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- -»ii 





PriHttdhy (:,b,o„ Rrolkcr^, WashiHgtou. D. C. 











Committee of the Conference. 

vol- XL VI. 

WA8HIN<J*n)N. 1). C: 
pCBTJHBKit ht the (?<iNrKHK\X'i<: or ki'I-miintkshknts anh i'iiTS<'ii'Ar.i> hk 


iv Contents. 

^BOOL Itkus: AUbaiii&, Arkaneas, Chefoo, Chicngo, Cincionati, 
123 ; CleTcland, E|>hpUetft, Evangelical Lutheran, Georgia, 
OrooingeD, Halifax, Horace Mum, 124; La tiallp, Loaisiana. 
Mackay, Mao ■.'heater, MiuiieBota, MisalMippi. 125: Montana, 
N«w York, KOTtb Carolioa, Ohio, Rhode lalaud, 12'j ; St. 
John'8. South Garoliua. Western Oklahoma, 127. . E. A. F. 123 

Written Iianguage anil Ciiltore. 129 

The Deaf in Bneiin^sH, ..... Gkobqe S. Pobteb 111 
The Use of th« Micraphonograpb in the Ednrntion i>f the Deaf.~III, 

H. Mabicbelle 149 
Addition and SnbtractioD for Beginners, SAurEi. M. Pbeeuan, B. A. 159 
The Piano as an Aid to Speech, . Sibah A. Jobdax Monbo 1C6 

The Social SUtas of the Deaf in the Past.— I. 

•T. A. TiLUxoHAST. M. A. 170 
Science Teaching in Schools for the Deaf. Herbebt E. Dai. M. A. 183 
Some Incidents of Little Mary'M Firat Years at School. . . . 186 
The Deaf Section o( the Paria Congress of 1900. 

Amox G. Dbapbb. M. A. 218 
The Nnmber of Signs in the Sign- Lang ua^'e. 

WiLLiAX A. Caij>wei^ M. A. 223 
A Comment on CompariHon of Methods at Uonnt Aiiy. 

James L. Smith, M. A. -2l'4 
C<^nsangnineous Marriages, .... William Wade 231 

The Or&l Section of the Sixleenih Ueetin^ of the Convention, 

J. C. GoBDo:;. M. A., Ph. D. 232 
The Ueeting of the Nationnl Ednoational .ARsociation. 

Mart UcCow^ix 233 
A Monument to Hill. 


German TEAcaEKs 234 
School Items : .Alat>aiUH. 2:lt> : Gallandet. Muryhmd. Michigan, 
Miaaonri. Nebraska. North Cdr<>lina. 237.- OniLtrio. West Vir- 
ginia. Wisconsin. 33''. . E. A. F. 23fi 
MuCEiXAXEOCS ; .Anonvnioas Coutnbut:ons. 238: Morrison H-><idy's 
Works, 33i> ; Chnreh Work, -im : PyriodioiiU. 23li : Reports 
Keceive.1. "iW ; Erratum. i\>'. . . E. A. F. 23J* 
Dr. J. L. Noyes. A-iim* Tiir,)u, Haxsos. B. A. 241 
The Correoti'.m and Prevention of Mi-t.(ke7< lu I^ingiiai^e. 

MiNxiE E. MoBBN 242 
The Social StatiLsofthe Deaf iu tbe Pa-t.~II. 

■I. A. TlLLKlHlST. H. A. *J.=iO 
Cale&ilur Work. .\ssi Sffjk- Giw 2S4 

Lii>-Kea<Iin^. ... k'.-sz^ ^7Ei^-KB 277 

Th« Eilni.-4tional Vaine .f P:. ;nr^*.— II. Alv[s E. Poit. M. A. 2nt 

The KeUtkm of Temcher v Pii; il. L. tTiE K. Clalsf 2'.^* 



TblM P«rt , r . E. A. F. SOI 

"Th* iNtrt YtLOiiij. laABKL ViX UE WHTKB JsKum 80fi 

i^uiMiUo&t liibe Askvd oa tbe A<lniiMton •>( Pniiiln to Uiu Indwna 

IiMitatiaD E. A- P- 310 

Tba MinDMDl* Si'Ikki) for tli« l>eitf nn Eilnrktinnal limtiiutivii by 

Ltfiahtivc EuuctitiAiit, Jivkh I.. Surm, U. A. 318 

lln CanipuiwM) ot Ui-iIkhU, Bamvu. Oaktoh Davipmx. B. A. 'iZ\ 

A DmrilliDil Wrtu-r »t Work. . Euwauc V. Ct.xiatx, ». A. 3'2T 

B««otiiU-»>« AdopUd \>j tha Uoaring S««tt<Hi »( the PuiH GoogreM 

nfltMO ... 33!) 

Tm> BisTnonm MnriKn i»v thz CoiiT'lijmoN or Aubbicax Ivntira- 

TOM gr Tax I>ur. Euwako U, Gili.aitpbt, Pb. D.. LL. D. 931 
Tliti Koniial Hxriinn. J. W. BiartXRS. M. A. 'JM 

lite Art SmIIoti. .... EitKEK-r Xrm. 

TliP Indnurial Section. Wakkeh RuaiKiton. W. A. 33A 

HoneKa or IThuc^iiuji* : Buao«r»ir'H " l>e U Sunll-MDUti- mq |>olut 
dv vn* oiTil tH crimiiii-l." *J7: Itobinnoo'ii u>(l WMltlito'* 
**B(>uit«ii[rr'(lb« Wi»cuiiduSi:htK>1."33&i Pr«c<-eaitigH oftlte 
RllflUh CuufHr«ari' of fnni'iiMlH. 'ASA: PnicntdtB^ at lb* 
Unnng ScvtioD ol llie I^ia Uoii|[r««) of IMH), 33» i t<t!pt>ft« 
9f Scbootn. etc.. :idd. . E. A. F. »37 

HUfj'B '• HpMck (or Ibe U<!tti,'' . Sr«AK>i* E. Ilnx 330 

Bcsuoi. Inns: ColottibU. 31:; : Oitrbri '1^ : a«UM>. lUif*x, K.-itiMU. 
Hauw. Mll*>*uk>^. Muiitanm, UT; Ne« Yurk, Noitb Dukotn. 

Ohio, l"t»h, WiiK-i.DBiD, 34(1 K A. F. 31R 

Thb ttiXTXKKiu HcEnsa or tuk CuxvxMTiufi up AiiKMir«K Ikbtddc. 

TnuovTttBbur K. A. P. 349 

Th* lUeitng Of D«(i«iin»il Kiitfti.-ii of Iha NitliouBl Ednnttionftl 

AMuef«lh>n at l>etttHt. UlobMrui. Euut A. Okptki, U. A. 98» 
Tb« [■'Inn Two Yc«n' Wntk in Ct«4itira|ilir, OinouxK K. SMrrn 39I> 

A Hi}{hnr SUndAnl of PrintHrjr (vduc^iio'i in our 9ch<K>b(, 

inuvh I^ Hmith, M. a. \0a 
Ckndiiw C. Swuat. Job Willuuh, M. A., L. H. D. 417 

Tfa* PormkltoB »f « 6i>e«cli BvatiuK-ol iu ■ Ci<iitbinr>l Sjatf w HcliMji, 

W. E. T»iuuE. M. A, lao 
Tb* D««f In tta« LcfCRl ProfMnioti, Tiieoir>iui Ghadt. U. I.. -ISK 

NolMOt) MMrattl aud IndtMtoialTraiuUiK— tV, 

WAniiKx RoBJKfon, M, A. 494 
Knm» LlUlfl Poxm AtBOnjt onr Butfliah VioM, 

Pi>rTB VASttKnurr, B. A. 430 
OatbarUi* P«deni*a, ... IIvha L. RkSJiAOUi Ufl 

Tb* UoiiMIIiud E|iKil>I« li> 8<-ti'<ol* fur tbe Denf. Wu-luh W*i>m 45) 
NoTi'm or Ptmi-iiATiitxg; Arnonlil** " Un« Am* en Prtwn:" 

Ww1?'s " Tli« D««f-ltllDd," E. A. P. 4A1 

■■• Oiii«aN>. 

'4inM*w^<i» Hiaaiai^ili Kiaan*. < iiinwii. fiS Si<w K^EWi 
••w 7-i*li *»»*li '.^tnJinik. fiu-k litm-v^ KM 'Juii, OvoBaL 

Trf *^l*l *ai I- .f -it* r*-srf J» -Jut fiA ~m. 

-yn* JtMTtft -^ M^Quvitt T. A. Tk:^ *)•■ 

ruOy ':^rfWCit *ri\^r J-«C7« C O-cs^^- K. A.. [% D. 4n 

JfcwaiVM '* ^sjnwc »?*■.*» Ei«?HM>-.&-.. htMtiVX'^. aarf Ci^^i^ oa 

MS, . . , . E. 4. F. *M 

I'awav* Arvrwl 'A •'.o^ £4)i«»U«« '.^ tl« Dtsf .' 

pUTTTU. H.n M. A. 34$ 

itM; UarfimA. Mtmrmr.. {■•r%t,f,jl7*t.-^. 'if) batk l-i»ad.&\. 
W»^«*», ttl, . E. 1. F. 54* 




Vol. XLVI, No. 1. 

JANUARY, 1901. 


The New School Butldinq of the Michigan School fob 

THE Deaf. 

In 1899 tlie Legislature of Michigan appropriated $76,000 
for the purpose of bnilding a new echooi house for the 
State School for the Deaf at Flint. In September of that 
year ground was broken and, owing to the remarkably 
open winter which followed, work was almost uninter- 
rapted until the opening of school this fall. On the 19th 
of September, 1900, school was opened in Brown Hall — as 
handsome, commodious, and complete a school building as 
the deaf of any State can boast of. 

The new building has been named " Bbown Hall" in 
honor of oui" loved trustee and treasurer, Gen. Chas. S. 
Brown, of Flint. 

It stands some distance east of the other Institution 
buildings on Court street at the head of Asylum street. 

Those who attended the Convention of Instructors at 
Flint, in 1895, will remember the wheat field between the 
Saperintendent's cottage and the town, and will perhaps 
recall being told that the bricks for the old building were 
made in that field. Brown Hall stands in the middle of 

Broi'in //all. 


I'*- 2 

Brown Hall. 3 

the old brickyard and commands a splendid view of the 
beantifal little city of FHot. 

Symmetrical and artistic in design, its three stories of 
Fiudlay pressed brick, with Portage Entry red sandstone 
facings, rising above a basement wall of Saginaw rock- 
faced paving brick, compels the admiration of all. 

In appearance the structure is massive bnt not heavy, 
and ornamental but not fantastic, and is a credit to the 
State and an ornaQient to the city. 

The ground plan covers 218 feet east and west by 130 
feet north and south, and is divided into a main or cen- 
tral building with east and west wings. The front pre- 
sents a broken or irregular appearance, with the massive 
porch and entrance flanked by the wings extending well 
to the front. 

In the centre of the north faoe of the building is the 
main entrance, approached by a broad walk of artificial 
stone and a flight of stone steps. It opens into a broad 
hall paved with marbolythic tile, which is used for all hall- 
ways on the ground floor, while the woodwork throngh- 
out the building is varnished oak with beech flooring 
elsewhere. This hall extends south from the front 
entrance to the library at the south of the central building. 
This is not a room for storing books, but a well lighted, 
handsomely finished, commodious room, 52 x 24 feet, 
such as would delight a student at first sight. It is well 
stocked with something over 4,200 volumes, carefully 
selected and arranged by grades. 

At the right of the hall next to the entrance is the 
Superintendent's office, and to the left is the public recep- 
tion room. 

Extending the entire length of the three wings is a 
broad corridor running east and west with entrances at 
either end. This corridor intersects the main hall and is 
paved like it. Between the library and the corridor on 
the right is the store room fur supplies and school books. 

Brown IlalL 

Brown UaU. 

Ol>etiinf* ioto the librnrj- opposite tbe store room is the 
appanttuH nod cxputiuiunt room. Tlie otiier rooms on 
tliD ^rouml floor, fourloon ia nambcr, ore ttclioolrooma 
for the primai'v ^li^les ; tlie oral classes bmng iu tbe east 
wing And the mannal classes in the west. 

The arrangement nf fcho rooms on the second floor is 
[siroilar to that on tho 6rst, but the Hpaco over tho library 
M made into tbrou school rooms, while the room over tho 
nppuratus room is n teacher's Itiuch rouui, and that over 
the reception room is devoted to primarj work in art. AH 
othur rooms, on tliJH floor are used h.n cIhsh roninit. 

luiwiKliati-Ir over thu miLJn (■utniiic(> itud oc-cupvitig tho 
eotire thin) floor of the ceutral biiildiDg ia the chapel. 
The aconstir properties of this hall are such that ordinary 
tones no tbe phitfortn nan be heard all over the hn11. 
Altioalntion and ornt Ivncliers who have heen compellecl 
to exhibit their pupiU in chapels in which ao accom- 
plished public R|>oaker canuot bo understood more than 
tweuty feet from the platform will appreciate this. Aud 
all who have snflered from lieadnelie caused by striving to 
rtuid spDHiiiK iu the li>;ht ho' nfleii found in chnpelK will 
rejoice with nn in the fact that from mich one of thu 800 
seats, covering » hall 52 by 90 with a gallery ou three 
sides, tho lingers of a rapid speller may be followod with 
ease. The etngo is well arranged, nnd when the drop 
oartaia and flies arc in place we shall have an admimble 
place for gatherings of all kinds. 

Tho third floor of tho o&at wing i» a hftiidsomo b&U 
SO X 70 ffct, with vanltihl roof, well lighte<l uaJ perfectly 
rentitatcd. Wu hofw souu to have this fitted with all the 
parapherunlin of a mocleni gymnasium, bat at present tbe 
exorcises are ooiilined to calisthenicit and dumb-bell, 
wand, and club drill. 

Ill tho basement tho west wiug is for bojs nud the oast 
wing for girls. Both wiuga arc furnished alike, and sup* 
pUotl with laratoriea and oloiiots ou tbo south sido of Lbo 

Brovm Hall, 

Brinen HaU. 

nm] witit Ifirgti pliiogi* ImiliH or Hwiniminf; pools wUli 
sing rooms (or each ou tbe north. Between the two 
wings is a drill or exercise room 52 x HO feet, for nse as » 
p!»y rnoni in bad weatlier. 

In all Uiero are forty-three class rooms in Brown Hall, 
ami eat-h one ik phuinocl ho as to get the benefit of all the 
snoliglit possible. There m nut a dark or gloomy* school- 
room in Lbe buildin<^. Most of tbo rooms have closets 
and »11 are fittod with the b«8t quality of PenDHvlvania 
nlttta blackboards. 

Adjuiiiing the baHeruHot on the south or rear of the 
baihUng i» the boilor bouse coutniiiiog the apparatus for 
boating and ventilating the building. This is modem 
and Rp to date in evcrv particular, and it i» olaimed that 
nnder its operation the teuipernture in the biiihling will 
uever vary more than fonr degrees, and that the air in 
ch schoolroom will bo entirely changed and replaced 
'with fresh uir ovor_r too minutes without Dptriiing a window 
or a door. This result is obtained autoiuAlicully through 
the use of theriuostats id each room. 

Pure cold air from the oateide passes through two sepa- 
nte coils of stoain-hentftd pipe, one of which contains fonr 
miles of pipe-. Thu hot uir iit luki.*n np by a hti^u fan 
and forced throuKh ducis to every room in thu building. 
The dncts are in two aecHotis, and while tlie hot air is 
forcod through the upper onu, thu cold uir from the out- 
side litida its way to the difierout rooms through the 
jwersectiou. The ducts ure controlled iu the rooms by 
leans of a Johnson heat regulator, operated by com- 
Rod air. A batiory of boilers furnishes steam to 
beat the coils of pipe, and also to rnu a 25 borse-powor 
iLfitnrtevaut engine which operates the fan. In hot 
ither this fan will be used to force cool air into the 
rooms for ventilating pnrpoHBS. 

Tliebntlding is supplie^l with artiRcial light bv 495 in- 
fiondBSceut electric lamps of It) candle power each. 

Brown Hall. 9 

Two stand-pipes in the building, with hose attached on 
each floor, and three hydrants on the ground, are con- 
sidered ampie fire protection. 

There are five oatside doors on the firstfloor and seven 
in the basement. The second and third floors are reached 
by four double stairways, making it possible to empty the 
building very quickly, even without using the exterior fire- 
escapes which are provided. 

The plans of the building were drawn by P. W. Holiis- 
ter, of Saginaw, and are worthy of bis reputation as a 
capable architect. Geo. Bickman & Sons, of Kalamazoo, 
had the building contract; B, F. Sturtevant, of Boston, 
Mass., put in the heating and ventilating plant; Geo. W. 
Hubbard, of Flint, did the plumbing, and the electric fix- 
tures were furnished by Barton & Co., of Detroit. 

All the furniture used in the building is the work of the 
boys in our cabinet shop, except the chairs in the chapel. 
These are for temporary use, however, and will be replaced 
by opera chairs to be made in our shop. The building 
and its contents are a credit to the State, and the entire 
school, pnpils and teachers alike, feel proud of it and are 
making extra eflbrts to do even better work than in the 

Tnttrvetor in the Michigan Sehoolfor the Da^, Flint, MieA. 


Most knowledge is acquired throngh sight. The deaf 
are almost entirely dependoDt upon this medium, and io 
the transference of ideas to their mind those methods 
should be employed which leave the stroDgest aod most 
lasting visual impressions. 

The direct study of objects is the most desirable, but 
this is impossible except in a very limited way. We can- 
not bring the pyramids into the schoolroom, neither can 
we visit the Alps. We cannot explore the frozen north 
nor penetrate the scorching tropics. We cannot review 
the battles of Kapoleou or have him pose for our study. 
Even if this were possible we could see them but once 
and only for a moment. Pictures represeotiug these 
scenes can be studied whenever we please, wherever we 
please, and as long and as often as we choose. 

It is but a few years since pictures would not be tole- 
rated in the schoolroom, as they attracted the atten- 
tion of the pupil from the dry aud incomprehensible 
language of the test. The first pictures used were very 
crude indeed. I remember an old book in which the 
picture of a bird in one place represented an eagle, in 
another place a robin. The same picture was called 
Noah's dove on one page, and an owl on another page. 
Since tlien the methods of making pictures have improved 
and, like books, they have become so plentiful and so 
cheap that they are in use everywhere. 

In selecting pictures for the schoolroom great care 
should be taken to secure those pictures most suitable for 
the class. A small child does not see a picture as we do. 
The education of the eye requires considerable well- 
directed practice. 

We appreciate a painting chiefly by the associations it 
suggests. The source of a child's associations is very 


Th^ Edwational VaUe of Jtcturet. 


limited, nni], attlil tliis atora is iiicroaHed by ,venra of ex- 
perieaco aud trftiiiing, it onnnot see tlie pictuTft Aod feol 
its inflnence as we do. At 5rst tli« cliikl cnn onl^r dia- 
tingnlKl) liglit Fnim d:irknuti8. It takes cousidenible 
jiractica Ut i>roduc« a braiu coiitr* so delicate att to dis- 
cern tlia minnte (listiuctioii io all tlie shades and colors. 
Often cbildreo of scbool age do not eDtirely grnsp tlie 
rBlatinu betweeD object and pioturt!, and it reqiiireM snine 
practice before tim cbild gBt» lUu idea of purapectife 
portrayed iu an ordioary picture. 

Ln the Wginniiig use nutlino pictures, Firitt study tlie 
object and then the ontliiie, and have the pnpils repro- 
duce that outline iu the fewest Hues poKsihle. They soon 
learn to observe the outline of everything, noticing the 
difibreuccs and rosemblaucoa iu the fonns of various 
objects. This is the tirat and most imi>ortnnt It^sson in 
ohaerTation. An nrtint oaii takt^ the outline of oo« object, 
mob as » p&ar, add a couple of lines and have a mouse, 
add a couple more and have a cat, change a couple and 
hftve a boy. 

The next step is to have them till in some of the detail. 
This requires more luiuule observnttou aud cauuot be 
indulged in frevly until thoy are older. If I remember, 
it WAS AgasoiK who rofuitcd a painting of a partridge, the 
gift of a most eminent artist, because it bad one too many 
rows of scaler Arountl it^ legs. He noticed this at the 
(initghiace; such minute obiiervntiou is the result of the 
OJOHt diligiint practice. 

The many ingenious methods employed iu the use of 
•crap piclnrea are of great value. Dot only in imparling 
knowloilgo, but in developing artifilic tastes. 

Suob pictures are interesting iu tho study of cur- 
rent topics in the more advanced grades. Iu the primary 
grades as the study of objects is progressing the study of 
pictures aliould Itogin, and when the objects are exhausted 
pictures can supply their place. Scrap pictures takea 

~'i' i:.tlttaititmai ViUwe of Pictures. 

.-:iuu*ene» knit TmipiziTtea are much more attractive 
:i;u:c*L a > luiored backf^oond. 

:i^wr»(i -apiea. ■rocfa aa the Perry pictnres, are Talu- 

.uifc •nrauiM -on jara cbe opportanitj of selecting copies 

: 'He- rjifrtx »«*rKs -li art. For the smaller grades pictnres 

-st(>;uii '»f -uiMieD with one or two central figures and 

ttie -r 3>-' ibcui. Pictares should be chosen of objects 

■icn »iii(.-a aie pupils are familiar and in which they are 

jitmc'uariy inCerKsted. As the power of obserratioD 

-rCp^oifcutHis :uiii the store of the associations increases 

-vk Jiynr?* may become more complicated. It requires 

^jK^Ienbie development fally to appreciate a complex 

'iiaiiscace or a classical masterpiece. 

Tike \ piece of lai^e cardboard, such as photographers 
3i>e. cat a hole in it a little smaller than the picture, take 
iMiother cardboard of the same size, place it back of the 
tirst uid glue them together ou three sides leaving the 
fourth open. Pictures can be inserted or removed through 
the open end. A few such frames of different sizes and 
colors can be used to exhibit many pictures. 

lo selecting pictnres for the school have the pupils 
write stories about them. Do not ask questions or give 
hints unless it is to relieve the temporary embarrassment 
of some pupil. Let the children write just what they 
think and you will be able to judge the sort of pictures 
thev will derive the most good from. Find out what they 
like best but do not always give that to them. If a boy 
has too much of the pirate nature, as is usually the case, 
avoid all such pictures and give him something he really 
appreciates of a more refining nature. 

One of the most common uses of pictures is to illus- 
trate language. A most difficult and confusing page of 
English may be made clear and interesting by a few illus- 
trations. It not only saves the child the labor and dis- 
couragement of wading through pages of dry language, 
bat it leaves strong and lasting impressions. We all re- 

The Kducational Value of Pictures. 13 

member the pictures in our geographies long after we 
have forgottsD the text. If it is possible, when choosiog 
books for the deaf, have them well illustrated. 

By a little patieut persistence tlie class can soon be 
tanglit to illustrate language. Take some topic, such as a 
story, a fable, or a newspaper article, write it on the 
board, and after it has been read and explained have the 
class illustrate it. After a fable is illustrated I often re- 
quire au interpretation, that is, have them draw pictures, 
replacing the animals by people. Ask for stories of his- 
torical and geographical subjects. Occasionally require 
an illustration of the life of Franklin, the Boston tea 
party, etc., in examinatious. Nobody cud comprehend 
history who has not sufiicient imagination, not only to see 
the people in their daily life, but to live with them, be 
one of them, see as they see, feel as tliey feel. It is 
necessary to get into the boots first of one partisan, then 
of another partisan, and at lust get back into your own 
shoes and judge them impartially. A weak imagination 
can never accomplish this ; au untniined imugiuatiou will 
be lost ID partisanship. This method reveals to the 
teacher many peculiar aud often erroneous ideas of the 
ptipils. It develops strong iinagiuatiun, requires a per- 
fect understanding, demands clear thinkiug and reveals 
all errors. 

It will take but a few moments to show the class the 
artistic designs aud decotations of some costly book, which 
is a true work of art. They will soon grasp the relation 
between text and designs, and will want to decorate their 
own work. I find it a good plan to preserve the best 
writings of each pupil and have them copied on fancy paper, 
decorated and illustrated aud put into book form. It en- 
courages the class to do their best. Each pupil must have 
at least one production in the book ; thoy will strive to 
have that a good one. 

Pictures can be used to communicate ideas the same as 
laognage. A story can often be told as neatly and effect- 

14 The Educational Value of Pictures. 

ively by a series of pictares as by woirds. Take a maga- 
zine containing snch pictures; explain them as carefullj 
as you would a written story. When the class has com- 
pletely grasped the idea, have them draw a story in two 
or three pictures. Occiisioually ask such questions in 
examinations and the results will be surprising. At first 
the pupils may complain of the fact that they cannot draw, 
but if you patiently persist you will find that with a little 
care the poorest will be able to do very good work. It is 
the ideas that are wanted more than accurate execution. 
The pupils can exchange these pictures and constract 
stories about them for a language drill. This will develop 
observation, imagination, and thought. We are inclined 
to let necessity develop observation with the deaf. Any- 
thing that will aid them in the more accurate use of the 
eye and quicken good judgment is of more value to the 
deaf than to the hearing. The eye should be systematic- 
ally educated but never abused. 

Cartoons are imaginative pictures in which some of the 
most striking characteristics are greatly enlarged. Many 
of our social and political ideas and prejudices are uncon- 
sciously derived from cartoons. Mr. Tweed said, " Few 
people will read what is written about me, fewer will under- 
stand, but everybody can read and understand these pic- 

It is a pupil's favorite employment to draw a cartoon of 
his teaclier. This tendency can be turned into more 
profitable channels. Have them illustrate their journals 
and make cartoons of liistorica! subjects. No improper 
pictures will be indulged in if the teacher shows the 
slightest disapproval at the fir»t attempt. In Fact, I have 
had only one faiut attempt to indulge in personality. 
Care should be taken to avoid the hideous and vulgar 
cartoons found in many current papers. Such pictures 
will soon pass away ; but clean imaginative cartoons will 
always be a weapon for good or evil. 

Wall pictures have received considerable attention from 

The Educational Value of Pictures. 15 

educators lately. Thej are of more value in developing 
strong characters and sesthetic tastes than ordinary pic- 
tares because they are always in sight. Every time a 
child glauces consciously about the room the wall pic- 
ture leaves a mental impression. If this is repeated sev- 
eral times a day for a few months, that picture becomes so 
fixed in the mind as to produce certain qualities of char- 
acter, good or bad. 

Place a fine picture of Napoleon in the room of the 
average boy when he is of the proper age ; leave it there 
tor a couple of years, and he will become a warrior if bis 
environments permit. At least, he will always cherish a 
love for battle, and when hostilities break out, exhibit a 
strong war spirit. Some more refining picture might 
produce an opposite effect. A wall picture is a silent 
tutor, the child an unconscious disciple. 

Like books, pictures must be suitable to the class. No 
teacher would think of giving a small cliild a volume of 
Shakspere, but children are often given pictures as in- 
comprehensible. If you are in doubt as to what pic- 
tures are best for the ckss, teat thera. Have them write 
stories about them, get their ideas of the pictures. Give 
them those from which tliey receive the most good. 
Every picture should be used to accomplish Rome object. 
When this object is accomplislied replace it by another. 
Never allow a poor picture iu the room ; nothing but the 
best. A good copy is much preferable to a cheap orig- 
inal. Be very careful about the arrangement of the pic- 
tures and the decoration of the room. Good taste and 
refined sentiments can be instilled into the most boorish. 
If you wish to make the class more ambitious, adorn the 
walls with the portraits of eminent deaf people who have 
become successful in some line in which they are inter- 
ested. Pictures of hearing people offer little encourage- 
ment to the deaf. No deaf boy can hope to become a 
George Washington or a Shakspere. Few can thor- 
oughly appreciate Tennyson or Longfellow. These pic- 

IC The Educational Value of Picture*. 

tares may interest them and create an admiration for snch 
characters, bnt pictures of distingoished deaf men would 
\ye ideals constantly before them. Whenever portraits 
of hearing people are exhibited it should be of those who 
are saccessfol in some Hue particnlarlv interesting to the 
deaf. It is very sad to see a deaf boy or girl filled with 
ambition to become famous iu some Une in which they 
can never succeed except in the most limited way. I 
hare seen deaf boys ambitious to become eminent lawyers 
through the unconscious influence of friends aud teachers 
in directing their thoughts. An exceptionally gifted deaf 
person might become successful iu a limited way in lines 
that are not open to the great moss. This great mass 
should Ije directed to the pursuits most beoelicial to them. 
Let oar pictures be chosen with this iu view. If we wish 
to create a college spirit adorn the walls with pictures of 
the college and its professors, of the students at their 
work and at their play. If we wish to instill a love for 
manual labor use pictures representing peasant life such 
an Miilet'n and others. 

In devt^lopiug artistic tastes briug out all the sentiments 
and ima(jiu:itioii portrayeti iu a painting. Pupils should 
know li'>« to Search for qualities lh:it m:tke a goot^i pic- 
fur*;. Ttiil BtoriffS about the artists aud show their por- 
trait-, where p'js.-ible. An interest in the artist will iu- 
crwiiH*; their iat^reT^t iu tiie paimiui;. Remember a poor 
«*;h:>-;tion may m:»ke bail men and women, aud a careless 
arr;tnt.'ement will create L>oori:>h tastes aud habits. Pie- 
trirtn and fiow^r^ take the pUoe of music iu p^^Hl^ci^g a. 
fiofteniny eff-^'.t apou tlj<r charaoier. 

Y-,T lecture purposes the stereoptii-oti aud moviug 
pif^tnres are invaluable. The deaf oau see the pictures 
and the sdgning at the same time. Such lectures appeal 
directly to the eye and are of the greatest evincational 

' ' ALVIS E. rOFE. 

M lib ytbraaka SAMi, (>in<*.\a. Stbr^OnL. 



An accideut occurred on the 9th of June last to a deaf 
maD living in Pittsburgh which, though distressing in some 
of its aspects, was, on the whole, singularly beneficial. 
Mr. F. W. Temon, while mending the roof of his house, 
(ell a distance of eighteen or twenty feet, striking the 
ground with his head and right shoulder. He wasrendered 
unconscious by the blow, and when picked up by his 
friends was bleeding profnsely at the nose aud mouth. A 
physician was hastily summoned aud found that his 
shoulder was dislocated, and that he had suffered painful 
though not serious injuries on his head and body. He 
was remoTed to a hospital in Fittabui^h, where careful 
examination disclosed the fact that the blow had in some 
way restored hearing to his right ear, but had caused 
blindness to his left eye, which had hitherto been per- 
fectly sound. 

Mr. Temon was sixty-five years old at the time this ac- 
cident happened. He lost his hearing when ten years of 
age from small-pox, and his speech gradually became un- 
intelligible aud disagreeable to his friends, aud by the time 
he was thirteen years old he ceased to speak entirely, and 
for a period of nearly fifty-two years was as unable to 
utter intelligible words as a congenitally deaf person who 
had not been trained to use his voice. He retained his 
ability to read and write and was sent to a country school 
near his home for several winters, but did not enter an 
institution for the deaf. As he was fond of reading he 
continued to educate himself by spending his leisure time 
in reading. At the age of nineteen years be removed 
with his mother to Allegheny where he learned the trade 
of an upholsterer, aud has been known there and in Pitts- 

1 8 lieetoratiuii of lleariny ami Speech. 

burg for the past forty years as an iudostrions and com- 
petent workman. He at no time made nse of bis infirmity 
to gain sympathy or work, but led rather a secluded life, 
not being able to enjoy the companionship of other men 
and finding resources in iiimself to prevent nubappiuess 
or discontent. The narrative to this point has here and 
there parallels which may be found recorded in medical 
treatises, but the further history of the case is more re- 
markable, and will cballeDge the credulity of most of my 
readers, as it did my own at first. Mr. Temon was not 
only restored to hearing but also restored to the perfect 
use of his speech, with modulation as natural as that pos- 
sessed by the average speaker. 

It is perhaps useless to try to account for the many 
phenomena involved in this case, yet a possible explana- 
tion may be found in the theory tiiat they are due to 
aphasia. This seems all tbo more plausible wheu we re- 
call the circumstance that he gradually lost the ability to 
speak. Children who lose their liearing after they are 
eight years of age generally retaiu the power of speech, 
losing of course perfect modulation of the voice. Young 
Temou's speech soou became so indistiuct that he habitu- 
ally resorted to writing in conversing with strangers, and 
in three years abandoned oral converantion even in his 
own home. In one of the phases of aphasia the patient 
loses command over the nerves that control speech, while 
being able to understand all that is said to him ; he pos- 
sesses alt his faculties of mind, but the nerve centre of 
speech has been disturbed, or the nerve track that should 
convey speech to the vocal organs has become impaired, 
and be is helpless to express his thoughts, though they 
may be as clear as ever. Obviously aphasia of this kind 
is more serious to a deaf person than to one who can 
hear, for not only is tlie power of speech gone, but with 
it has gone the power to understand, because the only 
avenue by which speech can reach the brain had been 

Retfioration of He'tring and Speech. 19 

already closed. This derangement of the braiu ranges 
from absolute incapacity to use spoken language to the 
loss of ouly a few words. I knew a man once who could 
not say butter and aroided all conversation that would 
require him to use the word. It seems possible that the 
blow Mr. Temon received in falling restored connection 
between the auditory nerve and the nerve centre of the 
brain, and the brain resumed at once the function that 
bad long been interrupted, and the vocal cords in turn at 
once responded to the command. Naturally one would 
suppose that it would have been necessary for Mr. Teraon 
to learn to talk, just as the man in the Scriptures who was 
restored to sight, seeing men as trees walking, had to 
learn to see. He found his vocal organs somewhat inflex- 
ible at first, but within a few days they seemed to have 
regained their normal flexibility. 

Another singular circumstance remains to be told. A 
few days after recovering hearing in his left ear he noticed 
that he could hear loud noises in his right ear. By slow 
degrees the hearing improved, but not sufficiently to be of 
any service to him, till one day while attending a Sunday- 
school picnic in the woods, sitting a distance from some 
singers who were entertaining the company and exerting 
himself to the utmost to catch the music, he felt some- 
thing in his ear give wa}', us he expressed it, and hearing 
was immediately restored. It may be of interest to add 
that Mr. Temon, while not much of a singer, remembers 
some of the hymns he used to sing in his boyhood, and 
can sing them fairly well. It is needless to say that a vast 
volume of Sunday-school and church music has accumu- 
lated during the fifty-five years of his deafness that he 
knows nothing of. 

Many sounds were new to him. The first one that he 
heard which he was not able to identify was a lawn-mower ; 
and calling to mind the one that is used to rouse me at 
five o'clock in the morning, I wondered if it did not awaken 

20 lii-Mt/ration of Ileanng and Speech. 

B desire to retnm to his dnys of silence. The chimes in 
a chnrch steeple near bis home are a source of mnch 
wooder as well ns pleasare. 

A word should l>e addressed to those who find it hard 
to iKilievo the gennineDess of this strange restoration both 
of hearing and of speech. Whether the theory above 
advanced to account for them be correct or not, the facts 
herein set forth are fully believed by all of Mr. Temon's 
friends and acqaaiotances, many of whom are men of high 
standing in the corainunity. The strongest reason for 
giving them full credence is the character of the man. 
His life is and always has been above reproach. He did 
not trade on his iufinuity, nor did he seek sympathj- In 
disposition he was amiable and friendly, and was cot at 
all the persou who would voluntarily retire from the world. 
Ho was not married, but lived with his mother during her 
lifetime, and afterwards kept up a household of his own, 
and those who lived with him for years never suspected 
liim of deceit. In fact, as far as I have been able to as- 
certain, there was entire absence of any motive for him to 
simuliite deafness and deliberately refrain from using his 
voice for fifty-three years. 

Prineipiil of tlu WexUrn l'fiini>yltania Inetilvtion, 
Eiigeirood Pork, Pentuyitaiiia. 



One of the most perplexing problems that confront tfae 
teacher of the deaf iu the sclioolroom is that of getting a 
valne, proportionate to the time consumed, from the process 
of looking over the pupils' written exercises and pointing 
cat and explaining the errors. While there is decidedly 
more benefit to the pnpil, in the way of language acquisi- 
tion, ID constructing new sentences than in endeavoring 
to patch up those already formed, it is necessary, in order 
to retain his interest, that he should be made to feel that 
his work will be carefully scrutinized and every mistake 
noted by his teacher. Let the pupil once get the idea 
into his head that his teacher is not thoroughly con- 
scientious in marking errors in these written exercises 
and there will be a great falling off in his interest and 

The oaual methods of correcting errors are, as we all 
know by weary experience, about as follows : 

1st. To mark each paper or slate individually, directly 
after it is written, while the pupil stands at the teacher's 

2d. To correct the papers out of school, and retnrii 
them to the pupils next day. 

3d. To glance over the papers, single out characteristic 
errors on different principles, place them on the black- 
board, and explain them to the class as a whole. 

There are a nnmber of other plans, such as allowing 
the pupils to exchange papers and mark errors iu one 
another's work, but like those above mentioned, they are 
generally more or less unsatisfactory. 

None of these plans are ideal — each has serious draw- 
backs. By the first one, if the work is done thoroughly, 


22 The CoTection of Errors. 

a greut deiU of time is usuatly cousumed ; if done hastily 
or carelesHly, it might as well not be done at all. By the 
second the pupil loses interest in the exercise ; like yester- 
day's daily paper it is out of date. It is profitless to 
hammer cold iron ; I have seen pupils stnff their papers, 
over which the teacher had spent both labor and pains, 
into the stove without so much as glancing at the care- 
fully made corrections. The objection is urged against 
the third plan that incorrect forms should never be placed 
before the children ; they see too many such anyhow, 
without the teacher taking the trouble to write out more 
for their benefit. 

Besides the plans outlined above there is the California 
plan of numbering principles, a simple key being provided 
by meiins of which the pupil can tell the character of the 
error to which it is desired to call his attention. From 
an article printed iu the Annals'^ two or three years ago, 
describing its use in the California school, it appears to 
be successful iu its workings and to be regarded with 
favor by the teachers there. The weak point, it appears 
to me, is that it presupposes that the pupil is capable of 
correcting his own errors. He could do so with those 
caused by carelessness, but would surely strike frequent 
Slings iu dealing with other classes of errors, which are 
after all the ones with which we are chiefly concerned. 

With these diverse methods before us which shall we 
elect to use? My own opinion is that, while the first one 
given is generally preferable, still the best method will 
vary with different classes aud in different stages of the 
course. In the younger classes, where the exercises are 
short and the language not so involved, the teacher would 
find it more advantageous to correct the papers individ- 
ually. If the teacher has his class under good control, 

• .'Innafu, Tol. xUt, pp. '.!38-24'2. 8«e altio the "Correction Chart" 
nHed iu the Illtnoitt iDstitotion, AnnaU, xliii, 92, and that deriaed \>j Mr. 
Edward P. Clarke, AnnaU, xlv. 111. 

The Correctiim nf Envrs. 23 

and can arrauge a sort of review of the preceding day's 
work, he may ventnre to make occasional use of the 
method of correcting out of school, especially with ad- 
vanced classes. In the case of classes whose pupils are 
waging a losing fight with English, and whose exercises 
contain errors in every sentence, duplicates of which can 
be found on the slate of nearly every pupil in the room, 
the method of placing characteristic errors on the board 
and explaining them to the entire class can be employed 
to advantage. The correct form should be written first, 
followed by the sentence it is desired to submit to the 
class for correction, for it is undoubtedly true that first 
impressionB are more lasting. 

It has been said that the best way to solve the problem 
of errors in our work is not to allow the pupil to make 
them, — a solution that, however excellent in theory, is 
difficult to arrive at in practice. Errors have to be 
reckoned with at every turn, even in the work of the 
brighter pupils, while we all know how that of the other 
extreme bristles with them. But it is true in pedagogy 
no less than in medics that *' an ounce of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure," and that careful, systematic work 
in grounding the pupil in the principle upon which he is 
expected to write will minimize the number of errors to 
be contended with. 

Itutruetor in the Kentucky Inttitution. BanvUU, Kentucky. 


HI. — Examination of the Method as set forth by the 
Inventors of the MicBoi>HONoaBAPH. 

1. Special effect of the miorophonograpli on the organ of hearing- 
(a) Influence of electricity, (fr) Peculiar form of the sound waves, (e) 
Intensitj of the sonnda reproduced. ((2) Direct communication of the 
Tibratory motion. («) Clearness of the Bounds repeated by the inetm- 
ment. 2. GoDcerning one particular case of improvement in beariog. 
3. Can the micro phonograph make the deaf hear? The manner in 
which the hearing of speech can be reetored to certain of the partially 
deaf. i. Can the microphonograph teach speech to the deaf, withoat 
the aid of sight and of touch ? 6. The acqaiaition of articulate apeecfa, 
in normal cases of hearing, ia the reanlt of a comparison which the child 
mskee between hia own vocal utteiancea and those which he hears from 
others. 6. The methode actually in use to teach speech in schools for 
the deaf do not depend exclusively upon the employment of the visual 
sense. The hand is the real ear of the totally deaf. 

Such are the results established after seveu weeks of 
experimenting. In short, the microphonograph showed 
itself decidedly inferior to the voice alone, and in that 
very fact, from a practical point of view, lies the salient 
feature of the result of all our experimeots. 

It follows, necessarily, that since the apparatus fails in 
all cases where the ordinary voice has been found to be use- 
less, the question of auricular teaching remains in exactly 
the same position, aod is surrounded by the same diffi- 
culties after, as before, the use of the microphonograph. 

It is only as a repeater aud as au aid to the natural 
voice that the " automatic talker " coald be used by the 
special teacher iu those comparatively rare cases where, 
up to this time, we have practiced acoustic exercises ; that 
is, when the child has preserved a sufficient amount of 

• Continued from the Annalt for November, 1900, page 503. 

Ttu- Use of the Microphonograph. 25 

We do not believe, therefore, that we ought to uphold 
the opioion of those eminent men who propose to " de- 
mute" our pupils by the sole meaus of the microphono- 

Besides the fact that our present experiments have 
proved beyond a doubt (as we have just said) the marked 
inferiority of the new instrument as compared with natu- 
ral speech, there exist, for the support of our ai^umeut, 
numerous proofs which we shall endeavor to set forth very 

I. Special effect of the microphonograph on the organ 
if hearing. — In order to justify the claim that the micro- 
phonograph can make the deafest subjects hear, the fol- 
lowing reasons are given : 

{a) Electricity acts in an efficacious manner upon the 
sound to be transmitted, and upon the ot^an of bearing. 

{h) The microphonograph generates sounds of a special 
nature more easily distinguished by the ear of the deaf. 

(c) The amplitude of vibration may be increased and 
regulated at will in such a way as to make the sound thus 
reinforced perceived by even those subjects who are al- 
most totally deprived of hearing. 

{d) The contact of the telephonic ear-tube with the 
ear favors the transmission of sound vibrations. 

(e) The apparatus reproduces speech with more clear- 
ness than do other phonographs. 

We will examine successively each one of the points 
enumerated above. 

[a) Injiuence of electricity* — It seems obvious that 

* " SouudB transmitted by the mioropbonograph undergo an important 
ebHDge in regard to their propertien, and are more accessible to feeble 
powem of heariDg, because they have certain of the qualities of nouet.'' 
— (Q. F. Janbert, in Rfvue Eneyelopedique Ijaroiuae, June 27, 1896.) 

" Tbe ear nndergoes here a certain electrical excitement, the beat 
thing, according to physiological theorien, to act upon tbe hearing ap. 
paratos of the deaf."— (A. Boyer, in Tribune Medicate, December 29, 

26 The Use of the Microphonograph. 

electricity has no effect, of itself, except in transmitting 
sound vibrations. Its iuduence, which is nil on the ot^an 
of hearing, stops at the vibrating membrane of the tele^ 
phonic ear-piece. The microphonograph, like the voice 
and the different acoustic tubes, gives to the ear of the 
deaf only a purely mechaDical excitement. 

(i) Peculiar form (f the sound waves. — Itis important 
to know, precisely, whether this excitement, caused either 
by electricity or something else, takes a peculiar form.* 

Sound, as we know, has three fundamental qualities — 
pitch, timbre, and intensity. 

The modification of the sound phenoraenon of which 
we are speaking being declared independent of intensity t 
depends only upon the musical pitch or the timbre. 

On the other hand, there can be no question of pitch, 
as the apparatus must repeat and repeat again the sounds 
inscribed without modifying the tone. 

* " In fact, the kind of sound And noise, and the particular teate vibra- 
tion generated by the microphoDograph (Dnssand) even in itB earliest 
workings (see our first communicatioDB to the Academ; of Medicine), 
excite and awaken the perception and sense of hearing in the anbjects 
afflicted by deafness who have learned to speak, but wlio have never be- 
fore perceived and consequently have never beard any sonnd or noise 
whatever. For them it is an unexpected revelation of a new world, an 
anknown sennatioD — a revelation which they manifeBt by signs of satjs- 
faetioQ and sometimes of unbounded joy." — Dr. I^borde, in Tribune 
MedieaU, Jannary 26, 1898.) 

f " Entrance to a nerve or a perceptive centre depends not only upon 
the intentity, but also upon the nature at the excitant. For the same 
nerve, or for the same serve centres, the form of pain, that is the qanl- 
ity of the pain, varies according to whether the excitement of the nerve 
has been occasioned by mechaotcal pressure, burning, or corrosion by 
•aid. From the fact that the human voice and even ordinary noises, 
such as those of the hammer and anvil, do not affect the deaf-mute, one 
must not conclude that it is impossible to make him hear sound waves 
generated under different conditions. That is the reason why Mr. Dus- 
BBud wished to make an instrument whioh would produce peculiar 
mmntU capable of an almost infinite amplitude. That is the secret of his 
success." — Olivier, in Retme QineraU <Ut Science* puret etappliquee*, De- 
cember 30, 1897.— (An account of a lecture given by Dr. Laborde.) 

The Use of the Microphonograph. 27 

There remains the timbre. We willingly admit that the 
microphonc^raph gives to the sonnds which it reproduces 
a very special quality. But this is precisely its greatest 
drawback, and one which sometimes prevents a good com- 
prehension of the registered words and phrases. 

As the vowels and the sounds of speech in general have 
certain determined and characteristic timbres, although 
these are not yet defined, it is essential that they should 
be reproduced with the greatest exactness. That one can 
vary the intensity does not improve matters ; but it is im- 
portant to respect the timbre, even in its minutest nuances 
if possible. For this reason every modification risks 
being called an alteration. Note, in addition, that the 
change of sound caused by the microphonograph is pro- 
duced entirely at random, without its being possible at the 
actual moment to determioe the acoustic nature of it (we 
are not speaking of the causes), or to regulate the details, 
or to manage the evolution of it. The hoped-for improve- 
ments should consist in lesseniug this unfortunate modifi- 
cation in order to get an exact and correct reproduction. 
In what way, moreover, have they observed the peculiar 
waves which tlie microphonograph generates ? What is 
exactly the form of such a special undulation? And how 
do they explain, according to this form, the beneficial effect 
which it is supposed to have on the organ of bearing ?* 

• In order to defloe the peculiar nature of the sonnda of the miqropho 
nogrkph, it IB affirmed that tbej have certain of the char acterintics of 
Doitiea. The explanation is terj vngue. That the vibratory motioiiB 
EiTe rise to DOiee is not euoagh to caose that the ear of the partially deaE 
■hould perceive and di*lingvi»h between them eaailj. Most of the aonnds 
vhich are easily heard by the deaf owe this property either to their great 
intenaity as oompared with that of ordinary aoaods, or to a anddea dis- 
plaoement of air, or to a decided vibration of surrounding aolid bodies, 
•nch an floors, etc., or else to the fact that tha ear in its conformation 
shows some purely individual pecaliarity. 

The only general characteristic of noise is the absence or the extreme 
length of the period of the generating wave, and that cannot constitute 
a qnality favorable to perception or differentiation. In this vast domain 

28 Tht dae of ike Microphonograph. 

((,') Intensity of the sounds reproduced.* — In regard to 
the great iotensity of the sounds reproduced, we must 
remark that the apparatus speaks less well in proportion 
as it speaks more loudlj. 

As far as our experiments show, the micro pboDograph 
does not furnish an iutensitr very superior to that which 
can be obtained by the voice speaking loudly z'cry close 
to the ear. On the other hand, the pronunciation is made 
noticeably artificial, although much less so thau iu the old 
instrument,'*' which obtained great intensity. 

This shows us once more that cfeamess and reinforce- 
ment of souuJ constitute two conditions hard to unite. 
It is uot to be donbted tliat in our acoustic exercises the 
greatest importance should be accorded to the first of 
these two factors, even should it be detrimental to the 

m/i Direct •miiiiunniijation of the vibratory motion. X — 

of Tjbratorv motions, slow or irregtilar. ibere must exist noisea of every 
form, of eTtry nature, of every compoBition. strong or soft, ileeporshrill, 
ID ceTUtn of their elements, wbii'b are coDseqaentlv verr niieqoallf eaqr 
or difficult to perceive. Wbm are exactly the qoalitiea of form anil of 
ComposiiiuD by which the ' * Bi>nD<l-uoi^es " of the micriiphooi^raph kr« 
diatiugniBbed ? And iben. tiuallv. ii is a loug distance from the mere 
bnite perception of a surt of shock or series of sbucks. in form like « 
vibratory motion, recognized by the cheek, the baud, or the external ear, 
to the exact appreciation uf the very fine and uumerous shades of timbre 
of irhich hnman speech in composed. 

■"The microphoDQgia)>h. the first microTicope of »ound for faint 
noise*, the first i el e-wope for pjor ears.'"— Dr. Laborde. iu Tri'iunt iftdi- 
r.iU. December 30. 1S56. ■We pos^rss j perfected luicrophonograph 
which give* rei-ilt- of th« greatest iutereiit. These can b<- easily proved, 
and hiTe tb*? f-illowing prin-'ipal advjut igp* over Ibe phi'no^raph. in ref- 
eren.-e to the sonai^ g.rnera:>rd : ]*;. Tbvy are ov'C-iJer.-itilT reiufoTL-ed. 
2d. They have lU'irt? clearn-s.- and but little tuv-rr' natality." —Y.. Prouot, 
in -Viiir^, Dec-mber 2.5. 1~.'T, sccoriiiut; lo Dr. L-ilhTde. 

* The jiicro;ihono,^r»pb wt.- Sr^t iotroJut-ed before the Kkiy of iFSi-bers 
of the Va;i>jDal Inili'.Dtion for Deaf-Mate? M Parid to<vard» the close i>f 
the year ISdT. 

; " A sort ''f mechaaicfti TibratiiQ i* obtained by contai't with the wood 
of the telephone which luache> tae eAr."— ^G. E. J., in Retiu Eiwytl^- 

The Use of the Microphonot/rapk. 29 

The commnnicatioD, by cootact, of the sound vibrations 
does not seem to help tbe perception of Tocal qualities, 
since the children who have preserved a fnir amoant of 
hearing understand the voice alone better than the 
micropliont^aph. As to the children less gifted irith 
hearing, they perceive in this way the vibratory shock, 
but they remain incapable of d'lHingnishing, bv this 
special method, the different phonetic elements. 

(■«) CUarness of the sounds repeated hy the instrument 
{seetiole* pagelB). — Is it absolutely certain that the sounds 
of the roicrophonograph are more clear than those of the 
phonograph used alone, and that they have little or no 
more nasality ? On the first point, if we are to trust tbe 
judgment of our pupils, the preference seems to be for 
the ordinary phonograph. It must be said, however, that 
our experiments on this point were not very conclusive 
on account of the small number of comparative trials. 

2, Concerning one ptirtir'fiar i^ase of hnprovemcttt in 
heuring. — In eiamining closely, although still too rapidly, 
the effect of tbe microphonograpli on the organ of hear- 
ing, we have observed nothing at all of this new qualitv, 
this peculiar* and mysterious influeuce whicli some learned 
theoricians seem to have attributed to it. How can we 
explain, under such circumstances, the results of experi- 
ments made outside of this school ? 

You certainly know the case of the deaf-mute, aged fortv 
years, whom tbe micro phonograph suddenlj' introduced, 
as if by magic, and at the first attempts, into the wonder- 
ful world of noises and sounds. You have seen him, no 
doubt, beating time while the instrument played for him 
our national hymn. If one is really iu the presence of a 
totally deaf subject (a mistake is always possible in such 
a case), it is evident that the person iu question can per* 
ceive (through the telephonic ear-trumpet) nothing but 

■ K««l the intereiting article of Ur. Ladreit de IjacLurrii^re iu A nnaUn 
frar^aiuM de» Sourdt-JUuets, June, 1B!>S [tntn elated in tlie AnnaU, zliv, 

30 The Use of the Microphonogi'aph. 

the variations of the musical rhythm, that is, in the last 
analysis, the duration and the relative inteusity of the 
different notes sung or played, and the successive inter- 
ruptions in the vibratory motion. All our pupils are able 
to appreciate sound under this particular form. The 
hand of the child applied to the larynx or to a sonorous 
instrument amply suffices to procure such sensations. Is 
this, then, what they call hearing? Hearing, in reference 
to speech, means perceiving the differences of tone, or if 
you will, the differences in the vibrating form, and not 
great variations of force and of duration. 

Before drawing an argument from the case mentioned 
above, it seems essential to succeed in making the sub- 
ject distinguish from one another the different phonetic 
elements, vowels or consonanttf. From a thoeretical as 
well as from a practical point of view, it is the sole infal- 
lible test. 

3. Can the viicrnphonograph make the deaf hearf* 
The manner in which the hearing of speech vuiy be restored 
to cei'lain of the partially deaf. — We are not un- 
aware that a certain number of the partially deaf 
may be enabled to recognize through the ear, after 
persevering acoustic exercises, the delicate tones which 
constitute the elements of speecli, as well as the woi'ds 
and phrases whose meaning is familiar to them ; and, 
contrary to the opinion expressed by men whose good 
faith we do not doabt,t we do practice thin special 

• *' We are abont to ajiply the working of the iu»trumcut to ii aiibject 
whose bearing, after Imviog befo completely aitlet'p for nearly 40 years, 
has been and can be suildeuly awnkeuei].''— Dr. Labonle, in Tribunt 
MidicaU, January 26, 18n8. 

" AndaaDr. Gellc, the learned otologiHt of lUeSalpvtriere, has so dearly 
set forth. tJiere U really no ear the function of wbicb it is inipoasible Co 
awaken by an exercise properly nwasnred." — Lti ffiirrunn iit» Hnirix et 
de» »otir(U-muett, in Rnppel, December 2, 181P7. 

t "Up to the present time, iiudlieciiiiHeofllK: lack of appropriate ineHna, 
the uae of the oi^an of bearing liiks heeu ue^'lecled, and it htm tbtiH btiea 
left to its natural imperfect ftiiiuliou " — Ti-iltiii\« MedUille, JMiwny i^, 

The Use of tke Micropltonograph. 31 

teatihing io our school* with the children who seem to us 
to have preserved a sufficient nmount of hearing. Bat in 
spite of the numerous successes obtained in this way, we 
are still far from believing that it is possible to cure deaf- 
ness, or even to diminish it very noticeably, by the sole 
naeans of auricular exercises. 

The secret of success in such a case consists almost 
entirely in the use of a faculty which had previously re- 
mained uncultivated. 

The instructor teaches speech to the ear by placing 
himself withiu the field of hearing of the pupil; it is thus 
that a near-sighted child is taught to read, without notice- 
ably improving his sight, by bringing as near to the organ 
as is necessary the forms which are to be studied, analyzed, 
and interpreted. 

If it is correct to say that the frequence and continuity 
of sonorous stimulants, us well as the persistent effort of 
attention, cause a slight improvement in tlie seuse of 
bearing, it must be equally admitted that this first prog- 
ress soon stops, and holds little definite place in the 
final result. 

There is no reason to believe that the microphonograph 
can accomplish what cannot be aceompUshed by the 
voice, or by ear-tubes, or by the numerous acoustic 
instruments which have been used until now to develop 
the power of bearing. Like all these instruments — and 
not more than most of them — 'it subjects the ear to the 
influence of sound-vibration. 

Unfortunately, experience has already showu that tlie 
definite result is entirely subject to the degree of hearing 
which exists, before any exercise, in the pupil to be edu- 
cated, and that on the other hand the majority of the 
deaf are not capable of receiving benefit from this special 

* 8«« OD this aabject the reports on an ricular instnintioa (from 188!> 
tolUU9juDd the nameroiis articluM ou this queiitioD which have been 
published in the periodicals which treat of tbe education of deaf-mates. 

32 The due of the Microphonograph. 

4. Ca?i the microphonograph teach speech to the deaf 
without the aid of sight and of totick f * — There remains 
auother important point to be esiimlDed. 

It is proposed, as you know, to teach articulation to 
the deaf-mute by tlie sole means of the microplionograph; 
sight and touch are thus displaced from tlie part they 
have hitherto taken in our teaching. 

Your pupils, we are reminded, are dumb only because 
they are deaf. Let us take away the deafness theu (that 
is the affair of the microplionograph), and at the same 
instant we shall put into motion the organs of speech. 

The deduction is logically unassailable, but we must 
begin by curing the deafness ; we must re-establish the 
normal functions of the organ of hearing. We have some 
reason to believe that such an undertaking would not be 
without difficulty. 

They bring to their support, on this point, the special 
effect of the niicrophonogiaph upon the centres of hear- 
ing (we are already enlightened as to this), and they add 
that "one observes tlie awakening under tliis influence of 
other centres connected with tliut of sound sensiitions, the 
secondary stimulation so important of the luugnage centre, 
and the comparatively quick appearance, in the intelligent' 

" " The oicitemcDt i-f the Kuditnry nervei hiuI the nerve centruB ot 
bearing by this niicr(}iilionogrupli has n superior effect tc Bny nther iiieEtDH 
of eduCBtioD, hei^uuHe it follows the iiHtuml course iu tlie ileveIo|mieiit 
of IftugUftBe. ami siiceoeils ilirectly in nwakeniug iiml routing bearing 
ami speech."— Dr. (Iclli', in Trihuite Af-dir-'iU, Oetoher, "JT. 1897. 

" Dr. Gelk', aurist nt the SalprtriiTe. hun Hhi)wu results in cliuic by 
wlJJvh it is |)oHBible, thronj;b the microphouogrnph, to iutroduce iuto the 
brain of young (leaf-mule!! the perception of sound, ami, coiieeijueully, 
the tentUnfff to repeat it hikUt an nrticulaU form, that in, to tjvok-. Dus. 
Baud's apparatus, from whkh we expect this revolution, or. ruther, which 
has already begun it, etc * • • It i« to Ihew qualitif-i that l>r, 
Gelh' attributpfi the results which L.- has hiiil in usint; the instrument in 
the treatiiienl. of several youofj children who were C"m)il'tfly (tin/, and 
conseiiueuHy dumb."— rtfPMf f/r)(ov;/f df- .S^-ffiia-^ purex d appliiiiu'fK. 
December 30, IHliT. 

TAe U99 of the Micruphono^raph. 


child, r){ iitiomptH ti> itiiitntfl t1ie mot.ion» of ilie inoutb."^ 
iDr. Ciellc-. ill Trihune MMic.ilc, October '27, 1897.) 

A]] tbis moaus tliut tlio deaf-mut» will »idoii reproduoe 
tbe pliunetic oloiiieuts, words, niul phraBcs wLieli Oie 
npp»rntas is siipposiMl to make liiiii lieitr nud distiuguisli. 

Far be it from tu* to doubt the clone coiineotioQ between 
the function of bearing ami the act of Hpeaking. The ear, 
ID thi> ordinnry j'onng cliild, is, uo doobt, tbe Qrst door 
for tbo entrance of speech, if W4> can thus express it. 
Still, it id necBHSJirr that this tintural wrv ghonld be vide 
open ; now this is a condition not realized in the deaf- 

The henriog of our pnpils always has many laennai. 
TI1080 who are Iciut douf aro nunhio to distinguish p«r- 
feclty the elements of speech. This disability continnea 
eveu when, by onr teachiug, they hiive learned the mech- 
aoi&m of articnlatioQ, that is, whou iu their miud, words 
are presented niider the form of verbal or acoustic tmage8 
more or Iokh vagne. 

The signiBcaut uaaomiH of vocal tooos always cacapo 
bhom to n Inr^a extent, and aurul iustructiou is powerlees 
'to fill those lacunir. It is easy to convince one^a self of 
this by trying to make the pupil uoderstiind tbe entire 
•erieH of rowela nnd conHonanbt iu a new order. Hia- 
takvx iu such a vnsi; nru vury frtHpient, and they would be 
more uuiDerou)* if the eiorci»«s consistml of simple or 
complex syllables without meaning. 

An to tlie still deafer children who form tliH niitjurity 
in oar KchnolH, it in with great diflicnity that they can be 
bniught to reooguisce through the L>ar Four or five phouutio 

sments ; and some of them are unable to differentiate 
'sonnds in the loaet. 

Thin IK the rpsnlt of the use of the voice alone, and our 
preaent Bxperimunbt have conriacod nsducidedly that the 

Bnltb ubtaiuud by tUo mit-TOphonogra|tii ary, iu this re- 
rtpeet, twy in/'erior to tiioso which con bo obtained by 
the Toieo alono. 

34 The Use of the Microphonograph. 

How, Uieu, can deaf-mutes repeat what they canuot 
diHtinijniiih f In spite of the most optimietic theories, the 
ftoti{Hi of tlie nontres of bearing on the centre of the mo- 
tivo luutuoi'}' of iirticulatiou can be effective only within 
tho striut limits of the differentiations actually made by 
thu said oeutres of hearing. In the case of the normal 
heariiigofhiugnage, the point in questiou is not one of mere 
Bytithetic influence, but of analytical effect which is ren- 
dorttd in extremely fine and complex nuances. It is pre- 
cisely this delicate analysis which the ear of our pupils is 
always powerless to accomplish, especially when one 
UHes the various acoustic instruments, ear trumpets or the 

I do nut know that the subject of whom we spoke 
abtive, who beat time with so much apparent precis- 
iou while heariuy the " Marseillaise" on the microphono- 
graph, has learned to sing since with the best intentions 
thev stibtuitte^l him to this experiment. It is easy to 
(orostv that real deaf-mntes would show themselves 
eijuaHv reWtiioiis to the ae^juisiliou of speech by the one 
means of heariug. 

Kiivrimeuts. moreover, have more tbjin once beeo made 
wilh the voit.v alv>ne.' superior in this respect to every 
kind of iusiriimeut. and in no case has success crowned 
tho efforts of the eviuoators. although they have experi- 
iueutt\t only wi;h tui'tu'.s of k.vmi'ara lively i;o«.Kl hearing. 

Our {MttiAl'LV des- beAr \m alinost the s^tme way iu which 
iht'v c^'A'.i !i-e livs, A ^:::-- uu-.i^rvUHudi:;!; of wLai is said 
is suticietiS for ;;:cu;. r:fv,,'Uj k:i,'w'.tds;i' of :i:e »ot\l or 
[•fc.r**«' it: liiTVr 1* ivi -Ar::.-.:'..t;Lv'c. writi'ji:, A:;d mesn- 
[t-^_^tM;-I;'S V-i— ■-- '. _;-v>--rv :.> siii'r'.y ;;>,' ;u.>: y actails 
w?.',.'":! -in? b.'.,;!:- ir :_ '-; y>:r,>:-v::.':; o' ;:.;' t-yt* as well 
is i!;i' ^lVT * l1 :* ;is; v-a: -*e ,'< .\ss - Xjir'.! u,'e when 

7%e U»e of the MicrophoHogritpk. 


Eve oaderetiiud tlie apoecli of a peivoii who is addressiog 
tin from m coiisiilcrnbkt distuucR. 

It lA atlmiUw] thnt lliiK way of bcnriog " Id n Inmp," 
wbiuU is Ihe ouly one nt the dinpostitl of the jinrtitilly denf 
(cTOu those who tear tbe beiit), \& of uo ii^e at tbo bogio- 
oiog of the study of nrticulntion. 

5. The acjuinitian 0/ artieuhite gpeecfi in nonnal caaea 
i>f hoatyng »> tht re^ilf of n annparmm irh ich the (hiUl 
trutkes betrffen his oten I'or'iil uttei'iiuevn and tlioa^ ithiek ht 

trnfnym otAet'a — withont confiideriDg tbat tbo progree- 
flite and gradnftl cdncfttioii of tbc tocaI organs by monns 
of tho hearing requires tbo cxiatoQco of n&othor oesootini 

" Vocal imitahou " doe* uot take place iu tbe ordiuary 

yoUDg cbild except tbroiigb the effect of a contiiiuid 
companKou between hiH own ittterniiceH and thoKe wbicb 
iuipruaa tbe orgau of heariug from uutKtde. He succeeds 
it) thiH WAV, nfter lon^ uud very laborious nttouipts, id ro- 
jirodneiug at kst, with considerable oxftctuoss, tbesouodH 
which oome to hia onr. 

Kow our pupils < [ nlwayK refer to tIiot<e having the bent 
''hoariDg) hear tbemtteh-ett eveu Iohs well than they hoar 
others. XhiB iaeqnalily of perceptioD is explaiued by 
the fftct thnt Ibo iustructor, in ordor to inako himself but- 
ler understood, speaks as closely as possible to the oar of 
tho deaf, at any rntc doring tbe begiuoiug of the iiistrac- 

We QiQ&t uot give too great au tuipottnuce to tbo intor- 
nal bvihrint; which iti caiiitml by the vibratory shock of tho 
phouetio orgaD iu tbc uct of speech upou tbe enr or the 
scoiistic centres of tbe 8{>eaker, for tbe Aound wave does 
not aoqaiie iti» detioita foroi uuttl after it leavoA the* 

«lbb cotidition*. WfUi ibi dwf who laro nxnitcd no iBMrDetiat), llmra 
WOaM lr« DO reHdlta— If Uw uppvutus wvru mmII; ntettalintt. Whea oua 
KM* at lb* wnie tint* Ui» onlinary inatboi)* tor rvinoTinif duiDbaww, Hlmt 
I ftrt luA ilw Blorophonograpb In tbe fla4l rwnlt i 

36 Th6 Uae of the Microphonograpk. 

montli, when tlie lips have done their part in its modifi- 
ontiou. If this internal yibrntiou could act in an effioa- 
cioufl mnuner upon the auditory centres, and if massage 
of the ear could produce in the majority of cases a good 
efTect upou the organ of hearing, most of our pupils would 
recognize through the ear vowels, cbusouants, aud words, 
siuce all talk and articulate coustantly. 

In fact, the shock produced by the spontaneous com- 
munication of the vibration in the larynx to the solid 
parts of the head, and consecutively to the different cen- 
tres of speech and to the internal ear, is not less than 
that which is produced by the different acoustic instru- 
ments. To be convinced of this, it is only necessary to 
place tlie hand in close contact with the ear or on top of 
the lioad, while one pronounces for example, the vowels 
on, i. It, and tliu ctuiHonants /, y, m, etc. Unfortunately, 
the hearing of a great uniuber of our pupils is not at all 
benefited, it seems, by such a sound vibration. 

Our partially doaf, so far as the study of articulation 
by means of the ear is concerned, are almost exactly in 
the condition in whioli a painter would be with respect 
to the pheuomeua of sight, who, seeing exterior objects in 
n very uncertain way, shonid become almost blind as soon 
as his hand touched a brush, or when, in order to com- 
pare it with the model, he witched to examine the work 
thus executed by the sense of touch without the control 
of the appropriate organ. 

To toll thi' trutli, we do not much regret the impossiliility 
of ourpupils reprodui.-iii4 exactly the sounds of the micro- 
phonograph. aud.eoiist'i[iii'!it!y, oflearning artieiil:iiion Viy 
means of this apparatus. Most of thern would only lose 
by it. The variations of tone are perceived in a certain 
Qiensure only by tlu»se who have preserved a considerable 
amount of hearing. Tiu-^e possess a proiiunoiation far 
more intelligible tlian that produced l>y the instriiiueiit, 
aud their voice does not have the unpleasant tone which 

7^ Uk of the ^R&^hon<fgrapU. 


is liie great dmwback to tbo sounds of the microphouo- 

6. Tlie iruUKodn actually in vse to tench tpeeok in schaoia 
jitr the i/eaf do tiot depend exclusivtly upon the ejnjthy- 
ttunt It f the vismd sense. The hand U tlu itat ear of Ute 
tvtaUy dtaf. — In order to etnpbnsize tlie iinportaace of 
tliH reftirm which would be nucomplisbed by the intra- 
daclioD of the mici'ophduof^niph into .•tchoolit for deaf- 
mates, the^ ii««ert, baHiu(j their Btguiuent ou a oommoD 
belief, that oar metbod of toncbiiig articiilnte speeeb is 
pxfiliiHivt'lv vistinl.* ThiH is* a gr^nt mintftki'. If the 
Kpecinl t«Hcher hud uo other lueaiiH iit his diaposnl, lip- 
readiug aud stud^'iuf; by the eye the movements of Uie 
plioiititic organs would bo as incffootivc as the partial 
lienriiiK of onr piipiU id rn-ostabliHJiing the rognlnr fiino- 
tinns of the vocid organs. Tliin laborious work cnnnot 
attain goo<I reHulls except by the constant oKe of 
towc/i. The hnud is tlie real ear of tbo totally deaf. It 
is onirig to tbo iuformatiou wbicli they got by this 
moans that onr pnpils, eTeo thoRe witbonb speech at first, 
acquire the idea of Hoaml, and succeed in producing and 
evoo modifying and difTorootiating to a great extent the 
ribratiou of the larynx. 

The hand adapta itself mnrrelouBly to the necessary 
ooupBrtsoos between the vocal emissions of the deaf »ud 
(bose of his instructor, it percoiveA the rhythm, the in- 

'"TbsjrMtnalljeoodwtt thn anrictilir ii'lufatiunoCjrouiigdMif'iBiitM 

b]r niauw of the miGto(>hvui>ttt'>I''>- !'> '"'I^r lu (In Uti« lli«j' niaka tbem 

kuT th* itillMVDt TotrnU lhoii>utnilA ol timn. It cat) bv mii tlmi tlui 

, awikkciiiiig of the Htuw of li4>ttrlog ivill grastly balp tliant lu tbe om of 

I ifiMdi wbieb tbfljr kavs nctjuirfd np to thin time aol; by •tt«(yfi«f i&t 

• mamnftttifthtl/fu. U tutul uot be foigotton tbat denf.aintca are ilamb 

tmly k*A«ii»H, Wing it«kf, tbojr hxv n«rer bc«rd «oimd*, and that tha 

nlcioplionoKni'biuKlf'UKUioiiitbiiiiercrptkMi ot Booad/'ela — Jaubarti 

In JfiUurt. Pebrunry «, tri'. 

" In giving the id<* ol •ooikI t« tkes« unfortunate, it wonid Im mii«h 

■tor Ut nkke them artlcalaia the wordn cUaily, vbicb liii-nwdiog 

' iMobaa lb«m to pronoansa. — H»nu (irnrraie tU* 8ettnu» jiuna ft opptt- 

fiMM, CkooinbM- 90, 1997. (From a l«c*w« givatt by Dr. IiLbord«>, 

38 The Uee of the Microphonograph. 

tensity, and up to a certain poiut, the mnsical pitch. It 
even distiogaisbes hetween the priocipal vovels, given 
two by two, ami this without the aid of sight. In a 
word, in the totally deaf, or those considered as sach, the 
hand carries the analysis of soaud and the stadr of 
vibratory motion much further thau the micropbonc^raph 
can do, acting npon the ear. 

To resame these various poiiiU. it may be said that 
the microphouograph gives to oar pupils only a vague 
idea of sound vibration, as a differentiated sign of language. 
Id regard to children who possess a remnant of hearing 
worth cultivating, it shows itself inferior to the voice atone. 
In respect to the progressive development of real hearing, 
it act.'i in tht: same way as all the other iustmments of 
souii'l, that is as the protiueer of a vibratory motion of 
variable intensity. Experiments have proveti, in a eon- 
clo-iivf; mantier, that tht- lesions of the ear or of the aodi- 
tory f:entr'=s •-•aunoi be overcome under the iutlaeace of a 
ffimpl<e: exterior vibration. 

We think that no very near-sighted or enfeebled eve 
haft -rver Vj-^en brja^ht back to its ui>rmal state by sub- 
mitting it t'j tLe ictiou of a series of lumicous stimalants 
more or l*rS!ij iLt-.ii=c. fte coutent oorselvcs with using 
and eieri;i.-ing ..';tre(i;Uy the vi<«al sense still existing. 
The Litl'^r triLnin;.: tak'_'S plaoe, ;i!tu>.>st a'.wav;;, spoutane- 
Oil.''ly an-i in.-!tin:tiveiy. wiiile cl;at o( the ear has to be 

It LsjiTiC 'b-r- :L;k: :Le .iinVrtiiv.-- li-'s. Neiib^r in the 
OB'S f-.-Ai^. nor t[.- jtLvr :•; tiit r-.-;vi atuoiii;: of I'tTcepcion 
increjw^e'l to any j:--!.!: extent i'v exorfij-', nii.i it aiwavs 
falU ^h■■^rt; --A th^ 'j.- l:'_.tr_v '■.■.nits wi:i;iu ^v-.:-,jh t;:e L>r'.;anic 
function of normal iiL.LviAuiIs is Lvr:.>r:::»:\l i:: its entire- 




" A Study oI the Blind "t was prosontcd before the Col- 
ot Fhysicinns of Plulniielpbin bv tlie writer on De- 
Feember I, 1897. This resenrcli oonsidered Um iiDftlysis 
of 180 pujiiU Htudied at the Peunitylviiniii ItiMitatiou for 
the Bliud. The object of tlie iuv»«tJ((iition was to ospUia 
and to elucidate the moutiil, inonil, uud physical charnc* 
temtica of those persoDB who trom birth or nccident hnd 
hewn deprired of sight, and thus to alleriato the diMtreas 
whiuh Hat'h loSH liritigK to the afflicted, as u'wll ilh to their 
fftoiilieH aud to ciriv life iu geuvra). The writer feels 
Bonio sntisfnctioD ia knowiug thiil this nnalytical dastrrip- 
tioD of thesft imfortanato beings has i*tiimihilfld more 
AOQte obHervattnn of their iiieutal and pliy»ical fuiliugs, 
Ingethur with the emphimiKiDg of redeeming aud compoD- 
satory fonlnres which blluduess outniU. It is trnly so, 
thnt, fuiido from sickness or cliroiilc disease, half the 
world kuowB not how the other half livens. The eudeavur 
to interpret the meaniDg and method uf h(e lu these indi- 
viduals is most difHcnlt, y(<t the attempt to see them ns 
they Are Hiuuug thomselvee iiud in aiMociation with aor- 
mal people, is a most interesting motaphysicnl and prac- 
tiniU study. Iu this very intricate probU'iu the difficulty 
of iuterpreting their hiuitationa of Ufu greatly increases 
whoD the blind individuals are aIso deaf and dumb. Tbo 
troudcrful c«»o of Helen Keller proves the great asceod- 
oury of pedagogy over the methods of instruction which 
appeal to the senses when not cut off from the external 
vorlil ; it shows, too, lbs progroee of tho DormoL mind aa 

* UcMl buf are the CnlTendt|- of PsuDii;ltKii)a UmUkmI Bodalj, Uuy 1ft, 
tTmuAoUon*, icA. xix. 

40 A Study of t/te Deaf. 

well as that of the ooe fettered by this trialitj of afflictioD. 
If in ancient times such a remarkably educated person 
had been exhibited, would she not have been thought be- 
witched indeed ? 

I shall report the case of a deaf, dumb, and blind boy 
in this paper, to detail especially the methods of teaching 
him. He was seen through the courtesy of Dr. J. A. Bur- 
goyne and Mr. J. A. Jones, Superintendent of the Ohio 
Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, along 
with the privilege of observing the general characteristics 
of the other 5D0 pupils there. The main study, however, 
is indicated by the title of this contribution, and has been 
made upon the 500 pupils of the Pennsylvania Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb at Mt. Airy, through the courtesy 
of Dr. A. L. E. Oroater, the Superintendent, and of the 
Board of Managers. The New Jersey State School for 
Deaf-Mutes was also visited, through the courtesy of the 
Frincipal, Mr. WestoQ Jenkins, in which institution the 
mechanical and artistic vocations receive especial atten- 
tion ; thus the teaching of millinery is a very brightening 
occupation for the girls there, and the eyes of the deaf 
are particularly alert in an almost " compensatory " fashion, 
as it were. 

With the tcachiug of lip language has come the great 
boon to deaf people. Though tliey will always use signs 
to express emotion much more than normal people, still 
the getting away from this essentially juvenile character- 
istic will tend to briug deaf people more and more out of 
their limited horizou into a broader light, touching and 
associating more with the civic world in general. It is for 
this same reason, after a conscientious study of the con- 
ditions maintaining in the evolution of the educatiou of 
the deaf, and amplified by questioning their teachers with 
whom the writer has come in contact, that the decision 
drawn is, naturally enough, that iustitiitioual training is 
necessary in the early life and up to the time of fitting the 

A Study of the. Deaf, 


IfHkf psKou for oarningliis liviut;. BiiL liuru tbc line mn&t 
'be drawn agaiast iiiBtitiiLiounl Iniiumt;, if these peoplonro 
to be muflt elevated in tli6 Male of life. Tliu cooord of 
Mr. Fecliheitner, which IK intereKtingljutatuJ bv bimaelf,* 
shown a iluaf-maUt c&u bo graduated from coUegti evoo 
witboat groat etubarrRSsmeDtH. Both from evidencewritteo 
bv this }-ouDg miLD ntid iu a very capnhle article by Mrs. 
Graltata \lfA\ on " lip-roiiding," wu learn that ileaf- mutes 
' BA bv " Hueoiid uuture " got lauguago iu thin way without 
difSoally, and from persona, too, not atteIuptiu^ to Ira 
(•xplitfil ; also llmt it is better not to exaggerate labial 
moTements iii it)>paking to a trained deaf person. A wou- 
derfal example of tbia is recorded at the end of the paper. 
Brain developmeut as the result of faoial exprvKMion mast 
be borne in mind, and this is favored by the oral training 
of the deaf-mote. 

With LheKB thoughts on the neoeesity for broader light 
In aiding deaf people to higher altainmontii, wludi are 
tjuite convincing to myself, I shnll not further Hpeak on 
this point nntil another time, but will givo au aualvKis of 
thu interefttiDg Htudy of the deaf child, be the deafness 
heriHliljiry or acfjnired, and of pecnliarities which arc cer- 
tainly raosi pronounced in them ; also of the sadder pic- 
tan of an iidalt su'l'lonlr beoomiug deaf. All of the^a 
infefiti^atioiiH lend to emphasize the subtle manner in 
whieh the normal pordou iMjquires natural cUaraotoristics 
without divcerning the individnal pbenomena that make 
np the iKinatiful aggregate of the whole nml wonderful 
being. It would seem, too, that thiM thinking-out prucc^B 
should uoi entirely go the way of all flesh, but wonid 
tentl to develop the higher life study that mnkvs the 
character of a pvrsou ; and with thtK intricate study of 
what may at tirat sight seem trivialities, we may evolve 
Ulft irai»n tFHre of tlie real superiority of one man over 

*jlMond(Mn Hnttite. t, 17-34. 

42 A Study of the Deaf. 

another. It is for this reason, therefore, that while the 
main thoughts of the contribution will be upon the entire 
number of cases studied collectively at the three institn- 
tiDD8 cited, with a few obBerTations od several cases seen 
elsewhere as indicated io the context below, still the 
detailed analysis of physical and mental characteristics, 
as tabulated, of the 108 boys and girls closely observed in 
the kindergarten department, is given. 

A noticeable feature of deaf-mutes is to have high- 
pitched voices when they are able to speak at all, while 
persons who are only partially deaf are apt to have low- 
pitched voices and talk in rather a muffled andertone. 
This is contrary to what one would expect, but I suppose 
it must be due to loss of memory for tones and iu not 
expecting to hear their own voices — though the one talk- 
ing to them may be comprehended by shouting. The 
peculiar sensitiveness about their affliction amoants to 
positive suspicion at times, and makes both partially and 
totally deaf very alert with the eyes. These organs do a 
compensatory work which usually gives deaf people 
rapidity of ocular movements and acuity of vision. This 
oscillation of the eyeballs, as seen in some of the little 
ones studied, might be termed pseudo- nystagmus. Deaf 
children are very quickly attracted by colors, noting care- 
fully with eager introspection the dress of teacher or 
visitor. Color memory is highly developed, as tone 
memory must be proportionately decreased in them. 

The wonderful aptness in an otherwise healthy totally 
deaf child, is illustrated iu the following instance : The 
little one had been taught the word " upstairs " ; and on 
seeing one of the boys climb a tree, he ran in school to 
the teacher iu great glee exclaiming with high-pitched 
monotone and pointing to the tree, " boy upstairs a tree." 
This was the nearest expression he could give to his 
overflowing exuberance. Another instance was told me 
by Miss Wells which occurred while she was teaobing ftt 

A Stndyofthe Deaf. 


NortLamptoQ, Massnciiasetts. Tbe abbroviatiou oC that 
8t»to uuiuv " MutiK.*' IiimI btioii t»itglit tbu pupilif in writ- 
ing, autl ou UMkiu{{ ouu of tin: boya whurv ull gooil Ciitbolice 
Mioiilii go, be replied " to Miissnchusetts." 

An iuteresling featnra in tlie stud}- of denf-oiutes is 
thair womlerful nptnosfi at pantomime, especiallj iu the 
6i)^Q-lBU(;uitge. Tu proporLiou lui tho lip Iniigunge is cul* 
tivnted, wil] sigus per ee be uiioi) le88 uiid \v.>>» fnr4|nBnttj. 
Pautomime snbserves a verT tmportnat pltice iu thu so- 
ciology of <lenf-rnntes, for by it tlio nbilit^ to comiuuni- 
cale with tliuiuHulri-it and with iiio tintsidn trorld is aiupli- 
tied. I( with tbu ej'UH uhmu one [MTHon chii intnrpret the 
meaouig of iiuotUer, Ibeu bow much more facility this 
BensoriuQi nffords the denf-mtite nho acquires woudt'rfiil 
skill io comiiiuuicatiug liy " signs'' only. Movemeut« of 
■le»f pe4>iilM arn quick, though IneoonliQate, and, when 
properly ttaiuud, they becomw very agile, eouKliiiitly ob- 
■ernng things and oveuts uot approboudod through the 
baariug. Therefore tho deaf pprsoii from tbo lonur poor 
vjUIch of life with iuKtitntional training grows much nbovo 
bit* biu ; RuU tb<> diflpitriLy of uucli au one with his family, 
nt tht< eud of tliisditicipliuo, is modt slrikiug. Indeed, this 
eleemosynary training shows tho advantAgo uf scliooliQg 
Ibn deaf, aa this more ftnisliod product of tbo doaf gradu- 
ate, with all his limitutioun, is far above that of his more 
ignonml parouts. All thiu proves tbiit erery sort of prop< 
orly conductfKl education is, of great benefit, and (k) far 
in this work among deaf-mutc^A America lead.s. As there 
is uo political or other reason for ndriiucing these re- 
fttrictwl iudividniils, tbo coujinoti basis of lifo without rank 
distiuctioiis is uphold iu au ethical way in institutions for 
tbv tiducatiou of tbu deaf. 

Other motor pheuomeua characteristic of deaf p60plo 
Mv here to b« noted. Automatic act) iu tbeni are much 
moru frequent than in normal individuals. This most be 
txptaiubd by tbe ready adaptability uf tbu muncles to co- 

44 A Study of the Deaf. 

ordJDute aDd associate movements which from coDstant 
reiteratiou more easily become habitaal la them. The 
deaf child at diuoer will make a thousand and one more 
movements both in time and range of activity than doea 
the seeing or blind individnai. The mind of a deaf per- 
son is undoubtedly as good as that of a normal individnai, 
but it is the workiug of the machine which controls it 
that is at fault ; and this through the deadened anditory 
aeusorium. The intellectual and physical subdivisions of 
the triune of human existence become somewhat compen- 
satorily eiiucated in the deaf. This unbalancing, as it 
were, of the miud processes, i. «., the method of ezpress- 
ini; and appreciating one's surroundings, is what makes 
the esseutial difference between a deaf and a hearing per- 
sou, which latter has the third element of the trinity of 
healthful existence intact, and with this unhampered sen- 
8<^riuui can attain juUtit development. 

Gait and Statics. 

Tho mauuer of looomotiou is oue of the peculiar char- 
aotoristio$ of the physiciil ^tnte of deaf iudividnals which 
is ditHoult to auftlyze as to etiology. Xo doubt the maio 
n^Afion for this EHivoalletl " s^huffliug gait " is in the fact 
of uol lu'aring tlioir own footsteps and in the muscular 
sen:)!' Ivoomiug somowlint obtundetl through the lack of 
the auilitory assistsmv to thf sonscof touch, which alone 
has to be«r x\w physii^loiiio.-il l>urdeu. 

Some castas of uniionbtod orgauii* imerual ear disease, 
when cause*! by mcuiugiti^ through oxlcnsiou by conUn- 
aity of the meninges. proiJui-c irritaiion of the cerebral 
cortex and a rt'^nltaui >ps!iiicity of the mn^scles of the 
arms, of articalatiou.aiiil, wheu more geueral.of the lower 
extremities. This, of conrs<>. wiien pri>seui. is due un- 
doubtedly to an ingnresoeat exadat^— a pix>oess in the 

A Study of the litaf. 

patliolo^c state.*' This is n very importnnt point in dinK- 
nosis, when existeot, oa between ovgnnio cnses and tlie so* 
callod essoDtJAl cnses of )ioT«(1itriry <Ica(uo&s, where souio 
ftlomu! ebangcs iu tbo hvniD cells alouo mufft exist ; there- 
fore Qudetectablo by kuowu )iistoloKi<-' t<.-chuique. The dis- 
covery of a ri({id conditiuu to auy part of the body in ft 
dd&f poraoD pretty positiroly ARUuros nH that snmo orK&oic 
oUuDge has tnkeu place iu the motile bvaiu u]a»«, itud 
IcKdfl to delermiDfition of this ntATislic conditiou iu thu 
human race ?veu although it uffum no Holutioo for the 
stamping out of the dofitct. Horo it im iu place to i^cord 
unt-'n opioiuu upon the Kcnveriuetntiou uf iutermarnnge of 
Jruf piH)ple with bearing persons ; iu view of the soieutilic 
ol (serrations of I.oml>roso as to heredity of acquired 
charuuturiiitics, it iuumi bu sulf-uvidont tlmro is nlwaj's 
great danger of trnusmitting this uufortumite disiibility in 
Uie mnrringe of a deaf person to any ludividiutl n^futlerfer. 
Thitt )>ecolinrity of protoplnsm to crop out in denfness in 
oven Ik remote geDonitinn, baring bntin cinci: ostnbtished, 
in a most faaciDating nnd intricate problem to xcek ; hot 
like the attempt nt solriug " perpetual mutlou," it bringn 
ouiv turmoil to the brain and no definite resnila to the 
limttntions of nmu's Vnowletlge, wheu there is so much of 
prnrticnl vatne for the bettermuut of the human rac*< for 
which to U) thought. After all, such sciuutific study under- 
taken \yy the mind has its results bronglit to nought by 
the mistaken eflTort of tri,'ing to interpret essentials of 
bigbostlifeoonditinuM, — when they belong solelv l»n higher 
power. wbii;b uo man cau but mlmit if be is to bu judged 
" mtn» tana in corpore aano." 

' .S(iit-4i this [Miper wM wntlvii «n InalruoltTc ca«« biM ciiniu uniti-r oh* 
wTvotlnti I t'fantffranda Midintl Journal for Avku"!. I!iOO) Id ft <>u« of 
r«Mvr*-l vpi^ccb itod UoikTiDi; dito to n fall from a beigbt. Tbc buw wu 
flS> jr«hikot «);■»; bftd Won ■ deaf •mate aiiio* I'i j'e»r» u1 ag«, [ollowlitg 
" cor duwuM " M lO f Mm tit age. Pktiout ioti ofl ft tto^laililof Jnlf 0, 
tMO. Nu loj'irias. bnt gv&rral bmitiii); ot boiy. Bugan t» H|)tak nt 
onw, lut did nut ramemlMr at Snil. }*Nli«nLcN)utiDaw to ■|(««k w«ll and 
haul ta oiM ma. 

46 A Study of the Deaf. 

Co-ordination in the Deaf. 

Tlie station of a deaf person is apt to be unsteady and 
is tlie more markedly ho in those witli acquired deafness 
due to inflammatory lesion. The influence of the semi- 
circular canals in assisting to maintain normal equilibra- 
tion is very much emphasized when the observer studies 
the motions of deaf children ; their manner of progression 
is of a shuffling, unsteady nature. There is a tendency, 
also, of the partially, deaf person in progressing towards 
objects to move more toward, the direction of the most 
deaf ear. In this way, such a phenomenon is somewhat 
similar to the same deviation toward the blind side in a 
person having defect of vision in one eye alone. Later 
in the education of such unilaterally deaf or blind people, 
tbe wonderful conservatism of nature manifests itself 
through this particular effort at self-preservation in thus 
causing the individual to be acutely alert to objects 
present ou the impaired side of the body, and so keep 
them at a safe distance from such objects, although it is 
evidently then a mental acuity thus developed. Deaf 
people, as recorded above, are constantly moving the 
head about in progression, or, indeed, while sitting, in 
order to catch what escapes the ear, and this causes a 
peculiar restless characteristic which may be mistaken for 
alteration in the gait per se. All motions in tbe deaf are 
irregular. Muscular rhythmical action is physiologically 
closely attuned to the auditory apparatus, so that while 
a deaf person seems to be constantly making rhythmical 
endeavor, he does this from a consciousness of this defect 
of rhythm. When a specially fine quality of artificial 
rhythm is being attempted, this defect is more clearly 
shown ; as for example, in the case of two young girls 
who endeavored to waltz for me at the New Jersey school. 
That their movements are most arhythmic is very evident 
to the hearing person when dancing with a deaf-mute. 

A Study of the Deaf. 


FacirI expression in of vivncity without proper oontrul in 
tbo de&f. 

Id working with the liaods, as io the caso of tho ^onog 
tgiria (ioiu^ iDilliuerr, thoro is a ctirtaio ainDunt of crude- 
rii«S8 of motion. For lliii< reai^ou, tbe article does not 
have sQch uice artistic flnish ns thoiigli doue by a oor- 
rm&l pontoD, bat, as iufcrrod bufore, it vill bo found tbo 
bonnet IB aX least briUJunlly ndoruod when completed. 
Tbis dueH not ho mucb apply to ndult persons, siuce edu- 
cattou and enTiroDment Imre pinjed their parts in mo<I»r- 
ation in tbiH n-gard. It Ik tbe iintramnii'>lod Hpiiit tixixt- 
ing in youth w« refur l<i nw buing piirtioiilarly diflurtut 
from that of tbe normal young person. The great import- 
ance of teaching the deaf by ttie metbodt* used in teaching 
benring penwnH i» emplmHize<i for both sensory aud motor 
control. The more* attention this i» given in tbe peda- 
gogy of the deaf, tho b«ttcr will bo thu bridging uTur of 
the peycbic chasm due to deafness ; remembering, ahTays, 
le danger of overworking a person deprived of any one 
BIIS0L Tbu ililKculty of determining in some ciuiea 
ulielhGr a child is imbecile or deaf is of importnnco. 
Freud's theory of exivtiug Lronnectiou between apprecia- 
tiob of component parts of words or phrases tbroiigb tbe 
Inbyrintb, and. therefore, tbe dissociatioii of perception of 
speeuli lu some persons with tutetual ear liKeiute, 18 im- 
poTtaut to study in Ibis conuection. 


In 90 per cent, of deaf perHons there is general excit- 
ability of the cuntrul nuuruus, due It* iubunuit percuptivo 
stimulutiou of the brain in tbe endeavor to make up for 
the loss of other avenues of entrance to this organ of tbe 
mind (a» the ear) from stimuli eiinting in tbe wirroumling 
wurbl. It is fur this renhon, I lliiuk, that the relU-\en nru 
iDCreastHl in the boroditarily deaf persou. Tbe tempera- 

48 A Study of the Deaf. 

mental influence, therefore, has little weight in modifying 
the response to knee-jerk, and a deaf person of lymphatic 
eoustitntion will no doubt protest against increase of re- 
flex without beiiig able to determine prohibition in those 
responKes which are manifestly increased by the excitable 
uerve-cell habit acquired through post-natal central stim- 
ulation of the vitality of the deaf iudividual. 


The deaf individual without specific disease, and es- 
pecially when hereditarily so, presents no great physical 
difference from that of the normal person, at least iu the 
gross constituents of his being. It is the more subtle 
psychological phenomena that the substance of this paper 
shall portend. However, as bodily aberrations do modify 
mental characteristics and resistance-power in all people, 
we must not fail to inteijiret this in the growing deaf child 
hampered by bodily disease. Among the young pupils 
here studied it is evident that peculiar mind conditions 
are thus bestowed upon them, e. g., I take it that the rea- 
son for especial backwardness iu a child with enlarged 
tonsils, and therefore with diflicult speech, is that the de- 
formity being but a concomitant state in the physical 
make-up does yet exert depreciative influence upon the 
subject by just this amount of interference with the ex- 
pressiou of mind action. So that in the imbecile child, 
as iu the deaf child witli normal brain, these conditions 
modifying normal speech should all be most carefully 
studied, and if possible corrected. While the work of 
the late Dr. Harrison Alien iu this line was most critical 
and exact, still to hope for great amelioration of either 
imbecile or deaf children through correction of organic 
speech defects is laboring nuder too enthusiastic interpre- 
tation of the premises considered. 

A Study of the Deaf. 49 

Chest Expansion. 

This is perhaps in 50 per cent, of deaf children of 
much less amplitude than io hearing people, because of 
the fact that many deaf children have obstructioDB in the 
pharjDx. Poorer nourishment from lack of oxygenation 
of the blood, of course, foUowB. 

In the remaining 60 per cent, approximately, and in 
caseswithoutrespiratory obstruction, therefore, respiratory 
expansion is probably greater than in normal people of 
the same age, on account of this compensatory action of 
nature manifested and shown through all life processes. 
That the difference in the measurements we show in' the 
tahles do not exactly correspond with this theory is 
perhaps due to the difficulty in making young children 
understand our meaning when asked to take a long in- 
spiration. For the same reason, it would be difficult to 
measure long capacity of deaf persons by means of the 
pueumometer. This same condition was experienced in 
the "Study of the Blind" referred to above. 


The cardiac action in deaf persons is apt to be irritable, 
bounding, and easily modified by the impressionistic side 
of life. For the emotions are mucli more developed, it 
seems to me, in observing the thousand deaf persona en 
maaae here studied, and in the endeavor to compare them 
with the same number of people in a " crowd," as the 
expression goes. We detected no anomalies of the heart 
in the 170 cases concretely studied. The circulation of 
deaf persons is pretty consistent with the cardiac irrita- 
bility, although a vasomotor ataxia is evident in the most 
neurotic type of these persons. Tliis bears upon the 
conception of an irritable nervous system being existent 
in the deaf and, of course, ninuifested in the sympathetic 
as well as in the cerebro-spinal system already referred to. 

50 A Study of the Deaf. 

Special Senses. 

Deaf persons are apt to be acotely sensitive to tonch, 
yet, not having depended on tliia special sense so mach 
aa blind people, do not have it developed to the same de- 
gree as the latter. At the same time, it is more acnte 
than in normal persons. Without an aecnrate time-re- 
cording festhesiometer, indeed if with it, this hypothesis 
cannot be proved, b«t it is certainly upheld by the clini- 
cal evidence in observiug large numbers of deaf persons. 
The vibrations in the floor on approaching deaf persons 
are very quickly perceived by them, and one is astonished 
frequently to note the quick perception of a stealthy ap- 
proach when the experiment is attempted. I recall the 
case of a totally deaf man who, as helper in a saw-mill, 
always determined the start of the engines with great 
acuteneSB by the vibrations, even though he were quite 
distant from the mill building itself ; in more than one 
aerioos accident about the place, this deaf-mute, not en- 
tirely by luck, I take it, escaped injury. I am inclined to 
think that this compensatory development of function of 
the general seusorium in the deaf is an incremeut in the 
causation of nervous temperaments predominating in 
them, and of their greater susceptibility to the effects of 
heat and cold. This same sympathetic nervous system 
irritation is the reason for the rapid change in pnlse rate, 
Buddeo alterations of the thermal state of the extremities, 
sweating, blushing,* etc., the latter of which has been 
studied in another place. 

With this, the uioscle sense is much augmented in the 
deaf, and to tliis decree the vioarious special sense train- 
ing. I think the deaf person is better enabletl to co-ordi- 
nate: for, as noted above, the station is not often 
markedly disturbed evcu with those haviog iimeh disei»se 

• - Flnahing »iil Uorbld Blusbtii^." in PMUiiUijAM UnUc-i tJnnrHitl. 
Xaidi, 1899. 

A Study of ih« Deaf. 


of ibe intoriiRl ear niticli wonid iiivolre tlie f^eini-circiilBr 
ONDftls ; and »iich iavnlT(>niriit nccardiiiK tn onr pli}*»iu- 
logicNl teactiiug would uot»il more or leKH degree of lottHof 
M]i]ilihriiin). A most AJuguliir pbeuomeiiou in tli« deaf is 
iUu fnt:t that tliey seldom become aensick, and this, as ex- 
plnincd to my HHtiKfactinn in another place,* is dae. do 
doubt, to luspissstion of the ioter'Huricular fluid within 
tbo lymph chnuueU of llie gemi-circuliir cauuU ; which, 
vhuu uonanll}- limpid nnd stirgiog about, causes many 
OKseA of mat tie mer of the reflex type. 

While iht^BL' HciiMiti6c data in repnrd to tlie deaf, which 
I take to be verifiwl by the olmervatiouii niiulu, are worthy 
of cousideratioD with res])ect to the aberratiouH of fuuo- 
tinnK in the dcnf, they »Iho forcifuUy teach the restrictioos 
nudvr which their hutnari bodies labor for the nttaiiiioent 
of the beiiiitiefi of Uvjii^, All Ihiu, from the civic potatof 
view, siiouttl stimulutti letter ^oientillc inlerpretatjon of 
tbe dofocis of our maimed cIassck, and thin again refers 
bank to the lulvantoge, at Ua»4t, of their mrly institutional 
treininK- ^ should almnst nay that this vicarious action 
of the nervous system, when one avenue of inlet to tbe 
briuii ii) cut off. is also frequeutly deuionstrated in acuit}* 
of tnato, for I havo uoror soon childrtiu mora seugitivo to 
tbo response to wlioleaome food, ns pi-ovidotl at tbo Ponu> 
Hvlvunia luslitution, and iiidig&atiou is uot an uncommon 
Mtjuela of too lunch indnlgence. 

AOE OP Drafn'ess. 

Fn atteniptiug lu det^tmiue the age »t which deafucss 
began in tbt* acquired eoHOs wo have a ditHciilt problem 
to Holve, which wnnid be of not n little aoientitio intercHt. 

Many coses nre reoorde<l on the entrance Bheeta pre- 
pared by the rehttiveit as having acquired doafnestt wliich 
In reality were, no doubt, pongenital. For oxiitnplo, one 

52 A Study of the Deaf. 

case reported the deafness commenciDg at the forty-first 
day, and we frequently see noted that doafnesB followed a 
" fall," "catarrh," "coneussioD of the brain," " earache," 
" grippe," etc., varying from one and a half to two or three 
years. Of course, this is the time during which develop- 
ment of speech occurs and the defect of hearing is but 
accentuated then. It is at this age that the backward 
children are often confounded with deaf children, as the 
writer has previously observed in " The Study of Back- 
ward Children." * A reference to the details will show 
points of interest that cannot be analyzed in the text 
without extending this paper beyond limits. 

Cause of Deafness. 

There are recorded 15 born partially deaf among the 
boys in this primary department, and 33 recorded as hav- 
ing been born entirely deaf. 50 boys became totally deaf 
after birth. This leaves 10 boys unaccounted for as par- 
tially deaf, who we are pretty positive should be placed as 
totally deaf pupils, since there is a great tendency of 
parents to exaggerate sense perception into the statement 
that the patient really hears when he does not. About 
40 per cent, of the boys, with this correction, were born 
totally deaf, about 13 per cent, were born partially deaf, 
and 47 per cent, acijuired deafness either complete or 
partial through disease. Mt-niugitis ranks highest in 
etiolt^?y, as emphasized by Dr. George C. Stont.t The 
reason for meningitis bt-iug frequently a sequela of ear 

■ THnsBctioDS of the Ameriouii Aviult^tuy u{ UedJcine, 1803 : "A Study 
o[ Sa-iCasHB." 

t There U not eufQcient dnta at lixiid tu give the I't-rccutn^-e of cases 
due to iit>rre lesion per $f. The iii>>st I'oiiimon cuiisfs uf deitf-miitiBm 
we si'irlalina aud diplitberia. The nervo l.-siuus when prpseul lire aea- 
ritiaes Bfi'oudiiry lo tlie iilnivt' diBfiiKes. or to im'uiiiyi'ul or cfrebrul It-sion 
as « rule. Miirt'overi iirobiibly 2-1 per ivm. of all nn'niugeul lesioiis are 
due t(> luidille enr diseasea yieTSOUat cooiiunuieutiuu). 

A Study of tU iMtf. 


pO ill cliildreu U due to tlia close vascular interoom- 
licatioD belweeu tbe ear nud cranial carity ; aud, wbilu 
worlet Fever nod throat aflfectinns sro tlie predominiiui 
original caiiKeH for sacli r«mpticntian, wc cau aMsiimo tbab 
ill tbo histories uuuiugitiii wua Hiii]])Ly not mciitioued as 
b«iug sequeut to soue oue of these iufectious diseases. 
Cue bopefal feature in Ihe prevention of ileafnesH at tbe 

rpresetit time mnst be considered to be in Ibe more sno- 
aHffll treHtuiciit of dipbtberiii b^' tbu \w.v, at antitoxin. 
'Wo can hope tlint in tbe unxt decailu the Htatisticiaii will 
roeord a total miiober of proportional dituiuutiou of ao- 
qaired deaf-miitiBiii. 

AjDOug tlm girU there were recorded 7 (or 11 per oeot.) 
born partially deaf and 28 (or 45 per cent.) born tolally 
deaf. Ill 27 (or 44 per cent.) deafness partial or com- 
plelo was acquired tbrongb disease. Tbc«e porceutogos 
mra proportionately dotvruiined by calcalation to be ap- 
prnxinintety the aniue aa that of tlie hovH jtiat given. We 
dtd not deinuuHtrale any (.'aHeti of that rather itnoiualuuB 
cnndiliUD where the individtml <!Oiild hoar but yet not 

iS^ieak, which wc nro inclined to place iu tbe hyaterical 
catogory anloss snch bo n case of imbecility; ouly tvo or 
three of eucU eaaee are at the institatiou, one being ths 
ioBtAuee of a colored child. A rory large nnmber of the 
children exatniucd arc, of course, much below bearing 
iodiTidnuls merely from the rcstriotioa of ialelluvtioiL 
through the special Hoose of hearing. 

Head Cibcpmpebence, Etc. 

There was a normal uniformity us to the size of the 
bead, the average being about 1*J inches. Iu 15 of the 
girUi the palatal arches were higher than norual, and in 
about 33 per ccut. Ibe tousilti were enlarged. In about 
30 per cent, of tlie boya the palatal arub wan higlior than 
oormal, and iu about 38 per cunt, bhuro were enlarged 
ioDoila or uxoaaHivu lymphatic tinsuu iu the pharynx. 

54 A Study of the Deaf. 

The relatiou of high palatal arches to any mental defect 
was DotDoted,bat it seems to me is an index toward point- 
ing out incipient tendency to mental backwardness. The 
enlarged tonsils in one-third of the cases is indicative of 
the predisposition to infection of the throat and ear, and 
more remotely of the centres of audition in the brain. 


The difficulty in determining consanguinity of parents 
or close ancestry is shown by the fact that amoug the 
62 girls studied, only in three instances was consanguinity 
admitted by the relative giving the data as recorded on 
the Pennsylvania Institution blanks. In one of these the 
record stated parents were third cousins. Among the 108 
boys there are but four instances in which it is admitted 
consanguinity existed in the parents, and, in all of them, 
this not nearer than second cousins. There must be 
among all of these many hereditary cases of deafness 
withal, therefore, many instances of consanguinity in the 
parents which they refuse to admit. It is a question 
whether or not deafness may come from the intermarriage 
of relatives, even though they or their ancestry give clear 
histories of no deafness having existed in that particnlar 
lineage. At the same time the intermarriage of relatives, 
even the most healthful specimens, should be interdicted, 
since if some one of the special senses be not impaired in 
the progeny, there is likelihood of physical abnormalities 
or deformities such as spiua-bifida, webbed-toes, etc. 
The whole subject of involution and evolution in both the 
vegetable and animal kingdoms is fraught with a most 
intense interest to one who attempts to follow out the 
method of that early Babylonian philosopher, Zadig. 
The fact that this man, wlio was such a determining factor 
in producing the spirit of true research, came near martyr- 
dom on account of the scieutitic truths he proclaimed, and 

A Stxtdy of (ti€ Dmf. 


wbieb ha nltimiitelj proved to lie trutliH, should lie nn 
ioiiiiuuso iuiiH-tus to a scieutific luau of the Imti 20tb uen- 


As t&r as we cao get Frota the records, there ia no 
special prwlispositiou to doafuees of oDe race or nstioDoUty 
over iiuotlter. 

Deafness Ajn>Na Relatives Other than De.i7 Pabehtb. 

Among the 62 girls tliaro are 16 instauces r»cord«d of 
dwafiifss n» per above headiug. Among tlio boys there 
were 27 InHtanceK it] tlie fiLtnilies. In 9 inKtattces sinoag 
the G2 girlH it was brother or sister who wak also deaf, 
Uiere boiug 5 deaf ohildreo iu oue family There wore 5 
deaf and 5 beariug childreu in two families, iu one of 
vbich fiLinilies there was the peculiarity of nlterimtion of 
the deafnefiH ocourriug among thcjni. Thi» broaght the 
ialcreHtiug thought of the )>oHHibiUty of the lilteiiess of 
the affected child to oue or the other of the parents, in 
whom the predisposition to deafness at Inast might have 
h^'Bn i?xiHt«nt. This snlijeot of immnnity and prodiwpoBi- 
tioo the «Titer has mentioned with Dr. Wharton Hinkler 
in a " 8tody of Family DiaeaseB,"* in which the example 
is Frtcorfled of small-pox immunity occurring in those 
children of the family who had resembled the previously 
affected parent. 

Following out these studies in heredity, it is interesting 
to note tranHmisMiou of color blindnuHa^thal rarti affection 
which in an ititriL'Hto nulijuct to trace dvliuituly. Iu an 
iuslnuce which I am to report before the American MedicAl 
AfiHocintion, father and daughter Komewhat alike an to 
erratic charai.-turiHtics hail thin peculiar phenomenon alone 
in thu family. A peculiarity uf the cyus iu berodity is 

56 A Study of the Deaf. 

shown in tbe following iDsUoce given to me by a physician 
of Delaware citj. In a litter of cats, those bom with 
bine eres were generally deaf, while those bom with pink 
eyes had the hearing preserved, although they snflFered, 
of course, from intense photophobia due to absence of 
pigment. This brings up the interesting problem of 
embryolf^cat laying down of pigment in relation to the 
development of the iuterual ear or its more external 
organ. Not entirely out of place is a recent instance 
coming to the writer's notice of 6ve daughters and three 
sons. Each of the daughters developed diphtheria on 
reaching the age of four to five years ; four of them dying 
from the disease, the oldest alone surviving. The three 
sous never developed the disease, I have no record of 
the resemblance to one or the other parent nor of the 
history of diphtheria on either parental side. That there 
was a subtle predisposition in the females seems very 

Special Cases asd General Cossideratioss as to the 


Case 1. — An inatauee of a boy alternating from blind- 
ness to deafness, as recorded in tiie Columbus Institution 
some years ago.* I have V)t>en unable to trace the case 
and doubt very mueh if it wasotlier than hysteria. 

Case 2, — Leslie Orem, a«;eil 5' years, examined at the 
Columl>us lustitulion DeeeniU'r '.i',', ISlHl, became deaf, 
dumb, and hlind at two and a half yojU-s. through menin- 
gitis. It was oil this d;iy, Peeenibor 2!'. IS'.'y, the child 
first got a complete seiiteiiec, in whieli it w;is made most 
happy. Through tlie paiuslakiug etTort of his teacher^ 
this sadiy-interestint; little feUow had developed quite 
rapidly into knowledge of the miter world. Tlie method 

•JhiMb, xsxii, 13!>. 

A Study of the Deaf. 


of otlncatiou uf doaf, iluuib, tmA bliud poi'socfi nood Dot bo 
dwelt u|ioii liure. About tlie wonderful dcTuli^piueut of 
pedagofi^ sinoc the davK of tliu woU-Ktudiod cobo of Laum 
Hridgnrann. luid of wliifli Heleu Keller is an exemplar of 
Uie liixb devulopmout of Ibis art, we- bare little to say. 
Thure are about fiftj sncb canes raconled as beiug so 
taogbt. The great interest of Helen Keller borself, now 
in Kadclifft) Oollego, and of tbiM ileaf, dumb, aod blind 
Jittle fellow, nbow8 Ibe woudfrlul results of tbis truly pbi- 
laotbropic effort and the progress lieing made by tbo 
bliud and deaf tbemselves in tlinir own t-irc-lnfi. Dt:biiliug 
a few of tbe accoinplitilimeiits of tbiN LeHlie Oreiu aa we 
saw biiu, we noted the following : The child was eating 
an apple witb bia teauber aa a rewartl " for bRYiBg well 
doue." He waa then plai-ed at a table, read the words 
given him, "tbe ball," when be reached for the ball in a 
haskt^, banding it to his teaclter. He bad been patiently 
taught the raised alphabet, tbeu a few >ihort words which 
were associated with tbe toueb aeuse as appbed to tbe ob- 
ject spelt. Tbo wonder in such teaching is that the atart 
can h(y tniule at all for tbe intellig^^nt npprebeiiKiou of tbe 
ebibl. Having once been Ktnrled, the mystery ib cleared 
away, and tbe development of tbeinipriaoued mind is only 
a mutter of ingenuity and deftness of tbe teacher and in- 
tellection of the subject. 

The metboil uf instruction in the kindoi^artoa of deuf 
achools is not to teach elementally but by tbe pliouetic 
isyetoB). For inutauce, in teacbiug the li|)-langnage to a 
I deaf periton, tbu a, b, c'a are not taught separately, bnt are 
acquired daring the firat year. Thus tbe phonetic 
uethdd is couliiMied to tbe IStb year, after which maunal 
training is curried on to tbe 19tb year, when they are 
graduated titted for any trade employment. The won- 
derful acuity of the noruiiU mind of a dcaf-nintn in ac()nir- 
ing lip-lnnguage ih ithowu in the inHtancc of u Freucb 
geutleuiau aud liuguibl who viutcd tbe Ooluuibus luatitu- 

58 A Study of the Deaf . 

tion in America and spoke in his own and other tongues 
to a deaf boj that was an advanced student. The pnpil 
immediately interpreted vocally the man's speech, althoagh 
he had not seen any lip-langnage other than English and, 
of course, did not understand any of the tongues he so 
well imitated. 

As an interjection may be stated here the desirability 
of pablic school education of the deaf such as has been 
established in Boston in the " Horace Mann " pablio 

Two Detailed Cases (Todth and Adult). 

I. Two examples of sudden deafness occurring in child- 
hood and in adult life it will be fitting here to state, for 
in these individuals, thus suddenly cut off from hearing, 
we expect to get the greatest mental and bodily disturb- 
ance in the loss of a special sense. The first case is that 
of a man reporting at the clinic for nervous diseases of 
Dr. S. Weir Mitchell on May 5, 1899, who gave a his- 
tory of a severe blow on the head while on a tobc^gan 
eight years ago, of bleeding from the ears, and of uncon- 
sciousness immediately followed by almost total deafness. 
The pitiable condition. of the sufferer was shown in every 
movement and expression, although he did not seem to 
have any special pain. His movements were awkward ; 
he had decided shnfBii^ g^it; was suspicious of his sur- 
roundings ; spoke in a low monotone ; and from the fact 
he could not he admitted to the institution for the deaf 
at his age, was seeking advice in the last extremity. This 
man during the past year has gained some in the ability 
to read the lips, but his power to accommodate to the 
sudden loss of hearing is decidedly less than it would be 
in a child I have in the next case to report. He un- 
doubtedly has a skull fracture passing both petrous 

A Shuiy of the Deaf. 


n. W. C, ugo 13, roporlc-il lo tlm clinic of Dr. Wliar- 
Lou Siuklfir. DuoomlKtr IH, IKUU. Tticru is »l)si>lutel>- ui> 
berediturv ilvufuess lu tbe iamil)' kislorjr. The bor'a 
nidntal deTelopment was good ntid lie had " perfect " 
b»ullti. Ui» den.fiies8 dnteH from Ftsbrunry IH, 1899, 
whfti he hiul a Mcvero iittnck of iiifeclioutt vcrcbro-Mpiiinl 
taeuiugiiix wUli coiivulsious, being ill auveu wt^ekx. There 
was ft bIuw coDvnloeceDC« followed b^ denfui b8 and tiuiii- 
lus aDrinni. He bos not been able to go to school siuce. 
What in pnrticalarlj uotioeatiln is that the child is becom* 
my, nh}' aud buckwnrd, hiK tixpruHHiou la \{aii'\ap^ " blnnk," 
hilt mother anyH, perhapti dua to thi- fact he uaaiiot cnteh 
words tiiilesH shouted loudly into the left ear. Coutrary 
to tho QiRU juHt moDtioucd, within loss than the year (t«n 
uitintbH; he is ablu U> rviuX thti ItpR w»ll. The peculiar 
pKjcholoRtca) phonoineaoti in that he dreams much of bo- 
inf; talked lo, also friglitful thin^ii, as of itnimale l)eing 
n(t«)r him. No donbt the former in an expresaion of con- 
tiuutnl luiud actiou in an irritable brain set ap by worry 
over his defect, nnd the disturbing dreams are no donbt 
expressions of the same pei-verted mind action and possi- 
bly directed toward this fri^ditful expression throu^b the 
iiufipi(;LOUsui>!w developed iu an impreBstoDiKtic nervous 
system thus exaggerated iu a buperauusitive person. It is 
a fact ihul dreitm states ure more apt to take on malicious 
expression iu t^liiUIreii, and indeed batl dreams very often 
leavo a lurking imprensiou of horror on the normal child, 
Bft that vf hi^n he growH to adnliHieence » leur often retained 
is but tbe unexplained <tu him) remnautii of a remote 
dream iu childhood. It should be said that iu this boy 
there vaa no remaining external ear disease as examined 
hy Dr. Randall ; and Dr. Thninnon reports the vision 
15/15 iu both eyei). Certainly this is a cnsu for atteinpl 
ftl retaining the bearing by education of the rumaiuUig 
jostic function, and, tlint failing in a few mouths, this 

lild should be put for odueattoual training iu the retm- 
sylvituia School. 

60 A Study of the Deaf. 


This study oF the deaf hae broopiht out some sociolc^c 
facts for iuterpretation which seem pretty clearly to prove 
the lowered resistance power of deaf iudividaals to exter- 
nal influences of all sorts, and that they are hampered 
and menaced to an unequal degree, depending on the 
moral physical fibre of the afflicted person. 

Secondly. Cases of hereditary deafness are less apt to 
be psyciiically alienated subjectirely, at least, from appre- 
ciation of their loss. That " the new world" of restricted 
special sense life is to them much less appreciated, as 
such, is due, no doubt, to accommodation through 
"heredity of acquired characteristics." These same 
hereditary cases do seem to have a different method of 
life engrafted upon them at birth. 

Thirdly. Cases of acquired deafness in childhood below 
the seventh year will show awkwardness, sensitiveness, 
depression, or exaltation, in proportion as the deafness is 
not complete and the age of becoming deaf is near to this 
seventh year. If such children are placed in institutions 
for the deaf, much gain will be had in their psychological 
development, whereas if they remain at home with " hear- 
ing " persons, the influence for ill in these beginning years 
of training is in proportion to tite method of teaching deaf 
individuals by hearing methods alone at this age. 

Fourthly. The widest diCEereuce between hearing and 
totally deaf individuals is at once noticed in those becom- 
ing suddenly deaf, where adjustment of the nervous sys- 
tem to tlie surrounding world, with tliis delicate sense of 
bearing cut off, is one of sudden compensatory training 
which is an unusual burden in biologic life. In propor- 
tion as we have a (stable uervoas system, will this adjust- 
ment be better brought about, and the individual will be 
transferred toward the class of acquired cases in youth, or 
even to the facility in expression of the hereditarily deaf ; 
in all of whom it moat be said the human body Ib lacking 

i«/y of {hi- Deaf. 

ia kigAett attaiDmeut^, iU1>eit the wouderfut coiuiteusatorv 
expressions iiualvzod uboTs »re brought to tho notice of 
tbu iulroapixitivu btiuUuit. 

Pifibly. The vahio of U-'avliiri^ doiif i)ontun8 in «chools 
exclosively for tbeiu up to the IStb or 20lb yc&r is lu bo 
Hoiphafii?^! ; after this, the nearer the procuss reaches out 
tuwanl iuclutliug Leurin^ invtIiodH of ped'igog}', the better 
results wilt be nllaiued, uud ttiu tluaf ]iDrKoti, in oontitiuiug 
his more nntiiral cietboil iu coutact with the Murnmuiliug 
nortd, witi be better able to coDteud bis v/nj iu life. 


I. *■ AbBonnttbtl*! of tb« I'ppcT llMplnitarjr Tntct and B»t, Foaad 
Ooniaonl; AiaoD|;l>«a(-Uatc«." tj'AnburAtiian BIJm, A. M.,M. D.| 
tmt». im*. 

T " Till* DcvKliiiruQiit of tlip OLiKI," by Nntliun OppQulieJtti, 1H9,S. 

a. " UmiIaI Dorelopiuvut Id ili« CkiM nuj tlie limov," bj- Jaiucn M. 

t. ■■ I'bf Pownof TboDgbt," by John D. SUrrMt. 

S. "Mvria«s," bj Aloxiiailer o'nbam Hirll. 

t. ^ Ltp IjtiDguBge," by Mrs. Ali^xaailBr Uraliam fiell. 

7. "A Hmw DMf *ii<l Unmb .UpbaUt,*' !>)• Lcwlic tiilltHiait. 

«. •"UpBewllng.'au Ahl for i bo loturably DeAf." by Uts. Cor* D. 

OoctOD, In " M«<li«s) Rocord." 
V, "Tho A>w«ci>ii.>u KoTiow," [>««piiib«r, ]8W. 

10. "U«|iiiM uu Uit Euuuinatifin of 4t.'i Yoxirk Dmf-MtitM la lC«g&ril to 
the KbhiiI Cb«niWrD. Ear-, and Or^tuia (»[ Phaiuiton," hy Anhur A. 
Uliiw. U. U., iu - Uo<tiiul Kcwa," Nav»»biT tS, 18B3. 

11. '■ Uaaaal of IVoching." by lliua. A^iiulO. KngUnd. 

U. ■' Analogl** ot tbe IjtBgnago of Sound add Tnuch," by ThiM. Arnold. 
II. *' Tb* lAOKoag* of U»<> B«a>tt), with Bpecbl S^tennw Ut tlio I>«!af, 

Blind. l>o«f «id Bliod.'by Amolrt. 
U. ■ RvpfiTton E<lno>tkiD,'* by C Sngnln, U. 8. Ooait(iia»ivDor of Ifdu- 

fktiua At Um> Vienna nDiveml Eibibilitiij. 
U Hanmaun't " LI«tLt-MBiUiu." Tmiulatlon tiy J. P. Ooasalla, 1981. 
IC "Deur-Uolum." by IIolKct MyRina. I>i9l. 
IT. '■ IK»f-Miili»ni," by jAutea Kerr Li>»e. IHV6. 
IS. " D* [ixntaiiiino in Nar^,'' by V. OotMrmann, ItOM. 
II. " Httlwaii) ct Knr<lil<J," by J. D. Puyboaaioai. 
W. " PhyBiulDjtifl «l IiiaUnvtinn ilii Hoiird-Uuat." by Edward FouroU. 

Cliiur^ PrvfMavT ^ Xerrtnu Dttea*ai in ttr 
MtdieO'ifMrVfsieal Cotttst of f/iOaOeipMa. 


In 1870, influencecl by the movement iu favor of some 
recognitiou of the merits of speech -teaching conseqaent 
upon the establishment of oral scIiooIk for the educatiou 
of the deaf in Massachusetts and in New York, and hy the 
report of a visit to European oral schools by Dr. Edward 
M. Qallaudet, whereiu the introduction of articulatioQ- 
teachiog in all American schools for the deaf was stren- 
uously urged, the management of the Pennsylvania Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb introduced articulation- 
teaching for such pupils as might be able to profit by it, 
thus rec<^nizing the desirability of teaching speech to its 
pupils, at least as an accomplishment, and changing the 
school from a sign-language school into what is popularly 
known as a combined -system school. 

The sign-language method, the method of De I'Ep^e, 
Sicard, and their successors in France and in America, 
pervaded every department of the Institution during the 
period from 1820 to 1870. So easy of acquisition, so all- 
absorbing of the mental faculties, so euchautiug to its 
users, teachers and pupils alike, it had become the one 
easy and acceptable means of communication and instruc- 
tion throughout the school, and any step limiting its use 
or weakening its functions in connection with school work 
or social intercourse was received with many and great 
apprehensions, Sigus for words, for ideas, for persons 
and places, iu school-room and lecture-room work, had, in 
the course of tifty years, become so imbedded in the 
thought and practice of the school that they were regarded 
as the sine qua non of all successful effort. 

Under such couditious the outlook for successful speech 

* Head at the meeting; of lJei>artnieiit ijixteeu of tbe Americau Educa- 
tional AHBociation, Charleston. South Cttroliua, July 11, 1900. 

dtutffM of Method in iA< Pennsylvania Institution. 63 

or ftrticnlatiou t«ftcliiDg was (ar from onconrafpug, when, 
in 187Q, tlie Grst nttcmplj* nt sncb work in tlio lafititntion 
rere made. Tho metbod iotroducccl, ouo still pursued in 
laaj couibiiied-Hvi)t«m sobools, provided from thirty to 
trty-Bre miQut«e' daily iostmctioD in Hpeecli, or arliciila- 
Uou, Bud lip-rcadtug; tlio various clossos, in whole or in 
part, goin^ in turn to tho iDstrnctor chnrgod with t]io duty 
of ttrticLiu^ sp«ech to the whole school. At best Die iii- 
fttrni'tioii thus afforded amoiiuted lo tittle moro tlmu a 
certain sort of vocal drill, tiring alike to lioth teacher aud 
jtipiU. la no sontio coultl it Im regnrdcd \\» iiifltruction 
by ornl niotbudti. 

Becogniziugtbese unftivornble couditioua, thu uuthori- 
ti^s of the firhool in IRSI resolved to introduce separate 
onil iotitrucfiou, lit leiutt for a portion of thi) pupils. ThJH 
WAS oluven years after tlic iiitraihu-tiun of nrticnlntiou- 
teovliing under combined -ay stt-iu methods. Tho ospuri- 
ence of these eleveu years was sufficiently convincing of 
tho griMit ditticaltr. if not utter itupossibility, of .securiug 
good Hpeecb and gowl lip-ruading with only thirty or 
furty-fiv« minutes' ttailv luHtrncliou, the rt»w:iiuder of th(4 
time Ituing giveu to instrnctiou under very diffuieut and 

itngouislic methods. 

TliB URxt step was the eKtabliNbiURnt, nt some distauco 
from the loaiu Hchuul, of a Kepnrativ Oral Department for 
a {H>rtioo of the pupils. This Bepartmeut, conducted nt 
as a day-school, nt tho end of its tifth year coutuineil 
ninety pupilK aud nine teachers. In 1885 itwnschauged 
truui a day to a boanliug school. 

This important stop waa takeu very advisedly. No 
las« of defectives nK|iiini for tboir development more 
Ipecialix^l itivthods of truiuing or more wholesome envi- 
roning iu9nouce« thau the doaf. Tbo managert) of the In- 
fttitutioD, roflognizing the many advantages of home <^nvi- 
ronmenl in the education of uoimal cliitdreu, were fully 
■hiumUIu of the uauy argumcutfi since then eo widely ex- 

64 Changes of Method in the Pennsylvania I-natitution, 

plotted in furtberiog tlie interests of claT-schools for the 
deaf. They, however, felt with Dr. Nathan Oppeuheim 
that, while " a household is primarily designed for the 
needs, comforts, and pleasures of normal persons, it can 
only with difficulty subordinate its natural usefulness to 
the needs of abnormal children," and, realizing the seri- 
ous harm that would be certain to result iu the education 
of deaf children should there be failure to appreciate to 
the fullest extent the great differences between normal 
and defective children, were led, very wisely, to decide iu 
favor of the boarding rather thau the day-school system for 
this Department. In our experience under the day-school 
plan it was found very difficult to control attendance, to 
enforce discipline, or to secure satisfactory and helpful 
and healthful home influences. ^Vith the chauge to a 
boarding school, all these uufavoriog conditions were reme- 
died, and the work of the Department almost immediately 
assumed a higher and better tone. 

The work of the Institution was prosecuted at this 
period (1883-'88) iu the following manner: In the main 
school in mnuuiil or sign-hmguago classes with lustrnction 
iu articulation in half and three-(]uarter hour periods to 
a portion of the pupils ; in two oral classes, formed in 
1883- '84, in the same Departmout, and from which signs 
and spelling wa means of instruction were excluded ; and 
in oral classes in the scpjirate Oral Department. Instruc- 
tion was continued under this chissiti cation for five jears, 
the orally tanglit i-lussi's slowly iiioronsingin number each 
year. The articulation classes grew smaller, their speech- 
work in comparison less and less sjitisfactory, HUtll the 
year 1888, when aitionlation-toachiug of this character 
ceased altogether. Since then the work of the school has 
been practically contined to two methods only, the oral 
and the manual. luterniittent sju'efh-work has been 
banished from the cnrriculniu. 

Comparative tests of blie results under the two methods 

Ckaruj^g of ^tthiyf. in (h'S p.-n»*t/hvtnin /natitutl&n. ()5 

wore e«ni1uctf(I for a period o{ tire vuara (1888 to 1892, 
iacln8ivL'), gradn fnr gnuJe, clnss for class. T!ie examina- 
tiiins, based od tiio work pui-suud in tlie MniinnI Depart- 
ment, were Inkon alike bvtbe pupils <if hotti il(*pKrLm«at«, 
&Dd io n« ou« itittUnce were orally tnii^lit pupils, of equal 
grade, foutid inferinr to manually tanglit pupils; in many 
respects llieir work vrati ttuperior. In tli« laaf^uuge teHtH 
Uirtr work was atiuost inTariably superior; iu statemeot 
of factH, aM io liiHtorTf or geography, tliey also frequently 
eicellMl. The ratnltH of tlioite teittx were retnarkabla. 
They prove<l i-oucltisively that the congeuituUy tleaf, the 
adreutitioiisly deaf, aud the semi-deaf — iu fact, all deaf 
childrcD of good health and good mental powers — may be 
8are4*sKfullr taught by oral tnethodit nlonc. 

Upon tlie irausftfr of the Iimtilutiuu Io Mouut Airy iu 
18d2, the separation of the Oral from the Manna) r>ej>art- 
neiit waa made complete by merging the two oral classes 
of tti« Mniinal Dt^partment intoclaHsea hitherto taught in 
the Beparale Oral L>4:-partiu(>ut. Thi> tuergitig of the pupils 
of theKe two chisses with pupils siiDilariy instmcted, but 
without Hign-flnvirotiment, brnnglit to light H<iiue interest- 
tng oontra'^tH. It waa found in the cane of the former that 
their speech aud speech liubits were not so good nor so 
firmly tixod ; that thoir lip-reading was not so r»liab!e,and 
that thiitir nttniuioents were not in gtiUt^rul so high. This 
iru true claejs for class aud pnpil for pupil, aud whether 
deaf-bom, semi-deaF, or serai-mate. When closely coto- 
pared with pupils who bad onjoyod oomplcto separate 
oml instniclioii. it was clearly shown that their years of 
BigD •environ meut had told upon them for the woi'se. 

Thu injurious effect of aign-eDTiroument upon pupilu 
orally tjingbt re(;c-irv<l further dtinionstration in our ex- 
pcricDco nt Mount Airy, when, on account of the greatly 
ioorfMUUxl number of pupils under oral instruction, wo 
were compelled to associate intermediate oral clatwes with 
nMnn%l oIoiumw in the ttamo hall. The work of the pupila 

66 Changes of Method in the Pennsylvania Institution. 

of these classes, iu so far as their speech aud Up-readiog 
were coacerned, greatly deteriorated, emphasizing in 
marked degree the statement already made that speech 
methods aud sign or manual methods do not aud oauuot 
combiDe to the advantage of pupils instructed uuder what 
are known as combined-system methods. 

Prior to the year 1892 the growth of the Oral Depart- 
ment during the ten years of its existence was slow. With 
the removal of the school in that year to Mount Airy, aud 
with the passage of an act by the legislature, iu the ses- 
sion of 1893, requiring all uew pupils received iuto the 
school to be placed under oral instruction, aud to be 
maintained under oral metliods of iustructiou until it wua 
plainly shown that they could not be benefited by it, the 
Oral Department has rapidly increased. The following 
comparative table gives the yearly increase from 1881 to 
1899, inclusive ; 


'81 '82 '83 'M 

Manual I 319 317 297 332 

Oral.. ; 36 j m 66 69 

Total ; 355 369 363 401 








'87 '88 





436 433 435 







'91 '02 '93 '94 '95 '9G '97 '98 '90 

312 274 200 17fi \ 152 121 93 66 48 
1L>5 170 : jeo 304 . 350 390 416 i 44U 452 

437 444 I 460 . 4B0 i 502 

511 509 I 506 500 

From this statement it will be seen that in 1881, when 
the separate Oral Department was established, the Manual 

Changes of Method in the Pcnnsi/lvania Institution. 67 

Department contained very nefirly 90 per cent, of the 
total attendance, and tlie Oral Department a little over 10 
per cent.; that at the beginning of the competitive exami- 
nations in 1838, the Manna) Department contained over 
72 per cent, of the total attendance, and the Oral Depart- 
ment less than 28 per cent., whereas in 1899, completely 
reversing their relative positions, the Oral Department 
contained over 90 per cent, of the total attendance, and 
the Manual Department less than 10 per cent. Thus had 
the oral method, in a competitive trial of nineteen years, 
1881 to 1899, inclusive, forced itself to the front by sheer 
force of merit. 

During this long period of trial, extending over almost 
twenty years, there were cases of apparent oral failure ; 
and in such instances the authorities of the school always 
stood ready to transfer to the Manual Department, in the 
hope that its supposed superior merits, as a meaus of in- 
stmction, might do for such pupils what the oral method 
seemed incapable of accomplishing. I have some strik- 
ing statistics to submit on this point : From 1881, when 
separate oral instruction was introduced, to 1899, there 
were received into the school 1,130 pupils, of whom 671 
were placed under oral instruction and 459 under mauual. 
Of these G71 oral pupils 71 failed to make satisfactory 
progress uuder that form of instruction, and were trans- 
ferred to the Manual Department for instruction under 
manual methods. In other words, of the large number of 
pupils orally taught during this period, but 10^ per cent, 
were regarded as failures. But were those failures owing 
to the method of instruction pursued, or were they rather 
the result of inferior mental powers on the part of the 
pupils themselves? Their history under manual instruc- 
tion must answer the question. And when I say that of 
these seventy-one pupils transferred from the Oral to the 
Manual Department during these nineteen years, but three, 
less than 5 per cent., attained even average success uuder 

68 Changes of Methoil in the Pennsylvania Institution. 

niannnl methods, it seems to me the answer tiuxt it was not 
the method, bni the mental condition of the pupils thiit 
was at fault, is iit once conclusive and complete. 

But let me uppiy this failure test to the work of the 
Oral Department when it was more fully organized, say 
from 1892 to 1899, inclusive. During this period there 
were received into the Institution GIG pupils, of whom 
493 were placed under oral instruction and 23 under 
manual. Under instruction, but 20 of these pupils have 
been regarded as failures, and transferred from the Onil 
Department to the Manual. That is, in a period of eight 
years, with a total of 493 pupils placed under oral io- 
struction, the percentage of failure is not quite -tj ; and 
to-day, with a total of 5U0 pupils under instruction, 4o2 
orally and 48 manually, there are but 14 oral failures in 
the school — under 3 per cent, of the total attendance. 

With such experiences as these, covering a period of 
almost twenty years, I am forced to conclude that "when 
a deaf child cannot be educated by the application of 
proper oral metliods, it is useless to hope for any marked 
success under any method." And after a most careful 
comparative examination of the relative merits of oral and 
manual methotis of teaching the deaf, extending over this 
long period, and iui.-ludiug almost every phase and variety 
of such metliods of instruction, I fully believe that proper 
oral methods, by which I mean the use of speech and 
speech-reading, writing, pictures, and the free use of 
books, are fully adequate to the best education of the 

A. L. K CltOUTEH. 
Sujiirinti/inUitt <'/ tht I'liingyltitnia //utitutitin. 

Ml. Airy, Philadelphia, Ptiiiixyltaniii. 


Hli. WnxiAM R. HAitltY, I'ntsidoat of the Boiird of 
Visitors ot lliu Murvkutl School for the De«f, tlietl AugiiHt 
13, 1900. As bis iulereet in the work for tlie denf aud 
hi* acqitafntance among workent was not conline<3 to Stnte 
ItOBit, it nnemti proper to present to tlie ruiidars of the 
Annul* a sketch of bis life unil work. 

Mr. Barry became a member of the Boartl of ViHitorx 
of Um Maryland SohonI in 1809, the He(:on<l year of its 
»ctivu work, nod tiuld tliiit pUKitiuu to th» time of hia 
death. Members of this Board are appointed for life, 
aorviDg without pay. It has ntiiubered in its membership 
many of the leading liiinkers, hiwyunt, and hnsioeKs meu 
of the State. From tlie time of hiR appointment Mr. 
Barry became a promiueut factor in the work of the 
Board. His interest in this line of work was due to the 
fact that his onlv chihl wkh deaf. 

PreviooH to his appointment he had visited vnrious 
aohools to learu what he could of methods and of tho 
possibilities of deaf-mate iugtruetion, and tbna came to 
tho dntias of bis new position with a good degree of 
prnparntinn ; and bnin^; a saccessCnl husinoss man of 
pnuttical experionce and Bonnd judgment, he was early 
ui(l always deferred to by his fellow member!). 

He was early made u member of the JCxeeutive Com- 
nutt4M and retained this position thmngli various changes 
ia its personnel to the end of his thirly-ono yearn of 

The school had booD opened iu soldiers' barracks left 
from prerevolutiooary timiw, but iu 1870 tho erection of 
saitable baildiuga was begun. Mr. Barry, as a member 
of the buUding comiuittee. contributed Urgely to tho 
aaccoaa of Ihitt eutetpriso. He vnut alire to the interests 
of iho school in every direction, and did perhaps more 

70 WiUima R. Barry. 

than any other man in or ont of the Board to awaken 
public interest and secure needed support. He also gave 
much time and effort to reach families having deaf-mute 
children to set before them the purposes and the ad- 
vantages of the school. To his constant, untiring labors 
much of its success is due. 

No one was more familiar than he with the conditioDS 
and workings of the school. Ho was a frequent visitor, 
coming often in the intervals between the meetings of the 
Board, bringing many times persons of prominence whom 
he desired to interest. He spent considerable time ia the 
classrooms and knew every pupil. He was frequently 
present on holidays, entering with zest into the nmuse- 
meuts of the pupils, and always warmly welcomed by 

For about thirty years Mr. Barry acted as city agent 
for the deaf, under appointment of the Mayor and 
Council of Baltimore. For this service he received no 
compensation. In this capacity he made the acquaintance 
of all families in the city of which he could learn, iu which 
there were deaf children. ludigeut pupils were assisted, 
sometimes from a small fund provided by the city, and 
sometimes from his own means. He thus came to know 
the home life and surroundings of a great many children, 
and was regarded by the parents as a friend and coun- 

His interest followed the graduates in their after- 
life, and many are indebted to him for friendly counsel 
and assistance. At gatherings of the adult deaf Mr. 
Barry's presence was always looked for with great in- 
terest. The feeling of the deaf towards him is best told 
by an expression used iu several letters received by the 
writer shortly after his death : " We have lost our beat 

A scheme which Mr. Barry had very much at heart was 
,tht) setsuhug of a properly iu J^aitiniore, where an a^isea- 

W^iliiam If. Jiarry. 


bl^ ball aotl rciuliug rooms (or tlie Bociety of the deaf 
cuoltl bo estublmlKMl. Tlioiigb tbi» ulTurl tliJ uotsucceud, 
it may bo thiit the seed wbicli lio sowed will by iiud by 
b««r frnit. A litdi to bear liis nnmo would be u well-de- 
Kerv'Kd bnnnr, nnd it is an object for which the deaf and 
tboir (riundH may well tiibnr. 

Wr. Biiiry wiw ulectttd Vice-l'reKidpiil of tbe Board in 
Juiiti, 181)3. and ou tbe deutli of Ur. Euoch Pratt was 
cbosen President in Janaary, 1897, and was re-elected at 
Rich of tbe following iiuiiiuil meet) iipis. 

Mr. Barry waa a native of Bidtimore, where Iuh wbole 
lifei watt spent. Ho was bred tu mercautilu {jamuits, and 
was for some years tbe head of ttie firm of Barry \- Cook, 
I larj^e wbobisale linrdware coiii|iany. Por the Inst twenty- 
009 years he was PreHideut of the Maryhiutl Fire Iiisur- 
aace Coni|>aoy, and one of the most promiDeob luen in 
iDfliiraiit-'o circles. Ho was also at one time President of 
the Ltoard of Ingnranco Underwriters and was one of the 
miuia^ers of the AKSOoiattnn known iia the Salvage Corps. 

Ur. Bnrry waa a uiau of deeply Teligion» charneter, 
prominent in church and other good works. From yontb 
be gave a fixed amount of bis lucooio to charch and be- 
nevolf^nt pnrposen. He was one of the founders of 
(:iiat«worth ludopendeut >[othodi»t Church of Baltimore, 
a hberal ^iv«r, and sttiuuc-h stipportor to tlie end of bin 
Uf«. For a long period of yeura ho was ita Snnday- 
•chool siiperiulendent. 

Mr. Barry was oue of the organizers of the Baltimore 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and for 
wnio tinii) buLl the olllcc of Prcsiduut. He wita also 
Pn^HidcDt of the Henry Watson Children's Aid Society of 
Baltimore, one of the objects of which is " to provide 
bomnloM uhtldren with real iiomes." Ho wna nlso one 
of tlio DIrtiutorii of the Marybtud Ci)b>red Hchool for the 
Bliiid uud tbe l>e»f from it.-* iriceptiou. 

Mr. Barry was a man of deep sympathies, nntiring io 






I. ■ 

::: - V :■ m;.!: ■xt- !.' L:- linn- 

■; . "■ ;;.'>"■ -T'.rkil.J ■-''.'iiL^i.l 

. _" "-' :: j:;.'.-!.-. Il i.:> •.■liiL-i- 
.-■--•: r-ri.iv to -.'iv- :i jiaii'-ut 

_ ■ — -.1 i kiij'liK-^* ■^•■i>- ii::ii-k<-i 

..-■'. iL i til'- liU!!i'pl'iiU> -i-ii- nf 
-.. -: etjlliil f'llCir. ;t ■■■■iliiiiliil- 

_ 1- :-V' to lifLrVii'-.-i.t "ink, 

■ _ -rT-: :!j tiitt y'-uiiir ili'i L'-t ■■i-u-^t- 

: -.::-. Thdi-v. Dr. M.I)-.wl-11. 

-_ VL Mr. D:iriv ;iij,l Ji;iii >;i"*>«ii up 

; J.m iu iiis ;iiMrtr>s nt tl;'_- fnnt- 

.... ■-- ■=iiij]i<:Lt. A wjiriii IjiiU'l with 

. --- r--r:T yoilig Ollt flOUl it. If llii^ 

■■' : :'-i;ty or eUi-wlit-n- in mir I.iikI 
_ -TiL i up t'ljrctlitT. tlii-y wiiiilil form 
I: '.lii yomii; i^iiii^ f'H" ui,iim hv 
j.\ '-'i-Oxv iLtiiii'St he servfl roiiM Iil- 
l::'7::;0iju, ihty woulil, i)t.rh;ips. m;ikL' 
■.- iLiit wliicli is liLiv.'" 
i'^-.y ill his scYt'iity-third year ; n Inn^ 
j-z to liin ffll'iw-iut-ii. Siu-h im-ii do 
id'Jeucf iif thi-ir L-harai-ttTf. ninl i^uoil 

c(L4iii.i:s w. f:ly. 

''.'■< Miirifi'iiid .>>/i— '1. h'rniti-i--k. Mm ;i-'iit'l. 

BUUa, 18W. 

The Couveiitiou of the AssociAlion of GermiLu Teachers 
ol the Peaf look pifice at Hambwrg, Soplembor 'iO to 
October 3, ISDO. Tli« l)atiiDee8 comoiitteu, cousiMiiig of 
Messrs. Walllier, Gutzmauu, Weise, AreuUt.aud Kuotlie, 
Aetit out iuvif^tious uot oul,y to membem of tlie Asso- 
rciatiuQ. bnt also to tcachem of tlie denf iu gnaera), to the 
autburitifls, to otologiKts, atid to all EriomlH nod patrouisof 
diiuf-miitL'! udacutioD. 

As u reitalt tbe atteudauce at the Couveutiou reached 
^nearly fonr handred. Mr. SrtliEK, Director of the Hani- 
borg Hchool, wiut uluotoil chairman of thu Convuntioii. 
In hi8 adilrt'Uft of weU-ojue Mr. Siidur called attMCtioii to 
tlw manifold ble-tniugii the parliiijj ceutury had bestowed 
apoo the (leaf. At its begiiiDiog there were but fonr 
•choula for thu deaf in Germany. Now thorB wpr« nearly 
emit htiudretl, with 6,500 pupiht under the iuHtructiuii uf 
700 teaiihers. 

The actual business of the Convention wa» opened with 
as exhauxtive paper on " The Plaeu of Writing in tint 
School for the Deaf," by Mr. E. QiiPFEirr, of Leiiwic. Mr. 
Oupfert preaeuled the following five theses : 

1. WritiDg is the form of vprbal language most oasily 
^learut*d by the deaf, tuoitt auciirately grasped, and, there* 
fore, most easily understood. 

*2. The langaage iustructiou of the deaf Hhould proceed 
from the written form of verbal langnogo with a constant 
.applicatiou of the priuciple of obaervation. 

3. Iustructiou in speeob should at onoe be aHaooiated 
vritb tlie inatruction in language based upon the written 
fbrni. ThiH instntotion tihonid then become iustruetiun 
iu readiug, and should proceed aa far as possible from 

74 The Convention of German Teachers at Ilaviburg. 

easily explained sound combiuations (normal words in the 
articulation course) selected according to phonetic con- 
siderations. Lip-reading should be practiced, and free 
articulation employed according to the command of lan- 
guage acquired and reading iu speech attained. Speech 
shotdd, by degrees, be made the preponderatiug meaus of 

4. In addition to their general employment and drill 
in all the classes and school hours, correct articulation 
and lip-reading should also be made the subject of special 
lessons, and be regarded tis independent objects of in- 

5. The lesson test should furnish the basis for the 
presentation of every new object of instruction.* 

Immediately after the delivery of this paper, Mr. Vaiteb, 
Director of the School at Frankfort-on-the-Main, pre- 
sented another upon the same subject. It was capitulated 
under eight heads, as follows : 

1. The aim of the school for the deaf is to bring its 
pupils to a correct understanding and use of verbal lan- 
guage in its oral aud written form. But more important 
than the dreiss of language is its contents, 

2. Instruction should begin with the concrete form of 
language, as without a certain command of the same there 
can be no intellectual communication by means of verbal 
language. In this we may proceed from sounds and sound 
words, or from written symbols and written words, 

3. To begin with reading and writing and to base the 
instruction upon writing cannot at all, or at best but 
imperfectly, secure the advantage for intellectual develop- 
ment and successful iustructiou that is claimed, as by 
this means only the comprehension and application of 
the external form of verbal language is made easier, with 

* A fnUmBUtementof Mt. OOptert'a views may be found in his "PIkm 
of Vriting in th« Langasge Instraotion of True Deaf-Hatee, Espeolklly 
tbe Leea LatolUBut," poblldwd In tba AiwmU, toL xliv, pp. M-llO. 

Tkt Cottvention of German Teachers at Hamburg. 75 

a temporary avoidntice of the difficulties presented by 
articulation and lip-reading. Mental develupment iind 
the compreLeDBioD of logical sequenceB, and, later, correct 
speech and lip-reading are not facilitated. 

4. The prime obstacles to be surmounted by the deaf 
in the acquisition of verbal language do not He in its 
exterior form, bat in its contents, not in its external com- 
prehension and application, but in its internal assimilation 
as an intellectual possession. 

5. To base instruction upon writing, even in the very 
first stages, is inimical to the success and existence of the 
oral method, as 

a. The drill in lip-reading and articulation, for which 
tbe lessons offer the richest field, is contracted. 

b. The only guarantees that oral speech shall enter into 
the closest possible relation with the intellectual being of 
the deaf (that it should become an organic intellectual 
activity), namely, immediate speecli-associatiou, aud the 
earliest possible ability aud habit of speech are abandoned. 

c. An immediate communication of individual with 
individual by means of writing is impossible, and, as this 
cannot be dispensed with, the teacher is placed in con- 
stant danger of resorting to gestures or the manual 

6. If the aim of the oral method is to be sustained, 
articulation and speech-reading sliould, from physiological 
and practical considerations, be placed in the foreground 
from the first, and the pupil should as eiirly as possible 
be matle both able and willing to communicate orally, by 
basing the instruction upon the oral form of verbal 

7. a. Heading and writing must not be neglected, for 
writing at all stages of instruction may render valuable 
service in tlie comprehension of sound-combinations that 
are read from the lips'with dilficulty, and in assimilating 
the lesson. 

76 The Convention of German Teachers at Haaibxirg. 

h. The more the spoken form of the word is made the 
medium of thought, the more may the objections to a 
predominance of the written form be withdrawn. 

c. In the higher st^es of instruction the pupils should 
be led to form the habit of independent reading. 

8. In the higher stages, where children are nbnormn] 
either mentally or physically (weak eyes, deformed ot^ans 
of speech, etc.), that method should be employed that 
promises the best resnlts, whether it be the oral or the 
written form of language. 

In the debate upon these two papers tl:e opinion on 
the one hand seemed to be that both the oral and written 
method pursue the same object, but proceed from very 
different assnmptioDS ; that the force of habit is pre- 
dominant in the child, and therefore it is inexpedient to 
proceed from written language ; if the deaf-mute is to be 
trained for intercourse with his fellow men, the oral method 
only should be employed ; for the abnormal, however, a 
limit must be set, as they cannot follow the oral method. 
On the other side it was maintained that written language 
was the most favorable means of development of the 
yonng mind; that while much was said of the incapacity 
of the deaf, this incapacity consisted merely of his deaf- 
ness and of nothing else. 

Most of the speakers were in fiivor of retaining the oral 
method, and after a prolougoil discussion the tenets of 
Mr. Vatter were adopted. 

Tuesday, October '1, was devoted to the reading and 
discussion of two pupors by Messrs. F. Holler, of (Jer- 
lachsheim, and G. Wesde. of Lioguitz, ou " Language 
instruction through the ear, and its iutrodactiun into 
schools for the deaf." 

Mr. Holler presented his paper under twelve headings, 
agreeing in the main with the views preseutetl and adopted 
at the GoDVeutiuu of the Suuioty of German Otolt^sts in 
1899 (see the AntmUt f*^ ^T) PP* 1^15-155). He rec- 

7%t Conventioti of German Tfnchers at Tfamhnrg. 77 

cnnineDded, finioug other tilings, tliat iu onior to make 
anial iustractinn (•flicicnt, tlie ncgiitive Jnfliiwiice u( the 
totally* deaf upon the lanf^iiRKe of the auricninr pnpiU 
itlioald be removed; ibiitiu tliu lar^i^rsutiotils lliotu* pupils 
capable of iiurit-'iiliitr tniiiiiiig bboiikl be tatighi iu heparuto 
elaraes ; ttint drill in lip-reading should not bo uoglocted 
bBoaDHR nf nnric-ular iiiRtrtirtioii ; tlint tu itvhi«<VH c^ompleta 
•acoest) with thu auricular elassue their compltitti separs- 
tinn from the totally deaf is DecoBsar; ; and that upecia) 
sch<x>ta «honhI b« egtablishRd for d«nf<iiiute« capable of 
iDiitnictioD throngh ihu ear. 

Mr. Wende poiultid cot that GormaD teachera in the 
past hati geaeratly takou advautago of aoy romnaut of 
beariug that might hayo l>oou left to their pnpiK aud that 
U IPDg ti» thi' qui.>8lioD of exp«D»e rendered Uk* eHtjd)ti)«h- 
bvut of aepamte fi«hools, or even classes for the parliaUy 
ileaf iriexpetlieut, the ueaus and methods hitherto em- 
pluyeil should tilill coutiuuo in rogue. Evuu with fiopa- 
ratu achoola and eUaaos, there should be no talk of a 
"new'' uelhod of deaf-mate iustructiou, as with lip* 
rsMlitig givou the finnm importaoce as before, there could 
be no radical di^'partuie from the nittthtKl geuertilly em- 
ployed in the Hchuulx for the dnil. 

Buth ^eiitlenioii haudied ihe Hiibjet't ho exIuiUKtively 
that there waa little room lufl for discussiou, but the more 
eonaerrativo vicwm of Mr. Wundu were nltimntely adopted. 
It «aH poiulud out that a compulitory eduvatiuani law for 
the deaf waa a prime ueccssity, aud that such a taw ex- 
HttMlat preoeDtouty in SleMwick-Hulhteiii ; tliut otulogisl-s 
•hoald make u more thorough atudy of Iho infirmity of 
the iluuf, uod that u closer alliauce of this H|Miciul branch 
[il mixlical science with the schools for the deaf was 
highly desirable. Emphasis was laid upon the circain* 
tfancp that there waa no thought at all of introducing ■ 
"new method." 

The social fentursa of the Couvenliou were emiueutly 

-- 'ri.aii TeficherK at IT'tinhnfij. 

- •-. 1 'A tlio Hi-st diiy was dcvoteil 

— I^T tliero was a jiiljiriiiuij^i? of 
. — !■ :-Liloif, II Kubuilf of ilaiulmt^, 

- :_:Liiiiifiit of Htaiiifko, HioKi'*"it 
-:_-i:^ edufjitioii. iri-rtt tln'V rc- 

_ . - ■ :Lc (Ici'iiiaii iiii'tln)(l,aii(l f^lorii'd 

. ,.:'>ve(l aliioad, vsjH'fially ill tlic 

"-■f eveniiit^ was <li^votoil to ii 

.- r:.lire four iiiiiulrcil sat down to :> 

t -x of Imwl. 

- _"-ri !o a visit to tln> Haiiilmrf^ Ki-lmol 

". _ L - ■ :„r- irrent \vliarvt*.s in tlii' liarl)nr wcM'f 

.— .■;■';. ami an uccaii j^iiiyliotiml iKiardcd 

.. ■ 1 -.•'.. All (^\i-nrsi(Hi bv stcaiiior was 

- : » -rt UlaDkuiiost', whole tint uF llici 

- ^ - Hriii,'olaml, plainu'il for Tliursilav, lirul 
■wiiijr to tlio <'Xi»'iiso, iiiid iiii^ti'ail a 
, : Kiel to vi(!w Ww. j^icjit (-anal. 
.: -:. must bi' flliararti'ii/cil, jinlj;int^ from 

— -Mi.'i-cssfiil in all its aspects. Oiio cspt;- 
. ■ ,^' "it ft'aturt! was till- sort of joint <lcbati' 
". ■*:: 'lis of tln! ilay by (-liaiii]>ionK of ilifl'dii]^ 

- - i.-:isi' of Jh'ssrs, ( jnpfiit and \ aHcr, and 
.7 :ii-.d Wiiiidc. ami lln' jiiiblii-ation nioutlis 

vj. ::!'■ Oif/'lii of the [imtifiilar tiif'srs or tt'lit'ts 
.■■'nti'stant. Sucli a fiatuif introihicid into 
.-,. Ci»iivfiitioiis niijibt irsiilt in soiiir fxtromcly 

lil'.DIiiiK W. VIOIilT/,, 
■■ " i''< t/li ('ul'iritd'i Srh—il, (.'n.'uni./.. S/n/iii/f, f'fl'imdo. 


A VEBV aseful factor in the work of Gallaudet College 
is a Bell-equipped gymuuBiiim, which was opened in 1881 
aoJ was provided with apparatus under the direction of 
Dr. Dudley A. Sargeut, Director of the Heraenway Gym- 
nasium at Harvard University, The instructor in chat^e 
is as filumnus of the College, and a number of the gradu- 
ates have readily secured positions as gymnasium in- 
stroctors in schools for the deaf. Highly creditable 
g?mniistic exliibitions are given annually, and the thorough 
sod conscientious training which the students receive in 
the g}'muasium has been uo slight element in the success 
of fliillaudet athletes. 

Gallaudet College has only had from forty to sixty-five 
male students to pick from, yet in the field-day meets, 
which have been held with the surrounding colleges, 
especially iu those of the Intercollegiate Association of 
Colleges of Maryland and the District of Columbia, her 
career has been a noteworthy one. This Association was 
composed of Johns Hopkins University, AVestern Mary- 
land College, St. Jolins College of Annapolis, Maryland 
Agrienltural College, and Gallaudet College. Some of 
the colleges pitted against the College for the deaf have 
hail several hundred men from wliicU to select, and all of 
her opponents have been much superior in point of 
numbers, yet the Gallaudet athletes have come out victo- 
rious again and again, and in 189!) they carried oflf the 
championship banner of tlie lutorcoUegiate Association. 
The reasons for the superiority which the representa- 
tives of the deaf students have shown in tiieir contests of 
brawn with their hearing competitors from the neighbor- 
ing colleges are not far to seek. No doubt the loss of the 
sense of hearing tends to make the Gallaudet athletes 
concentrate their minds and attention more thoroughly 


80 Deaf Collegians Superior Athletes. 

upon the progress of the game in which they are engaged, 
and it is also evident how their entire dependence upon 
the sense of sight would cause them to be keener and 
more observing to take advantage of anj opening which 
the game affords. 

The story of Gallaudet's work ou the diamond is worthy 
of special mention. She has had some of the most famons 
base-ball men in the country as her opponents, among 
whom may be named George Wright, unsurpassed as a 
short-stop, N. E. Toung, who has been secretary of the 
National League since its organizatioo, and Paul Hines, 
long a leading batter and centre fielder in the National 
League. Althoagh Gallaudet has no base-ball cage, and 
her ball nine has never enjoyed the advantages of winter 
training or professional coaches, she wou the base-ball 
championship in the Intercollegiate Association in 1899. 

In April, 1900, Gallaudet entered a track team in the 
relay races in the athletic carnival held at Philadelphia 
nnder the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania. 
In this event Gallaudet found herself classed with such 
institutions as Columbian University, the University of 
Maryland, Johns Hopkins, Lehigh University, Villauova 
College, and St. Johns College of Annapolis, In spite 
of the tremendous odds, the fleet representatives of the 
College for the deaf ted the field in the first and second 
quarters and came out fourth best at the end of the race, 
distancing Lehigh and the University of Maryland. The 
Columbian University team did not compete. 

The Gallaudet young ladies' basket-ball team has such 
a reputation for skilful playing in Washington that it is 
very difficult for tiie manager to secure any games with 
the local young ladies' teams. 

The most brilliant chapter in the athletic prowess of 
Gallaudet, that of foot-ball, is still to be recorded. With 
its small number of students, with no professional trainers, 
with DO special training table, with u line very often lighter 

luy |MJUutlK(>ii tliM iivt-rn^t; tlinii IIio<h> nf iln oppnoetits, 
iitii] notwitlisldudiiig Uil- driiwbnck of tk-iLfao^vi, (iiillaudet 
liuK mat nnd rAuqoislied souio of fbo Mtruugusl college 
ekvi'tiH ill the South. During tlie sensoii of 1899, her 
n>eoril was no tciuiirknble Ihnt slie jiisilv claimed the 
Sontlieru clitnuptoDmbip hotioiK in fnot-tmll. She defeated 
Uie Univeraitj- o( Virgiuia on the grounds of the latter 
by a scor? of H to 5. Georgetown Unirereity, Gallaiidet's 
most fonuiduhlu nrnl, wns nimble to score iigatiiHt thn 
Uoiversit}- of Virginia. Gallnndet bpat the Uuiveniity of 
Blatjland 4*2 to 0, while Georgt-lowu later defeattd the 
sitiQe team by the coDiparntively low Kcore of 17 to 0. 

WushiDgtoti College wiwosBilj disposed of by Gnllnu- 
d«t, iind St. Jnliii's College wak Iteateii nt Aiitiiipoliii by 
GalUudel. Ou muddy grooiidtt, at Georgetown iield, 
Georgotowu dufoatud tiulluudel 5 to U. All ofiorts to got 
a retiini game with Ooorgelown, to be played nt Kendall 
Grei'u, prnrod DnnTnding.hut Hotne dnys later the aeeoiid 
i.'levttu of (ntilaudut beat an eleven uiadu up of the 
first and second elevons of Georgotowu G to 0, ou the 
KToiiudK of thrt Inlter. Tii 1000 the giime ln'tween Gooi^e- 
town and CinllAU<let renulted in n tie. In all theite games 
the GeorgetovQ line was much the heavier of the two, bat 
OalUadet's acione^ and plack were usually more than a 
natch for the oxtra avoirdupois of her opponoots. 

Teata-woric And aa oxcoilent second eleven have beea 
cDWQtial factors iu the success of the first eleveti of Qftl- 
kadet. The eDthiibiitt^tic- college spirit of tho students is 
vbowu by the fact thai n second eleven hna existed at the 
Collcgo aincu ItM, when there were but forty students in 
attcuduDce. Many colleges with a much more numerous 
tuemhurship than Gallaudet find it quitu difficult to get 
oat more than one eleven for practicu. 

Id Ute fuot-bnll aooAOD of 1808, Gallaudet defeated JoliDS 
BupkitiH at IfalLiiuore aud Mt. St. Mary's College. For a 
collfgif like Qalliiudet to win gainu after game from coUegee 

82 Dcitf CoUegians Superior AtKletea. 

and uuivttmitiuH whoHe uiiiiiericul streof^h is bo far supe- 
rior IK ill itKolf 11(1 sliglit (liHtiuctioQ , but when we tAke 
into uoimideratioii the adiled liiuidiciip (if ills a ImDdicap) 
of ilcafuoHs, lior acliievemeiits strike one as little sliurt of 
luarvollonii. Juil^iii^ from Gallandet's record, it seems as 
if there were somethiiif' about deafness which makes its 
possession nil adviiuta^e instead of an obstacle in sports 
of tliis kind. When the signals are given each man has 
to look at the ijuai'ter'bat.'k. which distracts his attention 
at a most importanl luoiuent from what is going ou in the 
line in front of him, and this is obviously a serions dis- 
advantage. The signals are given in numbers, as is the 
cast* with other elevens, exfopt that the numbers are 
signed instead of spoken, and sometimes signs of animals, 
fruits, and vegetables are used in this eoiiuectiou. Tht-re 
is no danger of the opposing eleven learning the Gallaudet 

The games are eharaoteri/ed by the absenee of woniy 
dis;igreeinents, and the Oallaiidet College playen> are well 
known for their gentlemanly oondni-i on the foot-l>a)l fiehl. 
CVnirary to » iiat niitrht be e\i>ev':ed, the games at Kt-udall 
liiven are not i-aiiit .: i>:i !u«>re quietly th^tn any otiier col- 
lege games. l':;e I'.irf.sans of liie opposing; elt-vt^i. art- 
often asioi'.isV.i.i I'v \\;\- wil'-t".".i'.i:c"-.t viA",!:»;ulfr: "r-i-n-r*-" 
giving si.iir .■-'.'.i'^;!' ^i '.> :•. ■.':;:i.-; ;;•.::«- wi:-: :in- iirut of 
(he b-.j:o:: »:;'..:;,; l^ ,'v.-, -.•: ::.. .Iia: i-y-U.;^ stu tents. 
Tiiis v'hitr is ■.:>-, ,1 : ■; :..-, ^ n.-^.ir.iiieLiv::: of :Lt itam dur- 
ing a str".j:;i;".t- 

And tki^ »s « i 

is;i iLi .;.::. 

Dtaf Collegians Superioi' Athletes. 83 

These yells do not Decessarily fall unlieeded on deaf 
ears, for it mast be borne in mind that various degrees of 
hearing exist among the players and students. 

Says Professor Amos G. Draper, a member of the Gal- 
laadet facnlty : " There is something about foot-ball that 
seems to accord peculiarly with the constitution of the 
deaf in mental and moral, as well as in physical matters. 
Their eyes are quicker ; their habits of life purer, and 
their systems of signalling by signs far more effective than 
are these characteristics among their hearing competitors ; 
beyond this, they have shown a dash, a fertility of resource, 
a courage, persistency, and good-natured combativeness, 
that have won for them deserved and unbounded applause. 

"The first game of foot-ball played in the District of 
Colnmbia was played on Gallaudet's grounds in 1880, and 
from that first game the College has never lacked an excel- 
lent team and its best ones have been remarkable. The 
experts of one year have handed down their lore to the 

It is undoubtedly true that uo college in the country of 
the size of Gallandet can point to such a record on the 
foot-ball field. '' Their success in their battles on the grid- 
iron forecasts their successes in the buttle of life, wherein 
grit and determination, alHed with tact and ability, form 
the winning combination." 

In»lruct<n- in the Nvib York Iiutitution, 
WanMngton BeigAU, JV«e Torh VUy. 

84 SchooUfor the Deaf in the United StatM, 1900-'01 . 

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Tns "Uclbti4»o( tiutniiitloo" niuuud in tt)« preceiliusTntiubrStale- 
owni miij b« dcttaed m fulloTf : 

I. 7^ 3fa»«ai J/irtAarf. —Signs, Ibo niBnnnl nlphal'ct, anil wrtting tue 

Iba ulilef luuKua lued lu llie iiwtrutiUou o1 tJie pupils, aud lh« principal 

^ebjmta aimed •( tf* nnnlAl donlopmnit mil facititr io tlic cumpt^btD- 

DO and tiM or wriUeu Uognace. Tba fleifree of reUlivp imporlAnre 

iT«a lo llii-H* llini* Rinnim v«ri«ii in tiitliTi-nl vrlionlx : but it iii » differ- 

: wij in degToc, Mid ibe viiil diuipil at- is tb« Mint- In all. 

n. The Mannnl Alphufirl Mrthod — Tb« tnaounl «Ipbitliol tmd writing 

uv tbs cktcf RioUH nR#d in the inatrticlion of the pnpflo, anil thv jmn- 

vipkl 4>bj«cls limwl M nre laeuUd il«T«lopuvDl nut) fuL-iltlj- iu tba com- 

^rebeiukin and aw of written UDgoa^e. SpeecL itod iiiwcb -reading %.n 

kagbt lo all td tb* pnpiU in one of lb* KchooU (tb« Wodom New Yoik 

' lualltitliou) reonrded aa [ullowiug lliU uietbod. 

in. Tiu Oral JTfMtW.— Sjtiweli unil npeeub-rKadlEiii, togetber wiLb 
writtoft. u» iuail« Ibe cbtef nieaim ot iiiairiiolion, atid fucilitj in itpeMb 
and f p(«cli<rcndiug, u well m» otmitBl deT>?Io]>inrut mid vrrilUm UuKaimo. 
It kliii«d at. Tbera la a difference In different ncbools jntbeextsut to 
wbi<ib llio oae of natural aiipia ie allnwml in tbc onrlj' piirt of tbc «oano, 
Qd alaii in tbe pronilneuc« given lo wrilint; as an auilliaiy lo apeflob and 
■•ch'readJDg in tbv coane of iiiatmclion ; but iboy are tlfSerenMa 
uolf in degree, and tlio end aiiuetl nt ih tbo ^niiie in all. 

IV. Tht Aurieular ifrtiiott.—Thm brarioK of aeml-draf piiiiilx is 
nUbted and developed to tbagrvateiet possible citenl.and, wllfa orwitb. 

taaX tb* aid of artificial applioncca, tboir cdacntion » carried on cbieHjr 
Ftbnragfa tb« turn of a]>eecb ami Lrarlng, logelber wlib writing. Tbe aim 

of Ibe n)«U>od ia to gradnale ita pnpUa aa bard-af-beartag apeakitig 

paufile InHead uf deat-mulea. 

V. 7'A« Vomt4ntil Sytttrn. — HtH'ecb and KjiKveli^reailiiiK are regarded aa 
very imporlanl, t>ut mratal 'levvlvpuiitiit am! Flu* HCi]iiia>tiou of language 

IKre regarded aa alill more iiuportaoi. It in believed tbat in many caaaa 
' mental davt^lopioant aud tbe luiquiallton nl language «an Iih beat promoted 
b; tba Uauual or tbe Slaunal AlpUalxil method, and, *o far aa circum- 
•tan<-«« pvnnlt. *ucb uielbo<l ia dioaetj (ur eucb pnpll aa aeeina b«at 
adapted for bia individual cnsn. ttpeeeb and apitecb- reading am taugbt 
irben tbe mewue of enocvae weetaa likel j to jiullfjr lb« Lalwr eipeudvd. 
In biimC of tba aoboob aoiae of tbe |iu|>iU arv tangbl wbnllj or 
biafly bj tba Oral luatbod or by tbe Anrlonlar metbod. 



The "IndDstnes Taught" iu American Schools for the Deaf, mostly 
deeigoftted by abbreviations m the preceding Tabular Btatement, are : 
Art, Baking (Bnk.). Barbering (Bar. }, Basket-making (Bas.), Blacksmith- 
iDg(BI. ), Bookbinding (Bo.), Bricklaying (Bk.), Broom-making (Br.). 
GabineUmiikiDg (Oab.l, Calcimining (Cal-), Carpentry (Car.), Chalk- 
engraving (Ce.), Cementing (Cg.), Chair-inakiug (Cb.). China painting 
(Cj).), Cooking (Ck.), CI ay -model ling (CI.), Coopery (Co.), Drawing 
(Dra.), DresB-making (Dr.), Embroidery (Em.;, Engineering (En.), 
Fancy-work (Fan), Farming (Fa.), Floriculture (Fl), Gardening (Ga.), 
Glazing CGI.), HarnefS making (Ha.), Half-tone engraving (He.), House- 
work (Ho.), Horticulture (Hor.), Ironing (Ir. ), Knitting (Kn.), Manual- 
training (Man.), MattresB-making (Mu.), Uillinery (Mi), Needlework, 
Painting (Pa, 1, Paper-hanging (Pap.), Plastering {PI, ), Plate-engraving 
(Pe.), Photography (Ph.), Printing (Pr.), Sewing (8e.), Shoeniaking 
(8h.), 8loyd(8!.), Stone-laying (St.), Tailoring (Ta.). Typewriting (Ty.), 
Venetian Iron Work (Ven.). Weaving (Wea.), Wood-carving (Wc), 
Wood-engraving (Wt.), Wood-turning (Wt.), Wood-working (Ww.), 
Working in Iron (Wi.), and the Use of Tools. 


The Attempt to interest tlie pupils on their own behalf 
to abiiudon the siKn-liHiguage, >\t tLe time thtit it was dis- 
continued iu ail school exercises iiiul in intercourse with 
pupils, was begun in 1878. No repression was resorted 
to ; on the contrary, pupils were not even reproved for 
using tLe eigu-lauguage, for this huigimge liad been pains- 
takingly taught to them by the Snpeiinteiident and others 
o! tlie scliool, and its use was a matter for which the 
school was entirely responsible. In order that the use of 
English hhonld be faitlifully persisted iu, its adoption had 

• Iti'priiitid, by permiHsion, from the Itocht^ster I>aiti/ Paper for Our 
Litlk I'eopW for November 17, I'JOO. 


Now Siyna Ditappeareti ^froHi the Ifochexte}' School. 103 

to bo ToluDtury. XUero «re always, in every school, a 
Dumber wlio aro willio); to oo-uporate with the Hcliooi for 
their own l>«ttermeiit,if there \» f^rouml for hclieving that 
" the game is worlh the candle." Those who undertook 
Ui worb with blie Suiieriutendoat in proving ilio |>rKotica- 
bility ttU([ vahitt of Hii^lish aa thn hnhitiml And itxcla^ve 
lauKiiii^o luudiati) for the dtiiif. wim'c, of tttuirso. tho wore 
iiilelhyeul ttud sti-ougyr wilJt'il imd, ^outirully, the oiore 
inflaetitial pnpils of the sgIiooI, thongli ihvre were voIqd- 
teertt in cvpry cl.isR, :tniong the iln]lc>»t as well nn the 
brightest pupils. It Boun bccaino phiin that every oue 
who used Eogiish was beuufiled aud thu uiiraber ateudily 

The Hchool had prttvioiiHly lintl plK.-iHniit partteti For tlie 
pupils, but, iu ntldiliou tn thbKU, the KiipL'riutuiiduiit iuitti- 
inintA au occasional special eutertHiDlmeiit iu bis private 
roomx for those who, for a given tttne, perhaps for one 
iDOuth, ttucrcceded iti uKttig F<ii^li»h. Th« invilntiotiKwere 
always given oat iu advauce, and the pujiitfi thttumelves 
dKcid»d who wore entitlud to ne(.>ept the iiivltationK; thus 
teutifyiiig that those tlioy approved had not only used 
Kuglish hot had made no signs during the time. There 
eoutd be no vrilits; more sevarp than thoHe who passed 
jadgtneut upou the gueeU eutJtled to itlteud thu receptions 
In the Su|)criDt«ude Tit's parlors. If one had given ho 
■DDcb as A nud of the head in pUc« of the ward " yes," 
tho inoxorahlo oritios ruled him ont. The oftluerB of the 
Htfliool gonerally knew protly well who wuro faithful in the 
ns« of Eaglisb, but there could be no question about any 
tO&e of those if, in addition to Iho officers* impmRsioQH, he 
vas endorsed by his schoolmates. While ther» was from 
month to month aud year to year a steadily increasing 
namber whoso iaterconrso was outiroly through English, 
there wero some pupils who, having bccomo linbitnatcd to 
tlio luo of the sigU'lauguage, could not bring themselves 
>io ■ wiliiuguesB to attempt to oae any other. While thus 

104 How Signs Disappeared fnnn the Rochester Sehool. 

deterred bv timiditj or inability from using English, there 
was no question but that they were helped by its being 
coQstaDtly used to them and about them. 

Pupils attending the Rochester School at this time will 
remember one of the last of these free and easy sigo- 
makers, who, because of diffidence, together with a per- 
sistent determination that was opposed to every innova- 
tion, had been unwilling to give up signs. A kind-hearted 
but eccentric fellow, he was always a centre of attraction 
for little boys, wlio would gather about him and call for 
stories of his personal adventures, for he had travelled 
much between Buffalo and New York on a canal boat. 
His stories were told in signs, with but an occasional spelled 
word, but there was never any attempt to repress him. 
The boys, taking in his story, questioned him by spelling, 
generally, for they had learned to use English, and lan- 
guage habits, supported by purpose, are just as strong 
with those who use English as with those who are sus- 
tained iu their purpose to use signs. This man continues 
to make signs and will to his dying day. There is, how- 
ever, DO less love for these old pupils who learned signs 
aa their mother-toogue and use it as their means of inter- 
course. This story-teller has had a home for the last two 
years on Inlay Island at the Bungalow, where his strong 
character, his honesty, his faithfulness, and his sturdy 
independence, as well as his great strength, have made 
him a valuable man. If, instead of coming the first year 
of the school, this man had ontered after the practicability 
of the "Kochester Experiment" had been demonstrated, 
English instead of signs would have become his mother- 
tuugiie, and )iis superior ability and character would have 
made him a man of mark among those who have attended 
our school. As it is, however, the Superintendent feels in 
a measure responsible for his condition. In the early 
years, the school did not fet;! at liberty to require pnpils 
to use English, but left them to undertake it of their own 

Itmo Signs lUsappmred from the liochester Seho^. 105 

It yroB a long time b<^fore tbo leavuD biul spread 
tlirau(cbuat tlii.' school, so that in Ibo report for 1881 the 
following Htatemeiit wns the best tbnt coatd he made: 
** Wu uuilniiroreil by adrio« anil example tn iuduce the 
pupils Tolaiitarily to imc KiigliNli Keiit(;nc(.<s in tbuir cod- 
Tetaation. After three years, however, sigus uro not yet 
batiishM from onr school, but the atteatiou of the occa- 
siniinl visitor would be cnlled to what siffus are iiirade, bjr 
tboir infreqnency. Many of our pupilx have ncqiiireil a 
very considBi-able fluBucy in courersatiouiil Inii^uaye, com- 
pareil with whom pupils who have not madw the ueces- 
Kary ufTort to ticcompHsli thiit show a retarded develop- 
ment that proves Ihiit their out-of-Kdhool habits of thought 
mod expr«HitioQ and tbeir luu^iia^e surroiiudiu^ (for the 
^nga-raakers assoointed with those wbo tisc-d sigUH) have 
^mai iuttiieiiee either iu innkiiig pormauout tbo school- 
nirmi work, or in ffVucing what hiu] bmiii done." 

It was uai until tlie lifth yimr of the exptiHiuitut that 
we were able to gay tbo use of Kufjiish woa general in the 
ftuhool. This slalement was made ie the report for 1883. 
Tliero were, however, n number of thosf! who abandoned 
the sign-language wbo failed to uee English well. Thej 
spvlleil freely and easily, but used Knglish wonia in Itte- 
rnl trnnslatiou of nigus, using isolated word^, or wonis in 
•ign order. Thit* ovil, like that of signs, gradauUy disap- 

Almost every year pupils ere received from other 
Bchvols who bring with them the sign-laugaage and the 
inability to espreaa thought through English. Little is 
•aid to them abont the mgns they make, but they are 
helped to learn and use English, and a^ that is the lan- 
gua^e of the schoul they soon comu to unjoy it. Signs 
have never boon forbidden. In the early ycom such an 
oriler would havo been im{>oflsible to enforce, and would 
have worked hanlsbip. fu the hitler years it hue boeu 
Donecenaary, but reproof eertaiuly would not now b« 

lOfi How Signs Disappeared from the Rochester School. 

withheld if there were occasion for it. A sign-mnking new 
pupil is expected to learn, as speedily as he may be able, 
to express his tliought in Euglitih, with assurance that 
when he learua to do this he will prefer it. 

The Rocliester Scliool is especially earnest in its 
efforts to help its pupils, not ouly to use English, but 
to aspire to the best English, uud through it to ex- 
press the purest thoughts, engage in the brightest and 
most profitable eouversation, and to derive the great- 
est possible pleasure from social intercourse. To this 
end the school lias organized a number of clubs, debating, 
missionary, and literary societies. Christian Association 
and Cliristian Endeavor meetings, parties and social gath- 
erings of all sorts, all of which brighten the school life 
and develop the character and general social gifts of the 
pupils. The pupils enter into these with as much enthu- 
siasm as do hearing boys and girls in similar gatherings. 

The Superintendent of this Institution and his wife, who 
have spent their lives in schools for the deaf, are confi- 
dent tliat in all their experience they have never met a 
happier or more unconstrained company of deaf children 
than those who have grown up at the Rochester School, 
accustomed to the freest and most natural use of English. 
Many of them have never seen signs made, so as to nn- 
derstaud their meaning, and if they were asked in con- 
ventional signs if they "like to play," if they are " happy 
at school," if they " want to see father and mother," or 
any other questions, no matter how simple, they would be 
wholly unable to understand or answer. This is not true 
of all uur pupils, for some have been taught signs from 
their cradles, and used them until they learned English 
here ; then they used them no more. Pupils who acquire 
the sign-language in other schools do not use signs aftei 
they have been a short time in the atmosphere of the 
Bochester School. If, after our pupils leave school, they 
are associated with suuh of the deaf as use uo language 

How Siffns Disappeared feow. the Rochester School. 107 

bat gesture signs, they can soon acquire this meagre lan- 
gnage, which has not more than two or three hnndred 
signs in general nse. At gatherings of the adnlt deaf, 
Kochester English-taught pupils may use signs with those 
restricted to that language, but they will talk to one 
another in English because they are able to and they like 
it better. There are a number of the deaf with whom we 
are acquainted, teachers and others, not Rochester pupils, 
who, with certain friends at least, have established the 
habit of using English. Of them it is also true that, hav- 
ing at command both languages, they are convinced that 
it is to their advantage to use English. 

There are in almost every combined-method school 
some teachers who can use manual spelling easily and 
rapidly, and from their own experience can testify that it 
is not appreciably harder, for those who are accustomed 
to it, to spell or to follow maoual spelling than it is for 
the bearing to speak or to listen to speech. And there 
are among the deaf a constantly increasing number who, 
with or without the aid of their schools, are accustoming 
themselves to the persistent use of English and their 
Bcbolarsbip is proof of the advantage it is to them. 

A large number of the deaf, after leaving school, live 
entirely among the hearing. Many of our former pupils 
have relatives or friends who spell so easily that at church, 
Sunday-school, prayer- meeting, lectures, and political 
meetings, they enjoy all that is said; and any one of 
these, understanding English, and generally able to speak 
and read speech, is much better off at home than were, 
and are, those of our early pupils who left school re- 
stricted to the sign-language. 

Superintendent of t/ie Wettern New Fork TnittUuUon, 

Rochetter, New York. 


First REBOLurioN.t 

The Cougresa, considering that (.leaf children are not 
all upon the same plane of intellectual and pfajsicEil 
aptitudes for the acquisition of speech and speech-read- 
ing, is of the opinion that the instruction of these chil- 
dren should not be limited to the rigorous application of 
a single method, but that the method should be chosen 
according to the aptitude of the pupil, and that all means 
should be employed whicli can contribute to the best in- 
tellectual aud moral development of each individual. 

The CoogresH, considering the value of speech and 
speech -reading, is of the opiaion that all deaf children 
should be taught speech on entering school, aud that this 
iustructioQ should be continued witlt all those who suc- 
ceed in it, and that the sign-language sliould be used for 
those who do not succeed in it. 

Second Resolution. 
Offi^red by Ernest Duaxzeau. 

Considering the insufficieacy of the pure oral method, 
while recognizing its utility, the Congress is of the opinion 
that the oral method and the sign method should be com- 
bined, aud that, consequently, the mixed method should 
be re-established. 

• Tmuflluted from the Jonmiil den Sourdn-ilin'l* for November, 1900. 
The Sixth, Seventh, Kigbth. Niuth. Tenth, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Foor- 
teenth, Fittecnrli, Sixtepnih, and Nineteenth Kesulutions adopted by 
the Section are not hero translntei], an the; related especially to Franov. 

t This resolution (with the exception of the final ulaase, " and that 
the HigD IniiKUuge s-hoiild Iip uaed for Ihoac who do Dot nucceed in it") ia 
the same thnt was voted down in the Hearing Seotion of the OongrcoB, 


Beaoluiiona Adopted by the Deaf. 109 

Third Resolution. 

Offered hy Henri Gaillard. 

The Congress ot Deaf-Mutes admits the utility of the 
pare oral method, but detuands the applicatioo of the 
oombioed system as the oa\y meaiis of perfecting the in- 
strnction of deaf-mutes, even with the oral method. 

Fourth Resolution. 
Offered by Henri Jeanvoine. 

The Congress is of the opinion : 

A. In the intellectual and i7tdii8t7'ial point of view. 

1. That instrnction should be made compulsory and 
free for all deaf-mutes, as for hearing persons, from the 
age of eight years ; 

2. That industrial instruction should he given parallel 
with intellectual instruction, for, in the case of most deaf- 
mutes, their ability to earn a living depends more upon 
their manual capabilities than upon their intellectual 
capabilities ; 

3. That deaf-mutes found incapable of receiving iu- 
stmctiou by the oral method should be instructed by the 
method of the Abb^ de I'Kp^e, namely, by signs and 
writing, and that this instruction should be committed to 
deaf-mute teachers, who through tiieir infirmity are better 
able than hearing teachers to sympathize with their pupils ; 

4. That secondary and higher schools should be estab- 
lished for the benefit of selected deaf-mutes capable of 
porsning a career in the sciences, letters, and arts ; 

5. That religious instruction should never be removed 
from the educational programme of deaf-mutes, for if one 
man more than another needs the knowledge of Qod and 
religion it is the deaf-mute. 

B. In the social point of viexn. 

110 Reaolittioriif Adopted by the Deaf. 

1. That always and everywhere deaf-mutes should be 
treated us other citi/eDS ; that, cousequently, the doom of 
public empIoj'iueDt should be opened to them accordiug 
to their capabilities, nud that they should be admitted to 
the civil service so far as practicable. 

2. That asylums should be established to receive all 
invalid deaf-mutes aud those who are uoable to provide 
for their own support. 

Fifth Resolutios. 
Ofiered ly Ifenp Desperrieni. 

The Congrens is of the opinion that deaf-mutes should 
always be ap]>oiuted to the position of instructors of 
deaf-mutes, especially when they have aptitude for the 
work still further increased by their sympathy for their 
own brothers. 

Eleventh Resolution. 

Offered by Eugene Graf. 

The Congress, considering the difficulty of most deaf- 
mutes in obtaining admissiou iuto the workshops of pri- 
vate industry, is of the opinion that the Government 
should reserve fur deaf-mutes places in the shops, facto- 
ries, and ufficus belonging to the State, especially in post 
and telegraph offices. 

Seventeenth Eesolctios. 
(fff't/ed f/y ./, Il'u'n, nt' ilelsiiiijfors. 

Considering the irunionsy utility that would be afforded 
by a general uniformity of flio sign-language in all the 
countries of the world, ;i uiiiforniity wliich would gradu- 
ally bring aluml the :idi>]>tion of a single universal lau- 
gnage, the Congress ])r<>|H»sos to tin; hx-al associations of 
deaf-mutes the follDwing measures : 

Jiesolutions Adopted by the Deaf. Ill 

1. Within each aBSOclation a special committee should 
be charged with the duty of preparing a collection of the 
signs employed by its members ; this cullectioo should 
include in the liret place the graphic reproduction of the 

2. Each country shall send to the next International 
Congress of Deaf-Mutes one or more representatives well 
acquainted with the different systems of language em- 
ployed in their respective countries, who shall also be able 
to report to what extent the governmeots will be disposed 
to assist a general iuternational commission charged with 
the ulterior study of the question. 

3. Tbis International Commission, which should meet 
either conjointly with each of the International Congresses 
of Deaf-Mutes or separately, should undertake to intro- 
duce gradually and successively an ever-growing uniform- 
ity among the national systems by the adoption of the 
most characteristic signs of each language. These signs 
adopted and approved by the Commission should then be 
communicated by the cinematographic process to all the 
local associations. 

4. The Commission should be further charged with pre- 
paring raaniials of the universal language thus adopted. 

5. To this same Commission miglit be finally entrusted, 
at the proper time, tbe duty of preparing an international 
alphabet for the use of deaf-mutes. 

Eighteenth Keholdtion. 

Offered by Marcel Muuduit and Henri, Gaillavd. 

The Congress demands the creation of a position of 
inspector for the supervision and exclusive control of in- 
struction in schools for deaf-mutes. This iuHpector 
should be a trained professional instructor, or a person 
well acquainted with tlie questions concerning deaf- 


Galladdet Ooixeoe, 
Washington, D. C, December 15, 1900. 

To the Members of the Convention of American Insti-uc- 
tors of the Deaf: 

It has been decided by the Standing Executive Com- 
mittee of the Convention to accept the very cordial invita- 
tion of the authorities of the Le Coateulx St. Mary's 
Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf-Mutes 
to hold the next meeting of the Convention at Buffalo, 
New York, and within the walls of tlie Institution. 

The Convention will he called to order at eight o'clock 
iu the evening of Tuesday, July 2, 1901, when addresses 
of welcome and responses wilt be made. 

The Sisters in charge of the Institution will be happy 
to provide for the entertainment of one hundred ladies, 
at the very reasonable charge of one dollar per day. 
Sister M. Dositheus has been appointed Local Committee 
of Arrangements, and to her due notice of purpose to 
take advantage of the offer just mentioned should be- 

Arrangements have been made for the accommodatioti 
of male members of the Convention, and others in excess 
of the number to be entertained in the Institution, at 
Statler's Pau-Amfricau Hotel, now iu process of con- 
struction, very near the principal entrance to the Expo- 
sition groviuds. This liotel is to he atirst-class establish- 
ment, its proprietor being a caterer and restaurant keeper 
in Buffalo of repiitatiou itud high standing. The chai^ 
to members of the Convention, from one hundred and 
twenty-live to one hundred and seventy-live, will be two 


The Slxttenth Meeting of the. Convention. 113 

dollar* per dnj for lodgiug (iu uo ca^e more tbau Ibroo 
tu u room), bvoakfubt, ttud uvtiuiug iliimnr. 

AU peraoua availiug tbeuiHelves of tliunt! Hpucial rates 

rlio are Qot already members of ilie Couveiitiun but are 

'cti|^blu to iQuubor^ibip will be expected to become nieia- 

b«ra nl tbo BuSalo tuoutiDg. Tbo conditionn of member- 

ship ure as follows : 

" All persons actively engaged iu tlic- educutioit of Ibe 
deaf tnmy enjoy all the rights and pririlegefi of moinbcr- 
ithtp ID tlic HMMociHtion on payment of the prescribed fees 
[92.00 the flrai yuar iiud Sl.OU auiiuallj tbcrnafter] and 
ngTMeiug to the Coustilutiou." 

Lnocbeou will be served daily iu the loatituliiiu to all 
ujufiibers of the (Convention at a chaise of twenty-live 
i;eDt8 to iboHe living outsitlu. 

Amnraneu iii givou by the nnthoritiM of the Expoui- 
tioD that low rates will be accorded by the railroads oi 
tbo conntry to riRitor» to the Kxpositinn. 

Partieiibirs aH to tbu uuiiditioiiN iiiidur which othent 

lidoK active mutubera of the Gouventioji may take ad- 
le of reduced rates of board wilt bo published later. 

The many iuducenionts, usual aud unusual, to the peo- 
ple of our country, and of other countne«, to visit Buffalo 
daring tlie sammer of 1901, will, it ia believed, draw a 
large nltondauce npou the pro)}o&ed meetintf of our Con- 
ventiou, iuclnding mauy delegates from our sister coun- 
tries, both on the Xorth and on tlie South. 

Tho buildingR of the Le Conteulx St. Mary's InBtitution 
are new aud very* beantifnl, baring a fine hall for the 
ueetiDgs of tbo GoaveutioD, and couvonicut rooms lor 

ubit«, committee meetings, etc. 

Tbo Chninaen of BeotioD Committees are already at 
work o& the programme of proeoodinge, which will b« 
Ittly pnblisboil iu tho Annah. 

With cordial greetings from the Committee to the 
mombera ol the (JaQYontion, and to ail ougaged in the 

114 Notices of Publications. 

work of educating the deaf, or interested therein, the hope 
is expressed that the Sixteenth meeting of the Convention 
may surpass, in Dumbers and interest, all that have pre- 
ceded it. 

Praident of the Convention 


BBL,L, ALEXANDER MELVILLE. Principles of Speech and 
Dictionary of Sounds, including directions and esercises for tbe 
cure of stammering and correction of all faults of articulation. 
Washington, D. C: The Volta Bureau, igco. latno, pp. agG. 

This is the fifth edition of a work which was first published 
in 1849 under the title of " A New Elucidation of the Principles 
of Speech and Elocution." The second edition, published in 
1863 under the title of " Principles of Speech and Dictionary 
of Sounds " was entirely rewritten ; the present differs from 
the second and subsequent editions in adding a section on 
"Yisible Speech." The work is written not merely for tbe 
benefit of pupils who have teachers, but for those who have 
not, and the instruction is therefore given very fully and 
simply. While not especially intended for deaf persons, they 
and their teachers will fiud much in it that is valuable in their 
labor of acquiring and imparting speech. 

In tbe preface the venerable author pathetically remarks 
that he cannot hope to see this edition exhausted like its 
predecessors. " lu one's eighty-first year the retrospect is bo 
long that the prospective outlook must be relatively very 
short." But his retrospect is a cheerful one, and he has the 
happy prospect that his excellent work will live after him and 
that through his books and his disciples he will continue to 
teach the world. 

MOLYNEUX. The Ives First Book. New York: William 
Beverly Harrison, igoo. lamo, pp. 3a. 

This little book is intended for the use of hearing children 
learning to read, and its object is to produce clear and accurate 

NoHea of Puhticatiotit. 


nU«nuie«. Tbe peeuUarily of the m«tliod oousiats in the 
preamtation to Ihv chilii of photogrnphs of tbe visible vocal 
or;gaiiB takea while in tlie aot of uttering Uje Houiido taugbt. 
Tho pbotogrspbfl givun in tbe book are picttireii of cbiklreo 
who bare beeo trsiu«<l b>- oiitf of tlie autboro niitU thuj- bavo 
thoroughly mastered the Bounds, and were tbeo photographed 
while utt«rinf]f tlioni. Probably arliuiilfttion teach«irs of the 
dmf will find the iUuslrntionii of oomo benefit in the olemontary 
■tagea of tbur work, in hvlpiog begianerH to anHudute the 
proper posiiJous of the voctd ur^^ouH with ibu corrospouding 
letters of the alphabet in their pnDt«d aud wriUea forius. 

SAINT-HILAIRB, BTIENNE. Suidi-Muilt^ : Btuilc M^dicsle. 
(Deaf-Muiism; ■ Medical Study.] Paiisi Maloine, 1900. Svq, 

Or. SstDt-Hilaire isauriat-phyaioiaaof tbeluHtitutiou forlbo 
Doaf of tie Department of the Seine, at Awiitres, Paris, and 
tbis work is largely the retiult of hia own obserrationB upon 
the ITS pupilm of that nchool. The author has, however, mado 
a UioroQg^b study «iao of the works of other writers on the 
subject, and gives due weight to their oouclueioua where ihi;y 
differ from bis owd. 

Tho niithor definoH tbi> d(>af-mDte aa " a person id whom 
patholo};tcal altoratiuna of the organs of healing, congenital or 
aoqutred before the age of eight yuiu-K, have nwtilled in a 
oomplete losa or oooeiderable diminution of the faculty of 
baaring-" Ho studiwi the (-tiolugy, iMtbogeny, pAthological 
anatom;. ajrmptomatology, diagnostic, prognoBtic, propby- 
laxia. and trtiiiuicut of denf-mutiam, givcfl HtatisticH oollecl«d 
by himself and couiitUed from othiTH, and discuiuses the 
qtwiUonR of heredi^ and consnnguinit;. He coDCludee that, 
eoatcaiy to tba|;eiieral upinion. deaf-muttara t«n<b to diminish 
nUbar than increAm in Fnuit:«. 

Murv dtifiuitely than most autboritioa, Dr. Saint Hilaire 
regard* d«af-mali«io a« a Form of dc^vaoracj. Probably the 
popila of the Mni^rea Institution, wbo <;ome ebiedy from tho 

116 Notices of Puhlicatiotia. 

poorer clftaaes of Farie, and in whose parents and relatives are 
found many inetaiiceB of epilepsy, imbecility, iussoity, alco- 
holism, hysteria, chorea, scrofula, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc., 
furnish an unusual proportion of cases of the degenerate type ; 
it seems to ua a serious error to consider deaf-mutism in 
general as a form of degeneracy. 

The various diseases and accidents that cause deafness, as 
cerebrospinal meningitis, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, falls, 
blows, etc., receive proper consideration, and the pathological 
anatomy of deafness is fully treated. A tabular statement 
gives 158 autopsies of deaf-mutes, taken from the works of 
Mygind, Uchermann, and others. 

The author aceepte Dr. Bezold's classification of degrees of 
deafness, and favors the auricular exercises advocated by him, 
but does not go as far iu this direction as Di-. Urbantschitsoh 
and others, aud does not regard with approval the various 
iustrumeuts that are offereil to the public as aids to hearing. 

A biographical index, naming 670 works relating more or 
less closely to the subject of deaf-mutism, adds to the value of 
the work. 

REPORTS OF SCHOOLS, igoo. Berlin (Prussia) City 
School. California. Columbia, Oenoa (Italy), Georgia, Gro- 
ningeu (Netherlands). Montana, Pennsylvania Home for Train- 
ing in Siieech. Sarah Fuller Home for Little Children, 
Venersborg ^Sweilen). 

REPORT of the College of Teachers (London, England), 


E. A- F. 

PORCHHAMMER. G. Expose des Priocipes de I' Articulation, 
ecrit pour le CoTigr^s In'.ernaiional dcs Sourds-Muets i Paris, 
1900. Espos-.;:or: of the Pr.nctples of Articulaiion, writteB far 
the l3:ema;io::iiI Ccr.gress o: Deaf-Mutes 't Paris. 1900.' Co- 
penhager. : I — pr: — er.c Th:ele. 1900- Svo, pp. 37. 

The mo»x inttiTi ~\:i:^ ; :ir: of Mr. Fori,'Lhai:imt?r's Espoeiti<Hi 
is the descriptii-'ik 0: -JtTL>_r=ci;'s t,-i,out-::o formulas and of 

JfoticW fif fiiUical'wns. 


ft Dew epXibttk of iitt«niatioDal pbotielic whtiag uive[ite<) b; 
tJie luitlwr bimtiolf ami liatuyl upon tbnt of Joitporsoii. TbA 
foUowing s^opsiti, tnumlnted lu Inrgn part from Mr. Fotvb* 
bonitBor'ft trMtiso. will i^ive an uleu of his KjnUm : 

Tbe greatest merit of ProfeBsor Alesamlvr Mchille IJell, 
Mcoordiuff to tbe autbor, is banog made a dtettncttou botwMD 
the (Kiciltonii of Win- viifffirout oi^aiiH. Joaporncn earrUtu this 
iliKtinct ion fRrtber b^ abandaDlng tbe alpbaboLical principle of 
"k Mif'n for <rach hoiidcI," and by Hubxtitutiug for it tbu princi- 
ple of **a aign for eacU pottition of eacb orgao," a principle that 
bas nothing to do with tbe alphabet. 

Eat^b Qr:gan is car«fullj- M'psrtitod from tho otberM, and tbo 
pfMnCtODH ol the organs are written upon borizoatal linea one 
Dtifler BJioiber : th» po»iUoiiH of tbo lips on one lino, the poai* 
tioua of tLe tongue on auotber. and »o on. 

Tba ^stem reuuuil>lti»i (iw J«-up(<rM>a iayH bimBelf) tbe irajr 
in which mvheiitral muajo ia writtoo upon tbo eoor* of tbo 
leader with a iM>r)e» ol lines for each inatrumeni. 

TbiB HtmiJi- mbowH at onco tbo importaooe of the aystom. 
The teacbei- of tbo deaf le tike the leader of tbe or«b«slT& and 
mnst direct tbe lipa, Ibe tongae, tbe Hoft palate, tbe vocal 
oorda, and the luugH of liix pupils, bo that the movement of 
ibeae organ^ although independent of each other, may, nerer* 
tfaelotw, produt-e harmony. Mr. Forcbhammer, tburufore, con- 
mden> jMpersi'Q to be tbe one of a1) pbonetioians wbo beat 
DMCta Ibe demands of iirticulatiou. 

JeajMnven baa uumpared bis (ormulaa to tho«e of chomiatry 
(aa baa also Dr. Alexander Graham Bell tiioee of "Visible 
Bsteeeb'). Just us water in oompoeei.1 of ntumH of osygua and 
hjdrogen nnitvd, so encb position of tbe mootU for the forma- 
tion of a Kooud is vompOMd of a position of the lips, of tbe 
loogve, of tlio soft jmlat^, etc Each ]MwtUon of an organ la 
■n atotn that compoaes artjcul&tion, and it is Jeepereen'a merit 
to bav* found a icientifie method of rcpreoootiug tbeee atoms. 
For detuils. H«e tbe desci-iption that Jesperaeti himself bae 
givi'D iu Euglisli in "The Articiilationa of Speech Suunda" 
(Blnrbiirg, F.wert, 1889). 

JeeperaeD's formalas are only for scientific purpoeea, and 
wr)U iotereat tbe totcbac of tbo deaf only Iroui a aeieotiflc point 


NoticM of Puhlicatiom. 

of view. But the ideae set forth by him throw a new light 
upon our work, and a simple description of the principle of 
writing without an alphabet will not be without importance. 

Mr. Forchhammer illuBtrates the principle by writing the 
artioulatiOD of the [French] word ^* combine," pronounced 
JC^bine (e -~ e) (phonetic writing of Passy and Jespersen). 

It seems useless to say that writing without an alphabet hae 
nothing to do with teaching. It ia only a means of showing 
the teacher what are the positions of the organs which he muat 
prefer in his articulation in order to render it as simple and 
easy as possible. 

This is the scheme for writing without an alphabet : 

Phonetic sfmbol. 


L Lower jaw . . 3 

n. Opening of the lipa ,, 

III. Boanding of the lips . . 

IV. Point of the tongae , ,, 

V. Top of the tongue 0" 

TI. Back of the tongue , ., 

VII. Soft palate r 

VIII. Voeal cords 3 




I t 


r » 
f t 



Explanation of the Sioks. 
■- closed position of the organs. 

different degrees of the open positions. 


+ = forward poHition. 

-:- = position drawn back. 

, , = mid or neutral position. 

. . -= intermediate positions which come of themselves. 

e °= 6 in French. 

llr. Forcblminmer has also spccinl xigns for the positions of 
the open consonants ('• — ;/', etc.), but in this treatise does not 
stop to explain what they are. 

ffotiics of /^tiflic(l(ioa$. 



Vic will give u pari of his descriptioD of the acti<m of tbs 

I. Tfie lo\Myjatr>. — He notes bef© the degree of oppaiiig 
of tbe Towvlti. Tbis (lagreo ia (occoMiug to Professor Bell) 
(IcUnuined bv ttie diHtuDce between the tongue aod tbe palsto, 
but is obtained more onsUy (at odj raiv for articulatiou) bj a 
proper lowcriDg of tho jaw. 

Tbi'ee priiicipal poiutiunB are enough : 1, 2, 3. He notes 
tbem only for the vnwelfi, h» tbe c-«usoBiii)tH conform to the 
vowels as tnueli se pofiHible. ■ • • 

tn The ro'in<iinff oftht lipt. — Tbo murcmoat works hori- 
zootnUj* forward and back. It ia very iuiportnnt in the artie- 
iilatkm of Lite deaf, a,n it diridefl the voweltt into two principal 
groopa: roundtnl (-+-) aud uot rounded (-^ or ,, V • * • 

VL The book uf the tongtte.—'Vhe moremenl of tb« back of 
the tongue in eff«ct«d horiatonUiUy fonn-ard and btw-k. This 
moVBtnent is one of the principnl coiiditionH of good arttaula- 
Lion and must be carefaUy prat^ticed. 

There are two prioripal ponitions : The forward position (+), 
efaamcieriEed bv the Hurfave of the tnugiie being swelled for- 
wardi Is need for the front or palntnl vowelw ('\ '■, i). The 
diOiireDCO of tfao degree of opening of these vowels in ub- 
taiued by raising or lowering the jaw . The back poaitioo (-{-) 
in nsed for a, a, o. The iliflVrenoe of the degree of opemiig 
is likewise obtained by means of the jaw. 

Between these two poxitioiw ibaro oxistft n jiericti of inter- 
owdiati* positions ( , , ), which we may neglect in the articula- 
tion of the doaf of moHt couuUie*). But in Kngliab aud Swod- 
bh and Kuabian the iotermediale poaitions give such ini[>or- 
tant rowels that we must not negleot them. 

In the oonBonant« tbe poRition of the back of the tongue is 
ordinarily free, and must conform to tbe rowela. lu ioi tbe 
V must be proooiuicod iu the forward positioo ; in ava the 
aame sound musl be formed in the back position. The same 
diflTorence exials even for tho oonflonnntH g und A*. This is n 
fafft wiiicb must not be overlooked, and which ia of eapital 
imjtortaaos for good articulatiuu. 

AVe paae orer kia table of Fivucb vowela, and proceed at 
011C4 to hid " Table of l^Iieb Vowels/' 

NoHces of PtihlicatioTU. 1 21 

)ther languages. We cannot tberefore neglect 
ite position (,,). 

I vowels have another peculiarity. Each vovirel 
meed in t^^o different ways, " narrow " or " wide." 
n-esponds rather to the continental pronuncis- 
" is a modification of this, and although the 
e organ is not lowered, it has nevertheless a 

3ly the authorities on phonetics do not agree as 
of this difference. Bell, Sweet, and Jespersen 
fferent explanation. It is, therefore, not with- 
it Trautmann baa attacked this weak point of the 
jlish Towelfl. 

aammer advises that the distinction between 
d "wide" be disregarded until it is definitely 
do not agree with him, for the English language 
inct sounds, and the deaf are capable of acquir- 
e or less correctly. The failure to provide for 
listinction seems to us a fault in the author's 

lit is that, so far as we can see, be makes no 
glide-vowels. It may be correct to omit the 
tr-glide, a nonsyllabic sound of d in such words 
tvored and to omit the lip-gbde (a nonsyllabic 
ia such words as go and code ; Professor Bell 
lis Visible Speech.* But we should like to know 
rcbhammer would represent " I '' in bis table, 
eak it up into d — ^i\ describing the positions in 
columns T This would be going too far in the 

nala for September last (page 413), Mr. Forch- 
ported as having said in the Pans Congress that 
the most difficult of European languages for 
ig." He wi-ites the editor of the A/mala that, 
ke of the peculiar difficulties of the English Ian- 
respect, be did not go so far as to assert that it 
t difficult of all European languages. His more 

''itiMe Spteek in Tweice l^tni/uii." VoUa Hurenu, 181)5, hucI 
Sptteh," Volla Jiuraiu, 1900. 

V?!f -V.'fiiv* .;>■' PithiiciUioiu. 

; ..4.'. icJ ss.4t^'tuoui \i\ ilio irt\iii»tf before us is : ''The ahorter 
i,-..f (j.'jv v\>;u".Si- slv wi*',\ls I'f :» Iju'.^nmgv. the fewer risible 
Vfi'i' »■''. ; v> jLV-t'.v*!'4\ ::»^t, *:;.i :b* Qn?r* diSoalt will it be 
;-,• v-k! ■.. ^w t"v^'.-^\ :',•.:■ t\»:yy>. is th< <Tpe ot ft ^<Mt and 
sViiv'iM.' '!^■■(;^•.y;^■. ' 

1-1 ,;i--xiv^;, Vl- bV:v". >.*:.r:u;'^:- sij-s 'hiZ 5il« iiff«BCCe be- 
:\»nii ; u- >-t::- ,* ;>-, **:'o -> *•.■,;•;.■* :i si'uHjcii liJ tfce $aza of 
,.iv ^..'i- o. •-■.».. ■^>^:' U -v : ■.■.; z.i<i .Idar laa istinsaish in 

■..!v .*»*.■».■* .'■ 'i.'-iL iVi.v'il 

:..l..v •' >.■•><• -t' Ni.V'O 1. .-A. >'.<.-. ".-_.' JM •"ITT— -all Tjmif«; ^ 

..•.,,1... V '.>.'<<.. lU ; - "'iVs.; -•.;■-. ^'.dfT. '500. 

.<, .- : -, NiiN.i . .!^ -i- ■- J :=_■ . £;s uis. _ie Kfai 

■ -If-S J. ri 1 ITT- -my - 

.-:..'.■:-' Ji'i. "iTirnr urn, 
-. ■._■■. fA-iiiit L iCt 

-. T-l- t .£tXl\lt .1 

* . 


AiaSama School, — My an act of the tcgiHlsturo approved 
NovembM-^ 19lK),U)v D»mc of tli« oHtiibli«ibiacDt na» oLauKvd 
from "Institute " to ** S«bool," the age of HiltnisnioQ waa fixed 
mi from nevou to twenty oue, the t«rm of iaeitrucliou wan ex- 
teodKl trum eight to l«n jemrn. evocation wns made abHolutvly 
tno to 411 deal cbUdren, and tliRunmbprof the trnsteen was in* 
ercaaed from xiiDO to cloven. The board of tru8t«4M, witli Mr. 
J. H. Jobnitoii as chief exomiiivn officer, have aleo cbiirge of 
the School for the Blind and the School for the Negro Deaf 
and Bliorl, Hitherto the State has paid more, per pupil, for 
the frdaeatiou of its aegro doaf c-Jiildren than of ita white deaf 
ehitdrciL Now tJie three schools aro placed on the uniform 
lMun»of 1(230 per aonuu [or eaob pupiL 

Arkansat Inatihtu.—TAT. Cbarl«8 P. Coker, suiwrvisor of 
bora for a nuujlK'r of ream, has bneti added to the corp8 of 
tjutnctors ; also Mi'. Frauk Bi(ti;l«. for firo ;o>ars secretary 
and cleward of the Inalitntion. 

Ch^oo (China) School — The Bcbool is Hreoting aav build- 
lof^B in a dcairoble part of the uit; overlookitij; the sea. It has 
a debt of t;).000 ami auodtt $5,fl00 morn fur biuldju); puqioiieB. 
It is eatirely dependent upon ilio bcneyolent conthbutiona of 
friendB iu Kurope sud America, which thus far have oume 
ohieil; from arboola for tljf d«-«f. It iu the ouly work of the 
kind ID OIiiaB. and wilh the reatoratiou of peace it ih eX]iecled 
tlut ifa* opportunittvv will bo fpreuter than erer. 

Chicago T>a>j-SehooU. — MibB Effie Johnaton, Ule of the HIi- 
nnia fnotitatioD, has btwn added to the corps of teaohen. Mrs- 
BoUowa ia absent on leare, and her place ia supplied by Uiw 
Laijy M. W. Alcorn. 

CiHHnnati Ortil Schod. — Tbe Board of Education granted 
the Bobool last mouth Boventjr doUarti' worth of maps and geo- 
graphical charts, fortv dullaiH' worth of HupplftmHiitary read* 
ere, aixl some simple apparatus forptiysica. Amnngtbe cbarta 
ub Vai^'a Geographical Portfolio, ooatiug $40, aod a large 

124 School Items, 

half round map of the United States, showing, in addition to 
the surface of the land in relief, the elerationa of the land at 
the bottom of tlie sea, the shelves along the Atlantic 
coast, etc. 

Cleveland School. — The class taught at the Rockwell 
Scbool for two months has been put back into the main 
school on Willson avenue. All the pupils in the school are 
now taught by the oral method except one who is forty years 
of age. 

Ephpheta School. — Uiss Matilda Boucher and Miss Mary 
Mitlone bave been appointed teachers is the place of Miss A. 
M. Larkin and Miss M. A. Kennedy, resigned. 

Eoanffelical Lutheran School. — Miss Christina Thompson 
has resigned her position as teacher ; Mr. Bentrup now teaches 
the manual classes. 

Georffia School. — The School was closed for thirty daya, 
beginning November 8, on account of the prevalence of scarlet 
fever in the town and one case in the school. 

Choninyeii Institution. — Mr. P. Roorda, Director of the 
school at Groningen, Netherlands, authorizes us to announce 
that on application to him a copy of the Annual Report of 
that school for 1900, containing among other things a snpple- 
ment to the Catalogue of the Guyot Library, which was pub- 
lished separately in IHSS, will be forwarded, free of charge, to 
any schools for the deaf or public institutions that may 
desire it. 

JliUifuj'. I/iatitutioH. — In May last Miss Mary Grant, who 
had been teaching in this Institution for nearly two years, died 
after three months' illness. She was a successful teacher, 
beloved by her pupils, and respected and highly esteemed 
by all who knew her. 

Mian Annie Maokay, Mr. James Murphy, and Mr. J. A. 
Weaver, lute of the Margate, England, School, have bees 
added to the staff of instruction, 

fliirace Mn/nr. SfJiooL — In January, 1900, the teacher of 
sloyd, Mr. J. H. Tryboiu, resigned his position to accept the 
Huperin tendency of manual training in the public schools of 

School Items. 


lit. Misti Katu P. Hobftrt, one of Hie rtrf^uhr hwsbcni of 
tb« H«bo^, wa» appointed in his pUro. Bbc given fliree Itoura 
to r«*(<ul&r'cl»et8-riKHu work, and two bourn everv aflernoou to 
maniiftl trainiag. 

Mi*8 Mmrbbu E. Skl^lrhert, an experien(!e<l teachur iii kiudn*- 
gart«ii work, wan adtletl to tbc corps of tcucborv in January, 

Xci AilU jyfiy-Sahoal. — Tbi> da.r'(>>(>) at La 8a)l«, DUnois, 
befpiD in 1898 under tbe State law p&Mdd th« proviona yaar, 
haa boon discontinued. 

/yyiihutna Inatitution. — MisB Nioetta Layton, of Jacbeoa- 
Tille, UlirioiK, baa bc>eu nOdod to the corjMt of iiistruciora. 

Muciuiy InntHtftioi: — ^r. F. Wolferstnn Tbomas, Pr«ei- 
dimt of tbf> board of mun»getu«nt. died last May. His huu 
ccaour baH nut r«^t bc<t>n appoiuUH], but it is iiresunitnl it will 
hv Mr. Ttobf-rt Miiclaj', nopbew of tlic lat« Mr. JoHepli Hacliay, 
the fnuii'ler of the InHtitiiLion. 

Mis« Geraltliuc Dal;, one of tbo etafT, rcaigucd in Juno to 
be marriod- Was Kato Baker, of Bottton, MaiisaeliuBetta, 
fills tlie Taeoncy caused hy ber resignKtiou. 

Aueogiofr. tolaliotbe place of the wiiKlinill, baaboeti put in. 
It giree gr«aL aatlsfaction, oa Lbe lualitution now baa an 
tmliuiled snpplir of wutt-r- 

ifaneheit€r ( EngtaiKi\ Srhooh. — Mr. 'William Nelson, for- 
Dtflfa tcavbvr iu tbeKo Hcbool«, and for tJic piut thr«<» yoora 
Sup«rutteudt)Ul of thtt London Day-Scbool Cla-iKest, baa been 
Bppointod Head Master in the place of Mr. Walter T. Beaaant. 

Xinficitota School. — Tbfl maximum term of itistructioa baa 
been extended from ten to thirteen year*. 

Mietiaeifipi Litdtntion. — Miss Jane Lee, of Mayaville, Ken- 
tucky, liiij» bvoii added to the corps of oral inBtmctora. 

A brigbl dc»f-bliud pupil six yeara old, named Maud Scott, 
luaa been admitted from CnlLonn t^uuty, and Mias Janv Wat- 
Idoa, of Jackson, Misiiiiitiippi, bas been appointed a i>|H>dii] 
teacber for her. 

1 26 School Items. 

Montana School. — Plane and specificaiioDe for a new wing 
and boiler-bouse bsve been made by tbe State architect, and 
a special appropriation of $40,000 for tbeir erection wil! be 
asked for at the meeting of the legislature iu January. 

Ifew York InstituCion.—^MiBS Ethel B. C. Caparn resigned 
at tbe close of the last school year to be married t Miss Annie 
Denny Ward resigned in September to go to Manila, to care 
for her father, on officer in tbe U. S- Begulur Army, who bad 
been wounded while iu the discharge of his duty. The follow- 
ing appointments have been made: Malcolm C.Anderson, 
M. A., who bad been principal of the High School at Hinsdale, 
New Hampshire ; Miss Kate A. Currier (not a relative of the 
principal), a graduate of Boston University, who bad been 
trained as an oral teacher by Miss Eicbards, of tbe Bhode 
Island School ; Miss Helena P. Newman, B. A., who had for 
eight years taught in the Western New York Institution. 

A fine alto-relievo bust of the late Isaac Lewis Peet, LL. D., 
was unveiled in the Chapel on tbe anniversary of bis birth, 
December 4. 

North Carolina {Morgmiton) School. — Miss Carrie Nimocks 
has been added to tbe corps of teachers in tbe Manual Depart- 
ment. A Cooking Department for the girls has been intro- 
duced, and Miss Sallie Hart has been put in charge of it. 

Ohio Institution. — Besides the weekly Chronicle, a small 
monthly paper called '/'he Literary Tyro, is now published at 
the Institution. It is edited and managed under the direction 
of a iioard of editors, selected from the literary societies. Its 
objects are to encourage the reading habit among the mem- 
bers of the societies, and to give practice and encouragement 
in hterary work. 

lth><h Itland Institute. — Miss Katharine MacCrosson has 
resigned her position to be married, and Miss Edith Hillman, 
who wa8 iu the luiititute for a year as student- teacher, fills 
the vacancy. MiHS Lizzie Green, from the Pennsylvania Home 
for the Training iu Speech of Deaf Children, takes the place of 
Miss Peet, and Mihs Mabel I. Clark takes the place of Miss 
Guinness. Miss Ethel A. Dunn bus been appointed teaober 
of drawing. 



JSt, Jokn't Cathoiic TtiKtittUr. — Tb«> Tnittitiite ha» two adili- 
tional tearfaers and uovr does more tban forniprlT in the w&y 
of articulntiuD tcHcbiti;;. 

A Sor buililintf bM hffoa ereeiml for worksliops, an addition 
lias U«« made to the main Iniildiiig. ftnd Ibe Inatituie is now 
ftuppHed witb gas. batli' rooms, and oUtev iinproveinenta 

iSoitt/k Carolimi InttUuliort. — Mrs. Ida M. TlioainKOi), Miss 
M. C. Mauz^. Rud Miss H. Rutb Griawold bavB been elected 
lo VBcaiici^s cauMid hy the ri'«i<;iiatioii of Mr. VV. lAurtrua 
Walku'. Minx MoxeUe Bt^ord, oud Mim9 Harriet Aver;. Mr. 
H. O. Swiuk, of Indiana, bas beeu a{)poibt«l foreman of the 
wood-working sbop- 

A ttu^e^torj brick building in in procena of erection for the 
depftrtmoit for colored pupils. 

M'tsUm OHnhimtn Sebool. — ^Tbis school has be«ii dis- 
routioiied, niid Mr. I^ong ia now engag^ in the insiructiou 
of K priTate pupU in Byrou, OkloUoua- 


A gnuliiktA of Oallniidet Ck>lli->:o iIo«lrp4 a pofitioD as kM-'livr. RirU' 
•up«r*iai>r, or uxUiaiit inaUon. Htt;bi'Kt te<oi>uiuietidjitiuaii. Apjily to 
ttin Etlitot at Ui« AuttaU, KcmlalL Gio«d, WtMliiti([Uit], D. 0. 

Srte tjtngnag* rimt. by R, H. Atwncid of tlii- Ohio BUUi InBtltutlaa 
fur Itw l^fkf. Piltoon FuDfUmoutwl Furiua »i Knprvaava. A grvnt aid 
tu tMoUtng U)iguiM;o. Ji Miintt uf lunr him) Ulmr iu the clnaarouiD. 
AJm tlifl beat tnullioil of dtowlug tli« (^omixiuadliig and cfitn{>laiifig of 
Mol««cc» from abort (tmplv an*>. For pric<«, s'ldTCvi U- H. Arirooa, 
im EmL Oak Strvui, Culnmbtu. O. 

Cvy'ttm of Dt. Habtkk P. Pkkt'h ailrtoe to pkrenU of Jo«nn ilc«f diU- 
(trn, rniiU*() " Tb« Patnily 1iMtTii«tloo or[li« DMf In EbiIj- CliUdluMxl,'* 
npctoM ttxm tUe Tiroot]--»n*aDlli Bvport of (hv Not Yvtk luatitutlun, 
wljr h*i olrtnUiml (roia tbo BdiUir of Uiu ^aiiiiZ*, Kendall Grvati, WmIi- 
tagtati, U. C, at t«u e«ntji uata. tK)«t«(;<i Inulndnd. 

Ur. JkMM Denapa'a '■Uaoiml AlpluUal ut u Part of tJin I'libllc^L'liuol 
Cunraa," published in Iba jtann^ (or Ootober, 1886, bai tieea rtprititixl 

128 Advertisenients. 

ia pamphlet form, accompanied hj the beaatifal mannal alphabet drawn 
and engraved from photographs nndei the direation of Dr. J. C. Gojukin. 
Copies roa; be obtained from the Editor of the Amialt, Keadall Green, 
Washington, D. C, at ten cents each, postage included. 

Mr. J. Hbideies'b " Hearing Deaf-Mates. A contribution toward the 
Elncidation of the Qnestion of Methods," translated from the Qerman 
by Qeorge W. Veditz, M. A., and published in the AnnaU for April, 
Jnne, and September, 1898. has been reprinted in pamphlet form. 
Copies may be obtained from the Editor of the Annals, Kendall Oreen, 
Washington, D. C, at 25 cents each, postage included. 

Fboobedihos of the WoBi-n's Conobeus of Ikstkuctobb of thb Dx&f, 
Chicago, 1893, $1.00 ; to enbscrjbers to the Annals, half price. Add 11 
cents for the prepayment of postage. Address the Editor of the Annali, 
Kendall Green, Washington, D. C. 

AuEaiOAN Amnilh of thb Deaf, Established 1847. Complete sets at 
the Aiinalt may now be obtained at $3.00 a volume. Volumes i, ii, ix, 
X. xiv to xlv, iuclDsive, and the lust two numbers of volame xiii, are un- 
bound and will be sold sepamlely. Volamesiiiandiv, vandvi, viiand viii, 
xi and xii, together with the first two numbers of volume xiii, have been 
bound two volnmea in one. These will be sold only as bonnd. Single 
numbers, from volume xiii, number 3, to the present issue, will be sold 
at 60 cents each. Indexes tt the first twenty, the third ten, and the 
fourth ten volumes 60 cents each. The first two indexes, bound together 
in cloth, .fl-OO. The tliree indexes, bound together in cloth, 91.50. 
Address the Editor of the Annah, Kendall Qreen, Washington, D. C. 


Vol. XLVI, No. 2. 

MARCH, 1901. 


TitKKK in hIvajr one cliili] in a class vcho, when every- 
tbiu^ eUa (ailtt as a tinie-killor, it) nuni to ask, "Muy I 
Imke tlie wuKk'-baKktit aixl clt>nr uut lu^' dosk ?" 

Pemiissiuii granted, coutngiou sproads. Evorv pupil 
noAT ttio tinit cnse i9 seiz^l with u spasm of ordor. The 
wtutc-bosket 800D overAova. A pilo of pnporg rieea high 
on BAcii closk. Tlio teacher if nppftllcd. Tbro'C man are 
flleftrly appai-vut — ocglifteuco ou liis owu pitrt, disunlvr, 
ktid ft wjckud waste of iustitntion pnpor on the cliildreu's 

Tho otber day, moved by oua of tboee impulses townnl 
order which Heldoui ^^t much beyond their stHrtiug-poiat, 
I Btcirnly reliuveil tim initial reqoe«t for tbn waste-basket. 
JUnring the noon rccens I made a ptirHoual initpoetion of 
uTory desk in tUo room. Tbe re«ulb was iuterestiug uud 
unexpected. 1 weut to scold hnt, like Goldsmith's scofTer, 
retDUuixl to pray. Two desks ont of thirteen were in ab- 
•olnUily perfect order. Not a Hcrap of writing was 
to be soeu in either. One of these desks belonged to a 
good, slow girl of fair ability, who is as afraid of using 
new laugniigu UK a ont is of water. Tho othur wax the 
desk of a boy whose seulimeuts toward new words cor- 


Written Lunpuage aiut Outiure. 

respond to tliose of the i^irl but who, aiilike Ler, lias a de- 
cided bent for m;itlioin»tit^fl. [ fnuDd io biKtleHk a siiiglu 
atieut of papor — crluaii, squart), hikI uiculy foldod. Ono 
aide of this pnpurwds covercid witli figures. Outbid otbcr 
waa a fairly accurnle drawing of u steHna-euKiue. Tbe 
eleveu remaining desks fidlilled ray wor»t expectAtions an 
to disorder. They were filled to the brim with chiseljr 
writtun pitpore. Of counw, oiftny of thane papL'rs were 
undestroyud sclioot-room exorciitutt. But au a!ltouiBhlu^ly 
large uumber were origiaal efforts at Belf-expreasion. 

If literary style be, as is generally conceded, only an 
expreHsion of the author's personnlity, these eliildiHh 
attBmpttt piMuteased in a high degree that desirable element 
of eoinpositioD. By careful reading of these poor little 
gumwls I learned much of what was going on in the 
cliildreo's beartd and brains. That, alone, would have 
made the iuHpectitm worth while. But I found more. 
The&e half fluiKhed letters, surreptitious notes, lists of 
impossible wor«ls, voluntary copyings from that greatest 
troasure of oar achoolrooms, the " Raiudrop/' poems, 
bnite-ball and foot-ball turoreK, with {Hirsoual commeulaon 
iudividtial players, all proved that laugUM4;e se>ed8 had 
eproutod. To tbeso bnbee and suckliiigs a great truth 
bad been dimly revealed — the truth that to them and 
to tbeir kind written laognAga alone can bring social and 
inteUectual salvution. 

Fnsh air, declares the world, is the first reqaisit« to 
health, And then coDtiauos, for tlio most part, to live in 
orer-heatvd booaea with doors and windows ti^^htly shut. 
In the same way, all t«achera of tbe deaf agree that 
written Ungaage is of prime importance. Few of uSt 
however, make written laugujige, what it ought to be iu 
all higher grades, the main medium of iostructtoD and 

It ie always beet, says Dr. William James in his " Talks 
Io lWihM»i" to proceed along the lioo of least rrfiMitaTiim 

Written language aivl C"U»Tt. 


The ft»ct tUftt every cleaf chilil loves to scribble is » Rretit 
Hrgumetit iu favor of nninf^ written liingnage as onr chief 
ednoaUou&l )ut*icuiu«Dl. Tlio ctiiltl'H iustinct n« to untiirul 
nclRotioti of metliodsis correct. (Jpoii lenviiif; .school, his 
B[)««:olt, itt its i>e3l, will bo understood only l>y n limited 
Rtrclo of friendH. Tlia dillicnltit^H of lip-rcnditig will 
fartUer coiitrncl tbrit circle. Tim Ki^^iis tlial hiivu nidutl 
bis mentnl developmeut niid iucfeused Iii-s Imppineas at 
eefaool will Im of no more socinl nod buHiuess value tban 
bin ti|>ooeb Jhod bp-reiiding. Tbfl world Ih too busy to 
learu uod itrnclico rondiug tltu utiinmil alphabet. Iu oine 
cosefl ont of ten pencil niid paper will he the priQcipal 
melius of commtmicntion between the child mid the per- 
sons outside bis owd ffiiiiilT wboin hL> lui^ittM after leaving 
Kbool. FrAL'ticnlly, tUerofore, a fiticiut use nud quick 
andetntanding of written langiiagenre nbsointely necessary 
(or the dt>iif. 

But wrJlteu Ungnuge bas higher iisuti tliiiu nidiug a deaf 
boy or girl to make :« iiviug or even to shine in society. 
The cbild'K instinct tells him this, too. He liken to ez- 
pre«ti bimitelf in written words, ItHcviuHe they only, of all 
•yiuboU, priMeot biK thoiigbt visibly complete. From the 
initial eupital letter, which he makes with an ornamental 
flourish, to the concluding period, usually the Mize of a 
HDOw ball, therit it ih — bis work, Ins eoaciipt embodied by 
hift owo hanit for himself and all ibe world to wonder at 
and admire. He is a creator, and rulnea himself and bis 
work aeconiingly. Tie nannot nee the words that iiisiie 
froDi bis Iip8. Thomi laaile by linger-Kp^ltiug must be 
ooutomplate<l singly. Every sane mind longs after whole- 
ness or nnitv- Tho little deaf child wlio writex : " I sL'hnoI 
Hke new words, write" is seeking exactly what the wiKeHt 
philosophers have sought. He would nnify bia world. 

Thongbt in not thought until it ii^ clear enough to be 
expressed in plain words. The people who any, " I know 
what I raeuu bat caunot express it/' do uot know what 


Written T^mgiinge and OiUtnra. 

they meua. They are either tnentallj lazy or witfnllj 
ignomut. Thu old grniumnticul dcfinitioo, "A acntuDce iB 
A thought expressed in words," coutains deep meaning for 
teachers of the deaf. We are forever complaioiug that 
our papils do not think. Practice in writiog and compre- 
hending Kuntenci!«( is, for a deaf child, tiserciHti in thinking. 
Speech, si)^u8, and tlie mnunal tdphahdl are inferior to 
written laugtiage as thou|{ht- productive agencies, because 
thsy do not cover, and cannot be mado to cover, the chief 
principle of conipoHitiuD — tlie ])riticiple of inaKK. The 
word method \» obsolete. AU teachers of tbu deaf, prob- 
ably, now begin with the sentence. From the sentence 
thn child passes to the paragraph, from the paragraph to 
the chuptftr, from the chapter to tht> bftok. Kow, the deaf 
child's uuiuprebeuBiou, and thu degreL* of his meutal 
growth aa hu ascends these four slepti, uill depeud, maiuly, 
npon two conditions: First, lio mnnt s(*i> the blnt-kboanU 
of his class-room constantly covered with written Ian- 
gnage in which he ia led to tJike a vital aud ever-recarring 
interefit. The tbonfjht content of this language mast be 
decided npon by the teacher. The reKponHibility here is 
great. Secondly, tbo pupil must have constant practice 
in expreasing his own and his acqnired though t in writtea 
laogaage. This practic-e should extend to the play-room. 
Paper and lead pencils should be freer than wator and air 
in every ph^yroom and schoolroom of the deaf. Ecouoiuy 
here is sinful waste. Hqiq*3 pupils, of conrse, will never 
reach the book stage of development and couiprebeuaioa. 
Many will, among them both semi-mate and congenitally 
deaf children. 

The necessity and value of written language in the edu- 
cation of semi-mutes has been greatly uudui-rntod. A 
gouoral but erroneous belief seems to prevail that the i>ower 
of speeoh, in some mysterious way, leads to the accurate 
and graceful wrtttou expression of thuughl. An after- 
noon spent in reading the compositions of hearing pupila 
speedily disabases one of that iUuaion. 

Wriiim Lanyiutge atul CiUiitre. 


Auy p«ilngogiR»l coiiTictiou tuiiKl be liir^t-Iy t)iu nwuU 
of ioilividual exptiriuucii. Thurufure tbe fruquotit iisu of 
tbe [jrououD " 1 " iu lUia paper Hud tLo porsoiiaJ nature 
of the eXKinples I nm about to quote will, I liopo, b« par- 
doued. Formerly T fonnd (comforting hnlf-scrBoango iu 
tbe circamloc-utiou of " Th« Writer.'* But the facetioiiH 
ae« of that t«rm bj certaiu irroTorent friends has ren- 
dered it somewhat diBtaotuIul. It i» uot plcasaot to 
receive through the post letters addr^ssttd to " The 
Writer." Neither is it whotlj agreeable, wlieo the door- 
bell rings, to henr the giggling servaut girl interrogated — 
"Is the Writer At tioiue?" "Oue" is bard to manago. 
There is » coutttitDt tenduucy to writo " Ouc — uu" ami 
"Onu — tiho" instoad of the stiff "One— oue" dcniuudtd 
by tiorrecl syutas. To double oiioaelf up as au editorial 
" Wo" is equally itopenuiiisible. Ho it seems best to fol- 
low thu bliiot advice of a vetonin jouruidist — " If you 
nieau I, wty I." 

Tbttrcforo, without further apology, I have had occasion 
to study pretty Ihoronglily the reI.itioii between written 
Inugnage and the derelapment of a semi-ointe child of 
mediocre ability. For n'lx yRurs I have had vith me, 
Knmmer and winter, a deaf girl, now fonrteaii yearn old. 
She was made totally denf by scarlet (ever at the age of 
five years. She entered Hchool at Iheageof ei|jhl,hiiviiig 
received no previous in.stnu'tioTi. She retained lier baby 
•peecb, referring to hertielf alwayB aa " Ma" — "Me waols," 
" Me Uke>i," vtc. When she came tu us hei Hpeucli was 
very defective. She had lost several sonud&. Tliauks, 
however, to the paiuiitiiking effotts of her articulation 
leaeber, liotb in and out of aehool and often during 
vucatiouH, her speech is now wholly intelligible. Her 
lip-rt.-ndiug is ouly fair. 8lie would, uudoubtodly, 1>b 
tivday n much better lip-reader had I devoted more 
timn to the ac-coiDpliKhment of apuauli-rtiadinK and le^s 
t« her one and conipreheuiiiou of wriltoa language. Her 


WritUn f^ng>4^^ ftml VuUurt. 

(lAr'tiilM iiiitl IliR )i<nw1 of tko school left the choiM 
moOi'Nlii wholly ill m; liantU. 

Piir llirnu renrit I UiQfjbl kor niftinly tlirnngh lip-reail- 
liit{. 'Mi»n 1 fniiiul mj'Milf st thu partio); of the n-ayi 
Hlio rmttl Uiw lipH wvll. I3ul li»r written Iant;aage we 
\n\at, lliir notn[ii'pli(>tiiiioii of a writUtD or priuted page 
avnii wliim iDHilo Up of wordg iiicladed iu ber spokei 
tiKtnliiiliiry, wim iiiont iiiiNntiNfm-tory. 

Twii wHinww WKiiii'd opoii to mo, wither of which woald^ 
Im followiid Ity tho pupil with diligeuce atid docility'. Bj 
KtitilliiiiliiK thti Unit I hrtd hnon following tlio girl proiuisc 
tu liixmiiiiMiii i-xpiirt lip-nrndoi'. By tho timo slio arrived 
wiiitimi'M iwtitlo Hhe wouhl, probablj, be able to iindei 
ulaiid with njiHii uiodt of ** thu thousntid nothinp) of tb< 
tioiiv" whioh tiiiik*' up ordinnr; ronvvrsation. 

WiMtld *\\tf. niMo, 1k> hI>U' to coiiipreheud kamfmitj's 
lar^vr Hporvoh ? Would Aw Imiru to appreciate " the beet 
Uint \\*» I wii doin- ntid said iu th»» world ! " Would she 
tittiik, ftud lrai)H(orm iiilo actiou high or low thoughts?, 
'11i<w« <w<>r» ftniY« qui<«tious. In nuAwvriiig them 
n«w»t''H>m'v 1 had uu ilfloirvt lo exalt one metbod or 
Ml llti< »x^vMMO ttf luiolhwr. Th^rs wen persowd ddo' 
«)M«<«ti\uu of Ml «<*»y. Kappv-f^wluckr Oaltie teapecaneBt, 
"WA a (nvHiMe MdTt«M> local fwrtntomeot afler leftring 
•Aool, l« b» cvwimiImwL 1 Ixwd boBsatij aad pr^yv^ 
hSk$ i« tkM eUUV caw to apply •■ ia>dVw*wJ 

lfl|wiinii I lal iilinwi«tii»i 1 
. ^pwv »f»«cK l i |i i ww K u t; . 


<|^lMil <MiTWlt»tlWW. 'Vh. 

Written lAinguage and CiUtuTre. 


my Tords, unconsciously using the same terms day aftor 
(lay. Eveu tbeu, balf the time aeemed to be spout iu the 
correctiou of 8p«ecb or in vain repetitious that made ns 
bolh rage iuwardly Uke lie»tlien. In »hort, the child wiw 
nnggod and tlio loachor bore<l to tlio verge of distroctioti. 
ImpiUicnco nl tbo alowuoas uf a duuf child'8 lip-rouding ia 
uluioHt till* vroral, tim of wbiob a tejicber can bo guilty. 
But biimaD nature is proverbiallrsinfnl,aDd I confess that 
the desire to shake the child of my adoption, when she 
did not read the lips qiiicklv, was aftt>ii hard to rusist. 

After the inatnlliiliou o! wrill«u Imiguagu, bowuvor, as 
iitiKtress of ceremonies, oil went smoothly. The leadeu 
clouds of disco ariigenient lifted nod her meutnl horixoD 
iriilenetl infinitely. The lesson could be presented iis a 
wholn. New wurdit and pbrOjiOH, uuderlimtd nod rapidly 
explained by sigoe, 6tted at ouce into their siiburdiuate 
and proper places. Ideas were do longer crowded ont by 
quarrelsome, ill-bred consonants and rowels. Tlie text, 
by the free use of signs, conid be illuminated, at a mo- 
EQent's notice, by side-tliiHhes of aneodoto, simile, and 

It iB too early, ns yet, to assort deflDite results. Bat 
<lifttinct iotellecinal, social, aud moral gain ba« cortainly 

BD made by the change from spokctu lownttenlanguago. 

One important result iu that the girl han become an 
oninivorona reader. In one time ber literary range 
threateu«<t to become too wide, as I decided when I cam« 
npon the following sentence in a letter written to the 
principal of tbo school : 

" I nnderstsiid the theory of erolntion and have read 
'The Woman Who Did' — a book that b«longa to my 
ttioud's uiothvr." I did not in the lca«l object to b«r " uu- 
deratauding" evolution, bat I felt obliged to request tier 
Iriutid'a mother uot to leave any more aualylical novels 
lying aronnd our promi»ctt. 

Lastsuumer English and general history, Soolt'a pooiry, 


Writteu Lant^iut^ and Ctdtuft. 

BDi3 Diclceus's works furuielied a more tiealUifal menial 
ditit. The little girl possesses considerable bumor, uud 
her enjoyment ul Diukens vas intoose. She nas codUo- 
ually uiskiug local applicatiuu of hii> buileMja« scenes. 
Wbeu uuu day vegetables, mysUtriou»ty douuu>il, appeared 
OD oar piazza, sbo said I was Mrs. Nickleby, and that, 
probably, my admirer. th« "geatleinaii in small clotbes," 
wiiR in onr ohimney. Once when 1 scohled lier for a con- 
firmed habit of louiug pocket-handkerchiefo, ahe remarked 
that Mrs. Pipchiu told yonng Blykius that children who 
sniffed neTor went to Hoavec. She oamod her, or rather 
my, cats for Dickens's characters. She wopt owr yornig 
Mrs. Coppcrfield, Little ^ell, and Panl Pomboy. Bnt 
her deoi>erit sympathy fi«emed ref^erved for Sissy Jup», 
" the girl ubo wanted pretty tbiugs but conldn't ever have 
'dm." A pursonal chord was tunchud. Uhe know lioir 
Sissy Jupo felt. 

It wa» the lust evening of our vocation. Wu aut on the 
piazita, both lueliug rather choky at the thought of part- 
ing from otir monntain home. Snuggling closer to me, as 
Ihu twilight deepened, .she said : " TIuk hati been tho hap- 
piest summer of my life, becuuBu I am Charles Diukcna's 
friend." It was too dark to answer in wortls. But I 
thought of Dickens's grave in Westminster Abbey, and 
wondered if any apphmne would have buttur pleased hia 
child-loriug heart than tbu dovotioa of this little deaf 
Iii»h>Amerivau girl. 

When we returned (o school, a friend asked her to write 
for him a compONitinn based upon her Dickena reading. 
She did Ko, having neither fommr abHtntcla nor buoka to 
refer to. Her paper, dependent upon memory and wholly 
nncorrecled, contains about two thousand words. The 
books r(*ad are enunn'rated in her opening paragraph : 

" Charhw Dit-ki-MiK was a great EuglitiU writer who wmta 
fiftoeu wonderfully good books. All of them are tiua ones. 
1 bavQonly raad five books written by him, ' David Copper- 

Written Lan^uaije and Cutture. 


6el(3,' ' Domboy and Sod," ' Nicholas Xickloby.' ' Old Curi- 
osity Shop,' aud ' Hard Tiiuee.' TUose five books ai-e 
Terv iDtoroetiiii; tad^ed." 

A syoopsis of onch book folIov8. Of course nhe tnakefl 
l^romuuticitl errors oud miistakut) iu ttpuUiug. But the 
plot, ill each case, ia clearl; oatliued. Humor aud putliue 
, ara approciaied. Thn large uumber of clianioters does 
not coufuac bor, ovidentlir. Tliu law of proportioo ia 
well observed. Ori|;iuiU comtuouti »ru uot liu^kiti^ : 

"Mrs. ^tacstioger wita the crossest iridow aud Inud- 

ijf I fivor beard or read of." 

" iSaWj nud 8an)pbOU Brass are certainly very queer 

" Mrs. Nicklebv was never more pleased tbao talk tind 

Her condnaioD ecboea the feeling of many grateful 

" Dii^kens wak a geniiiR. He is my fnvoriti! iiutlior. I 

^lore him vuTy uiuck aud I vfUU he Mfara Htill Hviug bucauM 

t waut him to write otauy more books. IMckeus is one 

of the humorcst authors that has ever written oharmiDg 


An enviruiiiuuDtuf writteu lauf^migo batt exerted a very 
beneficial iuHuomte upuii the little girl's mautiers nud 
nonds. She lias gaiued iu taet, kindliness, and courtesy. 
The ritual of the churoh tn whiiili she belongK — the 
Catholic — eould Imnlly havt< beea uxplaiued except by 
the use of writteu Inuguni^'o. 

Oar most important work, however, lies not with semi- 
nntoa bat amuDg the cougenitaltydeaf. Iu fact, the semi- 
nnte, through no fault of h'm own, neeiuH uften to be u ^en- 
oral coDtre of injustice. Ui» hurdworkiug, pntietit teacher 
who, by wrestling! with his chaotic ideos and laugnnge, has 
miulo crookrd thingH Htrnight, never gets any credit for 
the task. " But he was a semi-mute to begin with, you 
koow," is tho oul}' couunoot the world aud, too often, the 


Written Langnage and Oidturt, 

teacher's colloagoes have to offor when al] in (lone. The 
con geui tall}- denf child o[ fine natural ability and pathetic 
iDrlustTj in freqiiRotlr kept in the shade while a featfaer- 
hoiulffd KHini-iutiti! claKHtnat^ shnwK off to visitors. To the 
Hem i -mutt', hinineU, Kchoal imthnritins ar<i often UDJUst, 
saying, id effect, " O, he's a Kemi>ii)»ta1 He'll get along 
all right," wliL'U, as a uatter o( (act, hy iuiprnpi'r Rniding, 
he is getting along sll wrong verj fast. The arguuieuts of 
tliR late Mr. Htorrs in favor of separate toacbiag for Bemi- 
mnt«!« and the onugenilally deaf have never beou success- 
[nlly cotulmtted. 

Writtfiu language should occnpy the first place in the 
iustructioD of the cong«aitallj deaf, Pejcliological and 
practical reosooe for this opinion have already been 
tti^od. The conteution in not that we sihould invent new 
exercises in written lan^age. It is, rather, that ne ought 
to use more fully and constantly iu written form the agen- 
cies at hand — the journal, the story and reprodnctioD, 
the letter, the dt-scripliou of pictures, the iiuwiipaper work 
and the thousand daily opportuuitioa for incidental Ian- 
gDOge. rruise.advice.andreproofmaybegiven iuwriting. 
Deafness is no barrier to the enjoyment of telling one's 
inouial syu)|)toinB. Let these inevitable outpourings of 
vouug hearts bo miule in writing and two ('nds are served. 
The pupil's emutiouul nature and hi^ intellect are both 

Many teachers of the deaf keep up the study of some 
foreign langnage^a practice which cannot be too highly 
comnieniled as au aid iu teaching written Eugliah. In my 
own case the following process baa been helpful. I have 
tried, almost literally, to pnt myself iu the position of a 
donf pupil Ktruggliiig with the written use of a foreign 
tong;iie. Iu Germau, Fi-ench, aud Ttalian I have insisted 
that luy t«acbors should allow me to write, aud should 
correct for mo each day, journals, practical aentencea, 
deacriptioQ of pif-tnre8,aiid other oseroises exactly similar 

Written Langyiage ami Culture. 


to Uiose mr deal pupils write for me. The German 

. mneter was tractable. He saw the doablo ntilitj of the 

chenie and ti,vu]|)atliiM>d with it. Bat the Frenchman 

tl>e Ilnlian wer« invrtriaWv disagreeable over the 

'task of corrtiutiuu. The former preferred that 1 sliould 

olintt«r in execrable Frendi, the latter iDsisted Hint I 

must analyze DaiitoV " Inferno" before I could writo cor- 

rveotlT the deaf chihl'a atock tieuteuce — " I went tu the oitj 


But tn each case I gniued my poiut. The result was 

bpiicflcial to myself and to my pliildron. T learned, as 1 

never coahl have leiiriied by any other migiiiik, to under- 

Mtand tho difticultiuH with which my pupils were daily 

icoatendiuf;. I learned lo honor the courage, patience, 

fjHireeTerauce.audiuilHBtry with which many deaf studeuts 

'sneel and con(|nor the English language. One other 

thing, too, I learned of vast importance. 1 found out, 

, ODC« and for nil, that in the acquirement of any laiigimge 

the pupil and not the teacher must do the main part of 

tho work. 

We hear a great deal in (hose days about tho " ideid 
teacher," Accortling to the general coiicepliou the ideal 
teacher is a harmonious and beautiful being whose sweet 
uiwiou it is tu luaku learning easy, plou«aut, and luunsing. 
The ideal pupil is less clearly dotiued. All pupilM are 
supposed to be ideid. In general, I should aay, the 
eoupoaite ideal pupil's min<l might be litW compared lo 
a pirK'-woml tub into which Hut a^rcenble teacher, at 
intcrrnU between games, gently puum knowledge of milk 
and water value and eousistency. 

The true ideal teacher, however, is not a setilimentnlist. 
He does not talk mncli about the " Divinity within every 
child." Ho aroHSBH that Divinity, often through pain. 
He is Homutimeit strict to the point of KertJiitr. He Ioyos 
his pupils, not gushingly but sanely. They very soon 
onderstaud and love hiui. Over the door of his school- 


Writtin Zartffuaye and Culturt. 

room, oD its walls and, iuijelibly, in bis pupib' himrta, 
the ideal ttincliur writcH l^nrning's groat, first, nod last 
connuBndiiiuDt: "Tliua shalt work." 

The readitig-Ufibit U nliuost itivariublj eatabliiihet) by a 
copious nse of writt«D IftiiguagH iu tb« sclioolrooui. Tliera 
are (eacliers in onr rsiiks, evea aow, wlio assert tbut 
Sniitli*H Third R«ail<ir in b««tter mental nutriment for desf 
cliildreii Oiau nelUlultl Hlurit^s from Hotufit and Slinkes- 
p«!Ure. But the world's time-spirit is makiug itself felt. 
We are begiiming to see that the greater uiusl iuclude 
the less^tbat tbe less without the greater is worthless 
and UDmeaDiiig. Ou ever\- eude, iu all ranks of life, no 
less amoog the deaf thau atnoug thi> hearing, Martineua'a 
words nrc proring therasclves true : •■ Ho best perfonns 
life's littln dntieK wha'te mind is tilled nitb high thoughts.*' 

A great toneher, to wham hundroilH of men and woiuon 
doing good, lion«8t work in the world to-day owe nil that 
iBbestiu their Htos aud their characters — Thomas David- 
son — died hero in America not lung since. "Mr. David- 
son at the time of hun death," says the fjondon Spectator^ 
" was nudonbtedljr one of the twelve most k-aruvd men 
living ou this planet." For two years before his death Mr. 
Davidson taught, without material rewitrd, a class of Kns- 
siiin Hebrews from New York's Easl-rtidu. Hiit charac- 
terisUo reply when advised to popolarize his teaching by 
tlie ose ofhumoroQS anecdotes and the etereopticou was: 
"1 Khuuhl fail utterly asaiuastcrof amusRiuuiits. I shall 
drill theHu boya and girls iu the written ano of the Riiglish 
languuge. At tho riame time 1 shall teach them the high- 
est trnthK I know in the simplest terms I can find." Tbo 
resultn justititfd his trtithod. 

There exists in the world to-day no more ablo, faithful 
and honorable body of profi»)»iounl worker:! than that 
madi^ np iif luftchiMK uf the; dtuif. Its meniUers are, as a 
rule, Indies and gciitleuieu. They giw to the children 
audLT their charge thoir love, luire, strength, and tlie in- 


Tht fhttf'in liunineJiH. 


flneucti «f fiuo ptTnonnl clinractcr. Ono other ^ift rftmiiiriH 
of wbioU our c^liihirfit HtHiid in iiisv\\. So great in this gift 
lliftt uo one word will cover its meaDing. We mfty call it 
CQltnrc or nppn-ciftfion or insight, and, still, wo feel we 
have ooi propurl^' dvtiiifd it. Miitthuw Aruold'H dcfinitioD 
nlritmlj: qnotcd — "au npprcuiittiun of tbu be»t tliiit Iiah 
\ivi»n (loue nud snid Ju the world," is probnbl/ the moat 
Ratisfactorr one tlint can \wi fnTtod. 

UtiloHH we are L-uutitiutillr takiug in nevr tlioiight onr- 
KelTHg, we cannot giTo culture to oar children. Whatever 
toncbes our highest inner life should enrirb aud (|uickeu 
tbeim. It is the chief cliarm of Inngnage teHclting that 
tlm teacherV widest iotellectaal iiiterestti maj be turned 
to practical nceoont in bis clntisroou] work. Our God-set 
tank, therefore, is to " drill these deaf bo^i^ aud girU iu 
the writt«D use nf tlio ICnglish Inngnngo and, at tlie satno 
tinM, to tcnoh litem the truths we know in the 
nnptiwt temiK we can Hud." 


TitF:iiK ia nothing iu Miix world that L-uKnttvs tbo (tttco- 
tiou of its ppoplu HO uiiicb <b( buKine(*.s. Everything de- 
pi'oda oil it — the ut;coc%8urieB as well as Ibe luxuries of 

Those who arc the mout siu^coitiru] aru thoso wim havu 
the braius uml apociul tituoas for the particular work they 
are imgaged id. As there is uo elfacl without a cause, we 
trace the canse to uilncntiou. We bavu uu record io abow 
that au iincducattMl deaf pvrsou has ever risen to a higher 
Jado of Dsefnlness than that of menial eniploymeut, and 
even iinw I have in miuil nun nr two itistanrtw who are 
no more thau living aud bri^uthiug tipuciruenx of humanity, 
vitb DU mure object iu life than a pet cat. 


Tkf. Deaf in Huainasf. 

Itnt tlinnktt to our kcIiooIs for tlie deaf, itucli in«tauc«8 
MFQ rnre, ami tUo proportion of denf pnnpl« engfiged in 
ImHiDeRH pnnmiitK is BlK>nt tli(> same ns of thniie wlio nin 
lu'iir mill H|u>Ak. Tills may appear to iiiuny » ])ruLU' lM>ld 
■tntuKieiiL to make, wlioii it is eousiiU'tLHl Imw UifliciiU it 
is for a d«iif-iunt(i to nR(]uiro mi odncnlioo, Imt thoeo who 
linve fnllnwod llio s(>lionl papers cliKitsly v;\\\, T Ante xiiy, 
Kf^FRti tliut luy Ktnteiueut is not tuo fiirstretvlied. Hardly* 
a. month goes by that ilotns like the followiug do uot ftod 
their wnr into our scliool pnpors: 

" Mr. Alvn .Tofford9, a gradunto of the tlliuois fnstitti- 
tioii, is «dititij^ th« S'tiiffatjinu Cituniy Jiteonf, a paper 
published nt IlliopoHs, III." 

" Fred H'«tiu«yer. of St. Louis, rutiaiDg a tailor «stab- 
liahineot on his onii hook, siiytt that his biisioess is exml- 
l«ut, nnd that he has had to employ extra help to iue«t 
ortU'ni on lime." 

" III every cou^iderable cttj oo the conttoeat may tie 
found iu ntw a gTC*t vnrioty of priiitiDg nod other presseftl 
boarit^ the Dauu of I. Bavhrach. Few are aware that 
lie rucniTwl his elementary eduoittion in the school for 
the deaf at l*ragii<>. He has takoo oat Dumtroiis pateots 
on his DiimurouH iurvutions and receiretl a do2u*o or more 
dcrorntinnA, diplomat, and mmlals. Herr Bacbrac-h ea- 
labltshi>) II lar^ iiianufai'lury at Viouua." 

"I>angla« Ttlilpn has been commisiqnDert by the Uotld 
of Aita aod CraftA uf Saa Franciaco to carry oat tho plana j 
of llii» iKxly in reariug a memorial foaolaio ia memory of | 
RoboTt LonuSteTprson, the aorelist" 

" 31r. Schronlcir, a gradoat<*of the Mioneiwta School for 
Ibe Doaf, baa inrentcd a sasb banger thai baa mat 
with much txtttt aiDoeg tba tradft. H« masuhotvraa the 
hugen himanlf iu St. Paul and sells direr! to daalas or 
iBdividnaht. Mr. Srhroedar. afbir gnkdnatang frmn the 
MiviMBoU School, took a apecial bosiDeaa course in St- 
John's Varninaty Bear St Ooad. MinDeaota." 

2%« Deaf in liitsinegg. 


" Heni7 C. White, of Boston, Ims 'cmujulofl a book on 
law points coveriug New Euglaml anrl New York. Tlie 
first thoasAod edition of the book was 80I1I within it 
month anti a R«con<I edition is beiiiR gohl." 

"Tlie ^irnprietor of n, litrgn book-binding nstiiblishmout 
iu Fbiladolphiu ftuytt that he hR» employed at diflferent 
tiioett aigbt deaf workmen. He hiva fuiiiid tli(*iii iadiiHtri- 
ous, capable, and in erory wny as sntinfactorj' us the 
Mverngo hearing nian." 

'*Tbe Tauha(ummen-C<inrUr (if lliirrh I, 1890, con* 
taiDB a portrnil aud brief likotuh uf Johu Pauher, » denf- 
tnate of Uhlcnhorst, near Hninbitrf;, Germany, who, by 
his nbihty and indnstry, han riseQ fi-om a hiimblo appron> 
tiee to be the head of a Iari;e lithiM^raphin^ eBtnblishmeDt 
Cuuuded by lihufitilf, au<l has roooivtid thu dititiuction of 
feeing nppointe<l imperial Cotn77iis9w»9rfitA. The twenty- 
fifth nQniversAry' of his entcrin({ into bnsinegs was cele- 
brated with great feHtirities on the 10th and 11th of Jan- 
ury laut, many persons prominent in commerctol and 
politicAl life being present. The Courier says that in all 
bi8 prosperity Mr. Pachor has never withdrawn liiiiiHolf 
from sympathy with his deaf hrethreu, ttiit is always ruady 
to leud n helping hand to any of theiii who are iu need." 

HolK-ri H. Ciraut wait ftncli 11 xkilful worker in wood 
Liiat Hoiuo time before his ileatii lie was foreman of tliu 
Sbervroo«l Mauufnctiiriug Cotupany, at Liviugstoii Hatior, 
New York, with fifty }ii>nda under him. 

Mr. W. W. ISnadoll, wlio grjtiliiatwd from liallandet 
College iu '95, i» editing Iho Middtebury, Veniiont, 

Gerald McCarthy. '87. of the aame Collepe, was for 
yearn Statu Botanist and EtitoinologiKt for North Caro- 

Miss KIHe C. Iliiiitington is a photographer and re- 
toncfaer of great skill. 

Aloe Belcke ia foreman of a plating factory. 


Tht Dtafln Stteinctt. 

Tlio new THriPlT ' of rod cnrrant, now known »s tlie 
"Fny ProUfin " was Drtginatml by a New York dt^af-mute 
namixl Lincoln Fhv, nu<1 front it be r«uliitml ^40,000 in 
roTultT tw>fon< lie died. H«> wiih au expert grape and 
fruit cullnrint. 

Mr. J. P. Arnot, ii grailniLte of tbe Indiana TiiNtitntiou, 
hiiH botin awnnluil n medal for bis exoellent ini-enliou of 
a cnrpft fasU'uer. 

Albeit New^nm, of Pliiliu!i>lphm,ii ^ood mnny years ago 
was faiuniis for liitiHlitll iu Iilbo^a|i|i_v. 

Mm» Sarab T. AcIkidk, a graduate of tbe Bochestor 
Bobool. at lh(> tiuio of her deatb was art teacher in a 
proRiiut^ot »cbool (or hearing ronng Indies in Connectioat. 

Mr. H- P. AruM won tbe distinction of prodactng the 
be«S drawing of a dcsifzo for the Ontennial AssoeiatioD 
\ifXt«t bead. 

Mr. It. V. Wnll iiiit Kn«i^ei«(nl bttmiMfla nmuaDd maun- 
(adurer iu l'bilA«l«lpbia. PiL 

Frf<i) Stover. o( Boston. Mnssaohitaetts, is a eoBtnotor 
and builder who«e work i» alwHVs io dcaiand. 

Frvtm Janctf K. (laIlah«T'e book, " Represeaiati-n- Deaf 
PenMHu^" wfffiud Alfn**! J. Lamoreaas, ContnuH>ir: Albeit 
P. Adatna, CataKifg;urr in Ibe Xati\mal Msaena Librarr; 
GyTM Ch«Bbera« Clerk in Jttdg« AdTooate tianei^'a 
OttM. VaaUtigtaB. D. C; H. U Le P«Tr«. Omk tu 
Tnitn! States Trra»atT, W«sbii]«;ti». D. C : Marshall O. 
Aofaecta. Cl«rk in PrssKM Ofin, Waslii^ibm. D. C; 
Alhvd L. Keot FowBaa of PHstiee OOc*. SL JL^mtiat, 
Fla.: OondiM Boric Jr^ Focvmas of Piinti^ OSee, 
Qm9. m.; CkwpMMi L. B»cIm<i, Poet OOoe CSe«fc,Cfai- 
IlL; Fndk P. iJSbatm, Sxntary-TnMBv of 
CMngo Ommp Oowpaay; Barry R. Hart ^--i— ~* 
OmlKt MaA. Han &«a^ CIm^d, m.; Cknww ^ 
ItwJT. Artii*. Cbe««. DL: Xaw» L Smhm, Oaifc ta 
X«Mr CMer DapufeMM. Pad OSea. Cld(^(aw IB.; 
I«A«^ HAAvkaa^ Intracfcr ia : 


7^ D&^ in Bimnes». 


[.Jtidmnnpolis, Ind.; Chits. K. Sleinweinler, Chief Clerk in 
! Abstract Office, tudiauapolis, Ind.; Goorge H. ^Ileo, 
Ktlitorinl Staff, Sioux City '/'ribuHc, Sioux City. U.\ 
FntoV B. Btinps. Inanranco Policy Writer, Tipton, la.; 
Miitthew McCook, Publisher. Dubii<[ne, Iti. ; Lester W. 
Pound, Foreman ot Shoe Shop, Council BltUftt, I«. ; B. F. 
RonuJ, Ku'litor and Publjahur, Akron. la.; Zacbariub B. 
Tlioinpt^ou, Fureuiiiu of Printing Otticc, Council BluQa, 
la.; Elliott S. WuriutJ;, Priuttir, OrinDell, lu. ; Joseph H. 
CartwriRbt. t'orem»o of Harness ami Slioo Uepartmente, 
School for the Deaf, Oltitlie, Kan.; Alvis L, Hurt, Arso- 
ciale t^litor. Tribune, Knn.; EtobiTl H. King, luKurauco 
Agunt, Lexington, Ky. ; J. W. Ovcrslreet, Dealer in Mer- 
chaoilise, Liltlo Hicliiuiii). Ky. ; Archibald Siiles, Con- 
tractor iiud Builder, I3iitiU'town. Ky. ; Harry U. Hetison, 
Foretnan of Printing <)ftic«. Frudnriclc City, Aid.; John 
T. Tilliugli.tMt, R««l Estate tmd tnauranco Agent, New 
Bwlfonl, Mhss. ; Charles W. Ttiiitnitli. Ocsigner, Xew- 
buryport, lliii«a. ; F. H. Flint, Editor and I'nblishei-, 
AagTuttn, Mich.; CbnrleH A. Giimaer, Ty[M;«L'ttiug 3I»- 
chin« C)]>erator, Orand Ka|)id«, Mich.; Albeit G.Kent, 
TniTi>1ingSale8Dinu of Wiscuuxtu Cbair Company, Grand 
Baplds, Mich.; J. B. A. Beuoit, Bicyclu Maiinfauturer 
.•nd Dealer in Bi<iycle Sundries, Bkukuh, Minn.; Cadwal- 
'ladar L. Waslibuiu, Artist, Minneapolis, Minn.; Al- 
bert AV. Bruuson, Editor and Publisher, Heidelberg, 
Miss.; If. C. Lcnice, Mannfacturer and Dealer in Boota 
and .Shoes, HapniUal, Mu. ; Misx Daisy M. Way, Book- 
keupcr, KaiiBfla City, Mo. ; Harry E. Stevens, Architect, 
M«r«IiBiitvill«,N. J.; Jarqnes Alexander, Artist, New York 
City: Albert A. Barnes, Clerk in Money Onler D«parl- 
nont, Poat Offipo, N»w York City; Samuel Fraukenbeim, 
Foreman of Photograph Gstabliahment, Now York City; 
Jnbn G. Snxlou, Artist, Troy, N. Y.: Frank B.Gray, 
Maker of Opti<>al nod Svientido Instruments, Allu^ 
gbcDj, Fa. ; .TAmcs H. liOgnn, Microscopiat, Allcghuuy; 


7'Ae Dsaf in Btuutezs. 

W. E. niuUey, Mecluinical Enyiueer, Jamestown, R. I. ; 
It. W. Briiucli, I>e]iiitv tii>giHt«r of Deodtt, Xaabvillo, 
Tenn.; Tliumaa S. Marr, Jr., Arcbitect, Xaahrille, Tenti. ; 
Xt, Artliur I'almor, llusiuoss Mao, St. T^ais, Mo. ; 
Jo« G. Brj*dloy, Printer, HilUboro, Tox.; E. Ugnrt*. City 
.&rnrkt>t Mnstor, Laredo, Tex.; Wiliinm H. Howard, Eq- 
graver, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Henry B. Plunkett, Clerk, Pabst 
Itrrwing Co., Miluaaktie, Wii>. ; Cbarles Keed. Postmaster,, 
M.oua6liH, Wis. Bcsi<.l«s tbero ur« a good mauy uaoiee of 
|m)miucut iloaf pvi-oous UoIJing positious as teacbora ia 
iutttttutiaus [or the deaf and sereral dergrtnen and an- 

I( all (be itera» like these vera collected, priat'ed and 
iKtnml, tbey wimld mitkc up a bufja book. What a start- 
linfc amy of facte it mould preseut Id support of tfae tbIi 
of th« cducatiou of tbe deaf. It would show afawMl < 
rariety of etuploymput that the hoarittg an engaged in, 
from bookbUcka to doctora aud lawycrL 

Many of tbe principals aud soperiiitoDdeota of oar 
vebools for tbe deaf are ^MOtaliats on deaf-aiitte edaca- 
tirttt, and have given Tears of stody tothts particalar class 
of pvople. They beiiere in L<ducaUnn in its broadi 
neaj w; tb*y aecorv th«> Iwst t«acb«r» obtainable. tb» 
apfMiraiQs and aids lor dOTeioping Uw wiad* and for 
tntiuvg the hands ol tbe pnpak. Tbej do bxI ilap ban ; 
ttMiy po futbcr aad get ■sir aad »oda«a b wibB a ga < 
<w byytiMiic prinoipiea '. Ibair iBdwtrial departaeets 
ven^tatch- mod fci a i i u w ^j » ^ iii | niiiil, m UmH ib» 
«m yw > < 'WiT iifyui<wiity pnwflda to laara the ivdi- 

SneeboMdaoltraalaea am libacal U An^wre not 
m «« ab«da bava m ae ^ o r Eke Do^bn TBAm ; a*^ 

cbwrnm tike Dooebcm; bo 

«ftd Smoot; do U w y a w Hbe Orad; 

^aikMMi 1^ KK and 

n» La 


The Deaf in Buginew. 


Hotcfakiss; Doprendiem like Sjlc niict Mann; no archi- 
tect likt> Hanson ; no tiuuudor likt' Howanl ; no business 
men like Pncli, Meiukeu anil RegensVxirg, and ao ou 
tlirongii Ru endless list. The nbore n-ill snttice to hIiow to 
mrhnt ]i4M('litH the <l(>nf linv*^ soim'il and what in poHttible 
for otbunt wbo foUuw in tlifir footsteps. 

Often, however, we And bonrds of direction too parsi- 
monions. Every appeal of thw priiicipnl or snporiiiten- 
dent is ignored, frownvd down on, or HCoflTud at. Of 
coant^, th«sc1ioul in crippled, ilie pupils muMtsufler, and 
the opportunities for aoqniriiig au oduoatiou and n trade 
are reduced. These nr« some of tlic ciLiii^es wbivh affect 
tbo Mfter life of n ^ood lunny deiif peoph). 

The " LoBgue of Elect Surds." in New York Ciljp, is 
qaite remnrkablo for the b);^h enlliugs of its riioniliers. 
Out of something like twenty-six names ou its list there 
are two teiiehem of known ability ; one ettitor of a news- 
paper ; ou4> foromnu iti u printing otitoe ; unu publisher 
of a paper ; two owners of printing offices ; tliree lunnn- 
(actnrers ; one superinteodent in a Inrge pliotograpli 
••tablUhinent ; one owner of a wood-engmving establish- 
ment ; one saleeman in a large dry-j^oods bonse ; one 
dry-gooda merchant; one painter; ouo expert wood 
worker; one illustrator and photo-ongravor ; two book- 
hindors ; one tiiglit walcbtnan, etc. Probably nowhere 
iAuk is the deaf man in business stadied to better ad\ati- 
ta((e. Nearly all arc married, have Uttppy homes and 
growioi; children. Socially they are tigreouble, they are 
quick at ropartee, and oujoy wit aud htiuior with us much 
keeuuvHH a» the beet of heariu^ piM)ple. 

Not Ion)! (tijo I had the pleasure of meeting the deuf 
nonlptor, Hip[><dit« Montellio, who, on the strtjUj^th of a 
reooiumoudntiou from thu disliuguisUud Ututhuhli, was 
6ii|;aKed by the directors of the Paa-Americnu GxpositioD 
almost liH »t>ori as lie had landed on onr shores. For his 
aervirf3H ho in paid nearly ttfty dollars a week. 


Tht Deaf in BiuineaA. 

Careful nbservatiou discloses (he fact that mnny of tliH 
(ariM|{it th'fif-iuut«K ubo cnnie to AnioricB are skilled 
BTtiMflita, ati(} have no tranlile iu Keonriiig reuiuuerative 
onaplovnieut. It will be remtituberetl that whau Mr. 
•Iac()Ui*H Loew came to tliis coiiutr^' from Vieoua, a good 
many yimrH ago. ho was mado ^nperintondeot of a Urge 
faolury with eight litiiidr(>4l mi'ii imder him, nnil yut be 
know vi<ry liltle o{ thu Kiif^litih hiu^uage. Au ao uvidbno« 
of hiH Kkill ill Ipiilhor and pkifili iiuvtltieg, bu shows with 
pride niimoroiiH modnls and testiiuooinls from oxpoititinn 
utilhorilioN ill both Kurt>|ie and Atuerica. 

I hiivii ill oiiiid a (ieriuun deaf-mute sboeoiaker. He 
OVDR hja shop iu Trenton, and he told me that iu his 
oountr^v ho had to eerve an nppri>tilic«»bip, at th« «Dd of 
which \w vras given a certitioate of merit and one hundred 
dollars to Mart out in the world with. Such aid wouM 
be desirable here. At a certaiu school io the East, a few 
yttucB ago, a pupil ahoncd such uttusiml pruoiiMt io china 
pAibtittg that bis toacber i^eourctl for him a position iu 
otK of the beat china decomtiiig establishments id the 
cttT. Uia work waa bigbljr satiaCactotT to his rmplover, 
b«l kia wage* wvre nece a g n rily »tnall at Ibo start, Uardlv 
•Doogb Io (MiY birt board. Bfiog uf poor patvnta and 
nkablc to oIoIIm binsaU on »vcb BMa^re p*?. be was 
cowpeUvd to girr np hta pboe^ wbtdi in « few jeuB 
voald bave jivUni bin » oatnfoftafale incDue. Had tbc 
•oltool bad a fnnd lor bdpMg daserrui; 4eai vosttg ibod 
tt* him, b« ««ttld mak fa* bri^ ban b«ad to aovtb as 

I4o»al kaow wbetber the ofifwrtaMtiiij in Eatojie an 
W»w ibsa i» tbaa LiiinaliT. h^ I do kMw tbat n ^^ksd 
tlnn> baa hw in aiMntrara aa na|4entscBl bwNBalor tbc 
daiit i it ii fc i a In «bM4 «w a kndiT far A* jmfom cf 

vaaahi*. kuaA I weafc. As aaan aa tki^ 

bt<a<Wf j(r.<ilar*ta.« pt«.M»a«f, » —» jWJIm I far ib^a. Hov 

th t W*HT 



The (TMoftht JUirropftanmjraph. 


1 (lo not believe* thul rnL-llioda — couibiiiud or omi — 

have miicb to do witli a deaf uird'i^ ftucce^n iu liut^iiieRa. 

80 loug as he is skilled workmnu, nnUer, and noiuiciun- 

UoaH. he will nlwnjs bitvo plenty of work. Tliut is the 

oiiIt ()Uitlificiition ncciiAftnry. 

Whutber tbo denf succeed or fftil iu their battle for 

bread, depends, iu a great oiensure, 011 tbe ndvaDtnges 

offered bjr tbe scbools from vrbicb tboy emnniitp. 

fnttruetvr in Printing in th« X*t* J«r$^ HcAaol, 

Trenton, Seie ^ermy. 


IS. — The Measctiemust op Hbaiukg. 

I. The imp&rtiZtiM of thi» probltm. 3. Is the m,icropf><^- 
nograph an audiometer t 

I. Thetntatureynent of hearing. The importance of this 
ptabUvu — We sball touch here upon auother aide of tbe 
Terjr complex probloui of iiuricuUii' iostructiou. 

With what papila will this teaching give really useful 
nanlta? Agaiu, what is tbe leunt niaouat of heariDg 
Bceessmry lo ^ve the child a sufiicieiit aural acquaintance 
with language for him to undorslaiid Kpuccb un easily as 
he cao ruuil it upou tliu Iip8? For, in pasaiug, let as 
say that u-t^couBider that the oultivHttOD of beniiug ought 
not to have n wore reslncted aim. 

The vague bearing of a few wordH or pbranes, recog- 
nized after ianntnerable repetitious, dous uot deserve the 
hd}oriou» efforts which so poor ao acquisitioo iurniiably 



'J'ftt Vte oj'tftc MicTiiphuno^r-iph. 

ThU qiuiHtion of the detortninatioii o( the starling point 
In tli» iiiliiiitely VAried ca8«s of iLiiricuIur itistruution in of 
groat iDlportnuco. Its solution should hnx'e the resolt of 
H|>iiriiiK ourtRii) LiMicliora Httetnpl» wliicli mui^t prove uu- 
fiuitlul boL'uuhv ut thtj iusuffiyieut lieoriug power of tlio 
Htibjeot ; it woulil sive to otberft tho u«co«8ftry coDtidenca 
— biuti'il upon clrtiirly (Uitiued obaon'ntioiis — to nadertake, 
In ciMi-M nt pritHotit doubtfal, oxercises destined to bo 
uniwDitl wHIi nucoLtis ; it would )Hit nu eml, finally, to tlia 
omin iu natimatiiig tlie henriog i>ower wbicb, iu arous- 
liiK uubuuiiibHl liiipiw, hiivo up to thiit tiiuf, by n vory unt- 
anil rvNctiou, tluuc i:«)nMidt>rablu biiru) lo the ever-reuur- 
ring quwHtiou of tbu oultivatiou of beariae iu deaf-mutee. 

Wn nolire, for instance, in a pnblicatiou* otht-rwtKc 
vury iuU'nwtiu^, uud coiutu^ from a man kuumi fur bu 
wriUuf:* on tbiH »ubjoct. tbe cnse of » atmpUUly iltaf 
cbiM who sQccoodMl abs«>lutety aft«r two aud a-hall 
mouthH' fxerc-tant with lht« Toice aloD« (ten minutcts a day) 
m diMiuguishiutj tbcvowbi a, e, i,o, uv, aa abio tbe couao- 
oaul*. ^. *. <»,/, V, «. r, A 

In tb« SKM* work thct* !• MtoUwrofaetrrmtioocoDoeni* 
tan * ii«if-KVI«i ilatmltj^ deal boa birtli) who. in almai* 
tb« aan« Iob)^1i of titoe, became abl», ihanka lo exorctaea 
ooatuwn) «v«rj Uajr i\>e iwuty ouBntiM, to canr ou «ugr 
e(WT«nalioBft liknM|^ tbe ear. 

INpMiMfes albctod bv A«W WiM^riMM Uvo^ to the pool 
at Wwi^ «|w«ckr We tkoi^ 1^1 amtk wut»de» be- 

iMgwt to otlMr tuM» afavn^y '" 

OmI libvT ntt Mt rtimm ma m 

tM (» tki» W«i. wUefc nil ■Hghlia tke lulk ol tbe 


Thf. Uwoftkc J^irtt/phnnotjraph. 


to tl)i» iuMlructiou. Ami lliie uspIuiuB oertaiu wooderfat 
reftdlts, AS ulso tlie loug bileuces wliicli iitvtiri«bl}- (otluw 
nncli L'ases. 

Ill renlttv we lack an iDhtrmnrnt of meiisure wbicli 
would CDiiblt- a» to deluiuiiuo usiictly tlio tituoiuit of beu'- 
log iu tliu subjects under experiment. 

2. J» the uiienrp/wnoffrapA an audimnetcr ? — The inicro- 
phonograpl), as we know, has been propnsod to supply- 
tbiti Hurions ueed.* It wkm thoiiglit to fiitil in tliift iu^tru* 
uieol ttio perfect autHouietKr, mo ua^erl^v desired \>y the 
tmcUura of ibe deaf. Were we at bist n.bant to nee a 
little exactDesa and scientific honexty penetrate into tliis 
domain of tbecultiTfiliou of tliebenring, too (r«queutly agi> 
taled bv ciuutnir}' opiniunn uud reeiprocal accusatioDs of 
aliarlatauism or iguonince? 

Tou must uot expect that, after au alreaily long diHcna- 
sion, 1 sball trent here of the davelopinenlH which the 
qtwsUon of the tueaHure of hearing allows. It will Bufiico 
to aaj that a truly mathematical audiometer ought to fur- 
oish elemonle of determiuation iudopendoiit of the idea of 
titne and place. Thus it is that the meter haa the Ksme 
taIoo id PariH as in Vienna, for instance, aud that this 
anil of measure represented ten veare ago, as it dooB 
to-day, the wull-doftned distuiico which each oao of u» 

Thti microphoaograph unfortiiuatelj doee not have a 
iiait of measure of inteaaity which would enable us to 
DOmpare (iu regard to the rt-lative amount of hearing of 
tbe aabjetitn expurimeutud on) the ub»urvatious uiade or 
to ba made, aud which, in addition, would give us a meaoa 
of judging exactly the progress aouompUsbed iu the actual 

■ "TIm appiinttta mcunrc* il««fB*M."— Dr. Labatde fa TrfMine VMt- 
vb. Dvcainber 3U, 1896. 

"Tlw niaiopbonoKnipli tonat. at tlii Mtuo tim*. » moH miMitiva 
M4loiuelet."-JtraAity, Da«amlMr »&, IHyT. 


Tin Om of the MtcropftotiiMfrajfh. 

TliH nniiiKlK ri^intitnrtl upon Hit) wax, Iming origiimlly of 
(III uru/di-.runuetl intrunity, uiinuot liti uiciiHiirL'tl niix^r tin; 
lamlilU'utidU linit buoii ruceivotl. Thus the A wliicli I 
iniitirtlrn ii|kiii llie t-jliiwler wDiild Imvo, in repetition, a 
(lifTitrmit inluiiMiljr from lli»t vrlilcli would result from the 
ro^intiM-iuK nf tlit> Kiinin vowel made hy nnotber instructor, 
uiid r(i|ir<iduRfld Ity iiu txjiinl iiiiaiitity of electrical current. 
It \* hi'foi'u tlio ro^iHtry lliiit we onglit to measure tlie 
(itiuiiil, wlioHii iutuuMitv viiries uecosaarilv in diflereiit 

Ill till) Ini'k of u ineiisiireit gfl*tntl, does tlie microplinun- 
|{ra|ili (uniiitli ur, for our o«n penioual eitperimeulu, witb 
HttuudH of Vtjijte<t in^«iimVyw>iick could serve ub as amoaDS 
of I'Oli) puriHOii ? Not at all, for the successive repetitions 
ninde li)' tlu^ NHliie rev;i^tv<' ^ro often given with very uu- 
(><)unI iiUeiDiity.* We i»hnll couie buck to thiti question 
\«,V^x ou. 

S^iiuf (oHohen baT« brought forward (from the point oi 
vitfW of tliv maMmr« of hvariug) the possibility that tlie 
ttuon^l^iouuftraph miglit iDtrodace into the olass. without 
\>lwtaolt.<«sd)flei^ul iiit)»icAl instruments and noi&es of every 
kiud witioh it i» mvtrv or Ivee <i!«»T to ioflvribe npon th« 
ryltuttvr. ^Ye thiut that tlii» would be of no practical 
beat^ In a word, w« are of on« accord in bvlieviogtliat 
|vu)>ilK inv-wjMblv of tMCvHvtS)^ a lood toko will nwet de- 
itw any rval |!trttfit (rooi Mttwahtr ittfltiraclMO. Of «hak 
«w> tft it to tiT la ■M«Atttw a Ja jtrce o( hcAria^ which tna»4 
rMwuift wmIiw ? Tb* «ttMi|ik wooU b« Tsia, 
oTar. »i»c« in onW la ■ J xt a eaa^wskiTe 
■I wwild W Afcvown to MPiMww f . al Iko oaiflf*. tbe 

■ b 

•I *ttm^m^ 

The Uteofthe jUicrophmio^aph, 


»iiy of tlie sonnds which one wiRhes to register ou Lhe wax. 
Au inip{>!thiblt> thio^, ua we kuow. 

WithJu th« limito of the humau voice, it is possible (or 
at to obtnin niarlcpdiliffercDcosof intoDsity.eitbcr through 
the TuriMtioD of thn forvo nf eniltwion, or from our iiear- 
Dt^BH to, or clitttnDce from, llie ear u( the Kubjevt. These 
ineaDfi furnish ub, it i& trae, only iQAdeqiiate resnlts. Un- 
fortuoAt«]y the reenllB froiii the microphooograpb are no 
inorfi cxfict. 


•nit. MicuopKOKoauArii, oh Tim PiioNooiuni, in Ac- 
RlCCUil Teacuisq. 

Viti hnvu hitborto coDfiiderml the microphonogrttpltotily 
in the triple pHrt which has been atixigned to it, URineljr : 
lit, curing (lenfuo&B, or at leiiat conaideraUy increasing 
the pover of /ifarintj ; 2(1, teaching atticulatio» to deaf- 
niuti^ throngh lhe nur ; 3(1, nerving an an in»(r»niient of 
mtasuremerit for eKtitnatiiig keenaesnut lieanng. 

Via bare uot been able to uphold the opinion uf the 
inveDlurs of tbti wittrophouograph on those ilifforent poiuts, 
Bor to 8b«ro their hope contjemiDg the use of this instrn- 

It te neceeaary to conc^lnde, therefore, that there ia no 
Dite for tlie uiicropbouograph in our schools? 8ucli is 
nut oar opJDion. Hnt wo think that the desire has boon 
to give it too great an importance. A very uatural ^^rror, 
aft«r all, and one which comes from the earnest wish that 
the instriimcut way be of use oud profit to oar pupila. 

In our opinioQ, the micro pbonogr»ph (or tbo phono- 
graph) will tiud its field iu thu roatriotud but uot uuiuipor- 
t*at domain of auricular instruction. 

Wo kuow that acoustic exerci&ea /hflvr step by step 
the teaching nt nrtlcnlntiun given by touch and by »ight. 
Ertm ou thia ground we givo the first plnoo tu the uutnrui 


Th* Ub9 of tki Micropkow>graph. 

voice, which u more clear and intelligibla than the Honti 
of the micropLouugrapfa. Speech as it comes Trom 
mouth of the teacher — is oot that what w« propoite that 
the ear shall hear ? Devices for repeatinf* foruiiih an 
imitation of Ihin natural pheoomenon, which npparoully 
will be brought uearer and nearer to the origiDol, hat 
uhicli will never snqiass it, at least in reapeot to utear- 
uesK of proDuricialiou. 

The "natouiatic talker" will reproduce a great numbe^f 
of times the words and phranea ori^nully taught by 
meauK of the voice aloue. Without fatigue (or tho 
toachur, it will mitko tho auditory images precise and 
stroDgthou them by this rep«titton. ^| 

ItisJQMt to aild, fiuHlly : la:. That the micropbobo- 
grnpb land alao the phouograjdi and certain acoimtic oar- 
tubes) gives the possibility of addre<s«iDg two ears simul- 
ti^ueously, and couuoqaoutly of cultivating, if ueetlfu], 
the hoariDg of both at a time. 

Sd. That the apparntus, however Uttlo tho quality of 
its repetitious can be improved, offers the adrautage of 
making known to oar pupils tho iodividual differenceaof 
timbre of whiuh the huuinn voice ib cnmpOKcd. 

ThoHO very eDcouragiug reealla shouUl bring to the 
akilful inventors of the iuicrophouo[;rap)i the Biucurs 
praise and warm thanks uf every person who is iutareated 
in our work of teaching. 

Wo wi>iild also esprusB to Dr. Laborde our deep appru- 
oiatiou of his indefatigable zeal and learning, always at 
our service, or, I should say, the service of our pupilg. 

There is no doubt that the co-opemtloa of so much good 
will and such persuveriug efforts contributu to the prog- 
gress of our uielh<H)ti. .\ IJrat st«p might be taken, iu 
this way, on the day when the microphouograph wonld 
unablv a ct^rtaiii number of onr pnpiln to hear the sound 
of their own voicHS with suiticieut clearuuss at f/io very 
ivuiaat when it was inscribed upon the cylinder. 


Thi I'm of the Microphonotfraph. 


VI.— The defbots ok tbb &[icHopuoKoun\i-H from tuj: 


As far HA wo know tbn iuAnimoul, it s«i«ms to us to 
falbl] Dulv itn|)erfeotlj- tlio Deeds of the present metboda 
iu lurgo ftctioolm for the deaf. 

In tiie Krat plac<i, tlie TnaDtigeiuont of it ittquitu delicate. 
The i|militv »ud this iutcnuit^' of the souud rejiroducud 
depeud upou the exact position of the peLcil iu the 
groove At the time of registering, and one cannot obtalu 
a good renalt in thin rnHpoot except bj snaceHtiive attempts 
uid hr n'peatod nnd troubloHOuo turniugs of the Kcrew. 
Tbi» preliuiiuary upmatiun is soiuutiuiea very uuuo^iug. 
The loss of tiioe wluch results from it would uot be con- 
sidcralilt* if the pencil could be kept in the same pince 
nntil tlie end of theuxut'L-iseH. ['ufortuiiatuly Ibo uecei^Kity 
of readjiutiag it oft«u ououni iu the cuurae of the name 
retain t«<riug, and it is, of coursa, also uecessary at each 
change of cyliiiderH. 

Couaider moreorer : 

1. The thouKHud precantioiis which must be token in 
mauapu^ tbo rullors. 

2. The little ttccideiits of mnchioery which may, at any 
uinate, hinder the working of the appanitus. 

3. The difficully iu obtuiiiiug good intiuriptioas. 

1. The iiuputi)iibility for Llit' instructor to go back 
promptly and precisely to such parts of a word or phrase 
W have uot Wen well learned b^' the child, and t)io 
nttorauce of wbieh uhould be accented, prolonged, varied, 
or repeated in maor ways. 

6. Tbe Deccssity of having many registers in order 
iLut the pupil may nut learn I>y heart the word» and 
pbruHvii iuftcribed on tbe wax. 

6. Tbe great expense which is entailed by the repairs 


The Uttofthe Microphonograph. 

of the DiachiDe, tbe piii'cbase and repUoing of the cylio- 
der.s »ik1 the care of tbe nccatunlnteil pnr1«. 

These are the principal criticiKiiiR whluh Hre to be 
made upon tlie eppiiriitiis, from the exolusire point of 
view of onr espGriuiouts with it. It ifbs uecessnrr to 
enuiiiornte thotn hero, id order for you to know exiietly 
unci fnlly the nutiirH of the iisb to whioli the microphono- 
graph (oi* tht) uiiuple pliouo^raph) could be put, ia tUa 
fturiculnr instruction of some of tho partiaUy deaf. 

Tilts modest plflco c<>rt(iitily is not that u-hich thoy had 
hoped tn 800 it hold in our suhooU, siucc they proposed 
" to niulortake iiud comjilete the education of deaf-mutes 
upon a new basis,''*^ and to eabstitnte for our methods, 
called oxporimoutal, a ucw method Bolidly based upoD 
tlio discoveries of acicnco within tho domiiiu of pliysiology 
atid physics. 

Mu^t we owu that wo are always searching in tbe uu- 
meroDs writing on this subject for theoretical opioioos 
or exporimuutul obttorvatioos of u kind to Hurvo as a bruis 
fc»r tho purfiicliii^ of our method ? 

Id Huricidar iiist motion, whethoi tbe voice alone, the 
iicnnatic par-tubes, or llie micro|thouognipli be nfic<l, the 
(•fTecls producml on the ear of tito deaf are nlwiLys nf thu 
■tauiu order. Su»;i:«sa iu tho ediirtition of the hearing 
depends at ouce on the degree of hearing possessed by 
the sabject under experiineot, and on the metliod more or 
less logical which In usetL 

The first of bhi;se two fuctoi-s is beyond our iufluonce. 
As to the method, that cousista at present more iu tbe 
choice aud gradntioD of the phonetic exercises practiced 
by the special instructors than iti the use of an instrn- 
ment for heariuK, whatever it may be. 


* " The edaeftUcm f«r dflftf-mat««l !■ sbaut to bo unitortokva kad «am- 
|il«leil ou ■ hew tiMis."— Dr. LaUurd*. iu Ttibnnt MMtealt, Janoar; 36, 

"le choice fij" /mpitt itiui the renuUs vhtahi&l wil/t tAe 
,!itierojrhonoyrajtA. — W(> have experimeuled with tlie luicro- 
pbonograph od u group of oiglit pupils, iuc^ludiiig some 
B«[ni-(lonf, some vcrj dodf, and some toliilly dotif or con- 
udore<1 ns kucIi. The Hrst liavo oii8tiy rocngnizod tlio 
ref(i8t«re<l wordK nnd phntReit. The ]>upils of the st^cond 
olaM (y^Ty d«af) have eucewdciJ, after long efforts, lu dis- 
tinfniisbirig 8omo words. With the denf of the lant cIasa, 
tbftro bare bc«u Almost no results. 

2. Cornpttrotuit txpfi-ivitnle v^ith (he ffficc alone. — 
Bimilar experiments bj means of the roicc atone od 5 
second gronp of pupUe, compi-isiog the muw olemeutn of 
htioriug as the first, bavo given r«f«tilts d<'L'idt-iIlvKupt>rior 
to those which were obtaiued by tho iiau of tliu iustrti- 

3. Developtnent of tfic kccnncHs of hearing. — Keenness 
of bearing in vBch pupil did not Htruiu to \w duvulnped 
lnjvoud the narrow limits which hnvtr uevor b«eu overcome 
iu the various cnses of anriciilar instrnction. 

4. Anatytimt rfercinti. — Oii acroiiut of tho defective 
repetition of the regibttTcd nonudts, it uim difVu'uU for on 
to pmctice on the apparatus niialytical esercJHes vouaist- 
iug of vowels, consonauttt, and svllables deprived of all 

5. Effect i-fihe mod{f\cution ofiound. — Siucu the micro- 
phonograph has a greater intensitj than it is possible to 
ot)tHiii hv the voire in speaking cfoso to the ear of the 
satiject, the <]Da1it;r' is verj uiuebanical, and it is ilifTicult 
to undenttaud the words and phrases reproduced. TIiik 
drawiMtck seems to increase in proimrtion as the iQt«nsity 
is raised. 

6. A/iiniigtinetU of ikf appanUnt. — Tlie management of 
the apparatus occasions a considerable toss o( time. On 


T%e Uwofthe Mhrophonoffraph. 

tho other bnnct, tbd aetaiU ii]«cbaTiism does not permit of 
revievriug, with prcci»iuu uml ru|>i<lity, tht- piirtis of a 
word or phrase wliicli have not beeo learued nt the first 

7. Claii9 teaching. — Tbo diflttroucoH wliicli exist among 
pDpils, both in I'eg&rd to hDariii^; aad kDowlcdgo of 
]ai]p;iiAge, greatly limit thu bonefitH which might attend 
the prnctice of class teaching. 

From the above it fnllows that: 

{a) Without tbo aid of i\\o methods actuallv employed 
already, the microphoiionraph would bo of no use in 
teaching articulation to ihts deaf. 

{h) It will not give n larger number of pupils the benefit 
nf Imring tlioir 1i«ariiig cullivntRil, hh it can be used onir 
with thdNu cliiKtrcn mIio already pntiti«;Mif a conHtdernbte 
amuuut of heariug. 

(e) Used alone, it would limit rather than widen the 
field of auricular in8trnctiait in rogard tn the quality or 
quantity of phonetic dilTureDtiatioiis whicli are propotied 
to be made. 

{d\ The microphouogrftpb may be used iu certain pasbk 
to repeat exercises in hearing, already made by the voice 
alone; but the latter ought alwayn to have the first place, 
and Bnpply, an far au pottsiblB, all now acquiaitious. 

Thoee coneluaions were unauimously adopted by the 


fiutrvdoT in tAt yatittnat FiuUtvUon, I'arit, Franem. 


In t«actiiD(; cbildrco tlio furidnmenlal riilus of aritbtuutic 
tkere ia uotbiog aa CKSftatiitl am thurougliDuHS. Tot tbe 
lack of tbis i» tbe bei^ettiug aiu of Aoierican ediiantionAl 
luctbodfi — lniLh lieariiig and Aeat. A good luiiny pupils 
UTti harrjitig niong to atlTanced ctini'ses in aritbniMbio 
wbeu lb«y sboiilil bo uiaateriDg tbu lowor uiium. Tbo 
writer once kuew of & college grudiiaLu wbo was unable 
to add « simple column of figures witbout reBorting to 
tbi.* labnriouH oprraticn of coiiDliiig, thns conHuming 
uiinaUiHof valnablu time, where ati ordinary Hcbonl-boy, 
properly trained, oii^ht not tu have required more Ibivu n 
few BecoodB. Yet tbia prndnale was well verst'd iu algebra, 
trigonoiuetrr, and the hipbHr hraiKrlifls of matlietimtics. 
Nor in tbiit an exceptional case. A cunsfiil inquiry will 
show Ibere me bundrudx of youug men nud wouiou wbo, 
wLeu euufroiited witb figures, bait and stumble in tliuir 
work simply beranse they were not given tbe proper drill 
in the eleuientary braiicbeH. Of voiinta, the fault can be 
remedied. But that Is ito ao&wer. It never Kbould have 
ot'ourred iu tbo 6r8t place, and could have been avoided 
bad tberi? lieon proper training and drill at tbe staH. 

Iu order to obviate all Kucb fanllH, and that tbn pnpiU 
ill the lii^h«r grades might bu tiuiu-Kavers an well nn ex- 
pert*!, tbe following method baa buuu pursued, fur the last 
six jmvrs, in teiLcbiug simple addition and subtrnclioD to 
bsgiuuerH, and witb miirked Huceetiii. 

The teacher is confronted with a tdauH of beginnerB. 
Whatever idea of aumbors eivcli or any of its members 
«ntertaiu nitiiit bo vagne and indofiDito. Tbe toacber 
muHt stand in tbe plaoa of tbe book to the <?hjldrcii, tak- 
iug tliora very alowly from one oitmber to tb« next, aud 
keeping ia mind the following priuciples : 

160 Addition and Stihtractionfor Be^in^ri. 

1. All knowledge of mimbers must rest ou actual ox- 
perieDce. Hence the necessity of object tencliing. 

2. Tlie iiHe of ol>ji>ctK luiist ont be cDntlniietl ttm lonf{. 
Tiie fuets in tli« immb«r S are discovered by the child 
thronglt hiiudling eight thiugs, sacb as books or pencils 
or HplinUi. bnt he innst nftcrwsrd lenrn to think of four 
twos, or two foiirw, or oue six and one two, or one five 
and oue three, without h»viug tlie ohject-t before him. 

On the t^ijiehor'a doak «ro ton books and a box ot apHots 
OT connteni. One book is taken and thrown down hy 
itKelf. Tlie leacbi^r |>i>iutB tn the (!onntots,intiiiiitting tlmt 
the children are to disooTer the number ot counters eqnir- 
nlciit to one book. The process is repeated with tvo 
books, requiring two coautotB ; throe books, throo coun- 
ters ; and so ou until the ten bonks hare been thrown 
down with ten eonoters beside them to represent the 
uuuiber. The children will make these discorerioe vrith 
keen delight. 

Kov comes the interesting part — uiisoellaneoiis exor- 
cises in counting. l>iffur(;ut tiiinibt>rn of book^ are thrown 
down iu sncncssion, and each luombur of the ch^A is called 
on iu turn to put down au equal number of couut«rft. 
After drilling in this luuuuer until pupils are tliorotit^hlv 
familiar with numbers, the usorciiio is vnried by seutling 
pupils to the large slates aud requiring them to draw 
straight lines — thus, | | | — to correspond to the num- 
ber of books or other objects shown them by tlie teacher. 
A good idea is to let the pupils iu turn piny tuiK-hur. The 
interest is thus kept up. 

The next step is to familiarize the children with the uso 
of figures. Tu do this begin at tlio b^giuuing. One book, 
one counter, one straight lino corrospouds to the figure 1. 
Two books, two counters, two atraight Hues to the Bgure 
3, and so on up to 10. Show three ohjcctn and ask the pu- 
pils to uxpresK the uuaibcr iu ligureg. Komc will write 8, 
others o, aud still othersa different figure. Care must bo 

Addition and Subtraction for Beginners. 16] 

t&kea to correct all crrora. PcraoToro in this oxomso. 
llcverKo lliu proctisa by wrltiug tigures ami askiug tlie chil- 
dreo to produce or show tlie uiimb«r of ailicleti euclj Sp^ird 
LBtauds for. 

" Prkctic« njiikoA perfect," TLorofore fefian; itBVIEvr, 
RE\TEW, uutil HatiHlltMl pupiU are nt liotue in the use of 

Addition is the next step, llegin by tescliiagthu com- 
plumvutnrj conlaiilM of each ouiubcr, tliiiB : Ouu buuk ia 
ptuced on tho tuiiclierV dusk with ouo couutur b«side ifc. 
Ritpri-dL'iit the book by tb« tiiiiuber 1 ou the le»cht^r'8 
slftie and the counter by a»iiiall di^it (1 ) to the right, tbiiK, 
1*. Call atteiitioD to ttie fuct that tberit im but uiiu conut«r 
nnd that thu »pnre ln-'hiw Ik VHc-iiiit. Immwliuteiy [ihice a 
cipher ur nuughl bulow the suiull liguru tu th« right, thus, 
1,V Teach ono atid naught is one. 

Neit two books are represented by the Urge Rgurn *i 
OD tlie Hlato. and the two eounterx bettide it by a Miiuilnr 
timaller tigure to the right thii», 2*. Poiot to th« spn^e on 
tli« table below the two counters and say " Nothing here." 

.Placu u cipher Iwucath the suinlt lignre 2 nn the slate 

Fttms, 2J. Tench two and naught are tw». 

Again call attention tu the two counters. Xow place 
one nf theiu iinuiediutely beneath tho olbor. Ileprcsent 
the Imokit lou the slat^;) by the lai^e figure two &h before, 
and the connteni by Htnaller tigiir»s to the right and we 
have '2[. Teach one and one are two. 

In this way the complomentary contents of all numbers 
opto ten are laiif^ht, witli this diflentuce-^tlie pnpila tliein- 
hItcs, Dot the teacher, are to diBCOver tbe oontenta. 

, After repeattMl trials and tribulations the following table 

■ ii forotod : 

1(>2 Addition and Suhtraclion for Begimtet'g. 






























lO's 10? 10s loj 10s 10s 

So far we have only fairly started. It is one thing to 
form a table and quite another to have it well in hand. 
Even as a person who has jnst learned the manual 
alphabet, when attempting to read the finger spelling of 
another, is contiDually saying, " go slow ; go slower," 
so it takes time and patience completely to master this 
table. The teacher should insist on rapid and accurate 
answers as to the sum of any two numbers up to ten. He 
wants no halting, doubting Thomases. The drill is per- 
formed as follows : 

The pupils, each with pencil and tablet in hand, face 
the teacher. He selects niue or ten of the numbers from 
the table at rnodom, writing them on his slate. To the 
right of each number he places smaller digits thus: 9^ 
4' 6» 8^ 2" 10* V 3' 5-\ The pupils are com- 
manded to copy these figures. When all have done so, 
he tells them they are to supply the missing lower figure 
or complement which added to its companion above wjU 
produce a sum equal to the large figure opposite, This 
operation is to be performed within a limited time. It is 
repeated by erasing the small digits and substituting 
others. By wa}- of variation theteacher asks and expects 
instant auswers to the following : ?i "i I ?; 1 \ ?S 
? J ? ?, and so on. 

This exercise is somewhat difficult for the pupils at 


Atf'litxon itnd Subtraction /'or Beyinntrt. 1(;3 

first, Aud Oiey will be oompell^J to refer to tlie tttlile or to 
fc'he book nud conntnr illuiitnitinii rcpeateJl}-. After tliey 
>)ur(-< "cnni'lil uu," fiirbul nurli ruturuuee. luaist od a 
'fcime limit nithiu which all aro expected to hare tlieir 
Kuiswers reatlv. Tliis is to prevent ronntirig od the 
finficcint. If pupilH stiiinhle, th»j iim Mct to work xtiulying 
4h« ttihlu. Tbia drill ih kept up from din- to Any until 
master}' of the table has been nttaiued. Aftor pupils 
liHTe beeu tiiught to add mentallr Hiiy combiuation of 
nnrabers op to 10, Hnch as 4 mid 3 Hiid 2 =i 1), 1 and 2 
and 7 = 10, and no uu, tlit> Kvroud part uf tlit* table in 
taken up. Tliis couaists of tli« uutab«r8 from 11-19. 
Tbv ptipil ix titught the com piemen ln.rv conteuts of ouch 
of tbf»)« iiniiibttra — the nppor right-hand coniplemeut 
begiiiDitig ill enoh cnfte with 10. Perhaps somo ono way 
uk: WI13- not begtti the iinutb^r U> thoK: 16>[;? The 
reaeou is ubviouK. Tho pupils iipy already famlMar with 
10 Hiid ite Rorabinatiotis. Thoroforo it would hv but 
threshing over old straw to say IB 'J. The CDmbinntions 
fZ and I,^ are well known to tbn c-hiidren, and a few prnc* 
lii*al ULuejtralioD>i would ooon mako it clear \o Ihtitu that 
16^; K^l; IS't] nnd so on, are the propor conibinatiotiB. 
However, they serve no practi(iitl pnr|>ose in the table. 
Furthermore, as this is a subtrat-tioD aa well as an addi- 
tion table, wc bthgin tUitu 11'° because 110 Ogtire iu the 
HobtrAhcnd ever exceeds 10, Tho table docs oot oxtend 
^berond the number 19 for the very good reason thai ao 
PBfinre in the luiuueud «\-er exceeds 1^). We now Lave 
the following tabic complete : 

1 (i4 Addition and Subtraction for Beginners. 
Addition and SuBTRAcnoN Table.* 








































12'!; 12; 12^ 121 12J 
VA'l is; 13S 13- 
14"; 14:-: 14;; i4i 

I5'S 15* 15? 

Hi';; w; lej 

17'1' 17" 
18'; 18S 


Tiipils aro now ready to begiu the addition of Bgares 
moutatly np to 10l>. Hasten slowly. Write a colnmD of 
four or fivt' tijjiirt's iiud call for au answer witbio a limited 
tiiiitv Krrors will Ih* uiiiuerous. Explain by means of 
the table liow the addition is performed. Snppose we 
hiive 8 S ■ 4 - .">. The jnipil knows iiistautly that 
S and S are Itl. Hut how is he to know that IB and 4 
are "iO ? liefer him to the lahle ;uk1 say 1(>^. Tell him 
to keep the iiiiit.s' tij;ure .O- in his miud and carry tbe 
unmln'r of tens to the next i-olnmn. He will then hare 


4 and the sum of the tij;iires in the tens column is 2 


• iVpyri^Ut , lA'l. All rights rv^rTirJ. 

P^mm id the table 2{) which is placed under ibis colamo 
giving thM aoKwer ns SO. Then 20 -f ^ = 25 ns fnllowR 
(see iu itiu table G!j hd(1 2J). Onidually iti(!reaMf^ the 
nqmbfir of tignres in the colnmu tiutit pupils are able to 
add up to ]00 vith ease aud nct'iirac}'. After this, 
examples in addition may be given thent for practice. 
I When the children have miitit«r6d the (to theru) intri- 

I caoies of addition, teaching thuui Hiibtraotiuu will be 
eomparntivet}' easy, since subtraction is the reverse of 

Take one conntar. Cover it with a piip^ir. Withdraw 
tb« ooauter from under the paper, uivd auk the class how 
tuooy counters romsiti under Ibe paper, liemove the paper. 
Tlioy will see iwthiiiff. Refer to the table (lit and say I 
from 1 leavea 0. la thia way subtraction is taught. Sup- 
pose they are asked to Had the ditTereuce between 805 and 
637. Utire call attention to the fact that 7 units are groater 
(ban o nnits, aud cannot bo taken from them. So the 
npper Bnure must be increased by 10 aud bdcomes 15. 
Now by the table we have 15^ The pupil airaply has to 
aapply the lower complemfliit, vliich, on reference to the 
table, ho tiudti to bo 8. Ho In next told that to coiupea- 
ftati' for tlie 10 luldud to the upper hguru he muet iucreaae 
tlte next lower figure by 1. He will tlieu have four tens. 
But i is greater tlian 0, the figure above it, so he mnst 
increase the upper Bgare by 10. Now by the table be 
linn 10'. Snpply the mlMKing complument, which ia 6. 
Increase thu uext lower figure by 1. He has 7, and as 
that is les« than the upper tignre, he has tliia combination, 
V, and the answer ia 1. Tlierefore the difference is 108. 
In thia way be uiatttorH aubtraution. 

The above is a simple record of au hoar's daily routine 
work iu the classroom for at least a year. The clasa ia 
Boppoiied to l>e nuulit up of secoiid-yeiir pupila. It is nut 
olaimml for tliiM mHthud tliaL it enables one to teach addi- 
tiuu aud subtraction without effort. " There is no royal 

Adttition and Sublractum far Bfginn«rs. Itift 


TU i'irn^ 4» A Ai4t» iff mi . 

nmd to kwMMVB-" TbetwrAw — tgio&lw>taiBk Je4g- 

WJ»«J to oT«reuBic olial*clai, mm] be kas • riiefat to eipeet 

1(U |/0[^h to iDMii hJHi half wbt. For tbe lazjr. Uie afaift- 

Im*, mmI Um idiotic, tlMir» \» lilU« or no hope. Boi, ii itowt 

ooeit NivraMi], IIm duIlaU niad can be avakotifid aad led 

<m atofi If^ atep until Ibo goal ia readied. 

TlfiM UMc oiNT alao Mrre id UDdeigazteti work. The 

rartiia* rjnn\i\uvA\>m» mmy ba priDtod on cauda, and gunea 

i>f adjlUiou and HabiractioD imlutffed id as the teacb«rnt»y 

nlniit. Tim nurd in lianded to thu cbild (pntig tlit> c!orrecl 

liunwnr, nud wlioovof gc4a tlio niowt cardx vIdh tbe f^me. 

inttrnetw in Ih* Onrgta Seit»^ Oati Spii»tg, Qwrgfm. 


TiiK lunoliur of daaf obiUlroti imtnrnily asks where the 
Iftiitt riioLlxida oau to fuiiiid, tlial o&porioDCO shows to be 
lit iiiwMt viiliiK III fxtiictiliuunl work (ur Ui08e who hear; 
ikliil liiiw (liiiHv iiii'tliDilH inik,v Iw ailng^ted to the u&cclit of 
tihllilrnit who uihiiuut hour. With thotto t|U(nitiouB iu miud, 
OtH wrihir, Kovrnil voiivfi >4{(>, hoKHii u (Mtiirtih (or h«l]i 
(rtuii viiiiouH |>i'ivato lunohvi'H <if voice ctiltiiro, ntid from 
■nltfMtU for i<h)('utioii»r>' IriiiDing. Khi> witii aware that 
DTiiry yimr lhi>ri> '\» au iuuri^KHiu^ iniiuhvr of dlligout 
Nhidmitu of IhtNHi Huhjt<ct«, who, Imving the power lo hear, 
yv\ (t|>pnH'iHlti IIm> Q(m<«I oI »|>oc?iitl work to tmnhlo them 
to foriu Kornn^t hnhitM ol 8|)«ui?h, tiod to iicqalru a right 
uao of th)< vviit-r. Out' of Iha nsults of this ijnest was 
tko cnuvUiiiiou thnt thi> ti-Aclier must hnve n knowledge of 
tho yrny in nhioh unlure intondvd the voic« to be ased 
«nd niHHt (ornmUli' « plan for ftvsteiuatic U>chtiical work 
lo It-Ail i>)> to \\w tl\'«ttvtl cud. 

AU pailit l4 the TiMee-|tn»liKtiii|e ori^UBS an of the mmk 
d«UMt« iMture and iudicatv, bj their qaiek lespoaae to 

Tiie Piano at an A id to Speech. 


tlie Rlight^Bt movftmi^nts of the miiMcle^ (!o» troll inj; their 
action, tbe need of extreme care in theirnse. Unless one 
bits mndd n fipeciai litndy of tli« great network of mnsclos 
.spread aII over tbo Iiuuiftii frnrae, he ■will bo constftutly 
•nrpri»<>d iu his obaorvations of tUc tjualitit-s of voice to 
find liow much iufiueuce even those most remote from the 
iiistmment of Hpeecli Imve in rlntermiuing thti kind of 
toneK prodnced. \uy coustruint. wlictliur montnl or pbjii- 
ical, but) ltd uffoct upon thorn. TliiK clo«(i iiud interde- 
pcndout relation of tbene controlling forces tenches ns 
that ironstrictiou iu any mnarles. wlietlier Hitiinte<I in hea<I, 
trunk, or extremitiea, is to hn fitndirtiiKly iivoidtid. 

In the uormal uho of the Toioo the ditiphrHgiu is iictivo 
ikiti] tbc vocftl hundit are pustsive, nud the siiuultaueousao- 
tivity of the formor »ud the pttssivity of tlie hitter iire to 
bo secnred by every deal child if he is to bnwime thepos- 
•iHWor of a power, not depondeot upon bearing, to con- 
trol bis rocal uttvraaces. Iu order to help the pupil to 
acc]uiri< n conHciousuess of n free, open throat pn-ssago, 
his atteotioQ is oentered upon thenctinn of the dinphragm 
an the nifilor puu-er of lli» voice. Tlus also leftdH to ^ood 
huliibi of bruitthing sud to a. proi>ctr use of the bruutb in 
prodnciufi: tooe. 

Although the voice is the direct result of the vibrations 
of the vocttl bauds, it Ih uuu-ise to uuU the attention of the 
pnpilH to their aL-Liou. 

CoDScious effort is too oftoa exaggerated and, iu the 
Tnnnngomeiit of a stnirture ro oxrininitely formed as the 
Tocflland Hpfwch apparatus, too grent cure 4!annot bo wx- 
errisud in order to nvoid an unnataral, forced use of it. 
One may readily b(>lievt< that the harsh, disagroesblef|unK 
itios of voice often nssociatod with the speech of the doa( 
hRvo their origin in the mistaken conceptions of earnest 
bnt misgnided teachers. Knne, among the best teachers 
of the speaking or of the singing voice, direct thought to 
tlie uctiou of the vochi bande, bat employ every poBsiblo 
means tu establish a nalnral nsii of them indirectly. 


Th* I'iamt OM an Aid to Spetek. 

How b> K>ve to diiaf papita tlie id«W pHMnted to bear- 
iu(( pirnmuM fur tbMJr Koi^^^ca ia the dorelopmout and 
u^iiilr'fl of tiinir voieeH wax a nisttar for \oti% tmA carefn] 
lliMiixlil. Tlin tiLihisnttou of tbe seDHe of toDCb, in the 
LniiriitiK of ilie yono^flKt papil» to bq apprevintiou of 
vihrHlinriH of iitriiif{od itnttnimontM aud of auy resoaudiDR 
Niirfnt'o. Iiiil to a ilnciftion to iimko L)m piano a leafier aad 
Hiiiflti lu voioo work for douf pupils. The selection tif the 
piniMi wiut dun oliiully to the fact that it is better suited 
III i-laHH itintructiiiti tbiiu any other musical imiitniiut^Qt. 
IIh viLiriitionti ant tatiKihlo and servt) for a Hiipjturt, a« it 
wnrit, for thu totim to rcab upon. Tbia support seems 
likii tliiil nxporJHUueit by hL'uriuK persous when sin^og 
with nUicffN. It hvlpH to give coutideuce to ciTort and 
LiikoK thought from it. 

With thtiir batitltt nwtiiig upon tbc piunp, thu pupils 
nolo Ihtt toD^tb of vibi-atioiiH wboii chords are struck, the 
voluiiiti o( toiiD, aud, to u ot>rl»tu degree, tbe relative p^tcb. 
Tlioy also a]tpr«<ciat(i the dilTeroncp IwtweeQ tbe tones 
PT(hIuc(h1 by a doticnto toiu-h upon the koys and that 
Mvtiiltiu^ from a foroihtu Hlrnke. Tbe seuKations of tbe 
pupilti bavo Vwwx varionKly dracribod; ouu says that he 
frntls a warelikp motion al tbe dbtwt and tbat it passas od 
up til bit* boad ; atiolht^r that a ttwtualonH moTemeDt 
pWMwn ihroa^b bis aruia to bia eara. 

It olivii hap)>eos thai a pupil who baa DeT«r h«ard 
lvpl^^UuM«• tbo pitvb of tcuwa mor* omrsetty thao ooa 
who tiaa Uvil al«ra,<i-s Ivwu d«af. Tb« WfAanalioo of this 
imay hw ftmnd iu tbo tac« ItuU tb« child d«ai from birth 
luha, Ituu ttwvsguty. «Md hk po«an of obsarratMrn aad 
iMNtlKW to an wxtvat Mack gw fcsT tk«a tha oa* r tesatly 
IMW.W ^l««^ aad '» tWivlocv tw4>«v {vwftared tu iBtavpM 
l^ftraMioaa rvcMtwit <hroi^ itw aaasa oC toaefc. 

tW pMUM » ««rr vakaaUt ia ImUw^ papilt •» to oaa- 

iWtiOMW «( iiinfc ai» hft ttmm m thaae of 

The Piatio (IS If » A id Ui Speech, 


eliiUlron, unci are tlms in a coutUtiuii fur a Dntnral use. 
UufelUred inuKoIes aiul llieir imeonscious frpwlom of 
actiou f>iv8 to speech the beauty of detinUeiiRKs without 
foirc*. and flwonoy witliout Imity. Thfi rfciylhm of speech 
kIko IK lifippily Hcqnired with enHe tlirougli pruutice with 
the piftoo. The temlonci' to lunke the cousouiiut eleinenla 
QDiInly ])romitieul i« checked more roadiiy by the use of 
tbu piano than by any otliur means hilhorto followed, and 
their proper relation to the vowel elementu clearly shown. 

tDiflereDC«9 in pitch, &lthoaf;b very limited, lea<l up to in- 

Almost from thti beginning of work witli litilo childreu 
the piAuo can bu made helpful, aad ita use coutiutied with 
profit through the various 8tajj;ee of ndviiTicemeDt, leading 
Ibo pupils to All appreciation of all that is eeaential to 
good fi))«ecb. 

Tlie permanent valuable rcHultK of thiK work tn deaf- 
bom pnpilH may Ik> tinrumed up by miyiug that thuso 
who(M> upvuch hiui beuu developed by correct voice prin- 
ciples, ftnd who have been led in their use of it to avoid 
aU exaggeration)), arc able to expriws their tbonghtit in 
natami, rhylliinic K]wech and in ngi'ct^able InueH. 

To th(9 partially deaf child the piano la n great boou, 
for it pi-eveuts liiu from undervaluing the little of hearing 
that remains to him and preserreH tli« purity of euuncia- 
tiou which i« nften greatly imperilled bj- oven slight deaf- 


Tbf writer i>f this would strongly nigu all who are 
striving to help pupils to acquire a uaturnl use of 
apeaeh to allow the piauo to aid them in their work, be- 
lieving that it will bt-ttfime rnoro nearly a aul>Htitnt« for 
the ear than auythtug uIko that ha<i yet been employed. 

Ttaehtr t/BpeeeK In the llvroee Mann ticMot, Btuitrn, ifat*. 


Ik tho minds of tliose Hpnciitlly engagod id tbe w 
iniiiiBtnriii^ tu Uiu (■ilncatioual or relifpoDH needs of tlio 
(Ipaf, tlint cIhhs in our HociiU uuunonjv bulltti very large ii6 
n flubjuct uf kuciwledgd iuquirv, aud sycapathetic interest. 
AlttJiitiou IK cou^tnutly diroctetl towards tbo affnira of the 
iloaf, tboir progr^Hs or liick of progress, and iontiniornble 
detnils oonnevteil therewith. CnnxeqaentlT, in tlint per- 
spnotiTe of tlio world according tn which everj individniil 
arritDges the objaciH of tiit; lliougbt, the deaf aud thi*ir 
doings loom np comparativelT largo and importnnt. Aud 
it ie woll for them that thoro arc maoj in whotie tboaghts 
and deede they find uo i^iuall place to-day, for it baa sot 
lUwftVB been 60 — to their sorrow. 

Now. those who are thus much ot-copied with tbe deal 
Gud it not oaay to roaliiiL' bow dift'erout is tbe Btato of 
tliiiigs in that respect among th4> mass of people at 
large. Thousands live and die in every country of aov 
itnportancf! without over bucouiiug personally aniaainted 
with a Hiuglo duaf-muto. Many will scarcely bcUuvu that 
thi^ri) aru more than the luerr^at handful scattered widely 
apart oT«n among deuae populations. Great as tliis igso- . 
rnnct) of tlit« truth is now, it used tn be far greater before 
th<^> riiHt of scbtMtU for tbe deaf, IcgiiUntinn in tbeir bebalf. 
etc. Id a wortl, to " the man in the tttrovt," tbe whole 
deaf world, an promineal to na profvs^oQala, la almost 
nocM>xi(a«MiU and claima from him bat the most traosieirt 
momentary interest, if any at all, relative to other aflkirs. 

l*htt obvious Twaaoo for this i» that, after all. the deaf 
cotwtilnte at mti«t but a small fraction of one per cent, of 
tiM world's imputation, and ibfirvforv oom« in (or only 
WHue snch minute portion u( the world's attention. 

I(» bovaTW, this daaa bnlka ao sbmU id tba ordiaaij 

TKa Social Status of the fhaf in the Pant. 171 

talnr tlionglit of this generation, when tnnnj cironm- 

iCfiH coiuliine tn hniig il IteforB [iiiblic attentiou, how 

icb tli« Diurt* uiuHt itM Hj)[>}i.ri*ut iiiHi^iiiiJcnuce have 

unied to thoise who stirveved hiitiiaii HocJotv during the 

innt«l»ti[ig oar own! Tlie inHignilicnncTe of the deaf 

< n cInka (o-driT in in fnot onlv retntive, for we Hee luiliionH 

]f dollarit «peut on (heir etUicHttou, Hcortu; of puriudiculd 

[pflhliitliml ID their iDtere&t, nitd miiuy librHr^' sliblvos iire 

tilled with hooks uooeoriiiD^ tUeiu. Tot nil this is the 

[>rodart of lesw Ihiin three nantnries |)ra<!tienlly. PrerioitR 

ti> the ph>su a\ thu sixteenth venturv it KeeiUK iit Hrttt 

glance to the hiBtorieal investigator 'nImoHt ns if there 

K«nt DO <l«>af people, so ioBDitesiinAl wag the notice taken 

of tbem. 

Throu^hoat the long xtory of onr nice, until modem 
liniee, the deuf ure all bat tost in the forgetfulnei?? of 
history, for history has ignored or forgotten far more than 
Bht9 haa remorat>orcd couo«i'uing the oianifold life of mau- 
kind. P^rhapK it is better ao ; wo, the liviug, ehriok 

tnith ru(;ui.' repulsion from the slow, aiire embrace of 
iuivikiic.-in(; otilivion, yet it may have done ns a kindly ser- 
liM ia dmwtiig nn impenetrable roil OTor mine things 
Uiat woni i'Tt;ry-<hiy crommonptacfx in the long ligo. We 
ftra iiymputhutii-ully tteusitive now, and u full revelation 
uf the paat might aroHHu more painful emotions than we 
are ahlt> to Hiispect. 

Notwithfttauding the hHfUiug silence of all the rucorda an 
to mach that we would like lo know, this being such as to 
k'ad any csnnsl ntndent almost to infer that there could 
not have been any eliuet of deaf persoun iinioiig anDient 
proples, yot viv know from other fai'ta that they certainly 
existed fur all that, and probably id even larger numbers 
tliau now. The condition of deafness nriseH from cauBea 
deejily M>nte<l in the physical frame of man, and wherever 
men have undergone all the "ills that tieshisheirto" in the 
shape of accident, disease, or inherited infirmity, there 

172 TKe Social Status of the Deaf in the Past. 

deafness whs to be found as sorely and as frequeutl^' as 
to-dny. Id fitct, if we may attribot^ siij decrease of snob 
eviU in nnr d»y to tli« Hdvancn of me<1ii'n] Mcieiire, lutuita- 
tiou, butter liou»iii^ and fund, etc., it folIuwK sJiaoHt with 
certninty thnt deafness biis been diminisbed. Tbo iQcreosa 
ID longevity of life, wbicb htks been fntly proved to exist 
now, would seem to indicate an improvement in patho- 
logical conditions that tenda to HaHtaiu the above infer- 
aoce. lu tbal case, we may believe tbnt in times wheoi 
the DiAgseB received no medical nttentinn at all, when 
satiitikry ni<>asuraK were utterly neglected, and when mil- 
lions lived in condrtiona paralleled now only umouf* ot 
poore^it popaUtion, the namber of those who fell a proft 
to donfucsB mast bare been distinctly greater than nowJ 
The only reawon we liave to believe the contrary is found' 
in the nef^ative evidence of bistorical silence, which is in 
reality uo evidence at all to the point. It is impoasible 
to doubt, in any event, thut thousands, uiuce our tirst £UQ 
arotfe and set, have, in every gouerutiou uud throughout 
uvL-ry nation of autiijuity, endured the loss of bearing will 
all that tliin involved. 

And how muiih did thiH involve in thoeo dayx? Hon 
did it fare with thutte unktielled aud unknown fureniuuers 
of our deaf brethren of to-day ? As men yearn to secure,. 
alt the knowledge they can about tbose ancient genet 
tionn, from whom by living linka we have ouraulre« ob- 
tained existence, so it is but natural that any given gronp 
of individuals, such as the deaf aud those who take a 
warm interest in them, should wish to posHowa nil avail- 
able iuforniatiou regiirdiug their pretlecesBors as far bad 
as history yields any reeonl. II may not be a joyous talQj 
to rend, for to minds developed in the sunlight of moderi 
Chriittian civiliKatiun the twilight and early morning of 
human history is nutrred aud shadowed by things iuox- 
jdicabty cruel and monrnfnl. Yet there are many lessonaj 
for us to leuru through conning over the faotH recorded of'' 
oat aooeston in civilizatioD. 

7%tf Social Status of the Deaf in the J\ut. 

Odo of lliose lesHODs, bd(1 not tho lanst, is tliat we 
aboult) be prafonndly tliankful for what we liave, and 
more patient at what we often aomplain of an too alow a 
progress toward lon^Qd-for ideals. Gazing back iiLfliiieh- 
Ib^j at what «>i:i8to(l bpforo ami tliPD upon wliat wo hfive 
attained ti><^1aj, nnreaiionable complaiut ih qu«nc1ie<1 in a 
h«art-lhrob of gratitude, for wc have crossed a uhuHm 
that was wido, docp, aud difficult to bridgo. and at the 
bottom of wliich nncouotod Damelo»s Tictims found a 
destiny not in store for aby of as. 

Some knowledge of the conditions in wbioh Ibe deaf 
and dumb ^for they were dumb then} of otb»r timeB lived 
haa been gleikDod iu » fra^uieutury way by aovurul writom, 
e. y., by Dr. HiirTay P. Peet in his " Meinoirori lli« Origin 
■nil Etirly History of the Art of Itii>trutiliii({ the Deaf," 
by Dr. ThoniiiH Arnold in his " Education of Deaf-Mutee," 
Dr. Ivlwiird WiiltUurinbiB"OeAchirliti;di-itTiiiihHtnrnmt>n- 
Bililiingiiwuseua," and obhor». UuL as bbo main object 
theao ntitbors bod in riew was to give au account of the 
deTelopment of deaf-mute education, a thing of compnra- 
b'rely niL'c'NL tiniuM, tliuJr inventigationfl into the general 
iitntns of the deuf-uiutv. previous tu thu advtrut of ulaca- 
tioa, were relatively incidental and brief. Tlieir point of 
view wiia that of the eduirator. not of the student iu 
sociology, (.'ousuqucutly tbey oniphaHJzml the story of 
the arolnlion of teclioJcBl methods and gHTe relatively 
want alteution to the narlier liistorid problem. 

ThuM it turuK ont (hat there in not ti> he found aiiy> 
where, aa yet, a fairly thorough effort to leaiu and lay 
befortt us all ascertainable facts regarding the social 
■tatns of the deaf in paf«t timeN. i. n., the attitude of 
sociatj toward them, ihn condittonn peculiarly alTei^tiog 
for good or ill their daily lives, etc. Most of us have 
probably had our notions as to how tho case stood, based 
upon ujore or less ragne inferences from very moagro 
data. But just how muuh we might claim to know with 

1 74 The Sociat Statiu of the Deaf in the. Pntl. 

re&Honnbte certiiiiity, Imw macli we conld only place 
Oil a basis of probrtbJliUes, nod jnet what we HhoaM Iiare 
to rev4^tiixo tLH boyoiid bumnn koii, tio ouo upparcDtly hns 
ronlly endeavored to find ont. Vet it would seem as if 
llie time bad suroly oome wbeu wu ebonld b« acquainted 
willi tbose matters, at least in so far as careful aud paiuB- 
takiug researcb may eulij^bteD us. It was witb tbia boliof 
mid ixiotiv(>, nt auy rntu, tbat tbo prottuut writer audcr- 
took au iuquiry along sacb linoH, the resulb) of whicb, 
Hueh as tlioy were, nro proseotiy to bo laid boforo tbe 

At mnay poiata tliose results were found to be uieogre 
and di»»ppointiDg eDnngh. it it* true, Imt it ia Honietbing 
^niuml at liioal to buro detoniiiiied approximatt-Iy just 
wbiit our linjitatioiis are, beyoud wlii'^b evttu tbu dimmer 
cuudlu-liglita of acienco fail ua iu tbe vast euveloping 
gloom of tiio aiiknnwn. Let lliiK imt be fi>rgQtten ft» tbe 
roadur (irocuudH, and liuda at bow iiiauy points our ligbta 
gn out, aud wo are bafHvd by Ibu voiceless darkuuas tbnl 
lias settled ti]>oii lou^-bu^ied eivilizHtioua. At tiniee we 
arp able to reacli fairly sstisfiicttiry conclusiona ; again 
wu arc reluctitutty compullod lo ackuowlodgo un almost 
fritilloss 8eareb. On tbe wliole, bowevor, tbesurvoy liore- 
aftur given is unt wilbont iuterest aud value, perhaps, 
from several points of vivw. 

Before launching into llie subject, howovor, it will be 
best to fix n|)on several preliminary considerations as 
olnes toguidti us tbrou^jb tliu tnngl*i of fncU that arise to 

1. Iu Ibo lirsl place, we must uote tbe part played ST 
the life of deaf-mutes by eilucation. It needs but few 
words to point this out to professional experta, for pre- 
cisely thai biui been a miun subject of study with them. 
Pow«<rful is tbe lever of education is in redeeming all poo- 
dle wbat«ioover from tbe serrile bandage of ignorauoe and 
all the ills it brings in ite train, iu the case of tbe deaf 

Th« Social Statm of the Deaf in tha Pmt. 1 75 

and dnmb education W simply the sine qua nnn of aocial 
eleTAtipn ami welfare. Tt Ik tliH key to laDt^uage.wLieli is 
in tarn the key to all tliut mnu liolds most precious. Id 
a wunl, it is perfectly matiifefll. that, nhat^r^r else may have 
b(f«u, if it be aii oRtabliHluxl fnct that among any given 
p4*ople DO deaf-mnte couM ever liave received any appre- 
ciable noioaiit uf i>«li)(.-]itioii,1.1ieu it '\6 ttettled aloue stroke 
tbat uo deaf-mute tbroiigLont that region coidd over have 
attainod a social level liigher tlinn tbat of aaonial labor, if 
mnch, save in rare instHiiRe<t of wealthy or noble birth. 
i^ven io thoHo exceptiuntil cases, howevi>r, the position 
betd could have been but a bullow mttekery of the reality. 
'How, while it was practically unneocsHnrj' to lualce nay 
ivestigation into former periods to lonrn u-hether any 
f-toatos vitr^ i>ver instructed, ainue that might be as- 
Mtsed off'haad from considerations suHiciently well 
known, yot Ibo matter biw reooivtHl much atteutiou in tlio 
following ioquiry for several reasons. It is bat seldom, 
after all, that ofT-bADd aasaraptiooft of a very dw«epiu({ 
cbonicter i>rove in ib<j end to have boeu btrictly trne, and 
sciuoce Hoeka to ttMt uU uucli to tUv bottom. Contrary to 
mpectiitiou, the ancieuts are fijiiu<l to liave aocoiupliMhud 
n good wujiy things in their day, wbioL for a long timo 
were not eredited to tbem b«)<;aui^e no one hud happened 
to di8<;over the factM. Fiirtburnioru, it is uf iiitorest and 
vatne to us, us educators, to uuderatuud in eooh inatance 
«hnt wore the actual conditions that preveuted for ven- 
lury after century any attompteven to provide iustrnetion 
for the deaf and dumb. A review of thoist; uonditious, 
fioally, Hoeins nimost necessary to a wol)>rounded-ont 
tre&tiueut of the subject, seeing how orerwholuungly im- 
portant to the hopes of the long-suhmerged class wo are 
iliter««ted in waa every circniustance that idlVicteil the age- 
long di^velopmeut of successful education for mankind. 

2. In the second place, we must also take iuto account 
at Dvery stop the part played by superstition. Among 

J 76 7%e .^ofitil Slatuf of the Deaf in the Piaat. 

the milliona oE victima who bav« bad reaeon to cui-se 
ttuH lialeful poiaou of rational tninds have b«en the dttaf 
uni] tliiinl) of ni»ny coiintr)o». Help1c»i thrniigh fgnor- 
uueu of Iiiu}j;dii|^u, thoir siugulnrity, Ihuir dumbuusK, ihuir 
reeori to geBticulatious, nud their appureuL uicuIaI deS- 
oienoy laid them open to the iusidjons find meroUeas 
attack of various su^iorRtitions. Iii thene davn, when 
HcioucM hits lar}^<tly Hiicceeded in oxo^ci!iiu^ Ihut uvil^^unins 
of our race, we find it diOlciilt to renlizo some of its 
operntious in ceutiinei^ l<)Qg pnsi, bnt it is necessarv to do 
so, if we would luWj uiiderHtiind tho social environment 
amid whii;h the dviif-iiiute lived and iuuvikI and hud hiH 
heint;. Althttut^h iimuuII^v it wax u !<iniMt»r uud cruel vitiagu 
which supHitilitioii tiii'iibd upon these uufortuuute uuen, 
we itliall see that tliere in ^ood reiiNuii to think it 
actnalt^' vame to their renciie \a at least one ancient 

3. Fiuall}', wo have to ascertain briefly-, as far as 
uecfssar}' for uur immediate purpose, the chnnuiter of 
OHuh people nndor review for hiiEiinuity of feelinp or the 
r«%'erKu toward the hulpleBS uud dupi>DdL>ut lueiubei's of 
aocjyty. There was much varialiou in the popular 
attitndo, ns also in the state policy, adopted by the 
suvoral nnlions of antiquity towanl iudividnaitt not able 
to tight thfir own batllt.'H iu life. Were they t^doruted at 
all * [f slluwud to survive, what troatmeut wan accorded 
to thom ? What woro tha pojnilnr notions and acliotia. 
toward thuiii? The aimwera to BUch questions, if we CAJl' 
obtiiiii iliem so far as the deaf were couceroed, will de- 
termino what wax their sooial stattis. Uaviug thus oar> 
rowed down to satuethiug like detinite paths the inquirj 
to be pursued, we may proceed to the main object l>«ford 



When we go to iuqnire of history na to who wers the 
most ancient people of whom anything is known, she pointe 

T6e Social Status of the Dtnf in the Fait. \ 77 

QB to the bauks of the Xile. To Egypt, tlien, let us turn 

Among the Egyptions of oron the oarlicst known period 

literate educatioD was derelop^-d to n surprising degree, 

l>ut wna confined to few. It held the place of a profoa- 

tiioDal Art, much lu shoithaud aud trpewriting do with 

08. it w«s in reality a trnde, acquired for the parpose 

of Mruiog a Uvnog thereby, and those who exercised the 

art of reading and writing were culled " 8crib«a," as we 

Bpoak of Btonogi-apheni now. " Tliero was no public 

fvchool lu which the Hvribe cuuh] bu prupiired for his 

future career: but as sooti atit a obild h»d lettnied tlie 

first mdimeDtn oF letters with some old pedagogue, his 

fathor took him into his own oiltcn or eolniBtc^ biro to 

Kome friend, who offcnsi to nndertakf? bis education. 

The apprentice observed M'but wout on itbaiit biin, copied 

in his spare time old pnpers, letters, bills, eto., 

rsU of which his patron eiamined aud corrected."* In 

*otber wnrds, edncation was limited to a certain class of 

akitleil expertH, who leurm^d tboir art by apprenticeship, 

and regarded it much io the light of » monopoly, not to be 

lade general by any means. They were L*uip1oyed as 

■leriui, neconritants, etc., by the government »ud uieroau- 

tile 6rms. 

Such, then, weru the coudltionH, ediii.>Ntinna)Iy speak- 
ing, thiit faced every deaf-mute in Egjpt. Phiiuly the 
ebanee of one of his class receiving any education what- 
ever wax utterly oat of the qncfttlon, iind the time wiis not 
tH comti when such a boon for tlie deaf could hn cou< 
ecived of as in the faintest degree possible. Indce^l, in 
the one direct reference to that olass thus far found in the 
£gyptiiuj lexta, whiob runs "There is no use wasting 
rirorda npou the dumb/'t they are qnietl}* consigned to tlie 

• tlMpeio'* *• Dkwo oT OlvlimUon." pp. 'i88-9. 

* 1 km Indffbled for thin iDl«rMtinft r«f«r«no<> (o f rof. A. R. S*jok, uf 
Oifui^ (nrabbod in ■ (letsonnl outumutiioaliOD, in wbiob lie uyw tlio 

hIgflMiui r*c«iidj> kltdcd ou olbcr tlliwiva, m far ■§ knowti to kim. 

1 7A TU Social Status of tU Deaf in tfte Pftgt. 

l1llu^lM>n nf laiif^nngRtnRs ignorftDce. And no, ttirnnglit 
tlinsc uucoutiti'*! (;uiii< ratio dh that lived rdiI died a1ou|{ lUl 
Unuks of tlio Nile, there was never a hope for the dea 
thnt in ROino wny llio ooly dolivoranco worth haTing, », e., 
tliroiigh laugnnge mid mental developmeDt, might oome t(^_ 
thvin. ^M 

Still, thoti^^h thej' could uot grow in mind, their bodies 
grow, and they were cnpiiblo of linviii^ oithor tumleratt'Iv 
happj or {Mkinfully uubappy lives, aceordiiig to other cir- 
enni8tnti(N>K, which now reqmro oar oonsideration. W| 
nrp told that the E^yptinnB were " gentle, good-temperod,' 
uuwarlike, and huoiaDe."* 8pejtkiDg of the harsh trest*' 
meut o( war prisoners od one occasion. Sir J. Gardiner 
WilkioBOQ WITS : " The imfavorablo impressions eonvoyod 
by snob soi'uos are more than connterbulanced by ua&y 
proofs of K^yptiaii hutunoity. . . . I cannot, therefore, 
sii)>I>o«e that the EKyptiau)*, who surpassed all others in 
the praotiui^a of riTilir,e<l life, wer«f iu the habit of iudnlg- 
ing in watihin croelty."+ Wo have it, too, on Prof. E, W, 
Laui?'s authority t thai in modern I^Rypt the rnrnl pupole 
tion (which had change^l bat rery little previous to the 
Kngliah tHToupatinii) ia gentle and kindly iii its treattnect' 
of th«* disabkil und uufortnoato. The fact is tliai beort- 
lesSMas and craelty are but rare amoug agricoltaiaj poo- 
pl«ci in their domesiie life, and the Kgrptiatis were almoeit 
parelr an agricaltaral nation. It woold seem, tbensfore, 
q«ik« a pMsoaable and OTeo probable eonclnaion thnt 
antoag these people the deaf ami dooib, thongh left en- 
tirely illiterate, vera (jaietly tolerated, mildly regarded, 
and hnmaaelT treated. Qoite possiblr aome of tbem wece 
aaiploT«d in a tew forma of anskilled labor. 

Tlwta iwmaiiM. bowvvar. one othat factor, whit 



tftM mmrn fsUy ta Sir J O. WSU^mS 

The Social Status of the Dmf in the Past. 

Rtmng<>lT«noiigti niny have wron^lit for the softening o( 
conditinnx in Egypt, whoron* iu almost ovory othi»r conu- 
try it W8« n terrible enemy. Snperstition iB still rifo id 
niodprn E^^pt, aDd to-day affects greatly all the daily 
iiffaire of the common people. Hot we are here concerned 
with only ono vorj' peoiiliar form of it, whioL took its rise 
\ from the ooQt«mpIation of UDueua) meutal dovintiouH 
h^ou tlie Donna). Prof. Laoe tells how " an idiot or a fool 
HH CDinuoDly regardod by tbem ae a beiag wboae naiud is 
[& beareu, while Ills grosser part minglos with ordiDary 
morinhs still ; consequently he is cousidertid a Hpucial 
favorite of heiiven."* For instance, "lunatics who are 
liarmluxB are gcnontlly regarded aa snints." rnrtherniore, 
itsootna that all plthodm ho lookud upou aro quietly let 
uloue, and f^eneroim alms are freely f^iveu thuui ivitliotit 
e Baking, becaase it is feared that uuy otber uvtiun 
d be regarded very anfarorablT iu heaven. Now, 
onling to Ijine. this singular su|iflrstition. with the sur- 
iMing attitude it develops townnl hII iastancos of mental 
■berrutiou, must haT« originated in tbo oarly religions 
ideaa of that country, and Itaa been retained among the 
nncliangiDg rural populatiou to thia day with that pecu* 
liar tenacity charactoriatic of thom in everything of tha 

This hiwi a BigniSeant bearing upon our snbject for the 
reason that iguornut and su[>er&titiouB peoples in former 
times are well known to have attribnted deafness and 
dumbneaH to mental detieieney nr nberrntion of aome 
kind, Kod often t4> have acted towurtl deaf-mutes exactly 
•a if they were idiota or lunatics. If we may sappoM 
the ICgyptinna to have labored ander this deluaion, iind it 
ia almost certain under the oircumstaneea that they did, 
thou it ia qaite probnlile that the deaf profited, along with 
others, by the slrange Iwlief and custom above described. 

« "Hodn-p Eg7i)tiuu." Vol. U. 

IftO Tht Soc!'d Status o/ths Deaf in tfu Pa$t. 

At auy rate, wo should like to credit saperstJtioB wiili 
whatever naeiwuro of good it iimv liavo done hero, for we 
sbalt bave to cbnrgo u]> to its account some very dBrk 
evils oUon'ttere. 


Leariop Epypt, we tuni Dalurolly to Chaldeft. but for 
our pre^t'ut purpose this proves to be » bnrreu Geld of 
iuquiry. Tbe GbaldoiiDx iiover. in the BrHt place, reac-hcd 
the tuiine level of ci viliKiitioii with Ibtt E]g\'ptiaus, Aud tbeo, 
owing Iti ccrtuiii pecaliaritiesoE climate and other circuro- 
stancuB, (bu Chaldvau reuiainti were not nearly so veil 
preserved na those of Epypt. It wonld st-ein, howevoi', 
that nnioiig tlie Clialdrniis also readiug uud writii>i: were 
nc(|uir«d in luiich tlie Hiiniv way as iu Egj'pi, and couati- 
tiited mervly a apucinl art nr tmde, employed fur gaining 
a livelihood generally * Outside tbiK profcKsional cluaa 
lituratu edncaiiou watt an nriknowu thing. The iufcrenoa 
we mnett uiake frou3 these tncla as regards the dent nre 
aufficit'utly obvious. 

Of any siipiTH til ions that »!outd for assignable reasotiB 
be suppoaod to afTuct the couditiou of the deaf, there tscem^H 
to be no available information whatever. As forlbe ntti- 
ttide assumed towun) diitablud uud dupeudout persons, 
there is runcb rtiasou to tbink that it was humane aud tol- 
erant. Professor Maspero »aya that "among the middle 
(dasses . ■ ■ tho courtM.- u( family life sueuis to have beeo 
eaim and affvelioDate, as in i'^^'pt ; " and agatu, "Tbo 
master seldom ill-treated liix slavftt, excupt in canoa of 
ilf-ratetl rwl-K-ltion or flighl." All other facts given tend 
abow that, in their domestic and aocial Hd^.the Chaldean 
vere not pitiless and cruel iu dispoaitiou, but inoUned 
took compnssiouately upon uumeriuHl snffering or ill- 
(orttme, and iu a measure to lend assistance. PreBnm-i 
" m y^[T«'« " DftVD a* ©rfliartioB," p. T«l 


Abo, SkfM's "JUi 

The Social Status ofth^ Deaf in fkf Pant, 181 


Tv, therefurc, aurli a class as the deaf uiar Imve been 
kindly tolorale<l auc) able to eke ont a euppurtHble exist- 
eiioe, tbougli left UDcducated. Nerortbclcss, so loug n» 
wn remaJD uuiuforuied about the supcrtititioua idons of 
tliat |H)0|>Ie in some detail, we caouot be sure as to wliat 
tbe donf may have UDdergooe, for, ae a cla^d, Ihey have 
itlwayfl be«Q poealtarly liable to become tliu objertnof that 
sinister suspicion. All this in nxtroinoly vagiit', yot there 
is tiothibg to warrauL more deiiuite Htutemutitit. In suuh 
iostauoea aa Chaldea, we are utterly set at tiaught by the 
miat of oblivinii which has long enveloped most of that 
baay life ouce existing iu fnll Kwing thruughout western 


Id Persia literate oducutiou was strictly limitcil to 
gOTorumeut oflieiuls iu positions where rcailiug utid writ- 
ing wore tiecessnry quahlicatioDs for the clerical work to 
be performed, and to tlie " wi»e men." who delved ob- 
scurely into the realuiH of t(n<iwle4lge, but nin'iir dreaiiie<l 
of cnminaiiicBting their luyslerioe to " the common herd." 
The Persinu luoiiiirchs were despots of the purest type, 
who retained their autocratic power only at tlie price of 
keeping the iniuiH of their subjects iu douHe ignorance, 
Btupiil ituinubility.auil unshaken obedience to im mum on at 

Eeustora. .Amid t^iicb a people umler such a despotism cmIu- 
cAtinn was a commodity grudgingly dispenited to as few 
I poHHiblc. Ah a matter of fuet, it nuou fell into surh 

^neglect as to decline greatly toward the close of Persian 
history. Manifestly, the night that overhung all deaf- 

^vateK iu Persia was unruliuveil by a single star of hope 
under sncb couditious. 

Cruel piinishuients were dealt oat for the slightest 
uffeucHs, aud respect for the ordinary rights of life and 
property was at a low ebb, yet fisiilf from gnvemmnntnl 
lyrauny it would appear, neverthetesti, that the Persians 

182 Tkn Social >V<j/i« u/l/is /Jea/in the Punt. 

wore mild ami liuiuune in llicir itiiiur <lamL<stic un<] social 
rtilHtioiiH. Coimetiiiently, uo hostile nnd cruel oppression 
probablv wjia exoruiHwl toward the vwifortuimte. Snper- 
Mtiliou WHS, of cr>ur»o, wovoii into tlio very warp and woof 
of tboii' dttily lifu, as it U to tliiii day, but su far aa tLuy 
particniar mauifestaliouH of it towaird 8ucb a class as the 
<ltML( is coiicpriieii, it is impossible to lunke any KtatetQent. 
Iuroi'U]Hlii>ii ou Kucb u point Ih not to bu found to Ibe 
ftccouute* wo buvo of Poraiau History.* That tliero wore 
thonsAiidit of deaf-niittee wbo soouer or later lived under 
IVrsiftu doiuiiiioii wo cuuuot tjuestiou ; that none of Ibase 
^ver acquired the langunge of their people b; instmctioQ 
Ih pntctitTHlly certain ; that, on the whole, while mauy of 
Lht>u) must havu felt more or lesa the evil iufluence of 
supentLiliuu, yet niauy niiiy have got through life without 
actual ill-treatRieot, is quite probable; but the moat cer- 
tBiQ ooudasion of all is that the lapse of tweoty-tive cen- 
turies lias so completely buried from huiuau ken all direut 
trace of tUb^ striukeu olasM, so far as aucieut Persia is 
couceruwl, that the modeni iuTostlgator is forced at last 
to tnru away from llie pathetic blank with a Kigh, leaWog 
every query uunQswered forerer. 

J. k- TlLUNtilUST. 

;WMM. CamtU Vminmitt. Itkaea, Xnt Tark. 
[to be COSTIsatD.1 

* nt* hri^t KMrtKmt of IkiBg* ita I**cm« ia bMtnl npoa whftt i» loaaA in 
Sky«e'> " Anrient EtB)>im»,'* etaL, tUwIineun's " Five MaaaTrhlM,** Bo^ 
fia'i " Aacifot Htator;." uid « fair iniaar nda-ligbts. 



DuntKn the pnst deetulo gront improvomontB have beou 
made )u tlio uotliods of toiicliinf;; st-ionce in tbe oomtuoD 
I schools tlirnughoat tlio Uoiteil States. Students of a 
former )<eiieratiou were eonteot to t»ke tlioir kucfwUnlge 
BQCOOtl-hund, either from the iustructor or from the text- 
book. Origioal iiiTcstigntioii ou the part of the stinlisnl 
w«a ntiheard of. Botany, Physics, Zoology, and Chera- 
ulry wero stndies tlry oh <luKt except to the geimiiiti lover 
of scientific snbjeets. Aetronomy was merely lociiting 
tbo coDstellatioaa. Botany mount pic^king n flower to 
pioMS aikd findiag iUt Lntiu name in a jiidioiouHly nr- 
rauged key in the back of tbe book ; or else it consisted 
in fMstening the flower to a pieoe of cardboard and put- 
ting it away in au horbarium, like a choice pioco of china. 
lu Zoology, auimals were classified • into kingdoms and 
subkiu^doius. ea«h ae separate from the other aa their 
retipectire vagoH at the r.w*. An ntrcnKional WHevcr in 
the thuijriL'H of Darwtn wan h-onned iluwu iipuu a» iiuur- 
ikodox. The study of Physicn advanced propositioua 
which no one cared to refute, for there wan no apparatus 
lor proving tho truth or falsity of a atatomuiit. Tho nmc- 
tion finally came. Tho pendnlnm swung to tho oppuxito 
extri-me. Text-hooka were cast aside and the uutraiiiL-d 
stnilent was left with his apparatns to prove in a few 
week)) what men of genius hud spent yeant trying to <lo. 
To-day tho pendolum has started on the retnrn course, 
and, while the age is one of kuon iuvestigatiou an J critical 
research, our schools are jndicioualy combining tbe use of 
the text-book with laboratory methods. 

We have no right to compare tho work d(me in science 
in our b^t uquippi'd schuoU for the dttuf with that dune 

in the higher grade« of oar common schools. While the 


184 Sciencn TeaeAinff in Sehoole/or the Deaf. 

aiinH of the two Hnlionls are the same, the metbotU 
toachiu^ are t-ntirelj' difftereut. Ta onr inntitutionft tta^ 
greatest stress lius ever been iintl nlwayn will be laid opoKia 
the teaching of Uugunge. The tttudj of science tniis^' "^ 
either be Becondar^ to laii|*i)ago worker musthecooiH a pier ^ 
of the taoguage work itself. Id a certain senne, scieoo^^^ 
may be rej^unletl as a luxury, while languBge is absoluteh ' 
eHttentiiil to a mati If he witiheH to get on iu the world. 

tiranttng that Knglieb is of parnmoont importance, Itare 
our iuMtitultoiiM kept abreast of the titiieK in their uietliods 
of teacbiLg the Utile Bcieuce that is taught ? Is science 
Ko tnTight that the boy aud girl renlly get what the fitudy 
is ioteuded to giro ? It was formerly thonght that Botauy 
aud its sister Bcieucea ahoalj be kept as a sort of dessert 
to bo served after hearty t'ouraes of the three " It's." Of 
Kysteraatiu Botany this reasouing is tmo. But it ia my 
belief that we cannot begiu too soon to teaeb boya and 
girls to opeu their eytju to see the beaatiea of nature iu 
the world about us. ■ 

Objet^tioD has booD raised (^aiiist the teachiog ofsoieDM 
iu tlie »«tioiidary tsrhools upou two tj;rouudti — expouse for 
apparatuH aud lack of time. The former objection need 
deter no teacher from luakiug a beginuiug. For iuetonce, 
iu Botany, perhupH the vasiust aud tuuHt dciligliKul of atl 
the scieticcs^ a penknife, a, and a couple of 
ueedles stuck in wooduu haudlos, are auffiuieut apparatoa 
to reveal to the oyeti of our young pupils a world of beauty 
of which they never druaiuttd. 

As (or lack of time, the ieeauna in eleineutary soieooe 
should hii made lessons iu language. With Asa Gray's 
" Field nud School-book of Botany " ns a fund of informn- 
tiou fur the teacher, aud the woodit and lields to furuish 
nialtiriul, many interesting IcHUions can lut made from 
topics like the fullowing : 

The Protection of Budu from Moisture aud Cold. 

The Uses of Leaves to the Tree iiud to Man. 


Sci^iM Teafhitiff in SchooUfor the Deaf. 185 

Desert PLint* ; Their Life and Meikuit of FrotectioD 
frum HeHt and Droulli. 

Tlie Fertilizatiou of Flowers by Insects. ■ 

Tlie I'se ot Color to the Flower. 

A dozen other tn[>icN will readily KUg^e»t themselves to 
^ha teacher. A few tnlks upon topics like the above not 
*3t\y will eultirate the power of observation hi the pnpilK, 
Imt will give to them what the study of Botany is int^ndwl 
' give, a kiiowlodgif and love of Much forms of plant life 
'an itre withiu the reiii'h of nil. 

Elementary Zoolo^v- sliould be Ktudi^d in eonuectiou 
with Phyfliolofjiy. Snaib, uukwoIh, sliij^, nud earthworms 
uro easily procnrable in all part^j of the United States. 
By uieaoe of n Inrgo reading; -glass much of interest and 
value about the lower forms of animal life ean be innght 
^kXiildrvu aro always interested to know bow tbe eartb- 
I womi urawlh, especially if they con see tbe oi^ana of lo*o- 
nutiou. Thvy like to know why frogs and Htiakes are 
^KoM-bloodcdt anil about the Dlvtamorpbosis of tliubutter- 
^Hy. A auf;gui<tioa that tbe dasH furuish the necessary 
^^naterial for atuily will re»idt in a beterogoQeoUH collectiou 
of tivioi; tbiiiKB, demrable aud uiideHirable. Fortunate is 
(be teacher who has the une of u good cocnpoand micro- 
scope. Blides nru oa^ily pi-eparcd showing plant cuIIh, the 
I Kalca on the wiuj; of a raotli or butterfly, tbe beautiful 
^■racorj of a fly's wiug, and tbe myriads of forms of life 
^lliat (f'em ID n drop of Hlngnant water. Kucli lessons are 

K[ both inleroat and profit and uervu to uruune unthusia.siii 
hen tbe daily yoMrai/ begins to pall. 
BBaarly all sehools for tbe deaf offer a brief coarse 
rWatnral PhiloHophy, uanally lo the members of tbe 
I R ratUniting elasH. Tbi! bent book I have eTerseen for youug 
^BboTs and girla beginning tbe Ktudy of Natural Pbilosphy 
^H* narriugtou'H ■' Physics for Cirammar SuhoulB," publiKhed 
^■Dy tbe American Book Company. The book is written iu 
itituple language, within tbe coniprehension of any deaf 


liliU Mary') Firtt Ymr/t at fiehooi. 

boy or girl oIi3 eoougU to begin such a &tutly. It ib prac- 
ticallj u book of experimeDia, the apparatus nBot] ia vorj 
simple, much of it tiome-mndt;, nni) tbe total cu«t for the 
ontiri) ontBt uuvil nut bo more than fifty dollars. 

To the pupil iuteodiug to outer college, a certain aniouufc 
of experimental work would be of great value. It wonlil 
teach liim to haodle appnratatt with uime, to \\c accurate 
i]i hiK work, to do thia work uuatlj, aud to record his own 
couoluttiona. Mr. Harriugtou's book gives an outline. Tha 
tencLer would necessarilv be obliged to supply a non.sid- 
ernble amount of sap piemen tar}- informatioo. The pupil 
sboald be required to write a paper every day, describing 
enoh piece of apparatoK used, explaining the experimeut 
itaelf, and giviug the results as seen by himself. SuoU 
a method rs this could not fail to be satisfactory in the 
dovelopmwnt and free use of langnage. 

For the boy who cannot bopu for further scliooliug 

after leaving the iuatitutiou, theue Mmall iMgiuniugs iu hci- 

ontific knowledge would aid him to understand something 

of the laws of machines, and tonch him to observe the 

beauties of nature. 

Prv/r-or t« OaUfOKki CtMest. ir<uA>njrf«n. D. G. 


LnTLE Maiiy came to school a few weeks before her 
SBVoutli birthday, iu 1897. She was thin and jinle and 
uuattnicttve at first sight, but her little mind and body 
were wonderfully active, and I soon found myself jotting 
down memoranda of her doings as far ns she carao under 
my observation. She was, I believe, oongenitally deaf ; 
at least she seemed of that class, and when her arlicula- 
tiou lessons began she found them difficult. There were 

fJWr Mary'H I-'imt Veant at St'Jumt. \ R7 

fiv<* o(li<fr cliilibttti in tin; fittnilv, iiiid llivir L-ompatiioiiMliip 
prohahlv gave lier tllL^ iiuii^iuiiUy ulrouf; iiuiiuIiKe tunHrds 
activity r murked iu faer, but she seenied, ubove all tbingH, 
logioal ntid original — more ho thiiD hut <len( child t ever 
kupw, and I bave been ioliniate witb maur in tnv owu 
80-lif>o) life and a» a teacher. 

My intiitincy with Mary prolwihly dates from one rainy 
Baodny wben t wiiit uu duly with tlie children. Rhe 
was the baby of tb« school imd I therefore tumle M|>uciul 
effortK to etitertiUD her. I took her to my room to help 
mt^ carry downi^tnirfl somo scissors, poncils, and (>ap«r (or 
tliHynnugor children to iitnuRBthemselTeti with. I do not 
retnemlxer to have noticed her particnlarly before that 
day, bat afltTward she would come rnuninK into tny room 
at re«e8K, twForu and after moiiU, (*von at bedtime, and 
ofleu Hho came to wake mo np in the moruiug. She per- 
sisted ip all tbia in Hpite of prolents, prohibltiODS, and 
even puniabment by the autboHties. No one over had a 
more loyal little (rieod. 

One morning sbo cnmo in her night-gown and with bare 
feet I ri-muu»truled &u<l tried to explain that she would 
Caleb cold if «*bB were not dresstxl b«foro coming down. 
Thu next morning flhe riL'ihed in with clothes all on, but 
onbottoQud, and joyfully annoiinoed that Bhe was " dri'-aiied." 
Blie then unkcd me to foHtiMi lier dre».s, taking care to show 
ni(! tbnt it hiul hookHuod uye^ iuHtead of buttona. Whon 
nhu had discovered that I hail a sboe-buttoner iti my wash- 
Htaud ilrawer, she henceforth deli|>htcd to comu and borrow 
it to bnttOD ber abooA in my rooai. 

She bad n prtttty way of waking me np, patting her two 
littlu band8 uu my face and pulling it over to ber, kissing 
and hngging me. 

At 6nit when TiKiting me, somtt bloc-ks amused her; 
Utor, I gave bur aomo old water colors and a brush and 
^^^ paper. For days after whenever hhf caino in she would 
^^V beg to be allowed to " paint." The novelty at liLSt wore 


LitU^ Mfoy's Firet Years at Sefi&oi, 


off and she began to look aroniid the room and to exannn 
everytliiug I had. Be«iQg me wash my hnodH nod brns 
my teuth od odo ocuHtniaD, tthn itisiKttMl on wnshiug he 
own linnda and (iveu took hold of my tooth-tiruBli aud cii| 
iuteuding to do ja»it as I bad doue. She usked me for i 
towel and I told her she might use a certain one, not tlic 
others. The nnxt timn Hhe wanted to wa-nh nhn inquire 
which tow«l was " hers." 

I ouc« took her to a driif^; store; she Be«m«td afraid an 
watched me closely, looking relieved when we left. In 
fact, she pulled my sleove to heckon me oat of the Ktore. 
I boa^^ht ik piece of sweet chonoliitti for her and she liked 
it HO WL'II that when it wuk tjaten up Hhe wauled to go 
baok aud got more. A day or tvro later she pnt on her_ 
cup aud jacket aud oamo to mo, asking mo to go with het| 
bo buy some cnndy ; a lady had given hern cent. 1 fonnd 
some oii<> to gn witli her and she bought fonr pieceH of 
candy, but gave away three— perhaps b«ciius4i the cJtudy 
did not snit her. 8ho chose Ida, the little colored girl, 
08 the object of her charity. 

Seeing that others spelled to me, she began wi^g^Ui 
her little (ingers at me. By degrees her nataral gestarc 
were displaced by the more intoltigible nud carrout signi 

Oau day she sot on my bed aud (bought a little. Thoo' 
she told me she had been Atruck across the knuckles, it 
hnrt, and ahe had cried. She gave uke to nudurstand wUqfl 
the ofTcuder wax. 

When I told her not to touch a certain thing, site would 
say ia pantomime, " No, I ahall be spanked if I do." 
ProlMihly »\w Lad been so punished at home. ^B 

She had ouu |>veuliar habit that uluug to her tbrougliV 
the three years that I knew her ; she could never go to sleep 
without first rocking her head from aide to side ou tb^H 
pillow. It Btiomod as if she had always slept in a cradltf^ 
b«fi>re coming to school. Sometimea when very hasy, 1 
would look my door to keep Mary oat. She was seen 

LittU Mary's First Yean at Scftonl. 


iding oDtside, stampioj^ Iter loet iu impAtionce, or 
luiug a^Aiost the door with bm- li«ikd on linr nrins as if 
vrriog. But odo liay 8b« foaud lior way into the room 
ooxt to mo, and weut tliroiigh it, out of a window, outo b 
bitlcouy wliicb rnu past my room too. She looked iu at 
mr window and vros erideatly Hurprised to boo mo siltiog 
»t my deak. She cnnin Ihroagh th<! long window, puiutiiig 
hor little tiu<;or at mu ruproauhfutly, thou going to iiiy 
door she told me bow she had tried to come in, but could 
uot. becanse tlie door was locked. Another day while 
playing with me, Hha wished bo show somKtIiing to tbo 
girU next door; boforu leaving the room Khu turuinl to 
me aud said entreatiugly, " Don't lock the door, Vox com- 
ing linvk." 

She HoraotiiDe«i came apHtairn with me as I went to my 

roum aftvr Hcbool, aud kuw me tuku my key from a nntt 

by the door; lator bIic would ank me to lift bt^r and let 

bur tnko the key and antock the door. She biul a pii^ion 

(or thing ami I liked to gratify it. Soon al't«rward I 

went to my room a» ntinal aft«r schnol and was n^louiithed 

to 6ui1 my door alrejtdy uulnoked ; on going in whom 

shouU I see but Mary ut my d(wk using the forbidden 

ink. Tbo little child was not at all guilty. She turned 

to me glowing with sncoestt and said, " I unlocked the 

door; oome aud see." Then lending me into the hall she 

«hevpd me, by doing it all over again, bow eho had 

tlniggod n cliair up to my door, thus reached the key uud 

KecDreil euiraueit. 

Id aohool once her teacher wialivd Mary to bo tba snb- 
JMt ot a Mory for a claas. lie took up a stick ami calloil 
ti<T to him. Tbo poor child turned white, and camu 
slowly forward, watcbiug bim tn 8«o if hti were going bo 
whip her. Wbeu she found that he merely wished her 
lo Ao/J Mr' slt'cA, she actually Hushed all over with relicaf. 
Oue moruiug tibu waK looking for lioniething to do in 
myfooai. She found u plato, cup, and saucer, and, show- 


LittU Mary'f Firtt Yeart at School, 

net— _■ 


in^; itie the Hnst on them, s&id alio would wash them. 

li(«itatod. hnt Hneing liow mnoh in wjirnext she wbs, fiuall^^ 

couscnlfd with n wiiriiiug not to ilroji thi;m. She washec^ 
tliein iiicelv. tlried them, aud put thwiu iu plnce. After: 
that »}tf delightitd to Qntl dust iu mv room and wipe it ott^i 
Oiico nhti Hrrawlnd vrith a hluo pencil nT«r uiv desk. ^B 
Buid I did not like; ii, tiud kUu nt onm wont for a rag t<=3 
wash it off. She w«8 neat and UouaewKel^- in ioKtiiict 
Shti reni«nibered where things belouged, nod usually pt 
them biirk iti their pIiiceK. 

She liked to borrow my clothes and rihbouH. aud, aft 
arraying herself, sally forth to call on tlie neighbors. Sb< 
showed DO preference or choice for color. Ouoe, it in 
Iruu, a gr*>en ribbuu went ronnd her neck, a baff and blue 
how ou her aprou, aud ri->d, wliite and blue aronnd boF 
waist, but how could she have kuowii that gveeu was hei^^ 
own Irish hue, that V»nflf and liluo wore the colors o( mv 
college, and that red, while and blue were the colors of 
the CnioD ? 

For A few mnrninpH it whs her delight to get my hair- 
pins and stick them into her short, straight locks, vniolr 
eudcavoriug to twiijt tliciu into n knot. It distressed her 
greatly to see a hati-piu or a comb loose in aoybody's 
hair; ^he would pull me down at once to fix it, ureu iu 
the midst of a chapel prayer. She also aspired to do up 
my coiffure for nio, but the result was usoally a coil just 
over my cor, so 1 advised her to desist for a soasoD. 

The Bii|>erviBor attd the girls tried to keep ber down^ 
stairs. She would come ruutiicg, breathless, into mj 
room when she could elude them, aud would dance for 
joy; or, if tliuy pursued her, she would throw her arms 
about my neck and beg to remain. She used to cry nt 
first if taken away from me by force, hat she soon got 
over that nud Icarnfid, alaM, to b<> sly, wailing until she 
SAW a uhauce to »lip uway aud ruluru tu mu. 

Once wheu she was writiug with pencil she told luo sh^ 




TAttU J^nry'i first Fears at School. 


inu«t Imvii » hook to cop^- from, so site picked up oue 
atU'r iiuollier oAkiug me which would do. She held tho 
cho!>eB book and looked at it before oiich Hpull of writing 
ns if copvinp evorj'thiriR. XovomljLT H», Miirv paid rao 
fiuvL»ral vii^iU; Ifooud hi^r writiug witli ink. 8lie vrtm deter- 
miQetltolearntoaaeit. Then she took two ciiHliions and was 
rocking herself to sleep on the floor iis I Hiitwrpd. I fouud 
lier on the floor Again in the iifturnuUD but my deHk was 
o[wn and I Haw that she had bouu iudustriously scribbling 
eaty ait, eat on a pad. But this time she was crying ; 
when I asked the reason she did not answer at once, 
ftnd all I could finaltv make out whm tlmthhudid not want 
to go to a man. 8be had just had a present of a new 
cloak from tiome and I wondered if it were possible she 
felt reeentfut towards her father for le.iving her at school, 
or had she become so fond of scliool life that kIib did not 
want to go home ? There was some meaning in it for she 
hR4l told mo the same thing before and she repeated it 
afterwards. In school this daj she wrote "a cat ran " 
nicely. Klie wati rerv indej>etident and wanted no help 
at anything; it M>euied to dittt'ourage her to be helped 
nnletifi she herself asked for aid. 

It was hard work to keep her quiet in chapel. She 

ras naturally nervous and rBHtleH^, and coutd not see any- 

Clhiiig to iutereat her at l]r»t, ao she devoted her time to 

fdeiuonfitratious of affection when 1 snt near her. Some 

days she woold tell me that she had folded her arms and 

watfihed the speaker in chapel, evidently expecting high 

praise for her goodness ; but sitting still was such a trial 

to her, nad shs was reproved so coualaotly by teachers, 

lapervigors, and pnpiU near her for hor inattcution, that 

Chbc began to be wilful and mischievously restless. My 

private opinion was aud Js that it in wrong to compel the 

attendance of vory yonog ohildren at services not adapted 

to thum iu any way. 

The some afteruoou lu school Mary watched mo tooch 


fJiile Mtmfg FirH Ymrs at Schna!. 

Ida to spell and copied all tfao maDiial loiters. When 8b« 
found I was not paying any attention to ber, she pulled 
my sleeve to nltmct notice. As I coutiiiued ntirespomiive 
she ^ot np and cnme aud titood in front of lue, vhero 1 
ooold look at both hoiKelf ami Ida. Wbcn she wrote a 
word, ur tliought alio did, abe would often ask me to opelt 
it (or her. 

Corning in to say gnnd-night, Mar^i' fonnd Mian S. with 
me, and at onco auid to her, " You luukvd (ho door.'* It 
KL'vuis MisH S. Iiitd fouud Mary iu my tooiu wbeu I waa 
not there, and. thinking 1 would object, had put ber 
and locked the door. 

Wifthiug to reach a top drawer in tho chiffonier Mnrr 
pulled the rucking chuir up and then carefully laid its 
cushion ou the door before climbing the chair, explaining 
to tne that aha would he whipped if ahe put her feet on 
tlia eauhioD. 1 rci^itrdi-^ thin iik evidence of home diaei- 
plino. Anothor day she went into school eatiug an apple. 
Her teacher cuLliscated It, but she resisted until be ex- 
plained tlijil shti fonid havf* it after scliool. Not fully 
trnxtiiig him, Hbe aiiid, " Wait," aud took as big a bite of 
the apple as her little mouth could hold. She walcbeil it 
idl ibe hour iiud was delighted to get it back at noon. 

ShL' liked to play a joke on me now and then. She 
locketl me nut of my rouiu and afterwardn told me bow 
she put Iho key in hot pocket so I coald not And it. If I 
refused to do her n favor aho would try to coai me, and 
if I rt^mniiied tirm, kIiu would Kay kIib did unt love me, but 
her affectinn usually overcame her disappuiiitmHuL 

Nuvembor 18. I sbowod Mary that my blotter was blue 
like the ribbon round her neck. It pleased her greatly. 
The next day [ wuh iibbeut from my room the greater part 
ol the diiy. When I camo iu X found evidences of a visit 
from Mary ; a cbfiir standing near my chiffonier, a rockor 
with cUHhionti piled on it <lrnwn up to the tiibh<. nad two 
boxes of ribbons trauHportwl there, while on my desk I 



Lietl*> Mary's I'lrst years at Sc/ioot. 


fonn<1 Kome iuk Kcrnwls. She liaJ used uotliiiig uow for- 
bidtluu to bur. Whtiu sbo eanic up iigaiii I tolii her Iiow 
I had knovrii of ber formor visit. Sbe uti(ler»toud me at 
niicM, and delightedly helpod luu utit witli my iiiirnttive. 

I (uund her Bewiug IjiiKhub on tuv red &atiu uiHidlo-book 
une Saturday nioroing. 8bti bad atnueod borsolf in my 
al)«ouco liT writJDg with ink and with rnd >ind Wan petivitH, 
pnintin;?, playing witli my finery, and so ou. A rida on 
my bicycle wiut a great treat, but slie was iitubitious aud 
wauted to mo it aloue; 8e«ing that bor bttlc legs conid 
not possibly toacb the pcdnls, I wntt obliged to ciirl> her. 
After dinner she came in again ntid foand me Hitting in 
mj rocking ohaJr. 8be pretended not to se« me, jumping 
OD my btp with ber oyos ^^but. Tb«n sbe vaotod to sew 
11(^0, but Doticed tliiit 1 bad piU nwny something she bad 
bMti playiDg witb. She was displeased, and boated till 
Blt« round it, Ibau scolded me, saying it was bora, not 

If people called iu my absence from my room, Mary 
would tell me of it aud would describe their appearance 
BO that I nxognized the peritnn meant. She tried to tell 
me nil Ibo nowx ; nbe would run in Maying that an ngly 
mau v/na Murapiog tlis walls upstairs and putting new 
pa[>er on. 

Vp to tliiri time, November 20, in all her scribbliugs in 
my room Mnry lias Toluntarily wriltou but one word, cat, 
altbongb shv has learucil four otbor oouus ; but tonlny 
she wrote cif and do<f. 

When Mnry woke mo up tb« next mnrniug «he folded 
her little Imuds and heguu to pray. She imitated many 
of tht! signs she hod seen used in prayers nud iu grace at 
tbp table, nncb an (Uanks.ffiod, iioH.&wA she tried to make 
the aign for Christ. I taught bar to spell bername, Mnry, 
tbis morning. She seemed mucb in lovi* with tho ttmall- 
««t boy iu school, and when she b»ppen«d to meet him 
after tinuday-sidiool she bagged him and tried to kiss him. 


LitUe Mary'v Firtt Yeart at Sehtiol. 

but he objected to her nnttonght umbrucos nml told biT 
she noolJ b« spanked. A littl« dog came into my rootn ; 
Mary waved her band at biin as if to make bim look nt 
ber and spelled itntj at him. ndilintt, That's y-u, in signs. 

We hiwl ocoHMioua) fnlliogH out csuseil bjr Marr's dis- 
obedieuce, bnt ebe could not stay away long, aud would I 
pixifess penitence. I iieoally oViserved that her dis- 
rdwdienre re»nlted from the failnrt* to anderxtaud wliAt ^ 
was reqnired of her or why, aud often Rbe was uanifhtjH 
simply boeaoso she was not treated ri(;ht and kii^ir it. ' 
She was more docile ami lovable with me than with any- 
one elKe. 

I wrute a letter in lier prceence. She wanted to writ 
one, too. She scrawled si) over a piece of pap4>r, fold* 
it, enclnsod it, senleii it; and wrote on the envelope,! 
allowing how closely she Imd otKerred me. 

November 23. Mary came in taucli exritfid and, pi 
ing my heavy pitcher off the wAsligtiind, told me boi 
ftomfbndy bod dropped one or had spilled water. Lnter 
fonnd that »uime pupil» had been np to mischief, throw- 
ing water ont of n a*indow. In school to-day she wanted 
to spell ; so I taught her ho^ and pointed out the bojtt in 
the room. She began connting them, holding up the fin- 
gers of both hands and counting iu some girls also, 1 
explained, then she began counting over. 1 couul(*il for 
her once and she said I was wrong ; there wore not ninfl 
boys, for the teacher (a manl made ttn. 

November *24. It was ciaite touching to see when I came 
to luy room at 6 o'clock that Mary bod been waiting for 
me — two 8<)fa cushions were on the floor, but nothing had 
been disturbed. Iu the supper room t saw her watching 
for me, and afterwards she came apstairs and told me how 
she had been waiting and waiting, bnt I did not come. 
Khn utude the motions uf piano or orgiin playing, aud tried 
to tt^ll me something about t^omebodv who talked. She 
wrote with ink a while and then changed to pencil, bnt 

f.iUU Mary's ftret Vmrt at ScAoof. 


Iier liiiD(] on the iuk scrnwla aud aiuiued it. This 
iliKplfiiuied lier very much, so she wanted to wash bor 
h.tti<ld. Bv-HDcl-b}' she ojilled itir iiiid told me that the 
Mtcher was \eTy heavy iiud U hurt her tu hft it bnck iuto 
lie witsh-bowl as sho had justdoiie. I toUl hm* to call me 
tu h»lp ber next time. Then comiag back to her writing 
she diftcov*>red that I lind mud« pen marks on hnr paper 
(oli8i>iit-miiid&iI}",l and scolded iu« (or doing it. 

NoToiuber 27. Mary bad so much oxeitemeut during the 
iftiiksfiivinj; reces.'t with no xchool, two plays, and a 
:;i]U (^itthering, that she waH very nervous. She kept 
wide awake throi](>h the pluy this evcniag but wag ho tired 
mfter it that shat could not boar to bu touched, and when I 
trifKl to sponk to bor she Bcrutohed my hand in hor de«- 
peratiou. But idniost iuHtaiitly Khe b<)ggi>d tny ptLi-<1uD 
itud kistted me, then she begged to be carried to bed. 
WbeD iu bed she seemed to feel better aud tutid good- 
night very ewoetly. Tbo next morning she ramc and 
awoke me at five o'clock, wADting me to do sometbiog 
for her comfort, as she was not welh 

November 29. flaring papers lying .irouud wldch 1 did 
not wish to hv disturbed, I took the key of luy room uway 
«itli me. On my return at six o'clock I was surprised to 
a light in my room although the door romninod locked, 
itering I found Mary there. Shu told nm shu had 
the gaa and then rolled ou luy cushions. She 
Tr iu by pn^f^in^ through the next room to the balcony 
lifting II window of my room. No ou<.- kjiw lii>r go. 
lis ereniug I wm looking at the photogriiph of u baby, 
came to look at it and told me she bad a baby at 
10 that she loved and kissed. She seemed tn npoak of 
her mother but to be displeased with her fathur or somo 
other man. She awked me tu go with her by aud by. T 
taught bcrMomo new v(iin\a, sun, ruin, //•ffit/,Hni\ hut. Shu 
tidked to me for a long time with her own unintelligible 
mauDttl alphabut. In school to-day h was the aubjeol of 


IJUle Mary's First T^ara at School, 

bur writiDff Imsod. Sbu did not tiku it aod (iually refniWHl 
to go uu, naming slie was tlrud. 1 tuld Iter that aiuc-u >ibe 
wan tired I would leave lier nud teaoh Ida. I did so bnt 
wau-binl bur. Sbu [iretitiidefl oot to see me and titlked 
witb n boy fur a moineni, t]ii>ii xbe glnoccMl alyly at me. I 
looked ber Tnll iu tbe i»c« without Kayiug auytbiu^. Sbe 
got a|), went to tbe board, aud Qlled lUo ^laie uitb A's. 

Korember 30. I wua wrapping ap (ivc photograpbs to 
send in tbe mail Ibis afteniooii. Mnry wiitbed to belp 
aud I let ber. Wbeu we bud tbeiu a)l tied up, Mary 8ud- 
donty bogau to couut tbcm by pluciug i^acb finger of one 
baod oD eacb picture in sovotiBaion. Sbe understood 
tbero were five, but iti tiillinn me .sb« repeated tbe five, 
botding up botb liiLmU. Tbiu wa^ ber first vulunLary 
eouotiug outitide of school tbat I noticed. 

December I. In Rcbpol lo-dny I bad <*bnrge of Mar}- 
and varied tbe routine for ber by letting ber play tencber. 
I gare ber tbe book aud told ber to tell ue wbat to write. 
Sbe likud it immcDsely, would toll me not to look wbilc 
abe cboae tbo pictuvo of which t mast write the name, 
tbeu hIiu bid tbe picture ob well as tbe uamu below it in 
ber anxiety to keep me in tbe dark. Sbe oomparcd my 
writing witb tbat under tbe pictures and would Bay witb 
pleased anr))riHO, " Ytm, that m rit/hl" Komt^limeK to tent 
ber I would write tbo wrong word, but mbe alwaya found 
me out aud »uid no. I started some knitliug on u spool 
{or ber. Sbe uas much intertrated bnt found it quite 
dilBcultf tbe pina being too Hmnit ; however, sbe valiantly 
persevered aud waa e\'eu aogry wbvu I aasiaied ber. 8bu 
finally succeoded, but wa8 so tired out by tbe effort that 
she told me to keep it till to-morrow, and explained that 
it would be tost if dbe put it iu ber aprou |)ocket. 

Sbu witK nioi-tiHed ubuost to tears to-day because Ida 
spoileil a wurd for ber iu school. 

As 1 atarti'd downataim by tbe front way, coming from 
my room with Mary, she told me sbe would be pnnisbed 

UtiU Mary*s Ftral Years at SekooL 


if Hlie vent tbiit wnv, so nlie sitid good-bye nad weut down 
tho bnck stAirs instead. 

December 2. Mary told mo Bh« had beon pnnishod for 
lighting the ^JOB in my room wbilo I wng absent. 

1 kissed Mary, whcii sbe held up lier lips to be kissed, 
on b«r «yo8 and (orebead instead ; she IieW up bor lips 
tftftnia and imperiooslj told me to kiss lier there, not to go 
&U ov«r her faoo again. 

Ht-cember 5. While I w«e ou duty to-uigbt, Mary iwkod 
for my key and I gave it to her, tbinkiug 8hn would amuKO 
Cfaereulf quietly in my room ax nHiiiiil. Hub by and by I 
culletl out to tbo nppor linll nnd thoro w;l8 Mary 
igl^ up iu a blue ahirt-waiiil. u dutted putUcoat with 
part of ber own dress sfcickiu)^ out bohiuil. a rloth scarf 
tight around her neck, a silk kerchief thrown over it, — 
with veil, bat, woolen gloves, belt, nitd piiroiiol ! 8be 
looktul quite sheepish when caught. 

Some time to-day cue of the girls liiugbt Mary the wonl 
tra; Mary left her suddeuly and ran all the way upntairs 
Id vpiiW the new word to rao. 

t took the girls for a long walk. Mnry brggeil to be 
lakeu with us this time, (ilie trudgoil along lioliliug my 
kniMl and repeatedly said obe was not cold or tired. As 
«e reached our deittiDatioD she gave iu aud complained of 
Rild, asking for my glovoo ; soon she asked to be aarried 
■ bit, then the cold made her cry aud she wanted to bo 
«Tii«ii all tho way. When we reached home again and 
ibe viu in a warm room she rocorored and refused to 
Itfcp a nap or rest. Afterward alio tulkvd about it aud 
Mid how abo bad cried aud felt cold, but woa now ivll 

As I tucked her iu bod Hbe told me that siie would be 
atlcatiTe in school aud chupul "to-morrow." 

December 7. Mary had her hair cut to-day. Sho made 
■Ooolor)- or riMiiatance, but soon the tears raiD«;^d down, 
filie would not say what was Iho cause, but she declined 


LUtU Mary'g F^r*i Yeart at Schi>ot. 




to thank tlie bo_v wlto cut ber hair, aud would not snyi 
good-byu lo him. WIiuii iiloiio witli tuo hIiu B»id sliu did^ 
not want to go liomu nud cried hard ugaiu. I tried to 
tell her she would return to school, but it did not soothe 

She takcti iafcurest in pictures now nad iroitdtcs the 
poses of figures in tlieiu — hitherto she soenied iodifforeul 
to tliem. She nsked if no old miin iu u mui^ftziDO illustra-^ 
tinii was mine; I stvid uo*. tbeii she pointed to my fnther's 
photograjtli on my desk and aaked if he was luine. ■ 

Dticiiiubur H. Mary'H tcjudmr had n letter train her father 
to-da_v. I copy from it the [ollowipg : 

" Mary wns smarter than any of the r^sl of my cbihIrenJ 
She took hold of a knife or a broom the same as n growi 
person »ud she would laugh at the rest of the children' 
when she would nee the nwquanl way they done anything 
in many wtiys Mary did nut act tike a d^af perxon when 
alie wanted auythio^^ she iilwows cnllod for it whou she 
uas outside and oould not open the door she called and 
if we did not open it right away she would scold we tried 
to ]»Krn [her] to talk h\w woald say motn and /mp and 
Joe and no very plain but everybody came around aud.^ 
all the cbildrou, but their voices were all diflforeut au<lf 
thoy would got her all raixod up ho wp did not bother 
with her we thought it would make her w*orsc> Mnry'8 
gruudfather wore a little bunch of whiskem on his ehin 
80 when we wanted to ask her about hitn we vonld pafefl 
our hand np to our chin as if we were grnsping our 
whiskers and Mary would nuderstand who we uieut so- 
if you waut to toll her about coming home just put your 
hand to your chin and point this direction and Mary wiJ, 
undoretaud you and laugh." 

I tried acting on the above, but Slary would nob ra 
apoud. She said she wae not going home ou the cars. 
She did not like grandpa or anybody at home. I after- 
ward fouud out lliat ou the day of her arrival hur father 



tiuU MttTf/g Fimt yearn at ScAool. 


w*nl awa_T without eaying good-bye. Mary »oou uoli««»i 
Ills KbAuuc« ntiil nskitd tvliara lio was ; snitl aliu was going 
homtt too, auil put on liur )mt nail clonk mid tied up her 
boitille to go. Slio aried uu<l ra-sistud wbeu tlie girls tried 
to tnke off tier hut. I think thia esplninB her Htrange 
&TereioD to butno; flhe tliinks iiur fntliur plajod a moau 
trick ou iier. 

December 12. While witli the childreu the oighl before 

I performod same oxperiments in magaetiKm. Mary was 

lojkitig on. ThiH uiorniug ttka cnmc np to my roooi aud 

asked for Ibu magnet. She ptTfortuutl the same experi- 

tufuts that I had done, r*^iueiuheriug rory well. As t 

bad no noiip-pJAte in my room, slie made a glass tnmbltir 

aerre iuMtuud For Hoittitig ii rork with » miignetiL- uumUe 

on it. Mnry put the IhingH away a(t«r a while aud wont 

ouldoors, bnt latoT iu the day she came iu agaiu aud 

«ai)te«l to write. Tlie pencil noedml sharpening nod she 

aakod to be allowed to do it. She got tho waste-baoket 

nod begiLu i it was bard work, for the knife was dull aud 

the wood bard.bnt Mary woald not give np. She looke«l 

timi hat peraifited until a potut uaniu on that pencil. 

WhiU' »ilie was doing this a thought struck her; nbo said, 

"Let DM MO," and went for my magnet. She out a obip 

of the pencil and held the magnet to it to see if it wonld 

nttnwt tfood. Later she experimeutod on other things 

Mk] irind to tell mo somothing in the manual alphabet. 

Tlia suu was iu her face and she iiske<) me to close the 
hiiods, which I did, aud required her to thank me. ishe 
aikkiMl ii)u to repeat, aud critieizeil my Qngern uayiug I did 
uolliold them otntight aa waa proper. 

At In-dtiuiu sht' run to au older (girl's bed aud hid her- 
eoll ancler a shawl, iutendiug to frigliLeu or surprise the 
otku girl. As the girl wonld not he up for some time, 
we IniMi In make Mnry niidress timt. Shu was furious, 
iiul wljuu fluullr she was undressed aud allowed to ^o 
back she uuderstood what we meant and stopped oryiug. 


DitU Mnvy's F%r»t Years ai School. 


ill in^j 

Decembor 1>5. Mary anicl sho was goiug awav witli in< 
and my futliur (poiutiog to his pliotogrnph od my d 
I said no.slie wiis going togrniiKlpH,l>(it hIib Hiiid hIiu w 
not go with him, adding iiftcr ii liltLc tlioiight (hut bt» 
Hiaggered. She also luado the »gu for driuk. She diA 
not obey mo iu school ; this afternoon 1 iockrd my door" 
to keep her out. beiug also very busy. I felt the itnpatiuQ^_ 
Mtamping of her little feet, but did not open to her. Bg^^ 
aud by I saw my vrindow being puKhed up and a shutter 
was opened ; there iu the rain ou the balcony was Mary! 
She scolded me (or looking the door, and I told her that 
she had Iweti naughty in Achonl and I would lock 
dour whon T did not like bur. She twon kiSHed me » 
promised lo bu good iu sehool. 

7 lent Miss W. a book ; Mary happened to go in to 
her and rccognisiod the book an mine. Shfl told Miss W, 
it watt not hern and slarted to carry off the book to my 
room, but Mi«H W. prevented. So Mary came to find mo 
and insisted that I should cotu» with her. She ted mo to 
Miss W.'s room aud showed me my book. I eiplninvd 
ae well as I eould why it was there. She also dragged 
me off to Mira E.'s room to show me a photograph of 
mys*lf there. 

Sometimes wlicn forbidden to do a thing sho would go 
and do it ut ouco, but it seemed to b« becauBe she vished 
to anderstiind what would happen if she did it 

December IH. Vko played "hide aud seek" in my 
room, aud Mart- thought she MU herself by stondiug on 
top of my ohiffonier. 

December 20. Hitherto Mary haa nsod a gesture of 
her own for the idea of twl/iiinj, -Ivi nol, and »imilnr ex- 
prcseiona; the gesture hoa been made by a shake of the 
head aud hands outspread. She now begun lo use thu 
couventiouai sign, which is uno rather diflicult to get the 
meaning of; tim one in whiub tbu ulomid hand in held to 
the lips, tbau spread out with a puff of breath. I thick 

LiUte Mary's /'^r»t years at ScAool. 



^bwr t>rigfat tn gra»p itn tueiktiiug so hik>|]. Rhe BcrAtelted 
ox^bcKl^v'H hHQ<l and the nmtron tied her handn up m 
U I>ui)ii«hiii()n1. Thi) child nrieil pitflonnlv. Hh« told 
boat it heixelf. After a while site for'rot nad niude 
HNlfgiit HOratuh on another girl's baud, in ravenKe for n 
'****"1( Iho girl had made on Mary's owd paper ; ahe looked 
*• fcliuhand, took a pencil, and with thit rnlibor tip did her 
*'*'*^ to rnb Ibo sonitch out. Wheu ptM>pIe tried in fun 
^-latrli lier liauds she would shake her linger aud M\y 
"'^ Buttroo wonUl tie np their hands for doing auch a 

^^^eccinber 23. Chrislmas wiw near, bat Mary enme to 

""^^ (^'T'ing hard and wiiating to be petted, Haying she did 

"^^^i wish to go home. The n^xt day, however, when she 

"*■ "^t the (jthfi* girls prtiparing to go home, she cheered up, 

^**^ became ignite excited when fdie fiiuiid that a can'ingo 

to oourey her to the staliou. 8he kissml ns nil good- 

""A rhoerfnllT, aud did not look back to wave. 

iaoaary 3. Mary returned in the afternoon and walked 

^^ght into the Hewiog-rooni to greet hor frieudtt. She was 

^Migcr to have lier liag uupackwi that ahe might aliow tig 

Kk«r new dolly and her tea-sot. Then she eaiue upetairs 

With me ami gazed all aroand my room, whirling around 

od her toes, and pointing out the new curtaintt and other 

cbaugeu luiule iu her abHeuce. She run off to see the 

other rnoniH and girla. By and by she came back and 

told me ahe did not wish to go to aohool or chajie], crying 

n little from homesick uese. She was sick in the night 

nod at five o'clock she cAmc to my room bringing ;tll her 

dothoB niid hor two dolU and asking for toilk, also to stay 

wiili me. She aeemed better the next day, l)nt in the 

night wae sick ngflin and woke me at thrc« o'clock. It 

passed off, however. 

JanOAry 5. Mary was looking at n phntogrnph of some 
ttiitihers aad tolling me who they were. Not knowing 
tboir uamoe or aigna abo dcecribod them iu tsomu tsuoli 


Link Mary'» I'^irg/- Y^rt at Scftool. 

vray a» " tlio man with the beaitl." When she CAine to a. 
ooTtaiu luBcher uinoli given to nteriineHH, she imitntei] har 
in 11 scoUliiig attitude, eyea ahut, and anj-iug, iu aigun. 
"Stop! stop!" 

Mnry began to tell me nbont her visit home, how she 
and her fathur wont driving. 

Jauaiirv 6. She compUiued to mc of hi*r tt-iurhtir und 
said it made her tired to sit still. She wanted to bnve a 
tea party id my room with her new dishes and asked me 
to get her Home milk, tingar, tea, nnd bread. She wanted 
my bedspread to use as a tablecloth (or the small box 
wbicb served as table, but nccepted a silk handkerchief 
innteacl. When she poured ont the tea F began to help, 
hy putting sugnr iu the ciipK, but wak reproved, Mar^sayi 
ii]g it was her dutv to do that. 

Jnouarj 8. Mfiry'sdoll having lost a log, she basce 
to care for it, btit she tells mo to take it awaj to havo 
new teg made. 

She was allowed to write with ink in school and her 
little ulioeks glowed with the pride nnd pleasure of it. I 
wrote her name" Marf/" (or one word to copy, and "iioU" 
for amitber. She at once said I waa wrong. It mantbe 
"Mary (V This showed me ttiiit she knew her (all nam 
by sight, I rubbed out " doll " and wrote "Ma 
O'Brien " which satisfied her at once. 

She often a»ked to ba uUowed to help daro my 
8tookiiig>t wlioii she found mo doing it and was ill pleased 
with ft substitute. 

January 8. Mary came into my room eating some candy 
and wanted my hammer to crack the candy with. Shft 
oQ'erod me some and told mo it was ia hor stocking at 
Christmas. I usked her if dolly was there too. She 
Baid uo, doily was oo the mantel. 

•Tanuary 20. Mary told mo she felt sick last night, and' 
thiii luoruiug nhe sunt somebody to call me. Shv told mo 
she did not want to get up, did not want to «at or drink 











littU Mary't Firet Veam at School. 203 

AoyttiiD^ bnt a glftsn of milk, »□<! <lii1 not want to ^o to 

school. 8li« wat) kept in Imd all lUy, hut koou bciiHmo 

very fratfnl nt tlie coufiuumcut auil asked (oi- all lier 

friends in turn, wmtted to t;o ani] sew, even tn go to 

scliool, etc. When I went in she told mo to stay, not to go to 

Hapf>er, hnt to rock her. She did not want to sleep alone 

in th« sick-room ; asked lo como to my beJ or lo go up to 

her ovm near the other girls. Th« doctor citme iu the 

*vt>uiiiK *od felt her pnUo. She drew her Imutl nwny nud 

"dd gooct-byo, pointing him to the door, dismissing him 

^ilXtc promptly. Although lior room iidjoined the ma- 

'"*«»'» Slid she hml huen told (hat the door between would 

'^ «3pAn all night, she felt too lonesome, and at tweWe 

"'^■<K-k citme to my room and wnke me. She seemed 

****^aic'k, but protu«t<xl that nhe wiw not sick but would 

B** and dre«s by and by, though she confessed to being so 

^hf day 1 wfin returning a book to the library, when T 

■ ^covered that the paper ou the oiver ha^l been Mcratclied 

*^*'ay to one place. It lookecl as if iiu ink blot bad been 

~*«ul« and an attempt to erase it with a lead-pencil eraser. 

^ «u*|n.«eto<l Mnry and showed it to her. She lookfd 

^t-nuige, hnlf smiled, bat drew tmck and denied having 

*^r)ns it. EvidiiuUy she bad lioguu to (uar puuishmout, 

'lufiug of Inle beou punished in nn arbitrary way for 

tuinor otfetises. I peraisted and otiked her if the dis- 

ition bad been made with a knife; she fiaiil do; I 

[■sked her if ink liod been xpilted on it and a rubl>er used ', 

'•hii sheepishly siiiil yes. I simply told her she must show 

me the book aod not hide it, but I did not think she really 

understood my moaning. However, a few days later, 

while she was sick, she showe4l me a book I had loaned 

Jier for amaaement and told me that she bad soiled it 

while (nek, an if uhe remembered the former incident. 

Uary's illness was always a great trial to her. At first 

i« seomod macb ofrmtd of the do«tor or somotbiog. 


Litilc J/uryV ftret Yean at School. 

Whenever 1 wont to see her tiliu would put out b< 
arnas and cliug to me, cr,viu<j, and ask me lo tnke her 
away from the Iiospital or to stay with her, nod would 
t«1l me thnt she did not want thii doctor. Bub wheu sh^H 
tiiiidly niidefHtodd that wt> did not menu to leave her i^| 
tlie bonpiliU longer Ihau was necessary, she became verjr 
good and patient, thnogh she wonld alwavK tell me to Imh 
snra and " come back " tiftar schoal or tueuU. Whuu tthiH 
got better she aeemed very gliid ; she would annouuoe 
that she was "all well " ao gleefully. While still siek st 
asked for a lesson in tignres. 

One nftomoon during her ponralesRenae 1 passed 
hoR|iitHl window and Baw Mary Ihera waving to mo. 
wivvad, too, but passed ou, intending to make hor a visi 
afttor ton. They told mo that she ha*l really been beekon- 
ing to ran to come np and wlion I did not coiue she pacbe^HJ 
nil her things in h»r nightgown and started for the utairs, 
saying she was going to see me. She cried when dotaiued, 
tind when I came up at last she told mo she had harm ery- 
iog, and pointed a repronohfnl finger at me, but would ei 
plain uo further, evidently considering me guilty. 

One of the maids gave her a nice big apple while sbf 
was still too sick to eat it. She liked to look at it ai 
smell of it and handle it ; she was very fond of apples," 
Kvery day nhe would pnll it from ander her ptUow and 
ask me if she could eat it yet, aud when I said no ehe 
wonld meekly put it back again. Oueday she showed me 
n single tooth print in it, but for more than a week she 
resisted temptation, and I bad foigotten the apple til] oi 
day she annouueud that she hud eaten it. There wastsic 
chief in her oye, but 1 wae so astonished I did not belioi 
her. I hunted for the apple and she laughed at me and 
said I oould not tind it. I anked if she ate it all by her* 
self. Shti sitid no, she aud Futuaui (a little black boy in 
tliti next room not ill enough to be in bud) went halvun.. 
Under the bedclothes I found an apple seed and a 



Little Mary's first Vetin at School. 


cratnlM. 1 naked Miu-y bow tli^y had cnt the appla ; 

•' IVilh » koifo?" "No." "With seissorsi" " N«." 

.\t Jautsbi) pointo<l to tho mimtel And I fonml n spooD 

klje^re. Yes, that vtus the iuetniiiient used. Fortuuulely, 

DK» ft&arm s«emod to be doue in her illness. 

•A- xiotUor du}', wbilo still iu tlio hospital, she u-att (iiuf^bt 

•** ^pell i'utH-un, tho block boy's name. Mary objected, 

**^y"«iig liie Dame was hoy, but yielded fortlie time. When 

* <^aKue ia sbe asked me if /-uttuttn was bta uauio, aud I 

'^^'^^^titcd. Shu tMiid DothiDg, but tbonuxt dayitbu toKlme 

*t ^^^us uol ritiht. Ho might be /V, but he oould not huve 

** ^Kihis uame becauee n formed the initial eigu of the 

K*>^la aupurvidnr, and « was rejected beanuse it was iu ber 

'^^■tnp, " Mary." HowoTer, kIio j'livo np in n Tbw iIrtb, and 

*'^r Lbut cnllod him I'lilmim ; she also learned many 

BCLuies wliiln coiivalesaing, mostly the naniee of persons 

*^ich hIiv witilied t<i know. 

Fobniary 11*2. Mary'M lr)ng siuge wan ctitted l(i-<!ay. and 
*Vi« wiia duli^bttid to soc uvory one agaiu. Sho wanted to 
|9[a aod shake bands with all her old actjuaintaoces and 
visit her i>ld hnuuls. 

Wb mot a lady ontdoorH ; Marv wished t« know if 1 
likud bur. 1 Knid I loved her. Mury obJMitod, snyin^^, 
" yon lovu me, njid I Iov« yon." I said yes, bnt I loved 
tlio liuly too, mnking three. Mary wus quiet, but nt ui^hL 
■bv t4ild me I could not love two othent ; there were nut 
tliroft, but two only- — beraelf and myaelf. Sliu watipnsitive 
hat iuconaisteiit, for sbe IovmI Ida, the little eolorml 
^rl. and iuniHtetl on my treatiuff her lo ii rideou my wheul 
and other favors I had graate<l Mary heraelf. 8li« wanted 
to^re away b«r riog to Ida, and oft«D made me kiss 

Febniaiy' S4. I was invited out to lunch. Mary haiit«4 
for me. and »t(ked where I was. WbeD 1 came back and 
met her she told me not to go away but to stay at home, 
and when I explained that T went to laoch with friouda 
■he Biud I most not eat there; I must eat down atairs, 


LiUle Mary's First Years at Schwl. 

Coming to my room after dark I Fouuil Marj' slUiug 
my iletik, drees^d up iu nijf lawos. I wondered tliat si 
bad not meddled with tlie gas tliis time, as nlic liru] m« 
often done in spite of protests. Blie tiiiid, " I must uo- " 
do it ; tliiK is t/oitr room," abowiug that abe now uuder — 
stood the mutter. ^M 

February 27. Mary wanted to Rweep ray room with ^F 
du8t-tiruiih, mid actiiidly moved tlie chiSVmier iu [irepara— 
tiou. I luld her tliu maid would Hwc-ep; she tuiid uo, uc 
the maid, iiot myself, but Mary must sweep. 

She WHS trying to 1enru tlie iinmeK of all the girLs nt this 
period, and knew their Kign-naraE>s — abont fifty-uiiio in nil. 

She ficmwlud ou some papf-r, then m»du a crude un^l 
velope with plenty of muciitif^o, and pasted ou it an olo' 
stamp from one of tny letter.s. This she tried to drop in 
the mHil-l>ag and, wheu ])revantBd, aaid she would give 
to a mau. JJy aud by whsu we went outdooni she sud-' 
deoly said she would take it to " the uiau with tho Ui^ard," 
HDd ns we happened tn see him on his way to his offie^H 
Mary eagerly pursued him up-stnirs nod gave him the 

March 2. One of the little girls was kaowa by the sign 
for enrfs, as she had u corly head. >Iary leurued to spell 
hut unmo, Hert/m, aud at oucc orittciised, sayiug she mimtj 
bavu an initial sigo — the curls iu the uir must he mad4 
with the baud forming a B, to oorrespoiid with \x< 
name. She has corrected othi^rti in the Kame way. Out 
girl had a scar over her eye-brow, aud hur xigu uuforttL- 
uately referred to it, two fingers being drawn over the eya^ 
brow. Mary was told that tliiH girl'ri name was JUan 
too. She objected strou({ly, nud observing tlie sign whioP 
aeemed to be an A* on the forehead, said ibo girl's name 
was Naty. She criud when we insisted that it was Mary, 
and it was some time buforu nho understood that uame» 
of persons miglit l>e alike, aud Mart/ was not her own 
iodividual property more than another's. The girU gave 

]firy's First Veart at School. 


■■■ 'i-^i. " dimple ia cliook"; sbo now ropodinted 
. K'Jinvlf a uow mgu, ikD if ut bet- tUrout, enyiDg 

i) iltC'Ut lo play ball wjtb two littie girU; I told 

III I'lifudil not to tbrow tile ball lit ilio wiudow 

Aud bruftk it. Harj vent at oncu to the wiudow and 
pnllitl iliivn tbeebftde to protect the window from brenk- 
iu^. She pulled too bard aud the cai'taiu iraa torn ; slie 
wan alarmed. I told bur I was sorry and tbat ulie moat 
pull gtrntlT, niul luuKt n»lc tlu^ matron to forgive bor. 
Mary wanted (o know if her liauda would be tied up iu 
rags Hgaio. 

Looking over my photogi-apbs. she wanted to know if 
alt the ladieH in one ^rnnp were my friuudH. I told her 
tbid «n« was uiy frioud. Mary said uo, I cuuld not have 
tbres fritnids, or ten (xprending out her two hands with 
no expressive gesturn), I coiild have only her. Then 
Mho verj- iiiiperionsly commandRd me to ask her pardon, 
untl after a moment I did ho, being mirioiia iitt to the re- 
sult. She jfirked ber beatt, ye*, as if I did not deserve to 
be forgiven aud must certainly never offoiid agaiu. 

At thia dnlo kIio weighed Only forty-five pounds with 
hnr outdoor things on. 

Sfarch 10. Mary came in to wake me and observed the 
wriDklos in my cli«cks caused by crcaece m the- pillow ; 
she said tbat was bow I bad wrioklcs ia mr forehead. I 
used to reprove ber when she paekered ber forehead, atid 
sb« tried to remember, so if 1 merely toncbed ber fore- 
huAii abe would atraightvu olit anddonly. Wboo nbe 
oanglil me id tbe same offense she tried to smooth out 
my forehead and told me I must uot lift my eyebrows so. 

Id school to-day abo am bitiouHly attempted to do the 
«4l<liliou tnbltiH of nuotber tihuw, and derlino<l any aid. 

March 11. Mary counted four Imiiauaa on ray wasb- 
ataud. I told ber tbey were for her aud gave her one, 
tjriog that the others would keep for the next day and 

Little Jfar;/$ Firtt Yiiar$ at SehoitL 

Sunday. She assented, but I liad to Ibavb tlie room for 
ao liotir, iiud wlien I returned iiot a bauiwn wna to be 
seuu. Slie fmukly ouuctl up to bsvin^ outou tboiu all, 
buldin)4 up four tingers to hIiow me bow miiuy. No doubt 
she was very liuu^ry. 

March 12. I whs typen'ritiuy iu my room to-dny "ud 
Marr ^^'HS much interested, but fiuding oio busy and un- 
re*;pousivo she went out, tnkiug un etnpty box on wbicb 
sbc bad scrawlflil her uniue aa Mary Unen. By and by 
ehe reappeared tu cap aud coat, prwiedud by two older 
girls, who usked me if Mary was allowed to go oat alono. 
Isaid, "Yes, about ttiogronnds," wbereapoo they informed 
me tbat tbey bad found ber ont&ide, on the utreet, goin^ 
to the candy shop. She reelstod whon they tn«d to bring 
her home. 1 n«kod bor what nho wont away to got, and 
abo said " candy," Hhowing me her box all ready for it, 
and complaining that the girls pulled Iter back. 1 aaked 
where her money was. She bad foi-golten and said, '*0A.'" 
in a way. I told her sbe could not go out of the g&tu 
alone, but tuo girls could go together. It EteetoB she bad 
fUiked me to get ber some candy earlier in the morning, 
and, uti I wiut keeping some of her puunivs, I told her I 
woubl, by aud by. She evidently lirinlof waiting for mo. 
I van lUled with remorse and put ou my things and went 
with her. She held ber box tight and carried my pnrse 
forme. In Ibu abop hIiu solcoted Huiuutbiug, and I lold 
ber it was worth four cents. Sbo countral out four coins, 
u dimb uiuotig them, whicli I put bjick aud explained, aud 
abe paid tlin Hhopman. 

Her li(iu!i(!wifuly iu»tiuotH are atrutig. To-day sbe 
lockL-^i buretelf into the teacher's bathroom inid proceodeU 
to sweep and to shake the rug ; she is constantly attampi- 
ing to clean my room for me. 

She infnrmuil mu what girla were playing luasket-ball 
and who wa^ absent from the luaui, aUo telling me why. 

March 16. As tiie pedagogues are collecting pictures 

UUU Mary's First Ymrs at School. 


drawn l>y children tbin one may be uf iuterest. Hary 
tuformed me tt was mj pictare: 



Tlieni i» a (aint outline n( li<m<I, bndj, arms anil logs, 
bat DO clotliee, ooi feutun^t iu tliv (aire. 

Mury weot io a party willi tbc otber school cliililren 
Uiis nfUraoon at hftlf-paat four. At balf-past t«oven she 
came ronniDg iu, eyes nod clieckn glowing, and told me 
that sbu hiul (limu^d tbo Virgitiin Ruul ; 8hu lifter) her 
hatidft nboru lic-r buad and veut under the arcb Tb panto- 
mime, bowe<l and gtioolt hands to show me bow it was 
done. 8hs told me that htir boxt and bis wife shook 
haoda with her and named tho«(e abe saw there besidea 
bar Hcliooltnates. She said she ate " ice" bananas, and 
OTAOgee, crackers, and other things. They bad a grab- 
bsg, there was a piano, she meutioDe<l who sat with her 
at table, and showecl me what she had brought home. 
An older child conld hardly have told uie better " alt about 
the party. " 

March 29. ] hafl another vigil with Mary. She told 
ne oot lo sleep in riiy bod as she was sick ami wanted to 
aleep there herself. As soon aa she was better she 
'WMmad maob relievMl and doctarot] she was well. 

210 l'iitl''i Mary's First Yeirs at School. 

While walking about the grounds with me, Mary saw 
a colored maid sitting on the steps of a bouse and tried 
to speak with her orally. Receiviog no response, she held 
out her hand und spelled " Ida." I suppose she wanted 
to ask if the girl's name was Ida, or if she knew Mary's 
little colored friend Ida. 

She objected to any one bearing my first name, as well 
as those who had hers, but she now allowed me to have 
some name duplicates and told me of tbom, while continn- 
ing to object if any one had her name. 

She wanted to wear eye-glasses ; I gave her an empty 
eye-glass frame, but she would have nothing to do with it. 

April 9. Mary visited a menagerie and when she came 
back she was full of the elephant, but she also imitated 
the pacing back and fortli of the tiger or lion, and told me 
about the bears, deer, and other animals. 

I had her with me in the ofiice ; she sat behind me at 
a table, and screamed at me to attract my attention. Of 
course I did not hear her, but she got off her chair and 
came to scold me, telling me I must look at her when she 
screamed. I advised her to wave her handkerchief at me, 
and she tried it after u while ; she was delighted with my 
prompt response this time. 

She thought she would go visiting, slipped out, went to 
a house and rang the door-bell. A man came to the door 
and, seeing her with a letter in her hand, supposed it was a 
message. Slje let him look at it and then took it back, 
and ran home to tell me what she luid dooe. 

April 11. Mary came to my room and wanted to sew. 
By and by the lightning fiashed and she told me the 
"nun" had frightened her. 

She took one of uiy stamped euvolopes and scrawled 
all over it, writing the word "//wy" three times. I asked 
her whom the letter was for. She said for " Putnam," 
the colored boy. 

She lost another girl's hat pin in playing with the hat, 

LSiita Muiy'g First Yeare at School. 21 1 

cnme sntl askod mo to givo lior one lo lunko good tlie 

Uny 81. I went out of town for n few Aays, and on ray 
r<>tnrn was toM tlial Mnry Imd dnil^ eonnti><l tlio tiin« of 
tuy hIwudco. She entno down to my room iit his o'clock, 
111 her ni|;btf*owD, to see if I realty lind arrived the iiiglit 
before, and appeared deli}<lited to 8«e me. She coufeflsdd 
to me that Hhe f«lt ill, nud sbe wtrs later obliged to go to 
tbe liospitol, but tliia timo she wua brave about it, aud 
TOTT )Hitieiit, only tisking that the supenisor should go 
with Uer. 

Td flobool 0110 day thift month Mnry drew a picture 
which se«tued to aUiud for tho liousv she lived iu ; after 
pnttiDK Id the windows, she added some words, trying to 
ttDttDierato the occupauts, but evideutly forgetting herself 
aud oao otliur boy ur girl. Tho "boy" wuh an after 




ZitUe Marys First Team at School. 

Jmw 8. Mtiry dressed in borrowed fiuory and wanted 
to ^o dowu to sapper iu it, f U>ld licr liur Bkirt was so 
loDg site would Muruly bo trtppud. She weat ab ouce to 
tlie pin cusliioii, tiud liiruiiiR the skirt up piDned it fast ; 
turuiug Uf^aiu to me slie said, " Xow I will not Mt«p on it, 
I can go." She wan quite dia»ppoiut«d uot to be allowed 

•luuti 11. Mary weul ou her first Hiiodar-school picnic, 
aud liad a good. time. Sbe shot tlie chute, aud at nigbt 
oanie to ask me what would hapfHin if she full from thej 

June 12. Marj oaine in tbis morning and spelled toj 
me: " Love yoa [adding my name], Mary O'Brien." Slu 
said her foot wns "xick." I taught her to xpell " hurt," 
and tthu repeiittnl il ut SuudiLV-edioul. 

The above notes belong to ttie first year at school, 
mad*! but Few jattiiigH during the next two ycim that X\ 
asHOoiated with ber, and as tthe learned the wayti of the 
school aud fell into routiue there v'as less of interest 

September 20, 189S. Mnry wns delighted to see mol 
Bgaiu ; aha iutrudueed me to liir futht^r, first by my aign,j 
aud then wrote my fall name, putting Miss between utyi 
first and Inxt n»nie«. She told me all about her vacation] 
iu inslallmonte, aud came iu as usual to wake tue in tho] 

She was sick soon after lier arrival bnt bore it bravely. 

October 24. Mr. C.'a buby waBont for an airing. Hary 
wanted to kiss it bnt I tried to ditisuade her, feiiriug the 
baby wonld ory. She pleaded "just half a kise.just u 
little kiss," showing me the measure on her Hiigor. Mr. 
C. laughed and let bL<r htiw a whulo kise. 

Kovembor 7. Mnry vn» uiakiug a noitte, but when she 
saw MisH R., who was not iu good health, she went and^ 
asked her pardon, inquiring if she bad n heuduuhc 

While I was roa<linij M.arj came and asked mu to goj 

f.iUU Mtiry'a First Vears at School, 


ontdoDK witli bur. I wikKriitliur tiuwilliiifj;, l>iil «Iio fonnd 
Bometbiog to mark m^' {>liice in the book nud geutly took 
it Hway from iiie,sa;iu(;, " Pleaae come." It was impossible 
to remst. 

She wa» freqnentlj reproved for making umiglilj faces; 
ODoe sho n^ked me if Jeaus uaed to make faces. She also 
adced if sbe would ever be crucified. 

Mary began at this Ume to be more interested inpiotares 
nod Mould ti;l] KtoricH from tbum. 

Sht! waa wnviiig ber baud at auottier girl to attract her 
attautiou. It took some time and wlieu sbe finally looked 
ap Mary said tier hand whs " siiic " and had a headache 
becaiue it had waved mo long a time. 

She Diinnlly cHuie for me after school and carried my 
bookn. Once she did doI come, but sood came rnuuiug 
back aud told me she had forgotten at first. 

Hhe bod learned to HpuU " / thank you '* and " Weli:omg." 
If Bbe did auybudj a tten'ice, she would wait (or them to 
«aj " I Ibaukyou" to hor aud would eriticiso them for 
the omission. Or if she bad occasioD tosny "I thank 
yoa"to Kouie one, Hbe would tell them they mutit Hay 
*' Welcome" iu roturu. 

I once gave ber an orange ; she rati downatairs with it 
but roturaod very booh, to my sarpri»c-. I asked hor if 
it was eaton already, ^he said yen. I showed tny snr- 
priae at ber liaute aud she eiplaiued that she had divided 
It with Helen and Ida. 

At oue time she seemed to be coutiutinlly iu disgrace 
with the authoritiea. I thouj^ht I uuidd try to cucuunigu 
ber to be good ; bo I took a little book and on one page wrote 
"Mart' is goo<l" aud on the other " Mary is bad," putting a 
murk daily under one or the other accordiDg to her reported 
Gondact. Hhc was pluaiicxl whuu iiho aaw the good inarka 
iitoniaa«, bat at first ahe did uot " oatah ou," and proposed 
to be bad '' to-morrow " so as to maku the marks on the 
bad page balance those on the good page. 

2X4 Little Mary's First Tears at School. 

December 11. She wa8 jealous of my atteution to 
another little fjirl anil said " Yon don't love her, do yon ?" 
When I replied that I did love her, she said I must love 
her only a little bit aud for three days, no longer. 

Being pleased with her former impulses of generosity 
and desiroua of encouraging tliem, I gave Mary a treat and 
told her she might share it with three other little friends. 
She was joyful, but soon came back having in tow the 
three recipients of my charity whom she directed to spell 
"/ thank you " to me. She had to teach them how to do 
it and then she directed them to watch while I spelled 
" Welco'xe" 

January 20. In my room Mary wonid come and write 
the names of nearly every one in the school, names of 
objects she saw or knew, and even sentences she learned 
in school, but site still liked to fill sheets of paper with 
mere scribbling, as if her bund demanded exercise iu the 
writing movements. 

February 13. One Sunday after dinner I was very 
sleepy when Mary came in to talk. 81ie was in a remi- 
oiHcent mood aud told me what she used to do " when she 
was a little girl " six years old, evidently feeling very 
grown-up now she was eight years old. 1 fell into a doze 
while she was Mtill anxious to tell me mot'o. She tapped 
my cheeks and scolded, but compromised by telling me I 
might shut ««e eye if 1 looked at her with the other, but 
it would be rude to sliiit both eyes. 

May 22. Mary and I played at arithmetic with but- 
tons. She could now count mentally and without using 
her fingers. Then she asked me to speak the names of 
various articles in my room, and in turn spoke to me, or 
tried to, and required me to guess what slie said. She 
would put her mouth in position for the initial letter of 
the word desired, as oo for /'■, meaning windoir, i for ink, 
but both k and e for key. 

She asked me to give her a book for iier own. She 

LittU Mary's P'irst I'eara at SduM. 


telkftd aboat -JesaH, death, aod a fuaerAl, after a Soudaj- 
SellOOl lei^HOi]. 

I garo bur eomo oraokera ouo tl»y. Hlio smlduuly Haid, 
'* You give me sonieiliiu^ eTerj day (Qsiug et^ery day for 
o/Uh., a digQ slje had Dot y«t learned), do }'oa think of 

Sbti ofteu ttaitl shu did uut lovo hor tL-nuhtir, » circtim- 
Btanoe I moch regretted, aa it clitUed her interest io school 
work for the time being. 

Oetolwr 9. I guvo Mnrj a ginger nuap two dayn in huc- 
flflanon. Thu wwcoud day sh« said, "Thank yrm^' nod 
■Jided that she had forgotteu to thauk ice iLe day befuro, 
ao** Now, tico thank yon." 

One oight mood aft^^r her arrival she woke me np n'hile 
it wan Htill dark and wUhud to May with tne. I asked her 
\t sho was 8it.-k, bat «he said uo, and would givo no other 
explanatiou. I ]>eruiitted her to remain, aud when it 
greir light she jumped up and said, " Good-bye; it's 
li^hl riDW ; I'll go to my own lied," and went up-Htaini. I 
fMinoludud that abu had thu usual chitdiKh dislike of lying 
a«akt> in tho dark. 

Ak tinm went on and M'ary became more sootablo 
wiUi tbo other children, I aaw rather less of her. She Htill 
ran op to toll me the news aud to visit, bnt I was exeoed- 
ingly buay, and, as she needed mo less, could uot give hor 
nmoh of my time. I find hat one other eotrr about her ; 
that is dated May 4, 1900, aud to the eflTeut that Mary told 
me fliy bnltou-boi was in great disorder; she proeoodod 
to empty it and then tried to arrnngo the buttons in piles 
of OQA color and siise in the box ; of coarse, it was a hope- 
I««a task. 

To my great regret I parted vith Mary at the end of 
Ibis t«rm. Hor loyal friendBbip bad bccu a constaut de- 
light to me, and I always found her thonghta and aotioos 
most intereetiug. Under a teacher who thorooghly uq- 
dtttttooil her lOid eympatbized with her, 1 felt sure she 


LUU« Mari/a First years at Schont. 

voaM be H bngltt JUld prof^rcasiTo evboliir. Uu<1er arbi- 
tmr; rnle Atitl iltogioal methods of iiistmotJoii she wonlfl 
be crtttnpetl iiiiil perhnps » failure. The jears will tell. 
She uoe4]oil Intitmle, for bur ItHlo minil intint linve ii ronaon 
lor eTerytbirig. Slie could aot tamolj accept, uod obey 
as many children do. 

My noUw wore not made iti n pedagogic spirit exactly. 
I wild uut bt^r rugaliiT tL-achtir; but there wuro !w niaur 
iutorestiug epieodes iu our uctjuuiutauce that I wiithud to 
remenilier (hem and vrot« theiu dowra. It now seems to 
me tiint tilt! tioteH iiiny lie of intereiit to tencheiK geiiRrallv, 
aiid I tliiuk i\wy show tluit :< littttt tUmf (diild'H iniDd does 
often work as logically aud naturally as that of u Leoriug 
child. The enTironinent of the deaf child will afford the 
KtininbiK, uiid if \i» friends iire oltAerring and ingenious 
they may give* tbo child the right trend. Tt im to \>e noted, 
also, that Mary aud t conversed iu ber own crude geaturos, 
which were gradually dropped an she pickwi np the con- 
ventional xiguM in her aKt<(»eiiitiunH at Hcbool, and she 
spelled luanunlly such woi-ds or Beutenoes as alio knew ; 
soiuetiiuos tibo tried tosponk also. 

Perhaps I iDhall he accused of mining lier digestiou 
by giving ber fruit, candy, and crackers, as T did. 1 will 
explain that ^he was very peculiar about her meals. Her 
heultb or her habits wore not rightly established. She 
vanteil meat all the time and would eat hardly anything 
elae ; milk was often objectionable, and in tbe restricted 
diet of a boarding school it was impo«iilble that she should 
get what she liked. There wore many struggles. Mary 
was very fond of fruit, and I thought it right to indulge 
lier occasionally ; she had suob a hungry look about her, 
and yet would not cat what she ccnld got at table. After 
a wliilo I was glad to see that the authorities tried to vary 
hor diet to suit her better. 8he seemed a child of spocinl 
Udeds in every aspect, physical, mental, aud moral, and I 
groatjed inwardly at the attempts of tbe stern di&cipltoa- 
rians to cast her iu the same mould as oth'ors. 

Litde Mary's Firtt rtars at SeAoot. 


Id mj flcqaainUDCO vritb Mnry, tlio poioto tliat came 
homo to rai: vrure: 

1. EaoIj little ctiitJ Imb nu iudiTulaalily of iUt owd 
wliicli leacberti ami caretiikera are boimd tuotit soleuinly 
to ntutiy Mill Lo roajHict. 

2. It is far WUer to lot n cliild ruiaaiu uopniimhud for 
a faoll ihau to run ttie risk of puoIsliiuK him utijuslly, as 
is too often the cane. 

3. A obilil filioiild not bo puoiitbed withoaL biu uador- 
•tandiog icAy be in puuisbud. 

4. FuDiHliments should not be arbitrary, and alike fur 
all oflfenHes. Tlipy slmnhl bear some reseiubhmce to the 
oBoaae committed, thai the child way huTu a logical cod- 
iMCtion nf CUU&L* and efToct. 

G. CbiUlreu should bu encouraged iu (heir ofTorUi at 
a«1f>activity, eren if the set lesson for the day he iuter- 
fortid with. They need to ffroto, and the more D<tturally 
tboy do so, the mure tht<y use* tboir owu rolitiou, ao tnneb 
tb« better for them in after life. 

6. Kapecial caution must be iiaed ia dealing with high- 
■tniDK* D^^'vunH c'hildrt*!!. 

7. Cliildri!ii Khonhl l>e ultowed to own their school- 
books, peus, peucils, tablets, aud ibeir rights of possessioD 
must be strictly observed. In ouo class I kuew of, the 
pens weru common property, and I noticed frequent a{>- 
proaclies to n rint among the small pnpils who wished to 
nae the same pen tbey bad the day before ; (b&y would 
identify them by various tooth prints, ink status, or other 


OF 1900. 

The proceediDgs of tbe Deaf Section of tbe Paris 
Cougress of 1900 have been printed in an octaTO Tolume 
of over 400 pages.* It is edited and published entirely 
by tbe deaf, and in both respects is a creditable piece of 
work, though some typographical errors, almost insepara- 
ble from a print of this kind, are visible, as also aoma 
evidence that hazy notions of American geography are 
not confined to British minds. 

Tlie membership of tbe Section is shown to have been 
highly representative. It numbered 219, coming from 
nine countries of continental Europe, from England, and 
from the United States. Naturally, France, with 126, 
and Germany, with 46 members, were the most lai^elj 
represented. The number of delgates present does not, 
however, by any means mark tbe limit of the interest and 
eympatby shown by tbe deaf in tbe meeting. The 
numerous letters, telegrams, and articles sent by those 
unable to be present, show that this interest and sympathy 
were world-wide. 

The cliief subjects upon which papers ware read, or 
discussions held, or both,, were: the exclasion of the 
deaf from the bearing section of tho Congress ; methods 
of instruction ; art and indnstrinl teaching in the schools 
and transference of the pupils to outside fields ; higher 
education ; tho deaf as teachers ; homes for the aged ; 

'ExlMIHinON rNIVEBKKI.I.G i>b1'.K)0. 

Ctingrts IntertiatioDAl pour rKtiido iIi'n (juostionii d'Asaiatanoe et 
d'Edncation iles SininlH-Miiots (Seclioti dos .Sotirils-Mnets. ) Compte 
Rendu dOHDiybHtfletUt9latioiiBnJverai.'H. Fur Hkkbi Giillakd, Seoi^tair* 
da Pri^ramnii!, et Henri .Ieanvoink. SeiTC-tnire (Ji-ui'rul. Paru: Im- 
{irimerie d'OuTrii'rs Smirds-Muets, 111"', line iVAlvtim (31, Villa 
d'Ali-sia). laOO. 

Tht Deaf Siclicn aftKe I'aria Ctmgr<mf>f 1900. 219 

the resnits of pure oral t«aching iu Itnlv. FrnDce, Ger- 
tamny, aud AuBlria; raligioiis work among the denf ; 
BodeAiee of the denf in rrnnce : (be dejif in general 
sacietT BDcl iis citiznnit ; cnrnHrx nnd profpKHinuH for the 
cl«af ; phyKicnl trninitig in tlie mcIiooIh, and the utility Huti 
priMiioaatieftti buth of «poeeli aud of the si^u-laitguage to 
thr (leaf. 

rpon those qtiestionn fifty-two papors wpw presented 
At tilt* uioeliii(( and urn priiitud in this roporl, iimoy of 
tbnm hdinf; fiillowed by the diacriRsions ariniiiK from the 

Tbo anthore of nnri dohaton* npno these pnperR are 
■inoRi;; t)ie hei)X Mincattid and aljli>Ht deaf porsoriH in their 
rospective onuntrltis, as DitHUzeau and Oenia in Franco ; 
WatKulik nud Uumpf in Oermuoy ; Kicca in Switzerland, 
Hrill ill Anstria, B^^uknr in Donmarlc, and TitKo in Swoden. 
Tb« American aulluirH were MB^ri*. HaoHon, Fox, Georf^o, 
BobiiKOu, Griuly, aud James h. Smith, nnd Mrs. Svaring 
(Howard Glyndou), 

Thus this report oontaina tho idean, opinions, aud in* 
fonnntion of mauy of the nhlest deaf men iu the world, 
ouch itpeaking fur his own country, upon all luiportant 
qneBtloDH relutiug to the deaf, hoth during aud after, but 
■spociolly after, thoir school lives. £u<:h ttpoaka not for 
hiniKtdf nloue, but for a grvat coustituency. For example, 
it in flhown that in France there were tiftecu itouiuliuM of 
the denf represt-nteil, ttie natiouiU body having more thao 
3.00n [ormbvnt. rarallol fnotn are known tn exist in the 
other conatrie.t. Again, t-ach BpeakM froiu no theory, but 
from the irresistible results of the duily battle of hia life 
and of the lives of hia diiaf hretliren and aiater^ around 
bitn. Their aoui^luHioutt are uxpretHHid in resolutiouH 
alremdy priiite<d iu the Annalv.* 

However lightly the conoloaloDs of this body may be 
M>t aside by theorists not in sympathy with it, is it sure 

■ 111 III- JauiiKj iiawbvr, pp, 1U8-111. 

220 Tfte Deaf Section ofth*. Paris Con^«* o/ 190aJ 

that au iitibiaBsed investigator, auxioua to know tno truth 
abont the ilenf, woalrl tieat tbcm id tlieHnme way^ Nay. 
more ; i» it not coDc<>ivn)ile thitt such n man, viewing botb 
soctious of tim Congrc-tiS, woalil regard the Denf Section a« 
tlie more importaiit ! Suppose a k«uu, practical man of 
bui^iiieits at Paris lo have bad his interest anddeoly and 
for tha fimt tiiuo iiwakened in the dttnf. He enters ibn 
Benriug Sectiou to leurti all be cau. H« beuxs of the 
wondrous things pure oralism can do, and sees the trinm- 
pbnnt roti*(( in iU furor. Dut be is a practical man. Ha 
looks about liiiu for proof. Dutiindly and roiutonably ex- 
ptwtiiig to baVB Kume of thexe woud<>rful Heat lueu pointed 
ont to him in tbo tompl^. Kitting iu the midst of tbe 
doctors, botb boariu^ tbcm (apparoutly) and nskiug tboDi 
quot^tioDii. NouR being indicated, ho asks hiK nextneigb* 
bor if this pure oralism is a new inveutiuu wbiuh iajet to 
prove its faith by its works. " No, indeed," hhjm bis 
interlocutor ; " it has hud nbsoluto sway hero in JParis for 
twenty years, in Italy for thirty yoars, and in Oermany 
for a hundred yoara." More myHtitied than ever, be 
paaaes out, only to find iu an adjaceut room sonie bun- 
dreda of deaf oieD, ovidoutly intolligeut, and, he learas, 
earucetly opposing tbA sweeping claims that bo had hoard 
in thu firat ball ; doing it, too, by means of a language 
wbiob he had thero beard nnspuriugly condemned. He 
aaks thorn why? Tbey reply, with practically one voic«. 
Because wc have te8t<>d in the world the ©sporiiueuts that 
Wtiru tried ou ua iu the echooli). Tfa» toi-dUunt pauacei 
you beard lauded in the other ball goes far to cure a vei 
few; it huli>s eumewhat a cousidenible number, but it 
totally fails to help a great mauy, and is, indeed, an 
injury to theae la»t. Of all ibis we aru the proof. Look 
into our daily lives. Wo bolicvo tboy will give you cou- 
firnialiniiHtttrimg as proofs of holy writ. Ask our frient 
rolativoM, omployera. Test our epcecb aud power to read' 
Hpoocb by sight youttdf, — not of a few of na, not of tbe 

Tht Deaf Stctwn of the Ptirit Conyrets of \ 900. 921 

phpoomenone, but of all. If eror yoa visit a school for 

tLe 'Iviif, Jo tli« »nmi}, — talk to tbu pnyHii yuufseff ; see 

VfiuA Ibey can do lo rett*liug yoitr speecb ; tr}* Dot simply 

itliosQ picked ont for jon. but try all, or nt least pick 

'youneU tbose .rou do trjr. 

Now, tbiB mau, at^nin, is a practical man. Ho looks for 
>ps. not seeda; (or produ(rta, not raw matenalti; (or 
s, not tlteorien; for fiiltillmeatEi, Dot promiReH. TliiH 
3^^ is iu tlie iliruol Itua of Ihk scuruli. Will iiu lightly 
discard its eridunce? Will bo uot rather tUiuk that tbe 
ideas of tlie Heuriui; Section are ou trial in tlie personnel 
and nxfiericncen iu lift; of the Deaf Section, and abonid 
]d ur full nccordingljr ? 
Tlie report shows that the deaf iu Europe, while ap- 
proriniii; speech -teaching in all practicable cattes, atitl 
chnrish the belief that the Bigiidnugiia^o ahuuld not be 
knished fruui the uiuaus employed to educate thoir kind. 
!*b<nr appeal with their pre«ideQt, l>nsi)7.eau, iu his open- 
iug addr(»H, 

Vojrei mo niles. 
No Im eouifx piu t 

rfaicb may be freely rendered: 

A bird «iu I : 

B«bu)il Lka «iUH« bj vbleli I tiy, 

Kof , cru«l, thAin Ut &>« A«ny. 

TIjuHfixho do not kiinw the sign •language oan, of courm), 
not uudenitaud tliiii deop-tieat«d (utiUug among tho deaf, 
atill leaa sTmpathize with it. Diit those who do know 
Ltliat hiUKUugc — its itilinite range and freedom, eompared 
'with lip-readiug; itH enn*}, nipjdity, and (>iLprt*ssive[ieHs, 
tfompttred with dactylology-^ will undei-utaud, appreciate, 
mid, to a great extent, sympathizo with this natural and 
poworfid desiro of the deaf. 

Hardly anytbiiig io the report ia more marked Uiad th« 

222 The Deaf Suction uf Ike Pur\» Congreta o/" 1900. 

hurt fcolitig of tbe Deaf Section at it« all bnt total excln- 
sioii fnuu tho HeariuK Section. Tliev return to tlio sub- 
ject RBuin ami agnin. Tliey make rejwiitw! offorls to hnre 
H joiiil si'SKioii witli, or nX lengt some purtipipjition iii, tlie 
delil><'i'iitioiiH nf tlin Hearing H4>ctioii, Imt meet in encb 
cn8«witli promiitrefnsal. Some of tlit>tD indnlge in warm 
words at this Irentuiont, hul tlii>leinier8 incol il ftiitnimbly. 
TiiMie flr|3;tiu that it is tlio tial of nn ofKcinl frooj wlioin is 
DO app^^nl, and tbat it is tho part of wisdom to accept it 
culmly, tliongli iinder protest, and strive to reaob aud id- 
fluentiu public opiuiou \>y tbcmselves. Some of llie reu- 
sone given by de(«udcr« of this «xclusioi] ou tljissido tb« 
water ill siaudexamiuatiuu; for uxumplc.lbattbejaboald 
tiol bttve bticu ttllovi-ed to deliberate witL teaebi^rs since 
tliey are not tenvbers, wJit^runs quite a uumber of tbeui 
are or hnvo buen teneliero ; moreover, tbe sume ralo wunlij 
cxclndt: Dr. LncliurrtLTt-s tbu aittborof all t liul is oomplniuetl 
of in tbiscoDtiection, becauati be bas l>eeu simply an atteud' 
iug pbyeician at tbe Parin Institution, and not a teaeber 
at all. Tbu real reason ia not far to seek. It lien in tbe 
Hpirit of iutolerau(;<-- that iscbaractvriatie of ultra ondisin. 
If more erideiice of tbis were wanted it ran be foimd iu 
tbe fact Ibat wben two men who bave live<l and labored 
among tbe deaf for nearly half a century, aud are known, 
toved, and respeetcd by tbe deaf ibe world over, wisbod^y 
to address tbe two suctions sirunltaneously, iu laDgaagei^^| 
tbat both seclioiis uotild follow, permission was refused. 
Was it a graceful act, after tlicsc repeated refiiHala to 
receive tbe deaf, for tbe Hearing St-ction to go of ila own 
motion after its adjourninout and ask to be received by 
tbe Deaf Hectlon ? That in what it did. Not at all as a 
matter nf national pride, but only in the intereat of the 
deaf, look uu this picture, and then on that preaeutisd at 
Chict^o, in IfltlH, There the two sections met sepitrately, 
ibnt being tbe must convenient and practicable arntugo- 
ment, but there wua no exolusiou of the deaf. They were 

CMDsiiuitly ui die Ueiiriog Section. They rend tlieir owo 
pupfrn thern, atid prn^'imnn wn» mndEi for llmm tn andev- 
siaud ttU tlia proceediuga Any by day. 

Tlie report cIokhs witb lists of the ofBcont or^atiiziug 
and coudncting the Section ; nii ticconiit of Iho eiiteiiitin- 
meots, niuu Jn numher, offered lo risitorH by th« PariHina 
de&f; the autiounccmeiit that au oil portrait of Tliomaa 
H. Gullaudet would shortly bo presented lo Iha deaf pcso- 
plti of Paris hy those of Chicago ; and iovitatioDs from 
Mr. Haiupf and the Kev. JameK H. Cloud to attend meet- 
ingH of tli» dt*nf to he \w\t\ n<H)Mictively at Berlin, lu 1903, 
and at St. Louis, io lOOo. It is lo be hoped that fair- 
mioded and competeat bearing observers will attend the 
mtfetiDg at Berlin and K>ro nii aoconrit of it. It will 
probably afford a uouiumutary upon the cluiiuK of ultra 
orolistii more ninrkod evuu tliau thiti ut Paritt. 

Pm/mtr/r in UaUaudel Ci>iUt/e. WiiMitgtvn, D. C. 


"TbU tnngra UagBftge. wfaich liaanol mora Unn two or tfarm ban- 
dr*4 ilHaB la g«n««l nw."-Dt, 7.. V. W««t«rv*lt, in tli« Annalt f«r 
Jmaataj, I9DI, psge 107. 

Dn. WesTRRVBLTiaCorwusiainaMterofthesigii-laugiiiigc. 
Vfo have often seen and ndiuired his graceful aud graphic 
tranalation into Hif^ns of the papnrs at conveiitinnR. Con- 
sidering hia familiarity with thia language, ue urtt unable 
to MM how be can Bsy that there are only " two or three 
buudred t^igns " in general nse. 

Wp iaok a Hli)M>t of pnper after reaillug that and wrote 
down without huHitatiuu ttro hundred worda that have 
aign fquivaleula, siu'h as " Iwar. run, talk, see, buy, lame," 
etc, just as they occurred to us. 

'I'Km >n editorial iu Uie Cii^firrniu .Veteu tor Juiawjr 6, 1901. 

224 A Comment o» Ccmpamon of Methods, 


But tliia iscemnl lacking in niutliod ; so wn tank n Rmi 
"Webster's Dictionary " and made tbe lollowinp list 
wordH iindur ihv lirst )»-tter of tlie alpbdbet : About, aboTe, * 
nbstiut, abuuJiiuuo, accident, accompanir, nccurnte, accnee, 
uohe, ackuowludge. acruSM, add, adjonru, a<lDiire, udmit, 
adore, sdoni, adverlise, advise, afraid, after, agaiost. .^H 

flnre are twentj-two word.- taken from tlie Brst si^^ 
pagen nf tlie dit!tionRrYf oiilv tlioo*!' words being nelected 
wliiuii have a diKliuct Kigu, known ami uudBrtttood tlirougb- 
out t)io Cuited Stales. At tlie Kainct ralo, if we had gone 
through the book, tlioru would be a list of over n tliout«and 
such words, and we think this is maob nearer the correct | 
figure than the one givun by Dr. Westervelt, 

In fact, tlio laiiguugu of «igus is amplo for tho exprus- 
Bion of a child's tlioughls (and it is claimed by many to 
be adci^iiAtB for abnont any emergency, though we differ 
cmpliatically on this poiulj, the only objection being uut 
that it is HO restricted, but that it is so rrQ« and tluuut that 
tbeee very qiialitios tompt the deaf child to dopond npoo 
it to too groat an extent, and thus he is hindored in 
acquiring English, the laugnagc that he must depend o| 
ill his iuteroourse with the hearing world. 


liutruetvr (» Me dtUfvrni-t JnntHuUint. Btrkeitu, Uaii^i<rnM. 


Oke of the nrticloB in the Annats for Jaunary, 1901, 
uo^t desorviug tho serioua coDsidorotion of toAchers of 
the deaf, is that by Dr. A. li. £. Orouter, entitled* 
" Ckjinges of Method in the PennHvlvania Institntion," a 
paper read at tho uioetiog of Dopaituout Sixteen of the 
National Edacatioual Asttociatiou, Charleston, S. C. July 
11. 1»00. 

A Comjnent on ComjMrieon of Met/iod». 225 

To some this contiouatiK mid TolnrainouH diRonciHinn 
Kod oompsinson of ractliocls tony sGem weanHomo nnd 
profiUeus, but it sbonM not W <lcprticutc<l by tbo earnest 
BMkcr after truth, for it U ouly by studying, diiwuRsing, 
and tjompariDg tliat we tusy hope to (imve nt aiiythiog 
api^nixiiuAtc to tbo troth. 

l)r. t3 router's papvr is ii Ktrl>I]^ prcxoutatiuu of tbe case 
IB btro-r of tbe oral wclhod tu tliutotul exclu&iou of signs. 
lIi»M>fclinsi»sm in the work, his long and varied expeii- 
kbco axador diSbrciit tuetlioilK, aim) bin uti({Li(?Atti>iio{t Hin- 
owity s&ud iuttigrity, uuitu to •;i\u gicnter weight to bis 
i>piiii(»Kis than those of mnoy other pentous would have. 

Bib to one who does not believe in tbe feasibility of 
tJietmxTersal Apjdicatioii of the pure or«l in^tbod, there 
we I».C5ta unci condition!*, not considered id Dr. Crontor's 
article, which do not warntiit the eonclusioDS which he 
d«dic3«s IS tbtt result of \n» compariKons. It is the aim 
of \iaj» paper to present some of these facts aud coDdl- 

Bri.*!6y rtnted. the changes of method at Moiiiit Airy 
eoTCT- a period of twenty j-enrs, 1881-1901, In 1H81 a 
separst*) Or»l Departun^ut was estabUsbed. At that time, 
only 10 per cent, of the pupils wore taught orally, while 
90p^ref>nt. contitined iHider tbn iiiRiitm! method. Dur- 
ing t«."eDtyyenrB tbisa« perc-entngi>H have become revereed, 
and ut preftent OO per ceut. of the pupils are iu the Oral 
Depftrtmont, while ouly 10 per eeiit. are iu tbe Mnniml. 

Ah tlif result of cnrofiil vompnrison of tb& wuik of tbu 

two <lepnrtQi«uts during twenty years, Dr. Cronter an- 

Doancsis the following oouclusious : 1. " When a deaf 

<iliUi\ cuouot be educated by the applicatiou of proi>6r 

oral tuothods, it is aselees to hope for any marked suo- 

«»« under auy method." 2. " Proper oral methods .... 

aC^ folly adu<)i]ato to the IhihI uduciitiun of tho deaf." 

IaI us cuDiiidiT lh« lirat eoucluaiou, Dr. Cronter 

touud that pupils who failed to make satisfaotorj- progress 

22(i A CoMvi«nt on Comparison of MetkotU, 

in tlia Oral Department, and were traunferred to tbe Ht 
aal Dopartmont, lUd no hirttcr there. Dr. Orout«r's 
moiit of faot is iicuo|)ltt<l. but 1 quutition most surionsly 
wlietber the couilitious uniler wliicli the coiupnri8ou wu^^ 
made wnrrniit Hnch n general conclusion. ^H 

Tliu Manual DejmrtmeDt at Matint Airy is lackiug io 
iwo inipoHaut cuuilitiouH timt cuutriliiitu largelv to the 
8uccess iu edactitiii^ ilenf chilJrvii who aro phvaically or 
meatatlf incapable of Hatisfactury instrnotiou b^r the oral 
method. TIibhb uomlitinnM are. ( 1 ) nNxai>i»tinti with 
1)ri(;bt*)rmiudK, aiic] (2) tUu usttaf tbuMi^n-lau^uH^e. Wlteu 
a deaf child fails to make progress iu tlie Oral Depart- 
ment at 3ifonnt Airy, it ia proof conolusiTe of inferior 
inenta] endowment. Therefore, the small number of 
cliildriju iu the Muiiiial Dvpitrtmeut uoiistitutd u ulatut of 
dull and backward children. Tbej aro kept bj' them- 
selveK, wholly HeparntH frnm tlie Oral Dnpnrtniniit, and 
thejr luck the iiu]i()rtaiiL HtiiiinliiK uf lre(|nt<ut misui^iation 
aod free comuiuuicaliau with quick and iutolligout mioda. 
It is not necessary to quote proverbs to prove the benefit 
of associalion with our menial and moral nuperinr^ The 
lack of Biicb a!»um)itiou iu the caHe uf the manual pupils 
at Mount Airy it^ a faot tiiat teudti, to a certaia degree, to 
invalidate l>r. Orouter's tirnt conclusion. 

The siga-langang(i, which is not pernntted nt nil in the 
Manual Dspartment at Mount Airy, is the most )H)tent 
factor in aroiTRin^ dnil or dormnnt intt^Heuta among den f 
children. It i.s thn qiiii-kcst and easiest means of convey- 
tDg ideas to tbe luind of the deaf obild. I have koowo 
many instances of backward deaf children unable to write 
one coherent Boutonco in English, y«t able to exprces 
tbemselras, by means of signs, intelligibly and readily on 
a variety of enbjectti. Signs are largely ba^ed on natural 
geatures. On thu other baud, spoken langtiage is euttnly 
. arbitrary', with Ibu excoptiou of tho cumpurativi<ly small 
vocabulary of onomatopoetio words. For iuatauco, take 

t^ sign uaed by tbe deaf for dog — pattiug tlie baee ai 

n»pp>Dg tbd fiDgerH. It IK wholly uAtnml, and >«uggc«- 

tiW at onco of tho Diiu;' ttiguifiud. Tlie Hpellthl, spoken, 

or nriitU-ii word iloy, liowev«r, ih uut itt nil suggestive ia 

iUelf. Hud it is ouly hy net of laemorr and nHMociation thtil 

in ootna lo upplj tliu word corrmrUy. Toko ouc more 

illai^triitiou of I his puint iu tim sigu and word cotr. The 

■ign in YiYidnud iiuuiitttaknble.requiriuK hardly any mental 

fforlatall to conoeot tho iti^n and the tiling HigDifiod. 

Dut die (tpelted, Kpokuii, i>r writtnu word is uo more sxig- 

g»8kii'p, in itxt^lf, u( tbo animal desigtrnted. tliau it ifi of % 

pig, ■ liorse, or u tadpole. These illnstratiotiH prov« tlie 

point that tbe )*ign-lnngiiRge \» the eAKicHt iind moKt direct 

^^■rnenos <i( ruachiiig Lliu luiudx uf tliuduaf, uud thuy itiipnir 

^^VttiB ralidily of uouoluHiuiiit deduced fruiu compuiisous 

aiid«r coaditioDM wlier^ the sign- Ian j^UHge ik rejected. 

The Manual Depnrtment iit Afuunt Airy in really au 
K]|i]iabL>tic' deparliuent. All rt'ccptiou and impurtiug of 
ideiui must bo alphnbetic, inasmuch as spelling and vrrii- 
ibj{«rfl the only nie«lia of commuoicfttiou, and in both the 
lt>ttikT« of the alphabet have to be foi-nied one at a time, 
ia onler to exprfiHs an idea, it in iitiuetiHary to evolve the 
ii]M,pi]t itiD the foriuof aflenteuce.Hupiirale Iheseuteuoe 
ililo woifls, and then tbe words into letters. It is the 
rsMt complicated mode of thought trnnsmissiou that is 
employed in nay system of edueatioo. In some respects 
ilberoQ more difficult than speech and lip-reading, for 
•ben these latter cau be HC<|uired by the deaf child, words 
u«r6&d or Hpokeu directly, without tho iutcrv-eutiou of 
spelling. Mr. Pavidsou, the editor of the Mount Airy 
CcfW, in the issue of January 31, says: "The limited 
9S[i«riBUL-o wo hiivo had with thu mothudof liugur KpcUing 
[a iuo at Rocltosler leads as to believe that it would be 
fu ensier for the pupils, with the saaie amonut of prac- 
tioe, to read their teachers' and one another's lips." In 
panntbesia, Mr. DuTidsoo explains that tbo Kucltetttttr 



228 •'! Cotnment on Ccmpariaon of Mtthod*. 

method c»f Hpelliug ia rapid ntid indistinct, and this qiiali 
lioa biti stiUomuut, iliuugh it m in tlio line of wliut I siij 
just above. 

It stnnds to ransou tliat a metliud of eiluoatiou 
wIioIIt iipnn alpliabetic means of instruction and comm 
nication cannot accomplisli as KHtis factory resnlts as 
mettiod wlmre more facih- mtians ar« uraploved. If 
could mippode a coiuiuou mcIiooI in wlilcli tlie schola: 
were required to spell or write everything, it ia certain 
t)iat the work of that particular scltonl would fall behind 
that of other Hohnols. Dnll and backward deaf i^hildr 
need a Hiiuple and bah^v mvauK of coiumuuicatiou. T 
alpliabetic loethoil followed in the Manual Department 
Mount Airv doetn not fiirniBh snob a uieauH, and boroi 
lioR another condition that nets against Dr. Cronter's lir st 
oouelnsion. ^H 

There is but one wuy to make conclusive teat of Dr^^ 
Crouter'a proposition, thai whoro proper oral methods fail 
anccess cannot bo lookeil for ncd^tr any other mctliod, 
and that is to take several cliiUlren rejected by the Oral 
l^epartmout at Mount Airy, and place them under the 
best iuatruction in a combined-system school whore signs 
ar« rocoguizod and employed as a valuable auxiliary for 
just iiuch caML's. I should like to see such a teet made, 
and I hopv that it can bo made some day.* 

Dr. Crouter'a aecond conclusion is that proper oral 
inetliods am adequate to the best education of tliu (leaf. 
J do not intend to argue i^uinst the correctness of tills 
conclusion, but only to question, as before, whether the 
facta and conditiona ander wbicb Dr. Crouter uiiulc his 
comparisons wen; Aufliciunt to warrant the cauclusiou. 

It is natural that whi^u Or. Crouter considers the work 

*Fae H Imriof Uiia kind with iblttjravo pupils from oUmt onil sabonla, 
ivjHiiied sUtwrii y**,r* n-ta. wc Dr. .loli WillmmiN jmptr ciitltlviL "4 
8j&tein of K[la«*ti<Mi Adai^iutl tu ali i>n(-31ul«». iiut eieludlug (bu 
F«ttblismnd««l," pnbliitMd Jn tbo AnnaU, *o1. xslx, ]>[>. 2)19 WIO 

A Cotnmmt on Camparismi of Methoda. 229 

^oe I'V tUe pupiln id the Oi-al Depavtmeut at Mount 

SixT to-dnj, h« liiiM in miurl tho work <Iouo hy thu school 

intuij yoArs sgo, vlion tbo sign-litDgattge was used, 

nnil ttiu comparisou is deci(1e<U,r in favor of preaeot 

inetb()il». But it raiiat be reiiienil>ore<l that wliiK: tlio 

litAtidiird nf work iit Mount Airj hns boun rising, itDil the 

mits Imvu been growing unro nutl more satittfactnry. 

Iiore lias l>eeo a correapoatliug twlvance ninde in the leiwl- 

isg combined-systeiii schools. The work ilooe in thoBO 

eliools to-tlnj )H fnr ahead nf w]in( th«r did twetitv ^'oars 

af>o. Tn institute a fair and i-otichisi\e couipariKou bc>- 

ivreeti oral nsftidlK at Mount Airy and resulUt under the 

cotDbioed s^-8t«m, it is 6ttiug that one of the best and 

lipoet progressive of the coiubinod-srstem schools should 

6i>lected, and that conditions, sucli ns si/e of chisses, 

oamWr of honnt in the claiwrooni per day, ability aud 

Kporienee of the teachers, etc., sliould he as nearly e^jual 

4A [lossible. 

Tli0 cORipnrisoD shonld ho inRtttuted not between a 
lev of the best pnpiU on oftch Ride, the so-oaUed "semi- 
nvtw" and the "geniases," who would tliHve under aoy 
tiwtbod, bat rather confine it almost entirely to those of 
iTetago abilitice, uid mauy of tbom. If tliis question of 
mclliods is uvvr Huttled in favor of uqq or the other aide, 
it niU he upon the basis of what that method can do, Qot 
for UiQ favored few, but for the rank and tile of the deaf, 
bt wLom eduontion means weary toil itud ever-recurring 

I lie uot believe that any ootnpariaon betweeu oral aud 
Diuiial departmeDtiT in the snnio school shoutd be taken 
ABMMicluHivu iu fiivor of one or the other. As a rule, 
tliose (leaf uhihlreu who hare au aptitude for speech and 
tip-miuling, atfd are proper sobjeota for the Oral Dopari- 
■eat of a school, are the hnght<;«t iutultcutiially. The 
KoditiouH at Mount Airy havu been particularly uofavor- 
tUo to thu Manual Departueut, bo far as compansons 

230 A Comment on Comparison of Meihtids. 

Bra oonoerned. Thiit department lioa bnen stendily gro^^ 
ing smnller, aiul it is further I»ati<iicap]>ed by the lack of 
BQcb a facile moaDs of commnuicatioii as tbe eign-taD- 
guage, wLJch is an itiiportnnt factor in tbc coso of deaf 
obildreu of iuforior iutvllcct. 

In olosiog, I wisb to call atteuliou to one fact : Hero 
ID AmericA it is not n que^tioii bntween tbe oraJ mothod 
atid tbo mauuiil laQtbod, thoti^^li sdidv people doaire to 
aarrow it dowu to lliut puiut. It is btitweau tbe oral 
onethod aa tbe oue method, and tlie combined system, 
which, as itn uamo iinplie:*, is a combination and adapta- 
tion of niethodH to lit the pupil, mid wbicli, in tli<i uuiumou 
andurHta tiding of tbu iuriu, luakutt uh« of thu sigu-btut^uage 
as Hu important nnitilitiry iu intellectual development. 

Wbtiu a compariaou is to he made, it shonid Ira innti- 
luted between tbe best oral srbool and tbeboHt combiuud- 
aystem school in America. ThutuHl Hhould hu, not xpuecb 
alone, not bini^itagt* ainue, but ull tboxa Ibiu^^a that con- 
tribute to Uiti Mvuiuivtricul developiuettt of a bumau i>eing 
socially, intBlloctunlly, atid morally. There is a tendency 
in soma (lUuittjrK to place too high an osLlniatfl npon Kpokno 
and writton laiigiinge. We mimt not fni^Ht tliat intellec- 
tual on]>RbilitieK vary widely. Some people HCL'ui born with 
tbe gift of Iuu[;uugo. There are others who, however 
carefully taught, will continne to miHspell and uae un- 
grammatical Unguitgi! until tbe end of tbe chapter. In- 
ability to nae immauiilutu EugliHh uhould not bo taken aa 
QonclusivB ovidctueu of inferior odiicntion. A person 
may Btutter and stammer when it comes to the ucie of 
Kuglish, but iu other iiiatt«rH be far Hujterior to oue who 
»l>eakK fluently and readily.* Tburu are deaf boys and 
girls who lack u perfect maatory of Kiiglish, bn( who, by 
reason of breadth of general knowb-dge, common Kenae, 
and sterling qualities of ebaracter, are far better fitted for 

*Se« MiM MhImI Kllury AtUmii'it &rUclft on 
ia Uui Annait, vol. ali, p]>. '^70-301. 

' Tti« LaagUAge SeoM," 

Congatiffuintoufi Marriages. 

eitijE«iiship tbuD Home who caa use Euglisli flueDtJy, bat 
**^ lackiug iu othor resptictK. 

"^Ve wUli to eUucaUi our duaf bovs om) girU towftril the 
"^•*t jiIealH of citiz«u8liip. Tlierefure, wlieu we iustitute 
******* parisona iKitween methods aiitl results, let these com- 
p*-*~i«iii« I>L> ba»«(l,ii<it upoD iittHrniice nor the grammat- 
'*^*-X UBu ol English, ouly. I>iit 11(1011 eduoulion iu the 
*~**«de8i sease of the word, iiupiyiug the social, meutal, 
**'*^^iiiond deretopment of youth along syiametrJcal Hues. 

httnutor in Ae Uinhtsntn School. FaribaH^, Miniitneta. 


7*p(A* KHiUyr 0/ the Anttais. 

Silt : Please permit tne. with the diQidenoe proper in a 
lajmiiQ crtticiHiug Ibo ntntements of a prnfeHsioiiiil, to 
poiut out thiit thv Htiitomeut of Dr. F. Suvary Pourc«, in 
the AunaU for Jitiinary, page 54, does not seem proved 
in the svope that will most likely be given it. Dr. Pearoe 
MTH : "The iDtcrniHrriage of relatives, even the mont 
Lealtlifnl eipeciui«uti, Hhould be interdicted, since .... 
there is lilcelihoo<l of physical abuoroialitios or deformi- 
tj«i." Now, a loug experience iu breeding dogs has 
bowD me that even iuoeKtnous inbreeding rarely, if ever, 
Fnaalts in defeats, ij' the original ttnck sa tnbreit in thar~ 
OHffhli/ touriif, and that the merits of such a stock are 
rrally magQilie<) and inteiisififfd by hucIi inbreeding. I 
liavd a cow, the very best knuuu in my ueighborbood, 
aeren 'eighths of whose blood is thatof hor dam. Modern 
improved breeding rests on just such close inbreeding. 

Dr. Poarce's paper was originally read before a body of 
prnfesJiinaaU, who clearly andonttood the limitations of 
tfUaC he said, but the average reader is too apt to accept 


The Oral Inaction of the Cffnvention. 

the Btatements of a proEessiottal ninu, as be — the Ujrmao — 
readB tbetn, and mnoy Are the coDfusioos tlierebv. I have 
kuowu mou, who oiij;ht to Iulvo known better, to quota 
Herbert Speiictir iiuil Cliiirlen Diirwiu iis Hujipurtiug cor- 
tniii proposilioBs, wheu the lougtli to wliicli those ftuthor- 
ilioa wont was only citiug opiDioas or declarations of 
others iiH being iii Kiipport of the propo»itioDe. 

TUub coustLiiguiueous luiirriagiw nm umci/fc,i6 probably 
correct, owing to the tlifflculty iu kuuwiug thai the ances- 
tors wrre thoroughly sound, but it is not ne&r jfttfved that 
there iH auy positiTe danger of any kind ; therefore, de* 
acondanU of sach marrlugeN HhuuUl not be worried br 

There does not seem to be tho least evidence that the 
ma^riI^;e of relatives of noroial Iiearliig is productive of 
deaf ofTspriug, and the ouly iii effect of closely related 
marriages, that is proved, is eterilitj. 


OiSMOMr, Pa.. Jantuiry 14, 1001. 


The Sixtconth Ooavcntion has boon called to moet 
Buffalo, Now York, on July 2, 11>01, at eight o'clock p. ml' 

8nperiot«u dents havu bc«u backward about cotaiog 
forward with dofiuito promises of h«lp for tho Ond See- 
tiou of tic BufTalo UouveotioD, bnt a great many have 
expressed a dchire to have few or no papers, but an much 
timo as posnibto duvotod to practical and helpful exposi- 
tious of oral work, Two or thrue Imvo expressed i\ desire 
that the work of thi! Oral Hvctiun bo limited to tUu teuh- 
iiiqae of instruolton iu speech. Many others desire to 
have iuoluded all processes and devices of practical value 

Thi Xatiimat Ktlucational Asaociation. 

in the moral aad intellect a nl truiniuK of deaf cliiUlren by 
oni nietbodn of inMniction. 

I Am verjr glati to lie nhia to anunauoo tbat the apocjal 
U'ldier of tirtii-uliktioD iu a prouiiueut oral school will lie 
prowut to meet teacherH of speech for at leaiit uDO-half 
ioornu-h day the CoDTention is in KUKsioa, for Lho pur- 
puM of ij;iviti}c Hndi iiiKtrncttnu iu liitr muthod o[ develop- 
iiigH{i(>t':h nudttuiDiug the voice tis she has for several 
years given to teachers. Oral teachers desiring to avail 
tbenuelres of (his opportunity will plQaAe raaka a iioto of 
tlii* xiinaniiceniBut. 

All pernoD8 iutwrestwl in the Oral Section are hereby 
iiiTiled to correspond with the Chatriuan of the Oral Sec- 
tion without fnrlliHr tiotiru. Tenders of K«rvic*H aloug 
pneticiil liues are aiiruetttly Holiuited and will be thauk- 
(nllr received. 

Raqu«»t8 bnvc been made from persons nnnbln to vinit 
Uie Rochester School to urge that school to exonipHfy 
itt) setbodB with a liriag oxliibit to illuHtrate regular work 
in 6iig«r-ftpelliDg and 8p«ech aa practiced in the olaas- 
nww in tbat school. 

3. a COBDON, 
C*Ad&maa of the Or4U Section. 
JiiiTUT 3A, tMI. 


Tui: fortieth auuual meeting of the National Ednca* 
tioB&l ;l8soriatioD will bo held at Detroit, Jalv S to IS, 


Tlie proj^mmrae of Depftrlmuut Sixloou will be given 
08 Wwluewlay aud Friday afternoons, July 10 and 12. 
SpwinI trant^portatioD expense will be aiinoouced Inter, 
ud tbere will andoubte<lly Im greatly reduced rates be- 


A Monument to IfilL 


tweeu Buffalo ami Detroit. TIiia will euable all who 
planuing to attood tho CoDveutioo of Auiorican Insbra 
tors of tlio DoAf at Bnffnlo to go to Detroit at the close of 
that meetiDg, nod with very little additional expeose to 
enjoj the meetings of the XatioDal Edncatioaal Assona^ 

The close proximit,v of those two oonvontions as to di 
aud locatiou is siKuiftcaDt, nuil it i« hoped that man; 
teaclieni of tho deaf who have uot already done ao wtU 
tako adviLDtage uf thiH naiiHual Lippftrtnaity to idoutify 
themsolvuM with tho gi-etttu^t education ul movemeut of tlio 
ugu — tliu Natioiint Kdiicatioual At^ociatioa. 

Schools expecting to make an exhibit are nrged to con- 
fer early with thn rhtiiniinn of the Ksocutivo Oomtnittoti, 
whose addrutiB is (i550 Yulu Avouuf, Chicago, Illinois. 

VAairvtan of th^ Ruattife ('ommiiUe af Dfjutrtimnt fiMwn 



On tlie eighth of Decenaber, 190i), a hundred years 
will have elapsed aince the birtli of 

FiUEDiticH Monrrz HiLr^ 

If we gInncM bnek at tho history of the developmoob of 
tliu iimtructioii of the denf during the Inst century, we see 
MoftiTZ niLL looniiligup far abovu all his contHiuponirien 
Mtho nuHiirpiiKMed promoterof oral iuiitrticLioD,th» gifted 
master in th«>ury and practice, a fearless and nnseltisb 
cbniupion in word ttud deed. Through him new life cama 
iuto the old, stifT foriDK of the iuHtrnction of the deaf, 
aud from his work there blossomed forth a 

A Monument to liili. 


Natckal Methou 

to t>e ft blessing to all the doitf. Froni liim proceeijed a 
po'wwerfal iiDpuliw townnl tlis j^eiiwniUzation of tlie in- 
^icvaciioa o( tbe deaf, nud if at the present time Hliunttt id! 
^I<^ Ami sbure in tlie beoelitii of an iiiiitniction tluil formti 
"*^tli iniud Hiid lietirt, it is to him that our tbauks are 
■^^i^fiy dao. Iii Hill we revereuee the founder and 
^^i-ii|>er u( a new tiuil bHlli^r tiuiu for the " orphans of 
**^.tnre"; bo is tbe 

Rkpormbb of thb IngTRGcnov op the DEAr. 

W^bilv Hill hj bia prouineut actiritr has erected for bioi- 

'^If »n imperishable inonuniHnt in tbubifltory of thecdaca- 

^iuD of the deaf, ntid Lih coiititiuporurieit uud succeiutorti 

it! the profuKsion linvo loug rucoguised biin as their ((tettX 

t«itcbor, tho educators of the deaf regard it a^ a duty of 

piety aod gratitude tn erect in the place of hiM long and 

richly bluKiMHl actirity n moniitnent of atouo aud hrotize. 

Tho C'ONTeatiou of the Aasocialiou of Germao Teachers 
of the Deaf at Xlaniburg (greeted this saggestinii vttb tbe 
most hearty approral nod nnaDimouNly agreed to tbe 
erection of a 

Hill MotnnfBKT. 

Tho baodredth nonivendiry of Hill's birth is ro^^arded 
u tho most appropriate time for the uUTeiling of this 

Hill's emiDcnt importaDce id tbe doiuniu of tbe educa- 
tioD of the deaf, however, extends far beyond tho limits 
of bis German fatherlnod. His efforts iu tbe field of tb« 
instructioQ of the deaf, and bis creation of a natural 
metlio^l, h&To exerted tbe mout favorable iufluence upon 
the iuatniction of tbe deaf of otbur countries. As Hill, 
OTou iu hia lifetime, received the rtiuofjuitiou of foreign 


School Titma. 

tfuitis, our foreign collmigues will iIoubtlosM aon* also 
gladly- roatly to joiu in doing honor to the maHtor. 

We accortlinglj iuvite nil teaobers of the deaf, mem- 
bera of governing bodies, and all friends and promotera 
uf the nductition of the d»af, to contribnte to tbe 

EniicnoN op a Hhj. Monohrst, 


nnd to sond tlioir contribntious to tbo trustoce nnni' 
the close of this call* or to the nndersignod Direotor 
GatzmatiD, Berlin, O., Mnrkns-strasse 19, who hns titken 
ohni^e of tho tientrnl office for (follocttons. 

Tha Kxecvdve C'ovimitiee of the Awociathn of Gffi'i 
Teachers of the Dmf— 





Bbklix. Dtcanhrr 9, laftO. 


Atabamn ■S'cAoof. — Misa Jes8»mint^ Wallaco Card, a valued 
toarher in tliis School, died December "29, 19(10, of typhoid 
fever, ag«d twuuty-two. Mimm Curd was a groduute of th^ 
SynodieoJ College of Fulton, Missouri, and was trained m 
teacher of the deaf by the LitU> MitjH Aunn C. Alleu, of the Ulii 
iiouri School. She had been n. t«aclier in th« AUbiima Scb< 
hIdcc 1899. Slii3 bud un amiable dtspositiou, chanuing man* 
aer^, and de«p religious character Hhe was a relative of Ur. 
Dobyu«, 8uperiuteudeut of the MiHHia»ippi Institution, aui] 
a sister of Miss Lillian Ctird, a t^acliur m tho North Dakota 
Se-liool MisH Nellie Tiiylor, late of the Florida School, has 
been appointed to itll the vacancy caiiaed by the death of Mioa 


School Item*. 


1rf^lau4tt VoUegt. — Pro«dent OnlUudot r«qiiflf>f n un to saj 
timt tliere sre five members of tbe Xortna] Class this yoax, who 
will l)egrtuluiit»cl iu Junti. w«U prepureil tu make Kucre^xfiil 
^•ftcters of tLe (leaf. Tbrce of them are young men and two 
^ouKi^ womeo. Two are children of ileiif-mute imri^nte. For 
^^K't jonr tbrco (ippoiiitmviite, o»c mnlc nod two ft^molc, ha,ve 
**''^«ciy b(!«n made: there are Blill two vaviiuci«ii for young 
'"^xs, Kttb rutipect to th« filling of wliic-L. ae well ns wilb 
'^^X3c(i to positions for tlie 6ve who will hi> gradtintcd this 
J^^^^^i pKeideot Gallaudet will be pleaued to receive suggov- 
"•^^aB from hcadK of m^boole for the d«af. 

—^larylariii Hchuol. — SttsH Kiitt Loe Bryjirls", formerly of tbe 

*^***in8yl7ftniii Institution, has bceii added to tbe corpe of in- 

•'"^^ wction. 

-Mirftiffttn .S'Aoff/,— Mr. T. J. Allen, bftting been tlect«d 

^^*'*ijily vli>rk, has roaigue*! liia position iu» toncber, and is buc- 

^*^ed by Mr. Calvin Itoylau, Ibe son of deaf parents, nuil a 

^^^^winaK! of tbe Uuiveniity of Michigan, with six yeara' expe- 

^^^oc* oa a tencher in ooromon spIiooIs. 

Mi»»ouri School. — Mr. Cecil W. Watson has reBigued Ium 
T^v«iti(jD a» tcAvlittr to f;o intu bu:ttite»» at Sau Div^o, Califor- 
^in Mr. James H McFarland. a teacher in tbiii School from 
X86T to tbe oiitbrciak of the Civil War, when tbe work of tho 
Scfaool was »UHpei)ded,died Deo^niber 12. 1900, aged sereuty- 
tme. He ws» a ^-adiialo of this fichoul uud bad proviouHLy 
bean a pupil of the Illinois Inxtitutioo. During the war be 
rendered valuable eervicea to the Confoderucry by currying 
dlBp«lrhes and iufortuntion. ktltv ihf war lit^ bccsm« a con- 
tractor and builder in Louisiana, MisHOiiri, and for some time 
eaj^^ed iu miMiionart' work umoug Ibu di-af of tbi* Btatc. 

yrhrasJut lunfUute. — Mr. Rotibon E. Stewart. M, A., for- 
merly n LcficLer iu this Instiluto and more recently in the Iowa 
ScbooU bos be«n appointed flMp*>riijtond«'>it in tho placo of Mr.' 
H. R. Paw«H. ^Ir. Stowail announceH that few cbangeti will 
be made in i\ie pcrtonneX of thu tastJtutv, and that iu all oabhb 
the Srat re(|uisit« will be lltr.fHS and not politirn. 

/n'urlA t.'ariilimt (Rulei<jhi //r^/ilufio/i.—Mr.IlayannouDces 
in Lia but Bcport that tb« Institution now hiw a deaf blind 



pupil oained Beiilftb Templeton, of Stttaly county- Sbe 
tsugbt by 7t\.\9% Kat« G. >Ionroo,ftnd Iuib Ivoiiied the tni 
of Miveral words. 

Ontario /utititiitirm. — The IdHtHiition nan awarded a gc 
medal by the Paris UoiTemal Kspvsition of 1900. 

Went Virginia Sf^fiocls. — Mr. Ruoker recommendfi to tfi 
legisluttira uf tlio State tint th« Schoul for thv Blind li9 Mj 
iiitod fruiu tbc School for ihf. Deaf, nnci that liie jireHent bui]^ 
iugft be a^fligned to the Hole use of the deaf, provisiou being 
made (or the bliDd cls«wbcrc. ^ 

WiMtnitin .Se/iooi.^lxi tb» WigcoiiBio tfi^islature tliia jvmr^ 
two measure)) eisaiinting from Mr. It O. Spencer, of Milwau- 
kee, were broURbt forward. One of thost* was to autboriKe 
the Hlatu Super iutendcot of Public luatructioa to appoiut and^, 
define tbe duties and powers of a sup^rniior of Hcbuols for thiflj 
dotif who HboiiKl Im* (|tmlilicd in t)w ornl luetliod : the other wa* 
tomilh^irize the Iraiisferof th« WiBCoiisiu Kcbool fur tbf Deaf to 
the Board of Normtd Kegeutu, to be ueed by tlivm an a nonual 
Boliool lA laauuMl traiDiug, eleiuentnry aghciillure, iudustrial 
arts, Lraiuiug uf uiirvouu, backward, aud flbiiormal Hiildreti, 
«to. Th« WiscoDHin 7Vri«« of February 21 itaya that the bU^H 
eiid>odying these measures received no support in the IcgialA-^ 
ture and was wlthdiuwu. 


A uonytnofit ContributinuM. — H ia the gonernl rule of tba 
Annuh that every ooDtribution shall be Hi^ucd by tli« iwmeof 
tbu author, kiuce the author alone is rcejiouNible for all atatw^l 
uifutn of fact or opiuton. Somctiiuett, bouever, tburr aeema to^ 
be good and auffloient reason for makings an exoeptioQ to thia 
ride, aii in the caKo of two artieleH in Uio preiieut number of 
the AtnuiU, which refer to aetuid pupiU now in acbool. lu 
one of tbi-«e articlee fictitious uatnee are umhI for the satae 



J^«rritfm lleudif* Workn.—Thn works of ilr. ^torrison 

Ba^lxIj. the deaf-blbil poet »ncl proton writer, some of which 

wcrcr rcTifwwl in tbi- AnnaU, x\tx, HO. and snii, 224-232. 

1>»'V^ rtKeotlv l>tfcu r«pub]isbet). Tlit.- price of "The Double 

Nif^-fct and Other Poeiws'" is $2,(HJ; "Burr' (rensed edition), 

•l. SO,uid "Tbe Red MopeMm>;," «1..')0 ; the entiro mU 85.00. 

E-y cB T j wboo) for the deaf Hhuuld bare these worka iu its 

"*>«"«IT7. not only for thuir iotrinHic merit, hut ub abowiiig irhat 

•^»» be ftfconiplished by a. luan who waa totally bliud from the 

*K^ of «ixt*en to fifty, when by un operation "a bare >;l>!aiii of 

**^s5(ja'' wa« restored, and who baa been totally deaf since tbe 

*S"«s uf forty. Mr. Heady in uow Histy-ainc years of age, Tbe 

7*^^*4a may hv ordurvd directly from llK-ttulbor, wboM address 

** folyteobnic Library. Louisville, Kentncky. 

(.■A«rW. ir-irl-.— Tbe liev. Arnold Hil! Puiue, M. A-, bun 
"^^wn Appointed awniiftaiit cIiMpUiti to the lUiral Aviuciation io 
■^idof tbe l>t^nf and l>iiml>, Ixindoii, Rtiglanil- Mr. Pniiie la 
* too of Mr. B. n. i'alue, Priucipal of tbe Cumbhnn luHtitu- 
tioD, Swwiiutt, WalciL He reooiv^d tbe degree of K. A. from 
Jevoii ilnlle^e, Oxford, Kn^land. niid I. be de^Tes uf M. A. fjom 
OxIUiudet C'4dl«>ge, wher^^ {^v juimufd tbe nDrniul iiourM* during 
Uic yi^r IHSd-'lK) ; be 8tudied theology at Welln Cotle^'e, and 
was ordained at St- Paul's December '23, IBOO. 

feriiMlieala. — Four new periodtCAlt) for tlj« deaf have re- 
cantly b*Mi »«Bt«l>li»hed: Tiftniwj for D<',fet.ummii, published 
nootlily by Mr. Ounoar FoiidcliuH, wbone aildieHH ih David 
Bagaren gata L Utockbnlm. Swcilcu : Wcgtoeiitr fUr Tavb- 
altiimm«, publiHb(*d bi-montbly by Mr. K. Kraiike, Dii««^tor of 
tbe Provincial luatitutiuu for tbe Deaf at Halle a. S.. Sasotiy. 
Pntuia : T^ Jiec^t tlf Sotirdt-Mnrm, pabUabed monthly at 
01, [tue Didot, Parit), Prance; and the Rer^trJer^ published 
weekly by Mr. J. H. Geary, fwruierly Principal of tbo Clcvo- 

fbod Day .Sebool, wbone preiient aildress i-^ iiSS South Clinton 

'Hreet. SyracuM. New York. 

Tb« Ih^if World, of Columbus, Ohio, baa suspended publi- 
eatiou fur the preaent, but its editor and proprietor, >Ir. Ed. 


A dveriisemants. 

I. Holjcross, aonouucee that its publiciUiou urill eooo h 
Bamod in IndiAnkpolis, Indiantk, to irhicb city Lo litw rcmovd 

iieportx R«ctivtfh — We bare received the following Itepoi 
of Scliocila for tbv Deaf iii lulditiou to l)io8« {ircrioualj* Hckuowl* 
edged: (pu1>lihbfd iu 11100) Claike, Indi&ua, Illiiiois, Maine, 
UinoeeotA, North CiooUiiii, North Dakota, Itottoiiiam i Xothe r^ 
lauds), Tes&H., West Vir^fiiiia, Western Pentifiylvatiia, Wis<;otiBi|^H 
{pultlidbetl ill IHOI ) Michigan, Ontario. Oi-egou. We have all^^ 
receiTed the )«»t R«purUt of the Perltins and F«»ii8jlviuiia 
iDstitulions for the Blind, the T went; -Seven tb Report of tbe 
Cbui'ch MiKHioD, Now York, and Uie l'rocc(>ditigB of tbe Sixt 
Convetitiou of tlie Illinom Asmtdation of tbv Duaf. 

Erratum. — [ii the fiiitniimtion of Uie niitnbei' of pupi 
taught apeecb iu thf Tabubir Statement publinbed in tbe Jan- 
unry uuiuUiir of tbo Aunat* (column A, pai;« HT), the uumbor 
in the Public Hcbools (nut includiug Day Schools) Bbuuld have 
been recorded ax S.7D3 (not 4.703). aiid tliv niiuber in all Lbe 
schools of the United Stnttn bh «.«87 {poi 5,687). 



A ||[railui.t«t iif QallBUdAl Coll«|{ft lUiins a poaition w Uuliai, yirlii* 
tiippTvinor, or nHHioUHt iu*ltoii. H%bMi rMniiinieiiilftlton*. Apply lo 
llii' Editor of ilic AnnaU, Kvotlall Orccn, Waaliiuelun, D. 0. 

jVnt fMngBajft f.'Aatl, by It. H. AltttHid of tliv Ofaio Ktnte luBtitslioD 
for Ui« Xtt»i. Pilltnn rnitiUmcntKl Formi «( Rxpn-Mintj. A great nii 
fa U<ii«biD|t l/iuguutre. A Mvlug at liiup iiiiil liihor lu tli« clnaHonm. 
Abo Uio \ieai ueth«il of slioviti^ llic couipouii<liD)( «ud coiiip[«ii&){ of 
Mati'iii-r« (ram >liort nliupte ouea. Fur prleea, mldren U. H. Atwooo, 
h3H luut Oik StrvcL, Cnlnnibns, O. 

CoptM ot Dr. n«KTKi P. Pbkt'h adviM li> paranla of yonoft dt*t ebil. 
arcn, niUtt«d -' Tbe Family Innliuftioti a( tht Donf in Eulf ni>tldbcN>d." 
reprislMl from lliu Twentr-aevcuili It4.'[Hirt tit tlie Netr TiirV luMituiinu. 
nmj hr oblniiiBil trom llie Editor af tbv AnnaU, Kvndall Gttwn, \Vb«1i. 
iugbM, t>. 0., at tea Mat* a^ali, po«t)i|!>> ItwIadML 


•i^s^c U^-^f 


Vol. XLVI, No. 3. 

■AY, 1901. 

Dr. J. L. NOYES. 

We love him bo 
BecMue ha fint loved ns. In hig BtroDg moDbood 
H« cama to help and lift and educate, 
And through lung years he stood to na the ideal 

Of Joat and great 

He «M oar guide, our teacher, and our father, 
Oor friend, our oonaoience, and our sureat atay ; 
Id eTet7 path at good and right aud honor 
He showed the way. 

From day to day be steadfast did his duty, 
Aad served hia aileot children at his side, 
And yet, beoanae hla heart was true and noble. 
He felt DO pride. 

And now hia grand old head has won the halo 
Of pnre white hair, hia feeble step ia slow. 
And all that glorious strength Ilea by the wayside 
Of long ago. 

We pray to God to guide hiii footsteps gently. 
Watch o'er him, guard bim, shield from every woe, 
Surround hia life with peace : with one accord 
We love him ao. 


/•'aribauU, MinntwUt. 




In tlie J)tuiiar,v Anntt/x Appeared nii Article oti "T 
Correction of F.rrorH in Luiigimgo,*' » Hort of snuitimrv 
tliu UKiiiil inutliiKU of rurructiug wnLtcri Uu^uut^u, wi 
urguruuutA/tfO uiul con. 

AUlinntjli tlif luoltlfm niiiHt ever rtiiiinin an iotiividm 
out-, i)ii<-- wliidi riiitli tuiist Kokt* for himsuir, a fu; 
suggestions wliicli liitYu litouil tliu tuxl of iictual eipc 
ence oia; not be uuwelcouie, to tbe inexporieDced teiwU 
nt least. 

Tliu writuruf iLn nrliciu ri'krriid toolijvcttt to ilm Ca] 
fornia luetbod on tliti ^ruuucl that "it presuppoties tlmt 
tlio pupil is i^apablu uf eorructiiig liis u«'u urrors." 
adds, " 1T« could do »o witb tljciiite i^aUKed hy earolpssn 
but would Huri^Ij' Ktrilce frequuiit Kiiaf{t> in deabu}^ U't 
other oIuKstfs of orrorB, wbicb after all nrs tbe odbh with 
wLicb we are cliicfly unDccrned.*' ^ 

All of H pupiL'ti mistakes iu liiogmige fall natnndly iatdH 
two tiltisstis — tboMe for wbiub be oau be beid reHpoMKiLile, 
and tbo»e for wbicb be eunuot, as yot, bo held reepuu&i- 
ble. Tbo geuernl quality of bis work is oilbcr up to bis 
individnnl Htniidnrd or below it. The child can and should 
Im) made to coritjct tboHe mistakes for wbicb he iH respoD- 
siblo; if bt> caunot be held ru3pou«iblt>, then it is uo 
luuger H eiLHS for correction, but for teacbing. 

To do tbie work Ibt) teucher muat carry in biumindjaat 
whore tbu liucx fall; be nintit know on tlie inntaut jast 
what that child bat* been tau^lll and nliat be cnunot as yvt 
be expected to know. He must know at a glance wbother 
that ebild'i4 etfoi-t reache« ur fnlU elinit of bis standard. 
Uut whatever method wo pursue, our work should be au 
aiTODgtid that all of it will coiuo uuder tho ^yo of llie 
teacher, nod the papil i-iioie that it will do &u. If it can 


7^ Curreetion ami Prevention of Mititdkat. 24S 

m (loutf with profit id n cjlass of miiny f^nules it eureir 
can be done more easiK and more profitably in « cla*ts 
«( two giaiies. 

^V'u itro npt to give too much vrork, more tli&a we oua 
profitiiblv look over, Au<l »re uot particuUr euoagli about 
the qunlitr of it. Muoli of our so>caned " busy work " 
t»4S|»tj the teacher ImKJer than the pupil. 

^VIjiIu it it* \pTy tliMiinible. at Iniidt in tht^ primary ami 

iB^^riuetlititv chiHStiS, tbat the corroctiunH be niuilu ou the 

*''*■>• tli0 paper is writteu, it is not norcsssiirj, uor alwuya 

•*> txs destreil, that they he loade at once. In the advanced 

c1fkaav9 1 havfi generally been obliged to correct the geog- 

''^pl*;, history, physiology', ami arithinHtir papers out of 

school, but the lauguage corrcctiouii weto made with tho 

l*^l>il at my side. Wheu the work of the class is uot too 

u«iivy it is ndvaDtageous to have the pnpils copy it nil in 

^xx^ks provided for the purpoKe. If thia is not practica- 

*>ra ther itt least must keep all tlieir papt<rx, which must 

*>4 of uniform aize, on file in neat aud regular onler. 

These booka or tiles ruuHt be submitted to the teiu'her at 

certain titueM for inKpection. 

In the iuteruiediale aud primary ctassett the aim ia to 
<lo all correnting in school, and ou the day on which it \a 
writteu and individnnlly for the most part. Certain pe- 
riiiiU iu the oinss programme are set npart for cnrrecting 
cvrtaiD lesBous, aud one chit^u i» uot aUowtMl ti> infringe 
opoo the rightH of another. .\ll work of the iDteraie><]iale 
iiid primary clasacs miiKt he carefnilv copied iu note- 
books with iuk, Uut from the lowest tn the highest, and 
(mm th«> dullest to thu brightest, alt must do drill-work. 
Tlipy most drill on all new forms and on all forms iu which 
tbey are weak. For example, HuppoHo the eliD^s is taught 
liuguHge chiefly through nclt'tu work, imd the following 
hMMoii, anited to a first-grade class has been given : 

"A man went to the b.-im n»d nnl»4>ked the door. He 
opwiied it and n t>ut lulo the barn aud letl the horw onl of 

CorreclioM and JWivntion q/ Ati«Utkew. 

tlie stable. He took Ihe liaruuaa uff tbu huok nud put 
on the Iiorae. He led ttim to the wagon nnd backed lii 
between thf sbafb*. He liitcbed him to tlie wagon, 
got into tliu wa^oii iinil tnok np the reiiiH ami drove o 
of tlie jatxl." 

Snppnse the forms went into. /«»/—««/ o/*, te*/ — In, 
got into, tiM>k n/i, mid tirovii out. nf, had been new to 
the claiui, Huil ilrill-work coiiipriKing nninv exnmple» 
bad lieeu f^iveu on vnub form imtil il tvos oertaiu utich 
member of the class lia<l griutped their rneniiiugs. Then 
KDppoHe II cliild l>niig!4 in the following il«iu of news : 

" This mOTnin^ my father pnlM the black horHe oat of 
thf baru uud let! him at the trough. He drauk ron 
w.itei' with Kig him:" 

The iuflorrect nse of pulteii and nt are errors for 
whiob he luiiy be liuld retiponHible. The teanher in- 
dicutes the places where those errors are, but requires 
him to oorretit thom, nud thou, (o lis the correct formu 
in bis mettiory and to cause the incorrect ones to sini 
into oblivion, reqnireK ten or mor^t Houtencen for eae 
form, fed — qui 0/ and /<;<J^t<; to be written wJtboDt 
reference to his notebook. The expression " with bis 
noeo," I should simply cross out, romarking that we do 
not talk that way ; tho object bciug to prevent bis iniud 
dwelling ou the iucorroiTt form. 

But suppoeo another writes : " Mr. Browo M blD 
haud-uurt to the barn IiiMt night." Hu raiiy or uiuy 
not be rospuuitiblu for that. If I tuude il clear, when 
the form /W — to was taught, that iunoimate forma 
conUl not be feti, tlion h<> in reeponNible. Ibit it ia 
luuru tliuu pn>bikbte, when such a oiitituke in made, tbat 
it is the teacher who is in fault. Tbin ragueuces of 
knowledge in the child'.-i mind is one of the most fruitful 
cauHuK uf hif) niiMttikus, uud for it the toaclmr, as a rule, is 
largely rcttpun»iblL-. For iuKtaucc, when I tauglit hitcfiaf 
-to to one of my classes, I probably porformed the action 



The CnrreciioM an<i JMivenfioN of MintalcM. 245 

'iutleffnit«1^'. for their fiwt irapreKsioii of it van not virid ; 
au(l t4i tliiB ilaj tlioy aro uol eertiiiu wlietlier Ihe home 
*«» liitL'liKi] to tliti wjigou, or ttio vrngoti to the borae. 
riio^j- ttljow (iIho » likt) liesitaney nboul mnuy kiudrod ex- 
prosHious, sokIi ba ticii — to. »aiM--t<>, ftt»Utmi—to, 
"iiereiis otiier «xpres8iouti, for iiiortt ilifficnU, give itot tbo 
"''eliUsl tronblo. 

If n child misKpetlii li word tie miiBf look it ap in hifl 
'OCttljolary, aud tlieii write it neiilly in « sootocico ten, 
twenty, or ruore times. If a child uses the post tonsa with 
im expresaiou of future titno, ho must correct it, aud theu 
ttHe it correctly in five or ton sentences. If & child is car«- 
leHB chiefly with his puuclualioa, hi» paper i» usimliy 
r^taracd uniuarked, and be must discover (or himself 
'•'^w© the trouble Hee. 

This work is uot distasteful to the child who bos heoa 
^*\aght iudepetuience. Hifi objection to it lies chiejly in 
^M (act Lhut it iuuhI be douo within a specified time, or 
l)v will hi) the suQ'erer. 

Whtiu the time set apart for correcting come«, a child 
itirammoaed to the desk. If it is primary work and the 
niiittake is one which ho van correct himeelf, simply the 
place where the correclion is tu he mudu is indicated. If 
be lacks a certain expression it is usually ^reu htm at 
oDco, and t.hea at the bottdm of the paper is indicated the 
drill-work which li« in In perform. ThiH drill-work is 
done and corrected cbioHy out of school hours. If the 
correction involves a hitherto iiiitiiii}^lit priuciple which 
the class may now pt'otilably lake, I sometimes have the 
chiM put liiH work ou the board to show the class why the 
Dew conHtructiou was given. It also serveit the mlditional 
purpose of giving importance to this work. 

With an int<irmediat« or advanced class, I rarely indi- 
cate the phu:e, but only the number of the <]U»Ktion iu 
which there is a mistake, and require the pupil to (i»d 
anil correct it. At the lop of the paper I write the num- 

246 7V« CWrecliun «»// Pnnwntitm uf Minhtbeit. 

bers of Ibo (jue&lious ur |>artK in wlilcli Ilit'i'L' aru mi( 
iind aa tliev are corrected rli^ck tlieni off. 

lu ikll of t]tit( vork miutiiusH find sjsleiunttc- arrno^ 
luent iQiist 1)6 ioftisteil upon. N'lttliint; Ik nion* prDductil 
of mistakes in laugui^:;e tLnu cnrelv^it, sIutuuIv urrnnf 
menl of %rork. 

Our KtroDgent Mifrgimnl n^^uinKt tlieHe nuMnkes n-ill 
to urouse in tlio pupil the detcrmiuiitinD nut to mill 
tbeni. To tin lliin it is of %'ital imp[>rtiiui.-o tlint ttio toucher 
should know wlieu and how much to prniso. There are 
times tci |>riiis<<, fiin<.>H to reprove, and tini«8 to wiUihoKl 
both, letting till-' pupil feel hy onr very nilctice tliitt whil^^ 
his work tifiA eacnped reproof he has uot doim htH bectt. ^| 

A little girl of ten w«k oqc^k plsoad in my cliuts. Hnr 
mind li«d neviir beuii r«allj jiwukened — she wrn* searcely 
QODHcidiiK that hIiu hnti one. She waH rk cold, piissive, 
Ami exprutisioulesii ab u block of uiiirb)i>. WvekK eliiiw0^| 
ore she bec«mo coiiscioiiR timt she was enpiiblt! of itn^^ 
loentnl exertion, nnil her efforts wero very fooble ut Brm. 
Finally nIib ciiint' to ruulixe thnl Kbe wag tho onlr one io 
the clafiK whot;« effortt* were never eoiumendHd. There 
was uo improvement in her work but she fnirly beK^oi] 
for praim. Day nfter day pAgfled niiil I longed iis eav- 
HflHtly i\» Hbe t(i tiud Homethitl}^ in her work or elTurt^ 
which I could commend. Ode day att I turned to ihu 
board to fwan her work my honrt giivo a great leap ; for 
there was clear evidence of tueiilal etfort, groitter even 
than I had Itelieved her capable of. The mnle ploadiug 
eyes were riveted on my fnce. Withonl a word or a criti- 
ciem I quickly wrote over her work, "gooi]." With a 
bonnd the child wiw at my side. She threw her arms 
about me nud held me close, the delicate little fimturea 
qtiiveriug with joy aif she gazed up into my faoe. From 
that (lay aho has gone etendilr on. 

At another time a boy brought me hi^ joitroal for cor- 
ructiou. Tiiore was not au error in it whivli he could uot 

TAa Oirricdnit atut Preneiition of iflst/ti-ea. 247 

»av« correcleil, iiot one for which be was not responsible. 

t ginnccti aI it ; the cnphftls stood out hi every possible 

pliiea «sc>opi their n^ht(lll ones; tho periods were con- 

apionous by their abseucc ; the fulitro teoHO wiis coupled 

with expressiouK of \>&fA timu ; the Actptuut-o wotdd 

bftve amii^edaay one but hin tem-1ier. Iti uiiich lesa time 

ttifui it han taknn to write it, I had noted thcne pointfl 

«u«l \^•itll a look of dif^iust qaickly rettirned thn papt-r lo 

tht^ bor at my ellww nud iii)iueditjil«ty rcMUiiiet) luy work. 

H«i took it with u look of uKtoniHlictieLt wliicli chaii;;ed to 

on*» of fiurcu rcHflutmont as ho niid into hin sent. The 

M^imr tcara Blood iu hi* eyes, Rovoiigufiilly he snatched 

^1*^ li is pencil sod Bcribbled nwny. Thcu lie held up hia 

t&bli'it. rapidly turninj; it from one to another that nil 

"'iftlit read. «nd f knew from his face and theirs what wiu» 

thurv — that 111) wiiM Kayiug all lh« c^vilH thiugN uhniit- inn 

^e coaUl within tlie limits of hia reatricled vocabulary. 

^btt rlu^g was watching os, bnt I looked on in aorrowful 

•ilfiDceand reproved him nr.t. The revoDgefnl fury spent 

i^H and the paiufnl, bitter thought showed in his Face, 

''I won ber respect and prai^ by hard, patient labor, 

bdJ now. now f hav« thrown it all away." 

Hin li«ad drooped. Tears of .anger, fierce anger at 
binuuilf, rained on his paper. He bruKhml them nwny 
abil Ktnitohed up bis poueil oue« mom. Firsl tliB rubber 
lliea the point, did ittt work, nud at h'la tirHt oppor- 
tnnity he was nt my side again. T lonketl at hiH paper 
JDKt long enough to Hhow him tlmt I nute«l the correeliomi 
•ml again fiileutiy returned it. With a look of wounded 
prido and discouragement he took U\» scut, laid his ])apcr 
qniotly on his dcHk, and leaned bank. His face and atti- 
'Inde Kuid all loo plainly tha.1 he hail humble«l himself to 
rthe dnst ; that he had tiiMl ; that 1 was hard nnd did not 
appriKTiate his groat etTort. He sat for a. long time with 
ilnwut-'futt eyoM : rhen li» titole n gluoi'e at me, theu another, 
tUtiO another; theu that peuL'U came up. and with u quiet 
dt'lcrminatiou be sot to work again. 

248 Tht CorrerlioH a'tii Pi-eutnlion of MisUtl-ex. 

A mucli luiigvr iiitcrvul ulitputid lYo liv brou^til hi 
paper to aiu ugniu, TIr-ic woru, ptirbnpA, some \n\ 
dozea errors remaiuiDg. I noted the correctiooB, bi 
though my heftrt ached for Iiim. retnrnwl the paper 
to him ngaiu. )lu tituod irn-Kolntc a luiDute. Shuul 
be throw up the whole (hiu^ aud give up? It sui 
wae no use trying to satisfy oue 80 hard and esactiDg! 
Itut a SDiile was sufficieut. Quietlj and putientl; bt 
went over tliut pnper once mora. TIhh tiui« li« cat 
fully copied his woric, and it was near the close 
school when he laid it before me agaiti. His eyes uu- 
fliuchiugly met mine; I was uow satisfied that he hi 
done his levRl best, fie stood quietly awaitiog the vc 
diet, tt WRK the work uf a mnment to correet the mil 
spelled word, to reatoru t)ie iniH»iiiig artiule, audio give 
a pronoun its proper gouder, to piu the paper over tl 
soiled and tear-stained original aud to lack both to th^ 

Although the other pupile were quietly working, thuir 
interoet bad been at white boat all day while that 
fierce battle wnw wnging. Happy tears uow shoue in tbo 
boy'8 eyea aa he turnetl and met the amiles of approval oo 
every face. It was heroic treatment : three mooths before 
it vould have utterly crushed bim ; now it made a man of 

Tbe papers were left tbere u few days, as a warning 
tbikt only his beat efforts would be accepted, as a re- 
minder of how far ebort he had ftitlcu that day, aud osun 
incentive to do bis be&t. His eyes sought them iis hooo- 
tered the room, and oft through the dny wqa their silent 
warning heeded. One nioroiug he came iuto tbe room 
uud fouud them gone. His eyctt sought mint! with a 
happy, grateful look, a look born of " the triumph of 

But bow well he bad learned bis lesson not even his teacLd 
realixtid until weoks afterward wbuu one day bin old '• 

'Che f'ortreiioit nud J'reventton of MisUfkes. 249 

tiuff sin, tiotf-C'tutidptici?, cnasei) biiii to liau<t in sooievery 
carvless work. Witliout a word I rotiiruod hit* papor, 
broiiglit forth the ol J battle-scnrred onosaod tackfld Iheiu 
to the wall ouce more. An agoo v of sliitme and remorse 
■wept ovet his face QH lie dashed to his neat and went to 
Work. When the coiTcctious wore made tho papers wore 
taken doTTii, aud uevcr agnia wait there occosiou eveD to 
r»fer to them. 

Uoea aot tlje whole problem resolve itself into this : 
I^QOvr each child's {tositibilitiuR and uoHinchiiigljr, unre- 
tnittiiiKly bold him up to them. The troublu i« iu ua ; 
'*■'** are lavkiut; iu zeal ; we are luckiug in couraf^e. 

Oil, that each yonug teacher might know, as did the 
*rit«r (or the blessed space of two years, thejoy, iuapira- 
^'on , iivL', nnd k^eD wholt-Nome pain of workiDg auder n 
V'Ucipul who held hor uucwisingly to her vory boat; 
^Uose ideals were pure aud high ; whose plana were so 
''•»*'|) and fiir-reaobing llu-y were incomprehensible to less 
^V'uext, KeU-aacriticin^ Hoiiltt ; who tanglit her to 

Wvli:otiii> «n<.-b r«bDff 

TliHl turns iwrlir* >uaoo(bB«n ruagb ; 

E«cb Ming tb«t lti>l« nor dt. aea Maod, but go. 

Let OH have done witli surface work and strike at the 
*«ry root of the matter, never flim^hing at the pain we 
iiiflirt, bnt thinking nnly of the ultimate good that will 
come of it. 

When we bave done otir best, when we have worn onr 
life away in the work we loved, we mnat lie willing quietly 
li> titt*p a.Hidt* iiud let another carry it forward and win the 
pruxe, It was the cry of a gruat heart, a heart lougtug 
for the fraits of its labors, which said : 

" If you 8aoce«d without suffering, il is be<!Rn)te some 
OQB baa HulTered before you : if you suffer without auceauB, 
it is that some one may snccoed after you." 

r*Mh*r in tit PvMe lt«9 SeAoot. Clnttand, mio 


PAST.*- I r. 

We roav uext consider Plimnicin, mid its grctit oti^ 
shoot, Carthagw. Here we are just a iUtIo hotter at 
ttioiif:!)) not miirli, in rcf^nnl to the kind of infnrmiitii 
(lesirtni tlinii in the ciiutt of Persia. The PlKfiiimai 
were the EhkHsI) of RDcient times, *'. *., they were ensilj fii 
as f>ca-cnrricrs am} tutrchnute throughout the thvu kiio\ 
world. But »ltl)Oiigh thifi cclohratuil race of trnderfl wui 
ill Ihoir day tho idcuds of sprendiug far aud wide nittc 
invniimhie ktiuwlcdgo, yet it was not as tlie originators 
it, but att Ihtt oarriora or Irniiflniittprh only from point to 
point, whomrer thvir tibii|iiitotiK Khips peiictrnte<l. Their 
contrilnition to gcngniphioiil knowledge wiis gro»b, nod 
t)ieir ]4LTvico iu diffusing all kindn of useful informntioi 
WHS iinqncstionnbly important, but in literature, art, ai 
origioal getiinn gomaallv thuv Mioni to hnre b(^rn 
inferior to the Greeks or eroii the RoiuatiB. Tins conn 
(|U(>iico of this wan that ihoy left behind them coiiipnrtt^ 
lively meagro n^conls or nimnins nf a kind to furniHU latm* 
generationa with auj'thiog like lu'curnte uml sntinructoi 
knowledge of their inner social life, cuatonis, laws, etc. 

All einiuiojitioii of the rhief authorities'^ on i'lui-ntcif 
life and hintory, however, fiirnishen very Mtrong presump- 
tions U) the etfect that etlucotion, na kucIi. was but little 
developed, and that such as did exist was oulj 
had by few. Of training in shmwd coniiuerciat precept 
in the rnde iiavigntiun of tliuir time, aud the like 

*0(>titian«il frMB (ho M'ircb uaintier of tbt^ .-jnna/^, pugt 1K3. 

+ ltAwlioaiiirii " Pbii'iiliTift " ; Profrmor I'i'^lier I'nitiii'a *' Onrtllgfe*'| 
Pror«ati«r U. BMwoMh Hmltfa'* "UanhKifo utd Ui« CftrUutglulBBs ' 
Sayce'a "AiKi«ut HmpirM," «tc-; ilolllnN "Auciinit Ilialorr," an<I mi 
anl initior ahtislii^la. 

The Soda/ Statiu of the l>enf in thf htnf. '2U\ 

iiicre was tloiilitless plenty for those nbto to pick it tip 

witbool too grwit expoinliture of time uutl tuoucy opon 

■liooi. Compurnlivuly little Htteutioi) was pnid to literary 

leAntiug nsnn end in itself. Tho iill-ab»orbiug patHUoo 

^ntn (!«Diuieri.Tial profit in ono form or ivuotber, and only 

l<-*U kiiowlrdi^o mid triiiutuf; na oDuliil)uted t<> tl)i8 «ud 

'AA tftkeo Qp eDtlinmatnticaltj by the Vlirrtiicinns ati n 

People at large. (!limrlj. thi-ti, thurc wiw litUo tniconr- 

>ff4ia«tlt nnioapit sitcrli n pvoplu fur uudtirtukiu^.iiHiLiuere 

iBAttdt ot pbilHutliropy nnd kioduetM. the expennive etlu- 

wtion of auy individuiU not qualilied favoniblr by nntnre 

f**' tiasily nnjuiriiig it, and miikiiiju; Kal>»«<piuutly "n }f.oot\ 

o«e of it " ill a Itnsiufsa seuse. Auy saob perfonuiiuce 

*^Ouli;1 hiive Hiriick the livernge I*h<cii it-inn or Carthngiu- 

tAn nA the Rct of dreiiQjioK Fentimeutnlisin or iinprticticnl 


Xow, iuiutiuucli »» the tiacoessf ill education of any deaf- 

'ant^ inrulvedtbu InburioiiH workiiigoiit of an exceptional 

noLbnd of in»tnictioii, uiid i^vt^ii then renmtiiud it proc- 

**n coiuparativiily costly iu iiiUL> tiud puins, we c-uu 

^■Lrcely boliuva that nuy snch enterprise could ever bavo 

l«4sn »«riou8ly eiit#itaiued, mnrli less carried out, amid 

*ttc|i ffnnditionii iiK hftve lieeii doiicnbed. Nut upon aiij 

uotivi* of gain did tbi* bopex ot tbe deuf iLod dumb rent 

tbrongbunt lli« ceuttiriett. but upon n nobler motive of 

lovt' uud uonipassioii in !>oine lieiirt thut vonid labor long 

Mirl patiently for the mere good of n fullow-beiug, without 

oipecliu^ other r4<>wurd tbuu the cuuH(.-iou8ut>^ of huving 

nuuln another happier. but stieli motives nero rare iu 

Tyro ttud Sidou or in Cjirtluige, ur were Ion u-enk. Merely 

lieneTolont Inbor, whttre " there wiik notbtug iu it," mate- 

rially speaking, wnti iibout the last thing tbut Che> geuiiis of 

Pho.|)ii.-i}i tondod to encourage. 

As regardH the I'luuniciiLQ chitmvtvr for hnmnnity of 
fMiling and prai-tioe tnwan) the nnfnrtnnatH and depend- 
Btit, it waH unytbiug but good. The hiaturiau, KoUiu, tellu 

J-'i: Th^ -Social Status of the Deaf in the Fast. 

-s t -iieir inordinate passion for making gain otit of 

-T-ii-rriung, and contempt for all principles of conduct 

to**ti ipon otlier considerations. Naturally sacli a peo- 

l^ roniii have looked with but small favor upon wliat- 

-T*=-r ^minised to occasion them expense and loss witliout 

•unt- if prwtent or fnturo compensation in a material 

inn. •. f,. npoD helpless and comparatively useless eoD- 

-(amftn. Rawliuson says of them, speaking of their 

.uman .^crifices: "Familiarity with snch bloody rites 

jumrulv tended to brutalize a people, whom the influences 

E -TOkXn and commerce might otherwise have softened, 

JUL "uis may acconot for the violence with which they 

wiH taxed by Ezekiel (xxviii, Ifi),* for their cruel treat- 

3i:«i[: of prisoners, for their habitual indulgence of pinicr, 

JbX :uie horrors attendant upon their tratSe in s1aveH."t 

Sj. "aw. Prof. Sayce declares, " the character of the Pli(e- 

Tiinnji religion, and of the people who held it, was at 

■ai:e impure and cruel.^t All this does not sonnd eo- 

r'mr'i^iiig. It is but too likely that the deaf and dumb, 

mn^Able of learning by their own initiative, for the most 

3Uin t-jiosing expense to others, but giving little, if any, 

?wim therefor, and helpless generally to defend them- 

^tti.^'^es. met with a cold and hard reception in Phrpuicin 

fcxi Carthage. 

Ibis uncomfortable conclusion is strongly reinforced, 
b.>»ever, from another source. Whatever part saper- 
jShioD may have played in Egypt, there can be no doubt 
t£At in Phoenicia and Cartliaf^e it was the direct cause of 
sntold misery and suffering to many, for there it took ou 
i>«onliarIy maliguant and heartless forms. Throughout 

■ Exekiel suys : "By the multitude of thy merchaDdize they have 
ilWd the midst of thee with vtolem-e. aud tbou hast Muned, therefore I 
«iU c*at tUe« bs profane out of the moniitaiu uf (iod : aud I will <1e»troj 
thM' • • •.'■ 

^BawlinsoD's "Phoenicia," |>. ^17. ft»eq. 

: Snyce'B " Ancient Euipiiea of tlie East," p. 202, H Mtj. 

Uie Semitic raw iu WeKtorn Asia, tliere prevaileil « stroDg 

popnlar liispositiou lo n?gard severe raentnl nnd boiHty lu- 

firmilitw, but especially Ihe former, »k being the work of 

*agry nnd oflT^tidpil deities, or ah iuilicatiug the presetico 

ot indwelUni^ evil Hpiritu. Hebrew liistory lins made uk 

/atniliur with tlioso idons na nianifostod nmong the Jews, 

vho were a grcutt branch of the Semiteti, and whose deeper 

nciai charactemtictB hnve iH-eu hLowu to be comiuoii to 

nil the mee; e. y., shrewd comiuetcinl genius is one pUiu 

■UuBtration of this ritce coramnnitr between Jew and 

Pli*ii|iii>i»n. ft was the clos" iiftiuity U^lweuii llieae two 

brauohes of oue race that matle it so difficult for the 

leaders o( iBrael to preserve their monothoiatie religion 

trom Goutamiuation by the Ph(*-uiciftii polytheism, lui well 

>Hto orerthrow the saperstitions iu Israel which had been 

<-*otntuoti to all the Semites origiimUy. The endeavor to 

cb(»ck ami destroy one phase of su|>or8titiou amoogiit the 

wBiva is aoeu iu thu Moaiiic euuctment. "Thou slitilt not 

•'■■■We till! deaf, * * ■"' — a law the ueceHsity for which 

'^v^bU to us at once the attitude of the Semitic populace 

^''^'ard deaf aud dnnib persoup. The wtill-koowa iuoi- 

oama related iu lh« New TvHtnuieut of tlie cnstiug out of 

'^i.'i spirits* eluoidntti still further the nature of Semitic 

"^«%ua OS tooohiug those afilicted with any tnisfortuiio, not 

^^^licable oil the face of it to urdinary people.t Aa it 

'^ IIm full fti^niftf An*-* of lh«lu^ ta to be «»iuld«i!ed In auotb«r cooMc- 
*"*»ti, HI I m^rtl) •lliiile Ui ihoui berf. 

^ It iiiiiHt ii«f*( bp fu«|ii>tlfU io tlii* eoiiaKCtiuli that wbat ta uow mi 

'^^iiiliar I" ■••' <•«• ittivrlv iiifiiiiiliolik atxl (uj-8i«rii>aA Ut Ilin anciaitti. 

**tt : itiAt Amtavm an*** uic>«lj train k |itiyaieal ilefc-ot ut boiuc kiad. nnd 

■* aiH mtntttl in it» arffin. Ttin or^nc til hriuing bfiDjt iDTisiblo kud 

■tbLauwu wvi* Un vnl uf nc^.-utlDl >ll^»^«tber. To th« itncl^uu dCftfiKU. 

Ud tta iMu*«|U(?uiw. iluubuei*. wcrv »l^us of meutal dibuntei, uul of Miy 

e<*aipftntlr*lT ■tiiall plirsic*! *biionB*lUv. UsiK^e it wn« tk»l Uie Atmi 

•Wen •(> crctilittlx liabU U> iIkw <tv|>vntlli'>(iM wliicli all*-B>|itcJ tA sx. 

in tbr mx>terinaii I15 Mnor fonii •>( KjiiritaRl nKpncy. ju*t m nil iiip«r' 

titloB ■•■ nail; l-ni tiliod ntk«gaf(|«d rlTan to flxd mtiaffuiur; ntni^M tut 

VAjilkluol I'tteauuieo*. 

254 Thi Social SUUmo/lhe Det^f in the I^t. 

wat) pruL-iKely sueh deupljr-ruotticl [jupular superKtitio: 
that vere cominou tu tlio whole Semitic tuee, it is pnu£i:=3 
tivutiT c«]'tnii> that amongst the PliiL>uiciHiis thor« too: 
have oxJstixl the KHmn cliKpoHitino to '' cnrae the ilonf,' 
iitid fur the Hitiiie rea^uuH, im iu the I'ane of the IsiVkehtva^^ 
Biit tiinoug&l llio Former there was uo Mopee. actiug witt^ 
Ihu liighoHt rpli^ioU!4 RiiiK^tions, tn forbid thiK hostile treat — 
iiieiit of II t<itally iuiHiiiidi>rsloo(l ciiiss of ppraons. Thf^ 
barUaric Pliivniciaii religion rather teudod, if anything, to 
oidtivate iiud euconrtigo esautly ^uch euapicinuti nml seitli- 
luentfi toward any cIhsh liku the d«a( aud dumb a« led to 
cruel troatmont of thom by the popa)ac«. Wo oao eaurcoly 
avoid the couclnsion, therefore, that Ihe PhosnioiaD deat- 
mute wEts, in common with many others, tbo Tictim of thai 
peculiarly luuliguaui crnolty wliich suspicious suptir^ti- 
tioDa always develop, wherever they way exiat. Having 
lifted the veil lou^ «D<Migh to witueaa for a moment the 
fate uf tliL- di-ftf uud dumb amid oiie great Semitic puuple, 
only to tind the Sijoqu ono that paiua the liuart without a 
aiuglu i-clioviug feature, Il'I ii8 drop it u^iu, uud turu our 
aunrcli upon another and a greater aoioQ of that extr; 
ordiuary nice. 

The Heuuewh. 


It is for a double reason that we may now take np at 
last tho great taraelitiab uivilixfttiou with n Heni»i' of rnliof. 
In the tirKt phice, it iu in the Hebrew literature that we 
diacover for lite tirst time siucothe dauu of history (with 
the oue exoeption uounected with E^'pti spccilic rofod^l 
eucoR to tho dt'nf and dumb, huoIi an^^onvnytn nn diruotly 
uud iudirm'tly uul a little reliable information couceriiiug 
tboir status iu MXtiety. In the Heooad place, it was among 
tho IlebrowK that tliis long forsaken class tirst found 
friends and protectors aaioug the great nud powerful wh( 
gorcru men. 

Every thoughtful man must coutvuiplatu the unoi< 

TJu- SiK-ial Si^tnm or' t/if Ovuj'hi the Pufl. 

HriluMlioii of Judeii with profouiid adiuirntion nod rovo- 

nuw. Mnoy were itn jicliitivctucuU on a ffraud smale, in 

*»r, in alatusmniiHUip, in litonitiira aud other afininj of 

(lOfunu life. But nil n?jidt>n« of tlie8e linen may be par- 

(Itfuod (or ferliug Ibut perliam tlieir udmiiiitiou for that 

ih>l>)B ciriliKntioti is jnntiHe«] \.>y w> oue fact moth truly 

tbuu tiiix, I. «.. tlmt uvvu iu the cuse of so obscure aud 

uuiTersallv neglected a class as tlie denf aud dumb the 

Hebrew le^i!?latiuu shielded them from poimlar contumely, 

Hebrew pniphetH promised Dumuciputiuu tu thorn, aud, 

fiUHUr, ou the fttreetn iif Jerui^titein and the higllwuvA of 

Judea. Jesus of NaziLretli, notwithstanding ho was repudi- 

*k«d 1)r his raco, pcrfnruietl the dcedn and gave forth the 

*Bviue!t which miMld Mure tu thein their salvation in the 

prvuea^ uf time. So luuff iia the world siaiids, thu man 

*ha but loTeshinkind. be he ('hriHtinn,agno»tir, or atheist, 

**^ lie ft MocialiHt, liu individualist, ur nu nuarchist, oiubI 

*""*■ in revoreut yrutitude to iho heroii- master-spirits of 

''"dniBoi aud their immortal work. If it wiut \hv (ireek 

**»» left an products of the iiit«llect so perfect as todoiut- 

"•t-^i Htill iiiueh of our iiurelv iniuilnl activitv, it was the 

"^^Ijrttw who left us fruits of the Spirit so potent tlint wo 

^^ BtiU iuspired and guide<t bv them tu all our humaDi- 

'**'i«n activities. 

Xt iH uot thai the <leaf-iiiuti' received au.v uduciitiOQ 
"'^unK thu JeWH, for, as vsv mIidII see, this eould not hav4j 
"^«ju ; it is uot that he sullered uotluiig from superstition, 
">C* the .lows woiv Qot sii|R)rior to this evil habit of mind ; 
"* tH not that the JeWM always treated bitii with kindliees: 
but, whfui all tbia has been fully recoRiiiKcd, it still re- 
mains a (j;t-eRt and si(^nitii*sut hit-t that the gowru- 
Qiout to niinet a htu- wpeeilically io behalf of the deaf was 
that uf tho Habrvw eommoitwijultb uudcr Moses, atid the 
firwt prm'Ininrition of hope for restoratiou to a lost beri- 
Ug(> ffi|| (roui I he lips of the };reiite::it uf the prophets 
ul Israel. Nor could these have b«eu the only beams of 

2f>« The Social .Stat»t of the Ikuf m the Vast. 




kiudlv ligUt cast upon the sombre palli of Lbi> JuwikIi 
deaf-mute, for these must surely' Iiare kiadted otbers froui 
less exalted sources, tliougli tbe scriptaral records 
silent in regnrd to tliem. 

Tt liaH been tuiiil tliat <1ea(-muteH ikmiKI never hnve 
ceived iiuy literate educatiou, at auy rate, Hiuuag the 
ancient Hebrews. Of this there can be little doubt for 
severnl reasons, some of whicli nro sioiilar to those exist- 
ing etitevhere in those timeR. Yet there is a great change 
to be uotail iu onu or two rL*6])i*cts lu piittsiiig from those 
peoples iilroady L*oiisidoroil to the Hebrew soeioty. It 
has been well-nigh impossible to oonceiTO of snflicieni 
altriiititic feeling nnd teaching among any of the nocieti^^A 
considered previously to have led any iudivlduals to iinde^^ 
take go purely a benevolent enterprise as that iovolved in 
tbe successfnl education of a donf-mnte. But this is by 
no nieann true of the .lewinli society, far it waa endowed 
with a religion thai »xprdagly inculculed altruititic printii- 
ples, a religion that brought forth uounmberod individuals 
who would have boon quite iviiling to spend their lives iu 
tbe effort to buuetit nuy of their lees fortunate brethren. 
without exp«ctation of persoual reward in the earthly 
aenae. Wo can scarcely doubt that had couditions favored 
the discovery of a way to instruct the deaf, or had auch a 
uietbod actually been known, there would have been 
teachers iu Israel glad to instruct deaf-uintes, for tbe 
necOKSary motivta were not nt all lacking with them, ah 
woa the case amou^st the nations that did not know God 
nor his oommtmdments. Nevertheless, though for the 
first tiniv in thu long story of nutinnfi we discover among 
the people of MuKuti and tht; proplietn a now spirit, which 
promised inliuite hlessiugH to uiaukiud, we are unublu to 
tind any BubntitDtial t^ronud For believing that mental liber- 
ation for any deaf-mute is h> be credited to it. 

TliiK uc^utive result was due to several conditions, 
some of which were cominou to tho Jews as well an the 

Tkt Sfwittt Statm o/M« Dm/ in the Pa^. 257 

r&iS'^ of ttio world iu (heir dnv, and i^ome of wliicli were 

p9«= alinr lo tli^m aluae. Tlie lack of anatomical kuowI> 

eil^;^ atill kept the real cuiises of deafaoKH a my&terj', no 

tKckiit ooDtiuued to be aUiibutod to ol>scure mentnl de- 

r&K3^Dii3Dt. The eflfect wa8 put for tlio causv, so that 

m*:^iitiil doficioncy was ima^^ned to be the caaae of deaf- 

nesa aud (lambnosM, instead of junt the reverBe. Bat if 

iVieiv was mental d<^fieiuncy, then of what nse was it to at- 

^upt the inslructioa of such per«OQ« ? Such did the 

aose appear to all the aocieuts. iucludia[j, of course, the 

pDrthennore, the sacceRfifiil e^lucation of udenf person 

^"O only be curneil out liy luuanii of aii alphabntio analy- 

"< of language, aud tbe alow buildiu^ up frotu letters to 

''^'•"c'Ih, words tn flentencea, and, finally, seuteueos into io- 

'''"-il^ent uxpreKsir)n of fugitive thoughts and ideas, to 

'^^r words, meutat BiaancipntioD can be given to the 

"•'^'ff throuyb literate wiueatiou only. By direct won! of 

'"^'•atl), without tbe intorvention of any alphabet wbat- 

•'^», an astouinhing amount of instruction can Iw giveu 

^ %}\Qse who bear and alreiuly posoeHS a commaud of 

°'t5«mc language. But thin la nlti^rly out of the question 

■o V those who have never acquirt'd langiiago iii tliotirst iu- 

"^^^Vee, or who cannot hoar oral communioationa. Tn the 

•fe^i preceding our own, however, it was iDalmotion by 

*Ord of month that vastly preponderated, while literate 

*4ucatioD was to be had by only the fortunate few. Tho 

^*®*ring of this broad fact upon the case presented by 

&iiy who could not bear ia obvious. 

Now, with regard to the Jews apecitically, Milnian 
Baya,* " The father was enjoined to inHtrnot bis cbildrcQ 
Id all ihe memorable oveotx and b-arrcd usages of the 
land." But it appcart) thut this iu»lruclion was oonveyed 

•Sm Uamu's •• HMwr of Um J«««.*- Vol. I. Book in. It vHintUs 
va; Ibat a knowledge of tba nuo »iie*ra of tb«ii nativnitt ItUlory wiM 
li«|i( np lf*dIUoiwll]r unonit Uie Jtviab pfopla. 

The StKtal SlfiO'3 nf the Dia '* in the Putt. 

orally itrooii^ the iunsiieii<>( th» people, anythmg likeeda- 
cutiou, it) our hbu<«) of that toi-m, boitif; coDtiaed to the 
Levites. pri«st«, »ii»l pviiice* of tribes. "The tribe of 
Levi WII8 ilevote<l to nil those offices iu which luaratDg 
was requisite, iku4 therefore to the cnltivation of learoiog 
it«elf. * ■ » The priucos of tribes aud ht-iida o( 
houses, however, Htill retaiucd their auciout huuors, aud 
weve permitted to hoM oftioes, and to apply themselves to 
tb© BcieucfH," * Clearly nil those persoas, thus specially 
lietiiKUHtoil, luceived a carefal literary as well aa oral adu- 
cntioD. Hilt it is exactly amoag snoh higher xelect, uud, 
therefore, well cuuditioiied classes, that deafDeas occurs 
very rarely, the great inajorily of the deaf being found 
amoug the luaaseH, where 1«h8 fnvorahle cnnditinnH of life 
pmviiil, L'uiiseijiittiitly, siucc uo dt-af persou L-outd liavo 
protitetl by the ornlly-coiiveyed teiichiDg popularly em- 
ployed, while literate ednuntion was ranerved for a small 
seluct v\na», it (oIIuwh almost with ceilniuty that among 
Ihu Jews deaf-iuiites woul uutaught, and reualoed still 
bereft of all the pleasures aud advantages of social lite, 
Next, however, let us consider liow the Jewish pnblio 
treated their deaf and duiul>-~ regarded simply as ohjeeta 
of sympathy aud help. The astouishiugly com|>rt-heiiHive 
character of the Mosaic legislation is perhaps revealed bjr 
no one detnil umrt) than hy \\w brief but signifioniit eu> 
aetnient alreitdy ciltMl ulsenhfrtj. In the midst of n Quni- 
ber of »ocial regnlatiuns. such as the [jroUihitiou of steal- 
ing, false donlin^. tale-bearing, taking revenge, etc., wa 
find the honeticeiit liiw, "Thou shall not curse the deaf, 
aur pot a stumbliug-bhirk before the blind." Here wo 
sea the lirst iustauce iu all history of a ruling power reuog- 
ni:uug expUuilly iu its public law the right of the deaf- 
mute to an undisturbed exiatence under legal protectiou. 
Again, though ceuturiea later, it was unacted that deaf- 
mutes should bo allowed to contract marriage or dissolTe 

The Social Siatug of (he Deaf in the !\iii(. 2:)9 

tt throogli diroreo pi-ocoe<liuf;s by uiing aipig, ancli iis 

tndHiatod AD iutelligdDt appreciiktioo of wLat was being 

'loijc.* We cau on\y roalizo how loug ii stop in iidvftQoe 

>* sbowQ b,T this y;raut of ti bigblv important logiil privi- 

/^«, wbeuwe uotctbalit rerealn a far better iiotierstatidiDg 

of kli« real tiatare of denfueas aud dumbuess. It is clearlv 

K>«o^oi26d bere that the above defects did not aeceBearil; 

">*lioate tbeabaencQ of mtcUigcitce, but mi^rdlj involved tlio 

'Ack. of tba ordinur}- iu«sus uf comiuutiicutiou, so that, if 

"OtXk*) wav of mAkiug Rood tbe latter deficiency conld be 

'*^^nd. the deaf<mute shonld Dot be denied the fnnda- 

■uet^t^l social privilege of Icgnl ranrriaRe. Thnt the sign* 

'^^^oago, ID somo form. v.-a» uckuowlt-dgeil ttufKctoDt for 

^U fjmclica) parpoMS iu ao iuiportsttt a matter aa tbia, at 

*** early a period, will suggeNt many reflectioua, which 

''^^id uot, howBTer, be gone into at present. In tbia on- 

*^^^«ct»d provision of ancient JuniKb law we have bat od« 

'**<:»re eiidpuce of tbe marvelous inKight and falntwa of 

^*x^ humane legialatioa which the Hebrew race developed 

^^v ID advance of all other peoples. 

Aside from formal legislntinn, liowever, the Hebrew 
'^fciiratnre oontaiot) other Higuiticaiil alluflionK to tbe elass 
^lioHe hiatory we are toTestigatiug. It waa the wiseat 
of tbe kings of Israel, reigning iu tlie tiioat glorious 
^•^mch of their history, who wud. "Open thy month for 
le damb in tbe eaase of all such as are left deaohUe" 
^Proverbs, xxxi, 6). White it is doubtfal whether Kolo- 
mon meant in those worda to apenk of the literaUy dnrab, 
and DO otherH, yet there is oerlainlr n g(>neral prin- 
ciple expressed by them, which pcvoliarty appU«d to tbe 
sciaBll; daroh as well aa to lboe« figarativfly sappoeed 
to be so. A or) the verr tiu> nf the word " donb,'' wbellwr 
OMd litersily or Sgantirelr, sagKests imrtantly Ibat sp»- 

* TUB pf MUaoa secnn ta tb« MMid> TvfaaaCb. wtm^. 14, «M. 1. I 
Ml ttOebtcil ta X»r. a Adlw. CfcM BabU, Landea, far lUt MctmMlj 

MarMdog Bad inportasi fact. 

260 Tht Sochd Sl'ttus of l/*c Dettf in t/ia Pavt. 




cific iipplicabiou, aa well as llie fact that Solomou mi 
well aware of tliecxisieiice of ilnmbness and the helpless* 
ueas it iiivtilvud. In Iiin beautiful viitiun of ii better titnt 
to come for all the dUiuhurited of uurth, Isaiah uxoliumt 
" Tlieu th« dyes of the blind shall be opeued, and the ' 
of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then shall the lame iurd 
leap iMi nil hart, iiiid tliK tongne of the dumb Khali hiu)^ " 
(Ittjiiiili, XXXV, &— G). There itt no mietakiug whom Isuinh 
bad detUiitely in luiud here, at auy rats. The y!j«»i 
prophet had kiiowii whereof he spoke, aud to his heart 
cerliLiii RilKUoes had bepu h» eloquent pleas for retueiu^^ 
braaoe in the day of emauoipatioD. ^| 

Qoiug outside of the Bible, there is a passage in the 
TnlniDd which declares "Yon must eot relegate the dea{ j n 
aud dumb to the rategory of the idiot and the infant awH 
beiug murully irrespouBible, beoaune they cau be taught and 
rendered intellif'Giit."* Written in the second century after 
Christ, during the life of Jehudah, the Prince, this pas- 
sage cotues mimy centuries after Moses, Solomon, at 
Isjiiiih, and reveals th» atlvnuoe made in a trne coraprehei 
siou of deaf-mutieui. Dr. U. Adler, Chief HabbiiuLrf)udon^ 
is authority for the statomout (in a personal oommnuicution 
to th« present writerj that " As a role the status assigned, 
however, to deaf-mutes in the Talmud, is similar to that of 
bnlf-witted persons or minors." The explanation of somo 
upparcDt iocousistCQoy botweon thia latter statement au<^H 
the others cited above as directly from Jewish Uocumcntft 
iti probably to ba foitud iu two voiisideratious : (I) That, 
while more advanced students of social pbenomeaa un< 
welfare may liave made much progress in getting nearer 
to the trnth of thiugH, many others remained enthralled 
under old ideas — a couditiuu of things hccu in the history 
u( every loug>lived and progressive people; and (S) 
that if we had the exact dates of the several ideas cited 
we should probably 6nd that there had been a progrew 



The Sttciai Stat»>t of lU J>eaf in the Past. 261 

:»aii cue tbeorjrto auother ref^unlJug tUe deaf, which faot 

*i'o'«ld cleAF up the ooDTusiou otherwise arisiuf; from the 

"»«» ufficieut Ealuess of our Jala. What ivctaally happened 

* '"^ » probablii- tbia : From the oarliur uotioo that tho deaf 

*^*<3 JoDttb were qiiito boyoui! tho roach of iutelli- 

6*E^'&( couiruiiiiicatiiiii, nud therefore to be cotiaidered 

''^=^^;pelef«lT isolated from social life and aotivitj, there was 

" ^griMlDa] progresa mtb the pntwnge of centnrJoa toward 

"■^c^ fly^r bettor npprociatioD of what they wore iu reality, 

^'^^d ooncomitanti;' with this a {gradual couoessioo of more 

^^^ more cousideratioD at thn haiida o( sodety, even id 

'^^Dportaot matters regtilnted by pabiir. taw. The remark- 

^'Vtlis thing about it all ia that, although it may have ru- 

''^'Vired ceDtttrieB for this much progress to be made 

^^-mong tlie Jews, yet it was infinitely more than any cod- 

^-^mporary people altained.or any »ubHc«iiienl civiliKotion 

'^^ntil within a few centuries of oar owu. 

N'ow, on the whole, it ia plain that where, aa atiiong 

^be ancient Jews, their leaders, their public law, %ud their 

^rritors were so friendly towani the denf, the severity 

«f their uiafortnne muat have buen greatly aoftened 

»nd their helpleaanesa often relieved. Around about 

Jodea, whorovor one may look, there was never a aoU- 

(ary voice raised in their behalf — not a syllable of 

Kympnthy, not the hint of a law. ToNtrnKt, thore reigned 

only the profound »Ueuee of au utterly negligent world. 

Let this be retnombared to the credit of those who, 

thoogli they did so much, yet were not without fault, as 

wa shall now proceed to observe. 

The ruli^K of Israel atrovo hard to pnt down and elimi- 
oate superstition from among thoir people, but the strug- 
gle w(U( long and seemed often hopeletiH. Tlydra-hea/led 
idolatry, atrnuk down here, (w}Ou reappeared there, and 
iloog with it all sorts of ootioos and practices not iu har- 
oionv with the religion of Abraham, I'tatic, and Jacob. 
There is a sinister hint in that law of Muse.'* against curs- 

262 Tiu Social Statue of tk« De^fitx th4 I\t*L 

iDg tlie deaf. Why was it Qec«8«Arjr at all ? What is tlifl 
poculiitr sigiiifi»;»noe of tlie turoi "ciirso" in tliat coiinec- 
tiun ? There is n iteadlv Rounit nhoat it that sa^^flftte the 
miili^u iDllneiiue f>[ a hiii-Hh superMtition, prpsvnt \n the 
uiiDtls of tliL* iguoriiut pupulact) at least. Uur suspicioL 
iiiifortiiuiktelv is but too Riirolv oontiriued by iiicidoiits 
that occurnxl long nftorwnnl, vhon wo might ha%'e sup- 
pufiiHl bett(>r idpau to prevail — iueideutH that are nil the 
nioro valuable iu this conuectioa Itecaase they ai-o reiatml 
(or ontircly another purpose thau that of rovonlitif; the 
/wjiyjH/«;- attitude townrfl (lortf-niutos. Thoy wcro rchitod 
to show Christ')) altitiule toward tlit^se peranuH, and what 
lie »aid and did id refereoce to them. 

Even so late as tlio time of Christ, what vns the 
prevalent thought of th« multitadc with rcgai\l to the 
deaf and diinibt Obeen'^ the plaiu iiuplioatious in this 
coonectiou of the foltowiug laogtiage : " As they wcafc 
forth, behold, there was brought to hitn a dumb mao, pos- 
sessed with a dovit. A ud wheu the devil waa cast out tho 
dumb mau spake ; aud the luultitude luarveled, saying. It 
were oevor ho aoeu in Ittraul" (Matt., Ix, 32-S). Or, 
ngaiu, of this: "Tlieu tbey brought uuto hitu ouu po8- 
BOBBed with a devil, blind aud dumb ; and he bealeil lum, 
iiiRomuch that the dumb man S)>nke and wiv" ^Matti^H 
xii, 22). Witliout citing all th<! familiar iustaiices give^^ 
in tho (:io8pL-lii, il is suHicieiitly hIiom'u how deeply rooted 
uud uQuiitigatetl was the belief aiuoug tha tnoeses tb 
deafness and dumbness nera due to the evil control exor*' 
cised by iudwvlliiig " devils." instead of being merely 
pliysiciii iutirmities. But there is ouu other incident toldB 
nabySujut Johu which brings to light uuoLher curiouii 
belief, scarcely less erroneous or less hard iu its eSetits 
apoD the happinesK of those involved. On one occasion 
tho (juestiuu whs put to Christ by his ilisciples : " SI 
ter, who did siu, this man or his parents, that lie was bo: 
Mind?" (John. ix. 2f. How some must have s 

Tde Social Status »fOu Deaf la the Pant. 

fer^^ ODiJer the dnrk impiitntioD (•nntnined iu tho belief 
Iwr^ to gaileleKHlv revealml.uiin oaii any ? Tliis itlentliiU 
aHlctJoDS of various kinds w«rB paDiHlimentft tnygteri- 
oi»»V broaglit upon mou Ii_v au offeuJetl Deity for sins of 
tli^irown or tlinir progpnitorft is kuowu to hnve existed 
•iddr ID old timcii, and for tlmt mntter is not altogotlicr 
era^jicBted jet, for wc hnre beard it mildW suggested bv 
per«ooB liviiig to-day. 

laumoclj, th«D, as tho deaf aud dumb were, atoag witb 
Lbe blind aod others, tbu objects of such beliefs as we 
buv(> juat fteeu. aud oa these must have led to oren 
bftrsher and more coarse results iu earlier periods of 
J«wisb bislory, we cau rcjulily see the menuing of that 
»opcl "curse." uaed iu the Mosaic law. The Kupersti- 
woflB dread aud bate uothiug so inucb as bewitcbed per- 
*'*tim, ancb aa are believed to be the abode of myaierious 
**d eril spirits, liable to tnakn trnal)i» for any who bare 
'''^JingK witb tbcQj. To uSiitoc-iutct on kindly terms witb 
odq t. [losseaseJ of a devil " must have been, to aay tbe 
it. bj no meann easy or free from nncomfortable 
««]iieDc*efi. While, theraforn, we have good rennon to 
*''^*'rik th.ll those iu power. tbL- nilers and leaders nnioDg 
^^ Jews, kuew belter tbao this aud did omL-b io correct 
t*^^ evil, thereby ligbteniuc do doubt the burdeu of his 
■^ictfortone for many a deaf-mate, yet ve cauDot escape 
^•^« coQcIusiou that down among tbe mnltttade there 
^«nt ou various proceedings, iu spite of the ftulboritie*, 
4i«t rendered the lives of soob as were deaf and dumb 
dsspeakably painful aud miserable. Eveu amid our ovu 
boutad eivilJKatioD, let as remember, bowevar, in this 
eonnection, nndeser\'e4l sorrow aud uinn ruing, m-nelty 
aad BOffering, have not rt^t Wen eliuiiniitf.-<l from amnngst 
oar "moltitodee" by a long, long way, for all tliat we 
hnve Iaws and iDStitaliosa and w>cipties galore. The spe- 
cial Iribnte of booor And adrntvation to ihe Hebrtiw civili- 
ntiOD, due from all those who have known tbe Imrden of 


Calendar Work. 

deafness, will not geeni to b« lessenoil uither by whnt wa 
are (leKtiiiuil to fiuci Itenenth the lirilliaiit exterior of 
Graciau civilixution. 

UraduaU Studritt in the Ihyartrntnt ttf Hittorji and 
Peiitkal SeifWf, Cartieil Unieenitjt, /tliaea. J>'m> Fm-t. 



In ererythiufj it is osseuiial that oue pai't should flt 
into anotlior, enoh ouo giving more Htrengtfa, or IcDowlodge 
bolter to griiiip th« one to follow. TUis 8e«[UH especinlly 
necesHiirr iu our work witli deuf cbiklreQ, avd it ubonld 
be the teaoher'eaim to plan evorytbing sbo gives her class 
with a view to what is before thoni diiriog tlioir remaiiiiug 
years iu school. Iu the haudti of a dextrous person 
muoh CAU be done to gaide deaf children over their 
UQiuerous difGcolties without digestiug the work, which 
Bome mistako for uondousntion ; iu so doiug, thuy ilwnrf 
rnthur thau broiulou tliost> auder their iastructiou. 

That part of our teachiug which we are goiug to deal 
with is Calendar Work, iind how it cnii be dovetailed into t!ie 
rndiments of geography. Wo nirth to make clear the iihuiiI 
stnmbling- block)! iu time, aod bring about variety in 

DeforeeDteringnpontheHnbject, weaaktho render to re- 
meiaber tlint such work miiat be especially arratiged for 
each section. We are dealing with pliicen of abont the 
same Intitndv as Mouthurn PauuBylvaiiin. 

Frniu thu tiwe when pupils eoter school, tbey are made 
to handle a calendar, mark off each day as it passes, and 
point out "now," in order to begin giving the time idea. 
Later on they tell about " yeMurday," as, " It niiuud yes- 
terday." *' Jnuica cut his Huger yesterday." They show 



OaltnJar Worir. 


w«)kti, moatUs, ami ve«rs — ami theu eomu tlie usual 
■{iieBtiQDs: "Flow mnuy weeks are iu one mouth? "ots. 

AJ) these are tiresome, and need 8|iioitig tn keep up tdo 
interoKt of the cliuts. Nnture alTortlH an iuKntte vnrietf, 
easUj accessible, aud uf untold interest. 

Let as start our vear with September, as the niae 
mooths of which this is the first rcprosont the year to oar 
pupils, aoi^ the snramer merely sapplemeobt it. Tu 
Almost all localities the golden-rod (-ao be found in Hep- 
tember; so let as f;ath«r somo, osing it to decorate the 
mODth ou the calendar. Wo give them the fact that the 
goldeo-Tod blooms tbeo, and such othor^ as: The loaros 
get red in September. The frost makes them red. 
Frost is white and &otd. It does not hide the groauil. 
Farmers cot their corn iu September. 

Some out and driud work must be used, but it will 
grodaallj become less as the jear advaQcee. Oivc such 

What day of the month in this ? 

What daT of the uionth was jealunlaj ? 

What day of the month will to-morrow be? 

What day of the we«k will day after to-morrow bo? 

What day of the week wan day before yenterday ? 

Pmot out one week, putting a line throagb il, whoo It 

jbgODe by. Write in the mnrgio by it, "lant week," by 

'Um ooe jttst bring aolered upua, " this w»ek," and the 

one following, "next week." Then we ask bow many 

. days wa« in laai week, how toaoy are iu this we^, and 

liow many will be in tttil wedt. 

In order to perfaet this plan, no sheet mtut be lorn 
from the calendar. Ijei thorn be UManmd np to b« r»- 
farred to at will. 

Wbao the aannd week mi p—wd, oooes tbe tioM for 
oar llnrt enanre. " This week " moat be ehan|^ to 

(■at wmtk,' "laat vwfc" to " vaofc bsiom kat," mad 

nett wMfc; ~ tu ■* chia wa^." Wbm thf beaoaw Ca- 


Colenthf Work, 

milinr with a few of tlio most cooimoiilT used time' 
phrases, the caloudar cau h« umrkcii iu ndvaucc with 
"week lifter uext," "in three weekH," " oext montli,' 
" iQontb after next," Ritd wliole seasons with " next win- 
ter," " next spring," etc. All tliese give more pTActice for 
Ihu hIiiIi] ia uhtiugitig tluMU nti the year Klips bv. With' 
these chnugos ou the mnrgiu, cull oti the oLildreu to tell 
you sonietliiRg which liappeiieil week before Inst, two 
months iigo, etc. 

To giTu each child an o])poitiiiiity uoce h day, thna 
eoiisimiing the firel fifte«ii miuuten of the morning, will 
uol he time wasted. This is giving them practice iu using 
verbs and time phra.sei<>, when yon feel that there is com- 
paratirely no chance for a wrong conccplinn, and by this 
coustatit ruptititiuu they gain a c]enr uudcrstiuidiog of 
such phrases and have much less to contend with in (he 
more advanced gnules. 

But, kfHtping to the year more strictly, we must finisli np 
September by luiking how many weeks lher« were In Sep- 
tember. Some one will point to the few reninining days 
after the four weeks are shown ; then llie teneher must 
toll the pupils to count thL>ro and so kIiow that there are 
not seven. It is a good time to clip your eulemlar so that 
the several days left in September will tit into the week 
ending on the October sheet. 

Wb inolnde in the qnestions at this stage : When docs 
the goldeu-rod hloom ? When do the leaves get red? 
What makes them red? What is Sept.? Sept. == Sep- 

Hektogrnphed Iwoks for the pupils greatly add to the 
interest. Each mouth should l)e illustrated. The golden* 
rod wonld Ihj the design for llie Ipsson on September. 

AtkyM'j, and idl cau he given to odvantago in connec- 
tion with this work. Wjtii each mouth, we should weave 
in these. 

The teacher can give commands such as, "John, oak 

Oaiendar Work. 


Freil when tlie leaves turu red." Probably some ODewas 

.abcieDt when ynu told the cHiss this fnct, so you have nu 

Ecellont eliauL-e for " tell." " Nellie, tell Harry why tbey 

get red." ".laniee, le'l him bow froat feelB." "Harry, 

ask John how it looks." 

The (InyK and wooks must be marked off in Ootobor, 
just aa iu September. Th«> liiiir-o[ieu bnrr ami the obest- 
niiU with their moDgD-likutailt) uici>ly illut^ti-nte the month. 

SoDie of the thiugs lu bo ttiii<{ht, aud for couvoraatiuu 
to bR hell) over, are: Chestnutsgotripo in Otitober. They 
get ripe after the frost comes. Farmers gnthor tUeJr ap- 
ples iu October. They put them away lor wiutor. Tbey 
ibg their potatoes and taniips this month. 8omc [veoplo 
bur}' their apples and vegottiblcs to koop thorn from frees- 
itit;. Other people put them into their cellars. 8«|uirrols 
gather uats aud hide them to eat in the wiiiter time. Hal- 
lowe'en come« iu this mouth. The weather is cooler in 
October than it is iu Suplvmbor. Thu luavca fall off the 

Now conies the time for laugaage drills, nsiug the a*k, 
fstf, and tdi foiiuB. Tiiou, alHO, you have aomelhiug to 
du with compariMiD : l^t. Cumpuru Sept«mliur with Octo- 
ber ; 2d. Compare October with September; requiriu);, 

1. Kepteuiber ia warmer titan October. 

'i, October ia cooler thau tiui»tumbur. 

Some of the queHtioiis which must come in bufora the 
stady of the mouth is completed are : 

What iaOctobur? 

WLwro du cbetttaota grow ? 

Are tb«re any chcstuat trees oe&r [ioaort namo of 

What do {leople do on Hallowe'en ? 

When iait? 

Which do yoa like better. Hepteuber or October ? 

In which aooth do yoa come to aeboot ? 

What mootfa oonea before October? 


C'ilrifitiitr Work. 

What month will ni^xt nioritli be? 

How inmijr Wficks vnxra in October? 

What do we call tlic SUt of October ? 

Oct. = October. 

November comes io with n cheer from most childreu. 
Tliev have before them th« prospect of snow, and n (at 
tarkey for Tlianksgtving. The turkey- may lie culled upon 
to serve ii double purpose ; to illustrate the inontli nud 
to fill the plfltter. 

PupiU hail with delight tho lirst bit of informntiaD 
given them, viz.. Thanksgiving ooines in this month. Tt is 
a holiday. We uIko have : November is L'ouler than Octo- 
ber. Sometimes it Is very cold iu November. PumplciDR 
arc put away for wiotor. What do we call tiio last 
Thursday in November? Tell me some of tlip tilings that 
people nsimlty have for TliJink>igiviiig dinner. Tell mo 
what Thnnlc!<giviQg Day is for. Where wita the first 
Thanksgiving V Who had it? How many months do 
yott koow about now? There aro throe months in the 
fall. Fall is a cool seaRon. What is September? 
What is October? What is November? What is fall? 
Why did the Pilgrim Fathers have Thauks^riug? 

To make tho picture moro vivid a difieroDt colored ink 
ahoald bo used for fhe seasons and the New Voar. 

Fall can be suitably illustrated iu numerous waj-s, hut 
we were mo^t itupressod by the dead leavea blowing 
holtor-ukvltcr, aud so used theiQ. It was a borrowed 
design, but all the more efTeotive for that, as our ortiatic 
abilities were somewhat limited. 

There are qneHtiona nbont fall, to be answered io tlie 
negativu, which aid iu couttastiug sensous later, but which 
are better iiftkod oow, simply keepinf^ the pupils on the 
negative until the right season for the aOirmative answer 
comes. For example : Do apple triNiH bloom in tlie fall I 
la fall a very cold season hero? Do you go skating id 
the (all very ofteu ? 

C'aUntiar Wm-i: 


'Those »re iotersporseil with qaeotioDB folluwiuK in tbv 
DatiintI order of the work, as — 

Wtiich is colder, &optomber or Movember? 

In wLicb fteaaoQ is Kuvouiber? 

In which seasOD is October? 

In which aeaaoD is t>ept«mber? 

In which month is ThaolugiTiiig? 

Ill which sessou is Thaulu^iviug? 

lu which season in Hallowe'en ? 

Wlmt month comes after NoTember ? 

Is it in the fall ? 

When do you bare a boltdaj in this muukju? 

Are the trees green then ? 

What do people do with their cabUigiM in the (aII ? 

When does jovx motber pot tbin^ awa/ for wiDt«r? 

DoM TOOT {aiher pot *Ppk)B Kva/ in bairds ? 

Where is the cellar? 

Do nil honiwa hmre tben ? 

Bj this time wa arc readr to beail s new paga with a 
Aeet-footed retiKieer and the proverbial old mso with him 
d«igh fall of -'goodies." It ia not nirMsiiy to t«U ttw 
popils what hoBdaj e oiei Ikia bodUi. Aak litaa sod 
UwT will tell TOO. ThsaisToarapportttaityto laJfcsfaost 
a "white CliiialMai* mad a "^nea Cfanauus." 8ee 
vbidi each prsfan, aad bavw Aam gjaam whitk it will ba 
Urisycv. hadAai»te>^wtloMl»SBOtoofthetf faaaw 
aad dise— tbe sib i u c* agsta oa lb* ftnk da; ihmj ar» in 
■dMMd sft« tba boBdajw. 

Tlus is al» Ibetuae to Cefl p^di wImb tba in« Cbnat- 
MM wwa, and whv it wtaa i— tilsted, loytbet wiib wb; wc 
^««piaMBlB A tbta tuna. 

tn^ BOW mm. tm o^ bMdUt opnisB, — «b vesfc am UA- 
ki«BbBa bvsB sasd veiy p»o<f<d/ aa m 


Vithndttf Wfrk, 


Wbfll QioDtb IK tliigV 

Is it n cold month ? 

In what mouth does CliristmAS come? 

What day of t)ie montb ia Chnstoias? 

What is Decenilwr ? 

Wbftt do wo do with oar ciiU'iidnr December 31 ? 

When do we have uew cnleudm'H ? 

How mnnj mootUs are on one cnleudar? 

How ]oDf< do wo usv A calocdar? 

What is the lost month id the year? 

When does the old ye«r die ? 

What liolidfty comes In December? 

How lUAQj wooks are in this moDth? 

What is n white CbriBtuiiiB? 

What is B greeu Uhristmas ? 

Are ChriHttnnti and ThntikKgiving in the Biimu loootb ? 

Are thoy in tho saiue McaKou 1 

In irhnL uionth docit Bautn Clai)» uome? 

XuiaK = Christmas. 

What is the last mouth in the jear ? 

After this we always give as tnatiy auk, any, aiid tell, 
anil CUD) parisoii dnlts before tliu dawu of (bo New Year 
as soem benelieial tn the nlaiis. 

A Rprij; of pine, shoft'tn^ both tieedle^ and I'ones, 
"190 1,'* "The New Year," and ".laniinry/'arethe headings 
which mast be nrrongcd on our next lesson. 

Wh«n told to nxk qneHtions, some child is very apt to 
ank if January is in the fall, Porliapu another, if Decem- 
ber and Jannary are in tho ssmu «t>nsoti. When they 
showed n desire to know suoh fabts, we always had thorn. 
That Df>c<?n)ber and January are in the winter it is well to 
give by the first of the new year, «s the jnipiU will have 
uccjuircd some Beiibility in expression if tbey leiirn to 

CaUndar Wmk. 


nse "this wiot«r" before tbo eeason U over. Tim ever 
«ati:b(al toaober will uot fail to keep in miad things with 
wliicli the past t«ut(« ami " this wiDter " are used together. 
Bbe will iLlfto hftve others in the presoot, and some iu Uic 
laturu tcDse. Souc of tb« things which Anat are likely 
to ho poiufal subjects to some member of the olass, bat, 
Uiis betDg the cs'W, n deeper impresHioD cad be made. 
Nothing eTcr ncomcti better to Willie than the pretty red 
sweater he got from borne iu December. It was of nice 
soft wool, aud the mice tboDght it the warmest thing to 
Dse for their neet nnd so they cat it op. Then as one ei- 
ample we have : Willie had a new sweater thiii winter, 
bat tbo mice eat it up. For pri;sent lime, wc can nite: 
John is keeping bis mouey this winter to go to see Buflalo 
Bit! in March. And ax :kii example of the last of the 
tbrve simple tcii»eM : Mary will go home tbi^ winter, be* 
catue her siMter in goiug to lie msTrie<l. 

Two minor {loiDta apparently ^aod fur that reason often 

oveflooked) are "(> going" matked on the (ntore tense 


i-hait as indicatii^ fature time. — and " bwl to"ABl^s 
past of most. 

While the abore is a slight deviation frum the (mbjeet, 
the use of tbese. pbtases can be n(V|aire«1 with calendar 
work as well as with any other. 

The liritt thing thai we learn abont the m<Hitli which we 
are now slndyiog i» that it is tlie tirst month in tfat* rear. 
We hasten on to oar ittiidy>honr sheet, a* that will indicate 
msa of the points talked abont. 


What do we call Janoary 1 ? 

Is Jannary a cold month ? 

In what aeaaoD i» it ? 

An all tho IreM greeo in Janoary ? 


Calendar Work. 

Wliat kind of trees are green in tliti winter? 

When <lo the other trees drop their leavex? 

'What do Hqiiiri-els lire on duriug the cotd weather? 

When do they get their food Cor wiulor? 

Doos it sonictimcs suou- in Jnuunrv ? 

Whnt holiday comes in this month ? 

Ih it cold everywhere in Jannory ? 

Where is it warm? 

Where is it colder than here? 

How maDy winter monthe aro there ? 

How mnuy scftsons do yoxi know nhout now ? 

What are the aumes of the&c soiuionij ? 

Which of thein do you like better? 

Do thiogs grow Lei'c out of doors iu January ? 

Where do we got things to oat? 

Whftt year is this? 

AtkanJ TiU. 

Ask me where the robins ate now. 

Ask me what kind nf wenthar they like. 

A«k me if .lauuary is cold iu the far smith. 

Tell me where they have ctdd weutlier all uf tlie time. 

Tell me what color pine needles and cones are. 

February lieing the month in which most of onr snow 
UKually cuuiuH, we Kcatter tiUonflakeK nil ovei- our pngo, 
rtakea of overy conceivable shape. Already we have 
shown the children suowflakcs ou souiethiug black, else 
we do so the Urst oppni-tiinity. 

We have before uti the Hhorteat mouth in the year, and 
tbo ono in which corao Liueolu's birthday, St. Valentine's 
Day, ami the ever-glorious Twenty-seeoiid. Will uot 
thoBB and the cIoiuIk furtiish ample material forourfif- 
teeu minutes daring the eighteen guhool-dayu? 

Some of onr February qnestiong are — 

Do snowflakoH look alike? 

Are thoy pretty ? 

Calendar Wort. 


Wlioro does t!ie snow coinc from? 

Wliat (lo boys ofteu do in Foliriiary ? 

Whicli is the first winter moiitli ? 

AVhioh is the lost winter mootb ? 

Wliiit liolidavK conic iu Fcbrnftry? 

Which thrto months are vory cohl ? 

What comes (roai lh« clondit in warm wuather? 

Do you like (le«p snow? 

What does rain do? 

Whitt dae» itmtw do ? 

What hiip])^!!^ if yon put ttnow near the firo? 

Which is b(*ttor, ruiu or kuuw ? (Here in an npporln- 
uity for » writtcu dobiite. Let the ptipilw decide which 
they like bettor, nnd then snpport that sido with all tho 
nrgaments Ihey can bring np. ThiR wnrlc Uas been ona of 
iim moat inte^eHtin^ exerciBes iu our daHHroom.) 

tsnch questions ati the above, tt^ether with the usaal 
ones, and languago work on " this* month," " last month," 
"month beforo iRst." "the first wook in Fobruary," oto., 
will have b«eu sntKcient to fill oar limited time. 

We tfaeQ illustrated the wintereeason. The nketchwas 
A long bill-side with a number of boys coastJtig down. 
Tbe moot prominent figure was a boy with a browuic>liko 
Done and a tobi^gnn cap, cooiiut; down ou his sled iu tho 
tivorite position. Ono was just ready to staK, and others 
wore seatod in various ways. On the side of our hill, oat 
of the sletl-benten track, was the word " Winter" in rustic 
letters, among the dried wce<ls and grasses. For our 
gtiidy-honr work, we had : 


BabbiU stay iu their holes in the ground in the winter. 
When they gel hungry, they cntne out and hunt forsome- 
thiDg to eat : then they go back into their hnlvR to Kloep. 

The frogK, auaketi, bugs, ami worms sleep all winter. 


Calendar Work. 

Squirrols oat uats when tbe wiater comes. They gath-' 
ered thorn in the fall. 

Leaves, p!nnt«, unci vegetables do uot grovr here io the 

Cold weather makes thiuf^s sleop. They will wake up 
by and by. Do you kuow wheu they will wake up? 

Sometiiue» wo have frost picturoti od the window pmtes 
when it is cold. How do |>eopl6 keop wuini in bouHCto in 
the winter? liow do they keep warm wheu they go out 
of doora? 

With tho dawn of March, wo cut Home nice willow 
bruucheH uud put thoui in wuter on a w)udow-»ill expoHoi] 
to the wniiu sun. Thi^ brings them out a week or ton 
days in advance of those out of doors. 

From the American Teacher we got the idea of drawing 
our willow braucli with little kitteus iudiuateil ou some of 
tbe pussy-willowa. 

We niHO get Nome spawn this month, and carefully keep 
it to wnteh the developmont into tadpoles, polywogs, and 
finally into frogs. One year the art teacher saw the in- 
terest of the pupiU iu that wiggling mass of oreaturea, 
one at a time freeing themselves from the albuminous 
snbstnDve which enveloped them, and drew for as, " Tito 
Evolution of the Frog." Iu tltis we had beautifully 
pictured twelve stages — from tbe egg to tbe frog. 

besides the above-mentioned thiugs, we have the 
adjective windyt which undoubtedly belongs to March. 

We have the pnpitM compare March with February, 
September with March, and su ou. After this, we pro- 
oeod to ask, smjy and tell, and to questions such aa these : 

Ik March a windy month ? 

What do you tind ou the wilIow-tre«H iu March ? 

What do they look like? 

How do they feel ? 

Where do willow-trceH grow ? 

Jn it very warm in March ? 

CaUndar Work. 


What kiDij of weather do we have tUiM month ? 
What ilo ve often see people doing wlieu the wind 
blows very hard ? 

Do ^-ou like windy weather? 

In what month does the wind blow almost all the Ume? 

Tdl and A$k. 

Tell mo that the putuiT-witlowii come ont in March. 

Tell me that some kiuds uf Qowers come up in March, 
but that they do not bloom then. 

Tell me when w« can Hnd spawn. 

Ask me if the wind ever blew my hat off. 

A»k tne if I rnu after it and picked it up myself. 

Among the lirst spring lowers we have the daffodila. 
Though not the veri- fintt, they were so much of a faTorite 
BS to merit a place ou our April sheet. 

"We have tulips, blue-bells, bluets, crocuses, riolets, 
blood-rout, daffodils, and the peach-tree, to (uruish ua 
with blossoms. 

T)i«re M to lie di»4>ni«Hd the waking up of many things 
which slept in cold weather. Tho flowers make the dis- 
tinctire feature of the work this mouth. 

April Fool's l>ay furniabea us with new topics ; and a 
week or so Inter oomes the beautiful Easter time. 

To contlDUe repeating questions and language exercises 
frould bat tire the rentier' it patience, taking the whole year 
at once ; so let it suffice that the kind of topics used tw 

Hay is the month of apple blossoms. We discuss 
them, tbciir color, thuir odor, the liny apple coming in the 
oonter, aud what is left when the pctnl« fall. 

Tlie days are beginniug to be perceptibly longer. Th« 
children appreciate this fact by being allowed to play ont 
of d(K>rs after sapper. They can be called upon to tell 
you why thej could not play out of doors after supper in 


Cfdandar Work. 

Miircli. Ask tliem nbat tnakeH it liglit, tmd why i( geU 
(]ark. Wn slioiild inentioii itbuiit wliut time the snu rises. 
fiDil wbiit time it goes down. 

Bass-ball lias begtin to be the event of the day with 
the bova. The little girls jump rope, itwiDg,aii(l pisj-'jack 

We Moraetiiaes have fi-oat in tlia apriug. Aluioat every 
moruiiig iu Mtiy we have dew. We must tell tliein that 
dew dites not hurt the leaveH and fniitH. Last of nil, iu 
this iiioiith, comeK Decoratlou Day, and why it is 

Thou wo turn over to a paf^enll covered with dog-wood, 
tiiioiigh whicli the red letteriug nhows sprimj, — " March, 
April, May." " There are three moutlDi in Hpriug." On 
the oppoaito side lue find somosiiuplesoutoiicGs liketliese : 

People plant seeds in their gardens iu tho spring. 
They set their heos, aud baby chiekens hutch out. 

The birds come back from i\w south aud buihl their 
nettts. They lay their eggs, aud by aud by tUti Httle birds 

People nmke their flower-beds in the spring and plant 
flowers in them. All winter the flowers and leaves sloop, 
but ID the spriug they wake up and make the country 

For June we otfor the sweot-scented clover, which, 
however, loses much of its sweetness iu couiiug so closely 
upoQ the home-goiog, for what could be so sweet aud de- 
sirable as that, after almost tcu mouths' absence ? 

In this lovely mouth wo have the budding of summer, 
the early ve^etabl bs, the chauge from houvy clothing to 
the thin textures of sammer, the roses, the appearance of 
the country, the hay and what it is for, animals shedding 
their Hhagg>- coats, the juoltiug uf birds, sheep shearing, 
little chickens, the shade trees, thundvr storuis, why peo- 
ple go to the seashore or monntaius, aud the begiiinitig 
uf vacation, 



Id oar claim vre fonntl the cliitdreu Anxious for tlio two 
Auiumer moullis to Im written up, so we liad, diiiiug 
tbe fuw (IftvK after (UtiiiiiniUidii, ii Bhort Ktutly of Jaly 
and Aagasl, and for ttie eud " Hummer," makiug thesa 
lessoRt^ qiiito ltd full as the other months. 

At tlio rnd of thin little calendar series, we tried to im- 
preas that each and all doKerved a reKt, sheltered from the 
rayg of the summer »uu, nnd so thoy were pii;tnr«d hur- 
rviog away in the directious of the four winds, with ample 
Innches and eTerythiog done for their comfort nud the 
liappy prosiKJCta of a mimmer at home. 

iHtirwJar (n tAe SfinnaoUt Hehiiol. 
Farihaull, Minntt^ta. 


TilXR other artfl, lip-readiDg han few foltowerti who renrh 
perfection. I remember a music teacher who used to say 
that everybody could learo to sing : so everybody can 
learo to read the lips to some extent. Good violiuists 
and pianists have to bej^u very young, and it re<|uirtKl a 
grant deal of practice to reach auy degree of perfectiou. 
There is a certaiu doxibility of the flogers which can ouly 
be attaiued daring ohildlinod. It is the same with the 
action of eye and brain in lip-randiag. 

Lip-readiug with the deaf muut take the place of hear- 
iug and give to the reader tbo ideas of the apeatcer. These 
id«as are received by Dormnl children through the ear 
without BUT effort. They 6v«n often eatoh what is said 
wh«n but half listeDiog. It is very different with tb« 
deaf child. He can ouly get these ideas by the strictest 
attention. Not ouo otomcut may bis eyes leave the lips 
of the spenkor or bis mind go wandering; else he wiU 
not ouly lose what is said dariug this time, bat It is very 
bard to get the thread of thought again. 


Lip- Reading. 

Lip-ren<1iug sliould bu taught side by side witli apeecl 
It is us importaut to kuow wUat others »&y as to convey 
one's owD thoughts iu speech. Whou lip-roadiug first 
bef^aii to receive attentioD, as diHtinct from speeob, some 
educators believed it to be dauf^aroiis to iustr notion, aud 
did not wish to bavu it eucouragod, niaoh less taught. 
Others snid it should only bo nsod with private pupils. 
OpiQiotiH Iinvo chaQged since theu. Lip-readiUR Iihk tiot 
corrupted the recitntion and borue the other evil fruila 
which wore prophsgied. The moro lip-roodiug has corns 
to the frout, tho more have signs and the maQual alpha- 
bet been crovrdcd to the baokground. For a loug titae in 
GermaDj the maoual alpliabet waa used only for spelliDg 
proper uouds. Now it is uot evea used for that. It is 
not used at all. Evod in tlio societies of tbc doaf, whore 
signs are used, tiugor-spcUiug bus uu place. It is coa- 
sidured more daiigeroua to speech thttu signs. Like signs, 
it cuu be liuun I>y nianj, but act at so great a diHtauce. 
lu moat ciLMca writing iti preferable. Tbo tuachurtt of 
Germany hare probably done more to eucouroge lip- 
rewling than those of any other conntry. The certainty 
aud rapidity with which the children there read the lips is 
truly wonderful: 

Por tho lip-rouder bo do his boat there must be a good 
light. The liglit should be directly ou the fnc« of the 
speaker uud not ao high ils to iiinke Hhiidows in the 
mouth. The reader i» couKtantly putting together, com-, 
pletiug and guea^iiug. It ia » ditUcult task at best, 
and when only the outward movemeuts can be seen it 
beooiues next to impossible. It is easier to read if the 
lips of the speaker are a little higher than the uyea of the 

There must be an easy, not too rapid, articulation. No 
penoD, not the best lip<reader who ever lived, cau read 
the lipM of Komu people who do what the deaf call "apeak 
small." Where there is uuthiug to read uuthiug cau be 

lAp' Jieft(fing. 


Voice cannot bo seoD. Any teacher of speech 
lovs that he oan talk to n, bearing person coming; into 
his cJaaBroom iu tbe pi^sence of tlie pupils ami tbey not 
read the convoraation, even when tlie sitmu i» withto their 
voeabolary. Some jwople »poak witli scarcely a percepti- 
ble oiovement of the lips; olliens part the teeth just the 
leaat bit. I do not mean (o say by this that the Gerraans 
believe iu mouthing. The normnl Htndenta (t^enchars in 
training) are piirticnlarly r.auttoneil about thi» many 
times, and attention itt called to the cases in whiuli one 
wonid be mo6t apt to do so. Someoftheseare: Donotopen 
the mouth unnecessarily wide when giving <t (ah); the 
cornera uf th« mouth Hhouhl nob bo drawn backward in tt; 
the lips protruded mure than in common xpeocb with u (oo) ; 
the nose or forehead wrinkled when yiviu)* n, m, ttg; the 
Hhunlders raised a little with h, and the like. It woald 
be no more detrinmntal to lip-reading if speech vere ac- 
compnnied by finger-fipelliug. These outward signs are 
jofit as necessary to a reader who hae become acciistonied 
to tliem. After rending the tips of a teacher who mwa 
any or all of these Kccom{)animentn or some othera, the 
papil cannot read the Hpa of a persou speaking nnturatly. 
The speech of every individual has something a little 
different and pecniiar in the articulation, and is U> the 
reader tike a u<>w dialeut and must be Tea<l for a time to 
become familiar. 

Speech must be reasonably slow. Very few deaf per- 
RdQH, even among t)it»u! educated by the most approved 
method, i^au get anything from a lecture intended for 
hearing people. There nre too many elements and com- 
binations which appear alike, and in rapid or even in or- 
dinary Hpet>oh tliere is no time for the reader to decide 
which it mUKl be without losing a part of what follows. 
It is Dot 80 in school work or in ordinary conver- 
antioD- 0(M)d lip-readors havfi told me that when famil- 
iar with the subject they like to keep u word or phrase 



ivltflnd nf ttiH Hpcakor in thought ; timt is, tbiuk the word 
wliilu it in btiiug xpokun, aud not linre lo tliiuk it aftor 
it has beeu spoken. Theu if there ia Die least break 
there is an instnnt to tueud. 

Tlie distancu muBt not be too great. Lip-readiug re- 
qnireji such muutui otTort thiit the work of the eye should 
be uR eas,v us possible. PupiU often think that bji' com- 
JDg very near to the teacher tbejr can read better. This 
is vrong. They cniiuot get conibiuatioos uud short 
pnusefl. They thiuk it is uec«KKnry to ttee each elemeQt. 
They must learu lo read combinations, then words, and 
fiuuUy clauses and sentences. All the slight ditTureaoeB 
of positioD in oombiniitionK, wlitoh are also different in 
individuals, such as are noted Viy Dr. Gutzman.of Borliu,* 
eamiol be noticed iu lip-reading. Two, three, or eren 
lour yards is n good distance. It dopeuds on the eye< 
sight of the reader, but being too close is a disadvantage. 
It prereutfi seeiug whole!;. 

To do good lip-reudiug good eyeaight is required. 
There are then fire requisites, the absence of any one of 
vrhich may prevent or at least seriously impede Hp-read- 
iog. I WHS told by u teaoher in Germany, who taught 
with Hill iu Weisseofels, that many of Hill's pupils could 
read his lips from no upper-story wiudow while he was 
talking to a visitor on the doorstep below. A child who 
bocomoa a good Up-re»der has u peculiar gift for it, just 
08 most a person to beoorae u good musician. We often 
notice in classes where all the members have had the same 
iuBtractiou from the bvgiuniiig that there are some good 
lip-readers and some very poor odob. I hero mean 
among the cougenitally deaf. Oflou the child not so 
good iu other work, whose general comprehension is 
below the average, is able to repeat anything the teacher 
may ask, but not to answer it. Others if they could but 
read the question would know the answer. This goes to 

•S<« the .InNtfte, vol. kHv, ]>p. 272 S8f>. St; 33:>, «I2-419. 



■bow tbat the nbility to read tlie lip« well re(|nirefi n 
ttpeciat gift. 

Now, lot OB look at what in uur svkoole mnj be called 
hindrAQces to Hp-ronding. Pcrfecticm catinot bo acquired 
withoDt mni'h practice. Make the pupil Bee that uot to 
apeak is hiu own digfti]vaut»g«. His waut« bein^ stipptled 
only CD condition of gpo«ch and lip-roadiog, his requests 
grant«d oaty od the same oooditioD, no ]>rivilo({os full to 
hi9 slinre. All tliis soon convitmes liim tlinl he is getting 
the abort«Ht end of the bnnfaiu, aad epurs him on to put 
forth tlie best that is iu him. A little praise wheu a puor 
Up-roader gots what is ^vcn, a little rivalry eaue«d by 
giriug tUe poor render the tirat cbanoe aud then pruTiog 
to him that it cau be done by others, and a ^-tent deal of 
practice iu speech beforo or without the mirror, are valu- 
able aids to lip-readiug. I ofteu uotice ouo of uiy pupila 
inatruuliiig another what to say ou oortaiu uccaaioun, and 
how to ask. To do tbis tliey inaat rend eacb other's lips. 

Being in a coinbiaed-svHtem school ] do not say tliat my 
pupiln do not uae si^ua in the nohoolroom. I try in every 
way not to have them do so. I uev«r use any mywlf. 
In the cose before ntnted, however, it becomes necus^ry 
(or the tirst child t» rend tho lips of l\\a second even if 
tbo reqtietd in Unit made in Hignrt. The teneher has com* 
pletc control of tlio Mitiuitinn while in the xehfiolioom. 
Yea, bnt vAoa, chilJreu ure there only live huiim ! I be- 
Uove tbe persons in charge of the children out of sehoul 
tioors ill onr school do aat! Kpetjcii nitli them to some ex- 
tent, more with the older than tlie younger children. Right 
horM lies one of our greatest drawbacks. Tbey do not 
know tbe vocabnlary of thechildren in the primary clasaes. 
They use speeeli far Iwyond the chihl, who of conrsodoes 
not comprehend it, and then sigim uru UHed. But jnst nt 
tbiti Htage it is most imi>ortunt to use speech and to form 
habita of lip-ruadiun. Tho wonlsthey know they should 
use and see others asing, to get an idea of the value of 



Still, I kIiouIiI rntlier lit 

otber persons 
signs thnii the 

uiT piipila iiHB 

tlic mtiDital 
couiitig ill cootitct with 
manunl alplialiAt. npuDing tlio nouDS anil 
the Terhs in the way signs Hru nsoil. Deaf chilitreu 
need no extra pnictice in Bpulling. The writtcu form nn 
the appc-jtriLDCe ottthclips lire to Uiem tlie word. M&an 
spelliug is passing in oiiracbonf ; the younger pupils hit' 
very little practice anrl do not mad iis readilr as pupi 
formerlj" did. If given slow mioiigh for tlieiu to get, 
tftkes KH mm-h timi> ns writing, whieli remftius ; ihoy Cl 
funs the whole suuteuce, aud we do not generally omit in~ 
writing. Let us have the siguK if we mn^t, bnt let nshavG 
vritiog with them Hud crowd the mnnnnl KpelHng out 
tlie worh. 

lu my opinion ton mm^h time may Im spent in the fit 
half ye»r in the drill-work on single souude. A list ol 
them is gone overonco or twice n day. If nil or nearil^H 
hII the conBOUftnts are tmiglit before nny vowols are givon^^ 
this is the only way, ns* tlmre are eoiuparatively few pos- 
Hible eombinations of eonsonantfi. When threu or foi^f 
conAouftDtA hare been giren, a vowel will make mnch more 
drill-work. A.S sooD as a sound Las boou given iu coiD'- 
biaatioD, it is not necessary to practice it any more singly. 
It is not 80 used in speech. ^H 

Vary these exercised by sitting before the wall-mirro^* 
with a pupil on each side. Let one give from your lips 
(in moderate successioa, given but unco) all he knows at 
first, selecting; um tlie uumbur grows. When he fails let 
the other take it up. If a pupil gives tbem all he is allowed 
to take Ilia seat and is given a book, a picture, n game, or 
Komothing cIkc an a reward. Let the class sit in the cir* 
cle and the teacher give combiuatious ; tbey repeating 
singly or in concert. Let them stand and pass up. This 
is a better exercise when they have advanced to wonls. 
Lot (he,pupil write after he Iiom spoken, always reqniring 
all to look every time the teacher speaks. Begin while in 

Up- Heading. 


combiualious to allow pupils to correct each otheir. Oire 
tbosti cotobiDatioas, words, aad phraHen which are much 

Lalilca io saccdHsinn, and let the pupil repeat them iu the 

^tome order : 

/ iron, I run: Motidny, iiituldy, momy. Give a. word 
and let the pupil use it in a aouteuee or perform the act. 
These make a chaof^o and still furuish drilKwork. 

A great liolp ip drill ou syllables when ii new word is 
given. tnsiHt nn the loug vowels heiog held their proper 
duratioD and tbot the short vowels are not dragged. The 

>roweJs are the carriers o( speech. Ou them solely de- 
pends tbo iatelligibility of speech. Most children got 
this readily by usiog the haud iu oorrespocdiug moTe- 
leDta. Much of the drill work at this stage may be dooe 

^io concert. It may be uecossary when giviog a new word 
or pknisfl to exaggurato tbo movomuuts of tho organs of 
speecb. Ererythiog tbnt lias been taught and is known 
to the pupils nhould Iw spoken by tbe teacher in the most 
natural way possible. This should ulso t>e true uf the 
drill-work wUicb immediately follows uuy now words. 

Pupils should be made self-i'cliaut. AVbeoever it is 
possible to avoid it, tho temptation to copy should not be 
plucod iu their way. For thiti remton a rapid onil repett- 
tioo of their vocabulary is prefemble to writiug. Much 
more, yes, two or three times as much ground can becov- 
ered orally as in writing, and il gives just twice tbe 
amount of lip-reading. Tbls brings ns to another of the 

'most effective practices for lip-reading — reading each 
other's lips. F'rom tbe very beginning, when single ele- 
ments or combinations are given, every other pupil 

■ should always look lU the pupil wbo is speaking. Iu 
Ibis way they become nccustomed to reading the lips of 
different people and this is of the greatest value. 

Iu our weatoru schools, where the oral work is com* 
parattvely uew, and only a part of tbe hoIkhiI is oral, 
pupils do not get much practice in lip-reading. Id the 


Kip- liea/iinff. 


Gerniaii scIiooIh, whure tho priiici|ml or siipenntei? 
tftkeit each class tor at least i\u hour vxary w«ek, and 
where the Hupervisors all tnlk to the cbildreu, thuy huve 
much more practice witli different people. T will voular« 
the tilutcmcut tliut in manii'of diii*i«c-,1iooIh the pupils have 
aa good as uo practice m reading iXm Ups outwide of the 

WlieDtlmKeiLtHwillprtrmit.italsoaidalip-readiog tofaavi 
the pupiU rutatu. Hilvo them sit in one place for a we«k. 
Every Mouday moruiug perhapti change one from the left 
side to the right. In this way every child haa a chance 
to see the teacher's lips from each side and from direcllj^j 
in front. The pupils when Kpenking should sit pai'iUl^^| 
with the desk and not turn the head. The teacher should 
do the same. 

The teacher should be carefol Dot to repeat any tnore 
tbnn let absolutely uecessary. If the teacher habitually 
repeats, the pupil will uot give hiH heat attention till the 
aeoond or thirrl speaking. Call their atteutiou tu the fact 
that hearing people donot say n thing over and over two or 
thre«! timea. If thoy wiuh to be like them they luiist read 
the tirst time. Only seldom is the end reached by ro- 
peating a thing more than twice. Tho child becomes 
eoafused, hiut bia mind Hxed on what he supposes was 
said, does uot see the difFereiice in the articnhition, aad 
will generally repeat what h« road the first time. If 
another pen<on tella him the same thing ho will often read 

A too ready nse of writing in the same way is a hin- 
drance to lip-readiog. Wo often foel that valuable time 
is lost by having piipiln repeat, or by giving another 
8cut«uce to lead np to the one not uudei-stood, but whoa 
we realize that Up-roadiug is every bit aa important oa 
speech w« know that it is time well spent. If the pupil 
knows that the teacher will write iu ciuw he doea not 
nudursLuud the second speaking, there art> many who will 

7'he Sdueationai Vutae of I^ictunt. ^Hft 

&ot put fortli their best effort. A poor lip-rcmlor i» some- 
tioiue aided by repuutin^' before tbv mirror Lis iDtvrpretn- 
tiou. Tbuo wbou tbo tMutcucu is ^tveu a^aiu be is quite 
apt to notice tbe difference. 

Director Waltber. of Rerlio, ssjs: 

" Notwitbalautliug tbt-- unsattsfaotorj way lq wbicb lip- 
reikdiog as a means of iDterpretaliou of spcecb results, nud 
(rum tiie very uatiire of tbe case must resnlt, (or nil tbat 
ibe ability »fforils tbe deaf a comparatiTcW nipid and 
cuuvomeot metbotl of obtainit)}; tb» tbougbtd of ulbere. 
Lip-reading carried on witb a correct aoderstaDdiDg, and 
prt^p^ftsiDg regularly aiid slowly, offers tbe deaf a happy 
vabstftute for tbo »eD5o of hcnriog. It mar indeed be 
counted a triuiupb iu tluaf-uiute edncation tbat the most 
of these UDfortutiates do, witb their iucreasiug knowledge 
of lauguage, attaiu an nstonisbiog degree of perfection ia 



9TBftE00B&PBs are improvements upon the old-fuabiuued 
st«r«OHCopic pictures. Thoy are original photographs 
taken by the moitt improred motbodti, and, wbeu viewed 
through the stereoscope, present a wonderful effect. 
Ordinary pictures represeut objects to tbe eye ; bat the 
sroograph reprodncCH them. Common flat pictures are 
ladled as artiBcial rept'eseutatioud of uutnre, while the 
atereograpb is studied as nature. Tbo stereograph re- 
reals to the eye, iu light and shade, all that it could sue 
■if actually iu the plact- of the camera. Tbe view is so 
realiatic thai I have several times taken hearing children 

2R6 TAe Educational Value of Pklnres. 

ni)awur(<x, while iilmorbe*! iu Ktudyiui; a buautiful dceue, 
autl liaU thorn mach out lo pluck » tlowur ulion told to do 
so. For Imadreds of years gront skill 8Dd onorgy Lave 
boon proployed in the nttenipt to prodnee the effect of n 
thinl dimenttiou. The ey& cau ba tdightly deceived by 
an ordiunry picture, bat the full effect i» uerer produced 
except by tho storoograpb. If you doubt this juBt study 
& stereograph witliout the glnss. You get the distnooo 
and porspeotiveof an ordiniiry ptotnre. Apply the glasa 
aud you are startled by the reality. You are uot really 
looking at a picture; there in uo frame; tbo scene is 
bounded ouly by the tIbuoI honzou. You cao see as far 
and as clearly as your eyes will permit. The sceue is as 
lai^e as all Dut<of-doorH ; ererythiag is of life-size and of 
perfect form. Thiri wonderful reproduction of nature 
offers tho ouly Kabstitutii for traTel. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, who had one of the largeafc 
libraritis of stereographs, says of them : " The first effeot 
of lookiug at a good photograph through the stereoecopB 
is a surprise, such as no painting ever produced. The 
mind feels itw way into the very depths of the pictara. 
The craggy brunches of a tree itt the foreground rnn 
out at us OS if they would scratch our eyes out. The 
elbow of a figure stands forth so as to make ns almost 
uncomfortable. Then there is surh a friglitfnl amount of 
detail, that wh have tiiv sami* HeUHt* of iutinite complexity 
which nature givee us. A painter shows us masses; the 
stereoscopic figure spares us nothing ; all must be there — 
every stick, Ktraw. Kcrntch — as faithfully a.<< the dome of 
St. Peter'H or the summit of Mont Blanc, or the ever- 
moving stillness of Niagara. The suu is no resiM-uter of 
persons or things. 

"This is one indnite oliarm of the photographic delinea- 
tion. Tlieoretically, a perfect phuU^raph is absolutely 
iuexhauslible. Iu a picture yon cau find nuthiug which 
the oitist has not seen bi^fore you ; but iu a perfect photo^ 

TH* Etincalionat Value of Pictttra. 


giKpli tfaero will be as maor beauties lurking uuobeerred 

KS Ifaere are flowers tliat hlasli uuge«it in the (oreet aod 

meadoira. It is n mii^kc to suppose one koows a stereo- 

>ie picture when ke has studied it a hnDdrad tinee 

tha aid of the beet of oiu coiumoD iastrameDts." 

6j Ibe kiDdoeiiS of L'od«rwood A L'aderwood, of New 

York, we have bad the oso of about two tbousaud choice 

areographs for the parpoM of conductiog oar experi- 

ifiots. One of the chief usee of these is in the stad,v of 

tphy. £Ach pupil \» giveo au improved alumionm 

>pe. The teacher plucks a Btei-eof;raph iu the 

. scope and places another behind it, removing the front 

(orsograph aod placing it iu the next stereoscope, ^oon 

each pupil haa a stureogmph, and as the teacher walk« 

Lttiout; the aislee repUoiog and reoiuviu^ tlieui, the eceuee 

[jphauge without the neceeeity of the children tnkiog their 

from the hooiht of the itcopes, thus avoiding the 

train otherwise cauHcd bribe coDBtoot readjustinent of 

^Ihe eves. 

The class am supposed to have completed the study 
and location of the objecta on the school ground, in the 
school district, the couotr, and possibly the State. Tha 
primary leasous in lunp^lrawiag and moulding have been 
lasttirud. Now cornea the ntereogrnph, like .some fairy 
laeen. extending iVvs^ limitutious of the study of objects 
itil the whole worM is reprodncetl to their visioD. 
If the leaaon is about moantaiuB, the teacher gires the 
prulimiuary infortuatiou, and calk utteotioD to partlcalars 
to be observeil. The stereographs are so assorted that 
the claa« are approaching a diatant range of moantaina. 
They [wsa over stretches of prairie, through green valleys, 
by moving rivers, ncross wooded hllU. until at hu4 Ibey 
iBacb ■ village at tho foot of a particular moantain. As- 
ceudit^ they note the chang»' iu the flora and the fauna, 
»lady the gorges, ratioos, waterfalls, tunnels, and cUlEt. 
They !ttop by the ruahing brook to see the village thron|^ 


TIte Educational Vulne of Pictures. 

tliB clouds below. Tbey meet [larliHS at ailventnrers 
eliinbiog tLo stoop lodyos, aud goiLg witli tboiu over tlie 
deep crorices iu tho snow nnd ice, Iboy nt Inat iimt^b tbe 
Rummit. Here th«y yet n view of the snrronnding vnlloys 
Rtu) tbr> iKiigli boring mountnins. Theu begins the dosceiit ; 
nfter whicb foIInwH a. gonernl discnssioti ou monntaius. 
Tbt9 ia re[>efltect for tbe next Icbsod aat) the ola&& write a 
description of A tripto the uiountatDS. This general coDcep- 
tioD of mountnins in followed by u study of the detaUe of 
OAcb parttcnlur stereograph. LikowiHO thoy utudy glaciors. 
explore tlie valleys, follow rivers to the sea, eto. In a 
similar nmniH^r thi>y joiiriiey through tbe different coun- 
tries, keui'iug their bcariugK by niean^ of a map. Aft«r 
they gel u general idea of the connlry they bugiu to in- 
vestigate the cities. tht> farms, the iiiiues, and the fuctorie«, 
and study tlio manners and cnstoms of the people. 

Googniphy «au be maisterod only by iitndy and travel. 
Common illuHtrntiona are of great vuluo iu uimplifyiug 
tbe text and giving clear and exact ideas, but the stereo- 
ginph offers the only sabstitnte for travel. Ordinary 
pictnres are of importance in secnring a more definite 
idiMi of a mountain ; but invariably tbu ehildruu aru snr- 
prised wbeu they see the real thing, uuleaa they have had 
tbe proper training with tho stereograph. 

Each te.iHon in preceded by a short talk or lecture, snch 
as you would give tbe clasH before goiug on the journey. 
Tbe stereographs are studied as though tbe class were 
standing ta the camera's place, asking questions and re- 
ceiving anawers, comment!^, and explanatioua cancemiog 
the topics of interest. The purputie of this method ia to 
let the class study the scene tbemselves; the teacher ask- 
ing fen- rpiestionK they are confused. This is the 
laboriiiory method ; thu pnpitK mnal use their own eyes, 
ask their own questions, and, where possible, 6nd tlimr 
own inforfnation. Furllicr than lhi», occasional tudivid- 
nal BssiHtaoee is all that is necessary. 

Tht fCthii'ittmnal Vtilw of /'t'cttiren. 


By thtM means tbe pjramids are brought into tliu 
Bchoolroom. The pupils explore tho i«e fields of tin- fro/.ou 
north and pouetnitd tbo juuj^tua of tbe scorchiii};; tropi(.-tj. 
The teavher loads Ihtiu throagh all tlio wumlerrt of Kurnpe 
ond the mysleries of Ihe Orieul. They visit tuiulm ami 
CUODtiiaeiitii, galleries and imicwuiua ; tliey ittmly tho art 
Bod architectnre of the different nations and the ruins of 
fallen moiiiirchins. They nHsociibto with people of nil 
races, uutiuuK, mul ouuii|iHtioiiK, while at homo nnd whilo 
at work. They 8ee all thai rdtuuius of the pnni, ull there 
is of the prenetit This lifts their miuds from iustitatiou 
gosHtp and broadens their views, from which they form 
good, sound coiii-luBiomt. 

I wish no rcudor to criticise this method without first 
examiuiug u set of stereographs entitled "A Journey 
Through the Holy Laud." accompauied by Dr. J. L. liurl- 
hurt's guide book.* Then, and then ooly, can the educa*. 
ttonal valuH of sterengraphtt be rnalixed. 

A meth<id tti a system of presenting material to the oiiud 
BO that it will be acquired with greater accuracy, with 
less effort, and in loss time, and simultaneously produce 
greater and broadnr mental development. Thu surplus of 
time and energy van be employed in fnrther strungtUon- 
ing and developing the mind. lu other woitls, the best 
method in the most economic means of ncnomplishing an 
object in nieutul developmeiit. Anything deviating from 
this is extravagance and waste, whulher it be iu the tack 
of method or in thtj nbuue of method. The abuse is where 
thi> moans are miutnken for tho object and the piipilH are 
utretchwl or chopped oflf to fit the educational cradle. 
Every teacher shoold stretch tlie methods so as to make 
ibem of the most service to each child, remembering hIho 
tlufct mental development is more important than iutellee- 
toal cramming. 


Thfi KdtiCtitionai Vtilitc of IHeturt*. 

TUe iuoMt Herioua |>rob1«[ii iti tlie eJitraliou of tlit; Avtd 
ift tlie tea«liiDg of English. The vnriouR aod Doique 
luelliods eiDplojed ia the lower grailuH soon wear out, aod 
tbe older popilfi are left to gruiXf lu (■oufufiion. So uucU 
time U £p«at apoo word cvAmmiug aud seut^oce builditig 
tbat tlie Ijigboat aud noblest fnculties of tbe mind itro «pt 
to be left ulmoat audeveloped, verbal taehiory often sur- 
vivinj! at the f'Xpuutiu of ituHgiuutiua uud tbuu(*bt ; that 
in, wordH arti rt^iiu' ui bured without tho retetiliou of ideas 
and Ibe derelopmeut of the tniod. Tbe attention is so 
focaHe<l OQ suutenceR that a paraf^raph i>< nerer seen aa a 
whole. >*o litermrr apprec-ialiou is developed, uo use of 
good aod forcefal Engliiib is attained. Most teachers are 
Iiorritied aven at tbe attempt to accompU&b this. Sod- 
tODoo buildiDg is very oBSOotial ; but cannot somctbiog bo 
done to develop iutaginatiou, Btreugtheu thought, aud 
produce a clear aud forcible literary style? Year after 
year the children are kept at journal writing. Thctr 
minds are narrowed dowu to thu frivoluiiu details of daily 
life and iuKtitutiou goafiip. The oaly menus of progresH 
is the t'orrectiou of errors, which nlone is slow and un> 
saliafnctory. Journal work in an ttxcelluot drill ; tho 
cliildreo mnttt Icaru to expri;tt.H daily uccurruin-'cK aud ilaily 
wuutn; but how cuu the abuse of it be avoided and sous- 
thing be introduced to uplift their miuds and develop 
neglected faculties? 

In gs"g>^phy the rftcreogniph wan introduced as the 
•dudy of objucts becauii- uxhaurtttid ; likewiae iu teiiuhing 
Engliith the stereograph can be used as the piiiuary *)•%• 
terns ducliuu, and it offers the only satisfactory solution 
to the abovu couditiuuH. The system einpli>yed does not 
propose to overthrow existing methods, but to ]>reveQt 
Ibeir ubuMi and, witliout iuterferiug with tbwir good re- 
salts, atH^'ouiplish imporlaut objeuts which they do not 

tljeta uf iftereugraphii are arranged to suit the pupils of 

Tha Educational Val»« of Pieiunn. 


tbe diSereat grades from tbe fourth up. Bach set coo- 
lainti about <iua hundred suttiifis, iintl in dividcMl inti) groiip» 
of frou ten Ut ivmuiy sturco<ji'u|ihs possu^tiiD^ u siiuilurily. 
The groups, however, differ iu the uature uf the sceues. 
A stereograph is injected from each gronp, nod about t«u 
or twelve model Htorict^ are wriklou couceriiitig it iu n pro- 
gretiiure ord«r, begianiug with the simple enuineratiuu of 
objects and emliug with ft short ima^iuutive story. The 
models of these groups differ in styles of uarratioo, con- 
Tersation, descrjplion, eiposition, etc. The model .ttereo- 
graph is exhibited nud the model storv is written ou the 
board, oxplaiued, vopiod, aiid ltiiLrii(>«l, ue thti teacher sees 
fit. Kacli pupil is giveu a different scone from the same 
group. The lesson is erased utid the class nttetapt to 
ooostruct storioB of their own Komewhat similar lo the 
model. It is impossible to rewrite the model story, be- 
cause il will oat Qt their scenes. They must learn in the 
uatoral way; that ia, by iiuilaliou, and at the same time 
they muftt avoid the abrnte of verba) memory. There la 
liu ever present ideal slightly beyond their reach, for a» 
soon as one i» accomplished there is a new and higher 
ideal to achieve. 

The Bt^rcograph offers material for thonght; the model 
Stories gnJde that thonght by suggestion and supply a 
Iramowork for language coustraction. Sew vords and 
idioms are introdnced and the old on«8 repeated. A para- 
graph it! allowed for eiich central figare in the isceue aod 
UB additioDAl one (or genera) conclusions. Each lesson 
it) a model within the pupild' auderstaudiog, bat slightly 
heyoud hit) powers of ext^utioa. When one model is 
moAlered another is given and step by step the cla&K pro- 
gress until they r«u.i;L ix model wlilub seems to bu thuir 
limit. Then Ihey abandon thiit group uuJ hogiu ou tho 
next. Etu:h pupU U given the same stereograph until he 
bsoomes familiar with ull uf the objects therein or until 
3ie tirev of it. Then have him exchange with another 


Thi fCd'iCatinnal Value nf PiHmtt. 

pupil. It it( {lOHsible in this wfi,r tn hiiTU unch cbiltl com- 
pIbLq uTury atort^ograpli in cacli group. 

Ideas precede expr«MHian ; otlierwise verbnl memory 
protlomi Dates and edacntion is crippled. The teachor 
miiHt control chukws which will produce thoughts in the 
pupils' niiud. Tliese thoughts are followed by expression, 
the qiinlit^ of which depetndii opou choice and select read- 
iDg iind coiitiiiniil priictice iu writing. A gond, !orc«fal, 
and correct une of English can be Required oulj b_v the 
use of both reiLdiDg nnd writing. The child loitrQS by 
imitntion. It is neceRsary, first, to become fAmilinr with 
whtit iH to b(» iinitnted, and then to do it. The pupils niutit 
learn English as it is written in order to rend coinniou 
English understfindinglj and become independeut in the 
senrt'h for knowledge ; otherwise they are lost in whirlpools 
of confusion when attompting to road n simple book. As 
the class progress under this method they become more 
proHcient in retiding becnnae it \h ueceRfiary to master the 
models, which aro arranged in progrensive order. Their 
ability to uuderstaud English expnude as the models en- 

It is also very essential to becom* fnmiliar with English 
116 it is spoken. For this purpose miiuy of the groups are 
accompanied by model stories prepared id coQTersatioDid 
atyle. The diflforent people iu the seeneB are talking. 

When thu child has hiu head in tho hood of the scope 
intently gazing ut the lifelike scene, idoaH ore crowding 
upon ideas in hia little mind. He becomes entliu)tia»tic 
in his attempt to express these thoughts, and wutconies 
uny aid with !he gruiilcst pleasure, This interest and 
enthasiusm, together with Iho advantnge of the model 
stories, will make strouger. dL^epur, and more lasting im- 
pTeflsions than any haphazard plan now in use iu the 
higher graden. The power of expression iu the nxe of 
written and cuuvei'satiounl language, the ability to under- 
stand plain English and a|}preciate simple literature, will 
be marked by unparalleled improvement. 

Tlie Eihu'jtlionitl Valne of PicUtret. 

Id some schools tliu ttirstem of word nmmiuiug is piwliwl 
to sacli ao extent tbiU many faciiltiot of the raiDdftreacig- 
tocted, abosed, or entirely crus)it;d. •Initl where to draw 
tiie lioe between the teaching of EugUsh ami the develop- 
maoi of the mental facalties in a problem that detierreit 
tbe grarest consideratiim. If one is piirgQed tuo far tba 
otber ninst suffer. Engliab ih the mottt eiuteDtial Ktnd/; 
but just bow far can we allow it to fioumh at tbe expenne 
of tbe intellectual facoUies ? It is true, to a certnio p«>int 
Ea^ub amists tbe derelopment of tbe facoltiee, but it 
oanoot aid tbetn when they are oegleotad and abmed. 

Tbe lack of imagination iKconKtdf^rnd bynrnof anlhorj- 
tiee as a peeoliaritj conmon to tbv deaf. Otbeni, in 
their eagerness to press a Mvsre sjrBtom of word eram- 
nung, sl^t it or nrgne that it it oowortby of atteotioa. 

Tbefs an two kinds of itns^iistion. aaricular and vis- 
osL Ooe or tbe other osoally predominates in eT«rr 
niftd. but both ate present Almost iaTarisMy tbe ri»- 
(isl is greatij in exeeas. With the deaf ooljr the vissal 
insginstioD can be dsreloped, but thia, like sight, is ooJ; 
lalSftlifisd and made more seoutiTe by drafnnss The 
JayelopBft eBt of * good ia^oation is one of the most 
sawntisl {eal«ns of edneatiou. LtULe that is impottaoi 
in this world is accomplished wttkoot a well trained in> 
agiaatire mind behind it If ne^ecied, it will becooM 
distorted or diseased ; if abased, it may be erashed. In- 
apnstioo. the sotber ol originality, is one o( Um ftnt and 
rtfoiigost Caetdties ol the muid ia eskriy tife. It ihoeld 

be protoated aad sliisiglli il, so that it will bloMom 

into oripMHty sad ripsB iato thooghl in later bfe. 

Theae models s>« artsagad so ss to develop a good sad 
itioiig iisegiseliiiii simBMsaaoasly with obMrvsAiaa ead 

test B^plytbe pUeeof obyecSa after their 
stady bw beea erheailsJ ; ovObMd iKtwes ia dereAop* 


Tht Edncfidonat Vaine of Pietui'M. 

topics ; assorted copies in lievelopiu^ nrtintic tftstee ; 
illuatrationH in RtmpHfyinfj langiififXR iind ilevdopitig clear 
mill uuctinito lliinking; wnll picturtK iii Imililiiif^vliamcter; 
the stereopticou for Iccturo purposes, nnd stereographs 
for impHrtiug knowleilge and ileyolopirig ex|treBsion. Wo 
see thiit tmii^li Ijhh a cortitiii riinf^tion tn perform Unit can- 
not bo L-ntirelT repliicrd by auy other class. The stereo- 
(;rnph does uot propose to ititerferu with other pictures, 
but to perform fuiti'tious for wliicb they are uot capablei 

No picture displays life size, distance, peiMpucitive, 
Kolidity, and reality as doen the sterttogniph. Ko otber 
pictures afford as perfect a re|»rpBBiilntiou of uature o?eu 
to the miuutesi iloluil. No otlier picluieit olTer such a 
brnad scope for tbe acquisition of knonledgt* and the do- 
velopmeiit of expression. 

All other pictures areiuted iu a Buppleineutary way to 
illustrate lauguage, or iu a more or less haphazard way to 
develop irstfaetic tastes and to bnild clinrnuler. tii our 
ex}K>rinientH with the stereogrnph we go oue step farther 
iu the uvolutiou of pii^turea. Here the picture becomes 
the primary object and u systoiuatic pinu is followed to 
strengtheu character, c-reuto a lovo for art and nature, iiud 
aBjBipiithy for humanity. Tli« means t-mploywd allurds 
nu opportunity to develop a marvelous use of English, 
and at tho saiao time to give inslructiou in geography, 
history, and arehitocturo. 


These modols are not siipi>o8od to be perfected ret, bot 
uevurtholess they will illustrate the idea of their uae. 
The views ol the tirvt group nre domestic sceues, cliildren 
at all sorts of innocent play, accootpaniod by their favo> 
rite pets. This group huti a ^oftouiug etl'cct upon tho 
choractor and crontcs a deep sympathy nmong children. 
Tho pictures cuutaiu lhro« central figures and enough de- 
tail to tmiu their eves for more advauoed work. 

The Educational Value of Picture/t. 


Mofitl N'tmhtr Ont. 

Teach the Dames of all the objectfl with the proper nse 
of IIm articles and ouiueral ftdjectives. 

A girl, a doll.:! cAt, a bed, n table, two chairs, three 
hottIf», Bome mediciue, a ^hiKtt, a pitoher. a cup, a Kaiicer, 
ft spooQ, two curtaiutt. 

Hwiel Xunifter 7\mt. 

Make complete iMtnteoces. First teach the una of /ttt, 
then Tfitr* i^, tiaii There arc, 

I soe a girl. 
I see a dolL 
I see a cat. 
I see a bod. 
I nee a tablo. 
I Bee two chaira. 

I sec throe bottles. 

I see some niedicioe. 

I see a glass. 

I see a cap nnri Kanf«r. 

I see a Hpoati. 

t see two curtains. 

MfMtel /fumier Thru. 

/IDlMlb positioD. The prepositioDs tweil will de|>etMl 
upon the earlier traiaiog of the popils. 

I see a girl sittiofc on a elwir. 

I see a doU oo the giri'i lap. 

1 see a cat on a bed. 

I see three botUee ob a table. 

1 see a (cUas on the UUs oear the boiUec, 

I aee a spoon in the glasft. 

I see a pitcher by the glasa. 

I see a cap and sanoer at the left of the pitcher. 

I aee two cartaana on the valL 

Mvdii SnnAer Fomr. 

Tins ia the Srak lesaoo is pangrapbing. Teecb the 
eaa of ka» and ha* on, and the pnmoaas kt, tJu aad it. 

laoea^ sitttagon achair. She baa darh hair. She 
hae bmvD e^ea. She h^ on a Iif(]bi draaa. 


The Eiineational Value of l^'tctvrts. 

I see a dol) ou the fjirl'tt liip. It \ifHf li^lit liair. It hfts 
oil a wliiie dresfl. Ft Jiae ou wliite 8toi:kiiig8. 

1 see a cat od the bed. It has black and white (nr. II 
has a wliitu nuitc. It Iihk n white paw. It \\a& on a black 

I see a glass, a pitcher, a cup and saucer, and tbree 
bottl«s on a table, A spoon is in the ginas. A cork is in 
oue bottle. 

Model Numher Fwe. 

lutroduce n«w acljeetives. 

I see a pretty girl sitting on u ebair. She ha« dork 
curly hair. She hae ou u nice clenn dress. 

I ttee n doll sitting ou her lap. It tins light hair. It 
hud oil u beautiful white dross and some pretty white 

I Kce ti prutty cut sleeping on a bed. It hvs beautiful 
black and white fur. It liaa u clean paw and a white 
nose. It haH on a nice blii<;k ribbon. 

I see Kome disheti ou the table and some curtmus ou 
the wall. 

Model ^umbtr AVa;. 

This is ihe lirst step in developing the itntiKiuatiou. 

I Keo a prettv little girl sitting on n chnir. She has 
dark curly Imir and she wears a nice clean dreHiii. 1 think 
hor name is Sophia. She iH playing witli ber doll and 

The doll weiirs a beautiful white dress and somoprottj 
white atockings. Hor name is Helou. She looks very 

The large black and white eat is sleeping on a bed. 
Ita uuiue is Tom. Tom is very lazy; be irauts to sleep 
all the time. 

1 think Sophia is playing that Tom and Heleu are sick. 
Perhaps she uill give them aouie tuediciue. 

I%4 £ducation<tt Value of PieCittts. 29 7 

Mtniel Number Setfett. 

Sopliin iM a prettr HiUh girl. She linH iliirk curly hair 
antl pretlj- brawn eyes. Her dress is uict* ami cleau. She 
i» playing tlint her doll nud cat are sick. 

Hftlen in n benutifiil flaseD-liairml doll. She wenm a 
pretty white tIteSH aiid u pair n[ white Ktuckings. She 
looks very hnppy. I do uot tbiuk she ia sick. 

The large stleopy cat is an the bed. His rtnmo is Tom. 
He baa been hnnting mice nearly all nigbt and dons not 
want Sophia to bother bim. 

I aboald like to play with Sophia, she is sncb a sweet 

Model Nutnher Eight. 

Sopbia is H sober little girl. She has loti^ dark carls 
iml sbe weant a pretty broivu dress. She tikes to play 
Htli tier doll and cat. She ia playiog that they are sick. 

The Iwaiitiful tlaxeii-haired dnll'K name ia Helen. She 
will not care if Sophia gives lier aome medicine. Sophia 
must be careful and uut spill tlio medicine on Helen's 
nice clean dress. 

Tom is a big lazy cat, with beautiful black and white 
fnr. (le has been hnnting mice nearly all night aud 
u-antH to Hleep uow. He will be mad if Helen wakes him 
np and gives Inm some nietlicine. 

I abuuld like to play with Sophia and her pels. She is 
such a nice sweet girl. 

Model IfHtnber JVint. 

Bopbia in a aober little girl. Her long dark cnrla hang 
about her pretty, fat face. Her beautiful brown lireaa 
looks very neat aod cLeao. She likes to play with ber 
doll aod cat. She is playing that titer arc sick. I think 
she will give them a spoonful of modictue from the glnsa 
on the table. 


The lielation <*f Tmcher to PupH. 

Her prehty flaxftn-lmired doll is iiamod Helen, film 
looks very bright itiiil Imppy. T dn iiot tliink kIib ueeitit 
nuy taeJicioe. Sopliiit muHt be oaruful aiitl uot spill the 
mcdiciuo ou ber elenu whitu tiress. 

Tom is B big lazy out, u'itli beauti(ii) blnck and white 
fur. He liiui heeu buntiiig inict! nearly alt niglit ilqcI 
wants to sleep uow. He will ha mud if Helen wakes Itim 
lip and gives lilin somo old bitter medicine. 

I slioiild like to pliiy witit HtfJeu iiad )ier pets. I know 
I sliould like lier very niu(sb,s)ie is sacli a nicenweet ^rl. 

Iiutevelof in tttt N«tiratka Sch*H, nmaJut, .Xihrnnka. 


O'er wn.jWHrd clii)<llioiiI woiild'Kt IIidu liolil firm ntlo. 
And ma lh«« in th« light o( hnppy fKMf t 
Love, Hop!.*, Bill] I'ttticQce — tbenc in\i«l bo tby griiM*. 

And In thlno own tiearl let tli«iD flral keep aohoul. 

Wr cniHiot get 6rst-r1ftK{i work iti imy »ctiool williont 
good diKcipliuu, but timro c-uu be h greiit deiil of diKf^ipliue, 
DO called, without first-duss work. There are two kinds 
of discipline. The repressive, which is easier to secure 
for the nvcrnge tenoher nod wiis quit« provalcut io the 
pitKt, is now going out of (ityle. All that is needed for 
that kiud of discipline is physical strength. The other Js 
the developing kind — training pupils to govern theumelrea. 
Fear of punishiuHiit i* absMdiHwly nooossory for some chil- 
dren, but thebie areexoeptions. Tf the mottvo to do right 
becnuso it is right ia made prumiuent by the teacher At 
ail tiraoa, he will have his reward. 

Trust yo«r popils and they will trust you. Teach the 
children that the sehont is maintained for thoni nod the 
teacher i>i pat in the s&hool to help them ; that all dts- 
ordflT Aod bad conduct are iutorforeuces with their rij^hts. 

Tht lidaiiim flf Teacher to Pupil. 


We must aim uot onl; to eansfl & certaiD Amount of 
knowledge lo remain Id the inemorj', bot to cause the 
papil to uno tlint kiiowlotlgu ami to riiW) iuto a uobler And 
brooder life b^- meaaa of it. Tlie teacher w a missionarv 
in a Urge seose of the word, He mast eater tho Hchoot- 
room to advance all in it to n Iiiglu^r iDtallftotanl imd mora) 

The maxim of the old educatioD was, "Know thesnbjects 
jnn are to tench ; " the maxim of the new education is, 
** Know the being tliat ji'on undertake to tcacb." B«ar in 
mind that the stwdit of charnoter are already in tbe child 
and only need proper culture to canae them to expand in 
strength and beauty. 

The teat'her muKt be the pnpilx' friend. There moHt 
be in biit heart ^euuiue n^ympitthy for them. "Sympathy 
ureatefl sympathy " aud " Love begets love." If the leitcber 
tfi the popiU' friend, they will soon tind it out and will re> 
Mpoiid by doing what will pleOM^ him. I do uot beliere n 
UAU or woman who does uot sympathize with aud love 
bis pupils can be a successful teacher. 

Wk must enter into the liren of our pupilK, must share 
in their pleasurva aud help thcui iu their Iroublea. Re- 
member that the little trials which seem so insiguificaut 
to OS may mean mnch sorrow and nnhappineKs to them. 

Htudy f'ai'h child ; no two are exactly alike. We must 
treat them iudividually. 

Talk with tbem, lattgh with them, play with them. 
Some may ask, " la it c<mKiHtent with the dignity and 
discipline of a teacher to be with the pupitii very mneh 
outaide of school ? " Id answer I would ask. Does clone 
■Asociation with her ohtldreii detract from the dignity of 
a mother? Is it uecetissrr for her to hold herself aloof 
in order to enforce obMliL'ui'e? 

So mnch depends upon the individual characters of the 
t«acber and claSH that there is no point of which we can 
aaj, *' Thus far shalt than ^n and no farther." It reqairM 


The ReUttioH of Tmehm' to P>tpit. 

iiiHtiite tnct hdcI wiitclifulness on tlie part of tlie t(>AcI)«r, 
for tlicrt! in n line hejotid which ht; muNt uot gu, iiii<l there 
is also n Udo beyoud which ii pupil must not go to his 

Slioalil II teacher be occupying a position for which be 
1» not both mnntally and inornll}' tittetl, then tlm Iokk he 
allows his pujiils to see of him the better for him. There 
nre no keoiier ciitics or truer jatlgea of character thao 
vbililren, and the ileaf are uot exceptions. 

Let as turn to our own school lives and call to mind 
ourdifTerent inHtrunttirM. One of the best tBachers I ever 
bull watt on a more than friendlj footing with bt»r pupUe. 
Wo uever felt the slightest re»;traint iu her preseuco, aod 
yet in class hor discipliuo was perfect. 

Wo must romotnbor that yoang people loaru more from 
u noblo flXKtnpla thno from all thct procepts in the world. 

Some of the pleaKAuteot hoars of d)j life have been 
spdDt with my pupils. In metaory'e storehonse are 
treasored loving messages of coogratiilatiou and words of 
sympathy bestowed by them. No sweeter words b«vo 
been said to me tbao these from my pupils : " By yoor 
help I hnve become a better mau." aud " What I am I 
owe to you." 

I43rTl£ K. CLABKE, 


Mabv Told* was born January 16, 1836, in Ore«D 
tuwDship, Erin coanty, Ponnsvlvftmn, but tlio fnmily 
removed \n b«r eiirly childhood to ArkwHf^lit, Chan- 
Uuqiia county. New Yorh. Her father was a respect- 
able and intclligoDt farmer id moderate circumstaaces. 
All a child, heioTi- becomiog deaf, she attended a dJa* 
triot school near ber home. At the age of thirteeu 
sh« lost her hearing from brain fever. Her deafneas 
was total, bot her speech remained distinct, and bor 
voice was pleasant, almoat mu»ical. The loss of hearing 
seemed to hor parents and friends a terrible blow, the roin 
of ber life ; but to her, aa to many of the deaf, it proTed 
a blessing in disgaisc, giving ber opportuuiticB for edaca- 
tioQ she could not olherwiso have enjoyed, broadening 
luid elevating lier whole future life. 

At the age of tifteen nhe entered the New York Institn- 
tioD, then at Fiftieth street. New York City. There she 
soon showed thai she vras fur saperior to the ordinary 
popil. Her lessons were qttickly learned, nud her spare 
time she devoted to reading the best books, e8]>ecia]ly the 
great poets. Tbroogh ber nataral gifts, the excellent 
teaching »he received, and her lovo of remliug she ac(|uirod 
a remarkable mastery of the Englisli language. Her 
thonghts and ideas were origiDsl and elevated. She had 
a lively imagination and unerring taste, and she expressed 
hereelf easily and rapidly in pure and noble English. 
Her thonghts shaped themselves in verse almost as readily 
as ID proxe. Several of her early poems were poblished 
in the Anmiin: "A Birthday Oreeling" (v, 127 1, "The 
Silent Path ■■ (vi, i»S)." The Gsllandet Sronument" (vii, 
107i, •* Tliooghta on Mnaic" < vii, 239), "The Castle of 
Silence" (li. ■304), *■ Welcome to the Prince of Wales" 
(xii, 257t. ■' Dr. H. P. Peel's I<a»l Birthday " (xviii. 115), 



Mt4iy Tatte Pcet. 

and, later, uu llie ouoasiou of tlie m«Htiu^ of die Coiiven- 
tiou of Aineri<;<«i) Inettuctoi's uf the Deiif in CnlifnrDiii, 
" Tbe EiiKt to tliH WeKt" rxxxi, 251). She liemelf, e8|]u- 
L'iully in later lite, thou^}it U^litlv of lioi- poetic gift. Htid 
riirulir' oxort'ifiucl it except for tlio gmtidontiou of li^r (nm- 
ily and iutiiuato fi*i<)ijde on birthdays, annivorsitries, nod 
other Mpecia) nociiHioii8. 

Her Udent, hur beiinty, lit^r cluiriniug luiLnii^ra, aud the 
aweetuean o( her diapoailioo attracted every oao in tli« 
lostitntioD, and gninod bor maDv friends ontsido. Visitors 
liked to oouvorso with th« brillinnt girl io writing, and 
vhile Btill a pnpil sbe won the udmirjitloa, enteeui, aad 
laedug frieudsbip of many eiuineiit tuoo aod wotneu. 
Home girls would hato beeu epoilod by so much nttontjou, 
but Mary Tolos rotniDod tbo simplicity and loveliness of 
Iter vbaraclor. She was gruduated iu 1853 with the bigb- 
est houors of her class. 

During idl Wn: Litiie nhn w»8 a pupil alio had but ouo 
teanhur. Dr. Itiauti Lcwitt Petit, iiftutwards Vice^Priucipul 
luid liually Piiucipid of tbe lustitutioii. Ah lie taught 
ber, be fell iu love witb ber; lilie Prince Geraiiit nt sight 
of Eurl Tuiol'a fuirdaugbter, lie said to bimseif, 

" Q«re. tiy Ood'i Knt<'«, in tlto una mitiil fur uiu," 

and determiDed that, if putisible, ha would " miik« her 
truly biK true wife." AVhile sbe remained a pupil, how* 
ever, be gave no iutimatlon of his desire, but tauglit ber 
and trented bor precisely iis be did the other membere of 
the cIhhh. Only afttir xbe had completed her coarse of 
Ktudy and was ready lo graduate, did be coufess his love. 
Tbe afToutioii was returned, and June 'i7, 18.^1, just h 
year after lii^r gmduatiou, ahe became liiK wife. 

It WM » great change fot the deaf girl of eighteen from 
the farm to tbe metropolis, from tho position of a pupil 
to tbat of t)i« wife of tbe Vice-Principal of tbe lustitutioD ; 
batdlrs.Pect van equal to the aituatiun. Though modest, 

Mary ToIm Pcet. 


Bbe WHS not slir, nnil she took liar proper place ut oucu 
in tbe lustitiitiun aud iu uuviijt^, meutitig people of diK- 
tiuctioii as au aekuu wind god equal, and, tliougli linving 
DO ntlicinl pOBition in tlic Institution, living thoro a« its 
iindispiile<l qii(M>n : not n proud, hati^lity tpieeu, bnt one 
wliK ruled hy kitidnesK naA lavi^. Later, hk ber liualiuud 
was now and then called froui his duties as n teacbor to 
porforni tbose of Vico-i'rincipal, she took bis place tem- 
porarily in the clossrooia, and from 1^(33 to 1867 was 
regalarly engaged as a teitober. 

Until tea years ago Mrs. Peet's life was a briUiaat and 
happy one. She enjoyed society, oapeciaUy meeting and 
converbiug with brigbt people, scholars, aathors, artists, 
leaders in the world of thought, politics, and &DaDCe ; she 
enjoyed still more ber home, ber husband and children, 
and a fuw intimate frionJiJ. After 1S73 hei homo (or 
seTeral years was outside the lustitutiou, in a fine old 
nauBiou at Washington Ileigbis, oimed by Colniuhia 
College. Among those in the profession who were 
privilcgLxl to belong to tbu inner circle of her friends, 
most of tbem having been at one time or another mem- 
bers of ber hoQsebold, were Dr. Warring Wilkinson, Miss 
Ida Montgomery, Mr. and Mrs. F. 1>. ('larku, Mr. and 
Mrs. Wustou Jenkins, Mrs. D. H. Carroll, the lato R«v. 
U. W. Syle, Professor W. H. Dishop, and the vrrit«r. 

lu 18K1 MrB. Peet had a severe illuesM. coming near Ui 
the gates of death, and she ncTor afterwards enjoyed 
good b(.-iillh. Tbut n»s hard for her to bear, but she Inire 
it beruically. She had to forego society for the most 
part, but »he still had ber hnxband, ber vhildreu, and her 
friends, und she was cheerful an<l happy. 

Two yeara ago ber home was broken up by the death 
of Dr. Peet. and she felt tluit the best that this life bad 
for bar had ceased to be. After a year spent in Provi- 
dence, in order to be near her only daughter, in Septem- 
ber, 18'X>, she removed to Washington for the same raa- 

»04 Mary To/es /W. 

sou, ami hail rooms uear Keodall Green. Seeing her 
ilaoghtar everv dav aud a few old friends frequently, 
attending the r<^ligioa$ services and joining in the social 
lU^asures of Kendall Cireen, she said that her life here 
was ha|»{>ier than she had ever expected it to be again, 
but »tiU »fa4» did not wt»h to live Iodj$. While she was 
jfttbittissive to Ood's will, she waitfeeit to be free from her 
wafMblW,»(>ead:eub bodv i she longed to be with her 
bwtove^l hufd&tutd. Her wish wtii» jcranked March 5, 1901. 
'tNio dt\v» ttUer the futterthl wa:» held in the chapel of 
VWltkUvtet Ci^»*t5e. Her two soa&v Waher and George, 
wW ht«d turriv«hl before her death, and her daughter 
tttutkbeth, who had beett with her khroogh her illness, 
w»K« i.»)r«««ut. Mr. E. li- Currier re|N:«seated the New 
\ork lualtlutiott. 'Hbt exerciser were C4»dactod bj the 
H»v. IV. r. S^ H»uitiu, pastor of the Church of the 
IVvvuitut. Washtu^tou, andPreetdeatGallaadet delivered 
a !ihoi't .-KUlevcuh in which be spoke eepectallj of the great 
!wrvtt,v.-H reuderevl to the education of the deaf br mem- 
berM of tho Peek f^imUv. At the ^me hoar a foneral 
av»vii.v WHS held iu tht? cbapcl of eh»? X<?w York Institu- 
tion. .kUil AiUlivisset* wer<:' uta.W !.\v Mr f. F. Fux. Mr. E. 
A. UihIx'*'.'". ^i W. I.;, Jottw, *Kd shtf Rtfv. Job Toraer. 
Ttu- I'uiial *!tji »» Sj'rio^ Strove iVtuetery, Hartford, 
V\iuuooi;u'ut, K'sule' tlio Kxly of her hnsband and her 
oUUwt 'iv'ii, IVivv, whkvso d^'ath in IS6-2 was the first great 
s^ntow !,»{ hoi htw Vlw sorvi^v there was conducted bj 
tlu' Hev, l>i-. Josr'(>K H Twiu-hell. 

Ouiiiij; thi' ps-»st voar Mrs. Peet wrote a iittle book 
called •• (.ieitruvle, tlie Story of a Beaatifui Life," in 
meuu>vv of vuie of her dearest friends among the deaf, 
tievtnide W.ttier, wiiodiediu November, 1899. The book 
was ui>t regularly published, but two hundred and fifty 
eopies were privatelv printed by J. F. Taylor A' Company, 
New Yoik. Tiie qiuitatiou from her favorite poet, Mrs. 
Browning, with wliieli slie ended thin labor of love, the 

7'A.T Pe,'t Family. 


in«t of Lcr cnrHily laUors, we luivy i-ocoiye as Iier farewell 

inesMg« to all who knew nod lored hor: 

Atxl friomlft, ilcur fmn<U. vhoD It diall b« 
That thu low brentli u {;4tie Iroiu ca*. 
And Tonod mj biqr ye come to weep, 
hat one uiuit loviiiH of yaa nil 
Sky. " Nol ■ t«Kr raiwt n'er her foil, 
H« Ki^Bt'l) II** Wlovod !il«qi." 

E. A. r, 


"Passisq avrny, imsuiup away!" Tliese IiDea, the re- 
friiiu of au alruost for;gottou puom, rung throiigli my luiud 
after rending of tlin deiitli of ^fr8. Isaao L^iu-lh pHot in 
WusliingtoD. 'I'liH youiige»t member of tliu family tbat 
I knew in uiy scliool-ilu^-s lintt now gon« to join the rest 
npon tliB imkuowu sboru itud thu circle i.H complete. It 
niakes oh feel sad ; it makes iis feel lutich older, for oar 
yoath seemii to reoode, now those so closely couoacted 
with it are gone. Ak we too nhall Roon begin to go, it 
dccnrrod to luo thai a few reGollectioiiK from the pen of 
one who could roiiioraber them nil wouhl be of t^ume in- 
terest, for [ WHH among the last of the por»oual pupils. 

When the writer euti'red the Xnw York School nt Fan- 
wood hIiu wau a very young ^Irl and liud hmt her hearing 
only thr&e years before. The Pe«t family were then all 
living. The father, tiiron sons, and n nephew were 
actively engaged in the work and their hearts were in it. 
Their wiveH were interested in it too. I wonder if va 
shall see the like ngain in the profestiion t 

Dr. Harvey F. Peet was tiieii on the downward nlope of 
life, bat still active. I tthidl never forget the impreBaJon 
ho luade on me when my mother led mo up to him to be 
iutro<lnce<i. A moment Wtore he had been giving an 
order in a rather imperionn manner, but turning to me 


TU Peel Familij. 

witli a kind, fatherly 8mili<, bis fane was truDsrormed 
tAkiii>; tuo oil liU kiiixt, liu autlu me rea<l (ruia a book' 
sliow bow mach I koov. All font of Litn disa^pearod, 
but I D«rer got over & eertata awo of him otod iu miiUra 
years, lie wa« of a commandiQR preseiioe. a bom rnler, 
and a vui'j baudsoDie mao. I cauuot iiutt^iue aiir ono 
lakiug liburtiutt vritli liiui, vot at tituuti lie would drop bis 
diRuity aud play with the youuKCst eliildtim. Hr btilieved 
tliat leaobers abould be men, aud uieu of coUugu breml- 
iog. Tborn wore ouly tbroe lady toaoliertt then. One 
lias outr to go ovur thtt roll of iu»tructora io the New 
York Institution iu tbose days and of yaam after to recog- 
Dize tbe names of many of the forenaoet tuacUers of tlio 
deaf (if to-day. Dr. H. P. Poet wrotie many papers aud 
loxt-books, aud so left lijit mark ou tbu profesBJOD too 
stroiiijly tu be ever forgotten. 

Edward Feet died not very long after my t-utrau 
My personal memorieH of liiiu aro fow, but as I spent 
some tiniu in lii.s borne, pluyiug witL ibo cbildrea aud 
aeeiug liiiu often ju conversaUon witlt tbe older pupils, 
tliey are all very pleasnat ones. 

Dr. Dudley pL<e(, tlie youugest soa, soou followed 
Edward to tbe grave. I caa clearly recall bis bnodsome 
faoe aud ittlniutire mauner across all lliL'se years. Botli 
brutburs were considered 6ne iuHtnictors aud their death 
a great loss to tbe profesHiuu. Neither wa.s my teacher, 
but tbeir Suuday lectures weie a treat and were always 
attentively followed. Indeed, nil tbe PeetM were graceful 
and graphic ttign-iuakers aud eieur speilei's, for by them 
the language of ibu deaf was loarood in tlio onrsery with 
their mother tongue. 

Ei.]mniu) Peet, the ttteward, nephew of Dr. R. P. Peei, 
too, died in those early ye&ra of my acbuu) life ; uU 
went by that dread disoase, consumptioD. Every one 
said bVImund was possessed of a <lry wit, but I roeall liini 
only as a grave, busy man. Meeting me out of doors 


The I'eei Family. 


oom he toM m^, witli pride, tliiit lie did iiioHt of tti« 
pluQQing of the lustitutiou buildings nud watched the 
walla ga up. 

Dr. Isaac Lewis Poet wa^ not outy aHttuciateil with my 
cliildliood, bnt was the toiicbor of my youth aud the 
friend of my rantorer years, and novur wero tlioso pious- 
aat relHtionn with hitn KtriiiiifH) ni- diRtiirbed. An edito* 
xial writor iu one of thu »u;hoi>l piiblitvitioiiH (the :\fes»eu- 

' fir) lately htid ocejisiou to speak of bim as a brilliant, au- 
perior teacher, and of tlio roninrkablo pupils bo had id the 
Hiffh Clnsa. Wliat were liia methods ? It may be well 

'here to meutiun ii few of them, though it will be imposiit- 
ble ID a short article to ilo bim justice. Iq tho«e days it 
was tbo toaehor rather than the motboUs ; id these days 

' tbo latter are so much disuassed, pro aud con, that we 

[loite sight of Ibe iustruutor ott u pvrtiouulity and divide 
teacbere into two chisses, oral aud oombiued-8y»leiu. 

Dr. Peet watt a born teacher aud he lored his work. 
He waB tliorougb. A dull pupil was an worthy of atten- 
tioD as a bright one. We had our text-books, bat he 
would write out and we would copy short lectures ou tbe 
■ubjeots we were stndying. and be could make (be driest 

Psabject attractive br hingruphic illn»tratioDs. Iletangbt 
ue to love literuturu by quoting puswigoH from tbe poets 
or (rum prose classics. I remember lie thus made our 
rhetoric lessous » pleasure, lu Bible iustruetiou it was 
tbe same; ererytbing was exphuned io snoh n tnanuer 
that it was iudttL-d a dull mind that could not uudenitand. 
Id physics things were deuioustrated not only ouoe, 
but again ami agaiu, till be felt sure we knew it all. 
Years afterwards I could oever see a steaiD*eDgine witb> 
out recalling the bonnt spent jn tbe basemeut near tbe 
tauodry, aud genurally on a hut Hummer's day, lenmiug 
the dilTereiit parts aud their workings. 

Be was tbe finit, T think, to bave n scbntilrooni 11- 
bnry. During momeut*> of leisure we were allowed and 


'Vk4 Peel farmly. 

BDcouraf^ed to read, but In the schoolroom Itself the semi- 
mute wax given liistorj, BKMav'H, nod other hbhouh work^^ 
only, white the ooD^aiiitiiUv dettf had the novels au^H 
story books. Oul> Uft}' soruo boy protoatod nl what he 
thought no uujast diHcriminntton, but the doctor roplicd: 
"The Kemi-miite nlrendy iiQdinittnndK Rtiglinh, bo Iir iieec 
useful iiiroriuatton-and style; but the deaf-mate os 
profit tiioro by the coaTorftfttioual Forms wbioh he finds tjl 
DoreU niul HtorioK." 

At »nother time oiie student beonme nbsorbed in 
book to the exclusiou of everythiuH else, aud the dootc 
notieiug it, inquirod whiit lio was roailiug. " History^ 
sir," he replied. The doctor looked at the title and 
found it wan oue of Victor HagoV novels. " t whh rend^H 
iug tliL' description of the batMw of Wnterloo ; ia not^ 
that history?*' he iisUnd, u-jinn told he had not b^eu 
quitt) truthful. Hia ulever answer did oot save hil 
and he was told to keep the novel for idle hours and 
ft history of Napoleon I, if hu cujoyed battloe so maoli. 

Wbeu visitors cnme — we had many distinguished ones 
ID those days — we were lirst introduced to them aud tliun 
askod to write addresaes of welcome. Oeuerally the 
visitor would bo askud for a subject to write about or for 
A quostiou. Whether we answered correctly or not, tl 
form of written exercise gwve us confidence in ourselv* 
and formed out- titylo. 

Again, nt oonainoucumunt time, nu outsider waa always 
nsbed to conduct the exiimiuatiou of tliu High (^luss. 
Row wo did qunke when a celebrated ediicatof would b^^ 
nammll ^^| 

lu latter yearn, the father buiug feul>U>, the son was 
uUeu called on to help him, but there wiut uluuys an aide 
assistant to take hiK ]>lace, atid for two years Mi's. Pci-t 
was out'. Her muthods wore the same its her husband'a, 
but she never sank her own individuality. lbMueml>er- 
iug her own sohool-dnys, she always took our feeble 
little joketi and byplay good-naturedly. The recollections 



ii. V 





ays I 

The Peet I>amity. 


of both come tlironging so fast ttmt it is faarcl to know 
wliut Ui record and whnt to piiAfi br. 

"The old tituvx, th«y cling, thuj cling." As it very 
yunug child Mrs. Peet druw me to bur b}' hor flue fsco 
.and ^racions iu»uner : she grew hrtndsonier as she f;rew 
older, and tinnliy'wore her wealtii of white hair na "a 
crouro of honor " nol only, bnt of beaaty im woll. Uer 
rerjr expressive face wim to mo her chief cimrm, how- 
rOrer. I have do doubt she did the Fanvrood School 
reat serviee in those early diijs by her viviicions talk, 
nttractiug vutitorH to the nvhciol and uinking thcin friendH 
and beuofaetora. 

Her talent for writing poetry is well known. Had she 
not bad family careii, but given her time to cultivating 
the gift, (the might have won InnrelH for herself among n 
irger circle o( readers. She wn« very modest aa to the 
literary value of her poeniR, but she had the tma poetic 

Of late yeant her friendH did not Hee her ko often, as 
she waa itomothiug of an invalid and lived retired with 
ber ohildreD. OccssiounI letters passed. The first year 
ii\ my mnrriod life was spi>nt in her family in the old 
Miinftion HniiHe. On a certain anniversary Hhe wrote 
she could nut send a poem, for the muse bad deaerted 
ber, but the beantiftd letter she did send with a gift 
idiowe<l no sign of age or feebleness. 

It ia for an abler pen than mine to write of this faiailr 
group and give them their dae place in the history of 
(tenf-mnte instractioa of the nineteenth ceutory. What- 
ever progreaa we malce, whatever improvement in methods 
follow, let the good they did in their time not be (or* 
gotten — the nplittiag of handreds of helplesB childreo, 

Aiiil unto Ihsa t»*j turn be ){i<ren 
A tifo UmI lw*rs liiimorul fmil. 
la thoM grcMt ottoM riMt aolt 
Hi* foU-grawD oaco^as ot ImtTOO. 

fnttriKbrr U (Ai AUiiMtma Uehwi. TuiiitUga, Alaimvta. 


StXTEBft years ago n comraittoo consittting of Dm. E. 
M. Gallaudct, A.^. Bell, P. O. GUIett. A. L. E. Crouter, 
and Job Williaais, at the reqnest of the Fifth Coofereaoe 
of PriDcipiU&, held at Faribiiult, UiiiDcsota, in 1884, re- 
poi'tud u »urioit of ciaeHtious to bo uskod ou the aduiisaiou 
of pujiiU, qaoHtions tu ho iisk&il of rormor pupiU, uad 
questions to b« a^ktid «il «m(»luyt:rj4. The committee iilso 
reported n hi luk form (or the preaorTatiou of BtatisticK. 
The nhjecfc was to provide a iiiiiforai set of atatistics for 
all the schools of the conutrj. The report of the com- 
mittau may bo fouud iu the AnnaU, vol, xxx, pp. 52-53. 

The questioDH and (ormH reconimeuded bj the com- 
mittee were adopted and are uow iu use by a considera- 
ble nnmher of schools, but, utifcrtutiately, uot bj all. 
Som<i objected to them oq account of the expense and 
trotibl» itivolvHtl ; othem that it would he impossible to 
obtain Hiitiwt>rH tu ho niuiiy (|UBHtioiiii. 

Last year Mr. R. O. Johusou, Suporiiitenduut of the 
Iiidiitna InHtitution, prepared ti list of questions to be 
anked on the iidtnlttKion of pupils raiioh lougor than that 
reooiiimundud hy the L-iJiumittee, nud used them for all uaw 
applicants. There are 146 numbered (juestJons oq Mr. 
JohnxoD's liiit ami some of tUo uuuibcirs include more 
than one (|uestion, whilo in tlio list recommended by the 
committee there were only 44 questions. All the in- 
quiries proposed by the committee are coraprwed in Mr. 
Jotinsoti's hi)t, and others uro added wlitch are certiiiuly 
naefiil and im)iortaut. 

Itr Mr. JohuKUu's permission, we give the Indiana 
eehedulo of questions iu full for the benetit of other 
aoboolfl. In the original schedule there is a coluiua 


QasHtiong on the Admisrion of PupHs. 31 1 

1iHn(le<1 "Ansvers" parnllsl with that oontninitiK the 
"CjueatiuDK," Aotl afTttnliiig Hpuce fur tho iinKwerH to be 
recorded : 

NMne oF applioant 

;S»raaUi tnlt »f ononukiDgappUmtiaa tor adinlfliloi] stcblld.] 

Post-ofll«fl , 

Connt; , 

Slate of iDillkDA. 


rXuulu full of chUil to b* •dmlltoit.l 

Of Ominty.) 

|0«uiilj«f BoHial ml^Enoa— not of poaE-oncv.] . Itidlatia. 
„ TVJWnlJlit), ) 

Aged » u f«ar«. 

[Smubw ot jokn at ImI UrttaSM' . ] 

DuU 19... 

'Jfrtint particttiarig. 

Comply with hU riHiuiromQnti. 
Write Id Ink u>d pIMnly. 
Aoawer ftU ^aMtiou fnllj. 


1. WtMl U Uid r«Utli>ii i>r n[iiili(iiuit to child ? (Omodp&reut, |>u«iit. 

ttuole, aaitt, liratLiT, vtatur, uutitiii, gDaralian, or frMDd.) 
S. Dow tbo cblK1 lire with ita paruiibi i 

S. If not with pnrenta. with vhnni ? (Oi*o Tall lumii Mid addreia.) 
4. U not vith pMreau, how anppoTted ? 

Sl If adinlttadMftpiiptl, will k11 ueueMsry olotUlng ftud tnuuporU- 
U6* (MtimftUd 990.00 to $i0.00 per }■««>) b* provided, end by 
t. Or will it hera to be pmvideit \>j your eooaty thtongli thi Inelita- 

tiOD tD whole or pert t 
*. If by Llie lusUtutlou, wQI doI yont township trustoe or county com- 
niieriuD«-ni bulp yiio 'i See Uioib. 
Tt> Oive nemv of y<nu toomvhif lnMt*« tmA bi» powt <>fflct> wVlree*. 
fl. Who propoeea to nat u oorrnqiondKDt for and take «h«rj[a of child 
dnrfiig TMeUoM or el other tim«e7 <All notioM of erary kind 
«ill iie Hal to oorreepofulent hero uMntd.) 
u. NaiM. 
L Poat^niM. 
c Goonty. 

A. HauMt t«ilegrepb oOra. 
«. NavMt lelppboM oMoe. 
/. Keereet rellraad aUlloa. 
v. Whet U the reUUoa of ta a tmg aa Ami lo child i 

312 Q'i**i'wn9 on the Aiimisgivn o/ PtipiU. 

10. Your jirouiiM ; 

If >-QUi uliilil Ixt iidmittoil M a pupil, da joa proiulae to caafora 
lu all riil«9 Hill) rt^ulfttioni' of lli« iunl ittiCinn , hikI ttist fon will 
nol nnk ihnt ^-onr (Thild b» aont borne during I lie liotldftjm. aor 
at any ullior tiu»o dnuQe Uiu nnboul jflar. Mwpt Id vmp of Muk- 
iittM ; aUn, iliat yon irlll (U> all wilbia yiiur power U> tlHtnij' oovt 
of elothinf- atii! tiiiiii|ir>rtHtioii ? 

11. Gtivo aaiuv iu full vf (.-Ull'l. 
I'i, Hoy ur girl 'i 

13. t>! whiit mitiiMiiilily Hiui i.'i>lor ? 

H. Date iif liirlh ? fli»e mnntti, do.y. and ywir. 

tS. PUr« of biriti. Give luvu. coiiuty. and State. 

IS. WlieM aow living? And b'nv Ivas (liui* ^ Oive towu aoi] oonnty. 

17. Bow long B mddeuC of Indiana ? 

18. Wh'nru lirian bnfnr* li«i!OuiitiK a re4id»tit of Indiana ? 

19. WkiLt is tlie untural nicnlal ciinilitiun of tUe obild 't Itriglit nod 

iiujck. or didl and xltijj^i'h ? 

50. Wilt th» ohild obey a coinmabd > 

51. Can tbe ubild do an cnand 'f 

22. Oau tile ahild illatiusuiHh foriiuiaud eolari f 

23. Uan the child anf id«a <i( nninWr ? 

34. la tlie obll<l*8att«atli>u catiilj t;ortan and heldT 

K. [n Itin [ti>w«r of imitatinii Htroti|t or wank ? 

SS. Haa tlifi clii Id a rcteutivt^ nii-iuury ? 

27. II*» Mil' flhlld any con»lriicti«* j^uiut ? 

2H. ]>in>ii Ilia ohilil ]iliiy with iU bruthura aud •itlfln, aud uthara, who 

ht-nr nod iiiicnk f 
SH. Can the child <<are Tor iteelf Id a general ti%y t DreM and aodr«4Ui 

itaalf, aatlafy calla of naluro without a««i«tauoe, gu np Aiid down 

(UgliLa ot aU'p« by lUelf. rlD. 7 
30. Wlmt alfiiita havu boeri madu to liiHtriicl at liiinia } 
91, IIa*th« child hva iiudDr iii'iirailiou nt any llmf otbvr lliau at 

boiuc r 
S3. If BO. wbfro and how loog ? 

33. Cau Iha flliild print or writ*? Which > 

34. Caa Iho child road * 

35. Uoet the child oadsritand writlan lanftnaga ? 
30. Poat the uljild draw or hIcdIcU, or atttfuipt boP 

37. Can tbx child rtmiit. and how far y 

38. Ha* thn fliild lE>«rniid to parf»rin any kind »f libor or to naefullj 

om|4oy itnolf ? If ho, in what way ) 
SV. Whalkaa heea tlic geu^ml moral oonduut and diapoaltion of tlia 

child ? 
4ft. Was fifaild horn deaf? Anawar, '• je«," "no" or "(tonlitfnl." 
41. If doahtlnl, givo aoona ronaon for baing ■«. 
t2. If born deal, oaa yoa agggoat any ixnaa t»t it 1 Uow old was cbild 

when yon dlaooTurad deafneH ? 

QuegOoiig tin the Attin.issioi> of PHpih. 313 



not boru it««if. hIbw chom of AvtJntm ftoit ante it occiirrci), uud> 

iDg aiektwiut «t acRJileiit. 
t> tl>c 'IpafnroH lolnl or purtiftl ? 
Hnv« eBoTt> t>ef>n iiiAdo li> anrtt tlic ileafuMa? Aud It mo, with 

whom uxl witli urli«t rsHiilta ? 
b iba <)t«fueM« t[<^"iiK Kreiitiv or 1«nm nt llibi tiuia "t 
li tbacliild loo (l«af u> Iw ^xliiciitoil in (he jMthllo ■o)iim»I» >l lioraa/ 
Hnve von |Hn>l ynar cliiM Ui«re ^ Anil Itaw )ou){ ? 
If Lliitrs LI pHrtiiil h«arluf{. to 11 fe«ti)e or miaxiiloniblo ? 
Is it WtteT ri^tit <vir. i«ft mr. or «iaiil Imtb i^n ? 
Wli»l in the (liiriytpr -it «>>uu.l« liuiiH ? " RuiiiKn ToIm " or 

"oili« ■omuls." 
U tba ublllty to illMtiiigiiUh cliBrai-l«r n( naDiidd fc*>l)le or oudiiIiJm'- 

ntrlfi ';' 
To wlMt nt«ui otn aonii'l of lli« voic« be Itmrd ? 

Kim*0OCUt- of tho "iklhAf MVUDiIk " bxMfll. 

Oonlil UtD etiild talk inm» or Ihk ilUliiiulljr before ileHfiiniui oti. 

Cud tli4 «bf 14 speak *ay w(>r<U mot* or Im-" di«tiD«tl.v now ? 
In Uie pi>w«r of arlkuliitlou t««bte or coatldeniblu :' 
In it gmwiDg hnlt'-r or wnrun nt Ifaia titiin? 
OirtT a H'liaber of lli« v»rtl* Hpok'Hi by tli" ohild 7 
Arn thawt woriln (airlf wkII tiiciiioniutMl * 
I>a«a i^bild nii<)#ntt«n<l B|kok»o lAngnaifc from motion at Itpa of 

another to n««(iil O'liroi^l' Awwrr '■ iw." " ullithlly," itr "ywc" 
Huw lUiaM ubit'l iii>uimuDlGal« wUb nlbera y By iinMiab or hy mpia T 
U awb iNjuiiiiauindioii inlalligilil* ? 
U iboRbiM uf nntml irtrigbt aad lita for •£»? 
Waa tlii> obil'l i>orn >[ full laitn "! 
VtaM tb(- lkl>»r iliffimlt or or-liaar^r f 
W«t« luatniiBniiiA asadi* 

Wan lb*r« dellelaiit anlotatiMi In (ihlM at birth ? 
Bad the cbild a eoa«nUioo aooa aft-t birib 7 
Was itip rbil'l a Mrooiit or a wntkljt Iwlw "r 

U thom p'^Tf^et OH^ of l*gs. araa. band*, aiid f<*t > [f oat, dniciiba. 
U there aojr irr«|[ti]aritj in WBlhinui' 

Or any dUBraltf In goio^ ap and ilovn atalra (rllbodl it-tl-taiirr 7 
DitaerilM) aaf patalfda, defoiriBltf , malfurmalloti, or phyahmt waak- 

la tbara any dMangemont of narroaa ajBtAni !> 
Hm tbc «kiM dharwa, t>*l>y. ••t'il"(«r> <v 1t«? 
la tlMTc bean troabU at intipiiMjitj ai any ktod ? 
la Higra •aratalosa ale«r»iiu«i or ({Umlnlar awalltnf ? 
la ihm oidU of aenrfidoaa aalma? 
la thmm Mid In tb* hew) or cntartbal Inmbla )* 
U fha aUM «BbJ««l to o"«gha. taU». aorathrMt, at«.— «U«faT 

'Mi Qjuttiona on, the Athnieman oj Pttpiln. 

Or to rh«uu)nti«ui or Rlkndul*r owvUian f 

ki^ tb« luiiKt ID vMiad ronditioii T 

Lt tti«rt> a teud&ucy to couiuroptioa In th« fntnily? It w>, njMD 

vbiob aids ot tlio family, luotberN* or fatliei'a ? 
In ibera unj «u|)|iunaiuii of the wua ? 
Una Ibo child nny at:at» or elirobtn (laUlieuuo dwettM of liodj or 

aiNilii or nu; a^'iupturiia tlivmrf? 
Or riipliint or nnv nioiiiAiib nr bowel complaint? 
Or Hiij- vtiunry trouble '^ 

DncM ;lu> cbib) iTi't »r soil Ibo bed or it« dsy do'lIHag ? 
Whftt is the conilitioD of lb« eyeBi|jlit> 
What ia tbv vonditiuii of tb« b«olli ? 
la ludulh vdl ftbat. nnd dot* cblld breutbe prlnripitlly Ihronfb 

n(w#4ir iBonlb? 
Ilu lli-e uUild bucii «uo<j«b»(ail]r raooiiMtvil witliin fiMil fiv« jnwre !* 

WhfD ? 
Hu tha child bad •pU«pH]r. >aoiiTuli!t>na, BpuiUB, or llta? If ao, 

wbtoh.ftud wLou ? 
Or (□■uUh, ctiickeD{Kn, KarUliiui. or Nmallpoi Y If bo, whiob, Mid 

Or niampit ot nbooptiig coiinh ? U no. vlii-ch, nnil wb«n ? 
Or »>>; oihnr contnijiioiiH diwaae ? If bo, whnt. and when 7 
Or Hiif diBKruH: of the •tomaoh or bow«l«? If vo, what, and whvn ? 
Do ))[irUcDltkr druj^s or medlclnM produce a bkd vlTect upon Uie 

ahild ? It to, name (bom and deaeribe uffnct. 

GnixDrtaaNTa w Cuti-P. 


100. Git* fnll nam* of patcniitl Knindfntbor. 

101. Hia birthplace and date of birlh, 
103. Uiv« full maidoD naiau of pat«rual grudmotber. 
103. Her birtbpla(.-H and date of blith. 

KM. Oivaftill Dam* of mntamftl ){niidfatfa«r. HatioBtllt;. 
JOtt. His birlkpliMte aud d&ie uf tilrth. 

ion. Oire fnll maiden name of maLi>rn«l Kraodmotber. NalloDalit^. 
Iter birthplaee aud dBl«< of blnb. 
If nnr of tbe al)o*o ue dead, stute which, givlug dtUt of death ud 

Were t^mnilparanU od either aMn foiiaiuii or utbvrwioe related be 
fore niarriAj(c ^ If ao, sLnti? iu what doKCw. 

110. Kn or Here ^raadpaniiit* oii either aide deiif ? 

111. If ao, *«te tbejr burn dcef or wm it eaneed b; aioktiow, kooidml, or 

oldog* t 

112. If by dekiUMi or ae«tdeuC gire oniwe aod a|fe it (icenrred. 

113. IH<1 or do suf •>( tbeiu bare doaf btotbere, sistMS, uncles, auub. or 

cwiMiuB r If HO, naiDC them. 

114. Are or werw ati^ of gntodparvBta aubject to couninptioD, neiirAlgi*, 

Mtofiila, panlyaia, or cpilepKj 'r If ao, wbieh? 




QtutHom on the Admimioa of I*upiU. ;il6 

lis. Or to lij«t«ria, L'lioTuit, Hio«Dtricitr, InMwIljr, oztf*M« n«iv«iMMMn. 

or flODitltuiloual titini t U no. vhkb t 
IIH. Or •UMMiTal; givoii to the iioa of alootaolto driuks, tolMiwo, opinm, 

wr otber n»rcoU«7 If m, whlcb "; 

VktxnT* or Gbiu>. 

117. Giv* full nnnin of fkllior nnd naUnmilitf. 

Its. HU pment niUtiWH. 

im. >lii)iirthpliu«iin<l<]ntiii>r Mrtli. 

150. OivH fall nuidsn aam« of moilier akA lutloDftllty. 

151. Her pmoDt »dilr«a«. 

ll-i. Her blrthplM^P and dal« iif btrtb. 

I'J3. If cithoT (Uiui, lUU nrhieh, giving ilitt* m\A onaiiff. 

121. ir«itb«r (ImiI, liM thuie bi^ea BOc-(ind iiroDier mnrriikKe ? 

125, If botli livins. nra iiiollier itr tathtir wpHrnttiil or ilivop-ciil T tf llin 

laltT, Is either r»miirri«il ? 
IM. Wvro par«utii caa.iiuo or olberwiBi: raluUil bufon UBrrij^io 7 If mi, 

tn wIlmI de^E'Bfi -' 
127. Id, at wm. tb« HOtox Attmt 7 
198. U M. waa bo born deftf or was it i^uumJ b;r MokneM or Moldent 7 

Hivai eniiiH) nuil itg« it ooeiirrud. 

129. Id, or nv». the motlivr <Im( 7 

130. If 80, wu r1i« bnrn dual ur was it oaoMil bjr MickDnwt or •Qoid«nt f 

Olva cMiM Mill og* It oeaarr*d. 

131. ILm or hftil tbe (atbar aay ile*f brotUer*, i>lHtor», oouaitw, o«pLowa, 

or ui«i-*n- tvtiu ans ur were deaf 7 If %a. |{l*« osmM, «ililn«Ma, 
i;*ti*(iH iif iltftfoAub und lign* it oocnrrad. 

132. Hna or bad Uie niolticr Any deaf brotben, alater*. ooiuIdh, n«|iliawa, 

or Dioow who uw or wra deaf 7 If no. gtra lumM, ftddrMMM. 
oa«M« of <l«*fnMB knJ agM it ocourrvd. 

133. How nianj cliUdrou bave the pATefita had ? OItq thair full Dftine* 

and dalta o( birth In regtiUr coiuooiiUva urdar. 
IM. If a«ij bavvdivd, i(iT« namaa, dale* and eauaaa Ot dojOb la regular 

m. Oira muBaa of ebildres bom denf ? 
IH. Giv« name* of chUdrou who be«tme rleaf lbroii|{fa aichoeea or Hei> 

dent. Oive alao <wuwm of dmrnee* and ai;e it occarred. 
137. Are ftU ahildrea oew Uring Bound in limb, body and mind, of naaal 

nice mmI free o( malfonnatton or dcforaltf 'i U not, giTa ouaaM 

and CKDBM tal oonplaiuL 
I3». What haa heaa tba falhtr** occap«liAii ? 
tW. What baa hc«n Ibe rnitthvr'a occu|ietliin ? 
lU. Uaa there been a. ow*e o( bliuilu^<«. inaanity. •jiilapa;, (eebla miad. 

•dsMa. Of idtoey In lb« (atntlj BD•^«•lry, «itb«r dIreM ov eoIUUrsI, 

ilinl 70a know of 7 
111. What «M the phfaieaJ and manul eonditioo of pnranta at time of 

«pa»eptii>n of tbia eltiU (or wfaooi appUntloti la now Bade f 

;ti6 Questiotts on the Aiimiaion of PnpH$. 

143. Wm tb« inatb«r tinriug pro^nntioj' nVJoet loftn^reontiaaoiUMuMf 

or hHnlHbtp. tsr «xpoMril tu nii v «Uo<;k, accident, or>p««lftUy palDfnl 
nmutioii t II t)», iluwriW lirinlly. 
H3. WliJkt w«T« tlie Hgi;* o( puractn wbou tUie oUiU wiu» Uuco ? 

144. Am or w«ri» «<itli«T t>f pitrpnta Mul'ji'Ot lo cmiKniuplJoii. nvural^a, 

Brrurnla. piintlynU, or e|>ll>.'|ia; 't If so, wfaioh 'f 
HA. Or Lu byntcriu, cbnritH. ocdvotricitr, tuii4aity,citreinoae[TOU»bt*c, 

or couHlitutioual Uiiit S* If w. wliieb ? 
146. Or axcMMivoly git*n to tbe uma of HlcnhnlJc drink*, lohoeco. cpium, 
or othvr uarvutic ': If im, whioli ? 
I liori»1i)- cvrlify tlial 1 1inv« tnit<l>^ aimwer (o nil i|i]«K|{ona abiivo ki Ui» 
ttty hpot of my aMliljr. 

Siguad. , 


(PuruiH)i |.<lii'Hlotiiii'i and rwiilsucB o«rtldcitt«« — ■esoivr.) 

Thtt (]H"stiuiiH iirw priiita<I ntitwo Klieel» of Icttar-pnpor, 
wiiL-il tugctliur. TliBj till bovoii pu^os. On tLe uigliUt 
mid last )>Ago tliere nre blnuks for a ceitilicale from a pliysi- 

iriaa tliul "tlie witliiii-Ditmed cliild , is a 

proper pRrnnti for adoiiKMioti into the Indiana InntitntioD 
for till- Kdtiuatiuu of tUu Deaf ; timt tliu cliild is uot iusuue, 
upileptio.or feeble^miDded, niitl ia in sach coiidttiou of body 
;iud uiiud as to bo received under itn rules nud benefited 
by tlm training of tin) Hchool. if accepted hh n pnpil 
(lieraiii ; " a curtillcatu frota u Justice of the Peace tliat " tho 

wilbin-Duuied cbild,. . is a legal resident of tbe 

aboYd-uttiaed Staioaiiil county ;" andacirculiir letter from 
the superintendent to tlio applicant, calling attentioD to 
" t>ie rulen an<l rc'gulalious for the ailmittsioi] of pupila aud 
toother luiittersiu the pamphlet ' Concerning Pupi 1b,' which 
is fully descriptive of the school and of all its reqiiiro- 
uieots. A copy of thiK pamphlttt is sent yon by tliia po»t, 
under separate cover. You will pleaae fill out, fery 
coinjileiely , answers to all the vrithia questioan and mako 
return tn this office, when the case will be dttfinitelj 
decided and you iaformml of the it'sult, aud, if favorable, 
the child will bo received." Tho two certificates are 
plaoad ftt tho top of the page and the circular letter at 

Qtte^tionit on the AdmiAtuta of PitpiU, 517 

the bottoiu. Botwoen thorn, prhiteil trinoverAely no that 
it will be coQvouitfut to (ito tlio ttliuoU wliuu fuKlud, in tlto 
foUowiug docket blauk. witli eufficioal ajmues t>i!lwL*ou Iha 
lioaa for tko iunertion of tlio proper iinmoa iioil datea : 

Notiet to appitMit.-~\)o uot All In Mijr •>( tti» bUnk* bn1«w. 





AprLiCATioM ms AtvuimtoM. 

Applleant'a dkhip. 

nw... - - 

AoMplad « „ Bejewtfld 

AdBiM«d „„ 

Child** nniaa. 
..».. .C'ovuty. 

[Ueiw CuUoic atWea bUuk lines fur ■MmorjuuU.J 

' iBj ■•»#• r«f4t***« 

Mr. JobueoD wrilva aa tliai iliu rpspoutMn Uiit reor 
to the foregoini; JnqoirinM vnrn v«ry Hiitutfnctnrj. The 
blanks wore ntiut to alxmt forty upplicaotH aod wer« re- 
tORi^ prop»-riy filtwl out. >jo far ns li»t cxild jndg", tlie 
reit|K>u»eft «r«re i^rati lu'irumtely. Tliure wa« a IiIiIh iiti- 
oeftAiotr ii)»nat itome of tli>i grAiiclpiirenU, hot not u 
lODcb M might ba*e be«D «xp4M:-te']. Ou the whole bin 
ftxponeoo* Menu to iodicate tliat lho4« sufmriut^fndtititii 
and prilici [•ah* •mXtn >>hJM!t^i to tl)« committer' •• iinrMtiotitt 
ou Iku grouuil that it would \tv iuip'^Mail^lu U> ohtaiu au- 
swera to BO naay iDqnin«» w«r« in «rror. 

s. A. r. 


Trr MinnesolA Scliool for tlie Dent liiut haen cbristoned 
iiihI recliristMUHcl >;tiv(<rul tiiuus. lu tht* Hist Sliite lu^ista- 
turo it was located &» n " Deiif uud Dumb Asylum." But 
ID the act estnbHshJDg it a few yenra later it was made a 
pnrt of thfi " IVfinno-iotn Slate lat^titutu for tlie Educatiou 
of the Oeaf Had Dumb aud llie Uliud." Still later, when 
a department for th« (eoblo-miiided oUildrou was addod, 
the ofHeiftl titto bocamo the " Minae^iota State InstUnto 
for the Education of the Deaf and Dnmb and the Blind, 
and School for liUutti and Imbeeilea," wliiub was Hhort- 
ened t« " Minnesota lustitnto for tho Deaf, tb« Blind, and 
the Eoebld-Mindcd." In 1887 a law was passed crontiog 
thu " HiDoesoCu Institute (or Defectives," wltb tbree de- 
partments — the "School for the Deaf," the "School for 
the Dliud," aud tho "School for the Fueble-Hinded." 

Wliuu tho Statu Board of Oharitieu and Correction wjui 
uHtabtisbed, the School for the Deaf, a& a part of tho 
Institute for Defectives, caue under its supervision. The 
deaf and the blind, aud thoir IritmdM, have never rested 
pontenl nndor such an arruu^uniutit, inhuming that purely 
uducaliuuul institutions should not be uiuWrsncb a bonrd. 

At the meeting of the Minnesota Assooiatioo of tho 
Deaf, iu 18%, thia feeling fnnnd expression in the appoiut- 
ment of a comniiltcu on lufjislutiou, whiuh wan instructed 
to do what it could toward securing for thb- deaf aopftra- 
tiou from the jurisdiction of the Board uf Charititw and 
Correction. Mr. A. K. tipear wns cliaiimau of this com* 
taitbee. and he worked hard to bring about the desired 
result. A bill was drawn up, and evory effort waa mada 
to secure favorable action in the legislature. Some who 
adnjttt«d the reasonablenetiM of the claim of the deaf were 


TV Minneaota Schfol an Edttcationil inMtitntion. ;il9 

opfHWed to anj action at tliat time, for reasoua of poliuy 
kod eon veaieiico. As n cdiiHitqiieacc, tho bill wan killed 
in the Senate Committee uu £;laoatioti, whtcli liad it 
ander oonaideratioD. 

Dnrii^ tb« session of the State lo^slatare iu 1899 an 
ofiiDTt was mode to establish a State Board of Control for 
all tbe State tustitatious of MioDeaota, after the plao 
adopted io some other States, wbteb had been videly 
advertised as a luoaoy-auviug orraDgemeDt. The attempt 

Last Jaoaar;, bowerei-, the plan was brought forward 
again, stronglv endort>ed bjr the tiorerDor aud Statu Au- 
ditor. Every iadicatioa wok that iho bill would pans. 

Earl; in Jaoourv there was a meeting of thti Execativu 
Committee of the Miiiuesotn Associatioo of the Deaf. 
The qaaBtioii of tho fjoiird of ('outrol was brought ap. 
It was thonght that ou opportanitv had come for the 
deaf (o prott»t vritli more effuct a^aiust uu aujast classi* 
ttcatioD. AccordiiiKly. a sab -committee was appointed to 
draw ap a memorial to Iw preneuted to the le^jislatnre hy 
the Pret^ideot of the Aftsociution. 

The chief pointe in the memorial were : The Bcbouls 
for the Deaf and the HUod are whollj edacatioaal. Deaf 
and blind children are odacated to be self-nupporting 
intixuDA. Not one nf the rt-gnlar gradnateii of the Scliao) 
for the Deaf duriug fortj' 3-ea.nt was erer au iumate of a 
penal or reformatorr inxtilntion or of a poor-boose. The 
deaf and bliml children are tht; chihlren nf linneNt tai- 
pajrent and citizens of th« Sute. To pkce them in the 
same category as the panper, the imbecile, the iosaoe, 
and the criminal, pats an andeserved atigma upon them. 
A Boanl of Control could ool give the (tpeciul attention to 
the Schools for the Deaf and the Blind that thvir xivtsXa us 
educational lustitntiona reqaire. The Miuuesuta School 
for thft Deaf hnx attaioad to a front rank nnder a local 
board. If a Statu Boanl of Coatrol is established, the 

320 T^e Minnesota School an /^luaUional /nttittUion. 

Minnesotft Association of the Denf praj-s tliiit thn Sclinols 
for tlio Doaf aai) tlie lilirid may reuiiiin iiudur a separate 
board, as in the oasa of tbe Stato Uoiveruity uud Normal 

A copj of this memorial wit» spiit to thn Oovernor, to 
onch mombor of th« Hoiise and Keuatt! L-aiuuitleoK har- 
iog iu baud the qacvstion of a Board of (Jootrol, to the 
lendiu;; dailies of MitiDoapolis, St. Paul, nud Ptiltith, and 
arrauKOtucats wore made to have it prt^.i«tited in tlie Honw 
mid Scuate at the proper time. Tlie St. Paul iH«neer 
/*rt?«*, tlie t>ldest daily in Mionesota, published the me- 
morial in full, and gave it tho foUoving oditonni uotice : 


Tti'- [•I't-jiuttinl luiHtdkcft niftil«. eveo !>; 1«f{t*lnti>M kail othant vbo 
sbi'Util \if. Iiottcr lutoTiUL-iI. la ctA«tityiug iho Schualti for tlif D«iif and 
tliii Rliud lit Fnriliikiilt umunj) tbo pmal uuil cditixlliU ioHtilTitloiiH of Uie 
SUlv, b)iv« Ix-^iB tbo M>urv«<>f no liltUiHrtrdiicAtlnDlu tb«ii»lf-ri>Rpo«t)ntt 
■tiidont* ill l.huwi Hchrioh. lUDuuit wliom muj hi; foiiail bujnt uii'l k'''* <*■ 
hn|{tii-wl(t«il nH any in tbi> <ii>mnii>n aoIiodU. nod mnn^v of tliMn, Uw>, 
balou^iii)! l<> »o[iift nt lb« limt fuiuilio* in (be Stntv. Tboy at* |i;iktb«re(1 
In ibuiM twu luhoula. Iionaoil &D() boATtlril bj llie Htate. not bbcaimr iif 
tti» [MVoHj* dt liny p-irt.ion of ttinm, bnt bonniun il hna biwrn t)]n [mliiiy 
o( tbo Ktnlfl to nvoiil ill H<ii-i»l dlHltuuliitiiH, nuJ UAre fur all. mb and 
poor, on a cninninti liivni. It bait bann fait tlint tb» rleiif anil Ihe lillud 
itro. «i|uiill]r wilb b>-nrlii^ hikI aMiii); olilMii-'U. uutilleil to tbc tt*« gdo- 
Mtlau wbirli MinDcnotjk oRoro to nil ; ninl il biui been fuuud Ibai eeon- 
oaiy, u well »< tbe -wi'iul uu<l iutelteoiUHl ileTHlupmeut of the ninilaiit*, 
i* bMit piaiii'itnil by f;alh«riiig thani into iiisLitntlAiiii wbicli ci^iubina 
dnriuK tbe penoil ut iuHlruoliiiD tbe nilTauttiiot itf bittti arbool anil 
bocne. Thrtw in no norn roiuitn for olaHHifyiiig tbi44i> xfhonlti wllli |)ontt] 
Huil ciwtodiiil iuilitiiliuiM tlian (<>r a >biiilac vtiuwificntioD of tbo KoriiiMl 
S-oboiil* or tbd Srbool of Agritiuliur« ut lh« superliueut fanii. 

Thit B»&M of lloutru) nieaHiiirp, iti rieparallog <^Lk«T " eilu>-i\tioRiil itwti. 
luilunB*' from th« iDitoagDiooDt of tbn propORed Irouril and IphvIus tbe 
Sohoolo fnr tbn Uwif Nti<l tbe Bliml ju romjiany wllli lb« StnlK jtrlson, 
refariUfitorr. ele., )ijt»u->itti'K tbr hIi^iuk wbiob tbe iloaf und tbo bUad so 
Justly rwnlit. The pupiln in llin«e ncbooU and tboir friraJii uiiulcla do 
noi want tboiu ptit under tlie propoMil Boon) ot Oimlpui. In n Tntijiio. 
Hnl piinloil rUunh«(» in thU papi>r tboy iwk tbnt the Scboul fur tlici 
Deaf and tbi- Hclioiil foT ihc niind at loKot uivy rruialu umlor thi^ nianHg». 
moDtof aimpiiratc bflnrd, un in tbo owv <>f Ibo Stite UuiTcnity uid tb« 

Tftt -Minnemtn School aii Eilventtioaal Inslitntiojt. 321 

Ntwoud B«b<Ml«. Tlili proposal, if tfa* BokH of Goatrnl ibould b* MUtb- 
Uah6il,'V0i)ld losro llio lonlidition for tfae Po(^hlo-Minil«il — which in twice 
■> lurgOBUtlespi-BslTeMCb* twuoL!ii>rBehoolBoombiii«d — to tlia miiiikga- 
uiotitof tli« B(ifiT(i of Control, vhik- Ifan Suboain for tl)<-I>eftf ftud tl>»BlllM] 
wunld recnive {)ro]i«i ret-OEQitioa as ■'eiluoaliuiial " aii<] nut " iif^nnl ar 
oik^todul" ioEtitaUons. Tb» plnn ni*dn in the tnvmorial in u Htrvug 
OB«, and we commend it lo • beariog io tbe I«gi»Utur». 

Id addition to tbis, KevernI ropretttiatative deaf porsoDfl, 
by letter or by penioual iutorriow, Becurud asanraucGe of 
aympfttby and eopport from lending sonntora and repre- 

When the bill to e«tablitib a Board of Control eame before 
tbe House tbe deaf fonud an able cbampion of their causa 
in KeprceeutAtivo Oeo. R. Laybonrn, of Dalutli, who pre- 
8dot«d the momoriAl and introdaced an ftmendtnent to tbe 
bill exempting the Kchools for tlio Deaf nud tbe Illind 
from it« prorisions. Tbe araendtnent was so overwbelm- 
iugly defeated that the hopes of tbe deaf for recognitiou 
were sliattored. 

But wbuD the bill went to tbu Senate the tide changed 
nnexpectodlv. The extreme Dupportem of the bill wiobed 
it to iuolnde the "educatiouul itietilutionB," meauiog tbe 
ITuiversity and Normal ScliooU. This was strongly 
oppoeed, and the author of the bill bimiiolt said tluit " it 
iroohl be anreiMOOablo to ctatss eiatdi ednuational inatitn- 
tiouji with tbe bottpilalB, reforuiutor}', and poual inittitu- 
ttomi, and place tbt.-ia under tbe control of one board." 
During tbe debate on tliis point. Uensior Dnogbert/, of 
Dnintb, pat in th« claim of tbe KchooU for tb« Deaf and 
tbe Blind tu recognitiou aa educaiionai iuatituttouH, and 
ckummI \.\xvt memorial lu be read. An amendnent to 
iaclnd^t the Cnireniity and Normal Scfaoob wan pa—cd 
by a large majority, and then tbe whole bill wsa relerrcd 
to a eouuoittee to try lo adjunt it acceptably. On thia 
i.-nmaitt«e wai Senator A. W. RlockLoD, of Faribaclt, one 
ufth'eableataiMltDaBtiafltteutial mf*ml>eiauf theleipsloture. 
He was opposed to tbe bill a« a wbole, but, vb«l be aav 

322 T^ Mimieiota SchoU an £,ducatu>?ut/ JnttitntiOH. 

thai ib coutcl not ho dufeHtvil, Im lent ull hix lufinenco 
tovard haviug tbe Bcliools for the Deaf aud tlie Bliud 
recognized h% educationni iat<titutioii8, aod be succeeded. 
While tlie hill wns linforn tliu (lomtaiUee, the Miu- 
ueB.po\iH Jouniai, rtataniug edttonalty to the attempt to 
place the UaiTeniitj' and Normal Schools under the Board 
of Control, said : 

Tlin laauag^niont unil th» work of llin adneatiunU inBlHtitiODit «« no 
different (r»in tb« t^ailiict aii'l purpoNn <^ Iboao itwluiicd iii lb)* bill 
Mill nmko it rjdiculoiii tn HtMnipt to cnii|ilf< theni IOK«tb«r, aod it eui- 
nuc b« dfitte In tiny Mrtijos nnd elnoere wAy. 

Thin cialled forth n replv from n deaf citiKen of the Stale, 
claiming that the HchooU (or the Deaf and the HIiud were 
purely educational ; that the Universitj aud Normal 
Schools gave free tuition; that the public schools gave 
free tnition and free text-boaks, and therefore, if ediiciit- 
in^ the di>uf mid the blind was a charitjk', the same cuuld 
be said of all the Slate's edacatioual work, the differeuoe 
being not one of kind bat of degree; that the day is long 
pABMcd when pnliljc aid to education im looked upon aa a 
chai-itv ; that reKults in the persous of the graduates sub- 
stantiate th«> claim of the schools to recognition as edn- 
catinnal institutions; that lack of information on the part 
of the public is the cause of the classification of the deaf 
and the blind witli crimLnnts and incapables. In closing, 
the writer hoped that the day would uome when the State 
would iniikna clear distinction Iwtweeu the educiitioualand 
tbe anstodial aud reformatory instilutious, and that the 
deaf and the blind would be given their place among the 
former, to which they believed tlmmselved fully entitled. 

That day came muoh aooutir thau the writer hoped or 
expected. When tho bill was reported to the Senate it 
placed only tho tinancial affairs of the " educational insti- 
tutions " under th» Roitnl of Control, leaving the ednoa- 
tiouul alTitir^ under the management of locul boards. 
These "edacatioual imttitutions" woro expressly named 

7^ Jfinntsota School an ICdttctUionai Institution. 323 

us tlto Stat« UniTcrsity, tlio NorniAl Schools, tho School 
(or tlte Deaf, the School for the Bliud, sud tha Statu Pub- 
lic School. 

Id tfaia form this bill pnitetKl the Senate, then the House, 
and reofliTed the Qorcroor'tt signntore, Utidur it the 
Bo«nl of Directors which uow maoagee the Minii(--isuta 
iDstitnte for DefecttTea will ooDtioae to manage the eda- 
catiotiid aflTairs of the Sohon] for the Deaf and thn School 
for the Bliud, baviug no further coonvctioii with the 
School for the Feeblo-Miudeil. Teachers will bo ap- 
fwioted and their salaries fixed bj the local board, as 

Thus, after uearlv fort^' jrears, the Miontiaota Schoul for 
the Deaf is placed, by legal eaactinetit, iu the poaition to 
which it has always been entitled an a part nf the State's 
(Hln^-atinnal ajtifcem. It ih officially a Hchool, iiiic) an a 
Btnt« school it is distioctlj classed with the CnlTersitj 
and Normal Schools. The rejotciDg among the deaf uud 
their friends is great, and the former have the ^atisfacliou 
of feeling tlmt th<> movement in thin direction, Ktarted 
aotiTelj five rears ago^ has, bj means of a happy combi- 
uatiou of circumstances, and the able assistance of Sen* 
ator Stockton at the critical moment, reached the wished- 
for culminalioD. 

/AlfBS L. BUrTB, 
Tnttrvetvr in the Minnttota School, FaribavU, JUimMola. 


In Ibt) American Annala nf the Deaf for Mnrcli tliero 
is ao article by Mr. James L. Stnitti. of Miimuttotii, com- 
menling npoii the paper on " ChaogeK of Method in the 
Feiinsylviiinin Institution," read by Dr. Cronter, tho Sufwr- 
iDtoiitlent. befurtt DBpurtonmt XVI of tho National E<luca* 
iional AsaociutioD titat Muuituvr, iiud Intt-r ptihlished in tho 
AnnaU. Ah nuuoiiticeil by liim ou tiiis occusiou, the fol- 
lowiog are tbe coochi»ioDS Dr. Cronter has arrived at ufter 
twenty ynant nf BxpuriincntHlion and cnmpiiriHOD of all 
tbu muthodti u( uduciitiuf^ tbu deuf—tbtt pnro ural, the 
pure iubouhI, H.ud tbe vnrious combiuntioua of tbu two : 
1. •■ Wben a deaf cbild caonnt be eduented by the proper 
application of oral m«thods, it is ii«e!«ss to hopn for Hoy 
mnrked mu'ctsiH tiuder auy lUBthod." *2. " Prop or oral 
methodK . . . are fully lulequate tu the best eduoa- 
tioii of \\iv dciif." 

Koi^nnliiig the first of (hose, Kir. Smitb queetious the 
validity of the conclusion heciiuse of the couditiobs under 
which hi) helieveH Ihu cotupariitou to have boen made. He 
potntH to the faut that the Mauual Department consinls of 
a small uuiuber of dull and backward childrou who be 
aaEomes nre kept wholly separate from oral pupils, so that 
kliey lack the .stinndtiH of aKHociation with brighter miudB. 
He also holds that their deprivation of the aign-lnDgnajte, 
which be cotisidors a ueeessary aid iu awakeuiug the iutel- 
ligenco of such children, is a disadvaulftgc-: under wliich 
thuy would not labor iu a couibiued- system school. 

Alt rt^K^rdft the aecoud of Dr Crouter'a conclusioiiK, Mr. 
Bmilh aesuuiua that it is drawu from a compariisou of our 


The ComparUon of M«lli<nh. 


oriU aobool lui it exists to-r]njr and of mitnunl schooU m 
tbey wore twaatj years ago, iturl arf^iios tliat tliiii iu unfair 
bocanss of ttio great ndvnoceiuRiit madu in ihaiIiocIm iif 
instniotiou in nil oliui8(»t of kcIiooIk (liirin^ thii iutorvniiiiig 

To tbft afigameDts od botb of thettu poiotit, llio aamo 
aafiwer mar bo mado : Dr. Croatcr s (.■ompnriHon in not 
bctweea the Oral aotl Mnanal tlRpiirtninnU n« t\\*^y ara 
to^AT, uur Wtvreeti tlie Or&l Oepartineiit am it i« u»w nmt 
tbfl MnooHl Department as it wan twenty yoant ngo. It 
is based od ob«emition of tlie two dopnrttnchU a« tliejr 
have existed, side by side, dnnoH every Bchool day of tbe 
paat tventr years. 

Id the hefpDntnf; of nar Oral Pepirtment, popila were 
not seol there becatwe of aaperior iDt«l)ii{eaae, bat IrecaaM 
they hTtsl ID Pbiladelpltie, aud att«n<]«d, a« day pa|Mta, 
tbia branch of the school, wbieb was wparate Iron llie 
■tain iostUaliott. Those who were traoafemd to tb* 
Kaaiul Oepartmeat certainly salTered from do ladt of 
aasoctatioD vitb bri^ier niada, tbea **r lor maay yean 
after; aeitber were Ibey deprircd nf KtROA, st((a-t'!«chtfrK 
being ihet) tbe aoeepled netfaod u( uar M-f?-' I>epart- 

figbt yeacB a^o sign laschiag waa dsaaoabaoed ia the 
Maaaal Depaitaaees after ti hmA beta Jaaioaalralieit by 
Mperimeol tlwl batter rsinUi eooU ba dfaikiaad by spall* 
tag and writing There batl beea aaJbieirt tsaw baliora 
tbia step waa takaa lo pcorra wbattar iaatfLtiua hj Mgaa 
would be ol beMil wb«e apaacb bad faOad. aad tb«a 
has ba«B ample time SBOS to dsMOMlrBto that the alf^ba^ 
be«ae adbod. wbila aspecior (• lb* «K> Mribod, baa fittk. 
il —y.adw Bilge, wiib erca tba JaBaal papds, one pmfMV 



ialbe Ad' 
m frM|«aa< 


The Comparison of MeOtoda. 

is no repreaeiou of sigos*' outaide of the olaae-room,' 
tttudj-roum. tlie diDiDg-room, nml tlie cbapol, ThtsassO" 
ciatioQ of tuuuuiil i\m\ oral pupils it) a matter of neceesitj^ 
Dot of choice, beonuKe liieru in uo place where tlie former 
may he linnseil by theiuBeWes, but (he coiulitioiiii are prac- 
titiuUy the isaiuo as those Mr. Smith rocommuutls. 

From t]i« oslahliHiimunt of oar Oral Dopartmont until 
the preB«ut dajr, it and ihu MhuuaI Departmont have beeo 
noder the directiou of oue Board of Direutoni and of ooe 
Suporiutendent ; the length of the term of iDstrnction and 
the uuiuhor of hours in Kchool have hueu tho Hame iu both ; 
the teacliers Lave been of equal abilily, with the advan- 
fcage of experience in favor of the Manual Department;^ 
the clasMtfi have boeu aH nearly of the same Hixe an the aa*i 
comniodatiuns would permit ; tbu reqairomeutM of the two' 
departments, aa regards stndies, hare beeu similar, grade 
for grade; and the examiDatioDB in both have been con- 
ducted by the ttame person— the Superintendent — asalKted 
by the tiame guntlemeu from tb« I^ard of Directors. That 
there Las beeu uo prejudice in favor of tlie oral method 
might easily be domoustratod by extrticU from the annual 
roportB of th» Board and of the Suporiutendetit, nod by 
papers read by the latter before the Couventioas of Xn- 
struotorg and the Cooforcucea of 8up«riut«ndeiit8. Tfaefie 
would show that every step has beeu taken only aftor ma- 
tnro deliberation and on positive evtdeuco that it was war- 
ranted by resultA. 

Could there be a fairer, more exhaustive compariaou of 
mothoda than this? Certainly not one betwot^'n an oral 
school and a oorabl nod -system school undor aeparate idaq- 
agement, aach as Mr. Smith recommendR, for it would b« 

'It^ "no reprflMioD af aigii*" I niHan Ihnt th«us»o( nigaii ianot ptin- 
[•btd. Of ooDno lb« aUllQ<l« of the «i^b-t<>l wicb both urul und u>iii9n«J 
)KipiU ia ill uppovlliuu to kIkoi, *ad l««ub«n And offlcom Krj to lafluctiioe 
lli« i>n|>lla hy Ituilt >il*(ce >u<l flnunplB lu um N|M)e<!h ta «|iaUlDg %l all 

A Veaf- Blind tenter at Work. 


im pructiaible to have cotulitious so uoarly Himil»r, to ex- 

tcDil the ol)s«rvations ovor so Inng a period of time, or to 

subiuit thorn so uoutiiiuoaKly totlio juilgiiioiit of ono sot of 


TiutructfiT in As Pentu^hanla InatUuUaii, 
ill. Airp. mOadftplHa. Pfmui/l^aaia. 


Staklet Robinson, a deaf-bliad young man, is a romark- 
iible iUutttrtiliou of perseverance And success iu spite uf 
maDT diiiatlviiiitii^es and Qlisbiclet*. ITe is taking a special 
tunuual-traiiiiug courHL* at tli» N«w York IiiHtitutiou for 
tlie Deaf at Wastiiu^too Hel^btit, New York City, iift«r 
having been ^rudnutud from (lie regular carriculutu. He 
hocatne deaf iit nine years of nge and nt tliat time liis 
itif^bt was dttfective hIko. A year or two before im was to 
voniplete tbo course at tlie New Turk Institution be bt»- 
vatae tutnlly bbiid an well us deiif. He eitn speak plainly 
and is very intelligent and thouglitful and aiiusnally uell- 
iufurmed od ourrent topicR, roadiug tho newspapers daily 
with tho lutHialaaue uf bis deaf coiupimions. He devotee 
muub of his linie to roudiug and writing, and is seldom in 
a nioiaucholy mood. Iteeontly be Rurprised the oflU 
oers of tbe InKlitutiou and Iiih fellowa by coutributiug 
to a bigh-L'lAHH periodiual a realty remarkable nnalysis of 
tlie condition, s«n»atious, and diftit^'ultios of tbe <teaf-b)ind. 

Witliiu a abort time, also, be has had an article on tbe 
liistory of the eiliicntton of the deaf-bliud iu the New 
Turk lustitutiou, published in the An-iitfi of .Soptomber, 
1!KK) (vol. xlv, pp. 376-383). His motUod of work is as 
ibtereatiug ns it is nQusiml. Most of his writing waa ear- 
ned on afttTuoons, between four and five o'clock, in tbo 
bofs' study-room of the New York Xmititutiou. It moda 


A Deaf-BUml WrHer ai Work. 

him nervoiiK to ho vntiihed or to hnvfl persoDB stiCnc 
aroiiuil liiiu wbile li» wuk at work, ho when the boys hiul 
nil gouo out to |}hiy lie bef;au to compoas hiB article, and . 
bad to stop when the boys onmo in again from piny abj 
fiTd o'clock, or before. The occaiiionR when lie was able 
to pot iu half ati hour's work withuat iutorruptiou wet 

Tlia brief time lit Robinson's dittposftl wb8 a very im^ 
portant factor in bis literary work, when we consider his 
glow method of compositioD. A deaf boy woald act as 
biH amnnnensis, and ae Hobin^oD ttpollod tbo sontences in 
the one-hand niEtnaal ulphabet, bis assistant would writ« 
thorn down for him. He would also write sentences him- 
solf on scratch paper, guiding liis writing by laying two 
straight sticks on the paper, and then the deaf boys would 
try to copy what ho had written. This method was not 
entirely satisfactory, otthoagk tbe writing was qaito leg- 
ible, coosiduring that tbo writer bud buou totally blind for 
a number of years. He was sometimes unable to get tbe 
same helper a second time, and secured wbatever deaf 
boTs wuru willing and kind-hvartud enough to aid bim. 

After uiauy delays and discourogemeuttt, the Brat draft 
of the production wfui at length completed. It took up 
OTer forty pages of pad paper, and wan written in load- 
pencil by soveu or eight deaf boys of different degrees of 
intelligence. The paper was much soiled by frequent 
handling, mnny words were misspelled, verbs were defect- 
ire or wanting, and the confllraction of many sentoncee 
waH very faulty. It was tuduL'd a sorry looking mana- 
Boripi, but the copyists were very largely to blame for its 
appearance. He sngigfleted many changos and corroctioDS 
in hifl iirHt copy, and then the paper wum copiiul iu ink by 
one of his friends. It was later spelled into bis hand, 
word for word, and it was wonderful to see how qaickly he; 
would detect thn slightest change in his original thought 
AJter going through the paper iu thitt way, be waa not 


ffesolutionn Adopted hy the. Iletiring Section. 32ft 

jbtiT^lj ploasBd witli it, niid decided to rewrtto the whole. 
"86 he rofiolatoly wont to work in tho snino wny ns ho(oro, 
And StULllT <!omplcte<l the article to hi« RatiHfactinti. If 
tliie is uot doiDg literarj work ander treraendoos hondi- 
ciips, cothint; i«. Itobinson'it ambition to write \» in the 
Ugbeet do^ec commoDdAblc, and bis rc^tolution nnd per- 
sistoueo io completion what he uodertftkes in the face of 
most (lishearteDiDK conditions ohalleoK^ the Rtronge-st ad- 

InMruetor ia tht AW York JtuUtuUait. 

ITiuAiMffoa Meijikt; JTtt York Oitt. 



OF 1900.* 

Fifwr Rkhohjtiom. 

Thf. CougreBS decidoa that there is do oocasioD to keep 
OQ the onler of the day the second paragrnph of the first 
question, viz.. Should c«tal)li!«hmeiits fur theeducntion of 
tho dnnf he couiiidiired an charilitble or as wlaoatioDal 
iofltitntions ? 

Second Ubwouitius. 

The CoQgress is of the opinion that in existing schools 
higher coarsex should b« astabliabud for Hccondary iu- 
straction, aud that a twlection of papila should he made so 
as to p!ac« those particularly gifted io these coorseif. 

Third HiwoLrnos. 

The Congress, cODKid«rto)^ the incontestable superinrity 
of spuech ovor mi^us iu rsstoriug the deaf to society and 

* Tha Ibsttilntiouo •'V>t>toil hj ibc linal Scirtjaii of iba Cooieme, ex* 
t^ept UiMe r«laltuj{ Mjiwialljr Ut Fnuoa, wer» pabllfthed In llt« JuiiurT 
■ttmbar of th» Amitalt, |ip. lOtt-lll. 

S30 fiimluiwns A dopUtl hy ilu Hearing Section. 

giviiig tUum a mum ptirfecl knowledge nf laoguage, de- 
clnicR iLcitidheisiuu to Lbti dt-ciNion c f tl'" Milnii CongreBs, 
aud is of tite opiDiou (1) lliut iuaituutora of the deuf 
Hhonld direct tlieir efforts to Die preparntiou of sacli text- 
Luuks nnd tHliicutiuDul material as are aecessarv for the 
iti»ti'uctiuu of the deaf ; (2) tliiit tlif> books and material 
thus formed iu auy school should be ubtiiinable at cost 
price hy ntlier scbools, 

FouarH RESOLrrroK. 

The CongreKs is of tlie opinion that the puWic anther- 
itiea nf d)tT«reiit coiiiitrieH shuulil take tho DOCBHsary 
metisurL-s niid proviilo fiiifficiout means to agsare ole- 
luoutary and iadustrial inatniction to atl tbo donf at Ibe 
proper hoIiooI age. 

Ftrxn RiBsonmoN. 

The Oongresn is of the opinion that, by all tnonns of 
investigatiou, 1b«> condition of the deaf (and especially 
psyc'liical deafness) t^hould be ascerlaiued ut the time of 
their utmissiou to the institntion. 

Sixth Rksolittiok. 

The CoDgress is of the opiniou that, in addition to tho 
ordinary coaroee, special exorcises should be giveu to 
those who have rotuiued a uortaiu dogrtie uf hoaring. 

Seitbnth Resolutios. 

The Congress is of the opinion (1) that workshops (or 
iDdiistrial in8trnotion nhoald l>« established and a biirean 
to seenre oniplojmunt fur forim-'r pupils shonld be con- 
nected with every institution ; (2l that lieueliccneo nod 
the public authorities sitould oucouruge in every way the 
e»«tablishinent of industrial workshops and bareans to 
secure eiDplnymeut for tht- deaf. 

2%« Sixteenth Meelmy of the Convtntion. 331 

Eionrn Resolotion. 

Tbe C!ougre6s is of tlio opiuiou tbnt medical science 
u(l pe«1aKogjr, pliyBioinus nod tencbflrs, hIuiuIiI niutanll^ 
nssiat each other id contiDtiiag the stutK uf aueb itu- 
prOTomeoU tu inuv bu puflHiblu iti tbu pbyuiciil, iutellec- 
hial, and iadastrial eduontiou of tbe deaf. 


(>Al.[Jkri)KT CdLLEGE, 

WAsnniQTos. D. C. April 31), 1901. 

Tbe Bixt«entl) Meeting oftheConvetitioii.aHannoRDced 
in the Jnnuarv tinmber of Ibu AnaaU, will be bold in the 
Le Coiitoulx Bt. Mitry'a Inalilutioti for the loiproved ]»• 
slructiou of I)e»f-Miite)i, at Buffulo, New York, beginntug 
on TnesdiLf, July 2, IHDI. The Conveniinn will be culled 
to order ut 8 P. M. No urrivoU of thoKe who aro to bo 
«>ntertaiDed in the Institntiou will be expected earlier than 
the foreuoou of Tuesday. 

The railroads of the country have not made their final 
daoUiou Hu to ratee iu connection with tbe rai]-Ameri(>nD 
Exposition, but it is confidently expected that liberal re- 
doctions will be made from tbe regular fares, of wbieh 
membent of the Oonventiou will have the benefit. 

Should it become neoearary, a special railroad circular 
will be ifisued. 

The following; general outliuo of a programme haa hoen 
nrntnged, snbjecl to chfiO^e by the clmirnien nf Section 
CuuimitleeK, ii> (-ouHallutiou witb the Standing KxeculiTe 

332 The Sixteenth Meeting of the Conmntion. 

Tuesday, July 2. 

8 P. M. CoDveation called to order. Addresses of 
welcome and response. Social reunion. 

Wednesday, July 3. 

9 A. M. Prayer. Calling of the roll of the Conventioo. 
Admission of members. Announcements. Annual Ad- 
dress of the President. 

2 P. M. Normal Section. Papers and discussions. 
QaestioD box. 

7 P. M. Auricular section. Exhibition of the Akoula- 
lion and reports on its success. 

Thursday, July 4. 

9 A. M. Prayer. Art Section, 

10.30 A. M. Industrial Section. Papers and discussion. 
Opportunity during the afternoon and evening to cele- 
brate the day. 

Friday, July 5, 

9 A. M. Prayer. Oral Section. Papers and discuBsion. 
2 P. M. Normal Section. Papers. Discussion. Ques- 
tion box. 

7 P. M. Industrial Section. Papers. Discussion. 

Saturday, July 6. 

9 A. M. Prayer. Normal Section. Instruction of the 
Deaf-Blind. Papers. Discussion. Question box. 

2 P. M. Kindergarten Section. Papers. Discussion. 

Sioiday, July 7. 
2 P. M. Exercises suited to tlie day. 

The Sixteenth Meeting of the Convention. 333 

Monday, July 8. 

9 A. M. Prayer. Oral Section. Papers. Discussion. 
Living exhibits. 

2 P. M. Genera! session of the Convention. Papers. 
Discussion. Question box. 

7 P. M. -Report of the Staudiug Executive Committee 
and election of officers. 

Tuesday, Jvly 9. 

9 A. M. Prayer. Arrangement of committees. Mis- 
cellaneoas business. Adjoarument of the ConveotioD. 

It is suggested to all who prepare papers for the Con- 
ventiou that they be typewritten. 

All persons taking advantage of the rates for board, 
either at the Institution or at Statler's Pan-American 
Hotel, which were stated in the last circular, must either 
be members of the Convention or pay two dollars to the 
Treasurer of the Convention, showing his receipt for the 
same, before they can have tlie benefit of the rates ac- 
corded to members of the Convention. 

It is understood tliat all available accommodations in 
the Institution are already engaged. 

Statler's Pan-American Hotel, situated very near the 
principal entrance to the Exposition, will receive a num- 
ber, not exceeding one hundred and seventy-five, at the 
rate of two dollars per day for lodging, breakfast, and 
evening dinner. 

Luncheon will be provided at the Institution daily, for 
those living outside, at a charge of twenty-five cents. 

It is suggested that if any persons who have already 
engaged quarters in tlie Institution tind they will not be 
able to attend the Cotiventiou, they communicate the fact 
to Sister M. Dositlieus, local committee, so that their 

J134 The Sixteenth Mt-cdng (rf tkt C'oni-ett^imi. 

places tD&^' be given to others. The Institution is h- 
CBted at 2253 Ttlaia street, aud can he readied by electric 
ours ruQuing out that street. Cftrs whiuh ran to the Gi- 
ivositioii will pass near Statler's Hotel. Cab rates to tim 
lustitutiou or to Statler's Hotel are une iloUar per [im- 
eenger and Bfty cents for each piece of baggage. Elce- 
ti'io cars ruu direct tn both places from all railrouil sta- 
Uons and boat landings, with one traoefer in sotuit iu- 
stdDCes- Sist«r Dosithens suggests, "that n great aiooiiLit 
of baggage might cot be desirable, as there may be de- 
IftjB in delivery." 

The Section Committees are actively at woib arranging 
for inteteetmg programmes, and there ia & good prospect 
of iQatluvtiya meetiugs iu all departments of our work. 

Qu btibulf of tUo Staiiditig Esecative Comaiittee, 


Praidant of tht Oonventio*. 

The attention of members of the Convention is called 
tn tfjo fivllnwiiig extracts from circular letters relating to 
Uk' Work of some of the SectiouR : 

The Normal Section. 

Airsrm, Tesas, Mari)h, 5, 1901. 
Il is Lhuught thut an interesting and profitable feature of 
thrt Coiivnutiou at Buffalo woulJ be i\ questiou boi, 8ii«h as 
hasform'iiil purt of Ihu |irogi'iimme of several previous) Coh> 
ventions. Mr. Caldwell, OLairmau of the Committee oti 
Noriiiiil Work, Imn accordingly aiitlioiined me to gather 
qp qiioMtioiiH and secure the uames of those who will 
ADHwer tbem. Will the superintendents and teachers in 
eiMili school kiudij' confer with one another and bit the 
vi^y i^arlient time possible send me their question^, 
togethor with the naiuet^ of the parties ebosen to liuswer 

The Sixteenth ifetihiff />/ the Convention. 335 

Permit mo to make th« follomng siiti^gesttous : Seleot 
only imporlaiit qacstiOQg ; to uuswer tbetn clino«« those 
who, iu yoor opiuiou, are be«t qufilititMl to do «o, iind only 
Bnob AH Trill he present at the Couvaotiou; if poauible, 
detorulim;. before spinlitiR me the questions, whether the 
parties Hulectud will iirulertiike tbu nntawering of them. 
Ooly A limited niimbur of thimu (jnestiniiA, perhapn twentj- 
Bve nr thirty, cad be used, and the uuswurs abuuhl iu uo 
ctMo tako ii{> more than tiiree luinnteit in the reading. 

Therti will bu Mueh ti manri mid vnrioty of work od the 
pr<^raiuine thut the time aUotlod to euoh Sectiou n-ill 
Qeccssnrily be mther short ; besides, the GonveutioD, held 
lit Iho time nf a ^mnt I'jxpo^ition, will liave to be n rapid 
and stirriug one to hold thi^i duKiguttm tt^ethur. 

KiadI}' utttiud to tbi»i matter at ouce, frieudx. 


Tne AitT Seohok. 

The Commilten on the Art Suction ib very (lesiromi of 
hiLving n large and (.■rudituble exhibit of the work douu in 
the A.rt Depsrtmeate of the State Institutions for the 
Deaf and would iiak your eo-operation in oar efforts id 
thftt liD«. 

If you have no art departmeDt or anv work beloDgiog 
to art, will yon please make a collootion of work done by 
the pnpils, aui>h as charcoal drawing, oil painting, wat«r- 
colorpaiuting, |>i!u-uud-iiikdrawiiig,clay-modelliog, vood- 
oarviag, bnrat wood or leather work, photography, nad 
iihiua piiiuliug. nad send it by exprofis to Le Conteulx 
Bt. Mary's Institution for the Deaf, Buffalo, Now York, 
proi>erly labelled ntid roadr for exbibitiou. 

If yon intend making uu exhibit, please let me know by 
Jane 1, at the latest, wimt yon are going to n^end, so we 
CUD know what to expect and how much wall sad floor 

3^6 The Sixtwnik }feeiing ofUe Convention. 

spaoB we hIikU reqaire. Bund the work so as to rench 

BuAalu by Juue 2'J. 

Tours respoclfully, 

Chairmnn, CiAvmbua, Ohio. 

The IsDtJSTBiAL Section. 


view of the great and rapiiity increasing importanoo 
attached to inaiiual training, domeetic science, iudttstrial 
and tticbnicnl oducAtioQ, training for rural occapatious, 
etc., throughout tlie country, it is very dosit-ablc that these 
subjecta in nil thoir bearings be given special attention at 
the comiu^ Convention of lustruotoi-H of the Deaf to be 
huld at JSuffalo. beginning July 2. The questions involved 
aru not only at thtt rcry foiiudution of all sound edaoatiou 
but of Biiccussful iiidu»trtul life us well. The beet and 
most suitable talent obtainable in tlie profession ia being 
sought to prvsuut Wmau uuw and powerful fiirceti in modem 
education. Tboir pnipur ciimbitiatiun and corrolntion 
with tho ao-oulled literary iiud ^cioDtilic work of the 
schools are calculated better to prepare our future meu 
and women for the practical dnlies aud emergenoiea o( 
life than any form of tMliicntioii rut deviMcd. 

No tiuuclicr in cither thu literary or iudu»trial doparb- 
loeut of our schools can any longer afford to be iguoraub 
of or indifFcrent to the uhmtgcfa that thei^e factors are 
working ill uducation >tn a wholu. Hu muHt either bestir 
hiimmU or btHioiue a back number. 

Now there are three vajs in which you can help along 
this work. They are by eiicouriiging your teiLchtirs, par- 
tiiuihirly in itie iudiiHtriut depurtutuiit, Ui Httunil lIib Cuu* 
veutiou; by sending an exhibit, uo matter liow small ho 
long as it is ropresentativt) of tlie work you are doing; 
Hud by sending a qu».stii>u or i]nu.stio[iH (or the Indastrial 
Question Box, deaiguuting, if you wish, who ia to answer 


NMeM of PuMicatioM. 


Uiaak. Tbe exhibK coatemplukMl is to be as large and 
reprea^utativa aa possible. To be deSuite — along tbe 
liacNt of maiiniil traiuiog, sloyd claj-modellinK, mechnulcnl 
dntwiDg, wood aud iroD work, XHwing, cookioy, und re- 
pair work, will all bu \wy appropriatu; while iu tbe tiuti 
of more tkrictlj trade work, samples of work ia job priot- 
ing, buukbiudiug, photography, drtHWiDakiag, milUnery, 
loiloriug, embroidery, cabiuet making, sboemakiug, etc., 
are all vary much wautcd. 

Please let me kaow lU yoar earliest couvonience whether 
you intend to hacB an exhibit, and at tbe same time be 
sore tu send tbe quustious. 
Tours fraterually, 


Chaimian, Deimna, Wiaeorurin. 


BONNBPOV. GASTON, IX. D. De U Surdi-MutiU mu point de 
vue civil el cnminel en droit trsn^ais el en droit compart. [ De«f- 
Mutitm ia th« civil and cnrainad Uu- of France and oth«r eoua- 
mesTj Paris : Librairic du Rccu«il giainal de» LoU ci dcs 
ArriiB. 1900. Svo, pp.408. 

Thin ia the most compreheoaire work on tbe legal rights 
and rcflpousiUilitieB of the deaf that has 1>«0D pabU»hed in 
any luignage. Tliit author w a brilliant young Fmnch htwyer, 
who take» an actire penoaal intereat iu thu welfare of the 
deaf, and w« uuderataod that this work wawbifl tbesiti forliia 

Dr. Bonti«fuy »tate« fully aod clearly all the Fr«ncb laws 
that rohite iliret-tly or imlirei'tly to the (l<>s,f in tbo French 
Oidf — mostly iudirectly, fur the actual mention of the deaf ia 
rare — and comparcti tbem with the similar laws of <>thfr<;oiiu- 
tries, chiefly thotte of coutineutal Europe and South America. 
With careful di»crirui nation hn dorivoii from thorn coneluiiiona 
lM to tbe poBittou of the deaf with reapeet to eivil and ei imi> 


Jfoiices uf PtihlicatioM*. 

aai law, aud nuggeaU audi leforoift as eeem deaiiable to mi 
the laws «lear aud cxfilicit. 

A valuable bibliography at the end of ihf book given a long 
list of gf^neral tTvulityg od modsrit and former Frencb law^ 
Itomon law, and tlK> laws of otli^r t^otintrifs. but the niitlutr 
BoemH not to baTo bi-ea aware of the two excelloat works on 
bis special subject, Dv. R. T. Guyot's " IH»a<rtaiio flc Jure 
Surdo-mutvrum," GroQingen, 1824, and Dr. H. P. Peel's 
"l>egftl Riglitit aud Kvupuattibilitivii of tbi> Deaf and Dumb," 
RicbnioiKl, I8r»7. For KijgliBli and American law I>r. Peet's 
treatise, tUougb much briefer titan Dr. BoDDofoy'a, reuiains tlie 
beHt atitUority. In the general view of the poftitioii whieli tbc 
dcaf-uiuU' aUould occupy before tbe law, depeodiiig upon his 
education or lack of it and bU ability or noU'Hbility to iindsr- 
stand and tnoke bimeelf understood by speech, writing, or 
•tgita, Dr. 3*oet and I>r. Bounefoy do not diff«r widely. 

ROBIHSON. WARREN. M. A., nnd WACHUTE. J. E. Souvenir 
of the Wiicotinin Schoa! fai the Deaf. Delavan, WiKonsin, 1900. 
Pp. ««. 

This bandsoiuely printed aud profusely illustrated book 
glTM a oompletf^ history of the Wtticoiisiti School, with bio- 
grapliicnl akclchcB and portraits of superintcudtntsi teachera, 
and others who have been prominoiit iu iti* H«rvtcc, views of 
buildtng8, groups of pupiU sod gtaduatea, etc., etc. It does 
for tb(< 'Witt.'oiisin School oo a larger scale what was attempted 
ita all the schools of the country in tho " Hintorieei of Amor- 
iean Scboola," publiabcd by the Volta Bureau in IKOft. It is 
iutore^ting Ln ]'(^nd and rikhinblc for nfcrenco. Wo witib tvery 
Hchuol for tbe doxf had as coiupleto a r««ord pidnted in as 
altiacUvH a furni 

ProceedtnfK of the Eighth Naitonal Conference of Principals and 
SupciintcndentN of IntitJiutiona (or the Deaf, held at ibc Alabami 
Institute (or the Deif. TaDadcea. Ala.. June 30-JuIy 3. igoo. 
Talladega. Alabama : Alabafna InKliiulc fur lt<c Deaf Printing 
Office, igoo Svu, pp. 91. 

'I'lie Ei|;htb CoDf«ren<-e of Priiioipalii difr<f>t^ fixmi nIL 
prt>viuuit ga'henugs of i\\v kind tQ ha^-itig no papers read, all 

ifoticea o/ I'ubiieatfons. 


Uw time bciog occupied by exUmporaneoaa diecussion. A 
hrief report of tiie ConfciciiRA waR given in tho In^l volume of 
Ibe Auiiala (pp. 446-453). Mr. J. H- .lohnnon. tbe Secretary 
wid host of tbe Conference, anil thi> Etistitutiun ot wliirh he 
is Uie head uow lay tbe profession under renewed obligations 
b; ginng it tbe proceedings in full. 

Bipoiiiion Univer»clle de 1900. Congrit Intemaiional pour t'i^tud« 
dea QuCRiions d'Education ei d'AssUianc* des Souids-Muets, 
tenu les 6. 7. el 8 Aofit, 1900, au P»Uis d«» Congre* de rEipo*i- 
Ilon. Compte Rendu dr* Travaux de U Section dcs Enicndanis. 
[Report o( the Hearing Sectiori of th« International Congress for 
tfae Study of Queations cf Education and Asaisiance of the Dear, 
held at Pans Auguai 6. 7, and 8, 1900. in the Palace of Con- 
gresaesorihe Universal Espoailion of 1900.) Paris: Iinprira«ri« 
d'Ouvriers Saurdi-Muets. tgoo. Svo. pp. jia. 

As the Hburiufc Bwlioa of tbo Partu Congn.'itM of 1900 was 
fully deacril>«<] in tbf! lost volumo of the Ainuii* (piy 404^ 
428) aod tbe Resolutions adopted bj tbe Section are printed 
elsewhere in tbe prewmt aumbftr, we noed now only montioD 
tb^ publicAtiuD of (Ue official report. Like tbe report of the 
thaJ Section, rctiewinl by Profoxaor Drapur iu tbe Slorch 
number of the AnttuU, it ia priuteJ by tbe deaf, and is a cred- 
iUbl* pi»OQ of work both to the AccompiiMbpd officers of tlio 
Coogreas utider whose direction it in piibliAbed sod to tbe 
printers. All tbe papers and diiM-'uiwiotis are printed in fall 
and any porttous who hnve been b<;wildi.-rcd by tfae aonit-wbat 
OODJiictiDg accouut« of tbe proc&eding'a given id different 
periodicals can herp iisccrtnin the tunct facts. 

REPORTS OP SCHOOLS (imblisbcd in 1900) : AUbama. Arkanaaa. 

Qcorgia, My-siic, Noitb Carolina. Ohio: Ipubllahed in 1901:) 

Bristol tEngIand>, HaKfas. South Au>tralian, Utah, 
REPORT of tbe South Auitiralian Deaf and Dumb Miasion and 

Paraiield Homo for Aged and Infirm Deaf-Mutca, Adelaide. South 

Austral Is. 1900. 

B. A.F. 

STORY. ARTHUR J. Speech for the Deaf A Book ior the osa of 
Teaeber* and Others lniere»ted in (he Oral Rdueation of ibe 
Dear. London : Hughes and Hvbei. 1901. Svo, pp. 86.* 

"lo order to b« reails/ saccagHral Uie work must bs & 

■Copies of llii* book maj ba obtained froni (be Votl« Bnrcaa, Waab- 
lOKlou, D. C. Tbe |iTl«e, poatpaid, ia t\.M, 


iVfrfiofl* of PiMt'oatioHS. 

pleoMurt botli In tftarher and tmi^Iit. for witlioiit tbia 
interest no reHiilts rapiibic of Htnuding tho tost of time o&u be 

Tbese worda. quoted ftom the Preface of this tboroii^hl; 
BOnnd and prnL'tiftal «xpoi«itio)i of 8peecb-t«aehiiig b; tbe 
b«iidiniuit<>rQf tbnNortb StAfTordabire Blind and Deaf HcbouLut 
Stoko-OD-Trent, EoKlfttid, Hlrike tbc koy-iiote ot th« npiril tbat 
porvadcH tbe wliol« book aud loud dh direct to tbat Attitade of 
bappy, juBtUUblc ^^nfidntee in tbe aim aud end to be attaiuod 
wbicli ittnelf pav«« ib^ way to the Buccetia desired. 

How ofteD baa tbe oral itietbod been deiicribed as u neceasa- 
riij tedioue, buidcnaome, if not cruel, motbod of vducatiag tbe 
d4Af< Here wc bare not only a powerful diaolaimer of tbe 
obarge, but also a motit belpful guide to all wlio would tbein- 
aeWes experience tbe joy of giving Hi)eeob to tboan vfho Iiave 
bitbetto been ailent, tbe power of uuderBtanding upokvu Ian- 
giiage to tboie wbo»« oars are deaf, but wbose aptitude for 
learning is aa keen, itnd their desire for information as eager, 
aa tbat of tbeir be&riuj* brotbers nud sisters. 

Iq bia adinirahlft Iiiti'odnctioQ, page \G, among " points to 
!)« remetnbered," Mr. Story eaya; ''Talk, talk, talk to tbe 
cbild. Froui tbe firut day in aebool (ulk to bitu and he will 
tben be encouraged to look for speech nt all tiniea. Enoonr- 
ago biui to attempt tbe imitaUon of wordii very early. Yon 
viU tbus be able to aecure tbe ulteranoe of aome aoooda 
without tbe Dseeasity of laborious mothoda. Sp^teh both wUh 
the hearing andthe dtaf i» u matter of imiUUion." 

On pag(9 82 be gives tbia valuable reason for tbe injuuction 
to talk from tbebvg'iuuing »nd coutiuuuUy: ''The child doea 
not of course Up-read tbia speech, but the uatural incidenta of 
tbe occasion nod ita general careumstanc^s may give soma 
iiidinnlioii of ita meaning, perhaps aa fully an tbat derived 
from any other procedure." 

Ko doubt of it, we answer. Deaf children can gather tbe 
meaning of what is said to them beyond their powT of Up- 
reading, by their inteliigi'nt gmsp of tbe acconiiMinying 
vxotive and ciroumtianee. just aa young bearing cbildreu gueai 
at tbc tneanii)-; ot Inugua^o beyond tbeir vocabulary i and by 
tbat very means ex.t«ud tbeir knowledge and use of language. 


NaHiCK oj pHblk*iti<ma. 


The one grt>nt point lo W atmed at »nd obtained in thought 
IN rjKCc/i fvrm. Tbo dcaElenro to tbiuk in epukvi) )AU|;a&ge. 
oikI tlioagh the iittorttd form itself, for a time, mav be bejoud 
liwtD, the Aiibit of ihouyhf in tri^rfh in llitifi bpiiif^ uoron 
scaoanlv w^uired, to t*ke definite i*lmi>p and outward expres- 
uon later on, tuiich in the xame why oh a heariR^ itifuut )■>■ 
Dp ft store of future lan^naf^e diirint? tW monthft Hpeut in 
■onmiujfly vacant nursery babble. 

Mr. Star; in not 1i>«h liapp^* in lading down tlie einot poai- 
tiou that writing is to hold in respect to speech and lip 
reading. He nays (page 85), " Erery lu»aou in a duaf ttchoot 
■bonld oompcl both apeceh and Up reading. 'Wi-iting ia easen- 
tial, but iu DO eotie trbould it be uUowi>d t» usurp the plooe of 
speech or 8pe««li -reading. II abould be r«le>;at«d to its 
pTojier poHJtinii in ediieatioQ. Were it poAftihle Ut talk every 
moment 'tf the tbty to the d«ftf child diiriiif; the whole period 
of hifi inntruetion, ho could never be fuller compenKatr^d for 
the losses he has iiuittained in direet itpeeeh. The purpose ia 
to dsrelop an alrility in speet-h-rendiug which tthnll Im^ to blm 
a perfect meaiiH of expression through life. The only method 
i* to talk to him od every oocAaion, and ezp««t bim to lip-read 
and reply." 

Tea. to reply and to i/iut gutfion*. Asking cpieHtionH ia a 
most important factor in the problem of '' How to nct)aire 
Uoguage." Listen to any little be&riug prattler and note the 
long stiiog nf questions on ever>- object and cireumittanne tbtt 
oomee under the cbild'o obxenratiun. Note, loo. how hia 
elder's reply is broken np into freah phrwiea and refonued 
•nd rcp««ted u^aiii tod agftin, fomung often the Ifanie for 
freab iuquirioa uuly to go tbrongh tb« aamo proc4«a. So il i» 
with the deaf nbeo properly trained, and Mr. 8tnry well re- 
rf^niimla ua (page 47) that we fltreogtbea oor own handa by 
introducing interrogative forms as early as pof»tih)c, nnd thai 
wt tball do well to prejiare tb« way even earlier (iMge 40) by 
eoeoun^Dg the children to oorapete together in nanring objects, 
fetching or potnting them out, as arton a« worda can be pro* 
Doanowl at all, ua the playgr<>uad aa well aa in the riarr 

To empbaeiie ibaae remariu let aa torn ogaUi to Mr. Story** 


XotictH of PahlwUiont. 

"poinfs to bo rememborAtl " (page 47): "Thv ren) f^sl of 
speecli is Uie use made of it oatoide tbe Bchoolroom, Tb«rc- 
Core, tak« oa iiitor«st in tbo children in tho pUjground, Bold, 
Htc. Trftiu them to tAlk to you on the olvjeotK around. Nattiro 
fumiHbeB Biuple ttcupo for ubseivatioii . Train i\w ctiild to fwV 
quvBtioDH. Hia stock of positive koowledj^e is small. If \w 
asks queslio&ft, be etaods n good cbaaoe of incr^asiat; it- At 
the tutmo timis ho is nxcroinng bis apoeoli iu tlip imtnml wav 
anil latoiiding Iuh knowledge of the Engli.tb lunguaga Arouae 
aud stimulate ansiet j to Icnru. Cbildrf a lovt acttvitj^. Cheer- 
fulo6H8 and eDlhusiaam are contagious and fasoitiate them. 
The^ will endeavor to emulate the example set tbem, * • « 
Do not hesitate to use formtt of laiigiiag« instriiotion beyoad 
the prescat stage ol the child. If new forms ai-e iotrodaced 
to him, he \n likeli,' tu ndvaiice ; but if oulj old rfirms are used, 
be is acaiTclv able to do so. 

"A deaf cbild'i* intfvllectiml world commences witb his 
t6Hcher and bimHelf. But his world oxpands, ns time gona 00, 
tu iucludn all tho»u with wboiu h» has to deal. To put him 
ID the position of communication with his world jou aro t«acli* 
iug biiu apeeeb. It is of paramount impoi-tance, Ibereforo, 
thut hilt itptKwh should t>« good in (ptality anil roAdy. Th« 
child's 'oralifuu' is largely what you make it." 

Here we have, indeed, the 8eci'«l of tmccess laid bare, and 
we beurtily thank the Giver of all good that he bas brought 
out to strongly thi« exprMsion of the foet from tb« exp«riea«« 
of a hcAilma^ter in England. 

But what of the muiu plan of the book, it« special feature, 
the putting aside of diacritic markings and phonetic spelUug 
and boldly initiating the deaf into the mystohes of Engliab 
irregularities from the very first t This, too, we welcome with 
aoclaini. The plan i« not untried. His Majesty's InHpecitors 
bear witness to the satisfactur)' results obtained in the Norkb 
Staffordshire School." 

•Tlin wril«r hax Utoly vieltad lti« North SUffordihlra Seltoul, aad 
joyfully Milila her pDnuQot tvalimonj. SLo fvaui] tbit lUnt oliildrcn 
uniofi ■piikcD virrU, from ihi> vsry heifinnliiE. witb int«IIl){i>no>!> &n<l 
lal^rMt. BOtl thoar Id iIi« npper ^lawea «fflploj1ng Mvliuitrir atioki^u 
lM)gg«gH, (H fur M lltpy Ixul uttaia»d. witli mm aad enjayuout. 

Notices of Puhlicationa. 


But, aekB Bume objector, will nut the deaf tliua tauf[hL lettin 
to thiok in written form in place of speeoh f 

Certainly not, we replj, if Cat iipirit or uoderlyiog principle 
of Uiu sjsiem ao forcefully prfrM-iitci] ia Mr. Blory'H iiiHtnKv 
tioua be loyally carried oat. In tbia review wo )iut« ptiriKwnly 
dw«ll on tt]« itnportnnce or tlj« U8« of xpeecb antt ltp-reii<liuf; 
tX all tuaei4 before toucbing on tliiit detail of meth'Kl, tvbirb iit 
bat ■ secondary (lUfstioa. Ooly by a nLrict adbcreuu*^ bo tbi.- 
govenuog aim of tbe wliole acbeme can tbe danger auf^jifeHtc*! 
be averted. But motntaiaiDg tliis aim in it« integrity and 
making epoecli niid writing eacb keep iLh clearly defiii»d poai- 
bon, tbia method will prore of btt^b valnc-. 

In tbe piui of Ur Story '«i work we God. an it were, a (ftiid- 
LDg Uireoil to conduct our popite through the labyrinth of 
imegaUr spcUinga witb an litllti tiesilalion n» posmble. He 
teacha* tbe cbildren from the beginning to aeu tbe double or 
triple reprvsoatatioD of certain vowda. and to coimect wjtb 
Uwae Ibe uimpte i>ound utt«raiice that correapoods to tbm, 

la Ibte a hardtbip for our dt-af T Not at all Tb«y lisve 
intriligcnee. reaaon, joat aa bearing children bare, and it ia a 
daHglil ntbet ihoa a iroaMe to meet with difBcnlUaa to be 
Ontoome. aUlea lo be g«t over wbidt lead to pleaeafil Balda 
betoodt Ere-D tbe eieeptioe* wUcb wti* be addad wbe* 
progre ee in langiHige baa made tbe tine ripe for tbair oaa v* 
not lo Utcir mfaida tboma, bat roaea, for ebildrea deligfal in 
itre)[tilarittaai breaUng aa Uiey 60 tbe tDOOoioay of tbeir 

Aad wbat a gsio it ia to have anttiiag to mtaaafa, tnAy to 
add to tb« lae^u r y Uale gBtb«red ouaowwioiuly aa raadteg^ 
progreaaoa. tfaoogb atartad at fint by tbe wcll-plaoBad 
-BWlboafl Hitiaga" tbatawallbc ereoflUkMBer ia 
tb« eaHy M^^ ^^ t^^i tbe leaebtag of artlealalioa dfOI 
by real wofA* aad tb* tntrodaetioa at ^ vord boUtag." 
What a boon for tbe tiarhir. what a aafagaaid ^fiiBaA ac- 
aatwatacM n nfaMawaatNati cswncaboo, asd aMatlM^ li 
is eo bard lo avoaa Oaa gn>«« faaRa wbca a fllmg o# aaa^ 
iaglaae wiwlaaartnwa td bciara baa lo he fgaa» tbroo^ b«t 
brra tbe taa^cr'e «r aa arcA aa haa 0f deals witb mnrj wsm. 
CMC aad tan 4aiecA ia a ■»■■! «4(bi»« e&rt tbe 


Notices of Pnhlicationa. 

Agaitt, wbftt « diflerence of in(trtM iu dnUing wtib rval 
wordH. Wilb » w-«1t-8tucked maaeam of objects, pietorva. 
toys, aoil Dii»Ieb) Kt huii], bow easy for bbe ttoctivr to give 
ooDtinaal glimpses ioto tbe ase of this mjatenooa ari of 
■pM«b, ftnd so spur bu pnpiln on to grostar sflbrt. 

Never let ub forget tliat uur de«f cbildren deligiit in exer- 
oising tlio reosooiug facuiliea tb«jr poflsws. To (.bi-m tlio 
lovel; beyond of koowlodge is just ui ftttrmcUve as it i& to 
tbo«c who b««r. To thera ib« •cboolrootn b««oni«« &a "eo- 
chmuting" plftce. ft plar? of eiiliirgi>iDeDt, if ntAj tbe t<>ncb<>r 
b« endued witb tbe spirit nnd tbv wisdom, tbe besrt and tbe 
Kubitioit, to o\yta out to bin pupiU evcrj possible avenue of 

As ragards tbe order in which tb« iipeech xoundii ichall b« 
taogbt. tbat given is ndmirabln. but teaobem alt tbe world 
over difTiT as to tbe actunl routine of Ibc- firnt etvps, and Lbu 
is a matter of indiflTt-reuce. Tbe book c-an be of equal value 
taken in any order, provided only tbat it» principles and ia- 
junctions be Htrintly adbered to and tbat naturalness of 
apeecb, facility of lipreading, and pi^fosumbtt uwot botb, be 
the roDdkADt aim of tbo teacher. 

Fartbor points of escelleuce tbal recoaiu to be noticed are 
briefly tboM : Tbe introduction of vocal ecpiiraltrittK as lan- 
guage r»]iiires tliem, in place of int^inting on obtniuitig nil 
from tbe tirHb(pflge 13). The careful oolingof tbe nburteuing 
of sounds in unuecented syllables, making a tUITt^rerire in lip- 
reading aa well as pronuuciation, a difference tbat greatly 
helpa naturalness oT «[>eecb by projwr ward grouping in 
soatencea. "Very frMjuently tbe spneeli of tbe dent in marrtd 
by tbe splitting up of sentences ioto fragtnouts, just rh the 
firw oommunindion of ideas would be more or leaa dwlroyed 
iu tbe case of beariog people if the component part of words 
and wnteuccM were separately utteriHl. I'lio spitri^b of tbo 
deaf is freijuently a dreary nionolonc, d<?HtitulD of accent or 
pIpKHin;; intonation. These things need not lie" (page 10) 
Need not be, aud will nut be, if tbe paiastakin>;,4'aulioUB biuls 
and directions bo copiously scattered through Mr. Story's 
valnablii book mept in tbe teacher witb thai loyal response 
they merit 

Schcol lUmt. 


r«aao doM with onlM'tt«r lut wordthui this on page- 17: 
~Ia ereryUiing r«m«mb«r tbat tbo pupQ is but the ruHex of 
Uie teacher. Tbcfefoir, Hf vhat you tUsirt Aim to Ae — 
mntMf tbomoglu uid entbiwuwtio. Potnt to tbe goal of 
taUOaetial MUb«lp, uhl lead tbe vay with iqmdL He wiU 
follow if Toa Moar* Us sympaibr. The poBnbOibM uw grMt, 
bat tiir eliild'c ne r t ag iti— srt- «^iiormoiu. See to it Uiat in 
■ p « c h a»d its afi«r denlopiDeuL* nothing oomea in Ibf inj 
of cooiplete atteeeas." 

srSAltM* e HCLU 


/mrijtatiow.— Aft TarkMM petioda ia thr hMnrrof 
Ihia IftatKotioa lb* Board or th« Sttpcriateodaat of Ohantfi- 
of the Dtstriet of Colnaibia Iwfi fflaimed the right of •oparvin -B 
«w H. TUa rUa has alwaj« beoi Tcaiatcd bj ftwiiiuit 
> OaDaodeC on tbe gnond tbak tfaa batiMioB waa pmlf edo- 
rational mod aotAaritable or ilwoiij \im-j, and the daia baa 
mA ORMlly ben praaaed. I«at jaar, however. Congraaa 
paaaad aa Act l a u t gaai riaj the Pafwrtwtit of Chsfittw, wd 
tbe Attoraey-0 feral of the Cmted Staica was called apoa by 
tbe SMTCtar; of lb* Intanor to give aa cAdal oianiaB aa to 
whdber the iHtitetkiD aboaid. V afaooSd aot, be dbMad with 
tbe "eharitabie add «l M ta a yM »7 tn al ifthw *" of the Dfatriat 
which, b7 the new Ad. ware plaead asdw tbe avparrWcv of 
the Board of CbaritiM. 

Id r^ j tbe AHofj-Oaaatal eai* aet ao l csaattiai nmf 
Dvawfaytba iMHfwrtnw aboaSd net U «» c^aa^ ns , tbal 
'ita wocfc ia ad f t i o— 1 ratbw than gnlailoMlj <*arttaMe f 
baft -Et ha* Mt —My haaa iliiii I wiib tbe 
iiawjaai.i al i l al M — of tbe Dmtoctr tbt 'tbe d 
tioM faatwwB •■ faalflatkw for tbe Aeaf nd daab 
a>v obnova iftd AvaMbai 

rdf the 


School Hems. 

the libera) lU-iK anil Brieaceti ns are ukuhII/ granted uid 
fcrrcd in colleges;" aud Ihiit "it ofUm bsppeus, of i»>UTfle,tlL 
ODivArsitics, colleges, aod soboolH «itenJ aid in rurioaii forma 
to poof and dc^iTvLng studeDte, and the benefits of the gr^at 
ftiuDilationa are not altogether pitid for iu luuuev li}' auy hIu- 
deots." Curiousl; enough, bownver, in vinw of hU th«»e argii- 
menta to the coutrnrj, hu finallj vipreRHcd the opinien that the 
IiiBtitiitiou, in view of a provituou iu it« act of iucorporatiou foi 
the adniisnion of " mioh doaf and dumb km w^ti in indigODt eii^H 
cuiDHtauceV' ^^'&x "t'baritable in part, and ho far an to dftssi^T^ 
it justly, for the pui-p(M(>« of iho Board of Charities Act. uuder 
chnritable and eleeidos^ruar; iaatitutioDS." 

In ordef to nullify Uiia opinion and to make clear its inte 
tion Uiitt. tlio Institution should not ho so clntitiififtd, Congro 
thin year innertcd the following proTittn iu the Aet approv 
March 1. 1901, making un appropriutiuu for the lUHtruutiuii 
pupilii iidiuittod to the InHlitutiou from the Dintriolof Colum- 

Prorfdad. Thftl hervaftor all duHf-iuutea of tuefaalilo agA. of 
tncuUl ouj]«oit]r, add prapvrlj ti«longliiK to ^ba DiwIriM ■>( Coin 
abatl bv Tcv(ilv<?d and inatrnRled iusniil Innlitiitinn. itirirHiltuiiuiiiin Llirrrt 
bum|{ Hiibjni^t tj> tlie agipruval of tL« Htiperiul«Dd«>ui of Poblic 8i<bi>olH 
thf I>i»lrii:t of Columbia. A nd raid Inttitvtifn K/iall noi Ac rrg<n-Jfd t 
fttutifird im an iiulilvlum of eharit]^. 

The clear and eiplidt declaration of the above Act of 
greHs that \v« have priutod iu italics catablisheit a pr«««dei 
of wliioli we hope the effects will be far-reaching and perma-- 
tieot. This action, that of the Minoesota l(<)/iMlatui-edeacribed 
eWwIiere hy Mr. J. Tj. Smith in the prenent nnndier of tbi 
Annala, and that of the North Dakota lugialature mentioni 
below, arc a matter for hearty coagratulation not only to thi 
schools directly concerned, but to all eugaged in the education 
of the deaf, SehoiAs J'nr th* dtafnre jmt to be reyiirtlnf ruir 
eUttttifittd as itttlittititniti of charity. I 

JHrby [JSngland) Inaiitutiou. — .The RBcatonum mentioned 
in the laat volume of tlie AuuaJa (page 25i) ban boon com- 
plntod. and in addition a " bouM of rest" in the country 
been purchased. This boufte ia aituat«d in the villag* 
£t%Tall, ■*wittmi iuclt an oosy diBtaoca of Derby that it cui 

School Items. 


riBited for ft single night after school hours, and in the holi- 
days be STaiUble for pupils who arf> in the uofortanate posi- 
tioD of betLg witlioul «ither home or frieuds." 

Ounoa {Itaitf) IntlUittion.—Th* buodrt^th anmvor»ar>- of 
tbo establtahment of the tirat scboot For tbe deaf in ItitlT hy 
Padre .Vsaarotti, who may thus be called Ihe lie I'Epee of that 
couutjj, will t>p c«lsl)rnlod on the 2<»th of May of this year at 
Genoa, under the direclioa of Dr. Silvio Moiiaci, IMrector of 
iho Royal loBtttution in that L-tty. A comuicmoraUvc rulanie 
will b« published. 

HittifiLT InjttitutioH. — A sohool papf>r palled 77wr Tnttitu- 
tiof AViTj) in publiahed for the lx>nelit of tlie piipilH. 

Kanaaa in»tUuti<tn. — The Institutiou iian adopted an odor- 
I leaa toilel-roum eyst«m. F^xiurea are ventilates) by down- 
' draft carr«<at8 into a stack Boiwrato from tli« one into wbicfa 
lb» room i» ventilated. The room is in conNtant use, and the 
air ta not offenaire. Th<; ventilntioti was arranged by the 
aanae architect who planned a eimitar affair for the Indian 
wbool at 1jawTCD<^ Kaaaaic. 

Main« dchortt. — A school paper called Tht JVcwa is pub- 
,itBhM] weekly for ti>e benefit of the pupiU. 

MUteattiee Ifay-Schaoi. — HIm Hypatiu Boyd has written a 
book, entitled " Paul Binner and His Noble Work among the 
Deaf," wbteh i;be will publ when tihe ubtuinH a Etaffic-ietit 
number of HulMcTibM-s. The price of thv txiuk will be one 
dollar. Orders may be sent directly to Uisa Boyd, whotte 
■ddrcoB ta 1(H6 Xatiooal Avenue. Milwaukee, Winconain. 

MonUmn Sc/tiyjl. — Tlir legislature baa gratlted the school a 
Bpecinl appfijpriation of ^1,500 to er«ot a wiog to Ibe aeliool 

rand to builil and equip a boiler bouB«. Plans for the pro- 
pOMiI building4 bare bc4-D drawn by the Stat« arobit«M!t. and 
it U hoped tbey wS\ be completed by fall. Anotber iqiecial 

I Bjiproprialion of $500 was alao granted to equip a printing 

Tite sebcd bai« adoptad a uniform for the hoys, tfao color 
.baiag tbs same aa i« tiaed in tbe Dlinoia Inatitntioo, but tbs 
ia unflar to that of tbe New York Itutitotion. 


Hchool Ittms. 

Ntxti York Inailtutum. — Miss Lnnna C Rioe, a teacter in 
this luaLitutiuu frum 18T1 to 1897, wlicn nbe was rptirtHl cm n. 
lifft peusiou, died at New Uaveu, Coouuctiout, Mnreb 11. ]!)0] 
Thn following minute, adopted by Ibe Board of Directors 
tUe occasion of li«r retiremetit from activu »ei-vici>, k1iow8_ 
estimatioD in wliicb abe waa Ueld: 

Tbranghont a)l tb««« t^ais (twcuty-oigbt) «h* i>ot»eM«4l n reinarkafa 
infinoiKM nmr ■iicotuiIIdk genHmtiou^ of iittlo )>oy»al Lho Monaiuu Hon 
K itKlergiLi'len. whom aho rogaril^^d mi lii-r cliil<In-ii : itml, I'vir rttiva to th« 
ImfhI iaii-TvatA, abe iostillod tiDiiL<ii|{ tkx'Ui nil tiu patDt>~t iliMite tor rHiu4 
mBiit. |trujiiict]r. iind all tht* virlnfu' tn mirli au pKtent tlinl her ineinc 
will iilwnjs r^mftiD <lev<~-t<>illy c Iter tubed ljy i.lioa» «ti'^ Law 1>«vii luxtr 
mriitnl in nUeiug fmou lb" hclpi^MiiecM mI ignorittive ti? tbu lull Mreiict 
uf jiiU-lli^uiicft. 

North Dakota Schoal.~-\ bill has passed the Icgifilittiir^ 
pluciiig tliitt School niuoug ibu puri-ly vducuttotml iustitiiliuuti 
of tL« Stat«, along with tlie Uuivoriiity. Agricultural Cull«ge, 
Nonnal Schools, and School of Fi>re8try. These inatituttons 
nre lo lio diipportod by a ttpecial ori(>-iiiill tux. which will give 
each an annual innome for Kupport. M 

Ohio Imtitutioii .—^xnt Anus H. Clurk, for th« pnut four 
years a ttiaclier in thelltal Dupartuiniil, Iia8 rc:nigued her posi- 
tion to be married. ■ 

Uuih HeJtool. — Mr. Krank W. Mofcalf, !Jiip6rtDt«Ddf>nt of 
the Utah School Hiiioe 18!K). has roaigued the position to en- 
gage in buainesa as the mnnnger uf » fruit-lund cuuipuny at 
Arcitiliu. Oregon. The resiguatiou to take eOcct June 30. 
Sir. Fi-ank M- Priggs, « teachf-r in the School since 1891, ex- 
cept for one yeai- deroted to normal work at Oallaiulnt 
lege and one year to tcacLing iu the Uliuoia InHtttution, lii 
bvon cle(.'t«J an his siicceHHor 

WvseoitMW Sehooi. — Mias Alice Schilling, late of the Cliii 
I>aT-SchooU, a daughter of Mr. G. If. Schillini;, who waa a 
teacher iu this School for sixteen years, luta been added bo t 
eorpa of instruction. 


The Sixteentli Meeting of ttie OoDTention of Amcricnii 
TriHtmclora of the IVaf wah held at tlio Lo OouluuU St. 
Mnr,T'H InKtitution, BufTalo, New York, July 2 to July 8, 
inclutiive, IDOl. TboDiimber o( persons present, inclucling 
both aclive Hod lioiiomrv members, was H7\. Kscept 
oil one sft«i'no«n, when there was a session alter atHioiiu<!ti- 
meul hiul beUD taade that Done would b« held. Ibo mem- 
Ix^rs wre ^er)«*r:illy eoimtaiit iu (heir attentlanoo, not- 
witlmtundiug thii) strong attrnetious of the I*au-AmericHii 
Eiposilion and Niagara Falls. The wiwlom of tlio Ex- 
ecutive Committee ia allnwiog nn iot«rmiitsioii for the 
whole of the Fourth of Julj aud fur the afternoon and 
evening of the third, thuBgiviug allaD opportnuity to visit 
the Exposition aud Niagara without neglecting their duly 
to the Couvnntion, no doubt coutributed to this resalt. 

The Convention is (•really iiidcblmi to thodireetors nnd 
offioerB of the Le Coutenlx St. Mary's Institution for a 
tionVBuieut place of meeting, for the opportunity to in- 
spect their skilfnlly phinned and well equipped btiildiufts. 
And (or thoir nowoaritHl courtesy imd kiudness. The only 

SiJO Tkc Sixieetilh Meeting of the Ctm^mUion. 

drnwltack to tho iirrao^^iuoot waH that, since iiot rU the 
niombcrs couUl hv iiRcomnitxlntod n'iti) lodgiogs iu tbo 
TnBtitutinn, less oppoitniiity tlinn nsmil wm accorded for 
Bocini intercour&e aod excliaoge of viewB during tl 
reoeeses of the Coiiveiitioti. 

Tbd spirit of iLo Couvuotioti was haraioDiotiH aud pro- 
gitsesivo, and vrliilv xoiuc uf tho luutunu) prusuntud ia uoe 
or tiro of the secttous wne not as fi-esli ittid valuablu as 
QiiKlit b&Te beeo desired, no oue who atteaded all the 
ftesBiODH oonid fail to ruceive koiuo itiBtriiclioD n« well as 
mncli iiispiriilioQ. Thu work of lliu Industrial Kection 
IB worthy uf special meuliou i\& shuvritig wbot cnu be 
nccoiuplislicd by thorough and effioieut preparnttou. 

There were good eshibitt> of school, kindergarten, sloyd, 
tnaiiual>traiiiing,indnKtnfd,ii.nil art work fruru \,\\v. Chicago, 
Culunibiu, lUiuoiit, Iowa, Ll- Coutuidx, Kuukjis, Miiwis- 
aip[>i, and Ohio Schools, aud from the Peuuaylvauia Houia 
for tho Training in Speech of I>ettf Children. In the 
Miuuesota building of lht> Kxpositiou then; waa no ex- 
hibit from ovL-rip- departuiuut of thu Miuu(«ota School, 
and ia othiT parte of the Expoeiliou there were, we be- 
lieve, exhibits from some other schools which we did not 
sue. It was n luatter of goueral regret Ihiit the Hue ex- 
hibit sent by the \YiB<roDHiu Schodl waa delayed on the 
way. and did not reach BuiTtdo iu tiuje for the OooTeo- 

A» iuterestiug feature of the Convention was the proe- 
euco, with their I'eRpective tea«h«»t, of several deaf-blind 
pupllB at various Htiiges of iust ruction, brought to UofTnta 
through Ihe gum^rosity of u fricud. They were Liuoie 
Uaguowood, with Miss Dora Douald, of tho South Da- 
kota School for the Itlind i Eilith TliomaK, Willie Elis- 
abeth Kobin, aud Thomas 8triuger, with Miss Kdilb M. 
ThufHtou, Misa Vina C. Ba4ger, and Sliss Heteo £>. 
Contey, of tho Perkins tuatitution for the Blind; Orris 
Benson, Kutic M- M'Oirr, and Catharine Pederseo, with 

The Sixteenth Meetiiuj of the CitntniMlwH. 351 

M>*rn L. Cftrrngor and Mjrr Florence G. S. Stnitli, 
f'tho Kow York lustitiitiou for tlio Deiif; ami LoaIio 
OtKu, with Mi»» Ada E. Lyou, of tlic Okio luatitutiun for 
fche Deaf. Clarence •!. Belbv, a deHf-bliml {^aduabe of 
the L« Coulunlx St. Miirj's TuHtitution, mid Mies Ada 
Bncklus, of tlie Oliin LoHtitution, Miiu<l HafTnrd'H tearher, 
vore also preseut. Kono of thoKe pupils rroro placed od 
exiiibttiou, liut n part of oue of Uie seitsious was devoted 
to the subject of tlieiv iiistructJoD, aud the members Iiod 
opportmiitv to become awjmiinted with them and their 
teacherK duriug tlio recess«H of the CotiTention. Tt was 
evkleuily a gr^at pleasure to the denf-hliod children to 
meet one another and u largo number of people who could 
converse with them readily by means of the manual alpha- 
bet ; it wan hitrd to sjiy wliicti thoy enjoyed most, this 
freedom of tiocial intercoiinte, the nights of the Kxposi* 
tioD, or the wonders of Nia^iarn Falls. 

The most important action t»k«n by the CouvontioD 
was the estalilishmont of a lenobors' bureau to assist 
schools in obtaining teachers and teachera in obtaining 
positions ; the appuintmentof a oommittee to arrange for 
lh<f prti.'Ufrvatinu and distribntiun of suitable reading 
natter for yonu({ pnpils, now publishni in the school 
[)hp«r8 ; aud the appropriation of a hnndred dollars toward 
the erection of a monament to Friedrich Moritx Hill at 
Weiasenfels, Germany, in 1S05. 

The ofBcitd Report of the Convoution will bo published 
in full aud distribotod to members aa soon as practicable ; 
mvauwbilo we give our readers an abstract of the more 
imporluut proceedings. 

Tqesiiay Etkniso, July 2. 

The CoDveution was called to order by Prosldent K. M. 
OALtJkCDKT in the exhibition hall of the Tustitutioij. The 
Hon. Okoimk a. Lkwik, Preitidunluf Ibv Uoard of Trustees 

352 TA^ Strteeath Meetintf of ths Convention. 

oC tlie Le OonteuU St. Mury's [imtitution, dtiUvorod na 
addrtMts of welcoiiiu, in tlio course oi wbicli tio oxpluiDOcI 
tho rolutiun of tliu xi-vuriil ^.tshooiK for the de»f iu New 
¥ork to tlio Sbnto, iinil aliuweit liow, uotwitliBtaudiug the 
prorUioD of tbe Constitiitiou which forbids any ilonoint- 
national or auc-tnrinu tenvhiog in iustitiitioUB )tnpi><>riiid hy 
the State, it in yet ptutsiblu to give moml and religious 
instructiou iu llioso schools iti uc-cordiiucc with the views 
of tlie maDagenieut aud the prefereiices of tlie pareuta of 
the pnpiJa. The schools are uuder prirute directtoD but 
are sitbject to Stnte iiHsitatiori nnd inspection. Ttie State 
makBH liu general iippropriatioti for their support !mt pavs 
a mmlest xutu per i-ajti'di tor each pupil. ThuH the Stale 
bii'«8 prirnta ageDciesto do a uecvssary work which uuder 
the CouHtitiitiou it is itself incompetent to perform. 

BeHpoiiHKW to the address of welcome were nijule by 
Presideut E. M. Oallaudet iu helinlf of the whole Cod- 
Toutiou, by Mr. V. W, Kl.T of Murylu.iid for the Eatit,Mr. 
H. C Hammuni) of Kansas for the Central West, Dr. T. F. 
Clu«itKiti.Aijj and Mr- R. MA'nrisos of Outaiio for Cauada, 
Mr. E. M. GoonmN of Xorth Cnroliun (or the South, nnd 
Mr. T. n'E»T!iKLi.A of Califoruia for the Pacific CoaHt. 

The rtiinaiiidoi' of the e%'euing was devoted to KOcii 

Wedkesday MottKiKo, July 8. 

The meeting was called to order by President GALL.iL'DEl', 
and prayer was offered by the Rov. Father GlLMORE, Sec- 
retary of the Le Coutenlx St. Mary's lusLituliou. 

Mr. FiLiSK Read, Jr., of Illinois, and Mr. Pehcital 
Hall, of Waabingtou, D. C, were elected assiHtnut 

After various aunoiiutieuieuts, the caUiog of the ndl of 
acti%'i> mcmbert;. nud the appoiutment of Messrs. J*. 0. 
Baub,A. B.GREENEn.J. S. LoNr., J. H.Cuh'i>.A[. MAnnrai, 
J. C. Howard, aud A. H. SciiuM oe a couiuiitteu to : 




7%e Sixteenth MeeUng of the Convention. 353 

from time to time daring the ConTontiou interprotcrs fur 
the beiieBt nf the denf prreouH present. Dr. OjJuL&l'DBT 
delivered his praKidtiutiHl a<liln'r»». He saitl tliat as the 
Bret meeting of tlie Couveution w»8 held id 1850, the 
pr«60Dt t>ne might be re^jarded i\p. itn tM>mi-contcuuiAl. 
I>uriiig the half centnrj the iinmbor i>f ttulioulif aud the 
Duiuberof pupilahttTu Iwoti maltiplitid more than ten fold. 
8)uoe the last meetiug of the Couveutiou three j'eara ago 
there haR been substantial evidence of growth nnd im- 
provement in the eruotioa of nnperior new liuililju^s iu 
Arkuiisau ami Western Peuusvlvauia iu pluoe of those 
destroyed by fire, aud ef iidditioual buildings in North 
Carolina, Ohio, Michigan, Hartford, Tlorida, New Jerwey, 
Rhode Island, Mt. Airy, Montana, and West Virginia, and 
in th« iDi-renHH of free ttchuIanthlpH in the College at 
Wasbiugtuu from sixty to one huudrud. Iu the relative 
poaition of the combined system and the oral method 
there linB been praetionlly uo change, the combined nyK- 
tem Btill prevailing iu a large innjonty of American 
schools, and the exclusively oral method uot beiug more 
videLy employed than three years ago, although the 
teitching of Hpvech and leaching by Hpeech are now in 
Huuiewhal larger proportion in comhiuetl-HyHtem aeboulft. 
He theo presented the conclusions he has reached eoD- 
oeming methods of iostrnetion after n cnrefnl study 
uf them for more than thirty year». During the first ten 
years of • is work as au educator ho believed that the 
teaching of speoeh was of little valae, but after hiaerteu- 
tdvQ exaniiuation of European schools in 1867 be pub- 
licly recommended " that all pupils 1k! afforded opportn- 
oitiesof acquiring speech and the power of lip-reading, 
and that, with those who evince facility in oral exurcises, 
iDStnic'tion shall be continued during their entire rceidenco 
in the instiLution." At the aame time he came to the oon- 
dasion that a largo proportion of the deaf could attAiD 
to DO more than a very imperfect atternnce, and that the 

354 The ^ixttenth iV^«^'ny ij/ Mu (hnJtention. 

roHults iu the combined-sYstem schools of Eui-o|>6 were 
far superior to tbose in the schools employiug the oral 
nietlind exclntiivelj. Thin cnnclnsion haa been contirmed 
by hitt obHorvationa of the \m»X thirty ,Toant, daring which 
period ho has mitde si\ visiU to Kurope, exnmiiie'd tunny 
schools for the deaf, nlteuded coogiesses of instructors, 
met large numbent of educated deaf-njntes, nod conferred 
with tRacherii nnd others tnterei«t«d. He attMchen eitpRciid 
iniportutice to thu uIinoKt uniform tentiiuouy of the dcnf 
educated by the oral method that for many of them the 
time spent in acquiring their imperfect uttemnce wag 
worse than wasted. 

AVith rettpect to the proper place of the Higu -language 
in thu edueatiou of the deaf, while KtiU adhering to his 
declaratious of thirty yoars ago that the " sigti-tnnguage 
is a Tory duugerons thing," and that " wo have to do wilh 
it aa little as possible," he deprecated the quotation of 
these declaratioud without giving the (jualifyiug remarks 
with which they were origiually aceompauiod, and ex> 
pressefl the opinion that in some schools the attempt to 
banish tlie sign-language has been carried too far. 
Signa are a uaturni and valuable adjunct in promotiD); 
m«aUl dcviilopmi'Ut, whilo iu public lectures and religiooB 
exercises that otherwise conld not be clearly understood 
by a majority of the piipilw the advantage of their nse far 
ovorbalances any poi>»;)ble unfavorable iuttuences. Iu 
this coonoctioi) he criticised the statement made in some 
pabtishetl statistics of schools tliat pupils are tnught nnth 
" no sign -language," saying that he himself had seen good 
clear " do VKpi-e" signs lof which he gare some illustra- 
tions) used by teachers of theso schools in the class-room 

He reviewed at some length the orgaoizatioo, couduat, 
oomposilion, and action of the Parifl CongreflH of I90Q, 
and gave- his ruasous for coucludiug that thu declaration 
of the Peaf Sectiou of the Cougreoa, supported by a 

TA4 SixteeniA JUettinff of tAn Ctrnvention. 355 

luiuority of tbe Hciiriug Stt:tio«, in fBYor of tlie oom- 
binod sjetem onrrieti aiore wci^^ht tliau tliat of the niii* 
jonty of the Hearing Heotton ri'tiftirDiing tUe Milau reao* 
latioQ8. Id coacltiHion lie ronimuiiiloi) to the CoDTention 
aa n worthy wiUchvrorcl thu luuttu " Tnu]iti<m hikI Prt^- 

A number of Itittera of regret from abseut membera aud 
iuvitod gucHts were rend by the necrelarj, Mr. J. R. 
DoBlTKs, of MiKHJiiMippi, aui] od mQtioii vt Mr. J. N. Tatk, 
of Minnesota, it wag voted to xeiid telu^raiu.s of ^reuLiu^ 
to Dr. P. G. GiLLETr, Dr. J. L. Noyes, Professor SAMnBL 
PoBTEH. Hon. H. A. Morr, Dr. W. H. Latham, Dr. W.H. 
De Mottk, hihI Mr. F. D. Clakkk. 

The remainder of the atitiLsion waa duvoted tu the work 
nf the Noriuftl Soctiun, uudt-r tho dirt-uliou of Mr. J. W. 
Blajtsbk, of Texas, who, in the absoueo of Mr. W. A. 
OAUmnnj^ of Cnliforoin, had beon appointed chairman of 
that Section. 

ilr. J. Li. SMtTH, of Minnesota, read a paper entitled 
** Wiog's System aud the Five-State Syuteni C'ombiue<h" 
Ho ({QTo ni) outline of Wing's system of grammatical 
symbols, which have atood the tent of twenty years' ase lo 
tbu i^IiuuBHcita Hohool.* Somo of tlie advaut»Kos of thia 
system, ftccordiog to Mr. Smith, are that the symbols aro 
sjmplu, ovory Heutuuco may bo auolyzod by them as ib 
stauda, tliey conform to the recognized prinoiptea of gram- 
matical anaiysia, they can be nsed in coimei-.tiun with any 
form of diagram and (hrotighont the whole oonrKO, they 
treat senteccAs ns made ap of eleroeiitHrathurthan wordtt, 
they show the analogy in ayntax bctwuDU wurda and 
oUu«e8, they indit»ite the different cuustructioos possible to 
wordH having the same form but varying in meaning, aud 
they are of service in correcting written work aud iu ad- 

•For Ml npmliton of Wiuy'« sjstniu bjr ila BUlllOt. Mr " FttUulioll 
Symtwla," AnnnUi, zu. 188-W3. A fow addtliotitl syisbola luve btMii 
Mliletl •!»(« tliat ftTtkls VTM pablulwd. 


Tlw. Sixteenth Meeting ttf th& Convention. 

AB«kH t^M. BA* f* ^ ••* «« *■*# U ^1 dk <«•* • I ^^ ••« • H «K fill « k^ *1 <« *> l-k ■ ^% 

vanctHl gramnmr work. Recently in the Minnesota School 
tliey Lnve be«u coiubiDcd witli the Qve-slate system of 
teaching l»ugaaf;&, nHitig nix slatee*, however, aud giviug the 
verb nnil the oompleuiciit Hoparate slateH and the prapo- 
«ttii>D iiih1 its uhject only oqo alatc, so as to bring the two 
MygluiiiK iiiti> liuruiouy. 

Mr. Taiii Bnid the extreme simplicity of the nyRtera in 
pr<ivp(l by the (ncility with whtrh th» beginning pupilB 
tako htttil of it. It forms a pitrtiiro (or the child aud 
enables bim to think. It is not uBcessary to use the 
more complicated forms in the priraarj' clasRes, but tliey 
can be added ns the ability to iitidnrHtiind iniToiisus. 

Mr. J. W. Jones, of Ohio, siiid that whilu symbols are 
nseful tor nualysis, it is better to give the techuicnl terms 
of grammar for use in synthesis. 

Mr, V. W. liooni, of I 'e» any hania, itHktrd whuruiu the 
Wing nymbolfl are belter than the Kimphi figures, 1, 2, 3, 
etc., used as a matter of coii\'6uiem;f for the subject slate, 
tha object slate, etc., after the pupils have become fntniliar 
with the live-slate system. 

Mr. Shith replied that the letters of tli« Hymbols con- 
vey the idea of what the gramtoaliual elements are. 
TbiiB "ti" stands for " aubjcot," "o " for " object," etc. 
This prepares the way tor the toacliiug ot technicnl 

Mr. J. 8. TjOKo, of Wiscouitin, anggeated that when it 
eoDie« to the teat-hiug of grammar it would be as well to 
give the wortl as the symbol. Moauirhilo if the monning 
of the apticm is understood, the symbol is not needod. 

Mr. R. H. Arwooii, of Ohio, exhibited and explained 
bis " Alpha and Omega Chart " (or teaching Uugnage to 
yonng pupils. It includes tiftceu fundnmonta) forms of 
expraaston with appropriate symbol and diagramH. In 
the latter part of the«our8e the symbols may be drf>ppe<l 
and the technical terms of grammar taught, The* method 
has been employed in the Ohio Institution and other 
schools with satisfactory results. 

The StTteeath Me«iing of the Convention. 357 

T. F. Fox, of Now York, asked wliy dispenwi with 
^^Syinbols nt liny Rtiigo nf their nee, st'utcA} tliev sfe con- 
ceded to b« a vnliialtle nid to pnpil» in ai'(|uiriug an 

curate idea of senteuce conetructiou. 

Jir. C. J>. Skiton, of North Uakotn, said thiit he Imd 
tM6& tile Wiug system and tbo five»l«tp system separately 
and ID combtuntion and found both Ds«fnl. Whatever 
systom may tie used, everythiof; depends upon the teacher. 

Mr. A. B. Fay, of WuiibiugtoD, D. C, aaid tbut Le 
should be glad to tn-a all the luutuben of tbo convoutiott 
converted to Mfiuu aue ayalera, so that wlioii stndeuta 
c'limti to volle^e lliey lai^tit all be funiiliar with the Biioie 
system. It wonid be a conveoionre sometinirs in the 
college to nse the symbolii in illustrating f*r»iuinatica1 
relalions in tenrhing ulhiT luii^uagcs, um Latin or Frunoh. 

Mr. BuMT.SER 6uitl that iu llie Texas School thitHjrHtoin 
oF diogronis f^iveii in the ICead and Kellogg text-books are 
employed and found iwitisfactory. Symbols and dia- 
gran)H shonid bB»igiiili<;ant, Hhowing lui nearly iw possible 
the oGBcu performed by the words or eleiuents in the 
Roatenoe. Figures n.loiie do not put any picture before 
the Rhihl's uiiud. GrnnimiLr should not be taught to 
primary or intermediate classes, bnt there comen a time 
when it should be taught, and the pupils should then be 
made familiar with the technical terms of grauiiuar. It 

betlttr to une tlm Butiri; word, »» "subjuct," than an 
ibreviatiou for it, as " a." 

JUr. Buoi'ii said that the combinations of the tive-alnte 
ratem present to the eyo the ndations of the variuuK 
parts of the senteuco with one another as well as dia- 
grams do. 

Mr. J. E. Rav, of North Carolina, spoke oF the signifi- 
uant uieiiniug of tlm [Storrs'J symbols he had learned from 
se latu Mr. D. C. Dudley many yeure ngo.* He thought 
Nothing could bo better than theoe symbols. 

■Tliew Kjriubol* ate pntitcd in ilm Annal*. xit, UK. aoil «n explau^ 
of their tiM it glT«ii b; Prof««or PorUr tn (he AaitaU, liv, 41-47. 

358 The SixUenth Meting of the Otrnventhn, 

Mr. DoBYNs said tliat tl»e best wav to teacli language In 
to HHf) language ooDHtnotl;. Gmuimar may lie taught 

Presideut GALLArDET Bait) that tbo uae of tauguage tliat 
is not uudorstood is Koniotiin^s & stnoibliug block to the 
nQcntaUiovelopiiientofthepiipi). WortlRSpelleilordpoken 
should ha UK»I fiH Hcioii 118 they cun be a real luenns of 
c-oiive3'iiig iduas, hut meiiuwhile the t^^hild should be al- 
lowed to expi-ese himself iu u lauguage that ho UDcler- 
stands, — tlio latiguago of signs. To neo English that the 
child does not know the mcniiing of, an that he 18 tempted 
to any he uiiderstaudB wliea ho does uol, lea<Is to eouse- 
qnoucea, both iotelloctQal and moral, that are deplorable. 

Mr. DouvNS BOid bo would toach language by UHing laii- 
Kungc, bat when the laDgnage is not auderstood he would 
explain it by meaua ol sigutf. 

Mr. E. M. QooD^TiK, of North Carolina, eaid that tuoro 
depends upon the complet** muBti^ry of a niolhod by tho 
teacher than npou vrlmt rauthod is uxod. Iu the North 
CaroUaa Hchool the fivu-alate systeu) is mastered bj all 
the t«aoher8 and gives good results. 

Dr. TnoMAS OAi.t^i'DET, of New York, said that the 
teaciicir ueed^ the Hign-language to bring out the idene of 
deaf children, jnst as the hamau voice is needed with 
bearing cliildniin tn connect ideaK with words and ftuu- 
tances. Ami thuru is tioiuutbiiig more iu life than a mere 
knowledge of the English language ; there ih happiness, 
which comeH from the spirit of God into the ininoHt life ; 
we need to have leutnroH, debat«H, and serviced in signs 
to get hold of tho personality of our deaf-mate friends 
and lead them up to something higherthaii a mere knowl- 
edge of the EugliHh langnage. 

Fnipjiy lloRNrao. Jclv 5. 
The meeting was called to urder by PreHideut G.aixad- 
DET, and the Rev. I^omas 6. Bboky, of Boffalo, formerly 
a teacher ol the deaf, offered prayer. 

Th« Sixttent/i Meeting of the Convention. 3<')n 

AfiertliATeAdiiignf the nimnteeoCtlieprevionainfletitigs, 
and HOiuo uuiiouuciiQiotitti, a KCHBion of tlie Kiodergarteu 
SeoUou voA liflil iiiuler tlio ilirm^tion of Mink Mary Mc- 
CovTEM, of Cliicngo, cbnirmnD. 

A paper, entitled " Kitchpn-pardpn Playft «u<l Occiipn- 
tiiitiK," by MiHK M. 8. McOiLr., Direclretw of Kimlergar- 
tea in Ibe Kevr York luslitutiuu, watt read. Miss 
McGill said tlint tlie nim of the kiudot^nrteu j« to 
maka the cliiM'H interest the starting point in bis 
Rdaoatinii. . \i was olHtorvod iu the rnnwood kioder- 
gnrt«u that, wbcu thu cbildnm wenj building with the 
gift forms, their fjivoril** re)>re8«iiti!itioua were the uten- 
sils of their homes or the sclinol, and that thay de- 
lighted Iu iruitnttng the home activities. Consequentl}' 
kitchen-gnrden ncciipiitimm nnd plnyx with niiitnltle fur- 
uituru were introduced, »ud the retiullit have been Hatis- 
fnctory. Tb« iJCc>U))»tiuuB givuu are appropriate to the 
days of the woek ; ou MondniF, for tostunce, wnahiug. 
All ponvo rent ion in by speech mid speech rending. The 
tirst ])iipils who tiuderstitiid the teiuiher's directioim iirn 
nllowed to exeont« tbem. Ironing, netting the table, wait- 
ing ou the table (regarded as a high privilogu) while the 
others eat intnginnry viands, sweeping, diiKtiug, si'wing, 
visiting vith doll babies, holding an afternoon tea, going 
on an imaginary picnio, all arotiae interest, enltivate 
observation, invention, attention, imagiuatiott, habits of 
nontnoss aud aecnracy, giro practice in spoecli nnd speech 
ruuding, and teach new words and forms of langnnge. 
Smull books prepared by the teacher containing the Ian- 
ganfi^e used iu the occupations ato an aid in roviowing 
the work of the Tear, and arc taken home at its close to 
give the parents some insight into tbe work of the depart- 

Dr. Z. F. Westeuvelt, of Itochefiter, N. Y., said the 
parpo&o of the kindergarten is to develop thi! children's 
minds, to iuturc^t thum In language use, to teaoh them to 

360 Thfi .^i.*f'-e»f/t Miv/hig of the Cenvention. 

govern tbeu)R«ilv«9. iiml tn occiipy their Tiiid(1h. Tt works 
a traiisformalinn in tliPir minds sm] cliii metiers. Tliey 
l«»rn to auk (juuMlioiiK. Liiuguugc in all tlio tioiufluwiuK in 
npou tliooi. Tlipy ilo not iiutUirstsudeTerv word Itietencher 
spells, but tliey get llio g«uertil idea und lenru liingiiuge 
by RBeing it BpelUd as bearing children do by heariug it. 
Id [toch»Kter tb« ulddr childran are couHtaiiLly teach- 
iDg tbL* yumigur oues. both in and out of school. The 
cbildreu npv\\ to one aootlier with n nipid wriggling of the 
fingers, formiug inconipbiite words, which Dr. "Westervelt 
citniiot nndursttiiid, but whitth tliH pupilx tbeiuKHlves do 
nnderstimd. 'The Uttlu ohildreu see tboir imues iu tha 
school i>flper and waut to know what is said about tLom; 
some old«r cliihl rtxiilaiiis it to tlic^ni, and than tb« little 
oneK bold the papier and wrjggln tlicir own tirgera. Id 
time this ftng^r-apelliiig while rending cetiHes, and they 
come to road with their vocal organa. The pnpila are 
taught articulation from the liritt, but for iutercour8<t dar- 
ing the uarty yeiira Ihev depend upon tlie band. In the 
advanced clasBes a couaiderable portion of the exerciaea 
aro couductcd through spoecli and interconrse betweeo 
older papila and hoaring poraona is through apoeub. 

Mr. MicsAEL AKAOKoe, Director of the Perkins Insti- 
tatioD for th^ Ulind, Boetoo, Maaa., spokf- of the great 
bonotit the kindergarten is to blind cbildreu. It is the 
foaodatioD of the whole systom of thoir oducatioD. It 
gives them an idea of forta, develops creative power, and, 
combinc<l with manual training, hel))s their work iu every 
way. Pupils who oauuot learu tu write »ud r«ad nre pub 
iuto the manual train iugcla8H,auduftertboy have acquired 
the power to uae their hnuda tlii>y readily learu to write 
and to road. There i» nothing b«tter for defective childreo 
than the kiudurgurtoti, no waiter whether their defect ia 
in one senae or another or whether it ia iu the funda- 
mental seoHe, the mind. 

Mr. Junes naid that the era of uiuat rapid progi'esa iu 

J%e SixUentK Meetiit^ of tAe Coavention. 361 

tbe child's Mfe '*» (mm birtli until two jonrs of ago, be- 
csass nt that ogis it reoeiveH ih(^ moKt attoDtion from its 
pAreiitsaml frieadu; tbeu perlinps » K^oond child comes; 
the ftrst is pnt asiilo nod iloee uot make eo much progrws 
from tli« iigo of two to ffix ; so the kiuitur^arteu takes care 
of tiUildron rtnring tlint period. In kiiidergarloDS for tbo 
deaf, children learn t« be atteatire, lo observe, to walk 
properlj. and to do iodnstrial work, tii the Ohio Iiisti- 
tutioD, where the term of iu&lructiou id restricted to twelve 
years, complete kiudergartua work is not done, Imt there 
is a kiuduTgarttiD aud it is fouud helpful. 

Mr. J. W. SwiLER. of Wiscousiii. said that the atility of 
the kiudergarteo is due lai^elj to the fact that familiur 
thiugs already kiiowo at liotiiu aru presented. Tlie im* 
proesioDK madu by thi- limt tc-iiidiur tliu chiltl has are the 
moat Ittstiug ; kiuJ(.T^Hrt4.-ti uiL-thods tuuy u1h<j hu usmi in 
some exteot in more advanced claaaes. The dull pupils 
especially need this instrnction. 

Mr. W. K. AiUtrt. of CtiUirmlo, said that it is better to 
have uo kiudci^artuu thau to have a poor utie. The 
chiUlreu taught iu a poor kindergarteu do uot learn to 
rsalizethat work isa part of thehnsinesaof life. Auother 
practical diHiculty with the kiiidergartea in our tichools 
fur the deaf is that it places the child uf four years of age 
in the same oomiuuuity with the boy of twouty-oue. TTo- 
Jess there is some m<;aus of separatiug these classes, and 
io most schools there is not. it is better not to receive 
pupibi under seveu years of age. 

Mr. I'tten E. Hkxd, o( ludiaua, asked whether tlie 
habits of play formed in the kiuderf^artou do not spoil 
children for the titKt'gmde woiic ; whethor pupils who 
come into the first ^rade directly froni their homes do 
not do bettor work thau those who ooiue from the kiuder- 

Miss AnNEH 81V.1.VKR, of WiscoDsio, described the kiu- 
dergarteo work iu Oerman schools she has visited. In 

362 The SixUenUi M«^ng of the C'tnvenlum. 

the ItioderKarten lil Plnuon. oDinmctctl witli tin* Driwulou 
Hchool, pupilK t>f any n^c wlio mh iioL iiblu to outer tlit; 
mgular snliool tire reo«ivecl. The work doDo there seonoed 
wonderful tt) Mi«s Stninkp. hut when aii« wont tt> the 
Bclioul nt Dr«adcD tho tt'aclii.-rti said tht-v wonid rallier 
have pupils come to tbcni directly from their homes than 
from the kitidBrgitrten. PerhajjH that is becrnuse the kin- 
dergarten has cildur pn|ii]s who tiiko up th» time that 
hLouM bo given to thu yonu^^ur. Iii Ittirliii tliDro in ti 
priTiito kiudergarteii. aud when its pupiU are trauaferred 
tu the Itoyal ItiHtitntiou they are geoerally the leaders iu 
their cIaks. 

MiNS Mart E. Scbret/., of Miimesota, ttaid the kinder- 
garten uvt<rc:oiue8 a certain ilreumiuesK aud absLMit-tuiud- 
eduesii iu the younger cbildreu, allays irritability, aud 
iinproTeH the diapoHition. 

Mr. Ray expn-'Kued hiH agreement with Mr. Argo that a 
poor kinder^Hrtuu it) not better than no kindei^arteu at 
till, but ifiiid this fact ought nut to di(iOouraf;e uh. We 
should work toward a liigli id^al. With ^ood teachers 
fairly good kindoiyftrlent* will ho fonnd practicable, even 
ill tho poorer ijchools. In re])Iy to Mr. Head's queation 
quoted above, he said that the child who has been iu the 
kindergarten does the best work afterwards in every de- 
partment of the school. 

Dr. J. C Gordon, of IlUoois, miid the word kindergiir* 
toil su^(<esta different ideas to different pereoas. In the 
Illiuoitt Inbtitutiou tliuru is a large departmont sometimes 
called tho kiudurgartvu, but be prufers to call it tlio ^ub- 
primary doportmont. Some teachers ia the other depart- 
iiieuts say they woald rather liaTo the children begin id 
the priniary department thau iu tho etub-primury. Thoy 
orerlook the good work thiK department does in teaching 
tho chiUlrou delf-deuial.self-uoiitrol, politeuees, aud how to 
live with othern, an well \\» tho muntal devulopmeut it 

T^e SixUenl^ Meeting of Ihc Cfmoeution. 363 

JliKK McCowKN sail) thnt (lie Hitmo criticiKin of llie kia- 
ileri;art«u thnt hail linen miule in tliiti fliscnssiou had been 
ma<]«> of kiudergart«nH for hcsrini* obJldrvD duriu^ tlie 
pA«t too jears, bnt tbo kiiidergnrtou is n tboasaud Linios 
stronger lo-dnv tlmn it wns ten venrs ago, and it is eon- 
Linanlly growinf; in fnvor vith the iuo»t thonghtfnl edii- 
cAtors. If it is so gootl for lieariDf* cbildreo it mast be 
good for deaf ebildreu. Its especial valao For doaf chil- 
droo, boTr«vor, is iu its intorpretation to tbcni ol )i(«. The 
little dear child is encased iu a sort of shell aud the kin- 
dergarten opeua tUe world to bioj. It is u juistaka to 
tbiiik that tlie kindergnrteu is notliittg bnt play. Byqu 
poor kindergarlnern, if they are open to HUggenttOD, are 
growing; if tburu aru act tinuugii wutl-trainud kindergart- 
ncre, l«'l IboM; who waut lo be kiudort^artiiurs work, aud 
there will be good results. The special qualifiualiotis of 
a kiudergartiier for the deaf are a sympathetic iosight, 
rnulinttHH Ut muet the lowest uwA of ihn L-hild, capacity 
to atlapt hemelf tu all circutuKtiLOCL-s, iiud power to pre- 
scut the work lu au artistic tuiiuuer. The luatvrials de- 
scribed by Froebel are not the only materials to be used. 
The chihl'n itnrrountlingN shaald Im! cnuHidered. The 
child that lives iu a mining diKtrict kIiouM work along 
dilTeraiit liues from the one iu an agricultural district. 
The child tliat never saw anything but prairie-s tshoidil 
begin nt a difiereot ]>oint from tlie one snrrnanded by 
bills and nioantains. 

Dfr. Tate said that for little children tbure is uu ]>lace 
like homo. It is an objection to the pure kindergarten iu 
KcU<K>ls for the deaf that It takes them away from tbeir 
homes. But when children nre received at seven or eight 

ira of age. while the pure kiudet^aiteu is not deairu- 
1b, ki tide rgnr ten work may l>e lutrmluced for part of the 
day aud the other part devote<l to literary work. 

A sussiou of the Oral Seelinn waH then held under the 
direction of Ur. J. O. OoKDUM^cliairinaQ. He stated that 


Thf Rixt^nih i(>'eti»tt of Ih'' Cnnnentinn. 

oailieHt (itTorts Iiiul hecii mni1i> liy m<;:iii>i n( circiilrirH nuil 
coiTCwpuinloiicc to nnnti^Mii profitiiblu programm*! forllio 
Oral SeoUou, but thai few favornblo n-aiwdses lisi) been 
received. He regretted ospecially tliat the expert InAcher 
who was expected from tlie Horace Mniiii Sulioi*! to meet 
teachem nml explain dilticiillieit in the tectiniquuof ftpeccli 
wiiti not jireseut. He t(aid he did not know just Low to 
explniu the iudiffereut-Q with which the etforts in be- 
half of the ()nd S<'(!tion h«d been receired. Iml as iu the 
life u( boya aud ^\r\» there nra pertndK of »pp:irent liab- 
lefcsness aud iuat-tivity, wliich lue reiilly the poriods o( the 
greatest growth, 8o it may be tlmt \tx our schools more 
childreu »re now being taiight speech and by speech thau 
over before ; that they tire ledViiioR to spetik hotter ; that 
iheru are more thorou^^hly trained oral tt<H<-herM, and that 
this qiiiot period is really a puriod of ^ruut growth aud 
progresK. He hofwd and bulieved that this was the ciwo. 
Ah another reiiKim why there hnd been no rc>»ponReK to 
the requHsl for uiatL'tial for this SeKlion, he referred to the 
hard work teachers have been doing during the year, and 
iu this c'lniiectioi) he paid a warm tribute to thodovotiou 
and self-Hacritice of teaohers of the doitf. 

Mr. WAJtrtES ItoniNsoN. of Delavaa, asked which is the 
mont important, practice ii> epeecii or iu lip-readiug. 

President CUllavdkt aoawcred the quoetion by moa- 
tiooing the little boy at the dinner tnbto who, wbou askod 
whether he would have pie or pudding, said he would 
have both. 

Thv Mcstiion of the OvnX fjection liaTing been closed. 
President Qallaui>ei' resumed the chotr. He nuuounood 
that a baudsotue gavel, uade in the shop of (he Micliigau 
School, had buuu prcMOuted to the C^onvoutioii by Mr. F. 
D. Omkke. 

Mr. E. M. Goodwin, of Norlli Carolina, pruscutctl au 
invitation from the dirct;b>i-fi of IbeNorth Carolina School 
to holil thu uuxt niuutiiig u{ thu Convention at Morgau- 
tou. N. 0. Ur. KaIT aeoouded the invitation. 

7%$ Sixieentfi Meeting of the Convttttitm. 'Af\h 

T)r. WKsTEHVKLTfuIdrosMt'J tliy Conveiitiou briefly upon 
" Tli«! Ror^liester M«tl><)<^-" ^i Ibo Itoclie»itor ticliool iurd- 
aol Hp«lliiig iK the meatis of iotorconrse hotwoen toncliers 
Ktid pupils, and of clinpel niid ether getinrnl exeroineit. 
Ttio teaclic'i-K learu to uh» the alptmbijt ncuuralely aud 
rapidlv, epenking tbe words as ihay spoil thom. In the 
recitations one pupil translates orally what another spoils. 
Tlio Kolniol is prHoticully Hn ornl kl'Iioi»I with u mituual- 
spelliug basis. Sigus aro cot ueod by auy oF the pupils. 
WliRD children fnmiliar with tlio ^ign Inngaiigei ontor tho 
Bt-hrtol they are quickly taught Knglisli worda for all the 
sigoB they know, aud they no lougwr hh© the signs. The 
oiothod 18 very sQccessful with dull pnpiU; it eoems to 
lift tliom out of thoir dnllnoss. Tbo ability to «pell give* 
them abilit}' to read, and reading givfiii them access to 
tiewr^papers and booki. 

President G.uXAi.'U£T([Uote<l a grndaate of the Kochue- 
tor School, who stti-rwnidi* attomled tliu Collvgc at Wa*b- 
iugtou aud became a teacher, as raying ho felt be bad 
iocnrred a distinct lo6« in the early development of Lia 
intellectnal powern from hnviDg hoon duuied thu nstt of 
thf sigu laugiiage ; aud that in uiiiny cjiaes thu tuvturee 
and pnblic eierciscs given in the school by the manual 
alph:il'i:t weru not nodorstood by tho pupils. 

Dr. Wesi-bbvfxt aaid tho graduate referred to was a 
semi-iiiute; li6 tiiul always seemed to understand what 
wafl said in chapel aud the school-room reasonably well, 
and IjFid bc«n able to writ« a good report of it. He thuu 
dt>F><;rib(;<i a brief Ivcturu on au abstruse subject that he 
had seen given in signs in another school ; the signs were 
Tery heantifnl, bnt the pupils could not writu it out nor 
own repoiil it in aigns. In t)io KooheBter Huhool the 
pupils are always able to reproduce in writing the lecture 
of the previous Sunday. 

Mr. Kay nskod Dr. Westervelt how rapidly he spelled 
to his pupils. 

366 ?i4« SixUttniA Meeting of the GtnwnttOH. 

Dr. Wrstkrvki.t said lie could RpHll as fust as La conk 
tLiok. WliHti addreHsiup the piipilK he could easilv spell 
III the riite of ciphty or ii buudred words a iniiiiite, aud if 
be were spolliug (;oinot)iiug lio hud couiiuitti!d tu memory, 
as a psalm, it would be difiiunlt to do it 8t a slower rato 
tliiin two luitidiHiI wt>rdH ii uinute. The pupils cau read 
auytLiug uu rnpiilly as it una he Hpulled. ^B 

Mr. J. T. RucKEH, of Wast Vir(>iiiiii, raiaed the psy-^^ 
cbologicial qtiestiou nliollior the d^Ai laiif^lit by tlio maii- 
unl alphabet can really tliink in words in tho same wny 
that 1ie»rittf{ peoplo do to tvhom wordsappoal throngli the 
auditory nerve. Ak to reuruduciug a lecture or seimon 
given iu sigDs, there are comparatively few heariog people 
who oaii repeat more thuu tbe toxt of a seroiou they have 
hoard. ' 

Dr. Wbsterii'ELT replied that perhaps tbu pupila id Lift 
School do uot think just a& a hearing persou doee. bub 
they think in words, and after they have acquired apeeoh 
they think in spoken words. In answer to variona qaes- 
tiouB bu aitid that nil the pupiU, old aud youug, attend 
the ohapel vtercisee ; that the little ehildruu uudonttaud 
a good deal of tbe cha))fll talk ; that he cati spell four or 
tire bnartj iu u day n-itliuut wtiarineMs ; and thiit, if the 
light is good and tbe cooditious favorable, tbu pupils are 
no more wearied by watching apellint^ than bearing people 
are by lisleiiiu^ to spenoh. In response to a request from 
Mr. MATFdHQK for a apccimuu of uiauunl spelling nt tha i 
late of two hunilrvd wordit a minute, tu see bow well it 
coald be uuderstood by the audieuct*. be spelled the Lord's 
Prayer, winch contains seventy-one words. Tbe spulliug 
was uleur ; the time conHumed was lifty>Hve ftecouds. 

FlfllJAY Aftebnoon. 

President GALLAtJDET wan in tbe chair. Telegram 
from Judge MoiT, Dr. De SIuttb, Dr. Qnj.K-rr, and Dr. 

The SixtMnth Meeting of tAe Oanvmtion. 3(>7 

), in repljr to the naessageB of greetiug aeul them by 
the Conroutiou, wore road. 

Tlie report of tbu St»uiliug Exeuiitive Committoe was 
read and approved. The Cominittoe reportt-d that the 
I'rnceLHliDgH of the last meetint; of the Coiivuutiuu hnve 
Luoa puhli»hc<i bj"(?oiigreHfl, aod bound copies ilistribiitod 
to metiiber« sail to public librnries ia the Ui>ite<l States 
»nd Buropu. Thojr cxpretuuid regret thiit no local nieet- 
iDgs of the CouTeutiou bnve beoii hohl iii the interval 
liutween goueral meetiof^s. The rvceipLs of the Couveu- 
tion, ioclitding :f>'20I.1(I on Imnd at the last meeting, bad 
UiDU ^990.iK), and the HXpiinditiires $188.S8, leaving n 
b»laQce ou baud of jS0'2.i>2. luTltntionK for the next 
netiting had been received from the oflioers of tha 
Miebigno and North Caroliua SchooU. 

The report of the Committee on Necrology, Mr. L. M. 
Larhon, Chnirmnn, whs rtuict. ft reported that Icaac 
TjEwih Pert, D. C Duhlrv, Bfn.i\mik TAi-noT, (S. L. 
Wyckopp, Thomas Ofpiceii, WnxtAM Glenn, D. E. Staop- 
rsa, Joseph Moiint, J. H. Bhown, S. C. Bkioiit, J. J. 

BUCHANAK, Z. W. HaYXBK, FrASK BftlftHT, J. H. McPAtt- 

LANi), D. J., C. W. Van Tassel, W. N. Si'akkow, 
WoLiAX IJeokei-ey, K. H. Dkought, (.Jajioune C. Sweet, 
Adma C. Allbn, PuoBJiE Wbiqiit. Maby Tolss Pebt, 
Emii.v D. J0BN8OS, Emma D. Hrxnwjv, Mrs. L. C. Tt'OK, 
LtJANS C. UicE, Elu M. Devise, M. C. Lelahd, Jessa- 
viKB y\. Cuiti), Caubie Coleman, Flobesce Ueuer, Jessie 
Hi'NTiNoroN, Mabv Grant, Elbanob Kickci, and Emilt 
Blakchabd had died since the last meeting of the Co&- 
veotioD, and requested thai if there were other names to 
be included thev should be given to the Oommitteo with 

I proper obituary noticea before the publicatiou of tbe 


■OttMrauMBlbfttflhAiild b«in«lsd«dftrathoMof Wn.t.u» K. Cliub, 
ItoKUT P. Botirau. XoAM dTRiTNBS. EvMa L. pLriimnt, Kttat* U. F«ir- 
noM, *ad 3»aAa W. Kkkusk. 

368 The Sixteenih Meeiinff of th4 Convention. 

Mr. H. W. lloTHEHT. of lowu, offored the followiiiR 
ix-Hitlutiui). with tlie exptauatioii that tlia object propoHed, 
was to RMMmt sc^hooU ill obtiiiaiDg tenchers aud t«ac;b«i 
ID obtiiiuiiig positioiitt. The reHuhitioo was ni]o)itei3. 

AfjiWMrf. TUtti Hi lliB ufBoti i>( t.lieH»i-rulur^ uf thin OHsuomtioD, nnd 
ii-Diltii Lho dir«<.-li9ii of Huiil gvurubir^, ttiurv bIihII hv «tliibli«li«il » l>ur<raa 
of inforniittlDa fur'- liBi:i-Al. of iiiPiubnn nf l.lin ii«i«iot»ti<ju. All 01- 
IMOBee oouoeoti^d witli bhI'I bar*iio, utter httvlug beau propsrly aadiMd 
hj tk* Eicoiitite OomiuiUcc. fthall bn pai-J ia (bo umv uianaar M olber 
ex|«ii»e« An iiaitl. 

The CoDveiitinn then procoeileil to the elootion nf ofli-j 
cors (or tho ao\t tliroe yvnn. The uluutiun rtititilUiil aai 
followtt : 

Prenitieni. Dr. E. M, GAi.LAr[>KT, of Wnshiiigtou, D. C] 

Vice-l'resiiteHt. J. W. Swii>Ei{. of Wisconsin. 

Seereiary. J. R. Doiiyns, of Mis«iH«ippi. 

IVeasurfr. .). L. Smith, of Minnesota. 

Pireeinrg. W. K. Xsao, of Colorado, Mrs. J. C. Baur, 
of Ontario, aud J. W. BurrNElt, of Texus. 

CAairmen of Conunitttcs. For the Normal Section, 
J. W. Jostw, of Ohio ; fur tha Oral Sectiou, E. A. GitirvEtt, 
of Now York ; for tli« Auricular Suction, E. H. Cubrier, 
of New Turk; for the Kimiergarti^a Section, Miss MAByi 
MrCoWEN, of Cliiffago ; for the Tiiilnstrial Section, WaH-! 
RKK ItoitlNSiiN, of WiKCouBiu ; for tlje Art Section, EiiNRRT 
Zell, of Ohio ; for llio Eastern Local Committee, W, N. 
Bt'RT, of Watvterii Poiinsjivania ; for the Western IjocjiI 
Conimittoo, H. C. Kaumond, of KuuitaH; for the Sunttiern 
Local Committee, W. O. Connuu, of Guorgiu. 


Mr. SwiLEu, Vice-PresiJeul, was in the chair. 

A papyr ou " Tlie Cultivation of tlie Hoading Habil,'" 
hy Sir. LlNN.«us lUiBKU'i'H. of West<!rn I'ltnuHvlvanin, was 
read. The teacher hn» no more importikut dutjr than the 

The SixleerUA Sfeolht^ of the Convenivut. 3(>n 

«n!a[^ug of the pnpj)'ii horizon by placing at hix com- 
luiiDd for future life tb« campauiouithip of ^ooA bookii. 
For thiu there muKt be »u early beginniag and a pentist- 
en( c-oatiuuiog. If the pupil doi^s not like to read he 
mnst Iw lo4 to like it, A portion of I'nch school day 
slionld be devoted exnlii«ir«ly to teaching pupils how to 
read. The first reudiug lessoos Hhoiild be the laagunRe 
lessoDS of the Aohoolrooiu, prepared by the teacbor od 
subjects frith which the close is fniDiliar. Xonr the close 
of the year these exercises may be put iuto book form at 
ifae InstiltitioD Press and come to the pupils an the 
" Vacation Beodor." iu tlie iutermediate classes teachers 
and pupils may read togeth-jr, the pupiU maliiug lists of 
words not clearly QDderalood. wiiioli.togetliKr with histori- 
cal aud other allasioos aud all obiicure piusageu, are after- 
wards expIatDod. Pupils should learu what senteoces as 
a whole luuua with little n-ganl to wonls as Kuch. Tlio 
paper closotl with a list of desirable books for school 

Mr. BcftT said that in tho WestorD Pennsylvania tosti- 
tntlOD books are supplied to the pupils from tho Car- 
negie Library in Pittsburg. A teacher makes out a list 
of whatever books ha wauta — it raaj be from fifty to five 
bnndrucl — huads it to the librarian, and tho ncit day the 
books are brought aud ramaiu us loug as desired. 

Mr. UooDinN said that in the North Caroliaa School a 
supplemental library is arranged for each grada, aod the 
pupils of that grade hare free access to the Ijuoks with- 
out having to apply to the tsscber. Whenever they have 
a spare moment id school or oat of it tbey take up a 
book. During the past year each child has read ou aii 
average aii many as tea books. 

Mr. CLArros Wektk, of Or*^;on. requested superio- 
tendnnts to send onl catalogues of their books to assist 
others ia selecting Ubmrieit. 

Mr. d'Estkeixa said that in the California Iniititatioo 

370 Thi Siimlfenlh Mceiing of the ConvantioH. 

tlie libtariHQ gives oat bookH three timoB a week. Abuntj 
tweDty-flvef p«rceut of tlie pupils eojoj reading. 

Dr. Westervklt Bftid that at RooLeator tlie cliiKlrpn' 
lonrn to read quickly nitli tlio nid of tDnniiiil K|>Btliti){. 
The teiKilttir devotes nome time every iiay to teiiclitug tliem 
bow to read. She reads with them by Bpelliug and ex-l 
plains what they donotunderataud. Id the higher cIossoh? 
pnpiU do B good donl of indopaadeut r«nding and must, 
tell what they liave read and anEiwer questioiiK about it.j 
If the book is ditllcult the teucher sometimeu gives theQi( 
the story in simple lungaage beforehaad. The library ii 
opoD orory ovoDiug for the pupilB to draw books. 

A 8o«aiou o( the Auricular Sectiou wus then held under ' 
the direotiou of Mr. E. 11. Cubbieh, of Nevp York, ohair- 

Mr. C'URItlKli addressed the CoDvention on " Thf 
AkoululioD," and exhi luted tbtt iDNtrnmont. He enidl 
thub ii] unu cuhc a pupil duuf from xix years of age,i 
who had never reepooded to attempts to uake himf 
hear, recogaized with the aid of thib in»t<rnmeiit oa] 
tlio second trial the mooing of u cow, the crowing oi 
ft Toostor, and the barking of a dog, uh recorded on th( 
cylinder of a graphophone. Id most cases.Lowevei.loug, 
Bystemntic practice is uece»!tary to enable a pupil tooom-. 
preliend a Kpoken tientencu. Evun whore there in uo prtic- 
tieal result in the way of hearing, the exciteiueut of th( 
raentality from the etlbrt to bear is of value. He als< 
read « paper eutitlod *' Rewunie of KxperimeiitH. Observa- 
tinnH, null Training in Aural Duvelupmuntaii Practiced i 
the New York fustitutiou." lu the earliest efforts to in- 
BtruL-t the deaf in that Institution the promliieut idea wt 
not so ranch iDtellectunltraiiiiog an theconferriDgof itotnt 
H]>eech and hearing. Dr. Samuel Akerly mndu eiperi^ 
uiuata in tbiit direction for several yeatit, and tho hoariuf 
of several pupils was reported as improTed. Coder Dr. 
H. P. Peet leoa attention won paid to anricular trainiog, 

Th4 Sij-Jeent/i Stff»'y of tAe Con»enf>Mi. 371 

bal it was uot entirely neglected. Under Dr. I. h. Peet 
the bearitig of the pupils was teHtecI, aud the aiidiphooe, 
the rlRutnphniie, the electroplinDe, ('urrier'N duplex ear- 
piece, Slid Currier's couiro-cvliiidrical t-ar-tube were ex- 
pprimeoted with, the two InHt-named proving especintlj 
valanble." Since Mr. Currier Iihk been at the bend of tbe 
!i>»titiilinti vxpisniuvnts have also biiun tUHtle with Hie 
di;tJlibvdrHii aud the ukoulaliuu. Du^iu^ the paitt j/enr 
fifteen pupils have beeu taught Ibrongh the ear, in some 
uases u'itboiit in.<)trunientiil aid. Several pupiU have Iwen 
sc far improved in hearing kh to permit tbeir attendance 
at eouimou Mtihuola; oue waa able to eulist in the army. 
Id soino cases otherwise hopeless the akoulabou baa 
proved helpful- 

At this point experimentK with the akonlalion broQght 
b]r Hr. Carrier were made by several of the deaf persons 
present. They were iiol. ospeeially sui^eoHttfnl, but Mr. 
CurrioT explained that in order to iiccompiisb valuable 
resulta the teaohor must be behind the instrnmoDt and 
must be behind it for a long time. 

Dr. Max Kaiheu, of Buffalo, expressed the opinion that 
in most casefl just aa good results oaa be produced with 
the human voice alone aa with the akoutalion or other 

Satobkav MoitNiso, Jwi 6. 

President GALLAtnufr ocoapied the chair. 

Prayer was offered by the Jtcv. dnb Turner, and the 
niinutus of Friday's meutingx were read aud approved. 

A seaaion of the Normal Section was then held auder 
the direction of Mr. JtLA'iTNEii, chairman. 

Mia« Oabolenk H. Smith, of Pennaytvania, read a paper 
entitled, " First Two Years' Work iu Geography." The 
paper is published in full elsewhere iu the preueut num- 
ber of the AnnaU, 

- Bm tli« AnnaU. ixi, SSG-3t(7. 

S72 The Sixteettth Mtttiny of the Conifentimi. 

Mr. W. O. Connor, of Geoi^ia, said that in teaching 
goograpby the map sliould always bo placfid od u table 
with the top towanis tlio uoilli side of tbe room ; other- 
wise tlie pupils would oever have a clear idea of tli^^ 
subject. ^1 

Mr. W. A. BowLBs, of Vir^niu, thought the map might 
Hrst be plaoed od a tikhle with tbe top to the uurth, but 
afterwards huut; oti the wall with the explaiiation that it_ 
WHS so placed for conTeuioDce. 

Mi»8 Smitu 8aid thut if thu compatts aud Ibu diuf^ram^ 
deacrihod in her paper bad Urat been thoroughlj mastered 
there would be uo trouble with the points of the compaas 
OU tlie tiinp. ^H 

Mr. WiLUAM W.U)E, of Ptinnsrlvania, and the tcachei^^ 
of tbe deaf-bliud tlieii took seats ou the stage, and 
Mr. Waue JDtroduced the subject of the ednoatioD of the 
deaf-blind in a brief address. He said that the only di(- 
ferericu butuuuii the instnictiuti nf the deaf and thu deaf- 
bliud is that with the former the aease of sight is used, 
aud with tlie latter the seuse of touch. No special expo* 
riouce is uecessarj. Teachers of the di^af are the best 
teachersof tbe denf^btind ; commiinicnliou i.H the first need. 
Some of these leaehuni used sigus lint aud then the mau- 
ual alphabet ; some used the mauual alphabet without 
BJgDB. Id the nMults no ditfereuce can be detected. 

A geueral uouversatiou followed, the members of the 
Couveutiuu Hskiag (pu-stiou» aud Mr. Wudt* aud tbe 
teachoni of the deaf-bliiul answering. It appoared from 
this oonversatiou that some of the teachers in spelling to 
their pupils hohl t)ie baud ijt uue poeiitiuu and others in 
another ; that most of them at tirst required tbe pupil to 
repeal the spelliog of tlie words given (hem ; thai speech 
nod 8p«>ch-readiug were readilv learaod by plaeiug the 
hand on the vucid urguus, but that the maonal alphabet 
was the preferable mnnQs uf commnnicatlon ; aud tliat a 
D&tioual iustitutioD for tbe deaf-bliud would not be deal- 


W. B. ItoBiH. 1j. IIaiiukwood. E.Tbou«b. T. tiiciuiUKii. O. Bx»mih. 
L. Onra. W. W>i)x. R. A. Kbij^eii. C. PKDXottsK. X. BCU'tirKK. 

Ur. A. h. rncb. of Paeb Hru*., New Yurk, wtiu linii takaii thnroDV^n- 
Uoii |>t<-liiir« tor iDAIiy fOftr*. iiiuliii an i>x(-«ll<>iil jilii>tO(-ni[ili of thr doaf- 
litiiiil nml tlieir Icnclirm nl BulTttlu, wliicli wr 1i(i|icil U> rr-prmliiRo liorc: 
but two'it ihf tt'iicburs ohjeclvd. Mr. Tai-li Iihr Uiervfafp Ing^uiouily 
W'Orkril pnrt of the Rronji into a " mMie hjj " pjcltm, w hicti ^tjown tb« 
flicks well bat rlocH not repremiit lli<^ r«lnllrf belgbi at Itiv lifjurnt 
(]tiile lu^i'Tiniiiil]'. f^iviilirlii Rubiii ftuil Kdilh Tliomnit iiti> nnt 
rMtlly M tiill iiA ilitj ai'pMt iu tli« ]>iclTirf , and Limiit! HiigurwouH in not 
■naliurt. IlnWn K'll<-r wiw not nc BiiITiilo; liPrli](i>n«H wna takeu froiu 
It f^up iDH<In nl ChatitAn(|at, iu \tt9-l. 

The SixUenlh Jfeetmff of the Convention. 3T3 
(ttbl©. Miss PorLssos, of Doetoo, UiA eepccia! strcKs 

FnpOD the impurtaoce of baviag tl.j papil at tirsl repeat 
what WHS givcu, in ortliT tbnt hu mii;lit uot only receive 
ilDpreasioUB but bave a menu^ of expression. 

A vote of tbaiika to Mr. W.m>e wan paasod aniuii- 

Aftt»r a short rticout, cturtng irbich the Cooveutiou vas 
photographed, tbe aessioa of the Normnl Section wan 

Mrs. J. C Daus, of Ontario, read a paper entitled 

r^'Storibit." .Sturiea awnkuu iuterest. ntiiunlnte tlioaght, 

lau^trnge, aad give oiaterial for couvnrsatinn. Some 

ingemeDt Hiionid be made bjr which L-hiMrcn'.i storios 

DOW pub)iMbv<l in tbe rtchool pajxini mnY l>e bouuil and 

preserved and made nvuilablc for aU tbe schools. 

After coniiiderahle discnssion it was rot^ that a coin- 
mitlctf Khoald lie apptiiultHl, with MtK. Balth as chairiuaUi 
to arran^re for tb« prwterratioD and dixtribatiou of renrl- 
iug matter for pupils. 

Professor I'eiuital Hall, of ^VaabiDgton, \>. C, read a 

pa[)«r entitled " Preparjitinn for ColIej;e." Prt'paration 

for colit^gu, for most of (be d^af, iuL>aus preparation for 

Gallaudet. While uiauv come well prepared, some show 

kdef«etfl. Mont of tlm fnilnres occar daring the first jear 

}f oollef^e lifv. Students are prepared to patis the enlnince 

uoatioDs but not to go through eollege. Tb« best 

fiDanciaJ preparation is a well taught trade. Preparation 

iu morals should aim at Ktrength of chnrncter. Training 

ia mauoers »houtd iudude the babita uf puHto fiocietj. 

Ph^ical preparation sbonld be given hy gymnastics and 

lat-door sportM, and iDstnit^'tion in the common rules of 

!ie«hb. Mvntal preparation should InT stress apon the 

comprehension of laugoage, practice in tbe one of English, 

training in mdopcndent reasoning. Kvorv school 

ll^fal to aim, as Ohio do«s, (o lit it^ pupils tbrongh itH 

liar work for the Freshman cIahh. 

374 Th* Sixie&nf^ Manting of the Omvention. 


A tliscHssion of Professor Hall's pa]>er by Mr. 8. 
DATtDSQK, of PeDUBjlvatiia, was rund. ProFessor Hall'R 
auggestioDs conccruiug llie defects of our scbool work in 
preparation for college npply einially to its defects iti the 
prepamtinii for life. A good comtnRiid of Isngaage, 
kiiowledgL' of fuiidtimeDlal facte, good lieHlth, moralH, and 
cliunicter are esscitlinl Lo succuds iu iiuy walk of life. Tlie 
college hy \\.» tests di;mot)«trntea the strength atid weak* 
ness of onr systems of edncxtioD, and lixos s standard at 
vliich all Hdliools kIkiuUI aim whelliertlioir pupils expect to 
pttnuie B ]ii|;1ier Bducation ur uut. Fa.ilurtitt in Ufe, an 
failures iu college, are mostly due to lack of cliaracter 
develo|)iueut. Mnuy of tbo deaf are too paaaive; the; 
lack tlie desii-e for improvement, and moral aud intelloo- 
tnal vigor. Sometliing shoidd bu done in our schools to 
make leati auddeu the transition from tho irresponsible de- 
peiidc-nee of the pupil in school to hie freedom iu college 
and iu life. 

President Oau-ai'Iiet Kaid that it is au advantjige to Ibe 
character of college students to have to provide by their 
own exertions for their travelling expenses, clothiug, hooks, 
and iDcidoDtal expenses. He expressed pleasure at tbo 
preparation for the Freshman ota»s given bj the Ohio 
Institution, and hoped that through better preparation in 
the schools it might be possible oi-o long to raise tbe^j 
standard of admission and of gra<luatinn in tho college. ^| 

Hr. JoKUs said tlitit the strengthening of the bcIioo1^< 
work could be accomplished only by streugtheniog the 
teaching force. Tbo best ooarso of atady in tbo bands of 
a weak teacher is u failure. 

Mr. GoomciN urged the importance of laying a goo< 
foundation in the primary work. 

A paper by Mr. G. W. Vedit?., of Oolnradn, entitl 
"Arithmetic," was r<;iw]. .^rithmelic was formerly taught' 
as u Hcieucu of figurca rather than a sciuucx) of uiimburs, 
and only those pupils gifted with a beut for muthematics 



7%< SifiacrUJi Meeting of Mfl Oonvmti'm. 375 

saooeoded. Since the principles of tlio kiutlergarten hare 
l>eeu applied to aritlimetic. the tesuHs aime<I at liave bten 
nttained nithoul t1iL> Boul-deAilenia^ effectH of tliu old 
Ju«thod. Tlie seriBs of arithtueticw by John T. Priuce, 
pulilinhed hy Giiin A- Co., is« best, Imt it i« uot exactly 
■wbnt 18 m^eded for oiirticbuols for tiie dejif. It would 1>« 
well for the Convention to appoint a committee to pr«;piLre 
AHtirieHof t^txt-bnoktu eiulmrlviiigthe priuciplt?» of Priuce'a 

I and taking the name place in arithmetic that Miss Sweet's 
series does iu limguagQ. 

Satckdav Afternoon. 

A HeHsion of the yormul Section iitidm' the dirAction at 
Mr. Blattkbr wa» hehl. 

Mr. E. P. Clarke, of Now York, road u paper ontitlcd 
"Special Tex(-books." He quoted from aud commended 
the BpripM of articles on "Text-books," hy J. Bcott Hat- 
tou, publtHbed in the Annatt, vols, xiv and xv, and urged 
the importance of spcejal text-books for thedeaf. With- 
out them about one-fifth of the term of instniotioii la 
waat«d in tlie mere writing out and copiriugof leitsonit hy 
teacher and pupils. 

Mr. H. C. Uammoml). of Kaunas, said thai the conditioD 
of tbingM faaH been somewhat iiuproveil aince Mr. Hnt- 
tuuV time by the invttntiou of copying macbiuuH and 
typewriters and tbe introduclioo of the priDling preaa into 
our Kcliuobi. 

Mr. BwiLER said that the conditiona are farther modi- 
fied by tbe (^reat iiuprovvruuut that ban \wmi made in ele- 
mentary text-hookn for commou schools, lunoy of wbivb 
are aaitable for lute in achooU for the deaf. 

Mr. F. W. Booni, of Peunnvlvania, read a papor en- 
titled ''Work Preliiuiuary to the Tearhiiig of Notation 
and Numeration of Kignrea." The deaf child, in bia tack 
of Duiuber expreasiou, lacka tmmbRr thoughts. The order 

876 The Sixteenth Meetittg of the Convention. 

ot teatibiug should be Srst uumbere or qaantities p: 
seated as oxporioncos, then their names used with the 
greatoBt poHBihIe frequency, nnd finally figures. Figures 
are a great economy imd convenieuoo, but they are uot a 
necessity, uud they should be fiual koowledga rather than 
ttrsi knowledge witli our pupils, us they hnve been iu tho 
rtovplnpment of thtt humiiu race. T'util they have become 
the lHiigungi< u( the deaf child'B arithmotical thiukiug and 
reaflouiug tlioy are monningless. There is daoger that 
deaf pupil» may learn figures rciulily and perform opera- 
tioDs with them skilfully, while their wurk hatt no mcMining 
or |Mir|)OHH. A full view of the whole field of decimal 
ootintiug Hud moosuriog (uot confiuod to smalt oumbors) 
Hboul<l be givcu before figures are taught. Ah soon an 
the qnriutitioH and thetr names are known, fi^ureu may be 
introduced to symbolize them. 

Mr. Waiiiien Robisson, of Wiscoosin, asked Mr. Boot 
whulhor he would teach cbildreu the multiplicalioQ and 
diviiitou tablea before they do work of that kind. 

Mr. BooTB said, No ; he would tench those tables thot^ 
ouRhly, but first he would give the cbildreu the primary 
language of arithmetic, which is numeriLtinii and Dotation. 

Milts £. J. [aiUEL, of Eausas, utukcd whether be would 
begin by teaching uhildreu to eouDt. 

Mr. BuoTll &i«id, Ye>s; bat he would not teach them to 
count " one, two, tliroo, four," etc.; he would teach " four," 
uto., pi-oauuling the unmburs as aggregutioutt. 

Mr. J. W. SwiLER. of Wisconsin, read a paper entitled 
" Chanictwr ; How Best to Seonre its Growth iu Children." 
Ubaraator in ausd-'ptiblc of that edncaitou which training, 
obHervatiou, and imitation produce. If we would make 
strong chaniclers of cbildreu, we mum uot only over- 
come uvit tendencies iu them, but we must overcome the 
same ttrnddnciea in ourselves. Self-control, jmtieuce, 
geutleueMt, kiuduera, and a cooHiHtent life count for more 
Umu precepts. School life, if properly directed, with its 



Th» Sixteen^ Meetinff of the Cmittntion, S77 

HtimulDs of rivnlry, iuspiratiou of Dtiuibera, ami its gnmes 
nnA sports is more fnvomWIe to the dovelopment of 
character than oclacatioii niidur private inatrnuliuD or in 
Ksmnll cntntnunity. Titnipttitinn to deceit and dinhouesty 
should W r^tnovtid from (.'hihlruu aH far hi^ possible until 
tboir Uabitg are well oHtnV>lighod. Truthfiilur^s should 
continniilly Wciiallod. ToncherKsthonld not do for pnpila 
what th^y can do for thoiunelreB. Sarcaam ohould be 
used Bpariujfly. 

Mr. J. £. lUv, of North Carolina, and Mr. FiiAXK Rbai>, 
Jr., of Illinois, rcinforcod what Mr. Swiler had said con- 
ceroing the importnuce of example in the foroiatlou of 
character, and Mr. H. C. Hammond, of Kansas, and the 
IUt. t>r. TnoMjia Gallattdet, of iJew York, spoke of tlio 
great oucouragomont that teachoirs of tho deaf feel n-Ueo 
tliey meet in alter life pupils who have developed noble 

Oil Hntnrday evening a r:ompliini>ntary couuurl was 
gircD for tbc plta^urv of the Oouvenliou by some friends 
of the Le CoutetiU St. Mary's lustitutiou. One of the 
singera, a gentleman named Sicard, is a great-grand- 
auphiiw of tho AIiIk- Siiiurd. 

SusuAY Aftbunook. JuLv 7. 

The Itev. Jamiw H. CliOUli, of St. Louis, presided. 

Prayer was offered by the Uev. D. E. Movi-an, of Balti- 
more. Hud the hymu " Lend, Kindly fjigbt" was given in 
«igus by Mrs. J. M. Stewakt, of Micliigau, while Mrs. T. 
P. Claiikr and Miss Am>hkwm, of Miuliigan, sang it. 

Mr. SttllJ'-li by retptust read iigtiiu the paper on " Ctior- 
toter," which had byeu read on Satiinhiy afteruaou. 

Tlie general snbject assigned for diiimisaiou was "8aD- 
ilay Observance at Our Institutions." 

Mr. J. R. L)m!^'N», of MibsiHiiippi, apolcfi on "Tho Ideal 
Order of the Day.'' VS'bilo teachers should not du too 

378 Tk< Sixteenth Mining of the Of^v^nti^n. 

much work on Sunduy, i\\t>y slioulil do uuuiigli to liMve 
an impresH oii tlie souls of the children. Tlie sQperin- 
tendent should givo a iRctnro in tlie rhapfl], nnil tliu ttiacb- 
BTH Bhould coudiiut a Sunday-Hchool. Tlie piipilK Mliuold 
atiidy lessous nud recito tbetu iu tli« atleniouu, au< 
slioiild have sonae leisure time for reading nnd rest. 

Mr. WiLLiH HtiBBABii, of Micliignn, spnke of the vain' 
of the Christian Kndeuvor nieetin^K ou Sniiday tivening.^ 
In Mii'higau atleudaueB is voluntary, and tlie meetings^ 
are eoudacted by the pnpils themselves. 

Mr. W. K. Alifio, of Colorado, thought it desirable to 
linvc tlio Siindny-sehonI in the morning ^o that teachers, 
except the one who leutui-es, may he free in the afternoon. 
Snnday ereoiiig is ti good time for the papils to read the 
schooJ papers. 

Mrs. J. C. Baxjs, of Ontiirio, spoke on " Moral Instrnc 
tioti." Children who have heeu nnder good tnt!u(>Qc«s at 
borne give oo trouble at scliooJ. Few deaf childreD are 
bad. A morn) teaohor ha^ a monil claus, aud a moral 
snpcnutciidotit has noortil teachers. The ohildreo nro 
iuiptcssionable and trust the teacher implicitly. We 
must bo careful iu our Bible teaching; the cliildreu ar 
apt to tflki! overythitig literally. 

Mr. XL M. OooD'wiN, of North Caroliua, said thai deaf 
tuncherit, by their voluntary teaching and influence among 
the pupiht, exDi-t an influence for good over thtim and give 
them moral intitnictiou that is beyond the power of hear- 
ing tencliLTH. 

Mr. L'tten E. Rbad, of Indiana, spoke of "Religious 
luslructiou." Few of Lbs deaf when they leave achool 
know much of the Bible, pjvery pupil should have a 
Bible and ithould learu its books iu onlcr and know Kome- 
thing uf their authors and contents. To young pupiU 
Bible stories may be told in pantomime, and afterwards 
writt(<n ont in simple hingnage and learnncl. 

MihH AoNKit Steinxk, of WiAuou?iiu, attkud whether Mr. 





T7i0 Shdeetith Metliug of the Vonv^ntim. 379 

sead would morolv teacli the etory or wbotlior lio would 
derive moru) !c8son>* fix>m it. 

Mr. RlUI> replied thnt with yonrig children the ntorj is 
tlie main tbiiiK, the object being to fatailiarize them witb 
the Uible nnrrative. 

Mr. Auuo said that oar deaf papils often socm oot to 
compreliead the uiap:»itude ol suob offeuses us l.vitig nod 
etealiut;. In the henrinK world one resents being called A 
liar or a tbief, but our pupils do Dot. We flboald impress 
npoQ them the unorraiij nf nncb offenses. 

Mr. Joxeh exprcsHLtl thi; D|>itik>u thai the deaf nro not 
really lacking iu their peroeptious of evil. If Iboy svum 
fto in not reHenting charges it is because the inntitiitiou 
life is like the fataily life ; brotburs and Histers do not 
mind Kiich chiti^c-M (.'omiuK from out.- nnother. 

Mr. J. W. MiciLiEU*, of Arkttuwis, apuko on *' Clmpul 
Services." In the Arkansas Institute the daily services 
are nsnally rondiictiKl by the Superintendent and Inst for 
twenty uinatus. PnpiU must write a report of the tnlk 
giveu. On Sundays tlii) ti;ucburM take tumit iu lecturing. 

Mr. OooDWLx nsked in bow laany schools lady t«ncbeni 
take turns in cx>ndticting rhapel exercises. The answer 
came from the audience that they do kd in IIIinniH, Iowa, 
and PeuDnylvaQiii. 

Mr. Blattner spoke on "The Imprort.Miienl of Sunday 
Leisnte Uuur«." What is leisure time unJ wbul iu work 
time? Is tbe Snodny<iichool work? Is reading work? 
There should tw Hom«s labor, some liMKure.aud nudu) reoreo- 
tioD of a cvrtaiu kiud. The childruu tiboiild have some 
time when tbey i:nu do as they pleuse. 

BIr. 8WU.EH said that Sunday is the day when the snpor- 
intendenl can do bis beat work with the obildren and 
rome closest to tboir besrlo. 

Mr. Hi:ntiARt> said papiU shnuld be MieoarsgM] to 
writ« home lettem ^not bnsioHHH lettomi on Soodsr. 

Dr. 0<iBiK)5 said that no sio(jle infiaeoce is ao iupor* 

380 TAe SixUentA Meelintf of tJie Q>nventu»i. 





taut a» BaiKlay letter-writiug. It awaben.4 atk] ooatiuues^ 
Uotno ties Ant) Hlinl tluties, and from the borne ralatioo- 
ships tliuft stron^liencd wilt grow bighoT relAtiooships. 

Mr. Mr'haei^ spoke on "Auxilinry Societies.'' ii 
Arkaueas tljei« is a good Oliristian Endeavor Societ} 
noder the snperviiiioD of tM'o teachers. Pupils ate more 
intorestGd in ita meetings tbaa ta tlie obapel lectures. 

Mr. GooDflTK sold that the best rfisalls in the North-' 
Cnxoliua School are produced by the Chrtslina Kudeavor 
Hocietj nader tlio direction »t deaf teachers. 

Mr. .T. N. T\TE, of Miuii«»ota, aaid thut t)io CbrisUati^ 
Endcuvor Society' uiny bu fruitful of ^ood nud fruitful o[ : 
evil. Its inaDageinent Btiould not be left to pupils. ^H 

Mr. MoYLAN gnro "Ni'ar«r, nijOod. to Tlienj " in Rignu,^^ 
wliilu it was Huug by Mr^. Clarke uud Mif» Andhewa, and, 
the Rev. Job Tdb-xkr offered prayer and prooonuced tbt 

MOKUAV 3^0RyiN(l, .JpLY 8. 

PregiJout QsVLkvUtLT wna iu the ehnir. Prayer wi 
offered by Mr. J. W. JoKl», of Ohio. The minntos o| 
8»ttirday'Hnnd Sunday 'k meet ingR were readniid approved^ 

Tbo utauding couimitteuo were auuomict>d iis follows: 

Nort'uit Si-'-ti'-h. .]. \V. .losErt, Ciinirmnu ; T. F. Fox^ 
Auutnn'tTH lUxiBKH, MIrs A. I. Hobabt, Wis» Annip. Moeihb,| 

Or<U Sit'tioii. E. A. GiirvEit, Cliiiirtmin ; Minn Kabai 
FcLLKH, Miss K. K. Sj'AUiiow, Mrs. A, C. Kurd, Miss O^ 

Auricular Seaftou. F^ H. OpRRlER, Cliairmnn ; F. D,^ 
Clarke, Miss Evauk Heizbr, W. E. Tayijoh, Cu.iTQi 

Art Saturn. Eiinest Zell, Chairman ; TuEOfiiiLiTB 
Tt'BsTHCLLA, Mii^4 G. H. Le Pbinoe, Mim Jessie Cunhoi 
Sister ErrilEMIA. 

Kinder^rUn Section. Miss Mahy McCowen, Cfai 
Riaa ; Miw* M. E.SrtlEETZ, Mies Matme BrnSETT, Misa N,^ 
J. ScHitoEK, Miaa N'BUJJi CaUioL'N. 

The Sixteenth Mtetiny of tAe t'onveatiou. 3R1 

huttmtrial Secthm. Warrev RoBWaos, Cliairmivu : E. 
M. GooDwis, MiHs M. (). Beij,, P. N. I'ktkhhon, Miss 
Lizzie Mavoran. 

WAtUm Ijtml CommiUee. H. C. HAiniONi>, Chsironau ; 
Phawk Reah. Jr., F. B. Vatks, W. O. Cusson, Jr., Mitm 
AoNPi) Htkinkb. 

Hoittkem Local Committee. W. O. Connor, Ohairmttn 
E, M. GooDwpj, J. H. JoJiNHOK, Alphkh Keabnt, Misa 
Jennik Lbk. 

EasUtn Local Committee. W. N. Bcbt, Chairman ; J. 
I*. Walker, E. P. Cj-abke, Miss Alha Ciiapin, A. B. 

A uuiuber of peraous ia aUoiidauc« ou tb« Couveotiou 
but uot eligible to niembersbip were elect«d honorary 

A sossioD of tbo latltiytrtal Stjclion wan held under tbe 
direction uf Mr. Warrkn iloBrssntf, Cbainuiiu. In JD- 
tiuduciog tbe subject Mr. BobiuBoa spoke tirst of the im- 
portaDce of iodastrinl trsinin}; for tbe deaf. Heunu^ 
papiln iu tbe poblir ncbools are now receiving more iu> 
dtiHtrmI ioHtructiou tlian cvvr before, and tlittt makeH tbe 
coiiipetitioD of lif« harder for tbu deaf uulcsa tbey are 
iborouglilir trained. Evidences of progress siuce tbe latit 
tneotiiig of the Convention are the adoption of manual 
tntiniug in manj acbuola, improvemeiit iu inethodH of 
U-acbiug, better co-operalion between literary and indua- 
tria) departments, and the appointment of property trained 
nleachena. .A. valuable coutribatiou is a pauipblel ad- 
I dressed to tbe Convention by the Todnstrial Section treat- 
'ing of manual Iraiuing, douietttiu Mcieuce, and traile teiu-b- 
iDg, compiled by Mr. Robinson and Hiss M. O. Bell, and 
printed at the Kaniuut School. In t!onclu«ion, Mr. Itob- 
Inaou aaggeat«d that lbL<re Hbunid he more diacmuiion of 
industrial <]ae«tions in the profassionaJ periodicabt, and 
that the Anunlt ffhonid pnlilisb ev^ry year n liitt <if rill ihe 
teachers, both lit*<rary and iodiuttrint^iu all (Jie Bchools. 

382 The Sixte*nth Meeting of the Convention, 

A paper l>v Mr. J. \V. JoTms, of Minnosotft, ootitU 
" Tim Impotiiuicu tt> tlio Duuf uf a Closer Alliuuco be- 
tween Bcliool atit] Iti(luBtri(i] luMructiou," was read. The 
laiigun^e of ituluHtries titioiild be taught iu tlm bcIiooI- 
rooni, and the prartica! i^aifiuhitiouK uoceseary iu porEorm- 
ing the work taught in tha tnultus (thunld be sub&titutcil 
for tho figurod prablttiuB tliiit ilo uot appeal to the pupil's 
reasou far lack of praetieai demoRstratinn. [labita of in- 
ilnHtrjrshouIti be inculcated. Imliistrinl iiiHtructorssbould 
be memlwFH of teiiclinrs' oKHuciatioDfi. hI 

MisH Lei", of Chk'ugo, dL'scribed the kiudergurtou work ' 
iu the YitteSi:hool. The work is similar to that set forth 
in llie paper by Miss ^[cOiII,ou"KilcIlen-gftr(le^ Plays and 
0(;cnpntioiiH,"o( which an nb^trart baKalrKiiily bttea given. 

Mr. P. N. Peterson, of Miiiue»oto, roiul a paper enti- 
tled " iMlucatioDal Pealure^ of Stoyd." Slojd ia a nietliod 
of manual Iraiuiug adapted to small pupiU. Au essential 
featiir*! iH the models, which should be rRrefollj selected 
aud giHdeil with it view to training Ihu eye and devulop- 
iug a acus« of b«iLuly and Kyuimetry. The pupil uiakes 
the drawiugK at tiri^t from bluo-priuts funiisbod by tho 
iiistruotor nud Inter from the models. In coustruoting 
the model he must depend as tuucli as possible on the 
drawiug. A soriettof niodeU need not be strictly adhered 
to. Pupils should be given noma freedom, but uol abso- 
lute freedom, in choosing their subjocts. Tho instructor 
notioea the mechaiiieul teudentiies of the pupils, and at 
the end of tho cuurxu can recommend the trade beat suited 
to each. Sloyd is good (or girU an well as boys. 

The following qunstious concoruiug manual tnuuitig, 
witli their answers, were read ; 

" How ran the names of materials and tools uud tho 
langnngo of tho industrial department be tanght?" (An- 
swered by Mr. 0. S. Pornili, of New Jersey.) Tools aud 
machiuer}- may be labelled. The blackboard is helpful. 
A list of techuical terms uiay be priutod ouil learuud. 

7%6 Sirieenih. Meeti't^ of tU ConMnflon. HftS 

r cau niniinaLtraiuiug metlioils he applied to bncb- 
ward deitf children?" (Answered by Miss L. E. Si'ni- 
HAWK, of l*eni)«jlTiinin.) By u cnrofnlly grndnd coarse id 
Slord, iac'liidiug giimtw, toys, nnd Articles onit^d to the 
pupil's euviroDDiaut. 

"Since the iutroductiou of luauual traioiog, does it 
appear that pupils dovolop tuoro mpidly iutclloctnnlly, 
mid do their ineiitnl work with ^jroRtflr ease?" (Answerwl 
by Mr. Hwileh.) Iu the younger claHses, yen. ]ji the 
Upper classes not ao niArkedlj, because their babitt) of 
tboQght and action wore partly formed before mftnual 
trniniDg vas iotroduced, and bocaaac with these classes 
an hoar a day has been takcu froui the tiiue foriQerly 
deroted topraotioeiu laiiKuagunad isnowgireD toiiiaQnal 

" What should be thti couipensatiou of induhtriul iu- 
structors?" (Aoswerud by Mr. HwiLKlt.) Equal to that 
of the literary depart ineut. 

" Now that tnauiiai traiuiuf; aud trade teaching are ro- 
t;ardud as sn importaiit aud are given ao much time, 
should there he auy chaiigr in the amount of school work 
jiropt-r?" (AnawtTwd by Mr. Tate.i Five hours of 
Hclioolroom work, from two to two and a half of trade. 
Atid (roiu onu-hnlf to one and s half hotirtt of study, is a 
good diviMion of time, 

"At what agu should the regular work of trade teaching 
bebegiiQ?" (Answered by Mr. S. W. Kino, of Arknosas.) 
At tlie age of twelve. 

Mr. Tate said that the resultH of Sloyd iu the Miuue- 
sota School are very Hal tsfuc lory. Pupils are admitted to 
sobool ut the age of eight. The first year they get some 
idea of form, color, etc., in the kindergarten. The second 
year they nr*t pnt into the sewing room, and there the 
buys du as well ns the girls. When the prescribed course 
in sewing iu accunipliMhetl, usually iu one year, the boys 
are admitlod to the Sloyd room, uud that they regard as an 

384 The Sixteenth Meeting of lh« Convention. 

eartlily hcavon. They remain there one or two years and 
tlien tlioy are ready to tuke up almost any trade witb 

Afr. H. C. FlAMMOND.of KaoBtu), roAil a paper entitled 
"Trades for tlj« Duiif." Afler giving stalislica allowing 
that a largo uiiiiibfr of acIiouIb tciicli priiitiuj^, cabinet' 
luakiu^, and slioemakiug, aud rery few liarneHH-making 
aud plastering. Iia gave ROine reasons for introdtiring 
tHeHO tradoH niore giMivrally ; »iid atno tinuiug, burbering, 
blackamitliiug, painting, and pnpur-Langiug. A trade 
should be adapted to the place where the papil is to live. 
Notwithstanding the general niannfncttire of machine 
work, there ix alwayii a dvinatid (or hand-mibde goods, 
aud pupils taught hand work well can fill places lu fac- 
tories. Tlie teaching of domestic science promises to 
brighten the future of many girls who arc not adapted to 

A qutwtiou from Dr. Gordon as to how Mr. Hammond 
disposes of the harnesses made Id Kaunas (he sells them 
to the " PatrnuH of Industry," who have a departmeut 
store), brought on a diKOussioii couceruing the ilifUculty of 
dispoxiug of the articles mauufaclured iu the iK-hool shops 
on acuouDt of the oppu^itiuu of tradeu uniunH. 

Dr. OoBGOK said that iu Illinois there ta no troable 
with the organized unions, but ohjeotion is made by the 
trades if auythiug is Hold from the shopK, garileo, or farm. 

Mr. DoDVNR Buid that iu MitiHiHbippi ubjection ia inade 
lo tho nchool's doing aay outside printing. 

Mr. SwiLKK Huid tliiit in Wisconsin some years ago a 
committee of the tra<les unions visited the school, and, 
after looking over the work carefully, reported that it was 
uece»»ar>- to prepare the pupils for the duties of life and 
commended it. 

Mr. T&TB said that the poliuy of the suhool should uot 
be to introduce machinery and turn out great quantities 
of gooda. intorforing with the trades, but to develop the 
pupilu by hand work. 

TV SixtetniA Meeting of tKe Convention. H85 

Mr. Balis said tbat iu Outariu the hoIiooI for tlie deaf 
loakps boots and shoes for the otli^r provincial iaatitn* 
tions, wbilo Iho pmoDs mako mattressos, b«d8teads, etc., 
(or the schools for tho tlonf, bliad, etc. The ftevcral in- 
Btitatious keep rauniug acconata with oue auotber. 

Mr. £. J. Bexpino, of WiscousiD, read a paper eutitled 
"How Fur Shoal<1 Manual Traitiiug be Carried IJitfore 
Tndtis TvHubiug is Bcgau ? " TUu aumo vducatiou that 
fite bts&riufr; bovs (or Hucceaa lu life will fit deuf bo,ra. 
There ie no time Dor pince (or trades teaching Id asoUoo] 
(or the deaf. It in inipnHrtible to teacli a trade ia rtcliool 
80 att to tit n boy thun>iit;b1> to pmcticu it in after \\l«. 
Bkitfui tuudiml traiuiui;, ou the other baud, prepuroa ono 
to tiike up uuf kind of work after lenvinK school, and the 
pupil who has received it ban a ^reat advantage over one 
wiio has tnerel; been tanght a trmle in the innaHident 
way it ia taught at hcIiooL SchooU (or tho doai should 
g«t rid of their foremen and their trades and employ com- 
petent teachers of manual training. 

Mr. J. W. JoxKN, of Ohio, commeDded the good Hense 
of Mr. BendingN paper. 

A pajter by Mnt. John ScRWlim, of Miuoesota, un 
"DomeHtic Tmining," was read. Though not all our 
girU may marry or become hoaHekeepers, they ahnntd re- 
cetvo domestic training. The prejudice aKainnt domestic 
itenice afaould be combatted. In the cooking clasH the 
Dames of the nteusiU, foods, etc., shoald be taught. 
Sniall details shonid not be neglecteil. The cberaieaj 
properties of foo<l and their effect ou the human syvtem 
fihoald be imparted. 

Mint! M. O. Beix, of Kansoa, eondncteil a dtscassion on 
"The Proper Equipment of the Kitoben." Mr. J. W. 
SffiLBB, of Wisconsin, Dr. J. C. Qoroon, of Ulinoiti, Mr. 
E. M. Goodwin, of North Carolina, and Mr. T. P. CuBKS, 
of Michigan, answered in detail Miss Brill's prnctical qnes- 
tioiiu AD to the extent and cost of the eqajpment of their 

kitelieiis, tlie oocirso of study, tbe eizo of classes, tho dispo- 
Bitiou of the food prepared, etc. Tlio cost of a coinpleto 
equipmeut is (ram $100 to tV26, not luoludiu^ slovesfl 
lunny utetmils needed cau be made iu the ahope. Tlie 
course taught at the Pratt lostitute, Brooklyn, K. V., ii> a. 
good one ; there ore from sis lu tc-ti pupils id a clues; Uie 
food prepared ia eateu by tho pupils or served to (eacbei 
nnd iuvited guests. In the Michigan School there is 
cotta^^u whoro fiftQtsii girl» at a titntt live under thu curu a| 
the cookiu^ teueher, prepare atl the lueals uud do th« 
housework of the cottage. 

Mr. .). R. DubYNS, of Mississippi, read n paper entitle 
" How Hest to Secure Employment for tliv Deaf wh 
Desire it After Leaviug School." They should be pre-' 
pared Ihorouglily for some piirticukr branch of industry. 
Graduates should be adiiiitted to certaiu industrial courses. 
The same industrial equipment that is used for thu regod 
Inr pupils can be employed, while the pupils are iu sehoc 
for thu graduateK admitted as iuduKtrial apprenlicf 
When the pupils are in the shops the apprentices can 
making repairs and doin^; other necessary work in and' 
iibout the buildings. Only pupils who have tiikon 'he 
full literary oonrse and have eHtablishud a good reputatiooS 
for promptucHS aud fuithfulueBS sliouM be admitted to 
^_ these industrial cuurnios. Tho institutions should estab- 
^1 lish bureaus of iuformation to secure positions for those 
vho complete the industrial couraea. Pupitn who ar^H 
honest and iuduetriouK, but have done little in thuir tilorary^ 
11 oonrse and havu not dittplayod talent iu flc<iuinng any^ 
^H particular trade, will have to be mere laborers. If tb' 
^^KOiOBduct in tichool han Won satisfactory tliej also ci 
^Vaeeuro employment through thu bureau. 
^B Dr. TuoxAS CuJAi'DET, of >tew York, said that the so 
^B ccss of thodoaf iu getting positions depends very much apoi 
^" themselves aud upon those who have already received posi^ 
tioas. If the latter are uegligenl or dissipated, employera 







7%« Sixteenth Meeting of ths C'ojiwetUitm. 3^7 

■Ad foremen will uut ouly diMiuiss tliviu without rvcam- 
meoilatioDfl but will refu»» to Inke otiier dent workmeo. 

Tbn tim'u for thu InduHtriHl Section liaTin^ expiree],* 
President GaLLaudct reHumud ilie cliair. 

PrBBideDt GAii^Ll>BT addrtssei) the CouvcDlion con- 
oerniof; the moDQment to Friedricli Moritz Hill, wliioli In 
to be erected nt Weissenfels in 1900,+ nnd oo the rerom- 
mendntioD of tho Htaadiog Executive Oommittee it vim 
Toti>d tbiil n contribution of ilOO be raad» to tliu tuuil for 
th&l purpoae. 

It wiis voted that the necessarr espenseB of the Secre* 
tary in coaducting the Burean of InfnrnialioD artablUhod 
b« paid from the tressary of Che CouventioD. 

Via* HrPATlJi Bon>, uf Wist'ooMtn, made a brief athlretti, 
Cixpresaitig her high appruciatiou of the pleasura and 
profit derived from ntteodance apon tlio monliiig of tlie 

A letagram from Mr. P. D. Clabxe, of Midiigan, io re- 
■poDse to the measage of greeting from the CooTeutiou, 
vas raad. 

B««>Iar)on« of thankft t<> 8tst«r Mabt AincF. BmxK, 
Siitor M. Isi.i>o&£, Siit«r >I. DoHmini, and th«ir ajuio- 
eUten for their hospitable reccptioo of the ConTentioo ; 
to Ur. F. D. GLUtXE (or the garel preaented ; to tbe Hoo. 
Gn>. A. Lewu. Preftid«ot, f^MUt UanT AvR Brtn, 
Principal, aod the Board of TroitoM of ib« La Co«t«ah 
6(. Uarjr'e InstitatioD. for tlieir eflbrU to forward the work 
of the ConveDtioti ; to Mr. WaUiV WiDK for lb*fttt«N]- 
•nee of the deaf-bliad children and tbtir iMclMn, Attd 
his ^ifta of Bowen ; lo the iutapreten ; to the loaaiciaiui 
who gBTe the eoocort ; to Pm^deat GuXArva. and to 
the aaakt&at ■eeretoriee. wotv adopted. 

Od the reeonaondMlioa of the EzecstiTe Committoe, 

I ffWi twflw* 

3ft8 The Sixteenth Meeiing of thr Convention. 

and ftftor romarkB hy Pregiclent G\LLAunE'r, Mr. Goonwi 
Mr. Dtjitv-JH, Mr. CosNOB, and Mr. Ray, it was voted t< 
Accept tlie iiiritntion uf the North (/arulina School to hold 
the Q&xt oieetiDg of the Couveutiouat Morgaoton, North 

Mr. Bav spoko of the difficalt; of obtalniDg Dormal 
tr&iDi&g for colored teachers ol the deaf. The only school 
that has opeoed it8 doors for this pnrpose is the North 
CaroliDa School at Morgautoti. 

Mr. W, A, Caldwell, of North CuroHaa, a colored 
teacher, expressed bis appreciation of the work of iho 
Couvetitiou nud his aspirations for tba future of Itis race , i 

President GaLL&uiibt delivered a brief farewell addrea^H 
cnngratiilating the Convention upon its increased raemb<iir- 
ship ami profitublu incoting, oxprossing Ids appreciation^^ 
of the courtesy and kiuduom of the Sisters who oiit«r^| 
tniued it, thaukiug the members for their resolution con- 
cerning himself, offertng them his good wishes for their 
future snccess, and reminding them of their precious 
privilege in being engaged in the uoblu work of educatEag 
the deaf. 

Mr. DoHYNK, in behalf of Sister Maky Annk Ut'HKR and 
her aasoeiatca, thanked the Convention for holding ita 
ineeting at tht>ir Institution. 

TUh Rev. Dr. Thom.a8 GAUJitT)ET, after a brief address 
referring to the iirat Convention held in New York in 
IftoO, nf which he wiik the onlv surviving member present 
at this nieutiug, offered prayer, and the Conveuliau thtit 


Iv AccordftDce with the rt-xolntion oflBreil at tlie raeet> 
ing of this Department iit ClmilL-ston, South Carolinn, 
.luly 11, 1900, tlie snbtloparlineots for tlie deat, blind, 
nud feoble-minctiHl ntot in joint HeKKinn Id the Woodward 
Avemie Cougicfi.itioiml Cliurcli, Dtttroit, Mic-liipan, W«d- 
nesday and Friday aflcruoous, .Tiilv lOlh aud 12tli, at 
8.S0 o'clock, witli Miss Maiu" McCowen, of Ghioa^o, 
Ulinois, PreHidmit, ia tlin (rlinir. 

There was a lar^o nuinlxir oF thoKe diroctlj- intorestod 

iu tilt* work <>( tb« Dt-imrtment prwsant, represeiitativBH of 

the scbools and iustitutious for the deaf sud blind (rotn 

,tbe east, middli^-wcst, and sontli. TLoro wore uo r«pre- 

'wntfttiveR "f institutions for tho fenble- minded preReatat 

ihe meetiug. 

Two K*pii!«r seesious of the Department were Iield. 
The first ouv was cnlhyl to order at 'i.SO o'plocJt, Wodnos- 
il»y, by thB Prenidflnt, Misw McCuwES. A cornet solo 
introduced the r(>gular programiae. 

"Address of 'WelcotiiG," bj Mr. W. O. Maiitikdale, 
Supttnutondont of PubUc i!fohoolfl,Dotrott,Michiguu. H& 
\ *I>olc« of tho day-Hcbool for tbf> deaf in Detroit ; of its bo- 
gtoaiDi;, Htraggles Aud success; of the nortnai trnininf; 
school, aod of the dilticulty of obtaining good toacLers. 
He gave the Dopartracnt a hoartj wolcome. 

Dr. J. C. QoBiioN, Jacksonville, IIIiDois, responded in & 
brief account of the origin and dovolopmcnt of Dopari- 
ment Sixteen, and thv inturctit it has awakuuci! by the 
exliibition of its work before the pnblio. 

The President then appointed the following Committee 
on Nominations : 

Mr. IJ^ E. Allbh, Orerbrook, Philadelphia, Pa,; Dr. 


Tht Meeting trf Dr.partment Rixteen. 

Frakois Bukkk BuAMirr, FhiliLclelphin, Pa.; MiH» Bitt«iR 
Lkukakd, Northampton, Mass.; LIou. Johk Urrz, Wasl 
iDfftOD.D.C.; Dr. J. C. Uobdum, JackfiouviUo, Illinois. 

" Music, '* vocal solo. 

" illuBtratious of Work," l)y pupils ol the Detroit Dftj 
School for the Deaf, Miss Eluabktr Vah Adbstine, 
Principal. She illustrated the work of two clattsce. The 
first class, tbreu ({iris aud one boy, lu firitt yeur work, 
under Miss Mat L. QriHsm, teucher, i^jave au interesting 
exhibition of articulation work in rowel and coDsonaat 
houikIh, and rejidiiig of cominandii from the lipti. The 
Hucoud clasti, two hojtt uud twu i^irU, tiftuuu luoutbs iu 
Hohool, Miss Blanoue E. Smith, teuchor, exhibited work 
in vowel and couwommtsouiids, combiuiitioua, reading the 
names of objects from the lips, dictation of words, qoeS" ^^ 
tions and language work with the Hve slates. iH 

MisH Maroahet Kui-livan, Principal of the Grand 
BapidR Daj-Schoot tor the Deaf, exhibited the work of a 
girl ten years old, who had Just returned from a visit 
to the Fan-AmericaD Exposition, in a lip-reading exerj|^ 
oise. A number nf <|UHKti(inK wt<re ask«d the girl con- 
cerning what Klie saw nud did thure. The ausuers were 
quick and to the point, shoning that she understood ths 
questions and that she had a good idea of DufTaln end itlB 
surroundingK. " 

"The Daj-School Law," a paper by the Hon. 8. Wes- 
8ELIDM, of Grand llapids, Hicbignn, was an ablu discourgs 
upon the principles of the foundation and operation ot 
day-KchoolK in Michigan. 

" The State in Relation to the Defective Child " was the 
subject of H paper by Dr. Fhancis BritKE Brandt, Profes- 
sor of Pedagogy in the Central High School, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. He diRoiHHetl thu mentally defieient child from 
a Huieutific standpoint, Ktruugly recommending the use of 
the torm Bub-nortnul in prcforonco to abnorvial, when 
speaking of dolieioQt obildreu, holding that abnormal 

The Meetiny of Department Sixteen. 39 1 

doos not sait tbo couditiou. Hi» paper caJled forth a 
discuH^iou iu whk-li Mr. It). K. Allen, Supuriuleiitlutit of tbe 
I'euuBylTiiuin lusUtiitiuu fur tbe Blind, Overbrook, Pliilii- 
delphia, Pn., spokn of dav-eclioolB und itiHtitutioiiR for the 
bliatl. Ho saw, iu tbe proper place aud under proper 
conditioos, good in bntb, lie alao agreed with Dr. 
Braudt ill the use of tbe term euA-nttrmal in 8|>c»kiDg of 
defioieul ebildrcii. 

Tbe meetiu^ ladjourued tocouveue inmiedintely io bosi- 
ness session. 

liugiiiosa Meetiny. 

Tbe bueiuesK moeting was called to order at &.30 
o'clock, Misa McCowen, Prosidont, in the chair. 

Mr. £. £. Allen, Cbniroiau of tbe Committee ou Nomi- 
nations, iiia<le the following report: 

Prtisidvut, Dr. ^Xxexandeh Orahah Bell, Waabington, 

Tice-PreBident, Mr. E. E. Alles, Philiidelpbia, Pa. 

Seoretarj, Mr. E. A. GBcraR, New York City. 

Upon motion the report was acceptod and tbe Secre- 
tary vra» inntriictcd to cost u ballot for the pontons numi- 

Mr. E. K. AL1.RN, C'hairtnan of tbe Reorganization Com- 
mittee, miul» bi» roporl. After a iliscuHKion a» to u fnr- 
tber coolinunuce of tbe Dupartmoiit as oue body, and 
tbttre being no reprenontatives of the sub-deparimeot for 
tbe feeble- mi udL'd prei»enl, Dr. J. C> UonuoN offered tbe 
follnwiug rosoluliou, wbitib whh adopted : 

A't'o"/ vetl. That tite report of the IteorgauizalioD Com* 
mittee be niferrcd to tbe Kxecntive Committee, conaisting 
of tbo DfiiL-ern-elect for ibu vnHiiing year, to report upon 
tbe subject at the next meeting of tbe Department, and 
that the aame Committee prejiare a programme for the 
next meeting. The biuniucatt meeting then adjonmed. 


7S* MJeetinjt of Departrntitt Sixteen. 

The second meetitif* wan culled to order by the Presi- 
dent at 3.30 o'clock, Friday, Julv V2. 

*' Sensory Defect* to Chicago School Children " was tho 
subject of a paper by Dr. O. P. MaoMillan, of the De- 
partment of Child Stndy of the Chicago Public Schools. 

" Music," vocal solo. 

"Thought EsprosaioQ ThrouRh Speech, Rhythm, and 
Blackboard Dravricgs," by pupils fiuui the HcCowen 
Oral Sobool, Mies COBHBLIA D. lilNaii\M, head tenoher. 
The firKt cltu4H, tiirce boyn and one girl, aged four and 
oiie-lmtf yofiTK, gave an exhibition lit lip-rt^Hdiug aud ob- 
ject work with quetilioQ nud color exerciseH, llm child 
representing the object in drawing on the blackboard. 
Tim cIhkk had no writti;ii Inngua^v. Tlii^ Kcunud class, 
consiHting aUo of (our pupils, gave an exhil>itiou of lip- 
ruudiug by pointing out objects on the chart and answor- 
iDg questions concerning theni, and by following rotn- 
mnndH. The third clasti, uousisting of Huvcn |inpits, gave 
an uxhibitiou of geography work. 

*' Mosic," Tocal solo. 

" The School as a Sotrial Center," a paper by Mrs. Cora 
Stanton I}Kon'N,nf IndiunapoliM, Indiann, Chairman of the 
ICdncatiouul Depurtmuut of the Illinois Uothors' Con- 
gress. A paper was also rend on the same subject by 
Mrs. MAlKilKiiii'E Ukathiibn, of Detroit, Michigan, Vioe- 
Pr«Hidt:ut of the MiL-liigiui Mothers' Congress. A discus- 
sion followed led by Mr. F. W. BooTB, Editor of the 
Aisoci'itiou /ievHW, in which Mies McCowen, Miss Vaji 
Adeki'INE, Mr. HiT}:, and Dr. .^HUEmi, of Detroit, joined. 

Dr. J. C. Gordon offered the following resolution : 

Rgftflwd, That llio thanks of tlie Department be ex- 
tended to the D(«troit Local Committee for the excellent 
acconiniodntioi]K and thedelightful entertainment afforded 
Department Sixteen of the Kattoual Eilucational Associn- 
tion, to those who arranged an lutipiriug aud helpful pro- 
graiumo for the meetings, and to the trustees of the Wood- 

TSlft Afeatinff of Department Sixteen. 


wn™ Ayenne Congregntionfil Church for the nse of its 

The resohition wan nDauiraoiiBt;y adopted bj a rjgiug 

With n closing address by the President, Miss MoCowEN, 
Department Sixteen acljounied. 

A very pleasing and iuntruotive feature of the BSBSioils 
of the Departmont was the (Exhibition of class-room work 
in thfi moniiugs at the Central High School, Cass aveune, 
Weduewlay. Thursday, and Friday foreuoous being en- 
tirely occnpied by the Detroit, Grand Kapid«, and Mc- 
Cowon Oral Schools. 

In tho High School building were displayed specimens 
of work illustrating lauL^uage exercises, composition, draw- 
ing, water-color work, dosiguing, cardboard construction, 
and 8*>wing of tho Detroit Day-Sehoul and thu McCowcu 
Oral School, and at the Departmont headquiirters, Cadil- 
lac Hotel, «'as a similar display from the Yale Oral School, 
Chicago, Ulinoifl. Hon. John Hit?, was present with 
pumphletK and circuhirH of iiifonimtinn cuiiceruiug tho 
deaf from the Volta Biireiku, Wasliiiiglon, D. C. 

On Wednesday. Miss Elizaiibib Van Adectine, Princi- 
pal of thu Detroit Day-School for the Deuf, and her aa- 
sistaiila, gave the following nliibit : 

Beginning ClasH in Speech and Sense Heading, Miiwi 
M\v L. (JrTHRlE, teaclu^r. 

Firxt Yuar Speuch aud Lip-Heading, Miss Blahohb £. 
Smith, teacher. 

Third Year Language, Miss lazziK M. Du?fuHi;E,teachor. 

Rhythm Work and Oymtia.stic Drill by tlie pupils. 

Ou Thursday hu<1 Fridny, very interesting exhibitions 
of kindergarten aud primary school work were given by 
pupils from the McCowen Oral Srliool, Chicago, Miss 
CoiLSEUA D. BiNtiiiAii, bead toucher. 


The Mettittff of Df-partmenl Sixteen. 



These Bxliihibi ilhiKtratml kindui^uriuu work of fcbf 
ttchool, i\» iiiluptud tutliu Uiucliiugof yoiiu^dejif children, 
by a claits u( papUs about four nud oD&-hnlf jeiirs old ; 
eipression aud construction work of Iho " Connwctiog 
CImh," utid nrt vxpri-Hsion, Hbowtu^ difiurunt mediuuB 
uiiod ami muthods uuiplujf'-'d in first to uiglitli grades pub- 
lic Hchool work. J 

The Akoalalion. tlie recently iovented electrical iostru-' 
munt for t Hnmelioratioa of duafnesx, u-hh pUcvd on exhi> 
bition by Mr. Van Tasset, of tl]« New York lustitutioo fc 
the Deuf, Wuahiugtoti Heights. Tests of bvariug wei 
made daily. 

Two delightful iuforitial r«c«)>tion!t were given Ihl 
uieni)>erH of the ])BpKrtmi>ut. 

The Detroit Aasociattoii of FajtiulK nud Friends of 
Deaf Childreu «>ut*!rtaiued tlio Departiiiout by au iut^r- 
estlng programme consisting of recitations and vocal and 
inatriimental munic Wednesday eveuing, iu the jmrlors of 
the Woodward Avetme Con^rugaliuusl Cliurch. So* 
fi-eBbmeuts wore served. 

OdTtiiirs*lay evpniug, in tho Department Hoadquarlcrs,' 
at the CadiUac Hotel, the Chicago Oral Teachers' Cla^ 
entertained the Department. ^| 

Tbeee orgaDiaatioiis are very active in impartiog infor- 
mation couccrning tbc doaf, assisting in placiug childroc 
in schools, liclpiug to establish schools, aud keeping the 
public awake to tbe possibilities in the education of tbe 
deaf. Teachers, parents, and friends working with but 
ouu object, tho auiclioraliou of tbe condition of deaf 
obildreu, uro u powor. Uucb has olroady boeu done 
and, with the ]>r«Heut combined aud organixetl efiTortb, 
much more is surely to be accomplished. 

SttperintfitdtKt oftAfi Sat Y«rA InttittiUoM for 

ImprvtM Initruclion, Xnui York C 




GluxinAriiT is a brant^li which was not recogDiKud in its 
prupor place in tbo cumeuluin uf study until iu compara- 
tivffli,' recent years. Had our ancestors, in their day and 
generation, been as wise as we in ours, they woiihl never 
bare connidered " The Thrae R'n — landing, 'riting, and 
'riihmetlc" — sufficient «ducatiou (or ordinary purpiwe-s, but 
woald surety have made it Three Ji'ti tiud O', and thus 
^veo an important place to the subject now receiving our 

For the deaf iu thu iut«Ttii«diate grades, th«ru is uo 
branch that so rounds out their "'ritiug" asgeography, if 
we may interi)ret "'riting" in the sense of latigiinge — tha 
niOKt iuipurtiint acfpiiKitioii for every ditaf obild. 

Writing iu the imfcliadii-al sense of peumauship needs to 
raceivo scarcely any attoution, for, as a rule, the excellency 
of the deaf in this Jine is only surpassed by that of their 
orthography — a virtue fully appreciated by all teachers 
who have bad eiperience in phonetics aiuuug lieariug 

The imaginntinn, which is a most importjiat factor in 
every cliiUrs eoiupr«ht>uHioti of things that caimot be 
seeu, ia often abuormal among the deaf. When not along 
proper lines this is a fault no loss than in oases whore 
it needs special devetopiueut. 

£tich teacher must Uaru from obserA-utioii — more ofteu 
through experience — bow she can best develop this faculty 
iu llio child. If the Hand-table or moulding-board proves 
satisfactory along certain lines, the difficulty is partially 
solved, yet there is uo question about such ineaoa beiug 
more dotriifloutal than beneficial unless judiciously 

396 The First Two Kwra' Work in Oeography. 


As we mlvance from 8t«p lo etep iu geo^mpby tench- 
iiig, we tind it woulJ h*3 diflicutt lui wull a,n UDdet-iinblo to^^ 
rofmio from giviug n few facts iu primary hiatorj^l 
Xowbore ib tlicre n field »o fertile for the many true 
storieB wliicli the young, hniigry, waiting minds (ire inor^^ 
eager to aasimilntc, nut) wliidi nre a gruiitcr liulp Ui th^H 
loiichfr. whflii liixtciry us auothur bruDcb iu ndded Iu tlio 
course of study. 

Geography is hs ueceasary iu liistory teacLiug as lai 
gnage itself has proved in geograpliy teaching ; we cai 
uot teach tlie one natil the other bait furuitihti'd the mem 
for doiug Ko. 

Tbs chief aim of thi« paper is to preseut souietbiug 
practical to those usin^ luaniiHl as well ns oral methodi 
and if there ia iiuy rotmon why " What is sauce fur tb| 
goose is nut sauue fur tbu gauder'^ it Is uot apparent 
the writer. 

Iu treating tins subject T wish to say that I do not 
beyond wIdlL can be mustered \ty an average class durinj 
tlie tirst two years of geography work. At the end o( 
that lime we sliall (lud the pupils " woudtous wise" — iu 
tbeir own estimation. They will have taken imaginary 
tonra all over this beautiful world of ours, aud become 
familiar with the names applii>d to bodies of laud and 
water. They will kuow of tbodifforont climates and their 
difTeroucoH in nnJmnl and vegetable life. They will know 
of the races and clauses of men — where they live bd( 
somotliiiig about tbeir eiiKtoms. Tlioy will know of th( 
air, tb« wind, iiud the clouds that surround ns ; of tb^i 
miuorulit bidden iu the depths of the earth ; of tbe pro^H 
ttct.i at the deep sea; and of the utilitarian prinoiple^^ 
o£ Huiuiul and vegetable productions around them as w«ll, 
118 tboso foaud iu foreign lands. Yet all this is only 
superficial knowledge of the whole and aims to equip tl 
child to oomprebeud the meauing and make salisfuctoT 
use of thu text-bouk later ou. Wlieu we tlduk of all Ibis 
ID advanco it sooms we most rash aloug ut broak-ueok 



The FivRt Two Ye'iri Worli m Oaotjmphy. 31)7 

apeeil or wo shall never cover tlip roquirod gronod io llie 
giveu time. But this in n miHtnk''. Wo shoalci tiiko 
Qothiog for graut«(l as kuowu by tUfe cIash. W« sliould 
boiir ia minil thtit the best rosnits are iavarinbly tbose 
ac(|uirud where " hnstc is rando slowlv." 

Tlie thorough master; of enoh tttep nx it comos is most 
ft^s«Dtial, uDd though it seems wu aro a loug time gcttiug 
to whftl really is geography «'« tnust not lose interest, (or 
DpoQ onr iiiturost dopoods that of the pupiU, aud upon 
tlieirs all that is to be of lastiug bouofit to tb«oi. 

The teacher cannot aflTord to roiitu at random in tkuv 
part of the work. I'IhcU move oti her part muBt be ac- 
tnatvd by a purpose to be coDsumniBted at Home futore 
stop. Hoooe the gruul nucvasity of Uio tuachvr'a knowl- 
edge of what she itieaus to cover in a given leugth of lime 
as well aH fontthought of Low it is best to be presented. 

Frequent nivtews should be tnken. Xew Dames and 
expreoaiuDM nr<> apt to buoomi; u littln jumbled in miiida 
where tbis vocabalury dale« back only a few monthti. 

The child's 6rst idea of relative distance is got by imi- 
tntiug the teacher to placing pencils, battone, sticks, and 
Dlber objects ou bis desk, chaDgiog the same as she does, 
being careful that §imilar objects boar the same relation 
Id one another iu distance and direction. 

This drill trains the eye to grasp quickly |>osilionH and 
changes and onablcK the pupil to dupticato each move 
with little heaituDCy. 

Himple language should be given, using various qnes- 
tions eliciting Hnch answers as, " Mr lead-pencil is on 
the right siJu of my dusk ;" " My sponge is near the mid- 
dle of my doHk;" "My slick is ou the lower loft comer 
nf my desk." eUr.. 

We assist the pupils in drawing an oblong ud Uiuir 

398 The First Two Years' Work in Geography. 

slates aiid let them locate eacli object as placed on a 

We change the objects and reprodnce as often as fonnd 
necessary. ("Figure I.) 



Wlieu the first stop is mustered by the slowest pnpils 
iu the class we bring into the schoolroom au object 
hailed witli joy, for it is the first real indication that *' We 
study geograpliy." 

Some of the pupils have doubtless seen the same sort 
of uu instrument before, and in their delight call out "The 
north." The teacher sets it down in the middle of the 
room, and soon the swayiug net'dle stops and locates north 
in every mind. 

We tell them it is called a compass, and tlmt it always 
points to the north. 

South, East, and West are learned in a short time. 

Thi First Two Yearif' Work in Geography. 399 

Ajs we have do further nse for the compass at present 
we take it oat of the room and draw a diagram (Figare 





11) on a large piece of paper. We lay it where the com- 
pass stood, being careful that iV points exactly as the 
compass did. 

We name the sides of the room and locate objects in 
the same. 

Next we teach the semi-cardinal points and add them 
to oar paper compass, ("Figare III.) 

The language necessary in locating the different ob- 
jects and tlie placing of the movable things as dictated 

400 The First Two Years' Work in Geography. 

bj the teacher asaallj follow qnestioDs beginning with 
" In which corner?" "Near which aide?" " Where?" etc., 









/ V 





and auch comoiaiKls aa " Put jour chair iu the southeast 
corner of the room," etc. 


The tliird step is the most important, and unless very 
carefully presented will j^ive erroneous ideiis wliich weeks 
and moutlis will scarceh' eradicate. Upon the pupil's 
tliorough uuderstandiiifj of the ideas cooveyed by the 
language now ^iven depends all his ability for locating 
places in the future. 

Tht Fitil T\ca Venrn Work in OeoffrapAjf. 401 

We bring tlie compass back ioto tbe schoolroom and 
wt it down in varions partsof the room. It always poiuts 
to tb« DortL, yet oach lime we move it we observa the 
target on tbo uorth wnlj movutt to right or loft uccordinglj* 

We place it od Jobu's dfisk, then oq Marj'e, tlieD id the 
opeu doorway, and locate persout^ aud objects from each 

We remoro the comfiiuut niiil tlitok imlepoiidKntly. The 
" £roiQ idea" in such qav«tion» a» "What itirtivtiou is 
John yVvni the table ? " ofteu coufaaee pupils. In sucli 
oa»o8 we hriDg oat onr paper compass again aod lay it on 
the iihjoctivt! point, Hhnwiog that the directioDH rntliate 
from that place. 

Many qnestious involving thought are now asked by 
toRc-hcr nml pupil, HUch as " What direclioD is James 
from Emily?" "Which way is the door from Harry's 
" *'Wbo situ uearent the south corner of the 
room t " etc. 

The greatest care must be taken uut to get the answers 
of tbeitc questions confused with those id tbe foregoing 

We DOW hang our paper compamt on the wall and teadb 
that the north must always go to the top, the right side is 

We messare the room mid, dmwing on the soale of ^ 
inch to the foot, each child draws an outline of the same 
on his Klnta. We measure again and ioc-nte windows and 
doorK on their reMpectiveaideH. Small oblong figures may 
be need to indicate each desk, table, et(.-. iFignre IV.) 


When this diagram can be reprotluced br the pupils 

l^wbeo Bway from the schoul-room, we feel a^Hured that the 

abions uru sufficiently fixed in thuir minds to justify 

402 The First Two Vean^ Work in Geography. 

as in surToyiDg the balls and other rooms on the same 

We talk about the directions of the different rooms from 

ours and from one anothor. We draw a diagram of the 
same similar to that of our Rchootroom, omittiug the fnr- 
niture, etc. 


We next go out ou the Ciimpu», if we are fortunate 
enough to eajoj such a luxury. We learn the names of 

Tke First Two yearn' Wwl^ in Ota^aphy. 403 

the differeul Imililiiigt* uud tlio Ktrutils banloring tho 
croHodji. We locate each finiu the position we occupy 
us well as from one another. 

Id dnwiQ); the plan of the cjtmpuH we finil that some 
children will used a greut ilual u( asaistMuce at first. 

Tfaiit " map," aH they are prond to call it, neems to talk 
to thBm. Tiie tlireciiona indicated on it tneati the direc- 
tion idea to them. 

If ibis ba not so, w« should not proceed until it ia. 


Almost before wo are a^vnro of it, eager eyes peer be- 
yond the coutines of the campus aod tLooghtful liltle 
miuds delight us with deductionti of this nature ; " The 
OoUegti IB north of hero ; " " John'a homo is west of here. 
He walks vbuI whou he goes heme. He walks oa«f when 
he comes to school." 

A trip to the important places in the city makes such 
more than a name to the pupil. If there are mills or fau- 
toriott of any sort, so much the better. This oity sells 
things to other cities — here we get our tirst insight into 
commercial enterprise. 

On the day following such an excursion it would be ao 
intelligent risitor indeed who could comprehend the 
teachur's method in " going all the way 'round Itobin 
Hood's barn " in order to clinch some aeceaaary geograph- 
ical idea brought in by thia trip. 

Our Grst lesson in civU government usually ooroes Id 
with that iniportaut personage of every city— the mayor. 

A good map of the city, inolading the suburbs, is now 

lonnmerable questions suggest themselves and due at- 
tention is given them. 

Tli4> teacher using mannal methods can never appreciate 
what she escapes in not being obliged to tarry over tbe 

404 Thfi Fuiil Tino Venrti Work in O'tography. 

proQanciatioD of Ruch nnnies ns thu Scliaylkill Rivi 
ConHlioliotikon Straet, the Acailemy of XHtnral Scieuce, 


^I V KBk'^'m I 

Moat of the pii|iiU have, no dotilit, ti'av^lletl longer or 
shorter distaucee iu ooruiog to suliool, and njiidilv undor- 
stniul tliftt A <n'/y moans a great many 1iouhc« and a. groa^^ 
many poopio, vliilo a t.o\rik moans not so mnuy. ^| 

Eoamerfttiiig the population by tlie tbousauds menus 
almost Dotbing to theiu yet, so we omtt tbat, being cou- 
tout to know that PliiladelpLia (we shall say for conve- 
oieuce) is larger tliau ScriuitoD. 

We talk about the homes— rather the lowii» in wbieT 
onch child lives. 

How little Sntninr'a heart swells with pride wtivn be 
oasurus us that bis hornn is uorlliwoMt uf bure! 

The teacher sketohes a small outline ou the black booird 
with crisa-crossing Wuvts for streets and anils it Philadel- 
phia. It is better oot to write the name hk it tJikea up 
too much spavu and maygivu Iho iiupn>ssiou that the city 
exteuds over as much of the State of Peuusylvauia as 
the name does on the map. 

Sammy imderstauds what this diminutive nieaiis, and 
we request him to show ns which way his home is froi 
the same. 

Hf points iu the right direction and the teacher, know- 
ing about the relative distance on her intended map of 
Pennsylvania, places a heavy dot to indicate the town and , 
calls it by its name. ^H 

All of Lbe pupiU' homes are located iu the same way^^ 
Some of tliMcliildroii will not pn.sse»sB "bnropof locitlity" 
e<|ual to Simimy's, and gentln iKimiiasiou ou the tesohor's 
part must stnnd in place of thoir inability to comprehoud 
the ourvos aud croHsings of niilroads and titro«t cjtre. 

liegiuniog with Pbiladslphia, we number each city and 


Thi-. FirH Ttim Ymrs' Work in GeogropKy. 405 

lowii, ami on niiotlier kIhIo nritc the ntimherK with the 
liuiarH thwy Jmlicutc. Wo mnv uUnage the nnmburs — DOt 
the iloLs — us ofl^ii as we wish, beiog careful tlial tho 
nanien must be cbanged enKli tinio sccoitliBgly. For in- 
Htauce, No. 2 mny indiciite Hiirriuhui^ tiie tint time, while 
wlieu wc eratM! uuil writ^.- the uuinbers again it ma}* lia 

When sufHcient time has been Hpen' on this we draw 
»u outline of IVnnHvlviLDia around it and teach the name 

A good pririted lunp is duw exhibitinl and the pupila 
are delighted to 6ud uot oiil}' thelt homeB but buudreda 
of other plucea on it. 

We loc-itte from live to t«D of tho largest cities and talk 
of their levliu^ iuduKtrieH. 

Tlie uuderl}'iMg (Jriuviples uf i^tepa II and III ahould 
be eepeciall^ dwelt upon at this atuge. There is nothing 
so eciaentin) in primarjr geography na a thorongh nnder- 
standiug and (rea nsage of snch facts as "Erie is iu the 
DOrthweKteru part of PenDsylvania. It is northwettt oE 
Philadelphia. Roadiug is in the southeastern part of 
Feunsyhaoia. It is northwest of Pbitadelpbia," etc. 

Frequently we now have objeflt lessons on such sub- 
jecta ae " wheat." "coal," "aax," "the oow," etc. 

We tell the pupils that mon arc chosen to go to Har- 
riitburg, the capital, to make laws for the people of Pean- 
Bjlvania. They meet in a large building called the cap- 

The Qovoruor of the Slate ix there, too, and though hie 
Tirtoee be many or few we do not fail to improiM the 
children with the dignity of his high pooitioo. 

Bufuru we complete onr laup of FennsyKania, if we 
bave not already done so, we take a walk with tho claiw 
ib order to see a creek and a bill. 

We cjiil ntteutioD to the rippling, rtmning water. 
There ia uo ault about it wheu wo tostv it. Tho leaves 

406 7'Ae /Jr*/ Ttoo years' Wort in Omtjraphy. 

on its surface oome from up the crOBk aud are earned 
dowti towards the mouth of it. " A creek is a small 
strenm of fresh wnter" is perhaps onr first rlofinitioD. 

The top, the sides, and the foot of the bill, as well aS' 
the lowland, receive due ftlteutioD. Imagiuifttion, aesietod 
by good pictures saved for this parpose, "will help ns tO' 
see, vritb onr mind'fl ojo, immaQSc rivont, moiin tains, and 


After adding a few rivers and raonutain ranges to our 
map of Fmitisylvaiiia ou the blackboard, we snn-oimd it 
with tlio borduring Btiiten. 

Wo leam thuir niiinoH, their capital, and a few lending 
cities, aud proceed to the next step. 


Since the space on our blackboard wunid not permit 
ns to surround this section of States with nn ontlino of 
the United Stntas, we erase it and druwiug a very small 
ontline of Pennsylvania, surround it as desired, and tell 
the pupils that the vast expanse is oor country. It is 
culled the United States, it ha« many States, cities, 
rivers, and mountains in it. 

We locate a few rivers aud mountain ranges, and about 
ten of tlie largest cities. 

A good printed map will afford resoureo for abuudaot 
iuformatioD. Eagerly the pupils find the names of the 
Btat«s in whicb differuut individuals live or cooiefrom, aa 
well afi the city or lowu in the same. 

"Wusliington, the Capital," "The Prwai.lcnt," "The 
While House" "Our Flag,'* and many other intorostingi 
subjects are dwelt upon. 

We trace the direction we would travel in going from 

The Fitat Tveo Y&irs' Work in Oeo^mpky. 407 

one city to anolher. and measure the diBtAOCO by the 
boars or darx it wonld taku us to go tliurc ou h fiist tratD. 

Id oar imiigiimtiou wp ec« thu sugar aad cottou plouta- 
tious, ami eat tropical fruits iu tlie tSouth. 

We visit tbe gold, silver, copper, and ]ea<1 mines iu the 
West and the North, and handle pieces of ore from each. 

Great is the disappointment of Home of the pupils to 
learn there are no glutts nor brasa mines. 


The map of North America usually pleases every child. 
We notice that along the eastern side of it is n vast body 
of salt water; niiglity ships »ail upou it ; moastroiis and 
BJjiguiar animals livo in it; gi-oat rivors poor their water 
into it. We cull it the Atlantic Ocean and its arms we 
coll Hcas, gulfs, and bays. 

North of onr conntr)' is another country. It is Canada. 
It has DO presidvnt nor king. It belongs to Englaud, a 
rich couutrj- across the ocean, of which we shall learn 
more by and by. 

Kivers, cities, gulfs, and hays we leave to learn at some 
fntare time, thongh we are very careful to note the vege- 
table aud animal lite as well as tbe chief occupation of 
Uio people. 

We tftlk of Mexico and Central America much iu tbe 
same way, and uHe utl manner of comparison in regan] to 
size, distanc-e, directiou, aud climate. 

ReTer»i»g slereotypetl forms of questions increaBenlhe 
child's ability to nnderKtiind the full moaning of tbe lan- 
gnagi! ofMid. The usual question. " What ocean is west of 
North Ameri(!S? " is simple eoougli, but when we »ay " Of 
what ocean is North Americ;a ujutt?" it is disappointing 
to find how few will say "The Pacific Ocean." unless 
JrilliMl iu this way. 

Ws are in no liurry to leave North America, for there 

408 The First Tvw y%atg Work in Oeography. 

are luuuj leesoiie of a raoial and hjstorirni oatnro that ve 
c»u now c'i>mpr«boud, "The ludiHua," "The Eskimos," 
" CbristopbeT ColnmbuB," " Tbe rilRrims," Whj our 
country once belonged to EuglRnd," and otber fiubjectfl 
corae io for the r stiaru of interest, and Ooorgo WasLing- 
toD receiTeB his much deserved adululiou. The tencket 
tollB HtoricH of ludiuu aud Efikiuio life, aud the children 
are charmed with the descriptions of the heroes in their 
wigwams or snow hiils. 

We seem to hore taken prodigiou« strides! Wo are 
ovidBntlv wearing our "Bevou-Uiiiguc boots." We hhal! 
keep theui ou heuceforth, as we have still luanj- long 
joarue^s to take. 


SoatI) AiucricA aud the other grand divisioua with their 
bordering nceaiiit are learned. There are many ei>nutrte« 
in each grand division, but we tthall learn tliem from time 
-to time AS tho loeaous call thum forth. 


A globe will now show tho pupils how those grand 
division!) are distril)nted oTi>r tht* snrfnco of tho enrth as 
well us iuipresfi them with its Hha^HJ. 

Wo locnto our Htato ou the globe aud for the first time 
the pupils begin t« realize the smallnoes of their own 
environs in eomparieoo with the oniverse. 


The color DaiuoB of the races of men are nisHtered as 
are also tlie naraeH of the classes of men. 

Many and interesting are the facts now reluted in con- 
nection with the people into whose homes wo peer. To- 
day we apeud Ihtee-quartvnt of an hoar in Japan. To- 

A fligher Standard nf Privutry Edwviium. 409 

morrow we cujo^v tbe liospitnlity of n biiugnlow ID India 
or RojourD ill Ceotrnl Africa. 

Tbe groat iiuporttinoe of picttiras btumng npon those 
josBons cnDnot bo ovoruKtiinntot]. Tbia in likewtxo true 
in object Il'Ssous, wbere tboy me used to Bupplement snoh 
cbarts as Bacoroft HroH. «^' Co, furnish. 

Tea, coffee, spicR, rnbber, cork, penrls, and procions 
stones carry nx through mntij coiintrittn. 

Tbv cla»i has uow accomplittbed all wo expected. Next 
j'ear th«^ will take up a text-book HUcb as their heariug 
brothers and sistf^rH use. 

Slinald the teaclier henc-ffntth expect no stumbling 

bloukn nhe will certainly disregard tlio trae fnnotioD of 

her positiou and forget that uveu ^\w uk a child hiid to 

be helped over many that confronted her luuch lu the 

some way, or elue the fall ineaniDg novor dawuod upou 

her until months or yeiint had paaKed. 

Jn»truct<fr i'm iSe Penru^toanut InMtuiitin, 
Ml. Airy, PhUmklpkin. FenM^lvania. 


Whkn the Minnesota School for the Deaf was opcnotl 
iu lK(i>l, tliu ru^^hir courao of Hbndy was fixed at Hve 
yearn, with u special additional courao of two yeara, 
granted by the Doard of Directors upou the recom- 
mendation nf ih« Sup«rititenilent. When Dr. Noyt-a took 
chaise of the Kchool iu ISflfi onti uf his first eflnrts was 
toward ao extension of the oourii«. His years of experi- 
eiioe lis a teaclier at Pliiladel|>biit. Baton Rouge, and 
Hartford had Hhown him that iiTt% or even seven, yeaia 
tvaii all loo abort a time for deaf children to obtain a fair 

410 A Higher ^anilanl of fi-imary fCducation. 

mental aoA iudostrial edncntton. In liis Brst iiuDiial re- 
port Dr. Nojes rtfcominendeil ami atiked fur au extBDmoii 
o( tfae course. It ftoB not (p-anted at once, bat continuodj 
efforte in that direction resulted, n few years Inter, in il 
chiiugo, niakiDg Lite regnlnr c!onr»e Bix yeAnt, witli two 
Toars Additional as before. Bnt Dr. Nojeii did not re 
coDteut vitb tlii@ giiin, and uot loug nftur, ou his rocom-l 
xaeudutioii, the board fixed tlie rcgnlar course of study afej 
serdD years, with a special additional conrso of tbroai 
yeans, graotcil ouly upuu rccomuiuutlutiou of tbe Saper- 
iutondcut. Under this arrnu^eiueut nil capable and de- 
fierviDg pQpils biul the benefit of a teu-year course. 

When Mr. Tate waa phicoil at the hnad of tlio Bchool inj 
lfi96, thu tou-ycBF cdiinto wius id forcu, Liko Dr. NoyoB^I 
tbe Dcw Snpcrintemleul has beeu an earnest advocate of j 
allowing deaf children ample time for obtaining a goodi| 
mental am) industrial education. lie in cHpecialiy inter- 
e»tcd in upbuilding the imlnstrial department, and tnaa- 
ual training fur tbe deitf bn8 uo warmur friend than be. 
Ha boH maintained, and baa proved by actanl figures, tbat 
considering tbe early ago at wliicli deaf children are ad- 
mttied to school, which precludeii their joining tbe iiidos* 
trial department until quite tato in the coutho, their ap- 
preoUoesbip to a trade is all too abort to make tbem 
skilled workmen when they graduate. Mr. Tate also 
hoIdH tho view that tbe large State schools should raise 
the standard of mental training, to the end that they mayi 
prepare their pupils directly (or admission to GaDaudet 
College, ability Lq pass tbe entrance examinations being 
a retjuiaite for obtaining a diploma from the State school. 

Mr. Tate believed that a still furthur extentiinu of the 
course of stndy was desirubio, nud lie laid before tbe 
Board ai^mientu in favor of such extension. Ho wi 
ably soufuided in this step by Mr. Dow. Knporiutondoiit 
of the School for the Blind, who held the Knme vievfl, 
Ap|>endo<l is a [lart of Mr. Tnto's argument before tb< 

A W*/Aer Standard of Primary /Cdtuuifion. 4 1 ] 

" It would eeem to be but (lur and just tbat our papite 
fihoulil Iw Jillowod to iiltend school Huffidtiully long to en- 
able thciu to Duiur the I''r<mliniRii (.MnsK at Oalluudct Col- 
Itigo, or (ur thoHt) who do uot wJsb to rtltend college to 
perfect tbemBelves iu a baudiornft. As it is iiuw Ibej axe 
scaroel; able to enter the l^paratoiy CIneH — the one 
procotliog ibo FreHhman. Oar piipild, at the end of five 
jeant, bnve hardly reached u poiut in tbeit knowledge 
of language at which hearing children start tlieir school 
coarse. Besides this, h pupil who has followed a trade here 
for five J^aarK, has, all told, had only ono yi-arV apprt^n- 
ticesbip. Under th« prenont rcguhitiou, our piipilx Iihvq 
reached a point in their course io school and iutluKtrial 
training when two years more would add more iu the way 
of preparing thetii for life than any four previous years. 
It may be said that comparatively few uf theui wcmld wish 
to enter college. I grunt this, but the Hame can be eaid 
of speaking ebildren. Do wo douy the latter the high 
school on this uecouat, in case we should seek to ecjuip 
them with Kuch knowledge as would unable them to got on 
In life ? Sptiuldug ohildren liave four y»arH of high 
sebool. I suggest only two for the deaf. Should two 
years be granted we should use the time largely (a de- 
velop the pupilfi' liteniry, niochnnicnl, or domestic side, as 
our judgment would dictati;. Some of the best Hohoola 
for the dosf have adopted the twelve-year course. The 
two yearn additional should be grnuted only wbeu the 
pupil had ma<le a good reword for conduct and industry, 
and bad such ability as would justify the privilege." 

As tlie re<4nlt of this proseotatiou of tbe case, the IJoard, 
at its regular meeting in November, 1900, adopted the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

Xtmtwtd, Flnit. Thai the }hipgriut«ii>teDU of ilia Hehmib fur tb* Dvaf 
Mtd lb« HUod, i«Hi(i6i'ti«i)lf , be r«<|K*<t«(l U> uiillitiii for mi1-<|>||oii by llila 
Bawd a coarw of Muilj [ifoviiltnx ■ cunimon-iioliao] edniuuioii for nhil- 
dnti Iu lti<M« T««{i«(.>tiv« NpboDbi. and rminiring, nn tbe iii-4>r)i^, not mora 
than eigUt ;«Mra tor iU cuiuplvtiuo. 

412 A nighf.r Stand'trd of IVimary Eduf-otion. 

Serand. Tkat uo ebIM be lUlaweil more than («n ye*rB for lis oompl«- 
lioo. «xee[)t hj spMiiiU aet of th» thianl, uid tb«t (N-rtiSiiil* of coni|d*tioa 
b« ipren tbo<i« compiling tlie ooumo In a4dilioD Ut Um «MtiC«*t» tif 
«1(»D(Uui't- uid c)ep"rtin«Dt now iiitird. 

Tbiiil. lliKt llic tiDp«rlitlf>ii<l«a<« oulliiM a hlftb-*ehool Wtine rMiHlc- 
iotl not mora tbAD foar Tvnr* f->r iU completion. noA no cliild t>« n)Io*e<l 
mon tfaui flnt jrwni for the completion uf the coane, and tliat iin child 
b« kdmittad to tli* bigh-nnbrnil eoun* tiiMpt un tha TMiimnAniUtion of 
tha 8i)p«riDl«nilrnl. 

PouTth. Ttuittbow eompUting tb« emtne sbnil b« ki^^i > Tvgnlmi 
hif[h-it«boot diploic A. 

Untler tlie t«rmH of this restilutton, t}ie miuiiutim oonnui 
oF sttidv iu tliB Minnesota Sobool for the Deaf ik eight 
jeara, while the maximum is thirtoeu. Every ileaf cliiM 
in the Stnte of sound mind nnd Uncljr nml suitable uge 
CHU claim eight yeant of iutitriiction. Over nnd ubore 
thifi nil tiino ^rantvd is a privilege, dtipeuding upon the 
merit and abitilr of tlio pupil. XUis limitation in eatiroly 
jnst nud wise. On (lie one hand tliero are pupils whoae 
capnbilitiea nro so rcfitriutefl that they can never go be- 
yond a ctirtain jiniut in edneatiuu, and time granted be- 
yond that point ia practically tlirowu away, and further 
expeoso to tlm State is unjnstifiablo. On the other hand, 
thero are, in evtjry school, pnpils of snch a character that 
their iutia«uce \i]>on others is far from wholesome. They 
may not commit such orert ac^ta as to justify their expol- 
eioD, but thoy do not merit, and slionld not receive, more 
than the minimum course. By grautiuK extuiuiou of 
coarse as a privilege, a strong iudncemeut is held out to 
the able, ambitious, and de«orring pupils to do tbeir beet, 
iu order to obtain the privilege, nud the utl'uct upon the 
moruli of the school will he excellent. 

It is not uoccBsary to go into a lengthy argument to 
show that a thirteen-year cuiirHO for duaf children is not 
too much to expect of the f^tato. Ht-aring cliildron are 
admitted to the public school at the age of live or mix. 
They pnftit through an eight-gnulu conrse, which lueauH. 

.-1 liufh^ RtantJard tff Prmtorjf Edvcadnn. 413 

(or tbo average, eight year*, nnti, for mnoy. more than 
that time. Then follows a high-Kchool oourife of four 
jenrH, making nt lensl tMrotvo jenrs. 

But the deaf iiliild iind the bearing child are Dot on the 
aame pinue nrheu thej begin their school life, as has 
often be«ii poiut«d oat. Tlir* hearing diiltl entering 
Hchool at fire or aix bus a coiuuiHud of Mpokeii tauguiige 
which it takei^ Ihe deaf child aeveral ^ears to attaiu. 
Therefore, the firnt _j-eHrs of the deaf ch)KV» school life 
mnKt Ue Hjient iu bringing the child up to the fuinie point, 
lilt rvgiitdti laugutigv, uheru lb(< boaring child HtaiidN at 
the outeet. This is a serious handicap, aud due allow- 
ance must bo tiiude for it in considering length of course. 

Another tbiug tliat must be taken into caiimderatiiin ia 
Ihe iliviitiou of time in Huhuuls fur the deaf, between the 
sehoolruom and tbo aliop. Ah a uouMcquunee, the aver- 
age uciiool diiv of deaf childrt-ii is i«borter than tbut of 
he«riDg children. 

Fioftllj, it niuHt be rememltcred that tlie ear ia tbe 
most facile mt'diuiu of communication and tnstmvtiou, 
aud coD»ei,iiit'ntly educating tb* deaf is a slower and more 
laborious proo«8B than oducaliog tbo bearing, roqairing 
uiori; linje. 

Hcbuule for the deaf are doing a great work, au alinoat 
lunrvellouB work, if allowance ia made for all limilatioua 
anil liuudicapK. Yet wu must admit that tbe average of 
onr pupils ftitla bulow the average of bearing children iu 
tbe public aubuold, at leai^t ao far as coniniaud of lauguugu 
ia couoerued. And herein lies a aufQcient justificatioD 
for extionnion nf time. 

In tbe preceding paragraph I referred to nrerogo 
tioiuinou-Hvliool roHults. \Vlieu. however, we coDBlder 
the higher education nf the <leaf, a most gratifjing cod- 
ditiou is apparent. Fignret* will show this. According 
Co the report of tbo Uuit4id States Comuiissiouer of VAxk' 
cntiuu for lB!)ti~7, the proportion of atudentH in colleges, 

414 A Higher Standard of JUnutiy Jidncation. 

higti Krhoots, mill lu'iKlt'iniBK wiut 1.2 iu 1,000 of popaU- 
tivu. TUu eurollmeiit of ileaf studente at Galluudet 
College ia 100. The deaf popnlAtton of tlie United 
Statefl — manning ttmsn who lire rliiKRed aa "deaf acd 
dumb," and ai'e proper kuIijhcIk fur vducatiou in special 
sohoolK — was, au<!ordiu(; to the ceusua of 1690, a little 
over 41,000. Accurate data are not at hand regarding 
the lati'st centitia, but i\\CT^- cnn hardly ha more than 
50,0(>0 deaf persons of tliH chiSH abovw Hpectiliud. Thera* 
fore, the proportiou of deaf college studeota is 1 in 500. 
It ma^r l>o uoticod that the proportion in the caoe of the 
hearing, 1 .*2 iu 1,000, iuchidnti high Hchoula and acadtimiea. 
If thtitie were left ont, the coiupariHou would be far more 
to the advantage of the deaf. 

[ beliove that this fine showiug is dao to the oaurgy 
and ahilitv of principals and teachers n the deaf, nud to 
the exeolleuce of methoda employed. 

When the education of the deaf was begun iu Ameriva, 
th« course of Btud; was made quite short, probably for 
•t-'oDomical roasoos, for it is difficult to coooetTe that any 
Due really believed that the deaf could be giTen a fair 
ediioatiou iu five or six years. The original course at the 
AcncHcan Asrlnin, now the Aucricau School for the Deaf 
at Ilarlforij, was, if 1 mistake uut, Htc years. As school 
after school waH establibliod iu thu States, the mistaken 
l>olicy of a abort course was followed. The much longer 
cooraes which prevail, io gcuural, to-day, are the result 
of the earnest elTorta of superiiiteudeuls and principals, 
opposed by ]>uhlic indiffereuce or sel^sli ecooomical con- 
side rat ions. 

At the preseut day the wnxiiuuiu course of study iu a 
inujorily of the svhools is at least ten years. Several 
have as many as twelve years, while, in oue instance at 
least, there is iiu tisod liiuil, the time of discharge or 
graduattou of pupila being left to the jndgmunt of ^e 

A iiigfitr Standard o/" Pt-iKinrtf JC'/Hratitm. 4\'t 

TliiH gunerul nxt^usinij of Die timu alloltod for tlie 
Kcliuol edaontioii at the it(>nf— nu «xtouitioii ko nfx'OJWnrr 
sad su mocb desired — pUceH an obligation Q|mu thu 
uIioalR ftrentor iIihd that vbick r«sl«d apoo tlieru in tlie 
days of atiort c!onrH«>R. It dotiinnds ii proportiooiilly 
'Bigher stumlard of work iind rosnits. The work done 
Slid the r«ealt8 achieved by the pioneerR in a limited time 
wer« ficcll^ut. It in not onon^li for nfi to do as well io 
a louder time. Wo mnst do better, und nmcb hotter. 
. TiiQ lo^uul aim of aU the Urge public Bciiooitt for tbe 
deaf shoalil be 1» linve a t;our»o of at luast twelve years, 
ftad to «tttahl)Hh a hif;b-8<!boo) department, with (he two- 
(olil object cif 1 1 > propnratioo direct for (lallandet Collogo, 
Bud (2) giviuK Ibe mlvaoLagtm of a partial liigbur eoursa 
to matiy pupiU who po8&es«i merit nuti amliititiu. but Imrdly 
tilt) Aiiility to take a full college cotir»o profitably. There 
are pupils in almoHt every lat^p echuni for the deaf who 
cuQUot be properly prupartd for co1!l-h« in ten yeara. Yet 
they are of aiiob a chamct«i- tbat further inatnictinu will 
beuefit them greatly, eepeeially if greater ittteutiou were 
given (o Kuglisb hrHiioheA. Their tenrhcm would hardly 
recommuiid tliem tn altvuipt Ihecollegu uouno, but a higb- 
scliou) cmirse uftwu yeiitxurHo would prepare iheuiniucb 
better for their places in society. Who has not metgradu- 
atea of nor Rcbnols in tht* dayN of nhnrt conniev, who re- 
grel tbat tbuv bad u»( tbo beuetil of the louj^er coamea? 
Tfaey are keenly aliTe to the many diaadvaotagea under 
wliicli they labor by reaaoii of a limited education. 

1 believe tbat the larger State scbools Hliould all liave 
ia view tbe object uf udvaneiug their Htaudard nutil tbey 
cau prepare capabltf pupils to stand successfully the en- 
tranee exiuniuatiniiK tn lite Freshman Cliuut of Gallaudet 
College. As eonditious aru now, jiapilK are hardly pre- 
pamd for the preparatory olasti, called tlie lutroduelory 
Ulasa, of the ColleRe. Thf Fxcully of the Colloge could, 
by refereueu |u tbe exuiuiualluu papera received every 

416 A Higher Standard of Primary Education. 

year from tlie various schools, coatribute testimony per- 
tiDBut to tliis point. The disproportioD between the num- 
ber of pupils who take the college entrance examinations 
every year and the number who pass creditably without 
conditioDS is greater than it should be, and also the dis- 
proportion between the number who begin the college 
course and those who complete it and receive degrees. 
The chief, if not the only, reason for such existing condi- 
tions is the lack of thorough rudimentary instruction in 
the State schools whence the candidates for college come. 

I hope that the day is not far distant when the conrse 
of study in every school for the deaf will cover a period 
of not less than twelve years, when every large school will 
have a high-school course, and when the Introductory 
Class at Gallaudet College may be discontinued. It ia 
true that the small schools, ou account of lack of facilities 
and difhcnlty of grading, might be unable to give sach 
advanced preparation as that for the Freshman Class. For 
the papils of these schools a high-school course in Kendall 
School might be open, as it is, to some extent, at present. 

The authorities of Gallaudet College have been making 
earnest endeavors to raise the standard of that institution 
daring the past years. Their success has not been com- 
mensurate with their efforts, for the reason that insuffi- 
cient rudimentary preparation handicaps the student 
through the greater part, if not all, of the college course. 
A higher standard and more thorough preparation in the 
State schools will contribute to bring about a higher stand- 
ard and even more satisfactory results in the College than 
have been achieved in the past. 

InHruct&r in the Minnesota School, FaribauU, Minnttola. 




be defttb of Mies Carolino 0. Sweet, irliicli oc-curreJ 
3Iq;)- 3, 1!)U1, tlio profuesiuii of iniitriiction of the deaf loBt 
oue of ite most shiuing Iif<tit8. In ScpUjiuher, lHti9, hIio 
joioed the teAchiug stuff of the AuieriuAQ Sc-lmol fur tlio 
Dnaf Aoi) coiitinnnd her work Uiere until tlio suoioier of 
1K98, nrbcD fniling htmltli compulled faer tn rest rrom it. 
Ill the liopo that bi-alth lui^ht he recovcrwl, hUv hook luave 
of fibseoce for a jeor. It was a vaiu ho|)»!. Tlie prc>gros8 
of the disease could not be Htayed. The niooths that fol- 
owod n-erc tilled with great Hiifferiag, borne with rniuark* 

i]o pstiuuct: uud cuiintgti, uotil her rvluuKn came. 

Miss Sweet wft8 a rarely successful teat-her. She was 
a woman of strong persoonlity, liue meotal endowiueut, 
refined, caltiired, iDgoi]iini.s, reHonm^ful. Full of love and 
Hynipatby fur her pupils, she iuttpirud thuni to do their 
best. She ruled by love, and her soboolroom was a liappj 
place, full of sunslitue. Work there was a pleasnre, iiot 
drudgery. Her intluunre waM not oontined to (he school- 
room. Her latch-slriug waa out for the girlti. They were 
often in her room, and slie was their valued friend and 
counsellor. She hati Ijeen taken away, bnt her infloeuce 
wilt live in the school for many a year. 

Tbrou({b her books, prepared for the use of the deaf, 

\nH Sweet was very widely known in tbo profession, for 
ihey have been used iu itiore tlmii t<ixly of the schools for 
the deaf in the Uuitmt Stateii and iu dome of the Kcbools 
iu every other country where the Guglish Isugnage in 

What Migs Sweet was in her personality and to others 
than her pupilH, let the foUowiiiK trihatGH from bor pastor 
and a friend bear witness. At the Cotnmnnion ser\-it.-6 at 
the Sontb Church, Hartford, Sunday morniu^, 31ay 5, the 
B«T. Dr. £. P. Parker preaulied from the text, " This is 



Catotiae C. Sweei. 

the victory UihI ovprcometh Hib worM, even our fsitb, 
aod clo8«il Ilia tliacotirse with thustj worcla : 

" Lust Sandaj- nfteruoon I sat by tlif bedside of 
woman wboRp (iinirnl I nm to nttoud thiR aftfrnnoii. Her 
name, Caroliue Sweft, is writlHii nii Diir clinrch revonlit, 
on laauy of our hearts, mid in the Book of Life. Many 
of yon will recall her bright, [uiuiuou»;, beautiful face, ntid 
her luoHt gntciouR presence, for she wah n devot^^d nw 
dearly-tuveil member uf tbiK rbiirob. After a lou)j; illtitii 
she hod grown so thin aud wau Hint 

" She uigbt b«v« Hmu tud flouited vb«ti I b*w ti«r ! 

" She wAfl so wftak that the loveliutiRfl of i)atur«, clotbin: 
itself afresh iu grceu ganueuts, could oo louder please hor 
aeDBe. The beiiuty of her uuturnl life was faded am 
vosted, except that when we spoke, her eyes were 

" BnfoDil mi; kouwlog of them, )>eBiiiifnl, 
S«yoaA «ll koawln^t of Ui^iu. nonderfal. 
VvkuUful in lb« light v( liotiatM. 

" But it waa not defeat ; it was victory that I aaw in h 

Her feet touched aod felt the liock ! ITiidemeath b 

were tlie ererlaating amis, lifting her lifu up out of ^oo 

Id glory. She bad known gruut trials aud sorrows in the 

course of her life. 8he bad been very brave and patient. 

She bad l>een very fnithfut in the tbiiigKComuittc-d to b 

charge. Bho liad buoii a very lovely Christian wouinu, 

very sunuy and ubeory compauiou and friend. Hers was 

n beauty thatendures-^a spiritunl beauty. She waaall the 

while overcoming the workl, nneonqnt-mble in lier faith 

aud hope. She has overcame ttie world. She has entered 

into rest. 8be bos won the wreath and crown. We n 

poorer here tlint she has gone. A light biiK gone nut fro 

this Htiuelaary with her. 

■' QaaH nifibl. lru**Ut*r. han! 
Oood Biurrvw, Bistw. tlitrw!" 

A fiiend writes of her iu u Woodstock, Vermont, pape 

"To thoao who knew her, the earthly life, which en 

Carnline V. Siceet, 


when Miss Carolina Swoet l«rt lior frioiitls a fow- dayH ngo, 
liud reT43«]e(], io a K'lnarknblo mnnticr, llio full iiionuiag 
of the words ' sweetBesa nnil light,' na applied to Immaii 
c)mraot«r. Though more than uti<to her early ex)>«rionco 
ti«d boon such as would teach hoi* what th» fcoHugs of 
Ruth muHt havo hocn 

" Wlii-n lick Tor lioma 
She sUkkI id tears uni<l tli'V nlicii com, 

her parsoDal grieb KeHmed only to r«nd«r her Dative 
sweetueaa ail the more attractive, aud the light which 
sbouo through her »otil all tho moro liirtiiuous. 

" Id thoan shadows she ha^l walked with God. and whnii 
she came forth it wa« with a ateadfaat purpose lo do life'a 
work with a brave aud ah»erfnl heart. In that work she 
never faltered. Her eyy had the st^tadiuess of coiisciyus 
strength, and hor faoo tho radianci? of inward inspiration. 

" Tho coDtral clement of her oharin of cimraoter was, 
OB faer part, a total auconscioDflness of ita 6xisteDC«. 
ffiie knew do more of it than tb& roae knows of ite 
friigranoe, Thia charm, which is wboUj andefinablo, 
childreu knew bow to liud as be«a know where honey ift, 
Tii&y Hocked to her aud took her for their own, aud iio 
one of tbetu who sought her ever knew a momout of Hor- 
row bccaaso of hor. In her life-work of dovotioD to-tbo 
uufortuuate she proved niottt fully that n\ie ' cauie iuto 
thin world uol to be tniiUHtered unto, but to niini^ter,' and 
the last vision of aaythiug bolougtug to this oitrth that 
will linger in the metuoriKs of (hose scorea uf children to 
whom ahtt gave so uaoy years of teuder care and snperla- 
live leaching, will be the beatHliction of her face and the 
life-giving power of her love. 

" But il was uot childhood alone that felt the influence 
of her rare personality. I'n matnrity of yean nnd to 
well-ripened age she gave nlikn lo drink of thoHu watura 
which only thu choicest spihtH know where lo tlD<l. Asa 
friend, in stead faatuesa, lu fidelity, in loyalty, in never- 

430 The FornialwH of n Speech Setitiui-tnt. 

failing holpfnlnoHA, she was nil tlio hnnian lieart could 
cravtj. To bcr wbo shared tlmt (neocleliip. aud know it 
iu ltd ricbuessaud fulludsa, bcucefortb this world must be 
rolntivolj & wildorDess. 

" To those to whom she inini^terud in so mnav wajs 
ahe seemed like one 

" WlitMc <)vellliiK t* lli« light <>f •dtling nuiui. 
ftod ID the glow of tlint light, yunng nud old, Icniued au<l 
anlenrued, found a rtnit which ^».\vi thout pwaco. Her 
spintual risiou — though utiver oTerlooking the waotn at 
the lowly— wns of a high and wide riitigp, aud who«var 
took vriog with Iter, in \\v.t higheHt tlighi'« of thought, soou 
fonnd thai her iiative home was io the ii|)[)«r uir. 

*' lu goiag iiwHy she has left behiud hern trail of light 
which will be a guide to all who knew her id thoir rlTorts 
to gnin n higher Hpirituiil lift^." 

MisH S^teet'K fuuural wa8 hutd on Suiidaj* afteruoou, 

May 5. The sorvioea were couducted l>r her pastor, Dr. 

K. P. Parker, assisted lij the Rev. L. W. Hicks, pastor of 

the chnroh iu Woodstock, Vermont, of which HitiK Sweet 

was formerly a member. The burial waa at Woodstock, 

Verm out. 


PriiiolftU «/ Ih American ikhooi, Hart/urH, l%martti«uL 


Bk a "ai>oPc)i seutiment" J mean a sentiment tbbt 
eball load the pupils to lenru nud iibo spdecb, itotl — shall 
I Say it? — lead the otticers aUo to uttu it. AVc all agree 
that the pnrpo9o of oml iiislractioD is to give the pupila 
as nearly att [vossihie n normal meanei of oominuuicatiou 
with his ussotMutos — to givo him Ihu ability to nxpn'ss bis 
tbouf^bts by speech and to uuderstaud the spoken ideas 


TAg J^on/tfiti^at of a Speech S^thn^ut. 421 

of olbon. Tilt' ii(,-»( pupil m in school piejiuriDg liimself 
lor life iu u wurlil of litniriug hdiI Np4.>nking peoplo. Manj 
of tfaeae people \iii\c novur seea a deaf [Mmuti. More 
IcQow nothing of the menns of coinniiiiiicalioo employed 
h;r the duaf nlniie. 11ie.v express their ideas bjr luetuis of 
certain maoipulatianH of wfant we call the tocaI oiguns, 
awl UQttentaud the meatilug of the KOunds producttd b; 
theae mauipuUtious in others. The deaf luau who ix 
obliged to rt»l^' ou eonie other means of commuuicaliou is 
aodarjoatso much greater hnndicnp than tf by speech 
and npHech-reading lie wer« able to converHe with his 
t«llon-K. Id ko ixT an we give him either Kiwecli or the 
ability to read apeeeb have we redueed that huDdicap, 
providing his oltior attainments ronmio the samt). The 
work, then, of the oral tuat?hur in not only to giro tlie 
pnpilii niidor his care a k.uuwi(;dgL< of Ibu different Btndies 
of the carricnlam, not only to lead biiQ as be threadx the 
auLCy paths of arilhiaotic, gnograpfay, griinimar, ati<l his- 
tory, and to goide his trembling feet thruiigh the misty 
labyrinth of the Engliith laognaf^, bnt alao In gire him, 
by artiScial means, a apeecb as nearly as possible eqaiva* 
luut of that gained by the bearing «bild, and so to de- 
velop bta obserTAtiou, perception, and jadgment that the 
meaning of the rarious movements of the vocal organs of 
nthora may bo readdy determined. 

Far Iw it from niu to claim that sacb a kuowlodgo is as 
«aay to impart or to gain as the ability to commuuicate 
by other means, ur that all uur pupib can attain the aane 
aacoeas. There are natnml giftn that render poooible the 
bigbost success in sfwcxTh and spoeoh-ruuling, joat as there 
are nataral gifts that render possible the highest sucoese 
in laugaage or arithmetic. Tbene, if dcnie^l, we rtuioot 
anpply. Bot we can giTe the bfst possitilu training to the 
gifta they have. To do thia we muat have the hearty c<»- 
operation of the papil aa well as of all speakii^ people 
about the aoboul. If we can get unr pupila to co-operate 
with oa^ the battle is half won. 

422 The JtormatioR of a Spwck Senthnatt, 

" Where there is a will, there is a way," is an old 
bat it contiiina n world of meaning. Pnoplv cuu uhouUj 
ucoomplish what llior wilt TCrj much to do, anil (leaf 
pupilft are do eioeptiou. If w<» can lead them to wif 
Terr mnch and coiitinnouslv to learti speech, niul give tht 
coDliDual opporitiDity, onr siiticwHii id stmarod. Wfac 
aiicR wo briug thorn to reuliKO the importance of npeet 
iu rclatioij to their Future siicceati and happioeHH, we ahi 
be Bnrprise<1 JLt the high average ancceaA attained. 

Onr comhitieil-K^THtem Hrhools can fnruiMh as perfect 
iirticulatom aud Hp-rL-aders iin tho pure oral mcLooIs, but 
the average is not hu high. Tho reason is uot far to Heek., 
)d tha pure oral school, speech and speech-reading 
tlie itine q>ta non. They nro tlie method of commiinicatii 
between teacher and ptipil, and between pupil and pupil 
In Kchool, on the plarground, lu the shop, wherever h4 
^oeK, he meets speech, speech, apeech. He is siirrouuded 
by nu atmosphere of speech. The rpsnit is that he desiros 
very much to imderMtaud and to exjireiut hiniHelf and puts 
forth hia beat efforta continuatW. These conditions w^|fl 
cannot have fullr in a combiuHd-syslam school. Ora^^ 
pui>iifl naeociate with pupils who cannot talk, and even 
tenchors, addrossiug both ulaases of pnpila, muat adapt 
the mnans of commitnicatinn to the needs of both ; so Ibi 
anch a perfect Hpeach aeutimeut is impossible in a cot 
bioed-svsteai school. Yet T think it a practical qnetitioi 
What cno we do to create sach a aeutimsDl iu our pupila 
and thns secnre a similar co-operation from them ? 

I have already hinted that we most impress upon them 
that this ia a world of speaking people ; that speaking 
people nro the rule and deaf people the ext-epttou ; that 
the ability tocouverHo increases their happiness anderojL. 
their earning capacity in a world of work, eapeoiallj 
times when ompioymeut iH difficult to obtain. Ouede 
mau, a lip-reader, estimate?^ that it adds at luoHt twoni 
five per cent, to a deaf niau'e value to hia employer. Pol 


7'A* J''ot^iation 6f a SpMch S^ntim^ni. 423 

ftibly it aJcls more tlitin that to hi» iucoiue iu dull timoH. 
Fur of two workmen of eqnal nbilitj bdcI faiclifnlneits, rq 
employer will aalnrully chooAo tlie one to whom he can 
isDKt easih- \v\\ wimt Im wiMties done. How oftt*n, wlieii 
w« bnve betiu ituvkiuf; omployuiuut for a (l«af boy or girl, 
have we lipard such ex|)r««8ioD8 as ttiia : " Oh, there is 
plenty of lieBring help, I could not positibly have the pa- 
tience to vrrih' erer\'thing." But if we could Hnythnthe 
or ahu wiLK a |'(>o(1 lip-remler, tim aftpeut of the caao wiui 
altered at onoe. 

We ahoiitd nUo impress npon tlirni that they nro not 
always going to be nKnaciiiteil witli the deaf utt tbey are 
here in achool, but that, when school life is over, they 
will Dioetalmul gfteeu hundred hoariug people to one deaf 
person. By speech and speech -reading thoy will he bet- 
ter flunbled tn enjoy their awutcintion with theHe bearing 

I think it hardly ncoeagary to tMiy that tlio teMber's 
BOggeBtione and cowtuands eboald be givou by speech, 
and u »ooD as possible every reqaost from paptl to 
teacher sitonid be so made. There is no eiisior time to 
leacb an expression to a child than when h« wuuta to use 

We can also oncouragc thi? papils to talk to us and to 
other*. To the littltiuue, we can teach som^ kindly senti- 
ment to apenk to those who care For it outnidf. Il will 
not only pleane the child and give htm a belter nse of his 
vocal oi^aoK and htilp di'Vflop in him n kindly sentiment 
lortbosi: whocarbfor him, bnt, it be aays il wull, pleaau tbe 
one to whom it is said, nud possibly aid In secnriug her 
Rooperatinii in mltirating tltia spoei-h sentiment by her- 
self using mure spuvcli. What ofticer, if a little one says 
sweetly " I love you," or *' I am your girl," can help throw* 
ing ber orma about the child and saying ** I love you, too." 
This little beginning, if wisely directed by us, may lead 
bu a cuutiuual une of apeech to tbeoral pupils. Weueed 

424 TAg formation of a Speech Sentiment. 

tliiH sort of co-operation from everj hesring person, for 
the most importaut thing we cnn farnisb the child is 
prai-tice, constant, nnremitting practice. 

We cuu also encourage the pupils to talk to each other 
and have them do it sometimes in the schoolroom. We 
can arrange little exercises in which thej talk to each 
other or one pupil talks to the class. 

But it is in the nncouscions influence of example that 
we should be most poteut aud that we are often weakest. 
Our work is to be compared along other lines with the 
rttsultM obtained elsewhere. The highest enthusiasm of 
the teaoher goes into work on the subject-matter, not 
nt'gluctiug ttpeech, yet making it, even in the schoolroom, 
oftt>u of Hocundarv importance. Then we come from our 
KcUoolruoniH tlrod aud in a hurry, and there is a general 
lt>ttiiig down of tho nervous tension under which we have 
boKii hiboriiig alt tho session. We have occasion to saj 
Hoint'thing to a pupil, and we say it in the quickest and 
t'HMii'Ht way possible. Wo excuse ourselves, if we think 
of it at all, by Maying * Why should we not use any method 
of i-oniiiiuiiit'iitioii I lie {uipil understands ? Why, indeed? 
Simply beeiuiMi', aw tcncliein, we are leaching as potently 
out i>r the Hi'lioolrooiii us iu it. If our pupils see us in 
pnii'liee cxttll Hpoech us tlie method of communication 
tlioy inity eiitt'li tlit> etuitagiou. iJut if we act out of the 
selKiolrooiu as if upeet'li weie a sort of side-show, no mat- 
ter what llieories we may preach, they will follow our 
outside praetire ratltor tlian our preaeliirjg, and place 
N]>ee('li on tlie shelf with the rest of the schoolroom 
diudgiuy with aiilliiuetie, geography, history, and gram- 
mar to be taken otV only when required by the exigen- 
cies of the selioolniom. 

Ittisides, it is outside of the schoolroom, on the play- 
ground, in the sliop, in tho domestif department, that we 
have occasion to use a thousand aud one expressions of 
colloquial English, for which no occasion is apt to arise 

The Formation of a speech Sentimtnt. 425 

Ri lilt* schoolroom, unci wliieli Ibo teftclier, wUli all ber 
care to present sucb oxprossioiifii, will overtook. Yet 
these HFo tbo ezpreeeiotis the pupil will need to niw motit 
whoD liiti school life \r over. His Hticc^^sB an a Bpeeeh- 
reader vrill dejieuil inore upon hia knowledge of eoUo(]Dia1 
EiiKliah tbftu upou lh« uuiouut of geograpby, history, 
aritbmoHc, or grammar he may bavo mnstered, or eTen 
bin kn<iu'l(>()Ke of iiiul ability to iindBrHland and d^ 
the langtiago of Iit«ratur«. If our pupilu are iiuacqtiiLiiitod 
with the ootumon exprosuions of evory-dny Eoglisb, if 
bbey do Dot evince a <icsire to mnstor the Kiiglish lan- 
guage as it is BpokcD, is it not partly because of our 

Perhaps if the headb of the various dopartmonte of tli6 
Institation saw uh as teachers moro conaiatcntly oral, 
they too would utw more; speech, or iil leattt uoro Eug- 
li«h, AQd the pupil would be the gaiuer, Dot ooly id his 
Hpeecli ami jviautice in 8pe«ch--rejutiiig, hut also in the 
langangc ac()uin;d and in tbo vutbuitiaMni with wbioh he 
would Bcok to acquire rtpeecb aud laogiiage. 

It is often said that the pupils will not DDderNtuud if 
we do talk to them. Well, what if tboy will not? When 
will thciy undiiFittaud iinluMt Hpeocli ia met ? How do our 
povani grow except hy use? "Learu to do by doing," 
ia the motto of the mmlern ednc-ational world, at tftast in 
theory. Do wv want th» i5yt> to h« t|uiok and accurate? 
Do we want it so trained that it shall iuxtnntly recognise 
each rapidly changing vocal position? Then wi^ luimt 
train the eye to see. Do we want the seusf of touch to 
be acute and aeunitire? It can be bronght abunt only 
by training the sense of touch. Do wo want the jadg< 
Blent of the chihl so trained that be can correctly inter- 
pret the rapid niovcmPUtK of the organs of speech ? It 
CAD be douo only by fttmishing an opportunity for a con- 
tiunal exerdne of the judgment along these line*. In 
pnler to attiun the higheal sncoaea in Bp»ech-T«adlug, the 

426 The J^i*rmritirm of a Speech Sentiment. 

pnpil must kuow the positions ftgsiimod by the 
nigAUH in thu prodtictiou uf tli',* words of spuecli aut 
mutiml rulutioQs uud appuuraucti. His knowledge of laa- 
(;uH^e must be ooaipreb endive. Hin eye mnitt W tmiu 
to seu qiiJLiklv am] nctiurnt'rij Wiv positiunit uttsuiULtl u 
cliauge^l with knl»Kl(»KU)i>i(; rapidity. His luiud must 
Iraiuui] inHtuuUj- tu associate each pusitiou or group of 
poeitioQs with a certain word or gioiip of wonis Ito hiis 
learned and to resHou out, ho (|iiirkl}- tlmt it luay bt> said 
to bo almoHt intnitiTe. whicli of tlie wonlit rupruiwiited 
Any viHOiil iippoaruucu whk iiiLeiiddil by tliu Hpoakor. 

Right ht^re lei lue say tbnt, iu my opiuion, jast assm 
as the little ones have been taught HeotenceR. thuir li 
r«iidtiig Mhunld be giveu for tbt* tnoHt part in cumplcba 
thoughts. I atu iuclinud to put it »itill htrou^«r and say 
that from the very first, excwpt sueb drill as may be uec- 
BMsury to lix in the mind the appeaiuuce uu the lips of 
any Kouiid or conibinntioti, nil lip-rfading should be iiu 
Ifiveu. The uldld is not to blame if u« proiiutiuce tha 
word " man," and he says " pan," " baD," ■' pad," " m 
" inad/' " bat," " bad," or auy olber word that may ha 
praotically the Rnme app(>amncc on tlie lips. He hiissai 
what be saw. Xo one eouh) do aoy better. And ho 
any otiier group of words baviug a Kiiuilnr appournuce. 
TLe reason that at first the child usually gels tho right 
wi>rd i(> tliat it ie probiibly tho only odo tanght with that 
appearance on the lij>s. When lie bas been tanghl others 
he lias absolutely nothing to gnide him in making a choice. 
It is pure guess, fie is as apt to guess wrong &» "gbt, 
and he reeeives no beuctit from making a right gui3fls, or 
frotu our pointing out the error, or repeating and imiking 
him gu«ss again. Bnt if tbe word is us*--*! iu a souluuce, 
there is an eserciw of the reason, of the judguiunt, so as 
to decide from tho context which of the words haviug that 
appearance was expressed. The ]>robiibiUty is that only 
one will tit into the context, aud a right gut;»K, if wu uia 

7%^ Formation of a SpcecA Sintiment. 427 

I it tu>, li«IpH liiui to ^iietts UelLer next time, Hud ereo an 
Jr poiiited ont increit-ses liis ability to iuterpretspeecli. 
U, ioBfcoad of Baj-ing ftimplj " tBao," X %a,j "The tunit 
walked," tbe cbiM kuowg tlmt uotbiag repr««UQtod bv the 
wordn linking tliat form ou the lips is accastomed to Uiat 
meNQS of locoiDotioD. and tb« choice in comparatively 

The operation is similar to that which takes place Id 
oar tnmds when we bear »iiich sentences as tliiH : "John 
U going to write home," or " John did what wa» riffhl" 
ouljr that fur the deuf child the dilBculty ik iucreusod by 
a vastly f^-eater auuil>«r of aimilitr forme. Yet this eier- 
eiae of the reason, bogioDinf^ «'beu the child knows only 
a tittle laugaage and hns in bin vocnbulnry perlmpM nuty 
two words of the Hame form, and leading uu »ley by stop 
to the more difficult, produceu a gradual dei-elopmeiit of 
the mental powers employed DDtil they beoomeso atraugtli- 
ened that, aa the number of poaaible word fonns in- 
creasea, Ih^y act nnfirringly, iind ho quickly aa to aeem, 
even to tbo actor himself, almost intuitive, unlesa an ob- 
scnre t*xpr«RHiuQ is met. Then tb«ro is a conscious ten- 
sion botb uf the eye and the mind. " Nothing sncoeods 
tike success," and in proportion a» tbe papils Iind they 
nan understand spe^b will ibey want and try to noder* 
stand it. 

Of cuarae it will often be necees&ry to repeat what faaa 
Iweo said, and even to write or spell (preferably the 
fornK>r, for it givitH un idua of tbo word aud s«nt«uc« 
lormif as A whole nitber tbuu of the scparatv Icttvm uf 
wbicb thL*y are corapooed), and then to repeat iu apcucb, 
calling attcitttou to tbe poeitions a^umed by tiie vocnl 
orgsua in producing tbe idea uu the lipn. Iu ito doing, 
we an training the eyt; t</ nee tbe diffeiuuce in Bimilar 
V0l>aI furoiatioutf, uud we are also Iraiuiug the ruKitouing 
powers and judgment, and thoa giving to the pupil tbe 
ability to read iipoecb. 


Tfie Formaiion of^ Spee/^/t Sentimiwj. 

Ariotlier itiiii^ Mint T lifiTo tinvrr tufnn tliorou^lily 
but liulicTu to he r«iiHiti)c, itucl, if HiurcexKfnl, likely t" uid 


greaity in creuting u speech seuUmeot, is to give a ^^^H 
minutes eacli dnv to tij^readiug in the mnnual classes. 
Any person with two good eyes anrl a good brain. I 
Uove, can Icaru tu nmil N[K>f!ch, if liv will iiuil if liu in give 
plenty of prnctico. In all auoh exercises, the poiut ko 
insistetl upon is, of course, that the pupil depeoil upoi 
thR lips for th« itIeiL rather tlmn npon somnthiitg eUe^ 
Such pitptls umy uot hecoiue experttt. Experts are Cei^H 
iu any line. Thy Pattis iiud Jetiuy Liutls of thf mimicH^^ 
world call be counted on the fingers of one hand. Yet 
t1ioni(»iul!; have hftoome Kufficiently proficieut to give great 
pteiisuru to theiutiolves and their fiieudK, ami even to b^H 
of gr«at pmctical ulihty iii the support of themsolves an^^ 
those dopendeiit upon thera. So wltatever ability a pupiE 
acquires in Kpeuch-rujuliug in that innoh helterlhan iioa^^| 
If he fihouhl boeomu n fairly good lip-readfr, the hearin^^ 
have only to speak tiud the burden of uriting falla on th<)_ 

If, Iheu, we wunhl have a ttpeech ittintiinnnt in n eom^ 
biued-svBteni school we must uurtietvea he enthosiiisti^^ 
and consistent users of speech wheaorer possible ; v^H 
must encourage the papila io the nso of speech on all 
occasiuDH and by all possible nieaua; vft? must lerul them 
to depend ou speech ; and we mti^t in some way secure the 
co-operatitin of tlio hearing teacherw and officers in tl^^| 
use of Hpeech to all oral pupils. The degroo of siico*^^ 
of oral work in a c-ombitie*! -system school will depend 
partly npou how well w<] succeed iu doing these things. 

W. E. lAVLOK. 
tntlrutt^ in Hit I'crm SoAoel. Atuiin, Ttteat. 


In Older follr to oomprelieod wliat tlie chaDeeo are for 
a SDCCf«kful career a» a Uwyer oh the part of a deaf- 
mate, it would be well to tnnlcf! n cnreftil Rcmtiuv of tlie 
wiiVH and menus \>y wliiob a nioi1(>rn law office is man- 
aged, fur it will he n more intvlligible metliod thao to dia- 
OOBB the (oturB poKHtbilities within tlic rencli of » profos- 
Bional man iu the abBtract. Ftod lion- n factory is rnn, 
aod voii will he iu a posiliou (o say wlietlier, when, and 
wliure the worlcniati of our kind is competent todiacliarfje 
the duties inoambeut on him in tbat particQlar station of 
ecimmercJal life. I Hball bava nothing to do with speca- 
lation as to bia future pom^ibilitieH or aa to new eircum- 
Ktancea which bave nov«r before occurred ; nor need I 
discuBs elaborately certain spocialtieH of tbe law (or 
which dm deaf-umte, by reaBoii of bis peculiur disudvaii- 
tagos, is pre-eminently qualified ; nor, gnally, shall I at- 
tempt to decidft whether ho ia technically disqualilicd for 
the practice '.d the law uuder other jurisdiotious thiui tlio 
American or Engliali. (iratited that a denf-mnte haa 
boeu admitted to the bar iu the solemn manner that tlia 
law directs; tlivn, what are hia ubHU(;t.-s for auccoas? 

The irresistible tendency of the day is uomislakably in 
tlia {lirectioo of tbe consolidation of several small buai- 
ueHH Hrms or corporations into uoe large concern where 
greater economy of timb, labor, and lunturiiU is rttaliiwd 
at a greater 6aaucial gain ; that is to say, oors la the ago 
not of traats, (or they are at the farther extreme, but of 
eolerpriiHiH that partako neither, on one band, of tbe uu- 
'tnre of a amall cori>oratiou, nor, on the other baud, of a 
stupendous, over-oapitalized, unmanageable trnst ; bat of 
tlia Idud that is half way ttfitweun the extremes. This is 

*A pnp<tr |>r«^iilM| U) lti« lulHrnBtiitiiiil Gaof^r^tm of llin l>«iif, PartM, 


The Deaf in tfu Fj&jtil Profaialon, 

particnliirly true of tliti legal profoBsioD. In n centre 
oommercia] itctirity liko New York City, for iostaDoe 
ninny of our most distiDyiiislioii lawyers fiiitl it Bxjietliei 
to consoliilnto th6Jr individual offivoR into ooe viiat eatat 
lUlimeut, a fair exniaple of winch clasR I have id mind, 
vrliere nine attorneye pool tboir issaos as partners vitb 
many more lawyers employed on a anlary. itr. Clioate, 
ijpoukiug iu( at) lionorablo riral, duclured tkat the senior 
member of n certain law Brm, when he died, would leav^f 
work enough for a llioiiKaiiil young attorutfys. Suppose, 
for the sake of argamL-nt, tliat tbv f^atui: ralu ptL-vuiU (o^^ 
each of the nine partners; then one law boiuie would bjH 
doing the work of nine tlionBand lawyers. Thia is con- 
M>]idatioii indeed ! Tim jiomi-nHily of biiaineHs carricil on 
by a modern law tinu in Now York City or any other 
luKga oity eau be bbttor iuiugiuL-d than described. 

It is in such a law office that a deaf practitioner 
meet with the highest BUccees, for in band with co 
sulidation eomea Kpecialization to an cxtraortlinary 
gr«e. Ht'rt be will find hiuiHulf ax busy as possible with-' 
onl having anything to do with cUenlsand courts. lu the 
office where I begun my law studies and then my practi 
there is a ninn who dova all hi» work ontnide tbe office, yi 
who never atteudtt a s«^uu iu lh» uourta, nor Ih coutiullei 
with by clients at nil ; nevertheless be is employed in a 
ru«p<»iitiblB legal capacity on a salary of |>3,(100 n year. 
Office work ia far the moHt importnut branch of I 
practice, and tbe retnullK fluniug from exct<lleut work 
the office are far-reaching. Grave questions of law 
oftwn Hettled iu ii (.'onsiiltiilion. Compromises of conflict- 
ing iutoi^ets arc* brought about, and ngrecmentH are mod 
Conrts act apun tbe»u uialtum merely in » perfnuolo: 
manner. They simply rcgieter the /ui of the lawji 
awtembted in the privoey of tbeir ottices. In fact, t 
judgi-H will not inquire into these ngreeiuents, and at ti 
sOfjgesUou of couuftel will enter upon tbe record any 





I a 

Th« Dfjtf in ih/i fji't/at PrnftMfinH. 


ovurrtiiio^ iiot iiivu]viii(; tjiicFitiaiiM of niDml tiirpitmlo or 
poiut» lli»t L-lejirly cuullit-t with tlm ^tutntc-it. In tlilH in- 
stfiniw I do uat WM why u deaf-mute caanot prore bim> 
Holf the peer of the best prnctitioner. 

In a liu^c Inw tiriD om* ihad wiJl keep leu pcnplo buttily 
eognged — Inw^'bnt ou a Knlury, sliorthaui) ruportera, aud 
typewriter copyjitts. AV1i«d disaster orartnkes bim io tbe 
Klinpe of tbe lo8« of tbe &en»e of hparing hv will \it> %i\\\ at 
liid piMt of dnty, hh fitr km )ii» work in the ollico \» cou- 
cemMl. Brief wrilinf^ is pnr aeelUnce bis occitpatioQ 
when he is disabled iu tho way uliovt* sug};(«tod ; but it Is 
not thp only nor the mo^t iDiportHnt one in the rfttegory. 
In a law office uf this kjad the opportnuity for n basiaoM 
bead eotubiiu'd with a Ivgnl tiiro of miod is unKurpKKKtnl 
eveD for a deaf iiiau. 

Litt);(RtioD does uot always ocuupy the greater portion 
of a lawyer's time. AInity of our siici-essftil practitioDi^rs 
never go into tbe eoartH nt all. Of the bnHinctw tranK- 
Kt«d by a reputublt> law tiiiu, g«imrHlly uue-third, uftuu 
fifty per cent., noTor (vinea iindor roview befort> a jimlice. 
It is stated Ihiit hfr<> id Ihn vitv of Kaii Kraocisiin tho 
proporliou in popiiiiition is twenty attorneys to one ease 
in litigatiQu, It would be preposterous to bold that sncb 
a supply of lalwr woahl snataiu »n lonny workers. What 
is there, then, that will attract learned men to tbe profes- 
aiou of tho law? lu luy bntuble opiaion, it is couDsel 
work that is permativtitty rcmaoerfttive. We educate our 
(dienU lui to thfir toga) righta and obligatioDs, AJid advise 
theui as to every step lit a contemplated uudertakiug, 
which facta may conitt at a fatnte day nuder review before 
the Snpr<tnte Court of sonic State orof the United Stfttea. 
It is what we call the luukiuK of pru-appoiuted uvideoce, 
which ia not merely restricted to documentary prooftt but 
abto usleods to t)io acts of the uliunts in oontmcttou with 
some olhor parties. Cor]>oratious and business houses 
pay well for cuunseJ votk of this class. The duiound for 

|;J2 ''*''"' f^'''tf i>i the l^ijal ProfdMion. 

^fiorl (!(iiii)Hitlli>rM is ^rcnt ; but here, as in other fields of 
i-oiiiiiM<ri>iiil uiul proftwHioiial activity, the sapply is limited 
iitnl \h liki-ly to i'i>ii)iuii no hirger, for the iitiidy of tfaelavis 
ii-jtll V It virvtilisli'tiKt! Hiiil piiKxlitig scieuce, which reqaires 

l\ loNi'Nt ii|i|)li<-nlioti of tho broadeflt nnd profouDdest 

r^iilLiini mill kt'<>iii-Kt to^^ic, tiud tlie Hupport of a character 
Mini \n liitHin] upon iiitlufiitigable energy, and that is proof 
a^iiiiml ti<iii|iltitioii anil corrnption of every kind. Still 
('niiii(i«l in liiiiiniii iinil liiibli! to err, but Qowhere else is 
ihii niiot' HO i<x|i<-iisivit, for upon one opinion of yonr dis- 
liii(/iii»liMil i!oiins«l Mill Ht«-iirity of the strongest finaacial 
iiiiihl.iilioii iiiiiv liiin^. Tlifnfore, in these days of bitter 
i-orrtpotiliitii, hIiihi iiliility on ciicli side is equal, character, 
liix-liKil by iii't'voiiKciii'i^v tiiiil coiniuon sense, is generally 
111!', ili'i'jiiuncli^iiii'iil of siu-ccMs. A doaf-mututhas fortified 
III niiii'l iokI (-|iiii'iii-l.i-r is boiiiiil to make his mark sooner 
,„ hil'i 

!;iiii 1^ llii> ciiiii'ts i-i-^;ii'il till' substiiuce rather than the 
t'lirii. lli<n <^''l tiiiil^i' niinicrous coni-essions in favor ol 
iIk iji'.il |inii-litiiiiii-i'. I i"iii ti'Ntifv to the nniform kind- 
I,..'.- i'lii.iMi tin- l>\ IIk' cHiirts, and 1 know they willgoso 
f,ii .1.^ l-> liFivi' III!' iinnTiiiiiif^s rarricil on by means of 

|,.,| I |ir mil i\ ln-tii'vi'i- till' iMiiso of jn»tice demands 

,1 Mill n. iii'<'<l mil smIi'Iv on iinr own individual 
. II. mI.' U'ImiI I'. Hmii- Id |ir<'v<'iit vou ri-oni employing a 

)„ ■ , ri .i.iliiM ;i'i \<iiir ;i>.sist;iTit ill llu' oonrt-room? 

^•.11 mII iIm ii I>i- km >'ijiiiil li'i'iiis M'itli vonr more fortunate 
lit' I III' II I'll' |iiii<'li<-r of <'iii[i]oviii<^ iiltorneys us assist- 
.■III' III II III IV 'iMli'i- ri \<'iv i-oninioii indrcd, for the time 
I.I ,1 .:iiiii. .Iiil riiiiii •llui' is loi> viiluablc for llie execution 
iiMli. |irih ililiiil'. 'if Mil- liiisiri.'ss. I't'iliaps you will 

ill I I Ill I if I he iiH'M'iisi'il I'Xjx'nsf. IJut you 

i(iii':i r>ihi|M'ii- iMtli iiiiiiit II hnv liriii with its nniltitude of 
ii.i'Mitiiiiiin III ti'iiM' liiiiii Ilii' t-iiii|i-sl. ^ el if yon are auc- 
ri'i'.liil III tniii vi'iiliiii, \i>i] will likt'lv bit sou<;lit lifter by 
ndiri iil|i>iiii'\i.. iii'iK' Ml' IcsM snci^ossfiil, and invited to 

T^e Deaf in tAe Le^at Froftmfm. 


Tour bra 

a partuerahip. 

. iinil eupitnl wilk tbeirs ou (lie bKsis of 
This )K no itlle dream Dor Utopian 

Again, sappose your afisistaot wero an expert in tbe 
UM! of the sigD-lnDgange or a shorlltiiud reporter. Then 
jour hnndicnp wonlcl prnctirally disapponr. Let me cull 
jrour tttteiitiuD to a very iDt4>reHliug ca«t^ at lliti Uuirereity- 
of Mioliigim Law Auu Aibor. Here n learned 
Profeesor of Low, in spile of bit; total dt^MfucHs, roiiLiouetl 
to l«ctare lbre« yenm after loning bis seufie of bearing, 
and is Ktill one of the moHt BncwRBfol advot-ales in Ibe 
State. His bod, n siiortbaud reporter, i& ooustantly at 
his side. DoaUless, be could have occupied a place on 
the hencb, and 1 believe do one would have rnised the 
qaestioo of his diaqnaliticatioD, if it were such. 

So far tlie disou^ou lias beuo goiug oti id the fnll 
cODscioaanesft of onr baodicap ; bat we may woU inquire 
whether there are not some oomfeusotisg advantages. X 
tbink there Me. i-'aciUty of speech generally means a 
grmt deal of tine wast4.-d between attorney and olieot \ 
vriting is tedious at best, hence we are apt to get at tlie 
gist of the matter sooQer by wnliiigthao by speech. I 
haTe beeu aatiared by my brother lawyers that more has 
been acc3mpli«bed by writing in buU an horn than would 
have been in half a day tbrouKb the medium uf sjicecb. 
Clients will tell tli« trnth if llie statement is in blnck and 
white, bnt not always otherwise. Wo lawyers wnold give 
auvthiug to kuuw the truth, but wu do uut alwiiyn attain 
that end. There are seTeral teobuical advantugirs, bat 
Uisy arc of do intoreei to laymen, I fear. 

I have cndeavorml to point ont the most difficolt 
obstacles that stood in your way and show how far yon 
cftD sacccTsafiilly sunnoont theuj with particular referunce 
to tbe general civil practice. As to the speciaUic« for 
which yon are apparently qualified, L ahall leave them to 
our own infereDoe and ioveetigation. 

434 Notes on Manual and Industrial Training. 

Now, in the language of Justice Brewer, of the Uoited 
States Supreme Court, let me extend you a very cordial 
invitation to the practice of the law, if you desire to work 
hard, live well, and die poor. 

Hobart Building, San Frandteo, California. 

ING.*— IV. 

The outlook for the industrial departments of our 
acliools was never brighter. This condition of affairs has 
been brought abont by the great and rapid changes that 
have taken place in industrial methods and the now 
widely recognized fact that a fuller and more available 
mental development is dependent on a thorough use of 
the physical organs, particularly the eye and hand. 

The strongest evidence that tlie industrial departments 
are on the eve of a groat advance is not alone in the intro- 
duction of improved methods, machinery, and apphances, 
but in the willingness of those in charge of our schools to 
give more and more time to iustruction iu iudustrial work. 
The question of the relative amount of time that should 
be devoted to instruction in the iudustrial branches was 
discus-sed at the Convention held at CohimhuH in 1897, by 
Mr. F. D. Clarke, Superintendent of tlie Michigan School, 
who dechired it as his opiuion that more time than for- 
merly sliould bo given to the practical work of the schools. 
The matter again came up at tlie last Cooferonce of Su- 
perintendents and Principals and at the Convention at 
liuffalo, and so far as the older juipils wern (concerned 
the speakers were in .support of tlie position taken by 
Mr. Clarke at ColiimbiiH. Indeed, some of our schools, 

* Cuutioued from vol. xIt, p. 494. 

Not$a tm jUanttat and Induatnal T^vaing. 435 

tDOghlj speaking, are dividiug llieir time eqnall^v between 
tiie literary iiud iadatttriiil ilepurlnifltttK. 

Perhaps souiu iiK-H of bow tlii» mntter ik ru^ttnloil Itj 
tUe atibborities io braring sobools tuny be gleaned from n 
wport ou loannal traiuiog mads by Director BelBeld, of 
tbi- CiiicnK" Manual TrainiiiK Sclinol. in 1892. Of tlie 
seveuteou bigb schools I coutit in this report, soveii are 
deeignated as mauaal IrHiiiing or locbuiciU HcbooU, uud 
the reraaiuder aa regnlnr bigb acbools. Eigbt of the 
HobouU nllaw ten hours per week to shop work, not in- 
oladiog drawiDg, which in from one to Uyo hoiira per 
week iu both the graniuiur and high school. ThiH they 
believe U the uiRiimum auiouut of time that can be de* 
voted to shop work without iujurr to the scudeinic work. 
Two HchocilK giT^ from !*t-Tea and nnn-half hoiirs to ten 
boars per weuk, and thu remainder rariuuxly from uub 
hoar to tbnM hours p«r week. One manual traliiiug 
uhool devote* three hoars per day, ami that part of the 
Pratt tnntitnte correRpoudiBg to the high Kohool <>ue- 
balf of the eohool day. 

In the grammar grades of tfaeea schools the time is 
ranch ithorter for shop work, it being from two to foar 
honrH per week. As to the beuelitt* nf manuid training In 
geaeral, the teatimuuy of the&e achoolu was that those 
pnpil!! who took manual training as pari of thoir arhnol 
work accomplished a^ much acailemic work iis, or more 
than, those pnpils who devoted the same nnml^er of hours 
to school work witfaoat the manual trHining, and that as 
a role the larger the amnnut of time given to mnnmil 
training the more marked were the beneficial resullA. 
One principal stated that they aceompliahed more in 
twenty-aeveo hours with mannal training than they did 
in tbirty-fcwo hoan withont it. The reason for thiA will 
be eTideut to tbe reader before the close of this paiwr. 

Now, with possibly two excuptions, it will Im> noticed 
that those schools, with all the udTotttages of hearing 

430 Nntts mi Ataunnl and Iti'ilniilTiat Training. 


whicl) tliuir sckolurit poesoftBod, uouttidtircil nil tbv 
from ODO lo ten lioure a week iu tlie hit^b scLooI hu 
from two to four boure a week iu the grnminar grad 
about tlie maximum amount of timo that ftliouli! bo do- 
Totud tu hIio[i ur iuduKtrial work witlioiit iujuring tlio 
scliool work proper. Tltitt '\n cuusidcrable lusa thau the 
amount of time the scbools for tlio deaf are devoting to 
the iDdiiittrial work with all the disadrantnges atteodaot 
upou dcufueiui. Whuri we cotiKidtsr tlu^ ilillicnltiuH tho 
deaf exporieuce iii thu various liranchea of itcbool wo: 
proper, the Hhorluees of Uieir lime iu si-hool, the Dnm 
of Kubjects the^ are expected to lake up, tins qiieHtion 
time beoometi a really serious matter, partioulnrly iu via 
of the preseut couditioua that prevail in thu iudustrii 
departiueuts, and the niechauiL'al light in which the wo 
ia rtifjiLrdetl. 

Gratified aa I am with preHt^ut iiidicatioiiH of progreaK, 
aud auxiouK for still mure, I shall he more williug to cou- 
cede half the time to the induutriHl departmeuts, aud more 
if DeceSHnrj, when every teacher of mnnnal truiiiiiig and 
ilometilic Hoiemte in nur hcIiooIh better niiswerfi to tlit^ de- 
Huriptiuu embodied iu the line, "the Hkilted hand, (he 
caltured miud" — btbq the trade leachei-b for that matter; 
when pupils are reqnired to write compoeitious on tech- 
nical suhjccts, such as ouo I saw on "Calico" by a littlo 
girl iu niaunal training Bohool, and to solve problems ia 
ftrithmetio that thc-y may apply iho priuciples to the wo; 
they have in baud; when more paiuA are taken to call 
the attention of scholars the principles nf phy»tcH, cU 
iatry, and the facts of geography, and thoir iUnatrutio: 
in the various liuea of work they perform. Uudor thou 
oircumatnuccB a more beueficiiiluiid poriuauont iuiptessi 
will be left. Thua in the bent senBt; ul the word will 
educational work be uubroken. 

It ia right hero that manual training uomOH in to at 
pliah bomu of ila beat work. BuaiduB dovelopiog meutal 

a ia 



11 iH 

JVot4$ on Manfifil anil In4funtrial TVuininy. 4$7 

(STMid Uia» nHHiHtiiig the scholar iu h'm purely »cida- 
I and lilcrnr/ work, it throws mncb ligbt od both. It 
SJives tinie by luakiug olenr mnny afantmctionH, nod 
iestchefi the Hcliolar to think instend of learning parrot- 
like, Hititio hu dualH with ujuttsrial thiu)^. 

Id ihis couiitictioii the qiien' ualurally arisen whether 
the day may not yet arrive wheu the work of itiHtrurlion 
in either or both dnpartnjPDts will ho cnrried on by rt^gu- 
Ur iaHti~nctors. No leMs un authority Lhau Dr. K. Ben- 
jamin AndrewK, tati^ Sn[>«ruiteudeul of the Chicago 
SchoolH, aui] oon" Oh>mot<1lor of the- nniverjiity of N«- 
hraaka, assorts that nt bottom mannnl training ik mvntnl, 
and in speaking of the r(*qnirf>uieuti«of t*>acherB in the near 
fnlure, HavK : " The aceompUtilied tuncber must know niasie 
and drawing as wW as the oluments of manual coostmo- 
tioD, g^-mnastics, and the household arte.'* Snch teach- 
ers woold be very Berviceable in a school for the deaf on 
aeoonnt of the practit^al eharnc^ter of the work to be done, 
and it would h« to the atlrautuge of oar &L<houl8 to begin 
their eDiploymont as t<arly as possible. 

The fctudies nf the pnptlft in oTir pnhlie (tebfK>ls and the 
traJoin^ of tcAchera in the normal srhuola itre lendiog to 
that reBult, with respect to the qualilieatioiis of teachers 
inenttoDcd bj Dr. Andrews. 

Instead, then, of considennR manuHl trainitig, domeoUe 
■et«oce, «te., as departments of education, whieb is a tais- 
take, they would come to b« re^rded as tnotbodsof »da- 
MfcioD, which is the only correct now to take of them. 
This would very much aid in solTutg: the vexed qaeetioD 
of tit/ti and do away with tuucb coolosion iu the minds ofl 
maiiy relative to manual traioiot; and trade teaching. 

Tlie rariuuii methods of education coatd be applied a* 
the ca«e rcqQirud, for it goes without satioK that the 
manual training or new melhod* properly combined or 
Ciorrelated with the book work are raatJy superior to the 
ak3 melkuds of oducaliou in derdoping the capacitial oC] 

438 iSWo /,?Vtf-fl Foxes A tnong our English Vines. 

ohildren nod joiitli, butiideg prepariag them bettor for th< 
priiclical duti«s of Itfutbuu uiiy form of educatJou hns y< 
done. PiiTticulurlj is this trae of defcctire or bnukw:!! 

intlrueurr in tiu Wtmcndn Sebaol, Otl/tpan. Wui»iuin. 



The Eugliali laoguoge posaeBsea all ibe properties of 
matl«r of whicb we learn in phynicR. It is impeiietrabh 
comprmwiblB, elastic, floxibie, d«ntt«, teuacionii, uto. 
iK »s c-uutnidJctor/ as womuu arc allttgod to b«, but ai 
uot. Tlie Freoobmaii who popped bis head out of the 
canal-boat window in responHB to the capt^in'H "Look 
out ! " nud roouivmt a bnuip ai^iiiiml u low bridge, i;xpross«d 
this qualit}' wbeu he niefiitl/ exclaimed *' Vat a Iaugun§ 
is zi«, lie say 'Look outl" veu he meao "Look in!"* 

The Kuglish laDgnage mnj aUo be compared to ad eol 
No sooner do we feel that we have it well in hand thi 
italip« from uitaud leavea us t;riutpiu|^ at uothiDR. 

We are told that Ihero is au exception to every niU 
That this is tme where the EngtiKh langnage is concemf 
we all know to oor aorrow. There are timeK when wo fe 
na if the language were mostly made up uf exueptioDa.' 
No other lauguago lays down so many rules for ctpoUing, 
punctuation, and syntax, nod breaks them vitb so little 
regard to the nervonit Byatem of the t«aclier of the deaf. 
We can aympalhiiie with the little girl who, being oft 
reproved for her mistakes iu grammar, exclftimed in dttj 
spair, " Oh, mnmnia, the English Innguofio must have be 
made only for very wise people." It raoBt certainly 
uot ooQstrticted with a view to giving the deaf au mbi 
time ia l4»aruiDg it, or us Id teaching it. 

S^m« LUtU Fi'JiM AjHOng fmr iLngl'tth Vitm. 439 

Tn the foHoarinn i»«per I prejwnt b few of i!ie moet com- 
mon "trooblej*" that teacbera of the deaf meet within 
Uie task of tfsachiDf!; Eu^jlish. T obtainml them (rem rnri- 
ODs Boiuoee. A miDiber of them are from mj uwd ex- 
perience ID the claHsrnom. Some vrure obtaiatHl from 
other tenuhent in response to a rt-qnest.aud the rest from 
educatiutsal pniitirK. I have tried to classify them tosome 
extent. A good maoj of the difHcultiex ciin be removed 
bv the judicions use of the KyniboU,* but for the ulheni 
there iwenm to be no mie and no remedy- save constant 
drill and rep^jtiUon. 

Jtlistates in Ibe arraugemont and eDdiiigs of words are 
obarw-terisljc of the deaf, and it Heems that the larj^r 
their vocnbalary grows the more mistakes they make. 
Cbildreu. an a ride, are carelestt, and thiH faet iucreji^es 
onr diffi<-alti««, ae eo mnoli tiiDM is wast4Ml in calling tbuir 
atteotiou to nii»tt*ke» which the;' oonid easity have avoided 
if tb«y hud ex(.Tcis«d a little more care. There is no rea- 
son why pupils who have been in school eight or ten veal's 
Bhooid make the aame mistakes that arc common in the 
primary cloasee. The tenses, c«pt-ciully, are terribly mis- 
nbed, and our pupiU itru buuud to uiitku aubjerl and verb 
dtNagree. One of the primary teachers whom I approached 
for maturial remackvd that hur papik did nut know vnoogh 
to make many inistakeK, but they made all they could. 

The arlanl prciuMit and the habitual present gel con- 
fused even among the advanced dassoe. Aa to Ibe aax- 
iliariea, Iht-rc are duubtleaa titaea when wo all wish tbt^y 
hatl no place in our language. Verb forms and verb 
charts of vanooa kimbi are devis*^ and employed to 
rmoody thia wttaknuKit. Riit in £Df;liHh, aa in all lan- 
guages, (be verb ia the honlest part to master, no we can* 
not expect thai any mechanical device will enable ns to 
nake the langonge of oar pnpils perfect in thin runpect. 

440 S(mte FJUlc Poxea A mong our En(/li»h VinaS. 

We are auxioaH to liavc our pnpilK Innrn to reauon, bi 
wt» object to bariug tbem carrj' tl)«ir reafioaiug by aiialogv 
too far. Tbej vill reuidmber oertAiu priociples iu set 
tencK bniWiiig, and try t« use tlieu) iu impossible con* 
KtriictiouK. It ift uovBr tuifn to coii^-ntnlate one'H sel^^ 
wfaeu tbe claua mHstera aome aach form of coualrucllon o^H 
" 1 was glad to got a letter," for, sooner or Inter, the 
t«ucbtir will liaro to explain wbj " I was indastrions to^ 
stadv my lesson " will not do. The two sootooces ar^| 
identical in oonstraction. We cannot blame our pupilft 
for fnilin;^ to nuderstaud tbe dixtinotiou. liather let 
Inmcnt Ibo total depravity of tbe Euglisb language. 

Primary pupils coirnot uuderataud clearly wby "I ai 
tired " is acceptable, wbile " It is snowed," " It is rained,* 
are forbtddou. Tbv fact that certain adjectivutt t-nd iu ec 
IB tbe cause of the tronble. We teach the pupils to wril 
oorrectiy " Marj' in a pretty girl." and f.oou we may 
ciklled tiiKiu to explain wby " 8nsiu is a pretty face " 
not Bcceptuble. Su fur as ityutax and Kyuibolii go, il 
ooDstruotions are ideutjcal. 

InreraionH of words suob as vutlksute, kmperstort, kmifi^ 
door, and caiffhook are bard to overconiB. When one of_ 
the words is au adjective the class can bo taught that th^ 
adjuctive sbonid precede the noun ; but when both wort 
are uonus, tlie teucber is uouplossed, a» there is no ml 
by wbicb to miiko a primary cliuis understand the corrt 
order. Teach the class what a screen door is, and sooj 
yon may be called upon to explain that there is no sac 
tiling HK n screen window. 

"The Houw is covered with the gronod/' "Flour 
ma^lo of bread," *' The South uf tbe pmiple," are common 
mietakeis in trausposilion. Wliile tbu error is absurd, thf 
remedy is not so obviona nor so easily applied in tbe < 
of n primary olnss, where nbstract reasoning is not to 
looked (or. 

When the popils have learood tbe seqnoooo form, Uu 

Some fJHU Foj^« Anuintj our En^lifh Vinen. -|41 

invMriftblT mnke nuch mJHiiikpH »«, *' Hcliool wm out a* 
nooD B» I went io towii," " Wl- Jitc (Honor a« mmn iia (he 
girls wiislied the disUos," " Scliool is out aftei- I will pla_v 
ball." One t«nclier iiAs enggented ah a rometly fnr this 
fault marking tlie two evonttt iis 1 iiiid '2, iwliing tlio tgnOH- 
ticm, " Wliicli liappeued lirttt?" and tuaolii»g tlio ptipila 
that lis soon an or a/2rr must proc«do the first eveut. ' 

/n frmii of. behind, before, and afar are pretty hard 
for » good tnaiiT piipitK to grfisp. 

Tlie ndjecrtive aa attrilmtu uiul pmditriite iei frequently 
«ouftiK4td. Tu illtiHti-aCo tliiK t will tell of hu autual ocfur- 
Tenc«. A certaiu tenclior coiTecled the following etate- 
Beol, **I fell dowo Hod got my dirtj clothea," by explain* 
ing that dirty shuiild be uiu»l au u uomplement in tliat 
catiu, aud giving tbt} right form. Tbu pupil reaiMiiibt'Tud 
tilt) [;ou8trucliou ouly too woll, itud a, fow days lator 
ngtonished the t«ao))er by informiug bim th«t " In CalU 
foruiri the Cblunniun watih the peoploH' elotheH dirty." 
He wua iudignaut vrUeu told that tho ewuteiioe woh not 
correct, and accused the teacher of changing his mind. 
Most, if not all, of as have had to uadiii^o tlio same ao- 


A little tbree-year-old girl of whom I kuow seems to 
hure a clonror idea of tbo use of pcsseasives than some 
of the pupils ID advanced classes. In speaking of a cow 
and cidf belonging to the family, she used the cxprehsioii 
"my cow and my calf." She wait corrected niid told to 
Say "onr c-ow aud our calf." She pondered a uiiuiit«, 
ajid tbon tmid vury decidedly, "Well, our cow but my 
calf." A good mnoy of our pupils ur« ioclinod to say my 
/aiiiily, my farm, when their ago precludes the powtibil- 
ity of their being burdened with Huch iacumbrauces. 
Thoy will Ray my/ritnd, aa if thtiy had only one friend 
ill the world. Oceaaiouully u pupil will Iki found to make 
the following astouiabing atatement: "Mr. ^uiith in his 
own home." 

442 Sow« IJUlfi Fn.f^ AmfniQ nur Fngliah VinM. 

The relationship tangle is n dreadful one, »ad ttkben 
^-etirs, it seems, to he straightened ont HiitiafActorily. I 
hiive oftao winhed it whulu hrtHt of rcUtivuii belongini; to 
one of my pupilh — imreuts, brothers, sisters, graud* 
l>iir»iittt, uncles, auuts, tiiid eousins — would cnmn into xay 
schoolroom io a body sotoe day, so 1 could liibel them 
nnd ftxpUin to the clmis their respective rt-hdiuiiKhip to 
one auother. Oue day I had » lestiou in Ii>lti^r-vrritiDg, 
and told the class to write letters to Mr. Tste, Tliey all 
had the wihitation rJglit, hut with two or three Hxeeptions 
they cloeted with Yunr lomntf fm or i'our limiuff '/aug/iler. 

A good many of the diniuulties our pupils hare id 
acquiriug English can he ruDiovod by the nse of the 
symbols. A sentence very much involved cnii be struigbt- 
eiind ont by giving the principle in Kymbols, nud having 
Uic pupil write the sentence over ikgBiu to agree with 
them. I Oud the symbols a most vuliisble aid iu teaob- 
iug language. 

But vo nfteo run against obstrnntinns which not svan 
th4> Hytnbois can h^lp UR A%'oid. Tht> adverb ver;/ is hd 
exauiple. We may say j^ry tircf, wry ^o/nt, ii*ry ti/irefttf., 
bat the caoous of good Kogliuh forbid our ostog }>cry 
turpritetf, iwry tr-iuhUd, though it is no easy inntt«r to 
explain to onr pupils why. There seems do remedy (or 
it L'Xiiept writing on the blackboard a list of sneh adjec- 
tives as tuasl be prece<)ed by very jnucU instead of wry. 
Ou thu whole, U is bettor to discourage the use of very 
in primary claases, as the pupils are upl to usu it in- 
diacrimiuately, inforiuiog ns Ibat so nnd so is very siek, 
when he Las a simple ailment, and that it is rery cold, 
wheu the weather is a bit fro«ty. Tn<i is oflun confaaecl 
with veri/. Tlio boy who told his teticher, " 1 rtudicd mj 
loaaon too hard," laid himself under the suspiciou of being 
uutrathful and iiuborliko, iiotil he explained that he 
uieaut vert/ /ntnl. 

The infiDitive as an object offers a goo<l many diOicultias. 

Somt Littie Fia^» Anionff nur P'rujlieh VitieJi. 44.H 

Litfm to/ilny, tries to study nre all right, bul as Boon na 
the class begin to constmct ongioal flcobeDC^H UHiiig tliiti 
form of oonstrnotioti, they will xm*> such «xpTe«BioDH on 
"I enjoyed to pliij," *' Joliti wtopped to stnily," " P*ul 
iiutshefl to work." TLe Uoy vrUo tokl hie U'nclior, " I 
foi^ot to loave my book,' mftj bare beoD correct if be 
mtenclod to leave las book and shirk study, but tlio 
c1inDc«8 are tint be did uot iuleod to ui&ko sucb a 
fraok coot&moa. Tbe pupils are tnaglit to aay, *' Mr. 
Tate let tbe boyK go to town Sntnrdiiy," hut ait soon aa 
tiley l«flru tbo verb to atlo\i> trouble bogitm, for alhto 
rtMiatruH tu after it, wliiio lei du<:it uot. 

A fvw dftys ago I bad my class wrjto a list of IbiugM 
which hIwavb Bpoken of in the plnrnl tnroi. A pnpil 
wrote, "a piiir of uat-cracktirH." I told hiui that be 
hhould !Uiy fi nut-crad'cr. He quickly replied that if it 
was right lo asy a pair uf xcim'jni it wun right lu nay a 
pair of nut-crtickerv. ioo. He reasoned from atiahtg^'. 
Tii^ m/m'g fuit b good Eiigliitli, but tht Avuac't *fiM}>; and 
onf, of the girtK father cnunot Iw tolf<rat«id. 

There are certnio Formn wUieh Munie pnplU uev^r Heem 
'fthle to reniember. Tbuy miH write"! waa headache," 
aud after the right form haa been Inugbt will Hay, " I 
have a very Hch>*h«ad," or Romrthing nine in cqnnlly good 
Efiglitth. *' John waa bia birthday yesterday," ur " I wan 
tiikaa A piclure," are Bare to ap|>ear after the cIksh havo 
been drilled again and again in the right forma. 

CertAio wlverbK of time form a weak ipot in tbe Kng- 
liah of a good taany. S*xl day, ntxt tir/u, are uaed in- 
[■to«d of t/t-murrcv, anotA^ timr, and eie* varmi. 

ComparisoD of a<IjectiT«a sod advetbs is aftoth«r atus' 
btii^-block. If all wotda followad tli* aama rale by add- 
ing x^ aod «•/ for tbe comparative and avperlalire, we 
Llhoald haw Hlllu or oo tronble. Oar popihi arc anre to 
write fmtutif'ultr, <areU*»44t. Tlia p*r»oci or p^^ntona 
deacribed by oa« pnpil aa i<uf, very had^ very ctry h^iJ, 

444 Stnne /Jtil* J^ojBe* Ainmitf tmr Knglith Vinee, 

must liavo bepii quite bviIIj diBpcwed, while nek, won 
9i<'t, wont sick, is Huggetilive of quantutiiiB, though tt 
not BO RorioiiH ati the oatie described bj- a publio-schoo! 
boy «8 jW, »<w>r*-. (h'td. 

Touch the pupils to xisio«aid that aod tolil nte that, nad 
they aro Ukoly to npply the form iiieorvevtly in loani 
thnt, avA-ed that, etc. 

SoinetAin^, thing, aod anything are confased uud mii 
used. " Ue uuwrApped it and fouud a thiog in it." Al 
tomahotii/nnd m>>ffiody. " I guess thul auybody brought itJ 

Some of the pupils will say that a thing m not gc 
ta$te, nieAi)ii)>; f/o€f not last^ go*fd. Others wilt iDfortn 
you that a certaiu poraoii waa dead, aud will add tbi 
they are «orry for him, wilhuiil anyiiig when or how b^ 
came to life. Thu word full ia fretjueutly a source o( 
Texution, as is woU illustrated io the following Beoteuce 
from one of our chissroomB aeyernl years a^o : " The peo- 
ple were full in the church." Some other words aud «x- 
prutwiouH that cause ever reourrtug errors uro Und aud 
barroiB; pay, itny, cost; Uct«re, Uetare to; duty, on du 
interttUil, iiitn-esting. Aud the word twdtU bears out it 
own Dteaoing by being moat tronbteHome in c>onHtructiou_ 
Id ita formii lut uonu, rutjiy-tiTe, or verb. 

There are certain pupils in every class -who have a 
fondness for big words, especially words not fully under- 
stood, aud they will try to incorporate them. The results 
are far from «ali»fHctory to the teacher, as they are likely 
to l>e as original as the statement of the boy, quot«d i^H 
the A niitilf, who said " he fermented on his father's rami|,^H 
meaning morked, or an the Frenchman who, desiring to 
cooiplimeut a yotin){ Indy ou her complexiou, aud haTinj; 
Btndietl the dictionary, iuformod hor that she ha*! nn '^x^i 
qaisit« liidu." ^^^^| 

ft h safer uut to give a woni iu oigut;, or to explato it 
in any way uutil you are sure what the pupil wautu. 
Odo diflicaUy of Knglish, more likely to be encouotered 

aud , 

Some LUtU Fvr^t Amang onr Englith Fit/iw. 445 

io odraDced (hao ia priiuar; classes, is tlie different mean- 
iogH of the ttnEDe won). The (lepravitj- of the EuglUh 
laogoage ix wull ilhifitmted \yj the fQllowtog atrocilj 
clipped {ram u uuwspnpi-r : 

"A sleeper is one nho sleeps. A sleeper is that id 
which a xleeper sleeps. A sleeper is that on which the 
sleeper runs while the stBeper itleepH. Therefore, while 
the sleeper sleeps in the »lt«ji«r, the sleeptfr carries the 
sleeper over the sle«per ander the sleeper until the sleeper 
whitrh carries the sleeper jniD|j« the sleeper and wnkes 
the sleeper in the Hlee{H>r bjc Ktrikiiig the Hleeper under 
the 8lee}>er ou the sleeper, nml there ih uo longer any 
vleeper sleepiug in the sleeper ou the uleeper." 

There are «o innuy idioms our pupils should loarn. 
Siuiht haniU ik n stntubliiig-Iiloak. "Be shook uie with 
his hand" is as (retjueutly to be seen as "He abook 
bands with me." 

It is eiiHv to tind [nult. Ft is easy to note the erroi-s io 
the iaaguiige of our pnpilA. It is not so easy to provide 
a remedy. My own experieuee is too limited for tne to 
attempt it. I hare fouud. however, as I said before, that 
an inielligetit axe of the eymbots is a great help in cor- 
recting certain errors. In other caaes wall churts or per- 
manent forms on the blnokboard are helpful. Tho 
method of teachiog idioms recomnieuJod by Miss Sarah 
H. Porter.-iu an article iu the Annah several years ago, 
seoms to me escellent. Ic i9 for the teacher to make fre- 
qaeut use of common idioms by writing on (he blackboard 
BentencoB oq topics familiar to the papils. 

But for the greater onmber of the ever-reoarring errors 
iu Iniigiiage, anch as those here note*), I see no remedy 
save practice, practice, practice. If any tciicherH have 
deviscil or found an effective method of overcoming such 
errors, I shall be glad to prolit by their experience. 



A QESTLEMAK who IB deeply intereeited to doubly- 
nfQivted bnmnoity lias asked uie to prepare for pnblipatioit 
a (tkutvh fit u deaf-bliod girl lately eurolltnl as a pupil at 

Gatbariae Pedereen was born in New Tork, Jauuury 
27. 1885. In July. 18E)2.8he bad scarlet fever, but by Sep- 
tombnr had rflcoverod aufficiently to attend one of the pab- 
lio acbooln Qvir bor bome. Two moulliH later tthe sbowcd 
syniptouis of extreme nerrous debility, und for n year her 
motlier took her to a. hoHpilnl twice a. week for treatraeiit. 
All this iitaa kIio did not attend school, and before the 
ycttr vraa up »bu Imd bmt tlitt ufle of ooe ttye, wbicli, acconi- 
ing to the doctors, was llie direct uulcnme of the fever. 

The children at the public school were no uoiny tbttt 
Catharine could tint atand it to mingle with Ihem, go for 
a little more ttmu a year Khe attended :l school in cbargo 
of Sisters iu Brooklju. There tdie learned very little he- 
oausa of ber oetvous condition uud of the trouble with 
ber eyeH, and later, with the eight of one eye gone forever 
and the other of but little nse, she was sent to a school 
for the blind iu Ihiu city, where she remnined for two 
years. Toward the close of the second year tifae caught 
cold and loHt her bearing. The Authorities of the school 
then i^eot word tn her mother to take Iter home as thej 
were unable to leach her. 

Poor child! She was greatly depreKKed. Anxious to 
learn, nnd all nTonuoR apparently being closed, she grew 
nearly dettperate, and days were spent in weeping. She 
was willing to undergo any amount of pbyeicftl paiu if 
ouly one or both sonRef* might be restored. Her father 
had died some time before, and an tboro was qo one to 
look after her while the members of Ibe family weroawar 
from home at work, she again became an inmate of tlia 

Cntharine f^tersen. 


hoRpital, anil there sIib r<>U)uiiie(l antil Fanvood cnme to 
tlie regcuo. 

Uj- tirat interview witb Cttlltariuti took plAC« in Octo- 
ber, IflOO, when her sister brooKlit her to Mr. Cnrriev'fl 
office to mnke arraiiKeiaeDtB for her aduiissiou U8 & p^P''' 
She bnd thou be«D deaf over tbr«e years, aad rritiiulR li&d 
foQDd it difiicolt to comrutinicatc with her. The two-hand 
alphabet was us«d, but n-hiU- kIiu istill rotaiood her powers 
of speech, she seemed atovr iu f^rnftpiiig what wutt »uid to 
ber. When, a few weeks later, abe returned to stay, our 
large laniilj- nf mollieriy-hearted girln received her with 
opeu arniK From that time uiiwnrd, little by little, step 
by step, Oiis afflicted young girl hiia left the walln of her 
prison, and has renebed thiit puiiit from whirh ber ad- 
TOQceueul onward and upward will be less haodicapped. 
Joat what degree of progress Catharine bad made up 
to Ibo time abe cuosed going to tht> blind ttcbool I cannot 
say, but with tm one to talk with and no bookx tu read 
she bad gradually for^ult**n nearly all that abe luieu* of 
language: her graniiuar and spelling being highly ang- 

igeattve uf the tiiickunods dialect. 8he needed cnustant 
practice In tipeUing, nud to facilitate matterw t insiitted 
that abe abonld drop tba two-baud alphabet and anbsti* 
tute the ordinary single-hand method. 

UisK I^arence O. S. Smith, one of Orris BeDson's 
teachcnt, also gives CathariDB iutitmction in npeeob, arith- 
metic, and language, and ber gentle ways won the heart of 
tho girl at the rery oulKot. At firvt the child objected to 
my being her t<-acher " liecas I cuod not bere," and be- 
sides Kho bad no deHire to "lora." It was very tireeoina 

.for her to read eren a short sentence upelled in the hand, 
ftod she oftou bt'cnoe intpatient, and would turn hor head 
away attd sbmg her Hbouldent in a. most exas|>eratibg 
mann^tr. The main thing, therefore, was to win her love, 
which was not «xcee<liuglrditfii;ult, asebe is an affectionate 



Catharine Petterten. 

Tt may not be oat of placf? to recon] herein the f 
from tlie time of <'atlmriDe's admission. Katio M'Girr, 
our other deaf-blind girl, has boon ber frioad. She roadily 
comprotiQTidcd tho SDmcvliAt peculiar two-liaud Alphabet, 
aud could got ut the child's idtias evou vhetthergramms: 
ntid spelliuff ucre especinlljr faalty, and frequently act 
ae interpreter, which oertaiidy was a nifwt interesting c 
of " the blind leading tliu blind." the " ditch " haring 
part in thu trauHactiuii. 

AtuDDg other ahortcomiaga, Catbariae had & will and a 
temper of her own, aiid objected very Htron^ly to beiog 
crotwed ; she would stand np for her rights and defy all 
anthoriby ; bnt with all this ttlie had a very clear ttenao of 
what is right and what Xe, wrou^, and I itoon learued that 
if appealed Lo accordingly she would yield. On one occa- 
sion she flew into a pAHttion, kiirked one girl, and ntrnc 
her Mttitiuch fricud Katie. This was Sunday moruing. A 
hour or so later I went to the si adj room, and took her by tb 
baud, saying, " I am iioiTy ray Httle girl has tieen naughty.' 

"What mean aat ?" Khe naked. I Hnb>4litnted tb 

word " bad." Slie blushed and began to excuay her con-' 
duct. " la it ri^ht to kick or slap your playmates \ " Sh 
shook ber head. " We love our little girl and feel re 
worry when she is bad. God wmils yon to be good. 
This seemed sultioieut, for shu immediately tmid, " I iii^ 
sorry. I will be good." To this day, with the uxoeption 
of (1 few less stormy outbursts, she bos been all that we 
ootild wish, 

At tlm blind Hchool tibe had learned New York Point, 
but had forgotteu il. At least, when I bauded bar 
book printed in that system, she informed me that s! 
"didn't now it." Our text-hooks are in English Bratll 
and ehe was given lessons in that. Her reading 
had tieeu idle so long that for some Utile time progreeR 
was slow. The contractions bothered her more or less, 
bat by porsoreriug she mastered all this sufficiently to 



Catharine PetieraMtt. 


Uk« np Kgular lessons. Tliree montlis later she became 
posRewud of n book in Now Vork Point, reoognixod au 
old nrqaniotncce, brigbtcDCd ap, and began U> raad. It 
bad all come back to ber. 

Caibarioe bad not been Id soliool two weeks when 1 
b^tui to teacb her to. use tbe typewriter, using au old 
□ppor-cikso macbiuL'. It did uot toko bcr loug to IcArn 
tbe positiou of tbu kuvs, bat shu would but phut u siugle 
letter witbout couaultiug me. I sul br bi>r miile witb my 
band uu tbe back of ber oboir. Bbe used tbe fiugera of 
bor rigbt bitud Tor prtuting, atxl at tim same time spelled 
tbe leitors witb bcr left. For ionbincR, toko Ibu word 
"thsUr." Her left baud Mpelled tbu letter «, wbilu witb 
ber Hgbt band she groped for tbe correspoDtlin^ key. 
Huving foniid it, she tamed ber bead toward uto. If 
right, t woald toucb ber sboulder. If wrong, I patted 
bur baod twice. Before prucuuJiug, hUv would dtudy tbe 
roDte A bit in order to avoid reipeattDg tbe mistake. 
Fio&llr sbe ceas«d to spell with ber left band, aud Dot 
loog afterward Ifegan to ose tbe Sogers of both bauds, 
and uow prints all ber language exercises. Next term 
■be caa use an ordinary' two^ase maehioe. 

In order to assist in developing her mind, Mr. William 
Wade. «*ver on tbe nlert lo perform a kiod aot, sent ber a 
box of beautiful building stuues, and these beguiled many 
an otherwise wear; hour. Tbe triangalnr pieces were abra 
'MpeeiaUy usefol in giving her au ides of raountaio peaks 
and monBtniu ranges when, in March, the study of geog- 
raphy was began. In order to start ber in tbitt study a 
map of the Weelem Hemisphere, eapeoially prepared for 
tbe blind, waa used, and later a diaseelad map »f tbe 
United Stataa was pat into bor haodM. All tbis involTod 
mneb practice in spelling, bat as Catharine became inter- 
[«ated she oeeaad to eompLsin of tbe big words. Une by 
l«B* tha States were taken op, tbe form studied, and the 
aad capital taught. At first she saked a variety of 

450 Catkar'me Pedei'%en. 

qnestioDS, as " What color is it \ " then her reading finger 
searched in vnin for some name or designating letter, and 
finding none, she asked, "What is the name?" Then 
tossing her bead she jerked off the qaestion, "How do 
you know?" 

Unlike most children, she is not satisfied nnlees she 
clearly understands each word that is spelled to her. She 
draws her fat fingers tightly over my band whenever I use 
a word that is entirely new, insists upon an explanation, 
then calmly settles back into her chair and asks to have 
the entire sentence repeated. 

Much more might be said of this afflicted child, but the 
above sketch seems all that is necessary. A casual 
observer might see little in her that is especially attrac- 
tive, but to us who teach her, and have watched her de- 
velop into what she now is, a lovable young girl, the 
change is highly gratifying. 

To sum up the whole matter, Catharine is receiving 
within the walls of dear old Fanwood, where everything 
combines to perfect the work of preparing our children 
for the more difficult portion of life's journey, a training 
which, we fondly hope, will tend to broaden her mind, 
beautify her character, and fit her to become a credit to 
herself and a useful member of society. 

Irutruclw m the Neir Ytfrk I mtitution, 

Wanhingtvn IleighU, New York. 


I H^TE recentlj' learued of a board of a. School for the 
Deaf, ruliog that a. deaf ^nd Olind child could not be ad- 
mitted on the groQDtl tliitt the Kohoul uas for thti tleitf 
BxeluBively ! Jnst wh«t kind of faculty U> 

Dj'tingmHh uutl 'livjit^ 
A liatr 'twlxl touth nniJ Kouiliwi-Ht niAv 

thiH is, properly belongti lo tbi? piizxio colutnu of a weekly 
paper. If a child is dcitf umf bliud, it is uoue the less 
deaf Of hlind. This questiou bus twice beea raferred by 
boardB of schools for the deaf to their Attorney Generals, 
Hud in ench ca»e the opinion haH been rendered that snch 
n pnpil wan eligible nnder the law, the farther question 
of tht) actual admission beiuf{ entirely wilLin the disciru- 
liou of the board, and there is little doubt that Attorney 
OeiieralK will uoironnly give snoli an opinion. 

Oaknumi, ftan^vttnia. 


ARHOULD. LOUIS. Unc Amc en PHson. [A Soul in PiEson.l 
Pant ; H. Oudin. tgoo. Svo, pp. 14. 

Mr. Amould gives an intoro«ting ftkoteli of the odncatioo of 
Uari« Heiirtiu, a girl deaf-blind from birth, by f)i8t«r Saiote- 
MarRiiBrito of the Sistrrs of Wi»doiu, Lamiij, France. It was 
for Ibitt bMiclicvut work of in strut tion, toxethcr with that of 
Uartbe Obrecht, who lost sight and bearing at the age of 
foar, that th« Uoutyon prixe of 9400 was awarded to Sister 
3aizit«-HargueTite in 18^, as mentioned in the AimuU, slv. 
361. The pamphlet ia dlastrated by sevvral hall-toDc pictures 
■boviog those two pupils at rarious stages of th«ir instructioii. 


School Ittrn*. 

WADE, WILLIAM. Tbe D«a(-Bluid A Monograph, Printed 
for Private CltcuUtion. tndiaiuipc^ls : Heck«f Bro(h«S. igot 
4to, pp. ta. 

Tbe objoct of tbts book ts to diffuse iDformntion roDcemiDg 
tbe educBtion of tli« blind, proviog tbat it is not ns difficaltan 
uodertaloDg as is comnionly suppoH^d, und ftbowin^ bow 
" njiy f^od t««oher in our common Bvbot^a, pftrticalarl; in 
Idndergarten worl:, in fidly ciualified to t«ucb h di>af-bliud 
pupil, iLft«r sLc leAriiti the manual alpbabel." 

Ur. Wade l>elievee tliat Krliools for tb« deitf and tbeir in- 
sLructorfl are better pi'cpared for tcnohing tbe deaf-blind Ituui 
are aeboola for the blind, tliiit women are better teacben> than 
man. and tbat tbu " luoou " print, being tlie eaaiesl, is tbe one 
that Bbuuld be llrsi tnugbt to deaf-blind pupds. 

Tbe work iooludes a list of aixty deof-bliud ))«ntr>i>8 in tbe 

United .States and Cnnada enlargod from tbat piibtiRbed in 

tba laat rolume of tbe AnruiiM, and girea detailed accounts of 

tbe education of sevvral deaf>bliiid iwreons now iu acbool. It 

ia ilitiHtratcd witb a Uige uuuibei- of Ualf-toue pictures of 

these aud other de«f-blind persotia. The style in wbioh the 

book IB presented ia creditiible alike to tbe author and to the 


E. A. r. 



Alabama SehooL — Mias Kalbariae Henderson has i-esigncd 
ber poaitioD au teacher aud is aneeoeded hy Mi6« Elizabeth 
Itice, recently of the Colorado School. Misii Vary Frances 
Walker, from tbe Utah School, has lieen added to tbe corps of 


Anteriran School. — The new primoT^ and oral building baa 
been nauiml Cogswell Hnll in memory of I>r. Mason F. Coga- 
wi^lt, one of the moat nclive founders of the iiiHlitiition. 

A new industrial building. 45 x RR, arranged to provide for 
tbe industrial work of both boys and girls, is in proocM of 
•rectioD. Tbn meana to erect it were provided by private 

School lunm. 




'aiorado McMQol.— ili»s BIizal>etb Rice Iim i^eigned bor 
position fts tettcber, «nd Mise Lilliftn Kerr htut Im^oh uppoiuted 
Ui fill tfao raoiLDoy. 

Coluin/tta Iiialif'ition. — The R^v. Byrou Sunderland, D. D,, 
raetnber of ibit board of direcloi-s voiiLinttounly since the ea- 
UbliHbmenL of tbe laaUlutioa in 1857, di«<J Jun« 30, 1901, 
aged 83. For fourteon ynfirw bo bftd boon the only siirviTinfj 
memlwr of tbe ori^fiTinl hoftrd nHHociatod witb Amos K«uilall. 
He sUeaded tbo dosing exerciavH of tbe loHtitutiou a few 
(lajM Loforo bin lU-ulb nud offered tboclosiD^ prnyer. He was 
a man of Jncdly disposition, genial uaTinvrs, and strong 

Profeiwor Samuel Porter, Prufesitor of Mental Sciunce and 
Eoglisb Philology in the Colkge, 1860-1884. and Btnce IfttM 
Emuriluii ProfvMor. diud Lii Lbo bouM iu vrbicb be n-iis boru, id 
Farmington, Connecticut, on tbe night of Monday, S«ptembor 
% lOm. ugetl 91. He rvlsiufd to n wonderfal degi'Oo hie powers 
of IxkIv and mind ahnotit to the laat, and when lie di«d it vraa 
without any organic diBoaso. '- It xrxn aimply the painless 
cMeing to live of one who had outlived alaioat oU bis contem- 
porariea and atood alone." He ttsh a teacher of the deaf at 
Hartford, New York, aiid Wauhiugtou for more than sixty 
yMTH, thua attaining Ihe longest term of 8«rvicfl and the 
greatcflt age of any member of the profession in A.monca. 
During the «Arly joars of the A nnai* he was an associate 
editor and a frequent eoatributor, and from 18&4 to 1861 wits 
tbfl Kole editor. H« also contributed many artlelcH uu 
linguifttic Hiibjectft to other periodicids, uud wxh an ansoeiate 
editor of Web8t«r*a International Dictionary. He was a man 
of esteijsivo reading, profound «oholar»hip, sound judgment, 
8we«t diitpoHitiou, and lofty spirit. A fuller sketeh of bis Life 
and estimate of bis worth will b« given in the next number of 

e A II 'Hits. 

Mr. A. C Gaw, M. A., late of the Minneeola School, ban 
been appointed 6t«nographer to President QaUaitdet, and will 
alito devote |)jirt of bin time lo teaobing. Profosiwr Herbert 
C Day and Minn Honh H. Porter, who have been pumiiing 
eoiiraea of grudualv Htudy iu the Culumbinu UniTorsity, have 
ived from that Uuivei'sity the degrtxi of Ma«t«r of Arts. 


School Itmts. 

Gallaut]et Co1t«g« lias couft<rrMl llii< dogroe of Vaster of A 
in course upon Mr. AJbert F. Ailanas, B. A., Iiistrurtor in 
GTmiiLHtiofl in Ui« CoUog'^, ami tbe honorarjr degree ofj 
Baclielor of Diviiiit.y itpuD Mr. Fi-iuicis Ma<;iDii, of BAlfasI, < 
Ire Unci. 

GeruKi {Ilaty) hutUutinn. — A profuBcly JDuBlrated and 
hiuidMimelj' priuUtd large quarto jminpblet of SO pages haa 
been iHHued From tliu luitiilutioD pn'sn in memory of the 
ceDt«iimal anuiversai-y of theestablisUiueDt of Wits luuttlulion. 
It coDtiuna the hintory of thi> Inatitution and a akstoli of Jta 
fouDiler. Padre Otla^io O, B. ,4..sHtrotti, by tbe prnsont tUreotor, 
Dr. Silviu MoiiBci. imJ the iidnlreitses made and letters received 
on tlie occasion of tbe oentoDQial ct-lobrutiou. May 20, 1901. 

IJiinoiit Se/iooi. — Mies Mnry J. Sberidan, tcacLer, rrturus 
aft«r one year's rest; Hi&fi Daisie Mclntire, trained by Mihm 
Oleuii, lakea the plane of Mrs, Tliomptioii. reHigned ; Miaa 
Mar^faret KusdcI, from tbe Petmsjlvaaia institutiou.aod Miaa 
Marian Fuirbaolc, a graduate of Carletoo Colle^jfe and of tlifl 
trniuiDfif ciAnn in tbo (^nrki-- In»titutiot), are added to the corpa 
of iaatructorN : hlinn Mury Eaton, a graduate of the Chicago 
Stoyd School, aod a teacher of experience, succeeds Miaa Sjo- 
lander an ieocLer of Sloyd ; Miss Joacphiue A. BakewelL, a 
graduate of the Boston Normal School of Physical Culture, 
euc^oeda Uiaa Saiiter-, Mr. Herbert A. Hess, of Swamscott, 
Maui., aaeeeeda Mr. Hainlino aa inRtructor in photography ; 
Miss Alice Plouer succeeds Miss Helen Kennedy as librarian, 
and Mitta Kennedy enters the IlliaoiH State UniTeraity ae a 
atudeQl m the Library Departmeut. 

foimi iSrAw/-— Mr. C. S. Zorbauyb, a faithful and aueeeai- 
fill teacher for the punt thirty-seven yeara, has retired from 
the work on account of failing health. Mr. J. Schuyler Long, 
labo of the Wittcuusin School, ia appointed teacher in tbe 
Academic Department, Minn J. T. Ctetldea in the Oral Depart- 
ment, Miiu Florence Parks teseherof drawiug, and Ttlitut L. 
T. Johnson, taie of tbe PeaaBjkania Inatitutiou, teacher of 

School Itetnv. 


KaruHia Iristitulioi4. — HIiss Mvllec bdiI Ui»s Wrigbt have 
rosined. iliaa Murgun-t Stevenson, Inte of the Illinoie 
InrtUntion, uid Mibs OriLiiger, who liss tolt«Q ft eonrm of 
training in artirnlat ioa work in tho Ohio InRtilulton, have been 
RiUIeJ to the corps of inntructioQ. 

Mwyland iScAtw/.— Miss Margaret Aebbj lijle. B. S., a 
graduate of Caldwell College and of tlie Nonaal Departmcut of 
(Hllaudet Colleges has boon uddcd to the corps of iuBtniction. 

Michigan .S<'A'»«j/- — At the uppitiii^ of scliool in Soptoiubor, 
the inatmctirtD of n, few boys in bouse decoration, frettcopaint- 
iogi etc., will bp taken up. and if foand to be satisfaotory and 
prftcticnl, it will form o»v of tbc tudustricit rcKubuly tuuglit. 

Mintie»ota ,ScAool. — Mr. and lira, A. C. Gaw bay* rosignod 
tbeir jwHltioiiH aa tcacbArti. Sir A. W. Dobjns, M. A., from 
the WnshinRton Slate School, Sir. F. H, Wheeler. M. A., fmm 
the Illinois lustitutioQ. and Uiaii Mary E- Hchvotz, an •.■xpt'H- 
enced kindergartner, liftve b«eu appointed. Miss Amy K. 
Snidor, af turn yiitir'a leave of abBonn-. muBt of wliieb wae Bpeot 
in viaiting itrhoola for tlte d«af, has r«Lum«d to tb« work. 

MiasiMi/ijii Institution, — Mia» Adah Saunderis who bos 
tAogbt in tbie ^ebool since Januury, 1896, leBi^ued iu Jutie to 
be marrivd. Mina Cambria Ctaston, a normal student last 
fear, will teacli a class this year. 

MonUina School. — Mies ('ari ie R, 8t inxnii, formoriy a teacher 
in tbe North CatoUnu and Watihiugtou State 8cbooU,and last 
year matron of thia school, baa beeu appointed t(.-achor. 

ythrfiska fkho<*l. — Miss Martha B, Rlwards, from Uie Iowa 
School, nud MinB Ola B. Crawford, a ^niduatc of the Nebraaka 
School, who has ittudieJ at Oailuudet Cullvgu aud Ihtt State Tni- 
fWftityi tire appointed teaobera, and Mr. C- £. Comp, formerly 
of this school and later of the Oregon Si'liool, is appoiuted 
instructor in printing. Mr. J. H. Parry, innlriiclor In man- 
iial training, Mi^u Ora Virit>a, Miss Cluru Audrewt> Modh Mary 
UcNaoar, and Mr. Norman Shreeve, have rvaigned their 
poaitions as teaohers. 


SeAool limit. 


Neo! Mexico tic^ooi. — The ncbool is oloBed for two years 
from 3u\y 1 ou SRcouut of the failure of Uio Ifgislnturo to oikk* 
ftQ appropriaUon for ite support. 

Ifeie Yortr fugtitulion.^'MT WUliam E. Oark?, a tpacber 
tliU luHtitiiliou from I860 to IK74, w»8 nvriil^iitall; drowned 
while boating witli his cliildren oear liia home in Novr Buiuf'. 
NotUi Carolioci, in June lAst. H* wan n hrotlicr of MesRre. 
F. D. »nd T. P. Cisrke, of the Michigan Scliool. His amiablo 
diKpOHiLiuii, elL'sr mind, and high cbnrscl«r, niad^ liiiu an 
oxceltvDt teacher, but he was attracted to the stud; of the law, 
and resigned bia poeition in iho Institution to mltke tiiat bis 
prof««»ion. H^ practici'^d it Biifo«!isfnlly until his death, uerr 
ing also for Bome time as a membur of thv North Oaro! 

North Carolitut (^Haletyh) /lultlvtiot*. — A woodworking 
dcpartmcQt, together with carpentering aud mechnoical and 
architectural drawitig, hau boeu «BUbli8hod. aud Mr O. A. 
Kdward)), a recent gmduate of the Colored Xortoal School at 
Qreenaboro. N. C, has been elected to take charge of it. A 
bome science departui-nt baa boon catabliHhcd with a rtow to 
t««ahing all its brKOcheB, eapecially cuobing, and Mra Alice V. 
Williams, tormerlv a tvacher iu a likedejmttmoul in tli« Oreeos- 
boro Kormal School, ha» beRO elected to tes<-h thwein. A cl«- 
partinent of tecbnlL'al sewing, dressmaking, fanc;^' work, etc., 
has alHo bcco cstabbtthod, aud Olrtt. Blanche Willuns Williama, 
a graduate of the Minneaota Kckool, and wife of !hlr. C. 
N. Williams, supervisor of Ibe colored department, is Ic be 
the teacher, 

North Carolina {Siorganton') <%Aoof. — Mr. K. F- Mumford, 
M. A., a graduate of WakL- Furest College aud of the Normal 
Dvpartmcul of Gnllaudet CoUet^e, has bt-eu added to the 
oorpfl of teachers if the Manual Department, and Miss Mabel 
Haynes, dau^^hter of the Into Mr. Z. W. Hayues, a recent 
graduate of the State Normal and ludustrial College of North 
Cartdina, to the corps of toovherB in the Oral Dppartm«nl. 

North DitkitUt School. — When this Sehool was i-Hlahlishod 
in 1690, it recerred a grant of 40,000 acrea of land, none of 
which coold be sold for less than ten dollars an acre. The 


ScAoo/ Items. 


bst X/e^9latiir« ordered tbe first sale of 5.000 v^t^n to beiDftds 
ihis fall. The tmoant realijincJ will be not lens tlian $60,000, 
which will bn put at iQtarflst, and the ioter^Kt will be placed 
in the baads of the Boiu-d to bi< »p«iit as it may tlireot. Thus 
tbv 8i*bool will »oau be in receipt o( nn ionome indepeadeQt 
of ledrislatire approphatioos. Ttie Lpgietntiirt also pmwd ft 
law rvco^uistiiig tbis School a« n part ot tbo educational aya- 
teti) of the Stale, aDd made n Htauding uppioprintian of thir- 
teen per ceot. of a unc-mill tax on the asaesaed valuatiou of 
the Statu. 

]SIi»8 Edith B. P;le and Miss Lillian Curd hare resided 
their positioDS to teach in other schools. Mids Mati«l Park, 
of Santa Barbara, Califoniin, lia^ been appointed an a teacher. 

A new boUer-honne and shop buildinif ban been erected dui^ 
itig the Hnmmer, at a cost of about $€,000. Carpentrj will bo 
introdnc^I thia year. 

Ohio Inttitution. — Mina Anna Clark, wbo has been teaching 
in thix lunttitHtioQ for nevoral yearn, wu married at the close 
of ftchool, and her place was 611ed b; the appointment of Misa 
iHaxel ItccHc. who took thv normal course and wa« t)ubtttitut« 
te&cher lost year. Miaa CIoa O. LamBon, B. A., a f^sduate of 
Qallnuilet College, bafs been appointed as subatitute leather. 

Ontario InUitnlion. — Ur. Duncan John UoKillop, wbo bad 
{iImmo oonuecj«d with thi- twbool a» pupil and t«««bci- for thirty 
yeaTB, died May 9, lUOL, a^ed fi'i. Dnring that time, aa Mr. 
MaLbitton said at his funeral. b« lind meritHd and enjoyed the 
esteem and respect of eTery officer, teacher, and pupil. He 
was tUwaya ready to help any of the deaf, to Bdriae them in 
difficulty, to ajrmpatbixe with and aid them in trouble. 

Ortf/on Srhool. — Mifis Susie Boyd baa resigned on account 
of BiokneaH in the home of her parents, and Miss Nellie Cobb, 
formerly of tbc Myatio School, baa beeo appointod to the 
Oral Deparlnieul Mihh Kmma Olds, who took traiiiinf; in 
Lhts school la^t T«'ar. baa been H]>puiiited in the place of Miaa 
Teilii Itajc^rman, refiiguetl. Miss Flurencc Diviue. Ut« 
laperrisor of ^irls. has been added to the oorpa ijf teachers. 
Mr C. E- Comp, instructor of printing, baa resigned to accept 
a similar puHiliou in the Nebmska Sohool, and Mr. AnguvtiU 


Sehool Teem*. 

H«8le;, of Bocbester, N. T-, has be«ti appoiDtod to fill 
VAcniio;. DrcKsmnlciit^ uid wood-working and Sloyd lial 
beoD introduced. 

l>unoK tbe puit Iwo yean a litLlii sbeet containing cc 
tributioDs from and forUie pritinu-v oUiiseH Itss been puUinliE 
usually twicp a month, alternating witli tlie Geu«U*er^ It 
eall«<l tiiff .Scltnol Ji*tur. 


Ptunt^loania 0*^l School. — Mise Fayett» P«tk resigned 
ber position in May, nnti MisH K. O. Van Dus^n. tvlio was 
trsiufd at ibis school, took her plncp. Miiut M. E. Conn* 
teacher of tiiv biKhust cinse. and BIr. O. S. Stoddard. 
slructor uf Sloyd and pbytticitl culLuru clat«iw)f, ba^'o alM> 
ai|;nedt both to IaIh^ up other work. 

St. Kowt IM^Srhool. — Mi»H Ssra France* Small, a nor 
student at QaUaudet College last year, luts heva added to til 
uDrp8 of iustruuLion. 

South Car^lin/t Institution, — Tb« following appoiutmentl 
hnve been made: Mm. G. O. Coleman, UiLtlipr of dmwiug, 
painting, t^ic.. Mrs. M. M. Tbackstou, teacher iu the Oral Do- 
piirtuiKiit ; Mr. W, liuui'ens Wulkt-r. PriucipiJ of the Jjitorory 
IX'porlmvnti and Mr. J. il. Friersoui lesch«i- in the Dopiui- 
ment (or <:olor<>d Pupils. 

Mrs. T. E. Wftllcpr. matron for more than twenty yeoTB, haa 
resignad. • 

A thrcc-story brick buildiui; uf tw«utytivo roomH. erinippej 
with ste«m beat and electric Itghto, has been i-ri-«tcd for the 
Department for Colored Pupils. 

A i>ontrnrt hns Iwen given out for a tbroe-story sehool 
building for the Depnrtmont for AVhtt<-s. to contain a chapel 
with a gallery, twenty classrooms, the principal's office* a 
teacher's room, and eight inueio rooms for tbu blind. 

•S'vmIA Dakota Schoiil. — Miss Marion K. Finoli, a studont of 
Oallaudet Collogtr, has been addud to the corp^ of iDeiruction. 

TimntfMW Schnol.- — Uiss Ira Diion lias Iiceii appointed to 
HUi'TCfK-d Miss DMia It. Hoses, a teacher in the Manual Depart- 
ment, wbo rcttigned at the eloee of the last session and WM 
married June 25 to Mr. Fred. A.. Roliertn. 


SeA^ [terns. 


Terati School. — Mr. Elm«r Tt. ReAt)* Bl. A., a grndnate of 
lUiDoifl College iknd of tbe NormAl Pcpoi-tmoat of GuJIaudet 
College, has been nddetl to tUe DOrpfl of instruotiun. 

Vtaft •'ichool. — lu tlie liLat number of tbe Afnah, uieuliou- 
ing thp ronignatioti of Mr. MetcnU, it was iwid be hftd l>eeii 
nuperinli'iidnnt ftince 1899. Tbo <\aif rIiouIi] hare bpea ]8H!t, 

Mi-. Ezm 3. Hentie, late of tbe Tirginiu iDslitutiun : Mr. O. 
G. DaDielH. M. A., n graduKW of Tuft« College luid of the 
Koriuftl l>«p«rtment of O&llaudet College; Mrs. Mitrie L. S. 
Nolwtiii, for maoj' jeai-s au oral tcncbvi- iti tbo Rhode Island 
Bad Kentucky schools ; And Mr- John P. Ilunb, for four vears 
bojit'itupertiHor in tbU school, burt; bctu (tp|>oiDtcJ to tbe va. 
4aucii-n ciim8<^-i1 hy tLc jiromoLioii uf Mr. Drig)^ iiud tbr rvMig- 
natioits of Mrs. Florence 0. Metcalf. Mies M. FraooeB Walker, 
and Mr Wm. N. Harshall. Mies Limo Maujjbaii.a groduata 
of tbe State .^gricidtural College, has been engagi^l ua iu- 
structor of domestic Rcienre. 

Viryinia TuttUuliou. — Mrs. Q. D. Kiititt liau brpn cIc-ctM 
to surwed Sir. Hciiue as siuiiHtaDt in ihv bigb clnxN and in tba 
Articulatma Department. Misit Eliisabetb Jonea will tf»«b a 
deaf-blind boy duriug tbe coniiuf^ year Buth of tbeso ladim 
liave l>eeti liviii;^ iii tbiH Iiihtitiiliou for tbe piiMt Ave years. 

The tailor abop ban been dtannnliniiml for tbe reason (liaL 
taitoriug ia Qui considered a aiiitable trade for tbo duaf. 

We.aUrn /'Mtntt/liHimn fn»tituii<in. — Misa Franoee Barker, 
wiio has been connected with tbia InatitiiUon for tbe pnat nine 
jrcara, baa retired to enjoy a mucb-needod rest. Sbo is &iio- 
eeeded by Miss Kditb B. i'yle, late of the North Pokota 
Sebool. MiM Alice M. White, a graduate of Mian Garr^ttl'H 
traiQing acbool, aucree^la MtHa Tjitira B. Bell, who found it 
iMoeaaary to return to her borne after a year's eiperience in 

When tbe contraet was entered into for the erection of a 
new Institution to take the place of tbe one deutroyed by fire 
one of the vinga waa omitted. Since tbtin tbp Trublees bare 
succiKded in Kci-uiiug money i-nuugli to rouipli-lt- the entire 
building iu accordancif with tbe original plaoH and Bpecitica- 
tioua. Work t*. alrtnuly under way, and tlie building u-dl be 
oompleled before the fail lenn of 1902. 


A young Indy, Kmiluate from high Hchool and cotleKe, desires a posiliou 
as teacher or aMietant matron. Has been in training in one of the lead- 
ing iuatitutee for the past year. Highest tecommendatione. Address 
Obaduatk, care of the Editor of the Annatt, Kendall Oteen, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

A hearing yonug man, whose father has long been a teacher of the deaf, 
desires a position as teacher. He baa bad some experienoe and can teach 
either by the combined or oral method. Good referenoes. Addreaa 
TucHEB, oare of the Editor of the Annala, Kendall Green, Washington, 
D. C. 

A yonng lady, tborongbly familiar with the Bign-lsogaage, desires r 
position in a school for the deaf. She has entiBtitnted in ooe of the 
sonthem instittitiODe, and has altto had a year's esperienoe in tetohiug 
asemi-mnte pupil orally. Highest testimonials. Address Ulss JuLnm 
8. OatDESTEB, Bomney, West Va. 

A graduate of Gallaudet College desires a position as teacher, girls' 
supervisor, or assistant matron. Highest recaumendations. Apply to 
the Editor of the AnnaU, Kendall Green, Washington, D. 0. 

New Lnnguagf Chart, by It. H. Atwood of the Ohio State Institution 
for the Deaf. Fifteen Fundamental Forme of Expression. A great aid 
in teaching language. A .snving of time and labor in the classroom. 
Also the bent method of showing the com pounding and complexing of 
sentences from short simple ones. The chart ban been adopted by the 
Ohio Hchool and other Htiitu schools for the deaf. Fur prices, address 
R. H. Atwood. K38 E»Mt Oftk Street. Coliimlms. O. 

Ab(euio«s' Annals of tke Deaf, Eetabllshed 1847. Complete sets of 
the Aniuilii may now be obtiiined a'. JQ.CO a volume. Volumes i, ii, ix, 
X. xiv to xtv, iudusivr', auil the hist two nuuibers of volume xiii, are un* 
bound and will beHOidseparately. Volumes iii and iv, vand vi, viiand vUi, 
xi and xii, together with lhi> tirst two numbers of volume xiil, have been 
bound two volume!! in one. 'i'liesci will be sold only as bonnd. Biugle 
nnmbers, from vuliuiit' xiii. unmlii-r ;<. to tlit^ present ihsue, will be sold 
at 50 cents eai'li. Indexes' to iht^ firfit twi-nty, the third ten, and the 
fourth tun volumes W c:i'iita ■■ueh. The first two iudexea, l»nind together 
in olotb, $1.(>0. The three iiidexeH. hound together in cloth, fl.50. 
AddreKs the Editor of the A iiiml'. Keudnll Grewi, \Viinbingtou. D. C. 


Ghieago, 1893, .^il.OO; in Bubscribors to tW An'i'il^, bulf price. Add H 
cents for the ]>repityiiietit. of |iostjig<>. Address* the Editor of (he Ann/lU, 
Kendall <lreeu, Washington. D. U. 



Vol. XLVI, No. 5. 

NOVEMBER, ^901. 


WrmiN tho sainn twclvcnionth, uitrly iu the la^tt ctmtiirj; 
five toon were boru wlio bave left their impress iu luat<o[:y 
anri who Hhto lirBcl to a j^reat Rge — the Kngliah Prime 
Miuintt-r, (iliulHtont! ; tin? Aiii4fni;»ii BuDntor, Morrill ; 
Pope Leo XIII, Bdniuud Bouth. and Snimiel Porter. 

The firat three of those uumed hare figured coDspioa- 
oasl; ID the eye of the world, aiid the rooord of their 
liTee iH knowu nod read of all men. . The Iiut tW9, distf b- 
guiHhed iu a coiupAnitivelv hiuuII circle, still deserre lo be 
reeo^iiized us men uf udusuuI power aud ioiluetice. 

Theso live nitines liitvo often been spakeD of together of 
lAto /ears among the friendn nod aiwocinteA of Proftifumr 
Porter nt Kendnll Gri'eii. Wbeu Ghidtiluue died the 
qaef}- want, " Wliu trill go uest ? " The same quoutiou 
afOBS wboD Morrill passed away, and now Proftmsor Por- 
ter li us gone, leaving bnt two of the disttogiiishetl quiu- 
Mte still living. 

Cdmund Booth, who sarviTes his oarlr fri«od. Porter, 
is kuoira to th« roadera of the Annah as one of the ear- 
liest popils of tho Hartford School, and as a donf mao 
who, iu tipite uf his disability, has aohioved notable snc- 
c«BH as an editor and pabhsber. 


Sutaugt Porter. 

That tli«sc five meo nhoald retaia pbysioal aud iotal- 
leotnal vigor up to (he limit uf oioetj years ^rea riso to 
many interesting reflections which, however, need not be 
pnrHned iti this arttulu. TUoir nuuiuM have Iwea meu- 
tinnod mainly bccausi; Professor Porter's (rieudtt haTa 
boon in the habit of comparing hint in many respects to 
these others whose advent into the world was oontetnpu- 
raneous with his own. 

Profeiwor Porter was beyond iktl questiou n. rotnarkable 
miui. Born of a highly cultured family, having in early 
life the best mental training attainable in this country, 
endowed with intell»ctnal vigor in a high degri^, he early 
became what he coutiuaed to be through life, even to its 
very end, a true scholar. Graduating at Yale College id 
1829, he was occupied for a short period as a tntor in a 
Sonthem family, and then took tip the study ot theology 
with the purpoHB of entering the ChnKtinn ministry. 
LicenHed tu pren(.-b before cotupleliug theuu studies, partial 
deafness came upon him and led him to abandon his 
plan of eutoriug the ministry. It is to be presumed that 
the incident of denfneHH had an inttueuoe in leading bira 
to take up the iuHtructiou of the deaf as the work of his 
early manhood. Ho became a toaeher in the Hartford 
School iu the aiiUimn of 1832, and held his position there' 
for five years, tie then transferre-l his labors to the Now 
York Institntion, remaining there ten yeara, when he re- 
turned to the Hartford School, coutinuiag hie work as u 
teacher for thirteen yeara more. 

Having then beoa an iiutractor of the doaf for nearly 
a generation, ho resigned his position aud devoted bim- 
Hulf to literary work for six years. 

For the last six years of bis work as a teacher in Hart- 
ford, Professor Porter was the editor of the AitnaU, and 
before aud i^inru that perinti a frequent contributor to its 
pagen, as ita rondura aii) wvU aware. 

As a teacher of deaf childreu in Hartford and New 

Sntituel Porter. 


Vork, Professor Porfcor was eniineutly BuccesHfiil. Some 
of bis Hartford |>ii]iils nnv liviitg at Kcridnll Greoo bare 
boroe recent tedtimooy to the kindly spirit witb wbicli be 
iospirod bis pnpilii to do tbeir best wurk. Ho was not 
onliDitrilv nstivoro disciplinsiniLo. Ue expected that his 
pupilfl wocM do And t>e tboir best. Bat when tbey fell 
eborl of tbiu, be did Dot fail to correct tliom nor to give 
them the restrnint and discipliue they deserved. Oue 
secret of his saocoss as a teacher waa hia own aotivity as 
A »tadeut. 

He was a collertor and render of bookfi all throngh hlH 
life. During the eix yearn Jutet-veniiig between bis resig- 
nation from tbe Hnrtfuid School and liis appointment as a 
professor at Waehiuiitou, he guie himself wholly to liter- 
ary labors, writing articks for journals and extunding 
bi» studieH in Koglisb philology, as a result of which came 
biis well kuowu esHuy, iiic]ude<l in Wfibster's I utflmatiooal 
Dictionary, on Vowel iSouuds iiud Pronuueiatioii. 

Ill t8G6, the secoud year after tbe organization of the 
College at Weshington, Profesaor Porter was invited to 
tultti the chair of Mi*otal ScieDcu and Fnghitb Philology. 
It iiued hardly bt; said that hix necejuiion to the (College 
faculty was a aonrco of grmit tstreugth. Hia long experi- 
ence as an inNlriK'lor of deaf children bad given him a 
thorough understaniling of tbe peculiarities, if there be 
any sadi, of the mind of tbe deaf-mute, and he came to 
his work in tbe College witb n Hpecial preparation, which 
in many ways titted biin for tbe aneco&s which crowned 
bis labors as a professor. 

Profeseor Porter's attainments were not limited to tbe 
rnit^e of his professorship. Ho was a student in uian^r 
directions, ami the youth of the Collage oould go to him 
for information on ahuost any subject as to an encyol<h> 
podia. He bad a rvmarfcable memory. Ho was able to 
avail himself, on demand, of wbnt he had road. His io- 
fiannce among onr Htadents was elevating and iDspiring ; 


SmituM P&rUr. 

Ihe exncnple of liin pore and well-ordered life was a per- 
petual 8ertnou ; tlio kiadliooHti of hiti uiaunor and bbe 
frieadliDess of liis Rpirit could oot fitil to lead those who 
cnme io contact witli biiu to desire to follow his example. 

ProfesBor Porter coiitinned his active work «» « proffls- 
BOT in the ColtegM Tor KHvsntefiti yenm, when, baring 
reactieil \m sevoiitv-liftli _veiir, he wh», at liis <»wu request, 
relieved from llio dutiu^ o[ bis prufetuior«bip and mad* 
emeritas professor. He wna invited br the board of 
director!* nf tbij CoIIc>g« to (■ontinuv his retiiileiice on Keu- 
dall Gre«n and to render from time to timu Hucb Kervicea, 
and only such, as be might be inoliued tu giv« the Col- 

Tn this position he continued with ns to the end of 
June of the present year. Returning Dion t« his native 
place, Farmiugtun, Connecticut, he entered the homo iu 
which he was botu, now occupied by two of hi^ sist^tra, 
and there during the weeks of July and AoguHt his life 
gradnallv faded and cnme to its end. A few vrooks before 
leaving Washington, there were unniistivkahlo evidences 
of failure iu hit nicutal and physical powers. It was, 
therefore, no f>urpnse when the news came in Angust that 
be was apparently neariug his end. He buffered from no 
diaeaKo ; uo pain dinlracted t)io cloKiug hount of his life ; 
ha had liwd far beyt>iHl tho ulUtttud ttiui^ of niau, aud at 
length the limit of bis ntreiigth was reached, and be fell 

Pnrtng tlo years that lui lived na professor emeritus ai 
Kendall Oruuu, it waa ruiunrkablu tu uhsarvo bow groat 
uM interest he took iu having sotuethiug tu do for the 
College. He acted coiitiiinouRly ns librarian, and on many 
occasions he took the place of proffsisora or of the Preai- 
di'ut when stckuesa or olber causes necMi»iitatLil their 
absence. He took his tarn ntt a lecturer iu theclmpel on 
Sabbath days up to a very recent period. Ue never gave 
up bis class iu the Sanday-Kchool. 

Samuel J "brier. 


DariDg the last ;«ftr ha gavo a serioa of lectnroB on 
Eoglisli philologj' and pronunvidtion tu ttio muubere of 
our Normal clasa. 

At the bef^iuuLU^ of each College year, as he returued 
Iroio his summer vacatiouB, be wouKl come to the Prosi- 
duut itDil sa^, " I hope yon will remenilter that \ urn rcotly 
for nuy occasional xerricu that iun,v Iw reqairod of me/' 
His iuterest in the welfare of the College and of its sln- 
doats wasuuflaggiugtotbelast. His interest in the young 
watt rAmarknble. He never fell into the common vreuk- 
nesd of old f^o of thinking und siiyiug that old Limvaand 
his older frieuds were better aiid of greater interest to him 
than later times and the fneods of later years. In this 
renpect ProfcKHor Porter nover becamo nu old man. His 
Bjinpathies wore with the oveuts aud tbo intureslti of the 
people of to-daj, and ibis leot an annsual chann to his 
always attracUre and interesting personality. Without 
effort ou his part, by Ixiing simply what he wntt, be warmly 
jiUavhetl to luiuMilf all thosu who bad tlte privilege of 
knowing him. 

Professor Porter colle*-ted a btr^e library of several 
thonsand volntnuK. from which he h-hk in the habit of lend- 
ing books to bis friends iu the College, and of which he 
made constant use in his own rending and study. 

H« mIsc) niadu a large collection uf vury beautifnl engraT- 
ings, etvhiug8, aud photograplis. Some years since, wish- 
ing to give the students of the College the benefit of this 
valooble collnclioR, he reqaested tlint a case might be 
made to be pliicwl iu one of Ihu halts of the College, iu 
wliicb be might exhibit from time to time his most pre- 
eious art trsasuros. And in this esse during n period of 
Bovoral yonre there were shown to our students many 
works of art of the greatest interest, which otherwise they 
would never have bad an opporttinity of seeing. 

Professor Porter was extremely fond of music in spite 
of his deafness, which in latter years grew apon him to 


S'tvtutl l%rl^r. 

AD cxtOQt which cut hitu off from the eujoyiueiit oC tunny' 
kiucU of mnsiv. lint he wilh fond of attundiug coDcerts,^ 
espeoially tboeu of orcl'uslras aud milttiirT Imnds. wli< 
the music was stitHcieutl}* loud for him to henr it. ff^ 
mado HOme attoiupts to ptnj the violin niid Ibe violoneollo? 
aad wa» KomutbiDg of a roDnoi»»ear to instrniuetits of tliifi 
clsBs, liaviDf^ii liulf dozon or mum ruroHpuciineDH of fchttin 
in his room at the timti of hii^ deiitb. 

Uy own iDliiaacj with Professor Porter, if I lua^r bo al| 
lowud to spenk in tho firHt penion id closing this br)< 
akt-t4:h, covured n period of joHt nti«-hidf of bin Ufn. Wlien* 
I was uightueu, ittill u sliidaut iii cullctge in Hartford. I be- 
came his associate in the corps of iuatructora in the ocbnul 
for tbe d«af iii that citj. He was tbeu forty-six vears of 
age, in the prinae of life, but to my youthful eye, as we 
not «tmiige, be seemad a man w«ll along in years, ThJ 
difference iu age Ixitween uh laat yt>ar waa not aa great 
it was forty-six years ago, aud to me Professor Pot 
seemed little, if at all, older tliun bo was when I lirsl kuov 

To ray early assoetntioiiR with Inm at Hartford, T learm 
to love him, and nothing dnriug oar uotjnaintaace there^ 
or our loug intimaey here has ever occurred to mar thi 
onward flow of n gonial and warm friciidfthip. T have 
looked upon him as a falherin my profession and latterly 
08 a brother ; I have felt tlie ia^pirutiou of his high soliol- 
ftrehip, bis geutle disposition, bis loving spirit, hi« nnfaild 
log coQctesy. 

It need hardly bo »aid that, with all the other qoalitiee 

to make & acbohirly gontlemau, Professor Porter wob 

tme Christian. His faith in the religion of Obrisi uevc 

wavered, and few toeu. if any, Imvc given a more cotnplt 

reflectioD in their own lired of tbu usuuiple of Hitu who 

lave<l tlie worhl and gave himsutf to it as its Saviour. 




Next in Umo aHor Judaism cam© Hellenism — more 
briUiaut. yot loss hamane. Tbe Gi-cck tauRlit us to thiuk, 
bat tbe Hebrew to love om- biud. Tlie liglit of Atbdtis 
wan marvellously cleur »Dd penetrating, bat it was cold ; 
tfaatof Jomsalem wasiaystitiiil, ImtwHiiii. HumuD impor- 
foctiouniid luiKforlauv, sorrow ikud luouniiii};, woreproeeiit 
iu Atticu Aud Sparta, but were l«ft conifortleas ; it was in 
Jaden ntid Galilee that a ?oioe was heard snying, " Love 
thy Dei^hbor tin thrself." Of the one who prommuucd 
tfaiHio words muu &aid, " Ho liutb don» all tilings well; be 
maketb both the doaf to Imur aud the dumb to speak." 
ThroDghoiit all the literature of Greece one aearohes in 
Tain for snck sayings. 

We {ind thi^ di.'uf mcntinDal, it is trao, but what we 
leftrn tends only to make the kindiv heart siuk with dls- 
uppoiutoiaut. It is when we couie to iutjuire into such a 
HubJRct as we now haVB in hand, that we discover gloomy 
f>hado»K athwart all tliu Nplnndor of Grecian civili/iitiou. 
Although the art of teiichiug the thoroagh use of all one's 
mental faculties was developed iu Greuoe as it had uever 
b»en before, nevertheless no deaf-mute participated in the 
bleHsin^H Lli«r«!by couf»rred. We ara driven to this con- 
tdutiion by uvidence ouly too speL-itiu and couulusive. 

The great Greek historiau, Herodotus, for iustance, 
gives hb n vnry circumstantial acconnt of no lessdistin- 
gaiKhiid a doaf-iiiiitu than a Lydiitn princiti, son of the 
culebrntbd KiugCnvKiui. Says HerodotuB,t "CrwsuBhad 

*OonCiaiNtl fraiD the U^j Bnatbvr ot tbs AutuU, page AH. 

tSee BwodotuB, Book I, 01>apt«r S4. Berodotu aku qnous Onmm 
m asTing to hia famriDR vmi, aft«i a vUioo warDinK him «f Ihnt •on'a 
tuipeoOliigitealh- "On aocounlot tlibiTlnlon. lb«refore. [ liuteoed jtour 


468 T^ Social SOHhm nfth& Deaf in the Piitt. 

two 80D8, one bluited by a oatural defect, being deaf nud 
datnb. . * • • Id the early days of bis prasperily, 
Cnx^auB hailcloQe the utmost th»t he could for liitu, and 
nuiong otiior pliitiB * * * hu liiid sc'iit to Dulpbi to 
consult thu oraclu iu W\» bebaW." But observe tbe reply 
of.tbe oraole, wkkb woti to tbe effect tbabtbe kiugsbonld 
never trouble bimRelf with Fitinly wisbiitg to bear id bis 
pnluou "tbo voire Iio litui pntyeil (or, ottiiriug luttilligout 
Manila." Tho bislorimi ni»ku.s tb<!Ornclu any furtbertbat 
it would be au utiI tlay for Cr(j»«us, wbeu he sbould first 
boar tbe acceuts of bis son's voice. 

Salweqaently Herodotus relates the exact fnltilineut of 
tbia prediction, wliicli took plaei; na an iucideut iu tbe fall 
of Sarditi. Tbe Htory goeu that at a uiitical momeiit, when 
Cra>Bii8 was ikbout to be slniu iu tbe presence of bis deaf 
SOD, tbo latter suddouly burst into spoucb with the cry, 
■'Mail, kill not Crmsns." It is tboii iidded, " These are 
tbe tinit words he had i>vi-r uttt^rml." But th» expert 
kuowa that saeb a thing could only happen by miraole, 
for it would be as impo&siblo for n man who bad Dover 
used Ilia vocal organs in articulate speech suddeuly to 
Qspress hirnsetf in iutelligiblo words, as for one who bad 
vever linudled a violin to Beizu one at a moment's uotice 
aud draw from it a strain of correct music So we 
probubly owe this neat fnlBlmeot of tbti Dolpbiau oracle's 
prophecy to the historian's fertile imagination, oa it is 
Vfell kuowu that Herodotus wus ovorfoud of dramatic 
balance aud tiuitib, ouch as rarely occurs in real life. 

Kttvitrtiug, however, to tlie maiu ijuoBtiou, w* b&ve Id 
ibis baro fact of tbo wealthy and far-faoiud Cricttus being 
Qaabl^, iu &|>itD uf ovory uffort, tt> uucomplisb auytbiag 
(or bis deaf son, a sit^uificaut iudicntion of the atato of 
tbin)^ in that age and regioD. I( eoormous wealth, 

marrlMga. tatA, now rafiiM to Mmd ynn on Ihi* sapitdjUoii, taking esra to 
prM«TT« you, it by any uivKnt I c«ii, u long u I Uroj tbe alb^r, nbo t< 
ddprivi'd of bMring, I pomtdor u lo«i " 

714* Social Statm i^lheJMa/in Mrf Pan. 469 

\\ influeuce. and wicle celnbrity coqM offocl notliing 
toward t'lie e<lticntioii of a ronug doiif princt.-, wbnt of 
thotte loat iu poverty aud obscurity ? Tbe uecessarj 
inforeucfr here lies on tbe audaco. 

But there \» iu this connection a pertinent rotimrk of 
Aristotle's. His searching olffiervutiun bad ni>t fnilvd to 
Dote tlie exiHtencM of pert*oDK cut off from society by 
deafness uad dnmbnuiM, but iinfortiiDately bis comiuaDt 
only wuut tu )ttr»ugtbuu tbe c-ouviction of uhuv fntura 
{i^oenitioDB that nothing eould be done for Hncb persons. 
Dnriug u dJRvu^sion of th« voioo iiiid itti nKt> iu K[)«(>ob, 
he IB led to luentinn tbe deaf iu thustj turiuit: "TbotiL' who 
are boru deaf all buoome Bpeechlemt; they bare a voice, 
bnt aro de8titut« of spooch."" That is to nay, they can 
utter inarticutat'-- sounds, hnt are iocapable of uptiukiiiff 
iatelligiblu laii^un^e. Of coarHe this wiut perfeorly trtie 
ao far sa Ariatotle'u uhservatiou weut, no doubt, for be 
saw only tiDtiia^bt individunls. But it 8oen)s lo imply 
(arUier tbuLt this iuenpacity for the use of spevcb is no 
incnmble defect, and (but edu^^atiou is tlierehy cut off. 
Thus it was construed for centuries afterward. Had tbe 
great philosopher lived iu our day, we may be suro bis 
dictutu would have boon quite different. Meantime, it is 
clear that Ariatotle never came across a doaC person whoso 
diaabiiities bad beeu to any decree overcome by educa- 
tion. Xba cetehinted Uruek physiuiiiu. IlippocratAS, also 
allados to the deaf aud dumb iu a passa}(u dealing with 
tbe pkysioto^icul biisitt of spmtcb. Hu sl,nlt?s, as if that 
were ait end of it, that born deaf-mutes can only make 
iuarticulate soands. saob as give no biut of logiual noder- 
standing hehiud thoiu.t 

• 8*c ArMotlA'a " HUtory rtt A&lmnla," Book Iv, Chu\i. is, Am. 8. 
TbB trAulaliDo ubmI in tXm tvxt in Berkfr'a. Cri>iiHcl) IraiMUIra llitt 
•uae tbaa : " All that u* born dnmb, and nil cfaildrati. ntttr soomli, 
bol bitvu DO Ungiiutte, " 

t See tili"P«n S«ikaii," Ctup. Till. He»iija : " Artiduliiiiuti IntjiaMil 
UiRnppBlNeuf till- ton({ii«; It ruiidaw Uifl «onb ilUtiut^t by inter- 

470 TKe Social SUitva of the De^tfin the Pitat. 

Amid III! Uio gloriouK utiliiuvomotite uf the Qreciau eiril- 
iKiilioD, tliuniftirt), wo enu tlixuuver uo trnce of a anocosa- 
tal effort to educuite deaf atiJ dumb persons. Tbare pro- 
vailed iustead a prettv 8elUe<l oonvictinii tiint this class 
were hopelessly iocapticiUted hj their ni)itt«nnns afflic- 
tion, becaniie erun the pitircitig initiglit of the Greek 
mind Mtill failed to peuetrate below the mirtace and learn 
that the miuds which lay behind deaf ears and epeechlosa 
tongues were jn»t i*» sound as others and as capable of 
being taiight, if only the meanii for aocoinpliahiag this 
end were workud up. 

The qnestion ar)»eK next, however, aK to how the 
Ureeka dealt with sach persons regarded simply In the 
light of Booini beings with some elaim for consideration 
at the hands of society. An eminent aatliority on mat- 
tors relating to the deaf once gave it aa hia opinioD that 
deaf-mutes (uneducated oa they were) may have been em- 
ployed in ancient times for low grades of nottkiiled labor. 
He also went on to say, "Ami here and tbero one pos- 
soBBod * * * the means nf considerable intelleotnal nud 
social enjoyment. These exceptional cases mast, bow- 
ever, have been either rare or known only to a fevr."* 
Ak a matter of fact, I foar that thoy wore rare indeed. 
After a careful special investigation of Grecian oouditions 
I find myself inclined to the belief that the oxueptionni 
oasee, where *' considerable intellectual and social oujoy- 
meat " wafi gained, must have been practically non-exist- 
ent, and that tho futo which awaitud all real deaf-mntes 
in Greece was one of mortifying isolation, dogntdatioD, 
and misery. 

o«ptiiig tboni in tli« throat, and •trikinit «gala«t Ui« pttUU mxI ImUi. 
U tlu) louf(an Aid act articnUlo eracy tlEU« b; olrlklu);. uiftd would not 
•|Mkk dlaitnelly. asd he wonid onl^ alt«r mob of tha vitigV aatnnt 
««>>iBd4. A jjToof «f Uii* i* th* cftMO of d««f.mut«« from Uirtb. wbo not 
knowisit bow to apMb. ntlnronly xiniplr raaada." (LittT^i> IraiitUiluB.J 
■Se« ■* Maoioir on tli4> Ongln nud Eurl^ lltiitoty at (h« Art ot iMtras- 
Udv Iba UmX," b} Dr. H. F. Put, AnnaU, ili, 131. 

The Social SlaOtg of the Deaf in ihe Fast. 471 

Tn au iuqniry of Uie preseut kiuil Oreece presents oue 
ur two sptic'iul features that must bu takeu fully into nc- 
QOUDt if wo woald properly uudorHtaod liow mntters stooil 
there. In iliu first pincc, a sharp horiKontal pinno of 
elaavage diviclf-il her people into two ^rent classes — the 
free oitixenry nud the iii'ln^ftrinl »crln ur helots.'*' It was 
the former who developeil and orj^uized ioviacible 
armies, who carried inteUectQul and artistic pnrsnits to 
thoir highest pitch, and of whom history has uover 
wo*ried of rocouuttug to us erory [wesihlu dotail oi 
kuowleflge preserved from thu wrock of time. Itiit it waa 
tlie other submei^ed niultitmle whose bumble und ud- 
hoDored toil (uruished the resources without which the 
fires of Grecian fjlory could never have kindled. When 
it ia rememboriMl in I'loite connectinn with tliiH fnct that 
the nnmbor of denf-iuutos, propottionalty cousidered, is 
extremely small among the up])er well-conditioned classes 
of society, bnt increases rapidly to a maximum among 
the lowest, where many things are adverse to sound 
healthy existence, it is at once ohrions that only a Nmall 
fraction of Ibeni conid have been fonnd among the citizen 
otasH, while the gruat majority UvimI and died among the 
despised helotry of Qrcoco. Yet it is of this majority 
,that wo can never hope to know anything directly, for 
the records pasH over the Kervite masHOK in Kilence to en- 
large the murti upon the smaller aelect claeseH, whose 
briUiaace fille^l the eyes of the world and oast into 
neglected shadow all that was beneath. As to the small 
minority of denf-rantOK who appeared in tho higher life 
of Orceco, there is for obvions roasonti a better chance of 
forming some notion ns to their fate. 

A second cardinal facttonehing ouranbject is this, viz., 
that to the Greek miud the stato was everything, the in- 
dividual nothing, when it came to a conflict between the 

' For Uio t>nl acooiiBl nf lliig aulljoct t^ Oroto'a " HisUirf of nroeiw,*' 
V«l. I, on Qr««k Booiely. 

472 The .Sodal Statxui o/ Ihf Dm/ in Iha PaM. 

interests of the two. No people erer deT«1oped more 
fnlly tliiK futi (lament 111 priuuiple, ami tbey sppliot] it witli 
a ralenlless iuSexible soverity that ve modenis ciin 
scarcolv renlize, liviug as wq tin in tin nge of aluiost ex- 
treme iudividunlisiij. AUIioii(;li Mituiiuluy is soaietiiue^ 
more brilliiiat than accurate, he is hardly cxtraviigant 
when ho suys : " The Spartnus piirchitsed for th^ir gov* 
tirumeut u prolon^p-tiou of iUi exiKt«iiu» by thtj sacnfitfeof 
bappioosB nt home. They cringed to the puwerful, they 
trumpled on the weak, tbey sacrificed tboir bolot^i, etc."* 
And Grote vrroto of tbetu: "Their grand parpoae wiw 
the maiiiltitiauco of a vi(;oroas breed of (!itiKetis."t The 
safely aud welfare of the state as & whole was the supreme 
coutitderatioii, and to this end all iodtvidaal coucerna had 
t« give way without reserve. The whole geoiuB of the 
Spartan fttato bore steadily against t;veu the bare tolera- 
tion of defective and helplesa persons, much les^ their 
support and kind treatment. In Attica the same policy, 
pruvailedj useupt in milder degree. 

Speakiug of legendary Greece, out of which roau tfao 
liislorical states, Grote says : " Throughout the long 
stream of Jeguudiiry Darralive.on which the Greeks looked 
hack as their pout history, the larger social motives aeTor 
appear. There is uo sense of ubligiilion between man 
and man as such." Elsewhere the same authority slates 
that "as a genend rule, he who cnnnot protect bimaell 
finilH uo protootioQ from sacitity." 

Furthermore, »o high was the eslimntiou in which 
physical and mental perfectiou was held by the Greeks 
that no keener mortification could be aroused in a Camilj' 
than (hut of the appearance in its midst of a deaf-mute, 
for instuuoti, nor on the part uf Ihs Mtate any greater 
temptation to put such an individual out of the way. It 
was out of this ntrong national feeling and general state 

*Sm ManuUj'ii eosu; <>u. Uilfurd'ti " Hiolvrj of OrMoe." 
tSw Ori>t*'« ■• Hi»u>rj cf G?««oo, " Tol. I. Purt U, Chap. VL 

policy thiit thoro arotto the torriblo cnntom of tloMtroriDg 
defective infants by expoHure. 

Tbts ottaiom ooostitutes r Ibird important fact to be 
specially note<J in the present geneml cottnecHoD. Among 
noDi^ of tli« other peoplcit whom we har« thas far odd - 
8t(l«ruil did this cuHtom hold, at any rate uot to n degree 
Mafficient to be remarked io history. But it fnnnd nston- 
ishing development among the Greeks. AnHtotle himself 
pUceil the stamp of h\» approval upon it in wordn that 
Kimnd curioiwly hanth and cruel to-day : " With reMpect 
to the bringiug ap or exposing of ofalldreo, let it be a lav 
that Dothiii^ imperfect or mainie<l shall bv bronglit op.*** 
Ttirlwall siayB : " Prom liis birth every Spartan belonged 
to the Htute, which decided whether he waH likely to prove 
an ndvantageouB mumber of the oommiiulty, and extio- 
goiahed the life of every sickly or defective infaut."'t It 
bos been HnppoHed by niniiy that this Orceinn cnelom 
mast hnve been responsible for the deatriiction of ull or 
moat cougeuila) denf-nmteK id Greece. Bnt thiii assump- 
tion mnst be taken with much caution, if at all. Thia 
will become evident from n slight consideration of the 
rafttter. -i 

Culike most icfirmities of the body, deafness is a 
defect quite invisible to the eye, and is only detected by 
Infereuce fromTariousovidcDCOs of iDdiffcrence tooouodB', 
Hoonor or later exhibited I)t the person affuctcil, while 
dumbness ia only a secondary resnit, of course, caused 
by fuitare to bear the soiiLdn to be imitated and learned. 
Ab a matter of fact, we uome to know that any peraoais 

■rt«r Ari.iluUe'a " P»llti<a," Rwtk VI t, Oliap. la. Hia rvnaono (or UiiB 
liitnl HHjrlng »re sofD in Ui« following ■■ Bot to avoid an esCM« o( pop- 
uliilioH, let ■om'' liiw hr Uid domi. if it W not pcrmittnl bj tbt coalonw 
ftnil hatiitac^ the i>eot''B- ">'< ^n; of Ibe cbllilran Ivorn •bill beu|>owil: 
(dt n limit tutti.i b*> tktod u ih« pcpnlBtien of rbn utats. 

fflMTbiilwall'a -UiatwryurGifvM/'ClMp. VUI : ateo rrof. B«irk«^ 
'' ObarielM." Kicnrint to StrrrDi* t, t<i(t"tb«r with llio foo(-ti<4n> eMag 
lb« Piliu Lag. Att. . p. Ul. 

474 TA« Social SUitfis of the Deaf in iAe l\uL 

deaf simply bT notioiDg that lie or sbu duos not spuak oc 
par EtDY attention to speech, wbeu arriveJ nt tb*i uormal 
AHe for hegioiiing to talk »Qd underetand spoken Uognage. 
But what in tliRt Agu? Tlmreiii li«K the point in tlii» im* 
mediate comiecliou. 

Id tlie case of iofautK up to the age of a year or more, 
the presence of hearing is by do menus obvious, aud is 
rarely detected^ savn wbcre tested hy those familiar with 
the deaf. Ax for duiubuess, it cannot be diKCOvered for 
obvious reasons till an age is reauhod where iutelligeut 
speech is to be expectetl of Iho i^hild. Xow, the fact is 
that tlie ordinary parent, who has no saspicions aronsed 
by other oousi deration a, never dreams of a child in his 
family boiug deaf till the realization of it itt gi-adaally 
forced npon liim hy its continacd failure to acquire uat- 
nral intelligible apeach. Often a deaf child thus bocomcs 
nearly or quite tvro yeurB old before its unnnspecting 
pareutii wake up to the fact that it hears no soanda, and 
never will. 

Id view of those well-known facts, the qnestion aris«« — 
Did the Greeks expose to death infants of any age, re- 
gardless of bow long it may have l>eeii after birth before 
a defect revealed itself? Or was there a more or leea 
definite age limit Hxud by law or habit, after paaHing 
wliicli the child b(;<.-Aiue exempt fi^m the application of 
that dread aouteuce of doom? The only reply, it seems, 
that can be made to thiH ia that either there was no such 
died ng« limit in Orcek practice, nr else, if there were, 
no trace of what it wua ap|>L'ant to have boeu retained in 
available reconia and literature. 

But from a somewhat general inqniry into the subject 
of infanticide, which is or has been practised rcgnlarly by 
many peoples, some even moi**) stern and merciless than 
the fireeks, I have reached the conclusion that the death 
sentence has rarely been executed upon children more 
than a few weeks, or at most a few mnntbs, old. In 


7%e Sot^ial Statutt of the Vtaf in the P»u>t. A 75 

reality, ttie nsual castom almost ererywhAre seems to 
have beeo U) dextroy infants, if nt all, wtthiu a verj few 
days, before lliat powerful attaelimeut of ttie mother for 
tlie cbUtl tbat abe uurec« at bi*r husom ilaily cau become 
at all fully (lovelo|)e(l. Otiiurwise tbe strain upon the 
parents* affections becomes too groat to he eodured, nod 
no oafilom or law vrould be boriiB with lon^ that exacted 
suob aerere trials of the paretitAl heart. Such being the 
case, if we may believe that in the case of tbe Greeks 
children survjviog the first few months of life wer« per- 
iiittt«d to live on, this fact would throw a now light upon 
the qa«tion of whether deaf iofaots wore exposed to de- 

My owD convictiou is that iu practice ecarcely »ny 
cM«a of cotigouittU duafnosd could have beeu (liscoTered 
by Greek parenta in the ancient days till an ago was 
reached entirely post the limit wtthiu which it was the 
oastom to expofle a defective iufaut. Conseqnoiitly, I 
cauDOl but feel anre that nearly all children born deaf iu 
Greece, although they oertainly would have met death 
could their defect have been immodiatcly dutcclcd at 
birth, yet surfiveii and lived to ^row up as best they 
might, even Ifaongh their infii-mity, when it was discovered, 
mast have •louiacd to Greek minds one of the very gravent 

Bot we may justly query whether a prompt paasage 
from birth to the paiulesH i«Ieep iu that mounifnl gleu of 
TaygetuM would not have lieen more merciful for the deaf 
of Greece Ibau the deiitiny thai grimly awaited them 
among the living. Down in the louely glen it was but a 
few hours of baby-weeping, exhaustion, and then — com- 
plete relpuite from all that lay ahead in tbhi world. But 
to grow up amid Oreciau society, with its dread and con- 
tempt and impatience of physical or mental iullnnity, 
with ite utterly uuhuuianitariitn atmospheru — what a fate 
for him who conld not hoar or spemk or even be tnngbt 
(lo that nj^e) to write, however crudely! 

476 77« Soci'ii SUttut of the Deaf in (he PuitL 

'■ OF any Greek enperBtitionB that niH^v linve existed 
adverse to the daaf and dumb we can now ascertaio 
notliing. But tliiii we know, that n-)ii>reB8 Hebrew law 
protected tliem from the brutal snperstition of th« popu* 
ln<'p, Greek law by its* very spirit and aim dooQwd them 
to OHtrftoism, if DOt Tiolent aud ill-treuted lives: that 
whererts the Hebrew retigion Btreniiouslv inculcated habits 
of kindness and charity to all the stricken and nofortuoate, 
t]ie Greek religion fnrniiihed but the feebleat reniOD* 
strancea agaiuet severity towatd the b&lpleae and down- 
trodden, lu the eyes of a Greek, benevolent charity 
smacked only nf efTominacy ; let the imlividiml take care 
of himself, and if through inability to du so be went to 
the wall, so mncli the belter for the community.* 

On the whole, then, wo can scarcely avoid tbo COU- 
clusiou that in Greuian Inods, during the claasical times, 
the social dismemberahip of the deaf and dumb rcnoliod 
almout a ulimnx ; ibat some lunst sooner or later have 
met with violent or Hemi-violont oxtinotion ; ibat others 
may baro rcioaioed sequestrated from piiblio gaze or else 
bttniahed from home, in order that fnoiily shame might 
be avoided ; that posBibly a few, very few. born among 
the high and wealthy, or poseossing uunsnal oatire 
capnoity and energy, may hare barely held their own, 
aod ukud out an tiuduniblu existence till Die end. At tho 
very best, Jiowever, their isolation must have beeu greater 
than to many other »ouiitries, and u^raVHlrd by ill-oou- 
cealed contempt un the part of mOHt of their fultuvr Greeks. 
Afl the reader, be he some educated intelligent deaf per- 
son ur not, puts down this dark story of a long past 
chapter aud cln»ne the pagea containing it, let him recall 
what uxiBtK around him lo-dav iu contrast, and exult with 

•Sen UnbiUfjr'B "SoeJal Ltf* in QrOfoc," p. 30, fur laaUoM. H« 

" TliiH iluiv HMMU^ h) li«va t>v»u dclngstvit to ZeuH. wUum kiuotini ftnd 
alb«r saiuseuieBta afMn pravnaUil bim ttym ntl^ndiUK to liia l>a«ia««a>.'* 

JShuo/A a>id Voice. 


boQfist pride iu lb« nc'lu«vt.iiaoiitK of onr belovfld Union 
in twtisif of thoBO whose autt^ceduuta iu tircrocc tttninbltid 
tbrongb cniel (larbness to n-etcome ^raveH. 

VrtM^etit WhtU Fttlma bt EeuHuirtici onti Hittarf, 
OvrittU Vaiwnwtg, Hhaea, Jftf York. 



In tbe treatmeiit of siiovcli defects of lieariag persons 
certAJu meUioiltt hive soiuetimes to be emplo;yed wbiob, 
with slight modifications, might be osed in the instruction 
of tbe denf to prnmoUt tlnencT of Bpecrli, to Btrengthen & 
weak Toico, aod to corniut a bigli-pitclied voire. It is a 
wcll-kuowu fnct tlint of tbe three difToreut modes of 
breathing— dinphrngiiiatic, costal, and dHvicutar — tlie sec- 
ond. x\r,., costal breathing, should be principally employed 
in spwiking. 1 believe I mn snfc in saying tbat. in nine 
cutMt ont of ten, the ontiro dopcndenco upon tbe action 
of the diupbrngm in keeping tbe bings supplied with air 
for purposes of plionntion is the cause of the jerky way 
of speaking and of other faults into which denf articula- 
tors ur« apt to fait. A simple exercisu which Dr. H. 
Campbell, of Tjonduu, England, recommends iu bis recent 
work, " JRespiratory Exercise-s in the Treatment of 
Disease," will be found very useful, as it promofeM costal 
breatliing (or spimking purpoKen. Tl is in substance as 
follows : 

Let tbe palm of each band \>e placed on tbe lower ribs 
of the oorreepomliug side of the body, so that tho ends 
of the middle Gngors meet iu front. Now un attempt 
should be mode to separate tbe hands its far a» pofuiible 
by expanding the lower ribs. The hands should move 


Breath and Vmet. 

tritli the ribn ho tbnt they art* (IrHvrn Imckwards and apart 
while the lower chest expaiidH ; the lower ribs should 
theu be allowed to return alowlj- to their former position, 
aud the bands to come togethor agniu. Care shonld be 
tftkeii uot to mise the shoulders uor protrude the 
abdomen. All effort should be coucentrated oa the ex- 
pnoKioR of tht! lower ribtt, and there Hhoulil be uo other 
bodily muvemeut of any kiud. The least tendeucy to 
audibility or drawiug iu of air during the oxerciso should 
be carefully subdued. If the lowor ribs orpaud, the 
Inogs oxpnud at the same time without any special effort 
on the part of the student, and the air will rush into them. 
Dariog the first attempt the Luudft may uot become sepa- 
raled mote thau about half au luoh, but after ample 
practice the etudcnt will be able to increase the distance 
considerably. I have aoou boys and girts just entering 
upon their teens, who lejimcd to aeparatu their hands in 
this exercise to a distauce of nn inch nod a half withont 
great effort. 

Bince in connected ntterance the breath has to be re- 
plouluhud nipidly during the pauaeti hutwueu auut4.-ncQS of 
moderate loiigth or between the parts u( a long senluuce, 
wliile the expirations have to be protracted as maoh as 
possible, the pi[panAi<iu of the lower nl>s in this exercise, 
which is accompanied by iuLahition, shonld be accom- 
pliithud us rapidly iia can bo done without jerking, and 
the relaxation of the ribs, which causes the emptying of 
the lungs, shonld proceed very slowly aud gradually. 

The exercise should bn practiced with the lips slightly 
apart. In ordinary breathing forvital purposw* the montb 
Ik closed iiuil the atr piiHsns in and out through the nose. 
During tipuukiug w** breathe with tliemuutli o]>i?u,beoiiiise 
in thia way the luuga are filled more quickly than when 
the air has to enter through the narrow nasal passaf;ee. 
It is not necessary to keep tbo mouth wide open ; a slight 
separation of the lips is quite sufficient. 

Breath and Voic^ 


Thn following exorrise io retainiug the breatli will, if 
ilarlr practictKl, incruaHu tliu broatliing cApacity. 
^bon tlio lower ribs liiivo boon cxpauded, »nd tliu bauds 
ire by tbiH moaus be«u separated as far as possible, 
tbej sbouUl be retained in tliis positiuD for live secoDds: 
The HtadeDt xbould timebiiniMilf bjcountiDgKilentiyh'om 
one to five, or tlie teacber majr do tbe coQutiDg. At the 
end of tbe iDt4^rral of five Hecoads, tbe ribs sboutd be 
allowed tu rul»x ^radaally, su tbat tbe bauds will come 
together very slowly iu (be space of («n soconds. During 
tbe intervnl of tire seconds, tbo student should uellber 
iobnlo Qor oxbnle, nod overy ptirt of hitt body sbould bo 
in a complete Htata of rest — there Khoahl Dot be the 
tdigbtest twiti^hiug or moving of auy mascle. Care should 
bo tnkou thnt the studoul docs uot bold tbo broath by 
sbattiog the glattio, bnt by keeping the lower ribs ox- 
pauded. fbe iuterralof five seconds may be increased at 
tbe rate of one ee«oad per week antilthe elevation of tbe 
ribe can be corofortAbly maiutaiDed for eight seconds by 
children and twelve seconds by older pupils. 

Wbuu the student has gained control over this costal 
moTomeut, let bim expand bis lower ribs, pause five 
seconds, tbeu emit tbe sound of the broad Italian ah, 
continuing it as long as it can be steadily maintained. 
Let hioi practice the vowels ut, e, oo, in the samu manner. 
Whfu tbis has been sufficiently done, let bim enounce in 
tlio same way as many repetitions of each of these vowels 
as can he etTected with one expiration, taking care that 
the lower ribs are kept well expanded till the Inst aonnd 
has been omitted. Next, short phrases or ^L'utunfvs 
hoald be used instead of single sounds. Grwlunlly the 
ipU shonld form tbe habit of expanding bis lower ribs, 
panaiug two necondH every time before beginning to S[>cak 
in ordinary conversation, and maintaiuiug tbe expaDsioD 
of the ribs till he lias to replenish his breath. Persons 
rbo8« speech in normal du tliis UDOOOScioualy all tho 


lirmt/i and Voice, 

TlierB are certniD citlistlieuic exorcises tlint strcngtben 
tho orffftQg of brotithing, and are theroforo very nseftll. 

I. StnodiDg orect, witb heels nud kueos U^olber, aod 
to«8 apart iit nii angle of about eixty degrees, raise arms, 
©Ibowa straigbt, pti-Ime down, to slioalder level «t side, 
hold tbem ixx tbat position for live seooDds, tbeii drop them 
slowly. The npwani luovcment of the arms helps to raise 
the ribs uod expnud the chest, thereby promoting iubala- 
tioa; heace it abould be performed rapidly. The down- 
ward muvemeat of the arms ie nccompauied by a lower- 
ing of the ribx, promotiti)* oxhalntiun. It should there- 
fore bo Tory slow «iul gnulmil. Tb« pujjil should be 
retiuireil to practice siu^ie vowels or to speak seulenoes 
dnring tho downward luoTeraent of the arms. The exer- 
cisH may l>o rcipeatpcl eigiilor ten timiHi iuHnc<%stUoii, and 
Komo other vowel or xentimei;, hk the ease may be, should 
be substituted after it has bcuu repeated three times. In 
most cases the voice used in coiioection with this arm 
movement sounds far bettor and more untural tlinu with- 
out it. Speaking exBrciMes should be combined with all 
the following arm moveiuetits : 

II. Standing position. — The anus, held stiff, are moved 
from the sides of the body ontwnrds, until they are iu a 
vertical pa^itinn parallel to each otbcr, and dose to the 
sides of the huud ; rutiiin them iu this poRition for seven 
seconds, then return them to the side« of the ImkIv. 
Repeat vowel or speak seuteuce while the arms are xlowly 
descondiog. Practice this exercise eiyht or teu times JD 

in. Ai^ame standing position. — While the hands re«t 
(irmly on the hip«, with i\w tliuinhfn Iw^hind, and thoGngors 
in front, the elbows are moved backward as far us they 
will go, they are held there lor seven seconds, aud iheo 
slowly returned to thoir original poaitiou. • 

IV. With fingers iuturlaced, hold rout bauds on the 
back of your head, maw ulbows quickly hsukward, paaae 
from Qve to eight seconds, then move them slowly forward. 

Breath and Yoiee. 


V. Th« arms lieUl BttfT are swung rotind ns far as posal- 
!e. Fua»u ten ifi^cnndK while arms nre huh) np in tbu 

rtical pusitiun, and speak jour Keuluncu wliilu Ihej 
iDOve slowly dowuwanls. 

VI. Xbe armtt am Uuxutl at the dbowB, uud held close 
to ihe sidea. They nre energeticftlly iiiovwl upwards and 
extended to the vertical, beld tliero duriug au eiglit-seconds 
pause aoil slowly returned to the oriRinal positiou. 

VII. Clajip hiiutlH Brmly on the smull of your back, then 
with your bauds ela^iMd move your arms rapidly down- 
ward ns far as tbt»y will go, pause trotn six to eiglit seconds, 
and utter a single vowel or a whole seiiteuoe while your 
bands move alowly upward to the origiDal position. 

Vm. The arms, held horizontally in front, are moved 
dowuvards and backwards close to the sides of the body 
as far as they will go, the body rotuaiuing perfectly erect; 
tbey are held there daring n paase of some seconds and 
the BpoakJQg exercise is combined with their return move- 

IX. The arms held horizontally in front of the body 
arc swung backwards in the horizontal plane ; raise yonr- 
self on your toes, remain standing on your toes with out- 
stretohod arms dnring a pause of t«D seconds, then lot 
yonr heels go down slowly while arms return to the 
^^rigiutkl portion. 

^H The remainder of this article treats of the voice. The 
^^Toblem of photographing the iulurior of the larynx while 
the vocal cords are in action has at Inst b(wa succe^H- 
fally solved. Tho following photographs are copied from 
the latest work on stiitnmeriiifj. by Dr. H. Gutzmaiin, of 
Berlin, Oermany. Thu urigiuals were tiiken hy I>r. Mnse- 
bold, also of Berlin. No. 1 shows the position of the 
Tooni chords dnring inspiration ; No. 2, during expira- 
tion ; Nos. 3 to ti, during whispering with gradually in- 
creasing force ; No. 7, during the production of a chest 


Brtnth and Voice. 

tone ; Nos. 8 and 9, daring the prodnction of a bead 


Tfaetw photographs show thivt while we iuhale, the 
glottis is wide opou ; while we exiiale it is soniewbat cod- 
tracted ; in whiaperiug. the {or«part is closed and a email 


^3 ■■ 

trtftugular space at the baok — pars tvtpiratoria — is left 
opua ; daring thu production of a good obost toou, the 
vocul corda iirti approximated throughout the ontiro 
length, leuriug one straight chink between them \ and, 
finnlly. during tlio production of a high, shrill voice, this 
rbitik is widur. SumetiniUH u porauu Hpuaka iu a high 

Breath and Ydce. 


loe bocAniM thu mnKclos of bis tht-oai aro weak And QD- 

Pftble to briD); tbo vouiil cords close together ; sometimes 

rongbness of the edges of tbe vocal cords or excrescences 

will prflVflnt their coming together evenly. In the latter 

,autu truntnitiui. Iiy a (hrnnt Npecialint nhouUl bo rcsorUHl 

In Dr. H. GntzmaDn'ii work ou stainioeriDg, which waa 
mentioDed above, a series of simple diagrams is to be fouiKl 





which, wheo taken in couneotiou with thu photographs. 
giTOH a very clear idea of the jiositious of tbe cartilages of 
the larynx and the actions of its monoles during tbe proc- 
esaee of respiration and phouation. Thu«e diagrams will 
be reproducod in (he following with some modificationa. 
In Fig. 1 the dotted circle represents the cricoid carti- 
58; tbe cnrres AB and AB' tho thyroid cartilage; the 
lotted linen AC und AC tbe vocul curds; the triangles 
GD£ and CIXE' the arytenoid cartilages. The pentagon 


Breath and Voice. 

ACDD'C Bhowa the shape of the glottis when it ib wide 
open daring the act of inhalation. See photograph No. 
1. Throngh the simple contraction of the mnscalaB 
Tocalis which extends along the vooal cords, the edges 
DC and D'C are brought into straight lines with the 
edges of the rooal cords and the pentagon ACDD'C in 
Fig. 1 is changed to the triangle ADD' of Fig. 2. This 
triangle ADD' shows the shape of the glottis while we 
exhale. Compare it with photograph No. 2. 

Fitt. 2. 

The arrows EF and E'F' indicate the direction of the 
musculi crico-aryt. lat. When these muscles contract, 
C and C are brought together, so that the edges of the 
vocal cords touch and there is a trianguliir opening left 
at the back between the arytenoid cartilages. Tins ia the 
position for whispering. See fi'ig. 2, and compare it with 
photographs Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6. If the voice is to be sounded, 
this triangolar opening has to be closed Jitid the vocal 
cords must be slightly separated. This is accomplished 

Breath caul Voice. 


throngh the mnso. traDSversi which contract in the direc- 
tion indicated bj the arrows in Fig. 4. Compare this 
figare with photc^aph No. 7. 


Fio. 3. 

Fio. 4. 


Breath and Voice. 

From All thiH it m to be Been that when wo inhftlo aad 
tlieu proceed to sound tlie voice tliroo different setH of 
muscles are brought iDto pl&y : first, tbe maso. too. ood- 
tract and cli&Dgo the nidepootngon&lopeDiDgof the ^ot*^M 
Us, OS flooD iu Fig. 1, to the triaugular opening as soen ia^V 
Fifi!.2 ; seooud, tlie muse. orioo-ar.rt. lat. contract, by whioli 
tlia Tooal cords are approximated, and a small triaafpUar 
opening ie formed at the back ; and, third, the masc. 
tniuHvensi conirnct, by which this triangular opening is 
closod and the Tocul conls are brought into the position 
that is requisite (or the production of a good tone of 
■voice. With a certain class of Hpe«ah snfforors aiuungl 
hearing persons it is necessary to exercise euoh of theeu 
three setH of muscleii separately, and Iben coiubioe their 
actions ill regular order. Th« student is required to take 
a correct costal inhalation, pause two seconds, assume the 
position of the mouth tor the vovel aft, nnd then exhale 
gently with the month in this poKition ; next he is rec|uired 
to repeat this process and to chaugu to h whisper vrithout 
any stoppage after the exhalation ; and, lastly, be per* 
forms all those tliroo nctionsj riz.,eshn1»tion, whisper, and 
voice, in regular order without any lirenk between one and 
the next. The aama thing ia done with all the otherl 
vowels. In my opiuiou the voices of some deaf artien- 
lators could be {greatly improved by exorcises ol this sort. 
They wonld learn to bring the difforeot sets of muscles i 
of the larynx into play in regular order, and properly t*) 
control their actions, so that one set will nut lie contracted | 
too much and the other not enough. We all know thafe^ 
a deaf pnpit who has oDcc spokou, althoiigb he may haT< 
entirely lost his speech before entering school, will learoi 
to u»e his voice in a more natural manner than the cod-I 
geoitally deaf. In all probability this is due to the lac 
that, vbilo tbo child could hoar, the three different seta of 
muscles that are couccnied iu the production of the voice 
were uaturally acting correctly aud this uotural hubit baa 

Breath and Voice. 487 

been retained, while in the coDgenitally deaf child the 
ftetioD of these muscles is not as exact as ia necessary to 
■oand the voice correctly. The following diagram illus- 
trates the exercise which is recommended. The arrows 
indicate expansion of the ribs and (2) stands for two sec- 
onds' pause : 


^ (2) Assume position for ah 

, , whisper 
, , exhale ~. 

\ (2) " " ■;;:;;;;;;;:;;;;;;-;;vr: 

I (2) " " ^^^.±. ^^^^^^^^^. 

I (2) Assiimeposition for ee 



I (2) " " 00 


(2) " " aw 


Perhaps it will be well to say a word about the difference 
between an exhalation anda whisper. Aregularexhalation 
is noiselena ; a whisper may be loud enough to be heard 
across a good-sized room, yet if you place the end of your 
finger on the proper spot of your neck, you will notice 
thfit there is no movement whatever of the vocal cords. 
The noise is produced by the friction of the oatgoing 
current of air with the edges of the arytenoid cartilages 
which form the small triaugiilar opening as shown in Fig. 
3. By holding the back of his hand before the mouth, 
the pupil can feel tliat as the exhalation is changed to a 
whisper, the breath becomes warmer, and it becomes still 
warmer when the voice is stiirted. 

1122 Broadway, Ne\e York, N. Y. 


It eaa hurdlj be ilenied that tbe teaching of Knglish 
is, on tl]« whole, tho t«iut saccwssfiil part of the work of 
oor schools (or the hearing .is well as of those for the 
deaf. In spite of the Hheral tthare uf tinio allowed to ihis 
study, and of tbe rigid examination teste nppHod, onr 
high-schools ftLd colleges, in too largo a proportion of 
oases, fail to awakoD in thoir gi-adaatos an iatelligent ap- 
preciftliou of aud dc'li){ht iu the ma&tci' pieces of CugliBli 
literature and to give theiu a competeat masterj of tbeit 
mother tongue. 

While cxcQMMi for those ahortcomings mny bo foDud in 
the pressure of other studios, iu the neglect of oarefol 
expression in the oourersation even id homes of refioe- 
ment and onltivation. »nd in the circnmstAoce that the 
duilv uowKpuper, which forniH the largest and the moet 
immodiatelj intoretstiog part of the reading of mottt of na, 
is for thf most part liastily written iu awkward phni8L»« 
bj uncultivated persons, yet there must be a reBlduum of 
jnatice in tbe complaints against our methods of English 

If, wishing to know what our high-Kchools are dningiD 
this tine, we find among the college entrance rGC|uiremeDts 
" Henry Esmond." we feel encouraged. Surely, if a boy 
of eighteen can \m made to understand and to enjor the 
«i*DDdurful Hkill with which Thaokemyhas reproduced the 
conversAtiou, the aots, the projadioes, the habits of 
tlinughl of n past century, if he osu appreciate the play 
of motives in tho " honor," the " loyalty," and the 
"religion" of the oharact«r8 of the third and of the 
fourth Vi^'ouuttsOuatlewood and their respective spoasee 
and of Hnrr}' Esmond — this is something very well worth 
wbilo. Bnt if, in looking over tbe examiuutioD papera^' 
we Snd that his study has been directed toward fixing in 

TAt Ttaehing of Eni^tinh. 


mind the liue of saccdssioo of tbo Costlowood titiB, 
the moTODioDte of Father Holt, tbo details of the expedi- 
tion to Vifi^o, wo must feel that the onhappy stadent has 
l>e«u f«d on the husIcA to tlie neglect of the keruel. 
^ AdU tho mischief is, not only that he han miMticd tho 
^HBtrituoDt which thin hook might haro yielded, but 
^^sat ho has been made to b«lievu thnt the busk com- 
' prises Uie whole edible oonteots of a book. He otight to 
hare been led to wish to read "The Virginians" and 
' whrttever else will give him Tbaekeray's buHt; bo should 
I haTc been prepared better lo ouderstund and to enjoy 
Peprs and Evelyn and Swift ; he should have been mora 
capubin nf judging the fiiitlifulneHH nf Mncanlay and of 
Lei'ky. As it is, he meroly AeU down Thackuruy aa one 
more "griud," and hua uo more notion of linding pleas- 
ore in sittiog down for au aftoruoon vith '* PeodeDDis" 
than of nmoHing himself with ooojngntiug the Greek 
^iforl)n in la. 

^B In teaching the student to use lauguuge there is also. 
•^apparently, a false ideal among teachere. The aim seems 
to be to produce well-ti)roe<1 sentences which shall %*iolate 
uo rnlee of grammar aud which Rhall be free from every- 
thing which may bti considered inelegant. 

It is siguiticaut that wo see in the papers every now 
and then a list of objectionable words and phrases, an index 
A'j-purt/aturiuK o1 heretical expreitiiionR, prepared by soma 
professor for the guidance of hia HtudentH. IJfiiiiilly we 
find uo dii^crimi nation belwouo offences of dinTwrtinlgriuleH, 
as if, in a oode of conduct, articles six, seven, and eight 
of the Decalogne were sandwiched in betweea direc- 
tions to shut the door after yon, to wipe yonr feet oa 
the mat, and not to poar yonr tea into the 8an<.-er to cool. 
lelcgancioe areas heinous as ineptilndes ; au uufushioD- 
i]o word is uo k'ss an offence tlinn n word nsed in a 
isleading sense. Ho^', judged bj any worthy standard, 
that is good English which cxpnMwes a clean-cut thought 


7%« Teaching of Eti^ak. 

in the miad of tlte speaker aud impreases sbarply the 
vorj siLtue thnnglit on the mind of (be hearer. Usually 
tbiH result i» benb roacbod by language which conforiQs 
Lo the TaXvKi of rhetoric and of griiiamur, unJ to polite 
uea^e. But one is uot master of the tou^ue who does 
not knov when he can best say what be has to say by 
breaking any of these riil«H, or whoheaitateB. on occasion, 
BO to i\o. Shukoitpearu, the King James Biblo, Swift, 
BuDyau — here we have the Euglitib language at its beat, 
cuveriug, certainly, a sery wide range of thought, and yet 
no tour English authors could be named who are less re- 
gardful of the niceties of tipeech. To Iw alwaya on one's 
guard against a '* split infinitive " or a " continued passive" 
or iigaiust eudiug n seuLonce with a preposition is a sure 
way to be n uervelexK, ineffectiTe speaker or writer. 

Slang used habitually indicates n want of precision ol 
thotiglii or itiKutBciunt comiuaiid nf words, yet one who 
Iciiou)! Etiglisli well and wbu hax a s«nse of fitness will 
sometimes make bis speech more offoctiveaod more appro- 
priate, an well lit) more picturosqne, by n phms« tnkeu 
from " the man in the Htreet." In speaking nf an alert, 
Hhrewd, circumtipevt pentoii, it ia better to aay that he is 
" well-posted " than that be is " well-informed." The 
word connotes somuthiug of the neatness, the precision, 
the proniptiiexs of the bookkeeper iu trnngferriug the 
scattered items from the other books of account to the 
propur k'dgfT lie'tdiiig — sometliiug, too, of the limitations 
o[ the informatiou thua carefully collected. 

Mot Ihiit the use of biugaage is a light and easy thing 
to acquire. " This sort guotli not forth but by prayer and 
fruttiug." Ouo must read widely, must weigh the deriva- 
tion, Ibo aHsociationK, the shades of meaning, the rhythm 
and soiiud-qnidity o( words. HemnKt be qnick to reoog- 
DiKii a familiar tltoiighl iu a bettor form — " What oft was 
tlioiightr but iiv'er so well expressed " — and to see iu what 
the Huperiority of form consists. He must, above all, 

The TMching of L'ngtith. 


take pnintt thni whODever be speaks oi: writes, bis words 
Are an expresaion of n clenr tliouglit. He mnBt, tberefore, 
ID order to improve in his nse of lungnnge, nlwavH be 
l«arniiig, alwayK mldiiig to itnd brondeiiing Iiih koowled(;e, 
and, coiisu(|aeutljr, muKt always be euuiiciatiug lo liinisolf 
bis new ideas, aiid reetatiug bis old ideas in tbeir new 

It ia very true tbat mo>it of the language toacliiog 
which is done by teHcbei'H of the deaf is of a grade very 
mncb lower tbau that of which this paper bas treated. 
It does not follow, however, tbat this pap«r boa no 
practical bearing on the work of teaebcrs of the deaf. 
EdncatioQ is one couuected whole, from tbe kindnrgnrten 
to the university. An improvement at one end of the 
Bystem may ufteu ho n»efu]ly applied at the other. In 
the collie it was found that the bencb-work in tbe 
bboratory taught valnablo I«s80ns as to the inexorable 
ftxactnesa i>f the world of matter and the nv«d of voracity in 
deeds as in words — lessons which were not as well learned 
from tbe Greek lexicon or tbe integral calculus. By ap- 
plying tlie underlying principle, the primary nchools are 
teaching the name lessons through manual tniiuing. 

To apply to elementary work the principles which bavo 
been indicatfid above a» gorerning tbe right teaching of 
Engliali would make lbi» paper too long, and wonid be 
quite uunecetisary. Tbe writer does not think himself 
capable of inatruoting the readers of tbe Annatg an lo llio 
details of tliuir work. Ho hopes only tbat be may have 
pruHvnted a view uf the work from another point than the 
Dsnal one. 

It is trae, aa well for children and of their simple rrad- 
ing ns it is for grown men, that " books are not absulutely 
deud Ibiugs, but do oonlaiu a potenoy of life in them to 
bo as active as lliat soul was whose pi'ogeny titey are." 

is true that in reading ax in morals, " Ihe letter killeth 

lithe spirit givetb life;" tbat a study of language which 

492 ff>»tt fiction far an Oral CUta» of Jieymnerf. 

euda iu sludj-ing Isiiguitgo in proGttess and wearying, 
wbile a study oF language as a key to Ibe world witlioat 
And the world of mind and soul vitliin, is the moBt in- 
spiriag imrl (raitful of all study. It is true thnt in teach- 
ing » pupil to write nothing more thnn Hentoncmt wliicb 
will eani a good marb, wd give him a training not much 
higher thau if we spent our time iu teaching him euchre. 
but if we lead him to express his genuine thought 
advquntety in vroidt, we make him, in a very fcrue and 
deep sense, master of himself and a fellov of Ula brother 


Jintrue0r in tkt Aiabam<t fiutitvU, TaUMUga, AlaiwiM. 


It is my purpose to emphasize some gonoral truths derived 
from a careful oousidemtiou of the task of the teiu.-h«r iu 
charge of a beginuin^ cla'o of oral pupils. Their im- 
portance is obrions in the light of the consideration that 
the degree of their practical obsorvanco gang«H the suc- 
cess of both tvuchf-r and taught. 

Au examination of current educntioual aims and 
methods proves the extateuce of some false ideas iu regard 
to the pliilosophy of education. There is one very com- 
mon mistake to which I wouhl like to call attention ; that 
is the placing of beginning cIhskch in the hands of inex* 
periwuced nnd imptfrfocUy trained teachers. TIiib prac- 
tioe is due to a lack of perfect understandiug and a 
proper appreciation of the difficulties and the importancQ 
of this class of work. 

Language, as detiu(Kl by Dr. Culling, "oonsistK prima- 
rily of a sequence of vnriou»ly related Hound Kvmbole, 
definitely adjusted to a forrospoudiug sequence of ideas 

Iwttrtiction for an Oral Class of Bf>ginners. 493 

thoiif;htR." It is nddrc6«cd primarilj to the oar and 

>t to the eje ; tberefore, tbe toak of reprodacing thesit 

"SoaotU is coiuparfltively easy for Ibe heariDg child. Tbe 

^^onneotioDfi of cLb ear witb th« bmiu uto moi-d Daiuerous 

^^faau in the cas« of auy otbor oi^au, aud gctititvr io bulk. 

^Hbe ear performs the office of a oeotral sintiou and thus 

^^iTOft an iDinieQs« amoant of eaergy. The beariog child 

Imuhs through the ear out oiilv to iatorprot one expori- 

ODce in terms of ttuoLher, but hiit own in torma of aome 

oUier person's expetienco, With the little Joat child the 

cane is entirely difteient. He may learn to read the lips 

by watching those abont him, bat he cannot learn to balk 

by tbiH mvanH alone. 

A high authority saya : '' AU human utterancea may be 
j^reaolved into elementary souuds, or oral actioua ; and all 
^^Be varieties of phonetic elements in different laugnages 
^^« the re«nlt of deHnite mechauical mljuiitmeobi of the 
organs of speech Tht! organs are tb« same in all men, 
and. oonsettuently, every person possesaee naturally the 
ability to speak any or every laugua^e/' Whi^n this state- 
ment wna flrst made it was received with some incrodolity ; 
now every one knows that a deaf child of iuteltigeuoe 
whoae organs are perfect can be taught to speak. As no 
one naturally speaks a language ho has never' heard, and 
as the deaf child has never hoard English, he must ac<]uire 
it by study, and to do tliis suoneHsfully he moat have good 
iustruc'tiuii. Tb(> teacher who attempts to toach the 
elenioutary sounds of our language should be a student 
' of tbe meobnnism of speech. She should know the exact 
formation of «ftch element and the proper method of de> 
velcipuent of each sonnd. Thus shu is able tu prevent 
mistakes and to correct them as soon us they are made. 
It seems hardly possible that tbe qaestion as to the ad- 
visability of thf!se children receiving expert and pains- 
takiu({ instructiim in the exact values of the«e sonude 
aod iu their reproduction at the very outset admits of 

494 Instruction Jor an Oral OiiU« of BeyinnerM. 

more tliau oae raplj* in the light, of cominoii reasoa. As 
we all kuow, a bad tiabit of prouiinoUtion will linger 
loDg aud usually ouIIakI all subsi'qiteot inipn^seioDB iu- 
tended to erndinate it. lii theory wo all ii^ro« witb 
Profeflsor Boweo'it favoritti uiaxiia, " 'The fotiiidatioD tunst 
be stronger tliiin lite superstrnotnre," but in prnclioe wo 
(reqaeutly uegleut tbe applicntJou of it. It in auforta- 
untoly Imo that the boet to bo obtaJDod is oftoo not good 
eDongb for onr little Icftroers. Tb«y should bo saved 
from bof(iaiiiDf{ with errors, for, oa Horace Mann ssid, 
"^Vher« anytbin^ is growing, one ioruier is woctb a 
thoasaad re-formers." 

The majority uf pupilx entering onr tu^booln are from 
five to eight rears of age. How wiusonie are the amiling 
lips aod inqairiuK oyas of tliuse tiny suarubent after 
knowledge! The bright faces turn to iis wilb wouderfal 
IKwsibilitiuK, and it is the tusk aad th« priTJIege of the 
ttfARlmr to pruseut a inedtitm for reatiiiing these possi- 
bilities. First, (hero uunt be a genuine sympathy with the 
iotelligout young houI sti-uggliug to give cxpri<iMiou tu its 
imprisoned thoughts. Sbe intist give it u language with 
whieb to clothe the«e thoiighte, and to do this success- 
fally she muBt have hor work systematicnlly planned — 
having all available material aud possible suggestions at 
baud for judicious use. 

From the beginning a regular programme is followed^ 
For the tirst thren niooths nnvb bnnr is regardeit us 
session in itself, and is divided into periods of tilt 
minutes each. 

The ouly iuformiug souses the dL>af child possesma-i 
sight and touch, consequently the toacber must make ih4 
ilcvelopment of these the basis of her work. The (olluw^ 
iog exernises are arranged with a two-fold purpose — to 
train aud develop tbo sQDtt(.'B, aud to furnish the child 
with a suflinioDlly largo nuiuuul of porsODa) activity to 
keep his atteution fresh and alert. 

JiistrHCtian for an Oittl dius of ffe</umer^. 495 

Motion. —-Motioti genernllj app«al8 to a child Brat, tlieu 
lor. Therefore at the coiDmRnoement of ioKtmoUoD tbe 
. pD|)il is givau uncb ])l)ytii(!JLl exercineM as jumping, nia> 
^^ing. walking, etc. LuU>r, wlieu such uxercttieii Lave be- 
^^pome familiar they aro saoceedeU by g^'mnustica of tbe 
^^prms and liamls, Rod later tbo touguc, face, et«. 
^^ Buiue lit these exeroises maj be xmed witli lulvatitage 
[ duriug the entire year aa " rests," ami others aa exercises 
io epeeoh-reading. The traiuiug qf sight through motion 
IS a preparation (or articulation, leading to it easily aod 

^H Color.- The onlttvatioo of sight is «ontioaed by exer- 
^^Hsee in motchiog colors. The teacher holds up a bit of 
^^worsted for a fi«coDd, then conceals it amoDg others of 
various colore, aad the chiUl U required to ideutiiy the 
ooe to which his attention was diroct«d. This is followed 
a practice iu mulching othur objcctit anil materials and 
practice with tb« color chart. Direct color worlc ex- 
over the first weeks only. 
Fvrm. — Simple geometrical Holids are oaed in the fintt 
'oisea for the iK^Ttrlopm^at of the Miusti of form. These 
foUowcd by tablets of anifomi thickness, varying only 
in ontliue. The teacher holds up one of these solids or 
tablets and the child in a&keil to Hod one tike it. As soon 
be baa become expi>rt in this be ii^ Mllowed the more 
icult task of rvprtMlociug the designs that the teacher 
ipoeee of Hpliuls. mticks, etc. Here it is found that 
preaeoce of rolor helpfi the papil in the perception of 
toua nuil fauilitati^s the ntialysiii of hia work. For io- 
ataooe, be will find it easier to copy a figure compoaed ol 
red, blu)?. and green Micks than one formed of green sticks 
only. Tho ubservntiou ol form tends directly to speech 
aod spe«eb-readiiig as well as paves the way for writing. 
As auotbur preparatiiin for writing, tlie pnpil is exercised 
in traciug lines and Ivttem. which he tiads tiivsoue at 
first, bat sooD tbo little baod learns to grasp tbe pencil 

49(> /tittt^tctfon /or an Ornl Chut uf Be<finnert, 

iritb au iDtelltgcitt comprolicufiioD of the aigntficnucu 
the diameters ns Ruotber outlet for his thouglita ; aud he 
ia imnienfielT proud nf liis Hbilit; to exhaust " copy." 
With hH of tiiiH triiiitini:^ it 18 not KnrpriHing that oar 
pupils write much better than the uvern^e normal child 
of the same agA. 

Nnmtter. — There are mauy devices for tenchiug imm-' 
bum. Toy dc^, cats, etc., may be used in this wuy : 
Be^n by placing two or threo of these objects od the 
table, allowing just titae for a generfil glance nt them, 
then reoioviug them and r«i|uiring the pupil to reproduce 
the number. After a few weekx the nbat.*u8 comes into 
use. The t<inchor givos the number from her lips and 
the pupil shows the samo with tlio hondn, or she may 
write the tignre on the board and hare the child rIiow 
the correspondiug number id ohjectA. By January he 
cnu tfouut to ten aud asually reaches ouo baodred bofora 
the oud of the year. 

Touch.~To thocoauul obaorvor the raieon d'Hre of the 
cultivation of the sense of touch in the deitf is not appar- 
ent. ToQoh, however, ib the fandamentid intelleclual 
sense, and it is necessary to nne it to Kapplement the 
Bight of tho denf Icjiming to Hpunk, there buiug au uuny 
motiona that cauuot be conveyed to the eyo. The pnpil 
ift shown uu object, one of the models used iu hie former 
practice. After a swift glance he ctoees hia eyea EUid 
recognizes it by the Hense of touch from ollicni of Himilar 
shape. Later, all of the exerciaca are performed with 
closed eyeH. When thiK cau be done with snfBcient accu- 
racy and dispatch, a basket of weighted bftllN is brought 
out, and. with closed eyes, the pnpil weighs a ball iu his 
hand for a moment, drops it into the basket, aud \» ro- 
qnired tu aeleot it by weight from ita companions. Then 
follovB an exercise for distinguishiug the texture of cloth, 
aud a further exercise in thi» cultiv»4Jou ia to require the 
pnpil to distiuguish the stxe and texture of strings. As 

Instractton /or an Oral Cta4$ of JitgUttierg, 41)7 

ho advanoeit io this praclico, Tibrutioo is studied bj tlio 
iutrodaction of tbo guitar with its var^-ing f«tri[ig8. To 
distingnieb tbe vjbrntioo of bigb nod low notes is n dilli- 
cuU aocompiisbment. Thus the work is carried oo to the 
end of the rear. The recof;uition of objootu in regnrd to 
sizo, 8bapc, Idugtb, oud smootliuess ; of groups of objects 
in r^ftrd to position and Dumber, and of strings in rogurd 
to tension, vibration, and otb^r qualities, niake« tbe child 
qoitik to watch tbe lips, and enables hiiu to reproduce the 
ribrations in the laryox, nose, etc. 

These exercisoK are arrangod on tbo basis of providing 
lUi iutenuudiutc >tU:[i butwueu bodily uutivit> ntid intel- 
lectual work, aa well as uftbrdiug a medium for the cnltl* 
ration of the senses, ft i& found that these young 
children eujoj the active factor which predominatus in 

^K Articulation. — Thu grotner ataps toward articulation, 
^HbuqIi as facial gyuinastivs, are begun on the first diiy of 
^^■Bchool ; but no atleujpt is made to teach a word until after 
^^nx weekft, tb&t time being devoted to drill on the elements. 
^^■This is found to be ibu Khortest wajr to the dewirad eiul, 
^V Mid at tbe close of tbe year it will be seen that the pupil 
has acquired a better knowledge of language, both spoken 
and written, than if words had been attempted immediately 
upon untering Hoh«>ol. 

Tbe firKt elements taught are breath consonants, 
beginning with A and p. Tbe pnpil is provided with a 
hand mirror, and the t«acber points out to tbe tittJe onoa' 
ioqniring eyes the imaition for the tongae and lipw, which 
be is quick to imitate. Preparatory to articulation, dia- 
grams are introdnc«d, and the tongue, teeth, and lips aro 
idonlified. Very soon tbe child learns to nsaooiato aaeb 
diagram with tbe element which it represents, and, with 
the aid of tbe teacher, the use uf the baMl ^aas, and the 
nanipalator, tlie positions are soon nuwtared. 

In order that tbe finU elements may b« peiiMtly Mn»- 

498 /neiruction /or an Oral Claan of Beginntn. 

ilatdd b«foro cow od«« aro attompt«d, thoj are pnt into 
snch easy cotubiuatioua as Wc/>, lAp, thf, «tc., &ud the 
pupil Ihorougliij drilted upon them. Aft a further tneaus 
of impressiog the nienaory the claAH is given iDdividual 
alatcB ; and thu toachtir, n(t«r Hecnriug the uttoutiou of 
all, gives thi) combinationii from lior lips. 1( thu puptl 
does not know or has forgotten Uis iustrnclion, he ib re- 
quired to place a line ia the blank space aud pass on to 
the next. After all have been writtsa the tuaoher cor- 
recttt the alateK and points ont each mistake. 

Whuu QioHt of Lhti breath conKoimnts have boon learned 
the oinss i» ready for the voice cou}iouaiil& and Totrols. 
As soon a» a rowel 18 learned it is combined, both iuiltal 
and final, with the consonants already taknn. Thns the 
work coutinuuH until all of the elements are fuuiilinr botli 
from the written and the spoken iuturpretation. The 
number of weeks required to complete this work varies 
with the ago nud nbilitv of the class, but, when done, daring 
the remainder nt the year only one liour a day is devotetl 
to the correoliou of imperfect sounda and drill on new 
words and dilBunlt combiuatioiiK. When the pupil ik able 
to give the sounds of several of the vowels and consoonuta, 
and hsK learned the written symbols for the samo, the}" 
are wntteu on large sheets of maniln paper in positioDS 
corresponding tu thoAe of the printed charta to be used 
later. Only the Bounds that have boon perfectly luastorad 
nro placed on tbeso charts, as thoy are intonded as araeas- 
lire of what lia.<i been accomplished rather than to indicato 
whut is &tiU to be learued. 

As the new words are learned they are written on the 
wall slates and allowed to remain until the pupil has 
become familiar with thorn. Hach one that is added to 
thu list is welcomed with delight. ScutencoH framed by 
the pupil are read from the wall slatee, aud Inter from 
typewritten copies, the teacher oorrecting the errors io 

ftnttructicn fitr an Oml Ctatf 0/ MegMnert. 499 

The teaclier slionld be constHiitlv ou tlie rtlort for orrorn 
in pronnDcinticiD. hy nonstaat AHsocintioii with tiitr 
pap'il she in upt to bocoiuo m^cuHtoiiiBd t4> his prununoin- 
tiou. iLud sptiocli that is eaxilj' nucltimtoMl hv lior may bo 
abAolDt«1y uniutelligible to 11 8lnL0|:^«r. Thesti (IvfiKsta ars 
often line to an iocorrect position of the rocal nrganfl, 
and c»u oHunlly be corrected by the t«aobnr assaming tfae 
pro|)»r poititioa nud allowing the pnpil to oxamion bnr 
mouth, and having him imitate it by lookiug iu lliu fjlaiw. 
Wfaeu the positiou is ouv that cnniDot bo sbowii in this 
way diagrams will be fonnd u«t.>ful. Draw two diaKranni, 
ono xbowing the iocori'oct position and oiio sbowiti^ tbo 
tiorreot position ; point out the difforence in the two, and 
eoconrage the child in trying to got tba right odo. 

Hometimes nuiut«lligibiMty is due to inoorraot aeceat or 
emphasis. The accented syllable* or wordii may Im «bown 
by writing tbem in much larger letters or by having tbt* 
papil feel the stronger vibrntion io the teuchur's laryux. 
This work is important and shoald receive doe attentioo, 

Spooob is cultivoted by conitAitt oral wtpntmoo of 
tbooght. Many of the meclmnicnl ditflcatties in lenraing 
oral iaagnage are musterod in the desire to eKpreM 
tbooght. Hence, the iioportajice of awakeiiiQg in th« 
roiod of the child s Mose of tbo need of spMich. Tbta U 
Tory difficult of aroompliehmunt in c«>ubin«d-«y6lco 
8obo<JA( where the pa{iibt have nareelhctod reooflna to 
Mgnftmnd fiag«r-«p^og for the eiprewnoa of kbairidsM. 

Sptech-rtatliif~ — The inotnirlino in npeecli- reading b»- 
^bsaaeooo ■• Ibe cbild untcn Hcbooi. Tbis isifciaiorj 
iiMftraeticm, hovarer. ia rery simple, and oosaiata of aoofa 
rommaiA a> "jamp," "ran," "fold yoor bands." «(c. 
Hm davdopsieni tA Am aaoaeof farm and Iba eultivstioo 
of tba powar of coaaaatntiog aiteotioD are ivportaat 
factor* in prodocing good Bp-readflTB. Amoog iba fiial 
lUaipi Ibe p^itl lama ia the iMt Ibai arafTtbiog. biai- 
baaa aaAa^aadba vaiyaooo 

Inatrtiction /or an Oral CXom of Sigum»r», 

that tlie gyratioDA lie neen oti tlie fnces aroand buu menti 
Bometbiog. With tins reTelattou coiiios tbe keencHt 1I&- 
aim to pattioiputo in the exciting tl«Hght. 

He is now Uiiglib tho ntiuitiit »( fnuiiliar objects nboot 
liim, and hb hood as he has learned these tUej are pat 
into SRch easj senteaces aa " Shut the door, George," 
" Pat a top on the table, Tom." The conscious pride ol 
tho chuuipiou Hpuecb-rc^der itt frecineotly \ory antuBing, 
and this frieudly rivulrv is not without good results in 
HtimnUting the energvof the clas». Id ererj schoolroom 
the teacher tiii'Is that «inaIntion plavH an ahsolntetv vital 
part. Ana further HtimuhiH t^i ambition a little jndtcion»j 
applaaae, joined in b; all the class, is moHt effective. Ilj 
servee also as an aid in holdiog the attention of the papils I 
daring lesaons. 

After aboat three tuoutbft' training tbe pupil should be^ 
able to andenitand the uHoal direotioim vliich are given 
in the Bchnolronni and at tho table, and by tbe end of tbe 
year be compreheudtt inncb simple language. The oon- 
acientiotis t«achor never allows au opportunity to go by, 
in tichool or out of s<*hool, to spoak to hor pupils and bavi 
them speak to her, for in speoch-roadiDg tho pnpiU mnafcj 
learn to do by doimj. 

In tho earlier lessons the teacher's mouth should be on'j 
a level with the pupils' eves, and her chair should bft] 
ptacod in such a position that tho light from tho school-' 
room windows will fall on her face. If po6«ible, Uio 
piipiiti should havii tbuii backs to the light. It will be 
an advantage if thur are required to change places in tbe 
olaaa bo that thuy may all seo tho teacher's face from 
dtfTereut angles. 

Fjan</ttagc Work. — In all instruction tho aim is to keep'' 
alive aud direct tho active questioning attitude of the 
child, and to Hubordii)ut« the Hctitiisition of facts to 
dorolopmttnt of intellectual Kulf-control — thaiis.tbopoweir^ 
to think. Iiumense daniugu is done wheuuvur the covar- 

Imairuriiwi j'or an Oral Cltu» of Heyinners. 501 

of ftoartaiu amoanl uf gronnd is inade the end at the 
«xp«D9e of tlioroafjhness and babite of inqnirj- and re- 
floctioD. When snob mothods arc parsQod acqniriDg 
da to replace iu()niriDf;. 

Verj littl? origiualitv or variety of expreasioD is ez- 
of the pupil dariug the tir&t year of hia in&tractioo. 
'At tbis time the object of tbe work is to give liiixi Uogoage 
to clotlio thu tbougbLa bu alreiuly posHosfibit ratber tbaa to 
couvey to bis luiml uuw tbuagL(«. 

In the firbt effucth to leaob langoage the words seleoied 
ihonld be the Daiue« of objects with vbtrb the pupil is 
familiar. A« new wonle and sentences are acqiiiroil tbey 
are put iuto a book which the cbild carrtett iii bitt pocket. 
It is a couveniout ruMourctt for uuturtaiutnuDt fur tbe little 
one at tablu aud duriut; rvcuH8. Aa opportunity oocors 
aew cODTersatiooal language ia carried ou, sacfa as " Good 
morning," "How aro yon?" "I thank you." etc The 
selection of wonln to be tangbl depeiida entirely upon tbe 
needs of tbe pupil, aud the pupil uewla only what he 
ttBSB. The use depends upon tbe demands of his home 
and school life. Drills on lit^ts of words are not intorosting 
to our little learner, nod if continued for any great length 
of time, are apt to discourage and diagnat bim. Wliaterer 
legitimately iocreasoe the interest of the ehild in tbe ob- 
ject of bis attention ia pedagogically good ; whatever de- 
enMOOt it i» pedagogically bad. From the point of view 
of the pnpil the santenoe is the real field of interest, Id- 
diWdnal words derive their fiigniticance for him largely 
from their function in tbe sentence. OonBc<)nently, when 
it is poesible, new words are taogbt in seutocces. 

air. Warren Robinson, in his excellent paper entitled 
'* A New Device in Langoage Teaching,"* says : 

" It is all too easy for the teacher to magnify his office 
aud eaoumber bitt pupils with a lot of words which are 
far more of a hindrance tlian a help to their odTance- 

•SMtb* Jt'inlM, Tca.zUU.pIi. T9*', I700BS. 

502 InEtruction for an Oral dots of Utt/innerg. 

ment, not to montion the tinio thronn away oo tbei 
Moreover, it often misleads the teaclior into 6a|i|>0Kiiig 
tbat bis aoocees depeoUs more npoo the anmlter of wot 
or forms bo cnu eram into tli<; heatlti of bin pnpils thfiQ 
apoQ tbo vigorous drill bo cua givu to a fuw of tlie mosL 
geneml and QDivorsal terms, which iu itaolf iDTokee a 
far larger trnining and developrueut of tbe Itiuguago sttUBe 
nud the mind iu geoernl than anything else io this branch - 
of our work. Tho fact mnnt never be lont KJgbt of in tUal 
propnratiou for the mastorjr of nuy Innguiige or iiciencel 
thftt it is the training in its fmidsmeiitalH that n^ally pre- 
pares the uiiud for tbe proper nudorstauding nnd practice 
of tlie subject in its larger and more complex relatiot 
It has been futid, ' Yon only half know a word whou yon 
know itN meaning; it m yours entirely only when you can, 
nse it correctly aud without effort.'" 

Prufesaor CuUiug, who is an ackuowloilged authority oqJ 
languago-ti'nching, says : 

"Tho distinction between the active and the paaaivc 
memoiy is one of prime importance for the laugnngA 
Utacher, bouause of certain implications fnr hi:* work. 
The ooutouts of (bo sctiv4-- memory reapoud readily to the 
voluntary call of the individual; those of the passivo 
memory' on the other hand fail thus to respond. Tb4 
bearing of this upon the acqnirement of ft language be-^ 
comes at once obvious. Tbe Euglisb vocabulary aotaallj 
ftt oar oommsDd for the expression of thought arising in 
our minds boars a relation to a still larger vocabulary of 
words iind idiomtt, rocoguiztsl more or lotts dimly at sight, . 
bat DQver obeyiug our call, not nuLike that of a smaller toj 
a lai^er concentrate circle. Tbe former is definite, clear- 
cut, and under control. It is held iu rcadinuKti by wbat 
I have termed tbe aotive memory, and is the mcjuture of 
oar effective grasp upon tbe rosourooe of onr mother 
tongue. Tbe latter is a more or leas unknown territory. 
Its bunndnriee are vague, its oouteuts are ill-assorted and 

In^trucHon for «n Oral datt t^f Bcginntra. 503 


looeely houod togetlier "by tlio ASHotMnh'vo priiiplplti, 
anil we »re freqnently the TictioiB of itn ilhiKionH, It ifi 
tlie home of Mnt. Moliiprop, niii^ in nmbriietKl wtlliJD wlint 
I term the pH»(ive memnry. Hnlf |{lim]>8rM, ilJHtorti-il 
views, and dowuriHlit inittcouteptiou aro it* staple prod- 
nets. In spite of Ibe most vigorous efforts to Hup]>lant 
it bj sometljiDg bett«r, enough of this limbo wilt rviiiain 
notoni^bed to annoy and distress itM ponsoRsor through 

Wheu the little denf child enters sohool ho hiia no 
bulary, and in croating one for him the tiisk of prime 

portance is to Rolargf* the vncnbulnry hnhl by tho 
active memory. The active memory can tm nultivaliMl 
by Belf activity involved in rumbining and r«rombluinK 
the impressiou» alreiuly rocoived; that is, in raproduc- 
tioD. When a story is given orally the pupil is ri»<|Hir«»d 
to rvproduce it Id writing. In taking up a now story tho 
cbtldreD lirst learu tlio new wordj», oaob being n)M<>«JAt«<l 
oa t&r as possible with the appropriate object, aclioo, or 
qonlity. For t&«t«Dce, verbs are Mwodated with AolioM 
seen and oouds prcHdotcd in connctHion with thti oorro- 
^ponding objects. Thv new wonlaarv pat intolbo ohilil'M 
notfr-)MK>k and their S|»elliug learned. The pupil w then 
reqnirod to n»e Ibem in aeut^incesof bMownoonatniL'tian. 

For the nafce of tht> drill in language (be pnpil ia ocea- 
aionally allowed to aonwer qoi^iious in aenteneea, tlioa: 

WIier« did Joba go? 

John went to town. 

What did he cany io bia hand ? 

Re earried a baaket in faia band. 

Bnt io aioat of tb«ir worit and in all of their reeitatinoa 
thsj are raqoired Uj giv« abort aaawera, a« ibb toaibod 
bagctedaarer thinking; thaa: 

Wbare did John p> ? 

To tOVlL 

WlHt Sd W carrv m bia haad? 

50-( Jnsifuclion for an Oral Claw of licginntrt. 

In order to twcuru alertoess of attentioD the blackboard 
work 18 goinutimett «raaud aft hooh as aritten and the obild 
required to rewrite it or to toll what he has r«ad. 

During the first year the aim iKtogaiu a siiiipla vooab-1 
ularjr and fonverHationnl English. No conscious grammsf ' 
work itt attempted. Writing, Kpelling, panctuation, the 
ase of capitaid liud (;nLiumatical foruiti are acquired by, 
couslaotlj expressing thought with the pen. Languags 
is learned hy uBiug it. 

For 8 class of average ability, composed of pupils from 
Rve to eight yeanf of I^;e, the ontline of htoguogo work for 
the year is iibuut an follows : 

Verbf. — One hundred, present, past, and future tena««; 
declurative, negative, and interrogatiTo forms. 

NouTw. — NnineBof common objects tlioohiid seesaboot 
him, ioolnding names of persons and days of the wook. 

Pt'ononnt. — The personal prouonus, with a few ex(Mp-| 

AdJ6ctivtt. — From seventy to one hundred of the moat 
common ; ulao numerals from one to one hundred. 

J^rvposUions. — Ten to twelve of the easier ones. 
Verht, — The verbH should bu tliu nam»s of the (x>minou 
ootionu which tho child sees purformm) about him, and 
arc taught by means of action work. lutrausitive Torbs 
in the past tense are given first. Wbeu the course of the 
year is over the pnpil should be able to give the past and 
present tuuitoH of all the verb)* learned, and the uugatirc 
form* and thu future teuso of soma of the more fnmiUar^ 
ones. The first rerba for a young child are ge&enlly 
arranged thus : 

to go 
Before now By and by. 

< shall go. 
( will go. 

did -go - JKl"Jl-gO. 

< Will — go. 



Inttrueiion for an Oral CUu» of itetjinners. Wh 

Tlie8« ftre drilletl upon until thoyaro por(«iUy learned, 
iir rejieniiug them over nml avor the loonier ncqtiirMi a 
kiuil of mniDonbaii] that carrivx him nloD|t hy liimnolf. la 
thu huufU of a teiu:ber of tact and resource thin <lril]iu({ 
may be matle us iutereBtiot^ to these childruii aa uuniviy 
rhymes are to ordinary childran. 

Action work ill uccordniico with Mihh Burry'u Five'Slute 
Syiit«m will hu found very aHefiil in fnRiilianr.)ii|j; the 
[>upil with Ibe vurioiis scnteoco forioH. 

A'oimt. — ^The first nonns tnnght nhanld lio wonU at ea»y 
proDaDciittii>n : the tiatR(,*H of^oonsmon objocln i>iic)i u 
will occur in the child'H Ixngan^e work. The artiulcR a, 
an, aod M« are taogbt with these words, also thu shigular 
and plural foruiH. About the middle of the year puretitH 
are requested to send the nuiues of brothera ttud iiiiittini, 
which the pnpil is taught to pronounce. A few miiiutM 
daily are devoted to teaching the Dnuieit of the daya of 
the week. The nameo of the dayH are written around a 
cirele repFosenUufj a week, and a» etieU day paaiws ihu 
pnpil crosses it off, until the week is nompletml, when it 
is beffuu over af^in. 

Tlic liat of DoaRB learoed darinj; the first yoar asnally 
iDclndes tbe nameB of onr common domeatio animals, of 
oommot) Inrits and regnUblM, of tb« puts of tli« body, 
of aitides of riotbing. He. 

J'n'no*ii*4. — Tbe difficalt task of Umchiog proaoans to 
th«d««l isiDosi easily accotnpliabed tlirongh tbe modinoi 
of action work, b«0itwoK *i<b tb* iotraiMitJr* vafb«< 
Tb« duld is told to perlom aMne aetioD. Wbro aidied 
what bo did, tbe answer, **l ran." will give the prontfoo 
"L" Abotber popiJ will b« aaked what Job a did and 
will hay " Be ran." Tbcn ha win bo iastnu:t«d lo asy to 
Jobn " YoQ ran." But wbcQ b« writas be is Uaiibl to 
■ay ** John ran.** and Bsad* to nndsistsmi Uiat b« is not 
-wiitiBif to Jobs b«i aivW torn. Tbs ytat eare ta r*' 
'qoind lo praa p n i Umm fonsa HApty amd risariy. To do 

506 Jnttruction for an Oral Class of Beginiura. 

this the attentioD of the pnpil moat be constantly directed 
to the pnpil performing the action. 

Adjecti^s. — From seventy to one hundred adjectives 
are taught during the first year. Numerals are also given 
from one to one hundred. This class of words is taught 
whenever the opportunity to use them occors. 

Prepositiotis. — Prepositions are always taught in sen- 
tences. About ten of the easier ones are learned daring 
the year. 

Action Work. — This has already been mentioned as 
alTording a convanieQt means for teaching verbs and pro- 
nouns. During the latter six months, two periods daily 
are devoted to this exercise. At first the intransitive 
verb is used ; later we have sentences containing a 
prepositional phrase, with a compound subject or a 
oompound predicate. 

./nHi'mils. — Very early in the course the pupil is taught 
to put in journal form the occurrences of the preceding 
(lay. The first journals are usually conducted in this 
uiaiiiior: Kiich member of the clasB is encouraged to 
liiakt' a Htatoiueut, the teacher correcting the English as 
it in Mpokoii, and guiding the pupil as to the chronological 
ni'i'iiiigituiDnt of incidents. It is the custom of some 
tiiH(ih(>rH to make hectographic uopieu of these joarnals, 
HH llu\v ar« roiiords of language covering facts with which 
tli« pupil irt familiar. Eacli child is allowed to have his 
own lioiik at Lalilu and to otrry home witli him. 

/..7/i *>, -TIhi first iittempts ut letter-writing are usually 
liiiiilii )ii<fi)r«t Die middle of the year, and during the re- 
iimiihlor of l\w year two hours a week are devoted to 
li>ttt>i' writing. 

Sn//il /,',;iiiiiii/. — During tlio last seven moutiis of the 
\t>iiv a liulf litiiir oiutli day is spent in drill and practice in 
pioimiuu'inn luifiuiiiliiir pliouetif words from the written 
oliiiiiki'lorN. Whoi) uiistiikus art: made they are corrected 
li\ inoaiiH tif Iho rharts. 

Inttructlen for an Oral Oast o/ Jie^nntirt. 507 

Number Work. — We allow ibe child's iucliDatioo and 
pleasure to dictate the extant to which coauting is carried 
Uie fintt year. Usaally be i» grnatLT intorpHted in connt* 
ing and meaiiariug, Hud ih conHtnotly on the lookoot (or 
oppottauitiea to d«« bis kaitwiult;*! uf numburs. He Hodf 
tbein ID seating, io bis coDxtmctire work, aod in hi* pla/. 
Kambers appeal to him for t)m aite be can make of ifaam. 
For thia reason It vk Dot saffieient to begin the teacbing 
of primary numbers by conotii^ objects as blocks. Id 
dmng this Iho ideal element is eliminated In order to 
make the work effectiTe and interesting it mosi be nataral, 
not artificial or futt«d. When objeeta are employed there 
mnst be a reasoo for osiog tbont ; tbey most be related to 
the papil's experieooe; there most be aa clement of 
growth- — a positire result aheul which is going to eooM 
fcHtb. and Io which tiie ^lild'a atteotiim ta eonslaatly 

TUettudy of namhers is not began until the tbirtl or 
fourth ye^r. 

S^iyiotta /tutrueikm. — The atsoont of religions inaftme- 
tioD which may b» i^ven daring tbe ftnt yew depend* 
targelr upon Um age asd ^e adTooeeneat of tlia da». 
Aa eoon ac the efaihl'a knowledge of langnage will pcmit 
it, Uleen aiantea eneb day Md ooe boor on 6«adny •«• 
deroCad to ttni pvpow. The iMrtrsetimi <eanit» of 
MiDpU te r iM tnm tb* Bible. Il i* aUo fr«qae«t]y poasi- 
Ue loiafMTt smoJ leaneas by ■■■— at pictana. 

AmL — It is Ml «OMider«d adrkabic to lax tbeae 
tafaafei iritb men tbaa a half boar o( coalaB*a«a vorfc, 
caamnantfy epeeial 'rtiAs'' ere arraai^d lor lbe«. 
Wbentfa wnjifriafliiwil tbey are tafc— elof doon 
Inr a fe* HiBnian enrb day. 





To TBACiiElts of Ibu de&f the question of mulbudM isaj 
8ul)j«ct of pereuuial interest. Dtinug the last twentv 
years the comparative nierit« of tliu two rivals, tbe excla- 
sively oral method »m\ tlio <:omliiuod system, bare beeo 
80 Hxliaastiveljr diftcusaot] in tachQical publicatiouH imd 
tit professioual gatheriogs, both oational nud iDtoTuntiouttI, 
tlint it is doublfal whether tnncli frejiti ligbt cuu betlrowu 
on tbe coDtroversy. lint in npitu of all tliat h«a been 
spoken or written for or agiiiust t>itb«r oielhoil, in Bpit« of 
tlie d«oisiou8 of local or intcriiatioual congn'ssen, it does 
not tieem as if tba Inst word lias yet been prononnced or 
a coQclasion arrived nt wliiob commandH tbe genuioe and 
boarly aiwunt of tbe majority of tboHe engaged in tbis 
Bpecial depadtneut of eduoationat setivity. 

The resolutions carried at tbo great iuternatiounl meet- 
iug at Milan, in L^SO, in fafor of urtioitlntion, pnre and 
simple, biive, it is true, been ratttied at tiiuiilar gatberingu 
held since at Brussels, Paris, and elsewhere, but uutwitb- 
atanding the </fM«i auaniiuity with which the oral method 
was upproved, its alleged suporiority still lemaias, in tbe 
opiuiou of many, an open qaestiou, Tbe controversy is 
far from being definitely closed, although one of the 
reeolutious adopted at I'aris last year is based on the 
ossumptioQ of " the mcunUtUihU superiority of apooch 
over sigus us a meaus for restoring the deaf-mute to sooie^J 
and giviug him a more perfect kuowledgu of langdiige.* 
Tbe sigiiiticance of the decisions come to by those iuter- 
national oasemblieH may easily be exoggeralod. The oon- 
tinoutal ruciubers taking part iu the procecMlinga do not 
always enjoy that full freedom of opinion which is tbu 
privilege of their ICiigllsh-spenkiug colleagues, thetr views 
are ordinarily duriveil from ri much more limited expe- 
rience, aud tbeir judgment formed after a Idk» extendc 


TAe Batik I'/ Ueihudt. 


obterrittion of factd. Nor is it, oo occssiooti of tbis kind, 
safBci«Dt merely to couut bttdds ; w« slioald aUo weigh 
beada. AtoongHt the Urge ninjority wbo voted id sappoit 
of the pore ornl mr^tliod at Milan Mod BmsReU were nuiujr 
wbo were eitb^r cnrriiMl n«'iij bj tbe eutboHiiwm of the 
momeiit or tDdaenced br tbe preaUf;e of some of the mora 
distiogaigbed parlissiis of tbe vocul method ; tfaere were 
few, if uiT, of tbe coolineotal toncborB wbo bad bad the 
opportaoitr of egtiioAtiiig attliejr real worth Ibesplottdid 
reaalts achieved bjr tbe rintl sjtitem in the Britiab and 
American schools. SvdDej Stoitb ouce obeenred tbal it 
woatd be an eutertaioio^' cbaD|:v tu bamaa affairs to decide 
enrytUing bj mit/rritUs, for, he added, thu^v are almost 
alws^ in the right. It cs Doi improbable that the truth 
of this aomewbat paradoucaJ sayiog maT be realized in 
the preaeot ooooecttoB before tbe twentieth oeotory enters 
oo ita second qoartcr. 

For tbe Tiews and oponiona I shall hero sobmit to tbe 
raaden of tbe AiinaU I may claim tbe merit of impac- 
lialitj. I have bo "ase to grind," being do longer in tbo 
pnifewioo : bat baTing spent etoae on thirty years in Ibn 
tnatmctioD of the de>f. I QatoraUy retain a keen intereat 
in the snbyect, not only as a work of philanthropy, but 
aba BB a branch of edncaliooal prouraea. Botli — IhuiU 
are bauliar to me ; I hare tangfat according to th« psra 
oral and according to tbe mannml, and the esperienoe ihns 
pinnH baa been sopplemented by obaemtion in momm 
wa&kaownuboobof Italy, Fraae«,Belginm. and Gensaajr. 
Let BM pr«Biii« that in •iwakiog of tbe " mannal ** setbod 
t iaelade nnder thai qoaKfication the dnal or conbined, 
aad that mj cri tJ eu iM <d tba onl method bat partially 
•ppKoa to ita maoka on tha dsnb wbo ai« not deaf and 
tbe dnaf wbo are not dunb. 

Tbe vide popnkrity wbieb tbe oral —tbod aqoya at 
the preaeat dayoa tbe eoatijwvtcif Eotope, and the favor 
with which it ia kiofced apoo by wmuj in En^aad aad 

;>U) Tfhe Battle of Msthoih. 

America, may in no small degree be attribated to the 
striking manoer in which it appeals to the public sympathy. 
To give speech to the dumb, to supply the missing sense 
(or the deaf, is ao achievement which vividly impresses the 
popular imaginatioD. Condemned by their infirmity to 
form a caste apart, incapable by reasoo of their donble 
deprivation of sharing in most of those social pleaanrea 
within the reach of their more favored fellow-creatares, 
unable, except through the medium of nnoouth gestures, 
to hold intelligent converse with their kind, the dumb are, 
it is alleged, by this ingenious process of instraction, 
rescued from silence, gifted with utterance, and, sight * 

taking the place of hearing, they are, by degrees, put in 
easy communication with people around them. Save that ,7^ 

their deafness remains, though largely compensated for, "^ 

they may be said to stand on an equality with those whom m:^^^ 
nature has treated with a more liberal hand. Can we he ^— .^ 
surprised at the impressioD which such a feat, bordering^^ 
on the miraculous, makes on the popular mind, and that.^_^^ ^ 
in comparison, the results which the more common plao^^^^/ 
method is able to show seem "flat, stale, and unprofitable"* *■* „« 
The public contents itself with a superficial inquiry, Lf . ■' 
arrested by the novelty and the (apparent) success of th«^ ^^i 
curious process, and without further examination prc»-^^ 
nounces it superior to the manual method, of which, in n 
ality, it knows tittle or nothing. " We are living in an 
whose watchword is progress, and this development h^F w^ 
the art of instructing the deaf being accounted a distin-^?.^^^^ 
advance, the. manual method, useful enough at one time, -^ 


may now be discarded to the manifest gain both of those 
afBicted persons for whom it was devised, and of the 8o< — ce 

ciety in wiiich they move." Thus reasons the public on **' 

inadequate information, without havioggone to the troable 
to examine how far the claims put forward by the adher- 
ents of oralism are well founded, or to wliat extent their 
pretensions are ju»titied by facts. Did the pure oral bvs- 


Thif iitiUe of MnJ'txii. 


iota prodnce sac)] romilts; did ii really cuafcr on thit tlcjif 
sacb ioeetimtthla pnvilogeH, the popninr va^ivra in which 
il is held would find ohm- explanation, bat lliai it doBM 
improve their ttocial condition in thin inenauro liati not oii 
TCt boen conclosiyely demonstrated. 

Shoald we give the nnme " speech " to that power of 
Artificial utterance no nloirly and painfallr a(><[Dir«d Iry the 
oODgenitalW deaf? Ik it, in the strict Nense of the word, 
^eech, either for th« deaf themaelvos, or for thosu with 
vhoni they hold vocal commnnication? Saroly tho moRi 
Bnthoitisstiu adiitir«rK of the articulation ni«th<Hl will not 
pratand that the mechanical ability imparted to the natar- 
ally dumb is attended iu ita exercise with aoythiof; like 
the ease and pleasure oxporioncod by the bearing when 
thojr employ speech as an instmmeut of HxpriUMion. To 
the latter the gift cnme, we may say, nncoosciuoaly — it is 
•xereised with facility ; by its meaos, aa baa been well re- 
nmrked, the «aer«t« of the heart ar« broaght to life, pain 
of soul ta reliered. hitlden grief la carried off, syutpatby 
eoDveyed, eoanMl imparted, experieooa rsoorded, and 
wisdom perpetuated. And then bow f^reat ia the pleaaore 
oommoDly derived from the spoken word« wliiob atrika 
ovr e«r. Whether it be the natonJ murie of the roiee, 
tbe variety and ouuiDer of ifitooatios, tbe thoogfato eoa* 
mnaicated, or tbe aaaocialiotM called np bj oettaiB vorda 
or pbruea which linget id Um awnory, or all eombiaad, 
thtfdsl^tof Ibaliatmiertaalcfica that tbe power of ipoecfa 
ia a gift aa gtcal m aay thai eaa be oaaed. Fot the deal 
apofcea laBgaagB esa aerver bo speech ta the fall aeaeeol 
Ibe iem. 8|leaeh addiiii i ttielf to the ear, aot ko the 
eye, aad K ia etaJiBM lo lasiet bow dull, bov lililnaa, bov 
Mtowpiriag iatha apokea word for fail wboae ear ia deatd 
to the Tocal MMod. Tbewe who dilato oa the eieeBaaee 
of speech iM ooatraiiiiiJ witt yeiaiea mmt to faeyt that. 
■• Bar aa oeal 


Tkt Bald« of Methnh. 



expressivo tlmii tlia natuTAl and coDTcntioQal sigos wtiie 
ttrticulrtliouiats bo sovertly coud«iuu. OndiaU lose Mi^bt 
of the fact that tbt'ir owu B;st«iii but iesaea lo h nsversol 
of partfl betveeo Uie Hoaf and the heariog. TDstead of tbc 
bcnriug biding obligetl to ioterprot the genlnres of 
damb, tbu stili uioro difliciilt in&k \» thrown oti the d 
of seiztug and coiupruboodiiig the labia] uiorements 
sigos of those who address tliem orally. And how 
we to i)ualifr the mcdiuoi umplored in thoir iuteroonrHo 
witb one aaother hy those orally-laoght deaf wbo do not 
resort t<( g<iBtm¥8 ! We cannot certamlj diguify it witb 
the uiiino of Kpoech. Manv people will rail it '* montb- 
it)({"; at beat, it la but a Kaccession of labial or facial 
signa— the merest tnivest)- of spokeu language — niiio|^M 
Ie»H natural and less intelligible than tbose tuauual aigrrt^' 
to the uw of wbiob aucb .strong objectioo is frequeutlr 

The Huperioritr of spec'h over Rlgnn or writing u 
tueium of coiuiuimic-aliuD betwueu the deaf aud the hoari 
bita boon oftou dwelt q)>ou, but ibis is a point on whioh, 
outside tiio circle of experts, opinion is sadly uninformed. 
'So doubt if the ornlly iastnicted deaf wore endowed with 
ft thorough mastery of langoafi^* A°d witb the gift of lip. , 
rofulitig in ite fiillost perfection, if tbey oould cdtcb ao^H 
uodoratand tbe labial sigu ad readily us we seize and com^^ 
prehoud the vocal symbol, if tboy conid attain a facili ty 
of expression ntid a pleasautoese of utterance parall4||^| 
tbougli far fruui cqiinl, to that of the sTorago bunrin^^ 
purtton, then, indeed. Ibe toil of the teauher would bft^ 
amply rewarded, and the Iriiimpb of nrtiunlatiou OTaMl 
inigutt woidd l>e runiplvtu. But it can biirdly be denied 
that nuch sucoeaa is rurulr, if ever, oehioTed ; the vaat 
majority of the orally tanght never arrive nt anything 
approaubiug this proficiency. We are all familiar witb 
tbe cliara<.'to)'i»lic arciciilatioii of this class. A prunun* 
ciatiou whieli baa bu4)U ac^uiretl, uot by the 


The linUU o/ Methods. 


soands, bat by an nrtiSoinl process aud llirotigh nn orgRii 
otbtir WiKa lltat liy which vocnlizatioD is guided, most of 
neceBHitj be extremelr defective. Except in very rare 
liootauces the mecbaDioal ntteriiQce of the orntly tau^bt 
Ideaf is dieagre«able to ibe IJeteaor, pniDfuilvindistiDct to 
ao«t poopKand cot aufrcqueuUv quite UDintelligible. It 
rcoald bflrdiT bo otherwise. Id tbo latt«r AtaKoa of bis 
sobool traiDing, amongst bis profossora ami cumpiuiioDs, 
wbom dail}' tDt«rcouree bos fniuiliiiiized with biei pecD- 
liantieK of onuucintioo, be may usually make himaelf 
understood ; aftarwurdK iiis fiimilr and iairoediato ac- 
[luaiutauueu may romc, HomutiineH to coiDpnjbeDd, some- 
times to goess, wbat lie means to express; but strangers 
and ppople generally bftv<> cooBiderable ditUcuUy — often 
tbey fail utterly — in diHentaugling the sense from the 
sound. My own exporionce will probably be that of 
mnuy oLbers. The degree of success reacbetl iu both 
speech and lip-reading io the several schools I have 
visited was. I need hardly olwerve, very unequal ; but io 
on establishment could the pro6ct«ncy be considered 
altogutht^r satisfactory. In thu cuKe uf pupils who at one 
lime enjoyed their hearing, the vuealizntiuu retained of 
course much of its naturalness, aud I bad compamtiTely 
little trouble in nnderstnnding vhat was said ; as to the 
otberH, Ibe articiilHtion was luborod, wanting in clcanieBB, 
dlKtressiug to the ear, the spoken words lieing ditttinguish- 
kble by au ofl'ort, aud often only aftBt having been several 
times repeated. Tliat I might tbo better test the iutel- 
ligibility of the speech T marie it a poiut uot to look at 
tlio lesson on the blackboard or iu the book from which 
the pupil was reading, relying solely on my ear to catch 
tbo souse of liu- words or phriktHts be was pronouncing. 
Although lip-roadiog is usually n mncb easier atlainmeut. 
I did not tied that the scholars interpreted readily the 
moTemeots of my lips, ooless when I spoke with dcliber- 
*l« aIov&css and a forced di«tiucluees. None of tboso 


7*A« BatUt of Methods, 

with whom I coDversed would liave been able to foUov 
me bad I addrotuieil tUeni iii the ordinary roaobei. 
As I bnv<i already reiunrkud, between tbe teacfaen and 
the taugbt, uud betweou Ibe papUs tbemselTeH, a oertoia 
faciUtj of nintQftl comprebeosion is at Inngth acquired; 
but tbiii is not owing so manh to tlie (greater correct- 
ne8s of the Kpeccli or to » greater pro6civuc}' in lip- 
rea<ling, a& Lo tbt< obvluiis (act tliat hy ronton of tbe oou- 
staiit iutercourse tbe labial sigus of the inatroctora and the 
defeetive prouuDcintioD of the pnpitH becomo more intelli- 
gibte to both partie-s re^ptwtively. 

One of the argumeuta moat frvquentlj' urged in favoff 
of the oral method is that by it8 means the deaf are 
effectively restored to social life, inasmuch as they are 
enabled to converse with oompamtivt) ensowith the worid 
around them. Is it, however, really tbe case that the 
great majority of deuf-muten inKlriioted aeeordin^ to this 
method enjoy the facnlty of speeeh, and that, tbe period 
of their education terminated, tboee so gifted continuo to 
express themselres orally ? Evon amongst oraliata tbero- 
selves there is far from unanimity on this point. Many 
of them acknowled^ with r&^tei that very often the 
speech acquired at school is, after a while, drop|Md, 
either iu oonseqaence of the diRicnIty the deaf find tn 
making themaelvoa nnderstood, or of Lbeir inability to 
lip-reud what is spoken to them, and that signs are re- 
sorted to aa a simpler and readier mode of communtcn- 
tion. This is what wo Hhould be ted pritna fncie bo 
expect, and it corrt'spomls with the exiierieuce of moat 
people who have met the orally instructed deaf after they 
have be«!U mixing some years with the world. The mere 
fact that occasional instances are to be seen of deaf 
persons— ordinarily the semi-deaf — using speech as their 
me<linm of expression is no warrant for cuneliiding that 
the majority, or even a large proportion of tbe speukiug- 
deaf, keep up in after life the praotioe of their school- 

Th4i HntUe ofMethi 


daja. Do wu not fiiitl it uIku tu bo Lliu tixcoption, rulliur 
thai) tho mio, that Ihu npeHkiuf^-detit wlinu X\wy oouvorKc^ 
with oac'b other axpruaa Iht- iiiHt^lven untllv imtU'nd nf hy 
gestare? PareDtbeticiill}-, 1 wutilil reinnrli that Itwb year'n 
Paris CongresH was diviclcil iot^i two MUutioiiM — nue for 
beaHag iDombont, thu atlier fur the iluiif. 1'bi<ni luiwt 
have beeii prasout very iniiujr doaf-mntuM, Froucb nacl 
other, who bad been educutfd on oral h'liea. Wblcb 
Hectiou did th«tse dear-iiiat«>H nltatid? If thoy iook |»irt 
in tbe delibRraliai-.N of the tutcond, whttrH thii (iroReedJngii 
were couductt-d in Higno, it would be ver^ c-onviunitig uvi- 
denoe tbat tbeir earl^ iuatruotioa hnd bnt impttrftwlly 
"reiitoTed them to socioty " iu tho suuhi' iu which tho 
phrase is omplofed by tho iuIvocat4«H of arlinulatioti. 

Tl in hy nu miiaiiH Biitiy to get reliable iurormaliuii con- 
ceroiug tbe preciHe reualta uf thti osolnHtvoly oral nio(hod 
from those itnmediiitel^* coDDDcted with the kcIiaoU fu 
which it ift in vogue. The cnsaal visitor in amiiM] with 
DO iDqaisitorial power* ; he hi rftHtnunM], by fear of |^y. 
it^ offeuee, from pnMhtag Iitx inqairiMi to tbe HKtotil be 
would desire, aad it Is in hutoan uature that lb« follow«m 
of Uia nethod. while earefal to show it* biMM aide, ar« aot 
equally willing to puiot oot io what, or Low far. ft falla. 
AUboagb it may be no reflaciioo oo tbeir boDM^ or gin- 
oetily, tbe pabUo d*elArattoQa of not a lew onUiaU mra 
oariottaly incootistefit wtUi Ui«r private practiee. I 
kacnr at leaat foor Freoeb-*pe«ldac wboob whose rvpf** 
MsUlinttakUM lata iBtonwItoud CoagNM wora aawa^at 
the moet xtalaut partiaana of Um " p«r» " oral aatfiod a* 
deoraed al Milan ; yel. aa a matter of (Wet, fmn tbafr 
ehaaea gmtui ea aro aot vboll j bauafcad, and onidJa tiM 
■dwoboom Ibair popOa eo a ra—e alaoii eialaiiTely hj 
«%M. UpponeaU of aittcaJatioB are oow aad ii»«o to b* 
{ooBd who ffiaggariie tlta dtawfaw:^ of tW KNtbod aad 
an not dJapoaaJ Io aaa ts it aaytlaog wortlij ol ■■tfaaa 
bst. OB Aa other haad, aoaa of Ilia mowft mtt- 


Thr. liiUtle of' Mi:thodii. 

thosinstio omiists woald fain persuade i)8 thiit it is tl 
ideal of niutliodK, tliut it ih uppltciiblfl to every categori 
of tfae deaf, and tlmt throngh it« Infltriimeiitnlity itH sul 
jeots may be pluved ou au iutellectunl uud eociat eqa»U^ 
witli their li&ariug follown. For this elnsH of oxtroiniHt^^ 
there mast be do going bttok on the rasolutioos adopt^j^H 
ut MiltiD and Hince realfirme<l »t Paris. There nre tbotie, 
however, among the more thouglitfal and sober-minded 
oC the oral teachers, who candidly rocognizo that their 
method, though admintblu in tliuory. ift not ontiruly satis- 
factory in proclice, und that undism, ptiro nud simple, 
being inexpedient or impossible, the judicious employ^ 
meat of aigns would be un aid rather than a hindrance 
the procoRS of instriiction. 

To foiiu a correct ustimato of the working of any ecl( 
oationol ByBtem we most look to its roanlts, not, be 
anderstood, withtu a circumscribed area or in exceptioi 
caaes, bat over the whole field in which it is applit 
Judged by tbi^ teitt, the only sound and practicable ovu 
it will, I hold, bt: found that the articululion metluHl Hi| 
unlly faihi to achieve uU (but success of which itt< partisanjl 
make such fretjneut uoast. It is the merest of conimoD^ 
places to say that in the instrnctiou of tbe deaf, us 
other matteni, the aim sbnuld be to confer the greatest 
guod on the greateMt number. Ah to " the greatest^ 
number," none bat extremists will deny that there wi^| 
always romuin a considerable proportion of the deaf to 
whom the atriotly oral method ia either inapplicable o^d 
on whom the time and labor »p«ut are but pourly eoiq^^ 
pensated for by the beuotits they receive from their train- 
ing, whereas tlio numlier whoso iut4)llecttml condition 
cannot be largely ameliontted by instniotion throagb the 
Doanaal method ia almost a negligible qnanUly. It in oo 
the question of " the greatest goml " thai we may expect 
to see the most divergence of opinion. Of the good 
which tbe oft-reviled system hasaccompliahed, I neednc^ 

Vie Jiattle uf MetluHia. 


speak ia detail. I(h work lias beeu before tbd pnblto of 
lliu old coQtineDt and tlie oew for upn»rdti of a cuutur>', 
uid it reuiainii jot to bu provud that it in, taki^l) nil 
round, iu auy way inferior lo tbiit c-ffeirtnd by itn rival. 
Xu quality an well afl in quantity, tha roHulUf attaiiKHl io 
the Britinli and American scboolH, whero tlio ayMlum ban 
beeu uurufully ituprovcd, do not KufTitr (ratbcr thu con- 
trary) by contrast witb auylhiui^ thu uioaI cflicieut of tbn 
oral establisliiuenU have liiLbi'tto sbowu. 

The long-ntatiding controversy lietvaeo tbe [mrtiHana 
of the two mt^tliudN may, it NnoinK to iu«, W brought 
within Terr unrri>w limitH. That tlie mannal orcoialiintid 
8y»t«m is applicable to all ciaaaeK of d«af-iiiute« — weak- 
minded cliildren apart — will not b« oonteated. That thn 
oral metbiid \f> eqiuilly applirable Lo ornry vliuw of Llie 
deaf, inclnding tU« congenital, baa not ap to tb« prmeot 
bueo iodiapatably proTed. Lei oa coucetve thci point 
that it ia ao applirabU. As ragarda tbo rosnlta of tlin 
ednoatioDaltruiniug, it is not, mo far as I kiiow.contenilud— 
in preH«nc« of accooi pliabed facta tbe prolnnaion would 
Lbe little abort of ridiculuus — that tb» oral tnelh'Ml pro- 
vidoB the di?af with a t>cttter iut4)lloctua] oqaipuiuut than 
that witb which the nianaaJ or eonbined fnrniahes ita 
ibjeeis. What, Iben, ta lbe eoeaidaratton orifod by tha 
ipporUn of pure oralian to determine lite verdict in 
their favor? Tb«y bold ilwl 67 Ibeir iMtb«d tbt deaf mn 
■ore effectireljr " restored to aocie*/ - — »h*it Ibey «re 
' better ftUed for eoeUl life, being eaeblAd to CMiviM llie 
twofold gift of epeedb and Up-roMliiig. B«t tbb t* pr«- 
tbe cfaum which tilj now Ium Dot bten eetiabeianlj' 
Uabed, wbieh. indeed. 4om do« eeefln likely to b« 
'«rtHblialied : aad ontil il bee bees proved tbat Nsch • 
nrall ic i]Miottt««tabljr aebieved — (Iwl tbe oraIlT-t«a|^ 
eootisM ia «A«r life tbe oae of epeeck end Hp- 
tot tlie inlfrhaiigii of iiJeM the nenaal alplM- 
•Dd MgM asy be pmimHmI Io pbj iU iMJeiBlly 

The Growth of Speech Tsaehiatff. 


■much will ftlwATS bo tbo ease m lonft; m in tho wifidAm of 
tlie Creator tUeru exUlH variety of iotolloct. Ou iho 
sobjeot of Bpeoch teAoLiuK praottoaliy all of un linv« oon* 
toagreeoiitlnV|M>iijt: That evorydAaf child shonJil roeoivA 
Kpftoch iutttrucliou wlio cao bo tau^bt it with auoooM ; bat 
ker« uuLversal agreemeut bults ami always will. Opiuione 
diffvr as to wbnt is rlKlilfully deootuinatod HUCCt^ftH nod 
wbat are the best metliudH of attaining Haixtinw. The 
treud of evetitti pruvcM, bow«ror, that, tlioQ^li upiiiiooH as 
to 8aec««a and tuethuda differ, tbey tiave witbin recent 
years teuded ntroDRJy toward a uniHcALioii, to tbo tttid 
that Hpeech iofltrnctioD baa grown rapidly Dot otily in tbe 
number of oral ncboola and tliuir papila^e but also in tbo 
percentaf^e of orally taii^lit pupila in oomliiDedHiyiitefO 
acbools, and tbat tbe old nud almost (roitlMa plaD of 
artimlatioD teacliiog na a aide iHRoe out of rogoUr clilM 
boant ban been abaudouud id moat sckoob. Tbeaa are 
facta known to all and need no farther eotnmaot. 

Tb«re la no desire on my part to opaa the wied qsni- 
UoQ of tUe rcKoparative iDorita of metboda. Tbia p*p*f 
is based upon the aaatimptioD that Rpeeeb ahoaM be giirea 
t/nrj deal child capable of acqairiog it. Am to nntit 
aaaamptioo all teacben are agreed, not only those ooti- 
Bseted with sxdasiTely oval aeboob tmt tboae employsd 
la ooailii»«d-«7alaai seliot^ aa wetL I take it that spcseh 
inrtnietiiNi in oar oombJDed-ftTateai Hebooh baa grows, 
not beesaae tbe deasnd for snob growth vsa Cofoad spoD 
tbe beads el thMS schools by an inakatesk popftlaropioiou, 
bat baeaasft those beads arc ready to do the right thing 
sa Ood giras them to aee the right U is tbe porpoas of 
this paper to p«isk oat soaw of the BOBBiqaesBM of tUs 
tbe diSealties that have srissD. sad the rsspoMi. 
I rfMting miiin sssssoperistaodwrtsssd phsApak. 

la the mmigaMsst at oar atboeli the dasars prsvaOs, 
sttd a co(ft»«adabls deim it is wbsa daly aasswaad with 



Tha GrototA of Speech TeocAing. 

possible coDsisteot with good results. Oar couservatii 
liabit« sud uotiouti rcmler x\s iiveree to breaking awi 
from old estublisbed couditious. What was tbe jwr oap~ 
ita cost of educatiug our papils five or t«u yeunt uf*o 
flhonid rcuiaiD so now. At any rate it should uol b e 
increa^id. Behind thin conservatism may lark, too, a tea^f 
of rrittcisni and antagonisa) by the dispBosing powers. 
But n cidm coDKtderation of tho question will convioc^^ 
Hoy one that the growth of speech instractioD io thi^H 
couutrj' brings us I&cb to face with a very aeriouK ]irnl>- 
lem— that of iDcreasad exp^uae. How are our tuihools 
meeting this problem ? Froin the tabulated Htatemenl 
in the last Jnnnary AnnaU and oihar 8oarc«8 vero oli^H 
laiued the followiug facts, which tn some will be fitartting^^ 
The nameH of th^ schooUi referred to are not givuu, as 
tbey are not pettineut to (he ailment. The aTarage 
namber of pupils in oral clashes, as shown by that Htat 
ment, are : In school A, 0,*^ ; school B, 11^ ; school 
ll^i school D, llfS: school E. 12^',; school F. 13^ 
school Q, Vix'i'> Bcbool H, 13^; school I, ISf; school 
J, 13i. 

Tbeee are among the largest and most promintiot of 
our combiuud-s^'stem schools, aud the coaditious 
them (iM hure set forth are not much ditfereut from th 
guuetol Tuu. Not one of thei>e tea scIiooIh roporta 
average of more than 16 pupils to a manual olaas, am 
sevm-al show aa tow or a lower aTt-ragt! for their maau 
than for their oral classes. In some I find from the 
weekly reports of standing pablislied in the aehool papers 
oral rlawies riinmng all the way from 12 to 17 pnpila. 
1*Un loveat average given above represent!* a school that 
in alraoHt entirely oral iiud rightfully belongs in thu class 
of oral sehools. The Texaa School is amoog these tea 
MfhoolH. I liolieve in oouoting in oneself for blame as 
ytfiW as praiae. So my renders need not my, " Paop 
who H*v in glass faooaee must not throw atones,'^' 

Tke OrovJift of Speech Teaching. 


"Sweep before* roar own door." W4» intend to do both. 
It \» but JQst, boweror, to Aav that in my etatemont tbo 
TsiAs Scliool Itiis a lower aterago of pnpils to Ur oro] 
dnsfies thati would eouiu from tlio figures in tl)» Auntih. 
Tbis 18 buouutie vc bad two subfllituti) or sludimt tunobcni 
wbo were not eoamerated iu tbe Annala. 

The above figuren «re doiibtlnfts l)«b>w Ibn Actuitl nvor- 
nf(0 of thuHO ecbooU For tbv upttro tono, ah tbu uc«o88iuuti 
of papils after the tetitb of Noveinbtir, tbo doto for vrbiob 
Ibn report in the AnnaU is mode, tnnst bnve rniiied tb«ui. 
Now tbe coucIukIod that un unbiHHed cotitomplatioti of 
courlitions as bere net fnrtb louHt f<»n;« iipf»n tw in tbiiL wu 
are fnlliuf; short of the dc^ruo of oxcelleooe in ruitiilta 
which we slinnld nil seek slreDdouNljr to nttnin. Ih it 
IKWHiblu tu sL-cure tbu bigbest reftull« iii itpoucb ttintibioK 
with onr cIsssm so \t^pi ? Perfa»pii only tboMi whd havA 
luul uctnal expcrieDco iu t«!«cbii4{ >peorb nsoliut tbs fjrunl 
Btnonnl of indiridunl work to be don*, tbo tima snd labor 
rt!(|uired in drill, drill, drill, in the eleaieatAry noau'U Aod 
Ibeir (Hiiubiuatious, iu Uviiig ibe fouo'bitioii and baild>u(( 
the 8U|«rstractaro of apaeob in liia miod of «Kb pnpiil. 
Ota tbt« bo doDe, sod tboroi^^/ don*, vhnrv tbtf t«Mber 
luut to refNTSt ibe op^raiion with from twel«a to asveatiwD 
papilfi? IrapuaaJUa! There will be partial oaf^aet aitlMr 
of tbo child's spaoefa or of bu Ulttntry adw a e— i^lit ; or, 
likelj, of both Moreorer tbu work la bard npoa tha 
laaeher- it tax«a the pbT«ical aod vaotaj •ndarsacs to 
Um ^rt**<f*. aod vh9D tba elaia is larga tba taaabar, if 
iwwiiialiiias, will vrertas a«d raedar WrsaU Icaa al»l« to 
do tba «orfc l«fptimat«iT bar* aa tt aboak) b« Amm. 

Compfisoaa are ollaa aajasi aad aoMaCuaaa oJioMs, 
boS tW cooipatiaM I prepoaa to loaka ea« bardljr ba ps* 
^nded aa aajoat, aod <io«Ul«aa mo ofw »i0 have itj objar' 
tUBlooCar. TbaavsraiOK nonbirrof pap«laloat«mcl ' - 
IflK «l o«r ocal aeboola i* aa followa: SdMol X. i'^t . 
«cbMi ¥, 1«4; Mfcool X. 10; adwol W, 9,^: •*'^«^ 


Tha Ort^wtA nf Speech, Tifoehin^. 

V, fli ; school U, 7A ; Bobool T. 7 ; school 8. 6 ; aotiool 
R, 5$ ; Bcliool Q. Af . These are also arooug tbe largest 
nud rnost praminent Hchonls of their kind io the coao- 
tr/. But uoticu the diiTurfUCH in the Rverage stzH of 
tbe clasaus. The lurgBtit uverage in the oral Hc^hools 
is approximately the same as the smnllest iirem^e sixe 
of oral o1aH;4RH in the cnmbined-syslem schools ; and 
the Hiualltuit tii Llm former is nboiit ooe-half tbe smallest 
in the tatter. In this one respect at least onti soboots 
have a tremendous adTantape over combinod-Kyslera 
schools, and when we consider this in couuectiou with 
tbe fact that oral sehonls r^ard speech as tbe fine qua 
non. tlmt their pnpila reetiive coiiKtnnt prnctice to iipeeeh 
inclasij.out ufclasti,aad alt tbetiine, and that in combined- 
AVHtGCQ schools tliev get mnch less outside of the class- 
rootn, it need not sarpriae ns if iuvcstigation nud com- 
parison showed the pupils of the former more profioieot 
in speech Uiuq tht> oral pupils of the latter. Indeed, ib 
ffould surprise us if thej wore not. Moreover, it would 
uot ){i-eatlj surprise some if od the whole they were abeftd 
iu other things. Sncb a Atato of alTuire ought not to con- 
tinue. Tlmt we should teach speech as thoroughly as 
iittainablu coudilions will permit needs uo argumeot. 

First, iheu, we must reduce the size of our oral olaasee. 
Several years ago the bead of one of our largest schoolsi 
who is certainly an authority on the subject, told mo that 
ten pupils are ordiunrily aa many as oue teaobor can do 
jaslioe to. My obserratiou and experience bear oat this 
astimate. Advanced classes could be somewhat lai|^, 
but primary classes uerer. A person at one time in aa- 
thority at a cooibined-eystem Kchool entertained the opin- 
ion that oral cliiHttes ought to be Itirger than luauaal 
cittsiieis, but he also believed that noue but semi*mutea 
should l>e put Ml oral classes. The day when such a tibv 
can be entertaintnl is past iu Auienoa. I know of but 
one conditioD under which no oral olustt may be safely 

Th* OroiCth of Sfi&ich Tmching. 


rgor tbAD a maoaal class, and tlint is where the mem- 
bers arc kU bri|{bt semi-uiiit^e, possessed of a good com- 
tnand of la&guikge, and evenly graded. 

How Hhftl) we rediiRo the aW^. of our classoe ? The war 
we proporto to do it iu Toxas in first to weed oat the 
epeeoli failures aud place tbeni iu manual ctaaaes. 1 be- 
lieve iu this weediog-out proceBe, jndicioaaly applied. 
What is tlie protit in cniTjing a cbiUl aloug year lifter 
yonr io tho oral dupartinout wbeu it la evident to every 
coucerued tliat lie is uot ncqairiog speecli and liever 

rill? There are nucb, bnl what per cent, they comprise 
of the whole, it in not tli« piirposfl of this paper to say. 

|«xt, WQ propose to iiicreuse tbo uumbor of teachers. 

foro comOH Iu the item of expense, ami this item of ex- 
peuso is never an eiis^ propusiliou. It is often a difficult 
matter to convince legislatnres that no many teachers are 
reqnired to ihd nnrnbor of pupils nmlur iustnictiott, bat 
while oeciutionalty it might be the part of wisdom to tjtke 
tu the woods when coufroiitcd by Wna arbitrary view ou 

le part of IfgiRlatora, in the long mn aach n course will 

^act. If w« axv K**ii)g ^ tench speech and havo it pub- 
Ji»hKl to the world that. \\» arc teaching speech, lot ns do 

. tlioroiiglily, or not nt all. Ijut na hiive the real thing, 
Ihc real fire, and uot a t'olouel Sellera caudle. Snccess- 
fal speech is n luxury to the nttaiuiueut of which is at- 
shed couitideniUlo expense, and without this in due 
amount the luxury fails to materiuliKe. It will not du to 
go out with tom-toms and try to convince an uuimaginB- 
tive public that we p<i.<^eH)* the reid thing when »u ai\u 
produce only an imitation. Now, I do not wish to be 
uudtirstood as declaring here that our schools are not 
^uiug good work in speecli tenching. Tliey are, and the 
iqIIh are improving year liy year, but the conditiouHio- 

tjcnLe that farther improvement is desirnhle and iieccs- 
Another condition, which I helievo is a result of tbo 


Tht Gi'ovitk of Speeek Teaching. 

growth of s|>e»cli teaching and the coosequect Daceasiiy 
(or a large corps, is an incrcnsing prepomteranoo of Indv 
taHchern. Here I am »t«ppiDg u{>oii daogeToiiN gronad. 
I am iibont to mlvaucu au uupopuhir pro{>o8it)ou. IL hiw 
beeu m»tlt* Iwfore, but generally iu & gingerlv, apologetic 
way. For tb« good of onr schools there are not nieu 
enough m the profeKKioii. Far I>n it rrora me to detract 
frora the excellent qiialitttw of ludicH nK teachers. There 
are aome phases of oar work thai thej can do butter tbao 
men. I bad rather have a good Indv tOAcher tbau suine 
men that I know, but ax it Ulcea all kiods of people to 
make a world, ho it re4|uirus butli kbxrk in proper propor- 
tiou to make a good school. 

Some of the an;uiuoot« iu support of tbia contentiou 
are as follows : Tlic highest order of iliticipliue demands 
the pre»etK!e of nieo ; growing boyx should come in fre* 
qnetit contact with the rugged iii bnman nature ; the 
u^r<>gati> of physical strength and eudurauce should be 
aiigmouted by n plentifal sprinkliug of masculiDity. 
Tli«re may b« a dispositiuu to dispute the last argunieut, 
but it has becD my observation that there is more irregu- 
larity of service on acconnt of sickaese on the female aide 
of the house than on the male. If this assertioo is not 
»ustaiue<l by the geuerul experience I shall gladly oocept 
correotioQ sad repent in sackcloth and ashes. 

Another argument is that of experience. The mof« a 
pui'sou Icarus of our work (he bette