tA Sections, who 
eettled btfore the Surveys qf the Public Lands, to pre-empt thar Settlenienta. Feb. 26, 1858L 

No. 21. Ch. LIX. Jin Act to protect the Land Fund for School Purposes in Saeytf 
Countiy, Jfebraska Territory. The Superintendent of Schools in said county may select 
for school purposes public lands in lieu of those pre-empted, &c, Feb. 26, 1859. 

No. 22. Ch. LX. Jin Act to incorporate the ffashington National Monument Society. 
'* For the purpose of completing the erection, now in progress, of a great national 
monument to the memory of Washington, at the seat of the Federal Grovemment,*' 
Winfield Scott and others are incorporated, under the name in the title, with the usoai 
powers of such a corporation. All the rights, property, &c., of the Association called 
" The Washington National Monument Society,'* are vested in this corporation. Any 
member of said corporation may be removed by a fiour-fifths vote of the membeis. 
When any vacancy happens from any cause, the other members shall elect a succeasor 
in ten days after the vacancy happens, and if they do not fill it in thirty days, the FedMal 
Attorney for the district shall proceed against them for a forfeiture of their charter, in 
the Circuit Court, and its judgment thereon shall be conclusive. For other puiposes 
than the removal of members, five corporators shall constitute a quorum. The Pnsident 
of the United States shall be ex officio President of the Corporation, and the Govemon 
of the several States, Vice-Presidents. All meetings shall be held and records kept in 
Washington. Corporators are individually liable for debts contracted since October SO, 
1858. This corporation cannot issue notes as currency, and the charter may at any time 
be amended or repealed. It shall take effect from its passage. Feb. 26, 1859. 

No. Sa. Ch. LXI V. Jin Act to amend an Act entitled " Jin Act authoriiingr Repayntami 
for Land erroneously sold by the United States,** When any sale cannot be confirmed, the 
pnrbbase-money may be repaid ; if it has been invested in stocks, &c, held in trust, 
they may be sold, and the money repaid from the proceeds of sHch sale. Feb. 28, 1859. 

No. 24. Ch. LX V. An Act giving the Assent of Congress to a Law of the Missauri 
Legislature for the Application of the reserved two per cenL Land Fund qf said State. Feb. 
28, 1859. 

No. 25. Ch. LX VI. An Act making JippropriaHons for the current and contingent Eae^ 
penees of the Indian Departnunt, and for fuifiiUng Treaty Stipulations with varioua Indian 



I860.] TITLES AKD ABSTRACTS OF THE PUBLIC LAWS. 1S5 

TVibesf for tho Tear mtding' June 30, 1860. $1 )797,301.86 are appropriated. Beservationa 
for Indian purpoeea in California may be increased, not to exceed in the aggregate 125,000 
acres. Mo new Indian agents, &c., are authorised hereby. None of this appropriation 
to go for arms and ammunition, unless treaties require it. The tracts occupied by the 
Pimas and Maricopas in Arizona Territory are to be surveyed, and reservations, not over 
100 square miles in extent, are to be set apart for them. Bailee, &c., for the Indian 
service, are to be prepared and submitted to Congress. The law obliging the United 
States, in certain cases, to indemnify the whites for trespasses of the Indians is repealed. 
Feb. 28, 1859. 

No. 26. Ch. LXVIII. Jin Act te atUkarize the EnrolmaU, Registry, and lAeenee of 
eertam SUagaboato, or FeoaeU, owned by the Bv^alo and Lake Haron Railroad Company, 
Mueh 1, 1859. 

No. 27. Ch. LXXI V. An Act oupplenuntal to an Act for the Admiesion of the State of 
JCnnesota into the Union, A Term of the District Court is established at Preston in June, 
and at St. Paul in October, and the appointment of a Clerk authorized. For the terms, 
Ac, of the District Court, see anUt p. 116. March 3, 1659. 

No. 28. Ch. LXXV. An Act making Appropriations for the Consular and Z^lomatie 
Ea^enses of the Ootemment for the Year ending June 30, 1860. $1,047,745 are appro- 
priated. No minister, dtc, except to certain designated places, shall receive pay. The 
salary of the Consul-General for British North America shall be his entire compensation. 
AU fees received by him, and by vice-consuls, and commercial agents in British North 
America, beyond their established compensation, must be accounted for with the 
federal treasury. The fee for certifying invoices, &c., of free goods under the reciprocity 
treaty, shall be fifty cents ; and no such certificate shall be required unless the goods 
exceed $ 200 in value. March 3, 1859. 

No. 29. Ch. LXX VI. An Aa making Appropriations for the Ifaval Soroiee for the 
Tear ending June 30, I860. $10,527,163.55 are appropriated. Not more than $1000 shall 
be expended in any navy yard, in the repair of any vessel, until after a report thereon, 
by a board of not less than three officers of the navy. The general order of the Secretary 
of the Navy, of January 80, 1859, as to the rank of engineer officers, is confirmed. Navy 
<^liceE8 dropped by the retiring board, and since restored, shall, while dropped, receive 
farlottgh pay if restored to the " furlough ** list, or leave pay if to the ** leave pay *' 
list. Match 3, 1859. 

No. 30. Ch. LXX VII. An Act to carry into E,ffect the Convention between the United 
States and China, eonduded November 8, 1858, at ShanghaL When the Chineae revenue 
officers issue the debentures or duty receipts, provided for in the Convention, the chief 
diplomatic officer of the United States in China shall select some suitable depositaiy 
thenfor, and determine his compensation. The President, with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint two Commissioners, at a salary of $3,000 each, to form a board in China, to 
hear and determine claims under the Conventi<m, at such time and place as the chief 
diplomatic officer shall designate ; they shall terminate their duties in one year from the 
time of their meeting ; and they shall report to such diplomatic officer their several 
awards, which shall be sent to the depositary, and he shall distribute ratably the de- 
bentures or their proceeds. The records of the Commission, when its duties are com- 
pleted, shall be deposited in the office of the Secretary of Sute. March 3, 1859. 

No. 31. Ch. LXXVlil. An AU to pratset the Timier growing upon Lands of the 
United States, reserved for Military and other Purposes, The unlawful cutting or wanton 
destruction of such timber hi punishable by fine of not over $500, and by imprisonment 
of not over twelve months. March 3, 1859. 

No. 32. Ch. LXXIX. An AU making Appropriations for fvJfiUxng Treaty Stipulations 
with the Taneton and Tonawanda Indians for the Tear ending June 30, I860, and for other 
Purposes, $621,166.66 are appropriated for Indian purposes; and $341,229.16 for pay- 
ments under existing contracts for canying the ocean mails. March 3, 1859. 

No, 33. Ch. LXXX. An Act making Appropriations for the Legislative, Executive, and 
Judicial Expenses t^ Government for the Tear ending June 30, I860. $6^976,835.77 are 



186 UXTTED iSTATES. [i860. 

appropriated. No offleer, Ice., of the Houm of RepresentatiTea >ball nceive pay for dis- 
charging the duties of two offices at the same time. The creditors of the republic of 
Texas may file their claims up to January 1, 1861. The Attorney-General may appoint 
an assistant, at a salary of $ 3,000 ; two 3d elaas clerks, salary $ 1,600 ; one 2d claas, 
at $1,400 ; and may employ temporary clerks, at an expense of not over $1,000 a year. 
All moneys hereafter drawn from the Treasury, on the requbition of the Attorney* 
General, shall be disbursed by an officer designated by the Secretary of the Trearary. 
Cents may be paid out at the mint, for Spanish and Mexican quarters, eighths, and 
sixteenths of a dollar, at their nominal value of 25, 12^, and 6^ cents, for two years from 
February 21, 1859. When both Houses of Congress order any document to be printed, 
the printer of the House first ordering it shall do the whole, with the qame price for 
composition as though it had been ordered but by one House. In no case shall man 
than 1550 copies of a document be printed, unless extra numbers are ordered. The 
office of printer to either House shall not be transferred, directly or indirectly ; and 
any attempt to sell or transfer it shall vacate the office. The Patent Office Report, me- 
chanical, must hereafter be so prepared as to make but one volume of 800 pages. March 
3, 1859. 

No. 34. Ch. LXXXI. jSh Ad fMUting Jippropriationa for lAgkthousea, Ltght-ioaU, 
BuoySf ijr^,, and providing for the Erection and EstabUshnunt of the same, and for otkrnr 
Furposea, $ 331,507.70 are appropriated. Hereafter, when light vessels require rebuild- 
ing, permanent structures shall be erected in their place, when advisable and practicable. 
The Secretary of the Treasury, at the recommendation of the Lighthouse Board, may 
discontinue lights that have become useless by mutations of commerce, and changes in 
channels, &c Necessary preliminary surveys for the sites for lighthouses may be made 
on the seaboard by the Coast Survey, and on the Northwestern Lakes by the Topograph- 
ical Engineers. If reports are adverse, they shall be submitted to Congress at its next 
session ; if favorable, work may be commenced as soon as a valid title is obtained to 
the site. The authority to discontinue the light at Fort Clinton^ Portage Bay, Ohio, 
is repealed. March 3, 1859. 

No. 35. Ch. LXXXII. An Act mdkmg Appr o priatunu for sundry (XvU Expenses iff the 
Oovemment for the Tear ending June 30, 1860. $3,374,537.37 are appropriated. No part 
of the expenses of the Agricultural Congress to be paid. The Capitol Extension shall 
not be embellished with sculpture or paintings unless approved by the Art Commission, 
excepting works by Crawford and Rogers, and painting certain rooms already partly 
painted. Certain lots of land in Philadelphia shall be sold at auction, and proceeds ap- 
plied to a building for a Court-House and Po8t>Office. The power to issue and reissue 
Treasury notes, by the Act of December 23, 1857, is extended to July 1, I860. The 
Secretary of the Treasury, under the Act of 1858, ch. 165, may issue coupon or registered 
stock, as the purchaser may elect The Post Office in Boston is not to be rembved frmn 
its present location, until after the next session of Congress, if remonstrants indemnify 
the Government from additional expense growing out of any contracts for another site. 
Officers placed on the " furlough list," by the Naval Retiring Board, transferred to the 
leave list, shall have *< leave pay '* while on the <' furlough list ; " and in case of his 
death, after the transfer, his representatives may receive what was his due. The Super- 
intendent of Public Printing, on default of contractor to supply paper, may advertise finr 
proposals, or buy in open market the necessary paper, and the contractor shall pay the 
increase of cost, if any. Patents for lands, with restrictions for their benefit, may issue 
to Indians in Kansas under treaty stipulations. March 3, 1859. 

No 36. Ch. LXXXIII. An Act making Appropriations for the Support ef the Army for 
tAe Yeoar ending June 30, I860. $154979,845.76 are appropriated. No permanent barracks 
shall be constructed without previous detailed estimates being submitted to Congress, 
and a special appropriation therefor. Mileage shall not be alWwed an officer transferred 
or relieved at his own request. The claim of Massachusetts for disbursements during 
'be war of 1812, as due by Mr. Poinsett's Report, of Dec. 23, 1837, is to be paid in cash 
r 5 per cent stock, redeemable in ten years, or sooner. The number of CommissioDen 



18€0.] TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OP THE PUBLIC LAWS. 187 

of the MUitaiy Asylum is reduced to three, — the Cobimiasary-General of SubsiBtence, 
the SuTigeoii-Genenil, and the Adjiitant-General, — any two of whom form a quorum. 
Invalid, &c., soldiers of the war of 1813, and subsequent wars, to have the benefits of the 
asylum. Pensioners, while in the asylum, to surrender their pensions for the benefit of 
the asylum. All persons in the asylum to be subject to the articles of war ; 12^ cents 
only to be deducted from the monthly pay of soldiers, &c. The " Military Asylum " to 
be called hereafter the " Soldiers' Home." March 3, 1859. 

No. 37. Ch. LXXXI V. Jin Act to provide for the Care and Pretenatian qf the Works 
eonstnuted by the United StateSffor bringing the Potomac Water into the Cities ef Waahing- 
Um and Qeorgetown^ for the Supply of aaid Water for all Gfovemmental Purposes f and for 
the Uses and Benefits of the Inhabitants of the said Cities, The Potomac Water- Works are 
placed under the care of an ofiicer of the Engineer Corps, U. S. A., who is to act under 
the direction of the Department of the Interior, and for compensation is to have his pay 
as such Engineer officer, and no more. The Corporations of the two cities may dis- 
tribute the water by pipes, without expense to the United States, and may establish and 
collect water rates ; but the rates shall never be a source of revenue to the cities. The 
Federal Government shall lay only such pipes as are necessary to give the Grovemment 
the necessary supply of water. The two cities may establisdi a complete system of 
eewerage ; they may borrow money for the purposes of this Act, Washington not over 
$150,000, and Georgetown not over $50,000, redeemable in ten years out of any revenue 
from water rents. The unauthorized opening of pipes is punishable by a fine of not less 
than $50, nor over $500, for each offence. The wilful, &c. breaking, &c. of any pipe, 
hydrant, &c is punishable by imprisonment for not over two years. Wilfully, &c. ihak- 
ing the water impure is punishable by a fine of not less than $500, or over $1,000 ; or by 
imprisonment of not less than one year, nor over three years, in the Penitentiary in the 
difltrict. March 3, 1859. 

No. 38. Ch. LXXXV. Jin Act to provide for extending the Laws and Judicial System 
of the United States to the State of Oregon^ and for other Purposes, Oregon is made a 
Judicial District. The salary of the Judge is $ 3,500, and that of the Marshal and District 
Attorney the same as that of those officers in Iowa. In cases of appeals pending in the 
Federal Supreme Court from the Supreme Court of Oregon Territory, the mandates shall 
go either to the Federal or State Courts of Oregon, as the nature of the appeal may re- 
quire. Iowa is divided into three districts, for the trial of issues of fact by the jury in 
the Federal District Court, as follows : — 

Jitorthem Dhisian, — The counties of Clinton, Jones, Linn, Benton, Tama, Marshall, 
Grundy, Hardin, Webster, and all counties north of the same, and east of Calhoun, 
Pocahontas, Palo Alto, and Emmett. 

Southern Division, — The counties of Scott, Cedar, Johnson, Iowa, Powasheik, Ma- 
haska, Marion, Lucas, Clark, Decatur, and all counties south and east of the same. 

Western Division. — The remaining counties in the State. For the times and places 
of holding the Federal Courts in Oregon and Iowa, see antCf pp. 116, 117. March 3, 1859. 

No. 39. Ch. LXXXVI. Jin Act for the Relirf iff Congressional Township number 
twenty-seven, JVortA, of Range number «tz, Ektst, in Wabash County^ Indiana, The Auditor 
of the Couuty may enter certain lands in lieu of a deficit of school lands, and patents 
may issue therefor. March 3, 1859. 

No. 40. Ch. LXXXVII. An Act making an Appropriation for the Payment of the Ex- 
penses of Investigating CommitteeSf and for other Purposes, $10,000 are appropriated for 
the expenses of such Committees of the House during the present Congress. March 3, 
1859. 

No. 41. Ch. LXXXyni. An Act making Jippropriations for the Payment «f Invalid and 
other Pensions of the United States for the Tear ending June 30, 1660. 1 853,000 are appropri- 
ated. The application for payment of pensions to invalids must be supported, once in every 
two years, by the affidavit of two surgeons or physicians, whose credibility as such shall 
be certified by the magistrate before whom the affidavit is made. The affidavit shall de- 
scribe the disability, state its continuance, and its rate at the present time. If the affidavit 

12* 



138 UNITED STATES. [1860. 

Bhall state a rate below that for which the pension was originally granted, payment shall 
be made for the rate in the affidavit. The affidavit is not necessary where the pension 
was granted for a total disability, as the loss of a limb. March 3, 1859. 



IX. PUBLIC RESOLUTIONS. 

[The omitted numbers are private resolutions.] 

No. 1. A Resolution for the JipponUment qf two Regents </ the Snuthsoman ImstUuAm, 
Mexander Dallas Bathe and Oeerge E, Badger are t^pomted to fiU ffoeaneiee m the dose (^ 
" others than members iff Congress." Jan. 17, 1859. 

No. 2. Joint Resolutien authorizing Townsend HarriSf United States Consul-Cfeneral at 
Japan, and H, C. J* Heusken^ his Interpreter , respeetivelif, to accept a Swiff box from her 
Majestifj the Q^ueen qf England. Jan. 35, 1859. 

No. 4. Jl Resolution authoriting the Secretary of t&e TVeorary to eonvoff a Portion ef the 
Oovemment Lot •« u>hieh the United Statee Court-Heuse etands in Rutland, Ferment, in 
Exchange for ether Land adjoining said Lot. Feb. 5, 1859. 

No. 6w A Resolution for ths PapnetU ef an unexpended Balance to the State qf Oeorgia, 
on Account t^fMiUtia Services. Feb. 9, 1859. 

No. 7. A Resolution for changing the Plan qf the Customr-House at Oalveston, m the 
State of Texas, The cost, however, is noi to exceed the amount already appropriated, 
and the consent in writing of the contractors thereto is to be first obtained. Feb. 9, 1859. 

No. 8. Joint Resolution giving the Consent qf Congress to the Acceptance by Captain 
M. F. Maury and Professor A. D. Baehe qf Gold Medals from the Sardinian Oovemment. 
Feb. 14, 1859. 

No. 9. Joint ReeelvUon in Relation to the Tobacco Trade qfthe United States with Foreign 
Jfaiions. There are restrictions on the Tobacco trade in certain foreign countries ; these 
restrictiona are. unsatisfactory to certain of the tobacco-growing States of the United 
States; the Federal Government ought, therefore, to use its utmost power to have 
these restrictions modified, and, to that end, to open diplomatic negotiations with those 
countries ; and it should encourage the introduction of American tobacco into China and 
Japan, as an article of use among the people of those nations. Feb. 14, 1859. 

Na 10. Joint RemlUtion to aathorite the Secretary qf the Treasury to sell a certain Plat 
of Land in the City of Petersburg, Firginia, belonging to the United States. A minimum 
shall be fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury, below which the lots shall not be sold. 
Feb. 18, 1859. 

No. 13. A Resolution conferring the Rank of Senior Flag Officer on the Active Sernee 
lAst of the United States JVaoy on Captain Charles StewarL March 3, 1859. 

Na 13. A Reeolution in Relation to the Seeoitd Action qf the Act qf Congress enUtled 
" An Act to provide for the Location qf certain confirmed private Land Claims ut the State 
qf Missouri, and for other Purposes." March 3, 1859. 

No* 14. A Joint Reeolution amendatory qf an Act entitled *' An Act to Regtdate the Com' 
pensation of Members of Congress,** approved August 16, 1856, so far as relates to such 
Members as shaU die during their Therms qf Service. Any member dying after the com- 
mencement of the Congress to which he shall have been elected, his widow, or if he 
has no widow, his heirs, shall receive his pay from the commencement of such Congress 
to his death. In all cases compensation shall be paid for not less than three months ; but 
constructive mileage shall never be allowed. This shall apply to tiie widows and heirs 
of those who were elected to the 35th Congress. The pay of the member elected to fill 
the vacancy shall begin when the pay of the deceased terminated. March 3, 1850. 



I860.] 



REVEXUE AND EXPENDITURE. 



139 



X. REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 



1. SuUement of Duties, Revenues, and Public Expenditures, during the Fiscal 
Years ending June 30, 1857, and June 30, 1858. 

[From Reports of the Secreury of the Treasury, Dec. 8, 1857, and Dec. 6, 1858.] 



The receipts into the Treasury were as fol- 
lows : — 
From customs, viz. : — 

During the first quarter, ending Sept. 30, 
T^.,_:^-*i. J .._ .. Dec. 31, 

Mar. 31, 
June 30, 



u 



During the second quarter 
During the third quarter. 
During the fourth quarter, 

Total customs, .... 
From sales of public lands. 
From miscellaneous sources, . « 

Total receipts, exclusfve of loans, &c., 
Treasurj^-Notes, under act Dec. 23, 1857, 
Balance in the Treasury, July 1, 18o6 and '57, 

Total means. 

The expenditures, exclusive of trust funds, and 
treasury-notes funded, were as follows : — 

Civil List. 
Legislatiye, including books. 

Executive, 

Judiciary, 

Governments in the Territories, 
Surveyors and their clerks, &c., 
Officers of Mint, branches, and Assay Office, 
Supervising and local Inspectors, &c., . 
Assistant Treasurers and their clerks. 

Total civil list, 

Foreign Intercourse. 
Salaries of Ministers, Charges d'Affiures, &c.. 
Salaries of Secretaries of Legation, 
Salaries of Consuls, .... 
Dragoman to Turkey and contingencies. 
Contingent expenses of all the missions abroad. 
Contingent expenses of foreign intercourse, 
Office-rent of Consuls who cannot trade, . 
Relief and protection of American seamen. 
Interpreters to Consuls in China, 
Secretary and Interpreter to Chinese Mission, 
Commissioner to Sandwich Islands, 
Intercourse with Barbary powers, 
Interpreters, guards, &c. at the Consulates in 

Turkish dominions, .... 

French seamen at Toulon and their families, 
Acknowledgment to masters, &g. of foreign 

vessels rescuing American citizens. 



$80,677,740.40 $18,573,729.37 



Year ending 
June 30, 1867. 



Year ending 
June 30, 1858. 



14,243,414.90 

19,055,328.55 

9,899,421.20 



6,237,723.69 
7,127,900.69 
9,850,267.21 



63,875,905.00 

3,829,486.64 

926,121.98 

68,631,513.67 
19,901,325.45 



86,532,839.12 



3,498,109.77 

1,990,363.51 

1,117,629.72 

224,186.73 

146,319.40 

112,242.19 

78,419.42 

39,841.68 



7,207,112.42 

, 311,153.19 

28,568.73 

251,359.58 

2,625.00 

42,501.11 

35,000.00 

10,209.44 

149,328 35 

2,750.00 
6,375.00 
2,069.65 

1,733.94 
1,000.00 

3,004.48 



41,789,620.96 
3,513,715.87 
1,254,232.76 



46,557,569.59 
23,716,300.00 
17,710,114.27 



87,983,983.86 



3,583,523.79 

1,856,017.53 

1,062,631.61 

184,673.89 

163,717.13 

88,283.33 

81,133.70 

39,215.77 



7,059,196.75 

255,534.12 

20,795.40 

296,189.14 

3,000.00 

50,536.84 

40,002.21 

8,263.00 

133,648.71 

4,500.00 

6,151.32 

8,684.82 

1,042.05 

3,000.00 



140 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Year ending 
June 30, 1857. 



Blank-books, stationery, &c. for Consuls, . 
Preservation of archives of Consulates, . 
Loss by exchange on drafts of Consuls, &c. 
Other diplomatic and consular expenses, 
Expenses under Reciprocity Treaty, 
Restoration of ship Resolute, . 
Suppression of Slave-trade, 
Audubon's Birds, &c. for foreign govemments, 
Treaty with Denmark, Art 3d, . 
Treaty with Denmark, Art. 6tb, 
Commission on boundary of Wash. Territory, 
Execution of Neutrality Act, . 
Miscellaneous, . . . . 

Total foreign intercourse, 

Mtscdlaneims, 
Surveys of public lands, .... 
Surveys of public lands, &c. in California, 
Collecting revenue from sales of public lands, 
Support and maintenance of lighthouses, &c., 
Building lighthouses, for buoys, beacons, &c.. 
Marine liospital establishment. 
Building marine hospitals, and repairs, 
Public buildings, grounds, &c. in n ashington, 
Patent fund and drawings, ... 
Mail service for government. 
Mail service for Congress, &c.. 
Deficiency in Post-Office revenue, 
Building, &c. custom-houses, warehouses, &c. 
Building Post-Offices, Court Houses, &c., 
Expenses of collecting revenue from customs. 
Survey of the coast of the United States, . 
Survey, of the western coast of United States, 
Survey of Islands on the coast of California, 
Survey of Florida reefs and keys, &c., . 
Publishing observations by Coast Survey, 
Other Expenses of Coast Survey, . 
Continuation, &c. Treasury buildings, . 
Patent-Office building, and furnishing rooms. 
Mint establishment, . ' . 
Relief of sundry individuals, . 
Auxiliary guard in the city of Washington, 
Expenses incident to loans and Treas.-notes, 
Penitentiary in District of Columbia, . 
Support of insane paupers in Dist. Columbia, 
Erecting asylum, &c. for insane in Dist. Col., 
Support of transient paupers, 
Bridges, and draw-keepers, . . * . 
Three per cent to Ohio, .... 
Three per cent to Illinois, 
Three per cent to Missouri, 



$11,500.00 
11,900.00 

3,724,72 
12,509.98 
76,340.00 
40,000.00 

3,783 33 
16,000.00 



Year ending 
June 30, 1858. 



1,316.61 



#1,024,753.11 



409,523.31 

308,254.85 

215,329.51 

1,067,097.17 

966,398 20 

354,053 90 

303,979.23 

109,62500 

214,460.73 

200,000.00 

500,000.00 

2,916,883.00 

1,824,686.01 

3,161,935.186 

280,0('0.00 

130,000.00 

14,000 00 

52,000,00 

7,500.00 

5,500.00 

377,000.00 

138,964 28 

661,130 66 

1,110,753.23 

19,255 84 

3,737.90 

19,395.00 

20,500.00 

37,200.00 

3,000.00 

54,397.33 

263.30 

27,007.90 



$53,079.62 

7,767,55 

15,460.00 

4,375.00 

393,011.00 

15,720,44 

71,000.00 

1,370.00 

161.20 



tl ,393,292.42 



417,270.44 

186,294.98 

329,566.30 

1,162,857.51 

758,663.29 

376,806.96 

333,323.16 

132,910.00 

204,908.99 

200,000.00 

500,000.00 

3,969,173 00 

2,021,193.74 

138,241.41 

2,907,431.63 

250,000.00 

96,500.00 

30,000.00 

59,500.00 

8,000.00 

33,000.00 

541,050 46 

219,000.00 

613,487 21 

112,112.36 

19,252 87 

11,019.58 

18,255.00 

20,500.00 

55,500.00 

3,000.00 

50,945.97 

13,791.69 
79,030.09 



* Deducting a repayment of #5,317.95, gires $ 1,019,435.16 as the total of foreign inter- 
course, 
t Deduct from this, repayment of • 1,884.51, and there remains $ 1,391,407.91, as the trae 
'aI of foreign intercourse. 



I860.] 



REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 



141 



Two and three per cent to Alabama, 

Two and three per cent to Mississippi^ . 

Five per cent to Arkansas, 

Five per cent to Michigan, .... 

Five per cent to Florida, 

Five per cent to Iowa, .... 

Five per cent to Louisiana, 

To Vermont, to preserve neutralitv, . 

Debentures, drawbacks, bounties, i&c.. 

Excess of deposits for duties repaid importers. 

Debentures and other charges (customs), 

Payment of horses, &c. lost in military service. 

Refunding duties on foreign merchandise, 

Refunding duties under warehouse system. 

Refunding duties under Reciprocity Treaty 

with Great Britain, .... 
Repayment for lands erroneously sold. 
Settling land claims and suits in California, 
Account, &c. of the Exploring Expedition, 
Smithsonian Institution, act Aug. 10, 1846, 
Safe-keeping the public revenue, . 
Building vaults in 66 depositories, 
Claims not otherwise provided for, . 
Building and equipping revenue-cutters, 
Pay to each designated depositary (^ per cent), 
Purchase of land and buildings, &c., . 
Public buildings in Territories, 
Books for Territorial Libraries, . 
Special examiners of drugs and medicines, 
Boundary line, United States and Mexico, 
Cherokees that remained in North Carolina, 
Increase of pay to collectors, &c., . • . 
Oregon, defence against Cay use Indians, 
Tri-monthly mail, New Orleans & Vera Cruz, 
Mail, Charleston and Havana, two months, 
500 burial lots in Cong. bury, ground. 
Bringing Electoral vote to Washington, . 
Agricultural statistics, and distributing seeds, 
Public gardener, gate-keepers, laborers. 
Sundry items, 

Total miscellaneous. 

Under the direction of the Depart, of Interior, 

Indian department, 

Pensions, military, 

Pensions, naval, 

Relief of sundry individuals, . 

Total under direction of Depart, of Interior, 

Under the direction of the War Department. 

Army proper, &c., 

Military Academy, 

Fortifications, and other works of defence, 
. Armories, arsenals, and munitions of war, . 



Vear ending 
June 30, 1857. 



$161,036.58 

18,911.13 

185,785.32 

4,009.18 

508,699.34 

1,257,225.04 

10,671.54 

1,607.83 

564,647.35 

4,838.85 

2,913.30 
72,405.78 
17,400.00 
10,410.00 
30,910.14 
35,600.78 

5,191.31 
15,563.16 

6,330.23 

630,184.14 

84i901.92 

6,000.00 

7,41624 
29,407.81 

9,311.59 
3,453.24 



16,156.00 
85,000.00 
17,677.00 
21,692.64 



Year ending 
June 30, 1658. 



$26,071.76 
19,943.26 
18,700.79 
7,358.24 
5,535.18 
34,219.34 
10,971.30 

487,755.35 

656,226.11 

8,283.14 

11,170.01 

151,154.96 

1,775.86 

466.90 
60,762.19 

2,535.85 
33,414.22 
30,910.14 
»>,211.09 

5,796.18 

7,526.95 
182,614.12 

4,818.14 

24,257.41 

6,748.27 

19,097.54 

4,000.00 

6,180.45 

1,920.25 

69,750.00 

10,000.00 

5,000.00 

60,000.00 
19,048.00 
35,407.90 



*19,339,831.75| 17,937,217.54 



4,008,062.79 

1,191,667.58 

135,195.89 

23,348 46 



5,358,274.72 



12,380.684.56 

175,784 70 

1,631,563.74 

1,105,141.69 



4,812,815.09 

1,075,637.14 

143,246.17 

20,224.98 



6,051,923 38 



17,455,976.85 

164,301.31 

2,667,448.11 

1,443,235.74 



• Deducting $3.3,814.86 for repayments, gives $ 19,305,374.79 as toul miscellaneous. 



142 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Harbors, roads, rivers, &c., . 
Arming and equipping the militia, 
Payments to militia and volunteers. 
Extension of the Canitol, and new dome. 
General Post-Office building, 
VS^ashington Aqueduct, .... 
Relief of individuals, and miscellaneous. 

Total under direction of the War Dep*t, 

Uiid^ the direction of the Natty Department. 
Pay and subsistence, including medicines, 

&c., • 

Increase, repairs, ordnance, and equipment, 
Contingent expenses, .... 

Navy yards and docks, .... 
Navy hospitals, asylums, and magazines, • 

Naval Academy, 

Relief of individuals, and miscellaneous, . 
Marine Corps and barracks, . 

Steam mail service, 

Six steam-frigates, 

Five steam-sloops of war, .... 

Total under direction of the Navy Dep*t, 

Public Debt. 

Old public debt, 

Interest on the public debt and Treasury-notes, 
Redemption bounty land stock, . 
Reimbursement Treasury-notes in specie, 
Payment Texas creditors. Act September 9th, 

XoiHJ, . • • • •.. * 

Redemption of stock, loan of 1842, . 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1846, 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1847, 
Redemption of stock, loan of 1848, 
Premium, commission, &c. on stock redeemed. 
Redemption Texan indemnity stock, . 
Payment Treasury-notes, act Dec. 23, 1857, 
" " act Feb. 24, 1815, 

Total public debt paid. 

Total expenditures, . 

Balances in the Treasury, July 1, 1857 and '58, 



Year eading 
June 30, 1857. 



$614,124.70 
141,249.81 
391 ,764.99 
930,000.00 
260,000.00 
175,000.00 

1,456,4.5997 



19,261,774.16 



4,241,321.25 
2,886,102.95 

862,467.73 
1,781,124.45 

126,622.02 
39,172.23 

385,951.73 

503,670.93 
1,059,866.67 

840,556.73 



12,726,85669 



503.21 

1,678,265.23 

400.00 

100.00 

629,353.24 
516,539 58 
714,013.26 
1,000,000.00 
898,150.00 
363,572.39 
143,000.00 



5,943,896.91 



70,822,724.85 



17,710,114.27 



Year ending 
June 30, 1868. 



$577,792.16 

361,609 86 

50,234.34 

1,000,000.00 
350,000.00 
945,036 99 
469,748.24 



25,485,383.60 



4,761,000.89 

3,394,646.29 

904,314.45 

1,982,923.62 

274,195.84 

43,r31.22 

301,300.46 

587,242.25 

885,322.20 

368,932.41 

472,390.96 



13,976,000,59 



1,567,055.67 
225.00 
200.00 

38,788.42 

614,270.82 

26,400.00 

1,759,950.00 

1,435,900.00 

574,443.08 

28,000.00 

3,639,300.00 

5.00 



9,684,537.99 



81,585,667 76 



6,398,316.10 



1 



I860.] REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 143 



2. Statement of Public Revenues and Public Expenditures during the Fiscal 

Year ending June 30, 1859, agreeably to warrants issued, exclusive of 
Trust Funds and Treasury-notes funded. 

Receipts. 

From Custom8,quarter ending Sept. 30, 1858, $ 13,444,520.28 

Dec. 31, 1858, 9,054,228.60 

Mar. 31,1859, 12,786,252.19 

June 30, 1859, 14,280,823.31 

$49,565,824.38 

Lands, quarter ending Sept. 30, 1858, 421,171.84 

Dec. 31, 1858, 402,190.97 

Mar. 31, 1859, 490,947.78 

June 30, 1859, 442,376.71 

1,756,687.30 

Miscellaneous and incidental sources, • . . 2,082,559.33 

Treasury-notes, Act of Dec. 23, 1857, . . 9,667,400.00 

Loan Act of June 14, 1858, 18,620,000.00 

Total receipts, . . . . . . $81,692,471.01 

Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1858, 6,398,316.10 

Total means, $88,090,787.11 

Expenditures. 

For civil list, $5,963,79566 

(« foreign intercourse, 1,035,860.02 

**' miscellaneous, 16,636,165.26 

Under direction of the Department of the Interior (Indian 

and Pensions), .... 4,753,972.60 

" " " War Department, . . . 23,243,822.38 

« " " Navy »« .... 14,712,610.21 

For public debt, 17,405,285.44 

Total expenditures, .... $83,751,511.57 

Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1859^ .... $4,339,275.54 

3. Receipts and Expenditures of the United States for the quarter ending 

September 30, 1859, exclusive of Trust Funds. 

Receipts. 

From customs, $15,947,670.62 

«' Sales of public lands, 470,244 62 

'« Loan under Act of June 14, 1858, .... 210,000.00 
" Treasury-notes, under Act of Dec. 23, 1857, . 3,611,300.00 

<' Miscellaneous and incidental sources, . . . 379,650.61 



Total receipts, .... $20,618,865.85 



144 



UNITED STATES. 



[1»60. 



Expenditures. 

Civil, foreign intercourse, and miscellaneous, . . . $4,748,130.89 

Interior (Pensions and Indian), 1,739,176.11 

War 5,473,949.10 

Navy 3,381,551.90 

Interest on Public Debt, including Treasury-notes, $248,825.22 

Redemption of bounty land stock, . . . 200.00 

Payment to creditors of Texas, per Act of Sept. 

9,1850, 841.54 

Payment of Treasury-notes issued per Act of 23d 

Dec.; 1857, 4,414,500.00 

4,664,366.76 

$ 20,007,174.76 



4. Statement of the Debt of the United States on the Ist of July, 1858. 



Denomination of Debt 



Principal and interest of the old 

funded and unfunded debt, 

Treasury-notes of 1812, and 

Yazoo scrip, 

Treasuiynotes issued previous to 

Dec. 23, 1857, 
Loan of April 15, 1842, 
" July 22, 1846, . 
»' January 28, 1847, . 
" March 31, 1848, . 
Texan indemnity, 
Texas debt, act Feb. 28, 1855, 

Present amount as above. 



Rate of 
Interest 
per Cent. 



6 
6 
6 
6 



When 
redeemable. 



On present'ion 

On present'ion 
Dec. 31, 1862 
Nov. 12, 1856 
Jan. 1, 1868 
July 1, 1868 
Jan. 1, 1865 



Treasury-notes under act of Dec. 

23,1857, .... 
Settled and entered as redeemed 

previousto July 1,1858, . $3,639,300 
Redeemed but not entered, . 322,200 



Amount. 



$114,118.54 

107,011.64 
2,883,364.11 
7,600.00 
9,412,700.00 
8,908,341.80 
3,461,000.00 

261,841.57 



$25,155,977.66 



$23,716,300 



3,961,500 



Total debt. 



19,754,800.00 
$ 44,910,777.66 



* For later official statements in regard to the public debt of the United States, if re- 
ceived, see the Additions and Corrections at the end of the volume. There was received 
from loans and Treasury-notes from July 1, 1858, to Sept. 30, 1859, $ 33,108,700. The 
payments on the same account and on account of the public debt during the same period 
were $21,819,785.44. This would make an increase of the public debt, Sept. SO, 1859, 
of 9 10,288,914.56. 



5. StatBBunt o/llu Etptnditvrea of Ikt United Statet for 70 years, exrhsit 
oj Paymtnti on account of tht Fvblic Dtbt and from Tfast Fandi, fra, 
tiom excimled. 



14S UNITED STATES. [18S0. 

6. Slatemait iff tke Reeeipla tnia At Jtalioiuii Treantry, from CutUmt, In- 
Igraat Remitae, and Direct Taxes, and Satei of Public Unit, — fraitunu 

of a Dallar being excluded, —fur 71) years, from lim to IH5tJ » 



BETBKUE AHS SXPINDITUBE. 



I of iht Dtht of lit Untied Sulti, the Total Valve of 
Enorti, "nd iht Total Tonnage, each Year for 60 yeart, J 
IS^, fraclumi ezttudtd. 



IJ90-SI 


Dabt. 


Imporu.1 


Expo«.l 


TDr,ii.gB. 


> 75,463,478 


»B2,2DO,000 


■ »39.217,197 


6<J2,146 




77,227,924 






753,098 






80,352,634 


3i;ioo:noo 


31 


109.573 






78,427,405 


91,800,000 




028,333 


628,317 




80,747,687 


09,766,268 






747,964 




S3 762 178 


81,436,161 




J64!097 






83,064,479 


76,379,406 




860,206 


876^913 


798 


79,228,629 


68,661,700 




627,097 


898.328 




78,408,670 


79,068,148 




366,629 






82 978 2» 


91,252,763 






97S;49a 


aoi 


83,038,051 


111,363,611 




116^935 


1,033,219 


scd 


80,712,632 


76,333,333 




483,160 


,S2 




77,054,688 


61,666,666 








SG 437 131 


85,000.000 


77 


199[074 




806 


83,312,160 


120,600,000 


9t 


666;021 


i;i4o;309 


(M 


75,m,!ai 


129.410,000 




636,963 


i,208,ra6 


807 


69,218,399 


138,600,000 


1« 


313,160 


1,268,648 




65,196,318 


66,990,000 


23 


430,960 


1,242,695 


S09 


67023(92 


69;400;000 


62, 


203.233 


1.360,381 


SIO 


63,173,217 


86,400.000 


66 


767,970 


1,434,763 




48,005,538 


63,4U0,(X10 


61 


316^ . 


1,333,603 




45,209,733 


77,030,000 


» 


(S7.S36 


1,269,997 


313 


66,962.fiS8 


22,005,000 




866,897 


1^,638 


SM 


81,487,846 


12,965,000 




937,441 


1,159,209 




99,833,660 


113.041,274 


S 


567763 


1.868,137 




127,331,934 


147,103.000 




1,373,218 




123,491,966 


99.260,000 




1,899,912 


918 


103,466,634 


131,760,000 




1.226,184 




96,659,648 


87,126,000 




1.260,761 


820 


91,016,566 


74,450,000 




1,380,166 


821 




B2;5S6:734 




1,298.968 


823 


B3l64S!677 


83,241,641 




1.324,699 


823 


90,875,877 


77,679,267 




1.336,666 




90,369,778 


80,519,007 




1399163 


ass 


83,788,433 


96,340,076 




1.423.112 


826 


81,054,060 


84,974,477 




1,634,191 




73,987,357 


79,4^,069 




1.620,608 




67,476,M4 


88,™834 




1741393 


SBB 


68,431.414 


74,492,637 




1.260.798 


830 


48,665,406 


70,876,920 




1,191.776 




39,123,192 


103,191,131 








24,323,335 


101.029,266 




i;439;460 


833 


7,001,699 


108,118,311 




1,606,161 


834 


4.760,093 


12^621,333 




1,768,907 


1836 


3^733 


149.806,743 




1,834,«0 




37.613 


189,990.035 




1,882,103 




I,878,2ii4 


140,989,317 




1,896.686 


838 


4,867,660 


H^717,4M 




1,996,640 




11,983,738 


162,092.133 




E,096.380 




6,136,078 


133,086.946 




3.180,764 


811 


6.737,398 


127,946,177 




3,130,744 


843 


I6,02S,4e« 


100,162,087 




£,093,391 


843 


26,898 963 


64 763 799* 




3.168,603 




36,143,998 


I0e,435,O36t 




3,280,096 


8« 


16,801,647 


117,264,661t 




3.417.002 


846 


94,366,496 


I2l69i;797t 




^663,086 


SIT 


46,659,669 


I46,645,638t 




?839,046 




65,804,450 


164,998,9281 




3,I64.M3 


849 


64,704,693 


I47'.867 439t 




3.334,016 


860 


64,328.338 


178,138.3187 




3,636,464 




62.660,396 


B16,21M,933t 




3.773.439 




67,660.395 


212,946.443r 




4,138.441 




66,338,157 


267.978,«7t 




4,407,010 


SM 


41,976,466 


304,6633817 




4W2,«e 




39.969,731 


B6l.468,R»t 




6,313,001 


8U 


30.963,910 


314,639,9437 




4,871.693 


857 


36,165,165 


360,890,1417 


363.960v6a2r 




1808 


44.910,778 


392,6131607 


324;644S2lt 





148 



UNITED STATES. 

XI. COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. 



[1860. 



1. Value of Different Article? Imported. 

Value of Goods, Wares, and. Merchandise imported into (he United States in 
alt Vessels, from July 1, 1857, to June 30, 1858. 

[The letters n. o. p. mean not otherwise provided for.] 



Species of Merchandise. 



Value. 



Species of MerchaDdise. 



Frbb of Duty. 

inimals, living, of all kinds, $ 81,331 

Argols, or crude tartar, 66,786 
Articles. 
From British provinces under 

reciprocity treaty. 14,572,255 

All for use of United States, 13,178 

Produce of U. S. brought back, 1,244,692 
Specially for seminaries of 

learning, &c., 64,341 
Crude used in dyeing or tan- 
ning, 322,456 
Bark, Peruvian, 813,134 
Bells, old, and bell-meUl, 473 
Berries, nuts, &c., for dyeing or 

composing dyes, 12,823 
Bismuth, 3,266 
Bitter Apples, 1,575 
Bolting Cloths, 107,612 
Bone black, 619 
Bone, burnt, 9,296 
BrtisB. 
Old, 12,490 
Piffs, 470 
Bullion. 
Gtold, 2,286,099 
Silver, 408,879 
Burr-stones, unmanufactured, 65,423 
Cabinets of coins, medals, dec., 14 
Coffee, 18,341,031 
Coins. 
Gold, 9,279,969 
Silver, 7,299,549 
Copper. 
For sheathing vessels, 1 1 1 ,698 
In bars or pigs, 745,932 
Old, 322,619 
Ore, 1,131,362 
Cotton, unmanufactured, 41,356 
Dragon's blood, 223 
Dyewoods, in sticks, 887,486 
Effects. 
Personal and household, 40,296 
Personal, of emigrants and oth- 
ers, including wearing ap- 
parel and tools of trade, kc. , 232,825 
Household, of persons or fami- 
lies arrivinc in U. S., 47,139 
Personal and household, of citi- 
zens dying abroad, 1,671 
Felt, adhesive, for sheathing ves- 
sels, 10,843 
Flax, unmanufactured, 197,934 
Glass, old, and fit only to be re- 
manufactured, 364 
Hair of the alpaca goat or other 

like animals, 500 

Ivory, unmanufactured, 401 ,337 

Linseed, not embracing flax-seed, 3,243, 1 74 



Madder, Root, 

Ground or prepared, 
Manures. 

Guano, 

Other substances expressly for 
manure, 
Maps and Charts, 
Models of inventions and im 

provements in the arts, 
,Oils and products of American 
fisheries. 

Oils, spermaceti, whale, and 
other fish, 

Other products of fisheries. 
Old junk and oakum, 
Paintings and statuary, 
Palm leaf^ unmanufactured, 
Plaster of^ Paris, unmanufiu^t'd, 
Platina, unmanu&ctured. 
Rags, of every material, except 

wool, 

Rattans and Reeds, unmanuf 'd, 
Seeds, trees, shrubs, bulbs, plants. 

Sheathing metal, no part iron, 

ungalvanized. 
Shingle bolts and stave bolts, 
Silk, raw or reeled, from the 

cocoon. 

Specimens of natural histor7,A&c, 
Tea, 

Tin, Bars. 
Blocks, 

Pigs, 
Wool, sheep's, unmanufactured, 

not over 20 cents per lb., 
All other articles. 

Total free of duty. 



Value. 



Patimo Dutibs ad Valorem. 

Acids. 

Acetic, benzoic, boracic, Ax., 

Acetous, chromic, nitric, &c.. 

Alum, 

Arrow Root, 
Bark, Quilla. 

Of all kinds, n. o. p.. 
Beer, Ale, and Porter. 

In casks. 

In bottles. 
Black-lead pencils. 
Boots and shoes, other than 

leather. 
Borax, refined, 
Brass, and Manufactures of. 

Pins, in packs or otherwise. 

Sheet and rolled. 

Wire, 

Manufactures of, not specified. 



• 78,144 
643,642 

525,376 

56 
6,562 

3,866 



199,258 

137,654 
62,331 

604,634 
34,880 
82,313 

•37,581 

971,126 
171,813 

392,440 

183,394 
3,889 

1,300,065 



6,777,295 
228,426 
470,023 
594,258 

3,843,320 
460,263 



80,319,275 



113,736 

592 

3,514 

19.573 

600 

26,963 

146,095 

485,039 

93,779 

30,754 
67,890 

33,132 

281 

2,136 

166,935 



I860.] 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. 



149 



Species of Merchandise. 



Bnadstufft. 

Barley, 

Indian com and cornmeal, 

Oats, 

Oatmeal, 

Rye, 

Ryemeal, 

Wheat, 

Wheat-flour, 
Brimatone. 

Crude, 

Rolled, 
Bristles, 

Brushes uid brooms, 
Butter, 
Buttons, 

Metal, 

All other, and button-moulds, 
CamphoTf Crude, 

Refined^ 
CandUa. 

Spermaceti, 

Stearine, 

Wax, 
Cheese, 
Chloride of lime, or bleaching 

powder, 

Chronometers, and parts tliereof, 
Clockg and Watches. 

Clocks, and parts thereof, 

Watches, and parts thereof, 

Watch materials, and unfin 
ished parts of watches, 
Clothing. 

Articles of wear, 

Reaiiy made. 
Coal, 

Cochineal, 
Cocoa, 
Coffee, from places^other than of 

its production, 
CSopper, and Manufactuna of. 

Copper bottoms. 

Nails and spikes, 

Rods and bolts, 

Wire. 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Cordage. • 

Tarred and cables, 

Untarred, 
Cotton^ Manufaeturea of, plain. 

Cords, galloons, and gtmps. 

Hatters' plush, cotton and silk, 

Hos'y and art. made on frames. 

Piece eoods. 

Thread, twist, yam, 

Velvets, 

Manufactures not specified. 

Cottons^ bleached, printed^ 

painted, or dyed. 

Piece goods, wholly of cotton, 

All other manufactures wholly 
of cotton, 
Daguenreotypo plates. 
Dolls and toys of all kinds, 
EngraFiniErs or plates. 
Extracts & decoctions of logwood 

and other dye-woods, n. o. p., 
Extract of madder, 
Extract of Indigo, 

18* 



Value. 



$10,368 

34,936 

95 

3,305 

772 

9 

26,651 

19,818 

249,317 

9,639 

265,720 

170,078 

6,757 

12,788 

483,141 

92,953 

4 

923 

34,466 

7,808 

152,272 

387,101 
9,090 

64,058 
2,118,838 

44,139 

961,614 
322,024 
772,925 
221,332 
213,644 

28,759 

5,194 

68 

8 

213 

104,032 

73,627 
96,632 

40,969 

4,818 

2,120,868 

741,077 

1,080,671 

298,134 

966,017 



Species of Merchandise. 



12,391,713 

320,863 

1,828 

350,486 

133,069 

4,038 

40,667 

382 



Feathers and flowers, artificial or 

ornamental, 
Fiah, dried, smoked, or pickled. 

Fish, dried or smoked, 

Herrings, 

Mackerel, 

Salmon, 

All other, 
Fish in oil. sardines and all other, 
Flax, and Manufaeturea of. 

Hosiery and articles miuie on 
frames. 

Linens, bleached orunbleached. 

Manufactures of, not specified, 

Tow of flax (codilla). 
Floor cloth, patent, painted, 

&c., 
Pruita, green^ ripe, or dried. 

Currants, 

Dates, 

Figs, 

Lemons, 

Limes, 

Oranges, 

Plums, 

Prunes, 

Raisins, 

Other green, ripe, or dried 
fruits, 

Fruit preserved ip sugar, bran 
dy, icc.f 
Furs. 

Dressed, on the skin. 

UndressecL on the skin. 

Hatters' furs, dressed or un 
dressed, not on the skin, 

Manufactures of fur. 
Glass, and Manufactures of. 

Bottles. 

Demijonns, 

Crystals for watches, 

Painted or colored glass. 

Polished plate glass. 

Porcelain, 

Silvered glass. 

Ware, cut, 
" plain. 

Window glass, broad, crown, 
and cylinder. 

Manufactures of, not specified. 
Glaziers' diamonds. 
Glue. 

Gold and Silver, Mant^ac- 
tures of. 

Epaulettes, galloons, laces, tas- 
sels, tresses, &c., 

Gems, set, 
" not set. 

Gold and silver leaf. 

Jewelry, real, or imitations of. 

Silver plated metal, 
" " ware, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Grass^oth, 
Gums. 

Arabic, Barbary, copal, &c.. 

All other, and resins in a crude 
state. 
Gum, benzoin or Benjamin, 
Gunny bags, 



Value. 



$654,452 

111,709 

906 

369 

2,446 

6,209 

274,137 



5,316 
6,598,571! 
953,436 
29,691 

1,336 

342,869 

31,567 

308,472 

301,492 

2,024 

476,694 

158,580 

133,524 

1,441,471 

236,066' 

121,058 

199,714 
321,936 

876,156 
54,412 

29,841 

32,016 

35,141 

33,103 

397,310 

3,276 

198,109 

101,496 

63,661 

626,747 

138,249 

1,633 

14,637 



36,294 

3,916 

339,241 

40,087 

385,946 

6,731 

8,439 

66,282 

32,144 

389,402 

118,277 

6,803 

420,966 



150 



UNITED BTATES. 



[1860. 



Spocies of Merchandise. 



Gunny cloth, 
{Gunpowder, 
Gutta Pereha. 

Manufactures ofl 

Unmanufacturea, 
Hair. 

Manu^tures of, 

Unmanuiactured, 

Angora, Thibet, and all other 
goats' hair, or mohsur, 

Piece goods, 

Unmanufoctured, 
Hata and Bonnets. 

Of straw or other TegetaUe 
substance, 

Of hair, whalebone, or other 
material, not otherwise pro 
Tided for, 
Hemp, and Manufactures of. 

Burlaps, 

Cotton bagging, „ „ ^ . 

Sail-duck, Russia, Holland, and 
Ravens, 

Ticklenburgs, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 

Unnuinufactured, 

Towof(codilla), 
Honey, 
India-Rubber. 

Manufactures oi. ' 

Unmanufoctured, 
Indigo, 

Ink and ink powders, 
Ironand Steel^Mdnufactures of. 

Anchors, and parts thereof, 

Anyils, and parts thereof. 

Bar iron, 

Cables, chain. 

Cutlery, 

Fire-arms not specified, 

Hoop iron, 

Mustcets and rifles, 

Nails, spikes, tacks, a&c. 

Needles, 

Old and scrap iron. 

Pig iron. 

Railroad iron, 

Rod iron. 

Saws, mill, crossHSUt, and pit. 

Sheet iron. 

Side-arms, 

Steel, cast, shear, and German, 

All other. 

Wire, cap or bonnet. 

Other manufactures of iron not 
specified. 

Manufactures of 8teel,all other, 
Irory, manufactures of, 

" black, 
Jute, sisal, grass, coir, &c., 
LaceSf ^. 

Braids of cotUMO, 

Embroideries of cotton, linen, 
silk, and wool, 

Insertlngs of cotton, 

Laces of cotton, 

Laces of thread. 

Trimmings of cotton, 
Lanl, 



Value. 



1,016,801 
4,458 

686 
41,648 

67,725 
263,472 



515,641 
1,371 



1,182,837 



14,352 

78,221 
8,296 

7,592 

528 

520,029 

331,307 

40,931 

149,915 

89,245 
666,583 
945,083 

23,410 

8,072 

45,275 

3,318,913 

155,406 

1,489,054 

382,610 

273,326 

17,024 

100,481 

202,163 

87,113 

739,949 

2,987,576 

426,499 

34,210 

945,073 

4,747 

1,147,773 

725,338 

6,900 

2,260,402 

970,133 

15,094 

45 

2,296,709 

13,971 

2,845,029 

88,007 

405,439 

189,494 

112,263 

422 



Species of Merchandise. 



Lasting and mohair-doth lor 

buttons and shoes, 
Lead, and Manufactures of. 

Bar, pig, sheet, and old, 

Pipes, 

Siiot, 

Manufactures not specified^ 
Leather, and Manufactures of. 

Boots and shoes, 

Gloves, 

Japanned leather, or skins of 
all kinds. 

Skins, tanned and dressed, 

Skivers, 

Tanned, bend, sole, and upper. 

Manufactures not specifiea. 
Liquorice. 

Paste, 

Root, 
Machinery to manufacture flax 

and linen, 
Marble. 

Manu&ctures of^ 

Unmanufacturea, 
Mathematical instruments. 
Matting, Chinese or other, of 

flags, jute, Ac, 
Mecus and VegataMes, 

Bacon, 

Beef, 

Ham, 

Pork, 

Potatoes, 
Meats, game, poultry, and vege- 
tables, prepared in cans or oth- 
erwise. 
Molasses, 

Musical instruments. 
Nuts. 

Almonds, 

Cocoa-nuts, 

Nuts not otherwise provided 
for. 

Oil and Bone of foreign Fish- 
ing. 

Spermaceti, 

whale and other fish, 

Whalebone, 
Oil. 

Castor, 

£saentiaI,oxpre88ed,or volatile, 

Hempseed and Rapeseed, 

Linseed, 

Neat's-foot, and other animal, 

Olive, in casks, 

Olive, in bottles, 

Palm and cocoa-nut, 
Oil-cloth of all kinds. 
Opium, 
Paints, Pttint^ns* colors, ^. 

Litharge, 

Ochre, dry. 

Painters' colors, 

Paris white, 

Red lead, 

Spanish brown, in oil, 

Sugar of lead, 

Water colors. 

White lead, 



YaluB. 



$65,090 

1,972,243 

1,601 

8,132 

855 

87,101 
1,449,672 

226,142 

806,412 

36,976 

1,259,711 

278,946 

477,995 
18,217 

1,643 

16,491 

167,634 

21,437 

216,441 

1,725 
11,606 

7,329 

595 

97,160 



45,320 

4,116,759 

378,928 

213,146 
42,656 

236,907 



167 

18,470 
13^475 

143,458 
231,736 

14,631 
164,767 
4,127 
110,172 
199,616 
406,681 

21,649 
447,634 

7,639 
12,634 
27,368 

6,162 
60,662 
392 
12.&f2 
29,012 
68,774 



I860.] 



COMMERCE AND KATIOATION. 



151 



Species of Merchandise. 



Whiting, 

Paints not specified, 
Paper f and Manufaeturea of. 

Blank boolcs, 

Boxes, paper, 

Boxes, foncy 

Cards, playing, 

Hangings, 

Papier-mach^, articles and 
wares of, 

Writing-paper, 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
Parchment. 
Pens, metallic. 
Pewter, 

Old, 

Manufactures of, not specified. 
Printed booka^ magazinea, ^. 

In English, 

In other languages. 

Newspapers, illustrated, 

Perioaicals, 

Periodicals in course of repub- 
lication. 
Quicksilver, 
Raw hides and skins. 
Saddlery. 

Coounon, tinned, or japanned. 

Plated, brass, or polished steel. 
Salt, 
Saitpeirt. 

Cnide, 

Refined, or partially refined. 
Seines, 
Silk, and Mdnufaetwee of. 

Caps, bonnets, and hats. 

Floss silk, 

Hosiery and articles made on 
frames. 

Piece goods. 

Piece goods of silk and worsted, 

Raw, 

Sewing-silk, 

Twist, 

Manufactures not specified, 
9ates of aJl kinds. 
Soap. 

Perflimed, 

Other tlian perfumed, 
Soda. 

Ash, 

Carbonate, 

Sptcea, 

Cassia, 

CimiaiDon, 

Cloves, 

Ouiger, dried, green, ripe, pre- 
served, or pickled, 

Mace, 

Nutmegs, 

Pepper, black, 
red. 

Pimento, 
Spirit; Foreign Distilled, ^c. 

Brandy, 

From grain. 

From other materials, 

Cordiuld, 
Starch, 



Value. 



$20,608 
199,748 

18,343 
15,842 
17,681 
18,695 
104,758 

22,954 

256,322 

123,168 

4,340 

83,630 

2,543 
2,062 

456,450 

175,508 

18,445 

3,619 

158 

1,029 

9,884,368 

56,669 

138,490 

1,124,920 

1,270,251 
383 
979 

94,896 
16,067 

417,168 

16,121,395 

1,249,385 

242,130 

111,912 

11,992 

3,207,043 

86,775 

37,615 
52,786 

1,211,305 
373,699 
123,083 

356,614 
18,419 
63,978 

63,141 

29,983 

378,257 

631,723 

6,493 

203,143 

2,232,452 

1,158,517 

324,906 

104,269 

4,306 



Species of Merchandise. 



Value. 



Sugars. 

Brown, 

Candy, 

Loaf, and other refined, 

Svrup of sugar-cane. 

White, clayed, or powdered. 
Sulphate of baiytes. 
Sulphate of quinine, ^ 
Tanow, 
Tea, from places other than of its 

production, 
7Vn, and Manufactures of. 

Foil, 

Plates and sheets. 

Manufactures of, not specified, 
T\>b<icco. 

Cigars, 

Snuff, 

Manufactured, other than ci- 
gars and snuff. 

Unmanufactured, 
Twine, 

Umbrellas, paras<da, and sun- 
shades, of silk or other. 
Verdigris, 
VUriol. 

Blue or Roman (sulphate of 
copper). 

Green (sulphate of iron, cop- 

Wbite (sulphate of zinc). 

Oil of ^sulphuric acid), 
Wares, China, ^c. 

Chemical, earthen, or pottery, 
over 10 gallons, 

China, earthen, porcelain, and 
stone, 

Britannia, 

Gilt or plated. 

Japanned, 
Wines, in casks. 

Austria and other of Germany, 

Burgundy, 

Claret, 

Fayal and other Azores, 

Madeira, 

Port, 

Sherry and St. Lucar, 

Sicily A other Mediterranean, 

Teneriflb and other Canary, 

Red wines not enumerated, 

Wliite wines not enumerated. 
Wines, in bottles. 

Burgundy, 

CtuuD^Mgna, 

Qaret, 

Madeira, 

Port, 

Sherry, 

All other, 
Woad or pastel. 
Wood. Manufactures of. 

Cabinet ft household mmiture, 

Cedar, 

Ebony, 

Mahogany, 

Rose, 

Satin, 

Willow, 

Other manufactures of, 



$ 

23,317,436 

2,205 

1,001 

6,185 

109,887 

39,968 

64,166 

7,413 

484,620 

25,317 

3,842,968 

27,675 

4,123,206 
6,153 

22,898 

1,266,831 

73,010 

47,790 
21,142 



6,438 

2,414 

1,615 

25 



18,959 

3,215,236 

4,276 

96,991 

29,863 

46,733 

10,864 

385,750 

10,409 

72,429 

226,781 

343,100 

66,612 

3,377 

421,368 

285,125 

2,714 
860,942 
227,246 

1,600 

7,901 

10,069 

273,378 

1,203 

61,958 

1,922 

1,029 

9,978 

12,165 

264 

112,725 

288,334 



152 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Species of Mercbandise. 


Value. 


Species of Merchandise. 


Value. 


Woodj unmanufactured. 

Box, 

Cedar, 

Ebony, 

Oreoadillo, 

Lignumvitn, 

Mahogany, « 

Rose, 

Satin, 

All other cabinet wooda. 

Fire- wood. 

Willow, 

Other woods not specified, 
Bark of the Cork-tree, 

Cork, 

Manufactures of. 

Unmanu&ctured, 
Wool and Worsted, Manufa^ 
turn of. 

Baizes, bindings, h, bockings, 

Blankets, 

Carpeting, tiz., Aubusson, 
Brussels, Saxony, treble, in- 
grained, Turkey, Venetian, 
and other ingrained not speci* 
fied, Wilton, 

Flannels, 

Hosiery and articles made on 
frames, 

Piece goods of wool, including 
wool and cotton. 


$7,507 

68,467 

2,365 

1,686 

14,083 

217,731 

81,440 

835 

260 

4,091 

35,141 

966 

167,181 

86 

13,922 

124,006 
1,674,716 

1,642,600 
137,687 

1,837,661 

7,626,830 


Piece goods of worsted, includ- 
ing worsted and cotton. 

Shawls of wool, wool and cot- 
ton, silk, and silk and cotton. 

Woollen and worsted yam, 

Manufactures of wool or won- 
ted not specified. 

Wool, unmanufiictured, not 
otherwise provided for, 
Zinc. Manufacturee of. 

Nails, 

Sheets, 
Spelter, 

Manu&ctures of zinc not speci- 
fied, 
Valut of Mtrehandiee not enu- 

At 4 percent, 
At 8 " 
At 12 " 
At 16 " 
At 19 " 
At 24 " 
At 30 " 


10,780,379 

2,002,653 
196,285 

663,372 

179,315 

1,156 

28,701 

209.736 

212,823 

4,865 

1,367,425 

291,633 

8,576 

2,314,065 

169,254 

1,496,074 

35,017 


Value of Merchandiee paying 
Dutiee ad valorem, 
Free of Duty, 

Total, 


202,293,875 
80,319,275 


282,613,150 



Year ending June 30, 1854. 

Merchandise at ad valorem, 
" free of duty, 

Total, 
Add Imports at San Francisco, 

Total, 


268,975.060 
32,619,034 


Year ending June 30, 1856. 

Merchandise at ad valorem, 
" free of duty, 

Total, 


• 

257.684,236 

56,955,706 


301,494,094 
3.068.287 


314,639,942 


304,562,381 


Year ending June 30, 1865. 

Merchandise at ad valorem, 
" free of duty, 

Total, 
Deduct for deficiency Ui invoices, 

Total, 


t 

221,378,184 

40,090,336 


Year ending June 30, 1867. 

Merchandise at ad valorem, 
" free of duty, 

Total, 


t 

294,160,835 

66,729,306 


261,468,620 
86,660 


360,890,141 


261,382,960 



For the amount of the imports for the year ending June 30, 1859, see the Additions and 
Corrections at the end of the volume* 

For the annual average price of flour in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltic 
more from 1800 to 1855 inclusive, in New Orleans ftom 1813 to 1855 inclusive, and in St. 
Louis from 1833 to 1835 inclusive ; for the amount of specie, and for the bank-notes in 
circulation at dififerent years between 1800 and 1855 ; and for the amount of coin and 
bullion imported and exported annually from 1821 to 1855 inclusive, see the American 
Almanac for 1857, page 173. 



I860.] 



COMMERCB AND NAYIGATION. 



153 



2. Exports of the Produce of the United States. 

Summary Statement of the Value of the Exports of the Growth^ Produce^ and 
Manufacture of the United States, during the Four Years aiding June 30, 
1858. 



Thb Ska. 
FHsheriea. 

Dried fish, or cod fisheries, 

Pickled fish, or rirer fisheries 
(herring, shad, sahnon, 
mackerel), .... 

Whale and other fish oil, . 

Spermaceti oil, 

whalebone, 

Spermaceti and sperm candles. 

Total Fisheries, . 

Thb Fobbst. 
Skins and furs, . . . . 
Ginseng, .... 
Products of Wood. 
Staves,8hingIes,boards, plank, 

scantling, hewn timber. 
Other lumber. 
Oak bark and other dye, 
All manufactures of wood, 
Naval stores, tar, pitcl^ rosin, 

and turpentine, . 
Ashes, pot and pearl, . 

Total Products of the Forest, 

Agbigultubb. 
Products o/ Animals. 
Beef, tallow, hides, and homed 

cattle, . ... 

Butter and cheese, > 
Fork (pickled), hams, bacon, 

lard, live hogs. 
Horses and mules, . 
Sheep, .... 
Wool, 

Total Products of Animals, 
Vegetable Food. 
Wheat, .... 

Flour, 

Indian com, 

Indian meal, .... 
Rye meal, .... 
Rye, oats, and other small 

grain and pulse, 
Biscuit, or ship-bread. 
Potatoes, .... 
Apples, .... 

Rice, 

Onions, .... 

Total Vegetable Food, 

Tobacco, 

Gotton, 

Hemp, 

All otherAgriculturalProducts. 

f IaLXBvOQ| • • • • 

Hops, 

Brown sugar, 

Glover-seed, . . . . 
Total, other Ag. Products, 
Total Agricul. Products, 

Manufactubbs. 
Soap and candles. 
Leather, boots and shoes, . 
Household furniture, 
Ooaches, carriages, and cars, 



Year ending 
June 30, 18^. 



$ 379,892 



94,111 
485,505 

45,411 
781,680 
136,463 

3,616,894 

709,531 
19,796 



4,916,308 

677,659 

99,168 

3,683,420 

2,049,456 
448,499 

12,603,837 



4,399,615 
932,757 

11,607,165 

191,904 

18,837 

27,802 



17,178,080 

1,829,246 

10,896,908 

6,961,571 

1,237,122 

236,248 

238,976 

657,783 

203,416 

• 107,643 

1,717,953 

64.49 6 

23,651,3^ 

14,712,468 

88,143,844 

121,320 

6,016 

1,310,720 

286,408 

13,57 

1,616,714 
145,423,788 

1,111,349 

1,652,406 

803,960 

290,525 



Year ending 
June 30, 1856. 



Year ending 
June 30, 1857. 



$578,011 



173,939 

526,338 

977,005 

1,036,647 

64,857 

3,366,797 

952,452 
176,706 



4,252,749 
803,684 
121,030 

2,601,683 

1,467,563 
429,428 



10,694,184 



3,047,164 
1,467,991 

12,770,648 

323,972 

18,802 

27,455 



17,655,922 

15,116,661 

29,276,148 

7,622,666 

1,176,688 

214,563 

2,718,620 
497,741 
153,061 
143,884 

2,390,233 
83,742 



69,390,906 

12,221,843 

128,382,351 

28,698 

18,043 
146,966 
404,145 

41,875 



611,029 
218,290,649 

1,200,764 

1,313,311 

962,042 

370,259 



$570,348 



211,383 

363,666 

1,216,888 

1,307,322 

70,038 

3,739,644 

1,116,041 
58,331 



6,966,206 
638,406 
322,754 

3,166,424 

1,763,182 
696,367 

14,699,711 



2,620,341 
1,240,507 

12,467,029 

366,816 

22,758 

19,007 

16,736,466 

22,240,657 

26,882,316 

6,184,666 

967,791 

115,828 

680,106 
563,266 
206,616 
135,280 
2,290,400 
77.048 

68,333,176 

20,260,772 

131,575,859 

46,907 

626 

84,862 

190,012 

330,166 



606,556 
227,558,727 

1,207,483 

1,311,709 

879,448 

476,394 



Year ending 
June 30, la^ 



$487,007 



197,441 

597,107 

1,097,505 

1,105,223 

66,012 



3,550,295 

1,002,378 
193,736 



6,291,996 
1,240,425 

392.826 
2,234,678 

1,564,889 
564,744 



13,475,671 



6,021,348 
1,273,773 

9,430,372 

627,668 

49,319 

211,861 



16,514,241 

9,061,504 

19,326,884 

3,259,039 

877,692 

56,235 

642,764 
472,372 
205,791 

74,363 
1,870,578 

75,626 

36,924,848 

17,009,767 

131,386,661 

47,875 



41,704 
375,062 
332,250 



749,016 
201,632,408 

934,303 
1,269,494 
932,4r 
777,£ 



154 



UNITED 8TATBS. 



[1860. 





Year ending Year ending 
June 30, 1853. June 30, 1856. 


Year entiiiig 
June 30, 1857. 

$254,208 


Year ending 


Hats, 


June30,lb58. 
$ 126,525 


t 177,914 


$226,682 


Saddlery, 


64.8S6 


31,249 


45.222 


55,280 


Wax, 


69,905 


74.006 


91,983 


85,926 


Beer, ale, porter, and cider, 


45.069 


45,086 


39,732 


59,532 


Snuffand tobacco,maaufactared, 


1,500.113 


1,829,207 


1,458,553 


2,410,224 


Linaeed oil, .... 


49,580 


67,190 


54,144 


48,225 


Spirits of turpentine, 


1,137,152 


839,048 


741,346 


1,089,282 


Cables and cordage, . 
Iron. 
Pig, bar, and nails, 


315,267 


367,182 


286,163 


212,840 


288,337 


286,960 


397,313 


205,931 


Castings, .... 


306,439 


288,316 


289,967 


464,415 




3,153,596 


3,585,712 


4,197,687 


4,059,528 


Spirits from molasses, . 


1,448,280 


1,329,151 


1,216,635 


1,267,691 


Spirits from grain. 


384,144 


600,945 


^'^'X^ 


476,722 


Spirits from ottier materials, 


101,336 


95,484 


120,011 


249,432 


Sugar, refined, .... 


526,463 


360,444 


368,206 


200.724 


Ctiocolate, .... 


2,771 


1,476 


1,932 


2.304 


Gunpowder, .... 


356,051 


644,974 


396,244 


365,173 


Copper and brass, and manu* 
racturesof. 










690,766 


534,846 


607,064 


^'^'i^ 


Medicinal drugs, 


788,114 


1,066,294 


886,909 


681,278 


Cotton Piece Oooda. 










Printed or colored. 


2,613.655 


1,966,845 


1,785,686 


2,069,194 


White otiier tlian duck, 


2,793,910 


4,290,361 


3,463,230 


1,698,136 


Duclc, .... 


113,366 


325,903 


252,109 


183.889 


All other manufactures of, 
Total of Cotton Goods, 


336.250 


384,200 


614,153 


1,800,285 
6,651,604 


6,857,181 


6,967,309 


6,115,17'^ 


Flax and Hemp. 










Cloth and thread, . 


2,506 


802 


1,066 


1,326 


Bags & other manu&ctures of, 


34,002 


25,233 


33,687 


87,766 


Wearing'-apparel, . 
Combs ana buttons, . 


223,801 


278,832 


»«^,442 


210,695 


32,049 


32,653 


39,799 


46,349 


Brooms and brushes of all kinds. 


10,856 


8,335 


7,324 


49,163 


Billiard-tables and apparatus, . 


4,916 


2,778 


733 


8,791 


Umbrellas, parasols, sun-shades, 


8,441 


5,989 


6,846 


6,339 


Morocco and other leather not 










sold per pound, . 


36,046 


6,765 


2.119 


13,099 


Fire-engines and apparatus, 
Printing-presses and type, . 
Musical instruments, 


14,829 


29,088 


21,524 


7,290 


36,406 


67.617 


62,747 


106,498 


106,857 


133,617 


127,748 


99,275 


Books and maps, . 
Paper and stationery, 


207,218 


202,502 


277,647 


209,774 


185,637 


203,013 


224,767 


229,991 


Pamts and rarnish. 


163,096 


217,179 


223,320 


131,217 




17,281 


26.ra4 


30,788 


24,336 


Earthen and stone ware. 


32,119 


66.696 


34,256 


36,783 


Glass, manufiictures of. 


204,679 


216,439 


179,900 


214,606 


Tin, •» . . 


14,279 


13,610 


6,622 


24,186 


Pewter 8c lead, manufactures of, 


6,233 


5,628 


, *'^ 


27,327 


Marble and stone, " 


168,646 


162,376 


111,403 


138,690 


Gold and silirer, and gold-leaf, 










manufactures of, . 


9,051 


' 6,116 


- 16.477 


26,386 


Gold and silver coin and bullion, 


63,957,418 


^'^S'S? 


60,078,352 


43,407,246 


Artificial flowers and jewelry, 


22,043 


26,386 


28,070 


28,901 


Molasses, .... 


189,830 


154,630 


106.003 


115,693 


Trunks and valises, . 


35,203 


32,457 


37,748 


69,441 


Bricks and lime. • . 


67,393 


64,297 


68,002 


103.821 


Salt 


156,879 


311,495 


190,699 


162,650 


Coal 


637,006 


677,420 


616.861 


658,014 


Lead, 


14,296 


27,512 


68,624 


48,119 




190,793 


191,744 


219,816 


200,625 


Quicksilver 


806,119 


831,724 


€66,480 


129,184 


India-rubber boots and shoes, 


686,769 


427,936 


331,126 


115.931 


All other manufactures of. 


722,338 


665,602 


312,387 


197,448 


Lard oil, and oii-cake, 


822,534 


1,298,202 


1,279,479 


1,496,819 


Articieenot enumerated. 










Manufactured, . . • 


3,274,843 


3,559,613 


3,292,722 


2,601,788 


Other articles (raw produce), 
Total 


1,545,618 


1,119,296 


1,266,828 


1,561,940 


$246,708,663 


$310,586,330 


$338,936,065 


$293,768,279 



I EiroRTs TO FoRBioK CouirrBiii, 



" thB Pupil 8'M«." *?^j ^ 



^9^ 



^mn^Bmmm 



flUP 



4. ToMMAox OF Vessels ekoageo in Foreign Tiude, 
During the Year ending June 30, 1858. 



Countries. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
16 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
43 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 



Russia on the Baltic and North Seaa, . 
Russia on the Black Sml, .... 

Asiatic Russia, 

Russian Posaesaions in North America, 

Prussia, 

Sweden and Norway, 

Swedish West Indies, 

Denmark, 

Danish West Indies, 

Hamburg, 

Bremen, 

Other Crerman ports, 

Holland, 

Dutch West Indies, ..... 

Dutch Guiana, 

Dutch East Indies, 

Belgium, 

England, 

Scotland, 

Ireland, ....,., 

Gibraltar, . . , 

Malta, ........ 

Canada, 

Other British North American Possessions ' 
British West Indies, . . . . . 

British Honduras, 

British Guiana. 

Other British Possessions in South America, 
British Possessions in Africa, 

British Australia, 

British East Indies, 

France on the Atlantic, .... 
France on the Mediterranean, 
French North American Possessions, . 
French West Indies, . . . . . 
French Guiana, . ... 
French Possessions in Africa, 
Spain on the Atlantic, ..... 
Spain on the Mediterranean, . , . . 
Canary Islands, ...... 

Philippine Islands, 

Cuba, ........ 

Porto Rico, 

Portugal, • . • 

Madeira, 

Cape de Verde Islands, 

!»»««♦ 

Sardmia, 

Tuscany, 

Papal Slates, ... . . * 

Two Sicilies, . . . . " . 

Austria, ' 

Austrian Possessions in Italy, 

Ionian Republic, 

Greece, 

Turkey in Europe, . . .*.'.* 

Turkey in Asia, . . . . • . 

Egypt, 

Other ports in Africa, . . . . 

60|Hayti, . ... . . . . ' 

61 San Domingo, .... 

62| Mexico, 

63 Central Republic, . . . . ' . ' . 

64 New Granada, 

65j Venezuela, 

66jBrazil, ' . * 

67lUruguay, or Cisplatlne Republic, . 

68| Buenos Ayres, or Argentine Republic, . 

69.Chili, . . " . . 

70Bolivia, . . . . • • • • 

71iPeru ' . ' . ' 

72 Ecuador . . . 



American Tonnage- 



Entered. Cleared. 



12^911 

525 

132 

2,578 

6,091 
2,976 

28,601 

6,242 

25,058 

20,995 

6,807 

5,019 

7,322 

39,201 

835,308 

16,390 

1,384 

1,441 

424 

1,344,717 

171,024 

101,332 

7,6(» 

6,763 

■ 8,227 

6,402 

93,233 

221,076 

19,056 

240 

8,100 

2,207 

16,583 
21,247 

1,642 

23,389 

668,521 

63,313 

3,777 

1,011 

3,603 

8,672 

15,013 

41,534 
7,698 



1,207 
10,907 

18,477 
48,679 

2,781 
66,645 

7,796 

110,126 

25,150 

89,675 

3,781 
17,297 
16,760 

98,180 
326 



21,698 

132 
2,447 

1,363 
2,654 

22,516 

1,052 

26,611 

18,390 

10,031 

6,779 

9,387 

27,974 

863,484 

28,711 

18,298 

8,485 

2,782 

1,364,680 

242,407 

117,974 

6,430 

12,763 

13,664 
60,381 
63,875 
209,816 
17,972 

1,136 
27,226 

1,687 

364 

29,333 

20,531 

1,459 

3,122 

649,389 

40,034 

6,680 
870 

1,847 

6,319 
16.886 

1,931 

4,325 

8,691 

6,748 

300 

6,590 

4,277 

2,828 

14,096 

33,108 

3,441 

68,578 

3,428 

119,766 

16,284 

86,242 

13,864 

.25,170 

28,657 

279 

35,565 

984 



Foreign Tonnage. 



Entered. Cleared. 



2,235 

1,523 
3,753 



3,767 

66,896 

112,164 

267 

12,293 

1,692 

796 

1,032 

6,740 

328,721 

66,816 

10,122 

2,184 

922,920 

390,926 

39,429 

4,070 

4,853 

880 
3,319 
4,732 
16,412 
2,477 
3,100 
9,336 

744 

2,217 

24,935 

932 

61,354 

9,065 

1,671 

475 
1,211 
1,862 
6.513 
3,066 

15,297 
2,065 

138 
890 

817 
2,317 

630 
4,786 

670 
7,439 

968 

1,179 

3,164 

19,611 

924 

261 
5,297 

333 
3,858 



1,887 

2,546 

1,517 

425 

1,343 

1,121 

416 

60,374 

86,413 

1,049 

25,016 

1,004 

806 

1,609 

4,431 

364,451 

37,375 

18,725 

1,162 

1,012,3S8 

475,329 

32,762 

2,910 

3,638 



2,971 
10,878 
7,482 
7,756 
3,489 
2,782 
1,440 

1,949 

6,338 

62,387 

2,401 

11,857 
2,2n 
1,676 

218 
2,267 
4,766 

218 

3,763 

1,661 

743 



877 



324 

2,151 

1,187 

14,213 

425 

8I>3 

641 

3,976 

690 

1,216 

7,845 

8.699 



I860.] 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. 



77 

78 



Countries. 



73 Sandwich Islands, . 

Cliina, 

Other ports in Asia, 
76|Other islands in tlu Pacific, 

Whale Fisheries, . 

Uncertain places, . 

Total, . 



American Tonnage. 



Entered. 



11,109 

49,958 

1,444 

1,935 

40,049 

272 



4.395.642 



Cleared. 



15,302 
57,972 

2,063 
64,268 



4,490,083 



Foreign Tonnj 



Entered, 



708 

15,814 

626 

1,313 



2,209,403 



Clea 



10,1 



2.312, 



5. Table showing the QuarU^ and Average Value of Cotton, Rice^ and Tobo 
and the Value of Breadstujffii exported annuallif, from 1821 to 1858, indusi 
[From Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the Finances, Dec. 6, 1868.] 

















Brkadstui 




Cotton. 




RXCB. 


Tobacco. 


AND 


Tears. 














PROVlSIOl 




Average 




Average 




Average 






Pounds. 


price per 


Tierces. 


price per 


Hogsheads. 


^•JST^ 


Value. 






pound. 




tierce. 










cents. 




• 




• 


• 


1821 


124,893,406 


16.2 


88,221 


16.94 


66,858 


84.49 


12,341, 9C 


1822 


144,676,096 


16.6 


87,089 


17.84 


83,169 


74.82 


13,886,8£ 


1823 


173,723,270 


11.8 


101,366 


17.96 


99,009 


63.46 


13,767,84 


1824 


142,369,663 


15.4 


113,229 


16.63 


77,883 


62.34 


15,059,48 


1825 


176,449,907 


20.9 


97,015 


19.84 


76,984 


80.48 


11,634,44 


1826 


204,535,416 


12.2 


111,063 


17.26 


64,098 


83.42 


I1,303,4S 


1827 


294,310,116 


10.0 


113,518 


17.66 


100,026 


65.76 


11,685,6£ 


1828 


210,590,463 


10.7 


175,019 


14.97 


96,278 


64.73 


11.461,14 


1829 


264,837,186 


lO.O 


132,923 


18.92 


77,131 


64.60 


13,131 ,8€ 


1830 


298,459,102 


9.9 


130,697 


16.20 


83,810 


66.66 


12,075,45 


1831 


276,979,784 


9.1 


116,517 


17.30 


86,718 


66.41 


17,638,2S 


1832 


322,215,122 


9.8 


120,327 


17.89 


106,806 


66.17 


12,424,7C 


1833 


324,698,604 


II.I 


144,163 


19.04 


83,163 


69.20 


14,209,1S 


1834 


384,717,907 


12.8 


121,886 


17.41 


87,979 


74 96 


11,524,0S 


1835 


387,358,992 


16.8 


119,851 


19.94 


94,353 


87.44 


12,009,35 


1836 


423,631,307 


16.8 


212,983 


11.97 


109,042 


92.24 


10,614,15 


1837 


444,211,537 


14.2 


106,084 


21.76 


100,232 


67.82 


9,588,3fi 


1838 


595,952,297 


10.3 


71,048 


24.23 


100,593 


73.48 


9,636,6£ 


1839 


413,624,212 


14.8 


93,320 


26.36 


78,995 


124.47 


14,147,75 


1840 


743,941,061 


8.6 


101,660 


19.10 


119,484 


82.72 


19,067,65 


1841 


530,204,100 


10.2 


101,617 


19.78 


147,828 


86.07 


17,196,10 


1842 


684,717,017 


8.1 


114,617 


16.64 


158,710 


60.11 


16,902,87 


1843* 


792,297,106 


6.2 


106,766 


15.23 


94,454 


4924 


11,204,1S 


1844t 


663,633,456 


8.1 


134,716 


16.20 


163,042 


61.50 


17,970,15 


1845t 


872,905,996 


5.9 


118,621 


18.21 


147,163 


60.76 


16,743,45 


1846t 


M7,G6S,055 


7.8 


124,007 


20.68 


147,998 


67.28 


27,701,15 


I847t 


527,219,958 


10.3 


144,427 


24.97 


135,762 


63.34 


68,701,98 


iwst 


814,274,431 


7.6 


100,403 


23.23 


130,665 


67.78 


37,472,71 


I849t 


1,026,602,269 


6.4 


128,861 


19.94 


101,521 


67.17 


38,155,6( 


I850t 


635,381.604 


11.3 


127,069 


20.71 


145,729 


68.28 


26.051,39 


l*>lt 


927,237,089 


12.1 


105,690 


20.56 


95,945 


96.09 


21,948,6{ 


I852t 


1,093,230,639 


8.0 


119,733 


20 63 


137,097 


73.17 


25,867,QS 


1853t 


1,111,570,370 


9.8 


67,707 


24.4S 


]59,a')3 


70.81 


32,985,3S 


1864t 


987,^33,106 


9.5 


105,121 


25.06 


126,107 


79.42 


65,941,3$ 


1855t 


1,003,424,601 


8.74 


(52,520 


25.61 


(160,213 




38,895,3< 


1856t 


1,-?51 ,431,701 


9.49 


t58,668 


20.01 


1 116,962 




77,187,3( 


1857t 


tl,04«,-M2,475 


12.55 I 


t64,:l32 


19.08 


$156,S48 




74,667^ 


1858t 


1,118,624,012 


11.70 


t64.0l5 


17.46 


t 127,670 




50,633,26 


Toul. 


21,993,602,428 


4,207,767 


4,235,172 


923,373,3$ 



'*'■ Nine months to June 30th. t Year ending June 30th. 

% In 1855, there were, besides the quantities given above. 19,774 barrels of rice, 
12,913 bales and 13,366 cases of tobacco exported ; in 1856, 81,0.38 barrels of rice, 
17,772 hales and 9,384 cases of tobacco : in 1857, 74.309 barrels of rice, and 14,432 I 
and 5,631 cases of tobacco ; and in 1858, 49^283 barrels of rice, and 12,640 bales 
4,841 cases of tobacco. The total value of cotton exported during the year ending < 
30th, 1858 is given at 9131,386,661, and for the whole 38 years, $2,221,592,613;. 
rice for the year, $1,870,578; for the 38 years, $ 83,079,964 ; — of tobacco for the j 
f 17,0.9,767 ; for the 38 years, $318,200,482. 



158 



UNITED 8TATEB. 



[1860. 



6. Average Quarterly Prices of certain leading Articles of Domestic Produce 
at New Yorkyfor the Years ending June 30, 1857, and 1858; and the 
Average Price for the Years ending June 30, 1856, 1857, and 1858. 

[Fcom the Report of the Secretory of the Treasuiy, Dec. 6, 1858, pp. 54, 59. In the 
Report can be found the nunUhlif average prices for the whole three years.] 



Articlee. 



(I 



lb. 



Wheat flour, sup., bbl. 

Com meal, ^* 

Wheat, white, 

western, bush. 

Wheat, red, w>ter, ** 

Wheat, Spring, 

Rye, 

Oats, 

Com, 
Cotton. 

mid. uplands, 

sheetings, heavy, yd. 
Copper, Amer. ingot, lb. 
Glass, window, 8x11 

to 10x15, box. 

Hay, cwt. 

Hemp, undressed, ton. 
Iron, 

pig. " 

common bar, ** 

railroad bar, ** 

Lead, cwt. 

Leather, hemlock sole, lb. 
Molasses, N.Orleans, galL 
Nails. lb. 

Mmtu Stores, 

Spirits Turp'tine, gall. 

Bosin, common 
(310 lbs), 
OUa. 

Sperm, crade, 

Whale, crude. 

Linseed, 
Provisions, 

Pork, mees, 

Beef, State mess. 

Lard, 



bbl. 

CI 



bbl. 
(i 

lb. 

(( 

<( 
cwt. 



Butter, 

Cheese, 
Rice, 
Seeds. 

clover, lb. 

timothy, bush. 

Steel, spring, lb. 

Sugar, New Orleans, " 
Tallow, ♦» 

Tobacco, Kentucky, " 
IVuol. 

common fleece, ^* 

medium fleece, " 



Fiscal Year, 
1856-1857. 


Fiscal Year, 


, 1857-1858. 


M 


M 


M 


ttt 


M 


M 


.s 


.5 


a 


.S 


.s . 


a 


•o 


•o-i 


•o 


•o 


■«^ 


"2 


Quarter en 
Sept. 30. 




II 


1 


1% 
Is 


U 


of 


5 


<3 


Cf 


• 


• 


• 


t 


• 


i 


6.00 


6.18 


6.07 


4.60 


4.23 


4.03 


3.60 


3.37 


4.22 


3.62 


3.25 


3.68 


1.65 


1.70 


1.76 


1.40 


1.32 


1.24 


1.56 


1.63 


1.57 


1.18 


1.16 


1.08 


1.36 


138 


1.28 


.99 


.92 


.89 


.86 


.92 


100 


jre 


.70 


.68 


.44 


.48 


.61 


.41 


.38 


.42 


.65 


.72 


.86 


.76 


.68 


.73 


.12 


.13 


.15 


.12 


.11 


.12 


.08 


.09 


.09 


.09 


.08 


.08 


.25 


.28 


.24 


.21 


.21 


.21 


1.58 


1.65 


1.56 


1.63 


1.61 


1.51 


.56 


.93 


.69 


.68 


.63 


.42 


201.66 


196.33 


177.50 


iia33 


100.00 


121.66 


25.50 


26.50 


25.58 


23.75 


21.25 


20.60 


66.67 


68.33 


63.33 


60.00 


49.33 


47.50 


55.83 


60.00 


64.17 


46.33 


44.67 


46.00 


6.60 


6.59 


7.17 


5.68 


5.87 


6.42 


.26 


.32 


.27 


.22 


.21 


.23 


.61 


.77 


.68 


.38 


.31 


.36 


.04 


.04 


.04 


.03 


.01 


.03 


.41 


.51 


.47 


.41 


.44 


.47 


1.60 


1.68 


1.88 


1.39 


1.39 


1.49 


1.61 


1.43 


1.29 


1.11 


1.14 


1.23 


.79 


.73 


.71 


.65 


.56 


.63 


.91 


.84 


.77 


.69 


.57 


.64 


19.87 


22.08 


24.68 


19.22 


15.88 


17.69 


8.95 


12.17 


14.76 


10.92 


10.00 


11.00 


.13 


.14 


.15 


.12 


.09 


.11 


.17 


.21 


.19 


.17 


.17 


.18 


.08 


.11 


.08 


.07 


.06 


.07 


4.33 


425 


6.04 


3.69 


3.29 


3.60 


.13 


.13 


.11 


.10 


.09 


.07 


3.50 


3.42 


3.73 


2.68 


2.23 


2.12 


.05 


.05 


.05 


.05 


.06 


.05 


.08 


.10 


.10 


.07 


.06 


.06 


.11 


.12 


.12 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.14 


.13 


.15 


.11 


.11 


.12 


.33 


.39 


.37 


.32 


.26 


.25 


.43 


.50 


.48 


.44 


.38 


.37 



Year 

end- 
ing 

June 
30, 

1856. 



i 

7.47 
4.14 

2.06 
1.83 
1.65 
L14 
.44 
.81 

.10 
.08 
.27 

1.63 

..90 

174.46 

26v96 

61.62 

59.26 

6.82 

.22 

.41 

.04 

.41 

1.64 

1.77 
.77 

.87 

19.16 

11.08 

.11 

.20 

.09 

4.97 

.12 
3.31 
.05 
.07 
.12 
.11 

.30 
.43 







Year 


Year 


end- 


end- 


ing 


iflff 


June 


June 


1857. 


185k 


t 


t 


6.23 


4.73 


3.54 


3 67 


1.69 


1.43 


1.66 


1.24 


1.39 


1.02 


.92 


.79 


.49 


.43 


.73 


.76 


.13 


.12 


.09 


.08 


.26 


.22 


i.66 


1.62 


.75 


.69 


201.41 


128.12 


26.69 


22.77 


67.29 


50.04 


57.92 


47.79 


6.66 


6.26 


.28 


.23 


.66 


.43 


.04 


.03 


.46 


.45 


1.69 


1.54 


1.42 


1.19 


.76 


.61 


.87 


.64 


21.20 


19.32 


11.13 


11.67 


.13 


.12 


.20 


.18 


.10 


.08 


4.47 


3.85 


.12 


.09 


3.48 


2.67 


.05 


.05 


.09 


.07 


.12 


.10 


.14 


.12 


.36 


.30 


.47 


.42" 



I860.] COUMKRCK J. 

7, lurontt abo Eifortb or ixcn State, 



8. VailCLl BDIE. 




TB« 


TOWWAOJ; THIR 


or IN T 


Bt Uhitid Staibi 




'During tit Year ending J»u 30. 1858. 




Euu>.* 


CUm of r«wl,. 


TDUlnum 
tKirofTe. 


Toud 

ToniwgB. 
T<™.B5ih.. 




Brin 


SCb»D 

•n. 


OSMlfboSl 


Steaman. 


Alitama, 














1,386 84 


OslLbco^, 






6 








2 109 47 






1 




e 




3J 


T lis 30 


Sr™" 




a 




s . 




20 


3.917 74 














649 93 


t^:: 










3 




614 E2 








6 






688 42 


K.nlurtJ', 












SS 


8,302 74 


Lthiuu, 
















M^nT^ 




S8 


77 






lar 


E£;B69 48 


RhiTlud. 


G 












8,996 33 


BU.i»)u>MU, 


33 




rs 






110 


32,699 41 


Mkhl(ui, 






13 




II 


38 


6,633 4i 


sssr 








1 






MS 85 














6,603 S3 














8 


6,076 77 








3E 








6,7W20 


NawYork, 




3 




M 


43 


133 










ao 






Sit 


1,361 26 




4 




£2 




31 


te 


I9,S2I 34 


1^ [T«rrllor7], 






1 
















14 


IW 






21,683 05 


RhOd.'l»lMd, 














3,111 1 


«ilh Canllu, 












3 


323 87 


^IIU, ' 






E 








■nn^nt. 












1 


231 0? 


SISSS.. 


a 




10 


" 


II 


J 


•■sg 


DiwxlelofCBluffilii*, 






* 131 






. 9,878 Wi 




Tm" 


~dii~ 




JHl 


«« 


!•»= 


n^oOM ,~l 



17NITBD BTATE8. 
or THE TOHAOB 



9. Cdhfiratiti ViBw or ths Tohaob or thi Uhitid Stai 
Front 1»j]& to 1B58, incttttivi, m Totu (96fi( hoI cotaiUd). 







EnrolW 


B.g.l^n 


Ennllodu 


dLiuoHdrannaesln 


roniBgelD 


Yam. 




Jl liUD»l 


Id Whak 


CouUiif 


Cud 


Mackenl 






'"""*'■ 




Fiiharr. 


Tnd.7 


Fi-h.rT. 


FLherr. 




"1816 


854,294 
800,759 


613,833 




479,979 


S 






317 


809.7M 
606,0=8 
613,930 


ai 




603^ 140 
623,6M 


IE 








819,047 


18 




639,0» 


60,943 






Ml 


61^,898 






669,436 


61351 








^'mo 


48 




673,080 


68,406 














666,106 


67,621 








Bflslgra 






689,223 


68419 




2l'609 


SiS 


700,797 






687,273 


70,628 




23061 




737,978 


!12 




666,120 


63,761 




34 06S 


s 


ili 


,37 




7i«;922 
609,868 


74,M8 
10!>Ba 




40197 
39,418 
64 036 




676,876 


til 




616,978 






64471 




BM,4S1 












210 


34 436 


^ 


68«,M9 
7S0,O-i8 


23 




6)9,'627 
744,198 


64)027 
83,720 


4; 


421 


90813 
101,849 






168 






64.403 




082 


122,815 




88S.32I 






792!301 


72,374 






I^SIG 


838 
S3T 




1 as 




S'S 


62,307 
80,661 


fr 


436 
810 


1^656 
154,764 


838 


82a;fiSl 






l,04!;iO5 


70,064 




M9 


193413 




834,1M4 






1,153,651 


Ti,sm 






204;938 


810 


81B,7« 








78,035 


21 


^ 






84S303 


140 




iIot^ 


66.661 




'm 


176)088 


342 


S7H,368 


.1 17,031 




l!(»4o,'763 


64,804 




096 


ass 661 


813 


1,009,316 


,149,597 




1,076 166 


61324 




776 


338,867 




1,083,764 


!1l',330 




1,109,614 


86334 






1I73;179 




1,095,172 


,321,829 




1, 190,898 


89326 


ai 


413 


336,018 




M30,ia8 






1,289,870 


to"*'* 




463 


m'^ 




1,241,312 


|b97;732 




1,452,623 




i 


461 






1,360,886 


793:155 




1,680,988 


e2;66i 




427)891 




I,43S,W1 


,896,073 




1,730110 






isa 


462 394 




l,58S,ni 


,949,743 




1,755,798 


86,646 






625 946 


Fi 


1,7».307 


046132 




1,854,317 


87 476 


6( 


639 


683 607 


ssa 


1,899,449 


2,838,998 




2,008,031 


1IK.669 




546 


613 210 




2,103,674 


2,303,3» 




2,134,256 


109,227 




860 


614,094 


8H 


2,3M^81B 


3,469.(63 




3,273,900 


103194 


si 


041 


fl7B,W7 


855 


2^136 


2,878,884 




9 491108 


102,927 




637 


716^296 




2,191,402 


8,380,349 




3,311,935 


96,818 




,888 


673,077 


857 


2,4S3,W7 


2476,876 




2,300,399 






327 


TOE 784 


8S8 


2,499,741 


a,65o:oe6 




3;36i:695 


110;996 


2i 




729:390 






Ennllcd ud LIciiiHd " ToDiia|« girs U^ellin 
ladlciu bow pun of Uw toul t»iu»t* in >pe- 



;ton raior lo Ibe T«t II 
le giviBg Ibe lot*! tonDi 



American vewela eatered durins the vear 

1858, from foreign counlriei, . 
Foreign vessels entered from do.. 



-ending June 30, Tnnnara. 

10,735 4,3^342 

11,084 2^809,403 

21,759 6.605JH5 

American vessels cleared for Toreign countries, . 11,124 4,490,033 

Foreign veuels cleared for do., 10,155 2,312,759 

Total of American and foreign tssmIb, . , 21,279 6^802,792 



Total of American and foreign vessela, 



I860.] 



COHMEROB ANB NATIOATION. 



161 



Crews of American vesseb entered. Men, 141,897. Boys, 337. Total, 
142,234. 
CrewB of foreign yessels entered. Men, 102,476. Boys, 1,080. Total, 

103,566. 

Crews of American vessels cleared. Men, 144,657. Boys, 405. Total, 
145,062. 

Crews of foreign vessels cleared. Men, 103,777. Boys, 1,047. Total, 
103,824. 

11. Number and Class of Vessels built, and the Tonnage there- 
of, IN THE United States, from 1815 to 1858, indusivB. 







Class of Vessels. 




Tears. 


Ships. 


Brigs. 


Schoon- 
ers. 


Sloops and 
cuud-boats. 


Steamers. 


1816 


136 


224 


681 


274 




1816 


76 


122 


781 


424 




1817 


34 


86 


659 


394 




1818 


63 


86 


428 


332 




1819 


63 


82 


473 


242 




1820 


21 


60 


301 


162 




1821 


43 


89 


247 


127 




1822 


64 


131 


260 


168 




1823 


66 


127 


260 


166 


16 


1824 


66 


166 


377 


166 


26 


1825 


66 


197 


638 


168 


36 


1826 


71 


187 


482 


227 


46 


1827 


66 


153 


464 


241 


88 


1828 


73 


1U8 


474 


196 


33 


1829 


44 


68 


486 


146 


43 


1830 


.25 


66 


403 


116 


37 


1831 


72 


95 


416 


94 


34 


1832 


132 


143 


663 


122 


100 


1833 


144 


169 


625 


185 


66 


1834 


98 


94 


497 


180 


68 


1836* 


25* 


60* 


301* 


100* 


30* 


1^6 


93 


65 


444 


164 


124 


lw7 


67 


72 


607 


168 


136 


183R 


66 


79 


601 


153 


90 


1839 


83 


89 


439 


122 


126 


1840 


97 


109 


378 


224 


64 


1841 


114 


101 


310 


157 


78 


1842 


116 


91 


273 


404 


137 


1843* 


68* 


34* 


138* 


173* 


79* 


1844 


73 


47 


204 


279 


163 


1846 


124 


87 


822 


342 


163 


1846 


100 


164 


676 


355 


225 


1847 


161 


168 


689 


392 


198 


- 1848 


854 


174 


701 


547 


175 


1849 


198 


148 


623 


370 


208 


1860 


247 


117 


647 


290 


169 


1861 


211 


65 


622 


326 


233 


1862 


266 


79 


684 


267 


269 


1863 


269 


96 


681 


394 


271 


1854 


334 


112 


661 


386 


281 


1866 


381 


126 


605 


669 


263 


1856 


306 


103 


694 


479 


221 


1857 


251 


68 


604 


358 


263 


1858 


122 


46 


431 


400 


226 



Total 

number of 

Vessels 

built. 



1,315 

1,403 

1,073 

898 

860 

624 

607 

623 

^622 

781 

994 

1,012 

934 

884 

786 

637 

711 

1,065 

1,188 

937 

607* 

890 

949 

898 

868 

872 

762 

1,021 

482* 

766 

1,038 

1,420 

1,598 

1,851 

1,547 

1,360 

1,367 

1,444 

1,710 

1,774 

2,034 

1,703 

1,434 

1,226 



Total 
Tonnage. 

Tons. 95ths. 



154,624 39 

131,668 04 

86,393 37 

82,421 20 

79,817 86 

47,784 01 

65,866 01 

76,346 93 

75,007 57 

90,939 00 

114,997 25 

126,438 35 

104,342 67 

93,376 68 

77,098 66 

68,094 24 

85,962 68 

144,539 16 

161.626 36 
118,330 37 

46,238 62* 

113.627 49 
122,987 22 
113,135 44 
120,989 34 
118,309 23 
118,893 71 
129,083 64 

43,617 77* 
103,689 29 
146,018 02 
188,203 93 
243,732 67 
318,076 64 
266,577 47 
272,218 64 
296,203 60 
361,493 41 
426,672 49 
635,616 01 
683,460 04 
469,393 73 
378,804 70 
242,286 69 



The amount of recistend tonnage sold to foreigners during the Tear ending June 30, 1868, 
is stated to be 26,906.73 tons; being 40 ships or barques, 13 biigs, 81 schooners, 1 sloop, 
and 6 steamers. Arooum condemnea as unseaworthy, 13,699.46 tons ; being 28 ships or 
barques, 4 brigs, 3 schooners. 2 sloops, and 3 steamers. Amount lost at sea, 46,196.18 tons ; 
being 65 ships or barques, 24 brigs, 9 schooners, and 5 sloops. 



* For nine montlis. 



14* 



162 



UNITED STATES. 



12. Indirect Trade. 



[1860. 



Staiement of the Value of Imports, the Produce and Mctmtfaeture of Ae 
States forming the German ZoU Verein, Switzerland, England^ and other 
countries, during the Year ending June 30, 1858. 



Imported from 


Via the Ports of 


Belgium. 


Bremen. 


England. 


France. 


Baden. .... 

Bavaria, 

Frankfort, 

HesseCCassel Sc Darmstadt), 

Prusaia, .... 

Saxony, 

Wurtemberg, , 

Ck)untries not specified, 

Total Zoll Verein, 
Total Austria, 
Total Belgium, 
Total England, 
Total France, 
Total Hamburg, 
Total Switzerland, 
Total other countries, 

Total value, 


$265,353 

73,788 

69,710 

63,380 

866,649 

8,649 

3,484 

3,510 


$66,776 

469,296 

132,644 

192,410 

1,220,468 

2,195,672 

42,378 

81,666 


$20,344 

8,986 

36,760 

24,101 

993,138 

240,022 

8,388 

132,691 


$89,676 
45,038 

197,298 
74,366 

824,206 

168,142 

46,206 

6,139 


1,359,323 

8/K9 

31,386 
74,869 


4,401,209 
203,940 

31,627 
762,606 

19,821 
373,764 

10,659 


1,464,329 

32,068 

127,240 

6,735,763 

2,577 

1,279,641 

961,686 


1,440,068 
73,982 
65,873 

73,865 

1,290 

2,951,149 

64,441 


1,474,407 


5,803,416 


9,593,293 


4,660,658 



Imported from 


Via the Ports of 


Hamburg. 


Holland. 


New 
Granada. 


Other 
Countries. 


TotaL 


Baden, .... 
Bayaria, . • 
Frankfort, 

He88e(Ca8sel Sc Darmstadt), 
Prussia, .... 
Saxony, 
Wurtemberg, . 
Countries not specified. 

Total Zoll Verehi, 
Total Austria, 
Total Belgium, 
Total England, 
Total France, 
Total Hamburg, 
Total Switzerland, 
Total other countries. 

Total value. 


$40 

66,126 

30,078 

11,807 

690,997 

695,085 

8,826 

3,186 


$ 146,686 
6,568 
10,625 
16,124 
23,660 
14,325 
13,769 
476 


99,348 

1,641 
2,228 


8394 


$588,874 
669,148 
477,116 
276,940 
4,621 /)52 
3,211,695 
125,268 


1,396,144 
71,623 

36,825 
21,961 

33,650 
22,793 


232,221 

3,140 
2,047 
1,449 

34,677 


13,217 

62,276 
166,861 

22,527 

6,979 

315.228 


394 

24,677 

27,394 

•563 

257,919 


10,306,905 

390,342 

186,253 

262,692 

6,780,793 

46,768 

4,646,173 

1,647,302 


1,582,896 


273,534 


577,087 


310,937 


24,266,228 



Exports tOf and Imports from, Canada and other British Possessions in 
Mtrth America, from July 1, 1851, to June 30, 1858. 

[From the Keport of the Secretary of the Treasury, Dec. 6, 1858, p. 343.] 



Year 
ending 
June 30. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Increase of each successive 
year over 1862. 


Foreign. 


Domestic. 


Total. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 


83,853,919 
6,736,556 
9,362,716 
11,999,378 
6,314,662 
4,326,369 
4,012,768 


86,666,097 
7,404,087 
15,204,144 
16,806,642 
22,714,697 
19,936,113 
19,638,959 


8 10,509,016 
13,140,642 
24,666,860 
27,806,020 
29,029,349 
24,262,482 
23,651,727 


86,110,299 
7,560,718 
8,927,660 
15,136,734 
21,310,421 
22,124,296 
16,806,519 


82,631,626 
14,067,844 
17,297,004 
18,620,333 
13,763,466 
13,142,711 


81,440,419 

2,817,261 

9,026,436 

16,200,122 

16,013,997 

9,696,220 


Total, 


45,606,357 


107,359,739 


152,966,096 


96,866,547 


79,402,984 


64,194,454 



I860.] 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. 



168 



13. Statement of F<fteign Imports into, and of the Exports of Foreign Goods 
from, and the Expenses at each Custom-House in eadi Vollection District 
far the Year ending June 30, 1858. 



^* 


Value of Imports. 


Expenses 
at each 
Custom 
House. 


Value of 


Exports. 


Districts. 


Free. 


Paying 
Duties. 


Total 
Imports. 


Foreign 

Dutiable 

Goods. 


Total 
Foreign 
Exports. 

•^92,602 


Passamaquoddy, 


• 389,275 


• 76,425 


• 465,700 


• 31,952 


•62,387 


Fnnchman's Bay, 




1,323 


1,323 


4,704 


te 


Penobscot, 


2,181 


4,920 


7,101 


4,669 


W 




Waldoboroagh, 


6,232 


98 


6,330 


6,869 






Wiscasset, 


680 


3,101 


3,781 


6,666 


• 




Bath, 


12,907 


4,166 


17,073 


6,970 






Portland fc Falmouth, 


98,754 


1,192,449 


1,291,203 


31,449 


313,664 


324,416 


Saco, 


1,463 




1,463 


1,076 






Belfast, 


2,075 


4,978 


7,053 


6,686 






Bangor, 


3,036 


65,339 


68,376 


7,092 






Portsmouth, 


7,631 


10,430 


17,961 


11,720 


46 


101 


Vermont, 


2,152,654 


43,534 


2,196,088 


17,069 


722,660 


727,979 


Newburypoit, 


26,640 


16,295 


41,935 


5,910 






Gloucester, 


68,773 


134,005 


202,778 


6,126 


3,441 


4,062 


Salem and Beverly, 


430,992 


942,982 


1,373,974 


20,154 


101,953 


120,663 


Marblehead, 


29,626 




29,526 


2,218 


449 


509 


Boston&Charlestown, 


13,398,625 


27,034,085 


40,432,710 


386,166 


3,787,216 


6,706,061 


Plymouth, Mass., 


1,447 




1,447 


2,966 






Fall River, 


24,409 


6,804 


30,213 


2,604 






New Bedford, 


78,883 


93,717 


172,600 


7,271 


621 


521 


Edgarrown, 


64 


240 


304 


3,501 






Nantucket, 


3,124 


23,809 


26,933 


2,832 






Providence, 


202,242 


200,037 


402,279 


12,281 


10,994 


11,017 


Bristol and Wanen, 


1,368 


49,111 


50,469 


4,169 


966 


1,322 


Newport, 


3,265 


31,803 


35,068 


6,376 






New London, 


4,469 


3,665 


8,024 


13,289 


1,171 


3,468 


New Haven, 


65,739 


862,705 


928,444 


20,321 


1,228 


4,888 


Fairfield, 


9,563 


• 1,306 


10,869 


1,780 




158 


Stonington, 
Sackett's Harbor, 


768 


7,010 


7,768 


1,667 


826 


1,200 


2,892 


147 


3,039 


3,930 






Genesee, 


271,335 


712 


272,047 


6,748 


4,032 


14,552 


Oswego, 


1,863,279 


7,496 


1,870,774 


14,137 




197,163 


Niasara, 
Buffalo Creek, 


893,578 


23,391 


916.969 


11,824 


21,615 


273,551 


1,366,923 


13,701 


1,380,624 


14,737 


8,787 


80,600 


Oswegatchie, 


949,167 


11,969 


961,116 


8,226 




30,136 


Sew York, 


33,072,690 


137,208,207 


170,280,887 


967,863 


7,461,443 


17,299,097 


Cbamplain, 


1,633,598 


26,298 


1,559,896 


13,666 


829,314 


^'Jl?'Sl 


Cape Vincent, 


1,224,733 


6,661 


1,230,384 


6,684 


267,302 


267,605 


Perth Amboy, 


1,026 




1,025 


4,747 






Newark, 


6,593 




6,693 


1,494 






Philadelphia, 


2,852,258 


10,038,111 


12,890,369 


214,608 


313,995 


374,027 


Presque Isle, 


1,805 


41 


1,846 


2,280 






Delaware, 


2,821 




2,821 


14,701 






Baltimore, 


4,423,217 


4,606,940 


8,930,157 


161,753 


228,308 


664,230 


Georgetown, D. C, 


3,121 


23,399 


26,620 


3,077 






Richmond, 
NorfolkatPortsmouth, 


613,479 


152,427 


666,906 


7,204 


2,196 


13,035 


34,084 


140,913 


174,997 


43,953 




1,000 


Tappahannock, 


2,723 




2,723 


1,606 






Petenburg, 


16,434 


105,731 


122,165 


6,937 






Alexandria, 


62,644 


60,721 


113,265 


6,661 






Camden, 


14,936 


4,785 


19,721 


606 






Edenton. 
Plymouth, N. C, 
Washington, 




631 


631 


397 






2,627 


866 


3,393 


690 






30,766 


3,622 


34,388 


404 






Newborn, 


3,061 


2,896 


6,977 


2,093 






Beaufort, N. C, 




37,163 


37,163 


1,110 






Wilmington, 


127 


72,872 


72,999 


6,230 






Charleston, 


299,711 


1,770,638 


2,070,249 


68.636 


380 


380 


Georgetown, S. C, 




1,270 


1,270 


477 






Savannah, 


46,976 


363,616 


410,692 


34,026 






St. Mary's, 




1,058 


1,058 


719 






Mobile, 


257,691 


349,251 


606,942 


34,863 


2,883 


2,883 


Pensacola, 




604 


604 


2,290 







164 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Districts. 


Value of Imports. 


- w- 

Ezpenses 

at each 

Custom* 

House. 


Value of Exports. 


Free. 


Paying 
Duties. 


Total 
Imports. 


Foreign 

Dutiable 

Goods. 


Total 
Foreign 
Exports. 


Key West, 


• 7,066 


• 22,989 


• 30,055 


•J*^ 






St. John's, 




87 


87 


3,233 






Apalachicola, 




16,401 


16,401 


4,912 






Fernandina, 




117,903 


117,903 


2,475 






New Orleans, 


9,338,920 


10,247,113 


19,586,033 


265,543 


• 378,065| •605,77]) 


Texas, 


350 


71,031 


71,381 


20,530 


296 


296 


Saluria, 


4,668 


37,042 


41,710 


8,232 






Miami, 


5,999 




5,999 


3,990 






Sandusky, 


12,443 


32 


12,475 


13,319 






Cuyahoga, 


161,713 


19,106 


180,819 


6,587 






Detroit, 


626,286 


36,715 


663,001 


17,899 


18,299 


20,676 


Michilimacldnac, 


9,827 


106 


9,933 


4,322 






Chicago, 


174,065 


48,865 


222,930 


14,286 






Milwaukee, 


. 1,651 


105,053 


106,604 


6,226 






Puget's Sound, 


1,231 


11,486 


12,717 


22,827 






Oregon, 


776 


38,802 


39,577 


12,188 






San Francisco, 


3,205,742 


6,778,946 


8,984,688 


425,8861 374,017 


3,003,669 


Sonoma, 




5/)45 


6,045 


3,919 1 




Monterey, 
Total, 








160 


195 


80,319,276 


202,293,875 


282,613,150 


114,906,391 


30,886,142 



XII. THE MINT. 

It is lawful for any person to bring to the Mint gold and silYer 
bullion to be coined; and the bullion so brought is there assayed and 
coined, as speedily as may be after the receipt thereof, and, if of the stand- 
ard of the United States, free of expense, except gold, which is subject to a 
coinage charge of one half of one per cent. But the Treasurer of the Mint 
is not obliged to receive, for the purpose of refining and coining, any de- 
posit of less value than one hundred dollars, nor any bullion so base as 
to be unsuitable for minting. And there must be retained from every 
deposit of bullion below the standard such sum as shall be equivalent to 
the expense incurred in refining, toughening, and alloying the same \ an 
accurate account of which expense, on every deposit, is kept, and of the 
sums retained on account of the same, which are accounted for by the 
Treasurer of the Mint with the Treasurer of the United States. 

Offitera ojtht Mint at Philadelphia, 



Salary. 
J. R. Snowden, Director^ $ 3,500 
James H. Walton, Treasurer^ 2,000 
George K. Childs, Chief Coiner^ 2,000 



Salary. 
James C. Booth, Melter and 

Re&ner, $2,000 

W. £. Dubois, Assist, Assayer^ 1,500 



Jacob R. Eckfeldt, Asaayer^ 2,000 John H. Taylor, Assist, Melter 



Jas. B. Longacre, Engraver, 2,000 



and Refiner f 



1,500 



Ofieers of the Branch at Jfew Orleans^ La, 

Wm. A. Elmore, Superint., $ 2,500 

toward Millspaugh, Assayer, 2,000 

r.F. Bonzano, Melter ^ Refiner, 2,000 



B. F. Taylor, Coiner, 
A. J. Guirot, Treasurer, 



$2,000 
4,000 



I860.] 



THE MINT. 



165 



Officers of the Branch at Dahlonega^ Ga, 
Salary. 



J. M. Patton, Sup. and Treus.^ $ 2,000 
Isaac L. Todd, Assayer^ 1,500 



John D. Field, Jr., Coiner, 



Salary. 
$1,500 



Officers of the Branch at Charlotte, JV. C. 



G. W. Caldwell, Sup. ^Treas,,$ 2,000 
John H. Gibbons, ^ssayer, 1,500 



John R. Bolton, Coiner, $ 1,500 



Officers of the Branch at San Francisco, 



C. H. Henipstead,5ifpennf., $ 4,500 
J. R. Snyder, Treasurer, 4,500 

Joseph fi. Snyder, Assayer, 3,000 



R. W. Slocum, Coiner, 
Louis A. Garnett, MeUerand 
Refiner, 



$3,000 
3,500 



S. F. Butterworth, Superint., $3,500 
John Torry, Assayer, 3,000 

Edward W. Kent, Melt. ^ Ref , 3,000 



Assay Office, Jfew York. 



Clarence Morfit, Assist. Melter 

and Refiner, $2,000 

Andrew Mason, Assist. Assayer, 2,000 



1. Statement of the Deposits for Coinage at the Mint of the United States 

?2kq*^ ^^°'^^^i ^^ *A« -^ssay Office, during the Year ending June 30, 

1858. 



Gold. 
Foreign Coin, . , .$1,6.36,909.23 

Foreign Bullion, . . . 290,135.01 

United States Coin, old standard, . 6,219.27 
United States Bullion, . 49,549,67043 
Do. parted from Silver, . . 12,477.35 

Tot^ofGold, . . •61,494,311.29 
Total Gold and Silver Deposits, 



Less value of gold (» 8,672,401 .88) and silver (i2,3(X),362.21) 
redeposited at the different institations, . , 

Total, 



SiLTBR. 

Deposited, including purchases, S 8,883,482.31 
United States Bullion, parted 

from gold, .... 300,849.36 
United States Bullion (Laice 

Superior), .... 15,62 3.00 

Total of Silver, . « 9, 199,954.67 

$60,694,265.96 



10,872,764.09 
$49,821,501.87 



2. Statement of the Coinage of the Mint and Branches, and of the Assay 
Office, during the Year ending June 30, 1858. 



Denominations. 


Pieces. 


Value. 


Denominations. 


Pieces. 


Value. 


Gold. 

Double Eagles, 
Eagles, 
Half- Eagles, 
Three- Dollars, 
Quarter-Eagles, 
Dollars, 
Fine Bars, 
Unparted Bars, 

Total Gold, 

CoPPBR. 

Cents, 
Half Cents, 

Total Copper, 


1,401,944 

62,990 

164,556 

22,069 

206,253 

230,361 

7,105 

488 


$28,038,880.00 

629,900.00 

772,775.00 

66,177.00 

•515,632.60 

230,361.00 

21,819,779.14 

816,295.63 


SiLVBR. 

Dollars, 

Half-Dollars, 

Quarter-Dollars, 

Dimes, 

Half-Dimes, 

Three-centPieceS) 

Fine Bars, 

Total silver, 

Total Coinage, in- 
cluding Fine and 
unparted Bars, 


8,860,000 
12,079,000 
2,260,000 
6,540,000 
1,266,000 
900 


» 4,430,000.00 

3,019,760.00 

226,000.00 

327,000.00 

37,980.00 

192,557.77 


31,005,900 


8,233,287.77 


2,085,765 
23,400 


52,889,800.29 
234,000.00 


66,491,665 


61,357,088.06 


23,400 


234,000 00 



From June 30, 1858, to June 30, 1859, there were coined at the Mint and branches 
811,636 double eagles, 14,600 eagles, 802343 half-eagles, 11,504 three-dollar nieces, 85,204 
quarter-eagles, 259,065 gold dollars. The value of the gold coined in fine bars was 
S 13,113,876.70 ; in unparted bars, none. The total gold coinage in value for this period 
was 9 30,409,953.70 ; the total silver coinage, including silver baro, was $ 6,833 631 47 ; the 
total cent coinage, $307,000. The whole number of pieces coined in this period was 
53,550,522. Their value was $37,550,585.17. The deposits of gold at the Mint and 
branches during this period were $29,563,380.63: the deposits and purchases of silver 
amounted to $7,336,609.67. The entire deposit of domestic gold at the Mint and 
branches, to June 30, 1859, was $470,341,478.46, of which $451,310,840.26 were fror 
California 



3. Coinagt qf (S« Mini of the United State 
qf (As Brandt Mints Jtoth the Commcn 
and of (As ^tjay Qfict. 



lis year aadlnsJuiw 90. 



I860.] POST-^FPICB DEPARTMENT. 167 

XIII. POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

1. Post-Office Statistics for the Year ending June 30, 1858. 

Number of mail routes, 8,296 ; number of contractors, 7,044 ; length of 
routes, 260,603 miles ; amount of annual transportation in miles, 78,765,491 ; 
cost of same, $ 7,795,418 ; being by coach 19,555,734 miles, at a cost of 
$ 1,909,844, or nearly 9.8 cents a mile ; by railroad, 25,763,452 miles, at 
$2,828,301, or nearly 11 cents a mile; by steamboat, 4,569,610 miles, at 
$1,233,916, or nearly 27i2 cents a mile; by inferior grades, 28,876,695 
miles, at $ 1,823,357, or 6.3 cents a mile.* 

During the year the inland mail transportation has increased 3,859,424 
miles, or about 5.11 per cent, at an increase of $1,173,372 cost, or about 
17.46 per cent, as follows : — Increase of railroad service, 1,495,508 miles, or 
6.05 per cent, at a cost of $ 268,454, or 10.44 per cent ; of steamboat ser- 
vice, 51,491 miles, or 1.10 per cent, at a cost of $241,918, or 24.38 per 
cent ; of service by coaches, 464,804 miles, or 2.43 per cent, at a cost of 
$499,018, or 35.37 per cent; of inferior routes, 1,847,261 miles, or 6.83 
per cent, at a cost of $ 163,892, or 9.87 per cent. The length of railroad 
routes in 1842 was 3,091 miles, and the cost of service, $ 432,568 ; and in 
1852 the length of routes was 10,146 miles, at a cost of $ 1,275,520. 

The number of post-offices, December 1, 1858, was 28,573. There were 
June 30, 1858, 27,977 ; of which 400 were of the class to which postmast- 
ers are appointed by the President, the yearly commissions exceeding 
$ 1,000. There were (June 30) 440 route agents whose -pay was $ 334,750 ; 
28 express route agents, pay $28,000 ; 23 local agents, pay $29,989 ; 1,464 
mail messengers, pay $ 184,634.41. 

The gross revenue for the contract year ending June 30, 1858, was 
$8,186,792.86; total expenditures, $12,722,470.01; making the excess of 
expenditure $ 4,535,677. 17.t The details are as follows : — 

Expenditures, 

Transportation of inland mails. •7,821,656.83 
Transportation of foreign mails, 424,497.34 
Ck>mpensation to postmasters, 2,355,016.28 
Ship, steamboat, and way letters, 16,613.38 
Wrapping-paper, 50,229.67 

Office farniture for post-offices, 2,927.70 



Receipts. 

Letter postage in money, $ 904,299. 13 

Registered letters, 28, 146. i 6 

Stamps and stamped letters, 6,700,314.03 

Newspapers and pamphlets, 591,976.90 

Fines, 85.00 
Excess of emolum'ts of postmasters, 80,644.96 

Letter-carriers, 174,038.10 Advertising, 128,034.92 



Dead-letter money unclaimed, 3,410.66 

Miscellaneous receipts, 3,878.92 

Annual appropriations for mail ser- 
vice perlormed for government, 700,000.00 



Gross revenue for the year, 8,186,792.86 

Total expenditures for the year, 12.722.470 01 



Excess of expenditures, 4.535.677.15 

Add «bad debts," dec., •91.90, 
and deduct •925.35, gain from 
suspense account, it "gives for 

Total deficiency for the year, • 4,534,843.70 



Mail-bags, 38,464.19 

Blanks, 106,277.76 

Mail locks, keys, and stamps, 13,485.09 

Mail depredations and special agents, 73,527.01 
Clerks in post-offices, 918,272.73 

Postage stamps & Stam'd envelopes, 93,019. 10 
Payments to letter-carriers, 1 74,038. 1 

Balance due on British mails, 282,406.17 

Balance due on Bremen mails, 2,859. 14 

Balance due on French mails. 26,343.47 

Balance due on Hamburg mails, 1 ,366. 13 

Miscellaneous payments, 193,556.00 

Total expenditures, • 12,722,470.01 



this 



* There are, besides, eight routes of the aggregate length of 21,087 miles, connecting 
lis with foreign countries. For this service and its pay, seeposf, p. 170. 
\ For the gross receipts and expenditures of the Department for the contract year ending 
June 3f), 1859, see the Additions and Corrections, at the end of the volume. 



168 



UNITED STATER. 



[1860. 



During the year, 2,121 post-offices were established, and 730 were discon- 
tinued, — net increase, 1,391. 4,595 postmasters were appointed to fill 
vacancies by resignations ; 1,998, by removals ; 278, by deaths ; 292, by 
change of names and sites; 2,121, by establishment of new offices;— in 
all, 8,284. 



2. Table of Mail Service for Vie Year ending June 30, 1&S8.* 



States. 


Length 


Annual Transportation 


. 


Total 
Transpor- 


Total 
Cost. 


Mode not 


In 


In 


By 




Routes. 


specified. 


Coaches. 


Steamboat. 


Railroad. 


tation. 




Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


S 


Alabama, 


8,893 


7,158 


1,187 


34 


514 


2,587,546 


324,880 


Arkansas, 


9,708 


7,686 


1,186 


836 




1,709.704 


221,297 


California, 


4,734 


H^.l 


1,301 


1,254 




944,710 


276,897 


Connecticut, 


2,202 


719 


478 


260 


746 


1,404,916 


117,483 


Delaware, 


562 


174 


303 




85 


326,124 


24,590 


Florida, 


4,545 


1,670 


784 


1,971 


120 


664,644 


153,732 


Georgia, 


10,371 


6,947 


1,273 


1,979 


1,172 


3,012,656 


281,103 


Illinois, 


12,915 


!'S! 


1,992 


101 


2,583 


5,292,960 


386,743 


Indiana, 


9,273 


6,728 


1,048 




1,497 


2,968,512 


254,951 


Iowa, 


8,969 


6,395 


2,183 


140 


261 


2,075,127 


140i02i 


Kentucky, 


9,314 


6,838 


1,641 


t614 


221 


2,479,992 


184,822 


Louisiana, 


8,049 


4.707 


943 


t2,229 


170 


2,054,416 


616,977 


Maine, 


4,847 


2,425 


1,945 




477 


1,917,812 


122,348 


Maryland, 


2,950 


1,751 


451 




1748 


1,933,178 


233,846 


Massachusetts, 


3,086 


912 


632 


240 


1,302 


2,345,120 


196,299, 


Michigan, 


7,909 


5,602 


877 


650 


880 


2,266,002 


173,176 


Minnesota, 


7,313 


4,033 


2,600 


680 




1,106,213 


85,746 


Mississippi, 


9,626 


7,118 


1,202 


907 


399 


2,503,692 


286,a';5 


Missouri, 


14,685 


10,710 


3,156 


614 


205 


2,594,311 


460,417 


« New Hampshire, 


1,880 


837 


554 


60 


429 


902,148 


56.995 


New Jersey, 


2,404 


606 


1,331 


12 


466 


1,342,168 


96,949 


New York, 


13,078 


5,055 


4,961 


168 


2,894 


7,969,843 


618.060 


North Carolina, 


9,791 


7,086 


1,986 


213 


606 


2,307,192 


190,8281 


Ohio, 


13,968 


8,341 


2,184 


187 


3,292 


6,565,602 


530,391 


Oregon, 


1,222 


938 


140 


144 




139,000 


33,686 


Pennsylvania, 


13,969 


7,594 


4,702 


55 


1,618 


5,493,353 


374,713 


Rhode Island, 


403 


178 


88 


28 


109 


270,660 


19,859 


South Carolina, 


6,679 


4,534 


348 


880 


917 


1,970,658 


198,206 


Tennessee, 


9,338 


7,398 


1,153 


249 


5.38 


2,391,882 


179.651 


Texas, 


16.836 


11,589 


4,068 


1,140 


39 


2,692,060 


434,200 


Vermont, 


2,349 


546 


1,314 




489 


1,072,814 


83;»4 


Virginia, 


16,141 


10,652 


2,208 


1,135 


1,146 


4,069,214 


354,678' 


Wisconsin, 


7,274 


4,617 


2,044 


83 


630 


1,839,012 


120,6011 


Kansas Ter. 


2,321 


2.000 


321 






349,544 


36.7485 


Nebraska Ter. 


2,032 


1,390 


642 






194,628 


24,635 


New Mexico Ter. 


440 


70 


370 






25,040 


24,536 


Utah Ter. 


1,242 


1,102 


140 






69,968 


33,107 


Washington Ter. 
^ Total, 


285 


105 




180 




24,180 


24.308 


260,603 


165,429 


53,700 


17,043 


24,431 


78,765,491 


7,795,418 


Route and local 
















agents and mail 
















messengers, 
Total, 














577,373 


260.603 


165,429 


63,700 


17,043 


24,431 


78,765,491 


8,372,791 



* The entire service and pay are set down to the State under which the route is numbered, 
though extending into other States, instead of being divided among the States in which each 
portion of it lies. 

t This includes steamboat service from Louisville to Cincinnati. 

t This includes the route from New Orleans to Mobile ; also from Cairo to New Orleans. 

S The Baltimore, Wilmington, and Philadelphia Railroad is under a Maryland number. 



I860.] 



POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



169 



3. Jfumber of Post-Offices, Extent of Post'Routes, and Revenue and Ex- 
penditures of the Post' Office Department ; with the Amount paid to Post- 
masters and for Transportation of the Mail^ since 1790. 



Year. 


No. of 

Posl- 

Offices. 


Extent of 
Post-Routes 
in Miles. 


Revenue 

of the 

Department. 


Expenditiures 

of the 
Department. 


Amount paid for 
Compen. of Transport'!) 
Postmast'rs. of the Mail. 


1790 


76 


1,875 


$37,935 


$32,140 


$8,198 


$22,081 


1795 


463 


13,307 


160,630 


117,893 


80,272 


75,369 


1800 


903 


30,817 


280,804 


213,994 


69,243 


128,644 


1805 


1,568 


31,076 


421,373 


377,367 


111,552 


239,635 


1810 


3,300 


36,406 


661,664 


495,969 


149,438 


327,966 


1815 


3,000 


43,748 


1,043,065 


748,121 


241,901 


487,779 


1816 


3,260 


48,673 


961,782 


804,422 


266,944 


521,970 


1817 


3,459 


63,069 


1,002,973 


916,515 


303,916 


669,189 


1818 


3,618 


59,473 


1,130,235 


1,035,832 


846,429 


664,611 


1S19 


4,000 • 


67,566 


1,204,737 


1,117,861 


375,828 


717,881 


1830 


4,500 


73,492 


1,111,927 


1,160,926 


352,295 


782,425 


1821 


4,660 


78,808 


1,060,087 


1,184,283 


337,599 


815,681 


1833 


4,709 


83,763 


1,117,490 


1,167,572 


365,399 


788,618 


1833 


4,043 


84,860 


1,130,115 


1,156,995 


860,462 


767,464 


1834 


5,183 


84,860 


1,197,768 


1,188,019 


883,804 


768,939 


1835 


5,677 


94,053 


1,306,525 


1,229,043 


411,183 


785,646 


1826 


6,150 


94,053 


1,447,703 


1,366,712 


447,727 


885,100 


1837 


7,003 


105,336 


1,524,633 


1,468,969 


486,411 


942,346 


I8S8 


7,630 


105,336 


1,659,915 


1,689,945 


548,049 


1,086,313 


1829 


8,004 


115,000 


1,707,418 


1,782,132 


559,237 


1,163,646 


1830 


8,460 


115,176 


1,850,583 


1,932,708 


595,234 


1,274,009 


1831 


8,686 


115,486 


1,997,811 


1,936,122 


635,028 


1,262,226 


1833 


9,305 


104,466 


3,368,570 


3,366,171 


715,481 


1,482,607 


1833 


10,127 


119,916 


3,617,011 


3,930,414 


836,283 


1,894,638 


1834 


10,693 


119,916 


3,833,749 


3,910,606 


897,317 


1,925,644 


1835 


10,770 


112,774 


3,993,356 


3,767,360 


945,418 


1,719,007 


1836 


11,091 


118,264 


3,408,323 


3,841,766 


812,803 


1,638,052 


1837 


11,767 


141,242 


4,236,779 


3,544,630 


891,362 


1,996,727 


1838 


12,619 


134,818 


4,238,733 


4,430,663 


933,948 


3,131,308 


1839 


12,780 


133,999 


4,484,667 


4,636,636 


960,000 


3,285,623 


1840 


13,468 


155,739 


4,643,523 


4,718,236 


1,028,925 


3,296,876 


1841 


13,778 


155,026 


4,407,736 


4,499,528 


1,018,645 


3,169,375 


18«i 


13,733 


149,732 


4,546,849 


5,674,752 


1,147,256 


3,087,796 


1843 


18,814 


142,295 


4,396,335 


4,374,754 


1,426,394 


2,947,319 


1844 


14,103 


144,687 


4,337,388 


4,296,613 


1,368,316 


2,938,651 


1845 


14,183 


143,940 


4,389,841 


4,330,732 


1,409,875 


2,905,604 


•l846 


14,601 


152,865 


3,487,199 


4,084,297 


1,042,079 


2,716,673 


•l847 


15,146 


163,818 


3,955,893 


8,979,570 


1,060,228 


3,476,455 


*1848 


16,159 


163,208 


4,371,077 


4,326,850 




3,394,703 


•l849 


16,749 


163,703 


4,905,170 


4,479,049 


1,320,921 


3,ffn,407 


♦i860 


18,417 


178,672 


5,553,971 


5,212,953 


1,549,376 


3,965,786 


*1851 


19,796 


196,290 


6,727,867 


6,278,402 


1,781,686 


8,538,064 


•l853 


20,901 


214,284 


6,935,971 


7,106,459 


1,296,765 


4,235,311 


•l853 


32,330 


217,743 


5,940,735 


7,982,957 


1,406,477 


4,906,308 


♦l854 


33,548 


319,935 


6,955,586 


8,577,434 


1,707,708 


5,401,383 


♦l85fi 


34,410 


337,906 


7,343,186 


0,968,343 


3,135,335 


6,076,335 


♦l88fl 


35,565 


339,643 


7,630,833 


10,406,286 


3,102,891 


6,765,639 


♦l857 


26,566 


343,601 


8,053,953 


11,608,058 


2,286,610 


7,339,333 



170 



UXITKD STATES. 



[18G0. 



4. FoKEiGR Mail Sertiox. 
Foreign Mail Service of the United States in Operation September 30, 1858/ 



Routes. 



Distance 

ii) miles. 



1. New York, by South 
ampton, to Bremen Ha 
ven, 

2. Charleston, by Savan 
nah and Key West, to 
Havana. 

3. Ne w York to Aspin wall, 
Havana to Aspinwall, 
New York, by Havana, 

to New Orleans, 

4. Astoria, by Port Orford, 
San Francisco, Monte- 
rey, and San Diego, to 
Panama, 

6. New York to Liverpool, 

6. New York, by Cowes, 
to Havre, 

7. Aspinwall to Panama, 



8. New Orleans to Vera 
Cruz, 





3,700 
669 



2,000 
1,200 

2,000 
4,200 



3,100 
3,270 

43 

900 



Number 
of trips. 



13 a year 



2anEiontb 



2a 
mo. 



2a month 

20 a year 

13 a year 

2a month 
or as of- 
ten as re- 
quired. 
2a month 



2I,r>S7 



Contractors. 



Not under 
contract. 

M. C. Mor- 
decai. 

M. O. Rob- 
erts, and B. 
R.McIlvain, 
&M.Taylor. 

P^ific Mail 
Steam. Co., 
W. H. Dav- 
idge, Pres. 

E. K. Collins, 
J. &S. Brown. 
Not under 
contract. 
Panama Rail 
road Co. 



Not under 
contract. 



Annual 
Pay. 



60,000 

290,000 
348,250 

385,000 

t 
100,000 



Remarks. 



Mails carried under 
Act June 14, IS5S. 

Contracts withP.M. 
G.,ActsMar.3,'47, 
AJulylO, 1848. j 

Contract with Sec- 
retary of Navy, 
Acta Mar. 3, 1847, 
and Mar. 3, 185L 

Contract with Sec. 
of Navy, & P.M.G. 
Acts Mar. 3, 1847 
and 1851, and June 
14, 1858. 

Cont.withSee.ofN 
Act Mar. 3, 1847.^ 

Mails carried under 
Act June 14, 1858. 

Contract with Post- 
master-GeneraL 



Mails carried onder 
Act June 14, 1858. 



The gross amount accruing to the United States for the fiscal year Ibr 
postages on mails transported by the Bremen line was $92,523.18; the 
net revenue (i. e. deducting commissions P^id postmasters and United 
States inland postages) was $78,491.22. ^y the Collins line the gross 
amount was $100,016.75; the net revenue, $56,707.79. By the *' miscel- 
laneous*' (i.e. the substitutes for the Collins steamships) line, the gross 
amount was $37,599.77; the net revenue, $22,807.55. By the Havre line 
the gross revenue was $97,782.36; the net revenue, $63,366.92. The 
net revenue on the four lines was $221,373.48. The postages on the 
Charleston and Havana line were $9,125.42; by the New York and Cali- 
fornia lines, $295,202.50; by the New Orleans and Vera Cruz line, 
$4,359.37.§ The revenue by the Cunard line was as follows: — Total let- 
ter postage, $557,624.72; the United States* portion, five twenty -fourths, 
being United States inland postage, was $116,171.81; add newspaper 

gostage, $19,124.94; total, $135,29675. On these postages the United 
tates pays for commissions $ 136,257.25, making a deficit of $ 960.50 ; and 
to this should be added for United States inland postage on British mails, 
$ 116,171.81, which makes the whole deficit tothe£>epartment $ 117,132.31. 
The amount of postages for the year, on mails received and sent between 
the United States and British Provinces, under the existing postal arrange- 
ments, by which each party retains what it collects, was $156,479.80, and 
of this there was collected in the United States $65,607.44, and in the 
Provinces $ 70,872.36, giving a balance to the United States of $ 14,735.03. 
In 1854 there was a balance in favor of the Provinces of $1,793.99; in 
1855, a balance in favor of the United States of $4,354.33; in 1856, of 
$ 5,226.81 ; and in 1657, of $ 7,964.12. 

* The service Is substantially the same, October 1, 1859, although the contractors and 
pay may be different. 

t The pay is United States postage (sea and inland) on mails conveyed. 

t The contractors withdrew their steamships, February, 1858. The mails have since 
l»«n transported by temporary steamers for the postages, under the Act of June 14, 1858. 
,«i *^?' receipts of these lines in former years, see the Aifterican Almanac for 1858, pages 
188, 1«4 $ for 1657, page 180 ; for 1858, page 181 ; and for 1859, pago im 



I860.] 



POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



171 



The number of letters and newspapers exchanged between the United 
States and Great Britain, in British mails, during the year, was : — 



Lines. 


Leiiers. 


! Newspapers. 


Received. 


Sent. 


Total. 


Received. 


Sent. 


Total. 


Cunard, 
^ Collins, 
/ Miscellaneous, 
Bremen, 
Havre, 

Total, 


], 3-26,023 

5 176,851 

i 37,110 

122,051 

103,980 


1,051,895 

S 190,362 

i 96,397 

137,231 

127,724 


2,377,918 

S 366,213 

I 133,507 

259,282 

231,704 


1,009,223 

S 119,363 

> 27,210 

106,061 

93,394 


956,247 

S 199,748 

n08,000 

166,141 

139,937 


1,965,470 

5 319,111 

> 135,210 

272,202 

233,331 


1,765,015 


L603.609 


3.368,624 


1,355,261 


1,570,073 


2.925,324 



The number of letters and newspapers exchanged between the United 
States and France during the year, was : — 



Lines. 


Letters. 


Newspapers. 


Received. 


Sent. 


Total. 


Received. 


Sent. 


Total. 


Cunard, 
\ Collins, 
f Miscellaneous, 
Havre, 
Bremen, 


441,941 

S 54,527 

? 26,587 

50,288 

61,452 


437,826 

S 63,019 

) 32,053 

61,086 

45,917 


879,767 
$117,546 
I 68,645 

111,374 
97,369 


110,155 

S 11,869 

I 3,184 

7,454 

11,480 


222,510 

( 32,958 

\ 13,378 

24,548 

22,753 


332,665 

( 44,627 

, 16,562 

32,002 

34,233 


Total, 


624,795 


639,906 


1,264,701 


144,142 


316,147 


460,289 



The number exchanged between the United States and Bremen, in Bre- 
men mails and all by the Bremen line, was: Letters received, 112,734; sent^ 
81,766; total, 194,500. Newspapers received, 9,038; sent, 14,113; total, 
(O«5,lol. 

The number of letters and newspapers exchanged between the United 
States and Prussia in closed mails was : — 



Lines. 


Letters. { 


Newspapers. | 


Received. Sent. 


Total. 


Received. Sent. 


Total. 


Cunard, 

\ Collins, 

\ Miscellaneous, < 
Bremen, 
Havre, 

Total, 


247,324 

( 49.872 

i 6,899 

64,412 

51,257 


387,006 

( 86,604 

45,525 

72,616 

42,150 


634,330 ! 
( 136,476 

62,424 
137,058 

93,407 


15,492 

S 4,837 

) 663 

5,526 

4,814 


50,840 

( 9,478 

j 5;675 

9,481 

6,275 


66,332 

( 14,316 

\ 6,338 

15,007 

11,089 


419,764 


633.931 1 1,053,695 1 


31,332 


81,749 


113,081 



The number of letters and newspapers conveyed in the home lines was 
as follows, viz.: — 



Lines. 


Letters. 


Postage. 


Newspapers. 

3,949,583 
58,222 

136,341 

29,184 


FoBtage. 


New Yor-k, Chagres, and 

California, 
Charleston and Havana, 
New Orleans and Vera Cruz, 
West India Islands, 
Panama, 

Total, 


2,044,266 

76,359 

33,532 

306,411 

40,285 


$255,706.67 

7,960.98 

4,359.37 

40,948.36 

10,377.61 


• 39,495.83 
1,164.44 

2,726.82 
1,167.36 


2,500,853 319,352.99 


4,173,330 


44,564.45 



In 1855, (for the year ending June 30th,) there were carried in the 
British mails, as above, 3,842,228 letters, and 3,154,600 newspapers; in 
1856, 3,909,128 letters, and 3,196,014 newspapers; in 1857, 3,879,076 
letters, and 3,322,052 newspapers ; in the Bremen mails, in 1855, 361,657 
letters, and 16,396 newspapers; in 1856. 353,195 letters, and 23,165 news- 
papers; in 1857, 194,500 letters, and 23J151 newspapers; in the Prvssian 
closed mails, in 1855, 978,442 letters, and 47,734 newspapers; in 1856, 



172 



irniTED STATES. 



[1860. 



974,499 letters, and 63,131 newspapers; in 1857, 1,085,327 letters, and 
90,373 newspapers ; and by the home lines, in 1855, 3,099,997 letters, and 
3,973,264 newspapers ; in 1856, 2,682,437 letters, and 3,643,626 news- 
papers ; in 1857, 2,627,336 letters, and 4,394 newspapers. 

5. Revenue and Expenditure. 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Post-Office under the old Law {prior to 
1845), under the Law of 1845, and under that of 1851. 





Letter Postage. 


Newspapers and 


Total Annual 


Total Annnal 




Pamphlets. 


Receipts. 


Expenditures. 


Average of nine 










years under the 










old law, • 


• 3,807,993 


• 528,979 


• 4,3^,625 


•4,499,595 


Average of the 










six years of the 










law of 1845, 


3,900,000 


791.045 


4,8:)3,197 


4,684,547 


Average of seven 










years under the 
1 lawoflS51, 










5,570,109 


643,606 


7,274.857 


9,753,265 



'* Letter postage '' includes receipts from stamps sold and registered let- 
ters. A reference to the detailed statement of the receipts and expendi- 
tures, ante^ p. 167, will show how the annual receipts, &c. are made up. 

Under the act of 1845, the gross revenue from letter postage fell on in 
1846, the first year of the reduction, $ 988,738.92, or 27 per cent ; in the 
second year, 1847, it increased $ 363,959.49, or 13.6 per cent over 1846. 

In the year ending June 30, 1852, the first year afler the reduction by the 
act of 1851, the gross revenue from letter postage was reduced $1,185,993.73, 
or 2233 per cent ; in 1853 the increase from the same source over that 
of 1852 was $ 246,434, or 5.83 per cent of the whole income from this source 
in 1852; in 1854 the increase over this revenue in 1853 was $950,359, or 
21.25 per cent thereof ; in 1855 the increase over 1854 was $322,281, or 
5.94 per cent; in 1856 the increase over 1855 was $ 244,345, or 4.25 per cent; 
in 18o7the increase over 1856 was $445,170, or 7.39 per cent; in 1858 jfae 
increase over 1857 was $165,909.70, or nearly 2.57 per cent. 

The cost of the transportation of the mails has increased rapidly. In 1845 
it was $2,905,504; in 1850, $2,965,786; in 1855, $6,076,335; in 1858, 
$ 8,246,054. See table, ante^ page 169. 

The details of the receipts and expenditures of the Department for the 
contract year ending June 30, 1857, are given ante, p. 167. 

6. Compensation of Postmasters. 

The commissions allowed postmasters are as follows, viz. : — 

1. On the postage collected at their respective offices, not 
exceeding $ 100 in any one quarter^ 

But if mails arrive regularly at any office between 9 P. M. 
and 5 A. M., then 

2. On any sum between $ 100 and $ 400 in any quarter, 

3. On any sum between $ 400 and $ 2,400 in any quarter, 

4. On any sum over $ 2,400 in any quarter, 

5. On the amount of letters and packets received for dis- 
tribution at general distribution offices, 

6. On newspaper postages in all cases, .... 

7. Box rents not exceeding $ 2,000 per annum. 

No postmaster can receive a larger compensation from commiBsioiui 



60 per cent. 


70 


C( 


50 


u 


40 


c« 


15 


l( 


12^ 


tt 


50 


14 



1660.3 POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT 178 

than $500 per quarter. The postmasteni at New Orleans and Wash- 
ington have special allowances for extra labor. To postmasters whose 
pay does not exceed j|500 in any quarter, one cent is paid for the deliv- 
ery of each free letter or document, except for the delivery of such as are 
fur himself. 

On postages on letters received at a frontier ofSce to be sent to Canada, 
3{l per cent is allowed ; if received from Canada for distribution, 7 per cent 
is allowed. Those postmasters who are required to keep a register of the 
arrival and departure of the mails, are allowed ten cents for each monthly 
return made to the Postmaster-General. Two mills are allowed for de- 
livery of each newspaper not chargeable with postage. Additional allow- 
ances may be made to the postmasters at distributing and separating 
offices, to defray actual and necessary expenses, when the commissions, 
allowances, and emoluments are insufficient. 

The term letter postage includes all postages received, except Cliose which 
arise from newspapers sent from the offices of publication to subscribers, 
and from pamphlets and magazines. 

7. Rates of Postage within the United States.* 

For every single letter in manuscript, or paper of any kind in 
which information is asked for, or communicated in writings 
or by marks, or signs, sent in the mail not exceeding 3,000 
milea, 3 cents. 

Sent over 3,000 miles, . 10 <' 

Upon all letters passing through or in the mail, except such 
as are to or from a foreign country, the postage must be prepaid, 
except upon letters and packages addressed to officers of the 
government on official business, and so marked on the envelope. 
This is not, however, to interfere with the franking privilege. 

For a double letter double the above rates are charged ; for 
a irebte letter, treble the above rates, &c. Every letter or 
parcel not exceeding half an ounce (avoirdupois) in weight is 
a single letter, and every additional weight of half an ounce or 
of less than half an ounce is charged with an additional single 
postage. When advertised, one cent additional is charged on 
each letter. For a letter delivered by a carrier, there is an ad- 
ditional charge of not exceeding one or two cents. 

For drop letters, prepayment optional, (not to be mailed,) each 1 ** 

For all letters or packages (ship letters) conveyed by any ves- 
sel not employed in conveying the mail, . . . .2 

To this charge of 2 cents is added 4 cents, when the letters 
are not transmitted through the mail, but are delivered at the 
post-office where deposited ; and the ordinary rates of United 
States postage are added when the letter is transmitted through 
the mails. 

* Established by the act of March 3, 1S66. 
16* 



a 



174 UNITED STATES. [1860. 

Each newspaper, periodical, unsealed circular, or other article 
of printed matter, not exceeding three ounces in weight, to any 
part of the United States, 1 cent 

For every additional ounce or fraction of an ounce, , . 1 '' 

If the postage on any newspaper or periodical is paid quarterly or yearly 
in advance, at the office where the same is either mailed or delivered, then 
half the above rates are charged. Newspapers and periodicals not weigh- 
ing over one and a half ounces, circulated in the State where published, 
are likewise charged but half of the above rates. 

Small newspapers and periodicals, published monthly or oflener, and 
pamphlets not containing more than sixteen octavo pages each, when sent 
in single packages, weighing at least eight ounces, to one address, and pre- 
paid by affixing postage stamps thereto, are charged only half a cent for 
each ounce or fraction of an ounce, notwithstanding the postage calcu- 
lated on each separate article of such package would exceed that amount 
The postage on all transient matter must be prepaid. 

Books, bound or unbound, not weighing over four pounds, are deemed 
mailable matter, and pay. 

For all distances under 3,000 miles, per ounce, . . .1 cent. 

For all distances over 3,U00 miles, 2 ** 

Fifly per cent will be added in all cases when not prepaid. All printed 
matter chargeable by weight will be weighed when dry. The publishers 
of newspapers and periodicals may send to each other from their respective 
offices of publication, free of postage, one copy of each publication ; and 
may also send to each actual subscriber, enclosed in their publications, bills 
and receipts for the same, free of postage. The publishers of weekly news- 
papers may send to each actual subscriber, within the county where their 
papers are printed and published, one copy thereof free of postage. 

No printed matter shall be sent at the above rates, unless either without 
any wrapper, or with one open at the ends or sides, so that the character 
of the matter may be seen without removing the wrapper ; or if ftiy written 
or printed communication is put on the same afler its publication, or upon 
the cover or wrapper, except the name and address of the person to whom 
the same is sent ; or if anything else is enclosed in such printed paper. If 
these conditions are not complied with, letter postage shall be charged. 

When any printed matter, received during any quarter, has been in the 
post-office for the whole of the succeeding quarter, the postmaster shall sell 
it, and credit the amount of the sales as directed by the Post-Office Depart- 
ment. 

The establishment of private expresses for the conveyance of any letters, 
packets, or packages of letters, or other matter transmissible in the United 
States mail (newspapers, pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals excepted), 
from one city, town, or other place, to any other city, town, or place in th« 
United States, between which the United States mail is regularly trans- 
ported, is prohibited, but letters, &c, may be carried by carriers in stamped 
envelopes. Contractors may carry newspapers out of the mails, for sale or 
Mstribution among subscribers. A penalty of $ 5,000 is imposed on an; 



I860.] POST-OFPICE DEPARTMENT. " 176 

person taking letters through or over any part of the United States for the 
purpose of being sent out of the United States without the payment of 
postage. 

Letters addressed to different persons cannot be enclosed in the same en- 
velope or package, under a penalty of ten dollars, unless addressed to 
foreign countries. 

8. Pritilege of Franking. 

1. The President, ex-Presidents, the Vice-President, ex-Vice-Presidents, 
Mrs. Harrison, and Mrs. Polk, have the franking privilege, as regulated by 
Ibrmer laws. 

2. Members of Congress and Delegates from Territories, from thirty 
days before the eommencemtnl * of each Congress untU the first Monday in 
December after the expiration of their term of office^ the Secretary of the 
Senate, and the Clerk of the House of Representatives, during their official 
terms^ may send and receive free letters or packages not exceeding two 
ounces in weight, and public documents not exceeding three pounds in 
weight. * 

3. The Governor of any State may send free the laws,.records, and doc- 
nments of the Legislature to the Governors of other States. 

4. The Secretaries of the Departments, and Assistant Secretaries ; the 
Attorney-General, Postmaster-General and Assistant Postmasters-General ; 
Comptrollers, Auditors, Register, and Solicitor of the Treasury ; Treasurer ', 
Commissioners of the different Offices and Bureaus ; Chie& of Bureaus in 
the War and Navy Departments, General-in-Chief, and Adjutant- General; 
and the Superintendent of the Coast Survey and his Assistant, may send 
and receive free all letters and packages upon official business, but not their 
private letters or papers. 

5. The Chief Clerks in the Departments may send free public official 
letters and documents. 

6. Deputy postmasters may send free all such letters and packages as re- 
late exclusively to the business of their respective offices; and those whose 
compensation did not exceed $ 200 for the year ending the 30th of June, 
1846, may also send free, through the mails, letters written by themselves, 
and receive free all written communications on their own private business, 
not weighing over one half-ounce, but not transient newspapers, handbills, 
or circulars. 

7. Exchange newspapers, magazines, &c. between editors pass free. 

8. All publications entered for copyright, and which, under the act of 
August 10, 1846, are to be deposited in the library of Congress and in the 
Smithsonian Institution, pass free.f 

For other free matter, see Rates of Postage. 

Public Documents are those printed by the order of either house of Con- 
gress, and publications or books procured or pqrchased by Congress, or 
either house, fbr the use of the members. 

* The commencement of each Congress for this purpose dates fkom the 4th of March 
(i. e. the day next) succeeding the termination of the preceding Congress, 
f See " Titles and Abstracts of Public Laws," No. 13, anu^ pp. 139, 133. 



176 



UNITED STATBB. 



[1860. 



9. Rates of Postage to various Foreign Countries and Cfities.^ 



[The asterisk {*) indicates that in cases where it is prefixed prepayment is optional unless 
the letter be registered ; in all other cases prepayment ia required.] 



COUNTRIES. 



Acapulco, over 2,500 miles 

** under 3,500 miles 

Aden, British mail, via Southampton 

" ** via Marseilles 

" French mail 

Africa (West Ck>ast) , British mail 

Aleiandretta, Prussian closed mail •. . . . 

'* French mail 

<< open mail, via Engl'd, by Am. packet 

" " " by Br. packet.. 

Alexandria, Pnissian closed mail 

'* by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

French mail 

open mail, via Engl'd, by Am. packet. . 

♦' *« by British packet 

via Marseilles, by American packet. . . . 

" " by British packet 

Algeria, French maH 

Altona, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 



fi 



ti 
(i 
it 

u 
tt 



Anegada. See FFest Indies, 
Angostura. See Venezuela, 
Antiipia. See West Indies, 

Arabia, British mail, via Southampton 

'* " via Marseilles 

Argentine Republic. See Buenos Jiyres, 

Ascension, via England , 

Aspinwall, for distances not exceeding 8,500 miles 

" *< exceeding 2,500 miles 

Assumption. See Paraguay, 

Australia, British mail, via Southampton 

" via Marseilles 

by private ship, flrom N. York or Boston 

by French mail....... , 

by Bremen or Hamburg mail, via Mar- 
seilles and Suez 

by Bremen or Hamburg mail, via Trieste 
by mail to San Francisco, thence by pri- 
vate ship 

Austria and its States, Prussian closed mail 

" *^ by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

'* " French mail 

Aux Caves 

Azores islands, via England 

" <* private ship....... 

Baden, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

*< French mail 

Bahamas and other British West India Islands. See 

West Indies 

Batavia, British mail, via Sonthampton 

*< ** via Marseilles 

** French mail 

Bavaria, Pnissian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

** French mail 

Belgium, French mail 

<* open mail, via London, by Amer. packet 



Letters. 



Not ex- 
ceeding 
\ oz. 



Cents. 



39 
30 



•30 



•30 



•15 



•87 



39 



39 
30 
50 



•21 
S9 

•21 



39 
30 



•21 
*21 



Not ex- 
ceeding 
^oz. 



Cents. 

20 

10 

33 

45 

60 

33 

40 
•GO 

21 

5 

•38 

•30 

•60 

21 
5 

21 
5 
•30 
•33 
•22 
•54 



33 
45 



33 
10 
20 

33 

45 

5 

60 

102 
56 

10 

•30 

•15 

•42 

34 

37 

5 

*30 

•22 

•42 



33 

45 

60 

•30 

•15 

•42 

•42 

21 



Printed Matter. 



News- 
papers. 



Cents. 
2 
2 
4 
8 

4 
6 
S 
2 
2 
6 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
6 
3 



4 
8 

4 
2 
2 

4 
8 
2 



6 
3 

6 
4 
2 
6 
3 
2 



4 
8 

6 
3 

2 
8 



Pam- 
phlets 
per oz. 



Cents. 
1 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1 

1 



t Five ceni4 the single letter, of a half-ounce or under, must be added to the rates named 
in this table by "British mall," "via England." or " via London," respectively, if the 
letter is from California, Oregon, or Washington Territory. 



I860.] 



POST-OFFICB DEPARTMENT. 



177 



COUNTRIES. 


Letter^. 


Printed Matter. 


Not ex- 
ceeding 
ioz. 


Not ex- 
ceeding 
i oz. 


News- 
papers. 


Pam- 
phlets 
per oz. 


Belgium, open mail, via London, by British packet 

Belgrade, " " by Amer. packet 

« <* (< by British packet 

•« " <« by French mail.. 

BeyiDiit. Prussian closed mail .................... 


Cents. 

*21 
*30 

39 
30 

39 
*30 

*30 
. *21 


Cents. 

5 

21 

5 

♦42 

♦40 

♦60 

34 

33 

45 

60 

33 

45 
*60 

40 
♦60 

45 
*30 
*10 
*15 
*42 
*10 
*15 
♦30 
*15 
*42 

18 

33 

34 

21 
5 

40 

21 
5 

38 

60 

45 

♦40 

21 

5 

*40 

*60 

21 

5 

21 
37 
10 
20 
18 
34 
20 

21 

5 
21 

5 
60 
10 
20 
34 
33 


Cents. 
2 
2 
2 

6 
3 

6 

6 
10 

6 
10 

6 

4 
6 
2 
3 
2 
1 

6 
3 
2 

6 
4 
6 
8 
8 
6 
8 
8 
6 

6 
6 
4 
4 
6 

2 
2 

2 
4 
3 
3 
6 
6 
3 

8 
8 
4 
4 

3 
3 

6 
4 


Cents. 


** French mail 


1 


Bogota. See A*ei0 Oranada. 

Bolivia 


4 


Bombay. See East Indies. 

Borneo. British mail, via Southamnton 




M « via Marseilles 




" French mail 




Bourbon. British mail, via Southamnton .......... 




*i *< via Marseilles. 




** French mail 




Bonrshas. Prussian closed mail • 




** French mail •■ 




RrAKila. via 'Rnvlanri 




Bremen. Prussian closed <nail .................... 




** Bremen mail. ........................... 


1 


** Hamburs mail. 


1 


** French mail ............................ 


1 


British N. A. Provinces, when not exceeding 3,000m. 

" <* when exceeding 3,000 miles 

Brunswick. Prussian closed mail • 


»21 

30 
33 

m 

*30 
29 

30 




** bv Bremen or Hambure mail 


1 






Buenaventura • 


4 


Buenos Avres. via Ensland • 




Buene Avre. ^^est India Islands. ................ 




Burmali.t via Marseilles, bv Amer. nacket.. . ...... 




" *« by British packet 

Caiffii. Prussian closed mail 


• 


Calcutta .t via Marseilles, bv Amer. nacket* 




" " by British packet 

*' Prussian closed mail... 




** French mail... 




Canada. See British JVdrth American Provinees. 
Canarv Islands, via Enirland 


• 


Candia. Prussian closed mail • 




" open mail, via London, by Amer. packet. . 

«* »' " by British packet.. 

Canea. Prussian closed mail. 




** French mail 




" via Marseilles or Southampton, by Am. pkt. 
«« ■ «* " by Br. pkt. 
Canton. Sea China flat and 2d lines) 




Cape of Good Hope, via England, by Amer. packet. 
Cane de Verde Islands, via Encland .............. 




Cardenas, West India Islands, not over 2^00 miles. 

" " «« over 2,500 miles.... 

Carthairena. ..................................... 




Cavenue. French Guiana ........■...••.....•.••.• 




Central America. Pacific slope, via Panama 

Ceohaionia. Ceriso. Cesme. See Turkey . .....■•.. 


1 


Cevlon. via Marseilles, bv Amer. nacket .......... 




(( (( bv British nacket. 




" via Southampton, by A mer. packet 

" *< by British packet 

** French mail 




Chagres (New Granada), not exceeding 2,500 miles 

*< " exceeding 2,500 miles. . . . 

Chile 


1 

1 
4 


China (except Hong Kong), via Southampton 


' 



t Via Southampton, the letter postage is the same as via Marseilles, the newnpaper 
pofltage ia 6 cents. 



178 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



COUNTRIES. 



China, (except Hons Kong), via Marseilles 

" ** Bremen Sc Hamburg, via Trieste 

« »* " via Suez.. 

" " French mall 

'< by m'l to San Francisco, thence by private ship 

Chincha Islands 

Constantinople, Prussian closed mail 

*•' French mail 

*< by Bremen and Hamburg mail ...... 

(* via Mars, or Soutb'ptuQ, by Am. pkt. 

" " « by Br. pkt. 

Corfu. See Ionian Islands. 

Corsica, by American packet ,. 

»* by British packet 1 

Cuba, when distance does not exceed 9,500 miles.. . 

'* " does exceed 2^00 miles 

Curacoa, W. India Islands, via England 

Cuxhaven, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

•* French mail 

Dardanellei, Praesian closed mail 

*' French mail • 

Demerara. See Oniana, British, 

Denmark, Prussian closed mail 

** bv Bremen or Hamburg mail 

** French mail 

Dominica, same as West Indies, British 

East Indies, via Mars, or Southampton, by Am. pkt. 
" " « by Br. pkt. 

*< Prussian closed mail, via Trieste 

" (English Possessions,) Prussian closed 

mail, via Trieste 

** by Bremen or Hamburg mail, via Mar- 
seilles and Suez 

East Indies, bv Bremen or Hamburg mail, via Trieste 

" French mail 

Ecuador 

Egypt (etcept Alexandria), Br. mU, via Southampton 
** ♦* «» via Marseilles.. 

" " Prussian closed mail .... 

** " Bremen or Hamburg m*l 

" " French mail 

Falkland Islands, via England 

Fayal. See Aiores Islands. 

Florence, Prussian closed mail 

»» French mail 

" Bremen or Hamburg 

Fowchow. See C&tna, Ist and 2d lines. 

France 

Frankfort, French mail 

" Prussian closed mail 

" Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Galatz, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

" via Marseilles or Southampton, by Am. pkt. 
" " « by Brit. pkt. 

Gallicia, Prussian closed mail 

** Bremen or Hamburg 

French mail 

Gallipoli, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Gambia, via England 

Genoa, Prussian closed mail 

'» French mail 

Genoa, Bremen or Hamburg 

German States, .Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 



Letters. 



Not ex- Not ex 



ceeding 
^oz. 



Cents. 
39 

40 
30 



♦30 



*Q1 
*30 

•27 



40 
30^ 

39 

30 

*27 



♦15 
•21 



«90 

•21 
•30 

•21 

•21 



ceeding 
^oz. 



Cents. 

45 

55 

72 

60 

10 

34 
•40 
•60 
•32 

21 
5 

21 
5 

10 

20 

33 
•30 
♦15 
»42 
♦40 
•60 

•35 
•^ 
•54 

21 

5 

70 

38 

72 
64 
60 
34 
33 
45 
38 
•30 
60 
33 

•35 

•54 

•28 

•30 
•42 
•30 
•15 
•40 
•60 

21 
5 
•30 
•15 
•42 
♦40 
•60 

33 
•38 
•42 
♦30 
•30 
•42 



Printed Matter, j 


News- 
papers. 


Pani> 
phleto 
per oz. 


Cento. 


Cents. 


8 




o 


1 


6 




6 




S 


1 


9 




2 




9 




2 




2 




2 




4 




6 




3 




2 




6 




9 


V % 


6 ■ 


■ 


3 




8 




8 




13 




10 




6 


4 


4 




8 




6 




2 


1 


4 




6 




2" 


1 


3 


1 


9 


1 


9 


1 


6 




3 


1 


2 


1 


9 




9 




6 




3 


1 


9 




6 




9 


1 


4 




6 






1 


3 


1 


6 




2 


1 



J 



I860.] 



POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



179 



COUNTEIES. 






(( 
(( 
tt 

Hanover, 
Havana. 



Grerman States, by Bremen or Hamburg mail, (ex- 
cept Baden and Luxemburg). . . . 

Gibraltar, French mail 

open mail, via England, by Amer. packet 
« " by British packet 

Gon ai ves ^ 

Great Britain and Ireland (California, Oregon, or 

Washington Territory excepted) 

Greece, Prussian closed mail 

<* French mail 

by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

via England, by American packet 

** " by British packet 

Guadaloupe, via England 

Guatemala^ Old and^New 

Guiana, British, not over 3,500 miles 

«« " over 2,500 miles 

" Dutch, same as British 

«« French 

Hamburg, by Hambai^ mail direct from New York 

Bremen mail 

Prussian closed mail 

French mail 

Prussian closed mail 

Bremen or Hamburg mail 

French mail 

See Cuba. 

Hayti, via England 

Heligoland, Island of, via England 

Hindostan. See Ecut Indies, 

Holquin, Spanish W. Indies. Same as Outana Brit, 

Holland, French mail 

<* via England, by American packet 

«» « by British packet 

Holstein, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Honduras 

Hong Kong, via England, by American packet . 

*< « by British packet 

<* French mail 

<* by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

** Prussian closed mail 

Ibraila, French mail 

*' Ppissian closed mail 

Indian Archipelago, French mail 

" via Marseilles 

Indies. See East Indies, West Indies, 

Ineboli, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Ionian Islands, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

** by American packet 

by British packets 

via Marseilles 

** via Southampton 

Isle of Pines, Spaninh West Indies. Same as Chiir- 



u 



ana, British. 
Italy. See Sardinian States ; Lombardy ; Modena ; 

Parma ; TStscany ; Papal States ; and Thoo Sicilies. 
Ithica, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Janina, by French mail 

Java, British mail, via Southampton 



Letters. 


Printed Matter. 


Not ex- 


Not ex- 


News- 
papers. 


Pam- 


ceeding 
^oz. 


ceeding 
i uz. 


phlets 
peroz. 

Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


Cents. 




♦15 


3 


I 


21 


42 








21 


2 






5 


3 






34 


6 


4 




♦24 


3 


t 




*4Q 


6 




♦30 


♦60 




1 




♦35 


3 


1 




21 


2 






5 


2 






33 


4 






34 


6 


4 




10 


3 






20 


3 






34 


6 






♦10 


3 


1 




♦15 


3 


1 




♦30 


6 




»21 


♦43 








♦30 


6 






♦15 


3 


1 


*21 


♦42 








33 


4 


4 




33 


4 




•21 


♦42 


3 


1 




21 


3 






5 


3 






♦35 


6 






♦25 


3 


1 


*27 


♦54 


3 


1 




34 


6 


4 




21 


3 




* 


5 


3 




30 


60 
30 








38 


10 




♦30 


♦60 


3 


1 




♦40 


6 




30 


60 






39 


45 


8 






40 


6 




♦30 


♦60 


3 


1 




♦38 


6 




*30 


♦60 


3 






21 


3 






5 






39 




6 






33 


4 






♦38 


6 




♦30 


♦60 






♦30 


•60 






" 


33 


4 





t 8 cents each if not over 3 ounces, and 4 cents an ounce or fraction of an oanc« 
over 2 ounces, to be collected in all cases in th« United States. 



ISO 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



COUNTKIES. 



Java, British mail, via Marseilles 

" " via French mail 

Jaffa, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

*' via England, by American packet 

** " by British packet 

Jamaica. See West Indies. 

Japan, via Southampton 

<* via Marseilles 

Jeremie 

Jerusalem, via England, by American packet 

^< " ' by British packet 

Karikal, French mail 

Kerassunde, French mail 

Labaan, British mail, via Southampton 

" ** via Marseilles 

" French mail c 

Larnica, by French mail 

Lauenburg, Prussian closed mail 

*< by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Latakia, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Liberia, British mail 

Lombardy, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Lubee, Prussian closed mail 

<* by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Luxemburg Grand Duchy, Prussian closed mail.... 

" " French mail 

" " by Bremen or Hamb*gm'l 

Madeira, Island of, via England and Lisbon 

Madras, via Marseilles and Southamp'n, by Am. pkt. 
" « »' by Br. pkt. 

** French mail 

" Prussian closed mail 

Mah6, French mail 

Majorca and Minorca, via England 

Malta, Isl. of, via Mars. & Southampton, by Am. pkt. 
" " " « by Br. pkt. 

" " French mail 

Manila. See Philippine Islands, 

Martinique, via England 

Matanzas. Same as Ouiana^ British. 
Mauritius, British mail, via Southampton and India 
*< " ' via Marseilles and India . . . 

" French mail 

Mexico, for distances under 3,500 miles 

" *' over 2,500 miles 

Mecklenburg (Strelitz, &c.). 'See Oerman States, 

Messina, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Miqiielon, British steamer to Halifax 

" land mail to Halifax 

Mitylene (Metelin), Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Modena, Prussian closed mail 

'* French mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Moldavia, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Moluccas, British mail, via Southampton and India 
" <' via Marseilles and India.... 



Letters. 



Not ex- 


Net ex- 


ceeding 


ceeding 


i oz. 


i oz. 


Cents. 


Cents. 


39 


45 


30 


60 




40 


♦30 


♦60 




21 




5 




33 


39 


45 




34 




21 




5 


♦30 


♦60 


*30 


♦60 




33 


39 


45 


30 


60 


♦30 


♦60 




♦33 




♦25 


•27 


♦54 




40 


♦30 


♦60 




33 




33 




♦15 


•21 


♦42 




♦30 




♦15 


♦21 


♦42 




♦30 


♦21 


♦42 




♦22 


29 


37 




21 




5 


30 


60 




38 


♦30 


♦60 




33 




21 




5 


♦30 


♦60 




33 




33 


39 


45 


30 


60 




10 




20 




40 




22 


•30 


♦60 




5 




10 




40 


♦30 


♦60 




♦33 


♦27 


♦54 




♦25 




.30 




♦32 


♦30 


♦60 




33 


39 


45 



Printed Matter. 



News- 
papers. 



Cents. 
8 



2 
2 

4 
8 
6 
2 
2 



2 

6 

10 



6 
3 
2 
6 
3 
4 
6 
3 
2 
6 
3 
2 
6 

3 

^ 

8 
10 



2 
2 



4 
8 

S 
2 

6 

2 
2 
1 

2 

6 
2 
3 
6 



6 
10 



Pam- 
phlets 
per oz. 



Cents. 



1 

1 



1 
1 

1 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1S60.] 



POST-OFFXCB DBPABTMENT. 



181 



COUNTBIES. 



Moluccas, French mail.., 

Montenegro, by French mail t 

Montevideo, via England 

Mosquitia 

Naples, Kingdom of, Prussian closed mail 

" " French mail 

" " by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Netherlands, The, French mail 

" " via England, by American packet 

« " " by British packet... 

Nevis. See WttA Indies, Britisk. 

New Granada (except Aspinwall, and Panama) .... 
New Providence. See West Indies, Britisk, 
New South Wales. See Australia. 

New Zealand, via Southampton and Suez 

" via Marseilles 

" French mail 

Nicaragua 

Norway, Prussian closed mail 1 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

*' French mail 

Nova Scotia. See British J^orth American Provinces, 

Oldenburg, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Padang, via Marseilles 

'* via Southampton 

Palermo. See SieiUes, The Two, 
Panama, when distance does not exceed 2,500 miles 
" " does exceed 3,500 miles. . . . 

Paraguay, via England 

Paramaribo. See Chiiana, Dutch. 

Parma, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Penang. See East Indies, 

Peru 

Philippine Idands, British mail, via Southampton.. 
" '' via Marseilles.... 

" French mail 

Placentia, Russian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" nench mail 

Poland, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Pondicherry, French mail 

Port au Prince, Porto Bello, Porto Rico 

Portugal, via England 

(^ by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Prevesa, Prussian closed mail 

Prince Edward's Island. See B, JV*. A, Provinces, 

Prussia, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

^' French mail 

Puerto Principe. See Ouiana, British. 

Rhodes, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Rio de Janeiro 

Roman or Papal States, Prussian closed mail 

" " Frenchman '. 

" *'' by Bremen or Hamburg m'l 

Russia, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

16 



Letters. 



Printed Matter. 



Not ex- 
ceeding 
i oz. 

Cents. 
30 
21 



*30 
•21 



39 
30 



•33 



•21 
39 



•27 



39 
30 



27 



•30 
♦30 

29 
30 
21 



•21 
•30 

•27 



Not ex- 
ceeding 
i oz. 



Cents. 

60 

42 

33 

34 

30 
•60 

22 
•42 

21 
5 



16 



33 

45 

60 

34 

♦46 

•38 

♦66 

•30 

•13 

♦42 

45 

33 

10 
20 
33 

•33 

•54 
•25 

22 

33 

45 

60 

30 

•25 

54 

•37 

•29 

♦60 

•60 

34 

37 

42 

42 

40 

•30 
♦15 
♦42 

♦40 
♦60 
45 
♦35 
♦54 
♦28 
♦37 
♦29 



News- 
papers. 



Cents. 



4 
6 
6 
2 

2 
2 
2 



6 



4 
8 

6 
6 
3 



6 
3 

10 
6 

2 
2 

4 

6 
2 
3 

6 

6 

10 

6 



6 
3 



6 

4 



6 

6 
3 



6 
2 

4 
6 
3 



Pam- 
phlets 
per oz. 



Cents. 



1 

1 



4 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1 
1 



1 

4 



1 
1 



1 
1 



182 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Printed Matter. 



COUNTRIES. 



Russia, French mail 

Salonica, Prussian closed mail 

" Frencb mail 

Samsoun, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Sandwich Islands, via San Francisco 

San Juan, San Salvador, San Martha 

Sardinian States, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Saxe-Altenburg, Prussian closed mail... 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

Saxe Coburg-Gotha, Meiningen, and Weimar, Pr. m. 
" »« «* by Bre- 

men or Hamburg mail 
' *■ Meiningen, and Weima r, Fr. m. 

Saxony, Kingdom of, Prussian closed mail 

*^ <* by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" " French mail 

Schleswig, by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" French mail 

*< Prussian cloeed mail 

Scioi b^ French mail 

Scutan (Asia), Prussian closed mail 

'* '^ French mail 

" " open mail, via London, by Am. pkt 

« " " " by Br. pkt.. 

Servia (except Belgrade). Prussian closed mail .... 

*' French mail, via Austria 

ShanghaL See Chma, Ist and 3d lines. 

Siam 

Sicilies, The Two, Prussian mail 

" " Frenchman 

" " open mail, via London, Am. pkt. 

" " open mail, via London, Br. pkt. 

*^ ^* by Bremen or Hamburg mail.. .. 

Singapore. See East Indies. 

Sinope, via England, by Amer. packet 

" ** by British packet 

^* French mail 

" Prussian closed mail 

Sisal 

Smyrna, Prussian closed mail 

'* French mail 

Sophia, by French mail 

Spain, via London, by American packet 

*( ^* by British packet 

" via French mail 

** via Bremen or Hamburg mail 

St. Helena, via England 

St. Thomas, via Havana 

Sulina, French mail 

Sumatra, British mail, via Southampton 

" " via Marseilles 

" French mail 

Surinam 

Sweden, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

" by French mail 

Switzerland, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

" • by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Syria, open mail, via London, by American packet 

" " «* by British packet 

" British mail, via Marseilles, by French pkt . . 
" French mail 



Letters. 



Not ex- 
ceeding 

^oz. 

Cents. 
*30 

♦30 

•30 



*21 
•21 

•21 

•21 

•87 

•30 

30 

91 

•30 



•30 



•30 
♦30 



21 
30 



♦30 

39 
30 



•33 
•21 



33 

30 



Not ex- 
ceeding 
i oz. 

Cents. 
•60 
•40 
•60 
*40 
•60 

10 

34 
•38 
•42 
•30 
•30 
•16 
•42 
•30 

•22 
•42 
•30 
•15 
•42 
•25 
•54 
•35 
•60 

30 

60 

21 
5 

30 

42 

33 

30 

•60 

21 

5 

22 

21 

5 

♦60 

40 

34 

40 
•60 
•60 

21 
5 

42 

42 • 

33 

34 
•60 

33 

45 

60 

34 
•42 
•33 
♦66 
•35 
♦42 
♦27 

21 
5 

45 

60 



News- 
papers. 



Cents. 
2 
6 
2 

2 
2 
6 
6 

3 
6 
3 

6 

3 

6 
3 



6 

6 
2 
2 
3 
6 
3 

4 
6 
2 
3 
2 



9 

9 
2 

6 
6 
2 

9 
9 
9 

4 
6 
9 
6 
10 

6 
6 
3 

6 
9 
3 
9 

9 

4 
9 



Pam- 
phlets 
per oz. 

Cents. 



1 
1 

1 
1 



I860.] 



POST-OFFICE BEFARTHENT. 



18S 



COUNTRIES. 



Tangiers, French mail 

Tasmania. See Van Diemen's Land, 

Tchesme, Pmssian closed mail 

** open mail, yia London, by Amer. packet 

« '* " by British packet 

Tenedoe, « " by Amer. packet 

« ** « by British packet 

*< Pnissian closed mail 

** French mail 

Trd)isond, open mail, via London, by Am. packet 
« « " by Br. packet 

" Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Tiipc4iin Syria, French mail 

Tultcha, French mail 

** Prussian closed mail 

Tunis, French mail 

" British mail, via Marseilles, by French pkt. 
Turkey in Europe and Turkish Islands in the Med- 
iterranean, except as herein mentioned : — 

Prussian closed mail 

By Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Turkey, «pen mail, via London, by American packet 
" *< by British packet... 

Turk's Islaad, under 2,500 miles 

*^ over2,500 miles 

Tuscany, Prussian closed mail 

<* French mail 

'< by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Valona, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

Vancouver's Island, via California 

Van Diemen's Land, British mail, via Southampton 
" " " via Marseilles... 

« " French mail 

Varna, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 

<* open mail, via London, by American packet 
« « « by British packet... 

Venetian States, Prussian closed mail.. 

" French mail 

<* by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Venezuela 

Victoria (Port Philip), via Southampton. 

" " via Marseilles....' 

Volo, Prussian dosed mail 

'* French mail 

Wallachia, Prussian closed mail 

" by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

West Indies, British, via Havana, not over 2,500 m. 
" " *' over 2,500 miles.. 

" " via Halifax 

West Indies, not British (except Cuba) 

Wurtemberg, Prussian closed mail 

*< French mail 

*< by Bremen or Hamburg mail 

Vancoi and Yanaon, French mail 

Yucatan 

Zanzibar, via England 

Zante, Prussian closed mail 

" French mail 



Letters. 


Not ex- 


Not ex- 


ceeding 


ceeding 


i oz. 


^ oz. . 


Cents. 


Cents. 


*30 


♦60 




♦40 




21 




5 




21 




5 




40 


*30 


♦60 




21 




5 




♦40 


*30 


♦60 


♦30 


♦60 


*Q0 


♦60 




♦40 


*30 


♦60 


33 


45 




30 




♦32 




21 




5 




10 




20 




♦35 


*27 


♦54 




♦28 




40 


*30 


♦60 




10 




33 


39 


45 


30 


60 




♦40 


♦30 


♦60 




21 




5 




♦30 


27 


54 




♦15 




34 




38 


39 


45 




40 


*30 


♦60 




♦30 




30 




10 




20 




10 




34 




♦30. 


•21 


♦42 




♦15 


♦30 


♦60 




34 




65 




♦38 


30 


60 



Printed Matter. 




6 
4 
4 



6 

2 

2 
6 
2 
2 
2 
6 
2 
4 



2 
2 
2 
2 
6 
2 
3 



1 
4 

8 

6 
S 
2 
2 
6 
2 
3 
6 
4 
8 
6 
2 
6 
3 
2 
2 
2 
6 
6 
2 
3 
2 
6 
4 
6 
2 



Cents. 



1 
1 
1 



1 
1 
1 

1 
1 



1 

1 
4 



1 
1 
1 



Routes of TransmUsioUy ifc. 

To prevent mistakes at the exchange offices, the particular routes by which letters are 
to be forwarded from the United States to Europe should be distinctly written on the 
coven. Letters for transmission in the open mail to England should bear the direction. 



184 UNITED STATB0. [1860. 

" open mail yia England ; " if for transmission in the French mail, they should be direet- 
ed ^ via France in French mail ; " if for transmission by closed mail to Prussia, they 
should be directed '•* via Prussian closed mail ; ** and if for transmisston by the New York 
and Bremen line to Bremen, or by the New York and Hamburg line to Hamburg, ibey 
should be directed " via Bremen," or ** via Hambui^." Letters addressed to Germany 
and other European countries via France, where the single rate per quarter ounce is 21 
cents, should be plainly marked to be sent via France ; otherwise they may be missent 
in the open mail to Liverpool by U. B. Packet, the 21 cent rate per half-ounce being also 
chargeable on tetters thus forwarded. 

On a letter or packet of any weight the whole postage or none 6t ail sfaonld be prepaid, 
where the prepayment is optional. If anything less than the whole is prepaid, it ie en- 
tirely lost to tA« sender. 

On British sea and American inland postage, the single letter Is jounce and under; 
on foreign postage, the single letter is less than i ounce. Letters weighing i ounce and 
under ^ ounce are charged two rates ; ^ ounce and under f , three rates, &;c. ; an addi- 
tioual rate being charged for each quarter of an ounce. Where a letter pays both Brit- 
ish, &c. postage and foreign postage, if it weighs more than i ounce and less than | 
ounce, it pays a single rate of British, &,e. postage, and two rates for the foreign postage ; 
the foreign postage only being doubled for each i ounce. 

Upon periodicale and pamphlets sent to Great Britain, the rates of postage have been 
given {afUe^ p. 179, note). An additional British postage of the same rate, when not ex- 
ceeding 2 ounces, must be paid in England ; but the third ounce raises the British charge 
to 6d. (12 cents), with Qd, (4 cents) addition^ for each additional ounce. No pamphlet 
can be sent weighing over o ounces, and no periodical over 16 ounces, without being sub- 
ject to letter postage. Pamphlets and periodicals are not entitled to conveyance through 
£n|(land, except addressed to France, Algeria, or cities of Turkey, Syria, or Egypt in 
which France has post-offices. 

Newspapers, penodical works, books stitched or bound, pamphlets, catalogues, paperi 
of music, prospectuses, circulars, and all other kinds of printed matter addressed to 
France, Algeria, or cities of Turkey, Syria, and Egypt in which France has post-offices, 
(viz. Alexandria, Alexandretta, Beyrout, Constantinople, Dardanelles, Galatx, Gallipoli, 
Ibraila, ineboli, Jaffa, Kerassund, Latakia, Messina in Asiatic Turkey, Mi^lene, Rhodes, 
Salonica, Samsoun, Sinope, Smyrna, Sulina, Trebisond, Tripoli in Syria, Tnltclia, Varna, 
and Volo,) can be despatched to France dhreet, or by way of England, on prepayment of 
the United States postage, viz. newspapers, S cents each ; periodical works, catalogues, 
or pamphlets, one cent an ounce or fraction of an ounce ; and all other kinds of pnnted 
matter the same as domestic rates ; to be in all cases collected in the United States, 
whether sent or received. France in like manner collects its own postage on all kinds 
of printed matter, whether sent or received. This mail is sent by evenr steamer. 

The United States exchange offices for French malls are New York, Boston, and 
Philadelphia. 

Newspapers and periodicals published in the United States, and sent to regular sub- 
scribers in the British North American Provinces, or published in those Provinces and 
sent to regular subscribers in the United States, are chai^eable with the regular prepaid 
quarterly rates of United States postage to and from the line ; which postage must be 
collected at the office of mailing in the United States on matter sent, and at the office of 
delivery in the United States on matter received. In like manner, such matter. If tran- 
sient, is chargeable with the regular domestic transient printed matter rates to and from 
the line, to be collected at the office of mailing ot delivery in the United States, as the 
' case may be. Editors, however, may exchange free of expense. 

Letters received from Canada, to which are affixed United States postage-stamps of 
sufficient value to prepay the full postage chargeable thereon, should be delivered with- 
out charge by the iJnited States offices. 

Newspapers and periodicals to the Sandwich Islands, China, and New South Wales, 
must be prepaid the re^lar domestic rates to San Francisco. The rate payable on letters 
at the pomt of destination in the Sandwich Islands is 5 cents, and on newspapers 2 cents 
each. In China and New South Wales the ship postage, it is understood, is compara- 
tively trifling. 

Newspapers and periodicals to foreign countries, and particularly to the Continent of 
Europe, must be sent in narrow bands, open at the sines or end ; otherwise they are 
chargeable there with letter postage. 

Overland mails are made up in London, and despatched as follows : — For Aden, 
Alexandria, Arabia, Burmab, Calcutta, East Indies, Egypt, Hindostan, Madras, Malta, 
and Penang, on the 3d, 10th, 18th, and 26th, of each month, via Marseilles ; and on the 
4th, 12th, 20th, and 27th, via Southampton. For Bombay, on the 3d and 18th of eacb 
month, via Marseilles, and on the 12th and 27th« via Southampton. For Batavia, Borneo, 
Bourbon, Canton, China, Java, Labuan, Manila, Moluccas, Padang, Singapore, and 
Sumatra, on the 10th and 26th of each month, via Marseilles ; and on the 4th and 90th, 
via Southampton. For Australia, Mauritius, New Zealand, and Tasmania, on the 18Ui 
of each month, via Marseilles ; and on the 12th, via Southampton. For Brazil, Buenos 
Ayres, and Montevideo, on the 9th of each month. When any of these dates fall on 
Sunday, the Marseilles mails are despatched the following evening, and the South' 
ampton mails, the previous morning. 



J 



1860.] PoaT-orricY, dbpartment. 186 

10. Reoiitritioh or Littkri. 

The act of March 3, 1855, authorized Ihe PoBtmaiter-General lo esIabliBh 

K uailbrm plan for the regiHtrntioD ofTaluable lelteri posted tor transmis- 

!... -. -I :ij^ Ujj. their greater seniirily, upon Ihe application of partial 



bosllng Ihe aame. A regialralioD fee, to be prepaid, is chai^d upon each 

letter or packet, in addition lo the reaular poatage. The registration is nol 

mpulsorj , nor does It render the United Stales or ihe Department reipou' 



aible for the safe carriage ofiucb letters or packet 

Valuable iMers, addressed lo Germany or any part of the German Aus- 
trian Postal Union, by the Bremen line via New York, or by the Prussian 
closed mail via New York and Boston, as also letters addressed lo Great 
Britain and Canada, will be rtgittertd on the application of the person 

deliTerable in Ihe United Stales, jiTaviiied that the full poslBge chargeable 
thereoQ lo daslinadon, together with a rcgiatralion fee of five cetUe on each 
litter, is prepaid al Ihe mailing ofEce. Such letters should be mailed end 
ibrwardad to the respective United Slates exchange offices, in the eaine 
mnaner as domestic registered letters are mailed lo uiose offices. 
11. Avunailt actually credited for the Trantportatimt of tkt Maile, and ether 
Expenses, by Stales and Territories, and the Jimnint of Fostagia colleeltd in 
the same, in ihe Year endiny June 3D, 185S, fraetioTu of a dollar omitted. 



186 



UNITED STATJB6. 



[I860. 



For all post-offices where the compensatioii of the postmaster exceeds 
$ 1,000 per annum, the postmaster is appointed by the President with the 
advice and consent of the Senote, and is removable by the President only; 
for all other offices, the Postmaster-General has the sole power of appoint- 
ment and removal. 

A surplus of commissions accrued at the following post-offices, after de- 
ducting the maximum compensation of the postmasters, and the necessary 
incidental expenses of the offices, viz. : — 



Albany, N. Y. 
Augusta, Oa. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Buflklo, N. Y. 
Cleveland, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Chicago, III. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Cincinnati^ Ohio, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Davenport, Iowa, 
Dabuoue, Iowa, 
Erie, Pa. 

Galveston, Texas, 
Hartford, Conn. 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 



9 3,463.24 Independence, Mo. $ 1 58.45 

703.14 Jersey City, N. J. 274.99 

1.134 29 Kensington. Pa. 25.76 

22;i26.97;Loui3vilIe, Ky. 1,984.19 

235.87lLancaster, Pa. 64 66 

3,141.42,Lflckport, N. Y. 102.00 

2,476.89| Memphis, Tenn. 1,614.43 

1.86 Milwaukee, Wis. 229 81 

12,586.17 Madison, Wis. 833.24 

368.52 New Bedford, Mass. 238.82 

595.94 Newark, N. J. 319.73 

1,963.98 Nashville, Tenn. 694 25 

193.67 New York, N. Y. 71,130.27 

160 69 New Haven, Coon. 82. 16 

2,567.71 Norfolk, Va. 208.82 

1,907.56 New Orleans. La. 10,647.01 

387.27 Oswego, N. Y. 81 76 

935.97 Portland, Me. 695.89 

579.69 Philadelphia, Pa. 2,841.84 

946.14 Pittsburg, Penn. 2,278.39 



Raleigh, N.C. 


1 121 68 


Richmond, Va. 


438.06 


Rochester, N. Y. 


86009 


Rockford, III. 


192.83 


San Francisco, Cal. 


3,727.33 


Savannah, Ga. 


4093 


Springfield, Mass. 


505 36 


St Louis, Mo. 


9.532.29 


Syracuse, N. Y. 


2S0.65 


Toledo. Ohio, 
Troy, k Y. 


1,861.49 


1,377.07 


Utica, N. Y. 


161.00 


Washington, D. C. 


2,892.98 


Worc6ster,.Ma88. 


430.50 


Williamsburg. N. Y. 


57.87 


Wilmington, Del. 


906.28 


Totfd, $174,28293 



12. Letters, Circulars, J^ewspapers, and Pamphlets^ delivered by Carriers^ 

during the Year ending June 30, 1658. 



Places. 


Number of 
Letters. 


Number of 
Circulars. 


Newspapers Amount for 
& Pamphlets. Carriage. 


Baltimore, Md. . 
Boston, Mass. 
Harrisburv, Penn. 
Lowell, Mass. . 
Manchester, N. H. 
New Orleans, La. . 
New York, N. Y. . 
Philadelphia. Pa. . 
Providence, R. I. 
Roxbury, Mass. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 


886,403 

37,984 

22,257 

96,273 

57,284 

117,289 

3,943,649 

2,040,225 

tl32,l74 

t20,717 

35,802 


34,128 
♦1,304,718 

8,708 

650,809 

39,114 


166,690 

87,786 

2,896 

7,688 

4,430 

11,304 

532,093 

359,822 

21,348 

4,880 


S 18,9(12.73 

13,799.58 

883.25 

1,963.90 

1,167.63 

2,469.36 

87,041.63 

43,069.76 

2,760.22 

438.73 

716,04 ' 

1 


Total, . 


7,390,057 


1,937,477 


1,198,937 


$173,222.97 



The amount of postage accounted for on foreign dead letters returned to 
and sent from the United States, for the year ending June 30th, 1858, was 
as follows: — 



Great Britain to United States, $ 1 ,639 45 

Prussia to United States, 760.84 

Bremen to Unlie<l States, None. 

France to United Slates, None. 

Hamburg to United Slates, 10.15 



United States to Great Britain, $ 1 1 ,646.25 

Uniied States to Prussia, 1,646.42 

United States to Bremen, 660.12 

United Slates to France, None. 

United States to Hamburg, 4.10 



13. Overland Mail Route. — In September, 1858, service comTnenced on 
the overland mail route to California. The mail leaves St. Louis .and 
Memphis, the eastern termini, and San Francisco, the western terminus, 
twice a week. The time for the trip across (2795 miles from St. Louis to 
San Francisco) is 25 days. The contract pay is ^600,000 per annum for 
six years. 

* In this, many letters are included, being of same rate as circulars. 
From October 1,1867. 



I860.] CONGRESS. 187 



XIV. CONGRESS.* 

The Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House of 
Representatives, and must assemble at least once every year, on the first 
Monday of December, unless it is otherwise provided by law. 

The Senate is composed of two members from each State ; and, of course, 
the regular number is now 66. They are chosen by the Legislatures of the 
several States, for the term of six years, one third being elected biennially. 

The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate, 
in which body he has only a casting vote, which is given in case of an 
equal division of the votes of the Senators. In his absence, a President 
pro tempore is chosen from among the Senators by the Senate. 

The House of Representatives is oomposed of members from the several 
States, elected by the people, in separate districts composed of con- 
tiguous territory^ for the term of two years. The Representatives are 
apportioned among the different States according to population, as fol- 
lows. After each decennial enumeration, the aggregate representative 
population of the United States is ascertained by the Secretary of the 
Interior, by adding to the whole number of free persons in all the States, 
including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding 
Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. This aggregate is 
divided by 233, and the quotient, rejecting fractions, if any, is the ratio 
of apportionment among the several States. The representative popula- 
tion of each State is then ascertained in the same manner, and is divided 
by the above-named ratio, and this quotient gives the apportionment of 
Representatives to each State. The loss by fractions is compensated for 
by assigning one additional member to as many States having the largest 
fractions as may be necessary to make the whole number of Repre. 
sentatives 233. If afler the apportionment new States are admitted. 
Representatives are assigned to such States upon the above basis, in 
addition to the limited number of 233 ; but such excess continues only 
until the next apportionment under the succeeding census. The present 
number of Representatives is 237, an additional representative being tem- 
porarily assigned to California, two being allowed to Minnesota, and one 
to Oregon. There are, besides, five Delegates, one each from Utah, New 
Mexico, Washington, Kansas, and Nebraska, who have a right to speak, 
but not to vote. For table of apportionment, &c. among the several States, 
Bee post, p. 214. 

The compensation of members is, mileage (being $ 8 for every twenty 

* The American Almanac for 1844, p. 149, contains a complete list of the Senators and 
Representatives in Congress from the several States, from the commencement of the 
government under the Constitution to the end of the 37th Congress, March 23, 1843, with 
the beginning and termination of their respective periods of office. The American Al- 
manac for 1854, p. 213, brings down the list from the commencement of the 28th Congress 
to tlie end of the 33d Congress, March 8, 1853. 



188 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



miles of travel in the usual road, in going to and returning from the seat of 
government), and $6,000 for each Congress, payable as follows: on the 
first day of each regular session, the mileage and the pay then due from the 
beginniDg of the term, at the rate of $250 a month, and, during the ses- 
sion, compensation at the same rate ; on the first day of each subsequent 
session, mileage, and pay at the same rate that has accrued since the ad- 
journment, and daring said session at the same rate. Members dying be- 
fore the commencement of the first session receive no pay or mileage ; 
dying afterwards, their representatives receive what was then due them* 
Deductions from the monthly pay of each member are made for each day's 
absence, unless the cause of absence be his sickness or that of some mem- 
ber of his family. The pay of the Speaker, and of the President of the 
Senate pro tempore^ is $ 12,000 for each Congress. 



Thirty-sixth Congress. 1st Session. The Senate. 

[The figures denote the expiration of the terme of the Senators.] 

Hon. John C. Breckinridge, President, ex officio. 

Asbury Dickins, Secretary, William Hickey, Chief Clerk. 



Alabama. 
Benj. Fitzpatrick, Wetumpka, 1861 
Clem. C.Clay, Jr., Huntsville, 1865 

Arkansas. 
Robt. W. Johnson, Pine Bluffs, 1861 
Wm. K. Sebastian, Helena, 1865 

California, 
Wm. M. Gwin, San Francisco, 1861 
Vacancy,! 1863 

Connecticut. 
Lafayette S. Foster, Norwich, 1861 
James Dixon, Hartford, 1863 

Ddaware, 
James A. Bayard, Wilmington, 1863 
Willard Saulsbury, Georgetown, 1865 

Florida. 
David L. Yulee, Homossassa, 1861 
Steph. R. Mallory, Key West, 1863 

Georgia. 
Alfred Iverson, Columbus, 1861 
Robert Toombs, Washington, 1865 

Illinois. 
Lyman Trumbull, Alton, 1861 
Stephen A. Douglas, Chicago, 1865 



Indiana. 
Graham N. Fitch, Logansport, 1861 
Jesse D. Bright, Jefferson vi lie, 1863 

Iowa. 
James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, 1861 
James W. Grimes, Burlington, 1865 

Kentucky. 
John J. Crittenden, Frankfort, 1861 
Laz. W. Powell, Henderson Co., 1865 

Louisiana, 
John Slidell, New Orleans, 1861 

J. P. Benjamin, New Orleans, 1865 

Maine. 
Hannibal Hamlin, Hampden, 1863 
Wm. Pitt Fessenden, Portland, 1865 

Maryland, 
James A. Pearce, Chestertown, 1861 
Anthony Kennedy, Baltimore, 1863 

Massachusetts. 
Charles Sumner, Boston, 1863 

Henry Wilson, Natick, 1865 

Michigan, 
Zachariah Chandler, Detroit, 1863 
Kinsley S. Bingham, Kensington,1865 



♦ See «' Public Resolutions," No. 14, ante, p. 138. 
t Occasioned by the death of Hon. David C. Broderick. 



I860.] 



CONGRESS. 



189 



Minnesota. 

Henry M. Rice, St. Paul, 1863 

Vacancy, 1865 

Mississippi. 

Jefierson Davis, Hurricane, 1863 

Albert G. Brown, Newtown, 1865 

Missouri. 

James S. Greene, Canton, 1861 

Trusten Polk, St. Louis, 1863 

JVcio Hampshire. 

Daniel Clark, Manchester, 1861 

John P. Hale, Dover, 1865 

JVeio Jersey. 
John R. Thomson, Princeton, 1863 
John C. Ten Eyck, Mt. Holly, 1865 

JVeio York, 

Wm. H. Seward, Auburn, 1861 

Preston King, Ogdensburg, 1863 

North Carolina, 

Thos. L. Clingman, Ashville, 1861 

Thomas Bragg, Northampton, 1865 

Ohio. 

George E. Pugh, Cincinnati, 1861 

Benj. F. Wade, Jefferson, 1863 

Oregon. 

Joseph Lane, 1861 

Vacancy, 1865 



Pennyalvania. 
William Bigler, Clearfield, 1861 
Simon Cameron, Harrisburg, 1863 

Rhode Island. 

James F. Simmons, Providence, 1863 
Henry B. Anthony, Providence, 1865 

South Carolina. 

Jas. H. Hammond, Beech IslM, 1861 
James Chesnut, Kershaw, 1865 

Tennessee. 

Andrew Johnson, Greenville, 1863 
A. O. P. Nicholson, Columbia, 1865 

Texas. 

Vacancy, 1863 

John Hemphill, Austin, 1865 

Vermont. 
Jacob Collamer, Woodstock, 1861 
Solomon Foot, Rutland, 1863 

Virginia, 

/ames M. Mason, Win^ihester, 1863 
R.M.T.Hunter, Lloyds, E88exCo.l865 

Wisconsin, 

Charles Durkee, Kenosha, 1861 
James R. Doolittle, Racine, 1863 



HoirsE OF Rkpresentatives of the Thirty-sixth Congress, 
which will expire on the 3(2 of March, 1861. 

(The First Session of the 36th Congress commences on the 5th of December, 1859. The 
numbers prefixed to the namei of the members show the District in each State from 
which they are chosen. The number after the name of the State indicates the number 
of tlepresentativds to which, under the present apportionment, the State is entitled.] 



Bellefonte. 
Talladega. 
Athens. 



.Alabama, — 7. 

3. Clopton, David, Tuskegee. 

6. Cobb, W. R. W., 

7. Curry, J. L. M., 
5. Houston, Geo. S., 

4. Moore, Sydenham, Greensboro'. 
2. Pugh, James L., Eufaula. 
1. Stallworth, Jas. A., Evergreen. 

Arkansas. — 2. 

1. Hindman, T. C. 

2. Rust, Albert, El Dorado. 

California. — 2. 
2. Burch, John C, Trinity. 



1. Scott, Chas. L., Sonora. 
Connecticut. — 4. 

3. Burnham, Alfred A., Windham. 

4. Ferry, Orris S., Norwalk. 

1. Loomis, D wight, Rockville. 

2. Woodruff, John, New Haven. 

Delaware. — 1 . 
Whiteley, Wm. G., Newcastle. 

Florida. — 1 . 
Hawkins, Geo. S., Pen^acola. 

Georgia. — 8. 
2. Crawford, Martin J., Columbus. 
4. Gartrell, Lucius J., Atlanta. 



190 



UNITED STATES. 



[1866. 



3. Hardeman, Tbos. Jr., Macon. 

7. Hill, Joshua, Madison. 
6. Jackson, James, Athens. 

8. Jones, John J , Waynesboro*. 

1. Love, Peter E. Thomasville. 

5. Underwood, J.W.H., Rome. 

Illinois. — 9. 

2. Farnsworth, J. F., Chicago, 

8. Fouke, Philip B., Belleville. 

4. Kellogg, William, Canton. 

9. Logan, John A., Benton. 

3. Lovejoy, Owen, Princeton. 

6. McClernand, J. A.,* Springfield. 

5. Morris, Isaac N., Quincy. 

7. Robinson, James C, Marshall. 

1. Washburne, £. B., Galena. 

Indiana. — 11. 

10. Case, Charles, Fort Wayne. 
9. Colfax, Schuyler, South Bend. 

7. Davis, John G., Rockville. 

3. Dunn, Wm. M., Madison. 

2. English, Wm. H., Lexington. 

4. Holman, Wm. S., Lawrenceburg. 

5. Kilgore, David, Yorktown. 
1. Niblack, Wm. E., Vincennes. 

11. Pettit, John U., Wabash. 

6. Porter, Albert G., Indianapolis. 

8. Wilson, James, Crawfbrdsville. 

Iowa. — 2. 

1. Curtis, Samuel R., Keokuk. 

2. Vandever, W., Dubuque. 

Kentucky. — 10. 

6. Adams, Green. 

4. Anderson, Wm. C. 

3. Bristow, Francis M. 

5. Brown, J. Young. 

1. Burnett, Henry C, Cadiz. 

7. Mai lory, Robert. ^ 

9. Moore, Laban T. 

2. Peyton, Samuel O., Hartford. 

8. Simms, Wm. £. 

10. Stevenson, John W., Covington. 



Louisiana. — 4. 

1. Bouligny, J. £., New Orleans. 

3. Davidson, T. G., Baton Rouge. 

4. Landrum, John M., Shreveport. 

2. Taylor, Miles, Donaldson ville. 

Maine. — 6. 
6. Foster, Stephen C, Pembroke. 

3. French, Ezra B., Damariscotta. 

4. Morse, Freeman H., Oxford. 

2. Perry, John J., . Bath. 

1. Somes, Daniel E., Biddeford. 

5. Washburne, Israel, Jr., Orono, 

Maryland, — 6 . 

4. Davis, H. Winter, Baltimore. 

3. Harris, J. Morrison, Baltimore. 

6. Hughes, Geo. W., West River. 

5. Kunkel, Jacob M., Frederic City. 

1. Stewart, James A., Cambridge. 

2. Webster, Edward H., Bel Air. 

Massachusetts. — 11. 

3. Adams, Charles F., Cluincy. 

6. Alley, John B., Lynn. 

2. Buffinton, James, Fall River. 
5. Burlingame, Anson, Cambridge. 

11. Dawes, Henry L., N. Adams. 
10. Delano, Charles, Northampton. 
1. Eliot, Thomas D., New Bedford. 

7. Gooch, Daniel W., Melrose. 

4. Rice, Alexander H., Boston. 

9. Thayer, Eli,' Worcester. 

8. Train, Charles R., Framingham. 

Michigan. — 4. 

1. Cooper, George B., Jackson. 

3. Kellogg, F. W., Grand Rapids. 

4. Leach, Dewitt C, Lansing. 

2. Waldron, Henry, Hillsdale. 

Minnesota. — 2. 

1. Aldrich, Cyrus, Hennepin. 

2. Window, William, Winona. 

Mississippi. — 5. 

3. Barksdale, Wm., Columbus. 



* Elected in November, 1859, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Thomas L. 
irris, the member elect. 



1S60.] 



C0276BBSS. 



191 



2. 
1. 

5. 
4. 

2. 
1. 
3. 
4. 

7. 
6. 
5. 

3. 
1. 
2. 

3. 
1. 
5. 
4. 
2. 

4. 
12. 

7. 
31. 
25. 

1. 

8. 
18. 

6. 
20. 
21. 
29. 
33. 
30. 
19. 

9. 
23. 



Davis, Reuben, Aberdeen. 
Lamar, Lucius Q.. C, Abbevillei 
McRae, John J., Clark Co. 
Singleton, Otho R., Canton. • 

Missouri. — 7. 
Anderson, Thos. L., Palmyra. 
*Barrett, James R., St. Louis. 
Clark, John B., Fayette. 
Craige, James, St. Joseph. 
Noell, John W., Perry ville. 
Phelps, John S., Springfield. 
Woodson, S. H., Independence. 

JVcio Hampshire. — 3. 
Edwards, T. M., Keene. 
Marston, Oilman, Exeter. 
Tappan, Mason W., Bradford. 

JS'eto Jersey. — 5. 
Adrain, G. B., N. Brunswick. 
Nixon, John T., Bridgeton. 
Pennington, Wm., Newark. 
Riggs, Jetur R., Patterson. 
Stratton, J. L. N., Mount Holly. 

JVew ForAc. — 33. 
fBarr, Thomas J., New York. 
Beale, Charles L., Kinderhook. 
tBriggs, George, New York. 
Burroughs, Silas M., Medina. 
Butterfield, Martin, Palmyra. 
Carter, Luther C, Flushing. 
tClark, Horace F., New York. 
Cochrane, C. B., Schenectady. 
tCochrane, John, New York. 
Conkling, Roscoe, Utica. 
Duell, R. HollandjCourtlandville. 
Ely, Alfred, Rochester. 

Fenton, Reuben E., Frewsburg. 
Frank, Augustus, Warsaw. 
Graham, James H., Delhi. 
Haskin, John B., Ford ham. 
Hoard, Charles B., Watertown. 



2. Humphrey, James, Brooklyn. 
28. Irvine, William, Corning. 
11. Kenyon, Wm. S., Kingston. 
22. Lee, M. Lindley, Fulton. 

5. tMaclay,Wm.B., New York. 

15. McKean, James B., Saratoga. 

13. Olin, Abram B., Troy. 

16. Palmer, Geo. W., Plattsburg. 

26. Pottle, Emory B., Naples. 

14. Reynolds, John H., Albany. 
24. Sedgwick, Charles B., Syracuse. 

3. tSickles, Daniel E., New York. 
32. Spaulding, E. G., Buffalo. 

17. Spinner, Francis E., Mohawk. 
10. Van Wyck, C. H., Bloomingburg. 

27. Wells, Alfred, Ithaca. 
Jiorth Carolina. — 8. 

4. Branch, L. O'B., Raleigh. 

7. Craige, Burton, 

5. Gilmer, John A., 

6. Leach, J. M., 

2. Ruffin, Thomas, 

1. Smith, W. N. H., Murfreesboro*. 

8. Vance, Z. B., Ashville. 

3. Winslow, Warren, Fayette ville. 
Ohio. ^21. 

4. Allen, William, Lima. 

5. Ashley, James M., Toledo. 
21. Bingham, John A., Cadiz. 

14. Blake, Harrison G., Medina. 

9. Carey, John, Wyandotte. 

7. Corwin, Thomas, Lebanon. 

12. Cox, Samuel S., 

18. Egerton, Sidney, 

2. Gurley, John A., 

15. Helmick, Wm., N. Philadelphia. 

6. Howard, William, Batavia. 
20. Hutchins, John, Warren. 
11. Martin, Chas. D., Lancaster. 

1. Pendleton, Geo. H., Cincinnati. 

13. Sherman, John, Mansfield. 



Salisbury. 
Greensboro*. 
Lexington. 
Goldsboro*. 



Columbus. 
Akron. 
Cincinnati. 



* Contested by F. P. Blair. 

t The election returns for these districts were made out for ** Member of Congress,*' 
and not fbr ** Representative in Consress," and the State canvassers have withheld cer- 
tideates flvm these six gentlemen. The 5tb district is partly in Kings County, and partly 
in New York. The ntums fnnn Kings County were correctly made, and they gave 
Philip Hamilton a majori^ of the votes for " RepresenUtive in Congress," but Mr. 
Maelay's mi^ty in New York finr <* Member of Congress " was greater than Mr. Ham- 
ilton's in Kings County for " Representative in Congress." 



192 



UNITKD STATES. 



[1S60. 



8. Stanton, Ben jamia, Bellefontaine. 

17. Theaker, Thom. C, Bridgeport. 
16. Tomkins, C. B., McConnelsville 

10. Trimble, Carey A., ChilHcotbe. 

3. Vallandingham, C. L., Dayton. 
19. Wade, Edward, Cleveland. 

Oregon. — 1. 
'i^Stoat, Lansing. 

Pennsylvania. — 25. 
25. Babbitt, Elijab, Erie. 

18. Blair, Samuel S., Holidaysburg. 

11. Campbell, James H., Potts ville. 

19. CoTode, John, Lockport Station. 

13. Dimmick, Wm. H., Honesdale. 

1. Florence, Thos. B., Philadelpbia. 

14. Grow, Galusha A., Glen wood. 

15. Hale, James T., Bellefonte. 
24. Hall, Chapin, Warren. 

6. Hickman, John, WestChester. 

16. Junkin, Benj. F., Bloomfield. 
10. Kellinger, John W., Lebanon. 

7. Longnecker, H. C. Doylestown. 

22. McKnight, Robert, Pittsburg. 

17. McPherson, Edward, Gettysburg 

4. Millward, Wm., Philadelphia 

20. Montgomery, Wm., Washington. 

21. Morehead, James K., Pittsburg. 

2. Morris, Ed. Joy, Philadelphia 

8. Schwartz, John, Reading. 

12. Scranton, Geo. W., Scranton. 

9. Stevens, Thaddeus, Lancaster. 

23. Stewart, William, Mercer. 

3. Verree, John P., Philadelphia. 

5. Wood, John, Philadelphia. 

Rhode Island. — 2. 

2. Brayton, Wm. D., Warwick. 

1. Robinson, C, Woonsocket Falls. 

South Carolina. — 6. 

5. Ashmore, John D., Anderson. 

4. Bonham, M. L., Edgefield. 

6. Boyce, Wm . W., Monticello. 

3. Keitt, L. M., Orangeburg C. H. 

1. McQueen, J., Marlborough C.H. 

2. Miles, Wm. P., Charleston. 



TennessM. •» 10. 
Ld. Avery, Wm. T., Memphis. 

3. BrabsOn, Reese B., Chatanooga. 
9. Etberidge, Emerson, Dresden. 

5. Hatton, Robert, Lebanon. 
2. Maynard, Horace, Knoxville. 

1 . Nelson, Thos. A. R., Jonesboro'. 
8. Quarles, James M., Clarksville. 

4. Stokes, W. B., Smithville. 

6. Thomas, James H., Columbia. 

7. Wright, John V., Purdy. 

Texas. — 2. 

2. Hamilton, A. H. 

1. Reagan, James H., Palestine. 

Vermont. — 3. 

2. Morrill, Justin S., Strafford. 

3. Royce, Homer E., Berkshire. 
1. Walton, £. P., Montpelier. 

Virginia. — 13. 

5. Bocock, T. S., Appomatbx C. H. 

8. Boteler, Alex. R., Cbarlestown. 

10. Clemens, Sherard, Wheeling. 

3. Dejarnette, D. C, Bowling Green. 

12. Edmondson, H.A., Salem. 

1. Garnett, M. R. H., Lloyds^Essex. 

9. Harris, John T., Harrisburg. 

11. Jenkins, A. G., Green Bottom. 

6. Leake, S. F., Charlottesville. 

13. Martin, Elbert S., Lee C. H. 

2. Millson, John S., Norfolk. 

4. tPryor, Roger A., Petersburg. 

7. Smith, William, Warrenton. 

Wisconsin. — 3. 

3. Larrabeie, C. H., Ozaukee. 

1. Potter, John F. East Troy. 

2. Washburne, C. C, Mineral Point. 

Kansas Territory. — 1. 
Parrott, Marcus J., Leavenworth City. 

Nebraska Territory. — 1. 
Estabrook, Experience, Omaha City. 

New Mexico Territory. — 1 . 
Otero, Miguel A., Albuquerque. 

Utah Territory. — I . 
Hooper, Wm. H., Salt Lake City. 

Washington Territory. — 1. 
Stevens, Isaac J., Olympia. 



* Contested by David Jjogan. 

t Elected in October, 1659, to fill the vacancy caused by the defeth of WUlfam 0. 
QoQde, the member «leet. 



I860.] 



CONGRESS. 



193 



Alphabetical List of the House of Representatives. 



Adams, C. F., Mass. 
Adams, Green, Ky. 
Adrain, G. B., N. J. 
Aldrich, Cyrus, Minn. 
Allen, William, O. 
Alley, J. B., Mass. 

Anderson, T. L., Mo. 
Anderson, W. C, Ky. 
Ashley, J. M., O. 

Ashmore, J. D., S. C. 
Avery, W. T., Tenn. 
Babbitt, Elijah, Pa. 
Barksdale, Wm., Miss. 
Barr, T. J., N. Y. 

Barrett, J. R., Mo. 

Beale, C. L., N. Y. 

Bingham, John A., O. 
Blair, S. S., Pa. 

Blake, H. G., O. 

Bocock, Thos. S., Va. 
Bonham, M. L., S. C. 
Boteler, A. R., Va. 

Bouligny, J. E., La. 
Boyce, W. W., S. C. 
Brabson, R. B., Tenn. 
Branch, L. OB., N. C. 
Brayton, Wm. D., R. 1. 
Briggs, George, N. Y. 
Bristow, F. M., Ky. 
Brown, J. Y., Ky. 

Buffinton, Jas., Mass. 
Burch, John C, Cal. 
Burlingame, A., Mass. 
Burnett, H. C, Ky. 
Burnham, A. O., Conn. 
Burroughs, S. M., N. Y. 
Butterfield, M., N. Y. 
Campbell, J. H., Pa. 
Carey, John, O. 

Carter, L. C, N. Y. 
Case, Charles, Ind. 
Clark, Horace F., N. Y. 
Clarke, J. B., Mo. 

Clemens, Sherard, Va. 
Clopton, David, Ala. 
Cobb, W. R. W^., Ala. 
Cochrane, C. B., N. Y. 
Cochrane, John, N. Y. 
Colfax, Schuyler, Ind. 
Conkling, R., N.Y. 
Cooper, G. B., Mich. 
Corwin, Thomas, O. 
Covode. John, .Pa. 

Cox, Samuel S., O. 

Craige, Burton^ N. C. 
Craig, J., Mo. 

Crawford, M. J., Ga. 

17 



Curry, J. L. M., Ala. 
Curtis, S. R., Iowa. 
Davidson, Thos. G., La. 
Davis, John G , Ind. 
Davis, H. Winter, Md. 
Davis, Reuben, Miss. 
Dawes, Henry L., Mass. 
Dejarnette, D. C, Va. 
Delano, C, Mass. 

Dimmick, W. H , Pa. 
Duell, R. H., N. Y. 
Dunn, W. M., Ind. 

Edmondson, H. A., Va. 
Edwards, T. M., N. H. 
Egerton, S., 0. 

Eliot, T. D., Mass. 

Ely, Alfred, N. Y. 

English, Wm. H., Ind. 
Estabrook, E., Neb. T. 
Etheridge, E., Tenn. 
Farnsworth, J. F., III. 
Fenton, R. E., N. Y. 
Ferry, O. L., Conn. 
Florence, Thos. B., Pa. 
Foster, S. C, Me. 

Fouke, P. B., III. 

Frank, Augustus, N. Y. 
French, E. B., Me. 

Garneit, M. R. H., Va. 
Gartrell, L. J., Ga. 

Gilmer, John A., N. C. 
Gooch,Danl. W., Mass. 
Graham, J. H., N. Y. 
Grow, Galusha A., Pn. 
Gurley, J. A., O. 

Hale, J. T., Pa. 

Hall, Chapin, Pa. 

Hamilton, A. H., Tex. 
Hardeman, T. Jr., Ga. 
Harris, J. Morrison, Md. 
Harris, J. T., Va. 

Haskin, John B., N.Y. 
Hatton, Robert, Tenn. 
Hawkins, G. L., Fla. 
Helmick, W., O. 

Hickman, John, Pa. 
Hill, Joshua, Ga. 

Hindman, T. C, Ark. 
Hoard, C. B., N. Y. 
Holman, W. S., Ind. 
Hooper, Wm. H., U.T. 
Houston, Geo. S.,' Ala. 
Howard, W., O. 

Hughes, Geo. W., Md. 
Humphrey, J., N. Y. 
Hutchins, J., O. 

Irvine, W., N. Y. 



N.Y. 
N. 1^! 

o. 

Va. 



Jackson, James, Ga. 
Jenkins, A. G., Va. 
Jones, John J., Ga. 

Junkin, B. F., Pa. 

Keitt, L.M., S. C. 
Kellinger, J. W., Pa. 
Kellogg, F. W., Mich. 
Kellogg, William, III. 
Kenyon, W. S., N.Y. 
Kilgore, D., Ind. 

Kunkel,J. M., Md. 
Lamar, L. Q. C., Miss. 
Landrum, John M., La. 
Lanrabee, C. H., Wis. 
Leach, D. C, Mich. 
Leach, J. M., N. C. 
Leake, Shelton F., Va. 
Lee, M. L., N. Y. 

Logan, J. A., 111. 

Longnecker, H. C, Pa. 
Loomis, D wight. Conn. 
Love, Peter E., Ga. 
Lovejoy, Owen, 111. 
Maclay, W. B., 
Mallory, Robert, 
Marston, G., 
Martin, C. D., 
Martin, E. S., 
May nard, H orace,Tenn . 
McClernand, J. A , III. 
McKean, J. B., N. Y 
McK night, Robert, Pa. 
McPherson, Edw'd, Pa. 
McQueen, John, S. C. 
McRae, John J., Miss. 
Miles, W. P., S. C. 

Millson, John S., Va. 
Millward, Wm., Pa. 
Montgomery, Wm., Pa. 
Moore, L. T., Ky. 

Moore, Sydenham, Ala.' 
Morehead, J. K., Pa. 
Morrill, Justin S., Vt. 
Morris, E. Joy, Pa. 
Morris, Isaac N., 111. 
Morse, F. H., Me. 

Nelson, T. A. R., Tenn. 
Niblack, W. £., Ind. 
Nixon, J. T., N. J. 
Noell, J. W., Mo. 

Olin, A. B., N. Y. 

Otero, M. A., N.M.T. 
Palmer, G. W., N. Y. 
Parrott, M. J., Kan. T. 
Pendleton, G. H., O. 
Pennington, Wm., N.J. 
Perry, J. J., Me. 



194 

Pettit, J. U., Ind. 

Peyton, Samuel O., Ky. 
Phelps, John S., Mo. 
Porter, A. G., Ind. 

Potter, J. F., Wise. 
Pottle, E. B.i N. Y. 
Pryor, R. A., Va. 

Pugh, J. L., Ala. 

Quarles, J. M., Tenn. 
Reagan, J. H., Tex. 
Reynolds, J. H., N. Y. 
Rice, A. H., Mass. 

Rig^, J. R., N. J. 

Robinson, C, R. I. 

Robinson, J. C, 111. 
Royce, H. E., Vt. 

Ruffin, Thomas, N. C. 
Rust, Albert, Ark. 

Schwartz, John, Pa. 
Scott, Chas. L., Cal. 
Scranton, G. W., Pa. 
Sedgwick^ C. B., N. Y. 
Sherman, John, 0. 

Sickles, Dan*l E., N. Y. 



UNITED STATES. 

Simms, W. E., Ky. 
Singleton, O. R., Miss. 
Somes, D. E., Me. 

Smith, William, Va. 
Smith, W. N. H., N. C 
Spaulding, E. G., N. Y. 
Spinner, F.E., N.Y. 
StallworthjJas. A., Ala. 
Stanton, Benjamin, O. 
Stevens, Isaac J., W. T. 
Stevens, Thaddeus, Pa. 
Stevenson, J. W., Ky. 
Stewart, James A., Md. 
Stewart, William, Pa. 
Stokes, W. B., Tenn. 
Stout, Lansing, Or. 
Stratton, J. L. N., N. J. 
Tappan,Ma8onW.,N.H. 
Taylor, Miles, La. 

Thayer, Eli, Mass. 

Theaker, T. C, O. 
Thomas, J. H., Tenn. 
Tomkins, C. B., O. 
Train, C. R., Mass. | 



[1860. 

Trimble, C. A., O. 

Underwood,J.W.H.,Ga. 
Vallandingham,C.L., O. 
Vance, Z. B., N. C. 
Vandever, W., Iowa. 
VanVVyck,C.H.,N.Y. 
Verree, J. P., Pa. 

Wade, Edward, O. 
Waldron, Henry, Mich. 
Walton, E. P., Vt. 

Washburne, C. C, Wise. 
Washburne, E. B., III. 
Washburne, l8r.,jr., Me. 
Webster, Edw.H., Md. 
Wells, Alfred, N. Y. 
Whiteley, W. G., Del. 
Wilson, James, Ind. 
Windom, Wm., Minn. 
Winslow, Warren, N.C. 
Wood, John, Pa. 

Woodruff, John, Conn. 
Woodson, S. H., Mo. 
Wright, J. v., Tenn. 



XV. THE LEVLAlTHAN OR GREAT EASTERN. 

Experience had shown that an ordinary sea steamer of 1,800 tons bur- 
den, making the qnickest passages to and from England and Australia, with 
a full cargo and complement of passengers, lost by the yoyage from £ 1,000 
to £ 10,000. A great portion of the expense was caused by the necessity of 
supplying coal-depots at different points where the steamer could touch dur- 
ing her voyage. These deviations from the shortest route also protracted 
the passage so much that clipper ships taking a direct course made as quick 
passages as steamers, and at such less expense that they superseded steamers. 
A problem then to be solved was this : supposing that a steamer could be 
built to move eighteen miles an hour, what ought to be the size of a steamer 
which could carry out and back fuel for a voyage from England to Australia, 
25,000 miles ? To work a steamer profitably it had been found that the ton- 
nage must be nearly a ton to a mile. Mr. Brunei, therefore, conceived the 
idea of constructing a steamer of from 20,000 to 25,000 tons burden, capable 
of carrying coals for full steaming on the longest voyage, — to be built on the 
tubular plan, with the screw, the paddle, and the sail, for propelling power. 
The Eastern Steam Navigation Company was formed with a capital of 
j£ 1,200,000, in shares of £20 each, with power to increase the capital to 
£2,000,000. The place where she was to be built, on the bank of the 
Thames at Millwall, consisting of a layer of mud thirty feet thick, on a bed 
of gravel, was prepared by driving upwards of 1,400 pil^s, in lines parallel 
to the river, as the vessel was to be launched sideways, — and the first plate 
'>f the vessel was laid May I, 1854. 

The ship consists of two skins, — an inner and oirter skin, — two feet ten 



I860.] THE LEVIATHAN OR GREAT EASTERN. 195 

inches apart, with longitudinal webs at intervals of six feet, mnning the 
whole length of the vessel ; and these are subdivided by transverse plates 
into water-tight spaces of about six feet square, so that should the outer skin 
be damaged, the water could only get in between the webs and inner skin. 
The ship is divided by transverse bulkheads into twelve water-tight com- 
partments below the lower deck, and nine above the lower deck : so that 
if both the outer and inner skin were fractured, the water could ouly enter 
into one of th^se compartments, — two of which could be filled without 
danger to the safety of the vessel. Besides these transverse bulkheads there 
are two which extend from the bottom of the ship to the upper deck, and 
mn longitudinally for a length of 350 feet There are also two tubular 
iron platforms extending from the gunwale to the longitudinal bulkheads, 
rljinning fore and aft, 36 feet apart, and connected together about every 60 
feet by iron platforms seven feet wide. The greatest care has been taken to 
make the bow strong enough to resist any impediment, and to enable the 
vessel to resist the constant vibration of the screw. 

The vessel has no keel, the bottom being flat. A keel plate was first laid 
along a level platform prepared for it about five feet from the ground ; then 
the centre-web, which somewhat resembles the keel of an ordinary ship, only 
chat it is put inside instead of outside, was fitted to it ; — then came other 
plates laid fi^t on the top of the centre web. The iron plates of which the 
skins of the vessel are composed are three quarters of an inch thick, except 
the keel-plate, which is one inch thick. Their average size is about 10 feet 
by 2 feet 9 inches, and their weight 825 pounds. For the stempost and keel 
some enormous plates were required. Two were 27 feet long, 3 feet 3 
inches wide, 1| inches thick, and weighed two tons each ; others were 25 
feet long, 4 feet wide, and l| inch thick, and weighed 2| tons each. About 
30,000 plates, of an average weight of 600 pounds each, were used in the 
construction of the hull. Each plate, before being placed in its proper po- 
sition, was a separate study to the engineer. For each a model in wood was 
made, and by steam shears the plates were cut according to the pattern ; 
the proper curve was given to it, and the holes for the rivets were punched 
by machinery. They were riveted together by rivets, fastened at a white 
heat, some {-inch, and some |-inch in diameter, about 2j^ inches apart where 
the plates were to be made water-tight, and from 4 to 6 inches apart in other 
places. The total number of rivets was not far from 2,000,000. About 
8,000 tons of iron were used in her hnlL 

The propelling power, as heretofore stated, is to be the screw, the paddle, 
and sails. The summary of statistics of the vessel given below states the 
number and dimensions of the engines, boilers, propeller, and paddle-wheels. 
Provision is made for drawing in, to the distance of 10 feet, the floats of the 
paddle-wheels, when the vessel is deeply laden. The wheels are connected 
to the engines by friction straps, so that they can be disconnected at any 
time, if it should be necessary to use the screw by itself. The building of 
the paddle-engines was commenced about the same time as the ship. They 



196 UNITED STATES. [1860. 

were originally put together in the erecting shop, and were then taken down 
and re-erected in the ship. The time occupied in doing all this was about 
sixteen months. The after length of the propeller shaft is 47 feet, and 
weighs 35 tons ; the other lengths are each about 25 feet long, and weigh 
16 tons. The coal-bunkers are on either side above and between the boilers, 
and can contain about 12,000 tons of coal. The estimated consumption of 
coal is about 160 tons for 24 honrs. The yessel is provided with six masts ; 
the after one being of wood, and the rest of iron. Reckoning* from the bow, 
the 1st, 5th, and 6th are 2 feet 9 inches in diameter ; the others are 3 feet 6 
inches. The 2d, 3d, and 4th are crossed with yards, and carry square-sails; 
and all carry fore-and-aft sails. She can spread about 6,500 square yards of 
canvas. The standing rigging is 7^-inch wire rope, except for the after mast, 
where it is of hemp rope. She has no bowsprit and no fignre-head. For her 
compasses a framework is erected against her after mast some fifty feet 
high. There are five capstans, three forward and two aft, fitted so that they 
can be worked either by hand or steam. Her bower chains are 2J inches in 
diameter; each link weighs 72 pounds, and each cable is 120 fathoms in 
length. 

The vessel carries twenty large boats, fitted with masts and sails. In ad- 
dition she carries two small screw steamers, which hang astern abaft the 
paddle-boxes, each of which is 100 feet long, 16 feet beam, 120 tons burden, 
and 40 horse power. These will be raised and lowered by the auxiliary 
steam-engines. Both of the little screws will be kept in readiness for sea, 
and be used for embarking and landing the passengers. The crew will 
number about 400 men all told ; about one third being sailors, one third 
being cooks, stewards, and servants, and one third belonging to the engineer- 
ing department. 

The cabins and saloons are placed in the centre of the vessel, and at each 
end of the cabins there is a large hold for the cargo, 60 feet long, and the 
whole depth and breadth of the vessel, and capable of containing about 1,000 
tons of cargo. It will be easy, as is said, to stow 6,000 tons of cargo in the 
holds and other unappropriated places. The vessel has 20 ports on the 
lower deck, each five feet square, to receive railway wagons ; and 60 ports 
on each side, 2 feet 9 inches square, for ventilation. The lower ports are 
1 6 feet above the water when the ship is loaded. The bulwarks are 9 feet 
6 inches high forward, and slope down to above 5 feet high midships and aft. 
The wrought-iron deck is covered with teak planking placed about 6 inches 
distant from the iron. The estimated weight of the whole vessel when 
voyaging with every article and every person on board will be not less than 
25,000 tons. 

For the purpose of launching the vessel, two ways were constructed, with 
pile foundations, one at the fore part of the vessel, and one at the after part, 
each 300 feet long, and 120 feet wide, with about 120 feet of space between 
them. The cradles, two in number, were of the same width as the ways. 
Their bottom was composed of iron plates, 7 inches wide and 1 inch thick, 



I860.] THE LEVIATHAX OR ORBAT EASTERN. 197 

placed at intervals of one foot apart, with their edges carefoUj rounded off, 
so as to offer the least resistance to the railway metals of the ways down 
which they had to pass. 

The first attempt to launch the vessel was made November 3, 1857, and 
the vessel moved six feet down in her ways. Several other unsuccessfal 
attempts were made on different days, bnt at length, Janaary 31, 1858, she 
was afloat. The cost of building and launching the vessel is stated in round 
numbers at £730,000, exceeding the original estimate by £230,000. In 
November, 1858, the Eastern Steam Navigation Company, finding it im- 
possible to go on, was dissolved, and a new corporation called The Great 
Ship Company was formed with a capital of £330,000i Of this capital, it 
is said that £160,000 was to be paid to shareholders of the former corpora- 
tion, that the fitting and finishing for sea would not exceed £ 120,000, and 
that £40,000 would be left for working expenses. 

Summary of Statigtics of the Great Eastern, 

Length of upper deck, 691 feet ; length between perpendiculars, 680 feet ; 
breadth across paddle-boxes, 118 feet; breadth of hull, 83 feet; depth from 
deck to keel, 58 feet ; number of decks, 4 ; number of masts, 6 ; diameter of 
roasts, 2 feet 9 inches to 3 feet 6 inches ; quantity of canvas under full sail, 
6,500 square yards ; number of anchors, 10 ; number of boats, 20 ; tonnage, 
old measurement, 22,500 tons ; stowage for cargo, 6,000 tons ; capacity of 
coal-bunkers, 12,000 tons; draught of water, unladen, 15 feet 6 inches; 
draught of water, laden, 30 feet; number of water-tight compartments, 12. 

Paddk- Wheds. — Diameter of paddle-wheels, 56 feet ; weight of ditto, 
185 tons ; length of floats, 13 feet ; width of ditto, 3 feet ; number of ditto 
to each wheel, 30 ; length of paddle-shafts, 38 feet ; weight of ditto, 30 tons ; 
length of intermediate cranked shaft, 21^ feet ; weight of ditto, 31 tons. 

Paddle-Engines. — Nominal horse-power, 1,000; number of cylinders, 4; 
diameter of ditto, 6 feet 2 inches ; weight of ditto, including piston and rod, 
38 tons ; length of stroke, 14 feet ; strokes per minute, 14. 

Paddle-Engine Boilers. — Number of boilers, 4 ; furnaces to each, 10 ; 
length of boilers, 17 feet 6 inches ; width of ditto, 17 feet 9 inches ; height 
of ditto, 13 feet 9 inches ; weight of each, 50 tons ; weight of water, 40 tons ; 
area of heating surface, 4,800 square feet ; number of tubes, 400 ; thickness 
of plates, 4 and -f^ inches. 

Screw Propeller. — Diameter of screw, 24 feet ; pitch of ditto, 37 feet ; num- 
ber of fans, 4 ; weight of screw, 36 tons ; length of propeller shaft, 160 feet. 

Screw Engines. — Nominal horse-power, 1,600; number of cylinders, 4; 
diameter of each cylinder, 84 inches ; length of stroke, 4 feet ; number of rev- 
olutions per minute, 50. 

Screw Boilers. — Number of boilers, 6; funnels to each ditto, 12; length 
of ditto, 18 feet 6 inches ; width of ditto, 17 feet 6 inches ; height of ditto, 
14 feet ; weight of ditto, 57 tons ; weight of water, 45 tons ; area of heating 
surface, 5,000 square feet ;* number of tubes, 420 ; thickness of plates, -^ 
and j^ inches. 

Number of auxiliary engines, 4 ; number of donkey engines, 10. 

Total horse-power about tivdve thousand. 

Passenger Accommodation. — Number of passengers, 1st class, 800; num- 
ber of ditto, 2d class, 2,000; number of ditto, 3d class, 1,200; aggregate 
length of saloons and berths, 350 feet; number of saloons, 10; length of 
principal saloon, 100 feet; width of ditto, 36 feet; height of ditto, 13 feet; 
length of berths, 14 feet ; width of ditto, 7 to 8 feet; height of ditto, 7 feet 
4 inches. 

17* 



DKITKD STATES. 



a -nn.. 


*SS 


«CS 


^ssSs 


^sss 


« = S = 


3sa5 


s$ss 


^jss; 


5? 


^ 'll,nlo»,M 




















^ ■E|l'!^J!.l 




s 5 


-a — 2 


73 S 


^ 3 


3. s 


'?, a 


3 s 


55 


S .,«„u,»A 




^T 


t ^ 




« 


■■=■ s 


CO 


a I 




S ■«"»j. 




• 


' 














S3 ■-«"'"»a 












^ a 


» « 






!5i aunoiiOS 


r. t- 


— a 


coo 




2 S 


3 S 


= = 


= = 


=r 


Si -pu^-in 




.. 


» 


rS- 


^ ^ 


-- - 


■- » 




"^ 


^ ■uu.d 


= »« 


35- 


-=:«2 


"""" 


3 a 


3 S 


S 8 


5 3 


3S 


3 -"IMO 










« ™ 


" 8 






.. 


?j -w-ioiio 'K 




2 2 


---=^ 


■ — 


2 S 


-n-^^ 


. . 


2 S 


2= 


M '"(JiA "'K 




2 2 


a 2 


2 2 


. . 


2S2S 


s g 


'. a 


!S 


g /Buar-aN 


3-« 


~» 


- w 


^ .. 




n OS 








2 'dcusH-'K 


o« 


», 


* e 






.. .. 






JJ 


:e -,„o»!„ 




















i ■^Mm«>M\ 
















'£ -uiSmaiwI 












■ 




£ '-.Miss 


.. 


2 2" 


£ 2|2 2 


22 


a-a 


ga 


2j 


3 -p«.,.»„|* » 


■„ 




a«««j=.«n« 


3.W0.W 


=i 


5 -saiSK 


















" 


«i -.UJHIWH 
















» B 


.. 


= -fi|3niinj( 




^ a 


* , 


-. - 


» <c 


^ t. 


2 3 


2 2 


22 


2 -aaoi 


















_ 

i 


3! ■•ompui 
















:, n 


:X -miiiii 


















^ sigjosD 


= " 


- - 


* ,|, , 


» 


- « 






^ SPNOIJ 
















IS- ■a.B*»|aa 


™ n 


», 


» « \ ^ c 


» n 








« 


^ —-0003 


r.>E« 


" 


j> f .a\ ■!• a 


9> n 




rf -lUiOHK) 






1 










^ -miiB^JV 


















^ -lUlnqBiv 




















'i 
fi 


J. 

a 

i 

1 


ijlm 


il 

III! 

Mi 


m 
ill 


m 
iiii 


t'lt 

iii|i 



VOTES fOR PRBSIDKNTS AMD VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



A 


55?KSS 


S" 


SS!:S*-|2sgs 


SSSK 


^a^* 


2ses 


assfe 


^§^3S=«ffZ* 


= 






( 








, ^ 


^ o « « 


= 


S . ^ 


— 2 


3 S |3 s 


3 S 


^ ^ 


- - 


;: t 


2 £ 5 £ 


s 


.. ^ 


.= 


- - 1 si K 


t. t. 


,. h. 




„ „ 


^ ^1 ^ a 
















» , 


' ' 1' ' 


i 


3 S 


» 


- = 


2 2 


^ £ 


2 2 


2 2 


2 2 




s 


= = 


m 


= = 


S g 


^ » 


= S 


J. c 




D CO 


D CO 


s 


» n 


7^ 


» * 


, * 


^ ^ 


- * 


, ^ 


<r « 


* * 


.4. , 


5 


?J ?! 


-a 


s s 


^ S 


^ a 


S S 


S S 


5 s 


s s 


^ s 


5 


2 S 


=«« 


2 S 


s « 


S3 ^ 


3 ;: 


S S 


s s 


!3 SJ 1 S3 a 


3 


2 S 


-co 


2 2 


2 2 


2.2 


2 2 


:: = 


= = 


2.2 |2 2 




-a'"'8- 


£«S 


^^S% 


3 3 


3 3 


3 3 


Ni S 


'g s 


S ffi 1 S Si 


s 


» 


-" 


-« « 


o n, 




o « 


t- h- 




t- K |.- ^ 




<» t-y 


■= 


CO CD 




^. - 


t. t- 


■= « 


«, «= 




>n o 


i 


~ s 




^i n 


f '^ 


T -^ 


- -r 


,. K 


h. ,. 


- - 


^ 0. 


t 


eg 


- 


™ n 


, , 


■« o- 


^ - 


3 o 


«. u= 


^ »- 


^. ,- 


S 










:r, n 


T ^ 


a B 


B « 


a «= 


„ a, 


2 


£ 2 


2 -| 2 2 




» s 


2 2 


« 2 


2 2 


2 E 


2 2 




-"- =o 


""- 




■■"="■" 


2 S 


a 2 


" " 


" " 


« « 


CD CD 


1 


ffl =. 


- 


-«--o, 


= -2 


2 2 


2 2 


=> =» 


0. a. 


E CD 


CD B 




niH O 


.- 


« a 


.n 1.= 


-> « 




a « 


a B 




= B 


- 


3'-'- 


., |« , 


£ 2 


S 2 


2 2 


2 2 


2 2 


2 2 


2 2 


= 




1 










T ■• 


^ ^ 


1' V 


^ 


■= 




» o. 


e ff. 


» a. 


3 2 


« 2 


2 2 


3 5 


* 


7,- CO 


- 






d m: 


^ u: 


). c 


c o 


= = 


= = 


,^ 


=. g 


- 


, « .l- _ 


S 3 


:: = 


= 2 


2 2 


= 2 


3 2 


^ 






1 . 








ni n 


:c n 


™ « 


^ 


-» -S 


_| „ „ 






^ CO 


« « 


7, ^ 


« « 


« « 


-, 


i 


* 1 « - 




n CO 


B CD 


ffl «, 


« u> 


o o 


» „ 


n 




1 












* » 


, , 


=. 




1 ■ 




« « 


« n 


n =, 


, , |. , 


- 


.0 


r, |o «. [,- ^ |,. ^ 1 t- t- 


o, c 1 a c 


. a, 1=. o. 




1 


11 


i 

m 


ill 


M 


ill 


11 J 


11 1 



200 tmiTED 8TATX0. [18G0. 

RECAPITULATION AND REMARKS. 

1st Term, 1789. Electors 73, and 69 votes for 6. Washingtoa. J. Adams had 31 ; John 
Jay (N. J. 5, Del. 3, Va. 1) 9 ; R. H. Harrison (Md. 6) 6 ; J. Rutledge (S. C. 6) 6; J. Han- 
cock (Pa. 2, Va. 1, S. C 1) 4 ; G. Clinton (Va. 3) 3 ; S. Huntington (Ct. 2) 2 ; John MUton 
(Ga. 2) 2 ; J. Armstrong (Ga. 1) 1 ; Ed. Telfair (Ga. 1) 1 ; B. Lincoln (Ga. 1> 1 : — total 69. 
Rhode Island, New York, and North Carolina did not assent to the Ck>nstitution in season to 
vote for President in 1789. Thrae votes would li^ve made 91 electoral votes. Two votes of 
Maryland and two of Virginia were not given. 

2d, 1793. Electors 135. 132 votes for G. Washington, and 3 (Md. 2, Vt. I) vacancies. 
J. Adams received 77 votes ; G. Clinton 50 ; T. Jefierson (Ky. 4) 4 ; A. Burr (S. C. 1) 1 : -- 
total, 132. 

3d, 1797. Elecioni 138. J. Adams received 71 votes; T. Jefferson 63; T. Pinckney 59; 
A. Burr 30 ; S. Adams (Va. 15} 15 ; 01. Ellsworth (N. H. 6, Mass. 1, R. I. 4) 11 ; 6. Clinton 
(Va. 3, Ga. 4) 7; John Jay (Ci. 5) 5; James Iredell (N. C. 3) 3; G. Washington (Va. 1, 
N. C. 1) 2; J. Henry (Md. 2) 2; S. Johnson (Mass. 2) 2 ; Charles C. Pinckney (N. C. Ij 1. 

4th, 1801. Electors 133. T. Jefferson received 73 votes ; A. Burr 73 ; J. Adams 65 ; 
Ch. C. Pinckney 64 ; John Jay (R. I. 1) 1. The election was carried to the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and Mr. Jefferson was, on the 36th ballot, chosen President by the votes of 
Vt., N. Y., N. J^ Pa., Md., Va., N. C, (5a., Tenn., and Ky. ; and Mr. Burr, Vice Presi- 
dent. Two States (Del. and S. C.) threw a blank vote. After this, the O)nstitaiion was 
altered, so as to require the President and Vice-President to be separately voted for. 

5th, 1805. For a full view of the votes, see Table. 

6th, 1809. For Preaident ; J. Madison 122 votes ; C. C. Pinckney 47 ; G. Clinton 
(N. Y. 6) 6; 1 vacancy (Ky.):— toul 176. For Vice-President; G. Clinton 113 votes; 
Rufus King 47; J. Langdon (Vt. 6, Ohio 3) 9; J. Madison (N. Y. 3) 3; J. Monroe (N. Y. 
3) 3; 1 vacancy (Ky.) : —total 176. 

7th, 1813. See Table. One vacancy in Ohio. 

8th, 1317. For President ; J. Monroe 183 votes; Rufus King 34; 4 vacancies (Del. I, 
Md. 3) 4: — total 221. For Vice-President ; Daniel D. Tompkins 183 votes; John R 
Howard (Mass. 22) 22; James Ross (Ct. 5} 5; J. Marshall (Ct. 5) 5; R. G. Harper (Del. 3) 
3 ; 4 vacancies (Del. 1, Md. 3) : — total 221. 

9th, 1821. For President ; J. Monroe 231 ; J. Q. Adams (N. H. 1) 1 : — total 232. For 
Vice President ; D. D. Tompkins 218; R. Stockton (Mass. 8) 8; D. iCodney (Del. 4)4; R. 
Rush (N. H. 1) 1 ; R. G. Harper (Md. 1) 1 : — total 232. 

10th, 1825. If or President ; A. Jackson 99 votes; J. Q. Adams 84; Wm. H. Crawfofd 
41 ; Henry Clay 37 : — total 261. Mr. Adams was elected by the House of Representatives 
by a vote of thirteen States. See Table. For Vice-President; J. C. Calhoun 182; N. San- 
ford 30; N. Macon (Va. 24) 24 ; A. Jackson (N. H. 1, Ct. 8, Md. 1, Mo. 3) 13; M. Van 
Buren (Ga. 9) 9 ; Henry Clay (Del. 2) 2; 1 vacaucy (R. L): —total 261. 

11th, 1829. See Table. 

I2th, 1833. fat President ; A. Jackson 219 votes; Henry (^y 49; J. Floyd (S. C. 11) 
11 ; W. Wirt (Vt. 7) 7; 2 vacancies (Md.):— total 288. For Vice-President; M. Van 
Buren 189; John Sergeant 49; Wm. Wilkins (Pa. 30) 30; Henry Lee (S. C. 11) 11 ; Amos 
Ellmaker (Vt. 7)7: — total 286. 

13lh, 1837. For President; M. Van Buren 170; Wm. H. Harrison 73; Hugh L. White 
(Ga. 11, Tenn. 16) 26; Daniel Webster (Mass. 14) 14; W. P. Mangum (S. C. 11) 11: — 
total 294. For Vice-President; R. M. Johnson 147; Francis Granger 77; John Tyler 
(Md. 10, S. C. 11, Ga. 11, Tenn. 15>'47 ; Wm. Smith (Va. 23) 23 : —total 294. Mr. Johnwm 
was chosen Vice-President by the Senate. 

14ih, 1341. For, President; W. H. Harrison 234; M. Van Buren 60: — total 294. For 
Vice-President; John Tyler 234 ; R. M. Johnson 48; L. W. Tazewell (S. C. 11) 11 ; J. K. 
Polk (Va. 1) 1 : —total 294. 

15th, 1845. 

17ih* 1858! ^ ^°' * ^"^ ^^^^ of votes see Table. 
18ihl 1867. 



I860.] POFULAB VOTE AT BACH PBESID&NTIAL ELECTIOIT. 201 



2. Popular Vote at each Presidental Election since and including 1824. 



States. 



Alabama, 

Connecticut, 

Delaware, 

Georgia, 

Illioois, 

Indiana, 

Kentucky, 

Liouisiana, 

Maine, 

Maryland, 

MaseacbuaettB, 

w * * * 



Missouri, 
New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, 
New York, 
North Carolina, 
Ohio, 

Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, 
South Carolina, 
Tennessee, 
Vermont, 
Virginia, 



1894:.* 



Adams. Jackson. 



Craw- 
ford. 



Clay. 



Jackson. Adams. 



2,416 
7,587 
By 

By 
1,542 
3,095 

6,870 

14,632 

30,687 

1,694 

311 

4,107 

9,110 

By 

13,280 

5,440 

2,145 

By 

216 

By 

3,189 



9,443 



1,680 
1,97^ 
Legislat ure. 
Legislat ure. 
1,901 , 219 
7,343 ! 
6,453 
Legislat ure. 
2,330 



3,646 
6,616 
119 



1,196 



14,523 

3,234 

987 

643 

10,985 

Legislat ure. 
20,415 15,621 
18,457 

36,100 4,206 

200 

Legislat ure. 

20,197 I 312 

Legislat ure. 

2,861 I 8,489 



67 



1,047 

5,315 

16,782 



695 



1,401 



19,255 
1,609 



416 



1898. 



17,138 

4,448 

4,3^19 

18,709 

6,763 

22,287 

39 084 

4 605 

13,927 

24,578 

6,019 

6,763 

8.232 

20;692 

21,950 

140,763 

37,857 

67,597 

101,652 

821 

44,090 

8,205 

26,753 



1,938 
13 829 

4,7C9 
None. 

1,581 
17,052 
31,172 

4,097 
20,773 
25,759 
29,836 

1,581 

3,4^2 
24,076 
23,758 
135,413 
13,918 
63 396 
5'J,848 

2,754 

2,240 

24.784 
12,101 



1839. 



Jackson 



no op. to 
11,269 

4,li0 
20,75) 
14,147 
31,552 
36,347 

4,049 
33,291 
19,156 
14,545 

5,919 

5,192 
25 486 
33,856 
168,497 
24,862 
81,246 
90,963 

2,126 

28,740 

7,870 

33,609 



Clay. 



Jackson. 
17,755 

4,476 
None. 

5,429 
15,472 
43,396 

2,528 
27,204 
19,160 
33,003 
None, 
majority 
19,010 
23 393 
154 896 

4563 
7fi;539 
66 716 

2,810 

1.436 
l',152 
11,451 



Total, 



Majority, 



105,^1 



152,899 47,265 



47,087 



650,028 
512,158 



137,870 



512,158 



C87,502 
55J,189 



550,189 



137,313 



States. 



Alabama, 

Arkansas, 

Connecticut, 

Delaware, 

Georgia, 

Illinois, 

Indiana, 

Kentucky, 

Louisiana, 

Maine, 

Maiyland, 

Massachusetts, 

Michigan, 

Mississippi, 

Missouri, 

New Hampshire, 

New Jeney, 

New York, 

North Carolina, 

Ohio, 

Pennsylvania, 

Rhode Island, 

South Carolina, 

Tennessee, 

Vermont, 

Virginia, 

Total, 

Majority, 



1836. 



Van 
Buren. 



Others. 



19,068 

2,400 

19,234 

4,155 

23,126 

18,097 

32,480 

33,435 

3,653 

22,300 

22,167 

33,501 

7,360 

9i979 

10,995 

18,722 

26,347 

166,815 

26,910 

96,948 

91,475 

2,964 

By 
26,120 
14 037 
30,261 



15,637 

1,238 

18,466 

4.738 

34,930 

14,983 

41,38 i 

36,955 

3,383 

15,239 

25 852 
41,093 

4,000 
9,688 
8,337 
6,228 

26 893 
138,543 

23,626 

105,405 

87,111 

2.710 

Legislat 

35,962 

20,991 

23,368 



762,149 736,736 
736,736 



35,413 



184:0. 



Har- 
rison. 



38,471 
4,363 
31,601 
5,967 
40,364 
45,537 
65,308 
58,489 
11,397 
46,612 
33,538 
72,874 
32,907 
19,518 
23,973 
38,434 
33 362 

225,813 
46,676 

148, LW; 

144,019 

5,278| 

ure. I 

60,391 i 

32,445 

42,501 



Bur*n. ;Bi"«y 



33,991; 

6,049| 

25,296 

4,884 

31,933 

47,476 

51,695 

32,616 

7,617 

46,201 

38,752 

51948 

21,098 

16,995 

29,760 

33.670 

31,034 

212,519 

34,218 

124,782 

143,676 

3,301 

48 289 
18,009 
43,893 



1,274,783 1,138,702 
1,138,703 



146,0811 



174 
149 

194 

1,621 
321 



126 

69 

3,798 

903 

343 

43 



319 



7,609 



184:4:. 



Polk. 



36,323 

9,546 

29,841 

5,969 

44,155 

58,515 

70,181 

51,960 

13,477 

45,719 

33,676 

52,965 

27,703 

25,188 

41,369 

27,150 

37,495 

237,588 

39,287 

149,061 

167,535 

4,848 

59,915 
18,041 
49,417 



Clay. 



Bir- 
ney. 



34 850 

5,504 

32,842 

6,267 

42,1(6 

45,612 

67,867 

61.262 

12,818 

34,378 

35,984 

66,872 

24,323 

19,193 

31351 

17,886 

3S318 

333,473 

43,333 

155,113 

161,203 

7,323 

60,039 
26,770 
43,677i 



1,943 



3,579 
3,106 



4,836 

10,830 
3,632 



4,161 

131 

15,812 

8,050 

3,126 

107 



3,957 



1,335,8841,297,033 63,270 
1,297,033 



38,801 



* The vote for 1824 is taken from the New York Herald of September 24, 1856. 



I860.] 



APPORTIONMENT OF FEDERAL REPRESENTATIVES. 



208 



States. 



Ohio, 

Oregon, 

Pennsylvania, 

Rhode Island, 

South Carolina, 

Tennessee, 

Texas, 

Vermont, 

Virginia. 

Wisconnn, 

Na of States, 

Whole No. 



1. 2 



OS 



10 
3 



12 



*13 
91 



15 
4 

8 



4 
21 



15 
135 



3. 






15 
4 
8 
3 

4 
21 



16 
138 



4. 



15 
4 
8 
3 

4 
21 



16 
133 



5. 



6. 



20 
4 

10 
5 

6 
24 



17 
176 



20 
4 

10 
6 

6 
24 



17 
176 



7. 



00 



8 

25 

4 

11 

8 

8 
25 



18 
218 



to 

00 



8 

25 

4 

11 

8 

8 
25 



19 
221 



9. 



8 

25 

4 

11 

8 

8 
25 



23 
232 



10. 11 



8$ 

00 



16 

28 

4 

11 

11 

7 
24 



24 
261 



16 

28 

4 

11 

11 

7 
24 



24 
261 



12. 



21 

30 

4 

11 

15 

7 
23 



24 

288 



13 14. 



21 

30 

4 

11 

15 

7 
23 



26 
294 



o 



21 

30 

4 

11 

15 

7 
231 



26 
294 



15. 



^ 

s 



23 

26 
4 
9 

13 

6 
17 



26 
275 



16. 



00 



23 

26 
4 
9 

13 
4 
6 

17 
4 



30 



17. 



23 

27 
4 
8 

12 
4 
6 

15 
5 



31 



290296 



18. 



23 

27 
4 
6 

12 
4 
6 

15 
6 



31 
296 



19. 



o 

SB 



23 
3 

27 
4 
8 

12 
4 
5 

16 
6 



33 
303 



4. Apportionment of Federal Representatives, and Ratio of R^esentation by the 

Constitution and at each Ceratts. 



■ 




1^ 


Representatives to which each State ie 


1 entitled by 




Date 
of Admission 


. to w 
next 
It. 


















o 


Census, 
from 
h3. 1793. 


n § 


CO 
B GO 


IS, 

823. 


IS, 


Census, 
from 
h 3, 1843. 


« § 


States. 


into 
the Union. 


)fRep 

led till 
onmec 


stituti 
1789. 


9 *M 


Censu 
from 
h3, 1 


Censi 
from 
h3, 1 


Censu 
from 
h3, 1 


Censi 
from 
h3, 1 






No. < 
emit 
porti 


5 


.at Ctf 

33,000 


IS 




4th 
Marc 


6th 
Marc 


6th 
Marc 


7th 
Marc 


Ratio 0/ 


Rq^resentati 


on. 


30,000 


33,000 


35,000 


40,000 


47,700 


70,680 


93,423 


Alabama, 


Dec. 14, 1819 


1 










3 


6 


7 


7 


Arkansas, 


June 15, 1836 


1 














1 


2 


California, 


Sept. 9, 1850 


2 
















2 


Connecticut, 






5 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


4 


4 


Delaware, 






1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Florida, 


Mar. 3,1845 


1 
















1 


Georgia, 






3 


2 


4 


6 


7 


9 


8 


8 


Illinois, 


Dec. 3,1818 


I 










1 


3 


7 


9 


Indiana, 


Dec 11, 1816 












3 


7 


10 


11 


Iowa, 


Dec. 28, 1846 


1 
















2 


Kentucky, 


June 1,1792 


2 




2 


6 


10 


12 


13 


10 


10 


Louisiana, 


April 8, 1812 
IVUr. 15, 1820 


1 










3 


3 


4 


4 


Maine, 


7 










7 


8 


7 


6 


Maryland, 






6 


8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


6 


6 


Maes. 






8 


14 


17 


20 


13 


12 


10 


11 


Michigan, 


Jan. 26,1837 


1 














3 


4 


Minnesota, 


May 11, 1858 


2 
















2 


Mississippi, 


Dec. 10, 1817 


1 










1 


2 


4 


6 


Missouri, 


Aug. 10, 1821 


1 










1 


2 


6 


7 


New Hamp. 






3 


4 


5 


6 


6 


6 


4 


3 


New Jecsey, 






4 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


New York, 






6 


10 


17 


27 


34 


40 


34 


33 


N. Carolina, 






5 


10 


12 


13 


13 


13 


9 


8 


Ohio, 


Nov. 29, 1802 1 








6 


14 


19 


21 


21 


Oregon, 


Feb 14, 1859 


1 
















1 


Pennsyl. 






8 


13 


18 


23 


26 


28 


24 


25 


R. Island, 






1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


S. Carolina, 






6 


6 


8 


9 


9 


9 


7 


6 


Tennessee, 


June 1, 1796 


1 






3 


6 


9 


13 


11 


10 


Texas, 


Dec. 29, 1845 


2 
















2 


Vermont, 


Mar. 4, 1791 


2 




2 


4 


6 


6 


6 


4 


3 


Virginia, 






10 


19 


22 


23 


22 


21 


15 


13 


Wiaconsin, 


May 29, 1848 


3fr 


[)m4ih 


March 


1849. 








. 


3 


Whole No. 


65 


105 


141 


181 


213 


240 


223 


234 



* New York, Rhode Island, and North Carolina had not then ratified the Constitution ; 
•o that properly there were but 10 Suies, and 73 Electoral Votes. 



204 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



XVII. SOME OF THE COLLEGES AND PROFESSIONAL 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
II 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
23 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
3S 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
60 
5] 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
53 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
6S 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 



Name. 



Buwdoin, 

Waterville,* 

Dartmouth, 

University of Vermont, 

Middlebury, 

Norwich University ,t 

Harvard University, 

Williams, 

Amherst, 

Holy Cross,§ 

Tufts College, 

Brown University,* 

Yale, 

Trinity,t 

Wesleyan University, t 

Columbia,t 

Union, 

Hamilton, 

Madison University,* 

Hobart Free Col lege, t 

University of City of N. Y. 

University of Rochester,* 

St. John's,* 

College of New Jersey, 

Rute^ers, 

Burlingtonjt 

University of Pennsylvania, 

Dickinson,! 

Jefferson, 

Washington, 

Allegheny,! 

Pennsylvania, 

Lafayette, 

Franklin and Marshall, 

University at Lewisburg,* 

Polytechnic, 

Delaware, 

St. Mary's,! 

St. John's, 

St. Charles»s,5 

Mount St. Mary's,S 

St. James's,! ' 

Washington, 

Georgetown,! 

Columbian,* 

William and Mary,t 

Hamixlen-Sidney, 

Washington, " 

University of Virginia, 

Randolph-Macon,! 

Emory and Henry,! 

Rector,* 

Bethany College, 

Richmond,* 

Virginia Military Institute, 

University of N. Carolina, 

Davidson, 

Wake Forest,* 

Charleston, 

South Carolina, 

Franklin, 

Oglethorpe, 

Emory,! 

Mercer University,* 

Wesleyan Female, 

University of Alabama, 

Florence Wesleyan,! 

Spring Hlll,§ 

Howard,* 

Madiaon,! 

University of Mississippi, 

Mississippi College,* 

Semple Broaddus,* 

University ori/iuisians. 



Place. 



Me. 

(( 

N. H. 

Vt. 

<( 

It 

Mass. 
(( 

(< 

R. I. 

Conn. 
It 

({ 

N.Y. 

tt 

tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 

N.J. 



Brunswick, 

Waterville, 

Hanover, 

Burlington, 

Middlebury, 

Norwich, 

Cambridge, 

Williamstown, 

Amherst, 

Worcester, 

Medford, 

Providence, 

New Haven, 

Hartford, 

Middletown, 

New York, 

Schenectady, 

Clinton, 

Hamilton, 

Geneva, 

New York, 

Rochester, 

Fordham, 

Princeton, 

New Brunswick, " 

Burlington, " 

Philadelphia, Penn. 

Carlisle, " 

Canonsburg, " 

Washington, " 

Meadville, " 

Gettysburg, " 

Easton, " 

Lancaster, " 

Lewisburg, " 

Philadelphia, " 

Newark, Del. 

Wilmington, " 

Annapolis. Md. 

Ellicou's Mills, " 

Emmetsburg, " 

Washington Co. " 

Chestertbwn, " 

Georgetown, D. C 

Washington, 

Williamsburg, 

Prince Ed. Co. 

Lexington, 

Charlottesville, 

Boy don, 

Washington Co. " 

Taylor Co., 

Bethany, 

Richmond, 

Lexington, 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Mecklenburg Co. " 

Forestville, 

Charleston, 

Columbia, 

Athens, 

Milledgeville, 

Oxford, 

Penfield, 

Macon, 

Tuscaloosa, 

Florence, 

Spring Hill, 

Marion, 

Sharon, 

Oxford, 

Clinton, 

Centre Hill, 

I New Orleans. 



tt 

Va. 

tt 

tt 
ft 
tt 



It 
It 
tt 
It 



:t 

S. c. 

tl 



Ga. 

(( 

(( 
(( 
tt 

Ala. 
(( 

it 

Miss. 
(( 

(( 

(( 

La 



President. 



Leonard Woods, D. D. 
James T. Champlin, 
Nathan Lord, D. D. 
Rev. Calvin Pease, D. D. 
Benjamin Labaree, D. D. 
Rev. Edward Bourns, LL. D. 
James Walker, D.D., LL. D.* 
Rev. Mark Hopkins, D. D. 
Rev. Wm. A. Steams, D. D. 
Peter J. Blenkinsop, 
Rev. Hosea Ballou, 2d, D. D. 
Kev. Barnas Sears, D. D. 
T.D. Woolsey, D.D., LL. D. 
Rev. Daniel R. Goodwin, D. D. 
Rev. Joseph Cummings, D. D. 
Charles King, LL. D. 
Eliphalet Nott, D. D., LL.D. 
Rev. Samuel W. Fisher, D.D. 
Stephen W. Taylor, LL. D. 
Rev. A. Jackson, D. D. 
Isaac Ferris, LL.D., CfiancW, 
M. B. Anderson, LL.D. 
Rev. Remigius Tellier, S. J. 
John Maclean, D. D., LL.D. 
Thso. Frelinghuysen, LL. D. 

Henry Vethake, LL D., Prov. 
Charles Collins, D. D. 
Joseph Alden, D. D., LL. D. 
John W. Scott, D. D. 
John Barker, D. D. 
H. L. Baugher, D. D. 

D. V. McLean, D. D. 
Rev. E. G. Gerhart, A. M. 
dev. Justin R. Loomis, P. D. 
A. L. Kennedy, M D., P.Fac. 

E. J. Newlln, 
Rev. P. Reilly, 
C. K. Nelson, 

Rev. O. L. Jenkins, A. M. 

John McCaffrey, A. M. 

Rev. John B. Kerfoot, D. D. 

E.F.Chambers, Pres.ofTrua. 

Rev. John Early, 

Rev. J. G. Binney, D. D. 

Benjamin S. Ewell, 

Rev. J. M. P. Atkinson, D. D. 

Greorge Junkin, D. D. 

S. Maupin, M. "D.^Ch.ofFac. 

William A. Smith, D. D. 

Rev. Ephraim E. Wiley, 

Charles Wheeler, A. M. 

Alexander Campbell, A. M. 

Rev. Robert Ryland, A. M. 

Col. F.H. Smith, A.M., Svp% 

Hon. David L. Swain, LL. D. 

Rev. Drury Lacy, D. D. 

John B. White, A. M. 

N. R. Middlelon, 

A. B. L«»ngstrect, D. D. 

Alonzo Church, D. D. 

Samuel K. Talmage. D. D. 

James R. Thomas, D. I>. 

N. M. Crawford, D. D. 

Rev. O. L. Smith, D. D. 

Landon C. Garland, LL. D. 

R. H. Rivers, D. D. 

Rev. F. Gautrelet, S. J. 

Henry Talbird, D. D. 

T. C. Thornton, D. D. 

Rev. F. A. P. Barnard, LL. D. 

J. N. Urner, A. M. 

Rev. William C. Crane, A. M. 

C. W. Sears. 



Foun- 
ded. 



792 

820 

769 

791 

800 

334 

636 

793 

821 

843 

854 

764 

700 

823 

831 

754 

795 

812 

846 

824 

831 

850 

840 

746 

770 

846 

749 

783 

802 

806 

817 

832 

832 

836 

847 

853 

833 

847 

784 

848 

830 

842 

783 

792 

821 

692 

789 

781 

819 

832 

838 

839 

841 

840 

839 

789 

840 

838 

785 

801 

785 

838 

837 

838 

831 
830 
830 
848 

848 
831 
STfi 
849 



I860.] 



COLLEGES. 



205 



SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
60 
51 
52 
63 
54 
56 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
09 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 



luat- 
'ors. 



11 
6 

16 
7 
6 
4 

24 
9 

14 
8 
5 

10 

21 
9 
8 

12 

15 
9 
9 
7 

16 
8 

14 

17 
8 

29 

12 
8 

10 
6 
6 
7 
6 

,6 
4 
6 
6 
7 
6 
8 

24 

14 
5 

17 
8 
6 
5 
8 

14 
6 
6 
3 
6 
6 

13 

16 
6 
5 
6 
8 

10 
4 
6 
8 

10 
9 
6 

20 
6 
4 

10 
6 
4 
7 



No. of 
Alumni. 



1,284 

330 

3,063 

659 

981 

8 

6,876 

1,602 

1,288 

100 

12 

1,970 

6,810 

494 

603 

1,400 

3,578 

1,232 

391 

260 

510 

114 

172 

3,656 

619 

1,269 

846 

1,575 

730 

299 

253 

200 

249 

67 

7 

106 

4 

384 

146 

137 

67 

■ 303 
308 

3,000 
364 
893 
143 
255 
103 

80 

43 

288 

1,511 

206 

42 
124 
3,000 
800 
231 
282 
152 
347 
313 
140 
225 

55 

222 
25 



Na Min- 
isters. 



243 
116 
779 
141 
425 

1,661 
563 
537 

4 

520 

1,721 

180 

206 

1,200 
369 
280 

50 
150 

35 

730 
241 



211 
758 
260 

74 
155 

55 
105 

26 

29 
10 
12 
10 

9 

14 
175 

83 
117 

60 
II 

3 

19 
8 
90 
45 
14 

3 
90 
50 
45 
26 

24 

7 

16 

9 
12 



Stu- 
dents. 



209 

86 

304 

104 

85 

80 

409 

224 

235 

75 

52 

189 

502 

56 

143 

173 

326 

134 

145 

80 

133 

165 

48 

300 

116 

118 

129 

133 

215 

103 

104 

87 

100 

90 

54 

34 

50 

115 

104 

126 

52 

70 

245 

66 

61 

123 

75 

417 

130 

54 

50 

141 

87 

150 

450 

113 

76 

40 

202 

113 

97 

126 

89 

173 

120 

112 

30 

83 

140 
42 

75 



Volumes in 
Libraries. 



27,045 

10,000 

33,699 

13,000 

9,000 

1,650 

123,400 

18,355 

24,700 

6,500 

6,600 

34,000 

67,000 

13,500 

13,000 

14,000 

15,500 

12,500 

7,457 

13,100 

4,300 

5,200 

14,972 

21,400 

12,000 

1,200 

5,100 

21,133 

10,000 

3,900 

9,600 

9,000 

4,500 

10,000 

4,000 

10,000 
5,300 
8,000 
450 
4,000 
9,500 
1,200 

26,000 
7,500 
9,000 
7,000 
6,200 

30,000 
8,000 
8,470 
2,500 
3,500 
2,125 
4,000 

21,000 
5,800 
5,000 
6,500 

24,000 

18,250 
4,600 
1,700 
7,500 
1,600 

12,000 
2,000 
7,000 
3,000 

6.000 
1,650 



Commencement. 



First Wednesday in August. 

Second Wednesday in August. 

Last Thursday in July. 

First Wednesday in August. 

Second Wednesday in August. 

Second Thursday m August. 

Third Wednesday in July. 

First Wednesday in August. 

Second Thursday in August. 

Near the middle of July. 

Second Wednesday in July. 

First Wednesday in September. 

Last Thursday in July. 

Thursday before 4th July. 

Fourth Wednesday in June. 

Last week in June. 

Thurs. after fourth Wednea. in July. 

Third Thursday in July. 

Third Wednesday i<n August. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

Wednesday preceding 4th of July. 

Second Wednesday in July. 

July 15th. 

Wedn. beibre last Wednesday in June. 

First Wednesday in July. 

September 29th. 

July 3d. 

Second Thursday in July. 

First Wednesday in August. 

Third Wednesday in September. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

Third Thursday in September. 

Last Wednesday in July. 

Last Wednesday in July. 

Last Wednesday in July. 

Last Friday in June. 

First Wednesday in July. 

Last Thursday in June. 

FirFt Wednesday in August. 

Middle of Julv. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

Second Wednesday in July. 

August 20th. 

Middle of July. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

July 4th. 

Second Thursday in June. 

Beginning of July. 

June 29th, unless it be Sunday. 

Fourth Thursday in June. 

Second Wednesday in June. , 

Last Wednesday in September. 

July 4th. 

July 1st. 

July 4th. 

First Thursday in June. 

Thursday after 2d Monday in July. 

Second Thursday in June. 

Last Tuesday in March. 

First Monday in December. 

First Wednesday in August. 

Wednesday after 3d Monday in July. 

Wednesday after 3d Monday in July. 

Last Wednesday in July. 

Wednesday after 2d Monday in July. 

Thursday after 2d Monday in July. 

First Wednesday in July. 

Tlie 15th of October. 

Last Thursday in June. 

Wednesday after Ist Monday in July. 

July 31 St. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

July. 



18 



206 



UKITED STATES. 



[I860. 



75 

76 

77 

7S 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

96 

87 

83 

89 

9U 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

93 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

103 

109 

110 

HI 

112 

113 

114 

115 

116 

117 



Name. 



Centenary,! 

Washington, 

University of Nashville, 

Franklin, 

East Tennessee, 

Cumberland University, 

Jaclcson, 

Union,* 

Greenville, 

Transylvania, 

St. Joseph's,S 

Centre, 

Georgetown,* 

KentuckyMilitary Institute, 

Paducah, 

Ohio University, 

Miami University, 

Franklin, 

Western Reserve, 

Kenyon,t 

Denison,* 

Marietta, 

Oberlin College, 

Ohio Wesleyan University,! 

Wittenberg, 

Urbana University, 

Antioch, 

Indiana State University, 

Hanover College, 

Wabash, 

Indiana Asbury University,! 

Illinois, 

Shurtleff,* 

McKendree,! 

Knox, 

St. Louis University,! 

St. Vincent's, 

Masonic, 

University of State of Mo 

St. Charles,! 

University of Michigan, 

Wisconsin University, 

jBeloit, 
USjLawrence University,! 
119{ Milwaukee Female, 
120 Iowa State University, 



121 
122 



124 



Iowa Wesleyan University,! 
Santa CIara,§ 



Place. 



<< 



K 
(( 
(< 



123 Carroll, 



Racine,t 



(( 
(t 
it 
It 
tt 
(t 
(( 

(( 






tt 



tt 
tt 
tt 



it 



President. 



Jackson, La. 

Washington Co., " 

Nashville, Tenn 

Near Nashville, 

Knoxville, 

Lebanon, 

Columbia, 

Murfreesboro', 

Greenville, 

Lexington, Ky 

Bardstown, 

Danville, 

Georgetown, 

Franklin Springs, " 

Paducah, " 

Athens, Ohio, 

Oxford, 

New Athens, 

Hudson, 

Gambler, 

Granville, 

Marietta, 

Oberlin, 

Delaware, 

Springfield, 

Urbana, 

Yellow Springs, " 

Bloomington, Ind 

South Hanover, ** 

CrawfordsviUe, 

Greencastle, 

j£icksonville, III 

Upper Alton, 

Lebanon, 

Galesburg, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Cape Girardeau, 

Lexington, 

Columbia, 

St. Charles, 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Madison, Wise. 

Beloit, Rock Co., " 

Appleton, " 

Milwaukee, " 

Iowa City, Iowa, 

Mt. Pleasant, " 

Near San Jos6, Cal. 

Waukesha, Wise. 

Racine, 



Rev. John C. Miller, A. M. 
K. T. Bard, A. M. 
J. B. Lindsley, D. D. 
Foibert Fanning, A. M. 
Rev. Wiiiiam D. Carnea, 
Hev. Thos. C. Anderson, D.D. 
B. F. Mitchell, A. M. 
Joseph H. Eaton, LL. D. 
Wm. B. Rankin, 
M. C. Johnson, LL. D., 
Thomas O'Neil, S. J. 
John C. Young, D. D. 
Kev. D. R. Campbell, LL. D. 
Col. E. W. Morgan, Sup. 
M. H. Fisk, 
Solomon Howard, D. D. 
Kev. J. W. HaU, D. D. 
Rev. A. D. Clark, 
Henry L. Hitchcock, D. D. 
Lorin Andrews, LL. D. 
Jeremiah Hall, D. D. 
Israel W. Andrews, D. D, 
Rev. Charles G. Finney, 
Edward Thomson, D.D.,LL.D. 
Samuel Sprechen, D. D. 
Milo G. Williams, Dean, 
Rev. Thomas Hill, 
Wm. M. Daily, D. D., LL. D. 
Rev. S. H. Thomson, Act. ' 
Rev. Charles White, D. D. 
Rev. Cyrus Nutt, A. M., Act. 
J. M. Sturlevant, D. D. 
Rev. N. N. Wood, D. D. 
Kev. N. E Cobleigh, A .M. 
Jonathan Blanchard, 
Kev. F. Coosemans, S. J. 
Rev. R. Henesy, 
W. T. Davis 

William W. 'Hudson, A. M. 
John W. Robinson, 
Henry P. Tappan, D D., LL.D. 
Henry Barnard, Chancellor, 
Rev. Aaron L. Chapin, D. D. 
Russell Z. Mason, pro tern. 
I. A. Lapham, 
Amos Dean, LL.D. 
Lucien W. Berry, D. D. 
Rev. Felix Cicaterri, S. J. 
John A. Savage, D. U, 
Roewell Park, D. D. 



Foun- 
ded. 

1845 

1795 

1806 

1844 

1806 

1844 

1833 

1848 

1796 

1798 

1819 

1823 

1829 

1846 

1852 

1804 

1824 

1824 

1826 

1826 

18^ 

1835 

1834 

1854 

1845 

1850 

1853 

1830 

1S32 

1833 

1837 

1830 

1835 

1835 

1837 

1832 

1843 

1844 

1839 

1637 

1837 

1851 

1847 

1849 

1852 

1855 

1855 

1855 

1350 

1852 



The Colleges marked thus (*) are under the direction of the Baptists; thus (t), Epiaco- 
poliana; thus (*), Methodists; thus (§), Catholics. With respect to the Colleges which 
are unmarked, the prevailing religious influence of those that are in the New England 
States is Congregationalism; of most of the others, Presbyterianism. 

By Instructors, in the above table, is meant those connected with the undergraduates; 
and by students, except the Roman Catholic institutions and a few of the Colleges in the 
Southern and Western States, is meant undergraduates, or members of the four collegiate 
classes; not including such as are pursuing a professional education, or such as are mem- 
bers of a preparatory department. Some of the Colleges above enumerated are not in full 
operation, and scarcely deserve a place in the table. The column of Libraries includes the 
number of volumes in the College Libraries and in the Students* Libraries. 

The above table shows the condition of the Colleges near January, 1859. Returns have 
not been received from several of the Colleges to so late a date. Any one noticing errors oi 
'mperfectlons in the list is requested to send the necessary corrections to the editor. 



I860.] 



COLLEGES. 



207 



lust- 
'ors. 



76 

76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 

95 
96 
97 
9S 
99 
lOD 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
lOS 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
121 



9 
3 

8 
6 

U 
5 

6 
2 

8 

16 
6 
8 
9 
6 
6 
8 
4 
7 

10 
6 
6 
8 
8 
6 
8 

12 
6 
8 
7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
7 

18 

10 
3 

10 
6 

14 
7 
9 
8 
4 
4 
9 

16 
5 
5 



No. of 
Alumni. 



169 

116 

445 

51 

169 

95 

86 

84 

610 
185 
452 

132 

200 

»644 

250 

206 

232 

62 

205 

277 

139 

33 

22 

242 

223 

119 

170 

130 

17 

107 

32 

160 

85 

19 

139 

25 

248 

6 

32 

16 

20 

60 

13 
36 



No. of I Stu- 
Ministers. dents. 



Volumes in 
Libraries. 



9 
38 

2 
15 
37 
11 

28 



114 
105 



70 

195 

130 

58 

65 

36 

70 

136 

23 

12 

2 

30 
126 
46 
46 
43 

7 
20 

6 
110 

7 

10 
3 
2' 

4 
4 



98 

22 

104 

106 

165 

84 

160 

20 

26 

180 

157 

164 
18 
78 

127 
86 
27 

127 
47 
66 

110 

•147 

46 

21 

98 

115 
73 
49 

266 
70 
40 
82 
56 

134 

3 

28 

102 
50 

287 
30 
52 
90 
36 



153 
20 
24 



5,200 
1,800 
9,666 
3,500 
8,000 
4,000 
4,400 
4,600 
3,600 

14,000 
7,100 
6,600- 
7,500 
3,000 
650 
7,000 
7,600 
2,000 
8,451 

12,685 
4,960 

15,500 
4,000 

10,364 
6,000 
3,500 
4,200 
2,200 
6,400 
6,400 

12,000 
3,660 
1,900 
6,500 
3,300 

22,000 
6,500 
1.200 
3,600 
1,01K) 

10,000 

1,900 

4,000 

4,000 

700 

200 



1,650 
1,700 



Commencement. 



Last Thursday in July. 

Third Thursday in July. 

Last Thursday in June. 

July 4th. 

First Wednesday in July. 

Last Thursday in June. 

St. John's Day (June 24th). 

First Wednesday in July. 

First Thursday in July. 

Last Thursday in June. 

Near 4th July. 

Third Thursday in September. 

Last Thursday in June. 

Third Wednesday in June. 

Last Thursday in June. 

Second Wednesday before 4th July. 

First Thursday in July. 

Last Wednesday in September. 

Second Thursday in July. 

Last Thursday in June. 

Last Thursday in June. 

Thursday before 4th of July. 

Fourth Wednesday in August. 

Second Thursday in June. 

Last Thursday in June. 

June 19th. 

Wednesday before 4th July. 

Third Thursday in July. 

First Thursday in August. 

Second Wednesday in July. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

Last Thursday but one in June. 

Fourth Thursday in June. 

Third Thursday in June. 

Fourth Thursday in June. 

Near 4th of July. 

Last Thursday in July. 

Last Thursday in June. 

July 4th. 

Third Thursday in June. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

Fourth Wednesday in July. 

Second Wednesday in July. 

Last Wednesday in June. 

Third Wednesday in July. 

First Wednesday in July. 

First Week in July. 

Near the middle of July. 

Third Wednesday in July. 

Third Thursday in July. 





Annual College Expenses. 




Name. 


Instruction. 


Room-rent 
and other 
Coll. Exp. 


Total 
College 
Charges. 


Board. 


Wood, 
Lights, and 
Washing. 


Bowdoin, 

Dartmouth, 

Harvard, 

Williams, 

Amherst, 

Brown, 

Yale, 

Wesleyan, 

Hamilton, 

New Jersey, 

Dickinson, 

University of Virginia, 

North Carolina Univ., 

Transylvania, 

Western Reserve, 

University of Miss., 

Ktmvnn Cnllecre. 


• 24.00 
27.00 
75.00 
30.00 
30.00 
40.00 
45.00 
36.00 
26.00 
50.00 
33.00 
75.00 
60.00 
40.00 
30.00 
80 00* 
30.00 


• 22.00 
13.24 
20.00 
9.00 
16.00 
23 00 
30.00 
11.25 
14.00 
28.14 
14.00 
23.00 
10.00 
12.00 
11.00 

15.00 


• 46.00 
40.24 
95.00 
39.00 
45.00 
63.00 
75.00 
47.25 
40.00 
78.14 
47.00 
98.00 
60.00 
62.00 
41.00 

45.00 


39 weeks,$ 58.60 

38 " 67.00 

40 " 110-160 

39 " 65.00 

40 " 60.00 

39 " 60.00 

40 " liO-150 

39 " 68.50 
38 or 39 w. 68.00 

40 weeks, 80.00 

43 " 75.26 

44 " 110.00 
40 " 140.00 
40 " 100.00 
42 " 60.00 
per month, 10.00 
§8w. 38-100 


•36.00 
9.00 

17.00 

24-40 
20.00 

28.00- 
22.76 
20.00 
29-40 
26.00 
12.00 

20-27 



■3= = 

-111 
50 . 



Thwiogicai Sfloiinary, A 

DiHiUtjr ScWhI, Hmi. Dnii., iC 
Thsalofiul liulllulton, N 

TtaeoU Dep. Vsla Collegs, N 
riual. Inal. of Connecticut, E 
"■ ol. IiuL EpiK. Church, N 

1I lion Theot. Semi ilUT, H 
heswc Thwl, Semlnu;, R 
....IwickSemlnarr, :H 

rimol. Sem. Au. Ret. Chun:h,iN 
TK. Sbbi. Dutch Rof. Church, N 
Theol. Ssm. Pnibyl. Church, P 
Wiiiombuw Theol. Ssmingri.Tl 
^nnsn Ralonn«], M 

WsMem Thsol. SemlnacT, A 
Thoological School, C 

TheologlcalSenilnai7, P 



:iing™i™'|; 



Epiic. t: 
Urnoa Tl 



riieological Seralnsrv, 
Theologies] Seraliur;, Lc 

PurmuiTheolaBicalSemlnarT, Fe 
Theol. Sem, of MetcerU-'- "- 
Howvd Theol, Ineiitulii 



10.000 
'6 4:000 
19 17^960 



rheoUigil 



Allan Theological 





3. Law Sohooi 










Name. 


Piece. 


F5iM 


feS^ 


Sl.^n« 


-Giisr 


VoU-in 1 
Librarj. 


Dene U« School, H. Hok 




TeiT 




~m~ 


^^' 


Msro- 


Law School, Yela College, 


New Ha-on, Conn. 










s.soo 


Unkenltr of Alhen;, 


K«;S:'Y, 


18S1 


3 


lai 


37 


SuKLib. 


U« School, Col. Coltopt. 


im 










lTni.e™i.yofPenne,l.inU 


Phila*Blphla.P.., 






60 






William indMflTT College 
















Ch'.rlmieeTllf<,,Va.' 






109 


ai/ 


s,ooo 


NonhCanltnaUmrereli; 


Chapel HiU,N.C., 


1S15 


a 








UnlverellyorLouiaiana, 


New Orl»ni. La. 




3 








TraneylTimla UnI.eraity, 


L,eilnpon, Kj., 












l3oivaraitjofLouis7llle, 
















1833 


3 


1^ 


7, 


3^ 


Ksaysrsi,, 


SIooinlngton,lnd., 


1840 




in 


79 


' 


5I«2iBrdL-S.Han.il'nCi 


Clinton, N. v., ' 


IS63 


1 


'i 


an 


KM) 



I860.] 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



4. Medical Schools. 



209 



Name. 



Maine Medical School, 
N. H. Medical School, 
Gastleton Medical College, 
Med. Dep Univ. Vt., 
Vermont Medical College, 
Medical School, Harv.Uni7., 
Berkshire Medical School, 
Medical Inst. Yale College, 
Coll. Phys. & Surg., N. Y., 
Med. Inst. Geneva Coll., 
Med. Faculty, Univ. N. Y., 
Albany Medical College, 
Med. Dep. Univ. Penn., 
Jefferson Medical College, 
Med. Dep. Penn. College. 
Philadelphia Cnll. of Med., 
Med. School, (Jniv. Md., 
Washington Med. College, 
Nat. MmI. Col.,Columb.Col., 
Med. Dep. Georgetown Coll. 
Med. School, Univ. Va., 
Med. Dep. Hamp.-Sid. Coll., 
Winchester Men. College, 
Med. Coll. State of S. C., 
Med. College of Geor^a, 
Med. Dep. Univ. Louisiana, 
Med. Dep. Univ. Nashville, 
Med. Dep. E. Tenn. Univ., 
Med. Dep. Transylv. Univ., 
Med. Dep. Univ. Louisville, 
Med. Dep West. Reserve Col. 
Medical College of Ohio, 
West. Coll HomoBpaih. Med. 
Starline Medical College, 
Rush Medical College, 
University of Michigan, 
Med. Dep. of St. Louis Univ., 
Med. Dep. of Missouri Univ., 
Med. Dep. State Univ., 
Med. Dep. Slate Univ., 



Place. 



BrunswickJVIe. 
Hanover, N.H. 
Casilelon, Vt. 
Burlington, Vt. 
Woodstock, Vt. 
Boston, Mass. 
Pittsfield, " 
N. Haven. Ct. 
N. York, N.Y. 
Geneva, " 
N.York, " 
Albany, " 
Philadel., Pa. 






(( 






Baltimore, Md. 

(( (( 

Wash'ton,D.C. 



•< 



(( 



Charlottesrille, 
Richmond, Va. 
Winchester, " 
Charleston,S.C. 
Augusta, Ga. 
N. Orleans, La. 
Nashville, Ten. 
Knox vi lie, " 
Lexington, Ky. 
Louisville, " 
Cleveland, Oh. 
Cincinnati, '' 
Cleveland, " 
Columbus, " 
Chicago, 111. 
Ann Arbor, 
St. Jjouis, Mo. 
Columbia, " 
Keokuk, Iowa, 
Madison, Wise. 



Foun- Ip f 
ded. "**'• 



820 
797 
818 
821 
835 
782 
823 
813 
807 
835 
831 
839 
765 
824 
839 

807 
827 
^1 
851 

827 
838 

833 
830 
835 
850 
856 
818 
837 
844 
819 
850 
847 
842 
850 
836 
846 
849 
856 



7 
6 
7 
6 
8 
6 
6 
6 
6 
9 
9 
8 
9 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
8 
6 
5 
7 
5 
8 
7 
8 
8 
8 



6 
8 
8 
8 
6 
7 
9 
7 
6 
6 



Stu. 



50 

50 

104 

49 

.91 

104 

103 

34 

219 

16 

300 

114 

453 

514 

140 

75 

100 

25 

17 

32 

99 

90 

158 
115 
222 
436 



160 
130 

62 
124 

70 
143 
125 
103 

80 



Grad- 
uates. 



774 
928 
555 
163 
350 

1,125 
473 
695 
852 
545 

1,715 
58 

7,100 

2,036 
35 
250 
909 

86 
10 
35 
40 



124 

669 

1,351 

53 

631 

331 

17 

53 

16 

305 



Lectures commence. 



13 
64 



February. 
Thurs. aAer Com't. 
4th Thurs. in Aug. 
Last of February. 
Ist Th. in March. 
1st Wed. in Nov. 
1st Th. in Sept. 
September. 
Ist Mon. iiv Not. 
let Wednes. in Oct. 
3d Mon. in Oct. 
Ist Tues. in Oct. 
Early in October. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
11th October. 

October 31st. 
1st Mon. in Not. 
4th Mon. in Oct. 
4th Mon. in Oct. 
1st October. 
October 13. 
1st Mon. in Oct. 
2d Mon. in Nov. 
2d Mon. in Nov. 
3d Mon. in Nov. 
Ist Mon. in Oct. 
October. 



1st Wed. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nor. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nor. 
October 1st. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 
1st Mon. in Nov. 



XVIII. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. — November, 1859. 

Mbmbbrs, ex Officio. 



James Buchanan, Prea, U. StcUeSf 
Lewis Cass, Sec. of State, 
Howell Cobb, iSSee. o/Treaa., 
John B. Floyd, See. of War, 
Isaac Toucey, See. of Naty, 



Josept Holt, P. M. General, 
Jeremiahs. Black, Att*y- General, 
Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice U. S. 
William D. Bishop, Com of Patents, 
J. G. Berret, Mayor of Wash. 



Board of Rbobnts. 



Lucius J. Gartrell, U. S. Representative, 
Benj. Stanton, " •* 

Gideon Hawley, N. Y., ) 

George E. Badger, N. C, > Citizens, 
Cornelius C. Felton, Mass., 3 
A. Dallas Bache, ) Members of 
Joseph G. Totten, S Nat. Inst. 



J. C. Breckinridge, Vice-President U. States, 

Ro?er B. Taney, Chief Justice United States, 

J. G. Berret, Mayor of Washington, 

James A. Pearce, U. S. Senator, 

James M. Mason, " " 

Stephen A. Douglas, " " 

Win. H. English, U. S. Representative, 

Officbrb. 
The President of the United SUtes, ex Officio Presiding Officer. 
The Vice-President of the United Sutes, ex Officio Second Presiding Officer. 
Roger B. Taney, Chancellor. 
Joseph Henry, LL. D., Secretary. 
Spencer F. uaird. Assistant Secretary. 
W. W. Seaton, Treasurer. 
Wm. J. Rhees, Chief Clerk. 

Executive Committee. 
A. Dallas Bache, Joseph G. Totten. 

Surviving Honorary Members, 
Benjamin Silliman, A. B. Longstreet, 

18* 



James A. Pearce. 
Jacob Thompson. 



210 



U27IT1BD STATES. 



[IWO. 



XIX. RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS IN THE UNITED 

STATES, 

According to the Census of 1850. 



1 

DeaominationB. 


No. of 
Churches. 


Aggregate Ac- 
commodations. 


Av*age 
Accom- 
modaL 


Total Value of 
Church Property. 


Average 
Value of 
Property. 


Baptist, . 


8,79i 


3,130,878 


356 


$ 10,931,382 


• 1,244 


Christian, . 


812 


296,050 


366 


846,810 


1,011 


Conzregational, 
Dutch Keformed, 


1,674 


795,177 


475 


7,973,962 


4.763 


324 


181,986 


561 


4,096,730 


12,644 


Episcopal, 


1,422 


625,213 


440 


11,261,970 


7,919 


Free, . 


361 


108,605 


300 


252,256 


696 


Friends, . 


714 


282,823 


396 


1,709,867 


' 2,395 


^German Reformed, 


327 


156,932 


479 


966,880 


2.953 


Jewish, . 


31 


16,575 


534 


371,600 


11,967 


♦Lutheran, . 


1,203 


531,100 


441 


2,867,886 


2,383 


Mennonite, . 


110 


29,900 


272 


94,245 


856 


Methodist, . 


12,467 


4,209,333 


337 


14,636,671 


1,174 


Moravian, 


331 


112,185 


338 


443,347 


1,339 


Presbyterian, 


4,584 


2,040,316 


446 


14,369,889 


3,135 


Roman Catholic, . 


1,112 


620,950 


558 


8,973,838 


8,069 


Swedenborgian, . 


16 


6,070 


338 


106,100 


7,206 


Tunker, . 


52 


35,075 


674 


46,026 


885 


Union, 


619 


213,552 


346 


690,065 


1,114 


Uniurian, 


243 


137,367 


566 


3,268,122 


13,449 


Universalist, 


494 


205,462 


415 


1,767,016 


3,576 


Minor Sects, . 
Total, . 


325 


115,347 


364 


741,980 


2,283 


36,011 


13,849,896 


384 


g 86,416,639 


• 2,400 



XX. Table exhibiting the Seats of Government, the Times of the Election 
of State Officers J and the Meeting of the Legislatures, of the several States. 



State. 



Alabama, 

Arkansas, 

California, 

Connecticut, 

Delaware, 

Florida, 

Geor^a, 

Illinois, 

Indiana, 

Iowa, 

Kentucky, 

Louisiana, 

Maine, 

Maryland, 

Massachusetts, 

Michigan, 

Minnesota, 

Mississippi, 

Missouri, 

N. Hampshire, 

New Jersey, 

New York, 

N. Carolina, 

Ohio, 

Oregon, 

Pennsylvania, 

Rhode Island, 

S. Carolina, 

Tennessee, 

Texas, 

Vermont, 

Virginia, 

Wisconsin, 



Seat of 
Government. 



Time of Holding 
Elections. 



Montgomery, 
Little Rock, 
Sacramento, 
Hartford, 
Dover, 
Tallahassee, 
Milledgevilie, 
Springfield, 
Indianapolis, 
Des Momes, 
Frankfort, 
Baton Rouge, 
Augusta, 
Annapolis, 
Boston, 
Lansing, 
St Paul. 
Jackson, 
Jefferson City, 
Concord, 
Trenton, 
Albany, 
Raleigh, 
Columbus, 
Salem, 
Harrisburg, 
^ Newport, ) 
} Providence, \ 
Columbia, 
Nashville, 
Austin, 
Montpelier, 
Richmond, 
Madison, 



ist Monday in August, 
1 1st Monday in August, 
|Tu. after 1st Mon. in Sept., 
list Monday in April, 
i2d Tuesday in November, 
list Monday in October, 
1st Mon. in Octob., bienn.^ 
ITu. after 1st Mon. in Nov., 
i2d Tuesday in October, 
j2d Tuesday in October, 
, 1st Monday in August, 
list Monday in November, 
i2d Monday in September, 
list Wednesday in Nov., 
Tu. after 1st Mon. in Nov., 
Tu. after 1st Mon. in Nov. 
2d Tuesday in October, 
1st Monday in October, 
1st Monday in August, 
2d Tuesday in March, 
Ta. after 1st Mon. in Nov., 
Tu. after 1st Mon. in Nov., 
1st Thursday in August, 
2d Tuesday m October, 
Ist Monday in June, 
2d Tuesday in October, 

1st Wednesday in April, j 

2d Monday in October, 
1st Thursday in August, 
Ist Monday in August, 
1st Tuesday in September, 
4th Thursday in May, 
Tu. after 1st Mon. in Nov., 



Time of the Meeting of 
the Legislatures. 



2d Monday in Nov., bienn. 
1st Monday in Nov., bienn. 
1st Monday in January. 
1st Wednesday tn May. 
1 St Tues. in Jan . yhiennicUly. 
4th Monday in Nov., bienn, 
1st Monday in Nov., ann. 
2d Monday in Jan., bienn. 
Thurs.af. IstMon. in Jan. ,bi. 
2d Monday in Jan., bienn. 
Ist Monday in December. 
3d Monday in January. 
Ist Wednesday in January. 
Ist Wednesday in Jan.,6ien. 
1st Wednesday in January. 
1st Wed. in Jan., bienti. 
Ist Monday in December. 
Ist Monday in Nov., bienn. 
Last Mon. in Dec, bienn, 
Ist Wednesday in June. 
2d Tuesday in January. 
1st TYiesday in January^. 
3d Monday in Nov., btenn. 
1st Monday in Jan., bienn. 
2d Monday in Sept., bienn, 
let Tuesday in January. 
Last Tuesday in May. 
By adjourn, from Newport". 
4th Monday in November. 
Ist Monday in Oct., bienn, 
December, bienn. 
2d Thursday in October. 
1st Monday in Dec., bienn. 
2d Wednesday in January. 



* The German Reformed and Lutheran denominations use the same building in many 
aces. 



I860.] 



GOYERITOBS OF THE STATES AND TERRITOBIES. 



211 



XXI. GOVERNORS OF THE SEVERAL STATES AND 

TERRITORIES, 

iVUh their Salaries^ Terms ofXJffice, and the Expiration of their respective 
Terms ; the Number of Senators and Representatives in the State Legis- 
latures, with their respective Terms. 



State. 


Governor. 


Salary. 


Governor, 
Term years. 


Term 
expires. 


t 


E 

g 


presenta- 
tives. 


• 

g 


1 








c% 


£ 


& 


^ 


Alabama, 


Andrew B. Moore, 


$4,000 


2 


Dec. 1861 


33 




100 


2 


1 Arkansas, 


Elias N. Conway, 


2,000^ 


4 


Nov. 1860 


25 




75 


2 


California, 


Milton S. Latham, 


8,000 


2 


Jan. 1862 


16 




36 I 


Connecticut, 


Wm. A. Buckingham, 


1,100 


1 


May 1860 


21 




232 1 


Delaware, 


William Burton, 


1,333^ 


4 


Jan. 1863 


9 


■ 


21 


1 


Florida, 


Madison S. Perry, 


1,500 


4 


Oct. 1861 


19 


. 


40 1 


Georgia, 


Joseph E. Brown, 


3,000 


2 


Nov. 1861 


52 


2 


150 2 


Illinois, 


William H. Bissell, 


1,500 


4 


Jan. 1861 


25 




75 2 


Indiana, 


Ashbel P. Willard, 


1,500* 


4 


Jan. 1861 


50 




100 


1 


Iowa, 


S. J. Kirk wood, 


2,000 


2 


Jan. 1862 


30 




59,2 


Kentucky, 


Beriah Magoffin, 


2,500 


4 


Sept. 1863 


38 




100,2 


Louisiana, 


Thomas O. Moore, 


4,000 


4 


Jan. 1864 


32 


4 


88 2 


Maine, 


Lot M. Morrill, 


1,500 


1 


Jan. 1861 


31 


^ 


151 1 


Maryland, 


Thomas H. Hicks, 


3,600* 


4 


Jan. 1862 


22 


^ 


74 2 


Massachusetts, 


Nathl. P. Banks, 


3,500 


1 


Jan. 1861 


40 




240;i 


Michigan, 


Moses Wisner, 


1,000 


2 


Jan. 1H61 


32 




8112 


Minnesota, 


Alexander Ramsay, 


2,500 


2 


Jan. 1862 


37 




8O1I 


Mississippi, 


John J. Pettus, 


4,000 


2 


Nov. 1861 


32 




92,2 


Missouri, 


Robt. M. Stewart, 


3,000* 


4 


Nov. 1860 


18 




49 2 


; N. Hampshire, 


Ichabod Goodwin, 


1,000 


1 


June 1860 


12 




332 1 


New Jersey, 


Charles S. Olden, 


l,800t 


3 


Jan. 1863 


21 


3 


60 1 


New York, 


Edwin D. Morgan, 


4,000 


2 


Jan. 1861 


32 


2 


128 1 


N. Carolina, 


John W. Ellis, 


3,000* 


2 


Jan. 1861 


50 


2 


120 2 


Ohio, 


William Dennison, Jr., 


1,800 


2 


Jan. 1862 


35 


2 


100 


2 


Oregon, 


John W hi taker. 


1,500 


4 


1862 


16 


4 


34 


2 


Pennsylvania, 


William F. Packer, 


4,000 


3 


Jan. 1861 


33 


3 


100 


1 


Rhode Island, 


Thomas G. Turner, 


1,000 


1 


May 1860 


32 


1 


72 


1 


S. Carolina, 


William H. Gist, 


3,800* 


2 


Dec. 1860 


46 


4 


124 


2 


Tennessee, 


Isham G. Harris, 


3,000 


2 Oct. 1861 


25 


2 


75 


2 


Texas, 


Samuel Houston, 


3,000 


2 Dec. 1861 


21 


4 


66 


2 


Vermont, 


Hiland Hall, 


1,000 


1 Oct. 1860 


30 


1 


230 


1 


Virginia, 


John Letcher, 


5.000 


4 Jan. 1864 


50 


4 


152 


2 


Wisconsin, 


Alex. W. Randall, 


1:250 


2 


Jan. 1862 


30 


2 


97 


1 


Kansas Ter., 


Samuel Medary, 


2;500 


4 


1862 


13 


2 


26 


1 


Nebraska Ter. 


Samuel W. Black, 


2,500 


4 


1863 


13 


2 


26 


1 


N. Mexico T., 


Abraham Rencher, 


3,000 


4 


1861 


13 


2 


26 


1 


Utah Ter., 


Alfred Cummings, 
Richard D. Gholson, ' 


2,500 


4 


1861 


13 


2 


26 


1 


WashingtonT. 


3,000 


4 


1863 


9 


3 


18 


1 



In all the States, except South Carolina, the Governor is voted for by the 
people ; and if no one has a majority of all the votes, in the States in which 
such a majority is required, the Legislature elects to the office of Governor 
one of the candidates voted for by the people. See also the Individual 
States, and the Additions and Corrections at the end of the volume. 



* Wiih tbe use ofa furnished house. 



t And fees. 



tXD B-FATBB. [1860. 

XXII. COMPARATIVE VIEW OF 











An.iusJ 


Suu*. 




*D^w." 


"-^r" 


TotilDebt. 




Alabama, . 




6,098,000 


■ 


5,098,000 




Arkansan, . 






2,981,133 




2,981,133 




C»lifi,nii«, . 






3,900,000 


143,485 


4,043,485 




Connentitut, 






Nona. 




None. 










None. 




None. 




Florida, 






158,000 




158,000 




Georgia. 






2,604,750 


750,000 


3,354,750 




Illinois, . 






11,138,454 




11,138.454 




Indiana, 






7,357,074 




7,357,074 




Iowa, 






128,010 




128,010 




Kentucky, 






5,574,244 




5- - ■ 










4,379,091 


6,322,551 


IC 




HaiDB, . 






699,IN>0 


335,277 


1 




Maryland, . 






10,754,204 


4,100,(100 


14 




Massac hiuetU, 






1,314.000 


4,999,456 


t 




Michigan, . 






2,337,630 




S 




Minnesota, . 






aw.ooo 














2,271,707 


5,000,000 


7,271,707 




MiMOUrl, . 






602,000 


18,436.000 


19,038,000 










None. 




None. 




NewJenwr, . 






95,000 




Ee,0UO 




New York, 






31,671,944 


770,000' 


32,441,944 




North Carolina, 






7,181,923 




7,181,923 




Ohio, . . 






17,131,219 




17,131,219 








39,268,111 




39,268,111 




Rhode Island, 








386,311 


386,311 




South Carolina, 






3,192,743 


3,000,000 


6,192,743 










3,844,607 


12,799,000 


16.643,607 




Teiaa, 






Nona. 




None. 




Vermont. . 






None. 




None. 




Virginia, . 






29,106,659 


3,898,500 


33,005,159 




Wisconsin. . 
Total. near Jan. t. 






100,000 


6079407580 


H«,000 




85!),'193,13il,503 


^54,080,083" 




Total, " " 


858, 194,528,345 


57 ■"• -18 


251,649,983 




Total, " " 


857, 187,293,039 


57 JO 


245,211,25.4 




Total, " ■' 


856, 


182,030,283 


5f i9 


338,902,542 




Total, « 


855, 


192.026,298 


44 U 


236,794,149 




Toul, " 


85«, 


191,671.391 


3( 12 


J2l.a04,503 




Total, " " 


853, 


184,303,865 


31 t\ 


216,167,786 




Total, " 


852, 


169.076,638 


3; u 


202,557,762 




Total, " " 


851,1170,535,238 


31 J6 


201,541,624 




Total, " '* 


850,1 169,5*9,334 


38 IB 


209,305,658 




Total, " " 


849,1170,749,453 


4C ra 


211,252,432 




Total, " 


B48,! 169,776,030 


3E » 


205,708.038 




Total, " « 


847, ■ 165,129,900 


51 >4 216,911.554 




Total. " " 


846. '179,635,022 


44 }5 224,023,827 





These lablea are believed to be accurate, being compiled almoet eiclo- 
■ively from official reporU made hy Ihe TrBaaurare and Auditors In the Leg- 
ialatures of Ihe aevoral States, most of Ihem near Ihe Ist of January, 18HI. 
The account of the State debu, in psrticulsT, ia full, and may be depended 
upon; that of the several kinds of property owned by the States ofcoune 
» more deftcllve, — for the Slate archivBB seldom afford complete materials 
for Bccnrata acoounta of thia so^^ and the property la aometunes estimated 



IStO.] FUfANCU OF THK STATES. 

THE FINANCES OP THE STATES. 



Suua. 




imomit 


PruilucIJvB 




Ordl,»r;.nr,B. 






ScHml Fund. 


Prnpeny. 


F^uXe. 


rtewEhw^s 


Alabama, . 




1,4^5,933 


133,000 


t 


100,000 


Arkansas, 












75,000 


California, . 






739,487 






600,000 


Connecticut, 






3,044,672 


406,000 




130,000 


Delanare, . 






440,506 


109,250 




25,000 


PloridB, . 












46,000 


Gbow«, . 






440,900 


4,461,533 


250,000 


140,000 


Illinois, . 






4,1119,476 






230,000 


Indiana, 






4,.<ll2,0ia 






60,000 


Iowa, 






1,000,000 


58,571 




35,000 


Kennickv, . 






1,455,332 






350,000 








1,036,500 


207,000 




500,000 


Maine, . 






149,085 






150,000 


Harylond,. 






181,167 


13,647,276 


14,000,000 


170,000 








1,522,898 


8,961,229 


3,080,678 


800,000 


Minm' 






1,384,288 






135,000 


Mil"^ ■ 










3,000,000 


130,000 


MiBBOuri, . 






595,668 






110,000 


New Ilampshin 


, 




None. 


Noae. 




80,000 


New Jersey, 






437.754 


275,528 


764,671 


130,000 


New Vork, 






6,775,889 


38,800,000 




750,000 


North Carolina, 






2,181350 


4,600,000 




85,1)00 


Ohio, 






3,500,000 


18,000,000 




300,000 








12,933,997 




435,000 


Rhode Island, 






299,436 


400,533 




60,000 


South Carolina. 








5,654,692 




115,000 








684,060 


3,H92,717 




165,000 


Texas, . 






2,193,000 


■er 




100.000 


Vermont, 






None. 




100,000 


Virginia, . 






1,677,659 


4,885,856 


95,313,514 


600,000 








2,358,791 


T1B;226.110 




985,000 


Total, near Jan.l, 


■§59 


"4(i;44o,356 


45,408,863 


~U31O,0OO 


Total, " " 


858 


37.752,481 


128,590,351 


4e"'"'-'70 


6.466,000 


Tolal, " " 


857 


37,700,334 


137,498,801 


4. 61 


6,461,000 


Total, " " 


856 


34,385,476 


135,169,816 


4: 93 


6,356,000 


Total, " " 


855 


29,179,871 


134,878,928 


4' 99 


6,317,000 


Total, " 


854 


26,609,820 


145,015,799 


31 76 


5 S32 000 


Toul, « " 


853 


25,669,096 


141,934,707 


3! 83 


5,832.000 


ToU, ■' '■ 


852 


25,170,730 


134,982,644 


31 69 


5,812,000 


T06.I, " » 


851 


20,456,605 


134,936,578 


2! 12 


5,812,000 


Total, " " 


850 


21,542,683 


125,369,793 


2 43 


5,673,121 


Total, " 


849. 


31,420,275 


118,508,448 


2L,___..55 


5,258,652 


Total, « » 


84B, 


30,338,246 


111,638,746 


31,498,469 


5,062,310 


Total, " " 


84?; 


17,6.11,553 


108,643,384 


30,660,945 


5,43.''.,285 


Total, " " 


846 


16,608,719 


110,396,552 


23,332,715 


6,455,186 



of the American Almanac respeclfullj invi 

■everal Statea lo communicate bu-"- 

tHbleH. The object hers ii lo give only a aumn 
aflord the means of comparing the Slates with < 
cial condiuon ia shown at much greater lenglb 

dividual States," ' " 

Tcluros pobliihed 



h other. Their linsn- 
ider the head of " In- 

_ _ _ Its are giTen. Official 

this norlt for 1843 (pbrb 135) show Uiat the total of 



UNITED STATEB. [1861 

SEVENTH CENSU3 OF THE UNITED STATES. 
>N OF THE United States accobdinq to the Seventh Cehsu 
m CosB 







Free 






Federal 


1 ^^ 




*"-■ 


Popilllt 


CotorM 

a:: 


^ 


SlaTU. 


"•r? 




II 
a 


Frat 


Ab.L..>», 


4M,4d6 


"aiiS 


4*1,779 


342,892 


<»4,514 






113,978 




IB2,!3S 
91,632 


96i 


162,797 
92,687 


47,100 


191,067 
92,587 


t 


+' 




Cunneciicut, 


383,091 


7,693 


370,792 




370792 






f90.S23 






18,073 


89,24: 


2,290 


90,6lf 








FlorL™'' 




924 




38.30! 










G»r^ 




a,B3i 




381,5^ 








6.118 


[lllnoV 


816,035 


6,436 


S5I,47U 




861,470 




+2 


10,663 


IndliDi, 


977,628 
, 191,8^ 


I0,7fl8 
335 


983,116 
182,21. 




988,416 


' 


+1 


t6- ■" 


Keiituclty, 




i0,0U7 




210,981 


69S;012 








Lauiaiana, 


2Sb'.49] 


17,462 


272,'95; 


241,809 


418,838 








Maine, 




1,351 


683,16! 




683,169 










m-^: 


















D3S,4S0 


9.(16' 






994!6I4 


1 


+ 


16 


Htchigsn, 


396,087 




387,654 




397.6M 






S„,„ 






'930 


296.648 


309,878 






+ 


15,496 


Ml«»..fl. ' 


69a;oo^ 


a,6ij 


594,622 


87,ti2 


647;tir5 




+ 


186.637 




317,456 








317,976 






37,707 


Ngw Jam/, ' 


185,513 


23,S2( 


489,333 


Ea2 


489,466 






23,361 


New Vork, 


3,019,325 


19,069 


3,087,39- 




3,097.394 


33 




14,435 


North CfliollMi, 
Oblo, 


19^'W^ 


27,163 
23319 


t,980,'42: 


aB,648 


763,619 
1,980,427 


a 


pi 


6,236 




aiiMlJw 


63,323 


2,311,786 




2,311,786 








Rhode bte»d7 




3,fl70 


147,545 




147,645 






154:122 


South Cm] Ins, 


2ii;667 


8,866 




384,98. 


514,613 




-1 


117.398 


ronuMM.. 




8,401 


763, IM 




906,830 






186.023 


r«.e, 


I64!031 




154,431 


6^161 


189,327 






2,481 




313,402 




314,1!0 










33,861 


VirVTMit 




E4,333 


849.133 


472,628 


1,232,649 




^ 


18,IS0 


WiKoiuin, 


3w:75s 


6.13 
423,3rM 


306,391 




306,391 


gr 




as,ia 


19,423,916 


19,847,3U1 


3,200,031 


31,765,673 




6,0K 




6,077 












N™ Meiilw, 


61,530 
















Orason, ^ 


I30Be 


20( 


13^2^ 












tlnh, 


11330 
















DiBi. of Columbia, 
Total, 


33;o« 


9,97: 




3:687 




' 






1H,553,92B 


iapis 


19,987,673 






Toial bj l>n pub. 1 
Consul Tables.} 


1 9,61)3,06$ 


1M,495 


19,987,563 


3,204,313 





























^iHaSj™ 


m 1 Populaiinn 
1840. 1 lnT850.( 


FopulattoD 




?S 


s 




SU-aStWei, 
D}st,4:T=r. 


9,651,866 


2,481 >31 


13,434.921 
9,612,969 
143,985 


'm^I 


^■^71^ 


13,436,931 
e,3C0,742 


9 
-234 


til 






23.191.876 


19 897.5733 201.34- 







13), divided hy 933, — Ihennmbet 



>luinn orfnclUHis. i 



Jll1y3D, IB69, en iddllion 






TTli'k'colunin "''tnm"1 






XXIV. POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES.* 



States. 



Alabama, 

Arkansas, 

Califoraia, 

Connecticut, 

Oelav^are, 

Florida, 

Georgia, 

Illinois, 

Indiana, 

Iowa, 

Kentucky, 

Louisiana, 

Maine, 

iVIaryland, 

Massachusetts, 

Michigan, 

Minnesota, 

Mississippi, 

Missouri, 

Sevf Hampshire, 

New Jersey, 

New York, 

North Carolina, 

Ohio, 

Oregon, 

Pennsylvania, 

Rhode Island, 

South Carolina, 

Tennessee, 

Texas, 

Vermont, 

Virginia, 

Wisconsin, 

Dist. of Columbia, 

Total, 



1790. 



1800. 



233,141 
69,098 

*S2,548 



73,077 

*96,540 
319,728 
378,717 



141,899 
184,139 
340,120 
393,751 



434,.?73 
69,110 

249,073 
30,791 

85,416 

748,308 



1810. 



20,846 



251,002 
64,273 

i62,ioi 

* 4,875 

220,955 

151,719 
341,548 
423,245 



8,850 

183,762 
211,949 
586,756 
478,103 
45,365 

602,365 

69,122 

345,591 

105,602 

154,465 
880,200 



262,042 
72,674 

252,433 
12,262 
24,520 



1820. 



127,901 
14,273 

275,202 
72,749 

340,987 

55,211 

147,178 



1830. 



1840. 



309,527 
30,388 

'297,665 

76,748 

34,730 

516,823 

157,455 

343,031 



14,093 



3,929,872 5,305,952 



406,511 
76,656 
228,705 
380,546 
472,040 
4,762 

'40,352 
20,845 
214,360 
249,555 
959,949 
555,500 
230,760 

810,091 

77,031 

415,715 

261,727 

217,713 
974,642 



24,023 



7,239,814 



564,317: 
153,4071 
298,335^ 
407,350 : 
623,287 
8,896 

75,448 
66,586 
244,161 
277,575 
1,372,812 
638,829 
681,434 

1,049,458 

83,059 

602,741 

422,813 

235,764 
1,065,379 



33.039 



9,638,131 



687,917 
215,739 
399,955 
447,040 
610,408 
31,639 

136,621 
140,445 
269,328 
320,823 
1,918,608 
737,987 
937,903 

1*348,233 

97,199 

581,185 

681,904 

"280,652 
1,211,405 



39,834 



12,866,920 



690,756 
97,574 

*309,978 

78,086 

54,477 

691,392 

476,183 

685,866 

43,112 

779,828 

362,411 

501,793 

470,019 

737,699 

212,267 

'375,651 
383,702 
284,574 
373,306 

2,428,921 
753,419 

1,619,467 

l',724,633 
108,830 
694,398 
829,210 

'291,948 

1,239,797 

30,946 

43.712 



185U.t 



17,063,353 



771,623 
209,897 
92,597 
370,792 
91,532 
87,446 
906,186 
851,470 
988.416 
192,214 
982,405 
517,762 
683,169 
683,034 
994,514 
397,654 
6.077 
606,626 
682,044 
317,976 
489,655 

3,097,394 
669,039 

1,980.329 
13,294 

2,311,786 
147,546 
668,507 

1,002,717 
212,592 
314,120 

1,421,661 

305,391 

61,687 



•23,191^76 



XXV 


. SLAVES IN THE 


UNITED STATES. 




States. 


1790. 


1800. 


1810. 


182U. 


1830. 1 1840. 1 


l85U.t 


Alabama, 


• • 


• • 


• • 


41,879 


ii7,64tf 


263,632 


342,844 


Arkansas, 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1,617 


4,576 


19,935 


47,100 


California, 


• • 


• • 


• « 


• • 


• • 


• • 


■- • • 


Connecticut, 


2,769 


951 


310 


97 


25 


17 


• 


Delaware, 


8,887 


6,153 


4,177 


4,509 


3,292 


2,605 


2,290 


Florida, 


• • 


• • 


• * 


• « 


15,501 


25.717 


39,310 


Georgia, 


29,264 


59,404 


105,218 


149,656 


217,631 


280,944 


331,682 


Illinois, 


• • 


• • 


163 


117 


747 


331 


• • 


Indiana, 


• • 


135 


237 


190 


• • 


3 


• • 


Iowa, 


• • 


■ ■ 


• • 


• « 


• • 


16 


• • 


Kentucky, 


11,830 


40,343 


80.661 


126,732 


165,213 


182,258 


210,981 


Louisiana, 


• • 


• • 


34,660 


69,064 


109,588 


168,452 


244,809 


Maine, 


• • 


« ■ 


• • 


• • 


• * 


• • 


• 


Maryland, 


103,036 


105,635 


111,502 


107,398 


102,294 


«9,737 


90,368 


Massachusetts, 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Michigan, 


• • 


• • 


24 


• • 


32 


• • 


• • 


Minnesota, 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Mississippi, 


• 9 


3,489 


17,088 


32,814 


65,659 


195,211 


309,878 


Missouri, 


• 9 


• • 


3,011 


10,222 


26,081 


58,240 


87,422 


New Hampshire, 


158 


8 


■ • 


• • 


• « 


1 


• ■ 


Now Jersey, 


11,423 


12,422 


10,851 


7,657 


2,254 


674 


t236 


New York, 


21,324 


20,343 


15,017 


10,088 


75 


4 


• « 


North Carolina, 


100,572 


133,296 


168,824 


295,017 


235,601 


245,817 


288,548 


Ohio, 


• • 


• • 


• 


« • 


• • 


3 


• • 


Oregon, 


• 


• • 


• ■ 


• •. 


• • 


• • 


• 


Pennsylvania, 


3,737 


1,706 


795 


211 


403 64 


• • 


Rhode Island, 


952 


381 


103 


48 


17 


5 


• • 


South Carolina, 


107,094 


146,151 


196,365 


268,475 


315,401 


327,038 


384,984 


Tennessee, 


3,417 


13,584 


44,535 


80,107 


141,603 


183,059 


239,459 


Texas, 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 




• 


58,161 


Vermont, 


17 


• • 


• • 


• • 




• 


• ■ 


Virginia, 


203,427 


346,796 


392,618 


425,163 


469,767 


448,987 


472,628 


W^fsconain, 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


11 


• • 


DiBt. of Coluoibia, 
.Total, 


• « 


8,244 


6,396 


6,377 


6,119 


4,694 


3,687 
3.204.313 


697,897 


893,041 


i,i9i,^ 


1,638.064 


Siwjpsr 


2,487.365 



• For any latsr letarni of the popalation of the States and Territories, see the several 
States and Territories. , ^ . »t .. «« 

t No slaves are returned In the Territories of New Mexico and Oreflinn ; in Utah 28 
are retnmed ; for their population, see p. 914, and the Territories themselves. 



316 UNITED 8TATSB. [1S60. 

XXVI. POPULATION OF SOME OF THE PRIHC1PAL CITIES,' 

According to tht ttrteral Cenauta of Ikt United Stattt, 



XXVIl. PUBLIC LANDS. 

The public lands that have belonged, and now belong, to the General 
CioTernment are situated, — 1st. Within the limits of the United Statea, at 
defined bj the treatj oflTSS, and are embiaced bj the Slates of Ohio, Indi- 
ana, lilinoia, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota eael of lbs 
MissiBsippi Riier, all of which have been formed out of the Norlfaneftern 
Territory, as conveyed with certain reBcrrations to the United States bj 
New York in 1781, bj Virginia in 1784, by MaBsachusetls in ITeS, and bj 
Connecticut in 17S6 ; also the lands within the boundaries of tbe Sulci 
of MisaiBsippi and Alabama north of 31° north latitude, ai conveyed to the 
United States by Georgia in 1802. 3d. Within the Terriloriea of Orleans 

• Ifthcn are liter enumeialiou, Be* lb« Bereni Butet. 

t By tbe suta csDBus of ibia you. ( luclu^lBg ilw Onatr. 



I860.] 



FtTBLIC LANDS. 



217 



and Loaisiana, as acquired from France by the treaty of 1803, including 
the portion of the States of Alabama and Mississippi south of 31°; the 
whole of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and that portion of Minne- 
sota west of the Mississippi River; the Indian Territory ; Oregon ; Kansas, 
and Nebraska Territories. 3d. Within the State of Florida, as obtained from 
Spain by the treaty of 1819. 4th. In New Mexico and California, as ac- 
quired from Mexico by the treaty of 1848. 5th. The ^' Gadsden Purchase " 
ef 23,161,000 acres south of the Gila River, from Mexico, in 1854. 

This public domain covered a surface, exclusive of water, of 1,450,000,000 
acres. Of this there have been prepared for market, exclusive of school 
lands, 401,604,988 acres ; of which 57,442,870 acres are subject to public 
sale, and 80,000,000 acres to entry at private sale. Of the whole domain 
there have been disposed of, to Sept. 30, 1857, 363,862,464 acres, which 
left then undisposed of^ 1,086,137,536 acres. Exclusive of the lands in 
Oregon, California, New Mexico, Utah, Kansas, and Nebraska Territo- 
ries, the entire area of the public domain is stated, afler a careful exami- 
nation, to have been 471,892,439 acres. The average cost per acre to the 
government of acquiring title, &c. to these lands is 14.41 cents ; of sur- 
vey, 2.07 cents ; of selling and managing, 5.32 cents ; in all 21 .80 cents ; 
while it receives $ 1.25 per acre, or a net profit on each acre sold of $ 1.032. 

During the five quarters ending Sept. 30, 1858, there were sold, for 
cash, 4,804,919.46 acres, for which $2,534,192.20 were received, there were 
located with military warrants, 6,977,110 acres, and there were reported 
under swamp-land grants, 1,401,565.08 acres, making an aggregate of 
13,183,594.54. The area of unoffered land surveyed and ready for market 
Sept. 30, 1858, including all previous operations, was 61,951,049 acres, and 
of this amount, 15,209,376 acres were surveyed during the five quarters 
ending Sept. 30, 1858. The following table gives the sales, &c., for the 
year ending June 30, 1858, in detail, in the several States : — 



States. 


Gross Amount of Lands 
sold during Fiscal Year. 


Amount received in 


Amount 
of Inci- 
dental Ex- 
penses. 

$14,312 43 

34,134.01 

17,843.38 

5,487.92 

2,826.45 

3,272.12 

28,121.11 

9,573.68 

23,460.58 

11,009.78 

15,298.51 

9,848.08 

49,239.15 

8,435 32 

1,106.19 

11,14666 

4,394.56 

11.895 92 


Amount 
paid into 

the 
Treasury. 


Acres. 


Purchase- 
money. 


Cash. 


Military 
Land 
Scrip. 


Alabama, 

Arkansas, 

California, 

Florida, 

Illinois, 

Indiana, 

Iowa, 

Kansas T., 

Louisiana, 

Michigan, 

Minnesota, 

Mississippi, 

Missouri, 

NebraskaT., 

Ohio, 

Oregon, 

Wash.Ter., 

W isconsin, 

Total, 


210,963.02 

836,101.35 

6,130.00 

37,704.37 

27,939.06 

8,301.11 

61,383.13 

93.464.46 

235;968.7l 

47,223 10 

68,165.83 

129,589.06 

1,891,209 69 

68,309.61 

1,310.29 

10,684.99 

2,420.90 

78.139.78 


9146,590.98 

61J&, 100.27 

7,662.52 

18,262.01 

43,097.27 

3,480.23 

83,764.88 

116,832 60 

142,001 38 

32.255.96 

86,339.03 

67,936 86 

781,125.82 

72,887.32 

1,687.69 

13,233.82 

3,026.15 

86,683.03 


$46,490.98 

612,033.17 

7,662 52 

18,262.01 

43,097.27 

3,480.23 

77,155.15 

116,832.60 

142,001.38 

32,180.96 

85.339.03 

67,936.86 

736,453.97 

72,887.32 

1,687 69 

13,233 82 

3,026.05 

44,283.03 


$67.10 

6,609.93 

75.00 

44,671.85 

300 00 


$ 36,250.38 
613,620.17 

18,927.90 

61.616.62 

6,688.26 

237,285.85 

1,209,489.37 

146,417.69 

34,379.65 

134,118.76 

75,607.81 

837,719.63 

80,755.29 

2,169.03 

16,079.35 

3,667.46 

109,133.55 


3,iHA,W8A6 


2,116,768.02 


2.065,044.14 


61,723.88 


261,406.86 


3,513,715.671 



19 



218 VUlTltD STATES. [1860. 

Tha follovriDg table ihowa (he ules of public lands and the cuh pro 
caedg Iheieof from tbe ^ear 1633 to 1857, ioclusive. The sales, howeTcr, 
■8 the above table indicates, do not sbow the amount of public lands dii- 
pOMd of during tbe jear. Full detaila of the condition or tbe public 
lands, and of tbe TBrious grants and donalions thereof for purposes 
of education and or internal improvement, are given in the American 
Almanac for 1850, pp. 180 et seq. 

Quantity of Public Land sold, and the Ammnl paid for it, in eatk Ytar, 
from 1833 to 1658, induHve. 



The fbllovring table shows the number of land-natrantg issued under 
the acts onS47, 1B50, 165S, and 1855 ; tbe number located, and the numbv 
oalslanding September 30, 1858. 



Acu. 




thf«tn. 




Acre,. 


Oulsland'g. 


a™. 


".."•liS: 
:: IS 


87,874 
lS9,l»t 


i3,is4,seo 
ss.rar.oio 


IG0:450 


i2,i3B,aoo 
U,sia,i60 

552,660 


7,4S« 

ja;96s 


B.992!9a0 




eie.rett 






14,K(B,«fO 







Tbe Ibllowing table exhibits the quantit]' of swamp and overflowed 
lands selected aa enurinE to tbe several States under the acts of March S. 
1349, and Sept 21 
quantity palei 



. . le acts of March 2, 

— , \; tbe quantity approved under said acts; and the 

id under the act of Sept. 20, 1850, to Sept. 30, 1858 : — 



8lal«. 


""S^^. 


QuantLli 
appn).<ri. 


Pateoud. 


Slatu. 


ssa 


sppreved. 


p^rJ 


AUbunm 




2,E9G 
6,356,435 
10,701,495 
1371^ 


4.418,430 


Michigan. 

Ohio, 

WlsMD.In, 

Toul, 


'54I43! 

3,827,199 


5,466,232 
2,918,379 

1,650,712 


1^ 


7,601,635 




66,129,492 


40,923,182 


i8,7l6,S33| 



I860.] 



BANKS. 



219 



The following tabl€i shows the names and lengths of such of the rail- 
roads in the several States to which Congress has granted lands, as were 
in process of adjustment at the General Land-Office, Sept. 30, 1858, and 
the quantities of land enuring to the same : — 



States. 



Alabama, 
Florida, 

Iowa, 

Louisiana, 
Michigan, 



Minnesota, 



Mississippi, 
Wisconsin, 



Total, 



Name of Road. 



Alabama and Florida, 

Alabama and Tennessee, 

Mobile and Girard, 

Florida, 

Florida and Alabama, 

Florida, Alabama, and Gulf Central, 

Pensacola and Creorgia, 

Burlington and Missouri, 

Dubuque and Pacific, 

Iowa Central Air Line, 

Mississippi and Missouri, 

New Oneans, Opelousas, and Great 

Western, 
Vicksburg, Shreveport, and Texas, 
Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond du Lac 

(Michigan part), 
Detroit and Milwaukee, 
Flint and Pierre Marquette, 
Grand Rapids and Indiana, 
Point Huron and Milwaukee, 
Minneapolis and CedarValley (branch), 
Minnesota and Pacific (main), 
Minnesota and Pacific (branch). 
Southern, 
Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond du Lac 

(Wisconsin part), 
La Crosse and Milwaukee, 
St. Croix and Lake Superior, 



Length 

of Road. 

Miles. 



114.00 
125.50 
22S.60 
151.60 
46 00 
60.00 
200.75 
2^6.60 
3a).50 
338.00 
318.00 

263.00 
166.00 

159.00 
107.00 
173.50 
183.00 
89.75 
112.00 
230.00 
11600 
110.00 

167.00 
252.00 
243.00 



Length j Area 



in the 
State. 



4,649.50 



468.00 
647.25 

1,263.00 

429.00 
712.26 

468.00 

110.00 
662.00 

4^649. 60 



Enuring. 
Acres. 



398,500 
500,000 
250,000 

*2S0,000 

165,687 

27,778 

•901,000 
252,655 

1,137,143 
686,523 
400,000 

684,000 
363,670 

576,000 

35,000 

625,000 

660,000 

15,000 

♦150,000 

«S50,000 

•400,000 

207,731 

*600,000 
♦725,000 
♦900,000 



Grant to 
the State. 



1,148,500 
1,374,465 

2,476,321 

1,047,670 
1,910,000 

1,400,000 

207,731 
•2,225,000 



1 1, 789,687 ill, 789,687 



XXVIII. BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES.f 

The following abstract of the condition of the State Banks throughout 
the Union is taken from a letter of the Secretary of the Treasury to the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, dated February 28, 1859, which 
is printed as House £x. Document No. 112. The information was obtained 
in compliance with a resolution of the House adopted as long since as July 
10, 1832. 

The following statement embraces, with a few trifling exceptions, all the 
chartered banks in the Union that were in operation on the 1st of January, 
1859. To complete the statement, it has been found necessary to give the 
'* stocks," ** other investments,'* and *' other liabilities," of the banks of 
Rhode Island as they stood on the 25th of May, 1858, the returns from 
that State for January, 1859, not embracing those items ; and also to give 
the banks of Mississippi as they were in January, 1858. 

The " specie funds " appear to consist (a few small amounts of coin and 
mint certificates excepted) almost exclusively of notes of other banks, 
checks on other banks, and other obligations payable on demand. 

* Estimated. 

f For later returns of the Banks, If any, see the Individual Sutes. 



UNITED STATES. 



c VieiB continved. 



I860.] 



BAILROADS. 



221 



XXIX. RAILROADS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Thb following table gives the names of the principal railroads in the United States, and their 
condition near January, 1859. The roads of less importance are put together under the item 
" Other roads ; " and against that line, in the coliunn headed State, is given the aggregate length 
of railroads in the State. The length of each road includes the branches, but not the double track. 
When a road is in two or more States, it is put in the list in the State in which the greater portion 
of it lies. 



Stale. 


Name of Road. 


gth in op- 
ration. 


ital Stock 
laid in. 


t, Funded 
Floating. 


t of Con- 
ction and 
uipment. 


ceipts in 
1858. 


Expenses in 

1858. 








6 


.CO 

as 


11-^ 


& 






Miles. 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


Alabama 


Montgomery & W. Point, 
Mobile^ Ohio. STee Mis- 


116 


1,414,924 


992,884 


2,444,722 


391,000 


276,600 




sissippi. . 
Ala. & Tenn. Rivers, 


95 


1,031,958 


700,000 


1,678,244 


113,152 


92,445 




Ala. and Miss., Seluca to 
















U. Town, * 


30 






600,000 








Ala. and Fla., Montgom- 
















ery to Greenville, 


43 






1,000,000 






395 


Other roads. 


111 












Ark. 


Memphis and Little Rock, 


39 






1,000,000 






Califor. 


Sacramento Valley, 


22 






1,600,000 






Conn. 


New Haven and Hartford. 


72 


2,350,000 


964,000 


3,320,667 


628,245 


363,400 




New York & New Haven, 


62 


2,980,839 


2,194,051 


5,324,627 


836,612 


607,503 




New London.Wiiiimantic, 
















and Palmer, 


66 


610,000 


1,052,000 


1,673,668 


104,484 


73,973 




Housatonic, 


74 


2,000,000 


355,176 


2,438,847 


271,273 


227,571 




Hartford, Prov.,&Fishkill, 


122 


2,042,540 


2,182,626 


4,202,619 


298,596 


163,926 




Naugatuck, 


57 


1,031,800 


334,095 


1,678,301 


199,636 


133,266 




New Haven , New London, 
















and Sionington, . 


62 


738,538 


846,452 


1,454,040 


76,758 


67,818 


694 


Other roads, 


79 












Del 


Delaware, 


71 


301,198 


856,000 


1,200,000 


95,413 




93 


Other roads. 


22 






834,350 






Florida, 


Florida (Fernan. to Gains- 
ville), .... 


62 






* 






119 


Other roads, 


57 












Georgia, 


Georgia (W.W.&Ath.br.) 
Augusta and Savannah, 


232 
53 


4,156,000 


477,000 


4,200,000 


1,036,672 


210,400 


• 


Central (Savan. toMacon), 
Southwestern & Muscogee 


191 


3,725,910 


191,767 


3,750,000 


1,122,645 


582,310 




(Am. Br.), 


176 


1,400,000 


440,878 


2,270,000 


647,876 


210,107 




Macori&West. (toA tlanta), 


103 


1,438,700 


96,000 


l,647,fKX) 


293,247 


160,620 




Western and Atlantic, . 


138 






5,901,498 








Atlanta and Lagrange, 


87 


1,000,000 


199,000 


1,172,000 


317,700 


125,810 


1,160 


Other roads, . 


181 












lUinois, 


Ohio and Miss. (W. Div.) 


148 


1,780,295 


3,292,403 


4,870,686 








Terre Haute, Alt. & St. Lo. 


193 


3,011,160 


6,925,927 


8,726,764 


823,767 


247,757 




St.Louis, Alton,& Chicago, 


256 




' 9 


' J 


9 






Chic. Burling'n^&Quincy, 


310 


4,632,000 


2,990,000 


8,042,430 


1,044,673 


872,968 




Chicago and Milwaukee, 


86 








' / 






Chicago and Rock Island, 


182 


5,248,000 


1,734,318 


6,628,272 


1,886,196 


860,039 




Peoria Branch, 


47 














Chicago, St. Paul, & Fond 
















du f<ac (now Chicago & 
















Northwestern), . 


194 


2,300,000 


1,326,000 


3,625,000 








Galena & Chicago Union, 


260 


6,023,800 


3,899,015 


9,395,466 


2,315,786 


1,123,744 




III. Central & Branches, 


706 


6,556,436 


20,316,692 


23,437,669 


2,293,965 


1,727,993 




Great Western (DanviUe to 
















Naples). . 


167 














Peoria and Oquawkua, 


180 


1,569,889 


2,200,000 


5,400,000 






2,854 


Other roads, . 


136 












Indiana, 


See Ohio, Mich. & Illinois. 
















Northern Indiana, air line, 


Included 


in Mich. 


S. and N. 


Indiana. 







19* 



UNITED BTATKS. 



224 



T7KITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Stale. 



Ohio, 



3,337 
Peon. 



2,317 
R. Island, 
65 
S.C. 



733 
Tean. 



830 
Texas, 



129 
Vermont 



528 
Virginia, 



1,230 

Wise. 



Name of Road. 



Mad River and Lake Erie, 
Sand.,Mansf 'd,& Newark, 
Scioto & Hocking Valley, 
Pitta., Ft. Wayne & Chic. 
Pittsb'g, Columb. Sc Cinn. 
Indianap., Pitts. & Clevel. 
Toledo, Waliaah, & West. 
Other roads, . 
Phil., Germ., & Norrist'n, 
Phil., Wilmington, & Bait. 
Philadelphia and Reading, 
Penn. (Phil to Pittsburg), 
Northern Pennsylirania, 
DeI.,Lackawanna,A;We8t., 
Uat.,Williamsport,A; Erie, 
Williamsport and Elmira, 
Cumberland Valley, . 
Pittsburg & Steubenville, 
Pittsburg &. Connellsville, 
Sunbury and Erie, . 
Coal roads, . 
Other roads, . 
N. York, Prov., & Boston, 
Pro v., Warren, & Bristol, 
S Carolina, Cam. &Col.brs. 
Charlotte &SouthCarolina, 
Greenville and Columbia, 
Northeastern, 
Other roads, 
See Va., S. C, Ga., Ala., 

and Miss., . 
East Tenn. & Virginia, 
East Tenn. Sc Georgia, 
Nashville Sc Chattanooga, 
Tennessee and Alabama, 
Memphis and Charleston, 
Memphis and Ohio, 
McMinnville * Man'ster, 
Buffalo Bayou, Braz &Col. 
Houston & Texas Central, 
Galves., Huus. & Hender., 
Other roads, . 
Connecticut AsPassump. R. , 
Rutland and Burlington, 
Rutland and Washington, 
Western Vermont, . 
Vermont Central, 
Vermont and Canada, . 
Vermont Valley, 
Other roads, . 
Central (to Jackson's Ri v.) 
Manassa's Gap, . 
Orange and Alexandria, 
Rich.,Fred'b'g.&Potom.,* 
Richmond & Petersburg, 
Peter8b'g(&Ga8t.Br. I8m.> 
Riclunond and Danville, 
Seaboard and Roanoke, . 
Pet'bgfcLynchb'g (Sside), 
Virginia and Tennessee, 
Other roads, . 
La Crosse and Milwaukee, 



D. 

•— o 

c • 
o 



Mile^. 

174 

128 

56 

465 

124 

206 

242 

252 

38 

98 

93 

353 

65 

135 

63 

78 

62 

42 

60 

40 

300 

900 

50 

15 

242 

109 

165 

102 

115 



130 

110 

159 

28 

287 

82 

34 

32 

50 

25 

22 

90 

119 

62 

54 

118 

48 

24 

13 

195 

75 

102 

75 

22 

82 

141 

80 

133 

204 

121 

200 



cc.S 
•32 



2,697,090 

1,350,000 

403,975 

6,247,040 

2,708.460 
2,965,100 

899,350 
5,600,000 
11,376,541 
13,206,625 
3,051,865 
3,292,772 
1,700,000 
1,600,000 
1,013,900 
1,221,277 
1,748,052 
3,676,030 
6,000,000 

1,506,000 
284,717 
4,179,200 
1,201,000 
1,295,000 
686,650 



626.075 

1,192.974 

2,263,905 

309,764 

2,228,177 

725,000 

140,097 

429,300 

265,000 



1,200,000 

2,233,376 

950,000 

332,000 

5,000,000 

616,163 

3,122,968 

1,467,000 

1,000,000 

834,900 

769,000 

1,977,399 

1,457,000 
3,503,200 

10,872,000 



1-= 



$ . 

3,368,000 
2,206,367 
509,050 
9,822, 



$ 

6,065,090 

3,562,357 

888,858 

550114,279,704 



2,249,400 
7,577,600 

376,800 
2,673,450 
9,423,506 
15,690,524 
2,820,165 
6,194,551 
1,940,000 
1,990,000 

213,509 

280,000 
1,613,403 

876,293 



306,500 
152,007 

3,318,625 
380,000 
970,000 

1,819,990 



1,70,664 

1,738,669 

1,632,796 

626,889 

3,495,288 

97,242 

414,671 

404,155 



800,000 
^392,141 

331.600 
6,276,300 



1,833,170 

1,006,484 
730,506 
231,000 
158,502 
326,407 

1,006,484 
3,261,955 

8,316,743 



c ea e 
O eg 

O'Z o* 
5 






4,843,253 
10,642,600 

1,274,150 

8,568,369 

19,263,720 

27,266,962 

6,106,342 

8,013.761 

3,640,000 

3,464,454 

1,226,676 

914,695 

2,285,606 

3,238,293 



2,168,000 
439,138 
7,668.037 
1.719,045 
i;907,278 
1,907,278 



3,203,138 

2,703,428 

3,896,703 

679,906 

6,672,470 

1,489,420 

665,459 

681,865 

1,000,000 



2,531,146 
4,591,217 
1,171,683 
1,064,000 
8,402,054 

1,212,274 

5,364,260 



2,028,066 



*S GO 
« 



328,958 
1,546,359 



206,981 

1,143,653 

3,065,522 

4,855,670 

248,784 

816,768 

219,253 

274,564 

156,463 

45,587 
105,860 



206,439 

1,449,803 

240,722 

1,449,800 

99,4(W 



61,314 
227,363 
641.5521 

63,775' 
642,022i 



35,969 
117,642 



192.122 
354,268 
172,825 

702,271 

45,785 

665,832 



Si 

H 



164,479 
968.572 



I 



93,538 
764,977 
1,461,746 
3,000,743 
112,187 
774,629 
166,803! 
117,096, 

79,371 
142,626 

41,269 

66,361) 



2,026,066 275,791 ._,.„ 
1,706,169 232,172 111,960 



76,056 
140,128, 



1,206,121 157,642 

1,009,115 263,784 „.,.-. 

3,487,686 461,918 206^82 

1,365,834 

" ~ 275,791 



6,765,155 672,976 377I20O. 
15,974.670 682.818 510,127 



112,000- 

709,268 

119,167 

709,265 

61,132 



22,252 
122,371 
422,292 

24,370 
307.618 



17,648 



110,1211 
272,726 
135,702 

586,595 

38,520 

290,056 

136,969 



136,969 



* From Washington to Acquia Creek by steamboat is 66 miles, which makes steamboat and 
ulroad route 130 miles. 



I860.] 



SAILBOADS. 



225 



State. 


Name of Road. 


Length in op- 
eration. 


Capital Stock 
paid in. 


Debt. Funded 
and Floating. 


Cost of Con- 
struction and 
Equipment. 


Receipts in 
1858. 


Expenses in 
1858. 


Wise. 
702 


Watertown Division, 
Milwaukee & Mississippi, 
Milwaulcee and Horicon, 
Racine and Mississippi, 
Mineral Point, 
Kenosha, Rockf. & R. Isl. 

Total in United States, 
FbnamaCAspinwall to Pa.) 


Miles. 
64 
235 
42 
101 
32 
28 


9 

3,440,673 
1,101,200 
1,586,405 


9 
4,610,583 
498,479 


9 < 

8,151,255 

919,757 

2,681,086 


9 

882,818 

60,066 

192,459 


9 
610,127 
73,992 


26,752 
49 


3,743,000 




6,664,852 


1,305,819 


845,183 



The American Railroad Journal of January 1, 1859. gives the length of the railroads in op- 
eration in the United States, January 1, 1859. at S7,857 miles ; cost $961,047,364. The Secre- 
tary of the Treasury (Report on the Finances, December 8, 1857, pp. 44, 45) states the capital 
paid in of the railroads in the United States to be $491,435,661; the debt. 8 417,943,664 ; 
annual interest on the debt, $25,093,303: the net income, $48,406,488; the available income, 
$34,390,896. 

The American Railroad Journal for May 15, 1858, gives a table of the Cmutls in the United 
States, compiled by Richard S. Fisher, Esq. Their aggregate length is said to be 5,131JS3 miles. 



Railroads 



Name of Road. 



Length. 
Miles. 

Buffalo & Lake Huron (BufftoGoderich), 161 
Champ k St. Law. (Rous. Ft. to Montr.), 44 

Coboure and Peterboro 28 

Erie & Ontario (Niao; Falls to Chippewa), 17 
Grand Trunk. For Portland Diet, see Maine 
Montreal District. .... 143 
Quebec Diet. (Richmond to Quebec), 96 
Montreal and Toronto Districts, . 333 
Tor. k Samia District (Tor. k Lond.) 120 
St. Thomas Branch, . a . .49 



IN Canada. 

Name of Road. Length. 

Miles. 
Great West. (Niagara Falls to Detroit), 229 
" 28 

38 
42 
20 
95 
54 



Guelph Branch, 

Toronto Branch (Hamilton to Toronto), 
Mont, k N.Y. (Mont to Mooer's June), 
Plattsb'gd: Moot. (Mooer's J. to Platts.), 
Ont., SiuL k Huron (Tor. to Collingwood), 
Ottawa k Prescott (Pres. to Bytown), 



Other roads, 37 



Total, 



1,534 



Surveyed Routes for a Railroad from the Mississippi or its Tributaries to the 
Padfie Ocean. — From the Report of the Secretary of War, 



Description of Route. 



1. Route near 47th and 49th parallels, 

from St. Paul to Vancouver, 

a. Extension thence to Seattle, 

2. Near the 41st and 42d parallels, 

via South Pass from 0)uncil 6lu£& 
toBenicia, 

3. Near the 38th and 39th parallels, 

from Westport to San Francisco, 
by the Coo-che-to-pa and Tah-ee- 
chay-pah Passes, .... 

b. Same, from Westport to San Fran- 

cisco by the Coo-che-to-pah and 
Madelin Passes, .... 

4. Near the 35th parallel, from Fort 

Smith to San Pedro, 
e. Near the 35th parallel, from Fort 
Smith to San Francisco, 

5. Near the 32d parallel, from Fulton 

to San Pedro, .... 
d. Fulton to San Francisco, . 



Distance 

in 

straight 

line. 



Miles. 

1,455 
45 




1,740 
1,360 



1,400 
1,620 



Distance 

proposed 
route. 



Miles. 

1,864 
161 



2,032 
2,080 

2,290 

1,892 

2,174 

1,618 
2,039 



Sum 
of ascent 

and 
descent. 



Feet. 

18,100 
1,000 



29,120 
49,966 

66,614 

48,812 

60,670 

32,784 
42,008 



Estimated 
Qoel. 



130,781,000 
10,090,000 



116,096,000 

So great that 
road is im 
practicable. 



do. 

169,210,266 

169,210,265 

68,970,000 
93,120,000 



Through 
arable 
lands. 



Miles. 

374 
161 



632 

620 

670 

416 

644 

408 
759 



226 



UNITED STATES. 



[1860. 



Route. 



1 
a 
2 
3 
b 
4 
c 
6 
d 



•p ♦ 

H 

Miles; 
1,490 

1,400 
1,460 
1,620 
1,476 
1,530 
1,210 
1,230 



Miles of Route elevated. 



^ 



o 
^ 



470 
161 
180 
340 
275 
305 

485 
700 



.8 



^% 



680 

170 
276 
308 
347 

300 
410 






^8 

09 



720 

210 
165 
190 
260 

100 
160 



^8 

CO 



130 

160 
348 
143 

185 

170 
205 



.1 






97 

580 
466 
725 
160 

503 
504 



e 
^8 



28 

285 
170 
284 
305 

60 
60 



^8 



270 

60 

110 

235 



^ 



^8 



107 

155 

155 

95 



00 



20 
80 
80 






o» 



20 
20 



as 

> « a 

0) 9 » 



Miles. 
2,207 
180 
2,583 
3,125 
3,360 
2,816 
3,137 
2,239 
2,834 



« 

S 

.a 



Feet 
6,044* 

8,373 
10,032t 
10,032t 

7,472 

5,717 
5,717 



XXX. LINES OF LAND AND SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH. 

The length in miles of the lines of land telegraph in operation in the different parts of 
the world, January 1, 1858, is stated in round numbers as follows : — 

Miles. I Miles. 

America (United States), . . 35,000 India, 5,000 

America (British Provinces), . . 5,000 Italy, 2,500 

America (other parts and Islands), 5,000 Prussia, 4,000 

Australia, 1,200 Russia, 5,000 

Austria and Germany, . . . 10,000 Switzerland, 1,500 

Bavaria and Saxony, . . . 1,700 Rest of Europe, .... 1,400 

Belgium, 550 Other parts of the World, ... 500 

England, 10,000. 

France, 8,000! Total, .... 96,350 

The estimated cost of the lines in the United States is $4,000,000; in the British Prov- 
inces, • 600.000; in England, 87,500,000. The number of messages passing over all the 
lines in the United States in a year is estimated at near 4,000,000. 

Lines of Submarine Telegraph. 

Dover and Calais 

Dover and Ostend 

Holyhead and Howth 

England and Holland 

Port Patrick and Donaghadee 

Port Patrick and Donaghadee, second cable 

Across the Soland, Isle of Wight (England) .... 

Across the Frith of Forth (Scotland) 

Denmark, across the Great Belt 

Denmark, across the Little Belt 

Denmark, across the Sound 

Petersburg to Cronstadt 

Italy and 0>rBica 

Corsica and Sardinia 

Messina to Reggio 

Across the Danube, at Shumla 

Six cables across the mouths of the Danube, at the Isle of Ser* 

pents, each one mile long and having one conductor . 
Varna and Balaklava (across the Black Sea) 

Balaklava and Eupatoria 

Across the Bosphorus, at Eandili 

Across the Hoogly River 

Across the Gulf of St. Lawrence 

Across the Straits of Northumberland, Prince Edward Island 

Across the Gut of Canso, Nova Scotia 

Across the St. Lawrence, at Quebec 

Across the Mississippi at Padocah 

Across the Atlantic, from Trinity Bay to Valentia Bay . 
Small river crossings 



Miles. ' 


Wires. 


Date. 


25 


4 


1851 


76 


6 


1652 


65 


I 


1862 


115 


3 


1853 


13 


6 


1853 


13 


6 


1853 


3 


4 


1855 


4 


4 


1855 


15 


3 


1854 


5 


3 


1854 


12 


3 


1855 


10 


J 


1856 


65 


1854 


10 


6 


1854 


5 




1856 


1 




1855 


6 




1857 


340 




1855 


60 




1855 


1 




1856 


2.50 






74 




1856 


10.60 




1656 


3 




1856 
1855 


1 




1851 


1,960 




1858 


20 







Total length of submarine cables 2,904 

The cost of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, as originally made, was as follow« : 2,500 miles 
U • 435 a mile ; 10 miles deep-sea cable at $ 1,450 a mile ; 25 miles shore ends at 1 1,250 
a mile. Total coat, $ 1,258,260. 



INDIVIDUAL STATES* 



I. ALABAMA. 

Capital, Montgomery, ilrco, 50,722 sq. m. Population^ 1865, 841,704. 
Government for the Year 1860. 

Andrew B. Moore, of Marion, Governor (term of office ex- Salary, 

pires on the 1st Monday in December, 1861), $4,000 

James H. Weaver, of Coosa Co., Secretary of State^ Fees and 1,200 
Wfi^. J. Greene, of Macon Co., Compt. of Pub. Accounts, " 2,000 
William Graham, of AutaLUgBL Co., State Treasurer, 1,800 

Thos. C. Mclvor, of Wilcox Co., Adj. and Insp.- General, not over 200 
P. H. Brittan, of "NLonigoinQrY, Quartermaster- General, 150 

Gabriel B. Du Val, of Montgomery, Supt. of Education, 2,000 

John Whiting, of Montgomery, CommWfy Trustee to settle Affairs 

of State Bank and Branches, 2,500 
Watkins Phelan, of Montgomery, Private Secretary to Governor, 

and Keeper of State-House, 650 
John D. Rather, of Morgan Co., President of Senate, 
Joseph H. Phelan, ofCoosa^Co., Secretary of the Senate. 
A. B. Meek, of Mobile, Speaker of the House. 

Albert S. Elmore, of Montgomery, Clerk of the House. 

The Senate consists of 33 members, elected for four years, one half going 
out every two years. The House of Representatives consists of 100 mem- 
bers, elected for two years. The Legislature meets biennially in the city of 
Montgomery, on the second Monday of November. The seventh biennial 
session commenced in November, 1859. The pay of the members of both 
houses is $4 a day each. The Legislature in 1857 raised the salary of the 
Governor from $2,500 to $4,000. 

JUDICIART. 

Supreme Court. Term ends. Salary. 

A. J. Walker, of Montgomery, Chief Justice, Jan. 1862, $ 3,000 

George W. Stone, of Montgomery, Associate Justice, " '' 3,000 

tRichard W.Walker, of Florence, « « 1864, 3,000 

Afarion A. Baldwin, of Montgomery, Attorney- General, Fees and 425 

J. W. Shepherd, of Montgomery, Reporter, 1,200 

John D. Phelan, of Montgomeryy CZerAc, Fees. 

The judges of the Supreme Court, and the chancellors, are elected by a 
joint vote of the two houses of the General Assembly, for six years. The 

* For the table exhibiting the Seats of Government, the times of the election of State 
Officers, and the meeting of the Legislatures, of the several States, see anU^ p. 210 ; and 
for their population at the several censuses, see pp. 214, 215. 

t R. W. Walker is Judge by executive appointment. The Legislature, at the session 
in 1859, elects a Judge. 



228 



ALABAMA. 



[1860. 







Circuit 


Courts, 


Circuit 


Judges. 


Residence. . 


Salary. 


l8t 


Porter King, 


Marion, 


$2,000 


2d. 


Nathan Coolc, 


Haynesrille, 


C( 


3d. 


William S. Mudd, 


Eljton, 


K 


4th. 


John E. Moore, 


Florence, 


(C 


6th. 


S. D. Hale, 


Huntsyille, 


C< 


6th. 


Charles W. Rapier, 


Mobile, 


« 


7th. 


A. A. Coleman, 


Liringston, 


(1 


8th. 


John Gill Shorter, 


Eufaula, 


(( 


9th. 


Robert Dougherty, 


Tuskegee, 


(( 



Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction only, and holds its sessions at the 
seat of government on the first Monday of January and June of each year, 
for hearing and determining points of law taken by appeal from the Chan- 
cery, Circuity and Probate Courts. The yolumes of reported decisions are 

fifly-two in number. 

Court of Chancery, Term ends. Salary. 

Milton J. Safibld, of Montgomery, ChaneeUor Southern Dio., 1865, $2,(m 
James B.Clark, ofEutaw, « Middle <« 1860, 2,000 

John Foster, of Jacksonville, <* Mfrthem <' 1862, 2,000 

The State is divided into three chancery divisions and thirty-nine dis- 
tricts, in each of which one session of the court is held annually, an4*iii 
some of the larger districts two sessions are held. 

Solicitors. Salary. 

Y. L. Royston, $ 350 & fees. 
R. OaiUard, 250 & fess. 

L. V. B. Martin, 
John S. Kennedy, 
Nicholas Daris, Jr., 
Robert Armistead, 
A. E. Tan Hoose, 
Marion A. Baldwin, 
J. J. Woodward, 

The judges of the Circuit Courts are elected by the people of the circuit 
for the term of six years, and are required to alternate with each other in 
holding the circuits. These courts have original jurisdiction in all criminal 
causes, and in all civil causes above $ 50. When less than $50, their juris- 
diction is appellate only from the decisions of justices of the peace. Two 
sessions (spring and fall) are held each year in every county. The Solici- 
tors, besides fees, receive a salary of ) 250, except in the First Circuit, where 
the salary is $ 350. The Attorney-General acts as Solicitor for the Eighth 
Circuit. 

In Mobile County the criminal jurisdiction has been transferred to a 
special 

City Court for Mobile. Term ends. Salary. 

Alexander McKinstry, of Mobile, Judge^ 1862, $2,000 

This court holds three terms each year, on the first Monday of Febru- 
ary and of June, and on the second Monday of October, and has concurrent 
jurisdiction with the Circuit Courts except in real actions. 

Finances 

For the Year ending September 30, 1859. 
Balance in the Treasury, September 30, 1858, ... $ 371,336 74 
Receipts for the year ending September 30, 1859, . . . 915,900.16 

Total available means for the year. 
Disbursements for year ending September 30, 1869, 

Balance in the Treasury, September 30, 1859, 



• 1,317,235.90 
$685,556.90 



•631,679.00 

This balance includes #46,079.00 of notes of the old StaU Bank and branches, which bare 
been burned. 



I860.] A&KAKSAS. 229 



Chitf Sources of Income. 

Taxes, #717,000.00 

Banks, &c. for bonus and interest, 12,845.20 
Sales ofl6th Section Lands, . . 72,577.00 
Interest on such sales, . . 13,562.24 
Foreign agencies, &c., . . . 1,923.00 
Bank attorneys, . . . . 30,000.00 
Mobile and Ohio R. R. Co., . . 24,230.00 
Two and Three per Cent Fund, &c., 23,451.55 



PrincipiU Items of Expenditure. 
Executive, .... #13.250.00 

Judiciary, 39,332.89 

Educational expenses, . . . 293,375.00 
Univ^ersity of Alabama, . 15,000.00 

Insane Hospital, . . . 66,315.00 
Penitentiary and prisoners, . . 25,774.00 

Railroads, 57,500.00 

Trustee, State Bank & branches, 160,000.00 
Notes of old State Bank, &c. de- 
stroyed, . . . 46,079.00 

State Debt. —The foreign debt, Oct. 1, 1859, was $3,423,000.00 on which the annual in- 
terest is nearly # 172,065.55. The domestic debt, Sept. 30, 1859, was 8 1,675,000.00, —being 
Common School Fund, #1,425,000.00; University Fund, #250,000.00. Annual interest 
nearly # 85,000. The State has as security for its loans to roads, mortgages of the roads, 
first mortgage bonds, and in some cases individual notes. The State also owns Virginia 
and North Carolina stocks to the amount of #662,000. 

To September 30, 1855, the State had lent to railroads and plank-roads #467,109.23. 

Banks. — For the condition of the banks in this State in January, 1859, see ante, p. 220. 

Common Schools. — A system of public instruction was established by the act of Feb. 15, 
1854, and a Superintendent of Education was appointed. The money raised for the support 
of schools, and the income of the educational funds, are apportioned among the several town- 
ships, according to the number of children therein between 6 and 21 years of age. The 
amount apportioned for the year 1858 was # 271,378.97. The number of children between 6 
and 21 was 178,095 ; average per child, # 1.30. The returns that were received showed in 
the summer of 1858 the existence of 2,597 schools. This does not include Mobile County, 
which has a separate and independent school system. 

There is an Insane Hospital at Tuscaloosa. The amount advanced by the State to this 
institution up to Sept. 30, 1859, was #271,623.16. The State has made appropriations for 
an institution for the deaf and dumb, at Talladega, which is now in successful operation. 
There is an asylum for the blind at Mobile. The number of convicts in the Stat^ Peni- 
tentiary, October 1, 1858, was 217 ; of these 78 were committed for ofienCes against the 
person ; for offences against property, 121 ; for miscellaneous offences, 18. 

SttUe Census. — The census for the year 1855, taken under a special act, classifies the 
population as follows :— White males under 21 years, 140,077; over 21 years, 97,385 ; white 
females under 21 years, 135,422; over 21 years, 91,672; total whites, 464,456; insane per- 
pons, 464 ; slaves, 374,782 ; free persons of color, 2,466 ; total inhabitants, 841,704. There 
were 17 colleges, 160 academies, 1,074 common schools, 40,280 children at school, and 
93,443 white children between 8 and 16 years of age. 



II. ARKANSAS. 

Capital, Little Rock. Area, 52,198 sq. m. Population, 1858, 331,213. 
Government for the Year 1860. 

Eli AS N. Conway, of Little Rock, Governor (term of office Salary. 

expires November, 1860), $ 1,800* 

Alexander Boileau, of Little Rock, Sec. of State ^ 

School Commissioner, Perquisites and 1,000 



* And # 200 for rent of house. After the expiration of the term of the present Gov- 
emor the salary will be #3,500. 

30 



280 ASKANfiJJ». [18^0. 

Salary. 
William B. Miller, of Little Rock, Jiud. ofFub. Jicc'ts, Fees and $ 1,200 
John duindley, * ^' Treasurer ^ • Fees and 800 

David Dale Owen, of New Harmony, Ind., State Geologist^ 2,500 

J. W. McConaughej, of Little Rock, Land Att^y^State CoL,5 per cent on col. 
Thomas Fletcher, of Arkansas Co., President of the Senate, 
Benj. T. Duval, of Sebastian Co., Speaker of the House. 

State Land AgetUs, — B.F. Owen, Little Rock; J. CO. Smith, Helena; 
W. W. Alexander, Batesville ; L. C. Howell, Clarksville ; J. M. Killgore, 
Washington; V. L. Kelley, Champagnolle. John D. Kimbell is Swamp- 
Land Secretary. 

The Secretary of State, Auditor, and Treasurer are elected by a joint 
vote of both houses of the General Assembly. The term of office of the 
present members ends in November, 1860. The Legislature meets bi- 
ennially at Little Rock. A session will commence in November, 1860. 
Number of Senators, 25 ; of Representatives, 75. Their compensation is 
$4 a day during the session, and ^3 for every 20 miles' travel in going 
to and returning from the seat of government. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court. i^Brm ends. Salary. 

Elbert H. English, of Little Rock, Chief Justice^ Nov. 1860, f 2,500 
Henry M. Rector, '* Associate Justice, Nov. 1866, 2,500 

Freeman W.Compton,of Princeton, " Nov. 1864, 2,500 

S. H. Hempstead, of Little Rock, Solicitor- General, Nov. I860, 1,500 
J. L. Hallowell, ^ Attorney- General, 700 

Luke E. Barber, ** Clerk and Reporter, Fees as Clerk, 

[and $ 400 as Reporter. 

The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction only, except in particular 
cases pointed out by the constitution. It regularly holds annually two 
terms at Little Rock, in January and July, but by the act of 1858 it is re- 
quired to hold four terms a year until the arrears of business are disposed 
of. The judges are elected by the General Assembly, by a joint vote of 
both houses, for eight years. 

The Circuit Court has original jurisdiction over all criminal cases not ex- 
pressly provided for otherwise by law ; and exclusive original jurisdiction of 
all crimes amounting to felony at common law; and original jurisdiction of 
all civil cases which are not cognizable before justices of the peace ; and in 
all matters of contract, where the sum in controversy is over $ 100. It holds 
annually two terms in each circuit. The judges and prosecuting attorneys 
are elected by the people, the former for four, and the latter for two years. 
Chancellor of Pulaski County, — H. F. Fairchild, Tenn ends Nor. 1862. Salary, S 1,800. 

Judge. Term enda. Salary. Prosecut. Attorney. Term ends. Salary. 

Ist Circuit, Mark W. Alexander, 1862, $1,500 S. W. Childers, 1860, Fees &• 300 

2d " J.C.Murray, 1862, 1,500 S.M.Arnelt, 1860, " 300 

3d " William C. Bevens, 1862, 1,500 W. K. Patteraon, 1860, « 300 

4th " John M. Wilson, 1862, 1,600 Lafayette Gregg, 1860, " 300 



Sndgt. Term ends. S&lary. Prosectit. Attorney. Term ends. Salary. 

6th Circuit, John J. Clendenin, 1862, $1,500 J. L. Hallowell, I860, $700 

6th " Len. B. 6reen, • 1862, 1,600 E. W. Gantt, 1860, Fees & 300 

Finances 

For the Two Years ending Z(kh September^ 1858. 

Balance of specie in the treasury, October 1, 1866, $177,226.62 

Receipts in specie from all sources during the two years, .... 449.277.31 

Total, 626,5U3.»3 

Total expenditures in specie for the two years, 368.420.16 

Balanceof specie in treasury, October 1, 1858, $258,083.77 

Of this balance, $235,194.39 were applicable to State expenditures, the rest being due 
certain funds. Tlie receipts are chiefly from taxes. The principal items of expenditure 
were substantially as follows : Legislature, $ 35,000 ; Executive and contingencies, $ 35,- 
000; Judiciary, $35,000; Prosecuting Attorneys, $6,700; Penitentiary, 837,000; Print- 
ing and distributing laws and law reports, $ 14,000 ; Digest of statute laws, $ 10,600 ; Semi- 
nary Fund and Schools, 130,000; Internal Improvement Fund, $ 110,000. 

State Debt. — Outstanding bonds issued to the Real Estate Bank, principal, 

October 1, 1858 $946,000.00 

Interest accrued and unpaid, October 1, 1858, 845.830 00 

Total debt on account of Real Esute Bank, October 1, 1858, ... $ I,791,b30.u0 
Outstanding bonds issued to Bank of the State of Arkansas, to 

October i, 1858, $616,000.00 

Interest accrued and unpaid to same date, 631,142.50 

Total debt on account of Bank of State, October 1, 1858, . . '. 7" 1.247.142.60 
Total debt on account of both banks, October 1, 1858, . . . $ 3,U3b,972.50 

There has been since paid, up to Octolwr 1, 1859, for debt of both banks, principal, $ 26,- 
000, interest, $ 31 ,839, — total, $ 67,839, — which deducted from the above gives $ 2,981,133 
as the debt of the State October 1, 1859. 

October 1, 1856, there was in the treasury $ 16,492.01 of Arkansas Bank paper. This has 
been burned. Amount received since and in the treasury October 1, 1858, $ 680. 

By its charter, the Real Estate Bank is bound to pay the interest and redeem the principal 
of the bonds issued to its use, and the State took for security a mortgage from the 180 stock- 
holders of 141,930 acres of land, valued at the time, by commissioners under oath, at 
$ 2,603,932.32, which mortgage it now holds. It is thought that from the increased value of 
the lands the State will be secured from loss, unless it waive the lien ; and this would leave 
to the State the debt due for bonds issued on account of the Bank of the State. 

$a8,000 of the bonds are due in January, 1867, and $ 915,000 In January, 1866. 

Taxable Property in 1858. — Number of acres of land 7,969,676 ; value with imprare* 
meats, $39,069,146. Value of city, ko. lots and improvements, $3,316,658. Slaves be* 
tween 6 and 60 years of age, 51,891 ; value, $ 34,794,169. 248 saw-mills ; value, $256,306. 
91 tan-yards; value, $27,856. 66 distilleries ; value, $7,611. Value of household furniture, 
taxed, $ 102,539 ; of pleasure-carriages, $ 229,159 ; of horses over 2 years dd, $3,720,802 ; of 
nule* over 2 years, 1 1,701,766 ; of Jacks and jennies, $ 120,719; of neat cattle over 2 years, 
$2,319,127 ; of stock in trade of all trades, dec., $ 1,807,018 ; of loans over debts, $885,696; 
of steamboau, ferries, Sec, $35,290; gold watches and jewelry, $ 191,859. Capital in man- 
ufactories, $ 33,545. Total value of taxable property, $ 88,049,415. Amount of State tax, 
$ 154,793.79. Number of polls, 33,181. 

Slate CfeTuua of 1858. -^ Returns were received flrom all the counties. From these it 
appears that tliere are in the State 132,790 white males, 114,341 white females; 367 free 
male negroes, and 361 free female negroes; 83,334 slaves. Total, 331,2ia 331,628 acres 
of land were cultivated in cotton, and 979,366 in grain. There were raised 182,217 bales of 
cotton, 17,131,867 bushels of corn, 1,143,656 of wheat, 2,050,753 of oats. 

Common Schools. -^The Secretary of State is ex officio Commissioner of Common 
Schools. His last report that we have seen is dated November 13, 1864. The returns to 



t9% CAJJSPOTaSOA. [1880. 

him firom tha School GommiMionen were exceedingly imperfect j only 40 echools weire re- 
ported in the whole State. There is a great indifierence to the subject of common school 
education throughout the State. The law provides for a large school fund. The seminary 
and saline funds are distributed to the counties to aid in tlie support of common schools. 
The seminary fund has distributed • 79,321, and the saline fund 87,706, up to January 1, 
1858. The accruing annual interest on money arising from the sales of the 16th section of 
land in any township is made a perpetual fund for the support of schools. Tlie annual 
State and county taxes assessed upon I6th sections sold, proceeds of escheated estates, 
fines for certain oflfences and crimes, are by law to be paid into the treasury of the iNfoper 
county for tlie support of schools. There is no official report of the amounts arising from 
these sources. 

StcUe Prison. — Number of comricts Oct. 1, 1856, 90 ; received since from State courts^ 
48 ; from U. S. courts, 15 ; runaway slaves, 4 ; in all, 67 ; making the whole number 157. 
There have'lieen discharged of Slate prisoners, — by pardon, 19 ; expiration of sentence, II ; 
death, 5 ; escape, 4 ; otherwise 6; of U. S. prisoners — by expiration of sentence, 22; by 
death, I. In all, 68, leaving in confinement Oct. I, 1858, 89. Of these 28 were committed for 
murder or manslaughter, or for assault with intent to kill ; 13 for horse stealing ; 9 for negro 
stealing ; 20 for petit larceny ; 4 for burglary ; I for arson ; 1 for rape ; 4 for forgery ; 3 for 
passing counterfeit money. 10 were under 20 years of age, 43 between 20 and 30, 22 be> 
tween 30 and 40; 84 were white males, 1 was an Indian, 2 free men of color, 2 runaway 
slaves ; 75 were natives, 12 foreigners. The services of the prisoners and the prison itself 
are leased to contractors. 

Geological Survey. — The Legislature in 1857 provided for a geological survey of the 
State. Dr. Owen was appointed State Geologist. During the years 1857 and 1858, assisted 
by William Elderhorst, Chemical Assistant, and Edward T. Cox, Assistant Geologist, he 
made a reconnoissance of the northern counties of the State, the results of which appear in 
his first report, already published. 



III. CALIFORNIA. 

Capital, Sacramento. Area, 160,000 sq. m. Estimated popukaion, 1866, BStflST. 

Government for the Tear 1B60. 

Term expires. Salary. 

Milton S. Latham, of Sacramento, Governor, Jan. 1863, j| 8,000 

John G. Downey, of Los Angelos, Ldeut.- Gov. fy Pres, of Senate, $ 12 a ' 

[day during session of Legislature. 
Ferris Forman,* of Sacramento, Sec*y of State, Jan. 1860, 3^500 
Samuel H. Brooks, of San Joaquim, Comptroller, Jan. 1862, 3,500 

Thomas Findley, of Nevada, Treasurer, " 3,500 

Thos. H. Williams, of EI Dorado Co., JUtomey- General, " 2,000 

Horace A. Higley, of Nevada Co., Surv^^or- Genera/, " 2,000 

Andr. J. Moulder, ofSa.nFra.nc\aco^Sup'tqfPub.Ingtruc,, '^ 3,500 

Wm. C. Kibbe, of Calaveras Co.^ Adj. and Q. M. Gen., 2,000 

Charles T. Botts, of Sacramento, State Printer, Jan. 18G2, Fees. 

The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are elected by the people, by a 
plurality vote, for two years. The Secretary of State is appointed by the 
Governor. The Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney-General and Surveyor- 
General, and State Printer, are elected by the people ibr two years. The 
sessions of the Legislature are annual. The pay of the members is ^10 
per day for the first 90 days, and aflerwards $ 5 a day and mileage, — ^ 4 
for every 20 miles of travel to the Capitol. 

* It ifl said that Dr. Johnson Price is to be Secretary of State In place of Bfr. Fomiaii. 



Dial. Judge. Residence. SaJary. 

9. W. P. Daingerfield, Shaata, 6,000 

iO. S. M. Bliss, MarysviUe, 6,000 

11. B. F. Myers, Aubum, 6,000 

12. S. H. Brodle, San Francisco, 7,000 

13. Nicholas Claary, Mariposa, 4,000 
14 Niles Searles, DownieviUe, 6,000 
15. Warren T. Sexton, Oroville, 4,000 



I860.] a&xjvoiQixA. saa 

<9i^0m« Court, 

The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and two associate jus- 
tices. It has appellate jurisdiction where the matter in dispute exceeds 
$ 200, and where the legality of certain acts is questioned, and in certain 
eriaiinal cases. The justices are elected by the people for six years, and 
are so classified that one goes out ofoftce every two years. The senior 
judge in office is the chief justice. The clerk is elected for two years. 

Term expiree. Salary. 

Stephen J. Field, of Marysville, Chief Justice, Jan., 1862, $6,000 

Joseph G. Baldwin, of San Francisco, Jlssw. Justice, Jan., 1864, 6,000 

W. W. Cope, of Amador, " Jan., 1866, 6,000 

Harvey Lee, of Eldorado, Reporter^ May, 1860, 4,000 

Charles S. Fairfax, of Marysville, Clerk^ Jan. 1, 1862, Fees. 

District Courts. 

Judges' Terms expire in 1866. 
Oist. Judge. Residence. Salary. 

1. Benjamin Hays, Saa Diego, $3,000 

2. Joaquin Carillo, Santa Barbara, 3,000 

3. Sam Bell McKee, Skn Jo86, 4,000 

4. Caleb Burbank, San Francisco, 7,500 
6. Charles M. Creaner, Slookton, 6,000 

6. J. H. McKune, Sacramento, 6,000 

7. K W. McKinstry, Sonoma, 6,000 

8. W.R. Turner, 6,000 
The District Courts have jurisdiction in law and equity, where the amount 

in dispute, exclusive of interest, exceeds $200. The judges are chosen 
by the people for six years. A county judge is elected in each county for 
four years, to act as judge of probate, to hold the County Court, and with two 
justices of the peace to hold Courts of Sessions for criminal business. Clerks 
of courts, district attorneys, sheriffs, coroners, &g. are elected by the people. 

Finances. 

State Deht, — Tbe State debt Janaaiy 1, 1858, was as fbllowB : ~ 

BondsissuedunderactaStli April, 1857, $3,900,000.00 

Outstanding bonds and Comptroller's warrants not provided for, . . 143,485.63 

Making an aggregate of $47043,485.63 

The annual interest on the Ainded debt, as ntilled by ttm people, hi $ 373,000. A large 
part of. the Iteni $ 143,485 63 consists of old bonds which were presented for ftindliig after 
the amount authorized by tbe act of April S8, 1857 ($ 3,M0,0e0) had been funded. There 
aie besides bonds to the amount of $245^4, issued by tbe State <hi account of Indian 
hostilities. They are made a claim on the Federal GovenrnMnt. They show on their 
face that they are not to be a charge on the State Treasury. 

The total receipts for the year ending June 30, 1858, were ... $ 1^15,136.61 
Tbe total expenditures Ibr tbe same period were 899,553.35 

Exeess of reeeipu, $989,575.96 

The receipts ftom July 1, 1858 to December 15, 1858, inclusive, were . 493,338J)8 

Ad4 amount in the Treasury July 1, 185S, 971,109.34 

Total expended during the same period, $ 764«441.68 

949,971.46 

Balance on hand, December 15, 1858, $589,170496 

20* 



234 



OAUrOBKI^. 



[IMO, 



F<Mr the year ending Jane 30, 1858, wiine of the principal items of lecelpte and expen- 
dituiee were as follows : — 

lUeapts. I 

Property tax, .... $710^11.63 Executive, 



ExpenditHrea, 



Pblltax, .... 
Stamp tax, . • . . 
Foreign miners* licenses, . 
Merchants' licenses. 
Liquor licenses, . 
Billiard and bowling licenses, . 
Peddlers' licenses. 
Other licenses, . • . . 
Swamp and overflowed lands, 
Passenger brokers, . . 

Commutation tax. 



81,873.43 Judicial, 



90,755.% 
129,967.91 
51,744.99 
00,500.93 
10,977.88 
13,456.44 
11,906.96 
16,959.62 
12,723.14 
9,172.00 



Legislative, 
State Prison, 



$ I06,4».55 
139,075.35 
252,381^ 
169,564.80 



Printing, 83,054.58 



Insane Asylum, . 
Hospital purposes, . 
School purposes, . 
State Agricultural Soi^iety, 
Military expenses^ 
Translating laws, 



90,106.31 
10,224.46 
67,750 j67 
10,OOOill 
1,089.48 
1,397.60 



The valuation of the taxable property of the State, real and personal, was i 123,955,877. 
The personal property constituted more than one third of the valuation. The whole 
number of acres of land reported was 5,037,557. Value, $ 27,917,641 ; value of improve* 
mente therson, $ 15,888,534 ; value of city and town lots, $4,947,953 ; value of improve- 
mente thereon, $ 7,306,223. Value of personal property, • 48,919,728. Tbe'State tax on 
the whole valuation, at 60 cents on each $ 100, amounted to 743,729. For 1856 the total 
valuation of taxable property was $113,458,000 ; for 1857, i 131,806,269. 

The total shipments of gold from San Francisco, from April 11, 1849, to Dec. 31, 1856, in* 
elusive, were • 322,393,856. 

Mstraet of Taxable Property for 1857. — Acres of land enclosed, 597,610 ; cultivated, 
508,367. Acres of wheat, 126,038 ; bushels, 2,172,818 ; — of barley, 196,934 ; bushels, 
4,449,581 ;— of oats, 36,894 ; bushels, 1,097,399 ; — of rye, 963 ; bushels, 31,967;— of coni, 
12,141 ; bushels, 410,293 ; — of buckwheat, 1,065 ; bushels, 30,445 ; — of potatoes, 18,847 ; 
bushels, 1,583,397 ;— of hay, 66,836 ; tons, 84,837 ;— of tobacco, 14 ; pounds, 1,800. Pounds 
of butter, 1,949,861 ; of cheese, 1,067,418 ; of wool, 843,577 ; tons of grapes, 51,467 ; gal' 
Ions of wine made, 288,400 ; value of fruit raised, $ 145,976. Number of American 
hones, 19,682 ; Spanish horses, tame, 26,104 ; wild, 51,019 .; number of stock cattle, 
334,670 ; of beef cattle, 39,466 ; of sheep, 257,150 ; of cattle slaughtered, 69,661, value 
91,924,675; of hogs slaughtered, 43,269, value $458,560; of sheep slaughtered, 43,977, 
value $ 226,568. Number of steam grist-mills, 43 ; water do., 52 ; bushels of grain ground 
per annum, 2,871,617. Steam saw-mills, 111 ; water do., 194: feet of lumber sawed, 
308,531,500. Clnartz mills, 132 ; value, $ 558,800 ; tons of quarta crushed, 306,547. Num- 
ber of mining-ditches,^ 550 ; miles in length, 3,901 ; value $ 1,516,500. Tnmpike toads, 
38 ; length, 325 miles ; cost, $ 91,500 ; income, $ 14,400 ; repairs, $ 1,950. Ferries, 109 ; 
coat, $ 79,200. ToU-bridges, 99 ; value, $286,500. 

Common, Sekools. — The 500,000 acres of land granted by Congress to the State for par- 
poses of internal improvement are by the constitution devoted to public schools. Of these 
lands, 448,934 acres had been sold January 1, 1859, for the sum of $ 739,487.50, the inter- 
est on which, at 7 per cent per annum, is credited semiannually to the School Fund. It 
was expected that the remaining 51,066 acres would be soon sold at the rate established 
by law, and the School Fund would then amount to $803,330 ftom this source. The 16th 
and 36th sections of land in each township, granted by Congress for the support of public 
schools, will amount, by estimation, to 5,5Qp,000 acres. 73 sections of land, amounting 
to 46,080 acres, were granted to the State for the use of a seminary of learning. 8,579 
acres have been sold for $ 10,724. The whole, when sold, will make the Seminary 
Fund $57,600.. One fourth of the money from poll-taxes and escheated estates goes to 
the School Fund, and the constitution provides that the percentage on the sale of lands 
in the State allowed by Congress shall be inviolably appropriated to the use of common 
schools. Counties may levy special taxes for school purposes. To entitle any district to 
':he benefit of an appropriation from the State School Fund, the school theieitt mast kave 



I 



I860.] COKKBCTICUT. 295 

been kept at least three months in the year. There is a Board of Edacation, consisting 
of the Ctovemor, the Superintendent of Public Instmction, and the Burveyor-GeneiaL 
The returns for the year ending October 31, 1858, are as follows : —Number of districts, 
411 ; number of children between 4 and 18 years of age, 40,530 (boys 21,344, girls, 19,- 
186) ; number under 4 years of age, 23,558 ; children of all ages bom in California, 
33,546 ; number of pupils attending schools, 19,822 ; daily average attendance, 11,183 ,* 
number of teachers, 517 (male 333, female 184) ; number of schools, 432 (being 3 high, 
17 grammar, 11 mtermediate, 79 mixed, and 322 primary). State school money drawn 
for salaries, $^,383 ; amount paid teachers, 8 147,371 ; total drafts on account of salaries, 
$203,276; expended in erecting, rent, and repair of school-houses, 1 88,200; for school 
libraries and apparatus, 13,043; total expenditure for school purposes, $ 339,915; county 
tax received for school purposes, $ 162,890. Number of school-houses, 227 (of brick 14, 
ofwood'^13); number of private schools, 55 ; pupils in private schools, 2,422; number 
of schools kept open three months, 93 ; over three and less than six months, 166 ; over 
six and less than nine, 102; over nine months, 60. 

State PrUon, — At San Cluentin, Marin County, 12 miles north of San Fpncisco. March 
96, 1856, the prison, property, labor of prisoners, &c was let to James M. Estell for five 
years, the State to pay him the sum of $ 10,000 a month for the whole period. The lease 
was unfortunate for the State and for the prisoners. It is claimed on the part of the State 
that the lease is void, and the State has resumed possession of the prison. Whole number 
of convicts received from Jan. 1, 1851, to Jan. 1, 1859, 1,649 ; 560 were discharged by 
expiration of sentence, 127 by pardon, 300 escaped, 35 died or were killed. There 
were in prison Jan. 1, 1859, 582; under 20 years of age, 54; between 20 and 30, 401 ; 
between 30 and 40, 98. 248 were natives of the United States, 78 of Mexico, 27 were from 
Iiriand, 94 from England, 8 fipom France, 25 from Germany, 27 from China, and 15 from 
Chile. Of the whole number, 582, 46 were sentenced for murder, 28 for manslaughter, 
38 for assault with intent to kill, 2 for mayhem, 32 for burglary, 33 for robbery, 10 for 
rape, 14 for assault with intent to commit rape, 5 for arson, 3 for perjury, and 312 for 
grand larceny. 

Insane Asylum, Stockton. — Established in 1853. Number of patients, January 1, 1858, 
188, — 156 males and 32 females ; admitted to November 30, 1858, 244,-201 males, 44 
females; whole number, 432. Discharged during the same period, 159. Remaining 
November 30, 1858,273. Of the 159 discharged, 32 — 30 males and 2 females — died, 
and 15 males eloped. Of the 244 admitted, the type of insanity of 122 was dementia ; of 
69 was mania ; of 16, melancholia. Receipts, 46,338.88 ; expenditures, $ 46,149.67 ; 
balance in treasury December 1, 1858, $ 188.71. 

Registration. — The Legislature, by the act of April 26, 1858, provided for the registra- 
tion of marriages, births, divorces, and deaths in California. Edwin R. Campbell was 
appointed Sute Registrar, and Dec 20, 1858, he made his report, covering a period of 
eight months. The returns are imperfect. They show 595 marriages, 3 divorces, 144 
bir^s, and 771 deaths. Of the deaths, 63 were firom consumption, which was most fatal 
amongst the Chinese. 



IV. CONNECTICUT. 

Capitals, Hartford and New Haven. Area, 4,750 sq. m. Population, 1850, 370,792. 
Governmeat for the Year ending on the Ist Wednesday in May^ 1860. 



Wm. a. Buckingham, of Norwich, 
Julius Catlin, of Hartford, 

John Bo jd, ofWinsted, 

Lucius J. Hendee, of Hebron, 
Wm. H. Buel, of Clinton, 



Term ends. Salary. 



Governor^ M 


ay, im 


[),$ 1,100 


Lieut.' Governor, 


it 


300 


Sec. of State, 


Cl 


1,000 


Treasurer, 


(C 


1,000 


Comptroller^ 


(( 


1,000 



296 GOimxOTIOnT. [IStO. 



Albert Sedgwick, of Litchfield, Comm:r of Ute School Fund^ $1,250 

[and expenses. 

David N. Camp, of New Britain, Superintendent of Common Schools, 

Charles J. Hoadly, of Hartford, Slate lahr, Sf Registr. $2.50 a day. 

Thaddeus Welles, of Glastonbury, Pres, pro tern. <^ the Sen&te. 

Calvin H. Carter, of Waterbury, Clerk of the Senate. 

Oliver H. Perry, of Fairfield, Speaker of the House. ' 

William W. Stone, of New Haven, > ^, , ^ „ - « 

rv • ii:* u 1 u cr» u > Clerks of Bouse of Ra». 

Daniel E. Holcomb, ofGranby, ^ j j -t— 

JUDICIART. 

Supreme Court qf Errors and Superior Court. 

Salarj. 

William L. Storrs,* of Hartford, Chief Justice, $2,000 

Joel Hinman,* of New Haren, Associate Justice, 2,000 

Wm. W. Ellsworth,* of Hartford, " 2,000 

David C. Sanford,* of New Milford, " 2,000 

John D.Park, of Norwich, « 2,000 

Thomas B. Butler, of Norwalk, " 2,000 

Origen S. Seymour, of Litchfield, <« 2,000 

Loren P. Waldo, of Tolland, " 2,000 

Charles J. McCurdy, of Lyme, " 2,000 

John Hooker, of Hartford, Reporter, 1,200 

The Legislature at its May session, 1855, established two distinct courts, 
the " Supreme Court of Errors," and the ** Superior Court," and abolished 
the County Courts. The Supreme Court of Errors is now to consist of 
the present judges of that Court, four in number, and the Superior Court 
is to consist of five judges. Each of the present four judges of the Supreme 
Court of Errors (Storrs, Hinman, Ellsworth, and Sanford) is a judge of the 
Superior Court also, and five judges of the Superior Court (Butler, Sey- 
mour, Waldo, Park, and McCurdy) have been recently appointed. Three 
judges constitute a quorum of the Supreme Court of Errors for the transac- 
tion, of business, and two terms of the court are held annually in each 
county. The terms of the Superior Court are held by one judge, except 
for the trial of capital offences, and as often as four times a year in each 
county. Any judge may hold special terms of this court, but cannot at 
such term proceed to the trial or determination of any cause unless the 
parties consent thereto. A legal verdict may be found by any number of 
jurors, not less than nine, in any civil cause in which the parties so agree 
in writing before the verdict is rendered. The judges of this court ap- 
point a State's Attorney in each county, and may remove him for cause. 
The judges of both courts are appointed by the concurrent vote of the 
Senate and House, and in all cases must be chosen by ballot, and those ap- 
pointed in 1855 and since hold office for eight years; those previously ap- 



* These judgvs form the Supreme Court. 



1«60.] 



OONNBOTIOUT. 



ssr 



pointed hold nntil seventy years of age. In the trial of capital cases, the 
court is held by a judge of the Supreme Court of Errors, who presides, and 
by a judge of the Superior Court. The same act establishes some new 
rules of practice in civil cases. 

The Clerks of the Superior Court, who are ex officio Clerks of the Su- 
preme Court of Errors in the several counties, are as follows : — 



Counties. 


Clerkfi. 


Residence. 


Counties. 


Clerks. 


Residence. 


Hartford, 
New Haven, 
New London, 
Fairfield, 


Chaun. Howard, 
Alfred H. Terry, 
Wm. L. Brewer, 
E. S. Abernelhy, 


Hartford. 
New Haven. 
Norwich. 
Bridgeport. 


Windham, 
Litchfield, 
Middlesex, 
Tolland, 


Uriel Fuller, 
F. D. Beman, 
W.W.McFarland, 
Joseph Bishop, 


Brooklyn. 
Litchfield. 
Middletown. 
Tolland. 



Finances 
For theYear ending March 31, 1859. 



Items of Expenditure^ Chil List. 
Debenture and contingent expenses 

of General Assembly of 1858, . $34,450.81 
Salaries of Executive and Judiciary, 24, 1 80.00 
C!ontingent expenses of government, 49, 183 23 
Judicial expenses, excl. of salaries, 93,822.22 
Expense State paupers (contract), 1,800.00 
Superintending common schools, 3,439.88 
Salary of directors of State Prison, 300.00 
Quartermaster-General's Departm., 3,845.51 
Public buildings and institutions, 24,081.33 



$92,302.35 
. 12,606.04 



Loans and interest, . 

Balance to new account, . 

/ $339,911.37 
Sources of Income, Civil List. 
Taxes & dividends on bank stock, $232,054.18 
From avails of courts, . . . 971.03 
From forfeited bonds, &c., . 5,428.07 

Military commutation tax, . . 10,604.29 
Bonus from Banks, . . . 21,637.80 
Loans $65,000, and Mis. $377.06, 65,377.06 
Balance of last year's account, 3,838.94 

$339,911.37 
Total receipts for the year, including Civil List as above. School Fund $414,633.64, 

and other funds and former balance, $ 800,397.29 

Total payments, Civil List as above, Schools $ 407,613.96, Normal School S 4,246.58, 

Reform School $ 3,500.00, Deaf and Dumb and Insane Poor Fund, $ 12,652.5 5, 762,382.93 
Balance in the Treasury, April 1, 1859, ...... $38,014.36 

The permanent fund of the State, April 1, 1859, consisting of bank stock not transfer- 
able, or subscriptions to the stock of certain banks which may be withdrawn on giving 
six months' notice, amounted to 8406,000. The indebtedness of the State, consisting of 
a temporary loan, is $ 65.000. The amount of the Grand List of the taxable property of 
the State, October 1, 1858, was $7,199,433.69. 

Banks. — There are 73 banks in the State, and their condition, April 1, 1859, was as 
follows : — Capital, $21,539,856 ; circulation, $7,555,369 ; total liabilities, $ 37,494,621 ; 
specie, $993,135; loans and discounts, $39,639,854; total resources, $37,494,631. 
The deposits were $5,388,169; and the loans to persons out of the State, $ 5,237,845. 
The deposits in the 35 savings banks, at the same date, were $ 14,053,183, of which is 
loaned on real estate, $ 8,788,567 ; on personal security, $ 934,030 ; invested in railroad 
bonds and stocks, $ 1,181,959 ; the whole number of depositors, 66,709 ; total assets, 
$ 14,467,370. There were, April 1, 1859, 39 " savings banks and building associations " 
organized under the act of 1850 that made reports. April 1, 1858, there were 43, which 
bad 6,156 shareholders; stock paid in, $3,391,303; deposits, $2,390,643; making their 
total liabilities $ 4,781,945, of which $2,644,308 is loaned on personal security, and the 
residue on real estate, or invested in stocks and bonds. The Bank Commissioners say 
(April 1, 1859) " their depositors are perfectly secure." They are all winding up their 
business, under the law passed in 1858. 

Common School StoHsties, — Number of towns for year ending September 30, 1858, 159, 
and all but one made returns ; of school districts, 1,614 ; number of common schools, 
1,731 ; children in the State between 4 and 16 years of age, 103,103; average in each 
district, 64 ; number of scholars over 16 years, 3,845 ; attendance on winter schools, boys 



S88 OOMIOECTICUT. {186<). 

39^14, giflf 304>78 ; lit lammer, bays 99,796, gii!« 31,108 ; nnnibcfr of female teamen is 
winter, 995 ; in eumnier, 1,968 ; of male teacbeiB in winter, 991 ; in summer, 172. Aver- 
age wages of teachers per month, inclading board, males g 30.84, females $ 16.66. The 
capital of School Fand, September 30, 1858, was $2,044,672; revenue divided for the 
year, $ 134,033 ; divided to each scholar $ 1.30. Capital of Town Deposit Fund, $ 763,662; 
revenue used for schools, $ 45,819 ; 1 per cent Uz for schools, $71,656; number of dis- 
tricts assessing a property tax for schools, 245 ; property tax for schools, abcmt $74,493; 
revenue of local funds for schools, $ 22,815 ; number of districts assessing rate-bills, 776 ; 
amount assessed by rate-bills, about $ 45,499. School-houses erected within the year, 
74 ; estimated cost, f 60,534. School-liouses in very good condition, 782 ; in very bad 
condition, 245. Schools of two grades, 118 ; of three or m<Hfe grades, 54. Schools fur- 
nished with outline maps, 690 ; with library, 467 ; with Holbrookes apparatus, 493. Lee- 
turers were employed to visit the districts, and to lecture upon topics calculated to 
improve parents, teachers, and scholaiv. 8 Teachers' Institutes were held during the 
year ; 769 members were in attendance. 

Mode ^MmMging Schools, — Towns elect a board of school visitors of 3, 6, or 9 mem- 
bers, for three years, whose torms of office are so arranged that the torm of one ends 
each year. If any town has a permanent school fund, it chooses annually a school-fund 
treasurer, who gives bond and takes charge of the fund. Districts are dissolved when 
there are therein less than 12 persons between the ages of 4 and 16 ; and no district is 
divided, if each part thereof, after the division, has less than 40 persons between 4 and 
16 years of age. The income of the school fund is divided among towns in proportion to 
the number of children between 4 and 16 years of age in each town on the first Monday 
of January in each year. No district can have any portion of the public money, unless 
there has been a school therein kept by a qualified teacher at least six months in the 
year, and visited twice each season by the visitors of the towns ; and unless the district 
committee certify that the public money received the previous year has been faithfVilIy 
applied to the payment of teachers, and for no other purpose ; nor shall towns receive 
any portion of it unless they report seasonably each year to the Superintendent of 
Schools. Towns must raise by taxation a sum of not less than one cent on the dollar of 
the Grand List, for the support of schools. School visitors take the general superiutond- 
ence oi the schools, and receive for the time actually employed therein $ 1.25 a day. 
Any school district raising $ 10 for a school library shall receive a like sum from the 
State ; and the further sum of $5 annually, if $5 are annually raised by it for such 
purposes. 

State Jformal School, — This institution is at New Britain, and has David N. Camp, 
the Superintendent of Schools, for its Principal. It was opened for scholars May 15,1850, 
and from that time to May, 1859, 1,628 pupils were connected with it. 121 have received 
the diploma of the school. During the last year, 266 pupils have been in attendance ; 
their average age was 19. The number is limited to 220 at any one term, selections to 
be one from each school society. Tuition free. In Hartford, Middletown, and New 
London there are high schools, and in Norwich there is a free academy. 

State Reform School^ West Meriden. — Edward W. Hatch, Superintendent. This insti- 
tution was opened for the reception of pupils March 1, 1854. From that time to April 1, 1859, 
304 boys were received. In the school April 1, 1858, 150; 16 were received during the year, 
and 47 discharged, escaped, or died, leaving in the school, April 1, 1859, 119. Of tbe 304 
committed, 179 were for theft, 14 for burglary, 41 for vagrancy, and 36 for stubbornness. 149 
were committed during minority, 37 fur two years, 23 for three years, 10 for five years, 7 for 
six years, 2 for ten years. 44 were bom abroad, 260 were natives of tbe United States. Of 
those born in America, 49 were of Irish parentage, 2 of German, and 9 of English. 36 are^ 
colored. The average age of the boys when committed was nearly 13 years. The Legfs* 
lature, in 1857, provided that no child should be sent there under ten years, nor for a 
period less than nine months. The grade-system is adopted. Records are kept, and tbe 
standing of each boy is determined by his daily conduct. The school is divided into Ibur 
*rades, and each grade into fbur classes. The discipline is maintained by promotion or 



I860.} CONNECTICUT. 289 

degndingi by withholding food, by confinement, and, if neoenity raquiiM it, by corporal 
puoiahment. The time is allotted, school, 4^ hours ; work at some meclianical employ- 
ment or on the farm, 6 hours; meals and play, 3^ hours; the rest in sleep. There has 
already been gathered a library of 1,300 volumes. The buildings, when completed, ara 
intended to accommodate from 300 to 350 pupils. The farm has 161| acres of land. The 
ordinary expenses of the year were 9 15,667. The expense of each pupil is charged to 
the town sending him. 

Births^ Marriagta, and I>ea<Aa. — During the year ending December 31, 1868, then 
were 11,299 births, — 6,872 males, and 5,360 females, and 67 sex not stated. Marriages, 
3,737, of which 966 were between parties of foreign birth, and 243 between nstives and 
foreigners. The parties to 3,210 marriages resided in the State ; in 368, the husband was a 
non'resident; in 127, both were nonresidents ; in 127, the residence is not stated. Deiahs 
6,618, —males 3,234, females 3,255, sex not stated 129. 1,063 died of consumption, 346 of 
pneumonia, 150 of dropsy, 58 of scrofula, 13 of cholera, 237 of cholera infantum, 129 of 
croup, 168 of dysentery, 76 of erysipelas, 286 of typhus fever, and 326 of ecarlatina. Be- 
turns were received fi»m every town, though imperfect in some instances. 

Retreat for the Insane, Hartford. — John S. Butler, M. D., Physician and Superintend- 
ent. The whole number of patients, April 1, 1868, was 208, of whom 102 were males and 106 
females ; 141 (63 males and 78 females) were admitted in the course of tha year; making 349 
ia idl, 165 of whom were males, and 184 females. 134 were discharged during the year, 
leaving in the Retreat, April 1 , 1859, 215, — 105 of whom were males, and 1 10 females. Of tha 
134 patients discharged, 61 were recovered, 34 improved, 29 not improved, and 10 died. 
The whole number admitted, from the opening of the institution, in 1624, to April 1, 1869, is 
3,407. 3,192 have been discharged; of whom 1,643 have recovered, and 347 have died. 
The terms of admission are, for patients belonging to the State, with the usual accommo- 
dations, $3 per week; for those belonging to other States, $4 per week. Extra ac- 
commodations and attendance are furnished at a corresponding additional charge. No 
patient is admjtted for a shorter term than three months, and payment for that term 
only must be made in advance, to a Manager. Subsequent expenses are payable quarterly 
to the Steward. For admission, apply to either of the Managers, or to the Superintendent. 
The Managers are Gideon Welles, William T. Lee,^ and Russell G. Talcott, of Hartford. 
The expenses of the institution for the year were • 44,563 ; receipts for support of patients 
t 45,657. 

American Asylum for the Dtofand Dumb, Hartford, — Rev. William W. Turner, A. M., 
Principal. During the year ending May 15, 1859, there were 354 different pupils, 135 males 
and 119 females. Of these 27 were supported by friends, 43 by Maine, 16 by New Hamp. 
shire, 37 by Vermont, 86 by Massachusetts, 13 by Rhode Island, 42 by Connecticut, and 1 
by himself. For full statistics of the institution for 40 years, see the American Almanac for 
1858, pp. 358, 359. The cost for each pupil, for board, washing, fuel, tuition, and the inci- 
dental expenses of the school-room, is $100 per annum. In sickness, the necessary extra 
charges are made. Payment must be made six months in advance, and a satisfactory bond 
for punctual payment will be required. Applicants f«r admission must be between 8 and 
25 years of age, of good natural intellect, capable of forming and Joining letters with a 
pen legibly and correctly, of good morals, and free from any contagious disease. Appli- 
cations for the benefit of the legislative appropriations in Maine, New Hampshire, and 
Massachusetts should be made to the Secretaries of those States respectively, stating the 
Bame and age of the proposed beneficiary, and the circumstances of his parent or guardian. 
In the State of Rhode Island they should be made to the commissioners of the funds for 
the education oi the deaf and dumb ; and in Vermont and Connecticut, to the Governor. 
In all cases, a certificate from two or more of the selectmen, magistrates, or other respect- 
able inhabitants of the township or place to which the applicant belongs, should accom- 
pany the application. The time of admission is the close of the summer vacation, or the 
third Wednesday of September. The expenses of the institution are about % 40,000 
a year. 

StaU Prison, Wether^fidd. — Daniel Webster, Warden. Number of coovieto, Mareli 91' 



S40 DSLAWASB. [1860. 

1858, 919 J received daring the year, 71 } discharged, 80 ; leaving in confinement, Mareb 
31, 1859, 903. 83 were discharged by expiration of sentence, 10 were pardoned, and 8 
died. Of those remaining in prison, 189 are males (167 white and 99 colored), 11 are 
females (7 white and 4 colored), and 3 are Indian half-breeds, sex not stated. Of the SOS 
prisoners, 11 were committed for murder, 5 for manslaughter, 9 for arson, 6 for other 
burnings, 7 for attempt to kill, 96 for burglary and theft, 7 for horse-stealing, 9 for 
adultery, 4 for rape, 5 for passing counterfeit money, 8 for forgery, 9 for perjury. 161 
are natives of the United Sutes, 49 are foreigners. The males are employed in making 
cabinet-work, cutlery, and shoes; and the females in washing, cooking, making and 
mending clothing, and binding boots. There is a library belonging to the prison of aboat 
1,000 volumes, which are circulated among the prisoners eveiy week. Instruction in 
the rudiments of learning is also given them. There is a Sunday school connected with 
the prison. The receipts for the year were $18,979.47 ; the expenditures, • 16,407.96 ; 
excess of receipts, $ 1,871.49. 

/dioey. — The Commissioners on Idiocy, appointed in 1855, from the returns then ob- 
tained estimated there were from 1,100 to 1,900 idiots in the State. For the details of 
these returns, see the American Almanac fox 1857, p. 958. 

BftfUmlsfortkt StdL -> The city of New Haven has bad a hospital for some yean. 
The Hartford hospital was dedicated May 18, 1859. The plan of the structure is a cen- 
tre building and four wings, each wing sufficient to accommodate 50 patients. It is pro- 
vided with the most modem conveniences, and is thoroughly heated and ventilated. 
The heating is done by Brown's hot-water furnace. The lot of land contains eight and 
four-fifths acres, purchased at a cost of 9 16,754. The building has coet $31,407. Tbe 
State contributed $ 10,000 ; the rest has been subscribed by individuals. 



V. DELAWARE. 

Capital, Dover. Area, 2,120 sq. m. Population, 1850, 91,632. 
Government far the Year 1860. 

Term ends. Salary. 

William Burton, of Milford, Governor, 3d Tu. Jan. 1863, $ 1,333} 

Edward Ridgely, of Dover, Secretary of State, '* Feead^400 

William J. Clark, of Dover, State Treasurer, «* 1861, 500 

Aaron B. Marvel, of Georgetown, Auditor, ** 500 

George P. Fisher, of Dover, Attorney- Gen., Mob . 1860, Feea &, 350 

Manlove R. Carlisle, of So. Milford, Speaker of the Senate, 
John Stradley, of Wilmington, Clerk of the Senate, 

John W. y. Jackson, of Camden, Speaker of the House of Rep, 
John B. Pennington, of Dover, Clerk of the House of Rep. 

The term of office of tbe Secretary of State, who is appointed by the 
Governor, is four years. The State Treasurer and Auditor are elected bj 
the Legislatu^re for two years. The Attorney-General is appointed by the 
Governor, and holds office for five years. The pay of members of the Leg- 
islature is $ 3 a day and mileage. The pay of the Speaker of each House 
is $ 4 a day and mileage, and of the Clerk of each branch $ 3 a day and 
fees. The sessions are biennial. The last session commenced in January, 
1859. 

JUDICIART. 

Court of Chancery, Appointed. Salary. 

Sanniel M.Harrington, of Dover, Chancellor, 1857, $1,100 



I860.] FLORIDA. 241 

Superior Court, 

Appointed. Salary. 

Edward W. Gilpin, of Wilmington, CAw/J«5etc«, 1857, $1,200 

John J. Milligan, ofWilmington, ^ssocitUe Justice,l&39, 1,000 

Edward Wootten, of Georgetown, ** 1847, 1,000 

John W. Houston, ofMilford, " 1856, 1,200 

John W. Houston, of Dover, State Reporter, 1656, 

Turpin J. Moore, of Sussex Co., Prothonotary of Sup, Court, Fees. 

Richard N. Merriken, of Dover, " " Fees. 

John A. Alderdice, of Newcastle, ** ** Fees. 

Orphans* Court, . 

The Orphans' Court consists of the Chancellor and a Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court. The Clerks of the Court are, John D. Bird, of Newcastle Co. ; 
James F. Allen, of Kent Co.; Isaac J. Jenkins, of Sussex Co. ; and each 

is paid by fees. 

Probate Court. Salary. 

Peter B. Vandever, of Newcastle, Register of Wills, Fees. 

Daniel C. Godwin, of Dover, ** " Fees. 

John Sorden, of Georgetown, '* " Fees. 

The Chancellor and Judges are appointed by the Governor, and hold 
office during good behavior. 

Finances. 

The expenditures of the State in 1856, were §41,927.66; the receipts, including loans and 
balance of previous year, §60,725.18, and were from corporation taxes, dividends, and inter- 
est on loans, licenses, &c. The balance in the Treasurer's hands was § 18,797.52. The 
State has as permanent resources, invested capital § 109,250, and school fund § 440,505.83, 
InaU, •549,755.83. 

For the number and condition of the banks in this State, in January, 1869, see the tablej 
ante, page 220. 

Common Schools. — The system provides a free school within reach of every family. 
The districts are laid off, numbered, and incorporated. 233 of them are organized. Each 
dfstrict«ntitles4tself to a portion of the fund by establishing a school, and contributing to- 
wards its support not less than § 25. But any district may lay a tax on itself of § 300 ; or 
(by a special vote) may increase it to any sum deemed necessary for school purposes. 
Towns or populous districts may unite their resources and form schools of higher grades ; 
the only condition is tliat they shall be/ree. The number of free schools in operation in the 
State in 1856 was 233 ; number of scholars (in a white population of 71,169), 11,468; av- 
erage length of schools, 7.6 months; receipts from school fund, $27,452.69; and contribu- 
tions, §53,057.02. Expended for support of free schools, tuition, $47,822.15; contingen- 
ciM, $30,430.99. 

VI. FLORIDA. 

Capital, Tallahassae. Area, 69,268 sq. m. Population, 1855, 110,823. 

Oovemment for the Year 1861. 

Term expires. Salary. 

Madison Starke Perry, of Alachua Co., Governor, Oct. 1861, $1,500* 

[and $500 annually for expenses of residence. 

♦ The salary of the Governor has been raised to $3,500 and house-rent, to take effect 
on tbe expiration of the term of office of the present incumbent 

21 



242 FLORIDA. [1860. 

Term ezptrM. Salary. 

F. L. Villepigue, of Leon Co., Sec. of Slate^ July, 1861, F. dt $600 

T. W. Brevard, of Tallahassee, ComptroUer^ Jan. 1861, 1,100 

C.H. Austin, of Tallahassee, Treasurer, <' 800 

, Register of Public Lands, and 

SupH of Schools, $ 1,200 and travelling expenses. 
John FinlajBon, of Jefferson Co., President of the Senate, $ 3 a day. 

John B. Galbraith, of Leon Co., Speaker of the House, 3 a day. 

Jos. E. Bowden, of Hillsborough Co., Secretary of the Senate, 5 a day. 
Robert B. Hilton, of Leon Co., Clerk of the House, 5 a day. 

The members of the General Assembly are chosen on the first Monday 
of October, bienniaUy, The Assembly meets biennially on the fourth Mon- 
day in November. The last Assembly met in November, 1858. The 
Governor is elected by the people, by a plurality vote for four years. The 
Secretary of State, Comptroller, and Treasurer, are chosen for two years ; 
the Register of Public Lands and Superintendent of Public Schools, for 
four years. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court. 

Term expim. Salarj. 

Charles H. Dupont, ofQuincy, Chief Justice, 1866, $2J5O0 
William A. Forward, of Palatka, Associate Justice, 1866, 2,500 

David S. Walker, of T^illahassee, " 1866, 2,500 

Mat. Papy, " Clerk, Fees. 

The Supreme Court holds four sessions annually ; one in Tallahassee, 
on the first Monday in January ; one in Jacksonville, on the third Monday 
in February ; one in Tampa, on the first Monday in March ; and one in 
Marianna, on the third Monday in March. When any one or two of the 
judges of the Supreme Court are disqualified fi'om sitting in any cause, the 
vacancy is filled by a corresponding number of the Circuit Judges, who, in 
such case, constitute a part of the Supreme Court, l^he judges of the 
Supreme Court and of the Circuit Court are elected by the people for the 
term of six years. 

Circuit Courts. Term expires. Salary. 



Benj. A. Putnam, 


of St. Augustine, Ju(if^e, Eastern Circuit, 1866, f 2,500 


J. Wayles Baker, 


of Tallahassee, " Middle « " 2,500 


J. J. Finley, 


of Marianna, «« Western " " 2,500 


Thomas F. King, 


of Key West, " Southern " " 2,500 


James M. Baker, 


of Lake City, «« Suwannee " " 2,500 


M. D. Papy, 


of Tallahassee, Attorney- General and Itep., 500 



[and ) 250 additional as Reporter. 
William D. Barnes, of Marianna, Solicitor, Western Circuit, 1861, $800 
Samuel B. Stephens, of Ctuincy, « Middle " ** 800 
James B. Dawkins, ofPilatka, «< Eastern «< *< 800 
Henry L. Mitchell, of Tampa, « Southern ** ** 800 
McLinn, «« Suwannee «« «* 800 



I860.] QEOBGIA. 243 

The State is divided into five circuits, Eastern, Middle, Western, South- 
ern, and Suwannee ; and the judges of the Circuit Court, in the order in 
which they are named above, preside in their respective circuits. 

Finances. — The receipts into the Treasury, mostly from taxes and sales of lands, during 
the year ending Oct. 31, 1858, exclusive of the school and seminary funds, were §91,924.11, 
and the expenditures were $ 63,772.33. The principal items of expenditure were, — Judici- 
ary, $20,305.13; Executive, §5,400.00; criminal prosecutions, §11,648.16; jurors and 
witnesses, § 16,962.35 ; Indian hostilities, §7,780.72. The expenses of the Legislature, in- 
cluding printing, are about § 25,000 for the biennial session. The receipts and disbursements 
for the two yeais ending Oct. 31, 1868, on all accounts were.. 

Receipts. 
Account of SUte, f 125,433.70 

'« School Fund, 44,907.46 

" Seminary Fund, 13,211.67 

9 183,557.83 

The Governor in his message in November, 1858, says : " The present debt of the State 
(exclusive of the amount due for the suppression of Indian hostilities of 1856-66) may be 
summed up as follows, to wit: bonds outstanding of the State of Florida, S 143,000 ; inter- 
est of State scrip, § 15,000 ; balance due on account of Indian hostilities of 1856, estimated 
at § 225,000. Of this sum, § 143,000 is bearing interest at the rate of 7 per cent per annum, 
and only about § 64,000 is the ultimate debt of the State, the balance being a bond Jlde debt 
due by the General Government." 

Common Schools. — July 1, 1858, there were 20,885 children between the ages of 6 and 
18 years ; § 6,542.60 were apportioned during the year. There are two State seminaries, one 
at Ocala, and one at Tallahassee. 

SttUe Census, 1856. — The returns include the whole State except Duval County. White 
males, 32,093; females, 23,395; total white, 60,493; increase per cent for five years, 31. 
There were 804 free colored persons, and 49,526 slaves, 24,597 males, and 24,929 females. 
Total population, 110,823. The census returned 2,265,503 acres of land; value per acre, 
• 6.14; total value, $13,910,981. Value of slaves, §27,250,551 ; average, « 550. Total 
▼alus of all property, real and personal, 949,461,466. 



Disbursements. 


Balance. 


• 90,484.04 


« 34,954.66 


18,255.68 


26,651.88 


7,560.44 


5,65123 



VII. GEORGIA. 

Capita/, Milledgeville. Area, 58,000 sq. m. Popu/a/ton, 1859, 1,014,418. « 

Government for the Year 1860. 

Term ends. Salary. 

Joseph E. Browv, of Canton, Governor^ Nov. 1861, $3,500 

E. P. Watkins, of Henry Co., Secretary of State, " 1,600 

John B. Trippe, of Putnam Co., Treasurer, " 1,600 

Peterson Thweat, of Muscogee Co., Comptroller- Gen^ '* 1,600 

A J. Boggess, of CarroUton, Surveyor- General, ** 1,600 

'William Turk, of Baldwin Co., Keeper of the Penitentiary. 

Jesse H. Campbell, of Floyd Co., Commissioner of Deaf and Dumb. 

Le Grand Guerry, of Randolph Co., President of the Senate, $ 8 a day. 

Frederic West, of Lee Co., Secretary of the Senate, 500 

Isaiah T. Irvin, of Wilkes Co., Speaker of House of Rep., $ 6 a day. 

J. L. Diamond, of Dekalb Co , Clerk of House of Rep., 500 

Broughton & Nesbit, of Milledgeville Co., State Printers. 



244 



GEOBQIA. 



[18W* 



The Gorernor is elected bj the people for two jears. The Secretary of 
State, Treasurer, Comptroller, and Surveyor are chosen by the Legislature 
for two years. The pay of members of the Legislature is $5 a day. The 
members of both branches of the Legislature are elected biennially. The 
sessions of the Legislature are annual, and commence on the 1st Monday 
in November. The present number of Senators is 135, one for each county ; 
of Representatiyes, 175. 

JuniCfARY. 



Richard F. Lyon, 
Linton Stephens, 
Joseph H. Lumpkin, 
Robert E. Martin, 
Benjamin Y. Martin, 



u 



Term ends. Salaiy. 

1865, $3,509 

1861, 3,50« 

1863, 3,500 



Supreme Court, 

of Albany, Judge, 

of Sparta, 

of Athens, 

of Milledgeville, Clerk. 

of Columbus, Reporter. 
The judges of the Supreme Court are elected for six years (one every 
two years) by the Greneral Assembly, and are resMiTable upon address of 
two thirds of each house. All causes shall be determined at the first term ', 
and in case the plaintiff is not ready for trial, unless he be prevented " by 
some providential cause," the judgment of the eourt below shall be affirmed. 
Judges of the Superior Court are elected for four years, by the people of 
the circuit over which they preside, with jurisdiction exclusive in criminal 
cases, and in land cases, and concurrent in all other eiril cases. The So- 
licitors are chosen by the people. Justices of the inferior courts are elected 
by the people, for four years. Justices of the peace are elected by the peo* 
pie in districts. Each county elects an '^ordinary,*' whe holds office for 
four years, and has the ordinary jurisdiction of a judge of probate, and i* 
paid by fees. 

The State is divided into sixteen circuits, with a judge and solicitor for 
each. The salaries of the judges are j|^2,500 each. The Attorney-Genera) 
is the solicitor for the Middle Circuit. An election for judges and solici- 
tors, in most of the circuits, was held in January,. 1859. 

Superior Court. 



Circuit. 


Judge. 


Residence. 


Solicitor. 


Residence. 


NorttMrn, 


Tbos. W. Thomas, 


Sparta. 


John C. Birch, 


Elbertmu 


Eastern, 


Wm. B. Fleming, 


Savannah. 


T. i. AndersoB, 


Savannah. 


Southern, 


A. H. Hansell, 


ThomasTille. 


Sam. B. Spencer, 


ThomasviUe. 


Western, 


Nathan L. Hutehins, 


Lawrenceville. 


S. P. Thurmond, 


Jefferson. 


Middle, 


W. W. HoH, 


Augusta. 


A. M. Rogers, 


Augusta. 


Ocmulgee, 


R. V. Hardeman, 


Clinton. 


W. A. Lofton, 


Montieello. 


Flint, 


ElbridgeO. Cabaness^Forsyth. 


A. D. Hammoad, 


Forsyth. 


Chatuhoochee, E H. Worrell, 


TalbottoBO. 


Thaddeus Oliver, 


Buena Tiata. 


Cherokee, 


L. W. Gh)ok, 


Dfidton, 


J. A. W. Johnson, 


Dalton. 


Coweta, 


0. A. Bull, 


La Orange, 


Thomas L. Cooper, 


Atlanta. 


Southwestern, 


A. A. Allen, 


Bainbridge. 


William E. Smith, 


Albany. 


Macon, 


H. O. Lamar, 


Macon. 


T. W. Monfori, 


Oglethorpe^ 


Blue Ridge, 


George D. Rice, 


Marietta. 


William PhiUips, 


Marietta. 


Brunswick, 


A. £. Cochran, 


Brunswick. 


WiUiam H. Dasher, 


Brunswick. 


Pataula, 


W. C. Perkins, 


Cuthbert. 


F. D. Baily, 


Cuthbert. 


"^apooaa, 


Dennis F. Hammond, 


Newoan. 


Herbert Feilder, 


Diaia& 



I860.] GEORGIA. 245 

Salary. 
A.M.Rogers, of Augusta, Attorney- General, $ 250 & perquisites. 

John M. Millen, of Chatham Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and Ter^ 

fiitner, Savannah, ^1,000 

Wm. T. Gould, of Richmond Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and Ter- 

miner, Augusta, 1,000 

Finances. 

The public debt of the Slate consists chiefly of bonds issued for the construction of the 
Western and Atlantic Railway. It amounted, 20th October, 1859, to 1 2,604,750.00, on 
which the annual interest is f 162,590. Of this debt, $ 7,000 are due in 1860 ; 9 12,000 in 
1861 ; $ 172,000 in 1862. The rest is redeemable from 1863 to 1879. The sum of $267,500 
due in 1863 and 1868, can be by the terms of the loan, now redeemed. $ 702,500 is at 7 per 
cent interest ; $ 1,830,250 at 6 per cent ; and $ 72,000 at 5 per cent. The State also owes 
the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad Company, $250,000, and is pledged conditionally for a further 
subscription of 1 500,000. This would make the aggregate Slate indebtedness, $ 3,354,750.00. 
The semiannual dividends of interest, as well as tlie principal of the sterling bonds, are pay- 
able in London. The interest on the rest of the debt, nearly four fiflhs, is payable in New 
York or Georgia, as the holders may prefer. 
The receipts into the treasury for the year ending Oct. 20, 1859, were, . $ 1,032,879.37 

Add balance in the treasury Oct. 30, 1858, 455,91 8.65 

Total means for the year, $ 1,488,797.93 

Total disbursements during the year, 874,465.93 

Balance in the treasury Oct. SO, 1859, $614,333.00 

This balance is made up of Bank Stock (Education Fund), $290,900; Stock in Mil- 
ledgeville and Gordon Railroad, $ 30,000 ; worthless, $ 14,654. Cash, $268,768. 

Cki^ Sovrcea qf Jiuome. |Poor School Fund, . . . $29,669.00 

General Tax of 1868, . . »379,614.84pu5,icdebt due, .... 50,565.00 

Net earnings W. & A. RaUroad, 420,000.00|P„|,iic debt not due, . . 99,250.00 

Tax on Bank Stock, . . 33,417 J52i„,erest on public debt, . . 138,677.48 

" Railroads, . . . 8,026.56 Atlantic and Gulf raUroad, . 150,000.00 

** Lotteries, . . . 5,323.09 Lunatic Asylum 40,877.83 

Dividends on Bank Stock, . . 35,005.00 D^af and Dumb Asylum, . 9,000.00 

-Bonds sold for At. & Gulf Railroad, 151,108.33^cademy for the Blmd, . 35,000.00 

Prindpid lUfM of Expenditure, jPenitentiary, .... 17,500.00 

Civil Establishment, . $ 64,348.85 (Georgia Militaiy Institute, . . 3,000.00 

Printing, 19,070.02 State Census, 1859, . . . 23,835.87 

The productive property owned by the State, consists of the Western and Atlantic 
railroad which cost the State according to the report of the Comptroller, S 4,441,533.15. 
It paid into the treasury as net earnings daring the last year, $430,000. The State also 
owns, as above stated, $30,000 stock in the Milledgeville and Gordon railroad, which 
pays 6 per cent, and Bank Stock pledged to be used for purposes of education $390,000, 
paying an average dividend of 10 per cent. The State also owns $ 350,000 stock in the 
Atlantic and Gulf railroad, — already paid for. This road is not completed and the stock 
is not now productive. The State has heretofore invested in canal stocks, $ 148,500, — 
from which it realized $ 10,000 by the sale of a portion of them. The remainder are 
worthless. There are also the assets of the Central Bank to the nominal amount of about 
9 200,000, but most of them are worthless. 

The Comptroller's report shows the number of polls returned for the year 1859 to be 
98,945 ; free persons of color, 1,213. Slaves, 443,364 ; value, $ 271,620,405 ; average value, 
8 612.68. Acres of land, 33,750,233 ; value, $ 149,547,880 j average per acre, $ 4.43. Value 
of city and town property, $32,129,814 ; amount of money and solvent debts, $96,124,701 ; 
merebandiM, $^13,531,687; capital in manufactures, $4,428,132; ahipping and tonnage, 

21* 



246 GEOBGIA^ [1860. 

S 631,731 ; hoasehold and kitchen furniture, SSf 125,045; aggregate value of aU proptatj 
returned, f 609,569,876. Tbe veiy fall and valuable report of the Comptndler, dated 
Oct. 20, 1859, gives tbe coat to tbe State (i. e. the appropriations without reckoning interest 
upon them), of the several puhlie buildings, and of educational, benevolent, and charitaUe 
institutions. Tbe cost of the railroads, of the penitentiary, the lunatic, and deaf and 
dumb asylums, and tbe academy for the blind are given under tfaoee various heads. Tbe 
cost of the State-house is given at S 200,000 ; of the executive mansion, 9 80,000. There 
has been appropriated to the Georgia military institute since I6S8, $47,650 ; to medical 
colleges since 1833, $ 74,800 ; to the university of Georgia, Franklm college, since 1805, 
9242,500. Private donations to tbe college amount to 9 68,000. The cost to the college 
of its real estate is 9 156,500. It also has assets to the amount of 9 150,000, the interest 
of which is used to support the institution, making the value of the real estate and assets 
9 306,500. From the same report, it appears that the State contributed to the capital slock 
of the Central Bank as available, 93,089,257.09, and issued bonds to pay its liabilities to 
the amount of 9 698,500, making in all 93,787,757.09. The bank paid back to the Sute 
9 3,535,106.87 ; difference, 9252,650.72. 

Comnum Scho^. — The old school fund is as stated before, 9 290,900. The annuad in- 
come of this fund, 929,090, is distributed among the several counties and paid to teach* 
era of schools and academies ratably. The Legislature at its last session appropriated 
9 100,000 to be distributed in the same manner as, and in addition to, the income of the 
school fund. This amount is to be increased at the present session of the Legislature to 
9 150,000, and will afterwards be increased annually until it reaches 9 500,000. Provision 
is also made for a school fund as follows. As each bond of the present State debt is paid 
a new one is to be issued ; and these several bonds will constitute the fund, the income 
from which will be ratably distributed to pay teachers. November 1, 1859, 9 150,000 of 
these bonds had been issued, and are held by the Secretaxy of State as trustee of the Edu- 
cational Fund of Georgia. The bonds run for 20 yeare, and pay six per cent interest. 
November 1, 1859, school returns had been received for 1859 from 102 counties. Number 
of children between 8 and 18, 107,885 ; whole number in the State by the State Census, 
117,670 ; number taught, 67,155 ; total number taught, 79,922 ; males, 45,090 ; females, 
34,832. Number taught the elementary branches, males, 29,238; females, 22,681; the 
higher branches, males, 8,032; females, 7,613. Cost of tuition, elementary branches, 
9 15.50 per annum ; higher branches, $ 26. Number of school-houses, 1,775, of schools, 
1,777. Of the 108 counties, 99 have appointed boards to examine teachera. 

The Georgia Military Institute at Marietta is under tbe patronage of the State. There 
are in the State, besides the State University with 105 students, eight colleges for males, 
and eleven for females under the control of particular religious sects. The male collegee 
are, Methodist, 4 ; students, 35&. Baptist, 3; students, 297. Presbyterian, 1 ; students, 
97. The female colleges are, Methodist, 4 ; students, 524. Baptist, 4 ; students, 322 ; 
Presbyterian, 3 ; students, 325 ; total female students in these colleges, 1,171. There are 
other colleges and hi|^ schools, not sectarian for males, 16, pupils, 773 ; for females, 16, 
pupils, 1^222: Number of academies, 57. Governor Brown in his message <Nov. 1859)^ 
recommends the ainmintment of a superintendent of education for the State. 

StaU Pemitmtiarjf. —This building is at MUledgeville. It was commenced in 1811, and 
from that time to and including 1856, there had been appropriated for its erection, main- 
tenance, repairs, and enlargement, 9 511,152. The convicts are now employed in repair- 
ing and reconstructing it. 

LufuOie Jtsflwn, — This institution is at Midway, near MiUedgeville. The first appro- 
priation made for it, was one of 920,000, in 1837. Since then to and including 1858* 
9348,200 had been appropriated for erecting, enlarging, and repairing the buildings, and 
9238,257 for the support of indigent and pauper patients, and for tbe pay of the officers, 
attendants, &c. 

Datf and Dumb ,^lwn. — This institution is near Cave Spring, Fl(^d County. The 
tint appropriation for the support and education of the indigent deaf and dumb was made 
in 1834, when 9 3,000 were appropriated. In 1835, the sum was raised to 95,200. They 



I860.] ILLINOIS. 247 



then educated in Hartford, Connecticut. In 1838, an annual appropriation of 94,500 
wa3 made for their education at Hartford. In 1845, the act was changed so as to author- 
ize them to he educated in Georgia. In 1847, Commissioners were appointed to purchase 
land on which to build an asylum. The cost of the land and buildings is 930,231.44. 
Total appropriations for the Institution, 9 136,500. 

Georgia Academy for the Blind. — This institution is at Macon. It was at first estab- 
lished by the citizens of Bibb County, and was incorporated in 1858, when the Legislature 
aiqwopriated 9 10,000 to aid die funds and defray the expenses for the years 1858 and 
1853. The State appropriations up to and including 1858, for all the purposes of the in- 
stitution amounted to 991,500. 

Banks, — For the condition of the Banks in Georgia in January, 1859, see ante, p. 220. 

State Cengtu. — The census returns for 1859 show the following : — White population, 
571,534 ; slaves, 439,593 ; free persons of color, 3,293 ; total, 1,014,418 ; white males be- 
tween 6 and 16, 81,719 ; males under 6, 63,109 ; males over 16, 131,592 ; females between 
6 and 15, 73,480 ; under 6, 59,895 ; over 15, 138,323 ; deaf and dumb, 299 ; lunatics, 400 ; 
idiots, 442; representative population, 778,054; number of families, 99,695. 



VIII. ILLINOIS. 



Capital, Springfield. Area, 55,409 sq. m. Population, 1855, 1,306,576. 

Government for the Year 1860. 

Term ends. Salary. 

William H. Bisbell, of Belleville, Governor, and ex officio 

Fund Commissioner, 2d Monday in Jan. 1861, $1,500 

John Wood, ofQuincy, Lt.- Gov. fy Pres, of Senate, " $3 a day 

[during session, and 10 cents a mile travel. 
Ozias M. Hatch, of Griggsville, Sec. of State, Jan. 1861, $800* 

Jesse K. Dubois, of Lawrence ville,.^u<fo7or, '* 1,000* 

William Butler, of Springfield, Treasurer, «* 800* 

Newton Bateman, of Jacksonville, State Sup, Pub. Instrue. *' 1,500 
A. H. Worthen, of Springfield, State Geologist, 
Moses K. Anderson, of Pleasant Plains, .Adjutant- General. 
Wm. R. Morrison, of Monroe Co., Speaker of the House, $ 3 a day. 
David E. Head, of Hancock Co., Clerk of the House, 5 a day. 

FinneyD. Preston, of Richland Co., Clerk of the Senate, 5 " 

The Goveriior, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, and Auditor are 
elected by the people for four years ; the Treasurer and Superintendent of 
Public Instruction for two years. Senators, twenty-five in number, are 
chosen for four years, one half every two years} and Representatives, sev- 
enty-five in number, every two years, for two years. The pay of the 
members of the Legislature is $ 2 a day for the first forty days, and $ 1 a 
day afterwards. The sessions of the Legislature are biennial. A ses- 
sion commences in January, 1861. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court. Term ends. Salary. 

Ist Div., Sidney Breese, of St. Clair Co., Judge, June, 1861, $1,200 

<* Moah Johnson, of JefiTerson Co., Clerk, " Fees. 



* Exclusive of clerk hire. The Secretary of Sute has fees also. 



248 



ILLINOIS* 



[I860, 



Term expires. Salary. 
2d Div., P. H. Walker, of Rushville, Judge, June, 1867, $1^ 

" Wm. A. Turney, of Springfield, Clerk, " 1861, Fees. 

3d Div., J. Deane Caton, of Ottawa, Chief JtisHce, " 1864, 1,200 

<' Lorenzo Leiand, of Ottawa, Clerkf '* 1861, Fees. 

Ebenezer Peck, of Chicago, Reporter, 

This court holds one session in each Division of the State each year. 
The terms are, — 1st Division, at Mt Vernon, Jefferson Co., on the Tues' 
day after second Monday in November; 2d Division, at Springfield, on 
the Tuesday after first Monday in January ; 3d Division, at Ottawa, La. 
Salle Co., on the Tuesday after third Monday in April. 

Circuit Courts* 



e 
5 



1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Judge. 



D. M. Woodaon, 
H KJS. Omelreny, 
Wm. K. Parish, 
Juatin Harlan, 
P. H. Walker, 
J. W. Drury, 
Geo. Maaierre, 
David Davis, 
i\I. E. Hollister, 
J. S. Ttiompsoa, 
Jesse O. Norton, 
Edw'm Beecher, 



Residence. 



Greene Ck)., 
Marion ** 
Franlclin *' 
Clarice " 
Schuyler 
Rock lal. 
Cook 
McLean " 
La Salle '* 
Mercer 
Will 
Wayne 



It 
tt 
tt 



tt 

It 





» 


Salary. 


o 

13 


$1,000 




14 


*i 


15 




16 




17 




18 




19 




20 




21 




22 




23 




24 



Judge. 



Isaac G.Wilson, 
B. R.. Sheldon, 
Jos. Sibley, 
Elihu N.Powell, 
Chas. Emerson, 
Edw. Y. Rice, 
Wesley Sloan, 
Chas. R. Starr, 
James Harriott, 
JnhnV. Eustace, 
Martin Ballou, 
Wm. H. Snyder, 



Residence. 




Salary. 


Kane Co., 


i 1,000 


Jo Daviess 






Hancock 






Peoria 






Macon 






Montgomery 

Pope 

Kaukakee 




'• 






TazeweU 






Lee 






Putnam 






St. Clair, 







John M. Wilson, 
Grant Goodrich, 
Van H. Higgins, 



Superior Court of Chicago. 

Term ends. Salary, 

of Chicago, Chief Justice, 1861, $ 1,000 and fees. 

of «' AssociaU " 1863, " « 

of « *« « 1865, " " 

Clerks. — Walter Kimball, term ends 1861 ; U. R. Harley, term ends 1863; 

Caspar Buttz, term ends 1865. 

The Superior Court of Chicago has concurrent jurisdiction in the county 
and city respectively with the Circuit Court and Common Pleas in all 
civil cases, and in all criminal cases except murder and treason. The 
Recorders* Court (Robert S. Wilson, Judge, and J. K. C. Forrest, Clerk), 
has jurisdiction in criminal cases, and in civil cases to the amount of ^ 100. 
Each county has a County Court, with jurisdiction to the same amount as 
justices of the peace, but their business is chiefly probate matters. 

Finances. 
The indehtednesa of the State January, 1859, was as follows : 
81 old State bonds, bank and int improvement "stock, . . $ 81,000.00 

Internal improvement scrip, 53,000.00 

i 133,000.00 

Liquidation bonds S271,849.00 

Certificates new internal improvement stock, ...... 2,583,363.15 

Interest bonds, 1847, drawing interest from July, 1857, . . . 1,838,433.03 

94,836,650.18 



* The term of office of the several Judges ends in June, 1861. Their salary is S l.OCO 
ach. J -w i 



I860.] ILLINOIS. 249 

Amount brought forward, $4,836,660.18 

Begistered canal debt $9,713,113.19 

Unregistered canal debt, 1,468,505.61 

4.181,618.80 

$9,008,368.98 

Deduct State Debt Fund in Treasury Dec 1, 1858, to be applied to payment 

of principal, 766,629^ 

p^l,639:5d 
Certificates interest stock, to draw interest from Jan. 1, 1860, $ 2,653,814.43 

Estimated arrears of interest, not yet funded, about . . 243,000.00 

2,896,814.43 

Total principal, interest stock, and arrears of interest, ... $ 11,138,453.93 
Upon which the annual interest at 6 per cent is 668,307.24 

During the years 1857 and 1858 the principal of the public debt has been reduced 
S 1,050,324.13 } and the arrears of interest have been reduced $ 116,558.61 ; total pay- 
ments during these years on account of the public debt, $ 1,166,876.74. The punctual 
collection of the tax of two mills on the dollar valuation provided by the constitution, 
for the purchase of the State bonds, has raised the value of those bonds above par. 

The receipts into the Treasury for revenue purposes from Dec. 1, 1856 to Nov. 30, 1858, 

were $753,011.99 

Add balance in the Treasury Dec. 1, 1856, 16 2,039.82 

$915,051.81 
The expenditures for the same period were 761,977.68 

Balance in the Treasury Dec. 1, 1858, $153,074.13 

Of the receipts, $ 750,530i34 were from taxes. Some of the principal items of expen- 
diture for the two years were as follows : 



Executive, .... $29,169.28 

General Assembly, . . . 38,200.09 

Judiciary, .... 82,576.19 

Prosecuting Attorneys, . . 26,740.62 

Penitentiaiy and conveyance of 

convicts, .... 36,368.90 

New Penitentiary, . . . 81,281.00 

Insane Hospital, . . . 138,666.66 



Institution for Blind, . . $28,000.00 

Greological Survey, . . . 10,351.51 

County Agricultural Societies, 16,800.00 

Militia of Illinois, . . . 132.37 

Public printing, . . . 27,249.28 

Public building, .... 31^336.22 

Reports of Supreme Court, . 5,150.00 

Bank Commissioners, . . 5,793.30 



Institution for Deaf and Dumb, . 74,979.95iFugitives from justice, . . . 610.07 

The amount of taxable property in the State in the year 1897 was as follows : Penonal 
property, $ 111,813,908 ; town lots, $44,396,686 ; lands, $ 201,693,234 ; railroad property, 
$7,529,703. Total value of real and personal property, $407,477,367. The aggregate 
value for 1856 was $349,951,372 3 for 1855, $334,396,425. 

Comnum Schools, — In the year 1858, the whole number of public schools was 10,238 ; 
whole number of scholars in attendance, 457,113 ; being males, 343,859; females, 213.354 ; 
number of white persons in the State under 21, 809,879; number between 5 and 21, 
470,540 ; number of colored persons under 21, 2,801 ; number between 5 and 21, 1,714 ; 
number of male teachers, 7,503 ; of female teachers, 5,878 ; average monthly wages of male 
teachere, $ 29.66, the highest being 1 200 and the lowest $ 10 ; average do. of female , 
teachers, f 19.48, the highest being $ 60 and the lowest being $ 5; number of school dis- 
tricts, 8,154 ; average number of months schools have been taught, 6.83 ; number of new 
■chool-houses erected during the last two years, 2,401 ; number of Teachers' Institutes 
held during the year, 38 ; amount paid to lecturers and instructors of Teachers' Insti- 
tutes, $ 910 ; number of school district libraries purchased, 850. The amounts expended 
for schools during the year 1858 was as follows : Two mill tax apportioned, $ 743,000.00 ; 
interest apportioned, $50,871.25; amount raised by tax to extend schools after public 
money was exhausted, $ 563,460 ; expended for school furniture, $31,810; for building, 
repairing, and renting school-houses, $ 819,859 ; for school-house lots, « 38,627 ; for school 
district libraries, $45,900. Total amount expended for school purposes, 1 2,705,053. The 



250 ILLINOIS. [1860. 

Bumber of private schools reported was 530, with 18,571 scholars. 'There were reported 
also in the State 21 colleges and 58 academies and seminaries. 

The corner-stone of the building for the JVormal University was laid at Bloomington in 
September, 1857. The completion of the building has been delayed by the financial em- 
barrassments of that year. A lot of land of 160 acres has been secured, and the buildings 
when completed will accommodate 300 normal scholars and 200 model school scholan. 
Temporary accommodations were obtained, and the school was opened therein in Septem- 
ber, 1857. From that time to December, 1858, 127 scholars have been in attendance. 
Their average age at the time of entering the school was 20.16 years. 

School Fund. — The school fund in December, 1858, was thus made up : 
School Fund proper, being 3 per cent net proceeds sales of public lands in the State, one 

sixth part excepted, • 555,]4ai7 

Surplus revenue, 335,592.32 

College Fund, being one sixth of 3 per cent fund, Ill,012i54 

Seminary Fund, proceeds of sales of Seminary lands, .... 50,838.72 

TownshipFunds,« 3,335,680; County Funds, $218,653, . . . . 3,554,333 .00 

Total School Funds of the State, t4,606,919J5 

lUinois Institution for the Education ef the Deaf and Jhmb, — Jacksonville ; Philip G. 
Gillet, Principal. The buildings in this Institution are now used for pupils. They axe 
thoroughly heated by steam, and ventilated, and lighted 1^ gas. During the two yean 
1857 and 1858 195 pupils were in attendance, 150 being in attendance at the date of the 
report. The annual expenses of the Institution are $ 150 to each pupil, and they are 
borne by the State. Pupils not under ten nor over thirty are admitted without charge if 
from Illinois, they paying only for clothing and travelling expenses. From other States 
they are charged % 100, required in all cases in advance. The annual session com- 
roences first Wednesday in September and continues forty weeks, and pupils, except in 
extraordinary cases, will not be received unless they come at or about that time. 

Illinois Institution for the Education efthe Blind, — Jacksonville ; Joshua Rhoads, M. D., 
Principal. The number of pupils belonging to the Institution at the date of its fifth bien- 
nial report (January, 1859) was 68. The Institution is open to all from Illinois, and the 
terms for scholars from other States are like those In the Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb. The annual term commences the first Wednesday of October in each year. 

lUinois State Hospital for the Insane. — Jacksonville ; Andrew McFarland, BI. D., Su< 
perintendent. The Hospital was opened for the admission of patients in November, 1851. 
Number of patients admitted to December 1, 1858, 1,017 ; recovered, 430 ; improved, 132; 
discharged as incurable, 134 ; died, 99 j remaining, 229. The institution, when additions 
in progress are completed, will receive 500 patients. The buildings are heated by steam 
in the most approved manner, lighted with gas, and provided with complete apparatai 
for forced ventilation. The farm consists of 160 acres of land, laid out for farming, gar- 
dening, recreation, &c. Supported entirely by the State. Annual expense, S 36,000. 

StotePmitoiUmriM. — T. S. Rutherford, Superintendent; Samuel K. Casey, Warden. 
January 1, 1859, there were 661 convicts. At Alton, 467 males and 3 females ; at JbUet, 
186 males and 5 females. In Nov. 1850, there were 710 convicts in the two prisons. The 
new prison at Joliet, was so far completed, that May 22, 1858, 53 convicts were removed 
from Alton to Joliet. It is expected that the buildings at Joliet will be completed in the 
spring of 1660, when all the convicts will be removed thither, and the prison at Alton be 
abandoned. 

State Census. ^The population in 1865 was 1,306,576, being a gain of 455,106 since 
1850. 



I860.] 



INDIANA. 



251 



IX. INDIANA.* 

Capitalf Ihdianapolle. Area, 33,809 sq. m. Population, 1850, 988,416. 

Government for the Year I860, Term expires. Salary. 
AsHBEL P. WiLLARD, of White Co., Governor, Jan. 1861, $3,000 

[and furnished house. 
Abr. A. Hammond, of Vigo Co., Lieut.' Governor and 

President of the Senate, Jan. 1861 , $ 3 a day 

[during session of Legislature. 
Cyrus L. Dunham, of Jackson Co., Sec. of State, $2,000 

N. F. Cunningham, of Terre Haute, Treas. of State, Jan. 1861, 3,000 
John W. Dodd, of Grant Co., .^ud. Pub. Jiccts., Feb. 1861, 2,500 
Samuel L. Rugg, of Fort Wayne, Sup. ofPvJb. Jnstr., " 
Samuel Beck, of Indianapolis, Quartermaster- General, 

Wm. A. Morrison, of Indianapolis, Adjutant- General, 
John C. Walker, of La Porte, State Printer, 
Dayid W. Miller, of Jefferson ville. Warden of State Prison, 
James R. Bryant, of Indianapolis, State Librarian, 
Samuel Osbourne, of Carroll Co., Private Secretary to Governor, 
Jonathan W. Gordon, of Indianapolis, Speaker of the House, $ 3 ) 
Richard F. Ryan, of Indianapolis, Clerk of the House, 
James H. Vawter, of Jennings Co., Secretary of Senate, 

JUDICIART. 

Supreme Court. Term ends. Salary. 

of Logansport, Judge, January, 1865, $ 2,000 



1,300 
25 
25 
Profits. 
1,500 
800 
500 
day 
4 } during 
4 ' session. 



Dist. 

1. James L. Worden, 

2. Andrew Davidson, 

3. Samuel E. Perkins, 

4. James M. Hanna, 



{{ 



{( 



ct 



cc 



cc 



«( 



cc 



it 



cc 



of Greensburg, 

of Indianapolis, 

of Vigo Co., 

Joseph £. McDonald, of Montgomery Co., Alt.- Gen., Dec. 1860, 
William B. Beach, of Boone Co., Clerk, " 

Gordon Tanner, of Marion Co., Reporter, Jan. 1861. 
Henry H. Nelson, of Indianapolis, Sheriff, 

Circuit Courts, i 



2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
Fees. 



Circ. President Judge. 

1st. J. W. Chapman, of Jefferson Co. 

2d. George A. Bicknell, Qf New Albany. 

3d. M. F. Burke, of 

4th. Reuben D. Logan, ofRushville. 

5th. Fabius M. Finch, of Franklin. 

6th. Sol. Clay pool, of Vigo Co. 

7th. Joseph S. Buckle, of Muncietown. 

8th. John M. Cowan, of Frankfort. 

9th. Andrew L. Osbom, of La Porte. 
10th. Edw'd W. Wilson, of Bluffton. 
1 1th. John M. Wallace, of Marion. 



Prosecuting Attorney. 

Geo W. Richardson, of . 

Robert M. Wier, of New Albany. 

Richard A. Clements, Jr., of Washington. 



Henry C. Hanna, 
W. P. Fishback, 
Isaac N. Pierce, 
David Moss, 
Robt. W. Harrison, 
W. B. Biddle, 
John Colerick, 
Richard P. De Hart, 
John L. Miller, 
Thos. M. Brown, 



of . 

of Indianapolis. 

of . 

of Noblesrille. 

of . 

of . 

of Fort Wayne. 

of . 

of 



12tlL Charles H. Test, of Lafayette. 

13th. Jehu T. Elliott, of New Castle. Thos. M. Brown, of Winchester. 

The salary of each of these Judges is $ 1,600. Their term of office is six years. For the 
counties composing several of the circuits, see the American Almanac for 1866, pp. 321, 322. 

* The Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Auditor are required to reside at Indianapolis 
during their term of office, 
t Two new circuits, the 14th and 15th, have been recently created. 



252 usDiAJtXA, [1860. 

Court of Common PUas. 

For the Ooart of Oommon Pleas, the State is divided by counties into 44 districts, each of 
which elects a Judge to serve for four years, and until his successor is elected and qualified. 
The salaries of the Judges are S 800 per annum. The American Almanac for 1859, page 
320, contains a list of the present Districts, and of the Judges then in office. They are the 
same now, except that Alex. Anderson is Judge in the Floyd District, and Stanford J. 
Stoughton in the Noble and Whitley District. 

By the act of March 1, 1859, the .State is divided by counties into 21 districts, in each 
of which, in October, 1860, and every fourth year thereafter, a Judge of the Ck)mmon 
Fleas is to be elected. The salaries of the Judges are to be $ 1,000, and three terms of 
the Court are to be held each year, beginning on the first Monday in January, and on the 
first Monday of every fourth month thereafter, unless the Circuit Court be in session, and 
then on the Monday succeeding the term of the Circuit Court. 

Finances. 

Balance in the treasury, November 1, 1857, $650,653.48 

Total receipts into the treasury for year ending October 31, 1858, . . . 844,416.81 

Total revenue from all sources, $ ] ,496,U70i38 

Total warrants on treasury for same period, . 1,363,728.01 

Balance in treasury, October 1, 1858, $131,342.28 

The Auditor's Report shows that the lands assessed for taxes of 1857 amounted to 
21,610,601 acres ; in 1858, to 21,918,659 acres. In 1857, these lands, without improvements, 
for the purposes of taxation, were valued at $ 101,844,254 ,* improvements at 1 41,253,766; 
town lots and buildings at #33,796,862; railroad stock, $15,743,583; other coipontioa 
stock at $ 1,903,604 ; other personal property, S 122,688,696. Total of taxable pfoperty ia 
1857, $317,932,958; in 1858, $318,204,964. Polls assessed for 1857, 185,193; in 1868, 
199,621. Some of the items of taxation for the year 1857 were as follows: county tax, 
$1,073,782; road tax, $225,454; school tax, $371,593; township tax, $187,610; sinking 
fund tax, $56,939; total taxes, $2,459,336. 

State DebL — The provisions of tiie Constitution in relation to the State debt an as fol- 
lows : — " The revenues of the public works and surplus taxes, after paying the oidinaiy 
State expenses and interest on the State debt, shall be applied to reduce the principal 
of the debt. No new debt shall be contracted, unless to meet casual deficits in the reve- 
nue, to pay the interest on the State debt, or to repel invasion, &c. The Assembly shall 
never assume any debts, nor shall any county lend its credit to, or borrow money to boy 
stock in, any incorporated company." 

State debt November 1, 1857 : — Amount of 5 per cent State Stock, $5,312,000; amomut 
of 2^ per cent State Stock, $ 2,045,074. Total State debt, November 1, 1857, $7,957,074. 
November 1, 1858, the amount of 5 per cent State Stock was $5,312,500 ; of 2^ per cent, 
9 2,045,611 ; total, $ 7,358,011. A statement of the entire debt of the State at this date 
gives, including the above, a debt to the School Fund of $ 1,100,342.67, and 9 783,175 of 
the old debt not surrendered and interest (being $413,000 of debt and $370,175 of in- 
terest), a total of $9,241,528.67. 

The amount of Canal Slock, which depends on the Wabash and Erie Canal alone for* 
its redemption, as to both principal and interest, issued and outstanding, Nov. 1, 1858, 
was as follows: — 5 percent preferred canal stock, $4,079,500; 5 per cent preferred 
special canal stock, $ 1,216,737.50 ; 5 per cent deferred canal stock, $ 1,233,000 ; 5 per 
cent deferred special canal stock, $470,282.50. Total canal stock, $6,999,520. The 
American Almanac for 1857, pp. 323, 324, gives an extended account of the origin of the 
present debt, and of its history in its present form. 

Sinking Fund. — This fund is chargeable with the payment of the principal and in- 
terest of the State Bonds issued for banking purposes. November 1, 1858, it amounted 
to $2,781,694.36. 

-dsylumfor the Dtaf and Dutnby Indianapolis, 1856. — All the deaf and dumb of the 
State between the ages of 10 and 21 are entitled to an education, without charge for 



I860.] mJDIAKA. 253 

board or tuitioii. The session is annual, and lasts ten months, from the 15th of Septem- 
ber to the 15th of July. The course of instruction is for five yean. For pujrils from 
other States the charge is $ 100 for the session, for board and tuition. The average num- 
ber of pupils is near 150. 

IjutUuUfor the BUnd, Indian^oUs. — The boarding and tuition of pupils who are chil- 
dren of residents in the State are free. Generally applicants over 31 and under 8 years 
of age are not admitted. The average number of pupils is near 50. It is estimated that 
not one eighth part of the blind persons in the State avail themselves of the instruction 
of the school, although efforts are made to induce them to come. The session is for ten 
months, — from the first Monday in October to the last Wednesday in July. 

Hospital for the /luose, IndianapoUa, -^ This institution was opened (part of its buildings 
only being completed) in November, 1848. Since the opening of the Hospital, to October, 
1856, there have been admitted 1,060 ; discharged, 845 ; of whom there had recovered, 
594; improved, 93 ; unimproved, 58; died, 100. 308 were farmers, 46 laborers, SO car- 
penters, 7 students, 13 teachers, and 10 tailtMrs. Of the females, 461 were occupied in 
lioosework, 38 were school-girls, 13 taUoresses, and 14 teachers. The alleged probable 
cause of insanity in 86 cases was nligioQs excitement and anxieties ; in 35, spiritual 
rappings ; in 31, intemperance ; in 83, tobacco. The annual expenses of the institution 
average about $ 135 a patient. The average number of patients is near 150. 

StaUPri»o»f J^ffirrsownUe, ^The labor of the inisoneis was formerly let out to the 
highest bidder. But at the session of the Legislaturo in 1855, the mode of management 
was changed. Three directors, elected by the Legislature for four years (one each year), 
have the direction of its affairs, and appoint the Warden and other officers. The State 
assumes the entire care and control of the prisoners, and the change has been found most 
beneficial. Average number of prisoners, near 975. 

Common Sehoolt, -^ There is a State Board of Edacation, consisting of the Gh>v- 
emor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer and Auditor, the Attorney-General, and the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, who meet annually for conference, discussion, and 
the determination of questions arising under the school law. The Superintendent is elected 
by the people for two years, and has the general oversight of the schools, and must spend at 
least one day a year in each county. There is in each township a trustee, who has the gen^ 
oral custody and management of the school property and lands, and a limited power to 
lay taxes for building school-houses. He also each year enumerates the children in his 
township between the ages of 5 and 21. The inhabitants of each school-district elect for 
a year a school director, who takes care of the school-bouse, provides fuel, employs the 
teachers, and reports to the trustee. The schools in each township aro to be taught an 
equal length of time, without regard to tbe diversity in the number of pupils therein. Thero 
is to be assessed each year the sum of ten cents on each $ 100 worth of taxable property, and 
50 cents on each poll, (except upon the property and polls of negroes and mulattoes, who 
have none of the benefits of this act,) for the use of common schools. The township li- 
Inrary tax was limited to one year, and has not been extended. The school fund is made 
up of all funds heretofore appropriated to common scho61s, the surplus revenue, saline, 
bank-tax, and seminary funds ; all fines, forfeitures, and escheats ; all grants of land 
not otherwise specially devoted, the net proceeds of the swamp lands, unclaimed fees, 
and of all taxes specially laid therefor. The income of the fund is apportioned to the 
several counties of the State according to the enumeration 'of scholan therein. The 
special and comm(m school funds for 1856 were $2,785,368.87. The amount appoi> 
tioned from them during the year was f 338,881.25. The Superintendent of Public Instruct 
tion, January 1, 1857, makes a sUtement of the educational funds of the State as foUows: — 
Productive, •2,822,314.65; unproductive, •2,107,051.59. Total, •4.929,866.24. 

Statistics of the Schools for the Year 1868. —The number of children reported in the 
State between the ages of 6 and 21 is 451,002,-235,926 males and 215,076 females. 
Number of districts reported 6,576; number of common schools, 6,336; teachen, male 
4,700, female 1,144; wages per month in 1866, males •2a76, females •16.84; average 
length of schools in 1866, a03 months. School-houses built in 1868, 660, at a cost of 

22 



264 IOWA.- [1800. 



$279,805; tax aasesfed for building school-hoiuM, • 306,435 ; books !n school Ifbraries hi 
1856, 188,499 ; number added during the year, 144,88a 

Banks, — Of the Free Banks organized under the general banking law, a large number 
have suspended payment and are winding up. Their outstanding circulation, near No- 
vember 1, 1858, was $ 1,233,880, to redeem which the securities were, at their then value 
in New York, • 1,448,170. For the condition of the State Bank and^ Branches, and of 16 
^ree Banks, in January, 1859, see antCy p. 220. In the first week of November, 1858, 
there were 18 specie-paying Free Banks in the State. Their cireulatimi was $ 1,097,960, 
and their securities on deposit were 1,508,661. 

Donuatie and Farm JhUmalSf AgricuUnral Products, S^e. — The returns of the township 
assessors, June 1, 1857, show that there were 284,405 horses, mules, and assas, value 
• 14,874,883; 727,057 cattle, value $7,179,828; 693,338 sheep, value 1 713,171; 2,159,627 
swine, value f 6,307,148; bushels of wheat, 9,350,975, value $8,838,485; of com, 
39,833,366, value $ 11,122,160 ; of lye, 183,063, value $103,876 ; of oats, 4,621,800, value 
$1,246,869; of poUtoes, 1,195,485, value $635,360; of barley, 59,795, vahio $65,044; 
of grass seed, 113,848, value $211,336 ; barrels of pork, 342,937, value $2,266,439 ; pounds 
of bacon, 18,045,137, value $1,100^475; of lard, 4,337,272, value $388,640; value of 
slaughtered animals other than hogs, $740,889; value of poultry, $550,514; of orchard 
products, $ 404,998 ; of market-garden products, $ 196,382 ; of home-made manufactures, 
$2,474,262. Tons of hay, 342,118, value $1,699,432; of hemp, 413, value $3,035. 
Pounds of hops, 164,185, value $7,155; of tobacco, 486,734, value $36,047; of wo(d, 
1,455,113, value $424,438; of maple-sugar, 980,833, value $110,989. Gallons of wine, 
22,903, value $7,649. 



X. IOWA. 

Capital^ Des Moines. Area^ 50,914 sq. m. Population^ 1859, 633,549. 

Government for the Year 1860. 

Term ends. Salary. 

S. J. KiRKwooD, of Johnson Co., Governor, Jan. 1862, $2,000 

N. J. Rascb, of Scott Co., Lt.- Governor fy ex officio 

President of Senate, $ 6 a day daring session of Legislature. 
Elijah Sells, of Muscatine Co., 5ecretor^ of 5to<s, Jan. 1861, 1,500 

J. W. Cattell, of Cedar Co., Aud, of Pvb. Accounts, " 1,500 

J.W.Jones, ofHardinCo., 2Veajt«rer, " 1,500 

Thos H. Benton, of Pottawatamie Co., Sec.B,qfEdue^ Jan. 1860, 1,500 
A. E. Miller, of Cerro Gordo, Reg, State Land-Office, Jan. 1861, 1,500 

W.C.Drake, of Wayne Co., Com. Des Moines Impr% " 1,000 

J. P. Coulter, of Linn Co., lAbrarian, Jan. 1860, 400 

P. T. Inskeep, of Iowa Co., Ward, cf Penitentiary, " 1,000 

The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, and 
Treasurer, are elected^ by the people for two years, and hold office until 
their successors are qualified. The sessions of the Legislature are biennial. 
A session meets in January, 1860. Representatives, not over 1 00 in num- 
ber, are elected for two years, and Senators, not over 50 in number, are 
elected for four years, one half every two years. 

Judiciary. 

The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, District Court, and such other courts 
inferior to the Supreme Court as the Assembly may establish. The Supreme Court, with 
appellate jurisdiction only in chancery cases, consists of three judges, elected by tbe people 



I860.] 



IOWA. 



%5b 



lor six j€mn, and udUI their Buceesaors are qoalified, one every two years ; and the one 
having the shortest time to serve Is Chief Justice. They are, during^ their term, ineligible to 
any ottier State office. Judges of the District Court are elected in single districts for four 
y«ars, and until their successors are qualified, and are during their term ineligible to any 
State office except that of Supreme Judge. Their pay shall not be increased or diminished 
during their term, and no reorganization of the districts or diminution of the number of 
judges shall remove a judge from office. A District Attorney is elected in each judicial 
district for lour yean, and until his successor is qualified. 

Supreme Court, 

Term ends. Salary. 

Ralph P. Lowe, of Lee Co., , Chief Justice^ Jan. 1866, $ 2,000 

L. D. Stockton, of Des Moines Co., Associate Justice^ " 1862, 2,000 
Caleb Baldwin, of Pottawattamie Co., " <« *< 2,000 

S. A. Rice, of Mahaska Co., AiVy-Gen,^ Jan. 1861, Fees &] ,000 

Lewis Kinsey, of Louisa Co., Clerk^ Fees. 

W. Penn Clarke, of Johnson Co., Reporter. 



District Courts, 



Dist. Judge. 

1. F. A. Springer, 

2. J. S. Townsend, 

3. E. H. Sears, 

4. A. W. Hubbard, 

5. J. H. Gray, 

6. W. M. Stone, 

7. J. F. Dillon, 

8. W. E. Miller, 

9. T. & Wilson, 

10. £. H. Williams, 

11. John Porter, 



Residence. 
Louisa, 
Monroe, 
Fremont, 
Woodbury, 
Polk, 
Marion, 
Scott, 
Johnson, 
Dubique, 
Clayton, 
Cerro Gordo, 



Salary. I District Attorney. 

$ 1, 200, J. F. Tracy, 
1,200 Amos Harris, 
1,200 R. B. Parrott, 

1.2000. C. Howe, 
1,200 P. Cad. Bryan, 
1,200 G. D. Woodin, 
1,200 H. O. Connor, 

1.200 1. L. Allen, 
1,200 W. T. Barker, 
1,200 M. McClatherty, 
I,200|w. P. Hepburn, 



Residence. Salary. 
Des Moines, $ 800 k fees. 
Appanoose, 
Clarke, 
Dickinson, 
Warren, 
Keokuk, 
Muscatine, 
Tftma, 
Dubuque, 
Fayette, 
Marshall, 



it 
u 

(C 
C4 

(( 
(( 
(( 

(C 

u 
(( 



Board of Education. 



One from each Judicial District. Salary • 3.00 per day. Session limited to 20 days. 



Dist. Name. 

1. Chas. Mason, 

2. T. B. Perry, 

3. G. P. Kimball, 

4. D. E. Brainard, 
6. Daniel Mills, 
6. S. F. Cooper, 



Residence. 
Des Moines Co. 
Monroe. 
Page. 
Harrison. 
Greene. 
Poweshiek. 



Diet. Name. 

7. T. H. Canfield, 

8. F. M. Connelly, 

9. O. H. P. Roiell, 

10. A. B. F. Hildreth, 

11. I. J. MitcheU, 



Residence. 

Jackson. 

Iowa. 

Buchanan. 

Floyd. 

Boone. 



Finances. 



The funded debt of the Sute, November 1, 1867, was #122,296.76. There was at the 
sama date % 156,003.56 due on outstanding auditors' warrants, and $ 16,644.67 for interest on 
the above loans would become due January 1, 1858. The revenue is derived from taxes 
upon real and personal property. 

The receipts into the State treasury for the year ending Oct. 31, 1867, Including bal- 
ance of previous year, were $265,327.76. The disbursements during the same period were 
$241,145.05 ; leaving • 14,182.70 as the balance in the treasury, November 1, 1867. 

The annual expenses of the Sute are, for executive, % 12,147 ; judiciary, • 19,226 ; print- 
ing, $27,688; deaf and dumb, 87,000; blind, 7,222 j State debt and interest, $67,600; 
constitutional convention, $27,010; insane asylum, $100,338; agricultural societies, 
1 4,967; geological survey, $9,965; stationery, $11,941 ; penitentiary, $26,726. The ex- 
penses of Legislaturs — the sessions are biennial^ are near $ 32,000. The as s es s ed State 



2ft< IOWA. • [iseo. 

tax for 1854 was near $90,000; for 1856, #133,619 ; for 1666, $ 196,243,- for 1867, #420,089. 
In 1854 the total raluation was, $72,327,204 ; in 1855, $ 106,895,390 ; in 1856, « 164,394,413 ; 
in 1857, $240,044,534. 

The Ckmstitution provides tliat " tlie credit of tlie State shall not be giren in any manner 
for an J purpose. To meet casual deficits in the revenue, the State may borrow not exceed- 
ing $250,000 at any one time ; and the State may contract debt to repd Invasion or sup- 
press insurrection. No corporation shall be created liy special laws, and stockholders in 
banking corporations shall be individually liable. Bill-hoklerB shall have a preference over 
other creditors ; the suspension of specie payments shall not be sanctioned or permitted. 
Two thirds of each branch of the General Assembly may repeal all laws granting charters 
to corporations." 

Common Schools. -^The Constitution provides for a Board of Education, of which the 
Oovemor shall be a member, and the Lieutenant-Governor ex officio President, to coiMiat 
of one member elected from each judicial district for four years ; the members to be so 
classified that one half shall be chosen every two years. The members must be 25 years of 
age, and one year a resident of the State, and have the same pay as members of the Assem- 
bly. The Board choose a Secretary, and make all needful rules and regulations in legaid 
to conuDon schools and educational institutions. Common schools must be kept in each 
district at least 3 monUis in each year. The Assembly may abolish the Board of EdocatioQ 
after 1863. The school funds and lands shall be managed by the General Assembly. All 
lands granted by the United States for schools, the 500,000 acres granted by Congress to 
new States, escheats, the percentage on sales of land in the State, money paid for exemp- 
tion from military duty, and fines for breach of penal laws, shall be devoted to the sup- 
port of common schools. The money shall be divided as the Assembly may direct, in 
proportion to the number of youths between 5 and 21 years of age. The School Fund, Oc- 
tober 1, 1857, amounted to 9 2,030,544, nominally. This is subject to deductions for defal- 
cations by the School Fund Commissioners in some of the counties. The unsold school 
lands contun 619,940 acres. The average price of land sold in Iowa for the year was $ 3.36 
per acre. At this average price the school lands unsold would be worth 92,082,998. For 
the year ending October 31, 1857, there were reported 3,265 organized school districta; 
2,708 district schools ; 195,285 children in the State between 5 and 21 years of age ; 79,672 
pupils in schools ; 1,572 male, and 1,424 female teachers employed ; amount paid teachers, 
9 126,358 from the teachers' fund, and $ 71,785 from voluntary subscription ; cost of district 
school-houses, $571.06. Number of schooI-hous(|s, brick, 168; stone, 47; frame, 936; 
log, 535. Amount raised in districts by tax for school-houses, $ 146,704 ; conthigent ex- 
penses, $ 19,206. In March, 1857, there was apportioned anKMog the schools, from the 
interest of the School Fund, $ 1 1 1 ,840. 

Asylum for the Blind, lotoa City, — Samuel Bacon, Principal. This institution was 
opened for the reception of pupils, April 4, 1853. From the opening to January, 1858, 
32 pupils had l}een admitted. 

Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, Iowa City.—U. C. Ijams, PrincipaL Tlsere were, 
in 1857, 50 pupils, 26 males 24 females, supported by the State in the Asylum. Total ex- 
penses for the year $ 9,804. 
There is an Asylum for the Insane at Mount Pleasant in course of erection. 
State Penitentiary,— Nmnber in confinement, Oct. 1, 1856, 32; received during the 
year, 22; recaptured, 1 ; total for the year, 55. Discharges, 8; by expiration of sentence, 
5; by pardon, 2; escaped, 1. In prison, Sept. 30, 1857, 47,-46 males and 1 female. 18 
were foreigners. 15 were convicted of offences against the person, and 32 of ofiences 
against property. 

State Census Jor 1859.— The total population is 633,549, males 332,806, females 300,743. 
Number of legal voters, 136,457. Bushels of wheat in 1858, 3,293,253 ', of Indian com, 
23,366,634; of oats, 1,703,760. Acres of improved land, 3,109,436, of unimproved land, 
7,335,657. Value of bogs sold in 1858, $2,111,425; of cattle, $2,950,187} of manuiacturai, 
84,444,200. The population in 1856 was 509,414; in 1850, 192,214. 



I860.] 



KENTUCEY. 



257 



XI. KENTUCKY. 

Capital^ Frankfort. Area, 37,680 sq. m. Population^ 1850, 982,406. 
GovernTnent for the Year 1860. 

Beriah Magoffin, of Harrodsburg, G<iv€mor (term of office Salarj. 

expires September, 1863), $ 2,500 

Thos. B. Monroe, of Lexington, Secretary of States 1,000 

of Henderson, Auditor of Public Accounts, 2,000 

of Frankfort, Assistant Auditor^ 900 

of Jackson, Register of Land- Qffies, 1,250 

of Frankfort, Treasurer, 1,700 

of Franklin Co., j9<(;u<an£-GeneraZy 250 
of Frankfort, ^artermaster- General, 



Grant Green, 

James R. Watson, 

Tfaos. J. Frazier, 

James H. Garrard, 

Scott Brown, 

M. D. West, 

A. W. Vallandingbam, of Frankfort, State Librarian, 



Robert Richardson, 
James P. Bates, 
John B. Major, 

Porter, 

David Meriwether, 



200 
400 
of Covington, Sup' t of PubHe Instruction, 1,000 
of Barren Co., Pres, Board of Inter. Impr\ 1,500 
of Frankfi>rt, Public Printer, 
of Woodford, President of the Senate. 
of — — , Speaker of the House. 

The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Auditor, Attorney-General, Regis- 
ter of Land-Office^ and Superintendent of Public Instruction, are elected 
by the people for the term of four years. The Governor is ineligible for 
the four years succeeding the expiration of his term. If a vacancy in the 
office of Governor occur during the first two years of the term, the people 
fill it; if during the last two years, the Lieutenant-Governor, and afler him 
the Speaker of the Senate, acts as Governor. The Treasurer is elected by 
the people every two years. The Secretary of State is appointed by the 
Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, during his 
term. Senators, 38 in number, are elected from single districts for four 
years, one half every two years. Representatives, 100 in number, are 
elected from single districts for two years. Sessions of the Assembly are 
biennial. They cannot continue longer than 60 days without a two-thirds 
vote of all the members elect to each branch. The members are paid ^ 4 
ft day, and 15 cents a mile for travel. 

Judiciary. 



James Simpson, 
Henry J. Stites, 
Aivin Duvall, 
Henry C. Wood, 
A. J. James, 
R. R. Revill, 
M. B. Chinn, 
James P. Metcalfe, 



(( 



Court of Appeals. 

Salary. 

$2,000 

2,000 

2,000 

2,000 

Attorney- General, 0500 and fees. 

Clerkj Fees. 

Sergeant, $ 2 a day and fees. 

Reporter. 



of Winchester, Chief Justice, 

of Hopkinsville, Judge, 

of Georgetown, 

of Louisville, 

of Frankfort, 

of Owenton, 

of Frankfort, 

CC 



22* 



258 



JLHINTUCKT. 



[1860. 



LouisvUZe Chancery Court, 



Caleb W. Logan, 


of Louisville, 


Chancellor, 


Salary. 
$1,800 


Wm. R. Hervey, 


(( 


Clerk, 


Fees. 


W.-C. D. Whipps, 


it 


Marshal, 


Fees. 




Chancellors and Criminal Judges. 




First Judicial District, Joseph Bigger, of Paducah, 


$1,800 


Second Judicial District, Charles Green, of Franklin, 


1,500 




Circuit Courts, 




Judge. 


Residence. 


Attorney. 


Residence. 


1. R. K. WiUiams, 


Mayfield. 


A. P. Thompson, 


Paducah. 


2. Thomas C. Dabney, 


Cadiz. 


J. E. Arnold, 


Madisonville. 


3. James Stuart, 


Brandenburg. 


Cicero Maxwell, 


Hartford. 


4. A. W. Graham, 


Bawling Green. 


Wm. B. Jones, 


Franklin. 


6. 6. W. Karanaugh, 


Lebanon. 


Andy Bainett, 


Greenabuiig. 


6. Ihos. £. Bramlette, 


Columbia. 


£. L. Van Winkle, 


Somerset. 


7. Peter B. Muir, 


Louisville. 


E. S. Craig, 


Louisville. 


8. E. F. NuttaU, 


Henry County, 


P. U. Major, 


Frankfort. 


9. Sam. Moore, 


Covington. 


W. E. Arthur, 


Covington. 


10. E. F. Phisler, 


Maysville. 


R. H. Stanton, 


Maysville. 


11. W. H.Burns, 


Ui. Sterling. 


James N. Nesbitt, 


Owingsville. 


12. Granville Pearl, 


London. 


John Dishman, 


Barboursville. 


13. Wm. C. Goodloe, 


Richmond. 


W. S. Downey, 


Winchester. 



The salary of each circuit judge is $ 1,800; attorneys, ) 500, besides fees. 
All judges, justices of the peace, and officers of the court, are elected by 
the people ; the judges of the Court of Appeals, from districts, for eight 
years, one every two years, and the one having the shortest time to serve 
being chief jastice ; judges of the Circuit Court, for six years ; and justices 
of the peace, for lour years. The officers of the several courts are elected 
for the same term as is the presiding judge of their court. 

Finances. 

Sinking Fund, — Certain resources are provided bylaw for the payment of the hiteresi 
and principal of the public debt of the State. It is under the muaagement of the Governor, 
who is chairman ex officio, and the Presidents of the Bank of Kentucky, Northern Bank 
of Kentucky, and Farmers' Bank of Kentucky. The Auditor is secretary ex officio. The 
receipts of the fund during the year ending October 10, 1869, including balance of 1868 
($41,163.88), were $572,877.29; the expenditures for the same year were #406,985.92; 
excess of receipts, • 208,055.25. Add to this $ 550,228.03 lent by the commissioners at 6 per 
cent subject to call; and there is to the credit of the sinking fund, October 10, 1859, 
• 758,283 28. 

Ordinary Revenue. — Receipts into the treasury for the year ending October 10, 1859, 
$983,623.27; balance in 1858, $36,726.58; total means for 1859, $1,020,350.85; expendi- 
tures for the same time, $883,887.38; excess of receipts (including balance of pi%vious 
year), $ 136,463.47. Value of taxable property in 1859, $493,409,363; increase since 1858, 
$^,480,550. The rate of taxation is 20 cents for every $ 100 worth of property ; 10 cenu 
of which are appropriated for ordinary expenses, 6 cents for the sinking fund, and 6 cents 
for the school fund. — //cms of Taxation, 1858. 21,568,383 acres of land, valued at 
$219,081,552; town lots, 44,412, valued at $51,879,266; slaves, 207,559, valued at 
$96,588,479; horses, 351,400, value, $22,138,041; mules, 70,980, value, $6,068,657; 
'^nnies, 4,416, value, $523,506; cattle, 741,279, value, $6,180,157; stcwee, 4,510, value. 



I860.] LOUISIANA. 259 

#11,844,220; rarplus cash, bonds, &c., valqe, • 63,809,903. ~ £^ct^e Taxation, at 30 
cents on 9 100. Value of carriages and barouches, omnibuseb, gigs, buggies, stage-coaches, 
and other rehicles for passengera, $1,891,385; value of pianos, $618,804; value of gold, 
silver, and other metallic watches and clocks, $1,190,192; value of gold and silver plate, 
1 527,233. Total white males over 21 years of age, who pay a poll-tax for county purposes, 
177,372 ; studs, jacks, and bulls, 2,937, taxed $ 17,144 ; average value of land per acre, 
flO.lI. 

State Debt. —Tbo entire debt of the State, October 10, 1858, was $6,674,244.03, com- 
posed of these items: — To individuals, $3,592,412; Southern Bank of Kentucky for 
stock, $ 600,000 (the State owns the stock, and the bank pays interest oh the bonds) ; 
Board of Education, $ 1,381,832.03. To pay which the sinking fund receives annnally a tax 
from the banks and dividends on stocks in the same ; premiums on Slate bonds ; dividends 
on stoclcs in tnrnirilce roads ; dividends from slack- water improvements; 6 cents on each 
S 100 worth of property listed for taxation ; taxes on brokers and insurance companies ; and 
excess of revenue at the end of each year over $ 10,000. The interest on the State debt is 
punctually paid. The State debt, October 10, 1859, was $ 5,479,244 03, on which the annual 
interest is $275,^1.94. The State owns stock in internal improvement companies of the 
nominal value of $ 4,830,476 ; in banks and railroads, 82,162,820; and the sinking fund, 
9758,283. Total, S 7,761,678. 

Common Schooia* — The school fund amounted in 1857 to $1,466,332.03; consisting 
of State bonds and bank stocks, besides an annual tax of 6 cents on each $ 100 of property 
listed in the State, amounting to about $ 204,000. 103 counties made reports to the Su- 
perintendent for the year 1857. Number of children reported, 254,111; average number at 
school, 83,931. Money distributed during the year 1857; $ 304,933.20. Number of children 
in the Slate between the ages of 6 and 18 years, 240,799. Number of children in 1868, 
267,712; average attendance at school, 97,001. 

Board of Internal Improvement, — James P. Bates, of Glasgow, President, salary 

1 1,500. Grant Green (Auditor), and , of (Hounty, members. The Auditor is 

Secretary es officio. 

State Inatitutiona for the Relief of the Unfortunate. — Eastern Lunatic Asylum at 
Lexington. Number of inmates, 276. — Deaf and Dumb Asylum, at Danville. Number of 
pupils, 81. — School for the Blind, at Louisville. Pupils, 38. — Penitentiary. Number of 
prisoners, 234. •- Westam Lunatic Asylum at Hopklnsville. Number of inmates, 113. 

Banking InatittUiona. —Ba^k. of Kentucky; V. McKnight, President; S. H. Bullen, 
Cashier. Northern Bank of Kentucky ; M. C. Johnson, President ; A. F. Hawkins, Cashier. 
Farmer's Bank of Kentucky ; Philip Swlgert, President; J. B. Temple, Cashier. Bank of 
Louisville; J. F. Boles, President; C. Tilden, Cashier. Southern Bank of Kentucky; 
6. W. Norton, President ; M. B. Morton, Cashier. Commercial Bank of Kentucky ; L. M. 
Floumoy, President; J. L. Dallam, Ciashier. Bank of Ashland; H. Means, President; 
E. W. Martin, Cashier. People's Bank of Kentucky; & C. Grider, President; A. G. 
Hobson, Cashier. All of the above banks have branches at various points in the State, 
except the last-named one, whose place of business is at Bowling Green. 



XII. LOUISIANA. 

Capital^ Baton Rouge. Area^ 41,346 sq. m. Population^ 1869, 646,971. 

Government for the Year 1860. 

Term ends. Salary. 

Thos. O. Moors, of Rapides, Governor, Jan. 1864, $ 4,000 

H. M. Hyams, of N. Orleans, Ideut.-Gov. ^ Pres, of Senate, ** $ 8 a day 

[during the session of the Legislature. 

Pliny D. Rardj, ofOpelousas, Secretary of State, J&n, 1S64, 2,500 

Thomas J. Semmes, of Neyr Orleans, Momey- General, <* 3,500 



260 LOinSIANA.' [I860. 

Term enda. Sahrjr. 
B. L. Defreeae, of Jackson Parish, Treasiarer, Jan. 1862, $ 2,500 

E. W. Robertson, of Iberville, AudUin- of Accounts^ «* 4,000 

Henry Avery, of Baton Rouge, Snpt. Pub. Edtuaiian^ ** 2,000 

Louis Bringier, of New Orleans, Surveyor- General^ Jan. 1860, 600 
B. Haralson, of St.Francisville, Register of Land-Office, " Fee8&250 

Louis Hebe^t, of Bayou Gouia, State Engineer, ^ 3,500 

Maurice Grivot, of New Orleans, Adjt and Inspect,- Gen.^ ** 500 

Henry Droz, of New Orleans, State Librarian, 1,200 

August Duplantier, Lafayette Caldwell, G. W. Butler, and E. B. Towne 
constitute the Board of Swamp Land Commissioners ; salary, ^ 1,500 each. 
Term ends Jan. 1860. 

The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, and Attorney- 
General are elected by the people, by a plurality vote, for four years. 
The Governor is ineligible for the four years next succeeding his term 
of x>ffice. The Treasurer, Auditor, and Superintendent of Education are 
chosen in the same way, but for two years. The Surveyor-General, Reg- 
ister of Land-Office, and Adjutant-General are appointed by the Governor, 
subject to confirmation by the Senate. Senators, 32 in number, are elected 
for four years ; one half every two years. Representatives, not less than 
70 nor more than 100 in number, (now 98,) are chosen for two years. 
The Legislature meets annually, on the 3d Monday in January. The pay 
of senators and representatives is $ 4 a day. The sessions are not to last 
more than 60 days : acts passed afler 60 days are invalid. 

Board of PuJblic Works. — By the act of March 17, 1859, the State is di- 
vided into four Internal Improvement, Leveeing, Draining, and Reclaim- 
ing Districts, corresponding to the former Swamp Land Districts. Each 
district elects a Commissioner of the Board of Public Works, to hold 
office for four years from the first Monday in January, 1860, at a salary of 
$ 2,000 each. These four Commissioners constitute the Board of Public 
Works. Those first elected will designate by lot two of their number to 
hold office for only two years, and afterwards two will be elected every 
two years, to hold office for four years. The Board are to elect a Secre- 
tary, at a salary of not over % 2,000 ; a Chief Engineer, at a salary of not 
over $ 3,000 ; and four assistants, at a salary of not over $ 2,000 each. The 
following Commissioners were elected November 7, 1859, 1st District, F. 
M. Kent ; 2d District, Braxton Bragg ; 3d District, G. W. Montgomery ; 
4th District, L. G. De Russy. Upon the organization of the Board of 
Public Works, the term of office of the State Engineer and Swamp Land 
Commissioners expire and their offices are abolished. 

Judiciary. 

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is elected by the people of the 
whole State, and for ten years : the four associates are chosen for the same 
period, but in districts. Their compensation is established by the consti- 
^tion. The Court is in session in New Orleans from the fiiBt Monday in 



1840.] 



LOTTISIAKA. 



2^1 



Norember to the end of June. It has appellate jurisdiction when more 
than $ 300 is in dispute, when the legality of any tax or of any fine imposed 
by a municipal corporation is in question, and in criminal cases, on ques- 
tions of law alone, when death, hard labor, or a fine of $ 300 is imposed. 
The Attorney-General and the District Attorneys are elected by the people 
for four years ', the former by the State at large, the latter in their respec- 
tive districts. The inferior judges, clerks of court, justices of the peace, 
sheriffs, and coroners are chosen by the people. 



Supreme Court. 

Term ends. 
Edward H. Merrick, of Clinton, Chief Justice^ April, 1863, 

Thomas T. Land, of Shreveport, Associate Justice, 1861, 

of New Orleans, «« 1865, 

ofThibodeaux, «' 1867, 

of St. Martinsville, " 1869, 

of New Orleans, Attorney-Gen.^ Jan. 1864, 
" Reporter, 

•* Clerk in Jfew Orleans^ 



A. M. Buchanan, 
James Cole, 
Alfred Voorhies, 
Tfaoe J. Semmes, 
A. N. Ogden, 
Eugene La Sere, 



Salary. 
6,000 
5,500 
5,500 
5,500 
5,500 
3,500 
2,500 
Fees. 



Dist. Judge. 

1. Theo. O. Hunt. 

2. P. H. Morgan. 

3. Louis Duvignand. 



District Courts ofJfew Orleans, 



Clerk. 
N. Trepagnier. 
P. S. Wilta. 
Ed. Toledano. 



Dist. Judge. 
4. John W. Price. 
6. H. B. Eggleston. 
6. R. K. HoweU. 



Clerk. 
J. O. Chalon. 
C. F. White. 
Isaac N. PhiUips. 



C. M. Bradford, Diatriet AUomey, Sahury, $3,000. E. T. Parker, Sheriffs Fees. 

TliB Courts of New Oiteans constitate the first district. Tito salary of tlie judges is 
$ 3,500 ; their tenu ends in 1861. The clerks are paid by fees. 



Other District Courts, 

The term of office of the Judges win expire in April, 1861 ; that of the Attorneys in Noveni' 

ber, 1863. 



Dis- 
trict 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
16 
16 
17 
18 


JlSdge. 


Residence. 


Sal. 
ary. 


Attorney. 


Residence. 


Sal- 
ary. 

9800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 


James Foul house, 
Victor Burthe, 
Albert Duffel, 
I. J. Roman, 
R. O. Beale, 
John McVea, 
J. E. Wilsort, 
A D.M. Haralson, 
Edgar D. Farrar, 
Oran Mayo, 
R. W.Richardson, 
B. North Cullom, 
Edward Simon, 
B. A. Martel, 
Chich'r Chaplin, 
W. B. Eagan, 
D. CrisweU, 


St. Bernard, 

Jeflferson, 

Donaldsonville, 

Thibodeauz, 

Baton Rouge, 

Clinton, 

Oreensburg, 

Point Coupee, 

St. Joseph, 

Caldwell, 

Ouachita, 

Marksville, 

Franklin, 

Opelousas, 

Natchitoches, 

Bienville, 

DeSoto, 


$2,600 
2,500 
2,600 
2,500 
2,500 
2,600 
2,600 
2,500 
2,500 
2,500 
2,500 
2,500 
2,500 
2,500 
2,600 
2,500 
2,500 


P. A. Ducros, 
Robert Preston, 
Gervais Larsche, 
N. H. Riglitor, 
T. Duncan Stuart, 
W. S. Vaughn, 
E. Ellis, 
John Yoist, 
James Nolan, 
W. H. Hough, 
Francis P. Stubbs, 
C. N. Hines, 
Adolphus Olivier, 
P. D. Hardy, 
C. Chaplin, Jr., 
J. D. Watkins, 
Hinton Smith, 


New Orleans, 

CarroIIton, 

St. James, 

Napoleonville, 

Baton Rouge, 

Clinton, 

Covington, 

Point Coupee, 

Madison, 

Caldwell, 

Ouachita, 

Franklin, 

Opelousas, 

Natchitoches, 

Minden, 

DeSoto, 



262 



LOUISIANA. 



[I860. 



Finances. 

ToUl receipts Into iheTreasury forlhe year ending Dec. 31, 1858, $ 1,819,741.69 
Balance, January 1, 1858, 1,058,058.76 

Total revenue for the year, • 2,877,800,45 

Disbursementa for the same period, 1,872,053.43 

Balance in the Treasury, January 1, 1859, 
Chief Sources of Income. 



State Taxes, .... $622,357.48 
Licenses of trades and professions, 202,312.82 
Duty on auction sales, . 22,428.42 

Vacant estates, .... 3,957.22 
Current School Fund, . . 417,602.53 
Free School Fund, .... 73,25308 
Free School Accumulating Fund, 38,730 00 
Seminary Fund, .... 4,210.00 
Internal Improvement Funds, . 127,319.70 
Levee and Drainage Fund, . . 254,351.50 
Road and Levee Fund, . . 4,094.50 
Redemption State Debt Fund, . 11,940.00 

Principal Items of Expenditure. 
Executive and Judiciary, . . $157,934.27 
Legislature, compensation and . 
contingent expenses, . . . 84,971.31 



$1,005,747.02 

To owners of slaves convicted of 

crime, $10,333,33 

Free public schools, . . . 351,414.66 
Charitable institutions, . . 92,400.00 
Seminary of learning, . . 30,000.00 

Building Deaf, Dumb, and Blind 

Asylums, 45,725.10 

Printing and advertising, . 38,090.23 

Interest on bonds, . . . 173,380.00 
Internal Improvement Fund, . 46,051.21 
Road and Levee Fund, . . . 25,841.83 
Levee and Drainage Fund, . 268,801.75 
Louisiana State Bank, loans, &c. 272,000.00 
Criminal prosecutions, . . 100,134.64 
Lessees of Penitentiary, . 36,122.51 

Decisions of Supreme Court, • 5,350.75 

State census, . . . . 10,68393 
State Debt.— The State debt, properly so called, amounted, Dec. 31, 1858, to $4,379,090.95 
Add the State's indebtedness for the property banks, . . $6,124,311.10 

Second Municipality of New Orleans, 198,240.00 

6>32g»551.10 

Total State debt, $10,701,641.75 

This is the Auditor's statement, and in the debt proper are included United States 
surplus revenue, $479,919.14, of the Free School Fund, $529,000, and of the Seminaiy 
,Fund, $ 136,000. Of this debt proper, $512,090.65 aie stated to be due on demand, and 
$3,858,000 between 1867 and 1898. There have been issued of SUte bonds, included 
above, to the New Orleans and Nashville Railroad Co., $483,000; to the Mexican Gulf 
Railroad, $ 100,000; to the New Orleans, Opelousas, and Great Western, $621, (XX) ; to the 
New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern, $ 884,000 ; to the Vicksburg, Shreveport, and 
Texas, ($ 174,000; to the Baton Rouge, G. T., and Op., $56,000. 

The State has, in addition to the bonds that make up the Free School and Semiaary 
Funds, bonds belonging to the redemption of the State Debt Fund, amounting in value to 
$207,000. 

The assessed value of the taxable property of the State in 1857 was $378,911,905, upon 
which was assessed $ 1,398,349.61 ; 215,305 acres of land were cultivated in cane, 750,266 
in cotton, 627,044 in com, and 4,905 in rice. From these were produced 58,S49 hogs- 
heads of sugar, 95,421 barrels of molasses, 407,018 bales of cotton, 13,094,069 bushels of 
com, and 21,147 banels of rice. 

Education. — The Constitution provides that " free public schools shall be established 
throughout the State ; the proceeds of lands granted for the purpose, and of lauds escheated 
to the State, shall be held as a permanent fund, on which six per cent interest shall be paid 
by the State for the support of these schools." The yearly sum of $ 250,000 is approin-iated 
for the support of the free schools of the State, and is derived from the levy of a tax of one 
mill on the dollar, and from the imposition of a poll-tax of $ 1 on each white male inhabit* 
ant of the State. The Free School Fund, January 1, 1859, amounted to $899,500. 
There is, besides, the Seminary Fund, which at the same date was $ 137,000. Total of 
both funds, $ 1,036,500. The number of school districts in the State, January 1, 1856, 
was 638 ; number of public schools reported, 749 ; number of white children in the State 
between 6 and 10, 73,322. The report gives the number attending public schools as 17,949 ; 



LOUISIANA. 



S6S 



DDmbu not ilUndlng, 18,471. The uDDvnl spinnlOMd to Mit (wrenl lerlibM Ibt Ibe year 
«ai 1 3l2,33S.4a. nn namber of educable youth tn ISGT nu TG^Sie, of which nninbn 
only about on* third in nponed by Iha pariah Inasursn aa hating altsnded acliaiil during 
the yaar. Tba amounl of pulilic monsy apponioited among the diflbnat pulihu in ih» 
Stale for the year ending March 31, 1SS9, was S 303,324.34, 

Bmkt, — Foi Hie condiUon of Ifae banks in Louiaianain Dec ieS8,i» tait, p. SSO, 
Ibe following laU* abowa thgcoDdllionofthaNewOrieana binlu, in the particulara alaud, 



■ 


Loana. 


Erchang., 


Speda. 


Cireulation. 


DepcullB. 


I85S r)*e 4 


IE 


m 




14 3G 


, 


ntfl 




















































r?: 






















































i: 23 
























































Not. S, 




w 








m 


18;«13;935 



•uUima PnulcnHiirf, Batim Jlinift.— Priionari In coDfinemenl Decani bar 31, IBS7, 337 ; 
ived to Dec 31, IBSB, IBS ; in all, 43S. Diachaiged by aipiralion of aenlence, 68 j by 
on,3; bydaith,Gi byeacape,9;iD»U,99. Laavlsg In pilaDB, Dec.31, ISS8,326,— 
colored lemalaa ; and of 



ha 3^ in 






■Jaughtsr, 44 ; aubbinf, 11 ; abooting, 7 
polaon, 4; rape, 4; atumpl to coniinit apt, 6; aiaaulling white panona, 21 ; arann, 30; 
robbary, aO; laicenf, 39; burgUiry, 14; boneatealing, la; nagro itiiallng, 7: aiding BlBrea 
to (Mcaps, 2. The priaoodTB are angaged In manufacturing cotton and briclca. 

Di^siti Daw^iBid Blind Jtil*m, — TbiE innitulion la al Baton Bouge, and ambraeaa 

Ewtb a *^mutB departmsnt" and a "blind department.^' There were 46 puplli (29 

femalaa) In the inelitulioa during the year 1856. Ail Uie deaf an 



le BlaK 



and 30 ye 



as, a^anmiedlo 


in 


education, free of charg 


for board or lu 




Joe 


tn December 31, J855, there ware 


74 male, and 51 


remilaa ; idmitud dunng 


the yeat, 59, 


whole number, ; 




DiKharged during UK 


year, reeoyai 






eloped, 3; died, 56,40 


male«andl61 


the Aiylum, Dec 




1856, 1D2, 49 milei an 




lien la iinca the 




ng of Ifae imitilution i 




ered, 38 remoiai: 




eloped, and as9 died. 




CA.H1, Hoqritol . 


Alw OrI««.-Durin| 


the year 1858. 




red 






diKharged aa en 


and 2,290 (1,9S7 ma 


ee, 363 female. 




659,644. Oftbedeithr 




1,382 from yellow 




or, 53 from typhoid, 50 




milted, 9,568 we 






ea, 1.751 of th 



diirrhoi, 69 from dyeenteiy, 
rameni. Of the palienla id- 
le United Btitei, ind 18 un- 
known. The coal of the maintenance of tba Hoepital (or the year. Ibr all patpoaea, 
wia (70,846.67. lu receipt*, inclodiniBmner balance, were • 73,^39.47. The capiu- 
tioD tax oD pl«MB|en for the uie of the Ho^dtal amonnlad la • IB,640.9S, and the lal on 
batle and conceru to 1 3,St5. 

StoU Cnni. — In 1BS9,tbrao war* 33B,I»7 whitei ; 18,164 ft** cslond p*i«on«,aad 
3«l,8oa iliTea ; in tU 64«,ir71, 



264 



MAIKE. 



[1860. 



XIII. MAINE. 

Capital, AugTiaU. Area, 36,000 eq. m. Population, 1850, 583,169. 

Government for the Year ending the 1st Wednesday in January^ 1860. 

Salarj. 



Lot M. MoRRiLii,=M^ 
Noah Smith, Jr., 
Lewis D. Moore, 
Benjamin D. Peck, 
Davis Tillson, 
Noah Barker, 
Thomas W. Hix, 
Henry M. Harlow, 
Seth ScammoD, 
Mark H. Dunnell, 



of Augusta, 
of Calais, 
of Augusta, 
of Portland, 
of Rockland, 
of Exeter, 
of Rockland, 
of Augusta, 
of Saco, 
of Norway, 



Term ends. 
Qovwmor^ Jan. 1860, $1,500 

Secretary of State, ^ d06 &feee. 



u 



C( 



(( 



Dep. Sec. of State j 

treasurer. 

Adjutant' General^ 

Land Agent, 

Ward, of St, Prison, « 

Svp't of Insane Hospital^ 

Sup't of State Reform School, 1,500 

SupH of Common Schools, 1,200 



1,000 
1,600 

500 
1,000 

700 
1,000 



Gilman Turner, 
Robert Goodenow, 



[and travelling expenses. 

of Augusta, SupH of Pub, Buildings, $ 1.25 per day. 

ofFarmington,^ « , ^ 
William S. Cochran, of Waldoboro', 5 ^'*'** Commtsstoners, 
Charles W. Goddard, of Auburn,t Pres. of Senats pro tern., $ 4 per day. 
Joseph B. Hall, of Presque Isle,t Secretary of the Senate, 

WilHam T. Johnson, ofAugU8ta,t Speaker of the House, 4 <« «« 

George W. Wilcox, of Dtxmont,t Clerk of the House, 

Councillors, — Dennis L. Millikin, of Waterville ; Aaron J. Wing, of 
Bangor ; William Merriam, of Camden ; George Thomdike, of South 
Thomaston ; Rufhs Horton, of Portland ; Washington Long, of Fort 
Fairfield; Almoh Lord, of Parsonsfield. 



of Alfred, 
of Augusta, 
of Bangor, 



John S. Tenney, 

Daniel Goodenow, 

Richard D. Rice, 

John Appleton, 

Joshua W. Hathaway, of Bangor, 

Jonas Cutting, of Bangor, 

Seth May, 

Woodbury Davis, 

Nathan D. Appleton, 

Wales Hubbard, 



JUDICIART. 

Supreme Judicial Court. 
of Norridgewock, Chief Justice, 



Term ends. Salary. 
$1,800 



Associate Justice, 
u 



«c 



C( 



cc 



(( 



(( 



1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 



of Winthrop, 

of Portland, 

of Alfred, Attorney- General, Jan. 1860, 1,000 

of Wiscasset, Reporter of Decisions, 1,000 

The State is divided into three Judicial Districts, denominated the 
Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts ; and for the purpose of hearing and 
determining questions of law and equity, the terms are held for these dis- 
tricts, instead of being held, as heretofore, in the several counties. These 
terms are held annually in Portland for the Western, in Augusta for the 

* Governor Morrill has been re-elected for the year ending January, 1861. 
t Officers of Besaion of l&'Sg. 



I860.] 



MAINE. 



265 



Middle, and in Bangor for the Eastern District. The other cases are tried, 
ms heretofore, in the several counties where they are commenced. 

Municipal and Police Courts, 
Samuel Titcomb, of Augusta ; Spencer A. Pratt, of Bangor ; Jacob 
Smith, of Bath ; Joseph Williamson, Jr., of Belfast ; Henry Orr, of Bruns- 
wick; Luther Brackett, of Calais ; William Palmer, of Gardiner; Samuel 
K. Gilman, of Hatloweil; L. D. M'Lane, of Portland; John M. Meserve, 
of Rockland ; William Berry, of Biddeford ; and John Smith of Lewis- 
ton, are Judges at those places respectively. Some are paid by salaries, 

others by fees. 

Probate Courts, 



Gountiea. 



AndnMcoffgin 

AnxMtooK, 

Cumberland, 

Pranklia, 

Hancock, 

Kennebec, 

Lincoln, 

Oxford, 

Penobscot, 

Piifcataquia, 

Sagadahoc, 

Someraet, 

Waldo, 

Washiagton, 

York, 



Judges. 



Edward T. Little, 
Bradford Cumminga 
Wra O. Barrowa, 
Philip M. Stubbs, 
Parker Tuck, 
Henry K. Baker, 
Beder Pales, 
Thomas H. Brown, 
John S. Godfrey, 
Jeaae SteTena, 
Charles R. Porter, 
Davjd White, 
Hiram Baaa, 
Jotham Lippincott, 
Edward E. Bourne, 



Reaidences. 



Auburn, 

Maple Grove, 

Brunswick, 

Strong, 

Bucksport, 

Hallowell, 

Thomaaion, 

Paria, 

Bangor, 

Sebec, 

Bath, 

Skowhegan, 

Camden, 

Columbia, 

Kennebunk, 



Sal- 
ary. 



Begiatera. 



0200 William P. Frye, 
200 Chaa. M. Herrin, 
700 Aaron B. Holden, 
160 Benj. Sampaon, 
375 Alvin A. Bartlett, 
450 Joseph Burton, 
500 Erastua Fooie, 
275 David Knapp, 
350 Joseph Bartlett, 
135 Samuel Whitney, 
200 Elijah Upton, 
250 Albert H. Ware, 
200 Bohan P. Field, 
400 Wm. B. Smith, 
400 Francis Bacon, 



Reaidencea. 



Lewiaton, 

Uoulion. 

Portlana, 

Farmington, 

Ella worth, 

Augusta, 

Wiacasset, 

Kumford, 

Bangor, 

Sangerville, 

Bath, 

Anaon, 

Ballast, 

Machias, 

Buxtcm, 



ary. 

$300 
200 
950 
250 
400 
700 
650 
400 
800 
125 
300 
300 
426 
450 
620 



Clerks of the Judicial Courts. 



Countiea. 

Androacoggia 

Aroostook, 

Cumberland, 

Franklin, 

Hancock, 

Kennebec, 

Lincoln, 

Oxford, 



Shire towns. 



Auburn, 

Houlton, 

Portland, 

Farmington, 

Ella worth, 

Augusta, 

Wiacasaet, 

Paria, 



Clerks. 



Joaiah D. Pulcifer. 
B. L. Staplea. 
Obadiah G. Cook. 
Alanaon B. Farwell. 
Parker W. Perry. . 
Wm. M. Stratton. 
Edwin Roae, 
Sidney Perham, 



Countiea. 



Penobscot, 

Piscataquis, 

Sagadahoc, 

Someraet, 

Waldo, 

Washington, 

York, 



Shire towns. 



Bangor, 

Dover, 

Bath, 

Harmony, 

Belfast, 

Machias, 

Alfred, 



Clerks. 



A. S. French. 
E. Flint. 
A. C Hewey. 
Jaa.W. Menrill. 
S. L. Millikin. 
C. W. Porter. 
Caleb B. Lord. 



Finances. 

Amount of receipta for the year ending December 31, 1856, . 
Balance on hand, January 1, 1868, 

Total meana, 

Amount of ezpenditurea from January 1, 1868, to December 31, 1868, 

Balance, December 31, 1868, 

PrinciptU lUtna of Bspenditure* 
PayoftheLegialatars, . . • 37,744.60|School fiinda, 
Pay-roll of the Council, . . 3,648.00 Military purpoaea, 

Conl'g't fund ofGovernorft Council, 4|172.10 
Salariea of Sute officers, .31,230.97 

Clerks in public officea, . . 7,002.00 
Rolla of aceounU, .... 12,897.97 
Printing, binding, and atatiooery, 12,000 00 



CosU in criminal proaecutiona, . 34,376.59 

State Prlaon, 16,375 00 

Insane Hoapital and inaane paupera, 17,585.83 
Doaf, dumb, and blind, . 3,614.16 

Reform School, .... 17,126.00 

28 



To Indiana and Indian fund. 
Militia penaions, . 
Maine Reporta, 
Agricultural Societiea, Ac, 
Public debt paid, . 
Interest on public debt. 
Teachers' Conventiona, . 
Publishing Revised Statutea, 
Bank Commissioners, 



• 373,984.70 

48,423.30 

422,408.00 

346,039.48 

976,368.62 



•37,S98 14 

3,681.00 
. 6,739.00 

1,944.00 
. 1,500.00 

7,602.66 

, 30,500.00 

39,440.00 

. 2,000.00 

3,299.99 
. 1,200.00 



266 MAINE. [t^eO. 

Sute and County taxM, . . $ 203,S77.00iPeniiaiMnt Sthool Foad, . . ^6,06&58 



State loan and premium, . 31,958.60 

Northeastern boundary, . . 10,126.98 



Land Agent and lands, . . 46,063.37 
Duties on ccMDmiasioos, . . 1,660.00 

Bank tax, 74,642.03 

Public Debt. — The puUie funded debt of the State, January }, 1859, was • 699,00a 
There are besides funds to the amount of 9 335,277.32, held in trust by the State, aad ibr 
which the State must provide the payment of interest. Thero are other liabilities to the 
amount of $ 130,094.45. A recent amendment of the Constitution limits the State indebt- 
edness at any one time, to be afterwards created, to $300,000. The amount over this suns 
is the balance of the old debt. The resources of the State at the same date consisted of, — 
cash, $76,368.52; due on State taxes, $199,410.23; bank tax, t73,000j00; laad office, 
S 25,000.00} in all, $379,278.75. The Stale also owns about 2,OOOyOOO acres of public 
lands. 

School Fund. — The permanent school fund is 1^ 149,035.^, with a prospectiye increase 
from the sales of 487,567 acres of reserred lands, 20 per cent of aU moneys hereafter accruing 
from the sales of all unsold public lands, and nearly $30,000 due on notes given for school 
lands. The amount apportioned for the year ending April 1, 1858, was $ 82,698.77. The 
bank tax for the support of schools is one per cent on their capiud. The apportionment 
is made ratably among towns making returns. Towns are obliged by law to mise annually 
an amount of school money equal to 60 cents for each inhabitant. 

School Statiatic9/or the Year ending April 1, 1858. — Of the 391 towns and 90 planta- 
tions in the State, returns were received from 389 towns and 69 plantations. There 
were 4,127 school districts, and 394 parts of districts; nunber 9f childrrn in the 
State between 4 and 21,^0,739; scholars in summer schools, 132,182; arerage number, 
100,726; scholars in winter schools, 154,860; average, 122,430; ratio of attendance through- 
out the year to the whole number of scholars, 49 percent; male teachers, 2,828; female 
teachers, 4,506; average wages, exclusive of board, males per month $21^86, females per 
week 92.13. Average length of all the schools for the year, 19.9 weeks. Amount raised 
for schools by taxes, $402,761.11, being $54,712 01 more than the law rectuires. Amount 
received from State school fttnds, $82,69837; from local funds, $14,286^76; expended 
for private schools, $26,581.56; school* houses built during the year, 134; cost, $ 66,739. 
Aggregate expended for school purposes, $ 623,699.69. Good school-houses, 1,926; poor 
do. 2,007 ; estimated value of all the school-houses, $ 1,105,967. Amount of school money 
raised per scholar, $1.59; received from the State, $0,348. 15 Teaehera' Conventions 
were held in the several counties during the year, and were attended by 2,084 (911 males 
and 1,173 females) teachers. 

Banks. — The banks are required to report semiannually, in January and June, to the 
Secretary of State. They also report their condition monthly, except in January and June, 
and their returns are published monthly in the State paper (now the Kennebec Journal). 
Their condition, Saturday, June 4, 1859, was as follows : Capital stock, $ 7,258,945.00 ; cir- 
culation, $3,945,656.00; deposits, $2,425,457.35; due other banks, $153,314.13; specie, 
$613,669.43; loans, $12,421^75.43; due from other banks, $869,047.92. For their con- 
dition near January, 1859, see ante, p. 220. At the end of the year 1858, there were eleven 
savings institutions in the State, which had $896,876.68 deposits. Their total resources 
are stated at $ 968,178.90. The returns of some of the institutions do not give the number 
of depositors. 

Insane HbspUaly Augusta. — Henry M. Harlow, Superintendent and Physician, Theodore 
C. Allan, Treasurer and Steward. Nov. 30th, 1867, there were in the Hospital !208 patients, 
i 18 males and 90 females ; received during the year, 126, 72 males and 54 females, in all 334. 
126 (73 males and 63 females) have been discharged ; of whom 59 (37 males and 22 females) 
were recovered, 25 (16 males and 9 females) improved, 18 (10 males and 8 females) unim- 
proved, and 24 (10 males and 14 females) died ; remaining 208 (117 males and 91 females). 
Of those admitted, 36 men and 32 women were married ; 34 men and 15 women were un- 
uirried; 2 were widowers, and 7 were widows. Their ages were between 20 and 80. 



1S60.] MARYLAND. 267 

Supposed caoses of iasanity of those admitted daring the year, ill health, 28 ; intemperance, 
8; puerperal, 4; domestic troulde, 11 ; religious excitement, 11 4 business and loss of prop- 
erty, 2 ; masturbation, 5 ; spiritualism, 3 ; other causes, 24 ; not assigned, 30. Of those re* 
faaining, 55 afe foreigners and non-residents, and receive titeir entire support from the 
State. Receipts for the year, 030,315.44. Expenditures, $31,577.63. Since opening the 
Hospital in 1840 there have been 1,978 patients admitted, and 1,770 discharged. Of the 
latter 813 have recovered ; 347 were improved ; 360 unimproved ; and 250 died. The 
{irice ef board is now $2.50 a weeic, and a bond must be given in the sum of $200 for 
Cha payment of all dues to the iastitution. The institution will accommodate 250 pa- 
tients. The number of insane persons in the State is estimated at between 1,X0 and 1,400- 

State Prison, Thomaston. Number of convicts, December 31, 1857, 113; received up to 
December 31, 1358, 69 ; discharged during the same period, by expiration of sentence 22, 
by pardon 29, by death 2, aad by escape 1, in all 54 ; leaving 123 in prison. 73 were committed 
for larceny, 2 for manslaughter, 8 for murder, 6 for arson, 6 for malicious burning, 2 for 
rape, 2 for assault with intent to ravish, 9 for burglary, 8 for shop-breaking, 2 for robbery, 
2 for adultery. 5 convicts are colored and 2 are white females. The labor of a portion of 
the convicts is let by contract to be emidoyed in the wheelwright business, and that of an- 
other portion for shoemakiBg. Most of those not so employed make baskets. The cost of 
.« food" far each convia was 16.6 ceats per day. The cost of ck)thing was $8.94 per 
year for each convict. Since July 2; 1824, 1,305 prisoners have been received. Of these 
there have been discharged, by expiration of sentence 883, pardon 245, death 33, escape 11, 
removal to Insane Hospital 4, writ of error 1. There Is a library of TSfi volumes for the 
ase of the convicts. 

St€U Htform SehoeU This school is at Cape Elizahetb, and is under the superintend- 
ence of Seth ScaibmoB. The first boy was received November 14, 1853 ; from that day 
to Nov. 30, 1858, 489 inmates were received, and i293 were discharged. S62 were com- 
mitted for larceny, 3 for breaking uid entering witli felonious intent, 15 for shop-breaking, 
€8 as common runaways, 17 for truancy, 16 for assault, IS for malicious mischief, 54 
for vagrancy, 3 as common drunkards, and 1 as a common night-walker. 4S0 were re- 
iported. born in the United States, and of these 64 were of foreign parentage ; 69 were 
bom abroad. The maximum age for admission is 18 years. The Trustees and Su- 
perintendent recommend that it should be reduced to 16. The Superintendent renews the 
suggestion, ** that short terms of commitment are not for the good of the boy or the pros- 
perity of the institution." The shortest sentence was one year. Each boy is employed 
mx hours of eacb day at some mechanical, agricultural, or domestic labor« The farm 
connected with the school contains 160 acres. The cost of supporting each boy during 
the year is estimated to have been 10.75 cents a day. 

Indigtnt mndMotie Children, — The Legislature at its last session appropriated S 1,500 
for the support of this class of unfortunates, at any New England institution established 
fyt the training of such children. 



XIV. MARYLAND. 

Cc^MttUf Annapolis. Area, 11,000 sq. m. Population, 1850, 583,034. 

GovemmetUfor the Year 1860. 
Thomas H. Hicks, of Dorchester Co., Governor (term expires Salary. 
the 2d Wednesday in Jan., 1862), Use of a furnished house, and $ 3,600 

Term ends. 
JTanies R. Partridge, of Baltimore, Sec, of Slate, Jan. 1862, 1,000 

Dennis Claude, of Annapolis, Treasurer, Jan. 1860, 2,500 

Wm. H. Pumell, of Worcester Co., Compt. of Treas,, *« 1862, 2,500 
W. L. W. Seabrooky of Frederick, Commissioner of 

Land-Office, 1864, Fees &250 



200 
200 
200 



268 MABTLAND. [1860. 

TBtm ends. Sstery. 
Lewellyn Boyle, of Annapolis, StefeLtftmnan, April, 1861, $1,000 

Nathaniel Duke, of Calvert Co. ^ ^ . . j. « i:.- f 200 

. n 1 «^ » , ^ I Commissioner* of Pvbhc 

Lemuel Roberts, of a Anne s Co., I Works,fySup't BuUd^ ^ 
Henry R. Reynolds, of Baltimore, . ^^^ ^^^^^ 

Frederic Schley, of Frederick, J ^ 

Nicholas Brewer, ofino, Jidjutant-Generalj $506 

Lemuel Jones, of Howard Co., Keep. Ckane*y Ree,, March II, 1860, 1,000 
Philip T. Tyson, of Baltimore, State ^grieuU.Ckem., ** 3,000 

Otho Scott, of Harford Co^ ) CommissUmers to Revise 

Hiram McCullough, of Cecil Co., ) and Codify the Laws . 

The Governor is elected by the people for four years ; a Secretary of 
State is appointed by the Governor, by and with advice of the Senate, for 
the Governor's term, and removable by him ; the Comptroller is elected 
by the people for two years, and the Commissioner of the Land-Office for 
six years. The Treasurer and the State Librarian are chosen by the Leg- 
islature, by joint ballot, for two years; the Commissioners of Public 
Works, &c., are elected by the people for four years ; the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral is appointed by the Governor for six years. The State Reporter is 
appointed by the Judges of the Court of Appeals for four years. He re- 
ceives a salary of $ 500, and is entitled to the copyright of the Reports, 
and the State purchases 200 copies of each volume, at $ 5 each. Keeper 
of Chancery Records is elected by joint ballot of every Legislature for 
two years. The Commissioners to revise and codify the laws are appoint- 
ed by concurrent vote of two houses of Legislature. The State Agricul- 
tural Chemist is appointed by the Governor every two years. Senators, 
22 in number, are elected for four years, one half every two years ; Rep- 
resentatives, 74 in number, are elected for two years. The pay of Sena- 
tors and Representatives is $ 4 a day during the session, and 10 cents for 
every mile of travel, the presiding officer of each house to receive $ 5 per 
diem. The sessions of the Legislature are biennial. The next session 
will commence the first Wednesday (4th) in January, 1860. 

Judiciary. 
Court of Appeals, 

Elected. Term expires. Salary. 

John C. LeGrand, of Baltimore, 1851, Chief Justice^ 1861, $2,500 

Wm. H. Tuck, of Upper Marlboro, 1851, AssocuUe Justice, 1861, 2,500 

John B.Eccleston, of Chestertown, 1851, ^ 1861, 2,500 

James L. Bartol, of Baltimore, 1857, ^ 1867, 2^0 

William A. Spencer, of Annapolis, Clerk, 1862, Fees. 

Oliver Miller, of Annapolis, Reporter, Copyright and $ 500 

The judicial power of the State is vested in a Court of Appeals, and in 
Circuit Courts. The Court of Appeals has appellate jurisdiction only. Its 
judges, four in number, are elected from districts, by the voters therein, for 
ten years, unless they shall before reach the age of 70. They must be above 



1^6D»1 MABYLAND. 269 

30 years of age, citizens of the State at least five years, residents of the judi- 
cial districts from which they are elected, and have been admitted to practise 
in the State. The Court of Appeals appoints its own clerk, to hold office 
for six years, and may reappoint him at the end of that time. When any 
judge of any court is interested in a case, or connected with any of the par- 
ties by affinity or consanguinity within the proscribed degrees, the Gover- 
nor may commission the requisite number of persons, learned in the law, 
for the trial and determination of the case. The Governor, with the advice 
and consent of the Senate, designates one of the four jjidges as chief jus- 
tice. The office of Attorney-General is abolished by the new Constitution. 

Judges of the Circuit Courts. 



Circuit. 


Elected. 


Term ftxpirea. 


. Salary. 


1. 


Peter W. Crain, 


of Port Tobacco, 1851 


1861 


$2,000 


2. 


Nicholas Brewer, 


of Annapolis, 1851 


1861 


2,000 


3. 


Madison Nelson, 


of Frederic City, 1851 


1861 


2,000 


4. 


Thomas Perry, 


of Cumberland, 1851 


1861 


2,000 


6. 


John H. Price, 


of Harford Co., 1855 


1865 


2,000 


7. 


Rich. B. Carmichael, 


of Queen Anne's Co., 1859 


1869 


2,000 


8. 


Thomas A. Spence, 


of Worcester Co., 1855 


1865 


2,000 



The fiilh Circuit comprises the city of Baltimore. The judges of that 
Circuit, all of whom reside in Baltimore, are : — 

Elected. Term expires. Salary. 
Robert N. Martin,* Judge of Superior Courts 1855 1861 $2,500 

Vf\\\\2LaiGeo.KTehf^Judge of Circuit Courts 1853 1863 2,500 

Wm. L. Marshall, Judge of Court of Com. Pleas, 1851 1861 2,500 

Henry Stump, Judge of CriminalCourt, 1851 1861 2,000 

Milton Whitney, of Baltimore, State Attorney, 1859 1864 Fees to 3,000 

The State is divided into eight judicial circuits, each of which elects a 
judge of the Circuit Court, to hold office for ten years. The qualifications 
of the judges are the same as those of the Court of Appeals, except that 
they must be citizens of the United States, and residents for two years in 
their judicial district There is in the city of Baltimore a Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, with jurisdiction in civil cases between $ 100 and $ 500, and 
exclusive jurisdiction in appeals from justices of the peace in that city ; and 
a Superior Court, with jurisdiction in cases over $ 500. Each of these 
courts consists of one judge, elected by the people for ten years. There is 
also a Criminal Court, consisting of one judge, elected for ten years. Clerks 
of the Circuit Courts in each county, and of the Baltimore courts, are 
chosen for six years, and are re-eligible. 

Each county, and Baltimore city, elect three persons as Judges of the 
Orphans' Court, to hold office for four years ; a Register of Wills, for six 
years ; Justices of the Peace, a Sheriff, and Constables, for two years. 
Attorneys for the Commonwealth are chosen in each county by the people, 
for four years. 

* Appointed by the Governor, viee Z. Collins Lee, deceased, to hold office ontil the 
genera] election in November, 1861. 

23* 



270 



MABYLAKD. 



[1860. 



FiVAKCXS. 

The receipts Into Treasury for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1869 (exclusire of balance in 
Treasury, Sept. 90, 185^, •1,200,662.77. The disbursements for the year, including the 
amounts for redemption of State debt, were • 1,129,369.69. The balanca in the Treasury, 
Sept. 30, 1869, was •613429116. 
The whole nominal Stau debt, Sept. 30, 1869, was . . . . . . •14,821,473 

The Sinking Fund, repreaentin?, in feet, extinguished debt, the 

investment being eolriy in Maryland State stocic, amounts to $4,682,975 
This is included in the amount of tlie nominal State debt, given above. 
Also included in tlie nominal State debt above are the Tobacco loans, 

the interest of which is paid out of Uie proceeds of inspections, 

and loans on account of railroad companies, the interest of which 

is paid by those companies, or out of the State's receipts from 

those companies, representing in all a principal of, say . 4,100,000 

Other productive capital of the State, consisting of bank stoclui, 

railroad stocks and boada, paying dividends or interest, sums due 

from collectore, &c., considering tlie revenue derived from tliem, 

may now be estimated at, say 6,400,000 14,062,975 

TIm Sinking Fund is treated as part of the State debt, and the interest on it is paid out 
of the proceeds of taxation, Wdd applied to purchasing State stoclcs and bonds, to increase 
furtlier the capital of ttiat fund. All surpluses in the T^wisury are applicable to the increase 
of the Sinking Fund. The increase of the Sinking Fund in the last year wm • 369,701. 

The State direct tax Is now 10 cents in every • 100. The unproductive im>perty of the 
State amounts to something more than $ 14,000,000, and consists of stocks, bonds, arreara of 
interest, uncollected taxes, &c., the greater part of which is considered desperate. The as- 
sessed value of real and personal property (1868), was # 266,447,688. The School Fund, Sept. 
30, 1869, was •327,263. 

The im>visions of the new Constitution in regard to the State's incurring new debts ue as 
follows : — " No debt shall be contrasted exceeding f 100,000, nor unless the act creating it 
shall provide for a tax su£Bcient to pay the interest as it fhlls due, and the principal in flf 
teen yearn. Such taxes shall not be repealed or applied to any other purpose. The credit 
of the State shall never be given or lent, nor shall the State be in any way concerned in 
internal improvements. The moneys levied to pay the public debt shall never be diverted 
until the debt is paid, or until the sinking fund equals the ontetanding debt." 

Detail o/Reeeiptt and Expendituret for the Year ending ZOlh September^ 1868. 



C^itf Sources of Income. 
Auction duties, . . . . •14,121.73 
Bank dividends, .... 37,766.36 
B. and O. Bailroad Co. ^ receipts 

frompassengenon Washington 

Branch Road, .... 
Do. interest on dividend and ster* 

ling bonds, .... 
Tkxes, direct and specific, all kinds, 360,327.86 
Live stock scales, in Baltimore, 7,616.70 
Lotteries, 61,000.00 



Judiciary, $36^.93 

Legislature, .... 69,386.32 
Public printinc^ .... 3,706.00 
Sinking Fund, BO much traoBlerred, 19,312.49 
Surplus revenue, " '* 34,069.36 

Pensions, 2^246.33 

Colleges, academies, and schools, 21,750.00 
31,162.60{Penltentiary, .... 
House of Refuge, 
Hospital for the Insane, 
Militia, 



34,396.02 



State tobacco inspections, Baltimore, 27,435.87 State Colonization Society, 



Licenses of all kinds, . . . 273,035.06 

Road stock, for dividends, 60,236.00 

Susquehannah and T. W. Canal 

Companies, 17,325.00 

Principal Jtenu of Expenditure. 

Interest on public debt, . . • 665,405. 12 

^ivil officers, .... 19,10611 



Indigent deaf and dumb, . 

State tobacco inspections, . 

Contingent fund for libcaiy, 

Library, increase of, 

Mayor and CityCouncil of Baltlmoi«, 16,612.79 

Redemption State Stock, . . 8,700.00 

Special appropriisttlons. 



38,|OOOjOO 
10^000.00 

is.6oaoo 

1,261.66 
6,00Oj00 
2,363.82 
21,56a43 
998.06 
128.00 



1S60.3 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



271 



Banks. —For the condition of the banJce in Maryland, in January^ 1859, see the table, 
antef p. 220. 

Statt Penitentiary. -^ November 30, 1856, there were in confinement, 407 prisonen ; re- 
ceived during the year, 133; in all, 646i Discharged during the year by expiration of sen* 
tencej 102; by pardon, 16 ; by death, 12 ; in idl, 130; leaving in prison November 30, 1867, 
415. The average number during the year was 413. Of those received during the year, 
78 were white males and 47 colored males ; 1 white and 12 colored females. Of the 415 in 
prison, 390 were first-comers, 18 second-comers, 3 third-comers, 3 iburth-comers, and 1 far 
the eighth time. 193 were sentenced for stealing ; 34 for murder in 2d degree ; 13 for man- 
slaughter; 36 for assault with Intent to kill; 19 for burglary; 14 for horse-stealing; and 
19 lor arson. 322 were Americans, and 93 foreigners, of whom 52 were natives of Germany, 
31 of Ireland, and 7 of England. Among the 322 Americans are included 180 ccdoced per- 
sons. During the year the north wing of the building, where manuftcturing was carried 
on, was set on fire by two of the convicts and burned, but is now rebuilt. The expenses of 
supporting the institution are about $50,000 annually. The convicts earn something, being 
employed in spinning, weaving, and other manufocturing business. The prison buildings 
appear to be entirely insufficient and unfit for the purposes of a proper prison. The pass- 
aUe single cells number only 256, and yet there are 416 convicts. 



XV. MASSACHUSETTS. 

Capital, Boston. Area, 7,800 sq. m. Population^ 1855, 1,132,369. 

ChvernmaU for the Year ending the 1st Wednesday in January, 1861. 

Term ends. Salary. 
Nathaniel P. Bakxs, of Waltham, Governor, Jan. 1861, $3,500 



Eliphalet Trask, 
Oliver Warner, 
Moses Ten nay, 
Charles White, 
Stephen H. Phillips, 



u 



of Springfield, lAeutenant- Governor ^ 

of Northampton, Secretary, 

of Georgetown, TVeas. fy Receiver- Gen., " 

of Worcester, 

of Salem, 



(C 



tt 



It 



*600 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,500 



George S. Boutwell, of Groton, 



Charles L. Flint, 
Ebenezer W. Stone^ 
Edward Hamilton, 
John Morrisey, 
Charles W. Lovett, 
Daniel H. Rogers, 
Charles A. Phelps,f 
Charles Hale,t 
Stephen N. Giffordt^ 
William Stowe,t 



of Boston, 
of Roxbury, 
of Roxbury, 
of Plymouth , 
of Boston, 
of Kingston, 
of Boston, 
of Boston, 
of Duxbury, 
of Springfield, 



Auditor, 
Attorney- General, 

[and $1,000 for clerk hire. 
Sec, of Board of Education 

and Slate Librarian, 1,900 

Sec, Board of Agriculture, 2,000 
Jldj.-Gen. ^ Quartermaster, 1,800 
Supt, Mien Passengers, 2,000 

Sergeant at Arms, 
1st Clerk, Sec. ofStaU's Cffice, 1,500 
1st Clerk, Treasurer's Office, 1,500 
Preset of th^ Senate, $ 600 per ses. 
^eaker of House of Rep, ^ " 
Clerk of Senate, $ 2,000 

Clerk of House, 



cc 



EXXOITTIYE COVVCIL. 

The State is divided into eight Districts, in each of which one Ooaneillar is elected annu- 
ally. The pay of the Oonncillors is $900 for the regular annual session of their board, and 
$3 a day for any subsequent session, and $2 for every 10 miles of traveL 

• This is for the regular annual Session of the Executive Council. For attendance at 
any subsequent session he has $ 6 a day . He also receives $ 2 for every ten miles of travel, 
t Officers at the session of 1858. 



272 



MA88ACHUSSTT0. 



[1860. 



CQuneiUor9 /br the Ysar 1859. 



IsU Name. 


Residenca. 


DIst. Name. 


Beaidanca. 


1. Jacob Seepff, 


Boaton. 


6. Lyman Dimmock, 


Weatfiald. 


S. John J. Bakar, 


Bevarlj. 


6. Aaron C. Maybew, 


Milfoxd. 


a JaoMa M. Bhuta, 


Somanrilla. 


7. Job. McK. Ghuichill, 


Maton. 


4. Hugh W. Oraena, 


Nortbfield. 


& C. F. Swift, 


Yarmoath. 



The Senatorial Dlatrlcta are 40 in number, and each Diatrict electa a aingle Senator. Fok 
the Diatrlcta, aee the American Almanac for 1858, pp. 240, 241. The number of Bepresentii!- 
tiTea ia 240, elected either from single diatricta, or from diatricta that elect two or three 
Repreaentatirea. The apportionment of Repreaentatlrea among the GoottUea la aa Ibl* 
Iowa : — 

Goanty. No. 

Franklin, ... 8 

Hampden, . . 13 

Hampshire, . . 8 

Middlesex, . . 39 

Nantucket, . . S 



OOQlltf. 

Barnstable, . 
Berkshire, 
Bristol, 
Dukes, 



No, 

9 
11 
SO 

1 
33 



Ooanty. 
Norfolk,* . 
Plymouth,* 
Suffolk, 
Worcester, 

Total, . 



Na. 

30 

16 



J4 
.940 



The pay of Senators and RepresentatlTes Is $ 300 for the regular anniial seasSon to 
which the member is elected, and $ 1 for every five miles of travel, each way ; payablo, 
the mileage on the first day of such aesaion, and the residue on the first of each month 
afterwarda, at the rate of $2 a day, until the $300 are paid. If there ia any balance 
due at the end of such session, it ia then paid. $ 3 ia deducted for each day*8 abaenee, 
unless the abaence is excused by the house of which he is a member. The Preaident 
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House have each $600 for the session. An extra 
(adjourned) session of the Legislature was held in the fall of 1859, to act upon the re- 
vision of the statutes. 

Judiciary. 

The Legislature of 1859 establiBhed a new court for hearing and deter- 
mining questions of law, called " The Supreme Judicial Court lor the 
Commonwealth.*' The judges are the same as the judges of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, and they appoint a clerk lor five jears. George C. Wilde, 
of Boston, now acts as clerk. This court holds a term in Berkshire, 
Hampshire (for Hampshire and Franklin), Hampden and Worcester, and 
in Suffolk for Suffolk and ail the remaining counties. The same Legislatare 
abolished the Court of Common Pleas and the Superior Court for the 
County of Suffolk, and the Municipal Court, and established in their stead 
the ** Superior Court," consisting of a Chief Justice and nine Justices. Att 
judges in the State are appointed by the Governor, with the advice and 
consent of the Council, and hold office during good behavior. The Su- 
preme Judicial Court has exclusive cognizance of all capital crimes and 
exclusive chancery jurisdiction, so far as chancery powers are given by 
statute, and concurrent original jurisdiction of all civil cases where the 
amount in dispute exceeds $4,000 in Suffolk and $ 1,000 in other counties. 
It holds each year two nisi pritu terms in Suffolk, on the first Tuesdays 
of April and October, and one nisi prius term in each of the other coun- 
ties, except Dukes, which is attached to Barnstable. The Superior Court 
is held for the trial of civil cases above $20, and has criminal jurisdic- 
tion in all except capital cases. Frequent terms are held in every 
county. The district attorneys are elected in the several districts for three 



* Cohasset is, in this apportionment, included in Pljmonlh County. 



I860.] MASSACHUSETTS. 273 

years. The assistant attorney in Suflblk is appointed by the GoTernor. 
Justices of the peace have jurisdiction in civil cases under $ 100, with the 
right of either party in cases over $20 to call in a jury of six, when all the 
parties to the suit file a written waiver of all right of appeal from the judg- 
ment of the justice on the verdict of the jury ; and a right, in all other cases, 
of appeal to the Superior Court. In criminal cases justices of the peace 
have a limited jurisdiction to receive complaints and issue warrants, but 
only certain designated justices can try criminal cases. It is provided by 
statute that the number of such " designated *' justices in the State shall 
not exceed 167 at any one time. In those places where the justices of 
the Police Court on stated days hold a ** Justices* Court,'* justice's of the 
peace cannot generally try causes. In Boston, a ** Justices' Court " is 
held every Saturday. The jurisdiction of these courts is like that of jus* 
tices of the peace, except in Suffolk County, where the jurisdiction extends 
to $300. 

Supreine Judicial Court, 

Lemuel Shaw, of Boston, Chief Justice, 

Charles A. Dewey, of Northampton, Justice, 

Theron Metcalf, of Boston, *« 

Geo. Tyler Bigelow, of Boston, " 

Pliny Merrick, of Worcester, " 

Eben. Rock wood Hoar, of Concord, *' 

Horace Gray, Jr., of Boston, Reporter, $ 300 and proceeds of Rep'ts. 

Superior Court 

Appointed. Salary. 



Appointed. 


Salary. 


1830, 


$4,500 


1837, 


4,000 


1848, 


4,000 


1850, 


4,000 


1853, 


4,000 


1859, 


4,000 



Charles Allen, 


of Worcester, 


Chief Justice, 


1859, 


$ 3,700 


Julius Rockwell, 


ofPittsfield, 


Justice, 


1859, 


3,500 


Otis P. Lord, 


of Salem, 


C( 


1859, 


3,500 


Marcus Morton, jr., 


of Andover, 


i< 


1859, 


3,500 


Ezra Wilkinson, 


of Dedham, 


« 


1859, 


3,500 


Henry Vose, 


of Springfield, 


<c 


1859, 


3,500 


Seth Ames, 


of Cambridge, 


(( 


1859, 


3,500 


Thomas Russell, 


of Boston, 


u 


1859, 


3,500 


John Phelps Putnam, 


of Boston, 


(C 


1859, 


3,500 


Lincoln F. Brigham, 


of New Bedford, 


« 


1859, 


3,500 



Police Court of Boston. 

John G. Rogers, Sebeus C. Maine, and Geo. D. Wells, Justices, salary, 
$2,200 each. Thomas Power, Clerk, salary, $ 1,800. 

Courts of Probate and Insolvency, 

The Legislature ia 1SS8 united the Court of Probate and the Court of Insolvency. The 
judges of this court are appointed like other judges, and exercise the jurisdiction of the 
former Judges of probate and of insolvency. For probate purpoees, frequent courts are held 
at different phices by the judge in the various counties ; and they are so held for inaol- 
rency matters. A Register of Probate and Insolvency is elected by the voters of each 
county for a term of fire yean. There is an assistant Register in the counties of Suffolk 



274 



MABSAOHirSBTTS. 



(salary •i|600), MtddlweXi Worcester, (each 91,000,) 
for three years, subject to be sooner removed by the Judge, 



($80Q>, «nd Norlblk ($60Q), 



Counties. 



Barnstable, 

Berkshire, 

Bristol, 

Dukes, 

Edsex, 

PninkUn, 

Hampden, 

Hampshire, 

Middlesez, 

Nantucket, 

Norfolk, 

Plymouth, 

Suflfolk, 

Worcester, 



Judges. 



Joseph M. Day, 
Jas. T. Robinson, 
E. H. Benneu, 
T. G. Mttvhew, 
Geo. F. Choate, 
Charles Mattoon, 
John Wells, 
Sam'l F. Lyman, 
W.A. Richardson, 
Edw. M. Gardner, 
George White, 
Wm. H. Wood, 
Isaac Ames, 
Henry Chapin, 



Residence. 


Salary. 


Barnstable, 


$700 


Adams, 


800 


Taunton. 


1,100 


EdgartowQ, 


2.W 


Salem, 


1,500 


Greenfield, 


600 


Chicopee, 


800 


Northampu 


650 


Lowell, 


3,000 


Nantucket, 


300 


Quincy, 


1,400 


Middleboto', 


1,000 


Boston, 


3,000 


Worcester, 


1,800 



Registers. 

Jona. Higgins, 
A. J. Waterman, 
John Daggett, 
Hebron Vincent, 
Abn. C. Goodell, 
C. J. J. IngersoU, 
W. S. Shurtleff, 
Luke Lyman, 
Joseph H. Tyler, 
Wm. Barney, 
Jona. H. Cobb, 
Dan. £. Damon, 
Wm. C. Brown, 
John J. Piper, 



Residence. 


Salary. 


Orleans, 


t700 


Lenox, 


800 


Aitleborougrh, 


1,300 


Edgartown, 


350 


Lynn, 


1,500 


Greenfield, 


700 


Springfield, 
Nortiiampton, 


800 


750 


E. Cambridge, 


1,500 


Nantucket, 


300 


Dedham, 


1,000 


South Scltuate, 


1,000 


Chelsea, 


3,000 


Fitchburg, 


1,600 



District Attorneys in the Several Districts, 



District. Attorney. Residence. Salary. 
North., Isaac S. Morse, Lowell, S 1,200 

South., Geo. Marston, Barnstable, 1,200 
East., A. A. Abbott, Danvers, 1,200 

S. East., B. W. Harris, E.Bridgewater, 1,200 
Middle, P. E. Aldrich, Worcester, 1,200 

The terms of the. Attorneys expire January, 1863. 

Sheriffs and Clerks of the Court in the Several Counties. 



District. Attorney. Residence. Sdary. 
West., Edw. B. Gillett, Westfield, $1,200 
N.West., Dan. W. Alvord, Greenfield, 1,000 
Suffolk, Geow W. Oooley, Bostoo, 3^000 
A. O. Brewster, JsX., Boston, 1^800 



(( 



Counties. Sheriff^. Residence. 

Barnstable, Charles C. Bearse, Barnstable. 

Berkshire, Graham A. Root, Sheffield. . 

Bristol, George H. Babbitt, Taunton. 

Dukes, Isaiah D. Pease, Edgartown. 

Essex, James Gary, Lawrence. 

Franklin, Samuel H. Reed, Greenfield. 

Hampden, Frederick Bush, Westfield. 

Hampshire, Henry A. Longley, Belchertown. 

Middlesex, Charles Kimball, Winchester. 

Nantuclcet, Uriah Gardner, Nantucket. 

Norfolk, John W. Thomas, Dedham. 

Plymouth, James Bates, 

Suflblk, John M. dark, 

Worcester, J. S. C. Knowlton, 



Clerks. Residence. 

Frederick W. Crocker, BamsUble. 



Henry W. Till, 
John S. Brayton, 
Richard L. Pease, 
Asahel Huntington, 
George Grennell, 
George B. Morris, 
Stouiel Wells, 
Benjamin F. Ham, 
George Cobb, 



Lenox. 

Fall RiTer. 

Edgartown. 

Salem. 

Greenfidd. 

Springfield. 

NocthamiitOB. 

Natiek. 

Nantucket. 

Dedham. 

Plymoutli. 

Boatoiu 

Woreasiw. 



Ezra W. Sampeon, 
E. Bridgewater. Wm. H. Whitman, 
Boston. George C. WUde, 

Worcester. Joseph Mason, 

Sheriff are elected for three yean, and Clerks for five years. They ara paid by fees. The 
Clerks are the clerks both of the Supreme Court and Common Pleas. Their term expires in 
January, 1862; that of the Sherifis and District Attorneys In January, 1863. 

FlITANCXS. 

Received hito the Treasury during the year ending December Slst, 1868, on 

account of ordinary revenue, including State Tax, $1,311,423.78 

Received on all other accounts (including $405,000.00 temporary loans, bor- 
rowed in anticipation of the revenue), 1,123,714.74 

Total receipts, $2,435,138.58 

Add cash on hand, January 1st, 1858, 110,196.17 

Total means, $2,545,334.69 

The entire payments during the year on accountof ordinary expenditures were $ 1,^247,131.31 
On all other accounts, including $611,500 temporary loans repaid, . . 1,101,356.10 

Total payments, ; $ 2,348.487.41 

Excess of means for 1868, being cash on hand, January 1st, 1869, $196,S47.5fi 



I860.] 



MASSAOHtJMBTTB. 



279 



Of itai&r •13,788.09 is borrowed on aceoant of ordinary reTCOuei in anticipatkm of nve- 
nue, &c., and $183,059.19 on account of the achool and other ftiada, lailroad acrip, and 
the Back Bay Lands. 



Principal Items of Expenditure. 

Couacillors, .... $7,644.00 

Legislature, 96,173.94 

Execative and Judiciary, . 116,810.58 

District Attorneys' salaries, . . 10,048.51 

Adj'nt and Q. M. General's Dep't, 4,169.42 

Expenses of the Militia, . . 68,619.60 

Repairs, fuel, &c. for Sute-House, 9,068,64 

Stationery, 4,374.18 

State Library, .... 2,635.00 

Agent for discharged convicts, . 1,000.00 

Coroners' inquests, . . . 1,120.74 

Arrest of fugilires from justice, 833.73 
Asylum ibr the Blind, 

" " Deaf and Dumb, 
Eye and Ear Infirmary, 
Lunatic Hospital at W<}rcester, 

Lunatic Hospital at Taunton, . 3,226.00 

Northampton Lunatic Hospital, . 69,600.00 

School for Idiots, . . . 7,600.00 

Pensioners, 770.00 

Expenses State Reform School, . 44,000.00 

Industrial School for Girls, . . 9,000.00 
Bank and Insurance Commissioners, 10,463.98 

Alien and Pauper Commissioners, 7,869.29 

State printing, . . . . 19,318.78 

Newspapers, .... 3,061.79 

Term Reports, .... 962.60 

Sute Prison expenses, . 15,000.00 



County Treasurers, f crim. costs, $286,075.16 
State paupers, .... 67,507.74 
Expenses Sute Almshouses, 162,267.10 

Indemnity to officers, . . 231.73 

Interest on temporary loans, . 22,174.64 
Temporary loans repaid, . . 611,600.00 
Interest on scrip, . . . 70,290.00 
Index and Journals, . . . 12,616.36 
New Pljr mouth Records, . . 8,919.64 
State Board of Agriculture, . 3,079.47 

Agricultural Societies, bounty, 11,814.40 

Courts oflnsolvency, . . 20,646.18 
Alien Passengers, . . . 11,026.64 

12,000.00lSchooI and other funds, . 272,136.05 

7,844. 10 State scrip, .... 200,391.67 

17,329.38 



Slate scrip, 

2,600.00|Back Bay lands, 

3,250.00 

Chief Sourcee of Jne&nw. 

Bank tax, $606,100.06 

Insurance tax, .... 2,661.81 

Alien passengers, . . . 14,795.37 

Alien estates, .... 313.13 

Interest on deposits, . . . 1,828.06 

Western Railroad dividends, . 66,448.00 

Temporary loans, . . . 405,000.00 

School and other Funds, . . 482,612.04 

Scrip lent to railroads, . . 204,166.67 

Back Bay lands, . . 31,936.03 

State tax, 678,233.63 

State Prison indebtedness, . . 21,169.04 

The funded debt of Massachusetts, on its own account, was, 1st January, 1869, $ 1,314,000 00 

Temporary loans, and sums due and unpaid, 136,419.43 

Liability of the Commonwealth for scrip loaned to the various raihroads, . 4,999,466 56 

Total absolute and contingent debt, $6,448,874.99 

The value of the productive property of the Commonwealth, January 1st, 1859, 
consisting of notes, mortgages, stocks and scrip, the Western Railroad 

Sinking Fund, School Fund, Indian Funds, &.C., $6,484,671.40 

Real estate, &c. unproductive, 3,060,677.71 

Mortgages on the various railroads, 4,999,455 66 

Total property of the Commonwealth, $ 13,664,804.67 

Toul liabilities, 6,448.874 99 

Excess of resources over liabilities, $7,115,929.68 

For a Tkble of Receipts and Expenditures in detail, from 1834 to 1853 inclusive, see 
American Almanac for 1866, page 232. 

Jtutitutionafor Savings on the last Saturilay in October^ 1868. — In the 86 institutions 
that made returns, there were 182,655 depositors, and $ 33,914,971 71 deposits ; $ 12,6I4,> 
706.61 were loaned on mortgages i $ 3,363,989.83 to counties or towns ; $ 7,761,265.74 on per- 
sonal security; $6,611,431 94 were invested in bank stock; $ 104,363.76 in railroad stock; 
S 207,190.35 in real estate; and $1,089,977.14 in public funds. The average dividend 
for the year was 6.06 per cent. The average annual per cent of dividends of the last fire 
yean is 6.74 per cent. The whole expense of managing these 86 Savings Banks was 
$ 105,338.8a The above includee the returns of 20 Five-Cent Savings Banks. 



iU MASSACSUeSTTS. [186t>. 

AMti. — TbB buka In Btalon in nqnind to npoRwgeklr Ihair condltloB la O* 
SecnUiT of SUM in Ui» puticiiUn In tlw bsidingi of the coluiDDa in thn ubl« pfTui 
Iwlow, snd IliB» nporta in pubilBhad vmkJy. Tta« banks ont of Beaton repon, and 
IhaiT npona ua publiihad, nioDthir. Bslow, Ibe condition nf Iba binki neat tha Ont of 
aacb month la ^van, ftom Daiembat, 1853, tba lime of iho reponi publlabed in (hsAmar- 
lein Almmic for IB59 (page 94D), to NoTsmbcr, 1839. 

Biatkt in Bo*tim. 



^^- i&Z X,*." 




lo"? 3, \33^xouij}e»^m\ 




,3X1,800 57,67k91^ 9 J«4,7 1 6\ 
,_303,3aa «U>B»,4MkS18,™' 
33,3ai,Tay,S»,I10,142 e^i4, 
33^i,7D(Mbn,ki r *°* 

33,mi,nM5B,0St^l,.... , 

bsjm ,iwterAx>fi^ 8,738,334 

36. 1 1 G,733;s9/ti7,93.'> 6.43n,3M 

|ll»,433;S8^J,991 .,.__,_ _, 
■ "'i,700|58,735,B3fl, S, 1 95,i97| 



8,813,337 

lareftiss 

9,808,14e 



,^l,34S 7,1«,TM 
_a67^BlMil34 
aO,8«&8aQi&SI4,5!6 



ao,718J77i7,«B,818 
iUJ) 1 7, I47j 6,935,^1 
18^33.821 " ~" ""' 



Baala ovt of Bottm. 



ipajilaa ocfin- 
IB of which 



Ized, wlthicipltalDri9,7T?,600, of wblch |fl,SOS,SS3.70 nas paid in 
/uimjuB Jtifracl/sr ISSS. — Numbai of atork oificaa in iba Sti 
wan in Boilon. Cipilit actually paid in, t S,3S1,1IXI. Atnoont of liak, Nov. I, I 
t9n3713,TT9, 1laing«133,854,S4] Bra hika, and 170,358,938 nuina riaka. The k 

riakt, • 9,1^3^ ; In all, «S,S76,SS0. Nunbar of mutunl marina and muluil Rn 
marina companiaa, 14, of which 6 ixtn in Boston. Amonnl il riak, Nov. I, 1 
% 59,630,147 \ being on mulne riaka, ( 40,840,173 ; on fin riaka, % 9,991,974. LoiMi 
durbig tbs ainui tinu, «9,sai,S09. bging t I4,!38on Are tiaiis, ind • 3,1»7,371 on mi 



.a paid dari 



p.nelei,OT.H 7,000,000. Tl 
liaka waa « 33,898,751. Tha 
I wu (T7e,03Si t»4,951 a 



a, Nov. 1, 1858, 1 17,403,714 ; imount lonind 
It insimd bjr 40 hinitn lecnciai on fin 
if premtuma received bf foTBign Ifinn 
Id mirina riaka, and « 431,084 oa Hfc 



18^0.] MASSACHUSETTS. 277 

riskfl. Anioitiit of State tax received from such companies, $9,587. Tiie Insurance 
Commieaioners have made a very full report, and liave printed full and carefully pre- 
pared abstracts of the returns of the various companies. 

Scholia for 18^. — IHumber of towns in the State, 3^ ; number that made returns, 331. 
The towns raise by taxation for the support of schools, for wages, board, and fuel, 
# 1,341,253. Aggregate raised and appropriated, except for erecting and repairing school- 
houses, $ 1,474«489. Number of children in the State from 5 to 15 years old, 223,304. 
Number that attend school under 5 years, 12,870 } over 15 years, 16,894. Number of public 
schools in the State, 4,421. Number of teachers in summer, males 383, females 4,510 j num- 
ber in winter, males 1,598, females 3,482; different teachers during the year, males 1,691, 
females 5,493l Number of scholars in summer schools, 199,792. Number in winter schools, 
213,198. Average attendance in summer, 154,642 ; in winter, 175,526. Ratio of attend- 
ance to whole number of children between 5 and 15, .74. Average length of the schools, 
7 months and 13 days. Average wages per month, inclusive of board, paid to male teach- 
«rB, $49.87; do. to female teachers, $19.63. Amount of School Fund, December 31st, 
1858, $ 1,522,898.00. From the mterest of this fund about $ 48,000 are distributed annu- 
ally among the towns for the support of schools ; but to entitle a town to receive a portion 
therebf, it must raise by tax, fw school purposes, at least $ 1.50 for each child in the town 
between 5 and 15. The amount raised by taxes (including income of surplus revenue) 
was $ 6.04 for each child between 5 and 15. There were 70 incorporated academies re- 
p<nted is the State, with an average of 4,338 pupils, and an aggregate of $84,401 paid 
for tuitt<m ; also, 673 unincorporated academies, private schools, &;c., with an estimated 
average attendance of 18,044 scholars, and an estimated aggregate of $374,120 paid for 
tuition. Amount expended in 1856 to promote p<^ular education, including Normal 
Schools, Teachers* Institutes, and the cost of repairing and erecting school edifices, but 
excluding cost of school-books and collegiate and professional instruction, and in char- 
itable institutions, $2,846,909.76. T-here are local funds for the support of academies, 
&c to the amount of about $ 650,000, yielding an income of about $ 35,000. There 
are four Normal Schools supported by the State, at an annual cost of about $ 13,500, 
— one at Westfield and one at Bridgewater for both sexes, and one at Fraroingham and 
at Salem for girls. There were in these schools, in 1858, 531 pupils, 108 males and 
423 females. Since the opening of the first State Normal ScIkioI, July 3, 1839, at Lexing- 
ton, Mass. (the school now at Framingham), there have been to December, 1858, 4,065 
pupils in attendance (3,171 females and 894 males), and of these 2,055 graduated. 113 
pupils at the Normal Schools received State aid this year. Ten Teachera* Institntes were 
held during the year, attended by an average number of 153 teachers, at an expense of 
$350 for each Institute. Of the 1,533 persons enrolled as members, 609 were emidoyed 
as teachers. Teachers' Associations have been formed in most of the counties of the 
State. The State aIlow<i $ 50 to each Association that holds each year two semiannual 
meetings of not less than two days each. 

The Board of Education consists of the €k>vemor and Lieutenant-Governor, and eight 
members, one being appointed each year by the Governor and Council for eight years. 
There is a Secretary of the Board, who has an assistant, and who is the executive ofilcer of 
the Board. Provision is made by law for the education and training of young men to be 
principal teachers in the high schools in the Commonwealth, by establishing 48 State 
scholarships in the colleges of the State, and paying $ 100 annually to each. These 
scholarships are now filled, and their establishment has given a quickening impulse to 
the schools throughout the State. The report of the Secretary (22d report of the Board) 
gives the history of the School Fund of Massachusetts, and also a large correspondence 
with the town committees, tending to show the value of the Normal Schools as a means 
of educating teachers. 

Perkins Institution and Massetehttsetts Asylum for the Blind, — The number of blind per- 
sons connected with the institution January I, 1858, was 114; received up to Sept. 30t 
1858, 15; discharged, 15; leaving, Sept. 30, 1858, 114. Of these 89 are resident at the 
household, and 95 are connected with the work department 30 are beneficiaries tnm. 

24 



278 MASSACHUSETTS. [1860. 

the other New England States ; the rest are beneficiaiiee of Maesachueetts. Young 
blind persons of good moral character can be admitted to the school on paying |200 per 
annum, which covers all expenses except for clothing. Indigent blind persons, of suitar 
ble age and character, belonging to Massachusetts, can be admitted gratuitously upon 
application to the Governor for a warrant. An obligation is required from some respon- 
sible person that the pupil shall be removed without expense to the institution, whenever 
it may be desirable to discharge him. Indigent blind persons residing in other New Eng- 
land States should apply to the Secretary of State in their own State. The usual period 
of tuition is from five to seven years. The State makes an annual grant to this institn- 
tion of $ 1Q,000. 

State Lunatic Hospital, Worcester. — Merrick Bemis, M. D., Superintendent. The 
Hospital was opened for patients January 18, 1833. Number of patients, December 1st, 
1857, 373, — 177 males, 195 females ; admitted during the year, 307, — 142 males, 166 fe- 
malee; under treatment during the year, 679, — 319 males, 360 females; discharged, 376, 
— 180 males, 196 females; remaining in the Hospital, September 30th, 1856, 301,-141 
males, 160 females. Of those admitted during the year, 151 (79 males, 72 females) wero 
committed by the courts, and 22 (10 males, 12 females) by overseers of the poor. 136 ibr- 
eigners (1. e. persons having no legai residence or settlement in the State), of whom 53 were 
males and 83 females, were admitted. 86 foreigners (33 males, 63 females) remained in the 
Hospital at the end of the year. Of the 376 patients discharged, 127 were recovered, 174 im- 
proved, 41 not improved, and 34 died. Supposed cause of insanity of some of those admit- 
ted since the opening of the Hospital : — ill health, 651 ; intemperance, 472 ; domestic afflic- 
tion, 383; epilepsy, 115; puerperal, 141; jealousy, 40; masturbation, 260; hard labor, 79; 
raligious excitement, 289; Millerism 10; spiritualism, 25; fear of poverty, 39. Since the 
opening of the Hospital, 639 — 329 males, 310 females — have died. The principal diseases 
have been: — Marasmus, 92; consumption, 83 } exhaustion, 70 ; epilepsy, 62; palsy, 29; 
apoplexy, 23; old age, 23 ; suicide, 21. The occupations of some of those admitted were as 
follows : — Housekeepers, 994 ; farmers, 450; laborers, 322; seamstresses, 312; shoemakers, 
195; housemaids, 134 ; operatives in mill, 173; merchants, 111; sailors, 97; Uacksmiths, 
34 ; teachers, 50 ; clergymen, 18. Their ages were — under 15, 43, between 15 and 20, 382; 
between 20 and 30, 1,572; between 30 and 40, 1,451 ; between 40 and 50, 1,189; between 50 
and 60, 669 ; between 60 and 70, 323 ; between 70 and 80, 101 ; over 80, 21. 2,782 were un- 
married, 2,430 were married, 135 were widowers, and 343 widows. 3,247 were insane less 
than one year before tlieir admission, 613 more than one year and less than two yean; 48 
had been insane for more than thirty years. The Hospital is full with 276 patients, but by 
crowding can accommodate 306. There is a small farm connected with the Hospital, which 
gives the patients opportunities for recreation and labor. Steam ie used for warming the 
building, and ventilation is forced by mechanical power. The plan adopted has been in op- 
eration two years, and has accomplished its work in the most thorough and soccessfol 
manner at a reasonable expense. The Hospital has been comfortably warmed in cold 
weather, been made cool in warm weather, and ventilated at all times. The receipts for 
the year were $60,302.42; expenditures i 59,798.58. 

State Lunatic Hospital , Taunton. — George C. S. Choate, M. D., Superintendent. This 
Hospital was opened for patients, and the first patient was admitted, April 7, 1854. The 
grounds contain nearly 134 acres, and the buildings are intended to acconmiodate 260 pa- 
tients. Number of patients, September 30, 1857, 327 (177 males and 150 females) ; admitted 
during the year, 223 (120 males and 103 females) ; under treatment during the year, 550 
(297 males, 253 females) ; discharged, 208(115 males and 93 females); died, 40 (26 males 
and 15 females) ; eloped, 1 male. Remaining, September 30, 1858, 301 (156 males and 145 
females). Of the 618 discharged during the four years, 334 (179 males and 155 femiUes) were 
recovered, 85 (40 males and 45 females) were improved, and 199 (94 males and 105 feinalee) 
were unimproved. Of the 1,112 patients admitted, the character of the insanity of 508 (257 
males and 251 females) was mania; of 137 (62 males and 75 females) was melancholia ; of 
37 (73 males and 64 females) was monomania; of 330 (172 males and 158 females) was 

msntia. Of the 1,112, 654 were supported by the SUte, 263 by towns, and 295 by friends. 



I860.] MASSACHirSBTTS* 279 

Reatraint by mechanical apparatus is rarely resorted to, and the aim is to dispense, as fiur 
as passible, with physical force. Receipts for support of patients, $65,392; payments for 
supplies, fuel, labor, &c., 864,708. 

StaU Lunatic Hospital, JVortAompton. — Wniiam H. Prince, M. D., Soperintendent. The 
first patient was admitted to this Hospital August 16, 1858. The grounds contain 175 
acrea, and the buildings are constructed to accommodate 250 patients, and are arranged for 
twelve classes of each sex. There is a centre building four stories high, and, with its 
extension in the rear, 190 feet deep; and- a range of wings on each side, three stories 
bigh, gtring a front line of 512 feet. The stories are all twelve feet high. It is heated 
and ventilated by means of steam. Up to Sept. 30, 1656, there had been admitted S98 
patients, (99 males and 129 females), and 8 (6 males and 2 females) had been discharged. 

Besides the Slate hospitals at Worcester, Taunton, and Northampton, and the arrange- 
ments for the care of the insane at the almshouses, jails, Sk., there are municipal and pri- 
vi^e establishments, as the city hospital at South Boston, the McLean Asylum .at Somer- 
viUe, and the institution at Pepperell. 

State Prison. — Gideon Haynes, Warden. The number of prisoners, October 1st, 1867, 
was 440 ; 198 were received during the year ending 30th September, 1858, and 155 were 
discharged. Number of prisoners, 30th September, 1858, 483. Of those discharged, 126 
wore from expiration, and 26 from remission of sentence, 2 died, and 1 escaped. Of those 
in prison, 337 were committed for offences against property, and 146 for oflbnces against 
the person, including larceny from the person, robbery, and perjury. 168 are natives of 
Massachusetts, 134 of other States, 180 are foreigners, and 1 is of unknown parentage. 
There are 58 second-comers, 16 thirjI-comerB, 1 fourth*comer, 2 fifth-comen, and 1 is a 
■eventh-comer. Average daily number of convicts for the year, 469. Of those in prison, 49 
are between 16 and 20 yeare of age ; 146 from 20 to 25 ; 108 from 25 to 30 ; 106 flrom 30 to 40 ; 
45 from 40 to 60 ; 19 from 50 to 60 ; 7 from 60 to 70; 1 from 70 to 80. 106 were sentenced 
for 2 years or less; 100 for 3, or more than 2; 11^ for 5, or more than 3; 106 for 10, or 
more than 5 ; 17 for 15, or more than 10 ; 8 for 20, or more than 15 ; 1 for 30 ; and 34 for 
life. 359 convicts are employed, for contractore, in some mechanical employment, and 
the rest (or such as are not infirm or sick, or in close confinement) are engaged on work 
for prison account. • 100 are appropriated each year to purchase books for the prison 
library, which now numben 1,000 volumes. The ordinary expenses were 1 96,956, and the 
receipts $73,167; deficit of receipts, $23,789. Provision is made by statute that a 
Mconi shall be kept of tlie conduct of each convict, and for every month that the convict 
observes the rules of the prison and is not subjected to punishment there shall be a deduc* 
tioA from the term of his sentence as follows : if the sentence is for less than three years, 
one day for each month of good conduct ; if it is for three yean or more and less than ten 
years, two days for each month ; if for ten yean or more, then five days for each month 
of such good conduct. The Warden submits the record and the scale of deduction once 
ia three montlis to the Governor and Council. 

State Reform School, Weatborouglk — William R Starr, Superintendent. Boys in the 
eehool, Oct 1st, 1857, 613; received since, 313 ; discharged during the year, 369 ; remaining, 
September 30th, 1853, 557. Of the 2,409 committed to the school since it was opened, 4 
were six yean of age, 13 were 7, 61 were 8, 127 were 9, 213 were 10, 261 were 11, 317 were 12, 
364 were 13, 405 were 14, 497 were 15, 101 were 16, 39 were 17 and over, and the ages of 12 
were unknown. 828 ware committed for larceny, 1,028 for stubbornness, 107 as idle and diso^ 
derly, 143 for vagrancy, 34 for shopbreaking and stealing, 13 for assault, 22 as runaways, 26 
for shopbreaking, with intent to steal, 12 as common drunkards, 67 for malicious mischief, 
10 for burglary, 4 for robbery, 4 for forgery, and 4 for arson. 1,696 were committed during 
minority, 4 for 10 yeare, 1 for 9 years, 9 for 8 yean, 5 for 7 yean, 34 for 6 yean, 76 for 5 
jean, and the remainder for shorter periods. 1,902 were bom in the United States, and 
607 in foreign countries. Of those born in this country, 1,304 are of American parentage, 
489 of Irish, 64 of English, 16 of French, 16 of Scotch, 9 of German, and 1 each of 
Danish, Spanish, Swedish, and African. All the boys are employed during a portion 
of the day at some mechanical, agricultural, or domestic labor. They do the washing, iron- 



280 MABSACHtrSBTTS. [1860. 

inf , and eook\ng, and main and mend their own clothes. Each day, 4 hours are devoted to 
school, 6 to labor, 8^ to sleep, and 5^ to recreation and miscellaneous duties. 180 acres 
of land were originally purcliased, and since that time an adjoining farm has been added. 
The school can acoomroodate 600 inmates. The expenses of the Institution for the year 
were •47,578.63. The principal building was destroyed by fire, set by one of the pupils, 
In August, 1869. The Legislaturs have since provided for rebuilding at Westborough on the 
family plan. They have also established a State Nautical School. 

Stai6 Induairiai School for CKrls, Lannaster. — Bradford K. Peirce, Superiniendent, 
This School, heretofore Icnown as the "Slate Reform School for Girls," was inaugurated 
August 27, 1856. There are three bondings, each fitted to accommodate a aepante 
family of 30 pupils, or 90 pupils in all. The object of the School is " for the instruction, 
employment, and reformation of exposed, heli^ess, evil-disposed, and vicious girls.*' 
Such girls, over 7 and under 16 years of age, upon complaint before the Judge of Probate, 
or a Commissioner appointed for the purpose, and notice to the parent or guardian, may 
be sent thither ; and, in all cases, they are to be committed until they are 18 yean oi age, 
unless sooner discharged by the trustees, or bound out as apprentices. Up to Sept. 30, 1866, 
the date of the third report, 121 children were admitted, 85 of whom were American, 24 
Irish, 6 English, 2 each Scotch and German, and 1 each Italian and French. Of 86 one 
or both parents are dead, or have separated. 17 have been indentured, and 2 escaped. The 
Tnistees spealc encouragingly of the influence of the acbool upon the inmates, and " that 
most of these girls will be saved from probable or inevitable ruin, and become useful mem- 
benr of society." The proceeds of the needlework and knitting by the girls during the 
year were 9368.44. 

School for Idiotic and Feeble-minded Youth, South Boston.— This school has been in 
operation since 1818, under the gratuitous and eflbctlve general superintendence of Dr. Samuel 
G. Howe. The resident Superintendent is Alexander McDonald. January 1, 1858, there 
were In the school 41 State pupils, and 20 private pupils. During 10 months there were 
admitted 20 (14 State beneficiaries and 6 private pupils) ; 18 pupils were discharged ; leav* 
ing Sept. 30, 1858, 63, of whom 46 were supported entirely by the State, 4 partially by the 
State, and 13 by friends or other Sutes. *' Of those in the school (Dec. 1856), 8 do not make 
known their wants; 3 do not feed themselves ; 12 do not, and 11 can partially, dress them- 
selves ; 7 ars speechless ; 2 can pronounce a few words ; 31 form sentences ; 18 know the 
names of several colors; 12 know their letters ; 11 ned words of two or three letters; 11 
read understandingly ; 21 count ten ; 9 perform examples In mental arithmetic, and 5 In 
written; 8 have a general knowledge of geogmphy ; 10 can knit; 6 can do plain aewteg; 
7 sing well, and keep good time." The only treatment is kindness. Great attention is paid 
to cleanliness, and regularity of habits. There has been since 1848 a private eatabHshment 
for the instruction of this class at Barre, in Worcester Co. 

Pauperism in the Year 1858. — There were three Sute Almshouses opened for the rsoep- 
tion of State paupers in 1854 ; one at Bridgewater, one at Monaon, and one at TewkOmtf. 
At Bridgewater J Oct. 1, 1857, there were 898 Inmatea; admitted since, including 76 hern 
in the house, 1,611 ; and 1,367 were discharged and indentured, 30 deserted, 287 died; leaving, 
Sept. 30, 1858, 625 (131 men, 160 women, 134 boys tmder 15 years of age, and 100 girls). 
Average cost per week of each inmate, $ 1.00. A school is kept for sach aex. Admissions 
to the hospiul during the year, 1,568. 

At Monaon, Oct.1, 1867, there were 638 inmates; admitted since, 2,300, incliidlng 22 
born in the institution; discharged, deserted, and indentured, 2,271 ; died, 102; in all, 2,373 ; 
leaving Sept. 30, 1868, 565 (56 men, 74 women, 279 boys under 1& years of ag«,and 157 
girls). The expenditures for the nine months were $30,625.27. The schools have 366 
scholars. Number of admissions to the hospital, 1,032. 

At T^ntkeburp, the average number of inmates during the ten months ending Sept. 39, 
1868, was over 900. Average coet of support about 90 cents each per week. The nvmbw 
remaining Sept. 30, 1868, was ^2. The school connected with this house averaged during 
the year 200 children daily as pupils. Admissions to the hoepital daring the year, 1^3: 

^ring the year, there were 97 births and 2B7 deaths. 



1 



X860.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



281 



There is a State HaspUal at Baintford Island^ Beaton Harbor, in whicb tbei« were. 1, 160 
pauper inmates during the year ending Sept. 30, 185S. 1^7 paupers have been sent 
out of the State during the nine months ending Sept. 30, 1857. 10,301 alien passeu' 
gers, who gave bonds, or paid their commutation, amounting to $20,301, arrived in 
Boston by sea. 

In addition to the above expenditures by the State for SttUe Paupers^ the individual 
towns in their corporate capacity support the town paupers^ and relieve the po9r. The sta< 
tistics for the II mos. ending Sept. 30, 1853, are as follows : Persons relieved or supported 
as paupers, 37,206 ; number of almshouses, 212; acres of land appurtenant to almshousM, 
21,296 j value of almshouse establishments, $ 1,271,023 ; persons relieved in almshouses, 
11,845; average cost per weel^, $1.57; paupers in almshouses unable to work, 2,282; 
estimated value of pauper labor in almshouses, $21,319 ; paupers made so by intemper> 
ance in themselves or others, 18,33-3. Number aided and supported out of almshouses, 
23,071 ; average weekly cost, $ 1.10. Insane relieved and supported, 870 ; idiots, 306. 
Paupers by reason of insanity or idiocy, 1,090. Foreign paupers that have come into the 
Sute during the year, 290. Expense of supporting and relieving paupers, $530,620. 
1,407 indigent children under 14 years of age (738 boys and 547 girls, sex of the rest not 
siaLed) were supported at the public charge in 1858. 

JaUa and Houses of Corrtclion for the year ending Sqat. 30, 1858. — Whole number 
committed, including 138 debtors, 14,699. There were 12,050 males ; 2,549 females; 2,163 
minors; 566 colored; 6,534 not able to read or write; U insane when committed; 3,050 
natives of Massachusetts; 2,047 natives of other States ; 9,502 foreigners ; number of persona 
committed as witnesses, 657 ; number that had been addicted to intemperance, 8,155. Of 
the persons committed to jail for crime, 586 were discharged by order of court, 3,860 on ex- 
piration of sentence, 846 on payment of fine and costa, 3,630 as poor convicta unable to 
pay fine and costs, 96 by acquittal, 267 by pardon or discharge by overseen ; remaining in 
confinement, Sept. 30, 1868, 1,969. Average coat of board of each prisoner per week, $ 1.82. 
^timated value of labor in the Jails and Houses of Correction, $ 57,485. Expenses of both, 
#222,722. 

Crvminal Statistics for the Year 1858. 





• 

i 


• 

s 


^ 


• 


<D* 


bo 

a 




• 


g 




Oflfonces. 




o 






(6 

e 
o 


c 


• 


< 




Costs. 




119 


1 

60 


1 


1 


3 


20 


i 


1 


J 




Against the person, feloniously. 


10 


8 


6 


11 


3 


1 


$5,385.67 


" " not feloniously, 


635 


241 


61 


80 


79 


100 


60 


4 


20 


13,046.14 


Against property 


1191 


579 


84 


79 


141 


140 


125 


17 


26 


28,631.45 


Against the currency, and crim. 






















frauds, .... 


206 


61 


15 


21 


39 


32 


31 


4 


3 


5,467.17 


Against public justice, 


77 


20 


7 


8 


7 


15 


16 


4 




2,111.46 


Against the public peace. 


3fl 


2 


1 


6 


6 


11 


7 


1 


4 


614.02 


Against the public health, . 


1 












1 






25.26 


Against chastity, morality, and de- 






















cency, 


656 


. 212 


38 


58 


108 


71 


50 


7 


12 


10,583.72 


Against puUic policy, . 
Other offences, .... 


1732 


383 


174 


176 


437 


326 


150 


4Q 


39 


36,288 63 


164 


14 


5 


17 


40 


73 


8 


5 


2 


2,332.18 


Not Slated, 


363 

5082 


1 






2 


122 


232 


6 




2,087.10 


Total, 


1573 


395 


463865 


909 


681' 99' 107 


«106.672.70 



Before Justices of the Peace and Police Courts, there were in 1857, 8,705 complaints. 
In 5,325 cases there were convictions ; 1,907 were discharged, and 1,322 were held to 
a higher court. Offences, — Assault, 2,116; drunkenness, 2,541 ; violation of the liquor 
law, 1,413 ; larceny, 884 ; total costs, $64,749; fines received, $6,208. 

Bbrthsy Marriages, and Deaths, for the Tear ending December 31, 1857. — SteUenik 
Registration ReporL — The number of births daring that period was 35,320 ; 18,033 males 

24* 



282 mCHIOAN* [1S60. 

and 17,191 ftfiiimles; tto mx of 178 not given. Of tbMo fairtto, 15,935 won of Ibieign 
poiwiMgo, 16^1 of AmecEOui, 1,975 mixed Ameriean and foreign, and the paienUge of 
1,851 was not utated. Tbe number of marriages was 11,739 ; in 6,386 the parties were 
Americans, in 4,088 tbey were foreigneis, and in 971 one party was an American and 
the other a foreigner. The number of deaths was 21,080, — 10,703 males and 10,485 
females. Their average age was 37.44. Daring the 16 years and 8 months ending De- 
cember 31, 1857, some of the causes of death were as Allows : 54,166 (or S&l&per cent) 
died of consumption ; 15,864 (or 6.49 per cent) of dysentery; 154iS9 (or 6.S3 per cent) 
of typhus ; 14,366 (or 5.87 per cent) of in&ntile diseases ; 13,797 (or 5.64 per cent) of old 
age ; 10,809 (or 4.4S per cent) of pneumonia ; 10,800 (or 4,4S per cent) of scariatina ; 5,831 
(or 3.38 per cent) of dropsy ; 5,744 (or 3.35 per cent) of croup ; 6,004 (or 3.46 per cent) 
were stillborn ; 5,677 (or 8.39 per cent) of cholera hifkntum ; 5,394 (or 2.14 per cent) of 
hydrocephalus ; 5,489 (or S.SI4 per cent) of disease of the heart ; 4,516 (or 1.85 per cent) 
by accident ; 4 398 (or 1.80 per cent) of convulsions ; 3,453 (or 1.41 per cent) of paratjrsis; 
1,990 (or .81 per cent) of apoplexy ; 1,730 of epilepsy ; 334 of delirium tfemons ; 434 of 
insanity j 3,378 of disease of the brain ; 1,463 of pleuffsy ; 461 <rf bronchitis ; S43 of 
asthma ; 196 of hernia ; 3,068 of disease of stomach ; 1,^4 of disease of liver j 301 of 
diabetes ; 308 of calculus ; 563 of disease of kidney ; 615 of diseases of skin ; 957 by 
suicide ; 1,467 of small-pox ; 9,387 of measles ; 9,667 of whooping-cough ; 9,063 of ery- 
sipelas ; 9,709 of cholera ; 596 of rheumatism ; 806 of intemperance ; 9,525 of cancer ; 
1,930 of canker •, 152 of tetanus ; 40 of gout ; 79 of syphilis ; 16 of hydrophobia ; 9,220 
of child-birth. This registrati<m report is exceedingly valuable, and highly creditaMe to 
Dr. Josiah Curtis and the others engaged in its preparation. The report contains tbe 
Massachusetts Life, Population, and Annuity Table, with other tabular deductkms and 
comments connected therewith, cratputed and prepared by E. B. Elliott of Boston* 

The population of the State by counties, and that of the cities and principal towns, 
and the industrial statistics of the State, for 1855 and 1845, were given in the AmeilcaB 
Almanac for 1857, pp. 949, 950. Since then an additional volume has been published, 
giving the nativiQr, social statistics, and occupation of the people, as existing June I, 
1855, illustrated and developed in many carefully prepared tables, full abstracts of which 
are given in the American Almanac for 1858, p. 5251. 

The number of legal voters in the State, June 1, 1857, was 911,681. 



XVI. MICHIGAN. 

Capiicdf Lansing. Area, 56,213 sq. m. PopulaUon^ 1854, 611,679. 

Government /or M« Fear 1860. 

Term expires. Salary. 

M08E8 WisNER, of Pontiac, Governor^ Jan. 1861, ^ 1,000 

Edmund B. Fairfield, of Hillsdale, Lieut.- Governor, " $ 3 a day 

[during session of Legislature. 
Nelson G. Isbell, of Howell, See. of State, Dec. 31, 186a, Fees & 800 

Daniel L. Case, of Lansing, .Auditor-Gen., ** l/XK) 

John McKinney, of Lansing, State Treasurer, " 1,000 

Jacob M. Howard, of Detroit, Momey- General, " 800 

John M. Gregory, of Ann AthoT,Sup*t of Ptth. Instr. " 1,000 

James W. Sanborn, of Fort Huron, Com. of Land- Office,** 800 

F. W. Curtenius, of Kalamazoo, Adj. -Gen. and Q. M.-Gen., 4.50 

William L. Seaton, of Jackson, Agent of Slate Prison^ 1,000 

1. Eugene Tenney, of Marshall, State Librarian, 500 



I860.] HiCHi0AN. 288 

The Governor, Lieatenant'GoTernor, Secretary of State, Aaditor*Genera1, 
Treaaarer, Soperinteitdent of Public Instruction, Commitaioner of the Land- 
Office, and the Attorney-General are each elected by the people, by a plu- 
rality vote, for two years. Senators, 32 in number, and representatives, 81 
in number, are elected every two years by a similar vote fur two years. 
The sessions of the Legislature are biennial, and the members receive 
pay for only forty days. The last session commenced in January, 1859. 

JUDICIART. 

Supreme Court. 

Term ends. Salary. 

George Martin, of Grand Rapids, Chief Justice^ Dec. 30, 1867, $ 2,500 

Randolph Manning, of Pontiac, Associate Justice^ ** 1861, 2,500 

James V. Campbell, of Detroit, «« »< 1863, 2,500 

Isaac P. Christiancy, of Monroe, '« «« 1865, 2,500 

Thomas M. Cooley, of Adrian, Reporter^ 500 

Cirevil Court — Salary of Judges, $1,500 each. 



Dist. Judge. Residence. Term ends 

1. Edw. H. C. Wilson, Hilladale, I)ec.30,1863 
8. Nathaniel Bacon, Nilee, *' 

3. & F. H. Wltberell, Detroit, " 

4. Edwin Lawrence, Ann Arbor, *' 
6. BenJ. F. Orares, Battle Creek, " 



Diet. Judge. Residence. Term ends. 

6. Sanford M. Green, Pontiac, Dec.30,1863 

7. Josiah Turner, Howell, " 

8. Louis S. LoTell, Grand Rapids, " 

9. Flariue J. Litilejohn, Allegan, Dec.30,1864 
10. W. F. Woodwonh, Midland City, " 



Daniel Goodwin, of Detroit, District Judge, Upper Peninsula, Salary 81,000. 

The judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the people for eight 
years. After the first election in 1857, they were classified so that their 
several terms expired in two, four, six, and eight years. Judge Martin took 
the short term of two years and was re-elected in 1859, for the full term of 
eight years. Three judges constitute a quorum. Four terms of the Su- 
preme Court are held annually, — two at Lansing on the Tuesday after the 
first Monday of January and July, and two at Detroit on the Tuesday after 
the first Monday of April and October, — and there may be special or ad- 
journed terms at either of these places. The court shall be in session each 
term long enough to hear all the cases ready for argument, and all cases 
ahall be determined either at the term they are argued, or early in the suc- 
ceeding term. The clerk of the County in which the court is held is clerk 
of the Supreme Court. Judges of the Circuit Court are elected for six 
years by the people of their respective districts. Prosecuting officers are 
elected by the people of each county, to hold office for twoyears. By the 
Act of February 12, 1859, grand juries are not to attend any court, unless 
the judge thereof shall so direct in writing filed with the clerk of the court. 
Criminal proceedings are to be conducted by informations in the lieu of in- 
dictments, — the informations to be verified by the oath of the prosecuting 
officer, complainant or some other person, — and the same rules to govern 
ia the setting forth of ofiTences, as in indictment. The prosecuting attorney 
must subscribe his name thereto, and must indorse thereon the names of 



284 MICHIGAN. [1860. 

the witneases known to him at the time of the filing of the information in 
court. The proceedings in holding to bail, &c. are the same as in indict- 
ments. No information can be found against any person for any offence, 
unless such person shall have had, or waived, a preliminary examination 
therefor. 

FlRAHCES. 

Balance ia the Treaaury. Noyember 3D, 1857, $158,642.70 

Receipts for the year ending November 30, 1858, 865,720.35 

Toul available means for the year, $ 1,024,363.05 

Expenditures for the year ending November 30, 1858, 8 48,01 5.85 

Balance in the Treasury, November 30, 1858, $176,347.20 

State Debt^— 'The State debt, funded and fundable, November 30, 1858, was as follows:— 
Penitentiary Bonds, principally due January 1) 1859, paid at maturity, . . $20,000.00 

" " " " 1860, 40,00000 

Full paid, $5,000,000 loan bonds, principal due January 1, 1863, . 177,000.00 

Adjusted, $5,000,000 " " " "... 1,726,685.00 

Pan paid, $ 5,000,000 loan or unadjusted bonds, when funded will amount to . 104,142.60 

Outsunding Intemallmprovement warrants, 3,752.07 

NewBondsissuedJuly, 1858, and due 1878, ._266,00O.O0 

Total, $2,337,629:67 

The annual interest on this sum, at 6 per cent, is 140,257.78 

The State is also indebted to ttie several Trust Funds. These are derived from the sales 
of lands granted by the general government and appropriated by the Constitution of tbe 
State for educational purposes. In some instances, resort has been had to the principal of 
these funds to meet the appropriations of the Legislature. The Legislature of 1859 author^ 
\zed the assessment and collection of a State tax of one mill on a dollar, on the aggregate of 
the real and personal property in the State, as equalized for 1856, for each of the years 1859 
and 1860. 

The receipts for the year ending Nov. 30, 1858, on account of the primary school funds 
were $88,282; university funds, $21,622; normal school funds, $3,402; swamp-land funds, 
$67,512 ; internal improvement funds, $ 5,297; general fund, $666,656. Some of the items 
of the receipts of the general fund were, proceeds of sales of lands for taxes, $76,132; delin- 
quent taxes, $60,605; specific tax on railroads, $149,940; on plank roads, manufacturing 
and mining companies, $8,725; on banks, $7,597. Some of the items of the expenditures 
of the general fund were, salaries of public officers, $14,137; expenses of the judiciary, 
$25,840; extra sestinn of legislature, $9,913; State Agricultural School and Society, 
$5,159; expenses aittl repairs of State prison, $34,000; house of correction for juvenile 
offenders, $ 15,000. Tiie amount of lands sold during the year was 103,854 acres; amount 
of receipts for lands sold, $ 187,415. 

Bankt. — For the condition of the banks in Michigan, near Jan. 1, 1869, see ante, p. 220. 

Common Schools /or the Year ending Sept' 25, 1858.— Number of organized echool 
districts in the Sute, 3,946; being 3,071 whole districts, and 875 fractional districu; 
number of children resident therein between 4 and 18 years of age, 225,592; average length 
of schools, 6 months ; number of children attending school, 173,694, or near 77 per cent of 
the whole number ; number of qualified teachers, 7,231, 2,326 males and 4,905 females; paid 
for teachers' wages, $442,227.37; whole amount raised by tax upon tbe school districts 
for the support of schools, $316,580.71; of which $119,176.51 was raised to build, and 
$21,315.50 to repair school-houses. The amount raised by rate bill was $ 118,099.89. The 
amount of the mill tax raised in each county was $ 116,362.04. The numlier of volumes in 
the township libraries reported was 168,977. The Act of Feb. 15, 1859, provided that at the 
annual town-meeting in April, 1859, the voters in each town should decide by ballot for each 
town, for the continuance of the township library, or for the establishment of district libra- 
ries in lieu thereof. 



I860.] MICHIGAN. 285 

Tb» Act of Fob. 14, 1859, pennito any districta containing more than 300 children be- 
tween the ages of 4 and 18 years, by a two-thirds vote of the voters attending the annual 
meeting, to decide to elect a district board of six trustees, two for 1 year, two for S years, 
and a for three yean, and afterwards two each year for three years, which trustees shall 
have the care and management of said district schools, with the power to classify and 
grade them, to establish a high school, to employ teachers, &c. Two contiguous districts, 
if their number of children united is not less than 200, may unite by a similar vote, and 
elect tnietees in the same manner and with like pomes. 

The State Normal School at Ypsilanti was opened in October, 1862. During the year 
ending July, 1856, 253 students were in attendance, 103 males and 160 females. There fa a 
Model School connected with the Normal School, which bad, in 1866, 237 pupils. Id Decem- 
ber, 1859, the Normal School had 316 scholars, and the Model School, 63. 

Agricultural College. -^The Legislature of 1866 authorized the estabHahment of an 
Agricultural College. A farm of about 700 acrea has been purchased, near the viUage of 
Lansing, and sultaUe buildings for professors and students, and for the uses of the farm, 
have been erected. 

Aylum for the JEdueation tf tJu Deaf and Dumb and th$ BlhuL — This instStntion waa 
first opened in February, 1854, at Flint, in rooms rented for that purpose. The G«MrBeii- 
stone of the main building was laid July 15, 1857. The building when completed will 
accommodate 350 pupils. The grounds contain 33^45 acres. 1S8 pupils have been re- 
ceived since its opening in 1854, 87 deaf and dumb, and 41 blind. The largest number 
in attendance at any one time baa been 90. Ill pupils, 74 deaf and dumb and 37 Mind, 
have been in attendance during the year ending Dec 1, 1858. The Asylum is free to all 
the deaf and dumb and the blind in Michigan between the ages of 10 and 30, who have a 
good natural intellect, a good moral character, and no contagions. Board and tuition 
free, clothing and travelling expenses to be paid by the pupils, or parents or guardians. 
The vacation is from July 15, to 1st Wednesday in October, — and pupils should be ad- 
mitted at the close of the vacation. 

jigfflum for the Intone, — This institution is at Kalamazoo. The grounds contain 167.76 
acres. The buildings at the date of the last report, December, 1858, had not been com- 
pleted. The centre building was laid in ashes February 11, 1853. 

Crime* ^- By the report of the Attorney-General it appears that during the year 1858, 
there were 25 prosecutions for murder, in which there were 7 convictions, and 8 acquit- 
tals. Burglary, 56 prosecutions, 30 convictions, 2 acquittals. Larceny, 183 prosecutions, 
196 convictions, 11 acquittals. Petit larceny, 77 prosecutions, 57 convictions, 4 acquittals. 
The remaining cases are pending, or the parties are not arrested, &.c. 

State Prison, Jackson, ^NuvabeT of convicts in prison, 30th November, 1867, 411 ; of 
whom 263 were white and 24 colored males, and 1 half-breed Indian, and 9 white and 2 colored 
females ; received during the year, 196; whole number, 606. Discharged during the year, 133, 
— by expiration of sentence 80, by pardon 40, 10 died, 2 escaped, and 1 was discharged by 
order of court. In prison, November 30, 1858, 473, of whom 10 are United States convicts. 
460 are males, 424 white, 35 colored, 1 half-breed Indian; 13 are females, 12 white and 1 
colored. Average number during the year, 443.6; average age of the prisoners, 27.2 years. 
The aervlces of 296 convicts were let out on contract at an average of 42.4 cents for all the 
convicts so let out. Of those received during the year, 34 were sentenced for offences against 
the perscm, and 161 for oflfonces against property. 143 were natives of the United States, 
and 62 were of foreign birth. The average length of sentence of those received during the 
year was 4.1 years ; that of all the convicts in prison is 4.9 years. Since the opening of the 
prison in 1839, 1,621 prisoners have been received, and of these 108 were negroes, 30 mulat- 
toes, 2 Indians, 2 half-breeda, and 36 females. The death penalty for murder in this State 
was abolished in 1846, and solitary condnement at hard labor in the State Prison for life 
substituted, March 2d, 1847. Since then, to Nov. 30, 1868, 28 persons have been convicted 
of murder, and sentenced to solitary confinement at hard labor for life. A separate building 
is erected for these convicts. The receipts of the prison for the year n^ere 966,138.62, the 
expenditures, $66,227.01. 

Jt House qf Correction for JuvenOe Offenders was opened at Lansing, Sept. S, 1856. The 



286 MINNESOTA. [1860« 

name was changed by the Legidatan of 1899 to that of the Reform School. The nam- 
ber of dormitoriee in the institution is 76. Since its openins there have been received 78 
inmates. The number in the house, Nov. 18, 1857, was 39 3 number received during the 
year, 34 ; whole number, 63 ; left, 5 ; remaining Nov. 18, 1858, 68. The average age of 
those received during the year was nearly 14.5 years. 9 were of American parentage* 
90 wore committed for larceny. A portion of the boys are employed by contractors in 
making chairs. The inmates are kept employed in some work or in attending school. 

Oeological Survey, — The Legislatbre in 1850 passed an act authorising the comple- 
tion of the Geological Survey of the State, the appmntment of a geologist, Ax. 

Census ofMayy 1854. — Number reported under 5 yean of age, males, 43,903 ; finaales, 
38,714 ; over 5 and less than 10, males, 39,343 ; females, 36,032. Number of males over 
10 and under 90, 61,736; over 91 and under 45, 99,764; over 45 and under 75, 30,096; 
over 75 and under 90, 1,951 ; over 90 and under 100, 71 ; 100 and over, 8. Number of 
females over 10 and under 18, 47,495 ; over 18 and under 40, 83,786 ; over 40 and under 
75, 39,494 ; 75 and over, 1,598. Married males, 86,931 ; females, 86,315 ; unmarried 
males, 66^4 ; females, 54,188. Total population, 511,679. Number of blind reported, 
176 ; of deaf and dumb, 906 : of insane or idiotic, 498. Number of colored persons, 3,336. 
Number of marriages the preceding year, 3,876 ; of deaths, 4,754. Number of acres iA 
land taxable, neariy 7,017,^29 ; not taxable, 80,915 ; improved, 9.111,660 ; of wheat har- 
vested the preceding year, 473,571 ; bushels raised, 7,097,939 ; acres of com, 387,356 ; 
bushels harvested, 7,630,658 ; bushels of all other grains, 9,994,490 ; bushels, of poutoes, 
9,917,434 ; tons of hay, 496,041 ; pounds of wool, 9,680,747 ; pounds of pork, 11,258,841 ; 
of butter, 7,994,896 ; of cheese, 779,530 ; of sugar, 1,611,433. Number of horses one year 
old and over, 91,564; neat cattle do. otlier than oxen and cows, 141,953; of working 
oxen, 67,033 ; of milch cows, 139,960 ; of sheep, 964,333 ; swine, over eix months old, 
939,839. Barrels of flour made the preceding year, 998,503 ; number of flour-mills, 254, — 
95 steam, 990 water power, and power of 9 not stated ; persons employed, 604 ; capital 
invested in flouring mills, $ 1,898,006 ; products of do. for past year, $3,567,978. Number 
of saw-mills, 999, — 971 steam, 618 water power, and power of 33 not stated ; persons 
employed, 4,579 ; capital invested, $9,449,577 ; products, $3,973,036. Barrels of pepper- 
mint oil manufactured during the preceding year, 10,789 ; gallons of wine, 1,215 ; barrels 
of cider, 9,f^; barrels of fish caught, 47,203. Capital invested in manufactures, 
$9,839,965 ; persons employed, 5,769 ; products, $3,604,719. Persons employed in min- 
ing, 2,319; capital invested, $4,747,950; valuation of minerals produced, $969,961. 



XVII. MINNESOTA. 



Capital^ St. Paul. jStrea^ about 86.000 sq. m. Population, May, 1858, 150,042. 

For the boundaries of the State and the act authorizing its admission into the Unioa, 
see the American Almanac for 1858, pp. 139, 140. Fcv the act admitting the State into 
the Union, see the American Almanac for 1859, p. 143. The constitution waa done in 
convention August 99, 1857, and adopted by the people October 13, 1857, by a vote of 
86,506 for, to 703 against it. Some of its provisions are as follows : — Voters, — Every 
male person aged twenty-one, of either of the following classes, to wit : white citizens 
of the United States ; white persons of foreign birth who have duly declared their 
intention to become citizens; persons of mixed white and Indian blood who have 
adopted the customs and habits of civilization ; and persons of Indian blood, residing 
in the State, who have adopted the language, customs, and habits of civilization, when 
pronounced capable by any district court in the State, may vote if they have resided in 
the United States one year, in the State four months, and in the election district ten days 
next preceding the election. Persons convicted of treason or felony, unless restored to 
heir civil rights, those under guardianship, or non eompoSf or insane, cannot vote. All 
actions, except for such town officers as the law otherwise directs, are by ballot. On 
action day no person can be arrested on civil process. Legislative, — The Legislature 



I860.] MIKKEBOTA. 287 

consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The number of Senators and Rep- 
resentatives to be prescribed by law, — tbe representation in the Senate not to exceed 
one member for every 5,000 inhabitants, and in the House one member to every 3,000. 
Senators and Representatives —to be qualified voters and residents one year in the State 
and six months next before the election in their districts— are elected in single districts. 
Representatives for one year -and Senators for two years, one half each year, except at 
the election next succeeding a new apportionment, when there is an entire new election 
of all the Senatora. During any session, neither house shall adjourn for more than three 
days. The pay of members for the first session is 8 3 a day, afterwards as regulated by 
law. Members are privileged from arrest, except for treason, felony, or breach of the 
peace* and shall not be questioned in another place Ua words uttered in debate. No 
Senator or Representative shall hold any State ofiice created, or whose emoluments were 
increased) while he was a member of the Legislature, until one year after the expiration 
of hie term. No law shall be passed unless voted for by a majority of all the members 
elected to each branch, and the vote be entered on the journal of each house. Any pre- 
siding ofilcer refusing to sign any bill which had previously passed both houses shall be 
incaiMble afterwards of holding any ofiice of hcmor or profit in the State. Two or more 
members of either house may protest, and have their reasons entered on the journal. No 
law shall embrace but one subject, and that shall be expressed in its title. Every bill 
shall be read on three dififerent days in each separate house, unless two thirds decide 
otherwise, and no bill can be passed unless previously twice read at length. The Legie- 
lature shall not grant divorces nor authorize any lottery or the sale of lottery tickets. In 
all elections by the Legislature the vote shall be vioa voce, and the votes entered on the 
journal. No money shall be appropriated except by bill. The Legislatuie shall cause 
an enumeration of the inhabitants of the State to be made in 1865 and every tenth year 
afterward. A new apportionment of Senators and Representatives shall be made at the 
first session after the enumeration and at the first session after each federal census. Each 
house may punish during its session, by imprisonment of not over twenty-four hours, 
any person, not a member, guilty of contemptuous behavior in their presence. It may 
expel a member by a two-thirds vote. Any act passed during the last three days of the 
aession shall, if signed by the Ctovemor and filed in the office of the Secretary of State 
within three days after the adjournment of the Legislature, become a law. 

ExeeuUv* — The Governor and Lieutenant*Ck>vemor, chosen by a plurality vote, hold 
office for two yeats« and until their suceessws are elected and qualified. They must 
each be twenty-five years old, and citizens and residents of the State for one year next 
before their election. The Governor may veto a bill, but two thirds of each house may 
by a yea and nay vote, and the names entered on the journal, pass it over his veto. Any 
bill retained by him three days, when the Legislature is in session, becomes a law. The 
Lieutenant-Governor is ez officio President of the Senate. In case of any vacancy in the 
office of Governor, he shall be Governor. Before the close of each session the Senate 
shall elect a President pro tempore^ who shall be Lieutenant-Governor in case a vacancy 
occurs in that office. A Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Attorney-General 
«re elected by the people,-— the Auditor for three years, the others fw two years and 
until their successors are qualified. 

T%e Judieiary. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, District Courts, 
Courts of Probate, Justices of the Peace, and such other courts inferior to the Supreme 
Court as the Legislature may, by a two-thirds vote, establish. The Supreme Court, 
with original jurisdiction in such remedial cases as are prescribed by law, and appellate 
Jurisdiction in all cases, both in law and equity, consists of a Chief Justice and two As- 
■oeiate Justices, elected by the people at large, to hold office for seven years, and until 
their successors are qualified. The Legislature, by a two-thirds vote, may increase the 
number of Associate Justices to four. There shall be no trial by jury in this Court. The 
Court shall appoint a Reporter of its decisions. A Clerk is chosen for three years, and 
until his suoeeesor is qualified. There shall be six Judges of the District Courts, elected 
one in a district for seven years, and until their sncceesota aie chosen. A Clerk for the 



268 MIXHBSOTA. [I860. 

Diatrict CouA w elected in each coiuitjr fix four yetn. The Dutiiet Coiizis luiTe ortglr 
nal juriediction in all cases in law and equity where over Q 100 is in controversy, and 
in criminal cases where the punishment may be imprisonment for over three months or a 
fine of over 9 100. TJie compensation of a Supreme or District Judge shall not be dimin- 
ished during his continuance in office. There shall be a Probate Court in each organised 
county, tbe Judge to be elected by the voters of the county fiur two years. Justices of 
the Peace are elected in each county for two yean. Their Jurisdiction in civil cases does 
not exceed • 100, and in criminal cases ttiey cannot imprison over three months nor fine 
over 8 100. A Court Commissioner may be elected in each county. The number and 
boundaries of districts may be changed, hut no such change shall vacate the office of any 
judge. The Justices of the Supreme and Diatrict Courta shall bold no other office, fed- 
eral or State, nor be eligible during their term to any other than a judicial office. 

IMta. — The credit of the Sute shall never be given or lent in aid of any individual, 
association, or corporation. To defray extraordinary expenditures, the State may con- 
tract public debts not exceeding hi the aggregate • 25O/)O0l Every law esublishing such 
debt must pass by a two-thirds vote of the memben of each branch, taken by yeas and 
nays, and it must levy a tax annually sufficient to pay the annual interest and tbe princi- 
pal in ten years ; and these taxes cannot be repealed, postponed, or diminished until the 
principal and iuterest of tlie debt are paid. The State shall never contract any debts 
for works of internal improvement, or be a party in carrying on such works, except in 
cases where grants of land or other property shall have been made to the State espe- 
cially dedicated by tbe grant to specific purposes ; and in such cases the State shall de- 
vote thereto the avails of such grants, and mij pledge or amnopriate the revennes derived 
from such works in aid of their completion. All debts shall be ctmtracted by loan on • 
State bonds, — not to be sold by the State under par, — in sumsof not leae than $500, 
bearing interest, and payable in ten years. The estimated annual expenses of the State 
shall be defrayed by an annual tax. 

The Legislature, by a two-thirds vote, may pass a general banking law, with certain 
specified restrictions. No corporati6n shall be formed under special acts except for mu- 
nicipal purposes, and each stockholder shall be individually liable to the amount of his 
stock. 

Edueatian. — The proceeds of lands granted by the United States for school purposes 
shall remain a perpetual school fund, and the principal of all funds arising from 
sales for educational purposes shall forever be preserved undimtniriied, and the income 
shall be distributed according to the number of scholars in each township between the 
ages of five and twenty-one years. 

Mi9e$Ua»»tnu.^Tbe personal {woperty of each person to the amount of $900 shall be 
exempt from taxation. No person shall be made incompetent as a witness in conee- 
quence of bis opinion upon the subject of religion. No new county shall be made of lees 
than 400 square miles, nor shall any county be reduced below that size. Any city of 
90,000 inhabitants may be made a county, if a majority of the electors therein desire. 
No lease of agricultural lands longer than twenty-one years shall be valid. There shall 
be no slavery in the Sute, nor property qualification for voters or for holdmg office. Im- 
prisonment for debt, except in cases of fraud, is abolished. 

jSmendments. — Amendments to the constitution must be passed by a majority of both 
branches of the Legislature, be published with the laws of that session, be submitted to 
the people, and be ratified by a majority of the votes cast. If two thirds of the niembeie 
elected to each branch of the Legislature shall vote to call a convention to revise the 
constitution, the question shall be submitted to the people at the next election fi>r mem- 
bers of the Legislature. If a majority of the votes are in favor of such a convention, 
tbe Legislature at its next session shall call a convention, to be composed of as many 
members, and to be chosen in the same manner as the House of Representatives, and to 
meet within three mouths after their election. 

An amendment to the Sute Constitution was adopted by the people April 15, I8S8, in 

sard to the Suto debt. It provides that the Sute credit shall not be lent, itc ezeept to 



I860.] MINNESOTA. 289 

aid the construction of the four railroads to which Congress has gnmted aid. To these 
roads special bonds may be issued, bearing 7 per cent interest payable semiannually in 
New York, to an amount of not over $ 1,350,000 each, or not exceeding $5,000,000 in the 
whole. The bonds shall be called ** Minnesota State Railroad Bonds,** and shall be of 
not over $ 1,000, and be redeemable after 10 and before 25 years from their date, l^pon 
satisfactory evidence verified by affidavit that 10 miles of a road are graded and ready for 
the superstructure, the Governor issues $100,000 of the bonds to the road, and 1$ 100,000 
hi addition for every additional 10 miles of grading, — and when the cars are running on 
any ten miles of road 8 100,000 additional of bonds are to be given, and so another like 
sum fcM: each additional ten miles the cars run, until the whole amount is issued. Two 
fifths of the bonds issued to the Southern Minnesota Railroad must be expended in the 
constructicm and equipment of a line from La Crescent to the junction with the Transit 
road. The Minneapolis and Cedar Valley Railroad Company, shall commence their road 
at Furitault and Minneapolis, and construct it equally from both places. Within 30 days 
after the Governor has proclidmed that the State has voted to lend its credit to rail- 
roads, any railroad pui^sing to avail itself of the loan shall notify the Governor, shall 
commence its construction in 60 days, and shall within two years get at least 50 miles 
ready for the superstructure. Each road shall comi^ete not less than 50 miles on or before 
the expiration of the year 1861, 100 before 1864, and four fifths by the year 1866, and £Eiil> 
ing to do this ahaXi forfeit all its rights under the grant Each company shall provide for 
the punctual payment of the interest and principal of the bonds, and shall pledge as secu> 
rity the tLet profits of the road, and shall convey to the State portions of its lands, and 
give first mortgage bonds to the State to an amount equal to the bonds received from the 
'State. 

Government for the Year 1860. 

Term ends. Salary. 

Alexander Ramsey, of St. Paul, Governor^ Jan. 1863, $ 2,500 

Ignatius Donnelly, of Dakota, Lieut.' Governor^ *' f6aday 

[during session of Legislature. 

J. H. Baker, of Blue Earth, Sec'y of State^ Jan. 1862, 1,500 

Charles Scbeffer, of Washington, Treasurer^ « 1,000 

W.F. Dunbar, of Caledonia, Auditor^ Jan. 1861, 1,000 

G.E.Cole, of Rice, AWy- General, « 1862, 1,000 

W. F. Wheeler, of St. Paul, StaU Librarian, 800 

The number o€ Senators is 37 ; of Representatives 80. The election for 

State officers and members of the Legislature is on the 2d Tuesday of Octo- 

ber. The time of meeting of the Legislature is on the Ist Monday of De* 

cember. The sessions of the Legislature are annual. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court, 

Term ends. Salary. 

Lafayette Emmet, of St. Paul, Otief Justice, Jan. 1865, $ 2,000 

Isaac Atwater, of Minneapolis, Associate Justice, " 2,000 

Chas. E. Flandrau, of Traverse de Sioux, 

J.J. Noah, of St. Paul, 

No. Dist. Judge. 

1. E. C. Palmer, 

2. S. J. R. McMillan, 

3. N. M. Donaldson, 

25 



; de Sioux, 
, Clerk, 


" ** 2,000 
Jan. 1861, 1,000 


\strict Courts, 
Residence. 
St. Paul, 
Stillwater, 
Owatonna, 


Term ends. Salary. 
Jan. 1,1865, $2,000 
" 2,000 
'* 2,000 



290 MISSISSIPPI. - [1860. 

No. DIst. Judge. Residence. Term ends. Salary. 

4. C. E. Vandenburgb, Minneapolis^^ Jan 1,1865, $2,000 

5. Thomas Wilson, Winona, <* 2,000 

6. L. Branson, Mankato, *< 2,000 

FmARCKS. 

State DtH, — The people have voted to lend the credit of the State to varioas raUroade 
to the amoQDt of t5,000;000. The loans to the roads are made as above stated. Up fo 
October 1, 1858, $350,000 of the eight per cent bonds of the State had been disposed of, 
and this constituted the debt of the State at that date. Up to December 1, 1859, it is stated 
that $2,500,000 of the bonds had been issued. 

Banks. :— There are now four or five banks In existence established under the general 
banking law. Other banks were started, but have ceased operations. 

Common Sekaols, — Sections 16 and 36, in each township, are reserved and given to the 
State for School purposes, and a general law of the State prescribes that i of one percent 
on all taxable property shall be levied for the support of common schools. Common 
schools are established in all parts of the State where the population is sufficiently com- 
pact. Union or Bigh Schools exist in all the lai^o towns and cities. The Union School- 
House in Minneapolis is a fine brick ediflre and was erected at a cost of $ 14,000. 

Charitable Institutions. — A law was passed at the last meeting of the Legislature for 
the establishment of a deaf and dumb asylum at or near Faribault. 

The State Prison is located at Stillwater, Washington County. H. N. Setzer, Warden. 
There are only five or six convicts. 

RaUroads, — About 250 miles of grading on the four roads are completed (Dec. 1859), 
ready for the superstructure. 



XVIII. MISSISSIPPI. 

Capital, Jackson. Area, 47,151 sq. m. Population, 1850, 606,526. 

Government for the Year 1860. 

Term expiree. SMarr. 

JoHir J. Pettus, of Kemper Co., Governor, 3d Mond. in Nov. 1861, $4,000 
B. R. Webb, of Pontotoc Co,,Sec. ofState^ Jan. 1862, 1^00 

M. D. Haynes, of Yazoo, Slate Treasurer, " 1,500 

£. R. Burt, of Knoxubee, Auditor ofPvb. Ac'ts, ^ 1,500 

Charles B. Green, of Jackson, Adjutant' General, 600 

B. W. Sanders, of Holmes Co., Keeper of Capitol ^ Librarian, 500 

Dr. Eugene Hiigard, State Geologist. 

A. M. Hardin, Keeper of the Penitentiary^ 1,500 

E. Barksdale, of Jackson, State Printer, 1,500 

James Drane, of Choctaw Co., President of the Senate, 

FJeet T. Cooper, of Lawrence Co., Clerk of the Senate. 

J. A. P. Campbell, of Attala Co., Speaker of the House of Rep. 
Charles A. Brougber, of Tippah Co., Clerk. 

By a recent amendment to the Constitution, the time of electing State 
officers, &c. was changed from the first Monday and Tuesday of No- 
vember, to the first Monday in October; and the time of meeting of the 
Legislature is changed from the first Monday of January to the first Mon- 
day of November, biennially. The proposed amendment of the Consti- 
tution to prohibit suite against the State was not adopted, only 10,170 
voting for it. 



I860.] 



MIfiSISBIPPZ. 



291 



JUDICIART. 

High Court of Errors and Appeals, 

Dist. Term expires. Salary. 
A. H. HaDdj, of Canton, Judge, Ist, Oct. 1860, $ 3,000 

CotenworthP.Smitb, of Jackson, Presid. Judge, 2d, " 1862, 3,000 
W.L. Harris, of Lowndes Co^ Judge, 3d, «* 1864, 3,000 

Thomas J. Wharton, of Jackson, Attorney- General, Jan. 1862, 1,200 
George T. Swann^ of Jackson, Clerk, Fees. 

Reporter of the Decisions of the Court. 

Circuit Court. 



James Z. George, 



Diet. Judge. 


Attorney. 


Dist 


. Judge. 


Atlomey. 


1. 


Hiram Cassedy, 


J. B. Paiton. 


6. 


J. S. Hamm, 


S. M. Meek. 


2. 


John E. McXair, 


G. S. McMillen. 


7. 


J. W. Thompson, 


J. R. Chalmers. 


3. 


Jacob S. Yerger, 


E. S. Buck. 


8. 


W. M. Hancock, 


J. S. Terrill. 


4. 


John Watts, 


Richard D. Cooper. 


9. 


J. M. Acker, 


R. 0. Beene. 


6. 


E. G. Henry, 


R. S. Hudson. 


10. 


Wm. Cothran, 


E. C. Walthall. 



The jurisdictiofi of the High Court is appellate exclusively. There are 
tveo terms each y«ar in Jackson, commencing on the first Monday of 
April and of October. The Reporter is elected by the Legislature. The 
reports are to be called the <' Mississippi Reports," and are to be printed, 
bound, and published in the State of Mississippi. The Circuit Court has 
original jurisdiction in civil cases in which the sum in controversy exceeds 
$50. For each of the circuits, ten in number, a judge and attorney are 
elected, every four years. It has also exclusive criminal jurisdiction. For 
the counties composing the Judicial Districts, see the American Almanac 
for 1857, page 898. There is also a Probate Court, with a judge and clerk 
for each county. The Probate Court in most of the counties has a term 
\of from two to six days each month. The Probate Clerk is also Register 
of Deeds. The Probate Judges are now paid by salaries instead of fees. 

Finances.* 



Receipts into the Treasury from November 1, 1657, to October 31, 1658, 

Disburaenients 

Balance in Treasury, 



8632,951.89 
614,659 62 



Chief Source of Income. 

Taxes, 8488,365.65 

PrincipeU Items of Expenditure. 

Judiciary, $139,842.48 

Legislative, 17,824.48 

Executive, .... 11,216.79 
Appropriationa, .... 58,982.80 
Penitantlary, .... 19,67846 
Commissions ibr Assessing, . . 18,978.67 



Public printing. 
University of Mississippi, 



36,410.96 



Executed slaves, • . . 
Chickasaw School Fund, 
Asylum for the Blind, 
Asylum for Lunatics, . 
Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, 
internal ImprovMnent Fund, 
Two per Cent Fund, . 
Three per Cent Fund, . 
Geological Survey, 



9, 104.50 Code of Mississippi, 



Executive Contingent Fund, 



8 18,292.37 

$10,15000 

. 81,205.29 

6,750.00 

. 34,000.00 

6,000.00 

. 14,323.83 

28,636.88 

. 103,796.28 

2,060.26 

. 3,902.22 

4,051.03 



* From Nov. I, 1858. to Oct. 31, 1859, the receipts were 8 634,080.03 ; the expenditures, 
1 707,015. Excess of expenditures, 1 82,994.97. The excess of expenditures is caused by 
the settlement and payment of certain funds as follows : S per cent fund to 8. R. B. Co., 
$34,769.38 ; 3 per cent do., $ 13,796.79 ; sinking fund, $ 101,545.85. 



292 MISSOURI. [1860. 

Valuation of lands in 1854, $ 90,950,585.17 ; in 1857, $ 141,747,536.37; increase in yalue, 
$ 50,796,^51.20. Taxable slaves in 1854, 326,861 ; in 1857, 368,182; increase, 41,321. 

Banks. — For the condition of the banlc in this State, Jan. 1858, see the table, otiie, page 
220. The bank there reported is the Northern Bank of Mississippi, at Holly Springs. 

An asylum for the blind, one for the deaf and dumb, and a lunatic hospital, are in operK- 
lion, under the care and support of the State, at Jackson. There were received into the 
lunatic asylum, from its opening to October, 1858, 219 patients. Dr. W. B. Williamson is 
Superintendent. October 1, 1857, there were in the asylum 83, — 48 males and 35 females; 
admitted during tlie year, 59, — 40 males and 19 females; whole number for the year, 142, ->• 
8S males and 54 females ; discharged during the year, 36 ; leaving under treatment, Oct. I, 
1353, 106. Of those discharged, 21 bad recovered, and 7 died. The receipts for the year 
were $ 39,556.46 ; expenditures, ^ 35,677.74. Excess of receipts, $ 3,878.72. 

Common Schools. —There is no uniform common-school system for all the counties. 
Each township has a school fund arising from the lease of lands granted by Congress for 
coiifimonscho<4 purposes, — every 16th section in each township liaving been so granted. 
These lands are leased for various periods, but mostly fot ninety 'niae years. The money 
tlience arising is loaned annually at not less than 8 nor more than M) per c^nt per annum 
interest. This interest is the amount applied to tuition, &c. anmwdly from the township 
fund. There is also a county fund, arising from fines, forfeitures, licenses, &c., which is 
distributed in those townships that are destitute or bflfve hot a small school ftmd. Tlie 
school sections in some townships are worth many thousand do&urs, aod in cAhen oidy a 
few hundreds. Hence great inequality in the funds of the townships, and the necessity of 
the above n>ethod of distributing the county funds. In all the larger towns, public schools 
have been established, and there are many flourishing High Schools. In his message to the 
Legislature in November, 1858, the Govmior urgently recommends the appointment of a 
Saperintendent-in-Cblef of the Common Schools, and that no further apprepriatfen he made 
fi»r Common Schools until such ofSce has been created. He recommends also the esuUisht- 
ment of a male Normal School in connection with the State University; also one or more 
Normal Schools for the education of female teachers, for the purpose of supplying home ed- 
ucated teachers for the Common Schools of the State. 

State Penitentiary, Jackson. — A. M. Hardin, Superintendent Oct. 31, 1867, there were 
in confinement 105 convicts. A<hnitted during the year, 36. )0 were pafdened hi 1867. 
The wool aod cotton factory buildings were destroyed by fire, November 1, 1857. The i 
ings for II moolhs were about 4^27,000, and the expenses about $ 30,00a 



XIX. MISSOURI. 

Capital, JeflhfsoD City. Ar6a, 66,037 sq. m. Population, 1890, 682,044. 

Government for the Year i860. 

Term ends. SeAarj. 
Robert M. Stewart, of Buchanan Co., Governor, Dec. 1860, f 3,000 

[and a furnished house. 
Hancock Jackson, of Randolph Co., Lieut.- Governor, Dec. 1860. 
Benj. F. Massey, of Jasper Co., Secretary if State, »« 1,000 &£ 
Wm. B.Starke, of Saline Co., Sup. Pub. SckooU, 1860, 1,500 

Wm. H. Buffington, of Jefferson City, Jlud. of^ce'ts, Dec. 1860, 1,850 
Alfred W. Morrison, of Howard Co., 'Dreasurer, « 1,850 

Jas. Proc. Knott, of Memphis, Attorney- General^ " 1,600 &f. 
George W. Huston, of Troy, Register of Lands, Oct. 1860, 1,750 & f. 
Wm. H. Lunscomb, of Jefferson. City, State LUfrarian, 
G. A. Parsons, »' Mjutant- General^ 200 

Tames S. Hackney, « Quartermaster- General, 365 



I860.] MISSOURI. 293 

Salary. 
John X^ughborough, of St. Louis, Surveyor- General, $1,500 

James M . Hughes, *< President of Slate Bank, 1,000 

A. S. Robinson, . «* Cashier " " 2,000 

John T. Coffee, of Dade Co., Speaker of the House, 

Wm. S. Mosely, of New Madrid, Clerk, 
Warwick Hough, of Jefferson City, Secretary of Senate, 

S. P. Vannoy, George W. Hough, and Henry Overstoltz, constitute the 
Board of Public Works. 

The Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorney-General, 
Register of Lands, and Superintendent of Common Schools, are required 
to live during their term at Jefferson City. The Lieutenant-Governor is 
ex officio President of the Senate, and receives $7 a day while presiding. 
The pay of the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the same. 
Senators are chosen every fourth, and Representatives every second year. 
Their pay is $5 a day during the session. The Legislature meets at the 
city of Jefferson, biennially, on the last Monday in December. A session 
will commence in November, 1860. 

JUDICIARr. 

Supreme Court, 
William Scott, of Cole Co., 

William B. Napton, of Saline Co., 
Ephraim B. Ewing, of Ray Co., 
Wm. £. Dunscomb, Clerk at Jefferson City, 
W. S. Glanville, <' at St. Louis, 

The judges of this court are elected for the term of six years by the 
qualified voters of the State. Two sessions of the Supreme Court are held 
annually, at Jefferson City and at St. Louis. 

Circuit Courts, 

Cue, Judges. Residence. Salary. Attorney. Residence. Salaiy. 

li George W. Miller, BoonvilLe, 91,500 Wm. O. Muir, Boonville, 8350&f. 

5. W.A.Hall, Huntsville, 1,500 Jolin F. Williams, Fayette, 350 &f. 

3. A. H. Buekner, Bowling Green, 1,500 N. P. Minor, Bowling Green, 350 & f. 

4. T. S. Richardson, Memphis, 1,500 John C. Anderson, Monticello, 350&f. 
& George W. Dunn, Richmond, 1.500 John W. Bryant, Marshall, 350& f. 

6. Robert G. Smart, Independence, 1,500 Aaron H. Ckinrow, Riclimond, 350 & f. 

7. Foster P. Wright, Warsaw, 1,500 Thos. W. Freeman, Bolivar, 350 &f. 
€. S. M. Breckenridge,St. Louis, 3,000 Chas. G. Manro, St. Louis, 350 dcf. 
9. John H. Stone, Potosi, 1,500 Daniel Q. Gale, Union, 350 &f. 

10. H. Hough, Charleston, ^,500 Robert E. Hatcher, New Madrid, 350 &t. 

U. James A. Clark, Brunswick, 1,500 John C. Griffin, Txenton, 350 &f. 

13. Elijah R. Norton, Platte City, 1,500 James M. Bassett, St. Joseph, 350 &f. 

13. JohnR.Chenault, Carthage, 1,500 Joseph Cravens, Neosho, 350 dcf. 

14. P. H. Edwards, Marshfield, 1,500 Julian Frazier, Hartville, 350 &f. 

15. Albert Jackson, Bloomfield, 1,500 Dana G. Hicks, Bloomfield, 350 &£ 

16. John T. Redd, Palmyra, 1,500 W. H. Hatch, , 

17. James McFerran, Gallatin, 1,500 William J. Lewis, , 350 &f. 

18. James H. Mcl^ride, Houston, L,500 £. Y. Mitchell, Steel viUe, 350 &f. 

19. Andrew King, St. Charles, 1,500 

25* 



Term espifes. 


Salary. 


1863, 


$2,500 


« 


2,500 


u 


2,500 




Fees. 



(( 



394 MZS800XI. [11860. 

A Circuit Coart is held twice a year in each county. Its jurisdiction ex- 
tends to all matters of tort and contract over $ 90, where the demand ia 
liquidated, and oyer $50 where the agreement is parol. It has excIusiTe 
criminal jurisdiction, and a superrision over the County Coorts and jus- 
tices of the peaee, subject to the correction of the Supreme Court. The 
judges of the Circuit Court are elected by the qualified Yoters of their re- 
spective districts, and for the tenh of six years. The term of the present 
judges expires in November, 1863 ; that of the present attorneys in Novem- 
ber, 1860. 

In addition to the Circuit and County Courts, St. Loais has a Court of 
Common Pleas, with a jurisdiction very similar to the Circuit Court, a 
Criminal Court, a distinct Court of Probate, a Recorder's Court, and a Land 
Court, having sole jurisdiction in St. Louis County in suits respecting 
lands, actions of ejectment, dower, partition, dtc. The judges of the Com- 
mon Pleas and Criminal Courts are elected in the same manner and for the 
same term as the circuit judges. 

CourU of Common Pleas, 

Judge. Reaidenee. Salary. 

H. Clay Cockerill, Weston, $9S0&i: 

Sample Orr, Springfield, 250 •* 

Jobn J. Flood, Bmnswiek. 950 ** 



Judge. Residence. Salary. 

Joseph T. Wyatt, St. Joseph, $250 ft f. 
W. C. Ranney, Ciqie Girardeau, 900 *' 
Jas. K. Sheley, KaB.ftIndependence,500 " 



Courts of SL Louis, 



Judge. Gourt. Salary. 



Judge. Court. Salary. 



Samuel Reber, Common Pleas, $3,000 Charles B. Lord, Land Court, 93,000 

HetiTj A. Clover, Criminal Court, 3^00o|Peter6. Purgusson, Probate, F« 



These are local tribunals, exercising jurisdiction only in their counties, 
except the Recorder's Court, whose jurisdiction is confined to small of- 
fences and within the limits of the city. From the Court of Common Pleas 
and Criminal Court, an appeal lies to the Supreme Court; and the judges of 
the Common Pleas are appointed like the cirevit judges, with like tenures. 
The probate judge is elected by the people of the county for four years, 
and the Recorder by the people of the city of St. Louis, for two years. 

CouTUy Courts. — The jurisdiction of these courts is limited to matters of 
probate and local county affairs, as roads, &c, A County Court sits in each 
county, and is composed of three justices, who are elected by the people, 
and hold their offices for four years. Some are paid $3 and some $2 a day 
while in session. An appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

FlllARGBt. 

Balance in the treasury, Oct 1, 18S6, \ . f 419,981. 10 

Receipts Into the treasury for the two ysMS ending Oct. 1, 1858, . 1,795,649.07 

Total means, •9.215,580.77 

Expenditures during the same two years, 1,8523,344.06 

BalancelntheTreasury, Oct. 1, 1868, ...... . 9392,236769 



The receipts for the two years were from taxes and licenses as given below. There 
also received from Boad and Canal Fund, 8 79,090 ; State School moneys, $248,737 ; Inte^ 
nal Improvement Pond, $67,764; interest account ef State Intenst Fund, #22,819. The 
chief Items (tf expenditure were, 



1S60.] 



MI880V&I. 



395 



aril Offlcen, «... $148,872 
General Assembly and contiogmcies, 177,829 



10,412 

37,617 

12,732 

908 



General contingent Fand, 

Printing, &c. Laws and Journals, 

Decisions of Supreme Court, 

Militia Oflicers, 

Penitenliary, .... 

Coets in Criminal Cases, . > 85,710 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum and buildings, 32,259 

Lunatic Asylum, .... 70,037 



TnstitntioA Ibr the Blind, 
Taking Census, 
Geological Survey, 
Agriculture and Societies,