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/- - , THE 



AMEKICAN ALMANAC 



REPOSITORY 



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, 



FOB THE YEAB 



1848. 



BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED BY JAMES HUNBOB k 00. 
1847. 



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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, 

Br Fhancib Bo wen, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Kassachusetts. 



I • "VAmfeLLAirDMOOAB. 



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PREFACE. 



The Kineteenth Volume of the American Almanac is now offered to the 
pnblic. Unwearied pains have been taken to collect full and varied infor- 
mation concerning the complex affairs of the general and state governments ; 
and a mass of documents has been digested relating to the government, 
history, finances, legislation, pnblic institutions, and internal improvements 
of the United States. It is believed that the present volume is equal to its 
predecessors in fulness and accuracy, and that it will sustain the high 
character of the American Almanac as a trustworthy manual for reference, 
and a full repository of useftil knowledge. 

Tlie ABtronomlcal Department has been, as usual, under the direction of 
Professor Peirce, whose high reputation is a sufficient guaranty of the com- 
pleteness and accuracy of the computations. The articles upon the observa- 
tory at Washington and the great telescope at Cambridge, show the 
advaiitages that have resulted thus early to science from the wise forecast 
of the general government, and the generous munificence of the citizens of 
Boston. Another article gives the places in which Pingr6's predicted comet 
of 1848 is expected to appear. The Meteorological information embraces 
points in all parts of the United States ; and tables have been added, showing 
the flowering seasons, and days and depths of snow, for a series of years in 
several places. Such tables are valuable ; and it is desfa^ble that those who 
have kept them should forward them to the editor for publication. The 
table of latitudes and longitudes, kindly furnished for the American Alma- 
nac by Major Graham, and received too late for insertion in the body of 
the work, has been appended to it, and contains new and important 
geographical information. 

In another part of the volume will be found an abstract of the laws of 
the several states concerning imprisonment for debt, which has been pre- 
pared with great care, and is more complete than any other yet published. 
The chapter upon the Patent Office and the laws concerning patents will 
show the inventive genius of our countrymen, and point out the steps ne- 
cessary to secure the inventor in his rights. The history of the Electric Tel- 
egraph will be curious and interesting to all readers. The chapters upon 
the several Departments are full and accurate, having been corrected at 



.U^ 

Jill. i>L 194u80 



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Washington to the latest dates ; and an extended account of the revenue of 
the post-offlce under the new law is given. The tabular view of all the 
railroads in this country is continued firom the last volume in a more en- 
larged and perfect form ; and the comparative view of the debts, property, 
and general financial condition of all the states, has been corrected with 
great care from the latest official returns. Lists of the members elect to the 
30th Congress, and their residence, and of the 5th Reformed Parliament, are 
given. The genersd abstract of all the public laws passed by Congress is 
continued, as heretofore ; and a list of the public resolutions and treaties has 
been added. A distinguishing feature of the present volume is a brief 
outline of the history, an abstract of the constitution, and a complete list of 
all the governors of each state. The statutes of each state have been care- 
fully examined, and all the amendments of the constitutions have been 
incorporated in the abstract Great pains have been taken to make them, 
accurate, and they are believed to be sufficiently fUll for all practical pur- 
poses. 

The thanks of the Editor are particularly due to the fltoads of Departments 
at Washington, and to his many contributors and correspondents, to whom, 
the work is indebted for a great part of its value. A continuance of their 
fkvors is respectftilly solicited. A work embracing such a multitude of 
facts must necessarily contain some errors : persons who detect any are 
earnestly requested to communicate them to the Editor. It is a matter of 
some public interest that a periodical which circulates so widely, both in 
Europe and America, and which is so universally trusted as a manual for 
reference, should be rendered as accurate as possible; and this end can be 
obtained only by the cooperation of many individuals. Communications 
may be addressed to the ^* Editor of the American Almanac," Boston. 

Boston^ Mass.^ 

SepU 30, 1847. 



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CONTENTS, 



PABT I. 



CA£ISDAB AKD CKUBSTUL FSKNOMIHA fob TIB TSIB 1848. 



Page 

Celestial Phenomena, Signs, &c. 8 

Chronological Cvcles • 4 

Signs of the Zodiac 4 

B^iniiing and length of the Seasons • • 4 

Movable Festivals of the Church 6 

Jewish Calendar 6 

Mahometan Calendar 6 

Height of the Greatest Tides 7 

Darkness of the Nights in 1848 S 

Calbndak:— January, &o».« 10 

JEclipses in 1848 84 

Transit of Mercury 38 

Occultations 40 

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites 42 

Discs of Venus and Mars** 43 

Bings of Saturn 44 

XAtmide and Longitude of Places 45 

Xatitnde and Long, of Observatories* • -48 

JE^hemeris of the Sun 49 

Apparent Places of the Pole Star 65 



Places of the principal fixed Stars • • • 67 

Dr. Young's Kefractions 65 

Sun's Parallax in Altitude 66 

The Observatory at Washington 67 

The Great Telescope at Cambridge — 72 

Pingr6's Predicted Comet of 1848 75 

MsT£oaoLOGiOAL iNFORifATioN : — Tablcs 
for Saco, Cambridge, Mendon, Low- 
ell, Worcester, New x ork, Bocheater, 
Lambertville, Chapel Hill, Savannah, 
Natchez, Washington, Bloomington, 
Louisville, Flowering of Fruit Trees, 
Flowering Season at Worcester for 8 
years, Leafing of Forest Trees, Flow- 
ering of the Apple, Days when Snow 
fell and Depth of Snow for 37 years 
in Turner, Me., Frosts and Snows, 
Depth of Snows and Flowering of 
Fruit Trees in Lambertville, N. J., 
for 8 years 80-94 



PART II. 



United Statkj. 



1. liist of Presidents 97 

Executive Government 97 

Officers in the Departments 98 

Postmasters in the Chief Cities • • -100 
CoUectors of Customs 102 

2. Intercourse with For^gn Nations -103 

Consuls in Foreign Countries 105 

Foreign Ministers 108 

Fore^ Consuls in the U. States -109 

3. Mint 113 

4. J udiciary 116 

Supreme Court 116 

Circuit Courts 117 

District Courts 119 

5. Army List 120 

Fay of Army Officers 123 

MiUtia Force of the United Statesl24 



6. Navy List 

Vessels of War of the Navy* 



124 
.126 



7. Marine CorM 128 

8. Post-office Establishment 128 

Mail Service for 1846 .*. . .129 

Bevenue under the New Law 131 

Kates of Postage 133 

Franking Privilege 134 

9. Public Lands 136 

10. Revenue and Expenditure 138 

Debt of the United States 142 

United States Bevenue for 67 years 143 
U. S. Expenditure for 57 years- • • 144 
Imports, Exports, &c. for 57 years- 145 

11. Commerce and Navigation 146 

Value of Imports 146 

Value of Exports 194 



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OONTBIfTS. 



12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 



Tonnage in Foreign Trade* • • 

Commercial Marme 154 

Banks in the United States 153 

Tea and Coffee for 26 years 159 

Emigration to the United States • 160 

Congress 161 

Senate 161 

House of Representatives- • • 163 

Alphabetical List of Bepresenta- 

tives 166 

Finances and Debts of the States -168 

CollMfes 170 

Theological Schools • • 174 

Law Schools l74 

Medical Schools 17.5 

Smithsonian Institution 175 

Religions Denominations 176 

State Elections, &c. 176 

Governors of States, &c. 177 



25. MezleanTarlir •% 

26. Law of Imprisonment for Debt* • -181 

27. The Electric Telegraph 187 

28. Patent Office and Law of Patents, 190 

29. Railroads in the United States- • • -193 

Do. in Massachusetts 196 

Other Railroads in New England -194 
Railroads in New York 194 

Do. at the South and West- -196 

80. Abstracts of Public Laws 197 

Treasury Notes 198 

Ten-Regiment Bill 199 

Passengers in Merdiant Yessels* • -201 
Naval Steamships 209 

81. Public Resolutions 212 

82. Public Treaties 213 

38. Population of the CiUes 213 

84. Population of the United States • -214 

85. Slaves in the United States 214 



Inditidual Statu. 



1. Maine 215 

2. New Hampshire 219 

8. Vermont 223 

4. Massachusetts 227 

5. Rhode Island 283 

6. Connecticut 237 

7. New York 241 

8. New Jersey 252 

9. Pennsylvania 257 

10. Delaware 261 

n. Maryland 264 

12. Virginia 268 

13. North Carolkia 2?2 

14. South Carolina 276 

15. Georgia 278 

16. Florida 281 



31. 



Alabama 288 

Mississippi 286 

Louisiana • • • i 28» 

Texas 298 

Arkansas 296 

Tennessee 298 

Kentucky 801 

Ohio 804 

Michigan 807 

Indiana 811 

Illinois 816 

Missouri 817 

lovnt 820 

Wisconsin 828 

Oregon 324 

District of Columbia 824 



American States *...... 825 1 British American Provinces- 



•826 



Euaopx. 



Sovereigns of Europe 826| Great Britain 

European States 327 House of Lords 

France 328 I House of Commons- 



Relief for Ireland and Scotland, 342 I Latitudes and Longitudes 866 

American Obituary 843 Corrections and Additions 370 

Chronicle of Events 361 1 



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INDEX. 



•^ 



Abetractfl of Fnblio Laws • • • 

Alabama ..-asj 

American Obituary 848 

American States 825 

Apple, Flowering of, for 87 years • • • • 98 

Appropriations in 1847 197 

Arkansas 296 

Army List 120 

Army Officers, Pay of 123 

Articles imported in 1846 146 

Articles exported in 1846 149 

Banks in the United States 154 

Banks in U. S. in 1842 and 1845 • -155, 156 
Banks in U. S. from 1834 to 1847 167, 158 

British American Provinces 825 

Cabinet, Officers in the 97 

Calendar : January, &c. 10 

Capitals of States 176 

Celestial Phenomena, Sinis, &c 8 

Charges d'Affiiires of U. S. in 1847 ... -104 

Chronicle of Events 862 

Chronological Cycles 4 

Church Festivals 5 

Circuit Courts 117 

Cities, Population of- 213 

Coffee, Duties on for 12 years 159 

CofTee, Consumption of for 26 years* • -159 

Collectors of Customs 102 

Colleges 170 

Colleges, Annual Expenses in 178 

Com^, Plngr6's predicted, of 1848 • • • • 75 

Commerce 146 

Commercial Marine of the U. States- .154 
Commissioners,!!. S. in Foreign Coun- 
tries 104 

Commons, House of- 835 

Congress 161 

Connecticut 237 

Consuls, Foreign, in United States • • -109 

Consuls in Foreign Countries 105 

Corrections and Additions 870 

Countries whence Goods are brought -151 

Darkness of the Nights 8 

Debt of the United States 142, 144 

Debts of the States, 168 

Delaware 261 

Departments. Officers in the 98 

Depths and Days of Snow for 37 years • 93 

Discs of Venus and Mars 43 

District Courts 119 

District of Columbia 824 

Duties in Mexican Porta 178 

SdipsesinlSiS 84 



Page 

E 176 

E 187 

E In 1846 160 

E 49 

E 327 

E 97 

E >7 years 144 

E P1846 152 

E S 149 

E 145 

F 6 

F 168 

F laces of- 57 

Florida.. ......T • 281 

Flowering of Fruit Trees in 1847 92 

Flowering Season for 8 years 92, 94 

Flowerinir of the Apple for 87 years • • -98 

Foreign Goods imported 146 

Foreign Ministers 108 

Foreign Trade. Countries of 153 

Forest Trees, Leafing of, for 87 years, . 93 

France 828 

Franking Privilege 184 

Frosts and Snows for 8 years 94 

Fruit Trees, Flowering of, for 8 years- 94 

Georgia 278 

Government, Seats of, in different 

States 176 

Governors of States 177 

Grand Refractor at Cambridge, Mass.- 72 

Great Britain 828 

House of Commons 835 

House of Lords 329 

Dlinois 315 

Import, Articles of, in 1846 .. 146 

Imports for 57 years 145 

Imports of each State for 1846 152 

Imports paying ad valorem Duties 142,148 
Imports paying Specific Duties- • -142, 148 

Imprisonment for Debt, Law of 181 

Indiana 311 

Intercourse with Foreign Nations • • • -108 

Iowa 820 

Ireland, Belief for 842 

Jewish Calendar 5 

Judiciary, United States 116 

Jupiter's Satellites, Eclipses of- 42 

Kentucky 801 

Latitude and Longitude of Places -45, 368 

Law Schools 174 

Law of Imprisonment for Debt 181 

Laws, Abs&acts of Public 197 

Laws oonoemlng Patents 190 



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YUl 



Page 

liCgfsIatareSf State, Meeting of 176 

liOrds, House of 829 

Louisiana 289 

Magnetic Tele^^raph, The 187 

Mahometan Calendar 6 

Mail Ser?ice for 1846 129 

Ma ine 215 

Marine, Commercial, of the U. S. 154 

Marine Corps 128 

Maryland 264 

Massachusetts 227 

Massachusetts, Bailroads of 193 

Medical Schools 175 

Meteorological Information 80-94 

Mexican Tariff- 178 

Mex ico 325 

Michigan 807 

MiUtia Force of the United States 124 

Ministers, U. S. in Foreign Countries- 104 

Mint 118 

Mississippi 286 

Missouri 817 

Navigati<m 146,153 

Navy Department 99 

Navy List 124 

Navy OflScers, Pay of 126 

Navy, Vessels of War in 126 

New Hampshire 219 

New Jersey 252 

New York 241 

New York, Railroads in 194 

Nights, Darkness of the 8 

North Carolina 272 

Observatories, Lat. and Long, of 48 

Observatory at Washington 67 

Occultations 40 

Ohio 804 

Oregon Territory 324 

Parallax in Altitude of the Sun 66 

Patent Office 190 

Patents, I^ws concerning 190 

Pennsylvania 257 

Pingr6's Predicted Comet of 1848 76 

Pole Star, Places of the • • • • • 55 

Population of Cities • • • -213 

Population of the United States 214 

Postage, Rates of 133 

Postage by the New York and Bremen 

Steamers 135 

Postmasters 100 

Postmasters, Compensation of- 132 

Post-office, Business of- 132 

Post-office Department 100 

Post-office Establishment • -128 

Post-office Revenue under the New 

Law 181 

Presidents of the United States 97 

Public Lands - - 136 

Public Resolutions of Congress 212 

Public Treaties 213 

Railroads in the United States 193 



Page 

Refractions, Dr. Young's « 

Refractor, Grand, at Cambridge, Mass. T* 

Relief of Ireland and Scotland 34S 

Religious Denominations 17( 

Representatives^ Alphabetical List of- 161 

Representatives, House of- 16i 

Resolutions, Public, of 2d Session, 29th 

Congress 211 

Revenue and Expenditure 13) 

Revenue, U. States, for 57 years K 

Rhode Island 23i 

Satellites of Jupiter, Eclipses of 4i 

Saturn's Rings 4' 

Scotland, Relief for 34J 

Seasons, Beginning and Length of • • • i 

Senate of the United States 16: 

Signsofthe Planets < 

Slaves in the United States 21^ 

Smithsonian Institution 17i 

Snow, Days and Depth of, for 87 yrs.- 9J 
Snows, Frosts and, for eight years- • - • 94 

South Carolina 27S 

Southern Railroads 195 

Sovereigns of Europe 326 

Stars, Fixed, Apparent Places of- 57 

State Department 98 

State Elections, &c. 17« 

State Finances, Debts, &c. M 

Sun, Ephemeris of the 48 

Sun's Parallax in Altitude 66 

Supreme Court 116 

Tariff in Mexican Ports 178 

Tea, Duties on, for 12 years 159 

Tea, Consumption of, for 26 years ... -ISA 

Telegraph, The Electric 187 

Telegraph, Lines of; in operation 1SS 

Telegraph, Lines of, in process of con- 
struction 189 

Telegraph, Lines projected 189 

Telescope, at Cambridge, Mass. 72 

Tennessee 298 

Ten-Regiment Bill 199 

Texas 293 

Theological Schools 17i 

Tides, Height of Greatest 7 

Tonnage of the United States 145, 152 

Trade, Foreign, Countries of 163 

Treasury Department 98 

Treasury Notes 198 

Treaties, Public 213 

Venus and Mars, Discs of 43 

Vermont 223 

Vessels of War in U. States Navy ... -126 

Virginia 1 268 

War Department 99 

Washington Observatory 67 

Western Raihroads 196 

Wisconsin 828 

Young's Refractions 65 

Zodiac, Signs of the ^ 



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AMERICAN ALMANAC, 

FOR 

1848. 



PART I. 



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THB 

AMERICAN ALMANAC, 

YOB THE BISSEXTILB TEAR 

1848, 

Being the latter part of the 7 2d, and the beginning of the 73d year 
of the Independence of the United States of America ; 

" the 6561st year of the Julian Period ; 

" the latter part of the 5608th, and the beginning of the 5609th 
year since the creation of the world, according to the Jews ; 

" the 260l8t year (according to Varro) since the foundation of 
Rome; 

« the 2595th year dnce the era of Nabonassar, which has been 
assigned to Wednesday, the 26th of February of the 8967th 
year of the Julian Period, which corresponds, according to 
the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the astron- 
omers, to the 746th year, before the birth of Christ ; 

<< the 2624th year of the Olympiads, or the fourth year of the 
656th Olympiad, beginning in July, 1848, if we fix the era 
of the Olympiads at 775^ years before Christ, or at or 
about the beginning of July of the year 3988 of the Julian 
Period; 

<' the latter part of the 1264th, and the beginning of the 1265th 
year (of twelve lunations) since the Hegira, or flight of 
Mahomet, which, as is generally supposed, took place on 
the 16th of July, in the year 622. of the Christian era. 



I. CALENDAR 
AND CELESTIAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR. 
SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c. 



The Sun. 

The Earth. 
, >Q€ The Moon. 
9 Mercury. 
2 Venus. 



Mars. 
_ Vesta. 
$ Juno. 
^ Pallas. 



$ Ceres. 

1|. Jupiter. 

h Saturn. 

igL Herschel or Uranus. 

:jc A^edstar. 



i Conjunction, or haying the same Longitude or Bight Ascension. 
D Quadrature, or differing 90° in " ** *♦ 

S Opposition, or differing 180* in " a « 

il The ascending, XS the descending node. 



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CHRONOLOGICAL CTCLB8, BIGNS OF THE ZODIAC, ETC. 



[1848. 



The sign + is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of tire Sun, or other 
heavenly body, when north, and the 8io:n — when south ; but the former pre- 
fixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude, indicates that she ^s 
approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north pole of the 
ecliptic. 

The letters M. J.., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon. 



CHKONOLOGICAL CYCLES. 



Dominical Letters, B, A 

Epact, - 25 

Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 6 



Solar Cycle, 9 

Roman Indiction, 6 

Julian Period, 6561 



SIGNS OF THE ZODLA.C. 



Spring 
signs. 

Summer 
signs. 



(I. T 
12. 8 

(s. n 



Aries. 
Taurus. 
Gremini. 
23 Cancer. 
Leo. 
Virgo. 



Autumn 
signs. 

Winter 
signs. 



( 7. ^ 
t 9. / 



-^ Libra. 
Scorpio. 
Sagittarius. 
flO. Vf Capricomus. 

1 11. ts;. Aquarius. 

112. H Pisces. 



BEGINNING AND LENGTH OF THE SEASONS. 



Sun enters ]ff (Winter begins) 1846, Dec 21st, 

* cp (Spring " ) 1847, March 20th, 

" " C (Summer " ) " June 21st, 

" " ^ (Autumn " ) " Sept. 22d, 

" " vy (Winter " ) " Dec 21st, 



m. 8. 
5 46 M. 
9 26 M. 
5 44M. 



5 11 26 A. 
10 52 2 M. 



M. Time 

at 
Wash'ton 
Observa- 
tory. 



Sun in the Winter Signs* 



d. 
89 



m. 8. 
3 40 



Spring " 92 20 56 18 

« Summer " 93 14 5 42 

" Autumn " 89.16 40 36 

north of Equator, (Spring and Summer)" 186 11 2 
south of " (Winter and Autumn)-. 178 18 44 16 



Length of tlie tropical year, commencing at) 
the winter solstice, 1847, and terminating at ? 365 5 46 16 
the winter solstice. 1 848, ' 

Mean, or average length of the tropical year, 365 5 48 48 



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1848.] ^ MOVABLE FESTIVALS, JEWISH CALBNDAB. 5 

MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH, IN 1848. 



Septnagesima Sunday, Feb. 20th 
Quinq. or Shrove Snnday, Mar. 5th 

Ash Wed., Lent begins, Mar. 8th 

Mid Lent Sunday, Apr. 2d 

Palm Sunday, Apr. 16th 

Easter Sunday^ Apr. 23d 

Low Sunday, Apr. 30th 



Kogation Sunday, May S8tfa 

Ascen. Day, or Holy Th. June Ist 

"Whitsunday or Pentecost, June 11th 

Trinity Sunday, June 18th 

Corpus Christi Day, 

F§te Dieu, 

Advent Sunday, Dee. 3d 



June22d 



JEWISH CALENDAR. 

[The axudTeraaries marked ^th an asterisk (*) are to Iw strictly obeerred.] 

Tear. Names of the Months. 

5608 Thebet begins, Dec 8, 1847- 

" " 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem, Dec 17, " 

" Sebatbeguis, Jan. 6, 1848. 

" Adarbegins, Feb. 5, " 

« « 14th LitUe Purim, Feb. 1?, ** 

" Veadar begins, Mar. 6, " 

" « 11th, Fastof Esther, Mar. 16, « 

" " 14th, *Purim, Mar. 19, " 

« « 15th, Schuscan Purim, Mar. 20, « 

" Nisan begins, Apr. 4, 

" " 15th, *Beginning of the Passover, Apr. 18, " 

« " 16th, *Second Feast, or Morrow of the Passover, Apr. 19, " 

« « 21st, *Seventh Feast, * Aim*. 24, ** 

« " 22d, *End of the Passover, Apr. 25, ** 

" Ijarbegins, May4, « 

« « 18th, Lag Beomer, May 21, " 

« Sivaa begins . ^ June 2, « 

" « 6th, *reast of Weeks or Pentecost, June 7, ** 

« " 7th, *Second Feast, June 8, ** 

" ^Thammus begins, J^y 2, 

" l7th,Fastforthe taking of the Temple, .•• July 18, " 

« Abbegins, July 31, *| 

" " 9th, *Fast for the burning of the Temple, Aug. 8, 

" " Elulbegins, Aug 30, « 

5609 Tisri begins, *Feast for the New Year, Sept. 28, 

" " 2d, *Second Feast for the New Year, Sept 29, ** 

" " 3d, F^t of Gedaljah, Oct. 1, 

" ** 10th, *Fast of the Reconciliation or Atonement, Oct. 7, 
1* 



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6 HAHOMSTAK CALENDAR* [1848. 

Year. Names of the Months. 

5609 Tisri, 15th, *rea8t of the Huts or Tabernacles, Oct. 12, 1848. 

" " 16th, *Second Feast of the Huts, Oct. 13, " 

" " 21st, Feast of Pahns or Branches, Oct. 18, " 

" " 22d, *End of the Hut or Congregation Feast, ••• Oct 19, " 
« " 23d, *Eejoicing for the Discovery of the Law, • • Oct. 20, " 

" Marchesvan begins, Oct. 28, " 

" Ohisleu begins, Nov.26, " 

" " 25th, Consecration of the Temple, Dec. 20, " 

" Thebet begins, Dec. 26, " 

The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the Moon, 
but in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month ( Veader) is 7 times intro- 
duced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year nearly 
or quite correct. 



MAHOMETAN CALENDAE. 

Year. Names of the Months. 

1264 Muharrem begins, Dec. 9, 1847 

" Saphar " Jan. 8, 1848. 

" Rabial. « Feb. 6, « 

" Rabiall. " Mar. 7, " 

" Jomadhi I. " April 5, " 

" JomadhiH. " May 5, « 

" Redjeb " June 3, " 

« Chaban « July 3, " 

" Ramadan " (Month of Fasting) Aug. 1, « 

" Schewall " (Bairam) Aug.31, " 

« Dsua-kadah " Sept.29, " 

« Dsu'l-heijah " Oct. 29, « 

1265 Muharrem " Nov. 27, " 

" Saphar " • Dec. 27, " 

The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 
16th, A. D. 622. 

The Mahometan year is purely lunar; it consists of 12 synodical periods 
of the Moon, or of 354 days, 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and 11 times 
of 355 days. The average length of this year is therefore 354j^ days, which 
differs onl^ thirty-three seconds from the truth; a degree of exactness that 
only could have been attained by a long series of observations. But as no 
allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a tropical year 
over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that in about 33 
years, the above months will correspond to every season and every part of 
the Gregorian year. 



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by Google 



1848.] HBIOHT Ol* 8PBUIG TIDES. 7 

HEIGHT OF THE GBEATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1848. 

Computed hy the Formula of Laplace, (MScanique Cdeste, Vol. IL pp. 289» 
ParU ed,, and [2858] Bowd. ed.) 



New or Foil 


Height of 


New or FuU 


Height of 


Moon. 


the Tide. 


Moon. 


the Tide. 




d. h. 






<f. h. 


New Moon, 


Jan. 6, 7M. 


0.90 


Full Moon 


July 16, 4M 0.86 


FuU *♦ 


20, 7 M. 


0.91 


New **. 


30, 2M. 0.93 


New *• 


Feb. 4, 9 A. 


1.01 


Fnll " 


Aug. 14, 3 A. 0.97 


PuU « 


18, 11 A. 


0.90 


New " 


28, 2 A. a92 


New « 


Mar. 5, 8M. 


1.12 


FuU « 


Sept 13, 1 M. 1.08 


Full " 


19, 4 A. 


0.89 


New " 


27, 4M. 0.90 


New « 


April 3, 6 A. 


1.15 


Full « 


Oct 12, 11 M. 1.13 


Full " 


18, 9M. 


0.84 


New « 


26, 10 A. 0.85 


New " 


May 3, 2M 


1.09 


Full " 


Nov. 10, 9 A. 1.10 


FhU " 


18, 2M. 


0.80 


New « 


25, 4 A. 0.80 


Nfew « 


June 1, 10 M. 


1.01 


Full " 


Dec. 10, 7M 1.04 


Full " 


16, 4A. 


0.80 


New ** 


25, 11 M. 0.80 


New " 


30, 5 A. 


0.95 







The unit of altitude at any place is the height at that place of that tide 
-winch aniyes about a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, 
when the Sun and Moon, at the moment of conjunction or opposition, are at 
their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial equator. 

This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each 
place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of the 
spring tides at that place during the present year. 

By the above table it appears, that the highest tides of 1848 will be those 
of March 7, April 5, May 4, September 14, October 14, and November 12. 

The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much on the strength 
and direction of the wind, that it not unfirequently happens that a tide, 
which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than anoth 
er, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when the Sun 
and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great elevation, is still 
further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water will be un- 
commonly great, sufficient, perhaps, to cause damage. 

The formula, from which these tides were computed, is, however, strictly 
true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very uncer- 
tain approximation for the coast of the United States. 



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8 



DARKKE88 OF THE HIORT8. 



[1848 



DARKNESS OF THE NIGHTS DURING THE YEAR 1848. 
Far Boston^ New York, PhUaddphia^ Washington^ ^. 

The number of hours at the top of the page denotes the aTerage tfane for the month ftom 
the end of the eyening turilight tu the b^jiiming of the momhig twilight. 

The dota in the table denote the hours of entire darkness, whrn there is neither fun, 
moon, nor twilight ; and their disposition denotes the hours before or after midnight. 



"11 

Mo. 




r 


May 
7h. 


J'ne 
6h. 


July 
6h. 


r^" 


tr; 


Oct. 
9h. 


Novem'r 
11 h. 


Deeem'r 
12 h. 


1 




...."•• 


....... 


..... 


...... 


...••• 


...... 


........ 






2 


.... 


.«.•••• 


....-© 




...... 


...... 


...... 


....... 


...— 




8 


D" 


..0*" 


....... 


..... 


....•• 


..... 


...... 


..... 


d. 


« 


4 


.... 


....— 


....•• 


.... 


..- 


..••• 


..•••. 


d...." 


..... 


— 


6 


— 


..."•• 


..... 




.... 


.". 


<I....- 




.... 


.- 


6 







....••• 


..*••• 


.... 


.. 


.... 


<[.... 


.... 


.... 


... 


-. 


7 






... •• 


..... 


... 


.. 


c... 


... 


... 


... 


.. 


•• 


8 






..•••• 


.... 


... 


<[• 


•• 


... 


.. 






. 


9 






..... 


<[•• 


d" 


• 


. 


.. 


. 


. 




• 


10 







.... 




. 


• 


. 






1 


• 




11 
12 


d 


c 


C" 




• 








1 ^ 


!• 




. 


18 




... 


, 


• 










1 




•• 


14 




- •• 


• 










• 


M 




.. 


... 


15 




• 










• 








... 





16 












• 








. 


.... 


1> 


17 








• 


• 








. 


•. 


.....D 




18 




• 














.. 


...D 






19 


• 




• 










. 


...D 


.... 






20 








. 




. 




.D 


.... 


..... 


........ 


•**' 


21 


. 


.. 


. 


.. 


.. 








..... 


...." 


..•..•••• 


....«..•• 


22 






.. 


... 






..D 


... 


...... 


....... 




......*•"••* 


23 


... 




... 


... 


.... 


..]) 


... 


.... 


....... 


........ 







24 


.... 





.... 


.... 


.... 


.,• 


... 


.«.. 


....... 







0-* 


26 


..... 


...... 





....!> 


....'D 


... 


.... 


...... 


........ 




•..0 




26 





D 




....•• 


..... 


.... 


..... 


....... 


P" 


••0 


***** 




27 


D 




-D 


...." 


...... 


..... 


...... 


....... 


........ 








28 


.«...• 






....•• 


....... 




...... 


.0**" 


....".• 


....••*.. 




....••••*" 


29 


....... 






...."• 


....... 




0- 


...".. 


....•— 








80 
81 


** 








. 0. 


q" 


...... 


... •• 


....... 




......... 


• i 



Digitized 



by Google 



1648.] 



DA«KK£8S OF THB VlOHTfl. 

For Charleston, New Orleans, ffx. 



of 
Mo. 


Jftouaiy 
11 h. 


Feb»ry 
10 h. 


Maroh 
9h. 


l-s" 


71i. 


June 
7h. 


July 
7h. 


Aug. 
8h. 


^: 


/ 
Oct 
10 h. 


Not. 
11 h. 


Dee. 
Uh. 


1 

2 

8 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

18 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

26 

26 

27 

28 

29 

ao 

81 


<r 

• 

... 

D 


...0**" 

• 
D 


• 


..0*"* 

• 


, e'- 
er •• 

• 


• 
...D 

.0" 


<r- 

• 

.D 


• 
...D 

..0**" 


• 

1 


a. 

r 

**** 

...0*"" 
...••*■*•* 


D 


• 
D 

0- 



Digitized 



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10 January^ First Month, begins on Saturday, [1848. 






1st day. 


7th day. 


18th day. 


19th day. 


2Sthday. 


] 
1 


Begins. 
i. m. 


Ends 
h.m 


. Begins.! 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h.m. h.m. 


Boston, 


5 4dm 


6 20a|| 5 48m| 


6 24a 


5 48m ( 


3 29a 


6 47m 6 363 


544m 642a 


N. York, 


5 46 


622 


546 


626 


546 ( 


3 31 


645 


637 


542 


644 


Wash'n, 


5 43 


6 25 


544 


629 


544 ( 


3 34 


543 


639 


5 41 


645 


Charles., 


5 35 


633 


536 


637 


537 ( 


5 41 


536 


646 


635 


651 


N. Oil's, 


5 31 


637 


533 


6 40 


534 644 1 


533 


6 49 


632 


654 


PKBIGKB AND APOGU OF THE HOOK. 

Perigee, 12th day, 9h. A. | Apogee, 27th day, 8h. M. 


PHASES Of THE MOON. 

New Moon, 6th day, 6h. 69.8 M. : FuU Moon, 20fchday, 6h. 56 6 M. 
First Quarter, 13th « 6 88.3 M. : Last Quarter, 28th " 6 60.4 M. 


•s 


1 

1 


Sun's iqjper limb rises and sets, (corr. for refract.) M. Time. 


High Water. M. Time. 


6 


1 


r 


h 






1^ 


|i 






rises 
h. m 


. sets. 
h. m. 


nses. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


nses. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 
2 


s. 


7 30 
730 


438 


7 25 
7 25 


4 43 
4 44 


7 19 


4 49 


7 3 
7 3 


5 5 


8 57 


5 11 
5 12 


6 30m 


4 10m 


230m 


4 39 


7 19 


450 


5 6 


6 57 


7 37m 


5 17m 


3 37m 


3 


JVL 


30 


40 


25 


45 


19 


51 


3 


7 


67 


12 


8 46 


625 


445 


4 


Tu. 


30 


40 


25 


45 


19 


51 


3 


7 


68 


13 


943 


723 


543 


5 


W. 


30 


41 


25 


46 


19 


82 


3 


8 


58 


14 


10 28 


8 8 


628 


6 


Th. 


30 


42 


25 


47 


19 


63 


3 


9 


58 


14 


11 10 


8 60 


7 10 


7 


F. 


30 


43 


25 


48 


19 


54 


3 


10 


68 


15 


11 61 


931 


7 51 


8 
9 


S. 
Su. 


30 
730 


44 


25 
7 25 


49 
4 50 


19 
7 19 


55 


3 


11 


58 


15 


29a 


10 9 


829 


4 45 


456 


7 3 


5 12 


668 


5 17 


1 9a 


10 49m 


9 9m 


10 


M. 


29 


46 


25 


51 


19 


57 


3 


13 


58 


18 


148 


11 28 


948 


11 


Tu. 


29 


47 


24 


82 


18 


58 


2 


14 


68 


18 


232 


12a 


10 32 


12 


W. 


29 


48 


24 


53 


18 


59 


2 


14 


68 


19 


3 14 


054 


11 14 


13 


Th. 


28 


49 


24 


54 


18 


5 


2 


15 


68 


20 


4 3 


1 43 


3a 


14 


F. 


28 


50 


23 


55 


17 


1 


2 


16 


68 


21 


466 


2 36 


066 


16 
16 


S. 


27 


51 


23 


56 


17 


2 


2 


17 


67 


22 


6 4 


344 


2 4 


Su. 


7 27 


453 


7 22 


1 58 


7 17 


5 3 


7 2 


5 17 


667 


5 23 


7 17a 


4 57a 


3 17a 


17 


M. 


26 


54 


21 


59 


16 


4 


2 


18 


67 


23 


837 


6 17 


437 


18 


Tu. 


26 


55 


21 


5 


16 


5 


2 


19 


67 


24 


9 45 


725 


545 


19 


W. 


25 


67 


20 


2 


15 


7 


1 


20 


57 


25 


10 41 


8 21 


641 


20 


Th. 


24 


58 


19 


3 


14 


8 


1 


20 


56 


25 


1131 


9 11 


7 31 


21 


F. 


23 


59 


19 


4 


14 


9 


1 


21 


56 


26 


. . . 


955 


8 15 


22 
23 


S. 


22 


5 


18 


5 


13 


10 


1 


22 


56 


27 


15m 


L0 33 


853 


Su. 


7 22 


5 2 


7 17 


S 6 


7 12 


5 11 


7 


5 23 


665 


5 28 


63m 


LI loa 


930a 


24 


M. 


21 


3 


17 


7 


12 


12 





24 


55 


29 


1 30 


LI 46 


LO 6 


25 


Tu. 


20 


4 


16 


8 


11 


13 





25 


65 


30 


2 6 




10 40 


26 


W. 


20 


5 


15 


9 


10 


14 


6 69 


26 


54 


31 


2 40 


20m 


LI 15 


27 


Th. 


19 


6 


14 


10 


10 


15 


69 


27 


54 


32 


3 16 


055 


LI 51 


28 


F. 


Id 


8 


14 


12 


9 


16 


58 


23 


63 


33 


3 51 


1 31 


• * • 


29 
30 


S. 


17 


9 


13 


13 


8 


17 


58 


29 


53 


34 


432 


2 12 


32m 


Su, 


7 16 


5 10 


7 12 i 


)14 


7 8 


5 18 


6 57 


5 30 


6 52 


5 35 


5 19m 


2 69m 


1 9m 


31 


M. 


15 


12 11 ' 16 1 


7 20 J 


57 


31 51 '• 36 11 


629 4 9 1 


2 29 



Digitized 



by Google 



848.] 



January has Thirty-one Days. 



11 



lit day. 



Paaaage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declinatiou of the Plmete, 



10 son. 

8 50 
7 29a 
4 
2 10 

4 16m 

5 19 
033 

4 la 

6 11 



27 
— ^16 12 
-[-14 47 

48 
— ^12 48 
— ^18 
-4-12 40 
-fa2 30 
— ^10 6 
+ 6 4 



Dec. 



SoiOhs. 



7th day. 



lim — 24 



h. m. 

11 
854 
7 14a 

11 54in 
1 6da 
355m 
5 6 
4 
339a 
548 



Deo. 



11 

— ^17 38 
4-15 32 

41 

— ^12 22 
— ^18 14 
■12 50 

45 
— 9 54 
-}-5 6 



18th day. 



h. m. 

11 28m 
8 58 
659a 

11 44m 

1 45a 

3 34m 
446 
11 321 
3 18 
524 



Dec. 

— 24 10 
— ^19 2 
-[-15 18 
29 
— ^11 51 
— ^17 53 



• 9 40 
-[-5 8 



19th day. 



Souths, 

h. m. 

11 

9 4 
6 45a 

11 34m 

1 32a 

3iim 

424 

11 5a 

2 56 
5 1 



Dec. 

46m|i— S3 
—20 

—22 

— ^11 

— 17 

13 



9 

1+5 



26th day. 



SouUu, 
h. m. 
4a 
9 lom 
6 32a 

11 24m 
1 19a 
2 48m 
4 3 

19 39a 
2 35 
438 



Dee. 

— ^21 38 

— 21 3 

-[-17 56 

— 21 51 

— ^10 41 

— ^16 21 

tl3 49 

23 3 

— 9 12 
-[-6 15 



Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 



h. m. 
8 3m 



rises, 
h. m. 
2 37m 



8 49m 

9 % 

10 23 

11 21 

15a 

1 9 

2 2 



3 33m 

4 31 

5 28 

6 21 

sets, 

6 23a 

7 29 



S. 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
S, 

25 
26 
27 



2 54a 

3 46 

4 38 

5 29 

6 22 

7 15 

8 10 



8 38a 

9 47 
10 57 



5m 

1 18 

2 23 



6a 

10 3 

10 58 

11 52 

S 
049m 
132 



3 30m 

4 32 
530 

rises. 

532a 

6 35 

7 36 



2 19m 

3 4 
3 47 
430 
513 
556 

29l 6 41 



839a 
934 
10 31 
1128 



025m 
121 



SA 7 28m 

8l| 817 



2 17m 

3 14 



nses. 
h. m. 
234m 



3 3lm 

4 27 

5 24 

6 17 

sets, 

6 27a 
732 



8 4ia 
948 
10 56 



843a 
950 
10 66 



4m 

113 
2 17 



3 22m 
424 
596 
rises. 

5 36a 

6 38 

7 38 



d4ia 
934 

10 31 

11 27 



023m 
118 



2 14m 

3 10 



(03 



rues. 
h. m. 
2 33m 



3 2dm 

4 23 

5 19 

6 13 
sets, 

6 3la 
736 



8 48a 



10 56 



4m 

1 6 

2 8 



3 iim 

4 U 

5 9 

rises, 

5 4ia 

6 41 

7 39 



8 42a 

9 31 
10 31 
1126 



020m 
117 



2 urn 

3 6 



nses, 
h. m. 
2 24m 



3 18m 

4 12 

5 7 

6 

sets, 

6 42a 

7 44 



om 

1 6 

2 8 



3 lim 

4 11 

5 9 

rises, 

5 5ia 

6 50 

7 47 



845a 
936 
10 29 
1121 



14m 

1 8 



2 om 

254 



nses, 
h. m. 
2 22m 



3 15m 

4 8 

5 4 

5 50 

sets, 

6 4sa 

7 50 



852a 
955 
10 57 



om 

1 4 

2 5 



3 8m 

4 8 

5 5 

rises, 

5 57a 

6 55 

7 50 



8 47a 
937 
10 29 
1120 



12m 

1 5 



167m 
250 



PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 
TIONS. 

Sundays and Holidays, 



Washington Iflean Time, 
d. h. m. « , 

Circumcision, ® nearest Q 

2d Sunday after Christmas, 

1 3 27a ^gO 

2 9 28m3 9C 9 69 S. 
5 324m(5 gC 5f 5 81 S. 

Bpiphany, 
5 8 imQ^O 

5 9 17a i^^Ksff 5tC I 34N. 
\st Sunday after Epiphany, 

6 10 2im^JJ^O 

6 10 2a 6 9^' n*152S. 

7 7 2ia 9 gr. Hel. Lat N. 

3 7 53m ^ 9vTn. 5|C 1 11 S. 
10 2 4mg in Q 
10 7 3im(5 l^C h 4 5 S. 
2d Sunday after Epiphany, 

10 9 3ia ^ in Aphelion. 

11 52a ^ 9 xOphi. 5|C0 31 N. 

12 4 47a 6¥(^ ]^ 2lN. 
I4i0 45m^^(r ^4 42N. 
17 2 17m/ gg g 1 26 S. 

19 329mi2l€ 2/:6 12N. 
3d Sunday after Epiphany. 

20 ii44a <J^7i<Y> *0 27S. 
Conversion of St, Paul, 

22 11 4omO stationary. 

22 2 35a <J 9 JOplii.*016S. 

27 2 25m (5 9 DopLi. 5tc0 22 S. 

29 52m Sup. (5 5 O 

Ath Sunday after Epiphany, 

31 8 6m {{ gr. Hel. Lat. S. 



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12 February, Second Month, begins on Tuesday. [1848. 


TwiUfi^t begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. 


7th day. 


Idthday. 1 Idthday. 


26th day. 


Begins. 


Ends. 


Begins.! 


Ends. 


Begins. £nds. iBegini 


.|£nds. 


Begins 


.|£nds. 




h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. • 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


Boston, 


538m 


6 50a!| 5 32m| 


656a 


5 26m 


7 3a 


5 18m| 7 loa 


5 9m| 7 17a| 


N. York, 


537 


6 51 


531 


6 57 


625 


7 4 


5 18 


7 10 


5 10 


7 16 


Wash'n, 


536 


662 


5 31 


668 


525 


7 4 


5 18 


7 10 


5 10 


7 16 


Charles., 


531 


657 


627 


7 1 


523 


7 6 


5 17 


7 11 


5 10 


7 16 


N. Orl's, 


529 


659 


525 


7 3 


521 


7 8 


5 16 


7 12 


5 11 


7 15 


PUUGU AHD APOOU OP TBM MOON. 


Perigee, Tth day, 8h. A. | Apogee, 23d day, 9h. A. 


PHA8X8 OP THB MOON. 


NewMboQ, 401 day, 8h. 84.1m. A. 1 FoU Moon, ISth day, Ktti. 48.Qm. A. 


First Quarter, 11th " 2 47.7 A. | Laat Quarter, 27th " 8 18.6 M. 


i 


i 

1 


Sun's tapper limb rises and sets, (corr. for refiract.) M. Time.| 


High Water. M. ISme. | 




f^ 


i' 


' 


525 


6 
«« 




1^ 


rtses. 


sets. 


rtses. 


sets. 


rues 


sets. 


prises, sets. 


rtus. 


sets. 












h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m.l 


x.m. 


h.m 


h.m. 


h. m. h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Tu. 


7 14 


5 14 


7 10 I 


S18 


7 6 


522 


6 56 6 32 


6 51 


537 


7 44m 


624m 


3 44m 


2iW. 


13 


15 


9 


19 


5 


23 


55 


33 


60 


38 


8 57 


637 


457 


8 


Th. 


11 


16 


8 


20 


4 


24 


64 


34 


49 


39 


958 


738 


653 


4 


h\ 


10 


18 


7 


21 


3 


25 


54 


35 


49 


40 


10 46 


826 


646 


6 


S. 


9 


19 


6 


22 


2 


26 


63 


36 


48 


41 


11 32 


912 


733 


6 


Su. 


7 8 


5 20 


7 5 ( 


J 23 


7 1 


527 


6 52 637 


8 47 


542 


14a 


954m 


8 14m 


7 


M. 


7 


22 


4 


25 





28 


51 


38 


46 


43 


058 


10 32 


8 58 


8 


Tu. 


6 


23 


3 


26 


a59 


29 


50 


39 


45 


43 


133 


11 13 


9 33 


9 


W. 


5 


26 


2 


27 


53 


30 


49 


40 


44 


44 


2 15 


11 55 


10 15 


10 


Th. 


4 


26 


1 


29 


57 


31 


48 


41 


43 


45 


258 


03da 


10 58 


11 


h\ 


a 


27 


S59 


30 


66 


32 


47 


42 


42 


46 


3 44 


124 


11 44 


12 S. 


1 


28 


56 


31 


56 


33 


46 


43 


42 


47 


433 


2 13 


033a 


13' 


Su, 


7 


5 30 


8 67 i 


S33 


6 64 


535 


6 45 6 44 


6 41 


6 47 


5 34a 


3 14a 


1 34a 


14 


M. 


6 58 


31 


65 


34 


53 


36 


44 


45 


40 


48 


663 


433 


253 


15 


I'u. 


67 


32 


54 


35 


52 


37 


43 


46 


39 


49 


8 18 


653 


4 13 


16 


W. 


55 


33 


62 


36 


50 


38 


42 


46 


38 


49 


936 


7 16 


536 


IV 


Th. 


64 


34 


51 


37 


49 


39 


41 


47 


37 


50 


10 32 


8 12 


632 


18 


h\ 


62 


35 


60 


38 


48 


40 


40 


48 


30 


51 


11 19 


8 69 


7 19 


19 
20 


S. 


61 


37 


49 


39 


47 


41 


39 


49 


36 


62 


11 59 


939 


760 


^u. 


650 


5 38 


6 48 t 


>40 


6 46 


5 42 


16 38 6 50 


035 


5 52 




10 16a 


83Ga 


21 


M. 


48 


40 


46 


42 


44 


43 


37 


60 


34 


53 


36m 


10 48 


8 


22 


Tu. 


47 


41 


45 


43 


43 


44 


36 


51 


33 


54 


1 8 


1121 


41 


28 


W. 


45 


42 


44 


44 


42 


45 


35 


52 


32 


64 


141 


11 52 


10 la 


24 


Th. 


44 


44 


42 


46 


41 


46 


34 


52 


31 


65 


2 12 


. . . 


10 43 


25 


h\ 


42 


45 


41 


46 


40 


47 


33 


53 


30 


66 


243 


23m 


11 16 


26 


8. 


40 


46 


30 


47 


38 


43 


32 


54 


29 


66 


3 15 


055 


U 51 


27 


Su. 


6 33 


5 47 


5 38 t 


»48 


636 


5 49 


6 31 5 65 


6 28 


5 57 


3 5im 


1 3im 


• . • 


28 


^' 


37 


48 


37 


49 


34 


60 


30 56 


27 


53 


432 


2 12 


3am 


29 


Tu. 


36 


49 


36 60| 


33 


51^ 29 1 67 1 


2G 


59 


5 19 


3 


1 29 



Digitized 



by Google 



1846.] Fekruary has Twmty-nine Day$. IB 




' 


1st day. 


7th day. 


Idth day. 


Idth day. 1 


25th day. | 


Souths. 


Dee. 


Southi 


. Dec. 


Souths. 


Dee. 


S^ths. 


Dee. 


Souths 


Deo. 




h.m. 


1 


h.m. 


• < 


h.m. 


1 


h.m. 


1 


h.m. 


1 


K 


026a 


— 18 2J 


S 0458 


L —14 43 


1 2a 


—1014 


1 16a 


— 5 18 


1 18a 


— 054 


Q 


OITDD 


— 61 a 


i 9 24r 


Q —21 46 


9 32m 


—2133 


9 39m— 20 56 


946m 


—19 ffr 


i 


6 17a 


-}-18 6! 


6 5a 


I -f-19 42 


5 54a 


4-«0 29 


543a 


-|-21 13 


5 32a 


-f-2155 


f 


iiism 


I— 21 25 


I 11 2s 


a— 20 54 


10 S2m — 20 21| 


i0 4im 


— ^19 47 


io3om 


— ^19 8 


i 


1 5a 


— 9« 


052a 


— 9 11 


4oa 


— 8 25 


27a 


— 739 


15a 


— 650 


A 


2 19II] 


L— 15 1 


1 531 


Q— 13 27 


1 2im 


—1139 


1 om 


— 932 


33m 


— 7 13 


^ 


336 

10 8a 


4-14 2- 
-(-23 i 


312 
942 


4-15 5 
-(-23 12 


2 47 

9 16a 


4-15 46 
-fH23 15 


2 21 

8 5ia 


-4-16 28 
-|-83 17 


1 54 
826a 


4-17 12 
-1-83 18 


h 


2 10 


— 8« 


149 


— 838 


1 28 


— 822 


1 7 


— 8 5 


045 


— 7 49 


9 


4 11 


-|-52( 


3 49 


-t-525 


326 


-|-5 31 


3 3 


4-636 


2 41 


-|-543 


1 




Moon risei or lete. Mean Time. 




f^ 










s 


PHBNOMBNA AND OBSERVA- 


4 


S 


S 


JS 


TIONS. 


'8 
1 


|l 




s 

»5 


i 


1 

e 


S5 


Sundays and Holidays. 






ri$e*. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


ris<is. 






h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


d. h.m. " 


1 


9 9in 


4 8m 


4 4m 


4 om 


3 47m 


3 44m 


1 7 om$ stationary. 


2 


10 1 


5 2 


457 


453 


4 40 


437 


Purif. of B V, Mary. 


3 


10 56 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


1 182a <5 9C ? 3 19S. 


4 


1150 


5 12a 


546a 


5 19a 


5 29a 


5 34a 


2 2 om<$9/i'f 5|c0 35N. 


5 


045a 


621 


624 


627 


6-34 


638 


2 5 24m^ $d^ * 12N. 
6th Sunday after Epiphany. 

3 927a <J^^<Y> * 1 18N. 


s: 


139a 


7 3la 


7 33a 


735a 


7 39a 


7 42a 


7 


233 


846 


8 47 


8 46 


846 


848 


8 


325 


956 


9 51 


9 54 


952 


953 


5 9 44m <J S <C S 5 20 S. 


9 


4 18 


11 4 


11 3 


11 1 


10 56 


10 55 


6 7 4oa<5l2C Iz 3 89 S. 


10 


512 


. . . 


• • • 


. . . 


. . . 


11 50 


8ii5ia 6^<L 9 40N. 


11 


6 7 


14m 


oiim 


oiom 


im 


• • • 


9 10 43a <J 9y»f * 1 13 S. 
10 3 49a ^ 9^»J 5|C 23N. 
^th Sunday after Epiphany. 

11 i53a<J^C ^ 6 51N. 


12 


7 2 


1 21 


118 


1 15 


1 4 


1 im 


5. 


7 67a 


2 26m 


2 2im 


2 17m 


2 5m 


2 2m 


14 


8 51 


323 


3 19 


3 15 


3 2 


259 


15 


045 


4 15 


4 12 


4 7 


355 


353 


12 7m^ 9of 5|C 20 S. 


1610 36 


5 3 


459 


455 


444 


440 


13 7m^ ^nf * 18N. 


171125 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


13' 1 an SQ. 


18 


g 


5 23a 


525a 


5 28a 


536a 


539a 


15 5 24m<{ jj:C Jt?5 23 N. 


19 


13m 


623 


625 


627 


6 81 


635 


18 3 4m^ ^^i 5 141N. 
Septuagesima Sunday. 


S. 


058m 


722a 


723a 


7 24a 


7 26a 


7 23a 


21 


1 42 


820 


8 20 


821 


8 19 


8 20 


19 7 34m 5 in Q. [b.l732. 
23 9 9a? in Perihelion. Wash. 


22 


225 


9 16 


9 16 


9 15 


9 12 


12 


23 


3 8 


10 14 1 


L0 12 


10 10 


10 4 


10 4 


25 3 62a g gr. along. 18 5 E. 


24 
25 


3 51 


1110 1 


LI 8 


11 6 


10 58 


10 55 


St. Matthias. 

27 7 45m<J^A'y 5|C0 26S. 

87 9 35a <J 5©. 

Sexagesima Sunday. 


4 35 






• • • 


11 50 


11 47 


26 


5 21 


6m 


3m 


om 


. . , 


. . . 


s: 


6 8m 


1 2m 


5dm 


54m 


43m 


039m 


28 


6 57 


155 


1 51 


1 47 


135 


132 


28 6 5m<J97rVJ * 1 40 N. 


29 


748 


2 47 


2 43 


238 226 1 


223 


28 128a <J9^Vy * ION. 



Digitized 



by Google 



U Marehy Third Month, hegim <m Wednesday. [1848 


TwiUgliibegiiMftndeaJs. Mtui Hum. 




Ijfcdsr. 


1 7ttiday. 


1 18Uid*y. 1 


19th day. 


ethdaj. 


i:f 


Ends. 
h.m. 


BaglM. [End.. 
h.m. h.m. 


h. m. 


kudf. 
h.m. 


ITfifliii -i^i d«. 


Becina 


. iBnda. 


h^ 


h.m. 


^!^ 


li.m. 


Boston, 


6 3m 


7 33a{| 4 53m| 


7 20a 


443m 


7 37a 


4 33m| 7 45a 


4 2OII1I 7 .28 


N. YoA, 


6 4 


723 


454 


7 98 


444 


735 


434 


742 


423 


7 49 


Wash'n, 


6 5 


7 21 


455 


727 


446 


734 


436 


740 


490 


746 


Charies., 


5 7 


7 19 


459 


724 


4 51 


729 


443 


733 


434 


738 


N.Ori'8, 


5 7 


7 19 


15 


723 


453 


727 


445 


7 31 


437 


7 35 


PBEiaU ▲«» APOGBB Off TBI MOOM. 

P«rigM,6tti<Uy,8h.A. | ApogM, Sd da^ Oh. M. 


PHAU8 or TBI MOOH. 

NewMooo, 64h<U7, 8h. 8.8m M. : FnU Moon, 19tb day, 41i. 2Jtn. A. 
nntQaarter, Ukh « U 83.1 A. : Lut QiurU, STOi '' 8 10.4 A. 


1 


i 

1 


San'i««per limb riMt and lets, (oorr.forraflnet.) M-Tlme. 


Hi^ Water. M. Time. 


< 

1 




1'^ 


1^' 


1 o 
1*^ 


h 

as 


1 


i^ 






rue*. 
h.m. 


*et$. 
h.m. 


n$e$. 

h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 

h.m. 


seu. 
h.m. 


rises 

ti.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


nses. 

Ii.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


W. 


6 35 


5 50 


S35 


5 50 


6 33 


553 


128 


5 57 


126 


559 


6 49m 


4 29m 


2 49m 


2 


Th. 


33 


51 


33 


51 


31 


53 


27 


56 


26 


6 


8 11 


5 61 


4 11 


8 


F. 


33 


63 


33 


63 


30 


54 


96 


59 


24 





927 


7 7 


527 


4 


S. 


30 


54 


30 


51 


29 


55 


25 


59 


23 


1 


10 23 


8 9 


622 


5 


Su. 


6 39 


5 55 


629 


5 55 


6 27 


556 


6 94 


6 9 


622 


6 2 


11 9m 


8 49m 


7 9m 


6 


M. 


27 


56 


27 


56 


26 


57 


23 


1 


21 


3 


11 50 


930 


750 


7 


Tu. 


26 


58 


26 


56 


25 


56 


23 


1 


20 


3 


033a 


10 13 


833 


8 


W. 


34 


59 


24 


59 


24 


59 


21 


2 


19 


4 


1 13 


10 53 


913 


9 


Th. 


S3 


6 


23 


6 


23 


6 


20 


3 


18 


5 


1 56 


1136 


956 


10 


h\ 


21 


1 


21 


1 


20 


1 


18 


4 


16 


5 


340 


020a 


10 40 


11 


S. 


19 


9 


19 


2 


18 


3 


17 


4 


15 


6 


324 


1 4 


11 24 


12 


^. 


6 17 


6 3 


6 17 


6 3 


6 17 


6 3 


6 16 


6 5 


6 14 


6 7 


4 14a 


154a 


14a 


Id 


AL 


15 


5 


15 


4 


15 


4 


14 


6 


13 


7 


5 13 


353 


113 


U 


Tu. 


14 


6 


14 


5 


14 


6 


13 


7 


13 


8 


633 


4 13 


233 


15 


W. 


12 


7 


12 


6 


13 


6 


11 


8 


10 


9 


8 


540 


4 


16 


Th. 


10 


8 


10 


7 


11 


7 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 18 


658 


5 18 


17 


P. 


9 


9 


9 


8 


10 


8 


9 


9 


8 


10 


10 14 


754 


6 14 


18 


S. 


7 


10 


7 


9 


8 


9 


8 


10 


7 


11 


10 59 


839 


659 


19 


Su, 


6 5 


6 11 


6 5 


6 10 


6 6 


6 10 


6 6 


on 


6 6 


6 11 


1138a 


918a 


738a 


20 


M. 


3 


13 


3 


12 


5 


U 


5 


11 


5 


12 


. . . 


960 


8 10 


21 


Tu. 


2 


14 


2 


13 


3 


19 


3 


12 


3 


12 


oiom 


10 21 


8 41 


22 


W. 





15 





14 


2 


13 


2 


13 


2 


13 


41 


10 53 


913 


23 


111. 


559 


17 


559 


15 


1 


14 


1 


14 


1 


14 


1 19 


1123 


943 


24 


F. 


57 


18 


58 


10 


5 59 


15 


5 59 


14 


5 59 


14 


142 


1153 


10 12 


25 


S. 


55 


19 


56 


17 


57 


16 


58 


15 


68 


15 


212 


. . . 


10 44 


26 


Su, 


5 53 


20 


555 


8 18 


5 56 


6 17 


5 56 


6 16 


5 57 


6 16 


344m 


34m 


UlMNi 


27 


M. 


53 


81 


54 


19 


54 


18 


55 


16 


56 


16 


321 


1 


• • • 


28 


Tu. 


51 


33 


03 


20 


53 


19 


54 


17 


55 


17 


4 


140 


om 


29 


W. 


49 


23 


51 


21 


53 


20 


53 


18 


54 


18 


4 51 


231 


051 


80 


Th. 


47 


24 


49 


22 


50 


21 


52 


18 


53 


18 


6 9 


349 


2 9 


81 


F, 


45 


25 


47 


23 


48 


22 


50 


19 


51 


19 


732 


5 13 


338 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] March has Thirty-one Days. 15 




. 


1st day. 


7th day. | 


13th day. 


19th day. 1 


26th day. | 


iSouM«. 


Dec. 


Southi 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dee. 




h. m. 


■ 


h.m. 




h.m. 




h.m. 


^ ^ 


h.m. 


• 1 


g 


1 9a 


-}-l 32 


4ia 


+ 2 3 


oa 


+ 1 


U 19m 


— 3 


1149m 


— 518 


9 


9 5im 


—18 53 


9 58n 


1 — ^17 18 


10 3m 


— ^15 25 


10 8 


— ^13 17 


10 13 


—10 56 


^ 


5 24a 


+22 28 


5 14a 


-+23 4 


5 6a 


+23 35 


457a 


-|-24 3 


4 48a 


-|-24t5 


i 


i0 2im 


— ^18 35 


loion 


1 — 17 54 


9 54m 


—17 11 


9 47m 


— 16 27 


935m 


—15 41 


1 


5a 


— 7 


1153 


— 5 15 


1141 


— 4 21 


11 28 


— 3 25 


U 9 


— 230 


s 


9m 


— 5 8 


1136a 


— 2 8 


11 9a 


--028 


10 43a 


--268 


10 17a 


4-590 


if 


131 


4-17 47 
+23 19 


1 on 


1-4-18 27 
+23 20 


35m 


--19 2 


5m 


--19 31 


1132 


--19 54 


J/ 


8 6a 


7 43a 


7 20a 


--23 20 


6 57a -[h23 19| 


6 34a 


--23 18 


h 


029 


— 734 


8 


— 7 18 


1147m 


— 7 1 


1126m 


— 644 


11 6m 


— 628 


S. 


222 


+ 5 4fl 


159 


+5 56 


137a 


+ 6 3 


1 15a 


+ 6 11 


052a 


+ 618 


1 




Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. | 




f^ 


i 


6 


4 


G 




PHENOMENA AND OBSERYA- 
TIONS. 


1 


P 


1 


i 


i 


1 




Sundays and Holidays. 






rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


nses. 


rises. 


Washington Mean Time. 




h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


d. h.m.^^ . , 


1 


8 4im 


3 36m 


3 32m 


328m 


3 17m 


3 14m 


St. David. 


2 


934 


421 


4 19 


4 15 


4 4 


4 1 


2 5 49a <J9C 9 4 17 S. 


3 


10 29 


5 5 


5 2 


5 


453 


445 


3 45m g stationary. 


4 


1123 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


3 9 la 9 in Q 
Quinquagesima S. ■"rLiSTu??" 


is: 


Olda 


6 2ia 


6 22a 


623a 


6 25a 


28a 


6 


113 


734 


735 


734 


734 


7 34 


3 9 la f JO'-SP-' 8-287 
5 5 img gr.HelLatN. 


7 


2 8 


848 


8 47 


846 


8 43 


8 42 


8 


3 4 


10 


953 


955 


949 


9 47 


Ash Wednesday. 


9 

10 


4 


nil 


LI 9 


U 5 


10 56 


10 53 


5i0 5Qm(J>jC >z 8 20 S. 
5 5 37a ^ iJo 


4 57 




. 


. 


11 58 


11 55 


11 


553 


17m 


14m 


oiom 


• • • 


• • , 


6 2i6m(5g<C g 8 17N. 
1st Sun. Lent. Quadragesima. 


s: 


6 48a 


1 18m 


114m 


1 om 


57m 


54m 


13 


7 41 


212 


2 8 


2 4 


151 


148 


6 2 58m2f stationaiy. 

7 7 om V gr. Hel. Lat N. 


14 


833 


3 1 


2 57 


253 


241 


237 


15 


922 


343 


3 40 


3 37 


326 


323 


7 10 12m <$ 9C :p 58 N. 


16 


10 9 


421 


4 18 


4 17 


4 8 


4 6 


10 10 27a 6i<L J6 87N. 


17 


10 55 


455 


453 


451 


4 45 


445 


St. Patrick. 


18 


1139 


rises. 


rises. 


nses. 


rises. 


rises. 


n 5 37a <J 9 g 9 1 24 N. 
2d Sunday in Lent. &r i-tft 


s: 


g 


612a 


612a 


6 12a 


6 13a 


6 14a 


20 


022m 


7 9 


7 8 


7 8 


7 5 


7 6 


12 1 63m J ?0 *13:^*' 1.407 


21 


1 5 


8 6 


8 5 


8 3 


758 


768 


12 9 3ialnf. i go 


22 


148 


9 2 


9 


857 


8 51 


8 49 


13 9 49m<{:{;C :j;6 8lN. 


23 


232 


958 


956 


953 


943 


9 41 


17 25m(5 ^h g 5 5N. 


24 


3 16 


10 54 


10 50 


10 47 


10 36 


10 32 


17 9 im<${{5 « 146N. 


25 


4 3 


1147 


1143 


11 39 


11 27 


11 23 


Lady Day. 

3d Sunday in Lent. 


S" 


45Qm 


. . . 


* • • 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


27 


539 


030m 


35m 


030m 


18m 


14m 


18 5 9mS Jlz 5 3 11 N. 


28 


630 


127 


1 23 


119 


1 7 


1 4 


20 6 iim© enters <Y*- Spring 


29 


722 


2 13 


2 10 


2 6 


1 55 


152 


25 8 im^ stationar7.[begins. 


80 


8 14 


256 


253 


250 


2 41 


238 


28 5 4a 5 in g. 


^ 


9 7 


337 


335 332 


326 


323 


31 I0 4ia UjllQ- 



Digitized 



by Google 



16 April, Fourth Month, begins on Saturday. [1848. 


TwUlght begins and ends. Mcanlteie. 




1st day. 


1 7th day. 


13th day. | 


19th day. 


2»iiday. 1 


Beghis. 
h.m. 


Bnds. 
h. m. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


binds, 
a. m. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


Begins 
h.m. 


. lEnds. 
h.m. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


\^: 


Boston, 


4 7m 


8 la 


L 35»n 


8 9a 


3 43m 


8 Ida 


3 3im| 8 27a 


3 19m| 8 37a| 


N. York, 


4 11 


7 57 


3 59 


8 6 


348 


8 14 


337 


822 


326 


830 


Waah'n, 


4 15 


753 


4 4 


8 1 


3 53 


8 9 


343 


8 17 


333 


825 


Charies., 


495 


743 


4 16 


7 49 


4 7 


755 


359 


8 


3 51 


8 5 


N. Ori's, 


429 


739 


4 21 


7 44 


4 13 


7 49 


4 5 


753 


358 


768 


PBEIGSB AMI> APOaU OF THI MOOM. 

Perigee, 4th d»y,6h.M. | Apogee, 18th day, 2h. A. 


PHASM Of THE MOON. 

New Moon, 3d day, 5h. 52.8m. A. FuU Moon, 18th day, 9h. 28.0m M. 
First Quarfor, 10th" 9 41.8 M. LastQnarter, 26th « 9 11.8 M. 


1 


i 

i 


Sun's lOTw Umb rises and sets, (corr. for leflract.) M. Thne. 


High Water. M.mme. 


< 
<< 

j 

1 


1 


!■' 


1' 


\i 


!Z5 


4 


f^ 


h 






rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


nses 
h.m 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises, 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


s. 


5 43 


626 


5 45 


S24 


5 46 


622 


5 49 


620 


5 50 


6 19 


852m 


632m 


452m 


2 


Su. 


542 


627 


543 


9 25 


545 


623 


5 4b 


6 21 


5 49 


620 


9 5im 


7 3im 


5 5lm 


8 


M. 


40 


28 


41 


26 


43 


24 


46 


21 


47 


20 


10 38 


8 18 


6 38 


4 


Tu. 


38 


29 


39 


27 


41 


24 


45 


22 


46 


21 


1122 


9 2 


723 


5 


W. 


36 


30 


37 


98 


40 


25 


44 


23 


45 


21 


6a 


946 


8 6 


6 


Th. 


34 


31 


35 


99 


38 


26 


42 


93 


44 


22 


051 


10 8L 


8 51 


7 


h\ 


32 


32 


33 


30 


36 


27 


41 


94 


43 


22 


185 


1115 


935 


8 


8. 


31 


33 


32 


31 


35 


28 


39 


95 


41 


23 


2 19 


1150 


10 19 


9 


Su. 


5 29 


634 


530 


»32 


5 33 


629 


5 33 


6 25 


5 40 


623 


3 6a 


046a 


11 6m 


10 


M. 


27 


35 


26 


33 


31 


30 


37 


26 


39 


24 


355 


135 


11 55 


11 


Tu. 


26 


36 


27 


34 


30 


31 


35 


27 


38 


24 


455 


233 


05aa 


12 


VV. 


24 


37 


25 


35 


28 


32 


34 


27 


37 


25 


6 11 


3 51 


2 11 


13 


Th. 


23 


38 


24 


36 


27 


33 


33 


98 


86 


25 


733 


513 


883 


14 


h\ 


21 


39 


23 


37 


26 


34 


32 


99 


35 


26 


848 


698 


448 


15 


8. 


19 


40 


91 


33 


24 


35 


31 


30 


34 


27 


948 


793 


648 


16 


Su, 


5 18 


6 41 


520 


}39 


5 23 


636 


5 30 


6 30 


533 


627 


i0 3ia 


8 1ia 


6 3ia 


17 


M. 


16 


42 


18 


40 


22 


37 


29 


31 


32 


28 


11 9 


8 49 


7 9 


18 


Tu. 


14 


43 


16 


41 


20 


38 


28 


32 


31 


29 


1141 


921 


7 41 


19 


VV. 


13 


44 


15 


42 


19 


39 


27 


32 


30 


29 




959 


8 12 


20 


ITl 


11 


45 


13 


43 


17 


40 


25 


33 


29 


30 


12m 


10 25 


845 


21 


F. 


10 


47 


12 


45 


16 


41 


24 


34 


28 


30 


045 


10 55 


9 15 


22 


8. 


8 


48 


10 


46 


14 


42 


23 


35 


27 


31 


115 


1198 


948 


23 


Su, 


5 6 


6 49 


6 9 


147 


5 13 


6 43 


5 22 


6 35 


5 26 


631 


148m 




10 20a 


24 


M. 


5 


50 


8 


48 


12 


44 


21 


36 


25 


32 


220 


om 


10 55 


25 


Tu. 


3 


52 


6 


49 


10 


45 


20 


37 


24 


33 


253 


035 


11 37 


26 


W. 


2 


53 


5 


60 


9 


46 


19 


37 


23 


33 


3 37 


1 17 




27 


Th. 


1 


54 


4 


51 


8 


47 


18 


38 


22 


34 


428 


2 8 


28m 


28 


F. 


4 50 


55 


2 


59 





48 


16 


39 


90 


35 


638 


3 18 


1 38 


29 


8. 


58 


57 


1 


.'3 


5 


49 


15 


39 


19 


35 


657 


437 


2 57 


80 iSuJ 


4 56 


6 68 


60 


S54 


53 


650 


5 14 


6 40 


5 18 


16 36 


8 14m 


5 54m 


4 14m 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



April has Thirty Days. 



17 



Paaeage cX the Meridian (mem time) and Declination of the PUneta. 



iBt day. 



Souths, 
h. m. 

10 Sam 

10 18 
4 37a 
92Qm 

U 2 
948a 

10 69 
6 9 

io4iin 





Dec. 

— 6 10 
-?-7 56 
-fa4 45 

14 46 

— 1 24 
+ 7 50 

6 
-[-23 16 

— 6 9 
627 



7th day. 



Souths. 

h. m. 
10 24in 
10 22 

429a 

9 8m 
10 50 

923a 
10 32 

548 
10 20in 

4a 



Dec. 

— 527 

— 5 14 
-(-24 66 
— ^13 50 

— 028 
+ 9 42 

6 
-[-23 13 

— 653 
-|-635 



18th day. 



Souths. 
h. m. 
10 23m 
10 25 

4 20a 

8 55m 
10 39 

9 la 

10 5 

5 27 
959m 

11 41 



Dec. 
— 337 



Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 



+25 
— 13 

-4-0 
--11 

--19 
4-23 
5 



19th day. 



Souths. 
h. m. 
10 2dm 
10 28 

4 12a 
842m 

10 27 
8 39a 
939 

5 6 
93Bm 

11 19 



Dec. 

— 51 
OS 

1 

— ^12 25 
-|-124 
--12 44 
--19 39 
-[-23 6 

— 5 24 
-|-6 5l! 



asthday. 



Souths. 
h. m. 

10 37m 

10 32 
4 44a 
829m 

10 14 

8 18a 

9 14 
446 

9 16m 
10 57 



Dec. 
• I 
-230 
--3 16 
4-24 66 
— ^11 40 
240 
4-13 64 

- -19 16 
-|-23 1 

— 6 10 
+ 668 



h. m. 
10 im 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



10 66m 

11 51 
48S 
164 
244 
343 
440 



S. 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

s: 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



S. 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 



S. 



ii 



636a 
627 
720 
8 7 
863 
937 
10 20 



11 3a 
U46 

S 
029m 

1 13 

2 
2 47 



3 35m 

4 26 
6 16 
6 6 
667 
748 
8 41 



9 34m 



h. m. 
3 54a 



5 83 
622 
736 
860 

10 1 

11 8 



7m 

069 

1 43 
223 



3 69 



n&es. 
56ga 

6 66 
763 

8 47 
942 
10 35 



11 24a 



lOm 
052 
132 
2 9 
2 46 



I 



sds, 

h- m. 
3 S6a 



6 8a 
622 
736 
8 48 
953 
11 4 



3m 
065 

1 40 
220 

2 55 
328 

3 58 



rises, 

5 59a 
654 
7 49 
845 
939 
10 31 



1120a 



6m 
050 

1 30 
2,8 
246 



^ 



sets. 
h. m. 
3 57a 



5 9a 

6 21 
734 
8 46 
956 

11 
11 53 



5lm 

1 37 

2 18 

2 S3 

3 27 
3 69 



rises. 

6" 67a 
662 
7 47 
842 
935 
10 26 



11 15a 



2m 
046 
123 
2 6 
2 46 



3 22m 3 23m 



q 



sets. 
h. m. 
4 2a 



5 9a 

6 19 
728 
837 
944 

10 48 

11 46 



5 12a 

6 19 
728 
835 
9 41 

10 45 

11 43 



39m 

1 26 

2 9 

2 47 

3 22 
3 57 



rises, 

5 53a 

6 46 
738 
8 31 
923 

10 14 



11 3a 
11 50 



36m 

1 19 

2 
2 42 



3 23m 



I 



sets, 
h. m. 
4 6a 



036m 

1 22 

2 6 

2 45 

3 21 
3 67 



rises, 

5 52a 

6 45 
736 
328 
9 19 

10 11 



11 oa 

11 46 



032m 

1 17 
160 

2 41 



(24m 



PHENOMENA AND OBSERYA- 
TIONS. 

Sundays and Holidays, 



Washington Mean Time, 
d. h. m. . , 

1 5 40a <J 9 (T 9 2 58 S. 
4ih Sunday in Lent, 

Solar Eclipse, invis. in U. S. 
110 47a <J gCT S2 17 S. 

2 2 5m ^ Tier 123 4 S. 

3 11 8a 6^(L ¥1 1 N. 
6 6 6m<J5>2 a0 15N. 

6 7 om$ stationary. 
5th Sunday in Lent, 

7 1 30m <J 9 Ij 9 30 N. 
7 2 9m 9 in Aphelion. 

7 6 43m9 in Q, 

7 6 4ia 6¥0- 

7 8 47a y in Aphelion. 

8i0 6Bm3^<C ^6 5lN. 
Palm Sunday. 

9 19a 5 gr. elong. 27 37 W. 

964a^§9 50 42S. 

9 7 23a <J VCT Jif 5 80N. 
10 7 omg in Q. 
Good Friday, 
Saturn's Ring disappears. 
Easteb Sunday. St, George. 
19 7 9a <J 5 9 5 1 15 S. 
St, Mark. 

7 22m 5 gr. Hel. Lat S. 
28ii25a($$9 $2 IS. 
29 5 2oa 9 gr. Hel. Lat. S. 
29 6 69a ^ ^<C >2 2 47 S. 
Low Sunday, 



Digitized 



by Google 



18 May, Fifth Month, begins on Monday. [1848. 


TwUight begins and ends. Mean l^me. 




1st day. 


7th day. 


lath dav. 1 


19th day. 


2Bthday. | 


Begins, 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


Begins 
h.m. 


. Ends, 
h.m. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


l^ds. 
h.m. 


Boston, 


3 7m 


8 47a 


L 256m 


8 57a 


2 46m 


9 7a 


2 35m| 9 17a 


2 25m| 9 28a| 


N. York, 


3 14 


840 


3 4 


8 49 


254 


858 


246 


9^ 8 


%36 


918 


Wash'n, 


322 


832 


3 13 


8 40 


3 4 


8 48 


2 55 


8 57 


2 47 


9 7 


Charles., 


343 


8 11 


336 


8 17 


328 


8 24 


322 


830 


3 17 


837 


N. OrPs, 


3 61 


8 3 


345 


8 8 


338 


8 14 


333 


820 


328 


826 


PXIUGKB AMD APOOBK OP TBB MOON. 

Pei^;ee, 2d day, 4h. A. | Apogee, 15tih daj, 7h. A. | Perigee, 31flt daj, 1 h. M. 


PHAgSS OP THB MOON. 

New Moon, 8d day, 21i. 6.6in. M. FuU Moon, 18(ihdaj, lii. 83.4in. M. 
First Quarter, 9th '^ 9 48.4 A. Last Quarter, 26th " 6 38.6 A. 


1 


1 

1 


Sun's vpper limb rises and sets, (corr. Ibr refract.) M. Time. 


High Water. M.Thne. 


4 


h 
1 


r 


|i 






i' 


1^ 






rius 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sits 
h.m 


nsei 
h. m 


uts. 
h. m. 


nses. 

h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


[fises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


M. 


4 54 


6 60 


4 59 


9 66 


6 2 


653 


5 13 


6 41 


6 17 


637 


9 17m 


6 57m 


6 17m 


2 


Tu. 


63 


7 


58 


56 


1 


53 


12 


42 


16 


3d 


10 8 


7 48 


6 8 


3 


W. 


62 


1 


67 


57 


5 


54 


11 


43 


15 


39 


10 56 


836 


666 


4 


Th. 


60 


2 


56 


58 


4 50 


55 


10 


44 


15 


40 


11 43 


923 


743 


5 


F. 


40 


3 


55 


59 


68 


55 


10 


45 


14 


40 


030a 


10 10 


830 


6 


S. 


48 


4 


54 


7 


57 


56 





45 


13 


41 


1 15 


10 55 


9 15 


7 


Su, 


4 47 


7 5 


4 53 


r 1 


4 56 


6 57 


5 8 


6 46 


5 13 


042 


2 2a 


U42m 


10 2m 


8 


M. 


46 


6 


52 


2 


55 


58 


7 


46 


12 


42 


248 


028a 


10 48 


9 


Tu. 


46 


7 


51 


3 


54 


60 


6 


47 


11 


43 


339 


119 


1139 


10 


W. 


44 


8 


50 


4 


63 


7 


5 


48 


11 


44 


434 


2 14 


034a 


11 


Th. 


43 


9 


40 


5 


52 


1 


6 


48 


10 


44 


5 41 


321 


1 41 


12 


F. 


42 


10 


48 


6 


51 


2 


4 


40 


9 


45 


656 


436 


8 66 


13 
14 


S. 
Su. 


41 
4 40 


11 

7 12 


.47 


7 


50 


3 


3 


50 


9 


46 


8 4 


6 44 


4 4 


4 46 


7 8 


4 49 


7 4 


5 2 


6 50 


6 8 


6 46 


9 8a 


648a 


5 8a 


15 


M. 


39 


13 


44 





48 


5 


2 


51 


7 


46 


955 


735 


5 55 


16 


Tu. 


38 


14 


43 


10 


47 


6 


1 


52 


7 


47 


10 34 


8 14 


634 


17 


W. 


37 


15 


42 


11 


46 


6 





52 


6 


48 


11 13 


863 


7 13 


18 


Th. 


36 


16 


41 


12 


45 


7 





53 


6 


48 


1146 


926 


746 


19 


F. 


36 


17 


40 


13 


45 


8 


4 60 


54 


6 


49 


. . . 


959 


8 19 


20 
21 


S. 
Su, 


35 


18 


30 


14 


44 


9 


50 


54 


5 


49 


19m 


10 32 


852 


4 34 


7 19 


4 38 ' 


M4 


4 43 


7 9 


4 58 


6 55 


5 4 


6 50 


052m 


11 5a 


92Sa 


22 


M. 


33 


20 


37 


15 


43 


10 


57 


55 


4 


50 


125 


1140 


10 


23 


Tu. 


32 


21 


36 


16 


42 


11 


57 


66 


3 


51 


2 


. . . 


10 38 


24 


W. 


31 


22 


36 


17 


41 


12 


56 


56 


3 


51 


238 


oism 


1123 


25 


Th. 


30 


23 


35 


18 


41 


13 


66 


57 


2 


52 


323 


1 3 


. . . 


26 


F. 


29 


24 


34 


19 


40 


13 


55 


57 


2 


52 


4 16 


155 


oism 


27 


S. 


28 


26 


34 


20 


39 


14 


55 


68 


1 


53 


5 14 


264 


114 


28 


5u. 


4 28 


7 26 


4 33 


7 21 


4 38 


7 15 


4 54 


6 58 


5 1 


653 


629m 


4 9m 


229m 


29 


M. 


27 


27 


33 


22 


38 


16 


54 


59 





S3 


734 


5 14 


3 34 


80 


Tu. 


26 


27 


32 


22 


37 


16 


53 


60 





54 


840 


620 


440 


31 


W. 


26 


28 


31 


23 


37 


17 


53 


7 





64 


9 41 


721 


5 41 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] May has Thirty-one Days. 19 






Isfcday. 


7th daj. 


13th day. 


19th day. | 


25th day. | 


iiouths. 


Deo. 


Souths, 


Dec. 


SmUks. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 




h.m. 


• 1 


h.m. 


• 1 


h. m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


• 1 


h.m. 


^ • • 


S 


10 4«m 


4-64 


7 11 6m 


--11 20 


1120m 


--16 1 


11 67m +20 20 


28a 


--33 9 


9 


1U35 


--6 


S 10 39 


--8 52 


10 43 


- -11 31 


10 48 


--14 1 


10 63m 


--16 18 




366a 


4-24 4- 


4 3 48a 


--24 26 


340a 


-HM 3 


332a 


--53 33 


324a 


--22 56 


g 


8 15m 


— 10 51 


5 8 im 


—10 11 


7 47m 


— 929 


732m 


— 8 50 


7 17m 


— 8 14 


« 


10 3 


4-31 


7 952 


--4 11 


940 


--5 4 


938 


--655 


9 17 


--644 


5 


7 57a 


--14 5 


L 7 38a 


--15 33 


7 19a 


--16 6 


7 la ■ 


--16 29 


643a 


--16 42 


^ 


840 


--18 4- 


1 826 


--18 8 


8 3 


--17 28 


742 ■ 


--16 39 


720 


--15 48 


11 


426 


4^22 « 


5 4 7 


--22 50 


3 47 -{-92 43| 


328 


--22 35 


3 9 • 


--22 26 


t 


8 65m 


— 4« 


3 8 34m 


— 446 


8 12m 


— 4 35 


750m- 


— 4 25 


728m- 


— 4 16 


S 


10 35 


+ 7 i 


i 10 12 


-|-7 13 


9 60 -{- 7 20| 


927 - 


4-7 27 


9 5 • 


4-733 


j 


. 


Moon rises or aete. Mean Time. 








• 


9 


c> 


i 


PHENOMENA AND OBSBBYA- 


i 


i 


S 


JS 


TIONS. 


1 


± 




1 


1 


i 


Sundays and Holidays. 




uu. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


seU. 


Washington Mean Thne. 




h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


d. h. m. 


1 


losom 


5 9a 


5 8a 


6 7a 


5 3a 


5 3a 


St. PhUip and St. James. 


2 


1126 


6 24 


622 


620 


6 13 


6 11 


1 2 25m<5 <Jen * 32N. 


8 


025a 


737 


734 


7 31 


722 


7 19 


16 5im<59l[ 91 3 S. 


4 


125 


847 


845 


8 41 


829 


826 


1 20a 6^€ 9 1 llN. 


5 


225 


953 


9 49 


9 45 


932 


926 


1 57a <5 9C 9 9N. 


6 


324 


L0 50 


10 46 


10 42 


10 29 


10 26 


i736a<55(C ^OllS. 
2d Sunday after Easter. 


"S 


420a 


1138a 


LI 36a 


11 32a 


1120a 


11 17a 


8 


5 14 




. . . 


. . . 






3 7 om$ statioDaiy. 


9 


6 4 


022m 


02om 


17m 


7m 


24m 


7 2 4m<5cJ(C $ 6 33N. 


10 


051 


050 


57 


055 


048 


046 


7ioi3m<5^(C 55I8N. 


11 


736 


133 


131 


129 


124 


123 


9 3 27m 6 21^11 3|c 33 S. 


12 


8 19 


2 2 


2 1 


2 1 


158 


1 63 


10 8 4a <5 ScK *0 8N. 


13 


9 2 


233 


2 31 


231 


232 


233 


11 2 22a <5 ^^^ss :ic 19 S. 
Zd Sunday after Easter, 


S, 


944a 


2 59m 


3 im 


3 im 


3 4m 


3 6m 


16 


10 28 


329 


330 


332 


337 


3 41 


12 6 fl2m 9 gV'*jar 5|c0 50S. 


16 


11 12 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


15 2 smS^djj * 141 S. 


17 


1167 


6 4ia 


630a 


636a 


626a 


623a 


17 6 60m 5 m gl^ 


18 


8 


738 


734 


730 


7 19 


7 15 


17 10 em6^2t i 1 7N. 
13 5 3ia 3 9 9 5 1 36 S. 


19 


044m 


8 31 


827 


8 23 


8 10 


8 6 


20 


132 


922 


9 18 


9 13 


9 1 


8 57 


19 5 47mSup. <J g ©. 
4th Sunday after Easier, 


s: 


222m 


to*9a 


10 5a 


10 la 


9 49a 


9 46a 


22 


312 


10 53 


10 50 


10 47 


10 35 


10 38 


21 36a <J 9/tiK * 51 S. 


23 


4 2 


U33 


U30 


U28 


1119 


1116 


21 8 24a ^ m Perihelion. 


24 


493 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


• • • 


11 68 


22 11 40a J CT. Hel. Lat N. 
24 10 7m <5 |/cn * 1 40 N. 


25 


542 


oum 


8m 


6m 


om 


. . . 


26 


633 


41 


40 


040 


036 


035m 


27 6 42m^bC ^2 2 29 S. 

28 944a <J 50X *111N. 
Rogation Sunday. 


27 


724 


120 


119 


1 18 


1 13 


1 18 


s: 


8 16m 


1 55m 


1 55m 


1 56m 


158m 


2 om 


29 


9 11 


2 31 


233 


234 


240 


242 


29 6m<j9C 9 1 25N. 


80 


10 7 


3 10 


313 


3 15 


323 


328 


31 7 50m <5 9 C 9 8 24 N. 


81 


11 6 


354 


357 


4 1 


4 12 


4 17 


31 6 18a n 9 ©. 



Digitized 



by Google 



20 June, Sixth Month, begins on Thursday. [1848. 


Twilight begins and endB. Mean Time. 




1st day. 


7th day. 


13th day. n 


ISth day. 


26th day. \ 


Begins. 
h.m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins. 
h.m. 


Ends. Begins, 
h. m. h. m. 


h. m*. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


^ds. 
h.m. 


Boston, 


2 17m 


9 37a 


2 12m 


9 44a 


2 9m 


060a 


2 8m| 9 64a 


2 om 


055a 


N. York, 


229 


925 


225 


9 31 


223 


937 


2 22 


40 


223 


9 41 


Wash'n, 


241 


9 13 


237 


9 19 


236 


924 


2 36 


927 


236 


928 


Charles., 


313 


8 41 


3 10 


8 46 


3 10 


860 


3 10 


852 


3 11 


853 


N. Orl's, 


324 


830 


322 


8 34 


322 


838 


322 


18 40 


323 


8 41 


APOQU AMD PKSIQXl OP TBS MOON. 

Apogee, 12th day, 6h. M. | Perigee, 28th day, 2h. M. 


PHASES OP THS MOON. 

New Moon, 1st day, 9h. 81.&m. M. LastQnartBr, 24th day, Ih. 22.1m. M. 
nret Quarter, 8th " 7.5 A. New Moon, 80th « 6 10.7 A. 
PnllMoon, 16th " 8 60.0 A. 


1 


1 

1 


Son's vpper limb rises and sets, (oorr. Ibr refract.) M. Time.f 


High Water. M.Tlme.j 


i 




1' 


1 


o 

4 


is 




i' 


h 






rues. 
h.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


uts. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


fises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


uts. 
h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


1 


Th. 


4 25 


7 29 


431 


7 24 


4 36 


7 18 


453 


7 1 


5 


665 


10 34m 


8 14m 


6 34m 


2 


h\ 


24 


29 


30 


24 


36 


19 


53 


1 


4 59 


55 


1124 


9 4 


724 


a 

4 


S. 


24 


30 


30 


25 


35 


19 


53 


2 


59 


66 


14a 


954 


8 14 


Su. 


4 23 


7 31 


429 


7 26 


4 35 


720 


4 53 


7 2 


4 59 


666 


1 2a 


10 42m 


9 2m 


5 


M. 


23 


32 


29 


26 


35 


20 


52 


3 


59 


57 


147 


11 27 


9 47 


6 


Tu. 


23 


33 


29 


27 


34 


21 


52 


3 


59 


57 


233 


13a 


10 33 


7 


W. 


22 


33 


28 


28 


34 


21 


G2 


4 


69 


68 


3 19 


069 


1119 


8 


Th. 


22 


34 


28 


28 


34 


22 


52 


4 


59 


68 


4 10 


160 


oioa 


9 


F. 


22 


35 


28 


20 


34 


23 


52 


5 


69 


69 


6 4 


244 


1 4 


10 


S. 


22 


35 


28 


29 


34 


23 


52 


5 


59 


69 


6 7 


3 47 


2 7 


11 


Su. 


4 22 


7 36 


428 


7 30 


4 34 


724 


4 52 


7 6 


4 59 


7 


7 9a 


4 49a 


3 9a 


12 


M. 


22 


37 


28 


30 


34 


25 


52 


6 


59 





8 13 


553 


413 


13 


Tu. 


22 


37 


28 


31 


34 


25 


52 


7 


59 


1 


9 13 


663 


5 13 


14 


W. 


22 


38 


28 


31 


34 


26 


52 


7 


60 


1 


10 1 


7 41 


6 1 


15 


Th. 


22 


3d 


28 


32 


33 


27 


52 


8 


59 


2 


10 42 


822 


642 


16 


h\ 


22 


38 


28 


32 


33 


27 


52 


8 


59 


2 


1120 


9 


720 


17 


S. 


22 


38 


28 


33 


33 


27 


52 


9 


69 


3 


11 58 


938 


758 


18 


Su. 


4 22 


7 39 


4 28 


7 33 


4 33 


728 


4 52 


7 9 


4 69 


7 3 




10 13a 


3 33a 


19 


M. 


23 


39 


29 


34 


34 


28 


52 


10 


69 


3 


33m 


10 60 


9 10 


20 


Tu. 


23 


39 


29 


34 


34 


28 


52 


10 


59 




1 10 


11 25 


9 45 


21 


W. 


23 


39 


29 


34 


34 


28 


52 


10 


59 




1 45 


. . . 


10 26 


22 


Th. 


23 


39 


29 


34 


34 


29 


52 


11 


59 




226 


6m 


11 10 


23 


F. 


23 


40 


29 


34 


34 


29 


S2 


11 


59 




3 10 


060 


11 58 


24 


S. 


24 


40 


30 


35 


35 


29 


53 


11 


5 




358 


138 


. . . 


25 


Su. 


4 24 


7 40 


430 


7 35 


4 35 


729 


453 


7 11 


5 


7 4 


4 63m 


2 33m 


53m 


26 


M. 


24 


40 


30 


35 


35 


29 


53 


11 







567 


3 37 


1 57 


27 


Tu. 


25 


40 


30 


35 


36 


29 


53 


U 







7 5 


4 45 


3 5 


28 


W. 


25 


40 


31 


35 


36 


29 


54 


11 


1 




8 13 


653 


4 13 


29 


Th. 


25 


40 


31 


35 


36 


29 


54 


11 


1 


5 


9 17 


657 


5 17 


80 


F. 


25 


40 


31 


35 


36 


29 


54 


11 


1 


5 


10 17 


7 51 


6 17 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



June has Thirty Days, 



21 



Passage of the MarkUan (mean time) and Declinatton of the Planets. 



Ist day. 



h. UL. 

1 sa 
U om 
3 15a 
6 fi9m 

9 
623a 



Dec. 

e 

34 
4-18 40 

11 
736 
-[-739 
- -16 49 



2 48 

7 2m 

838 



6 56 - -14 46 



4-22 14 
4 7 

H-7 



7th day. 
Soutiu. 



h. m. 

1 a6a 
11 6m 
3 6a 

644m 
8 53 

6 7a 

637 
229 
6 40m 
8 15 



Deo. 

4-20 24 
4-21 24 
— 7 4 
-+-8 22 
--16 48 
-1-13 49 
!2 4 
4 1 
+ 745 



18th day. 



h. m- 

1 42a 
11 13m 

2 5da 
6 98m 
8 41 

5 50a 

6 17 
2 11 

6 17m 

7 53 



Deo. 



10 

-1-91 47 

33 

— 6 
-[-9 2 

- -16 39 
--12 49 
4-21 51 

3 57 
-|-7 49 



19th day. 



h. m. 

1 50a 
11 2im 

2 49a 

6 iim 

830 
6 34a 

5 69 
1 52 

6 54m 

7 30 



Dec. 

-[-^ 19| 
--22 48 
-f-19 36 

— 6 18 
-|-9 
--16 20 

— -11 49 
4-2140 

— 354 
-[-754 



25th day. 



h. m. 
1 49a 
11 30m 
3 4ia 
6 S3m 
8 19 

5 18a 

6 41 
1 34 

6 3lm 

7 7 



Deo. 



10 



•18 35 

— 6 1 
-1-10 13 

-16 8 
-1-10 46 
4-2126 

— 362 
-[-7 57 



s, 

5 
6 
7 

8 

9 

10 



S. 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



19 



21 
22 



26 



3 2a 

385 
446 

532 

6 16 

7 
743 



10 17a 
10 58 
U33 



826a 

9 -g 

954 

10 40 

U28 

g 

018m 



1 8m 

169 
20 2 60 
340 
430 
620 



23 

24 6 11 



7 311 
767 
27 8 63 
960 
29 10 49 
3011 49 



Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 



sets. 
h. m. 
733a 
835 



10 14a 

10 65 
U31 



6m 

036 

1 4 



132m 

2 3 
233 

3 7 

rises, 

7 18a 

8 8 



8 64a 
836 
10 14 

10 49 

11 23 
U 56 



3lm 

1 8 
147 

2 32 

3 23 
420 



I 



sets. 
h m. 
729a 
8 31 
925 



loioa 

10 63 

11 SO 



5m 

034 

1 4 



134m 
3 4 
236 
3 10 

rises, 

7 14a 

8 4 



8 60a 
933 
10 11 
10 48 
1122 
1167 



032m 
110 
1 61 
236 
328 
4 26 



I 



sets. 
h. m. 
724a 
825 
9 21 



10 oa 

10 44 
U34 
1169 



3m 

035 

1 54 



135m 

2 7 
230 

3 15 

rises, 

7 9a 

8 



846a 
929 
10 9 

10 46 

11 22 
11 57 



033m 

1 13 
154 

2 41 
332 
430 






h. m. 

7 12a 

8 14 

9 9 



9 56a 

10 41 
1122 

11 59 



33m 

1 6 



13Sm 
'2 12 
248 
3 24 
ris€9- 

6 57a 

7 47 



8 34a 

9 19 
10 1 
10 40 
1120 
1157 



37m 

1 19 

2 3 

2 53 

3 45 
444 



I 



sets. 
h. m. 

7 9a 

8 10 

9 6 



33m 

1 8 



142m 
2 16 

2 52 

3 31 

rises, 

653a 
744 



8 3ia 

9 15 
9 50 

10 40 

11 19 
n 59 



4om 

1 23 

2 8 



3 52 

4 51 



Washington Mean Time! 
d. h. m. „ , 

Ascension Day, 

1 4 16m 5 gr. Hel. Lat. N. 

2 112a ^ §(C 5 7 4N. 
Sunday after Ascension. 



PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 
TIONS. 

Sundays and Holidays. 



3 6 62m<Jftl2 

4 4 42m ^2^ 

4 6 34a ^ (J(C 

7 1133a ^ 8en 
12 4 imnS©. 
12 10 a2m <5 gyK 
Whit Sunday, 
15 8 62m<5ft«X 
15 8 2a n^Q. 

18 8 4a ago* 

20 5 15m 6^21 

21 3 7mO ent 2 



3 18 S. 

5 IN. 
i 5 44N. 
:4c 1 S. 

*0 

U It.] 

*0 



9S. 



IS. 



a 27N. 
Sum. bei 



Deg. 
21 9 S3a ^ gr. elong. 25 14 E. 
Trinity Sunday. 
23 i4oa <5 l2(r >J 2 14 S. 

4 18a 5 in Q. 
25 8m9 in Q- 
Corpus Christi, Fete Dieu, 
25 8 45m({9(r 9 1 63N. 
St John Baptist 
1st Sunday after Trinity. 

25 6 62a ^ $oVJ * 1 10 S. 

26 6 im ^ in Apbelion. 

26 4 la ^ $/uCetL :(c 52 S. 

\SL Peter. 

30 6 2om <5 9<r 9 5 11 N, 



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by Google 



22 July, Seventh Month, hegim on Saturday. [1848 




Twilight begins and audi. Umii TtaM. 




let day. 


7th day. 


18th day. II 


19th day. 


26th day. 




i^s- 


£nds. 
h.m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Beghis. 
h. m. 


Ands. 
h.m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begtos. 
h.m. 


l^t. 




Boston, 


212m 


964a 


2 lom 


9 49a 


2 26m 


9 44a 


2 36m 9 37a 


2 44m| 98a 




N.YoA, 


226 


940 


232 


9 36 


239 


931 


246 


925 


264 


18 




Wash'n, 


239 


927 


244 


9 94 


261 


9 19 


268 


9 14 


3 6 


9 7 




Charles., 


313 


863 


3 17 


8 61 


322 


848 


3 97 


846 


339 


8 40 




N. Ori's, 


325 


8 41 


329 


8 39 


333 


837 


337 '834 


342 


830 




raUOU ▲»» APOttU OP CHB MOOM. 

Apogee, 9th day, lOh. A. | Perigee, 25Uk dajf Ob. M. 




Fintq 
FuUM 


PHA8B8 OP IBM MOOV. 

oarter, 8th day, 4h. 21.8m. H. hut Qnarter, 23d dar, 6h. l9Jka. M. 
oon, leth " 4 12.6 M. New Moon, SOth «^ 2 16 9 M. 






i 

1 


Son's tipper limb rises and sets, (oorr. for refract.) H. Time. 


High Water. M. Time. 




1 

i 


1 


If' 


1^'' 


r 




1 




a* 




rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


seU. 

h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


seU. 

h.m. 


rtses. 
h.m- 


sets. 

h.m. 


rises. 
Ii.m. 


sets. 

ti.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 




1 


8. 


4 28 


7 40 


431 


7 36 


487 


729 


4 66 


7 11 


5 1 


7 6 


11 12m 


862m 


719m 




2 


Su. 


4 26 


7 40 


432 


7 36 


437 


729 


4 66 


7 11 


6 1 


7 4 


3a 


943m 


8 3m 




3 


M. 


27 


40 


32 


36 


38 


29 


66 


11 


1 




61 


10 31 


8 51 




4 


Tu. 


27 


39 


33 


34 


38 


28 


66 


11 


2 




134 


1114 


934 




5 


W. 


28 


30 


33 


34 


39 


28 


67 


11 


2 




2 16 


1166 


10 16 




6 


ITl 


29 


39 


34 


34 


40 


28 


67 


11 


3 




267 


37a 


10 67 




7 


h\ 


30 


39 


35 


34 


40 


28 


98 


11 


4 




340 


120 


U40 




8 


S. 


30 


38 


36 


33 


41 


27 


88 


10 


4 




426 


9 6 


096a 




9 


Su, 


4 31 


7 38 


4 36 


7 33 


442 


727 


4 69 


7 10 


5 6 


7 3 


613a 


263a 


113a 




10 


M. 


32 


38 


37 


33 


42 


27 


b 


10 


6 




613 


363 


9 13 




11 


l\i. 


33 


37 


38 


32 


43 


26 





10 


6 




7 16 


466 


3 16 




12 


W. 


33 


37 


39 


32 


44 


26 


1 


9 


6 




8 19 


669 


4 19 




18 


Th. 


34 


36 


39 


31 


45 


26 


1 


9 


7 




922 


7 2 


•6 92 




14 


h\ 


35 


36 


40 


31 


45 


26 


2 


9 


8 




10 12 


762 


612 




15 


S. 


36 


35 


41 


30 


46 


24 


3 


8 


8 




10 66 


836 


666 




16 


Su. 


4 37 


7 34 


4 42 


7 29 


4 47 


724 


5 3 


7 8 


5 9 


7 1 


1135a 


9 16a 


736a 




17 


M. 


38 


34 


43 


29 


48 


23 


4 


8 


10 




• • • 


956 


8 16 




18 


Tu. 


39 


33 


44 


28 


49 


23 


4 


7 


10 




16m 


10 34 


864 




19 


W. 


39 


32 


44 


28 


60 


22 


5 


7 


11 




064 


1111 


931 




20 


Th. 


40 


32 


45 


27 


60 


21 


6 


6 


11 


7 


131 


1161 


10 U 




21 


h\ 


41 


31 


46 


26 


61 


21 


6 


6 


12 


059 


2 11 


• • • 


10 63 




22 


S. 


42 


30 


47 


26 


62 


20 


7 


6 


12 


SO 


2 63 


33m 


1158 




23 


5w. 


4 43 


7 29 


4 48 


7 24 


463 


7 19 


5 7 


7 5 


6 13 


6 66 


3 38m 


1 18m 


. . . 




24 


M. 


44 


28 


49 


23 


63 


18 


8 


\ 4 


13 


67 


430 


2 10 


030m 




25 


Tu. 


45 


27 


49 


22 


64 


17 


8 


3 


14 


67 


529 


3 9 


1 29 




26 


W. 


46 


26 


50 


22 


66 


17 


9 


3 


14 


56 


6 41 


4 21 


2 41 




27 


Th. 


47 


25 


61 


21 


66 


16 


10 


2 


15 


66 


762 


632 


352 




28 


F. 


48 


24 


62 


20 


56 


15 


11 


1 


16 


66 


9 8 


648 


6 8 




29 


S. 


49 


23 


63 


19 


57 


14 


11 





16 


64 


10 9 


7 49 


6 9 




30 


Su. 


4 50 


7 22 


4 64 


7 18 


4 58 


7 14 


6 12 


7 


5 17 


6 54 


11 5m 


8 45m 


7 5m 




31M.I 


61 


21 


66 17 1 


59 


13 


13 


6 69. 


18 


63 


1164 


934 


764 





Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] My has Thirty-one Days. 28 


Piwage of tlM Iferidiui (mean time) and Deelinmdon of ttM 




iBtday. 


7th day. 


13th day. | 


I9th day. 1 


2Widay. 1 


South*. 


Dec. 


Southi 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Tec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Deo. 




b.m. 


t 


h.m. 


• / 


h.m. 


• i 


h.m. 


• < 


h. m. 


1 


H 


1 37a 


-j-18 6 


1 15a 


4-16 30 


41 a 


--15 43 


2a 


--15 54 


i;24m 


--16 66 


Q 


11 38m 


--23 39 


11 47n 


1--23 27 


11 55m 


--82 50 


3 


--ai 49 


loa 


--20 94 


^ 


332a 


4-17 30 


223a 


-f-16 21 


2 14a 


--15 7 


2 6 


--13 51 


165 


--12 31 


M 


53Sm 


— 550 


5 ion 


1—6 44 


4 57m 


— 6 45 


4 37m 


— 5 51 


4 16m 


— 6 3 


J 


8 8 


4-10 42 


7 57 


4-11 7 


746 


- -11 28 


734 


--11 44 


723 


--11 65 


s 


5 3a 


--15 46 


4 47a 


- -15 21 


4 32a 


--14 53 


4 isa 


--14 22 


4 3a 


--13 48 


^ 


624 


--940 


5 6 


--835 


4 49 


--7 29 


432 


■-6 21 


4 16 


--5 13 


JJf 


116 


4-2112 


58 


-(-20 57 


40 


--26 42 


22 -|-20 26 


4 


--20 8 


h 


6 «m 


— 3 51 


4 44n 


1—353 


4 21m 


— 355 


3 67m 


— 3 60 


3 33m 


— 4 4 


5 


644 


+ 8 


6 21 


-(-8 3 


557 


4-8 4 


5 34 +8 5 


6 10 + 8 6| 






Moon xises or sets. Mean Time. 




tS 


P 




• 


• 


• 


• 


PHENOMSNA AND OBSSRTA. 


1 


4 


s 


4 


wd 


& 


TI0N8. 


1 


|l 


1 


i 


i 


1 


Hi 


Sundays and Holidays. 






uts. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


Washlnffton Mean Time. 




h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


d. h.m. . , 


1 


47a 


^ 7a 


8 3a 


7 50a 


7 48a 


745a 


1 5 59a C farthest from snn. 
2d Sunday afier Trinity. 


5. 


142a 


8 5ia 


S49a 


846a 


836a 


833a 


3 


234 


927 


924 


923 


9 16 


9 14 


2 060m<5J/(r :if442N. 


4 


324 


10 4 


LO 3 


10 1 


966 


956 


2 9 69m^ gC § 2 UN. 
3li38m<5^(r <J4 27N. 
4 8 la g m Aphehon. 


5 


4 10 


10 35 


L0 35 


10 36 


10 32 


10 32 


6 


4 56 


11 5 


11 5 


11 6 


11 6 


11 7 


7 


538 


1134 


LI 35 


1136 


1139 


11 42 


5 2 47m 5 stationary. 


8 


21 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


7 6 52m I2 stationary. 
Zd Sunday after Trinity. 


s: 


7 6a 


3m 


5m 


7m 


012m 


15m 


10 


740 


033 


036 


038 


47 


050 




11 


835 


1 6 


1 9 


1 13 


123 


1 28 


14 7m<J 5 V 5 4 58S. 
i4i0 2imn9O. 


12 


922 


142 


147 


150 


2 2 


2 9 


13 


10 U 


224 


228 


233 


246 


263 


19 8i2m<5 5 9 5 5 57 S. 


14 


11 2 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


19 10 44mlnf. 6 8©. 


15 


11 53 


6 49a 


6 45a 


642a 


629a 


6 26a 


20 6 64a 6\^ l2 2 8 S. 
Uh Sunday after Trinity. 


s: 


g 


733a 


7 3ia 


7 27a 


7 16a 


7 12a 


17 


045m 


8 14 


8 11 


8 9 


8 


7 67 


21 2 3ia i $0^ 5|C 42 S. 


18 


136 


8 62. 


860 


848 


8 41 


840 


22 2 6ia ^9(r 9 1 59N. 


19 


227 


927' 


926 


925 


9 21 


921 


22 5 oasup. <J 9© 


20 


318 


10 ] 


LO 1 


LO 


10 


10 1 


23 952a i^n 9 037N. 

24 1 2a iilQ- 


21 


4 9 


10 34 ] 


L0 25 


L0 37 


10 30 


10 41 


22 


6 


11 9 1 


LI 12 


LI 13 


11 19 


1122 


25 6 37m g gr. Hel. Lat S. 
bih Sunday after Trinity. 


24 


552m 


11 46a 1 


L150a 


LI 62a 


. . . 


. . . 


6 46 








im 


6m 


27 10 S2a 9 stationary. 


25 


742 


020m 


32m 


037m 


048 


064 


St. James. 


26 


830 


1 16 


120 


125 


138 


144 


28 8 52m 9 in Perihelion. 


27 


936 


2 8 


2 13 


2 17 


2 31 


238 


29 49m^ gC $ 034N. 


28 


10 34 


3 6 


3 11 


3 16 


329 


336 


29 4 39a ^ stationary. 

29 8 48a 6^<L 21 4 24:'N. 

eth Sunday after Trinity. 


29 


1130 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


s: 


23a 


726a 


7 23a 


7 21a 


7 12a 


7 9a 


31 


1 14 


8 2 


S 


763 


752 


7 51 


30 8 45m <J 9 C 9 4 46 N. 



Digitized 



by Google 



24 August, Eighth Month, begins on Tuesday. [1848. 






Istday. 


7th day. 


13th day. | 


19th day. 


25th day. | 


Begins, 
h.m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


Bei^ 
h.m. 


. Ends, 
h.m. 


Beghis. 
h.m. 


iBnds. 
h.m. 


Boston, 


265m 


9 17a 


k 3 5m 


9 6a 


3 15m 


883a 


3 84m| 8 43a 


3 34m| 8 30a| 


N. York, 


3 4 


9 8 


3 14 


8 66 


333 


846 


333 


834 


340 


884 


Wash'n, 


3 14 


8 88 


323 


8 48 


330 


838 


338 


888 


346 


8 18 


Charles., 


339 


833 


345 


8 25 


360 


8 18 


366 


8 10 


4 8 


8 8 


N. Orl's, 


348 


824 


364 


8 16 


360 


8 9 


4 4 


8 2 


4 8 


766 


APOOU AND PBRIOSB OP THI MOON. 

Apogee, 6th day, 6h. A. | Perigee, 19th day, Ih. M. 


PHA8S8 OP^ THK MOON. 

First Quarter, 6th day, %. 48.4m. A. Last Quarter, 21st dav, Iftti. 69 Sni. M 
FnUMoon, 14th «S 8 8.0 A. New Moon, 28tli '^ 1 £8.8 A. 


1 


1 

1 


Sun's wper limb rises and sets, (corr. for refiract.) M. Time. 


High Water. M. Thne. 


4 


!' 


f* 


1^ 


8 o 


1 


'{' 


1*' 


rises. 
h. m. 


seU. 
h.m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


sets. 
b.m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


nses, 
h.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Tu. 


4 52 


7 20 


456 


7 16 


5 


7 12 


5 13 


658 


5 19 


653 


035a 


10 15m 


8 35m 


2 


W. 


53 


19 


67 


15 


1 


11 


14 


67 


19 


52 


1 15 


10 65 


9 15 


3 


111. 


54 


18 


68 


14 


1 


10 


14 


66 


20 


61 


1 51 


1131 


9 51 


4 


Jb\ 


65 


16 


69 


13 


2 


9 


15 


65 


20 


60 


228 


8a 


10 88 


5 
6 


S. 


ai 


15 


5 


12 


3 


8 


16 


54 


21 


49 


3 6 


045 


11 6 


Su, 


4 57 


7 14 


5 1 


7 11 


5 4 


7 7 


5 16 


6 63 


5 21 


6 48 


3 4la 


I8ia 


114im 


7 


M. 


58 


13 


2 


10 


5 


6 


17 


62 


38 


48 


483 


2 3 


023a 


8 


Tu. 


69 


11 


3 


8 


6 


4 


18 


61 


23 


47 


5 9 


249 


1 9 


9 


W. 


5 


10 


4 


7 


7 


3 


18 


60 


23 


46 


6 16 


355 


8 15 


10 


Th. 


1 





6 


6 


8 


2 


19 


49 


24 


45 


729 


5 9 


380 


11 


F. 


2 


8 


6 


5 


9 





20 


48 


24 


44 


839 


6 19 


430 


12 
13 


S. 


3 


7 


7 


3 


10 


6 59 


20 


47 


25 


43 


942 


782 


5 42 


Su. 


5 4 


7 5 


5 8 


7 2 


5 11 


6 68 


5 21 


6 46 


525 


643 


10 3la 


8 1la 


6 3la 


14 


M. 


6 


4 


9 





12 


57 


22 


45 


26 


43 


U 16 


856 


7 16 


15 


Tu. 


6 


2 


10 


S69 


13 


55 


22 


44 


87 


41 


1165 


935 


765 


16 


W. 


7 


1 


11 


68 


14 


64 


23 


43 


27 


40 


. . . 


10 13 


838 


17 


Th. 


8 


6 60 


12 


67 


15 


63 


24 


43 


88 


39 


032m 


10 58 


912 


18 


F. 


9 


58 


13 


65 


16 


62 


24 


41 


88 


38 


112 


11 aa 


958 


19 


S. 


10 


66 


14 


64 


17 


50 


25 


40 


39 


37 


152 


. . . 


10 34 


20 


Su. 


5 11 


6 65 


5 15 


5 83 


5 18 


6 49 


5 26 


6 39 


529 


636 


2 34m 


14m 


11 18a 


21 


M. 


12 


54 


16 


51 


19 


48 


27 


38 


30 


35 


3 18 


068 


. . . 


22 


Tu. 


14 


63 


17 


60 


20 


46 


27 


37 


30 


34 


4 7 


147 


7m 


23 


W. 


15 


61 


18 


49 


21 


45 


28 


36 


31 


33 


6 4 


344 


1 4 


24 


Th. 


16 


49 


19 


47 


21 


43 


29 


35 


32 


33 


6 19 


3 59 


2 19 


25 


F. 


17 


48 


20 


45 


22 


42 


29 


34 


32 


31 


738 


6 18 


338 


26 
27 


S. 
Su. 


18 


46 


21 


43 


23 


41 


30 


33 


33 


30 


9 2 


643 


6 8 


5 19 


6 44 


6 22 


5 41 


5 24 


639 


5 31 


6 32 


5 34 


6 89 


10 4m 


7 44m 


6 4m 


28 


M. 


20 


42 


23 


40 


25 


38 


32 


31 


34 


88 


10 55 


835 


656 


29 


Tu. 


21 


41 


24 


38 


26 


36 


32 


29 


35 


87 


1138 


9 18 


738 


80 


W. 


S2 


39 


25 


36 


27 


34 


33 


28 


35 


26 


16a 


966 


8 16 


31 


Th. 


23 


37^ 26l 


34 


28 


33 


34 


26 36 


84 


053 


10 33 


853 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] August has Unrty-one Days. 25 


PwMge of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets. 




iBtday. 


Tth day. 1 


ISth day. 1 


19th day. | 


26th day. 


South*. 


Deo. 


South* 


. Dee. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Soutk*.. Dec. 




h.m. 


O 1 


h.m. 


• t 


h.m. 


o t 


h.m. 




h.m. 




K 


IQSSm 


-|-18 81 


10 4711 


1-4-19 29 


10 64m 


--19 26 


11 13m 


--17 51 


1136m 


-(-14 43 


^ 


018a 


--18 18 


025a 


--16 13 


030a 


--13 49 


036a 


- -11 13 


039a 


--826 


g 


144 


-f-10 54 


135 


-(-928 


125 


--8 


1 16 


-|-630 


1 6 


-|-468 


f 


ssom 


— 62? 


327n] 


L — 6 53 


3 3m 


— 728 


238m 


— 8 19 


212m 


— 848 


1 


7 9 


4-12 C 


657 


-1-11 59 


6 45 


--11 64 


633 


--11 41 


620 


-}-ll 24 





346a 


--13 fl 


3 3la 


--12 31 


3 17a 


--11 63 


3 3a 


- -11 14 


2 48a 


+10 36 


5 


367 


--366 


342 


--2 47 


327 


--138 


3 11 


--030 


266 


— 038 


21 


11 43m 


-f-19 47 


112411 


L -1-19 20 


11 6m 


--19 10 


10 48m 


--18 51 


10 30m 


-|-18 33 


h 


3 4 


— 4 11 


2 40 


— 4-19 


2 15 


— 428 


160 


— 437 


125 


— 448 


JE 


443 


+ 8 « 


4 19 


+ 8 6 


3 65 -|-d 3| 


3 31 H-8 ll 


3 7 


+ 768 


4 


i 


Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 


PHENOMBNA AND OBSXRYA- 




• 


o* 




• 


1 


4 


i 


i 


« 

1 


TI0N8. 

Sundays and Holidays. 




h.m. 


h.m. 


*tt*, 

h.m. 


uts. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


seta, 

h.m. 


Washington Mean Time, 
d. h.m. 


1 


3 2a 


d35a 


83Sa 


8 34a 


830a 


829a 


1 4 63m<J ^C ^ 2 45N. 


2 


348 


9 6 


9 5 


9 6 


9 5 


9 6 


3 s 4a <${^iy *0 8N. 


3 


332 


931 


932 


9 33 


936 


938 




4 


416 


10 5 1 


LO 6 1 


8 


10 13 


10 15 




5 


5 


10 35 1 


10 37 1 


39 


10 45 


10 49 


7 7 omg stationary. 
7th Sunday after Trinity. 


S, 


543a 


u 6a \ 


LI loa ] 


113a 


112la 


1126a 


7 


629 


1141 : 


LI 45 1 


149 


1150 


. . . 


7 10 3ia 5 sr. elong. 18 57 W. 

8 i2om<J?jTnt 5|C180N. 


8 


715 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


• • • 


5m 


9 


8 3 


02om 


024m 


28m 


4im 


47 




10 


852 


1 3 


1 8 


112 


125 


133 




11 


943 


182 


156 


2 1 


2 15 


2 21 




12 


10 35 


2 47 


260 


2 56 


3 9 


3 15 


13 6 4m$ in Q. 

8/^ Sunday after Trinity, 


5L 


U2Sa 


rises. 


rises. 


nses. 


nses. 


rises. 


14 


S 


650a 


6 48a 


6 45a 


638a 


6 36a 




15 


02Qm 


726 


7 25 


7 24 


7 19 


7 19 


15 27a <J 5^ 5 IN. 


16 


112 


8 2 


8 1 


8 1 


8 


8 


16 11 27a i i^C I2 2 14 S. 


17 


2 2 


836 


8 36 


8 37 


839 


8 41 


17 7 40a g in Perihelion. 


18 


254 


912 


9 14 


9 15 


920 


923 


18 8 8a ^9C W 2 6N. 


19 


3 49 


9 49 


9 51 


9 54 


10 1 


10 6 


19 oa 9 gr. HeL Lat S. 
9th Sunday after Trinity, 


S" 


4 42m 


10 30a 1 


34a 1 


37a 


10 47a 


10 52a 


21 


537 


U15 1 


119 1 


123 


11 35 


1141 




22 


634 




. . . 




. . . 


. . . 


22 i33m<jSc^H *0 88N. 


23 


730 


3m 


8m 


13m 


027m 


33m 


23 I33m<j 5c*8 *0 23N. 


24 


826 


060 


1 4 


1 9 


123 


1 29 


Sl Bartholomew, 


26 


9 21 


168 


3 2 


3 7 


221 


223 


26 318a 62t€ JH^ 7N. 
28 3 33mg gr. HeL Lat. N. 
lOih Sunday after Trinity, 


26 


10 15 


3 


3 3 


3 8 


320 


326 


s: 


11 5m 


4 4m 


4 7m 


4iim 


4 19m 


4 25m 


28 


1154 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


Solar eclipse, invis. in U. S. 


29 


4ia 


7 6a 


7 4a 


7 4a 


7 2a 


7 2a 


28 737m<5 5C S 346N. 


80 


126 


736 


7 36 


7 36 


737 


738 


29 4oa ^ 9 C 9 1 64 N. 


81 


2 10 


8 4 


8 6 


8 7 


8 10 


8 13 


29 10 24a <5 ^C ^ 49N. 



Digitized 



by Google 



26 September, Ninth Month, begins on Friday. [1848. 


Twilight b^DB and ends. Mean Time. 




Ist day. 


7th da}'. 


13th day. H 


19th day. 


25th day. | 


BeghiB. 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins. Ends, 
h.m. h.m. 


Beghis. 
h. m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Begins 
h.m. 


lEnds. 
h. m. 


Begms. 
h.m. 


Ends, 
h. m. 


Boston, 


3 44m 


8 162 


I 3 5im 


8 4a 


3 59m 


7 62a 


4 7m| 7 40a 


4 16m 


7 28a 


N. York, 


3 49 


8 11 


366 


8 


4 3 


7 49 


4 10 


7 37 


4 18 


726 


Wash'n, 


354 


8 6. 


4 


7 66 


4 7 


7 45 


4 14 


734 


4 21 


7 23 


Charles.', 


4 8 


762 


4 12 


7 43 


4 17 


734 


422 


725 


428 


7 16 


N. OrPs, 


4X4 


7 46 


4 17 


7 39 


4 21 


7 31 


425 


722 


430 


7 14 


APOGEE AND PSaiOEB OF THE MOON. 

Apogee, 3d day, noon. | Perigee, 15fch day, lOh. M. 


PHASES OF THE MOON. 

First Quarter, 5th day, 8h. 85.0m. A. 1 Last Quarter, 19th day, 4h. 49.4m. A. 
FuUMoon, 18th " 1 9.9 M. | New Moon, 27th " 4 27.0 M. 


1 


1 

1 


Sun's upper limb rises and sets, (corr. for refract.) M. Tfane. | 


High Water. M.Timfi.| 




!^ 


k 
1 


8 *> 




4 


i' 


J4 






rius. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


seU. 
h. m. 


nses 
h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. . 


1 


h\ 


6 24 


6 36 


5 27 


6 33 


5 29 


6.31 


5 35 


6 26 


5 37 


623 


1 26a 


11 em 


9 26m 


2 


S. 


26 


35 


28 


32 


30 


30 


36 


24 


37 

5 38 


22 


1 57 


11 37 


9 57 


8 


Su. 


6 27 


6 33 


5 29 


8 30 


5 31 


628 


5 36 


6 22 


6 21 


230a 


oioa 


10 3Qm 


4 


M. 


28 


31 


30 


29 


32 


27 


37 


21 


38 


19 


3 3 


043 


11 3 


5 


Tu. 


29 


30 


31 


27 


33 


25 


37 


20 


39 


18 


339 


1 19 


11 30 


6 


W. 


30 


28 


32 


26 


34 


24 


38 


19 


39 


17 


422 


2 2 


022a 


7 


Th. 


31 


26 


.33 


24 


35 


23 


38 


13 


40 


16 


5 18 


2 58 


18 


8 


h\ 


32 


25 


34 


23 


35 


21 


39 


16 


40 


15 


6 41 


4 21 


2 41 


9 
10 


S. 


33 


23 
21 


35 
5 36 


21 


36 
5 37 


20 

6 18 


40 
5 40 


15 
6 14 


41 


13 
6 12 


7 56 


536 


356 


5 34 


6 19 


6 42 


gioa 


6 60a 


5 10a 


11 


M. 


35 


19 


37 


18 


38 


17 


41 


12 


42 


11 


10 2 


7 42 


6 2 


12 


Tu. 


36 


17 


33 


16 


39 


15 


42 


11 


43 


10 


10 49 


829 


6 49 


18 


W. 


37 


16 


39 


14 


40 


13 


42 


9 


43 


8 


1130 


9 10 


730 


14 


Th. 


38 


14 


40 


12 


^ 


12 


43 


8 


44 


7 


. . . 


9 49 


8 9 


15 


h\ 


39 


12 


41 


10 


41 


10 


43 


7 


44 


6 


9m 


10 30 


850 


16 


S. 


40 


11 


42 


8 


42 


9 


44 


6 


45 


5 


050 


11 11 


9 31 


17 


Su. 


5 41 


6 9 


5 42 


6 7 


5 43 


6 7 


5 45 


6 5 


5 45 


6 4 


1 3im 


116ia 


lOlia ) 


18 


M. 


42 


7 


43 


5 


44 


6 


46 


4 


46 


3 


2 11 


. . . 


10 58 


19 


Tu, 


43 


5 


44 


4 


44 


4 


46 


3 


46 


2 


2 63 


38m 


1146 


20 


W. 


44 


4 


45 


2 


45 


2 


47 


1 


47 


1 


3 46 


126 


. . . 


21 


Th. 


46 


2 


46 


1 


46 


1 


47 





47 





445 


225 


046m 


22 


P. 


46 





47 


5 59 


47 


569 


48 


6 59 


43 


5 58 


6 2 


342 


2 2 


23 


S. 


47 


5 53 


48 


.57 


48 


57 


48 


67 


48 


57 
6 66 


728 


5 8 


3 28 


24 


Su. 


5 48 


5 56 


5 49 


5 65 


5 49 


555 


5 49 


5 55 


5 49 


8 49m 


6 29a 


4 49m 


25 


M. 


49 


54 


60 


53 


50 


53 


60 


54 


50 


54 


550 


730 


550 


26 


Tu. 


50 


52 


51 


52 


51 


52 


60 


53 


50 


53 


10 37 


8 17 


637 


27 


W. 


51 


50 


62 


50 


52 


60 


51 


61 


51 


- 51 


11 17 


857 


7 17 


28 


Th. 


53 


49 


53 


49 


53 


49 


62 


60 


51 


60 


11 52 


932 


7 52 


29 


F. 


54 


47 


64 


47 


54 


47 


52 


48 


62 


49 


23a 


10 3 


8 23 


80 


S. 


55 


45 


55 


45 


55 


45 1 53 


47 « 62 


1 43 


57 


10 37 


8 57 
1 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] September has Thirty Day$. 27 


Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and DecUnation of the Planets. 




1st day. 


7th day. 


13th day. 


19th day. 


25th day. | 


Souths. 


Dec. 


tSoiUhs 


. Dec. 


Sout/is. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths 


Dee. 




h.m. 


O 1 


hm. 


e » 


h. m. 


O 1 


h.m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


• » 


2 


la 


4-948 


19a 


L +5 8 


0:33a 


+ 25 


45a 


— 4 8 


55a 


— 825 


9 


43 


--45fl 


47 


--1 57 


50 


— 1 7 


064 


— 4 12 


057 


— 7 14 




055 


4-3 S 


46 


4- 1 34 


36 


— 1 


27 


— 1 37 


18 


— 3 12 


r ' 


1 4im 


— 9 4(J 


1 1311 


a — 10 20 


45m 


— 11 13 


15m 


— 11 66 


11 42 


— 12 39 


T 


6 5 


4-10 56 
-|- 9 50 


5 52 


+10 26 
4-9 11 


5 37 


+ 9 51 
4-833 


523 


+ 9 10 
4-756 


5 6m 


+ 825 
4-7 19 


6 


2 3ia 


2 17a 


2 3a 


1 49a 


1 36a 


5 


239 


— 1 65 


223 


— 3 2 


2 8 


— 4 9 


1 54 


— 514 


1 39 


— 6 19 


11 


10 8m 


+18 8 


9 491] 


a+17 50 


9 30m 


+17 31 


9 12m 


+17 12 


8 52m 


+16 54 


t 


56 


— 5 


; 030 


— 5 12 


5 


— 6 23 


11 36a 


— 636 


11 loa 


— 5 47 


¥ 


2 39 


+ 754 


' 2 15 


+ 7 50 


1 61 


+ 7 46 


1 26m 


+ 74. 


1 2m 


+ 736 


1 


*l 


Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. | 


PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 




c 


4 


o 


^ 


s 




<S 


^ 


^ 


TIONS. 


1 


jl 




1 


i 


e 


S5 


Sundays and Holidays, 




h.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


Washington Mean Thne. 
d. h. m. ^ , 


1 


2 54a 


635a 


8 37a 


8 39a 


8 44a 


8 47a 


1 8 12a Sup. <J 5 ©. 


2 


3 38 


9 6 


9 9 


9 11 


920 


9 24 


nth S. after Trinity. Saturn's 


5. 


4 22a 


940a 


9 43a 


9 47a 


9 57a 


10 la 


4 


6 8 


10 15 1 


L0 17 


10 24 


10 36 


10 41 


[ring disappears. 


5 


554 


10 56 1 


LI 1 


11 5 


11 18 


1125 


6 6 30mn 5©. 


6 

7 


643 


11 42 ] 


LI 46 
* 


1151 
• 


. . . 


• • • 


6 11 55a <J 9 <J 9 31 N. 


7 32 








6m 


iim 




8 


823 


033m 


37m 


42m 


57 


1 2 


13 5 9m<J>xC Iz 2 28 S. 


9 


9 15 


130 


134 


133 


1 51 


1 57 


14 9 38m 1 \iQ, 

12th Sunday after Trinity, 


is: 


10 7a 


2 3im 


2 35m 


2 38m 


2 49m 


2 55m 


11 


11 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises 


rises. 


14 10 8m<5 5cJ. S 2S. 


12 


1153 


5 53a 


6 57a 


5 57a 


5 54a 


5 53a 


Lunar ecli. vis. in U. S. Dis- 


13 


8 


634 


635 


5 34 


635 


636 


[appearan(;e of Saturn's ring. 


14 


46m 


7 9 


7 11 


7 12 


7 16 


7 19 




15 


1 40 


748 


750 


7 62 


7 59 


8 2 


15 2 35m 6^<C 9 2 5 N. 


16 


2 35 


8 23 


8 32 


8 31 


8 44 


8 49 


19 24a ^gO'SfujL? 0.901. 
ISth Sunday after Trinity. 


5. 


3 3lm 


9 12a 


9 16a 


9 20a 


9 32a 


9 37a 


18 


4 23 


10 1 1 


10 6 


10 11 


10 24 


10 30 


20 3 37a 5 in Q. [begins. 


19 


526 


10 55 1 


LI 


11 5 


11 19 


11 25 


22 5 iia O enters £i^ Aut 


20 


6 22 


1153 1 


LI 57 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


23 7 3im ,J 2t€ :j; 3 49 N. 


21 


7 17 


. . . 


. . . 


2m 


15m 


22m 


St. Matthew. 


22 


8 11 


053m 


63m 


1 2 


1 14 


1 21 


26 6 4im<5 ga'njj 5|c 1 28 S. 


23 


9 1 


1 55 


1 ® 


? 2 


2 12 


2 18 


27 4 38a 6 ?C ^ 1 11 S. 
Uth Sunday after Trinity. 


5. 


5Om 


2 57m 


3 om 


3 2m 


3 lom 


3 15m 


25 


10 37 


358 


4 


4 2 


4 7 


4 10 


28 6 12a <5 S C 5 4 4 S. 


26 


1122 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


28 6 16a 6 9^^ 9 2 18 S. 


27 


6a 


6 7a 


6 7a 


6 8a 


6 iia 


6 12a 


Solar eclipse, invis. in U. S. 


28 


050 


635 


6 36 


633 


6 43 


6 45 


28 9 52a (5 2 9 5 1 47 S. 


29 


134 


7 5 


7 8 


7 10 


7 13 


7 22 


Michaelmas Day. 


30 


2 18 


739 


743 


7 45 


755 


7 59 


30 7 13a g in Aphelion. 



Digitized 



by Google 



28 October, Tenth Month, begins on Sunday. [1848. 


TwUight begins and ends. Mean Time. 




1st day. 


7th day. 


Idth day. 1 


Idthday. 


26th day. 1 


Begins. 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


Begins. lEnds. 
h. m. h. m. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


Ends, 
h.m. 


Begins 
h. m. 


h.m. 


Beghis. 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


Boston, 


4 23m 


7 i7a|| 4 3om| 


7 6a 


4 37in 


655a 


4 44in|6 46a 


4 5Qm| 6 38^1 


N. York, 


425 


7 15 


432 


7 4 


438 


654 


444 


646 


450 


633 


Wash'n, 


427 


7 13 


433 


7 3 


438 


654 


444 


646 


450 


638 


Charles., 


439 


7 8 


436 


7 


440 


6 53 


445 


645 


440 


639 


N-Orl's, 


434 


7 6 


437 


6 58 


441 


651 


445 


645 


448 


640 


APOOU AN© PERIQU OF THl MOON. 

Apogee, l8t day, 5h. M. | Perigee, 13th day, 2h. A. | Apogee, 28th day, 8h. A. 


PHASK8 OF TH« MOON. 

First Qoarter, 5th day, 8h. 52.5m. M. : Last Quarter, 1901 day, Ih. 19.dm. M. 
FuUMoon, 12th " 10 47.6 M. : New Moon, 26th « 9 88.1 A. 


1 


1 

1 


Snn's tapper limb rises and sets, (corr. for refract.) M. Ume. 1 


High Water. M,Time.| 


« 

* 


1' 


1^ 


|d8 


1* 
»5 


1 


I' 


1^ 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rtses. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
Ii. m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


Su, 


5 66 


5 43 


5 56 


5 43 


S56 


5 43 


5 54 


5 45 


5 53 


546 


1 27a 


11 7m 


9 27m 


2 


M. 


57 


42 


57 


42 


57 


42 


55 


44 


54 


45 


1 57 


1137 


57 


8 


Tu. 


58 


40 


58 


41 


58 


40 


55 


43 


54 


44 


2 31 


Olla 


10 31 


4 


W. 


59 


39 


59 


39 


59 


39 


56 


42 


55 


43 


3 6 


46 


11 6 


5 


Th. 


6 1 


38 


6 


38 


6 


38 


56 


41 


56 


42 


3 46 


126 


1146 


6 


F. 


2 


36 


1 


37 


1 


37 


57 


40 


66 


41 


438 


2 18 


033a 


7 

8 


S. 
Su, 


3 
6 4 


34 
5 33 


2 


35 


2 
6 3 


35 
5 34 


58 
5 58 


38 
5 37 


57 


39 
538 


553 


333 


153 


6 3 


5 34 


5 58 


7 16a 


4 56a 


3 16a 


9 


M. 


5 


31 


4 


32 


4 


32 


59 


36 


58 


37 


833 


6 13 


433 


10 


Tu. 


6 


29 


5 


31 


5 


31 


6 


35 


59 


36 


932 


7 12 


532 


11 


W. 


8 


28 


6 


29 


6 


30 





34 


8 


35 


10 17 


7 57 


6 17 


12 


Th. 


9 


26 


7 


28 


7 


29 


1 


33 





34 


11 1 


8 41 


7 1 


13 


F. 


10 


24 


8 


26 


8 


27 


2 


32 


1 


33 


11 43 


923 


743 


14 


S. 


11 


22 





25 


9 


25 


2 


30 


2 


33 


. . . 


10 6 


828 


15 


Su, 


6 12 


5 20 


6 10 


5 23 


6 10 


5 24 


6 3 


5 29 


6 2 


5 31 


26m 


10 49a 


9 da 


16 


M. 


13 


19 


11 


22 


11 


22 


4 


28 


3 


29 


1 9 


1133 


953 


17 


Tu. 


14 


17 


12 


20 


12 


20 


5 


26 


4 


28 


153 


• • • 


10 41 


18 


W. 


15 


16 


13 


18 


13 


19 


5 


25 


4 


27 


2 41 


2im 


1131 


19 


Th. 


17 


14 


14 


17 


14 


17 


6 


24 


5 


26 


3 31 


111 


. . . 


20 


F. 


18 


13 


15 


15 


15 


16 


7 


23 


6 


25 


428 


2 8 


028m 


21 


S. 


19 


11 


16 


14 


16 


15 


8 


22 


6 


24 


5 45 


3 25 


145 

3iom 


22 


Su. 


621 


5 10 


6 13 


5 12 


6 17 


5 14 


6 8 


5 21 


6 7 


523 


7 lom 


450m 


23 


M. 


22 


8 


19 


11 


18 


13 


9 


20 


8 


22 


8 27 


6 7 


427 


24 


Tu. 


23 


7 


20 


10 


19 


12 


10 


19 


8 


21 


9 27 


7 7 


5 27 


25 


W. 


24 


5 


21 


8 


20 


10 


11 


18 





20 


10 13 


753 


6 13 


26 


Th. 


25 


4 


22 


7 


21 


9 


11 


17 


10 


19 


10 51 


8 31 


6 51 


27 


F. 


27 


2 


24 


5 


22 


7 


12 


16 


10 


18 


1124 


9 4 


724 


28 


S. 


28 


1 


25 


4 


23 


5 


13 


15 


11 


17 


11 57 


9 37 


7 67 


29 


SU. 


629 


5 


626 


5 3 


624 


5 4 


6 14 


5 14 


6 12 


5 16 


030a 


loiom 


830m 


30 


M. 


31 


4 58 


27 


1 


25 


3 


14 


13 


12 


16 


1 1 


10 41 


9 1 


31 


Tu. 


32 


57 


28 





26 


I 2 


15 


12 1 13 


15 


133 


11 13 


933 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] October has Thirty^one Days. 29 


Passage of the Meridian (mean time) and Declination of the Planets. 




Ist day. 


7th day. | 


13th day. | 


19th day. | 


26th day. | 




Souths. 


Dec. 


Smiths 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Souths. 


Dec. 


Smaks. 


Dee. 




h.m. 


O 1 


h.m. 


1 


h.m. 


e > 


h.m. 




h.m. 


• < 


« 


1 3a 


— ^12 20 


1 loa 


— ^15 47 


1 15a 


— 18 41 


1 17a — 20 60l 


ma 


— 21 56 


9 


1 2 


— ^10 10 


1 6 


— 12 58 


1 11 


— 15 35 


1 17 


— 17 58 


123 


— 20 5 




8 


— 4 46 





— 622 


11 5im 


— 7 55 


11 42m 


— 927 


11 34m 


— 10 57 


s 


11 13 


—13 8 


10 45 


— ^13 30 


10 17a 


—13 43 


950a 


—13 48 


9 24a 


—13 44 


% 


4 52m 


-|-736 
-(-6 49 


4 32n 


1-4-643 
-j-6 10 


4 lom 


+ 5 46 
4-538 


3 54m 


+ 4 48 
+ 5 7 


336m 


+ 348 
+ 4 40 





122a 


1 8a 


54a 


4oa 


27a 


5 


1 25 


— 7 21 


1 11 


— 822 


57 


— 922 


043 


— 10 21 


029 


— ^1128 


11 


8 33m 


-)-16 36 


8 I3n 


1 4-16 19 


7 54m 


+16 2 


7 33m 


+15 47 


7 13m 


+15 34 


\ 


i0 4da 


— 5 57 


10 20a 


— 6 6 


955a 


— 6 15 


9 30a 


— 622 


9 6a 


— 628 


M 


38m 


+ 731 


1311 


1+726 


11 45 


+ 7 19 


11 20 


+ 714 


10 56 


+ 7 9 


4 




Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. | 




#1 




o 


«j 


o 


o 


PHENOMENA AND OBSERVA- 


J 


4 


d0 


d0 


<§ 


<s 


TIONS. 


OB 
1 


jl 




i 


1 


1 


• 

s 

^ 


Sundays and Holidays. 






sets. 


sets. 


seUi. 


sets. 


sets. 


Washington Mean Thne. 




h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


d. h. m. 


s. 


3 3a 


8 14a 


8 17a 


8 22a 


8 32a 


8 38a 


I5th Sunday after Trinity. 


2 


3 49 


8 52 


856 


9 


9 13 


920 




3 


436 


936 


9 41 


9 45 


953 


10 6 


3 7 om 5 in Perihelion. 


4 


524 


10 23 


10 27 


10 33 


10 46 


10 52 




5 


6 13 


11 19 


1121 


1126 


11 3d 


1145 


6 6 62a <5 g 5 21 37 S. 


6 


7 3 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 




. . . 


7 2 38a <J 5 $ 5 7 25 S. 


7 


754 


14m 


18m 


22m 


34m 


4om 


8 3 4im^ 9 ^ 9 19 20 S. 
I6th Sunday after Trinity. 


5. 


8 45a 


1 idm 


1 2om 


i24in 


13:3m 


1 39m 


9 


937 


2 21 


2 24 


2 26 


2 34 


238 


8 11 32a (5 9 ? 9 4 59 S. 


10 


10 30 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


10 32a 6h€ >i 2 38 S. 


11 


1125 


5 3a 


5 3a 


5 5a 


5 6a 


5 8a 


12 11 im^9<C 9 1 58 N. 


12 


S 


542 


544 


546 


5 51 


5 53 




18 


osim 


621 


625 


6 27 


6 35 


6 39 


13 7 im^^©. 


14 


118 


7 5 


7 8 


7 12 


723 


7 18 


14 1 44a 9 in 2S. 

1 7th Sunday after Trinity, 


s: 


2 17m 


7 54a 


7 5da 


8 3a 


8 16a 


8 2la 


16 


3 16 


8 47 


8 52 


856 


9 10 


9 17 


16 3 4oa <5 ^O. 


17 


4 16 


945 


950 


956 


10 9 


10 16 


17 8 44a S sv. elonff. 24 23 E. 


18 


5 13 


10 47 


10 50 


10 55 


11 8 


1115 


St. Luke. 


19 


6 7 


1150 


1153 


11 57 




. . . 


|19 2 62a <5 5 9 5 2 51 S. 


20 


650 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


7m 


13m 


20 9 12a <5^(r V 3 29 N. 

21 5 52m 5 gr. Hel.Lat S. 
ISth Sunday after Trinity. 


21 

S, 


748 


05Qm 


53m 


056m 


1 ^ 


1 10 


8 35m 


1 52m 


1 54m 


1 57m 


2 3m 


2 6m 


23 


920 


252 


2 54 


2 55 


258 


3 1 




24 


10 4 


3 51 


3 51 


352 


3 53 


3 51 




25 


10 47 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 




26 


1130 


6 8a 


5ioa 


5 13a 


5 19a 


522a 


26 18a <{ ^(T ^ 2 59 S. 


27 


14a 


539 


543 


5 45 


554 


5 59 


28 2 44a <J5(C 5 7 87 S. 


28 


059 


6 14 


6 17 


6 21 


6 31 


637 


St. Simon and St. Jude. 
l^th Sunday after Trinity, 


S, 


1 45a 


6 5la 


6 55a 


7 oa 


7 1la 


7 isa 


30 


232 


7 31 


736 


7 40 


754 


8 1 


29 4 13m <5 9 <r 9 5 36 S. 


31 


3 19 


8 17 


822 


827 


840 


8 48 


29 


3 loa 


5 stationary. 


1 



3* 



Digitized 



by Google 



80 November, Eleventh Month, begins on Wednesday, [1848. 


Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time. 


1 

] 


1st day. 


7th day. 


13th day. 


19th day. 


26thday. | 


li. m. 


Ends, 
h.m. 


Begins, 
h.m. 


Ends. 
h.m. 


h. m. h. m. 


Begins. Ifinds. 
h. m. h. m. 


Bogfais 
h.m. 


. pBnds. 
fh-m. 


Boston, 


4 6em 


630a 


5 6m 


623a 


6 1im 


6 18a 


6 17ID 6 14a|| 5 23m| 6 lla| 


N. York, 


4 67 


631 


5 4 


624 


5 10 


S19 


6 16 


6 16 


521 


6 13 


Wash'n, 


4 67 


6 31 


6 3 


626 


5 8 


5 21 


6 13 


618 


6 19. 


6 15 


Charles., 


164 


634 


460 


629 


5 3 626 


5 7 


623 


612 


623 


N. OrPs, 


163 


636 


455 


631 


6 1 628 


6 5 


696 


6 9 


626 


PBUeiB AKD APOaU OP TBI MOON. 

Perigee, 11& day, Ih. M. | Apogee, 24th daj, 6h. A. 


PHA8K8 OP TBI MOOlf. 

First Quarter, 4th day, Oh. 64.7m. M. 1 Last Quarter, 17th day, Vol. SS.tei. M. 
FuUMoon, 10th " 8 46.9 A. | New Moon, 26th " 4 21.6 A 


1 

1 


i 

1 


San's dipper limb rises and sets, (oorr. fbr refract.) M. Tfane. 


High Water. M. Thne. 


i 


1' 


1^ 


1 


i 




1 


1^ 


S <> 






Hies 
h.m 


tets. 
h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


nses. 
h.m. 


sets. 
h. m. 


rises. 
h. m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


rises. 
h.m. 


sets. 

h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


1 


w. 


633 


466 


6 29 


469 


627 


6 1 


6 16 


5 11 


8 14 


6 14 


3 3a 


11 43m 


10 3m 


2 


Th. 


34 


64 


30 


68 


28 





17 


10 


15 


13 


238 


18a 


10 38 


8 


h\ 


36 


63 


31 


67 


29 


4 69 


18 


9 


16 


12 


3 19 


069 


11 19 


4 


S. 


36 


61 


32 


66 


30 


58 


19 


8 


17 


11 


4 7 


1 47 


7a 


5 


Su, 


6 38 


450 


6 34 


464 


6 31 


4 67 


6 20 


6 8 


6 17 


6 11 


6 13a 


263a 


1 13a 


6 


M. 


39 


49 


36 


63 


32 


66 


21 


7 


18 


10 


634 


4 14 


2 34 


7 


Tu. 


40 


48 


36 


61 


33 


65 


22 


6 


19 


9 


7 49 


629 


3 49 


8 


W. 


42 


46 


38 


60 


35 


64 


23 


5 


20 


9 


867 


6 37 


4 67 


9 


Th. 


43 


46 


39 


49 


36 


63 


24 


4 


20 


8 


9 46 


726 


646 


10 


F. 


44 


44 


40 


48 


37 


62 


26 


3 


21 


8 


10 34 


8 14 


6 34 


11 


S. 


46 


43 


42 


47 


39 


61 


26 


3 


22 


7 


11 19 


869 


7 19 


12 


Su, 


6 47 


442 


6 43 


446 


6 40 


4 60 


6 27 


5 2 


6 23 


5 6 


. . . 


946a 


8 6a 


13 


M. 


48 


41 


44 


46 


41 


49 


28 


1 


24 


6 


6m 


10 32 


882 


14 


Tu. 


60 


40 


46 


44 


42 


48 


29 


1 


25 


6 


063 


U 18 


933 


15 


W. 


61 


39 


47 


43 


43 


47 


30 





26 


4 


139 


. . . 


10 26 


16 


Th. 


63 


38 


48 


42 


44 


46 


31 


4 69 


26 


4 


226 


6m 


1117 


17 


h\ 


63 


37 


49 


41 


46 


46 


32 


69 


27 


3 


3 17 


067 


. . • 


18 


8. 


64 


36 


60 


40 


46 


45 


33 


68 


28 


2 


4 12 


163 


12m 


19 


Su. 


6 65 


436 


8 61 


4 39 


6 47 


4 44 


6 34 


4 67 


629 


6 2 


6 16m 


2 66m 


1 16m 


20 


M. 


67 


36 


63 


39 


48 


44 


36 


67 


29 




633 


4 13 


232 


21 


Tu. 


68 


34 


64 


38 


49 


43 


36 


66 


30 




7 45 


525 


345 


22 


W. 


69 


33 


66 


37 


60 


42 


37 


66 


31 




860 


630 


460 


23 


Th. 


7 


32 


66 


36 


61 


42 


38 


66 


33 




9 42 


722 


542 


24 


h\ 


2 


32 


67 


36 


62 


41 


38 


55 


33 




10 23 


8 3 


623 


25 


S. 


3 


31 


66 


35 


63 


41 


30 


65 


34 
634 





11 


8 40 


7 


26 


Su, 


74 


430 


5 69 


4 34 


6 54 


4 41 


6 40 


4 66 


5 


1134m 


9 14m 


7 34m 


27 


M. 


6 


30 


7 


34 


55 


41 


41 


65 


36 





7a 


9 47 


8 7 


28 


Tu. 


6 


29 


1 


33 


66 


40 


42 


66 


36 





40 


10 20 


8 40 


29 W. 


8 


29 


3 


33 


67 


40 


43 


65 


37 





1 11 


10 61 


9 11 


80 Th. 


9 


29 


4 


33 


68 


40 


44 


65 


38 





145 


1125 


945 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] November has Tkirty Dayt. 31 






l«td»y. 


7th daj. 1 


ISfchday. 


19th daj. 


28th d«j. 1 


Sbitfftf 


Dee. 


Smttha, 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Dee. 




h.m. 


• « 


h.m. 


• 1 


h.m. 


• 1 


h.m. 


e t 


h.m. 


• 1 


^ 


045a 


— 21 r 


1 la 


—18 16 


mom 


— ^14 18 


10 38m 


—12 36 


10 20m 


-13 97 


9 


1 32 


—82 i 


\ 139 


—23 30 


148a 


—24 26 


157a 


— 24 57 


2 6a 


— «5 1 


• 


11 34n 


1—12 31 


11 16m 


—14 S 


11 9m 


—16 23 


11 2m 


—16 40 


10 55m 


— ^17 82 




865a 


—13 21 


8 3ia 


— ^13 9 


8 8a 


—12 42 


7 46a 


— 12 9 


7 24a 


—1131 




3 911 


1-4-2 4] 
-J-41S 


246m 


4-144 
-|-3 61 


2 2im 


+ 052 
+ 331 


155m 


4-0 6 
+ 3 15 


1 29m 


+ 033 
+ 3 3 




oua 


11 87m 


1143 


1130 


11 16 




13 


— 12 2( 


11 60 


—13 12 


1146 


—14 1 


11 32 


— ^14 49 


11 18 


—16 36 


X 


648II 


1+15 16 


628 


+16 9 


6 6 


+16 


544 


+14 53 


522 


+14 49 


\ 


837a 


— 634 


8 13a 


— 637 


749a 


— 639 


725a 


— 639 


7 la 


— 637 


w 


10 27 


H-7? 


10 3 


+ 658 


938 


+ 653 


9 14 


+ 6 49 


8 50 


+ 646 


1 




Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. 


PHENOMENA AND OBSEttYA- 
TIONS. 


4 


i 


JS 


«5 
4 


s 


i 




i 

55 


1 


e 


i 


Sundays and Holidays. 






«el«. 


sets. 


9eU. 


sets. 


sets. 






h.m. 


h. m. 


h.in. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


d. h. m. 


1 


4 7a 


9 ea 


9 13a 


9 17a 


9 3la 


938a 


AU Saints. 


2 


466 


10 3 


10 7 


10 11 


10 24 


10 31 


2 943m^ $0« 


3 


645 


11 2 


LI 6 


11 9 


1119 


U25 


4 10 62a D stationary. 
6 8 45a 6h(C H 2 34 S. 
20^ Sunday after Trinity. 


4 


636 
7 24a 


. . . 


. . . 




. . . 


. . . 


3m 


6m 


9m 


18m 


22m 


6 


8 16 


1 7 


1 10 


112 


118 


121 


7 7 omft stationary. 

7 6 oa 7 g ? (J 4 51 S. 


7 


8 


2 17 


2 18 


2 19 


2 21 


224 


8 


10 2 


327 


3 27 


327 


326 


327 


8 i47m<J5$ 5 2141 S. 


9 


10 88 


m€«. 


vises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


Transit of 5 , partly vis. U. S. 
8 8 33a (JVC V 1 56 N. 


10 


1167 


453a 


4 55a 


459a 


5 sa 


6 14a 


11 


i 


630 


6 43 


6 47 


559 


6 6 


9 6 2ia 5 in g. 
21«/ Sunday after Trinity. 


^ 


068m 


6 37a 


6 4ia 


646a 


668a 


7 6a 


13 


1 60 


7 31 


7 36 


740 


764 


8 2 


9 8 34m Inf. <J 5 ©. 


14 


3 


833 


8 38 


843 


8 67 


9 3 


uii20a i ?0. 


16 


368 


9 37 


9 41 


9 46 


9 67 


10 4 


13 1 3ia nJ/Q. 


16 


463 


10 41 1 


44 


10 48 


10 57 


11 3 


13 3 27a <5g<J 5.1 18 N. 
13 6 65a ^ in Perihelion. 


17 


646 


1143 1 


146 


1149 


1156 


. . . 


18 


633 


. . . 


. . . 




. . . 


ora 


17 8 2im61ll> JH^ 9N. 
22<f Sunday after Trinity. 


S. 


7 1OTn 


49m 


6lm 


0S3m 


66m 


050m 


20 


8 3 


146 


1 46 


146 


149 


1 50 


17 6 46a 9 in Aphelion. 


21 


846 


242 


2 42 


243 


2 41 


242 


19 8 6m ^ stationary. 

20 6 62m p gr. Hel. Lat S. 


22 


020 


3 40 


3 39 


338 


336 


334 


23 


10 13 


438 


4 36 


3 34 


429 


427 


22 7 28m^ stationary. 


24 


10 57 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


23 7 37a <J 5 (T 5 1 86 S. 


25 


1143 


4 5la 


4 54a 


4fi9a 


5ioa 


5 18a 


24 2 62m 5 gr. HeL LatN. 
2Sd Sunday after Trinity. 


s: 


029a 


630a 


5 35a 


639a 


55t2a 


550a 


27 


116 


6 14 


6 19 


623 


637 


643 


24ioi6m<J^C ^ 4 24 S. 


28 


2 6 


7 4 


7 9 


7 13 


727 


733 


96 7 19m § gr. elong. 20 W. 
23 458a <J9C 9 626 S. 


29 


263 


766 


B 


8 4 


8 18 


8 24 


30 


342 


882 


B87 


9 


9 12 


9 19 


Sl Andrew. 



Digitized 



by Google 































848. 


lay. 


Bnds. 


h.m. 


6 14a 


6 16 


6 19 


623 


633 


PiaiGXB AMD APOGXB OF THE MOOM. 


Perigee, 9Ui day, Ih. A. | Apogee, 22d day, Ih. M. 


PHA8I8 or THE MOON. 


First Quarter, Sdday, 2h. 57.6m. A. Last Quarter, 17th day, 6h. 4.9in.,M. 


FuUMoon, 10 " 6 85.7 M. New Moon, 26th " 11 13.6 M. 


^ 
J 


1 

1 


Sun's tgjper limb rises and sets, (corr. for refiract. ) M. Time. 1 


High Water. M. Thne. | 


J§ 


Y 


L 
r 




3*^ 


i 


!^ 


|d8 


& 


n 


^ 


§ 


m 


n 


1 









rues. 


sets. 


rises. 


sets. 


rises, sets. 


rises, sets. 


rises, sets. 












h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h.m. 


1 


h\ 


7 10 


129 


7 6 


4 34 


3 59 


4 40 


6 44 


4 55 


6 38 


5 


2 19a 


1159m 


8 19m 


2 
8 


S. 
Su. 


11 
7 12 


29 


6 


34 
4 34 


7 
7 1 


39 
4 39 


46 


55 
4 55 


39 
3 40 



5» 


3 


40a 


11 


4 29 


7 7 


6 46 


3 47a 


127a 


11 47m 


4 


M. 


13 


28 


8 


33 


2 


39 


46 


55 


41 





4 40 


220 


4oa 


5 


Tu. 


14 


28 


9 


33 


3 


38 


47 


55 


41 





6 49 


329 


1 49 


6 


W. 


16 


28 


10 


33 


4 


38 


48 


55 


42 





7 2 


4 42 


3 2 


7 


Th. 


16 


28 


11 


33 


5 


38 


48 


65 


43 





8 13 


6 53 


4 13 


8 


F. 


17 


28 


12 


33 


6 


38 


49 


55 


44 




9 14 


654 


5 14 


9 


S. 


18 


28 


13 


33 
4 33 


7 

7 9 


38 
4 38 


60 
61 


55 

lis 


45 


6 1 


10 8 


748 


6 8 


10 


Su. 


7 19 


128 


7 14 


3 46 


1 ' - "^ 


6 S9a 


11 


M. 


20 


28 


15 


33 


9 


38 


52 


56 


47 




1 


750 


12 


Tu. 


21 


28 


16 


33 


10 


39 


52 


56 


47 






8 41 


18 


W.-i 


'21 


28 


16 


33 


10 


39 


53 


56 


48 


2 




9 27 


14 


Th. 


22 


28 


17 


34 


11 


39 


54 


56 


49 


2 




10 14 


16 


F. 


23 


28 


17 


34 


12 


39 


54 


56 


49 


2 




11 2 


16 


S. 


21 


28 


18 


34 


12 


39 


65 


57 


50 


2 
5 3 


n 


1160 


17 


Su. 


7 24 


4 29 


7 18 


4 34 


7 13 


4 40 


6 56 


167 


650 


• • • 


18 


M. 


26 


29 


19 


36 


13 


40 


56 


67 


61 


3 




4ia 


19 


Tu. 


26 


29 


19 


36 


14 


40 


56 


58 


51 


3 




1 38 


20 


W. 


26 


30 


20 


36 


14 


40 


57 


68 


52 


4 




246 


21 


Th. 


26 


30 


20 


36 


14 


41 


57 


68 


52 


4 




364 


22 


F. 


27 


31 


21 


37 


16 


41 


58 


50 


53 


4 




458 


28 
24 


S. 
Su. 


27 

728 


31 
4 32 


21 
722 


37 


16 


42 
4 43 


68 


69 
5 


53 
354 


6 
5 6 


I in 


552 


438 


7 16 


6 59 


6 32a 


25 


M. 


28 


32 


22 


38 


16 


43 


59 





54 


6 


1 


7 61 


26 


Tu. 


29 


33 


23 


39 


17 


44 


7 


1 


65 


6 


1 


748 


27 


W. 


29 


34 


23 


39 


17 


46 





2 


56 


7 




894 


28 


Th 


29 


34 


24. 


40 


. 18 


46 


1 


2 


56 


8 




857 


29 


F. 


29 


36 


24 


40 


18 


46 


1 


3 


56 


9 




933 


8C 


S. 


30 
730 


36 
4 37 


26 
726 


41 
4 42 


19 


47 


2 


1 


67 


10 
6 10 


, 


10 9 


31 


Su. 


7 19 


4 48 


I7 fe 


5 5 


3 67 


2 4da 1 48a 


10 48a { 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] December has Thirty one Bays. 88 






Irt day. 


7th day. 


18th day. 


19tti day. 1 


25th day. | 


£bi«A«. 


Deo. 


Souths 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Deo. 


Souths. 


Dee. 




h.m. 


e 1 


h.m. 


e « 


h.m. 


• « 


h.m. 


• 


h.m. 


• 


5 


10 32m 


—16 C 


10 4m 


I — ^18 4< 


10 54m 


— 81 6{|11 9m 


— ^23 


1125m 


— «4 16 


9 


2 15a 


—84 38 


223a 


—83 48 


2 3la —82 33|| 2 38a 


— ^20 55 


244a 


—18 66 




10 49m 


— 18 56 


10 4211 


1—20 1 


10 36m 


— 80 56 10 30m 


—2145 


10 25m 


—22 27 


f 


7 4a 


—10 49 


644a 


—10 ( 


626a 


— 9 14 6 6a 


— 8 22 


54Sa 


— 7»4 


1 


1 im 


— 1 1 


3311 


I— 111 


8m 


— 1 24 11 31 


— 1 15 


11 « 


— 053 


^ 


11 2 


-|-255 


10 48 


+ 25t 


10 34 


-J- 2 48 10 20m 


+ 2 51 


10 6m 


+ 868 


»,► 


11 5 


—16 18 


10 59 


—17 0||10 38 


— ^17 36 10 26 


— ^18 10 


10 11 


—18 43 


:{? 


450 


-|-14 4e 


436 


+14 4( 


( 4 12 


+14 48 3 48 


+14 63 


323 


+14 69 


h 


63da 


— 634 


6 15a 


— 63( 


) 552a 


— 6 24 5 29a 


— 6 17 


6 7a 


— 6 8 


9 


826 


-f-643 


8 2 


+ 6 41 


738 


+ 6 39 7 14 


+ 638 


650 


+ 637 


1 




Moon rises or sets. Mean Time. | ) 




fl' 


i 


j 


S 


s 




PHENOMENA AND OBSSRYA- 
TIONS. 


1 


11 


1 


i 


1 


1 


■i 


Sundays and Holidays. 






seu. 


Sits. 


seig. 


sets. 


sets. 


Washington Mean Time. 




h.m. 


h.in. 


h.m. 


h.m. 


h. m. 


h. m. i 


i. h.m.^ • ' 


1 


43oa 


9 5ia 


955a 


9 59a I 


9a 


10 13a 


4 6 45m(5)2C h 213 S. 


2 


5 19 


10 55 


10 53 


LI 1 


1 7 


11 11 


6 5i8m^^C W 2 5N. 
St Sunday in Advent. 
8i0 35m^ in Q. 


5. 


6 7a 


• • • 


. . . 


. . . 


• • • 


• • • 1 


4 


657 


om 


im 


3m 


7m 


oiom 


5 


7-48 


1 7 


1 8 


1 8 


1 8 


111 


7 6 27a <51J^ 5 1 16N. 


6 


8 41 


2 15 


2 15 


2 15 


2 12 


212 


8 4 3a ^ stationary. 

7 om 5 gr. Hel. Lat S. 


7 


937 


327 


326 


3 24 


3 13 


3 18 1 


8 


10 36 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises. 


rises, i 


10 6m 9 gr. Hel. Lat S. 

on 58mn^O. 

d Sunday in Advent 


9 


11 37 


4 14a 


4 Ida 


4S2a 


4 35a 


4 4ia 1 


s: 


g 


5ioa 


5 14a 


520a 


5 33a 


5 4oa 2 


11 


039m 


6 11 


6 16 


6 21 


6 34 


6 42 1 


1 10 18a ^ <J ^ 28 31 S. 
3 2 5a ^50 n^Si'*' 3.943 


12 


1 41 


7 18 


721 


726 


7 39 


743 1 


13 


239 


824 


829 


8 31 


8 42 


840 1 


4 6 56a 6jI<C 21 2 56N. 


14 


335 


930 


932 


936 


9 43 


9 49 1 


4 11 28a <5 ^ ? ^ 3 23 S. 


15 


4 26 


10 34 


10 36 


10 39 1 


44 


10 47 1 


7 12a ngO- 


16 


5 15 


1135 


11 36 


1137 1 


140 


11 43 1 


7 2 25a g m 8- 

\d Sunday in Advent, [begins. 

1 11 52mO enters yj, Winter 


s: 


6 om 


• • • 


. . . 




• • • 




18 


644 


35m 


035m 


035m 


35m 


36m 2 


19 


728 


133 


132 


133 


130 


1 30 2 


3l0 50m<J^C ^5 13 8. 


20 


8 11 


230 


229 


228 


2 22 


222 2 


4 4 12a ^ § C IJ 6 44 S. 


21 


856 


327 


324 


322 


3 16 


3 13 , 


St. Thomas. 


22 


939 


4 23 


421 


4 13 


4 8 


4 6 2 


7 62a ip stationary. 


23 


10 26 


5 19 


5 16 


5 12 


5 


457 S 


7 6 33a § in Aphelion. 
th Sunday in AdvenL 


& 


11 13m 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 


sets. 4 


25 


la 


459a 


5 4a 


5 9a 


5 23a 


529a 


Christmas Day. 


26 


050 


552 


556 


6 1 


6 14 


621 » 


St. Stephen. 


27 


139 


6 47 


652 


655 


7 8 


7 14 i 


St. John. 


28 


229 


7 47 


750 


754 


8 4 


810 J 


^nnocents. 


29 


3 17 


8 48 


851 


854 


9 2 


9 6 S 


« 11 53a <5 9 C 9 4 20 S. 


30 


4 5 


9 51 9 53, 


954 


10 


10 3 S 


n 4oa <J>zC >1144 8. 


5. 


4 53a 


10 45a 10 47a 10 47a ii 


L0 49a 


10S2a ] 


[St Sunday after 


• Christmas, 



Digitized 



by Google 



34 



SCLIP8B OF MARCH 5. 



[1848. 



ECLIPSES IN 1848. 

In the jear 1848, there will be six eclipses; four of the Sun, and two of 
the Moon, and a Transit of Mercnry. ' One of the solar eclipses, one of the 
lunar eclipses, and the transit of Mercury will be visible in the United 
States. 

I. Sunday, March 5th. A partial eclipse of the Sun, visible in the 
Northern p<Mrtion of the United States. 

Beginning of the general eclipse, 7h. 14.9m. M. [Mean Time at Wash- 
ington] in latitude 47' 35* N., and longitude 86' 28* W. of Greenwidi. 

Greatest obscuration on the earth, 8h. 22.9m. M. in latitude 71* 53' N.and 
longitude 91* 44' W. of Greenwich. 

End of the general eclipse, 6h. 30.8m. M. in latitude 80* 26* N. and 
longitude 16* 5' E. of Greenwich. 

Digits eclipsed, 3* 14'. 

This eclipse will be visible principally in the Northern Polar regions, 
particularly in the North of America and in Greenland ; and will be quite 
small in all that portion of the United States in which it is visible. 

The phases of the eclipse for all places in the United States may be de- 
termini by means of the following table. The Sun^s semi-diameter and 
horizontal parallax are the same as at conjunction : 

of the EeUpse for Places In the United States. 



\i 


Hour an- 
gle for 
Greenwli. 


D's B. A. 

leM 
©»• R. A. 


O'sDeo. 
Sooth. 


d'sDee. 
South. 


Rel. hourly 
motion in 


Hor. 
Par. 




Change in 




B.A 


Deo. 


hour 
ittgle 


ami. 

E.A. 


Dee. 


h.in. 


e 1 ». 


1/ 


e 1 

6 51 


a 

4 


33 


10 


1 


... 




•• 


•• 





358 20 26 


4517.7 


106.4 


47 67.3 


'6.8 


12.4 


23.8 


10 


324 


6.6 


l.» 


5 


350 33 41 


4352.3 


101.6 


47 1.4 


6.8 


12.6 


23.9 


20 


4 4911.1 


3.7 


10 


44 56 


4186.6 


96.7 


46 6.6 


6.8 


12.7 


23.9 


030 


7 13.16.6 


5.6 


15 


1 57 11 


4021.0 


91.9 


45 9.7 


6.9 


12.9 


24.0 


040 


9 37,23.1 


7.6 


ao 


3 926 


3855.4 


87.1 


44 13.8 


6.9 


13.1 


24.1 


50|l2 2:27.0 


9.3 


35 


4 2142 


3680.9 


82.2 


43 17.8 


7.0 


13.2 


34.2 


,1 014 2733.1 
1 10|l6 5138.6 


11.2 


30 


5 33 57 


3524.3 


77.4 


42 21.9 


7.0 


13.4 


24 3 


13.1 


35 


6 46 12 


3358.7 


72^ 


41 25.8 


7.0 


13.6 


24.4 


1 20 |l9 16j44.2 


14.9 


40 


758 27 


3198.1 


h,7 


40 30.0 


7.1 


13.7 


24.5 


1 3021 4049.7 


16.8 


45 


9 10 42 


3027.5 


62.9 


39 34.0 


7.1 


13.9 


24.6 


1 40 24 555.2 


13.7 


50 


10 22 67 


3861.9 


58.1 


.38 38.0 


7.1 


14.1 


24.7 


1 50 26 30 60.7 


20.5 


65 


11 35 13 


2696.3 


53.2 


37 41.9 


7.2 


14.2 


24.7 


2 28 54 W2 


22.4 


1 


13 47 28 


2530.7 


48.4 


36 45.9 


7.2 


14.4 


24.8 


|2 10 


31 I8j71.7 


24.3 


5 


13 69 43 


2365.1 


43.6 


35 49.8 


7.3 


14.6 


24.9 


2 20 


33 43 77.3 


26.1 


10 


15 11 55 


2199.5 


38.7 


34 5.3.8 


7.3 


14.7 


24.9 


'230 


36 782.8 


23.0 


IS 


16 24 13 


2033.9 


33.9 


33 57.7 


7.4 


14.9 


25.0 


2 40 


38 3r88.3 


29.9 


20 


17 36 28 


1868.3 


29.1 


33 1.6 


7.4 


15.1 


25.1 


2 60 


46 .57|93.9 


31.7 


25 


18 48 44 


1702.6 


21.2 


33 6.5 


7.5 


15.3 26.2 


3 


43 21*99.4 


33.6 


30 


20 59 


1537.0 


19.4 


31 9.4 


7.5 


15.5 ! 25.3 




1 





Digitized 



by Google 



1848] 



B0LIP8S8 OF llA.RCiI 19, AND APRIL -S. 



35 



Phases of t&e Eclipse for Particular Places. 












Mean Time of Place at 


Angle of 
first pt. of 


Angle of 
last pt. of 




1 


Place. 








contact f^. 


contact tt. 


Begin- 


II 


End. 


^'8 

N.p 
t.the 


0's 
ver- 
tex t. 


K 

t.the 


©'s 
ver- 
tex t 


y 


1 






O o 




West 


East. 


\V. 


East. 


si 






h. m. s. 


h.m. 


h. m. s. 












m. 


Albany, N. T. 


7 36 1.5 




8 4 52.5 


35.6 


lU 


4.6 


3§.2 


•22 


288 


Amherst (Ck>l. Ch.), Blaas. 


7 42 10.7 


7 55.4 


8 9 2.6 


30 


14.3 


6.6 


35.9 


16 


26.9 


Augusta, Maine, 


7 51 39.7 


8 10.5 


8 30 18.1 


35.4 


6.6 


2.1 


36.9 


33 


38.6 


Bangor, Maine, 
Boston, Slate H6u$e^ 


7 56 12.7 


8 16.3 


9 37 12.2 


36.5 


4.7 


1.4 


36.5 


37 


41.0 
















12 




Buffalo, N. Y. 


7 12 5..3 


7 27.3 


7 43 15.1 


31.6 


14.0 


3.3 


40.7 


24 


31.2 


Burlington, Vermont, 
Cambridge, Observatory^ 


7 35 37.4 


7 55.5 


8 16 25J2 


36.3 


6.6 


0.3 


39.8 


38 


40.8 


7 50 2.6 


8 1.6 


8 13 25.6 


28.6 


15.3 


8.3 


34.0 


12 


23.4 


Chicago, niinois. 


6 39 35.0 


6 49.1 


6 58 60.0 


25.6 


22.1 


9.4 


37.7 


10 


19.2 


Concord, New Hampshire, 


7 45 31.7 


8 1.2 


8 17 22.8 


32.3 


11.2 


4.7 


36.4 


23 


31.9 


Detroit, Michigan, 


6 56 13.9 


7 9.1 


7 22 29.1 


29.1 


17.6 


4.7 


41.0 


17 


26.3 


EaAtport, Maine, 


8 5 21.0 


8 251 


8 45 36.4 


36.3 


4iJ 


2-2 


34.7 


34 


40.3 


HaU&x, Nora Scotia, 


8 23 10.1 


8 40.5 


8 68 17.8 


34.3 


4.9 


5.2 


30.5 


26 


36.1 


Hudson, Observatory^ 


7 7 44J2 


7 14.0 


7 20 22.6 


22.5 


24.6 


11.6 


35.5 


4 


12.6 


Montreal, Lower Canada, 


7 33 1.2 


7 65.6 


8 19 13.7 


338 


3.2 


357.7 


41.3 


49 


46.2 


New Bedford, Mass. 


7 54 54.9 


8 143 


8 7 36.1 


23.8 


20.1 


13.1 


30.8 


3 


12.7 


New Haven (Coll.), 


7 46 51.0 


7 51.5 


7 56 4.2 


22.3 


22.9 


14 3 


30.3 


2 


9.2 


Newport, Rhode Island, 


7 53 49J2 


7 59.2 


8 4 37.8 


23.0 


21.2 


13.8 


30.2 


3 


10.8 


Portland (Mt. J^ Obs.), 




















7 49 22.4 


8 43 


8 19 38.8 


31.8 


11.6 


6.5 


366 


20 


30.3 


Providence, Rhode Island, 


7 50 40.2 


7 59.4 


8 8 6.8 


25.8 


18.0 


11.0 


32.6 


4 


17.4 


Quebec, Lower Canada, 


7 42 0.6 


8 7.4 


8 34 40.9 


41.4 


356.7 


855.0 


40.4 


60 


62.7 


Salem (E. I. M. Hall), Mass. 


7 50 18.6 


8 2.8 


8 15 33 8 


29.4 


14.4 


7.7 


34 3 


14 


25.3 


Springfield, Mass. 


7 43 21.7 


7 54.4 


8 6 30.0 


27.9 


16.8 


8.7 


34.5 


11 


22.1 


Toronto, Observatory^ 


7 8 63.0 


7 27.1 


7 45 21.6 


34.1 


10.9 


0.6 


42.3 


30 


36.6 


Williamstown, Observatory^ 


7 38 22.5 
7 46 39.5 


7 52.4 


8 7 4.4 


30.9 


13.6 


6.6 


36.9 


19 


28.7 


Worcester, Mass. 


7 58.3 


8 10 1.8 


28.5 


15.S 


8.2 


34.3 


12 i 23.4| 



n. Sanday, March 19. A total Eclipse of the Moon, invisible in the 

United States. 

h. m 
Beginning of the eclipse, 2 07.6 A. ^ 

Beginning of total eclipse, 3 13.2 1 

Middle of the eclipse, 4 3.8 V Mean time at Washington. 

End of the total eclipse, 4 54.4 | 

End of the eclipse, 5 59.9 J 

Angle of the first pomt of contact from the Moon's north point, 101' E. 

Angle of the last point of contact from the north point, 65 W. 

This eclipse will be visible in Europe, Asia, Africa, and partly in Aus- 
tralia, and South America. 

in. Monday, April 3. A partial eclipse of the Sun, invisible in the 
United States. 

Begins on the Earth generally at 4h. 6.2m. M. [Mean Time at Wash- 
ington] m latitude 69* 52* S. and longitude 147* 43' E. of Greenwich. 

Greatest obscuration on the Earth at 5h.,40.8m. A. in latitude 71" 66* S. 
and longitude «8' 55' West of Greenwich. 

Ends on the Earth generally at 7h. 15.4m. A. in latitude 85<» 52' S. and 
longitude 99° 10' W. of Greenwich. 

Digits eclipsed, 6" 4'. 

This eclipse is only visible in the Southern portion of the great ocean. 



Digitized 



by Google 



36 



BCLIP8E8 OV AUGUST 28, AHB 8BFTSMBBS 12 AND 13. 



[1848. 



lY. Monday, August 2Sth. A partial eclipse of the Sun, inyisible in 
the United States. 

Bej^ins on the Earth generally at Ih. 53.8m. A. [Mean time at Washing- 
ton,] in latitude 66» 56' S. and longitude 172' 20' ^. of Greenwich. 

Greatest obscuration on the Earth at 2h. 9.7m. A. in latitude 71** 31' S* 
and longitude 169' 30* W. of Greenwich. 

Ends on the Earth generally at 2h. 25.6m. A. in latitude 75* 41' S. 
and longitude 162" 41' W, of Greenwich. 

Digits eclipsed, 0° 8'. 

This extremely small eclipse is only visible in the most southern part of 
the Southern Ocean. 

Y. Tuesday, September 12ih, and Wednesday, September 13th. A total 
eclipse of the Moon, yisible in the United States, as follows : 



Place. 



B^inning 
ofEelipse. 



Beginning 
of Total 
Eclipse. 



Middle of 
Eclipse. 



End of To- 
tal Eclipse. 



End of 
Eclipse. 



Albany 

Amherst 

Annapolis 

Augusta, Ga.* 

Augusta, Me. 

Baltimore 

Bangor 

Boston 

Brunswick 

Buffalo 

Cambridge 

Charleston 

Chicago 

Cincinnati 

Columbia* •^ ••.••.-... .. 

Columbus 

Concord 

Detroit 

Dover, Del. ■ 

Dover, N.H. 

Eastport 

Frankfort 

Frederickton, N. B.. 

Halifax, N.S. 

Harrisburg » « - 

Hartford 

Havana - 

Hay ti 

Hudson, Ohio < < 

Indianapolis - 

Jackson .»..,,,,..,. 
Jefferson ....,,.,.., 
Key Wei^t ..•:•:••! 
Kingstqi^, la-y wy 



h. m 

11 36.3a 
41.2 
25.1 
3.7 
52.0 
24.8 
56.2 
47.0 
51.6 
15.6 
46.8 
11.5 

10 41.0 
53.5 

11 &8 
10 50.1 
n 45.4 

59.4 
29.3 
47.7 

12 3.6 

10 52.6 
12 4.3 

• 16.9 

11 24.0 
40.6 

1.8 

40.1 

11 5.6 

10 47.0 
30.8 

S2,a 

11 44 
22.0 



h. m. 
12 34.6a 
31.5 
23.4 

2.0 
50.3 
23.1 
54.5 
45.3 
49.9 
13.9 
45.1 

9.8 

11 39.3 
51.8 

12 5.1 

11 57.4 

12 43.7 
57.7 
27.6 
46.0 

13 1.9 

11 50.9- 
13 2.6 

15.2 

12 22.3 
38.9 

O.l 

38.4 

12 3.1 

11 45.3 

29.1 

81.1 

\2 9.4 

20.3 



h. m 
13 24.0a 
28.9 
12.8 

12 51.4 

13 39.7 
12.5 
43.9 
34.7 
39.3 

3.3 
34.5 

12 59.2 
28.7 
41J2 
54.5 
40.8 

13 33.1 
47.1 
17jO 
35.4 
51.3 

12 40.3 
1* 52.0 

14 4.6 

13 11.7 

a8.a 

12 49.5 

13 27.8 

12 53.3 
34.7 
18.5 
20.5 
51.8 

13 9.7 



h. n 
14 I3.4a 
18.3 
2.2 

13 40.8 

14 29.1 

1.9 
33w3 
24.1 
28.7 

13 52.7 

14 23 9 

13 48.6 
18.1 
30.6 
43.7 
36.2 

14 22.5 
36.5 

&4 
24.8 
50.7 

13 29.7 

14 41.4 
54.0 

IJ 
17.7 

13 38.9 

14 17jat 
13 42.7 

24.1 
7.9 

12 59.9 

13 41.2 
59.1 



h. m. 
15 11.7a 
16.6 
0.5 

14 39.1 

15 27.4 

0.2 
31.6 
22.4 
27.0 

14 51.0 

15 22.2 

14 46.9 
16.4 
28.9 
42.2 
34.5 

15 20.8 
34.8 

4.7 
23.1 
39.0 

14 28.0 

15 39 7 
52.3 

14 59.4 

15 16.0 

14 37.2 

15 15.5 
14 40.0 

22.4 
6.2 

13 58.2 

14 39.5 
57.4 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



ECLIPSE OF BEPTBMBKB 12 AMD 13. 



37 



Place. 



Beginning 
of Eclipse. 



Beginning 
of Total 
Eclipse. 



Middle of 
Eclipse. 



End of To- 
tal EoUpse. 



End of 
BcUpfle. 



Lexington, Kv. • 
Little Kock, Ark. 

Lonisvllle 

Mexico 

Mobile, Ala.-*' • 

Montpelier 

Montreal 

Nantucket 

Nashville 

Natchez 

New Bedford • • • 

Newburyport • • • 

, New Haven • • • • 

NewOrleans-*** 

Newport 

New York 

Philadelphia • • • • 

Pittsburg 

Portland 

Portsmouth 

Providence « 

Quebec 

Qnito 

Baleigh 

Richmond 

Bio Janeiro 

Rochester 

St. Louis 

Santiago 

Savannah 

Springfield, HI... 
Springfield, Mass. 

Tallahassee 

Toronto 

Trenton, N. J. . . 

Tuscaloosa 

Vera Cruz 

Univ. of Virginia 
Washington « . • • 
Worcester 



h 

10 54.1a 
24.5 
49.3 

9 54.7 

10 39.4 

11 40.9 
37.0 
50.9 

10 44.0 
25.7 

11 47.6 
47.8 
39.5 

10 31.3 

11 46.0 
35.2 
30.6 
11.2 
50.4 
48.2 
45.6 
46.2 
16.3 
16.1 
21.5 

13 38.7 
11 19.9 

10 30.3 

11 29.4 
11 6.7 

10 33.1 

11 40.9 

10 52.9 

11 13.9 
32.7 
40.5 

6.7 
17.2 
23.2 
44.1 



10 
11 



h. m. 
11 52.4a 
22 8 
47.6 

10 63.0 

11 37.7 

12 39.2 
35.3 
49.2 

11 42.3 
24.0 

12 45.9 
46.1 
37.8 

11 29.6 

12 44.3 
33.5 
28.9 

9.5 
48.7 
46.5 
43.9 
44.5 
14.6 
14.4 
19.8 
14 37.0 
12 18.2 

11 28.6 

12 27.7 
12 5.0 

11 31.4 

12 39.2 

11 51.2 

12 12.2 
31.0 
38.8 

11 7.0 

12 15.5 
21.5 
42.4 



h. m. 
12 41.8a 
12.2 
37.0 

11 42.4 

12 27.1 

13 28.6 
24.7 
38.6 

12 31.7 
13.4 

13 35.3 
35.5 
27.2 

12 19.0 

13 33.7 
22.9 
18.3 

12 58.9 

13 38.1 
35.9 
33.3 
33.9 

4.0 

3.8 

9.2 

15 26.4 

13 7.6 

12 18.0 

13 17.1 

12 54.4 
20.8 

13 28.6 

12 40.6 

13 1.6 
20.4 
28.2 

11 54.4 

13 4.9 

10.9 

31.8 



h. m 
13 dl.2a 
1.6 
26.4 

12 31.8 

13 16.5 

14 18.0 
14.1 
28.0 

13 21.1 

2.8 

14 24.7 
24.9 
16.6 

13 8.4 

14 23.1 
12.3 

7.7 

13 48.3 

14 27.5 
25.3 
22.7 
23.3 

13 53.4 

53.2 

58.6 

16 1.5.8 

13 57.0 

13 7.4 

14 6.5 

13 43.8 
10.2 

14 18.0 

13 30.0 
51.0 

14 9.8 
17.6 

12 43.8 

13 54.3 

14 0.3 
21.2 



h. m 
14 29.5a 

13 59.9 

14 24.7 

13 30.1 

14 14.8 

15 16.3 
12.4 
26.3 

14 19.4 

1.1 

15 23.0 
23-2 
14.9 

14 6.7 

15 21.4 
10.6 

6.0 

14 46.6 

15 25.8 
23.6 
21.0 
21.6 

14 51.7 
51.5 
56.9 

17 14.1 

14 55.3 

5.7 

15 4.8 
14i42.1 

8.5 
15 16.3 

14 28.3 
49.3 

15 8.1 
15.9 

13 42.1 

14 52.6 
58.6 

15 19.5 



Digitized 



by Google 



38 ECLIP8B or SBPT. 27 ; AMD TEANSIT OF MBBCUBT, KCT. 9. [184B. 



The phases of the eclipse for other places may easfly be found by means 
of the following table : 

Mean Time of Pleee. 



w. 

hm. 


EcUpie 
begine. 


Total 
EcUpse 
begins. 


Total 

rr 


EoUpee 
ends. 


West 
Ion. 


EeUpse 
begins. 


Total 
EcUpse 
begins. 


Total 


^ 




h. m. 


li. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 




h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


^ 


12 8.3 


13 1.6 


14 40.4 


16 88.7 


8l 


10 55.8 


1153.6 


18 22.4 


14 30.7 


68 


1169.3 


1 67.6 


36.4 


84.7 


85 


61.8 


49.6 


28.4 


26.7 


69 


56.8 


68.6 


82.4 


80.7 


86 


47.8 


45.6 


24.4 


22.7 


70 


61^ 


49.6 


28.4 


26.7 


87 


43.3 


41.6 


20.4 


18.7 


71 


47.8 


456 


24.4 


227 


88 


89.8 


87.6 


16.4 


14.7 


72 


48.8 


41.6 


20.4 


18.7 


89 


86.8 


83.6 


124 


10.7 


78 


89.3 


87.6 


16.4 


14.7 


90 


81.8 


29.6 


9.4 


6.7 


74 


35.3 


83.6 


12 4 


10.7 


91 


27.8 


25.6 


14 


2.7 


75 


31.3 


296 


8.4 


6.7 


92 


28.8 


21.6 


0.4 


18 58.7 


76 


27.3 


256 


4.4 


2.7 


93 


19 8 


17.6 


12 66.4 


54.7 


77 


23.8 


21.6 


0.4 


14 58.7 


94 


15.8 


18.6 


52.4 


60.7 


78 


193 


17.6 


18 56.4 


64.7 


95 


11.8 


9.6 


48.4 


46.7 


79 


16.3 


186 


52.4 


60.7 


96 


7.8 


5.6 


44.4 


427 


80 


11.3 


9.6 


48.4 


46.7 


97 


3.3 


16 


40.4 


38.7 


81 


7.3 


5.6 


44.4 


42.7 


98 


9 693 


10 67 6 


86.4 


34.7 


82 


3.3 


1.6 


40.4 


387 


99 


553 


68.6 


82.4 


80.7 


88 


10 59.8 


11 67.6 


36.4 


84.7 


100 


51.3 


49.6 


28.4 


26.7 



The first contact with the shadow occurs at 78° from the north point of 
the Moon's limb towards the east ; the last contact at 1 13° towards the west. 

VI. Wednesday, September 27th. A partial eclipse of the Sun, invisi- 
ble in the United States. ^ 

Begins on the Earth generally at 2h. 28.1m. M. [Mean Time at Washing- 
ton,] in latitude 72* 46' N. and longitude 20' 45' W. of Greenwich. 

Greatest obscuration on the Earth at 4h. 12.5m. M. in latitude 72" 14' N. 
and longitude 122" 12' E. of Greenwich. 

Ends on the Earth generally at 5h. 57.0m. M. in latitude 37" 19' N. and 
longitude 100° 8' E. of Greenwich. 

Digits eclipsed 5° 49'. 

This eclipse is visible in the north-eastern portion of Europe and the 
greater part of Asia. 

VII. Thursday, November 9th. A Transit of Mercury, partly visible 

in the United States. 

With reference to the centre of the Earth : 
h. m. 8. 
5 53 27 M. 

5 55 9 M. 

8 35 56 M. 

11 16 45 M. 

11 18 27 M. 

The point of ingress is 105° West from the north point of the Sun's 
limb ; and the point of egress is 55° West. 

The ingress will be visible from the greater portions of Europe and Asia, 
and the whole of Africa and South America. 

The egress, from the western extremity of Europe, the greater part of 
Africa and North America, and the whole of South America. 



First external contact, 
First internal contact, 
Least dis. of centres, 2' 45 "4 
Last internal contact. 
Last external contact, 



>- Mean Time at Washington. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



TRANSIT OF MSRCUBT NOYBMBER 9. 



89 



The time of egress may be found for any place in the United States bj 
means of the following tables : 







Time of Last Internal Oontoot. Mewi Time of Plaoc 


. 




Nortli 
Lat. 


West Longitude ftom Greenwich. 


North 
Lat. 


65" 


70' 


75' 


80- 


85' 


90- 


95- 


100* 




h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h m. 


b. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 






5 


11 45 


11 25 


11 6 


10 45 


10 25 


10 5 


9 45 




" 


B. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


•. 




30 


5 A. 


7M. 


10 M. 


13 M. 


15 M. 


17 M. 


19 M. 


22 M. 


SO 


35 


6 


9 


11 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


35 


40 


8 


10 


12 


15 


17 


19 


21 


23 


40 


45 


9 


11 


13 


15 


17 


19 


21 


23 


45 



Time of Last External Contact. Mean Time of Place. 



North 
Lat. 


West Longitude fSrom Greenwich. 


North 
Lat. 


65^ 


70- 


75° 


80' 


85- 


90* 


95- 


100* 




h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m 






6 


11 46 


11 26 


11 6 


10 46 


10 26 


10 7 


9 47 




^ 


s. 


8. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


8. 


8. 


^ 


30 


47 A. 


49 M. 


52 M. 


55 M. 


57 M. 


59 M. 


IM. 


4M. 


30 


35 


47 


51 


53 


56 


58 


60 


2 


4 


35 


40 


50 


52 


54 


57 


59 


61 


3 


5 


40 


45 


51 


53 


55 


58 


59 


61 


.3 


5 


45 












V 











Egress of Mercury for Particular Places in Mean Time of Place. 



Place. 



Last ^ 
Internal 
Contact. 



Last 
External 
Contact. 



Place. 



Last 
Internal 
Contact 



External 
Contact. 



Albany- ••• 
Amherst- •• 
Annapolis • 
Baltimore • 



BufGftlo 

Cambridge 

Charleeton 

Cincinnati 

Columbus 

Concord 

Detrott 

Frankfort 

Frederickton .* 
Hali£&x, N. S.. . 
Harrisburgh • • • 

Hartford 

Havana 

Hudson, Ohio. . 
Indiaxiapolis' • •• 

Jackson 

JefEerson 

Key West 

Kingston, Ja. > 
Lexington, Ky. 
LittleBock--- 

LonisrUle 

Mexico 

Mobile 



h. m. s. 

1180 12 
85 6 
19 1 
18 48 
40 64 
984 
40 89 
624 

10 47 29 
68 4 

1189 15 

10 58^24 
46 87 
68 9 

12 10 44 

11 19 68 
34 28 

10 65 40 

10 59 86 
40 57 
24 46 
16 40 
58 2 

11 16 61 
1048 6 

18 81 

48 17 

948 88 

10 88 22 



h. m. 8. 

118154 

86 47 

20 48 

20 25 

42 86 

1116 

42 21 

7 6 

10 49 12 

54 46 

1140 57 

10 55 <$ 

48 19 

69 51 

12 12 26 

112185 

86 10 

10 67 22 

10 01 18 

10 42 89 
26 27 
18 28 
69 44 

11 17 83 
10 49 47 

2018 

44 69 

960 20 

10 85 4 



Montpelier 

Montreal 

Nantucket 

Natchez 

New Bedlbrd 

New Haven 

New Orleans 

Newport 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh 

Portland 

Portsmouth 

Providence 

Raleigh 

Richmond 

Rochester 

St. Louis 

Savannah 

Springfield, HI. • • • • 
Springfield, Mass.- 

Tallahassee 

Toronto 

Trenton 

Tuscaloosa 

Vera Cruz 

Washhigton, (Obs.) 
Worcester 



h. m. 8. 

1184 48 
80 62 
44 46 

10 19 88 

1141 27 

88 24 
10 25 17 
1189 66 
1129 8 

24 80 
6 7 
44 17 
42 8 

89 82 
16 22 
18 49 

10 24 18 

11 41 
10 27 7 
U84 49 

10 46 51 

11 7 48 
26 86 

10 84 29 

10 68 

1117 1 

87 68 



h. m. 8. 

1186 10 

82 48 

46 28 

10 2120 

1148 9 

86 6 

10 26 60 

114187 

80 60 

26 12 

6 49 

46 69 

48 50 

4114 
17 04 
16 81 

10 26 

11 2 22 
10 28 49 
1186 81 

10 48 88 

11 9 80 
28 18 

10 86 11 

286 

1118 48 

80 40 



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40 



OOODUATIOHS. 



[1848. 



0CCULTATI0N8. 

ElmmU for fitdHiatmg ike caicmUstum of OccuttaUons which may he viable in the 
'' UmUdSUOet.iMlSiS, 



Month. 


St«r»i 
Nune. 


j 


ObMrratory, 

Mean Time of 

sp. oonJ in R. 

A.ofMoon 

and Star. 


Atthe tfana ot CoDJaxkeOtm. 


limiting 
ParaUela 
btstareen 
which the 
oeealt.fa 
visible. 


Moon and 
Star. 


DecC^of 
Star. 


Star 

SooOi 

of Moon, 








h. m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


• 1 M 


1 .• 


e e 


Jan. 2 


Ybmus. 




927 58 M. 


15 35 59.72 


16 19 36.9 S. 59 10 S. 


74N.33N. 


13 


e H 


5 


7 30 54 A. 


1 32.94 


4 50 40.0 N. 25 15 


61 10 S. 


17 


NH 


6 


5 30 58 


5 38 35.89 17 39 55.9 


41 46 


90 24 N. 


19 


JiU 


4.5 


7 31 56 M. 


7 9 22.89 16 48 25.4 


45 


90 24 


22 




4 


11 32 M. 


9 33 3.51 


10 34 39.1 


30 1 


70 I S. 


22 


z n 


6 


8 37 50 A. 


10 15 4.42 


7 18 37.6 


51 36 


90 22 K 


24 


9il 


5.6 


7 26M. 


U 9 29.22 


2 50 34.8 


66 45 


90 44 


Feb. 12 


a 8 


1 


5 32 13 A. 


4 27 13.18 


16 11 47.5 N. 


43 27 S. 


90N.20N. 


15 


kn 


5 


9 13 32 


7 24 57.34 


16 8 42.4 


55 23 


90 36 


18 


ogl 


4 


8 4 10M 


9 33 8.79 


10 84 37.3 


M 18 


73 I 


18 


^n 


4^ 


5 21 1 A. 


9 52 12.33 


8 46 1.7 


64 7 


90 41 


19 




5 


11 32 19 


10 52 44.17 


4 25 43.3 


57 6 


90 28 


26 


4.5 


1 52 8M. 


15 35 32.S7 


15 10 56.4 S. 16 11 


43 17 S 


26 


e^i: 


4.5 


6 36 52 


45 ll.£6 


16 16 2SA |56 40 


74 SON. 


27 


mia 


5 


535 7 


16 32 47.95 


17 26 25.9 


26 37 


52 7S. 


Mar. 3 


p> / 


5 


5 58 40 M. 


19 12 50.75 


18 7 31.5 S. 


48 25S. 


72N.10N. 


10 


S'8 


5 


8 19 11 A. 


4 19 54.11 


15 37 2.7N. 


57 47 


90 35 


10 


a 8 


1 


11 20 15 


27 12.69 


16 11 46.7 


36 27 


80 12 


11 


111 8 


6 


7 22 56 


5 15 33.07 


17 14 4.5 


37 19 


83 17 


13 


^U 


4.5 


7 55 16 


7 9 22.46 


16 48 25.5 


34 1 


78 13 


14 


hU 


5 


2 47 47 M. 


24 57.00 


8 42.7 


50 25 


90 SO 


16 


11 Sext. 


6 


10 43 59 A. 


9 50 5.55 


9 2 1.2 


54 41 


90 27 


16 


ir SI 


4.5 


11 46 36 


52 12.30 


8 46 1.3 


62 8 


90 38 


18 


m IIV 


• 5 


6 17 11 M. 


10 52 44.29 


4 25 42.1 


56 26 


90 28 


21 


5.6 
6 


6 32 11 A 


13 33 40.27 


7 56 11.0 S. 


27 83 


65 6S. 


23 


oȣ}= 


10 24 47 


15 14 35.32 


14 35 0.3 


42 58 


75 12N 


Apr.l2 


oSl 


4 


7 59 12 A. 


9 33 3.39 


10 34 38.3 N. 


30 28S. 


71 N. 


18 


2=2: 


6 


10 27 29 


14 15 17.44 


11 1 7.0 S. 


35 35 


-5 3N. 


20 


d£^: 


4.5 


7 51 32 


15 45 12.90 


16 16 42.1 


55 23 


74 28 


26 


i^'vy 


3.4 


49 51M. 


20 12 28.86 


15 15 16.8 


11 26 


14 46 S. 


May 17 


C:^ 


4.5 


9 8 9A 


15 35 34.52 


15 11 0.2 S. 


12 29 S. 


39N.21 S. 


18 


5£^ 


4.5 


1 53 14M. 


45 13.28 


16 16 42.4 


52 23 


74 24 N. 


19 


m m 


5 


58 6 


16 32 49.92 


17 26 28.3 


19 26 


43 14 S, 


22 


/)» / 


5 


3 25 14 


19 12 53.13 


18 7 26.5 


33 3 


60 


29 


mH 


5 


146 17 


1 22 13.61 


5 21 29.6 N. 


67 58 


90 86 N. 


Jones 


;in 


4.5 


7 38 13 A 


7 9 21.35 


16 48 27 2 N. 


54 14 S. 


90N.S3N. 


14 


n^ 


4.5 


3 39 53 M. 


15 35 34.65 


15 10 59.8 S. 


16 14 


43N.17 S. 


July 5 


-^si 


4 


11 043A. 


11 20 8.01 


3 41 25.5 N. 


8 49S. 


43N.25S. 


11 


49 £11: 


5.6 


6 59 4 


15 51 50.62 


16 4 48.2 S. 


35 50 


69 3N. 


15 


A. S. C. 3370 


6 


7 1 15 


19 19 17.66 


18 39 248 


63 56 


71 40 



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1848.] 



OCOCLTATIONS. 



41 



Day Of 


Star's 


1 


Washington 
Obaeryatory, 
Mean Time of 


At the time of ConJimctloD. 


Umilini' 
between 


Apparent 




Star 


ttie 


nttOB. 


1 


ap.conj. inR. 


E.A.of 


South 


which the 


Month. 




A. of Moon 
ana Star. 


Moon and 

Star. 


Star. 


of Moon. 


ooeolt.is 
lisible. 








h. m. 8. 


h. m. 8. 


• 1 •• 


» •« 




Aug. 5. 


TTia 


4 


8 36 34 A. 


14 4 49.25 


9 33 53.6 S. 


27 24S. 


64N. 6 8. 


^^ 


4.5 


6 52 1 


15 35 34 22 


15 10 58.0 


37 36 


73 5N. 


8 


mid 


5 


10 53 46 


16 32 49.95 


17 26 26.9 


36 53 


69 6 


12 


f'^ 


5 


37 3M. 


19 12 54.18 


18 7 23.2 


27 23 


50 7 8. 


14 


rVf 


5.6 


4 54 34 A. 


21 38 23.96 


12 3 29.8 


35 44 


71 


18 


At H 


5 


7 56 55 


1 22 15.94 


5 21 44.0 N. 


30 52 


68 4 


21 


75 8 


6 


11 19 6 


4 19 47.30 


16 51.5 


19 14 


55 5 


21 


5.8 
B^ 8 


5 


11 22 33 


55.66 


15 37 10.5 


43 12 


90 ISN. 


21 


5.6 


11 24 51 


20 1.21 


31 41.9 


48 52 


90 24 


22 


A. S. 0.616 


5.6 


11 13M. 


21 53.47 


51 28.5 


33 


73 8 


22 


a8 


1 


2 23 37 


27 14.17 


16 11 53.7 


23 21 


60 1 8. 


22 


117 8 


6 


11 46 21 A 


5 19 13.73 


17 6 26.6 


45 32 


90 25N. 


Septs 


r*:£b 


4i) 


10 30 6 A. 


15 27 3.57 


14 16 40.9 S. 


14 52 8. 


43N.19 8. 


^ 9 


T* vj> 


6 


7 46 12 


20 28 52.43 


15 39 44.7 


30 25 


59 4 


12 


96 « 


6 


7 15 29 


23 11 34.05 


5 56 52 6 


72 6 


84 43 N. 


15 


/uH 


5 


3 32 17 M. 


1 22 16 47 


5 21 47.0 N. 


28 41 


65 7 8. 


15 


V Ceti. 


5 


9 32 20 A. 


2 5 0.16 


8 8 4.5 


52 39 


90 18 N. 


17 


48 8 


6 


11 54 8 


4 7 11.64 


15 58.7 


48 28 


90 22 


18 


y 8 


3.4 


1 31 53M. 


11 11.69 


15 15 22.5 


43 16 


90 17 


18 


d' 8 


5 


5 5 28 


19 56 45 


37 12.7 


10 32 


89 15 


18 


a 8 


1 


8 3 52 


27 14.99 


16 11 55.9 


20 41 


56 3 8. 


21 


;in 


4.5 


2 50 3T 


7 9 23.08 


16 48 28.3 


51 45 


90 32 N. 


Oct 5 


/»' / 


5 


6 27 6 A. 


19 12 53.42 


18 7 24.3 S. 


28 57 8. 


53 N. 4 8. 


10 


ni 


5.6 


6 16 6 


23 40 10.76 


3 36 1.4 


68 51 


86 37 N. 


13 


85 Ceti 


6 


7 2 6 


2 34 21.59 


10 8 45.7 N. 


56 17 


90 23 


16 


N}i 


6 


7 54 22 


5 38 37.54 


17 40 0.4 


30 2 


69 10 


19 


IG 


6 


1 11 9M. 


7 48 23.38 


16 11 23.9 


35 4 


79 11 


23 




4 


4 50 49 


11 20 8.31 


3 41 24.1 


25 13 


63 9 8. 


28 


4.5 


4.38 7 A. 


15 35 33.19 


15 10 55.6 S. 


37 25 


74 5N. 


Nov. 9 


u M 


5 


48 25 M. 


1 22 16.84 


5 21 48.0 N. 


27 27 S. 


63N. 8 8. 


9f» Ceti 
1148 8 


5 


6 24 29 A. 


2 5 0.74 


8 8 6.0 


54 23 90 19 N. 


6 


6 24 36 


4 7 12.83 


15 1 0.1 


58 7 90 31 


11 > 8 
1175 8 

1U> 8 
ii:6> K 


3.4 


7 56 28 


11 12.89 


15 23.8 


53 9 


90 26 


6 


U 13 51 


19 49.34 


16 55.0 


26 55 


63 1 


5 


11 17 2 


57.69 


15 37 13.9 


50 54 


90 24 


5.6 


11 19 9 


20 3.24 


31 45.3 


56 35 


90 30 


12 


A. B.C. 516 


5.6 


2 IM. 


21 55.51 


51 31.9 


40 48 


87 14 


12 


^5 8 
a 8 


6 


32 10 


23 14.52 


31 15.9 


63 51 


90 39 


12 


1 


2 4 22 


27 16.23 


16 11 56.9 


31 27 


69 5 


12 


HI 8 


6 


8 28 48 A. 


5 15 36.31 


17 14 10.9 


44 47 


90 22 


12 


117 8 


6 


9 52 33 


19 15.99 


6 27.7 


56 24 


90 35 


17 


iSi 


5 


2 6 35M. 


9 23 47.49 


11 57 55.1 


39 57 


90 10 


Dec. 3. 


82 >» 


6 


4 2 54 A 


22 54 41.45 


7 22 53.2 S. 


53 10 8. 


83N.19N. 


7 


85 Ceti 


6 


5 11 50 


2 34 21.88 


10 5 44.9 N. 


51 11 


90 17 


10 


It 


6 


4 31 1 


5 38 38.76 


l7 3St58.8 


44 50 


90 23 


17 


3.4 


4 38 39 M. 


11 42 49.27 


2 36 59.5 


6 19 


41 28 8. 


22 


4.5 


5 2 49 


15 35 33.87 


15 10 58.8 S. 


41 59 


75 ION. 


30 


4 


4 53 59 A. 


22 44 42.95 


8 22 57.0 


50 34 


82 16 




4 















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42 £CLIP8E8 OV TKB lATBIXITES OT JUFITBB. L^^^ 

BOUPSES OF THE SATELLITES OF JUPITER IN 1848; 
Visible in the United States, Mean Time at WashingUm Observatory, 



Date. 


Mean Time. 


Phase. 


Sat 


Date. 


MiMUiTime. 


Phase. 


Sat. 


d. 


h. m. 8. 






d. 


h. m. 8. 




Jan. 3 


3 46 50.8 M. 


Ln. 


1 


March2 


3 33 32.0 M. 


Em. 


2 


3 


7 67 14.2 A. 




3 


2 


4 40 6.3 


Im, 


4 


4 


10 15 21.1 




1 


5 


4 44 84.4 


Em. 


1 


5 


3 49 49.3 M. 




2 


5 


4 51 54.4 A. 




2 


8 


7 58 16.7 A. 


Em. 


2 


6 


11 13 21.7 




1 


10 


7 54 29.3 M. 




1 


8 


5 42 13.0 




1 


11 


3 8 27.7 




3 


12 


7 28 13.1 




2 


12 


1 40 20.3 




4 


14 


1 8 41.7 M. 




1 


12 


2 23 4.7 




1 


15 


7 37 34.1 A. 




1 


13 


8 51 38.7 A. 




1 


18 


10 43 14.3 


Im. 


4 


15 


3 20 17.5 




1 


19 


2 23 19.0 M. 


Em. 


4 


15 


10 35 9X) 




2 


19 


10 4 24.5 A 




2 


18 


7 8 10.6 M. 




3 


21 


3 4 5.1 M. 




1 


19 


4 17 30.2 




1 


22 


3 52 55.9 A. 


to. 


3 


20 


10 46 6.4 A. 




1 


22 


7 12 23.9 


Em, 


3 


22 


5 14 47.3 




1 


22 


9 32 58.3 




1 


23 


1 12 0.2 M. 




2 


24 


4 1 46.5 




1 


26 


6 12 4.8 




1 


27 


40 27.1 M. 




2 


28 


40 42.9 




1 


28 


4 59 31.2 




1 


28 


4 34 27.4 A. 


Im. 


4 


29 


7 53 26.7 A 


Im. 


3 


28 


7 50 52.7 


Em. 


4 


29 


11 13 32.6 


Em. 


3 


29 


7 9 26.3 




1 


29 


11 28 25.2 




1 


30 


3 48 49.2 M. 




2 


31 


5 57 13.5 




I 


Feb. 2 


5 6 54.5 A. 


Em. 


2 


April 4 


8 33 20.2 A. 


Em. 


4 


4 


2 35 28.2 M. 




1 


5 


11 53 21.8 


Im. 


3 


5 


9 4 13.7 A. 




1 


6 


1 23 53.7 M, 


Em. 


1 


6 


6 25 35.7 M. 




2 


7 


7 52 42.3 A. 




1 


7 


3 32 55.0 A. 




1 


13 


7 9 55.1 




2 


8 


7 9 35.8 




3 


14 


9 48 11.7 




1 


9 


7 43 41.1 




2 


20 


9 45 28.3 




2 


11 


4 30 21.2 M. 




1 


21 


1 1 43 40.8 




1 


12 


10 59 8.9 A. 




1 


23 


6 12 36.8 




1 


14 


5 27 52.0 




1 


28 


20 52.1 M. 




2 


15 


7 53 42.9 


Im. 


3 


29 


1 39 9.2 




1 


15 


11 9 50.7 


Em. 


3 


30 


8 8 4.8 A. 




1 


16 


10 20 23.7 




2 










18 


6 25 21.8 M. 




1 


May 4 


7 16 11.9 A. 


Em. 


3 


20 


54 11.4 




1 




10 3 31.3 




1 


21 


7 22 26.0 




1 




7 53 11.9 


Im. 


3 


22 


11 53 13.2 A. 


Im. 


8 




11 16 47.2 


Em. 


3 


23 


3 10 3.1 M. 


Em. 


3 




11 58 55.8 




I 


24 


57 1.0 




2 


15 


6 48 43.5 




2 


27 


2 49 20.1 




1 


16 


6 27 44.2 




1 


28 


9 18 5.3 A. 




1 


18 


11 53 34.1 


Im- 


3 










22 


9 23 38.7 


Em. 


2 


March 1 


3 52 454 M. 


Im 


3 


23 


8 23 5.3 




1 


1 


3 46 56.1 A.( Eflt. 


1 


24 


10 8 4.9 


Im. 4| 



Digitized 



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184a] 



ECLIPSSS OF IH£ 8ATALUT£S Of aUf ITSft. 



43 



Date. 


Mean Time. Phase. 


Sat 


Bate. 


Mean Time. 


Phase. 


SaL 




h. m. 8. 




» 


h.m. 8. 






May 29 


11 58 26.0 A. 


Em. 


2 


Nov. 2 


5 45 29.6 M. 


Xm. 


2 


30 


10 18 22.5 




1 


6 
6 


2 51 57 2 
11 24 8.2 A. 




1 
3 


June 8 


6 42 27.1 A. 


Em. 


1 


7 


2 56 34.5 M. 


Em. 


3 


10 


9 8 54.6 




4 


13 


4 45 6.7 


Ln. 


1 


15 


8 37 35.4 




1 


14 


3 21 45.5 




3 


16 


6 24 58.7 




2 


14 


6 54 21.7 


Em. 


8 


16 


7 17 48.8 




3 


14 


11 13 24.1 A. 


Im. 


1 


22 


10 32 38.5 




1 


20 


13 52.6 M. 




2 


23 


8 59 26.2 




2 


20 


6 38 14.3 




1 


23 


11 18 16.0 




3 


21 
22 


7 19 59.2 
1 6 31.1 




3 
*1 


Aug, 23 


4 23.3M. 


Im. 


2 


25 


4 59 7.5 




4 


29 


2 24 51.1 




1 


27 


2 49 19.6 




2 


30 


6 34 34.2 




2 


29 


2 59 39.4 




1 


Sept. 5 


4 18 49.2 M. 


Im. 


1 


Dec. 4 


6 24 55.3 M. 


Im. 


2 


12 


6 12 40.8 




1 


6 


4 52 43.5 




1 


17 


1 31.9 




2 


7 


11 20 59.9 A. 




1 


19 


5 4 13.1 




4 


11 


8 39.1M. 




2 


21 


2 34 49.8 




1 


11 


10 57 29.0 A. 




4 


24 


3 34 47.3 




2 


12 


3 40 55.8 M. 


Em. 


4 


25 


3 7 30.2 


Em. 


3 


12 


10 46 26.0 A. 




3 


28 


4 28 27.6 


Im. 


1 


13 

14 


6 45 50.7 M. 
9 18 4.0 A. 


Im. 


1 
2 


Oct 1 


6 9 19.6 M. 


Im. 


2 


15 


1 14 6 5 M. 




1 


2 


7 6 22.6 


Em. 


3 


19 


11 10 43.6 A. 




3 


5 


6 21 59.9 


Im. 


1 


20 


2 43 57.1 M. 


Em. 


3 


5 


11 3 9.1 A. 




4 


20 


8 38 59.9 


Im. 


1 


6 


3 38 58.2 M. 


Em. 


4 


21 


11 54 0.1 A. 




2 


7 


50 25.3 


Im. 


1 


22 


8 7 16.8 M. 




1 


14 


2 43 50.9 




1 


23 


9 35 36.3 A. 




1 


19 


35 42.2 A. 




2 


27 


8 8 19.6 M. 




3 


21 


4 37 11.6 M. 




1 


27 


6 41 38.2 


Em. 


3 


22 


11 5 29.2 A. 




1 


28 


9 41 20.8 A 




4 


26 


3 10 32.4 M. 




2 


29 


2 30 5.7 M. 


Im. 


2 


28 


6 30 28.2 




1 


29 


5 30.2 




1 


30 


58 45.0 




1 










30 


10 58 51.2 A. 


Em. 


3 











A Table showing the Illuminated Portions of the Discs of Venus and Mars, 

The numbers in this table are the versed sines of that portion of the 
Discs, T^hich to an observer on the Earth, will appear to be illuminated, the 
apparent diameter of the planet at the time being considered as unity. 

To a spectator on the Earth, Venus appears most brilliant when her 
elongation is about 45^, and she is approaching her inferior conjunction, or 
receding from it ; in which positions she wiR not be this year. Mars is 



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DISCS or TBlCnS and MABSj RIHOS Ol* SATUBir. 



[1848. 



most brilliant about the time of his opposition to the Sun, being then also 
nearest to the Earth, in which position he will not be this year. 



1848. 


Yenoi. 


Man. 


1848. 


Yeniu. 


Mars. 


January 15 
February 14 
March 15 
April 15 
May 15 
June 15 


0.647 
0.750 
0.831 
0.898 
0.949 
0.984 


0.896 
0.891 
0.901 
0.919 
0.939 
0.959 


July 15 
August 15 
September 15 
October 16 
November 15 
December 15 


0.999 
0.994 
0.967 
0.926 
0.869 
0.800 


0.975 
0.989 
0.997 
1.000 
0.997 
0.989 



Position and Magnitude of the Rings of Saturn, according to Bessd and Struve, 
for every fortieth day in the year^ at 7 hours in the morning. 



Mean Time at Wash'ton. 


a. 


6. 


P- 


L 


r. 


Th.M. 




" 


H 


• 1 


• 1 


o » 


1848 January 


1 


36.95 


+ 3.79 


+5 51.7 


+5 53.2 


4-3 38.0 


February 


10 


35.50 


2.43 


33.0 


3 55.3 


2.9 


March 


21 


85.35 


1.01 


9.7 


1 38.7 


2 27.7 




31 


35.52 


0.68 


3.8 


1 5.9 


18.8 


April 


10 


35.78 


0.36 


4 58.0 


34.6 


10.0 




20 


86.11 


+ 0.06 


52.5 


+0 5.5 


1.2 




30 


36.52 


— 0.23 


47.3 


— 21.2 


1 52.3 


May 


10 


86.99 


0.49 


42.6 


45.0 


43.5 


June 


9 


38.78 


1.06 


32.1 


1 339 


16.8 


July 


19 


41.51 


1.18 


29.3 


1 37.4 


41.2 


August 


28 


43.46 


0.43 


39.4 


34.4/^ 


4-0^ 5.5 

5^^3.r 


September 


7 


43.64 


— 0.16^ 


43.3 


^ 12.6il 
-ho 9.81,.^ 




17 


43.68 


+ 0.12^ 


47.2 


12.5 




27 


43.56 


0.40 


51.1 


81.3 


21.4 


October 


7 


43.29 


0.64 


54.8 


50.8 


30.3 


November 


16 


41.11 


1.10 


5 3.2 


1 32.1 


1 6.2 


December 


26 


38.39 


0.6a 


4 58.3 


56.0 


1 42.2 




31 


38.08 


+ 0.51 


56.7 


46.3 


1 46.7 



a denotes the semi-transverse axis of the rings. 

6 " " semi-conjugate axis of the rings, positive when their northern 
surface is visible, negative when their southern. 

/>**** inclination of the northern semi-conjugate axis of the rings to 
the circle of declination ; -+- when East, — when West 

I ti u gj^giQ of elevation of the Earth above the plane of the rings' 
as seen from Saturn ; -+- when North, — when South. 

/' ^ ** angle of elevation of the Sun above the plane of the rings, as 
seen from Saturn ; -f- when North, — wh^i South. 
The Opposition will take place on the 14th of September. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



TABiM Om UkTlTVDm AMD IXttTGITCDB. • 



45 



LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES 

IN THE United States, etc., with theib Distances from 

Washington. 

The Longiiudts are reckoned from Greenwich, 

The Capitals (Seats of Government) of the States and Territories^ are designated 
hy Italic Letters. 



Albany (Capitol), N. Y. 

Alexandria, ? D. C. 

Amherst (College Chapel),* • -Mass. 

Annapolis^ Md. 

Auburn, N. Y. 

Augusta, Ga. 

AuQusta (State House), Me. 

Baker's Island (Lights), Mass. 

Baltimore (Battle Mon't), Md. 

Bangor (Court House), Me, 

Barnstable (New C. H.), Mass. 

Batavia, N. Y. 

Beaufort (Arsenal), S. C. 

Boston (State House), Mass. 

Do. (Light), 

Bridgeport (Baptist Ch.),«"*Conn. 

Bristol (Episcopal Ch.), R. I. 

Brookljrn (Navy Yard), N. Y. 

Brunswick (College), Me. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Burlington, N. J. 

Burlin^n, Vt. 

Cambridge (Observatory),* • • 'Mass. 

Camden, S. C. 

Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Cape Ann (North Light),* • • ^Ma^. 

Do. (South Light), 

Cape Cod (Light House),* * * -Mass. 

Castine, Me. 

Charleston (St. Mich's Ch.),. *S. C. 
Charlestown (Navy Yard),*** Mass. 

Chicago, HI. 

Cincinnati (Fort "Wash'n),.-*Ohio. 

Columbia, S. C. 

Columbus, Ohio. 

Concord (State House), N. H. 

Dayton, Ohio. 

Dedham (1st Cong. Ch.),* * - *Mass. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Dorchester (AstObsenr.),* * • -Mass. 



Latitude, 
North. 



Longitade, West, 
in d^;iees.| in time. 



42 39 
38 49 
42 22 

38 58 
42 55 

33 28 
44 18 
42 32 

39 17 
44 47 

41 42 

42 59 
32 25 
42 21 

42 19 
41 10 

41 40 

40 41 

43 53 

42 53 
40 5 

44 27 
42 22 

34 17 
42 54 
42 38 
42 38 
42 .2 
44 22 

32 46 
42 22 

42 
39 5 

33 57 
39 57 

43 12 
39 44 
42 14 
42 24 
42 19 



15.6 
35 



43 
12 
23 
50 
6 

57 
22.7 
41.1 
30 

3 
50 





10 



48.6 



54 



29 



57 



10 



Dist.fr. 
Wash. 



' « h. 
44 49 4 

4 5 
31 28 4 



33 

28 
54 
50 
47 28 4 
37 30 5 
47 |4 
18 34 4 
13 !5 
41 23 5 

4 94 
53 43 4 
11 464 
17 19^4 
59 30,4 
55 14 
5.5 15 
52 37 4 
10 4 

8 04 

33 Is 
17 j5 

34 48 4 
34 484 

3 55 4 
45 |4 
57 27,5 

333 
35 
27 

7 

3 



11 



10 59,4 

58 ,5 

4 19 4 



m. 

54 59.3 

8 16 
50 6 

6 12 

5 52 
27 36 
39 20 

43 10 

6 30 

35 8 

41 14.3 
12 52 
22 45.6 

44 16.6 

43 33.9 
52 47 

45 9.3 

55 58 

39 40.1 
15 40 
59 30.5 
52 40 

44 32 
22 12 

9 8 

42 19.2 
42 19.2 

40 16 
35 

19 49.8 

44 14.2 
50 2 
37 48 
24 28 
32 12 

45 56 

36 44 
44 44 
31 52 
44 17.3 



miles. 

376 

6 

383 

37 
339 
580 
595 
452 

38 
661 
466 
370 
629 
432 

284 
409 
227 
568 
376 
156 
440 
431 
467 
336 
470 

507 

544 
433 
763 
497 
500 
396 
474 

42 > 
526 
432 



Digitized 



by Google 



46 



TABLB Ol* LATITDINi AND IXWeiTITDB. 



[1848. 



DoveTy DeL 

DoTer, N. H. 

Easton (Court Honse), Md. 

Eastport, Me. 

Edenton, N. C 

Exeter, N. H. 

FrcmkfoH, Ky. 

Fredericksburg, Va. 

Fredaickton^ N. B. 

Frederick, Md. 

Georgetown, S. C. 

Gloucester (Univ. Ch.), Mass. 

Do. (E. Fnt. Light,) 

Do. (Ten Fnd Lt. Isl.) 

Greenfield C2d Con. Ch.),. • • -Mass. 

Hagerstown, Md. 

Halifax, N. 8. 

Hallowell, Me. 

Harrisburg^ Pa. 

Hartford (State House), Conn. 

Holmes's Hole (Windmill),- -Mass. 

Hudson, N. Y. 

Hudson (Reserve Coll.), Ohio. 

Huntsville, Ala. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Ipswich (Eastern Light), Mass. 

Do. (Western Light), 

Jackson, Miss. 

Jefferson, Mo. 

Key West (S. W. Pt.), Fa. 

Kingston, • •. U. C. 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

Lancaster, Pa. 

Lexington, Ky. 

Little Rock, Ark. 

Lockport, . ., N. Y. 

Louisville, Ky. 

Lowell (St Ann's Ch.), Miss. 

Ljmchburg, Va. 

Lynn Church, Mass. 

Machias Bay, Me. 

Marblehead, Mass. 

Marblehead (Light), Mass. 

Middletown ( W. Univ.), Conn. 

MiUedgeviUe, Gra. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Montpelier, Vt. 

Monomoy Point Light, Mass. 

Montreal, L. C. 

Nantucket (South Tower),' • • 'Mass. 
NashinUe (University), Tenn. 



Latitude, 


Longitade, West, 


Di8t.fr. 


North. 


indegraes. 


in time. 


Wadi. 


» n II 


o 1 II 


h. m. 8. 


miles. 


39 10 


75 30 


5 2 


114 


43 13 


70 54 


4 43 36 


490 


38 46 10 


76 8 


5 4 32 


80 


44 54 


66 56 


4 27 44 


778 


39 


77 7 


5 28 28 


284 


42 58 


70 55 


4 43 40 


474 


38 14 


84 40 


5 38 40 


551 


38 34 


77 38 


5 10 32 


56 


46 3 


66 45 


4 27 




39 24 


77 18 


5 9 12 


43 


33 21 


79 17 


5 17 8 


482 


42 36 44 


70 40 19 


4 42 41.3 


462 


42 34 49.6 


70 40 11 


4 42 40.8 


466 


42 36 4 


70 40 17 


4 42 41.1 


463 


42 35 16 


72 36 32 


4 50 26.1 


396 


39 37 


77 35 


5 10 20 


68 


44 39 20 


63 36 40 


4 14 26.7 


936 


44 17 


69 50 


4 39 30 


593 


40 16 


76 50 


5 7 20 


110 


41 45 59 


72 40 45 


4 50 43 


335 


41 27 15 


70 36 38 


4 42 26.5 


457 


42 14 


73 46 


4 55 4 


345 


41 14 42 


81 24 54 


5 25 39.6 




34 36 


86 57 


5 47 48 


726 


39 55 


86 5 


5 44 20 


573 


42 41 8 


70 46 17 


443 5 


462 


42 41 8 


70 46 34 


4 43 6.3 




32 23 


90 8 


6 32 


1035 


38 36 


92 8 


6 8 32 


980 


24 32 


81 47 30 


5 27 10 




44 8 


76 40 


5 6 40 


456 


35 59 


83 54 


5 35 36 


516 


40 2 36 


76 20 33 


5 5 22.2 


109 


38 6 


84 18 


5 37 12 


534 


34 40 


92 12 


6 8 48 


1068 


43 11 


78 46 


5 15 4 


403 


38 3 


85 30 


5 42 


590 


42 38 46 


71 19 2 


4 45 16 


439 


37 86 


79 22 


5 17 28 


198 


42 27 51 


70 57 25 


4 43 50 


441 


44 33 


67 22 


4 29 28 




42 30 24 


70 51 24 


4' 43 25.6 


450 


42 30 14 


70 50 39 


4 43 22.6 


448 


41 33 8 


72 39 


4 50 36 


325 


33 7 20 


83 19 45 


5 33 19.0 


642 


30 41 48 


87 59 


5 51 56 


1033 


44 17 


72 36 


4 50 24 


524 


41 33 35 


69 59 56 


4 40 


500 


45 31 


73 35 


4 54 20 


601 


41 16 56 


70 6 12 


4 40 24.8 


490 


36 9 33 


86 49 3 


5 47 16.2 


714 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



TABLB 09 JLA«ITU]>B AXB IKMIOITUBB. 



47 



Natchez (Eort Fanmare), Miss. 

Newark, N. J. 

New Bedford (Mariner's Ch.),-Masg. 

Newbem, N. C. 

Newburg, N. Y. 

Newbiiryiwrt ( 2d Presb. Ch.), • Mass. 

Do. (Lights) 

Newcastle, Del. 

New Haven ( College), Conn. 

New London,** , Conn. 

New Orleans (City Hall), La. 

Newport (Conrt House), R. L 

New York (City Hall), N. Y. 

Nobsqne Point Light, Mass. 

Norfolk (Farmer's Bank), Va. 

Northampton (1st Con. Ch.)- -Mass. 

Norwich, Conn. 

Pensacola, Fa. 

Petersburg, Va. 

Philadelphia CInd'ce Hall,) - -Pa. 
Do. (High School Obs.)... 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

Pittsfield, (1st Cong. Ch.),- - - -Mass. 

Plattsburgh, N. Y. 

Plymouth (Court House), Mass. 

Portland (Mount Joy), Me. 

Do. (Light), 

Portsmouth (Unit'n Ch.),- - -N. H. 

Do. (Light), 

Foughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Princeton (Nassau Hall), N. J. 

Providence (Univ'y Hall), R. L 

Quebec (Citadel), L. C. 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Richmond (Capitol), Va. 

Rochester (R'r House), N. Y. 

Sable (Cape), Fa. 

Sackett's Harbor, N. Y. 

Saco, Me. 

St. Augustine, Fa. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Salem (E. L M. Hall,) Mass. 

Sandwich (1st Cong. Ch.),---Mass. 

Savannah (Exchange), Ga. 

Schenectady, N. Y. 

Springfield, 111. 

Springfield (Court House),- • -Mass. 

Squam Harbor (Light), Mass. 

Straitsmouth Island (Light),- -Mass. 

Stratford, • • • . Conn. 

Tallahassee, Fa. 



Latitade, 
North. 



31 34 

40 45 

41 38 7 

35 20 

41 31 

42 48 32 
42 48 30 

39 40 

41 18 30 
41 22 

29 57 30 
41 29 

40 42 40 

41 30 57 

36 50 50 

42 19 9 

41 33 

30 24 

37 13 54 
39 56 59 

39 57 9 

40 32 

42 26 55 
44 42 

41 57 26 

43 39 52 
43 36 
43 4 35 
43 3 30 
41 41 

40 20 41 

41 49 22 
46 49 12 
35 47 

37 32 17 
43 8 17 
^ 50 
43 55 
43 31 

29 48 30 

38 37 28 

42 31 18 

41 45 31 

32 4 56 

42 48 

39 48 
42 6 4 
42 39 46 
42 39 41 
41 11 7 

30 28 



Longitude, W«0t, 
indegreM. in time. 



91 24 

74 10 
70 55 
77 5 

74 1 
70 52 

70 49 

75 33 
72 56 
72 9 
90 

71 19 

74 1 
70 39 

76 18 

72 38 

72 7 
87 10 

77 20 

75 9 
75 10 

80 2 

73 15 
73 26 
70 40 
70 13 
70 12 
70 45 

70 43 

73 55 

74 39 

71 24 

71 16 

78 48 
77 27 
77 51 

81 15 

75 57 
70 26 
81 35 
90 15 
70 53 
70 30 
81 8 
73 55 
89 33 

72 35 
70 41 
70 35 

73 8 
84 36 



28 



IM(rt.fr. 
Wa«h. 



h. m. 
6 5 

4 56 
443 

5 8 
4 56 
443 

4 42 

5 2 
4 51 
4 48 

6 
4 45 
4 56 

4 42 

5 5 
4 50 

4 48 

5 48 
5 9 
5 
5 
5 20 
4 53 
4 53 
4 42 
440 
4 40 
443 
4 42 
4 55 
4 58 
4 45 

4 45 

5 15 
5 9 
5 11 
5 25 
5 3 

4 41 

5 26 
166 1 

443 

4 42 

5 24 

4 55 

5 58 
4 50 
4 42 
4 42 

4 52 

5 38 



38.8 
40. 
43.3 
20 
4 

31.1 
18.0 
8 
47 
36 

16.8 

4.5 
38.5 
15.1 
33.2 
28 
40.8 
20 
39.6 
42.5 

8 

2.3 
44 
41.3 
54.2 
49 

3.3 
52 
40 
38 
39.2 

4 
12 
49.9 
24 


48 
44 
20 

0.7 
35.5 

0.8 
33.2 
40 
12 
23 
44.5 
22.4 
35 
24 



miles. 

1146 
215 
429 
337 
282 
466 
469 
103 
301 
354 

1203 
403 
226 
450 
217 
376 
362 

1050 
144 
136 

223 
380 
539 
439 
542 

491 

301 
177 
394 
781 
286 
122 
361 

407 
528 
841 
856 
446 
456 
662 
391 
801 
357 
466 
471 
287 
896 



Digitized 



by Google 



48 



TABLB OV ULttTUtm Aim LOSTOltin^. 



[1848. 



Taunton (Trin. Cong. Ch.),. Mass. 
Toronto or York (Obsenr.),- -U. C. 

Trenton, ^..N.J. 

Troy, N.Y. 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

University of Virginia, Va. 

Utica (Dutch Church), N. Y. 

Vandalia, HI. 

Vevay, Ind. 

Vincennes, Ind. 

Washington, (Capitol), • • • .D. C. 

Washington, Miss. 

Wheeling, Va. 

Williamstown (Cong. Ch.,) . • .Mass. 

Wihnington, Del. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Worcester (Ant. Hall), Mass. 

York, Me. 

York, Pa. 

Yorktown, Va. 



LatttQde, 


Longitade, West, 


Distfr. 


North. 


in degrees. 


in time. 


Wash. 


o 1 II 


• 1 II 


h. m. s. 


miles 


41 54 11 


71 5 55 


4 44 23.6 


415 


43 39 35 


79 21 30 


5 17 26 


500 


40 14 


74 30 


4 58 36 


166 


42 44 


73 40 


4 54 40 


383 


33 12 


87 42 


5 50 48 


858 


38 2 3 


78 31 29 


5 14 5.9 


124 


43 6 49 


75 13 


5 52 


383 


38 50 


89 2 


5 56 8 


781 


38 46 


84 59 


5 39 56 


556 


38 43 


87 25 


5 49 40 


693 


38 53 34 


77 1 30 


5 8 6 




31 36 


91 20 


6 5 20 


1146 


40 7 


80 42 


5 22 48 


264 


42 42 49 


73 13 10 


4 52 52.6 


406 


39 41 


75 28 


5 1 52 


108 


34 11 


78 10 


5 12 40 


416 


42 16 17 


71 48 13 


4 47 13.3 


394' 


43 10 


70 40 


4 42 40 


500 


39 58 


76 40 


5 6 40 


87 


37 13 


76 34 


5 6 16 





LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF THE PRINCIPAL FOREIGN 

OBSERVATORIES. 

[The Longitudes are from Greenwich.] 



Ohflerratories. 



Altona, 

Armagh, 

Berlin, 

Brussels, 

Cambridge, 

Cape of Good Hope, 

Dorpat, 

Dublin, 

Edinburgh, 

Gottingen, 

Greenwich, 

Konigsberg, 

Munich, 

Paris, » 

Petersburg, 

Rome, 

Turin, 

Vienna, 



Latltade. 


Longitude in time. 


o 1 II 


h. m. s. 


53 32 45 N. 


39 46.6 E. 


54 21 12.7 N. 


26 35.5 W. 


52 31 13.5 N. 


53 35.5 E. 


50 51 10.7 N. 


17 29.0 E. 


52 12 51.8 N. 


23.5 E. 


33 56 3 S. 


1 13 55.0 E. 


58 22 47 N. 


1 46 55 E. 


53 23 13 N. 


25 22 W. 


55 57 23.2 N. 


12 43.6 W. 


51 31 48 N. 


39 46.5 E. 


51 28 39.0 N. 


0.0 


54 42 50 N. 


1 22 06 E. 


48 8 45 N. 


46 26.5 E. 


48 50 13 N. 


9 21.5 E. 


59 56 31 N. 


2 1 15.8 E. 


41 53 52 N. 


49 54.7 E. 


45 4 6 N. 


30 48.4 E. 


48 12 35 N. 


1 6 31.9 E. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848] 



BTBXiaaat ot tbb suk. 



49 







At Apparent Noon at Greenwich, 




JANUARY. 


FEBRUARY. | 


D. 


Semi-IHam. 


S. D. culm, 
m. sec. 


1 ^ 

cS 00 


D. 


Semi-Diam. 


S. D. culm, 
m. sec. 




1 


16 17-3 


1 11-03 


2 


16 14-8 


1 814 


, 


3 


1T2 


10-94 


4 


14-4 


7-90 


fe 


5 


17-2 


10-83 


•t " 


6 


14-1 


7-67 


•R -• 


7 
9 


17-8 
17-1 


10 71 
10-67 


p3 ik 


8 
10 


13-8 
13-4 


7-44 
7-22 




11 


17-0 


10-42 


iSlli 


12 


131 


7-00 


|§ ••* %j3 


13 


16-9 


10-25 


14 


12-7 


6-79 


lb 11 


15 


16-8 


10-07 


i^s.^"- 


16 


12-3 


6-58 


%a -sr 


17 


16-7 


9-83 


ti^ll 


18 


11-9 


6-37 




19 


16-6 


9-68 


20 


11*4 


6-18 


21 


16-3 


9-48 


§^ wi 


22 


11.0 


6-99 


I^"i 


23 


161 


9 27 


'1 ^. 


24 


10-6 


6-81 


c|5 g 


25 


16*9 


905 


26 


10-0 


6-63 


1 


27 


15-6 


8-83 


28 


9-5 


6-47 


29 


15-3 


8-60 


h t 










31 


15-1 


8-37 


a ^ 














Equa. of Time 


Sideroal 






Equa. of Time 


Sidereal 


D. 


Declination 


to be added to 


Time at 


D. 


Declination 


to be added to 


Time at 




South. 


Jppar. Time. 


mean noon. 




South. 


Appar. Time. 


mean noon. 




o 


m. i. 


h. m. sec. 




e 


m. s. 


h. m. sec. 


1 


23 3 29-4 


3 36-08 


18 41 6-11 


1 


17 15 8-4 


13 49-87 


20 43 19-34 


2 


22 68 321 


4 4-49 


18 46 2-66 


2 


16 58 3-7 


13 67-88 


20 47 15*89 


3 


22 fi3 7-3 


4 32*64 


18 48 5922 


3 


16 40 41*2 


14 608 


20 51 12-45 


4 


22 47 16-2 


5 0*43 


18 62 55*78 


4 


16 23 1-2 


14 11-46 


20 65 900 


6 


22 40 660 


6 27-81 


18 66 52-33 


6 


16 6 4-3 


14 17-01 


20 59 5-66 


6 


22 34 9-7 


6 64-77 


19 48*89 


6 


15 46 50-8 


14 21-76 


21 3 2-11 


7 


22 26 56-7 


6 21.28 


19 4 45-45 


7 


15 28 21-2 


14 25-68 


21 6 68-67 


8 


22 19 17-2 


6 47.29 


19 8 42-00 


8 


16 9 35-9 


14 28-79 


21 10 55-22 


9 


22 11 11-4 


7 12-78 


19 12 38-66 


9 


14 60 35-3 


14 31-06 


21 14 51-77 


10 


22 2 39-5 


7 37-71 


19 16 3511 


10 


14 31 19-9 

> 


14 32-56 


21 18 48-33 


11 


21 63 41-8 


8 2-07 


19 20 31*67 


11 


14 11 501 


14 33*25 


21 22 44*88 


12 


2144 18-6 


8 26-82 


19 24 26.23 


12 


13 52 6-3 


14 33-14 


21 26 41-43 


13 


21 34 30-1 


8 43-94 


19 28 24*78 


13 


13 32 8-8 


14 3224 


21 30 37-99 


14 


21 24 16-6 


9 11-41 


19 32 21-34 


14 


13 11 68-1 


14 30-56 


21 34 34-54 


15 


21 13 3S.5 


9 33-21 


19 36 17-90 


15 


12 51 34-7 


14 2813 


21 38 31-00 


16 


21 2 35.9 


9 64-32 


19 40 14-45 


16 


12 30 690 


14 24-94 


21 42 27.65 


17 


20 51 9.2 


10 14-73 


19 44 11-01 


17 


12 10 11-3 


14 21-03 


21 46 24-20 


18 


20 39 18-8 


10 34-42 


19 48 7-56 


18 


11 49 12-0 


14 16-39 


21 50 20-75 


19 


20 27 4-9 


10 63-37 


19® 4*12 


19 


11 28 1-5 


14 1100 


21 64 17-31 


20 


20 14 27-9 


11 11-59 


19 66 0-65 


20 


11 6 40-3 


14 5-04 


21 68 13-86 


21 


20 128-1 


1129-06 


19 69 57-23 


21 


10 46 8-8 


13 68-36 


22 9 10*41 


22 


19 48 5-8 


11 45-77 


20 3 63-79 


22 


10 23 27-2 


13 51-04 


22 6 6-97 


23 


19 34 21-5 


12 1-72 


20 7 50-34 


23 


10 1 36-1 


13 43-09 


•22 10 ^62 


24 


19 20 15-4 


12 1689 


20 11 46*90 


24 


9 39 35-3 


13 34.62 


22 14 0-07 


25 


19 6 47-9 


12 31-28 


20 16 43*45 


25 


9 17 26-6 


13 25-37 


22 17 56-62 


26 


18 50 69-4 


12 44*89 


20 19 4001 


26 


8 55 9-1 


13 15-65 


22 21 5318 


27 


18 35 50-2 


12 57-71 


20 23 36-56 


27 


8 32 43-6 


13 6-37 


22 26 49*73 


28 


18 20 20-8 


13 9-74 ■ 


20 27 3312 


28 


8 10 10-5 


12 64-66 


22 29 46*26 


29 


13 4 31-5 


13 20-98 


20 31 29-67 


29 


7 47 30-2 


12 42*23 


22 33 42-83 


80 


17 48 22-7 


13 31-42 


20 36 26-23 


i 






31 


17 31 54-9 1 


13 41 05 


20 39 22-76 


1 







Digitized 



by Google 



90 



BPBKioixit OF nn tuv. 



[IM8. 



At Apparent Noon at Qrmnwkk. 







MARCH. 


] 




APUL. 




D. 


Semi-Diam. 


8. D. culm, i 


1 r ^. D. 


Semi-DiMi. 


S. D. culm. 


.• 




• •• 


m. aec. 




. •• 


m. see. 


i; 


1 


16 9 


1 5*33 


1 ^ ^ 


16 0*4 


1 4*44 


s ^. 


3 
5 


8-5 
80 


618 
606 


1 i:\ 


16 60*9 
69*3 


4*49 
4*65 




7 


Ti 


493 




68« 


4*« 


14- .i 


9 


7-0 


4-82 


68*3 


4*69 


11 


6-5 


4« 


67*7 


4*78 


§§5 1-" 


18 
15 


6*0 
6-4 


4-64 
4*96 


lis h 14 


67*« 
66*7 


4*88 
4*99 


!i ^t 


17 
19 
21 


4-9 
4-4 
3*8 


4-60 
4*45 
4-4« 


S-t is 18 

= 3,-|<c 20 
3i3j3 as 22 


66*3 
66*6 
651 


510 
6*88 
5*35 


si"! 


23 


3-3 


4*30 


®| Z 24 


«*6 


6*49 


25 


9n 


4-38 


1 S'^o 


64*1 


6«) 


Ji 1 


27 


8*1 


4-38 


63*6 


6-n 


\ 


29 


1-6 


4*39 


63*1 


6*93 


31 


1-0 


4*41 







D. Declination 
1 South. 



7 24 43.1 
7 1 49*7 
6 38 60*2 
6 15 45*2 
6 63 35*1 
6 29 20*2 
5 6 10 
4 43 37*8 
4 19 110 
3 55 41*1 

3 32 8*5 
3 8 33*4 
2 44 66 3 
2 21 17-6 
1 57 37*6 
1 33 56*7 
1 10 16*2 
46 33*5 
22 61*9 
No 40-3 

24 29*6 

43 8*7 

1 11 46*3 
1 36 22*1 

1 68 55*8 

2 22 27*0 

2 45 55-2 

3 9 20*2 
3 32 41-7 

3 55 59*2 

4 19 12-5 



£qua. irf^Timei 
to bt added to\ 
Appar, Time. 

m a. 

13 31*40 

12 19*08 

13 6-38 
11 6303 
1139*33 
1125-20 
11 10-67 
10 56-74 
10 40*42 
10 24*74 

10 8*72 
9 52-38 
9 35*73 
9 18-80 
9 1*60 
8 44*15 
8 26*49 
8 8*63 
7 50-61 
7 32-44 



idereal 

Time at | 
[mean noon.; 
i h. m. sec. 
23 37 39-39j 

22 41 35-94' 
32 46 32-49| 

23 49 39*041 

22 53 25-69 

32 57 23*15 

23 1 18-701 
23 6 15*251 

33 9 ll*8o' 
33 13 8*351 110 



7 14*15 
6 65*75 
6 37*28 
6 18-77 
6 0-24 
6 41*70 
6 23*17 
5 4-68 
4 4634 
4 27*88 
4 9-61 



33 17 4*91 
33 31 1*46 
33 34 58*01 
33 38 54*56 
23 33 51*11 
23 36 47*67 
23 40 44*23 
23 44 40*77 
23 48 37-32 
23 58 33-87 

23 56 30*42 
26*96 
4 23*53 
8 20*08 
18 16*63 
16 1318 
20 9*73 
24 6*29 
28 2*84 
31 59-39 
35 55-94 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
il9 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
!29 
i30 
31 



Declination 
North. 

4 4^81*1 
6 6 84*7 
6 88 82*9 
6 51 15*4 
6 14 1*8 
6 36 41*7 

6 69 14-8 

7 81 40*8 

7 43 69-3 

8 6 9*8 

8 88 18*8 

8 60 6*0 

9 11 60*9 
9 38 86*7 
9 54 52-9 

10 16 9-3 
10 37 15*5 

10 58 11*2 

11 18 56*1 
11 89 29*9 

11 59 62*2 

12 20 8*8 
18 40 1*4 
18 50 47*6 

13 19 811 
13 38 41*5 

13 67 48-6 

14 16 43-1 
14 35 31-5 

14 53 46*6 

15 11 57-1 



,£q. ofl1.«)6e 
I added to Ap. 
i2Ym«tiU15th. 



m. t. 

3 51*45 
8 33*43 
3 15*63 

8 67*77 
3 40*80 

9 83*81 
9 5-63 
148 63 
131*88 
1 16-37 

60*18 
43*14 
87-46 
+ 1808 
— 8-96 
17-65 
3198 
45-93 

69-47 

1 13-59 

185*88 
1 37-88 
1 49*38 
8 0*56, 
8 11*34 
8 81*63 
8 31*38 
8 40 63 
8 49-33 
8 57*43 
3 5-10 



Mdereai 
Time at 
mean nocm. 
h. m. eec. 
39 58*49 
43 4905 
47*45-60 
61 43*15 
56 38*70 

59 35-85 

1 3 31-81 
1 7 88*36 
1 11 24*91 
1 15 81*46 

1 19 ia*oi 

1 83 14*57 
1 27 1113 
1 31 7*67 
1 35 4-83 
1 39 0*78 
1 43 57-33 
1 46 63*38 
1 50 50*44 
1 54 46-99 

1 53 43*54 
8 8 40-10 
8 36-65 

2 10 33-20 
8 14 89-78 
8 18 86-31 
888 82*96 

3 86 19-43 
I 3 30 15-97 
1 8 34 12-52 
i 8 33 9-08 



Digitized 



by Google 



1849.] 



BFaxmBift OF Tas tim. 



51 







At Apparent Noon ai Greenwich, 




MAY. 1 


JUNE. 1 


D. 


Semi-Diam. 


S. D. culm. 


>• 


D. 


Semi-Diam. 


8 D. culm. 






1 It 


m sec. 


s 




. II 


m. see. 


^ 


2 


15 52-7 


1 608 


p . 


1 


15 47.1 


1 8-35 


ji -' 


4 


62-2 


6-24 


i 1 


3 


468 


8-46 


6 


61-8 


6-40 


5 


46-6 


8-55 


i ^ 


8 


61*3 


6-57 




7 


46-4 


8*64 


ti." * 


10 


60-9 


6-73 


J^ s^ 


9 


46-2 


8-71 


.s4> mJ 


12 


50*5 


6-90 


iS^ %-" 


11 


46-0 


8-78 


sar- 


14 


601 


7-07 


Hh 


13 


45*9 


8*83 




16 


49-7 


7-23 


^ - 3*- ; 


15 


45-7 


8*87 


18 
20 


49*4 
490 


7-39 
7-54 




17 
19 


45*6 
45-4 


8*89 
8*90 


fssp 


22 


48-7 


7-69 


21 


45-3 


8-90 


fsi &r 


24 


48-3 


7-84 


*l 2 


23 


45-2 


8*88 


*l % 


26 


48-0 


7*98 


■ » 1 

1 


25 


45-2 


8-85 




28 


47-7 


811 


27 


45-1 


8-81 


SO 


47-4 


8-23 


29 


46*1 


8-76 


82 


471 


8-36 


31 


45*0 


8-70 


1 






ISqua of Time 


Sidereal 






EJq. of Ti. to be 


Sidereal 


D 


Dadination 


to be subtr. fr. 


Time at 


D. 


DecUnation 


%ub.fr. Aapar. 
2Vm«tillI6th 


Jimeat 




North. 


Appear. Time. 


mean noon. 




North. 


mean noon. 




• 1 14 


m. 8. 


h. m. sec. 




e J 


m. 8. 


h. m. sec. 


1 


15 11 571 


3 510 


2 38 903 


1 


22 6 52-1 


2 28*49 


4 40 22-29 


2 


1^29 52*6 


3 12*16 


2 42 5*6.3 


2 


22 14 41-8 


2 19*16 


4 44 18-85 


3 


15 47 32-8 


3 18-63 


2 46 2*19 


3 


22 22 8-3 


2 9*44 


4 4a 15-41 


4 


1ft 4 67-3 


3 24*65 


2 49 63-74 


4 


22 29 11-3 


169-36 


4 52 11*96 


5 


16 22 5-9 


3 3006 


2 53 65-30 


5 


22 35 60-8 


1 43*96 


4 5Q 8-52 


6 


16 38 58-3 


3 34*91 


2 57 51*85 


6 


22 42 6*5 


1 38-24 


5 607 


7 


16 55 34-1 


3 39*20 


3 1 48*40 


7 


22 47 58-4 


1 27-23 


5 4 1-63 


8 


17 11 52-9 


3 42*95 


3 5 44-96 


8 


22 63 26-3 


1 16-96 


5 7 53-19 


9, 17 27 64-5 1 


3 46*14 


3 9 41-51 


9 


22 53 300 


1 445 


5 11 54-74 


10 


17 43 38*6 


3 48-78 


3 13 38*07 


10 


23 3 9-5 


82-70 


5 15 61-30 


11 


17 50 4-8 


3 50*86 


3 17 34-62 


11 


23 7 24*7 


40-75 


5 19 47-86 


12] 18 14 130 


3 62*39 


3 21 31*18 


12 


23 11 15*4 


28-62 


6 23 44-41 


13| 19 29 2-7 


3 53-36 


3 25'27-73' 


13 


23 14 41*6 


16-32 


5 27 40-97 


14 


18 43 33-8 


3 63*76 


3 29 24*29 


14 


23 17 43*3 


— 3-88 


5 31 37-53 


15 


18 57 460 


3 63-61 


3 33 20-34 


15 


23 20 20-3 


-j- 8-09 


5 35 34-08 


16 


19 11 33-9 


3 62-91 


3 37 17-40 


16 


23 22 32-6 


21*36 


5 39 80-64 


17 


19 25 12-4 


3 61-65 


3 41 13-95 


17 


23 24 20*2 


34-12 


5 43 27-20 


18 


19 33 26-1 


3 49-82 


3 45 10-61 


IS 


23 25 43 


46-96 


5 47 23-76 


19 


19 51 19-9 


3 47*44 


3 49 7-06 


19 


23 26 410 


59-84 


6 61 20-31 


20 


20 3 53-4 


3 44*50 


3 63 3*62 


20 


23 27 14*2 


1 12.76 


5 55 16-87 


21 


20 16 6*4 


3 4101 


3 57 0*18 


21 


23 27 22*6 


1 25-69 


6 69 13-43 


22 


20 27 58-7 


3 36-98 


4 56*73 


22 


23 27 6*2 


138*61 


6 3 9-98 


23 


20 39 300 


3 32*40 


4 4 53-29 


23 


23 26 24 9 


1 51-50 


6 7 6*54 


24 


20 50 40-2 


3 27*28 


4 8 49-84 


24 


23 25 18*9 


2 4*33 


6 11 3-10 


25 


21 1 23-9 


3 21-64 


4 12 46*40 


25 


23 23 48-2 


2 17.08 


6 14 69-66 


26 


21 11 56 


3 15*48 


4 16 42-95 


26 


23 21 52-7 


2 29*72 


6 18 56-21 


27 


21 22 1-3 


3 8*89 


4 20 39*51 


27 
28 


23 19 32-6 


9 42*24 


6 22 52-77 


28 


21 31 44*4 


3 1*67 


4 24 3607 


23 16 48-0 


2 54*61 


6 26 49-33 


29 


21 41 5*3 


S 54*05 


4 28 32-^ 


29 


23 13 38-9 


3 6*79 


6 30 45-88 


30 


21 50 3*7 


2 45 96 


4 32 29-18 


30 


23 10 5*3 


3 18*77 


6 34 42-44 


81 


21 58 39*3 


2 37*43 


4 36 25-74 


31 


23 6 7*4 


3 30-51 


6 38 33-99 



Digitized 



by Google 



52 



XPHM1URI8 or TBB 8UK. 



[1848. 







At Apparent Noon at Greenwich. 


* 


JULY. 


, AUGUST. 1 


D. 


Semi-Diam. 


S. D. culm. 


^. 


D. 


Semi-Diam. 


S. D. culm. 


.• 




« <i 


m. sec. 


*6 




. 


m. sec. 


tg 


1 


15 450 


1 8-70 


\ -• 


2 


15 47-2 


1 6-45 


S8 


8 


45*0 


8*62 


4 


47*5 


6-26 


i \ 


6 


451 


8-53 


i ss 


6 


4r8 


6-11 


7 


451 


8-43 


cjTl °° 


8 


48-4. 


5-95 




9 


45-2 


8-32 


ak S^ 


10 


48-4 


5-78 


11 


45-3 


8-20 




12 


48-8 


5-62 


^^. I:- 


18 
15 


45-4 
45-5 


8-07 
7-93 


14 
16 


49-1 
49-5 


5-46 
5-30 


i .. 1*^ 


17 


45.6 


7-79 




18 


49-9 


5-16 




19 
21 


45-8 
45-9 


7-64 

7-48 


20 
22 


50-2 
60-6 


602 

4-88 


28 


46*1 


7-32 


^l"l 


24 


51-0 


4-75 


25 
27 


46-3 
46*5 


7-15 
6-96 


i' 


26 
28 


51-6 
51-9 


4-6* 


1^ 

i 


29 


46-7 


6-81 


30 


52-3 


4-42 


31 


46-9 


6*63 


i 


132 


62-8 


4-33 






Equa. ofTime 


Sidereal 






Equa. of Time 


Sidereal 


D. 




^ be added to 


Time at 


D. 


Declination 


to he added to 


Time at 




North. 


Ajpar. Tim . 


mean noon. 




North. 


Appar. Time. 


mean noon. 




1 Jl 


m. B. 


h. m. sec. 




O 1 It 


m. 8. 


h. m. sec. 


1 


23 7-4 


3 30-51 


6 38 38*99 


1 


17 Sd 411 


6 0-34 


8 40 62-23 


2 


23 1 45-2 


3 42-00 


6 42 35-55 


2 


17 41 191 


5 66-45 


8 4M8-79 


8 


22 56 59*0 


3 53-20 


6 46 32-11 


8 


17 26 30-9 


6 61-96 


8 48 45-34 


4 


22 51 48*8 


4 4-09 


6 50 28-66 


4 


17 9 43-8 


5 46-84 


8^41*89 


5 


22 46 14-8 


4 14-64 


6 54 25-22 


5 


16 63 31-0 


5 41-U 


8 66 38-45 


6 


22 40 170 


4 24-84 


6 58 21-78 


' 6 


16 37 1-9 


6 34-77 


36-00 


7 


22 33 65-6 


4 34-67 


7 2 18-34 


1 7 


16 20 1 -7 


5 27-81 


4 31-66 


8 


22 27 10-S 


4 44-09 


7 6 14-89 


8 


16 3 1-9 


5 90-25 


9 8 28-U 


9 


22 20 2-8 


4 63-10 


7 10 11-45 


9 


15 45 60-5 


6 12-09 


9 12 24*67 


10 


22 12 31-7 


5 1-68 


7 14 8-00 


10 


15 28 28*0 


6 3-34 


16 21-22 


11 


22 4 37-7 


5 9-81 


7 18 4-56 


11 


15 10 41-7 


4 64-01 


9 20 17-77 


12 


21 56 20-9 


6 17-47 


7 22 1-12 


12 


14 52 40-9 


4 44-10 


24 14-33 


13 


21 47 41-6 


5 24-66 


7 25 57-67 


13 


14 34 25-8 


4 33-63 


9 28 10-88 


14 


21 38 39-9 


5 31-36 


7 29 54-23 


14 


14 15 56^7 


4 22-61 


9 32 7-44 


15 


21 29 16*0 


5 3r56 


7 33 50-79 


15 


13 67 14-1 


4 11-06 


9 36 3-09 


16 


21 19 30-2 


5 43-26 


7 37 47-34 


16 


13 33 18-1 


3 58*98 


40 0-54 


17 


21 9 22*6 


5 48-46 


7 41 43-90 


17 


13 19 9-0 


3 46-40 


9 43 67-10 


18 


20 58 58*5 


5 53-13 


7 45 40-45 


18 


12 59 47-2 


3 33-33 


9 47 53-65 


19 


20 48 3*1 


5 57-27 


7 49 37-01 


19 


12 40 12-9 


3 19-78 


9 5150-20 


20 


20 36 51*6 


6 0-88 


7 53 33-57 


20 


12 20 26-6 


3 6-75 


9 66 46-78 


21 


20 25 19*3 


6 3*96 


7 57 30-12 


21 


12 28-4 


2 51-28 


59 43-31 


22 


20 13 26*3 


6 6-49 


8 1 26*68 


22 


11 40 18-7 


2 36-38 


1 1 3 39-86 


23 


20 1 13*0 


6 8*46 


8 5 23-23 


23 


11 19 57-8 


2 21-05 


10 7 36-42 


24 


19 48 39*6 


6 9*88 


8 9 19-79 


24 


10 59 26-1 


2 5-30 


10 11 32-97 


25 


19 35 46-3 


6 10-74 


8 13 16-34 


25 


10 38 43-8 


1 49-16 


10 15 29-52 


26 


19 22 33-4 


6 1102 


8 17 12-90 


26 


10 17 51-3 


1 32-63 


10 19 26-08 


27 


19 9 1-3 


6 10*72 


8 21 9-45 


27 


9 66 49-0 


1 15-73 


10 23 22-63 


28 


18 55 10*2 


6 9-83 


8 25 6-01 


28 


9 35 37-1 


58*47 


10 27 19-18 


29 


18 41 0*3 


6 8-36 


8 29 2-56 


29 


9 14 16*0 


40-85 


10 31 15-73 


30 


18 26 31-9 


6 6-29 


8 32 59-12 


30 


8 S3 46*0 


22-88 


10 35 12-29 


31 


18 11 45*4 


« 3*62 


8 36 65-68 


81 


8 31 7*5 


4-50 


10 39 8*84 



Digitized 



byLiOogle 



/■ / /// 



/ c . 



9648.] 



BFHUfXRIt OF THE SUM. 



53 







At Apparent Noon at Greenwich. 




'b- 


SEPTEMBEIl. 


1 




OCTOBER. 




Semi-Diam. 


S. D culm. 


.- D. 


Semi-Diam. 


S D. culm. 




1 . . 


m. sec. 




. .1 


m. eec. 




1 15 5-2-3 


1 43:3 


16 0-6 


1 4-31 


3. 5:53 


4 25 


1-2 


4-41 


5 Wd 


4-18 


^ 00 


1-7 


4-51 




7' 54-3 


412 


t§-- .5" 


2-3 


4-6:1 


s-*~ 5 


9 54-8 


4-07 


■S's sa 


2-9 


4-76 


^ SS5 


11! 55-3 


403 


«a 1-- 


3-4 


4-90 


|5 f2S 


13 55-8 


4-01 


40 


6-06 


15 


56-3 


3-99 


%S |» 


4-5 


6-22 


%^ 1^ 


17 


56-3 


3-99 


*1 i 


51 


6-39 


ft" II 


19 
21 


57-4 
57-9 


4-00 
4-02 


5-6 
6.1 


6-56 
6-75 


23 


• 59-4 


405 


6-6 


6-95 


25 


590 


4-10 


I' 


7-1 


6-16 


i* 


27 


69-5 


416 


7-7 


6-37 


29 


16 01 


4-23 


8-2 


6-59 


31 


06 


4*31 


i .-. 


8-7 


6-81 


s 




1 


Squa. ofTime 


Sidereal 






Equa. ofTimo 


Sidereal 


D. 


Declination 


to be sub. from 


Time at 


D. 


Declination 


to be subtr. fr. 


Time at 




North. 


Appar. Time. 


mean noon. 




South. 


Appar. Time. 


mean noon. 




> >> 


m. 8. 


h. m. sec. 




. . .. 


m. B. 


h. m. sec. 


1 


8 9 20-9 


1401 


10 43 5-39 


] 


3 20 22-4 


10 25-33 


12 41 21-95 


2 


7 47 26-4 


32-92 


10 47 1-94 


2 


3 43 393 


10 44-08 


12 45 13-50 


3 


7 25 24-4 


52-11 


10 50 53*50 


3 


4 6 54-0 


11 2-63 


12 49 15.05 


4 


7 3 15-2 


1 11*57 


10 64 65-05, 


4 


4 30 6-4 


11 20-66 


12 63 11-60 


5 


6 40 59Ti 


1 31-30 


10 58 51-60 


5 


4 53 14-9 


11 38-46 


12 57 8-16 


6 


6 18^36-7 

Ts^ s-0 


1 51-26 


U 2 48-15 


6 


5 16 19-6 


11 55.90 


13 1 4-71 


7 


8 11-45 


11 6 44-70; 


7 


5 39 20-2 


12 12-90 


13 5 1-26 


8 


5 33 33-5 


8 31-83 


11 10 41-26, 


8 


6 2 16-4 


12 29-61 


13 8 57-81 


9 


5 10 53-4 


8 52-39 


11 14 37-81 : 


9 


6 25 7-8 


12 45-85 


13 12 54-36 


10 


4 43 80 


3 1310 


11 1^3 34-36 


10 


6 47 540 


13 1-64 


}» 16 50'% 


11 


4 25 17-3 


3 33-96 


11 22 30-91 


11 


7 10 34-7 


13 16-97 


13 20 47-47 


12 


4 9 22-9 


3 54-93 


11 26 27-46 


12 


7 33 9-5 


13 31-30 


13 24 44-02 


13 


3 39 23-8 


4 1509 


11 30 24-02 


13 


7 55 381 


13 46-12 


13 28 40-57 


14 


3 16 20-7 


4 37-11 


11 34 20-57 


14 


8 18 0-1 


13 59-90 


13 32 37-13 


15 


2 53 13-9 


4 58-23 


11 38 17-12 


15 


8 40 15-1 


14 13-13 


13 36 33.68 


16 


2 30 3-8 


5 10-47 


11 48 13-67 


16 


9 2 22-7 


14 25-79 


13 40 30-23 


17 


2 6 60-7 


5 40-65 


11 46 10-22 


17 


9 24 22 7 


14 37-85 


13 44 26 78 


18 


I 43 34-9 


6 1-81 


11 50 0-77 


18 


9 46 14-7 


14 49-28 


13 48 23.34 


19 


1 20 16-7 


6 22-9:1 


11 54 3-33II9 


10 7 63-1 


IS 003 


13 52 19-89 


20 


56 56-4 


6 43-97 


11 57 59-88 


20 


10 29 38-7 


15 10-23 


13 66 16-44 


21 


33 34-4 


7 4-91 


12 1 56-43 


21 


10 50 58-1 


15 19-71 


14 12-99 


22 


10 11- 1 


7 25-75 


12 5 52-93 


22 


11 12 13-9 


16 -28-60 


14 4 9-66 


23 


So 13 13-3 


7 46-46 


12 9 49-53 


23 


11 33 19-6 


16 36-60 


14 8 6-10 


24 


36 38-4 


8 702 


18 13 46-09 


24 


11 54 14-9 


15 43-98 


14 12 2-66 


25 


1 3-8 


8 27-41 


12 17 42-64 


25 


12 14 69-4 


15 60-64 


14 16 59-21 


26 


1 23 29-1 


8 47-61 


12 21 39-19: 


26 


12 35 32-6 


16 66-57 


14 19 65-76 


27 


146 541 


9 7-63 


12 25 35-74 


27 


12 55 64;1 


16 1-76 


14 23 52-31 


28 


2 10 18-3 


27-43 


12 29 32-29 


28 


13 16 3-5 


16 6-20 


14 27 48-87 


29 


2 33 41-2 


9 46-98 


12 33 28-84 


29 


13 36 4 


16 9-88 


14 31 45-42 


30 


3 57 2-8 


10 6-29 


12 37 25-40 


30 


13 65 44-4 


16 12-80 


14 35 41-97 


31 


3 20 22-4 


10 -26-33 


12 41 21-95 


31 


14 15 150 


16 14-95 


14 39 38*53 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



M 



mrasMBBU or tum tov. 



[1846. 



Ai AppartM Nmrn at Grtmwick. 



NOYBMBER. 






DBCBfBBR. 




D. &mi-DUm. 


8. D. cabB. 


D Semi-Dkm. 


..D.colm. 


."- 




^ ^ 


m. ne. 


i ^ 


.# 


m. aec. 


1 i 


2 


10 9^ 


1 7*04 


16 15*1 


1 10*35 


4 


©•7 


7*28 


jf :• 4 16-4 

1^6! is-7 


10*51 


1 1 


6 


i(r9 


7*51 


10*65 


8 


10« 


7-75 


sir "- 8. i6» 


10*78 ^r •- 


10 


111 


7*«» 


A9 J- 12 ie-4 


10*90 |i8 sg 


12 


u« 


8*23 


11-00 iSgiL %^ 


14 


120 


8*47 


-gS 3«i 16 16-7 


U*03 


§1^ £i 


16 


18*4 


8*70 


1114 


18 


12^ 


8-93 


s-r si 18' W9 

1S|S 20; iro 


U-19 


20 


, 131 


9*16 


11-81 


22 


13*5 


9*38 


*l 1 24 


171 


1129 S^ t3#| 


24 


13-» 


9*50 


17*3 


11*31 


'1 ?- 


26 
28 


14*3 
14-6 


0*79 
9*90 


SJ 4 26 

k * 28 
^ ►SO 


17*3 
17*3 


11*19 
11*14 


1 i 


80 


14*8 


10*18 


17*3 


U08 








1 32 


17*3 


10-99 






EqiULofTime 


Sidereal , 




Ea. of Tt 10 5e 


Sidoel 


D. 


Declination 


to bt mbtr. Jr. 
Aj)par, 2Vm«. 


Time ftt i D. 




Tim*mSSi'. 


Time at 
mean noon. 




Sooth. 




Sooth. 




• . «« 


m. s. 


h. m. eec. | 


e < «< 


m. s. 


h.m. eee. 


1 


14 34 31-8 


16 16*38 


14 43 35*06,; 1 


3153 19*1 


10 3535 


16 41 51*74 


2 


14 53 34*4 


16 16*90 


U 47 31*63: 2 


32 3 15*9 


l»19*a2 


16 45 48-89 


3 


15 12 22-4 


16 16*60 


14 51 2319J, 3 


22 10 47*1 


9 48*79 


16 49 44-85 


4 


15 30 65*4 


16 15*66 


14 55 24*74 4 


23 18 53*5 


9 94*39 


16 S3 41-41 


5 


15 40 12-9 


16 13*86 


14 50 21*3011 5 


23 36 31*9 


8 50*46 


16 57 37*96 


6 


10 7 140 


16 11*23 


15 3 17*85\ 6 


22 33 44*9 


8 34*00 


17 134*58 


7 


10 25 00 


16 7*78 


15 7 14*41 ; 


7 


33 40 31*4 


8 8*05 


17 5 31*08 


8 


16 42 28*8 


16 3*51 


15 11 10*96 


8 


23 46 51*3 


7 41*63 


17 9Sr63 


9 


16 50 40*5 


15 58*40 


16 15 7*51 


9 


32 53 44*0 


7 14*76 


17 13 34*19 


10 


17 16 34*8 


15 62.45 


16 19 4 07 


10 

1 


33 58 9*7 


47*47 


17 17 90*75 


11 


17 33 11*2 


15 45*66 


15 23 002 


1 
ill 


33 3 8*1 


19*79 


17 2117*30 


12 


17 49 29 5 


15 3801 


15 26 57*18|12' 23 7 390 


5 51*73 


17 85 13*86 


13 


18 5 29*2 


15 29-60 


15 30 53*73 13 


23 11 42*3 


5 23 33 


17 89 10*48 


14 


18 21 9*9 


15 2014 


15 34 60*29!ll4 


23 15 17*9 


4 54*62 


17 33 6*97 


16 


18 36 31*3 


15 9*98 


15 38 46*84| 15i 23 18 25*7 


4 25 68 


17 37 3-58 


16 


18 51 32*9 


14 68*85 


15 42 43*40 !l6j 23 21 6*4 


3 56*37 


17 41 0.09 


17 


19 6 14*4 


14 46*98 


15 46 39-95! Hj *23 23 17*1 


3 36*89 


17 44 56*65 


18 


19 20 35*4 


14 34*13 


15 50 36 51 I81 23 25 0*7 


3 57*22 


17 48 53-20 


19 


19 34 36*6 


14 20*60 


15 54 3307|tl9| 23 26 161 


3 27*39 


17 52 49-76 


20 


19 48 14*6 


14 603 


15 58 29-62; 20 


23 27 3*2 


1 57*43 


17 56 46-32 


21 


20 1 31*9 


13 50*74 


16 3 26*18 21 


23 27 22*0 


127*39 


18 42-87 


22l 20 14 27-2 


13 34-64 


16 6 22-73 22 


23 27 12*5 


57*30 


13 4 39-43 


23 


20 27 0*2 


13 17-73 


16 10 19*29 23 


23 26 34-7 


— 27*20 


18 8 35-99 


24 


20 39 10-6 


13 0*03 


16 14 15.841 24 


23 25 28*6 


-|^0 2*83 


IS 18 32-55 


25 


20 60 57*9 


12 41-57 


16 18 12*40 


25 


23 23 54*2 


32-89 


19 16 89-10 


26 


21 2 21*8 


12 22*36 


16 22 8*96 


'26 


23 21 51*6 


1 2*79 


18 20 25-66 


27 


21 13 22-0 


12 2*43 


16 26 5-51 


27 


23 19 20*9 


1 32*55 


18 84 22-22 


28 


21 23 581 


11 41*80 


16 30 2*071 28 


23 16 22*0 


2 2*14 


18 28 18*77 


29 


2134 9 9 


11 20*47 


16 33 58*62 1 29 
16 37 5518 |80 


23 12 551 


3 31-51 


18 38 15*33 


80 


21 43 570 


10 58*48 


23 9 0-3 


3 0-63 


18 36 11-89 


3l! 21 53 191 


10 35-P5 


16 41 51*74 31 


23 4 37-6 


3 29-45 


118 40 8-44 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] riXKD' 8TAR1. 

Irue AppcarerU Places of thi PoU Star for every day of ike ytar. 
Epoch. — The Upper Culminatioii at Greenwich. 



55 





jAHUAar. 


RBSUABr. 


MABOH. 


APRIL. 


! 
1 

1 MAT. 




avrmmnxaia. 


oUrsae Minorif . 


oUnflBMinorifl. 


oume Minorii. 


avrm Micorii. 




{Polaris.) 


(Polans.) 


{Pola 


ris) 1 


{PolariM.) 


{Polaris.) 


Day 

oCthe 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


1 ' 


i 


1 


1 


1 


Month. 


1 


1 


} 


1 


1 


J 


1 


1 


1 


1 


h. 


o 


h. 




h. 


e 


h. 




h. 




1848 


1 


88 


1 


88 


1 


88 


1 


88 


1 


88 




m.' 860. 


« n 


m. sec. 


1 II 


m. iec. 


1 II 


m. see. 




m. sec. 




1 


4 56-47 


3014-9 


4 31*27|3014*5 


4 12-44 


29 68-9 


4 4-06 


29 59-7 


410-28 


29 50*4 


2 


55-64 


14*9 


30-50 


14-4 


11-96 


68-7 


4-04 


69*3 


10-71 


50-3 


8 


54-82 


150 


29*73 


14-2 


11-49 


68-4 


4-OG 


50*0 


1115 


50-0 


4 


54-00 


15-1 


23*98 


14-1 


11-03 


68-1 


4*08 


58-7 


11*60 


49-7 


5 


63-18 


15-2 


28*23 


140 


10-59 


67-9 


4*11 


56-4 


12*06 


49-4 


6 


52-36 


15-3 


27-49 


13-8 


10-16 


67-6 


4*15 


580 


12-54 


49-3 


7 


51-54 


15*3 


26-75 


13-7 


9-73 


67*3 


DS] 


[S:J3 


13-08 


48-9 


8 


60-72 


15-3 


26-02 


13-6 


9-32 


67*0 


4*32 


57-2 


13-53 


487 


9 


49-90 


15-4 


25-29 


13 4 


8*93 


66*7; 


4*40 


56*9 


14*08 


48-5 


10 


49*08 


15-4 


24-53 


13-3 


8*56 


66*4! 

1 


4*60 


66*6 


14*55 


43-3 


11 


43-26 


15-5 


23-88 


13-1 


8*21 


66*1. 


4*63 


56*3 


15*08 


48-0 


12 


47-42 


15-5 


23-19 


12-9 


7*86 


65*8 


4-77 


660 


15*63 


47-8 


13 


46-60 


15-5 


22-51 


12*7 


7*52 


65*5 


4*93 


65-7 


16-19 


47-6 


14 


45-78 


15-6 


21-63 


12-6 


7-20 


65-2j 


5-11 


55-3 


1070 


47-4 


15 


44*96 


15-5 


21-15 


12*3 


6-90 


64-9| 


5*30 


55-0 


17-34 


47-3 


16 


4414 


15-5 


20-49 


12-1 


6-61 


64*6| 


5*50 


54-7 


17-93 


47-0 


17 


43-31 


15-5 


19-84 


11-9 


6-31 


64-31 


5*73 


54-4 


18-53 


46-8 


18 


42-49 


15-4 


19-20 


11-7 


6-08 


64*o' 


5-97 


54.1 


19-14 


46*6 


19 


41-66 


15-4 


18-58 


11-5 


5-84 


63-7 


6-22 


53*9 


19-76 


46-4 


20 


40-84 


15-4 


17-97 


11-3 


6-62 


63-4i 


6-47 


53*6 


20*30 


46-3 


21 


40.02 


15-3 


17*36 


11-1 


6-40 


63-1 


6*74 


53-3 


2103 


46-0 


22 


39-21 


15*3 


16-77 


10-9 


6-20 


62-8 


7-03 


53-0 


21*67 


45-8 


28 


38-40 


15-2 


1619 


10-7 


5*02 


62-5i 


7*34 


62-7 


22*32 


45-6 


24 


37-60 


15-2 


15*61 


10-4 


4*85 


62*2 


7-66 


52-4 


22-97 


45-5 


25 


36*78 


15-1 


15-06 


10-2 


4-70 


61*8| 


7-99 


52-1 


23-64 


45-3 


26 


35*98 


151 


14-60 


10-0 


4-56 


61-5 


8.34 


51*8 


24*32 


45-3 


27 


35-19 


15-0 


13-97 


6-7 


4-44 


• 61-3 


8*70 


51*5 


26-02 


45-1 


28 


34-40 


14-9 


13*45 


9-4 


4-32 


61-0 


907 


512 


25*79 


44-9 


29 


33-61 


14*8 


12*94 


92 


4-23 


00*7 


9*45 


50-9 


36*42 


44-8 


80 


32*82 


14*7 


12-44 


8-9 


4-16 


60-3 


9*86 


60-7 


27-13 


. 44-7 


81 


32.04 


14*6 






4-10 


60*0 


10*28 


50-4 


27-85 


44-5 


82 


31-27 


14-5 






4-06 


59-71 






23-57 


44-4 



Digitized 



by Google 



56 



TIXSD STAWU [1048. 

True Apparent Place$ of the Pole Star for every day of the year 
Epoch. —The Upper Culmination at Greenwich. 





JUlf». 


JDLT. 


AU0U8T. 


IBPTIMBZB. 


OCTOBEa. 




oUnae Minoris 
{Polaris.) 


oUniaB Bfinoris. 
{Polaris,) 


aursn Minoils. 
{Polaris.) 


aUnsb Minoria. 

{Polans.) 


ojJntb Minoris. 
{Polaris.) 


of the 
Month. 

1848 


i 


1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


i 


1 


! 


1 

1 


h. 

1 


88 


h. 

1 


88 


h. 
1 


88 


h. 

1 


88 


h. 

1 


88 




m. sec. 


i 


m. aec. 


>4 


m. sec. 




m. eeo. 


. 


m. aec. 




1 


4 28-57 


29 44-4 


4 52-38 


29 431 


6 1712 


29 46-8 


6 36-60 


29 660 


6 46-63 


ai) 6-5 


2 


29-31 


44-3 


53-22 


43-1 


17-85 


47-0 


37-09 


56-4 


46-78 


5-9 


3 


30-05 


441 


54-05 


43-2 


13-57 


47.3 


37-57 


56-7 


46-93 


6-3 


4 


30-79 


44-0 


54-88 


43-2 


19-29 


47-5 


38-04 


56-0 


4706 


6-7 


6 


31-54 


43-9 


65-71 


43-3 


20-01 


47-7 


38*49 


56-3 


47-19 


7-1 


6 


32*30 


43-8 


56-54 


43-3 


20-72 


47-9 


33-98 


56'6 


47-29 


7-5 


7 


3307 


43-7 


57-37 


43-4 


21-43 


48-1 


39 37 


56-9 


47-39 


7*3 


8 


33-94 


43-6 


53-19 


43-5 


2213 


43-3 


39-81 


57-3 


47-47 


8*2 


9 


34-01 


43-5 


6902 


43-5 


22-82 


48-6 


40-24 


67-7 


47-54 


8*6 


10 


35-38 


43-4 


69-84 


43-6 


23-51 


48-8 


40-65 


68-0 


47-60 


9*0 


11 


3615 


43-4 


60-66 


43-7 


24-19 


49-0 


41-03 


58-4 


47-64 


0*3 


12 


36-93 


43-3 


61-48 


43-8 


24-87 


493 


41-40 


58-7 


47-68 


9*7 


18 


37-72 


43-2 


62-30 


43-9 


25-54 


49-6 


41-77* 


59-1 


47*70 


10-1 


14 


38-52 


43-2 


63-11 


44-0 


26-19 


49-8 


42-14 


59-4 


47*71 


10-6 


15 


39-32 


43-2 


63-91 


44-1 


26-83 


501 


42-50 


59-7 


47*70 


10-9 


IC 


40-12 


431 


64-71 


44-3 


27-47 


50-3 


•42-84 


60-0 


47*67 


11-2 


17 


40-92 


43-1 


65-50 


44-4 


2311 


50-6 


43-17 


60-4 


47-63 


11*6 


18 


41-72 


43-1 


66-30 


, 44-5 


28-74 


50-8 


4340 


60-8 


47-59 


120 


19 


42-52 


43-0 


67-10 


44-7 


29-37 


51-1 


43-80 


61-1 


47*53 


12*4 


20 


43-33 


43-0 


67-90 


44-8 


29-96 


61-4 


44-10 


01-6 


47-46 


12-7 


21 


44-14 


430 


68-69 


44-9 


30-57 


51-7 


44-40 


61-9 


47-33 


13-1 


22 


44-96 


42-9 


69-47 


45-0 


31-15 


520 


44-68 


62-2 


47-23 


13-4 


23 


45-78 


42-9 


70-25 


45-2 


31-73 


62-3 


44-94 


62-6 


47*17 


13-8 


24 


46-60 


42-9 


71-03 


45-3 


32-30 


52*6 


45*19 


63-0 


47-04 


14*3 


25 


47-43 


42-9 


71-81 


45-5 


32-87 


52-9 


45*43 


63-3 


46-90 


14*6 


26 


48-26 


42-9 


72-68 


45-7 


33-43 


53-2 


45*66 


63-7 


46-75 


150 


27 


49-09 


43-0 


73-35 


45-9 


33-96 


53-5 


45*89 


641 


46-59 


15-3 


28 


49-90 


43-0 


7411 


46-1 


34-53 


53-8 


46-10 


64-4 


46-41 


15-7 


29 


60-?2 


43-0 


74'87 


46-3 


35-07 


54-1 


46-30 


64-8 


46-22 


16-1 


SO 


61-55 


43-0 


75-63 


46-4 


35-69 


54-4 


46-47 


65-2 


46-02 


16-4 


31 


52 38 


43.1 


76-38 


46-6 


3610 


54-7 


46-63 


65-5 


45-81 


16-7 


32 






7712 


46-8 


36-6( 


55-0 






45-58 


171 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



FIXKO BTAMB. 



57 



TruiApparera Placesofthti Pole Star for every dcuf^and of Thtrty-mven i^the 
Principal Fixed Stars^for every tenth day of the year. 

Epoch.— The Upper Cnlmination at Greenwich. 







« 1 








(^FwMinorif. 


aindroiMdn. 




HOTZMBB. 1 


SIOEMBKB. 




8 




1 
















1 


1 


1 


1 












oUnsB Minoilfl. 


aUnsB MinoriB. 




1 


i 


t 


1 




(Pote^M.) 


{Polam.) 




oCthe 


1 ■ 


1 


1 


1 


1848 


h. 
18 


86 


h. 



28 


MOnlh. 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Jan. 1 
11 


m. MO. 

20 59*71 
59.91 


35 54*2 
60*9 


m. 060. 

32-59 

32*44 


14 78*2 




h. 




h. 




72*2 


1848 


1 


88 


1 


88 


21 


60-81 


47*7 


32-30 


70-9 




m. 860. 


«i 


m. 060. 


« n 


31 


62*42 


44-6 


32-17 


60-4 


1 


6 45*58 


3D 171 


5 33*01 


30 26*6 


Feb. 10 


21 4-63 


41*9' 


32*06 


67*8 


2 


45*33 


17*5 


32*42 


26-8 


20 


7-37 


39-7 


31-96 


66*1 


8 


45*07 


17*9 


31*81 


27*0 


Mar. 1 


10*52 


37*9 


31*98 


64*4 


4 


44*81 


18.3 


31*19 


27*3 


11 


13*96 


36*9 


31*92 


62*8 


6 


44*54 


18*6 


30*57 


27*6 


21 


17*66 


36*4 


* 31*96 
^32-04 


61*4 


6 


44-25 


19*0 


29*93 


27-8 


31 


21*23 


36*6 


60*1 


7 


43*95 


19*3 


29*28 


28-1 


Apr.lO 


24*73 


37*3 


3216 


69*2 


8 


43*63 


19*6 


28-63 


28*3 


20 


27-98 


33-6 


32-33 


58*6 


9 


43*30 


19*9 


27*97 


28-6 


30 


30*89 


40*4 


32-55 


68-5 


10 


42*96 


20*3 


27-30 


28*7 


May 10 


33*35 


42*6 


32*80 


66*7 












20 


35*29 


45-3 


33*08 


59.3 


11 


42*60 


20-6 


26-62 


28*9 


30 


36-63 


48*3 


33*39 


60*3 


12 


42*23 


20*9 


25*98 


291 


June 9 


37*38 


61*4 


33*71 


61*6 


18 


41*86 


21*3 


26*23 


29*3 


19 


37*47 


64*6 


3406 


63-3 


14 


41*48 


21*6 


24*53 


-29-5 


29 


36*94 


57*9 


34*38 


65*2 


15 


41*06 


219 


23*82 


29*7 


July 9 


35*80 


610 


34*70 


67*4 


16 


40*66 


22*2 


23*10 


29*9 


19 


34*04 


63*9 


3501 


69-7 


17 


40*22 


22-6 


22*36 


301 


29 


31-76 


66-7 


35*29 


72*1 


18 


39*77 


22*9 


21-62 


30*3 


Aug. 8 


28*97 


36 91 i 


35-63 


74*5 


19 


39*32 


23*2 


20*37 


30*5 


18 


25*75 


11*2 


35*74 


77*0 


20 


38*87 


23*5 


20*12 


30*6 


28 


22*20 


12*9 


35-91 


79*4 












Sept. 7 


18*33 


14*2 


36*04 


81*7 


21 


38*40 


23*8 


19*36 


30*8 


17 


14-27 


15*1 


36-13 


83-8 


22 


37*91 


241 


18*60 


30-9 


27 


10*10 


15*3 


3618 


85*7 


28 


37*40 


24*4 


17*84 


310 


Oct 7 


20 65-88 


151 


36-19 


87*4 


24 


36.89 


24*6 


17*07 


31*2 


17 


61*74 


14*5 


3616 


88*9 


25 


36*37 


24 9 


16*20 


31*3 


27 


57*78 


13*4 


36*11 


90*2 


26 


35-85 


25*2 


15*50 


31-4 


Nov. 6 


54*09 


11*8 


36*08 


91-1 


27 


35*31 


25*5 


14*71 


31*5 


16 


50*77 


9*7 


35-92 


91-8 


28 


34*75 


25*8 


13*91 


31*6 


26 


47*90 


7*1 


35*80 


931 


29 


34*18 


26*1 


1311 


31*7 


Dec. 6 


45*61 


35 64*2 


35*66 


92-1 


30 


33*60 


26*4 


12*30 


31*8 


16 


43.95 


61*2 


35-52 


91-8 


81 


33*01 


26-6 


11*48 


31-9 


26 


Kin 


[25] 


35 37 


. 91*2 


82 






10.66 


32-0 


36 




• 


37*22 


90-3 



Digitized 



by Google 



58 



FIXBD STABS. 



118491 



IVue Apparent Places of Thitty-seven of the Principal Fixed Stars Jbr every 
tenth day of the year. 

Epoch. — The Upper Culmination at Greenwich. 





^T 


OArietiB. 
3 


aCeti. 
2.8 


CTauri. 
{Mdebaram.) 

ft 

1 1 


a Auriga. 
{CkipeUa.) 


1848 


i 

1 


i 


1 


i 

1 


1 


i 


h. 



18 


h 
1 


22 


h. 
2 


8 


h. 
4 


16 


h. 
5 


45 




m. Bee. 


1 II 


m. sec. 


^^ 


m. sec. 


. 


m. Bee. 


1 


m. see. 


1 


Jan. 1 


35 57-21 


43 88-0 


58 37-72 


44S»-4 


54 21-23 


29 17-1 


27 13-60 


11 4B-8 


6 3019 


49€f7.3 


11 


57-08 


88-5 


37-59 


290 


21-13 


16-3 


13-66 


48-5 


30-17 


68-7 


21 


56-95 


88-8 


37-44 


285 


2101 


15-6 


13-48 


48-2 


30-08 


69-3 


31 


56-82 


88-8 


37-28 


27-8 


20-86 


15-0 


13-36 


47-9 


29-94 


70-8 


Feb.lO 


66-71 


88-5 


3712 


269 


20-71 


14.5 


13-21 


47-6 


29-75 


71-6 


20 


56-62 


87-9 


36-97 


260 


20-55 


14-1 


13-04 


47-3 


29-52 


72-0 


Mar. 1 


66-55 


87-1 


36-83 


250 


20-39 


13-8 


12-86 


47-0 


29-27 


72-2 


11 


56-51 


861 


36-71 


240 


20-25 


13-6 


12-67 


46-7 


29-00 


72-0 


21 


56-50 


84-7 


36-62 


230 


20-12 


13-6 


12 50 


46-4 


28-74 


71-7 


31 


,56-54 
^66-62 


83-0 


36-57 


22-2, 


20-03 


13-8 


12-34 


462 


28-49 


71-0 


Apr.lO 


81-2 


36-57 


21-5 
21-0 


19-97 


14-2 


12-21 


46-0 


28-28 


70-0 


20 


56-74 


79-2 


.36-61 
" 36-71 


19-95 


14-7 


1211 


45-9 


28-11 


68-8 


30 


66-90 


770 


20-7 


.19-93 
"2006 


15-6 


12-06 


45-9 


27-98 


67-6 


May 10 


67-10 


74-8 


36-86 


20-7 


16-6 


12-05 


46-0 


27-92 


66-2 


20 


67-33 


72-5 


37-04 


21-0 


20-18 


17-8 


.12-09 
"12-18 


46-2 


27-92 


64-8 


30 


57-60 


70-1 


37-27 


21-6 


20-35 


19-2 


46-7 


.27-97 
^2811 


63-6 


June 9 


57-89 


67-9 


37-54 


22-4 


20-55 


20-7 


12-32 


47-2 


62-0 


19 


53-20 


65-7 


37-83 


23-5 


20-79 


22-3 


12-49 


47-9 


28-29 


60-9 


29 


58-51 


63-7 


38-14 


24-8 


2105 


24-0 


12-70 


48-7 


28-53 


59-9 


July 9 


58-83 


61-9 


38-46 


26-3 


21-33 


25-8 


12-94 


49-6 


28-81 


d90 


19 


69-14 


60-4 


38-78 


27-9 


21-62 


27-5 


13-21 


60-6 


29-12 


68-4 


29 


59-43 


69-2 


39-10 


29-6 


21-91 


291 


13-49 


61-5 


29-47 


68-0 


Aug. 8 


59-69 


68-3 


39-40 


31-4 


22-21 


30-6 


13-78 


62-5 


29-84 


57-7 


18 


59-93 


87-8 


39-69 


33-2 


22-49 


31-9 


14-08 


63-5 


30-23 


67-7 


28 


60-13 


67-7 


39-96 


34-9 


22-76 


330 


14-38 


64-3 


3062 


67-9 


Sept. 7 


60-29 


57-8 


40-19 


36-6 


23-02 


33-9 


14-67 


55-1 


31-02 


68-2 


17 


60-41 


68-4 


40-40 


38-1 


23-25 


34-6 


14-96 


65-8 


31-42 


63-7 


27 


60-50 


59-2 


40-57 


39-6 


23-46 


35-0 


15-23 


56-3 


31-81 


69-4 


Oct 7 


60-55 


60-2 


40-72 


40-9 


23-64 


35-1 


15-49 


56-6 


32-19 


60-2 


17 


60-56 


61-4 


40-83 


42-0 


23-79 


350 


15-73 


56-9 


32-55 


61-2 


27 


60-53 


62-8 


40-91 


43-0 


23 92 


34-7 


15-95 


67-0 


32-89 


02-3 


Nov. 6 


60-48 


64-2 


40-95 


43-3 


24 01 


34-2 


16-14 


66-9 


33-20 


63-5 


16 


60-41 


65-6 


40 97 


44-4 


•24-08 


33-6 


16'31 


56-9 


33-47 


64-8 


26 


60-31 


66-9 


40-95 


44-8 


24-11 


32-8 


16-45 


56-7 


33-70 


60-2 


Dec. 6 


60-20 


68-1 


4001 


450 


24-12 


32-0 


16-55 


66-5 


33-88 


67-7 


16 


6008 


69-2 


40-83 


45-1 


24-09 


31-2 


16-61 


56-2 


34-01 


69*2 


26 


69-95 


70-1 


40-74 


45-0 


2403 


30-4 


16-63 


56-0 


34-(B 


70-7 


36 


59'81 


70-7 


40-62 


44-7 


23-94 


29-7 


16-61 


66-7 


34-08 


721 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



riXXD STABS. 



59 



IVue Apparent Piaees &f Tkirty-seven of the Principcd Fixed Stan fir mery 
tenth day of the year. 

Epoch. — The Upper Culmination at Greenwich. 





i90rionl8. 


/3T»urL 
2 


2 


aOriODli. 

1 


(Sinus.) 


1848 


% ■ 


i 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 

} 


i 


1 ■ 


1 


5 


? 


h. 
5 


28 


5 






h. 
5 


e 

7 


6 


1*6 




m. sec. 




m. eeo. 


i II 


m. sec. 


II 


m. sec. 


1 II 


m. sec. 


*. 


Jan. 1 


7 15-40 


22 68-6 


16 4284 


28 161 


24 16-00 


5J4 70-4 


46 6808 


22 13-9 


38 28-60 30 64-8| 


11 


15-38 


68-2 


42'84 


16-5 


16-00 


71-6 


68-10 


131 


28-65 


67-1 


21 


16-31 


606 


42-79 


16-8 


15-05 


72-7 


58-08 


12-4 


28-65 


69-2 


31 


15-21 


70-7 


42-70 


17-2 


15-87 


73-6 


68-01 


11-8 


28 61 


61-1 


Feb. 10 


1607 


71-6 


42-56 


17-4 


15-74 


74-3 


67-91 


11-3 


28-52 


62-8 


20 


14-91 


723 


42-.39 


175 


16-59 


74-9 


57-77 


10-9 


28-39 


64-1 


Mar. 1 


14-73 


72-7 


4219 


17-5 


15-42 


75-3 


67-60 


10-6 


23-23 


66-1 


11 


14-54 


72-9 


41-99 


17-4 


16-24 


75-6 


57-42 


10-5 


2804 


66-8 


21 


14-35 


72-8 


41-73 


17-2 


15-06 


75-5 


57 23 


10-4 


27-85 


66-2 


31 


1417 


72-5 


41-59 


16-8 


14-87 


75-3 


67-05 


10-5 


27-65 


66-2 


Apr. 10 


14-02 


71-9 


41-42 


16-4 


14-71 


76-0 


66-89 


10-7 


27-45 


660 


20 


13-89 


71-0 


41-28 


15-9; 


14-58 


74-4 


66-75 


10-9 


27-27 


65-4 


80 


13-79 


70-0 


41-18 


15-4 


14-48 


73-7 


66-63 


11-3 


27-12 


64-5 


May 10 


13-74 


68-7! 


41-12 


14-9! 


14-42 


72-8 


56-56 


11-8 


26-99 


63-3 


20 


.13-73 
<^ 13-76 


67-2! 


4111 


14-5; 


14-40 


71-8 


66-52 


12-4 


26-90 


61-9 


30 


65-5 


41-16 


14-r 


14-42 


70-6 


66-53 


13-2 


26-84 


60-3 


June 9 


13-84 


63-5! 


.41-26 
^41-40 


137' 


. 14-49 
<^ 14-61 


69-3 


.66-68 
^56-68 


14-0 


26-82 


68*6 


19 


13-96 


61-7 


13-5{ 


67-7 


15-0 


20-85 


66-6 


29 


14-11 


59-7 


41-69 


13-4! 


14-75 


66-2 


56-81 


161 


.26-91 
^27-02 


64-5 


July 9 


14-30 


57-8 


41-81 


13-4 


14-93 


64-7 


56-98 


17-1 


622 


19 


14-52 


55-9 


4206 


13-5i 


1514 


63-2 


67-18 


18-1 


27-16 


60-1 


29 


14-76 


54-2| 


42-34 


13-8 


15-37 


•61-8 


67-40 


19 2' 


27-32 


48-2 


Aug. 8 


15-02 


52-7I 


42-63 


14-o' 


15-62 


60-5 


57-64 


20-l| 


27-52 


46-4 


18 


15-28 


51-4 


42-94 


14-4i 


15-89 


69-4 


57-90 


20-9 


27-74 


44-9 


28 


15-56 


60-4! 


43-26 


14-8| 


16-16 


58-6 


58-17 


21-6 


27-93 


43-6 


Sept 7 


16-84 


49-7! 


43-58 


15-2J 


16-44 


57-9 


68-45 


22-0 


23-23 


^•7 


17 


16-12 


49-3 


43-90 


15-5 


16-72 


57-6 


58-73 


22-3 


28-50 


42-2 


27 


16-39 


49-4 


44-22 


15-9' 


16-99 


67-5 


69-01 


22-4 


28-78 


42*1 


Oct 7 


16-65 


49-8' 


44-53 


16-3 


17-26 


57-8 


59-30 


22-2 


2907 


42-5 


17 


16-90 


50-6, 


44-82 


16-6 


17-52 


68-3 


59-67 


21-8 


29-36 


43-3 


27 


1714 


51-6 


45-10 


17-0 


17-76 


69-1 


69-83 


21-2 


29-63 


44-5 


Nov. 6 


17-36 


53.0 


45-36 


17-3 


17-99 


60-1 


60-08 


20-5 


29-90 


46-1 


16 


17-53 


54-5 


45-60 


17-7 


18-20 


61-3 


60-31 


19-6 


30-16 


48-0 


26 


17-69 


56-2 


45-80 


18-0 


18-37 


62-6 


60-51 


18-6 


30.39 


60-1 


Dec. 6 


17-81 


58-0 


45-96 


18-4 


18-51 


64-0 


60-68 


17-6 


30-59 


62-5 


16 


17-89 


59-81 


46-09 


18-8 


18-62 


65-4 


60-81 


16-7 


30-76 


64-9 


26 


17-93 


61-61 


46-16 


19-3 


1869 


66-7 


60-90 


16-7 


30-88 


67-3 


36 


17-93 


63-1 


46-19 


19-7 


18-70 


67-9 


60-95 


14-9 


30-96 


697 



Digitized 



by Google 



60 



VITMD STARS. 



[18M. 



Drue Apparent Placee of 

Epoch. — The Upper Culmination at Greenwich. 



of ike Principal Fixed Suxre fir eoerjf 
day of the year. 





a^Geminomm. 


aCuiisMinorii. 


/? Gflminonun. 


a^ydz». 


aLeonifl. 




( Caitor.) 


(Proeyon.) 


(Pollux.) 


2 

1 




(Re^.) 




t 


^ I 


1 


^; 


1 


i 


1 


i 


1 


1 


h. 


• 1 


h. 




h. 


o 


h. 




h. 




1848 


7 
m. MC. 


32 1 


7 
m. MC. 


5 

' i> i 


7 
m. sec. 


28 


9 
m. sec. 


8 


10 
m. sec. 


12 


Jan. 1 


34 5618 


12 44-6 


3121*87 


36 26*6 


30 1*93 


22 64-6 


20 8-22 


160 


017-20 


4I17-6 


11 


65-32 


45-1 


21*99 


24-3 


2*08 


64*8 


8*44 


18*2 


17-46 


16-2 


21 


55-40 


45-7 


22*06 


23*3 


217 


651 


8*61 


20-2 


17-67 


16-1 


31 


55-42 


46-5 


2209 


22-4 


2*20 


65*6 


1 8-73 


221 


17*84 


14-3 


Feb. 10 


55*30 


47-3| 


1 22*06 


21-7 


2-18 


66*2 


8*80 


23-8 


17-97 


13-8 


20 


65-31 


43-1 


21*99 


211 


2*11 


66*9 


8-82 


25.3 


18*04 


13-6 


Mar. 1 


65-13 


48-9 


21-88 


20*7 


2*00 


67*5 


8*80 


26*5 


13-06 


13-6 


11 


65-01 


49-6 


21-73 


20*6 


1*84 


68-2 


8-74 


274 


1804 


13-7 


21 


64-82 


60-2 


21-57 


20-5 


1-66 


688 


8-65 


-28*1 


17-98 


140 


31 


64-61 


60-7 


21*40 


20*5 


1-47 


69*2 


8*52 


28-6 


17-89 


14*6 


Apr.lO 


64*40 


610 


21-22 


20-7 


1*27 


69*6 


8*38 


28*8 


17-78 


15-1 


20 


54-20 


51*1 


21-05 


21-0 


1-08 


69^ 


8-23 


28-8 


17-66 


15-7 


30 


54-02 


61*1 


20*90 


21*4 


0-90 


70*0 


8-08 


23-6 


17-61 


16-4 


MaylO 


53-87 


50*9 


20*76 


21-9 


0*75 


70*0 


7*93 


28-2 


17-37 


17-1 


20 


63-76 


50*6 


20-66 


22*4 


0*63 


69*8 


7-80 


27-6 


17-23 


ir7 


30 


53-68 


50*2 


20-69 


23*1 


0*56 


69-6 


7-68 


26-8 


1711 


18-3 


June 9 


53*64 


49-7 


20-55 


23*8 


0-51 


69*3 


7-58 


25-9 


17-00 


18-8 


19 


53*65 


491 


20*56 


24*5 


0*50 


63*9 


7-49 


24-8 


16*91 


19^ 


29 


53*70 


48*4 


20-58 


25*3 


0*54 


68*4 


7*44 


23-7 


16-83 


19H> 


July 9 


.63-79 
<^ 53*94 


47*7 


.20-65 
^20-76 


26*1 


. 0*62 
^ 0*74 


67*9 


7-41 


22-6 


16-79 


39*9 


19 


46*9 


27*0 


67*4 


7*40 


21-2 


16-76 


20"! 


29 


54*11 


46*2 


20-89 


27*8 


0-89 


66*8 


7*42 


200 


16-76 


20*9 


Aug. 8 


54*31 


45-5 


21-05 


28*4 


1*08 


66-2 


««^2 


18-8 


16*78 


20-3 


18 


54*54 


44-7 


21-24 


28-9 


1-29 


6^-6 


17-6 


#16-82 
^16-91 


20-0 


28 


64*79 


43*9 


21-45 


29-3 


1*62 


64-9 


7*67 


16*7 


19-6 


Sept 7 


5507 


43*2 


21-67 


29*5 


1*78 


64*2 


7*81 


16*8 


17-08 


19-0 


17 


66-37 


42-4 


21-92 


29-6 


2-00 


63-5 


7-98 


15*6 


17-16 


18-3 


27 


65*68 


41-6 


22-18 


29-2 


2*36 


62-7 


8*17 


16*5 


17-33 


ir4 


Oct 7 


6601 


40*9 


22-46 


28-7 


2*67 


6r9| 


8*40 


16*7 


17-63 


16-2 


17 


56-35 


40*2 


22*75 


27*9 


300 


61*1 


8*65 


16*2 


17-76 


14*9 


27 


56-70 


39-5 


2304 


26*9 


3.33 


60*3 


8-92 


17*2 


18-02 


13-4 


Nov. 6 


67*04 


38-9 


23-33 


25-7 


3-66 


59-5 


9*22 


18*4 


18-31 


11-8 


16 


67-38 


33-5 


23*62 


24-4 


3*99 


68*8 


9*62 


20*0| 


18-62 


10-0 


26 


57-70 


38*2 


23*89 


23-0 


4-30 


5^*3 


9*83 


21*3 


18-94 


8-2 


Dec. 6 


57-99 


380 


24*15 


21-6 


4-60 


57*9 


10*14 


23*8 


19-26 


6-4 


16 


68-25 


381 


24-37 


20*1 


4*86 


57*6 


10*43 


260 
28*2 


19-67 


4-7 


26 


58-47 


38*3 


24*66 


18*7 


508 


67*6 


10-69 


19-87 


3*1 


36 


58-64 


38*7 


24*70 


17*4 


6*25 


57-7) 


10*93 


30*5 


2015 


1*7 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



FIXBB STARS. 



61 



Ihie Apparent Places cf T^irtv-Beven of the Pr in c ip al Fixed Stars Jor every 
4 tenA day of the year. 

Epodi.— The Upper Culmination at Greenwich. 



1^ 


ZUTMBM^^iOtto. 


^Leonl.. II 


oi^rgliiJi. 1 


aBootto. 


a*Ubm. 




1.2 




2.8 




{S^ 


«.) 


(Arawms.) 


8 






1 


1 


1 


1 


49 


1 


f 


1 


1 

•«2 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


-1 


1 


h. 


• 


h. 




h. 




h. 


e 


h. 


• 


1848 


10 
m. sec. 


62 


11 

m. sec. 


15 


18 
m. sec. 


10 


14 
m. sec. 


19 


14 
m sec. 


15 


Jan. 1 


5418*40 


38 58*1 


41 19*43 


Mfllo-l 


17 11*46 


sfl64*l 


8 43*1158 30 6! 


42 98-282416-41 


11 


18-93 


52^ 


19*74 


6r5 


11*79 


56*1 


43*43 


28-31 


28-53 


16*» 


21 


19-41 


53*6 


19*03 


66-2 


12*10 


68*0 


43*75 


26*4 


28-86 


18*6 


31 


19-81 


651 


19*28 


65*2 


12*40 


50*9 


44*07 


24*9 


29-18 


901 


Feb. 10 


2013 


67-0 


19-50 


64*5 


12.68 


61*7 


44-37 


23-7 


29-49 


21-7 


20 




59-3 


19*67 


64*2 


12*92 


63*3 


44*65 


23*1 


29-78 


83*2 


Mar. 1 


20-49 


61-8 


19-80 


64*2 


13*13 


64*8 


44*90 


22*8 


30-05 


94*5 


11 


20-52 


64-6 


19-88 


64*5 


13-31 


66*0 


45*12 


23*0 




25-7 


21 


20*46 


67-2 


19*92 


65*0 


13*45 


66*9 


45-31 


23*6 


30-58 


26-7 


81 


20-32 


69-9 


19*93 


66*7 


13*55 


67*7 


45*46 


24*5 


39*71 


27*6 


Apr.lO 


20-11 


72*2 


19*90 


66*6 


13*62 


68*2 


45*57 


25*7 


30W 


98-1 


20 


19-85 


74-4 


19*84 


67*6 


13*66 


68*5 


45*65 


27*1 


31-00 


98-6 


80 


19*53 


76-2 


19*76 


68*7 


13*68 


68*6 


45-70 


28*7 


31*10 


28-9 


May 10 


19-19 


7r6 


19*66 


69*7 


13*66 


68*6 


45-72 


30*3 


31*17 


29-1 


20 


18-84 


78-6 


19-55 


70*7 


13-63 


68*6 


45-71 


32*0 


31*22 


29-2 


80 


18-48 


79-1 


19*44 


71*6 


13*58 


68-2 


45-67 


33-6 


31*23 


29-1 


Jane 9 


19-13 


79*1 


19*32 


72*4 


13*50 


67*8 


45-61 


35*1 


31*22 


99-0 


19 


17-81 


78*6 


19*20 


73*0 


13*42 


67*3 


45-53 


36*4 


3118 


98-8 


29 


irsi 


77*7 


19*09 


73*6 


13*32 


66-8 


45-42 


37*6 


31*12 


28*5 


Jnly 9 


17-25 


76*3 


18-99 


73*9 


13*20 


66*2 


45-30 


38*5 


31*08 


261 


19 


17-04 


74*5 


18*89 


74*1 


13*(B 


65-5 


45-16 


39*2 


30*92 


27*7 


29 


16*87 


72*4 


19*80 


74*2 


12*96 


64-8 


45-02 


39*6 


30*79 


27-2 


Aug. 8 


16-76 


69*9 


18-74 


740 


12*84 


641 


44*87 


39*8 


30*65 


96-7 


18 


16*70 


67*2 


18-69 


73-7 


12-72 


63*4 


44-71 


39*6 


30*49 


96-1 


28 


.16-71 
<^ 16-78 


64*2 


18-66 


73*1 


12*62 


68*8 


44-57 


39*2 


30-34 


95-6 


Sept 7 


60*8 


.18-66 
^18-70 


72-3 


12*53 


62*2 


44*43 


38*5 


30-20 


95*0 


17 


16*98 


67*6 


71-2 


12*47 


61*8 


44-31 


37*5 


30*07 


24*6 


27 


17*13 


54*3 


18*77 


70*0 


12*44 


61*5 


44-22 


361 


29-96 


94*0 


Oct 7 


17*41 


5in 


18-88 


68*5 


. 12*45 
^12*51 


61*4 


44*17 


34*5 


29*89 


93*7 


17 


ir75 


49*0 


19 03 


66*8 


61*5 


.441.'5 
<^ 44*19 


32-6 


29-86 


93*5 


27 


1816 


451 


19-21 


64*9 


12*61 


61*9 


30-3 


.29-87 
^29 94 


23-5 


Nov. 6 


1802 


42*4 


19-44 


62*9 


12*76 


62*6 


44*27 


27'9 


23 7 


16 


19*14 


40*0 


19-70 


60*8 


12-95 


63*6 


44*40 


25-4 


30*06 


94*1 


26 


*lb*70 


38*1 


19-99 


58-6 


13*18 


64*8 


44*56 


22-7 


30*22 


24*8 


Dec. 6 


20*29 


36*6 


20'31 


56*4 


13*45 


66*3 


44*80 


20-0 


30*44 


85*7 


16 


20*88 


35*6 


20-63 


54*3 


13-75 


66*0 


45*06 


17-3 


30 69 


96-9 


26 


21*47 


35*2 


20-96 


52*3 


14*07 


69*9 


45*96 


14-7 


30*97 


9^-9 


86 


1 22*03 


35*3 


2128 


50*6 


14*39 


71*8 


45-67 


12-4 


31«» 


99*7 



Digitized 



by Google 



%% 



VIXBD SgPABA* 



[1848. 



True Apparent Places a/ Thirtv-aeven of the Prindpai Fixed Stare far every 
tenth day of the year. ^ 

Epoch. — The Upper Calmination at Greenwich. 





8 


i^LibnB. 
2.3 


aCoronnBore- 
aiis. 


aSerpentis. 
2S 


/3^ Soorpionis. 


1848 


i 


1 

i 


1 


1 


Right Afic 
Deo. North. 


1 


1 


4 


i 


h. 
14 


e 

74 


h. 
15 


8 


h. 
15 


2V 


h. 
15 


6 


h. 
15 


1I9 




m. sec. 


1 ii 


m. sec. 




m. sec. 
j28 14-02 


, ,, 


m. sec. 


1 it 


m. sec. 


. *i 


Jan, 1 


51 8-05 


46 24 9 


8 49-33 


48OT-3 


13 44*9 


36 4611 


54 31-2 


56 35-60 


23 540 


11 


8-83 


22-6 


49*63 


69-9 


14-31 


42-3 


46-38 


29-1 


35*78 


55-0 


21 


9-67 


20-9 


49-94 


61-5 


14-61 


401 


46-67 


27-2 


36*09 


561 


81 


10-56 


19-9 


60-25 


63-0 


14-93 


38-3 


46-97 


25-5 


36-40 


67*2 


Feb. 10 


11-46 


19-5 


60-56 


64-5 


15-26 


36-9 


47-27 


241 


36*72 


58-3 


20 


12-34 


19-8 


50-85 


65-8 


15*57 


36-0 


47*57 


23-0 


37-04 


60*4 


Mar. 1 


13-16 


20-8 


61-13 


66-8 


15-87 


35-6 


47*86 


22-2 


37-36 


60-4 


11 


13-91 


22-4 


51-39 


67-7 


16-15 


35-8 


48-11 


21-8; 


37-64 


61*4 


21 


14-55 


24-5 


61-62 


68-4 


16-41 


36-4 


48-36 


21*7 


37-91 


62-3 


31 


15-07 


270 


51-82 


68-8| 


16-64 


37-5 


48*58 


22-0 


38-16 


62-3 


Apr.lO 


' 15-4^ 


29-9 


52-00 


690| 


16-83 


39-0 


48-78 


22-6 


38-39 


63-4 


20 


15-70 


33-0 


5-2-15 


69-Oi 


17-00 


40-3; 


48-95 


23-5 


38-60 


63-8 


30 


15-80 


36-2 


62-28 


68-9 


17*13 


42-8i 


49-09 


24-6 


38*77 


64*1 


May 10 


15-76 


39-4 


52-37 


68-7 


17-22 


45-0 


49^ 


25-8 


38*92 


64*3 


20 


15-68 


42-5 


52-44 


68-31 


17-28 


47-3 


49-28 


27-1 


39-04 


64-5 


30 


15-27 


45-3 


52-47 


67-8 


17-31 


49-5; 


49-34 


28-4 


39-13 


64-6 


June 9| 14-84 


47-9 


52-48 


67-3 


17-30 


61-7| 


49-36 


29-8 


39-19 


64*6 


19 


14-32 


60-0 


52-46 


66-8: 


17-26 


53-7! 


49-35 


31-1 


39-21 


64-6 


29 


13-70 


51-8 


62-42 


66-3 


17-19 


65-6 


49-31 


312-3: 


39-20 


64*5 


July 9 


13-01 


53-0 


62-34 


65-7' 


17-09 


57-1 


49*25 


a3-4 


39-15 


64-4 


19 


12-27 


538 


62-24 


65'2i 


16-90 


58-4 


49*15 


34-4 


39*07 


64-2 


29, 11-50 


64-1 


521-2 


64-7 


16-80 


69-4 


4903 


36*2 


.38-96 


640 


Aug. 8 


10-70 


5:3-8 


61-93 


64-2 


16-63 


60-1 


43-89 


35-8J 


38-82 


63*8 


18 


9-90 


630 


51-83 


63-7 


16-45 


60-4; 


43-74 


36-3 


38-67 


63*5 


28 


9-12 


51-6 


51-67 


63-3 


16-25 


60-3 


48-58 


36-5 


33-50 


63*1 


Sept 7 


8-38 


49-8 


51-52 


63-0 


16-06 


69-9- 


48-41 


36-5 


38-32 


62-7 


17 


7-70 


47-5 


51-39 


62-8 


15-88 


591! 


48-25 


36*3 


38-15 


62*3 


27i 7-10 


44-9 


51-26 


62-6 


15-71 


57-9, 


48*11 


35-9 


3800 


61*9 


Oct 7 


6-59 


41-8 


6117 


62-6 


15-57 


66-3 


47-99 


35-2 


37-86 


61-5 


17 


6-19 


38.5 


61-11 


62-8 


15-47 


64-6; 


47-90 


34-3 


37-76 


61*2 


271 . 5-92 
Nov. 6,<^ 6-79 


34-9 


51*09 


63.1 


15-41 


52-3 


47*86 


331' 


37*70 


60*9 


30-7 


,5113 
<^ 51*22 


63-7 


, 15-39 
^ 15-44 


49-8 


/ 47-96 
^47-91 


31-7 


37*69 


60*8 


16 


583 


26-9 


64-5 


46-9 


29-9 


#37*73 
^37*84 


60*8 


26 


6-02 


23-2 


61-36 


65-5 


15-53 


44-0 


48-01 


28-1 1 


61-1 


Dec. 6 


6-37 


19-5 


61-54 


66-7 


15-68 


41-1 


48*16 


26-1 


3r99 


61*5 


16 


6*86 


16-1 


61-76 


68-1 


15-88 


38-1 


48*36 


24*0 


38*18 


62*1 


26 


7*48 


13-1 


62-02 


69-6 


16-12 


35-2 


48-68 


21*8 


38*42 


62*9 


36 


8-21 


10-6 


82-31 


71-2 


16-40 


32-5 


48-64 


19-7 


38*69 


63.8 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



FIXED STASfl. 



68 



TVue Apparent Places of Thirty'teven of the Principal Fixed Start for every 
tenm day of the year. 

Epoch. — The Upper Colmination at Greenwich. 



1848 


(Antares.y 

i 1 


a Ophiuchl. 
2 

1. 1 

1 i 


flLyrae. 

( Vega ) 

i i 


S AauilK. 
3.4 

^ 1 

i 1 


flAquilsB. 
(Aluzn.) 

n 

1 1 


h. 

16 


26 


h. 
17 


12 


h. 
18 


88 


h 
19 



2 


h, 
19 


e 

8 




m. sec. 


1 


m. sec. 


1 


m. sec. 


1 


m. sec. 


1 


m. sec. 




Jan. 1 


20 4-75 


5 9-4 


27 51-52 


40 a!6-5 


31 45-85 


33 50-4' 


17 48-74 
48-84 


43 66-8 


43 20*77 


28 24-0 


11 


503 


9-9 


51-71 


34-3 


45-99 


47-3 


64-3 


.20-83 
^20-93 


22-3 


21 


5-34 


10*6 


61-93 


32-2 


46-15 


44-2' 


48-96 


62-9 


20-5 


31 


6-66 


11-3 


52-17 


30-3 


46-36 


41-4; 


4912 


61-6 


21-06 


19-0 


Feb. 10 


5-99 


12-2 


62-44 


28-7 


46-60 


38-9' 


49-30 


60-4 


21-22 


17-6 


' 20 


6-32 


130 


52-72 


27-4 


46-87 


36-9 


49-51 


59-5 


21-41 


16-5 


Mar. 1 


6-65 


13-9 


53-00 


26-5 


4717 


35-3' 


49-75 


68-9 


21-62 


15-6 


11 


6-96 


14-8 


63 28 


26-0 


47-48 


34-3 


50-00 


58-5 


21-86 


15-0 


21 


7*26 


15-6 


53-57 


25-9 


47-81 


33-8 


50-26 


58-4 


22-11 


14-8 


31 


7-54 


16-3 


53-84 


26.3 


48-14 


34-0 


60*54 


58-7 


22-38 


15-0 


Apr.lO 


7-80 


17-0 


54-11 


27-0 


48-47 


34-7 


50-82 


59-3 


22-66 


15-6 


20 


8-04 


17-6 


64-35 


28-1 


48-79 


36-0 


51-10 


60-2 


22-95 


16-5 


30 


8-25 


18*2 


64-58 


29-5 


49-09 


37-8 


6138 


61-3 


23-23 


17-7 


May 10 


8-43 


18-7 


64-79 


31-1 


49-37 


400 


61*66 


62-7 


23-52 


19-2 


20 


8-58 


19-1 


64-97 


32-9 


49-62 


42-5' 


61-92 


64-2 


23-79 


20-9 


80 


8-70 


19-6 


65-12 


34*8 


49-83 


45-3; 


5216 


65-9 


24-05 


22*9 


June 9 


8-78 


19-9 


55-24 


36-7 


60-01 


48-3 


52-37 


67-6 


24-28 


24-8 


19 


8-82 


20-3 


55-32 


38-6 


50-14 


61-3 


62-56 


69-3 


24-49 


26-8 


29 


8-83 


20-6 


55-37 


40*6 


50-22 


64-4 


52-71 


71-0 


24-60 


28-8 


July 9 


8-80 


20*8 


55-38 


42-2 


50-25 


57-3 


62-83 


72-6 


24-79 


30-7 


19 


8-73 


20-9 


65-35 


43-8 


50-24 


60-1 


62-90 


74-1 


24-88 


326 


29 


8e2 


21*0 


55-28 


45-2 


50-17 


62-7 


62-93 


75-4 


24-93 


34-3 


Aug. 8 


8-49 


21-0 


65-17 


46-3 


50-06 


65-0 


52-92 


76-5 


24-93 


36-8 


18 


8-33 


20.9 


55-04 


47-2 


49-90 


67-0 


52-86 


77-5 


-24-89 


37-1 


28 


8-15 


20-7 


54-88 


47-9 


49-71 


68-6 


82-76 


78-2 


24-81 


38-2 


Sept 7 


7-96 


20-4 


64-70 


48-3 


49-48 


69-8 


62-64 


78-8 


24-70 


39-0 


17 


7-77 


19-9 


64-51 


4S-4 


49-23 


70-6 


52-49 


79-2 


24-56 


39-6 


27 


7-60 


19-4 


64-31 


48-2 


48-97 


fro 


52-31 


79-3 


24-39 


MO-0 


Oct 7 


7-44 


18-9 


64*13 


47-8 


48-71 


70-9 


52-13 


79-3 


24-22 


40-1 


17 


7-32 


18-3 


63-97 


470 


48-45 


7O-3I 


61-95 


79-0 


2404 


40-0 


27 


7-24 


17-8 


63-83 


46-0 


43-21 


69-2 


51-79 


78*6 


23-86 


39-6 


Nov. 6 


7-20 


17-3 


53-73 


44-7 


48-00 


67-7 


51-64 


77-9 


23-70 


3S'9 


16 


^ 7-30 


16-9 


53-66 


43-1 


47-83 


65-8 


51-51 


77-1 


23-56 


38-1 


26 


16-6 


63-65 


41-3 


47-71 


63-5 


51*42 


76*1 


23-45 


37-0 


Dec. 6 


7-44 


16*5 


.5368 
^63-76 


39-3 


47-63 


60-8 


61-37 


75*0 


23-38 


35-7 


16 


7*02 


16-6 


36-9 


.47-60 
^47-63 


57-9 


51-35 


73*7 


23-34 


34-3 


26 


7-85 


16-9 


. 63-89 


34-7 


54-8 


61-38 


72*3 


23-34 


32-7 


86 


8-11 


17-4 


54-06 


32-4 


47-71 


61-4 


51-45 


70*9 


23-38 


310 



Digitized 



by Google 



64 rixsi> iTAfts. [lb4S. 

DrmApparmi PUiem of 2%irUf'mvm cf tJ^ ProKipal f\iad Stan fm- ev^ 
tmtk day of Ike year. 

The EpodL — Upper Culmination at Greenwidi. 





«Cy 


PH. 


aOnM, 


. a^^ 1 


aPkcJLaatEalii. 
{FowuMaut.) 


(Matlmb.) 






i 1 

e 


i 

h. 


1 

1 


1 1 
' 1 

h. 


i 

> ' ! 


? 


1 


i 


1 

1 


h. 


' „ 


b. 




1848 


20 
m. sec. 


44 


21 

m. tec. 


61 


21 
m. MC. 


' ' ; 


22 
m. sec. 


, 30 


\ 22 
m. sec. 


14 


Jan. 1 


36 13-81 44 36-6i 14 fiS'S? 56 61-9 57 57-661 2 73-4 49 13*35 25 40-71 


57 11-18|S3a5^| 


11 


13-76 


33*71 


66-35 


49-2 


1 67*61 


79*2 


1 13-25 


40*3 


U-08 
11-00 


241 


21 


.13-75 
^13-80 


30-7 


66*21 


46*2 


j 67-68 


80-0, 


1 13-17 


39*7! 


22-8 


31 


27-4! 


.6614 
^6516 


430 


67-56 


80*7 


13*11 


38-8, 


10-94 


21-5 


Feb. 10 


13*90 


2441 


39-4 


* 57-61 
<^ 67*68 


81*3, 


1 13*09 


37-7 


1 10*90 


20*1 


20 


1404 


21-7 


65-27 


36-2 


81*9 


: 13*10 


36-3{ 
34*7 


10-89 


18-9 


Mar. 1 


14*24 


19-3! 


65-45 


33-2 


67-77 


88-1 


1 .13*16 
<^ 13*24 


<^ 10-90 


17-8 


11 


14-4- 


17-3 


65*71 


305 


; 67*90 


82*1 


32*8 


16-8 


21 


14*75 


15-6 


66*04 


28-3 


, 6805 


81*9, 


13-37 


30*8 


U-09 


16-2 


31 


1506 


14-8 


, 66*44 


26-6 


69-24 


81-3 


13*63 


28*8 


11-23 


15*9 


Apr.lO 


15-40 


14-4, 


66-88 


25-4 


; 63-46 


80-6 


13-73 


26*6 


11-40 


15*9 


20 


15*75 


14-6 


57*36 


&4-8 


j 68*71 


79-5 


13-96 


24-4 


11-61 


16-2 


30 


16*12 


15-3 


67*87 


24*9 


! 68*97 


78*2 


14*23 


22-2 


11-85 


16-9 


May 10 


16*48 


16-7 


58-38 


25*6 


' 69*26 


76-7 


14*63 


200 


12-12 


18H) 


20 


16-83 


18-5 


68*88 


26-S 


69-55 


75-0 


14*85 


18*0 


12-41 


19-3 


30 


17*17 


20-7 


69-38 


29*6 


69-85 


73-2 


16-18 


16-1 


12-78 


21-0 


June 9 


17*48 


23-3 


59*33 


30*9 


i 00-15 


71*4 


16*62 


14*4 


13-03 


22-9 


19 


17*76 


26-2 


60*24 


33-6 


60*44 


69-5 


16*86 


12*9 


13-33 


24-9 


29 


17-99 


29-4| 


60*60 


36-7 


60*71 


67*6 


16*20 


11*7 


13-63 


271 


July 9 


18*17 


a 


60*88 


40*0 


. 60-96 


65*9 


16*51 


10-8 


13*91 


89-3 


19 


18*30 


61*09 


43*4 


61*17 


64*2 


16*79 


10*3 


14-16 


31-6 


29 


18*37 


39-2 


61*23 


4ro 


, 61-34 


62-8 


1704 


10-2 


14-38 


33-S 


Aug. 8 


18*30 


42-3| 


61*28 


60-6 


61*48 


61-5 


17*25 


10-3 


14-56 


35-9 


18 


18*35 


45-3i 


61*26 


64-1 


1 61*57 


60*4 


17-41 


10-8 


14-70 


37-8 


28 


1825 


48.l| 


61*15 


67-4 


61*61 


695 


17*52 


11*6 


14-80 


39*6 


Sept 7 


18-11 


60-5| 


60*97 


60*6 


61*62 


68*9 


17-50 


12-7 


14-86 


41-2 


17 


17*92 


52*6 


60*73 


63-5 


61*58 


58*5 


17*60 


13-9 


14-88 


42-6 


27 


17*70 


54-3 


60*43 


060 


61*51 


68-3 


17*57 


15-3 


14-8Q 


43*7 


Oct 7 


17*45 


55-6 


60*08 


681 


61*41 


68*3 


17*51 


16-7 


14-81 


44-6 


17 


17*19 


66-5 


69*60 


60-ti 


61*29 


68*5 


17-40 


18*2 


14-73 


45-2 


27 


16-92 


66-8 


69*27 


70*9 


61*16 


68*8 


17-27 


19-6 


14-63 


45-6 


Nov. 6 


16*65 


66-7 


68*85 


71-6 


61*02 


69-2 


17*13 


20-9 


14-51 


45-7 


16 


16*39 


53-0 


63*42 


71*7 


60*87 


69-8 


16*97 


22-0 


14-33 


45-5 


26 


16-16 


64*9 


66-00 


71*2 


1 60-74 


60-4 


16*81 


22-9 


14-25 


45-2 


Dec. 6 


15*95 


63-3 


57*61 


70*1 


60*61 


61-2 


16-65 


23.6 


1411 


44-6 


16 


16*78 


61*2 


57*26 


68*5 


1 60*50 


62-0 


16-50 


24-0 


13-98 


43-8 


26 


15-65 


43*8 


66*95 


66'3 


60-41 


ftJ-8 


16*37 


24-1 


13-96 


42-8 


36 


16*67 


46-1 


66*70 


63*8 


60-35 


63-7 


16*25 


23-9 


13-75 


41-7 



Digitized 



by Google 



1846.] 



DR. TODKO'S 'EB7BACT10N8. 



65 



Dr, Ycvn^s JRefracdom^ the Barometer being at 30 inches^ and the intemaj 
Thermometer at 50, or the external at 47, degrees ; with the corrections for + 
one inch in the barometer^ and for — one degree in the thermometer of Fahren- 
heit, From page 19 of Vol. 1st ofPearson^s Practical Astronomy. 





^ . 


+ 


1 






1 


1 




PQ ^ 




U 1 

1 1 




ft 


+ 


1 


i 


«s 


S 


1. 


i 


^ 


^ . 


i 


s 


^.' 


i 


1 




1 


1^ 


i'' 


^& 


1 


r 


r 


%^ 


< 


i^ 


r 


5 


g 

^ 

— 


i^ 


H" 


!« 


e f 


1 n 


»i 


II 


1 


/ II 


w 


II 


" 1 


1 n 


H 


II 




1 II 


ff 


II 


0.0 


33.51 


74 


8,1 


3.0 


14.35 30 


2,3 


8. 


6.35 


13,3 


,86 


14.0 


3.49,9 


7,70 


,m 


5 


32.53 


71 


7,6 


5 


1419 29 


2,2 


10 


6.28 


13,1 


,83 


10 3.47,1 


7,61 


,464 


IC 


u.5e 


69 


7,3 


10 


14. 4 29 


2,2 


20 


6.21 


12,8 


,82 


203.44,4 


7,62 


,458 


15 


31. 5 


67 


7,0 


16 


13.50 28 


2,1 


30 


6.14 


12,6 


,80 


303.41,8 


7,43 


,453 


20 


i0.13 


65 


6,7 


20 


13.35 28 


2,1 


40 


6. 7 


12,3 


,79 


403.39,2|7,34 


,443 


25 


29.24 


63 


6,4 


25 


13.2127 


2,0 


50 


6. 


12,1 


,77 


60.3.36,7j7,26 


,444 


30 


28.37 


61 


6,1 


30 


13. 7 27 


2,0 


9.0 


6.64 


11,9 


,76 


15. 


3.34,37,18 


,43» 


35127.61 


69 


6,9 


35 


12.53 126 


2,0 


10 


6.47 


11,7 


,74 


30 3.27,3j6,95 


,424 


40 27. 6 


68 


5,6 


40 


12.41,26 


1,9 


20 


5.41 


11,6 


,73 


16. 3J20,6 6,73 


,411 


4526.24 


56 


5,4 


45 


12.28 25 


1,9 


30 


5.36 


11,3 


,72 


30 3.14,4 6,51 


,399 


50 25.43 


55 


6,1 


60 


12.16 25 


1,9 


40 


5.30 


11,1 


,71 


17. 3. 8,5 6,31 


,336 


55 25.03 


53 


4,9 


56 


12. 3 25 


1,9 


£0 


5.25 


n^ 


,70 


30 3. 2,9;6,12 


,374 


1. 024.25 


52 


4,7 


iTo 


11.52 24,1 


VTO 


10. 


5.20 


10,8 


,69 ! 18. 


2.57,6|5,94 


,362 


623.43 


60 


4,6 


10 


11.30 23,4 


1,64 1 


to 


516 


10,6 


,67 I 19 


2.47,76,61 


,340 


1023.13 


49 


4,6 


20 


11.10 22,7 


1,58: 


20 


5.10 


10,4 


,65'|20 


2.38y7j6,31 


,388 


1522.40 


48 


4,4 


30 


10.50|22,0 


1,53 


30 


6. 5 


10,2 


,64 


21 


2.30,5 5,04 


,306 


2022.8 


46 


4;2 


40 


10.3221,3 


1,43! 


40 


5. 


10,1 


,63 


22 


2.23,24,79 


,200 


2521.37 


46 


4,0 


60 


10.15 20,7 


1,43' 


60 


4.56 


9,9 


,62 


23 


2.16,54,57 


,876 


30'21. 7 


44 


3,9 


HTo 


9.58 20,1 


1,38 1 


11. 


4.61 


9,8 


,60 


24 


2.10,1 


4,35 


,264 


3520.38 


43 


3,8 


10 


9.4219,6 


1,34 


10 


4.47 


9,6 


,59 


25 


2. 4,2;4,16 


,858 


40.-20.10 


42 


3,6 


20 


9.2719,1 


1,30 


20 


4.43 


9,5 


,58 


26 


1.58,83,97 


,241 


4519.43 


40 


3,5 


30 


9.1118,6 


1,26 


30 


4.39 


9,4 


,57 


27 


1.53,8 3,81 


,830 


60^19.17 


39 


3,4 


40 


8.58 18,1 


1,22 


40 


4.36 


9,2 


,56 


28 


1.49,13,65 


,819 


6519.62 


39 


3,3 


60 


8.45'l7,6 


1,19 


60 


4.31 


9,1 


,65 


29 


1.44,7,3,50 


,809 


2. 18.29 


33 


3,2 


6. 


8.3217,2 


1,15 


12. 


4.28,1 9,00 ,866 


30 


1.40,63,36 


,201 


618. 6 


37 


3,1 


1 10 


8.2016,8 


1,11 


10 


4.24,48,86 ,648 


31 


1.36,63,23 


,193 


1017.43 


36 


3,0 ' 20 


8. 9 16,4 


1,09 


20 


4.20,9 8,74 ,641 


32 


1.33,03,11 


,180 


15.17.21 


36 


2,9 1 30 


7.6816,0 


1,06 


30 


4.17,3 8,63 ,533 


33 


1.29,5 2,99 


,179 


20 17. 


36 


2,8 40 


7.4715,7 


1,03 


40 


4.13,9'8,51 ,524 


!34 


1.26,12,88 


,173 


25 16.40 


34 


2,8 1 50 


7.3715.3 


1,00 


60 


410,7'8,41 ,517 


|35 


1.23,0 2,78 


,167 








1 — — 














3016.21 


33 


2,7 ,7. 


7.2715,0 


,98 


13. 


4. 7,5 8,30 ,509 


36 


1.20,02,68 


,161 


3516. 2 


33 


2,7 


10 


7.1714,6 


95 


10 


4. 4,4*8,20 'J503 


37 


1.17,12,58 


,155 


4o|l5.43 


32 


2,6 


20 


7. 814,3 


,88 


20 


4.1,4'8,10',496 


38 


1.14,42,49 


,149 


4515.25 


32 


2,6 


30 


6.6914,1 


,91 


30 


3.56,4 8,00 ,490 


39 


1.11,82,40 


,144 


50 15. 8 


31 


2,* 


40 


6.61 13,8 
6.4313,6 


,89 


40 


3.66,6 7,89 ,482 
3.62,6^7,79 ,476 


40 


1. 9,3 2,32 


,139 


56,14.51 


30 


2,31 


50 


1,871 


50 


41 


1. 6,9,2,24 


,134 



6* 



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66 



BUa'l riEALLAX 111 ALTITODK. 



11848; 



ThbU of Rrfraetkmg, eoiUiimed. 



' h" 


rr 1 1 






- u '1 i 

+ i7 i J 


8 


^\- 


a - 

; . . + 


1 


1^ "4 


^ ^, 


i 


«fe 


^ i.'JI 




i 'i. 


5 -s^ 


^. 


ii«^-:i*i 


< 


lg 


i^i^ii 


I^r 


f 


•$t^^'i' 


• ;i, i»| n 1 i» 1; • 


I* 


" ' 1* 


• : 


V 


If 


f 


• •• <i ' n 


42 1. 4 6V« )^»> 


55 


40,8 


1,36,082 


67 i 


84,7 


,83 


,OB0 


■n 11,S ,38,00 


43 ^. 2,4 2,» ,125 11 56 


39,3 


1,31 079 


68 


23,5 


,■»> 


,047 


80 , 10,2,,84;,0«1 


44 


1.0,32,02 1,120 


57 


37,8 


1,26 ,076 


60 


22,4 


,1i 


,045 


81 1 9,9, ,31 


,018 


45 


56.1 1,05 ,116 


56 


36,4 1,22 1,073 


70 


21,2 


,71 


,043 8» 1 8,2 ,S7 


,016 


46 


56,l|l,88 ,112 


59 


35,0 


1,17 i.070 1 


71 


10,9 


,67 


,040 83 1 7,1 ,S4 1,014 1 


47 


54^,1,91 1,108 


60 


33,6 


1,12 1,067 1 


72 


18,8 


,63 


,008 


84 6,1 ,90 ,0U 


49 


52,31,75 ;,104 


61 


32;} 


1,08 ,065 


73 


17,7! ,59 


,036 


85 S,l ,17 ,010 


49 


50,5 1,69 ,101 


62 


31,0 


1,04 1,062 


74 


16,6 


,» 


,033 


86 


4,1 ,14;,OOB 


50 


48,8'l,63 


,097 


63 


29,7 


,99,060 


75 


15,5 


,« 


,031 


87 


3,1 


,10,006 


51 


47,11,58 


,004 


64 


28,4 


,95,057 


76 


IM 


,« 


,0» 


88 


a,(i 


,07,004 


52 


45,4;i,62 


,090 


65 


27,2 


,91,055 


77 


13,4 


,« 


,027 


89 


1,0 


,03,009 


53 


43,81,47 


,088 


66 


25,0 


,87,052 


7d 


12,3 


,« 


,025 


90 


0,0 


,00,000 


54 


42,2 1,41 


,085 


67 


24,7 


,83 ,050 


79 


11,2 


,38 


,m\ < 





The correction for an increase of altitude of one inch in the barometer, or 
for a depression of one degree in the thermometer, is to be added to the tab- 
ular refraction : but when the barometer is lower than 30 inches, or the 
thermometer higher than 47 depees, the correction becomes suUractive. 

When ereat accuracy is required, 0,003 inch should be deducted from the 
observed height of the barometer, for each degree that the thermometer near 
it is above 50 degrees, and the same quantity added for an equal depression. 



A Table of the SurCs Parallax in Altitude. 



Son's 
Altit. 

• 



Son's Horiiontal ParalUz. 


Son's 
AlUt. 


Son's Horiiontal Parallax. 


8!4 


8.5 


ae 


8.7 
8.70 


8.8 1 


e 

45 


6A 


8.5 


s'.i 


8.7 


8^8 


8.40 


8.50 


8.60 


8.80 


5.94 


6.01 


6.08 


6.15 


6.22 


5 


8.37 


8.47 


8.57 


8.67 


8.77 


50 


5.40 


5.46 


5.53 


5.50 


5.66 


10 


8.27 


8.37 


8.47 


8.57 


8.67 ; 


55 


4.89 


4.88 


4.93 


4.99 


5.05 


15 


8.11 


8.21 


8.31 


8.40 


8.50 ! 


60 


4.20 


4.25 


4.30 


4.35 


4.40 


20 


7.89 


7.99 


8.08 


8.18 


8.27 1 


66 


3.55 


3.59 


3.63 


3.68 


3.72 


as 


7.61 


7.70 


7.79 


7.88 


7.98' 


70 


2.87 


2.91 


2.94 


2.96 


3.01 


30 


7.28 


7.36 


7.45 


7.53 


7.62 


75 


2.17 


2.20 


2.23 


2.25 


8J26 


35 


6.83 


6.96 


7.04 


7.13 


7J21 


80 


1.46 


1.48 


1.49 


1.51 


1.63 


40 


6.44 


6.51 


6.59 


6.66 


6.74 


85 


0.73 


0.74 


0.75 


0.76 


0.77 


45 


5.94 


6.01 


6.08 


6.15 


6.22 


90 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


aoo 



Logarithm for conrerting Sidereal into Mean Solar Time 4- 9.9988126. 
" " " Mean Solar into Sidereal Time 4-0.0011874. 

A second of time, at the Equator, contains 1521 feet. 



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1848.] TH£ WA8HI1IGTON OBSBBTATOKT. 67 

THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL OBSERVATORY AT 
WASHINGTON. 

Lietd. M. F. Maury, A.M., Superintendent. 

This institution was founded in 1842, under an act of Congress appro- 
priating a sum of money to erect a Depot for the Charts and Instruments 
of the Navy of the United States, whence our public vessels might be 
suitably supplied with the nautical works requisite for their safe navigation. 
The site of the observatory is a beautiful one, commanding a fine view of 
Georgetown, Washington, Alexandria, Fort Washington (opposite Mount 
Vernon), and the Potomac River for several miles above and below the 
city. It occupies University Square, a plot of ground comprising seren- 
teen acres, in the suburbs of Washington, on the left bank of the Potomac, 
and about one hundred feet above tide water. This was a reservation made 
by General Washington for the site of a great university. The observa- 
tory, however, is a Naval Institution, conducted entirely by naval officers, 
under the direction of Lieut M. F. Maury, A.M, as principal superintendent. 
The law requires that the superintendent or director shall be either a 
Lieutenant, Commander, or Captain in the Navy of the United States. 

The main building is of brick, fifty feet square, and two stories in height, 
surmounted by a revolving dome of twenty feet diameter in the dear, in 
which is placed the lai^e equatorial, a splendid instrument, from the manu- 
factory of Merz & Mahler, Munich. Attached to the main building, as 
observing rooms, are wings extending eighteen feet to the east and west, 
and a projection of thirty-six feet (in two apartments) to the south. The 
observatory is furnished with a set of excellent astronomical instruments, 
consisting, 1, Of the large refractor, in the dome already alluded to, of 14j^- 
feet focal length, with an object glass having 9| inches clear aperture ; it is 
equatorially mounted, and furnished with clock work. 2. A transit instru- 
ment of 7.1 feet focal length, and 5.3 inches clear aperture ; made by Ertel 
& Son, Munich, and mounted on the meridian in the west wing, where 
there is also a clock with a mercurial pendulum, made by Parkinson & 
Frodsham. In the east wing is, 3. a meridian circle, by the same makers ; 
its object glass having 3.8 inches aperture, with a focal distance of 4.9 feet 
This instrument is provided with a 30 inch circle, divided into arcs of 3', and 
read to seconds and tenths by four microscopes. A few feet from this, in 
the same room, stands, 4. the elegant mural circle, an English instrument, 
by Troughton & Sims, of 5 feet diameter, divided into arcs of 5' value, 
and famished with six reading microscopes, with which subdivisions of the 
circle are obtained in seconds and parts of seconds. The object glass of 
the telescope is of the same size with that of the meridian circle, with a 
focal length of 5 feet ; the dock has a mercurial pendulum, and was made 
by Charies Frodsham. 



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ee THE WA8H1H0T01I OBSBBVATCntT. [1B48« 

In the south wing, first apartment, is, 5. the fine transit instniment made 
by Pistor & Martins, of Berlin, for the prime vertical. It is monnted at one 
end of its axis, and outside of its supports. It is reversed from one to the 
other side of these twice daring every observation ; and though it weighs up- 
wards of 1,000 pounds, so perfect is its system of counterpoises and the re- 
rersing apparatus, that a child can lift it from its Ts, reverse and replace it 
in them in less than one minnte. The focal length of this telescope is 6.5 
feet, with a clear aperture of 4.9 inches ; the clock has a gridiron pendulum, 
and is of Charles Frodsham^s make. 

The observations made with instruments thus mounted, are among the 
most accurate known in astronomy ; and those now making in Washington 
have not been surpassed by any at the oldest observatories in Europe. The 
accordance of the resulting declinations is such that it is believed that there 
is not a single one made during the whole of the last year, which difiers as 
much as 1" from the mean of all the others upon the same star. A cata- 
logue of all the stars within the reach of this instrument has been already 
commenced at the national observatory, which, when completed, will be re- 
garded by astronomers as a standard work ; and perhaps as the most accu- 
rate catalogue that has ever appeared. A careful revision of this catalogue, 
in after years, will probably lead to highly valuable and interesting results. 

But wonderful as is the degree of accuracy in the results obtained from 
this instrument, Lieut. Maury has discovered imperfections in it which 
he has sought to correct by another. For this purpose he furnished Messrs. 
Ertel & Son with plans and drawings of an improved instrument, which 
has been lately received at the observatory ; and which we understand those 
skillful makers pronounce to be the most complete astronomical instrument 
that they have ever made. It is intended to be mounted temporarily in the 
prime vertical in the other apartment of the south wing. But after it has 
been applied in this direction to the investigation of the several problems 
which are connected with its position east and west, it is then to be turned 
permanently on the meridian, where it will be used for observations upon 
atmospherical refractions, parallax, etc., and for the purpose of determin- 
ing both right ascensions and declinations, since it combines all the capaci- 
ties both of the meridian transit instrument and the mural circle. But as 
it is the first instrument ever procured in this country for the purpose of 
investigating the subject of atmospherical refractions, Lieut Maury has 
called it the " Refraction Circle,** though its objects and uses are by no 
means confined to this subject alone. For instance, in the meridian it is 
both a mural and a transit instrument, and by reason of its facilities for 
reversal, a zenith sector; also, it is well adapted for measuring the difference, 
in zenith distance, between north and south stars. In the prime vertical it 
becomes an improved zenith sector, and takes the place of the prime verti- 
cal transit instrument, with all the advantages superadded of an altitude 
instrument in that direction* 



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1848.] TUB WASHINGTON OBSKKVATOKT. 69 

We have not been able to obtain accurate measurements of all parts of 
this instrument The telescope is 8^ feet long, with a dear aperture of 7 
indies. It is supported in the middle of the axis, between two piers ; it has 
two 4 feet circles, one on each end of the axis, divided on gold into arcs of 
2' value. Each circle is provided with six reading microscopes. The tel- 
escope has two micrometers, one moving in azimuth, the other in altitude. 
It is so contrived that the wires, and not the field, are illuminated ; and 
every eye-piece, even of the highest powers, just as it is used, and without al- 
teration of any kind, becomes a collimating eye-piece, by simply turning the 
telescope down upon a basin of mercury. At one end of the axis, and concen- 
tric with it, are two cross lines situated in the focus of a lens placed at the oth- 
er end of the axis. Upon the prolongation of this axial line at either end, 
and attached to the same piers which support the telescope, are placed two 
collimators, which are ingeniously contrived to stand in the place both of 
the striding level and meridian marks, and which are to be used for de- 
termining the level of the instrument, the figure of the axis, and the 
eccentricity of the pivots. There is a further provision for detecting the 
slightest changes in the deviation of the level of the axis from a normal 
state, on account of unequal expansion of the supporting piers, which are 
of granite. This consists of another beautiful contrivance by means of a 
couple of invariable rods, or rods of well-determined expansibility, which 
are inserted vertically through the piers ; and which, by turning a mirror, 
show the minutest alterations which can take place from this source, in the 
level or inclination of the axis of the instrument. Thus the imperfections 
of the spirit level are in a great measure avoided ; and all the advantages, 
with but a part of the inconveniences, of a striding level to reverse with 
the instrument, are secured. 

Appreciating the advantages which these fine instruments afiford, the 
superintendent appears to have begun with the determination of so employ- 
ing them, that their results, while they should be the most useful, would at 
the same time most redound to the credit of the observatory and the navy, 
and to the honor of the country. The national observatory being a naval 
institution, its first object and duty would seem to be to undertake those 
observations which are most immediately connected with navigation, and 
the results of which might afford the data requisite for calculating an Amer- 
ican Nautical Almanac. Accordingly the naval astronomer at once com- 
menced with a regular and systematic series of observations upon the sun 
and moon, the planets, and a list of fundamental stars, comprising those of 
the greatest magnitudes and of the most favorable positions, to be used as 
the standard stars in the almanac. But these did not give fiill employment 
either to the instruments, the observers, or the computers. Accordingly, 
after having adjusted his plans, Lieut Maury took an early opportunity, in 
1845, of making them known teethe Secretary of the Navy, and of obtain- 
ing from him authority to undertake observations for a most extensive 



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70 



THB WASHIKOTON OB8BRTATORT. 11848. 



catalogue of stars. This work, when completed according to the original 
design, will be one of the greatest contributions to the science of astronomy 
that has ever been made by a single observatory ; for it contemplates noth- 
ing short of a regular and systematic examination, with some one or other 
of°these excellent instruments, of every point of space in the heavens that 
is visible to us, and of assigning position, color, and magnitude to every star 
that they are capable of reaching. This will be the work of years. Lieut. 
Maury's plan and arrangements differ in many of their details from those 
adopted by any other astronomer who has engaged in shnilar undertakings ; 
and as they are calculated to afford more satisfactory results than those 
which have gone before, a brief sketch of them may prove of interest to the 
friends and patrons of American science. 

In Bessel's Zones, the most extensive catalogue at present in existence, 
the plan was to sweep up and down a zone in the heavens, of a certain 
breadth, and to have two persons engaged at the same time ; one as an as- 
sistant to read the instrument, the other to observe the star. By such a 
plan the declination of each star observed depended upon one reading of a 
single microscope. By the Washington plan, the services of an assistant to 
read the instrument are dispensed with, and the declination of every star 
depends upon the readings of six microscopes instead of one. This im- 
provement has been accomplished by an ingenious contrivance, which gives 
motion to the eye-piece instead of the telescope during the sweep over any 
particular zone or belt. The micrometer diaphragm for cataloguing is 
provided with a number of parallel wires, the intervals of which have been 
carefully determined; and, by giving the eye-piece a motion in altitade as 
well as in azimuth, each instrument is made to cover a belt of from 40 to 
50' broad in declination. The Nadir point being carefully observed, the 
telescope (that of the mural, for instance), being set for the belt to be swept, • 
add all the microscopes carefully read and recorded, the observer takes his 
position at the eye-piece, and begins to move it up and dovrn, the instru- 
ment itself remaining fixed as he reads it. In whatever part of the field a 
star appears, a micrometer wire is close at hand (so that there is no loss of 
time, as with a single wire, in running the micrometer wire from one edge 
of the field to the other), and the star is bisected with this nearest microme- 
ter wire, while the time at which it transits the several vertical wires is also 
noted. The number of the bisecting wire and the reading of the microme- 
ter being now entered, the observation is complete. 

The observer thus keeps his eye at the telescope for hours at a time ; and 
under favorable circumstances can observe with ease two or three hundred 
stars during the night. The meridian circle, in the same way, will occupy 
the belt below this ; while the transit instrument, which the ingenuity of the 
astronomer has converted into a difference of declination instnmient, occu- 
pies the belt above, each instrument overlapping the belt of the other by 
4' or 5' ; the stars, in the parts thus overlapped, being common to two in- 



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1848.| THB WASHINGTON OB8SKYATOBT. 71 

stroments. Thus, the meridian circle and transit instrument establish the 
right ascension of certain stars which are used by the mural as so many 
points of departure ; while the mural or meridian circle establishes the 
declinations of certain stars which serve the transit instrument as points of 
departure for difference of declination. This is the first sweep. The next 
night, the instruments change places, and go over the same ground ; i e. 
the meridian circle covers the same belt to-night which on the former night 
was swept by the mural. Supposing the two nights equally favorable, and 
the instniments of equal power, — the latter of which is actually the case, the 
former seldom, — all the stars that were seen in the first sweep, by the mural, 
should be observed in the second by the meridian circle. The two lists arc 
immediately compared, and should there be any discrepancies between them, 
the large equatorial is put in pursuit of the peccant stars. 

This great American work contemplates the examination of every star 
down to the tenth magnitude, not only in the zodiac, but in the whole 
heavens ; it includes a revision of all the European catalogues ; and, while 
it looks to the discovery of new planets and unknown stars, it also aims to 
detect the disappearance of any stars known to existing catalogues. In 
short, the Washington catalogue aims at that degree of perfection, which, 
when future astronomers shall find an unknown star, may justify the remark 
" this star is new in the heavens, because it is not in the Washington cata- 
logue." Lieut Maury's original plan contemplated also measurements for 
angle of position and distance of all double or multiple stars, together with ^ 
accurate drawings of all clusters and nebulse. This was to be the work of 
the equatorial ; but the undertaking to glean after the meridianal instru- 
ments gives this telescope full employment for the present. 

The observatory commenced its operations in 1845. The first volume, a 
quarto of five hundred pages, has already been published, and has elicited 
many and high commendations, both at home and abroad. In the opinion 
of one of the most distinguished astronomers of Europe, it has, at once, 
placed our national observatory in the front rank with the oldest and best 
institutions of the kind in Europe. The volume for 1846 is in press. The 
catalogue for that year will number some 12 or 15,000 stars, most of them 
nnknovm to any existing catalogues ; the whole work will comprise a quarto 
volume of not less than 1,000 pages, and will be the largest work of the 
kind ever published by any observatory as the result of a single year's 
labor. 



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78 m OMIT TWLUeWE AT CAMBEIDO*, MAM. 1184S. 

THE GBBAT TELKSCOPE AT CAMBBTOGE, Mas». 

Harvard CoiUgi, Cambridge, M^. Bf, W. Ounch Bimd, A. M^ Ihrectm' 
^ the Observatory. 

The hUtoryof this "Grtmd Bcfractor," as it is named hyite makers, i« 
hriefly as foUows:— Early in the month of March, 1843, a rtrj remaik^ 
ble appearance presented itself in the heaycns. A comet of unosual mag- 
nitnde and brilliancy was attracting the attention of the pnbUc, and the 
obserratory at Cambridge was looked to for information respecting the 
movemento, &c of this mysterious stranger. In answering this requisition, 
the opportunity was embraced to make known the want which existed m 
the-apparatns of the obserratory, of instmments adapted to extra-meri- 
dional obserrations. The appeal then made was promptly responded to, 
and the deficiency supplied. To the untiring and efficient exertions of the 
Tenerable ex-president of the university, the Hon.Josiah Quincy,maybe 
attributed, in a very great degree, the success of this undertaking. 

On an afternoon early in the month of March, 1843, an informal meet- 
ing of three or four individuals interested in the subject was held at the 
office of the American Insurance Company in Boston. The proceedings 
of this meeting were cordially seconded by the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and in consequence a regular meeting of merchants 
and other citizens of Boston was held at the hall of the Marine Society, to 
consider the expediency of procuring a telescope of the first class, for astro- 
nomical observation. At this meeting, the question was decided in the 
affirmative, and a subscription, to the amount of twenty thousand dollars, 
recommended, to defray the expense. This amount was immediately fur- 
nished — an individual not less eminent for his philanthropy than for his 
love of science taking the lead by a donation of five thousand dollars, inde- 
pendent of the above-mentioned sum, to be appropriated to the building of 
an observatory tower. 

After a general correspondence with the best informed astronomers and 
opticians in Europe, it was decided to employ Messrs. Merz and Mahler, of 
Munich, in Bavaria, to make the instrument. These gentlemen are the 
successors of the celebrated Frauenhofer, and the proprietors of the fai-famed 
Optical Institute of that city. They bound themselves by contract to com- 
plete two object glasses, of the clear aperture of fifteen inches, to be at 
least equal to that furnished to the noble instrument now mounted at the 
Imperial Observatory of Bussia, t^ Pulkova. On being notified (^the comple- 
tion of these object glasses, the agent of the university, Mr. Joseph Cranch, 
of London, accompanied by Mr. William Simms, an eminent maker of astro- 
nomical instruments, proceeded to Munich, and, -after careftil trial and 
examination, made the required selection. The selected object glass was 



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1848.] THE OSBAT TBLBBOOPB AT OAMBSlDGB, MASS. 7S 

received at this observatory on the 4th of December, 1846 ; the great tabe 
and its parallactic mounting did not reach as nntil the afternoon of the 11th 
of June, 1847. It then required nine days to prepare the stone pier to 
which the telescope was to be attached. It being necessary that the upper 
surface of the stone should have an exact inclination in order to secure for 
the hour axis <^ the instrument an angle of elevation equal to the latitude 
oi the place, a triangular frame of wood was made, having one of its sides 
vertical and another horizontal, the former watched by a plumb line and 
the latter by a spirit level, for the guidance of the workmen ; this was 
found tp answer the purpose perfectly, it being easily set whenever a trial 
of the indRnation was thought necessary. 

A strong platform was raised round the pier, with apparatus for raising 
the weighty machinery into place ; the boxes containing the different parts 
of the telescope, which altogether were estimated to weigh about four tons, 
were arranged on the floor; and the process of putting together was com- 
menced on the morning of the 23d of June. No accident occurred, and no 
step had to be retraced during the work. On the evening of the next day, 
the telescope was directed upon celestial objects. 

It may here be proper to give a description of the building, with its 
revolving dome and pier, which had been prepared for the reception of this 
" Grand Befractor." 

The part of the observatory which has been appropriated to this instru- 
ment is a square tower of thirty-two feet on a side. The waUs are of brick, 
resting on a granite foundation. The interior is gradually brought into a 
circular form of thirty-one feet diameter, surmounted by a granite circle, 
on which is laid an iron rail of ten inches width, hollowed in the middle to 
serve as a track for the eight-inch iron balls on which the dome rolls. The 
dome is thirty feet, interior diameter, with an opening five feet wide, ex- 
tending beyond the zenith. The shutters to this opening are raised and 
closed by means of endless chains working in teethed pulleys, and are 
easily managed by a winch and pinions, geered into wheels of one foot di- 
ameter. They are perfectly weather proof. To the lower edge of the dome 
is affixed a grooved iron rail, similar to the one laid on the granite cap of 
the walls. Eight iron balls, which had been smoothly and truly turned,, 
were placed at equal distances round the circle, and the dome gradually let 
down to rest upon them. Although this dome is estimated to weigh about 
fburteen tons, yet it can be turned through a whole revolution by a single 
individual, without any very great exertion, i|i thirty-five seconds. 

The central pier, for the support of the telescope, is of granite, and is in 
form the frustum of a cone, of twenty feet diameter at the base, and ten 
feet at the top. It is forty feet high, and rests on a wide foundation of 
grouting, composed of hydraulic cement and coarse gravel, and is entirely 
detached from every other part of the building. Upon the top of the pier 
is laid a circular cap-stone, ten feet in diameter and two feet thick; on this 
7 



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74 TBM. ORRAX TJtWWCOPE AT.CAJCBBI90B, MASS. [1848. 

«t«iida, by ihra» bearings, the gnuiite Uock, tm feet in he%ht, to wbich tho 
metalUc bed-plate of the instrmnent is firmly attached by bolts and screws, 
ifithont anyceoient whatever. Fire hundred tons of granite were ^n- 
ployed in the construction of the entire pier. 

The object glass of the telescope is fifteen English inches in diameter, and 
has twenty-two feet eight inches focal length. Some of the eye-pieces are six 
inches long, making the whole length a little more than twenty-three feet 
English. There are eighteen different powers, ranging from 180 to 200a 
The declination circle is twenty-six inches in diameter, divided on silver, 
and reads by four verniers to ^ur seconds in arc. The hour circle is 
eighteen inches in diameter, divided on silter, reading by two namiers to 
one second in time. The movable portion of the telescope and machineiy 
IS estimated to weigh about three tons. It is, however, so well counter- 
poised in every position of the telescope, and the effects of friction are so 
nearly obviated by "an ingenious arrangement of rollers and balance- 
weights, that the observer can durect the instrument to any part of the 
heavens, by a slight pressure of the hand upon the ends of the balance 
rods. While observing, a sidereal motion is given to the telescope by 
clock-work, regulikted hy centrifugal balls. 

Since the erection of the telescope, there have been only a few fovorable 
moments, when the state of the atmosphere would allow of an examina- 
tion of the more severe test objects, with the whole aperture and under high 
powers. At these times the optical power of the instrument has been fully 
recognized. Thenjompbnents of the star y Coronse, which Strove, with the 
' Pulkova refractor, pronounces most difficult to separate, are seen in the 
Cambridge telescope, distinct and round, the dark space between them 
clearly defined. The same distinctness attends the separation of >2 An- 
dromedsD, with our telescope. Neariy all the best Eurc^ean instruments 
show this star as only elongated in a particular direction j in ours, on the 
morning of the 20th of July, it was weU divided, and measures of distance 
were obtained with the filar micrometer, trAiTe the sun was shining on the 
object glass. The primary chromatic dispersion seems to be as nearly 
corrected as possible. This has been apparent when tried on Venus and the 
Moon. 

The nebulas are well shown by the telescope. That in Vulpecula, 27*Mes- 
sier, it exhibits with multitudes of points of light or stars, — star dust, as it 
IS sometimes called, — together with the transverse nebulous appearance 
spoken of by Sir John Herschel. Planetary and stellar nebulae it shows 
beautifhUy. The companion of Antares, discovered by Prof. Mitchell with 
the Cincinnati Refractor, is quite conspicuous with a power of 700. 

The great nebula of Andromeda is seen with a small, well-definjed, cen- 
tral nucleus, unlike the gradual condensation of many of the other nebula. 
There are a great number of stars visible within the boundary of its, light ^ 
fhirt^ have been pretty well .located. But, unless this nebula is of an 



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1848.] pinoub's pbxbictxd cokbt 6y 1848. 75 

inoonceiTftble depth, thej can hardly be considered «i belmiging to it, for 
ibe greater part retains the prinutiye character assigned to it by Simon 
]&Iarins, namely, as resembling the light of a candle shining through horn. 
This yery interesting object has apparently yielded less to the increase of 
optical power than any other celestial otgeet whi^ is viMble to the naked 
eye, although the elder Herschel considered it as one of the nearest of the . 
large nebula. 

In the neighborhood of a "Lytm, wilhin ft circle surrounding that star of 
less than seyen minutes diameter, upwards of thirty stars hare been counted. 
The ring nebula of Lyra is shown more elongated than it is represented in 
tiie drawings of it in the Philosophical Transactions, with numerous points of 
ll|^ in the interior ; the north preceding portion of the ring is considerably 
fimiter than the rest The minute douMe stars, mentioned by Lord Boss as 
difficult objects with his twenty-ser^Sn feet reflector, are seen in our telescope. 

Upon the whole, there is sufficient reason to be satisfied with the op- 
tical character of this instrument, particularly when we consider, that 
nnce it has been mounted, there have been but a very few hours when the 
state of the atmosphere would allow of using to advantage so high a power 
as 700, with the full aperture of the ol^ect glass. 



PINGB6»S PREDICTBD COMBT of 1848. 
By (korg€ P, Bondt AMiskmi at the Cambridgt Observatory, 

The two comets numbered (17) in Prof. Peirce's catalogue of comets, 
which was published in the last yolume of the American Almanac, were 
sniqjected by Pingr6 to be the same comet, at different returns, on account 
of the dose similarity of their orbits. The returns in 1364 and 1666, give 
a period of about 292 years, so that the next return dionld be in 1848. 
Pingrfe*s opinion seems to have been generally approved by geometers, and 
has been subjected to a very thorough and rigid examination, by Mr. Hind, 
of .England, who has given coordinates, by which the computation of the 
quarter of the heavens, in which it must be looked for at different seasons 
(^ the year, may be readily performed, and from which the following table 
has been computed. In this table, the right ascension and declination are 
given, which the comet must have at the tOne of its discovery, provided 
this time is less than ninety days before the date of its perihelion passage, 
or less than eighty days after this date. The column headed A contains 
the distance of the comet &om the earth, and that headed ;i^ contains the 
brilliancy of the comet, supposing the unit ofhriUixmcy to correspond to the 
unit of distance from the sun and the earth. At its former returns, the comet 
approached exceeding near the earth, so that it is quite improbable that it 
frill be seen again under as favorable cucumstances for the magnificent dis* 
play of ita brilliancy. 



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76 

Daji'from 
Per. Pass. 



pdiosb'* nuu>iOTiD coxBT or 1848. 
' —90 —80 —70 



[1848. 



—60 



Badiai 




1-84 




1.68 




1.53 




1.36' 


Teel. 


























1 








1 








1 








1 


1848. 


AR. 
h. 
12.8 


Beo. 


A 


r«A^ 


AR. 
h. 
13.2 


Deo. 


A 


r«A' 


AR. 
h. 


Dee. 


A 


r»A> 


AR. 

h. 


Dec. 


A 


r»A> 


Jan. 


• 
•^16 


1.7 


0.1 


—161.6 


0.1 


13.6 


— ^16 


1.5 


0.8 


14.1 


— ^16 


1.4 


0.8 


10 


18-7 


17 


1.6 


0.1 


13.2 


171.4 


0J2 


13.7 


17 


1.3 


0:3 


14.3 


17 


1.3 


0.4 


20 


13.6 


17 


1.3 


0.2 


13.1 


181.2 


0.3 


13.7 


18 


1.2 


03 


14.4 


18 


1.1 


0.5 


80 


12.4 


18 


1.2 


0J2 


13.0 


191.0 


0.4 


13.6 


19 


1.0 


6.4 


14.6 


19 


1.0 


0.5 


Feb. 9 


12.0 


17 


1.1 


0.2 


12.7 


19 0.9 


0.4 


13.4 


19 


0.9 


0.6 


14.4 


19 


0.8 


0.8 


19 


11.5 


16 


0.9 


0.3 


12.1 


18 0.8 


0.^ 


12.9 


19 


0.7 


09 


14.1 




0.6 


1.6 


29 


10.8 


13 


0.9 


0.3 


11.3 


1416.7 


0.8 


12.1 


16 


a6 


IJi 


13.4 


18 


0.5 


2.3 


Mar.lO 


10.1 


8 


0.9 


0.3 


10.4 


9 


0.7 


o.» 


11.0 


10 


0.5 


1.8 


18.0 


12 


0.4 


3.3 


20 


9.5 


— 4 


0-9 


0.3 


9.7 


— 4 


0.8 


0.6 


9.9 


— 3 


0.6 


1J2 


10.4 


— 2 


0.4 


3.8 


80 


9.1 





1.1 


0.2 


9.2 


+ 2 


0.8 


0.6 


9.2 


+ 3 


0.7 


0.9 


9.3 


+ 8 


0.5 


22 


April 9 


8.8 


+ 4 


1.2 


0.2 


8.8 


6 


1.0 


0.4 


8.8 


6 


0.8 


0.7 


8.8 


11 


0.6 


1.5 


19 


8.7 


6 


13 


0.1 


8.7 


7 


1.2 


0.2 


8.6 


10 


10 


0.4 


8.5 


13 


0.8 


0.8 


29 


8.7 


7 


1.6 


0.1 


8.7 


9 


1.3 


0J2 


8.6 


11 


1.1 


0.3 


8.6 


15 


1.0 


0.6 


May 9 


8.7 


8 


1.7 


0.1 


8.7 


9 


1.5 


0.1 


8.6 


12 


1.3 


0.3 


a6 


15 


1.1 


0.5 


19 


8.8 


9 


1.8 


0.1 


8.8 


10 


1.7 


0.1 


9.8 


13 


1.5 


OJi 


8.7 


15 


1.3 


0.4 


29 


89 


9 


2.0 


0.1 


8.9 


11 


1.8 


0.1 


8.9 


12 


1.6 


0.2 


8.9 


14 


1.4 


0.3 


Jane 8 


9.1 


9 


2.1 


0.1 


90 


10 


2.0 


0.1 


9.1 


12 


1.8 


0.1 


9.1 


14 


16 


0.3 


18 


9.3 


9 


3.3 


0.1 


9.3 


10 


2.1 


0.1 


9.3 


11 


1.9 


0.1 


9.4 


13 


1.8 


0.2 


28 


9.4 


8 


2.4 


0.1 


9.5 


9 


2.2 


0.1 


9.6 


11 


2.0 


0.1 


9.6 


12 


1.8 


0.8 


July 8 


9.6 


7 


2.5 


0.1 


9.6 


.8 


2.3 


0.1 


9.8 


10 


2.1 


0.1 


9.8 


U 


1.9 


0.1 


18 


9.8 


7 


2.6 


0.0 


9.9 


8 


2.4 


0.1 


10.0 


9 


2J2 


0.1 


10.1 


10 


2.1 


oa 


28 


10.0 


6 


2.7 


0.0 


10.1 


6 


2.5 


0.0 


10.9 


7 


2.3 


0.1 


10.3 


8 


8J» 


0.1 


Aug. 7 


102 


5 


2.8 


0.0 


10.3 


5 


2.6 


0.0 


10.5 


6 


2.4 


0.1 


10.6 


7 


8.3 


0.1 


17 


10.4 


4 


2.8 


0.0 


10.5 


4 


2.6 


0.0 


10.7 


6 


2.5 


0.1 


103 


. 6 


3.3 


0.1 


27 


10.6 


8 


9.8 


0.0 


10.8 


3 


2.7 


00 


10.9 


3 


8.6 


0.1 


U.1 


4 


8.3 


0.1 


Sept 6 


10.8 


+ 1 


2.8 


0.0 


11.0 


+ 1 


2.7 


0.0 


11.2 


+ 2 


2.5 


0.1 


11.4 


2 


2.3 


0.1 


16 


11.0 





2.8 


0.0 


11.8 





2.7 


0.0 


11.4 





2.6 


ai 


11.6 


+ 1 


2.4 


0.1 


26 


11.2 


— 2 


2.8 


0.0 


11.4 


— 1 


2.7 


0.0 


11.7 


— 1 


2.6 


0.1 


11.8 


— 1 


8.4 


0.1 


Oct 6 


11.5 


3 


2.7 


0.0 


11.6 


3 


2.6 


0.0 


11.9 


3 


2.5 


0.1 


18.1 


3 


23 


0.1 


16 


11.7 


5 


2.7 


0.0 


11.9 


5 


2.5 


0.0 


121 


4 


2.4 


0.1 


18.3 


4 


8.3 


0.1 


26 


11.9 


6 


23 


0.0 


12.1 


6 


2.5 


0.0 


13.3 


6 


2.3 


0.1 


12.6 


6 


8.3 


0.1 


Nov. 5 


1S.1 


8 


9.5 


0.1 


12.3 


8 


2.4 


0.1 


12.6 


8 


2.2 


0.1 


18.8 


8 


8.1 


0.1 


15 


12.3 


9 


2.3 


0.1 


12.5 


9 


2.2 


0.1 


12.8 


9 


21 


0.1 


13.1 


9 


2.0 


0.1 


25 


12.4 


11 


2.2 


0.1 


12J' 


11 


2.1 


0.1 


13.0 


11 


2.0 


0.1 


13.3 


11 


1.9 


0.1 


Dec. 5 


12.6 


12 


2.1 


ai 


12.9 


12 


2.0 


0.1 


13.2 


12 


1.9 


0.1 


13.6 


12 


1.8 


0.3 


15 


12.7 


13 


2.0 


0.1 


13.0 


14 


1-9 


0.1 


13.4 


14 


1.8 


0.1 


13.8 


14 


1.7 


0.8 


25 


12.7 


I5I1.8 


0.1 


13.1 


16 


1.7 


01 


13.5 


16 


1.6 


0J2 


14.0 


16 


1.6 


0.8 



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HyBfrom — iO 
Per Pass. 



TIs6mE'B PSBBierXD COVET OF 1849. 
—40 —30 —so 



77 



—10 



Teet. 




1.19 


- 


1.09 


0^ 


0.09 


. 


0.flB 






AR. 
h. 
14.7 


Deo. 
—10 


1.4 


1 
0.3 


AB. 
h 
15.4 


Deo. 

e 

—15 


A 
1.4 


1 


AB. 
h. 
10.1 


Dee. 

o 

— ^14 


A 
1.4 


1 

^A« 
0.7 


AR. 
h. 
10.9 


Deo. 

o 

-<3 


1.4 


1 
r«A» 

1^ 


AR. 
h. 
17.7 


DIM. 

o 

— ^18 


A 


1 
»«A» 
1.5 


1848. 
J.^ 


r«A' 
0.5 


10 


1/S.A 


17 


1.3 


0.4 


15.7 


10 


IM 


0.7 


10.5 


15 


1.2 


ao 


17.3 


14 


1.3 


IJI 


18.2 


13 


1.4 


1.5 


20 


16.& 


18 


1.1 


0.0 


: 


17 


1.1 


0.9 


10.9 


10 


1.1 


1J3 


17.8 


14 


1.2 


1.4 


18.7 


12 


1.3 


1.9 


80 
F. 9 


15.4 


18 


1.0 


0.7 


10.3 


17 


1.0 


1. 


17.3 


15 


1.0 


1.4 


18.3 


13 


1.1 


1.8 


19 2 


11 


1.3 


1.9 


15^ 


19 


0.8 


1.1 


10.7 


17 


0.8 


1.5 


17.8 


14 


0.9 


1.7 


18.8 


11 


1.0 


2.1 


J9.7 




1.2 


2.2 


19 


16.0 


19 


0.0 


'2.0 


17.1 


10 


0.7 


1.9 


18.4 


13 


0.8 


2.2 


19.3 


9 


1.0 


2.1 


30.3 




1.1 


2.7 


29 
M.10 


15.3 


18 


0.5 


2.8 


17.3 


14 


a5 


3.8 


18.8 


9 


0.6 


3.8 


19.9 





8.8 


3.2 


80.7 




1.0 


3.3 


14.3 


—14 


0.3 


8.0 


17.5 


— 9 


0.3 


1.1 


19.4 


— 4 


0.6 


5.5 


30.6 


— 1 


0.7 


4.1 


31.2 


— • 1 


1.0 


3.2 


20 

SO 

A. 9 


14.0 


+11 


0.2 


18. 


17.0 


+ » 


0.1 


0.0 


30,3 


+ « 


as 


1.6 


21.2 


+ « 


0.0 


6.8 


21.8 


+ 4 


0.9 


3.9 


0.4 


10 


0.3 


8.0 


9.5 


88 


0.1 


0.0 


31.7 


26 


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31.3 


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2.3 


8 


2.0 


0.2 


2.4 


7 


2.2 


0.1 


2.6 


6 


2.4 


0.1 


2.7 


5 


2.6 


0.1 


29 


2,4 


12 


1.7 


0.2 


2.6 


10 


1.9 


0.2 


2.7 


8 


2.2 


01 


2.8 


7 


2.3 


01 


2.0 


6 


2.5 


0.1 


J. 8 


2.7 


13 


1.6 


0.4 


2.9 


11 


1.8 


0.2 


3.0 


9 


2.1 


ai 


3.1 


8 


2.2 


0.1 


3.2 


7 


2.4 


0.1 


18 


3.1 


14 


1.5 


0.4 


3.2 


12 


1.7 


0.2 


3.3 


10 


2.0 


0.1 


3.3 


8 


2.1 


01 


3.4 


7 


2.3 


01 


» 


3.4 


15 


1.4 


0.5 


3.4 


12 


1.6 


0.3 


3.5 


10 


1.9 


0.1 


3.6 


9 


2.0 


0.1 


3.6 


8 


2.2 


Ol 


J. 8 


3.7 


16 


1.3 


0.6 


3.7 


13 


1.5 


0.3 


3.8 


11 


1.8 


0.2 


3.8 


9 


1.9 


b.i 


3.8 


7 


2.1 


0.1 


18 


4.0 


17 


1.2 


0.7 


4.0 


13 


1.4 


0.3 


4.0 


11 


1.6 


0.2 


4.0 


9 


1.8 


0.1 


4.0 


7 


2.0 


0.1 


28 


4.4 


17 


1.1 


0.9 


4.3 


13 


1.3 


0.4 


4.2 


10 


16 


02 


4.2 


8 


1.7 


0.1 


4.2 


7 


1.9 


Ol 


A. 7 


4.7 


17 


0.9 


1.2 


4.5 


12 


i.l 


0.6 


4.4 


10 


1.3 


04 


4.4 


7 


1.^6 


02 


4.4 


6 


1.7 


01 


17 


5.1 


16 


0.8 


1.5 


4.7 


11 


1.0 


0.7 


4.5 


8 


1.2 


04 


4.5 


6 


1.4 


0.2 


4.5 


4 


1.5 


0.1 


27 


5.4 


15 


0.6 


23 


4.9 


9 


0.8 


11 


4.7 


6 


1.0 


a5 


4.6 


4 


1.2 


0.3 


4.6 


+ 3 


1.4 


02 


S. 6 


5.7 


12 


0.4 


6.0 


5.0 


+ « 


0.6 


2.0 


4.7 


+ 3 


0.8 


a8 


4.6 


+ 1 


1.0 


04 


4.6 





1.2 


0J2 


16 


5.9 


+ 4 


0.2 


11. 


4.9 





0.5 


2.8 


4.6 


— 2 


0.7 


1.1 


4;6 


— 3 


0.9 


05 


4.5 


— 4 


1.1 


03 


26 


5.8 


— 25 


0.1 


96. 


4.3 


—12 


0.3 


8.0 


4.2 


10 


0.6 


1.5 


i2 


9 


0.7 


09 


4.2 


8 


09 


0.4 


0. 6 


S0.0 


60 


01 


96. 


2.7 


33 


0.2 


1.8 


3.3 


21 


05 


2.2 


3-6 


17 


0.6 


1.2 


3.8 


14 


0.8 


0.5 


16 


19.6 


30 


0.3 


11. 


23.8 


43 


0.3 


8.0 


1.9 


31 


0.4 


3.2 


2.6 


24 


0.6 


1.2 


3.1 


20 


08 


05 


26 


19.8 


32 


0.4 


6.0 


22.2 


38 


0.4 


4.5 


0.4 


34 


0.5 


2.2 


1.5 


29 


0.6 


1.2 


2.2 


25 0.7 


07 


N, 5 


30.1 


28 


06. 


2S 


21.8 


32 


0.6 


3.8 


23.4 


33 


0.6 


1.5 


0.6 


30 


0.7 


09 


1.4 


2708 


05 


15 


20.4 


25 


07. 


1.9 


21.7 


29 


0.7 


1.4 


22.9 


30 


0.7 


1.1 


23.9 


29 


0.8 


07 


a7 


270.9 


04 


25 


90.7 


24 


09. 


1J2 


21J8 


26 


0.9 


0.9 


22.8 


26 


0.9 


0.6 


23.6 


26 


1.0 


0.4 


03 


251.0 


0.3 


D. 5 


21.0 


22 


10. 


1.0 


21.9 


23 


1.0 


0.7 


22.8 


24 


1.0 


0.5 


23.4 


24 


1.1 


03 


Ol 


231.2 


0.2 


15 


21.4 


20 


12. 


0.7 


22.1 


21 


1.2 


0.5 


22.9 


21 


1.2 


0-4 


23.4 


21 


1.3 


0.3 


0.0 


21 


1.3 


0.2 


25 


n.7 


18 


13. 


0.6 


S2.4 


18 


1.3 


0.4 


23.0 


19 


1.4 


0.3 


23.5 


19 


1.4 


0.2 


OO 


19 


1.5 


0.1 



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II. METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION. 



L METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR SACO, HE. 
Lot. 4S'' 31' N^ Long. 70*2^' W. By John M, BaUMder, 







2. Winds 


AND 


Clouds. 








1846. 


Force of Wind 0—6. 


Quantity of CloadB 0—10. 


a 


a 


S 


S' 


. 


a 


)A 


S 


1 


Months. 


^ 


p^ 


P4 


1 


< • 


^ 


^ 


-i 




t« 


e« 


fc- 


^ 


►>• 


Ol 


fc- 


July, . . 


1.6 


2.6 


1.7 


2U) 


4.8 


6.0 


6.8 


6.2 


6,772 


October, ^ 


141 


2.5 


1.2 


1.7 


6.2 


4.6 


6.4 


6.1 


2148 


1.7 


2.7 


1.7 


2.0 


8.9 


4.2 


4.8 


4.1 


1470 


a.o 


2.6 


2.1 


2.2 


6.0 


6.6 


6.4 


6.8 


1,878 


NoTember, . 


16 


2.9 


2.0 


1.9 


5.8 


6.4 


6.0 


6.4 


2954 




2.1 


2.4 


2.0 


2.2 


6.8 


6.4 


8.9 


4.9 


8;492 


1847.' 




















January, 


1.9 


2.7 


2.8 


2.6 


4.8 


6.8 


5.2 


6.1 


4,464 


Febroazy, . 


1^ 


22 


2.8 


2.0 


6.0 


6.8 


6.0 


6.4 


8,060 


Maz«h, . 


1.7 


2.8 


2.6 


2.4 


4.8 


4.0 


8.7 


4.0 


1,893 


April, 


2.2 


8.2 


2.4 


2.6 


6.0 


6.2 


6.8 


6.6 


2,674 


MJ.y,' . . 


1.9 


2.6 


1.9 


2.1 


6.8 


6.2 


4.9 


6.1 


8^ 


Jane, 


1.6 


2.3 


1.7 


1.8 


6.6 


hA 


6.2 


6.4 


4,620 


Meui, . 


1.5 


2.6 


2.0 


2.1 


5.2 


1 6.0 


4.9 


6.0 




*Total, 




. 




.. 


. 


. 


. 




86,606 



For winds, denotes a calm ; 6 a gale. 

For ckmds, denotes a dear sky ; 10, rain or snow. 

Maximum heat, 94', July 10, 1846, and June 26, 1847, 

Minimum heat, 70*, February 1847, 

Saco river closed by ice, December 5, 1846. 

" " opened, AprU 10, 1847. 
Falls of snow, 38 ; depth, 4 7-10 feet. 



I Range, 



lor. 



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1848.] 



HETEOBOLOGICAL UnTOBXATlOV. 



81 



n. METEOKOLOGICAL TABLES FOR CAMBRIDGE, Mass. 

Summary of the Meteorological Observations made at the Observatory of Har- 
vard University.Jrom May Ist, 1846, to May \st, 1847. By W, Cranch 
Bond. Lot. 42° 23' N. Lon. 71" 08' West of Greenwich, 

The telemeter corrected for cspillazy actkm and reduced to tempeiatore of SZ* Fah., btft 
not to the sea level. 





2 


. Winds and Clouds. 










Monthfl. 


Force of the Wind, 0-6. 


Quantity of Clouds, 0—10. 


1 


S 


a 


^ 




1 


^ 


^ 


a 


^ . Depth 
SSofrain 




J 




Oh 


A4 


1 




00 


P4 


S" inches. 


1846. 
May, . . 


1.0 


IJR 


1.7 


1.0 


1.3 


6.6 


6.9 


6.9 


7.6 


6.7 


3,591 


Jime,. 


1.0 


0.9 


12 


1.0 


1.0 


6.6 


6.4 


5.6 


6.6 


58 


2.679 


July, . . . 


0.8 


1.1 


1.6 


1.2 


1.2 


6.1 


66 


6.4 


4.2 


63 


8.192 


i»„.- . • . 


0.6 


0.7 


14} 


0.8 


0.8 


6.1 


6.6 


62 


6.6 


6.3 


2.876 


0.8 


1.1 


1.7 


1.1 


1.2 


3.6 


4.3 


4tJ2 


40 


4.0 


2.014 


October, . . 


1.2 


1.0 


1.7 


1.3 


1.3 


4.3 


4.3 


5.8 


53 


49 


1.634 


If orember, . • 


1.3 


1.6 


1.7 


1.4 


1.6 


7.3 


7.2 


7.6 


6.8 


72 


2.646 


December, 

18^7. 
January, 


1.2 


1.2 


1.1 


1.6 


1.2 


4.4 


4a 


6.7 


6.2 


6.1 


6.187 


1.1 


1.4 


1.6 


L4 


1.4 


6.7 


60 


5.7 


6.1 


5.6 


3.667 


Febmaiy, . 


IJH 


1.8 


1.7 


13 


1.4 


64 


6.7 


6.6 


7J0 


6.7 


3.344 


March, . . . 


1.3 


1.7 


1.9 


1.3 


16 


5.2 


6.6 


4.8 


4.7 


6.1 


6.909 


April, . . 


1.1 


1.8 


2.1 


0.9 


1.6 


61 


4.2 


5.6 


5.6 


5.1 


2.831 


Annual Mean, 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


1.2 


1.3 


6.4 


6.4 


5.7 5.7 


6.6 38.969 | 



Highest temperature, July 11th, 97* ; lowest, February 24, +2°. Bange, 95". 
Maximum of the barometer during the year, October 81, at 9 P. M., . . Inc. 80.698 
Minimum « «* NoTember26, " . . « 

" " « March 27, sun rise, . . * 

Mean annual temperature of the air at ton feet above the sui&ee of the earth, . 48.00 

Do. at the depth of 18 feet below the sur&ce of the earth, 48.15 

Do. at the depth of 90 feet belim the surfiuse, . 50. 2 

At 18 feet below the eaxfiBM the max. of the thermometer ooeurred in Oct. it was 61. 9 

The minimum occurred in Bfarch, it was 45. 

Attliedepthof 90 lbet,.the range of the thermometer, was. . f 6 



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MSTBOBOXXIGIOAL IWOBMASnOV. 



[184a 



m. HETEORC^OGICAL TABLES FOB MEKDON, Ham. 
LaL ofgpin of Uhitarian Church, 42* 06' 23" N^ Long, 71' 33* 35" W.Jhm 



GreenwidL' By John On. MaUxilf, M. D^ 
<>Ofi. /br tl< yeoiv 1845 ontf 1844. 



Member Am. StatitUoal Auoeia- 









2. Winds amd 


CLOf7D8. 


















1816. 
Montluk 


Montiihr Menurof Cloodi 
0— »),atfhehofan. 


MeansoffofceofWindii, 
0-6,atthehofix8. 


DireettonofUMWIiid. 


1 




CO 




1 


1 


< 


7i 




14 


li 


% 


S5 
7 


i 


1 


1 

1 


7 


i 


.■auary, 


6.2 


6.0 


6.1 


6.5 


6.7 


1.0 1.6 


2.0 


1.0 


T«bruarj. 


4.2 


4.7 


4.0 


8.8 


41 


.4 1.0 


1.8 


1.0 


1.0 


14 




6 


1 


J 




6 




March, * 


62 


6.4 


4.6 


8.6 


4.6 


1.0 1.7 


2.0 


.7 


1.2 


8 




4 


1 






16 




^ 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


6.2 


.9 1.8 


2.2 


1.8 


1J> 


9 




9 


1 






10 




4.4 


6.6 


6.1 


4.0 


4.7 


1.0 2.1 


2.4 


11 


1.6 


8 


1 


8 








18 




June, 


4.7 


8.9 


8.4 


8.6 


8.9 


S 2.1 


2.2 


1.3 


1.6 


7 




8 








20 




July, 


8.0 


8.2 


8.9 


81 


8.2 


.7 2.2 


2.8 


.7 


1.6 


9 




a 


2 






16 




S^^mi)6r, 


4.0 


4.7 


4.7 


4.6 


4.6 


.8 1.8 


2.0 


.6 


10 


6 




8 


1 






20 


■t 


8.9 


40 


4.1 


2.2 


8.6 


.6 2.0 


2.0 


.4 


1.0 


9 




S 




• 


1 


14 




October, 


4.7 


4.9 


4.8 


4.5 


4.6 


.7 1.6 


1.9 


.6 


1.0 


6 


1 


4 


a 


1 


4 


12 


2 


XfOVeMDCV, 


6.6 


6.1 


4.8 


4.2 


6X> 


.6 1.7 


1.9 


.9 


1.2 


11 




2 


2 


1 


2 


11 


1 


December, 


6.1 


6.2 


6.2 


4.9 


6.0 


11 1.6 


2.0 


IJ 


1.2 


18 

fio 


1 
"8 


6 
60 


1 
11 


6 


"8 


7 

m 


2 

21 


Year, 


^.8 T.0'4-6 


4114.6 


.7 1.6 


2.0 


.8 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



a. Wnn>8 xwD Cloxtds. 



83 



irUdj Mttau or Oloads, 
0— lOatthebooM. 



1846. 
Moiillii» 



0~6attb»hoai». 



Direction of the Wind. 



^ 



Jftnnarj, 
Febmaiy, 

April, 
May/ 
June, 

wptemDor) 

October, 

KoTember, 

December, 

Year, 



rSTgi 14:614.7 



6.0 
4.7 
4.0 

a7 

62 
5.2 
6.0 
46 
8.6 
4.7 
70 
6.0 



1.7 1 2.0 



T01T5- 



4' 1 



11 
6 
13 

18 8 
16 4 
16 
19 
18 
10 
6 

160 2d{ 



IV. METEOROLOGICAIi TABLE FOR LOWELL, Mabs. 

Abstract of the Record of the Heights of the TTternurnieteTf at Ae Lower JLocks^ 
LovoeUf in 1846. By Mr. Bay Moor. 





TxMPiBATUBi or en Aift. | 


Mean at starting of the 


Mean ai 






Monttis. 


Mills in the morning. 


2 P.M. 


Max 


Min. 


January, 


19^ 


82.k 


& 


-4 


£?^w~»7» 

March, 


10.40 
26.76 


80.08 
46.94 


n 


-10 
1 


^•. •.-.•.•.•. 


«7.26 


61.09 


88 


28 


48.07 


66.42 


88 


82 


Jnna, 


67.80 


79.96 


96 


48 


July, 


n 


88.78 


101 


60 


AugUBt, 


88.80 


98 


49 


§3.tr ' .•.•.-.•.• 


W.19 


77.77 


99 


40 


41.22 


67.86 


88 


28 


NoTember, 


88.16 


47.91 


69 


26 


December, 


21.77 


82.11 


46 


7 


January, 


TnfPBUvou o» TH« Wars nr iwm Caitax. 


Mean. 


Ikkax. 


Min. 


8l 


§2 


& 


February, 


82. 


38 


82 


March, 


88.22 


48 


82 


iS^ •.■.•.■.■.• . 


48.54 


68 


41 


60.28 


H 


66 


Juni, 


69.92 


60 


Jnly, 


76.27 


81 


72 


iXw. •.-.•.•.•. 


77.54 
72.01 


81 
82 


71 

64 


October, 


66.00 


64 


46 


November, * 


48.60 


47 


84 




82.16 


88 


82 



The temperafane of the water in the canal, irbich in tlie summer months reoeives tl 
whole waters of the Merrimack river, was abore 82^, firom March 25th to December 4th. 



Digitized 



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84 



MBTBOBOLOOICAL IKFOBMATION. 



[1848. 



V. METEOKOLOGICAL TABLE FOB WOBCESTEB, Mass. 
Lot. 42* 16' 17" N,; ekvation ^83 feU, For the Year 1845-6. 



1845^. 


1 


^ 


1 


1 


s 


i 

inch. 


in^. 


.% 

inch. 


inch. 


1 

inch. 


inch. 


S§ 


Barometer, 


inch- 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inoh. 


Oieateet height 


29.9429.82 


29.75 


29 78 12998 


29 60 


29.76 


29.80 


29.68 


29.88 


80j08 


80.02 


Least height, 


28 68 28.76 


28.68 


28.70 128.98 


2861 


29.04 


29.16 


2916 


29.06 


29.16 


28.07 


Mean. 


29.81 


29.267 


29.69 


29.80729.686.29.26 


29.866 


29.867 


29.486 


29.897 


29.289 29.8781 


Thermometer. 
Greatest height 


42 


l7 


•88 


^ 


-88 


•80 


§7 


•92 


•92 


-92 


-82 


•«o 


Least height, 


—1 


—4 


—6 


6 


29 


87 


44 


60 


61 


40 


22 


16 


Mean, 
Fair days, 


20.6 


28.8 


21.7 


40 


62.6 


46.7 


66.9 


71.8 


71.6 


68.6 


49.6 


42.6 


17 


19 


17 


28 


26 


12 


20 


21 


28 


26 


18 


8 


Cloudy days, 
Rain feU. days, 
Snow fell, do. 
HalosofMoon, 


14 


12 


11 


8 


6 


19 


10 


10 


8 


6 


18 


22 


6 


8 





6 


8 


10 


6 


12 


6 


6 


8 


9 


6 


4 


7 


1 























1 





2 


1 





2 

















O 


a 


Aur. Borealis, 





1 


1 


1 








1 








1 


1 





Inches of Bain, 


6.89 


2.92 


2.60 


8.88 


1.84 


6.86 


287 


8.81 


2.44 


0^ 


2.19 


4.08 ' 


do. of Snow, 


18. 


18. 


30. 














.0 





Q 


O 


6 


Days of 


























N. wind, 











1 











. 














N.W. "^ 


16 


7 


9 


6 


6 


8 


4 


7 


8 


6 


7 


6 


W. « 











1 


























S.W. « 


4 


8 


2 


4 


6 


8 


8 


7 


11 


18 


5 


6 


8. « 






































8. B. «* 


1 























2 





1 





B. « 






































N. E. « 


7 


2 


8 


8 


2 


18 2 


8 8 


2 


8 


14 



VL METEOBOLOGICAL TABLE FOR NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Summary of Meteorological Observations made at the New York City HbepitaL 
By John Darcey, 



Highest pohit of barometer, 80.47, December 6. Lowest do. 28.86, November 26. 
Do. thermometer, 92^, July 10. Do. 16*, January 7. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



MBTBOBOLOGIOAL IinPOBJfATIOK. 



85 



Vn. METEOBOLOGICAL TABLE FOB BOCHESTEB, N. Y. 

Lai, 43* 8' 17", Lmg, 77"* 51'. Elevation above tide ivater^ Ave hundred and 
six feet. Collegiate Institute. By L, Witherdl. 



1846. 


m 




1 


■} 


1 


1 


t 


1 


1 


1 


& 


1 


1 


Barometer. 


inch. inch. 


inch. 'inch. inch. 


inch. 


inch. inch. 


hich. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 




Greatest h't, 
Leant height, 


30.0829.97 


29.90 80.0529.76 


29.90 


29.91 129.79 


29.83;80.10!80.10 


80.04 


30.1Q 


28.8628.88 


29.00 29.15 28.97 


29 26 


29.26 


29.30 


29.23!29.30!29 03 


29.00 


28.83 


Me«^ 


29.4629.49 


29.50 


29.6129.45 


29.52 


29.51 


29.69 


29.60 


29.66 


29.55 


29.55 






























M'thlymean, 


27!66 22!79 


84!80 


47*86'eo!24 


64!45 


69*87 


69!86 


65!71 


47!39 


42!67 


29!41 




Highest deg.; 


45 ;45 


55 


80 


89 


85 


96 


94 


94 


78 


61 


51 




Lowest degree, 


4 


1 


4 


28 


85 


43 


61 


45 


43 


23 


20 


14 




Bange, 


41 


44 


51 


57 


54 


42 


45 


49 


51 


55 


41 


37 




Warmest day, 


80 


8 


24 


21 


26 


30 


10 


5 


7 


7 


9 


27 




Coldest daj, 


19 ,27 


1 


18 


11 


21 


15 


18 


28 


22 


25 


12 




Fair days, 


7 


5.5 


16 


16 


19.5 


16 


22.5 


22 


16.6 


10 


8 


4 


163 


Cloudy days, 


24 


22.5 


15 


14 


116 


14 


8.5 


9 


18.5 


21 


22 


27 


202 


KainfeU, 
Snow fell. 


4 





6 


10 


11 


12 


13 


6 


18 


10 


11 


8 


99 


14 


20 


7 


8 

















2 


4 


16 


65 


Bain & snow. 


2 


2 























5 


2 


2 


18 


Solar halos. 





1 


2 











' 

















3 


Lunar halos, 





1 


1 























1 


1 


4 


Aur. borealis, 




















1 


1 


8 











5 


Inch.of rain & 




























melted snow, 

X>oy» of 

N. wind. 


218 2.92 


1.53 


1.18 


2.84 


4.96 


2.49 


3-85 


2.76 


6.79 


8.61 


2.52 


8713 


1.6 





1.5 


,1.6 


8 


85 


2 


6 


1.5 


2.6 





1 


23 


N.B. « 


4.5 


1 


8 


5 


6.5 


4 


5.5 


1 


8 


4 


6 


1 


43.5 


B. » 


.5 


2.5 


1.5 








.5 


1.6 


1.5 


a.5 


1 


2 


1.6 


14 


S. E. »« 


2 


5 


5 


8.6 


4.5 


2.5 


8.6 


1.5 


1 


1.6 


6 


3.6 


88.6 


8. 


1 


1.5 


1.5 


1.5 


1 


1.5 


1 





1 


2.5 





1 


135 


S. W. " 


4.5 


1 


8.5 


8 


2.5 


2 


8 


46 


8 


6.6 


4 


6 


47.5 


W. « 


6 


7 


8.5 


4 


6.5 


7 


6 


8 


105 


6 


4.5 


1.6 


76.5 


N. W. •« 11 1 10 1 


6.5 6.5' 8 > 9 I 


8.6 


9.5 


8.5 


7 


8.5 


16.6109.6 



Vm. METEOBOLOGICAL TABLES FOB LAMBEBTVILLE, N. J. 
Lot. 40° 23' N., Long. 74" 56' W. ; by L. H. Parsons. 

1. SUMHABT FOB THB YbAB BNDIKO JUNB 30, 1847. 



'July. 



t January. 



X January. 



f NoTember. 



Digitized 



by Google 



M «T m6t 0tJOefCAI. tHtMttAttd*. 



[{•Ml 



3. TTbathxe tok TkAE unumo Jims 90, 1847. 



MbnklM. 
18i6-7. 


1 


• 

1 


ii 


|| 1846-7. 


1 


1 


fl 


ii 

6.886 
6J66 
.786 
8J81 
8JM 


§&■ 

November, 
December, 
Jeiuitf7,'47, 


1 
S 
• 

4 


4 
4 


• 

9 
8 
2 
18 
2 
4 


18 
18 
6 
7 
18 
10 
7 


8.441 
7^1 
2U 
2.64S 
6.810 
8.892 
4.892 


JUM, 


» 


8 
8 

1 
4 

8 


10 
18 

I 

10 


T«r, 


fiO 


118 


144^68 



^ FedbeUj elew, or enttnly ekmdjr, 4«iiig tiie irfaole dnj. 



3. AnWAL MbAV, AHI> EXTSBltX TnCPSXATUBS. 





S 


S 


ii 


i 




1 




i 


1 


^ 

»• 


P4 




« 


^ 


a 


1 


1 


1887 


47.02 


68.28 


46.80 


01 


Aug. 6 


S 


fM>.14 


1888 


47.01 


67.76 


48.68 


m 


July 11 


Pee. 81 


w* 


1880 


6000 


60.06 


48.96 


96 


July 19 


1 


Jaa.1 


«" 


1840 


4866 


68.41 


4709 


SI 


J5yl6 


-4J 


Feb. 8 


^ 


1841 


46.41 


66.62 


46.88 


Jb]ie8 


j 


Jaii.4 


m2 


46.20 


67.29 


47.62 


& 




F^.17 


78^ 


1848 
1844 


46.40 
.44.49 


66.40 
67.64 


47.06 
47.d 


1 


Dee. 14 
Jan. 28 


90 


1846 


45.60 


68.26 


47.86 


9Si 


Feb. 9 


,1846 


46.62 


68.00 


48.06 


w 


Jo^U 


1 


FM>.27 


s? 


Myewi, 


46.81 


67.77 


47.64 


«e» 




-6 




1«* 



4. Atskaob MoiTTHLY Mbak, voft TxN Tbam, fsom 1S97 to 1848, 

nffOLUSITS. 



■onOtt. 


S 

•^ 

»» 






i»™»7. 

SSSST'. •.•••. •.•••. 
^5^'. •.•.•.-.•.•.• . 

?L.' ••■•■•'•■•* • 

October, 

NoTember, 

December, 


21.22 
26.82 
88.18 
44.66 
6699 
66.06 
70.68 
68.19 
69X» 
44.76 
86.64 
26.90 


86.98 
84 77 
46.66 
*7.06 
68.18 
76.89 
81.97 
7888 
71.61 
68.67 
46.96 
86.78 


28.82 

si 

66.26 
68.86 
68.81 
67.41 
69.16 
47.20 
88.64 
29.67 



Digitized 



by Google 



1348 J 



M;»T]$0»OV>4tCAl. INFOBHATIOV. 



87 



IX METEOROLOGICAL TAKLBS FOB WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Summary of the Meteorological Observatkna made at the National Observatory , 
Washington, D. C, North Lot, 38° 63' 39" 25'". Loi^. West of Green- 
wich, ir 3' 30". From Janmry Ist to December Slst, 1846. By Lieut. M. 
F. Maury. 



' 




Mmm or the bttODMter. 


Means of external ther- 
mometer. 


^ 


» 


a 


^ 


It 


a 


^9 


^ 




UxmlbM. 


■ -< 


f^ 


fk 


I 


4 


»4 


Ai 




o 


00 


« 


(B 


a» 


00 


o» 


18M. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 




„ 






Jamuuy, 


80.042 


29.995 


30 042 


.047 


30.026 


33^.9 


4^.4 


884 


38!2 


Feteuary, 


30.146 


80.081 


80.026 


J20 


30.068 


33.2 


89.1 


81.8 


84.5 


March, 


30.032 


29.988 


29.993 


.094 


29.988 


47.1 


55. 


42.8 


^.3 


^' 


30.156 


80.090 


30.112 


.065 


80.119 


60. 


65.7 


53.1 


59.6 


29,927 


29.876 


29.897 


.051 


29.900 


71.1 


7a6 


64.8 


69.8 


JuBe, 


30.009 


29^969 


29.957 


.052 


29.978 


72.2 


76.1 


78.3 


73.9 


July, 


30.000 


29.978 


29.975 


.034 


29.987 


76.6 


80.4 


77.9 


78.8 




30.068 


30.028 


30.009 


.049 


30.030 


76.9 


82.5 


76.6 


78.7 


30.093 


80.043 


30.083 


.060 


80.073 


71. 


80.1 


68 J> 


78.2 


October, 


80.164 


a0.098 


30.115 


.056 


30.122 


54. 


63.9 


52.6 


56.8 


VoYemhety 


30.076 


30.011 


30.050 


.065 


80.046 


50.8 


55.2 


47.9 


51.1 


December, 


30.085 


80.048 


80.071 


.087 


30.068 


88.9 


44.1 


87.1 
54.9 


40. 
58.5 


AWHU^mMOEk, 


30.065 


30.008 


80028 


.060 


30.084 1 57.4 


63.2 







2. 


WmDf AHD Ol<WDB. 








Mootlijv. 


I^weofthftviiwjljO^^ 




Quantity of clouds, 0—10. 


St 


^ 


. n 


ti 


a 


» 


S* 


ii 


l^i 


184jB, 




Ai 

00 


pi 


|i 




Ai 


A4 


s^ 


January, 


2. 


2.1 


1.9 


2. 


6.6 


5.9 


5.5 


e. 


2.210 


Febmaiy, 


13 


2.4 


1.9 


2.2 


6.5 


6.2 


4.8 


6.8 


, 1.660 


Mtodi,'^* 


n 


8.7 


2.2 


2.3 


4.8 


6.6 


4.9 


n 


&150 


^ 


2>6 


1.9 


2.1 


8.8 


4.5 


4.2 


a220 


2.1 


2.1 


1.8 


2. 


6.9 


6.7 


6.2 


6.3 


5.686 


Ame, 


1.9 


2.3 


1.5 


1.9 


7.5 


6.6 


6.2 


6.4 


5.020 


JW^ 


2. 


2.1 


1.6 


1.9 


4.7 


5.8 


6.3 


5.3 


8.470 




1.3 


2.1 


1.4 


1.6 


5.5 


5.5 


4. 


5. 


6.440 


1.7 


2.1 


1.3 


1.7 


2.9 


8.7 


3.1 


32 


0.260 


October, 


1.8 


2.3 


1.6 


1.9 


8.8 


8.7 


2;5 


3.5 


3.362 


Nioyember, 


2. 


It 


2. 


2.1 


7. 


6.9 


6.1 


6.3 


6.571 


December, 


2. 


1.6 


2. 


6.3 


6.4 


6.3 


6. 


1.676 


AnTiTi«.i mean, 


1.9 


2.3 


1.7 


2. 


5.5 


6.5 


4.6 


5.8 


41.628 



In ttie mode of notation used for the ^rind/i and doads,— fbr the fonner, dmotaa a 
perfect calm; and 6, the greatest Tii^nce of the -wind* For the latter, denotes a sky 
irttfaoot any doods } and 10, a sky completely oyercast. 



Digitized 



by Google 



88 



MBTBOBOLOOICAL INVOR]L4.TIOir. 



[1848. 



X. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOB THE UNIVEBSITT 

OF NORTH CAROLINA, AT CHAPEL HILL. 

Z<rt.35-54'2I "iV. Long, 19^" 17 80" W, 

By James PhillipSy Prof. Mathematics and Nat. PhUoaophy, 





Barometer. 




1 


a 


^ 


a 


1 


S 


S' 


a 


Months. 


J 


< 


P4 


Ai 


1 


< 


P4 


Ai 




OQ 


o» 


CO 


o* 


OQ 


o* 


CO 


o» 


Jane, 1846, . . 


wm 


29:647 


^m 


^16^ 


66.7 


7L6 


613" 


70.9 


JiiIjV . . . 


29.655 


29.679 


29.676 


29.669 


70.6 


76.6 


86. 


74.4 


September,' . * . ' 


29.694 


29.717 


29.712 


29.708 


Tias 


76.97 


86.65 


76.71- 


29.729 


29.764 


29.736 


29 731 


66.2 


78.5 


82.1 


72.2 


October, . . . 


29.742 


29 774 


29.760 


29.76fl 


61.8 


69.8 


68.4 


68.8 


NoTembw, . 


29.666 


29.694 


29.678 


29.672 


48.66 


68.2 


607 


a.9 


December, 
January, 1847, 


29.729 


29.748 


29.725 


29.728 


40.4 


,46.5 


67.3 


46.9 


29.742 


29.775 


29.758 


29.739 


88.6 


42.7 


49.9 


426 


FebruaiT, 


29.615 


29 641 


29.618 


29.627 


40. 


46.7 


66.6 


461 


March, . . . 


29.674 


29.705 


29.682 


29.686 


42.1 


48.4 


67.6 


48.4 


April, . . . 


29.649 


29.788 


29.702 


29.684 


68.2 


69.6 


785 


614 


^j: . . . 


29.689 
P9.676 


29.699 
29.706 


29.698 
29.690 


29.608 
ar687 


69.8 


621 


70.6 


64.8 


Mean, . . . 


64.07 


69.46 


68.91 


60.42 







9 


Clearness firasn 
OtolO. 


1 
1 

12 


1 














S 










5 


& 




1 


^ 


a 


:^' 


^ 


1 


»' 


^ 


S* 


■go 


1 


Months. 


1 




P4 
00 

80.16 


P4 

"70:75 


7d.W66 


■O 


8.8 


"8:6 




June, 1846, 


67.26 


72.46 


July, 


706 


77.6 


88.6 


72.2 


76.4616 


4.2 


8.7 


4.2 


6.2 


13 


28 


s 


SeptCTiber, 


70.98 


76.4 


8476 


76.74 


77 8927 


4.4 


5.2 


4. 


5.9 


10 


29 


*2 


66. 


74.42 


81.88 


71.48 


78 4468 


6.6 


6.4 


6.8 


6.7 


3 


27 


2 


October, ' . . 


47.2 


69.3 


67.6 


67.6 


67.9677 


6.7 


6.9 


6.2 


6.9 


3 


26 


(j 


Norember, 


46.98 


6346 


69.6 


60.73 


62.4876 


4. 


4.3 


4.8 


6.4 


7 


29 


1 


Deoembw, . 
January, 1847, . 


88.96 


46.09 


64.22 


48.65 


46.6182 


44 


4.6 


5.6 


7. 


5 


29 


2 


36.4 


42.6 


474 


40.4 


41.6814 


4.8 


4. 


41 


5. 


12 


27 


4 


February, 


87.4 


46.7 


68.6 


448 


46.6045 


8.9 


4.9 


4.6 


66 


8 


25 


S 


March, . 


40.45 


48.5 


56.03 


46.69 


47.9194 


8.9 


8.9 


3.7 


3.9 


7 


29 


2 


April, . 


51.08 


60.16 


71.96 


60.60 


60.7000 


6.1 


5.6 


5.4 


59 


8 


26 


4 


mj:. . . 


57.6 


632 


71.4 


63. 


68.8024 
69.7115 


8.6 
4.6 


8.8 

IT 


4.2 
T6 


6.7 
6T 


10 

98 


29 


2 


Mean, 


52.49 


59.92 


67.67 


68.18 


333 


33 



First frost, October 19. 

Frogs singing, February 7(li. Peach blossomed, February 24th. Prunus chioasa 
Uoomed March lltb. Slight ftll of snow, March 18th. Gerds canadensis bloomed 
March 29th. First martin, March SOth. Whip-poor-will singing, April Uth. 

Hottest day, 22d August,— 
Bazometer, sunrise, 29.674; 9 A. M. 29.674 ; 8 P. M. 29.660 ; 9 P. M. 29.660 ; msMi, 29.662. 
Attached ther. " 77. " 84. " 06. " 86. " 85.600. 

Detached «. « 78. « 86. « 96.6 " 86. " 86.125. 

Attached and detached thermometer, mean, 86.8126. 
Coldest day, 8th January,— 

Barometer, sunrise, 29.800 ; 9 A. M. 29.990 ; 8 P. M. 29.980 ; 9 P. M. 29.980 ; mean, 29.8075. 
Attached ther. *< 17. *' 22. " 28. " 21. " 22. 

Detached " «« 10J5 " 19. " 26. " 19. «« 18.876. 

Attached and detached thermometer, mean, 20.1876. 



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by Google 



1848.] 



'XCTXOSOLOOICAL IinrOR]£A.TIO]r. 



89 



XI. METEOROLOGICAL TABLES FOR SAVANNAH, Ga. 
For the year ending May, 1847. By Dr, John F. Posey, 



BABOmfB. 


Wt^VtlL, 


Lowest. 


MonttOyMean. 




^ 


S 


a 




S 


S 


a 


a 


a 


ai 


MdBfthB. 


^ 


< 


P4 


0k 


^ 


< 


0k 


P4 


< 


04 


fk 




fc« 


d 


fc» 


t' 


o« 


fe« 


fc« 


M 


K- 


1846.. 






















> 


Jun*, 


25 


80.12 


80.16 


80.13 


11 


29.84 


29.81 


29.71 


29.97 


29.99 


29.95 


J«^ 


18 


.12 


.16 


.12 


1 


.86 


.84 


.86 


.99 


.99 


.99 


ISS^. 


8 
11 


.10 
.16 


.10 
.14 


.07 
.11 


1 
27 


.89 
.74 


.87 
.62 


.85 
.69 


80.01 30.00 
.00 ; 29.90 


.99 
.95 


October, 


8 


.22 


.28 


.28 


18 


t .87 


.66 


.74 


JOS 


8008 


80.08 


Kof«iia>er, 


30 


.26 


.80 


.80 


25 


.66 


.65 


.81 


.02 


.00 


.01 


Deoomber, 


28 


.88 


.40 


.44 


17 


.88 


.47 


.61 


.18 


.18 


.11 


1847. 
























Janiuiy, 


18 


.47 


.87 


.88 


29 


.98 


.69 


.77 


.16 


.10 


.12 


Kebniaix, 


24 


.26 


.25 


.15 


27 


.60 


.60 


.67 


.02 


29.99 


.01 


Maroh, ' 


17 


.66 


♦ .61 


.66 


21 


.66 


.60 


.68 


.09 


30.06 


.06 


ApiV 


1» 


.85 


.4) 


.88 


29 


.92 


.88 


.79 


.06 


.01 


.08 


May? 


6 


.06 


.08 


.09 


18 


.68 


.66 


.61 


29.89 


.88 


29.88 


Annual m 


flan. 


. 


. 


. 




. 


80.08 < 80.01 > 80.01 | 



, •Bif^besL 



t l/0W9tt, 



2. Thbrmometbb. 





Hi^best 


LOWMt. 


Monthly 
Mean. 


It 


1 




ii 


S 


a 




a 


iQ 


i^ 


^ 


a 


a 


Mon«lif. 


1 


< 


P4 


pi 


i 


< 


^ 

M 


fk 


< 


pi 

CI 


pi 


p 


1 


1846. 




















• 








June, . . 


1 


79 


•97 


88 


28 


66 


80 


74 


74.6 


B4.9 


78.6 


5.646 


10 


Jni^ . . . 


7 


80 


96 


86 


19 


62 


67 


68 


75.5 


B6.7 


80.1 


6.210 


14 


s5«S)0r, . ' . 


28 


78 


98 


79 


11 


78 


80 


79 


76.7 


37.6 


B1.8 


6.605 


14 


18 


78 


94 


87 


28 


60 


72 


66 


72.6 


8a9 


79.4 


7.485 


12 


October, . . 


9 


68 


82 


76 


20 


46 


62 


57 


59.6 


74.7 


68.5 


7.160 


3 


Norember, . 


8 


68 


79 


78 


27 


26 


68 


48 


62.7 


65.7 


59.6 


.666 


8 


Beoember, 


81 


63 


78 


60 


20 


26 


46 


84 


46.9 


62.8 


68.7 


1.865 


6 


16 


68 


78 


68 


8 


tl7 


88 


28 


47.1 


60.3 


Bi.7 


2Jm 


10 


Febmaiy, 


19 


68 


85 


66 


12 


26 


68 


42 


46.3 


66.1 


53.1 


4.165 


8 


March, . . 


11 


66 


88 


76 


17 


82 


61 


38 


48.9 


67.1 


55.9 


6.555 


6 


April, . . 


4 


66 


87 


72 


16 


49 


61 


66 


61.9 


77.2 


688 


1.806 


6 


May, . . . 


81 


70 


87 


77 


5 


66 


64 


62 


649 


76.4 


71 JJ 


9.985 


12 


Mean, 

Total, 


• 




160.64 


74.86 


66.85 






. 






. 






. 


. 






60.876 


97 



• HigMt) June 1, . 
f Loweet, January 8, 



vr 

17 



80* 



8* 



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90 METEOROLOGICAL UfVOSMATlOV. [1848. 

Xn. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR NATCHEZ, Mim. 
Lot, 81" 34'. Img, 91" 24' 42" ; &y Hennf Tooley, Sr. 



Coldest daj, January 11th. • 

Hotteat day, July 29th. 

Higheat barometer, 80. 81. Janaary 28d. 

Lowest " 29. 24. April 28th. 

TTTT METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR BLOOMINGTON, Iowa. 
For the year 1846. By Mr. T, S. Parvin. 



Warmeat Day, July 8—81' 8'. Coldest, Feb. 26 H"- fflghest Temp. July 8 and Angost 

12— 94*. Lowest, Eebruary28- —8°. Mean, W, Range, ICO*. The MiasisBippi 
opened Janaary 29 ; closed, January 6, (1847.) 



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1848.] 



JIETEOKOLOOICAL INFORMATIOH. 



91 



^ 






a 

I 



^ 



S 

o 



i 
i 

i 

O 



•aSnvH T«> 


§S 


§ 


s 


s 


1 1 


•pioownwjjxa 


"* 


T 


<* 


& 


f -r 


•?«9H»»«r»M0 


s 


s 


s 


^ 


^ 1 




g58 


8 




ii 




•OTur 


J 

s 


a 
€" 


8' 






•iC«K 


r 


:^ 






SI ? 


•tjidy 


Sg" 


r 


a 

s" 


8" 


i.^ 


niMVit 




,5 


Sr" 


ft" 




•Xivniqa^ 


9 

8* 


a" 


-S 
S 


ss'* 




• 'XlVUUVf 


8 






a" 


.^^ 


'jaqmaaea 


.3 


,^ 


»5 


s. 

r 




•jaqtoaAOX 


,^ 


r* 


,s 


s? 

«" 


^ s; 

^^s*^ .^« 

9 ^ 


•jeqovK) 


r 




1^ 


s" 




•aaqwre^dag 


,S 


a? 

8-^ 


:- 


8? 

t5 




•!|Bn»aT 


s^ 








8 f? 


•Mr 


S3 








Si s 


1 


II 


II 

i 


II 


II II II 



? S 

11 



(^ , 



^1 






^ I 
•"I 



9 
1. 



CL. 

CO 



CO 



I I I .3 

II 1-fe- 

"I 



'i'i 



a'3 






I' 

.a 8 

2 



si 

d d 
OO 






oi 

I 






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92 MSTsoBOLOQicA^ mros^Lktiov, 1184a. 

XV. FLOWERING OF FRUIT TREES IN 1847. 



FlacM. 


Peach. 


Cherry. 


Apple, 


Kwinebunk, Me., 


May 25 






Cambridge, Mass., 


May 10 


M»yl5 


May 25 


New Haven, Conn., 


May 7 


May 7 


May 21 


Perth Amboy, N. J., 


April 26 


April 29 


May 7 


Lambertville, N. J., 


i^ril 22 


April 2« 


May 4 


Philadelphia, Penn., 


April 20 


April 25 


. M^y 1 


Baltimore, Md., 


April 12 


AprU 16 


April 24 


*Kinff Georee Ctt, Va. 
Natchez, ifiss., 


April 12-17 
MArch I 


April 10 
Plum, Feb. 15 


April 21 


Bloomington, Iowa, 


April 25 


April 26 


April 27 


Sandusky, Ohio, 


April 21 


April 25 
May 5 


April 28 


Madison, Wise. Ter. 


May 5 



* A serere frost on fhel9tli of AprU, kiUed nearly all the froiti ttiezs ^&» Q^pr ftosts 
a late aa 17fih of Hay. 



XVL Flowebixg Sbasok ok Hospital Hill, Worcester, Mass^ for 
Eight Years. 



Trees, Shrubs, 
and Plants. 



isae. 



1840. 



1811. 



18tt. 



1848. 



1844. 



1846. 



1846. 



Grocns 

LiTerwort .••»... 
Leatherwood* . . • • 

Bloodroot 

Wfaid Flower • • . • 

Cherry Tree 

TraiUng ArbatnS' 

PeTer Bush 

ABssoori Currant 

Peach Tree 

Wild Cherry 

Cohoflh 

Apple Tree 

Flowering Alm'nd 

LUae 

Tar. Honeysuckle 

BhadBush 

Bed Maple 

Oalicanthus 

Mountain Ash • • • 

Dandelion 

Daphne • • • 

Pyrus Japonlca* • 
]B&aoinfih' ••••••• 

^ue^oiet* 

Persian Lilac • • • • 

Actea 

Qera. Maculatiun 
Bnssian Rose • • • • 

Bhodjora 

Scotch Boee 

Horse Ghesnut* • • 
Nardssns 



AprU 8 




w 


i( 


16 


i( 


18 


t( 


20 


(( 


28 


liiV 


5 


44 


6 


u 


11 


U 


10 


(C 


12 


(I 


16 


C( 


18 


I( 


2 



Ajrill 



AprU 28 



19 Ma; 

24 

26 



y 8 



AptH 7 
" 11 
" 12 



7 

16 

AprU 17 



A^ 
Bfay 



20 Ma: 



ajr 8 



MajT 



it 28 

« 24 

" 26 

u 27 

« 27 



24 
Mar. 27 
My 1 

U|April22 
6 



Apr. 12 



AprU 16 



16 



8 .... 
12 « 
16 



AprU or 
^* 15 
" 18 
" 12 



28 



24 Ma: 
27 



?r 



" 27 



9 



AprU 28 



80 
AprU 28 



April 26 



28 June 



♦* 14 
« 29 
" 8 



April 
May 



UMay 2 

26 " ' 

24 

26 

18 AprU 20 



28 



12 



Apr. 

May 



May 1 



** 16 



My 



4 
6 
8 

" 18 

Apr. 27 

^* 10 

May 16 



May 18 
*^ 11 
21 



June 
May 12 

rvr 27 



May 14 

*• 18 
June 8 
May 8 

»f 26 
20 
19 



AprU 
M»^ 



23 Apr. 28 

8Mar.29 

My 



19 



Apr. 19 
" 8 
23 
22 
27 

May 17 



May 16 



« 27 



21 



u 17 



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by Google 



1848.] 



MSTSOBOLOOICAL IiarOKMl.TIOV. 



93 



XVIL Table shewing the lime of Leafing of Forest Treeg / Flowering of the 
Apple; Days when*Snow feU^ and Depth of Snow^ in Turner, Oxford Co,, 
"Maine, for tMrty-seven years. Furnished by A, Barton, Norway, Maine, 



Y«M8. 


DttTSirfaenlfa- 

ple, Beach and 

Bixch trees in 

fkiUleaf: 


Days when Ap- 
ple trees in 


Days when 
Snow first feU 


Days when Snow 
fell last in 


Depth of 
Snow. 


^o. of 




ftdl bloom. 


in Autumn. 


Spring. 


Snow- 
ed. 


1810 


May 23 


May 29 


Oct. 11 










1811 


« 14 


« 21 


« 25 


April 
Mayv 


24 




60 


1812 


June 1 


Jane 9 


" 13 


7 


ft. in. 


61 


1813 


May 26 


« 3 


« 5 


April 
May 


25 


n 


70 


1814 


« 24 


May 27 


7 


3 


65 


1815 


June 4 




" 24 


« 


19 


8 7 


65 


1816 


" 5 


Jane 9 


« 6 


(( 


14 


8 7 


74 


1817 


May 30 


" 6 


« 10 


Agra 


25 


9 7 


62 


1818 


" 31 


« 3 


" 23 


22 


8 8- 


73 


1819 


June 4 


« 3 


" 13 


(I 


26 


7 8- 


66 


1820 


May 26 


May 26 


'« 26 


May 


26 


8 Oj 


57 


1821 


" 29 


Jane 3 


« 19 


« 


5 


9 3 


70 


1822 


« 26 


May 28 


" 15 


u 


6 


6 9i 


71 


1823 


June 1 


Jane 2 


Sept 30 


I( 


9 


8 7 


69 


1824 


May 31 


May 31 


Oct 23 


M 


21 


6 8f 


68 


1825 


" 19 


" 23 


« 19 


(( 


5 


7 21 


63 


1826 


« 17 


« 20 


« 30 


April 


23 


5 5 


66 


1827 


« 23 


" 25 


« 16 


May 


12 


6 4 


53 


1828 


« 24 


" 29 


« 15 


April 


21 


6 3} 
8 5} 


67 


1829 


« 24 


« 25 


1 


« 


27 


58 


1830 


" 14 


« 15 


Nov. 22 


« 


24 


6 2 


53 


1831 


" 18 


« 21 


9 


May 


5 


6 6i 


48 


1832 


June 4 


Jane 7 


7 


a 


1 


9 1 


65 


1833 


May 23 


May 26 


Oct. 14 


April 
Mky 


23 


7 9i 
5 4i 


57 


1834 


« ^ 


Jane 1 


Sept. 29 


15 


49 


1836 


June 1 


" 6 


Nov. 7 


« 


16 


8 \l 

9 4 


78 


1836 


" 1 


" 4 


Oct 12 


(t 


13 


68 


1837 


« 6 


« 7 


" 13 


AprU 


30 


8 9 


66 


1838 


*• 4 


" 7 


" 19 


Mky 


18 


4 5} 


66 


1839 


May 27 


May 27 


Nov. 1 


April 
Miiy 


18 


6 : 


62 


1840 


« 24 


« 27 


Oct 25 


5 


6 : 


52 


1841 


• « 31 


Jane 6 


" 18 


ii 


16 


9 l\ 


72 


1842 


June 2 


« 5 


" 20 


April 


14 


7 6^' 


62 


1843 


May 27 


" 5 


« 27 


« 


8 


"3 


70 


1844 


" 13 


May 20 


" 31 


March30 | 


48 


1845 


« 29 


" 31 


" 20 


May 


8 


9 6 


71 


1846 


" 17 


" 24 


« 18 


April 


15 


!,^ 


51 



In 1816 some snow fell on the 6th, 7th> and 8th of Jane. 

A day is reckoned from 12 o'clock at night antil 12 the sacceeding night. 
Trees in fall leaf, when the leaves are smooth ; and apple trees in fall 
bloom, when most blossoms are open. 



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94 M9T90BOLOOICAL IJtlfOMtU^VtOJf. [IM* 

XVm. Fro9t8 and Snows, Depth of Snom, and Flowering of Fruit Tren^ 
in LambertviUe, New Jersey ^ for eight years. By L. B. Parsons. 



nnt and Latt Vro8t8 and SnowB. 


Flowering of Fniit Treei. 


Year. 


First 
Froetin 
Autamn 


Last 
Frost in 
Spring. 


First 

Snow in 

FalL 


List 

Snow in 
Spring. 


Snow. 
ineh. 


Peach. 


CUeery. 


Apple. 


1839-40 

1840-1 

1841—2 

1842-a 

184a-4 

1844-6 

1846-6 

1846-7 


Sept. 14 

" 13 

Oet 2 

^i 

« 28 
i< 22 
« 28 


AprU21 

jJLl2 
" 2 
Mi^ 18 
^^ 81 
« 20 
« 18 


Maic]»24 

Not. 18 April 14 

" 2 MarchaO 

" 16 April 7 

" 7 MarchaO 

Oct. 90 April 8 

Not. 29 ^* 18 

u 24 "18 


18 

16 

21 Maxeh27 

29 April 80 Mas 9 

26 '* 14 Aprill? 

26 « i ^» 11 

89 «< 18 *« » 

89 « 22 V i6 


April 16 
May 11 
AnrilU 
Mi^J^ 



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THE 



AMERICAN ALMANAC, 

VOR 

1848. 



PABT II. 



Digitized 



by Google 



Digitized 



by Google 



UNITED STATES 



Pbxbidents or the Unitbd Statxb fbom thb adoption of thb 

CONSTITUTIOH. 









Term Began. 


Term Ended. 


1. 


U60r|[9 W&flhiiigtoii) 


Virginia, 


April 80, 1789, 


March8,17Srr. 


2. 


JdbnAOajnSj 




March 4, 1797, 


March 8, 1801. 


8. 


Thomas Jefferson, 


Virginia, 


March 4, 1801, 


March 8, 1809. 


4. 




Virginia, 


March 4, 1809, 


March 8, 1817. 


6. 


Jsmes Monroe, 


Virginia, 


March 4, 1817, 


March 8, 1826. 


e. 


JohnQnineyAdsms, 




March 4, 1826, 


March 8, 1829. 


7. 


Andrew Jackson, 


Tennessee, 


March 4, 1829, 


March 8, 1887. 


8. 


Martin Tan Bnren, 


New York, 


March 4, 1887, 


March 8, 1841. 


9. 


•William Heniy Harrison, 


Ohio, 


March 4, 1841, 


•April 4,1841. 


la 


John Tyler, 


Virginia, 


April 4,1841, 


March 8, 1845. 


11. 


James Knox Polk, 
•DiedfaiOffloe. 


Tennessee, 


March 4, 1846, 





I. EXECUTIVE GOVERNMENT. 

The 15tfa Presidential term of four years, since the establishment of the 
government of the United States under the Constitntion, began on the 4th 
of March, 1845 ; aAd it will expire on the dd of March, 1849. 



JAMES K. POLK, of Tennessee, President, 
Gbobge M. Dallas, of Pennsylvania, Vice-Pretideint, 

The Cabinet. 



Salary. 

$25,000 

5,000 



The following are the principal officers in the executive department of the 
government, who form the Cabinet, and who hold tiieir offices at the wfll of 
^e President. 



James Buchanan, 
Bobert J. Walker, 
William L. Marcy, 
Jdm T. Mason, 
Cave Johnson, 
27athan Clifford, 

9 



Pennsylvania, 

Mississippi, 

New York, 

Virginia, 

Tennessee, 

Maine, 



Secretary of State, 
Secretary of the Treasury, 
Secretary of War, 
Secretary of the Navy, 
Postmaster General, 
Attorney- General, 



$6,000 
6,000 
6,000 

.6,000 
6,000 
4,000 



Digitized 



by Google 



98 



UiriTKD BTATK8. 



[1848. 



DXFAXTICSHT OT StATS. 

Jamei Bachanan, SicreUuy. 



Wm. S.DeiTkk, Aethg ChUf 
Oerk, 

DipUmatie Bmrtau, 
Akx. H. Derrid^ Garh^ 
William Hunter, Jr. do. 
Francis Maikoe, do. 

W. C. Zantzinger, do. 

Comdar Bitreotu, 
Bobert & Chew, Cleric^ 
Sam. L. Gonvemear, do, 

Ihmestic Bureau, 
Edinn W. Hatter, Clerk, 
Lund Washington, Jr. do. 



Wm. C. Beddall, CUrk^ $1,000 

$8,000| Edward Stabb8,Z>is6i(r.J^cn<, 1,450. 
Bobert Greenhow, Trandator, 1,600 
George JEiSl^IJbrariancaid Clerk 

of ComnUssiotts, 1,400 



1,600 

1,500 

1,400 

900 



Patent Office. 

Edmund Borke, Cm. PaL 8,000 
H. H. SylTester, Chief Clerk, 1,700 
1,400 Charles G. Page, } Exam-^ < 1,500 
1*400 W.P.N, iltzgerald,) mers. (1,500 
Henrj Stone, \ AjuitL < 1,250 

TlKmias G. Clinton, ) Exam. X 1,250 
l,400|A.L.McIntire, DraMghtman, l^OO 
1,4001 Hazard Knowles, Mackimst, 1,250 



TBrniSUXT DXFARTXBXT. 



Bobert J. Walker, SeereUuy. 



McC. Young, Chief CMs, 2,000 

Ccftnptrouers. 

James W.McCulloh,ls<CbiRp. 3,500 

James Lamed, Chief Clerk, 1,700 

Albion K Parris, 2d Comp. 3,000 

J. 11 Brodhead, Chief Clark, 1,700 

AudUort, 

Wm. Collins, 1st Auditor, 3,000 

Geo. R Jones, Chief CUrk, 1,700 

J. M. McCalla, 2d Auditor, 3,000 

J. F. Polk, Chief Clerk, 1,700 

Peter Hagner, 3d Auditor, 3,000 

Ja»s Thompson, Cki^f Clerk, 1,700 

Aaron O. Bayton, 4tft ^ttdt^, 3,000 

Th. H. GiUis, Cliief Clerh 1,700 

S. Pleasantott, 5^ Auditor, 3,000 

Thomas Mostin, Chief Clerk, 1,700 



Treasurer's Office. 

William Seld^, Trwswrer, 3,000 
W. B. Bandolph, Chief Clerk, 1,700 

Assistant IVwswrers. 

Heniy Hubbard, Boston, 2,500 

Wm. C. Bouck, New York, 4,000 
Jas. B. Snowden, PhUaddphia, 2,500 
Wm. Laval, Charleston, 2,500 

J. B. Macmuordo, New Orleans, 2,500 
George Penn, St. Louis, 2,500 



Register's Office. 

Daniel Graham, Register, 
Mich. Nonrse, Chief Clerk, 

Solicitor's Office. 
Ransom H. Gillet, Solicitor, 



3,000 
1,700 



3,500 



Digitized 



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1848.] 



EXECUTIVE OOTEBNMENT. 



99 



Salaiy 
LcandOjgiice. 

Richard M. Yonng, Com, Gen. $3,000 
S. H. Laughlin, Recorder, 2,000 

James H. Piper, Chief Clerk, 1,800 
Jos. S. Wilson, Chief Clerk of 

Private Land Claims, 1,800 



SiOaiy. 
John Wilson, Chief Clerk of 

Surveys, $1,800 

James Knox Walker, Secrdary 

to sign Land Patents, 1,500 



Wab Dbpabtment. 



William Ij. Marcy, Secretary, 



Arch. Campbell, Jr. Ch. Clerk, 2,000 

Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

William Medill, Commissioner, 3,000 
John T. Cochran, Oiief Clerk, 1,700 

Pension Bureau, 

Ja's li. Edwards, Commissioner, $2,500 
Geo. W. Cramp, Chief Clerk, 1,600 

Adjutant General. 

Boger Jones, Adjutant General, 
Jolm A. Hepburn, CM^ Clerk, 

Qaartermaster'i Bureau. 

T. S.Jesap,Br.Mdj.Gen.^Q.M. Gen. 
Wm. A. Gordon, Prin. Clerk, 1,600 

Pay Bureau, 

N. Towson, Brev. Br. Gen. f- 

Paymaster General 
Nathan Fry, Chief Clerk, 1,700 



Subsistence Bureau. 
G. Gibson, Brev. Brig. Gen. Sf 
Com. Gen. of Subsistence. 
John C. Casey, Capt. ^ Assist. Com. 
Eichard Gott, Chief Clerk, 1,600 

Medical Sf Surgical Bureau. 
Thomas Lawson, Surg. Gen. 2,500 
H. L. Heiskell, Surgeon. 
R. Johnson, Chief Clerk, 1,150 

Engineer Bureaii. 
J. G. Totten, Col. ^ Chief Engineer. 
G. L. Welcker, Capt. ^ Assist. Eng. 
F. N. Barbarin, Chief Clerk, 1,200 

Topographical Bureau. 
John J. Abert, Col. ^ Chief Top. Eng. 
W. H. Swift, Capt. ^ Assist. Eng. 
Geo. Thompson, Chief Clerk, 1,400 

Ordnance Bureau. 
Geo. Talcott, Lt. Cd. in charge of Bur. 
W. Maynadier, Capt. ^ Assist. 
Geo. Bender, Chief dlerk. 1,200 



Navy Dbpabtment. 

John Y. Mason, Secretary. 
John Appleton, Chief Clerk, salary $2,000. 
Joseph Smith, Chief of the Bureau of Docks and Navy Yards, 
Lewis Warrington, do. do. Ordnance and Hydrography, 



3,500 
3,500 



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100 UNITSD STATES. [1848. 

Salaiy. 
Chas. W. Skinner, Chief of the Bureau of Construct Bepain ^ Equip. $3,000 
Gideon Welles, do. do, ProoiswM and Clothing, 3,000 

Thomas Harris, do. do. Med. and Surg. Instruments, 2,500 

Alex. D. Bache, Superintendent of the Coast Swrvof^ 6,000 



Post Office Depabtment. 

Cave Johnson, Postmaster General. 

Selah R. Hobbie, Ut Assistant Postmaster Gen., Contract Office, 2,500 

Wm. J. Brown, 2d do. do. do. Appointment Office, 2,500 

John Marron, 3d do. do. do. 2,500 

Wm. H. Dundas, Chief Clerk, Post Office Department, 2,000 

Peter G. Washington, Auditor of the Treasury for the Post Office, 3,000 

E. G. Eastman, Chief Clerk of the Auditor, 2,000 

Charles Douglass, Commissioner Public Buildings, 2,000 



Postmastebs in the Chief Towks and Cities. 
[Corrected in the Post-Office Department, July 23, 1847.] 



Cities. Postmaaten. 

Augusta, Me. A. R. Nichols. 

Bangor, Me. C. K. Miller. 

Bath, Me. Thomas Eaton. 

Brunswick, Me. T. S. McLellan. 

Calais, Me. J. C. Washburn. 

Hallowell, Me. David H. Goodno. 

Portland, Me. N. L. Woodbury. 
Robbinstown, Me. Jas. W. Balkam. 

Saco, Me. Bowen C. Greene. 

Concord, N. H. Jos. Robinson. 

Dover, N. H. Thos. Stackpole. 

Hanover, N. H. S. B. Douglass, 

Keene, N. H. Wm. L. Foster. 

Nashua, N. H Ch's P. Danforth. 
Portsmouth, N. H. Neh. Moses. 

Brattleboro', Vt. P. N. Palmer. 

Burlington, Vt. William Noble. 

Middlebury, Vt Bdw. D. Barber. 

Montpeliw, Vt Geo. W. Read. 



Cities. 
Andover, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Charlestown, Ms. 
Lowell, Mass. 
Lynn, Mass. 
Nantucket, Mass. 
N. Bedford, Mass. 
Newburyport, Ms. 
Northampton, Ms. 
Salem, Mass. 
Springfield, Ms. 
Taunton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Newport, R. I. 
Pawtucket, R. L 
Providence, R. L 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Middletown, Ct 



Postmasters. 
Samuel Phillips. 
Nathl Greene. 
Wm. Sawyer. 
Stephen S. Seavy. 
Benj. Mudge. 
Geo. F. Worth. 
Edw. W. Greene. 
Stephen Dsley. 
Amos H. Bullen. 
Benj. F. Browne. 
Harvey Ch^ln. 
Ch. R. Vickery. 
M. L. Fisher. 
Jos. Joslen. 
F. A. Sumner. 
W. B. Sayles. 
PhUo. F. Bamnm. 
Joseph Pratt 
Allen May. 



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P08TMASTSS8. 



101 



(Mm. PostmaBters. 

New Haren, Ct Ed. A. Mitchell. 
New London, Ct Stanly G. Trott 
Norwich, Conn. W. L'Hommediea. 
Albany, N. Y. Jaa. D. Wasson. 
Anbom, N. Y. Amos S. Rathbnn. 
Batavia,N. Y. F.Follctt. 
Bingh'pton, N. Y. John H. H. Park. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Henry C. Conklin. 
Buffalo, N. Y. Henry K. Smith. 
Canandaigna,N.Y.Tho8. B. Hahn. 
CatskiU, N. Y. W. W. Van Loan. 
Cooperst'n, N. Y. Robert Davis. 
Elmyra, N. Y. Levi J. Cooley. 
Genera, N. Y. Geo. M. Horton. 
Hudson, N. Y. Paul D. Carriqne. 
Itliaca, N. Y. J. M. McCormick. 
Lockport, N. Y. H. W. ScoveL 
Newboigh, N. Y. James Belknap. 
New York, N.Y. Robert H. Morris. 
Ogdensb'gh, N. YXuke Baldwin. 
Oswego, N. Y. D. P. Brewster. 
Owego, N. Y. S. B. Leonard. 
Poleepsie, N. Y. Egbert B. Killey. 
Rochester, N. Y. Henry Campbell. 
Rome, N. Y. J. Hathaway. 

Saratoga Sp. N.Y. Thos. J. Marvin. 
Schenectady, N.Y.James M. Bonck. 
Syracuse, N. Y. Wm. W. Teall. 
Troy, N. Y. George R. Davis. 

Utica, N. Y. A. G. Dauby. 

West Point, N. Y. C. Berard. 
Whitehall, N. Y. Atherton Hall. 
Newark, N. J. Wilson Knott. 
N. Brunswick, N J John Simpson. 
Paterson, N. J. Wm. D. Quinn. 
Princeton, N. J. W. R. Murphy. 
Trenton, N. J. Joseph Justice. 
Carlisle, Pa. Geo. Sanderson. 

Chambei8b'gh,PaJohn McClintock* 
Easton, Pa. Abraham Coryell. 

Erie, Pa. 4 Robert Cochran. 

Harrisboigh, Pa. James Peacock. 
Holldaysbti]^h,PaJohn Gorley. 

9* 



Cities. Postnuuiten. 

Lancaster, Pa. Mary Dickson. 
Philadelphia, Pa. Geo. P. Lehman. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Cham. McEibbin. 
Pottsville, Pa. M. Cochran. 
Reading, Pa. John K. Wright 
Wilkesbarre, Pa. E. B. Collins. 
Wilmington, Del. Wm. R. Sellers. 
Baltimore, Md. Jas. M. Buchanan. 
Cumberland, ,Md. Jacob Fetchtig. 
Frederick, Md. John Rigney. 
Hagerstown, Md. C. Hilliard. 
Alexandria, D. C.Daniel Bryan. 
Georgetown, D. C. H. W. Tilley. 
Washington, D. C.C. K. Gardner. 
Abii^on, Va. J. K. Gibson. 
Charlottesv'e, Va. T. Wayt. 
Fred'burg, Va. R. T. Thom. 
Lynchburg, Va. Robert Cawthon. 
Norfolk, Va. Alexander Gait 
Petersburg, Va. Wm. N. Friend. 
Richmond, Va. Thos. B. Bigger. 
Wheeling, Va. Alex. Newman. 
Winchester, Va. Henry F. Baker. 
Fayetteville,N. C. John McRao. 
GreensboK)',N. C.Wilson S. HiU. 
Newbem, N. C. W. G. Bryan. 
Raleigh, N. C. Wm. White. 
Wilmington, N.C. W. C.Bettencourt 
Camden, S. C. J. N. Gamewell. 
Charleston, S. C. Alfred Huger. 
Columbia, S. C. Benj. F. Rawls. 
Georgetown, S. C. Wm. McNulty. 
Yorkville, S. C. Samuel Melton. 
Athens, Ga. John Crawford. 

Augusta, Ga. E. B. Glascock. 
Columbus, Ga. John Forsyth. 
Darien, Ga. Charles O'Neal. 

Macon, Ga. Thos. L. Ross. 

MiUedgeville, Ga. E. Daggett - 
Savannah, Ga. G. Schley. 
Apalachicola, Fa. Joseph H. May. 
Pensacola, Fa. H. Kelly. 
Tallahassee, Fa. Miles Nash. 



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[1848. 



GitiM. 

Florence, Ala. 
Greensboro*, Ala. 
Huntsville, Ala. 
Mobile, Ala. 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Tnscfdoosa, Ala. 
Jackson, Miss. 
Natchez, Miss. 
Vicksburgh, Miss. 
N. Orleans, La. 
Little Bock, Ark. 
Columbia, Tenn. 
KnoxviUe, Tenn. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
Frankfort, Ky. 
Lexington, Ky. 
liOnisville, Ky. 
Maysville, Ky. 
Chillicothe, Ohio, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Cleveland, Ohio, 



Postmasters. 
Geo. W. Sneed. 
A. Stollenwerck. 
W. A. NunnaUy. 
J. W. Townsend. 
Neil Bine. 
Wm. D. Marrest 
C. R. Dickson. 
Woodson Wren. 
N. D. Coleman. 
Alex. G. Penn. 
Lambert Beardon. 
Jeremiah Cherry. 
Sam. W. Bell, Jr. 
M. B. Winchester. 
L. P. Cheatham. 
Ben. F. Johnson. 
Joseph Ficklin. 
Thomas J. Bead. 
Bich. H. Stanton. 
J. B. Anderson. 
Geo. Crawford. 
T. P. Spencer. 



Cities. Postmasters. 

Columbns, Ohio, Samuel Medary. 
Dayton, Ohio, J. W. McC(»^kle. 
Newark, Ohio, Levi J. Honghey. 
Steubenville,Ohio,W. O'Neal. 
Toledo, Ohio, Tru.C. Bvarts. 
Zanesville, Ohio, Israel Hoge. 
Ann Arbor, Midi. F. L B. Crane. 
Detroit, Mich. John S. Bagg. 
Evansville, Ind. B.F. Dupny. 
Indianapolis, Ind. Livings'n Dnnlap. 
Lafayette, Ind. Jacob Walker. 
Madison, Ind. Wm, M. Taylor. 
New Albany, Ind. Calvin W. Bnter. 
Terre Haute, Ind. Steph. G. Dodge. 
Yincennes, Ind. Elihu Stopt 
Alton, HI. Timothy Souther. 

Chicago, 111. Hart L. Stewart 

Galena, 111. J. L. Slaymaker. 

Jacksonville, Bl. Wm. M. Happy. 
Shawneetown, BL Joe. B. Barger. 
St Louis, Mo. John M. Wimer. 
Milwaukie, W. T. Josiah A, Noonan. 



Collectors of Customs in the Pbincipjll Ports. 



[Corrected in the Treasury Department^ Jvly 21«^ 1847.] 



Ports. 
Eastport, Me. 
Machias, Me. 
Castine, Me. 
Bangor, Me. 
Belfast, Me. 
Waldoboro', Me. 
Wiscasset, Me. 
Bath, Me. 
Portland, Me. 
Portsmouth, N. ILAug. Jenkins. 
Newburyport, Ms. Wm. Nichols. 



Collectors. 
Bion Bradbury. 
Wm. Brown. 
B. H. Bridgham. 
Daniel Emery. 
Alfred Marshall. 
Edmund Wilson. 
James Taylor. 
J'n C. Humphreys. 
John Anderson. 



Ports. 
Gloucester, Ms. 
Salem, Ms. 
Marblehead, Ms. 
Boston, Ms. 
Fall Biver, Ms. 
Barnstable, Ms. 
New Bedford, BCs. 
Edgartown, Ms. 
Nantucket, Ms. 
Providence, B. I. 
Bristol, B. L 



CoUeetors. 
Eli F. Stacy. 
James ^filler. 
Peter Dixey. 
Marcus Morton. 
Phin. W. Leland. 
S. B. Phinney. 
Jos. T. Adams. 
Jos. T. Pease. 
Charles W. Band. 
Benj. CowelL 
Wm. J. Miller. 



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1848.] 



ISTTEBCOUSSB WITH VOKEIQIX NATIOKS. 



108 



Porte. 
Newport, R. I. 
Alburgh, Vt 
New London, Ct. 
New Haven, Ct 
Middletown, Ct. 
Fairfield, Ct. 
Stonington, Ct 



Collectors. 
Edwin Wilbur. 
K. G. Hopkinson. 
Tbos. Mussey. 
Norris Wilcox. 
Philip Sage. 
Wm. S. Pomeroy. 
Benj. Pomeroy. 



Plattsburgb, N. Y. Wm. F. HaUe. 
Ogdenflburgh,N.Y.David C. Judson. 
Sackett's Hr. N.Y. Otis N. Cole. 
Rochester, N. Y. Joseph Sibley. 
Oswego, N. Y. G. H. McWhorter. 
Lewiston, N. Y. R. H. Bonghton. 
Buffalo, N. Y. H. W. Rogers. 
Sag Harbor, N.Y. A. Hmitington. 
New York, N.Y. C.W.Lawrence. 
Perth Amboy, N J Jas. A. Nichols. 
Bargaintown, NJ. Robert B. Risley. 
Tuckerton, N. J. Sam. S. Downs. 
Philadelphia, Pa. James Page. 
Erie, Pa. Murray Whallon. 

Wilmington, Del. Henry Hicks. 
Baltimore, Md. Wm. H. Marriott. 
Annapolis, Md. Richard Sands. 
Vienna, Md. B. H. Crockett 
Georgetown, D. CRobert White. 
Alexandria, D. C. Edward Green. 
Tappahann'k,ya. John A. Parker. 
Petersbui^ Ya. J. T. Rosser. 



Ports. CoUeotonu 

Richmond, Va. Thomas Nelson. 
Norfolk, Va. Conway Whittle. 

Ocracoke, N, C. Thos. J. Pastaer. 
Wilmington, N.C. Murphy V. Jones. 
Eliza'h City, N. C. W. D. Pritchard. 
Plymouth, N. C. Joseph Ramsay. 
Washington, N. C. Jas. K Hatton. 
Newbem, N. C. T. S. Singleton. 
Beaufort, N. C. J. E. Gibble. 
Charleston, S. C. Wm. J. Grayson. 
Greorgetown, S. C. Thomas L. Shaw. 
JSavannah, Geo. Wm. B. Bullock. 



Archibald Clark. 
Jas. E. Saunders. 
Denis Prieur. 



St. Mary's, Geo. 

Mobile, Ala. 

N. Orleans, La. 

Franklin, La. 

Cleveland, Ohio, 

Maumee, Ohio, 

Sandusky, Ohio, 

Detroit, Mich. 

Michil'ck, Mich. 

Pensacola, Fa. 

Jacksonville, Fa. 

Apalachicola, Fa 

St Augustine, Fa. George Center. 

Port Leon. Wm. H. Ware. 

Key West, Fa. Steph. R. Mallory. 

Galveston, Texas, Hiram J. Runnels. 

Sabine, Texas, H. C. V. Dashiel. 



Smith Inglehart. 
J. H. FoTsyth. 
Wm. Patterson. 
C. G. Hammond. 
S. K. Haring. 
Dillon Jordan. 
James Dell. 
Sam. W. Spencer. 



n. INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS.— JULY 22, 1847. 

The pay of Ministers Plenipotentiary is $9,000 per annum, as salary, 
besides $9,000 for outfit The pay of Charg^ d' Affaires is $4,500 per an- 
num ; of Secretaries of Legation, $2,000 ; of Ministers Resident, $6,000. 

The United States are represented by Ministers Plenipotentiary at the 
Courts of Great Britain, France, Russia, Prussia, Spain, and Brazil ; and 
by Charge d'Affaires at the Courts of most of the other foreign countries 
with which this country is much connected by commercial intercourse. 



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104 



UKITXD 8TATX8. 



[1848. 



MiNiSTEBS Anp Diplomatic Aobwts op thb United States in 
Foreign Countries. 



[Corrected in Department of State, 22d July, 1847.] 
Ministers Plenipotentiary in 1847. 



George Bancroft, Mass. 

Bichard Bush, Pa. 

David Tod, Ohio, 

Andrew J. Donelson, Tenn. 

Bomulus M. Sannders, N. 0. 

Balpfa I. IngersoU, Conn. 



Appointed. Foreign States. 



1846 
1847 
1847 
1844 
1846 
1846 



Great Britain, 

France, 

Brazil, 

Prussia, 

Spain, 

Bussia, 



Capitals. 
London. 
Paris. 

Bio Janeiro. 
Berlin. 
Madrid. 
StPetersbui^. 



Commissioners. 



Alex. H. Everett, Mass. 

Anthony Ten Eyck, Mich. 
Nicholas P. Trist, 



App<rfnted. 
1845 
1845 
1847 



Foreign States. 
China, 

Sandwich Isles, 
Mexico, 



Salary. 

$5,000 

3,000 



Secretaries of Legation, 



John B. Brodhead, Great Biitam. 
J. L. Martin, France. 

Colin M. IngersoU, Act, Bussia. 
Theodore S. Fay, Prussia. 



Thomas C. Beynolds, Spain. 
Thomas J. Morgan, Brazil. 
Peter Parker, (and Chinese 

Interpreter,) China,$2,50O 



Minister Resident, 

Appointed. Foreign State. Capital. 

Dainty S. Carr, Md. | 1843 | Turkey, | Constantinc^le. 

John P. Brown, Dragoman to the Legation, Salary, $2,500. 



Charges d^ Affaires in 1847. 



A. Davezac, 
Thomas G. Ckmson, 
Henry W. Ellsworth, 

B. P. Fleniken, 
Benjamin A Bidlack, 
Beiyamin G. Shields, 
Seth Barton, 

John B. Clay, 
William H. Polk, 
William A. Harris, 
Bobert Wickliffe, Jr. 
George W. Hopkins, 
William H. Stiles, 



A 
S.Y, 


ppointed 
1845 


I. Foreign States. 
Netherlands, 


Pa. 


1844 


Belgium, 


Ind. 


1845 


Sweden, 


Pa. 


1847 


Denmark, 


Pa. 


1845 


New Grenada, 


Ala. 


1845 


Venezuela, 


La. 


1847 


ChiU, 


Pa. 


1847 


Peru, 


Tenn. 


1845 


Two Sicilies, 


Va. 


1846 


Argentine Bepublic, 


Ga. 


1843 


Sardinia, 


1847 
1845 


Portugal, 
Austria, 



Capitals. 
Hague. 
Brussels. 
Stockholm. 
Copenhagen. 
Bogota 
Caraccas. 



Lima. 

Naples. 

Buenos Ayre«. 

Turin. 

Lisbon. 

Vienna. 



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1848.] 



INT£&COUB8£ WITH FORBiaH NATIONS. 



105 



2. List op Consuls and Commekcial Agents of the United 
States in Foreign Countries, and op the Places op THEim 
• Corrected in the Department of State, July 22d, 1847. 



Residence : 



HCy Those maflced thus ( * ) are Commercial Agents 
Fran. V.Clark, | 



Argentine Republic, or Buenos 
Atres. 



Geo. J. Fairfield, Buenos Ayres. 
Jefferson Adams, Rio Negro. 

Austria. 

J. G. Schwartz, Vienna. 
Edward Warrens, Trieste. 
Wm. A. Sparks, Venice. 

Baden. 

Mannheim. 

Barbart States. 

Thomas N. Carr, Tangier, Morocco. 
Samuel D. Heap, Tunis, Tunis. 
D. S. Macauley, Tripoli, Tripoli. 

Bataria. 

Chas. Obermeyer, Augsburg. 
Philip Geisse, Nuremberg. 

Belgium. 
Wm. S. Vesey, Antwerp. 
Brazil. 

Charles B. Allen, Maranham Island. 
Charles J. Smith, Para. 
C. G. Salinas, Pemambuco. 
Gorham Parks, Rio Janeiro. 
George Black, Santos, 
Lemuel Wells, St. Catherine's Isl. 
Thos. McGuire, Rio Grande. 
Alex. H. Tyler, Bahia, 

Central America. 
Steph. H. Weems, Guatemala. 
A. Follin, Truxillo, (Hond.) 

t Portugoeee Colony. 



St. Juan de Nica- 
ragua. 
Chris. Hempstead, Balise, (Hond.) 



Chili. 

W. G. Moorhead, Valparaisa 
William Crosby, Talcahuano. 
SamL F.Hayiland, Coqnimbo. 

China. 

Paul S. Forbes, Canton. 
Amoy. 

Rob. L. Mcintosh, Fouchowfou. 
Caleb Lyons, Shang HaL 
Wm. P. Peirce, t Macao. 
Fred. T. Bush, |Hon Kong. 

Denmark. 

Charles F. Ryan, Copenhagen. 
Edm. L. Rainals, Elsineur. 



Daniak Idands. 



David Rogers, 
*David Naar, 



Santa Cruz. 
St Thomas. 



Egypt, Pasha of 
Alexandria. 
Equator. 
Seth Sweetser, Guayaquil. 

France. 

Robert Walsh, Paris. 
Wm. J. Staples, Havre. 
John W. Grigsby, Bordeaux. 
Danl. C. Croxall, Marseilles. 
M. Hollander, Sedan. 

t English Colony. 



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WnTED MATK8. 



[1848. 



*Johii A. Jones, Ijjoiis. 
£. B. liyingstoD, Nantes. 
F. Bl Anbo jnean, La BocheUe. 
August Foraldo, Bayonne. 

We^Ltdies, 

John W. Fisher, 5 1'ointe-a-Pitre, 
i Gnadeloiipe. 

Gab. G. Flenrot, 5 ®*- .^^'l*'^ ^^- 
( tiniqae. 

South America. 

Cayenne. 

Africa, 

Francis Lacroats, Algiers. 

Gbeat Bsitaik. 

EnglcmS, 

Thos. Aspinwall, London. 
Bobt Armstrong, Li^erpooL 
Francis B. Ogden, Bristol 
James Fiora, Manchester. 
Bobert W. Fox, Falmonth. 
Thos. Were Fox, Flymonth. 
Jos. B. Croskey, Cowes. 
Albert Dayy, Leeds. 

Scotland. 

Bobert Griere, Leitb, 
Stewart Steel, Dandee, 
James Cowdin, Glasgow. 

Mand. 

Thomas "Wilson, Dnblin. 
Thos. W. Gilpin, BelfSast 
Rob. L. Longhead,Londonderry. 
John Murphy, Cork. 
Michael Kennedy, Galway. 

In and near Europe and Africa. 
Horatio Spragne, Gibraltar. 
Wm. Winthrop, Ishind of Malta. 



Wm. Carroll, Id. of France. 
Isaac Chase, C^>e-Town, O.O.H. 

* John W. Carroll, IsL of St Helena. 

North Ajnerica. 

Israel D. Andrews, St. John's, N. B. 
T.B.Liying8ton, Hali£uc,N. S. 
Lather Brackett, Pictoa,N. S. 

West Indies. 

FredlL B. Wells, Bermuda. 
John F. Bacon, Nas»aa,BaliamaL 
John T. Pickett, Turk's Msnd. 
Bob. M Harrison, Kingston, Jam. 
*B.S.H]ginbothom, St Christopher's. 
♦Wm. T. Thurston, Antigua. 
Noble Towner, Baibadoes. 
£dw. K Marache, IsL of Trinidad. 

South America, 

Samuel J. Masters, Demeraia, b. o. 

Australia, 

Jas. H. Williams, Sydney. 

E. Hathaway, Jr., HobartTown. 

East Indies, 

Joseph Balestier, Singapore. 
George W. Ellis, Bombay. 
Jas. B. Higginson, Calcutta. 
FredlL T. Bush, Hong Kong. 

Gbxboe. 

John W. Mulligan, Athens. 

Havseatio, OB Fbbb Citibs. 

John Cuthbert, Hamburg. 
W. H. Robertson, Bremen. 
Ernest Schwendler, Frankfort. 

Hakoyeb, Hbssb Cassel, &c. 
Charles Graebe, Cassel. 



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IKTBBCOUBSB WITH VOBBION NATIONS. 



Hatti, OB St. Domingo. 

Joseph C. Luther, Port au Prince. 
Richmond Loiing, Anx Cayes. 
John L. Wilson, Cape Haytien. 

R«ncls Harrison. { ^^^^r' 
Mexican Bepublic. 

John Black, Mexico. 

^Manuel Alvarez, Santa P^. 

Franklin Chase, Tampico. 

J. P. Schatzell, Matamoras. 

P. M. Dhnond, i ^^ ^^ ^^ 

* \ Alvarado. 

♦Edw. J. Glasgow, Chihuahua. 
Edward Porter, Tabasco. 
Laguna. 
Thos. 0. Larkin, Monterey. 
John Parrott, Mazatlan. 
Jos^Mar. Castanos, San Bias. 
John A. Kobinson, Quaymas. 
P.deRegilyEstrada, Merida. 



107 

I John B. WiUiams, Auckland Islands. 
*J. B. Williams, Pejee Islands. 
*John C. Winiams, Navigators* IsL 
Horace Hawes, Society Islands. 

Pebu. 

Stanhope Prevost, Lima. 
Alex. Buden, Jr., Paita. 

Pobtuoaxm 
PhiKp A. Boach, Lisbon. 



Louis Tinelli, 
Wm.P.Peirce, 



Oporto. 
Macao. 



Muscat, Dominion of the Imaum of 

Charles Ward, Island Zanzibar. 
C. Prank Powell, Muscat 

The Netheblanbs, ob Holland 

Charles Nichols, Amsterdam. 
W. S. Campbell, Botterdam. 

Colonies. 

Prands W. Cragin, Paramaribo. 
*W. H. Preeman, Cura^oa. 

Batavia, Java. 

New Gbenada. 

Bamon L. Sanchez, Carthagena. 
*Saml. G. Taylor, Santa Martha. 
William Nelson, Panama. 
Chagres. 

Pacific Islands, Independent, 
Joel Turrill, Oahu, Sand. Isl. 



Idands, 
Chas. W. Dabney,Payal, Azores. 
John H. March, Funchal, Madeira. 
Wm. Peixoto, ocf. St. Jago, C. Verd. 

Pbussia. 
FredTt ScMUow, Stettin. 

Bomb, ob Pontifical States. 
Nicholas Brown, Bome. 
Jas. E. Preeman, Ancona. 
Henry J. Brent, Eavenna. 

BnssiA. 

A. P. Gibson, St. Petersburg. 

Alex. Schwartz, Biga. 
Edmund Brandt, Archangel. 
John Balli, Odessa. 

Sabdinia. 
C. Edwards Lester, Genoa. 
Victor A. Sassemo, Nice. 

Saxony. 
John G. Pliigel, Leipsic. 
George Mohr, Dresden. 

Spain. 
Mait. de Aguirre, Bilbao. 
Alexander Burton, Cadiz. 
George Beed, Malaga. 

Jostas Pou, Barcelona. 

Ni<A.B. Boyle, Port Mahon,Isl. M. 



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108 



UNITED STATES. 



[1848. 



CSJba. 

Bob. B. Campbell, Havana. 
Sim. Hi Jobnson, Matanr^w. 
Samuel McLean, Trinidad de Cuba. 
John W. Holding, Santiago de Cuba. 

Puerto Bioo, 

James C. Gallaher, Ponce. 
Thos. B. Abrams, Mayagaez. 
"^m. H. Tracy, Gnayama. 
Geoige Latimer, St John's. 

Other SparM Idands, 

Edward F. Weld, Teneriffe, Cansuy 
H. P. Storgis, Manilla, PhiUip'e. 

Sweden and Nobwat. 

C. D. Arfwedson, Stockholm. 
Alex. Barclay, oc^. Gothenburg. 
Helmich Janson, Bergen, Nor. 
Porsgntnd. 

SWITZBBLAND. 

Geo. H. Goondie, Basil or Basle. 



TUEKET. 

George A. Porter, Constantino{ile. 
David W. Offley, Smyrna. 
Jasper Chasseand, Beiroat. 
Merino de.Mattey, Cyprus. 

Tuscany. 
Joseph A. Binda, Leghorn. 
J. Ambrosi, Act. Florence. 

Two Sicilies. 
Alex. Hammett, Naples. 
John M. Marston, Palermo. 
Charles Sherwood, Messina. 

UeUOUAT, OB CiSPLATINB Rk* 

Public. 
Bob. M. Hamilton, Monte Video. 

Venezuela. 
Sonthy Grinalds, Puerto Cabellow 
John P. Adams, Lagnayra. 
Boland Dubs, Maracaiba 

WUBTEMBUBO. 

Tobias Beehler, Stuttgard. 



The only consuls who receive salaries are those for London, $2,000, Tan- 
gier, $2,000, Tunis, $2,000, and Tripoli, $2,000. 



3. FOBEION MiNISTEBS AND THEIB SeGBETABIES, 

Accredited to the Gofoenment of the United StaOea, 

I Corrected in Department of State, of July, 1847.] 

Fordgn States. Snyoya Ex. and Min. Plen. Secretaries, &e. 

Russia, Alexander de Bodisco, Edw. de Stoeckl, Ist Sec. 

Argentine Rep., Brig. (Jen. I>. C. M. de Alvear, 3Itn. Plen. and Exlraor, 

« D. Emilio de Alvear, Sec. of Leg, 

France, M. Alph. J. Y. Pageot, ad interim, M. Geo. Serurier. 
Spain, Don A. Calderon de la Barca, Don F. Bourman. 

Chili, Don Manuel Carvallo, Don Fran. S. Astabnmaga. 
Pern, Dr. Don Joaquin Jos^ Osma, Mxn. Plen. 



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i^4a] 



VOBS^OH GGJfBUlS, BTG. 



109 



liQiilsteii B^Oen^ 
Portugal, Com. J. C. de Figaniere, 

Prussia, Baron Yon Gexolt 

Belgium, M. Beaulien. 



Sen. F. F. de la Figanieiv. 



Ohaig68 d'AOstizef. 

Great Britain, J. F. Crampton, Jicting Charge de' Affaires. 

Denmark, M. Steen de Bill€, M. Torben Billd 

Anstria, Chevalier Hiilsemann, a4 tnterim. 

Netherlands, Chevalier F. M. W- Testa. 

Sweden, Chevalier Adam de Lovenskiold. 

The Two Sicilies, Chevalier Martuscelli. 

Brazil, M. Felippe P. Lea|. 



4. FosBioN Consuls axd Vicb-Consuls iv ?pb United Statbs.* 

A List of Foreign Consuls amd Vice-Consuls in the United Stales 
Tbofle n^ak0d thiu (*) ue C%NWu2s- GfcMero^; thiu(t) Yice'Considss the rest axe ConsuU. 

Argentine RepvhUc^ or Buenps Atfres, Belgium. 

Fitzhenrj Homer, Boston. 

Austria, 
^Angnste Belmont, New York. 
J. W. Langdon, Boston. 
DanL J. Desmond, Philadelphia, 
tJosei^ Ganahl, Savannah. 
H. W. Enlhman, Charleston. 
C.C.Holtenbnigher,New Orleans. 

Baden, 
*J. W. Schmidt, New York. 
Frederick Froy, New Orleans. 
tJacob H. Eimer, New Orleans. 

Baixxria, 
6. Heinrich Siemon, New York. 
C. Fred. Hagedom, Philadelphia. 
John Smidt, Louisville. 



^Augnste Moxhet, 
tS. Rawson, 
Tho3. A-Deblois, 
John D. Bates, 
tHippolyte Mali, 
J. Borie, 

Saml. D. Walker, 
A. W. Nolling, 
tAugnste Branda, 
Geo. A. Hopley, 
W. O'DriscoU, 
tWilHwn Porter, 
tTh. Pintoiey, 
Charles Att^, 
James ]3. Behr, 



New York. 

Eastport. 

Portland. 

Boston. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Baltimore. 

Richmond. 

Norfolk. 

Charleston. 

Savannah. 

Apalachioola. 

Key West. 

MobUe. 

New Orleans. 



BraxU, 
*L. H. F. d'Agnirm New York. 



• This list is TOcessarily imperfect in some degree, as no oiBolalreoord ofthe Poreipi 
OoDsals in the United States is Icept at any of the public offices. Every ezeraon is made 
to render it as correct as possible. Those who notice errors in the list are respectftilly 
iwjaeatod to eonmiiinicate them to the editor, tm eorrectton in the sahseqnent volume 

10 



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110 

t Archibald Foster, 
Maine, 
til. F. deFiganiere, 
tEdw. C. Sayres, 
1 Clement Smith, 
tHennan Baldwin, 
tMyer Myers, 
tH. G. Chadwick, 
tPeter Beynand, 



mnTBS 8TATX8. 



[1848. 



Mass., N. H., and 

Boston. 

New York. 

]^iladelphia. 

Dist. Columbia. 

Bichmond. 

Norfolk. 

Charleston. 

New Orleans. 



Herman Oelrichs, New York. 
J. C. Meck^, Philadelphia. 

*Alb. Schimiacher, Baltimore. 
Ant Ch. Cazenore, Dist Colmnbia. 
Lewis Trapman, Charleston. 
Eleazer Crabtree, Sayannah. 
Fredlt Rodewald, New Orleans. 
Johannes Wolf, 8t. Lonis. 
Diedr. H. Elaener, Galyeston. 

BrvMswick. 
J. D. Kleudgen, New York. 

Buenot Ayre^ 
tN. Frazee, Philadelphia. 

ChXlL 

Frank. H. Delano, New York. 

Denmark, 

*M. Steen Bill^, Philadelphia. 
Geo. M. Thatcher, Mass., Me., N. H., 

and R. I., Boston. 
Edward Beck, N. Y., Conn., and part 

of N. J„ New York. 
John Bohlen, Philadelphia. 

tHen. G. Jacobsen, Baltimore. 
tP. K. Dickinson, Wilmington. 
tJamesH.Ladson, Charleston. 
tW. Crabtree, Savannah. 
J. F. C. Ules, New Orleans. 

Ecuador. 
Setfc B^ya^t, Boston. 



James H. Cansten, Washington. 
Edward Sweetser, Philadelphia. 
Murat Willis, Norfolk. 

Framce, 

*MX. De la Forest, New York. 
tLouis Boig, New York. 

Max Isnard, Boston. 

fFaavel Gonrand, Newp(Hi;. 
Bar. de Haaterive, Philadelphia. 
tGeo. C. Morton, Baltimore. 
Ct de Montholon, Bichmond. 
Pascal Schisano, Norfolk. 
Count de Choisenl, Charleston. 
IB. de Leaumont, Charleston. 
tL. Barr^, Sayannah. 

Alph. DeLa Forest, Mobile. 
Aim^ Boger, New Orleans. 

fH. Germain, New Orleans. 

tH. de St Cyr, Galyeston. 

Frankfort on the Maxne. 

Fred. Wysmann, New York. 
Arnold Halbach, Philadelphia. 

Great Britain. 



tW. D. Sherwood, 
Jos. J. Sherwood, 
T. CoUey Grattan, 
tE. A. Grattan, 
tC. Grinnell, 
Anthony Barclay, 
William Peter, 
J. McTayish, 
Francis Waring, 
tH. Smith, 

Chas. D.Wake, i 

tG. W. Dayis, 

Bobert Grigg, j 

t O'Hara, 

A. L. Molynenx, 
William Mure, 



Eastport. 

Portland. 

Mass., Boston. 

Boston. 

New Bedford. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Baltimore. 

Norfolk. 

Alexandria. 

N. C. and S. C.^ 

Charleston. 
Wilmington. 
Florida and Ala., 

Mobile. 
Key West. 
Greorgia. 
New Orleans. 



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by Google 



1848.] 



FOBBiaM 0O1I8UL8, BTG. 



Ill 



Greece. 
Henry G. AAdrew83o8toiL 
Eugene DatUh, New York. 

GuaUmaia, 
♦Antonio de Aycenena. 

Jacanburg, 
♦Charles W. Buck, Philadelphia. 
C. H. F. Moring, Boston. 
Theodore des Art8,New York. 
Alb. Schumacher, Baltimore. 
Henry Ludlam, Bichmond. 
Lonis Trapmann, Charleston. 
Edward R. Bell, Mobile. 
William Vogel, New Orleans. 

Hanover. 
L. H. Meyer, New York. 

tA. W. Hupeden, New York. 
John Leppien, Philadelphia. 
Edward Uhrlaub, Baltimore. 
H. W. Euhtman, Charleston. 
J. B. Bher, New Orleans. 

Frederic Schwartz, liOoisville. 
Adolph Meier, St. Louis. 

Hawaiian Lkmds, 
♦Sch. Liyingston, New York. 

Elector of Hesse, 
Conrad W. Faber, New York. 

' Grand Duke of Hesse, 
Antoin Bollerman, New York. 

iMbeck. 
William Eruger, New York. 
Died. H Elaener, CMveston. 

Meddenberg-Schwerin. 
*L. Herckenraih, Charleston. 

Meocico, 
*JnandelaQranga,New York. 
tEdward Cabot, Boston. 



tFeliz Merino, Philadelphia. 
tChaiies Tieman, Baltimore. 
tBobert Adger, Charleston, 
to. L. Dabelsteen, New Orleans. 
tJoan Herbst, Pittsburg. 
tD. Juan F. Cortes,Natdiitochei. 
tA. A. M. Jackson,Pensacola. 
Lewis Ramirez, St. Louis. 
Antonio Niel, Independence, Mo. 
tGeorge P. Ward, Florida. 
tCarlos Lebaron, Mobile. 

NassatL 
*Wilh. A- Kobbe, New York. 

Netherlands. 
Thomas Dixon, Mass., Me., N. H. 

and R. L, Boston. 
tB. Homer Dixon, Boston. 
J. C. Zimmerman, N. Y., N. J., and 

Conn., New York. 
Henry Bohlen, Philadelphia. 
Frederic B. Graf, Baltimore. 
Leon Herckenrath, Charleston. 
tOUver 0*Hara, Key West. 
Myer Myers, Norfolk. 

tGodfrey Bamsley, Savannah. 
SteTenson Forbes, Mobile. 
F. Marion Ward, New Orleans. 

New Grenada. 
♦Don Domingo Acosta. 
Greg. Dominguez, New York. 

Oldenburg. 
E. Pavenstedt. New York. 
Chas. T. Lowndes, Charleston. 

Peru. 
George F. Guild, Boston. 
Thomas Galway, New York. 

Portugal. 
tD. Anton. G.Vega,Mass., R. L, and 

N. H, Boston. 
tW. de F. H. Borges, R. I., Warren. 



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lis 



UHXtXD 0TAYB8. 



[1348. 



tP. NoaUks Searle,New Tork. 
Jose B. deCamara, Baltimore. 
tPan. J. Desmond, PhiladelphilL 
tChristoph. Neale, Dist. Colombia: 
tWalter Delacy, Norfolk. 
tH^nriq. T. Street, Charleston. 
tJ. G. Doon, Savannah. 

Carlos Le Baron, Mobile. 
tAnt J. Gonyea, New Orleans. 

Prussia. 

George Hussey, New Bedford. 

*J. W. Schmidt, New York. 

J. C. Lang, Philadelphia. 

Ferd. L. Braons, Maryland. 

tWilhehn Vogel, Few Orleans. 

E. C. Angebrodt, St. Lotds. 

Il^cholas Beggio, Boston. 
fLouis B. Binsse, New York. 
*Danl. J. Desmond, Philadelphia. 
T. P. Scott, Baltimore. 

tThomas Eoger, Charleston. 

tChs. J. Daron, New OrliMHS. 

Russia. 
*Alez.Ey8taphieye,New York. 
Geo. E. Ronhardt, New York. 
tBobert B. Storer, Boston. 
tJohn R. Wilder, Savannah. 
tJoseph E. Morrell, Mobile. 
Edward Johns, New Orleans. 
tJ. S. Haviland, Philadelphia. 

Sardinia, 
^Lnigi Mossi, New York. 

J. Dacoste, act con. New York. 
tNicholas Reggio, Me., N. H., Mass., 

and R. I., Boston. 
Danl. J. Desmond, for Penn., N. J. 

and Del., Philadelphia. 
tE. L. Trenholm, Charleston. 
tC. A. Williamson, Baltimore. 



tE. B. de Mednz, ItobHe. " 
Antonio Michood, KeW Orleilnf. 

Saxe Coburg and Gotha. 
Carl Frederidt Hanssman, for U. S. 

Saxe- Weimar, 
♦Fr. Ang. Mensch, New York. 
Edward Stseken, Ne^ York. 

Saxony, 

♦J. W. Schmidt, New York. 
J. Rand'ph Mahler, New York. 
Robert Ralston, Philadelphia. 
Ferd. L. Branns, Balthnore. 
J. F. C. Ules, New Orleana. 

Spain, 

tTh.Am.Deblois, Portland. 
tWm. B. Parker, Portsmoirth. 
Don. AntG. Vega, Boston. 
F. Stoughton, New YoA. 

t Jorge Chacon, Philadelphia. 
tJ. Anto.LarraHga, Charleston, 
t J. Anta Pizarro, Baltimwe. 
tWalter De Lacy, Norfolk. 
Fred. B. Lord, Wilmington. 
tF. Moreno, Pensabola. 

tF. A. Browne, Key West 
R. A. D. Lorrel, Savannah. 
tJos^ L Cmzat, Mobile. 
Don C. de Espana, New Orfoans. 

Sweden and Norwaif, 

t Joseph Hall, Mass., N. H., and 

Maine, Boston. 
tClaud E. Habicht, New York. 
Rich. D. Seldner, Philadelphia. 
F. B. Graf, Baltimore, 

t John H. Brent, Alexandria. 
tDmic'n Robertson, Norfolk. 
fFran. H. Wilman, Savannah. 
tJos. A. Winthrop, Charleston. 
tGeoige Westfield, Mobile. 
tDiedr. Miesegaes^ New Orieans. 



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1848.] 



113 



SwU2erkmd, 
Lods P. De Luge, New England and 

New York, New York. 
J. G. Syze, PemL, New Jersey, and 

Delaware, PhfladelpMa. 
Nicholas Basler, for Ey., Ind., Ill , O., 
Mich., and Wise Ter., Lonisrille. 
J. C. Knhn, for Texas, Galyeston. 

Turkey, 
Abra. 2Spcy-0glii, Boston. 

Tuscany, 

W. H. Aspinwall, New York. 
Cario Gavenni, Mobile. 
Garlo G. Mansoni, New Orleans. 
Dan. J. Desmond, ConJs Agt, Philad. 

Tvjo SuUies, 
^DonDomenioo MoreUi, PhiladePa. 
tNicholas Beggio, Boston. 
tB. D. Potter, Providence. 
tira Clisbe, New Haven. 

J. Daooste, acting^ New York. 
tLaca Palmieri, Philadelphia. 
fN, £. Fowls, Dist. Columbia. 

tAntonio Pomer, Norfolk. 



tG. A. TFenholm, Charleston, 8. C. 
tGo£&edo Bamsley, Savannah, 
to. Wolff, Mobile. 

tG. A. Barelli, New Orleans. 



Uraguay. 



E. S. Tobey, 
tG.F. Darby, 
tOeorge Green, 
T. B. Graf, 
tG. L. liowden, 
tC. J. Mansong, 



Bpston. 

New York. 

Philadelphia. 

Baltimore. 

Charleston. 

Mobile. 



tE. Dudley Head, New Orleans. 

Vmezuda, 
Silas G. Whitney, Boston, 
t John P. Bigelow, Boston. 
Juan B. Purroy, New York. 
W. McDehenney, Philadelphia. 
J. F. Strohm, Baltimore. 

Aaron Milhado, Norfolk. 
Geo. B. Dieter, New Orleans. 

Wwrtemburg. 
'M'Ferd. L. Brauns, Baltimore. 
Frederick Klett, Philadelphia. 
John D. Fink, Ala., Miss., La., and 
Florida, New Orleans. 



in. MINT. 



It is lawful for any person or persons to bring to the Mint gold and silver 
bollion to be coined ; and the bullion so brought is there assayed and cdned, 
as speedily as may be after the receipt thereof; and if of the standard of 
the United States, free of expense to the person or persons by whom it shall 
have been brought But the Treasurer of the Mhit is not obliged to re- 
ceive, for the purpose of refining and coining, any deposit of less value 
than one hundred dollars, nor any bullion so base as to be unsuitable for 
minting. And there must be retained from every deposit of bullion below 
the standard, such sum as shall be equivalent to the expense incurred in 
refining, toughening, and alloying the same ; an accurate account of which 
expense, on every deposit, is kept, and of the sums retained on account of 
the same, which are accounted for by the Treasurer of the Mint with the 
Treasurer of the United States. 
10* 



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114 



UiraT^ WAT 



ll$4 



Ogktn ^ Ae JM at PhTatUpkkL 



R M. Patterson, Director, $3,500 
Jas. BoM Snowden, TVaastow, 2,500 
Franklin Peale, CMef Coiner, 2,000 
Jacob B. Eckfeldt, Auayer, 2,000 



Richaid J. McCnlloh, 2i^tter 

ondBtfiner, %%fiQO 

Jaa. B. Lo ng acre, Engraoer, 2,000 

W. £. Dubois, AuH As$a^, 1,300 



Officen ^ the Branch at New OrUaauM, La, 



John Brooks, Coimty $2,000 

John B. Macmwdo, Treasurer, 2,500 



J. 11 Kennedy, Saperintendettt, $2,500 
Wm. P. Hort, Anayer, 2,000 

John L. Biddellr Afe^ 4* Rtfin., 2,000 

Officers ef the Branch at Dahhnega, Gcl 
J,'F,Cocfpeir,SiqteriHiendent, $2,0001 Daniel H. Maaon, CbuMr, $1,500 
laaac L. Todd, Auayer, l,50o| 

Officers of Branch aJt Charlotte,N. C. 
W. J. Alexander, Superintend, $2,000^ John B. BoUon, Coiner, $1,500 

J. H. Gibbon, Assayer, l,50o| 

^ , ort tA« Mini of the United States 
s, in the year IB46, 



Gdd, 
From Mines In the United States, 
Coins of the U. States, old standard. 
Foreign Coins, 
Fbreign Bullion, 
Total of Gold, 

Silver. 
Bullion from the United States, 
Foreign Bullion, 
Forei8:n Coins, 

Total of saver, . 



Tctai, 



$1,189,857 

13,916 

2,786,453 

189,871 



$3,066 

68,750 

2,506,950 



$4,1^9,597 



2,578,766 



$6,708,363 



t. Statement of the Coinage of the Mba of the ZJhited States ami BrantAes, 
m the year 1846. 





Wecei. 


Yaloe. 


Denominations. 


Pieces. 


Value. * 


Gold. 

flSf Eagles, 
Quar. Eagles, 

Copper, 
Cents, 


101,875 
547,231 
111,709 


$4,084,177 
41,208.00 


saver. 

Dollars, 
Half Dollars, 
Quar. Doll's, 
Dimes, 
Half Dimes, 

Total, 


169,600 
4,514,000 

510,000 
31,300 
27,000 


$2,558,580 


4,120,800 


10,133,615 


f6,633,965 



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1848.1 



MUTT. 



115 



3. Cknnage of the Mint of the United SuOu^fnm 1792, including the coinage 
of the Branch Mints from the commencement of their operations^ in 1838. 





Gold. 


81LTIB. 


OOPPSR. 


Whole Coikaob. 


Yean. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


No. of Pieces. 


Value. 


179S-6 


X 3600 


8870,688 80 


i r8 00 




$468,64180 


1796 


■ 8760 


79,077 60 


24 40 




192,129 40 


1797 


2260 


, 12,59146 


L0 84 




125,524 29 


1798 


LOOO 


880,29100 


)7 00 




645,698 00 


1799 


3600 


423,616 00 


)6 68 




645,906 68 


1800 


5000 


224,296 00 


r9 40 




671,335 40 


1801 


rooo 


74,768 00 


2887 




610,956 37 


1802 


10 00 


58,343 00 


22 83 




616,075 88 


1808 


77 50 


87,118 00 


)3 08 




870,698 58 


1804 


1260 


100,840 50 


14 94 




871827 94 


1805 


57 60 


149 888 60 


»48 




838,239 48 


1806 


)6 00 


471,319 00 


50 00 




801,084 00 


1807 


9500 


697,448 75 


)2 21 




1,044,595 96 


1808 


5600 


684,800 00 


WOO 




982,056 00 


1809 


?5 00 


707,876 00 


)153 




884,752 58 


1810 


3600 


638,778 50 


50 00 




1,165,868 50 


1811 


)600 


608,340 00 


)5 96 




1,108,740 95 


1812 


: 8600 


814,029 60 


)6 00 




1.115,219 60 


1818 


1000 


620,95150 


JO 00 




1,102,275 50 


1814 


rooo 


661,687 50 


. rsao 




642,535 80 


1816 


.,-76 00 


17,308 00 






20,488 00 


1816 




28,576 76 


"28,209 82 




56,786 57 


1817 




607,788 60 


39,484 00 




647,267 50 


1818 


""ii^mdi 


1,070,464 60 


31,670 00 




1,345,064 60 


1819 


268,615 00 


1,140,000 00 


26,710 00 




1,426,326 00 


1820 


1,819,080 00 


601,680 70 


44,075 50 




1,864,786 20 


1821 


189,826 00 


826,762 46 


3,890 00 




1,018,977 46 


1822 


88,960 00 


805,806 60 


20,723 39 




916,609 89 


1828 


72,426 00 


896,650 00 






967,975 00 


1824 


98,200 00 


1,752,477 00 


*"---' 06 




1,858,297 00 


1826 


166,886 00 


1,564,588 00 


00 




1,735,894 00 


1826 


92,246 00 


2,002,090 00 


25 




2,110,679 26 


1827 


181,666 00 


2,869,200 00 


82 




3,024,342 32 


1828 


140,146 00 


1,575,600 00 


24 




1,741,881 24 


1829 


295,717 60 


1,994,678 00 


00 




2,306,876 60 


1880 


648,105 00 


2,495,400 00 


00 




8,166,620 00 


1881 


714,270 00 


3,176,600 00 


60 




3,923,473 60 


1882 


796,486 00 


2,579,000 00 


00 




3,401,065 00 


1888 


978,660 00 


2,769,000 00 


00 




8,765,710 00 


1881 


8,954,270 00 


3,416,002 00 


00 




i 7,888,428 00 


1886 


2,186,176 00 


3,443,008 00 


00 




5,668,667 00 


18W 


4.186,700 00 


3,606,100 00 


00 




7,764,900 06 


1887 


1,148,805 00 


2,096,010 00 


00 




8,299,898 00 


1888 


1,809,666 00 


2,333,248 00 


00 




4,206,540 00 


1889 


1,856,886 00 


2,189,296 00 


61 




8^76,467 61 


1810 


1,676,802 60 


1,726,708 00 


00 




8,426,632 60 


1841 


1,091,697 60 


1,182,760 00 


67 




2,240,821 17 


msk 


1,884,170 60 


2,882,760 00 


90 




4,190,764 40 


1848 


8,108,797 80 


3,834,760 00 


20 


1 


11,967,830 70 


1844 


6,428,280 00 


2,235,560 00 


62 




7,687,767 62 


1846 


8,766,447 60 


1,878,200 00 


04 




5,668,696 64 


1846 


4,084,177 00 


2,558,680 00 


00 




6,633,965 00 


Total, 


62,344,642 60 


69,052,014 90 


1,088,774 62 


816,239,616 


122,48082192 



The coinage at all the Mints during the first six months of the year 1847 reached the sum 
of 88,206,222.67. The depodtos in the same period were 88,906,654 21. These results 
show a greater amount of deposites and cohiage than has been reached hi any wktia 
year, with the exception of the year 1843, when the total coinage was 811}^7,880.70. 



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116 



UNITED STATES. 



[1848. 



IV. THE JUDICIARY. 



Boger B. Taney, 
John McLean, 
James M. Wayne, 
John Catron, 
John McKinley, 
Peter V. Daniel, 
Samuel Nelson, 
Levi Woodbury, 
Robert C. Grier, 
Nathan Clifford, 
Benj. C. Howard, 
William T. Carroll, 



SuFBEMB Court. 
Besidenoe. 
Baltimore, Md., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Savannah, Ga., 
Nashville, Tenn., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Richmond, Ya., 
Cooperstown, N. Y., 
Portsmouth, N. H., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 



Chief Justictt 
Associate Justice^ 

do, 

do, 

do. 

do, 

do. 

do. 

do. 



Appointed 
1836, 
1829, 
1835, 
1837, 
1837, 
1841, 
1845, 
1845, 
1846, 



Washington, D. C, Attorney General, 1846, 
Baltimore, Md., Beporiery 1843, 

Washington, D. C, Clerk, 



SiOuy. 
$5,000 
4,500 
4,500 
4,500 
4,500 
4,500 
4,500 
4,500 
4,500 
4,000 
1,300 
Fees, &c 



The Supreme Court is held in the City of Washington, and has one ses- 
sion annually, commencing on the 1st Monday of December. 

• DISTRICT COURTS : — JUDGES, ATTORNEYS, 



* Corrected at the Department of State, July 22, 1847. t And Veei. % Fees, &e. 



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1848.] JUDICUBT. Ill 

CiEciTiT Courts. 
The United States are divided into the following nine Judicial Circnits, in 
each of which a Circuit Court is held twice every year, for each State within 
the Circuit, by a Justice of the Supreme Court, assigned to the Circuit, and 
by the District Judge of the State or District in which the Court sits. 

PresidiDS Judge. 
1st Circuit, Maine, N. Hampshire, Mass., and R. I., Mr. Justice Woodbury. 
Vermont, Connecticut, and New York, Mr. Justice Nelson. 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania, Mr. Justice Grier. 

Delawmre, Maryland, and Virginia, , Mr. Chief Just. Taney. 
Alabama and Louisiana, ' Mr. Justice McEinley. 

N. Carolina, S. Carolina, and Georgia, Mr. Justice Wayne. 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, Mr. Justice McLean. 
Kentuckyj Tennessee, and Missouri, Mr. Justice Catron. 
Mississippi and Arkansas, Mr. Justice Daniel. 

The States <^ Floiida, Texas, and Iowa, have not yet been attached to 
any circuit There i& a local Circuit Court held by three Judges in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, speciaUy appointed for that purpose. The Chief Jnstioe 
of that Court sits also as District Judge of that District 
MARSHALS, AND CLARES. 



^d 


do. 


Sd 


do. 


4th 


do. 


5th 


do. 


6th 


da 


7th 


do. 


8th 


do. 


9th 


do. 



t And Feei. t Fees, &o. 



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118 UMITSD STATES. [1848. 

Places and Times of HoiJ>iNa thb Cibcuit Coubtb. 

Maikb, PorUand—lst May and 1st October. 

New Hampshire,* • • 'Portsmouth — 8th May; — Exeter — 8th October. 

Vermont,' • Windsor — 2l8t May ; — Rutkmd-^d October. 

Massachusetts, Boston — 15th May and 15th October. 

Bhodb Island, Newport — 15ih June; — Providence — 15th Noyember. 

Connecticut, New Haven— 4th Tuesday in April; — jETorf/^wvi— 3d 

Tuesday in September. 
N. YoBK, S. Dist,« • • »New York — ^last Mon. in February, Ist Mon. in April, 

and 3d Mon. in October. 
N. YoBK, N. Dist,* • • 'Albany — 3d Tues. in Oct, and 3d Tues. in May; — 

Canandaigua — Tues. next afiber third Mon. in June. 

New Jersey, Trenton — 1st April and 1st October. 

Penn., E. Dist, Philaddphiar^lHih April and 11th October. 

Pbnn., W. Dist, Pittsbwrg— 3d Mond. in May and Not.;— WilUamS' 

port — 3d Monday in June and September. 
Dblawabb, i\^u;ca8^— Tuesday following 4th Mond. in May; — 

Dover — Tuesday following 3d Monday in Oct. 

Mabtlano, Baltimore — 1st Monday in April and Noyember. 

ViBOiNiA, E. Dist, • • •Bichmond—l8t Mon. in May and 4th Mon. in Nov. 
ViBGiNiA, W. Dist., • 'Lewisburg — 1st Monday in August 
NoBTH Cabolina,* • • Bodeigh — 1st Mon. in June, and last Monday in Nov. 
South Carolina,* •• Charleston — ^Wednesday preceding the 4th Monday 

in March ; — Co/wwifcio— 4th Monday in November. 
Gbobgia, Savannah — 2d Monday in April ; — WJledgeoiUe — 

Thursday after 1st Monday m November. 

Alabama, Mobile — 2d Mon. in April, and 4th Mon. in Dec. 

Mississippi, Jackson — 1st Monday in May and November. 

Louisiana, New Orleans— 4ih Mon. in April and 3d Mon. in Dec 

Tbxas, Crolveston — 1st Monday in February. 

Tennessee, Nashville — 1st Monday in March and September; — 

KnoxviUe — 3d Mon. in April and October ; — Jack" 

son — 2d Monday in October and April. 

Kbntuokt, Frankfort — 1st Mon. in May, and 2d Mon.in Nov. 

Ohio, Columbus — 3d Mon. in July and 2d Mon. in Nov. 

Michigan, Detroit — 3d Mon. in June and 2d Mon. in Oct 

Indiana, Indianapolis — 3d Monday in May and Ist Monday 

in December. 
Illinois,* * » Sjfningfield—lst Monday in June and last Monday 

in November. 

MissouBi, St, Louis — 1st Monday in April. 

Abkansas, Little Bock — 2d Monday in April. 

Dist. Columbia, • • • • Washington-^^ Monday in March and 3d Monday 

in October; — Alexandria — 1st Monday in May 

and October. 



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1848.] 



JUDIOIABT. 



119 



Placbs and Times of holding the Disteict Couets. 



Mainb, Wiscasset — Ist Tuesday in September ; — Portland— 

Ist Tuesday in February and Dumber; — JS^m- 
gor — 4th Tuesday in June. 

New Haxpshibb,* • 'Portsmouth — 3d Tuesday in March and September; — 
Exeter — 3d Tuesday in June and December. 

Vbemont, Butland—^ih of Oct ; — PFtndsor— 24th of May. 

Massachusetts,* • • * Boston — 3d Tuesday in March, 4th Tuesday in June, 
2d Tuesday in Sept., and 1st Tuesday in Dec. 

Bhodb Island, Newport — 2d Tuesday in May and 3d in October ; — 

Providence — 1st Tuesday in August and February. 

Connecticut, New Haven — 4 th Tuesday in February and Aug. ; — 

Hartford — 4th Tuesday in May and November. 

N. YoBK, S. Dist.,» • 'New York — 1st Tuesday in each month. 

N. YoBK, N. Dist.,* . • Alhany--Q(\. Tuesday in January j-— Utica — 2d Tues- 
day in July ; — jKochester — 3d Tuesday in May ; — 
Auburn — 3d Tues. in Aug.; — jBu^o/b— 2d Tuea. 
in Nov. ; — one term annually in the county of St 
Lawrence, Clinton, or FrankUn, at such tmie and 
place as the Judge may direct. 

New Jeesbt, Trenton — 2d Tuesday in March and September, and 

3d Tuesday in May and November. 

Penn.,E. Dirt., PhUaddphia—Sd Mond. in February, May, August, 

and November. 

Pbnn.,W. Dist, Pittsburg — 1st Monday in May and Ist Monday in 

October ; — WilUamsport — 1st Monday in October. 

Delawabe, Newcastle — 3d Tuesday in June, and 2d Tuesday in 

December; — Dover — Tuesday next following the 
3d Monday of March, and the Tuesday next fol- 
lowing the 4th Monday of September. 

Mabtland, Baltimore — 1st Tuesday in March, June, September, 

and November. 

Dist. Columbia, • • • Washington — Ist Monday in June and December. 

ViBOiNiA, E. Dist,- •i&cAwiowf— 12th of May and 12th of November; — 
NorfoUc-^Q^ of May and 1st of November. 

ViBGiNiA, W. Dist.,»/SitoMnton^lst day of May and 1st day of October ; — 
Wytheville — Wed. after 3d Mon. in April and Sep- 
tember ;' — Charleston — Wed. after 2d Mon. in April 
uid September ; — Clarksburq — ^last Mon. in March 
and August ; — Wheeling — Wed. after the Ist Mon. 
in April and September. 

NoBTH CABOLiNA,»«jEcfejrfon — 3d Mon. in April and October; — NeW' 
bum — 4th Mon. in April and October; — Wilming- 
ton — 1st Mon. after 4th Mon. in April and October. 

South Cabolina, • • Charleston — 3d Monday in March and September, 1st 
Monday in July and 2d Monday in Dec. ; — Laurens 
Court House-'&e next Tuesday after the adjourn- 
ment of the Circuit Court at Cfolumbia. 



Geoboia, 



'Savannah — 2d Tues. in Feb., May, Aug., and Nov. 



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1^ UNITED 9TATBS. [1848. 

Flobida, N. Dist,* • ''TaUahcusee — Ist Monday in Jan.; — Apalachicola — 
1st Mondaj in FebraaiT ; — P«ija<»«i— Ist Mon- 
day in March; — St. Augustine — 1st Mondaj in 
April. 

Florida, S. Dist.,* • • 'Key West — 1st Mondaj in Maj and November. 

Alabama, N. Dist,» • 'HuntsviUe — 3d Mondaj in Maj, and 4th Mondaj in 
November.' 

Alabama, M. Dist, • • Tu8caloo8a^-4ib. Mondaj in Maj and 1st Mondaj 
after the 4th Mondaj in November. 

Alabama, S. Dist.,* • 'Mobile — 1st Mondaj in Maj and 2d Mondaj in Dec. 

Mississippi, N. Dist,' Pontotoc — 1st Mondaj in June and December. 

Mississippi, S. Dist, Jackson^-iih Mondaj in Janoarj and June. 

Louisiana, New Orleans — 2d Mondaj in December, and Ut 

Mondaj in Januarj. 

Texas, Galveston — Ist Mondaj in Februarj. 

Tennessee, E. Dist.,* 'KJuxcviUe — ^3d Mondaj in April and October. 

Tennessee, W. Dist,* iVasAuiTfe— 4th Mondaj in May and November; — 
Jackson — 2d Mondaj in October and April. 

Kentuckt, Frankfort — Ist Mon. in Maj and 2d Mondaj in Nov. 

Ohio, Columbus — 3d Mon. in Jnlj and 2d Mondaj in Nov. 

I^OHiGAN, Detroit — 3d Mon. in June and 2d Mondaj in October. 

Indiana, 'Indianapoilis — 3d Mon. in Maj and 1st Mon. in Dec 

Illinois, Springfield — Ist Mon. in June and last Mon. in Not. 

MissouBi, Jefferson Cttif — 1st Mon. in March and September. 

AbkansaB} Lilif^ I^ock — let Mondaj in April and November. 

Iowa, louxi City — 1st Mondaj in Januarj. 



V. ABMYLIST. 

WiNPiELD Scott, Major- General (commissioned June 25, 1841), Chn- 
eral-in* Chief — Head Quarters, with the annj in Mexico. 

Ck>Bmiii8ioiie4. 
June 20, 1846.* 
April 13, 1847. 
April 14, 1847. 
June 29, 1846. 
Julj 7, 1846. 
March 9, 1814. 
June 25, 1841. 
June 30, 1846. 
June 30, 1846. 
Julj 1, 1846. 
Julj 1, 1846. 
Julj 1, 1846. 
March 3, 1847. 



Zacharj Tajlor, 
Gideon J. Pillow, 
John A. Quitman, 
William O. Butler, 
Robert Patterson, 
^Edmund P. Gaines, 
John E. Wool, 
David E. Twiggs, 
Stephen W. Keamj, 
Thomas Marshall, 
Joseph Lane, 
James Shields, 
Franklin Pierce, 



Major- General f 
do. do. 
do. do. 

do. do. of Volunteers, 
do. do. do. 

Brigadier- General^ 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



dor 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



of Volunteers, 
do. 
do. 



* Maj. General by brevet. 



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IM8.] 



ABUT I.IftT. 



121 



CommiMioned. 
George Cad walader, Brigadier- General^ March 3, 1847. 

Enos D. Hopping, do, do. Mardi3, 1847. 

Caleb Gushing, do, do. of Volunteers, April 14, 1847. 

Sterling Price, do, do, do, July 20,1847. 

fRoger Jones, Adjutant- Crenercd. 

*Thoma8 S. Jessup, Quartermaster- General. 

tGreorge Gibson, Commissary- General. 

Col. George Croghan, Inspector General of the Amvy. 

Col. S. Churchill, do. do. do, 

Thomas Lawson, Surgeon- Creneral. 

tNathan Towson, Paymaster- General, 

, Staff Offigebs of ths Corps of Enginbers, Topographical 
Engineers, and Ordnance, and Field Officers of Begimentb. 



Engineers. 

CoL Joseph G. Totten, 

Lieut. Col. Sylvanus Thayer, 

" " R. E. De Russey, 

Major John L. Smith, 

'* William H. Chase, 

" lUchard Delafield, 

« C. A. Ogden. 

Topographical Engineers. 

Col. John J. Abert, 

Lieut. Col. James Kearney, 

Major Stephen H. Long, 

"^ Hartman Bache, 

" James D. Graham, 

« William TumbuU. 

Ordnance Department. 

Col. George Bomford, 

Lieut Col. George Talcott, 

§Major Henry K. Craig, 

" Rufus t. Baker, 

" James W. Ripley, 

" John S3rmington. 

First Dragoons. 

Col. Rich. B. Mason, 

Lieut CoL Clifton Wharton, 

Major Benjamin L. Beall, 

" Nathan Boone. 

Second Dragoons, 

Col. Wm. S. Harney, 

Lieut. Col. T. T. Eauntleroy, 

Major Edwin V. Sumner, 

" Philip St G. Cooke. 

*M^.-Oen. by breyet. f Brig.-Gen. by brevet. 
11 



Third Drojgoons. 
Col. Edward G. W. Butler, 
Lieut Col. Thomas P. Moore, 
Major Lewis Cass, Jr., 

" William H. Emory. 
Mounted Biflemen, 
tCol. Persifor E. Smith, 
Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, 
Major Geo. S. Burbridge, 

" William W. Loring. 
First Artillery. 
Col. I. B. Crane, 
Lieut Col. B. K. Pierce, 
Major L. Whiting, 
t " Thomas Childs. 

Second ArtiUery. 
Col. James Bankhead, 
Lieut Col. John Erving, 
§ Major John Munroe, 

" P. H. Gait 

Third Artillery. 
Col. William Gates, 
t Lieut. Col E. S. Belton, 
Major W. L. McClintock, 
" John M. Washington. 

Fourth Artillery. 
Col. J. B. Walbach, 
jLieut. Col. M. M Payne, 
Major John L. Gardner, 
" Giles Porter. 

X Col. by brevet. § Lleut.-Col. by Ireyet. 



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ISS 



UNITXB STATES. 



[1848. 



First Infitniry. 
Col. W. Dayenport, 
Ilieut-CoL H. Witoon, 
Major John B. Claiic, 
" Edgar S. Hawkins. 
Second Infantry, 
\Co\. Hngh Brady; 
^Lieut-Col. B. RUey, 
4Major George W. Allen, 
" Washington Seawell. 
Third Infantry. 
CoL J. B. Many, 
Lieut-Col. E. A. Hitchcock, 
Major B. Jonett, 
" E. B. Bamum. 
Fourth Infantry. 
Col. William Whistler, 
|Lieat-Col. John Grarland, 
Major W. V. Cobbs, 
" Francis Lee. 

Fifth Infantry. 
tCol. G. M Brooke, 
(Lieut-Col. J. S. Mcintosh, 
4Major Martin Scott, 
4 « Dixon S. Miles. 
Sixth Infantry. 
Col. Newman S. Clarke, 
Lieut-Col. G. Loomis, 
Major B. L. E. Bonneville, 
" Thomas P. Gwynne. 
Seventh Infantry. 
tCol. M. Arbuckle, 
Lieut-CoL Joseph Hympton, 
Major Thomas Noel, 
" Henry Bainbridge. 
Eighth Infantry, 
*CoL W. J. Worth, 
Lieut-Col. Thos. Stamford, 
jMajor W. G. Belknap, 
** Carlos A. Waite. 
Ninth Infantry. 
Col. Trueman B. Ransom, 
Lieut-Col. Jeremiah Clements, 
•Maj.-Gen. by brevet. tBrig.-G^^. by 



M%jor Thomas H. Seymour, 

« Folliot T. LaUy. 

Tenth InfaiOry. 

CoL Robert E. Temple, 

Lieut-CoL John J. Fay, 

Major Fowler Hamilton, 

" Justis J. McCarty. 
Eleventh Infantry. 
CoL Albert C. Ramsey, 
Lieut-Col. William M. Graham, 
Major Edwin W. Morgan, 

" John F. Hunter. 
Twelfth Infantry. 
CoL liouis D. Wilson, 
Lieut-CoL Milledge L. Bonham, 
Major Maxcy Gregg, 

"• Albert G. Blanchard. 
llarteenth Infantry. 
CoL Robert M Echols. 
Lieut.-CoL Jones M. Withers, 
Major Allen G. Johnston, 

" Edward G. Manigault 
Fourteenth Infantry. 
CoL William Trousdale, 
Lieut-CoL Paul O. Hebert, 
Major John H. Sayage, 

« John D. Wood. 

Mfteenih Infantry. 
Col. George W. Morgan, 
Lieut-CoL Joshua Howard, 
Major Frederick D. Mills, 
" Samuel Woods. 

Sixteenth Infantry. 
CoL John W. Tibbatts, 
Lieut-Col. Henry L. Webb, 
Major Ralph G. Noryell, 
« James M Talbot 

Foot Biflemen and Voltigeurs. 
CoL Timothy P. Andrews, 
Lieut.-Col. Joseph E. Johnston. 
Major George A. Caldwell, 
'' " George H. Talcott 
brevet tCol. by brevet §Lieut.-Col. by brevet 



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1848.] ABXT JMt. laS 

3. Table or Pat oi* Akict Omcsss. 



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124 



UNITED 8TATB8. 



[1648. 



4. Militia Fobob ov thb United States. 



Abstract of the United States 


MUitiayfirom 


the Army Register for 


1847. 


States and 
Territoriefl. 


i 
1 


1 


1. 




i 


1? Total Commis- 
§ sioned Officers. 


|i|4 


1 


Maine, 


1845 


26 


640 


1,659 


4llM^ 


44,666 




1846 


8 


87 


888 


1,228 


1,606 


28,088 


29,689 


Masaachuaetts, . 


1846 


8 


88 


96 


426 


568 


95,271 


96,889 


Tennont, 

Rhode Island, . 


1843 


12 


61 


224 


801 


1,088 


22,827 


28,916 


1846 


6 


88 


67 


27 


123 


15,668 


16,786 


Conneoticiit, . 


1846 


11 


88 


292 


988 


1,324 


56,396 


67,719 


N«wTork, . 


1846 


130 


860 8^ 


8,963 


I»gS 


157,897 


166^ 


New Jersey, 


1829 


19 


58 I 435 


1,476 


1,988 


37.183 


894n 


PennsylTS^ila, 


1846 


66 


164 


1,623 


6,054 


7,797 


263,890 


271,687 


Belawsre, 
Maryland, . 


1827 


4 


8 


'n 


364 


447 


8,782 


9,229 


1888 


22 


68 


644 


1,768 


2,397 


44,467 


46,864 


Virginia, . . . 


1846 


28 


68 


1,886 


5^1 


6,683 


114,708 


121^ 


North Carolina, . 


1846 


28 


183 


667 


8,449 


4,267 


76,181 


79,448 


South Carolina, . 


1846 


19 


101 


462 


2,026 


2,598 


62,107 


64,704 


GeorgU, 


1889 


36 


98 


746 


2,212 


8,092 


54,220 


67,812 


Alabama, . . 


1844 


82 


102 


671 


2,178 


2,978 


68,868 


61^ 


Louisiana, . ,. 


1829 
1838 


10 
16 


46 
70 


188 
892 


642 

848 


781 
825 


14,027 
35,260 


14,806 
36,084 


Tennessee, 


1840 


26 


79 


869 


2,644 


8,607 


67,646 


71,268 


Kentadcy, . . 


1846 


44 


116 1.112 


8.601 


4,878 


86,103 


90^ 


Ohio, . . . 


1846 


91 


217 


462 


1,281 


2,051 


174,404 


176,466 


Indiana, . 


1832 


81 


110 


666 


3,l64 


2,861 


61,062 


68,918 


Illinois, . . . 


1841 


.... 


. .*• 






..... 




88,284 


Missouri, . 


1844 


46 


94 


"790 


21990 


8,919 


* 67,681 


61,000 


AlfaUUHM, 


1843 


8 


29 


810 


762 


1,109 


16,028 


174W 


Michinji, . 


1845 


28 


148 


882 


2,116 


2,674 


68,212 


60,886 


Florida, . . . 


1845 


3 


14 


96 


608 


620 


11,602 


12,122 


Texas, • . 

Iowa, 

Wisconsin Territory, 

DisWctof ColumbK 


.... 




.... 












1840 


* i 


* 6 


"*86 


**i26 


"'i69 


'"6,054 


"6,228 


1832 


1 


3 


24 


68 


96 


1,158 


1,249 






747 2,374 16,892 


60,946 


70,468 


1,704,842 


1,868,684 



The effective force of the Begalar Army, exclusive of the " Ten Regi- 
ments,*' consists of 775 commissioned officers, and 17,020 non-commJsiioned 
officers, musicians, artificers, and privates; in all, 17,795. 

The ^*Ten Kegiments" are raised under the act of February 11, 1847, 
and, when full, will number, exclusive of officers, 10,000 men. 



VI. NAVY LIST. 

1. COMMANDBBS OF SQUADRONS. 



Matthew C. Perry, 


Commodore^ 


Home Squadron. 


George W. Storer, 


do. 


Coast of Branl. 


T. Ap C. Jones, 


do. 


Pacific Ocean. 


George C. Bead, 


do. 


Mediterranean. 


William C. Bolton. 


do. 


Coast of Africa. 



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IM&l 



Daniel Tomer, 
Fozhall A. Parker, 
Isaac McKeever, 
Charles Stewart, 



Jacob Jones, 



George P. Upshur, 



MAYT I.IST. 
COXMANBXBS OV NaTT YaBDS. 



115 



Portsmouth. 
Boston. 
New York. 
Philadelphia. 



Chas. S. McCauley, Washington. 
Lawrence Keamj, Norfolk. 
Wm. K. Latimer, Pensaoola. 



3. Naval Astluic 

Gwemor^ 

4. Naval School. 
Superintendent, 

Ofvicebs 07 the Navt. 
Cbptoths. — 68. 



James Barron, 
Charles Stewart, 
Jacob Jones, 
Chaiies Morns, 
I<. Warrington, 
James Biddle, 
0. G. Bidgelj, 
J(Ain Downes, 
Stephen Cassin, 
A. S. Wadsworth, 
George G. Bead, 
H.KBaUard, 
Jesse Wilkinson, 
T. Ap 0. Jones, 
William 0. Bolton, 
W. B. Shubrick, 
C.W. Morgan, 



L. Kearny, 
F. A. Parker, 

E. R. McCaU, 
Daniel Turner, 
David Ck>nner, 
William M. Hunter, 
John D. Sloat, 
Matthew C. Perry, 
C. W. Skinner, 
John T. Newton, 
Joseph Smith, 

L. Rousseau. 
Oeoige W. Storer, 

F. H. Gregory, 
P. F. Yoorhees, 
Beqjamin Ck)oper, 
DaTid Geisinger, 



R. F. Stockton, 
Isaac McKeerer, 
J. P. Zantslnger, 
Wm. D. Salter, 
Ch. S. McGauley, 
T. M. Newell, 
B. A. F. LareUette, 
T. T. Webb, 
John Perdral, 
John H. Aulick, 
W. V. Taylor, 
Bladen Dulany, 
S. H. Stringham, 
Isaac Bfayo, 
William Merrine, 
Thomas Grabb, 
Thomas Paine, 



Commanders. — 97. 



Henry W. (^den, 
Thomas A. Conorer, 
John G. Long, 
John H. Graham, 
James M. Mcintosh, 
Joeiah Tattnall, 
Hu|^ N. Page, 
William Inman, 
Stephen Chanj^lin, 
Joel Abbott, 
Lewis S. Siqionds, 
John IL Dale, 
Harrison H. Cocke, 
William J. McGluney, 
John B. Montgomoy, 
Horace B. Sawyer, 
Cornel. K. Stribling, 
Joshua R. Sands, 
John J. Toung, 
Charles H. BeU, 
Abraham Bigelow, 
FvadfBricik Yamom, 
Joseph R. Jarris, 
Sam'l W. LeCompte, 
Charles T. Piatt, 



Wm. M. Armstrong, 
William F. Shields, 
G. J. Pendergrast, 
WilMam C. Nicholson, 
James B. Cooper, 
Ed. W. Carpenter, 
John L. Saunders, 
Joseph B. Hull, 
John Stone Paine, 
Joseph Moorehead, 
Thomas Petigru, 
John S. Chauncey, 
Irrine Shnbrick, 
John Kelly, 
Edmund Byrne, 
William H. Gardner, 
David G. Farragnt, 
Richard S. Pincknoy, 
Stephen B. Wilson, 
Edward C. RnUedge, 
\^^mam S. Harris, 
T. Aloysius Domin, 
Rob. B. Cunningham, 
James Glynn, 

11* 



Joseph Myers, 
Thomas R. Gedney, 
John Bubier, 
Victor M. Randolph, 
Jacob Crowninshield, 
Frederick Bngle, 
John Rudd. 
Robert Ritchie, 
William W. McKean, 
Franklin Buchanan, 
Samuel Mercer, 
Charles Lowndes, 
L. M. Goldsboroug^, 
George N. HoUins, 
Duncan N. Ingraham, 
John Manton, 
Henry Bruce, 
Henry A. Adams, 
James D. Knight, 
Joseph Mattison, 
Will&m 8. Walker, 
Alex. 8. Mackoisie, 
George F. Pearson, | 
James T. Gerry, 



Philadelphia. 



Annapolis, Md. 



James Armstrong, 
Joseph Smoot, 
Samuel L. Breese, 
Benjamin Page, 
John Gwinn, 
Thomas W. Wyman, 
Andrew Fitihugh, 
W. K. Latimer, 
Wirfrm Pauldinjg, 
Uriah P. Leyy, 
Charles Boarman, 
French Forrest, 
Wm. Jamesson. 
Charles Gauntt, 
William Ramsay, 
Henry Henry, 
Samuel W. Downing, 



John S. Nicholas, 
Samuel F. Du Pont, 
William L. Hudson, 
James P. Wilson, 
George A. Magruder, 
John Pope, 
Levin M. Powell, 
Charles Wilkes, 
Elisha Peck, 
Thomas J. Manning, 
William Pearson, 
William L. Howard, 
Thomas J. Leib, 
Thomas O. SdAridge, 
Henry £a0e, 
Andrew K. Long. 
G. P. Van Brunt, 
Henry Pinkney, 
William M. Glendy, 
George P. Upshur, 
George S. Blake, 
Z. F. Johnston, 
\^^lliam Careen, 
Samuel Barron. 



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126 



UNITED 8TATB8. 



[1848. 



Fat or the Nayt, per a/nnum. 

Pay. I Pay. 

SuMMin, ftfcnaTyyaidijfre., $3,260 

Do. In sea-serrloe, 2^ 

Do. of the fleet, 2,700 

Passid AsntiAira Subokor s, 29. 

ASSIBTAlfT SUBOKOKS, 96, Waiting 

orders, 660 

Do. at sea, S60 

Do. after passing, fro., 850 

Do. at sea after passing, 1,200 

Do. at navy yards, 960 

Do. do. after passing, 1,160 

PUB8BB8, 64. 

Chaplains, 22, in sea service, 1,200 

Do. on leave, &c., 80O 

PASSU) MiiHSHiPiair, 181, on duty, 760 
Do. waiting orders, 600 

MiDSHiPMXir, 264, in sea service, 400 

Do. on other duty, 850 

Do. on leave, &o., 800 

I^8TBB8,28, 

cfshipofthelineatsea, 1,100 

Do. on other duty, 1,000 

Do. on leave, &c., 750 

Professoss of Mathematics, 22, 1,200 

Tkaohis^ at naval schools, &o., 8, 480 

Boatswains, 81 1 of a ship of the line, 760 

GuNNKBS, 42 [ofafirigate, 600 

Cabpentsbs, 86 | on other duty, 500 

Sailkakibs, 84 j on leare, &o., 860 

Non. — One ration per day, only, is allowed to aU oAoers when attached to vessels fat 
sea service, since the passage of the law of the 8d of liaroh, 1835, regulating the pay of the 
nary. Teachers receive two rations per day, at 20 cents each. 

7. Vessels of Wab op the United States Na vt. — -J-t^itf^, 1847. 

[The names of oiScers maiiced thus * hare the rank of Commanders ; thus tj lAeuUnaniU; 
the rest are Ckiptams, 



Ca»tainb,( 


38 Senior, in service. 


#4,600 


Do. 


do. on leave, 


8,500 




4,000 


Do. 


do. on other duty, 


8,500 


Do. 


do. off duty. 


2,500 


CoMMANOiBS, 97, in sea service. 


2,600 


Do. 


at navy yards, 6t on 






other duty. 


2,100 


Do. 


on leave, &c.. 


1,800 


LouTiNANTS, 827, commanding, 


1,800 


Do. 


on other duty, 


1,500 


Do. 


waiting orders. 


1,200 


SuROBONS, 60, Ist 5 years in com.. 


1,000 


Do. 


in navy yards, &c., 


1,260 


Do. 


in sea service. 


1,888 


Do. 


of the fleet. 


1,600 


Do. 


2d 5 years, 


1,200 


Do. 


at navy yards, &c. 


1,500 


Do. 




1,600 


Do. 


of the fleet, 


1,800 


Do. 


3d 6 years. 


1,400 


Do. 


at navy yards, &c. 


1,760 


Do. 


in sea service. 


1,866 


Do. 


of the fleet. 


2,100 


SUBGXONS, 


4th 6 years. 


1,600 


Do. 


at navy yards, ftc. 


2,000 


Do. 


in sea service, 


2,138 


Do. 


of the fleet. 


2,400 


Do. 


20 yean and upwards. 


1,800 



Name and Bate. 


Where and when 
built 


Commanded by 


Where employed. 


Ships qf the Line. — 11. 
Guns. 

Franklin, 74 
Columbus, 74 
Ohio, 74 
North Carolina, 74 
Delaware, 74 

Vermont, 74 
Virginia,' 74 
New York, 74 
New Orleans, 74 


Philadelphia, 1837 

Washington, 1819 
New York, 1820 

Goeport, Va., 1820 


*C. K. Stribling, 
*J. Crowninshield, 
T. W. Wyman, 
S. U. Stringharo, 
»W. C. Nicholson, 


Bec'g ship, Norlblk. 

do. 
Bec'g ship, N.York, 
Norfolk. 
On stocks, Portsth. 

do. Boston. 

do. do. 

do. Norlblk. 

do. Sac. Bar. 

Pacific Ocean. 




















Boston, 1814 


B. A. P. LareUctte, 



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1848.] 



NATY LIST. 



127 



Name and Rate. 



Where and when 
built. 



Commanded by 



Where employed. 



F)rigates,lst CUus.—lZ, 
Omu. 

United States, 44 
Gonstitation, 

Potomac, 44 

BrandyWiiie, 44 

Colombia, 44 
Congress, 
Cumberland, 

Savannah, 44 

Raritan, 44 

Santee, 44 

Sabine, 44 

St. Lawrenee, 44 

FyigatiSy 2d Class,— 2. 
Constellation, 86 

Macedonian, 86 



Philadelphia, 
44 Boston, 
Washington, 
Do. 
Do. 
44 Portsmouth, 
44 Boston, 
New York, 
Philadelphia, 



1797 Joseph Smoot, 

1797 

1821 

1825! Thomas Crabbe, 

1886«R.Bltchie, 

""*^.R. P. Stockton, 

: W.Jameson, 

:W. Herrine, 



1841 
1842 
1842 
1848 



20 



Stoops of War. — 2 

Saratoga, 
John Adams, 

Tincennes, 

Warren, 

Falmouth, 

Fairfield, 

Yandalia, 

St Louis, 

Cyane, 

LeTant, 

Portsmouth, 

Plymouth, 

St Mary's, 

Jamestown, . 

Albany, 

Germantown, 

Ontario, 

Decatur, 

Preble, 

Torktown, 

Marion, 

Dale, 

.fihifs. — 5. 
Boxer. 
Dolphin, 
Porpoise, 
Bainbridge, 
Pcriy. 

Schooners. — 8. 
Experiment, 
Flirt, 
Wave, 
Phenix, 
On-ka-hy-e, 
Bonito, • 1 

Reefer, 1 

Petrel, 1 

Somb Vesseis, — 6» 

Stromboli, 1 

Vesnyius, jj 

.Stiia, 1 

Heela, 1 

Xlectra, Ordnanu ( 

transport^ \ 



Balthnore, 1797 

Capt'd 1^ le- 
built, in 1886. 



1842 *D. 



Portsmouth, 

20 Charleston, S. C. ) 

m rebuilt, 1820/ 

New York, 1826 

Boston, 1826 

Do. 1827 

New York, 1828 

20 Philadelphia, 1828 

"" Washington, 1828 

Boston, 1837 

New York, 1837 
Portsmouth, 

Boston, 1843 

""ashington, 1844 

_ Driblk, 1844 

20 New York, 1846 

20 Philadelphia, 

18 Baltimore, 

16 New York, 1839 

16 Portsmouth, 

"'^Norfolk, 
Boston, 
Philadelphia, 



10 

10 New _„ 

10 Boston, 



Boston, 
^- York, 



10 



Do. 



10 Norfolk, 



Washington, 1881 

Transferred from 
War Department, 

Purchased, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



O. Faragnt, 
•H. A. Adams, 



»J. B. Hull, 



*S. H. DuPont, 

*H. N. Page, 

1843 ^J. B. MontgDmery, 



*S. Mercer, 



1846 *F. Buchanan, 
1813*A.K.Long, 

•R. S. Pfaickney, 
1839i*W. P. Shields, 



1839*L.£. Shnonds, 
1839*J.Rudd, 



1881 tH. H. BeU, 
1886 *John Pope, 
1836 tA. G. Gordon, 
1842 tG. G. Williamson, 
1843|*Samuel Barron, 



t J. L. Lardner, 

t James S. Palmer, 



jO.n. Berryman, 
tJ. M. Berrien, 

1846 tC. W. Chauncey, 

1846 tH. Moor, 



1846 



Purchased, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



1846 tJ. R. Tucker, 
1846 *0. A. Magruder, 
1846 *G. J. Van Brunt, 
1846 tA. B. Fair&x, 

• tT. A. Hunt, 



Mediterranean. 
Boston. 
Norfolk. 
Coast of Brazil. 

do. do. 
Pacific Ooean. 
Home squadron. 
Pacific Ocean. 
Norfolk. 
On stocks, Portsth. 

do. New York. 

do. Norfolk. 

Norfolk. 
New York. 



Home squadron. 

do. do. 

New York. 
Pacific Ooean. 
Boston. 
Norfolk. 

do. 

do. 
Pacific Ooean. 

do. do. 

do. do. 
New York. 
Norfolk. 
Coast of Africa. 
Home squadron. 

do. do. 
Reo'g Ship, Bait. 
Home squadron, 
l^acific Ocean. 
Boston. 
Mediterranean. 
Pacific Ocean. 

Coast of AfHea. 

do. do. 

Home squadron. 
Coast of Brazil. 

do. do. 

Ree*g %ip, Philad. 
Home squadron. 
Coast survey, 
do. do. 
Packet service- 
Home squadron. 

do. do. 

do. do. 



Home Squadron, 
do. do. 
do. do. 
do. do. 



do. 



do. 



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128 



UNIX£I> BTATE8. 



[1848. 



Name and Bate. 



Yiliere and when 
IniUt. 



Oommanded by 



Wbeope employed. 



13. 
Guns. 
•10 
4 
4 
9 
1 

8 
8 



Steamers, — 

Misedadppi, 

Fulton, 

Union, 

Princeton, 

Michigan, 

Alleghany, 

Spitfire, 

Vixen, 

Scorpion, 

deourge. 

General Taylor, 

Water Witch, 

Engineer, 

Store Ships and Brigs.-6. 

Relief; € 

Erie, C 

Lexington, 8 

Southampton, 6 
Supply, 
Fredonia, 



1841 
1887 
1842 
1848 
1844 



tS. 8. Lee, 



Philadelphia, 
New York, 
Norfolk, 
Philadelphia, 
Erie, Pa., 
Pittsburg, F^., 
Purchased, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
TransTd fin. W, 

Washingtcn, 1845|tG. M. Totten, 
PurchaMd, 



•P.Bngle, 
*S. OhampUn, 
tW. W. Hunter, 
1846 fD. D.Porter, 
~ fWilliam Smith, 
*A. Bigelow, 
tS. Lockwood. 



1846 
1846 
1846 
. D. 



Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, 
New Yoi*, 
Norfolk, 
Purchased, 
Do. 



1836lO.A.BuIlus, 
1818 tJ. M. Watson, 
■ tT. Bailey, 

tK. D. Thorbum, 

fj. DeCamp, 

tT. Turner, 



1825 
1846 
1846 
1846 



Home squadnm. 

New Tork. 

Washington. 

Meditenanean. 

Lakes. 

Meditenanean. 

Home squadron. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 
Pensaeola. 
Washington. 
Noilblk. 



Home squadrim. 
Padflc. 

do. 

do. 
Home squadron. 

do. do. 



• Paixhan. 



VII. THE MARINE CORPS. 

The Marine Corps has the organissation of a brigade, and numbers now 76 oommissioiied 
officers, and 2,320 non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates ; in all, 2,896 men. 
The pay and allowances of the officers of the marine corps are the same as those of offloera 
of the same grades in the infantry of the army, except the adjutant and inspector, who 
have the same pay aiid allowances as the paymaster of tiie marines. The marine corps is 
subject to the laws and regulations of the navy, except when detached for service with ttie 
army by the order of the President of the United States. A portion of the corps, under 
Lieut.-Ck>l. Watson, is now with General Scott in Mexico. The head-quarters of the corps 
are at Washington. 

Staff of the Mcarine Corps. 



*Col. Archibald Henderson, 
Lieut-Col. Samuel Miller, 

fMajor Samuel E. Watson, 
Major Levi Twiggs, 
M^jOT John Harris, 



Major Thomas linton, 
Capt. Parke G. Bowlei Mj. amd hupector 
Capt. G. W. Walker, Paymaster, 
Capt. A. A. Nicholson, QjMBrtertnaster, 



* Brigadier-General by brevet. t Lieut.-Col. by brevet. 



Vin. POST-OFFICE ESTABLISHMENT. 

1. Post-office Statistics for the year ending June 30, 1846*/ the first year 

under the New Law, (Exdusive of Texas,) 
Namber of contractors, . • . . 3,530 

Number of post-routes, ..... 4,285 
Increase in aggregate length of routes over last year, • 5,739 

Number of post-o9Sces supplied, .... 14,601 
Increase of mail transportation over last year, . . 1,764,145 

Receipts for the year, .... $3,487,199.35 

Expenditures for the year, .... 4,084,297.22 
The receipts fell short of the expenditures, . . ' . 597,097 



Digitized 



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1848.1 



POST-OFFICE ESTABLISHMBMT. 



129 



Daring the year, 877 new poet-offices were estaUished, and 459 were dis- 
continued. 2,905 postmasters were appointed in consequence of resigna- 
tions or deaths ; 301 for changes of sites of the offices ; 877 to new offices ; 
871 by remoyals ; 4 where commissions expired, and were not renewed; in 
all, 4,958. 

The mails hare been expedited one business day between New York city 
and New Orleans ; 24 hours from Washington to St liouis and Nashville 
by the way of Louisville, and 55 hours to St liOuis, by Springfield and 
I>ayton. 

The Magnetic Telegraph between Baltimore and Washington, including 
salaries of officers, cost, between the 1st of April, 1845, and the let of 
October, 1846, $9,906.66 ; and the receipts have been $2,312.38. Between 
the 1st of December, 1846, and the 4th of March, 1847, the line was kept 
for its profits, and without aid from the treasury. 

2. TaUe of Mail Service for the year ending June 30, 1846. 







Koutes. 


Annual Tranqmrfeation. 


Total 
Transpor- 
tation. 


Total Cost 


TfenitoriM. 


Mode not 
specified. 


In 
Coaches. 


BaOroad 

and 
Sfmboot. 


Maine, 

New Hampahiie, 

Yennont, 

Bhode Lflaiid, . 
Connecticut . 
New York, . . 
New Jersey. . 
PennsylTaoia, 
Delawmre, . 
Maryland, 
Virginia, . 
North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 

Florida, * . ' 
Ohio, 

MU».hU« . 

Indiana, 
Ulittois, 
Wlficondn, . 
Iowa, . 
MiMOuii, 
K<H>tncky, . 
Tenneaeeo, 
Alabama, 

▲ikanMf, . 




MUei. 
8,»65 
2,884 

8,618 

885 

1,788 

18,804 
2021 

10,276 

605 

2,851 

10,021 
7^ 
4,605 
5^782 
2,987 

11887 
4,078 
6,855 
8,478 
2881 
1409 
7,909 
7618 
6906 
6,728 
4^ 
4^ 
2)806 


Miles. 
784,728 
242,684 
280,696 
876,980 

58,260 
868,896 
1,812,529 
106,097 
902,060 

66,040 
228,966 
1,048,280 
582,624 
866,548 
475,566 

86,216 
911^ 
884,884 
617,906 
568,262 
210,792 
110,844 
576,072 
570,448 
622,076 
60r,684 
484,828 
488412 
225,216 


Miles. 

268,870 
400,264 
444,928 
811,626 
74880 
156,986 

1,678,818 
404.456 

1,608,056 
84 874 
802,276 
857,177 
666,962 
421,220 
422,886 
173,861 

1,569,496 
800,456 
594,670 

1,285,496 
^,812 
64,064 
427,400 
665,724 
704,292 
660,986 
818^2 
105,466 
7;488 


MUee. 
70,824 
62,400 
2,100 

722,204 
80,264 

211,176 
1,453,662 

228^ 

859,216 

"»1,768 
515 J12 
887,272 
229,820 
880,720 
87 984 
617,844 
195,812 

' *85,776 

* iiim 

1,056,016 

'W7,704 
28,704 
46,800 
103,266 


Miles. 

1,114,422 

W,848 

727,724 

1,910810 

158,894 

732,008 

4,944,499 

'788^841 

2,864,882 

150,914 

928,000 

2,420,549 

1,586,748 

1^7088 

1,228,622 

848,061 

8,096,412 

880452 

1,212,576 

1,884,584 

802,104 

174,408 

1,477,088 

2,282,188 

1,326,868 

1,456,824 

881,272 

590,668 

865,960 


$40,791 
^409 

26,728 

105 898 

9,102 

48^868 
287,918 

58,850 

165,804 

7,887 

117,969 

160162 
44,909 

166,964 
48,288 
68,875 

125591 
15,691 
8,668 
68,269 

126^ 
91,160 

227,412 
95109 
66,264 
42,670 


Total, 


• 


149,679 


14,079,558 


15,587,088 


7,781,828 


87,898,414 $2,666,078t | 


Cost, . . 




1629,018 


$1,164,690 


$870,5701 1 . 1 



The entire servioe and pay of the route are set down to the State under which it is 
numbered, though extending into other States. 
•Add Texas, 8486 miles; in all, 152365 miles. 

tAlso, expenses of mail agencies, $42,406 ; serrice hi Texas, from Feb. 16, 1846, $9,189 ; 
— Tj In aU $2,716,678. 



Digitized 



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130 UNITED BTATS6. [1848. 

3. Number of Post-Offices, Extent of Poet-Eoade, and Revenue and Expen- 
ditures of the Poet-Office Department; with the Amount paid to Postmasters 
and for Transportation of the MaU, 





No. of 


Extent of 


Beyenne 


Expenctttores 


Amount paid for 


Yew. 


POflt 

Offices. 


Post 
Boads. 


of the 
Department. 


of the 






Compen. of 


Transporta'n 












Postmasters. 


of the Man. 






MUes. 


Dollan. 


bolWs. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


1790 


75 


1,975 


37,935 


32,140 


8,196 


22,081 


1795 


453 


1^207 


160,620 


117,893 


30,272 


76,350 


1800 


903 


20,817 


280,804 


213,994 


69,243 


128,644 


1805 


1,558 


31,076 


421,373 


377;967 


111,552 


239,636 


1810 


2,300 


36,406 


551,664 


496,969 


149,438 


327,966 


1816 


3,000 


43,748 


1,043,066 


748,121 


241,901 


487,779 


1816 


3,260 


48,673 


961,782 


804,422 


265,944 


631,970 


1817 


3,450 


62,069 


1,002,973 


916,516 


303,916 


589,189 


1818 


3,618 


69,473 


1,130,235 


1,035,832 


346,429 


664,611 


1819 


4,000 


67,586 


1,204,737 


1,117,861 


375,828 


717,881 


1830 


4,500 


7^492 


1,111,927 


1,160,926 


35^ 


762,435 


1821 


4,650 


78,808 


1,059^087 


1,184,283 


337,600 


816,681 


1823 


4,799 


82,763 


1,117,490 


1,167,572 


356,209 


768,618 


1823 


4,043 


84,860 


1,130,116 


lyl66,996 


360,463 


767,464 


1824 


5,192 


84,860 


1,1 »7,768 


17188,019 


383,804 


708,939 


1825 


5,677 


94,aa 


1,306,625 


17229,043 


411,183 


785,646 


1828 


6,160 


94,062 


1,447,703 


1,366,712 


447,727 


886,100 


1827 


7,003 


105,336 


1,524,633 


1,468,950 


486,411 


942,345 


1828 


7,530 


106,336 


1,669,915 


1,689,945 


548,049 


1,086,313 


1829 


8,004 


115,000 


1,707,418 


1,782,132 


569,237 


1,163,616 


1830 


8,450 


115,176 


1,850,583 


1,932,708 


50^ 


1,274,000 


1831 


8,686 


115,486 


1,997,811 


1,936,123 


635,028 


1,252,226 


1833 


9,205 


101,466 


2,258,670 


2,266,171 


715,481 


1,482,507 


1833 


10,127 


119,916 


2,617,011 


2,930,414 


826,283 


1,894,638 


1834 


10,693 


119,916 


2,823,749 


2,910,605 


897,317 


1,«5,544 


1835 


10,770 


112,774 


2,993,366 


2,767,360 


946,418 


1,719,007 


1836 


11,091 


118,264 


3,406,323 


2,841,766 


812,803 


1,638,058 


1837 


11,767 


141,242 


4,100,605 


3,308,423 


891,363 


1,996,727 


1838 


12,619 


134,818 


4,236,078 


4,621,833 


933,948 


3,131,308 


1839 


12,780 


133,999 


4,477,614 


4,654,718 


960,000 


3,266,623 


1840 


13,468 


155,739 


4,539,266 


4,759,110 


^ 1,028,935 


3,296,876 


1841 


13,778 


152^026 


4,379,296 


4,443,768 


1,018,645 


3,189,375 


1842 


13,733 


149,732 


4,546,246 


4,235,082 


1,147,256 


3,087,796 


1843 


13,814 


142,295 


4,296,926 


4,374,713 


1,436,394 


2,947,319 


1844 


14,103 


144,687 


4,237,285 


4,297,867 


1,366,316 


2,938,661 


1845 


14,183 


143,940 


4,289,842 


4,320,732 


1,409,875 


2,905,504 


♦1846 


14,601 


153,865 


3,487,199 


4,084,297 




2,716,673 



* The retains for 1846 are for the first year under the new law, passed 
March 3, 1845. 



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1848.] 



POST-OFFIOX BBTABUSHHENT. 



131 



4. Btvenue under the New Law. 
Bevemie of the Pogt-Office from 1st July, 1836, toSOth June, 1846. 



Year, ending 
90th June. 


Letter PMiaeB. 


Newspapers 
and Pamphlets 


Fines. 


Misoellane. 
oos Receipts. 


Total Annual 
Beoeipts. 


1837 
183Q 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 


$3,674,834 
3,776,125 
3,976,446 
4,003,776 
3,812,739 
3,953,315 
3,738,307 
3,676,162 
3,660,231 


$425,714 
458,737 
500,873 
635,229 
566,246 
572.225 
543,277 
549,744 
608,765 


$816 
215 
295 
260 
312 
720 
405 
135 
90 


$135,415 

3,656 

7,043 

4,256 

28,429 

20,589 

14,236 

11,247 

20,755 


$4,236,779 
4238,733 
4,484,657 
4,543,522 
4,407,726 
4,546,849 
4,296,225 
4,237,288 
4,289,841 


Total to aOOi 
June, 1846. 


34,271,935 


4,760,810 






39,281,620 






ATerageof 
nine yean 


3,807,993 


528,979 






4,364,625 







The aboTe statistics apply wholly to the revenue under the old law. The 
following table shows the income for the first year under the new law : — 



Tear ending 
aOthJune. 


Letter Postage. 


NeTfspapers 
and Pamphlets. 


Fines. 


Miscellane- 
ous Receipts 


Total Annual 
Receipts. 


1846 


$2,881,697 


$562,143 


$235 


$43,124 


$3,487,199 



From the above tables it will be seen that the annual average income for 
Bine years, ending 80th June, 1845, was $4,364,625. For the year ending 
aoth Jane, 1846, the first under the new law, the income was $3,487,199 ; 
making a loss, as compared with the average of the nine preceding years, of 
$877,426 ; and with the year preceding of $802,642. This loss is chiefly 
on letter postages, in which, as compared with the average of the nine pre- 
ceding years, the loss is $926,296, and with the year preceding, $778,534 ; 
being the entire loss of the department, under the first year of the new law, 
within $24,108, as compared with the year preceding; and $123,654 more 
than the entire loss, as compared with the average of the nine preceding 
years. The Postmaster-General supposes that this arises in part from 
packages of letters, addressed to difl^erent individuals, being directed to 
some third person for distribution. In this way, 100 letters, weighing eight 
ounces, would be charged (the law allowing one-half ounce to each letter) 
under 300 miles, 80 cents, and over 300, $1.60 ; the department being en- 
titled to receive, under the law, $5 or $10 according to the distance. 
One provision of the law of March 3, 1847, is intended to remedy this evil, 
and to make the increased number of letters increase the revenues of the 
department. It will also be seen, that, while the income from newspapers 
and pamphlets, during the last year, is less than during the year preceding 
by $46,622, it is larger than that of the average of the nine preceding years 
by $33,164. 



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132 



UMITBD 8TATBS. 



[1848. 



5. Gross amount of Letter Pottage, and Newspapers and Pamphlets^ Jbr the 
three Quarters preceding ike 1st of AprU, 1846, compared with the three 
Quarters preceding Ist of April, 1847. 

[Furnished from ttie Port-office Department, July 28, 1B47.] 



Tears 1486-6. 


Letter 
Postage. 


Newspaper 

and 
Pamphlet 
Postage. 


Tears 1846-7. 


Letter 
Postage. 


Newspaper 

and 

Pamphlet 

Postage. 


8d Quarter, 1846. 
l8t «» 1846. 


8692,087 71 
672,086 81 
740,618 71 


126,764 89 
129,781 89 
148,608 12 


3d Quarter, 1846. 
4th " " 
1st « 1847. 


762,718 64 
784,792 14 
840,018 ^ 


144,666 09 
144,26128 
169^137 65 




$2,104,642 23 


899,044 40 




$2,877,629 20 448,054 92| 



Aggregate average increase, 12^^ percent 
6. Expenditures of the Post-Office from 1st July, 1836, to 30th June, 1846. 



Tear 
ending 
June 30. 




Tear 
ending 
June 80. 




Tear 
ending 
June 80. 




1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 


$3,544,630 
4,430,662 
4,636,536 
4,718,236 
4,499,528 


1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 


$5,674,752 
4,374,754 
4,296,513 
4,320,732 


1846 


$40,084,297 


Total to 80 
June, 1845. 


$40,496,343 


Average 
for 9 years. 


$4,499,594 







The expenditures under the first year of the new law were $4,084,297 ; 
being less than the average of the nine preceding years by $415,297, and 
less than that of the year preceding by $236,433. This saving has been 
effected by reducing the rates in reletting the contracts in New England 
and New York. Since the close of the last fiscal year, the new contracts 
have gone into operation in the North-western and South-western States 
and Territories, and the cost under them is $323,901 ; or 33 per cent less 
than under those which expired 30th June, 1846. There have been no cur- 
tailments of the service , but the frequency and despatch of the mails have 
been increased. 

7. Business of the Post- Office and Compensation of Postmasters. 

There are no returns to show correctly the increased business of the de- 
partment Some idea may be formed by comparing the wei^t of all the 
mails sent firom three oi&ces for one week in June, 1838, with the weight of 
.the mails on the railroad and steamboat routes only, from the same offices, 
for one week in May, 1846. 



Places. 


Weight ofall Mails in 
June, 1888. 


Weight of Railroad and 

Steamboidi Mails onlj, 

in May, 184& 


Excess in 
May, 1846. 


New York, 

Philadelphia, 

Baltimore, 


19,221 lbs. ^ 
20,849 " 
2,720 « 


60,002 lbs. 
48,287 « 
*20,000 " 


40,781 lbs. 
27,438 " 
17,280 " 


Total, 


42,790 lbs. 


128,289 lbs. 


85,499 lbs. 



* Estimated, 



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1848.]- P08T-OVFICS SSTABUBBMSITT. 183 

In consequence of the increased labor in the c^Eices, and the diminished 
compensation and priyileges of postmasters, nnder the act of Sd March, 
1845, nearly one-lliird of the offices in the United States hare been volon- 
tarily yacated since the passage of the act The extra commissions allowed 
by the order of 9th July, 1845, arrested these resignations. By l^e law of 
March 1st, 1847, higher rates of commission are allowed postmasters. 
These rates are as follows, viz.: 

1. On tiie amount of letter postage, not exceeding $100 in 
any one year, . • . • 40 per cent 

3. On any som between $100 and $400 in any year, . 33^ *^ 

3. On any som between $400 and $2,400 in a year, . 30 ^* 

4. On any som oyer $2,400 in a year, . . . 12| ** 

5. On l^e amount of letters and packets receiyed for 
distribution at offices designated by the Postmaster-General 

for that purpose, . . . . 7 " 

6. On all sums arising from the postage on newspapers, 
magazines, and pamphlets, • . . • 50 " 

7. Box rents not exceeding $2,000 per annum. 

l%e postmasters at New Orleans and Washington haye special allow- 
ances for extra labor. 

The term letter postage ixncbideB aU postages receiyed, except those which 
arise from newspapers, sent from the officesof publication to subscribers, and 
from pamphlets and magazines. 

8. Bates of Postage. 

For a letter, not exceeding half an ounce in weight (ayoirdupois), 

sent not exceeding 300 mUes, .... 5 cents. 
Sent oyer 800 miles, . . . . 10 " 

For eyery half ounce, and any excess oyer eyery half ounce, the 
same rates of postage ; and when adyertised, two cents on each 
letter; or four cents, if the adyertisii^ cost so much, additional. 
For drop letters (not to be mailed), each . . 2 " 

For all letters or packages, conyeyed by any yessel not employed 
in carrying the mail, from one post or place to any other post or 
place in the United States, . . . . 2 ** 

For any pamphlet, magazine, periodical, or other matter of eyery 
kind, that is transmittable by mail, and has no written commu- 
nication on it, of one ounce or less, or for a newspaper exceed- 
ing 1,900 square inches of surfietoe, sent from the office of pub- 
lication, . . . . . 2i " 
For each additional oonce, or an excess greater than a half ounce, 1 cent 
For newspapers of 1,900 square inches or less, sent from the office 
of publication, not more than 100 miles, or any distance within 
the same State, . . 1 ** 

Sent over such distance, . . . Ijv" 

12 



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134 imiTBB STATES. [1848. 

For transient newspapert^ or those not sent from the oflScc of pub- 
lication to subscribers, handbills or circular letters, printed or 
lithographed, not exceeding one sheet in size (sent any distance), 
to be paid upon delivery at the office and before they are put in 
the mails, . . . . . .8 cts. 

Letters, newspapers, and packages, not exceeding one ounce in 
weight, addressed to any officer, musician, or private, in the 
army of the United States in Mexico, or at any post or place 
on the frontier of the United States bordering on Mexico, eadi 
letter so addressed to specify, after the name of the person, 
" belonging to the army," .... Free. 

The law will continue in force during the war with Mexico, and for three 
months after its termination. 

As the postage on these articles is chargeable on each copy, postmastns 
will careftilly examine all packets, and rate the postage acoMrdlngly. When 
the Article to be mailed is a circular, pamphlet, or newspaper, it should be 
so enveloped or folded that it can be distinctly seen at tiie office to be such, 
and also that it contain no writing, marks or signs, to serve tiie purpose of 
written communications. If not done up so as to open at the end, it is to 
be charged as a letter, by weight. 

No packet can be mailed which weighs more than tiiree pounds. Bound 
books of any size are not included in the term " mailable matter," except 
books sent by Governors of States, and those included under the term " Pub- 
lic Documents." 

The establishment of private expresses for the conveyance of any letters, 
packets, or packages of letters, or other matter transmittable in the United 
States mail (newspapers, pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals excepted), 
from one city, town, or other place, to any other city, town, or place in the 
United States, between which the United States mail is regularly trans- 
ported, is prohibited. Contractors may take newspapers out of the mails 
for sale or distribution among subscribers. 

Letters addressed to different persons cannot be enclosed in the same 
envelope or package under a penalty of ten dollars, unless addressed to 
foreign countries. , 

9. Privilege of Franking, 

1. The President, ex-Presidents, and Mrs. Madison, and Mrs. Harrison, 
retain the franking privilege, as regulated by former, laws. 

2. Members of Congress and delegates from Territories, ^mMtVfy(%8 
be/ore the commencement of each Congress, untU the meetingofthe next Con" 
gressy the Vice-President, and the Secretary of the Senate, and the Clerk of 
the House of Representatives, during their official terms, may send and re- 
ceive free, letters or packages, not exceeding two ounces in weight, and 
public documents not exceeding three pounds in weight. 



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1848.J POST-OVFXCS BgTABLiaHMBNT. 1S5 

3. The governors of States maj send free tlie laws, rec(»ds, and doca- 
ments of the legislature, to the governors of other States. 

4. The Secretaries of State, Treasury, War, and Navy ; Attorney-Gen- 
eral ; Postmaster-General and Assistants Postmaster-General ; Comp- 
trollers, Auditors, Kegister, and Solicitor of the Treasury, Treasurer; 
CSommissioners of the different Offices and Bureaus ; Chiefs of Bureaus in 
the War and Navy Departments, Greneral in Chief and Adjutant-General, 
may send ctnd receive free all letters and packages upon official business, 
but not their private letters or papers. 

5. The chief clerk in the State Department may send free public and 
official documents. 

6. Deputy postmasters may send free all such letters and packages as 
may relate exclusively to the business of their respective offices ; and those 
-whose compensation did not exceed $200 for the year ending the 30th of 
June, 1846, may also send free, through the mails, letters written by them- 
selves, and receive free all written communications on their own private 
business, not weighing over one-half ounce, but not transient newspapers, 
handbills, or circulars. 

7. Exchange newspapers between editors pass free. 

Public documents are those printed by the order of either House of Con- 
gress, and publications or books procured or purchased by Congress, or 
either House, for the use of the members. 

10. Postage by the New York^ Southampton^ and Bremen line of Steamers. 

The following are the rates of postage prescribed by the act of the 3d of 
March, 1845, for mailable matter sent by this line to Europe : — 
For all letters and packages not exceeding half an ounce in 

weight, . . . . . .24 cents. 

For an letters and packages over half an ounce and under one 

ounce, . . . . 48 " 

For every additional half ounce, . . . 15 " 

For every letter, newspaper, pamphlet, and price current, 3 ** 

The United States postage will be charged in addition to the above upon 
all mailable matter sent throuj^h the mails of the United States to New 
Tork, whence the ship sails for Bremen. All mailable matter addressed to 
En^and, Ireland, or Scotland, will be left at the British post-office in 
Cowes or Southampton; and all for France, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
Italy, Spain and Portugal, and Africa, will be sent to Havre, in France ; a 
separate bag will be made up for Hamburg and delivered at Bremen- 
Haven. Prepayment of the postage will be required at the office from 
which sent, upon all mailable matter directed to those countries. Upon 
mailable matter sent to other countries on the eastern continent, pre- 
payment will not be required. It will be mailed for Bremen, where all 
unpaid postages will be collected for the United States by the Bremen 
office. 



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136 



UNITED 8TATM. 

IX. PUBLIC LANDa 



[1848. 



[From the Land Comndssloner'B Report for 1846.] 

The sales of public lands dnring the year 1845 amounted to 1,848,527.05 
acres, prodncing $2,470,298 ] and in the first, second, and third quarters of 
1846, 1,728 408.71 acres were sold, amounting to $2,222,920. A comparison 
of these exhibits with those of several of the preceding ye&rs shows that 
the sales haye been regularly increasing; not stimulated, it is beliered, in 
any degree by speculation, but keeping pace only with the increase of pop- 
ulation, and made m^nly for the purposes of actual settlement and cultiva- 
tion ; most of the entries being in small subdivisions, and many under the 
preemption privilege. 

During the present year, the aggregate quantity of public lands in all the 
States and Territories proclaimed for sale, amounts to 12,535,878 acres. 

In Ohio, all the public lands have been brought into market, except a few 
small islands in the Miami river ; and in Illinois, the public lands have aU 
been surveyed and opened to sale, except about 28,000 acres, and some un- 
finished surveys on the principal rivers. 

In the northern peninsula and Lake Superior copper region, 1,719,678 
acres are ready for sale. 

1. Exhibit of the quantities of Public Land (exclusive of the sixteenth, or school 
sections) in each State and Territory advertised for sale in the year 1846 ; the 
quantitieSy the plats of survey of which have been returned to the General Land 
Office; the quantities prepared for market not yet advertised; and the proba- 
ble quantities which wUl be prepared in the year 1847. 



State* and 
Tenitoxiee. 



Qnantities, the plats of boi- 

yey of which hare heen re- 

tomed to the General Land 

Office. 



Prior to the 
Commission- 
er'B last an- 
nual report. 



Since the 
Commission- 
er* 8 last an- 
nual report. 




Ohio, 

Indiana, 

Michigan, 

Illinois, 

Wisconsin, 

Iowa, 

Missouri, 

Arkansas, 

Louisiana, 

Mississippi, 

Alabama, 

Florida, 



Acres. 
1,760 



279,048 
1,281,761 
1,181,123 
3,143,368 
3,811,193 



1,574,040 
1,263,585 



Acres. 

1,760 
444,624 
463,026 
290,640 
529,056 
591,617 

2,134,956 

4,998,493 
481,205 

1,574,040 
67,854 

1,126,417 



Acres. 



Acres. 



58 

1^56,652 

16,267 

752,705 

827,806 

1,387,232 

2,756,303 

66,919 

711 



444,682 

1,719,678 

27,859 



445,000 
1,250,000 



318,978 



238,300 
378,820 
943,603 
548,124 
711 
67,854 
181,810 



1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,500,000 
2,000,000 
500,000 



1,500,000 



Total, 



12,535,878 



9,703,688 7,383,631 



4,551,441 



9,195,000 



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1848.} 



PUBLIC XJL»I>8. 



137 



2. Quantity of PubUe Land aold^ and the Amount paid fir it in each year^ 
from 1833 to the third quarter of 1846. 



Yean. 




Acres. 


Dollars. 


1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 


3 

4 
12 
20 

5 

3 * 


1,164,796.11 
1,129,217.58 
1,605,264.06 
1,754,763.13 
1,843,527.05 
1,728,408.71 


1,463,364.06 
1,417,972.06 
2,016,044.30 
2,207,678.04 
2,470,303.17 
2,222,920.77 


66,609,055.83 


84,605,466.45 



• Smbiadxkg only thiee quarters of the year, t Total for 18 years and three quarters. 
3. Statement of PvkiUc Lands sold, and of Payments into the Treasury , on 



4. Statement of Public Lands sold, and of Payments into the Treasury, on 



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138 



UKITBD 8TATBS. 



[184$. 



5. Statement of Public Lands sold^ and of Paymenits into Ae Treaemy, on 
account thereof in the third qwxrter of the ifear IS46, . 



States and 
Tenitorisa. 


Lands sold, after de- 

duotbig erroneous 

entries. 


Amount xecdTed in Gash, Treasu- 
rer's Beceipts, Treasury Notes, 
and in fbrfeited Land Stock, and 
MiUtary Land Scrip. 


Amount 
of inci- 
dental 
expen- 
ses. 


Amount 
paid into 

sury du- 
ring the 
third 
quarter 
of the 
Year. 


Aoiet. 


Purchase 
money. 


Cash. 


Treuu- 

rer's 
Receipts. 


Treasury 
Notes. 


Forfeited 
land 
stock 

and mili- 
tary land 
scrip. 


Ohio, 

Indiana, 

minds, 

Missouri, 

Alabama, 

Michigan, 

Arluuuas, 

Florida, 

Iowa, 

Wisconsin, 


10,187.68 

20,921.78 

106,606.52 

2f,868.04 

12,596.71 

88,881.96 

12,718.55 

5,004.99 

7,810.88 

8,275.58 

68,070.01 

216,825.47 


$18,318 

26,158 

188,442 

84,885 

15,748 

48,602 

15,^1 

7,810 

9,287 

4,004 

78,887 

272,878 


$17,456 

26103 

181,917 

84,885 

15,748 

16,602 

11,296 

7,1lO 

7,887 

4,094 

26^652 






$862 
"1,476 


$1,164 
2841 
7U4 
2^888 
2,8a 
2^ 
1,586 
1,816 
2,097 
940 
6,916 
9,791 


$18,872 

20^ 

187,084 

28,827 

12,481 

2^188 

6,667 

5,661 

1,081 

4,060 

116,188 

816,064 


......... 


•g! 
















100 


100 






















100 


4,621 


Totol, 


525,664.56 


665,240 


619,587 




m 


7,068 


40,482 


66:),e99 



X. BEVENUE ASD EXPENDITUEE. 

[From a Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, December 9, 1846.] 

1. Statement of Duties^ Revenues^ and Public Expenditures during the fieoal yean 

ending June 30, 1845, and June 30, 1846. 



The receipts into the treasury were as fol- 
lows :— 
From customs, iriz : 

During the first quarter, 

During the second quarter, 

During the third quarter, 

During the fourth quarter, 

Total customs, 

From sales of public lands, 

From miscellaneous sources, 

Total receipts, exclusiye of loans, &c, 

Balance in the Treasury, July 1, 1844 and '45, 
Grand total, 



The expenditures,, exclusive of trust funds, 
were as follows : — 

Civil LisL 

Legislature, 

Executive, 

Judiciary,* • *- • • • . 

Governments in the Territories, • • • * 

Surveyors and their clerks, 

Officers of the Mint and branches, 

Commissioner of the Public Buildings,* * * • 

Secretary to sign patents, • 

Total civil list, 



Year ending 
June 80, 1845. 



10,873,718 04 
4,067,445 15 
6,385,558 83 
6,201,390 68 



27,528,112 70 

2,077,022 30 

163,998 56 



26,712,667 87 

2,694,452 48 

92,126 71 



29,769,133 56 

7,857,879 64 

37,626,513 20 



29,499,247 06 
7,658,306 22 



$713,594 16 

847,342 28 

628,012 17 

93,206 60 

58,738 68 

42,766 66 

2,000 00 

1,762 50 



2,387,423 05 



Year ending 
June 80, 1846. 



8,861,932 14 
4,192,790 77 
7,357,192 51 
6,300,752 45 



37,157,553 28 



$944,270 84 

856,909 44 

544,732 30 

64,845 82 

67,320 42 

42,307 88 

2,000 00 

1,237 00 



2,523,624 20 



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1848.] 



BBYBNITB A9D SXFBNDITURE. 



139 



/ Foreign Intercourse, 

Salarief of ministers, 

Salaries of secretaries of legation, 

Salaries of charg^ des affaires, • 

Salary oi minister resident to Turkey, 

Oatfits of ministers and chared des affiures,* 
Salary of dragoman to Turkey and contiu' 

gencies, 

Contingent expenses of all the missions abroad, 
Expenses incurred by the legation to Mexico, 

in relation to prisoners, 

Contingent expenses of foreign intercourse, 
Expenses of forwarding the nudls, &&, between 

Chagres and Panama, 

Salary ctf the consul at London, 

Belief and protection of American seamen,* • 
Clerk-hire, office-rent, &c, to American con- 

sol, London, 

Intercourse with Barbary powers, 

Erendi seamen killed or wounded at Toulon, 
Interpreters, guards, &c, at the consulates in 

Tiukish dominions, • 

Payments under the 9th article of treaty with 

Spain, • • • • 

Compensation for certain diplomatic services. 
To commissioner to Sandwich Islands,- • • • 
Commissioner and sec. to reside in China,* 



Total foreign intercourse, 

3£acellane(m8» 

Sarveys of public lands, • 

Support and maintenance of light-houses, &c, 

Mioine Hospital, &c., 

Buildine Marine Hospitals, 

Public Buildings, &c., in Washington,* • • • 

Furniture of the President's house, 

Support of the Penitentiary, 

Patent fund, 

Distribution of the sales of public lands, • • • 
Payment to Maine and Massachusetts for ex- 
penses incurred in protecting the heretofore 

aiin>uted territory, 

BuHcung custom-houses, &c., 

Survey of the coast of tbe United States,* • 

Mint establishment, 

Relief of sundry individuals, 

Survey of the north-eastern boundary line. 
Auxiliary watch in the citjr of Washington, 
Expenses incidental to the issue of treas. notes 

Expenses incidental to the loans, 

Support of lunatics of the District of Columbia, 
Three and five per cents, to certain States,* 

Three per cent, to Illinois, 

Five per cent to Michigan, 



Year ending 
June 80, 1846. 



$82,535 51 

16,814 40 

69,593 93 

7,300 00 

61,191 00 

2,400 00 
13,421 69 

33 13 
30,879 89 

500 00 

2,000 00 

60,352 80 

2,800 00 

6,266 79 

600 00 



25,300 00 

14,879 40 

2,800 00 



399,668 54 



$95,922 01 

438,357 77 

168,016 20 

35,800 00 

28,916 15 

7,652 84 
39,798 07 
19,716 23 



10,792 95 

288,933 39 

85,110 16 

100,087 00 

126,067 97 

17,580 47 

7,318 23 

4,000 00 

8,299 63 

9,000 00 

25,886 10 



Tearendi] 
June 80, 18 



$63,016 48 

13,580 51 

69.034 32 

8,000 00 

89,809 00 

3,600 00 
38,426 53 



21,941 69 



2,000 00 
67,126 52 

2,800 00 
8,248 24 



1,000 00 

1,900 00 

2,450 00 
5,000 00 



397,933 29 



$153,837 66 
400,877 29 
68,678 70 
42,887 49 
36,656 95 
11,358 28 
17,400 87 
42,128 70 
25,125 28 



56,754 63 

115,940 00 

100,000 00 

92,771 50 

58,314 94 

75,000 00 

6,176 00 

2,400 00 
5,325 79 

25,087 45 
1,259 93 



Digitized 



by Google ^ 



140 



UNITSD STATES. 



[1848. 



Five per cent, to Arkansas, 

Two per cent fund to Mississippi, 

Belief of the cities of the Distnct of Ck>lambia, 

Debentures and other charges, 

Additional compensation to collectors, &c^ 

Payment of horses, &c., lost, 

Duties refunded under protest, 

Repajment for lands erroneously sold,* • • • 
Beihnding purchase money for land sold in 

the Greensburg district, liouisiana,* • • 
Testing the electro-magnetic telegraphs, 
Besults and acct of the exploring expedition, 
Preserving the botanical and horticultural 

specimens brought home by the exploring 

expedition, 

Pr^aring indices to the manuscript pi^rs of 

Washington, 

Information respecting foreign commerce. 
Clerk to commissioners to remit duties on 

goods destroyed by fire in New York,* 
Payment of books ordered by Congress,* 
Conveying to the seat of government llie votes 

for President and Vice President of U. S 

Completing State House, Florida, 

Indenmity for slaves on board the Comet and 

Encomium, 

Expenses in relation to insolvent debtors of 

the United States, 

Manual for custom-houses in relation to sugar, 
Purchase of lots in rear of P. O. Department, 
Deficiency in revenue from postage,* * * * 

Posta^ of departments, 

Additional compensat'n to judges in Missouri, 
Proposed edition of the Laws and Treaties of 

the United States, 

AU other items of a miscellaneous nature,* 
Total miscellaneous, 

lender the direction of the War Department. 

Army proper, $3,155,027 

Military academy, 142,874 

Fortifications, and other works of defence, * • • 591,722 
Armories, arsenals, and munitions of war, • • • 786,1 55 

Harbors, roads, rivers, &c., 507,279 

Surveys, 72,810 

Pensions, 2,364,601 

Indian department, 1,383,916 

Claims of the State of Virginia, 33,861 

Arming and equipping the militia, 176,383 

Payments to militia and volunteers, J 274,442 



Yearei 
June 80, IJ 



$340 00 
124,575 12 
283,500 00 
168,380 79 

19,811 75 
398,730 30 

41,532 75 

38,239 87 

4,881 00 

35,000 00 



2,200 00 

1,252 00 
7,000 00 

2,000 00 
136,328 78 

10,586 00 
20,000 00 

6,962 17 

2,500 00 
2,334 06 



7,706 01 



2,831,115 77 



Year end 
June 80,1 



$1,788 76 
146,823 75 
122,516 49 
322,808 17 

88,346 25 

34,330 46 
859,974 77 

24,734 18 

19,877 95 

7,617 30 

21,747 26 



1,252 00 



1,000 00 
9,338 55 



92 91 

3,200 00 

22,150 00 

650,000 00 

160,231 62 

6,206 79 

17,500 00 
2,926 73 



6,782,999 84 



$4,049,929 05 

140,852 36 

1,031,327 60 

1,112,613 18 

239,625 49 

74,783 64 

1,784,988 30 

944,454 26 

26,731 45 

193,011 44 

544,346 33 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



BBYEirirB Ain> bxfbndituxb. 



141 



Mezican hostilities, 

Belief of sondry individiials, 

Total under direction of the "War Dep't, • 

Under the direction of the Navy Department. 

Pay and subsistence, including medicines, &c, 
Increase, repairs, armament, and eqnipmenti 

Contingent expenses, 

Navy yards, 

Nayy nospitals and asylum,* • • • * 

Jiffagiazines, > 

Behef of sundry individuals, • 

Marine corps, 

Pensions to invalids, widows, &c., 

Mezican hostilities, • 

Total under direction of the Navy Dep't, 

Public Debt. 

Paying the old public debt, > 

Interest on the loans of 1841, 1842, and 1843, 

Bedemption of the loan of 1841, 

Bedemption of the loan of 1843, 

Bedemption of Treasury Notes, 

Interest on Treasury Notes, 

Premium on the purchase of stock of the loan 

of 1841, 

^HCTuum and commission on the purchase of 

stock of the loan of 1843, 

Total public debt, 

* Total expenditures, 



Tearendj 
Jane 30, 1 



$44,127 80 



83,404,648 04 
32,117 21 



9,533,202 91 



$3,380,564 

1,405,946 

549,129 

321,680 

11,106 

249 

73,830 

352,542 

133,589 



Tfltr ending 
June 80, 183. 



13,579,428 35 



6,228,639 09 



$35,756 33 
996,256 76 

5,623,894 71 
400,000 00 

M70,243 13 
43,775 26 

3,268 93 

14,962 50 



Balance in the Treasury, July 1, 1845-6, 



8,588,157 62 



$3,252,850 29 

1,481,534 35 

484,928 60 

506,224 39 

48,567 02 

472 14 

184,238 55 

214,653 12 

129,774 84 

147,619 40 



M^,862 70 



$32,568 07 

833,953 75 

46,082 17 

29M49 80 
8,769 52 



1,217,823 31 



29,968,206 98 28,031,114 20 



7,658,306 22| 9,126,439 08 



2. Statement of Duties^ Eevenues^ and Public Expenditurea for the Ist Quarter 
of the fscalyeary from the Ist July to SOth September^ 1846 (agreeably to 
warrants issued^ exausive of tnutfmds). 



BBGBIPT8. 

Prom Customs, .... 
Sales of public lands. 
Miscellaneous and incidental sources, 
Treasury notes issued under act of 23d of July, 

Total, 

EXPEKDITURES. 

For Civil, miscellaneous, and foreign intercourse. 
Army proper, &c. 

Fortmcations, ordnance, and arming militia, 
Indian department, 
Pensions, 

Naval establishment, . 
Bedemption of treasury notes, and interest, 
Bedemption of treasury notes which had been 
purloined, including interest. 

Total, . . 



$6,153,826 38 

663,702 94 

35,011 10 

1846, 1.953,950 00 

8,806,490 42 



$1,644,271 20 

8,153,659 30 

462,627 09 

. 827,880 03 

962,757 77 

1,969,980 76 

62,096 82 

5,388 80 

14,088,661 27 



Digitized 



by Google 



142 



UNITED STATES. 



[184a 



3. Statement of the Debt of the Dmted Staies onthelst December, 1846. 



Of tihe principal and interest of the old funded and nnfnnded 

debt, ..... 9134,008 72 

Treasnry notes issued daring the war of 1812, . 4,317 44 

Certificates of the Mississippi stock, . . . 4,320 09 

Debt of the corporate cities of the District of Columbia, 1,140,000 00 

Outstanding treasury notes of issues of 1837 to 1843, . 388,030 97 

Do. do. issued under the act 22d July, 1 846, viz. : 

Amount bearing interest of 1 mill per cent. $1,766,450 

Do. do. 5 2-5 do. • 2,086,650 

Loan of 1841, at six per cent (interest ceased 
31st December, 1844), . . 3,000 00 

Iiosm of 1842, at 6 per cent, . 8,343,886 03 

Da 1843, 5 do. . . 6,604,231 35 

Do. 1846, 6 do. . . 3,461,600 00 



3,853,100 00 



18^412,717 38 



Loan of 1846, at 5 per cent, in payment of the 
4th and 5th instalments of the Mexican in- 
demnity of the $320,000 authorized, . . . 320,000 00 

(Certificates have been issued for $246,809.87.) 

-Total debt, .... $24,256,494 60 



There axe $709,700 of treerary note* of all Idndi In the hands of the aoooonttng 
oflioexs whteh hare been oanoeUed, and not yet xeoelTed and ^teied on leglater'a booke. 



4. Statement exhibiting the Value of Merchandim Imported paying IhOg, the 
amount of duty which accrued on the aame, and also the rate per centum ad 
valorem of the said duties on the respective values^ during the years 1844, 
1845, and 1846. 



Period of Importation. 


Value paying 
Duty. 


Dntiee. 


Bate' 
perct 
advaL 


1844. Imported ad valorem goods, . 
Imported spedflo articles, . 

1846. Imported ad valorem goods, • 
Imported specific artksles, . 


^m 


$14,449,848 03 
14,532^ 77 


27.62 
46.84 


88,668,154 


28,980,666 80 


34.64 


860,191,862 
84,914;862 


$16,278417 21 
14,640,787 66 


2704 
41.64 


96,106,724 


30,818,864 87 


32.40 


$60,660,463 
36,268,606 


$16,621,117 12 
13,869,582 18 


27.28 
88.21 


96,924,058 


30,878,689 30 


81.84 


1844. Excess of specific duties oyer ad valorem, .... 

1846. Excess ofad valorem dntles over spedflc, .... 
Excess in 1845 and 1846, 


$81,860 74 


$1,787,379 67 
2,668,684 94 




4,400,914 61 
81,860 74 


Deduct excess of spedflo duties in 1844, 


Excess in three years of ad valorem duties o\ 


rerthespedfi( 


'1 • 


4,320,068 77 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



BBTXHUB AKD KXFBNDIT1TRB. 



143 



StoAeiMnA of the Beceipis ttOo the NaJtUmtd Treasury Jrcm Ouetoms, Inter- 
nal Revenue and Direct Taxes, and salea of Public Lands, fractions of a 
dollar being excluded. 









Sa]A> nf IftTMla 


Aggregate of Receipts. 






Internal and 


and 




In eaoh peri- 


Ywn. 


Cnstomfl. 


cUreet taxes. 


In eaoh year. 


od of 
ftmryean. 


1789-91 


^??S'S? 






$4,399,473 




1792 


8,448,071 


«206,943 




3,662,014 


$8,061,487 


1798 


4,266,306 


887,706 




4,693,012 




1794 


4,801,066 


274090 




6,075,166 




1796 


6,688,461 


837,756 




6,926,216 




1796 
1797 


6,667,988 
7,649,650 


476^290 
676,491 


$4,886 
88,641 


7,048,114 


22,642,497 


' 


1798 


7,106,062 


644,368 


, 11,963 






1799 


6,610,449 


779,186 








1800 
1801 


9,080,983 


1,643,620 
1,682,877 


444 
167,726 




33,986,647 




1802 




828,464 


188,628 






1808 




287,059 


166,676 






1804 




101,139 


487,627 




48,575,694 


1806 




48,631 


640,194 


13,520,812 




1806 




76,866 


766,246 


16,608,809 




1807 




47,784 


466,163 


16,359,469 




1806 




27,870 


647,939 


17,038,869 


62,427,449 


1809 




11,662 


442,252 


" "^^ """ 




1810 




19,879 


696,649 






1811 




9,962 


1,040,288 






1812 
1818 


18',224',628 


6,762 
8,561 


710,428 
836,666 




41,087,968 




1814 


6,908,772 


8,882,482 


1,135,971 






1816 


7,282 942 


6,840,783 


1,287,969 






1816 
1817 


86,306,876 
26,288,348 


9,378,844 
4,612,288 


1,717,986 




87,900,902 




1818 


17,176,386 


1,219,618 








1819 


20,288,609 


813,244 








1820 
1821 


16,006,612 


187,847 
98,877 






94,440,082 




1822 




88,617 








1828 




44,680 








1824 
1826 




40,866 
28,102 






72,760,896 




1826 




28,228 








1827 




22,618 








1828 
1829 




19,671 
26,888 






91,680,896 




1880 




29,141 








1881 




17,440 








1832 
1883 




18,422 
8,163 






107,065,604 




1884 




4,216 








1886 




14,723 








1886 
1887 




1,099 


6,86^556 




186,681,972 




1838 






8,214,184 






1839 






?,261,118 






1840 






8,494,356 


_.,___,__. 


J4,798,731_ 


1841 






1,470,295 


16,967,612 




1842 






1,466,068 


19,648,967 




6mos.of >43. 






1,018,482 


8,066,826 




1844 


26483!671 




2,320,948 


28,604,519 


•72,171,824 


1846* 


27,628,118 




2,241,021 
2,786,579 


S'IS'lfJ 




1846* 


26,712,668 




29,499,247 i | 



* Vor the year ending Jnne 80. 



Digitized 



by Google 



144 



vnvmD MAras 



[l$48. 



$. Statmmi rf the Ewprndkumaf Oe Dmimi Statei, exebuhe of payment 
on aceomU •/Ab PmMc Ddft, and from Tnut Funds, Jractwns exdudetU 



T6«n. 


CMllist, 
Amigiiinfeer. 
Mone,aiiil 


UmarjtaM}- 

JUbBMOL 


NaTalestab- 


Aggregate of IfixiMDditiuM. 


In each year. 


In each pad* 

odof 
fDoryeacB. 


1789-91. 
1792 
1798 
1794 
1796 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1806 
1806 
1807 
1806 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1818 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1828 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1887 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
6 moB. of >4& 
•1844 
•1845 
•1846 


$1,068,401 
04:267 
472,460 
706,696 
1,867,087 
%,486 

6^460^ 
6,776,^ 
2,867,289 
6^,747 
6,608,207 
6,788,000 


2,678^)69 
1,474,661 

18,'704,'882 
9,188469 
4,158,884 
8,281,817 
9,588,208 

13,579,^ 


$670 
68 

61,409 

410,662 

274,784 

882,682 

1,881,848 

2,868,082 

8,448;716 

8i814i598 
2,963,^ 
8,847,640 
4^,990 

8;90i;857 
8,966,260 
8,864,939 
6,800,768 
6,862,060 
6,975,771 
6,226,008 
6,124,466 
6,001,077 
8,897,243 
8,672,718 
6,496,991 
6,228,639 
6,460,862 


$1,919,689 
•l?77:95 
1,710,070 
8,600,647 
4,860,668 
2,621,980 

26',196',840 
24,861,387 
10,698,891 
19,960,056 
21,370,049 
26,813,290 


$8,797,488 


12,068,905 


21,888,861 


17,174,488 


28,987,244 


86,147,867 


108,587,066 


68,096,067 


46,666,421 


49,818,213 


66,249,879 


87,180,428 


112,188,691 


81,216,628 


- 



• For the year ending June 80. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



UBTSKITB AHB BXPBld>lTnBB. 



145 



7. 



StatementoftheDebtofthe United States, the Total Value of Imports and 
Exports, and the Total Tonnage, from 1791 to 1846. 



YearH. 


Debt. 


Importo. 


Exportfl. 


Tonnage. 


1791 


^J5'3£5 


$^,200,000 


$19,012,041 


602,146 


1792 


77,227,924 


81,500,000 


20,763,098 


664,437 


1793 


80,352,684 


81,100,000 


26,109.672 


491,780 


1794 


78,427,405 


84.600,000 


83,026,238 


628,817 


1795 


80,747,587 


69,766,268 


47,989,472 


747,964 


1796 


83,762,172 


V'^fi^^ 


67,064,097 


831,900 


1797 


82,064,479 


76,379,406 


66,850,206 


876,918 


1798 


79,228,529 


68,651,700 


61,527,097 


898,328 


1799 


78,408,670 


79,068,148 


78,665,622 


946,408 


1800 


82,976,294 


91,252,768 


70,971,780 


972.492 


1801 


83,038,061 


111,363,511 


94,115,925 


1,033,219 


1802 


80,712,632 


76,333.333 


72,483,160 


892,101 


1803 


77,064,686 


64,666,666 


66,800,033 


949,147 


1804 


86,427,121 


85,000,000 


77,699 074 


1,042,404 


1805 


82,312,150 


120,000,000 


95,566,021 


1,140,369 


1806 


75,723,271 


129,000,000 


101,536,968 


1,208,736 


1807 


69,218,390 


138,500,000 


108,343,150 


1,268,548 


1808 


65,196,318 


56,990,000 


22,439.960 


1,242,696 


1809 


67,023,192 


59,400,000 


62,203,231 


1,350,281 


1810 


53.173.217 


85,400,000 


66,767,974 


1,424,783 


1811 


48,005,588 


53,400,000 


61,316,831 


1,232,502 


1812 


46,209,738 


77,030,000 


38,527 236 


1,269,997 


1813 


55,962,828 


^,006,000 


27,856;997 


1,666,628 


1814 


81,487,846 


12,966,000 


6,927,441 


1,159,209 


1815 


99.8a3,660 


113,041,274 


62,557,758 


1,368,127 


1816 


127,334,934 


147,103,000 


81,920,462 


1,372,218 


1817 


123,491,966 


99,260,000 


87,671,669 


1,399,911 


1818 


103,466,684 


121,760,000 


93,281,133 


1,226.184 


1819 


95.529,648 


87,126,000 


70.142,521 


1,260,751 


1820 


91,015,566 


74,460,000 


69,691,669 


1,280,166 


1821 


89,987,428 


62,585,724 


64,974,382 


1,298,958 


1822 


93,546.677 


83,241,541 


72,160,281 


1,324,699 


1823 


90,875,877 


77,679,267 


74,699,080 


1,336,665 


1824 


90,269,778 


80,649,007 


75.986,667 


1,389,168 


1825 


83,788,438 


96,340,075 


99,6a5,888 


1,423,112 


1826 


81,054,060 


84,974,477 


77.696,322 


1,634,190 


1827 


73,987,367 


79,484,068 


82,324,827 


1,620,608 


1828 


67,476,044 


88,509,824 


72,264,686 


1,741,392 


1829 


5§'^i'!il 


74,492,527 


72,868,671 


1,260,978 


1830 


48,566,406 « 


70,876,920 


73,849,508 


1,191,776 


1831 


S?'31S? 


103,191,134 


81,810,583 


1,267,846 


1832 


24,322,235 


101,029,266 


87,176,943 


1,439,460 


1838 


7,001,699 


108,118,311 


90,140,433 


1,601,160 


1834 


4,760,082 


126,621,332 


104,836,978 


1,758,907 


1836 


87,788 


149.896,742 


121,693,577 


1,824,940 


1836 


37,513 


189,980,036 


128,663,040 


1,892,102 


1837 


1,878,224 


140,989,217 


117,419,376 


1,896,685 


1838 


4,867,660 


108,486,616 


113,717,404 


1,995,639 


1839 


11,9^3,788 


121,028,416 


162,092,132 


2,096,478 


1840 


6,126,078 


181,671,960 


104,805,891 


2,180,764 


1841 


6,737,898 


127.946,177 


121,861,808 


2,130,744 


1842 


16,028,486 


100,162,087 


104,691,634 


2,092,390 


1843 


26,898,968 


64,758,799» 


84.846.480* 


2,168,602 


1844t 


26,148,996 


108,436,085t 


111,200,046^ 


24580,096 


1845t 


16,801,647 


117,254,6641 


114,646,606t 


2,417,002 


1846t 


24,266,496 


121,691,797t 


118,488,616t 


2,662,084 



• Only nine months of 1848. 



t Vor the year ending June 80. 



13 



Digitized 



by Google 



146 



UNITSB 8TATS8. 



11848. 



XL COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. 
1. Value op Diffebent Abticles Impobtbb. 

Value of Goods, Wares, and Merchandise, imported into the United States^ 
during the year ending June 30tA, 1846. 



Species of Merchandise. 



rwDt OF DXJTY. 

BuUiot^— 

Gold, 

SUyer, 

'pecie — 

Gold, 

Silyer, 

Teas, 

Coflfee, 

Copper- 
In plates and sheets, 
In pigs, bars, and old. 

Brass, in pigs, bars, and old, 

Dye wood, in sticks. 

Barilla, ' 

Burr stones, onwrongfat, 

Crude brimstone, 

All other articles, 

Total, 

MwWHAlflHSl PAYING DUTIIS 

AS Yalobem. 
Manufaehtres of Wool— 
Cloths and cassimeres. 
Merino shawls of wool, 
Blankets, not aboye 76 e»ts 

each. 
Blankets, above 76 cents ea<*. 
Worsted stoflb, ' 

Hosiery, gloyes, mits, &c., 
Woollen and worsted yam. 
Other articles, ' 

Mam^cutwe* of Cotton^ 
Dyed, printed or colored, 
White or uncolored, 
Velvets, cords, moleskins, &c. 
Twist, yam, or thread, 
Hosiery, gloves, mits, &c.. 
Other manufitctures, 

Silk and worsted goods. 

Camlets, and mohair goods. 

Silks, floss, &c.. 

Thread and cotton, 

Gold and silver, &o., 
Flax— ' 

Linens, bleached and other. 

Other articles, * 

Hempen Goods — 

Sh^tings, brown and white, 

Ticklenbuigs, osnaburgs, and 
burlaps. 

Other articleg, 



Yalue. 



$14,1^ 
88,579 



2,883,740 
6,022,600 
8,404,958 

840,815 

1^1,450 

2,678 

688,654 

24,428 

44,688 

91,834 

4,718,407 



24,767,789 



4,192,810 
296,124 

165,893 
468,352 
2,658,023 
838.866 
266:830 
788,027 

8,766,892 

1,697,120 
459,626 
656,671 

1,808,202 
763,n4 

1,778,202 
69,091 

1,864,811 

962,166 



Species of Merchandise. 



Yalue. 



4,492,602 
605,908 

^ 64,010 

278,309 
2011211 



Clothing — 

Ready made, 

Other articles of wear. 
Grass— ' 

Croth and carpetfag, not spe- 
cified. 

Matting and mats, 
Wire, brass, copper, and plated. 
Arms, fire and side, *'"~«~> 
Manufactures of— 

Iron and steel. 

Copper, 

Brass, 

Tin, 

Other metals. 
Saddlery, 
Manufactures of— 

Leather, not S]>ecified, 

Wood, 
Glass— 

Above 22 by 14 inches. 

Silvered, fhuned, and other, 
Httts^ Bonnets^ tfc— 

L^.j^*r.w,dUp.&e., 

Wares— 

China and porcelain, 

Earthen and stone. 

Plated and gUt, 

Japanned, 
Purs— 

Undressed, on the skin. 

Hats, caps, and mufb. 

Hatters' and other. 
Hair cloth and seating, 
Brushes, of all kinds, 
Paper hangings. 
Slates Gt all kinds, 
Black lead pencils. 
Copper bottoms, cut round, &c. 
Zinc, hi plates, ' 

Chronometers and clocks. 
Watches and parts of watches, 
Gold and silver, manufiustures of 
Jewelry, 
Quicksilver, 

Buttons, metal and other. 
Teas, imported from places o<ii. 

er than those of their growth 
and production, 
Coflfee, so imported, 
Corks, ' 

Quills, 

Wood, unmanmfaetwed— 
Mahogany and rose. 



•64,897 
783,846 



64,992 
176,678 

16,794 
151,427 

3,933,817 

133,728 

124,682 

12;891 

82,000 



127,131 
294,637 

167,746 
851,464 



76,274 

262,498 

2,262,851 

143,946 



825,550 

12,829 

457,932 

124,547 



165,980 

14,299 

13,380 

68,127 

81,494 

1,265,898 

86,853 

180,065 

166,818 

271^ 



9,621 
15,286 
92,751 
18,878 

260,847 



Digitized 



by Google 



' 1848.] 



COMMEBCE. 



147 





Value. 


Species of Merchandise. 


Value. 


Wool unmanufactured— 




a/z— 




Not oTer 7 cents per pound, 


$1,107,806 


Linseed, 


$48,424 


Oyer 7 cents per pound, 


26,921 


AU other. 


7;812 


At 1 percent.. 


300,275 


Cocoa, 
Chocolate, 


122,679 
952 


At 2i « * 




2,105,028 


Sugar— 




At 6 « * 




4,867,100 


Brown, 


5,348,082 


At 7 " * 




21,270 


White clayed, 


81,268 


At n « * 




67 022 


Loaf and other refined, 


17,907 


At 10 " * 




126,487 


Fruits— 




At 12* « * 




467 


Ahnonds, 


110,617 


At 16 " « 




868,525 


Currants, 


61,870 


At20 « * 




2,947,861 


Prunes, 


86,928 


At25 " * 




992,782 


Figs, 


123631 


At80 « ' 




592,621 


Bates, 


4,290 


At 85 « « 
Total, 


44,024 


Kaishis, 
Nuts, except those used «br dye- 


665,166 
83,289 


60,660,453 


Meechandibb PATmo Specific 




Spxces— 
Mace, 


7,139 


"^ususa. 




Nutmegs, 


108,666 


SOks— 




Cinnamon. 


12,040 


Sewing silk, silk twist, &c., 


854,649 


Cloves, 


58,344 


Pongees, plain white, &c., 


®'^'I?i 


Pepper, black, 


100,998 


Bawsilk, 


216,647 


Cayenne pepper, 


2,738 


Silk shoes, and sHppers, 


2,408 


Phnento, 


188,780 


Silk hats and bonnets, 


24,469 


Cassia, 


101,818 


WooUens, 




Ghiger/ 


» 48,480 


Flannels, 


68,776 


Camphor, 


64,874 


Baizes, 


88,075 


Cheese, 


7,061 


Carpeting — 




Pearl barley. 


632 


Wilton and Saxon j. 


58,338 


Beef and pork. 


776 


Brussels, 


in,685 


Hams and bacon, 


4,276 


Venetian and other ingrained. 


28,570 


Bristles, 


244,719 


Sail duck. 


217,162 


Saltpetre, 


10,706 


Cotton Bagging-^ 




Woad or pastel. 


898,618 


Of hemp, 


5,972 


'764 


Of other materials. 
Floor cloth, ]>atent, &c. 


18,669 


Ivory black, 


1,682 


5,338 


Opium, 


295 859 


Oil cloth, furniture and other. 


33,727 


Glue, 


3,534 


Wines, in casks, bottles^ ^c— 




Gunpowder, 


132 


Madeira, 


122,896 


Bleaching powder, 


114,450 


Sherry, 


41,741 


Cotton, 


144,056 


Champagne, 


404,581 


Thibet, Angora, and other goats' 




Burgundy, « 


8,634 


liair. 


20,328 


Port, 


153,046 


Dry qcW, and in oil. 


i 


Claret, and French red wines, 


436,932 


37,716 


White, of France, 


152,896 


Red l(nd white lead, 


15,686 


White, of Por-nigal, 


168,700 


Cordage — " 




Red, of Portugal, 


165,442 


Tarred and cable. 


47,289 


Teneriflfe, 


18,166 




88,618 


Of Spain, 
Of Sicily, 


27,015 
74,000 


Sehies, 


87,760 
8,768 




48,624 


Hemp, 


180,281 


Of Germany, 


22,882 


Manila, sun, and other hemps 




All other, 


12,490 


of India, 


467,276 


Foreign DishUed SpiriU-^ 




Jute, sisal grass, c<^, &c., used 




Brandy, 


839,229 


as hemp for cordage. 


92,507 


From grain. 


346,351 


Cordilla, or tow of hemp or flax, 




From other materials. 


81,718 


Flax, unmanuftustured, 


16,337 


Cordials, 


66,728 


Rags of all kinds. 


386,897 


Beer, ale, and porter, 


162,146 


Manufactures of Glass- 




Vinegar, 


4,630 


Watch crystals and spectacle 




Molasses 


8,332,297 


glasses, 


H'5?^ 


Otf- 




Cut glass. 


13,416 


OUye, in casks, 


64,383 


Plain or pressed, over 8 oz.. 


1,565 



Digitized 



by Google 



148 



UNITSD STATES. 



[1848. 



Species of Merchandise. 


Value. 


Species of Merchandise. 


Value. 


Manufactures of Glass— 
Plain or pressed, 8 oa. or nn., 




Iron— 




$1,633 


Nail or spike rods, slit, rolled. 




Plain tumblers, 


1,177 


or hammered. 


f258 


Cylinder, 


6,420 


Sheet and hoop iron, 


481,828 


Crown, 


17,814 


Casement rods, band, scroll, 




Polished plate. 


81,849 


&c.. 


200 


Apothecaries' Tials, &c.. 


2,683; 


Old and scrap. 


489,573 


Bottles, 


64,623 


.J^^ 


Demijohns, 


6,386 


Bar, manufiustured b j rolling, 


1,127,418 


Patent sheathing metal, 


11,841 


Bar, manuflMstured otherwise, 


J'J^'Si 


Pins— 
SoUd-headed, in packs of 5,000 




Steel, 
LeatJur— 


1,234,408 


each, 


14,764 


Sole and upper, 


1,582 


Pound pins, 


1,470 


Gloves, 


800,287 


Muskets and rifles. 


6,700 


Boots and shoes, 


37,672 


Wire- 




Skins— 




Iron & steel, cap and bonnet, 


12,561 




147,084 


All other. 


11,898 


Tanned and not dressed, 


16:408 


Manufactures of Iron— 




Paper— 




Tacks, brads, and sprigs. 


1,105 


Writing, 


28,148 


Wood screws, 


17,037 


All other. 


54,276 


Nails, cut and wrought. 


67,636 


Books— 




Spikes, 


851 


Printed 40 years before im« 




Chain cables, 


77,911 


portation, 
Printed in Latin and Greek, 


16,170 


Wrought iron, for ships, loco- 


12 


8,492 




In Hebrew, 


,i'S2 


motives, &c., 


7,297 


In English, 


130,294 


Malleable iron. 
Manufactures of iron If Steel— 


2,406 


In other languages. 


74,287 




In pamphlets and sheets, 


11,883 


Mill, cross-cut, and pit saws. 


12,177 


Lexicons and all other, 


6,216 


Steam gas pipes. 




Coal, 


378,697 


Anchors, 


2.133 


Salt,* 


768,682 


Anvils, 


78,684 


Potatoes, 


22,721 


Blacksmiths' hammers and 




Fish— 




sledges, 


6,244 


Dried or smoked, 


3¥ 


Castings— 




Pickled, 


279,516 


Vessels of. 

All other. 

Glased or tinned hollow ware 

Sad hnns, hatters' and taUors 

irons, 
Cast-h»n butt hinges, 
Axletrees, or parts thereof; 
Iron — 
Brariers'rods.flpom 8-16th to 
10-16th inch diameter, 


20,415 
10,823 
29,101 

1,506 

40,618 

9,690 


Articles not enumerated, 


121,756 


Value of Merchandise paying 

specific 4vties, 
Do. do. ad valorem^ 


86,263,605 
60,660,468 


Do do. free of duty, 


24,767,739 


Total, 


121,691,797 








14,748 


^ 





Year ending June 30, 1845. 

Merchandise at specific duties, 
do. ad valorem, 
do. ftee of duty, 
Total, 


$34,914,862 
60,191,862 
22,147,840 


Nine months ending June 80, 

1848. 
Merchandise at specific duties, 
do. ad valorem, 
do. flfee of duty. 
Total, 


$12,494,840 
16,684,876 
85,674,584 


117,254,664 


64,753,796 


Year ending Jim* 30, 1844. 

Merchandise at specific duties, 
do. ad valorem, 
do. firee of duty, 
Total, 


$81,852,863 
62,815,291 
24,766,881 


Merchandise at specific duties, 
do. ad valorem, 
do. free of duty. 
Total, 


$20,325,616 
49^,086 
80,627,486 


108,435,036 


laoMm 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



COMMSHCE. 



149 



2. Exports of the Peoducb of the United States. 

Value of the Exports of the Growth, Prodttce, and Manufacture of the United 

States, during the two years ending June 30th, 1846. 



The Sea. 


Yew ending 
June 80, 1846. 


Yeax ending 
June 30, 1846. 


Dried fish, or cod fisheries, 


$803,353 


$699,559 


Pickled fish, or river fisheries (herring, shad, 






sahnon, mackerel), 
Whale and other fish oil, . 


208,654 


250,495 


1,520,363 


946,298 


Spwmaceti oil, 
Whalebone, 


975,195 


697,570 


762,642 


583,870 


Spermaceti candles. 


236,917 


295,606 


The Pobest. 






Skins and furs, 


1,248,355 


1,063,009 


Ginseng, ^ . 


177,146 


237,562 


Products of Wood-^ 






Staves, shingles, boards, hewn timber. 


1,953,222 


2,319,443 


Other lumber, 


369,305 


324,979 


Masts and spars, 


28,692 


21,682 


Oak bark and odier dye, 


70,616 


61,382 


All mannfactores of wood, 


677,420 


957,790 


Naval stores, tar, pitch, rosin, and turpentine. 


814,969 


1,085,712 


Ashes, pot and pearl, 


1,210,496 


735,689 


Aobigttltuse. 






Products of Animals- 
Beef, tallow, hides, homed cattle. 






1,926,809 


2,474,208 


Butter and cheese. 


878,865 


1,063,087 


Pork (pickled), bacon, lard, live hogs, • 


2,991,284 


8,883,884 


Horses and moles, 


385,488 


382,382 


Sheep, .... 
Veg^Me Food-^ 
Wheat, .... 


23,948 
336,779 


30,303 
1,681,975 


Flour, 


5,398,593 


11,668,669 


Indian com. 


411,741 


1,186,663 


Indian meal, 


641,552 


945,081 


Rye meal. 


112,908 


138,110 


E^e, oats, and otiier small grain and pulse. 


177,953 


638,221 


Biscuit, or ship bread, 


366 294 


866,688 


Potatoes, . • 


122,926 


69,934 


Apples, .... 


81,306 


69,252 


Ri6e, ... 


2,160,456 


2,564,991 


Tobacco, . . . . 


7,469,819 


8,478,270 


Cotton, 


51,739,643 


42,767,341 


Wool, 




203,996 


All other AgricuUurd Products— 






Flaxseed, 


81,978 


165,438 


Hops, .... 


90,341 


41,692 


Brown sugar. 


11,107 


7,235 


Indigo, .... 


70 


90 


Manufactxjres. 






Soap and tallow Candles, 


623,946 


630,041 


Leather, boots and shoes, • 


328,091 


346,516 


Household furniture. 


277,488 


317,407 


Coaches and other carriages, 


55,821 


87,712 


Hats, . . . : 


70,597 


74,722 


Saddlery, 


20,847 


24,357 



13* 



Digitized 



by Google 



150 



UNITED STATES. 



1848. 





Tear ending 
June 80, 1846. 


Yew ending 


Wax, .... 


June 80, 1846. 


$234,794 


162,790 


Spirits from grain, 


75,108 


73,716 


Beer, ale, porter, and cider, 


69,582 


67,735 


Snuff and tobacco. 


538,498 


695,914 


Linseed oil and spirits of turpentine, 


92,614 


159,915 


Cordage, . ' . 


55,016 


62,775 


Iron — 






Pig, bar, and nails, . 


77,669 


122,225 


Castings, 


118,248 


107,905 


All manofactnres of, 


649,100 


921,652 


Spirits from molasses, 


216,118 


268,652 


Sngar, refined, 


164,662 


392,312 


Chocolate, 


1,461 


2,177 


Gunpowder, 


122,599 


140,879 


Copper and brass. 


94,736 


62,088 


Medicinal druffs, 
CoUon Piece Goodg— 


212,837 


200,505 


Printed and colored, 


516,243 


380,549 


White, . . . 


2,343,104 


1,978,331 


Nankeen, 


1,174,038 


848,989 


Twist, yam, and thread. 


14,379 


81,813 


All other manufactures of, 


280,164 


255,799 


Flax and hemp— bags and all manufactures of. 


14,762 


10,765 


Cloth and thread. 




1,364 


Wearing apparel, 
Combs and buttons, 


59,653 


45,140 


23,794 


35,945 


Brushes, 


2,206 


3,110 


Billiard tables and apparatus. 


1.551 


1,583 


Umbrellas and parasols, 


2,583 


2,477 


Leather and Morocco skins not sold per pound, 


16,363 


26,667 


Fire engines and apparatus, . 
Printing presses and type, 


12,660 


9,802 


26,774 


43,792 


Musical instruments, 


18,309 


25,375 


Books and maps, 


43,298 


63,567 


Paper and stationery. 


106,190 


124,597 


Pamts and Yamish, 


50,165 


52,182 


Vinegar, 


14,375 


17,489 


Earthen and stone ware, 


7,393 


6,521 


Manufactures of— 






Glass, .... 


98,760 


90,860 


Tin, . . , 


10,114 


8,902 


Pewter and lead. 


14,404 


10,278 


Meu*ble and stone, 


17,626 


14,234 


Gold and silver, and gold leaf, . 


3,229 


3,660 


Gold and silver coin. 


844,446 


423,851 


Artificial flowers and jewelry, 


10,4c5 


24,420 


Molasses, 


20.771 


1,581 


Trunks, .... 


3,336 


10,613 


Brick and lime. 


8,701 


12,578 


Domestic salt. 


45.151 


30,520 


Lead, .... 


342,646 


614,518 


rtides not enumerated— 






Manufactured, 


1,269,33S 


1,379,566 


Other articles, 
Total, 


1,315,578 
99,299,776 


1,490,303 


102,141,893 



Digitized 



by Google 



184S.] COMMEBCB. 151^ 

3. Imports from akd Exports to Forbigk Cottntries, 

During the year ending June SOfA, 1846. 



Digitized 



by Google 



152 



UNITBD STATES. 



[1848. 



4. Imports and Exports op ach Statb 
Du n'ng the year ending Jvne 30e//, 1846 



States. 


Yalne of Exports. 


Vahas of Imports. 


Domestic 
Produce. 


Foreign 
Produce. 


Total. 


In Amer. 
Yessels. 


In Foreign 
Vessels. 


Total. 


Maine, 

New Hampshire, 

Termont, 

Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, 
New York, 
New Jersey, 

I>elaware, 

Maryland, 

Dist. Columbia, 

Virginia, 

North CaroU a. 

South Carolina, 

Georgia, 

Florida, 

Alabama, 

Louisiana, 

Mississippi, 

Tennessee, 

Missouri, 

Ohio, 

Kentucky, 

Michigan, 


$1,318,099 

4,997 

215,816 

7.887,015 

220,019 

765,912 

29,585,866 

4,087 

4,167,918 

144,045 

6,744,110 

913,701 

8,528,963 

414898 

6,829,535 

2,708,003 

137,539 

5,260,317 

80,747,533 


$10,269 

75 

188,504 

2,476,103 

4.346 

10,000 

7,849,547 

""^',087 

2,177 

124,945 

1,213 

136 


$1,328,338 

5,072 

403,820 

10,818,118 

224,364 

775,912 

36,935,413 

4 087 

4,751,005 

146^ 

6,869,055 

914,914 

8,529,299 

414,398 

6,848,477 

2,708,003 

176,448 

5,260 317 

31,275,704 


$674,146 

10,936 

127,228 

19256,942 

208,046 

403,775 

65,903,768 


$112,946 
41649 


$787,092 

16486 

127,228 

24,190,968 

210,489 

418,478 

74,264,^ 

686 

7,989,896 

11^6 

4,042,915 

79 770 

209,004 

242,858 

802,586 

205,496 

140,684 

258,607 

7,228,080 

881 

8,412 

78,568 

102,714 

82,868 

154,828 

17,266 


4,984,021 
2 440 
9,703 

8,850,520 

469,851 


7,519,546 

11,215 

8,777,086 

'72,838 

202,884 

239,338 

883,294 

158,218 

96,419 

119,368 

6,027,281 

831 

3,412 

73,569 

98,985 

82,958 

154,406 

2,201 


265,^ 

7,432 

6120 

3,526 

69,242 

47,277 

44,165 

140,239 

1,195,809 


18,942 


38,909 


528,in 


















852,680 




862,630 


8,729 


251,890 




251,890 


622 
15,065 




Total, 


102,141,893 


11,846,623 


113,488,516 


106,008,178 


15,683,624 


121,681,787 



5. COMPARATIVB YlEW OF THB TONNAOE OP THB UNITED StATES, 

From 1815 to 1846 inclusive, in tons. 



Tears. 


Registered 
Tonnage. 


SnroUed 
and Ucen'd 
Tonnage. 


Reg. Tonn. 
in Whale 
Fishery. 


Enrolled and licensed tonnage employed in| 


Coasting 
Trade. 


Cod 
Rshery. 


Mackerel 
Fishery. 


Wh l0 
Fishery. 


1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1818 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1828 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1828 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1888 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1848 
1844 
1846 
1846 


854,294 
800,759 
809,724 
606,088 
612,930 
619,047 
619,896 
628,150 
689,920 
669 972 
700,787 
787,978 
747,170 
812,619 
650,142 
676,676 
620461 
686,989 
750,126 
857,488 
885,821 
897 774 
810447 
822,591 
834,244 
899,?64 
845,808 
876,858 
1,008,805 

1,085,172 
1,130,286 


513,833 

671,458 

590,186 

619,095 

647,821 

661,118 

679,062 

696,548 

696,644 

n9,190 

722,328 

796,211 

878,487 

928,772 

610,664 

616,811 

647,894 

752,460 

856,123 

901468 

989,118 

984,328 

1,086.238 

1,173,047 

1,262^ 

1,280,999 

1,184,940 

1117,^ 

1,148^ 

1,211,880 

1^21828 

1,481^788 




435,066 

478,878 

181,457 

503,140 

628,556 

589,080 

559,485 

578,080 

566,408 

689,228 

687,278 

666,420 

782,987 

758,922 

508,858 

616,978 

589,728 

649,627 

744198 

783,618 

792 301 

873,028 

956,980 

1,041,106 

1,158,561 

1,176,694 

1,107067 

1,046,758 

1,076166 

1,109,614 

1,288,870 


26,570 
87,878 
68,990 
58,551 
66,044 
60,842 
61,851 
58,405 
67,620 
68,419 
70,626 
68,761 
74,048 
74,946 
101,796 
61,564 
60,977 
54,027 
62,720 
66,403 
72,874 
63,307 
80,551 
70,064 
72,258 
76,086 
06,561 
64,804 
61,224 
86,224 
69,826 
72,616 




1,228 

ll^ 

8^ 

614 

686 

1,058 

1,824 

8,188 

586 

180 






4,874 
16,184 
81,700 
85,891 
26,070 
45,449 
89,918 
88,165 
35,379 
41,767 
45,653 
54,621 
57,284 
88,911 

72,868 
101,158 
108,060 

97,640 
144,680 
127,241 
119,629 
131,846 
136,926 
167,406 
161,612 
162,874 
168,298 
190^ 
186,860 






















226 
888 

180 








86,978 
46,210 
47,^ 
48,726 
61,082 
64 448 
46,424 
. 46,810 
66,649 
85,988 
28,269 
11,821 
16,086 
11,776 
16470 
21,418 
86,468 


798 
481 
877 
478 
864 


1,578 

1884 

6,229 

488 




877 
142 
820 
206 
488 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



NAYIOATION. 



53 



Tonnage op Vessels engaged in Foeeign Tbade, 
During the year ending June 3(Hh^ 1846. 



12' Dutch Gniana- 

13 

14 

15 

16 



Belgium • 

England 

Scotland 

— Ireland 

17 Gibraltar 

18 British East Indies 

19 3Iauritiu8 

20 Cape of Good Hope 

21 British West Indies 

22 British North American Colonies* > 

23 British Guiana 

24 Honduras 

26 Malta 

26 France on the Atlantic 

27 France on the Mediterranean^ • • • > 

28 French West Indies 

29 French Guiana- 
30 



Countries. 



1 Russia 

2 Prussia 

3! Sweden and Norway^- 

4' Swedish West Indies • 

5 Denmark- 

6 

7 

8 



Danish West Indies- 

Hanse Towns 

HanoTer 

Holland 

Dutch East Indies • • 
Dutch West Indies • 



Miquelon'and French'^West Indies • 



Spidn on the Atlantic • 

Spain on the Mediterranean < 

Teneriffe and the other Canaries* • 

Manila and Philippine Isles 

Cuba 

Other Spanish West Indies •*• < 

Portugal 

Madeira • • • • 

Fayal and the Axores 

Cape de Verd Islands 

Italy 

Sicily 

43!Sardinia 

44 Tuscany 

45 Trieste and the Adriatic Ports 

46iTurkey, Leyant, &c. 

47, Ionian Isles • 

48, Texas 

49jMexico y 

60! Central America 

61 New Grenada • 

;; Venezuela 

63 Brazil 

54 Argentine Republic 

65 Cisplatine Republic • • • • 

66 Chill 

67iPeru 

68!Kepublic of Ecuador 

69Chma 

eO|Hayti 

61jSouth America generally 

62 West Indies generally 

68 East Indies generally 

64 Asia generally 

66|£urope generally < 

^''Airica generally ••••• • 

67 Pacific Ocean 

Sandwich Islands 

India*! Ocean* • • • * 

Atlantic Ocean 

North-west Coast 

Uncertain Places 



American Tonnage. 
Entered. Cleared. 



11,145 

419 

3,502 

653 

29,018 
24,872 

21,903 
8,226 

13,935 
5,113 

12,714 
374,137 

10,715 
6,940 
2,750 

10,684 

994 

90,484 

850,784 

7,299 

5,359 

103,484 

10,070 

20,849 

1,754 

8,112 

9,889 

8,297 

166,905 

61,284 

5,128 

l,r~^ 

1,612 

107 

336 

21,798 

454 

8,887 

6,019 

7,171 

228 

21,908 

22,410 

2,423 

1,699 

13,870 

61,014 

6,988 

1,214 

6,560 

496 

18,937 

80,264 

214 

111 

1,055 

9,418 

87,466 

606 

6,166 

8,706 

662 

167 



5,451 
1,176 

693 
2,329 

666 

27,964 

8,148 

23.685 

3,679 

5,047 

4.510 

23,375 

864,149 

9,547 

14,748 

12.223 

10,979 

967 

2 296 

124,136 

863,663 

17,701 

9,620 

882 

119,729 

14.960 

81,6^8 

1,390 

521 

6,758 

5,809 

645 

3,030 

177,580 

30,056 

4,815 

3,535 

162 

1,004 

1,196 

767 

9.865 

'848 

13,852 

3,208 

28,204 

14,224 

957 

1,< 

11,125 

48,026 

4,134 

6,599 

8,649 

291 

13,697 
23,425 

ir' 

11,221 

2,176 

718 

884 

9,269 

41,977 

1,877 

14,599 

7,704 

1,746 

497 



Foreign Tonn age. 
Entered. Cl^red. 



319 
1,875 
9,938 

281 

969 

61,666 

5,729 



5,823 
198,378 
28,894 
28,279 



28,724 

616,879 

6,108 

64 

10,722 
2,992 
6,276 



8^8 

6,248 

791 

3,404 
487 

2,037 
896 
202 



8,742 
1,468 
1,412 
692 
1,477 

8,069 

4,639 

107 

180 

1,219 

4,962 

987 

2,281 



806 
808 
606 



2,431 



1,643 
7,275 
7,766 

1,398 

1,876 

60,807 

366 

11,582 



6,527 

183,942 

18,788 

6,804 

615 

706 



23,842 

673,673 

3,664 

607 

11,876 

740 

1,761 



2,871 
827 



1,873 

1,874 
447 
161 
548 

4,818 

1,191 

255 

8,341 



8,245 
8,964 
214 
298 
1,244 
4,682 



1,462 

614 

1,642 



884 
400 



Total* 



2,161,114 



2,221,028 



^J^ 968,178 

^oogle 



Digitized by 



154 UNITED STATES. [1848. 

Whole nnmber of American vessels entered daring the year ending 

June 30, 1846, 8,111 

Whole number of Foreign vessels entered, . . . 5,707 

Total of American and Foreign vessels, . . 13,818 



Whole number of American vessels cleared, . . . 8,451 

Whole number of Foreign vessels cleared, . . . 5,770 

Total American and Foreign vessels, . . . 14,221 

Crews of American vessels entered. Men, 105,165. Boys, 1,781. To- 
tal, 106,946. 

Crews of Foreign vessels entered. Men, 54,993. Boys, 583. Total, 
55,576. 

Crews of American vessels cleared. Men, 108,641. Boys, 1,947. To- 
tal, 110,588. 

Crews of Foreign vessels cleared. Men, 53,895. Boys, 545. TotaL 
54,440. 



Xn. BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

On the 10th July, 1832, the House of Representatives adopted a Besolu- 
tion, that the Secretary of the Treasury should lay before the House, at 
each session of Congress, copies of such Beports, showing the condition of 
the different State banks, as mightiiave been communicated to the authori- 
ties of the several States within the year and made public ; and, in want 
thereof, to supply the deficiency, in the best manner possible, with other 
authentic information. Under the authority of this Resolution, reports 
were made by the Treasury department The American Almanac for 
1841, page 133, contains a condensed statement of the reports that had 
been published up to that time. 

On the 7th August, 1846, the Secretary of the Treasury reported to the 
House the returns of the State Banks from 1841 to 1846 inclusive, which, 
for several yearsj had not been m de. This report has been printed j and 
from it a general statement of the condition of the banks in the United 
States, for the years 1842 and 1845, and also a comparative view of their 
condition, from 1834 to 1846 Inclusive, are given. It is a document of 1261 
pages, and contains copious extracts from the messages of governors ; the 
reports of bank commissioners and legislative comm ttees of the several 
States, relating to banks and banking operations during that period ; and 
also the correspondence between foreig . ' ondhoMers and the governors of 
States upon the subject of r, j udiation. The history of the troubles of tiie 
Bank of the United States, the reports of the different committees of in- 
vestigation, and the letters of Mr. Nicholas Biddle, are likewise given. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES. 



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184a] 



TBA AST} OOVYBB. 

XIII. TEA AND COFFEE. 



159 



Statement showing the quantity and value of Tecu and Coffee consumed annw 
aUjf^from 1821 to 1846, t/te (mount of duty on the same from 1821 to 1832, 
the average rate of duty per pounds and the equivcUent cut valorem, while the 
articles were subject to auty. 

[From the Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, Dec. 9, 1846.] 
1. Tea. 









Teas oonsomed. 


Duties. 


\i 


ill 


Teaks. 








Pounds. 


Value. 




1^ 

< 


ir 










Cenis. 


Per cent. 


1821 . . 


4,586,223 


$1,080,264 


67 13 


31.46 


133.52 


1822 






, 5,305,688 


1,160,579 


35 02 


30.87 


141.13 


1823 






' 6,474,984 


1,547,695 


54 60 


30.09 


129 27 


1824 






7,771,619 


2,224,203 


49 13 


33.03 


116.85 


1825 






7,173,740 


2,246,794 


56 02 


33 53 


107.06 


1828 






8,482,483 


2,443,587 


88 17 


34.82 


119.13 


1827 






8,070,886 


942,439 


60 65 


33 62 


109.22 


1828 






6,289,681 


1,771,993 


67 54 


34.00 


120.68 


1829 






5,602,796 


1,631,460 


22 75 


33.78 


12a40 


18S0 






6,873,091 


1,532,211 


64 68 


83.28 


149.28 


1881 






4,656,681 


1,057:528 


96 22 


31.76 


139.80 


1832 






8,627,144 


2,081,339 


27 80 


14.01 


68.44 


1883 






12,927,043 


4,775,081 








1834 






13,193,553 


6,122,276 








1886 






12,331,638 


3,594,293 








1886 






14484,784 


4,472,342 








1887 






14,465,722 


6,003,401 








1838 






11,978,744 


2,559,246 








1889 






7,748,028 


1,781,824 








1840 






16,860,784 


4,059,546 








1841 






10,772,087 


8,075,332 








1842 






13,482,646 


3,567,745 








1843 






12,785,748 


8,405,627 








^ 






13,054,327 


3,152,225 












17,162,560 


4,809,621 








1846 






16,891,020 


8,983,337 








2. COFF£B. 1 


1821 . . 


Coffee consumed. 


03 16 


6 


24.74 


"11,886,063 


$2,402,311 


1822 






18,515,271 


3,899,042 


63 56 


6 


23.74 


1828 






16,437,046 


2,835.420 


62 26 


6 


28.98 


1824 






20,797,069 


2,513,950 


^46 


5 


4186 


1825 






20,678,062 


1,995,892 


03 10 


6 


61.80 


1826 






25,734,784 


2,710^6 


39 20 


5 


47.47 


1827 






28,354,197 


1,139,607 


09 85 


6 


124.40 


1828 






88,166,733 


3,695,241 


86 66 


6 


62.98 


1829 






33,049,695 


8,052,020 


84 76 


6 


64.14 


1830 






38,383,687 


3480,479 


84 35 


5 


60.31 


1881 






75,700,757 


6,796,139 


16 14 


2 


26.12 


1882 






36,471,241 


2,616,120 


12 41 


1 


14.49 


1833 






76,057,906 


7,525,610 








1834 






44,346,506 


4,473,937 








1835 






91,753,002 


9,381,689 








1886 






77,647,300 


7,667,877 








1887 






76,044,0n 


7,335,506 








1888 






82,872,638 


7,188,010 








1889 






.99,872,517 


9,006,686 








1840 






86,297,761 


7,616,824 








1841 






109,200,247 


9,865,273 








18tf 






107,383,567 


8,447,861 








1848 






86,916,666 


6,923,927 








1844 






149,711.820 


9,054,296 








1846 






94,358,969 


-6,380,582 








1846 






124,336064 


7,802,894 









Digitized 



by Google 



160 



UKITXB 8TATB8. 



[184«. 



XIV. Statement of the number and designation of Passengers arriving in the 

United States^ during the year ending Sej^emher 80t/i, 1846. 

[from a letter of the Secretary of State to the Speaker of the Home of RepresentadTes, 
February 22, 1847 ] 



1. States in which thb Passbngbrs abbitbd. 






4th q ar- 


Ist quar- 2d quarter 


dd quarter 




States. 


terof 


ter of of 


of 


Total. 




1846. 


1846. 1846. 


1846. 




Maine, 


539 


93 


2,881 


2,417 


5,930 


New Hampshire, 


3 




15 


7 


25 


Massachasetts, . 


1,740 


667 


7,089 


4,583 


14,079 


Khode Island, . 


21 




11 


56 


88 


New York, . . 


12,672 


5,119 


41,886 


39,186 


98,863 


Pennsylvania, . 


855 


551 


2,972 


3,057 


7,235 


Delaware, 


1 




5 




6 


Maryland, 


2,125 


155 


2,071 


4,986 


9,337 


Virginia, . 


47 


2 




33 


82 


North Carolina, 


3 








3 


South Carolina, 


215 


41 


42 


110 


408 


Louisiana, 


11,108 


4,452 


5,020 


1,568 


22,148 


Fiori<la, . 


10 


45 


23 


12 


90 


.Texas, 






284 


70 


354 


Total, . . 


29,339 


10,925 1 62,299 


56,085 


158,648 


Males 


, 




90,973 


Females, .... 


, 




66,778 


Sex not stated, 


. 




897 


Total, . . 


. 




158,648 



2. Thb Countbibb beoistbbed as thb Bibthplacbs of thb Pas- 
sengers. 



Great Britain and Ireland, 
United States, .^ 
British America, 
Germany, . 
West Indies, . 
Sweden, . 

Total, . . . 


75,587 
4,239 
3,855 

68,735 
1,252 
1,916 


France, . 
Prussia, . 
Denmark, 
Switzerland, . 
Mexico, . . [known. 
Other coantries, or on- 


10,583 
551 
114 
698 
222 
896 

158,648 





3. Ag 


ES.* 




Less than 5 years, . 


13,551 


Between 25 and 30 years, 


23,824 


Between 5 and 10 years, 


12,447 


30 " 35 « 


14,194 


" 10 " 15 " 


10,850 


" 35 " 40 " 


9,313 


" 15 " 20 « 


19,609 


Upwards of 40 years, 


17,164 


u 20 « 25 " 


36,311 


Not returned, . 


1,185 



4. Occupations.* 



Laborers, . 


19,781 


Mechanics, 


13,584 


Servants, . 


3,730 


Children, . 


1,846 


Merchants, 


4,186 


Farmers, . [known, 


83,560 


Professional men, 


441 


Other occupations, or un- 


81,520 



* These tablee include only those who were entered at the cnstom-honse. If those who 
came to the United States by way of the British provinces and the Canadas, and those not 
regularly entered at any cnstom-honse, were reckoned, the number would be greatly 
Increased. 



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1B48.] CCmOBBSS. l&l 

XV. CONGRESS. 

The Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House of 
Representatives, and must assemble at least once every year, on the first 
Monday of December, unless it is otherwise provided by law. 

The Senate is composed of two members from each State ; and, of course, 
tihe regular number is now 53. They are chosen by the Legislatures of the 
several States, for the term of six years, one-third of them being elected 
biennially. 

The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate, 
in which body he has only a casting vote, which is given in case of an equal 
division of the votes of the Senators. In his absence, a President pro tem- 
pore is chosen by the senate. 

The House of Representatives is composed of members from the several 
States, elected by the people, for the term of two years. The Representa- 
tives are apportioned among the different States according to population. 
The 30th Congress is chosen according to the act of Congress of 1842, the 
ratio being " one Representative for every 70,680 persons in each State, and 
one additional Representative for each State having a fraction greater than 
one moiety of the said ratio, computed according to the rule prescribed by 
the Constitution of the United States." The law of 1842 also requires, 
that the Representatives of each State " shall be elected by districts com- 
posed of a contiguous territory equal in number to the number of Repre- 
sentatives to which said State may be entitled, no one district electing more 
than one Representative.** The present number is 228 Representatives, and 
1 Delegate. 

Since the 4ih of March, 1817, the compensation of each member of the 
Senate and House of Representatives has been $8 a day, during the pe- 
riod of his attendance in Congress, without deduction in case of sickness ; 
and $8 for every twenty mil^s* travel, in the usual road, in gc»ng to and re- 
turning fh>m the seat of government The compensation of the Presi- 
dent of the Senate /TTo tempore^ and the Speaker of the House of Represen- 
tatives, is $16 a day. 

Thirtieth Congress. The Senate. 
George M Dallas, Pennsylvania, President. 
[The figaref denote the expiration of the terms of the Senators.] ^^ 



Mtine, 
John Fairfield, Saco^ 1851 

J.W.Bradbury, Augusta, 1853 

New Hampshire, 
Chs. G. Atherton, Nashua, 1849 

John P. Hale, Dover, 1853 

14* 



VermQnt. 

William Upham, Montpelier, 1849 

Samuel S. Phelps, Middlebury, 1 851 

Massojchusetls. 

Daniel Webster, Marshfidd, 1851 

John Davis, Worcester, 1853 



Digitized 



by Google 



16t 



VHITXB STATBf. 



[1848. 



Bhode IJand, 
Albert C. Greene, Providence^ 
John H. Clarke, Providence, 

Connecticut. 
John M. Niles, Hartford, 
J. W. Huntington, Norwich, 

Neu) York, 
John A. Dix, Albany y 

Dan. S. Dickinson, Binghampton, 

New Jersey, 
Wm. L. Dayton, TVenton, 
Jacoh W. Miller, Morristown, 

Pennsylvania. 
Simon C imeron, JUiddletown, 
Daniel Sturgeon, ZMiontotcn, 

Delaware. 
John M. Clayton, Newcastle^ 
Presley Spruance, Newcastle, 

Maryland. 
Beverdy Johnson, BaUinore, 
James A. Fearce, Chesiertown, 

Virginia. 
R. M. T. Hunter, Lloyds, Essex, 
James M. Mason, Winchester, 

North Carolina. 
Geo. E. Badger, Baleigh, 
W. F. Mangnm, RedMauntain, 

South Carolina. 
A. P. Butler, Edgefield C.H. 
John C. Calhoun, Pendleton, 

Georgku 
Walter T. Colquitt, Columbus, 
Vacancy. 

^ Alabama. 

Arthur F. Bagby, Tuscaloosa, 
Vacancy. 



851 
853 

849 
851 

849 
851 

851 
853 

849 
851 

851 
853 

851 

849 

853 
851 

849 
853 

849 
853 

849 
853 

849 
853 



MMssippL 
Henry S. Foote, - 1853 

Jefferson Davis, Warrenton, ^ IB6 1 

Louisiana. 
Henry Johnson, New River, 
W. Downs, 

Arkansas. 
A. H. Sevier, Lake Port, 
Chester Ashley, Litde Bock, 

Tennessee. 
Vacancy. 
Hopk. L. Tnmey, Winchester, 

Kentucky. 
John J. Crittenden, /Vonik/brf, 
J. E. Underwood, BouiVg Green, 1853 

Ohio. 
William Allen, ChiUicothe, 
Thomas Corwin, Lebanon, 

Michigan. 
Lewis Cass, Detroit, 

Alphens Felch, Ann Arbor, 

Indiana. 
E. A. Hannegan, Covington, 
Jesse D. Bright, Madison, 

Blinois. 
Sidney Breese, Carlyle, 
S. A. Douglass, Quincy, 

Misaouri, 
David R. Atchison, Platte OUy, 
Thos. H. Benton, St. Louis, 

Florida. 
David Levy Yulee, St. Augustine, 1851 
J. D. Westcott, Jr., Tallahassee, 1849 

Texas. 
Vacancy. 1853 

Thomas J. Rusk, Nacodogches, 1851 

Iowa. 
Two Vacancies. 



1849 
1853 

1849 
1853 

1853 
1851 

1849 



1849 
1851 

1851 
1853 

1849 
1851 

1849 
1853 

1849 
1851 



Officers of the Senate. 
Asbury Dickens, Secretary. I Robert Beall, Doorkeeper, 

Edward Dyer, Serjeant-at-Arms. I Septimus Tuston, Chaplain, 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



oovemsBS. 



168 



HousB or Bbpbibsbntatitbs of the 30th Ck>voxxs8, 

^ whkh will expire an the 3d of March, IB49, 

[Hie niunben attached to the names show the Districts in each State fiom ^rUoh the 
members were chosen.] 



Maine, — 7. 
Belcher, Hirani, Farminffton, 
Hammons, Davidi Lovdl, 
Williams, Hezli, Ckutine. 
[Four Vacancies. See corrections 
and additions at the end of the 
volume,] 

New Hampshire, — 4. 

Johnson, Jas. H^ Baih, 

Peaslee, Cbas. H., Concord. 

Tuck, Amos, Exeter, 

Wilson, James, Keene, 

Vermont, — 4. 

CoUamer, Jacoh, Woodstock, 

Henry, William, BeUows FaUs. 

Marsh, Geo. P., Burlington, 
Peck, Lncius B., 



Massachusetts, — 10. 



8. 
6. 
10. 
9. 
5. 
2. 
4. 
7. 
1. 

1. 
2. 



Abbott, Amos, 
Adams, John Q., 
Ashmnn, Geoi^ 
Grinnell, Joseph, 
Hale, Artemas, 
Hadson, Chas., 
King, Daniel P., 
Palfrey, John G., 
Rockwell, Julins, 
Winthrop,R. C, 



Andover. 

Quincy. 

Springfidd, 

New Bedford. 

Bridgewater. 

Westminster, 

South Danvers. 

Cambridge, 

PittsJieUL 

Boston, 



Rhode Island.''^, 
Cranston, R. B., Newport, 
Thurston, Benj. B., 

Connecticut, — 4. 
Dixon, James, Hartford. 
Hubbard, S. D., MuMetown, 



Rockwell, John A., Norwich, 
Smith, Truman, Litcl\field, 



New York." 34, 



Binghampton, 

LoumUe. 

Cortlandoille, 

Oswego, 

Manlius, 

Buffalo, 

Lyons, 

Brockport, 



Birdsall, Auburn, 

Collins, William, 

Conger, Hamon S., 

Duer, William, 

Gott, Daniel, 

Hall, Nathan K., 

Holley, John M., 

Holmes, Elias B., 

Hunt, Washington, Lockport, 

Jackson, David S., New York, 

Jenkins, Timothy, Oneida CasUe, 

Kellogg, O. D., Etizabethtown, 

Lawrence, Sidney, Franklin Co, 

Lawrence W. P., Tompkins Co, 

Lord, Fred. W., Suffolk Co, 

Maclay, Wm. B., New York, 

Marvin, Dudley, 

Mullin, Joseph, 

Murphy, Henry C, Brooklyn, 

Nelson, William, Peekskill, 

Nicholl, Henry, 

Petrie, George, 

Putnam, Harvey, 

Reynolds, G. O., 

Rose, Robert L., 

Rumsey, David, 

Sberrill, Eliakim, 

Slingerland, J. J., 

StariLweather, GAl., Cooperstoum, 

St. John, D. B., Newburgh. 

Sylvester, Peter H., Columbia Co, 

Tallmadge, F. W., New York. 

Warren, Cornelius, Putnam Co. 

White, Hugh, Cohoes, 



Fredonia, 
Watertown. 



New York. 

Montgom^y Co, 

Attica. 

Troy, 

ABen'sHOL 

Bath. 

Ulster Co. 



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164 



UNITED STATES. 



11848. 



New Jersey. — 5. 

3. Edsall, Joseph E., Hamburg, 

5. Gregory, Dudley 8.,t/<jr«ey City, 

1. Hampton, James G.,BnVf^Keo». 

2. Newell, William A., Allentoum. 

4. Van Dyke, John, N. Brunswick. 

Pennsylvania, — 24. 

17. Blanchard, John, Bdlefont. 

16. Brady, Jasper E., ChemAersVgh. 

10. Brodhead, R., EasUm, 

3. Brown, Charles, Philadelphia. 

11. Butler, Chester, Wtlkesbarre. 

20. Dickey, John, Beaver. 

14. Eckert, George N., Pottsville. 

22. Farrelly, John W., Meadville. 

6. Ereedley, John W., Norristoum, 

21. Hampton, Moses, Pittsburg, 

6. Hornbeck, John W., Allentoum. 

4. Ingersoll, Chas. J., Philadelphia. 
2. Ingersoll, Joseph R,^ Philadelphia. 

24. Irvin, Alexander, CUarfield, 

1. Levin, Lewis C, Philadelphia. 

19. Mann, Job, Bedfrrd, 

7. M^Bvaine, A. R.» Brandyunne. 

15. Nes, Henry, York, 
13. Pollock, James, jtft&on. 

18. Stewart, Andrew, Vhiontown, 

8. Strohm, John, N. Providence. 

9. Strong, William, Beading, 

23. Thompson, James, Erie, 

12. Wihnot, David, Tbwanda. 

Ddaware. — 1. 
Houston, John W., Georgdown, 

Maryland. — 6. 

[Election \st Wednesday (M) cf 
October.] 

Virginia. — 15. 
1. Atkinson, Arch., Smithjidd. 
7. Bayly, Thomas H., Accomac C. H. 



8. Beale, R. T. L., Hague, 

10. Bedinger, Henry; Charlesi^um, 

4. Bocock, Thomat S.,Appotmattox, 
6. Botls, John M., Richmond, 

15. Brown, William G., Kingvx)od, 
3. Floumoy, Thos. S.. Halifax C. H, 

13. Fulton, Andrew S. WyihevUU. 

5. Goggin, Wm. L., Liberty, 

1 1 . McDowell, James, Leximgton. 

2. Meade, Richard K., Petersburg, 

9. Pendleton, John S., (MpepperCH 

12. Preston, Wm. B., Chrittiantburg. 

14. Thompson, R. A., Charleston^Ky, 

North CaroHna, — 9. 

3. Barringer, D. M., Concord, 
2. Boyden, Nathaniel, Rowan. 
1. Clingman, Thos. L. AsheviUe. 



7. Daniel, J. R. J., 

8. Donnell, R. S., 

6. M*E[ay, James J., 
«. Outlaw, David, 

4. Shepperd, A. H., 

5. Vcnable, A. W., 



HaUfax, 

EHzabethtoum, 
Bertie Co, 
Salem^ 



South Carolina. — 7. 



1. Black, James A., 

5. Burt, Armistead, 

6. Holmes, Isaac E., 

7. Rhett, R. B., 

2. Simpson, R. F., 
4. Sims, A. D., 

Georgia,' 

6. Cobb, Howell, 
4. Haralson, H. A., 

2. Iverson, Alfred, 

3. Jones, John W., 
1. King, Thomas B., 
'5. Lumpkin, J. H., 

7. Stephens, A. H., 

8. Toombs, Robert, 



ChenJL Works. 

WilUngton, 

Chariestonm 

Ashepoo, 

Pendleton, 

Darling. C.H, 

-8. 

Athens. 
La Grange, 



FVsderica. 
Rome. 

CrawJbrdsvUle, 
Washington, 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



COVQBBtS. 



16S 



Ahbama. — 7. 

7. Bowdon, F. W., Talladega. 

6. Cobb, W. R. W., 

1. Gayle, John, Mobile. 

3. Harris, S. W. 

2. Billiard, Henry W., Montgomery. 
5. Houston, Geo. S., Athens. 

4. Inge, Samuel W^ 

Mississippi. — 4. 
[Election \8t Monday in November.] 

Louisiana. — 4. 
[Election l$t Monday in Noifember.] 

Arkansas. — 1. 
Johnson, Kobert W., 

Tennessee. — 11. 

5. Barrow, W., 

9. Chase, L. B., ClarJcsviUe. 

2. Cocke, William M., Rutledge. 

3. Crozier, John H., KnoxmUe. 

7. Gentry, M. P., Franklin, 

5. Gordon, Geo. W., 

6. Gordon, ^ 

11. Haskell, Wm. T., 

4. HUl, H. L. W., 

1 . Johnson, Andrew, Greenville. 
10. Stanton,, Fred*k P., Memphis. 



Kentucky. — 

6. Adams, Green, 

1. Boyd, Lynn, 

4. Buckner, Aylett, 
3. Clark, B. L., 

7. Duncan, Garrett, 
9. French, Richard, 

10. Gaines, John P., 

8. Morehead,Cha8.B., 

2. Peyton, Samuel O., 

5. Thompson, J. B., 



10. 

BarbourviUe. 

Cadiz. 

Greensbwrg. 

Franklin. 

Louisvitte. 

^t. Sterling. 

Burlington. 

Frankport. 

Hartford. 

Harrod^ntrg. 



Ohio.—tl. 



Canby, Richard S., 
Crowell, John, 
Cummings, J. D., 
Dickinson, R., 
Duncan, Daniel, 
Edwards, Thos. O., 
Evans, Nathan, 
Faran, James J., 
Fisher, David, 
Fries, George, 
Giddings, J. R., 
Kennon, WilUam, 
Lahm, Samuel, 
Miller, John K., 
Ritchey, Thomas, 
Root, Joseph M., 
Sawyer, William, 
Schenck, R. C, 
Taylor, John L^ 
Yinton, Samuel F., 
Vacancy, 



Belle/ontaine. 
Warren 
NewPhHad. 
L. Sandusky, 
Newark. 
Lancaster. 
Cambridge. 
Cincinnati. 
Wilmington. 
HanoverUm. 
Jefferson. 
St. QairsvUle, 
Canton. 
Mt. Vernon. 
Somerset. 
Nonvalk. 
St. Mary's. 
Dayton. 
ChilUcoihe, 
Gallipolis, 



Michigan.'^ 8, 
3. Bingham, K S. Ingham. 
I. McClelland, R., Monroe, 
One Vacancy. 



Indiana. — 
9. Cathcart,Cha8.W. 

6. Dunn, George G., 
1 Embree, Elisha, 

2. Henley, T. J., 
8. Pettit, John, 

3. Robinson, John L., 
10. Rockhill, William, 

4. Smith, Caleb B., 

7. Thompson, R. W. 

5. Wick, Wm. W., 



10. 

Laporte. 

Bedford. 

Princeton. 

N, Washinfn. 

La Fayette. 

Rushville. 

F. WayneCH, 

Connersville. 

Terre Haute, 

Indianapolis, 



Illinois. — 7. 
3. Ficklm, O. B., Charleston, 

7. Lincoln, Abraham, Springfield, 



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by Google 



166 



UNITBD STATES. 



[1848. 



2. M'Clemand, J. A., Shaumeetotvn, 

5. Richardson, W. a!, RushvilU, 

1. Smith, Robert, Upper AUon, 

6. Turner, Thos. J., Freepori, 

4. Wentworth, John, Chicago, 

Mtssauri. — 5. 

1. Bowlin, James B., St. Louis. 

3. Greene, James S., Monticdlo. 

5. Hall, Willard P., PlaUe City. 

2. Jameson, John, Fulton. 

4. Phelps, John S., AfonticeUo. 



Flmda.— l. 
CabeU, E. C, 

Texas. —% 
Kaufman, David S., Lowi^t Ferry, 
Pilsbury, Timothy, Brazoria. 
Iowa. — 2." 
2. Leffler, Shepherd, BurUngton. 
1. Thompson, Wm., 1ft. PleaaanL 
Territories. 
Wisconsin. — 1 Delegate. 
[Election Sept. 7. See corrections and 
additions at the end of the volume.] 



Alphabeticix List of thb Hottsb of Rbpsbsbntatites. 



Abbott, Amos, Ms. 

Adams, Green, Ky. 

Adams, John Q., Ms. 
Ashmun, George, Ms. 
Atkinson, Archibald, Va. 
Barringer, Dan. M., N.C. 
Barrow, Wash , Tenn. 
Bayly, Thos. H., Va. 
Beale, R. T. L., Va. 
Bedinger, Henry, Va. 
Belcher, Hiram, Me. 
Bingham, K. S., Mich. 
Birdsall, Auburn, N:Y. 
Black, James A., S. C 
Blanchard, John, Pa. 
Bocock, Thos. S., Va. 
Botts, John M Va 

Bowlin, James B., Mo. 
Boyd, Lvnn, Ky. 

Boyden,x^athaniel, N.C. 
Boydon, F. W., Ala. 
Brady, Jasper E., Pa. 
Brodhead, Richard, Pa. 
Brown, Charles, Pa. 
Brown, Wm.G, Va. 
Buckner, Aylett, Ky. 
Burt, Armistead, S. C. 
Butler, Chester, Pa. 
Cabell, E C, Fla. 

Canby, Richard S., O. 



Cathcart, Chas. W., Ind. 
Chase, Lucian B., Tenn. 
Clark, B. L., Ky. 

Clingman, T. L., N. C. 
Cobb, Howell, Ga. 

Cobb, W. R W., Ala. 
Cocke, Wm. M., Tenn. 
Collamer, Jacob, Vt 
Collins, WilUam, N. Y. 
Conger, H. S., N. Y. 
Cranston, R. B., R. I. 
Crowell, John, O. 

Crozier, John H., Tenn. 
Cummings, John D., O. 
Daniel, J. R. J., N. C. 
Dickey, John, Penn. 
Dickinson, RodoL, O. 
Dixon, James, Ct. 

Donnell, R. S., N. C. 
Duncan, Daniel, O. 

Duncan, Garrett, Ky. 
Dunn, Geo. G., Ind. 
Duer, William, N. Y. 
Eckcrt, Georee N., Pa. 
Edsall, Joseph E^ N.J. 
Edwards, Thos. 0., O. 
Embree, Elisha, Ind. 
Eyans, Nathan, O. 

Faran James J., O. 

Farrelly, John W., Pa. 



Ficklin, Orlando B. 
Fisher, David, 
Floumoy, T. S., 
Freedley, John W^ 
French, Richard, 
Fries, Geoiige, 
Fulton, A. §., 
Gaines, John P., 
Gayle, John, 
Gentry, M. P. 



O. 
Va. 

Pa. 

Va. 
Ky. 

Ala. 
Tenn. 



Giddings, Joshua R., O. 
Goggin, Wm. L., Va. 
Gott, Daniel, N. Y. 
Grordon, Geo. W., Tenn. 



Gordon, 

Greene, James S. 
Gregory, D. S., 
Grinneu, Joseph, 
Hale, Artemai, 
Hall, N. K., 
Hall, W. P., 
Hammons, David, 



Tenn. 

Mo. 
N.J. 

Ms. 

Ms. 
N.Y. 

Ma 

Me. 



Hampton, J. G., N. J. 
Hampton, Moaes, Pa. 
Haralson, H. A., Ga. 
Harris, S. W., Ala. 

Haskell, Wm. T., Tenn. 
Henley, Thos. J., Ind. 
Henry, William, Vt 
Hill, H. L. W., Tenn. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



CONGBBSfik 



167 



HilUard, H. W. Ala 
HoUey, John M., N.Y. 
Holmes, E. B., N. Y. 
Holmes, Isaac E., S. C 
Honibeck, J. W., Pa. 
Houston, Geo. S., Ala. 
Houston, John W., Del 
Hubbard, S. D., Ct. 
Hudson, Charles, Ms 
Hunt, Washington, N.Y. 
Inge, Saml. wl, Ala. 
Ingersoll, Chas. J., Pa. 
Ingersoll, Jos. R., Pa. 
Ir^, Alexander, Pa. 
Iverson, Alfred, Ga. 
Jackson, D. S., N. Y. 
Jameson, John, Mo. 
Jenkins, Timothy, N. Y. 
Johnson, A., Tenn. 

Johnson, Jas. H., N. H. 
Johnson, R. W., Ark. 
Jones, John W., Ga. 
Kaufman, D. S^ Tex. 
Kellogg, O. D., N. Y. 
Kennon, William, O. 
King, Danl. P., Ms. 
King, Thos. B., Ga. 
Lahm, Samuel, O. 

Lawrence, Sidney, N. Y. 
Lawrence, W. P., N.Y. 
Leffler, Shepherd, lowa.- 
Levin, Lewis C, Pa. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 111. 
Lord, Fred. W., N. Y. 
Lumpkin, John H., Ga. 
Maday, Wra. B., N.Y. 
Mann, Job, Pa. 

Marsh, George P., Vt. 
Marvin, Dudley, N. Y. 
McClelland, R., Mich. 



M'Clemand, J. A., 111. 
M'Dowell, James, Va. 
M'llvaine, A. R., Pa. 
M'Kay, James J., N. C. 
Meade, Richard K., Va. 
Miller, John K., O. 

Morehead, Chas. S., Ky. 
Mullin, Joseph, N. Y. 
Murphy, H. C, N. Y. 
Nelson, William, N.Y. 
Nes, HeniT, Pa. 

Newell, Wm. A., N. J. 
NichoU, Henry, N. Y. 
Outlaw, David, N. C. 
Palfrey, John G., Ms. 
Peaslee, Chas. H., N. H. 
Peck, Lucius B., Vt. 
Pendleton, John S., Va. 
Petrie, George, N. Y. 
Pettit, John, Ind 

Peyton, Samuel O., Ky. 
Phelps, John S., Mo. 
Pilsbury, Timothy, Tex. 
Pollock, James, Pa. 
Preston, Wm. B., Va. 
Putnam, Harvey, N. Y. 
Reynolds, G. O., NY. 
Rhett, R. Barnwell, S.C. 
Richardson, W. A., 111. 
Ritchey, Thomas, O. 
Robinson, J. L., Ind. 
Rockhill, William, Ind. 
Rockwell, John A., Ct. 
Rockwell, Julius, Ms. 
Root, Jos. M., O. 

Rose, Robert L., N. Y. 
Rumsey, David, N. Y. 
Sawyer, William, O. 
Schenck, Robert, O, 



Shepperd, A. H., N. C. 
Sherrill, Eliakim, N.Y. 
Simpson, R. F., S. C. 
Sims, Alex. D., S. C. 
Slingerland, J. J., N. Y. 
Smith, Caleb B., Ind. 
Smith, Robert, 111. 

Smith, Truman, Ct. 
Stanton, Fred. P., Tenn. 
Starkweather, GwA,N.Y. 
Stephens, A. H., Ga. 
Stewart, Andrew, Pa. 
St. John, D. B., N. Y. 
Strohm, John, Pa. 

Strong, William, Pa. 
Sylvester, P. H., N. Y. 
Tallmadge,F.W.,N.Y. 
Taylor, John L., O. 
Thompson, James, Pa. 
Thompson, John B., Ky. 
Thompson, R. A., Va. 
Thompson, R. W., Ind. 
Thompson, Wm., Iowa. 
Thurston, B. B., R. I. 
Toombs, Robert, Ga. 
Tuck, Amos, N. H. 
Turner, Thos. J., 111. 
Van Dyke, John, N. J. 
Venable, A. W., N. C. 
Vinton, Samuel F., O. 
Warren, Cornelius, N.Y. 
Wentworth, John, 111. 
White, Hugh, N. Y. 
Wick, William W., Ind. 
Williams, Hczekiah, Me. 
Wilraot, David, Pa. 
Wilson, James, N. H. 
Winthrop, R C, Ms. 
Woodward, J. A., S.C. 



Digitized 



by Google 



168 



XnriTSD STATBt. [1848* 

XVI. COBIPARATIVB VIEW OF 











Annual 


BtMtm, 


AlMolat* 


CondnfnU 
Debt 


Total Debt. 


Intereaton 

Absolute 
Debt. 


Maine, 


$1,142,700 




$1,142,700 
None. 


$73,000 


New Hampshire, 


None. 






Vermont, 


279,960 




279,960 


16,798 


Massachusetts, 


999.654 


$5,049,556 


6,049,209 


58,879 


Rhode Island, 


152,719 




152,719 


9,163 


Connecticut, 


None. 




None. 




New York, 


23,021,081 


1,713,000 


24,734,081 


1,269,739 


New Jersej, 


- 55,5964 




55,596 


3,336 


Pennsylvania, 


40,739,577 




40,739,577 


2,040,000 


Delaware, 


None. 




None. 




Maryland, 


12,011,785 


*1,299,922 


13,311,707 


651,821 


Virginia, 


5.934,121 


1,415,171 


7,349,292 


430,118 


North Carolina, 


None. 




None. 




South Carolina, 


3,234,502 


2,000,000 


5.284,502 


170,798 




1,727,760 




1,727,760 


109,296 


Florida, 


3,900,000 


950,000 


4,850,000 


294,000 


Alabama, 


9,207,556 


4,438,522 


13,646,078 


657,746 


Mississippi, 


2,271,707 


5,000,000 


7,271,707 


> 128,000 


Louisiana, 


1.380,566 


14,857,565 


16,238,131 


78,914 


Arkansas, 


2,769,336 


t848,891 


3,617.227 


164,660 


Tennessee, 


3,373,416 




3,373,416 


180,489 


Kentucky, 


4,596,026 




4,596,026 


267,112 


Ohio, 


19.246,002 




19,246,002 


1,164,260 


Michigan, 


2,299,050 


529,151 


2,828,201 


120,000 


Indiana, 


7,197,470 


8,587,470 


15,784,940 


221,360 


Illinois, 


14,042,7181 




14,042,718 


700,000 


Missouri, 


684,997 


' 


684.997 


73,100 


Texas, 


4,856,601 


5,092,406 


9,949,007 


300,000 


Total, 


165.129,900 


51,781,654 


216,911,554 


9,072,939 


Total nearJan. 1,1846, 


179,635,022 


44,388,805 


224,023,827 


9,930,052 



These tables are believed to be very accurate, being compiled almost 
exclusively from official reports made by the Treasurers and Auditors to 
the Legislatures of the several States, near the 1st of January, 1847. The 
account of the State debts, in particular, is full, and may be depended 
upon ; that of the several kinds of property owned by the States, of course 
is more defective, — for the State archives seldom afford cbmplete materials 
for accurate accounts of this sort, and the property is sometimes estimated 
at a nominal valuation, which is much above its market value. The editor 

• Arrears of interest doe Deo. 1, 1846. t Arrears of latecest dne Nov. 1, 1846. 
% Indadinff $2,248,872 arrears of interest. § Temporary. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] TINAKCBS OF THV STATEB. 

THE FINANOES OF THE STATES. 



169 



States. 


Amount 

of 

School Fund. 


Other 
UroduotiTe 
Property. 


Other property 

not now 

productiye. 


Ordinary an- 
nual Expendi- 
ture, exclusive 
of Debts 

and Schools. 


Maine, 

New Hampshire, 

Vermont, 

Massachusetts, 

Khode Island, 

Connecticut, 

New York, 

New Jersey, 

Pennsylvania, 

Delaware, 

Maryland, 

Virpinia, 

North Carolina, 

Georgia, 

Florida, 

Alabama, 

Mississippi, 

Louisiana, 

Tennessee, 

Kentucky, 

Ohio, 

Michigan, 

Indiana, 

Illinois, 

Missouri, 

Texas, 


$100,000 

234,900 
830,678 
433,635 
2,070,055 
6,413,660 
384,339 

175,750 

1,460,261 

263,000 
927,850 

884,043 

1,221,819 

1,455,781 

496,119 

279,663 


$369,104 

716,137 
1,819,857 

406,000 

30,987,336 

226,253 

30,000,000 

521,529 

4,709,541 

6,370,880 

363,000 

4,371,255 

6,300,000 

2,725,500 

17,951,194 

811,398 


$764,671* 
1,208,631 

$16,006,408 
4,492,623 

2,000,000 
2,416,938 

3,000,000 
771,674 


$154,681 
140,000 

95,503 
361,318 

48,405 

98,105 
816,295 
111,380 
403,035 

17,129 
197,769 
538,496 

63,458 
215,287 
113,986 

127,386 

155,000 

615,207 

53,830 

165,000 

262,000 

193,324 

95,000 

69,136 

158j000 

136,555 

150,000 


Total, 
TotalncarJan.1,1846, 


17,631,553 
16,608,719 


108,643,384 
110,396,552 


30,660,945 
23,232,715 


5,435,285 
5,455,186 



of the American Almanac respectfully invites his correspondents in the 
several States to communicate such errors as they may detect in these 
tables, and they will be republished in the volume for 1849 in a revised and 
perfect condition. The object here is to give only a summary of the facts, 
so as to afford the means of comparing the States with each other. Their 
financial condition h shown at much greater length under the head of " In- 
dividual States.** Official returns published in this work for 1843 (page 
135) showed that the total of the debts of the States in 1842 was $198,818,736. 
It is apparent, then, that there has been no great redaction of these debts. 



15 



• United States deposits. 



Digitized 



by Google 



170 



mriTBD STAtBS. [1848/ 

XVn. COLLEGES IN THE 



Name. 



1 Bowdoin. 

2 WaterriUe,* 
SDutmoutti, 

4 Univenity of YennoitU 
6 Middlebury, 

Norwich UmTendty, 

Harrard Uniyersity, 

WiUiams, 

Amherst, 

Holy CroM,§ 

Brown Uniyenrf^,* 

Yale, 

TrinHy,t 

Weeleyan University,! 

Columbia,! 

Union, 

Hamilton, 

Madison unirenity,* 

OeneTa,t 

University of New York, 

St. Johns,} 

College of New Jersey, 

Rutgers, 

University of Pennsylv'a, 

Dickinson,! 

Jefferson, 

Washington, 

Alleghany,! 

Pennsylvania, 

Lafayette, 

Marshall, 

West. University of Penn., 

Delaware, 

St. John's, 

St. Ma^'sJ 

Mount St. Mary's,} 

St. James's,t 

Georgetown,} 

Columbian,* 

William and MaTy,t 

Hampden-Sidney, 

Washington, 

University of Virginia, 

BandDlph-Maeon,! 

£mory and Henry,! 

Rector,* 

Bethany College, 

University of N. Carolina, 



Place. 



PreaidentB. 



Foun- 



1^ 
1820 
1769 
1791 
1800 
1831 
1688 
1708 
1821 
1843 
1764 
1700 
1824 
1881 
1764 
1796 
1812 
1819 
1828 
1881 
1841 
1746 
1770 
1766 
1788 
1802 
1806 
1816 
1882 

1% 
1819 
1888 
1784 
1790 
1880 
1843 

1^ 
1821 
1006 
1788 
1812 
1819 
1002 

l^ 

1840 
1789 
1888 
1888 

1087 



1828 
1881 
1830 
1880 
1841 



Me. 

do. 
N.H 
Vt. 

do. 



44 Randolph-] 

46 

47 

48 , 

^ Davidson, 



60 Wake Forest,* 
Charleston, 
South Carolina, 
Franklin, 

64 Oglethorpe, 



66 Emory,! 

66 Mercer University,* 

67 Christ ColL and Bp. Inst,t|Mon( 
University of Alabama, 
LaGrange4 

60 Spring ffill,! 

61 Oakland, 

62 Centenary^ 

68 St. Charles,} 
64 Baton Rouge, 

Franklin, 



Brunswickl 

WaterviUe, 

Hanover, 

Burlington, 

Bfiddlebury, 

Norwich, 

Cambridge, 

Williamstown, 

Amherst, 

Worcester, 

Providence, 

New Haven, 

Hartford, 

Middletown, 

New York, 

Schenectady, 

Clinton, 

Hamilton, 

Geneva, 

New York, 

Fordham, 

Princeton, 

New Brunswick, do. 

Philadelphia, Penn. 

Carlisle. do. 

CanonsDurg, do. 

Washington, 

Meadville, 

Gettysburg, 

Easton, 

Mercersbnrg, 

Pittobuig, 

Newark. 

Annapolis, 

Baltimore, 

Emmetsburg. uu. 

Near Hagerst'n, do. 

Georgetown, D. C. 

Washington, do. 

Williamsburg, Ya. 

Prince Ed. CO., do. 

Lexington, do. 

Charlottesville, do. 

Boydton, do. 

Glade Spring, do. 

Harrison CO., 

Bethany, 

Chapel Hill, 

Mecklenberg co., do. 

Wake Forei^ do. 

Charleston, 

Columbia, 

Athens, 

Midway, 

Oxford, 

Penfield, 

itpelkr, 
Tuscaloosa, 
La Grange, 
Spring mil, 
Oakland, 

Jackson, xa. 

Grand Coteaxi, do. 
Baton Rouge, do 
Opelousai, do. 



do. 

do. 

do. 
R. I. 
Conn, 
do. 
do. 
N Y. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
N.J, 



do. 
do 
do 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Del. 
Md. 
do. 
do. 



do. 
do. 
N.C 



8.0. 
do. 
Ga. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Ala. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Leonard Woods, Jr., D.D. 

David N. Sheldon. A.M. 

Nathan Lord, D.D. 

John Wlieeler, D.D. 

Benjamin Labaree, D.D. 

Truman B. Ransom, A.M. 

Edward Everett, LL.D. 

Mark Hopkins, D.D. 

Edw. Hitohcock, LL.D. 

James Rider, S. J. 

Francis Wayland, D.D. 

Theodore D. Woolsey, LLJD. 

Silas Totton, D.D. 

Stephen Olin, D.D. 

Nath. F. Moore. LL.D. 

Eliphalet Nott, D.D. 

Simeon North, LL.D. 

Nathaniel Kendrick, D.D. 

Benjamin Hale, D.D. 

Theo. Frelinghuysen, LLJ). 

A. J. Thebaud, 8.J. 

James Camahan, D.D. 

Abr. B. Haabrouck, LLJ). 
, John Ludlow, D.D. 

Robert Emory, D.D. 

Robert Baird, D.D. 

David McConaufldiy, D J). 

H. J. Claris A.M. 

C. P. Crauth, D.D. 

George Jnnkin, D JO. 

John Nevin, D.D. 

Robert Bruce, D.D. 

— \lllson, D D. 

Hector Humphreys, D.D. 

Gilbert Raymond, D.D. 

John McCaftrey, AM. 

John B. Kerfoot, A M. 
, Thomas F. Mulledy, 

Bacon, DJ>. 

Rev. John Johns, 

Henry Ruflber, DJO. 
J. L. Cabell, Ch. of FaaOly. 
L. 0. Garland, A.M. 
Charles Collins, A.M. 
Charles Wheeler, AM. 
Alexander Campbell, AJL 
, David L. Swain, LL.D 
Samuel Williamson, D.D. 
William Hooper, D.D. 
William P. Finley, A.M. 
William 0. Preston, LLJ>. 
Alonao Chureh, D.D. 
Samuel K. Tabnage, 
Aug. B. Loogstreet, LLJ>. 
J. L.Daar, 
Charieeliity, 
BasU Manly, DJD. 
Robert Paine, A. M. 
John Basin, 

Jere. Chamberlain, D J). 
J. 0. Thornton, D.D. ' 
Th. Seller, S.J. 
R. H. Ranny, 
OthonBoudet, 



1889 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 

UNITED STATES. 



COX<LS«S0. 



m 





iDSt- 

ruct- 
ers. 


No. of 
Almnni. 


No. of 
Minis- 
ters. 


Stu- 
dents. 


Yolumee in 
Libraries. 




1 


7 


906 


156 


181 


24,860 




2 


6 


216 


59 


84 


7,000 


Second Wednesday in Angost. 


8 


16 


2'iS 


600 


197 


16,600 


Last Thursday in July. 


4 


7 


887 


69 


100 


10,000 


First Wednesday in August 


6 


7 


785 


810 


70 


7,054 


Third Wednesday in August. 


6 


7 


96 




104 




Second Thursday in July. 


7 


80 


5'S!? 


1,688 


277 


74,000 


Fourth Wednesday in August. 


8 


8 


1,871 


818 


176 


7,500 


Third Wednesday in August 


9 


9 


798 


840 


120 


15,000 


Fourth Thursday in July. 


10 


9 






130 




September 15. 


11 


7 


1,618 


414 


146 


26,000 




12 


85 


^»fS 


^'S5 


422 


45,000 


Third Thursday in August 


13 


7 


257 


117 


74 


7,949 


First Thursday in August. 


14 


7 


283 


104 


125 


12,000 


First Wednesday in August 


15 


13 


1,170 




114 


14,000 


Day after first Monday in October. 


16 


13 


2'86S 


417 


299 


13,000 


Fourth Wednesday in July. 


17 


10 


626 


166 


171 


10,000 


Fourth Wednesday in July. 


18 


9 


140 




144 


4,600 


Third Wednesday in August 


19 


8 






66 


6,400 


First Wednesday in August 


20 


11 


320 




146 




Wednesday preceding 4th of July. 


21 


16 


10 




130 


10,000 


Second or third week in July. 


22 


18 


2,747 


528 


255 


14,500 


Last Wednesday in June. 


23 


7 


483 


77 


76 


9,000 


Fourth Wednesday in July. 


24 


7 


631 




88 


6,000 


The 15th, 16th, or 17th of July. 
Second Thursday in July. 


25 


10 


647 


140 


108 


12,000 


26 


9 


693 


227 


190 


4,500 


Second Wednesday in June. 


27 


9 


248 




100 


8,300 


Last Wednesday in September. 


28 


6 


16 




100 


8,000 




29 


4 


69 




76 


2,270 




30 


7 


100 


80 


180 


5,000 




81 


4 


6 




49 




Last Wednesday in August 


32 


5 


11 




64 




Early in July. 


83 


6 


^ 




112 


3,600 


Fourth Wednesday in September. 


34 


6 


124 


6 


27 


4,000 


The 22d of February. 


35 


16 


187 




160 


12,000 


Tliird Tuesday in July. 


86 


12 


41 




130 


3,500 


Last week in June. 


87 


10 






73 


3,000 


Thursday before 1st Mon. in August. 


38 


16 


90 




140 


25,000 


Near the last of July. 


39 
40 
41 


10 
6 
6 


104 




25 
68 
65 


4,200 
6,000 
8,000 


Second Wednesday in July. 
July 4th. 


8 




42 


6 


126 




136 


2,700 


Last Thursday in June. 


43 


9 


1,238 

77 




163 


16,000 


July 4th. 


44 


8 




78 




Second Wednesday in June. 


45 
46 

47 


4 






44 
60 
128 


2,800 


Last Wednesday in June. 


6 


16 






4th of July. 


48 


10 


867 


70 


156 


10,000 


First Thursday in June. 


49 


8 


31 




44 


1,160 


Last Thursday in June. 


60 


3 


11 


6 


24 


4,700 


Third Thursday in June. 

Tuesday after 4th Monday in March. 


61 


4 


67 




40 


3,000 


62 


7 




3 


160 


15,000 


First Monday in December. 


63 


9 


628 


60 


116 


13,000 


First Wednesday in August 


64 


6 


26 


1 


65 


2,000 


Wednesday after 2d Monday in Not. 


66 

66 


6 


11 




70 






67 
68 


4 
9 


114 


2 


86 

94 


6,000 


Wednesday after 2d Monday inAugust. 


69 


3 


60 




106 


2,200 


Early in June. 


60 


8 






70 


4,000 




61 


6 


61 




100 


6,000 


First Thursday in April. 
First Wednesday in June. 


62 


8 


18 




37 


1,860 


68 


9 






65 






64 


4 






46 


800 


December. 


66 


4 






70 




First of Norember. 



Digitized 



by Google 



172 



UNITBB 8TAT1SB. 



[1848. 
COLLEGES IN THE 



Name. 



Place. 



Preridents. 



Foun- 
ded. 



66 GreenTille, 

67|Wa8hi]igtcai, 

eSlUniversity of NwhTille, 

69 Franklin, 

70, East Tennessee, . 

71 Cumberland Uniyersltj, 

72Jack8on, 

73 Transylvania, 

74'St. Joseph'Bji 

76' Centre, 

76 Augusta,* 

77|Georgetown,* 

78{ Bacon, 

79 University of Ohio, 

80 Miami Uniyersity, 
SlFranklin, 

82 Western Reserve, 

83Keuyon,t 

84Granville,* 

85 Marietta, 

86 Oberlin Institute, 

87 Cincinnati, 

88 St. Xavier,i 

89 Woodward, 

90 Ohio Wesleyan UnivVi* 

91 Indiana State University, 

92 Madison University, 
93; Wabash, 

94 Ind. Asbury Universifcy,t 

95 St. Gabriel's,) 
96{IUiD0i8, 
97ShurUeflf,* 
98'McKendree,t 
99|Knoz Ma ual Labor, 

lOO^Unlversity of St. Louis,) 
lOl'Kemper College,t 
lQ2:st. Mary's,) 
103Masonie, 
l04|Missouri Uxdversity, 
105;st. Charles,t 
106Fayette, 

107tMichigan University, 
108 St. PhiUp's,) 
109llowa University. 



Greenville, Tenn. 

Wash'n co., do. 

Nashville, do. 
Near Nashville, do. 

Knoxville, do. 

Lebanon, do. 

Columbia, do. 

Lexington, Ey. 

Bardstown, do. 

Danville, do. 

Augusta, do. 

Georgetown, do. 

Harrodsburg, do. 

Athens, Ohio, 

Oxford. do. 

New Auiens, do. 

Hudson, do. 

Gambler, do. 

Granville, do. 

Marietta, do. 

Oberlin, do. 

Cincinnati, do. 

Cincinnati, do. 

Cincinnati, do. 

Delaware, do. 

Bloomington, Ind. 
South Hanover, do. 
Crawfordsville, do. 

Greencastle, do. 

Yincennes, do. 

Jacksonville, HI. 

Upper Alton, do. 

Lebanon, do. 

(Jalesbui^, do. 

St Louis, Mo. 

St. Louis, do. 
Cape Girardeau, do. 

Marion co., do. 

Columbia, do. 

St. Charles, do. 

Fayette, do. 

Aim Arbor, Mich. 

Near Detroit, do. 

Iowa city, Iowa, 



James Mclin, 

Philip lindsley, D.D. 
Tolbert Fanning, A.M. 
Joseph Estabrook, A.M. 
T. C. Anderson, A.M. 
William Mack, AM. 
H. B. Bascom, D.D. 
J. M. Lancaster, 
JohnC Young, D.D. 
J. Tomlinson, D.D. 
Howard Malcom, M.D. 
E. S. Burnet, 
T. McGiU, LL.D. 
E. D. Macmaster, D.D. 
William Burnett, 
George E. Pierce, D.D. 
D. B. Douglass, LL.D. 

Joel H. Unsley, D.D. 
Asa Mahan, AM. 

J. A. Elet, S.J. 
Thomas J. Biggt, A.M. 
Edward Thomp.son, M.D. 
Andrew Wylie, D.D. 
Scovel, D.D. 



Charles White, D D. 
Matt Simpson, D.D. 
J. P. BeUier, 
J. M. Sturtevant, 
Adiel Sherwood, D.D. 
Finly, D.D. 



Hiram H. Kellogg, 
J. Van de Velde, 

Hector Figari, CM. 
J. Worthington Smith, 
John H. Lathrop, A. M. 

Archibald Peterson, 
Daniel B. Whedon, AM. 
Mr. Bowens, 



1794 
1794 
1806 
1844 
1807 
1844 
1830 
1798 
1819 
1819 
1825 
1830 
1886 
1821 
1809 
1825 
1826 
1826 
1832 
1832 
1834 
1819 
1840 

1844 
1827 
1829 
1833 
1839 
1843 
1829 
1835 
1834 
1837 
1832 
1840 
1830 
1881 
1840 



1837 
1889 
1846 



Bemarks. 

The Collies marked (*) are under the direction of the Baptists ; thus (t), EpiseopaUana; 
thus(t), Methodists; thus ()), CcOholics. With respect to the Coll^^ which are «n- 
markedj the prevailing religious influence of those that are in the New England States is 
Congregationalism ; of most of the others, Presbyterianism. 

By students in the above table, except a few of the Colleges in the Southern and Western 
States, is meant undergradueUeSy or members of the four collegiate classes ; not including 
such as are pursuing a proflbssional education, or such as are members of a preparatory 
department Some of fhe Oolites above enumerated are not in full operation, and 
scarcely deserve a place in the table. 

The column of lAbrwies includes fhe number of volumes in fhe College Libranes and in 
fhe Students^ Libranes, 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



0OLLBOB8. 



178 



UNITED STATES. 


(Continiied.) 




66 
67 


Inst- 
mct- 
ers. 


No. of 
Alumni. 


No. of 
Minis- 
ters. 


stu- 
dents. 


Volumes in 
Libraries. 




2 
2 


110 
110 




41 
42 

80 


8,000 
1,000 
8,986 


Third Wednesday in September. 


68 


6 


880 




First Wednesday in October. 


69 


6 






120 


1,000 




70 


6 


112 




169 


&981 


Ffarst Wednesday in August. 


71 

72 


6 
3 


4 


60 
8 


80 
80 
112 


1,000 
1^ 

4,600 


Last Thursday in July. 


73 


7 


610 


Third Wednesday in July. 


74 


11 


160 




69 


7,000 ^ 


First August. 


76 


6 


143 




140 


4,000 


Thursday after 8d Wednesday in Sept 


76 


4 


60 




61 


2,600 


Thursday after 1st Wednesday in Aug. 


TJ 


6 


28 


14 


128 


3,100 


Last Thursday in June. 


78 


4 






66 


1,200 


Last Friday In September. 


79 


8 


149 


80 


66 


2,600 


First Wednesday in August. 


80 


6 


882 


102 


66 


4,862 


Second Thursday in August. 


81 


7 


«^ 




61 


1,900 




82 


10 


267 


37 


71 


6,247 


Second Thursday in August. 


83 


8 


116 


43 


67 


8,750 


Fhrst Wednesday in August. 


84 


6 






12 


8000 


Second Wednesday in August. 


86 


6 


81 


86 


60 


8,600 


Last Wednesday in July. 


86 


12 


208 


101 


106 


8,860 




87 
88 


8 
6 
6 






84 
60 
20 




Last Monday in June. 


89 




1 


800 




90 


6 






42 




Fhrst Thursday in July. 


91 


6 


281 




188 


1,766 




92 


8 






120 




Last Wednesday hi July . 


93 


6 


12 




78 


8,600 


Fourth Wednesday in July. 


94 


6 






112 






95 


7 






50 






96 


6 


68 


21 


46 


2,800 


Last Wednesday in June. 


97 


6 


8 


2 


43 


1,000 


Fourth Thursday in July. 


96 


4 






47 




Second Wednesday in October. 


99 


4 






24 




Third Wednesday in September. 


100 


18 


10 




146 


8,000 


Third Tuesday in August. 


101 


6 


8 


8 


19 


6,400 


Last Thursday in July. 


102 


6 






' 


2,5C0 


Last Thursday in August. 


103 


6 


13 




46 




Last Thursday hi September. 
Last Thursday in July. 


104 


12 






60 




105 


6 






85 




Last week in August. 


106 


? 






75 






107 






72 


4,000 


Second week in August. 


108 
109 


4 




^ 


30 


8,000 


Fust Monday in October. 





Annual Colleob Expenses. 




Name. 


Instrue- 
tion,- 


Room-rent 
and other 
Coll. Exps. 


Total 
CoUege 
charges. 


Board. 


Wood, 

Lights, and 

Washing. 


Bowdoin, 

Harvard, 

Williams, 

Amherst, 

Brown, 

Yale, 

Wesleyan, 

Hamflton, 

New Jersey, 

Dickinson, 

University Virginia, 

N. Carolina Univ'ty, 

Transylvania, 

Western Reserve, 


«24.0tf" 
27.00 
76.00 

^SS 

40.00 
33.00 
86.00 
26.00 
60.00 
83.00 
76.00 
60.00 
40.00 
80 00 


$22.00 
13.24 
16.00 
9.00 
16.00 
28.00 
21.00 
11.26 
14.00 
28.14 
14.00 
28.00 
ILOO 
12 00 
11.00 


$46.00 
40.24 
90.00 
89.00 
48.00 
63.00 
54.00 
47.26 
40.00 
78.00 
47.00 
98.00 
61.00 
62.00 
4100 


39 weeks, $68.60 

88 do. 57.00 

40 do.70to90.00 

89 do. 66.00 
40 do. 60.00 
89 do. 60.00 
40 do.60to90.00 
89 do. 68.60 
38or39 do. 68.00 
40 do. 80.00 

43 do. 76.26 

44 do. 110.00 
40 do. 90.00 
40 do. 100.00 
42 do. 60.00 


$35.00 
9.00 

17.00 

20.00 
20.00 

28.00 
22.75 
20.00 
20.00 
26.00 
12.00 



15* 



Digitized 



by Google 



174 



UiriTBD BXATBf . 

Xym. THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. 



[1848. 



Bangor TheoL Bemiikaiy, 
Theological Scminuy, 
Oilmanton TheoL Seminarj, 
Theological Bemiikaiy, 
DiTinitj School, Hair. UoIt. 
Theolo^cal Tnetitnttnn, 
TheoL Dep. Tale College, 
TheoL Inst, of Connectleat, 
TheoL Inst. Epico. Chnioh, 
Union TheoL Seminary, 
TheoL Sem. of Anbuni, 
Hamilton lit. and Th. Inst. 
Hartwick Seminary, 
TheoL Sem. Am, Bet Oh. 
Th. Sem. Dateh Bet Ch. 
TheoL Sem. Pieibyt. Ch. 
Sem. Lntheian Chnrch, 
German Reformed, 
Weetem Theol. Seminaiji 
Theological Sdiool, 
Theological Seminary. 
Epis. Theol. School of Ya. 
Union Theol. Seminary, 
Virginia Baptist Seminary, 
Southern TheoL Seminary, 
Theol<^;ical Seminary. 
Furman The<d. Seminary, 
Southwest TheoL Seminary, 
Lone Seminary, 
Theol. Dep. Ken. CoUen, 
Theol Dep. Wes. Bes. Coll. 
OranTille TheoL Dep., 
Oberlin Theol. Dep.. 
Indiana TheoL. Seminary, 
Alton Theol. Seminary, 



Plaoe. 



u 



Baogor, Me 

Concord, N. H. 
Gflmanton, N. H.' 
AndoTer, Mass. 
Cambridge, do. 
Newton, do. 

Mew Haven, Ct. 
But WhulMV, do. 
New York, N. Y. 
New York, 
Auburn, 
HamUton, 
Hartwiok, 
Newbnrgh. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



N Brun8wick,N J. 
Princeton, do. 
Oettysbuigh, Pa. 
York, do. 

Allei^iany T. do. 
Canonsburg, do. 
Pittsburg, do. 
Falrikx CO., Ta. 
Prince Ed. co., do. 
Biehmond, do. 
Columbia, S. C. 
Lexington, do. 
Fairfield DIs, do. 
MaryviUe, Ttonn. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Gambler, do. 
Hudson, do. 
GranTille, do. 
Oberiin, do. 

S. HanoTer, Ind. 
Upper Alton, HI. 



Cong. 

Meth. 

Cong. 

Cong 

Cong. Unit. 

Bapdst, 

Cong. 

Cong. 

Prot. Episcopal, 

Presbyterian, i 

Presbyterian, 

Baptist, I 

Lutheran, 

Ass. Bef. Oh. 

Dutch KeC 

Presbyterian, 

Erang. L. 

G. Bef. Ch. 

Presbyterian, 

Asso. Ch. 

Asso. Bef. 

Prot Episcopal, 

Presbyterian, 

Baptist, 

Presbyterian, 

Lutheran, 

Baptist, 

Presbyterian, 

Presbyterian, 

Prot. Episoopsl, 

Presbyterian, 

Baptist, 

Presbyterian, 

Presbyterian, 

Baptist, 



1816 8 



1886 

18 

1816 

1825 

1822 

1834 

1817 

18S6 

1821 

118l0 

1816 

1836 

1812 
1826 
1826 
ISS 

1828 
1822 
1824 
1832 
1881 
1886 

1821 
1882 
1828 



1884 
1885 



62 
966 
86213 
83,137 



7,000 

4,300 
17,600 
1,800 
4,000 



4,000 
3i8 9,630 
126,12,000 
6,000 
2,250 
1,000 
4,000 



124 



5 
11 
361179 



1461758 
26,130 
20! 

64182 
30 47 
19 
88229 
20176 
67, 
16 82 
10 20 
30 30 
24 90 
64267 

1* 
8' 

25 

101 



7,000 
7,000 

6,000 
1,600 

6,000 
4,000 
1,000 
4,000 
1,800 
1,000 
6,000 
10,600 



600 



XIX. LAW SCHOOLS. 



Place. 


Name. 


Proftflsors. 


Stadents. 


Cambridge, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Princeton, N. J., 
Carlisle, Pa., 
Williamsburg, Ta., 
CharlottesviUe, Va., 
Chapel Hill, N. C, 
Tuscaloosa, Ala., 

OncfamiS, OhS), 
Bloomington, Ind., 


Hamurd Unlrersity, 
Yale College, 

Dickhison CoUege, 
William and Mary College, 
University of Virghiia, 
North Carolina University, 
Alabama University, 
Transylvania University, 
Cincinnati College, 
Indiana State University, 


2 

8 

1 


102* 
62 

6 
82 
T2 

75 
25 
15 



* Number of 



fh>m the establishment of the school to 1847, 1,800. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



MEDICAL BGHOOL8, ETC 

XX. MEDICAL SCHOOLS. 



17^ 



Name. 


Place. 


Foun- 
ded. 


Prof. 


Stu. 


Grad- 
uates. 


Lects. commence. 


Maine Medical School, 


Brunswick, 


1820 


4 


81 


681 


February 16th. 


N. H. Medical School, 


Hanoyer, 


1797 


6 


60 


735 


1st or 2d Th. Aug. 


Castleton Med. Goll^e, 


Castleton, 
Woodstock, 


1818 


7 


104 


556 


4th Thurs. in Aug. 


Vt. Medical CoUege, 


1836 


7 


96 


382 


1st Th. in March. 


Med. School Har Univ., 


Cambridge, 


1782 


6 


164 


547 


Ist Wed. in Nov. 


Berkshire Med. School, 


Pittsfield, 


1823 


6 


108 


473 


1st Th. in Sept. 


Med. Instit. Yale CoUege, 


New Haven, 


1810 


6 


62 


830 


6 w. aft 3d Th. Aug. 


Coll. PhyB. & Sur. N. Y., 


New York, 


1807 


6 


219 


862 


Ist Mon. in Nov. 


Med. Insti. Geneva Coll., 
Med. Faculty Unir. N. Y., 


Geneya, 


1836 


6 


168 


98 


1st Tues. in Oct. 


New York, 


1837 


6 


410 


697 


Last Mon. in Oct. 


Albany Medical CoUege, 


PhUadeiphia, 


1839 


8 


114 


58 Ist Tues. in Oct. ! 


Med. Dep. Uniy. Penn., 


1766 


8 


411 


4,774 


Ist Men. in Nov. 


Jeflferson Med. CoUege, 
Med. Dep. Penn CoU., 


Do.^^ 


1824 


8 


498 


1,232 


Ist Mon. in Nov. 


Do. 


1839 


8 


' 60 




IstMon. inNov. 


FrankUn Medical CoU., 


Do. 


1846 


8 






2d Mon. in Oct. 


Med. School Uniy. Md., 


Baltimoie, 


1807 


6 


100 


909 


October Slst. 


Washington Med. CoU., 
Med. School Columb. CoU., 


Do. 


1827 


6 


26 




Ist Mon. in Nov. 


Washington, 


1826 


6 


40 


81 


1st Mon. in Nov. 


Med- School Uniy. Va.. 


CharlottesyUle, 


1826 


8 


46 




Ist Mon. in Oct. 


Richmond Med. College, 


Richmond, 


1838 


6 


75 


14 


Ist Mon. in Nov. 


Winchester Medical CoU. 


Winchester, 




6 






Ist Mon. in Oct. 


Med. CoU. State of S. C, 


Charleston, 


1883 


8 


168 




2d Mon. in Nov. 


Med. CoUege of Georgia, 


Augusta, 


1830 


7 


115 


124 


2d Mon. in Nov. 




New Orleans, 


1836 


7 


30 




3d Mon. in Nov. 


Memphis Med. CoUege, 


Memphis, Ten. 




7 








Med Dep Transyl. Uniy., 


Lexington, 


1818 


7 


214 


1,351 


Ist Mon. in Nov. 


LouisviUe Med. Insdt., 
West'n Reserye Med. CoU., 


LouisyUle, 


1837 


6 


242 


53 


1st Mon. in Nov. 


Cleveland, O., 
Cincinnati, 


1844 


8 


216 


96 


Ist Wed. in Nov. 


Medical CoUege of Ohio, 


1819 


8 


130 


831 


IstMon. inNov. 


Rush Medical CoUege, 
Med Dep. of Kemp. CoU., 


Chicago, lU.. 
St. Louis, Mo., 


1842 


6 


70 


16,1st Mon. in Nov. 


1841 


9 


76 


19!Laflt week in Oct. 


Med. ColL St. Louis Univ., 


Do. 


1836 


8 


60 


14 Ist Mon. in Nov. 


Waioughby Med. CoUege, 


WlUoughby, 


1884 


6 


126 


57iliast Mon. in Oct 


Med. CoU. Missouri Uniy., 


Columbia, 


1840 


7 


92 


list Mon. in Nov. 



XXI. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



James E. Polk, 
George M. Dallas, 
James Buchanan, 
Robert J. Walker, 
WiUiam L. Marcy, 
John Y. Mason, 



COSPOSATION. 



Cave Johnson, 
Nathan CUffoid, 
Roger B. Taney, 
Edmund Burke, 
WUliamW. Seaton. 



George M. Dallas, V. P., 
Roger B. Taney, C. J., 
W. W. Seaton, Mayor of W^ 
Lewis Cass, U. S., 
Sidney Breese, U. S., 
James A. Pearce, U. S., 
Robert D. Owen, U. S. R., - 
Henry W. HUliard, U. S. R., 



BOAKB OF BBOKm. 



WUUam J. Hough, U. S. B. , 
Bufus Choate, Mass , 
Bichard Rush, Pa., 
Gideon Hawley, N. Y., 
WUUam C. Preston, S. C, 
A. Dallas Bache, Nat. Ins , 
Joseph G. Totten, Nat. Ins. 



Ofvioibs. 
GxoEOE M. Dallas, Chaneeilor, 
EteeuHve ComndtUe. Building Committee, 

W. W. Seaton, Robert Dale Owen, 

Joseph G. Totten, Joseph G. Totten, 

Bobert Dale Owen. W. W. Seaton. 

Joseph Henry, Secretary. 
Charles C. Jewett, Assistant Seentary, 
James Benwick, Jr., ArchiteO, 
Bobert MUls, AsHstcmt Arckittet and Snptrintendeta, 



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176 



UVmD WfTATES, 



[1848. 



XXn. BELIQIOUS DBNOMINATIONS. 

According to rehtrm made in 1844-7, and 6y egUmaie, 



Namat. 



CathoUct, 

ProCettont BplfloopftUani, 
Presbyterkni, Old SohooL 
PrMbjtorians. New School, 
dunberlAnd PresbTteriam, 
Other claases of PretbyterSaiif, 
Dutch Befonned, 
German Reformed, 
SraBgelical Luthflxana, 

M<mtTiuia2_ • 

Methodist Spiacopal, 

Methodiat Protestant Chnzeh, . 

Befoxmed Methodists, 

Wesleyan Methodists, 

German Methodists (United Brethien). 

AUbric^t Methodists (Srangel. Assoda^), 

Mennonttes, 

Orthodox Gongregationalists, . 

Unitarian Congr^ationalists, 

Unirersalists, 

Swedenborgians, 

Begolar Baptists, 

Six Principle Baptists, 

Serenth Day Baptists, 

Tree Will Baptirts, 

Chorch of God Baptists, 

Reformed Baptists (CampbeDites), . 

Christian Baptists (Unitarians), 



Churches. 



812 

1,282 

2,274 

1,4M 

670 

580 

270 

750 

1,282 



1,800 
600 
400 

1,727 
800 

1,194 
42 

7,888 

68 
1.165 

180 
1,800 

660 



MiniitflM. CoBUDTinicata. 



884 
1,878 
1,648 
1^ 

296 
271 
191 
601 

24 

5,042 

740 

75 
600 
500 
250 
250 
1,584 

700 

80 

4,651 

22 

68 

771 
90 

^•222 

782 



1,178,700 

72,099 

174,020 

120,645 

60,000 

45,600 

81,214 

75,000 

146,800 

6/)00 

1,112,766 

64,818 

8,000 

20,000 

15,000 

15,000 

68,000 

179A76 

80,000 

60,000 

6,000 

665,586 

8,400 

6,948 

68,000 

8,000 

160,000 

85,600 



yxiir. TaUt exhibiting the SeaU of Government, the Timee of theElection of 
StaU officers, and the Meeting of the Legitiatures, of the several States. 



Seats of 
Gorenunent. 



Times of Holding 



limes of the Meeting of 
the Legislatures. 



N. Hampshire, 

Yermont, 

Massachusetts, 

Rhode Island, 

Conneetient, 

New York, 

New Jersey, 

PennsylTUua, 

Delaware. 

Marylano, 

Yir^nia, 

N. Carolina, 

S. Carolina, 

Georgia, 

Florida, 

Alabama, 

Mississippi, 

Louisiana, 

Texas, 

Arkansas, 

Tennessee, 

Kentucky, > 

Ohio, 

Indiana, 

Illinois, 

Missouri, 

Michigan, 

Iowa, 



Augusta, 
Concord. 
Montpelier, 
Boston. 
(ProTidenoe, ) 

HarSrJ&N. Hav. 

Albany, 

Trenton, 

Harrisboig, 

Dorer, 

Annapolis, 

Richmond, 

Raleigh. 

Columua, 

MilledgeTille, 

Tallahassee, 

Montgomeiy, 

Jackson, 

New Orleans, 

Austin, 

Little Rook, 

NashTflle, 

Frankfort, 

Columbus, 

Indianapolis, 

Springfield. 

Jefferson City, 

Michir 

Iowa 



^ 



2d Monday in September, 
2d Tuesday in March, 
Ist Tuesday in September, 
2d Monday in November, 

1st Wednesday hi April' | 

1st Monday in April, 
Ist Monday in Noyember, 
Tues. af 1st Mon. in Not 
2d Tuesday in October, 
2d Tuesday in Noyember, 
1st Wednesday in Oct. 
4th Thursday in April, 
Commonly in August, 
2d Mondf^ in October, 
1st Monday in October, 
1st Monday in October, 
1st Monday in August, 
1^ Mon. and Tue. in Not. 
1st Monday in NoTember, 
Ist Monday in NoTember, 
Ist Monday in August, 
Ist Thursday in August, 
1st Monday in August, 
2d Tuesday in October, 
1st Monday in August, 
Ist Monday in August, 
1st Monday in August, 
Ist Tues. in NoTember, 
Ist Monday in August, 



2d Wednesday in May. 
1st Wednesday in June. 
2d Thursday in October. 
Ist Wednesday in January. 
Ist Tuesday in May. 
Last Monday in October. 
1st Wednesday in May. 
1st Tuesday in January. 
4th Tuesday in January. 
1st Tuesday in January. 
1st Tues. in Jan. trienniaUy. 
Last Monday in Dee., biemn. 
1st Monday in December. 
2d Monday in Not., binm. 
4th Monday in NoTember. 
Ist Monday in Not., bienti, 
Ist Monday in NoTember. 
Ist Monday in Deo., bienn. 
Ist Monday in Jan., bienn. 
8d Mondar in Jan., bienn. 
January, bienn. 
1st Monday in Not., bienn. 
Ist Monday in Oct., bienn. 
1st Monday in December. 
Ist Monday in December. 
1st Monday in December. 
1st Moncb^ in Dec., bienn. 
1st Monday in Not., bie$in. 
1st Monday in January. 
1st Monday In Dec , bienn. 



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1848.] 



OOYERKOSS, ETC. 



177 



XXIV. GOVERNORS OF THE SEVERAL STATES AND 
TERRITORIES, 

With their Salaries.^ Terms of Office^ and expiration of their respective Terms ; 
the Number of Senators and Representatives in the State LegiskUureSy with 
their respective Terms. 



States. 


• 
QoTcmon. 




I 


Term 




I 


1 


1 






i 


^ 


expires. 


1 


i 






1 


i 




1 


1 


1 


1 


Maine, 


John W. Dana, 


1,500 




May 1848 


31 


1 


151 


1 


N. Hamp'e, 


Jared W. Williams, 


1,000 




June 1848 


12 


1 


286 


1 


Vermont, 


Horace Eaton, 


750 




Oct. 1847 


30 


1 


230 


1 


Massach'tts, 


George N. Briggs, 


2,500 




Jan. 1848 


40 


1 


3.56 


1 


R. Island, 


Elisha Harris, 


400 




May 1848 


31 


1 


69 


1 


Connecti't, 


Clark Bissell, 


1,100 




May 1848 


21 


1 


215 


1 


New York, 


John Youna:, 


4,000 


2 


Jan. 1849 


32 


2 


128 


1 


New Jersey, Charles C. Stratton, 


2-000 


3 


Jan. 1848 


18 


3 


58 


1 


Pennsylv*a, 


Francis R. Shunk, 


3,000 


3 


Jan. 1848 


33 


3 


100 


1 


Delaware, 


William Tharp, 


1,3331 


3 


Jan. 1850 


9 


4 


21 


2 


Maryland, 


Thomas G. Pratt, 


4,200 


3 


Jan. 1848 


21 


6 


82 


2 


Vimnia, 
N. Carolina, 


William Smith, 


3,333i 


3 


Jan. 1849 


32 


4 


134 


1 


William A. Graham, 


2,000 


2 


Jan. 1849 


50 


2 


120 


2 


S. Carolina,' David Johnson, 


3,500 


2 


Dec 1848 


45 


4 


124 


2 


Georgia, ' 


George W. Crawford, 


3,500 


2 


Nov. 1847 


47 


1 


130 


1 


Florida, 


William D. Moseley, 


2,500 


4 


July 1849 


17 


2 


41 


1 


Alabama, 


Reuben Chapman, 


3,500 


2 


Dec. 1849 


33 


3 


100 


2 


Mississippi, 


Albert G. Brown, 


3,000 


2 


Jan. 1848 


32 


4 


92 


2 


Louisiana, 


Isaac Johnson, 


6,000 


4 


Jan. 1850 


32 


4 


98 


2 


Texas, 


J. P. Henderson, 


2,000 


2 


Dec. 1847 


21 


4 


66, 


2 


Arkansas, 


Thomas S. Drew, 


2,000 


4 


Nov. 1848 


25 


4 


75 


2 


Tennessee, 


NeU S. Brown, 


2,000 


2 


Oct. 1849 


25 


2 


75 


2 


Kentucky, William Owsley, 


2,500 


4 


Sept. 1848 


38 


4 


100 


1 


Ohio, 


William Bebb, 


1,500 


2 


Dec 1848 


36 


2 


72 


1 


Michigan, 


W. L. Greenley, Act. 


1,500 


2 


Jan. 1848 


22 


2 


66 


1 


Indiana, 


James Whitcomb, 


1,500 


3 


Dec 1849 


50 


3 


100 


1 


Illinois, 


Augustus C. French, 


1,000 


4 


Dec 1850 


40 


4 


91 


2 




John C. Edwards, 


1,500 


4 


Nov. 1848 


18 


4 


49 


2 


Iowa, 


Ansel Briggs, 


1,000 


4 


Dec 1850 


19 


4 


39 


2 


Wis.T-* 


Henry Dodge, 


2,500 


3 


Mar. 1849 


13 


2 


26 


1 



' In all the States, except Virginia and South Carolina, the Governor is 
TOted for by the people ; and if no one has a majority of all the votes, in 
the States in which such a majority is required, the Legislature elects to the 
office of Governor one of the candidates voted for by the people. 

The seat of government of Louisiana, after 1848, is to be at Baton 
Rouge. 

• Wisconsin is not yet a State, having icijected the constitution which the conventtoa 
hadpzepand. 



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178 



UKITBD STATES. 



L1S48. 



XXV. MEXICAN TAMFF. 



Tariff of Duties on Imports and Tonnage^ and Regulations' for collecting ike 
same in such of the Ports of Mexico as may be now or hereafter in our MUt- 
tary possession by conquest^ prepared by the Secretary of the Treasury, and 
accompanying his Report to the President of the United States, dated SOtk 
March, 1847. 

On all arttoles not here ennmeiuted, a duty of 80 percent, ad valorem is imposed ; wh«a 
the duty is stated as so much per cent, it is reckcmed as so much per cent, ad valorem. 



Alabaster and spar ornaments, forty per et. 

Ale, see Beer. 

Anchors, four cents per lb. 

Anchovies, twenty-fiye cents per lb. 

AnTils, four cents per lb. 

Apples, one dollar per barrel. 

Arms, and warlike instruments, contraband. 

Artificial flowers, forty per cent. 

Bacon and smoked hams, dz and one-quar- 
ter cents per lb. 

Bags of flax, hemp, or grass, not exceeding 
one yard square in siae, twelre and one- 
quarter cents each; if exceeding that 
oze, twelre and one-half cents per square 
yard of materiaL See Cotton. 

Baizes, seeWooL 

Bead bags, forty per cent. 

Beads, f^ty per cent. 

Beef, smoked and jeri^ed, one cent per lb. 

Beef, salted and pickled in barrels or half 
barrels, two cents per lb. 

Beer, ale, porter, and cider, in quart bottles, 
one dollar per doien, which includes the 
duty on bottles. In pint bottles, fifty 
cents per down, which includes the duty 
on bottles. In casks or any other des- 
cription of package, other than the abore- 
named, twenty-fire cents per gallon. In 
all cases of liquids, imported in cades or 
barrels, the duty shall be leried on the ca- 
pacity of the cask or barrel, without re- 
gard to any deficiency of its contents. 

Beeswax, twelre and a half cents per lb. 

Blank bo<^, twenty cents per lb. 

Blankets, see Wool. 

Boards, ten didlars per thousand foet. 

BockingB, see Wool. 

Bonnets, see Wearing i^parel. 

Books, printed, bound, half bound, or in 
sheets or pamphlets, fiity cents per lb. 

Boots, for men, women, or children, one 
dollar per pidr. 

Bottles, of black or green glass, not exceed- 
ing the capacity of one quart each, three 
dollars per gross ; if exceeding that ca- 
pacity, fire dollars per gross. 

Bowie knires, contraband of war. 

Boxes, fimcy, forty per cent 

Brads, four cents per lb. 

Braids, forty per cent 

Brandy, and other spirits, in demijohns, one 
dollar per gallon. The same rules to be 
applied to brandy and other spirits, idien 
imported in deinijohns, or in bottles of 
grrater capacity than two and one-half 
gallons to the doien, as are made for 



wines. Brandy in {rfpee, not exceeding 
<me hundred and twenty gallons each, six- 
ty doUars per pipe ; if bx half pipes, nob 
exceeding sixty gallons each, thirty dol- 
lars per half pipe ; in quarter casks, not 
exceeding thirty-two gallons each, sixteen 
dollars a quarter cask ; if in Indian bar- 
rels or octares, not exeeedis^ twenty gal- 
kms each, ten doUars per package. Bran- 
dy and other distilled spiritsTIn bottico, 
not exceeding two and <me-hau gallons to 
the doaen, three dollars per dosen, which 
includes me duty on bottles. 

Brass, manuflustores o^ see ManuflMtaieiu 

Brass, see Copper. 

Bread, diip, and biscuit, three cents per lb. 

Brimstone, contraband of war. 

Butter, six cents per lb. 

Cables and cordage, fire cents per lb. 

Cables, iron, four cents per lb. 

Camphor, forty per cent. 

Candles, wax and sperm, twelre and one- 
half cents per lb. Candles, tallow, six 
and one-half cents per lb. 

Cannon, contraband of war. 

Caps of fur, leather, cloth, or stzaw, Htbj 
cents each. 

Cards, playing, twenty-fire cents per pack. 

Carpets, not more than thirty-six inches la 
width, forty cents per running yard. 

Carriages, forty per cent. 

Cheese, fbur cents per lb. 

China ware, forty per cent. 

Cigaritos, or paper cigars, three d(^lars per 
thousand. 

Cinnamon, cassia, and dores, fifty oents 
per lb. 

Cider, see Beer. 

Coaches, forty per cent. 

Coal, anthracite, bituminous, and oharcoaly 
one dollar per ton. 

Cocoa, three cents per lb. 

Co£Fee, three cents per lb. 

Copper, in pigs or bars, <M copper, sheath- 
ing copper, brass in piga or Imts, old 
brass, zinc or spelter, in pigs, bars, or 
sheets, and on steel in bars not orer one 
inch square, intended only for mining 
purposes, two cents per lb. Copper man- 
ufactured, see Bfanu&ctoree. 

Cordials, in bottles not exceeding two and 
one-half gallons to the dozen, four dollan 
per dozen, which includes the duty on 
botUes. 

Cords, see Cotton. 

Cosmetios, all kinds, forty per vmL 



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1848.] 



XEXICAK T^BIIT. 



179 



Cotton trimming laces, cotton insertings and 
trimmings, tapes, cords, galloons, tassels, 
and all oUier mann&ctures of cotton or of 
cotton mixed with any oUier material, ex- 
cept wool, worsted, or silk, not otherwise 
specially mentioned and provided for, for- 
ty per cent. 

Cotton shawls or rebosas, thirty per cent 

Cotton handkerchief^, not oyer one yard 
square, six cents each; oyer that siae, 
one-fourth of one eent per running yard, 
each additional inch in width. 

Cotton yam and twist, eight cents per lb. 

Cotton thread and balls, twenty-fiye cents 
per lb. 

Cotton thread on spools, six cents per dozen 
spools. 

Cotton, or of cotton, manu&ctures of, mixed 
with any other material, except wool, 
worsted, or silk, in the piece (excepting 
shawls and handkerchiefls), not exceeding 
tliirty-six inches wide, fiye cents per run- 
ning yard ; and for every additional inch 
in width, one-fourth of one cent per run- 
ning yard additional duty. 

Cotton bagging, gunny bagging, and all 
other bagging and matting of all kinds, 
five cents per running yard. 

Cotton, raw, two cents per lb. 

Counterpanes, see wool. 

Currants, three cents peif lb. 

Cutlery, say pocket knives, sdssois, razors, 
and table cutlery, and on all manu&c- 
tures of iron and steel, except those pro- 
hibited and including iron and steel wire 
and cap and bonnet wire, forty per cent. 

Dates, three cents per lb. 

Demijohnft, three dollars per dogen. 

Dirks, contraband of war. 

Drawers, leiUlaer, fifty cents each. 

Earthen ware, forty per cent. 

Sngravings, forty per cent. 

Spaulets and wings, one dollar per pidr. 

ngs, three cents per lb. 

Fire-arms, contraband of war. 

fish, pickled or salted in barrels, one dol- 
lar per barrel: if in half barrels, sixty- 
two and a half cents ; if in quarter bar- 
rels or kegs, forty cents each. 

Fish, smoked or salted, dried codfish, and on 
beef and pork salted or pickled, in barrels 
or half barrels, two cents per lb. 

Flax, see Hemp. 

Flour, see Wheat. 

Furniture (household), for^ per cent. 

Galloons, see Cotton. 

Ctoiman silver, manufactures of, see Manu- 
Ikctures. 

Gin, in square bottles (in oases), of not ex- 
ceeding three gallons to the dozen, four 
dollars per dozen, which includes the du- 
ty on bottles. 

Ginger, fifty cents per lb. 

Glass, window, ten cents per lb. 

Glasses (k>oking), looking glass plates, 
on glassware of all kinds, except those 
spedally mentioned otherwise, and on 
<^ina ware, stone ware, and earthen ware, 
forty per cent. 

Gloves, thirty per cent. 

Goftte' hair or mohair, manufitctores of, the 



piece, not exceeding thirty-six inches in 
width, fifteen cents per running yard ; and 
for every additional inch in width, one- 
half cent per running yard additional 
duty. 

Grain of all kinds, except rice and Indian 
com, forty cents per bushel. 

Gun cotton, contraband of war. 

Gunny bagging, see Bags and Cotton. 

Gunpowder, contraband of war. 

Handkercliiefii, see Cotton and Linen. 

Harness, forty i>er cent. 

Hats of straw, Air, or silk, one dollar each. 

Hemp, flax, Sisal, or India grass, India, 
Sunn, one cent per lb. 

Hemp, see Manu&ctures. 

Hosiery, say caps, gloves, cu£E3, mits, socks, 
stockings, shirts, and drawers of whatevw 
materiiS composed, except silk, thirty per 
cent. 

Indian com, ten cente per bushel. 

Indian meal, one-half cent per lb. 

Iron, pig, one-half cent per lb. 

Iron, bar, rolted or hammered, old or scrap 
iron, one and one-half cents per lb. 

Iron, sheet, rod, hoop, and all other descrip- 
tions of rolled and hammered, four cents 
per lb. 

Iron castings of all descriptions, not other- 
wise enumerated, three cents per lb. , 

Jute, one cent per lb. 

Knives, forty per cent. 

Laces, see Cotton. 

Lances, contraband. 

Lard, rour cents per lb. 

Lead, contraband of war. 

linen thread, twenty-five cents per lb. 

linen handkerchiefs, not over one yard 
square, twelve and one-half cents each ; 
if over Uiat size, one-half cent i)er run- 
ning yard, for each additional inch in 
width. 

Lumber, hewn timber, or scantling, ten dol- 
lars per thousand feet. . 

Laths, fifty cents per thousand. 

Maocaroni, four cente per lb. 

Machinery, and machines to be used in the 
gold and silver mines, firee. 

Manilla, one cent per lb. 

Manu&ctures of hemp, grass, and flax, in 
the piece, not otherwise specially enumer- 
ated and provided for, and not exceeding 
thirty-^ inchte wide, ^ cente per run- 
ning yard ; and for every additional inch 
in width, one-fourth of one cent perrunr 
ning yard additional duty. 

Manu&ctures of copper, brass, tin, zinc, or 
spelter, pewter, and German silver, ex- 
cept such as are proliibited, thirty per ct. 

Millinery, see wearmg apparel and sUk. 

Molasses, five cente per gallon. 

Musical instrumento, forty per cent. 

Muskete. contraband of war. 

Nails, four cente per lb. 

Nuto and almonds, four cente per lb. 

Oate, see Grain. 

Oatmeal, one cent per lb. 

Oil cloth and oil floor cloth, not exceeding 
seventy-two inches in width, flifly centi 
per running yard. 

Oils, whale, sperm, linseed, and olive, and 



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180 



imiTED STATES. 



11848. 



all other oils, except perAuneir, five oente 
per lb. 
Opium, forty per cent. 
Paintings, forty per cent. 
Paints of aU descriptions and painters' col- 
ors, dry or ground in oil (except water 
colors in boxes), and on ramish, four 
cents per lb. 
Paper, writing, of all kinds, twelve and one- 
half cents per lb. 
Paper, sand, seven cents per lb. 
Paper, wrapping, brcwn or straw, three 

cents per lb. 
Paper hangings, forty per cent. 
Parasols, see Umbrellas. 
Pepper and phnento, eight cents per lb 
Perfumed soap, forty per cent. 
Perfumery, forty per cent. 
Pewter, manufactures of, see Manufkctnres. 
Pitch, one doUar and fifty cents per barrel. 
Plank, ten dollars per thousand feet. 
Pocket books, forty per cent. 
Pork, salted or pickled, in barrels or half 

barrels, two cents per lb. 
Porter, see Beer. 

Potatoes, twenty cents per bushel. 
Preserved meats or fish, in cans or fli-Mna 
twelve and one-half cents per pound. * 
Pranes, three cents per lb. 
Purses, forty per cent. 
Quicksilver, free. 
Baisins, three cents per lb. 
Bazors, forty per cent. 
Bice, two cents per lb. 
Bifles, contraband of war. 
Bhiglets, forty per cent. 
Bosaries, forty per cent. 
Boshi, one dollar and fifty cents per barrel. 
Bye, see Grain. . 
Bye meal, one cent per lb. 
Saddlery, forty per cent. 
Saltpetre, contraband of war. 
Salt, fifteen cents per bushel. 
Sardines and anchovies, twenty-five cents 

per lb. 
Sausages, ten cents per lb. 
Scissors, forty per cent. 
Segars, five dollars per thousand. 
Shawls of wool or worsted, thirty per cent 
Shingles, two dollars per thousand. 
Shirts, see Wearing apparel. 
Shirts, leathern, fifty cents each. 
Shoes, of whatever material or i^ze. thirtv 
cents per pair. ' ^ 

Side-arms, contraband. 
Silk, manufactures of, mixed with any other 
material, in the piece or otherwise, inclu- 
ding every article of which silk is a com- 
ponent material, not otherwise specially 
enumerated ; also, including sewing silk. 
Bilk hosiery, and silk millinery, except 
bonnets and caps, three dollars per lb 
Snuff, fifty cents per lb. 
Soap, except perfumed, five cents per lb, 
Spears, contraband. 
Spikes, four cents per lb. ' 

Spirits, not otherwise mentioned, aix and 

one-quarter cents per lb. 
Sprigs, four cents per lb. 
Steel, In bars of less than one' inch souare 
intended for minhig purposes, two cento 



per lb. All other desoiiptionB oontrabaad 
of war. 
Sugar, brown, three cents per lb. 
Sugar candy, ten cents per lb. 
Sugar, syrup of, two cents per lb. 
Sugar, other descriptions oil five' cents 

per lb. 
Sulphur, contraband of war. 
Sun shades, see Umbrellas. 
Swords, contraband of war. 
Tacks, four cents per lb. 
Tapers, fifteen cents per lb. 
Tar, one dollar and fifty cents per barrel. 
Tapes, see Cotton. 
TaAsels, see Cotton. 
Teas, forty cents per lb. 
Thread, see Cotton and Linen. 
Wu, in sheets, pigs or bars, four cts. per lb. 
Tin, manufactured, see Manufactures. 
Tobacco, stem or leaf, four cents per lb. 
Tobacco, chewing and smoking, ten cente 

per lb. 
Tongues, ten cents per lb. 
Tortoise shell, one dollar per lb. 
Toys, forty per cent. 
Trimmings, see Cotton. 
Turpentine, one dollar and fifty cento ner 
barrel. *^ 

Turpentine, sphrite of, twenty-five cento per 
gallon. 

Twine and pack thread, four cento per lb. 

Umbrellas, parasols, and sun' shades, OMn- 
posedof silk, one dollar each: If of anv 
other material, fifty cento each. 

Varnish, four cento per lb. 

Vermicelli, four cento per lb. 

^negar, fifteen cento per gallon. 

Watches, gold, ten dollars each. 

Watches, silver, three dollars each. 

Wearhig apparel, comprising all articles of 
clothing worn on the person, except those 
specially enumerated and provided for, 
on millinery articles, say cape, collars' 
cuffs, braids, and other omamente for the 
hair, curls, ringleto, and all shnilar arti- 
cles (except of silk), forty per cent. Bon- 
nets for women and children, of all des- 
criptions, except silk, and on silk caps for 
women and children, one dollar each. 
Silk bonneto for women and children, two 
dollars each. Silk hosiery, three dollarg 
per lb. 

Wheat, see Grain. 

Wheat flour, in barrels or half barrels, two 
dollars per barrel of one hundred and 
ninety-six pounds. If flour be hnported 
in other description of package than in 
barrels and half barrels, or if imported in 

bags or sacks, the duty shall be one cent 
per lb. 

Whisky, three cento per lb. 

Wines of every description, in casks or bot- 
wes, twenty-five cento per gaUon and 
^enty-five per cent ad valorem: iVoin- 
ded always, That wine in quart botUes, or 
those of smaller capacity, shaU always be 
considered a^ coniainhig two and one- 
half gallons to the dozen bottles, and shall 
Eiy duty accordingly ; if in bottles of 
rger capacity, or in demijohns, the duty 
Bhallbe ^tlmated on the quantity con- 



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1848;] LAW OT IMFBIBONMSNT 70B DlffiT. 181 



tained dMrefai, ad tihe rates sbovo named ; 
the bottles containing the wine, in all 
cases, paying an additional duty ; if quarts, 
or smaUeTj of three dollars per gross ; if 
of larger size, five dollars per gross ; and 
demijohns, three dollars per dozen. 

Wings, see Epaulets. 

Wire, see Cutlery. 

Wool or worsted, manuftetareB ci, or of 
wool and worsted combined in the piece, 
not otherwise specially enumerated and 
provided for, and not exceeding thirty- 
siz inches in width, fifty cents per run- 



ning yard ; and tar erery additf<mal inch 
in width, one and one-half cents per run- 
ning yard additional duty. Blankets and 
counterpanes of wool or of wool and cotton 
mixed, not exceeding six feet square, one 
dollar each. If over six feet square, and 
not exceeding ten feet square, two d<klai8 
each. If exceeding ten feet, prohibited, to 
prevent firauds. Flannels, baiees, and 
bockings, not exceeding sixty inches in 
width, twenty cents per running yard. 

Zinc, see Copper. 

Zinc, manufactures of, see Bf{uiu£sM;tures. 



All articles the sole property of the United States army or navy, in American vessels. 
owned, chartered, or firei^ted by tlie Govemmeut of the United States ; and all officers' 
individual stores, introduced for their own actual use, and equipments required by law, 
are free flrom duties ; and all goods imported by sutlers may have the duties refunded, 
on proof tliat the same have been sold to be used by any officer or soldier. The tonnage 
duty is one dollar per ton (in lieu of all other port charges), registry measurement. Ves- 
0^8 registered and owned in the United States will alone be permitted to trade coast- 
wise. Goods not landed within ten days shall be landed and warehoused. If the duties 
are not TptAd within thirty days IVom arrival, the goods shall be sold for payment thereof. 
Confiscated goods will be sold within ten days from the sdzure. The Commandant of the 
port, or his substitute, will receive the duties, and report monthly to the Secretary of 
War or of the Navy. He shall occupy public buildings, when necessary for revenue 
purposes, without charge to the United States. Clearances, and manifests of cargo, are 
to be obtained for outward-bound vessels. All moneys collected under these instruc- 
tions are to be paid as a military contribution, subject to the orders of the War or Navy 
Department. 



XXVL LAWS OF THE SEVEEAL STATES * 

Concerning Imprisonment for Debt. 

Alabama. — Arrest for debt exists ; but every person confined on mesne 
or final process, for debt, may go before the court issuing the execu- 
tion or process, or any one judge thereof, after ten days' notice to cred- 
itors ; or, if neither they nor their agents live in the county, without no- 
tice J and, after giving a list of his creditors and surrendering his property 
as an insolvent, shall be liberated. Debtors may also be liberated on giv- 
ing bonds to file a list, &c., as above. No person neglecting this provision 
for sixty days shall have the benefit of prison limits, which are the limits of 
the county. No female is imprisonable for debt. 

Arkansas. — The debtor may be arrested on the creditor's affidavit, " that 
he has reason to believe that the defendant is secreting, or putting his prop- 
erty out of his hands, in order to cheat and defraud his just creditors ; or 
that he is about to leave the country ; or that the plaintiff will be in danger 
of losing his just debt, unless the body of the defendant is taken." The 
debtor may present a petition, &c., in insolvency, and be liberated, on his 
discharge thereon j or, on giving bond to surrender himself, if he be not 
■ discharged. Twenty days' notice shall be ^iven to the creditors of the 
hearing on the petition. 

Connecticut. — Arrest of the defendantis allowed in actions alleging ftaud, 
fraudulent obtaining of credit, fraudulent removing,..concealing, conveying, 

* The following abstract is not supposed to be perfect, the latest statutes of some statea 
not being at liand ; but it is more complete thfm any ^th which the compiler is acquainted. 
16 



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183 imiTEI> STATES. [1848. 

or withholding of i»operty, &c.; but not "upon proeess mesne or final, 
founded npon contract merely.** No female is imprisonable for debt incorred 
since A.D. 1826. Liberties of the jail (which are assigned by the conntj 
courts) are allowed to all prisoners in ciyil action, on their giving bond. 
By act June 24, 1847, homesteads not exceeding in value ^$300, with the 
necessary repairs and additions, though above that sum, are a part of the 
property exempted from execution. 

Ddaware, — The debtor, if a free white dtizen, can be arrested only cm 
the creditor's affidavit, that the debt amounts to $50 (or, if before a justice 
of the peace, $5) ; that he has secreted, conveyed away, disposed <^, as- 
signed, &c, property above $50 in value, or, if before a justice, $25, with 
intent to defraud, and specifying the fraud. Persons imprisoned on mesne 
or final process, if resident for the last year in the stcOe, may petition in in- 
solvency, presenting a schedule and inventory, and offering to assign for 
the benefit of their creditors. Summons to show cause, issue therenpoa 
to the creditors ; and any or all of them claiming $50 may allege fraud, 
specifying the particulars, and demand a trial by jury. If this be not done, 
and the examining court or magistrate be satisfied, the debtor shall be dis- 
charged, unless he be a colored man ; in which case he may, if the creditor 
insist, and the court deem it equitable, be remanded, unless he consent to 
serve the creditor for wages to be fixed by the court 

Florida, — Imprisonment for debt does not exist 

Georgia. — Execution may issue against the body or the estate of the 
debtor, as the plaintiff elects. Prisoners on execution, or mesne process* 
may petition the court in insolvency. Thirty days' notice of the hearing^ 
thereon shall be given to creditors, or two months' notice, by public 
advertisement, if they be out of the state. Fraud may be suggested, and 
a jury shall try the issue. If not guilty, the debtor shall deliver his sched- 
ule, &c., and be discharged. Prison bounds (ten acres) may be refused to 
prisoners on civil process, after six months, at the instance of the creditor. 
Debtors taken on execution may tender a bond conditioned to apply to the 
court for a discharge in insolvency. Ten days' notice of intention to take 
the oath must be given to creditors; and an issue of fraud maybe made 
up at their request, and tried by a jury. 

Illinois. — Any debtor arrested on mesne or final process may be taken 
forthioith before the judge of probate, and render a sworn inventory and 
schedule ; and, if they be not disproved, and if the debtor assign his prop- 
erty, he shall be discharged. If he be charged with fraud, this issue shall 
be tried by a jury of seven householders ; and, if found guilty, he shall 
be imprisoned, until he surrender his effects. If charged with a refusal to . 
surrender, this fact shall be tried in the same manner. 

Indira. — No female, or revolutionary soldier, can be imprisoned for debt. 
Any debtor may be arrested on execution, if the creditor file an affidavit 
charging him with fraudulently concealing, conveying, transferring, or re- 
pipving his property. A scire facias then issues why the body should not 



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1848.] LAW OV IBCE^BISONMBNT FOR DEBT. 183 

be arrested ; and, after ten days' notice to the debtor, or two returns of non 
est inventus^ the conrt may hear the affidavit. A jury may be summoned at 
the desire of either party, and, if they find against the debtor, he shafl 
be imprisoned until he surrender his property. If the creditor allege 
in his affidavit, that the debtor was not held to special bail, or has been sur- 
rendered, or that he has reason to fear that he will escape before the trial of 
the affidavit, the debtor maybe held to bail to appear thereat. The prison 
limits are the bounds of the connty. 

Iowa, — The constitution abolishes imprisonment for debt on mesne or 
final process, except in cases of fraud. 

Kentucky. — Any debtor may be arrested, on mesne process, upon the 
creditor's affidavit diarging that he is about to remove his person or prop- 
erty out of the state. He may give notice and assign his property as an 
insolvent, or may take the poor debtor's oath and be discharged. No impris- 
onment on execution is allowed. Prison limits &e the boundaries of the state. 

Louisiana. — By act March 28, 1840, no execution can issue against the 
body. A debtor may be arrested on the creditor's affidavit, that the debtor 
i«, in his belief, about to depart permanently from the state, without leaving 
in it sufficient property to satisfy the demand, and that this affidavit is not 
for the purpose of vexing him. No debtor shall be kept in prison more 
than three months, provided that he surrender his property in insolvency, if 
a resident of Louisiana. Any debtor against whom execution has issued 
and been returned " no property found," may be imprisoned on petition of 
two or more creditors, whose separate claims exceed $300, setting forth on 
oath that he withholds property ; provided the debtor have ten days' notice of 
tiie hearing on the petition, and the court be satisfied of its truth, and order 
a surrender of his property, with which he refuses to comply. No non-res- 
ident debtor can be arrested at the suit of a non-resident creditor, unless he 
be shown to have absconded. Any debtor who conceals, removes, assigns, 
or disposes of his property, or prefers any creditors, shall be deemed primd 
Jade guilty of fraud, and shall be arrested at the creditor's application, un- 
til he give bond to appear to answer the final judgment of the court. The 
bond given under this last provision shall be conditioned to pay the debt, in 
case the debtor be found guilty and have left the state. The condition of 
Ae bond given on arrest under the ordinary affidavit is broken, if the debtor 
leave the state within three months. * 

Maine. — Any debtor may be arrested on mesne processf on the creditor's 
affidavit, that the debt amounts to $10, that the debtor is about to leave the 
state, with ^ means exceeding the amount reqip-ed for his own immediate 
support" The debtor, on giving one day's noti^ to the creditor for every 
twenty miles' travel, maybe examined before two justices of the peace, and, 
, . — ♦ 

•▲bill paoed th« Honoe of Bepieieiitativefl of Louisiana at the last mmion, which had 
preTionsly passed ttie Senate, providing thst no arrest shall hereafter be made in that. 
■tate at the suit of a resident or non-resident creditor, except in cases where it shall be 
made to appear, by the oath of the ox«ditor, that the debtor has absconded ftom his 
' — '^ — i,—irat, iuelHgencer, 



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184 UKITBD 8IATB8. [1848. 

if they be satisfied, lie may take the poor debtor's oath, and be discharged; 
or he may give a bond to notify the creditor within fifteen days after judg- 
ment (if by a justice of the peace), or after the end of the term of the court, 
and then to be examined. If the creditor swear to his belief that the debtor 
swore or was silent falsely at his examination, he shall be held to bail, and, if 
found guilty, execution shall issue for twice the debt and costs. Any debtor 
may be arrested on execution for a debt of $100, and may be discharged on 
giving bond to take the poor debtor's oath, or to surrender bis person, 
within six months, giving the creditor fifteen days* notice thereof. 

Maryland. — No female is imprisonable, excq)t on a writ of ne exeaJL 
Other debtors may be imprisoned, on mesne process or on execution, and 
may file a petition, &c. in insolvency. Fraud may be alleged, and the creditor 
has his election to try the issue by a jury. If firaud be not established, and 
the property be surrendered, the debtor is dischaiged ; or he may be dis- 
charged on giving bond to appear and be examined. Three months' no- 
tice of the examination must be given to creditors. 

Massachusetts, — No person may be imprisoned, on mesne or final pro- 
cess, for a debt less than $5, nor less than $10, if contracted since July 1, 
1831. No female can be imprisoned for a debt contracted isince July 1, 
1831, except as trustee for an amount above $10. Arrest on mesne process 
is allowed only on the creditor's afi&davit, that he believes $10 to be due on 
the demand, and that the debtor is about to leave the state, and will not bo 
in it at the issuing of the first execution. The debtor may obtain the prison 
limits (which are iJie limits of the county, except as to debts contracted be- 
fore April 2d, 1834, or between April 2d, 1834, and May 1, 1836, in which lat- 
ter case they are the town boundaries), on giving bond to pay the debt, to 
take the poor debtor's oath, or to go back to jaO, within ninety days. After 
twenty-four hours' notice to the creditor, and one day additional for every 
twenty-four miles' travel, he may be examined as to taking the poor debtor's 
oath. Other evidence may be adduced by either party ; and the creditor 
may exhibit written chaiges of fraud, which being sworn to, either party 
may elect a trial by jury. If the magistrates be satisfied, the oath is admin- 
istered, and the debtor discharged. 

Mchi(fan. — No female can be impriscmed, except as garnishee or trustee. 
No person can be arrested except on affidavit of creditor, or other evidence, 
that he withholds, is about to remove, has assigned, or is about to assign, his 
property; or thaj; he fraudulently contracted the debt The debtor may 
deny the charges, and they shall be ftiUy inquired into ; and if proved, be , 
shall be committed, unless be pay the d^t, or give security to pay it^ if les9 
than $25, within three monms ; if between $25 and $50, within six months ^ 
if between $50 and $75, ^mthin nine months ; if between $75 and $100, 
within4welve months j and if above $100, within fifteen months. Or he 
may give bond not to remove bis property, until three months after 
final judgment ; or to go into insolvency within thirty days. Besidents of 
the state may have the benefit of prison limits (tlie limits of the county) 



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184a] LAW OV IM7RI80HMXKT VOB DBBT. 18S 

fai the county where they reside. Beside other property exempt from exe- 
cntion, the law allows $250 in fomitore, $150 in library, $150 in printing 
materials or mechanics* tools. 

MsnssippL — No free white woman is imprisonable. Imprisonment for 
debt is allowed only on affidavit that the debt amounts to $100 (or if before a 
justice of the peace, without this limitation), and that the debtor has removed, 
conyerted, concealed, assigned, or is about to assign, his property fraud- 
vlently. Any citizen of the state taken on execution may forthwith deliyer 
a sworn schedule, &c in insolvency ; or give bond so to do, and not to remove 
property previously thereto, and be discharged. And any person, on giving 
in a schedule on oath, &c., after ten days' notice to creditors, may be dis- 
charged. Prison bounds are the limits of the county. One hundred and 
sixty acres of land in tbe county, with the dwelling-house, or $1,500 value 
in land, &c in town, is exempt frrom execution, if belonging to the head of 
a family, male or female. 

Mssouri — Imprisonment for debt, in all cases, was abolished by act Au- 
gust 1, 1845. • 

New Hampshire, — No female is imprisonable for debt No person can 
be arrested on mesne process in any real action, or action of ejectment, or 
of contract, unless the debt or damage exceed $13.83 ; nor on any writ or 
execu^on founded on a contract made since Mareh 1, 1841, except on affi- 
davit that the debtor conceals his property, or is about to remove from the 
state. He may forthwith go before two justices of the peace, and, if he 
disprove the charges, be discharged. Or he may, in nxesne process, do the 
same thing before the court after the return of the writ If committed, and 
not bailed, he may give bond to take the poor debtor's oath, or to surrender 
his person within one year. Fifteen days' notice to creditors is necessary 
before an examination to take the poor debtors' oath. 

Nmo Jeney, — No female can be imprisoned in any civil action. Prison 
limits are the limits of the town. All persons imprisoned may deliver an 
iaventory, ftc. in insolvency, and give bond to apply at the next term of the 
court of Ck>mmon Pleas for the benefit of the insolvent law, and, if not 
disdiarged thereby, to surrender his person. Arrest on mesne process is 
allowed only on affidavit, that the debtor conceals, has fraudulently assigned, 
removed, or disposed of his property, or is about so to do, and a judgment 
in addition, that he fraudulently withholds property of the value <^ $50, or. 
In small causes, $10. 

New York. — No debtor, whetlier resident or non-resident, can be arrested, 
except apon affidavit that the debt amounts to $25, and that he has removed, 
concealed, withheld, or disposed of his proper^. The debtor may forthwith 
go before the magistrate, and, if he do not there disprove the charges, shall 
be committed, unless he pay the debt, give security to pay it withi* sixty 
days, assign his property, &c. in insolvency, give a bond so to do within 
thirty days, or give a bond not fraudulently to remove, assign, &c, his prop- 
erty, or prefer creditors until payment, or three months after judgment If 
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186 WXITE9 STAVBS- [IS^ 

committed, he may petition (giviiig thirty days* notioe of the heoriog to 
creditors) in insolvency; and if discharged, after the nsnal hearing and 
examination, shall be liberated. No female can be imprisoned for debt 

North Carolina, — No female is imprisonable for debt Debtors may be 
arrested on mesne or final process j and afdfcr twenty days in prison, ot 
prison bounds (which do not exceed six acres), may petition to be dis- 
charged by taking the poor debtor's oath, and, after personal notice to credi- 
tors within Ihe state, may be examined therefor ; or they may proceed in 
insolvency ; or may give bond so to do, and be discharged.. 

Ohio. — Any debtor may be arrested upon affidavit that the debt amoimta 
to $100, and that the debtor fraudulently has removed, converted, concealed, 
or disposed of his property, or is about so to do, or that he fraudulently con- 
tracted the debt, or is not a citizen or resident of the state. Persons ^us im- 
prisoned may petition, and assign property, as in insolvency ; or give bond 
80 to do, and be discharged. 

Pennsylvania. — ^Any debtor is imprisonable upon affidavit that he has done, 
or proposes to do, certain fraudulent acts (such as removing his property 
&c.). He may deny the chaiges, be examined on oath, and introduce other 
evidence. If he fail to disprove them, he is committed, unless he pay the 
debt, or give security for its payment, within sixty days (unless the period 
is prolonged by the law allowing a stay of execution), if a judgment debt j 
or if upon mesne process, within sixty days from final judgment, if ad- 
verse (unless prolonged by the stay law) ; or give bond not to be guilty of the 
fraudulent removal alleged; or to go into insolvency, and to surrender him- 
self, if he be not thereby discharged. 

JRhode Island. — The debtor is imprisoned, until he pay the debt, or take 
the poor debtor's oath. The prison limits are specially designated by 
statute. 

South Carolina. — Imprisonment on execution exists. No female can be 
imprisoned on execution. 

Tennessee, — For arrest of a debtor on mesne process, an affidavit must 
be filed, stating that the cause of action is just, and that the defendant has 
removed, or proposes to remove, his property. The debtor may be bailed, 
or may disprove the charges. To arrest on execution, an affidavit is re- 
quired, charging certain fraudulent acts dcme or contemplated. The debtor 
may apply in insolvency, and have a hearing, after five days' notice to cred- 
itors, if within the county ; or ten days', if without Females are exempt 
from arrest Prison bounds are county bounds. 

Texas, — A homestead of not more than two hundred acres, not included 
in any town or city ; or city or town lots worth not more than $2,000, shall 
not be subject to forced sale for any debt hereafter contracted. 

Vermont. — Pemales are exempt from arrest for debt Other debtors, if they 
are resident citizens, can be arrested only on affidavit that they conceal prop- 
erty, or are about to absccmd. After judgment, the poor debtor's oath may 
be taken before the court ; and any debtor may take this oath before a com- 



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Idia] BLBOnUO TB£BQaUFB. ISI 



r, on flK days* notice to credited within the county, and twelre to 
tiuMewithoot 

Virffima. — Debtors may be imprisoned, bnt are disdiarged on a snrrenr 
der of property, and taking the poor debtor's oath. 

Wisconsin, — Imprisonment "in all civil canses" was abc^hed by act 
Yeh. 16, 1843. 

District qf Ooktmbia, — No female can be impriscmed for debt, nor can 
any other debtor be imprisoned on mesne process, tmless the debt amonnt 
to $50 ; and then only upon affidavit that he have concealed, removed, or i^ 
about to remove, his property or person from his residence, or that the debt 
was firandolently conti'acted : the affidavit mnst particularly set forth the 
£ftots and the grounds of the plaintiff's belief. Any debtor may be arrested 
on ea;ecution, on a similar affidavit that he has conveyed away, lessened, or 
disposed of his property, or has removed, or is about to remove it from the 
district ; but, after notice, the plaintiff may be compelled to show cause 
why the debtor should not be disdiarged; and ei^er party may demand a 
jury. If the verdict be adverse to the debtor, he shall be imprisoned. Non- 
residents cannot be imprisoned for debts contracted out of the district 



XXVn. THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 

By the Hon. Francis 0. J, Smith. 

Professor SteinheH of the University at Munich, in an interesting 
article published in 1838, thus concisely presents the hi^^ry of the applica^ 
tion of frictiond electricity, in efforts of telegraphic communication, ante- 
nor to the discovery of the galvanic current : — 

" The velocity with whidi fnctional electricity is transmitted along metal« 
lie conductors, called fcnrth, as long ago as in the last century, the idea of 
employing it for telegraphic communications. Winklen, at Leipsic, in 1746, 
discharged several Leyden jars through a wire of considerable length, and 
on that occasion the river Plebs formed a part of his circuit La Mounier, 
in Paris, produced shocks through a length of wire amounting to 12,789 
feet Watson, in 1 747, extended the experiment over a space of four miles 
near Shooters' Hill, composing his circuit of two miles of wire and an equal 
distance of dry groimd. Lomond transmitted telegraphic signals to a neigh- 
boring room by means of a ball electrometer, acted upon by frictional 
electricity. [1784, Young's travels.] Reisen illuminated, by an electric 
spark, letters formed upon plates of glass with strips of tin foil. Gauss 
makes mention of a communication from Hunlboldt, according to whidi 
Betancourt, in 1798, established a communication between Madrid and 
Aranjicr, a distance of twenty-six miles, by means of a wire, through which 
a Leyden jar used to be discharged which was intended to be used as a 
telegraphic signal." 



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188 UNITED BT1.TBS. [1848. 

The preceding denotes tbe slow bat steady approadies tbatwere made 
towards the accomplishment of a grand conception, stafted one fanndred 
and one years since, as we can trace it on the records of science, viz. : instan- 
taneous intercommunication of thought, between any distant points, t^ 
deetric agencies. 

But an essential modification of such an agency to make it avfulable, yvs, 
ffcdvanism, was not kndwn until 1791, when it was unexpectedly discovered, 
and not with reference to the end which other philosophers had been pur- 
smngf by Galvani, professor of anatomy at Bologna.* 

It remained, however, for Professor Volta, of Pavia, to discover the prac- 
tical elongation, if we may so express it, of this principle, or of its presence, 
by means of d^erent metals that would at the same time serve as genera- 
tors and conductors of it, along a specified line. This he accomplished in 
1«01 , and perfected in what is now known as the Voltaic batteiy. In 1 807, 
Sommering so |ar availed himself of these advances of Ckdvani and 
Volta, as to apply them to a revival of the conception of an electric tele- 
graph, and erected one in the Academy of Sciences at Munich that year, 
an account of which was published in 1809. But let the reader observe, 
that, up to this time (1809), the magnetic agency, requisite to the reduction 
to useful practice of the Jirst great conception of this species of telegraph, 
was yet wanting, because yet unknown. In its absence, the galvanic cur- 
rent was thought of as available to this end, only by its power of chemical 
decomposition of water or metallic salts. Such was Sommering's process 
of indicating signs. 

Up to 1816, the philosophic world had dwelt only on the chemical 
prc^rties of galvanism for a device by which telegraphic signs could be 
made available. Yet so sanguine were the reflecting philosophers upon the 
ultimate attainment of this end, even by this me^ns, that, during the year 
last named, one of our countrymen, John Bbdman Coxe, of Philadel- 
phia, in a published article said: "I have contemplated this important 
agent as a probable means of establishing telegraphic communications with 
as much rapidity, and, perhaps, less expense than any hitherto employed. 
* * * * However fanciful in speculation, /Aove no (2t>t<&<, that, 
aooner or later, it will be rendered useful in practice." 

But in 1819, a new discovery was made by Prof. Oersted, of Copenhagen^ 
which in time has crowned the original conception of an electric telegraph 
voith perfect success ; and reduced the whole to a degree of practical utility, in 
tiie daily intercourse of men and communities, that cannot again be lost 
while intellect and science are co-existent, nor dispensed with while the 
maxim is appreciated, that ** time is money.'* This discovery consists of 



• In a work entitled " The General Theory of Pleasures," published by a German phi- 
losopher named Sultaer in 1767, the germ of tiie galyanio discoTery by Galyani was made 
known in a statement of the sensations produced by placing two metals in contact with 
each other and wiQi the tongue ; but this effect seems not tiien to have been suspected of 
any important bearing on science, and was not further inyestigated by SuUier. 



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1848.J 



BLBCaaUC TSUHHUPH. 



189 



tbe indncAiye raagnetiflm of the galyaoic csneat, by whidi, itnder tiie sal>- 
seqiwnt researches of Oersted, Fechner, Ampere, Arago, Biot, Davy, Far- 
aday, and others, in Europe, and Henry, Hare, and others, in the United 
States, the electro-magnetic agency has been perfected ; and complete con- 
trol over the galvanic current, in the Ahoj^ of induced magnetism, at any 
and every desirable point for telegraphic purposes, has been attained, and, 
through Professor Morse's ingenious application reduced to practice. Our 
own extensive country will reap the advantages of it, and is beginning 
already to do so, in a preeminent degree. The time is comparatively 
near, when ubiqaity will be given to all sorts of puUic and private intelli- 
gence throu^out the length and breadth of this continent, more distinc- 
tively than hitherto has been true within the limits of the smallest village. 

The fiUowing Lines of Telegraph have been completed and put into operation. 



Between what Pointe. 


Length 
in miles. 


When 
construc- 
ted. 


Remarks. 


Washington and Baltimore, 

Baltimore and New York, 

New York, Albany, and BiiflUo, . 

New York and Boston, 

Boeton and Lowell, 

Auburn and Ithaca, . . 

Ithaca and Elmira, 

PhUadelphia and Harrisbnrg, . 

Philadelphia and Reading. . 

Harrisbnrg, Pittsburg, and Columbu 

Syracuse and Oswego, . 

Troy and Saratoga, . 

BuflDftlo, Lockport, and Lewiflton, . 

Boston and Portiand, 

Washington and Richmond, 

Offing line from N.Y CitytoFirels 

Lancaster and Columbia, 


1. 


40 

210 

50» 

260 

28 

43 

82 

102 

98 

405 

118 

88 

82 

48 

110 

180 

98 

15 


1844 
1845 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1847 
1847 
1847 
1847 

im 

1847 
1847 
1847 
1847 
1847 


The earliest of these lines 
were constructed of copper 
wire, from sixty-fire to one 
hundred and ten pounds to 
the mile. Most of them 
hare been reconstructed 
with iron wire from two 
hundred to three hundred 
and thirty pounds to the 
mile ; some of corded wire, 
three strands No. 14. The 
average cost, exclusiTe of 
patent right, may be set at 
one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars the mile. Most are 
still under artiolee of as- 
sociation, not legislative 
charters. 


Total, 


2,811 





Idnes under Construction, and in a good condition of forwardness. 



Between what Pofaits. 


Length 

in miles 


Between what Points. 


Length 
in miles. 


BufWo and Milwaukie, . 
Bin^iamton and Ithaca, 


1,420 
850 
48 
84 


Rochester and Medina, . 
Troy and Canada Line, yia Bur- 
lington, .... 


46 

45 

109 


Total, . . 


2,586 



Lines Projected^ and that willprobaUy he completed within the year 1848. 



Between what Pohits. 


Length 

in miles 




LBagOx 
inmOes. 


Cindnnati and St. Louis, . 
Louisville and New Orleans, . 
St. Louis and Ghioi«o, . 
St. Louis and Toledo^yia Indiana, 


228 

870 
850 
400 

600 


Chicago and Galena, 
Dunkirk and N. Y , via Erie R.R., 
Benningt'n, Tt., & Bridgep't, Ct , 
Lowell and Concord, N. H , . 
Portiand and Halifax, . 


176 

500 

leo 

60 

587 


Total, . . . . 


. 




8,815 



It is also highly probable that even aa many more miles of telegraph 



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190 inasBD sxiAift* [1848. 

Bot yet named, will be ia opeiatioa at the end of aaother year, as are 
unbraced above. In fact, the electric spirit is abroad, and none oaa 7«t 
compate its results or measure its speed. 



XXVm. PATENT OFFICE. 

And Abstract of the Laws of the United States concerning Patents. 

The Patent Office is under the direction of the Secretary of State, and 
was established upon its present basis by the act of July 4, 1836, which 
repealed all previous laws concerning the office. By this law, all patents 
must be issued in the name of the United States ; bear the seal of the pa- 
tent office ; be signed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and countersigned 
by the Commissioner of Patents, and be recorded in the patent office with 
all accompanpng specifications and drawings. Patents grant to applicants, 
for fourteen years, the sole right to make and sell the invention or discov- 
ery. Applications for patents must be made to the conmiissioner in vmting, 
and must give a full, clear, and exact description of the invention or dis- 
covery, specifying particularly what is claimed as the peculiar invention or 
discovery-; the whole to be accompanied with drawings, models, and speci- 
mens of ingredients, and of the composition of matter. The descriptions 
and drawings must be signed by the inventor, attested by two witnesses, and 
filed in the patent office. The applicant must make oath of what country 
he is a citizen, that he believes that he is the original and first inventor or 
discoverer of that for which he solicits a patent, and that he does not know 
or believe that the same was ever before known or used. Before the ap- 
plications are considered by the commissioner, $30 must be paid to the 
Treasurer of the United States, or the assistant Treasurers, by the appli- 
cant, if a citizen, or an alien who has resided one year in the United States, 
and made oath of his intention to become a citizen ; $500 by a subject of 
the Queen of Great Britain, and $300 by all other persons. If llie appli- 
cation be for a patent for any original design, &c., the fee is but one-half of 
the usual sums, and the patent runs only for seven years. 

'If upon examination it shall appear to the commissioner that the alleged 
invention is new, unpatented or undescribed in any printed publication, 
that it has not been used or exposed to sale with the applicant's consent 
prior to his application, and that it is sufficiently useful and important, a 
patent will be granted. If the invention has not been patented in a foreign 
country more than six months, and not introduced intb common use in 



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1848.] PATBHT ownem. 191 

the United States prior to the application, a patent may he glinted for 
fourteen years from the date of the puhlication of the foreign letters patent 
The applications may he withdrawn, modified, and renewed. An appeal 
lies upon the payment of $25, from the decision of the commissioner to the 
Chief Justice of the District Conrt of the United States for the DisMct of 
Columhia ; and the commissioner is hound hy his decision. In case of in- 
terfering applications^ a similar appeal upon like conditions may be had ; 
and in case of interfering patents^ if upon appeal the decision he adyerse, 
the party may haye his remedy by bill in equity. The patent may date 
from the time of the filmg of the specifications, if it is within six months 
from the time of the actual issuing of the patent. The assignment of pa- 
tents must be recorded within three months from the execution thereof. If 
inventors die without obtaining a patent, their executors may take one out 
in trust for the heirs. 

When further time is desired to mature an invention, upon the payment 
of $20 a caveat may be filed in the secret archives of the patent office, set- 
ting forth the design and purpose thereof j and if within a year any inter- 
fering application is made, the inventor, to enjoy the benefit of his caveat, 
must within three months after notice of such application deposite his 
specifications, &c in the patent office ; and, if the specifications interfere^ 
the same course must be had as upon interfering applications. 

If a patent is invalid from defective descriptions, upon the surrender of 
the old patent and the payment of $15, a new patent, in accordance with 
the corrected specifications, may be granted, or, upon the payment of $30 
for each additional patent, several patents may be issued for distinct ^d 
separate parts of the thing patented. In like manner, additions may be 
made to a patent. If the specifications are too broad, a disclaimer, in writing 
and attested, may be recorded in the patent office, upon the payment of 
$10. Where the patentee, without intent to defraud, claims without right 
to be the inventor of the whole of a machine, the patent shall be good for 
what is honafde his own. If the patentee has not, during fourteen years, ob- 
tained a sufficient remuneration from his invention, the patent may be ex- 
tended for seven years, after the end of the first term ; but the extension 
must be granted during the continuance of the first terra. Patents may 
also be extended by act of Congress. Patentees of patents granted after 
August 29, 1842, must stamp or engrave upon each article offered for sale, 
the date <^ the patent, under a penalty of not less than $100. We gather 
the following account of the condition and business of the patent office from 
the report of the commissioner, January, 1847. 

The patent office has thus far more than sustained itself. All the re- 
ceipts from various sources are carried to the credit of the patent fund, 
which on the 1st of January, 1847, amounted to $186,565.14. Tl^d-eceipts 
and expenditures for the year ending Dec. 31, 1846, were as follows : — 



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192 twnmb svAZH. [164«. 

Amount of receipts fnmi all sources, . . . #60,264 16 

Total of expenditures, ... . 46,158 71 

Net balance to the credit of patent fund, . . 4,105 45 

Balance in treasury to credit of patent fund, Jan. 1, 1846, 182^59 69 



Balance to the credit or patent fund, Jan. 1, 1847, . $186,565 14 

During the year ending December 31, 1846, ^erewere 1,272 applications 
for patents; 448 caveats filed j 619 patents Issued, including 13 re^issues, 5 
additional improyements, and 59 designs; 473' patents expired; 3 applica- 
tions for extensions, 2 of which were rejected and 1 is stiU pending. Two 
patents have been extended by Con^^ress during the same period. 

Eor the purpose of examination, the inventions are divided into twenty- 
two classes, eleven being referred to each examiner. 

Thefolhwing Table shows the Classes of Inventions, the number of Applicationg 
for Patents under them, and the number of PaterUs granted during the year 
ending Dec. 31, 1846 : — 



Classes of Inventions. 



No. of Ap- 
plicatknas. 



No. patents 
gnmted. 



s 



O 



'Examitudby Charles G. Page, 

1. Agricultnre, including instruments and operations 

2. Chendcal processes, manufactures and compounds, &c.* • • 
8. Calorific, comprising lamps, fireplaces, stoves, grates, &c.* 

4. Mathematical, philosophies, and optical instruments, clocks, 

<dironometers, &c • 

5. %ever, screw, and other mechanical powers ■ 

6. Sttme md clay manufitctures. including machines therefor- • • 

7. Leather, including the tannmg, dressing, and manu&cture 

thereof 

8. Household Aimitare, machhMW and implements fat domestic 

purposes 

9. Arts (polite), fine and ornamental, including music, painting, 

sculpture, engraying, books, printing, binding, jewelr7,&c. 

10. Surgical and medical instruments, including trusses, dental 

instruments, batAiing apparatus, &«. 

11. Wearing apparel, articles for the toilet, &c., including instru- 
ments for manufiEtcturing > 



161 
44 
129 



27 
17 



Examined by W. P. N. Fitzgerald, 

12. Metallurgy and the manufecture of metals 

13. Manufacture of fibrous and textile &brics, and all machinery 

therefor • 

14. Steam and other gas endues • 

15. Navigation, .comprehending naval atchiteetuve and marine 

implements 

16. Civil engineering and architecture • 

17. Land conveyance, comprehending all kinds of vehi<des and 

implements of travel and transportation 

18. Mills, comprehending all kinds of mills for grinding and 

crushing, and means of propelling them 

19. Machinery for working in lumber 

20. Fire-MM and implraoents of war* • < 

21. HydniV^ and pneumatics • 

22. Miscellaaieous, consisting of such cases as cannot be placed 
in any other classes 



13 



78 



13 

7 
9 

16 



26 


19 


66 


18. 


16 


16 


124 


67* 


73 
64 


89* 
17 


48 
66 


10 
21* 


76 


15« 


84 
66 
11 

78 


20* 
16» 

1 



11* 



* Nearly conect. The exact number does not appear in the Bepwt. 



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[1648. 



The Wobtim Branch, two miles long, belongs to the Lowell road; llie 
Medford Branch, two mUes, the iMwrmce Branch, two miles, and the Great 
Falls Branch (in New Hampshire), Aree miles to the Maine ; the Dedham 
Branch, two and two-fifths miles, to the Providence f the Sfixonyille Brandi, 
four miles, the Millbnry Branch, three and one-fifth miles, and the Milford 
Branch, twelve miles, to the Worcester; the Marblehead Brandi, three 
miles, the Gloucester Branch, twelve miles, and the Salisbory Branch, three 
miles, to the Eastern ; the Fresh Fond and Watertown Branch, five nules, 
to the Rtchburg. The Worcester Branch road is half a mile in length, 
and the Qaincy road three miles. Including these, the total length of what 
may be called the Massachosetts roads is 763.97 miles. Besides these thaw 
are namerons roads, in process of constraction, leading from the main lines 
in Massachusetts into other States. During the session of 1846, the Massa- 
chusetts legislature diartered eighteen roads and branches with an aggre- 
gate capital of $5,795.000 ; and during the session of 1847, sixteen, with an 
aggregate capital of #4,822,000. 

2. Othxb Railbojlds IK New England. 



state. 


Name. 


Length. 


Cost. 


Expenses 
in 

1846. 


Beceipte 

in 

1846. 

$126,197 

290,228 
188,842 


New Hampihire, 

Rhode IsUmdi . 
Connecticut, . 


Bangor and Oldtown, 
Portland and Portsmouth, 

Nashua and Concord, 
Providence and Stoningfcon, 
Hartford and New Haven, 
Hartford and Springfield, 
Bridgeport & W Stockb'dge, 


12 

6S 

16.8 

85 

48 

88 

19t 

90t 


1,042,718 
2,614,404 
1,100,000 
640,000 
1,249,128 


Ill 



* Costs, &c., included in the aggregate of the Eastern Railroad in Massachusetts, 
t Six miles more in Massachusetts. 

i A portion of this road is in Massachusetts. The total length of railroads in New 
England is 1,074.77 miles. 

3. New York Kailroads. 



Name of Road. 



Mohawk and Hudson, 
Utica and Schenectady, 
Syracuse and Utica, 
Auburn and Syracuse, 
Auburn and Rtxdiester, 
TonawMida (Rochester & AtHca), 
Attica an^BufEolo, 
Buffalo and Niagara Falls, 
Saratoga and Schenectady, 
Schenectady and Troy, 
RensaelaCT and Saratoga, 



17 

78 

58 

26 

78 

4Sh 

81 

22 

22 

20i 

26 



ll 






1,472,967 41,777 92,195 
2,266,116167,821347,636 
1,187,312 124,932 229,708 

679,186 46,164 98,052 
1,865,044; 110,353,253,073 

753,556 45,184111,588 

806,70i 47,728 

206,908 14,644 

800,0001 26.868 

648,6471 81,646 

476,8011 41,469 



72,406 
29,840 
27,460 
29,497 



6 

33,641 

80,860^60, 

27,928 

20,986 

87,097 112: 

41,478 

14,088 

4,115 

4,668 

7,291 
18,167 



1,000 
80,000 
32,000 
.12,000 
56,300 
80,496 
13,916 
18,000 



61,872 



9,0001 



130,000 
61,660 

189,246 
70,706 
64,652 
24,600 
24,466 
68,718 
87,011 



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1848.] 



1»5 



Name of Boad. 



L. Island (BrTdyn & Greenp't),* 
New Toric and £rie, 
New York and Haerlem, 
Albany and West Stockbridge,t 
Hudwm and Bei^ahire, 
Skaneateles and Jordan, 
Cayuga and Susquehannah, 
Tnn^ and Greenbush, 
Buffalo and Black Bock,§ 
Lewisfeov,^ 
Lockport and Niagara Falls, 



t62 
42 
88i 
31 

3 



$ $ 8 

1,765,958 351,505 142,080 
2,561,018123,1741 64,764 
1,702,0771 88,737170,923 
177,019 17,600 
681,013 27,600 
27,26ll 

1^4,657 

256,863, 89,928 31,966 

21,650 650 1,176 

27,050 3,846 4,769 

200,000 



$ 

153,647 
120,762 
11,882 

28,806 

17,168 
16,686 

622 



6,969 
1^ 






283,000 
97,767 

176,664 
84,660 



52,773 
12,600 
7,160 



* Including the Bro<Myn and Jamaica road. 

t This is 8^ that is finished ; the whole length of the road from Piermont to Dunkirk 
ifl about 450 miles. The total lengtti of the New York roads, now in operation, is 758i 
miles 

t The costs, &c. of this road are included in the aggregate of the Western Railroad, to 
which it belongs. 

j For 1846 ; no returns for these roads in 1846. 

4. Other Railroads in the United States. • 



state. 


Names. 


Miles in 
length. 


1 

Cost. 


Groew 
receipts 
in 1846. 


Expenses 
in 1846. 


N.J. 


Oamden and Amboy, . 


61 

8 

28 


6 


8 


$ 


(( 


Trenton Branch, 


8,200/)00 


* .. 






It 


New Brunswick Branch, 




. .. 






(( 


Camden and Woodbury, 


9 




«.. 






u 


Elizabethtown and Somerrille, 


26 


600,000 


... 




.... 


a 


Morris and Essex (Newark to Morristown), 


20 


400,000 


* .. 






C( 


Patterson (to Jersey city). 


16 


600,000 


. .. 






(( 


New Jersey (Jersey city to N. Brunswick), 


84 


2,000,000 


... 




• ... 


P<am. 


Philadelphia and Tienton, 


26i 


600,000 


. ... 






It 


Philadel , Germantown, and Monistown. ' 
Philadelphia and Wihnington (Del.), 


17 




... 




.... 


u 


27 




. . . 






u 


Philadelphia and Reading, . 


95 


11,681,447 


1,900,116 


862,^ 




Philadelphia and Columbia, 
Philadelphia city, . 
Portage (Hollidaysburg and Jcdmstown), 
Valley (Morristown andColumbia R. R.), 


82 
6 


4,204,969 


474,550 


225,621 


It 


1,788,000 


186,678 


181,516 


i( 








(I 


West Chester ( to Columbia Railroad), 


10 




• .. 






(( 


HarrisbuTg and Lancaster, . 


35i 


860,000 








i( 


Cumberland Valley, 


50 


1,260,000 


... 




1!!! 


It 


FrankUn (Chambersburg to Williamsitort), 


?^ 




. .. 






tt 


York and Wrightsville, . 


13 




. .. 






It 


Strasburg (Cumb. Val. R. R. to Strasburg), 


7 




... 






tt 


Little SchuylkiU (Port Clinton to Tamaqua), 


23 


826,600 


. .. 






<{ 


Danville and Pottsville, 


44J 




• •• 






CI 


Williamsport and Ehnira (N. Y. ), 


106 




... 






(i 


73J 




... 






(I 


BJkMsburg and Coming (N.Y.), . 


40 


600,000 


• .* 






It 


Mt. Carbon, . 


7i 




• «. 






H 


Schuylkill VaUey and branchee, . 


.26 


800,000 


• .* 






;; 


SchuylkiU (Schuylkill to VaUey R. R.), 


18 




. .. 






it 


Mill Creek (Port Carbon to Coahnine), 


9 




... 






" 


MinehiU and Schuylkill Haven, 


ao 


896,117 


. .. 






IC 


Manch Chunk and branches (to mines), 


25 


100,000 


. .. 






(( 


Boom Run (Mauch Chunk to Coalmine), 


6i 




... 







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IM 



[1848. 



Etete. 


H»-. 


BfOesin 
length. 


OoaL 


Gross 
receipts 
in 1846. 


lxp«;. 
see in 

1846. 


P«im. 

u 


Bmtw Meadow (PvfTTiUe to MiM), 


ao 

12 


150,000 


« 




8 


It 




8 
6 








.... 


tl 

<t 


Lehigh and SuMuehanna, 
CarboodaleandHoiMwdale, . 


20 
18 


1,260,000 






.... 


(I 
(( 


^en*' Valley (Broad Mt. to Mmewbmrg), 


161 


170,000 






.... 


(( 


Oennantown Bianefa, • * . * . 


4 










Del. 


Frenchtown and Newcastle, . 


16 


600,000 






.... 


Md. 


Baltimore and Ohio (to Cumberitfid), 


178 


7,628,806 


a95',8l5 


^'340 




Baltimore and Waahington, . . 
ABBHwIis and Elk Ridge, . 


60 
81 
21 


&370,282 

1,650,000 

400,000 


460^ 


2&44I6 
181,623 


CI 


Baltimore and Wilmin^n, 


70 




• ••• 




T*. 


Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac, 


76 


1,458,219 


200,210 


1 91,918 


** 


Richmond and Petersburg, 


22i 


875,405 


90,815 


48.404 


{( 


Louisa (Taylorsville to GordonstiUe), . 


6? 


489,586 


47^9^ 


d6;232 


** 
** 




13 


150,000 


50,729 


25,490 




City Point (to Petersburg), . 


12 


196,556 


11,541 


11,965 


** 


Pfetefsbnig (to Gareysburg, N. C), 


68 


•946,721 


160,771 


84,778 


*' 


Winchester and Potomac, . 


ao 


411,858 


68,675 


69,946 


t( 




78J 
20 


1,454,171 


C( 


OreensTille and Roanoke, . 


284,433 






.... 


N. C. 

u 


Raleii^ and Oaston, 7 


87 
167 


1,600,000 
1,800,000 


••• 




.... 


B.C. 


South Carolina (Charleston to Hamburg), . 
BranchTiUe and ColumUa, . 


136) 

681 


5,671,462 






.... 


Oft. 


Central (Sayannah to Maocm), . 
Macon and Western, 
Georgia (Augusta to Atlanta), 


192 
101 
170 


2,581,728 


W 


188 


170,237 


« 


8,000,000 






!!!! 


** 


Athens Branch, 


40 




. . . 




.... 


(( 


Western and Atlantic, . 

St. Joseph (St. Joseph toJola), . 


102 








.... 


Wt^ 


26 


180,000 


... 




.... 


a 


28 




... 




.... 


Ala. 




45 


600,000 


• •• 




.... 


■ ** 


Tuscumbia and Decatur, 


46 


450,000 






.... 


maa. 


Yicksbnrg and Jackson, 


46 


895,600 






.... 


** 


Jackson and Brandon, . 


18 


100,000 






.... 


(1 




22 




• • • 




.... 


tl 


St. FrancisTille and WoodTiUe, . 


28 


168,000 






.... 


OUo, 


Lexington and Ohio (to Fianklbrt), . 
Mad Rirer and Lake Erie, . ' . ' 


24 

84 
160 


400/)00 
1,280,000 


. .. 




;:;; 


(C 


Sandusky and Mansfield, 


57 




. • • • 




.... 


Tnd. 




42 




• ••• 




. . •. 


Mieh. 


Central (Detroit to Kalamasoo), . 


144 


1,842,808^ i289,668l 


tl80,280 


({ 


Southern (Munroe to HUlsdale), 
Tecumseh Branch, 


68 
10 


986,295 


§88,127 


♦66,947 


it 


Detroit and Pontlae, 


25 


800,000 


.... 


.... 


{( 


Adrian and Toledo, 


88 
8,8701 
5,708i 




.... 




Total out of New Enj^and and New York, 


Orandtotal in United StiJtee, . 







* When completed In 1886. 

t This road was sold, in 1846, to the State for 860,000, and it is now leamd to the tros- 
iees of the town of Portsmouth. 
t From December 1, 1846, to September 22. 1846. idienttie load was sold by the State. 
i From December 1, 1846, to October 22, 1846, when the road was sold by d^ State. 



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1848.} 



TITUU AXB iJMTSAOCS MP TMV PUBLIO liAWS. 



197 



XXX. TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF THE PUBLIC LAWS, 
Passed at the Second Session of the 29th Conobebs. 



CivU and Diphmatic Expenses, For the jear 

Congrew^- pay of members, 

" inddeiital expenses, 

Ubnxni of Chngress — purchase of books for, 

'* '* incidental expenses. 

President and Vice President of the United States, 
Department of State, 
Treasoy Department, 

War Department, .... 
Nayy Department, 
Post-Office Department, 
Pat^t-Office, .... 
Snrveyors and their Clerks, 
United States Mint and Brandies, . 
GoTemment of Wisconsin, 
Judiciary, .... 

Coast Sonrej, .... 

Bfisoellaneons, .... 
Light House estaUishment, 
Surreys of FabUo Lands, 
Intercourse with Foreign Nations, 



ending June 30, 1848. 

$755,000.00 

264,557.50 

6,000.00 

5,300jOO 

30,000iX> 

58,845.00 

400,181.75 

130,390.00 

85,920.00 

175,970.00 

4,000.00 

68,160.00 

121,860.00 

23,150.00 

571,50000 

146,000.00 

440,465.22 

402,325.80 

191,590.00 

531,635.60 



Army appropriation bill (including volunteers-). 

Navy appropriation, . . . 

Four first class naval steamships, . 

Military Academy, ..... 

Bevolntionary and Navy pensioners, 

FcHT concluding peace with Mexico, 

Post-Office Department, . . 

To establish post routes, . ... 

Erection of light houses, 

Expense of preparing Treasury notes. 

Appropriation for the Indian Department, 

To collect statistics of Indian Tribes and for expenses under 

Treaties, ..... 

For relief of sundry individuals, 



$4,412,850.87 

32,178.461.88 

9,307,958.10 

1,000,000.00 

124,906.00 

1,358,700.00 

3,000,000.00 

4,145,400.00 

830,000.00 

518,830.00 

20,000.00 

1,364,204.95 

44,650.00 
146,674.13 



Total, 
17* 



$57,952,635.93 



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t99 matam vvAm. [iMt; 

Ko. 1. An Act far the admission of the State of Iowa into the Union, The 
Territory of Iowa having complied with the requisitions of the Act entitled 
" An Act for the admission of the States of Iowa and Florida, &c.** ap- 
proved March 3, A.!). 1845, and with an Act entitled ** an Act to define the 
boundaries of the State of Iowa, &c^" approved Aug, 4, 1846, — is ad- 
mitted, as a State, into the ITnion. The provisions of "An Act supple- 
mehtal * to an act for the admission of the States of Iowa and ilorid% Sb6} 
approved March 3, 1845, are still applicable to the State of Iowa. Bee. 
28, 1846. 

No. 2. An Act to encourage enHstments in Me refftJar army. During the 
eoBtinuatice of the Mexican war, the term of sertioe d the recruits shall 
be " during the war," or for five years, unless sooner disdiarged, at the q^ 
tion of the recruit Every able-bodied man so enlisted, for the art^lory or 
infantary, shall be paid twelve dollars bounty, — six on enlisting^ ana six on 
joining his regiment for duty. Jan. 12, 1846. 

No. 3. An Act declaring the assent of Congress to certetin States to impose 
a tea upon all lands hereafter sold by the United States therein, from and itfter 
the day of such sale. The above power is given to all States admitted into 
the Union prior to April 24, A.I). 1820, provided lands belonging to non- 
resident proprietors be not taxed higher than lands of residents. Jan. 26, 
1847. 

No. 4. An Act authorizing the issue of Treasury notes, a loan, and for 
other purposes. The President is authorized to cause an issue of Treasury 
notes, not exceeding twenty-three millions of doUars, of denominations not 
less than $50, payable at periods of one and two years ; after whidi time 
they shall bear such interest, not exceeding six per cent, as the Secretary 
of the Treasury, with the advice of the President, shall determine ; such in- 
terest to cease after sixty days' notice given by the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, in one of the principal papers published at Washington, of a readineis 
to redeem them. The reimbursement shall be made at the Treasury, of 
principal and interest, for which the faith of the United States is pledged. 
These notes shall be signed by the Treasurer and countersigned by the 
Register, who shall keep accounts of the same, to be preserved in the Treas- 
ury, and similar accounts of all notes redeemed ; and the Treasurer shall 
also account quiurterly for all notes delivered to him fw signature or issue 
by the Register. The employment of not more than five additional derki, 
at a salary hot exceeding $1200 per annum, is authorized. The Sec- 
retary of the Treasury is authorized, with the President's consent, to 
pay such public creditors with Treasury notes as may be willing to receive 
them at par, and to borrow, on tiie credit of these notes, such sums as the 
President may think expedient, provided they be not exchanged for less 
than the par value. The notes shall be assignable by endorsement and de- 
livery. They shall be recdvable at par in discharge of all debts, taxes, and 
duties due the United States. And every public officer receiving such 



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ISiik] TITLES Am) ABMBACTt OV TU PUBLIO LAWS. liHI 

notett in pATin^t of sndi debts, ghall reijiiire fbe hoMer to endorse fbcreon 
a receipt, stating his name aad Hie amount received by him, and shi^ 
enter aU tibe items on a book to be produced at the Treasury. The Secre- 
tary of the TreasToy is authorized to redeem the notes at the times specified, 
and to a{^y any onappropriated money in the treasury thereto. Counter* 
ISsiting treasury notes or utterii^, ftc, counterfeited notes, having in posses- 
sion plates and materials iherdbr, is made felony, punishable by impris- 
onment ibr not less than three nor more than ten ye^, and by fine not ex- 
ceedix^ $5,000. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to give gen- 
eral instructions to the receivers of public money, as to the custody, retum« 
aaid cancelling of the notes, and as to tlieir accounts therefor. New notes 
may be issued, in place of those redeemed, provided the total do not ex- 
eeed, $23^)00,000. Holders of notes may present them at the treasury, or 
to authorixed officers, and receive instead certificates of funded six per 
cent, stock, transferable on the treasury books, and redeemable after Dec. 31, 
AJ>. 1867 ; and any notes, issued under previous acts, or hereafter issued 
under this act, may be converted into funded stock, in like manner. The 
lime for issuing Treasury notes, under the Act of July 22d, AJ). 1846, is 
extended to the tiibe mentioned in this act, on the same terms and condi- 
tions, provided the said issue do not exceed $5,000/)00. The President, 
may, at his discretion, instead of Treasury notes, create funded stock, pay- 
ing not more than six per cent, and not to be sold under par ; redeemable 
after Dec. 31, 1867 ; Interest payable semi-annually, on tfan. 1 stand July 1st. 
The proceeds of the sales of the public lands are pledged for the redemp- 
^km of this stock; and all such proceeds, after January 1, 1848, shall be ap- 
plied first, to pay the interest, and second, to buy up the stock at not more 
than the par value. $20,000 is appropriated to the expense of issuing the 
notes ; but no salaried officer shall be paid for his services in signing, &e. 
the notes. The Secretary of the Treasury shall publish a monthly state- 
ment of the Treasury notes issued or redeemed by virtue of this act ; and 
the power of the Pnesident to issue such notes shall cease on the ratifica- 
tion of a treaty with Mexico. The Secretary of the Treasury shall report 
to Congress, at the commencement of each session, the amount of notes 
issued, the amotmt redeemed, and in what manner; the amount purchased, 
of whom, and at what time ; the amount re-issued, in lieu of what redemp- 
tion, and the date of such re-issue. Jan. 28, 1847. 

No. 5. An Act to provide Jbr the establishment of addkioncd poet routes in 
^ J^aU of Texas, Feb. 2, 1847. 

No. 6. An Act to raise Jbr a Umited tifiu <m additional miUtary force, and 
for other purposes, adds to the present military establishment, during the 
war with Mexico, one regiment of dragoons and nine of infantry, of the 
same number of officers and men, and with the same pay and rations, as in 
the present regiments. The President has the exclusive right to appoint all 
commissioned officers, below the rank of field officers, nofr appointed duxing 



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aOO UMITEO aSAT£8. [1848. 

the present session; and to oiganize and eqnip one or more of the infantry- 
regiments as Toltigeors, or as foot riflemen, and to provide them with a 
rocket and mountain howitzer battery. 2. The term of enlistment is " da- 
ring the war/' onless sooner discharged. 3. The President, with the con- 
sent of the Senate, may appoint an additional major to each regiment of 
dragoons, artillery, infantry, and riflemen, in the army \ such majors to be 
taken from the captains in the army. 4. Each regiment of artillery, &c. (as 
before) shall be allowed a regimental quarter-master, to be taken from the 
iubaltems of the line, with $10 per month additional pay, and forage for 
two horses. 5. The regiments shall be disbanded at the close of the war. 
6. One surgeon and two assistant surgeons may be appointed by the Pres- 
ident and Senate, to each regiment 7. The officers of every brigade, reg- 
alar or volunteer, composing the council of administration, may^ employ a 
chaplain, to receive $750 per annum, one ration, and forage for one horse ; 
provided, that the regular army chaplains may be required to repair to 
Mexico, whenever a majority of their men have left them for service in the 
field ; and on his declining so to do, he shall be removed. 8. The Presi- 
dent and Senate are authorized to appoint two surgeons and twelve assist- 
ant surgeons, subject to the provisions of " an act to increase and regulate 
the pay," &c approved June 30, 1834. The rank of the medical depart- 
nsent shall be arranged on the same basis which determines its pay. 9. Each 
non-commisioned officer, musician, or private, enlisted in the regular army, 
or mustered in a volunteer company, for not less than twelve months, who 
serves in the present war, and receives an honorable discharge, or is killed, 
or dies of wounds or sickness incurred in service, or is discharged in con- 
sequence thereof, before his term expires,, shall receive a warrant from the 
War Department for 160 acres, at any land office, in one body of land, to 
be chosen by the warrantee ; and, upon return of the warrant to the land 
office, with evidence of the location having been legally made, shall receive 
a patent therefor ; or if he be dead, as aforesaid, then the warrant shall 
issue to his family; — (1.) to the widow and children; (2.) to the father; 
(3.) to the mother. And if the children be minors, their guardian, in con- 
junction with such children as may be of age, may sell the warrant, under 
proper authority from the probate court, for their use. No sale, mortgage, 
or other incumbrance of the right, can be made before issuing the warrant, 
and it shall not be in any way charged with any debt incurred before the 
same; provided that no warrant shall be laid upon lands cultivated, or 
subject to preemption ; and provided that such private, &c, may be allowed 
in lieu thereof a treasury scrip for $100, to be issued by the Secretary of 
the Treasury, redeemable at the pleasure of the government, paying six 
per cent interest per annum, in semi-annual payments. And any private, 
&c. received into service since the commencement of the war, for less than 
twelve months, who shall have served his term, or until honorably dis- 
chaiged, shall be entitled to a warrant for forty acres of land or twenty-five 



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1848.] TITLES ANB ABSTKAOTS OF TBB PUBLIC LAWS. 201 

dollars in scrip, as he may elect ; and in the event of his death whfle in 
service, or after discharge, bnt before the passage of this act, then the war- 
rant shall issue to his kindred, as in the former case. Bnt this act does 
not include such volunteers as were accepted into service, but not 'marched 
to the seat of war. 10. The President and Senate may appoint from the 
officers of the army four quarter-masters with the rank of major, and ten 
assistant quarter-masters with the rank of captain. Feb. 11, 1847. 

No. 7. An Act to provide far the payment of any interest falling due on 
the public debt. Feb. 9, 1847. 

No. 8. An Act to change the time of holding one of the terms of the Circmt 
Gourt of the United States fir the district of North Carolina. Obanged from 
first Monday in December to last Monday in November. Feb. 15, 1847. 

No. 9. An Act to extend the tme for sdling the lands granted to the Ken- 
tucky Asylum for teaching the deaf and dumb, Feb. 18, 1847. 

No. 10. An Act making appropriations f>r the payment of Revolutionary 
and other pensions of the United States fir the year ending the thirtieth June, 
one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight. See page 197. The Secretary 
of War is authorized to compensate pension agents out of the fund, for 
revolutionary pensions, at a rate not exceeding two per cent on moneys 
disbursed, nor to exceed $1,000 per annum, and to be in full for all services 
and contingent expenses, except printing and stationery. The Secretary of 
War is to prevent an undue accumulation of balances in tiie hands of the 
agents. Feb. 20, 1847. 

No. 11. An Adtoreguiaie the carriage of passengers in merchant vessels. 
No shipmaster shall bring into or carry out of the United States a greater 
number of passengers than in the following proportion to his vessel : viz. 
on the lower deck, fourteen clear superficial feet of deck to eveiy passenger 
and his personal baggage ; and if the vessel is to pass within the tropics, 
then twenty such feet ; and on the orlop deck, thirty such feet, in all cases ; 
nor more than two passengers to every five tons of the ship. Violation of 
this act is a misdemeanor punishable, on conviction in any United States 
court, by imprisonment not exceeding one year, and by a fine of fifty dol- 
lars for each passenger. And if the number of passengers exceed the pro- 
portion of two to every five tons, to the number of twenty in the whole, 
then the vessel diall be forfeited, and such proceedings had as in forfeitures 
under the act to regulate duties. No vessel shall hove more than two tiers 
of berths, and these weU constructed, six feet by eighteen inches in size ; 
the space between the fioor and ^ deck or platform beneath, shall be at 
least six inches ; and fot breach of this provision there i^all be forfeited 
five dollars for every passenger, recoverable in the circuit or district court 
of the circuit or district where the vessel arrives or whence she sails. Chil- 
dren under one year, are not conated ; under eight years, two count as one. 
The penalties shall be a lien on the vessel ; and it may be libelled and sold 
tiierefor, in the district court where sudi vessel shill arrive. Feb. 22, 1847. 



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202 UMITSD STAtm: [1848^ 

Na 12. An Act to regvUote the exereiae of the appdlaU juriadictum <^ the 
Supreme Court of the United States^ in certain ccueSy and Jbr other purposes. 
Records of cases pending in the superior courts of the late territory of 
Florida, by yirtae of the act of 2dd May, 1828, and 26th May, 1830 
(both concerning land claims), and of cases pending in the Court of Ap- 
peals, on March 3d, 1845, and the record of cases in which judgments or de- 
crees had been rendered in said courts on or before that day, and 
from which writs of error could have been, or had been, sued out, or 
appeals could have been, or had been taken to the Supreme Court 
of the United States, by the laws then in force, shall be transferred 
to Ae District Court of the United States, for the district of Florida. The 
district judge shall cause notice of the passage of this act immediately to 
be given'to the persons having custody of the records, and demand Ae 
records accordin^y ; and, on refusal, shall have power to compel the same, 
by attachment, or otherwise. And the Distrkt Court shall hear and' deter- 
mine all such cases. All cases already before the Supreme Court shall be 
determined by it ; but the mandates for execution, &c. shall be directed to 
and executed by the District Court From judgments of the District Court, 
writs of error and appeals will lie to the Supreme Court of the United 
States, as formerly from the Court of Appeals ; and the mandates issued 
upon judgment thereon, shall be addressed, as before, to the District Court. 
In all cases not legally transferred to the state courts, and in which judgments 
have been rendered, from which writs of error, or appeals, would lie to the 
Court of Appeals, or to the Supreme Court of the United States, by the 
laws in force on March 3d, 1845, and in which such proceedings have net 
hitherto been taken, the Supreme Court of the United States shall have 
power to review the same ; and one year from the passage of this act shall 
be allowed for the parties to claim their right. Any unfinished proceedings 
before the Judge of the Superior Coutt at St Augustine, as a commis- 
sioner, by virtue of an act " for the relief of certain inhabitants of East 
Florida," approved 26th June, 1834, or by virtue of any other act, are trans- 
ferred to the district judge, together with all the powers of the first-men- 
tioned judge, so far as shall be necessary for determining the same. Simi- 
lar provisions to those of this act, so far as may be applicable, are extended 
to the territory of Michigan. In all cases pending in the Superior Courts of 
Florida, on March 3, 1845, and not removed thence, but determined by them 
after that day, or wMcli are claimed to have been since pending therein, aa 
Courts of the United States ; and in all cases of a Federal chaoucter, since 
commenced, either decided, or still pending, the records and decrees are re- 
moved to the District Court ; and writs of error, or appeals, will li^ to 
remove any judgments or'decrees tliat have been, or may be, rendered to the 
Supreme Court of the United States. One year from tiie passage of this 
act, or from tbe rendition of judgment, shall be allowed to claim this right, 
provided that nothing in this act shall be construed as affirming or dis- 



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1848.] TITLXg AND ABSTBAOM 09 THX PUBLIC ULWS. 208 

affirming Hie aii&o]it7 of ikt territorial judges to try sttcli cases Biter 
Harch 3d, 1845 ; but the same may be referred to ihe Supreme Court of 
the United States on writ of error or appeal. Feb. 22, 1847. 

No. IS. An Act to authorize the issuing of a new register Jor the American 
harqite P^ns, of Philaddphia^ by the name of the Corddia, Feb. 23, 1847. 

No. 14. An Act to establish a court at Key West, in the State of Florida, 
amdfor other purposes, A new judicial district is created called " the Southern 
District of Florida," lying south of a line drawn due east and west from the 
northern point oi Ghariotte Harbor, including all islands, keys, &c. One 
district judge is created, who is to reside in this district The court by him 
held has the jurisdiction of a district and circuit court; and i^peals and 
writs of error lie to the Supreme Court as from a Circuit Court. The 
judge a^>oints a derk, to be paid by fees similar to those of the clerk of 
the Louisiana District. The court holds two terms at Key West, on the 
first Mondays of May and November, and such extra sessions as business 
may require ; and is at all times open to hear admiralty cases. No wreck- 
ing vessel may be employed without a license from the judge, who must be 
satisfied with the vessel and the master. The judge's salary is $2,000 per 
annum. A district attorney is created, with a salary of $200 per annum 
and fees ; and a marshal with the same fees and duties as those of the 
liOuisiana District, and a salary of $200 per annum. The provisions of 
Act number twelve of this session shall apply to all cases transferred to 
this court And all the eases that arose, or are pending, or claimed to be 
pending before the Superior Court of the Southern District of the late ter- 
ritory of Florida, provided by the said act to be transferred to the District 
Court of Florida, are to be transferred to this court The title of the Dis- 
trict Court for the District of Florida is altered to tiiat of " the Northern 
XHstrict of Florida,'' and the judge is to hold an additional term. 1. At 
Apalachicola, on the first Monday of February. 2. At Fensaoola, on the 
first Monday of March. Feb. 23, 1847. 

No. 15. An Act in addition to an Act to establish a court at Keg West, in 
the State of ITorida, The District Court of Florida exercises its present 
jurisdiction, until a judge is appointed and qualified for the District Court 
of the Southern District. Feb. 23, 1847. 

No. 16. An Act to authorize the issuing of a register to the brigantine Ocean 
Queen. Feb. 25, 1847. 

No. 17. An Act making appropriations for the current and contingent ex- 
penses of the Indian department, and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with He 
various Indian tribes, for the year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred o/nd 
farty^M. March 1, 1847. [See page 197.] 

No. 18. An Act to establish a land cffice in the fiorOiem part of Wxhigan^ 
wd to provide for the sale of mineral lands in the State of Michigan. That 
portion of the public lands, in the State of Midiigan, lying north of the 
^iginaw and Qrand lUver land districts, together with ^e islands in tho 



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904 mnxsp u'^ATW^ r^9^- 

Lakes Superior. Uvaga, and IficjiigaB, in Gje^en Bay» and the .SftmHs tgi 

Mackinaw, and the river St Mary's, are included in a land distriot, to be 
called the Lake Superior Land District; and a land office shall be estab- 
lished Yrheie the President shall direct The Secretaiy of the Treasury 
shall cause a geological survey of said district to be made and reported to 
the Commissioner of the General Land Office. And the President Is au- 
thorised to offer for sale such land as contams Tenable ores, giving six 
months' notice of the sale, and a brief de8cr^>ti<m of the lands, in imdx 
newspapers of the several states, showing therein the number and localities 
of the mines known, the probability of discovering others, the qvalities of 
the ores, the facilities of working the mines, and c^ transporting tiie ^^dncte 
to a market Theotherlandsare tobc soldintbec<Hnmonmamier,exc^»fef 
ing sixteen sections in each town, reserved for the nse of schools, and Mdi 
reservation for public uses as the President deems proper, Asy pessoas 
occupying lands in this district, f(»r mining purposes, under a lease fitMn tha 
Secretary oi War, and who have complied with the conditions, may pur- 
chase the tract leased (and no less), at any time during the term of such 
lease, at the rate of $2.50 per acre. And any persons, occupying flnr mim- 
ing purposes,, under a written permit of the Secretary <^ War, and who 
have visible land-marks as boundaries, and who have complied with the 
conditions, may purchase in like manner. Such purchase most be made 
before the day on which they are offered for sale. And all parsons occupj- 
ing mines, discovered before the passage of this act, and who pay the same 
rent as those who hold under leases, m»y purdiase not less than one sectioB 
of land, including such mine, on the same terms as those who hdd mder 
permits, and shaJl pay their rents to such officers as may be a]^>ointed. 
' Proof of actual occupancy, and of payment of all outstanding ^les to the 
government, shall be first made to the Register and Keeeiver of sueh dis- 
trict, for whidi he may claim one dollar as a fee. An appeal lies from tiie 
Begister and Receiver to the Secretai^ of the Treasury ; and if two or 
more are in occupation of a mine, the first occupant shall be preferred, un- 
less the mine can be subdivided, so as to give each his just shute of the dis- 
covery. The mineral lands shsdl be <^red for sale in quarter sections, at 
not less than five dollars per acre, and,if. not sold at public sale, may be 
entered at private sale, at that price. No lands, under lease, shall be sold 
until the leases have expired or are surrendered, except to &e lessees. The 
control of the mineral lands is transferred from the War D^artment to Ihe 
Treasury Department; and all papers, &c. shall be delivered aecordingly. 
The President and Senate shall appoint a register and receiver for the dis- 
trict, so soon as a sufficient number (^ townships are surveyed, and returns 
made thereof. March 1, 1847. 

No. 19. An Act to amend the Act, entitled ^^An Act to reduce the rates of 
postage, to limit the use and correct the abuse of the franking privilege, and fir 
the prevention of frauds on the revenues of tJte Post Office D^rttnent," patsed 



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1848*] TITLB8 iJID ABBtMkOrS OT THE PVB^IO LAWS. S95 

third of Mairch^ eightem hundred and firty-Jtt», (1.) In liea of oommlidoiis 
allowed to deputy postmaBten, by the Act 3d March, 1825, see. 14, the fbl« 
lowing are sabsthatedt — On amounts received within $100, 40 per cent ; 
between $100 and $400, 33^ per c^t ; between $400 and $2,400, 80 ptae 
cent.; on all smns abore $2,400, 12^ per cent. ; <m magaak^, newspaper, 
and pamphlet postage, 50 per cent ; and on letters or packets receiyed for 
^BstrHmtion, 7 per cent These compensations are to be subject to the pn»- 
Tisions of the 41st section of the Ad amended. The fiscal year com- 
mences July 1, and the restrictions of said section apply to fncUoia of a 
year. The per centage on a larger sum shaQ in no case fidl short of what 
it would be on a smaller. (2.) Money taken from &e mails, and afterward 
coming into the possession of any post-office agent, shall be paid to the 
order of the postmaster-general, to be restored to the owner upon {woof 
made ; and, upon failure to pay over sudi money when demanded, he is lia- 
ble to the penalties prescribed by law against defaulting officers. (8.) Th^ 
privilege of franking public documents is extended to all members of Con- 
gress and delegates, the Vice*President, the Secretary of the Senate, and 
the Clerk of the House. Members of Congress and dMegates riiall enjoy 
fliis privilege, and that of franking letters and parceld under two omices, 
from the beginning of their term to the first Monday of December follow- 
ing. The Secretary of the Senate and Clerk of the House may frank 
letters, &c. under two ounces, during their term of office. March 1, 1847. 

No. 20. An Act to amend an Act^ entitled " An Act to regulate the carriage 
of passengers in merchant vessels^ and to determine the time when said act thaU 
take effect. The act takes effect with regard to all vessels arriving frcfta. ports 
on this side the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn, on May 31st; from 
places beyond the capes, on October 30th. The clause authorizing two 
children, under eight years, to be reckoned as one passenger, is repealed. 
March 2, 1847. 

No. 21. An Act making appropricOions Jor the support of the army and of 
volunteers for the year ending the thirtieth June, one thousand eight hundred and 
fbrty-eightj and Jor other purposes, March 2, 1847. See page 197. 

No. 22. An Act making appropriations for the support of the Military 
Academy y Jor the year ending on the thirtieth of June, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and forty-eight. March 2, 1847. S6e page 197. 

No. 23. An Act making appropriations Jor the service of the Post Office 
Department, Jbr the year ending the thirtieth of June, eighteen hundred and forty- 
eight. March 2, 1847. See page 197. 

No. 24. An Act further to extend the charter of the Union Bank of George- 
toum, in the District of Columbia. March 2, 1847. 

No. 25. An Act to amend an Act, entitled " An Act to provide for the pay- 
ment of horses, or other property, lost and destroyed in the military service of the 
United States,^ approved the eighteenth day of January, eighteen hundred and 
thirty-seven, March 2, 1847. 
18 



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206 innnu> btatm. [1848. 

No. S6. An Act fir tiie increcue of the marine corpe <if the United ^atte^ 
There are added to the corps, 4 captams, 4 1st lieuteaants, 4 2d lieutenants, 
25 sergeants, 25 corporals, 25 drummers, 25 fifers, and 1,000 privates. The 
officers are to be af^inted, tirst, by promotion, and then by selection ; and 
the nominations to be submitted to the Senate. The act pinsed June 30, 
1834,-^'* for the better organization of the United States Marine Corps," — 
is made applicable to -the provisions of this act; provided that the staff be 
separated from the line, and that the officers of the f<m&er receive the «am6 
pay and hold the same assimilated rank as at present At the close of the 
Mexican war, the President shall reduce the corps to its present number. 
March 2, 1847. 

No. 27. An Act making appropriations for the civil and diplomatic ex- 
penses of government, for the year ending the thirtieth day of June, one thousand 
eight hundred and forty-eight, amd for othei^ purposes, March <S, 1847. See 
^ page 197. 

No. 28. An Act making appropriations for the naval service^ for the year 
ending the thirtieth June, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight. March 3, 
1847. See page 197. 

No. 29. An Act making appropriations for the payment of navy pensions, 
for the year ending thirtieth June, eighteen hundred and forty-eighL March 3, 
1847. See page 197. 

No. SO. An Act making further appropriation to bring the existing war with 
Mexko to a speedy and honorable conclusion. The three millions appropriated 
are to be used, if needed, in event of the treaty^s being signed by the agents 
of both governments, and ratified by Mexico^ and tiie accounts to be trans- 
mitted to Congress. Mteech. 3, 1847. 

No. 31. An Act to provide for the punishment of piracy in certain cotes. 
The subject of any foreign state taken on the sea, committmg piratical 
acts contrary to the provisions of any treaty, may be proceeded against and 
punished in any Circuit Court of the United States, where he may be 
found, or whither he may be brought. March 8, 1847. 

No. 32. An Act authorizing the erection of certain light-houses, and for odter 
purposes, Mardi 3, 1847. 

No. 33. An Act for the admission of the State <f Wisconsin into the Union, 
The State having, on December 16, 1846, adopted a republican constitution 
and asked an admission into the Union, it is admitted accordingly. The 
assent of Congress is given to the change of boundary proposed in the fiiBt 
article of said constitution, to wit : leaving the boundary line prescribed in 
the act of Congress, entitled ^* An Act to enable the people of Wisconsin 
Territory to form a constitution and State government, and for Uie admis* 
sion of such State into the Union," at the first rapids in the river St Louis ; 
thence in a direct line southwardly to a point fifteen miles east of the most 
easterly point in Lake St Crcnx; thence due south to the mam channel of 
the Mississippi River or Lake Pepin ; thence down the said main channel, 
as prescribed in said act 



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1848.] TITLES AMD AB8TBA0TS OF THB PUBLIC LAWS. 901 

No. 34. An Act to crecae an additional land diatrict in the Territory of 
Wisconsin^ and for other purposes. AH the public lands lying within the 
territory " north and west of the following boundary, — to wit: commenc- 
ing at the Mississippi River, on the line between the townships twenty-two 
and twenty-three north, running thence east along said line to the fourth 
principal meridian; thence north, along said meridian line, to the line 
dividing townships twenty-nine and tliirty ; thenee east, along said town- 
ship line, to the Wisconsin Biver ; thence up the main channel of said river 
to the boundary line between the Stato of Michigan and the terriUHy of 
Wisconsin,** — shall form the Chippewa land district. A geological survey is 
to be made, and the mineral lands exposed to sale, after six months' notice, 
in subdivisions of quarter^quarter sections at a minimum of $5 p^ acre, 
and, if not sold at public sale, may be entered at privato sale, at that price. 
Other lands, not reserved, shall be sold according to existing laws. Those 
possessing, by actual occupancy, mines actually discovered previous to the 
passage of this act, and paying rent therefor, upon due proof thereof to the 
register or receiver, may purchase not exceeding one hundred and sixty 
acres, at $5 per acre. Of two persons in possession of the same quarter 
section, the first occupant shall have the preference. All outstanding leases 
from the Secretary of War, of lands actually occupied for mining purposes? 
shall be respected. The management of the mineral lands shall be trans- 
ferred from the war to the treasury department. Mardi 2, 1847. 

No. 85. An Act for the reduction of the costs and expenses of proceedings in 
admiraity against ships and vessels. Where a warrant of arrest, or other pro- 
cess tfi reniy shall be issued, the marshal shall stay the execut4on of such 
process, or discharge the property arrested, on receiving from the claimant 
a bond in double the amount claimed by the libellant, with sufficient surety, 
to be approved by the judge, or, in his absence, by the collector of the port, 
conditioned to abide by the decree of the court in the cause ; the bond to be 
returned to the court, and judgment on the same, both against the principal 
and sureties, to be recovered at the time of rendering the decree in the 
original case. The entire costs in any such case, in which the libellant 
shall not recover more than one hundred dollars, shfdl not be more than 
fifty per cent of the amount recovered in the same, and shall be applied 
first to the payment of the usual witness fees, and the commissioner, if any, 
and the residue be divided, pro rata^ between the clerk and marshal, under 
the direction of the court No attorneys' or proctors' fees shall be altowed 
or paid out of said costs. March 3, 1847. 

No. 36. An Act to give the consent of Congress to the saleof certain scdt 
tpriiig landSf heretofore granted to the States of Michigan., lUinoit, and At- 
kansas, March 3, 1847. 

No. 37. An Act to estcHish a port of entry at SalwricL, in the State of 
Texasy and for other purposes. All that part of the State of Texas south 
and west of the counties of Matagorda and Wharton, including said coon* 



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a08 UNISXD STAISS. [1848. 

ties, shall constitato a coUectitm district Salori^ on the norUi-easteilj part 
of thiB island of Matagorda^ shall be the port of entay ; and Matagorda, 
AraasaSy Copaao* and Corpus Qiristi, ports of delivery only. March 3, 
1847. 

No. 38. An Act rdmqmsking to the city ofMadisony in the State ofLidiana^ 
all ike right and title tf the Unittd Statee to u certain strip of tmswveyed land^ 
Jjfing within the Umitt of said city^ and bordering on the Ohio Biver, March 3, 
1847. 

No. 39. An Act to amend an Act, entitied ^* An Act to raise, Jbr a limited 
time^ €tn additional miiitary force, and for other purpoeesP Under section 9 of 
the act approred February 11, 1847 (see page 199), the Secretary of the 
Treasury ^lall issue the scrip therein provided, on. the certificate of the 
Secretary of War, showing the claimant ^ititled thereto, and not otherwise. 
This stock shall bear interest, payable on the first d^s of January and 
July, from the day of presenting to the Treasury department, such certifi- 
cate of the Secretary of War, in due form, and shall be transferable on the 
books of the Treasury Department. The certificate shall be signed by the 
Begister of the treasury, and shall bear the seal of the department, and no 
otlra^ signature shall be required. March 3, 1847.. 

No. 40. An Act creating a collection district in Maine, and constituting 
Bangor, in said district, a port of entry and delivery. l}ie counties of Pe- 
nobscot and Piscataquis, and the town of Frankfort, in the county <^ 
Waldo, are made the district of Bangor, and Bangor is made the port of 
entry and delivery. March 3, 1847. 

No. 41. An Act making provision for an additional number of general 
ojieers, and for other purposes. Not more than tiiree additional brigadier- 
generals, nor more than two major-generals, may be appointed, if the 
efficiency of the service require it ; the said, general officers to be imme- 
diately discharged at the close of the war with Mexica Volunteers, now 
in service, if, upon the expiration of their enlistment, they reenter the 
service, rfwll be entitled to a bounty of twelve dollars. The services of 
individual volunteers to fill vacancies in the volunteer corps may be re- 
ceived. Officers of the *' ten regiments," of equal grade, shall take rank 
as the President may direct, without regard to priority of appointment 
The provisions of the act of May 13, 1846 (see American Almanac for 
1847, p. 201), are extended to the raiment of mounted riflemen. Army 
regulations, giving sutlers a lien upon any part of the pay of soldiers, 
or a right to receive the soldiers' pay from the pi^master, are abro- 
gated ; and the privileges of sutlers are regulated by the rules and arti- 
cles of war alone. The number of officers in the pay department may 
be increased; such officers to be confirmed by the Senate, and to give 
bonds. The dsagcions as to bounty, &C., are put upon the same footing 
with the other regiments. When any non-commissioned office shall dis- 
tinguish himseli^ the Prendent may attach him by bfevet of the IowqbI 



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1848.] TITLB8 AHD ABSTKACTS OF TBM PUBLIC LAWS. 109 

grade of rank, with tfae pay of such grade, to any corpi of &e array, pro- 
Tided that tiiere be not more than one so attached to any one company at 
the same time. If a private soldier distingnish himself, the President may 
grant him a certificate, which shall entitle him to two dollars per month, 
additional pay. If the rank and file of any regiment or regiments, includ- 
ing Tolnnteers, be not fiUed, the Fk^dent may consolidate snch deficient 
regiment or regiments, and dismiss all supernumerary officers ; the officers 
so discharged to receire each, three months' additional pay and mileage. 
The rank and file, raised under this act, shall be disbanded at the close of 
the war with Mexico, except the additional <^Scers of ordnance^ and the 
two additional companies to each regiment of artillery. March 3, 1847. 

No. 42. An Act providing for the building cmd equipment of Jour navcd 
steamshipt. One million of dollars is appropriated to build ^* four first-dass 
sea-going steam-ships," to be attached to the navy of the United States. 
The Secretary of the Navy shall accept the proposal of E. K Collins and 
others, for the transportation of the mail between New York and laverpook 
The steam-shijis are to be built under the superintendence of a United 
States naval constructor, so as to be easily convertible into war-steamers of 
the first class ; and they are to receive, without charge, four passed mid- 
shipmen and a mail-agent. The Secretary of the Navy shall accept the 
proposal of A. G. Sloo, of Cincinnati, to transport the mail from New York 
to New Orleans and back, touching at Charleston, if practicable. Savan- 
nah and Havana; and from Havana to Chagres and back, twice a month. 
The mail is to be transported in at least five steamships, of not less than 
fifteen hundred tons burden, with engines of not less than one thousand 
horse power, to be constructed under the direction of a United States naval 
constructor, so as to be convertible into first-class war-steamers, to be com- 
manded by United States officers, not lower in rank than a lieutenant, to 
be selected by the constructor and approved by the Secretary of the Navy, 
who shall be accommodated, without charge, and four passed midshipmen 
and a mail agent mie Secretary of the Navy may, at his discretion, admit 
a steamer of not less than six hundred tons, with engines in proportion, to 
be employed between £[avana and Chagres. The compensation is not to 
exceed $290,000 {per annum f). The Secretary of the Navy shall contract 
for the transportation of the mail, ei&er by sailing or steam-vessels, from 
Panama to some port in Oregon, once a month each way, so as to connect 
with the mail from Havana to Chagres. The Navy department shall con- 
trol the steamers, and may take them, at any time, fw the government ; due 
provision being made in the contracts for ascertaining the compensation to 
contractors therefor. March 3, 1847. 

No. 43. An Act to establish certain post routes. 

Sec. 1 defines these routes, which are very numerous, and, by the provis- 
ions of Sec. 2, go into operation July 1, 1847, or sooner. 

Sco. 3 appropriates $30,000 for a mail, weekly or oftener, from New 
18* 



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Ockanf, Tia QalTettoi, Paaso CaUot Brioof de St Jago, to Tutpioo, wiA 
zetum mails; tibe service to be performed \>j contract, or by the use of pid>- 
He steamers now in the service. 

Sso. 4.— All letters or packages, weighing not more than one oonce eaeh, 
directed to anj officer^ musician, or private, of the army oi the United 
States in Meidco, or at any post or place on the frontier of the Ui^ted 
States, bordering on Mexico, shall be conveyed to ^e mail free of postage* 
The words " belonging to the army** must compose part of the direction. 

Sso. 5. — The provisions of the two foregoing sections are to be discosr 
tinned three months after the close of the war. 

Sbo. 6 authorizes a contract for transporting a mail from Charleston, 
South Carolina, to Chagres, touching at St Augustine and Key West, and 
also at Havana, in the island of Cuba, if deemed expedient, and across the 
isthmus of Panama, and from thence to Astoria, or the mouth of the Colum- 
bia River, touching at Monterey, St Francisco, and other places. The 
water service is to be done by steamers, and the mail to be tran^>ortedeach 
way at least once in two months, at a cost not exceeding $100,000 per 
annum. 

Sbo. 7 authorizes the appointment of a deputy posteaaster at Astoria 
and other places in the United States ieniUyry on the. Pacific Letters sent 
to Chagres to be charged 20; Havana, 12)^; Panama, 30; and to the 
Padfic Coast, 40 cents each. 

Sbc. 8. — ^Any contract made in pursuance of this act shall provide for 
the purchase, by the United States, of the steamships to be employed in 
conveying the mail, at its option, agreeably to the provisions of March 3, 
1845. The place of departure and return of said mail may, at the discre- 
tion of the Postmaster-General, be either from Charleston, New York, Sa- 
vannah, Pensac(^ or New Orleans. 

Sbc. 9 appropriates $30,000 for the service herein provided for* 

Sec. 10 authorizes the Postmaster-Greneral to establish branch post- 
offices in cities or places, and to prescribe rules for their r^uladon. No 
additional postage shall be charged for the receipt or delivery of any letter 
or packet at such branch post-office. 

Sec. 11 authorizes the Postmaster- General to have prepaid postage 
stamps prepared, and kept for sale by deputy postmasters, and makes it 
felony to counterfeit said stamps. 

Sbc. 12 appropriates $200,000 per annum from the general fund, in 
lieu of the sums now paid for mail service performed f<Hr the two houses of 
Congress. 

Sec. 13 imposes a fine of ten dollars for enclosing two or more letters, 
directed to different persons, in the same envelope ; one half of the fine to 
go to the informer. The provision does not apply to letters sent to foreign 
countries. All newspapers sent by mail, except exchange papers of news- 
papers and those regularly franked, to be subject to postage. Newspa- 



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1848.] TITLES AKD AB8T&A.0TS OV THB PUBLIC LAWS. Sll 

pers Bot sent fhnn the office of pnbBcstioR, and all bandbills or einmlarst 
printed or Hthographed, not exeeeding one sheet, shall be subject to three 
cents postage each, to be prepaid. Contractors or mail carriers to be 
allowed to transport newspapers oat of the mail, for sale or distribution to 
subscribers ; and t^e Postmaster-General shall haTc authority to pay, or 
cause to be paid, a sum not exceeding two cents each, fbr all letters or 
pBxketa eonyeyed in any vessel er steamboat not employed in carrying iJiS 
maol from one port or place to any other port or place in the United States. 
Books that hare been published or procured by order of dlber House of 
Congress, or both of thmn, may be franked as public documents. No al- 
lowance or compensation shall be made to deputy postmasters, in addition 
to their commissions authorized by law, excepting the receipts from boxes, 
of which aU beyond $2,000 shall be ^plied in defraying the expenses of 
their offices. The special allowance made by law to the postinasters at 
Washington city and New Orleans is continued. 

Sao. 14 repeals so mudi of ike act of March 3, 1845, and of other acts, 
as is inconsistent with this act. March 3, 1847. 

No. 44. An Act to amend an Act, entitled *' An Act to amend ' An Act to 
carry into effect^ in the States of Alabama and Mississippi^ the existing com- 
pacts with those States with regard to the Jive per cent.fimd and the school reser- 
vations.^ " Extends the provisions of this act so as to enable the State of 
Alabama to locate a quantity of land, in any State or territory, equal to the 
quantity due to the inhabitants in iht Chickasaw cession, March 3, 1847. 

No. 45. An Act to authorize the constituted authfirities of the city of DubU' 
que^ in the State of Iowa, to enter certain islands between the landings of said 
city and the main channel of the Mississippi Bicer. March 3, 1847. 

No. 46. An Act to amend an Act, entitled ** An Act to provide for the better 
organization of the department of Indian affairs*^ <md an Act, entitled ^An Act 
to regulate track and intercourse with the Indian tribes, and to preserve peace on 
thefrontiers,^^ approved June thirtieth, eighteen hundred ami thirty-four, and fbr 
other purposes. The limits of the superintendencied, &c., shall be defined ; the 
superintendents, &c., shall be furnished with offices, and the agents and sub- 
agents with houses, and shall, with the assent of the Indians, be permitted to 
caltiyate such portions of land as the Secretary of War shall deem proper. 
In addition to the fines imposed by act, June 30, 1834, persons Tending or 
giving spirituous liquors or wines to an Indian, in the Indian country, or 
introducing the same to said country (except army supplies), shall be pun- 
ished, on conviction before the proper United States District Court, in the 
former case by imprisonment not exceeding two years, and in the latter 
not exceeding one year. Indians are made competent witnesses, in prose- 
cutions under this act, and under the 20th section of the act, June 30, 1834. 
The 11th section of said act is so amended that annuities, moneys, or goods, 
payable by treaty to any Indian tribe, may (at the President's or Secretary 



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ai9 UVITSD S¥ATBt. [1848. 

of War's diflCTQlfam) be diTided among the peraoas eni^d, or, wHh the 
o^isent of the Secretary of War, be so applied as wiU be best for them. 
No moneys, &c^ shall be paid to any Indians while intendeated, nor while 
ihey have intoxicating liquor within reach, nor until the head-men have 
pledged themselves to endeavor to prevent the sale of such liquor in their 
country. All executory contracts made by an Indian for the payment of 
money or goods shall be held to be null and void. One of the $1,000 
clerkships in the office of Indian affiiirs shall be discontinued after June 
SOth. The chief clerk is to recehre $100, and one of the $1,000 derks $200 
additional per annum. $5,000 are appropriated to collect historical statis- 
tics, &c. of the Indian tribes ; $20,000, for presents to the Indians of Texas 
and the south-western prairies, for the years 1846 and 1847 j $3,650 to pay 
a special Indian agent and two interpreters for one year ; and $10,000 to 
carry into effect a treaty with the Camanche and other Indians; $6,000 to 
the commission sitting under the Cherokee treaty. 

No. 47. An Act giving the consent of Congress to an Act of the Cfeneral 
Assembly of Virginia, authorizing the levy of tolls on the James Biver. March 
3, 1847. 

XXXI. PUBLIC RESOLUTIONS. 

No. 1. A Resolution respecting the maps and charts of the surveys of the 
boundary lines of the United States of America with foreiga states. March 
1, 1847. 

No. 2. Resolutions giving the thanks of Congress to Major General Tay- 
lor, and the officers and men under his command, in the late military opera- 
tions at Monterey. March 2, 1847. 

No. 3. ReseitOion to refund money to the States which have supplied 
volunteers and furnished them transportation during the present war, before 
being mustered and received into the service of the United States. ||f arch 
3, 1847. 

No. 4. A Resohtiion for lighting with gas the capitol and capites grounds. 
March 3, 1847. 

No. 5. A Resolution concerning ihe purdiase of additional lands for the 
use of the United States armories at Hsu^er's Perry and Springfield. 
March 3, 1847. 

No. 6. A Resolution authorizing the employment of the United States 
ships Macedonian and Jamestown, in transporting provisions for the fam- 
ishing poor of Ireland and Scotland. March 3, 1847. 

No. 7. A Joint Resolution, relative to the preparation and presentation of 
medals to certain French, British, and Spanish officers. March 3, 1847. 

No. 8. A Joint Resolution to prohibit the sale at private entry of certain 
lands in Cincinnati, Ohio. March 3, 1847. 



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XXXil . PUBLIC TREATIES OF THE UNITED STATES RAT- 
IFDBD SINCE THE FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY- 
NINTH CONGRESS. 

1. Additional article to the conv.ention, for the surrender of criminals be- 
tween the United States and France, of the 9th* November, 1843. Con- 
cluded. 

2. Convention with Saxony for the mutual abolition of the Droit d'Au- 
baine and taxes on emigration. Concluded, May 14, 1845 ; ratified, August 
12, 1846. 

3. Convention with Nassau for the mutual abolition of the Droit d'Au- 
baine and taxes on emigration. Concluded, May 27, 1846. 

4. Convention with Peru, for the payment of claims presented by Samuel 
Ijamed, Esq., when Charg6 d' Affaires at Lima. Concluded, March 17, 
1841; ratified, October 21, 1845 j President's proclamation, January 8, 
1847. 

5. Treaty with the Winnebagoes. Concluded, October 13, 1846. 

6. Treaty with the Camanches and other Indians. Concluded, August 
13, 1846. 

7. Commercial treaty between the United States of America and His 
Majesty the King of Hanover. Concluded, June 10, 1846. 



XXXI II POPULATION OF THE PRI&CIPAL CITIES. 





1790. 


1800. 


1810. 


1820. 


1880. 


1840. 


1845. 
871,102 


New York, 


88,131 


60,489 


96,373 


123,706 


203,007[812,710 


Philadelphia, 






42,A20 


70,2S7 


96,664 


108,116 


167,U8 258,087* 




BaBimore, 








18,608 


26,614 


46,555 


62,738 


80,625:134,379* 




NewOrieanB, 












17,242 


27476 


46,310;i02,198 




Boston, . 








18,038 


24,927 


82,250 


48,298 


61,3^ 


93,383 


114,866 


Cincinnati, . 








.. 


750 


2,640 


9,644 


24,831 


46,338 




Brooklyn, 








. . 


8,298 


4,402 


7475 


12,042 


86,288 


5?'5S 


Albany,^ . 








8,496 


5,849 


9,356 


12,630 


24,238 


33,721 


41,189 


Oharleflton, 








16,860 


18,712 


24,ni 


24,480 


80,2g 


29,261 




Waahington, 








.. 


8,210 


8,208 


18,247 


18,827 


23,364 




Providence, 










7,614 


10,071 


11,767 


16,832 


23,171 




Loui«TiIle, . 








.. 




1,357 


4,012 


10,352 


21,210 




Pifctsbuig, 








. . 


1,665 


4,768 


7,248 


12,542 


21ffi 




LoweU, 








,. 


.. 




.. 


6,474 


20,796 


28,841 


Bochester, 








,. 






1,502 


9^ 


20,191 


26,265 








. . 


6,687 


9,785 


12,046 


16,060 


20,153 




Troy, . 










.. 


8,885 


6,264 


11,401 


l^'2?t 


21,709 


BufEUo, 








.. 


• • 


1,608 


2,006 


8,663 


18,213 


29,778 


Newark, 

St. Louis, . 








;; 


:; 


•• 


6,507 

4^ 


10,963 
6,852 


17,290 
16,469 


26,488 
84,140 


Portland, 








.. 


8,677 


7*168 


8,581 


12,601 


15,218 




Salem, 




7,921 


9,4B7« 12,612 


13,721 


18,886' 16,082 





* Inclading ^e coun^. 



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214 UXITBD 8TATK8. [1848. 

XXXIV. POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



XXXV. 



• May, 1844. 
SLAVES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



States. 


1790. 


1800. 


1810. 


1820. 


1880. 


1840. 


New Hampshire, 
Vermont, 
Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, 
New York, 
New Jersey, 

Delaware, 

Maryland, 

Virginia, 

North Carolina, 

South Carolina, 

Georgia, 

Alabama, 

Mis^ppi, 

Louisiana, 

Arkansas, 

Tennessee, 

Kentucky, 

Michigan, 

Indiana, 

nUnois, 

Missouri, 

Dist. Columbia, 

Florida, 

WlBoonsin, 

Iowa, 




158 

17 



962 

2,759 

21,324 

11,428 

8,787 

8,887 

103,086 

208,427 

100,672 

107,094 

29,264 



8 

i 

951 

20,343 

12,422 

1,706 

6,163 

106,636 

845,796 

133,296 

146,161 

69,404 






log 

810 

16,017 

10,851 

795 

4,177 

111,602 

392,618 

168,824 

196,865 

105,218 










48 

97 

10,088 

7,657 

211 

4,509 

107,898 

425,153 

295,017 

258,475 

149,656 

41,879 

82,814 

69,064 

1,617 

80,107 

126,782 






17 
25 
75 
2,254 

8,292 

102,294 

469,767 

285,601 

816,401 

217,631 

117,649 

65,669 

109,688 

4,676 

141,608 

165,213 



82 



747 

25,081 

6,119 

15,601 




1 





6 

17 

4 

674 

64 

2,605 

89,787 

448,987 

245,817 

827,088 

280944 

258^ 

\^^ 

19,986 

188,069 

182,268 

8 



8 

881 

68,240 

4,694 

25,717 

16 




8,489 


17,088 
84,660 




' 




8,417 
11,880 


18,684 
40,843 


44^ 
80,661 






24 

287 

168 

8,011 

6,896 






136 


190 

117 

10,222 

6,877 










8,244 






























Total, 


697,897 


898,041 


1,191,8641 


1,688,064 


2,000,081 


2,487,865 



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INDIVIDUAL STATES. 



I. MAINE. 

The first permanent settlement in Maine was formed about the year 1630; 
and for several years the government of the colony was admmistered m the 
name of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, as proprietor of the country. 

In 1652, the inhabitants of Maine were placed under the jurisdiction of 
Massachusetts. The country was, however, afterwards claimed by the heirs 
of Gorges, but was, in 1677, purchased by the colony of Massachusetts. From 
that time the territory formed a part of the colony, and afterwards of the 
State of Massachusetts, and was styled the District of Maine, till the year 
1820, when it was erected into an independent state. 

Governors. 



Wm. King, entered upon office, 1820 

Albion K. Paris, do, 1821 

E. LincoLd, do. 1826 

Jonathan G. Hunton, do. 1830 

Samuel E. Smith, do. 1831 

Robert P. Dunlap, do. 1834 

Edward Kent, do. 1838 



John Fturfield, entered upon office, 1839 
Edw. Kent do. 1841 

John Fairfield, do. 1842 

^Edw. Kavanagh, Acting Gov. 1843 
Hugh J. Anderson, enL upon office 1 844 
John W. Dana, do. 1847 



Abstract op the Constitution. 

The Constitution of this state was formed in 1819, and went into opera- 
tion in 1820. 

Every male citizen, except paupers, persons under guardianship, and In- 
dians not taxed, 21 years old, and for three months next preceding any elec- 
tion a resident of the state, may vote in the town where his residence is so 
established. Persons in the army or navy of the United States stationed in 
garrison, and students in seminaries, shall not thereby gain such a residence 
as will entitle them to vote. The election of state oflScers shall be annually, 
on the second Monday in September. 

Representatives, not less than 100 nor more than 200 in number, and 
elected annually, must be 21 years old ; five years citizens of the United 

• Got. Fairfield was elected United States Senator, March 8d, 1843. 



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216 MAINS. [1848. 

States, one year residents in tbe state, and, for three months next preceding 
Ihe election, inhabitants of the towns which thej represent A town haying 
1,500 inhabitants is entitled to send 1 representative ; having 3,750, 2 ; 6,775, 
3 ; 10,500, 4 ; 15,000, 5 ^ 20,250, 6 ; 26,250, 7 ; but no town can ever be ^i- 
titled to more than 7 representatives. Senators, not less than 20 nor more 
than 31 in nnmber, most be 25 years old ; their term of office and liieir 
qualifications in other respects shall be the same as those of the representa- 
tives. ■ Vacancies in the Senate shall be filled by joint, vote of the senators 
elected and the representatives, from those who had the highest number of 
votes in each district at the popular elections. The Senate shall try all im- 
peachments, and a vote of two^thirds of the members present shall be neces- 
sary for conviction. Judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal 
from, or disqualification for, office ; the party being still liable to indictment 
No senator or representative shall, during his term, be appointed to any 
civil office of profit that shall have been created, or its emoluments increased, 
during such term ; and no member of Congress, or person holding office 
under the United States, post-officers excepted, can have a seat in either 
House. 

The governor, chosen by a majority of votes, shall hold office for one year. 
He must be 30 years old, a natural born citizen of the United States ; for 
five years, and at the time of his election and during his term, a resident of 
the state. If no person has a majority of votes, the House of Repre- 
sentatives, from those having the four highest numbers, if there be so many, 
shall elect two persons, and return their names to &e Senate, one of whom 
the Senate shall elect and declare governor. Ko person holding office under 
the United States, this state, or any other power, shall be governor. If the 
office of governor be vacant, the President of the Senate, and after him the 
Speaker of the House, shall act as governor. He may veto a bill ; but 
two-thirds of both Houses may pass it in spite of his veto. 

Seven councillors, not more than otie in any senatorial district, citizens of 
the United 'States and residents of tJie state, shall be chosen annually, by 
joint-ballot of the senators and representatives, to advise the governor in the 
executive part of the government. 

The secretary of state and treasurer shall be chosen annually, by joint- 
ballot of the senators and representatives. The treasurer shall not be eligi- 
ble more than five years successively. 

The justices of the supreme court shall receive a stated compensation, 
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. All judi- 
cial officers are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of 
the council, and shall hold office for seven years from the date of their ap- 
pointment, unless sooner removed by impeachment or address. 

Quakers, Shakers, justices of the supreme court, and ministers of the gos- 
pel, shall be exempted from military duty. Suita'ble provision shall be made 
by towns to support and maintain public schools. Ko grant shall be made 



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1848.] 



m 



hj the legislature to any literary tastitution, unless it has oontrol orer ita' 
charter. Na religioiis test shall be required as a qualification for any office 
or trust In all libel cases the tnith may be given in eYidenoe, and the jnry 
shall determine both the law and the fact 

Amendments to the constitution must receive a two-thirds vote of both 
Houses, and be submitted to the people at the next general election ; and If 
a majority are in fa,Yor of the amendment, it shall become a patt c^ tho 
constitution. 



GOYEBNHENT, 

For the year ending on the second Wednesday in June^ 1848. 



BilaiT. 



John W. Dana, 


of Fryeburg, Governor Cterm expiree on 


the second Wednesday m May, 1848), 


$1,500 


Ezra B. French, 


of Nobleboro', Secretary of State^ 


900 


Moses M'Donald, 


of Limerick, Treasurer, 


900 


Alfred Redington, 


of Augusta, Adjutant- General^ 


700 


Levi Bradley, 


of Charleston, Land-Agent, 


1,000 


Benjamin Carr, 


of Palermo, Warden of State Prison, 


700 


James Bates, 


of Augusta, Sup't of Insane Hospital, 


800 


Nicholas Emery, 


of Porthmd, ) ^^^ Ommissioners. 
of Waterville, ) 




Alpheus Lyon, 




HughD.H'Lellan, 






Samuel Belcher, 


of Farmington, Clerk of the House, 




John Hodgdon, 


of Houlton, President of the Senate. 




Daniel T.Fike, 


of Augusta, Clerk of the Senate, 

JUDIOIART. 

Supreme Judicial Court, 




Ezekiel Whitman, 


of Portland, Chief Justice, 


$1,800 


Ether Shepley, 


of Portland, Justice, 


1,800 


John S. Tenney, 


of Norridgewo<^, do. 


1,800 


Wyman B. S. Moor, 


of Waterville, Attorney- General, 


1,000 


John Shepley, 


of Saco, Reporter, 
District Courts, 


1,000 


Daniel Qoodenow, 


of Alfred, WestDist Ju^, 


$1,200 


Asa Redington, Jr., 


of Augusta, Mid. do. do. 


1,200 


Frederick H. Allen, 


of Bangor, East. do. do. 


1,200 



Municipal and Police Courts, 
Luther Htch, of Portland, Judge, 

Ebenezer Clap, of Bath, do. 

Gostavus G. Cushman, of Bangor, do, 

19 



$700 



900 



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218' 



Probate ComU, 



11848. 



Counties. 


Jadgei. 


Residence. 


Sal- 
ary.' 


B«girten. 

Wm. Hammond} 


BaiidAee. 


Sal- 
ary. 


York, 


Wm. C. ADen, 


Alfred, 


SI800 


Westinook, 


Cumberland, 


Josiah Peiree, 


Gorham, 


400 


Chris. 0. Tobie, 


900 


Lincoln,, ^>, 


Nathaniel Groton, 


Bath, 


300 


Arnold Blaney, 


Bristol, 


goo 


Do. B. Diist. 


Joel Miller, 


Thomaston, 


100 


Beder Fales, 


Th'maston, 


160 


Hanoock, 


Samuel M. Pond, 


Bucksport, 


290 


J. D. Richards, 


Ellsworth, 


doo 


Washington, 


J. C. Talbot, 


E. Machias, 


250 


Albert G. Lane, 


Machias, 


400 


Kennebec, 


Wm. Emmons, 


Hallowell, 


800 


Fran. Davis, Jr., 


Augosta, 


660 


Oxford, 


Lyman Rawson, 


Rumford, 


200 


Geo. F. Emery, 


ParisT^ 


350 


Somerset, 


Charles Greene, 


Athens, 


160 


ThoB. 0. Jon«8, 




90O 


Penobscot, 


Samuel Cony, 


Orono, 
Camden, 


275 


John Williams, 


Bangor, 


660 


Waldo, 


Jona. Thayer, 


150 


Charles Palm«f, 


B^st,' 


800 


Franklin, 


Map. Sherburne, 


PhilUps, 


100 


Sewall Cram, 


N.Sharon, 


150 


Piscataquis, 


Eph. Packard, 


Blanchard, 


75 


Eben S. Greely, 


Dover, 


125 


Aroostook, 'S. G. Tuck, 


Haynesville, 


100 


ITheodore Caxy, 


HoultOQ, 


126 



Finances. 

[Extracted from the Report of the State Treasurer, April 80, 1847.] 

. Amount of receipts from May 1, 1846, to April 30, 1847, $284,082.34 

Balance in the Treasury of cash, April 30, 1847, 369,103.54 

$653,135.88 
Amount of expenditures from May 1 , 1846, to April 30, 1847, 560,209.74 



Balance in the Treasury, April 30, 1847, 
Principal items of Expenditure. 
Salaries, $22,587.00 

Pay of legislature, 37,795.60 

Expenses of executive, 5,697.91 

Clerks, 2,700.50 

Costs in criminal pros*tions, 18,691.71 
Schools, 24,428.27 

Board of education, 725iX) 

Instruction in Madawaska, 606.82 
Printing, binding, & station*y, 4,239.25 



Roll of accounts, " 6,791.05 

Deaf, dumb, and blind, 3,785.00 

Insane Hospital, 12,550.00 

Trustees of do., 313.00 

Militia pensions, 2,396X)0 

Penobscot Indians fund, 3,985.15 

Indian annuities, 1,500.00 

State Prison officers, 4,282.50 



County taxes. 
Agricultural societies, 
Canada road, 
Public debt paid, 
Interest on debt, 
Volimteers for Mexico, 



^92,926.14 

$9,158.04 

1,956.23 

2,000i)0 

131,585.00 

78,767.69 

683.14 



Chief sources of Inoome* 
Direct taxes, $154,698.60 



Land office, 60,623.02 

Permanent school fund, 7,213.98 

School fund, No. 14, 26,215.00 

County taxes, 6,768.99 

Bank dividends, 500.00 

Interest on deposits, 5,295.19 

Duties on commissions, 1,951.02 
U. States, under Resolve of 



Aug. 6, 1846, 



19,806.32 
$860^781.11 



The resources of the State are set down at 
Among which are enumerated, besides cash on hand and pro- 
ceeds c^ annual taxes, U. States 6 per cent stock, due 1856, 
interest semi-annually, .... 160,000.00 

100 shares in Augusta Bank, . . . 10,000.00 

Securities in the land office, and notes receivable, . . 349,622.04 

Also, balance of claims against the United States. 

Whole amount of public debt, . . $1,142,700.00 

Interest'on this debt, about . . 73, 0.00 



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1648.1 



. MBW HAKFBHUIB. 



219 



n. NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

The earliest grant of the territory of New Hampshire was made, in 1622, 
to J<^m Mason and Eerdinando Gorges -, and the first settlements were 
begun, in 1623, at Dover and Portsmouth. 

In 1641, the settlements in New Hampshh^ voluntarily put themselves 
under the government of the colony of Massachusetts, and were allowed to 
send representatives to the General Court at Boston, till 1679, when a new 
government was formed , and New Hampshire was made a separate province. 

In 1686, New Hampshire was placed, together with the rest of New 
England, under the government of Sir Edmund Andros ; in 1689, the union 
with Massachusetts was revived, and continued till 1692. Erom 1699 to 
1702, it 'was united with Massachusetts and New York j in 1702, it was 
again united with Massachusetts, and so continued till 1741, when a final 
separation took place. 

GOYBRNORS, &0. 

Under the Bayed Government. 



Walter Barefoot, Dep.-Gov, 
Joseph Dudley, 



1685 
1686 



John Cutt, President^ 1680 

Bichard Waldron, do, 1681 

Edward Cranfield,/4eu<.-(?027. 1682 

In 1686 under the government of Sir Edmund Andros. 

In 1689 the union with Massachusetts revived, 
John Usher, Lieut.- Gov, 1692 I Samuel Allen, Governor, 1698* 

William Partridge, do, 1697 I 

In 1699 united with Massachusetts and New Yorh 
In 1702 united unth Massachusetts, 
Benning Wentwotth, Gov. 1741 | John Wentworth, Gov, 1767 
The Engiish government terminated in 1775, and in 1776 a temporary gov- 
emment was formed, which continued during the war / Meshech Weare being 
annually decttd Plreadent. 

Presidents under the ConstitiOion o/" 1784. 



Heshech Weare, 
JobnLongdon, 
John SallivBii, 



do. 
do. 



1784 
1785 
1786 



John Langdon, 
John Sullivan, 
Josiah Bartlett, 



elected 
do. 
do. 



Governors under the Constitution of 1792. 



Josiah Bardett, elected 1792 

John Taylor Giiman, do. 1794 

John Langdon, do, 1805 

Jeremiah Smith, do. 1809 

John Loi^^don, do. 1810 



William Plmner, elected 
John Taylor Gilman, do, 
William Plumer, do. 

Samuel Bell, do. 

Levi Woodbury, tfo. 



1788 
1789 
1790 



1812 
1813 
1816 
1819 
1823 



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•so 



[1848. 



David L-Morril, 


dected 1834 


baacHill, era. ^m office June 18S6 


Benjamin Fierce, 


da. 1827 


Jolm Page, do. 


1839 


John Bell, 


do. 1828 


Henry Hubbard, dd. 


1S42 


Benjamin Pierce, 


do. 1829 


John H. Steele, do. 


•l844 


Matthew Harvey, 


do. 1830 


Anthony Colby, do. 


1846 


8. Dinsmoor, entMpon 


office June 1831 


Jared W. WiUiams, do. 


1847 



Wniiam Badger, do. 1834 

Abstract of thb Cokstitution. 

A constitution was established in 1784 ; and, in 1792, this constitution 
• was altered and amended by a convention of delegates held at Concord, 
and is now in foi'ce. 

Every male inhabitant twenty-one years old, excepting paupers and per- 
sons excused from paying taxes at their own request, may vote. Kepre- 
sentatives shall have resided for the last two years in the state ; shall have 
an estate valued at £100 (at the rate of six shillings eight pence the ounce 
of silver), one-half thereof to be freehold within their district ; and shall be 
inhabitants of their district Every town of one hundred and fifty rateable 
polls, twenty-one years old, may choose one representative; and every three 
hundred such polls additional shall entitle the town to another representa- 
tive.* There shall be twelve senators who mnst be thirty years old, inhab- 
itants of the state for seyen years, and seized of a freehold of £200 value 
within the state. Senatorial districts, twelve in number, shall be set off 
according to the '^ proportion of public taxes paid by the said districts.*^ In 
case of vacancy in a senatorial district, one of the two candidates having 
most votes in the district shall be chosen by the legislature on jmnt ballot 
The General Court, thus constituted, meets, and the ofSdal year begins, on 
the first Wednesday of June. Five councillors, thirty years old, seven years 
resident in the state, possessed of an estate of £500, of which £300 shall 
be freehold, shall be chosen by the people, and vacancies supplied as in the 
Senate. The governor convenes the council, and their resolutions and ad- 
vice are recorded in a public record, and signed by those agreeing thereto. 
The governor shall have the qualifications of a councillor, except his estate, 
which shall be £300, one-half freehold. If there be no choice of governor by 
the people, one of the twobighest candidates shall be chosen by the General 
Court, on jdnt ballot He may yeto a bill ; but two-thuds of both houses 
may pass it again in spite of his veto. With the assistance oi the council, 
he shall nominate and appoint all judicial officers, the attorney-general, so- 
licitors, sheriffs, and registers of probate. The governor and council sljall . 
have a negative on each other, both in nominations and app<»ntment8* 
County treasurers and registers shall be elected by the counties. All judi- 
cial officers shall hold office during good behavior, or until seventy years' of 

•llianiis also olassed towns and towns allowed by sp«lal act to lend npnmnUJAjm. 



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184$;] 



»iw HUipSHnn:. 



9fl 



age, remoyable upon address of .both tenses of the legislature. Justices of 
the peace are appointed for five years, vnih jurisdic^on in cases below £4. 
Clerks of courts shall be appointed by the courts. Permanent and honora- 
ble salaries shall be established for the justices of the supreme court. 
Elections of goyemor, executiye council, senate, and house of represen- 
tatiyes, shall be held annually in the month (2d Tuesday) of March ; and a 
majority of votes shall elect 

Eyeiy seven yeani, at the first annual meeting for the choice of senators, 
the people shall vote for or against amending the constitution ; and if a 
majority of the votes be in favor thereof, the General Court shall call a 
convention; and if their amendments be approved by two-thirds of th^ 
votes, when submitted to the people, they shall be adopted. 



GOYBBNMENT, 

ITor the year ending an the first Wednesday of June, 1 848. 



Jarbd W. Williams, 
Thomas P. Treadwell, 
William C. Prescott, 
John Atwood, 
Lyman B. Walker, 
Charles H. Peaslee, 
Chas. B. Hadduck, 
Harry Hibbard, 
Moses Korris, Jr., 
John H. (Jeorge, 
Lewis Smith, 
Butterfield&Hill, 



Salary. 
$1,000 
800 
Fees. 
600 
1,200 
400 



of Lancaster, Crovemor^ 

of Concord, Secretary of State, 

of Concord, Depvty Sec. of States 

of Concord, Treasurer, 

of Concord, Attomey- General, 

of Concord, Adjutant- General, 

of Hanover, School Commissioner, 

of Bath, Pres. of the Senate, $2.50 per day. 

of Pittsfield, Speaker of the House, $2.50 per day. 

of Concord, Clerk of the Senate, Fees. 

of Henniker, Clerk of the House, Fees. 

of Concord, State Printers. 



1st District, 


2d 


do. 


3d 


do. 


4th 


do. 


5th 


do. 



Executive Council 
Counties. Ooondllois. 

1 ^offir a?k! ^^ } 'o^ KeUey, of Exeter. 
{ S'^^^^^D^P'*"* } Zebnlon Pease, of Ossipee. 

Cheshire and Sullivan, Jared Perkins, of Unity. 
Grafton and Coos, £nos Ferrin, of Hebron. 

19* 



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JUBIOIAmT. 



[1848. 



The Superior Conrt of Judif^tuiie consists of a chief justice and two as- 
sociate justices, who hold one term annually in each of the ten coui^es of 
the state, for the hearing and determining of questions of law, and petitions 
for divorce. This court is also vested with chancery powers. 

The judges of the Superior Court of Judicature are, ex offictOj judges of 
the Court of Common Fleas. This court, hefore whom all actions for the 
recovery of debts and the enforcement of contracts, and all jury trials, are , 
brought, consists of one of the justices of the Superior Court, or one of the 
justices of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas and of two county judges, 
* who are generally appointed from among the yeomanry, whose principal 
duty it is to attend to the ordinary business of the county, its roads, ex- 
penses, &c. Terms are held semi-annually, in each of the counties. 

Superior Court. 

Appointed. Salary^ 
Joel Parker, of Keene, Chief Justice^ 1838 f 1,200 

Andrew S. Woods, of Bath, Associate Justice^ 1840 1,200 

John J. GUchrist, of Chtu-lestown, do. 1840 1,200 



Circuit Court. 



Charles F. Gove, of Nashville, 

Ira A.^Eastman, of Gilmanton, 

Judges of the Court of Common Pleas. 



1843 

1844 



$1,200 
1,200 



Counties. 



Justices. 



Residence. 



Salarj. 



Bockingham, 

Strafford, 

Belknap, 

Carroll, 

Merrimack, 

Hillsborough, 

Cheshire, 

Sullivan, 

Grafton, 

Cooi, 



Bradbury Bartlett, 
[ James Pickering, 
' George L. Whitehouse, 

Hiram R. Roberts, 

Thomas CogsweU, 

Henry Y. Simpson, 
I Thomas Rust, 
I Thomas P. Drake, 
I Benjamin Wadleigh, 
[ Jacob A. Potter, 
i Jacob Whittemore, 

Jesse Carr, 
i Horace Chapin, 

Nathan G. Babbitt, 
] Ambrose Cossit, 

Eleazer Jackson, 
: David C. Churchill, 
^ Nathaniel S. Berry, 
[ Joshua Marshall, 

Richard Eastman, 



Nottingham, 

Newington, 

Farmington, 

Somersworth, 

Gilmanton, 

New Hampton, 

Wolfeborough, 

Effingham, 

Sutton, 

Concord, 

Antrim, 

Goffstown, 

Winchester, 

Westmoreland, 

Claremont, 

Cornish, 

Lyme, 

Hebron, 

Stratford, 

Lancaster, 



IS. 



s 



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1848.] 



C(mrt9 of ProbaU, 



m 



Conntiflf. 


Judfes. 


Salary. 


Begbters. 


8«l«y. 


Bockiiigham, 


John Snlliyan, 


$334 


James H. Shapley, 


$4^ 


Strafford, 


Chas. W. Woodman, 


167 


Enoch Berry, 
Jeremiah lElkins, 


233 


Befimap, 


Warren Lovell, 


142 


183 


Carroll, 


Jonathan T. Chase, 


142 


ObedHall, 


183 


Merrimack, 


Horace Chase, 


245 


Calvin Ainswortfa, 


345 


Hillsborougli, 


Luke Woodbury, 


276 


Samuel N. Pattee, 


383 


Cheshire, 


Larkin Baker, 


225 


Geo. F. Starkweather, 


300 


SnlliYan, 


John L. Putnam, 


175 


Ralph Metcalf, 


225 


Grafton, 


Walter Blaur, 


275 


Samuel Swasey, 


380 


Coos, 


Benjanmr Hunkin, 


100 


George A. Cossit, 


125 



Banks, — There are twenty banks in the state, with an aggregate capital 
actuaUy paid in of $1,890,000. They have $144,018.31 of specie in their 
vaults, and their real estate is worth $44,327.28. The amount of deposits 
is $386,606.97; and of circulation, $512,071. 

StaU Prison. — Samuel G. Berry, Warderiy salary $800 ; William Berry, 
Deputy Warden; Bev. Eleazei* Smith, Chaplain; William Prescott, ILD., 
Pkt/sidan. 

Whole number of convicts in prison. May 31, 1846, 74. Received since, 
14. Whole number, 88. There have been discharged during the year, by 
expiration of sentence, 1 1 ; by remission of ^ntence, 13 ; by order of court, 1 ; 
by commitment to insane hospital, 1 ; by death, 1 ; — 27. Leaving in prison. 
May 31, 1847, 61. Of those remaining in prison, 60 are males, and 1 is a female; 
58 are whites and 3 colored. Of 1 1 1 convicts that have left the prisitt during 
the last four years, but one has been recommitted here; and only one, so far 
as is known, to the prison of any other state or country. The expenditures 
for the year were $6,130.53 ; receipts, $5,305.75 ; leaving a balance against 
the prison of $824.78. 

New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane^ Cowxrd. — Andrew McFarland, 
Stqferiatendeni. Since the opening of the asylum, there have been admitted, 
to May 31, 1847, 455 patients; 151 have been cured, and 100 now remain in 
the institution. The whole receipts of the institution for the year were 
$10,218.60, and the expenditures for the same period were $10,211.58. 



m. VERMONT. 

Port Dnmmer, in the south-east part of Vermont, was built in 1724 ; and 
Bennington, the oldest town in the state, was diartered in 1749, by Benning 
Wentworth, governor of New Hampshire. 

The territory of Vermont was originally claimed both by New Hampshire 
and New York ; and its political condition was, for a considerable time, un- 
settled i but the people, preferring to have a separate government, formed a 



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SS4 



TEllMOJiV* 



[I8i8. 



Moses Bobinson, 


do. 


Thomas Chittenden, 


do. 


Isaac Tichenor, 


do. 


Israel Smith, 


do. 


Isaac Tichenor, 


do. 


Jonas Galosha, 


do. 


Martin Chittenden, 


do. 


Jonas Galusha, 


do. 


Bichard Skinner, 


do. 



C. P. Van Ness, 


^kcted 


1833 


Ezra Biiaer, 


do. 


1826 


Samuel C. Crafts, 


do. 


1838 


Wm. A. Palmer, 


do. 


1«31 


Silas H. Jenison, 


do. 


1835 


Charles Paine, 


do. 


1841 




do. 


1843 


William Slade, 


do. 


1844 


Horace Eaton, 


do. 


1846 



constitation in 1777, under which a gortemment was organized in Mardi, 
1788 ; and in 1791, Vermont was admitted intv the Union. 

GOTEBNOBS. 

Thomas Chittenden, elected 1778 
1789 
1790 
1797 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1813 
1815 
1820 

Abstract of thb Constitutiok. 

The first constitation of this state was formed in 1777 ; the one now in 
operation was adopted on the 4th of Jnly, 1793. 

Every man 21 years old, resident in the state for the last year, of a quiet and 
peaceable behavior, may vote, on taking the oath. Representatives (one from 
each town) shall be persons most noted for wisdom and virtne, resident for the 
two last years in the state, and one year in the town, and chosen annually, 
on the first Tuesday of Septtmber. Two-thirds of the members elected are 
required to form a quorum when a state tax is voted. The senators, 30 
years of age, and 30 in number, are chosen by a plurality of votes eveiy 
year, in counties, one from each county, and the remainder according to the 
population. The governor shall have been a resident of the state for the 
last four years, and shall be chosen annually by a majority of votes; and, if 
there be no choice, one of the three highest candidates is chosen by the general 
assembly, by joint ballot The lieutenant-governor and treasurer are dhosen 
in the same manner. The councillors (12 in number) are chosen annually, 
by general ticket, and by a plurality of votes. The governor and council 
shall appoint to offices which are not otherwise filled, and fill vacancies ; and 
they may grant pardons for all crimes, excepting treason and murder, in 
which they may grant reprieves until the end of the next session of the gen- 
eral assembly ; and excepting, also, impeachments, which can be reversed 
only by act of the assembly. Th6 governor presides in the council, and has 
a casting vote only. He may veto a billj but two-thirds of both Houses may 
pass it again, in spite of his veto. He is allowed a secretary of civH and mil- 
itary afiViirs, appointed and removable by himself, and paid by the state. 
Judges of the supreme, county, and probate courts, sheriffs, and justices of 
the peace, shall be elected by the general assembly, in joint ballot Slavery 
shall be prohibited. Imprisonment for debt shall be permitted only in case 
of fraud. Deeds of land shall be recorded in the office of the town-clerk, and 
for want thereof, of the county clerk. Perpetuities shall be prohibited. Ev- 
ery alien of good character, coming to settle in the state, and swearing alle- 



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ia4&] 



ysbii6nt. 



225 



gianoe thereto, shall have a right to hold land. Once hi seven ^^ars, 13 cen- 
sors shall be chosen, on one .ticket, by the people, whose duty it shall be to 
inquire whether the constitution has been observed in every particular, and 
whether IHI public servants have acted faithfully, wiA power to pass public cen- 
sures, to order impeachments, to send for persons and papers, and to recom- 
mend to the assembly the repeal of unconstitutional laws ; and also to call 
a convention for amending the constitution within two years, six months' 
public notice being given of the amendments proposed. 

GOYBRNMENT 

For the year ending Octobery 1847. 

Salary. 
Governor (t'mends Oct.*47,) $750* 
Lieut.- Gov. ^ Pres. /Sen., $4 a day. 
Treasurer^ 400 

Secretary of Statey 275 

Sec. Civil and Military Affairs, 200 
150 
250 



Horace Eaton, 

lieonard Sargeant, 
Elisha P. Jewett, 
James McM. Shafter, 
Frederic Billings, 
Silas H. Hodges, 
De Witt C.Clarke, 
Ebenezer N. Briggs, 
Ferrand F. Merrill, 
Gnstav. H. Loomis, 
Hiram Harlow, 
F, W. Hopkins, 
C. B. Adams, 
Thomas Kidder, 
Caleb B. Harrington, 



of Enosburg, 
of Manchester, 
of Montpelier, 
of Burlington, 
of Woodstock, 
of Rutland, 
of Burlington, 
of Brandon, 
of Montpelier, 
of Montpelier, 
of Windsor, 
of Kutland, 
of Middlebury, 
of Windsor, 



of Middletown, 
The Senate was established in 1836. 
composed of about 230 members, one member from eadi town. Pay of the 
members of each House, $1.50 a day, during the session of the legislature. 



Auditor of Accounts, 
Secretary of the Senate, 
Speaker of the House. 
Clerk of the House, 400 

State Librarian, 100 

Superintendent of State Prison, 500 
Adjutant and Insp.' General, 150 
State Geologist. 

Chaplain of State Prison, 400 
Commissioner of the Insane. 
llie House of Representatives is 



JiTDICIART. 

Supreme Court. 

Salary. 

of Berkshire, Chief Judge, $1,375 

of Randolph, Associate Judge, 1,375 

of Burlington, do. 1,375 

of Rockingham, do. 1,375^ 

of Bennington, do. 1,375 

of Danville, do, 1,375 

of Woodstock, Beporter, 450 

The judiciary powers are vested in a Supreme Court, consisting of six 

judges'; in County Courts, or Courts of Common Pleas, comprising six 

Circuits, each County Court being composed of one judge of the Supreme 

Court, who is, ex officio, chief-justice of the County Courts of his Cutmit, and 

* And •260 as Supeihiteiidenft of Cdmoum Schools, Commteioiier Jbr tile Deaf, BUnd) 
Insane, fcc 



Stephen Royce, 
Isaac F. Redfidd, 
Milo L. Bennett, 
Daniel Kellogg, 
Hiland Hall, 
Charles Davis, 
Peter T. Washburn, 



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TESHOHT. 



{1848. 



two assistant judges for each county ; and in Jastices of the Peace ; all the 
judges and justices being chosen annually by th^ legislature. 

The Supreme C5ourt sits once, and the County Courts twice a year, in each 
county. Each judge of the Supreme Court is Chancellor of a Circuit The 
Court of Chancery has two stated sessions annually in each county, and is 
always in session for all purposes except the final hearing of a cause. An 
appeal from the decree of the Chancellor lies to the Supreme Court 

Common Schools. — Number of school districts in the state, 2,276; number 
of children between 4 and 18 years, 79,757 ; amount of wages paid male 
teachers, $52,236.07 ; amount of wages paid female teachers, ^8,233.63 \ 
public moneys received, $71,177.27 ; average amount paid for each scholar, 
$1.18. 

Vermont Asylum for the Insane^ Br(ittlehoro\ — William H. Rodswell, MJO., 
Superintendent Within the year, new buildings have been completed suffi- 
cient to acoonmiodate 300 patients. Since the opening ofthe Asylum, there 
have been admitted, to September, 1846, 1,032 patients ; 741 have been dis- 
charged, and 291 remain in the institution. Of the 1,032 patients thus ad- 
mitted, 432 recovered,. equal to 42.05 per cent; 84 have died, equal to 8.12 
per cent During the past year, the whole number of patients was 460. Ad- 
mitted, 197; discharged, 169; remaining in the institution, 291. Of those 
dischaxged, 95 were cured. 

Termt of Admission. — For first six months, $2 per week, and $1.50 after- 
wards. When the insanity is connected with epilepsy or paralysis, $2.50 per 
week. No patient received for a less term than three months, unless he re- 
cover before that time. Patients are received from other states on the 
same terms. 

State Prison. — Average number of convicts, in 1846, 65; expaiditure, 
$5,469.10 ; income, $3,943.34. 

Finances, 
For fiscal year ending September 1, 1846. 
Amoimt received into the Treasury, $117,597.74 

" expended, . . 87,107.69 

Principal Items of Expenditure. . ] Principal Sources of Revenue. 
General ABsemblj, . $13,868.50 Beoeived Ibr taxes, $68,866.68 



Salaries of judges, 6,875.00 

Other salaries (balances paid;, 8,612.5Q 

Auditors^ orders, and com. claims, 11,120.53 
Amer. Asylum Ibr deaf and dumb, 1,000.00 
Massachusetts Asylum for blind, 800.00 
iBxpenses of transporting poor, 96 69 

Insane Hospital, Brattleboro', 6,000.00 

Agricultural societies, 793.88 

Ck)urt expenses, 14,868.82 

State prison, 10,000.00 

Z>rafts of i^uaitennaster-Gfineral, 1,062.55 
Interest ptOd sa&ty-Amd banks, 1,873.97 



Interest on arrears of taxes and 

safety-ltind notes, 14218,72 

State's attorneys, 4,025^^7 

Safety -fund contributions, 1,875.00 

School Amd notes collected, 8,585.97 

Safety fund do. 961.46 

Interest on sundries, 1,208^ 
Yermont State Bank notes OoUected, 150.00 

Pedlar's licenses, 1,484.67 

Bank taxes on diTideuds, 8,279.69 

GleikB of eourts, 1,006.99 



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1848.1 



KAiSAOHUSBTTB. 



2S7 



IV. MASSACHUSETTS. 

# 

The temtory of Massachusetts comprised, for many years after its first 
setflement, two separate colonies, styled the Plymouth Colony and the Colony 
of the Massachusetts Bay. 

The first English settlement that was made in New England was formed 
hyone hundred and one persons who fled from religious persecution in 
England; landed at Plymouth on the 22d of December, 1620; and laid tho 
foundation of Plymouth Colony. 

The settlement of the colony of Massachusetts Bay was commenced at 
Salem in 1628. Boston was settled in 1630. 

The two colonies continue separate and elected their own gOTcmors 
annually till 1685-6, when they were deprired of their diarters, and were 
placed under the goyemment of Joseph Dudley, and afterwards of Sir Ed- 
mund Andros. In 1692, they were united into one colony under a new 
charter, an^ the governors were afterwards appointed by the king. 

GOVEBNORS. 

Colonial Governors elected annually by the People, 



Plymouth 
John Canrer, 
William Bradford, 
Edward Winslow, 
Thomas Prince, 
William Bradford, 
Edward Winslow, 
William Bradford, 
Thomas Prince, 
William Bradford, 
Edward Winslow, 
William Bradford, 
Thomas Prince, 
Josiah Winslow, 
Hiomas Hinckley, 



Colony. 

do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



1620 
1621 
1633 
1634 
1635 
1636 
1637 
1638 
1639 
1644 
1645 
1657 
1673 
1680 



Colony of Massachusetts Bay. 


John Winthrop, 


elected 


1630 


Thomas Dudley, 


do. 


1634 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1635 


Henry Vane, 


do. 


1636 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1637 


Thomas Dudley, 


do. 


1640 


Eichard Bellingham 


,do. 


1641 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1642 


John Endicott, 


do. 


1644 


Thomas Dudley, 


do. 


1645 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1646 


John Endicott, 


do. 


1649 


Richard Bellingham 


do. 


1654 


John Endicott, 


do. 


1655 


Richard Bellingham, 


do. 


1665 


John Leverett, 


do. 


1673 


Simon Bradstreet, 


do. 


1679 



After the Dissolution of the First Charter, 
[Jos^ Dudley, appointed President of New England, October 8, 1685. 
Sir Edmund Andros assumes the government of New England^ December 20, 
1686— it deposed by the people^ April 18, 1689.] 

Thomas Hinckley, elected 1689 | Simon Bradstreet, deckd 1689 



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MASSJLCHUSKTtm. 



[1848. 



Oovemors of Massachuaetts under the Second Charter j appointed by the King. 



Appointed. 


• Appointed. 


Sir William Phips, 


1692 


William Taylor, Lieut.-Gov. 


1730 


Wm. Stonghton, Lieut- Gov. 


1694 


Jonathan Belcher, 


1730 


Earl of Bellamont, 


1699 


William Shirley, 


1741 


Wm. Stoughton, Lieut.- Gov. 


1700 


Spencer Phips, Lieut- Gov. 


1749 


Joseph Dudley, 


1702 


Thomas Pownall, 


1757 


William Taylor, Lieut.- Gov. 


1715 


Thomas Hutchinson, Zi.- Gov. 


1760 


Samuel Shute, 


1716 


Francis Bernard, 


1760 


William Dummer, Lieut.^ Chv. 


1723 


Tliomas Hutchinson, Lt-Gov. 


1770 


William Burnet, 


1728 


Thomas Hutchinson, 


1770 


William Dummer, Lieut.- Gov. 


1729 


Thomas Gage, 


1774 



[In October y 1774, a Provincial Omgress assumed the government^ and in 
July 1715, elected councillors ; in 1780, the Constitution was formed.] 

Governors under the Constitution. 

John Brooks, dectid 

William Eustis, do. 

Levi Lincoln, do. 

John Davis, entered upon office, 1834 
♦S. T. Armstrong, Lt. ^ Act. GPr. 1835 
Edward Everett, ent. upon office^ 1836 



John Hancock, 


elected 


James Bowdoin, 


do. 


John Hancock, 


do. 


Samuel Adams, 


do. 


Increase Sumner, 


do. 


Caleh Strong, 


do. 


James Sullivan, 


do. 


Christopher Gore, 


do. 


Elhrid^ Gerry, 


do. 


Caleb Strong, 


do. 



1816 
1823 
1825 



Marcus Morton, • 


do. 


1840 


John Davis, 


do. 


1841 


Marcus Morton, 


do. 


1843 


George N. Briggs, 


do. 


1844 



17^0 
1785 
1787 
1794 
1797 
1800 
1807 
1809 
1810 
1812 
* J<dm DftTis elected governor, but choeen aeoator. 

Abstbjlct of thb Constitution. 

Partial amendments have been made since the constitution of .this state 
was formed in 1780, and amended in 1821. 

Every male citizen, twenty-one years old, excepting paupers and persons 
under guardianship, resident the last year in the state, and the last six 
months at the place of voting, and who, unless exempt from taxation, shall 
have paid any state or county tax within the last two years, may vote. 
Every town containing 1,200 inhabitants may elect one representative, and 
an additional representative for every 2,400 inhabitants above 1,200; and 
every town of less than 1,200 inhabitants may elect a representative as 
many times within ten years as 160 are contained in 1,200 ; and two or more 
towns may unite, in 1840, and every tenth year thereafter, and form a repre- 
sentative district ; and all these numbers shall be raised one-tenth \iHien the 
population of the state shall be 770,000, and at the same rate for every 
increase of 70,000 thereafter. A census shall be taken every tenth year, fox 
the purpose of settling the ratio of representation and the senatorial dis- 
tricts. The General Court may fine towns that neglect to choose represent- 



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1848.] aUMAOSUnSM. SS9 

atifes. Bepresentathres most be reddents, f<^ tl^ last year, of the towns 
which return them, and be chosen <m &e second Monday of Noyember in 
each year, f'orty senators, resident in their districts, and for the last five 
years in the state, shall be annually chosen in cUstricts set off according to 
the number of inhabitants therein ; and, m case of vacancies, ike General 
Court shall elect Ihe required number in eadi district, from twice their num- 
ber <^ candidates having most votes. The two houses, forming the General 
Ourt, meet on the first Wednesday of every January. The govCTUor, 
chosen annually by a majority of votes, must be a resident of the state for 
the last seven years, and seized of a freehold of £lfiOO value. If there be 
no choice by the people, the House of Representatives chooses two out of 
the highest four candidates, if there be so many, and of which two the Senate 
chooses one as governor. The lieutenant-governor, who is a member (^ the 
council (unless he be president thereof in the governor's stead), shall be 
chosen and qualified in the same way as the governor. Nine councillors, 
not more than one from each senatorial district, shall be chosen by joint ballot 
of both houses. The councillors shall record their resolutions and advice in a 
public register, and, if there be neither governor or lieutenant-governor, shall 
have all executive power. All judicial officers, the attorney and solicitor- 
general, sheriffs, coroners, and registers of probate, shall be appointed by 
die governor and council. Permanent and honorable salaries shall be estab- 
lished for the governor and the judges of the Supreme Judicial Court ; and 
all judicial officers, unless expressly excepted, shall hold office during good 
behavior, removable upon address of holSb. houses. Justices of the peace 
shall be appointed for seven years. The secretary of state and treasurer 
are annually chosen byjomt ballot of both houses; but no treasurer can 
hold <Mee for more than five successive years. Notaries public are ap- 
pointed by the governor and council for seven years, removable upon ad- 
dress. The governor may veto a bill ; but two-thirds of both houses may 
pass it again in spite of the veto. 

If any amendment to the constitution be proposed in the General Court, 
and approved by a majority oi those voting in the Senate, and by two- 
thirds of those voting in the House, it shall be published and referred to the 
next General Court ; and, if by it approved in like manner, it shall be sub- 
mitted to the people, and if ratified by a majority of the votes cast, it shall 
be adopted. 

(JOVBRNMBNT 

For the year ending on the Ist Wednesday in January ^ 1848. 

Salary. 
Gbosob N. Brioos, of Pittsfield, Governor^ $2,500 

John Reed, of Yarmouth, Lieutenant- Governor y $4 a day. 

John G. Palfrey, of Cambridge, Sec, of the Commonwealth, 1,600 

Joseph Barrett, of Concord, Treasurer and Receiver Gen., 1,600 

Henry K. OUver, of Salem, Adjutant General and Keeper 

of Military Stores, 1,500 

20 



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XAMACXUUXi:^ 



11848. 



William TnfbH 1st Clerk, Seeniary rf SUtt^s Qfice, $1,200 

Joseph Foster, lit Clerk Treaswrtr'e Qjgice, 1,200 

Horace Mann, of Boston, Sec of the Board of Education^ 1 ,500 

William B. Oalhonn, of Springfield, President of the Senate, 

Ebenezer Bradbtiry, of Newbnryport, Speaker cf the Hsuse of Rep. 

Charles Calhoon, of Boston, Clerk of the Senate, $\Q per d«f . 

Charts W. Storey, Jr^of Boston, Clerk of the House^ $10 per day. 





JUDICIABT. 










Supreme Judicial Court. 








Lemuel Shaw, 


of Boston, 


Chief Justice, 






$3,500 


Samuel S. Wflde, 


of Boston, 


Justice, 






3,000 


Charles A. Dewey, 


of Northampton, 


do. 






3,000 


Samuel Hubbard, 


of Boston, 


do. 






3,000 


Theron Metcalf, 


of Dedham, 


Reporter, 






300 


Albert H. Nelson, 


of Wobum, 


District Attorney 


N. Dist 


1,000 


John H. Clifford, 


of New Bedford, 


do. 


S. 


do. 


1,000 


Ezra Wilkinson, 


of Dedham, 


do. 


Mid. do. 


800 


William Porter, Jr.; 


of Lee, 


do. 


W. 


do. 


800 


Samuel D. Parker, 


of Boston, 


Attorney, Co. of Suffolk, 2,000 




Court of Common Pleas. 








Daniel Wells, 


of Greenfield, 


Chief Justice, 






$2,100 


Pliny Merrick, 


of Worcester, 


Associate Justice, 






1,800 


Emory Washburn, 


of Worcester, 


do. 






1,800 


Joshua H. Ward, 


of Salem, 


do. 






1,800 


Luther S. Cushing, 


of Boston, 


do. 






1,800 


Charles E. Forbes, 


of Northampton, 


do. 






1,800 



Probate Courts. 



Goonties. 


Judges. 


Salary. 


Registert. 


Salary*. 


Barnstable, 


Nymphas Marston, 
Wm. P. Walker, 


$400 


Timothy Reed, 
Henry W. Bishop, 
Anselm Bassett, 


$500 


Berkshire, 


375 


550 


Bristol, 


Oliver Prescott, 


400 


750 


Dukes, 


Theod. G. Mayhew, 


100 


B. C. Marchant, 


150 


Essex, 


Daniel A. White, 


600 




1,500 


Franklin, 


R. E. Newcomb, 


240 


Geo. Grennel, Jr., 


425 


Hampden, 


Oliver B. Morris, 


240 


Justice Wfllard, 


550 


Hampshire, 


Ithamar Conkey, 


240 


Samuel F. Lyman, 


450 


Middlesex, 


Samuel P. P. Fay, 


700 


Isaac Fiske, 


1,500 


Nantucket, 


Samuel Mitchell, 


200 


George Cobb, 


300 


Norfolk, 


Sherman Leland, 


400 


Jonathan H. Cobb, 


600 


Plymouth, 


Aaron Hobart, 


350 


Jacob H, Loud, 


650 


Suffolk, 


Willard Phillips, 


800 


H. M. Willis, 


2,000 


Worcester, 


Benj. F. Thomas, 


600 


Charles G. Prentiss, 


1,500 



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IS48.1 MAgSACHUSXTTS. 331 

Police Court of Boston, 
Abel Gushing, Jas. C. Merrill, John G. Rogers, Justices^ salary, $1,500 each 

FlKAirCBfi. 

Total receipts in 1846, including money borrowed, . 
Total expendkoret, ... 

Cash on hand for ordinary revenue, January 1, 1847, 

Total indebtedness of the State, January 1, 1847, . 
Credit of the State lent to railroads, .... 

Total HAlnlilaes of the State, .... 



$563,272 88 
555,065 31 

. $8,658 57 

. $999,654 80 
. 5,049,555 56 

$6,049,209 86 

As security for the redemption of the scrip lent to railroads, the Common- 
wealth holds a mortgage on all the roads, and also 3,000 shares in the JBast- 
em, 4,000 in the Norwich and Worcester, and 1,000 in the Andover and 
Hayerhill. Besides this, the Commonwealth owns yarious stocks and funds 
to the amount of $2,650,180.17. 

Abstract of the Betums of the Banks in Massachusetts for 1846. 



Jhufrom the Banks. 



Capital stock paid in, ... 

Bills in oireBlatlon of ftT« dollars and upwards, 

Bills in circulation less tliai^ five dollars, 

Net profits on hand, 

Balances due to other banks, . . . . 

Cash deposited, ...... 

Gash deposited bearing interest. 
Total amount due fh>m the banks, 

Re$<mre$$ of the Bcmke. 

Spede, 

Real estate, . . .... 

Bills of other banks in this State, . 

Bills of other banks elsewhere, . . • 

Balances due from other banks, 

Debts doe, including notes, bills, of exchange, 

andallsfeot^, 

Total of the resources. 

Amount <rf dividends fat the year, ' . 

A moun t of reserred proflts, . 



25 Banks in 
Boston. 



80 Banks out 
ofBostctt, 



$ 

18,180,000 00 
6,677,668 00 
696,018 00 
1,474,694 72 
5,072,006 48 
6,806,374 51 
740^7 18 
88,646,997 89 



2,437,072 39 
719,582 87 

2,394,802 78 
176,236 00 

8,194,667 23 



S 

12,980,000 
6,651,717 
1,566,511 
1,029,441 
213,010 
2,653,001 
161,084 
25,254,716 



617,683 29 

878,418 10 

240,256 38 

43,469 66 

2,468,43169 



Total— 106 
Banks. 



81,160,000 00 
12,829,386 00 
2,262,629 60 
2,604,186 17 
5.286,015 67 
9,468,876 92 
901,27198 
63,901,714 24 



3,064,766 68 
1,098,000 97 
2,635,069 16 
219,696 65 
6,668,068 82 



29,814,646 6221,511,467 4461,826414 06 

■38,646,997 8926,264,716 86 63,901,714 24 

1.168,600 00^ 692,790 00 1.866,290 00 

1,151,642 lOl 666,661 66 l,807,g03 57 



Aggregate diriclends of banks in Boston, for the year, a flraction less.than 6 40-100 per ot. 
«< « « *» in October, a fractton over 316-100 " 

<* « « out ofBoston, for the year, a firac. less than 6 84-100 " 

« « « " in October, a fraction over 212-100 « 

** " all the banks for the year, a fraction over 5 96-100 '* 

Saoingt AmJb.— In thirty-eight savings banks, in 1846, there were 62,898 depositors, aai 
$10,680,983.10 of depoaits. The rate of the dividend was four and two-thirds per eent. ; 
and the amount divided was $845,443.10. The average annual rate of dividends, for the 
last five years, is five and a quarter per cent. The annual expenses of tiie institn- 
tloDS wne $29,806.'69. The number of depositors in Boston (two banks) was 22,888 ; 
amount of deposits, $8,702,260.80 \ amount of dividend, $180,148.^ ; annual expenses, 
$12,262.80. 



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232 



KASBACHUSXTTS. 



[1848. 



State Lumaiie Boipitaly Worcester ; George Chandler, BLB., superintendent. The whole 
number of romns designed fbt the use of patients is 861. The average nnmher cf par 
tients ibr the year ending November 80, 1846, was 868 ; 270 patients —128 males and 142 
ftmales— have been discharged during the past year, 164 of whom were restored to 
health ; 81, improved ; 48, incurable and harmless ; 4, incurable and dangerous ; and 
28 died. Receipts during ^e past year, $46,485.14 ; expenses, $89,870.87. 

StaU Prison. — According to the report of the Warden, there were 258 prisonen in Unb 
Massachusetts State Prison on the 80th September, 1846; 78 having been reeeived, and 
112 discharged, during the year. Of these, 180 were committed for ofifonces against 
property, in<duding burglary, larceny, counterfeiting, Sec. ; 9 for arson and maUdoiis 
burning ; and 66 for crimes against life and the person, including assaults of various 
kinds. There are 15 confined for life ; 1 for '86 years ; 1 for 20 years ; and only 28 for 
terms under 2 years. There are 28 ftom 16 to 20 years of age ; US ftom 20 to 80 ; ^6 
from 80 to 50 ; and 21 over 50. Of the whole number, 64 are f (wdgners, and 90 na- 
dves of Massachusetts. There are 21 sdoond comers and 10 third ccuners, and 1 each 
eommitted for Om 4th, 6th, and 6th time. There are 12 negroes and 11 mulattoes. The 
receipts ~ for labor, fees of admittance, Ac, were $82,187.86; and ttie expenses, 
$82,682.88, leaving a balance of income of $604.98. 

JaUs and Houses of Correction, for the year ending November 1, 1846.— The whole num- 
ber oir prisoners, including 968 debtors, was 6,644. Of these, 4,953 were males ; 4,999 
adults ; 878 colored persons ; 4,881, unable to read or write ; 2,125 intemperate ; 1,126 
natives of Massachusetts ; 1,266 natives of other countries ; remaining in confinemoat, 
November 1st, 1846, 768. Average cost of board of each prisoner per we^, $1.67>i. Ex- 
pense of jails, &c., during the year, $66,778.11. Yalue of labor in Houses of Correction, 
$15,496.76. 

Pauperism in the year 1846.— The whole number of persons leUeved as paiqiers wm 
15,261 ; 7,022 of whom were state paupers, and 7,860 town paupers. Of the state pau- 
pers, 4,411 were fordgners ; and of these, 8,884 were frmn England and Ireland. There 
were 181 alms-houses, with ISfiGi^ acres of land attached, of the estimated value of 
$978,809.80. Nundber relieved in alms-houses, 7,106, of whom 8,546 were unable to labor ; 
number relieved out of alms-house, 7,656 ; average weekly cost of each pauper in alms- 
houses, $0.88 8-10 ; out of alms-houses, $0.88 4-10. Net expense of alms-house, includ- 
ing hiterest, $801,607.08. Estimated value of labor of paupers, $19,601.66; $88,652.10 
were paid by the Commonwealth towards the support of state paupers. 722 foreign 
paupers have oome into the state during the year. 

Ikflusnob OF Occupation on Longevitt. 

[From the Begistration of Deaths in Massachusetts from 1842 to 1846.] 



Ooenpattons. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1846. 


!z: 


1 


1 


1 


h- 


h 


1 


h 


1* 




£ 


% 


^ 


•4] 


'< 


^ 


■ < 


M 




54 


75 


82 


62 


2,724 


43.98 


54 


2,847 


62.72 


Merchants, . . 


78 


98 


75 


90 


?,40S 


48.92 


81 


4,296 


58 04 


Agriculturalists, . 
Public officers, 


660 
41 


706 
29 


668 
25 


645 
. 85 


"m 


61.81 
44.11 


679 
84 


1^ 


66j68 
41.06 


Mechanics, . 


452 


484 


452 


477 


22,898 


46 96 


588 


24618 


4575 


Laborers, 


196 


17t 


182 


218 


10.69C 


48.81 


216 


10,679 


49.44 


Seamen, 


192 


201 


162 


145 


6,206 


42 80 


119 


5,798 


48.72 


Paupers, . . . 


15 


82 


85 


5 


"m 


81.60 


87 


2,5n 


69.48 


Vonales; . . . 


1,687 


1,806 


19 


264 


12,215 


16.82 


895 


18,687 


48.96 


Total and averages, 


1,695 


1,942 


100,457 


51.72 


2,168 


115,9781 


58.87 



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1M&] 



muxam islaxs. 



S88 



V. RHODE ISLAND. 



The setdement of diis state was commenced at ProTidence, in 1636, by 
the celebrated Boger Williams, a minister who was banished from Massa- 
chusetts on account of his religions opinions ; and in 1638, the settlement 
of the island of Rhode Island was b^nn by William Ck)ddington, Johfi 
Clarke, and others. 

In 1643, Mr. Williams went to England, and obtained, in 1644, a char- 
ter, by which the settlement of Rhode Island and Froridence Plantations 
were united nnder one goyemment, and which continued in force till 1663, 
when a new charter was granted by Charles IL, which, until 1842, formed 
the basis of the government 

GOYBBNO&S^ &c. 
Presidents under the first Charter, 



John Coggeshall, 


dected 


1647 


Roger Williams, 


elected 


1655 


Jeremiah Clarke, 


do. 


1648 


Benedict Arnold, 


do. 


1657 


John Smith, 


do. 


1649' 


William Brenton, 


do. 


1660 


Nicholas Easton, 


do. 


1650 


Benedict Arnold, 


do. 


1662 




Governors under the Second Charter, 






Benedict Andd, 


eUcted 


1663 


Joseph Jenckes, 


dected 


1727 


WilHam Brenton, 


do, . 


1666 


William Wanton, 


do. 


17a2 


Benedict Arnold, 


do. 


1669 


John Wanton, 


do. 


1784 


Nicholas Easton, 


do. 


1672 


Richard Ward, 


do. 


1741 


WUUam Goddington, do. 


1674 


William Greene, 


do. 


1743 


Walter Clarke, 


do. 


1676 


Gideon Wanton, 


do. 


1745 


Benedict AmcJd, 


do. 


1677 


William Greene, 


do. 


1746 


John Cranston, 


do. 


1679 


Gideon Wanton, 


do. 


1747 


Peleg Saadford, 


do. 


1680 


William Greene, 


do. 


1748 


WOliam Coddington, do. 


1688 


Stephen Hopkins, 


do. 


1755 




do. 


1685 


William Greene, 


do. 


1757 


Walter Clarke, 


do. 


1686 


Stephen Hopkms, 


do. 


1758 


[1686, Sir Edmund Andres : - 


- 


Samuel Ward, 


do. 


1762 


the Charter suspended] 




Stephen Hopkms, 


do. 


1768 


Henry Bull, 


decttd 


1689 


Samuel Ward, 


do. 


1765 


John Easton, 


do. 


1690 


Stephen Hopkins, 


do. 


1767 


Caleb Carr, 


do. 


1695 




do. 


1768 


Walter Clarke, 


do. 


1696 


Joseph Wanton, 


do. 


1769 


Samuel Cranston, 


do. 


1698 


Nicholas Cooke, 


do. 


1775 




Since the Revdvtion. 






Nicholas Cooke, 


elected 


1776 


Arthur Tenner, 


elected 


1789 


WilHam Greene, 


do. 


1778 


Henry Smith, Act. 


Gov. 


1S05 


John Collins, 


do. 


1786 


Isaac Wilboni, Lieut.- Gov. 


1806 




20* 











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S34 mm»E imuAsm, [ia4B. 



James Fenner, eleoted 


1807 




decUd 


1838 


William Jones, do. 


1811 


*Sam«el W. Kin£^, 


Act. Goo. 


1839 


Nehemiah R. Knight, do. 


1817 


Samuel W. King, 


elecud 


1840 


William C. Gibbs, do. 


1821 


James Fenner, 


do. 


1843 


James Fenner, do. 


1824 


Charles Jackson, 


do. 


1845 


Lemuel H. Arnold, eh. 


1831 


Byron Diman, 


do. 


1846 


John Brown Francis, do. 


1833 


^isha Harris, 


do. 


1847 



Abstract o» Constitution, 
Batified 5y the People, Nov. 21, 22, and 23, 1844. 

Every male citizen of the United States, 21 years old, resident in tlie state 
for one year, and in the town or city where he offers his vote six months 
next before the election, and owning real estate in sndi town or city, wor& 
$134 above all incumbrances, or of the clear yearly value of $7, may " vote 
in the election of all civil officers, and on all question^ in all legal town or 
ward meeUngs \'^ or if the estate lie without such town or city, but within 
the state, he may vote for *^ all general officers and members of the general 
assembly,*' in the town or city where he has resided for the last six months. 
Every male, native, citizen of the United States, 21 years old, resident in 
the state for two years, and in the town or city where he offers his vote six 
months next before the time of voting, and whose name is registered 
in such town on or before Dec 31st in that year, and who shall hare paid 
taxes to the amount of one dollar, or done miliary -duty for one day dnring 
such year, may vote in die election of all civil officers, and on town or ward 
questions ; provided that no person vote " in the election of the dty council 
of Providence, or upon any proposition to impose a tax, or for the expendi- 
ture of money in any town or city," unless he have paid a tax on property 
therein valued at $134. A tax of one dollar, or of such sum as, with his 
other taxes, will amount to one dollar, shall be annually assessed upon every 
person registered, and shall be appropriated to the support of public schools 
in the town where it is pmd ; but no process shall issue for its OQllection« 
and it shall be remitted to persons who have performed one day's military 
duty, and to sailors at sea, during the year. No p^-son in the marine, naval, 
or military service of the United States, can gain a residence by being 
stationed in the states ; and no Narragansett Indian can vote. 

Representatives (not exceeding 72 in number), one for every 1,530 inhab- 
itants, shall be chosen on the first Wednesday of ApriL Every firaction 
above one-half may elect a member ; and every town or city shall be enti- 
tled to not less than one representative, nor more than twelve. The senate, 
chosen at the«ame time, consists of the lieutenan^govemor, and one mem- 
ber from each town or city. The governor, and in his absence the lieuten- 
ant-governor, presides therein, and also in convention, which is called the 
" grand committee " of both Houses, and has only a casting vote ; and, if no 

* There waa no choice of governor or Ueatenant-goyemor, in April, 1889. Mr. King, 
who had the highest number of votes as senator, acted as governor. 



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1848.] 

goremor be diosen by ihe people, the grand committee sbaB dect one of Hie 
highest two candidates, unless such a resolt is prodnoed by rejecting the 
entire vote of a town, city, or ward, for informality or illegality, in which 
case a new election shall be ordered. If no lieatenant-govemor be chosen, 
one of the highest two candidates shall be elected by the grand committee. 
No vdo is granted to the governor by the constitation. The governor and 
lieutenant are annually chosen on the first Wednesday in April. The gov- 
ernor may grant reprieves, except in cases of impeachment If the office of 
governor be vacant, the lieutenant-gOTiemor, and after him the president of 
the senate, shall act as governor. There are two sessions of the general 
assembly, every year; one at Newport, on the first Tuesday of May; the 
other on the last Monday of October, once in two years, at Soutii Kings- 
town, and the intermediate years, alternately, at Bristol and East Green- 
wich ; and this second session adjourns, every year, to Providence. The 
members aie allowed one dollar per diem, and eight cents per mile for 
travel. The general assembly cannot authorize any new lottery; they can- 
not incur state debts exceedmg $50,000, except in time of war, insurrection, 
or invasion; or pledge the faith of the state for the obligations of others 
without the express consent of the people ; they cannot appropriate public 
money to local or private purposes, without a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers elected ; neither can they create " a corporation for any other than for 
religiona, literary, or charitable purposes, or for a military or fire company," 
ontil after another election of members, and such public notice as may be 
required by law. In all elections of state officers by the people, a majority 
of votes is necessary to a choice. The judges of the supreme court (on 
which alone chancery powers may be conferred) shall be elected by the 
grand committee, shall receive a fixed compensation, and shall hold oSLce 
until the office is declared vacant by a majority of the members chosen to 
each House. Wardens, or justices of the peace, are elected in towns by the 
people. Slavery is not permitted in the state. Imprisonment for debt is 
allowed only on " strong presumption of fraud.** In libel cases, "the truth, 
unless published from malicious motives, shall be sufficient defence.* Every 
Sector for an office is qualified to hold that office. 

A majority of the members elected to each House may pr(^)ose amend- 
ments to the constitation, which shall be published in the newspapers ; and 
printed copies, with the names of aU the members who voted on them, shall 
be sent to every town and city clerk, who shall insert them in the warrants 
for, and read them at, the next annual town-meeting. If they be approved 
by a majority of those afterwards elected to each House, they shall again bo 
puUished; and, if afterwards sanctioned by two thirds of the votes cast by 
the people, shall be adopted. 

GoVERNMENr . 

For the year ending hi Tuesday in May, 1848. 

Salary. 

Elisba Harrif , of Ck>ventry, Governor^ $400 



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SM 



[IMS. 



Edward W. Lawton, 
Henry Bowen, 
Stephen Cahoone, 
Joseph M. Blake, 
Henry Barnard, 
Wm. L. Fauen, 



of Ncvwport, Lieutenant- Gocemor^ 9200 

of Providence, Secretary of State^ $750 and fees. 

of Newport, General Treasurer^ 500 

of Bristol, Attorney' Generalj Fees, 

of Providence, Comtn'r of Public Schools, 1,500 

of ProTidence, Speaker of the Houae. 



JUDICIABT. 

Supreme Court 

ChirfJuMtux, Entries and $650 
Leri Haile, of Warren, Auociat e Juatiee^ do. 550 

'^iUiam B. Staplet, of Providenoe, do, do. 550 

George A. Brayton, of Warwick, do. do. 550 

The Court of Common Fleas in eadi of the Ave ooonties aonsiali of a 
jvstioe of the Supreme Court, who sits as chief justice, and two associate 
justices, who are dected for each ooimty. 

FiNAKOEB. 

When the state first received the deposit fond or snrphu reyenue from 
the United States, they invested it for schools. For theatate prison and the 
Dorr war the state has since used $152,719.21 of it, and tUs is sometimes 
spoken of as a debt There is also a claim of about $40,000 for some old 
Bevolntionary certificates. There is no state debt, property speaking. 



Dr. 



Banks in Rhode Island in May, 1847. 
LiabiUtie*, \ Resources, Cr, 



Capital stock paid in, 
Bills in circulation, 
Deporits <m interest, 
DepoiitB not on i nto w i t , 
Itebtf doe ftom bMikt, 
Divictondi unpaid. 
Net profits on hand, 

TMil UahilitiM, 



$10,852,062.00 ' 

2,619.164 00 I 

194,202X)6 I 

l,861,n8.16 

689,710.44 I 

24,418.83 

806,928.64 



$18,887446.00 



Debts due from directors, 


$670,542.06 


Due from other stockholders, 


664,666.73 


Due from all others. 


18,888,664.98 


Total discounts, 


$14,668,868.71 




806,735.02 


Bills of other banks, 


842,46188 


D^NMitsisotlMrbaiks, 


668443.5$ 


Stodc in the banks, 


48,028.91 


Stocks, 


221480.48 


Beal estate, 


221,668.71 


Furniture, and other property, 76,225.98 



$16,887,146.60 

PvhUc Schools, — The state has a school fund, invested in bank stock, of 
$51,300. By an act passed 1836, the interest of this state's part of the Uni- 
ted States surplus revenue (commonly called the Deposit Fund) was set 
apart for public schools. $25,000 is annually paid from the state treasury 
for schools ; and each town, in 1846, according to the requisitions of the re- 
vised school law, voted to raise by tax oue-third as much as they receive 
from the state, and many of the towns raise a much larger sum. The ambunt 
expended for schools in 1844 (exclusive of academies and private schools) 



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1848.] 



COHllSOTKTm. 



117 



was oTer $54,000. .For sereral years past, great exerlioiis liare been made 
in all parts of the state in improving the schools, and a very large snm hat 
been expended in erecting district school-honses, and repairing old ones. 

Providence AOienceum. — The charter of this institution was granted in 
Janoarj, 1836; and in September, 1846, its library contained 13,002 vol- 
umes. Of this number, 12,200 have been purchased, and 802 given. The 
total outlay has been $19,036.62 ; making the average cost per volume, 
$1.56. 817 volumft were added in the year ending September, 1846, of 
which 783 were purchased at a cost of $1,485.01, or 1.89^ per volume. The 
number of volumes in the public libraries of Providence is $43,200. 

Ubrttry ofBwum University, — The library contained, in September, 1846, 
(exclusive of odd volumes and pamphlets unbound), 19,317 volumes. Of 
this number, 401 were purchased at home during the year ; and 5,609 vol- 
umes were obtained, with great economy and judgment, by Professor Jewett, 
hf Europe. The following table, exhibiting the price of the foreign books, 
is abridged from the Beport of the library committee, submitted in Sept. 
1846: — 





1 


o? 


1 


J 


1^ 


1 




Italian books. 


97 

1 

82 

196 


98 
266 

48 
285 


794 
1118 

295 
2438 


485 

251 

88 

444 


66 
88 
16 
25 


1585 

1665 

474 

8888 


SO 82 
78 
182 
153 


Tbtal, 


326 


642 


4542 


1268 


145 


7021 


$120 



State Prison (Vr, Thomas Cleveland, Warden), — The number of convicts 
in the state prison in October, 1846, was 20, of whom 17 were natives of 
Bhode Island, 4 of other states, and 2 of Ireland ; 9 were received, 3 dis- 
duuged, 2 were set free by the general assembly, and 1 escaped. 3 were 
committed for murder; 4 for manslaughter; 2 for burglary; 6 for shop- 
breaking; 2 for felonious assaults ; 2 for counterfeiting; and 1 for perjury. 



VL CONNECTICUT. 

The territory of Connecticut originally comprised two col<mies, the Cd(o-' 
ny of Conneeticui, and the CoUmy ofNewSaven. 

The settlement of Hartford, in the colony of Connecticut, was commenced 
by emigrants from Massachusetts, in 1635 ; and that of New Haven, in 
1638, by emigrants from England. 

In 1662, a charter was granted by Charles II., with ample privileges, 
imiting the colonies of Conneeticnt and New Haven, under one goTemment ; 



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<x>iijrBOviuiiv. 



|iB«e. 



b«t tibe coloBj of New Haren refnsed, for some time, to aeeept the diarter, 
and the nnion did not take place till 1665. 

The charter was suspended, in 1687, bj Sir Edmund Andros ; bat it wad 
restored again after the ReTolution of 1688 in England ; and it formed the 
basis of the government till 1818. 

GOYBRNORS. 



Connecticut. 




Edward Hopkins, 


elected 


1653 


John Haynes, 


dected 


1639 


John Haynes, • 


do. 


1653 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1640 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1654 


John Haynes,* 


do. 


1641 


Thomas Wells, 


do. 


1655 


Edward Hopkms, 


do. 


1642 


John Webster, 


do. 


1Q56 


John Ha jnes, 


do. 


1643 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1657 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1644 


Thomas Wells, 


do. 


1658 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1645 


John Wmthrop, 


do. 


1659 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1646 








John Haynes, 


do. 


1647 


New Haven. 




Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1648 


Theophilus Eaton,* 


elected 


1639 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1649 


Francis Newman, 


do. 


1658 


Edward Hopkins, 


do. 


1650 


William Leet, 


do. 


1661 


John Haynes, 


do. 


1651 








# 


Elected umuaUy to his death, in 1667. 
The Colonies united in 1665. 






John TVlnthrop, 


elected 


1665 


Joseph Talcot, 


elected 


1724 


William Leet, 


do. 


1676 


Jonadian Law, 


do. 


1741 


Robert Treat, 


do. 


1680 


Roger Wolcott, 


do. 


1751 


[Sir Edmund Andros 


1 


1687 


Thomas Fitch, 


do. 


1754 


Robert Treat, 


do. 


1689 


WiUiam Pitkin, 


do. 


1766 


John Winthrop, 


do. 


1696 




do 


.1769 


Gordon Saltonstall, 


do. 


1707 










After the Revolution. 






Jonathan Trumbtdl, 


elected 


1776 


John S. Peters, 


dected 


1831 


Matthew Griswold, 


do. 


1784 


Henry W. Edwards, 


do. 


1833 


Samuel Huntington, 


do. 


1785 


Samuel Augustus Foot, do. 


1834 


Oliver Wolcott, 


do. 


1796 


Henry W. Edwards, 


do. 


1835 


Jon)ithan Trumbull, 


do. 


1798 


Wm. W. Ellsworth, 


do. 


1838 


John Treadwell, 


do. 


1809 


Chaoncey F. Cleveland, do. 


. 1842 


Roger Griswold, 


do. 


1811 


Roger S. Baldwin, 


do. 


1844 


Jolm Cotton Smith, 


do. 


1813 


Isaac Toucey, 


do. 


1846 


OUver Wolcott, 


do. 


1817 


Clark Bissell, 


do. 


1847 


Gideon Tomlinson, 


do. 


1827 









Abstract op the Constitutiok . 
The d^ter granted in 1662, by Charles II., formed the basis of the goy- 
emment of Connecticat till 1818, when the present constitation was framed. 



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iMa] comaBOHcrov. Mt 

Ey«7 white male citizen of the United States, SI jears old, who has 
gained a settlement in the state, has resided six months in his town, is pos- 
lessed of a freehold of $7 yearly value, or has done military daty for one 
year, or has heen excused therefrom, or has paid a state tax within the year, 
and who has a good moral character, may TOte, on taking the oath. Every 
TOter is eligible to any office, unless it be expressly excepted. Duelling for- 
feits the right of suffrage. Representatives, chosen by towns, on the first 
Monday of every April ; and senators (in number not less than 18, nor more 
than 28), chosen at the saime time, by districts, and by a plurality of votes, 
or, in case of an even vote, selected from the highest candidates by the other 
House, constitute the general assembly, which meets alternately at Hartford 
and New Haven, on the first Monday of May. The governor must be a 
voter, and 30 years old, and is chosen annually by a majority of votes ; and, 
in case there be no choice, one of the two highest candidates is chosen by 
joint ballot of the assembly. He may grant reprieves, except in case of 
impeachment, but not pardons. He may veto a bill ; but a majority of both 
Houses may pass it again in spite of his veto. A lieutenant-governor, sec- 
retary, treasurer, and comptroller, are chosen in the same way as the gov- 
ernor. The judges of all the courts, and justices of the peace, are appointed 
by the assembly ; the judges of the supreme and superior courts during good 
behavior, or until 70 years of age, removable by address of two-thirds of 
each House ; and the others for one year, unless they reach 70 years of age 
before that time. Sheriffs are appointed for three years, by the assembly. 
In all Kbel cases, the truth may be given in evidence. When a majority of 
the House of Representatives propose amendments to the constitution, they 
diall be printed with the laws ; and if two-thirds of each House, at the next 
session, approve them, they shall be submitted to the people, at a special 
town-meeting, and, if approved by a majority of votes cast, shall be adopted. 

GOVEBNMENT 

Fbr the year ending on the Ut Wednesday in May^ 1848. 

Salary. 

Ci^BK BissBLL, of Norwalk, Governor^ $1,100 

Charles J. M*Curdy, of Lyme, Lieut,- Gov, ^ Pres, Senate, 800 

Joseph B. Gilbert, of Hartford, Treasurer, 1,000 

John B. Robertson, of New Haven, Secretary ofState^ $84 and fees. 

Abijah Catlin, of Harwinton, Comptroller, 1,000 

8eth P. Beers, of Litchfield, Comm*r of the School Fund, 

and SupH of Schools, $1,250 and expenses. 

Thomas C. Feridns, of Hartford, Pres. pro tern, of the Senate. 

L. S. Foster, of Norwich, Speaker of the House. 

Francis Bacon, of Litchfield, Clerk of the House. 

James H Holcomb, of Hartford, Clerk of the Senate. 



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MO 



11848. 



JuBIOIAmT. 

Supreme and Superior Court, 

Samael Gbnrch, 
WiUiam L. Stom, 
Henry M. Waite, 
Joel Hinman, 
William W. EllswortI 
Thomai Day, 

A term of the Superior Court is held bj one judge semi-annually, in 
each county of the state ; and the Supreme Court, constituted of the ^ro 
judges, meets annually in each county. The judges of this court hold llieir 
offices until seventy years of age. This court has jurisdiction in all cases 
where the damages, or matter in dispute, exceeds $70. 

County Courts, 







Sahtty. 


of Litchfield, 


CMefJutUee, 


$1,300 


of Middletown, 


AMMciate Justice, 


1,250 


of Lyme, 


do. 


14W0 


of New Haren, 


do 


1,250 


of Hartford, 


do. 


1,250- 


of Hartford, 


Reporter, 


550 



Cknmfcles. 


Judges. 


Bflsidenoe. 


Attorneys. 


Besideiioe. 


Hartfbrd, . 
New Haven, 
New London, 
Fairfield, 
Windham, 
Litchfield, 
Middlesex, 
Tolland, 


Francis Parsons, 
Edward Hinman, 
Cha. J. M'Cutdy, 
Thofl. B. bsbome, 
Thoimu Backns, 
Holbrlc Curtiss, 
Chas. C. Tyler, 
HIiamBider, 


Hartford. 

Southboiy. 

Lyme. 

Fairfield. 

Killingly. 

Watertown. 

Middletown. 

WUlington. 


R. D. Hubbard. 
Dennis Eimberiy, 
John T. Walt, 
WiUiam H. Noble, 
Jona. A. Welch, 
Leman Church, 
Chas. Whittles^, 
Loren P. Waldo, 


Hartford. 

New Hayen. 

Norwich. 

Bridgeport. 

Brooklyn. 

Salisbury. 

Bliddtotown. 

ToUand. 



A County Court is held by one judge three times efl<^ year, in the ser- 
eral counties. The judges of this court are appointed annually by the le^ 
islature. They have jurisdiction in all civil actions ^i^iere the damages, or 
matter in dispute, exceed $35. In civil cases, appeals lie in all cases from 
the County to the Superior Court, where the matter in dispute exceeds the 
sum of $70. 

Finances foe 1846 -'47. 



Principal Items of Expenditure. 
Salaries of officers, $12,606.50 

General Aflsembly, 28,849.70 

Oontingmit expenses, 16J984i20 

Judicial expenses, 84,761.84 

Support of state paupers, 1,500.00 

Directors of state prison, 800.00 

Oommcm schools, and managMnent 

of school ftmd, 060.85 

Public buildings and instttntions, 12,111.76 
Interest on money borrowed firom 

Mhool ftmd, 847.66 



MisoeUaneons, $7,414.19 

Purchase and exch. of bank stock, 49,946 JO 

Chief Sources of Iwsome, 

Balance in treasury, AprU 1, 1846, $14,704.78 

Received from forfeited bonds, 1,115.79 

« » araUs of courts, 1,099.89 

" << state prison, 4,000.00 

" " taxes, 45461.42 

" " sales of bank stock, 49,871.88 

" «* dividends on do., 82,219.50 

" " misceUaneous, 488.95 

Am't borrowed fkom school ftmd, 11,566.68 



The whole amount of state debt (borrowed from school fund ) is $1 1 ,565.68. 
The permanent fund of the state, on the 1st day of April, 1847, consisting oi 



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IM&I 



mmm n 



Ml 



bank stodt BOttnmaftnMe, (Hr^vbaci^tiMU to iheoa^tel of ivadrf baa^, 
wMoh may be wU^rawn on giving six months' notice, amoonted to $406,000. 

Valuation in 1^6 ot real estate, $88,963,321.08^;, personal estate^ 
£15,888,483.93}. Aggiegate, $104,85 l,806i)2. 

Common Schools, — No. of school societies, 215; school districts, 1,669. 
The capital of school fnndin September, 1845,"* was $2,070,055.01. Amount 
of dividends to school societies, year ending March, 1847, $125,710.65. Bate 
for each diild, between ages of 4 and 16, in 1847, $1 45. 



Vn. NEW YORK. 
The settlement of this state was commenced by the Dutch, in 1614, who 
named the comitry New Netherlands^ and established a colonial government 
in 1629. In 1664, Charles IL oii^Bngland granted to his brother, the Duke 
of York, a patent for 'a large tract of country, forming the present states of 
New York and New Jersey; and, duritig the same year. Colonel Nicolls 
with & considerable force, in the service of the Duke, made a conquest of 
the country ; and the name of New Netherlands was afterwards changed to 
New York, In 1673, the colony was recaptured by the Dutch, and held by 
them a few months ; but, with the exception of this short period, it was in 
the possession of the English from 1664 till the American Bevokition, ia 
1775. 

Dutch Qoyebnobs. 
Wouter Van Twiller, appotnterf 1629 1 Peter Stuyvesant, appointed 1647 



William Kieft, do. 


1638 






English Goybbnoes. 




Appointed. 


Appdnted. 


Richard Nicolls, 


1664 


Peter Schuyler, President, 


1719 


Prancis Lovelace, 


1667 


William Burnet^ 


1720 


Sir Edmund Andros, 


1674 


Jolm Montgomery, 


1720 


Anthony Brockholst, 


1681 


Bip Van Dam, President, 


1731 


Thomas Dongan, 


1683 


William Crosby, 


1732 


Francis Nicholson, 


1688 


George Clark, 


1736 


Jacob Leisler, Lieut.- Chv* 


1689 


George Clinton, 


1743 


Henry Sloughter, 


1691 


James Delancy, Lieut.- Gov. 


1753 


Bichard Ingolsby, Lieut.'Gov. 


1691 


Danvers Osbom, 


1753 


Benjamin Eletcher, 


1692 


Sir Charles Hardy, 


1755 


Earl of Bellamont, 


1698 


James Delancy, Lieut.- Gov. 


1757 


John Nanfan, Lieut.- Gov. 


1701 


Cadwallader Colden, Lt.-Gov. 


1760 


Lord Combuiy, 


1702 


Bobert Moncton, 


1762 


Lord Lovelace, 


1708 


Cadwallader Colden, Lt.-Gov. 


1763 


Bichard Ingolsby, Lieut.- Gov. 


1709 


Henry Moore, 


1765 


Gerardus Beekman, President^ 


1710 


Earl of Dunmore, 


1770 


General Hunter, 


1710 


William Tryon, 


1771 



* The schedule of the property constltating the capital of the school ftmd is prepared and 
audited 6t0itiiM0y. 

21 



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[I84S. 

' [7%t ni m id gmmmmm wm j i fnii ii l i rf im Mmf^ \Tt% ; fimn mkiA fume U 
ilprO, 1777, A^ York was gooenud bf a Provmekd Comgrma, ^wkkk N*» 
lbMiMlWoodkidl»afIVMid«nt. ACoMtkidkmhavi^,ailmgtk,hemfmrMd 
and adopted, the government, under M$ OmatttnUent went into ofertHion Aptg 
•0, 1777.] 

Qotbbsobb xlbotkd bt tbu Pboflb. 

NaUianiel FHcher, LkeL-Goo. 1828 . 
♦Martin Yan Bnren, dected 1-8S9 
Enoi T. Throop, LUmL-Goo. 1829 
Enos T. Throop, detUd 1830 
William L. Marcy, do. 1832 

William H. Seward, do. 1838 

^iraiiam a Bouck, do. 1842 

Smk Wright, db. 1844 

John Young, do. 1846 



George Clinton, decttd 1777 

John Jay, do. 1795 

George Clinton, db. 1801 

Morgan Lewis, do. 1804 

Daniel D. Tompkins, do. 1807 

John Tayler, Lieut.' Goo. 1817 

De Witt CKnton, deded 181 7 

Joseph C. Tates, do. 1822 

De Witt Clinton, do, 1822 



Abstbaot ov thb Cosstitutioit. 

Adopted in convendon October 9, 1846, and radfied by the people Norem- 
ber 2, 1846. 

Srery male citizen, twenty-one years of age, ten days a citizen, one year 
next preceding any election an inhabitant of the state, for the last fonr 
months a resident of the connty where he may offer his vote, and, for thirty 
days next preceding the election, a resident of the district of his candidate, 
may vote in the election district of which he shall at the time be a resident^ 
and not elsewhere. No man of color shall vote unless he shall have been for 
three years a resid^t of the state, and, for one year next |»eceding the elec- 
don, shall have owned a freehold worth ^250 above all incumbrances, and shall 
have paid a tax thereon. And no person of color shall be taxed unless he 
shall own such real estate. Persons convicted of any inffunous crime, and 
those who have made, or become directly or indirectly interested in any bet 
upon an election, may by a law be deprived <rf thdr vote therein. 

The state shall be divided into thirty-two districts, each of which shall 
choose one senator to serve for two years. A census <^ the state shall be 
taken in 1 855, and in every ten years afterwards. The legislature, at the next 
session after such census, shall re-organize the districts on the basis of pop- 
ulation, excluding aliens and persons of color not taxed; and the districts 
shall remain unaltered until the next census. Members of the assembly, 
one himdred and twenty-eight in number, and apportioned among the several 
counties according to the population, excluding aliens and j)ersons of color 
not taxed, shall be elected annuaUy and by single districts. Each county, 
except Hamilton, shall have at least one member of the assembly ; and no 
new county shall be made unless its population entitle it to a member. The 

* Martin Van Buren 'was goremor firom Janaary 1 to March, 1829, ^lieii he resigned 
the office, on being appointed Secretary of State for the United States. 



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Mia] lam ramx^ ta 

pay of the woatam ftod refnreientetiyes shall not be Biere ikim $S a clay, 
irith $1 for everj ten miles of travel, nor exceed in the wh«de $3 per diem 
allowance. In extra se86k>ns it shall.be $3 a daj. The speaker ^lall i*e« 
ceiTe one-third additional to his pet diem allowaiice. Ko member c^ the 
legislature shall, din^ his term, be appointed to anj office ; and no one 
holding office imder the United States, and no member of Congress, ^lall 
belong to the l^islature. The election shall be on the Tuesday succeeding 
the first Monday in November ; and the legislatore shall assemble on the 
first Tnesday of the following January. The assembly may ivq)each by a 
majority vote of all the members elected. 

The governor and lieutenant-governor, chosen by a plnrality of votes, 
ghall hold <^ce for two years. In case two persons have an equal and the 
highest vote, the legislature, at its next session, by joint ballot shall dedde 
between Ihem. They must be thirty years old, citizens of the United States, 
and have been, fin: five years next preceding their election, residraits in the 
state. * The governor may veto a bill; but two-thirds of both houses may 
pass it again, notwi&standing his veto. The lieutenant-govemcnr shall be 
president of the' s^iate, with only a castii^ vote ; and if the office of gov- 
ernor be vacant, he, and, after him, the president of the senate, shall act as 
govenuHT. The secretary of state, comptroller, treasurer, attorney-general, 
itate-engiiieer and smrveyor, shall be chosen at a general election, and hold 
office for two years. The treasurer may be suspended fix>m office by the 
governor, during the recess of the legislature, and imtil thirty days after the 
beginning of the next session. At the first election, three canal commis- 
noners and three inspect<Nrs of prisons shall be diosen, to hold office one, 
two, and three years, respectively, as shall be determined by lot ; and af* 
terwards one shall be elected annually to hold office tot three years. The 
inspedon shall have eharge of the state prisons, and shall appoint all officers 
therein. 

The court of appeals shall consist of eight jndges, four to be elected by Uie 
pec^le of the state, to serve eight years, and four selected from the justices 
^ the supreme court, having the ^ortest time to s^rve. The judges shall 
be BQ classified that every two years one shall leave office, and a new judge 
be elected to serve eight years. The state shall be divided into eight judicial 
distzicts, of which Kew York dty shall be one *, where the number oi judges 
is to be fixed by law. The other districts shall each elect four justices of 
tbe Boptemfd court to serve eight years. The justices shall have general 
jurisdiction in law and equity, and shall be so classified that every two years 
one in eadi district shall go ont of office. Each county, except the city and 
cottnty of New York, shall elect oi^ county judge fiw four years, who shall 
act as surrogate and hold the county court Counties of more than forty thou- 
sand inhabitants may elect a separate surrogate. Towns may elect justices 
of the peace to serve four years. Cities may have inferior local courts of 
chril and criminal jmisdictimL Tribunals of oondliation may be estah^ 



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U€ VBW too:* [1848. 

lished wliosejiidgnniit shall be binding onl^^iipOB^ partieB wlio yohmtacfljr 
submit thdr matteTS in dispute, and agree to abide tiie result A deack of 
tbe oourt of appeals, to be ex-offieio deik of the supreme court, shall be 
chosen by the people for diree jears. Sheriffs, county derks, coroners, and 
district attorneys, shall be chosen by x^ounties once in three years, and as 
often as yacandes happen. Sheriffs shall hold no other office, and be ineligi- 
Ue for the next tinee yean after the termination of their (Iffice. 

From June 1st, 1846, there shall be paid each year out of the net reyenuee 
of the state canals, $1,300,000, until June 1st, 1855 ; and from that time 
$1,700,000 a year, as a sinking fund for the payment of the canal debt of 
the state. Afterwards, from the remaining, rerenues of the canals, there 
shall be paid from June 1st, 1846, until the canal debt is extinguished, 
$350,000 a year; and afterwards $1,500,000 a year for the redemption of 
the general fund and all contingent debts. Of the balance of the cana rey- 
ennes, a sum not aboye $200,000 a year (which may, if necessary, aftor 
eight years be increased to $350,000 per annum, and which, after the aboye 
debts are paid and certain now unfinished canals completed, may be sttU 
farther increased to $672,500 a year) shall be deyoted to pay (iie necessary 
expenses of the state ; and the balance shall be expended to complete the 
still unfinished canals. The jHincipal and incoAie of these sinking funds 
shall be sacredly applied to the purposes for whidi they were created ; and, 
if either proyes insuffident, its reyenues shall be suffidently increased by 
taxes to presenre perfectly the public faith. The state canals shall neyer be 
sold, leased, or otherwise disposed of. 

The state shall neyer giye its credit to any indiyidual or corporation ; nor 
riiall it eyer contract a debt, except to meet casual defidts in the reyenue, or 
to suppress insurrection, or for defence in war, unless sudi debt t^e author- 
is^ Aht some single work by a law which shall proyide by a direct annual 
tax, to be irrepealable until the debt is extinguished, for the payment of the 
interest annually, and of the prindpal within eighteen years, and which 
shall be passed by yeas and nays, and be submitted to the people, and recdye 
a majority of all the yotes at a general election, to be hdd not less than 
three months after its passage, and at which no other law or any amendment 
to the constitution is yoted for ; and, on its final passage by the legislature, 
the question shall be taken by yeas and nays, and three-fifths of all the mem- 
bers elected shall form a quorum. All moneys arising ftom such loan ^all 
be applied only to the objects of tii^ loan. No payment shall be made oufr of 
the fimds of the state, tmless by a law distinctly specifying t^ sum and 
object of the appropriation. Public moneys or property cannot be appro- 
priated for local or priyate purposes, except by a two-thirds yote of Hie 
members elected to each branch of the legtelature. 

Corporations, with the indiyidual liaUlity of the corporators, may be 
formed under gmeral laws which may be altered or repealed. They shall 
not be created by special act, except for munidpal purposes, and when the 



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1MS4 »^ ^OME. Mb 

otjectB of ^ e oi powrtlM i caanpt be gaiaid nadar general laws. ISo^ecial 
cbarter shall be granted for banking pmpoaea; and after Jannaiy let, 1850, 
stockholders in baakt shall be indiTidaallj liable, to the amomt of their 
stock, for debts incurred after that date. If a bank ia insolrent, the bill- 
holders shall be preferred creditors. 

The capital of the common school and literary funds shall be preserved 
inyiolate, and its revenue i4)plied to the support of common schools and 
academies. All persons, from scruples of conscience, averse to bearing 
arms, shall be excused therefrom upon such conditions as may be pre- 
scribed by law. No one shall be incompetent as a witness on account of 
his opinions upon religion. In all libel cases tilie truth may be given in 
evidence, and the jury shall have the right to decide the law and the fact. 
All feudal tenures, with all their incidents, are abolished ; except such rents 
and services certain as have been lawfully created or reserved. No lease or 
grant of agricultural land for more than twelve yean, hereafter made, in 
vdiich any rent or service is reserved, shall be valid. 

Amendments to the constitution must be agreed to by a majority vote of 
the members elected to each of the two houses ; be entered on their jour- 
nals with the yeas and nays ] be referred to the legislature to be chosen at the 
next general election of senators, and be published three months previous to 
such election ; be passed by a majority of all the members elected to this 
legislature ; be then submitted to the people, and if a majority approve the 
amendments, they shall become a part of the constitution. In 1866, and 
every twentieth year thereafter, and at such times as the legislature may 
provide, the question of a revision of the constitution shall be submitted to 
the people *, and, if a majority decide in fovor of a convention, the legislative 
at its next session shall provide for the election of delegates thereto. 

GOTEBNMBNT. 







8alAi7.. 


JoHH Young, 


Governor (term expires Jan. 1, 1849), 


$4,000 


Albert Lester, 


Pres. Senate, Pay, $4 a day and mileage. 




Nathaniel S. Benton, 


Sec, of State and Superini. Common Schools, 


2,500 


Azaiiah C. Hagg, 


ComptroUer, 


2,500 


Philip Phelps, 


Deputy Comptroller, 


1,500 


Thomas Farrington, 


Treasurer, 


1,500 


George W. Little, 


Deputy Treasurer, 


1,300 


John Van Buren, 


Attorney- General, 


1,000 


Hugh Halsey, 


Surveyor- General, 


1,000 


Samnel Stevens, 


Adjutant- General, 


1,000 


Btenry Storms, 


Commissary- Ckneral, 


700 


John T. Hudson, 


of Syracuse, Acting Canal Commissioner, 


1,600 


Daniel P. Bissell, 


of Utica, do. do. 


1,600 


Nathaniel Jones, 




1,600 


JStephea Clark, 


of Moscow, Nbn Act. do. paid by the 



day for actual service at the rate of $1,600 a year. 
21* 4 



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S46 



Nmr ToaK* 



I1M8. 



Ltguiatwre.'-'TUb S&mie t&aakm <d jbttj-twrn mnaiktn^ wh6 ate eteofcal' 
to two yean, one ham each senatorial district The AsieiMf oonaists of 
one hundred and tvenij-eic^ members elected ammallj. 

Senatorial Districts. 





Ooimtfet. 


11 


Counties. 


1 




17 




2 

81 


Kings. 


18 
19 


Otsego and Chenango. 


4 
5 • 


Catj and Oonnly of New Tw*. 


20 
21 


Madison and Oswego. 
Jefferson and Lewis. 


6 

7 


Westchester, Putnam, and Bockland. 


22 
23 


Onondaga. 

Cortland, Broome, and Tioga. 


8 


Ihitcliess and (Colombia. 


24 


Caynga and Wayne. 
Tompkins, Seneca, and Yates. 


9 


Orange and SulUran. 


25 


10 


Ulster and Greene. 


26 


Steuben and Chemung. 


11 




27 


Monroe. 


12 


Rensselaer. 


28 


Orleans, Oenesee, and Niagara. 


13 




29 


Ontario and livingstou. 


14 


Warren, Essex, and Clinton. 


30 


AUegfaany and Wyoming. 


15 


St. Lawrence and Franklin, [gomery. 


31 


Erie. 


16 




82 


Chatanque and Catteraugos. 



JUBICIAJiT. 

1. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. 

This court is composed of the president of the Senate (who is president 
of the coort, and when ahsent the chief judge of the Covat of Appeals pre- 
sides), the senators, or the major part of them, and the judges of the Coiirt 
of Appeal 3, or the greater part of them. It is a Court of Record, and 
when summoned meets at Albany, and has for its clerk and officers the 
clerk and officers of the Senate. If the governor is impeached, the lieuten- 
ant-goTemor cannot act as a member of the court. Two-thirds of the mem- 
' hers present must concur for conyiction. The judgment of the court ex- 
tends only to removal from or disqualification for office, or hoth ; the party 
being still liable.to indictment 

2. The Court of Appeals, 

This court has full power to correct and reverse all proceedings and de- 
cisions of the Supreme CJourt, or of the old Supreme CJourt and CJourt of 
Chancy. It is composed of eight judges, of whom four are eleeted (one 
every second year) by the people at large, for eight years, and four selected 
each year from the justices of the Supreme Court, having the shortest time 
to serve. These selections are made alternately from the first, third, fiflh, 
and seventh, and from the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth judicial districts. 
The judge (of the four chosen at large whose term first expires, presides as 
chief judge. Six judges constitute a quorum. Every cause must be decided 
within the year in which it is argued, and, unless reSligued, bef(»e the close 



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IMC] 



Ml 



of the term after tlMaxgtttteBt Four terms mnst be Md eadi year, and 
every two yearfi there must be one term in each judicial district Each judge 
has a salary of $2,500 per annum The court for 1848 is thus constituted : 



Freeborn G. Jewett, 
Greene X). Bronson, 
Charles H. Bugles, 
Addison Ghirdner, 



Chosen by the People at Large 

of Skaneateles, Chief Judge, 

of Albany, 

of Poughkeepsie, 

of Bochester, 



Term eipiief. 

Dec. 31, 1849. 

« 1851. 

" 1853. 

" 1855. 



Sdected from the Justices of the Supreme Court to serve until Dec, 31, 1848. 

Samuel Jones, of New York. Charles Gray, of Herkimer. 

Wm. B. Wright, of Monticello. , Thos. A Johnson, of Conway. 

Charles S. Benton, of Mohawk, Clerk, Salary, $2,000. 

8, The Supreme and Circuit Courts. 
The Supreme Court has g^teral jurisdiction in law and equity, and power 
to review judgments of the County Courts, and of the old Courts of Com- 
mon Pleas. For the election of the justices, the state is divided into eight 
judicial districts, each of which elects four to serve eight years, with an 
annual salary of $2,500. In each district one justice goes out of oflScc 
every two years. The justice in each district whose term first expires, and 
who is not a judge of the Court of Appeals, is a presiding justice of the 
court, and the clerks of the several counties serve as clerks. In every 
county of forty thousand inhabitants, at least one general term of the Supreme 
Court is held each year ; and once in two years in every other county except 
Hamilton. Every county has each year at least two special terms, and two 
Circuit Courts, except the city and county of New York, which has four 
Circuit Courts. Any three or more of the justices (including one presiding 
justice) hold the general terms ; and any one or more "hold the special terms, 
at winch are^ heard all equity cases, and Circuit Courts, which are held ex- 
dusivel J for the trial of issues of fact. 

Judicial Districts, 



"si 


Counties. 


^1 


Counties. ^^-.«. , 


1 

2 

a 

4 


City and Coonty of New York. 

Helimond, Suffolk, Queens, Kings, 
Westchester, Orange, Bockland, Put- 
nam, and Dntchess. 

ColomMa, SnlliTan, Ulster, Greene, 
Albany, Schoharie, and Rensselaer. 

Franklin, St. Lawrence, Clinton, 


5 
6 

7 
8 


Onondaga, Oneida, Oswego, Herkimer, 
Jefferson, and Lewis. 

Otsego, Delaware, Madison, Chenango, 
Broome, Tioga,! Chemung, Tomp- 
kins, and Cortland. 

Livingston, Wayne, Seneca, Yates, On- 
tario, Steuben, Monroe, and Cayuga. 

Erie, Chatauque, Catteraugus, Orleans, 
Niagara, Genesee, Alleghany, and 
Wyoming. 



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ta 



(IMS. 



Jmtioet of ^ Si^prtme €md Oircmi OaurtB. 



JiUtlOM. 



Term 
explrM. 



First District. 
Samuel Jones, New York, Sec. 81, 184fif. 



S. P. Hurlbut, 
J. W. Edmondi, 
H. P. Edwards, 



New York, 
New York, 
New York, 



Steond Distnet, 
Selah B. Strong, Setauket, ** 

W. T. McCoun, Oyster Bay, " 
Nathan B. Morse, Brooklyn, ^' 
Seward Barcuk), Poughkeepsle, '* 

Third District. 

W. B. Wright, Montlcello, « 

Ira Harris, Albany, " 

Malbone Watsoii, Catskill, *« 

Amaaa J. Parker, Albany, ** 

Ftnuth District. 
Daniel Cady, Johnstown, " 

Alonso C. Paige, Elisabethtown, " 
John Willard, Sara. Springs, << 
Angns. C. Hand, Schenectady, " 



1861 
185d. 
1866. 



1849. 
1861. 
1863. 
1856. 



1849 
1861. 
1868 
1866 



1849. 
1861. 
1868. 
1866. 



Justices. 



Eesidence. 



Term 
expires. 



Fifth Distriet. 
Charles Gray, Herkimer, Deo. 81, 1849. 

Daniel Pratt, Syracuse, *' 1861. 

PhUoGridley, Utloa, " 1868. 

Wm. P. Allen, Oswego, <* 1866. 

Sixth District. 

W.H.ShanUandjCortlancMUe,* « 1840. 

Hiram Gray, Ehnlra, " 1861. 

Charles Hason, Hamilton, ** 1868. 

£..B. Morehouse, Ocoperstown, " 1865. 

Seventh District. 

T. A. Johnson, Coming, « 1849. 

JohnMaynard, Seneca Falls, »* 1861. 

Henry Welles, Penn Yann, " 1868 

Samuel L. Selden, Rochester, " 1866. 

Eighth District. 

James G.Hoyt, Attica, « 1849. 

James Mullet, Buflklo, ^ 1851. 

SethE. SiU, Buffolo, " 1858 

R. P. Marvin, Jamestown, *' 1866. 



4. County or Surrogates^ Courts. 
When the real estate, or all the defendants, or all the parties interested, 
are in the county, the jurisdiction of the County Courts extends to actions 
of deht, assumpsit and coTenant, when the deht or damage claimed are not 
above $2,000 j to actions for injury to the person or trespass upon property 
where the damages are not above $500 ; and in replevin suits where the prop- 
erty claimed is not above $1,000. They have equity jurisdiction for the fore- 
closure of mortgages ; for the sale of the real estate of infants ; for partition 
of lands ; for admeasurement of dower -, for the satisfaction of judgments 
where above $75 is due on an unsatisfied execution; and for the care and 
custody of lunatics and habitual drunkards. The Surrogates* Courts have 
the ordinary jurisdiction of Courts of Probate. - 

5. Criminal Courts. 
These are the Courts of Oyer and Terminer and the Court of Sessions. 
The Courts of Oyer and Terminer, in each county, except in the city and 
county of New York, are composed of a justice of^he Supreme Court, who 
presides, the county judge, and the two justices of the peace, chosen mem- 
bers of the Court of Sessions. The presiding justice and any two of the 
others form a quorum. In the city and county of New York, they are com- 
posed of a justice of the Supreme Court, who presides, and any two of the 
following oflBcers ; judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the city and 
county ; the mayor, recorder, and aldermen of said city. These courts are 
all held at the same time and place at which the Circuit Courts are held. 
Courts of Sessions are composed of the county judge and the two justices of 
the peace, designated as members of the Court of Sessions, and are held at 
the same time and place as the County Courts. 



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1848£} 



HSW T(»tX. 



349 



Salary. 


Term expires. 


$3,500, 


Dec. 31, 1849. 


do. 


" 1851. 


do. 


« 1853. 


$3,000. 


Dec. 31,1849. 


do. 


" 1851. 


do. 


" 1853. 



6. CofTBTS oif New York City and CJountt. 

Superior Court. 
JHclges. 

AaroQ Vanderpoel, 

Thomas J. Oakley, 

Lewis H. Sanford, 

Jesse Oakley, Clesk. 

Common Pleas. 
Michael Ulshoeffer, 
Daniel P. Ingraham, 
Charles P. Daly, 
James Cornier, Clerk, 

Charles McYean, Surrogate, 

Finances. _ 

Debt of the State, — The total canal debt, on the 30th of September, 1847, 
was $16,944,815.57 ; and the annual interest on this debt was $938,001.32. 
$11,515,897.57 of this debt is at fire per cent, interest; $1,781,782, at six 
per cent; and $3,647,136, at seven per cent. 

There are, besides, the general fiind and railroad debts amounting . to 
$5,992,840.82, on which the annual interest is $331,738.09. The state is 
liable also for $1,713,000 of stock issued on the faith of the state, and lent 
to railroad corporations. The aggregate debt is $24,734,080.95. 

The following is the estimate, made by the comptroller, of the operation 
of the sinking fund, provided by the new constitution for paying the state 
debt See abstract of the constitution, ante, page 244. 

[From the Report of the Comptroller of New York, Jan. 9, 1847.] 

1. Table showing the Amount required in each year to pay the Principal and 
Current Interest of the Camd Dd>t. 



Tear. 


Principal actoaUj 
payable. 


Interest actually 
payable. 


Total. 


1846, from 1st June 

1847, September dOth, 
18481 " *» 
1849, « »* 

1860, " *« 
1851, « " 

I8ra, " « 

1868, " « 
1864, « « 
M66. " " 
1866, " " 
185^ « 
1868, « «* 
1859, " " 
1880, « " 

1861, " " 

gg; « « 

1864, " " 


571,304 00 

1,584,786 00 

2,149,400 00 

436,000 00 

870,000 00 

620,000 00 

4,000,000 00 

8,058,606 34 

948,100 00 
2,182,974 23 

900,000 00 

300,000 00 


313,115 13 

938,00132 

910,268 44 

789,890 30 

674,718 46 

624,40180 

612,851 80 

612,85180 

604^60180 

681,86180 

431,851 80 

381,861 80 

348,619 23 

228,92153 

214,775 03 

90,383 88 

48,000 00 

18,000 00 

13,500 00 


884,419 13 

938,00132 
2,495,004 44 
2,939,290 30 
1,110,718 46 
1,494,401 80 

612,861 80 

612,861 80 
1,124,601 80 

581,851 80 
4,431,861 80 

881,861 80 
8,402,224 57 

228,921 63 
1,157,875 08 
2,278,308 11 

948,000 00 
18,000 00 

313,500 00 




17,616419 57 


8,433,405 92 


26,949,626 49 



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SM 



lUM 



2. TMe showing ihe Anmud Demands Jhr the diseharge of /*c General Fund 
and Railroad Ddfts. 



Tear. 


Principal sc- 


Interest acta- 
aUy payable 
in each year. 


ToteL 


Total of debt 

and interest to 

be paid each 

year. 


1846, from Ist Jane to dOtb 
September, 

1847, September 80fch, 

1848, " " 

1849, « «* 

1850, " «* 
1851 " " 
1552, " " 
1853, " «» 
1854 « 

1865, " " 
1856 " " 
1857, « " 
1858 " " 
1859, " " 

1860 " " 

1861 « " 

1862, " •* 

1863, « " 
1864^ « 
18651. « « 


11,0()0 00 
18,000 00 
868,107 00 

862,846 66 
467,000 00 

647,896 68 

100,000 00 

250,000 00 

350,000 00 

1,500.000 00 

1,000,000 00 

287,700 00 
28,000 00 


181,159 02 
824,479 24 
814,919 06 
804,816 39 
804,816 39 
304,816 89 
253,045 60 

225.025 60 

225.026 60 
225,025 60 
225.025 60 
191,986 50 
191.986 50 
184,786 50 
172,111 50 
188,476 60 

66,986 50 

14,486 60 

7,993 25 

1,640 00 


142,159 02 

337,479 24 

683,026 06 

304,816 89 

804,816 39 

1,167,663 04 

720,045 60 

225,025 60 

226,025 60 

225,025 60 

872,921 19 

191,986 50 

291,986 50 

434,736 50 

522,111 50 

1,638,476 50 

1,066,986 50 

14,486 50 

296,693 26 

29,640 00 


1,026,678 16 
1,276,480 66 
8,178,030 50 
8,244,106 69 
1,416,534 86 
2,262,064 84 
1,832,897 40 

W,877 40 
1,849,627 40 

806,877 40 
6,304,772 99 

573,838 30 
8,694,211 07 

663,668 03 

1,679,986 63 

8,906,784 61 

2,014,986 60 

82,486 60 

609,198 26 
29,540 00 




5,885,549 24 


3,803,468 24 


9,689,007 48 





If the canal sinking fond, provided by the constitution, starts with the 
debt as it stood at the commencement of the fiscal year, on the first of Oc- 
tober, 1846, it will pay the canal debt in eighteen years and a quarter, 
leaving a surplus of $95,000 on the first of January, 1865. But if the 
debt, which was cancelled on the first of July, is taken into the account, and 
the interest on the excess, beyond the sinking fund, is computed for the 
whole period, it will extend the time of paying the canal debt to the dOth 
of September, 1865, according to the computations which have been made. 

In 1865, the payment of the canal debt being completed in January of 
that year, the annual sum of $1,500,000 will be realized for the payment of 
ihe general fund debt, and will fully cancel the debt in 1869. 

The above is the debt as it stood on the first of June : at the close of the 
fiscal year it was ascertained that the debt had increased $107,000 ; thb is to 
to be added, with interest on it, for twenty-two years and a half. 

In consequence of the failure of the Hudson railroad company to paj 
the interest due on $150,000 of state stock lent to that corporation, $150,000 
of principal and $135,000 of interest, in all $285,000, above the sinking 
fund of the company, must be added to the direct debt of the state. 

In constructing the preceding tables, it is assumed that the principal of 
the debt will be paid as it falls due. The sinking funds provided by 
the constitution, however, are not sufficient to do this ; and hence there will 
be a large accumulation of the aggregate sum required to pay the whole 
debt, being interest on the deficiency of means to pay the principal as it falls 
due. The interest on deficiencies in paying the canal debt amounts to th« 



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184^ 



mW TOBX. 



SftI 



gum <ir ii^97^t8.5d ; that of tiie general fond debt to $2,900,26040 ; ma- 
king the total cost of deferring the debt, $5,298,143.90. During the next 
twenty-two years and a half, the state must pay, on account of interest for 
money bomowed, the sum of . . . $17,221,892.^3 

There has been paid for interest on the canal debt, from 
1817, to September 30th, 1846, twenty-nine years, . 13,833,566.90 

Add payments of interest on railroad stocks, from 1842 
to September 30, 1846, .... 929,770.61 

And it makes a total paid and to be paid for interest, of $31,985,230.44 

General Fund in 1846. 

The whole sum charged for the support of goyemment dur- 
ing the year ending Sept. 30th, 1846, is . . . $1,223,816.90 . 

Receipts in this year, including the mill tax, and excluding 
temporary loans, were . * 1,123,341.82 

Deficit m ordinary receipts to pay expenses, . . $100,475.08 

The gross amount of the sixteenths of a mill tax is $361,309.62. Ex* 
penses of collection, $12,007.47; making the net proceeds of the tax, 
$349,302.15. There has been paid during the fiscal year, for aid to the 
sheriffs in enforcing the laws in Ck>lumbia and Delaware counties, the 
sum of $109,904.62. 



Chief Item of Receipt. 
Auction duty, . $139,312.22 

Salt duty, . . 75,507.34 

Register and clerk fees, 34,896.47 
State tax, . . 346,811.47 

Arrears of taxes, . 57,643.53 
Redemption of lands, 3,054.55 

Free banks, for expenses, 9,035.29 
Interest on deposits, . 8,376.02 
Interest on arrears, . 7,484.96 

Foreign insarance, . 3,310.75 

Temporary loans, . 13,999442 
Ganalfund, . . 400,000.00 



Chief Items of Expenditure. 
ExecutiTe, . . $22,298.94 



Judiciary, . 


. 112,711.00 


Legislature, 


. 101,249.79 


State Prison, . 


14,353.13 


Indian expenses, 


8,520,53 


Interest on debt, . 


. 191,986.50 


State library. 


6,886.9S 


Lunatic asylum, . 


. 3,947.86 



Hospital and foreign poor, 32,500.00 
Convention expenses, 35,332.50 
Other temporary 

expenses, . 241,727.87 



Canal*. — The annual interest on the cost of the canab ($30,987,335.94) at 
5^ per cent, the average paid on the present debt, is . $1,704,298.48 

The tolls from the canals for the fiscal year are . . . 2,764,121.10 

The net revenue from all the state canals, after deducting 
the expenses of collection and snperintendence, is . . 2,156,496.75 

Excess of revenue beyond 5^ per cent, .... 452,198.27 

The canal system has for the last year yielded a net revenue nearly equal 

to seven per cent on the capital expended. For railroads, se^ ftnte, page 194, 



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fl846. 



Ret&uree$ and LidbiUtie$ of att the Batiks of tk» Stmmikt Utdcnfi^ 
November i 1846. 



160baiik8,2 
branches. 



Besouroee. 



Nor. 1, 1846. 
150banks,2 
branches.* 



Loans and disconnts, . 

Real estate, 

Bonds and mortgages, 

Stooks and promissory notes, 

Bankftmd, . 

Loss and expense account, 

Oyer drafts, . 

Specie, .... 

Cash items, . 

Bills of solvent banks. 

Bills of suspended banks, 

Due from banks and bankers, 



72,801,980 
8,642,711 
2,784,012 

11,226,767 



279,920 
161,640 
8.048,884 
7,786,699 
2,421,069 
10,005 
9,818,635 



Cat>ital, .... 

Profits, .... 

Circulation. . 

Due State Treasnxer, • 

Due Canal Fund, . 

Due depositors on demand, 

Due individuals, . 

Due banks. 

Due United States Treasiner, 

Other amounts, . 



48,024,666 
6,498,222 



669,329 

681,787 
80,629,196 

801,802 

12,978,464 

1,098,880 

690,706 



118441,066 



118,141,056 i 



• Including serent^ free banks, with an aggregate capital of $12,788,196. 

Education. — The amonnt of capital and the annual rerenne <^ the s^- 
eral funds appropriated to the purposes of education, are as follows, yiz. : 

Capital. Beyenue. 

Common School Fund, . . . $2,133,943.01 $117,180.60 

United States Deposit Fund, . . . 4,014,520.71 276,667.60 

Literature Fund, . . . 265,196.51 17,353.99 

$6,413,662.23 $411,202.19 

There has also heen paid directly from the treasury for the deaf and dumb, 
$25,192.99; for the l)lind, $17,575.48; making the whole amonnt paid in 
1846, for purposes of education, $453,970.66. 

Property and Taxation. — In the year 1846, 28,126,245 acres of land were 
^tas^ed. The assessed value of the real estate was $496,483,411, and of the 
personal estate, $119,880,236, making an aggregate of $616,824,955. The 
amount of state, county, and town taxes was $3,574,922. Total taxation, 
$4,647,461.88. The average rate of state, county, and town taxes through- 
out the state, on $1 valuation, was 7 and 53-100 mills. 



Vm. NEW JERSEY. 

The territory comprised in this state was included in the patent for laige 
tracts in America, which was granted by Charles II. to his brother, the Duke 
of York, in 1664 ; and in the same year the duke conveyed this territory to 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret ; and it then received the name of 
New Jersey, In 1665, Philip Carteret was appointed the j&rst governor of 
the province, which then contained only a few families. 



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253 



In 1676, New Jersey vna dmded into two proyinees, East Jeney and 
Wtst Jersey; the former contmuing imder the government <^ Carteret, and 
the latter being held, for a time, as a dependency of New York. 

In 1682, East Jersey was transferred to William Penn and eleven asso- 
ciates ; and Boberi Barday^ the celebrated author of the "Apology for the 
Principles of the Quakers,** was appointed governor. 

In 1702, East and West Jersey were again united into one province, by 
flie name of New Jersey, under the government of Lord Combury^ who was 
also governor of New York ; and this connection with New York continued 
till 1738, when a separate government was instituted, which lasted till the 
American Revolution. Lewis Morris was the first royal governor; and WU- 
Ham Temple FrankUriy a son of the celebrated Dr. Eranklin, the last 



BOTAL GOYEBNOBS. 



liCwis Morris, appointed 1738 

John Hamilton, President, 1746 

John Reading, President^ 1746 

Jonathan Belcher, appointed 1747 

John Reading, President^ 1757 



Francis Bernard, appointed 
Thomas Boone, do. 

Josiah Hardy, do, 

Wm. Temple Franklin, do. 



1758 
1760 
1761 
1763 



GOVEBNO&S UNDBB THE CONSTITUTION. 



William Livingston, elected 1776 

William Patterson, do, 1791 

Richard Howell, do. 1794 

Joseph Bloomfield, do, 1801 

John Lambert {Ad. Gov,) 1802 

Joseph Bloomfield, dected 1803 

Aaron Ogden, do. 1812 

William S. Pennington, do. 1813 

Mahlon Dickerson, do, 1815 



Isaac BL Williamson, 
Peter D. Vroom, jr. 
Elias P. Seeley, 
Peter D. Vroom, 
Philemon Dickerson, 
William S. Pennington, 
William Pennington, 
Daniel Haines, 
Charles C. Stratton, 



elected 1817 
do. 1829 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do, 
do. 



1832 
1833 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1848 
1844 



Abstbaot op the Constitution, 
Adopted August 13, 1844. 
Every white nude citizen of the United States, 21 years old, resident in 
ihe state for one year, and in the county where he claims to vote for five 
months, next before the election, may vote. Members of the " General As- 
sembly" (the House of Representatives), not exceeding 60 in number, shall 
be 21 years old, citizens of the state for two years, and of the county one 
year next before the election, shall be apportioned among the counties a<j- 
cording to population, allowing not less than one to every county, after every 
general census of the United States. Senators are chosen for three years, 
one from every county, and must be 30 years old, citizens of the sti^te for 
four years, and of the cotmty for one year next before the election. Mem- 
bers of the General Assembly, and one-third of the senators, are chosen on the 
second Tuesday of eiwry October; and both houses meet on the second 
22 



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254 TtBW JSBSBT. [1845. 

Tuesday of eyery January. The goyemor mnst be SO years old, a citizen of 
ihe United States fw twenty years, and a resident of the state for the seven 
years next before his election, and shall be chosen by a plnrality of votes, or, 
hi case of an even vote, by " a majority of the members of both houses in 
joint-meeting," for the term of three years ; but he shaH not be eligible for 
the next three years, or nominate or appoint to any office during the last 
week of his term. He may r^eto a biU ; but a majority of the members elect- 
ed to each house may pass it, notwithstanding his veto. He may grant re- 
prievei, except hi cases of impeachment, for a time not exceeding 90 days 
after conviction ; and he or hia substitute, the chancellor, and the six judges of 
the court of errors and appeals, or a majority of Jhem, of whom the governor 
shall be one, may grant pardons in the like cases. In case the office of gov- 
ernor be vacant, it shall be filled by the president of the senate, and, after 
him, by the speaker of the house. If the governor die, resign, or be removed, 
more than 30 days before the election of members of the legislature, a suc- 
cessor shall be chosen at that election \ if within 30 days, at the next election 
but one. Members of the legislature shall be paid not more than $3 a day 
for the first 40 days of the session, and not more than $1.50 a day for the 
remainder, and ten cents a mile for traveL In extra sessions, they shall re- 
ceive such sums as shall be fixed, for the first 40 days. The president of 
the senate and speaker of the house receive one^third additional pay. No 
member eS either house shall, during his term, be nominated or appointed, 
except by the people, to any office created, or increased in pay, during that 
term. The credit of the state shall not be lent in any case ; neither shall 
the legislature create any debt, which shall raise the whole state debt above 
$100,000 (save in case of war, invasion, or insurrection), unless it *' be au- 
thorized by a law for some single object or work, to be distinctly specified 
therein ; which law shall provide the ways and means, exclusive of loans, to 
p^ the iaterest of eaeh debt or liability, as it falls due, and also to pay and 
discharge the principal of such debt or liability within 35 years from the 
time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable, until such debt or 
liability, and the interest thereon, are fdlly paid and discharged; and no 
such law shall take efiect, imtil it shall) at a general election, have been sub- 
mitted to the people, and have received the sanction of a majority of all the 
votes cast." No divorce shall be granted^ or lottery aulhorized, by the legis- 
lature ; and no lottery ticket shall be sold in the state. Every law shall 
have but one object, and that one expressed in the tide. No special law 
shall be passed authorizing the sale of land belonging to minors, or other 
persons und^ legal disability. Bank charters shall be granted, oontinned, 
or amended, only by a vote of three-fifths of the members elected to each 
house, and for a term not exceeding 20 yearsw The court of enors and i^ 
peals con^sts of the chancellor, the justices of the supreme court, and sis 
judges, appointed by the governor and senate, for six years, one eveiy year ; 
and meh of the six as attend receive a per diem compensation, to be fixed 



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1848.] 



KfiW JSBiBT. 



S6A 



by law. The chancellor and supreme court judges, on appeals from them- 
selyes, may state the reasons of their judgment, but shall have no TOte. The 
secretary of state is derk of the court. The chancellor, appointed by the 
goTcmor and senate for seren years, constitutes the court of diancery, and 
is the ordinary and judge of the prerogative court The supreme court 
consists of a chief justice, and not less than two associates, appointed by the 
governor and senate for seven years. The circuit court may be held by a 
Judge of the supreme court, or by a distinct judge, and has» within the coun- 
ty, a common-law jurisdiction, except in oiminal cases, concurrent with the 
supreme court ; and its final judgments may be docketed in that court The 
court of conunon pleas shall consist of not more than five judges, chosen by 
joint ballot of the legislature, for five years, one every year. Justices of the 
peace are chosen for five years by the people in towns. The salaries of the 
chancellor and supreme court judges shall not be diminished during their 
term. The attorney-general, clerks of the supreme court, and court (^ dian- 
cery, shaU be appointed, for five years, by the governor and senate. Clerks 
and surrogates of counties are elected by the people therein, for five years ; 
and sheriffs and coroners annually ; but iJaey caanot serve more than three 
consecutive years. All officers, not otherwise provided for, are appointed 
by the governor and senate. No person shall be imprisoned for debt, except 
in cases of fraud. In all libel cases, the truth may be given in evidence ; 
and if published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, is a sufficient 
defence. The jury may determine the law and the facts. 



GOYEBNMBNT 

For the year ending January y 1848. 
Chas. C. Stsatton, 



Salarj. 



Ch. G. M*Chesney, 
Stacy A. Paxson, 
John C. Smallwood, 
J. W. C. Evans, 
Daniel Dodd, jr., 
Alex. M. Gumming, 



of (Honcester Co, Gwemor (term of office ex- 

pures Jan. 1848), $1,600 
of Trenton, Secretary of State^ Fees. 

of Trenton, Treasurer^ 1,000 

of Gloucester Co., President of the SenaHe, $4.00 a day. 
of Burlington Co., Speaker of the Assembly ^ 4.00 a day. 
of Essex Co., Clerk of the Senate, 3.50 a day. 
Clerk of the Assembly, 3.50 a day. 



JUDICIABT. 

" Court of Errors and Appeals, 



Joseph Porter, 


of Gloucester Co., 


Judge, 


James Speer, 


of Passaic Co., 


do. 


Aaron Robertson, 


of Warren Co., 


do. 


Andrew Sinnickson, 


of Cumberland Co., 


do. 


Jonathan J. Spencer, 


of Burlington Co., 


do. 



Ferdinand S. Schenck, of Somerset Co., 



do. 



Term ezpiies. 
1852 
1851 
1850 
1849 
1848 
1853 



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MBW JBBSBT. 



[1848. 



Court of Chancery. 

Tom ezpirai. Salaiy. 

Oliver S. Halsted, of Newark, ChanceBor^ 1852 $1,800 & fees. 
Samael B. Gtimmere, of Trenton, Clerk, 1850 Fees. 



Henry W. Greene, 
Ira C. Whitehead, 
James S. Nevius, 
Jos. F. Bandolph, 
Thos. P. Carpenter, 
Abraham Browning, 
James Wilson, 
Robert E. Spencer, 
SamL B. Qummere, 



Supreme Cowrt, 

Tern 

of Trenton, Chief Justice, 

of Morristown, Associate Justice, 

of N. BnmswidL, do. 

do. do. 

of Woodbniy, do. 

of Camden, Attorney- General, 

of Trenton, Clerk, 

of Mt Holly, Beporter, 

of Trenton, Clerk in Chancery, 

FlKANCBS. 



Whole amount recelTed in 1846, 
Whole amount expended. 

Principal items of Expenditure to Jan. 

1,1847. 
Salaries, $15,616.60 

Lonatio ABylmn, boilding, See., 40,896.00 
State Houae, additlous and improre- 

ments, 20,725 00 

Legislatoie, 21,764.43 

Printiiig, 6,767.89 

Oourt of errors and appeals, 2^28L82 

BeTolutionary pensions, 2,018^ 

Instruction of the blind, 1,916.90 

State prison, 8,684.44 

Transportation of prisoners, & costs, 4,964.86 
Payment of special loan, 16,000.00 

Deaf and dumb, 1,877.42 

Incidental, and Tarions other ex- 
penses, 18,779.60 
Balance in the treasury, 8,773.81 



expires. 


Salary. 


1853 


$li500&f. 


1848 


1,400 &f. 


1852 


1,400 &1 


1852 


1,400 &£ 


1852 


1,400 & f. 


1850 


Fees & 80. 


1852 


Fees. 


1847 


200 


1850 


Fees. 


. $163,948.28 


155,174.47 



Total, 



!|168,948.28 



Chief sources of Income to Jim. 1, 

1847. 
Balance of 1846-6, $5,27a98 

Transit duties on railroads and 

canals, 48,034.61 

DiT. on railroad and canal stock, 19,000.00 
Tax on railroad capital, 1,260.00 

State prison earnings, &c., 7,216.90 

Spedal (temporaxy) kMoi, 40,000.00 

State tax receired, 89,061.93 

From other sooioes, 8,206.97 



Total, 



$168,948.28 



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1848.J 



PXIIVSTLYJlNIA. 

IX PENNSYLVANIA. 



257 



Feimsylvaiua wtts granted by Charles IL, by a diarter fligned <m the 4tli 
of March, 1681, to the iUnstrioiu William Penn, who was constitoted the 
proprietary of the proTiace. In 1682, William P«m, together -wilh aboat 
tvro tfaonsand settlen, most of whom, like himself, belonged to the society 
of Friends, or Qnakers, arrived in the country ; and in the f<dlowing year 
he laid ont the plan of the city of Philadelphia. He establi^ed a friendly 
intercoorse witb the Indians, which was not intermpted for more than sev- 
enty years. 

From the beginning of the 18th centory till the commencement of the 
American Revolution, the government was generally administered by dep- 
uties i^pointed by the proprietaries, who mostly resided in England. 



GoYESNORS, Deputt-Govbrnors, &o. 
Under the Proprietary Government 
Appointed. 



William Penn, Prop, and Gov, 1682 

Thomas Lloyd, President, 1684 

John Blackwell, D^.- Gov. 1 688 

Benj. Fletcher, Governor, 1693 

William Markam, do. 1693 

William Penn, do. 1699 

And. Hamilton, Dep.-Gov. 1701 

Edwd. Shippen, President, 1703 

John Evans, Dep.'Gov. 1704 

Charles Gookin, do. 1709 

Sir Wm. Keith, do, 1717 

Patrick Gordon, do. 1726 



Apfdnted. 



James Logan, President, 
George Thomas, Dep.-Gov. 
Anthony Palmer, President, 
James Hamilton, Dqt.-Gov. 
Robert H. Morris, do. 
William Denny, do. 

James Hamilton, 
J<^m Penn, 

James Hamilton, President, 
Richard Penn, 
John Penn, Governor, 

The Proprietary Gov't ended 



Presidents under the First Constitution. 



Thomas Wharton, 
Joseph Reed, 
William Moore, 

Thomas Mfflin, 
Thomas M^Eean, 
Simon Snyder, 
WilHaih Fhidlay, 
Joseph Hiester, 



elected 
do. 
do. 



1777 

1778 
1781 



John Dickinson, 
Benjamin Franklin, 
Thomas Mifflin, 



elected 
do. 
do. 



1736 
1738 
1747 
1748 
1754 
1756 
1759 
1763 
1771 
1771 
1773 
1776 

1782 

1785 
1783 



Gcwmors under the New ContltituHon. 



dected 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



1790 
1799 
1808 
1817 
1820 



J. Andrew Shulze, 
George Wolf, 
Joseph Ritner, 
David R. Porter, 
Francis R. Shunk, 



elected 1823 

do. 1829 

do. 1835 

do. 1838 

do. 1844 



Abstract ov the Cokstitution. 
The first constitution of Pennsylvania was adopted in 1776; the second 
in 1790; and the present constitution in 1838. 
22* 



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S58 PBNNSTLTAiriA. [1848. 

Every white freeman, 21 years old, resident in flie state for one year, and 
in his election district for ten days next before the election, and who has 
paid within two years a state or county tax, assessed at least ten days be- 
fore Ae election, may vote ; but white freemen who are between 21 and 22 
years old, being citizens of the United States, need not have paid a tax ; and 
qualified voters, who are dtizens of the United States, and who have re- 
moved from the state and returned, may vote after six months* residence. 
Bepresentatives, not less than 60 or more than 100 in number, shall be 21 
years old, citizens and inhabitants of the state for the last three years, and, 
for the last year, of the district which they represent, and shall be chosen 
annually. There shall be an enumeration of taxable inhabitants every 
seven years, to fix the number of senators and representatives, and every 
county shall have at least one representative ; but counties erected after 1838 
shall have none, until entitled thereto by their population. Senators, in num- 
ber not less than one-fourth, nor more than one-third of the representatives, 
shall be chosen for three years, one-third every year. They shall be 25 years 
old, citizens and inhabitants of the state for the last four years, and for the 
last year, of their districts. The General Assembly shall meet on the first 
Tuesday of every January. No representative shall be appointed to any 
civH office created, or increased in pay, during his term. The governor 
shall be 30 years old, a citizen and inhabitant of the state for the last seven 
years, and shall be chosen on the second Tuesday of every October, for 
three years from the third Tuesday of January ensuing. He shall receive a 
fixed compensation, and shall not be eligible more than six years out of 
every nine. He may remit fines, and grant pardons, except in cases of im- 
peachment. He may veto a bill ; but it may be .passed by a vote of two- 
thirds of each house, notwithstanding his veto. He may appoint a secre- 
tary of the commonwealth during pleasure. The governor and senate ap- 
point the judges of the supreme court for fifteen years; "all other judges 
required to be learned in the law, for ten years ; " and the associate judges 
of the court of common pleas for five years ; all being removable upon ad- 
dress of two-thirds of each house. The judges of the supreme court, and 
the presidents of the several courts of common pleas, shall receive a com- 
pensation, which shall not be diminished during their term. The judges of 
the supreme court have criminal jurisdiction in the counties ; and when not 
in session there, the same jurisdiction, subject to such right of appeal as the 
law may give, shall be given to the common pleas. Limited chancery 
powers, which may be enlarged by law, are given to both courts. Any two 
judges of the common pleas may hold, in any county, a court oi quarter 
sessions of the peace, and an orphans' court; and, with the register of wills, 
shall compose the registers' court. Sheriff's and coroners shall be chosen by 
the people, in counties, for three years, but not for two consecutive terms. 
Prothonotaries of the supreme court are appointed by the court, for seven 
years. Clerks of the other courts, registers of wills, and recorders of deeds. 



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1848.] 






PBNNSTLYAKIA. 



J 4^ 






259 



are elected by the people, in districts, for three years ; and jnstices of the 
peace, or aldermen, in words, boroughs, or towns, for five years. Every 
person directly or indirectly engaged in a dnel is disqualified for office; 
but the governor n^y remove this disqualification. Ko person acknowl- 
edging **the being of a God, and a future state of rewards and punish- 
ments, shall, on account of his religious sentiments, be disqualified " for 
office. In all libel suits, if the matter concern the official conduct of 
public men, or the matter be proper for public information, the truth 
may be given in evidence. Imprisonment for debt is abolished, except 
in cases of fraud. Amendments to the constitution, if approved by a ma- 
jority of the members of each house, shall be submitted to the people, 
and, if approved, in the same manner, by the next legislature, shall be again 
submitted tO the people; and, if ratified by a majority of votes, shall be 
, adopted. But no amendment shall be submitted oftener than once in five 
years. 

GOYSBNMENT. 

Salaij. 

Governor^ (term of office expires on 

the 3d Tuesday in Jan., 1848,) $3,000 



Fbanois B. Shunk, 
Jesse Miller, 



Henry Petriken, 
John Banks, 
J. N. Purviance, 
John Laporte, 
Thomas J. Behrer, 
Greorge W. Bowman, 
William Williamson, 
James Cooper, 
James Bums, 
William B. Foster, jr., 
Joshua Hartshorhe, 



of Perry Co., 

of Centre Co., 
of Berks Co., 
of Butler Co., 
of Bradford Co., 



of Chester, 
of Adams Co., 
of Mifflin Co., 
of Bradford Co., 
of Chester Co., 



Judiciary. 



SecofStcUe^ and Siiperin- 

tendent of Common Schools^ 1,700 

Deputy Secretary ofSuae^ 1,000 

State treasurer, 1,400 

Auditor- General^ 1,400 

Surveyor- Creneral, 1,200 

Deputy Surveyor- Generc^ 1,000 

Adjutant' General^ 300 
Speaker of the Senate, 
Speaker of the House. 

Canal Commissioners, 



Supreme Court, 

Salary. 

John B. Gibson, of Carlisle, Chief Justice, $3,666.67 

Molton C. Bogers, of Lancaster, Associate Justice, 2,400.00 

Thomas Bumside, of Centre Co., do, 1,600.00 

Bichard Coulter, of Westmoreland, do. 1,600.00 

Thomas S. Bell, of Chester Co., do, 1,600.00 

Benjamin Champneys, of Lancaster, Attorney- General^ $300 and fees. 

Joseph S. Cohen, Prothonotary for the East District, Fees. 

William W. Candless, Do, West Do, do. 

P. C. Sedgwick, Do. Middle Do. do. 



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FSinfSTLTiJIU. 



[1848. 



Charles Pleasants, Prothonotary for the North District^ 

Joel Jones, President Judge for the City and Co. of PJdbddphia^ 



Judge do. do* do. 

do. do. do. do. 

Judge for the City and Co. of Lancaster^ 

President Judge for the Co. of Alleghany^ 



Sftlaty. 
Fees. 

$2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,600 
2,000 



John K. Findlaj, 
George Sharswood, 
Alexander Hayes, 
Hopewell Hepburn, 

Vacancy. 
James Thompson, Judge for Erie^ Crawford^ Venango^ Warren^ Meroer^ 2,000 
D. C. Skerrett, Prothonotary for Philadelphia. 

Cowrt of Common Pleas. 
Dbitricts. Pxegident Jadceo. 

1. Philadelphia, .... Edward King. 
Judges^ James Campbell, William D. Eellej, Anson Y. Parsons. 



2. Lancaster, . . ... 

3. Berks, Northampton, and Lehigh, . 

4. Centre, Clinton, and Clearfield, 

5. All^hany, 

6. Erie, CrawfcHrd, Venango, and Wairen, 

7. Bucks and Montgomery, . 

8. Northumberland, Lycoming, and Columbia, 

9. Cumberland, Perry, and Juniata, 



Ellis Lewis. 
J. Pringle Jones. 
Geo. W. Woodward. 
Benjamin Patton. 
Gaylord Church. 
David Eraose. 
Joseph B. Anthony. 
Samuel Hepburn. 



10. Westmoreland, Indiana, Armstrong, and Cambria^ Jer. M. BurriU. 



11. Susquehanna, Wyoming, Wayne, and Pike, 

12. Dauphin and Lebanon, 

18. Luzerne, Bradford, and Tioga, 

14. Washington, Fayette, and Greene, . 

15. Chester and Delaware, 

16. Franklin, Bedford, and Somerset, . 

17. Beaver, Butler, and Mercer, 

18. Potter, M^Kean, Warren, Jefferson, and Elk, 

19. York and Adams, 

20. Huntingdon, Mifflin, and Union, 

21. Munroe, Carbon, and Schuylkill, 

Finances. 
PuUic De&e. —Funded Debt, viz. : 
6 per cent, stock, 
5 do. do. 
4i do. do. 

Total funded debt, 1st December, 1846, 
Belief notes in circulation, 
Interest certificates outstanding. 
Do. unclaimed, . 

Interest on certificates, at 4>^, to 1st Apgust, 



William Jessnp. 
Nat B. Eldred. 
J. N. Conyngham. 
Nathaniel Ewing. 
James Nill. 
Jeremiah S. Black. 
John Bredin. 
Alex. M'Cahnont. 
WiUiam N. Irvine. 
Abraham S. Wilson. 
Luther ladder. 



$1,752,335.06 

86,906,635.46 

200,000.00 

$1,031,664.00 

703,810.69 

4,433.11 



$38,858,970.52 



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261 

$1,784,331.0! 
96,275.47 



1848.] DBLAWJLBE. 

1845, when funded, . $44,423.21 

Domestic creditors' scrip, 

Total pnblic debt, 1st January, 1847, . . $40,739,577.00 

Annual interest on the debt, . • $2,040,000 

Public Property. 
Canals and railroads, at original cost, $28,657,432.51 

Public buildings at Harrisburg, estimated, 250^000.00 

State arsenals, powder magazine, &c^ estimated, 100,000.00 
Stock in sundry corporations, par value, 2,021,198.52 

Money due on unpatented lands, estimated, 180,000.00 

$31,208,631.03 

Statement of the Tax assessed on Real and Personal Estate for the last six years, 
and the Amount thereof received into the State Treasury. 



Tears. 


Amotmt of Tax assessed. 




1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 


$523,530 46 

664,341 63 

992,878 51 

937,424 74 

1,800,881 69 

1,300,881 69 


$33,292 77 
486,635 85 
553,911 38 
751,210 01 
1,318,332 02 
1,445,112 70 


*$5,719,938 72 


$4,588,494 73 



* Prom this snm must be dedacted, on yarions accomits during the six years, $688,755.36, 
which gires the available sum of $5,131,188.87. This learee, Dee. Ist, 1846, the sum of 
$6^,1688.64, to be reaHied at the treasury. 
Total receipts during the year ending Not. 30tfa, 1846, . $8,629,057.28 

Balance in the treasury. Nor. 80th, 1846, . . . 884,886.09 



Total reroiue. 
Expenditures during the same period. 



8,918,943.87 



Balance in the treasury, Nov. 80th, 1846, . . $884,678.70 

IHiring the year, all accruing liabilities, including the interest on the public debt, have 
been met, and $246,816.22 of the debt hare been paid. During the last two years, the taxes 
hare been oheerftilly and promptly paid. No loans hare been made ; the public liabili- 
ties have been met ; the revenues have increased from nearly aU sources, and the publio 
debt is diminishing. 



X. DELAWARE. 



The first European settlement in this state was formed by Swedes and 
linns, in 1627 *, in 1655, the colony was taken from the Swedes by the 



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J>SI.AWiJUB. 



[1848. 



Dutch, nnder Goyeraor Stayyesant; and after the conquest of lilew York 
by the English, in 1664, it was placed under the jurisdiction of the goyem- 
ment of New York. 

In 1682, the country was granted to William Penn, and placed un- 
der the same executive and legislative government with Pennsylvania. 
It was then, as it is now, divided into three counties, Newcastle, Kent, and 
Sussex, generally styled, till the American Revolution, '' The Three Lower 
Counties upon the Delaware." 

In 1701, the representatives of Delaware withdrew from those of Pennsyl- 
vania. The first separate legislative assembly met at Newcastle, in 1704 ; 
and it ever afterwards continued distinct from that of Pennsylvania; 
though the same governor presided over both provinces till the 4th of July, 
1776. 

Presidents under the First Constitution. 



John M*Kinley, deeted 1777 

CsBsar Rodney, do, 1778 

John Dickinson, do, 1782 

John Cook, Acting President, 1783 



ITicholas Van Dyke, elected 1783 

Thomas Collins, do. 1786 

John Davis, AcUng President, 1789 

Joshua Clayton, elected 1789 



Crovemors elected under the Present Constitution, 



Joshua Clayton, Governor, 1793 

Gunning Bedford, do, 1796 
Daniel Rogers, Acting Crovemor, 1797 

Richard Bassett, Governor, 1798 

James Sykes, Acting Governor, 1801 

David Hall, Governor^ 1802 

Nallianiel Mitchell, do. 1805 

George Truett, do, 1808 

Joseph Haslett, do, 1811 

Daniel Rodney, do, 1814 

John Clarke, do, 1817 

Jacob Stout, Acting Governor, 1820 

John Collins, Governor, 1821 
* Died in offloe, Maxch 2d, 1846. 



Caleb Rodney, Acting Governor, 1822 

Joseph Haslett, Governor, 1823 

Samuel Paynter, do, 1824 

Charles Polk, do, 1827 

David Hazzard, do, 1830 

Caleb P. Bennett, deeted 1833 

Cornelius P. Com^^ys, do. 1837 

William B. Cooper, do. 1840 

*Thos. Stockton, do, 1844 
t Joseph Maull, Acting Governor, 1846 

Waiiam Temple, do. 1846 

William Thaip, elected 1846 

t Died In office. 



Abstbjlct of the Constitution. 

The first constitution was formed in 1776; the second, in 1792; and the 
present amended constitution, in 1838. 

Every free white male citizen, 22 years old, resident in the state for one 
year, and in the county where he offers his vote one month next before the 
election, who has paid within two years a county tax, assessed at least six 
months before the election, may vote; and every such citizen, between 21 
and 22 years old, may vote without paying such a tax. Representatives 
shall be 24 years old, for three years citizens and inhabitants of the state, 



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1848.} BtsiAWAXE. 26S 

and for one year, of their county, and shall be chosen for two years. Sen- 
ators, in number not less than one-third, or more than one-half of the num- 
ber of representatires, shall be 27 years old, possessed of 200 acres of land 
in freehold in the county, or of any estate therein worth £1,000,, citizens and 
inhabitants of the state for three years, and for the last year x)f their county, 
and shall be chosen in counties for four years. The General Assembly meets 
biennially, on the first Tuesday of January. No corporation (unless one 
for public improvement) shall be created fbr more than 20 years ; nor un- 
less by a vote of two-thirds of each branch of the legislature, with the 
power of revocation reserved. The governor (elected for four years by 
a plurality of votes) shall be 30 years old, a citizen and inhabitant of 
the United States for twelve years next before the first meeting of the 
legislature after his election, and for the last six an inhabitant of the 
state. If the office of governor be vacant, it shall be filled by the speaker 
of the senate, and after him by the speaker of the house ; and after him by 
the secretary of state ; and, if the secretary fill the office, at the next meet- 
ing of the Greneral Assembly, they shall choose a governor ad interim. If the 
governor-elect die, decline, &c., the governor in office shall continue until a 
new election. The governor may be removed for inability, by a vote of 
two-thirds of the members of each house. The secretary of state shall be 
appointed by the governor, to hold office during his term. There shall be 
five judges in the state. One shall be chancellor, and president of the or- 
phans* court. Of the other four judges, one shall be the chief justice of the 
state, and the other three shall be associate judges, one of whom shall 
reside in each county. The chief justice and two of the associates (one of 
the three judges being always disqualified by his residence in the county) 
shall form tiie superior court, and court of general sessions ; and all the 
judges, except the chancellor, shall form the court of oyer and termi- 
ner. The court of errors and appeals is composed of three or more of 
the judges. The orphans' court consists of the chancellor, and the associate 
judge of the county. All the judges are appointed during good behavioi^ 
and receive a salary which cannot be diminished below a sum named. The 
registers' court is held by the register, with appeal to the superior court; 
and all the proceedings shall be in writing. No ordained clergyman, or 
preacher, while he continues such, shall vbe a member of the legislature, or 
hold a civil office. Elections are held on the second Tuesday of November. 
Suits may be brought against the state, as the law shall provide. Two- 
thirds of each house, with the govanor^s approval, may propose amend- 
ments, which shall be published not less than three, nor more than six 
months before the next election of representiUives ; and, if three-fourths of 
each house, after that election, and before another, ratify the amendments, 
they shall be ad<^ed. 



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S64 



MAXTLAJn>, 



[1848. 



Cfooemmmt Jbr the year 1848. 

WiLUAM Thabp, of Smyrna, Governor ^ term of office 

expires on the 3d Tnesdaj in Jan., 1851), $1,383 1-3 
Daniel M. Bates, of Dover, Secretary of State, Fees and 400 



James S. Buckmaster, 
Abraham Staats, 


of Frederica, 
of Fieldsboro' 


State Treasurer, 
, Auditor, 


500 
500 




JUDICIABT. 




James Booth, 
Samuel M. Harrington 
John J. MiUigan, 
Edward Wootten, 
Edward W. Gilpin, 


Superior Court, 
of Newcastle, Chief Justice, $1,200 
, of Dover, Associate Justice, 1,200 
of Wilmington, do, 1,000 
of Geoi^town, do, 1,000 
of Wilmington, Attorney- General, Fees and 500 


Kemey Johns, Jr., 


Court of Chancery, 
of New Castle, ChanedJor, 


1,100 


Joshna E. Driver, 
Charles Folk, 


Orphan*8 Court, 
of New CasUe, JRegister of WUls, 
of Dover, do. do, 
of Georgetown, do, do. 


Fees* 
Fees- 
Fees. 


Beceipts 
State tx^asnry, 
School ftind, 


FiNi. 

$88,081.65 
44,887.08 


NCES. 

Expenditures, 

State, 

For BchoolB, 


$88,600:^ 
28,408.48 


Total leceiptf, 


82,868.68 
61,908.73 




61,908.76 


« 





XI. MARYLAND. 

In 1632, Maryland was granted by Charles I. of England, to Sir Geoi*ge 
Calvert, Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, and an eminent statesman, who 
had been secretary to James L ; bat before the patent was completed, Lord 
Baltimore died, and the patent, dated Jnne 20, 1632, was given to his eldest 
son Cecilins, who sncoeeded to his titles, and who, for upwards of forty 
years, directed, as proprietor, the afikirs of the colony. 

Leonard Calvert, brother to Cecilins, Lord Baltimore, was appointed the 
first governor ; and he, together with about 200 persons, commenced the 
settlement of the town of St Mary's, in 1634. A ^ toleration of religion 



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1848.] 



UAXJIaAXD. 



S65 



was ef tabli^ed, and a system of equity and humanity was practised with 
regard to the Indian tribes. 

Govehkors 
Under the Proprietary and Royal Qovemment. 



Leonard Calvert, 


appointed 


1637 


Thomas Tench, 


President, 


1703 


Thomas Green, 


do. 


1647 


John Seymour, 


appointed 


1704 


William Stone, 


do. 


1649 


-Edward Lloyd, 


President, 


1704 


ParliarMnt Commissioners^ 


1654 


John Hart, 


appointed 


1714 


Josiah Fendall, 




1658 


Charles Calvert, 


do. 


1720 


Philip Calyert, 


do. 


1660 


Benedict Calvert 


do. 


1727 


Charles Calvert, 


do. 


1662 


Lord Baltimore, 




1733 


Lord Baltunore, Proprietor^ 


1675 


Samuel Ogle, 


do. 


1737 


Thomas Notley, 


appointed 


1678 


Thomas Bladen, 


do. 


1742 


Lord Baltimore, 




1681 


Samuel Ogle, 


do. 


1747 


Lionel Copley, 


do. 


1692 


Benjamin Tasker, President, 


1751 


Francis Nicholson, 


do. 


1694 


Horatio Sharpe, 


appointed 


1753 


In the hands of the Crown, 


1697 


Robert Eden, 


do. 


1769 


NathanL Blackstone, 


appointed 


1699 


Robert Eden, 


do. 


1773 




Under the Constitution. 






Thomas Johnson, 


elected 


1777 


C. Ridgley of Hampton, elected 


1815 


Thomas Sim Lee, 


do. 


1779 


C. W. Goldsborough, do. 


1818 


William Pace, 


do. 


1782 


Samuel Sprigg, 


do. 


1819 


William Smallwood, 


do. 


1785 


Samuel Stevens, Dec. 16, do. 


1822 


John Eager Howard 


, do. 


1788 


Joseph Kent, 


Jan. 3, do. 


1826 


George Plater, 


do. 


1792 


Daniel Martin, 


do. 


1829 


Thomas Sim Lee, 


do. 


1792 


T. K Carol!, 


do. 


1830 


John Haskins Stone 


do. 


1794 


Daniel Martin, 


do. 


1831 


John Henry, 


do. 


1797 


George Howard, Act. Gov. 


1831 


Benjamin Ogle, 


do. 


1798 


George Howard, 


elected 


1832 


John Francis Mercei 


, do. 


1801 


James Thomas, 


do. 


1833 


Robert Bowie, 


do. 


1803 


Thomas W. Veazey, do. 


1836 


Bobert Wright, 


do. 


1805 


William Grason, 


do. 


1838 


Edward Lloyd, 


do. 


1809 


Francis Thomas 


do. 


1841 


Robert Bowie, 


do. 


1811 


Thomas G. Prat 


t, do. 


1844 


Levin Winder, 


do. 


1812 









Abstract op the Constitution. 
The constitution of this state was formed in 1776 ; since which time more 
than twenty amendments have been made. 

Every free white male citizen of the state, 21 years old, resident twelve 
months next preceding the election in the state, and six months in the 
county, may vote. Members of the house of delegates shall be 21 years old, 
and for the last year resident in their county, and shall be chosen biennially. 
Every county of 15,000 souls may choose 3 delegates ; of from 15,000 to 
23 



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S6« KABTIAVIK [184& 

S5,000, 4 dd6g;8tef ; of from 25^000 to 85,000, 5 delegi^es; of more than 
35,000, 6 delegates ; and the city of Baltimore as many as the county having 
the largest representation. The elections shall h^ on the first Wednesday 
of October ; and the legislature slfall meet eyery second year, on the last 
Monday in December. The house of delegates may act as a grand jury. 
Senators (21 in number) shall be 25 years old, and residents of their county 
or city for the three years next before the election, and shall be chosen by 
the counties, and by the city of Baltimore, for six years, one-third every 
second year. The state shall be divided into three gubernatorial districts, 
from which, in turn, the governor shall be selected. He shall be *' a person 
of wisdom, experience, and virtue," shall be 30 years old, and for three 
years next before his election a resident of his district, and for five years of 
the state, and shall be chosen for three years by a plurality of votes ; or, in 
case of an even vote, by the legislature, upon joint ballot; and shall be in- 
eligible for the next term. If the office of governor be vacant, the secretary 
of state shall be governor ad interim; and after him, the president of the 
senate ; and after him, the speaker of the house : but the General Assembly, 
if in session, shaQ, by joint ballot, choose a successor at once ; or at their 
next session, if the vacancy occur in the recess. The chancellor and the 
attorney-general hold office during good behavior. Sheriffs are elected in 
counties for three years, and are ineligible for the next three years. Ev- 
ery person appointed to any office of profit or trust shall subscribe a decla- 
ration of his belief in the Christian religion. There are six judicial districts, 
each of which shall have one chi^f judge, and two associate judges, consti- 
tuting the county court, and holding office during good behavior, removable 
upon address of two-thirds of each house. The court of appeals is com- 
posed of the chief judges of the several districts. Any bill to abolish slavery 
shall fuUy compensate the masters, and must be passed unanimously by each 
house, be published three months before the next election of delegates, and 
be again passed unanimously at the next regular session of the assembly. 
Every devise of property, and every sale or gift of land to any clergyman (as 
such), or religious denomination, without leave of the legislature, is void, 
excepting not above two acres of land for a church and burial-ground. 
Amendments passed by the General Assembly, published three months be- 
fore the next election, and confirmed by the legislature at its next session, 
shall be adopted, except certain local provisions, which require a vote of 
two-thirds of each house. 

GOYERNMBNT. 

Thomas G. PaxTT, of Pr. George's Co., Governor (term expires 

the 1st Hon. in Jan., 1848), Use of a house and $4,200 

William T. Woottcn, of Pr. Geo. Co^ Secretary of State, 2,000 

Dennis Claude, of Annapolis, Treaswrer, 2,.'>00 

Thomas Kamey, of Annapolis, ExanUner- Generalj 800 



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idia] 



UAMTLAXD. 



fi»7 



Attorney- General, Fees. 

Commimoner of Loans, Fees. 

Register of the Land Office, Fees. 

State Librarian, 1,000 

Commissioner of Stamps, 750 

Adjutant' General, 500 



6. R Bichardson, of Baltimore, 
John S. Gittings, of Baltimore, 

George G. Brewer, of Annapolis, 
Kichard Swan, of Annapolis, 

James Swan, of Baltimore, 

John N. Watkins, of Annapolis, 

After the Ist Monday in January, 1848, the salary of Gk>vemor will he 
$2,000, with the use of the " Governor's house," which is large and well 
famished, at the expense of the state. From the same date the salary of 
the Secretary of State will he $1,000. 

JUDICIABT. 

Court of Chancery. 

Appointed. Salary. 

John Johnson, of Annapolis, 1846, Chancellor, $3,000 

Louis Gassaway, Register, Cornelius M'Lean, Auditor, 



Court of Appeals, 



Stevenson Archer, 
Thomas B. Dorsey, 
Ezek. F. Chambers, 
Ara Spence, 
Robert N. Martin, 
A. C. Magruder, 
Richard W. GUI, 
Kidiolas Brice, 



of Bel- Air, 
of EUicott's Mills, 
of Chestertown, 
of Snowhill, 
of Cumberland, 
of P. George's Co., 
of Annapolis, 



1823, 
1824, 
1835, 
1885, 
1845, 
1845, 



Chief Judge, 
Associate Judge, 

do. 

do, 

do, 

do. 



Clerk and Reporter, 



Chief Judge, Baltimore City Court, 



W, G. D. Worthington, Associate Judge, 
Alexander Nisbet, 



do, 

FlKAKCBS. 



$2,500 
2,200 
2,200 
2,200 
2,200 
2,200 
Fees. 

$2,400 
1,500 
1,500 



Total amonnt received in 1846, 
Balanee Ist Deoemlwr, 1845, 



$917,887.79 
190,412.16 



Total amount expended in 1846, 
Balance in treasury, Ist December, 1846, 

Principal Items of Expenditure. 
Salaries of dTil offloers,. $11,604.84 

Salaries of the Jodidaiy, 88,188.98 

Expenses of legislatoze, 49,590.84 

Interest on the state debt, 782,289.99 

State coloniation, 10,000 CO 

Common schools, 84,069.86 

Charitable eetablishments, 2,768.79 

Miseellaneoas, 14,75477 

Colleges and academies, 21,866.96 

Whole am^ount of Amded debts, 1st December, 1846, 



$1,117,299.95 
969,251.54 

148,048.41 

Chief Sources of Income. 
Diridends on stodcs, $61,609.00 

Direct taxes, 528,049.75 

Other taxes, 79,009.76 

Auction duties, 17,589.42 

Balthnore and Ohio Railroad Co., 42,402.60 
Canal companies, * 11,660.00 

Licenses by coou^y eoorts, 119,408.08 

Tobacco inspection, 8,001.41 

State lotteries, 17,971.87 



$15,211,784.98 



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MS YlMnriA. [1848. 

The iteto pays umoally for intereet, 1(651,821^6 

Ordinary expenses of goTenunent, .... 197,769.00 

The interest in arrear on state debt, December 1, 1846, was . 1,299,922.38 

From the aggregate of the Ainded debts, there should be deducted $3,200 5 per cent, 
bonds, adTance<^ to the Baltimore and Ohio' Railroad Company, which hare never been 
put into the nuu^et, and which, it is confidently believed, will nerer be a charge upon the 
state. This makes the absolute debt of the state $11,966,784.98, which, with a less dedac- 
titm, was put down ante^ p. 168, at $12,011,785. 

The productive capital of the state, consisting of stocks and debts due the state, is 
$3,196,618.92. Besides this productive stock, the state holds $16,006,407.95 of capital and 
credits, at present unproductive ; but which must, at some future time, become of ccmsid- 
rable value. The estimated present value of this unproductive stock is $5,000,000. The 
assessed value of the real and personal pn^rty of the state, Ibr the year 1846, was 
$177,555,846.'; and the levy thereon was $443,889.58. The new assessment of the city of 
Baltimore wiU add to the valuation $25,171,784, and to tiie levy $62,929.46. 

Sinking Fund.—T\^ ftind amounted, on the 1st of December, 1844, to $1,276,806.70 ; 
on the 1st of December, 1846, to $1,411,911.54 ; and on the 1st of December, 1846, to 
$1,515,227.01. It is estimated, that if the accruing interest on the state debt be r^ularlj 
paid, the debt itself, by the operation of this fimd, will be extinguished in thirty years. 
During the year it has increased $103,315 47, and in the same period has lessened the 
public debt, $22,981.25. 

An act was passedJby the legislature, March 8th, 1847, in pursuance of the wia/mnums 
report of the committee of ways and means, authorizing the treasurer to resume the pay- 
ment of the current interest on the public debt on the 1st day of January, 1848. The 
amazsof interest are to be funded, and to bear interest at the rate of 6 per cent. ; but tlie 
payment of this interest is to be postponed until the whole current interest be paid on 
HxB principal debt. The estimates that were made by the conunittee of the revenues of the 
state during the year to meet the new state of things, have so fitr been much under the 
actual returns into the treasury from the several sources by it specified. All doubts con* 
eeming the success of the measure have vanished. 



Xn. VIKGINIA. 

The first permanent English settlement formed in America was made, 
in 1607, by one hundred and five adventurers, on James river, in this state, 
at a place named Jamestoum^ in honor of James I. of England. 

Several unsuccessful attempts had been made in the latter part of the 
preceding centurj, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in honor of whom 
the country was named Virginia ; which name, though now limited to a 
single state, at the time of the settlement, was applied to all the country in 
America lying between latitude 34* and 45° N. 

The early history of the colony is full of interesting and affecting 
incidents, oiJcasioned by dangers and calunities ; by sickness, want, and 
contests with the Indians. 

The government of the colony was at first administered by a council of 
seven persons, with a president chosen from among their number ; but af- 
terwards it was administered by a governor, appointed, except during the 
Commonwealth in England, by the crown. 



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1646.] 



GOVXBNOSS, &C. 

Under the Oolomal Government. 



Ed. M. Wingfield, Pres. Coun, 1607 

John Radcliffe, do. 1607 

John Smith, do. 1608 

George Percy, do. 1610 

Lord de la War, Governor^ 1610 

Sir Thomas Dale, do. 1611 

Sir Thomas Gates, do. 1611 

Sur Thomas Dale, do. 1614 

George Teardley, do. 1616 

Samnel Argall, do. 1617 

Sir George Yeardley, do. 1618 

Sir Francis Wyatt, do. 1621 
Sir George Teardley, Act.Gov. 1626 
Sir George Yeardley, Governor ^ 1626 

Francis West, do. 1627 

John Pott, do. 1628 

Sir John Harvey, do. 1629 

John West, cfo. 1635 

Sir John Harvey, do. 1636 

Sir Francis Wyatt, do. 1639 

Sir WiUiam Berkeley, do. 1 641 

Bichard Eempe, do. 1644 

Sir William Berkeley, do. 1 645 

Bichard Bennett, elected 1652 

Edward Digges, cfo. 1655 

Samnel Mathews, do. 1656 



Sk William Berkeley, e&dcrf 1 659 
Fra. Morrison, appointed Gov. 1661 
Sir William Berkeley, do. 1662 
Herbert Jeffreys, Lieut.- Gov. 1677 
Sir Henry Chicheley, Dep.-Gov. 1678 
Lord Culpeper, Governor, 1680 

Nicholas Spencer, Pres. Coun. 1683 
Lord Howard, Governor, 1684 

Nathaniel Bacon, Pres. Coun. 168$ 
Francis Nicholson, Ideut.' Gov. 1690 
Sir Edmnnd Andros, Governor^ 1692 
Francis Nicholson, do. 1698 

Edward Nott, do. 1705 

Edmund Jennings, do. 1706 

Alexander Spotswood, do. 1710 

Hugh Drysdale, cfo. 1722 

Bobert Carter, Pres. Council, 1726 
William Gouch, Governor, 1727 

Thomas Lee, ( Presidents \ , ^ . ^ 
Lewis Burwell, t of Council, J '*^ 
Bobert Dinwiddie, Governor, 1752 
Francis Fauquier, do. 1758 

John Blair, Pres. Council, 1767 

Lord Botetoute, Crovemor, 1768 
William Nelson, Pres. Council, 1770 
LordDunmore, Governor, 1772 



Provisional Government. 
Peyton Bandolph, President of Convention, 1775 

Edmnnd Pendleton, db. do. 1775 



Patri<^ Henry, e2ecfed 

Thomas Jefferson, do. 

Thomas Nelson, do. 

Benjamin Harrison, do. 

Patrick Henry, do. 

Edmnnd Bandolph, do, 

Beverly Bandolph, do, 

Henry Lee, do, 

Bobert Brooke, do, 

James Wood, do. 
23* 



Under the Constitution. 

1776 James Monroe, deded 

1779 John Page, do. 

1781 William H. Cabell, do. 

1781 John Tyler, do. 

1784 James Monroe, do. 

1786 George W. Smith, do. 

1788 James Barbour, do. 

1791 Wilson C. Nicholas, do. 

1794 James P. Preston, do. 
1796 



Thomas M. Bandolph, do. 



1799 
1802 
1805 
1808 
1811 
1811 
^1812 
1814 
1816 
1819 



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370 YiBauriA. [1848. 



James Pleasaats, eUcUd 1833 
John Tyler, do. 1825 

WiUiam B. G^Ues, do, 1826 

John Floyd, do, 1829 

liUleton U. Tazewell, do. 1833 

Windham Robertson, Act.Gov. 1836 



Darid Campbell, eleded 1836 

Thomas W. Oilmer, do. 1839 

John Rutherford, Acting Gov. 1841 

John M. Gregory, do. do. 1842 

James M. Dowell, ekcted 1842 

WilHam Smith, do. 1^5 



AbSTSJlCT op the CONSTITUTIOW. 

The first constitution was formed in 1776 ; the present amended consti- 
tution was adopted in 1831. 

Every white male citizen of the state resident therein, twenty-one years old, 
and possessed ( 1 ) of a freehold in land worth $25, either as a joint tenant, or in 
severalty, or (2) entitled to a reversion, or vested remainder in fee worth $50, 
and having been so possessed or entitled for six months ; or (3) who shall hold 
a lease for five years, paying a rent not less than $20, with the evidence of 
title recorded two months before he offers his vote ; or who (4) for the year 
preceding has been " a housekeeper and head of a family " and has paid a 
state tax within that time, may vote for members of the General Assembly, 
in the place where such land lies, or such housekeeper lives. And if two 
or more joint tenants, &c., hold a freehold which does not entitle all to vote, 
the manner in which the proper number of votes shall be cast, shall be 
fixed by law ; and all popular elections shall be viva voce. Members of the 
House of Delegates, one hundred and thirty-four in number, shall be twenty- 
five years old, and resident freeholders of the place they represent; and shall 
be chosen annually by counties, cities, towns, boroughs, or districts. Sena- 
tors, thirty-two in number, shall be thirty years old, and resident freeholders 
of their districts; and shall be chosen annually, one-fourth every year* 
The senatorial and representative districts shall be apportioned every ten 
years, beginning with 1841 ; but the number of delegates cannot be above 
one hundred and fifty, nor of senators above thirty-six. No clergyman or 
priest is eligible to either house. The Greneral Assembly shall meet " once 
or oftener every year.'* All laws shall originate in the House of Delegates. 
The governor shall be thirty years old ; a native citizen of the United States, 
or a citizen at the time of the adoption of the federal constitution, and for 
the last five years a citizen of the state ; and shall be elected by joint vote of 
both houses, for three years, but not for two consecutive terms. The coun- 
cil shall consist of three members (any one or more of whom may act) 
chosen for three years, one every year, by joint vote of both houses ; and, 
the senior councillor shall act as lieutenant-governor, and succeed to the 
oflSce, in case it be temporarily vacant. The judges of the supreme court 
of i^peals and of the superior courts shall be elected by joint ballot of 
the General Assembly ; shall receive salaries not to be diminished during 
their term ; and shall hold office during good behavior \ and be removable by 
two-thirds of the votet^f both houses. The attorney-general shall be ap- 



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1848.] 



TIBatMIA. 



271 



pointed by the two houses in joint ballot to hold office daring their pleasure ; 
the clerks of courts shall be appointed by the courts ; and sherifis and cor- 
oners shall be nominated by the county courts, and approTod by the goy- 
emor. The judges appoint the constables. 



WiixiAM Smith, 
Baleigh T. Danid, 
John F. Wiley, 
John M. Fatten, 
Fabius M. Lawson, 
James £. Heath, 
James Brown, Jr., 
Stafford H. Parker, 
Sidney S. Baxter, 
W. H. Richardson, 



Thomas F. Lawson, of Richmond, 
Charles S. Morgan, of Richmond, 



Chvemmerd Jbr the year 1848. * 

Term en4s. Salary. 

Governor t Jan. 1, 1849, $3,333 

CounciUaro/State,Max.3ly'4S, 1,000 
Councillor of State^ Mar. 31, '49, 1,000 
Councillor of State^'Max.Sl.'QOj 1,000 
Treasurer^ 2,000 

Auditor of Public Accounts, 2,000 
2dAud,i'Supt. Literary Fund, 2,000 
Register of the Land Office^ • 2,000 
Attorney- General^ Fees and 1,000 
Secretary of the CommonweaJth, 

Adjutant Gen, and Librarian, 1,720 
Clerk of the Council, 1,300 

Superintendent of Penitentiary, 2,000 



of Fauquier Co. 
of Richmond,* 
of Amelia Co., 
of Richmond, 
of Richmond, 
of Richmond, 
of Richmond, 
of Richmond, 
of Richmond, 
of Henrico Co., 



The governor, treasurer, auditor, 2d auditor, and register of the land 
office are, ex officio, members of the board of public works, literary fund, 
north-western and south-western turnpike roads. They do not receive extra 
compensation for this service. 

Judiciary. 
Court of Appeals. 



William H. Cabell, 
Francis T. Brooke, 
John J. Allen, 
Briscoe G. Baldwin, 
William Daniel, 
Joseph Allen, 
John A. North, 



of Richmond, 

of Spottsylvania Co., 

of Botetourt Co., 

of Staunton, 

of Lynchburg, 

of Richmond, 

of Lewisburg, 



Electodin. 
President, 1830, 
Judge, 

do, 

do, 

do. 



1830, 
1840, 
1842, 
1846, 



Salary. 

«2,750 
2,500 
2,500 
2,500 
2,500 



Clerk of the Eastern Circuit, 1,000 
Clerk of the Western Circuit, 1,000 



Judges. 

1. Bichard H. Baker, 

2. James H. Gholscm, 

3. Geo. P. Scarburg, 

4. J. B. Christian, 

5. John T. Lomax, 

6. John Scott, 

7. John B. Clopton, 

8. Daniel A. Wilson, 

9. William Leifi^, 
10. N. M. Taliaferro, 
U. Richard H. Field, 



Resideiue. 
of Nansemond Co. 
of Petersburg, 
of Accomac. 
of Charles City Co. 
of Eredericksborg. 
of Fauquier Co. 
of Richmond, 
of Cumberland Co. 
of Hall&x Co. 
of Franklin Co. 
of Culpepper Co. 



Judges. 

12. L. P. Thompson, of 

13. Isaac R. Douglass, of 

14. Daniel Smith, of 

15. Bei^amin Estell, of 

16. James E. Biown, of 
17 Edward Johnston, of 

18. Edwin S. Duncan, of 

19. D. W. McComas, of 

20. Joseph L. Fry, of 
21 f Philip N. Nicholas, of 

( John Robertson, 



Residence, 
Staunton. 
Morgan Co. 
Rockingham Co. 
Wythe Co. 
Wythe Co. 
Botetourt Co. 
Harrison Co. 
Wythe Co. 
Wheeling. 
Richmond, 
do. 



* Acting lieutenaat-goTemor in th« absenee of the goyemor. 



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27S NOXTB OAMOIXKA. [1848. 

Wholeamoimtorftetedabl, $7^,Sn 20 

Part of tbeaboTv, owned bjtbeatato, 1,416,171 Si 

Making the Mtwd debt of the state, #6)984,190 6» 

Interest on actual debt, 866,989 26 

InteiMt on debt owned by the state, 68,178 85 

#2,819,690.21 of the debt is held in Europe. 

The productiTe property of the state, consisting of stocks and debts doe, is #6,870,880.86. 
The total Arnds held by the state axe #10,868,508 57 . The net receipts from taxes during 
the year were #560,868.56. 

Chitf Sources qf Luome. 22 

ll 



58 
97 
88 
50 
10 
46 
61 
00 
53 



00 
00 
45 
75 
86 
93 
26 
20 
00 
00 



Chief Bern* of EsqHndiiKre, ^ 

Expenses of General Assembly, #82,609 97 

Officers of Goyemment, . . 89,231 79 



Xm. NORTH CAROLINA. 

In the latter part of the fifteenth century, three different attempts were 
made, under the direction of the celebrated Sir Walter Raleigh, to establish 
settlements in North Carolina, which was dien included within the limits 
of the coontry, that had been recently named Virginia. These were the 
first attempts made by the English to form colonies in North America ; 
they all proved nnsnccessf al ; and many years passed sway before the at- 
tempt to settle the country was renewed. 

The first permanent settlements were formed about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. ISorih. Carolina was long united under the same 
government with South Carolina ; it was for many years called the County 
of Albemarle^ or the County of Albemarle in Carolina^ and about the begin- 
ning of the 18th century, the Colony of North Carolina. As early as 1715, 
it had a separate legislative assembly, at which time Charles Eden was 
governor; and in the year 1727, it was formed into an entirely distinct 
province. 

Royal Goybbnors. 
Sir Richard Everard, appointed 1727 



Gabriel Johnston, eh, 1734 

Matthew Rowan, do, 1753 



Arthur Dobbs, appointed 1754 
William Tryon, do. 1766 

Joseph Martin, do. 1773 



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1SA8 J HOBTB CAKCKUVA. 273 

GOTBBirOBS imBBB THE COMSfXTnTIOK. 



Biehard Ca«well, 


eieckd 


1777 


Benjamin Smith, 


deded 


1810 


AbnerNaidi, 


do. 


1780 


William Hawkins, 


do. 


1811 


Thomas Borke, 


do. 


1782 


William MiUer, 


do. 


18U 


Alexa^er Martiii, 


do. 


1784 


John Branch, 


do. 


1817 


Richard Caswell, 


do. 


1785 


Jesse Franklin, 


do. 


1820 


Samuel Johnston, 


. do. 


1788 


Gabriel Holmes, 


do. 


1821 


Alexander Martin, 


do. 


1790 


Hutchins G. Burton, 


do. 


1824 


Richard D. Spaight, 


do. 


1793 


James Iredell, 


• do. 


1827 


Samuel Ashe, 


do. 


1796 


John Owen, 


do. 


1828 


Benjamin Williams, 


do. 


1799 


Monfort Stokes, 


do. 


1830 


James Turner, 


do. 


1802 


David L. Swain, 


do. 


1833 


Nathanid Alexander, 


do. 


1805 


Edward B. Dudley, 


do. 


1836 




do. 


1807 


John M. Morehead, 


do. 


1840 


David Stone, 


do. 


1808 


William ^ Graham, 


do. 


1844 



• Abstract op the Constitution. " 

The constitution was foi^ned in 1786, and the present amended one in 
1835. 

Every free white man, twenty-one years old, an inhabitant of his district 
twelve months preceding the election, and owner of a fr-eehold within the 
same, for six months, may vote for a member of the senate, and for a mem- 
ber of the other house without the freehold, if he has paid taxes. But no 
descendant of a negro, to the fourth generation, though one ancestor in each 
generation be white, is to be accounted a white man. Members of the House 
of Commons (one hundred and twenty in number) shall have resided in 
iheir county for one year, and have owned, for six months next before the 
election, one hundred acres as freehold, and shall be chosen biennially, not 
less than one to evwy county. Senators (fifty in number) shall be chosen 
bienniaUy in districts set off on the basis of taxation ; shall have resided one 
year next before the election, in their district; and possessed, for the same 
time, three hundred acres therein, in fee. An apportionment of both 
houses shall be made in 1851, and every twenty years thereafter. The 
General Assembly shall not pass any special law to alter the name of any 
person, to legitimate bastards, or to restore to citizenship persons convicted 
of infamous crimes, but may pass general laws therefor. The governor 
shall be chosen by persons qualified to elect members of the house, for two 
years (but not more than four years in every six), by a plurality of votes, or, 
in case of an even vote,by the two houses, on joint vote. A council of seven 
shall be chosen at every regular session, who shall keep a journal open to 
the General Assembly. The governor may lay an embargo for thirty days, 
with the consent of the council. If the office of governor be vacant, it shall 
be filled by Ihe speaker of the senate, and after him by the speaker of the 
house. No clergyman, while in &e exercise of his duties, shall be a mem- 
ber of either house or of the coundL Every foreigner, who comes to settle, 



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t74 WMttH QAMOKOUL, [16M. 

may take the o«A of aUegiance, and Wild reid ettals. Judges of the 
flapreme and superior ooarts are appointed hj joint ballot of both honaea, 
and may be removed for mental or physical inalnlity, npon a resohition of 
two-thirds of both houses. Their salaries shall not be diminished daring 
their temu ''No person who f^all deny the being ci a God, or the truth of 
the Christian reli^on, or tbe diyine authority of the Old or New Testament, 
or who shall hold r^igions principles incompatible with lite freedom or 
safe^ of the state," shall hold any eivil office. A convention of the people 
may be called by a vote of two* thirds of the members of both houses. 
Amendments, if agreed to by diree-fifths of the members of each house, 
shall be published six months before the next election, and, if approved by 
two-thirds of both houses, shall be irabmitted to the people, and, if approved 
by a majority of votes of the voters qualified to elect members of the house, 
shall be adopted. 

Government for the Year 1848. 

Salary. 
William A. Graham, of Hillsborough, Governor (term of 

office, from Jan. 1, 1847, to Jan. 1, 1849), A furnished house and $2,000 
William HiH, of Raleigh, Secretary of State, $800 and Fees. 

Charles L. Hinton, <rf Wake Co., Treasurer, 1,500 

Stephen Birdsall, of Raleigh, 0£Th of the Dreas, Dep^ 500 

William F. Collins, of Chatham Co., Comptroller , 1,000 

Andrew Joyner, of Halifax Co., Speaker of the Senate, 

Robert B. Gilliam, of Granville Co., Do. House (f Commons, 

• Council of State,— 4o\m A. Anderson, of Hartford Co. ; David W. Simn- 
ders, of Onslow Co. ; John McLeod, of Johnston Co. ; Nathaniel M. Roan, 
of CasweU Co.; James Lowry, of Buncombe Co.; Absalom Myers, of 
Anson Co. ; and Josiah Cowles, of Surry Co. 
Fay, $3 per diem while in service, and $3 for every 30 miles' travelling. 

JUDICJIART. 

Supreme Court, 

Thomas Ruffin, of Orange Co., Chirf Justice, $2,500 

Frederick Nash, of Hillsborough, Associate Justice, 3,500 

Joseph J. Daniel, of Hali£ea, do. 2,500 

James Iredell, of Raleigh, Importer, 300 

£dm. B. Freeman, Clerk, 

The Supreme Court holds three sessions in each year ; two in' the citj of 
Raleigh : — to wH, on the second Monday in June and the last Monday in 
December ; and one at Morgantown, on the first Monday of August, for the 
western part of the state. 

Superior or Circuit Courts, 
Judges. Salary, $1,950 each.! Solicitors. 

Thomas Settle, of Rockingham. [David Outlaw, of Bertie Co. 



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1«^] 



loom OAxoiLatJu 



S76 



D. F. Caldwdl, 
B. M. Peanon, 
Jolm L. Bailey, 
M. E. Manlj, 
Wm. H. Batae, 



Judges* 



of Gb:teeQsboio\ 
of Salisbury, 
of Surry Co. 
of Hillsboro'. 
of Newbem. 
of 01i^)elHilL 



SaUcitors. 
John S. Hawks, of Washu^ton. 
Thomas S. Ashe, o! Orange Co. 
John F. Poindexter, of Fayetteyffle. 
Hamilton C. Jones, of Bowan Co. 
Bni^ss S. Gaither, of AshTiUe. 



Edward Stanly, of Beaufort Co., Attorney- General. 

The Superior Courts of Law, and the Courts of Equity, axe held twice 
eadi year in every county of the state. 



Finances. 

Beoeipts from Noyember l£t, 1844, to October 31, 1846, 
Szpenditaies during same period, . . . . 

Balance in treasury, October Slst, 1846, . 

Chief Sources of Income in 1846. 
Bank tax, . S2.d51 

Interest on railroad bonds, . 3,000 

Baleigfa and Gaston Ballroad Co. 2,600 



$614,422 28 
535,308 75 



$79,118 48 



I Chief Items of Expenditure in 1846. 

50 Executiye, . . . . . $6,585 00 

00 Judiciary, .... 29,67404 

00 PubUc printing, . . . . 837 12 

00 Int. on Ral. and €hist. B. B. boads, 46,015 00 

, , 48 Principal of do. do. 80,000 00 

1844-6, 289 57 State loan, .... 10.00000 

861 60 Interest on state loan, . . 8,028 68 

12;Election8, ... . . 1,418 4S 

69j Public library, .... 707 48 

Miscellaneous, . . . 4,615 78 

$107,809 96' ' ' 

Debt of the State.— TbiB Is contingent, and arises from endorsements by the state of 
I of raihroad companies, to tbe amount of $1,100,000. From tbis deduct $13,000 ibr 
I not used, and $110,000 for bonds paid ; ?rhich reduces the amount for which tl>t 
state may be liable, to $977,000. 



Baleigfa and Oaston Ballroad profits ,7,200 

Public tax lec. from 8heriffi9,:m, 80,673 

Additional returns do. 

Beyised Statutes, . 

State Loan, 

Hisoellaneous, 



9,847" 



XIV. SOUTH CAROLINA. 

In 1663, the territory which now comprises the states of North and South 
Carolina and the greater part of Georgia, was granted hy Charles II. to the 
Sari of Clarendon and seren others, who were constituted proprietors. 
The colony was named CardUna^ and the government was rested in the 
hands of the proprietors. The proprietary government lasted ahout My 
years, when it was abolished by tilie people ; and the government was after- 
wards directed by governors appointed by the king. 

GOYEBNOBS. 

Under the Proprietary Government. 
Joseph West, 



William Sayle, 
Joseph West, 
John Teamans, 



appoirUed 1669 
do. 1671 

do. 1671 



Joseph Morton, 
Joseph West, 



appointed 1674 
do. 1682 

do. 1684 



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276 



•oum OABOLnrA. 



[1848. 



Richard Ejit, 


oppomtod 


1684 


Joseph Blake, 


appointed 


1696 


Bobert Quarry, 


do. 


1684 


James Moore, 


do. 


1700 


Joseph Morton, 


do. 


1685 


Nathaniel Johnson, 


do. 


1708 


James CoUeton, 


do. 


1686 


Edward Tynte, 


do. 


1706 


Seth SothweU, 


do. 


1690 


Bobert Gibbes, 


do. 


1710 


PhUip iHidwell, 


do: 


1692 


Charles Cray en, 


do. 


1712 


Thomas Smith, 


do. 


1693 


Bobert Daniel, 


do. 


1716 


Joseph Blake, 


do. 


1694 


Robert Johnson, 


do. 


1719 


John Archdale, 


do. 


1695 


James Moore, 


do. 


1719 



Arthor Middleton, 1719. — The w-oprietary government aboUibed^ and a tem- 
porary Mepublic established. 

Under the Begat Government. 



Francis IHcholson, appointed 1721 



Wm. H. Littleton, cq^nted 1756 



Arthur ]^Oddleton, 


do. 


1725 


William Bull, 


do. 


1760 


Robert Johnson, 


do. 


1730 


Thomas Boone, 


do. 


1762 


Thomas Brooghton 


,>. 


1735 


William Bull, 


do. 


1763 


"William Bull, 


do. 


1737 


Charles Montague, 


do. 


1766 


James Glen, 


do. 


1743 


William Bull, 


do. 


1769 




Under the Constitution. 






John Butledge, 


dected 


1775 


Joseph Alston, 


dected 


1812 


Rawlins Lowndes, 


do. 


1778 


David R Williams, 


do. 


1814 


John Rutledge, 


do. 


1779 


Andrew Pickens, 


do. 


1816 


John Matthews, 


do. 


1782 


John Geddes, 


do. 


1818 


Benjamin Guerard, 


do. 


1783 


Thomas Bemiet, 


do. 


1820 


William Moultrie, 


do. 


1785 


John L. Wilson, 


do. 


1822 


Thomas Finckney, 


do. 


1787 


Richard J. Manning, 


do. 


1824 


Charies Pinckney, 


do. 


1789 


John Taylor, 


do. 


1826 


Charles Pinckney, 


do. 


1790 


Stephen D. Miller, 


do. 


1828 


Amoldus Vanderhorst, do. 


1792 


James Hamilton, 


do. 


1830 


WilUam Moultrie, 


do. 


1794 


Robert Y. Hayne, 


do. 


1832 


Charles Pinckney, 


do. 


1796 


George McDuffie, 


do. 


1834 


Edward Rudedge, 


do. 


1798 


Pierce M. Butler, 


do. 


1836 


John Drayton, 


Act. Gov. 


1800 


♦Patrick Noble, 


do. 


1838 


John Drayton, 


dected 


1800 


B. K. Hennegan, Lieut. ^ Acting 


James B. Richardson, do. 


1802 


Governor^ 




1840 


Paul Hamilton, 


do. 


1804 


John P. Ridiardson, dected 


• 1840 


Charles Pinckney, 


do. 


1806 


James H. Hammond 


,do. 


1842 


John Drayton, 


do. 


1808 


WilUam Aiken, 


do. 


1844 


Henry Middleton, 


do. 


1810 


David Johnson, 


do. 


1846 


Abstract 


OP TH 


E Constitution. 






The first constitution of this state t 


vas formed in 1775; the present con- 


stitution was adopted in 1790. 











* Gov. Noble died April 7th, 1840. 



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1848.] BOVTB OLBOUXX. 277 

Every free white citizen of the 8tate> twenty-one years old, resident in 
the state for two years, and owning a fre^iold of fifty acres, or a town lot, 
six months before the election, or resident in his election district for the 
latter term, may rote wherever he so resides, or holds such property. Rep- 
resentatives (one hundred and twenty-fonr in number) are <^osen, for two 
years, on a mixed basis of population and taxation ; and must be free white 
men, twenty-one years old, citizens and residents of the state, for three 
years ; and if resident in their election district, seized of a freehold estate of 
&Ye hundred acres and ten negroes, or of unincumbered real estate worth 
JB150; and if non-residents, of an unincumbered freehold worth jB500. 
Senators shall be free white men, thirty years old, citizens and residents of 
the state for five years next before the election ; if residents of their dis- 
tricts, shall own a freehold of the clear value of £300 ; if non-residents, of 
the clear value of jB1,000, and shall be chosen for four years, one-half every 
two years. The gover|^ and lieutenant-governor shall be thirty years 
old, residents and citizens of the state for ten years, and owners " of a set- 
tled estate" within the state, of the dear value of £1,500 each ; and shaU 
be chosen by joint ballot of both houses, for two years, and shall be mAigi- 
ble during the succeeding four years. If the office of governor be vacant, 
it shall be filled by the lieutenant-governor, and, after him, by the president 
of the senate, until it is filled by the General Assembly. The governor may 
lay an embargo, of not more than thirty days, upon provisions. The 
judges of the superior courts shall be chos^i by joint ballot of the General 
Assembly j shall hold office during good behavior \ and shall receive fixed 
salaries. Sheriff hold office for four years, and are ineligible for the suc- 
ceeding four. No convention of the people shall be called, unless by a vote of 
two-thirds of both houses. Amendments, if proposed by two-thirds of the 
members of each house, must be published three months before the next 
election of representatives, and, if agreed to by a vote of two-thirds of the 
members at the next session, shall be adopted. 

Government for the year 1848. 

Salary. 

David Johnson, of Columbia, Governor (term ex. Dec. *48), $3,50a 

J. D. Cain, of Pineville, IdeutenarU' Governor. 

B. K. Hennegan, of Abbeville, Secretary of StatCf Fees. 

William C. Black, of Columbia, Comptroller- General, 2,000 

Jeremiah D. Tates, of Charleston, Treasurery Lower Division, 2,000 

Francis Burt, of Pendleton, do* Upiper Division, 1,600 

Thomas Frean, of Newberry, Surveyor- General, Fees. 

Henry Bailey, oi Charleston, Attorney- General, $1,100 and Fees. 

T. D. Earle, of Greenville, Supt. of Public Works, 1,500 

F. H. Elmore, of Charleston, Pres. Bank of the State of S. C, 3,000 

W. E. Martin, of Grahamv'le, Clerk of the Senate, 

Thomas W. Glover, of OrangeVg, Clerk of the House, 1,000 

24 



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27t 



QMomauL. 



[1$48. 





JUDICIABT. 








"Chancdhn in 


Equity. 


Appointed. 


flalaiT. 


Job Johnston, 


of Newberry, 




1830, 


$3,000 


William Harper, 


of Fairfield, 




1835, 


3,000 


Benj. Faneuil Dunkin 


, of Charleston, 




1887, 


3,000 


J.J.Caldwell, 


of Columbia, 




1847, 


3,000 


Judges of the General Sessions and Common Pleas. 




B. L. Wardlaw, 


of Abbeville, 




1841, 


$3,000 


John S. Richardson, 


of Sumter, 




1818, 


8,500 


Josiah J. Evans, 


of Society Hill, 




1829, 


3,000 


Edward Frost, 


of Charleston, 




1844, 


3,000 


T.J. Withers, 


of Camden, 




1847, 


3,000 


J. B. O'Ncall, 


of Newberry, 


% 


1835, 


3,000 


James A. Strobhart, 


ofGrahamville,^ 


^ateReporU 


r,1847, 


1,500 



Alexander Herbemont, Clerk of Court of Appeals. 



XV. GEORGIA. 



The first English settlement of Georgia was formed at Savannah, in 1733, 
by General James Edward Oglethorpe, together with 160 persons. Of 
the thirteen states which belonged to the Union at the time c^ the Declara- 
tion of Independence, this was the last settled. 

GOVBRNORS. 

Under the Crown of Great Britain. 



Henry EUis, Governor, 1757 

James Wright, do. 1760 

James Habersham, Act'. Gov. 1771 



James Edw. Oglethorpe, Gov, 1732 

William Stephens, Act. Gov. 1743 

Henry Parker, do. 1751 

John Reynolds, Governor, 1754 

During the Revolution. 

William Cawm, Pres. Council, 1776 I Button Gwinnett, Pres. Council, 1777 

Archibald Bullock, do. 1776) ' 

Under the Constitution* 

John A. Treuilen, elected 1777 

John Houston, do. 1778 

John Werriatt, Acting Gov. 1778 

George Walton, elected 1779 

Richard Howley, do. 1780 

Stephen Heard, do. 1781 



Nathan Brownson, 


dected 


1781 


John Martin, 


do. 


1782 


Lyman Hall, 


do. 


1783 


John Houston, 


do. 


1784 


Samuel Elbert, 


do. 


1785 


Edward Telfair, 


do. 


1786 



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1848.] 



GBOBOIA. 



279 



George Mattliewt, 


deded 


1787 


Dayid B. MitcheU, 


dect&i 


1815 


George Handley, 


do. 


1788 


William Rabtin, 


do. 


1817 


George Walton, 


do. 


1789 


Matthew Talbot, Acting Gov. 


1819 


Edward Telfair, 


do. 


1790 


John Clarke, 


eleaed 


1819 


George Matthews, 


do. 


1793 


George M. Troup, 


do. 


1823 


Jared Irwin, 


do. 


1796 


John Forsyth, 


do. 


1827 


Jasles Jackson, 


do. 


1798 


George R. Gilmer, 


do. 


1829 


Dayid Emanuel, AaUng Gov. 


1801 


Wilson Lumpkin, 


do. 


1831 


Josiah TatnaU, 


elected 


1801 


WiUiam Schley, 


do. 


1835 


John Milledge, 


do. 


1802 


George R. Gilmer, 


do. 


1837 


Jared Irwin, 


do. 


1806 


Charles X McDonald, 


do. 


1839 


David B. Mitchell, 


do. 


1809 


George W. Crawford, 


do. 


1843 


Peter Early, 


do. 


1813 









Abstbact op the Constitution. 

The first constitution of Georgia was formed in 1777 ; a second, in 1785 ; 
and the present one in 1798. Many amendments have been made. 

Every citizen of the state, 21 years old, who has paid all taxes demanded 
for one year, and has resided in the county for six months next before the 
election, may vote. Representatives (130 in number) shaU be 21 years old, 
citizens of the state for three years, of the county for one year, and of the 
United States for seven years, next before the election. Senators, 47 in 
number (chosen in districts), shall have the qualifications of representatives, 
shall be 25 years old, and have been citizens of the United States for nine 
years. Both houses of the General Assembly are chosen biennially. A 
census shall be taken once in seven years, to app(»tion representative dis- 
tricts. The governor shall be 30 years old, shall have been a dtizen of the 
United States for twelve years, an inhabitant of the state for six years, shall 
possess 500 acres of land, or $4,000 in other property, above all debts, and 
shall be elected for two years by a majority of votes of tite people ; or, in 
case there be no choice, one of the two highest candidates shall be chosen by 
joint ballot of both houses. If the office of governor be vacant, it shall be 
filled by the president of the senate, and after him by the speaker of the 
house. He may veto a bill j but it may be passed by " two-thirds of both 
houses," notwithstanding his veto. The supreme court for the correction 
of errors shall consist of three judges, elected by the General Assembly for 
such a term as the law may prescribe, and removable upon address of two- 
thirds of each house. AU causes shall be determined at the first term ; and 
in case the plaintiff is not ready for trial, unless he be prevented " by some 
providential cause," the judgment of the court below shall be affirmed. 
Judges of the superior court are elected for six years, with jurisdiction ex- 
clusive in criminal cases, and in land cases ; and concurrent in aU other civil 
cases. Justices of the inferior courts are elected by the people, and act as 
probate judges. Justices of the peace are elected by the people, in districts. 
AU the judges have fixed salaries. Sheriffs are appointed for two years. 



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980 



OSOBOIA. 



[1848. 



bat not for two terms in snecession. Imprisonment for del>t is not permit- 
ted, except in cases of fraud. There shall be no importation of slaves 
"from Africa or any foreign place ''after Oct 1, 1798. The l^islatore 
shall hare no power to firee slaves without the owner's consent, or to pre- 
vent immigrants from bringing with them persons deemed slaves by any 
one of the United States. Slaves are protected in their persons, like free 
whites, except in case of insurrection, and unless tiieir " death sltould hap- 
pen by accident, in giving such slaves moderate correction." Amendments, 
if passed by two-thirds of each house, shall be published six monliis before 
the next election of members of the General Assembly ; and if passed, in the 
same manner, at the first session thereafter, shall be adopted. 

Gk>yEBNMENT. 

Salary. 
Geo. W. CbJlWvobj}, of Richmond Co., Governor (term of office 

expires, November, 1847), $3,000 
of Clark Co., Secretary of States 1,600 

of Baldwin Co., Treasurer, 1,600 

of Jefferson Co., Comptroller' General, 1,600 

of Butts Co., Surveyor- General, 1,600 

of Baldwin Co., Director of the Central Bank. 
of Harris Co., Keqter of the Penitentiary. 
of Baldwin Co., Commissioner of the Deaf^ Dumb. 
of Bibb Co., PresiderU of tfte Senate, $5 a day. 

of Clark Co., Secretary of the Senate, 500 

of Richmond Co., Speaker ofH. ofB/ep., $5 a day. 
of Cass Co., CUrk of House of i2g), 600 



Nathan C. Bamet, 
William H. Mitchdl, 
David E. Bothwell, 
P. M. Compton, 
John S. Thomas, 
Anderson W. Bedding, 
Jesse H. Campbell, 
Absabm H. Chappell, 
T. R. R. Cobb, 
Charles J. Jenkins, 
John J. Word, 



JUDICIAKT. 

Supreme Court. 



Joseph H. Lumpkin, 
Hiram Warner, 
E. A. Nisbet, 

The state is divided 
W. B. Flemmg, 
R. L. Gamble, 
N. C. Sayre, 

Charles Dougherty, of Clark Co., 
James A. Meriwether, 
J. J. Scarborough, 
John Floyd, 
Robert B. Alexander, 
Aug. R. Wright, 
E. y. Hill, 
Lott Warren, 



(Mef Judge, 
Judge, 

do. 
into eleven circuits, with a judge for each, 
of Chatham Co., t/ud^eo/'^Ae Eastern Circuit, 



Term ends. 

1852. 

1850. 

1848. 



of Cass Co., 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Mddle 
Northern - 
Western 
Ockmulgee 
Southern 
Mmt 
Chatahoochee do. 
Cherokee do. 
Cowete do. 

Southwestern do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



$1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
1,800 
2,100 
2,100 



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Ii48.] VXiOBIDA. 281 

Salary. 
John W. Flonmoy, Attorney 'General^ $250 and perquisites* 

J. E. Harden, of Chatham Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and 

Terminer y Savannah, 1,000 
John W. Wilde, of Bichmond Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and 

Terminer i Augusta, 1,000 
RuLBOADS (see ante^ p. 196). 
The Central Railroad was begun in 1836 and finished in 1843, less than 
eight years, and cost about $2,550,000. Eeceipts year ending November 
30th, 1846, for freight, $223,620; passengers, $59,238; carrying mail, 
$20,580; total, $308,438. Expenditures of every kind, $170,237. From 
1st October to June last, there have been received by the road, a new busi- 
ness : 846 bales domestics ; 1,595 packages merchandise ; 134,992 pounds 
bacon; 3,389 pounds beeswax; 5,780 pounds dried fruit; 8,100 pounds 
feathers ; 277,399 pounds flour, in sacks ; 3,024 barrels flour; 17 barrels ap- 
ples; 445 head poultry; 16 steers; 1,487 bushels meal; 100,493 bushels 
com; 281 bushels wheat ; 1,035 bushels oats; 280 bushels sweet potatoes; 
417 bushels rice; 576 bushels peas ; 160 bushels cotton seed; 1,925 dozen 
eggs ; 64 sheep. 



XVI. FLORIDA. 

Florida was conquered by the Spaniards as early as 1639. In 1763, it 
was ceded to Oreat Britain, and divided into East and West Florida ; but, 
in 1781, it was again recovered by Spain. 

In 1821, it was ceded by Spain to the United States; and, in 1822, both 
parts, East and West Flcgida, were formed into one government or prov- 
ince, under the name of '•'• Tlii^ Territory of Florida.'' It was admitted into 
the Union as an independent state, March 3d, 1845. 
Territorial Oovemors, 



Robert B. Reid, appointed 1839 

Richard K. Call, do. 1841 

John Branch, do. 1844 



William P. Duvall, appointed 1822 
John H. Eaton, do. 1834 

Richard K Call, do. 1836 

Governor under the Constitution. 
William D. Moseley, elected 1845 

Abstract op the Constitution, 
Done in Convention^ Jan. 11, 1839. 
Every free white male, 21 years old, two years a resident in the state, and 
in the county six months, and who shall be enrolled in the militia, or ex- 
empted by law from serving therein, may vote; and provision shall be 
made for the registration of aU qualified voters. 
24* 



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S8i VLOmiBA. [1846. 

Bepresentatives^not move than 60 in nnmber, most be SI years old, wliite 
citizens of the United States, two years resident of the state, and one year 
of the connty, and be elected for one year. In 1845, and every tenth year 
thereafter, a census shall be taken, and the representatiyes shall be appor- 
tioned by adding three-fifths of the slaves to the whole nombar of free 
whites. Senators are elected for two years ; they must be 25 years old, and 
otherwise have the sttne qualifications as representatives. The (Seneral 
Assembly, chosen on the 1st Monday of October, shall meet on the Ist Mon- 
day in November of each year. 

The governor shall be elected by a plurality of votes for four years, and 
shall be ineligible for the four years next after his term. He shall be 30 
years old, ten years a citizen of the United States, or an inhabitant of 
Florida at the adoption of the constitution, and a resident thereof for five 
years next before the election. He may veto a bill ; but a majority of those 
elected to both houses may pass it again, notwithstanding his veto. If the 
office be vacant, the president of the senate, and after him the speaker of 
the house, shall act as governor. No officer in a banking conq>any, while he 
serves in a bank, or for twelve months afterwards, shall be eligible for the 
office of governor, senator, or representative. No dneUist, or second in a 
duel, shall hold any office under the state. The secretary of state shall be 
elected by the legislature for four years. 

The supreme court, having appellate jurisdiction only, shall be composed 
of the circuit judges for five yeai^ after the election of these judges, and 
thereafter until the Qeneral Assembly shall otherwise provide. The circuit 
courts shall have original common law jurisdiction in all matters, civil and 
criminal. They shall also have original equity jurisdiction, until a separate 
chancery court be established by the legislature. The judges shall be elect- 
ed by concurrent vote of a majority <^ both houses, and shall be chosen at 
first for five years ; after that term, during good behavior. They may be 
removed by impeachment, or by address of two-thirds of each house. An 
attorney-general shall be elected by joint vote of the two houses for four 
years ; also a solicitor for each circuit, for the same term. No act of incor- 
poration shall be passed or altered, except by the assent of two-thirds of each 
house, and by giving three months' notice. No bank charter shall be for 
more than 20 years, nor shall it ever be extended or renewed. The ci^ital 
of a bank shall not exceed $100,000, nor shall a dividend be made ex- 
ceeding 10 per cent a year. Stockholders shall be individually liable for 
the debts of the bank, and no notes shall be issued for less than $5. The 
credit of the state shall not be pledged in aid of any corporation whatsoever. 
No law shall be passed to emancipate slaves, or to prohibit the immigration 
of persons bringing slaves with themj but free colored persons may be pre- 
vented from entering the state. For an amendment of this constitution, 
two-thirds of both houses must assent ; the proposed alteration must then 
be published six months before the succeeding election, and then be again 
approved by a two*thirds vote in the succeeding assembly. 



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1848.} 



ALABAHA. 



288 



Wm. D. Mosblet, of Mckossokie, 



James T. Archer, 
Nathaniel P. Bemis, 
Benjamin Byrd, 
Oscar A. Mjres, 
Dennet H. Mays, 
Bobert Brown, 
Hugh Archer, 
Mariamno D. Fapy, 
A bill to make the 
during the last sesnon. 



Thomas Douglass, 
Creorge S. Hawkins, 
Thomas Baltzell, 
George W. M*Rea, 
Joseph Branch, 
Mariamno D. Fapy, 
John 0. Smith, 
Thomas J. Heir, 
Felix G. Livingston, 
Thomas E. King, 



QaoemmaU fir the yecar 1848. 

Salary. 
Governor (term expires 

October, 1849), $1,500 

Secretary of State^ Fees & 600 

Comptroller^ 800 

Treasurer, 800 

Crovemoi's Private Secretary, 500 

President of the Senate^ $3 a day. 

of Columbia Co., Speaker of the House, 3 a day. 

of Leon Co^ Secretary of the Senate, 6 a day. 

do. Clerk of the House, 6 a day. 

sessions of &e General Assembly biennial was passed 

If ratified at the next session, it will become a law. 



of TaUahassee, 

do. 

do. 

do. 
of Madison Co., 



JUDIOIABT. 

Circuit Courts, 



of Jacksonyille, 
of Apalachicola, 
of TaUahassee, 
of Key West, 
of Tallahassee, 

do. 
of Apalachicola, 
of Monticello, 
of Columbus, 
of Key West, 



Salary. 

Chief JudgeJEastem Circuit,$2,000 

Judge, Western do. 2,000 

do. Middle do. 2,000 

do. Southern do. 2,000 

Attorney- General and Rep., 500 

Clerk of Supreme Court, Fees. 

Solicitor, Western Circuit, F. & 200 

do. Middle do. " 200 

do. Eastern do. " 200 

do. SoutJiem do. « 200 



FiNAKOES. 

Principal Items of Expenditure. 
LegiriatiTe department, $14,724.88 

Execufiye, 5,888.56 

Judicial, 9^263.76 

Printiiig, &c., laws and xeporte, 1,690.69 Taxes, 



Criminal prosecutions. 



6,606.26 



Oontingent expenses courts. 
Contingent fond. 



$1,756.05 
1,705.85 



Chief Sources of Income. 



XVII. ALABAMA. 

Mobile, in the southern part of Alabama, was settled long since by the 
Spanish ; yet the territory which now forms this state contained but very 
few civilized inhabitants before 1810. Since that time, its increase in popu- 
lation has been exceedingly rapid. 

Alabama was erected into a territorial government in 1817, and in 1820 
it was admitted into the Union. 



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284 



[1648. 



GOTEBKORS. 

William W. Bibb, appointed 1817, Goremor of the Territory of Alabama. 



Under the Constitution. 



William W. Bibb, 
Israel Pickens, 
John Murphy, 
Gabriel Moore, 
John Gayle, 



elected 1819 

do. 1821 

do. 1825 

do. 1829 

do. 1831 



Clement C. Clay, dected 1835 

Arthur P. Bagby, do. 1837 

Benjamin Fitzpatrick, do. .1841 

Joshua L. Martin, do. 1845 

Reuben Chapman, do. 1847 



Abstract op tSb CoNSTiTtrriON, 

Which teas framed in 1819. 
Every white male person, twenty-one years old, a citizen of the United 
States, resident in the state one year next preceding an election, and three 
months in his county, city, or town, may vote. Representatives shall be 
white citizens of the United States ; resident the last two years in the state, 
and one year in the place they represent ; shall be chosen for two years, and 
shall number not less than forty-four, nor more than sixty, until there are 
one hundred thousand white inhabitants in the state, and thereafter not less 
than sixty nor more than one hundred. Senators shall not be more than 
one-thurd, nor less than one-fourth, of the number of the representatives, and 
shall have all their qualifications, and shall also be twenty-seven years old, 
and chosen for four years — one-half every second year. The sessions of 
the General Assembly shall be biennial. A census shall be taken every six 
years to apportion senatorial and representative districts, and every county 
shall have at least one representative. The governor is chosen, by a plu- 
rality, for two years ; and, in case of an even vote, the legislature chooses one 
of the two highest candidates. He must be thirty years old ; a native citizen of 
the United States, and resident in the state for the last four years ; and shall 
not be eligible more than four years out of every six. His veto Hiay be de- 
feated by a majority of the whole number elected to each house. A state 
treasurer and comptroller shall be chosen annually^ and an attorney-general 
and county solicitors, once in four years, by the General Assembly. The 
supreme court shall have only appellate jurisdiction ; but its judges (unless 
otherwise provided bylaw) shall sit at Nisi Prius^ as a circuit court, which 
shall have original jurisdiction in all criminal cases, and in civil suits 
above fifty dollars. Judges are appointed by the General Assembly, with a 
fixed sMary, and to hold office during six years ; and they may be removed 
upon address of two-thirds of both houses, after notice to the judge and a 
hearing. The General Assembly may direct the manner of bringing suits 
against the state ; may grant divorces, provided two-thirds of both houses 
agree thereto, and a decree in chancery be previously obtained. A state 
bank and branches may be established \ipon certain conditions, by a two- 
thirds vote of both houses ; and there shall be no other banks in the state char- 
tered hereafter. No laws shall be passed to free slaves without the owner's 



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1848.] ALABAMA.. S85 

consent, or without paying for them; or to prevent immigrants from bring- 
ing in slaves of the same description as those within the state, provided 
they be bondjide property, and not criminals. Laws may be passed permit- 
ting owners to free slaves, saving the rights of creditors and the public 
from being at their charge; also, laws directing hnmane treatment of 
slaves, and ordering a sale of them, on the owner's account, if it be not 
complied with. Slaves have a right to trial by jury in all charges above 
petty larceny ; and the maiming or killing of a slave (except in case of 
insurrection) is punishable like that of a free white person. No person 
shall be imprisoned for debt, except in cases of fraud. Amendments to 
the constitution, after being proposed by two-thirds of each house, shall be 
submitted to the people, three months before the next election of represent- 
atives ; and, if approved by a majority, and afterwards passed by two-thirds 
of each house, they are valid. 

Government for the year 1848. 

Salary. 
Reubbn Chapman, of Marshall, Qovemor (term of office 

expires on the 1st Monday in December, 1849), $2,500 

William Garrett, Secretary of State, Fees and 1,200 

Jefferson C. Van Dyke, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Fees and 1 ,000 

Samuel G. Frierson, State Treasurer , Fees and 1,000 

Thomas D. Clarke, of Tuscaloosa, Attorney- General, Fees and 425 
James W. Lang, of Mobile, Adj. and Inspector- General, 200 

Carter B. Harrison, of Tuscaloosa, Quartermaster- General, 200 

The first session of the legislature in the new capital at Montgomery 
commences the first Monday in December, 1847. 

JUDIOIABT. 

Supreme Court, 

Salary. 
Henry W. Collier, of Tuscaloosa, Chief Justice, $2,250 

John J. Ormond, of Tuscaloosa, Associate Justice, 2,250 

Henry Goldthwaite, of Mobile, do. 2,250 

Thomas D. Clarke, of Tuscaloosa, Attom&f- General, Fees and 425 
James B. Wallace, of Tuscaloosa, Clerk, Fees. 

This court sits at the seat of government, on the first Monday of June 
and the seccmd Monday of December. 

Court of Chancery. 

Salary. 

Vacancy, Chancellor of the Southern Div\ $1,500 

Wiley W. Mason, of Wetumpka, do. do. Middle do. 1,500 

David G. Ligon, of Moulton, do. do. Northern do. 1,500 

The state is divided into forty districts ; and one session of the court is 
held annually in each district, except in Mobile, Sumter, and Montgomery 
districts, where two sessions are held. 



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MISai80»PI. 
ClBGUIT COITSTS. 



[1648. 



Judges. 


KesidcDce. 


Cteuit. 


Salaiy. 


Attomeyg. 


John D. Phclan, 


Marion, 


1st, 


Sl,500 


William E.Clarke, 


Ezekiel Pickens, 


Selma, 


2d,' 


1,500 


Francis K. Beck, 
Thomas D. Clarke, 


George D. Shortrldge, 


Montevallo, 


3d, 


1,600 


Daniel Coleman, 


Athens, 


4fch, 


2,000 


R. W. Walker, 


George W. Lane, 


HunteviUe, 


5th, 


J'^ 


W. 0. Winston, 


John Bragg, 


Mobile, 


6th, 


1,500 


John B. Jones, 


Samuel Chapman, 


Livingston, 


;th. 


1,500 


K W. Pettus, 


(Jeorge Goldthwaite, 


Montgomery, 


8th, 


1,500 


Marion A. Baldwin, 


Geo. W. Stone, 


Talladega, 


9th, 


1,500 


Thomas O. Garrett 



Salary. 
$1,500 



Two sessions of tite Circuit Court are held each year in eyery county in 
the state. 

Criminal Court for Mobile Co, 
Henry V. Chamberlain, of Mobile, Jvdge^ 

This court holds three terms in each year, on the first Mondays of No- 
Ycmber, February, and June. 

FINA37CES. 

/< It is consideTed doubtful whether the uniyersity and school Ainds, and the surphui 
revenue, will ever he repaid from the treasury of the state. The interest on the state 
honds has hitherto been punctually paid, and principally from the assets of the state 
bank and its branches, which are all now in a course of liquidation. The aggr^ate 
amount of these assets has been estimated at $14,028,113 ; and the whole amount col- 
lected by the commissioners, from the period when they were placed in liquidation to the 
first of July, 1847, is $2,864,771.35 ; — and it is very questionable whether more than 
$4,500,000 will be realized altogether. Should this anticipation be verified, at least 
$8,000,000 must be provided for by taxation^ or by some other means, whidi have not 
yet been devised.'' 



xvm. MISSISSIPPI. 

This state was included within the country which was discovered and 
possessed by the French, who formed a settlement at Natchez about the 
year 1716; but, in 1763, it was ceded to the English, with the rest of the 
French possessions to the east of the Mississippi. 

There were but few inhabitants within the present limits of this state 
before the end of the last century. In 1798, the country was erected into a 
territorial goyemment; and, in 1817, into an independent state. 

GOYEBNOBS 

Under the Territorial Government. 
Winthrop Sai^nt, appointed 1798 i Robert Williams, appointed 1805 
W. C. C. Clairbome, do, 1802 I Dayid Holmes, do. 1809 



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1S48.] 



MISBISeiPPI. 



287 



Under the CoruUtuHon, 



David Holmes, 


elected 


1817 


George Poindexter, 


do. 


1819 


Walter Leake, 


do. 


1821 


David Holmes, 


do. 


1825 


Gerard C. Brandon, 


do. 


1827 


Abraham M. Scott, 


do. 


1831 



Hiram G. Runnels, dected 1833 

Charles Lynch, do. 1835 

Alexander G. McNutt, do. 1837 

Tilghman M. Tucker, do. 1841 

Albert G. Brown, do. 1843 



Abstbaot of the Constitution. 

The constitulion of this state was formed in 1817. 

Every free white male person, twenty-one years old, a citizen of the 
United States, resident in the state one year, and in his town or county four 
mont^, next before the election, may vote. Representatives, not fewer 
than thirty-six nor more than one hundred in number (and not less 
than one to each county), shall be chosen every second year, on the first 
Monday and Tuesday of October, for two years, and shall meet on the first 
Monday of January following. They must have the qualifications of voters 
and be residents of the state for two years, and for one year of the place 
tbey represent. A census shall be taken at intervals, of not more than 
eight nor less than six years. Senators, in number not fewer than one- 
fourth, nor more than one-third of the number of the representatives, must 
be thirty years old ; for four years citizens of the United States, and for 
one year residents of their district, and be chosen for four years, one half 
every two years. The governor must be thirty years old ; for twenty years 
a citizen of the United States ; for five years a resident of the state ; be 
chosen, by a plurality of votes, for two years ; and cannot hold office more 
tiian four years in every six. He may veto a bill ; but it may be passed, not- 
withstanding his veto, by a vote of two-thirds of both houses. All officers, 
are elected, either in districts or counties, or by the people at large. No 
person denying the being of a God, or a future state of rewards and pun- 
ishments, can hold office. No money can be expended for internal improve- 
ments, except by a vote of two-thirds of both houses ; and no state loan 
can be raised, unless the bill be passed by a majority of each, house, be 
published three months before the next election, and be confirmed by a 
majority of each house at the next legislature. The legislature may 
direct how suits may be brought against the state. It (knnot emancipate 
slaves, without the owner's consent, except on account of great public ser- 
vices, and then must pay for them ; nor can it prevent immigrants from 
importing slaves of the same description with those in the state, if they be 
bond fide property, and not criminals. It may pass laws enablmg owners to 
emancipate slaves, saving the rights of creditors, and the public from being 
at their duurge ; and laws directing a sale, on the owner's account, tf he treat 
his slaves cmelty. The introduction of slaves, as merchandise, after May 
1, 1833, is prohibited j but settlers may import them for their own use, until 



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mtSXBSTFPI. 



[184a 



1845. No grand jury is neoMsary in tlie prosecntioii of slayes for crimes 
not capital. 

The state shall be dividad in three judicial districts, one of which, everj 
two years, shall choose a judge of the high court of errors and ai^>eal8, f<»r 
six years, who must be thirty years old, and receive a salary not diminisha- 
bl^ during his term. Circuit judges are chosen in districts, must reside 
therein, must be twenty-six years old, and shall receiye a fixed compensa- 
tion, and have original jurisdiction of all criminal cases, and of all ciyil 
cases above fifty dollars. Hie court of chancery shall have full equity 
powers. The chancellor must be thirty years old, and shall be chosen bj 
the people for six years. 

Amendments to the constitution, if they are passed by two-thirds of each 
house, shall be submitted to the people six months heSon the next general 
election, and, if approved by them, shaU be adopted. 



Albbbt G. Beowtst, 
Wilson Hemingway, 
William Clark, 
James E. Matthews, 
James M. Lewis, 
James Wach, 



GOYBSNHENT. 

Governor, Term ends Jan. 1848, 

Secretary of Stafd " Nov. 1847, 
StaU Treasurer, " Nov. 1847, 

Auditor of PubHc Accounts, Nov. 1847, 
Keeper cf the Capitol and Ubrattan,^ 
Keeper of the Penitentiary, 



Salarj. 

$3,000 
1,200 
1,500 
1,500 
500 
1,500 



JUDICIABT. 
High Court of Errors and Appeals, 

William L. Sharkey, of Vicksburg, Presiding Judge, 

Alexander M. Clayton, Judge, 

J. S. B. Thatcher, of Natchei, do, 

John D. Freeman, of Jackson, Attomey-Cfen, 

John MT Dnffield. do. Clerk, 



Stephen Cocke, 
Bobert Hughes, 



Henry Diddnson, 
James M. Smiley, 



Superior Court of Chancery. 

of Lowndes Co., ChanceBor, 
of Jackson, Clerk, 

District Chancery Courts. 
Vice- Chancellor, Northern Dist. 



do. 



Southern Dist. 



Tenn ends. Salazy. 
Nov. 1847, $3,000 

do. 1851, 3,000 

do 1849, 3,000 

do. 1849, 1,000 

Fees. 



Tenn ends. Salaiy. 
Nov. 1851, $2,500 



Term ends. Salary. 
Nov. 1851, $2,000 

Nov. 1849, 2,000 



Clerks of Northern District. 
William P. Bole, CanroUton. 
J. T. Sims, Columbus. 

Hannibal Hams, Holly Springs. 
^. I^bbins, Fulton. 



Clerks of Southern District. 
Erasmus S. Bussell, Natchez. 
Abram W. Bichards, Mississii^ city. 
Edw. L. Bowen, Mcmticello. 



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1848.] 



ix>trifliAirA. 
District or Circuit Courts. 



289 



Jndget. 



Dirttiot Attomsys. 



Judges. 



Dirtrict Attomeyi . 



Stanhope Posey. 
Thomas A. WiUfs. 
Geoige Coalter. 
Annstead B. Dawson. 



Winiam T.Martin. 
0. F.M<Garty. 
Fulton Anderson. 
George Wood. 



Robert C. Perry. 
Francis P. Bodgem. 
7 Hugh B. Miller. 



E. A.M. Gray. 
Septimus Caldwell. 
John W.Thompson. 



XEL LOUISIANA. 

The stete of Lonisiaiia comprises the soathem part of an extensive 
oovntiy, whic^ was purchased by the United States, of France, in 1803, for 
tiie som of $15,000,000. 

Hie river Missbsippi was discovered in 1673, by Marqnette and Joliette, 
two French missionaries ; in 1682, the country was explored by La Salle, 
and named Lowsiana^ in honor of Louis XIV. ; in 1699, a French settle- 
ment was b^nn at Iberville ; and in 1717, New Orleans was founded. 

The conntiy now forming the state of Louisiana was separated from the 
rest in 1804, and called the Territory of Orleans ; and in 1812, it was ad- 
mitted into the Unicm as an independent state, by the name of Louisiana. 



GOTERNOBS. 

Under ihfi Territorial Giwemment 
William C. C. Claiborne, appointed 



1804. 



Urukrthe Constitution. 



Wm. C. C. Cktbome, tieded 1812 

James "V^^e, do. 1816 

Thomas B. Kobertoon, do, 1820 
H. a Thibodeanx, Acting' Qav. 

Henry Johnson, deded 1824 

Peter Derbigny, do. 1828 
[died OcL 6, 1829.] 



Au Banvais, 



Jacqnes Dupr6, 
Andr6 B. Boman, 
Edward D. White, 
Andr6 B. Boman, 
Alexander Monton, 
Isaac Johnson, 



Acting- Gov, 1829 



do, 1830 

elected 1830 

do. 1834 

do. 1838 

do. 1841 

do. 1845 



Abbtbaot or the Con»wtutiow. 



The first constitution was formed in 1812 ; the present one was ratified 
by the people, November 5th, 1845. 

Bepresentatives, not less than seventy nor more than one hundred in 
number, shaU be chosen every second year, on the first Monday in Novenx- 
25 



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290 . LOUISIANA. [1848. 

ber, and shall meet every second year, on the third Monday in January 
following. A representative must be a free white male, twenty-one years of 
age, who has been three years a citizen of the United States, three years a 
resident of the state, and one year a resident of the parish where he is 
chosen. Every parish AaXL have at least one representative. A census 
shall be taken in 1847, another in 1855, and one every ten years thereafter. 

Every free white male, twenty-one years of age, two years a citizen of the 
United States, or resident in the state for two consecutive years next pre- 
ceding the election, and the last year thereof in the parish where he pro- 
poses to vote, shall have the right of suffrage. Absence from the state for 
more than ninety consecutive days, unless the house or place of business of 
the absentee be occupied during his absence by his family or servants, shall 
interrupt the residence here required. 

Senators, thirty-two in number, shall be chosen for four years, one half of 
their number being chosen every two years. A senator must be twenty- 
seven years old, ten years a citizen of the United States, four years a resi- 
dent of the state, and one year, of his district. Deducting the population of 
New Orleans from that of the state, the remainder divided by twentj-eight 
shall be the senatorial ratio for the districts. Senators and representatives 
shall receive four dollars a day during their attendance, going to and re- 
turning from the General Assembly, and no sessions shall last more than 
sixty days ; acts passed after sixty days shall be invalid. A state treasurer 
shall be chosen biennially by joint ballot. 

The governor and lieutenant-governor, chosen by a plurality of the 
electors, shall hold office for four years. They must be thirty-five years old, 
and have been citizens of the United States and residents in the state for 
fifteen years. The governor shall be ineligible for the four years succeed- 
ing his term of office. The lieutenant-governor shall be president of the 
senate. He may veto a bill j but two-thirds of both houses may pass it 
again in spite of his veto. 

The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice, receiving $6,000, and 
three associate justices, receiving $5,500 annually, appointed by the gov- 
ernor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for the term of eight years. 
The court shall sit in New Orleans from the first Monday in November to 
the end of June, inclusive. All the judges may be impeached, and they 
may removed by the governor on the address of three-fourths of both 
houses. The supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction only, when 
more than $300 are in dispute, when the legality of any tax is m question 
on all fines and penalties imposed by municipal corporations, and in criminal 
cases, on points of law alone, when death, hard labor, or a fine of more 
than $300, is imposed. They may issue writs of habeas corpus in all cases 
where they have appellate jurisdiction. If the judges are equally divided, 
the judgment appealed from sbaU stand affirmed. There shall be an attor- 



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1848.] LOUISIANA. 291 

ney-general, and as many district-attorneys as may be necessary, appointed 
for two years. 

The legislature shall divide the state into judicial districts, not less than 
twelve, or more than twenty, in number, which may be re-organized every 
sixth year. One district judge shaU be appointed for six years, for each 
district, except for the districts of New Orleans and Lafayette, where as 
many shall be appointed as are necessary. Each of these judges shall re- 
ceive an annual salary, not less than $2,500, which shall not be increased or 
diminished during his term of office. He must be a citizen of the United 
States, above thirty years old, a resident of the state for five years, and have 
practised law therein five years. The district courts shall have jurisdiction 
when more than fifty dollars are at stake, and in all criminal cases. 

All civil officers, except the governor and the judges, are removable on 
an address of a majority of both houses. Members may address either 
house in the French or English language. The credit of the state shall not be 
lent to any person or corporation whatsoever ; but new bonds may be issued 
to replace outstanding ones. No state debt shall be contracted for more 
than $100,000, except in case of war, invasion, or insurrection, unless au- 
thorized bylaw for some distinctly specified object or work; which law 
shall impose taxes to pay the current interest during the whole term of 
the debt, and also to pay the debt itself at maturity ; and this law shall be 
irrcpealable till the debt and interest are fully discharged, and shall not go 
into force till again enacted by the next legislature after its first passage. 
The state shall not subscribe to the stock of any company or corporation. 
No corporate company shall be hereafter created, renewed, or extended, 
with banking or discounting privileges. After 1890, the charters of all 
corporations may be revoked j and no charter shall now be granted, except 
for municipal or political purposes, for more than twenty-five years. Any 
one who fights a duel, acts as second, or sends or accepts a challenge, shall 
neither hold an office nor enjoy the right of sufirage in this state. 

There shall be a superintendent of public education, holding office for 
two years. Free public schools shall be established throughout the state ; 
the proceeds of laads granted for the purpose, and of lands escheated to the 
state, shall be held as a permanent fund, on which six per cent, interest shall 
be paid by the state for the support of these schools. 

Amendments of this constitution shall be first approved by three-fifths of 
both houses ; then published in the newspapers throughout the state three 
months before the next general election ; then approved by a majority of 
both houses in the succeeding legislature ; then published again as before ; 
then submitted to the people ; and, if ratified by a majority of the voters, 
shall form a part of this constitution. 

Government for the year 1848. 

Tenn ends. Salary. 

Isaac Johnson, of West Feliciana, Governor , Jan. 1850, 1(6,000 



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292 



LOUISUUU. 



[1848. 



Trasimon Landry, of Agcension, 
Charles Gayarr6, of New Orleans, 
Zenon Ledoox, Jr., of Pointe Coup6e, 
Joseph Walker, of Rapides, 
Louis Bringier, of New Orleans, 
Charles N.Rowley, of Concordia, 
Raph. Toledano, of New Orleans, 
Robert J. Kerr, 
Alexander Dimitry, 



Temi ends. Salary. 
lAeut," Oovemor, Jan. 1 850, $4 a day. 

Secretary of &(Ue, " 1850, 2,000 
Prtv. Sec. to the Gov., PerquL & 600 
Treasurer, Jan. 1848, 4,000 

Survofor- General J 600 

Adj. ir Ins.- General, 2,000 

A uditor of Accounts, 2,500 

Register of Land Office, 687.75 

Supt. of Education, Term ends 1849. 





JUDICIABT. 








Supreme 


Court. 






George Enstis, 


of New Orleans, 


Chief Justice, 


1854, 


$6,000 


Pierre A. Rost, 


of St. Charles, 


Associate Justice, 


1852, 


5,500 


George R. King, 


of Opelousas, 


do. 


1850, 


5,500 


Thomas SUdell, 


of New Orleans, 


do. 


1848, 


5,500 


Wm. A. Elmore, 


do. 


Attorney- General^ 


1848, 


3,000 


Eugene Lasere, 




Clerk in New OdeanSy 


Fees. 


Pierre Labyche, 




do. in Opelousas, 




Pees. 


M. A. Airiail, 




do. in Alexandria, 




Fees. 


Henry M. Bry, 




do. in Monroe, 




Fees. 



Merritt M. Robinson, of New Orleans, Reporter, 

District Courts of New Orleans ; \st District. 



Perquisites. 



Districts. 


Judges. Term ends. 


Salary. 


Clerks. 


1. 


John McHenry, 


1850, 


$3,500 


Alfred Rousseau. 


2. 


E. A. Canon, 


1852, 


3,500 


Thomas C. Poole. 


3. 


Thomas H. Kennedy, 


1850, 


3,500 


William P. Bedlock. 


4. 


George Strawbridge, 


1852, 


3,500 


Thomas Gilmore. 


5. 


A. M. Buchanan, 


1850, 


3,500 


Prosper Le Blanc. 




Other District Courts. 




Bisteiois 


Judges. Ttem ends. 


Salaiy. 


Attorneys. 


2., 




1848, 


2,500 


Alfred Bodin. 


3. 


J. Calvin Clarke, 


1848, 


2,500 


Franklin Perin.^ 


4. 


Thomas C. Nicholls, 


1848, 


2,500 


Theo. Lawre. 


6. , 


David A. Randall, 


1848, 


2,500 


James L. Cole. 


6. 


John J. Burke, 


1852, 


2,500 


Augustus Talbot 


7. 


William D. Boyle, 


1852, 


2,500 


Z. S. Lyons* 


8. 


Martin G. Penn, 


1850, 


2,500 


Nicholas Baylies. 


9. 


Fred. H. Farrar, 


1850, 


2,500 


William Beatly. 


10. 


Louis Selby, 


1850, 


2,500 


William Perkins. 


11. 


Vacancy. 




2,500 


Edward Barry. 



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1848.] 



TEXAS. 



293 



Districia. Judges. Term ends. Salary. 

12. George W. Copley, 1850, 2,500 

vl3. Kalph Cushman, 1852, 2,500 

14. Cornelius Voorhies, 1848, 2,500 

15. John H. Overton, 1848, 2,500 

16. James Taylor, 1852, 2,500 



Attorneys. 
R. W. Richardson. 
Patrick Barry. 
Malcolm A. Fraser. 
Jaines M. Moore. 
Elisha Basse. 



17. Edward R. Olcott, 1852, 2,500 John S. Gilbert. 



XX. TEXAS. 



Texas, formerly a province of Mexico, declared its independence in 
March, 1836, and achieved it by the battle of San Jacinto on the 21st of 
the following April. In September of the same year, the first election was 
held under the constitution. In 1845 it was admitted into the Union as an 
independent state, by a joint resolution of both houses of Congress, which 
was signed by the president, March 1, 1845, and ratified by the Texans in 
convention, July 4, 1845. 

Presidents of the Republic of Texas. 



Saml. Houston, ent. upon office 1836 
Mirabeau B. Lamar, do, 1838 



Saml. HoustOD, ent upon office 1842 
Anson Jones, do. 1844 



Governor of the State of Texas, 
J. Finckney Henderson, entered upon offivce^ Jan. 1846. 

ABSTSA.OT OE THE CONSTITUTION, . 

Adopted in Convention at Austin, August 21th, 1845, and ratified by the People, 
October ISth, 1845. 
Every free white male, twenty-one years old, a citizen of the United 
States, or of Texas when this constitution was adopted, who has resided in 
the state one year, and six months in the district, county, city, or town, where 
he offers to vote, shall have the right of suffrage. Electors absent from 
home, but within their own district, may vote for district officers ; and any- 
where in the state, they may vote for state officers. The sessions of the 
legislature shall be biennial j representatives shall be chosen for two years, 
and they must be qualified voters, who have lived two years in the state, 
and one year in the place where they are chosen. Senators are chosen for 
four years, one-half of them leaving office biennially ; they must be qual- 
ified voters, thirty years old, who have lived in Texas three years, and the 
last year thereof in their district. The number of representatives shall not 
be less than forty-five, nor more than ninety ; a census shall be ordered at 
25* 



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294 TBXJL8. [1848. 

the first meeting of the legislature, and the represcntatiyes shall be appor- 
tioned according to the number of voters ascertained by it The senators, 
not less than nineteen, nor more than thirty-three, in number, shall be ap 
portioned in like manner. The city of Austin shall be the seat of govenr- 
ment till 1850, when a place shall be selected by vote of the people. Mem- 
bers of the legislature shall receive $3 a day, and $3 for every twenty-five 
miles of travel 

The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and two associates, 
each receiving annually not less than $2,000, holding office for six years, 
and shall hold sessions once a year, between June and October, in not more 
than three places in the state. This court shall have appellate jurisdiction 
coextensive with the limits of the state ; but in criminal cases, and app<eal8 
from interlocutory judgments, it shall be under legislative regulations. 
There shall be convenient judicial districts, one district judge in each, hold- 
ing office for six years, receiving annually not lesa than $1,750, who ^all 
sit twice a year in each county. Judges shall be nominated by the gover- 
nor, and confirmed by two-thirds of the senate ; tl^ey may be removed by 
address of two-thirds of both houses. The district courts shall have origi- 
nal jurisdiction in all criminal cases, and in all suits in which more than 
$100 are at stake. In criminal cases, if the punishment be not specifically 
determined by law, the jury shall determine it An attorney-general, 
holding office for two years, shall be nominated by the governor, and con- « 
firmed by two-thirds of the senate ; a district attorney for each district shall 
be chosen by joint ballot of both houses, also for two years. In equity 
causes, either party may demand a jury. 

The governor and lieutenant-governor shall be chosen by a plurality of 
votes for two years, and shall not be eligible for more than four out of any 
six years. They must have the same qualifications as a senator, and the 
governor at first shall receive $2,000 a year. The lieutenant-governor shall 
preside in the senate, and be paid the same sum as, the speaker of the 
house. A secretary of state shall be nominated by the governor, and con- 
firmed by the senate for two years ; a state treasurer and a comptroller of 
accounts shall be biennially chosen by joint vote of both houses. The 
governor may veto a bill ; but two-thirds of both houses may pass it in 
»pite of his veto. 

Amy person concerned in a duel, sending or accepting a challenge, shall 
be ineligible to any public office. Grants of money for private purposes, or 
for internal improvement, must be made by two-thirds of both houses. 
Within five years, the laws, civil and criminal, shall be revised, digested, 
arranged, and published ; and a like revision shall be made every ten years 
thereafter. A wife's property, both real and personal, acquured before or 
after marriage, shall be her separate property ; and its registration shall be 
provided for by law. The legislature may protect by law some of the 
property of all heads of families from forced sale. A homestead of not 
more than two hundred acres, not included in a town or city, or city or 



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1848.] TEXAS. 295 

town lots worth not more than $2,000, shall not be subject to forced sale 
for any debt hereafter contracted. No corporation shall be created, re- 
newed, or extended, with banking or discounting priyileges. Priyate cor- 
porations can be created only by a vote of two-thirds of both bouses j the 
state shall not subscribe to their stock, and their charters may be revoked 
by making compensation for the franchise. The state shall not borrow 
money except by alike vote, nor contract an aggregate amount of debt of 
more than $100,000, except in case of war, invasion, or insurrection. The 
salaries of the governor and judges are fixed at the minimum herein ex- 
pressed, and shall not be increased for ten years. 

No law shall be passed to emancipate slaves, except by their owners' 
consent, and by paying a full compensation for them. Emigrants to this 
state shall not be prevented from bringing their slaves with them ; but the 
bringing hither of slaves as merchandise may be forbidden. Laws may be 
passed obliging owners to treat their slaves with humanity, and to abstain 
from injuries to them affecting life or limb ; in case of disobedience of these 
laws, the slaves may be taken away, and sold for the benefit of the owners. 
Slaves accused of higher crimes ^an petit larceny shall have a fair trial by 
jury. Any one who maliciously dismembers, or deprives a slave of life, 
shall be punished as if he had committed the same crime on a white per- 
son, except in case of insurrection of sudi slave. 

One-tenth of the annual revenue of the state derived from taxati<m shall 
be set aside as a permanent fund for the support of free public schools. 
All public lands granted for such scho(^ shall not be alienated in fee, nor 
leased for more than twenty years. 

Two-thirds of both houses may propose amendments to this constitution, 
which shall then be published three months before the next general elec- 
tion *, and if approved at that election by a majority of the voters, and then 
ratified by two-thirds of both houses in the next legislature, they shall then 
be valid. 

GOYBBNMBNT. 

Term ends. Salary. 
J. PiNCKHBT HaKBEBSON, GooemoT^ 1848, $2,000 



Albert C.HorCon, 


Luut,' Oov. ^ Prei. of Smote 


,1848, 


$3 a day. 


David G. Burnet, 


Secretary of Slate, 


1848, 


1,200 


John W. Harris, 


Attometf-Generai, 


1848, 


1,00^ 


James H. Baymond, 


Treastirer, 


1848, 


1,200 


James B. Shaw, 


Comptroller, 


1848, 


1,200 


William G. Co(^, 


AdjtOant- General, 


1848, 


1,000 


Thomas W. Ward, 


Q)nmis8ioner of the Land Office, 


1,500 




JUBICIABT. 








Supreme Covrt. 






John Hemphill, 


Cfhkf Justice, 


1852, 


$2,000 


Abner S. Lipscomb, 




1852, 


2,000 


B. T. Wheeler, 


do. 


1852, 


2,000 



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296 AJtKAKSAB. [1848. 

Dittrict Courts. 

Judges. Reddence. Salary. Attorneys. Besidence. Salary. • 

I.James Love, (ralveston, $1,750 Hiram Waller, Austin Co.,$300&f. 

2. Wm. E. Jones, Gonzales, 1,750 J. A. Green, Lagrange, do. 

3. RE. B.Baylor, 1,750 Th. Johnson, Benham, do. 

4. M. P. Norton, 1,750 C. W.Peterson, Jackson Co., do. 

5. O. M. Roberts, San Aug'ne, 1,750 J. M.Ardi7, SanAog^ne, do. 

6. Amos Clark, 1,750 JohnM. Clarty, Rush Co., do. 

7. C. W. BucUey, 1,750 Saml. D. Hay, HuntsviUe) do. 

8. John T. Mills, aarksville, 1,750 Wm. C. Young, Clarksville, do. 



XXT. ARKANSAS. 



Arkansas was separated from the territory (now state) of Bfissoori in 1819, 
and erected into a separate goyemment. In 1836, it was admitted into the 
Union as an independent state. 

Territobial Goybrnobs. 
James Miller, appointed 1819 (John Pope, appointed 1829 

Geoige Izard, do. 1825 1 William S. Fulton, do, 1835 

State Governors. 
James S. Conway, elected 1836 | Samuel Adams, Acting Gov. 1844 
♦Archibald Yell, do. 1840 1 Thomas S. Drew, dected 1844 

Abstract of the Constitution, 
Adopted January 4tA, 1836. 

Every free white male citizen of the United States, 21 years old, and a 
citissen of Arkansas for the six months next before the election, may vote in the 
county or district where ho resides. Representatives (in number not less 
than 54 nor more than 100) shall be white citizens of the United States, 25 
jears old, resident in their counties, and shall be chosen for two years. 
Senators (in number not less than 17 nor more than 34) shall be 30 years 
old, inhabitants of the state for the year before the election, and of the dis- 
trict at the time, and shall be chosen for four years. The governor shall be 
30 years old, a native-bom citizen of Arkansas, or of the United States, or 
a resident of Arkansas for ten years before the adoption of the constitution ; 
and also (in any case) resident therein for four years next before the elec- 
tion ; and shall be chosen for four years (but not more than eight years in 
any twelve), by a plurality of votes. He may veto bills ; but a majority of 

* Sleotecl RepreeentatiTe to CongiMS. 



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1848.} 



ABKAN8A8. 



297 



the members of each honse maj pass them, notwiihstaiidmg his reto. If 
the office of goyeinOT be yacant, it shall be filled bj the president of the 
senate, and after him bj the speaker of the honse, nntil the end of the term ; 
or, if the vacancy occnr within 18 months of the end of the term, nntil a new 
election is had. The General Assembly may pass laws to prohibit the in- 
troduction of slaves who are criminals, or as merchandise ; and to oblige 
masters to treat them with homanity. Slaves shall not be deprived of trial 
by jnry, and shall have the same punishment for a capital crime as a white 
man. No laws can be passed to emancipate slaves without the consent of 
their owners, or to prevent immig^nts from bringing with them persons 
deemed slaves in any one of the United States ; but the law may permit 
owners to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and the public 
from being at their chai^ No person denying the being of a God shall 
hold dvil office, or be allowed his oath in court Lotteries, and the sale of 
lottery tickets, are prohibited. ^ No bank or banking institution shall be 
hereafter, ( 1847,) incorporated or established in this state." The supreme 
court (except in specified cases) shall have only appellate jurisdiction. It has 
three judges, who shall be 30 years old, and shall be diosen for eight years, 
by a majority of the joint votes of the General Assembly. Judges of the 
circuit court must be 25 years old, and shall be chosen for four years, by a 
majority of joint votes in the Greneral Assembly. Judges of both courts 
shall receive a salary not diminishable during their term. The justices of 
the peace, in each county, form a county conrt, and shall be elected in towns 
for two years, and have exclusive jurisdiction in civU cases below $100. 
Amendments proposed by two-thurds of each house shall be published 12 . 
months before the next election ; and, if passed by two-thirds of each houses 
shall be adopted. 



Government for the year 1848. 



TnOMiLfl S. Dbew, 



Salary. 



David B. Greer, 

Elias N. Conway, 

Jared C.Martin, 

William E. Sebastian, of Phillips, 

Albert Bust, of Union, 



of Little Bock, Gooemor (term of office 

expires Nov., 1848), use of a house and $1,800 

of latde Bock, ^8^. of Suae, Perquisites & 600 
Auditor of Pvh.Ac€U. Fees& 1,200 
Trttmarer^ Feet & 800 

President of Senate, 
Speaker of tJte Souse, 



do. 
of Pulaski Co. 



Thomas Johnson, 
Edward Cross, 
William S. Oldham, 
Geoi^ge C. Watkins, 
Luke £. Barber, 
Elbert R Engliih, 



Supreme Court, 

Term ends. Salary. 

of Saline Co., Chief Justice, 1852, $1,500 

of Hempstead Co.,,Associale Justice^ 1848, 1,400 

of Fayetteville, do. 1850, 1,500 

of Little Bock, Attorney- Oeneral, 600 

do. Clerk, Fees. 

do. Eeporter, 200 



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298 




TENNESSEE. 


[1848. 






Circuit Court. 






Judgefl. 


Salary. 


Proeecuting Attorneys. Salary. 


Ist Ckctiit, John T. Jones, 


$1,000 


N. M. Foster, 


Fees & $900 


2d do. 


Wm. H. Sutton, 


1,000 


Joseph W. Socage, 


" 800 


Sd do. 


Wm. Conway, 


1,000 


A. R. Porter, 


« aoo 


4th do. 


Sebron G. Sneed, 


1,000 


A. B. Greenwood, 


" aoo 


Sth do 


John J. Glendenin, 


1,000 1 George C.WatkinB, 


eoo 


6th do. 


George Conway, 


1,000 1 Allen W. Bleyins, 


" 800 


7th do. 


Rich. C. S. Brown, 


1,000 1 Jonas M. Tibbatts, 


300 



XXIL TEMESSEE. 

The earliest settlements in this state were made between the years 1765 
and 1770, by emigrants from North Carolina and Virginia. , 

The country was included within the limits of North Carolina till 1790, 
when it was placed under a separate territorial government, under the mune 
of the " Territory South of the Ohio ; " and in 1796, the inhabitants formed 
a constitution, and Tennessee was admitted into the Union as an indepen- 
dent state. 

GOYEBNOBS. 

Wm. Blount, Governor of the Territory South of the Ohio, appointed 1790. 
Under the Constitution, 



John Sevier, 


elected 


1796 


William Caroll, 


elected 


1829 


Archibald Boane, 


do. 


1801 


Newton Cannon, 


do. 


1835 


John Sevier, 


do. 


1803 


James K. Polk, 


do. 


1839 


Wilie Blount, 


do. 


•1809 


James C. Jones, 


do. 


1841 


Joseph M^Minn, 


do. 


1815 


Aaron V. Brown, 


do. 


1845 


Waiiam CaroU, 


do. 


1829 


Neil S. Brown, 


do. 


1847 


Samuel Houston, 


do. 


1827 









AbSTBACT of the COHSTITtTTION, 

Formed at Knoxvilky in 1796, and amended at Nashville, in 1834. 
Every free white citizen of the United States, 21 years oM, and a citizen of 
the county where he offers his vote six months before the election, may vote. 
Every man is to be considered white who is a competent witness, in court, 
against a white man. All free colored men are exempt from military duty, in 
time of peace, rnd from poll taxes. Kepresentatives, not exceedhig 75 in num- 
ber, until tie po ulation o the state is 500,000, and thereafter not exceeding 
99, shall have the same qualifications as voters, and have resided in the state 
three years, and in the county one year next before the election. Senators, 
in number not exceeding one-third of the representatives, shall have the 
qualifications of representatives, and shall be 30 years old. Elections of gov- 



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1848.] TENNESSEE. 299 

ernor and of the General Assembly shall be held, once in two years, on the first 
Thursday of August ; and the sessions shall commence (every second year) on 
the first Monday of October. A census shall be taken and an apportionment 
made in 1841, and in every tenth year thereafter. No person who denies 
the being of a Grod, or a future state of rewards and punishments, can hold 
any civil office. Any person directly or indirectly engaged in a duel shall be 
disqualified for office. The governor shall be 30 years old, a citizen .of the 
United States, and a citizen of the state for seven years preceding the elec- 
tion, and shall be chosen by a plurality of votes for two years ; but he shall 
not be eligible more than six years in every eight. If the office of governor 
is vacant, the speaker of the senate, and after him the speaker of the house, 
shall act as governor. The supreme court shall be composed of three judges, 
one of whom shall reside in each of the three grand divisions of the state, 
shall be 35 years old, and shall be elected by joint vote of both houses for 12 
yeard. The judges of the inferior courts shall be 30 years old, and be elected 
for eight years. All judges shall receive a fixed compensation, and shall be 
removable by a vote of two-thirds of both houses. No fine exceeding $50 
shall be laid upon any citizen of the state, unless assessed by a jury. Jus- 
tices of the peace shall be elected, in districts, for six years ; sheriffs, in coun- 
ties,. for two years, but not more than six years in every eight; and registers 
for four years. Lotteries, and the sale of lottery tickets, are prohibited. The 
proportion of the proceeds of the sale of the public lands coming to the state 
shall be applied to education and internal improvement. The General As- 
sembly cannot emancipate slaves, without the consent of the owners. Amend- 
ments, if agreed to by a majority of the members of both houses, shall be 
published six months before the choice of members to the next General As- 
sembly ; and, if passed by a vote of two-thirds of the next General Assem- 
bly, shall be submitted to the people ; and, if ratified by a majority of votes, 
shall be adopted. But the legislature shall not propose amendments oftener 
than once in six years. 

Government. 

Salary. 

Nbii* S. Brown, Governor (term expires October, 1849), $2,000 

John S. Young, of Nashville, Sec. of St. f-lnt. Imp. Comr. 800 & f. 

Robert B. Turner, do. Treasurer^ 1,500 

Felix K. Zollicoffer, do. Comptroller of tite TVeasury, 2,000 

West H. Humphreys, do. Attorney Gen. f* B^wrter^ 1,000 

Gerard Troost, do. State Geologist, 500 

JODICIARY. 

Supreme Court. 

William B. Torley, of Jackson, Judge, Western Divtsiont $1,800 

William B. Reese, of Knoxville, do. Eastern do. 1,800 

Nathan Green, of Winchester, do. Middle do. 1,800 



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300 



TENKB88EB. 



{1848. 



Court of Chancery, 

Andrew M*Campbell, of Paris, Chancdlor, Wegtem Division^ $1,500 

Thomas L. Williams, of KnoxTille, do. Eastern do, 1,500 

of Columbia, <fo. Middle do, 1,500 

of M'Minnville, do. Fourth do, 1,500 



Terry H. Cahal, 
Bromfield L. Bidley, 



Circuit OfwrU, 



Judges, 

1. Seth J. W. Lnokj, 

2. Ebeneier Atacuider, 
8. Geo. W. Bowleg, 

4. Abraham Canithers, 

5. Samuel Anderson, 

6. Thomafl Maney, 

7. Mortimer A. Martin, 

8. Edm. DUlahunty, 

9. William FiUgerald, 

10. John Read, 

11. Wm. C. Donlap, 

12. R. M. Anderson, 
18. A. J. Marchbanks, 
14. James Soott, 



Ktsidmee, 
Jonesboro. 
Knoxrilla. 
MadisonTlUe. 
Carthage. 
Morfreesboro. 
NashTille. 
ClarksfUle. 
CMvunbia. 
Paris. 
Jackson. 
Bolivar. 
New Market. 
M^MiimTilte. 
SaTannah. 



Aitorneys. 
T. A. R. NelMn, 
D. H. Cwmminys 
S. A. Smith, 
J. G. Pickett, 
H. L. Davidson, 
G. W. AUen, 
W. B. Jbhnmn, 
N.Baxter, 
J. B. Williams, 
D. P. Skurlock, 
John P. Ganiihers, 
W. R. Gaswdl, 
•J. W. Garter, 
Solon S. Rose, 



WilliMn K. Turner, of Nashville, 

Commercial and Criminal 
Ephraim W. King, of Memphis, 



Criminal Court of Davidson County, 

Jtulge, 
Courts of Shdby County, 
Judge, 



Rmdenee. 
Joneebore. 
KnozviUe. 
OloTeland. 
SmithYille. 
ShelbyviUe. 
(Gallatin. 
GlaiksTiUk 
Columbia. 
Paris. 
Jackson. 
Memphis. 
Bandridge. 
M^Minnville. 
Lawrenoeb'g. 

Salary. 
$1,000 



$1,500 



Finances for the year 

Total amount receiTed in 1846, 

« " expended ta 1846, 
Whole state debt, bearing interest, 

Principal Items of Expenditure, 



Les^latlye expenses, 
Salaries of the judiciary. 
Salaries of executlTe offloers, 
Costs of state prosecutions. 
Common schools, 



Internal improyements. 
Charitable institutions, 
Building state-house, 



$62,544.78 
80,891.01 
5,048.11 
26,848.06 
65,068.78 
11,881.86 
10,119^ 
17,060.00 
26,600.00 



Disbursement of 17. S. land xeyenue, 9,826.78 



ending October, 1846. 

. $886,247.07 
278,0^.71 

. 8,878,416.66 
ConTeying conviots to prison, §4,277^ 
PubUo printing, 8,895.67 

Cki^ Sources of Inooms, 

Direct taxes on property, $86,821.79 

« «< on piivileges, 81,29866 

« (( on banks, 18,000.00 

Entries of public lands, 14,468.16 

Dir. of state bank for academies, 18,000.00 

« M com. schools, 100,000^ 

Penitentiary, 8,000.00 

Internal improvement diyidends, 17,660.64 



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1848.] ^ KBNTUOKT. 801 

XXm. KENTUCKY. 

, The first permanent settlement of this state was began on Kentucky 
Kirer, in 1775, by Colonel Daniel Boone. The country formed a part of 
the state of Virginia till 1790 ; and in 1792, it was admitted into the Union 
as an independent state. 

GOYEBNOBS. 



Isaac Shelby, dueled 1792 

James Garrand, do, 1796 

Christopher Greenup, do, 1804 

Charles Scott, do. 1808 

Isaac Shelby, do. 1812 

Geoi^ Madison, do. 1816 

G^riel Slaughter, Ani. Gov. 1816 

John Adair, elected 1820 



Joseph Desha, eiected 1824 

Thomas Metcalfe, do. 1828 

John Breathitt, do. 1832 

Jas. T. UoTehea^lA4'Act,Gov. 1834 
James Clark, eiected 1836 

C. A. WickUffe.Lt.i'Act. Gov. 1839 
Robert P. Letcher, elected 1840 

WiUiam Owsley, do. 1844 



Abstract of Constitution. 

The first constitution was adopted in 1790, and the present one in 1799. 

Every free male white citizen, 21 years old, resident in the state two years 
and in the county or town one year next before the election, may vote. 
Bepresentatives, in number not fewer than 58 nor more than 100,'shall be 
chosen on the first Monday of August, for one year, and (beside possessing 
the qualifications of electors) shall be 24 years old. Senators (in number 
not less than 24, with an increase of one for every three members added to 
the house,) shall be chosen for four years, one fourth every year, and shall be 
35 years old, and have resided six years in Ihe state, and one year in their 
districts. A census of voters shall be taken every fourth year, to apportion 
representative and senatorial districts. The governor shall be a citizen of 
the United States, resident in the state for the last six years, and 35 years 
old. He shall be chosen for four years, by a plurality of votes, and shall be 
ineligible for the next seven years. A lieutenant-governor, with the same 
qualifications and term of service as the governor, shall be chosen, and shall 
be ^>eaker of the senate. The governor's veto may be defeated by a majority 
of each house. The court of appeals shall have only f^pellate jurisdicdoiL 
The judges of all the courts shidl hold theur offices during good behavior, 
and may be removed by address of two-thirds of each house, for a cause stated. 
In £dl elections, whether by the people or the Assembly, the votes shall be 
viva voce. The General Assembly shall pass no laws for the emancipation of 
slaves, without the previous consent and payme^ of the owners ; nor to pre- 
7ent immigrants from importing slaves of the same descri^on as tiios^ al- 
ready in the state. It may pass laws permitting the owners to emancipate 
slaves, saving the rights of creditors, and the public from being at their 
charge; preventing their being brought into the state as merchandise; pre- 
venting the importation of slaves brought to the United States since Jan. 1 , 



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802 



KBNTUCKT. 



[1848. 



1789 ; prescribing humane treatment, and for neglect thereof directing a sale 
on the owner's accoimt In prosecution of slaTCS for felony, no grand jury shall 
be necessary, but there shall always be a petit jury. When a majority of all 
the members elected to each house of the General Assembly shall, within the 
first 20 days of their stated session, pass a law, specifying alterations needed 
in the constitution, at the next general election, the people shall Tote on 
the question of calling a convention j and if a majority of all the citizens in 
the state vote for it, the same question shall be taken the next year ; and, if 
it is then agreed to, the General Assembly shall call a convention.* 





Government for the year 1848. 










Salary. 


WiLUAM Owsley, 


of Boyle Co., 


Governor (term of office 








expires in Sept., 1848), 


$2,500 


Archibald Dixon, 


of Henderson Co 


.,Lt.Gov^ Sp, of the Senate, 








Pay, while presiding, $6 


a day. 


William D. Reed, 


of Frankfort, 


Secretary of State, 


750 


Harry J. Bodley, 


do. 


Auditor of Public Accounts, 


1,250 


Thomas S. Page, 


do. 


2d Auditor, 


1,500 


Bryan Y. Owsley, 


do. 


Register of the Land Office, 


1,250 


James Davidson, 


do. 


Treasurer, 


1,250 


Peter Dudley, 


do. 




150 


Ambrose W. Dudley, 


do.' 


Quartermaster- General, 


100 


George A. Robertson, 


do. 


State Librarian, 


250 


Ryland T. DiUard, 


of Lexington, 


Sup. of Public Instruction, 


750 


Theodore Kohlhass, 


of Winchester, 


Clerk of the Senate, $10 


a day. 


Thomas J. Helm, 


of Glasgow, 


Clerk of the House, 10 


a day. 




JUDICIABT. 






Court of Appeals. 




Thomas A. Marshall, 


of Lexington, 


Chief Justice, 


$1,500 


Daniel Breck, 


of Richmond, 


Judge, 


1,500 


James Simpson, 


of Winchester, 


do. 


1,500 


Owen G. Gates, 


of Frankfort, 


Attorney- General, $300 and fees. 


Jacob Swigert, 


do. 


Clerk, 


Fees. 


James C. Colman, 


do. 


Serjeant, $2 a day and fees. 


Benjamin Monroe, 


do. 


Reporter. 





General Court. 

John L. Bridges, of Danville, Judge. A. H. Rennick, of Frankfort, Clerk, 

Louisville Chancery Court. 

Samuel S. Nicholas, of Louisville, Chancellor, $2,000 

Charies J. Clarke, do. Clerk, Fees. 

Joseph Mayo, do. Master, Fees. 

John A. Crittenden, do. Marshal, Fees. 

• At the election on the 9th September, 1847, a large majority of votes vns given in fliTor 
of a convention to amend the constitation. Another vote will be taken in 1848. 



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1848.] 



KENTUCKY. 



303 



Judges. 

1. Walker Raid, Washington. 

2. Hinury 0. Brown, Nelson Co. 
8. Richd. A. Buckner, Jr., Lezipgton. 

4. James Pryor, CarroUton. 

5. William F. Bollock, Looisyille. 

6. Asher W. Graham, Bowling Green. 

7. Benj. Shacklefbrd, HopkinsTille. 

8. Christopher Tompkins, Glasgow. 



Circuit Courts, 
Residence. Attorneys, 



9. Samuel Losk, 

10. Wm. C. Goodloe, 

11. Eenai Farrow, 

12. John L. Bridges, 

18. Armist. H. ChnrehiU, 

14. John Calhoon, 

15. Tonstall Quarles, 

16. Wiley P. Fowler, 

17. Mason Brown, 

18. Richard A. Bnckner, 

19. William B. Einkead, 



Lancaster. 

Richmond. 

Mount Sterling. 

Danrille. 

Elizabethtown. 

Hardinsborg. 

London. 

Smithland. 

Frankfort. 

GreensbuTS^. 

Lexington. 



Residence. 
Harrison Taylor, Washington, 

liringston Lyndsay, Princeton. 
Alexander H. Robertson, Lexington. 



Richard Logan, 
Nathaniel Wolffe, 
William Y. Loving, 
Ninian E. Grey, 
Zachariah Wheat, 
George Shanklin, 
Thomas Turner, Jr., 
Walter C. Chiles, 
John B. Thompson, 
William Alexander, 
Alfted Allen, 
Silas Woodson, 
Richard L. Mayes, 
Thoaias L. Crittenden, 
Wm. E. M*Ferrin, 
Green V. Goble, 



Newcastle. 

Louisville. 

Bowling Green. 

Hopkinsville. 

Columbia. 

Nieholasville. 

Richmond. 

Mt. Sterling. 

Harrodsburg. 

Brandenburgh. 

Hardinsburg. 

Barboursville. 

Mayfield. 

Frankfort. 

Gla^ow. 

Louisa. 



Board of Internal Improvement — Thomas Metcalfe, of Nicholas Co., President; BUlis 
Dyer, of Rums^ ; Austin P. Cox, of Frankfort, Secretary. 

StaU Institutions for the Relief of the Unfortunate. —- Lunatic Asylum, at Lexington, 
founded in 1822, number of inmates during the year 1846, 801 ; Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 
at Danville, founded in 1822, 68 pnpUs ; School for the Blind, at Louisville, founded in 
1842, 81 pupils ; Marine Hospital at Smithland, established In 1827 ; Penitentiary, estab- 
liibed in 1798, average number of oonvicts during the year 1846, 187 ; LouisviUe Marine 
Hospital, established in 1885. 

Finances. 

8i$Mng Fund. — Commissioners — William Owsley, Governor and Cliairman ex ojffieio ; 
John Tilford, President Northern Bank of Kentucky ; Virgil M^Knight, President Bank 
of Kentucky ; Joshua B. Bowles, President Bank of Louisville ; H. J. Bodley, Auditor ; 
Thomas S. Page, Second Auditor ; and E. H. Taylor, Cashier Frankfort Branch Bank ; 
H. J. Bodley, Secretary. The commissioners have control pf the Ainds to pay the inter- 
est on the public debt, and finally to extbiguish the principal. The receipts of the Fund 
during the year 1846 were $889,654.80 ; the expenditures for the same time, $870,694.02 j 
leaving a balance of $19,060.78. The resources of this fond have been sufficient to meet 
promptly the interest on the public debt. 

Ordinary Revenue. —Receipts into the treasury for the year ending 10th October, 1846, 
includhig a balance of $88,444.86, on hand 10th October, 1845, $428,810 85. Ordinary 
expenses of the government, same time, $408,807.85 ; leaving a balance in the treasury, 
10th October, of $20,608. Valuation of property liable to taxation in 1846, $242,888,967 ; 
increase from 1845, $18,900,806. A tax of 15 cents is ooUected on each $100 worth of 
property, besides a specific tax on carriages, &c. ; one-third of the tax collected is paid to 
the commissioners of the Sinking Fund to aid them in the payment of the state debt. The 
debt was contracted for internal improvement purposes. Total number of white males 
over 21 years old in 1846, 187,604. Average value of the land in 1846 in the whole state, 
$6.31 per acre. 

State Debt.— The entire funded debt is $4,696,026, to which the state owns $1,270,600 
of bank stock, about 400 miles of turnpike roads, which yields about $24,000 of dividends 
annually ; 29 miles of railroad, which rents for $17,000 per annum ; and about 290 miles 
of slackwater navigation, which yields annually about $80,000. 



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304 OHIO. [1848. 



XXIV. omo. 

The first permanent settlement of Ohio was commenced at Marietta, in 
1788; in 1789, the country was put under a territorial government, and 
called the " Western Territory^" which name was afterwards altered to the 
** Territory North-west of the Ohio ; '' and in 1802, it was erected into an in- 
pendent state. 

GOYERNORS. 

1789 Arthur St Clair, Governor till the end of the territorial goyemment 
Under the Constitution, 



Edward Tiffin, elected 1803 

Thomas Kirker, Acting Gov, 1807 
Samuel Hunting, eUcted 1808 
Betum J. Meigs, do, 1810 

Othniel Looker, Acting Gov, 1814 
Thomas Worthington, deded 1814 
Ethan Allen Brown, do, 1818 
Allen TrimUe, Acting Gov, 1822 
Jeremiah Morrow, elected 1822 
Alien Trimhle, do, 1826 



Duncan McArthur, dected 1830 

Robert Lucas, do, 1832 

Joseph Vance, do, 1836 

Wilson Shannon, do, 1838 

Thomas Corwin, do. 1840 

Wilson Shannon, do, 1842 

Thomas W.Bartley,Acft*ii^ GW. 1843 

Moidecai Bartley, dected 1844 

William Bebb, do. 1846 



AB8TB1.0T OP THJfi CONBTITUTIOIT, 

Formed at CkUUcotke in 1802. 
Erery white male inhabitant, twenty-one years old, resident in the state 
one year next before the election, and who has paid, or is charged with, a 
state or county tax, may vote. Bepresentatiyes shall be twenty-five years 
old, citizens of the state and of the United States, residents of their county 
for one year next before the election, and have paid a state or county tax. 
They shall be chosen annually, and shall be not more than thirty-six, nor 
fewer than twenty-four, until the number of white male inhabitants, twenty- 
one years old, shall be 22,000, and thereafter not more than seventy-two, nor 
less than thirty-six. Senators (in number not more than one-hal^ nor fewer 
than one-third of the number of representatives) shall be citizens of tho 
United States, thirty years old, residents for two years of their district or 
county, and have paid a state or county tax, and shall be chosen biennially, 
one-half every year. The governor shall be thirty years old, a dtizen of 
the United States for twelve years, and of the state for fbur years next be- 
fore the election, and shall be chosen biennially by a plurality of votes of 
the people, or, in case of an even vote, by the two houses on joint ballot, and 
shall receive a fixed compensation. Li case the office of governor be vacant, 
it shall be filled by the speaker of the senate, and after him by the speaker 
of the house. The supreme court has jurisdiction at common law, and in 
chancery, both original and appellate. The court of common pleas, be- 
side its other powers, acts as probate and orphans' court The judges of 



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1848.] OHIO. 305 

both courts are elected by joint ballot of both houses for seven years. Jus- 
tices of the peace shall be elected in towns for three years. Slavery is pro- 
hibited. No state or county tax shall be laid on polls. The salaries of the 
supreme court judges, and of the presidents of the common pleas, shall 
not be diminished during their term. Whenever two-thirds of the General 
Assembly think fit to amend the constitution, they shall recommend to the 
electors, at the next election of members, to vote for or against a conven- 
tion ; and, if a majority of votes be in favor thereof, it shall be called within 
three months after the next session. But no amendment introducing slavery 
shall ever be made. 

GOTBRNMENT. 

Salary. 
William Bebb, of Hamilton, Governor (term of office expires 

on the 1st Monday in December, 1848), $1,200 

Samuel Galloway, of Ross Co., Sec. ofState^ and SupH of Schools, 900 

John Woods, Of Butler Co., Avditor of State, 1,200 

Albert A. Bliss, of Elyria, Treasurer of State, 1,000 

li. Dewey, Warden of the State Penitentiary, 800 

O. N. Mitchell, of Cincinnati, Adjutant- General, 100 

E. N. Slocum, Quartermaster- General, 100 

Samuel Gary, of Cincinnati, Paymaster- General. 

John Greiner, Librarian of the State Library, 500 

Commissioners of the Board of Public Works. 
Oran FoUett, of Sandusky, Erie Co., President, $2.50 a day. 

Samuel Forrer, of Dayton, Montgomery Co., Act. Cbminis., $1,000 

Jacob Blickensderflfer, of Tuscarawas, Tuscair. Co., do. 1,000 

E. N. Sill, Acting Commissioner of the Canal Fund, 666 

The Auditor and Treasurer of State are advisory Commissioners of the 
Canal Fund. 

Edson B. Olds, * of Pickaway Co., Speaker of the Senate. 

William P. Cutler, of Washington Co., Speaker of the House. 

JUDICIAHT. 

Supreme Court. 



A ' ' 


Elected. Salary. 


Matthew Burchard, of Warren, 


Chief Judge, 1842, $1,500 


Kathaniel C. Beed, of Cincinnati, 


Associate Judge, 1842, 1,500 


Peter Hitchcock, of Geauga Co., 


do. 1845, 1,300 


Edward Avery, of Wooster, 


db. 1847, 1,300 


Heniy Stanberry, of Columbus, 


Attorney- GeneraL 


Hiram Griswold, of Canton, Stark Co., Reporter. 


Superior Court 


of Cincinnati. 


WilHam Johnson, of Cincinnati, 


Judge, Salary, $1,000 


26* 





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306 



OHIO. 



[1848. 



Qmrtt of Common Pieas, 



Qeor^B.Hott, 


•TD^fto., 


Jo4«h 


letChwH, 


eMOf 


OliMBow«^ 


oflUrioa, 


do. 


9d 


do. 


1,000 


Bei^Junin V. Wftd«, 


of JcfiBrMO, 


do. 


8d 


do. 


1,000 


Bkhard StUwdl, 


of ZuietriUe, 


do. 


4th 


do. 


1,000 


John Pearre, 


of CarroUtowni 


do. 


6th 


do. 


1,000 


JohnH.Kflitfa, 


•rchimeoaie, 


do. 


6lh 


do. 


1,200 


BUthYttot, 


oTLelMaion, 


do. 


Tth 


do. 


1,»0 


▲iiwN7«, 


QfMariaite, 


do. 


8th 


do. 


1,000 


W.B.CiadweU, 


of Cincinnati, 


do. 


9th 


do. 


1,200 


Owen T. FiaUwck, 


of BataTia, 


do. 


10th 


do. 


1,200 


Jacob Parker, 




do. 


11th 


do. 


1,200 


James L. Torbert, 


of Springfield. 


do. 


12th 


do. 


1,000 


Eben. B. Sadler, 


of Sandnskj, 


do. 


18th 


do. 


1,000 




ofPalniTille, 


do. 


14kh 


do. 


1,200 


Bei^amin S. Cowen, 


of St. Clairsrille, 


do. 


ISth 


do. 


1,000 


Patrick 0. Goode, 


of Sydney, 


do. 


16th 


do. 


1,000 



FiNJLHCSS. 



Tordgu debt, 



Sdbool ftinda lent to the Stale, 

Total debt and failereet, 
Total amount of taxable property in 1846, 
Totaltazee, ..... 

Total receipts into the Treanuy tincluding balanoee), 
Total expenditoret, ..... 

In the Treamuy, Not. 1846, 

iHTERKiLL ImPKOYXMBNTS. 



Principal. Annual Int. 

$16,964,282 $1,027,867 

. 799,087 47,942 

1,482,682 86,961 

$19,246,002 $1,164,269 

. $160,296,182.00 

2,680,078.09 

2,286,646.67 

2,038,027.18 

247,61844 



Names of Ganala. 



Ohio Canal and Branches, 
Miami Canal and Branches, . 
Miami Ex. Canal and Branches, 
Wabash and Irie Oanaland Bran. 
Wallondinf Canal, 
Hocking Canal, . 
Moaklngtun Improrement, 



No. of 
miles in 
Length. 



84} 
139 
91 
26 
66 
91 



Cost 



$4,496,203 69 
1,237,562 16 
8,167,440 80 
8,009,928 29 
607,268 99 
976,481 01 
1,629,638 29 
16,122,608 28 



Total, . 

Xxpenditnres orer receipts on a part of the works, 

Total net reeelpts, 



Net Receipts after paying 
Bepairsand Expenses. 



1846. 
$134,800 17 
20,796 06 

60,706 81 



216,806 06 
12,024 46 



1846. 

$258,646 43 

86,216 48 

14,061 76 

102,68120 

444 72 



410,978 69 
2,061 63 



$204,288 60 $406,916 96 



Mad River and Lakt Brie IZotifrvad.— (Extending from Sandusky on Lake Erie, to Day- 
ton on the Miami Canal, where the Mad Birer Ibrms a jonotion with the Miami BiTer.)— 
Length of road, 160 miles; 

The charter of ttiis company was obtained in 1882. Contraots Ibr oonstractton wen 
made as early as 1886, and a portion at the northern end was completed in 1838. The 
financial crises at this time affected the affairs of the company ; and, although additional 
portions were brought into aotire use from time to time, it was not ontil 1846 that a loan 
enabled the company to posh on its work eOoiently. TIm road is now completed, and 
ean ran daily from Sandusky to Belleftmtalne, 100 miles. To West liberty, the raper- 
etruoture will be done by Ist August, 1847, 110 miles ; to Urban*, 120 miles, by 1st Not- 



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1848.] MICHIOAV. 307 

Tember. Between Urbftna and Si«iiigfleld (at which latter point, 26 miles ftom Dayton, 
it will intersect the Little Miami Bailroad running direct to Cincinnati), upwards of 
$80,000 has been expended. 

The eost per mile is estimated at $8,000. The business at the road is ftst increasing, 
ttvemgiiig, on the oemmenoement of the smnmer travel fcr 1847, $600 a day fbr travel and 
transportation. It is estimated, that the receipts for the year commencing 20th Oct. 1846, 
will exceed $100,000. When completed, the travel over this route to and fh)m the great 
llisrissippi Yalley will be very great, while the transportation will come up to the utmost 
capacity of tibe road. 



XXV. MICHIGAN. 



Detroitj tiie capital of Michigan, was settled bj tlie French about the 
year 1670. In 1805, the country was erected bj the Congress of the United 
States into a separate territorial govemment; in 1812, it was taken by the 
British under General Brock ; in 1813, it was recoyered by the army of the 
United States under General Harrison; and in 1836, it was admitted into 
the Union as an independent state. 

Tersitobii-l Governobs. 



S. T. Mason, Second Act, Goo. 1834 
John S. Homer, do. do. ^ 1835 



William Hull, cqfpoirUed 1805 
Lewis Cass, do. 1814 

♦George B. Porter, do. 1831 

GOYBBNORS UNDEB THE CONSTITUTION. 



S. T. ^^son, eiU. upon office, Jan. 1 836 
tWm.Woodbridge,io. " 1840 

Jaa.W.Gordxm.Lieut.i' Act.Gov. 1841 



J. S. Barry, ent. upon office, Jan. 1842 

jAlpheusFelch, do. « 1846 

W.L. Greenley, Lt. ^-Act. Gov. 1847 



Abstract of the Constitution, 
Adopted in Convention, 3£aiy 11, 1835 ; ratified by the People, October 5, 1835. 
Every white male citizen, twenty-one years old, resident in the state six 
months before the election, or at the signing of tbe constitution, may yote. 
Bepresentatires in number not less than forty-eight, nor more than one hun- 
dred, shall be chosen on the first Monday and Tuesday of November. Sen- 
ators, in number one-third of that of the representatives, shall be chosen for 
two years, one-half every year. Any qualified elector, resident in the county 
or district, may represent it in either house. Bills may be vetoed by the 
governor ; but two-thirds of each house may pass them, notwi^tanding his 
veto. The governor and lieutenant-governor shall have been dtiaens of the 
United States for five years, and residents of the state for two years, and 
shall be chosen for two years by a plurality of votes. The lieutenant-gov- 
ernor and the president c^the senate, in succession, fill the office of governor 
when vacant, until it is filled by the people at the next election. The judges 
of the supreme court are appointed by the governor and senate, for seven 

•Died, July 6th, 1881. t Elected U. S. Senator in 1841. « Etooted U. S. Senator in 1847. 



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908 



MICHIOAir. 



[1848. 



years, and shall receiye a salary not to be diminished daring their tenn. 
Judges of all county courts, associate judges of circuit courts, and judges of 
probate, shall be elected by the people, in counties, for four years ; and jus- 
tices of the peace for the same term, in towns. Any judges may be remoyed, 
upon address of both houses. A superintendent of public instruction shall 
be appointed by the governor and legislature ; a system of public schools 
shall be established; a pemument school fund may be created; and a 
library shall be collected in every town, to which all military and penal fines 
shall be devoted. Slavery is prohibited. No act of incorporation shall be 
passed without the assent of two-thirds of the members of eadi house. 
Lotteries, and the sale of lottery tickets, are prohibited. 

Amendments, if agreed to by a majority of the members of eadi house, 
shall be published three months before the next election ; and if two-thirds 
of the members of the next legislature sanction them by their votes, they 
shall be submitted to the people, and, if ratified by a majority of votes, shall 
be adopted. If two-thirds oi each house deem it necessary to revise the 
whole constitution, they shall submit the question to the people ; and, if a 
majority of votes be in its fiivor, they shall pass a law calling such a con- 
vention, within six months from its date. 

^ GOYBRNXBirT. 

William L. Grbshlbt, of Adrian, Lieut, ^r Acting Governor (term 



Sakiy. 



expires 1st Monday of January, 1848), 
Gideon O. Whittemore, of Fontiac, Secretary of State, 



Digby V. Bell, 
George B. Cooper, 
Edward Mundy, 
Ira Mayhew, 
John F. Porter, 
Abiel Silver, 
Henry C. Bunce, 
Frederick H. Harris, 
John E. Schwartz, 
Peter Morey, 
Jonas H Titus, 
Charies B. Bush, 
George W. Peck, 



of Marshall, 
of Jackson, 
of Ann Arbor, 
of Monroe, 
of St Joseph, 



Atiditor-Generalj 
Treasurer, 
Attorney- Crenend, 
Superintend, Public Inttruct., 
ComnCr of Int. Improvement, 



$1,500 
Fees and 800 
* 1,000 
1,000 
Exp. and 700 
500 



of EdwardsVgh, Comm'r of the Land Office, 



750 



of Marshall, 
of Detroit, 

do. 
of Tecumseh, 
of Jackson, 
of Livingston Co., 
do. 

Since December 25th, 1847, the seat of government has been pennanenUy 
established at Michigan, Ingham Co. 

JUDICIi-ET.* 

Supreme Court. 
Bpaphroditns Bansom, of Kalamazoo, Chief Justice, 



Btcorder of do. do. 

Quartermaster- General, 

Adjutant- General, 

Judge-Advocate General. 
'Agent of State Prison, 
President pro tem. of the Senate, 
Speaker of the House. 



1,000 
1,000 
400 
150 
300 



Salary. 
$1,500 



* The Court of Chanoety was abolished by the Reriaed Statotes, which took eflect Ifaich 
2, 1847. Its powers derolTe upon the Circuit Courts. 



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184a] MlCHIGAir. 309 

Salaiy. 
Charies W. Whipple, of Fontiac, Associate Justice^ 1,500 

Warner Wing, of Monroe, do, do. 1,500 

Greorge Miles, of Ann Arbor, do, do. 1,500 

William Hale, of Detroit, is clerk of the 1st Circuit; W. W. Lawrence, 
of Jackson, of the 2d ; Edmund Bice, of Kalamaaoo, of the dd ; and Alfred 
Treadway, of Pontiac, of the 4th. 

Circuit Courts. — There are four judicial circuits, in each of which, one of 
the judges of the supreme court presides. In each county, one or two terms 
of the court are held annually. These courts have original and exclusive 
jurisdiction of all civil actions and remedfes at law, and of crimes and mis* 
demeanors, except where exclusive jurisdiction is giveii to some other triba- 
naL They have all the powers of the former court of chancery, and appellate 
jurisdiction from probate cases, and from the county courts. 

County Courts. — These eourts are courts of record, and are held in eac^ 
county by the county judge, or, in his absence, by the " second judge," on the 
1st Monday in each month, or oftener. They have original and exclusive 
jurisdiction of all civil actions within the county where the claii^ does not 
exceed $500, ezeept in ejectment, in probate cases, and in causes cognizable 
by justices <^ the peace, from whom an appeal lies to these eourts. The 
judges are paid by fees. 

PiKANCBS. 
ToMMoelpts into thetlVearaxy in 1846, and balance of 1^^ . . $196,67520 

lV>talexpenditiue8inl846, ..... 165,125.60 

Balance, Nov. 80, 1846, ..... $81,549.60 

Jkbt of t*< Suiu. — After making appropriate dedootions of tlie payments on acconirt 
of the lale of the Central and Southern Bailroada, the balance of the state ipdebtedness 
Is as follows : — 

Dae en the adjusted and ftiU paid '« five million loan bonds,'* . $566,860.40 

Doe on flie unadjusted balance xA said loan, being amount received. Includ- 
ing interest to Jan. 1, 1847, ..... 1,710,180.79 
Oeneralftmd debt, including interest to Nov. 80, 1846, . . 811,909.75 
Balance of internal improvement Arnd debt and interest, . • 566,169.80 

8,154,560.74 
Deduct unpaid bolanoes due on the sale of the Central and Southern Bail- 
roads, being available, . . . 865,510.22 

Total debt of the state, . . . $2,299,060.52 

Resources appliedUe to its Payment, 
Beeonroes of the genera] fund, . . . . , $889,27601 

Besooroes of the internal improvement fimd, ^^,128.00 

Total resources, ...... $811,898.01 

The value of the taxable property of the state, as assessed for 1846, was $29,424,865.67 ; 
and the state tax of 2| mills on the dollar amounted to $78,562.18. 

The actual and entire " internal improvement debt," on the 80Cfa November, 1846, in- 
cluding faiterest to January 1st, 1847, was $1,978,140.77, the annual interest on which 



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MICHIOAK. 



[1848. 



> tt an ftmdfedf would, «t 6 p«r e«nt. on a part, and 7 per eoiL on <fae remainder, 
t to aboQfe $120,000. On the MJQailed portion of the internal Improvement debt, or 
wbat the state has reeelTed on her bonds isroed fcrtbe '^ flTe-millkm loan,"the interest 
has been fended, or antfaorteed to be ftinded, to Julj 1st, 1846. 

The laws iwoTtde that the faiterest flJling doe semi-aonnally thereafter, shall be paid by 
a Aireet tax, to be leTied and eoOeeted at the seme time and in the same mannv as other 
•tate taxee are levied and ooUeeted. Agreeablj to the terms of the sale of the " Central 
Bailroad," the company now in poasee^n has paid into the treasury a snfllffient som to 
meet the interest doe January and July, 1846, wliich has been applied to that pnrpose ; 
and by the 28th Sq>tember, 1847? they are to pay a fiirther som sofflcient fat the paym^it 
of the interest tot January and July, 1847, <m the said bonds which shall then remain 
outstanding, and wliich sum is also spedfteaUy appropriated tot that purpose. A direct 
tax ftir the payment of sooh interest has not thetefoce yet been levied. 

Internal Lnprovement. 

Tin Oentral and Southern Bailroads were Kdd by act of Legidatore in 1846, to faioorpo- 
rated companies ; the Central tat $2,000,00^, and the Southern ft»r $600,000. On account 
at these sales, there have been received into the state treasury to July 1, 1847, in part pay- 
ment tat the Osntral BaUroad^ the sum of $1,666,190.84; and in part paymoit fbr the 
Southern Eeukoad^ to same time, $76/)00 with interest. 

For the revenue and disbursements <m these roads from December 1, 1846, to the time <tf 
their sale, see a$ae^ page 196. 

The earnings of the Central Railroad, sinoe its purehase by the company to the 1st day 
of July, 1847, a poiod of about 9 months, have been as follows :— from freight, $197^48^; 
from pasaengers, $89,682.17.— Total earnings, $288,766.70. Running expenses, $112,846.18, 
making the net proceeds from Sept 28, 1846, to July 1, 1847, $176,911.67. 

ExportM from MUihigcm in the year 1846, the Producti of its Growth and 
Manufacture, 



ArOdee. Talne. 

748,683 barrels flour, $2,666,221.00 

660,889 bushels wheat, 447,826.10 

16,346 do. com, . 6,248.68 

8,662 do. oats, 1,840.60 

1,230 do. barley, . 896.60 

2,877 do. potatoes. . 852J0 

23,289 barrels pork, beef: and other 

^ provisions, 138,606.00 

4^068 barrels wUskey ft alcohol, 24,970.60 

6fiW do. beer, . 80,000.00 

9,806 do. fish, . . 41,872.60 

694,667 lbs. wool, . . 118,726.19 

100,854 lbs. leather, . . 61,144.10 

Green and dry hides, 11,810.97 

Pearl and pot-ashes, . 139,076 60 



Articles. 
Lumber, 
Shingles, . 
Staves, 

Furs and peltries, 
Straw hats, . 

Total, . 

The above were exported from 
the following ports : — 



Yalne. 

638,680.00 

. 110,826.00 

20,680.00 

. 800,000.00 

10/)00.00 

$4,647,608.04 



Detroit, . 
Monroe, 
St Joseph, 
All others. 



$2,496,836.60 
800,241.06 
601,565.96 
760,475.60 



Total exports. 



$4,647,608.04 



Tonnage of VeueU enrolled in the CoUecHon District of Detroit, 



Steam vessels, 

SaU vessels, .... 

Total tonnage, . 
These vessels employ in their navigation about 1,800 



8,400.40-96 tons. 
18,627.91-95 do. 

261^.31-95 tons. 



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1848.] INDIANA. 311 

XXVI. INDIANA. 

Yincennes, in Indiana, was settled by French emigrants from Canada, 
near the beginning of the last century, and long remained a solitary village. 
But few settlements were made in the country till the commencement of 
the present century ; since which time its increase in population has been 
Tery rapid. 

^ 1800, Indiana was erected into a territorial goyemment; in 1816 it 
was admitted into the Union as an independent state. 

Governors. 
William H. Harrison, appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, 1800. 

Under the Constitution, 



Jonathan Jennmgs, 


elected 


1816 


David Wallace, 


elected 


1837 


William Hendricks, 


do. 


1822 


Samuel Bigger, 


do. 


1840 


James B. Kay, 


do. 


1825 


James Whitcomb, 


do. 


1843 


Noah Noble, 


do. ^ 


1831 









Abstract op the Constitution, 

Done in Convention^ June 29, 1816. 

Every white male citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old, res- 
ident in the state for one year next before the election, may vote. Repre- 
sentatives, in number not less than thirty- six, nor more than one hundred, 
shall be citizens of the United States, twenty-one years old, inhabitants of 
the state, residents of the county for one year next preceding the election, 
shall have paid a state or county tax, and shall be chosen on the first Monday 
in August. Senators (in number not less than one-third, nor more than 
one-half of the number of representatives) are chosen, at the same time, for 
three years, one-third every year, and shall be citizens of the United States, 
twenty-five years old, resident for the two years next before the election in 
the state, and for twelve months in their county or district. The General 
Assembly shall meet on the first Monday of every December. The governor 
and lieutenant-governor, who shall preside in the senate, shall be thirty 
years old, citizens of the United States for ten years, and residents of the 
state for five years next before the election, and shall be chosen for three 
years (but not more than six years m every nine) by a plurality of votes. 
If the office of governor be vacant, it shall be filled by the lieutenan^gov- 
emor, and after him by the president of the senate pro tern. The governor 
may tfeto a bill ; but a majority of the members of each house may pass it, 
notwithstanding his veto. The supreme court shall have appellate jurisdic- 
tion only, and shall consist of three judges appointed by the governor and 



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S12 



11848. 



senate. One president and two associate judges shall form a drcoit court 
in each circuit ; the president being elected by joint ballot of the General 
Assembly, and the associates chosen by the people. All the judges hold 
office for seven years, with a compensation not diminishable during their 
term. Slavery is prohibited ; and no indenture of a negro or mulatto made 
without the state shall be of any validity within the state. There may be 
a state bank with not more than one branch to every three counties ; and 
there shall be no other banks incorporated after the date of the ccMistitutton. 
In all civil cases above $20, and all criminal cases, save those punishable by 
a fine of less than $3, there shall be a trial by jury. Justices of the peace 
are elected in townships for five years. Every twelfth year from the ratifi- 
cation of the constitution, the people shall vote for or against a convention ; 
and if there be a majority of votes therefor, and a majority of the members 
of the General Assembly agree thereto,, it shall be called. **But as the 
holding any part of the human creation in slavery, or involuntary servitude, 
can only originate in usurpation and tyranny, no alteration of the constitu- 
tion shall ever take place so as to introduce slavery," except as a punish- 
ment for crimes. 



Government for the year 1848. 



Salary. 



James Whitcomb, 


of Terre Haute, 


Governor (term of office 






expires in December, 1849), 


$1,300 


P. C. Dunning, 


of Bloomington, 




\ a day. 


John H. Thompson, 


of Wash. Co., 


Secretary of State, 


800 


Samuel Hanna, 


of Wayne Co., 


Treasurer of State, 


1,000 


Douglass Maguire, 


of Indianapolis, 


Auditor of Public Account* 


r, 1,000 


James Morrison, 


do. 


President of the State Bank, 1,300 


James M. Ray, 


do. 


Cashier of the State Bank, 


1,100 


Michael G. Bright, 


Sf/a.e Agent, 


$1,000 and travelling expenses. 


Samuel Beck, 


of Indianapolis, 


Quartermaster- General, 


100 


David Reynolds, 




Adjutant- General, 


100 


Samuel H. Patterson, 


of Jeffersonville, 


Keeper of the Penitentiary, 


Profits. 


James B. Dillon, 


of Indianapolis, 


State Librarian, 


500 




JUDICIABT. 






Supreme 


Court. 


Saboy. 


Isaac Blackford, 


of Indianapolis, 


Chief Ju^, 


$1,300 


Charles Dewey, 


of Charleston, 


Mige, 


1,800 


Samuel E. Perkins, 


of Richmond, 


do. 


1,300 


Abram A. Hammond, 


of Columbus, 


Attorney-General, 




Henry P. Cobum, 


of Indianapolis, 


Clerk, 


Fees, 



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1«48J 



IVBIAITA. 



313 



Circuit Courts. 
Circ. president Judges, Prosecuting Attorneys. 

1st, Imac Naylor, of CrawftirdsTille. Jos. E. McDonald, of Laftjette. 

2d, l/niliaiii T. Otto, of Brownstown. Lyman Leslie, of Charlestown. 

8d, Ooarthaid Codling, of Madison. John Dnmont, ot Yeraj. 

4th, James Locfchart, of Eransrille. Lemuel Q. Be Bmler. 

6th, Wm. J. Peaslee, of Indianapolis. Edward Lander, of Indianapolis. 

6th, J. T. HHott, of Newcastle. JohnB.Stitt, of Centreville. 

7th, John Law, of Tlneennes. James C. Allen, of Rockrille. 

8th, Horace P. Biddle, of Logansport. William Z. Stuart, of Logansport 

OOi, B. BL Ghamberiatn, of Goehen. Joseph H. Dfather of Goshen. 

10th, David McDonald, of Bloomington. ~ Graten P. Hester, of BloomingtoM. 

nth, Jeremiah Smith, of Winchester. Joseph S. Buckles, of Monde. 

12th, James W. Borden, of Ft. Wayne. Robert L. Douglass, of Angola. 

IStii, George H. Donn, of Lawrencebnrgh. 

FiNANOES. 
SiaU Dd>t. — The debt of Indiana, on the 1st January, 1847, principal and interest, is 
stated by the auditor at (excktsire of original bank bonds*), . * $15,271,250 

This is composed of the IbHowing items : 

1. Publie Debt. 

Mate bonds, outstanding prfaieipal, $11,068,000 

Interest due on same ttom 1st January, 1841, to 1st January, 1847, . . 8,826,640 

$14,394,940 
2. Domestic Debt» 
Six per cent, treasury notes, outstanding principal, $842,845 

Interest doe on the same, 110,600 

Fire per cent, treasury notes, outstanding, .... 849,965 

Interest due on the same, 78,500 876,810 

$15,271,250 
These treasury notes are receivable on tbe fkee of them fin> all state revenues, and, making 
due aUowanoe fer the annual receipt of these <m account of revenue, tUl they are ab- 
sorbed, Umfted theability of the state to four per cent, on the state stock, up to 1858. 
Por the five per cent, treasury notes, there is a specific fund adequate to their redemption* 
The public debt is, by the terms of the aot adjusting it, to be equally divided between 
the state and the Wabash and Erie Canal, and stood thus on the 1st January, 1847 : 

1. State stock, -one-half principal, bearii^ inta:«8t fbur per cent, till 1853, and 

thereafter, five per cent, till redeemed, $5,534,060 

Half back interest to 1st January, 1847, 1,663,470 

Defidt one per cent, interest, up to January, 1858, sa^, .... 822,040 

Estimated pubUe debt, 1st January, 1853, $7,519,510 

The principal, bearing interest at five per oent., and the intexest two and one-half per 
cent, from that date. Amount of annual interest to be paid by taxation, from 1847 to 
1868, say $221,860 -, and after that, say $326,887. 

2. Wabash and Erie Canal stock, i^&ued for one-half principal, 1st January, 

1847, bearing interest at five per cent, from 1st January, 1847, . . $5,534,000 
Half back interest to lit January, 1847, 1,668,470 

1st January, 1847, Wabash and Erie Canal stoek, $7,197,470 



*Th«re are $1,390,000 of original bank bonds, on which the interest is regularly paid 
by the bank. Above $8,000,000 of the state bonds had been surrendered, at the latest 
dates. 

27 



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314 



JMDIULL. 



[1848. 



Tbe w Tw m ei of the cuuJ, after pcyiiic ntain^ and dz per cent, intereet on adTuioee, 
an to be applied to the oompletion of the canal to Eransrille, on the Ohio river. All 
back interest, and all arrears of interest on eanal stock, to be ftinded on the 1st January, 
1868, at fire per cent. 

Wabash and J&u Cktmal. — This canal extends from Toledo, at the head of Lake Erie, 
in the state of Ohio, south-nesterlj, through the state of Indiana, to Eransrille, on the 
Ohio rirer, and will be (when finished throngtumt its entire length) four hundred and 
fifty-eight and three-eighth miles in length, of which eighty-fiMir miles of the eastern end 
are in the state of Ohio ; and the residue, being three hundred and serenty-four and three- 
eighth miles, isin the state of Indiana, and the property of the state to be pledged for 
half the deSl. It to tioir finished, oimI m tgwrctfum from Toledo to Covington, in Foun- 
tain county, Indiana, two hundred and eighty-fiTO miles, of which cme hundred and ser- 
enty-four belong to the state of Indiana. There remain two hundred miles to be finished 
flrom CoTington to Eransrille, on the Ohio rirer, on which part about $1,200,000 have 
been expended by the state, and considerable portions of which are finished. It will cost, 
aoeording to the estimates, the further sum of $2,000,000 to finish the entire canal, and it 
will take four years to do it. To corer this amount, tbe state is to transfer to the trustees 
certain lands and property which have been heretofore donated by Congress to the state 
for that purpose ; that is to say, about nine hundred and sixty-three thousand (me hun- 
dred and twenty-six acres of land lying adjoining to, and in the neighborhood of; the ca- 
nal, and of which the largest portion has been selected with the utmost pains, under the 
personal superrislon of Goyemor Whitcomb. There to also a considerable amount due 
on contracto for lands already sold, which bdongs to the fund. 

The value of the aboTO property, vto. the lands and contracts, to estimated, at tbto 
time, at about $2,406,906. It may ftirly be expected that thto ftmd will cover the cost of 
construction. The oompletion of the canal will give additional value to all the land re- 
maining on hand ; and it to necessary to Jbtith the canal to make it ftiDy available, as a 
of 



Net Mtvetuu* of the Canalj as ettinuUed &y Juu L. WtttiamSy R. H. FauaOeroy^ and 
W. J. BaUj EngituerSj providtdit isJkUshed. 



Tear. 



Berenue. 



Tear. 



Bevenue. 



1847.. 
1848.. 
1849.. 
I860.. 
1861.. 
1862.. 
1868.. 
1864.. 



1866.. 
1866.. 
1867.. 
1868.. 
1869.. 
I860. 
1861. 
1862.. 



896,600 
422,600 
460,000 
476,000 
406,000 
619,000 
600,000 



* In consequence of r«-building some structures this year. 

Bondholders who subscribe to the adTanoe for completing the canal, are entitled to a 
priority of payment of the principal and interest of their canal bonds over non-sub- 
scribers. 
The means ftxr fintohing the canal are supplied as IbDows, rto. :~ 

Cash advance subscribed by the bondholders, $800,000 

Bevenues of canal to be applied tiU finished, say 800,000 

Proceeds of canal lands also to be applied, say 400,000 

$2,000,000 



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Shadrach Bond, 


dectM 


1818 


Edward Coles, 


do. 


1822 




do. 


1826 


John Reynolds, 


do. 


1830 



1848.] ILUKOI8. 315 

XXVn. ILLINOIS. 

This country was explored by La Salle, an enterprising French traveller, 
in the latter part of the 17th century ; and French settlements were formed 
at Easkaskia, Cahokia, and some other places. Though these settlements 
flourished, in some degree, for a time, yet they never became very impor- 
tant ;. and at the peace of Paris, in 1763, the country to the east of the Mis- 
sissippi was ceded by France to Great Britain. 

Almost all the settlements which have been formed by the citizens of the 
United States have been began since 1800. In 1809, Blinois was erected 
into a territorial government. In 1818, it was admitted into the Union as 
an independent state. 

GOYBRNORS. 

Ninian Edwards, appointed, 1809, Governor fA the Territory of Blinctts. 
Under the Constitution, 

Joseph Duncan, elected 1834 

Thomas Carlin, do, 1838 

Thomas Ford, do, 1842 

Augustus C. French, do, 1846 

Abbtbact op the Constitution, 
Done in Convention, August 26tA, 1818. 
Every white male inhabitant, 21 years old, resident in the state for six 
months next before, and in the county at the time of, the election, may vote. 
Bepresentatives shall be citizens of the United States, 21 years old^ have 
paid a state or county tax, and have resided in their district or county twelve 
months next before the election. They shall be chosen every second year, 
on the first Monday in August Senators, in number not fewer than one- 
third or more than one-half of the representatives^ shall be citizens of the 
United States, 25 years old, residents in their district or coimty of one year's 
standing, and have paid a state or county tax, and shall be chosen for four 
years, one-half every second year. The General Assembly shall meet bi- 
ennially, on the first Monday of December. The governor and lieutenant- 
governor, who shall be speaker of the senate, shall be native citizens of the 
United States, 30 years old, and for two years residents in the state, and 
shall be chosen for four years (but not more than four years in every 
eight) by a plurality of votes. If the office of governor be vacant, it shall 
be filled first by the lieutenant-governor, and after him by the speaker of the 
senate pro tern. The governor, and the judges of the supreme court, form 
a council, which may veto a bill ; but a majority of each house may pass it, 
notwithstanding their veto. The supreme court shall have appellate juris- 
diction only, except in case of revenue, mandamus, and some cases of im- 
peachment. The justices of the supreme court and the judges of tiie infe- 



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316 ILLIHOII. [1848. 

nor courts shall be elected by joint ballot of the General Assembly, to hold 
office daring good behavior, but removable upon address of two-thirds of 
each house, and shall have salaries not diminishable during their term, 
Slavery is prohibited in the state ; and no indenture of a negro or mulatto, 
made out of the state, shall be valid. Except a state bank and its branches, 
no bank can be established after the date of the constitution. K two-thirds 
of the General Assembly deem it fit to amend the constitution, they may re- 
commend to the people to vote for or agaiiist a convention, at the next elec- 
tion j and if a majority of votes be in its favor, it shall be called.^il' 

Chvemment for the year 1848. 

Salary. 
Augustus C. French, Governor (term ends 1st Monday in Decl850),$2,000 
J. B. Wells, Lieut.' Governor J $4 a day during the ses- 

sion, and $3 for every 20 miles' travel 
Horace S. Cooley, Secretary^ (including clerk hire,) 800 

Thomas H. Campbell, Auditor ^ do. 1,600 

Milton Carpenter, of Hamilton Ca, 2Veastirer,do. 800 

George R. Weber, Public Printer. 

The Governor is, ex officio^ Fund Commissioner. 

Judiciary. 

Supreme Court. 
William Wilson, of Carmi, 

Samuel D. Lockwood, of Jacksonville, 
Thomas C. Browne, of Galena, 
l^chard M. Young, of Chicago, 
Samuel H. Treat, of Springfield, 

Walter B. Scates, of Mount Vernon, 

John D. Caton, of Ottowa, 

Gustavns P. Keomer, of Belleville, 
Norman H. Purple, of Quincy, 
James A. M'Dougal, of Chicago, 
Charles GKllman, of Quincy, 

Ebenezer Peck, of Chicago, 

Hugh T. Dickey, do. 

Patrick BaUingall, Attorney for Joe Daveiss Co., 

FlNiiNCES. 
Total internal improvement debt, including $2,248,372 arreaxs of interest, $8,166,061.00 
Total canal debt, including interest, .... 16,009,187.57 

14,174,268.67 
Deduct amount paid as interest on public debt, . . . 131,650.35 

814,042,718.22 

* A conyenCion to rcTise the constitution met at Springfield, June 7th, 1847, and ad- 
joumed August Slst. The new constitution is to be sulunitted to the pe<>ple in March, 
1848. 

t This is exclusiTe of $1)600,000 of the canal debt, which is so secured as, it is suppoaed 
never to be a diaige upon the state. 



Chief Justice, . 


$1,500 


Associate Justice, 


1,500 


do. 


1,500 


do. 


1,500 


do. 


1,500 


do. 


1,000 


do. 


1,000 


do. 


1,000 


do. 


1,000 


Attorney- General, 


500 


Reporter. 




Clerk, 


Fees. 


Judge of the Cook Co. Court, 800 


Uveiss Co,, 


Fees and 200 



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1848.] mssouBi. 317 

Febrauy 28, 1847, the legislature passed an act to aathorize the reAmding of the state 
debt, with a yiew to ascertain its aetoal amount and character, preparatory to a more uni- 
ted and yigorous exertion for its payment, and to enable the oonrention about to ass^nble 
to amend the state constitution, to make some adequate constitutional proTision for the 
payment of the principal when due, the accruing interest, and interest in arrears. 

The act proyides that the goyemor shall receire from holders willing to surrender the 
same, the internal improvement bonds and other eyidences of debt outstanding against 
the state, except the Macalister and Stebbins bonds, and canal bonds and scrip ; and 
abaU. giye in exchange therefor oClier certificates of indebtedness, equal in amount with the 
amount surrendered, bearing like interest, and payable at the same time with the eyidence 
of indebtedness surrendered. This stock is to be called " New internal improyement stock 
of the state of Illinois." No certificate is to be of a less denomination than one thousand 
dollars, except interest certificates. Holders of scrip below $1,000 shall present it to the 
goyemor, idio shall register it and mark it genuine, and St shaU tlien haye the benefit of 
ttie other provisions of ttds act. Eor interest in airear on the eyid^ices of debt surren- 
dered, certificates are to be issued of a denomination not less than $500, bearing six per 
cent, interest from Jan. 1st, 1857, and redeemable at the pleasure of the state after 1877. 

The new certificates, signed by the goyemor and countersigned by the treasurer of the 
state, are to be made payable in dollars and cents in the city of New Tork ; the interest ^ 
be paid semi-annually. No interest coupons are to be attached to the new certificates, but 
the rate and time of payment are to be set forth in the body of the certificate. 

These certificates are transferable, and books of transfer will be kept in New York and 
in Springfield, HI. Evidences of debt not surrendered within eighteen months after no- 
tice of the state's readiness to make the exchange, shall thereaftw not be entitled to tiie 
l)enefit0 of any law which may be passed to pay interest on the state debt. 



XXVm. MISSOURI. 

Missouri formed a part of the extensive coaotiy of Louisiana, wfaicb 
was purchased of France by the United States in 1808. Though French 
settlements were commenced at St Louis and St Genevieye as early aa 
1764, yet, at the time when the country was purchased, this portion of it 
contained hut few inhabitants. 

In 1804, this country was separated from the rest of Louisiana, and erect- 
ed into a territorial goTemment, by the name of the Territory of Louisiana, 
afterwards altered to the Territory of Missouri ; and, in 1821, it was admit- 
ted into the Union as an independent state. 

GOYBBNOB9. 

Under the Territorial Qovemmeni. 
James Wilkinson, appointed 1805 1 Wmiam Clarke, appointed 1813 
Meriwether Lewis, do. 1807 1 

27* 



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318 MISSOURI. [1848. 



Alexander M'Nair, dected 1820 

Frederick Bates, do. 1824 

John MiUer, do, 1828 

Daniel Danklin, do, 1832 



Under the Constituiian, 

Lilbum W. Boggs, elected 1836 

Thomas Beynolds, do. 1840 

John C. Edwards, do. 1844 



AbSTBACT of the CONSTITUTIOir, 

Done in Convention, June 12, 1820. 
Every free white male citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old, 
resident in the state one year before the Section, and three months in the 
place where he offers his vote, may vote. Bepresentatives, in number not 
above 100, shall be chosen in counties every second year, shall be free white 
male citizens of the United States, 24 years old, inhabitants of the state for 
two years, and of the county for one year next before the election, and shall 
have paid a tax. Senators (in number not fewer than 14 nor more than 33) 
shall have the qualifications of representatives, and shall be 30 years old, 
inhabitants of the state for four years, and shall be chosen for four years, 
one-half every second year. The General Assembly shall not pass laws to 
emancipate slaves, without the consent and payment of their owners, or to 
prevent immigrants from bringing with them slaves of the same description 
with those in the state. It may pass laws prohibiting the importation of the 
slaves who have committed a high crime ; or as merchandise ; slaves, or the 
offspring of slaves imported into the United States ; permitting emancipa- 
tion, saving the rights of creditors, and the public from being at their charge. 
It shall pass laws prohibiting free negroes or mulattoes from coming into the 
state, and obliging the owners to treat slaves with humanity. Slaves shall 
have a trial by juiy, in criminal cases, and shall have the same protection in 
their lives and persons as whites. The laws shall be revised and digested 
once in every ten years. The governor and lieutenant-governor, who shall 
preside in the senate, shall be 35 years old, natives of the United States, or 
citizens thereof at the adoption of the constitution, or inhabitants of the 
territory now called Missouri, at the time of its cession, — shall have been 
residents of the state for four years next before the election, shall be chosen 
for four years by a plurality of votes, and shall be ineligible for the next 
four years. The governor may veto a bill ; but a majority of both homes 
may pass it, notwithstanding his veto. It the oflSce of governor be vacant, 
it shall be filled by the lieutenant-governor, and after him by the president 
of the senate pro tern., and after him by the speaker of the house ; but a new 
election shall be called after three months' notice, unless the vacancy occur 
within 18 months of the end of the term. Sheriffs and coroners serve for 
two years, and are ineligible for four years in every eight The supreme 
court shall consist of three judges, and shall have appellate jurisdiction only. 
Circuit courts have exclusive criminal' jurisdiction, unless deprived of it by 
law, and hear all civil cases not cognizable by a justice of the peace The 



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1848.] HISSOUBI. 319 

equity jnrisdiction is divided between the circttit and supreme courts. Judges 
of the supreme or circuit court shall be 30 years old, and shall leave their 
office at 65, and maybe removed upon address of two-thirds of both houses. 
One bank, and no more, may be established, with not more than five branch- 
es, a capital of not more than $5,000,000, one-half, at least, reserved to the 
state. The General Assembly, by a vote of two-thirds of the members, may 
propose amendments, which shall be published twelve months before the 
general election ; and if, at the first session thereafter, they are confirmed by 
a Yote of two-thkds of the members, they become part of the constitution. 

Government for the year 1848. 

Term ends. Salary. 

Governor, Nov. 1848, $2,000 

Lieutenant- Crovemor, do. $4.50 a day* 

of Jefferson, Secretary of State, Sf Sup. 

of Common Schools, Nov. 1849, 

James H. M'Dearman, of Cityof Jeffem., JLtwi. of Accounts, 1849, 



John C. Edwajids, 
James Young, 
Falkland H. Martin, 



Peter G. Glover, 
Benjamin F. Stringfellow, 
George W. Huston, 
Gustavus A. Parsons, 
George W. Miller, 
Frederick Conway, 
Robert Campbell, 
Henry Shurlds, 



William B. Napton, 
Priestly H.M'Bride, 
William Scott, 



do. 
do. 
da 
do. 
do. 
of St Louis, 
do. 
do. 

Judiciary. 
Supreme Court, 
of the City of Jefferson, 
do. 
do. 
Circuit Courts. 



Treasurer, 1847, 

Attorney- General, 1 849, 
Register of Lands, 1849, 
Adjutant' General, 
Quartermaster' General, 
Surveyor- General, 
President of State Bank. 
Cashier do. 



Presiding Judge, 
Associate Judge, 
do. 



1,300 

1,600 

1,350 

750 

1,250 

100 

100 

1,500 

2,000 



$1,100 
1,100 
1,100 



Judges. 



Salary. Attorneys. Salary. 

B. F. Stringfellow^ $750 & fees. 

2d do. 1,000 James Gordon, 250 do. 

3d do. 1,000 Alfred W. Lamb, 250 do. 

4th do. 1,000 James C. Abemathy, 250 do. 

5th do. 1,000 Robert Smart, 250 do. 

6th do. 1,000 George W. Dunn, 250 do- 

7th do. 1,000 Thomas Ruffin, 250 do. 

8th do. 1,000 D.N.Hall, 250 do. 

9th do. 1,000 John S. Brickey, 250 do. 

10th do. 1,000 Albert Jackson, 250 do. 

11th do. 1,000 W.Halliburton, 250 do. 

12th do. 1,000 Isaac N. Jones, 250 do. 

13th do. 1,000 John T. Coffee, 250 do. 

14th do. 1,000 P.O. Minor, 250 da 



James W. Morrow, Ist Circuit, $1,000 

W. M. HaU, 

Ezra Hunt, 

Addison Reese, 

John F. Ryland, 

A. A. King, 

F.P.Wright, 

Alex. Hamilton, 

John H. Stone, 

John D. Cook, 

James A. Clark, 

SoL H. Leonard, 

Chas. S. Yancey, 

Daniel M. Leet, 



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320 IOWA. [1848. 

Ccmrtt of Sl Louis. 

Montgomerj Blair, Judge of Common PleoM, $200 and fees. 

James B. Townsend, Jwigt of Criminal Court, 1,000 

Court of Common PleoM for the City of Eommbal. 
Thomas Van Swearingen, Judge, f 200 and fees. 

County Courts, — The jarisdiction of these conrts is limited to matters of 
probate and local connty affurs, as roads, &c. A connty court sits in each 
county, and is composed of three justices, who are elected by the people, and 
hold their offices for foor years. An appeal lies to the Circuit Court 

Amount of state debt, $684,997.40. Interest on debt, $73,100. 



XXIX. IOWA 



Iowa was erected into a territorial goTemment by act of Congress in 
June, 1838, and admitted into the Union in December, 1846. 

Territorial Governors, 
Kobert Lucas, appointed 1838 I James Clarke, appointed 1846 

John Chambers, do. 1841 I 

Governor under the Constitution, 
Ansel Briggs, entered upon office December, 1846. 

Abstbact oh the Constitutioh, 
Done in Convention, May 18, 1846 ; adopted by the People, Aug. 3, 1846. 
Every white male citizen of the United States, 21 years old, idiots, insane, 
or infamous persons excepted, having resided in the state six months, and in 
the county where he claims to vote twenty days, shall have the right of suf- 
fttige. The sessions of the Creneral Assembly, consisting of a senate and 
house of representatives, shall be biennial, commencing on the first Monday 
in December after their election. Kepresentatives shall be chosen for two 
years, on the first Monday of August ; they must be 21 years of age, and have 
resided in Iowa for at least one year, and in their district at least thirty days 
previous to the election. Senators, not less than one-third, nor more than 
one-half, as numerous as the representatives, must be 25 years of age; they 
shall be chosen for four years, one-half biennially. The governor may re- 
fuse to sign a bill ; but, if subsequently approved by two-thirds of the mem- 
bers of both houses, it shall become a law in spite of his objections. The 
pay of members shall not exceed $2 a day for the first fifty days, and 
$1 a day for the rest of the session, with $2 for every twenty miles of 



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1848.] IOWA. 321 

ttSLYeh In all electioiis by the assembly, the members shall vote vtm voce^ 
and the votes shall be recorded. Every law shall embrace but one object, 
which shall be expressed in the title. No divorce shall be granted by the 
legisUtore. A census of the state shall be taken within one year after the 
ratification of the constitution, and again in every subsequent two years for 
the term of eight years. After each census, members shall be apportioned 
among the several counties, according to the number of white inhabitants in 
each. The representatives shall not be less than 26, nor more than 39, till 
the white population amounts to 175,000; afterward Ihey shall not be less 
than 39, nor more than 72. For the first ten years, the salary of the gover- 
nor shall not exceed $1,000 ; of the secretary of state, $500 ; of the auditor, 
$600 ; of the treasurer^ $400 ; and of the judges oi the supreme and district 
courts, $1,000 each. 

The govCTUor shall be chosen, by a plurality of votes, for four years ; he 
must be 30 years old, and have resided in the state for two years. If the 
governor, for any cause, be disabled, the secretary of state, and after him 
the president of the senate, and after him the speaker of the house, shall act 
as governor. A secretary of state, auditor, and treasurer, shall be chosen by 
the people, each for two years. 

The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and two associates, 
elected by joint vote of the General Assembly for six years, and until their 
successors are elected and qualified, two of whom shall form a quorum. 
TUs court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in all chancery cases, and 
correct errors at law under Testrictions provided by the General Assembly. 
The judges of the district court shall be elected by the qualified voters of 
their respective districts, eadi iar five years, and until their successors are 
elected and qualified. There shall be elected, in each county, one prose- 
cuting attorney, and one clerk of the district court, each for two years, and 
until their successors are elected and qualified. Justices of the peace shall 
have jurisdiction in civil cases, where the amount in controversy does not 
exceed $100, and by consent of parties when it is below $500. 

No state debts shall be. created exceeding $100,000, except in case of war 
or insurrection, unless authorized by a special law, which shall provide for 
the payment of the interest, and of the principal within 20 years ; which law 
shall be irrepealable, and, before going into effect, must be submitted to the 
people at a general election, having been published in at least one newspaper 
in each judicial district for three months preceding, and be approved by a 
majority of the voters. No corporation with banking privileges shall be 
created, and all persons or associations shall be prohibited bylaw from bank- 
ing or creating paper to drculate as money. Other corporations may be 
organized under general laws, with certain restrictions. The state shall 
never become a stockholder in any corporation. 

A superintendent of public instruction shall be chosen by the people for 
three years. All lands granted by Congress to this state, all escheated es- 
tates, such per cent as may be granted by Congress on the sale of the public 



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322 



[1848. 



lands in Iowa, shall constitate a perpetoal ftmd, the interest of which, and 
the rents of the unsold lands, shall be applied to the support of common 
schools. The assembly shall proyide for a sdiool in each school-districtt 
for at least three months in each year ; and all moneys received for exemp- 
tion from military duty, and for fines imposed by the courts, shaU be appro- 
priated to support such schools, or the establishment of school libraries. 
The money arising from the lease or sale of public lands granted for Ihe 
support of a university shall remain a perpetual frmd to maintain such an 
institution. No person shall be incompetent as a witness on account of his 
opinions upon religion. Whoever shall be engaged, directly or indirectly, 
in a duel, shall be for ever disqualified from holding office. Neither slavery 
nor involuntary servitude, unless for i^e punishment of crimes, shall ever be 
tolerated ih this state. To amend the constitution, the assembly must sub- 
mit the question of a convention to the people at the next general election ; 
and, if a majority are in favor thereof the assembly shall provide for the 
election of delegates to a convention to be held in six months after the vote 
of the people in frivor thereof. 

Government Jin- the year 1848. 

of Jackson Co., Governor (term expires 

December, 1850), $1,000 
of VanBuren Co., Secretary of State, 500 



Ansel Bbioos, 

Elisha Cutler, 
Joseph T. Fales, 
Morgan Reno, 
James Harlan, 
Lemuel B. Patterson, 
Thomas Baker, 
Jesse B. Browne, 
John B. Russell, 
Silas A. Hudson, 



Salary. 



of Linn Co., Attd, of Public Accounts, 600 

of Johnson Co., Treasttrer, 400 

do. Sup. of Public Instruction, 1,200 

do. lAbrarian, 150 

of Polk Co., President of the Senate, $4 a day. 

of Lee Co., Speaker of the H. ofBep. 4 « 

of Muscatine Co., Secretary of the Senate, 2 ** 

of Des ^oines Co.,Ch. Clerk of H. of Hep, 2 « 
Board of Public Works, 



H. W. Semple, Pres, Charles Corkery, JVeas, Pftul Brattan, See, 



Joseph Williams, 
T. S. WUson, 
' J. F. Kinney, 
G. S. Hampton, 
Eastin Morris, 

George H. Williams, 
James Grant, 
J. P. Carletoa, 
Cyrus Olney, 



JUDICIJLKT. 

Supreme Court, 
of Muscatine Co., Chief Justice, 
of Du Buque Co., Associate Justice, 
of Lee Co., do. 

of Johnson Co., Clerk, 

do. Reporter, 

IHstrict Courts. 
of Lee Co., Judge of Ist Circuit, 

of Scott Co., do. 2d do, 

of Johnson Co., do. Sd do, 
of Jefferson Co- do, 4th do. 



$1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
Fees. 



1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



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1848.] 



WISCON0IN TBBBITOBT. 



323 



XXX. WISCONSIN TERRITORY. 



Wisoonsm, before 1836, formed for civil purposes part of the Territory of 
Michigan. In 1836, it was erected into a territorial goyemment 



Henry Dodge, 
James D. Doty, 



Henrt Dodge, 



John Catlin, of Madison, 

John White and Dayid Merrill, 
J. G. Enapp, of Madison, 

George P. Delaplame, of Madison, 
Jonathan Laikin, do. 

William Shew, 



GrOTEBNOBS. 

appointed 18361 Nathl.P. Tallmadge, appointed 1844 
do. 18421 Henry Dodge, do. 1845 

Qovemment for the year 1848. 

Salary, 
of Dodge's Grove, Governor, and Sup. of In- 
dian Affairs (term expires March, 1849), $2,500 



Secretary of the Territory, 1,200 
Canal Commissioners, $3 a day. 
Sup. of Territorial Prop- 
erty and Librarian, 300 
Auditor, 200 

Treasurer, 200 

President of the Council. 
Mason C. Darling, of Fond du Lac, Speaker of the House, 

The new constitution was submitted to the people on the 6th of April, 
and rejected by a large majority. No convention for forming another con- 
stitution has yet been called. 

JUDICIABY. 



Charles Dunn, 
David Lrvin, 
Andrew G. l^er, 
William P. Lynde, 
John S. Rockwell, 



Supreme Court. 

Salary. 

of Elk Grove, Chief Justice of Sup. Court, $1,800 

of Madison, Associate Justice do. 1,800 

ofMilwaukie, do. do. 1,800 

do. Attorn^, Fees and 250 

do. Marshal, Fees and 200 



La Fayette KeUogg, of Madison, 



aerk, 



Fees. 



District Courts. 
Ist District, Mr. Justice Dunn. 2d District, Mr. Justice lrvin. 



3d District, Mr. Justice AHller. 
Population of Wisconsin. 



]]|1833, 
1836, 
1840, 



3,245 
11,036 
30,945 



In 1842, 
1846, 



46,678 
155,277 



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324 



OBSaON TBRBITORT AVD DISTXIOT OW OOLUXBIA. 



[184a 



XXXL OREGON TERRITORY. 





Provisional GovemmenL 




George Abemethy, 


Governor and Superintendent of Indian 






Affairs, 


$500 


J. Quinn Thornton, 


Judge of Supreme Court, 


2,000 


A. A. Skinner, 


Judge of Circuit Court, 


800 


A. L. Lovejoy, 


Attorney- General, 


200 


Frederic Prigg, 


Secretary of State, 


Fees. 


G. W. Bell, 


Auditor of Public Accounts. 


Fees. 


John H. Couch, 


Treasurer, 


Fees. 


H. N. Knighton, 


Marshal, 


Fees. 


Theophilus Magmder, 


Territorial Recorder^ 


Fees. 



XXXn. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

The District of Columbia is under the immediate government of Congress, 
The city of Washington became the seat of the government of the United 
States, in 1800 ; and it is the residence of the President, and the otiier chief 
executive Mceirs of the national government By an act of Congress, in 
1846, which was subsequently accepted by the people of Alexandria, the 
city and county of Alexandria were retroceded to the state of Virginia, and 
the district is now confined to the Maryland side of the Potomac 



Judiciary. 
Circuit Ceurt of the District. 



William Cranch, 


of Washino^n, 


Chief Judgt, 




Salmy. 
♦2,700 


James S. Morsel, 


of Georgetown, 


Associate Judge, 


2,500 


James Dunlop, 


do. 


do. 




2,500 


PhiUp B. Key, 


of Washington, 


Attorney, 


Fees and 200 


Alexander Hunter, 


do. 


Marshal, 




Fees. 


William Brent, 


do. 


Clerk, 




Fees. 




CHminal Court for the District. 






Thomas H. Crawford, 


Judge, 




$2,000 


William Brent, 


Orphans* 


Clerk, 
Court. 




Fees. 


Nathaniel P. Causin, 


Washington Co., 


Judge, 


$1,000 


Edward N. Roach, 


do. 




Begister, 


Fees. 



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1848.] 



BSITI8H AMERICAN PROTINCBt. 



325 



AMERICAN STATES. 
RqmUica of Narth America, 



United States, 


Population. 


CspitalB. 


PlOBideiLtfl. 


17,069,453 


Washington, 


James K Polk. 


Mexico, 


7,015,509 


Mexico, 


Gen. Santa Amuu 


Central America, 


2,000,000 


San Salvador. 




Yucatan, 


580,948 


Merida, 


Miguel Barbachano. 


Hayti, 


933,000 


Cape Haytien, 


Gen.Fanstin Soulouque. 




BepuhUcs of South America, 


Argentine Bepnb. 


1,000,000 


Buenos Ayres, 


Don Juan M. de Hosas. 


Pern, 


1,700,000 


Lima, 


General Gamarra. 


New Grenada, 


1,981,684 


Bogotd, 


General Herran. 


BoUvia, 


1,030,000 


Chuqnisaca, 


General BaUivian. 


Chili, 


1,200,000 


Santiago, 


General Bulnes. 


Venezuela, 


900,000 


Caraccas, 


General Paez. 


Equator, 


600,000 


Quito. 




Paraguay, 


300,000 


Assumption. 
Monte Video, 




Uraguay, 


150,000 


Pructuoso Rivera. 




Empire, 




Bmperor. 


Braml, 


1 5,130,418 1 Bio Janeiro, | Pedro H. 



The present population of most of the aboTe states has not been verr recenUy asoer- 
tained ^rith any exactness. The roost complete and accurate census of Mexico was taken 
in ld42. This census returned the whole population as above. Of this numbor, there 
were 4,000,000 Indians ; 1,000,000 whites ; 6,000 negroes ; and 2,0002509 of aU other castes, 
as Zamboe, Mestizos, &c. Of the Indians and negroes, only 80,120 can read, and <^ the 
whites, and aU others, 607,628. 



BRITISH AMERICAN PROVINCES. 

IiOBD Eloik, Governor- Generaly Vice-Admiral, and Captain- General of all 
the BritiMh Provinces of North America, 





Area in 
sq. miles. 


Population. 




East Canada, 

West Canada, 

New Brunswick, 

Nova Scotia, with C. Breton, 

Prince Edward's Island, 

Newfoundland, 

Honduras, 


194,815 
147,000 
27,700 
17,500 
2,134 
35,913 
62,740 


693,649 

506,055 

130,000 

199,870 

34,666 

81,517 

3,958 


Sir W. Colebrooke. 
Sir John Harvey. 
Capt. HV.Hunaey. 

CoL Fancpurt 



28 



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EUROPE, 



REIGNING SOVEREIGNS OF EUROPE. 



* The King of Saxony is a Catholic, though the greater part of hia subjects are IVotest- 
ants ; the King of Belgium is a ProtestaM^ though his subjects are mostly CathoKcs; and 
the King of Greece is a Catholic^ though most of his satoects are of the Greek Church. 



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1848.1 



STATBS or SUBOFB. 



327 



STATES OF EUROPE, 

With the form of Government, Square MUes, and Pmmlatum, according to 
McOuuoclCs Geographical Dictionary, with Corrections, 



Stetofl and ntka. 



Andorre, Pyrenees, Repub. 
•Anhalt-Bembmg, DtHekg, 
•Anhalt-Cothen, do. 
•Anlialt-I>ee8aa, do. 

*AnBtria, Empire, 
•Baden, Grand Duekf^ 
*BaTaria, Kingdom, 

Belgium, cto. 
•Bremen, Fru City, 
•Bnmswick, Duehy, 

GhnTch,State8 ot,Pq}edom, 

Denmaric, Kingdom, 

Fiance, do. 

•Frankfort, Free City, 

Great Britain, Kingdom, 

Greece, do. 

•Hamburg, Free City, 
•Hanover, Kingdom, 
•Hesse Cassel, Electorate, 
•HesseBarmstadt. G. Ducky, 
•Hesse Homb'g, Landg^v*te, 
•Hohenaol.-Hechingen, Pr. 
4^ohenaol.-Sigmaring%iio. 

Holland, with Luxemburg, 

Ionian Islands, JKeptfUie, 
•lichtenstein, PrincipaUty, 
•Lippe-Detmoldj do. 
•Labcc, Free CUy, 

Lucca, Duchy, 
•Mecklen.-Sdiwerin, &. Du. 
•Mecklenburg-Strelits, do. 

Modena and Massa,i>iie4y, 

Monaco, PrineqiaUty, 
•Nassau, Duchy ^ 
*01denburg, Grand Ducky, 

Parma, Dutky, 

Portugal, Kingdom, 
•Prussia, do. 
•Beuss, Principcdities of, 
tRussia, Etnpne, 

San Marino^ ReptOUe, 

Sardinia, jEtit^^tom, 
•Saxony. do. 
•Saxe-Altenburg. Ducky, 
•Saxe-Gob'g and Gotha, do. 
•Saxe-Mein.-Hlldbuig., do. 
•Saxe-Weim.-Eisenadi, do. 
•Schwartzburg, Prtneipcd of 
•Schaoenburg-Lippe, Prin. 

Sicilies,The Tm),Kingdor. 

Spain, do. 

Sweden and Norway, do, 

Switsftriand, RepubUe, 
tTnrlcey, Engaire, 

Tuscany, Gnma Ducky, 
^Waldeeli^PHncipality, 
'urtemborg, T" 



, Kingdom, 



Form of Goyemment. 



With two syndics and a council, 
States havbig limked powers, 
Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Absolute monareliy,except Hungary ,&c. 
Limited sovereignty ; two chambers. 
Limited monarchy ; do. 
Do. da 

Republic ; senate and oonTention, 
Limited sovereignty ; one chamber, 
Absolute elective soverdgnty. 
Absolute monarchy ; with prov. states. 
Limited monarchy ; two chambers, 
Republic; senate and legislative body. 
Limited monarchy ;,lords and commons, 
Limited monarchy, ' 
Republic ; senate and common council, 
limited monarchy ; two chambers, 
limited sovereignty ; one chamber. 
Limited sovereignty ; two chambers. 
Absolute sovereignty, 
Limited ; one chamber. 

Do. do. 

Limited monarchy ; two chambers, 
Under Brit, protec. ; council and chamb., 
limited monarchy ; with one chamber. 

Do. do. 

Republic; senate and common council, 
limited sovereignty ; with one chamber, 
limited monarchy ; with one chamber, 

Do. do. 

Absolute sovereignty, 

Do. 
limited sovereignty ; two chambers. 
Absolute sovereignty, 

Do. 
Limited monarchy ; one chamber of rep., 
Absolute monarchy ; provincial states. 
Limited sovereignty ; one chamber, 
Absolute monarchy, 
Senate and oouncH of ancients. 
Absolute monarchy, 
Limited monarchy ; two chambers. 
Limited monarchy ; one chamber. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do do. 

Do. do. 

Limited monarchy ; with a council. 
Limited monarchy ; with a legislature, 
lim. monarchy ; with a diet & strathlng, 
Confederation of republics ; a diet, 
Absolute monarchy. 
Absolute sovereignty, 
limited sovereignty ; one chamber, 
limited monarchy ; two chambers, 
Total, 



Square 
miles. 



190 



810 
337 



Popu- 
lation. 



7,000 

46,920 

40,200 

61^ 

,. 86,619,660 

6,712 1,268,100 

28,486 4,816,469 

12,668 4,242,600 

67 67,800 

1,626 269,000 

17,048 2,782,436 

68,762' 2,083^ 

202,126 84,194,875 

911 64570 

116,70026,881,106 



10,206 

149 

14,600 



8,198 

154 

186 

383 

18,890 

998 

62 

482 

142 

410 

4,701 

1,094 

2,078 

50 

1,786 

2,470 

2,184 

84,600 

106,802 

688 

2,041,809 

21 



6,706 
491 
790 
880 

1,408 

766 

206 

41,621 



1,000 

163,600 

1,706,280 

704,900 

783,400 

23,400 

20,200 

42,990 

2,915,396 

208,100 

6,620 

82,970 

47,200 

168,900 

482,662 

87,820 

403,000 

7,000 

879,262 

267,660 

466,673 

8,550,000 

14,330,146 

103,550 

S2,600,000 

7,600 

4,168,797 

1,662,114 

121,590 

140,050 

148,590 



66,810 

27,600 

7,976,850 

176,480 12,286,941 

284,680' 4,166,900 

17,208! 2,125,480 

188,140 9,646,000 

8,302 1,436,785 

466l 66,480 

7,668 1,684,664 



3,708,871| 



• Member of the Oonlbderation of Germany. t Including Poland. 

t T'^^iT^tug Wallaobia, Moldsria, and Serria. 



Digitized 



by Google 



328 j&AKCS. [1848. 



FRANCE. 

MiNISTBT. 

Marshal Soult, Duke of Dalmatia, Pres. of the Council. 

M. Guizot, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

M. Martm (du Nord), ^ Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 

Duke de Montebello, Minister of Marine and the Colonies. 

Count Duchatel, Minister of the Interior. 

M. Cunin Gridaiuei Minister of Commerce and AgricuUure. 

M. Sayr, Minister of Public Works. 

M. Villemain (Peer), Minister of Public Instruction. 

M. Dumont, Minister of Finance. 

Gen. ErezeL Minister of War. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

The Royal Family. 

The Queen, Alexandrina Victoria, bom May 24, 1819 ; married, Feb. 10, 
1840, to Prince Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emanuel, of Saxe Co- 
burg and Gotha, bom Aug. 26, 1819. 

Princess Boyal. Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa, bom Nov. 21, 1840. 

Prince of Wales. Albert Edward, bom Nov. 9, 1841. 

Princess Boyal. Alice Maud Mary, bom April 25, 1843. 

A Boyal Prince. Alfred Ernest Albert, bom August 6, 1844. 

A Boyal Princess. Helena Augusta Victoria, bom May 25, 1846. 

The Queen Douxwer. Adelaide Amdia Louisa Teresa Caroline, widow 
of King William I V ., sister of the reigning Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, bom 
August 13, 1792. 

Her Majesty^s Mother. Victoria Maria Louisa, Princess Dowager of 
Leiningen, Duchess of Kent, bom August 17, 1786. 

Boyal Princes and Princesses. 

Ernest Augustus (King of Hanover), Duke of Cumberland,. bom June 5, 
1771 ; married May 29, 1815, to Frederica Carolina Sophia Alexandrina, 
daughter of the Duke of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz, and widow of Frederic 
William, Prince of Solms-Braunfels, bom March 2,. 1778. Issue^ George 
Frederic, bom May 27, 1819. 

Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, bom Feb. 24, 1774 j married 
May 7, 1818, to Augusta Wilhelmina liouisa, daughter of the Landgrave of 
Hesse, bom July 25, 1797. Issue, George William,, bom March 26, 1819; 
Augusta Caroline, July 19, 1822 j Mary Adelaide, Nov. 27, 1833. 

Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, bom April 25, 1776, 

Sophia, bom November 3, 1777. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



OSBAT BBITAIN. 



329 



MiNiBTBT. — Formed Jvly^ 1846. 



liOrd John Bnssell, 

Lord Cottenham, 

Marqnis of Lansdowne, 

EarlofMmto, 

Sir George Grey, 

Yiscount Falmerston, 

Earl Grey, 

Mr. Charles Wood, 

Earl of Aackland, 

Thomas Babmgton Macanlay, 

Sir John Hobhonse, 

Lord Campbell, 

Viscomit Morpeth, 

Marqnis of Clanricarde, 



Mr. Fox Maule, 



Duke of Wellington, 
Earlof Fortescue, 
Dnke of Norfolk, 
John Jervis, 
Mr. Dundas, 
Sir Henry Hardinge, 
Earl of Clarendon, 
Mr. Labonchere, 



First Lord of the Treoaury^ 
Lord High Chancdhr^ 
Lord President of the Council^ 
Lord Privy Secd^ 
Secretary of State — Borne Dep.^ 
Secretary of State — Foreign Dep.y 
Secretary of State — Colonial Dep^ 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
First Lord of ike Admiralty, 
Paymaster- General, 
President of Board of Control, 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
Woods and Forests. ' 
Postmaster- General, 
President of the Board of Trade, 
Secretanj at War, 



Salary. 
£5,000 
14,000 
2,000 
2,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
4,500 
2,500 
2,000 



2,580 



*^* The above form the Cabinet, 

Commander of the Forces. 
Lord Steujard of the Household, 
Master of the Horse, 
Attorney- General. 
Solicitor- General. 
Governor- General of India. 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 
Chitf Secretary far Ireland, 



20,000 



Pabliambmt. 

The Parliament of Great Britain consists of a House of Lords and a House 
of Commons. 

House of Lords. 

The House of Lords consists of Lords Temporal, who are Peers of the 
realm, and whose honors, immunities, and privileges, are hereditary ; and 
Lords Spiritual, consisting of Archbishops and Bishops. 

The House of Lords is composed of aU the five orders of nobiUty of Eng- 
land, viz. dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons, who have attained 
the age of 21 years, and labor under no disqualification ; of 16 representa- 
tive peers from Scotland j 28 representative peers from Ireland ; 2 English 
archbishops and 24 bishops, and 4 representative Lish bishops. 
28* 



Digitized 



by Google 



830 aXXAT BKITXIK. 11848. 

A List of the House of Peers, with the Title, Family Ndme^ DaU of Creation, and 
Birth of the present Peer, 

The JUUs here given are those by which the Noblemen Ht in the Hums* of Pttrs. Thois 
marked thus (*>&re Scotch Representative Peers; thus (t), Irish Bepresenlative Peers. The Sootd& 
repreeentative peers are chosen fbr each Parliament, and those so deaignatod in the IbUowing Ust 
were memben af the laH Parliament. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.J 



HOU8B OT PXSB8. 



S31 



Title. 


Name. 


Cre- 
ated. 


1 


mtle. 


Name. 


Cre- 
ated. 


i 




Charles Stanhope 


1742 


1780 


inchilsea 


G.W.Finch-Hatton 


1«28 


1791 


Harrowby 


Dudley Ryder 
A.W.B.8.T.W.Hm 


1809 


1762 


Yarborough 


C. Anderson-Pelham 


1887 


1781 


HiUsborongh 






and 


Thomas Dundas 


1838 


1706 




[M. of Downsh. Ire.] 


1772 


1812 










«Home 


C. Alex. Home 


1604 


1799 


17«s^*A«f— '- *»o 






HOWB 


R. W. P. Cun.-Howe 


1821 


1796 


VtSCOU 


TUS. — i60. 








F. T. H. Hastings 


1629 


1808 


♦Arbuthnott 


John Arbuthnott 


1641 


1778 


nehester 


H.S.F'x-Strangways 


1756 


1787 


Beresfbrd 




1828 


1770 


Tunes 


J. H. R. Innes-Ker 






Bolingbroke 


Henry St. John 


1712 


1786 




[D. Roxburghe, Sc.j 


1837 


1816 


Canning 


Chas. John Canning 


1828 


1812 


Jersey 


George 0. Villiers 


1697 


1773 


Canterbury 


CJ.Manners-Sutton 


1886 


1812 


Leicester 


Thomas Wm. Coke 


1837 


1822 


Clancarty 


W.T.LePoer-Trench 


1823 


1803 


•Leven&ltolviUe 


D. Ledie-Melville 


1641 


1785 


Combermere 


S. Stapleton-Cotton 


1826 


1769 


IJchfitld 


Thomas Wm. Anso 


1831 


1795 


tDeVesci 


John Vesey 


1776 


1771 


Undsey 


G. A. F. A. Bertie 


1626 


1814 


tDoneraile 


Hayes St. Leger 


1785 


1786 


Lirerpool 


C. C. C. Jenkinson 


1796 


1784 


Exmouth 


Edward PeUew 


1816 


1811 


Lonsdale 


WilUam Lowther 


1807 


1787 


Gordon 


George H. Gordon 






Lovelace 


WilUam King 


1838 


1805 




[E. Aberdeen, c] 


1814 


1784 


fLucan 


Geo. Chas. Bingham 


1795 


1800 


tHawarden 


Comwallis Maudj 


1798 


1780 


Macclesfield 


Thomas Parker 


1721 


1763 


Hereford 


Robert Derereux 


1660 


1809 


Malmesbury 


James H. Harris 


1800 


1807 


Hill 


Rowland Hill 


1842 


1800 


Mansfield 


Wm. David Murray 


1776 


1806 


Hood 


Samuel Hood 


1796 


1808 


Manyers 


Chas. H. Pierrepont 


1806 


1778 


Hutchinson 


J. Hely-Hutchinson 






tMayo 


John Bourke |1785 


1766 




[E. Donoughmore,!.] 


1821 


1787 


Mioto 


G. ElUot-Mur.-Kny- 


1813 


1782 


Lake 


Warwick Lake 


1807 




Money 


£ . Pariker [nymond 


1815 


1810 


Leinster 


Aug. F. Fitzgerald 






♦Morton 


G. S. Douglas 


1458 


1789 




[D. Leinster, Ire.] 


1747 


1791 


tMomitcadieU 


Stephen Moore 


1781 


1792 


tLorton 


Rob. £dw. King 


1806 


1773 


Mt. £dgeiimbe 


E. A. Edgcumbe 


1789 


1797 


Maynard 


Henry Maynard 


1766 


1786 


Monster 


Wm. G. Fitzclarence 


1831 


1824 


MelTille 


Robert Dundas 


1802 


1771 


Nelson 


Horatio Nelson 


1805 


1823 


O'NeiU - 


J. B. R. O'NeiU 


1795 


1780 


Onslow 


A. Geo. Onslow 


1801 


1777 


Ponsonby 


John Ponsonby 


1839 




Orford 


Horatio Walpole 


1806 


1783 


St. Vhicent 


Edw. Jervis Jervis 


1801 




•Orkney 


T. J. H. Pitzmaurice 


1696 


1803 


Sidmouth 


Wm. L Addington 


1806 


94 


Oxford 


Edward Harley 


1711 


1778 




James Drummond 


16861767 




Rob. Hen Herbert 


1551 


1791 


Sydney 


John R. Townshend 


17891805 


Pomfret 


G. W. R. FennoT 


1721 


1824 


Torrington 


George Byng 


1721 1812 


Portsmouth 


John Chas. Wallop 


1837 


1799 










Poulett 


John Poulett 


1706 


1783 


Baror 


IS.— 216. 






Powis 


Edward Herbert 


1804 


1785 






Radnor 


Wm. P. Bouverie 


1765 


1779 


Abercromby 


Geo. R. Abercromby 


1801 


1800 


Ripon 


Fred. John Robinson 11833 


1782 


Abinger 


Robert C. Scarlett 


1885 


1794 


Romney 


Charles Marsham 


1801 


1808 


Alvanley 


William Arden 


1801 


1789 


tRosse 


William Parsons 


1806 


1800 


Ardrossan 


A. W. Montgomerie 






Roeslyn 


J.A St.Clair-Er8kine 


1801 


1802 




[E. Eglinton, Sc.] 


1806 


1812 


St. Germans 


Edward G. Eliot 


1815 


1798 


ArundeU 


Henry B. Arundell 


1605 




Sandwich 


jQhn Wm. Montagu 


1660 


1811 


Ashburton 


Alexander Baring 


1886 


1774 


Scarborough 


J. Lumley-Savile 


1690 


1788 


Audley 


Geo. E. Thicknesse- 






♦Seafleld 


F. W. Grant-Ogilvie 


1701 


1778 




Touchet 


1297 


I8I7 


♦Selkirk 


Dunbar J. Douglas 


1646 


1809 


Bagot 


William Bagot 


1780 


1773 


Shaftesbury 


0. Ashley-Cooper 


1672 


1768 


Batemaiw 


W.B.Bate-Hanbury 


1837 


1826 


Shrewsbury 


John Talbot 


1442 


1791 


Bayning 


H. W. P. Townshend 


1797 


1797 


Somers 


J. S. Somers-Cocks 


1821 


1788 


Beaumont 


Miles Thos. Stapleton 


1309 


1805 


Spencer [riogton 
Stamford* War- 


Frederick Spencer 


1765 


1798 


Beauvale 


Fred. James Lamb 


1889 


1782 


Geo. Harry Grey 


1628 


1827 


Berners 


Henry Wilson 


1466 


1762 


Stanhope 


Ph. Henry Stanhope 


1718 


1781 


Berwick 


Richard Noel Hill 


1784 




Stradbroke 


John Ed. C. Rous 


1821 


1794 


Bexlcy 


Nicholas Yansittart 


1828 


1766 


Strange 


J. Murray 






tBlayney 


C. D. Blayney 
Wm. P. Powlett 


1621 


1802 




[Duke of Athrf, Sc.] 


1786 


1778 


Bolton 


1797 


1782 


Suffolk & Berks. 


Thomas Howard 


1603 


1776 


Boston 


George Irby 


1761 


1777 


Talbot 


Charles C. Talbot 


1784 


1777 


Boyle 


Edmund Boyle 






Tankerville 


Chas. Aug. Bennet 


1714 


1776 




[E. Cork & Orrery,!.] 


1711 


1767 


Thanet 


Henry Tnfton 


1628 


1775 


Braybrooke 


Richard GrifiOn 


1788 


1788 


Vane 


C. W. Vane-Stewait 






Brodrick 


Geo. A. Brodrick 


1796 


1806 




[M.Londondery,Ire.] 


1823 


1778 


Brong^uun& Y. 


G.W.F3rucr.-Bmoe 


1880 


1780 


Yemlam 


James W. Grimston 


1815 


1809 




1746 


1804 


Waldegraye 


Geo. E. Waldegrave 


1729 


1816 


Byron 


Geo. Anson Byron 


1648 


1789 


Warwick 


Henry B. GreyiUe 


1759 


1779 


Calthorpe 


G. Gough-Calthorpe 


1796 


1787 


Westmoreland 


John Fane 


1624 


1784 


Camoys 


Thomas Stonor 


1888 


1797 


tWicklow 


William Howard 


1793 


1788 


Campbell 


John Campbell 


1841 


1781 


Wilton 


Thomas Egerton 


1801 


17991 


Carberry 


G.P. Bvans-Freke 


1716 


1801 



Digitized 



by Google 



832 OXEAT BBITAIN. [184S. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



aOUSB OJP PXXBS. 



333 



Title. 


Name. 


Cre- 
ated. 


a 

1 


Title. 


Name. 


Cre- 
ated. 


1 


Middleton 


Digby Willoughby 


1711 17691 


Seaton 


John Colbome 


1839 




Minster 


P. N. Conyngham 






Sefton 


C. W Molyneux 








[M.ConyDgham,Ire.] 


1821 


1797 




[E. Sefton, Ire.] 


1831 


1796 


Monson 


Wm. John Monson 


1728 


1796 


Sheffield 


G. A. F. C. Holroyd 






Moore 


H. F. S. Moore 








[E. Sheffield, Ire.] 


1802 


1802 




[M. Drogheda, Ire.J 


1801 


1825 


Sherborne 


John Button 


1784 


1779 


Montfort [don 


Henry Bromley 


1741 


1773 


Silchester 


Edw. M. Packenham 






Monteagle, Bran- 


Thomas S. Bice 


1889 


1790 




[E. Longford, Ire] 1821 


1817 


Monteagle 


Geo. John Browne 






Sinclair 


Charles St. Clair 


1489 


1768 




[M SUgo, Ire.] 


1806 


1820 


Skelmersdale 


E.Bootle-WUbraham 


1828 


1771 


Mostyn 


Edward P. Lloyd 


1881 


1768 


SomerhiU 


UUck J. De Burgh 






Northvick 


John Rushout 


1797 


1770 




[M.Clanricarde, Ire.] 


1826 


1802 


Oriel 


John Skeffington 






Sondes 


George John MiUes 
Charles Fitzroy 


1760 


1794 




[V. Massereene, Ire.] 


1821 


1812 


Southampton 


1780 


1804 


Ormonde 


John Butler 






Stafford [ley 


G.W.S.Jemingham 


1640 


1771 




[M. Ormonde, Ire.] 


1821 


1808 


Stanley of Alder- 


JohnThos. Stanlev 


1839 


1766 


Oxenfoord 


John H. Dalrymple 
[£. Stair, Sc.] 






Stanley of B. 


Edw. G. Stanley 


1832 


1799 




1841 


1771 


Stewart 


Randolph Stewart 








Henry Paget 


1550 


1797 




[E. Galloway, Scot.] 


1796 


800 


Panmnre 


WUliam Maule 


1831 


1771 


Stourton 


William Stourton 


1448 


.6 


Penfihuzst 


P. C. 8. Smythe 






Strafford 


John Byng 


1835 






[V.Strangford,Ire] 
Wm. Hen. F. Petre 


1 6 


1780 


Stuart 


Francis Stuart 






Petre 


1603 


1793 




[B. Moray, S > 


1796 


1771 


Plonket 


Wm. C. Plunket 


87 


64 


Stuart de Bedes 


H. VilUers-Stuart 


1839 


1803 


•Polwarth 


Henry F. H. Scott 


690 


1800 


Sudeley 


C. Hanbury-Tracy 


1838 


1798 


Poltimore 


G. W. Bampfjlde 


1831 


1786 


Suffleld 


Edw. V. Harbord 


1786 


1813 


Ponsonby 


J. G. B. Ponsonby 






Sundridge and 


J. D. E.H.Campbell 








[B. Bessboro', Ire ] 


174 


1809 


Hamilton 


[D. Argyll, Sc] 


1766 


177. 


Portmaa 


E. B. Portman 


1837 


99 


Tadcaster 


William O'Brien 






Pmdhoe 


Algernon Percy 


1816 


192 




[M. Thomond, Ire.] 


1826 




Ranfiirly 


Thomas Knox 






Templemoro 


h; S. Chichester 


1831 


1821 




[B. Ranfurly, Ire.] 


1826 


1786 


Tenterden 


John Henry Abbott 


1827 


1796 


Rarengwortii 


Thomas H. Liddell 


1821 


1775 


Teynham 


Geo. H. R. Curzon 


1616 




Rayleigh 


John James Strutt 


1821 


1796 


Thurlow 


E.S.H.Thurlow [ford 


1792 


18 4 


♦Keay 


EricMackay 


1628 


1773 


Tyrone 


H. Dela-Poer-Beres- 






Bedesdale 


J.T.Freeman-Mifcford 


1802 


1805 




.[M. Walerfbrd, Ire] 


1786 


1811 


Bibblesdale 


Thomas Lister 


1797 


1828 


Vaux of Harrow- 


George Mostyn 


1528 


1804 


BiTe» 


George Pitt-Riyers 


1802 


1810 


Vernon [den 


George John Warren 


1762 


1808 


Bodney 


Spencer Rodney 


1782 


1785 


ViTian 


Charles C. Tivian 


1841 


1808 


•RoUo 


John Rollo 


1651 


1773 


Walsingham 


Tl^omas De Grey 


1780 


1804 


BoMbeny 


Arch. J. Primrose 






Ward 


Wm. Ward [Douglas 


1664 


1817 




[E. Roseberry, So." 


1828 


1783 


Wemyss 


F. Wemyss-Chart's- 






Bom 


James Carr Boyle 








[B. of Wemyss, Sc.] 


1821 


1772 




[£. Glasgow, Sc.] 


1816 


1792 


Wenlock 


P.B.Law.-Tbomp8on 


1839 


1784 


BoflBie 


G. W. Fox Kinnaird 


1831 


1807 


Whamcliffe 


John Stuart- Wortley 


1826 


1801 


Boflsmoro 


Hen. Rob. Westenra 


1838 


1792 


Wigan 


James lindsay 






St. John 


St. A. B. St. John 


1558 


1811 




[E. Balcarres, Sc." 


1826 


173 


Saltenfinrd 


James T. Stopford 


1796 


1794 


Willo'bydeBrokc 


Henry Peyto Verne 


1492 


1778 




[E. Conrtown, Ire.] 






Willo'by de Eres- 


P.R.Drumm.-WU'by 


129511782 


•Sttltoun 


Alex. Geo. Fraser 


1445 


1786 


Wodehouse [bj 


John Wodehouse 


17971771 


Sandys 


Arthur M.Wm. HiU 


1802 


1792 


Worlingham 
Wrottesley 


See Earl Gosford 


1835 


Saye and Sele 


W. T. B. Twistleton- 


1447 


1798 


John Wrottesley 


18381798 


Scarsdale 


N.Cunson [Fiennes 17611781 


Wynford 


Wm. Samuel Best 


18291798 


•»-ToobvUrteth 




MugliMh TiOeB^huty 


rhoaie commonly addreased bythelrhie^er Scotch or Irish Titles, the following list is sub- 


Joiaed:- 




Al 


J> 


L 


Ai 
Al 
Bi 


1 


M 
M 


B4 

Bi 

a 


1 


11 
M 


CI 

a 


H 


1 


CC 

a 

Oc 
Di 


I 


lb 
81 
81 
81 
St 
11 



Digitized 



by Google 



334 



GREAT BEITAnr. 



[1848. 





Archbishops and ] 


Bishops op Eholaio). 




C!oiia. 
1828 


Archbishops. 


Siooeses. 


No. 
of Ben- 
efices. 


Oroflsln- 
come. 


Wm. Howley, D.D., Primate. 


Canterbury, 


346 


£129,946 


1791 


Edward Harcourt, D.C Ji. 

Bishops. ^ 
Charles J. Blomfield, D.D. 


York, . 


891 


223,220 


1828 


London, 


640 


267,662 


1836 


Edward Kaltby, D.D. 


Durham, 


192 


74,557 


1827 


Charles R. Sumner, BD. 


Winchester, 


419 


153,995 


1829 


Richard Bagot, D.D. 


Bath and Wells, 


430 


120,310 


1827 


John Kaye, D.D. 


Lincoln, 


1,251 


373,976 


1846 


T. V. Short, D.D. 


St. Asaph, 


143 


42,592 


1830 


Christopher Bethell, D.D. 


Bangor, 


123 


35,064 


1827 


George Murray, D.D. 


Rochester, 


94 


44,565 


1827 


Edward Copleston, D.D. 
Samuel Wilberforce, D.D. 


Llandaff, 


192 


36,347 


1845 


Oxford, 


196 


51,895 


1830 


James Henry Monk, D.D. 


Gloucester&Bristol, 


536 


158,608 


1830 


Henry PhUpotts, DD. 


Exeter, 


613 


194,181 


1845 


John Turton, D.D. 


Ely, 


150 


56,495 


1842 


Ashurst Turner Gilbert, D.D. 


Chichester, 


267 


82,673 


1837 


Edward Denison, D.D. 


Salisbury, 


397 


134,255 


1837 


Edward Stanley, D.D. 


Norwich, 


1,026 


331,750 


1837 


Thomas Mnsgrave, D.D. 


Hereford, 


321 


93,552 


1839 


Geor^ Davys, D.D. 
John Xonsdale, DD. 


Peterborough, 


293 


98,381 


1843 


Lichfield and Cov. 


610 


170,104 


1841 


H. Pepys, D.D. 


Worcester, 


223 


73,255 


1840 


Connop Thirlwall, D.D. 
Hugh Percy, D.D. 
John Bird Sumner, D.D. 


St DaTid's, 


409 


60,653 


1827 


Carlisle, 


124 


22,487 


1828 


Chester, 


630 


120,310 


1836 


Charles Th. Longley, D.D. 


Ripon, 










Sodor and Man, 23 


3,727 



English Colonial Bishops.* 



Cons. 


Bishops. 


Dioceses. 


Allowance. 


Clergy. 


1843 


Aubrey George Spencer, D.D. 


Jamaica, 


£4,000 




1842 


Thomas Parry, D.D. 
John Inglis, D.D. 
Daniel Wilson, D.D. 


Barbadoes, 


4,000 


160 


1825 


Nova Scotia, 


2,400 




1832 


Calcutta, 


f,000 


37 


1836 


George J. Mountain, D.D. 


Montreal, 


1,500 




1836 


Thomas Carr, D.D. 


Bombay, 


2,500 


12 


1836 


Wm. Grant Broughton, D.D. 


Australia, 


2,000 




1837 


G. T. Spencer, D.D. 


Madras, 


1,500 


24 


1839 


John Strahan, D.D. 


Toronto. 






1844 


Edward Field, D.D. 


Newfoundland. 






1845 


John Medley, D.D. 


Fred'cton, N. B. 






1841 


G. A. Selwyn, D.D. 


New Zealand. 






1842 


W. P. Austin, D.D. 


Brit Guiana. 






1842 


George Tomlinson, D.D. 


Malta &Gibral. 






1845 


James Chapman, M.A. 


Columbo, Cey. 






1842 


F. R. Nixon, D.D. 








1842 


D. G. Davies, D J[>. 


Antigua. 






1841 


Michael Solom. Alexander, 


Jerusalem. 







* These Bishops, of cooise, do not sit in Parliament. 



Digitized 



by Google 



1848.] 



HOUSB OF VOUUOV8. 



335 



Abchbishops and Bishops of Ireland. 



1 


AichbishopB. 


Dioceses. 


1 


Bishops. 


Dioceses. 


1822 


Lord J. G. BeTesibrd,D.D. 


Arma^. 


1812 


John Leslie, D D. 


«KilmOre. 


1831 


Richard Whately, D.D. 


Dublin. 


1820 


Richard Mant, D.D. 


Down & Con. 








1828 


Richard Ponsonby, D.D. 


Derry. 








1831 


Samuel Kyle, D.D. 
Edmund Knox, D J). 
Thos. Plunket, D.D. 


Cork. 




Bishops. 




1831 


Limerick. 








1839 


Tuam& K. 


1842 


Edward Stopford, D.D. 


Heath. 


1839 


Ludlow Tonson, D.D. 


Killaloe. 


1803 


Charles D lindsay, D.D. 


*Kildai©. 


1842 


J. T. O'Brien, D.D. 


Ossory 


1822 


Ld. R. P,Tofcteiihain,D.D. 


•Clogher 


1843 Robert Daly, D.D. 


Cashel, tec. 



* The bishoprics thus marked are to be abolished when they beccone vacant. 

House of Commons. 
Elected July and August^ 1847. 
The House of Commons consists of knights, citizens, and bm^gesses, 
respectively chosen by counties, cities, and boroughs, apportioned as 
follows: — 

r Counties, 
England and Wales, for -j Uniyersities, . . . 4}- 500 

(^ Cities and boroughs, 

Scotland, 



- j Counties, 

t Cities and boroughs. 



Ireland, 



159] 

337 J 
30) 
23 J 
64 
2 
39 



53 



105 



658 



f Counties, 
\ Universities, 
[ Cities and boroughs. 
Total, 

The Union of Ireland was carried into effect January 1, 1801 ; and the 
Parliament which sat the same month, and which included the members 
from Ireland, is styled the \8t Imperial Parliament; and the Parliament 
which assembled January 29, 1833, is styled the Wth Imperial, or \stBe- 
formed Parliament. The following table exhibits the succession of Parlia- 
ments since the union with Ireland. 



Parliaments. 




Wlien dissolved. 


Existed. 










Y. 


M. D. 


2d Imperial Parliament, 


August 81, 1802 


October 24, 1806 


4 


1 25 


3d do. 


do. 




May 27, 1807 





6 2 


4th do. 


do. 


NoTember 27, 1807 


September 29, 1812 


4 


10 2 


6th do. 


do. 


November 24,1812 


June 10, 1818 


6 


6 16 


6th do. 


do. 


August 4, 1818 


February 29, 1820 


1 


6 25 


7th do. 


do. 


April 23, 1820 


June 2, 1826 


6 


1 9 


8th do. 


do. 


November 14,1826 


July 24, 1830 


4 


1 22 


9th do. 


do. 


October 26, 1880 


April 22, 1831 





5 27 


10th do. 


do. 


June 14, 1881 


December 3,1832 





5 20 


nth Im.or Ist Bef. do. 


January 29, 1883 


December 30,1884 


2 


25 


12th do. 2d 


do. 


February 19,1835 


July 17, 1837 


1 


4 26 


13th do. 3d 


do. 


October 15, 1837 


June 28, 1841 


4 


1 2 


14th do. 4th 


do. 


August 19, 1841 


July 28, 1847 


5 


11 4 



Digitized 



by Google 



336 OSBAT BRITAnr. [1848. 

House op Covmoths — Elected Jvhf and August, IS41,* 



Places. 


Members. 


PlMses. 


Members. 




88 Carmarthen 


D. Morris 


English and Welsh Cities and Boroughs. 


89 Camarron 
40 Chatham 


W. B. Holies 
G. 8 Byng 
ShrW. Jones 


1 Abingdon 


Sir F. Thesiger 


41 Cheltenham 


2 Andover 


J. H. Coles 


42 Chester 


SirJ.JerTis 




W. Cnbitt 




Lord Grosvenor 


8 Anglesea 


Lord G. Paget 




Lord H. G. Lennox 


4 Arandel 


Earl of Arundel 




J. A. Smith 


5 ABhburton 


Colonel Hatheson 


44 Chippenham 


Joseph NeeU 


6 ABhton-onder- 






Captain Boldero 


Lyne 


C.mndley 


45 Chrlstehnich 


Hon.S.A.J.Hanis 


7 Ayleabury 


J. P. Deering 


46 Cirencester 


W. Cripps 




Lord Nugent 




Viscount Yilliers 


SBanboiy 


H. W. Tancred 


47 Clitheroe 


M. Wilson 


9 Barnstaple 


Brembrldge 




H. A. Aglionby 








G. Horsman 


10 Bath 


Lord Ashley 


49 Oolehestor 


J. A. Haidcastle 




Lord Duncan 




Sir G. H. Smyth 


11 Beanmarto 


LordG.A.V.Page4 


60CoT»ntry 


E.Ellioe 


12 Bedford 


Sir H. Vemey 




G.J. Turner 




H. Stuart 


51 Cricklade 


John Neeld 


18 Berwick 


M. Forster 




A.Lethbiidge 




J. C. Benton 


52 Dartmouth 


G.Moflat 


14 BeTerky 


J. Townley 


58 Denbigh 


F.R.WMt 




S. Lane Fox 


54 Derby 


Bight Hon. B.8tnitfe 


15 Bewdley 


T. T. Ireland 




Hon. P. L. Gower 


16 Binninc^iam 


G. F. Hunts 


55DeTisM 


G. H. W. Heneage 








W. H. L. Bruges 


ITBlaekbnm 


J. Hornby 


56 Deronport 


H.TufkMU 




J. Pilkington 




J. Romilly 


18 Bodmin 


J. Wyld 


57 Dorchester 


Hon. Col. D. Damer 


19 Bolton 


C.Lacy 
W.BoUing 


58DoTer 


H.C.8turt,Aq. 
E R.Rioe 




Dr. Bowring 




Sir G. Clerk 


20 Boston 


Sir J. Duke 


59Droitwitoh 


Sh* J. PaUngton 




B. B. Cabbell 


60 Dudley 


J.Benbow 


21 Bradford 


W. Busfield 


61 DurtiamCity 


T. C. Granger 




Col. P. Thompson 






22 Brecon 


J. L. Taughan 


62£yesham 


Lord M.Hill 


28Bridgewitor 






Shr H. Willou^by 




C. K. Tynto 
T. 0. Whitmoi« 


68 Exeter 


SirJ.T.BJhidcworth 


24 Bridgnorth 




E.DiTett 




Sir R. Pigot 


64 Eye 

65 Finsbury 


SirE.Kerrls(m 


25 Bridport 


T. A. Mitchell 


T. S. Duncombe 




B. Cochrane 




T.Wakley 


26 Brighton 


Captain Peohell 


66 Flint 


SirJ.Hanmer 




Lord A. Hervey 


67 Frome 


Hon. Major Boyle 


27 Bristol 


F. H. Berkeley 




W.Hutt 




P. W. S. MUes 


69 Gloucester 


H. T. Hope 

M. F. F. Berkeley 


28 Buckingham 


Marquis of Chandos 






Col. John Hall 


70 Grantham 


G. E. Welby 

Hon. F. ToUemache 




R. Walker 




80 ButyStJldmimd's 


EarlJermyn 


71 Great Grimsby 


B. Heneage 




E. H. Bunbury 


72 Greenwich 


Admiral Dnndas 


31 Calne 


Earl of Shelbume 




E. J. Barnard 


82 Cambridge 


A. 8. Adair 


78 Guilford 


H. Currie 




Hon. W. Campbell 




R. D. MaaglM 


88 Cambridge Uni- 


Hon. C. B. Law 


74Halilkx 


Sir C. Wood 


Tersity 


Rt. Hon. H. Goulbum 




H. Edwards 


84 Canterbury 


Lord A. Conyngham 


75 Harwich 


J. Attwood 




Hon G. P. S. Smythe 




Bagshawe 


85 Cardiff 


Dr. J. NichoU 


76Hastfaigs 


R. HoUond 


86 Cardigan 

87 Carlisle 


P. Pryse 




M. Briscoe 


W. N. Hodgson 


77 Haverfordwest 


Erans 




J. Dixon 


78 Helston 


Sir R. R. Tyryan 



* There m« no returns firam Baaietkw and Sodboiy In B »fl'ifn i1 , and horn Athlone in Inland. 



Digitized 



by Google 



iS4a 



HOU8B OF oomroNS. 



ft87 



Plaoefl. 


Members. 


Places. 


Members. 


79 Herelbrd 


Sir R. Price 


116 Merthyr TydrU 


Sir J. J. Guest 




Col. Clifford 


117 Midhurst 


S. H. Walpole 


80 Hertford 




118 Blonmoath 


R. J. Blewitt [turn) 




Hon. W. P. Cowper 




Pugh, (a double re- 
Hon. H. Cholmondely 


SlHoniton 


J. Locke 






Sir J. W. Hogg 


120 Morpeth 


Hon. E. G. Howard 


82 Honham 


J. Jervis 


121 Newark 


J.Stuart 


88 Hnddeisfield 


W. C. R. Stanafltld 




M. Sutton 


84HaU 


M. T. Baines 




W.Jackson 




J.Clay 


Lyne 


S. Christy 




Col. J. Peel 




W.Ord 




T. Baring 


Tyne 


T. E. Headlam 


86H7fhe 


E. D. Brookman 


124 Newport (Isle of 


W. H. Plowden 


87Ip8wich 


J. 0. Cobbold 


C. W. Martfn 




H. B. Adair 


126 Nort£uierton 


W. B. Wrightson 


88 Kendal 


R. C. Glyn 


126 Northampton 


R. V. Smith 




R. Godson 




R.Currie 


90 King's Lynn 


Lord G. Bentinck 

Lord Jocelyn 

Hon. W. S. Lasoelles 


127 Norwich 


Marquis of Douro 
S. M. Peto 
J. Walter 




128 Nottingham 




Lawson 




P. O'Connor 


92 Lambeth 


C.Pearson 


129 Oldham 


W. J. Fox 




T. D'Bynconrt 




J. Duncuft 




M. Gregson 


130 Oxford City 


J. H. Langston 




T. Greene 




W. P. Wood 




Rear-Admiral Bowles 


131 OxfordUniTersity 


Sir R. IngUs 


96Leeda 


W.BeekeM 




W. E. Gladstone 




J. G. MarshaU 


132 Pembroke 


ShrJ.Oweu 


96Leioeeter 


SirJ.Wahnsley 


138 Pemyn and Fal- 


H. Gwyn 




Richard Gardner 


mouth 


F.Mowatt 


97 Leominster 


G. Arkwrigfat 




Hon. G. Fitswilliam 




H. Barkly 




W. C. Garendish 


98 Lewes 


Hon. H. Fitnoy 


135 Petersfield 


Sir W. G H. Jolliflfe 




R. Perfect 


136 Plymouth 


Lord Ebrington 


99 Lichfield 


Lord A. Paget 




R. Palmer 




Lord Anson 


137 Pontefiract 


S.Martta 


100 Lhioohi 


Colonel Sibthorp 




R. M. Milnes 




C.Seeley 


138 Poole 


G. R. Robinson 




C. Bnller 




S. R. Phillips 


102 liverpool 


E. CardweU 


139 Portsnouth 


P T. Baring 




Sir T. Birch 




Sir G. Staunton 


108 London 


Lord J. Rossell 


140 Preston 


Sir G Strickland 




J.Pattison 




P. W. GrenfeU 




Baron L. Rothschild 


141 Radnor 


Sir T. H. Lewis 




J.Masterman 


142 Reading 


F.Pigott 


lOALodlow 


H. B. Clive 




Sergeant Talfourd 
T. 8. Cocks 




Colonel Salway 


148Rdgate 


105 Lyme-Regis 


T. N. Abdy 


144 Retlbrd (East) 


Hon. A. Buncombe 


106 Lymington 


Colonel Keppel 
W. A. Mackinnan 


146 Richmond (York- 


Viscount Galway 
H. Rich 




J. Brocklehurst 


shire) 


M.Wyvm 
Hon. £. LasceUes 




Williams 


146 Ripon 


106 Maidstone 


A. J. B. Hope 




Sir J. Graham 




G.Bodd 


147 Rochdale 


S. Crawford 


lOOMaldon 




148 Rochester 


R.Bemal 




T.B.Lennard 




T.Hodges 


110 Malmesbory 


J. K. Howard 


149 Rye 


H. B. Curteis 


111 Malton 


J. E. Denison 


IfiOSalford 


J. Brotberton 




J. W. Childers 


151 Salisbniy 


W. J. ChapUn 


112 ICaadMeter 


T. M. Gibson 




C. B. Wall 




J. Bright 


162 Sandwich 


Lord C. Paget 


118 Marihocongh 


Lord Ernest Bmoe 




C. W. GrenfeU 




Rt. Hon. H.B. Baring 


168 Scarborough 


Sir J. V.B.Johnstone 


114 Harlow (Great) 


J. P. Williams 




Lord Mulgrare 




Col. B. Knox 




R. B. Sheridan 


115 Marykbone 


Lord Dudley Stoart 


166 Sheffield 


J. Parker 




Sir B. Hall 




G.Ward 



29 



Digitized 



by Google 



338 



OBBAT BBITiilir. 



[1848. 



Places. 



MembcTS. 



Places. 



MCTibera. 



156 Shoreham 

167 Shrewsbuiy 

168 Southampton 

169 South Shields 

160 Southwark 

161 StaSbrd 

162 St. Albans 

163 Stamford 

164 St. Ires 
166 Stockport 

166 Stoke-upon- 
Trent 

167 Stroud 

168 Sunderland 

Swansea 

170 Tamworth 

171 Taunton 

172 Tayistock 
178 Tewkesbury 
174 Thetford 

175Thir8k 

176 Tiyerton 

177 Totnes 

178 Tower Hamlets 

179 Truro 

180 Tynemoufh 

181 Wakefield 

182 Wallingford 
188 Walsall 
184 Wareham 
186 Warrington 

186 Warwick 

187 Wells 

188 Wenlock 

Westbury 

190 Westminster 

191 Weymouth 

192 Whitby 
198 Whitehayen 
194 Wigan 

196 Wilton 
196 Winchester 



Sir C. Burrell 

C. Goring 

B. H. Biddock 
R. A. Slaney 

A. J. £. Cockbum 

B. M. Wilcox 
J. T. Wawn 
Alderman Humphery 
Sir W. Molesworth 

D. Urquhart 
Alderman Sidney 
A. Raphael 

G. W. J. Repton 

Marquis of Granby 

Rt. Hon. J. C. Herries 

Lord W. Paulett 

R. Cobden 

J Heald 

W. T. Copeland 

R. L. Ricardo 

G. P. Scrope 

W. H. Stanton 

D.Barclay 

G. Hudson 

J. H. Yiyian 

Sir K Peel 

W. Y. Peel 

H. Labouchere 

Sir T. Colebrooke 

W. Russell 

J. S. Trelawny 

J.Martbi 

H Browne 

Hon. W. B. Baring 

The Earl of Euston 

J.BeU 

Lord Palmexston 

J. Heathcote 

Lord Seymour 

C. B. Baldwin 
G. Thompson 
Sir W. Clay 
J. B. Vivian 

E. Turner 
R. Grey 
G. Sandars 

W. S. Blackstone 
E. R. litUeton 
J. S. W. Drax 
G. Greenall 
W. ColUns 
Sir C. Douglas 
W. G. Hayter 
R. Blakemore 
G. C. Forester 
J. M. Gaskell 
G. Wilson 
De Lacy Evans 
C. Lushington 
Colonel Freeston 
W. D. Christie 
R. Stephenson 
R. C. Hildyard 
Colonel Lindsay 
R. A. Thicknesse 
Viscount Somerton 
B.Carter 
Sir J. B. East 



197 Windsor 

196 Wolyerhampton 

199 Woodstock 

200 Worcester 

201 Wycombe 
! Tarmonth 

208 York 



Colonel Reid 
Lord J. Hay 

C. VilUers 
T. Thomley 
Blarquis of Blandfinxl 

D. Ricardo 
P. Rufford 
G. H. Dashwood 
M. T. Smith 
Lord A. Lennox 

E. Coope 
H. R. Yorke 
J. G. Smyth 

IhtgUsh Counties, 



204 Bedfordshire 
206B«riuhire 



206 Buckinghamsh'e 

207 Gambridg«diire 

208 Cheshire (North) 

209 Cheshire (South) 

210 ComwaU (East) 

211 Cornwall (West) 

212 Cumberland 
(East) 

218 Cumberland 

(West) 
214 Derbyshire 

(North) 
216 Derbyshire 

(South) 

216 Deyonshire 
(North) ' 

217 Deyonshire 
(South) 

218 Dorsetshire 

219 Durham (North) 

220 Durham (South) 

221 Essex (North) 



223 



(South) 



223 Gloucestershire 
(Bast) 

224 Gloucestershire 
(West) 

226 Hampshire 
(North) 

226 Hampshire 

(South) 

227 Herefordshire 



ILordAlford 

(H.RnsseU 

Palmer 

Pusey 

Lord Banington 

Cayendish 

DuPr6 

D'Israeli 

Yorke 

Towneley 

Lord G. Manners 

Egerton 

Stanley 

Sir P. Egerton 

Tollemache 

Carew 

•Robarts 

Pendarves 

Sir C. Lemon 

Howard 

MarshaU 

Slanley 

Lowther 

Hon. G. H Cayendish 

Eyans 

ColyiUe 

Mundy 

Sir T. D. Adand 

L. W. Buck 

Lord Courtenay 

ShrJ.B.Y.BuUer 

Bankes 

Seymer 

Floyer 

R. D. Shafto 

LordSeaham 

Lord H. Vane 

Farrer 

Tyrell 

Beresford 

Bramston 

Buxton 

SirW Codrington 

Marquis Worcester 

Grantley Berkeley 

Hale 

C. S. Lefeyre 

Sir W. Heathcote 

Lord C. Wellesley 

Compton 

G. C. Lewis 

Bailey 

Hnggett 



Digitized 



by Google 



184a] 



HOUBS OV COMMONS. 



399 



PlAoes. 


Memheni. 


Places. 


Members. 


228 Her^ordshire 


Brand 


261 SusMx (West) 


Earl of March 




Halsey 




Prime 




Sir H. Meux 


262 Warwickshire 


Newdegate 




FeUowes 


(North) 


Spooner 
Shirl^ 
Lord Brooke 




Thomhill 


263 Warwickshin 


280 Isle of Wight 


Simeon 


(South) 


281 Kent (East) 


Deedes 




Hon. H. C. Lowther 




Plumptre 




Aid. Thompe(m 


282 Kent (Wert) 


Filmer 


266Tnitshire 


Long 




Hodges 


(North) 


Sotheron 




Patten 


266 Wiltshire (South) Bennett \ 


(North) 


Heywood 




Sidney Herbert 


284 Lancashire 


Villier8» 






(South) 


Brown 


^ <^*> , 


Foley 


286 Leicestershiie 


Lord C. Manners 




General Lygon 


(North) 


Famham 


(West) 


Knight 


286 Leioesterahire 


Halford 


269 Yorkshire (Ebst 


LordHotham 


(South) 


Packe 


Riding) Broadley 




Christopher 


270 Yorkshire ICayley 


(North) 


Cholmeiey 




288 linoolnshiK 


Sir J. Trollope 


271 Yorkshire Lord Morpeth 


(South) 


Lord Buighley 


(West Biding) fCobden 


240 NorlbJk (Bast) 


Lord R. Grosrenor 
Mr. B. Osborne 
Wodehouse 
Burroughes 

T.P.MaunseU 

A. Stafford (O'Brien) 

Sir C. Knightley 


Welsh C 

272 Anglesea County 

273 Breconshire 


Totmties. 

SirR.B W.BuIkeley 

Bailey 

PoweU 

Trevor 

Davies 

Pennant 

Sir W. W. Wynn 

Hon. W. Bagot 


2a Norfolk (West) 

242 Northampton- 
shiie (North) 

248 Northampton- 
shire (South) 

244 Northumheieland 
(North) 


274 Cardiganshire 

275 Carmarthenshire 

277 Denbighshire 


Sir G. Grey 
Lord Ossulston 


278 Flintshire 

279 Glamorganshire 


Hon. E. L. Mostyn 

LordAdare 

Tidbot 




M. BaU 

S.C.H.Ogle . 
LordH.Bentinek 


280 Merionethshire 


Richards 


(South) 


281 Monmouthshire 


C. 0. Morgan 
Lord G. Somerset 


(North) 

(South) 
248 Oxfordshire 


Houldsworth 
Hildyaid 

Lord Norreys 


288 Pem^okeehire 
284 Radnorshire 


C. W. Wynn - 
Tiscount Emlyn 
SirJ.Walshe 




Harcourt 


Scotland. I 




Henley 


286 Aberdeen 




249 Bntlandshiie 


Heathoote 




Admiral Gordon 




Noel 


287 Argyllshire 


D.M'NeiU 


250 Shropshhs 


TiBcoont Clive 


288 Ayr 


Lord J. Stuart 


(North) 


W. 0. Gore 


289 Ayrshire 


Oswald 


261 Shropshire 


Hon. R. H. Caite 


290 Banff County 


J. Duff 


(South) 


Viscount Newport 


291 Berwickshire 


Hon. F. Scott 




Miles 


292 Buteshire 


Worttey 


(East) 


Pinney 


298 Caithness-shire 


Traill 


268 Someraetshiie 


Moody 






(West) 


Hood 


and Kinross 


Gen. Morison 


264 Staffordshire 


C.B.Adderl^' 




Smollett 


(North) 


LordBrackley 


296 Dumfriesshire 


Lord Drumlanrig 




CoL Anson 


297 Dumfries (B'ghs 


W.Bwart 


(South) 


Lordlngestre 


299 Dundee 


G.Duncan 


266 Suffolk (East) 






Cowan 




E. S. Gooch 




W.G.Craig 


267 Suffolk (West) 


Waddfaigton 




Sir J. Hope 




Bennett 


301 ElginJtNaimCos 


Bruce 


268 Surrey (East) 


King 


802 Elgin (Burghs) 


Duff 




Alcock 


808 Falkirk (Burghs) 


Lordlincdn 


269 Surrey (West) 


Denison 


d04Fifeshire 


I'etgus 




Drummood 


906Forftxsbire 


Lord Hallyburton 


260 Sussex (East) 


Fuller 


806 Glasgow 


MGregor 




Frewen 




Hastie 



► Betaracd also far Weift ri M m i Khin , 



t SIseted also for Stockport. 



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by Google 



essAT smiTAiii. 



[1848. 



PIMM. 


MMOMn. 


Plaeet. 


Ifamben. 


3f»7 Greenock 


Lord Melgund 




Lord Northland 


atrd Had^UDinoQ 


Sir H. r. DaTie 


361 Bonis 




ai9 Um*l.liDfftoiubir« 


Charteria 


363 ftiniiMnen 


Cole 


310 lBT*meiw(B'h«) 


A Mathena 


^68 Fermanagh 


Sir A. Brooke 




H. BailUa 


1 


Col.ArchdaU 


812 Ktlmarnork, &o. 


BouTeria 


864 Oalway, Town 


Blake 




Hon. H. Artmthnoi 


1 


O'Flaherty 


814 Kirkc«ld>,&e. 


Col. Ferguion 
MaitUnd 


,866 Galway County 


U. M. St. Goorgo 


816 Kirkcu.lbright 




Capt. Burke 


816 LADarkjOiirB 


\S. Lockhart 


|866 Kerry County 


M.J.O'ConneU 


817 UUh, &c. 


antberAird 




Herbert 




Dundas 


867 KilkMiny Co. 


Qreene 


819 MoatroM [Imod 




1 


Butler 


8i:0 Orkuey Mid Sbet- 


Dundaa 


368 KUdare County 




321 Pe^lMhlw 


)Iackenii0 


1 


Burke 


822 Paisley 


A. Hastie 


869 Kilkenny City 


J.O'Conn^ 


828 P*rth 


F.Maule 


870 King's CfMinty 


Weslenra 


824 Perthshire 


Dnunmond 


, 


Armstrong 


825 Renfrew8h'e[«h'e 


CoLMure 


871 KfaisalB 


R.L. Guinness 


826 Roi«& Cromartj- 




873Leltrim 


Hon. C. Clements 




J. B. Elliot 


1 


B. C. TennisoQ 


828 Selkirkshire 


Lockhart 


d78Limeilckaty 


J. O'ConneU* 


829 SoutherUndshire 


ShrD. Dundas 


1 


J. O'Brien 


830 St. Andre vs, &c. 


B.EUIoe^Jr. 


874LiBMrickCoanty 


W. MonseU 


831 Stirling (Burghs) 


Smith 




W. Smith O'Brien 


332 Stirlingshire 
888 Wick Boroughs 


Forbei 


876Ii8burB 


Sir H. Seymour 


Loch 


876 LondoodenyGky 


Sir R. A. Feignsoa 


884 Wigton (Burghs) 
b35 Wigtonshire 


Sir J. RTTi^gart 
Cmx. T. DaL^pIe 


377 Longford County 


Fox 
Blackan 


luU 


878 Louth 


R. M. BeDew 


836 Antrim County 


SirS.W.MacnaC^n 


1 


C. FOrteseue 


837 Armagh County 


N. Alexander 
ShrW.Vemer 
Caulfleld 




SirR. Bates(m 
Capt. Jones 
Norreys 


888 Armagh' 


'380 Mallow 


' ' 


Col. Rawdon 


881Biayo 


Moora 




Viscount Bernard 






d4OBeUk0t 


Tennant 


882 Msath 


M. B. CorbaUy 




Lord J. Chichester 




H.Grattan 


841 Carrlokferguf 


Hon. W. H. Cotton 


388 Mona^^ian 


Hon. y. Dawson 


842 Carlow County 


Col. Bmen 




C.P.Leslie 


' 


Capt. M'Cnintock 


384 New Boss 


Talbot 


848 Carlow 


Sadleir 


;386Newry 


TiscNewry 


844Ca8hel 


T. O'Brien 


887 Queen's County 

1 


Col Dunn 


846CaTaa 


Tonng 
CoLMazwell 


Hon. T. Vesey 
Fitipatrick 


846 Clara County 


Sir L. O'Brien 


888 Roscommon 


French 






1 


Grsoe 


847 Clonmel 


Hon. C. LawlsM 


,389 811go 


Somers 


848 Coleraine 


Dr Boyd 


,390 Stigo County 


J. FfoUiott 


849 Cork 


Fagan 




O.Gora 




Callaghan 


391 Tipperary 


Nicholas Maber 


850 Cork County 


Roche 




Francis ScuUy 




Power 


392Tra]ee 


M. O'ConneU 


861 Donegal 


Col. Conolly 


398tyrone 


Lord C. Uamttton 


862 Downpafcriek 


Sir B. Hayes 
Ker 


394 Waterind City 


Rifffat Hon. 0. Cony 


858Down8hin 


Vise. Castlereagfa 




D. O'ConneU 




LordE. HiU 


396 WaterfbrdCo. 


Power 


864Drogheda 


Sir W. Someryille 




L. Keathig 


865 Dublin City 


E. Orogan 


3 ^6 Wexford County 


H.K. G.Morian 




J. Reynolds 




James Fagan 


866Dundalk 


C. C. M»TaTish 


397 Wexford 


Derereuz 


868 DubUn County 


R. L. Shell 


398 WestmeaOi 


Sir P. Nugent 


Hamilton 




H.Bfagan 




CoL Taylor 


390 Wicklow County 


Lord Milton 


869 Dublin UniTer- 


Hamilton 




Col. Acton 


dty 


Shaw 


400Tonghal 


Anstey 



•Elected also in 



City. 



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184a] ORBAT BRITAIN. 341 

JUDICIABT. 

England, 

High Court of Chanc&fy. — Lord Cottenham, Lord High Chancdlor ; 
salary, j£l 4,000 : Lord Langdale, Matter of the Bolls, £7,000 : Sir Lanncdot 
Shadwell, Sir J. L. Knight Bruce, and Sir James Wigram, Vice ChanceRars, 
j£6,000 each. 

Court of the Q^een''8 Bench. — Lord Denman, Lord Chief Justice; 
^10,000: Sir J. Patterson, Sir J. Williams, Sir J. T. Oleridge, and Sir 
Wm. Wightman, Judges, £5,500 each. 

Court of Common Pleas. — Sir Thomas Wilde, Lord C^ef Justice, £8,000 ; 
Sir Th. Coltman, and Sir W. H. Maule, Sir C. Creswell, Sir W. Erie, 
Judges, £5,500 each. 

Court of Exchequer. — Sir Frederic Pollock, Lord Chief Baron, £7,ck)0 : 
Sir James Parke, Sir E. H. Alderson, Sh- R. M. Rolfe, Sir Thomas Piatt, 
Barons, £5,500 each. 

Scotland 

Court of Sessions. — Ist Division. David Boyle, Lord President, £4,300 : 
J. H. Mackenzie, Lord Mackenzie ; J. Pullerton, Lord Fullerton ; Francis 
Jeffrey, Zorrf Jeffrey, Judges, £2,000 each. 

2d Division. — John Hope, Lord Justice Clerk, £4,000: J. H. Forhes, 
Lord Medwyn ; Sir J. W. Moncrieff, Lord Moncrieff ; H. Cockburn, Lord 
Cockbom, Judges, £2,000 each. Those of the Judges who are also Judges 
of the Criminal Court haye an additional £600 a year. 

Outer House ; Permanent Lords Ordinary, attached equally to both Divisions 
of the Court. J. Cunninghame, Lord Cunninghame; Sir J. A. Murray, 
Lord Murray ; James Ivory, Lord Ivory ; Aleiumder Wood, Lord Wood ; 
Patrick Robertson, Lord Robertson. 

Ireland. 

Court of Chancery. — Sur Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, Lord Chancdlor, 
£8,000 : Francis Blackbame, Master of the Bolls, £4,500. 

Court of the Queen's Bench. , Lord Chief Justice, £5,076 : 

Charles Burton, Philip C. Crampton, Louis Perrin, Judges, £3,692 each. 

Court of Common Pleas. — Hon. John Doherty, Lord Chief Justice, 
£4,615 : Robert Torrens, Nicholas Ball, and J. D. Jackson, Judges, £3,692 
each. 

29* 



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342 



RELIEF FOB IKWT.A»J> AKD BCOTLAMO. 



[1848. 



Contributions made by the People of the United States during the year 1847, for 
the relief of Ireland and Scotland. 

N. B. The following list is known to be very incomplete, and is sub- 
mitted in the hope of furnishing more satisfactory statistics in our next 
number. All the returns haye b^n obtained from original sources, except- 
ing that from New Orleans. In the enumeration of towns which con- 
tributed through the Boston Committee, some which contributed both 
money and provisions may have been counted twice. The amount con- 
tributed by charitable associations and committees, is supposed to have been 
less than the private remittances of the Irish in this country to their friends 
at home. Through Messrs. Hamden & Co., of Boston, there were remitted 
from November 1st, 1846, to October Ist, 1847, in small bills, mostly below 
£20, and all under jGIOO, $536,056 for the relief of the suffering, and for pas- 
sage money to this country. Those who have fuller statistics are respect- 
fully requested to send them to the editor for publication in the next vol* 



Places. 


Amount in 
Money. 


Amount in 


Total. 


Boston (City), 

233 towns in Massachusetts, 


$51,372 46 




$51,372 46 


45,166 91 


15,400 00 


60,566 91 


33 towns in Maine, 


6,203 03 


8,566 00 


9,769 03 


101 towns in New Hampshire, . 


10,228 85 


7,344 00 


17,572 85 


58 towns in Vermont, . 


2,745 22 


1,397 00 


4,142 22 


6 towns in Rhode Island, . 


950 50 


80 00 


1,030 50 


13 towns in Connecticut, 


731 00 


337 00 


1,068 00 


Other towns in New England, . 


179 28 




179 28 


Choctaw Indians in Arkansas, 


116 25 




116 25 


Indiana, Wisconsin, and other 








sources, 


3,878 13 


901 00 


4,779 13 


Through Bishop Fitzpatrick, ex- 








clusive of relief committees, 
Total forwarded from Boston, . 

Philadelphia Committees to July 29, 
Catholic churches in and near rhil- 


24,251 10 
5,000 00 


68,225 38 


24,251 10 


174,847 78 


73,225 38 


7,059 00 




7,059 00 


Total from Philadelphia, [adelph^ 
Providence, R. I., . 


6,377 00 




80,284 38 


6,377 00 


Richmond, Va., . . .^ . 




15,000 00 


15,000 00 


Salem, Mass., 


2,966 97 


472 00 


3,438 97 


New Bedford, Mass., . 


3,539 45 


308 15 


3,847 60 


Nantucket, Mass., . 


2,180 69 




2,180 69 


Cincinnati, 


30,385 00 




30,385 00 


Louisville, Ky., 


9,670 14 




9,670 14 


Washington, D.C., . 




5,300 00 


5,300 00 


do. Corcoran & Riggs, 


5,000 00 




?,000 00 


Baltimore, 


16,354 00 


4,736 00 


21,090 00 


New Orleans, .... 


50,000 00 




50,000 00 


Catholic contributions in New York, 








exclusive of those forwarded by 








relief committees, 


13,000 00 




13,000 00 


Throuo;h N. Y. Commit, to May 27, 


169,450 13 




169,450 13 


Vigo County, Indiana, . 

Totjil f OTitrniutions fi-om XT. Rtntc«. 




1,441 65 


1,441 65 


$466,805 11 


$124,508 18 


«.')9].ni.3 ?9 



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AMERICAN OBITUARY. 



18 4 6 



Sept 8. — Oflf Cape Hatteri^, Georgt Mifflin Bache^ Lieutenant-command- 
ing United States Brig Washington. Lieutenant Bache was bom in Phila- 
delphia, where he received his education previously to his entrance into the 
Navy of the United States. He was ardently attached to his profession, and 
his mind was directed to the branches of science which bear upon nautical 
affairs. His service on ship board was nearly constant, and was always 
acceptable to those in command. About eight years ago he entered upon 
the duties of the coast survey, in which he distinguished himself by his 
precision, and the fertility of resource which such a work admits. First 
under Commander Gedncy, and then as the chief of a hydrographie party, 
he has been engaged in the survey of the shores of New York, New Jersey, 
Delaware, and Maryland. His name will be found in connection with, and 
responsible for, parts of the hydrography of the coast-survey charts of New 
York Bay, DeUware Bay, the Chesapeake, and the harbors of Annapolis, 
Baltimore, and Little Egg harbor, and others. He looked to the exploration 
of the Gulf Stream as the crowning labor upon the work. The surface had 
been exammed by his great ancestor ; and he, with the resources of modem 
science at command, was to explore the depths, and to reveal to the navi- 
gator the laws of temperature, rate and set of cuirent, in and near this 
mighty ocean stream. He had made one very successful cruise, and was 
returning fh>m a second, the results of which are reported to have been not 
less interesting than those of the first, when overtaken by the storm of the 
seventh, and hurricane of the eighth, of September. All that nautical skill 
and intrepidity could do were tried to save his officers, crew, and vessel ; and 
the very manoeuvre which gave them safety rendered it impossible that he 
should recover the deck when swept from it He had provided for the 
safety of the records of observation, even in the event of the loss of his 
vessel. Every generous spirit will seek to connect his name imperishably 
with the exploration of the Gulf Stream, which he died in attempting. 

Sept 21. — In the battle at Monterey, Brevet Major Philip N. Barbour^ of 
the 3d Infantry. Migor Barbour was a native of Kentucky, and graduated 
at West Point in 1834. He was breveted a captain for gallant services in 
Florida on the 15th of April, 1842, and a mi^or fVom 9th May last for gallant 
conduct in the battle of Besaca de la Pahna. He fell at Monterey in the 
thickest of the fight, whilst his regiment was subjected to a murderous fire 



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344 AMEBICAS OBITUABT FOR 1846. 

from masked batteries in the streets, which, after severely wotmding its 
commander, Major Lear, killed three captains and two subalterns, and left 
the regiment commanded by its youngest captain. He was an ornament to 
his profession, as much fVom his rare private virtues as from his public 
character. 

Dec 29. —In Baltimore, Hon. Alexander Borroio, United States Senator 
from Louisiana, aged about 45. Mr. Barrow was a native of Nashville, 
Tennessee, where, after having completed liis education, he was admitted to 
the bar ; soon after which, he removed to Louisiana, where he pursued his 
profession for some time with success. Being independent in his circum- 
stances, and fond of agricultural pursuits, after a few years' practice he 
retired from the bar, and became a successM planter. He served repeatedly 
in the Legislature of Louisiana with reputation, and was regarded as a dis- 
tinguished member; and he received fh)m the people of the state many 
other proofs of their highest respect and confidence. His personal qualities 
were highly esteemed, and, upon the official announcement of his death, 
his brother senators expressed unusual feelings of esteem and respect. 
He entered the Senate of the United States m 1841. 

Sept. 29. — In San Augustine City, Texas, Mir. Samuel Benton^ brother of 
Hon. Thomas H. Benton, about 60. Mr. Benton was a native of North Car- 
olina, and after residing in Tennessee and at St Louis, removed to Texas 
about 1822. He was a distinguished supporter of the rights of Texas, and 
afterwards a member of her Congress. 

Nov. 16. — In Annapolis, the Hon. Theodorick Bland^ Chancellor of Mary- 
land, in the 70th year of his age. He held for twenty-two years the office 
of Chancellor, and discharged its laborious and responsible duties so as to 
command high approbation from the profession and the public. He com- 
menced his judicial career as a Judge of the Baltimore County Court; was 
thence transferred to the bench of the United States District Court for Mary- 
land, and thence to the office of Chanciellor. He filled other public trusts, 
and in all of them manifested great energy and decision of character. 

Sept. 21. — At his residence near Jackson, Miss. Hon. Rcbert H. Brechner^ 
Chancellor of the State of Mississippi, aged 45. He was a native of Ken- 
tucky, and removed to Mississippi in 1824. 

Oct. 11. — At Cambridge, Mass. Thomas Breese, Esq.^ purser in the United 
States Navy. Mr. Breese was bom in Newport, R. I. In early life he left 
Newport, attached to the personal staff of Commodore Perry. He was in 
the combat on Lake Erie with his friend and commander, and assisted in 
discharging the last gun which was fired on board the Lawrence. How the 
duties assigned him were performed, the friendship while he lived, and grief 
at his death, of officers of all grades in the service, bear ample testimony. 

Sept 29. —In Washington, D. C, Samuel Burche, Esq., aged 59. Mr. Burche 
was formerly, during many years, the able and faithM chief clerk in the 
clerk's office of the House of Representatives, and always eigoyed, in the 
highest degree, the respect and confidence of the members of the house. 
He was, at the time of his death, a member of the City Council, and was 
greatly esteemed by his fellow-citizens for his probity, intelligence, and pub- 
lic usel\i1ness. 



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▲MBEIOAN OBITUABT FOB 1846. 845 

Nqy. — In Elkridge, Md^ Mrs, Caton, relict of Richard Gaton, Esq^ and eld- 
est daughter of the lat« Charles Carroll of Carrollton. She survived to a ripe 
old tkge^ like her distinguished father, and leaves several children, among 
whom is the Marchioness of Wellesley, to perpetuate her many amiable 
qualities and high accomplishments. 

Dec. 31. — In Batavia, Genesee Co., N". Y.', James Cochran^ aged 83 years. 
To him the world owes the valuable invention of maldng cut naUs. He 
reaped no reward for his invention, but lived and died poor, a most honest 
and industrious man. He claimed also to have manufactured the first cents 
in this country. He was a brass founder ; and, when living in Philadelphia, 
Franklin flrequently visited his shop. 

Nov. 25. — In Farmington, Conn., Gen. Solomon Cotdes^ aged 89, an oflScer 
in the army of the Revolution. 

Oct. 31. — At Livingston, Va., Robert Currie Cutler, Esq., aged 53, clerk of 
the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery for Nelson county. As an 
officer he had few, if any, equals. He was Clerk or Secretary to every pub- 
lic body in the county in which he served. 

Sept. 17. — In New Haven, Conn., l^oyes DarH'^g, aged 64. He was bom 
in Woodbridge, Conn., and graduated at Tale College in 1801. He at first 
engaged in mercantile pursuits in New York city, but he left business for 
agricultural life. Being a man of scientific habits and attainments, he 
gave much attehtion to the improvement of horticulture, and to the inves- 
tigation of insects injurious to regetation ; and his papers on these subjects 
are considered valuable. He was for a long period Surveyor of New Haven 
County ; and had been Mayor of the city of New Haven. He was frequent- 
ly Judge of the County Court, and held this office at the time of his death. 

Dec 23. — In Catskill, N. Y., Orrin Day, Esq., aged 70. He was distin- 
guished for his finandal abilities, for his integrity and intelligence, and fbr 
his large wealth. 

Nov, 2. — In Salem, Mass., WtUtam Dean, of the Society of Friends, aged 
71. In early life, in the commencement of his business. Friend Dean failed, 
and his creditors readily discharged him from the payment of the balance 
he was unable to meet. In after life his business was successful, and he 
remitted to his creditors every cent of the balance, from which he had been 
discharged, principal and interest This stem integrity characterized his 
whole life. 

August 9. — At Brattleborough, Vermont, Lieut.- Colond Greenli^ Dearborn, 
United States Army. Colonel Dearborn entered the army as a lieutenant 
of Artillery, in March, 1642 ; served with distinction during the war with 
England, and in the late Seminole war, acquiring the confidence of the Gov- 
ernment, the respect of his associates, and the affection of his troops. 

Dec 2. — In Charleston, S. C, Hon. Henry Deas, Ute President of the Sen- 
ate of that State. 

Oct — In Syracuse, N. Y., Hon. Jonas Eartt, Jr., aged 60. Mr. Earll, at the 
time of his death, was one of the canal commissioners of the state ; and, 
during a long public' life, held various stations of honor and credit. He was 
for a while a Senator, and was conspicuous, in that capacity, as one of the 
** fleventeen " of 16G4. 



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346 ▲MBSIOAN OBITUABT JTOB 1846. 

Dec. 16. — In Newport, R. I., Hon, George Engs^ aged 60. An enterprisiiig 
merchant, and several times lieutenant-govemor of the state. 

Nov. 14. — In Harrisburg, Pa. (at the residence of his son-in-law, Francis 
R. Shunk), Ex- Governor William Findlei/^ aged 78. 

Sept 15. — In Cheshire, Conn., Samuel A. Foot, He was bom in Cheshire, 
and graduated at Yale College in 1797. He was often member, and twice 
Speaker, of the House of Representatives of Connecticut He was member 
of Congress from 1&19 to 1821, and agam fVom 1823 to 1825, and member 
of the United States Senate from 1827 to 1833. He was chosen Governor of 
Connecticut in 1834, and served in this office one' year. 

Oct 13.— At Washington, D. C, Rigk Son. Henry Stephen Fox, late her 
Britannic Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States. Mr. Fox 
was the son of General Fox, and nephew to the distinguished statesman 
whose name he bore. He was an upright man and an able diplomatist He 
was the first Minister Plenipotentiary of Great Britain to Buenos Ayres, 
fh)m which he was transferred in the same capacity to Rio de Janeiro, and 
thence to this Government in 1836. He conducted all the difficult negotia- 
tions with the American Cabinet during the trying event of the Canada 
rebellion, in which were involved the delicate affair of the Caroline, the case 
of McLeod, &c These questions, by his firmness, temper, and good judg- 
ment^ he carried to a happy conclusion, and preserved the fHendly relations 
of the two countries. He did not return to England on being relieved from 
his public duties by Mr. Pakenham, but preferred to remain in his retire- 
ment at Washington. He was an accomplished scholar, much attached to 
botany, natural history, and other elegant studies; and notwithstanding 
some peculiarities of disposition, he enjoyed the respect and esteem of all 
those who knew him best 

Oct 11.— At Monterey, of wounds received in the battle Sept 2l8t, Lieut, 
R. H. Graham, 4th Infantry, the son of the Hon. John Graham, formeriy 
Minister of the United States to the Court of Brazil, and a graduate of West 
Point. 

Dec. 10. — In Maskarene, N. B., 3ir. James Grierson, aged 105. He was 
one of the loyalists who left the United States in the Revolution. 

Dec. 2. — In Monterey, Mexico, Brigadier- General Thomas L. Homer, oi 
the volunteer service. Greneral Hamer emigrated to Ohio firom Pennsyl- 
vania when quite young, and, without the aid of a liberal edu(5ation or 
family mfluence, entered upon the profession of the law in one of the south- 
em counties. His career as a lawyer was brilliant and successful. He early, 
however, entered public life, and for many years represented his state in 
Congress. The ability and judgment that he displayed in the exercise of 
his military conmiand, and the sterling qualities which marked his private 
character, endeared him to the a:rmy and to his many personal (Hends. By a 
resolution of the Ohio Legislature, his body was brought from Mexico, and 
interred in the soil of Ohio, at the expense of the state. 

Oct. 24. — In Woodford Co., Kentucky, Henry, an old servant of James H. 
Mliot, Esq., aged 112. He was bom in Maryland, and when two years old 
was taken to Staunton, Ya., and afterwards to Kentucky, where he 8i)ent 
the larger portion of his life. At the age of 84, he married his fourth wife, 
and raised a family of seven children. 



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AMERICAN OBITUABT FOB 1846. 847 

Angnst 2. — At Ntew Orleans, Mrs. Mary Austin Hollep, widow of Rev. Dr. 
Holley, late President of the Transylvania University, Kentucky. Upon 
the death of her husband, Mrs. H. emigrated to Texas under the protection 
of Gren. S. T. Austin, where she wrote the history of that country, which 
was then stmggimg against the combined forces of Mexico. She was an 
accomplished and learned woman. 

Sept. 21. — Killed in the battle of Monterey, Charles Eoshins, First Lieu- 
tenant and Adjutant of Fourth Infantry, aged 33. Lieut. H. was a native of 
Edenton, North Carolina. He graduated at the Military Academy in 1836, 
and immediately joined his company in the Cherokee nation. On the 
departure of the' Indians and the troops, he disposed of the public property 
and closed ihe affairs of Government in that country ; which responsible 
trust he executed with judgment and ability.. In 1839 he moved with the 
regiment to Fort Gibson, Arkansas, and was commissary, and occasionally 
quartermaster, at this post nearly three years. He went with his regiment 
to Corpus Christi in 1845, and did good service in the battles of Palo Alto 
and Kesaca de la Palma. 

Sept 21. — In the battle of Monterey, First Lieut. Douglass S. Irwin^ of the 
3d Infantry. He was educated at West Point, and distinguished himself in 
the Florida war. 

Sept. 7. — At Goshen, Orange county, New York, Hon. Jeromus Johnson^ 
formerly a Representative in Congress from the city of New York. 

Oct. 25. — At Stratford, Conn. Hon. Samuel Wm. Johnson, aged 85. He 
was a native of Stratford, Conn., and graduated at Yale College in 1779. He 
was several years Judge of the County Court in the county of Fairfield, and 
a member of the Governor's Council. 

Nov. 14. — In Detroit, CdUmel De Garmo Jones, aged 59. ColonelJones 
was a member of the Territorial Council before the admission of Michigan 
as a state, and subsequently a member of the City Council, Mayor of De- 
troit, and a member of the State Senate. His industry and perseverance 
secured him an ample fortune, from which he contributed liberally to objects 
of charity and public improvement 

Oct 2. — In Williamstown, Ebenezer Kellogg, aged 57. He was bom Oct 
25, 1789, and graduated at Yale College in 1810. In 1815, he was elected to 
the Professorship of the Greek and Latin Languages in Williams College, 
which office he filled with distinguished usefulness. 

Oct 31. — In Monterey, of wounds received in the battle on the 21st 
September, Major W. W. Lear, 3d Infantry. 

Sept 17. — In Sherburne, Mass., Dea. Aaron Ldand, aged 95 years, the last 
survivor of a family of four sons and four daughters, all but one of whom 
lived to the advanced age of upwards of 80 years. 

Sept. 21. — Killed in the battle at Monterey, Captain Henry McKavett, of 
the 8th Infantry. He was of Irish origin, and in early childhood was left an 
orphan. He found fHends in the ladies of the Orphan Asylum Society, in 
New York city. A sprightly, gifted boy, he made rapid improvement, and 
evinced so much promise that pains were taken to secure him a place at 
West Point In his trunk after the battle, was found his will, by which he 
had bequeathed to the Asylum all his property. 



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348 iJCXmiOAir OBITUABT Fom 1846. 

Dec. 26. — In Washington, D. C, John McLeod, E$q^ a^ abovt 80. The 
deceased was a native of Ireland, but for more than for^ years past was 
a distinguished teacher and Mend of education in Washington. 

Dec. 13.— In Taunton, Captain John Marstcm, aged 91, a patriot of the 
revolution. He was a commandant of artillery under (General Ejiox, and 
was beloved and respected by all. 

Dec. 10. — In New Orieans, Hon, Francois Xavier Martin, aged 84. He 
was bom at Marseilles, France, March 17th, 1762. At the age of twenty, he 
emigrated to the United States, and established himself in North Carolina, 
where he studied law, and was in due time called to the bar. He practised 
his profession for some years, and became distinguished for the extent of 
his legal knowledge, and for the forcible eloquence with which he brought 
it to bear on juries and judges. During the administration of President 
Jeiferson, he was appointed Judge of the Mississippi Territory and resided 
for some time at Natchez. On the 1st of February, 1815, he was elevated 
by Governor Claiborne to the Supreme Bench of Louisiana, as one of the 
assistant Judges ; and on the decease of Chief Judge George Bfatthews, on 
the 5th of January, 1837, he was appointed to succeed him. Judge Martm 
remained at the head of the Supreme Court until the new Constitution 
went into operation, when he retired, bearing with him the esteem of all 
ranks of his fellow-citizens, and the veneration of the whole bar of Lou- 
isiana. He was perhaps one of the most learned jurists that ever adorned 
the profession of the law in this country. Wholly devoted to his duties, 
of immense erudition, and with a mind singularly acute, there were few 
subjects that came before him that he did not decide in a manner to 
satisfy the most scrupulous, as to the awards of law and justice. His integ- 
rity, through a long life, extending over a period which; may almost^be said 
to have invested him with patriarchal influence, was unimpeachable. 

August 23. — In Rochester, N. Y., General Vincent Matthews, LLJ),, aged 
80. General Matthews was a distinguished member of the legal profession, 
and at the time of his death was, it is believed, the oldest practising lawyer 
in the state. For fifty-six years he pursued the practice of his profession 
with laborious industry, continuing warm in his attachment to it, and in- 
dustrious in the searches and study it demands, up to the very last, ceasing 
fh)m his labors only as he jrielded his life. He was bom in Orange county, 
June 29, 1766. He commenced the study, of law in the city of New York, 
with the late Colonel Robert Troup, in 1786, and was admitted to the bar in 
1790. In 1791, he removed to Tioga county, and fixed his residence near 
Elmira. He was elected to the Assembly in 1793, and in 1796, he was 
chosen senator fh>m the then Westem district In 1798, he was appointed 
one of the commissioners to examine into and settle the disputed claims as 
to military bounty lands, commonly called the Onondaga commissioners. 
In 1809, General Matthews was elected a representative in Congress. In 
1812« he was appointed District Attomey, for a district comprising several 
of the then Westem counties of this state. In 1816, he removed Ax>ni 
Elmira to Bath, in the county of Steuben ; and in 1821, he removed fh>m 
Bath to the city of Rochester, where he resided until the time of his death. 
He was fifty-five years of age when he removed to Rochester; where he 



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AMBBICAN ^BITUiJtT FOK 1646. 849 

practised law laboriously for twenty-fiye years, during whldi time he filled 
the office of District Attorney for Monroe connty for several years, and in 
1826 he represented the county in the Assembly. About five years since, 
the degree of doctor of laws was ccmferred upon him by Geneva College. 

Nov. 1. — On board the United States Frigate Cumberland, from wounds 
received in the attack on Tabasco, Oct. 26, Lieut. Ckariea W, Morris, son 
of Commodore Morris. He was a faithftil and accomplished officer, and an 
intelligent, unassuming, and religious man. 

Sept 21. — In Monterey, Captain Lewis N, Morris, of the 3d Infentry, 
aged 45. Captain Morris was a native of New York ; grandson of Lewis 
McHTis, one of the sixers of the Declaration of Independence ; and eldest 
son of Captain Staats Morris, who served as aid-de-camp to General Wa3me, 
during the Indian wars, at the close of the Revolution. He graduated at 
West Point in 1820, as Second Lieutenant of Artillery, but was soon aft^ 
attached to the 3d Infantry, then, and for several years after, stationed on the 
Western frontier. He served in the Black Hawk war in 1832, and waa 
promoted to a captaincy in October, 1833. In November, 1840, he was ordered 
to Florida, where he remained, in active and often dangerous service, until 
the spring of 1843* During most of the period of his residence in Florida, 
he had the command of his regiment ; and for six months he was intrusted 
with the command of the Middle District of Florida, having his headquar- 
ters at Fort Gamble. During that campaign he rendered efficient service. 
Few men displayed greater personal courage, and none stood more deserv- 
edly }iigh as an accomplished and successftd disciplinarian. He went to Cor- 
pus Christi with General Taylor, and commanded the 3d regiment in the 
well-fought battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. During those 
battles he exhibited great coolness and courage, and, for his distinguished 
gallantry in those engagements, was breveted Major. Captain Morris, 
in the battle which terminated his career, accompanied the command of 
Major Lear, in their gallant charge upon the masked batteries within the 
walls of Monterey; and when Major Lear fell wounded, he took command* 
His position was one of great hazard and responsibility ; and he fell, pressing 
forward to the capture of the battery, under a murderous and sweeping fire 
tiGm the enemy. 

Nov. 9. — In Washington, D. C, Com, John B. Nicholson, U. S. K, aged 
63. Commodore Nicholson entered the navy as a midshipman, in 1805. At 
the capture of the Macedonian frigate, he served as fourth lieutenant of 
the United States. He was the first lieutenant of the Peacock, and, after 
her brilliant fight with the Epervier, the commander of the prize ship, 
which he brought safely into port 

Nov. 27.--Ix)st with the steamer Atlantic, Lieut. A. H. Norton, of the 4th 
Infantry. He entered the Military Academy, from the state of Ohio, in 
1828, and graduated in 1842. For several years he was stationed at West 
Point as an assistant instructor of tactics, and was returning to the Military 
Academy when lost He was a fine soldier, an estimable man, and endeared 
to all who knew him. 

Nov. — In Smyrna, Asia Minor, Lkivid W. Qffley, Esq., United States 
Ck>nsul at that place. 
30 



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350 AMERICAN OBITUAKT FOR 1846. 

July 12. — On board the steamboat Missouri, on bis way to St Lonis, 
of a wound received in the battle of Palo Alto, Capt John Page^ 4th regi- 
ment U. S. Infantiy, aged 49. Capt Page was bom atFryeburg, Me., in 1797, 
entered the anny in 1818, as second lieutenant, was made first lieutenant 
in 1819, and captain in 1831. In 1832, he was the emigrating and disburs- 
ing agent for the removal of the Chocktaw Indians. He afterwards served 
in the Florida war, and was employed as a delegate from Government to 
the Indians. 

Nov. 15. — In Centreville, Queen Anne's county, Md., Eon. Lemuel Pur- 
nell, late Associate Judge of the second Judicial District, aged 72. 

Nov. 7. — At the Navy Yard, Pensacola, Foster Bhoades, Esq., United States 
naval constructor. He was one of the best practical naval architects of his 
day. Besides being the constructor of several of our most beautiftil ships 
of war, Mr. B. was the builder of all the vessels composing the Turkish 
navy, after thehr fleet was destroyed by the European Powers at the battle 
of Navarino. The gentlemanly bearing and moral excellence of the de- 
ceased through life, won for him the affection and esteem of all who knew 
him. 

Oct 27. — In Monterey, killed by a fall iVom his" horse, Brevet- Capt. JRan' 
dolph Ridgely, first Lieutenant 3d Artillery. Captain Ridgely gready distin- 
guished himself, and was breveted for his gallantry at the battles of Palo 
Alto and Resaca de la Palma. 

Nov. 26. — At Roxbury, Eon. Jotuxthan P. Soger