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a' 



/n^A. 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



▲lO) 



INSTRUCTION, 



FOR 



THE YEAR 1885. 



EDITED BT 

WILLIAM C. WOODBRIDGE. 



VOL. V. 



1 at w 



4 J k, • c « a • 






J f # • • "- » * 






• nt • • 



• ; ' : \ • • 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM D. TICKNOK. 

E*ron of Light it Horton* 

1835. 



t 



[ 



Entered looordbg to Act of Congren, in tbe jreir 1835, 

Bj W. C. WOODBRIDGX, 

In the Clerk'e Offiee of the Diftrict of Masnchofletii. 






• • • a • 

• • ■ * • 

• a • • • 

• • • • • • 

• • • • • • I 



• • ■ • • 

• • • . 

• • • k 



;V 



THE PROSPECTS OF *THE ANNALS.' 

« « Education " again ! one of the ** eternal subjectt," and the neceasity of 
<* a periodical on education ! " It has been talked of^ and written about, and 
inculcated, and explained, and illustrated,' (some of our readers will perhaps 
exclaim ) * until we are weary of it. We are called upon to attend to an 
essay on this worn-out, tedious subject ; and this is only the first article of 
the first number of the,/!/2A volume of a work, which we are also to read, or 
to consult, or if we do neither, to pay for, as a means of promoting 
education!^ 

And what shall we do on receiving such a greeting, at thb season of 
compliments, — neither the < Happy new year!' nor the equally cordial 
reply, * I wish you many ! ' — and all for what ? Because it is our lot to pre- 
sent a subject so important that it requires attention every month, io long 
talked of, that it has become wearisome to the ear, so familiar that it is 
thought every one understands it, and yet so imperfectly known, that 
to discuss it, in the view of many, is only to convert a matter of plain com- 
mon sense, into a science of impenetrable mystery, or an art of unattainable 
intricacy. 

We have oflen wished we could discoverer invent, in place of the hACk« 
neyed word * education,^ some new term which should not drive away our 
readers by the very title of a work or an essay. But afler all, we should 
prolmbiy only fare like those who attempt innovation in the technics of re- 
ligion, and 1)e branded as * new lights,' while we should be obliged to pre- 
sent the old truths under the new disguise, and perhaps incur the charge 
of double dealing, and fall to the ground between opposing parties. We 
should still be compelled, like the religious teacher, to impose serious and 
selfdenying duties, to demand close and careful attention to our subject, and 
to require the wannest feelings of the heart, the most vigorous efforts 
of the mind, for a distant, and as many regard it, an uncertain good. It is 
here, in truth, that our great difficulty lies. ^Business,' 'stocks,' and * in- 
terest,' ure terms which never tire the eye or the earof those who are seek- 
ing wealth ; or if they excite a momentary sensation of weariness, it is soon 
overcome by the ruling passion. The politician is seldom weary of read- 
ing speeches, or of attending meetings ; nor does tlie word ' politics,' or 
* measures,' or ' office,' ever fail to rouse his mind to action, and his heart to 
emotion. But education is a paralyzing word, because it brings with it 
either the idea of a profession too little honored, or of duties too unostenta- 
tious, too burdensome, to gratify vanity, or ambition, or the love of ease. 
While our subject is thus destitute of the attractions which beUmg to most 
of the every day topics, it is not invested with the authority whkh di- 
Tine rcvelatk>n gives to all the principles and pfeoepct of xeli^ioii. W« 



IV 

ean, indeed, appeal to reason, and give tlie results of experience ; but in id- 
dition to the variety of standards for a good education, there is a still 
greater variety of opinions as to the manner in which its objects are to bo 
attained, and a mass of indiTidual projudico to be overcome, arising from 
the general neglect of this subj ct, and the isolated condition in which each 
educator has from necessity remained. 

StiJl, our task is before us. We have commenced a new number, of m 
new volume, and with the same deep conviction we have ever felt, of tht 
necessity of difiusing information on tiiis subject. We still feel, that tht 
very apathy with which we have to contend, is an additional and moat iir* 
gent motive to new ef!brts. 

But we are happily furnished witli encouragement also. Tiie current of 
public feeling on tliis subject, is evidently widening and deepening every 
year. Tlie Governors of most of our Suites feci themselves called upon, 
to give education a prominent place ui their annual messages. LegialO" 
tures and committees are occupied with plans and measures for its advanoo- 
mcnt Ne^v voluntary associations have been formed for this purpose ; 
and their anniversaries are attended, and spoken of, witli interest The ao- 
sociaiions and lectures for adult education are multiplied ; and the meano 
of self-instruction extended and chcapciicd, in a manner hitherto unexam- 
pled. Books upon the science vnd r.rt of education are increasiD|^ 
Newspa|)er paragraphs are more frequent. A Mother's Magazine has se- 
cured thousands of subscribers; a Father*s Magazine is commenced ; and 
notwithstanding the failure of every periodical yet commenced on tlie gene- 
ral subject, except this, we still find private enterprise and 'the advice of 
friends,* afford sufficient encouragement for attempting new ones. 

But we have ourselves received sul)staniial evidence of an interest in 
the cause, and in the Annals, which advertisements have made familiar to 
our subscril^ers, but not to all who will receive tlie future numbers, and 
which ought to be reconled on the ])agc8 of the work as a counterpart 
to the apfieal long since inserted. AIut tliree years of unrewarded toil, 
and tlie expenditure of all his 8ur|)lus means to sustain the only i)eri- 
odical on education in our great and growing country, the editor still found 
it involved, beyond his power to extricate it, without abandoning its 
future publication. The friends of the cause came forward ; they urged 
him to state the case to the public, and they sustained his statement. The 
wealthy contributed liberally of their wealtli; those who earned their 
bread by tlieir lalK>r, gave of tlieir poverty ; and those who could do nei- 
ther, plead the cause with an energy, and efhciency, which were not less 
clieering to our labors, than useful to the cause. The result has been, that 
in a year of uncommon pecuniary pressure, nearly two hundred sets of the 
Annals have been sold, to lie distributed to private families, or placed in the 
libraries of our colleges, or state legislatures, or em])loyed as a text book, in 
institutions where teachers are preparing for their important task. The 
wider difiUsion and greater ueefulnees of the work has thus been secured { 



C^ n J ^ 



•• * 



20ST 005 ^1^ 2079 



QUAUTY CONTItOI. MAWK 

itidat the datue time, k is placed on aueh a footing, that a moderate degros 
of effort, and ordinary contributionBy on the part of those Who can aid il 
with their peD) or their influence, or their means, will secufe its permft' 
Dent existence, and its steady progress. To aU who have thus aided ia 
this project, We would here record, in a permanent form, the expression of 
our heartfelt gratitude, for thus presenring a work, whose importance and 
usefulness has rendered it peculiariy dear to us. We do it with the 
more cordiality^ because they have regarded it, not as a personal favor, but 
as an act of co-operation, in securing a public object, to which, they are 
aware, the editor has contributed ten times as much, from his own re- 
sources, ns was asked or received of any individual. 

But tlie success of this plan has encouraged him to effort, not less by 
the evidence of approbation given to the work, than by the direct aid it has 
received. Our constant effoit has been to inculcate the necessity of reli- 
gious instruction, — to itisist upon all that belonged to Christianity, as es- 
sential to a sound education, and yet to avoid sectarian views. We have 
been gratified and encouraged to find, that our course has received tlie cor- 
dial sanction of distinguislied men in every sect, except that which must 
be termed antireligious, and whose praise would be a reproach to any work 
profeiiisedly Christian. We have had many doubts and misgivings as to 
the manner in which it was conducted, and have been anxious to place it in 
other and abler hands. But the aid which has been given by men so well 
qua1ifi(Kl to judge, has l)een so directly offered to the Annals as it is, and 
on condition of our continuing to conduct it, that we feci ourselves com- 
pelled to yield all scruples of this kind, and to persevere while our circum- 
stances shall ])cnnit it. 

We have felt most anxious to spread before our readers the opinions of 
well-known educators, and the facts and principles on which they are 
grounded, and have been more reserved perhaps, than became one who as- 
sumed such a station, in bringing forward our own views, and expressing a 
decided opinion upon tliose of others. We are now called upon by the con- 
fidence which is reposed in us, and by express demands, to bring for- 
ward more prominently the opinions we may form, however they may dif- 
fer from tlie opinions of popular readers, or of enidite teachers, and to 
make the most earnest and strenuous appeals in our power, to our country- 
men of every class, on this great subject. 

Indeed, we arc driven to this course by the very apathy which sometimes 
discourages us. We request men, conversant with this subject, to present 
the rich fruits of their experience to tlie public ; but few will aid us, and 
then perhaps, those who decline will complain, tliat we do not present more 
that is original or American. We solicit others to engage in some united 
effort for the cause ; but they appear too often to consider it a personal 
favor if they do anything for the children or the schools of our country. 
Indeed, were we not sustained by the encouragement of men whose name 

•1 



V 



IV 

ean, indeed, appeal to reason, and give the results of experience ; but in ad- 
dition to tlie variety of standards for a good education, there is a still 
greater variety of opinions as to the manner in which its objects are to be 
attained, and a mass of indiridual prejudice to be overoome, arising from 
the general neglect of this subj ct, and the isolated condition in which each 
educator has from necessity remained. 

Still, our task is before us. We have commenced a new number, of a 
new volume, and with the same deep conviction we have ever felt, of the 
necessity of diffusing information on tliis 8ut)ject. We still feel, that tbe 
very apathy with which we have to contend, is an additional and moat ui>- 
gent motive to new efforts. 

But we are happily furnished with encouragement also. The current of 
public feeling on this subject, is evidently widening and deepening every 
year. The Governors of most of our States feci themselves called upon, 
to give education a prominent place in their annual messages. Legisla- 
tures and committees are occupied with plans and measures for its advance- 
ment New voluntary associations have been formed for this purpose ; 
and their anniversaries are attended, and sjioken of, with interest The as- 
sociations and lectures for adult education are multiplied ; and the means 
of self-instruction extended and cheapened, in a manner hitherto unexam- 
pled. Books upon tlie science vnd crt of education are increasing. 
Newspajier paragraphs are more frequent A Mother's Magazine has se- 
cured thousands of subscribers; a Father's Magazine is commenced ; and 
notwithstanding the fiiilure of every periodical yet commenced on the gene- 
ral subject, except this, we still find private enterprise and <the advice of 
fnends,' af!brd sufficient encouragement for attempting new ones. 

But we have ourselves received substantial evidence of an interest in 
the cause, and in the Annals, which advertisements have made familiar to 
our subscribers, but not to all who will receive the future numbers, and 
which ought to be recorded on the pages of the work as a counterpart 
to tlie appeal long since inserted. Af^r three years of unrewarded toil, 
and the expenditiuro of all bis surplus means to sustain the only peri- 
odical on education in our great and growing country, the editor still found 
it involved, beyond his power to extricate it, witliout abandoning its 
fiiture publication. The friends of the cause came forwanl ; they urged 
him to state the case to the public, and they sustained his statement The 
wealthy contributed liberally of tlieir wealth; those who earned their 
bread by their labor, gave of their |K)verty ; and those who could do nei- 
ther, plead the cause with an energy, and efficiency, which were not less 
dieering to our labors, than useful to the cause. The result has been, that 
in a year of uncommon pecuniary pressure, nearly two himdred sets of the 
Annals have been sold, to be distributed to private frimilies, or placed in the 
libraries of our colleges, or state legislatures, or employed as a text book, in 
institutions where teachere are preparing for their important task. The 
wider diflVision and greater mefiilnesB of the work has thus been aecured; 



20ST 005 £yj^ 2079 



QUAUTY CONTKOt. MAMK 



ilidat the flame time, it is placed on fuehaibotiDg, that a modente degree 
of effort, and oidinaiy eonlribiitioiiB, on the part of thoae Who can aid il 
with their pen,. or their iDfluence, or their means, will secure its perm»' 
Bent existence^ and its steady progress. To all who have thus aided in 
this project, we would here record, in a permanent form, the expression of 
oiir heartfek gratitude, for thus preserving a work, whose importance and 
Qsefiilness has rendered it peculiariy dear to us. We do it with the 
more cordiality, because they have regarded it, not as a personal favor, but 
as an act of co-operation, in securing a public object, to which, they are 
aware, the editor has contributed ten dmco as much, from his own re- 
sources, as was asked or received of any individual. 

But the success of this plan has encouraged him to effort, not less by 
the evidence of approbation given to the work, than by the direct aid it has 
received. Our constant effort has been to inculcate the necessity of reli- 
gious instruction, — to insist upon all that belonged to Christianity, as es- 
sentia] to a sound education, and yet to avoid sectarian views. We have 
been gratified and encouraged to find, that our course has received tlic cor- 
dial sanction of distinguished men in every sect, except that which must 
be termed antireligious, and whose praise would be a reproach to any work 
professedly Christian. We have had many doubts and misgivings as to 
the manner in which it was conducted, and have been anxious to place it in 
other and abler hands. But the aid which has been given by men so well 
qualified to judge, has been so directly offered to the Annals as it i?, and 
on condition of our continuing to conduct it, that we feel ourselves com- 
pelled to yield all scruples of this kind, and to persevere while our circiim- 
fltances shall permit it. 

We have felt most anxious to spread before our readers the opinions of 
well-known educators, and the facts and principles on which they are 
grounded, and have been more reserved perhaps, than became one who os- 
sumed such a station, in bringing forward our own views, and expressing a 
decided opinion upon those of others. We are now called uik>u by the con- 
fidence which is reposed in us, and by express demands, to bring for- 
ward more prominently the opinions we may form, however they may dif- 
fer firom the opinions of popular readers, or of erudite teachers, and to 
make the most earnest and strenuous appeals in our power, to our country- 
men of every class, on this great subject. 

Indeed, we are driven to this course by the very apathy which sometimes 
discourages us. We request men, conversant with this subject, to present 
the rich fruits of their experience to the public ; but few will aid us, and 
then perhaps, those who decline will conii>lain, that we do not i)resent more 
that is original or American. We solicit others to engage in some united 
effort for the cause ; but they appear too oflcn to consider it a personal 
fiivor if they do anything for the children or the schools of our country. 
Indeed, were we not sustained by the encouragement of men whose name 

•1 



▼i 



Would do honor to any came, we ahould long nnoe have been didieafMMd 
by the indifiereuee of thoM Who ahould know, and ought to fiwl, the inn 
portanceof the vubject to the beet interesta of our country. 

If it muat be so, then we will take our ])laoe, and so long aa ProvideiiM 
ahall grant ua ability, we will go on in the hope tliat we shall be able to 
struggle, until the dark period which precedes the li^t of day ia passed; 
nr if we fail, at least to leafe a path less obstructed, and landmarks mora 
distinct to our successois, for whoso appearance we oft«i look with 
anxiety. 



For oaraeWoi, wo feel no reluctance to btTo it known that the Annnli liu itra|f led whh 
difficoUiei, end bee been continued only by the efficient aid of ita flrienda ; for It hae been tb« tUm 
ofalmoet every AnMrican periodical, except tboee of ligbt and popular literatnre, at one or ■«• 
period! of iu exiitenee. Indeed, we feel it important to record it ae a part of tbo hietory of Ul^ 
rary entcrpriie, and of the progreH of education in our country. The work has, on tbii moccmalif 
been treated with neglect by eome who wonhip only the riiinf eun, and move with the brtos* of 
popular opinion ; it hae been abandoned or reproached by otbere, wboee private Intereet or ; 
liar opiniooa, we deelined promotinf at the ezpenie of our independence ; and we have beard 
■ngoneroui r^raarke, about the plan to loitain it. But the ipirit thus manifeeted cannot aerioaalj 
affect one who i« conscioua of being engaged in an enterprise of public utility, and who it ioetaintd 
in thii courie by the advice of men in whoae oplnionii confidence may be placed. We feel It a 
duty to the cause, and to ourselves, and to the individuals who, by their aanction, gave tha flnt 
impulse to the plan which has preserved it fh>m sinking, to give their opinioa, and tlieir namtl Mfe 
far as they are in onr possession, permanent place in our work. 

Plak Foa BusTAiNiiva thb AifiTAU or Edvcatiok. 

We regret to learn that the * Annals of Education * has not a sufficient number of snbierib«vi 
to sustain it. Wa aie infurmed that the iiiturcst now excited on its behalf, and the elRuti tm 
which it has led, will probably extend its circulation, and ensure ili existence, provided one ob- 
•tacle can ho removed. A balance is still due for piut nxp(>n<i<>t of the woik, whu-b roust be paid 
by tbo sale of two hundred sets, before the editor ran priM'ced in his labor*. The sum n we csa a ry 
for their fiurchase will not exceml half the amount the editor has already saerificud ; and we trust 
it will be nheifrfully contributed by the (Viends of clucatioo, in order to preserve the only Anwri- 
ean periodical on this subject. 



Daivibl WsBSTKa, 
Wm. E. CHAFrninu, 
J. a, Adams, 
LaoKAnD Woods, 
JosiAM Qdiivcv, 
Haifav Wabk, 
Edwabd EvaasTT, 
WiLMua FisB, 

FaA5CIS PAaXMAK, 

Jon IV C. WAauK, 



Levi Lfi«coL?r, 
A. If. EvxacTT, 
JosEFH Sroav, 

MOSBS tJTUAaT, 

J0HI« 8. Stonb, 
£. Poaraa, 
JfTo. PicKBaiiro, 
Wm. Jbrbs, 
Aivoaaws NoaTOFr, 
Wm. B. Calhouiv, 



Joir5 Fabkab, 
JuHM <i. PALraar, 
Thbodobe Lvman, 
WABaEiT Fat, 
B. B. Wi»:rBa, 
Gborob Ticxivoa, 
Tho. H. SainivBa, 
Baboit Stow, 
Ezra S. Ganrbt, 
Jambs D. Kivowlbs, 



Dah'l Bhabp, 
IIOWABO Majxoii, 

R. AlfDBBSOIf, 

S. T. Abmstboho, 

J. M. WaI IVWBIOHT, 
J. H. LllfSLBT, 
H. WlIViLOW, 

WlIXIAM Haovb, 
8. R. Uau. 



The iubaciiben unite in recommending tba above plan for sustaining the Annals of Educatioa. 



Wm. Wibt, 
John H. Uonciivs, 
Bbhrbt Ttlbb, 
Ibam Crasb, 
H. J. Riplbt, 

O. CVSHIRO, 



DiNicL Daiva, Philip Liivdslbt, 

L. WlTHINCTOIf, Jos. CaLOWBIX, 

EowABo D. Gairriir, 8. C. Phillips, 

8am*l MiLLXB, F. Bbacxb, 

A. Albxaivubb, Ch. Bvbbouohs, 

C. A. OOODBJCH. W. T. DWICHT, 



T. n. Oallaudxt, 
Pabbbb Clbavblaub^ 

A. 8. Pacbabo, 

B. P. NswMAif, 
Mbbbitt Calowsll, 
B. O. ?■■■». 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



JANUARY, 1885. 



HOW SHALL AN AMERICAN PERIODICAL ON EDUCATION BS 

SUSTAINED t 

The aid and encouragement of the past year has justified us in 
retaining our place, and endeavoring to meet the wishes of those 
who have contributed to sustain the Annab. As we have aheady 
said, we feel ourselves called upon by this mark of public confi- 
dence, as well as by the demands of our readers, to speak more 
freely and loudly on every subject which belongs to our work 
than we have hitherto done. We will commence a new course 
of effort, by asking our readers to con»der and determine bow an 
Anierican periodical on education shall be sustained. 

By an ' American Periodical,' we mean one which shall be 
adapted to our country, in its civil and political institutions ; but 
especially, to that system of schools, which is designed to fiimish 
instruction to all parties and sects. It must be based on that 
religion which is recognized by our judicial proceedings and our 
public acts, but still fiiee fifom all which is sectarian, and in this 
respect, assuming different ground firom some recently estaUisbed, 
whose great object is, to direct and assist parents^ in the religious 
education of their children. 

Strange as it may appear, and impcditic as it may seem in us to 
state the fact, there are some, who appear fiiendly to this wori[, 
who urge that there is no need of a periodical devoted to Educa- 
tion, that it would be better to emploj periodicab o( a genoral 
charapter, in disseminating infermalion which ia intareMing to tbt 



8 Importance of a Periodical on Education. 

whole community. The same individuals would not hesitate to 
admit the necessity of distinct periodicals for each of the great de« 
partments of human knowledge ; and would yield to none in urging 
that our country should be well provided with such works, on 
science and literdture, agriculture and mechanics, politics and 
religion. Yet they would maintain, that the science of science*— 
tlie art of forming the human mind, and moulding the human 
character — may reasonably be crowded into a comer of a newspa- 
per, or confined to an occasional article in a magazine or review ! 

We know not whether such objectors recollect how our newisH 
papers and periodicals are crowded to overflowing, with those sul>- 
jects which are connected with the passions, and pecuniar}' interests, 
and amusements of their readers, and with the records of human 
folly and vice, or whether they know how diflicult it is to procure 
a place, or a hearing, for any such serious or extended discussion, 
as this im|x>rtant and neglecte<l subject requires. But we cannot 
suppress our astonishment, that the extent and importance of the 
subject of education, and the amount of facts and principles, col- 
lected in regard to it, should be so entirely unknown or forgotten ; 
and that patriots or philanthropists should be willing to have less 
than one entire periodical, devoted to a subject whicji theybelie\Te 
to be at the foimdation of happiness, in the family, the conununity, 
and die nation. 

When we look even at our own small collection of books and 
manuscripts, and when we recollect what we have seen and 
heard, — ^when we observe the multitude of errors to be corrected, 
and the improvements to be made in our families, and schools and 
colleges,— when we think how much is yet to be done, to secure 
even a common education, to every citizen of our country, — ^when 
we remember that Germany, witli a population of subjects instead 
of citizens, not only supports an admirable system of schools, but 
maintains twenty periodicals devoted to education, one of Uiem 
issued daily — and when, at tlie end of the year, we reflect almost 
in despair,' on the little portion of this great subject, wliich the ef- 
forts of a single editor have been able to crowd into the pages of a 
hfire volume, we are mortified at the apathy, or the igno- 
rance, which would consider even one unnecessary. 

We maintain, then, that a periodical devoted to this subject is 
not less necessary, than those which are occupied witli the other 
departments of human knowledge, and for the same reasons. It 
is indispensable as an organ of communication between those who 
are engaged in the practice or diffusion of education, — as a record 
of the progress and history of our country on this unportant sub- 
ject-<-as a depository of facts and documents — a history of principles 
-iild methods of instruction. It is especially necessary as. a means of 



Testimony ofit$ Importance. 9 

elevating the profession of teaching to its proper rank in so- 
ciety, of keeping alive public interest on the subject, and of en- 
forcing upon parents and teachers their high responsibilities, and 
affording tliem aid, in their difficult and laborious task. It is even 
more necessary than otlier periodicals on particular subjects, be- 
cause no other subject of equal interest has been so little examin- 
ed, and so superficially discussed — because the community are thus 
left more at the mercy of dogmatists and pretenders, than on 
most otlier topics — and because more effort is requisite to over- 
come tliat indifference and prejudice, which oppose even the at- 
tempt at thorough or extensive discussion, and would allow it a 
place, only as an appendage to other topics, whose appeals to in- 
terest and feeling, will throw it entirely into the shade. 

In tlicse opinions we are amply sustained by the example al- 
ready alluded to, of a nation that has done more than any other, to 
investigate the principles, and improve the practice of education. 
But we appeal to the testimony of those directly interested on this 
subject, in our own country. We have abundant e\'idence from 
teachers of common schools, and high schools, and fix)m offi- 
cers of colleges, and those engaged in promoting the cause of ed- 
ucation in other ways, that they feel the need of such a work, to 
furnish the experience and views of other teachers, and to ascer- 
tain the progress and improvements in education ; and that they 
have derived essential benefit from this, imperfectly as it has been 
conducted. Many parents liave expressed tlie same desire for 
sucli a guide, in their difficult and important task. Those who 
are engaged in the inspection of our schools, and the revision of 
our systems of education, and the promotion of its improvement, 
find some work indispensable, to give the infonnation which may 
direct and assist their efforts. To this testimony we may add that 
of our ablest periodicals and newspapers, and finally, we refer to 
a document already placed on record in a preceding page, which 
has received the sanction of some of the first names in our 
country. 

If sucli a periodical ought to be sustained, on whom does its 
support devolve ? Not surely on the editors or publishers, nor 
yet on any particular body of men ; for if it be useful, it is useful 
to our country in promoting its improvements and prospects ; it 
claims the support of all who enjoy its privileges, or value its in- 
stitutions. We shall probably never cease to hear the hackneyed 
remark, that the demand is the index of the need, and that * If the 
work is wanted, it will be supported ;* but we shall never cease 
to pronounce this maxim utterly falsey when applied to intellect 
tual and moral benefits. When did darkness ever call for light, 
or error seek to reclaim itself? Or when did indolei:ice attempt 



r 



entered aeoordiDg lo Act of CongreM , in the jear 1335, 

By W. C. WOODBRIDOX, 

In the Clerk's Office of the Diitrict of MasMchoNtts. 






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> • •■ • • • 



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• • • 






THE PROSPECTS OF *THE ANNALS/ 

' << Education " again ! one of the <* eternal suljecta," and the neeeSBity of 
'^ a periodical an edueaium! " It has been talked of, and written about, and 
inculcated, and expluned, and Uluatrated,' (aome of our readers will perhaps 
exclaim ) * until we are weary of it We are called upon to attend to an 
enay on this worn-out, tedioua subject ; and this is only the first ardcle of 
the first number of the,/S/lA volume of a work, which we are also to road, or 
to consult, or if we do neither, to pay fur, as a means of promoting 
tdueaiioni* 

And what shall ufe do on receiving such a greeting, at this season of 
eompliments, — ^neither the 'Happy new year!' nor the equally cordial 
reply, *I wish you many ! '*--«nd all for what ? Because it is our lot to pre- 
sent a subject so important that it requires attention every month, so long 
tmlked of, that it has become wearisome to the ear, so fiuniliar that it is 
thought every one understands it, and yet so imperfectly known, that 
Co discuss it, in the view of many, is only to convert a matter of plain com- 
mon sense, into a science of impenetrable mystery, or an art of unattainable 
intricacy. 

We have often wished we could discoverer invent, in place of the hack* 
neyed word * edueaiion^* some new term which should not drive away our 
readers by the very title of a work or an essay. But after all, we should 
probably only fiure like those who attempt innovation in the technics of re- 
ligion, and be branded as ' new lights,' while we should be obliged to pre- 
sent the old truths under the new disguise, and perhaps incur the charge 
of double dealing, and fall to the ground between opposing parties. We 
should still be compelled, like the religious teacher, to impose serious and 
selfilenying duties, to demand close and carefiil attention to our subject, and 
to require the wannest feelings of the heart, the most vigorous efforts 
of the mind, for a distant, and as many regard it, an uncertain good. It is 
here, in truth, that our great difficulty lies. 'Business,' 'stocks,' and ' in- 
terest,' are terms which never tire the eye or the ear of those who are seek- 
ing wealth ; or if they excite a momentary sensation of weariness, it is soon 
overcome by the ruling passion. The politician is seldom weary of read- 
ing speeches, or of attending meetings ; nor does the word ' politics,' or 
* measures,' or ' office,' ever fail to rouse his mind to action, and his heart to 
emotion. But education is a paralyzing word, because it brings with it 
either the idea of a profession too little honored, or of duties too unostenta- 
tioiis, too burdensome, to gratify vanity, or ambition, or the love of ease. 
While our subject is thus destitute of the attractions which belong to most 
of the every day topics, it is not invested with the authority which di- 
Tiiie revelation ^ves to aU the principles and precepts of religion. W« 



X * ^ fi C^ ^ 



« ^ 



IV 

ean, indeed, appeal to reasoD, and give the results of experience ; but in ad* 
dition to the variety of standards for a good education, there is a still 
greater variety of opinions as to the manner in which its objects are to be 
attained, and a mass of individual prejudice to be overcome, arising from 
the general neglect of this sub; ct, and the isolated condition in which each 
educator has from necessity remained. 

Still, our task is before us. We have commenced a new number, of a 
new volume, and with the same deep conviction we have ever felt, of tlie 
necessity of difiusing information on tiiis subject. We still feel, that the 
very apathy with which we have to contend, is an additional and most ur- 
gent motive to new efforts. 

But we are happily furnished with encouragement also. The current of 
public feeling on this subject, is evidently widening and deepening every 
year. The Governors of most of our Suites feci themselves called upon, 
to give education a prominent place in their annual messages. Legisla- 
tures and committees are occupied with plans and measures for its advanoe- 
mcnL New voluDtary associations have been formed for this purpose ; 
and their anniversaries are attended, and spoken of, with interest The as- 
sociations and lectures for adult education are multiplied ; and the means 
of self-instruction extended and cheapcaed, in a manner hitherto unexam- 
pled. Books upon the science pud art of education are increasing. 
Newspaper paragraphs are more frequent. A Motlier's Magazine has se- 
carcd thousands of subscribers; a Fatlier's Magazine is commenced ; and 
notwithstanding the fiiilure of every periodical yet commenced on tiie gene- 
ral subject, except this, we still find private enterprise and < the advice of 
fnendsi,' a^rd sufficient encouragement for attempting new ones. 

But we have ourselves received substantial evidence of an interest in 
the cause, and in the Annals, which advertisements have made familiar to 
our subscribers, but not to all who will receive the future numbers, and 
which ought to be rcconled on the pages of the work as a counterpart 
to tlie appeal long sinco inserted. Afuir tlu^ee years of unrewarded toil, 
and the expenditure of all his surplus means to sustain the only peri- 
odical on education in our great and growing country, the editor still found 
it involved, beyond his power to extricate it, without abandoning its 
future publication. The friends of the cause came forward ; they urged 
him to state the case to the public, and they sustiuned his statement. Tlie 
wealthy contributed liberally of their wealtli; those who earned their 
bread by their labor, gave of their {loverty ; and those who could do nei- 
ther, plead the cause with an energy, and efficiency, which were not less 
cheering to our labors, than useful to the cause. The result has been, that 
in a year of unconunon pecuniary pressure, nearly two hundred sets of the 
Annals have been sold, to be distributed to private families, or placed hi the 
libraries of our colleges, or state legislatures, or employed as a text book, in 
institutions where teachers are preparing for their important task. The 
wider diflfiuion and greater iMBfiilngw of the woik baa thiu been secuiedf 



20ST 005 ^^ 2079 



QOAUTV CONTItOL MANIC 

V 

i&dtt the flBtne time, it is placed on iuch a footing, that a moderate degnee 
of effort, and ordinary eontributiona, on the part of those who can aid ii 
with their peni or their influence, or their means, will secure its perma' 
nent existence^ and its steady progreak To all who have thus aided in 
this project, we would here record, in a permanent form, the expression of 
our heartfelt gratitude, for thus preserving a work, whose importance and 
nsefiilneai has rendered it peculiariy dear to us. We do it with the 
more cordiality, because they have regarded it, not as a personal favor, but 
as an act of co-operation, in securing a public object, tu wbich, tlicy are 
sware, the editor lias contributed ten tim(.» as much, from his own re- 
sources, as was oriEed or received of any individual. 

But the success of this plan has encouraged him to effort, not less by 
the evidence of approbation given to the work, than by the direct aid it hos 
received. Our constant effoit has been to inculcate tlie necessity oi' reli- 
gious instruction^ — to insist upon all that belonged to Christianity, as e»- 
■ential to a sound education, and yet to avoid sectarian views. We have 
been gratified and encouraged to find, that our course has received Uie cor- 
dial sanction of distinguished men in every sect, except that which must 
be termed antireligious, and whose praise would be a reproach to any work 
professedly Christian. Wo have had many doubts and misgivings ns to 
the manner in which it was conducted, and have been anxious to place it in 
other and abler hands. But the aid wbich has l)een given l)y nn.'n so well 
qualified to judge, has been so directly offered to the Annals as it in, and 
on condition of our continuing to conduct it, tliat we feel ourselves com- 
pelled to yield all scruples of this kind, and to i)ersevere while our circum- 
■tanccs shall {icrmit it. 

We have felt most anxious to spread before our readers the o])inions of 
well-known educators, and the facts and principles on which they are 
grounded, and have been more reserved {)erhnpp, than became one who as- 
sumed such a station, in bringing forward our own views, and expressing a 
decided opinion upon tliose of others. We are now cuilod u|K)n by tin; con- 
fidence which is reposed in us, and by express demands, to bring for- 
ward more prominently the opinions we may form, however they mny dif- 
fer finom the opinions of popular readers, or of erudite tfachers, and to 
make the most earnest and streiuious a])peals in our i)ower, to our country- 
men of every class, on this great subject. 

Indeed, we are driven to tliis course by the very apathy which sometimes 
discourages us. We request men, conversant with this suliject, to present 
the rich fhiits of their experience to the pultlir ; l)ut few will aid us, and 
then perhaps, those who decline will complain, that we do not present more 
that is original or American. We solicit others to engage in some united 
efibrt for the cause ; but they appear too oflen to consider it a personal 
&vor if they do anytliing for the children or the schools of our country. 
indeed, were we not sustained by the encouragement of men whose name 

♦1 



Woulddohonor to any eniae, we diouldloiig linoe have been cUaheartened 
by the indiffereuee of thoie Who ahould know, and ought to feel, the im- 
portance of the BUbject to the beet intereett of our countiy. 

If it must be so, then we will take our place, and bo long as Providenee 
riiall grant us ability, we will go on in the hope that we shall be able to 
struggle, until the dark period which precedes the light of day is passed ; 
or if we fiiil, at least to leaTe a path less obstructed, and landmarks mors 
distinct to our succeesois, for whose appearance we often look with 
ttuuety. 



For oorMlvM, we fe«l no relactanee to baro it known that the Annali bai itniff led with 
difflcuUiei, and bai been continued only by the efficient aid of ita ftiendi ; for it baa been the flilt 
of almost erery American periodicalf except tboae of ligbt and popalar literature, at one or more 
periode of its exietenee. Indeed, we feel it important to record it ae a part of the history of lite- 
rary enterprise, and of the progreM of edaeation in oar country. The ¥rork has, on this account, 
been treated with neglect by some who worship only tbe rising sun, and move with the breexe of 
popular opinion ; it has been aUuMloned or reproached by others, wboee private interest or poe»- 
Uar opinions, we deollned promoting at the expense of our independence ; and we bare heard some 
Ufenerous remarks, about the plan to sustain it. But tbe spirit thus manifested cannot seriously 
affect one who is conscious of being engaged in an enterprise of public utility, and who is sustained 
in this coarse by the advice of men in whoso opinions confidence may be plaeed. We feel it a 
duty to the cause, and to ourselves, and to the individuals who, by their saoctioa, gave the first 
Impulse to the plan which baa preserved it ftom sinking, to give their opinion, and their names so 
flu* as they are in our possession, permanent place in our work. 

Flaw Foa ScfTAimifO thb AwifAU or Educatioit. 

We regret to learn that the ' Annals of Education ' has not a sufficient number of subscribera 
to sustain it. Wn aie informed that the interest now excited on its behalf, and the efforts to 
which it has led, will probably extend its circulation, and ensure its existence, provided one ob- 
■tacle can be removed. A balance is still due for pajt expcnues of the woik, which must be paid 
by the sale of two hundred sots, before the editor can proceed In his labors. The sum necessary 
lor their purchase will not exceed half the amount the eJitor has already sacrificed } and we trust 
It will be cheerfully contributed by tbe friends of education, in order to preserve the only Ameri- 
eaa periodical on this subject. 



DairtBL WaMTxa, 

Wm. £. CHARNIiro, 

J. CU Adams, 
LaoiTAaD Woods, 
JosiAR Quiivcr, 
Hairar Waxb, 
EowAao EvxaxTT, 
WiLHua FisK, 
FaAMCis PAaaifAir, 
Jomr C. WABaaH, 



Levi Likcolw, 
A. li. EvxaaTT, 
Josarn Stort, 
Mosxs SruAar, 
JoHif 8. Stoicb, 
E. Poarxa, 
J no, PicKxaiifo, 
Wm. Jbiocb, 
Aifoaaws NoaToir, 
Wm. £. Calhoun, 



JoRiv FAaRAB, 
JoHn G. PALraxr, 
Thbodo» Lvman, 
WABaBR Fat, 
B. B. WiBNxa, 
Gxoaox Tick BOB, 
Tho. H. SKiHirxa, 
Babob Stow, 
EsBA 8. Gabbbt, 
Jambs D. Kivowlbs, 



Dab'l Srabp, 
Howabo Maixom, 

R. AlfDBBSOIf, 

8. T. Abmstbobo, 
J. M. Wainwbioht, 

J. IJ. LirfSLBT, 
H. WiNSLOW, 

William Haoub, 
8. R. Halu 



The sobaeiibers unite in reeoonmending tba above plan for sustaining the Annals of Education. 



Wm. Wibt, 
JoHB H. HoPBiirs, 
BaifBBT Ttlbb, 
Ibah Orasb, 
fl. J. RinjiT, 

C. €?ITSHIRO, 



Daivixl Dana, Philip LiitDSLBT, 

L. WiTHincTorr, Jos. Caldwbll, 

Edwabd D. Gairriir, 8. C. Philups, 

Bah*l Millbb, F. Bbakbb, 

A. Albxabdbb, Ch. BcaaouoMs, 

C. A. Oooobich. W. T. Owioht, 



T. B. Gallaudkt, 
Fabkbb CIlbavblabd, 

A. 8. Packabo, 

B. P. NawMAif, 
Mbbbitt Calowsxx, 
B. O. Pubs. 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



JANUARY, 1835, 



BOW SHALL AN AMERICAN PERIODICAL ON EDUCATION BE 

SUSTAINED ? 

The aid and encouragement of the past year has justified us in 
retaining our place, and endeavoring to meet the wishes of those 
who have contributed to sustain the Annals. As we have abeady 
said, we feel ourselves called upon by this mark of public confi- 
dence, as well as by the demands of our readers, to speak more 
freely and loudly on every subject which belongs to our work 
tlian we have hitherto done. We will commence a new course 
of eflbrt, by asking our readers to consider and determine how an 
American periodical on education ^all be sustained. 

By an ^ American Periodical,' we mean one which shall be 
adapted to our country, in its civil and political institutions ; but 
especially, to that system of schools, which is designed to fiimish 
instruction to all parties and sects. It must be based on that 
religion which is recognized by our judicial proceedings and our 
public acts, but still free firom all which is sectarian, and in this 
respect, assuming difiTerent ground from some recently established, 
whose great object is, to direct and assist parents^ in the teligknis 
education of their children. 

Strange as it may appear, and impolitic as it may seem in us to 
state the fiict, there are some, who appear firiendly to this work, 
who urge that there is no need of a periodical devoted to Educt- 
tioD, that it would be better to employ periodicals of a genial 
chvapter, in disseminating informatioQ which is interesting to tbi 



8 Imparianee of a Periodical on Education. 

whole community. The same individuals would not hesitate to 
admit the necessity of distuict periodicals for eacli of the great de- 
partments of human knowledge ; and would yield to none in urging 
that our country should be well provided with such works, on 
science and literature, agriculture and mechanics, politics and 
religion. Yet they would maintjun, that the science of science*— 
the art of forming the human mind, and moulding the human 
character — may reasonably be crowded into a comer of a newspa- 
per, or confined to an occasional article in a magazine or review ! 

We know not whether such objectors recollect how our news- 
papers and periodicals are crowded to overflowing, with those sub- 
jects which are connected with the passions, and pecuniary interests, 
and amusements of their readers, and with the reconls of human 
folly and vice, or wliether they know how difliciilt it is to procure 
a place, or a hearing, for any such serious or extended discussion, 
as this important and neglected subject requires. But we cannot 
suppress our astonishment, that the extent and importance of the 
subject of education, and the amount of facts and principles, col- 
lected in regard to it, should be so entirely unkno\^Ti or forgotten ; 
and that patriots or philanthropists should be willing to have less 
than one entire periodical, devoted to a subject whicli they belicv« 
to be at the foundation of happiness, in the family, the community, 
and the nation. 

When we look even at our own small collection of books and 
manuscripts, and when we recollect what we have seen and 
heard, — ^when we observe the multitude of errors to be corrected, 
and the improvements to be made in our families, and schools and 
colleges,— -when we think how much is yet to be done, to secure 
even a common education, to every citizen of our country, — ^^hen 
we remember that Germany, with a population of subjects instead 
of citizens, not only supports an admirable system of schools, but 
inaintains twenty periodicals devoted to education, one of tliem 
issued daily— and when, at tlie end of the year, we reflect almost 
in despair, on the little portion of this great subject, wliich the ef- 
forts of a single editor have been able to crowd into the pages of a 
large volume, we are mortified at the apathy, or the igno- 
ranoe, which would consider even one unnecessary. 

W© maintain, then, that a periodical devoted to tins subject is 
luk less necessary, than those which are occupied vAih the other 
departments of human knowledge, and for the same reasons. It 
is indispensable as an organ of communication between those who 
are engaged in the practice or difilision of education,— as a record 
of thi p«)gre88 and history of our country on this huportant sub- 
■J|«ci--4B a depository of fiw^ and document*^ 
^Mdmethodi of instmctioii. It ii aspecjaUy necessary aa. a means of 



Testimony of Us hnportance. 9 

elevating the profession of teaching to its proper rank in so- 
ciety, of keeping alive puUic interest on the subject, and of en- 
forcing upon parents and teachers their high responsibilities, and 
affording them aid, in their difficult and laborious task. It is even 
more necessary than other periodicals on particular subjects, be- 
cause no other subject of equal interest has been so little examin- 
ed, and so superficially discussed — because the community are thus 
left more at the mercy of dogmatists and pretenders, than on 
most other topics — and because more effort is requisite to over- 
come that indifference and prejudice, which oppose even the at- 
tempt at thorough or extensive discussion, and would allow it a 
place, only as an appendage to other topics, whose appeals to in- 
terest and feeling, will throw it entirely into the shade. 

In these opinions we are amply sustained by the example al- 
ready alluded to, of a nation that has done more than any other, to 
investigate the principles, and improve the practice of education. 
But we appeal to the testimony of those directly interested on this 
subject, in our own country. We have abundant evidence from 
teachers of common schools, and high schools, and from offi- 
cers of colleges, and those engaged in promoting the cause of ed- 
ucation in other ways, that they feel the need of such a work, to 
fiimish the experience and views of other teachers, and to ascer- 
tain the progress and improvements in education ; and that they 
have derived essential benefit from tliis, imperfectly as it has been 
conducted. Many parents have expressed the same desire for 
such a guide, in their difficult and important task. Those who 
are engaged in the inspection of our schools, and the revision of 
our systems of education, and the promotion of its improvement, 
find some work indispensable, to give the information which may 
direct and assist their efforts. To this testimony we may add that 
of our ablest periodicals and newspapers, and finally, we refer to 
a document already placed on record in a preceding page, which 
has received the sanction of some of the first names in our 
country. 

If such a periodical ought to be sustained, on w^hom does its 
support devolve ? Not surely on the editors or publishers, nor 
yet on any particular body of men ; for if it be useful, it is useful 
to our country in promoting its improvements and prospects ; it 
claims the support of all who enjoy its privileges, or value its in- 
stitutions. We shall probably never cease to hear the hackneyed 
remark, that the demand is the index of the need, and that * If the 
work is wanted, it will be supported ;' but we shall never cease 
to pronounce this maxim utterly fake, when applied to inteUeC'- 
turn and moral benefits. When did darkness ever call for light, 
or error seek to reclaim itself? Or when did indolence attempt 



10 Haw it it to be sustained f 

to shake c^its own torpor ; — or when did men devoted to the pur- 
suit of pleasure or wealth, strive to cultivate their own benevolence 
and sense of duty, without some influence irom abroad ? 

The object here is to excite an interest not yet existin":, on a 
subject which has been totally neglected, or superficially examin- 
ed. It is only those who possess light, that can or will diffuse it. 
None but the living can restore the inanimate ; and none but 
the benevolent can be expected to do anytliing to promote the in- 
terests of others at their own expense. 

Parents who value their business and wealth, more than their 
children's characters, will tell us — ^ We have no time to attend to 
this, and we pay a teacher.' Clergymen, who think they have no 
concern with the lambs of their flock, except to give them in- 
struction entirely beyond the reach of their capacities, on one day 
of the week, will say — ^ We leave this to the school-master.' 
Statesmen will generally show us, if they do not tell us, that tliey 
have more important subjfxits to diink of. 

And Teachers ! on whom the whole burden is thrown — what will 
they reply ? Some indeed will assure us — as many have already 
done— that so long as they have any resources, they cannot and 
will not give up the work. They will labor to impress others with 
the importance of sustaining it, and tliey will tell us with sorrow, 
of the apatliy, and indifference and prejudice, with which they 
have tried in vain to contend, and lament their own inability to 
supply that aid which the wealthy refuse. 

But many others will inform us, that they are compelled to 
take so large a number of pupik, that their power of thought is 
exhausted ; that they are so poorly paid, that they stniggle 
with difliculty for a subsistence ; and that if they should advance 
ki their profession, the very attempt to vary from ^ the regula- 
tions/ or to go beyond the reach of a narrow minded school com- 
mittee, by any improved plan of teaching, would be frowned upon, 
and terminate only in their dismission. Some will say that 
they * understand this subject ' — tliat they ' have their methods 
and their books ' — (both of which, of course are unchangeable,) — 
and that they * have no need of new light.' Others will tell us, 
directly or indirectly, that they do not anticipate a single dollar of 
additional profit, bom any improvement in teaching, and that they 
have trouble and labor enough already, without attempting a new 
task. And others still, wiU rise, in the dignity of offended pride, 
and inform us, that they regard with contempt all innoi'ations up- 
on methods which have been established for * hundreds of years ! ' 
and would deem it a pubUc benefit, to annihilate us and our journal, 
if we hint at reform of improven^ent , 



Who conic appealed to 1 11 

§uch are some of the reasons^ why those most du'ectly concern- 
'ed cannot, or will not, sustain an American periodical on educa- 
tion. To throw thb burden upon teachers, would be to require 
of the poorest, and worst paid of intellectual laborers, what has 
beea scarcely accomplished for a single professional periodical in 
twr country. It would be as absurd, as to require the sailor to 
support the Ught houses on our coast. 

IVor are they alone concerned, or even most deeply mterested. 
The teacher's skill, like the physician's, is most important to those 
who employ him ; for to them it will secure the usefulness and 
happiness of their families, instead of being a mere means of sub- 
sistence. Indeed, who that values the welfare of his country, or 
the safety of its institutions, has not a deep stake in this subject ? 

We cannot appeal to party or sectarian feeling in such a work, 
lor to be truly American^ it must be destitute of party and secta- 
rian character, in a* country where schools are the property and the 
resort of all parties and sects. 

We cannot expect aid from the selfish ; for they will meet us 
path the unchristian reply, * Let every man provide for himself; ' 
and, * Am I my brother's keeper ? ' But the same men would 
turn with equal mdifference and contempt from every plan by 
which they were called to make efforts or sacrifices, for the 
benefit of others, whether it should be in relieving of the poor 
or enlarging of the prisoner — in persuading the intemperate to re- 
finquish his cups, or the criminal to abandon his vices — ^in scatter- 
ing light upon the darkness of paganism, or in civilizing, by the 
mild influence of Christianity, those whom ignorance and vice 
have placed upon the verge of barbarism, even in our own country. 

If a good object is to be abandoned, because the community 
do not know, or regard it enough to sustain it, and because they 
will not even give adequate support to that profession on whom 
it especially devolves, the same principles would oblige us to 
close the subscription book, and the doors of every benevolent in- 
stitution, to leave ignorance to grope its way to the light, and 
moral disease to seek its own remedy. If these institutions are to 
be sustained, then we appeal to the same spirit of philanthropy 
and benevolence, and genuine patriotism, to support some work 
ot this character ; and we ask their aid for this, until some other 
more worthy of our country, and better adapted to its wants, 
shall be established. We appeal especially to those tried friends, 
who have already saved it, to continue those efforts, without which, 
all that we can do will be in vain. We claim them as fellow la- 
borers ; and if their conviction of the importance of the object is 
still unchanged, we hope they will encourage us by their example, 
to persevere, until the proper interest in this subject is created. 



12 PPhotnttiUiiinnUf 

We would ask the wealthy, if they will not still find one useilil 
means of employing the resources which Providence has entrust-^ 
ed to their care, in continuing to furnish this work to our public 
libraries or institutions, to those who are preparing for the business 
of instruction in our own country, or to those who are engaged 
in teaching the children of pagan lands ; or in circulating its num- 
bers, as many have done, among the less favored parents and 
teachers in their own neighborhood ? 

We cheerfully leave those who have hitherto deemed it worth 
the wages of their labor, to decide whether they can still give their 
aid, for we know they will not desert us, until it is unavoidable ; 
but we ask them to continue their efforts, to induce others to ap- 
preciate the importance of the subject. We regret that we cannot 
send it to such persons without a return, and still more, that we 
must materially diminish our list of gratuitous copies ; but circum- 
stances render it imperiously necessary ; and we can only hope 
that they may be supplied from some other source. 

We ask those who tremble for the fate of our country, to look 
at the rapid progress of ignorance and crime, to mark the approach 
of dangers from this source, which no physical power can averts 
and tlien consider, whether they are not called upon, by eVeiy 
feeling of affection for their families, and love for their country, to 
employ all the moral influence which can be exerted, to prevent 
the result we have reason to apprehend— whether they should not 
especially aid in every effort for promoting education, as the 
only means of opening the way for light and truth, as the ac- 
knowledged AND only basis OF NATIONAL SECURITY. 

We would also call most earnestly upon those who are engaged 
in unproving and extendinij American education, to send the re- 
cords of their efforts, and their experience, to the American An- 
nals, and enable us to render our work, not merely useful to the 
cause, but honorable to our country. 

And now our appeal is finished. We have sacrificed our per- 
sonal feelings, and pained many of our personal friends, by the 
calls already made in behalf of the Annals, which those, who 
only act from interested motives, will probably ascribe to the same 
source. We can only say in apology, that we have acted from 
the conviction of duty. But we hope it is the last time that we 
shall be called upon for such a sacrifice, whatever may be the 
event. We trust that we may now leave the result with Provi- 
dence, and with the friends he has called forth in the moment of 
need, and go on with the single and delightful labor, of collecting 
and diffusing infonnation, which may assist in preparing the rising 
generation for tlieir high duties, as American citizens and immortal 
beings. 



Bucks County Auodaium. 18 

REPORT OF THE BUCKS COUNTY SOCIETY FOR THE ADVANCE- 

MCNT OF EDUCATION. 

We have expressed our deep interest in the formation and 
object of the Society of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, for the ad- 
vancen^ent of education. Our hopes of its usefulness are not a 
little strengthened by the perusal of its first report. 

It attempts to develope the three followmg principles adopted 
at the meeting of organization ; 

i. * Popular Education is a matter of universal and primary 
concern. 

2. 'It can flourish only by the creation of an enlightened jmiZic 
ientitnent concerning it. 

3. *This can be most efficiently accomplished by voluntary com- 
bination, in co-operation with legislative effort.' 

In regard to the first, the committee observe ; — 

* It is a matter of surprise, that our public sentinels, who, as they stand 
on the watch-towers of the Republic, or walk their daily round upon its 
walls, so often startle us with the cry of ^Constitution violated — ^laws 
trampled upon — liberty invaded,' — should so seldom point to that colossal 
enemy of all that is good and fair in a free government— |H>piilar igno^ 
ranee, 

' What is it at which the American patriot is most easily alarmed, as he 
surveys the prospect which is opening around his country ? What is it 
that the statesman chiefly apprehends, as likely to mar every system of 
enlightened legislation ? What is the most formidable obstacle that the 
philanthropist finds to oppose his plans of sociol improvement ? What 
IS tlie great difliculty with which the preachers of Christianity, of every 
name, have mainly to contend, when laboring to establish the leading 
doctrines of reliirion ? He who has been accustomed to estimate cor- 
rectly the moral forces that operate in society, will answer at once to 
each of these interrogatories, — it is popular ignorance.' 

The nature of this ignorance is happily illustrated. 

' The youth of this country are taught to read, and to write, it may be, 
but bow few even of those who have been sent to school are taught to 
think ! And can the most difficult of humati arts be acquired without 
instruction ? If manacles were forged for the understanding of the boy 
in that juvenile )>enitentiary, as it too frequently becomes, the school- 
room, what wonder is there if the intellect of the man should be found 
in chains. If the philanthropists of this country are ever to accomplish 
anvthing, either for the civil, political, or moral improvement of their 
fellow men, they must mount up at once to the head springs of society^ 
which are our common schoolei. The waters of the deep and majestic 
river cannot be changed — ^)'ou may perhaps cleanse its mountain sources. 
It is certain, at all events, that the stream never can be pure while the 
fountains remain polluted.' 

The committee then go on to state the appalling fact, that in the 
' Key State' of the Union, a large part of the children are growing 

VOL. V. — WO. I. 2 



14 bifiumu on Public Sentmeni^ 

up, and preparing to be citizens without any instruction, and that a 
large number of voters cannot read the tickets which they put into 
the ballot box ! 

On the second point, they observe, of laws in reference to edu- 
cation ; 

' Enactments of this character, when unsustained by public feelingf 
are almost always useless, and often pernicious in their results. If every 
parent in the land valued education as it ought to be valued, not a child 
among all our youthful population would long remain uninstructeJ. 
Every community has adequate resources within itsdf ; and yet they 
are resources which legislative action, (lerhaps, only can dcvelojie. I/et 
the aid from that quarter lie sufficient to accomplish this, and everything 
that is at all important will have l)een achieved by it. But to teach a 
community to wait year aAcr year, as a mendicant at the door of the 
public treasury, and rely solely upon legislative appropriations, would be 
to paralyze its energies, degrade education in the eyes of the people, ami 
establish a sort of intellectual pau[)eiisni.' 

They quote also the remark of Mr. Peers, of Kentucky. 

'Here, I am confident, is the source of all the evils complained of, in 
relation to the defectiveness and imperfect diffusion of education ; — the 
people do net value it as they ought. Did they rank it amung the ne- 
eessaries of life, instead of placing it low down on the iistof disponsables, 
agents in abundance would soon find or create means to fit thimstlres to 
serve them in the very best manner. Is it not, then, the demand for edu- 
cation that needs to be stinuilutcd ? Let this become what it >li()uld be, 
and the supply will take care of itself. Convinced that everything de- 
pends upon the prevalence of an enlightened and liberal pid)lic sentiment 
with regard to the value of education, we are addressing our efforts, in 
Kentucky, to the production of this, as the groat preliminary measure. 
Let our people once be taught to think that they cannot |>ossihIy do 
without frood education, and they will have it. Almost all other practical 

auestions on the subject, then, resolve themselves into this ; How can 
lis sentiment be created ? ' 

On the last point, the remarks of the committee deserve serious 
reflection, from every one wiio values this «;reat object. 

*But if an enlightened public sentunent be so exceedingly important, 
the question naturally arises, How sholl it be creatc<l ? Mere law- 
making cannot do it. In America, the popular opinion must precede, 
or at least co-operate with legislation. The latter is invariably abortive, 
when unsup|)orted by the former. How shall the feelings of the people 
be aroused and directed to the subject of Kducation ? We answer, just 




how do the supporters of our diversified charities proceed, when they 



wish to gain an influence over the public mind ? They orga.nize, and 
their object, (if practicable,) is soon accomplished, hi the [ire^ent state 
of society ,'combi nation is the secret of all power; it imparts incalcidable 
energy to human eff<irt, and can only be resisted l»y counter condunotion. 
h was this powerful agent, working in the <lark, which pro<luced the 
French Revolution, and speedily shook a continent of kingdoma to its 



Plafiy and Moiivei to Acitan. 15 

centre ; and it is the same, when purified and raised above all subterra- 
nean movements, and operating in 0|)en day, to which we must look to 
reform the world. Witness the splendid social enginery, which has of 
late been playing off its energies upon mankind, in the benevolent ope- 
rations of the age. The ease and vigor with which it acts, are equally 
surprising and resistless. It reminds one of the fabled giant — as he 
arose ** fresh from his slumber of a thousand years."' 

They propose that such an association should have a committee 
on the press, to engage editors in this cause ; another on public 
meetings, to employ these in awakening public attention ; another 
on correspondence, to communicate with kindred associations, and 
kindred spirits ; and another on schools, to investigate the condition 
of scliools within their hmits. They urge these measures with a 
ibrce and eloquence too seldom employed on this subject, and which 
we hope will excite those around them to action, and rouse our 
readers to new efforts. 

* ^ Good instruction ia heiter than rickeSy^ w«8 the motto that Penn, the 
illustrious founderof this Commonwealtli, placed on the seal of a literary 
incorporation, granted hy him one hundred and fiAy years ago. " The 
force, beauty, and truth of the assertion,*' says Roberts Vaux, *' have lost 
nothing by the lapse of time, nor hy the experience of mankind." " In 
proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, 
It is essential that ])ublic opinion should be enlightened," said Washing- 
ton. ** A well-instructed people alone, can be a permanently free people," 
mid Madisoik '* There is but one way of rendering a republican form of 
government durable, and that is by disseminating virtue and knowledge," 
said Rush. ** Make a crusade against ignorance," said Jefferson." 

' These quotations exhibit the nnportancc of the object which we have 
in view ; but the last es]>ecially, points out with emphasis the manner in 
which that object must be attained. If there be a large number of 
voters in this State, who cannot spell out the Laws and Constitntion, 
which their right of suffrage was given to support, and their numbers 
are constantly on the increase, it is high time that some effort be made 
to arrest this evil. There are a thousand things in which we may safely 
differ. We may differ in religion, in politics, in philosophy t but there 
is one thing in which, as Americans, we must all most cordially agree : 
and that is, in the im()ortance of giving knowledge to the ^ Sovereign 
People." The illustrious dead have spoken upon this subject ; and the 
distinguished living, from every quarter of the Union, res|)ond to their 
sentiments, and confirm their testimony. Let a trumi>et then be sounded 
in the land. '^ A crusade against Ignorance,*^ is just the thing we want. 
Let the appeal be so loud and long as to reach everv habitation. I^t 
the North hear it ; let the South receive the call ; let tlie Ocean tell it to 
the Mountains, and the Mountains echo it to the distant forests, until it 
shall sound throughout every log hut in the western wilderness. The 
mother by the fireside will hear it, and resolve that her infant in the , 
cradle shall be well instructed ; the father laboring in the fields will hear 
il, and the determination will be formed in his secret soul, that the lad 
who toils at his elbow, shall be saved from the burning infamy of igno* 
ranee; ay, and even our political partisans shall pause, by common 
consent, amidst the strife or parties, to listen to this finest note of Free* 
dom, and do homage to the sentiment of the sage of Monticello. An 
organized ^crusade against Ignorance^ is the only enterprise whipb 



16 Complaint of a Sunday School at the West* 

can redeem this nation. The undertaking Mrbich we propose to you, 
ibllow citizens, is by no means a novel one. There are many County 
and State Societies in the Union for the promotion of this cause. Already 
have they produced a wide and salutary impression. Argument, per- 
suasion, and patriotic intreaties, are the instruments which we pro[)ose 
to use. The weapons of this warfare are not carnal, but spiritual, and 
mighty to the pulling down of strong holds ; and among the rest, the 
stronff holds behind which this great enemy of republics has been in- 
trenched.' 

We cannot but regard it as a circumstance of no small interest, 
that measures were taken for a general organization on this subject 
in the American School Society recently formed at Boston, after 
much deliberation, and we would urge upon our readers in behalf 
of every institution of this character, the stirring appeal which 
closes the report of the Committee, and which ought to make its 
way to every heart, 

'Patriots, Philanthropists and Christians, who amongst you will refuse 
to enlist for this noble service ? Let the aged lend us their ex{)erieiice, 
and the young their energy ; let the men of influence give their patronage, 
and the men of intellect their talents ; let those who can write appear in 
our public papers, and those who can speak arise in our popular assem- 
blies. All, even the least among us, may do something to promote the 
cause of Universal Education. In these peaceful wars, it will not be in- 
consistent with the lovely timidity of the sex, even for our women to en- 
gage ; and our very children, as they enjoy and illustrate the benefits of a 
more attractive system of instruction, shall help us to gain this bloodless 
victory, 

' Come then, fellow citizens, let us orf^anize, after the example that has 
been set to us in other places. Many warm hearts, clear heads, and strong 
bands, in different sections of the Union, are engaged in this noble work. 
In public and in private, from the Rostrum and the Press, again and again, 
let this subject be brought before the nation. Such a combined influence 
must, ultimately, tell with power, u|K)n the destinies of our favored land. 
And then, when we, who are now on the stage of action, shall pass away, 
another generation, more enlightened than their fathers were, shall stand 
vpflikea wall of fire, to encircle the Constitution, and to save the Country.* 



COMPLAINT OF A SUNDAY SCHOOL AT THE WEST, 

The establishment of Sunday Schools in the Western 
States, as substitutes for the ordinary weekly schools and for 
churches, has excited deep interest in the minds of many be- 
nevolent persons at the East. That they are most valuable, in 
many cases, as temporary substitutes, we are fully persuaded ; 
but we are equally convinced, that they should be only r^* 
garded as temporary substitutes, for institutions which are iq^ 



Errors in regard to Sunday Schools. 17 

dispensable to their permanency and usefulness. In this 
opinion we have been confirmed by the following 

Extract of a letter from a Clergyman in one of the Western State*. 

' How are the fiible, Tract and Sunday School schemes to be accom- 
plished without a cor()8 of qualified teachers of common schools? I have 
been, and am, officially interested in these objects, and our experience is that 
our Bibles and Tracts are refused because they cannot be read. But few 
of the Sunday Schools that the noble Mississippi valley scheme has been 
the means of establishing, live'tlirough even a single season, because there 
are no teachers; or rather because there is not in each neighborhood in 
which a school is started, some one individual interested from principle, 
and (qualified by ex|ierience, to sustain and encourage it. This great en- 
terprise appears much more plausible to its generous projectors, living at 
a distance, than it does to us who reside in the immediate neighborhood of 
the evils to be remedied. 

' We are an excitable people, captivated with what is new, and wonder- 
fully large, and abundantly impatient, in our ext)ectation of results. A 
Sunday School Agent comes along, (not always the best judge of human 
nature,) proclaims a meeting at the neighborhood church or school house, 

I which is crowded,) spends half of the time in preaching to the |ieop1e, 
tastily forms a company of volunteer teachers, tells them to have a Sun- 
day School, then mounts his horse, and hastens off to meet some other ap- 
])ointment, and in the course of a month or two, the Sunday School Jour- 
nal teems with reports of one or two hundred new Sunday Schools. But 
suppose him, at the end of the time alluded to, to repeat his round ; — the 
mushroom crop is gone. 

* There may be, and doubtless are, some schools sustained by teachers 
found or created in the neighborhood ; but I do not know (and I am 
a Vice President of a Sunday School Union,) a single school in the coun- 
try which is not kept up by some young man delegated from a school in 
town, where he has had an opportunity of acquiring some experience.' 

An article in the Boston Recorder, some time since pre- 
sented these evils in another form. On a few points it is an 
arffumentum ad hominemf addressed to the individuals directly 
engaged in this benevolent object, and it is written in a 
homely style ; yet we hope it will interest some of our readers, 
and lead some friends of Sunday Schools to feel the impor- 
tance of uniting the whole < family' of Schools, in the work 
of educating our youth. 

A Comfladnt from a Sunday School at the We*t, 

Mr. Editor, — I am one of a large family, of great antiquity 
and respectability, as you will see by looking at mv family 
name. We have multiplied exceedingly for the last nundred 
years ; and some changes have taken place which I do not 
exactly like, but which, they say, ' the times demand, and the 
divisions of labor require,' &c. &c. ; but though this may be 
true ef some of these changes, 1 think you will allow, when 
TOO hear me, that they are not all necessary. 

2* 



16 Divisum of Schooh* 

A long time ago, we used to live togetlier, all in one hotlse^ 
and every thing went on harmoniously ; one helped the other, 
and there was no ^ division ' of labur or effort. We took 
in all the children of the neighborhood and joined in giving 
them the best instruction we could, each in our part; and we 
helped each other in taking care of them ; and the children 
were taught to fear God, and honor their parents, and learn 
their lessons, all in the same place, and every day in the week. 

But when society grew ' more cultivated,' as they say, peo- 
ple thought they must put us in separate houses, — that they 
could not trust the same man to teach their children such dif- 
ferent things as reading, writing and ciphering, and the Bible. 
Besides, these things belonged to the week, and the Bible be- 
longed to Sunday; and as they had to work hard all the week, 
and found time to think of the Bible only at Church, they did 
not see why their children should not do the same. And then, 
some did not like to have anybody teach their children about 
the Bible, whose coat was not cut just like theirs — Quaker, or 
Presbyterian, or Methodist fashion ; and some began to say, 
they would not have them learn anything at all about the 
Bible ; so that our branch of the family was turned out of doors. 
And for a long time we were without house or home ; except 
that once in two or three months, the minister would give us 
shelter for a few hours, just to see whether the children could 
say their catechism, or a hymn or two. I am glad to say, that 
since that time, we have been better provided for. Some of 
the friends of the Bible have taken great pains to get us good 
houses, and fit us out with school books, and have given us all 
the ^help' they can, (some rather poor to be sure) and 
paid a great deal to support us. But I wish you would tell 
them they make some sad mistakes; and I wish to tell you 
now, because I see they are trying to help our family as much 
as they can. 

I will tell you what the great mistake is, among all their 
good plans and benevolent works ; they only do it half way^ 
— and they do the wrong half first, in some places. The truth 
is, schools all belong to one family ? We must help each other 
to live ; and if they do everything for us and nothing for our 
relations, we only have to give away to them, or wait till they 
have taken their share of the work. 

Let me give you some instances. My sister Infant School 
and my brother Common School, live both in the same town ; 
but they put us all in separate houses. This I will not say 
a word about now. But then, it is of no use to send children 
tbmei ono day io the week, unless they have been to m j 



MUtdkes in Organizing Schools. 19 

brother or my sister six days before ;— M>r rather, I mean, that, 
if they have never been to them, I cannot do any good until 
I have sent for my brother or sister to get them ready for me. 
To be sure, it all goes under my name ; but it is only doing 
week day work on Sunday, and taking up my time, that ought 
to be otherwise spent. And then, if it could be done on a 
week day, that shows, that after all, the fourth command is 
broken ; for if people did not choose to work to get their 
bread in the week, it would be just as much a work of ^ neces- 
sity and mercy ' to do it on Sunday, as it is to teach children 
to read on Sunday, because they do not teach them during the 
week. 

Now I am sorry to say, that I am often obliged to spend 
Sunday in this work ; and yet people, instead of paying 
my brother and sister for doing week day work in the week — 
try to save something, by putting it all into Sunday ! And I 
think it is a strange reason given for it too ; as much as to 
say, that because Sunday is a day of rest, and people never 
would think of asking pay for working then, they will employ 
them on that day. 

But our town is pretty well provided, compared with some 
in the neighborhood ; for it does not so often happen with us, 
that we have to teach spelling. But then the *help' that 
they give my brother and sister is so poor, that the children 
do not know what the words mean, after they have spelled 
them ; and then the books they read, and the things said to 
them, are all like an unknown tongue ; and we have to teach 
them, just as if wo were teaching them Latin or French,, what 
half the words mean. Is not this week day work, a great deal 
of it ? Some of our ^ help ' do not know how, and some of 
them make the children repeat over their lessons just like par- 
rots ; and they might almost as well not come. 

In the next town to ours, things are worse still. Some of 
my brother's and sister's family that went there, could not find 
even a house to live in ; — and in another town, near that, they 
were allowed to live but two months in a year ; and then they 
had such poor /help,' that they did not do much ; and my 
children tried in vain to suppiv their place, for they could not 
find 'help' enough that could read and understand to take 
care of the scholars. And I am told, that a great many of 
the relations on my side of the house, have been obliged to 
shut up house, and move away, after they have had their names 
published, and been counted and praised all over the land*— 
only because they could not get ^help' to carry on their 
bosineM. 



do R^uhlicatumi. 

Now I wish you would tell these good people, not to leave 
one part of the family to starve, if they mean to support the 
other; and tell them it is of no use to send people Bibles and 
Tracts, unless they try to provide some way of teaching them 
to read them. They might as well send them to the fishes of 
the sea, as to the million of children that do not know how to 
read. It makes me think of beginning at the top to build a 
house. It is not so good as building on the sand. I do not 
mean that they should stop doing the work ; but that they 
should go on and do it all ! — ^ These things ye ought to have 
done, but not to have left the others undone.' 

A Sunday School at the West. 



REPUBLICATIONS. 



There is much diversify of opinion and practice in our 
country, in reference to the manner in which the works of 
British writers should be republished. 

Some practically assert the right to call these productions 
their own, in the title page, without any reserve, or any 
acknowledgement of their origin, simply on account of some 
variation of arrangement or style, or the annexation of ques- 
tions or notes; and they satisfy conscience by a statement of 
this kind in the preface. It is enough to say of this course, 
that the editor or publisher is guilty of falsehood in the title 
page ; and it is a poor apology to reply, that the falsehood is 
subsequently retracted in a preface, which three out of five 
will never read. 

But in other cases, a foreign work which is deemed valua- 
ble, is placed in the hands of some person for examination 
and revision, and without any other variation than those which 
a well educated corrector of the press would make, is sent 
forth with a preface or essay, from a source which will give it 
a favorable introduction to the American people. An index, 
notes, questions, or an appendix, are sometimes added, without 
any essential alteration of the text. If the title page an* 
nounces distinctly what is done, no possible objection can be 
made on the score of injustice to the author, or fraud upon 
the public. On the contrary, if the editor is able and judi- 
cious, the work is not only more likely to gain extensive cir« 
cnlation, but is better fitted to be useful in our own country ; 
and when a valuable work is thus adapted to the use of oar 



Deceptive Titles ofBooki. Si 

schools, great additional good is done, and our thanks are due 
to the editor and the publisher. 

But the title page is sometimes written or arranged in such 
a way as to lead most readers to suppose it an original work ; 
and often, we are convinced, without any intention on the 
part of the editor, the same injustice is done as by the pro- 
fessed pirates of literature. Thus we find a very interesting 
and useful work recently published, as an assistant to parents 
and teachers in early education, with the following title: 

' Aidi to mental development j or hints to parents ; being a 
system of mental and moral instructioUy exemplified in convcrsa^ 
lions between a mother and her children. With an address to 
mothers, by a lady of Philadelphia* 

When analyzed g^rammatically, with close attention to the 
punctuation, it would appear that the 'address to mothers,' 
was probably the only part of the work belonging to the ' Lady 
of Philadelphia ;' and the preface gives us reason to suppose it 
a foreign work. Of this, however, most readers would not be 
confident, especially as a copyright is claimed, even if they 
should observe thus closely. On the m:iss of readers, the 
title would produce the impression that the whole work be* 
longs to this lady ; and the current language and advertise- 
ments of booksellers, will complete the deception, seldom an- 
ticipated by the editor, by announcing — ^ Aids to mental de^ 
velopment. By a lady of Philadelphia,^ 

We need scarcely say, that this indirect mode of leading 
the public astray, should be avoided as carefully as the other; 
and our readers will agree with us, that where ambiguous lan- 
guage, or an abbreviated title is used, merely to claim a copy- 
right, or secure the influence of a name, the fraud is equally 
clear, and equally contemptible. It is sometimes practised, 
and sometimes we fear excused, for want of sufficient reflec- 
tion, by reputable publishers. Let them not forget, that the 
intriguing plagiarist and schemer are thus enabled to sup- 
plant and undersell the honorable editor and publisher, and 
the original writer. 

We have thus far spoken only of works which are admit- 
ted to be merely new editions. Variations are sometimes made 
in the body of a work, in every degree, from simple abridg- 
ment or occasional alterations, to a course which involves an 
eDtire remodelling of the form, by selection, or combination 
with other materials to form a larger work. In these cases, 
dpty to the public, no less than justice to the author, require 
that nothing be done which shall make him responsible, or 
five bis auihoritjr, for aentifiients^ or style, or arraD|s;cment 



14 Bijluence on Public SenttnunL 

up, and preparing to be citizens without any instruction, and that a 
large number of voters cannot read the tickets which they put into 
the ballot box ! 

On the second point, they observe, of laws in reference to edu- 
cation ; 

* EDactments of tliis character, when unsustained by public feclingf 
are almost always useless, and often pernicious in their results. I i* every 
parent in the land valued education as it ought to be valued, not a child 
among all our youthful population would long remain uninstructeJ. 
Every community has adequate resources within itself; and yet they 
are resources which legislative action, perhafYS, only can develo|>e. Let 
the aid from that quarter be sufficient to accomplish this^ and everything 
that is at all important will have been achieved by it. But to teach a 
community to wait year after year, as a mendicant at the door of the 
public treasury, and rely solely u|>on legislative appropriations, would bo 
to paralyze its energies, degrade education in the eyes of the people, and 
establish a sort of intellectual pauj)eiism.' 

They quote also the remark of Mr. Peers, of Kentucky. 

*Here, I am confident, is the source of all the evils complained of, in 
relation to the defectiveness and imperfect diffusion of e<hication ; — tlio 
people do net value it as they ought. Did they rank it among the ne- 
eessaries of life, instead of placing it low down on the lisstof disponsahles, 
agents in abundance would soon find or create means to fit ihnnstlves to 
serve them in the very best manner. Is it not, then, the demand for edu- 
cation that needs to be stimulated ? Let this become what it should l>e, 
and the supply will take care of itself. Convinced that everything de- 
pends upon the prevalence of an enlightened and liberal public sentiment 
with regard to the value of education, we are addressing our efforts, in 
Kentucky, to the production of this, as the great preliminary measure. 
Let our people once be taught to think that they cannot (mssibly do 
without gond education, and they will have it. Almost all other practical 
questions on the subject, then, resolve themselves into this ; How can 
this sentiment be created?' 

On the last point, the remarks of the committee deserve serious 
reflection, from every one who values this <j;reat object. 

*But if an enlightened public sentiment he so excee<lingly important, 
the question naturally arises. How shall it be created ? Mere law- 
making cannot do it. In America, the popular opinion must precede, 
or at least co-operate with legislation. The latter is invariably abortive, 
when unsupported by the former. How shall the feelings of the people 
be aroused and directed to the subject of Education ? We answer, just 
as everyday they are, to fifty other subjects of far inferior consequence. 
How do the friends of Jackson, or Clay, or Wolf, or Ritner, — how do the 
advocates of Federalism or Democracy, or the Tarit!'or Nullification, — 
how do the supporters of our diversified charities proceed, when they 
wish to gain an influence over the public mind ? They orgamze, and 
their object, (if practicable,) is soon accomplished, hi the |iresent state 
of 80ciety,'combination is the secret of all power; it imparts incalculable 
energy to human effort, and can only be resisted by counter combination. 
It was this powerful agent, working in the dark, which (iroduced the 
French Revolution, and speedily shook a continent of kingdoms to its 



P7an, and Motives to Action. 15 

centre ; and it is the same, when purified and raised above all subterra- 
nean movements, and operating in open day, to which we must look to 
reform the world. Witness the splendid social enginery, which has of 
late been playing off its energies upon mankind, in the benevolent ope- 
rations of the age. The ease and vigor with which it acts, are equally 
surprising and resistless. It reminds one of the fabled giant — as he 
arose ** fresh from his slumber of a thousand years."' 

They propose that such an association should have a committee 
on the press, to engage editors in this cause ; another on public 
meetings, to employ tiiese in awakening public attention ; another 
on correspondeuce, to communicate with kindred associations, and 
kindred spirits ; and another on schools, to investigate the condition 
of sciiools within their limits. They urge these measures with a 
force and eloquence too seldom employed on this subject, and which 
we hope will excite those around them to action, and rouse our 
readers to new efforts. 

* " Good instruction i$ better than richeSj^ was the motto that Penn, the 
iJlustrious founder of this Commonwealth, placed on the seal of a literary 
incorporation, granted by him one hundred and fiAy years ago. '* The 
force, beauty, and truth of the assertion," says Roberts Vaux, "have lost 
nothing by the lapse of time, nor by the exj)erience of mankind." " In 
proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, 
ii is essential that public opinion should be enlightened," said Washing- 
ton. " A well-instructed people alone, can be a permanently free jieople," 
said Madison. "There is but one way of rendering a repulilican form of 
government durable, and that is by disseminating virtue and knowledge," 
said Rush. " Make a crusade against ignorance," said Jefferson." 

* These quotations exhibit the nnportancc of the object which we have 
in view ; but the last especially, |>oints out with emphasis the manner in 
which that object must be attained. If there be a large number of 
voters in this State, who cannot spell out the Laws and Constitution, 
which their right of suffrage was given to support, and their numbers 
are constantly on the increase, it is high time that some effort be made 
to arrest this evil. There are a thousand things in which we may safely 
differ. We may differ in religion, in politics, in philosophy | but there 
is one thing in which, as Americans, we must all most cordially agree : 
and that is, in the importance of giving knowledge to the ^^ Sovereigit 
People." The illustrious dead have spoken upon this subject ; and the 
distinguished living, from every quarter of the Union, respond to their 
i^ntinients, and confirm their testimony. Let a trumpet then be sounded 
in the land. "A crusade against Ignorance" is just the thing we want. 
Let the appeal be so loud and long as to reach every habitation. Let 
the North hear it ; let the South receive the call ; let the Ocean tell it to 
the Mountains, and the Mountains echo it to the distant forests, until it 
shall sound throughout every log hut in the western wilderness. The 
mother by the fireside will hear it, and resolve that her infant in the . 
cradle shall be well instructed ; the father laboring in the fields will hear 
it, and the determination will be formed in his secret soul, that the lad 
who toils at his elbow, shall be saved from the burning infamy of igno* 
ranee; ay, and even our political partizans shall pause, by common 
consent, amidst the strife of parties, to listen to this finest note of Freev 
dom, and do homage to the sentiment of the sage of Monticeilo. An 
organized "cniaade against Ignorance** is the onl^ enterprise whipb 



16 Complaint of a Sunday School at the Wt$t* 

can redeem this nation. The undertaking which we propose to you, 
fellow citizens, is by no means a novel one. There are many County 
and State Societiesin the Union for the promotion of this cause. Already 
have they produced a wide and salutary impression. Argument, ])er- 
miasion, and patriotic intreaties, are the instruments which we propose 
to use. The weapons of this warfare are not carnal, but spiritual, and 
mighty to the pulling down of strong holds ; and among the rest, the 
strong holds behind which this great enemy of republics has been in- 
trenched.' 

We cannot but regard it as a circumstance of no small interest, 
that measures were taken for a general organization on this subject 
io the American School Society recently formed at Boston, after 
much deliberation, and we would urge upon our readers in behalf 
of every institution of this character, the stirring appeal which 
closes the report of the Committee, and which ought to make its 
way to every heart. 

* Patriots, Philanthropists and Christians, who amongst you will refuse 
to enlist for this noble service ? Let the aged lend us tiieir experience, 
and the young their energy ; let the men of iiifluence give their patronage, 
and the men of intellect their talents ; let those who can write appear in 
our public papers, and those who can speak arise in our popular assem- 
blies. All, even the least among us, may do something to promote the 
cause of Universal Education. In these peaceful wars, it will not be in- 
consistent with the lovely timidity of the sex, even for our women to en- 
gage ; and our very children, as they enjoy and illustrate the benefits of a 
more attractive system of instruction, shall help us to gain this bloodless 
victory. 

' Come then, fellow citizens, let us organize^ after the example that has 
bsen set to us in other places. Many warm hearts, clear heads, and strong 
hands, in dlfibrent sections of the Union, are engaged in this noble work. 
In public and in private, from the Rostrum and the Press, again and again^ 
let this subject be brought before the nation. Such a combined influence 
must, ultimately, tell with power, u|H)n the destinies of our favored land. 
And then, when we, who are now on the stn^ie of action, shall pass away, 
another generation, more enlightened than their fathers were, shall stand 
lip|Iikea wall of fire, to encircle tlie Constitution, and to save the Country.' 



COMPLAINT OF A SUNDAY SCHOOL AT THE WESTt 

The establishment of Sunday Schools in the Western 
States, as substitutes for the ordinary weekly schools and for 
churches, has excited deep interest in the minds of many be- 
nevolent persons at the East. That they are most valuable, in 
many cases, as temporary substitutes, we are fully persuaded ; 
but we are equally convinced, that they should be only re^ 
garded as temporary substitutesi for institutions which are it^ 



Errors in regard to Sunday Schoob. 17 

dispensable to their permanency and usefulness. In this 
opinion we have been confirmed by the following 

Ejctract of a letter from a Clergyman in one of the Western States, 

' How are the fiible, Tract and Sunday School schemes to be accom- 
plished without a cor()8 of qualified teachers of common schools? I have 
been, and am, officially interested in these objects, and our experience is that 
our Bibles and Tracts are refused because they cannot be read. But few 
of the Sunday Schools that the noble Mississippi valley scheme has been 
the means of establishing, live'tlirough even a single season, because there 
are no teachers; or rather because there is not in each neighborhood in 
which a school is started, some one individual hitcrested from principle, 
and aualified by ex|)erience, to sustain and encourage it. This great en- 
terprise appears much more plausible to its generous projectors, living at 
a diistance, than it does to us who reside in the immediate neighborhood of 
the evils to be remedied. 

< We are an excitable people, captivated with what is new, and wonder- 
fully large, and abundantly impatient, in our expectation of results. A 
Sunday School Agent comes along, (not always the best judge of human 
nature,) proclaims a meeting at the neighborhood church or school house, 
(which is crowded,) spends half of the time in preaching to the people, 
nastily forms a company of volunteer teachers, tells them to have a Sun- 
day School, then mounts his horse, and hastens off to meet some other ap- 
pointment, and in the course of a month or two, the Sunday School Jour- 
nal teems with reports of one or two hundred new Sunday Schools. But 
suppose him, at the end of the time alluded to, to repeat his round ; — the 
mushroom crop is gone. 

* There may be, and doubdess ore, some schools sustained by teachers 
found or created in the neighborhood ; but I do not know (and I am 
a Vice President of a Sunday School Union,) a single school in the coun- 
try which is not kept up by some young man delegated from a school in 
town, where he has had an opportunity of acquiring some experience.' 

An article in the Boston Recorder, some time since pre- 
sented these evils in another form. On a few points it is an 
argumentum ad hominem, addressed to the individuals directly 
engaged in this benevolent object, and it is written in a 
homely style ; yet we hope it will interest some of our readers, 
and lead some friends of Sunday Schools to feel the impor- 
tance of uniting the whole < family' of Schools, in the work 
of educating our youth. 

A Complcdntfrom a Sunday School at the West, 

Mr. Editor, — I am one of a large family, of great antiquity 
and respectability, as you will see by looking at mv family 
name. We have multiplied exceedingly for the last hundred 
years; and some changes have taken place which I do not 
exactly like, but which, they say, ' the times demand, and the 
divisions of labor require,' &c. &c. ; but though this may be 
true of some of these changes, 1 think you will allow, when 
yoo hear me, that they are not all necessary. 

2* 



16 Divisum of Schooli* 

A long time ago, we used to live together, all in one house^ 
and every thing went on harmoniously ; one helped the other, 
and there was no * division ' of labor or effort. We took 
in all the children of the neighborhood and joined in giving 
them the best instruction we could, each in our part; and we 
helped each other in taking care of them ; and the children 
were taught to fear God, and honor their parents, and learn 
their lessons, all in the same place, and every day in the week. 

But when society grew * more cultivated,' as they say, peo- 
ple thought they must put us in separate houses, — that they 
could not trust the same man to teach their children such dif- 
ferent things as reading, writing and ciphering, and the Bible. 
Besides, these things belonged to the week, and the Bible be- 
longed to Sunday; and as they had to work hard all the week, 
and found time to think of the Bible only at Church, they did 
not see why their children should not do the same. And then, 
some did not like to have anybody teach their children about 
the Bible, whose coat was not cut just like theirs — Quaker, or 
Presbyterian, or Methodist fashion ; and some began to say, 
they would not have them learn anything at all about the 
Bible ; so that our branch of the family was turned out of doors. 
And for a long time we were without house or home ; except 
that once in two or three months, the minister would give us 
shelter for a few hours, just to see whether the children could 
say their catechism, or a hymn or two. I am glad to say, that 
since that time, we have been better provided for. Some of 
the friends of the Bible have taken great pains to get us good 
houses, and fit us out with school books, and have given us all 
the 'help' they can, (some rather poor to be sure) and 
paid a great deal to support us. But I wish you would tell 
them they make some sad mistakes; and I wish to tell you 
now, because I see they are trying to help our family as much 
as they can. 

I will tell you what the great mistake is, among all their 
good plans and benevolent works ; they only do it half way^ 
— and they do the wrong half first, in some places. The truth 
is, schools all belong to one family ? We must help each other 
to live ; and if they do everything for us and nothing for our 
relations, we only have to give away to them, or wait till they 
have taken their share of the work. 

Let me give you some instances. My sister Infant School 
and my brother Common School, live both in the same town ; 
but they put us all in separate houses. This I will not say 
a word about now. But then, it is of no use to send children 
to mci ono day io the week, unless they have been to mj 



Miitdkes in Organizing Schools. 19 

brother or my sister six days before ;— ^r rather, I mean, that, 
if they have never been to them, I cannot do any good until 
I have sent for my brother or sister to get them ready for me. 
To be sure, it all goes under my name ; but it is only doing 
week day work on Sunday, and taking up mv time, that ought 
to be otherwise spent. And then, if it could be done on a 
week day, that shows, that after all, the fourth command is 
broken ; for if people did not choose to work to get their 
bread in the week, it would be just as much a work of ^ neces- 
sity and mercy ' to do it on Sunday, as it is to teach children 
to read on Sunday, because they do not teach them during the 
week. 

Now I am sorry to say, that I am often obliged to spend 
Sunday in this work ; and yet people, instead of paying 
my brother and sister for doing week day work in the week — 
try to save something, by putting it all into Sunday ! And I 
tliink it is a strange reason given for it too ; as much as to 
say, that because Sunday is a day of rest, and people never 
would think of asking pay for working then, they will employ 
them on that day. 

But our town is pretty well provided, compared with some 
in the neighborhood ; for it does not so often happen with us, 
that we have to teach spelling. But then the 'help' that 
they give my brother and sister is so poor, that the children 
do not know what the words mean, after they have spelled 
them ; and then the books they read, and the things said to 
them, are all like an unknown tongue; and we have to teach 
them, just as if wo were teaching them Latin or French,, what 
half the words mean. Is not this week day work, a great deal 
of it? Some of our ' help ' do not know how, and some of 
them make the children repeat over their lessons just like par- 
rots ; and they might almost ns well not come. 

In the next town to ours, things are worse still. Some of 
my brother's and sister's family that went there, could not find 
even a house to live in ; — and in another town, near that, they 
were allowed to live but two months in a year ; and then they 
had such poor /help,' that they did not do much ; and my 
children tried in vain to supply their place, for they could not 
find *help' enough that could read and understand to take 
care of the scholars. And I am told, that a great many of 
the relations on my side of the house, have been obliged to 
shut up house, and move away, after they have had their names 
published, and been counted and praised all over the land*— 
only because they could not get ^help' to carry on their 
bosineas. 



Now I wish you would tell these good people, not to leave 
one part of the family to starve, if they mean to support the 
other ; and tell them it is of no use to send people Bibles and 
Tracts, unless they try to provide some way of teaching them 
to read them. They might as well send them to the fishes of 
the sea, as to the million of children that do not know how to 
read. It makes me think of beginning at the top to build a 
bouse. It is not so good as building on the sand. I do not 
mean that they should stop doing the work; but that they 
should go on and do it all ! — ^ These things ye ought to have 
done, but not to have left the others undone.' 

A Sunday School at the West. 



REPUBLICATIONS. 



There is much diversify of opinion and practice in our 
country, in reference to the manner in which the works of 
British writers should be republished. 

Some practically assert the right to call these productions 
their own, in the title page, without any reserve, or any 
acknowledgement of their origin, simply on account of some 
variation of arrangement or style, or the annexation of ques- 
tions or notes; and they satisfy conscience by a statement of 
this kind in the preface. It is enough to say of this course, 
that the editor or publisher is guilty of falsehood in the title 
page ; and it is a poor apology to reply, that the falsehood is 
subsequently retracted in a preface, which three out of five 
will never read. 

But in other cases, a foreign work which is deemed valua- 
ble, is placed in the hands of some person for examination 
and revision, and without any other variation than those which 
a well educated corrector of the press would make, is sent 
forth with a preface or essay, from a source which will give it 
a favorable introduction to the American people. An index, 
notes, questions, or an appendix, are sometimes added, without 
any essential alteration of the text. If the title page an* 
nounces distinctly what is done, no possible objection can be 
made on the score of injustice to the author, or fraud upon 
the public. On the contrary, if the editor is able and judi- 
cious, the work is not only more likely to gain extensive cir« 
cnlation, but is better fitted to be useful in our own country ; 
and when a valuable work is thus adapted to the use of oar 



DteepUve TUIes ofBook$4 Si 

schools, great additional good is done, and our thanks are due 
to the editor and the publisher. 

But the title page is sometimes written or arranged in such 
a way as to lead most readers to suppose it an original work ; 
and often, we are convinced, without any intention on the 
part of the editor, the same injustice is done as by the pro* 
fessed pirates of literature. Thus we find a very interesting 
and useful work recently published, as an assistant to parents 
and teachers in early education, with the following title : 

' Aids to mental development j or hints to parents ; being a 
system of mental and moral instruction^ exemplified in convcrsa^ 
tions between a mother and her children. With an address to 
mothers^ Ay a lady of Philadelphia.^ 

When analyzed grammatically , with close attention to the 
punctuation, it would appear that the ^address to mothers,' 
yif as probably the only part of the work belonging to the ' Lady 
of Philadelphia ;' and the preface gives tts reason to suppose it 
a foreign work. Of this, however, most readers would not be 
confident, especially as a copyright is claimed, even if they 
should observe thus closely. On the mass of readers, the 
title would produce the impression that the whole work be* 
longs to this lady; and the current language and advertise- 
ments of booksellers, will complete the deception, seldom an- 
ticipated by the editor, by announcing — ' Aids to mental <fe- 
vehpment. By a lady of Philadelphia,^ 

We need scarcely say, that this indirect mode of leading 
the public astray, should be avoided as carefully as the other; 
and our readers will agree with us, that where ambiguous lan- 
guage, or an abbreviated title is used, merely to claim a copy- 
right, or secure the influence of a name, the fraud is equally 
clear, and equally contemptible. It is sometimes practised, 
and sometimes we fear excused, for want of sufficient reflec- 
tion, by reputable publishers. Let them not forget, that the 
intriguing plagiarist and schemer are thus enabled to sup- 
plant and undersell the honorable editor and publisher, and 
the original writer. 

We have thus far spoken only of works which are admit- 
ted to be merely new editions. Variations are sometimes made 
in the body of a work, in every degree, from simple abridg- 
ment or occasional alterations, to a course which involves an 
eDtire remodelling of the form, by selection, or combination 
with other materials to form a larger work. In these cases, 
dpty to the public, no less than justice to the author, require 
that nothing be done which shall make him responsible, or 
^ve bis auihoritjr, for aentifpents^ or style, or arraD|s;cment 



is Proper Mode of RepubKshtng. 

which do not belong to him, and that he should still receive ^ 
exact credit for all which is really his. It is not possible, 
perhaps, to determine precisely, at what point a compilation, 
selection, or abridgment, such as history, becomes so far the 
production of a writer that he may claim lo be the author, 
But in our view, both honesty and policy require him rather 
to err by claiming too little, than too much. The simpler and 
safer course undoubtedly is, to state precisely what is done, 
and if practicable, in the title page itself. 

But we are sometimes told by those who go to an extreme on 
the other hand, that the work of an author is as sacred as his 
property, that no man has a right to publish his ideas in any 
country in any other form than he himself pleases, and that the 
public have a right to every foreign work, verbatim et literatim. 

In all works referred to as authorities ^ this will indeed be 
admitted. Neither will we for a moment defend those who 
send forth a work of known reputation as an ' American edi- 
tion revised and corrected,' without giving us the editor's 
name, or informing us what alterations are made, or giving 
us the opportunity to ascertain the sentiments of the author. 
It is in reality a mere trick, (beneath the honorable members 
of the trade,) intended to secure a copy-right — and it has 
more than once excited our indignation to see a respected 
name thus insulted, by an anonymous editor and corrector. 
As for those who attempt to measure the giants of intellect 
or learning, with the span of a dwarf, no other punishment is 
necessary than the contempt which public opinion will pour 
upon their puny efforts. 

We also admit, of course, that every man has a right to 
procure a work unchanged ; but there is no right of Ameri- 
can readers, which can impair the rights or duties of an Amer- 
ican editor, or which can impose on him the obligation to sa- 
crifice his own views of usefulness or expediency, in order to 
furnish an exact copy of a foreign work. Nor if it be proper- 
ly announced, can there be any pretence of ' fraud upon the 
public' In regard to the rights of the author, where they are 
not legal rights, they must be regulated by the question of 
general usefulness. English courts have decided, that it was 
no injustice to the author of a sea-chart, to publish another, 
in which serious errors were corrected ; but on the contrary, 
that the public good required it. How then could an Ameri- 
can author be reproached, for omitting or altering such parts 
of a foreign work as he believes calculated to produce intel- 
lectual and moral error ? How could he be justified in siv* 
idg them circulation ? His own views may be wrong, and so 



Addison on the importance of Oesture. S3 

may the observations of a surveyor, who endeavors to correct 
the errors of his predecessors. If this be allowed in a country 
where the author has legal rights^ how much more in one 
where his works arejpuim; property 1 

Indeed, when we recollect the vast difference in the state 
of society in this country and in England, when we consider 
that every work published in our country, which gains circu- 
lation, has more influence on its character than almost any 
law of Congress, it seems to us as strange \o insist that we 
should receive and circulate English works, unchanged, as it 
would be to require that we should transfer the acts of the En- 
glish parliament to our statute books. For ourselves, we think 
that the good of our country ought never thus to be sacrificed 
to foreign claims, and we consider the nation as much in- 
debted to those who furnish foreign works, divested of useless 
or injurious characteristics, or adapted to our own habits and 
state of society, as to those who introduce foreign laws or 
improvements, so modified as to conform to our circumstan- 
ces. Could the torrent of English works, which is poured upon 
us, be limited or purified, much evil would be prevented ; and 
the prospect of elevating the public opinion, and the litera- 
ture of our country would be much more promising. 

We are aware that this subject is still sub judlce, and we 
should be happy to know and to publish the views of our 
readers, on either side of the question. 



ADDISON ON THE IMPORTANCE OF GESTURE IN PUBLIC SPEAKING. 

I^Tlic followinff article was wrlUen hy Addison, and <lesi^nod for Eng^lishmon. in I7I2. 
tl IB not \en% applicaMe to the desrendanis ofEnE^lisiimen, in 183r>. Would ih;U it might 
rni];e som* of iliojc who speak with the iminotiililv ^f listles:} indifTerence, on tlie most 
etcvaiinor of ail *uf»jocts. WouM that it might sfiako, if not siiImIuo. the prejutliccs of 
some wUo are so fastidious as to con<>idcr every attitude hut that of a contemplative 
ttatue, as Uteutrical, in the pulpit ! The authority of Addison is uf some value.] 

Most foreign writers who have given any charncter of the 
English nation, whatever vices they ascribe to it, allow in gen- 
eral, that the people are naturally modest. It proceeds, per- 
haps, from this our nati«)nal virtue, that our orators arc ob- 
served to make use of less orcsture or action than those of other 
countries. Our preachers stand stock still in \ho. pulpit, and 
will not so much as move a finger to set off the best sermons 
in the world. We meet with the same speaking statues at 
oor bars, and in all public places of debate. Our words flow 



S4 ' I^tdM of Actum in an Orat&f. 

from us in a smooth continaed stream, without those strainings 
of the voice, motions of the body, and majesty of the hand 
which are so much celebrated in the orators of Greece and 
Rome. ' We can talk of life and death in cold blood, and 
keep our temper in a discourse which turns upon everything 
that is dear to us. Though our zeal breaks out in the finest 
tropes and figures, it is not able to stir a limb about us. I 
have heard it observed more than once by those who have seen 
Italy, that an untravelled Englishman cannot relish all the 
beauties of Italian pictures, because the postures which are 
expressed in them are often such as are peculiar to that 
country. One who has not seen an Italian in the pulpit, will 
not know what to make of that noble gesture in RaphaePs 
picture of St. Paul preaching at Athens, where the apostle is 
represented as lifting up both his arms, and pouring out the 
thunder of his rhetoric amidst an audience of Pagan phi- 
losophers. 

It is certain, that proper gestures and vehement exertions of 
the voice, cannot be too much studied by a public orator. 
They are a kind of comment to what he utters, and enforce 
every thing he says, with weak hearers, better than the strong- 
est argument he can make use of. They keep the audience 
awake, and fix their attention to what is delivered to them, at 
the same time that they show the speaker is in earnest, and 
aflfected himself with what he so passionately recommends to 
others. Violent gesture and vociferation naturally shake the 
hearts of the ignorant, and fill them with a kind of religious 
horror. Nothing is more frequent than to see women weep 
and tremble at the sight of a moving preacher, though he is 
placed quite out of their hearing ; as in England we very fre- 
quently see people lulled asleep with solid and elaborate dis- 
courses of piety, who would be warmed and transported out of 
themselves by the bellowing and distortions of enthusiasm. 

If nonsense, when accompanied with such an emotion of 
voice and body, has such an influence on men's minds, what 
might we not expect from many of those admirable discourses 
which are printed in our tongue, were they delivered with a 
becoming fervor, and with the most agreeable graces of voice 
and gesture ? 

We are told that the great Latin orator very much impaired 
his health by the hterum contentio, the vehemence of action, 
with which he used to deliver himself. The Greek orator 
was likewise so very famous for this particular in rhetoric, that 
one of his antagonists, whom he had banished from Athens, 
reading over the oration which had procured his banishment. 



On the Characier of TVod^ert. S5 

and seeing his friends admire it, could not forbear asking 
them, if they were so much affected by the reading of it, how 
much more they would have been alarmed, had they heard 
him actually throwing out such a storm of eloquence. 

How cold and dead a figure, in comparison of these two 
great men, does an orator often make at the British bar, hold- 
ing up his head with the most insipid serenity, and stroking 
the sides of a long wig that reaches down to his middle ? The 
truth of it is, there is often nothing more ridiculous than the 
gestures of the English speaker ; you see some of them run- 
ning their hands into their pockets as far as ever they can 
thrust them, and others looking with great attention on a piece 
of paper that has nothing written on it ; you may see many a 
smart rhetorician turning his hat in his hands, moulding it into 
several different cock^, examining sometimes the lining of it, 
and sometimes the button, during the whole course of his 
harangue. A deaf man would think he was cheapening a 
beaver, when perhaps he is talking of the fate of the British 
nation. I remember, when I was a young man, and used to 
frequent Westminster Hall, there was a counsellor who never 
pleaded without a piece of pack thread in his hand, which 
he used to twist about a thumb or a finger all the while he 
was speaking ; the wags of those days used to call it the 
thread of his discourse, for he was unable to utter a word with- 
out it. One of his clients who was more merry than wise, 
stole it from him one day in the midst of his pleading ; but he 
had better have left it alone, for he lost his cause by his jest. 

I have all along acknowledged myself to be a dumb man, 
and therefore may be thought a very improper person to give 
rules for oratory ; but I believe every one will agree with me 
in this, That we ought either to lay aside all kinds of gesture, 
(which seems to be very suitable to the genius of our nation) 
or at least, to make use of such only as are graceful and 
expressive. 



ON THE CHARACTER OF TEACHERS OF COMMON SCHOOLS. 

The following extract of a letter from a devoted friend of 
common education to the editor, contains so much that is 
true and important on the subject, that we cannot withhold it 
from our readers. It will serve as an introduction to a suc- 
ceeding article. 

3 



96 iSAotiU T^utchtrs be property trained 1 

' You have been struggling long alone but do not give up 

Jour efforts. I believe many others will soon come to your 
elp. The christian community of New England, and the 
good citizens, will not always sleep over a subject so totally 
important as that of their ichooU ; they will not spend their 
hundredt of ihouiands to sustain schools^ which often prove 
wone than useless for want of proper attention. 

*The American School Society I have thought much of, 
since I saw you. I am convinced the state of our country 
calls for such a society, and that no time should be lost. There 
are some circumstances respecting our common schools, that 
should arouse the feelings of every christian and patriot. 
The family institution excepted^ all other institutions united — 
Public Worship— Sabbath Schools — Academies and Colleges 
-^o not have so much influence in giving a character to New 
England and New York, as common schools. More than 
fifteen thousand teachers are employed in New England every 
year, in the primary public schools, and as many in Now York. 
Who are these teachers ? Nine tenths of them arc inexptri- 
enced youth, from IS years of age to 25 and 30. Yes — that 
institution which probably does more than all others to form 
the character of our citizens, is in the hands of head-strougy 
unqualified and often dissipated youth. And what is worse, 
I fear it is the voice of public opinion , that the common schools 
mmt be and ought to be taught by young persons. Now it is 
wonderful, that men require the CApcrience and wisdom and 
stability of mature age, to manage all their money concerns, 
and their political affairs, but carelessly turn over to inexpe- 
rienced young men, the great and holy business ot' forming 
that character on which rests the whole fabric of civil socictv, 
and on which depends our very existence and happiness as a 
nation. Is there a merchant in Boston who would give up the 
whole management of his shop, even for a day, to a ' green,' 
inexperienced boy ? Is there a farmer in Massachusetts, who 
would give up his farm, his cattle or his sheep, to such an 
one ? Yet he turns over his own children to such an one, 
to form their characters for time and eternity — to one whom he 
would not trust to manage his beasts — and then thinks they 
should be very grateful to him, for making such good provis- 
ion for their education ! 

^ Besides, we will not trust a man to draw a tooth, or pre- 
scribe an emetic, till he has studici! his profession three years, 
and comes to us with a diploma, signed and sealed, from a 
college of scientific and experienced physicians. A man 
cannot manage a case before our courts, involving the value 



Errors in Discipline. ftT 

of a shilling, till he has studied the whole science of law, and 
obtained a certificate from a college of wise and experienced 
lawyers and judges; and our civil constitutions exclude men 
from all participation in the business of legislation and even 
from the business of choosiw legislators, till they have at- 
tained some maturity. But little or nothing is required as 
to age, experience, a knowledge of the busmess, or moral 
character, to take a part in the great business of education, 
of forming the moral and intellectual character of the country, 
on which everything else depends.' 



[For the Aanali of Edaeation.] 

ERRORS IN DISCIPLINE -, OR REMINISCENCES OF A SCHOOLMASTER. 

[We inaert the following ftcconnt of the errora of a teacher whom we be* 
lieve to have been among the best and most judicious of hit day and neigh* 
borhood, as an illustration of some of the remarks of a correspondent, in our 
last article. We do it also with the hope of convincing those of their error, 
who think that our common schools need no reform, and of persuading 
them that it is important to impart some of the lessons of wisdom and experi- 
ence to a young man, before he is intrusted with the care of the minds and 
bodies of children. Who can calculate the evils which might result from the 
frequent employment of such teachers, and who can doubt that among those 
who enter upon their task, untaught and antrained| many will commit similar 
errors ?] 

Cait it be, I sometimes say to myself, that at the commence- 
ment of my pedagogical efforts, I seized a pupil by the collar for 
some trifling act of improprietry, and with evident marks of anger, 
drew him over a writing desk ? Yes, the deed was done ; and 
done by these hands ; and under the direction of this understandbg 
and will ! 

And what, think you, was the consequence ? At that time I 
did not perceive that the act made any impression at all, good, 
bad, or indifferent, except to excite a prejudice against me in the 
mind of the victim of my displeasure. The school, in general, 
took very litde notice of it ; and those who noticed it, appeared 
soon to forget it. The truth is, that I was so much in the habit of 
violent and angry acts, that a single attack on an individual pro- 
duced very little surprise; though my general conduct bad the 
efiect to alienate, by degrees, their affections from me. 

Nor is it single acts in schook that produce so much mischief, 
after all, as the prevailing disposition which the teacher manifests. 
If he is usually kind and affectionate, and only indulges in an angry 
fit occaskxiall/, bad as the consequences are, they are as nothing m 



28 Dangerout Punishments. 

comparison with those which result, where a lead ler indulges wrong 
feelings or wrong temper habitually. In the former case, the pu- 
pils only lose their respect for him ; in the latter, they not only 
cease to respect, but they cease to love him. 

I loved my pupils, and was generally kindly disposed towards 
them, and they knew it. They therefore did not cease to love me 
at once, but their alienation was, as I said before, gradual. I took 
them all to be young knaves, at the very opening of school, and 
made laws accordingly ; and what I took them to be, many of them 
slowly became. They constanily watched their opportunity to 
evade my laws, and I watched my opportunity to detect them, and 
enforce the penalty. 

My punishments were most of them summary. Sometimes there 
was a formal feruling or flogging, but this was rare. It took up 
too much time. I knew of a shorter method. This was to carry a 
rule under my arm, and when I discovered a transgressor, to strike 
him across the head with the rule. As to endangering the brain, 
I never thought of that. Indeed I scarcely knew that there were 
brains in the cranium. I was only eighteen years of age ; and as 
inexperienced in human nature, as you can possibly conceive. 

One day, in striking a boy across the head with my rule, I broke 
it. To add to my confusion, a lady was present in the school, and 
witnessed the transaction. It was now no longer whispered that 
* the master was very severe in school.' It was talked aloud. 

The noise of the transaction did me much injury, though it partly 
cured me of striking]; the head with a rule. I now used my flat 
hand, or a book. But my term of teaching, which was only three 
months, expired about this time, and I was glad of it ; and so were 
most of the pupils and their parents. 

However, I was employed, the next winter, to teach again in a 
neighborhood about two miles distant. Here I commenced with 
less severity than formerly ; but afterwards fell into bad habits. I 
did not strike with my nile, it is true ; but I used to throw it. One 
day I threw it at little George, who was only six years old, and hit 
him with the end of it, near the outer corner of one of his eyes. 
Had it struck an inch further towards his nose, it must inevitably 
have put out his left eye. But it cured me completely of throwing 
rules. Indeed, I made my resolution the moment the rule struck, 
and I rejok^e that I have never broken it, from that day to this. 

Still I governed too much by force of arms, and too little by the 
force of suasion and love. I hated monarchy and tyranny ; but I 
thought the exigency of the case required both, and both monarch 
and tyrant 1 accordingly became. 

But I got through the winter, and without much open complaint ; 
and some said they had enjoyed the benefits of a good school. 1 
knew better, however ; but I did not contradict tlie reports. 



DiicipKme of Farce and oflRndnm. 89 

The next fell I bad a pressing invitation, and the oflferofa pretty 
round price, if I would take the charge of another school several 
miles distant Their teachers of late had not governed well ; and 
they said they wanted a * smart master ; ' one that would keep the 
power in his own hands. 

I was empbyed and went to my work. AH went on pretty well 
for a time. At length, one or two boys began to be troublesome. 
Partly to punish the individual, and partly to put the rest in awe of 
me, I punished one with the rod, and with considerable severity. 
However, the boy was subdued, and I supposed I had gained my 
point, for some time afterwards. At last, news came to my ears 
that an endeavor had been made to have me punished for abusmg 
one of my pupils. The circumstances were as follows. 

When 1 was in the act of fledging my pupil, a piece of the stick, 
which was rather dry, flew on, and, bitting another boy on the 
cheek, drew blood. The boy went home and told the story, and 
showed his wound to his guardian who, being a passionate man, at 
once took fire at the transaction, and what was really bad enough, 
his busy imagination wrought into a high degree of violence. He 
complained at once to the grand jury of the town, and endeavored 
to have me prosecuted. Why he did not succeed better, I never 
knew ; but the civil autiiority took no notice of it. After all was 
over, it got to my ears. I called on the gentleman to whom I had 
given so much oflfence, obtained some partial concessions, and in 
the end came off with flying colors. 

Tliough 1 had now become fully enthroned in the pedagogic 
chair, I was not firmly enthroned in tlie affections of the pupils or 
their parents. Some still considered me severe ; but many were 
on the whole, satisfied. The term closed, however, satisfactorilv. 

For two or three successive winters following, I was employed in 
the same school. I laid aside severity more and more, and gov- 
emed more and more by the law of kindness. There were some 
occaskxial acts of violence ; but not enough to injure me materially. 
With all my errors, I was regarded as a very good teacher. 
The saying sometimes repeated, that such was tne order of the 
school room, that a pin might be heard to fall on the floor, had with 
many minds, great weicht. Such at that time, were their views 
and my own, of thorougn and appropriate school discipline. 

For a year and a half after this, I was employed in another and 
a much latter school. There were some turbulent spirits, with 
whom a degree of severity seemed unavoidable ; but the instances 
of severe or corporal punishment were very un frequent. The less 
they were resorted to, the better things, on the whole, appeared 
to go. 

•3 



30 Devouring Books. 

This has been the result of my experience id teaching many 
times since. In proportion as I have laid aside all corporal punish-* 
ment, and governed solely by persuasion and love, just in the same 

rroportion has been my success ; and just in the same proportion aa 
have failed to govern myself — my temper, feelings and conduct- 
has the school, and the discipline of the school, gone wrong. 

I do not mean to infer that all punishment, or even all corporal 
punishment, should in every instance, be dispensed with ; but only 
to leave the impression on the minds of others, that used in my 
hands— often injudiciously by reason of an improper state of temper 
and feeling, it has frequently — indeed, almost always — been a great- 
er evil in its results, than that which it was designed to cure. In other 
cases, and in other hands, I believe corporal punishment b some- 
limes, the less evil. 

Of boxing ears and striking the head with a rule, I am now una- 
ble to think witlK>ut shuddering. Did teachei*s dream of a tithe of 
the mischief these concussions of the young and tender brain may 
produce, we should probably hear no more of blows on the head. 
There are places enough on which blows can be inflicted, with more 
safety than on the cranium. Besides, a very small rod, suitably 
applied, if corporal punishment must be inflicted occasionally, will 
be found greatly preferable to many of the shorter, and of course 
nioi*e popular modes of correction. 

When we commence a school with a small number of pupils — 
the children of parents who have first governed themselves and 
then governed their offspnng, and when we only increase our num- 
ber by small additions at once, and those remote from each other, 
I do not believe punishment, in any ordinary sense of the term, 
is often necessary. But when the children of all sorts of pa- 
rents, judicious and injudicious, and of both sexes, and all ages and 
habits, are thrown together to the number of sixty or eighty, under 
the care of a teacher who is a stranger, he must be something more 
than man, who can reduce such a motley and heterogeneous mass to 
good order and right discipline, widiout tlie occasional adoption of 
rigid measures. 



[For the Annab oT Edooaiion.] 
PEVOURING BOOKS. 



It is recorded of Madame de Stael Holstein, that before she 
was fifteen years of age, she had * devoured' 600 novels in three 
months ; so that she must have read more than six a day upon 



£vib ofinieOeciuat Obdtony. 31 

an average. Louis XVL, during the five months and seven da}^ 
of his unprisonment, immediately preceding his death, read 157 
volumes, or one a day. 

If this species of gluttony is pardonable in circumstances like 
those of Louis, it is less so in a young lady of fourteen or fifteen. 
No one can have time for reflection, who reads at this rapid rate. 
And whatever may be thought, these devourers of books are guilty 
of abusing nature, to an extent as much greater than those who 
overcharge their stomachs, as the intellectual powers are higher 
than the animal propensities. 

If we find but few cases of mental gluttony equal to that of 
M. de Stael, there are many which fall but little short of it. 
Thousands of young people spend their time in perpetual reading, 
or rather in devouring books. It is true, the food is light ; but 
it occupies the mental faculties, for the time, in fruitless eflbrts, 
and operates to exclude food of a better quality. 

I should be among the last to engage in an indiscriminate 
warfare against reading, but when I see the rapid increase of 
books in our market, and their general character, and consider, 
that the condition of the market indicates the character and strength 
of the demand, when to thb is added the conviction forced upon 
us, by facts within the range of daily observation, I cannot re- 
sist the conclusion, that it strongly behoves those who are friendly 
to mental as well as physical temperance, to sound an appropriate 
alarm. 

Perpetual reading inevitably operates to exclude thought, and 
in the youthful mind to stint the opening mental faculties, by fa- 
voring unequal development. It is apt eitlier to exclude social 
enjoyment, or render the conversation frivolous and unimportant ; 
for to make any useful reflections, while the mind is on the gallop, 
is nearly out ot the question ; and if no useful reflections are made 
during the hours of reading, they cannot of course be retailed in 
the social circle. Besides, it leads to a neglect of domestic and 
other labors. 27lc law, that ' man shall eat bread in the sweat of 
his facey is not to be violated by half or three fourths of the 
human race with impunity. It is a universal law; and that in* 
dividual^ let the sex, rank or station be what it may, who trans' 
gressesy must suffer the penalty — not mere poverty, but a loss of 
actual enjoyment, if not of health. Even if we do not intrude 
upon the hours sacred to repose, sleep becomes disturbed, un- 
sound and unsatisfying. Food loses its relish, life its zest, and in- 
stead of seeing the fair and goodly Eden we read and dream of, 
the world becomes less and less interesting, and we actuaUy begin 
to cocnplain of our Creator, while the fault is in ourselves. 



33 Popdar PtrUJUaii* 

Such, are some of the results of a perpetual devouring of books i 
but it would require a volume to state them all in detail, so as to 
show the fiill extent of the evil. 

I am fully aware that the error in question favors book-ma- 
kers and Ixx^sellers ; for ^ it is an iU wind that blows nobody good ; ' 
but this should not prevent our protesting against it. And while 
I disclaim aU fellowship with those who derive no pleasure in the 
contemplati<Hi of the iiiture, but place the golden era among past 
ages, I do not hesitate to say, that our ancestors, at periods not 
very remote, were more truly wise than the children of this gener* 
ation. If they read fewer novels and light periodicals, they medi- 
tated more on those they read. If they had fewer books in the 
community, they had more of what Locke calls, sound, roundup' 
btmt sense, if they devoured less, they digested mare. It has 
been said of Dr. Johnson, that giant in real literature, that he 
never read a book through, except the Bible. 

How would our mental gormandizers scout the idea, suggested 
by one who passes for wise, that we should always read with a 

Een in our hand 1 How would Madame de Stael have smiled, at 
eing told that she would probably derive more benefit from read- 
ing half a dozen pages in a day, than the same number of 
volumes ! 

But we may anticipate a better future. This book-mania is 
destined to pass away. There is — there must be — in a world 
which has been for thousands of years improving, too much good 
sense long to tolerate it. Let the present race of youth, of both 
sexes, continue to devour greedily every catchpenny publication 
that issues from the teeming press. But let them remember, that 
they are unconsciously hastening themselves from life's scenes, to 
give place to other, and we hope more raticmal actors— those who 
will remember that neither their mental or physical natures can 
be sustained by mere gormandizing, and that digestion is no less 
important than mastication. 

A. 



POPULAR PERIODICALS. 



Great efforts have been made within a few years, to circulate 
periodical works o( a novel character. One class of diese addres- 
ses itself to the spirit of economy, and compises the best books 
in various departments of literature. Among these, were the 
Circulating Library , the Christian Library , and more recently. 



Campreued WarJcs. 39 

the ReptibUc of Letters^ containing the Vicar of Wakefield, and 
other works of established character, compressed by means of 
a small type, into such a compass as to render them cheap be- 
yond all example, but inducing the purchaser to hazard his sights 
m order to save his money. We think none of these plans so 
valuable as that of the Family Library, of the Harpers. Its type 
is as small, and its price is as low, as we think the healthy progress 
of the national literature requires. We do not believe, that en- 
largement or vigor of mind is proportioned to the number of books 
which are devoured. Indeed, we are convinced, that dyspepsia is 
a disease which at this moment b as common in the brains as in 
the stomachs of our countrymen, and fix)m the same leading cause, 
the excess of food. 

We cannot therefore regard with much more hope, those who 
are attempting to force upon those who desire to improve, ahnost 
a volume of English periodicals, in the compass of a number. It 
b convenient to the few, who wish to have the works for reference 
merely ; but it is mischievous to those who are induced to read 
such a collection of matter, local in its character, and toa often 
Anti-American and Anti-Christian in its tendency. 

Besides those who are thus endeavoring to secure public favor, 
by consulting economy, others endeavor to accomplish the same 
cbject by pleasing the taste merely, and especially, to attract the 
eye by a multitude of beautiful engravings. The Penny Magn-^ 
zine, however valuable it may be at home, would, we are con- 
raced, be pronounced by its conductors themselves, to be unsuita- 
ble for the American people. The American Magazine, has 
been recently established on the same general plan, but designed 
to assume an American character. We cannot yet judge whether 
it will aim most at the beautiful or the useful. We hope it will 
assume a tone, whk;h shall render its moral influence, not harmless 
merely, but salutary and elevating. The times demand it— our 
country needs it — and there is no apology for those who refuse to 
instruct and improve, at tlie same time that they please, for it is 
easy to do all this, in such a work. 

We have watched with deep interest, the People^s Magazine 
and Parley^s Magazine, both intended for popular use — ^the 
first for adults, the second for children. The plan was well con- 
ceived, and much taste was displayed in the selections and em- 
bellishments of the first volume. But we were disappointed in 
some respects. Both were better adapted to the parlor, than to 
the people — ^perhaps with good policy, so far as pecuniary profit 
was concerned, but certainly at the expense of the great objects 
for whk^h we hoped. There was a want of unity and character 
also, which was unfortunate, and articles crept mto them, which 



84 Family fVarki. 

were but ill-assorted with scripture stories and lessons of excel- 
lence. During the last year, they have been placed under the 
care of a new editor, and their character is, in our opinion, much 
improved. They display, indeed, less of elegant taste, but far 
more of the spirit of doing good — ^less of beauty and finish in the 
execution, but far more of utility, — and above all, a decided and 
practical character, and a high tone of moral feeling. They have 
thus been rendered far more suitable to the people and to their 
children — ^while they will instruct and amuse the well infonned. 
We regret that the engravings are so frequently injured in stereo- 
typing ; and we have more than once wbhed that Tom Starboard 
would take his place with Sinbad the Sailor ; but we cordially wbh 
success to these useful and improving works. 

The Family Library, and Boys* and. Girls* Library^ oi the 
Harpers, appear to be edited in a good degree in the same spirit ; 
although some of the works in each may be objectionable. On 
the whole, we are persuaded, that these, with the two preceding 
periodicals, will comprise at least as much miscellaneous reading 
as can be useful, in the family and the school. More would be 
likely to distract and enfeeble the mind, rather than to improve it. 
Even these must be used with watchfulness, or they may in 
some cases draw off the attention of the young fixMn study, and 
give a distaste for moral and religious truth, and for the admirable 
illustrations of it, which are now presented in a popular form. 

We cannot, however, refrain from mentioning, in thb connec- 
tion, a work of a different character, but still adapted to be both 
useful and interesting as a popular work. The Sdentijic Tracts 
and Family Lyceum, have successively passed firom the hands 
of the original projector. Both publications are now united in 
one work, under the care of Dr. J. V. C. Smith, whose reputa- 
tion is well known. It is a periodical, which ccnnbines science 
with practical life, and in an intelligible and attractive form, more 
happily than any we know. We sometimes fear, that phrenolo- 
gists would detect more of marvellousness in the editor's develop- 
ment, than becomes a philosopher ; some of the smaller articles^ 
are written too much in the style of paragraphs in our daily news- 
papers, for a work of accuracy ; and we cannot but wish that the 
last page of editorial squibs, were transferred to the covers, in- 
stead of encumbering a bound volume of real and permanent vaJue ; 
but we read it with interest, and would advise its addition to the 
family list of periodicals, where a place can be found for it. 



JbynoUf oHtkeVseof the Ejfti. 86 



REYNOLDS ON THE USE OF THE EYES. 

iiififf to StudenU on f^ Use of the Eyes. Bt Edward RxTNOLDSy 
M. D^ of BoBton^BUHad Repertory, for Juhf^ 1833.] 

The eye b a little world of wonders, whether we consider its 
Btmcture, or its movements, or the noble offices it performs. In 
the beautiful lan^age of the Saviour, it is ' the light of the body/ 
It watches over its members, it directs its movements, it warns it 
of danger. But it has higher offices. It is the messenger of tlie 
mind, sent forth to collect tlie materials of thought. In the words 
of the essay before us, ' Its importance rises in value when it is 
considered as the channel of most of the knowledge of nature, and 
through her, of the wisdom, majesty, and goodness of God.' But 
it is also the interpreter of the soul, and expresses its inmost feelings, 
its most delicate shades of emotion, with a faithfulness and power, 
which the pen and the tongue can never rival, although they boast 
of * words that bum.' 

And yet this noble organ, which gives to the mind most of its 
knowledge of the world below, and furnishes the most beautiful 
imagery to shadow forth the glories of that which is above, is 
wretchedly neglected, and often shamefully abused. Great pains 
are taken to educate the limbs to move with grace and elTect ; the 
tongue is trained with great care to articulate every letter, and com- 
bination of letters ; but the eye is left to educate itself; and if it 
selects the most important and beautiful objects, or examines them 
in the best manner, or is used with skill or prudence, it is the re- 
sult of accident, and not of instruction or training. 

But our immediate concern is with the question, how instruments 
of such value and delicacy shall be used, so as to secure them from 
disease and premature decay. We consider the student and the 
clei^yman not a little indebted to the editor of the *• Biblical Re- 
pertory', and his able correspondent, for presenting, in this form, a 
set of maxims and precepts which, if observed, would save many 
an hour of suffering and idleness ; and we are anxious to bring 
them to the notice of parents and teachers. 

We must reluctantly pass over, without a remark, the beautiful 
introduction of Dr. Reynolds, in order to preserve all our space for 
the practical portion of his essay, with a single reference to 
his observations on the tenfold power and value which the art of 
printing has conferred on the eye. The mental treasures of ages 
are thus brought within its reach ; it can discern, through these 
characters, not only die aspect of distant countries, but the events 



86 The Reading Age, and DUeoiei of ike Eye. 

of past ages, and discover the hidden wonders of the unseen and 
future world in the pages of inspiration. 

In commencing liis remarks on the management of the eyes, Dr. 
I^. observes, that this is emphatically ' the reading age,* and states 
this fact in teitnS) which may suggest other ideas than those which 
relate to vision* 

* Reading is the fashion of the da^. It commeDces with the child in the 
nursery ; constitutes the chief buBincss of boyhood and youth ; and con- 
tinues through manhood and old age. No period is considered too tender 
for this all im]K)rtaut buoincss of education to be commenced. No threat- 
ening evils are of sufficient moment to stand in its way ; no acquirements 
sufficiently great to |)ermit repose. As one advances in his course, new 
demands fi)r exertion present themselves ; new temptations multiply ; new 
sources of information ore thrown o|)en to him. liis eyes begin to mani- 
fest the alarming signs of inordinate use ; but they are too often disregarded, 
until incurable disease numbers him among its victims ; — and he leara% 
when too late, that he has closed the widest door of knowledge to the soul, 
and is left to mourn, with many a kindred spirit, the premature sacrifice of 
his usefulness and power.' 

In connection with this, Dr. R. informs us that the present age 
is marked by * an unusual prevalence of diseases of the eye,' and 
that, among the ablest and most valuable of our clergy, and public 
officers, and literary men. He maintains, however, that this is by 
no nieans a necessary consequence of a studious life ; and appeals to 
the history of students who have used their eyes to an extent 
scarcely credible, and yet preserved their vision unimpaired, to ad- 
vanced old age. He describes the wonderful provision which the 
Creator has made for the safety of these precious organs ; and as- 
sures us, that the source of its diseases are to be found, not in their use, 
but in their abuse, — in the icnorance which knows not, or the neg- 
ligence which regards not, tne laws, by which the most exquisite of 
oi)tical instruments siiould be regulated. His first object, there- 
fore, is to give the student, (for whose benefit he principally writes) 
some correct ideas of the degree, and proper adjustment of the 
light, by which he studies. 

The first circumstance he mentions, as ' one of the most prolific 
causes of weakness of sight* — which has caused the destrtxstion of 
many eyes,' is little suspected, because the injury is generally 
gradual, — * the exposure of the eyes to frequent alternations of 
weak and strong light.' The immediate sensation of pain, when 
a strong light is brought into a dark room, should be a sufificient 
warning. The ultimate eflfects, are like those of sudden changes from 
heat to cold upon the body ; and when the light has been long ex- 
cluded, the tyrant Dionysius, the Carthaginians in their punishment 
of Regulus, and even the liberators of long immured prisoners, have 
found the sudden transition to the brilliancy of day, sufficient to pro- 
duce total Uindoess. 



Dmiger of Strong or ReJUciei Light. 87 



In most parts of the earth, the general course of nature is adapted 
to the structure of the eye ; and the brilliant sun is ushered in bv 
a gradually increasing twilight. But we neglect, or counteract this 
indication of nature. Many exclude all light from the sleeping 
room, until it is ready to burst upon them in its strength. The 
darkest room is often selected for the study, and the evening lights 
are not introduced, until total darkness has rendered the eye pecu- 
liarly susceptible. In iUustration of the danger of these practices. 
Dr. R. mentions the case of a lawyer who brought on a serious dis- 
ease by performing his studies and labors in a gloomy room, and 
passing into one of tirilliant light, to take his meals. But a more 
serious warning is found in the case of a young traveller, who was 
awakened in the morning by the rays of the sun shining in upon 
him ; and on exposing himself a second day in the same chamber, 
was seised with a violent opthalraia, which produced a course of 
weakness and suffering for years. 

The first and most obvious rule whk^h Dr. R. derives from these 
facts is, that we should not expose the eyes suddenly to a strong 
light upon awaking from sleep. To avoid this, he would advise 
a western room for sleeping ; and where that cannot be obtained, 
be directs us to produce the same effect by curtains or blinds, which 
will soften the light so as to render it agreeable to the eyes. 

The succeeding rules are not less obvious inferences from these 
&cts — that the room selected for the study, should be weU-lightedf 
both in the day and evening, and the eyes should not be unfitted 
for their evening task by the popular mode of resting them for an 
hour or more in darkness. Of this last habit, he observes, there 
can be ^no more certain mode of inducing the evils from sudden 
changes of light.' The light should always be regulated according 
to the powers of the eye ; and it is equally important that the 
amount and distribution of it should be such as to produce no un- 
pleasant sensations. 

Reflected and concentrated light are highly injurious. Two 
cases of actual blindness have occurred within the knowledge of 
Dr. R. in a few years, from exposure to concentrated light ; and 
weakness of sight that has unfitted the individual for usefulness 
through life has often been the consequence of it. The rays of the 
sun he considers peculiarly injurious, when reflected from an oppo- 
»te building or wall, or even when they enter through a window 
descending to the floor, and are thence reflected to the eyes. Any 
exposure of this kind should be obviated by curtains of some soU 
color, and the furniture should be such as the eye may repose upon 
with agreeable sensations. Nature is clothed with drapery whose 
color is refreshing to the eye ; and it is false taste, as well as false 
philosophy, which attempts to dazzle, in order to please it. 

4 



3d ^uantiiy and Direction of the Ligii. 

Fatal mistakes, Dr. R. remarks, are often made, and we majr 
add, no less fatal economy is often practised, in regard to t/ie qtum^ 
tity of light suitable for evening study. Many think they are 
performing an important service to the eyes, by accustoming them 
to little light, when, in his view, nothing can be more injurious. 
' The irregular, flickering light of common lamps and candles ' he 
regards ^as the worst possible means of lighting the study.' CaD* 
dies, if used at all, should be of wax or spennaceti ; but he pre* 
fers the common Argand study lamp, (the lamp with a circular 
wick, which still bears the name of the inventor,) furnished with a 
shade of oiled paper, which dilTuses sufficient light without any 
offensive glare, and is free from the objections of concentrated light, 
produced by the dark shade, or the less objectionable one of ground 
glass. 

In connection with this part of the subject. Dr. R. notk^es several 
habits of studious men which are injurious. Shades over the eyt$ 
he considers injurious to all, except those individuals whose eyes 
are prominent, and stand out far from the head, and whose eye* 
brows and eye-lashes are weak and insufficient. Such as are de* 
prived of nature's shades, require some substitute ; but this should 
be of thin, green silk, which will soften, but not exclude the rays 
of light. 

The habit of saving time by reading and writing by twilight or 
moonlight he protests against as miserable economy, which has 
prematurely ruined the eyes of hundreds and tliousands, and robbed 
religion and learning of many an able friend. 

He also cautions us against gazing at the moon for a long time, 
as a dangerous habit, or watching the flashes of lightning. The 
pupil, dilated by surrounding darkness, permits this highly concen- 
trated light to pass to the eyes in too great quantities ; and the 
history of Astronomy points to a number of its votaries who were 
blinded by this habit. 

Reading and writing by a side-light, is a practice by whk;h many 
have ignorantly or thoughtlessly impaired their vision. At flrst 
view, this would seem too trivial a circumstance to produce the 
least effect; and yet, it only requires the glimpse at the structure 
and Physiology of the eye which Dr. R. gives us, to see that it is 
of material importance. The iris, or colored portion of the eye, 
which gives it its beauty, serves also as a curtain to protect it, and 
instinctively opens, when the light is diminished, and contracts when 
it is increased. Tliis transitbn, which is easily observed, by look- 
ing at the eyes in a glass after they have been kept in darkness for 
a few moments, renders the sudden cliange of light injurious, and 
also makes it important, that both eyes should be exposed to an 
fioual degrpe of light. The sympathy between the eyes, Dr. 



Practical Lesson. 39 

R. mibnns us, is so great, that if the pupil of one is dilated 
by being kept in the shade, as must, of course, be the casei 
where the light is on one side, the eye which is exposed, can- 
not contract itself sufficiently for protection, and the exposed eye 
b almost inevitably injured. 

On the same general principles, the habit of sitting in front 
of a window, with the back towards it, and holding the book or 
paper before the eyes, or of holding a candle between the eyes 
and the book, for the purpose of seeing more distinctly, is very in- 
jurious. Those, however, whose eyes fail from age, are in dan- 
ger of falling into this habit ; and to such. Dr. R. advises an 
immediate recourse to spectacles. 

In reply to the question, ' what is the direction best suited to 
the eyes ? Dr. R. replies — ' Jt is that light which is sufficient for 
distinct vision^ and which falls over the left shoulder in an oblique 
dinction, from above^ upon the book or study tabled 

The last direction which is given on tliis point is, that the 
eye should be protected in the summer, from tlie direct rays of 
the burning sun, by making the rim of the hat of sufficient width. 
* Eye destroyers^ he observes, ' would not be an inappropriate 
name for the narrow things, which, by some of the more recent 
fashions, are called hats.' 

Such is an imperfect and partial sketch of an essay of pe- 
culiar interest and value. We design to complete the review 
hereafter ; but we trust that enough has already been stated to 
rouse the attention of parents and teachers, as well as students, to 
this important subject, and to show them the practical value of 
a knowledge of Physiology, 



PRACTICAL LESSON ON THE EXISTENCE AND PROVIDENCE OF GOD. 

The Germans excel in their popular tales, which present 
truth in so striking and tangible a form, that while the mind 
is deeply interested, the moral is felt almost without being 
alluded to. We have occupied the little leisure we have had 
io preparing a translation of one of these for publication, and 
extract the following as an example for parents and teachers, 
of the nnanner in which the ignorant should be addressed. 

The child of a soldier, whose education had been obtained 
io the r.amp and the suttler's booth, is adopted by an excel- 
lent old school-master, who finds him in a state of almost 
savage ignorance and brutality. After gaining his affections 



40 An Army and iU Conmumder. 

and excitinff his thoughts to action on other subjects, he 
takes the following method to fix upon his mind the convic- 
tion of the existence and providence of the Deity. 

At a favorable moment, when his desire of knowledge was 
excited, his guardian led him out in view of an extensive field. 
This seemed like a fine parade ground for Hussars, and the 
conversation turned on the regular exercises and movements 
of battalions, and the commander under whose orders they 
were executed. The school-master then proceeded, as follows : 

Sou. Your emperor has a great many regiments besides that to 
which your father belonged. Some of them are stationed in Saxony, 
some in Silesia, and others in Bohemia. All at once, they set out 
and march together to one place. Now I have oflen wondered, how 
it was possible for so many thousand men to march together from so 
many different countries, to the same place, in as perfect order as if 
everything had been agreed upon beforehand. I cannot but believe 
that there is some one, who commands them. 

J. I will tell you who it is. It is certainly General Down, of 
whom I have frequently heard my father speak. 

Scu. I believe so. But besides this, so many thousand men must 
have something to eat in the course of a day, especially if they have 
horses. Now one would suppose that they would starve to death, 
when they all come together in one place. I have read, however, 
that wherever they go, they find flour bread, meat, oats and hay. It 
cannot be that all these things go there of their own accord. I must 
believe that there is some one, who orders all thb. 

J. It is certainly General Down, for he provides for all his soI-> 
diers. The soldiers always call him Father Down. 

ScH. It is possible. At least there is some one, who commands 
all this provision to be brought together. But there is as much or« 
der, in the world, as in the emperor's army. For example, the sun 
rises at a particular time, every morning. People who have attended 
closely to the sun, can tell beforehand the very minute in which it 
will rise. 

J. But it is not so exact as our soldiers. I recollect many days 
in which I never saw it rise at all. 

See. Things must be very difibrent, then, in Bohemia, from 
what they are with us. With us, it rises every morning, precisely at 
the time. We cannot, indeed, always see it, for sometimes the sky 
is cloudy. It is so with the moon too. Now it rises, now it sets, 
Sometimes it is as small as a sickle ; at others, it is larger, and as 
round as a dinner plate, and then it begins to grow smaller again, 
and everything goes on so regularly, that the almanac-maker can 
tell us everything beforehand. When we go home, I will point out 
all this to you in the almanac ; and if you look carefully at the sky, 
and observe the moon, you will see that it changes, exactly in \h^ 
order there laid down. 



7%e Order of thit World, and its Omte. 41 

J. Oh ! I nerer heard of that before, in all my life. 

ScH. You may rely upon it. In the I'^orld therefore, everything 
b, as it were, under the direction of a commander. Now think a 
moment Sometimes the vapors ascend from the earth and collect 
themselves together, like the emperor's soldiera, and form themselves 
into clouds. Then a wind ollen arises, and in a few hours, drivea 
them all away. 

In the spring, every thing appears to be, as it were, under the di- 
rection of a commander. First come the larks, then the finches, 
then the swallows and storks collect together, and when they come, 
they find their food ready, just as if it had been provided on pur- 
pose for them. Then one flower blossoms after another ; first, the 
little violet, then the cowslip; then the cherry trees blossom, and 
then the pear trees, and finally the apple trees. 

All things go on in as much order, as if they were told just what 
to do. There must, therefore, be a commander. Now it is he, 
who commands all this, whom we call God. 

J. Oh ! have you ever seen him 7 

ScH. No; neither have I seen General Down, and yet I believe 
that he commands the emperor's army. And besides, my dear Jo- 
seph, there are many things, which we cannot see, and which yet 
exist Have you ever seen the wind ? 

J. Never, in my life. 

ScH. Nor I, and yet it exists. This is evident from the trees, 
which it moves, and from the tiles which it blows off* from the roofs 
of houses. We must believe, therefore, that there is some one, who 
commands all this to be done, because we see that everything takes 
place in as much order as if it were commanded. 

J. Iiook, father, see that great bird, which comes flying towards 
as. What is it called ? 

ScH. It is a stork, and that is under command too. As soon 
as spring makes its appearance among us, and the air grows warm, 
then it seems as if some one said to the storks, — ' March ! ' They 
break up their quarters, leave the countries in which they have spent 
the winter, and remove to others, where, as soon as they arrive, they 
find food in readiness for them. Do you know what storks eat ? 

(Joseph shook his head.) 

They generally eat frogs, (continued the school-master.) Frogs 
are not always at hand, however. In the winter, there are none to 
be found. 

J. Where do they go ? 

Sen. They hide in the mud of the marshes and ponds. In the 
spring they crawl out When it is time for the storks to come, the 
fnm come too. 

J. That is curious. 

ScH. Indeed it is, and hence you see that there must be some 
one who commands all things, and takes care that food shall be . 
ready for the storks as soon as they arrive. Look there, Joseph,^ 
there sits a stork, so near us that you can examine it closely. Has it 

4* 



43 MUceUanjf. 

oot every thioff necessary to make it a frog hunter t See haw Iting 
its legs are ! With them it can walk in the water and search for 
frogs. See how long its bill is. With that the stork catches the 
frogs, and picks them to death. If the stork was made like the 
dove or the hen, the frogs would be of no use to it, for it could not 
calch them. You saw your father's regiment. Can you recollect 
what kind of weapons the Hussars had ? 

J. Let me see. First, a great short broad sword, then a pistol at 
each side, and a carbine slung over behind the back. 

ScH. It must have been a fine sight, when a thousand men rush- 
ed forth, all having the same kind of broad sword and arms. If I 
had seen them I should have believed that this broad sword was 
made on puri)ose for them. If you should see a thousand storks 
drawn up and marching, you would find that they are armed as 
much alike as the regiment of Hussars, to which your father belong- 
ed ; they all have great and strong wings, long bills, and long legs. 

The old man then went on to sav much more about the wise con- 
trivances which we sec everywhere in nature. This dialogue had 
such an effect upon the mind of Joseph, that he saw there must be 
a commander under whose authority every thing is transacted in this 
world. He began to look upon the world with different eyes. When- 
ever the sun or the moon arose, whenever it thundered or rained, 
whenever he saw a beehive or an ant's hill, a tree, or a fk)wer, or a 
bird, he thouglit of God, who orders all things. 



MISCELLANY. 



JUVEMLE Musir. 

We rejoice in the incrcosing usefuhiess nnd activity of the Boston 
Academy of Music, and the influence wliich h lifts exerted in assisting and 
exciting othei-s to aqtion on this interesting subject. In addition to the 
Juvenile Schools which it has established in the cTty of Boston and the 
Tkinhy, its Professors hove trained a choir during the yeor past, whose 
performances of the works of tlie great masters, are said by competent 
judges, to be of the highest character of excellence. Its reports, corres- 
pondence, and the * Manual,' prepared by Mr. Mason, have excited great 
interest in tliis subject, in various and di:<tant jmrts of onr country. Ju- 
Tenile schools on the Pestalozzian plan are cHtablitheil, and well sustained, 
in many of the principal towns of New England. In addition to the suc- 
ceasfal efforts made in Philadelphia, on this subject, by the gentlemen to 
wtiora this aysteon was first communicated, the friends of education and of 



miiaic in New York and Baltimore are roused to inquiry and action on thg 
subject, and we cannot but hope that all our principal cities will provide 
this delightful, salutary amusement for the leisure hours of their children 
and yonth, so often wasted, or devoted to tlie worst of purposes. 

We also learn, that the Professors are constantly receiving applications 
for dire«*tion and advice, and for iiistnictors com|>eteiit to teach upon the 
Pestalozzian plan, as well as encouraging accounts of the results of ex|>eri- 
ments which have been made. We think the Academy owe it to the 
public and themselves, to give frequent accounts of their progress; and we 
are persuaded, that a monthly paper like those issued by some other of our 
societies, which should contain their proceedings and correspondence, 
with information for persons who wish to aid in this great object, together 
with occasional essays on the most common defectif, and the most neces- 
sary improvements in the training and perfonnances of our choirs, and 
one or more pieces of Social and Juvenile Music, would do much to pro- 
mote the influence of the Academy, and the progrcKS of the cause. We 
annex to this number anew piece of Juvenile Music taken from the Ger- 
man ; and intend to insert something of the kind iu every number of the 
present year. 

The progress of Juvenile Music iu our country, in order to be salutary, 
must not lie too rapid, and we have been pained to hear of a competent 
judge, who, after witnessing the results of a premature and ill-conducted 
eftbrt on this subject, was compelled to say, that if he found other schools 
like this*, he should oppose Juvenile Music to the utmost of his power. Let 
those who attempt to use this powerful instrument on the human mind, 
remember the responsibility and danger of their task. They might ns safely 
touch the ark, with unhallowed hands. But how deli^^htful to all who have 
lieen engngud in this cause, if we could but witness a musical revolution in 
our countr}', like that in Switzerland, which was described in our last 
number. 

Legacy to Yale College. 

Dr. Alfred E. Perkuis, of Norwich, Connecticut, who died recently, 
gave among other legacies to public and t>encvo1eiit objects, 10,000 dollars 
to the library of Yale College. This is said to be tlio largest donation ever 
made by one uidividual to that institution. 

School Funds. 

The governor states that the literary fund of Virginia^ amounts to a mil- 
lion and a half of dollars. The aimual receipts from this capital, after 
defiraying the annua] chiirges upon them of $60,000, and all tlie expenses 
of the corporation, have generally left a surplus much exceeding $30,000 
annually, to be added to the capiuil. 

The amotmt of the School Fund of OmnecKctit, is 1,990,738 dollars and 
50 oenta— anaoimt of monies distributed by the state, during the year end- 



44 Meaages of Ctof^efn&fi. 

ing April, 1839) 79,461 doUan 80 cents. The whole tiiunber of children 
in the state, between four and sixteen yean of age, is 83,64L 

The amount of the school fund of JVeu^ t/ertey, at the present time, is 
930,881 dollars and 64 cents. The whole is safely invested in stock and 
odier securities, yielding an annual interest of five and six per cent. 

This fund must increase very slowly urider existing circumstancesi It 
requires nearly all its interest to be added to the tax on banks, to make up 
the sum of 20,000 dollars, appropriated and paid annually in support of 
common schools. It is only the surplus of each year, that is added to the 
principoL The amount to be added this year is about 3,700 dollars. 

VermaiU has a small fund for the support of schools, composed of bank 
divideods, licenses to pedlars, debts due the state bank, ^c The fund 
appears to have amounted, at the close of the last year, to 52,544 dollars. 

MsasAOES or Govxrnors in Referxmce to EnucATioir. 

Penn8ylvan%a,~^The provisions of the act passed at the last sesrion of 
the Legislature for establishing a general system of education by Contunoo 
Schools throughout the Commonwealth, have been adopted by all the 
school districts in some counties, iMutially in others, and in a few, they 
have been rejected altogether, as was the case in some of the sister States, 
when they commenced such a system — 36 counties for it — 14 against it. 

JV*etir Jersey. — ^The Message of Qov, Vroom distinctly and frankly states^ 
that the mere elements of knowledge are taught in the common schools, 
and that very defectively, in many cases, by unqualified and unpaid teach- 
ers. The State has expended one hundred thousand dollars for this object 
within five years ; and yet, sufficient information has not been collected, 
concerning its use and results, to furnish materials for a single report. 
More was done in 1828 by a few puhlic-s|)irited individuals, than the laws 
have been able to effect Does not this afford evidence of the necessity of 
private associations for this great object ? 

Ohio. — ^ The utility of the system of Common Schools, which, at first, 
was unpopular in some parts of this State,' says the Governor of Ohio, * is 
now acknowledged, and by a steady attention to its improvement, I have 
no doubt, but that in a few years, this may be so perfected, as to diffuse its 
benefits in a more eminent degree than those derived from internal im- 
provements.* The Deaf and Dumb Institution of Ohio is in a state of for- 
wardness, the main building completed ; forty pupils in attendance. 

Measuebs of the ViRoiifiA Institute. 

Among other proceedings of the Virginia Institute of Education, which 
met at Hampden Sydney College on the 23d of September, a committee 
of three was appointed to procure a full and accurate account of the 
schools in Virginia, and to report at the next meeting of the Institute, of 
which Presklent Cuahing is chaimaa ; and asecond commitiee to corree* 



AddreaeM on Educattan. 4S 

pood with eolleges, and tnen of kwrninif in the United States, in order to 
derise the beet scheme for assembling a convention of coUeges, of which 
Prof. Goodrich is Chairman. We hope these Committees will succeed 
in their Inquiries^ and that some account of the history and proceedings of 
the Institute will be published witli Mr. Garnett's lecture. 

PaizB EssAT IN France. 

The Academy of Sciences at Lyons has ofiered a gold medal, of tho 
Talue of GOOfr. for the best essay on this question — ^ What is the best syo* 
tern of Education and Public Instruction in a Constitutional Monarchy ? ' 

ADDRJR81E8 ON EDUCATION. 

Wb observe in the newspapers, copies or extracts of several interesting 
addresses on the subject of education, but have only room at present, to 
insert their titles. * A Speech delivered before the Education Convention, 
in Fiankfbrt, Kentucky, January, 1834, by Rev. John C. Young, President^ 
of Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, on ** Universal Education a pecu-^ 
Biary gain to the country." ' * Address delivered by S. P. Pressley, Pro- 



of Moral Philosophy and Belles Letters, before the Demosthenian 
and Phi Beta Kappa Societies, in the University of Georgia.* * President 
ColtonVi Address, delivered at the inauguration of the FacalQr of Bristol 
College, Pa.' * Lecture delivered by E. D. Mansfield Esq., before the 
College of Professional Teachers, on the necessity of the Study of Matho* 
matics.' * Address by R. D. Key, of Virginia, on the advantages of Phy- 
fical Exercise connected with Mental Attainments,* 'A liecture beforo 
the Boston I^yceum, on the subject of Refbrm in Education, by the Rev« 
K. M. P. Wells.' A course of Lectures before the same Lyceum was de- 
livered the last month, by B. B. Thatcher Esq., on ' Self EducatioQ.' 

New Measures. 

In the Andover Theological Seminary, the preparatory study of tho 
Hebrew has been dispensed with by a vote of the Trustees, at their late 
anniversary. In the Oneida Institute, tho Greek and Latin classics 
have been laid aside ; and the study of the Hebrew substituted. 

Galena. 

Meetings have been held at Galena, Upper Mississippi Lead Mines, 
on the subject of introducing tho system of common schools into that 
legion. Resolutions were passed, approving the system, and recom- 
mending the adoption of measures to promote its establishment there.^— 
A St. Louis pAper, of recent date, says that the Legislature of Missouri, 
will spend a considerable portion of their time, during their approach- 
ing sesaon, in endeavoring to devise a general system of common edu- 
OAtioii for that State. 



46 Ni^icti of Boola. 

FlMALB UmTEBtlTT. 

A bill to establish a seat of learning in Georgia, for the exclusive ed- 
ucation of females, to be railed the Female University of Georgia, has 
been rejected iu the House of Representatives of that Bute — ^yeas 56, 

nays 89. 

Spain. 

Primary schools are about to be established in all the towns in Spain, 
to be open to the most indigent classes. The Lancasterian Flan is to 
be adopted in them by order of the government. — Mere. Journal. 



^rc 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Elements of Psychology, included in a critical examination of 
cke's Essay on the Human Understanding. By Victor CousiFTy 
rofessor of Philosophy of the Faculty of Literature at Paris : Peer 
of France, and Member of the Royal Council of Public Instruction. 
Translated from the French, with an Introduction, Notes and Addi- 
tions, by C. S. Henry. Hartford, Cooke d& Co. 1834. 8vo. pp. 355. 

^ What would Ite thought of the physician who should undertake to di- 

rect the treatment of the human body, and the cure of its diseases, with- 
out any knowledge of its formation ? And yet, how many undertake the 
manngement of the human mind without any study, and almost without 
any thought, of its structure and faculties. If teaching is ever permit- 
ted to take the rank of a profession, the philosophy of the human mind 
will be considered as necessary to the instructor, as that of anatomy to 
a physician. Every discovery is highly im[>ortant in both cases. The 
work before us is by one of the first philo80f)her8 of the age. It is a 
translation of the second volume of Cousin^s course of lectures on the 
history of philosophy, containing a critical examination of Locke's Es- 
say on the Uuuian Understanding, in which he attempts to refute some 
of the errors, to which the origin of the sensual philosophy is ascribed. 
We welcome every work of this kind as a contribution to the cause of 
education ; and we rejoice that it has found a translator and publisher, 
of sufficient enterprise to attem])t a work whose sale must be Hmitcd 
to the few who have time and disposition to study. The execution is 

jfe worthy of the work. 

« • 

The District School. By J. Orvtlle Taylor. New York, 
Harper &. Brothers, 1834. 12mo. pp. 336. 

We have looked over this volume with uncommon interest. Twenty 
one out of the twenty six sections into which it is divided, relate to the 
duties of parents in regard to common schools, the claims, duties, ob- 
jects and qualifications of teachers, and the principles and methods of 
instruction and discipline. In the other five sections, the author treats 
of the evils of ignorance, the value of knowledge, &c. The work is full 
of good thoughts and useful suggestions, on the importance of common 



Ncticti of Books. 47 

schools to a country like ours ; on the defects which abound in them, 
and their sources ; and on the means of improving and elevating them. 
Nor is it the least commendation of the work, that it breathes, through* 
outy a truly Christian spirit. The style is simple, intelligible and forci« 
ble ; and we have only to regret a few grammatical inaccuracies— evinc- 
ing some want of care— but which we trust will be removed in a future 
edition. It is no disparagement to the popular authors of * Lectures on 
School Keeping,' and ' iTie Teaciier,* to say that this work is calculated 
to be equally useful, in its appropriate sphere. 

The NoRTif American Arithmetic, Part Third, for advanced 
scholars. By Frederick Emerson, late Principal in the Depart- 
ment of Aritlimetic, Boylston School, Boston. Boston, Russell, 
Odiorne 6l Metcalf, 1834. ]2mo. pp. 28S. 

In the belief that a treatise on arithmetic might be so constructed that 
the learner should find no moans of proceeding in the exercises, without 
mastering the subject in his own mind, as he advances, and at the same 
thiie, should be able to proceed through the entire course, without re- 
quiring any instruction from his tutor, Mr. Gmerson has employed some 
of the nest years of his life in preimnng tlic North Americon Arithme- 
tic. With the First and Second Parts of the work, the public are al-.' 
ready acquainted. The volume l»efore us is the Tiiird Part, and com- 
pletes the series. The strongest foes to the miiltiplicatioii of school 
hooks, must be constrained to say — if they examine this volume — that 
Mr. £. has rendered a great public service, in the entire accomplish- 
ment of what he rcgurdc<l as a desiilcratimi. For it is not too much to 
say, that the work is in no resi)ert inferior to its predecessors, while it 
enjbraces some important improvements. The large size of the type, 
is not the least valuable of its reconunendations, with * those who have 
eypsi.' No arithmetic with which we are acrpiainted, compares with it 
in this respect, (to say nothing of the large figures use<l to <lcnolc froc- 
tions,) the value of which con best be understood by the pupil who has 
wasted hours, and days, and weeks, in consequence of bud typography. 
We recommend it to all who are not too much accustomed or wedded 
to the old system, to adopt one which is more simple and rational. 

Progressive Exercises in English Grammar, Part. I. Con- 
taining the Principles of Analysis, or English Parsing. By R. G* 
Parker, A. M., Principal of the Franklin Grammar School, Author 
of ' Progressive Exercises in English Composition,' and Charles 
Fox, A. M., Principal of the Boylston Grammar School. Boston, 
Crocker d& Brewster, 1834. 12mo. pp. 96. 

We are thoroughly tired of * improved ' grammars, under whatever 
name ; but a grammar, for vupils, in type which can he neon with the 
'naked eye,' and without a formidable array of long definitions, and un- 
intelligible rules, is a real luxury. We like the work before us better 
than many others, especially in its arranirement, which is rertuirdy na- 
tural, and its manner of instruction, which approaches so nearly to 
familiar intercourse between a good teacher and his pupils, and the sim- 
ple, but frequent examples and illustrations of the former. We hope 
the authors will be encouraged to complete their series. 



48 



Jmenik Shng. 



IHTITATIDN TO THE SINGING HCBOOh. 





1. 

Why stand ye round the threshold. 
Ye timid ones 7 draw near ; 

Sweet words and joyous music 
Unite in concord here. 



But when you come, remember 
The rule by which we stand : 

No gloomy brow is suiTer'd 
Amid our happy band. 



% 



We cherish every pleasure 
Which virtue can approve ; 

We find delight in loving 
Whatever the virtuous love. 

4. 

Then stand not round the threshold, 
Ye timid ones, draw near ; 

Come, mingle with our music 
In sweetest concord here. 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



FEBRUARY, 1835. 



YALE COLLEGE. 

Much has been said in our country, of the ^ aristocracy of learn- 
ing,' which is fostered by our colleges ; but still it is found indis- 
pensable to resort to them, for those who are to become the 
guardians of our^ property, and our health, and the interests of 
religion. Among the multitudes who have declaimed against 
them, probably there is not one in a hundred, who is not indebted 
to them for some benefit conferred upon himself, or his family, by 
means of the knowledge they have diffused ; to say nothing of the 
general benefit they confer upon the country, and thus upon every 
one of its citizens. There is another fact in rermrd to our coIler[es, 
which ought not to be forgotten by those who regard religion 
as hostile to learning, and refuse to admit any association between 
them. It is, that most of these institutions owe their origin to the 
love of learning and benevolence of religious men, and generally 
of clergymen. It is well known that this was the origin of nearly 
all those established at the early settlement of our country. 

The oldest Collegiate Institution in the United States is Harvard 
Umversiti/y in Massachusetts, and we believe it is now the most 
liberally endowed. The next established was that of William and 
Mary, in Virginia, which has had very large funds, but whose 
spirit, we fear, has long since passed away. 

We have not yet been able to procure an engraving of either of 
these institutions, and therefore commence a series of brief sketches 



52 ' Origin of Yak College. 



which we propose to give, with an account of the third institution 
establbbed on this side the Atlantic, — Yale G>^^e, in the Colony 
of New Haven.* For some time after the authoriues of this colony 
had resolved on the establishment of a college, they were induced to 
delay it by the remonstrances of the friends of Harvard College, and 
in place of this, sent an annual contribution of* a peck of wheat or the 
value of it ' for the relief of poor scholars, to be collected from ' every 
one in thispknUaium whose heart i$ willing to contrHmte thereunto,^ 

In 1652, the subject was agitated before the General Court, but 
agab deferred, on account of the feeble state of the Colony. In 
the year 1700, ten of the principal ministers in the Colony, were 
agreed upon by general consent, to stand as trustees for the erec- 
tion and government of a college. They assembled at New Haven, 
and instead of contenUng themselves with the cheap, modem plan, 
of formmg a constitution and appointing officers, each laid upon the 
table several folio volumes, amounting in the whole to forty, with 
the simple expression, * / give these books for the founding a 
college tn this Colony.' In contrasting this course with the pro- 
gress of some of the societies of the day, we could not but think 
of the signi6cant expression, ' Words and deeds /' 

In the following year, a charter was granted to secure the pro- 
perty of the institution ; a set of regulations was formed, a rector 
appointed, and eight students received members. In 1702, the first 
cemmenceroent was held at Saybrook. Here the college continued 
until 1716, when it was resolved to remove it to New Haven. 

The first college building was now erected of wood ; one hun- 
dred and seventy feet in length, twenty in width, and three stories 
high, containing a dining hall, (used also as a chapel,) library , 
kitchen, and fiUy rooms for students, at an expense of one thou- 
•and pounds sterling— a sum of no small magnitude at this early 
period. Li 1718, the first commencement was held at New 
Haven, and thirteen graduates received the honors of the institu- 
tion. Liberal donations were received from friends of learning in 
England; among whom were Sir Isaac Newton, Sir Richard 
Steele, Burnet, Woodward, Halley, Bentley, Kennet, Berkley, 
Sheriock, Watts, and Doddridge. The most liberal donor was 
Governor Yale, of the lEasi India Company ; and in acknowledg- 
ment of this aid, whk^h enabled them to complete their building, the 
trustees gave his name to the infant institution. 

The spirit of disorder which prevailed in the colony about this 
period, is said by the historians of the institution, to have pro- 
duced corresponding disorder in the college,— are mark which might, 
perhaps, assist us in explaining the rebellions of later days — and 
years elapsed before the eflTect of this spirit, and of the changes 

*Tlie engniThig appaared origiullj in the People*! Mtguioe. 



Progress. 53 

and controversies about the jurisdiction of the state which followed, 
had entirely passed away. In 1747, the number of students had 
increased to one hundred and twenty, under the presidency of Dr. 
Clap. A new college building of brick was then erected, and in 
1763, a chapel, the second and third of the buildings represented in 
the engraving. In 1782, a dining hall became necessary ; in 1792, 
a second college building. During the presidency of Dr. Dwight, 
two others were erected ; and since his death, two additional edifi- 
ces, making in the whole a range of seven buildings, not pretending 
to architectural beauty, but finely situated, at the summit of the 
gentle slope which forms the public square, and contains the public 
buildings of New Haven, and furnishing accommodations for about 
three hundred students. 

In 1814, the organization of a medical school was completed, 
and aided by a grant from the state ; a building was purchased for 
its accommodation, at some distance from the rest, and a botanical 
garden commenced in the neighborhood. 

The increasing number of students, and the purchase of the splen- 
did cabinet of Col..Gibbs, effected chiefly by the liberality of the 
citizens of New Haven and the officers of the institution, led to the 
erection of a new and beautiful building for a dining hall, in the 
rear of those represented, with an upper story devoted to this 
invaluable collection, the finest beyond debate in our own country, 
and yielding to few in Europe, in its extent and beauty. 

VVithin a few years, the officers of this college have been led to 
take the first step towards the cultivation of a taste for the fine arts 
in a literary institution, by the offer of our historical painter, Col. 
Trumbull, to deposit, in the college, and ultimately bequeath for 
its use, the original sketches of his principal pieces, and other his- 
torical paintings. The last building erected is that designed for 
this collection, the income from which, after the death of Colonel 
Trumbull, is to be devoted to the support of indigent students. 

But it is more interesting to trace the internal history of the 
Institution. At first, the care of the students devolved exclusively 
on the Rector or President, and the studies were designed chiefly to 
prepare them for the clerical profession. Until 1770, the only- 
new officers appointed, were a Professor of Divinity, and three tutors ; 
and the Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy was the 
only one added until 1801, although the number of students, i^ 
well as the demand for a more extended education, had so greatly 
increased. 

On the accessk)n of Dr. Dwight to the Presidency, in 1795, he 
found no other assistants than the Professor of Mathematie^ and 
Natural Philosophy, and three tutors. In 1801, a Professor d 
Law was appointed ; in 1804, a Professor of Chemistiy and Kfrn^ 

*5 



(4 Impravementi in the Course ofhutrudum. 

ertlogy ; in ISOS, a Professor of Languages ; and the list of tutors 
was gradually increased to siX| during his Presidencyi chiefly by 
bb influence. 

The Academical Faculty now consists of a President, six Pro« 
lessors, an assistant Professor of Chemistry, a Liccturer on Natural 
History, and eight tutors, to each of whom, a distinct class of 
studies is assigned — a body of seventeen Professors, besides two other 
Instructors in modern languages, with three hundred and fifty-four 
students under their care. In addition to these, two Professors 
have been appointed, to complete the organization of a Theologi- 
cal School ; two for the instruction of a Law School ; and six lor 
the Medical School ; — an organization which gives to this institu- 
tion a fair claim to the title of University, according to the usage 
of our country. 

The progress of the institution in regard to its course of instruc- 
tion has been great. Much more classical knowledge is now 
required for an admission to the lowest class, (and which of course 
is acquired in the preparatory grammar schools,) than was then 
given in the whole collegiate course. ' Homer,' says an early 
student, ' we knew not.' In place of arithmetic and surveying, 
there is a full course of mathematical studies. The course of 
instruction and the apparatus in Natural Philosophy has advanced 
with the science, and Rhetoric, Chemistry, and Mineralogy are 
added to the list of Professorships. Indeed, we believe that this 
institution, by the noble zeal of one of its professors, by the 
Jounial of Science which he issues, and by the purchase of its 
cabinet of minerals, has contributed more than any other in our 
country to the diffusion of Natural Science. 

It is highly creditable to the guardians and officers of this insti- 
tution, and encouraging to others which are struggling with poverty, 
that all this has been accomplished with very limited funds. From 
a report made to the Legislature in 1831, it appears, that the whole 
amount of funds granted by the state, for the support of an institution 
which has been its greatest ornament, was only seventy thousand 
dollars — less than has been granted in several other states, in a 
ijngle year. A subsequent donation of seven thousand dollars is 
the only item to be added for the state bounty to the Academical 
Department, twenty thousand dollars having been granted for the 
ettablishment of the Medical School. Private donations for the 
library, cabinet, and apparatus, have been liberal, but at a very 
recent period, the wliole income of the institution from its funds, 
did nol much exeeed two thousand dollars, leaving it almost 
entirely depepdent lor its support, on the fees for tuition. A 
private subacriptioo has recently been completed of one hundred 
dliousand doUais; and a fiind of ten thousand dolhra has been 



On ikt hunouru ofhutrvdan amd PvpiU. 56 

recently bequeathed by an ifnlividual, for the increase of the 
library. These are cheering indications of increasing interest in the 
welfare of this venerable institution, and pledges that its officers 
will not hereafter be left to struggle alone. 



a« 



[For tbe Airaals or^iicnUon.] 

ON THE INTEtiCOURSE BETWEEN INSTRUCTORS AND PUPILS Iff 

COLLEGES. 

[The freqaent and leriout difficaltiet which have occarred of late, in lomli 
of oar moat important inatitutions, renderatbe followinfi; article, in leference to 
one of the moat common aourcea of * rebelliona/ peculiarly appropriate. It 
cornea from a gentleman who haa experience in college life, and fullj accorda 
with the reanlta of our own ohaerration. We have allowed the editorial form to 
remain unchanged, to avoid embamaaing alterationa ; bat we would thank our 
eorreapondenta to allow oa to reaerve the firat peraon plural, aa the diatinctive 
mark of oiir own articlea.] 

The nature of that intercourse which should exist between 
instructors and pupils, particularly in our higher institutions, b a 
subject of great practical importance. It is attended, however, 
with many difficulties, inasmuch as it involves questions relating to 
the whole discipline of these institutions ; and has been tbe source 
of so much discussion and contention, that it needs to be thoroughly 
examined and established on some 6xed principles, adapted to the 
age and to our country. 

The claims of this subject to the consideration of every instructor 
will become apparent, by adverting to the true design of collegiate 
education. This, we are con6dent, is often not justly apprehended. 
Throughout our system of education, the discipline of the mind 
has occupied attention, while that of the heart has been thought to 
lie without the province of the teacher. Children arc sent to 
schooly and youth to college, to form their minds; the formation 
ofckarQCter is too often left to parents, and tbe 6reside. Indeed, 
this notion prevails to such an extent, that an instructor who 
should attempt to convey moral and religious instruction, would, in 
not a few instances, be censured as having transcended his powerSi 
and even invaded the rights of his pupil. 

We view this matter in a wholly different light. We regard 
tbe aemioary of learning, from the infant school to the university, 
as a phce for the discipline of character, as well as of intellect. 
Independently of tbe instructor, influences constantly exist there 
of great importance in their bearing on character, and we would 
hkwe tbd teacher exert himself to control them, or to turn thero to 
|ood aooounc While therefcve we would furnish these senuBariae 



66 tmportanct ofBeUgunu hifiuenee. 

with all the apparatus of instruction, we would not make high 
scholarship the ultimate end of our efforts. We would train up in our 
institutions of learning, youth who shall go out, not to dazzle with a 
meteor light, too often ominous of evil, but to shed the mild and 
lasting radiance of well disciplined minds, and characters, on all 
the walks of life. We may and ought, like the ancient Spartans, 
though in a higher sense, to educate our youth for their country. 
We shall serve her best, by nurturing in their hearts the principles 
of virtue, at the same time that they are acquiring useful learning. 

Much has been said and done within a few years to raise the 
literary character of our colleges to the standard of those in Europe. 
But while we imitate their excellencies, we must guard against 
their defects. Gladly would we endow them with the overflowing 
libraries and cabinets of foreign universities, and we should hail 
with unfeigned joy in our academic corps, indications of the spirit 
of high attainment which is found in them. But we should de- 
precate the utter neglect of the morals and principles of their pupils 
with which, if we mistake not, they are chargeable almost without 
exception. Let the instnictor guide to the founts of classic learn- 
ing ; but shall he not also direct the youth of his charge to the 
fountain of Divine wisdom and holiness ? Shall he not impress upon 
their minds their obligations to society, and their higher obligations 
to God? We do not mean that our colleges should become 
schools of theology. But when we reflect, that the youth in them 
are soon to be found actively participating in all the movements of 
society, becoming its teachers, filling its professions, occupying its 
posts of honor and trust, we feel a confidence in maintaining it to 
be the duty of all who have the direction of them, to see to it, 
that the influence of morality and religion is predominant within 
them. We insist that the parent, who with trembling solicitude 
commits his son to their guardianship, should have the assurance 
that his character and principles will receive the attention they 
deserve. It has therefore always been, with unfeigned regret, 
that we have seen it proclaimed as a recommendation of a semi- 
nary of learning, that the voice of religious instruction should never 
be heard within its walls. We could not regard with any favor, 
and we think the public would not, a fountain whose waters, 
though they gush forth clear as crystal, if they are not positively 
pestilential, are yet not health-giving waters. 

We have dwelt thus on this preliminary topic, because we would 
ourselves view, and have our readers view, the subject which we 
propose for their consideration from this point. We shall never 
let an opportunity pass of enforcing the responsibilities of a teacher, 
may we not add, especially of the American teacher. He holds 
Uk office scarcely Usk^ than sacred, and be should assume it with a 



Mittual Coti\fidtnc€ Nteeuary. 57 

sense of tbe importance of the trust committed to bitn. Me should 
feel that be is to form minds^ to mould character, to train up the 
fiiture citizen ; and more than all^ to exert a great influence in the 
forming period of their lives over beings who will be forever sub- 
jects of the moral government of Jehovah. If he thus views his 
duties, there is little danger that he will not maintain such inter- 
course with his pupils as will best promote the great object of hb 
calling. 

In order to determine what the character of this intercourse 
should be, we must consider the duties both of officers and stu- 
dents in this particular ; for they are manifestly reciprocal. To 
speak of inttrcaurstf with reference to one side alone, is a solecism 
in language. 

In the first place we say that this intercourse should be based 
on wmtual confidence. Without this there can be no friendly 
intercourse. It is ordinarily, not difficult to gain the confidence of 
students. Formal professions will not do it ; but if an instructor 
will take pains to show his pupils that he feels a deep interest in 
their welfare, which he can do without much expense of time or 
effi>rt, he will most commonly attain the object. It b all important 
to his success, both as an instructor and governor. How can he 
expect to benefit them unless he has their confidence ? Of what 
avail will be his reproofs, his warnings, his exhortations, or his 
encouragements ? We are aware, — who that has any experience 
m college life is not, — that all efforts of this kind, on the part of 
instructors, are not un frequently met with coldness, and jealousy, 
by the pupils. There are always students in college, as there are 
individuals in every community, who seem to steel themselves 
against all kindly influences, and the instructor must expect to 
meet with occasional disappointment and mortification, in seeing hb 
endeavors misconstrued, and returned with indignity. Such is the 
condition of humanity, but it does not diminish his obligations or 
excuse him from his duty. It is hardly necessary to say, that the 
instructor should freely give hb pupil his own confidence so long 
as be b worthy of it. It b a common complaint in college that 
tbe feculty are ready to suspect, and are not disposed to confide in 
the honor of students. Were it known how often their confidence 
b betrayed, and how frequently they are taught caution by ei^pe- 
rience, it would not be surprising if they were obnoxious to thb 
charge. As it b, such complaints in nine cases out of ten, come 
iirom those who have laid themselves open to suspicion. 

But this intercourse should also be free. It cannot indeed fail 
to be so if there b the mutual confidence, to whbh we have just 
adverted. But we must be understood. Tbe instructor b the 
superiar, apd must be sot He must possess tb^ undinuiusbed 



68 CombimatUm of Frttdwn and Couricsy. 

respect of his pupils, and be treated with the deference due to his 
station, or bis influence over them will be lost. It is as in a well 
regulated family. The child is free and unconstrained in the society 
of his parents, but he dares not use undue familiarity. He reposes 
unmingled confidence in them, but he knows that tliere are certaia 
bounds marked by the relation which exists between them, which 
he cannot and would not transgress. Such is the freedom which 
we advocate, in the intercoui-se between instructors and their pupils. 
We would have the latter feel that their instructors are friends, to 
whom they may go with confidence, for counsel and aid ; and 
instructors should encourage such communion. They cannot teach 
to good purpose, neither can they operate upon character, with- 
out it. 

At the same time, the intercourse between officers and students 
should be marked by the strictest courtesy. We are advocates for a 
government of motives in seminaries of learning, of appeals to reason 
and to sentiments of honor, so far as such appeals will go. There 
are occasions, however, for absolute aulliority in the college or 
school, as in the family. We therefore should always insist, and 
we are not aware that this is new doctiine, that the feelings of 
pupils should be consulted by their instructors, yet without any 
surrender of authority, just as the parent addresses the reason, and 
conscience, and aflections of his children, without yielding any of 
his authority* We say then, that in his intercourse with his pupils, 
the instructor should be courteous. He should be watchful over 
himself, and should cultivate the manners of refined society, not 
only because of the power of his example, but also as one means 
of acquiring an influcuice over them. A neglect of the laws of 
courtesy invariably diminishes the respect, with which an instruc- 
lor is regarded. 

By the courtesy which we recommend, we are far from meaning 
the mere outward show of it, which it is easy to assume. We mean 
that unaffected politeness whrch has its seat in the heart, which is 
founded on good sense and good feelings, which prompts its pos- 
sessor to regard the happiness of those around him, which is not 
exhibited only in view of men, but is continually gushing out in 
acts of kindness, and sympathy for others — a courtesy, which is 
often witnessed in those who are ignorant of the forms of polished 
society, and sometimes even in savage life, to a degree which 
might put to the blush many who pride themselves on their scru- 
pulous adherence to the rules of fashionable life ; — in short, a deli- 
cate and quick sense of propriety, which may and ought to be cul- 
tivated, as much as any trait of character. 

The importance of inculcating from the earliest years the prin- 
ciples of a manly, uoaffeoted politeness) of true Christian courtesy, 



Dutiei and Erron of Studenti. 39 

must be apparent on a little reflection. It exerts a strong moral 
influence over the character. It begets a high toned self-respect, 
and at the same time, teaches him who possesses it, not to regard 
himself alone, but others al^o. It imparts a quick sense of true 
honor. The youth who is imbued with its spirit, will not conde- 
scend to base acts. It mukes him willing to remain in his proper 
place, to listen to counsel, and to submit to salutary restraint. 
Wlien therefore we speak of the importance of the intercourse 
between officers and students I eing marked by genuine courtesy, 
we wish to be understood as referring not to instructors alone. In 
this, as in each of the particulars before mentioned, there is a cor- 
responding duty on the part of the pupils, although this is appa- 
rently overlooked by many parents and guardians. Some seem to 
act under the |>ersuasion, that the duty of cultivating friendly rela- 
tions belongs to instructors exclusively ; and when there is a 
coldness and reserve between officers and students, tiiey lay all the 
blame upon the former. This is palpably unji»st. How often 
students withhold their confidence from their instructors, and shut 
themselves up in a cold and distant reserve, we surely need not 
say. How often in their deportment towards their instructors, they 
disregard those rules of courtesy, and good breeding, which they 
would on no accx^unt, violate, in the circle of their friends, or in the 
world, who needs to be informed ? As matters now are, in some 
of our colleges, at least, if an officer administers merited reproof, 
or exercises that vigilance in the discharge of his duty, which his 
responsibilities urge u|K)n him, he need not be surprised if he 
receive insult^ if not to his face, yet by some secret, paltry act of 
revenge. Does he in his zeal, prolong his exercise a few minutes 
beyond the usual liour ? Some symptoms of uneasiness, perhaps 
even a shuffling of the feet, will indicate to him that he is trans- 
gressing the limits of propriety. Is any outrage committed on the 
regular constituted authority of the institution, any palpable viola- 
tion of its sahitary laws, and do the faculty take the proper meas- 
ures to repel the mischief, and inflk^t deserved punishment on the 
oflenders ? The spirit of wild misrule at once breaks forth ; all 
regard to decency seems obliterated ; college property is wantonly 
destroyed, and acts of violence are perpetrated with the license of 
t city mob, which expose the authors to disgrace, and heavy pen- 
alties, before the criniinal tribunals of the land ; the persons of 
instnictors wIk> have become grey in the wasting labors of their 
station, who have spared no effort for the literary and moral wel- 
fare of these thoughtless, ungrateful pupils, are grossly insulted; 
and even the majesty of heaven impiously dared, by the sacrile- 
gious exhibition of demoniac passion, in the place consecrated for 
morning and evening worship. All this occurs in our seminaries 



00 Reineiy for the EtiiHng Evilt. 

6x liberal educatioD ! — for such an education as is generally supposed 
to entitle the possessor to adnoission into re6ned society — and yet^ 
where shall we find greater disregard of the laws of common cour- 
tesy than here ? We do not ordinarily find youth in whom the 
principles of this courtesy have grown with their growth, actively 
engaged in these scenes of disorder and violence. They will not 
condescend to the low tricks which often are the prelude to such 
scenes, and without which they would seldom, if ever, occur. We 
are aware, how sweeping are our censures, and where they fall — 
more frequently on the sons of afiluence than on those, in compar- 
atively humble life. We believe that among the youth in our 
institutions of learning, we shall discern the principles of true, gen- 
uine courtesy oftenest, in those who have come from the middling 
classes, and who have known, it may be, little of the outward show 
of it. In such too, let it be remarked, do we discover no want of 
what is commonly called true spirit and genuine independence. 

The evils lo which we have adverted as existing in our highest 
institutions of leaniin*;, are of no inconsiderable moment. That the 
governors of these institutions are not wholly responsible for them, 
every one knows. What is the remedy ? They do not admit an 
entire remedy. We may expect that the indolent and wayward 
will always look with a jealous, unfriendly eye, on those who are 
placed over them, to guide, warn, entreat, and admonish them, in 
their wanderings. But would parents be watchful over the opin- 
ions and notions of their children, and see to it, that they them- 
selves never encourage in them, jealousy of their governors, and 
would they but teach them, that their instructors deserve at their 
hands all the courtesies of life, more would be done than by any 
other method to banish from our colleges and universities this dis- 
trust of their officers, that propensity transmitted from one genera- 
tion to another, to imagine that they and their pupils have oppo- 
site interests as well as much of that spirit of insubordination, and 
misrule which often disgrace their halls. We therefore urge upon 
parents, and guardians, and teachers, so far as they can do it, the 
duty of cultivating in their charge the principles of true Christian 
courtesy, not merely as a source of comfort, and respectability , but 
also as a powerful means of afifecting character. Where it exists 
it will ensure, so far as the pupil is concerned, the presence of the 
other qualities, which have been mentioned, as essential to that 
intercourse which should be sustained, between pupils and their 
instructors. 



Study and Relaxaium. 6l 



STUDY AND RELAXATION. 

We have received an account of another dialogue, between our 
old acquaintances, Thomas and Robert, which contains much good 
sense, as well as much provincial English ; but we think we cannot 
grant ihem so much space as they require, while other matter is 
pressing upon us ; and we can only give a sketch of their conver- 
sation. 

It appears that our young friends are now attending school for 
the last winter ; and even Robert's heart seems to be saddened at 
(he thought. Indeed, it was alwap a matter of surprise to us, 
that the day which removes the young from the care and guidance 
of others, and sends tliem to make their way alone in the mazes 
of the world, or the day which terminates their claims on parental 
care, sliould be wekomed so rapturously. Here, surely, only 
* Ignorance is bliss.' To us, the day of our graduation — (which was 
virtually the day of our majority, although in accordance with the 
premature educat'ion of our country, it preceded the latter by sev« 
eral years) — was the saddest day of our youth ; and we would 
joyfully have turned back, and retraced our steps through our 
college course, could we have found companions and means. 

Robert, in spite of his early dislike to study, was visited with 
similar compunctions, and appears to have occupied himself with 
devising plans for continuing the education which was soon to 
be broken off. In this dialogue, he tells Thomas the maxims 
which he had adopted. In a previous conversation, he had insisted 
that ' The best way to study at midnight, is to be fast asleep.' 
The mined eyes, or wretched health, of many a midnight student, 
have proved the folly of neglecting a maxim so obviously sound, 
and thus unfitting himself for efficient, and persevering study. 
He now gives another maxim, in the same spirit ; ' D(m H study 
hard!' 

At such a paradox, Thomas is astonished ; but Robert appeals to 
the * aching head,' and the ' weak eyes' — and the * can 't think,' 
and ' can 't understand,' which has so often been the consequence 
of' studying hard ;* and he is compelled to admit that it has some 
truth. The direction is enforced by a maxim derived from the 
wisdom of antiquity, ' Festina lenie,' and by the more homely, but 
not less expressive American proverb, ' Take it as you can hold 
it.' In a seminary of some eminence, the rule is made imperative 
upon the pupils, that they should not think more, or study more, 
or feel more, than is consistent with retaining their full strength (or 
the duties of to-morrow, and the next week, and the next month* 

VOL. V. NO. II. 6 



6S Maxim far Study. 

The fable of the goose with golden eggs, is an apt reproof for 
those who attempt habitually to forestall the strength of to^morroWi 
ID order to do double duty to-day. 

But another maxiin is given to modify this, on the authority of 
Brougham ; ' Be a whole man^ at one thing at a time J Tboinw 
admks, that much of his difficulty in acquiring knowledge^ has 
arisen from want of fixed attention ; and Robert insists, that this 
arises from the very attempt to study hard, without relaxation. In 
his colloquial style, he says, ' Work ! jump ! breathe the fresh air ! 
and then your mind will take h Id strongly of one thing. If you 
study till your head aches, and you are *' all in a log," you will be 
just fit to study fifty things at once, and learn nothing after all.' 

A third rule is given equally opposed to the Miigh pressure 
system,' and which it would seem an insult to common sense to 
give, if it were not every day violated, in half tlie schools in our 
country, — '^ Go over and over again what you learn, until you 
Jmow it perfectly.' He insists however, that every lesson should be 
learned well, and the repetition should be only employed to secure 
the knowledge which is acquired, and not as an excuse for learn« 
ing superficially at first. 

The last rule is intended to prevent all abuse of the previous 
ones, and directs, ' Keep adding to your stock of knowledge.* 

There is much of important truth in the homely maxims of 
Robert. The intellectual vigor and health of more than one stu- 
dent, and professional man has been sacrificed by neglecting them ; 
and they might be sustained, if necessary, by high authority. 

In looking over the very interesting ' Journal of McLellan,' one 
of our young countrymen, who came back from an instructive tour 
in Europe, to a premature grave, we found some things precisely 
in point. The spirit of excessive study in the youth of our country, 
owes its origin very much to the unhappy disposition to hasten in 
all we undertake. The expectations of friends cannot be met| 
unless the young man pushes forward rapidly in his profession. 
The demands of the public cannot be satisfied, unless a popular 
author issues books in rapid succession — so rapid that they cannot 
poasess the soundness, or accuracy, which is necessary to improve 
and jelevate the public mind — that they miu^ cultivate the taste for 
rapid and superficial reading. It is not surprising that those who 
aim orAy ait popularity, or gain, should push on, upon the top of the 
tide ; but Wje are grieved to see men, who are capable of exerting a 
jpott;er/tt/ and lasting in^wence on the character of our country, and 
of mankind, willing to follow their example. The perusal of Mc 
Leilan's journal, and the jusC and vivid pictures he gives of literary 
laixrleai, bivugbt \o .oujr recDJteclipn two great poiou alluded to 



HMis of European Students. 08 

in the dialogue we have described, in which foreign students, id 
theory and practice, condemn our prevalent habits. 

1 . Instead of difibsing their efforts over the whole field of know- 
ledge, they concentrate their niinds on a single object, until that is 
accomplished ; and thus like Butler, after thirty years' labor on 
his * Analogy of Religion,' they leave a structure as permanent as 
their own castles — whose very ruins would give more pleasure and 
instruction to posterity than the half built fabrics of the day. 

2. The literary men of Europe make it a principle to relax 
their minds, especially by frequenting social circles, and by general 
and cheerful conversation, not forgetting the value of female society, 
or the influence of music. The morning is usually the only period of 
close study, while the latter part of the day is given up to relaxa- 
tion ; and it is said that even Sir Walter Scott, whose duties called 
him to one of the courts of law at nine o'clock in the morning, 
wrote most of his voluminous works before that hour. It is almost 
as difficult to break in upon the foreign student's hours of relaxa- 
tion, as upon those devoted to study. When abroad, we found 
no difficulty in getting instruction from literary men, if we could 
find them at a leisure hour in the morning ; but we have often 
gone to a party of literary men in the evening, anticipating an 
intellectual feast, and have met a steady resistance to every attempt 
to deprive them of this holiday of the mind. 

They are right ; and we are utterly, grossly wrong, in attempt- 
ing to increase the vigor of the mind by incessant intellectual 
effort. Many of our students not only strain the nerves in this 
manner, beyond the power of healthy action, but leave the best 
feelings of the heart to languish and die for want of opportunity Xq 
act; and then, fastidiously, or pAt/o^opAicaZ/y, as they would have 
it, despise those finer, warmer emotions, of which they are no 
longer susceptible ! We cannot but pity the man who has thus 
buried the better half of his nature — the friend — the father — the 
husband — the brother — in order to gain preeminence in mere 
intellectual vision, a quality in which he will ever be far inferior to 
'archangels fallen.' We pity him still more, when he has sacri- 
ficed health itself to these excessive eflbrts; and we often think of 
the reply of an European professor to our account of these habits, 
' No wonder your literary men are diseased and die ! ' 

We would not be understood to mean that relaxation will render 
other means for preserving the health of the student unnecessary. 
He that would strive in the intellectual or the spiritual race, mmt 
be * temperate in all things.' And we would especially be under- 
stood, that we believe nothing can be a substitute for exercise or 
manual labor; for we are convinced of the truth of the maximj 



64 Want of Schools and Teackm* 

that ^ muscular efibrt is one of die best means of repose from rafel" 
lectual efTort.' But we are equally convinced tl)at exercise will be 
of no avail without relaxation — and that exercise or labor which 
does not relieve the mind from effort, only wears out the system 
more rapidly, by demanding double duty from its organs. 



THE STATE OF EDUCATlOiN IN OUR COUNTRV^ 

Our country fbnnerly received from one of the first Kterary 
Journals of Europe, the high compliment, ^ that the great body of 
the American people is better educated than the bulk of any 
European community ; ' and we are persuaded, that we then de- 
served tliis character. But the laurels thus bestowed, are every- 
day fading and falling (rom our brows. Europeans already point 
us to our multitudes of ignorant voters and unmstmcted children ; 
and, as if in envy of our lot, are annually sending us hundreds of 
thousands of their own ignorant, and too often vicious poor. Our 
national vanity is ready to cry out, — ' Traitor ! ^ to any one who 
ventures to point out our national defects, or national faults, and 
above all, to disclose them to the world. But we have a duty to 
feiform whicli' does not allow us to simnk from reproach. 

1. It is demonstrable, that we need schools for not less than one 
million of uninstructed children, chiefly in tlie Western and South- 
em States. 

2. It is certain, that we need an army of teachers to instruct 
these schools ; for we have scarcely enough to direct those already 
existing. 

3. It is equally certain, that the number of children destitute of 
instruction is increasing naturally, at the rate of seventy-eight 
thousand every year, and that two thousand five hundred teachers 
are necessary every year, in addition to tliose which we need, to 
supply our present wants. 

4. It is capable of proof, that we have been receiving, every 
year, an accession of one hundred and thirty thousand foreigners to 
our population, most of whom, as well as their children, are des- 
titute even of elementary knowledge ; and that this number is 
increasing. 

We think we hear a sigh from our Northern friends, at the wants 
df the unfortunate South and West — at the ignorance and depravity 
of foreign emigrants. But could we present the whole truth, we 
fear they would find reason to blush for themselves, and to trem- 
ble for their own children, and their own states, 



Defidmeei in Evisting Sekooh. 65 



Ttie governor of Pennsylvama tells us, that a large part of the 
electors by whom he was chosen, are unable to read the votes they 
carry to the polls ; and that two thirds of their children are not pro- 
vided with any means of instruction. And this state is equivalent 
to one third of the North, in population and power. 

Gov. Vroom, of New Jersey, says : — * The branches taught, (inr 
the schools of N. Jersey,) are the most ordinary, — the mere ele- 
ments of instruction, and they are often taught very defectively. 
There is no uniformity in the mode or system of instruction, nor 
is there any approximation to it. Many of our teachers are not 
well qualified in point of intelligence, and some, it is feared, are not 
fitted to form the morals of our youth.' ^ The cause of education 
makes little progress.' At least eleven thousand children are un* 
instrueted. And yet, this state is directly connected with two of 
the largest and wealthiest cities of our country, from which light 
ou^ht to be collected, and spread in every direction. 

in the schook of New York, we have been assured, multitudes 
are taught by incompetent men. In New England, we have re- 
ceived evidence from gentlemen or from publications in every 
state, that there are great defects in the schools, — ^that a large 
number of the teachers are totally unqualified for their task, — that 
few in our common schools are well fitted for their stations, — that 
in a large number of our schools, the laws are evaded, and in- 
spection and examination neglected, — the methods of instruction 
defective, and the moral condition still worse. To the question we 
have often asked, * Do the best informed parents you know, con- 
sider it safe to send their children to the common schools ? ' the 
answer is almost uniformly in the negative ; and we received this 
reply from one gentleman who had visited, personally, one hun- 
dred schools, in one of the New Ejigland States. 

We are compelled, therefore, by the evidence before us to add, 
that ' the unfortunate West and South,' and * foreign emigrants,' are 
not alone in need ; and to say ; 

5. That it is proved by the testimony of persons familiar with 
schools in the best instructed states, that a very large number of 
the children now at school, are committed to the care of teachers 
unqualified to instruct and educate them. 

6. That the methods of instruction are defective, and that the 
rapid increase of branches of instruction has led to great superfi- 
ciality. 

7. That the same cause, combined with sectarian prejudice^ 
has led to the exolusbn of moral instruction, and moral influencOi 
to a sad extent, and that many of our schoob have become nur^ 
seriea of vice, 

•6 



06 On the DeftcU of American Seko^. 

In some of our large towns, and a few of our villages, the energy 
of tlie friends of education has led to thorough reibmiation in tb^ 
respects ; but for most of our schools, this is yet to be accomplished. 

8. It is not the least painful and discouraging part of this pic- 
ture, that in consequence of wrong views, or of apprehensions of 
opposition in attempting a change, the best informed and most 
respectable parents, instead of endeavoring to improve common 
schools, often withdraw their children, and their support, and atten- 
tion from tliem, and establish private schools, thus leaving the com- 
mon schools to become less respectable, and less capable of refor- 
mation. 

Thus much we considered it due to our readers, to say, in 
introducing to them some remarks by a foreign gentleman of great 
respectability and intelligence, on the defects of American Schools, 
and the means of removing them. His love to our country has 
led him to adopt it as his own, for many years ; long observation 
of our schools has qualified him to judge of their character ; and 
his familiarity with those of Europe, enables him to compare them 
with the best which the wisdom and experience of the old conti- 
nent has established. 

We are persuaded that these remarks were written in the spirit 
of candor ; and we liope they will be read with the desire to profit 
by his opinions. 



ON THE DEFECTS OF AMERICAN SCHOOLS AND THE »IEANS OF 

IMPROVEMENT. 

BY A HATIVB of EUROPE. 

You ask me * how it happens that Germany has produced so 
many distinguished and profound scholars, while America has 
furnished so few.' 

Tliis question is a very delicate one to answer, as in solving it 
correctly, I must necessarily compare our existing school system, 
our colleges, and universities, with the schools, gymnasia, and 
universities of Germany. Far from wishing to hurt the feelings of 
any one of my fellow-citizens, far from being desirous to criticise 
our present institutions, I trust the sound judgment of every enlight- 
ened American will see in my frank exposition, only an ardent 
wish to call the attention of the friends of education, to a matter 
still very superficially discussed, and very imperfectly settled 
among us. As an American citizen, as a father of a numerous 
fiimily, as an assiduous and close observer in all that concerns 
education, I submit this matter to the mature consideration of 
every liberali well informedi and impartial fiiend of education as 



American Spirii of ImfrwMKkttii. fit 

DOW existing among us. To speak frankly, I regard our system 
of education as deficient and superficial, and to this I ascribe the 
deficiency of learned men among us. 

In entering on this discussion, I would submit the following, 
thoughts : 

First. The United States have already surpassed the old world in 
their political institutions. Tlieir system of prisons and penitentia- 
ries has been jusdy praised. The philanthropic and patriotic spirit 
of our citizens has excited deservedly the admiration of the world. 
But is this the case with our schools, and our system of education? 
No ; we are in this res])ect not so far advanced as we should be, 
as the rapid progress in science, arts, inventions, and discoveries 
seems to render necessary. We by no means keep pace with the 
genius of the age ; our education, our instruction, remains far behind 
all other things among us. 

The second thought is a melancholy one, but unhappily too 
true. We spend millions of dollars for banks, railroads, canals, 
harbors, fortifications, public buildings, &lc., and hesitate to expend 
a few thousands for the education of our children, our future 
legislators, rulers, and defenders. 

What then has sup})orted our independence until the present 
moment — what has given us happiness and abundance ? Is it the 
English, the French, or the German people ? Or is it not the 
American citizen, by his persevering industry, talent and skill — 
even with all the superficiality of his education and learning ? 
Judge then to what an eminence the United States might justly 
aspire, after a certain lapse of time, if our institutions could be 
raised and perfected, if sound learning should be introduced instead 
of superficiality , and a multiplied variety of studies, crowded to- 
gether, and ill-digested. 

In attempting to prove this superficiality and defect in our schools, 
I must again request my readers to believe that in speaking the 
language of truth, I have not the least intention to hurt the feelings 
of any one, or to attack any particular institutions. My anxious 
and only wish is, to direct the attention of the public towards 
education, and to contribute as much as my capacities permit, to 
a simple and sounder system — a national^ a truly American sys- 
tem — and thus to prove to the world, that we can be as perfect in 
thb branch of our institutbns, as in our social, pohtical and peni- 
tentiary establishments. 

And which is most important to us, a nulroad, a bank, or the 
education of our children ? Public institutions, as well as money 
and wealth, are liable to many accidents, to entire destruction, 
while sound knowledge, and talents properly cultivated, are endur- 
iDg possesions. Should not every wealthy man keep this axiom 



66 DtfidU to fte lUmeiied in our 

continually in bis mmd, in providing for the welfiure of his own 
children ? 

So much has been said respecting education, and the deficiency 
of our schools and academies, and such frequent complaints have 
been made of the want of good and sound instruction, of compe- 
tent teachers, &c., that I will present only a brief statement of my 
views concerning them. 

We find generally in our schools, 1st. That the variety and 
number of tlie branches of instruction, are entirely disproportionate 
to the time fixed for its final termination. 

2d. The number of pupils is too large in proportion to the 
number of teachers. 

3d. A great number of teachers are not competent to teach well. 

4th. The teachers have, in general, too small a salary. 

5th. The number of worse than useless books, multiplied by 
defective compilation, and false claims to novelty and usefulness, 
has become very great. 

6th. The scholars learn too much by rote, without enough of 
previous explanation ; and very little opportunity is given for the 
exertion of their own faculties, for reflection, or for new combi- 
nations of ideas. 

8tli. Latin and Greek absorb the greatest part of the time, and 
the English language, and grammar are taught very superficially. 
The French, and other modem languages, so useful to Americans, 
are too much neglected. 

These are some of the most striking defects in our present 
school system. As long as they exist, it will be utterly impossible 
to obtain a solid education, to acquire those clear and sound prin- 
ciples of knowledge which will enable a scholar to enter a ccdlege, 
or into any office as successfully as could be desirable. We can 
never obtain any solid basis of instruction except by simplifying it, 
and by earnest endeavors to give a pupil clear and sound views of 
elementary principles. Tliis can only be accomplished by begin- 
ning with a few branches, and by allowing a scholar the necessary 
time to digest these, before he commences any other study. Ex- 
perience has taught me, that a youth who has fiilly mastered the 
principles of one branch of knowledge, will not only study it with 
greater ardor, but will acquire another more rapidly. 

It will be easy to apply this single theory to practice, and give 
an entirely new, and more useful direction to our present school 
system, by the foUowing means. 

I propose the establishment at once, 

A. Of a preparatory school. 

B. Of a seminary or college in whk^h teachers shall be formed. 
The school shall be a nursery for the seminary or college; thtt 



New Plan ffdpoiei* 66 

fleminary a nunery, for teacben. But in order to secure succeM, 
it will be necessary that the government ot the state should take 
both institutions, under its immediate protection ; because, both 
must be independent of any private patronage, and not be inter- 
rupted in their established course, by any foreign influence.* 

In the school shall be admitted boys of seven or eight years old, 
to prepare for entering the seminary, even if they have no inclina^ 
tion to be teachers. 

To the seminary or cdlege shall be admitted those pupils, who 
have passed through the school, and any students desirous of the 
aame course of instruction, whether they intend to engage in teach- 
ing or to puistie some other occupation* The aim of both insti- 
tutions should be, not only to form teachers, but to diffuse a new 
and sound system of education throughout the United States, and 
thus to multiply at the same time, and by the same means, good 
pupils and good teachers. Every one attached to the institutions, 
whether superintendent, professors, teachers, or pupils, should be 
admitted without any discrimination in their religious faith. The 
course of studies in both institutions should be in strict accordance 
with the above directed principles, and be divided into two distinct 
courses ; the Classical and the English course. 

The complete course of study should last four years. An extra, 
fifth year should be given, for purposes which shall be explained 
hereafter ; and the studies of both institutions should be divided 
into four progressive classes. 

The promotion from one class to another, should depend, in both, 
upon die studies and good behavior of the scholars, and not^ as is 
the case now in our colleges, upon the number of years of their 
continuance. 

I propose, therefore, to establish, besides the usual public exam- 
inations, a semi-annual private examination, in which the scholars 
judged fit for promotion, may pass, even after six months tuition, 
to a higher class, at least in those branches in which they have 
deserved promotion. No pupil should be promoted without thb 
examination. 

The board of examiners should consist of the superintendent, the 
principal, the professors, and teachers, and some competent commis- 
sioners, named by the Governor of the State. The votes should be 
?'ven in writing, and by secret ballot, so as to prevent any partiality. 
he majority of votes should decide for or against the pupil on 
each study ; and thus it may happen that he is judged fit in one 
branch (for example, in his arithrnetio or geography) to enter a 

*Oiir readen are aware that we have not much confidence in atate patronage 
lo mir eonntry, in promoting the welfare of a literary inatitution. Jt has ruined 
mofe titan oqe. Would state affairs be entrusted to the faculty of our colleges f 



70 BeynoUi en the Use ofiAe JES^ei. 

higher class, and for the rest of his studies, to remain six months 
longer in his class, until his private examination has fully satisfied 
the board. This private examination should be oral, and in 
writing, and should be established in both institutions. No student 
should go from the senior class, and graduate, without having sul^ 
mitted to it. Tlius a parent may be sure that his son has tho- 
roughly learned that which the instructor promised to teach him ; 
the youth will be fully convinced that his promotion, or rejection, 
has been fair and impartial, and the consequence of his conduct 
and studies. The public ako will know that the graduates have 
really studied and improved, in the branches of the prescribed 
course, and that they are really able to enter upon business with 
success ; and every one will soon be convinced of the good efiect 
which sucl) a plan, strictly observed, will have upon the character 
of our youth. 



REYNOLDS ON THE USE OF THE EYES. 

[Concluded.] 

Hinia to Sittdenta on the Use of (he Eyes. Bt Edwaed RKTifOLD8,M. D. 
of Boelon.—[B%Uical Repository* for July, 183a] 

In our last number, we gave a partial sketch of the interesting 
essay of Dr. Reynolds — one of our most able and experienced 
oculists— on the use of the eyes, containing a condensed view of 
the causes of weakness, and the rules for the proper degree and 
adjustment of light which he has pointed out. In the remainder 
of the essay, he goes on to advise the student as to the best 
periods for study, the precautions which are necessary, the most 
obvious symptoms of disease, and the simple remedies to be used 
on its first approach. 

The period of the day when the eyes are capable of severe 
labor with the greatest impunity, is a point of much importance. 
Dr. Reynolds believes that the soft light of morning, when the 
eye is rested by a moderate, but sufficient amount of sleep, renders 
this part of the day, in general, the most favorable time for study. 
Still, there are exceptions to this rule, and those who find any 
unfavorable effect from morning study, should of course avoid it. 
He cautions all, however, agsunst too sudden a transiticm fitxn thtt 

* We ivipret that by an accidental error, we ffave credit, in our laat number, 
to the BibPical Repertory for this article, inetead of the Biblical RepotUory, po 
ably conducted by Prof. Robinson, and reoeotly UQited with the Quarterl/ 
Obeerrer, edited by B. B. Edwards, 



Mmiuig a^ B^enUig Study, 71 

bed to the study. The organs of sights from theu* peculiar delicacy, 
are moat susceptible to injury from extremes, which, indeed, no 
part of the animal frame can sustain with impunity ; and it is very 
wrong ' to go as some doj immediately from the bed to the study 
table, while the eyes are but half opened, and the student may 
be 9aid to be half asleep.' Let the morning student, if he would 
use his sight to the best advantage, ^ move about for a little space, 
until his eyes recover from the first weakness that is generally ex- 
perienced on awaking, before he goes to his studies.' We would 
remark, in passing, tliat if this principle be correct, the practice in 
our colleges of compelling students to pass from the deep sleep of 
youth, and from total darkness, to the chapel and the recitation 
room, must be attended with danger to the sight. 

But whether the moniing be chosen for study or not, there are 
periods of the day when it is unsafe. Tlie tendency to congestion, 
or fullness at blood, in the head and eyes of students, renders it im- 
portant not to strain the eyes immediately after a full meal, or when 
the body, from any cause, is in a heated condition. A German 
writer tells us of public speakers, who have ruined their eyes by 
using them improperly, soon after the delivery of orations or ser- 
mons. 

Dr. Reynolds earnestly advises the students to avoid straining 
the eyes by artificial evening light. We must quote the whole of 
his remarks on this important point 

'Tbe day time, as we have said before, is die proper period for hard 
etudy. The evening is the period for re|>o8e or aitiusenieiit. Nature has 
provided a lif^ht by day, which, if not sf toiled by nian^s device, acts rather 
M an agreeable stimulus thnn as an injury to the or^an of vision. It is 
iaipossible, when she has withdrawn it from the earth, to substitute an 
artificial fifirht, that is equally agreeable, and equally innocent. If the 
student will be content to stu(ly only by the light uf nature's lamp, and to 
repose, when she, for his good, has extinguished it, he will diminish ex- 
ceedingly, the chances of weakened vition. More eyes have been 
injured by Saturday night Sermons, than by the week's study that pre- 
ceded them. The prc;val€nit error that 'a man cannot write until the 
spirit moved,' has unfitted many a ready writer for nnich useful labor. 
Through man's native indolence, it will pn»hahly destroy many more ; 
for the spirit seldom will move the procrastinating, lazy man, until the 
setting sun compels him to light his candles for the evening and mid- 
night toil.' 

If using the eyes in the evening cannot be avoided, such reading 
or study should be selected as is not connected with great mentd 
eflbrt, since thb always increases the tendency of blood to the 
head, and consequently the danger of injury to the eyes. Writing, 
when it does not require much thought, is preferable to reading, 
as an evening employment. 



73 Sympathy of the Eye with other Orgam. 

We are next told of the wonderful and intimate sympathy of the 
eyes with all the other organs of the body. No organ gives us a 
more striking indication of the general state of health ; and tliere 
is no other whose strength depends so much on the general vigor 
of the system. From this, Ur. Reynolds infers, that the same 
rules which are necessary to keep the body in health, should be 
observed by the student who would secure clear and distinct vision* 
The enjoyment of free, pure air, a daily and regular amount of ex- 
ercise, and such an arrangement of the dress as shall not interfere 
with the perfect freedom of circulation, even if it be at the ex- 
pense of letting the cravat or the stock sit more loosely about the 
neck than fashion should dictate, or at the sacrifice of other of the 
modem false notions of taste, are as important to the eyes as to the 
general health. In consequence of this sympathy, disorder in 
other important organs, especially in the organs of digestion, seri- 
ously affects the eyes ; and any violent effort, particularly if it be 
of such a nature as to produce a flashing or darkness over the 
eyes, must inevitably weaken them. 

Strict temperance in eating and drinking, Dr. R. regards as an 
indispensable requisite for the preservation of healthy eyes, and 
asks, 

•To whnt are we to attribute the clear bend? of tbe ancient pbiloso- 
phers? Tbeir works are not tbe production of congested brains. Tlieir 
eyes looked out u|>on nature with a dear vision, to tbe end of life. Unlike 
tbe students of the present day, they exercised their liuibs as well as 
tbeir minds. They studied and thought in tbe oiien air. Tbe brain 
was not tbe only organ that was tasked ; nnd therefore it was not op- 
pressed with the blood Itelonging to other parts of tbe body. Again, 
they were obedient to the wholesome laws of tem|)erance. Therefore, 
their vessels were not filled, an is tbe case with too many of our students, 
to almost apoplectic fulness. Among tl;e multitudes of our bard stu- 
dents, who complain of weakness of the eyes, a vast proportion may 
attribute the misfortune to a total neglect of these first principles of 
heultb.' 

We reproach and loathe the man whose eyes are red and weeping 
with the effects of intemperate drinking ; while we cordially pity 
purblind students, as in some sense, martyrs to the cause of learning* 
Dr. R. however, administers a rebuke which, we fear, is too often 
merited. 

' A closer examination of their history presents a very different result. 
Our sympathy may grow cool, if we regard them with a piiysiologic eye. 
It is a love of tbe flesh, more than a love of tbe spirit, that too often 
clouds tbeir vision. It is too much food, crowding, with imnecessary 
blood, the tender vessels of tbe retina. It is too little exercise, allowing 
these accumulated fluids to settle down into fatal congestion. It is posi- 
tions wholly at variance with tbe freedom of tbe circulation ; and various 
other imprudences, which are the results of carelessness, or unjustifiable 



Symptamt of Undue Use. 7S 

j^orance. ^ The day-laborer may eat what he will, proTided it is whole- 
some, and his eyes will not suffer. But let the student, who is called 
upon to devote, not only his eyes, but his brain, to severe labor, live upon 
highly nutritious food, and such as is difficult of digestion, and we shall 
«oon see how his vision will be impaired, through the vehement and 
persevering determination of blood to the head, which such a course 
must inevitably occasion.*' So speaks Beer, whose extensive opportu- 
nities of observation have, perhaps, never been exceeded. The daily 
practice of every observing oculist, is filled with coincident experience.' 

The necessity of a suitable amount of sleep, Dr. R. urges as 
not less essential to the health of the eyes than of the body. None 
of the organs of the body more need regular, daily alternation 
of activity and repose than the eyes ; and ' they reason falsely who 
think they gain time, when they steal it from the hours of sleep.* 
But be warns us that excess may be injurious even in sleep. 

The amount of labor to which the eyes are subjected, roust 
be varied according to their original powers, the diversity of 
which is very great. The eye is not exempt from the general law 
of the system which requires that each organ must exercise its natu- 
ral functions in order to secure its full developement. ^Many men 
daily impair, or destroy their eyes, by immoderate use ; not a few 
have done the same by too little ; ' and both extremes are to be 
avoided. 

But however varied the natural condition and powers of the 
eyes may be, there are symptoms produced by an undue use, 
which should be carefully noticed. If then we find it necessary to 
bring objects nearer than usual to the eyes, — if we have sensations 
of painful distention or increased heat about the eyes, — involun- 
tary tears, — a moderate but uncomfortable headache, especially 
about the eyebrows, — a thin cloud passing suddenly before the 
eyes, — the appearance of a circle or rainbow surrounding objects, 
— and especially any visible inflammation of the eye, or its lid, we 
ought to consider these symptoms as indications of disease, and give 
the organs timely repose. 

Dr. R. then gives some general directions as to the surest and 
speediest mode of restoring the eyes when thus affected, to a 
healthy condition, of which we can only give 'a brief notice. He 
recommends, as the first remedy, to give the eyes a season of 
repose, which is * better accomplished by a change, than by entire 
cessation from labor.' To close the eyes during the day, and 
take a few turns in the open air, or round the room, if done 
often, even for a few minutes, will be of essential benefit. When 
there is an unnatural determination of blood to the eyes, benefit 
may be derived by stimulating baths of water with salt or mustard, 
fiDr tbe feet. Perhaps the best of all remedies would be to aban* 

VOL. v. — NO. II. 7 



^4 Common Enron in Regard to the Ejfa. 

don books altogether, to travel moderately, ^ to wander in the woods 
and meadows, and refresh the misused organs by the endless alter- 
nations of nature's wofks.' 

One invariable caution is here given : — ^ 7%c tyes, when in this 
condition, should never be used at all, immediately after awaking 
from sleep in the morning, tffier meals, or by candle light, ^ Our 
experience leads us to believe that the sufTerer, in such cases, 
should also avoid all attention to the kindling of a morning fire, — 
a severe trial to a student's eyes. And we cannot help remarking 
here, how much straining of the eyes is spared by the use of the 
Russian stove, and other modes of heating a room which put the 
fire out of view, without rendering the air of the room impure. 
Agreeable as the established habit of Americans may be, of gazing 
at the fire, it cannot fail to injure the eyes ; and no one who has 
not passed a winter in a room warmed in the manner alluded to, 
can imagine the difference. 

The last direction given by Dr. Reynolds is, to wash the eyes 
frequently during the day, either in cold or warm water, as is 
found most agreeable. We have known a case, in wiiich very 
warm water was found the best remedy for weakness of the sight. 

Among the prevalent habits of students by which the eyes are 
injured. Dr. R. mentions the irritation produced by rubbing them 
on awaking in the morninti;, a practice which has, in some cases, 
occasioned permanent and incurable disease. — exposing tlie eyes 
to a current of wind, — reading while the body is in a recum- 
bent position, — ^using the eyes too early after the system has been 
affected with serious disease, — exercising them too much in the 
examination of minute objects, — and the me of tobacco. 

But in the opinion of Dr. R., the very measures which are taken 
to relieve the eyes, often give rise to the most serious evils. He 
remarks, that the popular plan of using green glassea, in a vast 
proportion of cases, instead o( diminishing weakness, increases it ; 
and that they should only be used, when exposed to a glare of 
light for any length of time, which cannot be moderated in any 
other way. 

He next warns us against the use of eye waters, as a practice 
' that has aided in the destruction of thousands of eyes.' * The 
student whose eyes are affected should never use a stronger colly- 
rium than good river water, without the counsel of some skilful, 
well informed physician.' He endeavors to enforce this advice 
by an anecdote of a celebrated eye water, which made the fortune 
of a family in Paris by the wondtM-ful cures it wrought, and which 
proved to be — the water of the Seine ! 

The last direction given for the preservation of the sight is, that 
the student should exercise the eye in the examination of distant 



Use of SptdacUi. 75 

objects, that it may not lose the power of adapting itself to objects 
at different distances, and that the muscles may retain their flexi- 
bility in promoting these changes. 

Dr. R. then gives in detail the indications by which an indi- 
vidual may determine the precise time when spectacles should be 
usedy and directions by which the glasses may be adapted to the 
actual condition of the eyes, which would be highly valuable to 
all, as old age approaches. We can only quote the remark, 
that the eyes are often injured by deferring too long the use of 
artiGcial lenses, when those of the eye are defective; and that it is 
an error to suppose, that the decay of the organs will be retarded 
by putting off the use of spectacles. 

Weakness of eyes is often placed to the account of Greek and 
Hebrew characters. Dr. R. has found however, that in many 
cases, disease ascribed to these, could be traced to faults and follies 
in diet and regimen ; and he believes that there is nothing essen- 
tial 10 the study of Greek and Hebrew, which is peculiarly calcu- 
lated to injure the sight. But he remarks, that where it does pro- 
duce evil, it is probably owing, in a large number of cases, to the 
superficial knowledge of our students, which compels them to 
pore over the page, and search anxiously through the dictionary 
and grammar, until the brain is feverish as well as the eyes, a 
drudgery from which the ^ thorough scholar ' is in a great meas- 
ure delii'ered. 

This leads Dr. R. to mention another evil in our modes of edu- 
cation, to which we have often alluded. 

'Many of our young men fit themselves for admission to the University 
** in a hurry." Almost everytliing is done " in a hurry " in our country ; 
perhaps nothing more so than the business of education. Thus they ' 
are comfieiled to study, day and niglit, in order to be prepared for the ap- 
proaching examination. Eyes that have been accustomed to little use, 
are suddenly called to steady and laborious action. Can one be surprised 
at the result, that such immoderate use of the organ should weaken it?' 

The wonder seems to be, that so many escape the effects of these 
efforts, and of the intense study which superficial preparation ren- 
ders necessary afterwards. « 

Dr. R. concludes by urging attention to this subject, ^ as a sol- 
emn duty upon all who regard their individual happiness, or desire 
to render their usefulness as extensive as possible, by bringing all 
the powers which God has bestowed upon them, into ftiU and per- 
manent activity.' He urges it especially upon the clergy, and re- 
marks, that ' they, above all men^ are least excusable, if they 
wantonly suffer any of these powers, from ambition, neglect, or 
unjustifiable ignorance, to be squandered or lost.' 



76 Ambition and Emulation. 

Such are the leading topics of an article, which ought to be in 
the hands of every student, and parent, and teacher. We have 
endeavored to give such an account of it as shaH excite attention, 
and lead to observation and inquiry, on a subject of vital impor- 
tance to the interests of learning, as well as humanity. We re- 
joice to hear that the author is revising and extending this essay, 
for separate publication ; and especially, that he will not allow it to 
be printed in small type. We hope it will thus be placed within 
the reach of all our readers, even if their sight be impaired; and 
we earnestly commend it to their perusal. 



[For the Anoalt of Education «] 
REW^ARDS IN SCHOOLS. 

Few persons can be found who agree precisely upon the sub- 
ject of rewards and punishments. The general tendency in this, 
as in most other things, connected with school discipline, is to 
extremes, — when it is extremes which should be particularly 
avoided, and which are so surely dangerous. 

Many persons are of opinion that medals and certificates are 
injurious, because they excite emulation ; that threats and prom- 
ises are bad, because they create false motives, even for good 
results ; and that every degree of punishment is cruel and unne- 
cessary. Others, on the contrary, maintain, that children will not be 
led, or governed, without stimulants of some kind ; that it is not in 
their nature to love virtue for its own sake ; and that they will 
inevitably be ruined, if not constantly checked and corrected, 
urged and impelled, from their infancy upwards. It seems to me, 
that, as usual, there is some truth on both sides of the question, 
and that the correct theory and practice lie between them. 

Let us first consider how far rewards and punishments adminis- 
tered in school, excite ambition and emulation. If I understand 
these two passions, there is a vast difference in their nature and 
tendency. Ambition, is a strong desire to attain something in 
t^«c//'de«V(ii/e,— emulation is a wish to excel others. The one 
must lead to good, if its possessor be a high-minded character ; the 
other, on the contrary, must be a rank weed amid the fairest of 
flowers. Now if this be true, ambition may always be excited, if 
the object placed in view be an exalted one ; emulation never 
should be tolerated, be the object what it mav ; for it is closely 
connected with envy, hatred, and a host of evils too numerous tQ 



MtiaU and Prizu. 77 

mention.* Noir it will readily be allowed, that either of these 
emotions may spring up in the heart, without external incentives ; 
and that without medals, or rewards of any kind, children may be 
led to feel and cherish all the worst effects of emulation. On the 
other hand, I hold it to be equally true, that all tliese things may 
be freely made use of, without any of these injurious effects ensuing. 

A teacher can render almost any thing a reward or a punishment 
to his pupil, by his own manner of considering it. For instance, I 
once had an empty seat placed at my side in the school. I soon 
perceived a child who was mischievous and idle. I said, ^ Come 
here and sit by me, you are too naughty to sit among good 
children ; — I cannot trust you at any distance from me until you 
are better.' The child cried bitterly at what he deemed a punish- 
ment ; and soon behaved well enough to resume his former seat. 
Not long after, I saw another whose diligence and attention gave 
me peculiar pleasure ; I called him with a smile, to sit on the same 
seat. ' Come to me/ said I, * I love to have you near me, when 
you are so good.' The smiling happiness of this child sufficiently 
testified his comprehension of the spirit of my arrangements. 

Now I was myself in the constant habit of using medals ; but 
it was my desire and endeavor to make such a use of them as 
should counteract, instead of encouraging, emulatk)n. Qy the 
older pupils, — children of eight and nine years, — they were con- 
sidered only as trifles, of little importance in themselves, — simply 
as a proof of my approbation of tlieir improvement ; and so little did 
they value them as marking their superiority to olhere, — that they 
would at all times yield them readily to any of their companions 
who might, in my opinion, have merited them equally — that is, 
who had made equal proficiency, according to their age, means, 
capacity, &ic. It should always be a teacher's aim, from the first 
entrance of a new pupil into his school, to create in him a strong 
affection for his schoolmates, — a disinterested desire for the mutual 
good of all, — and I do not believe this to be so difficult as is gen- 
erally imagined ; particularly, if he see in the teacher an ardent 
wish for the equal happiness of all committed to his care,^-even 
at the sacrifice of his own. Good as well as evil is contagious ; 
and as truly as * a soft answer turneth away wrath'<— or a harsh one 
provokes it, so truly do love, and gentle disinterestedness, and 

* We believe that our correipondeDt'i definitions of these termi axe in accord* 
ance with their use bj a l&rse part of the communitj, but we doubt whether 
thej are entirely correct. We care very little however, for terms ; and if othera 
think proper to present the lotm ifex€€Uenee (noi eamparative but positive excel* 
Imee,). under the name otanUnhan, as a motive in educationj and to condemn 
permmal rivalry under the name of emvlation, we shall agree with them entirelj, 
■Miovfls we suspect that more good will be aceomplisoed bj employing one* 
qjiifiocal tanof. 

7* 



78 DisintereittdnesM to he CuJiivattd. 

patient kindness, ensurt a degree, at least, of the same virtues, from 
all within the magic circle of their influence. The first time each 
little child of three or four years old, who deserved a medal fh>ni 
any cause, and had it awarded to him, was asked whether he would 
not rather bestow it on a companion, who also had been good,— - 
the wondering little creature invariably answered, *No, I had 
ratlier have it myself.' I seldom remembered to have heard such 
an answer given by any child the second time ; not that 1 insisted 
upon his relinquishing it, or deprived him of it, for not doing so, 
for that would have been unjust ; but I endeavored to let him see 
by looking into his own little heart, that he was not quite happy 
in loving himself better than his companion ; that the smiles and 
approbation of his parents for his merited reward, were still insui^ 
ficient to compensate him for the little, reproving voice in his own 
heart, which told him he had been selfish. Perhaps, at a second 
trial, he might yield reluctantly ; but the pleasure he saw he had 
given to another, — ^the bright smiles which meet him on every side, 
and the marked love and approbation of his instructor, seemed 
ample compensation for his trifling loss ; while, at anotlier time, 
when, perhaps, he himself may be the receiver, he will not fail to 
feel the difference in his sensations. He will thus early begin to 
realize, that it is in truth ' more blessed to give than to receive.' 
This is an example only ; but it will serve to show that rewards 
may be used to excite generous, rather than selfish, feelings ; and 
it is only one of many instances, which might be adduced to illus* 
trate the same truth. 

I think prizes, as they are generally given, are injurious ; be* 
cause all who desire, and who strive to acquire them cannot 
possibly receive them. Little gifts, bestowed occasionally and 
unexpectedly by the teacher, as marks of genera) affection or ap- 
probation, are far better, — though they will never be requisite in a 
school properly governed. If a teacher be really impartial, he will 
seldom be accused of favoritism, as some might apprehend. Child-* 
ren are quick to see their own defects, and the merits of others, if 
a teacher be uniformly judicious, and affectionate in like proportion 
to aU, Indeed, from close observation of my own former, childbb 
feelings, and those of the many committed to my care, I am 
kiclined to think that the most universal principle, — the strongest 
and earliest felt in the mind of a child, — is 9l principle of justice* 
It is this whk^h nine times out often produces the unpleasant fbibld 
of tale-telling ; and it is this too, which leads to much that is good, 
and much that is evil, in the human character, according as the 
iofent mind is led to generous or to selfish emotk>ns. Let us be 
etutious, above all things, to examine well the internal principle 
from which a child's impulses proceed, before we incline to pio* 
Bounce b fiivor of, or against them. 



Teacher^ Seminanf at Andover. 70 

Let the teacher be ever on the watch for rising emotions of 
vanity j or of roortiBcation, in such scholars as are really superior or 
inferior^ by natural endowments, to others ; checking the one, by 
showing that gratitude only is due to Him, who has bestowed 
superiority in some things, and who has thus rendered vanity more 
culpable ; and eikiouraging the other^ by showing him^ that if he 
uses the powers he has to the utmost, he will not fail to give 
satisfaction, not only to his earthly friends, but to his God. And 
there will always be points in both characters^ which, if skilfully 
investigated, may equalize, if not turn the scale. Attention to all 
these minute points, is absolutely imppssible in a large school ; and 
yet, how much more important is it to the temporal and eternal 
welfare of a child, than learning just such a quantity, of just such 
things! 

ElPBKIKHCB, OR THB AOTHOK OF ' HlHTf TO TXACHSKf .' 



1*EACHERS' SEMINARY AT ANDOVER. 

From the commencement of our editorial labors, we have earn- 
estly maintained the importance of establishing Seminaries for 
Teachers as the only effectual mode of improving our common 
schods. But that which the experience of Europe has settled as 
the first principle of a thorough system of national education, has 
been received with doubt or opposition by many in our country. 
We have therefore watched with deep interest the progress of 
every effinrt of this kind ; and we are gratified in receiving the fa- 
vorable account of the state of the Seminary at Andover, contained 
in the following extract of a letter from a gentleman connected 
with it. 

* The Teachers' Seminary has been established about four years 
and a half. During this time there has been a constant increase 
of the number of those who design to make teaching a profession : 
and the founders are fully satisfied that such an institution is highly 
important to the best interests of the country, and will be sustained 
by the pubUc. 

The difficulties with whk;h, in its infancy, it has been obliged to 
OODtend, are constantly diminishing. Arrangements are now com- 
pleted, by which the price of board is reduced to less^an a dollar 
a week. A fiirm is attached to the commons, so that students may 
tom their exercise to account. Many, during the past vear, have 
been able to pay half of their board bill, firom the avails of their 
labor. 



89 Wmoii Fenude Asiociatum. 

one inflamed or injured brain, or feeble constitution, may be as- 
cribed to the want of this knowledge. 

We were led to this train of thought by the First Report of the 
Ladies' Association for Educating Females at Jacksonville, Illinois. 
In this case, the spirit of benevolence was not only enlisted for a 
noble object, but directed to the most important and efficient 
means of accomplishing it. Tlie hearts of th^pe ladies were 
touched with the destitute condition of the children of the West, 
and their minds, accustomed to reflect and combine on a scale 
more extended than that of the objects before them, devised a 
plan, not for establishing schools in a neighborhood, or a village, or 
introducing this, or that peculiar plan, but for Educating Female 
Teachers. In a fonner number, we alluded to the deep interest 
felt by some of the ladies of our country in this object, and their 
conviction, that this is one indispensable means for preventing the 
ruin of the rising generation. In a letter from a lady in one of 
the Western States, not connected with this Association, are the 
following remarks on this point. 

* We who live at the West, are Ix^ginning to grow faint at heart at the 
immense (lis|)ro])orti()ii of menus to meet this mighty demand ; and in 
moments of discouru^etneiit, to feci that there is no help sufficient to 
save ns ; tliat this nation will grow up under the predominating influ- 
ence of ij;nornncc and fannticism, anarchy and misrule. Let any intel- 
ligent man take the dntn and compare them with what has been done 
the past five years, or with what is now doing, and with almost despairing 
heart, he will join in the declaration, that we have come to a most alarm- 
ing crisis ; that unless means and eiforts are almost miraculously in- 
creased, the cominir generation, will soon, as a majority, be ignorant and 
dehased ; and then our country is lost ! New measures must be devised, 
new efforts he made, the work of saving the nation be undertaken as a 
work, that with the blessing of Providence, can and ahaU be done. We 
need s<»nie organized system of o])eration in the first place to prepare 
female teachers, and in the next place, to station them in appropriate 
fields of labor.' 

The writer then goes on to state, that an extensive acquaint- 
ance \s ith the females of our country satisfies her, that there are 
numbers capable and ready to meet a call to this work, if the 
means of education could be provided. 

In the Association before us, we have the first public evidence 
that other ladies at the West participate in these feelings and these 
views ; and that they will not content themselves with saying, 
* Be ye warmed ! Be ye filled ! ' 

We have just given our readers an account of the Seminary for 
teachers at Andover, and they are already informed of the forma- 
tion of several in the Western States. It is highly encouraging 
that we are able to follow up these accounts, with evidence that 



fVaman formed to Teach. 88 

there is energy and benevolence at the West, prepared to sustain 
such mstitutions when they are established ; and we hope they 
will not be left to struggle, unassisted by the East. 

After alluding to the increasing attention to female education, 
which characterizes the age, the report presents an answer to the 
question, — What is the proper sphere of usefulness for woman ? 
— ^in the language of the late Joseph Emerson, * That nature has 
formed her peculiarly for the office of teaching,^ 

'But if there is anything in herncUure which indicates that instruction 
is her province, much more is there in her circumstances. That period 
of human life in which the mind is most susceptible of deep and lasting 
impression, is almost exclusively under her care and influence. In the 
relations which she sustains as a mother, and elder si:»ter, slie necessarily 
becomes a teacher. The tender buds of immortality are coniniittcd to 
her keeping, — she must nourish and protect the opening blossom. It is 
in the nursery, the infant play ground, and at the domestic fireside, that 
she imparts those precepts, and instils those principles, which grow with 
their growth, and strengthen with their strengtJi, and which give char- 
acter to the man. Her mode of instruction and illustration is fitted to 
excite the interest, and engage the attention, in spite of the volatility of 
childhood. And is not her influence to the opening moral and mental 
faculties, like the delicate instrument of the mechanist, which moves with 
facility and without harm, among complicated wheels and springs, where 
a coarser instrument would crush and destroy ? Hence it has been very 
justly supposed that for the first ten or twelve years, female teachers 
arc preferable to any other ; and in some parts of our country, scarcely 
any other are employed in common schools during the sunmier months. 
We might farther observe, that the circumstances of many are such, that 
they can easily be spared from home to engage in the business of instruc- 
tion. Add to this, the comparative cheapness of the terms on whi<'li they 
may be employed, and does not the voice of wisdom say, let them be 
educated and qualified for this important work ? 

To guard againt misapprehension, they tell us what they under- 
stand by * education/ 

Whatever else it may be, it is not that which unfits its possessor for 
the common duties, and sober realities of life. It is no part of the influ- 
ence of a good education to make one helpless, indolent, anrl proud. 
The kind of education we would promote, prepares a |)erson for severe 
application of mind, and for the correct and ready discharge of domestic 
duties. It enlarges, strengthens, and invigorates the mental powers. It 
teaches to reason, reflect and act. It enlightens the conscience, — it cul- 
tivates and controls the moral feelings. In short, it prepares its pos- 
seaeor for the highest state of happiness and usefulness, in this and a 
future world. We do not suppose that every one will be able to |)ursue 
her studies to that extent which is desirable ; but many may (lo this 
advantageously to some extent, even with limited means; and all should 
feel it an indispensable duty to quaUfy themselves, as well as circum- 
stances will admit, for active usefulness.' 

The Association was formed about a year since, by ladies im- 
pressed with these views, and convinced, that while the females 



84 Edueaium of Jftstem Femak Ttacken. 

who go from the East in order to do good as teachers, perform the 
most important service, they can never be sent in sufficient nwn«> 
bers to supply the wide intellectual wastes of the valley of the 
Mississippi, and that if this object is ever accomplished, it must be 
by educat'mg the daughters of the West. They commenced a 
correspondence with ladies in different parts of the State, and re- 
ceived encouraging evidence of interest in the object, and of the 
facility of obtaining suitable persons as candidates for this office. 
Their receipts amount to two hundred and forty-six dollars and 
forty cents, and five young ladies in Jacksonville have received aid 
from the society. 

The report concludes with a brief statement of the wants of our 
country, founded on a former article of this work, and a noble ex- 
hortation, which seems to have all the energy of a resolution, to go 
OD with these efforts. 

We have agidn and again urged in this work the importance of 
a society for the gratuitous education of Teachers, as well as of 
seminaries adapted to their purpose. We have maintained, thai 
it is not less imperiously demanded than the society for the edu- 
cation of ministers — that the pulpit must become powerless, unless 
the school has trained an intelligent population, to hear its instruc- 
tions and appeals — and tliat it is every day losing its power over a 
large part of the community, from the ignorance which the want 
of competent teachers produces. But we have reasoned and 
urged in vain. We have endeavored to interest individuals in this 
object ; but prejudice questions the necessity, or the utility of pre- 
paring a teacher for his difficult task by any previous education ; 
timidity sees a ^ lion in the way ; ' religious zeal cannot discern 
anything to awaken its interest, because it is accustomed to labor 
only for the superstructure, and forgets that it needs a foundation ; 
and apathy can neitlier see nor hear. 

We welcome with peculiar pleasure this first branch of the As- 
sociation we have proposed ; and although we presume this efibrt 
is the result of the same views on other minds, we tender our cor- 
dial thanks to the ladies of Illinois for thus laying the comer 
stone of The American Teachers' Education Society. May 
their noble plan be executed ; and may they labor and excite 
others to labor by their example and influence, * till (in their own 
language) we have a nation of^ educated mothers, and well qualified 
teachers, — till the cloud of mental darkness which now hangs over 
us is rolled away, and the light of science and religion slunes in 
unbroken splendor.' 



ie Butmctian tn New Twk. 85 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN NEW YORK. 

The followmg particulars in regard to the public schools of New 
York, are stated by the Governor, in his late message, founded on 
returns received from almost every town and ward in the State. 

Namber of towM and wtfda . 835 Taacheri* wtM* brooffat over t714,900 99 

School districts 9,8H5 Interest on scnool bouses 

Dittriets reported .... 9,393 (cost $9,116,050) . $166,960 

Children in the state ftom 5 to 16 years 534,002 Books at 50 oU. per sebo- 

Nomber instrueted in Common Schools lar, 965,600 

1883 531,940 Fiielat$10ibr6aebsobool 

Common School Fund . . $1,791,331 77 bouse, .... 95,800 

ReTeoue the lastjreaf . $104,300 75 $548,380 01 

Amount paid for Common Schoob, ■ 

ehieflj for wagea of teachers. Whole expenies of Schools esti- 

— Public mbney distributed— mated, .... $1,963,670 97 

from taxes on towns 



ciUea . $197,614 37 {IBXT) (1833) 

from the school fend 100,000 00 Academies .... 33 67 

local fund* . 18.538 56 giudenu in do. . 9440 5506 

«•«..»»« Of these in higher braoehes and 

« .. ,,.., ^3*^^*393 classical studie* . 709 339$ 

-Contnbuted by whab- Colleges (2 mMlical) . . T 

itantsofdisuicts 398,137 04 Students in do. ... 1135 

Total $7144190 97 Literary Fund $!I69,573 10 

Average amount paid by each dis- Revenue last year . . 15,510 08 

trict for initnictioi>— Distributed to academies for pay- 

from public money $39 05 ing instructors . . 19,000 00 

by the inhabitanta . 40 35 Balance of revenue to be devoted 

79 40 to insttuotioa of Commoa 

Average paid for each pupil School teachers . 3,510 06 

from public money . . 59 Fond alreadhr accumulated for the 

by the inbabitaots . . 74 1 33 purpose from the same source 10,000 00 

From these statements it appears not only that the funds for 
education in New York, are in a flourishing condition, but that 
they have been efficiently applied in promoting the cause. 

In place of receiving returns from one half the towns, nearly the 
whole number have made their report. The number of school dis- 
tricts has increased threefold since 1816 ; and the number instructed 
in common schools, has increased more rapidly than the population, 
thus showing that the period of instruction is extended. The 
people have been induced to pay an amount for instruction, greater 
than that which they have received from the public treasury, and 
that amount has increased 0100,000, since the year 1830. The 
number of academies has doubled smce the year 1827 ; the num- 
ber of students more than doubled; and the number of these 
engaged in classical studies, and the higher branches of English, 
has increased more than four-fold, during the same period. Such 
are the results of public aid, judiciously applied, and accompanied 
with the requisition of equivalent contributions on the part of the 
people. Assuming the cost of schools as estimated above, it ap- 
pears that three fourths of the whole expense is paid by the 
voluntary taxes or contributions of the people on each district, or 
nine times the amount received from the fund ; and schools have 
thus been kept, on an average, for three quarters of the year^ 

VOL. V. NO. II. 8 



86 Jmaimt of 7[iitum.—Teadken' I\mJ. 

But we are most gratified with seeing that the State of New 
York has a fund accumulated, and increasing, for the instruction 
of common school teachers. It is highly honorable to this great 
State, to have led the way in this most important measure for 
improving our schools. We earnestly hope that the means pro- 
vided will be speedily increased and efficiently applied, and that 
other states will be induced to follow the example. 

It will be seen that the average amount paid for the tuition of 
each pupil is $133 a year, an amount much smaller than that paid 
by the people of Massachusetts, without the aid of a fund. We 
hope that this cheapness of tuition will not be considered as one of 
the benefits of a fund which is to be sought in other states ; for we 
hesitate not to say, that with the ordinary mode of instruction, in 
our thinly settled districts, the only mode of securing competent 
teachers, will be to furnish a compensation more liberal than is now 
given. We shall have reason to rejoice when every state of the 
Union shall be able like the state of New York, to boast that it 

Erovides instruction for every one of its children; but we must not 
e satisfied until this instruction is communicated in the best way, 
and by the best qualified teachers, and this can never be hoped 
for, until the compensation given for training the minds and hearts 
of children in a school, shall be more liberal than tliat which is 
given for takbgcare of our cattle, or our stables. Few will be induced 
lo incur the labor and expense wliich are necessary to prepare for 
the more difficult task, unless it be also made more lucrative, while 
other professions equally useful, and more respected and profitable, 
ire open to them. Economy here disappoints itself. 

Since these remarks were in type, we have met with extracts 
fixMn the report of the Superintendent of Schools, in which he 
observes that the incompetency of teachers is still tlie great evil, 
and that it can only be remedied by a change in public opinion, 
and the allowance of a more liberal compensation. That the very 
effi^rt to prepare better teachers will produce some eflfect, is shown 
by facts analogous to those stated in connection with the Seminary 
at Andover. In the vicinity of the St. Lawrence Axjademy, where 
lectures on teaching have been delivered, the Superintendent states, 
that the people have been willing to pay $3 more than usual per 
month, for well qualified instructors. 

It appears that this liberal state also provides books for all the 
indigent members of Union College ; and assisted 73 young men 
in tliat institution, during the year 1833. 



Summary of School Returns. 



87 



MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL RETURNS. 

The first effects of the proposition for a school fund in Massa- 
chusetts, give cheering indications of its ultimate results. Circu- 
lars have been annually addressed, by order of the Legislature, to 
every town in the state, in which the Secretary called for an 
account of the state of the schools, in answer to a series of ques-' 
tions. It was hoped that in this manner, information would be 
collected, which would enable the Legislature to judge of the con- 
dition of public instruction in the Commonwealth, and of the best 
mode of promoting its improvement. But returns were not 
received firom more than one third of the towns in the state, and 
these to a great extent, imperfect ; and it was found indispensable 
that public interest should be excited on the subject, by some ofkt 
of legislative aid. 

At the last session of the Legislature, a school fund was estab- 
lished, and before determining the mode of distribution, it was 
resolved to demand again an account of the state of schools, with 
the condition annexed, that the districts from which no return 
should be received, should not enjoy the benefit of the first appli- 
cation of the fund. The consequence has been, that returns have 
been received fix)m 261 out of 305 towns, leaving only forty-four 
not reported. We are indebted to the kindness of the Secretary 
of State, for an abstract of these returns in 33 folio pages, whicn 
presents a very interestmg view of the state of schools, the num- 
ber of children and instructors, amount of wages, expenses and 
funds, books in use, &c., &c. The following is the summary of 
the returns, as given by the Secretary. We have added a few 
items, enclosed in brackets. 



Nidober of towot fiom vUeh retanM 

have been received, 961 

Behool Diatrieu, l^SSl 

Hale children attending lehool from 

4 to 16 rearg of age, 67,499 

Female children attendinf aebool 

from 4 to 16 jeart of afo, 63,798 

(ToUl In 961 towns,) 131,217 
<W)Mlemiafberofchildi«n in Ma*- 

eaehoeetti. flroro 5 to 15) 138,590 
Over 16 ana under 91, unable to 

read and %rrite, 1S8 

Mate Inttnictort, 1,967 

iVmale Inatroetora, 9^ 

Dietrieu with local fundi, 71 



Amount railed b^ Tax fo euppoit 

■chooli, 



bj contribution to ■upport 
ackoola, 

(Total paid for Common Scbooli,) 

Average amoant paid for inatruo- 
tion in each diatriet. 

Average for each pupil, 

Averajro numbor of acbolara at- 
tending Aeadenuea and Private 
Schools, 

Eatimaled amount paid for tuitioa 
in Academiea, tec, 

(Total paid for inatmctioo,) 



•310,178,07 

$15,141,98 

395,390,15 

$144,2 
9,47 

94,749 
$976,575,75 
$601,806,99 



Numerous points of enquiry were embraced in the returns, 
principally concerning the organization and condition of the schools, 
which could not easily be condensed. Other particulars have b^en 
statM 80 variously and imperfectly, that a ^mmary would probably 
nuslead* We regret especially, that the wages of teachers couU 



86 Jtmmt of Tuition.— Te4icken' I\mJ. 

But we are most gratified with seeing that the State of New 
York has a fund accumulated, and increasing, for the instruction 
of common school teachers. It is highly honorable to this great 
State, to have led the way in this most important measure for 
improving our schools. We earnestly hope that the means pro- 
vided will be speedily increased and efficiently applied, and that 
other states will be induced to follow the example. 

It will be seen that the average amount paid for the tuition of 
each pupil is ^133 a year, an amount much smaller than that paid 
by the people of Massachusetts, without the aid of a fund. We 
hope that this cheapness of tuition will not be considered as one of 
the benefits of a fund wliich is to be sought in other states ; for we 
hesitate not to say, that with the ordinary mode of instruction, in 
our thinly settled districts, the only mode of securing competent 
teachers, will be to furnish a compensation more liberal than is now 

S'ven. We shall have reason to rejoice when every state of the 
nion shall be able like the state of New York, to boast that it 
Erovides instruction for every one of its children; but we must not 
e satisfied until this instruction is communicated in the best way, 
and by the best qualified teachers^ and this can never be hoped 
for, until the compensation given for training the minds and liearts 
of children in a school, shall be more hberal than that which is 
given for taking care of our cattle, or our stables. Few will be induced 
to incur the labor and expense which are necessary to prepare for 
the more difficult task, unless it be also made more lucrative, while 
other professions equally useful, and more respected and profitable, 
ire open to them. Economy here disappoints itself. 

Since these remarks were in type, we have met with extracts 
fixMii the report of the Superintendent of Schools, in which he 
observes that the incompetency of teachers is still tlie great evil, 
and that it can only be remedied by a change in public opinion, 
and the allowance of a more Uberal compensation. Tliat the very 
effi^rt to prepare better teachers will produce some eflfect, is shown 
by facts analogous to those stated in connection with the Seminary 
at Andover. In the vicinity of the St. Lawrence Academy, where 
lectures on teaching have been delivered, the Superintendent states, 
that the people have been willing to pay $3 more than usual per 
month, for well qualified instructors. 

It appears that this liberal state also provides books for all the 
indigent members of Union College ; and assisted 73 young men 
in that institution, during the year 1833. 



Summary of School Returns. 



87 



MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL RETURNS. 

The first effects of the proposition for a school fund in Massa- 
chusetts, give cheering indications of its ultimate results. Circu- 
lars have been annually addressed, by order of the Legislature, to 
every town in the state, in which the Secretary called for an 
account of the state of the schools, in answer to a series of ques-' 
tions. It was hoped that in this manner, information would be 
collected, which would enable the Legislature to judge of the con- 
dition of public instruction in the Commonwealth, and of the best 
mode of promoting its improvement. But returns were not 
received firom more than one third of the towns in the state, and 
these to a great extent, imperfect ; and it was found indispensable 
that public interest should be excited on the subject, by some ofkt 
of legislative aid. 

At the last session of the Legislature, a school fund was estab- 
lished, and before determining the mode of distribution, it was 
resolved to demand again an account of the state of schools, with 
the condition annexed, that the districts from which no return 
should be received, should not enjoy the benefit of the first appli- 
cation of the fund. The consequence has been, that returns have 
been received irom 261 out of 305 towns, leaving only forty-four 
not reported. We are indebted to the kindness of the Secretajy 
of State, for an abstract of these returns in 33 folio pages, which 
presents a very interesting view of the state of schools, the num- 
ber of children and instructors, amount of wages, expenses and 
funds, books in use, &c., &c. The following is the summary of 
the returns, as given by the Secretary. We have added a few 
items, enclosed in brackets. 



Nidober of towot fiom vUeh retonM 

hmre be«a raeeived, 961 

Behool Dlttrieta, 9^1 

Mala ehildr«Hi attending lehool from 

4 to 16 rear* of age, 67,499 

Female eniJdren atteodinf aehool 

from 4 to 16 jeara of afo, 63,798 

(Totol la 961 towns,) 131,Xi7 
{Whole number of ebildien in Ma*- 

■aehoMtti. flroro 5 to 15) 138,590 
Over 16 ana under 91, unable to 

read aad write, 1S8 

Male Inttnietort, 1,967 

Female loatroetert, 9,388 

Diatrieu vitb local Atoda, 71 



Amount railed b^ Tax fo eappoit 

■chooli, 1310,178,87 

— — — bj contribution to ■upport 

tchoolg, $15,141,98 

(ToUl paid for Commeo Scboolf ,) 395,390,15 

Average amount paid for ia«truo- 
tion in eacli diatrict. $144,79 

Average for each pupil, 9,47 

Average numbor of ecbolare at- 
tending Aeademaei and Private 
Schools, 94,749 

Ettimaled amount paid for toitkMi 
in Academieg, &c., $976,575,75 

(Total paid for inetnictioo,) $601,896,99 



Numerous points of enquiry were embraced in the returns, 
principally concerning the organization and condition of the schools, 
which could not easily be condensed. Other particulars have b^en 
statM 80 variously and imperfectly, that a summary would probably 
mislead* We regret especially, that the wages of teachers couU 



88 Application of the I\ind, 

not be ascertained more definitely, but we are sorry to see that 
while the highest average wages in the large towns amount to 
30 dollars, the lowest are sometimes as small as five, four, and 
even three dollars per month. The whole amount paid for the 
support of the common schools, appears to be ^325,320,1 5. This 
sum divided among 5^51 school districts amounts to $144,52, 
which is contributed by the people, for the instruction of each 
district, or double the amount paid for each district in the state of 
New York. It is highly honorable to the people of Massachu- 
setts that without any of the excitement produced by a fund, they 
should have contributed thus liberally ; and we hope that notliing 
will be done to paralyze this generous spirit, or to induce tlie 
belief that these efforts are unreasonable, or the present tax 
oppressive. We rejoice in it especially as an evidence, that the 
iund appropriated need not be employed to support our schoolsy 
but that it may bey and ought to be employed in improving the 
itate of education, in rendering it more thorough and completCy 
in elevating the character of our teachers^ and in extending the 
benefit of higher schools to the deserving of all classes. 

This state will only yield to tlie voice of experience, if she 
refuses entirely to make any appropriation of this fund, which 
shall diminish the amount now contributed for the support of 
schools, and resolve to appropriate it ; 

1. To aid districts, where it is necessary, in providing better 
school houses, in paying a more liberal compensation to teachers, 
and in providing a library, or globes, maps and other instruments 
of instruction, which cannot be procured without this aid. 

2. In establishing free high schools, and classical schools on the 
plan of those in Boston ; in which pupils of talent and merit can 
receive gratuitous instruction in the higher branches. 

3. To assist in the organization of primary schools, wherever 
they are deemed expedient or necessary, in order to secure their 
proper regulation. 

4. To establish one or more institutions for the education of 
teachers for our common schools, or to endow scholarships for the 
purpose, in the Academies, or other institutions, in which a suitable 
course of instruction shall be given. 

5. To secure the proper application of this fund, by employing 
a General Superintendent, and County Commissioners for schools, 
who shall receive a compensation sufficient tb enable them to 
devote the time and attention requisite for watching over the most 
important concern of the state — the intelligence and character of 
its rising citizens. 

In regard to the appdntment of a Superintendent devoted to 
tfiis object, the remaivs df the Schocd ComnusaioneiB of Missouri 



Eisex CaurUtf Teadten^ Association. 89 

well desenre attention*— ' The desultory and imperfect reports of 
several hundred scattered individuals, can never give a complete 
view of the defects of our schools, or the best mode of remedy* 
ing them. Hence, one man familiar with the subject should 
traverse the whole ground, discover its actual state, compare dif- 
ferent schools under different influences, ascertain the origin of the 
apathy and neglect so prevalent, and the measures, which would 
be at once effectual and acceptable. The energies of a single, 
well-balanced mind should be employed in collecting and combin- 
ing materials, which shaU give greater force and efficiency to the 
system.' 

In addition to this, let it be remembered, that the committee or 
inspectors of a district, can never be expected to give evidence of 
their own neglects or faults. How different would have been the 
accounts of some of the prisons of Massachusetts, had they been 
founded on the reports of^ Sheriff and Selectmen, scattered over 
the state, instead of the personal, thorough examination of disin- 
terested men, familiar with the subject ! And if Massachusetts 
deemed it worth while to employ mdividuals at a considerable 
expense, to examine the condition of her prisoners, and the rocks 
of her s^, shall she hesitate to incur an equal expense, to employ 
inspectors as skilful, in order to ascertain the condition and wants 
of her childreni We hope at least that ample time will be 
allowed for maturing the best system, and for removing any preju- 
dkes which may oppose its adoption. To legislate in haste, on 
such a subject, would be to sacrifice the best mterests of the 
state* 



MISCELLANY. 



Emsx County Txachkes' Associatioit. 

W6 regard associatioiiB of teachers as among the most importam 
means of elevating the character of the profession, as well as of promot- 
ing Improvements in education ; and we regret that we do not receive 
more frequent notices of them. We are much Indebted to the Secretaiy 
of the Essex County Association, Mass., for an account of their proceed- 
ings, which reached us, unfortunately, too late for oar last number. The 
ifth anDual meellof wss held at Topafield, on the 96th and 90tb of 
Noi?«mber, and was attended by three hundred persoii% all feeUpf 
dbap l y i le r sels d in the eeuse of educrtioe; and moiC of then msunsJUf 

•8 



90 School Laws. 

engaged as teachers or on school committees. Lectures of a highly practi' 
cal character were delivered on the following subjects. 1. Teaching 
Reading, Spelling and Defining. 2. A Reform in Education. 3w Ge-* 
ology and Mineralogy, with specimens, having particular reference to 
our own country. 4. On the defects in our common school system. 
5. On Extremes in Education. Each lecture was followed by a discus 
•ion. This Association desires to maintain a corresfiondence with other 
similar associations, whose communications should be addressed to the 
Rev. Gardner B. Perry, of Bradford, President, or Mr. Alfred Greenleaf, 
of Salem, Corresponding Secretary. The Society has a depository of 
School Books, Apparatus, and Specimens in Natural History, at To[>8- 
field, under the care of Mr. A. W. Pike, contributions to which, will be 
of course, acceptable as well as useful. We hof)e that the suggestions 
in the report, that the 'Annals of EMucation' should be furnished with 
official accounts of these meetings, may not be without influence. We 
hope for a history of that in Essex County. 

Examination of Teachers in Ohio. 

Ohio has taken an important step for the improvement of her schools. 
By a clause in the new school law, a board of five school examiners is 
appointed for every county, who are to examine publicly all male candi- 
dates for the office of teachers of common schools, on the first Tuesday 
of each month. They are in no case to grant a certificate unless the ap- 
plicant sustains a good moral character, and is qualified to teach the 
elementary branches. Certificates are valid only for two years, the 
term of office of the examiners. One school examiner is appointed by 
this board in each township, for the examination of female teachers. 

Proposed School Ststem in Missouri. 

The School Commissioners of Missouri have reported, that it is ex|)e- 
dient to establish a permanent school fund; to be formed by the sale of 
reserved school lands, and by a tax of one dollar on every free white 
male in the State for one year. The tax, they remark, will immediately 
produce forty thousand dollars, — the land, ultimately, one million five 
hundred thousand. They also propose a division of the State into 
•ohool districts, the appointment of district and county commissioners, 
^Cbe last being ex o&cio, inspectors or examiners of teachers,) and of a 
f ooeral Superintendent of schools. They also urge the establishment of 
a aeminary for the education of teachers. 

Proposed Remedies for Intemperance. 

> The Mlact eonnnittee of the English Parliament on drunkennosa, 
«noag other meana of cbaoking the progress of iatemperanee, propose 
tihiiihlnmt gf Tompenuioe Socaetiea, the pfovitkMa of public §•»- 



Mttfiool hcetmt$ cfid Exhibitiam. ftl 

dens and suitable places for athletic exercises in the open air, with the 
exclusion of all intoxicating liquors, the removal of all taxes on knowl- 
edge, and a national iytiemofedueaHony in which this should have a dis- 
tinct place as a topic of instruction. 

Musical Lecturx and Exhibitioits. 

It is pleasant to trace the Professors of the Boston Academy of Music 
in their course of activity, and to see the result in the increased interest 
of the community in vocal music. 

^At the request of the committee of the Church in Brattle street, Bos- 
ton, a lecture was delivered by Mr. Mason, on the importance of culti- 
vating vocal music, the errors and defects in the ordinary modes of per- 
forming sacred music, the various kinds of music, and the style adapted 
to different subjects and occasions, and the proper mode of employing a 
choir. 

These principles were illustrated by the execution of pieces of music 
of various characters, by the choir of the Academy. The performances 
were of a high order of excellence. They were listened to with deep 
interest by a large audience, and a copy of the lecture was requested for 
publication. As the result of this evening, measures were immediately 
taken, and a subscription commenced, for organizing a regular choir in 
this ancient church, (still bearing the marks of the revolutionary struggle,) 
to be formed of volunteers from among the members of the congregation. 

A specimen of musical performances was also given recently by the 
pupils of Mr. Fowle's school, in Boston, who have learned music under 
the care of Mr. Mason. It excited much interest, and gave decisive evi- 
dence ^f the practicability and benefits of combining musical instruction 
with the ordinary branches of education. A similar exhibition took 
place at the school of Mr. Thayer, of which we have been favored with 
the following account. 

*I attended, a few weeks since, an exhibition of the pupils of Mr. 
Thayer, Chauncy Hall School, and was much gratified to see how promi- 
nent a part was held by the exercises in Vocal Music. In the address 
of the teacher which preceded the exhibition, the strongest testimony 
was given to the value of this branch of instruction, as a grateful relief 
from graver studies, as an intellectual exercise in itself, and as a source 
of the happiest moral influences. I was delighted with the proficiency 
of the pupik, and with the interest with which these performances were re- 
garded by the auditors. The aptitude displayed by the scholars in these 
exereises eould leave no doubt of their success in their other studies. 
The exhibitions eonsisted of declamations, some of which were of origi- 
nal pieces, and others, translations fi*om and into the French, Latin and 
Greek languages. The musical exercises were interspersed, and con- 
liMod of jufenile hymoa, conveying generally some vrinable moral 



9i Example of Liberality. 

South Carolina College. 

Among the Tarious experiments tried in our country, the attempt was 
made in South Carolina, to establish and maintain a college^ from which 
Christian influence should be in a great measure excluded by the char- 
acter of its President. The number of students has declined from one 
hundred and iifly to fifty. The fine college buildings erected at the 
expense of the state, have fallen, in the language uf the Governor, into *a 
ruinous condition,' and the institution, into * a deplorable state of decay 
and disrepute.' He announces to the Legislature from authority deriyed 
from every quarter of the State, * that the faculty of the College have 
become so generally obnoxious to our fellow-citizens on the score of the 
supposed religious heresies of some of them, and of the relaxation of 
moral and general discipline, and have so irrevocably lost the public con- 
fidence, as suitable persons to guard the morals and mould the opinions 
of the rising generation, as to render a radical reform, and thorough reor- 
ganization of the institution, a measure of indispensable necessity, and the 
only practicable means of reviving its prosperity, and extending its useful- 
ness.' The only * supposed religious heresy,' so far as we have been able 
to learn, was the denial of the truth of Christianity. The officers have 
been requested to resign ; several new professors have been appointed ; 
tutors are to be dispensed with ; and a Committee of the Trustees has been 
chosen to revise the laws, and reorganize the institution, which was to be 
opened during the last month. It has been intimated that a gentleman 
distinguished in military and political life will be appointed to the Presi- 
dency. We earnestly hope that he will not hazard the reputation he has 
gained, by attempting a new and delicate task, requiring qualifications so 
dififerent Irom those of a statesman or a military officer. 

Schools in Africa. 

A female society in the city of New York have contributed (1505*85, 
for the support of schools in Africa; and have sent two teachers, both 
liberally e<lucated, to the colony of Liberia ; another fine example of 
female energy in good objects. 

Noble LtSERALirr. 

FiAeen gentlemen, at the head of whom we find the venerable Ste- 
phen Van Rensselaer, have contributed (1000 each, to support the press 
which is employed in circulating publications on Temperance. Are there 
no kindred spiritsi who will devote an equal sum for preparing a million 
of cbildreni now in ignorance, to read these publications? 

American School Socirtt. 

The officers of this Society have been hitherto employed in ssskipf 
Ibr in agent of the proper character, to eommeim iba freat woik l» 



The Deqf Muie. ^ 93 

which they are devoted, and which requires the undivided attention of 
one who understand! and feels its importance. They hope soon to ob- 
tain one ; and in the mean time, solicit information and aid from the 
friends of the cause. 

TXACHINO THE DuMB TO SfEAK. 

A paragraph has been going the rounds of the newspapers, announo- 
ing as an astonishing novelty, that the Abbe Jamet of Normandy * has 
succeeded in teaching a person to speak who has been deaf from his 
nativity!' This novelty is now of 350 years standing. Pedro Ponce 
instructed four deaf mutes in Spain to write and B|>eak in 1570, and 
John Bonet published the method in 1620. In 1659, Dra. Holder and 
Wallis succeeded in the same difficult task in England ; and it has evtr 
gince been a regular branch of instruction in that country. The tones of 
the voice in such persons, have always been * singular,' and generally 
« unpleasant.' 

pROVISIOir FOR THE DeAF MuTE. 

By the report of a committee of the Georgia Legislature relative to the 
recommendation of the Grovemor respecting an institution for the edu- 
cation of the deaf and dumb, it appears that there are, out of a popula- 
tion of thirteen million souls in the United States, 6200 deaf and dumb, 
equivalent, it is said, to about the same proportion in Europe. Out of 
900,000 souls in Oeorgia, there are 140 deaf and dumb ; one half are 
indigent. The committee recommend the same to be educated at the 
institutions at Hartford and Philadelphia, and that $3000 be appropriated 
for the expense thereof, limiting the persons who are to receive the ben- 
efit, to such as are between the ages of 12 and 20. They also recom- 
mend Congress to grant a township of land for this purpose to each 
State ; and recommend the State of Georgia to contribute $10,000 for the 
erection of such an institution by the Southern States. 

We also learn, that in consequence of a recent visit by Mr. Weld of the 
American Asylum at Hartford, and the exhibition of several of bis pu- 
pils, provision has been made for the education of the deaf mutes of &. 
CaroGna at tliat Institution. 

UWIVERSITT OF PeNNSTLVANIA. 

The academical faculty, or faculty of arts, of the university of Penn- 
sylvania has been reorganized, under the superintendence of Dr. Ludlow 
m provost, and all its offices filled. The provost was recently inaugu- 
rated, and delivered an address to a large assembly, comprising the stu- 
dents, professors and trustees of the university, the city autboritieSi 
a eommittee of the legislature, and the judges of the United Statei 
conna. 



04 Change of Opinion in France. 

Steubenvilxb Female Semihart. 

The principal of thia ioBtittition requests us to correct an error into 
which we were Ie<l by the cattilogue, and to state that only eight out of 
twelve officers are actually employed in inatructxon, or one to every 
twelve piipiln. We shall rejoice when all the high schools of our coun- 
try make us liberal provision as this. 

Change of Public Opinion in France. 

It is matter of history that the * Declaration of mental independence,' 
by which Robert Owen attempted to disgrace our country — that prop- 
erty, marriage and religion were the great curses of society— originated 
with the revolution in France, and has rarely been publicly avowed in any 
other country. Many years have not elapsed since religion, especially, 
was driven with contempt, from literary society and literary institutions 
in France. The experiment has been made, and the following extracts 
will show the opinion of Frenchmen as to the result. 

At a meeting of about two hundred scientific and literary persons, 
lately held at Poitiers in France, various questions of importance were 
discussed, and the following resolution, among others, was adopted : 

'The Scientific Congress of France, sitting at Poitiers, feels it its duty 
to declare the disgust it has felt, at the immorality which degrades many 
of the literary productions of the present day. It expresses its hope that 
in future, authors, to whatever school they may belong, will not depart 
from those rules which are established by good sense and propriety. It 
calls upon every man, who believes that the fine arts and literature ought 
to be directed to the improvement of mankind, to concur with it in en- 
deavoring to eflfect a reform of this evil.' 

Victor Cousin, who was employed by the Government to examine the 
echools of Europe, says — 

* Religion is, in my eyes, the best, perhaps the only basis of popular 
education. I know something of Europe, and never have I seen good 
schools where the spirit of Christian charity was wanting. Primary in- 
struction flourishes in three countries, Holland, Scotland and Germany ; 
in all it is profoundly religious. It is said to be so in America. The 
little popular instruction I ever found in Italy came from the priests. In 
France, with few exceptions, our best schools for the poor are those of 
the FrtreM de la doctrine Chreiienne^ (Brothers of the Christian doc- 
trine.') 

M. Guizot, the minister of public instruction, in his address to the 
pupils of the Normal schools, or Teachers' Seminaries, now amounting 
to 1944, thus speaks : 

* Among the objects of instraction, there is one which deroaodf ftom 
me particular notice ; or rather^ the law itself, in pladng it at the heed of 



* . 



Noticei of Booki. 96 

all others has committed it eapecially to our zeal ^ I mean wutral and rdi* 
gioui instruction. It ia absolutely necessary that popular instruction 
abould not be addressed to the understanding only ; it must embrace the 
whole aoul, and especially roust it awaken that moral conscience, which 
ought to be elevated and strengthened, in proportion aa the mind ia 
developed.' 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Youth's Book of Natural Philosophy. By J. L. Comstock, M. D*, 
Author of Elements of Mineralogy, &lc, Boston : William Peiroe. 
1834. Sq. 18mo. pp. 244. 

We have found the books which Dr. Comstock has prepared for adults^ 
generally well adapted to their purpose, and remarkably simple in their 
style and illustrations. We were therefore prepared to receive the work 
before us with pleasure, especially as it was noticed in more than one 
newspaper, in terms of high commendation ) but we regret to say that our 
expectations were disappointed. In our opinion, the Author has not 
adapted his style to the capacities of the younger classes in schools. An 
abridgment, as this in effect is, is even more difficult of comprehension 
than the original work, if the same style is retained. As a test of the 
correctness of our opinion, let the following sentences be read to a cliild. 

In the seventh paragraph of the bonk, we find it stated : — * Gravity or 
weight is a natural power, and a universal law of its operation is to bring 
all elevated bodies towards the earth.' We should rather explain the 
term than the definition. The account ofligiire — * Figure orform^ relates 
to the shape of a solid. It may be considered as the result of extension,' 
&c. — seems to us equally obscure to the mind of a child. The account 
of the human posture begins thus : ' A body, we have seen, is tottering in 
pco|>ortion as it has great altitu<le and a narrow base — but it is the noble 
prerogative of man to be able to support his towering frame with great 
firmoeas, though his base is narrow, and he is subject to constant change 
of attitudes.' Instead of using the simple phrase— ;/brf/ie«am« reason— 
the child is told, — Hht same principle is involved;^ — instead of simple 
Saxon words, like house, buUding, opening, we find ' edifice,* * structure^ 
*apertureJ 

We still meet in this work, however, with the happy illustrations and 
the applications to common life, and familiar phenomena, which give 
peculiar interest to Dr. Conistock's books. The defects of style arise 
in part, from the attempt to teach philosophical truths which cannot easily 
be expreaaed in simple language, or received by the minds of the young« 
If the Author could select from the mass of knowledge he has presentedf 
ftod forget the technics of science, so far as to adapt hia language to the 



96 Notices of Books. 

capacity of children, we believe this could be rendered a rery useful 
book 

A Radical or Analytical Expoaitor : designed to convey a specific 
idea of the signification of words, by tracing them to their roots, and 
in combining derivation with definition. With some Rules for the 
formation of derivations, and a number of useful synonymes. By 
Rev. M. M. Carll, Author of ' Mother's Manual,' * Moral Culture ; ' 
6lc. Philadelphia : Marshall, Clark & Co. Providence : Marshall, 
Brown d& Co. Boston : Russell, Odiorne d& Co. 1834. 18mo. 
pp. 142. 

The title of this work fully explains its character, and will satisfy any 
one of its usefulness as an instrument in tlie study of language. It is 
prepared by a gentleman who has studied the human mind, as well as 
our language ; and who is peculiarly qualified to apply his knowledge 
to the practical purposes of education. We have met with some errors 
in looking through it, but we consider it a valuable book, not only to 
the young, but to adults who have not studied other languages, and to 
those who have forgotten them. 

A Grammar of the English language, by Daniel Perley, M. D. 
Andover : Gould & Newman. IS^M. 18mo. pp. 79. 

This book appears to be the production of a philosophic mind and con- 
tains some excellences. The first dtifinition, * English Grammar ia a 
description of the English hmguage,' is a refreshing example of origi- 
nality, in opening a work on this subject. We think, however, the con- 
densed and scientific style will 8till leave children perplexed, on this 
abetract subject ; the want of numerous familiar examples, with the mul- 
titude of rules and notes, will increase their difficulties. Teachers will 
find useful hints for their own guidance. 



Iir a prerioos article, (p. S4.) it wan ohiterved that ' religious zeal, too/requetOly, (as 
we intended to say) cannot discern anylbing to awaken its interest' in planii for proroot- 
kkg mere elementary educalion. It has bcco among the most painful discouragements we 
have met, to Bud men whose hearts and hands were open for every other good ohjec^ 
taming a deaf ear or a cold look upon everything intended to promote or difluse common 
kmowiedgej and seeming to forget, that imperfect instruction even in the elements of lan- 
guage, would obstruct every effort to improve men by books or by discourses. We 
oeght to add, that our present number furnishes encouragement on this subject ; for the 
Teachers' Seminary at Andover and the Ladies' Associations of lllinoii owe their origio 
to religioos benevolence. 

In reply to a correspondent, we would state, that each of the lectures on Education, 
Science, Agriculture, Political Economy, &c., described in our number for August last, 
will be entitled to a separate premium under the benevolent gift of a friend of education 
in New York ; but that Uie whole must be comprised in 3fi0 pages 1 Jmo, in order to fom 
a book suitable to be read to commou schools. 



if jmtMi 


i'ilil '^^W^bS 


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li' .ttfgMa 


f^ir 


l_ ■^'^ 







AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



MARCH, 1835. 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 

^ The first settlers of New England were men who understood 
and felt the importance of education. While as a body thejr were 
well instructed, many individuals among them came stored with 
the various learning of the English Universities. — Scarcely, there- 
fore, had the pilgrim fathers of New England subdued a few spots 
in the wilderness, where they had sought shelter from persecution, 
when their solicitude to transmit to future generations the benefits 
of learning, impelled them, while yet struggling with many and 
great difficulties, to enter upon the work of providing here for such 
an education in the liberal arts and sciences, as was to be obtained 
in Europe ; justly regarding an establishment for that purpose as an 
essential part of the fabric of civil and religious order, which 
they were employed in constructing, and which, with some modi- 
fication, now happily stands so noble a monument of their energy 
of character, of their love of well regulated liberty, of their wisdom, 
virtue, and piety.' * 

Such is the simple explanation with which the historian of 
Harvard University introduces the account of the first efforts of our 
fathers, in opening fountains of knowledge, beside the tree of 
liberty. Such were the men who founded a system of firee schools, 
which brings home to every inhabitant of New England the ele- 

• Peirce*« HUtory of Harvard University, 
TOL. V. — NO. III. 9 



96 Origin of the Vnivcnitjf. 

ments of knowledge ; and such is the evidence, that those who are 
well taught desire to maintain an aristocracy of their own, by 
keeping the mass in ignorance ! 

We observed in our last number, that Harvard University was 
the first establbhed in our country, and that we deferred a sketch 
of its history, only because we could not procure an engraving in 
time to preserve chronologic4il order. We now present one, not 
merely as an ornament to our work, but because it is gratifying to 
us, and we presume will be to our readers, to have some locality 
with whk;h our conceptions of an institution, and the intelligence 
we receive concerning it, may be associated. 

It was only in 1636, six years after the first settlement of 
Boston, that the General Court, or Legislature, of the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay, devoted four hundred pounds, (a sum equal to 
the entire taxes of the colony for a year,) for the establishment of 
a college at Newtown, which two years after received the name of 
Cambridge, in remembrance of the Alma Mater of many of the 
principal colonists. A generous bequest from the Rev. John 
Harvard, of his library, and half of his estate, led the Overseers to 
give his name to the College ; and the extension of the courses 
of study has led to the title of * Harvard University.* 

In 1638, the regular course of academical studies seems to have 
commenced. A preparatory Grammar School was soon opened ; 
and tlie first printing press on this continent, north of Mexico, was 
established in connection with tlie college in 1639. This press 
acquired much celebrity for tlie number of works it issued, 
and espc^cially for printing the first books in tlie native language 
of our Indians, tlie translations of the apostolic Eliot ; and in later 
days, it has furnished some of the most valuable editions of clas- 
sical and standard works. 

The fii-st commencement look place on the second of August, 
1642, at which nine young men received the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. It was celebrated, like those of Yale College, by 
orations in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, as well as in English. The 
General Court appointed a large boanl of Overseers to manage the 
College ; but subsequently gave the immediate direction to a smaller 
body, consisting of the President and Fellows, with full executive 
powers, who were responsible to the Overseers for their exercise. 
Contributions were made in books and money, small in appa- 
rent amount, but of srreat value in those days — some even of 
* shillings ; '—but, as Mr. Peirce well remarks, * They were contri- 
butions from the " res angmta domi,^^ from pious, virtuous, en- 
Hi^htened penury, to the noblest of causes — the advancement of 
education.' A tithe of this liberality throughout the community, 
proporuoned to our present wealth, would leave no ' struggling ' 



Buildings and Endaumuntt. 09 

institutions — no neglected young men pining for the cup of knowl- 
edge, which, Tantalus like, they are only allowed to touch with 
their lips. 

In 1665, a brick building wvls erected at the expense of the 
society for propagating the Gospel, for the reception of twenty 
Indian pupils, and called the Indian College ; but so little success 
attended the efforts for their education, that it was soon occupied 
as a printing office. 

In 1677, a new brick building was erected in place of the first 
small and decayed college, but bearing still the name of Harvard 
Hall. This was burned in 1764, with the entire library and appa- 
ratus ; but by a vote of the Legislature, provision was made for 
rebuilding it, in two days after its destruction. By the liberality 
of individuals whose names they bear, the first Stoughton Hall was 
erected in 1699 ; and in 1744, Holden Chapel — the small building 
represented on the left of Harvard Hall in the engraving, — now oc- 
cupied for the Anatomical Museum, Chemical Laboratory, and 
Lecture room. In 1720, funds were furnished by the state for 
the erection of Massachusetts Hall, which is seen in the engraving 
opposite to Harvard Hall ; aiid in 1763 for HoUis Hall, next to 
Harvard on the left. During the present century, the increased 
number of students has rendered it necessary to erect two additional 
buildings for their accommodation, the new Stoughton Hall, in the 
rear of Holden Chapel, and Holworthy Hall in the rear of this. 
University Hall, a splendid building of granite, which appears in 
the back ground, between Massachusetts and Harvard Hall, was the 
last erected, containing a Chapel, Dining Hall, and lecture rooms.* 

Harvard University has been a favored child of private as well 
as public bounty, from its infancy ; and it would be impossible to 
enumerate here the succession of benefactions of various kinds, fix)m 
the state, and from individuals and associations, at home and abroad. 
In addition to the liberal donations we have mentioned, six profes- 
sorships have been founded, since those of HoUis and Hancock, by 
private liberality ; valuable donations have been made to the library 
and apparatus ; and numerous bequests have been received, among 
which are some for * exhibitions,' or the assistance of indigent stu- 
dents, which yield an income of ^ 1 ,200 annually. It is sufficient 
to state, that the property vested in this institution, amounted in 
1804, to ^617,340 19, of which ^569,501 33 is actually in pos- 
session. Of ^120,000 of this sum, however, the University is 
only a trustee for purposes not connected with the institution. 
The income of $53,000 is devoted to the Theological and Law 
Schools ; of $180,000, to the payment of professors in the literary 

* The eogr»vtog tppeared ori|^iudly in the Amerioaa Maganne. 



100 Comrte of JiwImeriM. 

department; 018,000 to the libraiy and accumulating funds; 
and 048/)OOy the legacy of the late Gov. Gore, remains unappro- 
priated. Deducting these sums, $151,939 39 only remains, 
whose income can be devoted to the support of professors, (none 
of whom is fully provided for by the ori^nal foundation,) the pay- 
ment of tutors, instructors and other officers of the University, the 
bcrease of the library and apparatus, and the care of its property. 

As the result of these liberal benefactions, the course of instruc- 
tion has been constantly extended and improved, and the apparatus 
and collections belonging to a literary institution, have become more 
ample than in most other colleges in our country. 

in 1640, the course of studies was made to embrace the learn- 
ing of the English Colleges, ^ shaped however,' as Mr. Peirce 
remarks, ^ with a particular view to the object which our ancestors 
had most at heart, the supplying of the churches with an uninter- 
rupted succession of learned and able ministers, and which they 
have taken effectual care to preserve from oblivion, by the motto, 
Christo et EccLEsifr— on the college seal.* 

In the middle of the last century, Virgil, Cicero's Orations and 
Offices, the Greek Testament, and a little of Homer, were the only 
classical studies ; Ward's Mathematics, Euclid, and Gravesand's 
Philosophy were the only scientific books ; and Latin Coropends 
of Logic and Theology, with Watts and Locke, completed the 
course. A greater amount of classical knowledge is now required 
for admission to the lowest class, togetlier with a knowledge of 
Algebra. Livy, Horace, Juvenal, Xenoplion, Homer, and some of 
the Greek tragedies, are added to the list of classical studies. Tlie 
Mathematical course includes the Di&rential and Integral Calcu- 
lus ; and many additional branches are taught by new professors. 

During the whole of the last century, the instruction of the 
College was conducted entirely by the President, the Professors 
-of Divinity, Mathematks, and Oriental Languages, and four tutors ; 
but as early as 1766, the tutors were appointed, each to a distinct 
branch of study, thus rendering them in effect, temporary pro- 
fessors. 

During the first ten years of the present century, three profes- 
sorships were added ; the Erving Professorship of Chemistry and 
Mineralogy, the Massachusetts Professorship of Natural History, 
founded by a private subscription, and the Boylston professorship 
of Rhetoric and Oratory. Since that perk)d, KMir other professor- 
ships have been founded by individual donations; the Alford 
professofship of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and Po^ 
litical Economy ; the Eliot professorship of Greek Literature ; the 
Smith professorship of the French and Spanish Languages, and 
Modem fiteralure ; and the Rtnnfoid prommsfaip of Soienoe ap* 



The lAbrary^r^Medkal and Law Schoobn 101 

filled to the Arts. A professor of Latin has also been appointed 
by the college. Each of the professors of Mathematics, of 
Rhetoric, of Latin, and of Greek, is assisted by an instructor ; and 
the professor of Modem Languages, by four instructors. A recent 
bequest has been made for the establishment of a professorship of 
History, and another to promote instruction in Natural History. 
In the year 1834, the Literary Faculty of the University consisted 
of the President, ten Professors, and an equal number of Tutors ; 
a board of twentyone officers, most of them residing at Cam- 
bridge, and devoted to the institution, having under their care 216 
students. 

To assist in this extended course of instruction, the University 
is provided with a library of 40,000 volumes, the largest and most 
valuable in our country, and probably the richest in the world in 
works relating to America, a valuable cabinet of minerals, and a 
philosophical and astronomical apparatus which is said to surpass 
any other in the United States, all of which are deposited in the 
ancient Harvard Hall. They are exposed to imminent danger of 
a second conflagration, from the immediate vicinity to a college 
building in which thirty two 6res are kept, in the rooms of 
young men ; and it is deeply to be regretted, that the petition of 
literary men of all sects and parties, for public aid in providing a 
secure deposit for these treasures of learning, should not have 
been granted by the state. A botanical garden, a 6ne collection 
of anatomical preparations and models in wax, and an ample 
chemical apparatus, are also provided, for instruction in the natural 
sciences. 

In 1783, the foundation was laid for three medical professor- 
ships, and in 1810, the institution was extended to Boston. Since 
that period, three other professorships have been added, furnishing 
a complete course of medical instruction, in a distinct and ample 
building erected for the purpose in Boston. It is very judiciously 
provided, that the professor of Anatomy shall give twenty-five 
lectures on the structure of th« human body, and the professor of 
Medicine seven lectures on the art of preserving health, to die 
students of the literary department at Cambridge, illustrated by 
the preparations and models we have mentioned. Every institu- 
tion in our country ought to have such a provision for giving our 
young men a knowledge of their own frames ; and in order to be 
made most usefiil, it should be given before the student has be- 
come a slave to the ordinary habits of collegians. 

In 1817, a Law School was opened, which now contains about 
fifty students, under the instruction of two professors. A small 
but very neat building has recently been erected for the deliverj 
of lectures, on the right of Massachusetts Halli whkb is called 

•9 



102 Fmiii MfejM to tk$ hUgtni, 

the Dane Law School, from the name of the founder. It contains 
a law libnoy of more than 3000 volumes. 

Since the year 1815, a Theological School has been estab^ 
lished, the only one in the United States under the direction of 
Unitarian professors. It contains 26 students, instructed by three 
professors, (including the college professor of Divinity,) who also 
conduct the religious worship of the University. A 6ne building 
has been erected for this institution, at a short distance from those 
of the academical department. 

Tlie attempt is oflen made, to represent our colleges as intended 
and adapted to restrict the acquisitions of learning to the children 
of the rich, and every endowment as a provision for sustaining 
the power of an aristocracy. But how b science to be taught 
without books and apparatus ? How, on the present plan, are 
students to be lodged without buildings ; and how can they be well* 
taught, and disciplined, unless the ablest men are secured for the 
puqwse, by a remuneration equivalent to that which tliey would 
receive in other employments ? The truth is, every student in 
most of our colleges receives instruction at less thsui its actual 
cost, and every endowment, is but a provision for diminishing his 
expenses, or increasing his means of improvement. Instead of 
favoring an aristocracy, the obvious effect of a fund is, to give the 
indigent a better opportunity of rising to the highest stations in 
society which learning can secure ; and such has been their efiect 
in numerous instances. 

The accounts of the treasurer of Harvard University happily 
afford decisive evidence on this point. From the last report, it 
appears, that the salaries of the officers in the literary department 
only, amount to ^24,850 73, and the current expenses of the 
institution, arising from the care and repairs of the buildings, and 
other charges connected with the accommodation of the students, 
(not including board or purchases of any kind,) form an additional 
sum of $11,853 43. The whole amount received from students 
to meet these expenses, is stated to be $20,954 63, leaving a 
balance of $15,749 43 to be paid from the income of the funds, 
which are thus employed in diminishing the expenta of (he stu- 
dents. If to this sum, we add the interest of the funds invested 
in the buildings, library and apparatus,— -all which are indispensa^ 
ble to the students, either for residence or instruction — ^we shall 
find, that each young man receives twice as mmchfrom the institu- 
tion^ as he pays for his lodging and tuition. 

We wish those who regard a college as a mere corp(»ration for 
the monopoly of learning would reflect on these fiu^ ; and we 
think they ooght to 9erve as an answer to the objectiom of tbooe 



%)iD deny tke necesmtj of fiindf for a fiteraiy uittitiitiaDy tnd 
insist, that a complete course of instniction may be iurrashed by 
the fees for aiitiony or that the deficiency may be supplied by tho 
labors of the students. 



[For tiM Aonak tf Edncsttoo.J 

ON THE INTERCOUASE OF INSTRUCTORS AND PUPILS IN COLLEGES. 

[We preient additional remarki from a comipondent experienced in College 
diseipline, on a aabject begun in the aecond article of our iait number.] 

In a former article we observed that tl|e intercourse of instruct<»8 
and pupils in our colleges should be bastd on mutual confidenct^-^ 
that it should be frecy and at the same time strictly caurteaut. 
We must now add, that in order to secure success, the intercourse 
of which we speak, should be a christian intercourse. As we have 
already remarked, we would not make our coUegeiy schools of 
TTuology; but the officers in them, we conceive, are not faithful 
to their trust, unless they exert all their influence to make a deep 
SRoral impression on those under their care. Such an influence is 
important to the general discipline of these institutions ; in respect 
to the control of character, it is essential. What parent does not 
desire, more than anything else, that the morals of his son 
should be carefully guarded ? And how can this be done, but by 
the power of religious example and precept ? Some imagine that 
a high state of religious feeling is unfavorable to a vigorous pursuit 
of collegiate studies. But surely the examples of Buchanan,, of 
Martyn, and of such as may be found in most of our college 
classes, sufficiently prove the error of this notion. Were we called 
upon to state, from our own observation and experience, what quali- 
fication would best insure a thorough discipline of the powers, and 
extensive attainments in learning, next to the requisite capacity, 
we should, without hesitation, name that which b the only safe- 
guard against the temptations of a college, that which alone can 
banish from the mind disquiet and anxiety — always most unfriendly 
to mental labor — and which, infusing into the heart a supreme love 
for Jehovah, and a love for our neighbor like that we feel for our- 
selves, and unfolding to the mind motives of the most exalted 
cbaraeter, awakens all the latent energies of the souL In the pot- 
tevioo of such a principle of actkxi, if ever, will the student go for- 
WBidy rejoiciog io the consciousness of discharging bis duty to God 
end WMU, bj a career of honorable bdustry in the pursuit of learning. 



104 t^llfkdi of BeKgiofi^ hjiiie^ 

The experience, with gratitude would we mention it, of the 
graduates of our colleges, will bring up to their recollection, many 
examples of those who were faithful to the moral and religious in- 
terests of their pupils. We may not speak of the living* We 
could name, among others Who have left a precious remembrance 
in the heart, a tutor in our college days, a mere youth, but who 
bad imbibed much of the spirit of thg gospel. By a mysterious 
providence, a few months after he entered upon the duties of his 
office, he fell a victim to disease; and thus were blasted many 
bright hopes of future usefulness. He never forgot the obligations 
of a christian. We now recall to mind, with sincere satisfaction, 
more than one instance, in which, with aflfectionate and lovely sim- 
plicity, he contrasted the precepts of the gospel with the corrupt 
sentiments of Epicureanism, as they are exhibited in the writings 
of Horace, and urged upon us the importance of a religious life. 
The most thoughtless left the recitation room, acknowledging at 
least, his sincerity and wortli. We doubt not, that could the 
secrets of those hearts be revealed, it would appear, that the un- 
obtnisive yet ardent piety of that youthful instructor, had an impor- 
tant influence upon more than one member of the class. We could 
mention another, who has ranked deservedly among the distin- 
guished men that have done much for the learning and moral 
health of our land ; — one who was beloved and r^ered by his pu- 
pils as few have been, who watched with sleepless solicitude alike 
over their literary and their moral welfare — who, while he never 
remitted his efforts to inspire them with a thirst for useful knowl- 
edge, ever walked before man — the man of God — ^and exerted, if 
man ever did, an holy influence over the minds and characters of 
the youth under his charge. If any one in the history of our lite- 
rary institutions deserves the credit of having exercised a good 
conscience in his station, it is he. We would confidently appeal 
to those who enjoyed the privilege of receiving under his presi- 
dency, a liberal education, if they do not, at the distance of many 
years, perceive in their mental and moral characters, the impress 
of the forming hand of the revered and lamented Appleton. 
Who can forget the honored name of Dwight, who commenced 
his career at a time when infidelity had begun to show an unblush- 
ing front, and who by the influence of his talents and learning, and 
more than all, his piety, effectually banished it from the walls of 
Yale ? It was very much owing to his instrumentality, that this 
ancient institution has continued to be, what its (bunders designed it 
should be, a fountain of piety as well as learning. We cannot help 
believing, that were it not for the decidedly religious influence of 
iuch men, at that period when infldelity and vice were almost tri- 
umphant, these institutioos oould not hive been suttiioedy or thajr 



would baTe become the pests of the oommunity. We could eesiljr 
leior to similar examples, both among the dead and the livings Utt 
we deem it unnecessary.* 

We have thus fiir had in view the general intercourse of officers and 
students. We cannot leave the subject without offering a few sug- 
gestions on the intercourse of the recitation room. It we reflect, 
that it is the relation which officers bear to students as tlieir teach-* 
ers, which, more than anything else, gives them influence and au* 
thcNrity over them, it must be apparent, that this has an important 
bearing on their general intercourse. 

In their manner of teaching, instructors have two objects in view. 
1. To communicate knowledge, or rather to encourage and aid 
their pupils in acquiring it themselves. 2. So to conduct the 
recitation as to incite to personal eflfort and to detect and discour- 
age indolence. Teachers may err in regard to both of these ob- 

i'ects. They may be so zealous in cofnmunicating knowledge, as to 
eave little for the pupils to do. We have heard of a much valued 
instructor, that the idle ones, when they were not prepared to stand 
the test of the regular questioning, were in the habit of starting, 
with well assumed gravity and earnestness, some inquiry on the 
subject of the lesson ; and so well stored was he with matter, and 
so fond withal of communicating it, that be would at once com- 
mence a familiar lecture on the point of inquiry, and thus occupy 
the hour usually devoted to the recitation. Another and a worse 
error in an instructor is, to make it his chief end to ascertain 
whether his pupils have given a. proper degree of attention to the 
portion assigned them. Such a course makes the recitation irk- 
some, and represses a spirit of investigation. The student is not 
animated and encouraged, by a series of minute, dry Questions on 
the text book. We should recommend an intermediate course. 
Instructors may be as watchful as they please to detect inattention, 
but they should spare no pains to conduct the exercises of their 
classes in such a way as will inspire a spirit of liberal inquiry^ 
Their zeal will animate their pupils with a corresponding ardor ; 
constraint and reserve will be banished from the recitation room ; 
and much be done towards promoting a free and agreeable inter* 
course out of it. 

We are well aware that a college officer cannot maintain the 
same degree of intercourse with all his pupils. Som^ have pe- 
culiar cbums upon his notice ; and the intercourse in a publio 

* We caoDol but add to the examples named bv our eorreapondf pt, that tha 
laneoted Dr. Rush never lost an opportunity of leading hit medical students to 
moral and religious reflection ; and one of them obserred, that he was ted to 
IWMiebast aad read the Bible for the first tii|>e in his life, bj his frefjuent xpSn* 
aoae to it.— Eoitqi^, 



lOiS FamUiariip to be (hmbined with Dignity. 

institution, cannot be carried so far as in a private one. The 
avocations of instructors in such institutions will not permit it. 
Allowances must be made for a difference of circumstances. We 
believe, however, that the intercourse between officers and students 
should be, and may be in general, such as we have stated. If the 
object of a liberal education is to inform the mind, and to mould 
the character, how can it be fully attained hut by an intercourse 
such as has been described ; — an intercourse which shall bring the 
instructor into communion with the minds and hearts which he is 
to influence ? Such intercourse, it ought to be remarked, does not 
trespass upon the dignity of an instructor's office. Time was, we 
are told, when the instructor always wrapped himself up in a 
cloak of inaccessible austerity and reserve. To unbend, to conde* 
scend to his pupils, was deemed derogatory to the claims of his 
exalted station. It was so even with the country school-master. 
In his little domain, it was all dignity on one side, and obeisance 
and humiliation on the other. Such was the fashion of the times. 
A similar reserve was maintained even between parent and child. 
The tendency of the present day is to the opposite extreme. In 
the zeal for innovation and improvement, bo}S have become, in 
feeling at least, men ; 

* Primaque par adeo lacne lanugo senectie ! ' 

We are for the middle ground, of a proper degree of freedom 
without the sacrifice of dignity or authority. True dignity is that 
which maintains its proper position — which does not forget what is 
due to character or station. It may invite confidence and unre- 
served communion, while it repels undue familiarity. It is a trait 
of character, not the dress of the outward man alone. In the 
family circle, where all is love and unconstrained intercourse be- 
tween the parent and his ofifspring, it may be seen in its purity. 

Much has been said of late years, about the government of our 
higher institutions being a paternal government — about officers treat- 
ing their pupils as gentlemen, trusting more to their honor, and bu- 
sying themselves less in spying out their misdemeanors. We 
readily concede that there was need of reform in the discipline of 
these institutions, that important improvements have been made in 
the particular referred to, and that there is room for farther im- 
provement. But we must speak plainly, and say, that much of 
this has been the mere cant of those who know nothing about the 
management of children and youth. We should not notice it, were 
it not heard sometimes from persons from whom we might expect 
better things. In the mouths of such, language like this will be 
found too often to mean, tbe giving up of salutary and needful 



PimMaunii in Sekoob. 101 

nstnint. Such notioos ar^ idle. We approve however of a pa- 
ternal govemroenty and the intercourse which we have urged, m 
that of the paternal roof. If the parent is faithful to the trust com- 
mitted to him, he will not be blind to the faults and misdoings of 
his children ; nor will he spare necessary correction. He is their 
bosom friend, but he demands unconditional submission. We 
augur ill of that family, in which the parental dignity b not thus 
sustained. We have then no sympathy with instructors, who, lor 
the sake of securing popular favor, within college or without, are 
so regardless of their responsibilities as to shrink from the duty of 
maintaining a thoraughy energetic discipline. Neither has an en- 
lightened public. The honored names whicli have been already 
introduced, of Dwight and Appleton, at once bring up to the re- 
collection of multitudes, college officers who wei-e regarded by 
their pupils with the respect and affection belonging to the pater- 
nal relation, but who were always adorned with the grace of a 
matcliless disunity, and never relaxed the vigor of a salutary, thor- 
ough discipline. 

It is easy to fancy to ourselves the delightful picture of a semi- 
nary of learning, in which there is a free interchange of sympathy 
and interest between the pupils and their teachers ; the ibnner, 
with the ingenuousness of youth, opening their hearts to receive 
the kindly influences of those who now stand to them in loco pa^ 
rentum ; and the latter, encouraged in the discharge of their duties, 
bv the consciousness that their labors are not in vain. Throuj^h 
the controHin&; influence of some one mind, rarely endowed by 
Heaven, like that of Fellenberg, such pictures have, in a few in- 
stances, become realities. But lie knows little about colleges who 
is not aware, that in respect to theniy this is all a pleasing dream, 
and that there are peculiar obstacles in the best conducted institu- 
tions, to the promotion of a free, confiding intercourse between offi- 
cers and students. 



(For lb* Anrals of Educfttioo.] 
PUNISHMENTS IN SCHOOLS. 



In a former article I expressed the opinion, that rewards and 
prizes as they are generally given, are injurious to the young. 
As to punishments, I am decidedly of opinion, from my own 
experience, that whipping or feruling is not necessary in a select 
or private school, such as 1 have formerly described. Of that 



necessity in large, promiscuous schod% I would not pretend to 
judge ; but I may be allowed to observe, that if it be necessary 
tfaere, the very fiict plainly proves, that parents should avoid send- 
ing their children to such schools, who can afibrd to place them in 
small and select ones.* It may be well for a teacher to say to his 
pupils at the outset, that it is utterly abhorrent to his feelings and 
his principles, to whip them, like mere animals, without reason, — 
that he wishes and hopes to have a family of boe,-^overned by 
gentle measures ; and that any who may choose to behave badly 
enough to deserve whipping, must leave the school, lest he render 
others as turbulent as himself. Make your school as agreeable as 
it can and ought to be made, and this threat will be a sure pre- 
ventive of much evil. 

As there can be no rules and no advice, however, which are not 
subject to exceptions, let us imagine a case in which a child is so 

E laced under your care, that you cannot and ought not to dismiss 
ini, for any degree of bad conduct short of absolute vice. 
I was once induced to receive into my school a boy considerably 
older than any I had ever before taken. I found that he had 
attended large public schools, had learned to think it a 6ne thing 
to outwit his teacher, and to play him all the pranks in his power, 
and had never learned obedience. These things 1 did not find out, 
of course, until it was too late to reconsider the matter. He had 
been received as one of nry pupils, and I felt bound, by peculiar 
motives, to consider him for a time, at least, as such. From the 
very first, 1 found that mild means, such as I was in the habit of 
using generally, would not do with him, until he had learned by 
experience J that he miui yield and obey ; and that it was incompar- 
ably easier, as well as pleasanter, to do so cheerfully and willingly 
than by force. He be<;an by believin*? that he could easily con- 
quer me, and have his own way ; or at least, that he could weary 
me by his perseverance in striving to obtain it. But while I never 
once yielded to his violence, and unifonnly opposed force to force, 
I took care to turn against him only his own weapons, — that is, to 
let him distinctly see, that all he suflfered was the direct and inevi- 
table consequence of his own conduct. 1 never had recourse to 
whipping, or any thing else as punishment, I saw that the boy 
was naturally affectionate, very capable, and had good sense 
enou<^h to choose a better course, when he should find out, as he 
infallibly must, the folly and uselessness of that he was pursuing. 
Nor was I disappointed. He became one of my best and most 

* It is in thii way that common schools have been oAen ruined. Let the first 
attempt be to refnrm them ; and let them not be abandoned, unUl this is found 
to be imprncticnhle. On some other points the Editor's Tiews will be found in 
ft Mioceedinf article. 



Viewi of PiifiuAmenf . itlSt 

loteresting pupils ; and after remaining the specified time under mj 
. care, (some three or four months,) he was removed to a school|. 
among boys of his own age, or older, which I thought would 
probably be better for him than to continue with me. Not long 
after, however, his parents requested, as the greatest of favors, that 
I would wave my rules as to age, and receive him again for a few 
months, as ' he was so much attached to me, that I had more 
influence over him than any one else.' And this was the boy to 
whom I had unquestionably been more severe than to any other 
pupil I ever had. I mention this, as an additional proof, thatjtif^ 
treatment, whatever it necessarily be, always satisfies a sensible 
child. If I am asked what was the species of treatment I denominate 
severe, I reply, an unyielding urill, few indulgences, grave looks, 
and serious tones, a marked difference, in all respects, between 
my deportment toward him, and those of his companions who 
manifested a different temper ; — yet never, I trust, omitting to 
change tiiese manners, when a corresponding improvement in him 
allowed it. 

With regard to any kind of punishment — administered strictly as 
such, — I neither deem it necessary or advisable. Let effects, bad 
or good, follow corresponding causes ; but never act on the prin* 
ciple, which may be called correction, but which is more neariy 
allied tp revenge, and which gives the child a false principle of 
action in after life, and one, which is not given by God, to his 
creatures. If a child transgress a command, and b whipped after- 
wards for having done so, there is no connection between the fault 
and its punishment, save the arbitrary one of the parent's, or 
teacher's will ; — or, if a child, for instance, disobey the express rules 
of the school, and does not learn his lesson, and the teacher, as a 
punishment, keeps him after school, an hour, or any specified 
time, the penalty bestowed is arbitrary. But if a child know 
that such a lesson must be learned — that if he do not see fit to 
study it at the time others are occupied, he will of course be 
obliged to take time afterwards, because the lesson must be learned* 
Then, if he idle away the appointed hour, and is told that he 
cannot go home until that time is made up, and the lesson said, 
be it sooner or later, it is only an effect following its cause. 
You do not keep him as a punishment for his remissness; he 
voluntarily brings upon himself a penalty attached naturally and 
inevitably to his offence. Some may call this too delicate a distinc- 
tion ; but it is on such delicate distinctions that a child's moraF 
sense, and I will add, sensibility to affectum, depend ; for if you 
arbitrarily bestow upon him suffering which you might have 
spared him, his sense of your justice may not be lessened, but 
that of your tenderness will ; whereas, if he believes it an infallible 

VOL, V. — NO. III. 10 



110 Oh Arlkrary Pumshwients. 

result of his own conduct, as much regretted by you as himself^ he 
will, ibr your sake, if he is amiable, as well as his own, avoid such 
a consequence again. But take care that it be established, and 

£ roved by all your practice, that these natural laws, are like ' the 
iw of the Modes and Persians, which altereth not ; ' oihenvUe, 
you have no basis to go upon. 

These remarks are sufficient to show what my idea of the nature 
of government in a private school should be; not that I would be 
understood to say, that I always acted up to my own principles ; 
but this I will say, and this alone concerns the reader, — whenever 
I violated these principles, my experience, as well as my theory, 
warned me that 1 was wrong, and my own suffering, external or 
internal, was always proportioned to the deviation. 

Experience. 



ON ARBITRARY PUNISHMENTS j 
With Remarks on Uu Views of ' Experience* 

In one of the series of letters, entitled * Sketches of Hofwyl,' 
published in our number for August, 1831, we presented tli' views 
of Fellenberg in regard to punishments, and stated that he endeav- 
ored, here as elsewhere, to imitate tiie example of Divine Provi- 
dence. Our Creator does not often stretch out his hand visibly in 
punishment, but establishes a certain order of nature, in which the 
punishment seems to follow, as an unavoidable consequence of the 
crime. In the same manner, we remarked, Fellenberg endeavors, 
as much as possible, to reform a pupil, by letting hhn suf&r the 
natural consequences of his fault ; — for example, the bad opinion, 
or dislike of nis comrades, — the neglect or disapprobation of his 
preceptor, — the public notice of a fault as a warning to others, — 
and exclusion from their society, or expulsion, if not reclaimed, to 
prevent contagion. We obser\'ed that ' the arbitrary and violent 
punishments which appear to have no other source than the ttitt 
of the mastery and too often, seem to be dictated by his passions^ 
in the view of Fellenberg, produce serious injury to the character.' 

We stated, however, that he still concedes, in theory and prac- 
tice, that corporal punishment is occasionally, though rarely, 
necessary. He not only allows it in the cases supposed by our 
correspondent, * Experience,' and by a teacher in a former number, 
ibr those who have been accustomed to it, or in large schools, but 
lie jdso cfmsiiffn .ily in .many cases, useful and important in itself , 



Tht Word ' Arbitrary: 111 

tn numy cases y as a counterpoise to strong propensities, or fixed hab- 
its, as a shock to the physical system which aids in subduing the 
irritated nerves, and as an important means of associating pam and 
suffering with acts of violence, so that the first impulse of passion 
shall be checked, by a corresponding impulse of shrinking from pain. 

In tliese remarks, we think the true theory of punishment is 
comprised ; and we have seen, and we may add, have felt, the 
utility of those punishments, administered as punishments, which 
* Experience * condemns. 

He errs, in our opinion, in carrying a good principle to one of 
the * extremes ' which he deprecates. We should never inflict 
positive suffering as if it were in payment for an offence ; but the 
great object is, after all, to correct the fault ; and if this cannot be 
done otherwise, Divine example as well as human experience, will 
justify the infliction of suffering. 

The word 'arbitrary,' we think, deceives our correspondent^ 
and we are glad to have occasion for exposing a common error on 
this subject. In our republican country, this term is so associated 
with despotism, that w^e cannot hear it with patience, or conceive 
that anything is good, which is done to one man, by the will of 
another. And yet, nothing is more arbitrary, at least so far as 
the pupil can discern, than that very course of * schooling,' (to use 
the only term which will embrace all that we mean,) of whose 
punishments we speak. 

An active little fellow, who has been taught and encouraged to 
laugh, and prattle, and play, and run about, and who has been 
allowed to make this the business of his life, is brought into a 
room where he has not a single friend, — placed upon a bench, too 
often suspended, without any support to his back, between heaven 
and earth, — confined to the same spot for one, two, or three hour$ 
together,— compelled to sit in silence, and pore over characters 
whose names are as mysterious as those of Chinese dignitaries are 
to us, from which he cannot receive any more pleasure, and knows 
not how he can derive any more profit. Now we ask, how c^ g 
little being, thus deprived of all the pleasufes of his life, without 
any necessity which he can discover, and subjected to a confine-« 
ment for which he can see no good reason, be made to submit to i^ 
punishment, for resisting the ' regulations,' or the confinement im- 
posed for neglect, merely by avoiding a:ll appearance of arbitran<s 
ness or authority, and appealing to his reason ? It is idle to 
think of it. His first entrance on this course is the result of bis 
parents' will, which assumes the direction of his life for his Own 
good.. To attempt to convince him of this, while yet a child, is to 
demand of him, not merely reason, but experience, both of which 
are yet unmature ; and to neglect thp ordei: of ps^tuce ^bich e^Hs 



118 Odikaiion of Confidence in Children* 

npon him to yield himself implicilly to the direction of his guar- 
dians, because he is not competent to direct himself. No penalty 
which follows the neglect of a task, can be submitted to as a matter 
of reason^ until the offender understands the reason of the task ; 
and this, our young patients at scliool are as little capable of doings 
as the inmates of a hospital are of comprehendin;o: the grounds of 
their physician's practice. Indeed, we often hear the reply, if the 
child dare to reply when he has been obliged to stay after school 
to learn a lesson, for example in grammar or latin, ' What use is 
there in my learning latin and grammar ? * and his little brain is 
quite as much puzzled, and his sense of justice and liberty as much 
o^nded, by this arbitrary imposition of a hated, useless study, as 
by the whipping which sometimes accompanies it. 

The truth is, ignorance and inexperience, whether they be in the 
child under the government of its teacher, or the creature under 
the direction of his Creator, nmst yield themselves to the guidance 
of another's wisdom, and another's will. In both cases, it must be 
confidence y or faith and love, which submits, and not reason ; and if 
the child is never taught to yield to the will (or arbitrary direction, 
as our correspondent would tcnn it,) of another, how can he be 
prepared to say * Thy will be done ! ' when the hand of Provi- 
dence disappoints his best plans, and deprives him of liis most 
valuable possessions, without any reason which his limited powers 
can discern. It is false pliibsopiiy to leave uncultii'ated this spirit 
of filial confidence, which has its bloom in childhood, and which 
forms the most delightful trait of the man and the christian, in order 
to call forth prematurely the reasoning faculties, and teach the 
doctrine, that we must regard nothing as just, of which we do not 
understand the reason. 

We have never seen an individual more strenuous than Fellen- 
berg, for rendering punishments, as much as possible, the natural 
consequences of faults, or who carried out this principle more fully 
or more skilfully into practice. And yet, after thirty years' expe- 
rience and observation, of a mind thus devoted to the subject, we 
never found any one .more decided than this eminent man, as to 
the necessity of using coqx)ral punishment in the cases we have 
mentioned, or more anxious to cultivate that implicit confidence,, 
which submits to the will of the educator without demanding his 
reasons. Thb b indeed the great chann of childhood ; and it is, 
doubtless, that to which the Saviour chiefly alludes, when he 
cequires us to ^ become as little children.' 

This childlike trust in the parent or guardian soon establishes a 
connection as firm, and as rational between the fault and the pun- 
ishment, as exists in the minds of most men between burning and 
ptioy or ezpeasm fixxl and dise<^ ; for yre regard these ^3 ^ t^tu^al 



Bodily Pain not the Want of Paint. 113 

consequences,' chiefly or solely because they are the uniform resulttf 
and not because we perceive any reason wliy fire, or excess of food 
should produce sufTeriiig. Still, even in regard to ' natural conse- 
quences,' we have often heard a half complaint, that the human 
organs of digestion had not been made like those of an ostrich ; and 
the epicure munnurs at the feeble capacity of his stomach, and the 
gradual decay of his abused appetite. 

We presume our correspondent cannot mean that the inflicticm 
of a punishment annexed to a law, by the same authorijty which 
enacted the law itself, * is nearly allied to revenge,' because 
tliis would strike at the justice of all laws, human and Divine. 
And we beg leave to remind him, that he himself is obliged, 
as a teacher, to make arbitrary requisitions, not only in the lessons, 
and classes, and rules of his school, but in its rewards and punish- 
ments also. A medal, surely, is not a ' natural consequence ' of 
merit ; and we cannot discern how being placed in a particular 
seat by a teacher, could be regarded as the * natural conse- 
quence ' of oi)posite courses of conduct, by young minds. The 
essence of reward, after all, consists in the pleasure given — the 
essence of punishment, in the pain inflicted, or the suffering pro- 
duced; and it matters little to the criminal, whether his torture be 
caused by drops of water, descending gently but incessantly until 
his brain is maddened, or by the severe blows of the whip. Its 
justice and its kindness will be estimated by the amount of pain, 
and the spirit with wIncIi it is inflicted, and not by the particular 
mode of infliction. 

The circumstance which shocks those who object to corporal 
punishment is, that it involves bodily pain. And is bodily pain, 
then, the most dreadful of all pains ? Cannot the heart feel a 
blow as well as the skin, and as keenly too? Is the burning blush 
of shame upon thecheik produced by a scat of disgrace, more easy 
lo bear than the smarting of the fenile on the hand ? Let those 
who rejrard it as cruelty, tell us, whether they would not have suf- 
fered less with ten blows, than they have suffered from a single 
frown of displeasure, or a glance of rebuke, from some loved, 
respected guardian. To any one who has sensibility, the lashes of 
the tongue are incomparably more painful than any which the whip 
can inflict. If we may rely on our own experience, the cold, 
averted look of an offended teacher does much more to excite 
eoccruriating pain, to paralyze an* check the movements of the 
childish affections, and to inspire doubts of the teacher's love, than 
severe punishment, inflicted with evident reluctance and sorrow, 
and followed by the usual course of patient, kind attention. 
We have never found any punishment more effectual in securing 

•10 



114 Manual Labor Colleges. 

the love, as well as respect, of a pupil, than bodily pain justly and 
kindly inflicted ; and have learned the truth of our correspondent's 
remarks, * that jusi treafment, whatever it necessarily be, always 
satisfies a sensible child.' 

And what is there so degrading as bodily pain, when properly 
viewed ? Our Creator inflicts it every day for our offences against 
the laws of nature, — wliethcr we put our fingers too near to the 
flame,-— or whether we attempt to use to excess the blessings he 
bestows. He himself informs us, that he sends pain to a)rrect 
transgression. The best of men acknowledge, like David, that 
in their own case, the discipline of thoui^lit and feeling which it 
involves has been the means of moral improvement, — ^nay, of 
intellectual advancement ; and many can repeat with heartfelt 
gi-atitude, the beautiful line, — * For all I thank thee ; but most for 
tlie severe ! ' 



MANUAL LABOK COLLEGES. 

It is known to our readci-s that the attempt has been made to 
introduce into some of our colle<res, manual labor in connection with 
Study, not merely as a means of diminishing the expenses, but to 
secure our students, if possible, from the debilitating eflects of a 
sedentary life. In the * Episcopal Recorder,' of Philadelphia, we 
find the following remarks on this topic, in reference to Bristol 
College. 

' If it be important to train the mind to habits of thorough inves- 
tigation, and to a prompt and efficient command of its powers — 
if it be important to enrich it with the treasures of human and 
divine science — to familiarize it with the paths of enlarged thought^ 
cullivated feeling, refined taste, pure and exalted motive, and a 
fearless and self-denying Christian enterprise, there cannot be a 
doubt of the almost paramount importance of having regard, in tlie 
whole course of education, to the sound and vigorous health of tlie 
body. This, it is believed, is admitted on all hands. But what 
is to be done ? Are we utterly to decry the old and time-honored 
fvstems of education, because the trite motto, ^*sana mens in 
corpore sanOf*^ has not been more distinctly recognized by them? 
Are we to disregard those profound principles of liberal education 
which have been tried, and have not been found wanting — because 
they have not generally, in the colleges and universities of our 
couotryi bdeo acted upon in connection with systematic corporeal 



Brtiiol CoUtgii 115 

ivgimen ? No. But it may be ouf diity in estabtishirig and ed' 
dowing a new Institution^ to incorporate, as a radical principle^ 
difiUsing its healthful influence through every department, what 
may have been too long overlooked, or from the necessity of cii^ 
cumstances, is still rejected in others. It may be, and most un<^ 
questionably it is, our dutyy in laying the foundation of an institu-^ 
tion which will, we hope, send forth well trained and strong men 
to fill the great trusts of religion and science and legislation, for 
generations to come — to see that provision be made while the ele^ 
ments are under our hand, for sound health of body, active indus* 
try, endurance of fatigue, and firm Christian manliness of character. 
We may be pardoned, in the nineteenth century of the church, for 
being unambitious of seeing among our alumni any of those speci- 
mens of *^ diluted manhood," who associate the idea of vulgarity 
and meanness with all manual labor. The time has come when 
we may speak at large on this subject ; the time has come when 
sedentary invalids of all professions are rising up by hundreds — nay, 
by thousands, — and demanding in a voice which caimot fail to be 
heard, and which must be obeyed, that systematic and regular 
manual labor be incorporated in the very frame work of our new 
institutions. Nay, a voice still more solemn comes up from the 
premature graves of genius and erudition, and eminent professional 
usefulness, entreating us to lay aside prejudices — to look at facts— 
to inquire gravely and earnestly what can be done to save our 
most promising young men from those College diseases which so 
often utterly blight their prospects of usefulness. 

The following views embodied in the laws of Bristol College, 
express the sentiments entertained by the Corporation. 

" In regard to manual labor, or exercise in the college shops, 
gardens, and farm, as an important, if not an essential part of a 
thorough and truly liberal and valuable education, the sentiment of 
Plato is adopted as fundamental : that it ' ought to be everywhere 
maintained, that a good education imparts to the mind and body 
all the power, all the beauty, and all the perfection of which they 
are capable.' 

The Physical Department of Education in this Institution shall 
be entitled to an equal degree of attention and supervision from the 
Board of Trustees and the faculty, with the Intellectual— with this 
difference, that the exercise of the former shall be considered as 
subserving and promoting those of the latter — while both are con- 
ridered as parts of a good education ; and in the prescribed course 
of this Institution, not to be dispensed with." ' 

The College of South Hanover, in Indiana, has also been or- 
ganized OQ the plan of manual labor. This institution, which 



116 South Hanover College. 

commenced in a log cabin, now has a spacious edifice, filled with 
two iiundred students under the care of six instructors, whose 
health has been almost uninterrupted, while disease has visited 
neighboring places in the most alarming manner. The trustees 
'State, that they have a mechanical estabhshment which will give 
employment to tifty or sixty students, two hours in the day ; that 
industrious young men may earn from ten to Bfteen dollars per 
session, without any interruption to their studies ; and those who 
are familiar with any trade, more than this. From boys under 
fifteen, and especially those bred in indolence, they promise little. 
Such, we think, ought not to leave the paternal roof; for to those 
bred in indolence, a college life is ruinous. Board may be had at 
one dollar per week. 

Dr. Blythe, the President of this college, has published some 
interesting numbers on this subject in the ^ Standard,' of S. Hano- 
ver. He urges, among other considerations, that it is important 
to guard against the danger of bringing forward unworthy men, by 
the offer of complete support to candidates for the ministry from 
charitable funds; and at the same time, that it is important to bring 
a good education within the reach of all, whatever profession they 
intend to pursue, that talents may never remain buried in poverty. 
Such schools too, he adds, ' give birth to enterprize — create or 
perpetuate habits of industry and economy — generate and keep 
alive a feeling of self-support and independence — preserve health 
and awaken genius.' Indeed, where the student is compelled to 
provide in part for his own support, it is of the highest importance 
that he should be furnished with a profitable employment which 
shall thus counteract the effects of study, and invigorate the consti- 
tution, instead of adding to his danger, by compulsory and extraor- 
dinary intellectual toil. No public extravagance can be greater, 
than to allow a young man who is capable of eminent usefulness 
in church or state, to destroy the germs of life, and wither the 
mind in its bloom, by combining the toils of a student with the 
labor of a teacher or a writer — to call upon him in short to do the 
duty of two men. It is extravagance, because it is wasting the 
most valuable part of our national capital — the talents of our citi^ 
Jiens ; and it is doubly so, if this is combined with an inadequate 
supply of benevolent aid. 



Plan of a Prtparatory School, 117 

[For the Aanali of £doe«tioa.] 
PLAN FOR A PREPARATORY SCHOOL AND SEMINARY. 

BT A NATIVE OF EUROPE. 

[In our last number, we |rave the remarkf of a tintive of Europe on the defectt 
of our Khoolfl. We now publish his plan for a preparatory model scliool, ami a 
seminary designed to prepare competent teachers for our common schools, sod 
at the same time for those who intend to devote them.tGlves to other occupations. 
Our readers will perceive that many of his views are actually adopted In our 
beat private schooU, and they will remark their coincidence, in some points, 
with those of Fellenberg. We need not say, that they are, to a great extentv 
uokiiowD in our public schools.] 

In a former article I proposed as one remedy for the existing 
defects of American schools, the establishment of a preparatory 
school, and a college or seminary for the education of teachers. 
The following is the course of instruction which I should advise in 
the preparatory school. 

In X\\e first or hkvest class, the elements of the English lan- 
guage, spelling, reading, arithmetic and penmanship. I would 
recommend the introduction of a good English book, which treats 
of the present times, and of real life, and will be interesting to boys 
from seven to nine years of age, and suitable for the narrow circle 
of their intellect, and not of fables, fictitious, or ancient history. 
The style of the book must not be formed of dry sentences, but full 
of little anecdotes, written in a lively and attractive manner ; and 
engravings or good wood cuts may be added. 

With the second class begins the separation of the Classical from 
the English course. Both should nevertheless, be united in the 
following studies. The English grammar compared with a higher 
English reading book, so as to give a clear and sound knowledge 
of the syntax ; composing English letters to friends ; vulgar and 
decimal fractions, and the history and geography of the United 
States. The study of history and geography should begin with the 
place where the school is situated, and then go on to the nei^t^ 
noting everywhere the distance, direction, local characteristics, pro- 
ductions, manufactures, &c., so that the pupil may have points 
of comparison, and clear ideas, at first of the place of the school, 
and so, by degrees, of more distant objects. Nothing must be 
learned by rote, but everything by looking on the map, and ob- 
serving the four cardinal points; and if the map should not indk^ate 
the name of the place, let it be drawn by the pupil in the sand 
with a stk;k,or on a slate with a pencil. I regret that none of ou( 
puroerous geographies for schools follow such a cqufs^, 



118 Comrte of Study. 

For the classical scholars, the study of the Latin grammar, and 
Cornelius Nepos. For the English^ that of the French, which, if 
learned younc;, will be so much the better understood. 

In the third class, for both courses, Englisli letters, and composi- 
tion of a iii^her degree, but left to the choice of the pupil, and 
written entirely by himself; easy declamations well committed, 
and recited weekly before the school, the teachers, and some 
friends; a cursory recapitulation of arithmetic; the first book of 
Euclid in Geometry ; the Constitution of the United States, and 
that of the State ; the election and functions of the different offi- 
cers, of the members of the Assembly, Congress, &c. ; the history 
and Geography of both Americas ; the physical history of the earth ; 
and the principles of Natural History, too much neglected in our 
schools. 

Natural History should begin with the animals which surroimd 
us; and not only show their great utility, but represent to our 
youth, so generally inclined to every kind of mischief, the cruelty 
of tormenting their dogs, horses, cows, and other animals. The 
teacher must also make them acquainted with the trees and plants 
wiiich surround them, point out their uses, and particularly indi- 
cate the ditR^rent kinds of plants which are useful in different dis- 
eases, and those which are poisonous and dangerous, even when 
they are smelled. How careless are we in general on this subject, 
and how many accidents have happened for want of thb simple and 
easy branch of knowledge. 

To these studies add, for the C7fimca/ course, Latin continued, 
and Greek begun ; for the English course, French continued, 
and (icrman or Spanish begun. 

In the fourth or highest class, for both courses, English exer- 
cises on a given rlieme, the original compositions of the scholar; 
the reading of some good English poet to form the taste; the his- 
tory and geography of the rest of our earth in a cursory manner, 
and the explanation of the globes, and the planetary system ; in 
Geometry, the second and third books of Euclid ; further explana- 
tions of Natural. History, and particularly of the wonderful con- 
struction of the human body, and the faculties of the mind. 

I have observed with great regret, tlie total neglect of this last 
important branch of human knowledge. We are generally much 
better acquainted with longitudes and latitudes, with the moon and 
the stars, with the tenses of our Greek and Latin verbs, than with 
ourselves ; — how we move, speak, fac, — and how we can preserve 
our health. This course alone, if properly attended to, may be 
made highly attractive and useful for the remainder of our life. 



Grounds, Apparaiui ami Dueij^me. 119 

In th'is fiwirtb year will be given a ounoiy recapitulation of the 
Engluk course, or of all the braDcbes learned in the three former 
years. In tbe Cloisical course, a recapitulation of the Latin and 
Greek, and a due preparation to enter the college or seminary* 
The study of French, Spanish, or Gennan should be attended to 
during this last year. 

For the English course, French letters, exercises, and public 
declamations. The Spanish or German continued. 

As no one can be promoted to a higher class, so no one can be 
dismissed from the school at the end of the last year, without pre- 
viously having submitted himself to the above mentioned private 
eiamination, and received from the faculty, a certificate of his com- 
petency, signed by the Superintendent, and the Secretary of the 
DOSLrd of examiners. 

A. fifth year is partly devoted to those who are deficient in their 
studies, and partly to those who wish to perfect themselves in the 
different branches in which they have made good improvement. 
Extra teachers must be provided, able to give them the required 
perfection ; because the regular course of studies for the four years, 
must be by no means intermpted. 

With the school, a spacious yard, or piece of ground should be 
connected, devoted to the plays and recreations of the pupils, 
each of wliom, if possible, should have his spot of ground or garden 
to cultivate ; and for greater encouragenient, the mistress of the 
school might buy from the pupils, if they choose, all the produce 
of their gardens, at the market price. No corporal punishment 
should be allowed. It degrades, and is apt to destroy the morality 
of a boy.* To excite feelings of a different kind, a daily journal may 
be kept by the principal. Let those who study and conduct well 
be marked 4 — those less approved, 3, or 2 ; and 1 should be 
marked for the worst. The numbers of each hoy through the 
ivhole week should be recapitulated every Saturday, and three 
number ones, dejirive them of recreation. 

A select juvenile library, the necessary apparatus, such as 
globes, maps, be. should be annexed to the institution. Frequent, 
pedestrian excursions into the neighboring work shops, manufac- 
tories, farms, be. should be made, and proper explanations given. 
The treatment of all the children should be paternal ; nothing, in 
short, should be omitted to make tliem good practical citizens, 
sound in body and sound in mind. 

This plan differs from others ; 

I . By the progressive strict course of studies to be pursued in 
each class. 

*For Uie Editor's ¥iewa, see p. 110. 



ISO AitmU^gti of DU Plan. 

3. By e^itablishing, as a primary objeeti the thorough knowl- 
edge of the maternal language. 

3. By embracing but a limited, and I may add, the most useful 
part of human knowledge, for the majority of our youth, instead 
of hurrying them through all the innumerable branches of study, 
with which the greater part of our school prospectuses are over- 
charged. 

4. By leaving very little to memory. Memory is like a feather 
upon the open hand ; the first wind blows it away. But to exert 
memory in applying it to objects lying in the intellectual sphere of 
our youths, as proposed here, is very useful, and even necessary. 

5. By accustoming the pupils in the early stages of education, 
to compose letters and exercises both in English and French, they 
learn early to think, and to observe a certain order in their ideas. 
Tliis course, by degrees, will enable them to write well, and to 
express themselves clearly, correctly and briefly — £ln acquisition 
too generally neglected in our schools. 

6. By establishing a semi-annual private examination of each 
scholar, every pupil is stimulated to exertion, and as his promotion 
depends niucli upon bis good behavior, his morality must also 
necessarly be encouraged. Thus a fair chance is given to appli- 
cation and talents, for abridging the time of the prescribed course. 
Parents may also learn tlie preference given, and the decided in- 
clination of their sons in favor of one or more of tbe branches pur- 
sued. Thus they may be enabled to give their cliildren further 
opportunity of perfection in any particular branch, and lay the 
foundation for making them highly distinguished statesmen, schol- 
ars, mechanics, &£c. 

By following such a plan, and developing, fostering, and exciting 
the yet slumbering talents of a youth m one particntar branch of 
knowledge, America may, and necessarily musty after a certain 
length of time, raise men of eminence in these respective branches. 
Let, for example, a man of an independent fortune lay aside every 
desire of immediate gain from his son, allow him, if able and indus- 
trious, to choose for himself one branch among the many which he 
likes best, let him have all the necessary assistance to pursue, and 
perfect this his favorite study, without being compelled to pursue 
too many at once in order to provide for his living, and we shall 
soon see this young man distinguishing himself in this department, 
because he has had the necessary time and opportunity to attain 
this perfection.* Suppose now there were one or two disin- 

• There are youth i»ho«c natural character, or early habits, would render It not 
only U!*ele!(8 hut un«ale toin(1iiI::e thfui in pumuin^ their own course; and with 
our present inotioH of rducution we n.ay add, there are tew who are capable of 
judging coucerning that poitiooof the field of knowledge which Ilea beyond 



SemMmny or CoUege. 181 

terested &theis who would act in accordaDce with these prioei* 
pies in every village, town, ot county , and who are inclined to 
follow this well meant advice, and bow soon might we not see 
many young men of profound talents, and eminent scholarship 
rising above the ordinary sphere of distinguished men. The Stat9 
of New York alone could furnish us hundreds ! But reform is no- 
cessary to accomplish this ; for I must confess candidly, that ^by 
our present super6cial and too complicated studies in schools and 
colleges, by the too close calculation of many wealthy fathers, who 
wish that ttieir sons, once out of the senior class, with tlieir diploma 
as A. B. in their pocket, may wander through the world, and gain 
their living by their own exertions, it is utterly impossible to 
form any scholar, any sound and eminent man, except in those few 
cases where nature has done more than our instruction.' 

Well convinced of the useful consequences of an education 
grounded upon these simple principles, I propose, after such a 
school is foi^nded, to establisli a seminary or a college, with the 
power of conferring degrees. This college sliould not only be . 
adapted for teachers, but for students wishing to devote themselves- 
to otiier employments. Such an institution is necessary to com* 
plete the plan proposed ; for if a youth, having begun to study in 
the preparatory school should enter in any of the existing colleges, 
where the studies differ from those which have been proposed, he 
would soon forget wliat he had learned, and be submitted to the 
usual routine of hurried, overcharged studies, taught in the greater 
part of our hi«rher seminaries. In this way, we should entirely 
lose for him and for ourselves, the expected benefits of a sound and 
radk^al education, for want of which, the greater part of our gradu*- 
ated citizens, once in office or business, feel every day their de- 
ficiencies and the necessity of studying anew. 

These institutions should never be divided and left to the direc- 
tion of separate superintendents, as both necessarily form but OM 



them. To such, leNiire and liberty are often niiDOiia. But there are ca&«.. 
where the want of aid has checked forever the progreas of a mind capable oi 
high atiainnienta; and there are many, where the atnisp^fe to provide tor a aup- 
Bort, while the mind i« preanng on in the career of improvement, has destroyed 
hemlth «nd life. May not the almoners of our public chariiiea sometimes Mie 
false economy in this way, and might not some pareui^derivje valuable himsfroiii* 
the dying remarks of tht; hite Coleridge ? In his will he regrets his inability to 
malre such proviition for liis son * a« might set his feelings at ease, and his mind 
At lUierty troni the depressing anxieties of to-dav, and exempt him from the ne- 
cesilly of diverting the talents with which it hath pleaaed God to entrust him, to 
ratMects of temporary interests, knowing that It is with him, as it ever lies beea 
leim myself, that his powers, an 1 the ability and disposition to exert them, ar* 
l^reatest when the motives from without are least, or of leant urgency ; ' and we 
■light add of others, that they areparalyie^l by the preaaure of pecuniary anzie- 
ties. — Editor. 

TOL. V. NO. III. 11 



list Probable JteMcAt of thi$ Plan. 

body and one mind. The buildings, the discipline, and economical 
concerns of the school, must be entirely separated from the seminary 
or college ; but one mind alone must direct the method, the hours 
of recitation, the quantity and quality of studies, fee. in both insti«' 
tutions, if we intend to obtain a satisfactory result. Both institiH 
tions, (whose courses should last generally ten, and at the least eight 
years,) may thus furnish a complete scholastic education. Each of 
them, after the fourth year of their estaUislnnent, will begin to 
give us the benefits of our labor. The preparatory school wilt fill 
the college with students, taught in accordance with tlie course 
^uiopted in this school ; and the graduates of the senior class will 
give us good and able teachers,. who could be sent successively to 
iJie different counties of the State to establish new schools after the 
model of our preparatory school, and thus fill the college with an 
increased number of students taught in accordance with the course 
adopted in the preparatory school. 

In following this plan, it will be obvious to every unprejudiced 
mind, that the number of good teachers must necessarily increase 
with the fiflb) sixth, and following years, and consequently multiply 
at a greater rate, the number of schools and scholars. Thus we 
shall obtain a great many good teachers, uniting theory to practice, 
and fully able to take charge of the common or district schools. 

The preparatory school' and the college must not be confounded 
with the common schools ; the two former must be first established 
as the necessary nursery for the formation of good teachers, and a 
sound system, before we can accomplish a radical refonn in our 
common schools. I may assert, without being taxed with presump- 
tion, that any other attempt will be loss of time, labor and money, 
and will only offer a partial result. A radical^ thorough reform, 
or none, — this is my fixed opinion, grounded upon a period of 
twenty years of observation and practice in this so highly useful, 
and so little estimated and rewarded occupation. By such a 
course, we may obtain by degrees, without any increase of labor, 
and with little additional expense, a radical and sound school re- 
fann, as well as a complete scholastic education. 

But as we shall have to struggle against every kind of prejudice, 
and particularly against the old established routine in our colleges 
and schools, it will be 'absolutely necessary that the government 
of the State should take both institutions under its immediate pro- 
tection for at least five years. When they are well established and 
in full operation, the sound results will undoubtedly inspire confi- 
dence, and gain friends ; and public opinion, being thus in their 
iavor, they will be able to support themselves without furtlicr 
assistance. 



Ntgltct of ikt Affediom mud inagim^ian. 1S3 



(F«r th« Aanalf of Edacation.] 

MATTER-OF-FACT EDUCATION. 

[In an addrpM delivered before a village Ljeeum, we find the followisg 
remarka on a topic, of which we ahould be glad to receive a full diacuMion.J 

There are ev3s in the modem system of education, not confined 
to the social affections ; they extend to the mind ; they influence 
the imagination and the reasoning powers. Living continually in 
the outward and the actual, — ^little conversant with the inward and 
the ideal, — we become mere matter-of-fact creatures, incapable of 
comprehending anything that does not come within the cognizance 
of the senses ; and besides, as if outward circumstances were not 
sufficient for this, we are trained up to it from our very infancy. 
The children of the present day receive a matter-of-fact education ; 
their heads are crammed with facts^ — -focis, — -facts ! The intel- 
lect alone b cultivated ; the aiSTections and die imagination are neg- 
lected. The consequence is easily seen. 

' The child ia grown as cautious fs three aeore ; 
Admits, on proof, that two and two are four. 
He to no aimless energies gives way ; 
No little fairy visions round him play ; 
He builds no towering castles in the sky, 
Lonffinff to climb, his bosom beating high ; 
Is told Uiat fancy leads but to destroy ; 
You have five senses; follow them, my boy ! 
If feeling wakes, his parents* fears are such. 
They cry, * Don't, dearest, you will feel too much.' 

Thus the germs of imagination are nipped in the bud ; the affec- 
tions are checked in their growth, and we become cold, calculating, 
selfish beings, qualified, perhaps, for the drudgery of mere me- 
chanical operations, but totally imfitted for the higher and nobler 
employments of life. And this is what we call ' practical educa- 
tion ! ' And to such an extent is it carried at the present day, by 
its advocates, that they would, if they could have their way, speedily 
banish from our schools every branch of knowledge that is not 
productive of immediate and practical utility. Fortunately, they 
have not yet been able to carry their object into effect. How 
soon they will do it, remains to be seen. From the signs of the 
times, we have everything to fear. Should they once succeed, 
fiurewell to every noble, and generous, and elevated sentiment. The 
refinements of civilized society could have no place under their 
sway. They would reduce everything to the standard of mere 
practical utility. In the words of another, ^ They would dig down 
ramassus to help M cAdaroize a road, and underlay the foundations 



184 H^part •» tk§ Eimatiom of Teacheti. 

o( Castalia and Arethusa with aqueducts.' They would cut up a 
beautiful common, as they have attempted to do in a neighboring 
town, for the sake of shortening a few rods the distance to market. 
Talk to tAemof the utility of the Cemetery on Mount Auburn, or the 
Monument on Bunker Hill, and they will listen to you with a stare 
ofMncredulity. By them, nothing is considered useful but what is 
to * perish with the using ; ' — as if man were a mere animal, re- 
quiring indeed meat and drink, and clothing and she)ter, who, if once 
provided with these, is in possession of all the necessaries of life ! 
* Strange,' you exclaim, * that any in their senses should embrace 
such sentiments ; there must be some powerful charm in that word, 
yiUityy thus to cheat a man of his common sense.' Not at all ; 
it is but the natural result of the present system of education. We 
cultivate the intellect to the neglect of the imagination and the 
heart. Reason we cannot, at least in the higher sense of the term ; 
for to thaty a cultivated and active imagination is necessary. What 
wonder then that we should be the dupes of the most miserable 
sophistry ; deluding others, ourselves deluded. 



EDUCATION OF TEACHERS IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK. 

Bepari of a Committee of the Regents of the Untverstty of the State ofATeto 
lork on the edueaiian of Common School TeaeherSt together iriih an or- 
dinance of the Regents for carrying the plan embraced in said Report^ 
into execution, %oi& (he reauisite instructions for that purpose^ Albany, 
1835. 

In our last number, we had the pleasure of describing the flour- 
bbing state of the first permanent Seminary ibr Common School 
Teachers, established in the United States, of whk^h we are in- 
formed.* It is with peculiar gratification that we liave received 
from the Superintendent of Common Schools in the state of New 
York, — the Hon. John A. Dix, — a report on this subject, under- 
stood to be prepared by him, with an ordinance of the Regents of 
the University providing for regular courses of instruction for 
teachers f in eight of the principal Academies of the State. 

We rejoice to find it not only distinctly, but practically an- 
nounced, in thb manner, that it is the * settled policy ' of the 
most populous state in the Union, to educate the teachers of its 

* This seminarr coatMU one handred and one papili. inttead of fifty-six at 
before stated. We do not forvet that the Rensselaer School of Troj, afforded a 
■Mat Taluabie eoana of seimUgte imstnutum, to those who proposed to be teachera. 



PmffMrji Seminariei. 195 

common schools for their profession. Such a step, in advance o( 
every other government in the United States, is worthy of thb 
liberal state ; and the example, we trust, will have no small influ- 
ence on the prbgress of education in our country. 

The report is drawn up with gr^at ability and clearness, and 
points out the evils arising from the defective education of our 
teachers, and the mode of remedying it, in a manner worthy the 
attention of all our legislative bodies. It states ' the leading and 
acknowledged defect in our common schools' — ' the want of com- 
petent teachers ;' and that without these, much of the money ex- 
Cnded upon schools is wasted, and no system of instruction can 
made complete. It refers to the fact, that in other countries, 
seminaries for teachers are considered indispensable to a system of 

Erimary instruction. Of Prussia, it states the following well 
nown facts. 

* In the year 1833, that kingdom bad forty-two seminaries for teachers, 
with more than two thousand students ; from eight to nine hundred of 
whom are annually furnished for the primary schools. The vocation of 
instructor is a public office, as well as a profession. He receives his edu- 
cation ahnost wholly at the expense of the state ; his qualifications to 
teach are determined by a board deriving its authority from the govern- 
ment; the salary cannot be less than a certain sum, which is augmented 
as occasion requires ; and the local authorities are enjoined to raise it as 
high as possible aliove the prescribed minimum. Finally, when through 
affe or infirmity he l)ecomes incapable of discharging his duties, he is 
allowed to retire with a pension for his support. These provisions of 
law have made the business of teaching highly respectable, and have 
secured for the primary schools of Prussia, a body of men eminently 
qualified to fulfil the elevated trust reposed in them.* 

And some plan like this must be admitted, after all, to be the 
only feasible mode by which quali6ed teachers can be * secured for 
the primary schools ' of any country. As we observed, in remark- 
ing on the report on the common schools, in our last number, so 
long as the compensation for teaching our children is no greater 
than is given for ' taking care of our cattle and our stables, few 
will be induced to incur the labor and expense which are necessary 
to prepare for the more difficult task ; ' and when prepared, they 
cannot be expected to remain in this employment, ' while other 
professions, equally useful, and more respected and profitable, are 
open to them.' 'Economy here disappoints itself,* for there are 
no laws, or customs of caste, like those of European countrieSi 
which confine a man to the profession whksh he has adopted. 

We learn from the n^port, that three academies in the state of 
New York, — those of St. Lawrence, Oxford and Canandaiguai-^ 

•11 



196 Plan Adopted in New Yorlc. 

have established courses of lectures and exercises for the prepa- 
raiioD of teachers, with results of wliich the following is given as 
1 specimen. 

'In the neighborhood of the St Lawrence Academy, the school dis- 
tricts are almodt entirely supplied with teachers educated at that insti- 
tution ; and so beneficial has been the effect of introducing into the 
schools a better class of instnictors, and more efficient plans of instruc- 
tion, til at the compensation of teachers is already, on an average, from 
thirty to forty dollars ])er annum more, than it was before the academy 
had established a department for training them. The influence of these 
measures upon the public opinion of a small section of the country, fur- 
nishes the stronrest ground of assurance, that it is necessary only to ex- 
tend them in order to produce the same results on a more extensive 
scale.' 

It is this influence on public opinion on which reliance is placed, 
to produce voluntary efTorts for the support and respectability of 
the profession, which in Prussia arise from compulsory motives. 

The plan proposed in the report, and adopted by the Regents 
of the University, is to select one academy in each of the eight 
senatorial districts of the state; to appropriate five hundred dollars 
to each, for the purchase of a library and apparatus adapted to the 
use of those who are preparing to be teachers, thus reserving six 
thousand dollars out of the permanent fund often thousand dollars 
now on hand, for future contingencies ; and from the annual sur- 
plus revenue of the literature fund, (estimated at three thousand 
five hundred dollars,) to appropriate four hundred dollars to each 
of the Academies, to provide a special course of instruction in the 
art of teaching. 

The following academics have been selected for this purpose. 

For the 1st District, Erasmus Hall Academy, Kind's county, 

2ii " Montgomery ** Oranpe county, 

dd " Kinilerliook ^ Columbia county, 

4lh " St. Lawrence " St. Lawrence county, 

5th " Fairfiold, " Herkimer county, 

6th " Oxford " Chenango county, 

" 7thf ** Canandaigua " Ontario county, 

" 8th " Middlcbury " Genesee county. 

In regard to the course of study to be pursued, it is remarked 
in the report, that the standard should be raised ^ as high as pos- 
sible,' because ' the qualifications of those who follow it will in* 
dine to range below, and not above the prescribed standard.' It 
proposes that none should be allowed to enter on the course, who 
are not acauainted with reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and 
so much oi geography as is found in tlie duodecimo works on this 
subjecti usualljr studied in our schools. 



u 
u 



Sabfeett of Study. IfgJ 

The following are the subjects of study proposed for the teach- 
ers' course, which are required to be thoroughly taught, and while 
they are not intended to exclude others, shall not be allowed to 
give way to any. 

1. The English language. 

2. Writing and Drawing. 

3. Arithmetic, mental and written ; and Book-keeping. 

4. Geography and General History, combined. 

5. The History of the United States. 

6. Geometry, Trigonometry, Mensuration and Surveying. 

7. Natural Philosophy and the Elements of Astronomy. 

8. Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

9. The Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutibn 
of the State of New York. 

10. Select parts of the Revised Statutes, and the duties of Pubric 
Officers. 

11. Moral and Intellectual Philosophy. 

12. The Principles of Teaching. 

Full and interesting directions are given concerning the method 
of instruction which should be adopted in each of these branches, 
which will scarcely admit of abridgment. On the principles of 
teaching, it is observed, ' instruction must be thorough and copious.' 

'It must not be confined simply to the art of tcacliing, or the. most 
snccesiiful methods of coinmunicatiiig knowledge, but it must embrace 
also tliose rules of moral government, which nrc as necessary for tlie 
regulation of the conduct of t)ie tenclier, as for the formation of the 
character of those who arc committed to his care. 

'Although this branch of instruction is mentioned last in the order of 
subjects, it should in fact run through the whole course. All the other 
branches should be so taught, as to be subservient to the great object of 
creating a facility for communicating instruction to others. In teaching 
the principles of the art, it would be desirable to make Hall's lectures on 
School-Keeping, a text book ; and Abbott's Teacher, Taylor's District 
School, and the Annals of Education shouhl be used as reading books, 
for the double purpose of improvement in reading the English language, 
and for becoming familiar with the most improved mode of instruction, 
and the best rules of school government. From the Annals, select parts 
only would be chosen for the purpose.' 

In remarking upon the practical execution of this plan, the im- 
portance of exercising the mind, instead of merely amassing 
knowledge — of making the pupils think for themselves, instead of 
treasuring up other men's thoughts, is strongly urged. It is pro- 
posed, that m the ordinary subjects of study, instruction should be 
given to those destined for teachers, in connection with other pu- 
pils, but that they should be employed in succession, to hear the 
recitatioDS under the direction of the instructor. 



188 Cerfi/Scn^ef.— -JSftnefialtiy Lecturers. 

As to the duration of the course, it is stated that three years is 
the shortest period which can be reasonably assigned. Each 
pupil who completes the course, and gives satbfactory evidence at 
a public examination, of a thorough acquaintance with all the sub- 
jects of study, and of his ability to teach them, is to receive a 
diploma, signed by the Trustees, and the Principal of the Academy, 
testifying that he is qualified to teach. This, however, is not in- 
tended to supersede the necessity of the biennial examination and 
certificates of the Inspectors of Common Schools in each town 
which is required by law. In this way, provision is made not only 
to ascertain the original ability and character of the teacher, 
but to exclude him from the employment if he should, in any way, 
forfeit his claims to confidence. 

A student, who does not finish the entire course, is to receive 
merely a certificate from the Principal of the Academy, stating the 
time spent in the institution, and the studies pursued, and giving 
his opinion of the character and qualifications of tlie individual. 

In regard to the provision of books for the use of the candidates 
for the teacher's ofiice, the committee leave the selection for future 
consideration ; and refer, even the choice of class-books, for the 
present, to the respective teachers in order to obtain their opinions, 
and the results of their experience. They propose the purchase of 
a set of simple astronomical, philosophical, and chemical apparatus, 
geometrical solids, surveying; instruments, a quadrant, telescope, 
globes, atlas, a map of the United States and of the State of New 
York, for each academy. One modification of the itinerating sys- 
tem of instruction is proposed by the committee, which we think 
is highly valuable, and which we believe has been practised upon 
to some extent, by Prof. Eaton, and his pupils of the Rensselaer 
School of Troy. They suggest, that when the state of the funds 
shall permit, a professional lecturer may be employed to give a 
course of lectures on the various branches of Natural Science, for 
one month in the year at eacli of the Academies, to illustrate more 
fully, and fix more firmly in the minds of the pupils, the principles 
they have learned from their text-books, and from the lectures and 
apparatus of the academy. They believe that the sum of one 
thousand dollars with the fees of the students, would procure such 
a lecturer for eight months in the year, for the teachers' depart- 
ment ; and they propose that he should, at the same time, be em- 
ployed by the Regents to inspect the state of the department. 

After the long continued eflTorts we have made to excite public 
attention to this subject, we need not say that w^ are highly grati- 
fied by so happy a commencement of the only true mode of im- 
proving our common schools, — that of improving the teachen to 



Efhicaiion and Crime. 199 

whose care they are committed. Still we trust it is but the cam^ 
meneemeni of a system, which shall provide a fiill and regular 
supply of quali6ecl teachers for this state, and ultimately for every 
state in the Union. As the committee observe in the report, the 
number of teachers thus instructed will be t(X) limited to meet the 
wants of our schools ; and the most important effects to be antici- 
pated are, to influence public opinion, to raise the standard of quali- 
fications for teaching and of methods of instruction, and to produce 
a conviction that, in the education of chiidren, liberality is the 
only true economy. We trust that in these and other modes, pub- 
lic opinion will soon be so nuich elevated as not only to permity 
but to demand the establishment of institutions devoted to this ob~ 
jectj not less extensive and not less liberally endowed than those 
which are consecrated to the education of the ministry. Could the 
same benevolence which endowed these, be made to perceive that 
teachers are employed in laying the foundation of the edi6ce, to 
which ministers can only add the top-stone, we mi»[ht hope soon to 
see Teachers' Seminaries, which should scatter blessings through 
the schools of our land. Is there no Phillips, or Bartlett, or Per- 
kins, or Girard to endow them ? 



EDUCATION AND CRIME. 



The Relation hettoeen Education and Crime,, in a letter to the Riglit Rev. 
William White, D. D., President of the Pliilmlelphia Society for 
alleviating the miseries of Public Prisons. By Francis Lirber, 
L. L. D., member of the Society ; to which are added, some ohserva- 
tionsy by N. U. Julius, M. D.,of Hainbiiri;, a corres^mnding member of 
the Society. Published by order of the Society. Phila<lelphia, 1835. 

In our volume for the last year, we referred to statements 
made in the British Parliament, and elsewhere, on the inelTicacy 
of mere intellectual instruction in preventing crime. We have 
been favored by the Philadelphia Prison Society with the inter- 
esting pamphlet, whose title we have copied, in which Dr. 
Lieber endeavors to show, that the estimates on this subject 
do not furnish sufficient ground for the sweeping conclusions 
which some have drawn from them, against the utility of public 
schools. He admits that the progress of society necessarily 
presents new teniptations, and new facilities for crime. While the 
wants and possessions of men are few, there is little comparative 
inducement to fraud and robbery. So long as locks and bars, and 
credit, and writing, are unknown, burglary, and swindling, and 
fergery, cannot be committed. With thp mo^^ress of wealth and 



130 Cauiet of an hcreoie of Crime. 

improvement, therefore, crimes must be multiplied ; and this does 
not imply necessarily that there is any deterioration in the actual 
character of the individuals or the nation. He admits that evils 
follow in the train of improvement ; but he remarks, that this is no 
more valid as an objection, than one which was adduced in the last 
century against the improvement of roads, — that the progress of an 
enemy through the country is thus made easier. 

Dr. Lieber admits, that knowledge is merely negative in its 
influence, and may be the instrument of good or evil ; but observes, 
that public instruction necessarily involves some degree of moral 
discipline, which exerts a direct and positive influence ; and presumes 
that the mind of a pupil must always be more disposed to receive 
moral and religious truth. If the character of our teachers were 
such as it ought to be, if they would all command themselves, and 
if they knew how to prevent the corruption which results from the 
mere assemblage of children in a school, when not counteracted by 
direct moral influence, his anticipations would be well founded. 
But unhappily, the public schools are, in many instances, the means 
of cormpting those who were previously ignorant of vice; and 
their character has not been improving in this. respect. 

Still lie maintains very justly, that there is something human- 
izing, soniething softening to the character, in every species of 
knowledge, or rather, as we think, in the habit of self-command 
which is gained by the effort to study, and in the experience of 
the pleasure derived from a calm state of mind. He also main- 
tains, that the borderers on civilization, who have so far tasted of its 
pleasures as to desire them, and are yet too ignorant or too ill- 
educated to appreciate them rationally, are most in danger of being 
driven into crime, in order to obtain them. 

But while he allows that the influence of instruction may be 
counteracted by other causes, he remarks, that there are circum- 
stances which produce an apparent multiplication of crime, when 
it may, in fact, be diminishing. The introduction of a general 
school system, or of ameliorations in criminal laws or prisons, will 
naturally be attended by increased vigilance on the part of the 
same government in the investigation and detection of crime, and 
more readiness to convict criminals. The influx of foreign emi- 
grants, a severe winter, a scarcity of money, a change in public 
measures aflecting some branch of industry, a violent excitement 
on some topic of public interest, may produce similar effects during a 
given period. To one or more of these causes, Dr. Lieber traces 
the apparent increase of crime in some parts of our country. 

The increase of crime in the city of New ¥ ork can be traced to 
the large importation of paupers and refugees from justice, who come 
among the foreign emigrants that crowd that port incessantly. 



of Pfisoms. 181 

At the same time that the prison of Connecticut was opened, 
the number of offences punished by confinement in the state prison, 
was increased ; and the improvements made, had a direct efiect in 
diminishing the reluctance of juries to convict criminals. To these 
circumstances must we ascribe, in a great measure, the increased 
number of convictions remarked by Messrs. Beaumont and Tocque- 
ville, during their late visit to our prisons. Since the system has 
become estabibhed, and exerted its influence, the number of con- 
victions has decreased ; thus showing, at least, that the apparent 
increase of crime has not continued. 

In order to procure the data necessary to decide on the question, 
whether the apparent multiplication of crimes in our country is 
really connected with an increase of knowledge. Dr. Lieber ad- 
dressed letters to several of the superintendents of our prisons, 
containing inquiries as to the proportion of educated prisoners. 
From their answers it appears, that in the Philadelphia prison, as 
we have formerly stated, about one half could neither read nor 
write, and that many of the remainder were too imperfectly 
taught to read with ease, and thus had little access to the means 
of knowledge contained in books. Only ten out of two hundred 
and nineteen, had received a good education, and only ' two 
others could read and write tolerably.' Most of them were brought 
up in idleness. In the prison at Sing-Sing, two hundred and 
eighty-nine out of eight hundred and forty-two, could not read or 
write, only Torty-two had received ' a good common English edu- 
cation,' — the least degree of instruction which deserves to be taken 
into account, in estimating the effects of knowledge — and only 
eight had passed through a college. A fearful evidence of the 
effects of intemperance is found in the statement, that four hun- 
dred and eighty-five of the number had been habitual drunkards ; 
and many had committed their crimes while intoxicated. One 
6fth of the number had become orphans in early life. 

At Auburn, of six hundred and seventy prisoners, only three 
had received a collegiate education, eight an academical edu- 
cation, and two hundred and four a good English education. Of 
the whole number, five hundred and three had been intemperate ; 
and four hundred were under the influence of spirituous liquor, at 
the time of committing their crimes. 

In the state prison of Connecticut, only eight in one hundred of 
the prisoners could read, write and cipher, when they were con* 
Ticted ; only forty-six in a hundred could read and write ; and 
ibrty-four in a hundred committed their crimes while under the 
influence of ardent spirits. ' There is no convict there,' says the 
Warden, ' who before his conviction, could read and write, and 
who was of temperate habits, and followed a regular trade.' In- 



133 Letter of Dr. Miu$. 

struction, temperance and industry, are then among the best exter^ 
nal preventives of crime ; and to encourage these, will do more to 
repress it, than any possible improvement of codes or prisons. 

To the letter of Dr. Lieber, are annexed some highly interest* 
ing observations by the philanthropic Dr. Julius, who is now on a 
visit to our country, in behalf of the Prussian government, for the 
purpose of exploring its prisons. He remarks that the Prussian 
system of education is founded upon three fundamental principles; 
1. The preparation of competent teachers in seminaries erected 
for the purpose ; 2. Tlie legal obligations of parents to provide 
instruction for their children from the beginning of the seventh to 
the end of the fourteenth year ; ' and, 3. The foundation of the 
whole system on a religious and moral basis, so that the first, or 
the two first hours of each day are devoted entirely to a regular 
course of religious instruction.' 

Under this system, aided by the establishment of institutions for 
the reformation of Juvenile ofTenders by private benevolence, while 
the population has increased by three per cent., from 1828 to 
1831, a c/errea^e of three per cent, in the indictments against cA»/- 
dren above the age of eleven years, took place in the same period ; 
It is still more remarkable, that the number of those under eleven, 
who could not be considered as havincr received the full influ- 
ence of this education, had actually increased. 

It appears, however, that the least number of juvenile delin- 
quencies occurred in the least instructed, but agricultural provinces, 
and the greatest in the coiimiercial, and manufacturing districts. 
The former were generally crimes of a heinous character ; the 
latter principally fraud and larceny, or crimes against property, for 
which a wealthy, trading community affords the greatest facilities 
and temptations. It must not be forgotten, that the same amount 
of corruption will necessarily produce more crime in a crowded 
population, who so often want the very necessaries of life, than in 
more thinly settled, and well-fed agricultural districts. Dr. Julius 
also remarks, that in Austria, the following facts have been ascer- 
tained in regard to the proportion of criminals and of children 
instructed. 

Childrtn at SchooL 

Austria Proper, 948 out of 1000. 

Tyrol and Vorarlberg, U45 " " 

Moravia and Silesia, 919 " ** 

Bohemia, 906 « « 

Dalinaiia, 649 "< <« 

Interior Austria, 443 " ** 

Galicia, 115 « « 



Indictments, 




1 to 1676 inhabitants. 


1 to 322 


« 


1 to 1707 


M 


1 to 1428 


tc 


1 to 138 


U 


1 to 6G9 


U 


1 to 1382 


U 



PrwetUives of YHne. 1S8 

It will be observed fiom thb table, that the increase of instra^ 
tioa is regulariy attended with the diminution of crime, with thre« 
exceptions, — the Tyrol, Dalmatia and Galicia. Dalmatia, Dr. 
Julius observes, is the common refuge of fugitives from justice in tfat 
neighboring countries ; and Galicia, — a part of the ancient Poland^ 
is still in that rude state of society, where the wants of life are 
comparatively few, and the temptations to crime are small, while 
the greater part of the population are peasants, under the despotic 
government of the landholders. Neither of these exceptions, there- 
fore, can be urged against the general principle. The Tyrolese 
are a brave, independent, and very ingenious race, travelling by 
thousands every year, as showmen and pedlars, to every part of 
Europe. With this capacity, and these opportunities for evil, and 
under a government wiiose police and customhouse regulations 
are so galling to a free spirit, and create so much of what may be 
termed arti6cial crime, it is not perhaps surprising, that superior 
iiifonnation should be converted to purposes of illicit gain, or that 
their high spirit should break forth in acts of violence. But if this 
be allowed to be an exception, it does not at all destroy the evidence 
of the general truth. 

Dr. Julius very justly remarks, that the increase or decrease of 
crime ' more than anything, seems to depend upon the fnariner of 
elementary instruction, whether it be a mere mechanical one, in 
reading, writing, arithmetic, and some geographical and historical 
knowledge, confining the iiighest moral information to the reading 
of the scriptures ; or wheliier it is one resting on a religious and 
moral foundation, where all other knowledge imparted to the child, 
finds its test and its confirmation. He quotes the observation of 
the late Gov. Wolcott, that ^ high mental attainments afford no 
adequate security against moral debasement ; ' and the remark of 
a British writer, that there cannot be a greater mistake, than ' the 
supposition that knowledn^e is always, in itself y beneficial.' Dr. 
Julius believes that no system of instruction or legislation which is 
destitute of the vital influence conferred by Christianity, can be 
efifectual in preventing crime ; and he might have adduced au- 
thority far more decisive to American minds, in the following pas- 
sage from the farewell address of the Father of his Country. 

< Of all the di8|K)sitions and habits which lead to political prosperity, 
religion and morality arc indisf)ensable supports. In vain would 
that man claim tlie tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert 
these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the 
duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious 
man, ought to respt*ct and cherish them. •^ volume coidd not trace all 
their connections with private ami public felicity. . . . And let us with cau- 
tion, indulge the su)>|H)sition, that morality can be maintained without 

VOL. V. NO. III. 12 



184 MOtan on the Duty of Woman. 

raligioQ. WhateTer may be coneeded to the influence of refined educa* 
tkniy on minds of peculiar atructare, reason and experience both forbid 
ua to expect, that national morality can prevail in exclunion of religious 
priociplea.' 

Let this be inscribed upon our statute books and our school 
bouses, as the fundamental principle of our laws and our course of 
instruction ; and we shall provide the most effectual preventive, 
ind the most certain remedy of crime. 



MILTON'S ACCX)UPn' OF THE DUTY OF WOMAN. 

In one of our numbers of the last year, we mioted an extract 
from an address containing the familiar passage of Milton, describing 
* the whole duty of woman/ and have been taken to task by a 
lady, for thus sanctioning the principle of * ]iassive obedience/ 
We plead guilty ; for we disapprove the sentiment no less tlian 
our correspondent, and we cheerfully make the ^ amende Aon- 
orable ' required, by inserting the extract she has marked from 
Mrs. Willard's * Appeal in favor of female education in Greece.' 
After complaining of the contemptuous manner in which English 
authors, even Paley and Addison, speak of woman, and which, she 
observes, is to be found in no American author, Mrs. Willard 
adds the following remarks on the great poet. 

' Passing from these, I name but one author more. This is 
Milton, whose dazzling genius throws such a lustre around him, 
that we cannot but admire what reason teaches us to condemn. 
I refer to that much quoted passage — 

* My author and dispoeer ; what thou bid*st 
Unargued I obey; so God ordains. 
God !■ thy law, thou mine : to know no more 
Is woman^s happiest knowledge and her praise.' 

* I cite this passage not only because it confirms the assertion 
winch I have made, but becau.se it conlains, in principle, what I 
conceive to be the leading falsity, which has, in too many ages, 
made even well-meaning men the tyrants of women ; and led them 
not only to neglect our education, but absolutely to oppose it. 

*To divest this passage of the chann it derives from being con- 
nected with some of the most exquisite poetry ever WTittcn, let us 
change the phraseology, and put it into the mouth of Adam. We 
shall then know how to appreciate its morality, and the bearing of 
its sentiments on the character and condition of women. 



New England Imtitution far the Blind. 185 

My creaturef whom haTing made, 

By riffht I can dispose of; what / bid 

*T is thine unargued to obey — €rod is my law, 

I thine — this know, alone. To know no more 

Is woman*B happiest knowledge and her praise. 

^ What ! shall a Christian teach us that man, not God, is oar 
author ? that we are to look to him, as the ruler of our destiny, 
and our final disposer ? Shall he go further, and deny that Grod 
is a law to us ? Shall woman then obey all man's commands 
without argument ? Then were she justified in committing mur- 
der and every abomination, if such were the will of her only 
ruler ! And this is to be all her knowledge — all her intellectual 
repast — all her means of moral improvement ! She need know 
neither God nor his works, provided she knows the will of roaD, 
and obeys it ! No — it was not our first mother in her unfallen 
state who was guilty of such idolatry, though her fallen daughters 
may be, who bear the curse of God for her transgression. Had 
she uttered such sinful words, Adam had stood aghast, as when she 
ofFered him the forbidden fruit ; or had he not rebuked her, then 
had the angel of the Lord smitten him, as in aflertime the haughty 
Herod for the same transgression. Thou who hast sung creation, 
and mounted to the burning throne of God ! shouldst thou not 
have remembered the first awful words he uttered upon Sinai, 
" Tliou shall have no other Gods before me ?" 

' It may possibly be said that Milton should not be made resp<ni- 
sible for these sentiments, because he does not utter them in his 
own person, but merely puts them into the mouth of his heroine. 
But his heroine represents a woman in her perfect state ; and Eve 
is evidently his beau-ideal of a perfect woman, as Adam is of a 
perfect man ; and the sentiment passes from her^ unchallenged by 
him.' 



NEW ENGLAND INSTITUTION FOR THE BUND. 

Jtnnual Report of the Trustees of the AVtr England hutittdion for the 
Education t^ the Blind^ to the Corporation^ for 1835. 

The Report of the New England Asylum for the Blind, pre- 
sents a very gratifying view of the progress of this Institution 
under its devoted director. The number of pupils has increased 
during the past year from 24 to 42, of whom 41 reside in the in- 
ifiUitJOQ. Of these, 33 are beneficiaries, supported by public 



186 StuHei and Emplofyment$ of the Blind. 

funds ; ]9 by the State of Massachusetts, 6 by Maine, 5 by New 
Hampshire, and 1 by Vermont. Four only are able to pay their 
own expenses — a fact which shows that this misfortune, like deaf- 
ness, visits the indigent especially ; and that its subjects must be 
considered as dependent on the public bounty — may we not say, 
public justice. 

The noble principle is adopted — which is the life of every be- 
nevolent institution — to receive all deserving applicants, founded 
upon a confidence in Providence, and in the spirit of benevolence 
he implants in the human heart, which we believe has never been 
disappointed in sustaining a good object, since the days of Franke. 
We rejoice that the public funds are so liberally granted, and that 
private benevolence has supplied other means, to such an extent 
that the Trustees feel justified in the erection of a new building, 
demanded by the increased number of pupils, and necessary for 
the proper arrangement of the two sexes. 

The pupils are constantly employed from six in the morning to 
nine at night, with the exception of four and a half hours intermis- 
sion, in the school room, the workshop, or the music room. 
Music has received a great share of attention, as being very 
important to their future support ; and the class in vocal music, 
under the direction of Mr. Mason, sing with a good degree of 
taste and skill. Intellectual employments have been pursued with 
vigor and success. They are generally familiar with Arithmetic ; 
and several with Algebra and Geometry. Geography and English 
Grammar are taught to most of them ; French to one class, and 
Liatin to three of the boys. The ground is taken, that the blind 
ought to receive just such an intellectual education as is given to 
other children, with the same capacity and destination. 

In mechanical labor, such progress has been made, that the 
pupils can sew, knit, braid — and manufacture mattresses, cushions, 
door mats, and coarse baskets. It is observed, that these habits 
of industry, by employing the time of the blind, as well as by 
giving them confidence in their own powers, render them far 
more happy, than the mistaken indulgence so often practised by 
parents, of treating them as helpless objects of commiseration — a 
course which materially retards their progress when called to 
exertion. 

In regard to physical education, the salutary provision is con« 
tinued, of furnishing every pupil a warm bath, as often as it is 
desirable, and in order to secure the benefits of fresh air, the male 
pupils, like those of Hofwyl, are shut out of the house once in 
the day, when the weather allows it. 

The religious exercises of the Institution are the reading of the 
Scriptures, and of prayers, morning and evening, without note or 



Impravementi in Priniifigj t^c. 187 

comment. On Sunday, ihe pupils attend such place of worship 
^ they or their parents desire. 

The most important improvements, are those made in the in- 
struments of instruction. The frame employed (or airanging the 
arithmetical characters has been greatly reduced in sixe, weight, 
and cost, by the ingenuity and labor of Dr. Howe. The engrav* 
ing of maps in the sunken work, first practised, invokes so much 
expense in printing, that it has been very happily superseded by 
the use of others, engraved as they would be for ordinary printing. 
But the most valuable acquishion is that of a font of types, adapted 
for printing in raised characters, fumislied by the benevolence of 
individuals in New Bedford and Nantucket. The great object of 
diminishing the size of the letters, and the unwieldy bulk of the 
books for the blind, has been accomplished more fully than by any 
previous plan. It appears fiom the Report, that, 'in the books 
printed at Paris, there are, on a page of 8 inches by 7, or 56 
square inches, 408 letters ; at Edinburgh, by the improved method, 
509 letters ; at Boston, 787 letters ; at Philadelphia, the specimen 
shown us gives but 322 letters to 56 square inches.' On this esti- 
mate, the plan of the New England Institution gives twice as much 
matter on tlie same space, as that adopted in PVance ; and by ena- 
bling tliera to print on dry paper, much thinner, the quantity of 
matter in a book of the same size is three times as great. This 
is a most important gain, as any one will perceive, who has seen 
the French books ; and from a specimen sheet, which we are al- 
lowed 10 annex to this number, it will be found that the character 
js sharper and more distinct. The setting of the types and printing 
may be done chiefly by the blind. The book of Acts is now 
nearly completed ; and the Proverbs and Psalms are going on. 
Types are also prepared for printing music. 

We congratulate the Asylum, and the friends of humanity, on 
this happy result of a course of laborious efforts by Dr. Howe, 
which promise to furnish o better library to the blind, than is to 
be found in any language. We hope that other Institutions will 
unite in forwarding tiiis effort for their improvement, and we think 
it has a claim to public patronage, 

Another important advantage is derived from the font of type, 
in enabling the pupils to compose essays or letters to their friends, 
and to correct them, or submit them for correction, before copying 
them in manuscript ; for we have still to mention the most surprise 
ing of their acquisitions, the art of writing. It is a settled point, 
that although the process is comparatively slow, the blind can 
learn to write, in a manner sufficiently legible for all the purposes 
of life. We are enabled to offer our readers gratifying evidence 
of this in fac similes, copied in lithography, from the original 
manuscripts of the pupils, by PendletQP> which are aqne^Qd IQ 

*12 



188 nUnaii Education GcmvefUum. 

this number ; and we hope they will be used in convincing care* 
less and indolent pupils who can see, that it is their fcndt and not 
their misfortune^ if they fail to write legibly. We must, however, 
make an exception in favor of those whose hand has been spoiled 
by bad instructum; and we would advise, that such be immedi- 
ately subjected to the Carstairian system, so well developed by 
Mr. Foster. 

How delightful is it to witness the progress of human ingenuity, 
not merely in providing for the convenience and comfort of our race, 
but in enabling us to shed light upon the most benighted minds; 
and how forcibly can we apply to the present day the delightful 
assurance, that in the best sense, ' the deaf hear,' and ' the blind 
receive their sight,' and those emphatically ^poor have the gospel 
preached to them.' Never again, we trust, will despondency or 
indifllerence shut the avemies of knowledge to any of these dark- 
ened minds. 



MISCELLANY. 



Illinois Education Contention. 

A meeting of the Illinois Education Convention was held at Vandalia, 
Dec. 5, 1834. Resolutions were pattscd inyifing tlie judicial officers ul* 
the state, the members of the legislature, and all interested in the estab- 
lishment of common schools, to take part in the deliberations of the 
conrention ; whereupon sixty-one delegates from thirty-one counties 
took their scats. An able and spirited address to the people of Illinois, 
expressive of the sense of this convention in relation to common school 
education, was prepared by a committee appointed for this purpose. 
It was approved by the convention, and five thousand copies ordered 
to be printed and distributed by the state. 

The address is worthy of being thus widely circulated. It commences 
with describing the school systems of Massacliuscns, Connecticut and 
New York. The system of taxation so useful in Massachusetts, it is said) 
could not be successful where so great apathy prevails on the subject 
of schools. Of Connecticut it is stated, that the former system of taxa- 
tion, by which the tax of a district was forfeited to the state treasury, 
unless a school was maiotarned according to the requisitions of the law^ 
was more efficient than that which now bestows a sum grataitously 
from the fund ; that the iDfluence of the fund has been * evidently inju- 



Aei9 /«r»ey Lyeeuim. 139 

rious,^ in diminishing the interest of the people in their schools, and their 
vigilance in watching over them ; and that the qualifications of the 
teachers, and the character of the schools has not been elevated by the 
addition of $80,000 a year to all their means of instruction, simply 
because no effort Was required on the part of the people. On the 
other hand, the happy ejects of the system of New York, are adduced 
to show the importance of the principle of employing a fund merely 
as an aid to the exertions which are required from the people, and 
making these exertions a condition of receiving them. The report 
adds, that the great defect in regard to schools, both in New York and 
New England, is in the want of competent teachers ; and alludes to the 
plan of the state of New York for providing means for their instruction. 
We are gratified to see, that Illinois now has a productive fund of 
$115,772, and 1,000,000 of acres of land estimated at $1^11 fm^ making 
in all a fund of $ 1,327,705. In addition to this, the net proceeds of all 
lands sold by Congress after 1819, are devoted to the encouragement of 
learning, from which a revenue of $10,000 is annually received, and the 
Aiture proceeds are estimated at $503,333. With such funds, it will 
indeed be unpanlonablc, if this state do not provide ample means of edu- 
cation for its children ; and the duty is urged upon her citizens in the 
strongest terms, in the address before us. 

In commencing this course, the report proposes that circulating schools 
and female teachers be first employed ; and tliat effectual measures be 
taken to investigate the condition of the state- It recommends, that the 
fund should be employed in part, in establishing Academies in different 
parts of the state, rather than one large institution ; and that aid be 
never given, for this or any other purpose, unless corresponding effort* 
are made by the people. 'Help those that help themselves,' is a homely 
motto, not less important to private advantage than to public economy, 
and esiiecially in regard to schools. 

New Jersey Lyceum. 

A special meeting of the New Jersey Lyceum was held in Trenton, 
on the 21st of January last, whose proceedings we find in the February 
number of the Monthly Journal of Education. A report was read from 
the Executive Committee, in which they state as striking evidence of 
apathy on the subject of education, that afler sending out twice in suc- 
cession, hundreds of circulars containing incpiiries concerning the state 
of schools, the whole number of replies in a year *does not amount to 
one dozen.' Such facts prepare us for the melancholy picture given of 
the schools of New Jersey, in the following paragraph of the report. 

*lt is conceded &n all hands, that under the existing system, the great 
benefit indicated by the term popular education is not attained. The 
number of schools is not sufiicieutly large. The quality of achools esLiat- 



140 School ISinds in Maryland, 

ing, IB deplorably below the mark as to the fiscal arrangements, the sub'* 
jects taught, the manner of teaching, the checks and guards upon all who 
manage or instruct, and the harmony, connection, and unity of the plan 
which should |)crvade the whole, 'theretfuisitions made of teachers are 
small, end altogether unfixed. There is no stated examination of 
teachers. Many are declared to be incompetent. Many are known to 
be intenii)erate, and otherwise {grossly innnoral. Tliere is no suitable 
responsibility of the teacher. To go back to the causes of this lamentable 
state of things, there are no sufficient inducements held out to the intelli- 
gent and enterprising, to become teachers. The remuneration is nig- 
gardly, and there are no facilities for the training of iuHtructors ; no central 
BUfiervision from whom the character nnd qualifications of the instructor 
may be certified to society at large. Hence there are few who remain 
long in this employment.' 

The Committee further state, that the mere grant of money for schools, 
without adequate checks and res}H)nsibility, is found to be of no use ; 
that precipitate action wouhl prolxibly only increase the evil ; and that 
* thorough investigaiion* should be ^thtjirst step in reform.^ 

The Hon. Theotlore Frelinghuysen was chosen President of the Ly- 
ceum. In the evening, the interest of a large audience, embracing 
nearly all the members of the Legislature, was strongly excited by a series 
of spirited resolutions and able speeches in behalf of education. The 
resolutions declare it as the unanimous opinion of the Jjvccum, that the 
prejudices against the office of primary instructor, are ' unworthy of an 
intelligent and free people ;' — that *■ nny system of legislation which does 
not make provision for the proper training of primary teachers is funda- 
mentally defective, and can only serve as a teni|>orary ex[)edienti;' — that 
^Education is properly a science,* and that without regarding and pur- 
suing it as such, our schools cannot be improved, — that seminaries for 
the education of teachers are the only adequate means of promoting 
this science, and of producing, by means of well qualified instructors, a 
thorough reform in our schools ; — and that we owe it to ourseh'es, to 
remain no longer so far behind some of the nations of Europe, on this 
f>oint^A plun was presented for the state, proposing a board of educa- 
tion, a superintendent of schools, and two seminaries for teachers. A reso- 
lution was finally passed, that a cheap edition of Cousin's Report, should 
immediately be published for distribution through the slate. We rejoice 
in these indications of feeling in New Jersey ; and we trust it is the 
beginning of life to the dead, in a state in which we feel a deep interest, 
on personal, as well as public grounds. 

School Fcffos iff Martlakd. 

The report of the Treasurer of the Western Shore of Maryland informs 
us, that this state now distributes annually, $36,08^^ for the purposes 
of education. L The interest of the Free School Fund distributed to the 
counties and the city of Baltimore. 2. Donations to Colleges, AcademieB 



BiBtihUumt at the Wnt. 141 

•Dd Schools, $18,100. 3. Annual Payment to the University of Mary- 
land, $5,000 : and 4. Interest of a loan granted without return to St. 
Peter's school, Baltimore, $180. A fund derived from the payment of 
advances from the state during the war of 1812, was entirely distributed 
in the same manner, as soon as it amounted to $100,000. Some portions 
of these funds are still in the treasury, ami are disposed of as the local 
authorities direct. It appears that all this gratuitous appropriation, does 
not even procure for the government the means of knowing what is the 
condition of the schools, or how the Ainds are applied. 

Manual Labor Irstitutiors at thb Wxst. 

71u Wtgtem Reserve Cottege^ Hudson, Ohio, has eighty -four students 
in its Preparatory Collegiate and Theological Departments. Shops and ^^ 
tools are provided for those who wish to pursue mechanical labor. Some -H^.x^ 
have gained only * health of body, and vigor and elasticity of mind,' — ^ f f^ / 
enough, one would think, to compensate for two or three hours of daily x^^ .^^, 
labor, — while others have done much towards defraying their expenses. 
The total annual expense of a student is estimated at one hundred and 
thirty dollars. 

Marion College^ Missouri, one hundred and thirty-five miles above St. 
Louis, charges seventy dollars a year for the board and instruction of a 
student. Every student is required to work ; ami it is stated, that ho can 
earn a large part of his support in three hours daily labor, either in the 
field or the work-shop. This institution has received five thousand acres 
of land from three individuals, who assume also the labor and responsi- 
biUty of preparing it for use. 

Wahash College is a recent institution, which commenced as a High 
School and Teachers' Seminary, situated in a very flourishing country. 
It begun the second year of its existence with sixty students, six being of 
the collegiate class. Funds are now solicited for the buildings, library 
and apparatus. 

The Tkacher^B Seminary at Madison^ Indiana, contains thirty stu- 
dents, all of whom, it is stated, have pai<l their expenses by their labor, 
without any hindrance to their studies. This institution also solicits aid 
for the erection of buildings ; and it should not be forgotten, that none 
of the benefits of study combined with labor, can be conferred on the 
indigent, on an extensive scale, without buildings and capital, contributed 
by the wealthy. 

CoLLxaa FOR Yonifo Ladies. 

The institution of the Messrs. Van Dorens, at Lexington, Kentucky, has 
beeo incorporated as * Van Doren's College for Young Ladies,' with power 
to confer the degree of M. P. L. (Mtaireu of PoliU Literaiure) upon 



14S Vocal Mum in SckaoU. 

young Ind'iPR who complete the course, and the honorary degreea of 
M. M. (Mistress of MusicJ and M. I. (Mistress of Instruction) upon 
anitahle cnndidatci*. \Vu helieve an institution so valuable might safely 
rest on the rharnctcrof its pupils, without these empty titles; and we are 
sorry to find any encoumgement to the worship of the letters of the 
alphabet — so often associated with ignorance and dullness. 

The Asylum at Loclr, Switzrrlakd, and its Fou!«der. 

Tn oiir number for February, 1834, vol. IV, p. 59, we gave some ac- 
count of an institution for poor children whirli we visited near Locle, on 
the summit of the Jura Mountains, in Switzerland, founded and sustained 
by Mury Ann Calamo, on the siune principle of reliance on Providence, 
which enabled Franke to establish and rear the noble orphan house of 
Halle. This amiable and benevolent woman has gone to ber rest ! 

Vocal Music in Schools. 

In our last nuinlicr we gave some account of the siiecimens of Vocal 
Music in Mr. Thayer's school for Boys and Mr. Fowle*s school for Girls 
in Boston. In the course of his remarks on the examination of which 
this formed a part, IMr. Thayer observed. ' With the modem system of 
teaching vocal music, I wouhlsay, that with very little expense of time, a 
degree of proficiency in it may be acquired, that has seldom been attained 
to by children under the old method of instruction, and that, too, by 
merely exercising the faculty of attention for two hours in the week. 

'Its influence on the feelings and tempersof the children, is proverbially 
favorable, and beside the innocent pleasure which the pupils enjoy in itg 
exercise, the storing of the mind with pure sentiments contained in appro- 
priate 8ongs, and the gratification of others, in listening to the rich swell 
of a hundred happy voices, — ^the moral tendency^ as it seems to me, must 
recommend it to those who have the charge of large schools, and cause it 
to l>e extensively, if not generally, introduced into our seminaries.' 

We are happy in being able to state, that the Boston Academy of Music 
are making arrangements to obtain the ohl City Theatre in Federal 
Street, as a Hall for Musical Exhibitions and Concerts, and to place in*it 
an organ of great power. Aside from tho pleasure which will thus be 
afforded to the lovers of music, and the advantage of having an excellent 
place for public meetings of benevolent institutions, every friend of morala 
will rejoice in this mode of occupying a theatre, and a place which has 
been made the temple of atheism. We hope they will succeed. 

SiMPSorr ozr the Necessity of Popular Education. 

We have deferred noticing this work, only because we considered it 
worthy of an extended review. We cannot any longer delay recom- 
mending it to our readers, u one of the best practical worki on thif inb- 
ject yet published, although loiiie parti are liablo to objection. 



Noiieet o/BooJa. 143 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Monthly Journal of Education, Edited by £. C. Wine9^ 
Princeton, N. J: Moore 61, Baker: January and February. 1835^ 

Since our last number was sent to press, we have received the first two 
numbers of this work. They furnish evidence of the ability and zeal 
of the Editor, and we earnestly winh that his efforts and those of hiv- 
friends may be successful in indiirin^^ the friends of ediicotion in our 
country to sup|K>rt many perio<lical8 on this subject. Our exi)erienco 
does not warrant this hope at present ; and toith our viewSf we should 
rather have labored for one which we approved, than to have adopted the 
common plan of dividing public attention. We thank the Editor for the 
favorable and friendly manner in which he has spoken of the Annals* 
We regret, that without any unkind intention, he has adopted a name 
which we owe it to ourselves and our publisher to say, whs purchased 
for a valuable consiileration, and which we regtird as our property, at least 
in equity and courtesy ; for if this claim be waived, the tact thut the 
Annals is extensively quoted^ and addrtssedj and sent for ns the 'Journal 
of Education,' (of which it is only a new seriefl) renders this an uufortu* 
nate source of confusion for the Editors as well as the public. We have 
felt it more important to express our views on this point, since Ahlxitt's 
title, *The Religious Mnguziiie,' was adopted by a new periodical in New 
York. If honorable men sanction this course, the result is eo^iily foreseen. 

A Geography for Childrex. By TI. N. Brinsmade, A. M. 
Hartford :' Sumner 6l Co. Boston : W. D. Ticknor. pp. \22. 

This little book is written In n simple, interesting style, and is well 
ailapted to mnke the eleunrnts of Geogniphy intciligiblo to childn^n. In 
its general plan and engra\ iiigS; it resembles those which have preceded it 

The Moral Reformer and Teacher on the Human Con- 
stitution. Wm. a. Alcott, Editor and Proprietor. Boston : 
Light Sl Horton. 

The structure and laws of the liumnn system, the almost inseparable 
connection of health and morals, niid the fashionable vices, and prevalent 
moral evils of the day, espfcially those uliich are unsuspected, are the 
topics of this new periodical. Anioiii; the subjects of the first two num- 
lien are. Cleanliness, Dn*ss, r^unday dinners, Confectionary, Tenipernnce, 
Dosing, &c. The plan is novel, the subjects are highly important, and 
the Editor is well prepared for his task. We trust the work will gain a 
wide circulation, and do great fiood. We are much indebted to the 
Editor for his kind notice of the Annuls, but must decline a part of the 
high compliments he i.ns paid us. 



i44 



Juvenile i^uie* 



THE CORAL BRANCH. 

▲ JVYBHILB fOlO BT MRf. f. J. HALB. 
MVf IC BT •• J. WBBB — WITH kW ACCOMPAHIMBBT FOR THB riABO rOKTB. 



1. I thoos^ht niT braneh of 



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3. Itbaifdiiu coral palaces Tlua 





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pretty shridy mi<ht be — Uotil I learned a litle worm Had made it in the era. 
loftj hills more hif h : And th«n, the structure to coiaplete The little worm must die. 





Oowo. down so d^ep.Where dark waters sleep. The coral insect liTes.Bat rests not there with 
Thus tftachtog mc.When coral I see, That, dying I should leave Some |food work here, Mjr 




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loil and care,It npward,upward strires.But resU not there.With toil and care It onward, iu 
friendi to cheer, Wheoo^crmy tomb they grieve. Some good work here* My friends, Itc. 




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^1 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



APRIL, 1835. 



COLUAIBIA COLLEGE. 

In rc?cent numbers, we have given sketches of two of the oldest 
colleges of our country. The College of New Jersey, and the 
University of Philadelphia, appear to have been the next in suc- 
cession to Harvard, William and Maiy, and Yale ; but the want of 
materials obliges us to defer their history for the present, and to 
pass on to the sixth established in our country — King's College, 
now Columbia College^ in the city of New York.* 

The question has been much debated, whether our collegiate 
institutions ought to be located in the city or the country. Our 
own conviction is, that a city offers advantages for professional 
and scientific pursuits to one who has fmished his elementary 
studies which cannot be obtained elsewhere, in its libraries, public 
institutions, lectures, &c. ; and in the easy access to literary men, 
and sources of information, both foreign and domestic. But we 
believe that for youth who are dismissed from parental control, 
and sent to our colleges at an early age, the moral dangers 
far overbalance the literary advantages. At the same time, it is 
important that each of our large cities, embracing as they do a 
population greater than several of our states, should have institu- 
tions of its own, in which those, wliose circumstances render it 
desirable tliat they should remain under the parental roof, may re- 
ceive all the advantages which our best colleges afford. It is in 

* We are indchtcd for the materials of our account^ to an intereiting artici 
from the Knickerbocker Marazine, for Feb. 1>^3o, communicnted to ub bj tl 
writer. Wc have quoted a lew pauages entire. — Editor. 



VOL. V. NO. IV. 



13 



AMERICAN 

ANNALS OF EDUCATION 

AND INSTRUCTION. 
APRIL, 1935. 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 

In recent numbers, we have given sketches of two of the oldest 
colleges of our country. The College of New Jersey, and tlie 
University of PhiiadelVihia, appear to have heen the next in suc- 
cession to Harvard, William and Mary, and Yale ; but the want of 
mateiials obliges us to dcfct tlieir history for the present, and to 
pass on lo tlie sixth established in our country — King's College, 
now Columbia College, in the city of New York." 

The question lias been much debated, whether our collegiate 
institutions ought to be located in the city or the country. Our 
own conviction is, that a city offers advantages for professional 
and scientific pursuits to one «ho has finished his elementary 
studies which cannot ho obtained elsewhere, in its libraries, ])ubllc 
institutions, lectures, &:c. ; and in the easy access to literary men, 
and sources of information, both foreign and domestic. But we 
believe that for youth who are dismissed from parental coutrol, 
and sent to our colleges at an caily age, the moral dangers 
far overbalance the literary advantages. At the same time, it is 
important tliat each of our large cities, euihracing as tliey do a 
population greater than several of our status, should have institu- 
tions of its own, in wliich those, wiiose circumstances render it 
desirable tiiat they should remain under the parental roof, may re- 
ceive all the advantages which our best colleges affi>rd. It is in 

• We are indelitpd for the material* of our accou 
fhim the KiiielirrbDckEr Maniine, for Feb. IfSii, f 
writer. We liave quoted a ftw paaasgea entire. — £ 

VOL. y. — NO. IV. 13 



• . 



•*• 



AMERICAN 

ANNALS OF EDUCATION 

AND INSTRUCTION. 
APRIL, 1835. 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 

In recent numbers, we have given sketches of two of the oldest 
colleges of our country. The College of New Jersey, and tlie 
University of PhilaiieT[)hia, appear to have been the next in suc- 
cession to Harvard, WDliam and Mary, and Yale ; but the want of 
materials obliges us to defer their history for the present, and to 
pass on to the sixth established in our country — King's College, 
now Columbia College, in the city of New York.* 

The question has been much debated, whether our collegiate 
institutions ought to be located in the city or the country. Our 
own cfHiviction is, that a city offers ad\'antagcs for professional 
and scientific pursuits to one *vho lias finished his elementary 
studies which cannot be obtained elsewhere, in its libraries, public 
institutions, lectures, Stc. ; and in the easy access to literary men, 
and sources of information, both foreign and domestic. But we 
believe that for youth who are dismissed from parental control, 
and sent to our colleges at an early age, the moral dangers 
fai overbalance the literary advantages. At the same time, it is 
important that each of our lar^'e cities, embi-acing as they do a 
population greater than several of our slates, should have institu- 
tions of its own, in which those, wliose circumstances render it 
desirable that they should remain under the parental roof, may re- 
ceive all the advantages which our best colleges afford. It is in 

* We arc indcMrd for the materlBU of our 

Awn the Knickerbocker Mavuine, for Feb. I 

writer. We hare quoted a Teyi paiugei antir 

TOL. V. — NO. IV. 13 



ccounl. to m intereitin 
3i<, communioalcd to a 



146 Famdaium of Cohmbia Col ge. 



▼iew particularly, that Columbia College has been founded and 
sustained. 

It appears from the records of Trinity Church, that in 1703, its 
rector and wardens were directed to wait on Lord Combury, tlien 
Governor of the province of New York, * to know what part of 
the King* 8 farm, then vested in the church, had been intended 
for the college which he designed to have built.' No important 
step was taken till 1753, when an act of the assembly was obtained, 
appointing trustees of different religious denominations, for carrying 
their design into execution, and providing for a fund by a succes- 
sion of lotteries. 

In 1754, these trustees chose Dr. Samuel Johnson, of Connec- 
ticut, as the first president, who refused to accept the office till a 
charter was granted by the crown, but commenced tlie instniction 
of a class of ten students, in the vestry room of Trinity Church. 
The royal charter was granted in October of this year, from which 
time the existence of the college is properly dated. This charter 
sets forth, among other things, that tlie rector and inhabitants of ^ 
New York connected with tlie Church of England, had provided 
(imds to be devoted to a college. It ordains tliat the college shall 
be called King's College ; and in consideration of the grant made 
by Trinity Church, that the President should always be a member 
en the Church of England, and that morning and evening service 
sliould be performed according to the liturgy of that church. 

The governors of the college named in the charter, were the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the first Lord Commissioner for Trades 
and Plantations, both empowered to act by proxies, the principal 
officers of the Province and City of New York, three Clergymen 
of different denominations, the President of the college, and twenty- 
four of the principal men of the province and city. Tliey were 
empowered to make all necessary regulations not contrary to the 
existing laws, and not excluding any person from the privileges 
of the college on account of his religious opinions. 

The President and two tutors were the first instructors under 
the cliarter. The irovemors first met in 1755, and two professors 
were appointed. The college buildings began to be occupied in 
1760, and efforts were made to obtain funds from abroad. In 
176*2, a Fellow of Oxford University, Dr. Cooper, was chosen 
Professor, and in 1763 was made President. In 1767, a Medical 
College with a Faculty of six Professors was established. The 
institution continued to flourish until the commencement of the 
Revolution ; the plan of education, by means of endowments 
and other bencfartions, being extended, in Dr. Cooper's language, 
* almost as diffusely as any college in Europe.' A professor of 
Natural Law, History and I^ianguages, was appointed in 1773» 
and a Grammar School annexed to the college, * for tlie due jsepa- 



Progress. — Former Presidents. 147 

ration of those who propose to complete their education with the 
arts and sciences.' 

The disputes with the mother country interrupted the prosperity 
of the colletre. * In the spring of 1776, the college building was 
converted, by order of the Committee of Safety, into a military 
hospital. The Professors and Students were consequently dis- 
lodged, and the library and philosophical apparatus were removed 
to the City Hall, from whence very few of the books, and a very 
small part of the apparatus, ever found their way back to the col- 
lege. Althousch the public course of instruction did not recom- 
mence until after the close of the Revolutionary war, the course 
of tuition was, for a short time, carried on without the walls of the 
building ; and two admissions arc noted io the old matriculation 
book under the year 1777 ; after which, no trace is found of the 
continuance of any of the collegiate courses, until the restoration 
of peace' 

^ In the year 1784, all the seminaries of learning in the state, 
were, by an act of the legislature, subjected to the authority of 
" the Regents of the University," who immediately entered upon 
the regulation of the affairs of '* Columbia College," to which the 
name of the institution was now changed ; and in the course of a 
short lime, seven new Professors and one tutor were appointed, 
and a Grammar school, and a Medical department of five Pro- 
fessors, were established.' The annual income of the college was 
estimated at only two tliousand five hundred dollars, in conse- 
quence of which, the more enlarged views of the Regents could 
not be carried into effect. In 1787, by an act of the legislature, the 
original charter, with necessary alterations, was confinned, and the 
college placed under the care of twenty-nine trustees. 

In 1787, Dr. Wm. S. Johnson, the son of the first president, 
was appointed to the presidency. The college now had four 
academical professors, one of whom was of the Gennan language, 
and thirty-nine students, five of whom resided in the college build- 
ings. For some years after this, the proceedings of the institution 
indicate that it was in a state of increasing prosperity. The pro- 
fessorships increased to thirteen ; but in 1798, their number was 
diminished, by uniting different branches in the same department, 
and by abolishing such as had been foimd unnecessary. 

The ecclesiastical duties of Bishop Moore, who was the next 
permanent President, prevented that attention to the college which 
its condition demanded. On his resignation, Dr. Harris was 
chosen President ; and the commanding talents, and influence of 
the hte Dr. Mason, of New York, led to the temporary establish- 
neiit of the office of Provost, to which he was appointed, and in 
vriuoh he appears to have exerted a powerful influence in eleva- 
ting the character of the institution, for several years. 



148 hipmementi in Lutruction and BuHdtngi. 

From the year 1800, the college was continually gaining 
ground, instruction was f^iven by highly respectable professors, 
the classes increased, and its funds were enriched, by grants from 
tlie legislature, while its land in the city became more valuable. 
In 1809, an important change was begun in tlie syslem of instruc- 
tion, which may be considered as the conimcnceinent of a new 
era in the literary character of the institution. Tlie requisites for 
admission to the college were raised much liigher, and a new course 
of study, and system of discipline were establislied , for elei-ating 
the standard, and extending the course of college education. This 
lias since undergone some important modifications ; but it still re- 
muns the basis of the existing plan of study and system of dis- 
cipline. 

The Medical school of Columbia College was discontinued in 
1813, iu consequence of the establishment of the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons in the city. 




The ravages of lime and war reduced the college buildings to 
an ' unsightly and ruinous condition.' ' In 1817, the trustees en- 
tered upon a thorougli repair of the old edifice, and tlie erection of 
additional buildings.' Before the expiration of the year 1820, the 
alteration and improvements were completed, and t)ie prindpal 
edifice now appean as in the engravmg above. At the same time, 
improTements were made in the interim concerns of the Seminary, 



Pr€$e$ii Plan of iuirueium. 149 

the usefulness and respectability of which, were afterwards farther 
increased by the re-establishment of the professorships of Law, and 
of the Italian and French languages and Literature. In 1827, the 
Grammar School was revived, and a new building erected in the 
rear of the college for its accommodation. 

* On the death of Dr. Harris, the Hon. Wm. A. Duer, the sixth 
president of this institution, was appointed, and entered on the du- 
ties of his office in 1830. In the same year, a literary and scien- 
tific course was opened, and persons were admitted to the privi- 
leges of the college without being expected to pursue classical 
studies, or undergo an examination for the literary honors of the 
institution. Free scholarships were also established by the bounty 
of the trustees, the nominations to which were vested in each of 
the religious denominations of the city, and in its leading institu- 
tions for the promotion of knowledge ; and the professors were au- 
thorized to deliver public lectures at extra hours. ^ At the same 
time, the Grammar School was reorganized, the number of instruc- 
tors increased to nine, and a junior department established ; so that 
the pupil can be received as soon as he can read the English lan- 
guage, and be conducted through the various branches of the insti- 
tution to the period of his graduation, in one uniform system of 
instruction.' 

The present general course of instruction in the college may 
be considered as three-fold, viz. ; 

1. 7%c Fidl Course, including every branch of collegiate study, 
but forbidding all professional pursuits and studies, and entitling the 
successful student to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

2. 7%c Literary and Scientific Course, which excludes the 
study of Ancient Languages, but includes that of the Modem, and 
admits the pursuit of professional studies. A College Testimo- 
nial is conferred by a vote of the Board of Trustees on tlie suc- 
cessful student in this course. 

3. The Voluntary Course, requiring no matriculation, and limited 
solely by the wishes of the parents or the applicants, as to its du- 
ration and extent. It admits of a higher course of instruction in 
the Greek and Latin languages, and is capable of being rendered 
consistent, not only with professional, but even with mercantile 
and mechanical employments. 

The course of classical studies is an object of special attention in 
Columbia College, and is said to be conducted in a manner more 
thorough and accurate, than in most of our literary institutions ; and * 
the great national subject of Constitutional Law is made a part of 
the course. We hope the reproach of superficiality in classical 
attunments, and of utterly neglecting our own political institu« 
tiooSy will soon be wiped away firom all our colleges. 

♦13 



150 OhiiaeUi to CoUegiaie Intercourse. 

Columbia College is now under the direction of a faculty consist- 
ing of the President and ten Professors, comprising names which 
rank high in the annals of American Science and Literature. It 
contained the last year about one hundred students. Among its 
former graduates, the names of Livingston, Jay, Morris, Johnson, 
&c. would adorn the catalogue of any institution ; and the 
names of GrifHn, Bruen, and Ekstbum, are not less valuable testi- 
monials to its recent influence. 



DIFFICULTIES AND REQUISITES IN COLLEGIATE INTERCOURSE. 

(CommuDicated for the Annali of Education.) 

[We now pabliflh the concluding remarks of our corrpiipondont. on the inter' 
course in collegeff ; and we think no instructor can read tiieai without deriving 
•oinc useful hints, even if he does not agree with the writer on all points.] 

In two preceding articles, we have described the nature of the 
intercourse which should exist between instructors and pupils in 
our colleges. We observed that it should be based on mutual 
confidence^ that it should be ^free, courteous and christian inter- 
course. We remarked that the intercourse in recitations was 
also highly important, that much might be done there to secure influ- 
ence over the student. But we are obliged to admit, that there are 
obstacles to this intercoui'se, to some of which we will advert. 

We will merely mention the fact, that the students of our col- 
leges are generally of an age which is impetuous and impatient of 
restraint, — * monitoribus asper,* — and at the same time requiring, 
almost as much as any other, watchful oversight, and wise counsels ; 
and remark in the first place, that the spirit of emulation, which 
has been much, and we think unduly fostered, in our literary insti- 
tutions, presents a serious obstacle to the cultivation of such an in- 
tercourse. It has operated to make it disreputable in the college 
community to seek intercourse with the officers. To consult his 
instructors in regard to his studies, subjects the student to the sus- 
picion of using undue methods to promote his private interest, and 
he runs the risk of being branded with no very desirable epithets. 
Preposterous as this state of feeling is in ren;ard to the plainest 
duty of the student, it nevertheless requires no little moral courage 
in a youth to contemn the obloquy, and to avail himself of the ad- 
vanta5;es which mij^ht be derived from the counsel and assistance 
of his instructors. We are rejoiced to believe, that within a few 
years, this absurdity has sensibly lost its power. 



Reqmntet in hutrucUnt. 151 

Another serious obstacle to the ioflueDce which other teachers 
luav acquire over their charge, b the iact, that iht youth in our 
couegei live by themseha. They are excluded, in a great meas- 
ure, many of them entirely, from other society, especially from tbo 
influences of domestic life. This circumstance gives increased 
power, and more favorable opportunity, to the ill-disposed, and 
weakens the influence of the good. Less heed is given to the pro- 

Erieiies of life than ebewhere. Indeed, we know of no surer way 
y which the principles of a courteous, manly demeanor may be 
broken down, and rude and boisterous manners be acquired, than 
to send a youth to live within college walls. We have no doubt 
that much of the irregularity which occurs in our colleges, may be 
ascribed to this circumstance. Who does not perceive that influ- 
ences must exist in such an assemblage, unfriendly to salutary re- 
straint ? An ' esprit du corps ' always prevails, which, in the a{)- 
sence of unceasing vigilance and unwearied assiduity, may eflfectu- 
ally counteract all the weight of the moral influence and authority 
of the faculty. 

These are serious obstacles to the intercourse which it is exceed- 

inc:lv desirable should be maintained between the oflicers and stu- 

• — — — 

dents in our colleges. Still they must be met. They will not be 
entirely removed, but they may be neutralized in a great measure. 
To this end, it is a duty incumbent on instructors to make this 
subject a matter of special attention. They should regard the 
means of acquiring a moral influence over their pupils of as much 
consequence, as the best apparatus of instruction. The time is 
coming, and indeed has already arrived, when a talent for guiding 
youth will be thought scarcely less important in a teacher, than in- 
tellectual power or attainments. Before dismissing this subject, 
tlien, we will oflfer a few brief suggestions on the method of culti- 
vating such an intercourse as we deem of the greatest importance. 

The first, and an essential requisite to such an intercourse, is a 
knowledge of human nature. We cannot influence our fellow 
men without knowing the secret springs of action in the human 
breast, and being well acquainted with the peculiarities of disposi- 
tion and temper of those whom we would influence. It is, there- 
fore, manifestly incumbent on the instructor to study the human 
heart — to discover, if he can, the avenues by which he may gain 
access to its secret chambers. He who has a quick perception of 
character, will be spared the mistakes which are continually occa- 
sioning difliculty to an inexperienced or ignorant teacher. 

A second requisite is, a deep interest in the business of instruC' 
tion» We know of nothing so likely to promote a free interchange 
of opinions and sentiments between an instructor and his pupOs, 
as zeal in the business of instructk)n. A zealous teacher will 



158 fUerei^.— iSSmie 0/ BeipontOnUty. 

awaken sympathy, and excite ardor, in the minds with whicb b« 
comes in contact. It b well known, that a taste may be formed 
and cultivated for teaching, as well as for other things. If, then, 
an instructor perceives in himself a deficiency in this respect, — if 
teaching is to him a drudgery, — it should be a question with him, 
whether his duty to his pupils and to the community, does not re- 
quire him to resign his station. 

Another requisite in the instructor is, a personal interest in his 
pmib. He may be faithful and successful, as a teacher merely, 
and yet never manifest any peculiar interest in his pupils out of the 
recitation room. But in such a case, he has discharged, in our ap- 

Erehension, but half of his duty. They have strong claims upon 
is sympathy and tender regard. They will never come to him 
of their own accord, and prefer these claims. He must make the 
first advances ; and when this is done in the spirit of kindness and 
with sincerity, he will most commonly meet with the return he de- 
dres. He should cultivate this personal interest in those who are 
under his charge, as a sacred obligation ; always remembering 
that every student is an object of affection and deep solicitude 
somewhere, though he may not, at first, commend himself to his 
special regard. 

The last requisite in the teacher, which we shall mention as 
essential to the existence of such an intercourse as we would see 
in all our seminaries of learning, is a deep sense of responsibility 
in regard to the moral and religious character of the youth under 
his care. If he possesses this, he will exert himself to establish 
such relations between himself and his pupils, as will enable him to 
exercise over them the control of a faithful guardian, and an affec- 
tionate friend. If the instructors in our colleges could enter the 
paternal dwelling from which a beloved youth has been sent, with 
much fear and trembling, into the midst of the temptations of col- 
lege life, and could hear the earnest prayers which ever follow that 
youth, and witness the deep solicitude there felt, that those who 
are now to him in the stead of a parent, may discharge their duty 
faithfully ; — ^if they appreciated the relation which they sustain to 
the community as the guardians of those on whom will essentially 
depend the interests of morality and religion as well as sound learn- 
ing, and would open their eyes to the cloud of supplications which 
continually ascends to Heaven for a blessing upon our institutions 
of learning, — ^they would then, without fail, attach that importance 
to this subject which it deserves. 

In relatk)n to this subject, an important duty devolves upon pa- 
rents, and teachers in our preparatory schools. Much may be done 
bjr giving the youth who resort to our higher institutions, correct 
Twws of the relatkxis and duties wliich belong to tbem in their 



of Pmtntij TtadUn and Proftisort. 158 

new abode ; and who can do this but parents and the teachers in 
our academies or schools ? They should guard against the intru- 
sion of wrong principles of action. Parents are too apt to feel, 
that they have no duties to discharge in respect to college disci- 

?line. They do not reason thus in regard to their district schools, 
^here, they exert all their influence for the support of order, and 
for the cultivation of respectful feelings and deportment in their 
children, towards their teachers. But surely, order, and diligencCi 
and a sound moral principle, are not less important in the college 
than in the district school. The public have a deep interest in 
the internal as well as in the external welfare of our colleges and 
universities. Parents, and all who have the management of youth, 
should ever be ready to interfere with their influence, to counteract 
those principles of action in their children which may lead to un- 
happy consequences ; for they may far more than counterbalance the 
advantages they can derive from a public education. If they would 
exert themselves for this end, we doubt not important results would 
soon follow. 

We are well satisfied with the wisdom of the plan adopted at 
some of our colleges, of having all the oflScers occupy rooms in the 
college buildings. Such a measure brings them, of course, into con- 
tact with the students, and must, we are persuaded, exert a salu- 
tary influence. Officers and students thus have a common place 
of study. By such an arrangement moreover, the student is invited 
to communicate frequently with his instructors. We cannot ex- 
pect much intercourse of the kind we intend, where the rooms of 
the officers are at a distance from the college buildings. We re- 
gard it not so much as a system of watch and restraint, as of com- 
munion and fellowship. We know that this subjects officers who 
have families, to inconvenience. They will have less time for un- 
interrupted study. It would be far more pleasant, on many ac- 
counts, for them to be at their homes. But they must cheerfully 
sacrifice personal convenience to the good of their pupils ; and we 
have no belief, that the true theory of our collegiate institutions 
can be realized, without some such arrangement. 

We say, that to put in practice the views which have been ex- 
pressed of the duties of college, officers in respect to their means of 
influence, will require no little self-denial. To him who enters upon 
the duty of a college professorship, two paths are open, and invite 
bis steps. He may aspire after fame and desire to reap the ' doc^ 
tarum pramia frontium.' He may therefore exclude himself from 
his college classes, except in the official intercourse of the recita- 
tion room, devote himself with all his energies to the pursuit of 
leamins^, and benefit the institution with which he is connected, 
by reflecting upon it the brilliancy of his own reputation. On the 



154 AgricuUure in Primary Schoob. 

other hand, with equal ardor in the acquisition of knowledge, and 
DO less .tempted, it may be, bjr the honors of the literary world, he 
may sacri6ce somewhat of his personal reputation as a scholar or 
man of science, be a little less devoted to his own advancement, 
and more to the welfare of his pupils and the true interests of the 
institution. 

With the views which have been advanced, we have no hesita- 
tion in rei^ard to the course which it is incumbent on the instructor 
to pursue. Let him cherish a praiseworthy ambition ; let him be 
animated by a spirit of extensive research and thorough scholar- 
ship ; but let it not be selGsh ambition. Let his passion for letters 
be chastened by a sense of the hi(i;her responsibilities he is under 
to the institution — to the youth who are receiving impressions of 
some kind from his example and his precepts — to the community , 
for the well-being of which, though his labors are unseen by the 
world, he is, in truth, under Providence, a most efficient laborer. 
We would have him tread in the steps of the eminent men to 
whom we liave more than once alluded. He need not desire a 
more enviable reputation than theirs, — a reputation for highly disci- 
plined powers of rnind, and for sound and extensive learning, no 
less than for a rare combination of those qualities which gave them 
the character of college officers of unsurpassed worth. 

An Alumnus. 



AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

(Extracted from the Farmer and Gardener.) 

The agriculture of Bavaria is said to have been improved more 
rapidly in the last half century, than that of any other country, 
Scotland perhaps excepted. Before the French revolution, it 
was behind that of the other German States. The lands then 
mostly belonged to the religious establishments. The cultivators 
merely lived ; they did not thrive. When the lands were sold, 
they were made into small parcels, and almost every man became 
the proprietor of the portion he cultivated, upon a long credit. 
The great impulse to improvement was given to the young genera- 
tion, in the primary schools. In these were taught, both by books 
and examples. Agriculture and Gardening. For this purpose^ 
catechisms of gardening, of agriculture, of domestic economy, of 
forest culture, of orchard culture, &c., in small duodecimo volumes, 
with wood cuts, were introduced as class books for boys, and the 
like on the management of silk w(»ms, household economy^ im4 



Plan Adopted m Bavaria* 165 

cookery, for the girls ; and there was attached to every district 
school, at least half an acre of land, for experimental gardening, 
where the scholars received recreation in the hours of exemptioii 
from study, and instruction bam the master in the practice of 
gardening. And it was made an indispensable qualification in 
teachers, to be competent to give this instruction. ' Since these 
schoob have come into action,' says a late traveller, ' an entirely 
new generation of cultivators has arisen, and the consequence is, 
that agriculture in Bavaria is carried to a higher degree of perfec- 
tion than it is anywhere else in tlie central part of Germany.' 
^ The result of the whole of the information procured and of Uie 
observations made is, that we think the inhabitants of Bavaria 
promise soon to be, if they are not already, the happiest people in 
Gennany. The climate of the country will prevent its agriculture 
and gardening {h)m advancing beyond a certain point ; but to that 
point, both will very soon be carried.' 

The salutary influence of agricultural and horticultural instruct 
tion in common schools, hrjs not been confined, in Bavaria, to the 
improvement of the soil. As consequences which naturally follow 
the improvement of agriculture, the roads, bridges, and other 
public works have undergone a corresponding improvement ; indi- 
vidual comforts have been greatly multiplied ; business of every 
k'md has been improved ; and human intellect, reanimated as it 
were, by the magic pen of a Hazzi, has burst its cerements, and 
become an efficient aid in the noble work of improvement. Tlie 
public roads are all lined with ornamental, fruitbearing, or forest 
trees, and furnished with guidcboards, milestones, and seats 
at intervals of stones or sods for the weary traveller. This novel- 
sort of education, and the blessings which have flowed from it, and 
the still greater blessings which appear in prospect, have resulted 
from the wise provisions of the government, aided, and efficiently 
aided, by the active and patriotic philanthropy of M. Hazzi, the 
editor of an agricultural journal at Munich, and author of the school 
catechisms of which we have spoken. 

Nineteen out of every twenty of the children of our common 
schools would be benefited, while the twentieth would not be in- 
jured, by the elementary studies which have proved so beneficial 
to Bavaria. ^As the ttvig is bent, so is the tree inclined.' Early 
impressions have an influence through life ; and it is all important 
that these early impressions should be of the right kind, — such as 
are best calculated to advance the interests of the individual, and 
the good of the public. Wiiat can conduce more to these desirable 
ends, than to instnict our youth in the elementary knowledge of 
the business which they are to follow through life, and upon their 
success in which, must materially depend their respectability, their 



166 Thu md Fabe Maternal Lave. 

happiness, and their worth to society. Husbandry is a business 
in which there is always something to learn, even in the longest 
term of life. The sooner the study is begun, the more proficiency 
will be made; and the more one becomes acquainted with its 
varied sources of true enjoyment, the stronger is his attachment 
to its pursuits. 



TRUE AND FALSE MATERNAL LOVE. 
(Timnilated from the German of Heinrotli.) 

For half a century, education has been regarded as a science 
in Germany, and many of tlie fu^t minds have been devoted to it, 
as a science, that yields to none in importance and interest. It 
claims the best efforts of the ablest of men. In consequence of 
this, we find depth combined with simplicity, in their works on 
this subject, which we meet in no other, and which give an air of 
freshness to an old topic, and even to old thoughts. We have 
formerly made some extracts from Heinroth on Physical Educa- 
tion. We recently met with a passage on the evils arising from 
false management of the childish temper, which contains some 
striking thoughts. 

He observes that * a selfish parent cannot educate a child 
aright ; ' and that this selfishness often conceals itself under another 
guise. * The mother, too often, merely loves herself in her child. 
** Does this merit reproach ? '' we arc aske^l. " Is it not a lovely 
trait of natural affection, and is not the mother thus bound to the 
child by the strongest ties ? Is it not a provision kindly made, to 
strengthen her in enduring that great amount of care and toil which 
are necessar}'^ in training up her little ones ? " There is some sin- 
cerity in this feeling ; but it has not the truth of instinct, which 
leads an animal to take care of its young in the spme manner. 
The animal has no vanity ; while a mother who only loves her- 
self in her child, is as vain, in reality, as when she looks at her 
own person in the glass.' 

* And this vanity leads to evils which never result from the in- 
stinct of animals. A vain mother w ill make a plaything of her 
child, — a course which lays the foundation of every species of evil. 
She educates her child to be vain ; and vanity is one of the heads 
of that Hydra, — stlfishncss — the chief c^use of all human misery. 

'After all, perhaps she docs not love her child ; for not unfire- 
quently, vanity is stronger than natural love ; the passion over- 



DiictpKne tncreoiei AffecHan. 187 

comes the instinct. The mother should not love he,rself in her 
child ; she should love her child as herself^ even more than heV' 
selfy — and every true mother does this. But even this love will 
lead to evil results, if it is nothing more than the natural affection 
\i'hich exists in animals. She will regard her child only as a pos- 
session, — a good, — a treasure. She will always hold it as such, 
and will think of nothing but to keep this treasure. She will give 
the child what it needs, and what it does not need ; for such love 
cannot give enough. It is shielded from all that can hurt it, or 
give it pain, at least in the opinion of the mother. In this way, it 
is first enfeebled, then contracts bad habits, and finally it is spoiled 
for want of discipline ; for what would give it more pain than dis- 
cipline ? 

We have often observed the eflfect of discipline in forming and 
strengthening the bond of union, between the parent and the child, 
the pupil and the teacher ; but we have never seen it so happily 
explained, as in the following remarks. 

-* The child thus spoiled, is in peculiar need of discipline. Tliis 
is, in truth, the only means of removing a barrier which would 
sc[>arate them more and more widely. The obstinacy and self- 
will which result from such mismanagement, will inevitably divide 
the child from the parents ; for it is only by submission to the 
opinions and wishes of the parents, that the child is united to them. 
Indeed, these feelings put it in opposition to its parents. Where 
this is the case, the closest and most intimate bond by which pa- 
rents and children can be united, — tlie bond of faith and trust, — is 
broken ; and then the ties of affection must be dissolved. The 
child acquu-es confidence only in himself. He learns his power, 
for his tnill is always gratified, and his parents do as he chooses. 
Thus he learns to govern his parents, but not to love them ; he 
loves only himself.' 

' Is this blind love in the parents something unheard of — a 
mere fancy ? No ; it is, unhappily, a thing of daily occurrence. 
Everywhere there are parents who hang on their children with 
idolatrous love, who suffer them to want nothing, who satisfy all 
their desires even before they are expressed, and thus train them 
up to be undisciplined, selfish, lordly beings. Such parents have 
a miserable reward ; for the very children thus miseducated, are 
often the cause of their greatest suffering, and sometimes, bring 
down their gray hairs with sorrow to the grave, and perhaps hear 
them call down curses on the parent that betrayed them to ruin by 
indulgence,' 

This \^ false affection, — the mere shadow and pretence of love. 
The only true maternal love is that which seeks the ultimate good 

VOIm V, — NO. IV. 14 



158 firon in Modem EdueaiumM 

and happiness of the child, even at the expense of immediate suf- 
fering ; which will administer a nauseous drug, or painful punL^- 
ment without hesitation, if it be necessary to save the child from 
greater suffering or greater evils. 



ERRORS IN MODERN EDUCATION, 

An extraet/rom the Addrttt of a Teacher to a Milage Lyceum. 
(ConunuDieated for the Anoali of Education.) 

In glancing at the early condition of society in New England, 
the first thing that strikes us is the discrepancy between the 
system of family government then practised, and that now in 
vogue. We claim to have made great improvement in tliis respect. 
The rod has been laid aside, and, with it, that parental authority 
which was its legitimate accompaniment. * We wiU'govem our 
children by love ; ' say the advocates of the present fashionable 
system ; * fear is an unworthy motive to influence rational beings.' 
Indeed ! This is a new discovery in philosophy. Let us look at 
it a moment. 

' Fear is a motive unwortliy of rational beings ! ' Is this so ? 
Is not the contrary proved by the very constitution and coui-se of 
nature ? Why do we foel pain after intemperance or excess of 
any kind ? Is it not to give us timely warning of the imoads it is 
making upon our constitutions, in order to deter us from it in future ? 
And what is this, but an appeal to the principle of fear? Again, 
this principle is implanted in our very natures, and must therefore 
have been given us for some end, and for some good end too ; 
otherwise it never would liave been given. Now what more 
worthy end, than to guide us aright in tlie pathway of life ? Our 
condition in this world, as ordered by infinite wisdom, what is it 
but a succession of alternative appeals to hope and fear, the two 
master passions in thehuniiin breast? Indeed, they who maintain 
that fear is a motive unworthy the nature of rational beings, go 
counter to the experience of i>ast ages, and show themselves, 
moreover, profoundly ignorant of the constitution of the human 
mind. 

Besides, their practice is not in accordance with their theory. 
Some of those very persons w ho cry out so loudly against this 
principle I am advocating, are ilie first to put it in practice when 
occasion requires. And this it docs, not seldom ; for, from the 
manner in which tlicy bring up their children, and the want of uni- 



Modem Family Oov emmtn i. ltl9 

SantiaXy in their management of them, they are obliged, much more 
frequently than others, to resort to tliis motive, and at the same 
time, with comparatively less effect, from the manner in which they 
apply it. And yet, with their usual consistency, they tell us all the 
while, that ' fear is a motive unworthy a rational bemg.' 

Not so thought our fathers. They considered fear not only a 
rational motive, but, in many cases, the only efficacious one ; and 
they acted on this belief. Were they in an error ? Answer, ye 
their descendants, who now experience in yourselves the salutary 
efiects of parental discipline. I am no advocate of undue severity. 
Yet I venture to assert, without fear of successful contradictiraiy 
that in the days of our fathers, — notwithstanding the rigid disci- 
pline we are told they maintained, and the distance and reserve 
which existed between them and their children, — ^there was more 
real love, more genuine affection, — aye, and more mutual confi- 
dence too, — ^between parent and child, than exists at the present 
day. 

And this is what might be expected. The human mind is so 
constituted, that between equals, mutual respect is an indispensaUe 
prerequisite to mutual love ; — ^between superiors and inferiors, 
generous protection, kindness, and condescending regard on the 
one hand, — subordination, reverence and respect, on the other. 
Where these are wanting, real love can have no place. Now the 
present system of family government entirely overlooks this prin- 
ciple, and is therefore at war with the constitution of the human 
mind. The child, at the present day, is, as a general thing, trained 
up by the parent on such a footing of familiarity and equality, as 
to be alike impatient of compulsion or restraint. What wonder 
then if he be wanting in reverence and respect towards his supe- 
riors ? If you sow the seeds of irreverence in the bosom of your 
child, you must expect to reap its bitter fruits. If you * sow the 
wind, you must reap the whirlwind.' So long as children are 
trained up on the present system, so long must we expect to see 
its legitimate results in their characters and dispositions. 

Did its influence, however, stop here, we might more easily bear 
with it ; but it stretches forward into futurity ; it is felt in after life. 
As is the child, so will be the future man. If the child has little 
reverence for age, the man will have still less. This is a natural 
consequence. We see it already in the condition of society 
amongst us. How different from what it was in the days of our 
fathers ! Then, no artificial rules of politeness cramped and fettered 
social intercourse. No set formalities repressed the genial current 
of the sOul. With them, ' it was heart with hand, and thought to 
thought.' As they felt, so they spoke and acted. Nature was 
not checked and thwarted at every turn. She was allowed to take 



160 LUwcourse of Socieiy. 

her own course ; they followed her promptings, and yielded to 
her impulse. Society, amon^ them, was not that conventional 
thinif it now is ; and why ? Because the sentiments of reverence 
and respect towards their superiors, >^ ith which tliey had been im- 
bued in ciiildhood, clung to them in riper years, modified only by 
beuig extended also to their equals. Being thus actuated by mu- 
tual regard and esteem, they cxJiibited a frankness and cordiality 
of manner in tlieir intercoui'se with each other, seldom to be met 
with in this age of boasted refinement. Thei-c was a freer inter- 
change of all the kindlier affections of the heart. Thev assumed 
no borrowed fonu ; tliey j)layed no borrowed part. They met 
together for mutual improvement and mutual happiness ; and they 
succeeded in accomplishing the object tliey had iu view. 

How different from die practice of tlie present day. We 
assemble, — go through the prescribed formalities, — ^pass the cus- 
tomarv heartless and unmeaning compliments — and go away, none 
the >\'iser or the better for our interview ; often, it may be, dis^ 
gusted with our neighbors, disgusted with ourselves, and heartily 
glad tlie farce is over. And yet such is the tyranny of fashion, 
and such the influence of habit over us, that we return, with increas- 
ing eagerness, to the same unvaried round of hypocrisy, (to call it 
by no woi"se name,) only to go away with increased disappoint- 
ment and disgust. 

One would suppose that an evil of this nature would work its 
own cure ; that the heart,— disappointed in its expectations, — its 
yearnings unsatisfied, — sick of tlie fiivolities in which it had parti- 
cipated, — ^would turn with increased reUsh to the calm and unobtm- 
sive quiet of domestic life. The very reverse of tliis, however, is 
the ciise. Hurried fmin object to object, and fix>m phantom to 
phantom, in the giddy whirl of outward circumstances, the mind 
loses its introspective power. We forget to turn our tlioughts 
inward, — to observe what is going on within our own bosoms. We 
find no time for calm and sober reflection. We live in the vague 
and exciting present ; the past is to us as though it had not been. 
W(» thus become creatures of impulse, — changing with the chang- 
ing hour, — taking, cameleon-like, the hues of the passing moment, 
— stripped of our own individuality, swallowed up and lost in the 
crowd. Hence arises the imssion for herding together in multi- 
tudes. We cannot breathe the air of retirement and meditation ; 
* it is too rare for us.' We demand excitement ; we have be- 
coine so habituated to it, that it is as necessar}' to us as our daily 
food. We look for it in vain by the domestic fireside ; it dwells 
not there. We go abroad in search of it, and our search is suc- 
cessful. 



TeaAen may ht PermanmU. 161 

But, all this while, we are unfittin«r ourselves for the duties of 
social life ; for it has been well remarked by an acute observer of 
men and manners, that *• the more gre<^drious a man becomes, the 
less a social creature is he.' To mingle in society, either with ad- 
vantage to ourselves or others, it is absolutely necessary that we 
spend much of our time in solitude and contemplation. In this 
way only can we acquire that individuality of character which 
gives society all its charm, and without which, we should be little 
better than mere monkeys or parrots, aping each other's manners, 
echoing each other's remarks, and doomed to see only * ourselves 
reflected,' in every face we chanced to look on. Vain would it 
be, under such circumstances, to look for improvement ; fortunate 
would it be for us, should we escape without actual deterioration. 



WHAT MANY TEACHERS CAN DO. 

(Communicatod fur the Anoali of EducatioD.) 

I. I endeavored to show, on a former occasion, that every 
teacher should either devote himself wholly to this work, or leave 
it to others. But there is a very great difference between a 
person's devoting himself to the work of teaciiing, for the time he 
is engaged, and selecting the employment as a profession, to which 
he consecrates his whole powers, and his life. The first, as is 
most obvious, is in the power of all ; the last, it is equally obvious, 
is not. I believe, however, that the number of those who can be 
justified in devoting themselves to leaching as the business of their 
lives, is much larger than has usually been supposed. 

1. Literary qualiBcations — I mean those which are indispen- 
sable — are more common than is often thought. Who can read 
in the pages of the Annals, the * History of a Common School,' 
' Biography of a Teacher,' *A Young Teacher's History,' and 
the account of Madame Calame and Franke, without seeing at 
once that the humblest individuals, whose hearts are engaged in 
the work, may become competent and efficient teachers, and shine 
as the lights of a fallen and falling world ? Nor does this diniinish 
the importance of thorough training. ' A Teacher,' and a 
' Young Teacher,' might both have been still brighter luminaries 
than they were, had Teachers' Seminaries and Libraries been 
within their reach. 

2. The difficulty which professional teachers find in procuring 

constant employment is less formidable than many suppose. We 

know well that here is a barrier whichi at first view, appears insur- 

#14 



162 7%ey may educaie Tkeamhes. 

mountable. We are referred to facts. We are told—' Look at 
tlie condition of our schools. By whom are they taught? Is it 
not by youncr men and boys who have no other employment, three 
months of the year ; and by females still younger, three or four 
more ? Where is a constant male teacher to find encouragement?' 

We, in our turn, may refer also to facts. Is it not well known 
that an increasino: number of eflicient male teachers do find con- 
slant employment every year ? Is it not known that the public 
schools, in some of the lar;rcr towns of Massachusetts, are taught 
throughout the year, by ellicient male teachers ; and that the com- 
pensation is adequate to the support of a family ? More than all 
this, which of us has ever known an individual wlio had devoted 
himself without reserve, to lliis great work for life, to be destitute 
of employment ? I do not know but there are such cases ; but I 
believe they are rare — for I never heard of one. The inspired 
Psalmist, when he was * old,' said he had never seen * the 
righteous forsaken, or iiis seed begging bread ; ' and I have little 
doubt, that a man of his years and observation might say the same 
thing of constant sciiool masters. 

But 1 have spoken of male teachers only. I have done this, be- 
cause the diflicuity of sustaining them has been justly considered 
as tlic greatest. At the same time, I entertain the strongest hopes, 
that the ranks of this most important vocation, will never cease 
to be filled in part, by females ; and I indulge the fullest con- 
viction that they will be. 

The conclusion then is, that a large number of persons of both 
sexes are justified in devoting themselves to the profession of 
teaching, as the great business of their lives. This is one of the 
things that * many teachers can do.' 

II. Many teachers are able to educate themselves for their pro- 
fession, — not at a public sen)inary, in every instance, it may be ; 
but in their own chambers, and shops, find fields, as Franklin, and 
Sherman, and Washington educated themselves for their profes- 
sions. Or like the latter, too, by bes^inning. It is teaching which 
makes teachers, as it is activity in civil and military life which 
makes statesmen and warriors. Franklin and Sherman were not 
obliged to educate themselves wholly without books ; neither is 
the teacher. How many valuable books for teachers has the 

* Annals,' within the last four years, recommended 1 They cost 
something, it is true ; but not more than the tools and implements 
of any other profession. Is it too much to say, that many teachers 
are able to meet the expense (S ' Lectures on School Keeping,' 

• Lectures to Female Teachers,' * The Teacher,' * The District 
School,' 'The District School as it was,' 'The Schoolmaster's 
Friend/ ' Wood's Sessional School,' and even of the ' Annals of 



' The;/ may telect hitrumenU of iutrudiaH. 169 

Education' itself? Together, they may cost about eighteen dol- 
lars. It is true they are not all the books that a Teacher's Library 
ought to contain. But they are alone a valuable collection ; and my 
word for it, he who has and prizes these, will soon have more. I 
will also add, that he who has and prizes these, will, in all human 
probability, become a professional teacher ; and will rejoice, all his 
days, that he became so, — while multitudes who rise up after him, 
will call him blessed. 

III. The details of the Annals furnish ample evidence, that 
many teachers may determine what instruments of instruction shall 
be used by their pupils. This, I acknowledge, is a work of some 
difficulty. Still 1 think it may often be accomplished, especially 
if the teacher goes to work in the right manner. But he must be 
careful in the first place, not to go too fast. Even Rome was not 
built in a day. Secondly, he must make suggestions in the lan- 
guage of others, rather than as his own, — ' Such individuals and 
authors say so or so.' Thirdly, he must contrive to have his 
supporters do the work as much as possible, instead of doing it 
himself. On this latter point, the most serious mistakes are some- 
times made. A zealous teacher will make alterations in the school 
room, or introduce slates, or a new set of school books, without 
consulting the parents of his pupils. Now this is usually well in^^ 
tended, but it is apt to cause difficulties. Teachers are not always 
able to foresee the ditliculty. They say, perhaps, — * Why, if I 
am able to pay for a new set of reading books for my first class, 
surely none can object. It costs them nothing. On the contrary, 
both they and their pupils will probably be grateful to me for the 
favor; and a coui-se so public spirited and benevolent, will be ''a 
feather in my cap." ' 

But ah ! it requires something more than a mere knowledge of 
books to get along in this world. I do not say that gratitude has 
DO place in the human bosom; but I do not hesitate to say, that 
people are not always grateful, according to the measure which we 
ourselves establish. And no class of men will oftener find this to 
be the fact, than devoted, self-denying teachers. It will therefore 
be no mark of worldly wisdom in a teacher to lay his patrons under 
obliiiation. The true secret is, to let them do the work that is to 
be done. If he can induce them to assume the responsibility of 
new books and new measures, he has gained his point. But if 
not, let him beware ; I do not say, let him never take a step which 
they will not assume as theirs ; but if he docs it, let him not rely 
on their gratitude, or affection, or confidence, on account of it ; for 
he may be sadly disappointed. 



164 T%eif Moy govern and anUr^ their PupSU. 

There ore many reasons why parents are not always grateful to^ 
the teacher who puts his hand in his own purse and expends his 
own earnings on his school, for class books, library books, slates, 
benches, be. ; but I have not room in this place to enumerate 
them. 

IV. Many teachers — perhaps I ought to say most or all^-can 
govern their schools properly. What teacher that has read the 
Annals, has not again and again resjponded to the sentiment of 
Salzman, that if things do not go well in school, he must look for 
the cause within himself? How true ; how very true ! I well 
remember how, in one instance, the arduous duties of another em- 
ployment — ^which, by the way, I ought to have relinquished — ^had 
deprived me of my rest during the preceding night, and ' what 
villanous scholars ' I had as the consequence ! It was in tliose 
days when I believed that, according to Solomon, authority was 
Uterdlly to be secured by the rod ; not as a last resort alone, but 
constantly, — and I was more than once on the point of showing 
my faitli by my works. But I got through a miserable day without 
this more miserable appeal. And of nothing am I more certain 
at the present time, than that the fault lay almost wholly in myself; 
and that it was I who needed the quickening influence of the birch, 
rather than my poor pupils. 

Now 1 do not mean to intimate that all a teacher has to do in 
the management of a school, is to govern himself. He must be 
little acquainted with the human heart, even in its forming stages, 
who supposes that the task of governing is, at all times, perfectly 
easy. But let a teacher govern himself effectually, and the work 
of managing his school is about half accomplished. If he love his 
pupils and his profession, and have a tolerable share of common 
sense, the rest is sure to follow. 

V. Teachers, in many instances, may superintend the conduct 
of their pupils in the intervals of school hours. I am not ignorant, 
that there are districts in our country where public sentiment incul- 
cates a different doctrine, and says that pupils ought not to be an- 
swerable to their teachers, for anything done or left undone, out of 
the school room. But this narrow view of the object for which 
teachers are employed, is happily passing away ; and they are be- 
ginning to be regarded as substitutes, for the time, for more impor- 
tant teachers, — ^I mean parents. It is beginning to be deemed the 
duty of parent and teacher to co-operate, both in the instruction 
and education of the young; and the number of school districts Is 
believed to be comparatively small, in which the teacher cannot, if 
he choose, keep a constant eye to the character of hb pupils. 



Uiejf may teach Morality and the BibU. 16S 

Whether the teacher should occasionally join in the amusements 
of his pupils, may be left periiaps to his own discretion. Many 
there are — and there have not been wanting examples in the 
Annals-^-who find themselves gainers by a course of this kind ; 
for while it removes all needless distance between them and their 
pupils, it greatly increases their love and confidence. They come 
to regard them as parents more than as masters. Mingling with 
pupils in their hours of relaxation, also enables an instructor to 
learn their character. In the school room, the conduct is usually 
more the result of study and effort, and therefore more artificial ; 
in the play ground, the pupil is off his guard, and you can come 
at his heart. 

But those to \i*hom circumstances beyond their own control 
seem to forbid an intercoui-se so familiar, and withal so profitable, 
can effect much in another manner. They can inquire, and ad- 
vise, and direct ; and show an interest, at least, in the events and 
results of the play ground. Nor is it quite certain but a judicious 
instructor may the better control the movements of his pupils in 
their sports, by standing behind the curtain, as it were, a part of 
the time. There is much in governinij, and even teaching, as 
though we taught and governed not. The great point is to influ- 
ence them during the period of recreation, somehow or other; 
and to influence in such a manner, as to be a means of promoting 
health of body, vigor of mind, and goodness of heart, in the greatest 
possible degree. 

VI. I have said, in a former number, that all teachers can 
inculcate sound morals in their schools ; at least by a spotless ex- 
ample. But I think that many can go much farther. Perhaps 
nearly all, liad they the tact and habits of Franklin, might contrive, 
daily and hourly, to draw moral lessons — and forcible ones tocv— 
from passing events. The same results may also be produced by 
story telling, where the instructor has been educated to this impor- 
tant art ; for 1 regard * a knack ' at telling a story to be as often 
acquired, as ' a knack ' at penmanship. 

More than this, however. Notwithstanding the fear which some- 
times exists in the community, that all religious instruction, on the 
part of the teacher, will be likely to end in the inculcation of sec- 
tarian views, I cannot help thinking that there are very few dis- 
tricts in our country in which this difSculty could not be sur- 
mounted. Most people, after all, pay a sort of compliment, at 
least, both to the Bible and its Divine Author ; and I do not be- 
lieve an individual would raise his voice against the inculcation of 
supreme love to God and the Saviour, and ^^eneral love to our 
neighbor. If we would only teach as the Bible teaches, and be 



166 J^^ Letmmt of Taung P^gpiU. 

no more sectarian than that blessed book, we might aocomplish 
much more in this world, in various situations. We can certainly 
inculcate much of truth, and make many salutary impressions on 
the hearts of those entrusted to our charge, without attacking their 
prejudices ; and all this too, without concealment. The leading 
truths of relitj^ion, though few and simple, admit of a world of illus- 
tration, and may be presented in a thousand different forms, and 
as many different garbs and combinations. The teacher, ' who is 
wise as well as harmless,' will not fail to find means and opportu- 
nities to do much for the affections of his pupils^ as well as every 
thing for their intellects. 



FIRST LESSONS OF YOUNGER PUPILS AT SCHOOL. 
(Cominunicatad for tbe Anamli of dlaoatioB.) 

Mr. Editor, — ^In one of the late numbers of the Annals, 
I observe a correspondent relates a conversation, in which a 
wish is expressed for tangible and direct information, on every 
point relative to school exercises and discipline. It has been 
a part of my intention, in the papers I have heretofore furnished 
for your work, to supply this very information, as far as it is in 
my power; and I now propose to ofTer some remarks on the 
studies proper to be taught in a private school for very young 
pupils, — 'and the manner in which they should be pursued at the 

commencement.* 

Experience. 

Pcrliaps there are few things respecting which inexperienced 
teachers are more puzzled, than in the way to employ the time 
of their little pupils before they are old enough to read correctly, 
and consequently to study anything alone, or to find appropriate 
employments for themselves. I cannot help observing, that great 
mistakes are generally made with respect to the manner of teach- 
ing such young children, even the letters of the alphabet. Tliere 
are, it is true, methods lately brought into vogue, particularly in 
Infant Schools, — such as blocks with pictures, and different col- 
ored letters upon them, inc. &c. On the utility of these inventions, 
we are not now to decide, since their use, tike that of all others, 
must depend on the peculiar manner in which they are brought 

* For a ichool compowd cbiefl/ of elder clasies, no book can be roeotioned, 
whieb for minateneai in tbe direetioni and •oundncff gf precept, oan eomptl^ 
mik ' U^> Lectuiet 99 Bcbool keeping.' 



Method of teoAing Spelling. IffT 

into play, oa the energy of the teacher, and the interest of the 
taught. But the science of mnemonics, or association, in teach* 
ing the alphabet, can be used with as much facility by means of 
the book simply, as by such instruments. I mvariably taught the 
letters in this way ; — that is, by connecting in the mind of the 
child, each letter with some visible or sensible object, so that when 
this object was brought to his remembrance, or to his sight, the 
letter with which it was associated invariably arose with it to his 
mind ; and in this way, I found them easily learned, and by prac* 
tice, thoroughly retained. 

The second very common mistake in teacliing little children to 
read, has been in pennitting them to spell, after the teacher, col- 
umns of words, in which, half the time at least, the letters com- 
posing tliem, and the i)ronunciation, are totally diverse. In this 
way, if the child learn to spell or pronounce them at all, he learns 
by rote, and only after a long and most tedious course of labor ; 
but which, generally speaking, is wholly lost, since, unless his 
attention be fixed upon his task, which, diy as it is, can hardly be 
expected, — and unless he has a very uncommon desire and deter* 
mination of himself to master it, wliich, in a young child, is a cir* 
cumstance equally rare, he will know as much of it at the 
hundredth reading as at the first, and no more. Perhaps at this 
earliest period of instruction, all the preliminaries of kno^\ ledge 
must be acquired mechanically in a great measure ; but at least, 
let the instruments you use be calculated to pro<iuce some effect. 

There are two methods I would recommend to teachers for 
effecting the desired end at this early stage of their labors. With 
a lively child, to whom it is evidently irksome to be kept a mo- 
ment upon sounds, unconnected with their sense, it is best to take 
some simple story. Show him the smallest words, — to^ the, andy 
on, &c., and let him spell them one at a time, and then let him 
find others of the same kind. He will soon know and pro- 
nounce them at sight without being obliged to spell them ; and you 
can explain to him in what connection they arc used,— conse- 
quently what they mean. You can tell him that the do<r went to 
his kennel, — his house, — not behind it, or upon it ; and promise 
him that when he finds another just such word, you will tell him 
all about that ; interesting him, if possible, imperceptibly, and 
making him anxious to master it all himself. It will readily be 
seen, in what a variety of w.iys this method may be carried out. 

Another is best for a dull or quiet child,-— one who is not easily 
excited or interested, — and who resists, as some are apt to do, 
every effort made to blend amusement with instruction in this way. 
For such, it may be better to let them spell words in succession that 
rAyifM,— ^as there are few children whose ear will refuse to detect 



168 A LesiM. 

a similarity of sound. Only take care that the child pronounce each 
individual word himself, — with your assbtance if necessary, — ^but 
910/ otherwise* Every observing teacher must be struck with a 
manifest difference in different children with respect to nicety of 
car ; but as it is now the prevailing belief, that there are few, if 
any children who are not capable of being taught to sing, so tliere 
are likewise few who are incapable of being taught the nice dis- 
tinctions of sounds, in reading or speaking. Sometimes, indeed, it 
b a long and difficult process to instil this delicacy of perception ; 
particularly if a child does not possess it in other things ; but once 
succeed in effecting this, and your work, in other particulars, is 
rendered easy. To this end, let the child invariably perceive a 
close connection between the sound of the letters which compose 
the word he begins to spell, and the pronunciation of them. Do 
not permit him at first to read or spell any, which have not this 
connection. 

After the child has learned to spell and pronounce simple com- 
binations fluently, then go on to more difhcult ones ; and occasion- 
ally give examples of such as do not come under this class, calling 
them exception*; such for instance as dough, or cough, or 
phthisic. Do not seem to expect that the child will know these 
readily; but, on the contrary, call them puzzles, or any other 
name which shall excite curiosity, and then go on to others of a 
similar class. 

Let me be a little more explicit. To begin with the little word 
cat ; the child would not readily spell and pronounce this, unless 
you had taught him (orally, not by book) that the letter c often 
has the sound of k; then he will see that the other letters are all 
distinctly heard in the word k-a-t cat. If he have a quick ear, 
and you pronounce to him cat, and then spell 6-a-^, making the 
difference of the first letter, he will be very likely to pronounce it 
himself at first tryine:, — c-a-t cat, b-a-t bat. If so, he will feel 
that he has accomplished something himself, and will go on to the ^ 
next with fresh interest. If he have a dull ear, he w^ill require 
considerable assistance from the teacher ; but in any event, let him 
feel that it is his own work at last, — that he has himself conquered 
the obstacle ; for then he will have courage to encounter another. 
I have sometimes been obliged, with such a child, to go over every 
word, having in it the same letters, (excepting of coui-se the first,) 
before I could produce from his mind, the power of calling one of 
them correctly himself. But still, a few w^ords thi>s gone over, 
will be more useful to him, than whole columns stupidly read and 
pronounced after the teacher. 

In this way go on ; always giving the rules of language which 
the word before you suggests, in your own words. Do not, how- 



BtftcU of the School Sjfitem of New York. IW 

erer, require the ch3d to leam them by heart ; for if you p(Mnt out 
their application, and take care to repeat tliem every time exam- 
ples occur, he will soon, though perhaps unconsciously, have them 
thoroughly in his mtnrf, and much more at his command, than if he 
had them on his tongue, without comprehending their meaning.. 

(To bo eoncladod Id our next number.) 



OS THE DEFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF NEW YORK. 

(Communicatod for the AuoaU of Education.) 

To THE Editor ; — Sir — I perceive that you notice, with be- 
coming interest, tlie late Report of the Superintendent of Cchu- 
mon Schools of the State of New York ; but tliat the subject has 
thus far been presented in your columns, chiefly on one side only, 
and that the more favorable. The acknowledged superiority of 
the schod system of New York, is a matter of pride to its citi- 
zens ; but there are some points, it seems to me, which candor re- 
quires us to present in the light they must appear to every careful 
observer on the spot. There are facts and considerations, which, 
although they may somewhat reduce our estimate of the real re- 
sults of the school system of tliis state, and its prospects, in some 
particulars, will lead us to entertain more correct views, and 
enable us to judge with greater accuracy in other cases. 

In the first place, I have a few words to say of the number of 
children returned, as having attended the schools of tlie state in the 
year. 

While the estimate of the number of children was confined 
to tliose between five and fifteen, the number taught exceeded 
those of this age. Since the account has embraced those between 
five and sixteen, it appears that some between these ages are not 
at school. The number which appears in the report is, however, 
suqorisingly small. In the table on page 80 of the last report, we 
find it stated, that the number of children taught in the districts 
from which returns have been received, was 531,240; and that 
the number residing in those districts between five and sixteen years 
of age, was 534,002. The difference of these numbers is 2,762, 
which, we are left to presume, embraces all the children between 
those ages not attending common schools, whether attending pri- 
vate schools, or no schools at all. This has naturally been looked 
upon with surprise mingled with gratification, and can hardly fail 

VOL. T. NO, IV. 15 



170 Nwnber of Pupib.— Attendance. 

to call out new exclamations of joy on the other side of the At- 
lantic, among those who witness our prosperity with pleasure. 

There is however one omission which is not observed by tliose 
who have spoken of the report, and which should be taken into 
the account. The 7,731 children attending the public schools of 
the city of New York are stated, and embraced in the general re- 
sults. But the number between five and sixteen in that city is not 
required to be given by law, and on this account has never been 
inserted in the report, and a blank of course exists in tliis impor- 
tant part of the table. According to the average proportion to 
the whole population of the city, they would have affected the re- 
sult to the amount of 40,000, or 50,000, and greatly reduced the 
proportion of attendants on the schools. And ])ainful as is the 
fact, it should not be forgotten, that the number of uninstructed 
children in this city alone, has been estimated at 10,000 tot^,000. 

But we shall find in one other city alone, a number of children 
out of the common schools, more than sufficient to make up the 
difference shown by the report, between the children at schools 
and those in the districts reported in the whole state. The city of 
Brooklyn, it is presumed, did not contain less than about ^0,000 
inhabitants at the time to which the rejwrt extends, and therefore, 
about 5,000 children of school a^ije. The connnon scliools of 
that place, from all 1 can learn, probably did not contain, at that 
lime, above 500 scholars ; but even estimating them at I,(W)v), we 
have 4,000 children, then, in Brooklyn, out of the public schools. 
This number much exceeds 2,76i2, the number of children appa- 
rently out of school, in all the districts in the state from which re- 
ports were received. 

These remarks I have made, to caution the reflecting friends of 
education aijainst niakin<r the "general results of our svstem as re- 
ported, the basis of such conclusions as tliey might be led to form. 
The truth is, the returns are, in several respects, liable to consid- 
erable uncertainty ; and some practical observei-s among us have 
been accustomed to regret the unqualified manner in which they 
have been published to the world. 

At a period when so much is to be done on the subject of school 
systems, it is also important that the excellent influence of our plan 
should not lead tp the blind adoption of its defects ; and I would 
therefore mention some of these. 

1st. The laws do not offer motives for retaining children in the 
schools, after they have been once introduced and recorded. A 
bounty is held out for every child brought into the school ; but no 
additional advantage is derived to the district from his being kept 
there. If the returns of attendance had been required, as in the 
city of New York, and in tlie new school bill before the Illinois 



ImpravefMfiis needed in ihe Syitewu 171 

Legislature, to be founded on the average attendance, a difierent 
influence would have been exerted. 

2d. We need an impulse to progressive improvement. When 
a district has been laid out, officers elected and set in action, a 
school house erected and furnished with a teacher according to 
law, the returns regularly made, and the money drawn from the 
fund, all is done that the existing plan can do. This is the natural 
limit of the New York school system. There is no bounty, no 
stimulus, for the improvement of studies or methods, nor for the 
excitement of the public regard for learning. A new branch of 
the system, it is true, is designed to employ one very important 
means for the benefit of the schools ; but thb is no part of school 
laws, commonly so called ; and besides, as I shall next observe^ it 
is not likely to produce those benefits which it proposes. 

dd. This state has the honor of taking the lead in providing for 
the education of teachers, as well as in tlie judicious distribution of 
funds ; but the plan adopted has some important defects. The 
Legislature have authorized the addition of a department for the 
education of common school teachers to one of the academies in 
each of the senatorial districts ; and eight academies have already 
been designated for that purpose. Instruction may be afforded in 
the most important branches of knowledge ; but whence is to be 
expected any judicious system of instruction for common schools, 
founded on those sound principles of discipline and instruction 
which are necessary to a country like ours, and embracing the best 
methods known in the world, in a form adapted to our own condi- 
tion ? Who is to dictate a complete and suitable plan of educa- 
tion, for the teachers whom it is proposed to instruct? So many 
seminaries, each of but little public siirnificance, will not be likely 
to form such systems. Their conductors are occupied chiefly with 
other business ; and the nnmber of teacher-pupik in each will be 
inconsiderable. 

4th. New York has the most efficient, if not the only superin- 
tendent of public schools in our country ; but it is a subject of regret 
that he is not a distinct and permanent officer. He is, of course, 
chiefly occupied with the business of Secretary of State ; and be- 
comes Superintendent of Schools, and performs the dudes of the 
office as a mere appendage to a station of a diflferent nature, re- 
quiring totally diflfcrent qualifications. Whether we look to him, 
therefore, to apply a steady and judicious hand to the improve- 
ment of the common school system, to place education on the 
eminence where it should stand, to confer upon the state, and the 
country, the benefits of experience, matured by years of uninter- 
rupted devotion to the employment, or for those active operations 
so desirable in all parts of the state, and requiring his presence, we 



172 Plan for Commim Schoob in Ittimit. 

shall, of necessity, be disappointed. A superintendent of schools 
sliould come into his difficult, and res|K)nsible, and most honorable 
office, through his peculiar merits as a devoted, intelligent, and 

Eractical friend of education, and retain it during good behavior, 
eyond the reach of all party influence. He should be found, 
during a considerable part of the year, visiting schools, encouraging, 
instructing and honoring teachers ; inciting good citizens to co- 
operate with him, and doing, in many other ways, what is not 
done in New York, or elsewliere in tlje Union. Wliile, therefore, 
I am gratified to see the example of our state referred to, and fol- 
lowed, I hope tliat other states will endeavor to return the benefit 
they may have received, by presenting a system for our imitation 
wl^ich shall secure all the advantages, and avoid all tlie defects of 
our own. 

A Citizen of New York. 



PLAN FOR COMMON SCHOOLS IN ILLINOIS. 

We have just received a very interesting and able report pre- 
sented to the Legislature of Illinois, accompanied by ' a plan for 
a uniform system of common schools and county seminaries 
throughout the state.' 

The committee open their report with the principle so univer- 
sally admitted in theory, and so much forgotten in practice, that 
the citizens of our republic cannot perform their duties, or sustain 
our institutions, unless they are enlightened. In the strong but 
accurate language of the committee, ^Our government is not 
adapted to an ignorant community^ and Us free institutions cannot 
long he supported by an ignorant peopled They appeal to the 
failure of attempts to establish free institutions in Europe as evi- 
dence of this ; and they might appeal to the anarchy which reigns 
80 extensively in South America. 

They go on to say, that the general diffiision of knowledge is 
not less important in preventing that wide division of ranks, which 
necessarily results from tlie contrast of enlightening tlie few, and 
leaving the many in utter darkness. They insist, tliat universal 
education is alone consistent with universal suffrage. In order to 
produce it, in accordance with our republican principles, they 
maintain that there must be schools intended for public befiejity and 
open to all on the same terms ; and that the only result of a sys- 
tem of schools especially for the poor, is to degrade them still 
iarther, and to prejudice them against the schods themselves. It 



OJiamfir the Mtmagement of Schoolt. 173 

is not less the interest of Me whok community^ that schools should 
be provided for all its children, than that prisons should be sus- 
tained for its criminals. It is even more iinportant to the weal- 
thy, that the poor should be taught, so as to prevent aggressions on 
their property, than that the aggressors should be punished ; and 
therefore this, like other public burdens, should be shared by all, 
in proportion to their ability. Whatever system be adopted, then, 
they insist that the sciKX)ls should be free ; for that free schools 
* have accomplished what no other schools have ever accomplished 
—universal edu^^cUionJ 

After establisliing these general principles, the committee pro- 
ceed to inquire ho\r these objects can best be effected in Illinois. 
They propose to carry into effect, as far as possible, the plan in- 
volved in the surveys of public lands, and divide the counties into 
towns, as is done in the Eastern States, and to call upon tlie peo- 
ple to divide them into districts. Tlioy next examine various 
fJans for the appropriation of the small fund existing in that state, 
t amounts to »^ 146,000, of which jji97,741 belongs to common 
schools, ^33,496 to seminaries, and ^14,847 to colleges, and 
they propose to loan the money to the state at 12 per cent., the 
rate which they observe could be obtained from individuals, and 
which the state may well pay for the benefit of its children, and 
thus to secure an annual income of ^ll/r20. 

They reject the idea of distributing it gratuitously to the towns, 
as has been done with so unfortunate results in Connecticut ; and 
approve the general system of New York, of giving in such a 
manner as to call for corresponding efforts on the part of the 
people, and present the following plan ; 

Each town or township is to elect annually five School Inspeo 
torSy who shall divide the town into scl ool districts, and shall be 
bound to visit and examine all the public schools, at least once a 
month, and advise as to their management, and to examine all 
candidates for the office of teachers. 

The inhabitants of each school district are to choose annually 
one or three Trustees of Common Schools, who shall employ 
qualified teachers, who shall see that every white child has an op- 
portunity of attending school, free of expense, shall manage tlie 
financial concerns of the district, and shall have charge of the 
school house, and provide fuel for it. They are also required to' 
make an annual report under oath, embracing, 1. The number of 
persons in the district between 5 and 21 years of age. 2. The 
number of schools, the sex of the teachers, and the number of 
days they have taught. 3. The number of pupils and the time 
of attendance, to be ascertained by an exact roll of the pupils, 
maiking theirhalf daily attendances, kept and reported under oath 

•15 



174 Mode of Distributing the Fumd. 

by the teacher. 4. An account of the receipts and expenditures 
for the schools. 5. An account of the state of tlic schools, and of 
the school property and alTairs. 

After the returns are thus made, the interest of the common 
school fund is to be distributed to the districts, 271 the compound 
ratio of the number of pupils at school, and the time of their at-' 
tendance, as ascertained by the rolls. No district however can 
receive its proportion of the funds, unless it has a good and suffi- 
cient school house, and also l)as raised, and devoted to the pay- 
ment of a teacher, a sum at least equal to its proportion of the 
fund. 

This plan of distribution seems to us to involve more advan- 
tages, and fewer dilficulties, than any we have seen. It prevents 
all odious distinctions between the rich and the poor. It t^ives 
aid only where it can be made eflicient ; and it secures the co- 
operation of the pi^ople. antl excites them to increased efforts, not 
merely in raising money for schools, but in bringing every child 
under instruction, and making them attend with j)unctuality. We 
do not know a more hap|)y expedient for countei*actin<r the reck- 
lessness of the ignorant in neglecting to send their children, or the 
reluctance of the avaricious to lose tijeir services by sending them 
constantly, than this of making it the interest of the whole district, 
that every child should attend school every half day. 

But the conunittee do not think that the state has discharged 
its duty in providing schools for elementary instruction merely. 
They advise that measures be taken, and the remainder of the 
fmid (including that for colleges yet unapjuopriated) be employed 
for the establishment of a seminary in each county, in which the 
higher branches of education shall be taught, and provision be 
made for the s])ecial insti-uction of teachei*s. This last object they 
evidently regard as of high importance. They observe ; 

•There is one evil tlini rxisis and is not yet proviiletl fj)r — nnd that is 
the lamentahle want of suitable and qualified teavhtrSj — an evil that is felt 
in every part of the country, and pariicularly in the west. It is well 
known, that in many of onrtownsand seulenients, the prople arc obliged 
to depend on the wandering ones of other states, and i^uch tran»iient per- 
sona as may ' happi^n to rorne along,' to teach thrir t<chools. So long as 
this is the cavp, itis impossible that the schools should b<* in a flourishing 
condiiioD. Whatever the sy stem may be, without good teachers, there 
cannot be good schools.' 

In order to provide for the instruction of teachers, as well as for 
general instruction, the committee propose to appropriate $200 
annually from the seminary fund to the tnistees of every sem- 
inary which shall be established, within three months after a suita* 
ble building is erected, and a course of instruction in Latin, Greek, 



EducatUm of Tmhen.'^PuUic FuUng. 175 

Wid the higher branches of Eaiglish education. The bill presented 
also requires that the trustees should provide for the education of 
teachers, and report annually in detail the number of pupils, the 
studies pursued, and the plans adopted ; and shall receive from 
the seminary and college fund, tuition, at $2 per quarter for each 
person preparing to be a teacher. It is provided, however, that 
no seminary shall receive more than $100 annually; and that 
each person thus provided with free tuition be required to teach at 
least double the time he receives instruction, or to pay back to the 
state the sum usually demanded for tuition. 

In regard to this plan, it is obviously liable to the objections 
stated by a correspondent in a previous article against that which 
is adopted in New York ; and in a degree much greater, on ac- 
count of the recent origin of the seminaries of Illinois. We can 
only hope for a good system for the preparation of teachers, after 
many years of experience ; and its execution will then be im*- 
perfect in proportion to the division of efforts, which one or a few 
seminaries devoted to teachers would concentrate. Still the wants 
and circumstances of Illinois may render this provision tlie best 
which can be secured, at present ; and in any event, we hope it 
will furnish some aid in the instruction of the rising generation. 
The great evil is, that a low standard of qualification for teachers 
is likely to be established ; and when the profession is once fdled 
with such instructors, they will be, to a considerable extent, the 
mo<?t strenuous in opposing improvements. 

The committee sustain this plan, and urge its acceptance, not 
merely with ahle arirunients, but with earnest appeals. They 
repel the objection, that * the time has not come ' lor such a sys- 
tem in Illinois ; and we are gratified to find them able to give 
such assurances as the following ; 

^ Never were the people of Illinois more active and zealous on the 
subject of education than they are now. They not only expect, but tli«y 
demand a l)ctter system of schools ; and tliey have spoken to that efiect^ 
both at home and in their late cosfVEfVTioN, in a voice that will be under- 
stood. So popular indeed is the subject of education now, in this state, 
that it is advocated in every newspaper, its praises are sung on every 
'«him/i,' and scarce an individual can be found who is opposed to ic' 

The indications given by the late convention, by the exertions 
of individuals, and by the present report, are indeed favorable ; 
and we rejoice that the west seems so far prepared to exert its 
strength for the best of objects. We wish we could fix in the 
minds of our own legislators the noble sentiments witli which the re- 
port concludes. 

'Other measures may be entitled to a due share of importance. Ths 
public mind may be convulsed in discussion concerning a bank or m 



176 Aid to the American LutiMe of Lutrveiion. 

canal ; commotions and ezcitements maj ensue ; but such matters are a* 
* the duHt in the halance,' when comfiared to a subject like this. This is 
a measure that will aflcct the interests of every parent and child in the 
community, — a measure whose influence will extend to miUioiia of people 
now unborn, through ages and ages yet to come.* 



LEGISLATIVE AID TO THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION, 

Report on certmn pttttions to the Legialaturt of Massachusetts, presented 
hy J. G. Carter, Esq., on behalf of the Committee on Education, 

Our readers are familiar wiili the character and objects of the 
American Institute of Instruction, and probably with some of the 
^-aluable lectures it has published. They will be «;ratified to learn, 
that it has recently received from the Icijislature of Massachusetts, 
the pecuniary aid of n\ hich it was much in need, in order to em- 
ploy its means of usefulness to the best advantage. 

For this timely ^'rant, we are indebted to a petition signed by 
tlie Hon. W. B. Calhoun, hie Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and several gentlemen of Boston, sustained by two 
other petitions from the teachers of Boston and Salem ; and not 
less to the report of the Committee on Education, with which 
we have been favored. 

In commencing the report, the committee give the following 
brief sketch of the history of the Institute ; 

* From the facts set forth in the several petitions, as well as from state- 
ments made to tlie committee by the petitioners, and from other authentio 
aources of information, it appears that the American Institute of Instruc- 
tion is a flociety comp(i8«d chiefly of practical teachers, hut aided by a 
few others decpiv interested in the cause of popular education. The'so- 
cict>' was formfiti in the year 1830, and was incorporated by the legisla- 
ture, March 4th, 1831. It is composed at the present time of about four 
hundred memlicrs. The object of the institution, as appears from an 
examination of its constitution and laws, is ^ the diffusion of useful knowl- 
edge in regard to education," with direct reference to raising the char- 
acter and condition of the common schools. This object, recognized as 
one of high and vital importance hy this legislature in all |>eriods of its 
history, appears to have been steadily pursued by the *< American Insti- 
tute of Instruction," at no inconsiderable |>er8onal sacrifices of its mem- 
bers, yet with a zeel and perseverance somewhat nroftortioned to the 
direct and weighty bearing of its operations upon the best interests of tha 
community.' 

* Tlie means on which the society chiefly rely for the attain- 
ment of their object ' are thus stated ; 



Ohf9cU and UUtory of the hitkuiBm 1T7 

'First. Annual courses of lectures deliTered by distinguished and 
■uccessful teachers from all parts of the country, upon the principles of 
the science of education, and upon the practical details of the art of 
teaching and goveming tiie young. 

'Second. Full and free discussion of the many interesting topics 
brought to view by the lecturers, as well as of others suggested by the 
experience of those who have been long en^agrd in the profe^ttion. 

'Third. The public press, to record and diffuse through the commu- 
nity to the widest possible extent, the facts and principles brought out by 
the lectures and discussions.' 

The committee then express their decided approbation of the 
object, and the means employed, as adapted to dilSiise knowledge 
on the subject of education, and to improve our schools, by or- 
ganizing and elevating tlie profession of teachers ; and mention 
tlie following results in confirmation of their views ; 

' At the several annual sessions of the society about eighty lectures 
have been delivered to large audiences of tenehrrs of both sexes, upon 
the principles of the science and ihe details of the art of education, by 
some of the most distinguished trachers in the country. Iktwcen forty 
and fifty of these lecturt>s and dissertntions upon the most interesting 
topics of education have been already published in volumes, and most of 
them also in separate pamphlets, and distributed through the community 
as widelv and at as cheap a rate as the limited means of the Institute 
would allow. And another volume, cmhrncing the transactions of the 
last session, is now in the press, and will soon be offered to the public. 

*£ven if the advantage of such courses of lectures as are delivered at 
ths annual sessions of the Institute, were confined to the five or six hun- 
dred who can come within the sound of the lecturers' voices, and those 
to whom they can communicate them, your committee are of the opin- 
ion that the arrangement by which they are annually secured, would ar* 
rest the auention of the philanthropist and statesman, as eminently calcu- 
lated to improve the teachers in their profession — to elevate the (standard 
of education in the countrv — and to enlighten and direct the public at- 
tention in regard to one of the vital and absorbing topics of interest to 
the whole community. 

'But by means of the public press, these lectures and dissertations, pre- 
pared as they generally are with several months' notice, and by gentle- 
men distinguished in the various departments of the science to which 
they have given (mrticular attention^ and embodying as they g<?nerally do 
the residts of large exf>erience, and of close and philosophical researcbf 
may be multiplied and extended indefinitely.' 

They observe that tliese lectures may be made accessible to 
the public at a comparatively trifling expense to the state ; while 
the members of tlie Institute, who have already expended about 
^1,000 from their own pockets for an object of public utility, can- 
not be expected to do more than to devote the time and money 
requisite to sustain the annual course of lectures. Tlie committee 
proceed to present in its true light, the importance of the profes- 
sion which they are called to aid. 



178 Appropriation. — MaHachusetts School Fmd. 

* Your committee believe they do but respond to the nearly unaniraous 
opinion of thia House of Representaiivep, as well as of the people whom 
tiiey represent, when they express their own conviction, that. there is no 
cinsM of the comniunity upon whom its highest interests, both iminedi- 
attily and prospectively, more CHsemially depend, than upon the teachers 
of the srhool:!, and es)>ecifdly of the common schools. They constitute 
a class by far more numerous than any other of ihe professions. They 
are iurercsted wiih the formaiion of human chanictern, at a period when 
thotic chnractHi-H arc most tender and susceptible of good or evil influ- 
ence. Thi'y hold in ilicir hands the ho|)es of the present, and the strength 
of till! comiu:; generation. They stand at the very springs and fountains 
of civil liberty, to poison or to purify its waters. From their very posi- 
tion in society and the nature of their duties, they must exercise a mighty 
influence upon the destinies of this free and enliglitened people — an in- 
fluencr, which may indeed bo somewhat modified, but can hardly bo 
controlled by any and all other influences, which may be brought to bear 
upon it.' 

Tliey close their report by proposing a bill, appropriSting 
$|300 annually for five years to the use of the Institute, which has 
since been adopted by a large majority of the Legislature. We 
congratulate the friends of the Institute, and the profession of 
teaching on tliis evidence of legislative favor, and we hope it will 
be received by the officers and lecturers of the Institute, as a new 
demand upon them to adapt all their measures, and all their public 
exercises, to the practical objects for which the committee have 
given tlieir pledge. 



REPORT ON THE SCHOOL FUND OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

' Presented to the Legislalurey by the Hon. A. H, Everett, ChairmaD, on 

behalf of the Committee on Education. 

The friends of education in other parts of our country, are 
looking with deep interest for the Report on the School Fiind of one 
of the oldest states in the Union, and one to which the prece- 
dence has usually been allowed, both for intelligence and liberality 
on this subject. Tlie document before us presents in its text and 
appendix, the great features of a system worthy of the state ; but 
it proposes for immediate adoption, only a part of the plan of the 
committee. 

It appears from the report, that the amount of the money now 
appropriated to the school fund, is $(281,000 ; and the committee 
deemed it expedient to commence its immediate distribution, on 
the ground that the annual sales of the public lands will increase 



Mode of DUtribiUion Propo$ed. 179 

it with sufficient rapidity, even if nothing is received on account of 
the claim upon the United States. They believed also, that it 
would be attended with happy effects, in inducing the towns to or- 
ganize their school committees in the best possible manner, and 
to furnish complete and accurate returns of the state of their 
schools. These efforts, indeed, they propose to make an indis- 
pensable condition of receiving the avails of the fund. 

In regard to the principle on which the income should be dis- 
tributed, the committee appear to have examined attentively the 
systems which have been adopted, both in this and other coun- 
tries, and give it as their decided opinion, that it ' should be so 
regulated as to stimulate the exertions of those who receive it, 
rather than to relieve them from any of the taxes which they now 
pay for the purposes of education.' They observe ; 

' The nmount now raifUMl, though considertiolc, is not burdensome to 
the people, find is cheorfiilly contributed fur an object which is generally 
acknowledged to be of paramount importance. If the effect of the fund 
were ni«?rely to change the form in which this amount is raised, it would 
l)e of little or no benefit to the community. If it can be so managed as 
to increase the amount, and at the same time to improve the methods of 
applying it, the results will be highly important, and may even constitute 
an ei)och in the history of education in this Commonwealth.' 

In Connecticut, the income of the fund is distributed in propor- 
tion to the number of children of school-age, without requiring any 
eOfort upon the part of tiie inhabitants, and with paralyzing efiect. 
In New York, it is given in proportion to the number of children 
entered at school, but on the condition of an equal contribution on 
the part of the inhabitants, not calling upon the people however 
lor an efibrt to advance or improve their schools. The commit- 
tee propose for Massachusetts, a system entirely peculiar. 

They recommend *that one half of the income should be distributed 
to the towns in shares proportioned to their population, and the other 
half in shares proportioned to thn amount of monev which they shall 
raise themselves for the use of schools. On this plan, if of two towns 
of equal population, say a thousand inhabitants each, one shall raise 
$1000 for the purpose of education, and the other $500, the former will 
receive $2000 from the income of the fund, and the latter $1500, or in 
that profmrtion. In this way it is hoped and believed that the fund, in- 
stead of inducing the people to relax in any decree from the efforts which 
they now make, will operate as a bounty upon new and still more liberal 
contributions.' 

The proportion of children is so nearly uniform in a single state, 
that perhaps the distribution will be as just, if founded on the 
whole population, as on the returns of children in the respective 
towns. The fact however that it is based on the next preceding 



180 SeminarieMfar Tiachen. 



census of the United States, will sometimes produce serious ine- 
Guality in the course of ten years ; and the distribution for the next 
nve years will probably deprive some of our recent manufacturing 
towns of that aid which they peculiarly need. We could wish 
that some provision could be made for such exceptions, and espe- 
cially, that some efficient plan might be adopted to prevent our 
manufactories from becoming nurseries of disease and ignorance, 
as in England, by their incessant demands upon the children they 
employ. 

The other condition is most happily devised to excite to new 
effi)rts and contributions for schools ; for its effects do not termi- 
nate, like that of New York, merely in securing an equal amount 
of individual taxation. It offers increasing rewards to increased 
efforts, and thus operates without any limit. 

In the remarks we addressed, by their desire, to the Committee 
on Education of the last year, and which were published in their re- 
port, we observed that the true mode of employing a fund was 
not to support, but to improve our schools. We rejoice to find 
that the present committee agree with the former on this point ; 
and while they do not think it expedient to commence extended 
operations with an income so limited as that which now accrues 
from the fund, they propose that more should be done hereafter. 
They remark that the methods of applying this school money are 
now very defective, that much might be saved by adopting better 
plans for the construction of buildings, the books and apparatus 
provided, and especially in the system of procuring teachers ; .and 
express their belief, that a better system would ultimately save in- 
stead of increasing expense. 

On this point they alUule particularly to the system of Prussia, 
and to the plan for securing a competent supply of well qualified 
teachers by the establisiiinent of seminaries for this purpose. 
Without proposing an imitation of the * less effective ' system of 
New York, they only express a conviction, which we rejoice to 
see thus embodied in a public document of the Legislature of 
Massachusetts — that * an approprialion of a portion of the in- 
come of the fund to the education of teachers upon some well de- 
vised plan, would do more for the cause of public instruction in 
this Commonwealth, than almost any innovation on the existing 
institutions that could be imagined,^ 

On account of tlie shortness of the time allowed, and the pres- 
sure of business upon them, the committee postpone their report 
on this point to a future day. We have formerly expressed our 
hope that nothing would be done hastily, on a subject of such vital 
impoiiance to the interests of the state ; and we scarcely regret 
that more has not been done. We trust, however, that the 



A Superintendent. — Free High SAoch. 181 

committee did not bring distinctly before the Legislature, the ne- 
cessity of a thorough investigation, an Active, vigilant superintend-' 
ence of objects so important. We would again repeat the obser- 
vations with which we closed an article in our February number on 
this point, and earnestly beg that they may be well considered. 

* The remarks of the School Commissioners of Missouri well 
deserve attention — " The desultory and imperfect reports of several 
hundred scattered individuals, can never give a complete view 
of the defects of our schools, or the best mode of remedying 
them. Hence, one man familiar with the subject should traverse 
the whole ground, discover its actual state, compare different 
schools under different influences, ascertain the origin of the 
apathy and neglect so prevalent, and the measures which would 
be at once effectual and acceptal)le. The energies of a single, 
well-balanced mind should be employed in collecting and com- 
bining materials, which shall give greater force and efficiency to 
the system." ' 

* In addition to this, let it be remembered, that the committee or 
inspectors of a district can never be expected to give evidence of 
their own neglects or faults. How different would have been the 
accounts of some of the prisons of Massachusetts, had they been 
founded on the reports of Sherifls and Selectmen, scattered over 
the state, instead of the personal, thorough examination of disinter- 
ested men, nuniliar with the subject ! And if Massachusetts 
deemed it worth while to employ individuals at a considerable 
expense, to examine the condition of her prisoners, and the rocks 
of her soil, shall she hesitate to incur an equal expense, to employ 
inspectors as skilful, in order to ascertain the condition and wants 
of hor childrtnl We hope at least that ample time will be 
allowed for maturing the best system, and for removing any preju- 
dices which may oppose its adoption. To legislate in haste, on 
such a subject, would be to sacrilice the best interests of the state.' 

We cannot but wish, too, that the subject of free high schools, 
so imjwrtant to the indij^ent, may be deemed an object worthy of 
aid from this fund. We earnestly hope, in any event, that the 
people and the representatives of Massachusetts will not forget 
what they owe to themselves. They are not compelled, as in 
New York, to offer every inducement in order to secure the ci- 
tablishmcnt of common schools, or the elementary instruction of 
ewevy child. This is already accomplished. Let them aim at 
something higher. Let them seek to increase the amount of light 
among every class of citizens, that this ancient slate may maintain 
by their intelligence, that influence which they are rapidly losing 
by the increase of population in other parts of the Union. 

VOL. V, NO. IV. 16 



182 Pruuian Seminaries for Teachen. 

Tlie public are much indebted to the committee for annexing to 
their report, a very interesting document, prepared by a gentleman 
from Prussia, now in this country, on the system of instruction and 
of teachers' seminaries in that country. We present it to our 
readers entire, as one of tlie most accurate and valuable articles 
which is to be found on this subject, and better adapted to ordi- 
nary use, than the details of Cousin's admirable work. 



OUTLINES OF THE PRUSSIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION. 
By a Commusioner from Prussia, 

(Extimetod from the Reiiort of the Committee on the Mut^ achufctta School Fuud.) 
SUPPORT OF SEMIZfARIRS FOR TEACHERP. 

The seminaries for the teachers of priinary schools arc entirely sup- 
ported hy government, from the general bchool fund, which has twosepa* 
rate divisions, the Catholic school fund and the Proiestnnt school fund. 

The expense of these seminaries belonprs to the ordinary annual hudget 
of the tninistry of Public Instruction, which is only suhjc<ie<i to a com- 
mon visa, hut not to an extraordinary scrutinizing revision, if it docs not 
contain new items which were not before introduced into it. 

Some of the seminaries have ancient endowments, in landed property, 
which contribute to diujiniifh the expense of tJie royal tr(a>uiy, but 
the departments have nothing to spend for this \mn of popular educa- 
tion. In th6 year 18^31, the annual expense for thirty-three seminaries 
amounted to nearly $80,000; whereof the treasury had only to pay about 
$60,000. 

At the beginning of 1833, there were forty-two seminaries in the king- 
dom, with a population of thirteen millions of inliabitants. To each of 
these seminaries a small elementary school for children of the city is at- 
tached, but merely as a means to develope the practical skill of the future 
teachers. The expense of the seminaries makes nearly the fifteenth part 
of the entire expense of the primary schools. The expense of the pri- 
mary schools 18 borne nearly in such proportions by the state, and by the 
parishes, or rather * Communes,' consisting of a village or of a city, that 
the last contribute nineteen twentieths of the expenditure, and the state 
only one twentieth part. 

SUBSISTENCE OF THE PUPILS. 

The whole ex|>cn8e of the erection of seminaries and of providing 
them with suitable buildings wherein the professors and the pupils live, 
as well as with a libniry, appanitus for instruction, and muesical instni- 
ments for the exercise of the pupils, is borne by the state. As to the 
board of the pupils, it is paid for by far the greatest proporti(«n of them, 



Support of Pi^pib. — Duration of the Coune. 188 

and provided for all by the state. There h only a stnall part of the puplli 
for whom the magiiit rates of the places of their nativity and residencei 
or their relatives, make a small annual |iayment to the treasurer of the 
seminary. 

Those pupils which receive their education and support wholly from 
the state, are legally bound to fill, during a certain number of years, the 
situations of school-masters to which they are elected, receiving always 
the annual salary attached to each of these situations. The length of 
time during which they have to fill in this way some place of school- 
master offered to them, is three years. Should they not choose to accept 
such au appointment when offered to them, they have to pay to the ireas* 
urer of the seminary where they were educated, for each year of iiw 
struction $14, and the whole amount of their board. 

Of the furty-two seminaries existing first January, 1833, twenty-eight 
were large, with 25 to 100 pupils. The law, which from unavoidable 
circumstances has not always been observed, prescribed never to have 
more than sixty or seventy pupils in a seminary. These seminaries 
were entirely supported by the state, or from their own funds. The re- 
maining fourteen seminaries, which may be called branch seminarieSy 
count each of them six to eighteen pupils, sometimes under the super- 
intendence of an experienced clergyman or rector; and in these the state 
contributes only a part of their income. 

In some of the larger seminaries the state gives, besides board, a small 
gratuity to some of the best and most informed pupils, who act as assist- 
ant teachers of their younger fellow students. 

The number of pupils in these forty-two institutions amounted, at the 
above mentioned period, to more than two thousand, the number of situ- 
ations for school-masters to about twenty-two thousand, and the number 
of pupils formed for these situations, annually leaving the seminaries, 
to about eight or nine hundred. The annual vacancies in the situations 
of school-masters amount to about three or four |)er cent ; so that, with 
due allowance for pupils selecting other situations, or retained by bodily 
infirmities there, there still remains a sufficient numl)er of candidates for 
such appointments, and the possibility of making their examinations as 
rigorous as they ought to be. 

The expenditure of the state, for the seminaries, amounts annually to 
a little more than $80,000. 

DURATIOir OF THE C0f7RSK. 

The usual length of the course of education in the seminaries is three 
years, each year having two terms. In the smaller or branch seminaries^ 
forming school-masters for the poorest and most thinly inhabited villages, 
the course is limited to two years. 

The school-mosters which have an appointment are sometimes (per- 
haps every year) assembled at the nearest seminary for the purpose of 



184 Subf'ects of Study. 

receiviog there, during three or four weekfi, a term of iratructioo on 
methods newly invented, in the prof^rcss of the art of teaching. 

Besides this, the raost disiinguiMhed or moat nntive .school-nmstprs re- 
ceive from tlie Consistory of the province, siriall preminrns in money, or 
books. The sc^hool-tnastors of the rirrlos, (nearly equal to one or two 
lownshijM*,) have, under the protection of the govornuienl, weekly con- 
ferences, where they discuss the different methods of in^strucijon, com- 
ment on new works on education, keep exact minutes of these tnin^'ac- 
tions, and read their own ohsurvations or papers on tliese sultjects. 

SUBJECTS OF STUDY. 

The oje of entering into the seminaries is herwecn sixteen or eiglileen 
years, and iiio piipi.r "TG ireo from clpy ^'Jlvice in the army or in the 
militia during times of peace. 

The seminaries, wherein no pupil can ho rcceivc<l who lins not gone 
through the elementary instruction, or whose morality is suhjected to the 
least dotdit, are destined to form teachers for the elementary or primary 
schools, as well as for the middle or citizens' schools, where no instruc- 
tion in the classical languages is given. The parts which constitute the 
course of instruction for such teachers arc: 

1. Religion. Hibiical history, introductory and commcntatory lesisons 
on the JSihIc, systematical instruction on the religious and moral duties 
of man. 

2. The Gcrinan language in an etymological and grammatical point 
of view. Exercises in expressing thoughts and reasoning orally and by 
writing. 

3. Mathematics. Arithmetic as well from memory or intellectual as 
by putting down the numbers, geometry, stereometry, and trigonometry. 

4. A knowledge of the world, consisting in an acquaintiuicc with the 
most important events or objects in history, natural history, natural phi- 
Jo^Opny, geography and cosuiology or physical geography. 

5. Musical instruction, consisting in the th«ory and practice of sing- 
ing, theory of music, instruction in playing on the violin and the organ. 

6. Drawing, according to the system of Peter Schmid,and penmanship. 

7. The theory of education, the theory and practice of teaching, and 
their connection with religious service, the liturgy. 

8. Gymnastic exercises of all kinds. 

9. Whei% it is practicable, theoretical and practical instruction in 
horticulture, in the cultivation of fruit trees and in husbandry. In the 
country the dwelling house of the school-nmstcr has a garden, serving as 
a nursery and an orchard, for the benefit of the school-master who lives 
there, without paying any rent or local taxes, and for the instruction of the 
Tillage. In latter years the rearing of silk-worms and the production of 
«Ik, has been frequently tried by the school-masters in the country, the 
gorernment furubhing mulberry trees and other materials, 



Eximt of Shidiei.'^Apparaiut. 185 

What is stiU mora important than this complete course of insTructioD, 
IS the spirit of religious and moral industry and self-denial which per- 
vades the seminaries, continually supported and inculcated by the direc- 
tors, all highly distinguished men of piety and learning, and by the strict 
discipline under which the pupils live, without feeling themselves fet- 
tered by it 

EXTENT OF STUDIES. 

The answer to this question may be found already in the preceding 
one. On the whole, the school-master is so trained, that ho may form, io 
connection with the rector, even of the remotest village, where the last 
mentioned is always president ex officio of the school committee elected 
by the inhabitant?, a central point of religions, moral and intellectual in- 
formation, sending its beneficent and cheerful beams through tlie whole 
extent of the little community. 

This whole system of instruction tends to a religious and moral end, 
and rests on the sacred basis of Chriiitian love. As the most affecting 
and indeed sublime example of this spirit, I mention the little or branch 
seminaries for training poor school-masters in such habits and with such 
feelings as shall fit them to be useful and contented teachers of the 
poorest villages. Here is poverty, to which that of the poorest laborers 
in this country is afiHuonco ; and it is hopeless, for to this class of school- 
masters no idea is held out of advancement or change. Yet if ever pov- 
erty on earth appeared serene, contented, lof\y, beneficent, it is here. 
*Hcre we see,' as the well informed English translator of Cousin's Re- 
port on the state of public instruction in Prussia, says ; * Here we se^ 
men in the very spriuf^-time of life, so far from being ma«le, as we are 
told men must be made, restless and envious and discontented by in- 
stniction, taking indigence and obscurity to their hearts for life ; raised 
above their poor neiglibors in education, only that they may become the 
servants of all, and may train the lowliest children in a sense of the dig- 
nity of man, and the beauty of creation, in the love of tfod and virtue,' 

▲PPAIULTUS. 

The first thing requisite for the larger seminaries is a house, with 
ground for gymnastic exercises, for horticulture, and an orchard with 
fruit trees, to teach pomology, &c., attached to it. 

Besi<les this a library compostul principally of works on theology, 
moral philosophy, the art of teaching, and systems of education, histor- 
ical and geographical compendiums, books on natural history, natural 
philosophy, husbandry, cultivation of fruits and vegetables, rearing of 
bees and si Ik- worms, the German classics, and musical works and com- 
positions. Farther, a number of n^usical instruments, violins, flutefl, 
pianos, and a large organ. 

The apparatus for chemistry and natural philosophy, comprises only 
tbofo iomrumeots which are requisite for tboie primary branches of botiK 

♦16 



186 Primary Edmeatian, 

■ciences that may be of use to the future achool-master; and also a small 
cabinet of natural history, consinting of mineralts plants and animals. 

MlSC£LLA?fEOCS OBSERVATlOrrS. 

After having answered ns satisfactorily as it was possible at the present 
moment, in a situation without access to the oflicial sources of informa- 
tion, the queries proposed to nie, I take the liberty to add a few obser- 
vations on some other points intimately connected with the Prussian 
system of primary education, and serving perhaps to elucidate my pre- 
ceding answers. 

1. The compuhon/ sifsfem of primary education, first introduced in 
1819 in Prussia, existed tliere as well as in the remainder of Germatiy in 
a certain way, some centuries before. This system, which has been 
enforced already by the first settlers in New ]Cn«:lund, and wliicb was 
introduced by the Prusiii.-m f^overMment in tlie provinces formerly under 
the dominion of France, slowly and with due forlMjarance, is now hailed 
by nearly all the inhabitants oC the kiujLrdom, as the greatest benefit that 
could be bestowed upon them. This is proved by the following ofiicial 
numbers of the civil inhabitants, of the chihlren between the first day of 
their seventh and the hist of their fnurteenlh year, the age of school- 
compulsion, and of the primary, middle and <!rannnar schools with their 
teachers and pupils. The number of inhabitants was taken by census, 
and the number of children from seven to foiirt(;en vears, ascertained by 
the rule well known to ])olitical (M>onomists, that among 1000 inhabitants 
of n country taken on average, I'^tJ are from the beginuingof the seventh 
to the end of the fourteenth year. 

1831. Inhabitants, (without the arinv) 12.780,743 

rhil(hcn from 7 to 14 years, ' 2,(>I.'5.030 

Primary Schools, 21,889 

Teachers in Primarv Schools ot both <('.x.;j», . . 24,919 

MiJJle Schools (for boys, i-'l i for j;hls 342.) ... 823 

Scholars in Elementary Schools, J ^^rj^' y^o'J'jj' ^ • 1,917,834 

Teachers in Middle Schools', (nia)e, 2,29(1 ; ffiii.ile, ol4,) . . 2,810 

Scholars in Middle Schools, J '*?-V' ^f,'"^!^!' I 103,477 

CoIlea;es for Citizens, and Grammar ScliooU, . . 140 

Teachers in CoIle{;es and Grammar Schools, . . 1,493 

Scholars in Colleges and Grammar Schools, .... 26,041 

Taking together the scholars of the three mentioned gradations, wo find 

Scholars in Elementary fichool:!, 1,917,834 

Scholars in Middle Schools. 103,477 

Scholars in Colleges for citizens and Grammar Schools, . 26,041 

Total, 2,047,352 

Number of children from 7 to 14 ycarii, .... 2,043,080 

We find, therefore, though many children are retained by bodily or 
mental infirmidea, from visiting the public schools, and though maDy 



Gncm 0/ SiuJbf in Schoob. 187 

cliildren of the higher classes are educated at home or in private board- 
ing schools, that more children visit the public schools than are legally 
bound to do it. This arises from the circumstance that many children 
are sent to school before the prescribed age of six years, or go there after 
the beginning of the fifteenth year, proving at the same time the good 
sense of the population, and the value they set upon the benefits of a 
religious and moral instruction. 

2. It will not be useless to give here a short enumeration of the sub' 
jects taught in the elementary schools and in the middle schools^ the latter 
being for those who do not pretend to attain the highest degree of per- 
fection in the different trades, commerce, manufacturing business, &c. 
&c. The subjects marked with an asterisk, mttst be taught, even in the 
poorest village schools ; the others can there be dispensed with. 

ELEMENTARY iCHOOLf. 

*1. Rclij;ious Instruction. 2. German Language. 3. Elements of Geometry 
and Drawing:. *4. Calculation and Practical Arithmetic. 5. Elements of Ge- 
ography, General and Prussian History, and Natural Philosophy. *6. Singinfr. 
*7. Reading. *S. Writing. *9. Gymnastic Exercises. 10. Simple manual 
labors, agricultural instruction. *11. For girls, female work. 

JtflDDLE SCHOOLS. 

1. Religion and Morals. 2. German Language, Reading and Composition 
in style, the (icrman Clansics. 3. Foreign Mo<lern Languages. 4. As much 
Latin as nece>«snry for the exercise of the mental faculties and the power of 
judgment. 5. Complete Practical Arithmetic and the Elements of Mathemat- 
ics. 6. Natural History, Chemistry and Natural Philosophy, to explain the 
phenomena of nature. 7. Geography of the Globe, and of its position in the 
Solar System. 8. History, especially of Prussia. 9. Drawing. 10. Writing 
in the highest perfection. 11. Singing. 12. Gymnastic Exercises.! 

Herewith I close this short paper on the state of Primary Education 
in Prussia, which, incomplete as it is, in combination with the fact, that 
regular quarterly returns on all juvenile delinquencies in tlie kingdom, 
are sent by the courts of law to the Minister of Public Instruction, and 
that we have in Prussia, now, twenty-eight institutions for juvenile de- 
linquents, or houses of reform, none for more than sixty pupils , all of the 
tame seXy will give some idea of the subject treated. But I must still 
add, that all this is only a part of a whole system, and that it is as a whole 
that the national education of Prussia is worthy of study and imitation. 
No work can be better adapted to give an introductory view of the gen- 
eral organization of this system, than Mr. Cousin's Report on the State 
of iPublic Instruction in Prussia, printed in the beginning of this year in 
London. 

New York, \m December, 1834. 

t TIm list of German books is omiitod ibr want of looo. 



188 MisceHantf. — Notices. 



MISCELLANY. 



Education in New Jersey. 

A Into reiK>rt to the legislature of New Jersey, fully confirms the extract 
formerly given from the Governor's messagr, and the report of the New 
Jersey Lyceum on the low state of schools. The school fund is again 
declared to have produced no good effects for want of proper inspection 
— to have * retarded instead of advancing the cause of education.' 'The 
subject of education is becoming more and more unpopular,' and * mat- 
ters are every day growing worse.' The fund has been oflen grossly 
misapplied, and in some instances employed fur other purposes. The 
Committee propose the repeal of the existing law ; and the immediate 
appointment of a Commissioner or Superintendent of schools, to examine 
their condition, and prepare a plan of public instruction for future adop- 
tion. To pursue any other course, seems to us very much like prescrib- 
ing for a patient, without a full examination of his symptoms. 

We are pleased to see that the prospects of the venerable college of 
New Jersey arc far better. One fourth of a fund of $100,000 has been 
subscribed for it in Princeton and New York, and new buildings erected. 

New Seminart for Females. 

A new Seminary for Females is about to be established at South Had- 
ley, Massachusetts, on the plan of the Ipswich Seminary. It is designed 
to be a permanent institution, under the care of trustees, and with the 
special object of affording education to females in moderate circumstan- 
ces, at the lowest rate which can be secured by the provision of build- 
ings and funds for permanent object?, and by employing the pupils, if 
it is found practicable^ in performing the domestic labors of the house. 

Pestalozzian System of Music. 

This system has made its way into Kentucky, as well as Ohio. The 
recent examinations of two schools at Lexington, of 100 scholars each, 
are spoken of as affording good evidence of the excellence of this system. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



The Blind Child's Book, printed at the New England Institu- 
tion for the Education of the Blind. 1835. 

We have never received a child's book which excited our interest bo 
deeply, as this first offering of American skill and benevolence to the 
American blind. To see a volume even of thuty-three pages, embracing 



Lnprotementi in Priming. 189 

elementary and useful lessons in a character which is palpable^ and thus 
opening the gates of knowledge to those who have hitherto been shut 
out fronoi all that is contained in book?^ excites emotions which are more 
easily imagined than described. It contains the alphabet and a few c(»l- 
umns of single words, succeeded by progressive reading lessons well 
adapted to interest and instruct, and closing with a selection from the 
Proverl)8, and the elementary definitions of Grammar. 

But wc welcome this little book, not merely for its own sake, but as the 
first book of a library for the blind. We welcome it esfiecially as the 
precursor of the Holy Scripture.**. We have mentioned that a font of 
ty|>c was provided, and that the New Testament was printed as far as 
the Acts. Nothing more is requisite to complete the printing of the New 
Testament, in sufficient numbers to supply all the blind of our country, 
than adequate funfls, and those, we are confident, will be supplied. A 
voluntary contribution of $200 mndc sometime since, for the object, is 
now iti the hands of the American Bible Society. The Massachusetts 
Bihic Society has appropriated )<1000 to the same object; and we doubt 
not the mere mention of such u plan, at the Annivert>ary of the National 
Society, would excite thrilling interest, and call forth liberal contributions. 

The fact that only a single page can be printed at once, and that it re- 
quires paper of a superior quality to retain the form uiiicli is given to it, 
of course renders the hooks for the hiind far more expenftive than any 
others ; but the limited sup]>ly which is required renders the whole amount 
renuisit*^ romiwir«tJvpiy *''!»nl|. Tlie v.X'**^****^ too lios been greatly re- 
duced, by the ingenuity and laborious efforts of Dr. Howe. 

In our last numl>er wo stated, that by clian<(in;^ the form of tlio letter 
so as to occupy the smallest pructicnhle space, the number of letters on n 
page was increased, by Dr. Howe, from 408 to 787 letiei-s. The size of 
the page is thus reduced about one half, for the same amount of matter. 
The reiluction in thicknes?*, obtained by employing types less prominent, 
and paper of a finer quality, is nearly as great. 7G [mges of a French 
book for the blind, compressed probably to the utmost by age, measure 
about 2 1-2 inches in thickness ; while an equal number of pages, printed 
and bound recently, at the New England Asylum, measure only 1 4-8 
inches ; so that on the whole, the same book occupies only one fourth 
of the space. In the progress of experiment, it has been found, that oa 
the fingers only touch the top of the letter, the height can be reduced at 
least one third more, without impairing the distinctness of the words, by 
using characters for and, and for the double consonants, and employing 
the apostrophe for elision, in terminations, like ed, ught, &c., as liv'd, 
tho't, tau% &c. We doubt not that an amount of reduction may be 
made equal to that which has been already gained. We hope that 
enough will be accomplished in this way to prevent the necessity of re- 
sorting to stenographic characters, at least in all books for instruction, and 
for general utie, in order that the blind nia^ be thoroughly acquainted with 



190 School Mattel' t Friend. 

the orthography of our language* We have heard those who learned 
stenography late in life, regret the effect on their habits of spelling. 

It is not the least important result of the iuiprovement of Dr. Howe, 
that the expense as well as the size of the books will be reduced to one 
fourth of that required by the French plan. Dr. H. believes that a copy 
of the New Testament may be furnished for six dollars. It is also his 
conviction, that a copy of the New Testament, with a few preliminary 
lessons on the alphabet, and in spelling, would be sufficient to enable any 
blind person, not too far advanced, to learn to read, with very little 
aid ; and thus afford to numbers, whose age or circumstances prevent 
their going to an institution, free access to the word of life. We need 
not enlarge upon the importance of such a result, or upon the peculiar 
claim which such persons have on the aid of our Bible Societies. We 
will only add, that the whole number of the blind in the United States, 
does not exceed GOOO or 7000; and that if we sup])ose that two thirds of 
these can learn to read the New Testament, the cost of supplying them 
would be scarcely felt by the Bible Societies of the respective States. 

Cousin's Report on Primary Education in Prussia. 

Mrs. Austin's translation of this report is republished by Wiley & Long, 
of Nfw York. It is an account of the best school system in the world, by 
the firat philosojiher of the age. 

The School Ma«ti:ii's Friexd, with the Committee-i»Ia:;'s 
GuiDR. Containing sutrgcstions on common education, modes of 
tenching nnd governing, &.C., for daily use in common schools; also 
directions to committee-men and trustees of schools, and friends 
of education, on the means of improvinor instruction this year. 
By Theod. D wight, Jr. New York: Roe Lockwood. 1835. 

The title of this work, (quite too long, as we think) sufficiently ex- 
plains its object and plan. Of its character, we can say without hesita- 
tion, that we have never seen a work which presented the most impor- 
tant principles of common school education in a more distinct or practicol 
form ; and we think the manner peculiarly adopted to attract attention, 
and exciie interest, and lead to direct efforts for improvement. Could 
this, or some other of the works already published, be placed in the hands 
of every teacher, and trustee or committee man, we should have more 
hope of improvement in our common schools than from any legislative 
meas^ires which wisdom can devise, unless they are accompanied by the 
personal labors of a well qualified public agent. 

Levizac's French Grammar, improved by A. Bolmar. 

This book is obviously a great improvement ob the original grammar of 
Levizac ; the additions are important, and the established character of 
IL Bolmar, is sufilcient ground for confidence in its execution. 



Paragrajlh Bible. 101 

The Holt Bible. Containing the Old and New Testaments, 
translated out of the original tongues, and with the former transia- 
tions diligently compared and revised, by the command of King 
James I., arranged in paragraphs and parallelism, with philologiciu 
and explanatory annotations. By T. W. Coit, D. D., Rector of 
Christ Church, Cambridge. Cambridge : Manson & Grant, Prin- 
ters. Boston : Wra. Peirce. 1834. 12mo. pp. 1190. 

If one of our publishers were to present us with Gibbon's Rome, or 
the speeches of Webster, divided into verses, without any reganl to the 
sense, and often separating the members of a sentence, and with the 
poems of Milton or Thompson, arranged like prose, in continued lines, 
and divided in the same manner, into detached |K)rtions, every reader 
would cry out upon tlie absurdity of the plan, and the great injury done 
to tlie works of these writers, by such mutilation. And yet the Scriptures 
have been treated in the same manner, in modern times. The division 
into little paragraphs, first aiiopted without much thought, and executed 
without judgment, has been preserved to the manifest injury of the 
meaning and influence of the bible ; and the beautiful and sublime poems 
of the only sacred books we possess, have l>een almost divested of their 
beauty, and oflen despoiled of their meaning, by being always printed, 
and too frequently translated, as prose. 

The friends of the bible are much indebted to Dr. Coit and his enter- 
prising publishers, for the edition before ns. Taste and learning have ob- 
viously been called into rcquiiiition, and much labor l)eA(towf*d, on ren- 
dering this edition accurate and useful. The poetry is restored to its 
original form ; and the prose is divided into paragraphs in accordance 
with the meaning; while there are marginal numbers hidicatiiig the or- 
dinary divisions of chapter and verse. The type isditttiiict, the paper beau- 
tiful, and the whole execution worthy of the object. Without varying in 
any important particular from the conunon translation, the bible is thus 
presented to us in a form, incomparably more attractive and intelligible 
than any other accessible to us. To parents and teachers, wg would 
especially recommend it, as adapted to render the scriptures more easy of 
explanation, as well as of comprehension. There should be one copy at 
least, in every school, and every family ; and it will oflen save the use of 
a commentary, while it excites new interest in the best of books. 

The Young Pupil's First Book, an easy introduction to read- 
ing, &c. Bt John £. Lovell. New Haven: S. Babcock. 
1835. 12mo. pp. 164. 

This is decidedly the be:»t collection of lessons and stories in words of 
one syllable we have ever seen ; and it is cheering to see so dear and 
beautiful printing, in a child's S)>clling book. We think it qnite unneces- 
sary to confine a child to monosyllables, and we doiihtthe ultimate advaiK- 
tages; but we can cheerfully recommend this book as one which will 
neither perplex the mind nor injure the eyes of children. 



192 



JuoemU Shng. 



^^'Twas God, who waked the dawning." 

(from the GERMAN.) 

Furnished for the Annala of Education by Lowell Maiov, Profenor in the 

Boston Academy of Music. 

Cres* 



Music by 




E3HS 



'Twas God, who wuked 



ftkedthe dawning, 




And lit the imiling moming, With 



Dim. 



^^m^^^m 



beauty on its breast; But see! the light is shaded ; The tints of day are 



now 'tis time for pleas 



faded, And 



a 



^^ 



ant 



CfJ 



rest. 



i 



The chill of night comes over. 
And frP!*her brecxes hover. 

From whero the sun went down; 
Thp wnrbiinv nmsic conras, 

The hum of night inrren^es; 

To real! till evening sliades are gone. 



8 



Along their couri^es flaming. 
The iiinrR arc now proclaiming 

The grRiitne<«ii of thy miffht; 
() God, with humble fettling, 

Before ihy pn-wnce kneeling 
We own thee. Lord of day and night. 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



MAY, 1835. 



.-y 



REVIEW OF AN ADDRESS ON LYCEUMS. 



(Prescntod to the American Lyceum, by W. C. Woodmidob.) 



Mdress of the Literary and Philosophical Society of South Coro/tno, to the 
People of the State, on the ClaBsification^ Character^ and Exercises, or 
ike Objects and Advantages of the Lyceum System, with a view to its 
General Introduction into our Towns, FUlages, and the Country at large. 

The writer anticipated the pleasure of renewing his intercourse 
with the lamented Grimke, on the day in which his death was an- 
nounced ; and it was his lot to witness the effect which the tidings 
produced among his fellow citizens. Amidst the fierce, political con- 
tests which separated friend from friend, and father from son, it 
was consoling to hear the strong expressions of respect for his 
memory, and regret for his loss, wiiich seemed to flow spontane- 
ously from men of all sects and parlies. All were ready to unite 
in the resolution of the Charleston Bar, assembled to do him honor : 

'That in the denth of Thomas Smith Grimkr, the )K)or and destitute 
bave lost a friend, — society, a useful incinUT, — the bar, a (listingiiisliei' 
ornament,— Christianity, a zr^aloii!) advocate and supporter, — and oui 
country at large, a learned, able, and patriotic citizen.' 

But the friends of education and popular improvement felt the 
loss still more deeply — for they knew not where to turn for some 
ooe to supply his place. Tiie Address before us is one of his last 
efforts in this cause — a dying testimony of his deep interest in the 
general diffusion of knowledge ; and it is believed the American 

VOL. r. — ^No. V. 17 



194 Sketch of the Life of GrimJce. 

Lyceum will be gratiBed with some account of the Address and of 
its author. 

From a sketch of his life furnished by his family for the 
Calumet, we learn that Mr. Grimke was descended from a Hu- 
guenot family, and was born at Charleston, S. C, in the year 1786. 

'He was remarknble in his cliildhood nnd youth for the tenderneBS of 
his disposition und the seriousness of his deportinciitf for his ol>edience 
to his parents, whom he truly loved and honored, his love of learnini^, 
and his perseverance in whatever he undertook, even if it were only a 
Brhemn of childish amusement. He potvessed no unconinion (piickness 
of intellect, hut his patient industry morethiin conipen^aied for the want 
of what may he termed genius; bis talents were rather solid than bril- 
liant; and his extraordinary powers of mind, his extrnsive knowledge, 
and his wonderfully retentive memory, wore tliK n'stilt of labor that 
rarely knew intermission, and what he believed almost any man of ordi- 
nary talents mi^ht acquire by the same aftplication, and the same economy 
of time. Of him it may be stiid, that from a child hn loved ihe Holy 
Scriptures, and although increasing years develnpcd to his intpiiring 
mind more and more their inestimable value, yet he alwa>8 rrad and 
reverenced them. He passe<l through the diffiTcnt scIhujIx wiih much 
satisfaction to his teachcrH, enjoying at the same time the careful instruc- 
tions of a father well qualified to assist him.' 

At the age of seventeen, he entered Yale Collc;:;e, where he 
pursued his studies with f^reat success, and gained the friendship 
of the late President Uwight. In 1807, he commenced the study 
of the law, and acquired in its practice a hii^h reputation for ability 
and eloquence. It was remarked by the Attorney General at the 
meeting of the bar, that Mie had long stood at the head of the 
profession.' 

But his favorite pursuits were those connected with literature, 
education, and the objects of benevolence. He was an early, and 
strenuous, and successful advocate of temperance, and one of the 
most able supporters of the cause of universal peace. His pub- 
lished addresses * On the character and objects of science,' * On 
the character of the Bible as the great hookof hunian knowledge,' 
an Oration delivered before the Phi-Beta-Kappa Society of Yale 
College, on its importance as a book of education, and an Essay 
addressed to the American Lyceum, 'On the appropriate use of 
the Bible in common education,' sulHciently exhibit, no* only his 
interest in education, but his anxiety that every part of it should 
be imbued with the spirit of heaven, — that every effort of tlie 
human mind should be so directed as to lead innnediately to Hitf 
who formed the mind itself, and to whom all its powers should be 
dedicated. 

But his labors were early brought to a close. In the autumn 
of 1834, he visited the state of Ohio, on a visit to his brother, and 
in compliance with invitations to address the students of Miami 
University, and the College of Teachers at Cincinnati. He ac- 



Origin of the name * Lyceum.^ 196 

complished all these objects, took an active part in the discussions 
of the Collej^e of Teaciiers, for which he received an unanimous 
vote of thanks, and set out on his return home, when he was ar- 
rested by the cholera, and in twelve hours he left his earthly 
labors, to attend the glorious meeting of the friends of light and 
peace above. 

He adopted sonie opinions which do not meet with approbation 
from most scholars, and especially in regard to the inutility of 
classical and mathematical studies, — opinions in which we cannot 
ourselves agree, and of which, it seems to us, his own .eminence 
furnishes a refutation. But it is neither decorous nor politic in 
the advocates of classical learning, to speak of a man so excellent 
and able in the terms sometimes employed, simply because he 
adopted an opinion which Locke proposed, and Bernouilli advo- 
cated, and more than one mind, among those in advance of the 
age, has maintained, and which is so much in accordance with 
the popular voice. Above all, let not those who attempt to culti- 
vate the imagination and the taste by means of other ancient au- 
thors, so forget the sacred classics as to lose the confidence of the 
men who love the Rible more than all things else. Let them not 
deserve the reproach of giving more place and importance to the 
mythology of Greece, than to the religion of Christ, and of attempt- 
ing to form Christian pupils on Pagan models. 

The Literary and Philosophical Society of South Carolina, an 
association which embraces many names of eminence, passed a 
series of resolutions, the last season, in which they present the 
Lyceum System as an important means of ' promoting education 
and diffusing knowledge,' and cordially approve of the national 
institution. IVot satisfied with the expression of an opinion merely, 
they deemed it their duly to lay the subject before the people of 
the state, and directed a committee, consisting of Messrs. T. S. 
Grimke, H. R. Frost, and Wm. P. Finley, to prepare an address 
which is now before us, and which is understood to be from the 
pen of Mr. Grimke. It commences with the following remarks 
upon the name, ^ Lyceum;^ 

•The origin of the word is to be found in Grecian Liierotiire. The 
Lyceiini wuh a grove in tiie Biiburhs of Athens, originally devoted to 
military exercises ; but in the time of Aristotle, it was employed by bim 
for tbe delivery of bis lectures. Here, be tnugbt in tfie morning a select 
number of discifdes, and instructed tliem in tluit elevated |ibilo8ophy, 
which Alexander rebuked bim for bavin^^ published to the world. In the 
aflenioon, he taught in like manner by lecture?, the young men of Athens 
|iromiseuously. Aristotle occupies a very bi^li station among tbe most 
eminent Philosophers of the ancient and modern world. But we may 
remark of bim, and of all the Schools of Ancient Philosophy, that what- 
erer may have been the genius and learning of the Prof«'88orff, and 
whatever the oumber of their disciples^ and the duration of their School^ 



196 Syitem and Exercises of Lyceums, 

they produced no sensible effects on the great body of the people. The j left 
behind chera no ve^itigesoT amiliitary influence over manners and moralSy 
over the cause of General KducatioUf or Qver civil and political inntitu- 
tions. The reason wa8, that the tjtcht'mes of the Ancient Philosophy did 
not comprehend the general insiruotioii of the people, embracing Itoth 
sexeH, and all ages and condiiions. The same defect existtMl in the Mu- 
seum, founded m Fnmce hy Pilatre de Kozier, the Cabinet and Library 
of which were sold, em the patrons were unable to sustain the institution. 
To this succeeded the Lyceum estnhiislied by Ln Hurpe, at Parii*, ii» 
1786, but whose object was limited to the improvement of a select com- 
pany of the educated of bnili s(>xes, nteeting to;;etlicr at stated times. 
"Thus," saith I^ Harpe, "the French nation will not boast in vain of 
having known better than all others the advantages of sociability, and all 
the pleasures of virtuous souls an<I cultivated minds."' 

The address then presents aii arrangement of a system of Ly- 
ceums adapted to a scattered population like that of the Southern 
States. They are divided into two classes, the Elementary, and 
the Representative Lyceums. 

Among the Elementary Lyceums, are described the * Family 
Lyceums ; ' the * Social and Neighborhood Lyceums,' the fii^t 
name applying to the city, and the second to the country ; the 
* Village, Farish, or Beat Company Lyceums,' corresponding to 
the Town Lyceums of the Nortliern Slates, and deriving their 
names from the divisions of the Southern States ; and the 'Class 
Lyceum,' in which particular subjects may be pursued by mem- 
bers of a general Lyceum wl)o are especially interested in them. 

Among the Representative Lyceums, are enumerated, the Dis- 
trict, the State, and the National Lyceum. 

This portion of the address is so practical, and so full of inter- 
esting details in regard to the formation of Lyceums, that we have 
thought it impoilant to publish it in a subsequent article. 

The committee next describe the means of improvement, or the 
exercises to be adopted in Lyceums. Among these are desig- 
nated. Lectures, Essays, Debates, and Conversation. The first are 
obviously indispensable to give sound, connected views of many 
important subjects ; the Essay, and the Debate call into exercise 
powers of usefulness of great value, especially in our own country ; 
and Conversation will draw forth many minds whose inexperience 
and diffidence will debar them from contributing, in other modes, 
to the common object, without this previous preparation. 

The application of the system is the next topic of discussion ; 
and it is urged that the clergyman, the physician, the lawyer, the 
merchant, the fanner, the planter, the manuAicturer, the mechanic, 
and Mast but not least — as among the most honorable professions — 
the TEACHER,' would each and all derive incalculable advantages 
from meeting weekly with members of his own profession, and dis^ 
cussing points of common interest, and obtaining the combined 
lesulti of the reaearches and experience of bis associates. 



Benefiii and ResulU. 197 

By 'some, the Lyceum System is regarded as an useless innova- 
tion; while hy others it is treated as a pompous display, of what is 
already familiar. Neither view is well founded. Schools have 
been long in existence, but it still remains to be settled, how they 
shall he arranged and organized among us, so as to produce the 
highest degree of physical, intellectual, and moral improvement. 
Thus it is with Lyceums. On this point, the committee remark ; 

* Perhaps it may lie askedf what arc the Literary and Philosophical 
Societies, Lectureships in Colleges and Universities, Debating Cluhs, 
Mechanics* Institutes, and Convei-sntion Parties, but Lyceums? We 
reply, that they are. We have only given to an Old Name, a more ex- 
tensive application to Old Things, in order the more easily to embrace 
in one system all those various funns of improvement, and to give a more 
regular, extensive and frequent application to known methods of im- 
provement; while the additional advantages are secured of concerted 
action, and of the intercommunication of a large amount of experience. 

The obvious application of a system of associations like the Ly- 
ceum to the cultivation of Natural History, Political Economy, and 
in short, to any brunch of science, literature, or the arts, and which, 
if fully tested by experience, is presented as an additional evidence 
that the plan is adn))ted to universal improvement. 

The address concludes by stating the views of the committee in 
regard to the advantages and results which may be expected from 
the general establishment of Lyceums. 

* The Lyceum system interferes with no other scheme of im- 
provement, and is, on the contrary, auxiliary to them all.' 

* It is in harmony with the spirit of the age,' and by combining 
various modes of action, will 'give it new strength and animation.' 

It will counteract the spirit of jealousy, which prevails too ex- 
tensively among individuals of particular classes and professions. 

It is essentially a plan of self-instruction, and of mutual instruc- 
tion. 

It furnishes a convenient and simple method of preserving 
knowledge acquired in early life, and of maintaining and diffusing a 
taste for reading and intellectual improvement. 

It will thus enable all the members of society to act with more 
effect in promoting the cause of education, and the progress of 
literature. It will elevate the tone of social intercourse, by fur- 
nishing the materials, and inspiring the taste for a more improving 
and useful conversation. It will of course produce a higher standard 
of moral and intellectual pleasures, both in the family and social 
circles. 

The last beneGt which the committee mention is, that the Ly- 
ceum System is peculiarly a Rcptiblican Instituiion^ — ^Thb Peo- 
ple's System — and admirably fitted to confer precisely that de- 

♦17 



196 Plan of a Syitem of Lyceums. 

gree, and that kind of knowledge which is so valuable to the 
people of this country, which, without making them profound 
scholars, will enlarge their minds so that they can comprehend the 
value of learning, and enable them to discover, in some measure, 
their own ignorance, — which will inspire the love of improvement, 
and while it shows then) their own defects, directs and assists them 
in providing a remedy, and in surmounting the obstacles which lie 
in their way. 

It is peculiarly gratifying that this able testimony in favor of 
the Lyceum System should have been among the last acts of one 
of the most accomplished scholars and excellent men of our 
country ; and that it should be adopted and confirmed by such a 
body as the Literary and Philosophical Society of South Carolina. 
May those who fear, and those who despise * the people ' remem- 
ber, that the power has passed from the hands of the few, and that 
the only mode of preventing its abuse, and the ruin of our country, 
is in enlightening the many. 

We cannot but hope that this document will produce happy 
effects, not only on the state for which it was intended, but on 
our country at large ; and we trust that its principles and argu- 
ments will be widely circulated. 

Agreeably to our promise, we add in the following article, that 
portion of the Address which presents the plan for a svstcm of 
Lyceums for South Carolina. Even those remarks which are 
local, will apply to most portions of our country which are thinly 
settled ; and those details which may not be interesting to the 
general reader, will be peculiarly so to many who are practically 
concerned in this subject. 



PLAN OF A SYSTEM OF LYCKU.MS. 

(Extracted from the AdJress of the Literary and Philoiopliical Society ut ^uth Caroli ).<(.) 

The 6rst view which we shall present of the Lyceum System is, 
the relative arrangement of all the parts, beginning with the Family 
Lyceum as the simplest, humblest form, and ascending to the 
State Lyceum. We must observe, however, iliat although the 
parts are capable of being moulded into the harmony of a great 
and complex system, it is not indispensable that they should be. 
Thus, we might have two thousand Family Lyceums in the State, 
and none of any other description ; yet great benefits would be 
derived from them, not merely to the particular subjects of their 
influence ; but to all with whom they had intercourse. As ahready 



Famify and Neighborhood Lyceums. IfiO 

Staled, the improvement of a single individual, is an advantage to 
the community. How much more so, then, the improvement of a 
single family ! Let tlie number of cultivated families be ten 
thousand ; and how signal would be the gain to society ! The 
same remark applies to all the other eletnentary Lyceums ; but 
not of course to such as are founded on the representative principle. 
These cannot exist without those. We proceed, then, to explain 
the different character of the several species of Elementary and 
Representative Lyceums. 

1. The Family Lyceum may exist, wherever there is a family, 
containing a sufficient number of persons, desirous and susceptible 
of improvement. There is of course no fixed number^ and circum- 
stances will best determine what number is sufficient. The chief, 
perhaps the only mode of improvement in the Family Lyceum, is 
conversation ; though occasionally something may be expected 
from tiie best informed member, partaking of the nature, though 
without the forms of a lecture or essay. This species of Lyceum 
is of peculiar value to families residing in the country ; and 
deprived, therefore, of many of the advantages enjoyed by 
those that live in towns, or even in villages. I)oubtless, a great 
many families spend several evenings of the week, in mutual 
reading, and in conversation ; and we may be asked, is not that 
family already a Lyceum ? We reply that it is in some measure 
such ; but the leading points of difference are, we apprehend, very 
ini|)ortaiit. They are these : First, particular evenings are set 
apart. Every one knows the value of fixing a time for the stated 
discharge of any duty, and how much the anticipation of it renders 
it peculiarly agreeable. Second, a particular subject is taken up 
and followed out, until a familiar knowledge is acquired of it. Thb 
has certainly a great advantage over desultory reading and con- 
versation. Third, the youn;^ persons of a family are brought into 
the Household Lyceum, and tlie exercises are such, as to advance 
their improvement in valuable and interesting knowledge. Will it 
be denied, other things being equal, that the Lyceum family must, 
in a course of years, become very superior to another, destitute of 
their method of cultivation ? 

2. The second class of elementary Lyceums is, that which we 
denominate the Social and Neighborhood Lyceum. Tliis is com* 
posed of as many persons, including families, as situation, the 
number in any one or more households, familiar intercourse, &c., 
may render advisable. We believe that twelve would be a good 
medium number. This Lyceum meets once or twice a week, by 
turns at the houses of the members, in the afternoon or eveningi 
or both, as may be decided. The Social is the appropriate name 
in the town or dtyy where the members would most probably coiip- 



flOO Town and Pillage Lyctium. 

sist of friends, collected from different parts, without regard to dis- 
tance ; the selection being determined by previous intimacy, rather 
than by proximity of situation. The JNeighborhood Lyceum is 
appropriate to the country y where the members are led to associate 
chiefly on the principle of being neighbors, in the habit of visiting 
each other. This Lyceum has a still further advantage over the 
usual intercourse of visits besides the three ah-eady mentioned in 
relation to Family Lyceums. Visiting would cease to be any 
longer a mere matter of ceremony or social pleasure, and would 
become a permanent source of friendly interchanges and of mutual 
improvement, each imparting and receiving benefit. We presume 
it will hardly be doubted, that those who meet together with such 
views, must become more valuable and interesting acquaintances, 
and cannot fail to love and to be loved, with a more rational 
attachment, than those who assemble only to keep up etiquette, or 
to chat pleasantly together. The fact of meeting regularly, for a 
specific object, and tliat object useful as well as agreeable, presents 
the Neighborhood Ijyceum, as fiir superior to the usual intercourse 
of visits, whether in town or country. It ought to be added, that 
the greater length of time devoted to the exercises of the Social or 
Neighborhood Lyceum, than to customary visits, dispenses at once 
with all formal visiting, and substitutes a virtuous, rational interest 
in one another's welfare, for those ceremonious emails, and irrecndar, 
and often uncertain visits, which consume much tinje, to little or 
no purpose. 

3. The third class of Elementary Lyceums is, that of the Village, 
Parish, or such other subdivision of territory, as may be found con^ 
venient. Perhaps Beat Com))any Districts may be, in many 
parts of this State,* of suitable extent. These Lyceums are to be 
chiefly composed of the principal membei"s of Family and of Social 
or Neighborhood Lyceums, in point of improvement, and zeal in 
the cause, and w ho can spare the time to attend both. Other 

Eersons also, who feel the same interest, should join them. This 
lyceum is not representative ; because the pei-sons forming it are 
not selected by the Family, or Social, or Neighborhood Lyceums ; 
and other individuals may be members. The reason why the 
principal members of these others are chiefly to compose it, b to 
fit them the better to discharge the duties of the Lyceums, 
out of which they come. The exercises of this species of Ly- 
ceum, should be of a higher order, than in those we have already 
mentioned. One subject worthy of particular attention at suitable 
times, should be the best subjects, and books, and modes of im- 
provement, in the three former Elementary Lyceums. The inter- 
change of opinions, experience and counsel, would strengthen the 
bonds of unicm, and accelerate the advance both of the superior 



Qats Lyceums. 901 

and inferior Lyceums. They ought to meet once a week^ at 
fartliest, once a fortnight, at one another's houses. 

4. In cities and large towns, or in very populous neighborhoodsi 
another description of Lyceums may be formed, which cannot, 

(perhaps, be better designated tlian by the name of Class Lyceums, 
t is obvious that Lyceums, correspondent to the Village, Parish, 
or Beat Company Lyceums, may and ought also to be founded in 
large towns and cities, and sliould be formed in like manner ; so 
tliat the Family and Social or Neighboriiood Lyceums of towns 
and cities would have the same op})ortunities and means of deriving 
improvement from such institutions. But Class Lyceums are to 
be formed chiefly, if not wholly, of those who do not belong to any 
of the species already mentioned. The object of these is to bring 
together such persons as would otherwise pursue separately the 
same branches of knowledge, upon the principle, that union in 
learning the same things has, for most persons, immense advan- 
tages over solitary, independent efforts. Both attention to and in- 
terest in the subject, are increased many fold. A lively, yet per- 
fectly virtuous emulation springs up, and the consciousness of re- 
ciprocal encouragement and aid, adds the pleasure of doing and 
receiving good, to the satisfaction of personal improvement. How 
pure also, and cordial, and kind, are the intimacies thus formed ! 

The Class Lyceum is, of course, like all the rest, a voluntary 
association. The number to compose it may be larjje, compared 
to the Family or Social Lyceum. The means by which its exer- 
cises may be carried on, may be all the four methods described 
at the commencement of this address, viz., Lectures, Eissays, De- 
bates, and Conversation. It might, if so many could be found pur- 
suing the same course, embrace a hundred members, w ith a view 
to the first mode of improvement by Lectures. But with a view 
to all the four, suppose such a Lyceum in a city or large town, to 
consist of forty members, let it meet once a month for Lectures, 
once a montli for Essays, once a month for Debates, and once a 
month for Conversation. As a Lecture Lyceum, the whole would 
meet together, and four persons, by delivering each three lectures, 
would occupy the year. As an Essay Lyceum, let it meet in two 
divisions, each comprising twenty members. The four who de- 
liver the lectures, are not to be called on for any exercise in conn 
position, during the three months allotted to each for lectures. 
Twenty-four Essays will carry the members through the year, 
allotting two to each night of meeting. IjCt the same persons 
meet in like manner, as a Moot Lyceum in two subdivisions, each 
of twenty. If then, four be appointed to debate each evening, 
they would require forty-eight speakers for the twelve months, so 
that each member would speak about twice ^ year regularly; 



202 Exercisei of Class Lyceums. 

though it owjihi to be understood and expected, that others, if tliere 
be lime, should take part in the discussion. Let the same per- 
sons meet as a Convei-sation L)'ceum, in four sections of ten 
persons each, once a jnontli. No exemption need be claimed here 
for the lecturers, essayists and debaters ; whether the subjects be 
the same or diH^rent from those irciated in llie former modes. 
Perhaps, liowever, the best rule would be, to appoint for conver- 
sation, the very topics treated of, the three preccdint^ evenings. 
All this, however, would be left to each section. We would sug- 
gest a^ a(ivisal)l»% tliat the divisions of twenty, an<l the subdivisions 
often, should he i'oriiied anew every year, so that an exchange of 
members may tak * place, by transf.rring half of each division into 
the other, and half of each sulxiivision into another. This rota- 
tion will have the advantage of producini; a n)ore intimate union 
and cordial intercourse than could prevail, if the divisions and 
subdi\isions consisted permanently of the same persons. In this 
ca«;e, thev would be lik(? distinct Societies, having no common 
bond of union but the monthlv lecture'^. The Class T^veeums 
eml)raci? all the modes of improvement recommended in Dr. 
Walls' adminihle practical treatise on the improvement of the mind. 
They have also this further recommenchition, that they fully meet 
the just and felicitous thoughts of liOrd Bacon, when he says, that 
readiu!^ makes a full man, writing a correct man, and conversation 
a ready man. To this we may add, that the Class Lyceum cul- 
tivat(\s all \W best means of public and private influence in the 
cause of religion and our country, and in the cause of literature, 
sound morals and general im))rovement. 

On the supposition that they spend two hours together, that 
they lie vote one to reading, and one to conversation on the subject 
treated of; and that they rend only twenty pages in the first hour, 
they would have read during the year, one thousand and forty 
pages, and have held intelligent conversation for fifty-two hours 
upon tiiem. Select any book which is fitted to improve the 
reader, and who will doubt the value of the plan ? Suppose a 
class often were to meet in this manner, were in a series of years 
to read Shuckford's, RusselTs and Prideaux's Connections, and 
Mosheim\s Ecclesiastical History, would any one be willing to be- 
lieve, that these one hundred and four hours per annum, would not 
have been very profitably employed? Suj) pose a class to devote 
a year in like manner to Ferguson on Civil Society, to the first 
volume of Robertson's Charles the Fifth, or to Villers on the 
Reformation, will any one question the substantial benefit that 
would be derived from such a course ? Even if not a single 
member looked at the part appointed for the evening, until tbey 



Diitrici and &aie Lyuwa. SOB 

net, there can be no doubt they would receive much benefit (lom 
the course thus recommended. 

5. We come now to the first in order of the representative kind, 
viz., the District Lyceum. Tliis consists of Delegates from all 
the Social or Neighborhood, from the Village, Town, Parish or 
Beat Company Lyceums, and from the Class Lyceums. The ob- 
ject is to gather into one Council, once every two or three months, 
at some suitable, convenient spot, representatives from all the 
above elementary Lyceums ; in order by exchanging opinions on 
the Lyceum System generally, to improve each of the different 
kinds, by the experienceof so many persons engaged in a common 
cause. Let the delegates be invited, alphabetically, or in any 
other order, to deliver their sentiments, on any particular branch 
of the general subject of Lyceums ; and let one or more persons 
be requested to make sufficient memoranda of the material facts or 
principles, reasonings or illustrations presentcid by the speakers. 
Let these be afterwards digested into a Report or Address, by a 
Committee appointed for the purpose, and then distributed in 
pamphlet fonn among the Elementary Lyceums. All will thus 
derive a joint benefit from the separate action and experience of 
each member of the Primary Lyceums. AVe shall, hereafter, 
show the great value of the Lyceum System, in regard to educa- 
tion and schools. At present we remark, that it is desirable to 
have many teachers sent as delegates from the Elementary Ly- 
ceums, that by exchanging opinions with each other, and with other 
intelligent persons, they may derive advantages from the represen- 
tative branch of the Lyceum System, to which they would other- 
wise be strangers. 

6. The next in order of the Representative Lyceums, is the 
State Lyceum. This consists of Delegates from the District Ly- 
ceums, and should meet at Columbia once a year, at an early 
day during the sitting of the Legislature, in order that many mem- 
bers of that body may become delegates ; as they would be able 
to attend early in the session. This body should appoint a Com- 
mittee, whose duty it should be to present at the next meeting, 
such views of the system, both general and particular, as they 
might judge advisable. The Committee should be furnished in 
September, or in October at farthest, by all the District Lyceums, 
with their summaries already adverted to, that an Annual Report 
or Address may be prepared, and laid before the State Lyceum, 
at the anniversary meeting at Columbia. This Annual Report or 
Address, should be printed and circulated extensively, copies being 
sent to every District Lyceum, and if practicable, to every Lyceum 
represented therein. 



904 National Lifcwm. 

This survey completes the State System of Lyceums ; and it 
must be admitted by every candid, reflecting mind, that if it be 
completely organized and extensively executed, very great bless- 
ings must result to The People from its operations. 

We would here remark, that even if the system as exhibited in 
the preceding pages, should not be carried out for several years, in 
all its harmony and completeness of parts, still very great advan- 
tages must result from the establishment of Elementary Lyceums 
throughout the State. Be not, therefore, discouraged, though 
there should be no concert of action in the forms of the Repre- 
sentative branch of the system, for some years to come. Let the 
subordinate department be carried into execution everywhere, and 
the District and State Lyceums may be expected to follow as a 
matter of course, wherever the subordinate Lyceums, after being 
firmly established, and in successful operation, shall become duly 
sensible, as they must, of the manifold advantages derivable from 
concert in action, and the interchange of experience. 

The same remarks apply to the American Lyceum which meets 
annually at New York, and is composed of Delegates from State, 
Territory and District (of Columbia) Lyceums, and of other per- 
sons invited by the Executive Committee. The very inconven- 
ient season (for us at the south) at which the anniversary is held, 
viz., in May, renders it little less than impossible for any one to 
attend as the representative of a Southern Lyceum. But whether 
our State System shall ever unite with and be represented in the 
American Lyceum, is at present a very minor consideration. Let 
us create the State System first, and then we may safely leave the 
State Lyceum to decide for itself and its constituents, whether it 
shall be represented in the National Society at New York. That 
some benefit would be derived from such a connection, can be 
doubted by no one, who admits the advantage of joint counsels 
and experience. The object of the American Lyceum, atcording 
to the ^d Article of the Constitution, Ms the advancement of edu- 
cation, especially in Common Schools, and the general diffusion of 
knowledge.' And what objects can be more truly popular and 
republican, wise and benevolent ? Common Schools form the 
great majority of youth, and prepare them to become the people 
of each succeeding generation ; while the general diffusion of 
knowledge provides daily bread for the cultivation of their minds, 
and the improvement of their affections, througli all the period of 
mature life. 



Sounds of Letten. 306 



FIRST LESSONS FOR YOUNGER PUPILS AT SCHOOL. 

(Communication.— CoDcladed from ptfe 169.) 

In preceding remarks on the first lessons of younger pupils, I 
observed that the rules of language suggested by the word spelled, 
should be given by the teacher in his ovm words, not to be com- 
mitted to memory, but to be applied as examples occur ; and that 
this plan would impress .them more deeply on his mind than 
merely learning by rote. 

It is also to be remembered, that in this simple way, he can be 
taught them long before he can know how to read them from a 
book. Embrace every opportunity that presents, to classify words 
and sounds, — to connect them by association together. Our lan- 
gua^^e is particularly irrei^ular, and thoughtful children are exces- 
sively puzzled by the diihculties it presents, unless the teacher be 
continually on the watch to make these difficulties useful instead 
of troublesome. This can be easily done, if he be interested in his 
duty to the individual mind of each child. Su])pose the teacher 
have a little class of cliildren of four years old learning to read and 
spell in the manner related ; let him institute a daily exercise of 
questions and answers witli them, in a varied and interesting style, 
which will seem to tliem like pleasant play, — if a teacher make 
and think it so. I will give a specimen of this questioning, with 
the proj)er replies. 

* VVhat letter has often tlie sound of it, as in cat,— or in cubby- 
house,— or in cave? (sounding each word distinctly.) Answer, c' 
* What is the letter which has a hard sound, as in the word hard, 
or hark? (mark the aspiration with the breath,) — h.' 'What 
letter has the sound of iV (repeating the sound of that letter 
which is heard in probity.) It is one which I never knew a child 
to discover of himself alone, and which should be |>ointcd out at 
every opportunity, or he may go on all his life, spelling words 
incoA'ectly which have this peculiar sound oft in them. 

There are a thousand other questions which may be put on this 
daily exercise, such as the various combinations made with the 
letter A, — th, chy sh, — the sound which the g almost invaria- 
bly takes, — as in dog, goose, go, &c. Let care be taken however, 
where these thin^rs are learnt as rules, by rote, — to give, and in- 
duce your class to give, examples; sounding the different combina- 
tions distinctly yourself, both separately and in the words adduced 
as examples. This practice of giving examples is one very 
attractive to children generally, particularly when they are en- 
couraged to seek them in their own minds ; and it can be used to 

VOL. V. — NO. V. 18 



906 Uiing Statu. 

advantage in almost every study which a child can pursue. Per* 
haps it would be thought, at first sight, less likely to be practicable 
in the mechanical exercise of spelling, than in any other ; yet in 
few have I known it to work such wonders. 

These methods of employing little children can indeed only 
be made use of at such times as a teacher can attend to them ex- 
clusively. It is of little use to give them reading or spelling les- 
sons to learn by themselves, as a silent task to be rehearsed after- 
wards. The principal eifect of such a course is to be noticed in 
the worn and dogs-eared book, and the listless and wearied coun- 
tenance. Every mental exercise, at all mechanical in its nature, 
should receive the utmost zest of which it is capable, from the lips 
of the teacher, and the contact of his mind with that of his pupils. 

But there are other employments in which such young children 
can be engaged to advantage. Take a slate, for instance, and rule 
one side of it in squares, like those of a nmltiplication table. 
Write figures, of a large size, on the top line, — two, or three, or 
more, according to the age, capacity, and readiness of the child, — 
for even in sucli trifles, all these are to be taken into considers tion. 
Call the child, and let him see you make the figures you have set 
for him to copy. See that he attends closely ; and tell him that 
he is to make them afterwards himself. Guide his hand over them 
once, and see that he undei-stands where he begins his figures ; for 1 
have known children to begin them at the wrong end, or in the 
middle. Then tell him to fill the side of the slate with copies of 
such as you have made ; if he begins to play with it, as he will 
be very apt to do, tell Jiiin that he has the other side left for him 
to play upon, after he has accom])lished what you have given him, 
and do not discourage his eftbrts if tliey are the worst possible ; 
that is, if you are sure he has tried his best ; if you think he has 
not, — and by watching him a moment, you can easily satisfy your- 
self on this point, — then rub out all he has done, give him the 
same thing to do again, with the same help from you in the begin- 
ning, and so on again and again if necessary,— calmly assuri'*^g him 
that he will have no time to play with his slate, unless he does soon 
what you have given him to do. On the contrary, if you are con- 
vinced that he has endeavored to do so, — that he has examined, 
with all his little ability, tlie curves, angles, and marks you have 
made, and has striven to make some in accordance, — then, how- 
ever unsuccessful his eflforts, let him see that you estimate them ; 
show him gendy how he failed, and wherein the difference con- 
sists between his attempts and yours, — and perhaps, if you are not 
at the moment otherwise engaged, you can go over them with him 
once more ; but very shortly give him the pleasure to which his 
diligence has entitled him, and let him feel that he has earned it. 



On IkafoinaiianM. 90T 

A ch3d will enjoy his slate and pencil much more after such an 
exercise, than he would were they given him gratuitously at first 
as a plaything ; besides its affording him the important knowledgCi 
that even a plaything may be made useful, and giving a beginning, 
however feeble, in the important arts of writing and cyphering. 
After a few such trials, most children will accomplish something,— 
though here, as in nicety of ear, — there is the greatest variety in 
the powers of different children. 

When they have learned to make all the figures, and to know one 
from the other, fill the slate with similar squares, and tell them to 
count, — writing down the numbers as far as they are able. If 
tliey can teach the magic number 20, (the first ty, or ten) they 
can be taught by a ready process, all the succeeding numbers up 
to 100, 200, and so on. lo a future paper, I may have occasion 
to offer some remarks on the study oi Arithmetic, when this sub- 
ject will be more fully commented upon, and rules for its induction 
more minutely laid down. 



ON EXAMINATIONS. 

(Communieatod for tho Annali of Education.) 

It has been repeatedly remarked, that no profession is more 
important in its relations and results, or more laborious in its prac- 
tice, than that of teaching ; that the instructor has many difficulties 
to meet and overcome, many discouraging circumstances to en- 
counter, many vexations to endure. For all this, he can be repaid, 
only by a sense of usefulness ; by the love, obedience and advance- 
ment of pupils, by the encourao;ement and approbation of parents ; 
and by the kind co-operation of those who are chosen by the public, 
to watch over and inspect the progress and results of his endeavors. 
In the course of my labors as a teacher, I have had abundant ex- 
perience of the pains and pleasures above referred to, some of 
which I may hereafter specify ; but my present object is to drop 
a few hints in relation to hurried and imperfect examinations. 

As far as my experience extends, with but few exceptions, 
the Committees of public schools perform the duty of examination 
in a very loose, hasty and superficial manner. A very short time 
generally suffices for them to run through the classes of a large 
school, and to examine its members in a variety of studies ; and 
from such an inspection, a report is made, pretending to state 
fairly and from obstrvaiion^ the acquirements and discipline of 



906 NegUgence of Commttieei. 

the scholars, and of course, to decide upon the faithfulness and 
merit of their master. Now, of such a course, every teacher has 
a right to complain ; and I protest most earnestly against it as 
fraught with evil consequences to the cause of education, mani- 
festly unjust — ungrateful to the teacher — unfair to the taught — and 
a reproach to the Commitees themselves. I would have it dis- 
tinctly understood, however, that my remarks are directed exclu- 
sively against hurried examinations and their results. I find no 
fiiult with censures justly passed upon those who are plainly neg- 
ligent and unfaithful ; but on the contrary, I think no motives of 
delicacy should lead men, in such instances, to withhold the truth. 
My aim is to show the unfairness of passing judgment, either for 
or against any school, when, from the hasty manner of inspection, 
it is manifestly impossible that a Committee should be capable of 
deciding fairly, upon its merits or deficiencies. 

No faithful teacher will at any time shrink from a careful, 
thorough inquiry into the state of his school. Nay, he will anx- 
iously court a deliberate and patient examination, that he may 
reap the fruit of his labors by an exhibition of the attainments and 
order of his pupils, and by a favorable impression on the minds of 
parents and the public. But a momentary visit, a few hurried 
questions and answers, and an inquiry into the number of students 
present, upon which an opinion is to be grounded as to the state 
of those under his charge, must fill the instructor's bosom with 
anxiety and dissatisfaction, and cannot inspire him with that plea- 
sure which every good teacher wishes to feel, at the presence of a 
visitor or an examiner. Passing by the ill eflects which such a 
course may have on the niembers of a school, or at least the 
benefits which are lost by not pursuin<i: another and a better plan, 
I wish to point out its unfavorable influence, in some particulars, 
upon the feelings and exertions of the instructor. 

In the first place, it wounds the professional feelings of the 
teacher. In every pursuit, there is a connnon, a very natiu^l de- 
sire for a reputation, — whether it be for honesty, ability, skill or 
general success ; and there is no reason ^^ hy this feeling should 
not enter the breast of the instmctor as well as another. He feels 
ambitious to obtain a rejintation as a good teacher ; but he feels 
that no one can judge fairly of him, and of his labors, and of his 
pupils, who does not gi\e them a careful examination. That this 
IS not done, he is too sensible ; and he cannot but perceive, that 
his chanicter as a teacher depends upon the defective and hasty 
observation of a few persons, ^\ho may j)raise, but who are quite 
as likely to condenm, to pit)ve, perhaps, to their superiors, that 
they have iH?rformed the duties of their office. Tlie clergyman 
would cr}' out bitterly against the unfairness of one who should 



Ej^eeti of hgferfect Examination. 909 

peep into his church during the sermon, and from seeing a member 
asleep, should conclude and report tliat the wiiole congregation 
were in a like predicament, and that the minister was generaUy 
stupid, and his sermons dull. He would demand a fair hearing 
before judgment should be passed, eitiicr upon the attention of 
the people, the energy and ability of the speaker, or the dulness of 
his style. The lawyer would be much dissatisfied to hear his 
pleas spoken of as feeble, and disconnected, and pointless, by one 
who had spent but a few careless moments in court. He would 
ask for a patient examination of his general argument before it was 
condemned, and his talents depreciated. The merchant would 
deem himself unjustly dealt by, were an individual, because he saw 
no customers in his counting room, to declare that his capital was 
small, and his business circumscribed. He would wish to show 
his books, and to prove, by plain demonstration, his resources and 
the extent of his mercantile coimections. Why should not these 
individuals, when elected to serve on School Committees, deal in a 
like manner with scliolai's and teachers ? Why not devote a rea- 
sonable time to examinations, tliat the iiistnictor may feel his labors 
are appreciated, that the scholar may know his industry and good 
conduct are noted and approved, and also that the reports of the 
committee may leave them ' a conscience void of offence ? ' 

I know it may be said in excuse, — * We are men of business ; 
we have otlier cares which will not allow us to devote more time 
to examinations.* To me this seems only an aggravation of the 
fault ; for such men have no business on the list of Committees. 
Tiiey should have consideration enough, if not for themselves, at 
least for the public good, to decline an office, the duties of which 
they have not lime to discharge faithfully and fully. If men can- 
not be found who have sufficient leisure for this, it would be far 
better for all concerned, to dispense with examinations entirely. 
But, in my opinion, men may be found amply qualified, and ever 
ready to attend to this very necessary and important duty. 

Again ; imperfect examinations tend to destroy the teacher's 
confidence in the Committee. It is clear that there should be a 
full and free intercourse between the Committee and the instructor, 
in order to the most vigorous and effective action in all cases which 
require their joint exertions. But it will not be sufficient that the 
Board have an entire confidence in the merit and ability of the 
teacher. Unless this feeling be reciprocal, unless he can regard 
them as faitlifully performing their duty in all respects, tlie most 
essential link in the whole chain is broken. He views them, not as 
fellow-laborers, but as hindrances in the way of his success ; for 
he has no security that they can or will do him justice. True, as 
before observed, they may represent him favorably ; but what 

•18 



810 Duamragemeni to Teachen. 

honest, industrious teacher feels gratified, or even content, with gra^ 
tuitous praise ? He desires no commendation but that which is 
seen and known to be deserved ; and least of all can he bear even 
a mild censure, when unmerited or when founded on a superficial 
inspection. He is conscious of injustice ; and he cannot regard his 
co-adjutors with that respect and kindness, which are essential to 
the complete success of their mutual endeavors. 

The last ill effect of partial examinations which I shall mention 
is, that they dishearten the teacher. JVo man needs more than 
he, the sympathy, counsel and approbation of others. No man 
looks with more earnestness for the good will of his fellow citizens. 
He desires to win, not merely ^golden opinions,^ but durable 
respect, founded on diligence, ability, honor, and success. Hut if 
he encounter difficulties, with w horn must he take counsel ? Under 
a sense of injustice from parents, to whom must he appeal ? To 
whom must he look, in a great degree, for that meed of praise, 
which every man, sensible of having done his duly, covets and de- 
serves ? Surely, to llie Committee. But lliese very persons, 
upon whom his reputation as a teacher depends, (as they consti- 
tute the medium by which his claims are tnuismilted to the public) 
and to whom he sliould be united in close and pleasant bonds, — 
by a careless performance of their duty, and by their injustice in 
exhil)itin^ the mode and results of tlieir inquiries, often damp the 
ardor of the teacher, excite in him distrust, and expose him to the 
severest pangs of disappointment. He cannot, without a dee]) 
sense of his obligation to labor, even though he suffer reproach, go 
to his daily toil witli alacrity and cheerfulnoss ; for ^le wants the 
invigorating certainty that at llie end, a close and honest inspec- 
tion will be made, that his own industrv and address will be seen 
and approved, and that his pupils will enjoy an opportunity of 
showing to their supervisors, how much they have profited by the 
instruction and reproofs they have received. Without this cheering 
prospect in view, one very active, sustaining power, a strong mo- 
tive to exertion is taken away ; and when not only this is wanting, 
but he meets w-ith censure, (as is sometimes the case,) it operateii 
as a direct check upon the ambition and energies of the 

Schoolmaster. 



Moral Reform. 911 



MORAL REFORM. 

The subject of Moral Reform has excited much discussion, 
and much anxiety. That it should be approached with extreme 
caution and dehcacy^ is admitted on all hands ; and many think, 
that it has been touched too rudely, and presented to the public 
with too little prudence. But whatever difference of opinion may 
exist as to the manner of treating the subject, it is in vain to close 
our eyes to evils so deadly, and so extensive as those of licentious- 
ness in its various forms. They are spreading with the certainty 
and fatality of the pestilence, and disgraceful as it is to us, it has 
become a lucrative trade to manufacture the books and engravings 
by which its principles are inculcated, and its practice promoted. 
Painful therefore and revolting as this subject is, the duties of our 
station will not allow us any longer to be silent ; for we fear that 
many a teacher, and many a parent, are still utterly insensible to 
the magnitude and insidiousness of the evils, to which their pupils 
and their children are exposed. 

We would say then, that the conclusions drawn from our own 
observations, and from the information of experienced educators, 
have been but too painfully confirmed, by the developments which 
have been made in reference to our own country, — that it is fully 
proved, that evils of this nature have existed unsuspected, or at 
least unnoticed, under the eyes of the ujost pure and affectionate 
parents — the most laborious and faithful teachers, — that they have 
blasted the prospects of many a youth, and destroyed the happi- 
ness of many a family, and rendered many a school a mere laza- 
retto of moral disease. 

We could confirm our assertions by details, which would make 
our readers shudder, and of which we cannot think, without a tide 
of emotions which we are scarcely able to endure; but this is not 
the place for such details ; and it is the most painful circumstance 
about this subject, that from its very nature, it must be treated so 
cautiously, and alluded to so indistinctly, that the voice of warning 
is scarcely heard or understood. We can only express it as our 
opiniori, that every parent, and guardian, and teacher, must be him- 
self acquainted with these facts, before he can know his duty or 
that of others on this subject ; and we must content ourselves with 
a few general statements, which we hope may rouse them to in- 
quiry. 

1 . We would tell them that the purity of children and youth 
will not be secured by avoiding all allusion to subjects of a delicate 
nature, and endeavoring to suppress all inquiry. The thirst for 
knowledge is only increased, when an air of mystery is thrown 
around a subject ; and the very nature of man renders it impossible 



918 Ijgnorance.'^Difidence. — Domeiticf^ 

to prevent reflection and inquiry. We could tell them of chilcTreo 
who have been kept secluded, so far as their parents could secure 
this point, from all means of information on this subject, whose cu- 
riosity was only more strongly excited, and who were led to make 
it the incessant object of thought, and of research, until the imagi- 
nation was polluted, almost beyond redemption. Parents have 
only to decide, whether their children shall acquire this knowledge 
in the manner which they may deem safest and best, or from those 
who will regard neither prudence nor purity. 
' 2. And if the parent succeed in this plan of concealment, — 
ignorance is not of coui*se, purity. We could point to cases 
where the only efibct of such concealment has been, to leave the 
child unwarned, and unarmed, a prey to the first impulses of na- 
ture, or the first approaches of temptation, without any conception 
of his danger, or of his sin. Was this the course of wisdom, or of 
kindness ? We could tell them of cases, where solitary vice has 
been thus begun, and thus continued, until the constitution was 
almost ruined without any knowledge of its evil, — and of some 
who have even been encouraged to continue it, by men of princi- 
ple trained up in equal ignorance.* Let it be remembered then, 
that {j^noratue is not security, 

'\, l\or let the parent confide too fondly in the safety of his 
child, because he appears peculiarly moil est ^ and diffident. It is 
sometimes hard to distinguish modesty from shame ; and those who 
are familiar with the records of juvenile vice assure us, that one of 
the common symptoms of evil, is an extraordinary disposition to 
shrink from the eyes, and tlie conversation of others, and espe- 
cially when reference is made to subjects of this nature. VVe 
earnestly advise parents to examine the opinions of physicians, 
on this subject generally,! and not to allow their vigilance to be 
lulled to sleep, by any appearance of security. 

4. It is not enough that parents guard the purity of the family 
circle in their own presence. They must inquire with the utmost 

•We add the following extract from the Boston Medical and Sar^rical Journal, 
March, 18, 1S33. — * The individual becomes feeble, is unable to labor with ac- 
customed vi|;or, or to apply his mind to study ; his step his tardy and weak ; he 
\b dull, irresolute, engages in his sporb* with less eiier<;y than usual, and avoida 
social intercourse. When at rest, he instinctively assumes a lolling or recum- 
bent posture; and if at labor or at hit games, takes every opportunity to lie 
down or sit in a bent and curved position. The cause of these intirmitlcs is o/len 
unknown to the subject of them, and more generally to the friends ; and to labor, 
or study, or growth, is attributed all the evils which arise from the practice of 
this secret vice, which, if persisted in, will hanlly fail to result in irremediable 
diseaaet or hopelesM idiocy.* * Shame facedncas ' ia mentioned as a frequent 
aymptom. 

^ i We may here refer to a work of the celebrated Titsot, republiahed bj Col- 
lins and Hannay, New York, and to Graham'a Lectorea to YouDf Men ; and 
the last chapters of the Younf Man's Goide. 



cautioo concerning all whom they receive to their house, as do- 
mestics, or inmates, or even as fiimiliar visitors to their children. 
We can tell them, and we shudder when we think of the evidence 
we have of the fact, that tender age is not a security against the 
attack of the destroyer, and that seeds of evil may be implanted 
in a single hour, which will produce bitter fruits, through the whole 
course of life. 

5. They must especially be watchful, to obtain the fullest evi- 
dence of the character of teachers to whom they commit their 
children. We could point them to youth, who received their first 
lessons of vice from their teacher ; and the painful example of an 
instructor, well fitted for his task, but who is now suffering the 
penalty of a crime, brought to light by his conduct to his pupils,* 
should teach them to inquire with peculiar care, concerning those 
who travel from place to place, and whose character is not so 
easily known as that of settled teachers. 

6. But one means of safety remains to be mentioned, more im- 
portant than all the rest : it is to secure a knowledge of the con- 
versation, the books, and the pictures, which the child meets in 
his intercourse with others, by gaining his unreserved confidence. 
If he be terrified to silence, by rebukes, or severity, or frowns, when 
certain subjects are alluded to, even in confidential intercourse, 
the parent is forever shut out from the view of some of his greatest 
dangers and temptations. But experience has proved, that if the 
story of his little life be inquired after with affection, and listened 
to with interest, instruction and warning will have their proper 
effect ; and if his natural curiosity is satisfied when it has been 
awakened, if he is encouraged by kindness and sympathy to open 
his heart, we have seen the evidence that he will come, in the 
period of temptation, and asTc for counsel and aid. 

We say that this is more important than all other means of 
safety ; and we say so, especially, because there is a sect openly 
established in our land, who are attempting to break down all dis- 
tinctions between good and evil in reference to this subject, in the 
minds of the community, who are trying to scatter their poisonous 
principles among the young, and who avail themselves of oppor- 
tunities when they are removed from their parent's care. 

We say so, because the investigations made by men of the most 
respectable character, in our principal cities, have proved that there 
are establishments organized for the sole purpose of publishing 
books and pictures of the most cornipting character, in every form, 
from the cheapest and coarsest, to the most elegant and expensive, 

* As we noticed favorably a writing book by thia teacher, we feel bound to 
ftate, that we allude to Jamea Worster. 



tSO Education at the West. 

for an institution with collegiate privileges, to be called tbe 
* Teachers' Institute,' (apparently designed for the education of 
teachei^,) which ' is intended to go into operation as soon as it 
can be effected with a prospect of pennaneiicy.' The com- 
mittee present anew the importance of a general association of all 
interested in promoting education in tlie West; and we agree with 
them entirely, that the formation of the * American School So- 
ciety ' is no ground of ohjection to this plan. The only object of 
that society is to call forth the interest and activity of those who 
are immediately connected with our schools ; and could local 
bodies be organized in every section and state of our country, half 
their work would be done. 

In regard to the state of education at the West, the committee 
remark, that notwithstanding frequent demands, the accounts are 
exceedingly scanty ; but are still such as to call loudly for efforts, 
although they present some encouraging circumstances. 

/ 'From the few reports rnado to your comniiitec ii])0!i tho 8iil>j(?ct, mny 
/ be gleaned the followiny fart;*: — Tiiat then; crisis a «;reat and Innieiitable 
! iipathy nnioii^ tile rnas.s oi' th«i roiniiuniity, wiili respiM't to ednraiion; 
thfit %viiere tliere is some eflort ni;ti\in«r to educate th«ir children, the par- 
«imonioU8 spirit by whic-ii ihey are «^t>veriied,rorhids (Jh ir ohtainin^ other 
than incoin[)etent tear.heis ; and tiiat thus, tlie narrow vievvri entertained 
of the importance of echiration on ihe one hand, and the inconifietency 
of those who pretend to inij^art it on the other, are rc-aolinj; ii|;on both, 
|o 8ncii an extent, us to (h*avv around tiie counnunity n vieion8 circle, 
which nothing hut a stroit^ and deciih.'d effort can hit'ak. 

•In one county town, ihi re is inainlaine<l hut u sin;ihi school of fifty 
pupils at from §1.50 to «;'2.00 each per (pinrtcr. In the entire county, 
there are only eiglit which are attrMided ntjnlarly thrnn;;hont the year. 

'It will be eiiconru«rMi<? howpv^r to learn, that then' UH' sonic excep- 
tions to this state of things, ^fmeral schools of a hij;h charucter have 
lieeii established within a short period in this valley. AimI }0(ir com- 
mittee have reason to believe, that the elforis whi<rh have been made to 
call the public attention to the subject of educution, have not been alto- 
gether in vain.' 

The following lectures were delivered to the college, and a 
lar^e audience of citizens. 

*On the Philosophy of Family, School, and College Discipline,' 
by Dr. Drake, of Cincinnati. * On the Expediency of study- 
ing the Classics,' hy Prof. Post, of Illinois College. * On 
the influence of the rei^ular study of the Bible on Intellectual and 
Moral Improvement,' hy the Rev. W. H. McGuffy, of Miami 
University. On the suhject, ' That neither the Classics nor 
Mathematics should form a part ol the scheme of General Educa- 
tion in our country,' by the Hon. Tho's S. Grimke. * On the 
Study of Mathematics,' by E. D. Mansfield, Esq. *0n the Ap- 
plication of Principles to Practice in the various departments of 



Emulatiati.—The Bibk. 881 

Physical Science,' by the Rev. Elijah Slack. * On the best Mode 
of Teaching Lanouages,' by Prof. Hopwood, of Cincinnati. * On 
the Government of Public Literary Institutions,' by Prof, A. H. 
Niles, of South Uanover College. * On the Nature and Moral 
Influence of Music,' by Prof. W. IN'ixon, of Cincinnati. 

The subjects of discipline, and classical and mathematical 
studies, led to animated discussions. Three reports on * Emula- 
tion ' were presented to the college, and alter discussion, several 
resolutions were proposed ; but the following was finally substi- 
tuted, and unanimously adopted : 

^ BesolvciU That Kmiilation, ro fiir ns it iinplios a (lenire of excelling 
othiTH, for {hit piirf»osi>8 ofKelf-gratificntion, is inimicol to the principles 
of ptinr rnoraliry, and ought not to l>e iostf^red in schoole; hut that ho far 
08 it involve*! a wish to excel in knowU'd^o and virtue on their own ac- 
<!ouiit, to <iraiii th<; f;steeni of the wii*e and goo<l, and to improve to the ut* 
most, those fandtios whirh arc bestowed on each individual by hi* 
Creator, it is praiseworthy and nieiitorioiis* ; tbat this convention feel 
themselves inadef|nate to devise any universal system of rules, by which 
this ortxrni^^ <- lenient, endowment, or aflection of human nature might be 
so directed ns to secure the |r"od, and to avoid the evil; but that they 
believe it will he found less difficult to fix it in prnctice, than to tlefine it 
in thcorify and that therefore it should be left to its own natural, undefined 
comprehensiveness, to be used according to the good sense and direction 
of the teacher.' 

We believe equal unanimity will be found in all who regard the 
heart as of more importance than the intellect, in the adoption of 
the introductory definitions and principles of this resolution. The 
closing remarks, we confess we do not fully comprehend. 

A report was also made on the subject of classical studies, and 
it was recounnended to those who adopted the views of Mr. 
Grimke, to ori^anize an experimental institution on that plan. A 
discussion was held on the Use of the Hible; and it was resolved 
unanimouslij, ^ that the Bible be recommended as a regular text 
book in every institution of education at the West.' The College 
also expressed their conviction, that a text book of Anatomy 
and Physioloi^y, and a new book on Mythology, are desirable. 
They declined giving an opinion on several books presented to 
them, as we think, very properly. 

Resolutions were passed recommending the establishment of 
circuit schools, in thinly settled districts, and of associations of 
teachers throughout the western country. It was also advised, 
that the month of October be adopted as a suitable perk)d for 
vacations, in order to allow time for attending the annual meeting 
of the College, which is to be held during this month, 

A committee was appointed to issue a prospectus for a new 
periodical on education for the West, and eodeavor to procura 



S39 Practical Ltaam from Hofwyl. 

subscribers, to report at the next annual meeting. A Board of 
Examiners was also appointed, to examine such teachers as should 
voluntarily offer themselves, in the course of study laid down in 
the annual report. In addition to the ordinary branches, the list 
of English studies requires some acquaintance with Constitutional 
and Criminal Law, and the Belles Lettres department, a knowl- 
edge of Drawing and Music. 

An interesting letter was presented to the College by the Trus- 
tees and Visitors of Common Schools in Cincinnati, requesting the 
opinion of the College on a number of important questions relating 
to the schools. We shall look, with deep interest, for their replies. 

We believe our readers will unite with us in rejoicing at the 
success of this association, and in cordial wishes that it may go on 
and prosper. It is an important instrument in elevating and im- 
proving the very heart of our country, whose influence will soon 
direct its destinies, and decide its welfare or its ruin. And in- 
deed, no reason exists why it should not act as efficiently as any 
of our Eastern associations. The West is continually sending (or 
the ablest, and most active, and most energetic of our young men. 
They are training up in a school which will call forth every faculty 
of their minds ; and we think our country has a right to look to 
them for wise, and powerful, and successful action, in promoting its 
highest interests, and watching over its most precious treasures. 



PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM HOFWVL. 

Evert year, and almost every month, is adding to the interest 
with which Hofwyl and its plans of education are regarded. In 
the first and second volumes of the Annals, its great principles are 
iblly developed. A public board of commissioners appointed to 
examine the institution make copious extracts from the Journal of 
Vehrli, the instructor of the indigent pupils ; and among the rest, 
the following little sketch of everyday occurrences, which illus- 
trates some of these principles. 

^' The other day we had a field to reap. The children wished to 
divide the labor among themselves, and begged me to mark out a 
portion for each one, which I did. All but L. and S. agreed to 
finish their part in the day. When the usual hour of leaving 
work arrived, those who had finished their task went home ; but the 
others persisted in remaining till they had finished, although it 
should be until ten o'clock. Finally, all wsts done, and the ur 
rang with their shouts of joy." 



CheerJuinui.'^Aetiviiy. — Neatness. 833 

^ It is always a question who shall carry something back to the 
house in the evening, and they dispute, but without quarrelling, 
the privilege of driving the little cart.' 

The commissioners go on to state ; — 

' He says in another place ; '* Nothing can be more delightful 
than the gaiety of spirit with which these children labor, singing, 
and learning Hymns, and new Songs. How often have I seen 
them mutually cheering and exciting each other, by singing the 
song which begins, 

' Away ray children, 
Away to the fklds ; 
The waving ears invite us to go.'* 

* As one of the results of this active life, the pupils enjoy excel- 
lent health, and for years after the establishment of the school, but 
two of them were really sick. When they first come to Hofwyl, 
they are carefully examined by a physician, and the state of 
health of each one is noted in the journal. Several of them, as 
might be expected, are found affected with symptoms of scrofula 
or similar diseases. But a sufficient quantity of labor in the open 
air, simple and nutritive food, and constant cheerfulness, have been 
suiBcient to dissipate those symptoms, almost without the aid of 
any other remedy. Many of them are feeble and delicate, as is 
usually the case with children in the city. They can neither bear 
heat nor cold, nor fatigue. Now, — all, without one exception, are 
so hardened, that with but little clothing, they cheerfully en- 
counter rain-storms and severe cold, whenever their task calls them 
out. In the evening, after ten hours' labor, they amuse them- 
selves with nmning and jumping. Their gymnastic exercises 
consists, indeed, of their duties, which are so varied as to develope 
every part of their system, and prepare them to ful6l their destina- 
tion. They have, however, some exercises of the body for recrea- 
tion, which have tlie same end in view.' 

* Neatness, which is so much the more necessary as their occu- 
pation is less cleanly, is scrupulously observed. Every mornings 
the children wash their hands and face, and again at noon and at 
evening before they come to the table. When they have been at 
work with bare feet, they wash them before going to bed. During 
the summer, they bathe in the neighboring lake, several times in 
the week. The following extract from Vehrli's journal, shows 
bow this neatness is enforced ; '•— 

^f Yorg had not been accustomed to wash himself; he was as- 
tonished that I required him to wash his hands and iace several 
times in the day ; and asked if M. Fellenberg ordered it." 

♦20 



St34 MUctllamf. 

* Certainly/ said I. ' Why does he look every rooming at all 
the hands^ if it is not to see that they are all kept clean ?' 

Yorg, ' But of what use is it ? ' Madorli^ who was Ibtening to 
us, answered, ' It makes you feel better.' 

Yorg. ^ And why does it make me feel better ? ' 

* I will tell you the reason,' said I, ' if you will listen to roe. 
We perspire constantly. Our bodies send out incessantly, a mois- 
ture on the skin ; and you know, that when we work hard, we 
perspire very freely. And even when we are not at work, this 
vapor is always rising from our bodies. Look, while I hold my 
hand over this pane of glass — What is that so white upon the glass, 
and which prevents your seeing through it ? ' 

Yorg put his finger upon it and said, ^ It is wet.' 
^ Yes ; it is made wet by the water, or the vapor which comes 
out of my hand. If we did not wash ourselves every day, and 
suffered the dust and dirt to harden on the skin, the perspiration 
would not come out ; and then, we should very easily get sick.' 



MISCELLANY. 

Meeting of the American Lyceum. 

The fi(\h annual meeting of the American Lyceum will take place 
at New York, on Friday, Mny 8th. We are informed that arrangements 
have been made which will render the meeting highly interesting. The 
Lyceums throughout our country ore invited to send representatives; 
and if only a small ]K>rtion of them comply with the request, the state- 
ments and discassions of such an assembly of men, interested in popular 
improvement, cannot but give new light, and a new impulse, to every 
friend of education. 

Legislative Measures. 

The Legislature of New York passed a bill incorporating a Medical 
Institution in connection with Geneva College. This institution is said 
to offer the best facilities for obtaining a thorough medical knowledge. 

The Legislature of Indiana, at their late session, incorporated the New 
Harmony Manual Labor College. One of the provisions of the bill is, 
* that no religious doctrine or tenets peculiar to any sect of professing 
christians, or otheistical, or infidel doctrines, ever be taught the students 
of said institution, as such, either directly or indirectly, by any of the 



Education in SknUh America. 93B 

inrofesson, tutors, or inembers of the corporation, or any persons cod- 
nected therewith, under the penalty of immediate expulsion !' 

The Legislature of Delaware have granted a lottery for the benefit of 
Newark College, and the fund for Common Schools, at the moment when 
other States are endeavoring to abolish lotteries, as destructive to public 
morals. 

The Legislature of Maryland has provided that the premium paid by 
stockholders on $3,000,000 of stock for canals and roads should be formed 
into a fund which shall be employed for the support of Common Schools 
when it accumulates to $3,000,000. Is nothing to be done in the mean- 
time? 

The bill for the distribution of the Massachusetts School Fund |ha8 
passed, with one provision peculiarly adapted to excite effort. The fund 
is distributed one half according to population, and the other, in propor- 
tion to the amount raised by the people. We hope this is only a com- 
mencement — a temporary measure. Massachusetts owes an example 
of a better system than she now has, to herself and to surrounding states. 

Silliuar's Journal of Science. 

We are pained to learn that the subscription list of this able and na- 
tional work is again reduced, — and still more, to believe, that it is for 
want of a sufficient number of men who give time to solid reading. The 
same cause destroys annually some of our best newspapers, and leaves 
their places to bo occupied by those which are trifling, or even pernicious. 
But if those who value knowledge, cannot or will not read^ we l)eg them 
to aid in preserving a treasury of knowledge so valuable as this. 

Education in South America. 

We are indebted to the New York Daily Advertiser for the following 
interesting intelligence from South America. 

It is witli much gratification that we hear of the success which con- 
tinues to attend the patriotic and intelligent labors of the statesmen of 
New Grenada, in promoting education, moral and intellectual, as well as 
many other important objects in that leading republic of the South ; and 
we cannot but hope that such laudable undertakings may find many 
imitators. 

A " House of Refuge, Instruction and Beneficence,** has been estab- 
lished in Bogota, the Congress having appropriated $5000 for this 
object An Hospital has been fitted up for this important institution ; 
and there are already placed in it 19 boys under 14 years of age, receivinn^ 
instruction, 46 men, most of them old and invalids, 8 young children, 47 
women, chiefly old and invalids, but a few of them girls employed in th« 
domestic establishment, and 46 foundlings— total, 160. They are uught 



836 Bo6k9 far the Blind. 

•pinning, &^c^ and carpentor't work* Shoemaking, and other tradinram 
to be added. 

When the building was prepared for the reception of inmatea, the 
•gents of the police were ordered to bring in from the streets all mendi- 
cantF, vagabonds, &c., and thus the above collection was soon made. 
Dr. Iguacia Gutierrez has been appointed Director; and a handsome 
eulogium is paid to his zeal and activity in this interesting enterprise. 

The arithmetic of Padre Mora, (a New Granndun,) has been reprinted 
for the use of the primary and secondary schools. It forms an octavo 
Tolume of 144 pages, at the price of 83. The Spanish running hand is 
taught in the schools of the republic. 

A list is given of the literary institutions which gave public exhitiitiona 
the past year. They comprehend the central university, and tboee of 
Magdalena and Cajca, 16 colleges, and 4 minor academies. 

A school of Mutual Instruction has been opened in a parish in 
the province of Veliz, by a Curate, Dr. Marino, who conducts it gra* 
tuitously. 

A Literary Society for Mutual Instruction has been formed at Cartha- 
gena, which holds meetings for that purpose every Sunday and great 
holiday, and for other objects twice a month. 

We arc happy to learn also that a public library has been founded at 
Matanzus, (Culm,) by the united exertions of the 'Patriotic Deputation,' 
the city Government, and governor Noriega. 

Books for the Blind. 

In addition to the Acts, and a Reading liook, an Elementary grammar 
has recently been printed for the blind ; and the plan is now so far ma- 
tured, thiit notiiing but the aid of the benevolent is necessary to secure a 
library for the blind. On the subject of the Bible, we received the fol- 
lowing note from Dr. Howe, in reply to our inquiries as to the result of 
his efforts. 

'Dear Sir, — I have received sufficient aid to warrant undertaking an 
edition of the New Testament, of 300 copies — $1,000 from the Mass. Bible 
Society, $1,000 from the American Bible Society, and $800 from the 
Ladies' New York Bible Society. I should like to print, also, Proverbs, 
Psalms, Grenesis, &c. 

' I am anxious to raise money enough, now the subject is before th« 
public, to enable us to print a select library for the blind. I have pre- 
pared a circular, printed with the improved type, which I send you for 
insertion in the Annals.' 

We insert this circular in its own appropriate character. Our rea- 
ders will perceive, that by the reduction in the height of the type, th# 
size of the books will be materially lessened ; and the appeal which m 
made will, we. are coofident, reach their hearts. It is affecting to wit* 



A Flourishing Town, 5137 

ness the eagerness with which pupils come, when a new book is printing, 
and ask — * Can you not give us some scraps ? We want something to 
read. We do not like to wait till the whole hook is printed 1' The be- 
nevolence of the community has awakened their dormant minds, and put 
them in possession of the power of reading. But the work is then but 
half done. They are in the condition of the Sandwich Islanders, in whose 
behalf so loud an appeal has been made. They have learned to read; 
they desire to mad ; hut there is almost nothing to supply this craving 
want We would suggest as one mode of accomplishing this object, that 
individuals, or a set of sub^scrihers, should select some little book which 
they may tleem suitable for the blind, and give a sum sufficient to stereo- 
type, and thus to perpetuate it, as hns been done in other cases of the 
kind. In regard to the appropriation of the funds, none who know the 
high character of the Tru^stees will have any doubt that they will be 
faithfully opplied. 

We hope the subject will be brought up wherever it is known, before 
the meetings of benevolent associations in the month of May, and that 
something effectual will l)e done. Let our country have the satiffactioii 
of sup[dying the blind throughout the world with books, and let not the 
object be defeated by dividing efforts! 

A Flourishiao Town. 

Homer, in the state of New York, with a population of only 3,307 in 
1630, contains 2 academics, and 33 school districts in which schools were 
kept seven months in a year. Allowing the Inrgest possible proportion 
of children among this population, the average number in each school 
cannot exceed 30. 

In the snme town there are also circulated 425 copies of weekly news* 
papers, and 506 copies of monthlies ; besides 113 magazines, some of 
which are monthly and others semi-monthly ; in all, 1044. Among 
these, are 450 Temperance Recorder, 20 Cbildreus' Magazine, and 8 
Parley's Magazine. 

Oakland College. 

Oakland CoUege, founded about five years since, located in Mississippi, 
30 miles above Natchez, contains at present, 110 students, a number of 
whom have the ministry in view, for a profession. Funds are now soli- 
cited to aid in its |>ermanent establishment. 

For the Benefit of Asiatic Females. 

From a London Magazine we learn that a Society has been formed 
pf ladies of various denomioations for the improvement of females in 



838 New Association of Teachers. 

China And IiMlin, liy collt* cting And diffusing inforinotion on this subject — 
•ending out trnelieiH, anil aiding in the furtnation of schools, by grants of 
money and books. 

Preble County Association of Teachers. 

• 

This nssorintion was formed at a convention of professional teachers, 
at Eaton, Preble Couiny, Oliio, on the 21st of March. Their objects are 
the nnitd.'il iinproveincnt of the members, and the establishment, so far 
as their assorintion extends, of a uniform system of instruction, and of 
•chooj disciiiliiie, for common schools. With this viirw, the Corres- 
pondinir J^ecrelary is <lirected to correspond with oilier similar societies, 
wherever they exi?*!, and obtain all possible information in regard to the 
most af)[>roved methods of teaehintr, and of <!isci()Iine, and the best books 
for elementary instruction ; and to submit tlie information thus obtained, 
to the inspection of ilie Society at each regular meeting, which is to be 
on the first Saturday of every ntonth. 

In the prennibie to the Constitution, after complaining loudly of a uni- 
versal want, arnon'T teachers, of the qualitications iuilispensublc to those 
who conduct even tlie humblest school, they say that the fault lies in the 
unha))py practice of employing cliea[i and irregular teachers; and that 
the true remeily consists in raising the standard of qualifications for 
teachers, and |)ayin£^ them so well that they need not be compelled to 
leave their profession. 

TJioso of our readers who are ignorant of the wants of the West, and 
the great neglect of )n'imary education there, may be surprised to learn, 
that in thus attempting t(i elevate the standard of qualifications, it is only 
insisted that every tea< her ought to be fully * acquainted with Orthog- 
raphy, Rifadin;!, Writing, Arithmetic, and English Grammar;' and may 
hence sec the importance of such efforts as those now making by the 
Western Literary Insiituie, already mentioned in another part of this 
number. Wu hope the exertions of the friends of education in this 
country will ere long produce such a change in the state of public senti- 
ment, thai r>nr uest^Tu brethren may raise their eyes to a higher stand- 
ard of qualilicutions for teachers of youth than that which the Preble 
County A!:sociatii»n seem compelled, at present, to propose. In a govern- 
ment like our own, it is not only disgraceful, hut absolutely unsafe, for 
any state to be so far behiiul the spirit of the age as not to give to every 
child, besides the branches above mentioned, a knowledge of Geography, 
and the Hist«)ry of at least our own country, together with some general 
notions of the constitution of the state and nation in which he lives, and 
of the constitution and relations of his own physical frame. 

The Preble County Association of Teachers were to have held a 
meeting, April 11th, on the subject of ec^blishing a County Te^cher^ 
Seminary. 



Monthly Adv&caU of Education. 

ThK AlVKALS. 

We are happj to annoance that all the seta of the Annals qn hand the last 
year are disposed of, and that, bj additional sacrifices on the work, the Editor 
has succeeded in relieving it entirely from embarrassment, and seeuring a 
•ound subscription list. To those who have aided us so cordially in this effort, 
we offer our congratulations as well as our thanks. As one result, we have been 
enabled for some months past to give more of our personal attention to the 
work, and we hope, to ronder it more interesting to them. We invite theM 
•gain to join us in a pledge, that our efforts shall not cease, until one Anurican 
poriodicalon Education shall be so patronized, as not only to secure its existence, 
but to call forth and reward the ablest pens j and to circulate as widely as possi- 
ble, the best views on this subject. 

Monthly Advocatx of Educatiom. 

There is a peculiar tenacity in the public in regard to the titles of worka, of 
which we were not formerly aware. Although five years have elapsed since 
the new series of the * Journal of Education ' was begun, under the title of 
'Annals,' we still receive orders and remittances for the * Journal.' This work 
is quoted and referred to as the *JourmU.* In the American Almanac, it is 
spoken of only as a continuation of the * Journal ; ' and, in a newspaper in the 
State of Now York, one of our agents advertised it, a few weeks since, as the 
' Journal of Education ! * 

We have also had occasion to know the inconvenience of similar titles, from 
the interchange of orders and payments, and complaints and communications 
between this work and the * Journal of the American Education Society ; ' and 
although the titles were so different, the Society deemed it necessary to change 
the name to * Quarterly Register,* in order to avoid the confusion. 

It was on the ground of these facts that we regretted the adoption of the 
name ' Monthly Journal of Education,* by a new work, and urged our claims, 
for the reasons familiar in the transfer of periodicals, and of the business and 
titles of established mercantile houses. We believe, that had the Editor of the 
new work been equally familiar with these facts, he would have agreed with 
ns; and that if any teacher should establish an ' Edgehill Seminary,' afler 
be had thought proper to change the name of his own school, he w^ould view the 
whole subject in a different light; but we have no wish tq continue the debate. 

Satisfied as we were by the Editor's assurance, that it was not the result of 
design, we proposed a compromise, w^ithout an abandonment of principles on 
either side ; and in order to avoid the inconvenience we anticipated, we 
offered to pay tho expenses of a change. We are gratified to find that he has 
eomplied with our request, and designs to call the work the Moktiily Advo- 
cate OF Education; and. although the Editor appears to decline our propo- 
sals, we are still ready to fulfil them. 

The numbers of this work have increased in interest ; and although we may 
find occasion for ' breaking a lance * sometimes in a friendly way, on some point 
of difference, we trust we shall have in the * Advocate * an able and cordial co- 
adjutor, in the fundamental principles of Education. We are obliged to omit 
an interesting extract we had marked. 



S40 



JmemU Song. 



The TaUey. 

FaniilMd lor tlie Annals of Edncmtion bj Lowkll Masov, Protenr in tht 

BoftoD AcndcBiy of Music* 
SIowIt. 



In Che (|niet penoeful vale. Whore the flowers their sweeli ex • 



^^^^^ 




hnloy Blithe end gay, Efory day, I hafe joys that need not 




^^^n 



fiiil — ^Blithe and gay. Every day, I have joys that need not fiuL 



2 

Tliere a siher streamlet flows; 
O'er its pebbly bed it soes 
Hast*ning l^. Merrily, 
While the bushes round it close. 



Softly blows the morning breese. 
Sing the birds and hum the bees; 
bweet the night, When the light 
Fades aronod the forest trees. 



8 
Meadows smile in shining green ; 
While the flocks, so white and clean. 
Skip and phiy. Ail the day. 
Till the starry night comes on. 



All is mild and gentle here. 

Free from danger, free from fear; 
Peace and bve From above 
Shine upon us all the year. 



OOTTAGB OF THE SCHOOL COLOITT OF HEYKIRCH. 




a. Stable— i, Doimiloij—c, School xud Uiiiitig Rooot— i, Ft>u>--«, Bauki «r £>i<k 




iTTTTmn 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



JUNE, 1835. 



SCHOOL COLONY OF MEYKIRCH, 

CONNECTED %V1TH THE INSTITUTION OF FKLLENBERO. 

Colonies have been planted, and settlements made for the 
working of mines, the establishment of manuractories and trading 
houses, and the promotion of civilization and religion among pagan 
nations ; and these efforts have been successful. But we know of 
no effort in our own country, to avail ourselves of this economical 
and enterprising plan, to promote the common education of the 
indigent and the neglected. 

In the first volume of the ' Annals,' we gave the following ac- 
count of an effort of this kind which was made by Fellenberg, in 
connection with the establishment at Hofwyl. To many of our 
readers, it is unknown ; and we believe all will be gratified in hav- 
ing their recollections revived on the subject, at a moment when 
so many plans are in agitation for the education of the destitute. 

^ The frequent failure of attempts to establish Agricultural 
Schools on the plan of Hofwyl, led him to believe that the diffi- 
culty of finding a suitable locality, and persons capable of directing 
it, was greater than he had imagined. He therefore resolved to 
establish a colony of children^ under proper superintendence, on 
a piece of uncultivated land, and leave them to earn their own 
subsistence by their labors; employing the hours necessary for 
repose from bodily fatigue, in giving them appropriate instruction* 
He thus hoped to provide for their practical and intellectual edu- 
cation, with only the capital necessary to establish them, and the 



844 Establishment of the Colony. 

aid of a low price paid by such pupils as might be sent by pa- 
rents who were not m a state of poverty. About fifteen acres are 
devoted to this colony. In the climate of Berne, (which is far 
from being favorable,) this is deemed sufficient, in connection with 
the various branches of industry which will be introduced, to sup- 
port a school of thirty pupils. This he considers as the extent to 
which such an establishment should be carried. 

* It was not until the summer of 1827, after seven years' per- 
severance id seeking a suitable place and proper teachers, that he 
succeeded in beginning the establishment. It was opened with six 
pumls. 

The boys who formed the colony were detached from the 
School of Hofwyl, and established, like Robinson Crusoe on his 
island, on the side of a mountain, favorably exposed, but poorly 
cultivated. Hofwyl serves, in place of the ship of Robinson, in 
furnishing them supplies, until they are able to provide for their 
own wants. 

They found nothing on this mountain but a shed, which served 
as the nucleus of the house they were to build for themselves. 
The plan and materials of this building were prepared before hand ; 
yet their labors in its construction attached them to it as their own 
work. 

It was at the moment in which they were occupied with the 
completion of this building, that I first visited the Colony. There 
were traces of those imperfections which attend Jirst efforts, and 
which, in needinsf to be corrected, serve as a lesson of experience 
and patience. They were engaged in extending the wings of their 
building for the accommodation of their animals — in digging a 
cellar, or rather a basement story, which would provide room for 
their dairy and vegetables during the winter, and also for one or 
two looms, as means of employing their hours of leisure. Their 
common bed, for the time, was a large space filled with straw, and 
covered with an immense sheet, on which they reposed side by 
side. Tfieir food consisted almost exclusively of potatoes, with 
the milk of their cow, and bread sent from Hofwyl. Their dining 
room was furnished with slates and hooks, which indicated that it 
served also as their school room. Two or three hours in a day 
were devoted to instruction. A pupil of Vehrii watched continu- 
ally over their moral conduct, and an improved system of agricul- 
ture, which they are required to bring into operation upon uncul- 
tivated land, served as a course of practical education. It was de- 
lightful to see, in the midst of this solitude and comparative pri- 
vation, the cheerfulness and activity which pervaded the whole 
fbass of the pupils, as well as the spirit of fraternal kindness which 
ieemed to reign toward each other, and toward their leader. 



neir Cottage and Jtetources. 845 

At a second visit, in 1829, 1 found their house completed, with 
a convenient kitchen, cellar, dairy, and weaving room, iu the base- 
ment story ; and their bed room furnished with separate beds. 

During the year preceding, they had, with the aid of a work- 
man, pierced a passage through a soft sand rock, 5 feet in height, 
and 260 feet in length, into the mountain, to procure water. 
They had raised a terrace, fifteen feet wide, to serve as a road, 
and prevent the ground from washing; and another, twenty feet 
square, and six feet high at the extremity, as a garden spot, in 
front of the house. In addition to this, a spot of several acres, 
covered with wood four years before, was now perfectly cleared, 
even from stumps, and under fiue cultivation, chiefly in potatoes. 
The tillage of tliis ground, with their washing, cooking, sewing and 
weaving, occupied their laboring hours; and four hours daily on 
the average, were devoted to instruction. They attended public 
worship in a village at the foot of the mountain, and occasionally 
at Hofvvyl. 

Their stock consisted of a hive of bees, two cows, one of which 
was presented by Capo D'Istrias, the President of Greece, two 
goats, and two swine, which arrived at midnight without any mes- 
sage, but were supposed to be a present from the philanthropic 
naturalist, Bonafoux, who had just before visited them.' 

Tiie engravings at the commencement of the article show the 
appearance and plan of the little compact cottage of these * Rob- 
insons,' as they are familiarly termed. They are sheltered in the 
rear by the n)ountain, covered with forests. In front, will be 
seen a terrace of some height, constructed by the boys, and em- 
ployed as a vegetable garden ; and on the right, a bee hive, which 
furnishes a part of their stores. Tiie interior of the cottage is 
designed to bring all the appendages of the establishment under 
a sint|:le roof, both for the sake of economy, and of more complete 
shelter and warmth, during the severe winters of this climate. 

' Their food consisted of potatoes, carrots, clotted or curdled milk, 
and soup made with butter or pork. They had a supply of po- 
tatoes, milk, and butter, from their own stores. They had not yet 
sufficient grass for their cow ; and were also dependent on Hofwyl 
for bread, and oil for lights. In return, they had sent thither 
during the year, a calf, a kid, three pieces of linen of twenty or 
thirty yards each, and a quantity of wood. 

In order to establish this school, Fellenberg had expended about 
seven hundred dollars in addition to the purchase money of the 
land. The latter has been paid in part, by wood cut from it ; and 
the value of the spot, in its actual state, far exceeds the expense 
incurred. 

♦21 



946 Account by an EnglUh Magiiirate. 

It is well worthy of consideration^ whether such an establish- 
ment wotild not serve best as a moral hospital, for those unhappy 
youths who are often sent in despair on board ships, or into mili- 
tary establishments, as the only means of subduing their habits of 
vice. The isolated situation — the necessary absence of external 
temptation — combined with a mild, but strict discipline — would 
exert an influence far more favorable to reformation, than the cor- 
rupting atmosphere of a ship or a camp. I could wish, however, 
to see it under the direction o{ parents, that the softening influ- 
ence of the family state might be added to the subduing power of 
other means.' 

We have recently received the following account of the same 
establishment, at a later period, by Fiancis Baldwin Duppa, Esq,, 
an English magistrate who visited Hofvvyl, and who saw in it one 
indication of the mode in which the attempt should be made to 
relieve England from its load of pauperism. 

*Biit I must not quit the hoy's school, without taking notice of 
the Little Robinsons, so called, from the hero of Dc Foe. It was 
a beautiful day in the month o( August, 1B32, that I accompanied 
M. dc Fcllenberg on horseback, to see the little colony of which 
I had heard so much. We quitted Hofwyl, and after passing some 
rich, cultivated land, ascended the Jura ridge of mountains. In 
an opening of a pine forest, looking down upon perhaps tlie most 
superb view I ever yet beheld — a rich valley beneath, the gla- 
ciers of the Bernese Alps in the distance, — stands a moderate 
sized cottage, built after the Swiss fashion, with all the appendages 
under one roof, surrounded by about seven or eight acres of 
ground, cultivated with all the neatness of a garden. 

With a joyous, yet anxious look, my venerable companion 
seized the reins of my horse, bade me be silent and go in. I did 
so, and found twenty little boys at their lessons round a table. I 
bad not been in an instant, before M. de Fellenberg followed. All 
the faces beamed again with joy, and every little hand was stretched 
forth to catch that of its benefactor. No father returning from a 
voyage could have been welcomed with greater joy, and no chil- 
dren could have had their welcome returned witii more parental 
aflfection. It was one of the m(3st pleasing and touching scenes I 
ever witnessed. Twenty-five boys, the eldest not above thirteen 
years of age, were inhabiting a cottage which had been entirely 
constructed by themselves and their comrades who had preceded 
them. It is a neat, comfortable dwelling, at a distance from any 
other habitation of man. In the room first entered, was the fuel 
for the winter, neatly piled ; hard by lived the cow ; and close to 
the cow-house, was the kitchen, where a large marmot bespoke 



CandUian al a hie Period. S4? 

that well directed industry, even in this spot, so little favored by 
the riches of nature, could earn its wages and subsistence, and tliat 
of no despicable description. Above the kitchen was the dormi- 
tory, with the agricuhural implements, spades, hoes, and rakes, 
neatly arranged around the wall, while the beds were constructed 
of the rude unpolished timber of the forest. The boys, as I be- 
fore said, were in the school room, where they went through many 
of their exercises, before me. The library did not contain many 
books ; but one of them was a German translation of Robinson 
Cmsoe, a book that M. de Fellenberg, as well as Rousseau, con- 
siders as one most instructive, and at the same time most interest- 
ing for children. 

The boys had sunk a well, and after conveying the water in a 
running stream through the house, directed its course in such a 
manner, as to irrigate a portion of their meadow. The garden 
was a terrace of earth, thrown up by dint of labor. When I con- 
sidered that but a short time back, the whole of this was occupied 
by forest, and that no hands had been engaged in clearing it but 
the little ones I saw, and those of their follows who preceded them 
— when I considered the barrenness of the ground in the imme- 
diate neighborhood, and beheld the productiveness of theirs, — and 
when I considered the beautiful scene 1 had witnessed, between 
the little workmen and their master, I felt convinced that nothing 
but a benevolence and inteili'^ence such as M. de Fellenber^'s 
were necessary, to reclaim both the inhnbitants and tiie waste 
soil of our own country. This school is made preparatory 
to the admission of the boys into Hofwyl. They here learn to 
essay their powers, to combat, with but few advantaju;es, the difficul- 
ties nature has tiirown in the path of man. The boy wants a 
house to live in — there are the materials in the forest ; — a bed — 
there, likewise, will he obtain one ; — he wants to eat — the soil 
will give him food by industry. They are in the position of Cru- 
soe on the island, and Hofwyl is their stranded vessel, from which 
they can obtain the objects most necessary to them ; they must 
look to their own resources for the rest. It was for the sake of 
throwing children upon their natural resources, and t mining them 
truly to appreciate, from earliest infancy, the real condition of man 
upon the earth ; of thoroughly convincing them, that idleness is 
the mother of want and that industry produces plenty, that this 
colony was founded. In a more artifjcinl state of society, (and 
particularly in England, where the poor laws are in force,) the 
inevitable consequences of inactivity are not so palpable ; and no- 
thing short of those consequences, constantly before the eyes, will 
keep men continually in action. God has placed them directly 
in view — we cast a veil over them, and are now reaping the fruit.* 



COTTAOE or THE HCHOOL COLOmr OF HEYKIRCH. 




■, SlaUc— 4, Donnilorj— c, Sohool lud Diiiiiig Rooot— i, Pi>H*— «, B«uki of Carih. 




I 1, J, J, i i i i i 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



JUNE, 1835. 



SCHOOL COLONY OF MEYKIRCH, 

CONNECTED WITH THE INSTITUTION OF FKLLENBERO. 

Colonies have been planted, and settlements made for the 
working of mines, the establishment of manufactories and trading 
houses, and the promotion of civilization and religion among pagan 
nations ; and these efforts have been successful. But we know of 
no effort in our own country, to avail ourselves of this economical 
and enter))rising plan, to promote the common education of the 
indigent and the neglected. 

In the first volume of the * Annals,' we gave the following ac- 
count of an effort of this kind which was made by Fellenberg, in 
connection with the establishment at Hofwyl. To many of our 
readers, it is unknown ; and we believe all will be gratified in hav- 
ing their recollections revived on the subject, at a moment when 
so many plans are in agitation for the education of the destitute. 

' The frequent failure of attempts to establish Agricultural 
Schools on the plan of Hofwyl, led him to believe that the diffi- 
culty of finding a suitable locality, and persons capable of directing 
It, was greater than be had imagined. He therefore resolved to 
establish a colony of children^ under proper superintendence, on 
a piece of uncultivated land, and leave them to earn their own 
subsistence by their labors; employing the hours necessary for 
repose from bodily fatigue, in giving them appropriate instruction. 
He thus hoped to provide for their practical and intellectual edu- 
cation, with only the capital necessary to establish them, and the 



844 Establishment of the Colony. 

aid of a low price paid by such pupils as might be sent by pa- 
rents who were not m a state of poverty. About fifteen acres are 
devoted to this colony. In the climate of Berne, (which is far 
from being favorable,) this is deemed sufficient, in connection with 
the various branches of industry which will be introduced, to sup- 
port a school of thirty pupils. This he considers as the extent to 
which such an establishment should be carried. 

' It was not until the summer of 1827, after seven years' per- 
severance id seeking a suitable place and proper teachers, that he 
succeeded in beginning the establbhment. It was opened with six 
pumls. 

The boys who formed the colony were detached from the 
School of Hofwyl, and established, like Robinson Crusoe on his 
island, on the side of a mountain, favorably exposed, but poorly 
cultivated. Hofwyl serves, in place of the ship of Robinson, in 
furnishing them supplies, until they are able to provide for their 
own wants. 

They found nothing on this mountain but a shed, which served 
as the nucleus of the house they were to build for themselves. 
The plan and materials of this building were prepared before hand ; 
yet their labors in its construction attached them to it as their own 
work. 

It was at the moment in which they were occupied with the 
completion of this building, that I first visited the Colony. There 
were traces of those imperfections which attend Jirst efforts, and 
which, in needincr to be corrected, serve as a lesson of experience 
and patience. They were engaged in extending the wings of their 
building for the accommodation of their animals — in digging a 
cellar, or rather a basement story, which would provide room for 
their dairy and vegetables during the winter, and also for one or 
two looms, as means of employing their hours of leisure. Their 
common bed, for the time, was a large space filled with straw, and 
covered with an imtnense sheet, on which they reposed side by 
side. Their food consisted almost exclusively of potatoes, with 
the milk of their cow, and bread sent from Hofwyl. Their dining 
room was furnished with slates and hooks, which indicated that it 
served also as their school room. Two or three hours in a day 
were devoted to instruction. A pupil of Vehrli watched continu- 
ally over their moral conduct, and an improved system of agricul- 
ture, which they are required to bring into operation upon uncul- 
tivated land, served as a course of practical education. It was de- 
lightful to see, in the midst of this solitude and comparative pri- 
vation, the cheerfulness and activity which pervaded the whole 
rbass of the pupils, as well as the spirit of fraternal kindness which 
ieemed to reign toward each other, and toward their leader. 



T%eir Cottage and JRetources. 845 

At a second visit, in 1829, 1 found their house completed, with 
a convenient kitchen, cellar, dairy, and weaving room, in the base- 
ment story ; and their bed room furnished with separate beds. 

During the year preceding, they had, witii the aid of a work- 
man, pierced a passage through a soft sand rock, 5 feet in height, 
and 280 feet in length, into the mountain, to procure water. 
They had raised a terrace, fifteen feet wide, to serve as a road, 
and prevent the ground from washing ; and another, twenty feet 
square, and six feet high at the extremity, as a garden spot, in 
front of the house. In addition to this, a spot of several acres, 
covered with wood four years before, was now perfectly cleared, 
even from stumps, and under fine cultivation, chiefly in potatoes. 
The tillage of this ground, with their washing, cooking, sewing and 
weaving, occupied their laboring hours; and four hours daily on 
the average, were devoted to instruction. They attended public 
worsiiip in a village at the foot of the mountain, and occasionally 
at Hofvvyl. 

Their stock consisted of a hive of bees, two cows, one of which 
was presented by Capo D'Istrias, the President of Greece, two 
goats, and two swine, which arrived at midnight without any mes- 
sage, but were supposed to be a present from the philantliropic 
naturalist, Bonafoux, who had just before visited them.' 

The enfjravintrs at the commencement of the article show the 
appearance and plan of the little compact cottage of these ' Rob- 
insons,' as they are familiarly termed. They are sheltered in the 
rear by the mountain, covered with forests. In front, will be 
seen a terrace of some height, constructed by the boys, and em- 
ployed as a vegetable garden ; and on the right, a bee hive, which 
furnishes a part of their stores. The interior of the cottage is 
designed to bring all the appendages of the establishment under 
a single roof, both for the sake of economy, and of inore complete 
shelter and warmth, during the severe winters of this climate. 

' Their food consisted of potatoes, carrots, clotted or curdled milk, 
and soup made with butter or pork. They had a supply of po- 
tatoes, milk, and butter, from their own stores. They had not yet 
sufficient grass for their cow ; and were also dependent on Hofwyl 
for bread, and oil for lights. In return, they had sent thither 
during the year, a calf, a kid, three pieces of linen of twenty or 
thirty yards each, and a quantity of wood. 

In order to establish this school, Fellcnberg had expended about 
seven hundred dollars in addition to the purchase money of the 
land. The latter has been paid in part, by wood cut from it ; and 
the value of the spot, in its actual state, far exceeds the expense 
incurred. 

♦21 



946 Account by an EnglUh Magiitrait. 

It is well worthy of consideration, whether such an establish- 
ment would not serve best as a moral hospital^ for those unhappy 
youths who are often sent in despair on board ships, or into mili- 
tary establishments, as the only means of subduing their habits of 
vice. The isolated situation — the necessary absence of external 
temptation — combined witli a mild, but strict discipline — would 
exert an influence far more favorable to reformation, than the cor- 
rupting atmosphere of a ship or a camp. I could wish, however, 
to see it under the direction of parents, that the softening influ- 
ence of the familif state migl)t be added to the subduing power of 
other means.' 

We have recently received the following account of the same 
establishment, at a later period, by Francis Baldwin Duppa, Esq,, 
an English magistrate who visited Hofwyl, and who saw in it one 
indication of the mode in which the attempt should be made to 
relieve England from its load of pauperism. 

'But I must not quit the boy's school, without taking notice of 
the Little RobinwnSySo called, from the hero of Dc Foe. It was 
a beautiful day in the month of August, 18^32, that I accompanied 
M. dc Fcllcnberg on horseback, to see the little colony of which 
I had heard so much. We quitted Hofwyl, and after passing some 
rich, cultivated land, ascended the Jura ridge of mountains. In 
an opening of a pine forest, looking down upon perhaps the most 
superb view I ever yet beheld — a rich valley beneath, the gla- 
ciers of the Bernese Alps in the distance, — stands a moderate 
sized cottage, built after the Swiss fiishion, with all the appendages 
under one roof, surrounded by about seven or eight acres of 
grounrl, cultivated with all the neatness of a garden. 

With a joyous, yet anxious look, my venerable companion 
seized the reins of my horse, bade me be silent and go in. I did 
so, and found twenty little boys at their lessons round a table. I 
bad not been in an instant, before M. de Fellenberg followed. All 
the faces beamed again wit!) joy, and every little hand was stretched 
forth to catch that of its benefactor. No father returning from a 
voyage could have been welcomed with greater joy, and no chil- 
dren could have had their welcome returned with more parental 
aflfection. It was one of the n)ost pleasii>g and touching scenes I 
ever witnessed. Twenty-five boys, the eldest not above thirteen 
years of age, were inhabiting a cottage which had been entirely 
constructed by themselves and their comrades who had preceded 
them. It is a neat, coiufortable dwelling, at a distance from any 
other habitation of man. In the room first entered, was the fuel 
for the winter, neatly piled ; hard by lived the cow : and close to 
the cow-house, was the kitchen, where a large marmot bespoke 



Ckmdilion ai a hie Period. 247 

that well directed industry, even in this spot, so little favored by 
the riches of nature, could earn its wages and subsistence, and that 
of no despicable description. Above the kitchen was the dormi- 
tory, with the agricultural implements, spades, hoes, and rakes, 
neatly arranged around the wall, while the beds were constructed 
of the rude unpolished timber of the forest. The boys, as I be- 
fore said, were in the school room, where they went through many 
of their exercises, before me. The library did not contain many 
books ; but one of them was a German translation of Robinson 
Cmsoe, a hook that M. de Fellenberg, as well as Rousseau, con- 
siders as one most instructive, and at the same time most interest- 
ing for children. 

The boys had sunk a well, and after conveying the water in a 
running stream through the house, directed its course in such a 
manner, as to irrigate a portion of tlieir meadow. The garden 
was a terrace of earth, thrown up by dint of labor. When I con- 
sidered that but a short time back, the whole of this was occupied 
by forest, and that no hands had been engaged in clearing it but 
the little ones I saw, and those of their fellows who preceded them 
—when I considered the barrenness of the ground in the imme- 
diate neighborhood, and beheld the productiveness of theirs, — and 
when I considered the beautiful scene I had witnessed, between 
the little workmen and their master, I felt convinced that nothing 
but a benevolence and intelligence such as M. de Fellenberg's 
were necessary, to reclaim both the inliabitants and the waste 
soil of our own country. This school is made preparatory 
to the admission of the boys into Hofwyl. They here learn to 
essay their powers, to combat, with but few advantai^es, the difficul- 
ties nature has thrown in the path of man. The boy wants a 
house to live in — there are the materials in the forest ; — a bed — 
there, likewise, will he obtain one ; — he wants to eat — the soil 
will give him food by industry. They are in the position of Cru- 
soe on the island, and Hofwyl is their stranded vessel, from which 
they can obtain the objects most necessary to them ; they must 
look to their own resources for the rest. It was for the sake of 
throwing children upon their natural resources, and training them 
truly to appreciate, from earliest infancy, the real condition of man 
upon the earth ; of thorou^^hly convincing them, that idleness is 
the mother of want and that industry produces plenty, that this 
colony was founded. In a more artificial state of society, (and 
particularly in England, where the poor laws are in force,) ihe 
mevitable consequences of inactivity are not so palpable ; and no- 
thing short of those consequences, constantly before the eyes, will 
keep men continually in action. God has placed them directly 
in view — we cast a veil over them, and are now reaping the fruit/ 



S48 Natural Science in Common Schools. 



NATURAL SCIENCE IN COMMON SCHOOLS. 

Essay on the Introduction of the Natural Sciences into Common Schools. 
Rtad al the Meeting of thtm^merican Lyceum^ in May, 1833. 

By Prof. Dewey, or Pittsfield. 

As the subject of the following Essay was expressed in general 
terms by the Executive Committee of the Lyceum, the writer felt 
himself authorized to discourse upon it in the various aspects in 
which it presented itself to his mind. He may have entered more 
fully into thdng^xamination of the subject than tiie Committee ex- 
pected ; and he may have failed to treat upon some part of the 
subject which they had contemplated. As it is, the essay is pre- 
sented before them. Tlie thoughts will be arranged under several 
distinct heads. 

I. Object and general view of the Natural Sciences. 

The design of Natural History is the description of all the 
natural productions to which man has access. Its subjects are as 
numerous and diversified as are the objects in the atmosphere, in 
the waters, and on and within the earth itself. The science car- 
ries the student into an examination of this extensive department 
of the works of the Divine Being. 

A f^cneral and particular classification of natural objects is indis- 
pensable to the description of them. The first great and general 
division is into the three kingdoms, mineral, vegetable, and awt- 
mal, which comprehend all the objects belonging to our globe. 

The Natural History of the mineral kingdom comprehends the 
great subjects of Mineralogy and Geology, Mineralogy classifies 
and describes all the earths, clays, ores, coals, stones, salts, gases, 
acids, waters, &:c., which are natural productions, and which pos- 
sess one homogeneous nature, or exhibit homogeneous properties. 
Geology performs the same task with the rocks or masses com- 
pounded of the preceding minerals, lying in extensive strata over 
the globe, and the strata of earth and clay, and examines the 
general structure and formation of the crust of the earth, and those 
changes which have taken place in the materials of which the 
earth is composed. 

For the complete description of these objects, the science of 
Chemistry is essential ; for no description will approximate com- 
pleteness, which does not include the knowledge of the ehmen" 
tary substances and their properties, of their combinations and ac- 
tions, and of the qualities of the compounds. Chemistry, exten- 
sive as it is in all its applications, is, in truth, only a subordinate 
part of the science of Natural History. 



Erttnt and Divisiont of Natural Science 949 

Geography^ also, so far as it is a description of natural objects 
and exliibits the character of the surface of the earth, its rocks, 
mountains, volcanoes, petrifactions, waters, earths, soils, produc* 
tions, native or cultivated, is entirely subservient to the great 
object of Natural History. 

Thus far the naturalist contemplates only matter destitute of 
organization, and operated upon by those unknown and yet well 
known powers, c;ravitation, cohesion, and mai^netic or electric or 
chemical as^encies. In the other two kingdoms, organized objects 
are described, exhibiting that well known principle, that myste- 
rious influence, that mode of divine operation, which we familiarly 
call life. 

The vegetable kingdom comprehends every plant, as herb, tree, 
grass, ferns, seaweed, &lc., as well as the lichens and fungi, those 
often minute and shapeless objects, fastened to rocks and trees, or 
buried in the earth, or just projecting their heads above its sur- 
face. Plants cover the earth and rocks, and throng the waters, 
from the equator to the highest latitude yet attained by sufiering 
industry. To him, who has thought of the vegetable world, 
chiefly in the * cedar of Lebanon,' or the lofty pine or oak of the 
forests, or in the general dress of green that decks the country, or 
in the blushing carnations that adorn our gardens and pastures, or 
waste their beauty and fragrance on * the desert air,' the veueiable 
kingdom is yet an unknown world ; and he is a stranger to the 
delight with which the naturalist searches out the history of a 
plant too insignificant perhaps to arrest common attention for an 
instant. All this world of vegetable life and wonder it is the 
province of the botanist to explore, and to j)our into the treasures 
of Natural History, the descriptions of the riches he has procured 
from these varied and wonderful works of the yreat Creator. 

Botany describes and arranges the whole kingdom of plants. 
The method, whether on what is technically called, the artificial, 
or the natural system, is admirable. A great general division of 
plants is first made, comprising, in one body, those whose organs, 
employed in the production of fruit or seed, are visible y and in 
the other body, those whose like organs are wholly invisible, or 
seen onlv by high mairnifying power. The latttr division of 
plants, of which there is a vast multitude, but which present few 
attractions to most minds, may be passed with only this general 
consideration ; while the former division, which contains the com- 
mon, and most useful, and ornamental plants, is open to the exami- 
nation of any mind. The division of plants into Classes, Orders, 
Oenera and Species, or into Natural Families and Orders, ren- 
ders the prosecution of any part of Botany, a matter of compara- 
tive ease. Connected, as this may be, with the facts of their 



ISO Infertncti. 

economical use, as food for man or beast, as employed in the 
great variety of arts and manufactures, as medicine, or as mere 
ornament, and thus supporting rational life, or promoting the con- 
venience and restoring the heahh of man, or of multiplying the 
sources of rational enjoyment, and of developing more perfectly, 
the powers and beauty of the human frame, even a partial knowl- 
edge of the vegetable kingdom must be deeply interesting to all 
who can acquire it. 

The Animal kingdom is the last and highest of the three grand 
divisions of natural objects. The organization is more complex 
and wonderful, and the life itself of higher ciiaracter. Although 
h has not been thought easy, in every instance, to point out the 
difference between a vegetable and an animal, it will be sufficient 
to consider voluntary motion as the characteristic of the animal 
kingdom. Even in the lowest grade of shell-fish, confined to a 
rock, we see indications of the same voluntary power. 

Z'mlofry is the arrangement and description of animals. The 
divisions are very logical, and the system very complete. If we 
consider it only in relation to beasts, birds, fishes, &&c., a selection 
of objects of knowledge is very easy. 

To excite our attention, however, to the multitude of objects 
in the animal kingdom, I shall merely mention some of the divi- 
sions in zoology ; Crustncvology, the science of shell-fish, as crafts, 
lobsters, centipedes ; Conchology, of shells, as the c/am, oyster^ 
snail, ^'c; Entomology, of insects properly so called, hugs, flies, 
bees, Sf'c; Ilcrpetology, of oviparous quadrupeds, crocodiles y 
turtles, lizards, frogs, fyc, ; Ophiology, of snakes and serpents ; 
Ichthyology, o( fishes ; Cetologi/, of whales, dolphins, SfC, which 
produce tiieir young alive, and support them by milk ; Onif- 
thology, of birds ; Mazology, of quadmpeds producing living 
young and suckling them. 

II. Reasons for the preceding general view. 

I have considered the objects of Natural History thus particularly 
for several reasons. 

1. That the magnitude of the subject, in all its parts, may come 
gp before us, and convince us, that only a small part of it can be 
introduced into common schools. 

2. That our attention may be directed to those portions of it 
which are the most accessible, and have most facilities already 
prepared. 

3. To show the Lyceum that it is not without some plausibility, 
that many a zealous cultivator of some branch of Natural History, 
considers the project of introducing this study into common 
schoob as little less than a satire upon wisdom, and a burlesque 



Selection of :^ecti. 951 

upon knowledge. The 6nest minds have employed the leisure 
hours of their lives, and others of most splendid talents have con- 
sumed all their days upon the siudy of only a small part of 
Natural History, and before them rises, not the mere image, but 
the living reality of the school-boy, who will not be able to learn 
more than the rudiments of common educr.tion, engaged in this 
vast study. The prospect is sickening to their souls. 

1 hope, however, to show that the magnitude and difficulty in 
attaining a knowledge of it, is not opposed to the accomplish- 
ment of all that is intended in the common schools. The full 
and scientific study of the subject would be absurd. 

4. That lie is a public benefactor, who leads the minds of 
youth to any interesting knowledge of any of the multiplied w orks 
of tlie Creator, or surrounds them with facilities for becoming 
better acquainted with these works. The honor now resting 
upon many who have labored in this cause, will continue to re- 
ward tliose who shall labor for the same great object. 

III. Selection of subjects in Natural Science. 

Tliose parts of Natui-al History generally considered most ap- 
propriate to common schools, are Mineralogy and Geology, 
Botany, and some portion of Zoology. Only parts of these can 
be made use of. 

In Mineralogy, the names and general properties of the mine- 
rals about a town or district, so as to be readily recognized, might 
be easily acquired ; and in Geology, the knowledge of the rocks 
and strata of rocks or earth, wherever any were visible. Also the 
general uses of these substances in the arts. This has already 
been proved by experiment in several schools in Massachusetts ; 
and minerals have been sent to other schools, by way of exchange. 

In Ckemistry, a lar^e number of experiments of the simpler 
kind iiiiu^ht be perfonned by means of simple and common articles. 
A little expense would enable a teacher to exhibit some of the 
gases, and some of the more striking experiments. I have known 
boys of ten years of age, in my school, form the illuminating gas 
by a means of a tobacco pipe and some oily seed, as that of the 
butternut or sunflower, cemented in the boN\l by clay, and have 
seen them deliglited with the bright flame produced by its com- 
busiion at the end of the stem. 

In Botany, the parts of plants employed in the descriptions, as 
the several parts of the flowers and leaves, and the arrangement of 
plants, as well as the names of many genera and species, might be 
learned. I knew a lad of eleven years, who, by collecting plants 
with a botanist two summers, learned the names of four hundred 
species, and was able to distinguish many more, whose names were 



5IS2 Adpantaget of Natural Science in Educatum* 

not iamiliar to him, as well as to analyze flowers to a considerable 
extent. 

In Zoology y some of the parts of Entomology would be most 
easy, as insects are so abundant, and many of their changes are so 
easily detected ; of Herpetology, in relation to tortoises, lizards, 
&c. ; of Conchology, in respect to land and fresh water shells in 
the country, and collection of shells along the shores of the ocean. 
Of birds and quadrupeds, the means of knowledge arc increasing 
continually. The collection of specimens would be a healthy ex- 
ercise, and exert a favorable influence over body and mind, while 
curiosity would be exerted and gratified. 

IV. Advantages of Natural Science in Education. 

Besides the value of the knowledge itself, there are indirect ad- 
vantages attending the study of Natural History, some of which I 
shall briefly state. 

1. This study calls into efliicient action the power of discrimina- 
tion. The constant tendency of the mind is, to consider things in 
the mass. Particularity requires attention, care, direct eftbrt of 
tlie mind. Not a step can be taken in Natural History without 
discrimination. We must begin with particulars, and we must go 
on wkh particulars. And we must often begin with a very small 
part of one particular thing. The mind is trained to minuteness 
of examination, and to the improvement of its power of seeing 
and making distinctions. Thence the mind proceeds to generali- 
zation. The inductive philosophy is the glory of modem times. 
It begins with particulars, and ascends to general conclusions. 

2. The relation of one part to another of an object, must be . 
observed. The process of examination is fitted to induce the 
habit of attending to the relations of things, and of creating the 
power to consider the relations of things in all cases. 

3. It leads to the adoption of system, arrangement, method, 
classification. Consider the multitude of facts in Chemistry, in- 
sulated and independent, until they were reduced to systematic 
order by some of the master spirits of modem times. In Botany, 
tlie wonderful genius of Linne brought into order the heterogene- 
ous mass of its materials. This system, order, arrangement, is 
now a part of the subject itself, and the study cannot be prose- 
cuted, without this part of logic being practically enforced upon 
the mind. 

4. It awakens curiosity and opens the eyes to look with interest 
upon the works of God. It rouses the faculties from that listless- 
ness, to which there is so stron«j; a tendency in the naturally indo^ 
lent state of mankind, and yields to the mind that gratification so 
desirable to be obtained from the very exercise of the powers. 



Tht ProftnwH ofhttitn tn Ckvua. 

5. It stores the mind with objects of thought and interest, and 
prepares it to increase their number. These objects too, can at- 
tend Ub in all our excursions. The naturalist is ever surrounded 
with those objects which have roused a deep interest in his mind. 
Cicero's splendid panegyric on Literature is equally applicable to 
Natural History. 

6. Though many of the subjects have less apparent contriv- 
ance, and design, and adaptation, than some others, yet these be- 
come more evident, as tlie knowledge is increased, and are finally 
seen on every side. The mind becomes more familiar with the 
works of the great Architect, and perceives more of the benevo- 
lence and wisdom of our heavenly Parent, if the study is conducted 
in the proper manner. 

Hence these studies exert a peculiar influence on the character 
of the young. Tlie curiosity excited, and the objects presented 
continually on every side, offering employment for the mind, and 
exercise for the body, might naturally lead to important intel- 
lectual and moral results. I am aware that this advantage is not 
the most obvious, and I shall only confirm its trutli by a mere 
allusion to several inslanccs of young men Avho have, by an atten- 
tion to Natural Science, been arrested in their mad career to intel- 
lectual and moral ruin. Some of these cases are known also to 
some members of the Lyceum. 

Some part of these indirect advantages must attend any consid- 
erable attention to this study, and be enjoyed in no small degree 
by the young. 



THE PROFESSION OF LETTERS IN CHINA. 

(Extracted from the Cbineie Repository, of CaDton, China.) 

[We have jnst recoived from Canton, a file of that interesting' work, the 
Chinese Repository — from which we extract the following account of the 
much admired plans for the promotion of learning in that vast empire.] 

The profession of letters in China is adopted with a view to 
office in the civil s. rvice, to atlnin the judge's hench and magis- 
tracy ; or, perhaps, the government of provinces ; or, it may even 
be, a seat in the ministerial cabinet, guiding the councils of the 
great emperor himself. Such elevation is possible to the poor 
scholar, the humble student of Confucian principles ; and, tempted 
by the prospect, almost every family of a little property dedicates 

VOL. T. xNO. VI. 22 



S54 Mode of Advancing. 

one or more of its sons to the study of books. But of the myriads 
of candidates throughout the empire, a few only can attain the de- 
grees which render them eligible to office ; and of those who are 
so far qualiBed, but a very small number are actually chosen to 
office. 

But those who are not chosen, and who have property, can, of 
course, get on well enough in the world ; others are usually a 
burden to their kindred or their friends. Some become private 
tutors or public schoolmasters; but the frequently recurring exami- 
nations for higher degrees call persons away from these duties ; 
and they seldom do well, unless they abandon the profession and 
pursuit. He who lives in the country, if he has attained the sew 
U<B degree, must repair, however distant his residence, to the pro- 
vincial chief city, to be examined for the next degree, that of 
Tctu jin. And lie who has acquired this degree, must repair, 
every three years, from the extremities of the empire to Peking, 
to try for the tsin sze degree. In this manner, a man's time and 
resources are frittered away ; and, if unsuccessful, he passes 
through life a continual prey to disappointment. Besides, there is 
a pride of caste cherished hy these iuh shoo jin^ or book-reading 
men, as they call themselves, which is a hindrance to their enter- 
ing on any useful railing. They would rather beg of their kindred 
and friends, or even of the public, in the character of 'gentlemen 
scholars,' than put their hands to some useful occupation. It is 
to be regretted that the government allows such an idle course of 
life as is that of the unsuccessful candidate, by at length rewarding 
those who without nierit, have persevered to old age in this unpro- 
ductive occupation, — rewarding them with the degree they have 
so long sought, when its attainment has ceased to be advantageous. 

Tiie following is a portrait of a living, unsuccessful Chinese 
scholar. * A few days ago, a man, about forty-eight years of age, 
with a respectable head, but clothed in filthy, ragged, worn out 
garments, passed and repassed before my window, now and then 
looking up. Being engaged, I took no notice of him at the time. 
The next day he came again, and seated himself on a stone oppo- 
site to the window, looking up occasionally. Observing this, I 
sent a servant, one of his own coimtrymen, to ask him if he wished 
for anything. The man returnetl, and said he was a north- 
country man, and did not want anything ; he was waiting for 
somebody. Knowing the unwillingness of natives to reveal the 
truth to each other, I sent and asked the poor, ragged stranger 
into the house, that I miirht speak to him myself. He came, and 
as soon as the back of the other Chinese was turned, he knelt 



Pover/y ami MUery of a Scholar. 855 

down before me, and knocked his forehead against the floor, then 
rose, aiKl unrolled a dirty paper containing a statement of what 
be was. 

' He was a native of Fuhkeen province, a Iceu jin graduate, 
and had been thrice at Peking, trying for the next degree, with- 
out success. He had exhausted all his own money, had tired his 
friends by repeated application for money, and had tried to earn a 
little by writing scrolls and papers, but could seldom get above 
200 cash a day ; he had not sufficient food, and his raiment had 
been gradually reduced to what I saw. The other day he wanted 
to kneel down in the streets and beg of me, but Chinese were 
constantly passing, and he was ashamed. I gave him a dollar to 
satisfy his immediate want of food, and bid him come again in two 
days, that I might have time to think what to do for him. I then 
sent natives to inquire about him. All they could learn was, that 
be was one of those north-countrymen, who, being friendless and 
without employment, sink into a state of beggary ; instances of 
which frequently occur. There was no suspicion of his being a 
bad man. 

* He came, according to appointment, in the same filthy rags, — 
but havin^: his head clean shaved and his beard dressed. I had 
been thinking how to clothe him, and feared it would be expen- 
sive should I employ my own people, who would make a job of 
it and take a large per centage. I therefore asked my beggar- 
friend himself, for what he could get a second hand suit of clothes. 
He immediately made a minute estimate of the cost of each 
article, and thou£;ht that for two dollars he could dress himself in a 
summer suit of clean second hand clothes. Pleased at being able 
so cheaply to supply his wants, I gave him three dollars. He 
returned in about two hours, bringing a complete suit, neatly 
wrapped up in paper, and three quarters of a dollar left. Yester- 
day he appeared in clean, decent raiment. I conversed two hours 
with him, concerning Formosa, Ningpo, Soochow, Peking, &c. 
He is of course acquainted with his native dialect, Fuhkeen ; he 
also converses in the mandarin dialect, elegantly. He read and 
wrote in my presence. I have no doubt of the general truth of 
bis story. His father held the office of cheheen for many years, 
from Avhich he retired about twelve years ago, at the age of 
eighty, having acquired or saved only about six thousand dollars. 
Pail of this he distributed among three sons, of whom my friend 
doctor Ting is one. Allured by the fame of its riches and libe- 
rality, he came to Canton. He has thrice been assisted to repair 
to Peking, to seek higher honors and office ; but he almost despairs 
of further aid, '^ for bow/' says be "can I hope that heaven will 



On the Importance of Elementary Bittruction, 

nin down three hundred dollars."* However, he means, next 
▼ear, to try his patrons once more. If he fails this time, Ting 
intends to abandon the pursuit, for he will tlicn be in his 50th 
year ; — he will then conclude that it is his destiny to be poor. 
Like most of the Confucianists, he is intellectually a proud, self* 
sufficient fatalist, apparently resigned and yielding, but not humble, 
-»-^iving up exertion, and submitting to opposition, but with un- 
iJKminished pride of spirit. For these men never take blame to 
themselves, but charge all the ills that befall them, to their destiny. 
* Such is a specimen of an unfortunate Chinese literary adven- 
turer. He has classical learning, but not much useful knowledge, 
beyond an acquaintance merely with what he has seen. He 
asked me, when we sailed beyond England, and go as far as it 
was possible for us to go, what it is we at last find — on the suppo- 
sition that earth and ocean are n plane surface ! As long as China 
Secludes itself from the rest of mankind, it must remain ii;norant 
and conceited. If men were merely bnite animals, the present 
policy might be a wise one ; but since a rational nature is char- 
acteristic of men, the Chinese certainly injure themselves by their 
exclusiveness.' 



ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

(Extractod for the Annali of Education from a letter to the Editor.) 

[We received, several years since, a letU^r from a friend urging the impor- 
tance of improvement in the elementary branches of education. The truths it 
pfftents are so important, and so applicable even to the present condition of 
cor schoolH, that we hope they may e^Kcite some additional interest in this im- 
portant part of the 6eld of labor before us.] 

* Can you not devote yourself to that particular department 
of Education which relates to children from eight years of age 
downwards to the period when their instruction may be made to 
commence? Here must begin the great work of reform. Here, 
the public mind is the least disposed to act. Here there is, I fear, 
too much apathy, and a mistaken notion prevailing, that all at- 

* A kea jin graduate, joining with three or four others, can go to Peking and 
come back for this sum. The candidates are allowed to pass the custom 
houses without beins searched ; and they wish to be at court about twenty 
days before the examinations commence, to recover from the fatiiruet of the 
journey, and relVesb their jnemories a little with the clasttics. Many of th« 
men of Keaying chow are barbers, and exercise their skill in this way on the 
r6ad to Peking, ndstead of spending the whole time in unprofitable journeying. 



Need of Reform in Language, 957 

tempts at improvement are either visiooary or hopeless. How 
much we need a judicious, intelligible, systematic series of books 
of all kinds, and especially of a moral and religious kind, to aid in 
carrying plans of reform into efiect. Without such a reform. 
Mothers in their families. Teachers in our Infant and other schools, 
will continue to grope their way along in the old track of unintel- 
ligibility, perplexity, mysticism and absurdity, disgusting the little 
learners at the very outset of their career in the acquisition of 
human and Divine knowledge, doing very little to develop and fit 
for future exercise, their moral and intellectual powers, and throw- 
ing unnecessary obstacles in the way of the instructors who are to 
undertake the task of conducting the higher branches of their edu- 
cation. 

•Take one single view of this extensive and important subject. 
Is not language the great instrument by which all truth, human 
and Divine, is to be communicated to the mind ? Does not the 
Spirit of God himself, employ this instrument in sanctifying the 
heart? What sure advances can a child make in the acquisition 
of knowledge ; how can you develop his intellectual and moral 
powers ; in what way can you carry on any processes in his future 
education, — nay, how can you impress Divine truth upon his mind, 
either in his reading the Scriptures, or in the Sabbath School, or 
in the house of God, if he is ignorant of, or has, at the best, but 
an imperfect acquaintance with spoken and written languages ? 
So long as he attaches vague and indistinct ideas to single words, 
or to words in connection, as exhibiting trains of thought, just so 
long must you fail in accomplishing the great objects of his educa- 
tion. He ought early, fully, accurately, to be made acquainted 
with his mother tongue. Now to do this, we want a new sys- 
tem oT instruction, and a new set of books. 

I remarked to an Agent of Sabbath Schools, ' You say that 
the Sabbath School teachers need enlightening. That is true ; 
but give them all the light posssible, and they can communicate it 
to their scholars, only through the medium of language. We 
ought, therefore, to go a step farther back, and carry into effect 
some plan for making their scholars understand the language which 
is used in their instruction.' 

The Principal of our Grammar School tells me, that one of the 
greatest difficulties he has to encounter, is the imperfect acquaint' 
ance that the lads who are sent to the school have with the 
English language ! 

Will you not be induced, humble as the employment may seem, 
to delve and work at the foundctioni There are workmen 
enough engaged in the upper stories, and I fear the whole building 
may be in danger, if some new stones are not laid to support it. 

*22 



9S6 On the Importance of Elementary Buiruction. 

nin down three hundred dollars."* However, he means, next 
Tear, to try his patrons once more. If he fails this time, Ting 
intends to abandon tiie pursuit, for he will then be in his 50th 
year ; — he will then conclude that it is his destiny to be poor. 
Like most of the Confucianists, he is intellectually a proud, self* 
sufficient fatalist, apparently resigned and yielding, but not humble, 
•giving up exertion, and subn)itting to opposition, but with un- 
iJKminished pride of spirit. For these men never take blame to 
themselves, but charge all the ills that befall them, to their destiny. 
* Such is a specimen of an unfortunate Chinese literary adven- 
turer. He has classical learning, but not much useful knowledge, 
beyond an acquaintance merely with what he has seen. He 
asked me, when we sailed beyond England, and go as far as it 
was possible for us to go, what it is we at last find — on the suppo- 
sition that earth and ocean are n plane surface ! As long as China 
Secludes itself from the rest of mankind, it must remain itrnorant 
tnd conceited. If men were merely brute animals, the present 
policy might be a wise one ; but since a rational nature is char- 
acteristic of men, the Chinese certainly injure themselves by their 
exclusiveness.' 



ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

(Extractod for the Annali of Education rrom a letter to the Editor.) 

[We received, several years since, a letter from a friend urging the impor- 
tance of improvement in the elementary branches of education. The truths it 
pfftents are so important, and so applicable even to the present condition of 
our scliools, that we hope they may excite some additional interest in this im- 
portant part of the 6eld of labor before us.] 

* Can yoli not devote yourself to that particular department 
of Education which relates to children from eight years of age 
downwards to the period when their instruction may be made to 
commence? Here wti^r if ^/n the great woik of reform. Here, 
the public mind is the least disposed to act. Here there is, I fear, 
too much apathy, and a mistaken notion prevailing, that all at- 

, * A kea jin graduate, joining with three or four others, can go to Peking and 
come back for this sum. The candidates are allowed to pass the custom 
houses without bein^ searched ; and they wish to be at court about twenty 
days before the examinations commence, to recover from the fatifiruet of the 
journey, sod refresh their memories a little with the classics. Many of th« 
men of Keaying chow are barbers, and exercise their skill in this way on the 
r6ad to Peking, instead of spending the whole time in unprofitable journeying. 



Need of Reform in Language. SST 

tempts at improvement are either visionary or hopeless. How 
much we need a judicious, intelligible, systematic series of books 
of all kinds, and especially of a moral and religious kind, to aid in 
carrying plans of reform into effect. Without such a reform. 
Mothers in their families. Teachers in our Infant and other schools, 
will continue to grope their way along in the old track of unintel- 
ligibility, perplexity, mysticism and absurdity, disgusting the little 
learners at the very outset of their career in the acquisition of 
human and Divine knowledge, doing very little to develop and fit 
for future exercise, their moral and intellectual powers, and throw- 
ing unnecessary obstacles in the way of the instructors who are to 
undertake the task of conducting the higher branches of their edu- 
cation. 

"Take one single view of this extensive and important subject. 
Is not language the great instrument by which all truth, human 
and Divine, is to be communicated to the mind ? Does not the 
Spirit of God himself, employ this instrument in sanctifying the 
heart? What sure advances can a child make in the acquisition 
of knowledge ; how can you develop his intellectual and moral 
powers ; in what way can you carry on any processes in his future 
education, — nay, iiow can you impress Divine truth upon his mind, 
either in his reading the Scriptures, or in the Sabbath School, or 
in the house of God, if he is ignorant of, or has, at the best, but 
an imperfect acquaintance with spoken and written languages ? 
So long as he attaches vague and indistinct ideas to single words, 
or to words in connection, as exhibiting trains of thought, just so 
long must you fail in accomplishing the great objects of his educa- 
tion. He ought eariy, fully, accurately, to be made acquainted 
with his mother tongue. Now to do this, we want a new sys- 
tem oT instruction, and a new set of books. 

I remarked to an Agent of Sabbath Schools, * You say that 
the Sabbath School teachers need enlightening. That is true ; 
but give tiiem all the light posssible, and they can communicate it 
to their scholars, only through the medium of language. We 
ought, therefore, to go a step farther back, and carry into effect 
some plan for making their scholars understand the language which 
is used in their instruction.' 

The Principal of our Grammar School tells me, that one of the 
greatest difficulties he has to encounter, is the imperfect acquaint^ 
ance that the lads who are sent to the school have toith the 
English language ! 

Will you not be induced, humble as the employment may seem, 
to delve and work at the foundctioni There are workmen 
enough engaged in the upper stories, and I fear the whole building 
may be in danger, if some new stones are not laid to support it. 

*22 



968 Beaton and tke Ajfedioni. 



REASON AND THE AFFECTIONS. 

BT MAD. IISCBER DC SAUSkURC, OF GBVKTA. 

(Extraetad from b«r work on ProfremlTe Edocatlon. TimniUted bjr Mra. Wiixamd and 

Mn. Phcli-*.) 

[Duriofi; our visit to Switzerland, we were to happy as to form the acquaint- 
iDce of Mad. Necker de SauH^ure, of Geneva, a daughter of the celebrated 
naturalist and pioneer of the Alps, M. de Sautsure, and the widow of the son 
of Necker, the minister of Louis XVI. Afi^reeably to a pleasant usa^e of 
Geneva, she continues to bear the nnme of boih families. We were deeply in- 
terested in her views of education, and brought out to this country a work on 
early education, for which we have sought in vain for a translator. We are 
rratified to find, that the task has been performed by Mrs. Willard and Mra. 
Phelps; and from the specimen we have seen, we trust the translation will be 
t valuat)le addition to the library of education. The annexed extract, on an im- 
portant topic, deserves serious reflection.] 

What are we to understand by the word reason ? In the ex- 
tended sense which philosophy has given to it, we employ it to 
express understanding, that great facuhy of the soul by which we 
discover truth. Taken in a more limited sense, it is applied to the 
conduct of life, and continues to retain its first signification. 
Reason, also, as it is conunouly considered, decides upon the rela- 
tion of effects to causes, deduces consequences from principles, and 
pronounces relatively to the individual, upon the advantages or 
inexpediency of actions. Elevated above the inequalities and 
weaknesses common to humanity, we may consider it as the wise 
counsellor, who, in the government of ourselves, endeavors to 
maintain an equilibrium between our different powers. If it finds 
'"* itself supported by exalted principles, it takes a very elevated 
character. United to rcli^^ion, it may become the lofty wisdom 
which comprehends our internal interests ; confined to the moral 
world, it draws from the constitution of society, practical rules for 
our conduct. Indeed, whatever principle we admit, and whatever 
feeling animates us, this governs, in the calculation of the con- 
sequences which we are to experience from them. Incapable of 
creating our various inclinations, it only teaches us to direct those 
which exist. It is then a regulator, and not an impulse. This 
alone shows the kind and limits of its power. 

When reason considers man in the abstract, it supposes him en- 
dowed with the most noble qualities, and consequently points out 
to him the greatest happiness to which he can aspire. From this 
fact arise the admirable precepts which the wisdom of all nations 
has collected; but when reason addresses herself to the individual, 
she does not find in him all the faculties equally developed ; some 
tre languishing, others have an excessive activity ; and as shecao 
only appeal to those which already possess a certain degree of life, 
there remain to her few general rtiles to give* 



!Z%e Office ofReatan. S89 

Tet the influence of reason is always salutary ; it takes the fii- 
ture into the account ; it forms a union among the weak sentiments, 
in order to subdue the more violent ; it says to a creditor irritated 
by the continued delays of his debtor, — If you cause this man to 
be imprisoned, you will feel pity at the distress you will occasion 
his family, and the world will condemn your excessive severity. 
These considerations may be perfectly just ; but why has reason 
produced an effect in presenting them ? It is because it has found 
compassion and the fear of blame ; otherwise it would have had 
no influence. 

Such is the part of reason. Its skill consists in balancing the 
desires, the one class by another ; its resource is the action of op- 
posing forces. Possessing of itself no power, and acting but by 
the aid of the very feelings which it is sometimes called to oppose, 
if it finds in the soul nothing which favors its influence, it loses 
all its efficacy. When this is the case, there is no foundation in 
the character, either for morality or true happiness. 

Education cannot therefore attend too soon to the establishment 
of impulses ; it should direct the development of the various fac- 
ulties which act upon that sensible part of the soul from which the 
desires spring, and where decisions are formed. There are im- 
pulses of various kinds, which it is useful to distinguish. Some 
more particularly named instincts, watch over the preservation of 
our material existence ; others, not less selfish, but more nearly 
allied to morality, are stationed to guard that pnrt of our happi- 
ness which depends upon the opinion of men. Such are self-love 
and its various modiBcations. Others, more elevated, as the feel- 
ings of justice, truth, and beauty, introduce the soul into the calm 
regions where it is puriGed, enlightened, and enlarged. There are 
others more impetuous, which seem to transport our existence out 
of itself, to place it among objects foreign to us, and cause us to 
live in other souls ; such are the tender affections, which, from 
sympathy, their weakest shade, to the complete devotion of love, 
cause us to experience for our fellow creatures, emotions as vivid 
as those which have self for their object. Finally, there exists 
one impulse which combines all the others possess that is great, 
tender, or devoted, which elevates the soul, not only above its 
proper sphere, but the world itself, and gives it a foretaste of eter- 
nity. This, I need not to say, is the religious sentiment. 

This inequality in the moral value of the impulses of the human 
heart prescribes to us the course we should pursue. It is the more 
essential for education to cultivate the disinterested and generous 
feelings, as these alone require culture. The selfish desires and 
physk^al instincts grow without care ; they are even indestructible. 
If then you do not strengthen those which balance them, you not 



860 Impofiane% of FeeKngi. 

ooly cease to make any progress towards good, but yoa deprive 
reason of the greatest force which she can oppose to unreasonable 
desires. Do we not see that the passions are ungovernable in sel- 
fish hearts ? This is what we do not, perhaps, sufficiently con- 
sider. 

Thus each state of morality and of feelings corresponds with man 
to the idea of a certain kind of happiness ; and his reason, limited 
by this state, can indicate to him nothing beyond. Extol to some 
beings the beauties of nature, the charms of study, of friendship, 
of domestic life, and your voice will resound in the desert of his 
heart. If the effects of eloquence are transient, it is because it 
has only roused dormant impulses which very soon sink to their 
former state ; having never been called into action, they are not 
there connected with the permanent interests of life. 

Confined to a sphere, yet reason does her best ; what more 
could we wish ? Ask of her to regulate interests purely material, 
she will counsel to prudence ; she will tell you to abuse nothing, 
to preserve your health, your fortune, and will make of you one of 
those people whom Socrates ridicules in the Phedore, in saying 
that they were temperate by intemperance. Seeking to make us 
avoid dangers, she will encourage the observance of the social 
laws, since we cannot neglect these without exposing ourselves ; 
and, without having the motive of hope to give us, she will have, 
at least at her disposal, a liberal supply of threats. 

Where reason does not find itself based upon lofty principles, it 
preaches the morality of consequences ; it leads us to view the 
results of our actions more than their motives, and shows that vice 

firoduces evil, instead of leading us to regard it as itself an evil, 
t thus enters again into the system of utility, the master-piece of 
its most ingenious combinations, insufficient, like itself, for its own 
ends, and without value in improving the heart. It undoubtedly 
possesses a repressive principle, but a force which can only be 
employed to restrain is often insufficient even for that. It is ne- 
cessary to have the power of opposing one emotion to another, 
the sallies of good feelings to those of bad desires ; for if the simple 
barrier of duty only is opposed to them, the violent passions too 
often overleap it. 

That reason is indispensable in life, that without it we could not 
take one step, that it is necessary to govern the inclinations, or to 
direct them, I readily admit. I say further, that, in a very ex- 
tended point of view, we see that it has some power over the for- 
mation of sentiments ; but it is an influence slow and indirect. 
In iirequently repressing excess, it deprives the bad inclinations 
of exercise in the same proportion, and may, in time, extingubh 
them. There is implanted within us a principle of development 



3%eir lUguUuion. 9SU 

ar yitalitjr, which, restrained in one direction, is borne in another ; 
and even the feeling of selfishness cannot, for a long time, remain 
stationary in the human heart. The character of the same gene- 
ration changes little ; but what one does by calculation, another 
does by impulse. The religious and disinterested feelings spring 
up, and facilitate, in their turn, the work of reason. She then 
causes a prevalence of truths whicli have long remained dormant, 
and which assume a rank in society, as soon as public sentinient 
accords with them ; and when these truths are expressed in ac- 
tions, when they influence manners, and institutions are conse- 
crated to them, their real value appears, in the production of na- 
tional intelligence and virtue. 

But it is the correspondent development of feelings and intelli- 
gence, which produces these happy results, and these can be but 
little appreciated at a distance. Ages and people must be placed 
in the balance, in order to perceive the weight which reason has 
given to them. When she has not lime to act, when her action 
is conOned within the narrow sphere of the mind of a single man, 
her influence must be very limited ; — in order to produce great 
effects upon communities, reason must have a simultaneous action 
upon many minds. 

On all sides we discover our limits ; this is what I propose to 
show. The emotions are impetuous, blind, subject to various ex- 
citements ; but they are the living forces of the soul. Let us cul- 
tivate them in our children, along with the intellectual powers; 
let us never leave them without nourishment in the heart, or with- 
out exercise in the life, and let us not repose upon reason alone. 
We believe that the greater part of the evils of this age may be 
attributed to that s)stemalic personality, which leaves individuals 
without energy, as well as the political body without vigor. When 
one is attached to nothing, it is well for him to be attached to him- 
self. Selfishness is only a more severe word to express indiffer- 
ence to others ; its natural effect is to neutralize all other loves. 

In general, the fault of education is rather negative than posi- 
tive ; it is in what we neglect, rather than in what we do. Dur- 
ing a long course of instruction where all is passive with the child, 
without understanding the nature of the mind, there is danger that 
its fair proportions will be irrecoverably altered. The memory 
and reasoning powers are too often exercised alone, and the feel- 
ings are neglected, excepting self-love, which is excited as a stimu- 
lant. What may we expect will be the result of such a course? 
Exactly what we may observe with grown people, a great want of 
disinterested motives, and an ever increasing preponderance of 
those which are sensual or selfish ; such cannot fail to be displayed 



flSS Ftmak Educaiion. 

•ooner or later. A will, feeble for what is good, ardent and 
skilful for every other object, thus becomes a necessary conse- 
quence. 



FEMALE EDUCATION. 

(Communicated for the Annals of Education.) 



Those who treat upon female education are too apt to speak 
merely of the kno\vledt!;e, and liahits, and accomplishments which 
are to be acquired by young ladies. But they forget that their 
education, in order to be effectual, and complete, must be^^in in 
infancy — that failure here, will produce imperfection, and difficulty, 
and suffering, throughout tlie whole course. In considering this 
subject, therefore, we ought to think of those fundamental points 
which should be in view from the first moments of an infant's life ; 
or we may find ourselves erecting a building, without laying a 
solid foundation. 

Wiiere in the wisdom of the wise, can we find a better rule of 
education than tliese ; — * Let the child be taught the practical 
duties of manhood,' — * Let him learn while he is young, what he 
b to do when he becomes older.' Tliese maxims are but a para- 
phrase of the Scripture precept, w hich reflection and repetition 
will only render more valuable to those who understand this sub- 
ject — * Train up a child in the way he sliould go, and when he is 
old, he will not depart from it.' This precept comprehends, in 
fact, llie whole system of education. Wliether we are to be 
called upon to labor or to study, to think or to speak, or to write, 
to govern or to obey, or to suffer, we must ac()uire the power and 
tlie liabit in early life, or we shall always feel the want of prepa- 
ration. The truth of this has been attested by the experience of 
ages. It is confinned by observation and common sense. The 
peace and prosperity of families, trained aright for life in their 
childhood, form a circle of evidence all around us. The utter 
failure of all means to supply the defects of wrong early education, 
and the decay of families that have been educated in the way in 
which they should not go, present evidence equally striking, in a 
melancholy contrast. Even while rising into life, health and 
hope are blasted, and the children of dissipation are often carried 
to the family tomb before their parents. 

Since there is no question that health and virtue are the only 
and the living fountains of enjoyment, and rational hope, so there 



HeaUh and iti Meant. 908 

can be no dispute that every ch3d should be so tramed as to 
secure, at least, these great points. If these are not gained, all 
b lost. In females especially — the daughters of Eve, * the mother 
of all living,' — whose character will determine that of future gene- 
rations, it is all important. It is, under Providence, the turning 
point of the salvation or the ruin of our country and the world. 

Health then is one of the objects of primary importance to be 
aimed at in the education of females, from its commencement ; 
and be it remembered, that education commences with life. 

The habit should be continued from the earliest infancy though 
childhood and youth, of plain, unseasoned yboc?, in moderate quan- 
tity and at regular times, so as to secure, in tlie language of Heii>- 
roth, * temperance and order — ^the great pillars of life.'* One 
thing only is necessary at once ; and Providence has so ordered it, 
. that man, more than almost any other animal, can subsist upon any 
one of the great variety of articles of food. 

Time must always be allowed for digestion. This will give a 
natural appetite whicli renders all high seasoning unnecessary. So 
long as it is keen, it is safe to indulge it ; but when it begins to 
flag, when plain food is ' not good,' it is time to stop. Additional 
appetite, produced by spices, or stimulants, or the temptation of a 
second or third course, is always wrong. It is only by maintaining 
the relish for a single dish of plain food, that the habits of tem- 
perance and self-command can be secured. And let it not be 
supposed, that this is a small point of virtue. Self-denial is the 
6rst step in the road of wisdom ; and if we are not taught to prac- 
tice it in * little things,' as they are termed, in childhood, how 
can we expect to liave strength for it in the greater trials of man- 
hood. ' He that has no rule over his own appetite as well as pas- 
sions, is like a city broken down and without walls.' And when 
we think of females, what greater miseries can we prepare for 
posterity, than a race of mothers, whose health is impaired by in- 
dulgence, and who have never learned to command, even their 
appetite. 

It b obvious that regular sleep, in reasonable quantity, is ne- 
cessary to health. The occupation or dissipation which leads to 
late hours, and breaks in upon the sleep of the young, saps the 
foundation of their constitution. On the other hand, feebleness, 
and inefficiency, and early decay, are the inevitable result of im- 
proper indulgence in morning slumbers ; and form that most dis- 
gusting of characters, the half-living sluggard. 

The necessity of pure air frequently changed, has been so fully 
exhibited in the Annals,f that it is unnecessary to say how impoi^- 

^ Annals of Education, Vol. 4, p. 402. 

i On the siie and ventilation of school rooms, Vol. 3, p. 530. 



9B4 Habiti of hiduitry. 

tant it is, that the room which a child inhabits, should be thor- 
oughly ventilated, and kept carefully free from all unhealthy ya- 
pors and exhalations. 

But it is not enough to inhale even the purest air of a chamber 
or a house at all proper seasons. The child should enjoy much of 
the open air, in coimcction A^itli the next great requisite to iiealth, 
— tKtive exercise. The restless activity of childhood is wisely or- 
dered by the Creator, to secure the young from being entirely 
restrained by any artificial system. It needs only a place free 
from danger, and a few simple objects which it can handle with 
safety ; and it will find occupation and play for itself — provided, 
however, that it be not spoiled by too constant attendance, and 
thus be converted into a mere parasite — dependent on others for 
its strength and progress — a puppet, moving only at another's 
will. Let not this activity be restrained too much, in conformity 
with the notion and feelings of manhood ; or checked too early 
by the artificial, sedentary liahits of society. 

It is not requisite to goat length into the subject of physical edu- 
cation here. The only object in view is to impress upon the minds 
of those who fonn plans of female education, — that it mmt Ocgin, 
like all other education, in infanaj ; and that health, and vigor too, 
so far as their frame is adapted to it, should be aimed at more 
carefully even with girls, than with boys. 

There are subonliiiateconsiderations which urge this attention — 
*Te]l the pale ladies,' said a gr?at j>hysician, 'that plain food 
and much exercise only can give a sup|)ly of pure blood ; and 
pure blood only can give the bloom of beauty. If you would 
have the milk maid's glowing cheek, use her simple food, and fre- 
quent exercise in the open air.' 

Intimately connected with health, are the habits of ijulustry 
which fonn the basis of other virtuous habits. A moral — a vir- 
tuous — a pious idler ! — where can such a paradox be found ? Let 
females be taught from llieir childhood the habit of industr)'' ; and 
if we begin early it is not difiicult to teach. It is only to direct 
aright the activity of childhoofl. Children will be 6i«y, and go 
on from one thing to another, until tlicir fickleiless leads them 
round the circle of their little movements and occupations. They 
will be constant in nothing; hut change. They are untiring, until 
their curiosity is gratified, or their strength or patience exhausted. 
When they are refreshed by rest, the routine again begins. But 

* It is vanity ! ' at length the young experimentalist in life concludes ; 

* I ana tired of this ; it is not pleasant.' Curiosity invents some- 
tiling new, in the objects or the arrangement, — the means of 
attaining, or the manner of using them. But experience opens 
her school, and continues her instructions. They are led on, 



N^ligeni Motheri. 966 

step by step, until ' vanity of vanities' is inscribed upon all that 
they have found or tried, in their little sphere of observation. 

This curiosity and activity are fountains, that may be drawn off 
into such channels as parental care may open ; and like streams 
in the hands of a skilful gardener, may be made to fertilize and 
quicken every part of the character. It is only necessary to direct 
aright, that love of action which never sleeps. Work is his de- 
light ; but he must be taught when, where, how, and how long to 
employ himself. His activity must be made regular^— continued 
prudently — changed when necessary,— and alternated with proper 
periods of rest. In this way it may gradually be formed into 
the habit of diligent employment — directed to some useful end, — 
* and when he is oMy he will not depart from it.^ 

A habit thus formed, is the basis of happiness and health, as 
well as virtue. What is more painful to the active, than idleness ? 
What more fatal to health and morals ? What more pleasant, 
even for the time, or more happy in its consequences, than regular 
employment. 

* An idle moment — nature never made or meant; 
But good in act, intent, or plan, should fill up all/ 

It is unworthy of one who aims at doing good to say, that it is 
an irksome, a tiresome task, to direct aright the incessant activity 
of infancy and childhood. Read again the worn out lines of the 
excellent poet — practice on them in the spirit of him who went 
about doing good — who took little children in his arms and blessed 
them — and the more they are read and practised upon, the more 
true and beautiful will they appear. 

< Delightful task to rear the tender thought, 
To teach the young idea how to shoot, 
And plant the generous purpose in the glowing breast.* 

Who without pity, and almost indignant disdain, can behold an 
accomplished mother neglecting the plants of paradise, to employ 
all her maternal energies on a cage of birds, or a garden of flow- 
ers, or upon a dress for the party, or the amusements of society, 
or the gaiety and late hours of the ball room and the theatre ! — 
a mother — resigning an office worthy of an angel ! — and for what ? 
Think — for words cannot describe the insignificance of the object 
or the occupation. Wretched triflers! 'tis heaven-daring thus to 
neglect the little immortal stranger, sent to be educated for a higher, 
better world ! 

But it would be inconsistent to censure such mothers thus se- 
verely, and pass unnoticed those, (we hope they are few) who 
complain of ' the little, tedious cares ' of watcliing childhood, be- 

TOL. V. NO. VI. 23 



266 Complaining Mothers. 

causes it Interferes with the improvement of their minds, or 
vhat they call, * the great duties of life,' — with * doing good.' 

* Great duties ! ' — * Doing good ! ' And is there a greater duty, 
than training up a candidate for immortal happiness ? Is there any 
mode of * doing good,' more important than preserving and educa- 
ting those who are to do good ? Or is the whole work to be ac- 
complished by the burning zeal and activity of the present gene- 
ration, so that we may safely leave the next untrained, or unpre- 

fiared for this great duty ? Can it be a mother who reasons thus ? 
f natural affection he indeed wanting, we cannot impart it ; we 
can only pray that her helpless children may somewhere find a 
mother, but if this best of tuiman feelings be only concealed, or 
buried by an excessive appreciation or love of other objects, we 
bes: the errinrj mother to remember, that this little bcin«j is com- 
mitted to her care — that she, and she onlij, is responsible for its 
life with her own — that she has assumed this responsibility volun- 
tarily — that she has given it existence, and she is bound to devote 
herself to the task of making it good and happy, until all that hu- 
man effort can acconiplish is secured. Let her remember the 
Great Shepherd, who said to the chief of the Apostles — * Feed 
my lambs,' and who carried them in Ills bosom. While she looks 
with pity upon the mot lier who deserts her children for the amuse- 
ments of life, while she repeals over her, the sad sentence of 
Paul, — * She tliat liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth ' — 
let her beware, ii^st she herself is seeking tlie same personal grati- 
fication, at tlie expense of her first duties, though it may be in 
another and higlicr sphere of pleasures. Let her tremble, lest she 
should receive her punishment at last in the loss of those which are, 
after all, dearer to her ; or in that ' sword which shall pierce 
through her own soul,' when, by her neglect, life, or health, or 
character shall have been destroycul. Let her not expect the 

* Well done good and faithful servant,' if she neglects the appro- 
priate duties assigned her, to perform those which her own wis- 
dom has devised, or her own taste selected. She may hear the 
echo of her own sentence, in the judgment of the world around 
her. 

Tlie w ise man seems to have provided no maxim for such a 
case ; hut to have chosen * a hird that wandereth from her young,' as 
the strongest image to reprove the impropriety and the folly of 

* the man that wandereth from her place.' 

Senex. 



Transactions of the Amtrican Lyceum. 967 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN LYCEUM. 
Fiflh Annual Meeting of the Ammcan Lyceum* 

The anniversary of this National Society was opened in the 
District Court Room of the United Slates, in the city of New 
York, on the 8lh of May, 1835. 

The meetinp^ was called to order by President Duer; and 
Robert G. Rankin, in the absence of the Recording Secretary, 
was appointed Secretary pro tempore. 

Credentials were presented from the following Lyceums and 
Societies : — 

1. The Mfl»sachusRtts Lvceiim. — Q. New York Cirv Lvreum. — 3. Uni- 

• • • 

ted States Naval Lyceum. — 4. Hrookiyii Lyreiiin. — 5. Faculty of Yale 
College. — 6. New Bedford Lyceum. — 7. Hamilton Literary Association 
of Brooklyn. 

And subsequently from the following — 

d. Hempstead Lyceum, L. Island. — 9. Newark Young Men's Society. 

The following Committee was appointed to examine credentials ; 
Judge Peter J. RadclifF, Professor Dewey and Dr. Russ, who 
reported the following gentlemen as duly authorized to seats as 
members of the Lyceum : 

DeIe<;Rtes from the Mossadiusetts Lyceum : — Rev. Chester Dewey, 
Hon. Alexander H. Cveroit, and Frederick Emerson, Esq. 

From the New York City Lyceum :— Hon. James Tallmadge, 
D. D. Fi«^l<l, W. P. Lander, Willinm B. Lawrence, J. C. Brant, Samuel 
Ward, H. W. II>iv(Mi!!i, and Robert G. Rankin. 

From the United Stat(>s Naval Lyceum: — Rev, Charles Stewart, Mr, 
Handy, and Lieutenant Sands. 

From the Brooklyn Lyceum : — Hon. Peter W. Radcliff, Rev. Mr. John- 
eon, Theodore Eames, George Brinckerhoff, ond Lieut. W. L. Hudson. 

From the Farulty of Yale College : — Eliaa Looinis. 

From the New Bedford Lyceum : — Samuel Rodman, Jr., John Wil- 
liams, Jr. 

From the Hamilton Literary Association of Brooklyn : — Alexander 
Hadden, Jr., M . Van Cntr, and H. G. Iladden. 

From the Newark Yonng Men's Society: — Samuel H. Pennington, 
Stephen Cnncer, Amzi Armstrong, Silas Merchant, David A. Hays, 
Frederick B. Betts, and Eneas M. Leonard. 

The following additions were subsequently reported : 

Members presented on invitation of the Executive Committee and 
Lyceum : — The Prussian Envoy, Mr. Christopher Oscanean from Con- 
stantinople, Mr. Sheldon of Ohio, Mr. Howell of New Jersey, Profeseor 
Denninon Olmsted, niemlier of tho ex-committee, from New Haven, 
Rev. Austin Dickinson, President Haskell of Brooklyn, Mr. James Cole, 



966 Order of Bunnesf. 

Mr. Willinm Dunlnp, Mr. Edirar, Kev. Elc^azpr P. Wells of Boston, 

Professor Millinfttfin of Virginia. Delegate from the Hempstead, (1*. 1.) 
Ljceum, Alden J. Spooner. 

A communication was received from Mr. Iy)renzo de Zavala ^ 
hte Mexican Minister to France, who regretted that ill health 
prevented him from attending the annual meeting. He consented 
to furnish a communication on a subject interesting to the Lyceuna. 

The following committee was appointed to report the order of 
business : — Mr. D wight, Lieut. Hudson, and Lieut. Sands, who 
made the following report, which was adopted : 

Ordeh or Business. . 

The senions shall open at 10^ A. M. wiih prayer, and at 5^ P. M., 
•x««ipt when otherwise ordered. 

The business shall be arranged as follows : 

1. Rending the minutes. Reports from officers or committees. 

2. Reports from Lyceums, and other societies, schools, &c. to be in 
order half an hour oAer the opening. 

3. Essays in order one hour after the opening. 

4. Discussione of regular questions, in order one hour and a half after 
the opening. 

5. Resolutions in order two boors and a half after the openhig. 

6. Resolutions may l>e offered nt any time on leave. 

?• The Essays on the Fine Arts shall be read ou such evenings aa shall 
be designated by the Lyceum. 

The same committee proposed the following as the questions 
for discussion, which were accepted : 

1. Should Natural History he taught in common schools ? 

% Ought the principles of the Christian Religion to be made a regular 
part of common instruction ? 

8. By what means may a taste for the Fine Arts be generally culti- 
vated nmoii|p oil classes? 

4. What improvements are necessary in the laws of the State of New 
York, in relation to common schools ? 

5. How mav our thinly settled districts be best supplied with the means 
of eilucation ? 

6. Ought more female teachers to be employed in common schools ? 

7. Ou^ht corfionil punishuients to form a regular part of common 
■ehool discipline ? 

8. How may the application of science to the arts of life, be best taught 
fn common schools ? 

9. Ought Political Economy to be taught as a branch of common edu- 
cation? 

The Corresponding Secretary stated, that besides an unusual 
number of letters, essays had been received from Miss C^itherine 
E, Beecher, and Messrs. Dewey, Dunlap, Cole, and Frazerj «9 
well as several reports and other communications* 



ReporU. 2S9 

■ 

The Corresponding Secretary presented his annual report, but 
suggested that it might be better to postpone the reading of it till 
another day, which was agreed to. 

The President then called for mformation, from members pres- 
ent, concerning lyceums, schools, be, in the order of the States, 
when Mr. Dewey made a verbal report on the condition of the 
Lenox Lyceum, and the Pittsfield Young Men's Society, Mass. 

In consequence of several members being unprepared to make 
reports, letters were presented and read by the Corresponding 
Secretary, from a number of friends of education in different parts 
of the country — Henry R. Schoolcraft of Mackinaw, P. S. Du- 
ponceau of Philadelphia, John Pickering of Boston, President 
Fisk of Middleiown, President Wayland of Providence, Alexan- 
der H. Everett of Boston, Miss Catherine E. Beccher of Ohio, 
Charles Frazer of Charleston, J. C. Keagle of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Rodman made a report from the New Bedford Lyceum. 

Professor Olmsted on the Franklin Institute, the Mechanics' 
Society, and the Athenaeum of New Haven, Sec. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. James Brewster of that 
city, on the Franklin Institute, and one from Professor Silliman, 
on the same subject and the Athenaeum. 

Mr. Rankin made a report on the history, condition, and pros- 
pects of the New York City Lyceum. 

Mr. Radcliff, on the Brooklyn Lyceum. 

Mr. Stewart read an interesting I'eport from the U. S. Naval 
Lyceum ; when a resolution was passed, requesting a copy of the 
report for publication. 

Mr. Van Cott made a Te\yon on the Hamilton Literary Assoc: i- 
ation of Brooklyn. 

The followin»{ reports were stated to have been received, and 
ready when called for by the Lyceum : — 

1. Tlje report of the committee appointed at the third annual 
meeting, to inquire, * Whether the study of the Greek language 
b commenced at a proper age, and pursued on the best plan.' 

2. The report of the committee appointed at the fourth annual 
meeting, to inquire, ' Whether the Monitorial System, in any 
form or degree, is appropriate to our connnon schools.' 

Saturday Morning, May 9th. 

I 

The session was opened with prayer, by the Rev. Austin Dick- 
inson. 

The Annual Report was read by the Corresponding Secretary. 
On motion of Mr. Radcliff, it was 

Retolved, That the Report be adopted and published, 

♦23 



M> Esiayi Preienied. 

President Diier read an Essajr on the Education of Female 
Teachers, by Miss Catherine E. Beecher, of Ohio. It was stated 
to the Lyceum, that under the authority of the Executive Com- 
mittee, this Essay was read before a meeting of Ladies5 invited at 
Constitution Hall, on the 29tb of April, in order to make it as ex* 
tensively known as possible ; and that they determined to raise 
money for its publication. By the favor of a friend of Education, 
the committee had been enabled to print it without delay. 

Mr. Radcliff offered the following resolutions, which were unani- 
mously adopted, after addresses had been made by Messrs. Dewey, 
Haskell and Johnson, and Professor Millington, of Virginia. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the American Lyceum be pre- 
sented to Miss Catherine E. Beecher, for her Essay on the Edu- 
cation of Female Teachers. 

Resolved y That the Lyceum, considering the extensive circula- 
tion of this Essay to be well calculated to excite public attention 
to its object, and the sentiments and facts it contains, particularly 
important at this time, would recommend it to the public, and re- 
quest those connected with the popular press, to aid in their pro- 
mulgation, by publishing extracts. 

Resolved J That the subject of Female Education deserves more 
attention than it has yet received from the American community. 

Resolved, That the establishment and liberal endowment of 
female seminaries of a high order, especially for the education of 
female teachers, is higNy deserving of the benefactions of the 
intelligent and wealthy of the community, as well as of legislative 
patronage. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Lyceum be presented to the 
Ladies who have undertaken to defray (he expenses of publishing 
this address. 

A communication was read from Mr. Morton, Secretary of the 
National Academy of the Arts of Design, inviting the officers and 
members, in the name of the Council, to attend their tenth Exhi- 
bition of Painting ; whereupon it was 

Resolved, That the Lyceum accept of the invitation, and will 
meet the Council of the Academy at the exhibition room in Clinton 
Hall, on Monday, at two o'clock. 

A vocabulary of the Screculeh language was presented to the 
Lyceum, by a member of the Executive Committee, with a paper 
relating to the history of that African nation. 

An Essay on Books and Apparatus for the Blind, was read by 
Dr. Russ. 



EdMttUm in New Chrenada. 9tl 

On motiott of the President, it was 

Resolvedly That it be the duty of the Executive Committee, to 
select from the Essays, Correspondence and other communications 
made to this Society, such papers as they may deem generally 
interesting and useful, and to publish the same from time to time, 
under the title of ' Transactions of the American Lyceum.' 

On motion of the Corresponding Secretary, it was 

Resolved, That the American Lyceum view with the highest 
approbation, the exertions of Senor Joaquin Mosquera, in favor of 
education in New Grenada, and sympathize with him in the diffi- 
culties he has to encounter, in a country which has suffered so long 
under adverse circumstances. 

Resolved, That the exertions made in New Grenada in favor 
of Female Education, both by the Female College of Bogota, and 
by the Ladies' Committee of the Elementary Society of Popayan, 
are worthy of a patriotic government, and of the intelligent daugh- 
ters of a young and enterprising republic. 

A letter was read from Mr. WooHbridgc, one of the Corres- 
ponding Secretaries, expressing regret at his unexpected detention 
from the annual meeting, and presenting to the Society two hun- 
dred copies of his review of the Address of the Literary and Phi- 
losopliical Society of South Carolina to the people of that state, 
on Lyceums. Whereupon it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Lyceum be returned to Mr, 
Woodbrldge, for the copies of the Review. 

The Lyceum then adjourned to meet at 8 o'clock in the Lec- 
ture room, in Clinton Hall, to hear the Essay of Mr. Cole, on 
American Scenery, written at the request of the Society. 

Monday Morning, May 1 \ih. 

The Lyceum met at ten o'clock, Mr. Dewey in the cbair^ in 
the absence of President Duer. 

A manuscript text and class book on Physiology was received 
from Boston, through Mr. Woodbrid<Te, to be offered to the Com- 
mittee on thie subject, for the prize of ^300 offered by the Society 
at their third annual meeting. 

The following resolution was adopted. 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to ascertain by what 
means education in New Grenada may be promoted by the 
American Lyceum, to solicit the friends of knowledge in the 
United States for funds to be devoted to that purpose^ and to em* 



fiT2 Lyetumi at the South 

ploy those funds (or that object, with the approbatkm of the 
Executive Committee. 

The following persons were appointed to form that committee : — 
Messrs. Dwight, Kankin and Kinney. 

A communication having been made on the subject, it was 

Resolved, That the American Lyceum have heard with satis- 
faction of tlie means used in South Carolina, Virginia, Georgia 
and other states, to multiply Lyceums ; and cordially invite them 
to co-operate with each other, and with this society, for the pro- 
motion of knowledge. 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to correspond with 
the friends of Lyceums in the South, and to propose a meeting of 
the American Lyceum this year, at such time as may be approved. 

Resotoedy That the Executive Committee be authorized to 
invite a special meeting of the American Lyceum, at such time 
this year, as they may judge most convenient to the friends of 
Lyceums at the South. 

The following resolutions were then moved and adopted :— 

Resolved, That the American Lyceum highly approve of the 
operations of the American Institute of Instruction, and cordially 
wish it success. 

Resolved, That Professor Dewey, Theodore Dwight, Jr., Rob- 
ert G. Rankin and William B. Kinney, be a committee to attend 
the annual meeting of that Society in August next, to communi- 
cate to it the sentiments of the above resolution. 

A Vocabulary of the language of the Uniapa, was presented by 
a member of the Executive Committee, accompanied by a paper, 
giving a brief account of a group of Islands in the Pacific, supposed 
to have been never visited by any white man, which was read. 

Mr. Oscanean, an Armenian gentleman, read an Essay on the 
history and condition of education among his countrymen ; where- 
upon, on motion of Judge Radcliff, it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Lyceum be presented to Mr. 
Oscanean for his essay. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee enter into a Corres- 
pondence with such persons or institutions among the Annenians, 
as they, on consultation with Mr. Oscanean, may ascertain to be 
most expedient, concerning the general interests of education 
among that interesting people. 

The Corresponding Secretary then read a letter from Mr. Hol- 
brooke a Report of the history and effects of Essex CouDtjr 



Essays on the Fine Arts. 978 

Teachers' Association, (Mass.) by Rev. Gardner B. Perry, of 
Bradford, dated May 2d, a letter from Mr. I^lisha Loomis, at Rush- 
ville, N. Y., with remarks on his O^ipue, (Chippewa) Spelling 
book, a copy of which accohipanied the letter, and from Mr. D. 
Prentice, dated Utica, May 2d, proposing to the Lyceum to take 
measures to procure uniformity in making meteorological observa- 
tions in the United States. 

It was then moved, that Mr. Prentice be requested to prepare 
an Essay on this subject, to be communicated to this Lyceum, 
which was seconded by Mr. Dewey in a speech, and adopted, after 
some remarks in its favor, by Mr. Hodman. 

Mr. Emerson communicated some interestino; information con- 
cerning the Massachusetts Lyceum, tlie Institute of Instruction, 
and the public schools of Boston. 

Mr. Wells made some statements concerning the Boston Ly- 
ceum. 

Dr. Congar reported the condition of the Newark Young Men's 
Association, and the Newark Mechanics' Institute and Lyceum. 

Mr. Kinney made some statements concerning the Orange Ly- 
ceum and the New Jersey Lyceum. 

The Lyceum then adjourned. 

^Jtemoon Sesstorif Monday, May lith. 

The Lyceum met, Mr. Eames in the chair. 

The following preamble and resolutions, which were submitted 
in the morning by Mr. Dewey, were moved and adopted. 

Whereas, the American Lyceum has received from Charles 
Frazer, Esq., of Charleston, S. C, an Essay on the Condition 
and Prospects of Painting in the U. States of America ; and 
from William Dunlap,- Esc]., of N. York, an Essay On the Influx 
ence of the Arts of Desiscn^ and the true mode of encouraging 
them; and from Thomas Cole, Esq., of this city, also, an Essay 
on American Scenery y 

Resohed, That the Lyceum present to the above named gen- 
tlemen their high acknowledL'ments for the liberality and energy 
with which they have complied with the request of the Executive 
Committee ; and which has resulted in the elaborate essays on 
the subjects mentioned. 

The following resolutk>ns, submitted at the request of Mr. Rad- 
cliff, were then moved and adopted. 

Resolved, That the American Lyceum have learnt, with satis- 
faction, the formation, plan and prospects of the New York City 
Lyceum, 



874 Opinion on Lyceums. 

Resolvedy That Lyceums are well adapted to large cities ; and 
that it be recomineruled to the friends of knowledge in the city of 
New York, to form iheni in tlie different wards or districts. 

Resolved J That the Executive Committee of the American Ly- 
ceum he instructed to promote their formation and support, so far 
as their aid may be desired. 

Resolved, That, according to abundant evidence in the posses- 
sion of this Society, Lyceums are calculated to afford a cheap and 
agreeable means of intellectual and moral improvement, in the va- 
rious forms of which they are susceptible ; that they offer means 
for the development of latent talents, and tend to cultivate taste, 
and the useful arts. 

Resohedy That the investment of money for the establishment 
of Lyceums has proved of solid advantage to the wealth, as well 
as the habits and enjoyments of communities and neighborhoods. 

The election of officers of the Lyceum for the ensuing year, 
was then held ; when all the surviving ofBcers were re-elected. 

It was stated, with regret, that a vacancy was to be supplied, 
caused by the death of one of the most esteemed and useful vice 
presidents, the Hon. Thomas S. Grimke, of S. Carolina. 

Tiie Hon. Peter W. Radcliff, of Brooklyn, was then appointed 
in his place. 

The Lyceum then adjourned till 7 P. M. 

Evening Session, Monday, May llth. 

The T^yceum met after the close of Mr. Dunlap's Lecture. 
Mr. Dwiglit took the chair, and Mr. Rankin acted as Secretary. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Lyceum be presented to 
Professor Dewey, for the Essay he has been so kind as to prepare 
for the Fifth Annual Meeting, on a subject so interesting to agri- 
culture and science, and so appropriately assigned to him. 

Resolved, That Professor Dewey be respectfully requested to 
read his Essay before a public audience in this city, to be invited 
in the name of the Lyceum : or, if not convenient, to leave it with 
the Executive Committee for that purpose. 

Resolved, That he be requested to allow its publication among 
the Transactions of the Lyceum. 

On motion. Resolved, That the Executive Committee appoint 
the Committee constituted by the resolutions relating to a special 
meeting of the Lyceum. 

On motion, it was also J2e5o/iW, That the thanks of the Lyceum 
be presented to Judge Betts for the use of the District Court 



On the Education of Female Teacken. 8?5 

Room of the United States during the present session of 
the Lyceum. 

On motion, Resolved, Tliat the Executive Committee be 
instructed to invite a Convention of Teachers in this city, for such 
specified objects, and at such time as they may determine, pro- 
vided such a measure shall appear to them advisable. 

The minutes of the Lyceum at its fifth annual meeting having 
been approved, the Lyceum then adjourned. 



MIS3 BEECHER'S ESSAY ON THE EDUCATION OF FEMALE 

TEACHERS. 

•^/i Essay on the Education of Female Teachers — tcHtten at the request of 
the American Lycfuin, and communicated eU thnr annual meeting, Aetr- 
York^ May 8, IS^—by CATnEKiNE E. Heecher. Published at the 
clt'8irc of n mpc'iin^ of Indies of New York. New York: Van Nor- 
irund & Dwiglit, 1835. 8vo. pp. 22, 

• 

It is well knoN\ n that Miss Bcecher has been for many years 
devoted to the cause of female education, with great zeal and suc- 
cess. At the requ(»st of the American Lyceum, as will be per- 
ceived from tlicir minutes, she prepared for the last annual meet- 
in tj, the ai)le essay before us, ' On the education of Female 
Teac^ ers for the United States.' It was deemed so important 
that it was first comniunicated to an assemblage of ladies, and 
such was the interest excited, tliat measures were immediately 
taken to secure the publication of several thousand copies by sub- 
scription. We rejoice, both in the appearance of the essay, and 
in the interest it has excited ; and we trust it w ill prove the means 
of rousing a new spirit on this subject. 

The essay commences w ith a statement of the difficulties ex- 
isting in regard to female education. One of the prominent evils 
is a want of permanency in female institutions, and of a fixed 
standard for their education. They are left dependent on private 
exertion, and llie caj)rice of parents, and the course and extent of 
studies is regulated by no fixed principles. The obvious reme- 
dies for these evils, are the establishment of permanent female 
institutions, under proj)er superintendence, and an agreement 
among the leading female schools, for a uniform course of edu- 
cation. We are glad, however, to perceive that Miss Beecher 
considers the bestowmrnt of titular degrees on females, (which 



976 Obftct in Female 

camtnon tense does not quite approve even in the other sex,) 
as of questionable propriety, and ' certainly in very bad taste/ 
calculated to ' provoke needless ridicule, and painful notoriety.' 
It seeras to us to betray sad ignorance, or forgetfulness, of tliat 
characteristic shrinking from publicity and obser\'ation which the 
Creator has enstamped upon females, and the domestic station 
to which Divine Wisdom has assigned them, to attempt thus to 
ansex them. 

Miss Beecher next insists upon a point often adverted to in this 
work, that the course of education should be such as to fit woman 
for * her peculiar duties ' — * llie care of the hcaltli, and the forma- 
tion of the character of the future citizens of this great nation.' 

For tliis purpose, it is obvious that she niust acquire a knowl- 
edge of those domestic duties and employments to which she will 
be called. But Miss B. urges that it is equally important that she 
should pursue such a course of study, as shall give licr habits of 
reflection and reasoning, enlargement of mind, and an amount of 
knowledge which shall secure and direct her influence in her fam- 
ily and in society, and enable her, in some degree, to watch over 
the progress of her children. For this purpose, it is necessary 
that adciitional provision should l)e made for instructors, and for 
apparatus in the various branches of science, with a liberality 
somewhat corresponding to that which is adopted for the other 
sex. We would sugi^cst that the duties of housekeeping require 
a distinct professor in a female scliool, no less than the practice of 
medicine, in a medical institution. The health and cheerfulness of 
many a man would be saved, if the humble, but rare 'dri, of jnaking 
good bread could be thorouglily taught to the guardians of our 
tables. We have been in more than one familv, where we w^ere 
confident this one defect would account for constant suffering, and 
its attendant irritability. 

Miss Beecher next |)resents, at some length, the importance of 
making education something more than instmction — of aiming, not 
at the mere cultivation of intellect, but at the formation of char- 
acter, by a course of moral disciphne and religious instruction. 
She adverts to the practical neglect of this point, so universally 
conceded, and asks, how often school committees inquire concern- 
ing the improvement of temper, or the increase of good disposi- 
tions in the pupils. She alludes to the unsuccessful experiment 
now going on in England, of improving society by mere intellect- 
ual light, and the abandonment of this principle as utterly useless, 
by the philosophers of France. 

She then contrasts the example of Prussia, w hich annually fur- 
nishes a large number of teachers, to supply every child in the 



Haw t9 supply our Destitute SAoob. itlH 

kingdom with moral and religious, as well as intellectual educa- 
tion, and of France, which is fast following in her steps, with 
that of our own coimtry, yet scarcely opening her eyes on this all' 
important subject, while her existence is hazarded by the clouds 
of ignorance tliat hang over her rising population. Thousands of 
well qualified teachers are needed annually to supply the mere 
increase of our population ; and we cannot find enough to fill the 
schools already established. 

But how shall these difficulties be overcome ? How shall these 
evils be remedied ? Miss Beecher urges that it is ' chimerical ' to 
expect, amidst the claims, and the honors, and the profits of other 
professions, that a suflicient number of the male sex can be found, 
to devote themselves to self-denying, toilsome duties, for the 
scanty pittance allowed to our teachers. We have indeed little 
hope of this ourselves, except from the extension of that same 
spirit which sends tM missionary to pagan lands. Miss Beecher 
believes that our hopes must rest on woman — formed by nature 
for confinement — appointed to be the guardian of childhood — and 
accustomed to the patient, persevering watchfulness, and the slen- 
der support which belongs to the teachers of our schools. In this 
way only, she believes that an adequate supply can be furnished, 
in season to prevent that ruin which will almost inevitably result 
fixMn the. misrule of a generation trained up in ignorance. 

Miss Beecher believes tliat the want of professions adapted to 
the sex, and the supply of articles by our manufactories which 
once fumislied a large part of their domestic labors, leave many 
females, of all classes, witliout any useful occupation. The low 
wages of females is indeed a painful, but sure indication, of the 
want of sufficient employment ; and we may add, that our census 
shows an unusual projjortion in the states from wliich our young 
men emigrate to the western forests. 

To brino: into action a lar«i:e amount of talent and zeal for the 
instruction of tlie young, at the lowest possible rate, it is then 
only necessary that institutions should be opened and endowed at 
public expense, to furnish them a suitable education — gratuitously 
where it is necessary — and some plan for ascertaining the wants of 
schools, and providing places for instructors. This is the object 
to which the views of Miss Beecher tend — the plan which she 
has for some time wished to present to those who were able to ac- 
complish it, and to which we have before alluded. It is only to 
repeat, and extend, and render permanent, those efforts for pre- 
paring female teachers, which have been made so successfully at 
the seminaries in Ipswich, Hartford, and Troy, and are about to be 
attempted at Northampton. It has been listened to with deep 

VOL. V. NO. VI. 24 



tr8 



JfaMaeAwieft* School I\inJ. 



interest, hy a collection of liberal ladies in New York ; it has ex- 
cited the attention of more than one able advocate of female edu- 
cation, as presented by the principals of tliese instJtuUons ; and we 
cordially wish it, God speed ! 



MISCELLANY. 



DiiTatauTion or the Masbachcbetts School Fuhd. 

The followinir are the prinripnl proviBioiiH of the law for ibe diotribu' 
lion uf (he MaMMr-hiisRtTs School Fund. 

Retiirni are reiiiiireiF to lie itiailo fmin ev«ry town and ilintrict I)efora 
thfl )*t of Novo m lie r, nnniiatly, acconling to the following form, with an- 
■wera to tho (jueetioni mii-cciHliiig. We insert ihein as a useful guida to 
others who are inveatigating the condition ofour echoold. 



INQUIRIES TO BE ANSWERED IN REPPBCT TO EAt? 


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■omnioTl 


IniCommaiil^chuati 


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TKVf 


Piic- of 


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a? 


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1 


J 


4 


i 


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i 

i 

£ 


1 




1 




1 


i 

1 


i 
i 

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r 

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Inquxriu inrtiptct to alt Ihe Sdtocli in the loim. 

What amount of ninney ia miaed by taxes in the town, for »M)i|ianiog 
the Common Brhoo1»',nn[l wliat by voluiiiHry cotiiribniicins ? Ana. 

What ()art of the moni-y raised by tnxesis paid for furniture, wood and 
jncidtnlnl ex|)cnse», and what jiart for iiiistriiction only ? Ans. 

Are there nny Privnie anhoiile or acadcmit's, and what is the average 
number in iho year attending lliciii ? Aiih. 

What Is the estimated amount |iaiil for tuition in such srhoola and 
academies? Ana. 



PUm for PuUic iutructian in New TorJc. fm 

Are the School Committee regularly chosen each year ; do they organ- 
ise, anil do they visit and examine tlie schools, as required by law ? How 
are the examinations conducted ? Ans. 

Do parents interest themselves in the character of the schools, and at- 
tend the examinations ? Ans. 

What are the books in general use, specifying Spelling Books, Arith- 
metics, Grammars, Geographies, Reading and other Books? Ans. 

Who selects the Books ? Ans. 

What is the furniture of the School House, and the apparatus, includ- 
ing Maps? Ans. 

la it desirable to increase the amount of studies? Ans. 

Are there any local funds ? Ans. 

It is added ; — * No apportionment of the school fbnd as hereinafter 
proTided, shall l>e made to any city, town or district, which shall have 
failed to make returns according to law, for the year next preceding the 
time of said apportionment' 

It is also enacted, *That the income arising from the school fund es- 
tablished by the statute of one thousand eight hundred and thirty four, 
chapter one hundred and sixty-nine, shall be apportioned by the t^een^ 
t^ry and Treasurer of the Commonwealth to the city of Boston, and the 
several towns and districts in the Commonwealth, on the first day of 
January annually, in the following manner, to wit : The said income 
ahall be divided into two equal parts, and one moiety thereof shall be ap- 
portioned to the said city, and to the towns and districts, on the ratio of 
population us determined by the next preceding census of the United 
States — the other moiety shall be apportioned on the ratio of tlie amount 
of monies raised by taxation, and expended by each city, town or district, 
for the support of Common schools in the next preceding year, as by the 
aeveral school returns shall appear.' 

$100 annually are also allowed to support Common schools among the 
Marshpee Indians. 

Plan for Public IirsTRUcTiov iv Nxw York. 

In a recent number of this work, some defects of the School System 
in New York were pointed out by one of our correspondents; and ea- 
pecially, that of requiring a single individual to perform duties so impor- 
tant as those of a Superintendent of Schools, in connection with that of 
Secretary of State. We are glad to perceive, in the following account 
of proceedings in the New York Legislature, from the Albany Gazette, 
that a remedy is proposed. We are only surprised at the strange anomaly 
of making the same officer a commisBioner of the Canal Fund, and wish 
•ome explanation of the reason night be given by acme of our conea-. 
pqndeuta. 



960 Summary of the Propoied Law* 

'Mr. Wetinore presentee] a very able report in relntion to public instriic- 
lion ; it recommended tlie organizntiouofa df^ivirtinent to Iw called Mlie 
Department of Public Insitriiciion,' under tlie direction of a Secretary, 
to be denominated *tlie Secretary of Public Instnictiun.' 

The House ordered four tinicsi ihe usual nundier of copies of tbe report 
to be printed, and the bill, of which the following is an al)8tract,to a third 
reading. 

Section 1. There shall be a Sccreiary of Public Instruction, who 
•ball be appointed by the Legislature in the same manner as the state 
officers are now appointed. 

Sec 2. Such appointment to l>e made once in three years from and 
after the first Monday in February, or as often us a vacancy sliall occur. 

Sec 3. The Secretary of Public Instruction 8huH possess the powers 
«mJ discharge the duties of Superintendent of Common schoolt:, and in 
addition, virtute officii, shall be Chancellor of the Regents of the Univer- 
sity, Trustee of the State Library, and CommisHioner of the Canal Fund. 

Sec 4. All colleges and academies Hhall be But»ject to bis visitation: 
to be his duty jiersotially, as often as once in two years, to examine into 
the condition and situation of each seminary selected by the Regents for 
the education of teachers, and also into the 8yst«*m of education and dis- 
cipline therein, and report the same to the Leuislnture. 

Sec 5w The annual returns required to l>e made by the colleges and 
academies, shall be made to the Secretary, as Chancellor of the Regenta 
of the University, who shall lay the same before the Regents at the first 
annual meeting in each year. 

Sec 0. Every academy in which a department for the education of 
teachers of Common schools shall be established, sliall state, in addition^ 
io their return, the following subjects ; — 

1st. The organization of the Department 

8d. The subjects of study pursued, and class books used. 

3d. The number and classification of students. 

Sec 7. The Commissioners of Common schools, in addition to their 
annual report made to the county clerk, shall stare, 

1st. The general branches of education in which teachers of Com- 
iBon schools presented for instruction, are required to pass an exami- 
nation. 

3d. The degree of proficiency required in each branch, before a cer- 
tificate of qualification is given. 

3d. The number of schools visited by the insfiectors during the year; 
the number of tinoea each school was so visited, and the number of iiH 
apectora who were present at each examination. 

8cc. 8. Penalty on coimuission in case of neglect. 
Sec 9. Salary, $2000.' 



CcmttnAm lof TPeachert at Carihti^e. 881 



School District Libraries. 

The following bill, which has now become a law of New York, ii 
another indication that this state will not stop in its course of improre- 
ment 

Sec. 1. The taxable inhabitants of each school district in the State, 
«hall have power, when lawfully assembUd in any district meeting, to laj 
a tax on the district, not exceeding twenty dollars for the first year, for 
the purchase of a district library ; consisting of such books as they shall 
in their district meetings direct ; and such further sum as they may deem 
necessary for the purchase of a book case. The intention to propose 
such a tax, shall be stated in the notice required to be given for such « 
meeting. 

Sec 2. The taxable inhabitants of each school district shall also have 
power, when so assembled in any sulisequent year, to lay a tax not ex- 
ceeding ten dollars in any one year for the purpose of making additions 
to the district library. 

Sec 3. The clerk of the district, or such other person as the taxable 
inhabitants may, at their annual meeting designate and appoint by a ma- 
jority of votes, shall be the librarian of the district, and shall have the 
care and custody of the library under such regulations as the inhabitants 
may adopt fur his government 

Sec 4. The taxes authorized by this act to be raised, shall be afri 
sesscd and collected in the same manner as a tax for building a school 
house. 

Convention of Teachers at Carthaoe, 

A Convention of Teachers was recently held at Carthage, (Ohio,) 
and organized themselves into the Hamilton Co. Association of Teachers ; 
auxiliary to the Western Literary Institute, to meet quarterly, for lectures 
and discussions. The following resolutions, will show the spirit of this 
Association. May their example be followed extensively. 

1. Resolved, ' That in the present condition of our country, it is highly 
important that associations be formed, to aid indigent females to qualify 
themselves to become efQcient teachers of our common schools.' 

2. Resolved, ' That os the mor^l powers of man require cultivatioDi 
as much as the intellectual, and as intellectual, without moral culture, 
ceases to be a blessing, it is highly important that a well-devised plan of 
moral education, be introduced into our schools and seminaries.' 

3. Resolved, ' That as the Bible, independently of its claims upon us 

as a Divine revelation, contains the most perfect system of morals, it 

should be studied as a text book of morals, in a|l our institutions of 

learnings' 

t24 



SSO Simmary of the Proposed Law. 

'Mr. Wetinore presentee] a very able report in relution to fiublic instriic- 
lion ; It rcconoinended the organizntiouora cl«^)Nirtiiient to Iw called Mlie 
Department of Public Instriiciion,' under the direction of a Secretary, 
to be denominated 'the Secretary of Public lustructiun.' 

The House ordered four limes ihe U8ual nuiidier of copies of the report 
to be printed, and the bill, of which the following i.s an al)8tract,to a third 
reading. 

Section 1. There shall be a Secretary of Public Instruction, who 
•hall be appointed by the Legislature in the same manner as the state 
officers are now appointed. 

Sec. 2. Such appointment to be made once in three years from and 
after the first Monday in February, or as often us a vacancy shall occur. 

Sec. 3. The Secretary of Public Instruction ^hull possess the powers 
4iul discharge the duties of Superintendent of Common scbools^ and in 
addition, virtute officii, shall be Chancellor of the Regents of the Uui%'er- 
■itv. Trustee of the State Librnrv, and Commii^Hioner of the Canal Fund. 

Sec. 4. All colleges and academies ^(hall lu> subject to bis visitaiion: 
to be his duty jiersotially, as often as once in two years, to examine intii 
the condition and situation of each seminary selected by the Regents for 
the education of teachers, and also into the sy8t«*m of education and dis- 
cipline therein, and report the same to the Leuislnture. 

Sec. 5w The annual returns required to l>e uiiide by the colleges and 
academies, shall be made to the Secretary, as Chancellor of the Regents 
of the University, who shall lay the same before the Regents at the first 
annual meeting in each year. 

Sec. 0. Every academy in which a department for the education of 
teachers of Common schools shall be established, ahull state, in addition^ 
in their return, the following subjects ; — 

1st. The organization of the Department. 

8d. The subjects of study pursued, and class books used. 

3d. The number and classification of students. 

Sec 7. The Commissioners of Common schools, in addition to their 
annual report made to the county clerk, shall state, 

1st. The general branches of education in which teachers of Com- 
iBon schools presented for instruction, are required to pass an exami- 
nation. 

3d. The degree of proficiency required in each branch, before a cer- 
tificate of qualification is given. 

3d. The number of schools visited by the ins))ectors during the year; 
the number of tinoea each school was so visited, and the nutnber of iVh 
apectors who were present at each examination. 

8ec. 8. Penalty on cointuission in case of neglect. 
Sec 9. Salary, $2000.' 



CmtmAm lof Teadien at Cartkt^e. 881 



School District Librakies. 

The following bill, which has oow become a law of New York, is 
another indication that this state will not stop in its course of improre- 
ment 

Sec. 1. The taxable inhabitants of each school district in the State, 
«liall have power, when lawfully nssembkd in any district meeting, to laj 
a tax on the district, not exceeding twenty dollars for the first year, for 
the purchnse of a dietrict library ; consisting of such books as they shall 
lit their district meetings direct ; and such further sum as they may deem 
necessary for the purchase of a book case« The intention to propose 
mich a tax, shall be stated in the notice required to be given for such a 
meeting. 

Sec 3. The taxable inhabitants of each school district shall also have 
power, when so assembled in any subsequent year, to lay a tax not ex- 
ceeding ten dollars in any one year for the purpose of making additions 
to the district library. 

Sec 3. The clerk of the district, or sncli other person as the taxable 
inhabitants may, at their annual meeting designate and appoint by a ma- 
jority of votes, shall be the librarian of the district, and sholl have the 
care and custody of the library under such regulations as the iiihabitantf 
may adopt fur his government 

Sec 4. The taxes authorized by this act to be raised, shall be as^ 
eesseil and collected in the same manner as a tax for building a school 
house. 

Convention of Teachers at Carthaoe, 

A Convention of Teachers was recently held at Corthagc, (Ohio,) 
and organized themselves into the Hamilton Co. Association of Teachers ; 
auxiliary to the Western Literary Institute, to meet quarterly, for lectures 
and discussions. The following resolutions, will show the spirit of this 
Association. May their example be followed extensively. 

1. Resolved, ' That in the present condition of our country, it is highly 
important that associations be formed, to aid indigent females to qualify 
themselves to become efficient teachers of our common schools.' 

2. Resolved, * That as the moral powers of man require cultivation, 
as much as the intellectual, and as intellectual, without moral culture, 
ceases to be a blessing, it is highly important that a well-devised plan of 
moral education, be introduced into our schools and seminaries.* 

3. Resolved, ' That as the Bible, independently of its claims upon ui 

as a Divine revelation, contains the most perfect system of morals, it 

should be studied as a text book of morals, in a|l our institutions of 

JearniQg.' 

t24 



982 Cmventum of School 

4. Resolved^ ' That Vocal Music should be made a part of common 
elementary education, for boys and f^ris.' 

5. Resolved, 'That the elements of Natural Science, including ao 
outline of Anatomy and Physiology, should be made a part of popular 
education.' 

6. Resolvedy * Tl) at teachers should devise and provide for their pu- 
pils, such exercises ns are calculated to impart activity, and strength to 
their bodies, as a means of enabling them to endure without injury of 
constitution, the application necessary to intellectual improvement.' 

7. Resolved, • That the elementary principles of republican govern- 
ment, with an outfine of the state and federal constitutions of the Union, 
should constitute a branch of popular education.' 

CoNVElVTrON OF ScUOOL COMMITTEES. 

The following resolutions of a Convention of School Committees at 
Holli8tony(Mass.) contain so much that is useful, and furnish so good an 
example of interest and energy in the cause of common school instruc- 
tion, that they claim a place in the Annals of Education. 

'A convention of School Coffiroittces and other gentlemen from towns 
in the vicinity, met at Holliston, April 20th. Rev. Mr. Clarke, of Sber- 
hurne, was chosen moderator, and Rev. Mr. Dcmond, of Holliston, scribe. 

The object of this convention was to consult and adopt measures to 
elevate the character, and increase the usefulness of our cummoa 
■cbools. — After an interesting di^^cussion of various subjects, connected 
with common school education, the convention unanimously adopted the 
following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That it is the indispensable duty of school committees 
to «pf)robate no persons for teachers in our schools, who are not thor- 
oughly qualified for successful instruction in all the branches which 
they are called to teach. 

2. Resolved, In view of e\'ery person's feeling a deep interest in his 
employment, that it be recommended to prudential committees, to engage 
no teachers for our schools without evidence that the business^of tench- 
ing is congenml with their feelings, and, in their own view, highly res- 
ponsible ; imd that the examining committee withhold their approbation 
from such as do not exhibit this evidence. 

3. Resolved, That teachers of our summer schools, in order to be 
properly qualified for ttieir employment, should be thoroughly acquainted 
with orthography, — with the principles of reading, spelling and writing,. 
— with mental arithmetic totbe extent of Colburn's First Lessons, — with 
practical arithmetic asfkr as thvough the single rule of three in the order 
of Adams', — with modern geography, — with Englisii grammar, — and 
Mrith some epitome of the history of the United States ; and that teacber» 
for our tointer schools, in addition to the above, should be well acquainlMl 



Siudy made Agreeable. S88 

with praetical orithroetie as Ar as through Adams', — with soma simpla 
form of book-keepiDgr-^od with soma conipeodioua aystem of natural 
philosophy. 

4. Believiog that the branehes of learning, usually taught in our com- 
mon schools, receive far leas attention in our academies and high 
achools than their importance demand;*, and believing also, that an im* 
provement in this respect would essentially contribute to a more thorough 
and useful education ; therefora, 

Ruolvedf That we specially recommend to the teachers of academies 
and high schools in the vicinity, to acquaint their pupils thoroughly with 
these branches, and refuse to recommend them as teachers, unless they 
have a familiar and correct understanding of tliem. 

5. Resolved^ That, considering the admirable adaptation of the in- 
structions and precepts of the Bible to regulate the conduct, and elevate 
the character of mankind, we recommend, that it be daily read, in a 
serious manner, in all our scbools; and that the preceptive and historical 
parts of it e8|>ecially, be subjects of study and instruction. 

6. Resohedf That, as the system of rewards, as generally practised in 
our schools, so powerfully tends to excite and strengthen some of the 
worst feelings of the human brcost, and is so unequal in its effect on the 
literary progress of scholars, we recommend that it be entirely dispensed 
with in our schools ; and that those mr>tives only be presented whose in- 
fluence is pure, and more equal in its effects. 

7. Reeolvedf That some general re;;ulations, embracing cpncisely the 
objects and principles of our common schools, if adopted by our triwnfl^ 
printed, and circulated among the families of the same, would contribute 
to the order and success of these schools. 

8. Resolved, That Jt would serve to promote the great object of com- 
mon school educatioil if towns* committees would keep a record of their 
own doings, and mak^ an annual report to the town, of the stale and 
character of the schools under their supiTvision. 

Impressed with the wise adaptation of our common frte ichools to sus- 
tain and perpetunte all our civil and religious institutions, and also with 
their frequent failure, through the remissness of parents, committees, and 
teachers, to ansiver their designed end, the convention voted to hold A 
semi-annual meeting in the vicinity, for the object above stated. 

By order of the Convention, 
. Holliston, April 38, 1835. E. DcMoifn, Scribe. 

Studt Made Agreeable. 

In a late number of the Advocate of Education, we find the followinf 
Interesting anecdote of an occurrence in the school of the Editor. It 
confirms the truth of a principle wo have always maintained, that the 
young will delight in mental, as well as in bodily activity, if it is adapcei 
to their powers and their taste. 



fiB4 School Law of Pennsylvania. 

* It was our purpoM to have spent the fall vacation in traveHiog through 
■ome of the moat interesting portions of our country, in company with a 
few of our pupils, who are too far from home to spend the holidays with 
their friends. Circumstances occurred a few days before the close of 
the session, which rendered this impossible ; but the fact must, of course, 
be communicated to our embryo travellers, whose expectations of plea- 
sure from the contemplated jaunt, were very high. We called them into 
our study, and with much painful regret at being compelled thus at one 
rude blow, to dash the cup of happiness from their lips, we stated our 
change of purpose, but added that they should, if ihey desired it, read and 
commit to memory, Horace's Art of Poetry, during the vacation. With 
united voice, they replied, * that if they might do that, they would as soon 
■tay as go.' 

School Law or PF.fTffSTLVANiA. 

The school law, passed the last year in Pennsylvania, has met with the 
most strenuous opposition from the enemies of light and knowledge ; and 
more than one demagogue, we are told, has endeavored to preserve 
that ignorance, which is the only basis of his power, by telling the 
people that it is dei<igned to tax the poor, for educating the children of 
the rich ! The attempt to repeal the law at the last session of the Legis- 
lature, failed, however, entirely ; but some changes were introduced. 
In case any school district shall refuse to accept the late school law, no 
tax shall be levied, and the former act, for educating the poor gratis, is 
to be in force ; but the district is not to receive any portion of the stale 
fund. Its share is to be reserved for two ycar.<4, subject to the disposi- 
tion of the district, as soon as they shall levy a school tax; but aAer that 
period, is to be distributed among the other districts, until the law shall 
be accepted, and the proper tax levied, by the opposing district. 

To debate with those who deny tlie benefits of education on such 
grounds as the Pennsylvanian farmer, who argued — 'My son learned to 
write, and he forged my name,' — would be useless. But tlje error of thoae 
who imagine, that a system of schools adds to the burthens of the people, 
is admirably exposed in the following extract from the speech of Mr. 
Stevens, of the Pennsylvania Legislature, on the Education BiiL 

' But while few are found ignorant and shameless enough to deny the 
advantages of general education, many are ainrnied at its sup|>o8ed bur- 
thensome operation. A little judicious reflection, or a single year's ex- 
perience, would show that education, under the free school system, will 
cost more than one half less, and afford better and more permanent in- 
struction than the present disgraceful plan pursued by Pennsylvania. 
Take a township of six miles square, and make the estimate. Such town- 
ships, un an average, will contain about 200 children to be schooled. 
The present rate of tuition, generally, (in the country) is two dollars per 
quarter. If the children attend school two quarters each year, such 



Wtittm Reierve Cottegt. 985 

townBhiiw would (mv $800 per annum. Take the free school sjrfltero — 
lay tiie town8lii|> on into diHtricis ihree miles square ; ihe fnrtbest schol- 
ars would then have one mile and a half to go, which would not lie too 
far. It would require four srhoois. These will he taught, I presume, 
as in other stales, three months in the winter hy male, and three months 
in the summer hy female teachers. Good tnnle teachers can he had at 
from sixteen to eighteen dollars per month, and hoard themselves; 
females at nine dollars per month. Take the highest price, eighteen 
dollars for three months, would l»e - - - - - $54 00 
And then for females at nine dollars for three months, - 27 00 

Each school would cost ....... 8t00 

Four to a townshij), -------- 4 

324 00 

The price now paid for the same is - - - - - 800 OO 

Saving for each township of six miles square, $476 00 per annum. 

If the instruction of^OO scholars will save by the freest-hool law, $476^ 
the .500,000 children in Pennsylvania, ivill save $1,100,000. Very few 
men are aware of the immense amount of money which the present ex* 
pensive and |»artial mode of education costs the fieople. Pennsylvania 
has half a million of children, who either do, or ought to go to school six 
months in the year. If they do ^o, at two dollars per quarter, their 
schooling costs two millions of dollars per annum f If they do not go» 
when they are able, their parents deserve to he held in dis^rmce. Where 
they are unable, if the state does not furnish the means, she iii criminally 
negligent. But by the free school law, that same amount of educatioDi 
which would now cost two millions of dollars, could be supplied at leas 
than one-third of this amount.' 

Hamilton Literart and Theolooical IirsriTVTioN. 

This institution, established in 1820, has 180 students under the care 
of 8 professors. It is located on a farm of 130 acres, in Hamilton, 
Madison Co., N. Y., and is provided with three large stone edifices, two 
for instruction, and one for a boarding house. It is stated that the whole 
annual expenses of a student for board, room, washing, and tuition, do 
not exceed $53 80. It is under the direction of Baptists ; and provides a 
complete course of literary and theological instruction, but exclusively 
for those who propose to enter the ministry. Thirty of its students 
receive their education gratuitously. 140 young men have graduated at 
this inaliiution. 

The Western Reserve College. 

The faculty of this college consists of a president, professor of Lan- 
guages, professor of Sacred Literature, and firofesaor of Moral and Intel* 
lectual Philosophy. A professor of Mathematics and Natural Philoflo- 
phy will be ap|M>iuted at soon as suitable arrangements csn be msd« 
with an individual qualified for the office; and a professor of Christm 
Theology, as soon as circumstances require. 



Notieet of Booki. 

It conaiflls of a Preparatory, Collegiate, and Theological department. 
Students over twelve years are admitted to the preparatory class, 
•re furnished with regular instruction, hy experienced and well qualified' 
teachers, and enjoy the same privileges ats those of tlie college, with regard 
to the library, chapel, workshops, &c. The nccessiiry yearly expendi- 
ture of a stuflcnt is comparatively small, and the facilities are great for 
defraying a portion of that sum hy wages for work during hours of exer- 
eiae. Ample acrommodations are provided for such as use mechanical 
tools. The conipensittion in the workci|iop!>, or for gardening and 
agriculture, is from three to twelve cents ptrr hour. Some students 
have in this way done nmch towards defraying their ex|>enses. Others 
have gitined little liesides health of hody^ and vigor and elasticity of mind. 
There are now in the Collegiate and Prepanitory Di'pnrtmcnt, 80 students; 
and in the Theological Department, three pursuing Philological studies, 
and one Systematic Theology. 

Improvement i!« Camdeit. 

Amidst the gloom In ivhich the schools of New Jersey are shrouded, it is 
cheering to see the noble exnmple set hy the town of Camden. A Com- 
mittee ap(H>inted nt a town merting in March last, have reported the ex- 
pediency of erecting a building for a public Monitorial school — one room 
to be opened at suitable times, as a reading and lecture room, of pur- 
chasing a library for the use of the pupils and citizens, and of employ- 
log two able teachers estimated at salaries of $()00, and $3C0 — raising 
$1350 for the aimual ex|)en8e.«i, by a tax on 850 taxable inhabitants. 
The average annual expense of each pupil is estimated at $4. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Select Letters of Pliny the younger; with Notes, and 
Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, and Laws of the ancient 
Romans. For the use of Schools. Boston: Published by Per- 
kins, Marvin &. Co. Philadelphia: Henry Perkins. 1835. 

The design of the editor, in making this selection from the letters of 
Pliny, will sufficiently appear from the following extract from his 
preftce. 

*The object aimed at in the present selection, has been to exhibit the 
author's powers on a variety of subjects, and thus to render the work as 
interesting as possible to the student, to whom the reading of the whole 
wouki prove a tedious task. The notes are intended solely for the ex- 
planation of the text' 



Notices of BooJa. « 5287 

The selection seems to have been, in general, judiciously made in 
reference to the editor's design ; and no one, we think, can read the table 
of contents, without wishing to peruse the letters to which it refers. We 
should have been gratified by the insertion of the celebrated letter of 
Pliny, relating to the character and conduct of the Christians of his day, 
together with the reply of the Emperor Trajan. The style of these two 
lettera is such as would well entitle them to a place in any selection; 
and their subject matter would seem to invite the particular attention of 
all who feel an interest in the antiquities of Christianity. In the 
latter view, it is probably the most important document, respecting the 
christian church, which can be furnished from the whole mass of an- 
cient heathen literature. 

Although it was the professed design of the author to furnish explana- 
tory notes alone, it would perhaps have been well, had he, as a guardian 
of the morals of youth, occasionally given a word of caution, respecting 
the irreligious tendency of some of the sentiments to be found in most of 
the Latin and Gn*ck classics, aad even in some of the lettera of Pliny. 
The letter relating to Aria, might have afforded a good opportunity for 
this purpose. 

Tu the readers of the * Annals,' and to all who take a deep interest in 
the 8ul)ject of education, ihe letter relating to the school at Como, 
cannot full to affurd a high gratification. The views of eduration pre- 
sented in that letter, seem to us to be eminently just, ond we would es- 
pecially recommend to the ottention of parents, at the present day, the 
sentiments of Pliny relating to the advantages to young men, of residing 
in their parents' families, during the period of their education. 

The epistolary style is one which presents considerable difficulties to 
the young student, in the solution of which, he will commonly need the 
assistance of judicious notes. His difficulties are, in general, of two 
kinds, such as relate to customs, and to historical and geographical facts, 
of which he is ignorant, and such as belong to the idiomatic character of 
the language. The former may often be best explained by reference in 
the notes to standard treatises, relating to these subjects. To remove the 
embarrassment arising from difficult idioms, three difftrrent courses, at 
times, are pureucd. The firat, is to translate all difTicult imssages; the 
second, to give philological notes explanatory of idioms and phrases; and 
the third, to refer to grauunnra in which they are explained. The firat, 
which is the one generally adopted by the editor of this work, serves iHJt 
little purpose lieyond removing the difficulty in hand, — it does not teach 
the student how to surmount other and siuiilar difficulties. The other 
modes therefore, and especially the last, whenever it can l»e adopted, 
seems to us the preferable mode, as it leads the learner to the acquisi- 
tion of philological principles of extensive application, in his subsequent 
progress in the classics. 



ft88 Nattees of Booki. 



Thb Ltceum Arithmetic, in three parts, each adapted to dif« 
ferent ages and classes; prepared for Common Schools, High 
Schools, and Academies. By an experienced Teacher. Boston: 
William Peirce. 1835. 18mo. pp. 248. 

This work is divided into three courses ; ndnpted to pupils at different 
stages of their progress. The first part contains examples of the most 
simple arithmetical operations, with all the necessary explanations. The 
second part applies the same principles to more difficult examples, and 
presents rules, following a series of examples, to explain the mofle of ope- 
ration, and fix it in the memory, instead of the ordinary, but ahsunl prac- 
tice of giving an abstract rule in the first place. The third part requires 
the pupil to review the elementary principles, apply them to new ex- 
amples, and then proceed to the higher rules. Mental and written arith- 
metic are combined. There is abundant evidence that this is the work 
of * an experienced teacher.' The illustratiuns are so omple, that they 
will serve as an imfiortant aid to the inexperienced ; and will render ex- 
planations unnecessary to an intelligent pupil. 

We feel the more confidence in this work because we know that the 
plan was tried, and found useful, both to t^acller« and pupils, before its 
publicotion ; and was revised and corrected, afler it hod thus been tested 
by experiment. 

Pinnock's Improved Edition of Dr. Goldsmith's History or 
Enolaxd, 6lc. ; with a continuation to the year of 1833. With 
questions for examination, — notes and engravings. Philadelphia : 
Key & Uiddle. 18:34. L2mo. pp. 454. 

This 18 a new edition of Goldsmith*s Enirland, benutifully executed ; 
ond illustrated with a number of fine ongruvings. The questions and 
notes will increase it£i value to most schools ; and it is much to l>e pre- 
ferred to the old editions. We must, however, enter our protest, against 
presenting a work ho well estublislied, * revised and corrected,' by on 
anonymous JImerican editor. If his name is not deemed worthy of ap- 
pearinir on the title page, or if he is unwilling to be rcf^ponsible for the 
alterations he has mnde, and to nrknowledge their amount and nature, 
it will necessarily impair the confidence of those who know anything of 
the mysteries of book-making. 



;:- AMERICAN 

ANNALS OF EDUCATION 

AND INSTRUCTION. 



JULY, 1835. 



DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 




The benevolence of an nd vdual exened for the beneSt of 
the aborig nes of our cou itry gaie r se to one of Is most venera- 
ble and useful insiiiuiions — Dartmolth College. Iq the 3'ear 
1743, Samson Occum, a Mohegan Indian, who afterwards became 
a worthy and acceptable preacher, solicited admission into aa 
English school taught by the Rev. EleazarWheelock, of Lebanon, 
Coonectlcut. The success of the experiment with Occum, in- 
duced Dr. Wheelock to form the plan of an Indian missionary school. 
Two boys of the Delaware tribe entered the school in 1754. In 
1762, the number of Indian pupils had increased to more than 30. 

TOL. T. KO. Til. 25 



SOO Origin of the. College. 

Many of his pupils were sent out as missionaries and school 
masters among their brethren in the wilderness ; and the school 
acquired so generally the confidence of the Indians themselves, 
that a larger number desired to have their children educated, and 
to receive teachers and missionaries, than the funds allowed. 
Private subscriptions, and grants from the legislatures of Mas* 
sachusetts and Connecticut, and from the commissioners of the 
Scotch Society for the Promotbn of Christian Knowledge, were 
obtained for their maintenance. Among other contributions, a 
fiumer, by the name of Moor, made a donation of a house and 
land contiguous to Dr. Wheelock's, in consequence of which, the 
institution received the name of Moor's Indian Charity School. 

In 1766, the increasing demands and hopes of the institution 
mduced Dr. Wheelock to employ the Rev. Mr. Whittaker, and 
his first pupil, the Rev. Samson Occum, to visit Great Britain, 
in order to solicit funds for prosecuting their benevolent designs. 
The Earl of Dartmouth and others were appointed by Dr. Whee- 
lock, trustees of the funds, which finally amounted to £10,000 
sterling, with authority to fix on the site for the school. As it 
increased, it was deemed best to remove it nearer to the Indians ; 
and as the largest tracts of land were offered for its endowment in 
New Hampshire, it was finally established at Hanover, on the 
Connecticut river. In opposition to the views of the trustees. 
Dr. Wheelock resolved to establish a college in connection with 
the school, for which a charter was granted in 1769, but which 
was kept entirely distinct from the seminary for the Indians. 

Thus New Hampshire is indebted to the Christian benevolence 
of a single individual, for an institution which has produced some 
of the most distinguished ornaments of the state and the country, 
and has furnished a regular supply of well qualified men to fill her 
professions and ofiices. . 

In 1770, Dr. Wheelock removed to Hanover with his pupils, 
although a few log houses were the only shelter provided for him- 
self and family, now amounting to 70 persons. A small, two 
story, frame college was soon erected. The first commencement 
of the college was held in 1771, at which four students graduated. 
Of the whole number of students at this period, 24 were destined 
to be missionaries, of whom six only were Indians. 

Experience, however, proved in this case, as at Harvard, and 
in other attempts of the kind, that the plan of a distinct institution 
for the Indians could not be sustained. Of 40 Indian youth who 
had been under Dr. Wheelock's care, 20 had returned to the vices 
of savage life. The reasons for this result have been so fully ex- 
hibited by Mr. Schoolcraft in his essay on this subject, published 
in a recent number of the Annals, that it should excite no sur- 



Recent BUicry. 891 

prise. But Dr. Wbeelock felt it necessary on this account, even 
to the welfare of the Indians, to establish a school in connection 
with this to prepare young men already imbued with the habits 
and spirit of civilization, to become teachers and missionaries 
among them. Notwithstanding every discouragement however, 
the fruits of Dr. Wheelock's labors are abundantly evident. The 
Oneida and Mohawk Indians, who are among the roost civilized in 
our country, owe their improvement chiefly to his pious efibrts. 

The first President Wheelock died in 1772, after having been 
engaged in the instruction of the Indians thirty-four years, and 
president of the college nine years. He was succeeded by his 
son, nominated by his will, as allowed by the charter, who con- 
tinued in oflice thirty-four years. In 1815 he was removed, and 
the Rev. Francis Brown appointed in his place. In the year 
following, an act was passed by the legislature of New Hampshire, 
appointing a new board of trustees and overseers, to assume the 
direction of the college. This act was considered unconstitutional 
by the former trustees, as violating their charter. The students, 
almost without exception, still attended the instruction of the old 
professors. Other buildings were provided, and the exercises and 
commencement of the college proceeded under Presid^t BrOwa 
with the usual regularity. After several years of litigation between 
the contending bodies of officers, it was finally decided by the 
Supreme Court of the United States, that the act appointing a new 
body of trustees was unconstitutional, and that the direction of the 
funds and aflairs of the college, belonged of right to the trustees 
appointed in accordance with the original charter. It is a subject 
of congratulation to the friends of learning, that by the decision in 
thisj as in some other cases, attempts to interfere with the organ- 
izisition of established literary institutions, in order to render them 
the mere appendages to the movements of party, have been dis- 
appointed. Here, if anywhere, there should be an insurmountable 
barrier established against the changing influence of the political 
world, that there may be at least one impartial, independent tribu- 
nal, for the investigation of truth. Even despots have usually 
respected the privilege of the republic of letters, to direct their 
own affairs ; and our country are deeply indebted to the men who 
had the courage to resist injustice, even when clothed with legis- 
lative authority. 

The buildinors of Dartmouth Collec^e were erected in the last 
century ; and it has received moderate but important endowments, 
from the legislatures of Vermont and New Hampshire, as well as 
from private munificence. Its situation in the interior of our coun- 
tt}', necessarily prevented its becoming a brilliant and crowded 
institution ; but its hardy sons derived from the neighboring states. 



Tramactions of the American Lyceum. 

were well prepared to employ with energy in the service of their 
country all the talents cultivated or bestowed by their alma mater. 
The whole number of graduates since tiie foundation of the insti- 
tution is about 1800, of whom 480 became ministers, and many 
have occupied important and conspicuous stations in public and 
private life. It contains about 150 students, under the care of 10 
instructors. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN LYCEUM. 

BSPORT or THE CORHESPONDING SECRETARY ON LTCEUMI, T. DWIGHT, JR. ESQ. 

NEW YORK, MAY 8, 1835. 

The American Lyceum was formed in May, 1831, by a Con- 
vention of I>elegates from several -state and local lyceums, and 
friends of education from different parts of the country, assembled 
at the call of the Lyceum of the State of New York. Its objects 
were declared by the Constitution to be, the promotion of educa- 
tion, particularly by means of common schools; but the adoption 
of measures in the prosecution of the design, was chiefly entrusted 
to an Executive Committee, residing in this city and its vicinity. 
That Committee have always found a difficulty in impressing upon 
the friends of knowledge around them, the feasibility of effecting 
great ends, by means within reach, and of course, had felt the em- 
barrassment naturally arising from the want of such co-operation as 
might otherwise have been afforded. Long attention to the objects 
of the society, however, and some experience in prosecuting them, 
have convinced the Committee, that perseverance is their duty, 
and that only a little acquaintance with their plans, and the facts 
in their possession, are needed to enlist in their favor numerous 
patrons, as well as many more co-operators than have yet pre- 
sented themselves. 

It is very easy to prove, that there are millions in our country 
anxious to obtain useful knowledge ; and that hundreds of men, 
well qualified to communicate it, might be induced to impart it, 
in such forms and modes, as might render it most acceptable and 
roost useful. The first creation of the American Lyceum attracted 
the attention of intelligent persons in different parts of the Union; 
and its first invitation was promptly replied to far in the West, by 
the organization of a branch at Detroit. Delegates have come 
from Illinois to attend ain annual meeting, anxiously pressing the 
adoption of energetic measures, as well as asking informatioD for 
the successful prosecution of Lyceums in the West. Other dele- 
gations and more numerous correspondents from diArent states, 



EtM^s PmUiihed. MB 

mnd from a variety of associations and individuals, have reiterated 
die declaration, that the country is in need of such in6uences as 
we have wished to exert, and prepared to co-operate in such mea- 
sures, as we desire to pursue. Among the numerous replies which 
have been received to invitations sent out to distinguished writers, 
for essays to be presented at the annual meetings, gratifying evi- 
dence has been afforded of the productive resources of intellectual 
powers at our command ; so that while the demand is evidently 
great, the supply appears to be sufficiently abundant, and easily 
accessible. Not a few of our distinguished statesmen and eminent 
professional men, as well as those more immediately devoted to 
science and literature, are ready to withdraw from their engrossing 
occupations, and to devote thought and labor to the diffusion of 
sound knowledge, and correct sentiments, among the numerous 
local associations to which we have access. And what can be 
more encouraging to a friend of his countr}', while it must be truly 
gratifying both to the giver and the recipient, than such a friendly 
and harmonious intercourse between individuals often personally 
unknown to each other ? 

The Executive Committee, as has been remarked, have been 
left to select such a course as they might find most expedient, in 
directing the operations of the Society. They have, therefore, 
pursued this part of their general plan with particular activity, be- 
cause circumstances have thus far chiefly favored it. At the 
three preceding annual meetings, they have laid before the Ly- 
ceum Essays on the following subjects, contributed by authors 
whose names are given. 

On the Orthography of the English Language, by Wm. R. 
Weeks, D. D., of Newark. 

On Monitorial Schools, by Walter R. Johnson. 

On the Study of our Constitution and Political Institutions in 
Common Schools, by the Hon.Theodore Frelinghuysen, of Newark. 

Primary Education in Spain, by J. A. Pizarro, of Baltimore. 

School Discipline, by Prof. John Griscom, of Providence. 

Early Education, by J. M. Keagy, of Philadelphia. 

The use of the Bible in Common Education^ by Tho's S. 
Grimke, of Charleston, S. C. 

Vocal Music, as a branch of Common- Education, by Wm. C. 
Woodbridge, of Boston. 

On Education, by George P. McCulloch, of Morristown, N. J. 

On the Chippewa Language, by Dr. Edwin James, of Albany. 

On the Improvements of Common Instruction, by Dr. Wm. 
R. Weeks, of Newark. 

A sketch of Education in Mexico, by Senor Juan Rodriguez^ 
member of the Mexican Congress. 

♦25 



SEM ' Correspondenee.-^Texi Books. 

On Geology, by Dr. Comstock, of Hartford, Conn. 

On the Study of Physiology in Common Schools, by Dr. Wm. 
A. Alcott, of Boston. 

On raising the Standard of Female Education, by Mrs. L. H. 
Sigoumey, of Hartford, Conn. 

On Education in Mexico, its History, Condition and Prospects, 
by the Hon. Lorenzo H. Zavala, Mexican Minister to France. 

On the means for Promoting Civilization and Education among 
the Western Indians, by Henry R. Schoolcraft, Esq., of Mackinaw. 

On Literature and Education in Poland, by Augustus Yakou- 
busky, a young exile from Podolia. 

On the higher branches of Eklucation in Cuba, by Justo Velez, 
Rector of the principal College of Havana. 

In addition to these, a number of valuable written communica- 
tions have been received on the history and condition of local 
lyceums in different parts of the country, which are preserved 
entire, and extracts from which have been published. 

Most of the Essays just mentioned have been published in the 
numbers of the American Annals of Education, to the intelligent 
Editor of which, the Lyceum have been indebted, not only for the 
use of his pages as their official channel of publication, but also 
for a liberal arrangement, which enabled them to circulate thou- 
sands of pamphlets, containing separate copies of n:any of tliem, 
to all parts of the Union, and to several foreign countries. 

But this form of operation has not been the only one in which 
the Society have engaged, even with the limited means at their 
command. Besides a correspondence and personal intercourse 
with numerous friends of knowledge, both at home and abroad, to 
which the existence of the Lyceum has given rise, interesting dis- 
cussions have been held at the annual meetings, on questions of 
prominent, practical interest at the present day, reports of which 
have been published to some extent ; and the influence, so far as 
has been known, has been decidedly salutary. The information 
requested and received from delegates of literary societies, some- 
times at a great distance, which has been obtained every year, has 
been listened to with pleasure, aud remembered with benefit. The 
impressions made by these meetings on individuals, has thus, in 
various instances, been strong, and appeared to increase the zeal of 
those already much devoted to the common cause of diffusing 
useful knowledge among nil classes of our countrymen. 

Among the effects of the Society's operations, may be men- 
tioned the appearance of a text book for schools, the Outlines of 
Constitutional Law, published by the President, at the request of 
the Lyceum. A premium of $300 has also been offered by their 
authority, for the best text and class book on Human Physiology, 



Pkm$ of the Lyetum. 996 

most of the competitors for wbicb, it is believed^ have delayed 
sending in their productions on account of notices seasonably pub- 
lisbed, of a prolongation of the period allowed for their reception, 
which the Executive Committee thought it proper to decide upon. 

It has been considered expedient to present the foregoing de- 
tail concerning the history and prospects of the Society, because 
not a few of the delegates and other members expected this year, 
have never before favored the Lyceum with their presence ; and 
the account, long as it may appear, is much more brief than a peru- 
sal of the journal of the previous annual meetings, and the minutes 
of the Executive Committee would furnish. 

The time would fail, if even a brief analysis should be attempted 
of the reasons which have recommended to the Executive Com- 
mittee, and the Lyceum, the numerous measures they have at 
various times contemplated and proposed. It must suffice to give 
a mere list, as well of those on which resolutions have been 
adopted at the annual meetings, as of such as the Committee have 
approved and determined actively to prosecute, when opportunities 
shall allow. 

Among these we may particularize the plan of employing 
agents, whenever it shall be in our power ; the formation of a cen- 
tral cabinet of Natural History by contributions, and a system of 
exchanges for the furnishing of cabinets for local lyceums in every 
village and town, for which plan was to be invited the co-opera- 
tion of travellers and navigators ; the promotion of a friendly and 
careful co-operation between schools.; the general introduction of 
apparatus; the addition of vocal music to the branches of common 
education, as well as the study of the principles of our laws and 
national constitution, natural history, and the rudiments of civil 
history, particularly that of the United States. It has also been 
proposed, to present to local lyceums an uniform plan for keeping 
meteorological tables, to form town maps, to collect and preserve 
the materials of local history, and to beautify village scenery. 
Nothing is now needed but a limited amount of funds, to carry 
into effect one of the most feasible plans proposed by the Executive 
Committee, viz., the collection of the best essays from local lyce- 
ums, the publication of such, as a committee shall select, and 
their general distribution among all the associations connected 
with us. 

It will be easily inferred from the preceding remarks, that the 
Executive Committee and the Lyceum, whenever they have de- 
liberately considered the intellectual condition of the country, and 
the modes of improving it, have regarded the need of action as 
imperious, and the accomplishment of their wishes as practicable. 
And who, with such facts before him as the Society have been 



896 Corrupondenii of tk§ Lyceim. 

made acquainted with, can suppose, either that the neoesBity ior its 
exertions has not increased, or that the efficacy of such measures 
as it has contemplated has become doubtful ? The population of 
our country is daily and rapidly increasing, and with it, the insuf- 
Bciency of the existing means of diffusing knowledge. Happily, 
however, a conviction of the necessity of co-operation for this great 
object is not diminished, but rather increased, so that the Lyceum 
may confidently rely on the support of a much larger number of 
individuals and associations in our land now, in any judicious plans 
it may propose, than it could have done in any previous year. 

While we have to regret the absence of some of those whose 
presence would be highly welcome at our annual meetings, allow- 
ance should be made for the active and constant engagements of 
many who are most interested in its objects, and especially the 
instructors of youth. The officers of colleges and the teachers of 
academies and schools, are seldom able to absent themselves from 
their appropriate sphere of duty, even for a short period : and as 
for the friends of knowledge in this city, the pressing duties of their 
avocations allow few of them even a single day of entire leisure. 
While, therefore, few have sometimes been present at our anni- 
versaries, many have felt, while absent, a warm interest in our 
objects and success, as letters annually received continue to testify. 

Among the interesting information received from abroad, are 
accounts of the successful labors of the Patriotic Society of Cuba, 
a branch of which has diligently fostered the schools, and founded 
a public library in the city of Matanzas. 

We have to lament the death of one of our esteemed friends in 
that Island, Dr. Jusio Velez, Rector of the principal college of 
Havana, and author of the sketch of higher education in Cuba, 
published by the Lyceum a few months since. We have also to 
regret the absence of a highly intelligent friend who took a lively 
interest in our previous annual me(?tin*rs, Don Tomas Gener, the 
last president of the Constitutional Cortes of Spain, eleven years an 
exile in this city, and recently returned to Cuba ; but his devoted 
character affords us the consolation of reflecting, that he, like our 
other absent friends, will still be an active promoter of the impor- 
tant objects which we have in view, and that the news of our pro- 
ceedings ' will awaken in him a lively pleasure, in his distant 
retreat. 

Though we miss some from our number this year, whom we 
would rejoice to meet with the return of this day, we have the 
satisfaction of welcoming one of our warmest foreign friends, 
Senor L. H. Zavala, late minister from Mexico to France, whose 
timely arrival enables him to present himself once more among us, 
and whose devotion to the promotion of general intelligeoce aaiODg 



Dameitie Carrtspondenee, 397 

bis countrymen, so strongly attested in his valuable essay on Edu« 
cation in Mexico, heretofore published by the Lyceum, we may 
presume, has been rather increased than weakened by his visit 
to Europe. 

Among the correspondence which has been held during the 
year, some of it has related to the operations in several States, for the 
improvement of the systems of common education. On this sub- 
ject something has been accomplished, and more has been pro- 
posed and attempted, in several different States. Time, however, 
will allow us now merely to allude to a few particulars. We may 
mention the provision made in New York for the education of 
teachers in eight of the academies, the foundation of hbraries in 
the school districts, and the continued prosperity of our system, 
in those points which are reached by the laws. We may refer, 
also, to the plan proposed to the legislature of Massachusetts for 
the distribution of the income of her school fund, — now beginning 
to be productive — a plan embracing some features probably supe- 
rior to our own ; and that proposed in Illinois, apparently formed 
with much intelligence. It is to be regretted that no change has 
been made in the system of New Jersey, although a committee 
of the legislature introduced a report, proposing a repeal of the 
present injurious law, and the appointment of an agent to collect 
information, preparatory to the adoption of a better. 
^ Some of the correspondence of the past year has related to the 
movements made in favor of Lyceums in several different parts of 
the Union. The New York City Lyceum has been formed within 
a few months, under highly favorable auspices ; and the associa- 
tions previously existing in the vicinity, have continued to flourish, 
and offer still more flattering prospects ; while we find a strong 
tendency gradually to niultiply their number, in the country around 
us. But the most general interest at present prevails in some of 
the Southern States. Lyceums have been taken up with spirit in 
Georgia and South Carolina, advocated in the latter state by the 
late lamented Tliomas S. Grimke, one of the ablest contributors to 
our list of essays. In other places, also, Baltimore and Philadel- 
phia, particularly, evidence will be furnished to show, that much 
has been attempted, and something important effected, by the 
labors of one of the most active of our oflicers. 

The foreign correspondence continues to afford gratifying infor- 
mation, particularly concerning the exertions of some of the patri- 
otic South Americans; among whom. General Santander and the 
Hon. Joaquin Mosquera, the President and late Vice President of 
New Grenada, hold most prominent stations. As extracts from 
their letters and publications will be read, it is necessary only to 
add bere^ (bat the latter, who may justly be denominated the most 



998 Foreign Cvrrttpomimce. 

distinguished champion of common education on the Western 
Coniinent, has left the second office in the state within a month, 
with the 6xed intention of devoting the remainder of his life exclu-* 
sively to the multiplication and improvement of schools, and the 
promotion of knowledge and virtue among his countrymen, de- 
pending on his own resources alone, and laboring only for the love 
of doing good. 

The report of the Minister of the Interior and of Instruction of 
Venezuela, in 1834, informs us that the provincial government 
have already given a powerful influence to primary instruction 
under the new laws. Regulations for the schools have already 
been adopted in most of the provinces ; and schools have been 
established in the larger places. The system suffers most from 
want of funds ; but the object aimed at is, to form a school in every 
neighborhood. Public opinion is improving, and there is already 
a prospect that the next generation will be much more enlight- 
ened, and more friendly to education, than any preceding one. 

Information has been received, through a correspondent at Ca- 
raccas, that the government continues to make laudable exertions 
for ti)e promotion of education. In one of the provinces which 
was left destitute of a college, an institution of that kind has been 
ordered to be formed forthwith, by a decree which 6xes the num- 
ber and sularics of officers, course of studies, &£C., and designates 
the buildings of 9 suppressed convent as the college edi6ce, while 
the income of the former community is to be appropriated, (as in 
many other cases in Venezuela,) to education. 

Primary schools appear also to receive much attention, under the 
enlightened administration of that interesting country ; and one has 
been established for some time in the city prison. 

The Society of Friends of the Country, which was formed 
several years, and has branches in different parts of the republic, 
continues actively to pursue the patriotic objects of its founders, in 
promoting intelligence and taste. Public notice is given, that they 
have opened an Academy of Design in the capital, where stu- 
dents of all classes and descriptions who can read and write, and 
are decently dressed, may attend instruction gratuitously every 
day, different hours being designated for artists and artizans. 

Since our last meeting, the American School Society has been 
formed in Boston, and only waits for the means and oppK>rtunity, 
to promote, with zeal and intelligence, the great objects of our 
association. The Lyceum cannot but view with cordiality, the 
enlistment of so respectable a Society in the objects they have so 
warmly at heart. 

At the last annual meeting, the Lyceum passed resolutions 
instructing the Executive Committee to form branches^ or depart* 



DtpartmmU ofih€ Lyetfum. S99 

ments, in the natural and moral sciences, literature, and the me- 
chanical and fine arts. This was done for the purpose of draw- 
iug forth the talents of persons interested in those subjects, for the 
benefit of the public, and to promote a mutual acquaintance, es- 
teem, and friendly co-operation between all the advocates, of 
knowledge and taste. It was thought that an annual assemblage 
of persons interested in the various departments, in our principal 
city, would have a happy influence on the country, as well as on 
our fellow citizens, so far as the objects proposed should be under- 
stood, and the results made known. A somewhat similar experi- 
ment has been tried in Ena;land, with a view to the diffusion of 
knowledge, and with favorable effect; and in this country, there is, 
at least, equal need of exertion to present knowledge and taste, as 
objects worthy of general attention ; and by popular essays and 
public discussions, and other suitable means, to place useful facts 
and well founded opinions within the reach of all who have leisure 
hours to protect from evil influences, or families to train to virtue 
and intelligence. The Lyceum were anxious to do, on a large 
scale, something like that which has been done by many local so- 
cieties, by enlistin;r the aid of persons engaged in professions, iden- 
tified with the cultivation of the mind. In many villa;;cs and 
towns, lyceums have received material assistance from gentlemen 
in the learned professions, artists, mechanics, and agriculturalists, 
as well as teachers and professors ; and from experience already 
had, it is evident that talent, learning, and a disposition to co- 
operate for the diffusion of knowle(l;4e, may be found in our coun- 
try, suiilcient to accomplish the wishes of the American Lyceum, 
in one way or anollier, whenever the objects proposed shall have 
been fairly and generally considered. 

In reply to requests made to gentlemen in different States, com- 
petent to furnish valuable essays on various topics, m:tny favorable 
expressions have been received ; and in several cases, prospects 
have been held out of ready compliance with invitations i^iven, by 
individuals whose communications have probably been delayed in 
reaching us in season for the present meeting. There seems, 
also, reason to anticipate, that the number of essays furnished, as 
well as the members present, will be hereafter increased, so that 
it may prove expedient to hold simultaneous meetings, at least 
during a part of the time occupied by the session, — a contingency 
which has been contemplated by the Executive Committee, as 
highly probable. In such a case, it may be confidently presumed, 
that those who may be interested in the departments, will realize, 
that the most liberal spirit has directed the measures taken by the 
Lyceum, and that while they invite co-operators, they wish to 
afford them every facility as well as liberty in their efforts. 



800 Foreign Correipandence of the Ijyceum. 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE ON THE ABIERICAN LYCEUM: 

Ejdractofa Utter from Gen. Santander, dated Bogota, Dec. 12, 1834. 

New Grenada, at present, enjoys the most perfect tranquillity 
throughout her extensive territory ; and some intellectual and 
physical improvements have been made. Public education and 
instruction have made excellent progress. The greater part of 
our nineteen provinces contain colleges, and some of them two. 
Three universities are in operation ; and about a thousand parishes 
have received their proportion of the ^,000 slates, and ^^00,000 
pencils, recently purchased by the goveniment in the United 
States, and the spelling books, catechisms, manuals of instruction, 
&c., provided by thimi. 

The Society of Elementary and Primary Education of Popayan, 
are laboring with activity, constancy and success, in this capi- 
tal, measures have been taken to found a Society of a similar 
character, and the Vice President, Mr. Mosquera, who presides 
over it, is determined to raise it to a high rank and influence. 

Extract of a letter from Gpii. P. A. Hkrran, of Venezuela, tcho became a 
soldier at the age of fourteen, and was, for many years, an ((fficer under 
Bolivar, 

Cartiiage^ta, Nov. 4, 1834. 

1 am extremely desirous to arrive at the end of my journey, 
(Bogota,) to set my plans on foot. Althou<;h I cannot count on 
the necessary skill, I have more than enough perseverance to effect 
something. As I have s|)eiit alinost n)y whole life in opposing 
the encnjies of my country, I have formed the habits of a soldier; 
and have resolved, as long as I live, in making war on ignoralnce. 
And is not this the most glorious kind of warfare ? 

Translation of a letter from Mr. Pedraz^, late President of the United 

Mexican Stutes. 

Mexico, March 30, 1835. 

To the Correwpondinif PeTetnry of the American livccuin. 

Esteemed Sir: — I have the pleasure of enclosing to you the 
only five numbers thus far published, of the Registro Trimestre, 
(the Quarterly Journal,) a periodical of this country, in which 
you will find the first fruits presented to the world by Mexican 
scholars. 

1 transmit them as well on this account, as because I think you 
will take interest in the descriptions the work contains, of plants 
and flowers peculiar to this coimtry. 

Your Friend, &c., MANUEL GOMEZ PEDRAZA. 

(To bo ooatinned.) 



The BUfh in Eiucaium. 301 

THE BIBLE IN EDUCATION. 

(Eztncted for the Annals of Edneatioo.) 

The sentiment is gaining ground^ that the Bible must be made 
a text book of the common school, and not be treated as if it bad 
nothing to do with common life and general knowledge. We 
have had the following extracts from some of our newspapers oq 
hand for some time, which are valuable for the sentiments^ as well 
OS for the indication of public opinion. 

THE BIBLE. 

' The Bible is the most intellectual book in the universe, if men 
will but believe it. Something must be wrong in the state of mind 
and heait of tiiat student, professing himself a Christian, who more 
easily gets a mental impulse from Homer than from Isaiah, or from 
Virgil than from the apostle John. Use the Bible for the purpose 
for which it was desij^ned by its Author, — to elevate and bring 
into exercise the intellectual powers, as well as to improve the 
heart. Why should not the college student, who, in the accom* 
plishmcnt of discipline to his mind, reads with delight Virgil, 
Cicero, and Homer, find like benefit and gratification in the study 
of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures? If a college instructor 
finds satisfaction in pointing out the beauties of the uninspired clas- 
sics, how much more, with a Christian heart, might he delight 
himself and instruct his class, in pointing out to them the beauties 
of the word of God, and assisting them to enter into the spirit 
of the history, poetry and eloquence of the Bible.' — Hooker's 
Address. 

THE BIBLE I.X SCHOOLS. 

' It is not enough that the Bible should be read by the master or 
mistress of the daily school, as an opening service, or that once a 
week it should supply the reading lesson. It should be studied as 
one of the most important subjects in the course of education. Its 
geography and antiquities should be more familiar than those of 
ancient Greece or Rome, and ought to be studied in connection 
with the text. Tiiere is a shameful ignorance of the history of 
the first ai^cs of the world and of their men. If the Bible were 
not a holy book, men would blush to be so uninformed as they 
are of the national history and polity of the Hebrews. Our chil- 
dren must be lau<;lit belter, if it be only for the sake of knowl- 
edge. But Christian parents will look still further. They will 
have their children trained to the moral as well as literary under- 

VOL. V. NO. VII. 26 



802 Ik Schoolt.^Far Ckiidrm. 

standing of the Scriptures. They will not be satisfied to have it 
a mere historical text book. They shall be taught that their first 
lesson is to obey God, and that till this is learned and practised, 
all other knowledge is but of transient consequence. 

THIC BIBLE rOR CHILDREN. 

* The idea, that children cannot be entertained as well as in- 
structed by the Bible, is nearly obsolete. The improvements in 
education have done much to produce this result. Children are 
now taught intelligibly in branches which it used to be thought 
they could not comprehend until they were more advanced in life, 
though it was necessary to instruct them in the words of the 
science while young. Teach children the Scriptures, with the ex- 
planations and illustrations which you would employ on other sub- 
jects in order to gain their attention, and they will love the Scrip- 
tures. Mr. Simpson, who has lately published a work on popular 
education, was assured by Mr. Wilderspin, the celebrated Infant 
school teacher and author, and the statement was confirmed by 
teachers of the Edinburgh Model Infant school, that wherever the 
children are allowed a choice of the kind of story to be told tbetn, 
the vote is almost invariably for a Scripture story. 

We should value, then, whatever draws a child to the Bible. 
The biographies of (he most eminent individuals, drawn out of the 
sacred books, containing, in one narrative, all the facts of the 
history, and all the explanations that would be necessary in read- 
ing the same facts to a child from the Bible, seem to us to be 
most precious helps for this purpose. Every one feels the advan- 
tage of having tha characters of the Bible brought fully and dis- 
tinctly to the mind, by contemplating them separately, and in all 
the different incidents of their lives. Sermons of this kind have 
always been found popular and instructive. They give, as it were, 
an identity to individuals, which is less perceived when we view 
them always in groups and at intervals. We have some valuable 
volumes of scriptural biography, and hope that this department 
will continue to be enriched, until it includes every important name 
in the sacred book.' 

THE BIBLE III COLLEGES. 

But we have been most deeply interested in the address of the 
Hon. H. L. Pinckney, of South Carolina, before the Bible 
Society of the University of Virginia, an institution designed by 
some of the projectors, to furnish an example of the power of un- 
aisisted human phUosophy, but whose officers, according to the 
account of Mr. Pinckney, have imbued it with the spirit of Chris- 



B CoUegei. 308 

tianity. We cannot withhold from our readers the following elo- 
quent extract ; — 

^Why is it that the Bible is not included in the scheme of edu- 
cation in all our colleges ? Wiiy are our youth left entirely to 
themselves on the great subject of religion ? Why is all other 
knowledge imparted, except that which is the most important ? 
Is the mind of more value than the heart, or the acquisition of 
learning, than the virtuous regulation of the life ? Is there no in- 
struction but in the struggles of ambition, or no enticement but in 
blood-stained fields ? Is there no truth but the revolting record of 
human crime and suffering ? No wisdom but politics ? No phi- 
losophy but metaphysics ? No poetry but profanity ? No ethics 
but scholastic rules ? Shall our youth be only imbued with secular 
literature ; and is there nothing in the sacred volume that can en- 
large their understandings, elevate tiieir imaginations, or refine their 
taste ? Is there a history more authentic or instructive — a ficti- 
tious narrative more interesting or attractive — a system of philoso- 
phy more profound — or of morality more pure ? Is it not the 
fount from which orators derive their imagery, and poets their 
inspiration ? Do we not live in a Christian land, and breathe, as it 
were, the very atmosphere of Christianity ? Is it not interwoven 
in the very elements of our society, in all the customs and insti- 
tutions of our country, and does it not enter essentially into the 
very texture of our laws, and all theoperationsof our government? 
Without its purifying and restraining influence, would not liberty 
degenerate into licentiousness, regulated society into the wildest 
anarchy, and vice and immorahty overspread the land? Is it not 
all important to our country, then, even in a civil and political 
point of view, that those who are to be the future legislators and 
rulers of the land, should be taught to legislate and govern in the 
fear of God ? Is that book beneath the dignity of a college which 
enlightened the minds and guided the lives of an Edwards, a 
Ramsay, and a Rush ; or unworthy the attention of American 
students, which constituted the pride of Wirt, and elicited the 
eulogy of the accomplished Jones ? But my limit forbids me to 
descant upon this topic. You, gentlemen, in binding the gospel 
to your hearts, and making it ' the man of your counsel,' have set 
an example well worthy of imitation ; and the day, I trust, is not 
far d'istant, when there will be multitudes of American youth, in 
all our colleges, whose minds, like yours, will be imbued with ' the 
knowledge that cometh from above;' whose hearts, like yours, 
will find more melody in the harp of Zion, than in all the profane 
poets of the age ; who will learn, like Milton, to drink of the wa- 



SM Natural Science in Common Schoob. 

ttn of Siloa's brook ; who will love, like Newton, to * look through 
nature up to nature's God ; ' who, like Locke, as they explore the 
arcana of the human, will bow with submission to the in6nite wis- 
dom of the Eternal Mind ; or who, should they ever be elevated 
to judicial stations, will learn, like Hale, to embellish the ermine 
with the beauty of reli*(ion, — and to add to the dignity and leam- 
iog of the Judge, the sublime philosophy of the gospel^ and the 
practical piety of tlje Christian !' 



NATURAL SCIENCE IN COMMON SCHOOLS. 

JSiMry on ike Introduction of the NtUural Snencea into Common Sehoois, 
Read at the Maeiing of the American Lyceum^ in May, 1833L 

Br Pfof. Dewet, of Pittsfield. 

[CORCLODEU.] 

y. Object of Education in Common Schools. 

On this part of the subject, I shall direct the attention of the 
Lyceum to the facts, and then advert to tlie improvements to be 
made. 

The least instruction intended to be given in any of tlie Com- 
mon schools, is reading, spelling, and writing. In the next 
higher grade of schools, there is given a partial knowledge, also, 
of English Grammar, and of the elementary rules of Arithmetic, 
with a very little Geography. In the next grade, all these 
branches arc studied in much greater perfection and extent, and 
perhaps, some History is read. 

In the highest of Common schools, and some select schools, are 
taught also. Rhetoric, some Philosophy and Chemistry, Arithmetk) 
fully, and some Latin and Greek. Tlie Academies and higher 
Grammar and Select schools, pursue all thesci studies, with Alge* 
fera. Logic, Sacred and Profane History, and some Mineralogy, 
Botany, &o. It is unnecessary to advert to the course of studies 
in the highest Select schools, as they come not into consideration 
here. 

The improvements which may be made in education, in Com- 
mon schools, without any reference to their government^ con«» 
sist in the more rapid, and early, and perfect acquisition of the 
studies usually attended to, and in the consequent introduction of 
more and difierent branches of education. The former improve* 



Gradual hupnnement of Schoob. 306 

fnent will be produced by the use of more easy and simple books, 
and by better modes of instruction. The improvement in books 
surpasses what was to have been expected ten years ago, and will 

Erobably be greatly increased. Colbum's First Lessons now ena- 
le children of twelve years, in some instances seven, to solve 
questions in Arithmetic, without the slate, which would exceed 
the powers of many a decent scholar of fifteen, with the slate ; and 
foi^ this simple reason, that the fonner has learned and understood 
the reasons of tlie operations. The later reading books for chil- 
dren make them familiar with reading and spelling in much less 
time than formerly. While the improvement in the mode of in- 
stniction has not kept pace with that in the books, it has begun, 
and is extending, and will continue to extend. It is already 
found, that children, of ten years, from the advantages enjoyed in 
the better schools, arc some years in advance of those in the better 
schools twenty years ago. A boy of six years, in my own school, 
has more know ledge than was often obtained by boys of twelve, 
some years since. In these cases we compare, of course, minds 
possessed of similar natural powers. 

Tiiis improvement will therefore make the next improvement 
necessary, viz., the introduction of more and different branches of 
study. Indeed, the improvement already made in some of the 
best common scliools, lias actually produced this result. Some 
parts of Natural History have often been the new studies, probably 
from their obvious advanta^^es to the mind. 

The real object of Instruction is — the training of the mind to 
such habits of thought, activity, and energy, that the individual 
may be able to apply his knowledge and powers readily and prof- 
itably, in the business and circumstances of life. It is not barely 
knowledge that does this. The mind may be made a mere store- 
house ; so that before the necessary knowledge can be looked up, 
the occasion for its application has passed away, because the mind 
has not become a distributor of the treasures committed to its care. 
Why else is it, that an active mind is so often an overmatch for 
one that possesses double the knowledge. Except the study of 
the Languar^es and Mathematics, I know of none superior to that 
of Natural History, in effecting that culture of the mind which will 
fit it for tlie duties of life. This should be the object of all educa- 
tion. This is the object in all the higher Schools and Colleges. 
The Languages and Mathematics are studied, not that one in 
twenty of the scholars may be a linguist or a mathematician, but 
that the mind may be fitted by discipline, for the advantageous em- 
ployment of its powers and acquisitions, in the business and duties 
of life. The sooner this is understood and made a business, in 

•26 



806 Meihodi of Siuiif. 

common education, the greater w31 be the improvement, and the 
higher the resulting benefits. 

VI. Methods of studying Natural History. 

There are two methods of describing natural objects. The Jint 
is called the systematic or scientific method, and the second, is the 
discursive or popular. In the former y the student becomes able 
to distinguish any natural object, from the descriptions given by 
naturalists. This is all that is taught in most of the scientijic 
works on Botany, Orniiljology, Entomology, &c. The teacher, 
however, will introduce many interesting facts on the other char- 
acteristics, properties, physiology, uses, applications, mode of life, 
'&c>, of the . objects described, 
r ''In. the latter method, the objects are described without the use 
of the peculiar tenns of science, and treated of as particular, insu- 
lated individuals, possessing certain peculiarities, following peculiar 
modes of life, or useful in some of the business or arts of life, or 
in increasing the conveniences and happiness of man. 

On the scientijic method, the student must be 2l practical natu- 
ralist. He must not only understand the terms and principles of 
the science and of classification, but must have learned to analyze 
the object on scientific principles. 

Many a person may, for instance, be well acquainted with the 
principles and terms of Botany, who can poorly apply these prin- 
ciples and technicalities, because he has not practised on his 
kno\yled<ie, and may not be acquainted, tcicntifcally, with fifty 
plants. But a man may have become acquainted, scientifically, with 
a multitude of plants, and yet have confined his attention almost 
wholly to the name and technical description of them. He may 
thus know all the grasses, native and cultivated in a country, and 
yet be very ignorant of those economical facts in relation to them, 
which givo them real value in the estimation of the agricultu- 
ralist. The knowledge obtained in the popular method, except 
for the advantages of arrangement and habitual discrimination, 
may, in truth, be far the most valuable. Unless the syste- 
matic method is connected with experiments, as in Chemistry, this 
difference l>etween the two methods will exist to a great extent. 

In the popular method, however, the study is liable to be pur- 
sued without specimens ; and the youth is unable to retain his 
knowledge, because it is not associated with any object, visible or 
tangible. 

If we consider their value in education, the two methods should 
be united. If only one can be pursued, the popular method will 
be adopted in schools. If the two are united, the advantages of 
both will be possessed. In Mineralogy ^nd Geology, both are^ or 



Cm Children undentand Ul 307 

may be, united. Botany and Conchology, he, must be taught 
on the icientific plan ; but much of the popular should be uitro- 
duced into them. The knowledge of animab, as quadrupedsi 
birds, fishes, rept'des, will be chiefly studied in these schools on 
the popular plan. The union of the two methods has been sue* 
cessfully attempted by many lecturers. On this fact, depends 
no small share of their celebrity. The fact must convince us, that 
the popular method possesses great attractions. Like the needle 
to the mariner, by night and by day, in storm and calm, in flat- 
tering breezes or dangerous tempests, science will be the director ; 
while the popular methods will be like the thousand circumstances 
which contribute to make the voyage delightful. 

VII. Arc children capable of understanding any considerable 
part of Natural Science ? 

The answer to this question may be given in some particulars. 

1. The knowledge obtained from Natural History, is that of 
things, fads, and relations, Tlie objects themselves, are things, 
visible and tangible. Their qualities, properties, and applications, 
are facts, obvious, or easily appreciated ; and their connections^ 
uses, and modes of existence, imply relations as well as facts, 
equally within the range of ordinary intellect. 

2. The great business of children, from their very infancy, is 
acquiring the knowledge of things, and facts, and relations. In 
the ordinary course, they make slow progress after they become 
four or (ivQ years of age, until they renew, in their subsequent 
course, their former activity, in acquiring this same knowledge. 
They have learned the things, and facts, and relations, among the 
objects al)out them ; and for the kind of knowledge thus attained, is 
substituted that of letters and words, arbitrary marks and char' 
acters, and signs of sounds. It is not wonderful that they should 
make slow progress, when words, the conventional and arbitrary 
signs of ideas, fail to excite in their minds, from their ignorance 
of the things, the ideas of which the words are desi«:ned to be the 
signs. How thoroughly have teachers and bookmakers for chil- 
dren forgotten, till of late years, that words are the signs of ideas, 
only to him who has the ideas, and has associated the two to- 
gether. Hence it is, that the recent reading books for children 
derive their great advantage. Tliis accounts, too, for the great 
benefit, (much as the subject has been ridiculed by some who 
learned in an earlier age — through the influence of a materia/ stimu- 
lus applied to them,) of placing the figure of an object near the 
word which is its sign. How often are children knoum to read 
without know ledge, because the words are not tlie signs to them 
of any ideas. 



dOd Practieability of this Study. 

Now, the introduction of the ohjects of Natural History w3f 
lead on children in the course in which they begun ; and they 
will proceed to acquire the same kind of knowledge, — thirfgs, foctSy 
and relations. Their words will multiply as rapidly as their ideas. 
Peter Parley's Tales of Europe, America, &ic., and many reading 
books on animals, vegetables, &;c., will here come in to fill up the 
time of reading children in school. 

Entirely conclusive as those reasons are on this point, facts are 
consistent with them. Children have not been made naturalists ; 
but they have acquired much interesting knowledge of plants, 
minerals and animals. It has boon well said, that * thousands of 
children know more about geology and mineralogy, than w^s 
probably known thirty years since by any one of five individuals 
in the United States.' This knowledge is certainly altogether less 
difficult than that which they attain of their moral and religious 
relations and duties, or of the indications of the thoughts and feel- 
ings of the mind, by the voice, and countenance, and actions. 

These remarks seem to me to remove the objection of scientific 
naturalists, to the introduction of iliis study into common schools. 

VIII. Practicability of this study in Common Schools. 

This discussion must have convinced us of the practicable nature 
of this object, if tliere are suitable books and competent teachers. 
These are the only obstarles to be removed. 

1. Of Books. In ihe popular method, many suitcible works 
have already been prepared, not perfect indeed, but possessing 
great value. They have already begun to be used in many a 
school. In the scientljic method, there is a smaller number of 
books. Several, however, might be mentioned. I notice only 
one ; * Lessons in Botany,' by E. Davis, Principal of the 
Academy at Westfield, Mass. Tliis is a little work, cheap, and 
admirably adapted to the object. The Report of the Committee 
on the most appropriate School Books, will doubtless contain an 
important catalogue. 

2. Of Teachers. The instructors of Common schools are very 
deficient in this knowledge. I si)eak not this to their reproach, or 
to censure them. They have had few means of improvement in 
this particular. Their defects are often great, and far less ex- 
cusable in other particulars. The Lectures on School-keeping, by 
Hall, and others, and the light thrown upon the subject by the 
Annals of Education, and other works, are rapidly removing 
much of the ground for excuse. 

The remedy, is the improvement in the qualifications of teachers. 
Some means may be employed with advantage. 1. Explicit and 
reiterated declarations of the deficiency of teachers, wherever it b 



Cautions to Teachm. 909 

palpable. In this way, the deficiencies will be seen by comparison 
with the standard presented. No modesty, no chanty, no indif- 
ference, should be permitted to interfere with this duty, for a mo- 
ment. The education of children, of the children of the common 
people, who are, in truth, to sway, under God, the destinies of 
this great country, is an object of too much importance and moral 
grandeur, to be hazarded longer by the employment of unqualified 
teachers. 

2. By the education of teachers, in the schools designed for this 
purpose. Several of these have been comnienced ; and, it is 
hoped, that many more will make this one part, and a prominent 
part, of their purpose. 

3. By the greater pecuniary compensation of well qualified 
and faithful teachers. The example must be given by those dis- 
tricts, where the children are more advanced in study, and where 
there is niore interest, as well as more ability to reward the com- 
petent and persevering teacher. In this way, the general tone of 
the system will be raised, and stronger pulsations will begin to 
beat, even to the extremities. The pitiful calculations of a few 
cents in the cost of education, will be abandoned, when the money 
b paid for more valuable instruction. 

Let these two obstacles be removed, want of proper books, and 
of qualified teachers, and the thing will be eflfected ; for parents 
will then provide llie means to make the knowledge more easy 
and interesting. Tlie minerals will be looked up, and laid away 
for future comparison ; some apparatus for experiments will be 
provided ; plants and shells will be collected, and specimens of birds, 
beasts, reptiles, &r., will be referred to. Whenever improvement 
in the education of children shall make the expense of apparatus 
and otlier means necessary, parents will provide for that expense. 

IX. Cautions to Teachers, 

There may be in this case, as well as in others, a failure to in- 
terest children. If a teacher does not feel the necessity of exciting 
interest in his pupils, and is not resolved to make the efifort, no 
instruction will enable him to do it. General rules can have no 
special influence. Some cautions may, perhaps, be profitable. 

1. Too much may be attempted. The greatness of an object 
often discourages children. They will do much in a day, if well 
employed, provided they do not see too much to be done. Only 
a small part of the plan need be exhibited at once. 

2. The allotted hours of recreation cannot usually be appro* 
priated to Natural History, or be the only time to be employed 
upon it. This must be made a part of regular study, and hold its 



810 Liability to Abuse. 

own appropriate place and time. When the attention is arrested, 
the pupil will gladly employ the hours of recreation or leisure in 
the collection of shells, minerals, and flowers, and make the survey 
of fields and woods, valleys and hills, both exercise and study. 

3. The Ttacher niust employ his hour of recreation with the 
school, when he expects them to do it. His own example must 
be seen and felt, if he would have any good influence. His lan- 
guage must not be, * Go ye/ but ^Let us go.^ 

X. Liability to abuse. 

The attention to Natural History may be svperficiaL The lia- 
bility to this abuse, it shares, indeed, in common with many others. 
Perhaps there is more danger where the subject is new, or not 
perfectly understood, or removed from ordinary studies of the 
school. The advantages of the study will not be so readily ap- 
prehended by parents, unless the influence upon the memory, 
taste, judgment, power of discrimination, activeemployment of the 
mind, is made apparent. Hence the greater necessity of leading 
a pupil to understand the meaning of a word, when a word is the 
subject, to apprehend the thing, when a thing is concerned, or a 
property or quality, as well as the name of it, with the applica- 
tion, or use of each. To effect this, will renuire the full employ- 
ment of the two crowning qualifications oi a teacher, patience 
and perseverance in instruction. 

The disposition of some in society to ridicule the acquisitions of 
children on this and siniiiar subjects, is to be considered a benefit 
to the cause, by being a stimulus to higher exertion and more full 
success. VVe should all be aware how much is dependent upon 
the teacher himself, for a successful development of the benefits 
of this study. A failure in many cases, may he expected. And 
in other cases, success may be fluctuating, — for a time highly grati- 
fying, and for another period, less encouraging. But with equal 
talent for instruction, and equal diligence, this is not to be expected. 
When it occurs, we may, from this remark, be led to attribute the 
failure, not so much to the difliculties in the subject itself, as to 
a deficiency of mental energy and application. 

I have now presented to the Lyceum, those views upon thb 
subject which have made it interesting to my mind. Many re- 
marks have been made, which are applicable to instruction in all 
the branches of education in schools. This resulted from the 
fact, that instruction is so much the same in all its departments. 
The subject is one of great interest in education. I trust that the 
Lyceum will prosecute the subject with all the zeal which is de« 



Phytieal Education. 31 1 

manded by the high interests of the canunon people, the bone and 
sinew of the country, the strength of our strength now. When 
raised to that point of intellectual and religious cultivation, of which 
they are capable, they vnU be the glory of the only rational^ po^ 
litical association on the globe. 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION. 



(Extrtct from an Addren delivered by request of the TruRtecs of tbe Jackson Academy, Tenii*, 

by Abram Litton, £•«.) 

' Education should not be limited to the culture of the intel- 
lect, but it should also include the imbuing of the mind with the 
principles of virtue — the inculcation of its practice, and the full 
development of tiie corporeal powers. The body, which is the 
palace of the soul and the instrument of the mind, would, though 
they were not indissolubly bound and united together, deserve to 
be fitted up in a manner becoming the dignity and the grandeur of 
its inmate. But need we, to prove the intimate connection, and 
the sympathizing relation between mind and body, point to the 
mutual influence which they exercise over each other? Need we 
tell of the bright beaming with which joy causes the face to glow 
— the crimson blush with which shame can tinge it — the snow- 
white paleness with which fear overspreads it — the smiling expres- 
sion, the elasticity, and the energy of action which hope awakens, — 
and the listlessness and inactivity which despondency creates ? 
Need we tell of the quickened pulse which surprise excites, and 
the irresistible strength with which enthusiasm can nerve the mus- 
cles, and invigorate the system ? Have not all experienced the 
dull languor of the intellect, and the sluggishness of its operations, 
when afflicted with bodily infirmity. 

Need we paint the irritability, the moroseness, the phantoms of 
superstition, and the eccentric inconsistencies which, caused by 
hypochondria, obscured the giant intellect of Johnson — the hal- 
lucinations, the religious despondency, and the morbid sensibility 
which, arising from ill health, embittered the life of Cowper — the 
intemperance and the glaring faults connected with dyspepsia, which 
darkened the bright genius of Burns — ^the melancholy, the mis- 
anthropy and perverted feelings caused by epilepsy, which stained 
the character of the noble Byron, in order to show the influence 
of the body over the intellect? Although these facts glaringly 
speak the mutual relation and dependence of mind and body, the 
whole system of education treats the body as though it had no im- 



St2 Sympathy qf Body and Mind. 

portanoe, even when considered in its intimate relation to the 
mental faculties. The passions are continually excited by the 
stimulus of rewards, as if their constant action exercised no inju« 
•rious and exhausting influence. But do not those pursuits which 
most call forth the passions, hasten the termination of life? Are 
not poets, whose lives are but the existence of a passion, generally 
short lived ? And has not the astronomer, whose existence, in 
the contemplation of the glories and the wonders of the heavens, 
is but an untroubled stream of pure and devoted admiration — 
whose life is not vexed and harassed by the petty strifes and pas-* 
sions of those whose thoughts are bound down to earth, — has not 
be been favored with long life ? 

But again — injury is done to the body by parents and teachers 
who ambitiously strive to exhibit precocious blossoms of intellect, 
regardless of the fact that untimely fruit is destitute of its richest 
flavor and its nutritious qualities ; and is too liable to be nipped 
in its early bud by the chilling frost of death. Tulent, when too 
early developed, has never arisen to eminence, or it has sunk 
pitied and lamented into a premature grave. In defidnce of the 
warning deaths of White, Keates, Mozart, Tasso, Lucretia Da- 
vidson, Griffin and Wilcox, parents are ever anxious to exhibit to 
the world prodigies of early learning and genius. It is thus that 
too great exercise of the intellect, and premature exertions of the 
mind by studies unsuited to its capacities, cause an excitement in 
the brain which, with all its feebleness and delicacy of structure, 
render it still more liable to the attacks of disease. 

Injury is also done to the body by too close and too constant 
confinement. The infantile frame, at an age when exercise is de- 
manded for its development — when the bones are but half formed 
— when it is prompted by the buoyant elasticity of youthful spirits, 
and by the continued desire of action which ever accompanies 
childhood — is forced, under the dread and the terror of corporal 
punishment, to remain, as if it were an inanimate and unfeelibg 
machine, seated in one posture for hours at a time. Can it then 
ever appear surprising, that under such tyrannical restrictions, the 
school room, to so many youths, is as terrible and loathsome as the 
dreary walls of prison — that its requisitions are viewed as the irra- 
tional mandates of an unfeeling and unsympathizing monster — that 
the requirements of the instructor are considered as those of one 
who has no feeling in common with them, who is at war with all 
their amusements, and the sportive feelings of their nature ? 
Under such restrictions, can it be astonishing that a lasting preju- 
dice is often excited against every means of improvement — that 
the paths of knowledge, instead of being viewed as covered with 
many blooming flowers, perfumed with the sweet fragrance of its 



lEffect9 of Cbfi^nemeiU. 813 

fruit, is believed to be strown with thorns, and hedged round with 
brambles ; and that the reminiscence of the sunny bright days of 
childhood, is but the recollection of torments inflicted, and misery 
endured ? Is it surprising that the germinating seeds of disease 
are thus unconsciously implanted, which drains the very sources 
of life and happiness ? 

But these are not the only disadvantages arising from too con- 
stant confinement and neglect of exercise. By it, the system is 
often disordered to such an extent, that mental exertion is wholly 
impossible. The attention begins to wander, and cannot be fixed 
— reflection cannot perceive the simplest relation — suggestion 
ceases to summon up her legion host, and the mind becomes but 
a stagnant pool. Gloom, melancholy, irritability, and a want of 
decision are its general attendants. The temper is destroyed, the 
moral feelings are blunted, the passions perverted, and all subor* 
dination and government impossible. Although, under all these 
circumstances, a love fur the acquisition of knowledge is acquired, 
has not a shattered and broken constitution rendered the mind 
incapable of satisfying its laudable and praiseworthy thirst ? How 
many are annually forced to desert their pursuits, for the want of 
health and strength of constitution ? How many youthful aspi- 
rants, after having toiled and clambered up the rugged heights 
of knowledge — after having surmounted every obstacle, and having, 
as it were, been standing on the very threshold of the temple of 
fame, have, for the want of strength and vigor of body, been forced 
to cease their exertions, and to lose the object of their ambition, 
which they were on the point of grasping ? 

Thus it is, that an incalculable quantity of human intellect is 
yearly slaughtered at the siirine of knowledge. What then is to 
be done ? Does not medical testimony bear witness that exercise 
is the best preservative of health, and that the neglect of it is the 
source of most of the diseases to which students are subject? 
Ought not the active and energetic lives of Xenophon, Sophocles, 
Locke, Gibbon, Ferguson, Franklin and Whitney, to teach us a 
practical lesson on the importance and the utility of training 
the physical powers ? 

Since then the highest degree of mental perfection and human 
happiness requires the full development of the bodily energies- 
how is it to be attained? I^t the studies of youth be adapted to 
their capacities, Lict not the excitement of intense application be 
continued so long at one time, as to exercise a deleterious influ- 
ence. Let not youths, like sensitive plants, be protected from every 
passing breeze ; but let them, like the mountain oak, receive 
strength from the rocking of the tempest. Let them frequently 

VOL. V. NO. VII. 27 



314 Female Educaiion. 

seek the stimulus of the genial sunshineiand the invigorating inflow 
ence of the pure and uncontaminated air. Let bodily exercise 
and mental recreation be considered as much the duty of youths, 
as the learning of their assigned tdsks. Liet there be regular hours 
for the former as well as the latter, and let them be permitted fre- 
quently to enjoy the recreating influence, and the cheerful amuse* 
nients of the play-ground. IMor should it be imagined that in so 
doing, there will be misernployment of time ; for the success of 
mental efforts should never be measured by the length of time 
through which it is continued, but by the degree of concentration 
of the intellect, and the intenseness of thought with which the 
studies are pursued. Thus will health be retained, strength of 
constitution secured, and symmetry of proportion obtained ; and 
thus will such a constitution be possessed, as shall add vigor and 
energy to the mental faculties. 

AUhough we thus strongly urge the necessity of cultivating the 
physical system, it is not on account of its own intrinsic impor- 
tance, but because it is the [lonored dwelling and tire proud temple 
of the mind — the instrument by which it j>eribrm3 all its operations^ 
and holds its intercoui^e with external nature.' 



FEMALE EDUCATION.— No. II. 

(Communicated for the Annals of Education.) 

In a former article, I observed, that in writing on Female Edu« 
cation, it was too common to attend merely to the studies and ac- 
complishments proposed for young ladies ; and that in order to be 
effectual, Fcniale Education must begin, like all other education, 
with life itself. 1 obseived that the great principle to be adopted 
here was the universal principle of educaiion. * Let them learn 
while they are young, what they are to do when they are older.' 
Health was presented as oneof the first requisites to usefulness and 
happiness; Temperance, Order, and Activity, as indispensable to 
procure and preserve it. The importance of forming habits of in- 
Qustry was next urged, and the necessity of watching over and direct- 
ing the activity of cliildhood for this purpose. It cannot be too often 
repeated, that the direction given to the strong curiosity and busy 
activity of a child, will fix its habits, form its temper, and decide 
its future character. Youth takes its turn from childhood ; child- 
hood, from infancy. The proper direction of such projiensities 
requires, indeed, the most watchful attention — attention which 



7%e Importance of Self-Command. 315 

must never cease, and which never knows an intermission. But 
the labor thus bestowed, secures a rich return ; and to neglect it, 
will pierce a parent's heart with many sorrows. 

I go on to observe, that idf-command is among the earliest 
habits to be fixed in childhood. Of this, we cannot say, ' Here 
ends the first lesson.' It is an endless progress, in a circle of care 
and effort. It is so interwoven with every occupation and amuse- 
ment, with every personal virtue and social enjoyment, that sepa- 
ration is impossible ; and on this subject peculiarly, the conse- 
quences are linked with the circunf\stances, as by a chain of ada- 
mant. The remedy must begin with the first symptoms of the 
disease, and never be laid aside, so long as a symptom remains. 
Appetite and passion are strong, even in the infant. She cannot 
check it by consideration, for she cannot reason. In this way, the 
power of restraint is committed by Providence, entirely to the 
parents ; and they are as much bound to provide for this, as for 
any other want of helpless infancy. Impatience for little enjoy- 
ments, or with little restraints, is an early cause of fretfulness. 
Fretfulness, if not checked, and absolutely subdued^ increases rap- 
idly, and will spoil the best natural temper. It is easy for mis- 
judging parental tenderness to mar the fairest work of the Creator, 
and to convert the aniiable infant, into the irritable, peevish girl-— 
the ill-tempered, disagreeable woman. Prudent and persevering 
restraint — discreet and kind methods to divert the child's attention 
iix)m the objects of desire, are the only possible remedies. In- 
dulgence in unreasonable gratifications, or those which demand an 
undue share of the time or strength of the mother or nurse, only 
increase the demands of the child, and the difficulty and pain of 
subduing it. 

I have seen a fretful boy rave and stamp upon a mud-puddle, 
because it was over his shoes. A hundred such instances may be 
easily remembered, by any careful observer of ungovemed temper.* 
Those who are thus trained, or rather who are left untrained, bring 
perpetual anxiety and trouble upon themselves and their families; 
and often render all about them unhappy for life. How many 
confirmations are there of the truth of the proverb, ^A child lefL 
to himself^ bringeih hU mother to shame.^ The self-will thus 
cherished becomes an incurable habit, which all the shame and 
sorrow that attend it in after life, will not eradicate. The woman 
who is thus left to have no rule over her own spirit, is like ' a 
city broken down and without walls.' Who could hope for shelter 
or comfort in such a residence ? It is open to the attacks and the 

* * What am I crjing for now f * said a peeviah child to hia father, aAer hm 
had been gratified m erery demand he could make, and was atill unaatiafied. 



816 Contrast in Mothers. 

contempt of every one. * Hate, fear and rage — the family of 
pain/ are its only inmates. ' Hope, love and peace,' have long 
since deserted the abode of ungoverned passions. How little do 
parents think of the sorrows they are preparing for themselves, as 
well as their children, by neglecting this great lesson of self-com- 
mand. Long must they eat the bitter fruits of the tree they have 
planted, and seek too late for a remedy. 

Nor do the consequences cease here. The vices and evils of 
ungoverned appetites and passions descend from parents to chil- 
dren ; and their consequences are often seen and felt, to the third 
and fourth, if not to every following generation. 

Think of this ungoverned temper, in the mother of a famihfy 
venting itself in fretfuloess and reproaches towards the inseparable 
companion of her life^ or in scolding, and violence^ and tyranny, 
towards her children. Alas! how many scenes of domestic 
misery might be traced to the ungoverned girl ! And how often is 
the brightness of domestic joys dimmed, by the clouds which arise 
from a half subdued temper ! Such mothers sometimes pretend 
to govern their children's temper, by treating them with severity, 
or restraining them by force. But let it be remembered, that 1 
am urging the importance of teaching the child self-commandy and 
not merely submission or obedience. We do not speak merely 
o( governing her, or preventing any evil, but of teaching her and 
accustoming her to govern herself 

How delightful is the contrast of a mother whose spirit has been 
brought under her own control, whose temper has been trained, 
until it is gentle, as well as firm, and who thus gives the best 
lessons of self-command in her own example. The example is 
seen reflected on every department of her household, and on every 
member of her family. A fair city is thus exhibited, as upon an emi- 
nence. It is seen and admired from afar ; it is the delight of all 
who enter it. Wherever domestic order and happiness exist, they 
are based upon this single habit of self-command ; supporting and 
consolidating the fabric of love. Children thus educated, by firm 
and gentle restraint — thus led on by living examples— -will rise up 
and call their mother blessed. Among strangers and foreign- 
ers, they will be loved for the virtues imbibed from their parents ; — 
and parents, though personally unknown, will be honored for 
their children's virtues. Happiest of the happy are such families! 
and a large part of their joys is secured by selfcommand. 



Addrea on Auociatiani to Promote Education* 317 



ADDRESS ON ASSOCIATIONS TO PROMOTE EDUCATION. 

Jin Addrtss on the subieci ofLUerary Associations to promote Education ; 
* delivered before the institute of Education of Hampden Sidney CoHegtf 
(Fa.,) at their tost Commencement, By James M. Gabwktt. 

We cordially welcome this token of increasing zeal and activity 
on the subject of education, in * tlie Ancient Dominion.' An asso- 
ciation capable of appreciating such an address, cannot but do 
much for the cause ; and tlie address itself, we hope, difiused as 
it is, not only as a pamphlet, but in the pages of a new and 
interesting periodical, the ' Southern Literary Messenger,' we trust 
will rouse many to new efforts. 

It appears from tlie remarks of Mr. Gamett, (whose labors 
in this field we have long intended to notice,) that this is the first 
voluntary association of this kind in Virginia, on a large scale. 
He urges tlie importance of such combinations from the example 
of the North, (we wish it were more universally given,) and com- 
plains, that the business of instniction is left to be pursued by those 
who find no place in otiier j)rofessions — that there is no system of 
studies — no nile for qualification — but all is left to * the chance- 
medley, hap-hazard contrivances of individuals/ often utterly un- 
qualified to judge at all of the subject. 

He presents first the great objects of education ; and mciintains 
that nothing deserves the name which does not aim at perfecting 
our whole nature, intellectual, physical and moral — which does not 
treat man as a beins: formed for a hiijher state of existence. If 
'self-knowledge, self-control, self-devotion to duty,' be omitted, 
* all else is but mere dust in the balance.' However valuable the 
accomplishments of the scholar, they are not sufficient, of them- 
selves, to make the maw, or the citizen. 

But Mr. Gamclt objects, not merely to the end too often pro- 
posed in our schools, but to the means employed to lead on our 
youth, — the fear of man, the desire of applause and personal 
rivalry, in place of the fear and the love of God, — tending, in his 
own strong, but correct language, to inspire more dread of public 
sentiment, than love of public or private duty, — ' to poison our 
hearts with jealousy and envy, and to intoxicate us with pride, 
vanity, and ambition, rather than to promote the virtues of Chris- 
tian or social life. He presents in a strong light, that lamentable, 
but too evident deficiency of our schools, that the higher, the 
moral nature of the pupils is not made the paramount object of 
attention ; that they are not taught, or led, by the course pursued 
with them, to consider character as important as Jcnotatedge or 
success in life ; and that as the natural result, the greater number 

•27 



818 Drake on the Philosophy of DiicipKne, 

pass from the restraints of a scliolastic life into the grossest neglect 
of all morality, or the sordid pursuit of wealth and power. 

The address closes with a direct appeal to the youth of Hamp- 
den Sidney College, in which he endeavors to impress upon them 
the importance of making moral and religious principles the ' be- 
ginning, and middle, and end of education,' — of studying the sd- 
ences with reference to them, and with a view to the improvement 
of their own characters, as well as tiieir minds. 



DRAKE ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF DISCIPLINE. 

A Discount on the Philowphy of Discipline^ in FamilieSy Schools and 
CoUef^es ; delivered htfore the Ji'tsitrn lAterary Institute^ and College of 
Professional Tec^hers^in Cincinnati^ on the (Uh of October^ 1834. Br 
Damel Draee, M. D. Cincinnati : U. P. Jumes. 1834. 

A DISCUSSION of this subject is peculiarly valuable, from one who 
reasons on philosophical^ and physiological, as well as religious 
principles; and we are much indebted to the author, for the 
valuable essays with which he has favored us. In this discourse. 
Dr. Drake has taken the least popular side of some vexed ques* 
tions ; and has defended his views with great ability. 

In opposition to that ultra extravagance which denies all right 
of control, except to God, and which we scarcely know how to 
meet, with serious argument, he commences his discourse with 
showing, that the universe is a system of laws, and that whether 
it be in the planetary world, or in the connection of man with the 
material world, or in his intercourse with his fellow men ; every 
violation of natural law is followed by a penalty — by evil or by 
suffering. 

'This testimony of nature to the existence and necessity of laws 
and punishments, is confirmed by that of revelation ; and in that 
same infallible code, social rewards and punishments connected 
with tbejtiy.ta^. announced, and enjoined, by Mine upon line, and 
precept ufjcftr precept.' Especially is the duty of obedience to 
parents, and the right of demanding it, distinctly inculcated, and 
the parent is made responsible for the use of these means of 
restraining and governing his children. 

The next inquiry suggested is, What these rewards and pun- 
ishments should be ; and the answer to this question is given so 
ably, that we extract the whole. 



Cormeciion of Body and Mmd, 319 

< To prosecute this investigation in a proper mtnner, a thorough 
knowledge of the constitution of human nature, as it exists in child- 
hood and youth, is indispensable. 

Man being a compound of mind and body, can only be understood 
by observing and studying both ; for they act and re-act upon each 
Other. In the successive periods of life, in different individuals, and 
in the various grades of civilization, the relative power of the mind 
upon the body, and the body upon the mind, is different. Thus, in 
the civilized and intellectual state, the mind exercises greater power 
over the body, than in the savage state ; and the mind of a philoso- 
pher, or a Christian, governs the desires of his body more efiectualljp 
than the mind of an ignorant or wicked person controls his appetites; 
and, finally, the mind of an adult rules over his bodily wants, with 
greater success than the mind of a child. In the tender stages of 
infancy, the reasoning i>owers andthe moral sentiments, are but little 
developed, and the corporeal appetites and desires are strong. The 
reason is obvious. The body must he built up, and hence the appe- 
tite for food, and the [ilens'.ires of indulgence, are great, sometimes 
almost insatiable. The impatience of labor is quick, because it» 
industry can seldom be turned to good account, and its limbs are 
soon fatigued, while they are growing. It.^ natural repugnance to 
close or long continued confinement i.i equally strong, for fresh air 
and unrestrained exercise, arc requisite to the proper maintenance 
of health. Its curiosity for wandering among new objects is intense, 
because, observation is the food of the young intellect, and indispen- 
sable to its growth. Finally, its love of play and of pleasure is almost 
indomitable ; because on the plan of nature, no responsibility in re- 
gard to the future rests upon it; and if it had not a desire for play, 
it would not take the necessary exorcise, nor acquire the proper use 
and discipline of its limbs. Thus, almost all the pains and pleasures 
of infancy and youth, connect tlicmsolves with the body. The grati- 
fication of the physical or material part is the great object; that 
which answers to the wants and desires of the lx>dy affords the chief 
pleasure. Like the lower animals, it lives for the body, and for the 
present moment. Its enjoyments are physical — its sufferings arc 
physical ; and, when they extend to the mind, it is because some- 
thing which administered to the pleasures of sense has been withheld, 
or applied in such manner as to mortify the few feelings and senti- 
ments of the soul, which, at that early period, are in a state of sus- 
ceptibility. 

What is the deduction from these views ? Undoubtedly, that there 
is in the constitution of childhood, a foundation for physical correc- 
tion ; and that punishment of the body is the most efficient mode of 
reaching and affecting the mind. Such are the conclusions of 
reason, applied to this subject. And what are the results of experi- 
ence ? Let the practice of the whole world return the answer. In 
every age, and in all nations, we find the hand of the parent uplifted 
in physical correction, or some other mode adopted, of punishing the 



SfiO hiftrtncti. — Rtvtlaium. 

body through its desires aud sensibilities. It is, indeed, an instinct 
on the part of the parent ; and, by an instinct equally intuitive, un- 
erring, and universal, is acquiesced in by the child. Nature, in fact, 
is at the bottom of the matter, and prompts, if she does not regulate, 
the whole discipline.' 

To this unanswerable appeal to the laws of nature, Dr. Drake 
adds the decisive testimony of revelation. 

* But does God in his revealed will, bear us out in these conclu- 
sions? The Bible shall give the reply. ^* He that sparith his rod, 
hattth his son; but he that lovcth him^ chastcnith him bi times" 
" J^oolishnrss is bound in the hecart of a child; but the rod of correc- 
tion shall drive it far away," " Withhold not correction from tlu 
child, for if thou beatcst him with the rod, he shall not die. Thou 
shalt beat him with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from hell" 

Thus we find punishment of the body, even with the rod, expressly 
enjoined by Heaven, as a parental duty ; and declared to be power- 
ful, nut only in driving away foolishness, and qualifying the child for 
the duties of this life, but in preparing it for the enjoyments of eter- 
nity ; and we are thus supplied with new evidence of the conformity 
of the law of the Bible, to the laws which govern the constitution 
of man.' 

Tlie various kinds of bodily punishment are next considered, with 
very just discrimination. 

' Corporeal punishments are of two kinds : those which act upon the 
body in a positive manner, and give pain, as the hand, the ferule, 
and the rod ; and those which act negatively, and give pain to the 
unindulged appetites, as withholding luxurious articles of food and 
drink, and continement to the house, or to a certaiu position. The 
latter, at first view, niiglit seem preferable ; but they are not always 
practicable with ihe great mass of parents, who are ))oor, and are ob- 
liged to work, and for whom all general rules should be formed ; and 
they cannot always be conveniently resorted to by teachers. There 
is, moreover, an objection of a different kind, which detracts some- 
thing from their character. If the child be not hungry, or its appe- 
tite be destroyed by its emotion of mind, the denial of good things 
will inflict no punishment ; and confinement will give no bodily pain 
if there should, at the moment, be no disposition to go abroad. Still 
further, there are moral objections to restraints upon the appetites, 
which deserve deep consideration. The child is taught, by the esti- 
mate which it perceives the parent to place on the enjoyments of sense, 
when he withholds them as a punishment, to regard them as of para- 
mount value, and is thus rendered more sensual ; when, perhaps, 
the very oflence for which he was punished, was an act of improper 
indulgence, or of depredation for the gratification of his appetite. 
Finally, if the hunger of children be not satisfied, they are tempted. 



Objections Answered. 381 

secretly, to acquire the means of gratifying it ; and are thns led into 
habits of concealment, deceit, and thc(\, which, practised towards the 
parent for a time, may at last be exercised on society.' 

Dr. Drake does not leave unanswered, the objections which 
have been made against bodily punishment. 

'On the other hand, it has been said, that the use of the rod de- 
grades the child in its own estimation : debases it in the view of other 
children ; exasperates it towards its parents ; is liable to be exces- 
sive ; and contributes to maintain on the earth, the system of violence 
and war, which must be abolished, l)ef()re the world can be chrii^ 
tianized. These are serious objections, and it is our duty to con* 
aider them separately. 

I begin by appealing to every judicious and observing parent and 
preceptor, to say, whether they have witnessed, under the application 
of the rod, any evidence of improper self-abasement in the child; 
and would ask all who have felt it, to recollect, whether its mtrited 
wnd proper infliction, sunk them in their own estimation, below the 
point of that humihty which children ought to feel, under the de- 
served chastisements of their parents or teachers t From my own 
observation and experience, I should answer these questions in the 
negative ; and, believing, as I have already said, that the use of this 
instrument of correction, is a kind of instinct on the part of the pa- 
rent, acquiesced in by the feelings of nature in the child, I cannot 
suppose that its employment, under proper regulations, can debase 
the feelings, or break down the manly spirit, but rather contribute to 
purify and elevate both. 

That it necessarily lowers the child in the estimation of others, 
there is as little reason to believe. If it be a natural punishment, 
such an effect cannot flow from it ; and that it does not, is a matter 
of observation ; for we generally see the surrounding children, if 
relatives or friends, disposed to pity tlio one which has been chas- 
tised, and oAen find them, snb?e(|uently, engaged in oflering it their 
little consohitions. That children who are frequently whipped, some- 
times become objects of derision with their playmates, is certain ; 
but, as a general rule, such children are great offendtTS, and among 
children, as in society, those who continue to offend in the midst of 
correction, will, at length, fall into contempt. 

That the rod may exasperate the child towards its parent, there is 
no doubt, if it be used when the child is innocent, or applied to a 
degree disproportionate to the offence, or with partiality, in reference 
to other children ; and under such circumstances, it ovght to feel 
indignant. But where is the individual who can say, that he ever 
loved a parent the less, for inflicting personal chastisement in a 
proper degree, when he had a consciousness of having done wrong f 
So far from producing the alleged effect, it generates the opposite; 
Ind children never love their parents more, than in the bpur of r^ 



882 Physical Rtwardi. 

pentance and returning joy, which follows thiM kind of punishmenty 
inflicted in a suitable manner, and to a merited extent' 

But physical rewards are of great value, as well as physical 
punishments. 

'Those act by giving bodily pleasure, and, of course, address 
themselves to the senses. Let us consider them in succession, be- 
ginning with the Reuse of taste. This is the earliest on which we 
can act, because it is the first that requires to be indulged. There 
can be no objection to granting a child the means of this indulgence 
as a revi'ard for good conduct ; but as it generates a taste for luxury, 
it should not be continued after the other senses are so far developed, 
that we can act upon them with effect, which happens in different 
children, at various ages. 

The sense of smell is next developed, but the means of gratifying 
it are not so convenient as those of the sense of taste. Its gratifica- 
tion, however, is less dangerous to the future, than that of taste, and 
need not be abandoned, as long as its special enjoyments can be 
made a means of reward. 

Hearin<T is a sense, developed at an early period, as all who have 
observed the efl'ect of music on young children are aware. Through 
this sense they may be pleasiirably and powerfully affected ; but the 
frequent resort of mothers and nurses to its soothing influence, pre- 
vents, in some measure, its use as an occasional reward. Whenever 
it can be employed, however, it ^^llould not be omitted ; and as the 
indulgence of this desire does not contribute to debauch the mind, 
but to soften and elevate it, the reward may be given, as long as dis- 
cipline is rcfiuired, or the child continues to regard it as a favor. 

The sense of feeling includes the sensibility of the skin to heat and 
cold, and fresh air, that of the luncrs for the last, and also, a want or 
desire seated in the muscles, for active exercise. These desires are 
all gratified, by excursions in the open air; and, while confinement 
18 a corporeal punishment, going abroad for play, is, to children who 
are not permitted to run at large habitually, a real and most admi- 
rable reward. Its use, in no manner or degree, contributes to impair 
the intellect, pervert the moral sentiments, or excite the animal pro- 
pensities ; but to elevate the two former, and promote health and 
symmetry of body, with buoyancy of animal spirits. 

The last of the :^enses to which I refer, is that of sight. At a very 
early period, infants, as all mothers know, are attracted by light. 
The young child, as instinctively and steadily turns its eye to the 
candle at night, as the plant in a dark cellar directs its branches 
towards an opening in the wall. As it grows, the desire for this 
gratification also increases, and, finally, exceeds in energy, that of 
■mell, touch, and hearing. Hence, the confinement of a child in a 
dark room, even where it is not afraid, is a bodily punishment; while 
the gratification of its vision with masses of light and shade, and 



Moral Meam of DiteMme. 8S8 



variety and brilliancy of colors, may be made a most cherished re- 
ward. Vision has, with much propriety, been called the inteiledual 
sense ; for, of the whole, its indulgence approaches nearest to the 
indulgences of the mind. It involves nothing sensual, in the bad a^ 
ceptation of the word, and may, therefore, be employed as a reward, 
till they shall cease to be necessary, whatever may be the age of the 
child.' 

The facility and safety with which all the senses may be grati* 
fied, while the health is promoted, is admirably described in the 
following paragraph. 

* In resorting to the pleasures of sense, as a reward, we may press 
several, or the whole of them, into our service at the same time ; and, 
when skilfully used, their united intluences are of the happiest kind. 
Children are great lovers of nature. A flower, a little bird, a branch 
of mi^letoe with its pearl colored berries in winter, a babbling brook, 
which they can dam up in an hour, a fail of snow which ludges on 
the limbs of the shade tree in front of the door, or half buries up tho 
grass in the yard, a butterfly, or a lightning-bug, the taste of a new 
fruit, the smell of a new flower, a whiter pebble stone, or a more 
retired play-ground surrounded by fresher natural objects, acts pleas- 
antly on their senses, and may be made an indulgence and a reward. 
But when the sensible and benevolent parent, or teacher, combines 
a visit among the various objects of the natural world, as the reward 
he would bestow for oliedience, or great effort at labor or study, he 
preirents the highest sensual gratification which God has placed at 
his disposal.' 

Dr. Drake next proceeds to consider the * rewards and punish- 
ments which belong primarily to the mind.' The first and * the 
greatest of the moans of moral govcninient,' is love to the mother. 
As he beautifully observes : — This means, if employed early 
and skilfully, * fixes over the child a dominion, that, like the per- 
manent colors which the light of tho sun stamps upon the opening 
rose, must be felt till the individual is gathered, with that mother, 
in the grave.' We wish the whole passage on tliis subject coiild 
find a place in our pages. 

He treats, subsequently, of the use to be made of other natural 
propensities, and advocates the employment of those of an inferior, 
and debatable character, on the ground, that all do not feel the effect 
of higher motives. To us, this seems a fallacy. This plan will, 
indeed, paralyze the sensibility to higher motives ; but does not the 
whole aspect of Christian society, compared with that of Pagan 
countries, show, that the highest motives, like the winds that blow 
upon the ocean, have a powerful influence oven on those who are 
not placed within their immediate sphere of action ? And does 



824 Oeneral Rewtar1c$. 

not the deterioration vhich takes place in every couhtrjr and 
in every society, where a lower standard is adopted, on the same 
plan, show that it is a dangerous course. *Aim high ' is an old 
maxim. We think our greatest danger now is, in conceding too 
much. 

Dr. Drake insists with great force, upon the necessity of culti- 
vating the spirit of reverence to parents, and of veneration towards 
Ood. He expresses his regret, tliat ' in the United States, and 
especially in tiie valley of the Mississippi,' tliis sentiment is not so 
carefully cherished, as he would desire. He urges that the 
child should be taught to fear as well as to love his Creator, and 
to receive the Bible as the revelation of his will — tlie rule of his 
life. 

He concludes his address with the following recapitulation of 
first principles. 

'let. Children, like grown persons, act from motives: and when 
they transgress, they have an object in view, which, at the moment, 
is dear to them. They should then be carefully and patiently 
instructed in their duties, and have the reasons for the laws, by which 
you govern them, as fully explained as possible. 

2d. As there is among them a great variety in bodily and mental 
temperament, the characters of each should be studied, and the ap- 
propriate means of rewarding and punishing, selected accordingly. 

3d. Children, as well as adults, have their periods of undefinable 
indisposition, and consequent irritability of the nervous system and 
feelings, when, of course, they are froward, peevish and disobedient. 
Those who govern them should look into this matter ; and in meting 
out their punishments, have respect to its influence ; or, while the 
disease, not known, perhaps, by the child, shall continue, omit them 
altogether. 

4th. The excitation of fear is a legitimate means of correction, for 
all correction operates, indeed, by exciting it ; but children should 
not be frightened by goblins, or thrcatenings connected with super- 
natural appearances, for an association of ideas may make them 
superstitious and timid throughout life. 

5th. Both rewards and punishments should be proportioned to 
offences. They should I)e dealt out with all the impartiality a man . 
requires from a court of justice.' 



When iJurtdd ChaMiiiemaU bejnn. 325 



PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM THE NURSERY. 

[We cannot offer to parenti « better illnstration of the philosophy of diaei* 
pline, than the folio winsr account of a series of dialoguei, which passed between 
a parent, and the physician of his family.] 

Dialogue between a Parent and a Physician. 

DiALOOUC L 

' Prat, Dr., — ^ive ut your aclvice about our child. He is but six 
months old. The sa/^e dames say he must be fed, and he must be 
walked with, whenever he rt'qtiires it — night or day. But he insists upon 
a great deal more attention, than the duties and health of his mother 
allow.' 

*As to feeding, you may tearh him to fi*cd without intermission, if you 
yield to evrry df'rnand ; and it is not less true of being carried about, 
especially at ni^'lit. Why, it would bo very pleasant to me, when I feel 
restless, if somebody were dis[)oscd to carry me al>out ; and you may 
ileppnd upon it, your child will not lose the pleasure, if he can secure it 
by freltinR mid crying.' 

*Bnt what must wo do. His cries will disturb others as well as oiir- 
selvi'rt, if wt» do iMit gratify him.' 

'I can tell }ou what I have done. My children have undertaken ta 
make these demands nnseasonably, iind I have found that moderate chas- 
iisement was tiii; Ixst romudy ; and that it produced less crying, than th« 
attempt to j^'raiily them.' 

* What, djicfor ! rliastisement so early ?* 

* Why the rrntli is, at this age, the child docs not reason; and there is 
no otlif^r motive but bodily pain, or bodily pleasure, that can govern him. 
Early childhood is the very time when bodily p(ini:!hinent is most appli- 
cable ; and it ought to be all givi^n very early. If the passions and appe- 
tites are kept in a subdued state by the parents, before reason is 
developed, the chihi will have less difficulty in governing himself a(\er- 
wards.' 

' I have known a mother who broke up the habit which her child had 
acquired at four months old, of waking and demanding to be taken up, 
by a few slaps; but most persons would call it cruel.' 

*I)o not fear that. Your child will suffer a preatdeal less from proper 
chastisement, than he will from the never SiitisHed desires, the restless 
fretfulness, which will otherwise grow upon him. One or two slaps, on 
a part where no injury could lie done, quieted my child; and 'Hush ' or 
* Be still,' which 1 had re|)eated before chastising him, was very lOon 
enough to quiet him.' 

VOL. V. NO. VII. 28 



926 M^eett in earfy Oiildhood. 



Dialogue 2. 

' Well, doctor, we have tried your plan, and with entire succean.' 

'Did you find any difficnhy?' 

' Why, we did not certainly nucceed so easily as you did. It was neces- 
sary to re|>eat the chastir<ement, and sometimes several times in a night, 
for a week or two ; for our hoy has more ohstinacy than many children. 
But we are amply rewarded for the pnin it cost us, and we feel much 
indebted to you for the advice. He is a great deal happier. He sleeps 
quietly at night, wakes only at the regular hours of feeding, and less fre- 
quently than ever before. He awakes cheerful, with a laugh instead of 
a scream, at all times. He waits patic'ntly till he is attended to. He will 
oAen chatter half an hour playfully, when he cannot sleep, and does not 
pass half as much time during ihe doy in fretting and screaming. In 
tthort, the happiness of his little life has been at least doubled, by this 
roonientary pain.' 

* And how long did he really suffer ? ' 

' Why it has surprised me to see, that he seemed to be quiet as soon as 
his passion was subdued ; and would stop his screams, and turn, to Kleep 
the moment the chastisement was finished. It was evident that he mu«it, 
even at the moment, suffer more with his passion than with the chastise- 
ment ; for the passion would keep him ecreaming for an hour; while the 
chastiseuient, if it was cfrectual, would quiet liiru in five minute^.* 

' There is no doubt that it ii< so. Let a child be accustomed to do right, 
and habit will make it a;;reeahle. Indulging unreasonable desires ia 
false kindness ; for they multiply so rapidly, that it soon becomes tmpo^- 
sible to gratify th«'m. It gives momt^uttiry pleasure ; but it produces 
lasiiug pain — a constant source of Fuffcring. if parents would Inive 
firmness tn persevere in a course of discipline, they would generally find 
the same result that you have done.' 

Dialogue 3. 

* Well, doctor, we have a new case of moral disease, aboiit which we 
need your counsel. We shall never cense to [ye grateful to you for that 
attention which has saved our child's life. But his complaint has \efi 
him with a habit of fnafuluess and impatience, which w« do not know 
how to control, even now that he is in perfect health.' 

*That is oAen the result of a long illness ; and especially with this dis- 
«as«e,' 

* I am aware of that ; but inexperienced aa we are, we need your advice 
io order to be consistent. You direct that he should be fed moderately, 
and excited as little as possible ; but we cannot obey one direction, with- 
o«c violatiiig the spirit of the other. He baa an iDtatiable craviog for 



Fretfuineit following Diitase, 3S7. 

ft>od ; he will not suffer us to leave him for a moment ; and if hit desires 
are not fully gmiified, he frets himself almost into a fever.' 

'It is one of the worst effects of such a long illnesni. But you must do 
as well as you can. Give him as little food, and indulge him as little as 
|K>Hsih]e.' 

' But the principal question 1 wished to ask is, whether it is a case for 
the discipline which we found so useful formerly.' 

' Why I suppose discipline will scarcely do any pood. I know a 
child who had this complaint several years a«(0, who still has an ungov- 
ernahle voracity of ap|)etite, and is eating and fretting constantly. I 
have known others, who have not recovered from it for a long period ; 
and some continue irritable through life.' 

'This is indeed a serious misfortune, and Tscarccly know what to think 
of it.' 

Dialogue 4. 

* Grood morning, Mr. . How does your little hoy do ?' 

' Very much improved, sir. But I do not know what you will think of 
the course we have taken. We ventured, for once, to act contrary to 
your advice, and resort to chastisement, although you did not approve it.' 

' 1 did not mean to say, you ought not to try it ; but 1 was afraid it 
would do yery little good. But what course did you pursue ? ' 

* Your account of the effects of bis disease on the character, gave us a 
great deal of pain. We could not hear to think of seeing our child a 
torment to all around him. It was evident that he had no disease. We 
saw nothing to ho[>e from improvement in his health ; and we felt as if 
it would be a less affliction even to follow him to his grave, than to see 
him grow up to be a peevish, irritable man, a source of suffering, and an 
example of evil, to all around him.' 

' You were right ; but what course did you take ? ' 

'Why, sir, we gave him his food only at such times, and in such quan- 
tities, as you considered safe and proper. We did not indulge his de- 
mands for attention, at the expense of the health, or sleep, or duties of 
his mother, or nurse ; and we did not allow him to be peevish.' 

' And what did you do to prevent it ? ' 

' There was a storm of passion for several days ; but we administered 
your old remedy, with wonderful success. If he demanded an unreason- 
able amount of food, or attention, or motion, it was steadily refused. If 
his fretfulness could not be checked by amusing him, he was chastised 
until he was quiet. When the condition or duties of his mother or nurse 
rendered it proper to set him down, to amuse himself, he was required to 
be quiet ; and if he was irritated, his passion was subdued by chastiae- 
ment«' 



8SS Efftdi of Discipline. 

* It was A hftrd duty to perform ; but what was the effect ?* 

'His peevishness had advanced so far, thnt when he was so sleepy he 
could scarcely sit uj), he would scream half an hour if he were laid 
down— sometimes utiiil his face was almost crirai>on. But we found at 
length a single slnp, with Mliish,' or 'Be still,' would oHen suhdiie him 
at once, so that he woidd turn over quietly to sleep. In short, whenever 
he was uneasy from mere fretfulness^ we found chastisement a perfect 
o|)iate. We watched for the indicntions of pain, and endeavored to 
gratify every reasonnhlc desire, provided blocks, halls, and other objects 
with which he might amuse himself, and allured him to good humor by 
speaking cheerfully, and playing with him. We changed his position 
and his occupations so often as to prevent weariness. We made every 
allowance, and gave him some little extra comfort or pleasure, if he had 
been disappointed in his regular meal, or dit<turbed in his nap. But after 
using all proper procnuiions, we insisted upon it that he should not cry 
without reason, and wo ft^lt it our duty, to astiist him in governing himself 
by punishment.' 

'I sup|>ose you found very little punishment would answer.' 

*Not always. It was frequently necessary to repeat the slaps until 
the skin was reddened.' 

' But have you, after all, accomplished the object ? ' 

* I think we have. Thus much is certain — instead of a violent out- 
cry, every time he is laid on his l>ed, he generally turns quietly on his 
aide and goes to sleep. Instead of waking with a scream, be rouses 
us at night with some gentle, pleasant sound ; and if he remains awake, 
will prattle himself to sleep without a murmur. He meets us iu the 
morning with a smile or a laugh. After he has made known his wants* 
he waits patiently, until we can attend to him. He sits quietly on the 
floor, and amu8cs himself with his blocks, half an hour, or an hour at a 
time, instead of demanding to be walked with every moment. In short, 
he passes the day in almost unmingled enjoyment, with very little 
attention. He sleeps quietly at night, with fewer interruptions than even 
and wakes refreshed and happy. He is converted from a restless, pee- 
vish, unhappy child, into one of the most cheerful, smiling, pleasant 
beiufTS I meet with.' 

* Well, sir, you have done him a most important service, whatever others 
may say of the cruelty of the plan.' 

* On that point we have indeed been tried, by the pain which we gave 
to our friends as well as our child. But we have had evidence which 
■atisfied even some who reproached us, of the benefit of our (»lan. His 
Mother has recently been so ill, that she could not even see him for some 
lime; and dnriof that period, when hit cries and ftretiulneii might 



BoiUm Academy of Mutie. 899 

have prerentecl bar reeorery, he wu perfectly docile, and allowed hie 
Durae to be changed several timet without any fretfulneae. One who 
had mourned over hia sufferings, was compelled to acknowledge the 
good they had done.' 

<ir others would pursue faithfully the same plan, they would save 
themselves and their children a great deal of suffering, and even disease. 
There is nothing so dangerous to health as well as happiness, as ungovemed 
appetites and passions. Half our diseases, and more than half our suffer- 
ings, arise from these alone.' 

'There is one painful circumstance in regard to our efforts. With a 
child of this age, we find a few days relaxation of discipline, even a 
single act of injudicious indulgence by a kind friend, sometimes obliges 
us to begin our task anew.' 

'You will find this always the case, until your child has reason enough 
to govern himself; and even then, constant watchfulness wiU be neces- 
sary.' 

' Yes ; and we feel the need of a watchfulness more unceasing, of a wis- 
dom and power more perfect, than ours. But we have been led to one 
important conclusion, — that he is our child's %porst tntmy^ who grants him 
unreasonable indulgenceSf however warm may be his afifection, and how- 
ever kind his intentions.' 



MISCELLANY. 



Boston Acaoemt or Music. 

The report of the Academy for the last year, presents many encour- 
aging evidences of its usefulness and prosperity. It appears that instruc- 
tion has been given in the principles of music, to about 1000 children, and 
800 adults; that the system bus been introduced into a number of 
schools ; and that it has uniformly excited the interest and gained the 
confidence of pupils and teachers. A school for teachers, held the last 
summer, elicited from those who attended it, the most decisive testi- 
mony to its value. An adult choir has been formed, consisting of 300 
members, whose concerts have gained the approbation of connoisseurs, as 
well as delighted the audience. The juvenile concerts have continued 
to attract and gratify large assemblies. Lectures have been given on the 
subject in Boston, New Yoi^, and Hartford, which excited much inter- 
est. To aid still farther in its general object, the Academy have pub- 

*28 



380 Farm School 

lished a oinnual of inatniotion, and a eolleetion of laenNl muaie, both of 
which are adapted to be highly useful. 

By these means, and by the reports and other publications in relation 
to the Academy, the system has l>een extended as rapidly, at least, as b 
consistent with its thorough practice. Letters of inquiry have been re- 
ceived from every q*jarter of the Union ; and numerous applications have 
been made for teachers, leaders of choirs and organists. 

The Academy has also secured occommodations well adapted to its 
pur|>oses, in the old Boston Theatre, which they hove been enabled, by 
private 8ut)8criptions must lil)erally bestov^ed, to lease fur a number of 
years. It is now undergoing ulterutions, which will not only make it an ad- 
mirable concert roon), but will furnish a placo of meeting fur public insti- 
tutions, and a house of worship on Sunday, and produce a revenue that 
will greatly aid the operations of the Academy. A powerful organ will 
l>e obtained, to assist the choir. 

\Vc are sure our readers will n^joice with us in the progress of this 
institution; and we now couifidcr the measures begun, which will secure 
the object on which our heart was fixed six years since, and which wo 
determined never to almndoii — the introiiuciion oT vocal music, as a branch 
qf common school education. We are more anxious to see it ice// done, 
than rapidly done ; but we coiii^ider the point as settled, that it must and 
will be done. We idrcndy hear the tirst little song we translated, * See 
the light is ra(lin<r,' &c., and others eipinlly familiar, sung by the children 
of a villagu ; and we look forward with deliglit to the day, when every 
-voice shull be tuned to the public note of praise, and the social hymn. 

Boys' Asylum and Farm School. 

Wo have formerly given an account of the excellent plan of the Farm 
School, dL'>igned to aflbnl a place of education, especially to boys who 
neeiled pi-cuiiar restraints. During the last year, it was united with the 
J^oys' Asylum, an in^itituiion established in 18J3, in order to combine the 
effortsand fiin(l»t)ri)othinasiiiglcan(l more ediricnt institution. Thomp- 
son's Island, in the harbor of Boston, was purchased for the school — a pleas- 
ant situation, quite remote from toM)ptation,nnd yet accessible, containing 
140 acres of land, ^^ud well adapted for cultivation us a farm. A building 
of brick lias been erected, 105 feet long and •% wide, and a superintendent 
procured for the agricultural department. An invitingand important sphere 
of usefulness yet remains to he occupied, in directing the intellectual and 
moral culture of the pupils; which we hope will call forth someone 
whose capacity and zeal qualify him for tliis noble field of benevolent 
effort. There is no institution in our country which has our more cordial 
synqiathy. During the last month, the boys, 52 in number, were carried 
to the island in u steamboot, accompanied by the Directors, and went in 



GramnUtrfor the Blind. 331 

proeeaBion to the chapel. A prayer was offered by Dr. Tuckerroan, and an 
address inaile hy LieuL Gov. ArmstroDg ; the boys closed the ezerciseB 
with a hyiDD. 

Grammar pof the BLiitD. 

We were happy to receive a copy of a Grammar for the Blind, prepared 
by Dr. Howe, and printed at the New England Asylum. It is a matter 
of congnitulution, indeed, to see the work of providing them a library 
going on so fast ; and to learn that our benevolent societies are ready to 
appropriate liberally to this object. Are there no individuals ready to do 
so ? Is there no one, for example, who will pay for an edition of stereo- 
type plates of Gallaudet*s udmirnhio Book on the Soul— K>r some of the 
little abstracts of Scri[)turf! History ? We should be happy to transmit 
anything which may be sent us for these purposes. 

EducatioiN in LoUISIAi\A. 

The Legislature of Louisiana, at their last session, appropriated $3G3,775 
to three literary institutions ; 848,275 to the Collt^ge of Jefferson, for debts 
due for the biuldingn, and $15,000 a year each, for ten years, to pay the 
salaries of the profezfsors and reduce the price of tuition, to this college, 
Louisiana College, and Franklin College. Nothing is needed but a supply 
«)f able teachers, to meet the increasing interest and liberality of the 
West. Will not the East contribute these for the education of their future 
rulers, until they shall be able to supply themselves? 

CoNiNECTICUT ScHOOL Fu.XD. 

The school fund of Connecticut amounts to $2,019,920 09 chiefly 
invested in bonds and notes secured by mortgage. We are sorry to see 
that this state has imposed a new tax on those who are striving to ad- 
vance in the higher branches of education, by requiring them to do mili- 
tary duty. What a school for a young student is the parade ground ! 

University of New York. 

A faculty of law has been organized in the University of New York, 
in accordance with a plan proposed by the Hon. Benjamin F. Butler, late 
of AIlMiny, who is appointed principal professor aud head of tl»e faculty. 

Anti-Corset SocrETiEs. 

Two societies of this kind have been formed, and are successfully going 
on, putting down the wicked slavery to fashion, which destroys so many 
females. One of these societies is in Peterborough, N. Y^ and wai 



838 N^tieet of Bookt. 

formed a year aga All the kdiea in the Tillage, bat three, aigned the 
pledge. The other ia at Atkinaon, Me^ and conaiBta chiefly of the pn- 
pilii of a boarding school. There are many * family ' aseociationa of thia 
aort in our country, and the number is rapidly increasing. What a great 
point will be gained in the improvement of social and domestic life, when 
reason, comfort, and health, are consulted in the fashions of drew! The 
iVequent changes of fashion also involve much useless expense of money 
and precious time. Till this passion for change is corrected, ladiea can 
neither have means nor leisure for much improvement in their systema 
of education and household management. But we see this tight lacing 
has been, in some measure, corrected, by reasoning on the subject, and 
we do not despair. Allow ladies the privilege of reaaoning^ and they 
must become more reasonable. — LadUi* Magazine* 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Transactions of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the 
Western Literary Institute, and College of Professional 
Teachers. Held at Cincinnati, Oct., 1834. Cincinnati: Joaiah 
Drake. 8vo. pp. 324. 

We heard, some months since, of the appearance of this volume, and 
congratulate our western friends, that they are even able to issue it so 
promptly. We were recently favored with a copy, and have been much 
gratified with looking over the lectures of which it is composed. 

In addition to the Journal of the Proceedings, and the lecture of Dr. 
Drake, of which we have already given some account, it containa an 
Introductory Address, by President Picket, a veteran teacher, lectures and 
reports on the Languageiii, Mathemutics, Physical Science, Music, Col- 
lege Govornmeat, and Emulation, by a number of the inemliers, which 
display much ability and zeal — and a lecture by the late Mr. Grimke, 
exhibiting his peculiar views of education for American youth. We have 
few volumes on this subject containing more valuable discussions, on im- 
portant subjects, and hope to notice it more fully hereaAer. 

The Introductory Discourse, and the Lectures delivered 
before the American Institute of Instruction, in Boston, Aug. 
1834, including the Journal of proceedings, and a list of the offi- 
cers. Published under the direction of the Board of Censors. 
Boston: Carter, Hcndee d& Co. 1835. 8vo. pp. 276. 

We are gratified in being able to announce the appearance of the lec- 
tnrea before the American Institute, in It^, for which we have received 



Lectures before the Insiitvte. 333 

to frequent inquiries. It does not yield, in our view, to any of the pre- 
ceding volumes in interest or vnlne ; nnd contains snrh a variety of top- 
ics and discussions, scieniific, pmctiral and nir»ral, both for the school 
and the nursery, that we think nil who read on this subject, will find it 
well worthy of perusal. We cannot now sfienk of it in detail. 

It is a matter of regret to many, ihnt the lecture's rnnnot be published 
earlier ; and by some, it is made a subject of coinplaint. We have been 
well acquainted with the measures of the oflirers concerned in its publi- 
cation, and cau assure our readers, that it is uot for want of the most 
laborious diligence and care on their part. In regard to the authors, it is 
true, that in a few instances we Imvc known that a lecturer has been 
unnecessarily and inexcusably neirligent in sendin^r a manuscript, or re- 
turning a proof, and thus has detained the volume fur months, aAer every- 
thing else was ready, to the great iinnoynnce of the censors, the printers 
and the publishers, nnd to the injury of the Institute. For such delay, 
we offer no apology; but on the other hand, it is no small amount of 
labor, for one who is capable of preparing a lecture to add this to the 
multiplicity of other tasks, even when months are before him. He can- 
not be expected to coumiit himself or the Institute, by an imperfect manu- 
script; nnd he is neither justified nor bound to nf>gloct business, jour- 
neys, &c., to wait for and attend to proofs, where the Institute can afford 
no rennmeration for his time. And l>e it rememhrred, some of those 
best qualified to lecture, aro compelled to ta.*^k tlirmselves even beyond 
their strength for the nuNins of subsistence, or in the execution of the 
plans in which they are engaged. 

There is one siuiple mode of remedying this evil, and allowing each 
lecturer who is prompt, to appear before the public in a favorable 
manner, and to produce the impression he designs, before they have for- 
gotten his subject nnd himsell*. Let the krtures be issued in pamphlets, 
and forwarded to the membersof the Institute, and to all sultscribers, and 
exposed for sale, as they are received, or at regular periods. In this way, 
the Institute will be kept before the public, the interest excited by 
its meetings will be in some degree maintained, and each subject will be 
fairly presented and l)e much more likely to gain attention, and produce 
effect. We need only refer to thu inquiries and remarks excited by the 
lecture of Mr. Winslow. recently published in this form, at the expense 
of the author, for the benefit of the Institute, to prove the advantages of 
such a course. We had hoped to accomplish this object, when we pro- 
posed, two years since, to publish the lectures in the Annals of Educa- 
tion ; but we found that, able as were those published, they were not con- 
sidered appropriate to a |>eriodicaJ, and disappointed those who sought Ant 
a variety of brief articles, more adapted to daily use, and desultory read- 
ing. A large circuUtion was indeed secured ; but we coukl not Tentura 



334 Noiicei of BooJc9. 

to repeat the ei|ierirnent. We think, with its increaeed metna, the Insti- 
tute mny, without difficuhy, and with great benefit to othera, iatue its 
own traiiaactioNS |ieriodically, and we hope thia plan will be adopted. 

Helon's Pilgrimage to Jerusalem. A Picture of Judaiam 
in the century which preceded the advent of our Saviour. Trans- 
lated from the German of Frederick Strauss. Revised and 
abridged by Baron Stow, Pastor of the second Baptist Church| 
Boston. Boston: Wm. D. Ticknor, and Gould, Kendall & 
Lincoln. 1835. I2mo. pp. 298. 

A npw edition, somewhat reduced in sizeaiid price, of one of the moat 
graphic cixhihitions of Judaism, and the peculiar customs and opinions of 
the ajre, which has been written. The reader seems to find himself as 
much nt home in the ' City of David,' as in the scenes in London of a 
modern story ; wliile there is an elevation and often a sublimity in the 
style of narrative, and in the illustrations from the Psalms and other por- 
tions of Scripture, which render its impressions unusually interesting and 
deep. It is a valuable present to the student and teacher of the Scrip- 
tures. None of either closs should leave it unread. 

First T^essons in English Grammar, upon a plan Inductive 
and Intellectual. By Jcuin Flint, Principal of the English De- 
partment of St. Luke's Mule School. !New York: N. B. Holmes, 
Bookseller. 1834. 18mo. pp. 107. 

In the prefice, the author justly oljserves, *Tho little relish, or rather 
the positive dislike which almost every child evinces for this study, ariaea 
not from the nature of the siil)ject, but from the manner in which it ia 
presented to him. Ho is introduced to tlie consideration of too many 
things at once ; they ore more than his mind can grasp, and he turns 
from theui in despair and disgust. But select for him a single object, 
unaccompanied by a neodlegs parade of circumstances; and, as he will 
immediately perceive it to be within his reach, so he will take pleasure in 
making himself acquainted with it, which having done, give him 
another, and so on until every object is embraced, taking C4ire however 
to make them as few as the subject will allow.' 

On these principles the author constructs his work. In the first part 
words are merely classified, whhout alluding to the details of their inflec- 
tions. The pupil's knowledge is brought into requisition by examples 
and sentences, in which he is required to select the words corresponding 
to the defitutions ; and as soon as it is deemed practicable, the pupil is 
called u|M>n to trrt/e sentences, involving such partsof sfMechaaare named. 
The second part describes the varieties and inflections of each fNurt of 
■peecb, w|th similar, practical ezercls^ The third eontaina the irulea fiir 



Noiieu of BooJci. 885 

forms of words and syntactical parsing. We think this little book will 
be very interestinig to those teachers who are not wedded to old systems. 
It is decidedly the best introductory work we have seen. 

The Mount Vernon Reader. A Course of Readinff Lessons, 
selected with reference to their moral influence on the hearts and 
lives of the Young. Designed for the Middle Classes. By the 
Messrs. Abbott. Boston: John Allen & Co. 1836. ISmo. pp. 

Our rending books have generally been compiled, chiefly with the 
design of furnishing every variety of composition, and every species of 
exercise in the enunciation of language. The better spirit of the age de- 
mands that a higher stamp should be fixed upon our books; and that the 
sad deficiency of moral influence in our school?, should be in some degree 
supplied, by preparing books which shall combine moral influence with 
every branch of kiiowlcilge. We were rrjoiced to hear the author of a 
system of Algebra observe, that he had felt it due to the cause of temper- 
ance to exclude every example in which the sale or mixing of intoxica- 
ting liquors was involved. We cannot better describe the book before us 
than in the language of the compilers : 

* The design then of the Mount Vernon Reader is to exert a direct and 
powerful moral influence on the hearts of children receiving education 
in the schools of this country ; such an influence as shall make them faith- 
ful and industrious in the improvement of their time, obedient and afl^c- 
tionateto their parents, kiml towards their playmates, and upright and hon- 
est in all their intercourse with others. The selections are designed to pro- 
duce thioeflect, not by formal exhortation or precept, but by narratives and 
delineations of character, such as are calculated to win their way to the 
hearts of the young, and in^euHihly to instil those principles and cultivate i. 
those habits which will make them useful both to themselves and others, 
and happy both here and hereafter. The compilers have honestly 
endeavored to exclude everything which they supposed would lie unac- 
ceptable to any of the friends of piety and morality, of whatever name.' 

We need only add, that we were led on by the interest excited, to look 
through most of the chapters of this book, and that we think the authors 
have succeeded in the execution of their design, and in giving that simple 
and touching character to the whole which* is so conspicuous in (heir 
books. We doubt whetlier Lesson VII. does not need some remarks, to 
prevent wrong impressions, especially when it is read out of school, as it 
oflen will be ; but we have seen few school books so free from doubtful or 
objectionable passages. 



Juvemle Song. 



<^Oh how tweet when dajr-light el 

(from the GERMAN.) 



99 



Faniibed for the Aonals of Education by Lowell Maiov, Profesior fa tte 

Boston Academy of Muiic. 



I r 

Oh how aweet when day-light closes. When the western tun reposes. And the 




-i^ — 9 — r 

dew is on the roses. Brothers ! then how sweet to rove Througiriht 



ww^p^^ 






meadow and the grove, Thro' the meadow and the grove — Oh how sweet 






e»T.--#:z^35 






Oh how sweet when day-light 



clos 



' es. 



Oh how sweet when day is ending, 
And the golden sun desconding, 
Sweet to hear our songs ascending : 

Brothers ! from the star-lit grove 

Songs of gladness and of love. 
Oh how sweel — Oh how sweet when day ia ending. 

Oh how sweet the bell's low pealing 
On the ear so 8of\ly stealing — 
Home we go with grateful feeling 

Thank the God who reigna above ; 

And with songs of praise and love, 
Sink to rest — sink to rest with grateful feeling. 



A~ 



tf 




Juvemk Song. 



<^Oh how sweet when dajr-lig^ht el 

(from the GERMAN.) 



99 



ForniBlMd for the Aonals of Education by Lowell Maiov, Profenor in tte 

Boston Academy of Muiic. 



Oh how aweet when day-light closes. When the western sun repoees. And the 




dew is on the roses. Brothers ! tiien how sweet to rove Through ibt 






mendow and the grove, Thro' the meadow and the grove — Oh how sweet 



^ 



If — mr - —0 -x- ^ "c-r t n 



1 



Oh how sweet when day-light 



7 ^ 

clos - - es. 



Oh how Bwoct when day is ending, 
And the golden sun desc(Miding, 
Sweet to hear our songs ascending : 

Brothers ! from the star-lit grove 

Songs of gladness and of love. 
Oh how sweet — Oh how sweet when day is ending. 

Oh how sweet the bell's low pealing 
On the ear so sof\ly stealing — 
Home we go with grateful feeling 

Thank the God who reigna above ; 

And with songs of praise and love, 
Sink to rest — sink to rest with grateful feeling. 



AMERICAN 



ANNALS OF EDUCATION 



AND INSTRUCTION. 



AUGUST, 1835. 



THE MILITARY ACADEMY AT WEST POINT. 

Report of the Board of Visitors, invited by the Secreimy of War to attend 
the General Exaimnation of the Cadets of the Unued States Military 
Academy^ June, 18«'^. 

To the Friends of Peace, the very idea of an institution intended 
to instruct men in the art of war, is painful. But does not this 
feelinc: arise from a false estimate of the effects of such instruction ? 
Our own feelings once revolted at settled measures of this sort, 
which seemed to have no other object but the destruction of 
human life in the most skilful and rapid manner. But we have 
never forgotten tiie remarks of an eminent philanthropic Quaker, 
of London, at a period when the steam gun of Perkins was ex- 
pected to produce the most dreadful carnage — * I rejoice/ said he, 
' in this invention, and as a friend of peace, I earnestly hope it 
will be successful. The invention of gunpowder, and every dis- 
covery and improvement that has been made in the artof war, has 
diminished the nunibcr of wars and the number of deaths, and the 
amount of mis^cry they occasion. The more certain death can be 
made, the less wiHin<:j will nations be to fight ; and as soon as you 
can make calculations on the number of men that will be killed, 
wars will be decided like a sum in arithmetic, by counting the 
number of (:[nns and n)cn instead of fii^htins^ a battle.' Indeed, the 

O OCT ' 

great object of military tactics is, to instruct the student how to 
accomplish certain objects with the least possible destructioD of 

VOL. V. NO. VIII. 29 



338 UsefuJneii, —^Origin. 

life and property. So long, therefore, as the mass of mankind 
are not prepared to abandon war, philanthropy itself may see, iu 
a single comparison with the wars of savage and barbarous nations, 
or of the armed and helnieted knight of the middle ages, with those 
of soldiers of modern times, sufficient reason to desire the per- 
fection of the art of war. 

On grounds like these, the friend of peace may approve of the 
establishment of a Military School. But we rejoice to think 
that there are better grounds fur believing, that the school at 
West Point has been an honor and a benefit to our country. In 
aiming to promote the art of war, it has contiibuted to advance the 
arts of peace, and to cuhivate the sciences which are connected 
with the best interests of society. While it has educated officers 
who have done much to preserve and defend our country from 
the ravages of war, we are especially indebted to it for tlie engi- 
neers who survey our coasts, and examine our harbors and our 
rivers, who have planned and executed many of the improvements, 
rail roads, canals, &:c., which are so rapidly promoting the pros- 
perity of our country, and the strength of our union. It may, 
mdeed, have done evil, hy exciting a military spirit, or establishing 
military habits, where ihey would not otherwise have existed. On 
the other hand, we have reason to believe the knowledge of the 
science of war has often impaired a taste for its practice, and that 
the giaduaded cadet often has less passion for military display, 
than the youni^ militia man. We have always found the veterans 
of Enropep.n battles, speak with more horror of the evils of war, than 
any men we have seen. The public money has doubtless been 
wasted here, on some of the pampered children of wealth and rank ; 
but it has also elevated sons of poverty to stations of honor and 
usefulness, which they would never otherwise have attained. If 
it be regarded as an evil, it is by no means an unmixed evil. It 
is also due to the Academy at West Point to say, that it hjis done 
more for the cultivation of the exact sciences, especially in their 
higher branches, than any other institution in our country. It 
ought to be added, that several eminent literary institutions have 
found some of the most valuable of their officers, especially in the 
department of mathematics, among the graduates of West Point. 
But whatever may be our views of the object of the institution, it 
is interesting to every American to know the condition of the only 
school sustained by our general government — the nursery of those 
who are expected to defend our country. 

The establishment of a military academy in our country, was 
proposed in a report of Gen. Knox, then Secretary of War, in 
1790, and was recommended by Gen. Washington in his annual 
address to Congress, in 1793 and 1796. In 1794, an act was 



West PotfU. 

passed for the establishment of a Corps of Artillerists and Eogi- 
neers, to which eight cadets or pupil soldiers were attached. In 
1793, the number of cadets was increased to fifty, and provision 
was made for the support of four teachers to instruct them in the 
requisite arts and sciences. It was not till 1802, that these cadets 
were collected into an Academy, established at West Point, under 
the direction of the late General Jonathan Williams, as chief of 
the corps of engineers, and two teachers, of French and Draw- 
ing. Several years after, the number of cadets was increased to 
one hundred and sixty ; but the whole number graduated previous 
to the war of 1812, was only seventy-one. 

At this period, when our country experienced the most humilia- 
ting and distressing results from the want of military knowledge, 
the number of cadets was increased to two hundred and sixty. In 
addition to the teachers of French and Drawing, three professors 
were appointed — of Natural Pliilosophy, of Mathematics, and of 
Engineering, each with an assistant ; and a chaplain, who was 
required, in addition to his other duties, to give instmction in His- 
tory, Geography, and Moral and Political Science. The list of 
professors and assistants is now so enlarged, that thirty-four gen- 
tlemen, most of them graduates of the Academy, are employed 
in the discipline and instruction of the Institution ; and the nume- 
rous unsuccessful applications show, that the list of students is 
always full. 

To provide for this large number of young men, an extensive 
set of public buildings has been erected, and gradually surrounded 
by a little village of dwellings, for their guardians and attendants. 
The celebrated post of W^est Point is situated upon a beautiful 
plain of fifty acres, rising precipitously above the Hudson River, to 
an elevation of about two hundred feet. In approaching it from 
the south, the buildings of the institution appear on the top of the 
promontory, forming the south side of a quadrangle which is open to 
the north. On the east is a barrack, also occupied by the stu- 
dents; and on the west, are the houses of the superintendent, and 
the professors. On ascending the promontory, the traveller finds 
the whole navigation of the river passing beneath his feet, and even 
the magnificent steamboat dwindling to insignificance, amidst the 
grand objects of nature around him. On the other side, the lofty 
tops of the Catskill seem to shut him out from the world, and the 
ruins of an ancient fort frown upon him, from a height which seems 
almost inaccessible. To the north, the Hudson spreads into a 
broad channel, and the view of this stream and its lofty banks ia 
terminated by a curve in the river, on which the pretty village of 
Newburg is situated. 



340 DiscipUne, 

From this account it will be seen, that the cadets are placed 
on one of tlie most delifrhtful spots in our country, for the 
sahibrity of its air, the seclusion and quiet of its situation, and 
the grandeur and beauty of its scenery. So deli(;htful, indeed, is 
this place considered, that the splendid hotel which was erected to 
receive the officers of government, and the oflicial visitors of the 
institution, is, in fact, one of the favorite resorts of the invalid, and 
the most delightful rcfu(j;e for the luxurious, from the heat and 
bustle of the cities. The institution is provided with a sufficient, 
and in some respects, peculiarly valuahle apparatus, for the illustra- 
tion of iVaiural Philosophy, a Chemical Laboratory , and a Library 
of 10,000 volumes, which is said to be very complete in military 
works, but which we could not but consider deficient in regard to 
collateral subjects, and general knowledge and literature. 

The treatment of the students is such as is adapted to prepare 
them for the practical duties and endurances of a military hfe, so 
far as this can be done consistently with the other objects of the 
institution. The student^s room is considered as his tent, and the 
floor is his couch. His mattress is spread and laid aside, by him- 
self. The cleanliness and arrangement of the apartment are 
attended to by each of the inmates in turn ; and we were gratified 
to see for ourselves, and to learn from the reports of the public 
visitors, that this duty is well performed. The students are formed 
into a military corps, with officers taken from among themselves, 
each student in turn, being called to perform the duties of a soldier 
and an officer. A guard is kept constantly on duty, as in a bar- 
rack, and sentinels pace its halls, to see that order is maintained, 
and that the regulations of the Academy are observed. The com- 
mon rules of order and decorum, are rigidly enforced ; and early 
hours of retirement and rising are insisted on with military exact- 
ness, and indicated by military signals. The students are forbidden 
to keep or use tobacco, or any intoxicating liquor. They are not 
allowed to engatre in those amusements which often distract the 
attention of students, and are required to maintain the deportment 
of gentlemen towards their instructors, and towards each other, as 
well as to abstain from every immorality and open neglect of the 
Sabbath, or of public worship. In short, the system of discipline 
is strictly military, and the cadets are, in fact, but a )K)rtion of the 
Army of the United States, taking rank between the subaltern and 
commissioned officers, and receiving in the same manner, pay and 
rations, which now amount to %28 per month, for the payment 
of all expenses. 

During the months of July and August, the cadets leave their 
barracks, and encamp upon the beautiful plain which forms the 
summit of West Pointi subject to the discipline of aa army in 



Intettectual Educatim. 34X 

time of war. They are occupied almost exclusively during these 
two months in military exercises, and expected to encounter all the 
vicissitudes of this season. 

We need scarcely say, that such discipline, combined with regu-> 
larity of hours, and a plain diet, render the system of physical educa- 
tion at West Point, superior to that of our literary institutions 
generally. 

The intellectual education of the cadets is, of course, conducted 
in the manner adapted to their profession. It is unfortunate that 
young men, received, as many of the students are, with very little 
knowledge of elementary studies, and with minds wholly unculti- 
vated and unfurnished, should be required to obtain the whole of 
their education in the space of four years, which is deemed barely 
sufficient for a single stage of an ordinary professional course. It 
is, we presume, a matter of necessity, that this period should be 
exclusively devoted to those subjects which are immediately con- 
nected with military science ; but under these circumstances, the 
result is to be anticipated which we have heard described by some 
of the students and observers of the Academy, that a large number 
of the young men leave it with little except mere technical knowl- 
edge, and especially without that general kifonnation which is 
necessary to give them influence in society. They too often have 
a narrowness of ideas, an inability to understand and meet the views 
of mere civilians, (as non-military men are technically termed,) 
which is unfavorable to their character as citizens. We know there 
are many striking exceptions to this remark ; but it is not to the 
Academy they are indebted for their value as members of society- 
As a place of professional education, there can be no doubt of the 
excellence of West Point ; and in reference to the exact sciences, 
we have before observed, that we considered it superior to that 
which is given in any other part of our country. The course of 
Mathematics is extensive and thorough. The mode of examina- 
tion leaves no room to the student to escape detection, if he is 
not familiar with his task. We were surprised and delighted to 
witness the accuracy with which a young man could go through 
an intricate demonstration, without a text book or figure to aid him, 
and reply to the questions and cross questions which were con- 
tinually put, to test his familiarity with the subject. 

Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology, are 
not less necessary as preliminary aids to the military student, in 
enabling him to judge of the country in which he is, and the na- 
ture and properties of the materials which he uses in various 
branches of his art. And he is not left to mere scientific theory, 

♦29 



348 Siudia. 

but is taught the application of principles in the various military 
arts, even to the founding of cannon, and the construction of fire- 
works. 

A regular course of instruction is given in Drawing, especially in 
Linear and Topographical Drawing, and a valuable collection of 
models in wood, plaster and paper, has been formed, to furnish 
objects connected with their pursuits. 

The French language is pursued, only so far as is necessary to 
read their text lKX)ks, and to consult the valuable works on this 
subject which have been published by French authors. No time 
is left for other languages. 

History, Geography, and Political and Moral Science, are ex- 
pected to be taught by the chaplain. The late board of exam- 
iners speak highly of the knowledge of Government and Constitu- 
tional liaw which the students exhibited. They also observe, that 
' The familiarity they evinced with the several systems of ethics, 
propounded by disiinguislied masters at different periods, showed 
that their minds had been effwtually directed to the distinguishing 
characteristics of those systems, and their relative merits closely 
conipared by them and familiarly understood.' We will venture 
to question the accuracy of the phrase ' familiarly understood/ 
when applied to a subject so profound and extensive, — taught as it 
is at West Point. Jiut admitting this, if tlie impression conveyed 
by such a statement be correct, we can only regret, that the guar- 
dians of right, in a Christian land, should receive what appears to 
be a historical course of instruction fitted to cherish scepticism, and 
enfeeble the power of conscience, rather than to establish that high 
standard of Christian morals, which should be impressed indelibly 
on the hearts of those, to whose hands the instnunents of death 
are entrusted, and who are initiated into the arts of destruction. 

Of the progress of the cadets in Geography and History, nothing 
is said ; and we beheve, from the accounts we have heard, the 
crowd of other studies almost excludes them from any thorough 
study of the past history or actual condition of their fellow men — 
a sad deficiency, we think, in tlie education of a permanent, public 
officer. 

The course of Engineering is by no means confined to mere 
military constructions, but embraces all that can contribute to the 
physical improvement of a country, and its physical prosperity 
and means of communication. It occupies five hours of each day. 
The student is taught the properties, preparation and use of ma- 
terials for building, the principles of Architecture, the construction 
of roads and bridges, railroads, canals and harbors, and the 



Diitributum of Subjects. 343 

survey and improvement of rivers and natural harbors. The prin- 
ciples of Fortification, and the various branches of Military Tactics 
are a necessary part of the course; and the theory taught, is 
brought into practice, so far as the nature of the ground will admit, 
in the daily exercises and the annual encampment. 

In regard to the order of studies, the first year is occupied with 
Algebra, Geometry and their application to Trigonometry, and 
the French language. The second year extends this course to 
the higher branches of Mathematics, the theory of curves, and the 
Differential and Integral Calculus, and the application of Mathe- 
matics to Mensuration, Perspective, and Lights and Shadows. In 
the third year, the student attends to the application of Mathe- 
matics to Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, and attends lectures 
in Chemistry. In both years, much- attention is paid to Drawing. 
The French language is pursued in the use of French text books. 

The fourth and last year is crowded with a mass of studies, for 
which no time is found previously. The first place is of course 
given to the higher professional branches. Engineering, Civil and 
Military, and Artillery, and Infantry Tactics. But while the best 
efforts of the student must be given to these leading studies, he 
is expected to acquire a knowledge of Mineralogy, Geology, 
Grammar, Rhetoric, Moral Philosophy, the Constitution of the 
United States, and International Law, in a single year ! No in- 
structor of youth need be told how hopeless is this task, both on 
the part of the teacher and the pupil. 

Throughout the whole course, the student is taught and exer- 
cised daily in the practical duties of a soldier, in every grade and 
station. 

It would seem that all reasonable measures had been taken to 
secure the utmost benefit to the country from the instructions given 
in this Institution. In the admission of cadets, a very low stand- 
ard of qualification is indeed required — a mere knowledge of Read- 
ing, Writing and Arithmetic — less than is taught in our district 
schools. Surely more may safely and justly be required from 
an Amefican youth of sixteen, before he is allowed rank, and pay, 
and high privileges in the service of his country. Surely sound 
policy would require more, from a youth whom it is proposed to 
send forth, in four years, with a commission from his country, 
which is considered as an introduction to the best and most culti- 
vated society in the land. Still, the number of applications so far 
exceeds the limit prescribed to the Institution, that sufficient op- 
portunity will be left for selecting the able and the well informed, 
unless the principle of individual or political favoritism which has 
often, and we fear, too justly been complained of, should interfere. 



344 Examinations. — Expemu, 

After a selection, professedly made from a careful examination 
and comparison of the candidates, a period of probation of six 
months is passed in the iastitution, before the cadet can receive 
his commission, and this only on a certificate from the Academic 
Board, that his progress and character have been satisfactory. 
The instructors are required to keep daily notes of the progress 
and relative merit of each student, which is weekly reported to 
the superintendent ; and a condensed account is given monthly to 
the parent or guardian. 

An annual examination of the cadets is made by a Board of 
Visitors, invited by the Secretary of War from every State in the 
Union, and a semi-annual examination by the Academic board, each 
of which is conducted with great care, for a period of three weeks, 
at the rate of nine hours a day. At each examination, those stu- 
dents whose progress or conduct have not been found satisfactoiy, 
are either compelled to retrace their course, or are reported for 
dismission to the Secretary of War. In this way every class 
of cadets is so thoroughly sifted, that it is said two are rejected 
for every one that is graduated ; and it is probable that much of the 
hostility which has been shown to this Institution, must be ascribed 
to the disappointed can^j^tes and their friends. 

The average annual expense of this institution is stated by the 
visitors of the present year, to amount to ^ 1 18,566 52. Of this, 
$93,566 52 is appropriated to the pay of professors, and the pay 
and subsistence of cadets ; and ^25,000 to the general purposes 
of the institution, for apparatus, models, books, stationary, printing, 
fuel, and other incidental expenses. It is a peculiarly interesting 
feature of this institution, that it maintains a lithographic press, 
which enables the professors to furnish their pupils, at a cheap rate, 
with such drawings and illustra^p as may occasionally be thought 
necessary, and also to provideflK with a few copies of some valu- 
able text books, wliich no .^^Berican bookseller would venture to 
publish. As the list of cadets is almost always full, the annual 
expense of furnishing each student with the privileges and instruc- 
tions of this institution, may be estimated at 450 dollars ; and while 
they are technically said to be in the service of the United States, 
they are, in fact, receiving an education of great value, at the ex- 
pense of their country, and are sacredly bound to make the only 
return in their power, by employing for the public benefit, the 
knowledge and skill they have acquired. 

The mode of instruction is such as to draw forth the powers of 
each individual. The classes are divided into sections of mode- 
rate size, each consisting of young men nearly in the same standing 
m their respective studies. In this way, the mode of instructioa 



Modes of Listruction. — Merit Roll. 345 

can be adapted more completely to the powers and acquirements 
of each student. The knowledge and progress of each are tested 
at every recitation, and he is transferred, as occasion requires, from 
section to section, until he finds his place with those who will 
neither retard his progress by their inferiority, or discourage him 
by their more rapid advancement. 

JVo assistance is derived in the recitation room from book or 
figure ; every proposition is demonstrated or illustrated by the stu- 
dent himself upon the black board ; and the instructor can ascer- 
tain with certainty, whether he is faniiliar with the subject he 
has studied. We cannot lose the opportunity of recommend- 
ing this valuable instrument of instniclion, to every teacher who 
desires to give a thorough knowledge of Mathematics, Geography, 
and other subjects, which require the use of delineation. One 
useful plan which we have seen adopted to fix the attention of a 
whole class, is to call upon individuals in succession, without any 
previous warning, to carry on a demonstration or a sum in 
Algebra, or in Arithmetic, from a point at which another had left 
it, until the whole was completed, or to insert a mountain, a river 
or a city, on a map which another had drawn. 

In place of the usual honors and appointments of collegiate 
institutions, a Merit Roll is formed from a general view of the stu- 
dents' progress and character, on principles which are far less ob- 
jectionable than those usually adopted. Instead of a rough aggre- 
gate of all his talents and acquirements, in which great pro- 
ficiency in one branch is made an ofiset for deficiency, or neglect, 
or ignorance in another,— often from a very loose estimate, — a 
daily record is made by which the recitation of each student is 
designated by one of eleven numbers, from to 3, each indicating 
a grade from * best' to ' worst.' From the addition of these num- 
bers, the proo^ress of each student is designated in the monthly re- 
ports. At each annual examination, the Merit Roll is made out, in 
which the merit of each cadet, in each branch of instruction, is 
denoted by a number proportioned to his proficiency and to the 
importance of the subject. Thus * Conduct, Engineering, Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy are estimated at 300, to each 
cadet who is approved without exception in these points. Chem- 
istry and Mineralogy are estimated at 200 ; Infantry Tactics, the 
same ; and in correspondence with the limited space into which 
they are crowded, the utmost proficiency in the three branches of 
Rhetoric, Moral and Political Science, will only secure to the stu- 
dent the same credit of 200 on the merit roll 1 Without exam- 
ining the correctness of this scale of value, it is obvious, that in this 
way, the student receives all the credit he deserves, and may 



344 Examinatiom. — Expemu. 

After a selection, professedly made from a careful examination 
and comparison of the candidates, a period of probation of si% 
months is passed in the institution, before the cadet can receive 
his commission, and this only on a certificate from the Academic 
Board, that his progress and character have been satisfactory. 
The instructors are required to keep daily notes of the progress 
and relative merit of each student, which is weekly reported ta 
the superintendent ; and a condensed account is given monthly to 
the parent or guardian. 

An annual examination of the cadets is made by a Board of 
Visitors, invited by the Secretary of War from every State in the 
Union, and a semi-annual examination by the Academic board, each 
of which is conducted with great care, for a period of three weeks, 
at the rate of nine hours a day. At each examination, those stu- 
dents whose progress or conduct have not been found saUsfactorVi 
are either compelled to retrace their course, or are reported for 
dismission to the Secretary of War. In this way every class 
of cadets is so thoroughly sifted, that it is said two are rejected 
for every one that is graduated ; and it is probable that much of the 
hostility which has been shown to this Institution, must be ascribed 
to the disappointed can^Ates and their friends. 

The average annual expense of this institution is stated by the 
visitors of the present year, to amount to $118,566 52. Of this, 
$93,566 52 is appropriated to the pay of professors, and the pay 
and subsistence of cadets ; and $25,000 to tlie general purposes 
of the institution, for apparatus, models, books, stationary, printing, 
fuel, and other incidental expenses. It is a peculiarly interesting 
feature of this institution, that it maintains a lithographic press, 
which enables the professors to furni^ their pupils, at a cheap rate, 
with such drawings and illustra^p as may occasionally be thought 
necessary, and also to provide^^^ with a few copies of some valu- 
able text books, which no American bookseller would venture to 
publbh. As the list of cad& is almost always full, the annual 
expense of furnishing each student with the privileges and instruc- 
tions of this institution, may be estimated at 450 dollars ; and while 
they are technically said to be in the service of the United States, 
they are, in fact, receiving an education of great value, at the ex- 
pense of their country, and are sacredly bound to make the only 
return in their power, by employing for tlie public benefit, the 
knowledge and skill they have acquired. 

The mode of instruction is such as to draw forth the powers of 
each individual. The classes are divided into sections of mode- 
rate size, each consisting of young men nearly in the same standing 
b their respective studies. In this way, the mode of iostnictioii 



Modes of Instruction, — Merit Roll. 345 

can be adapted more completely to the powers and acquirements 
of each student. The knowledge and progress of each are tested 
at every recitation, and he is transferred, as occasion requires, from 
section to section, until he finds his place with those who will 
neither retard his progress by their inferiority, or discourage him 
by their more rapid advancementi 

No assistance is derived in the recitation room from book or 
figure ; every proposition is demonstrated or illustrated by the stu- 
dent himself upon the black board ; and the instructor can ascer- 
tain with certainty, whether he is familiar with the subject he 
has studied. We cannot lose the opportunity of recommend- 
ing this valuable instrument of instniction, to every teacher who 
desires to give a thorough knowledge of Mathematics, Geography, 
and other subjects, which require the use of delineation. One 
useful plan which we have seen adopted to fix the attention of a 
whole class, is to call upon individuals in succession, without any 
previous warning, to carry on a demonstration or a sum in 
Algebra, or in Aritlimetic, from a point at which another had left 
it, until the whole w as completed, or to insert a mountain, a river 
or a city, on a map whicli another had drawn. 

In place of tlie usual honors and appointments of collegiate 
institutions, a Merit Roll is fonned from a general view of the stu- 
dents' progress and character, on principles which are far less ob- 
jectionable than those usually adopted. Instead of a rough aggre- 
gate of all his talents and acquirements, in which great pro- 
ficiency in one branch is made an oflset for deficiency, or neglect, 
or ignorance in another,— often from a very loose estimate, — a 
daily record is made by which the recitation of each student is 
designated by one of eleven numbers, from to 3, each indicating 
a grade from * best' to ' worst.' From the addition of these num- 
bers, the progress of each student is designated in the monthly re- 
ports. At each annual examination, the Merit Roll is made out, in 
which the merit of each cadet, in each branch of instruction, is 
denoted by a number proportioned to his proficiency and to the 
importance of the subject. Thus * Conduct, Engineering, Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy are estimated at 300, to each 
cadet who is approved without exception in these points. Chem- 
istry and Mineralogy are estimated at 200 ; Infantry Tactics, the 
same ; and in correspondence with the limited space into which 
they are crowded, the utmost proficiency in the three branches of 
Rhetoric, Moral and Political Science, will only secure to the stu- 
dent the same credit of 200 on the merit roll ! Without exam- 
ining the correctness of this scale of value, it is obvious, that in this 
way, the student receives all the credit be deserves, and may 



846 Moral Educaiim. 

maintain a high rank in some studies, although he does not succeed 
80 well in others. This system, in effect, simply records the ac- 
tual character and progress of the students. It is a mere history 
of their recitations and examinations, presented to their natural aad 
official guardians, and accessible to the people, who have a right 
to know the character and talents of their servants. It differs aS 
essentially from the course adopted in many of our institutions, as 
the conduct of a parent who merely tells his child, * That is right ; 
you have done well ! ' fn)m tliat of another, who does not consider 
mere approbation sufficient, but covers his little ones with kisses^ 
or ornaments them with feathers or medals, to give this approba- 
tion value. The latter not only destroys the value of his praise 
in this way, but he cultivates the love of reward in place of the 
love of knowledge — and promotes personal vanity rather than the 
desire for improvements 

A roll of Demerit is alno kept, in which offences of various 
classes are designated by different numbers, increasing as he ad- 
vances in his course; and when the sum of a student's ofiences 
amounts to 200, he is ^ recommended for discharge.' 

It is given as an evidence of the value of this system, that the 
rank of students is frequently and greatly changed, and that the 
delinquent or deficient frequently repair the injury they have 
done to tlieir character, by increased diligence. 

In regard to moral education, everything is undoubtedly accom- 
plished which strict, military discipline can accomplish. But the 
very object of military discipline is to restrain and direct tnen^ noj 
to educate youth. Its essence is implicit, unhesitating, unreason- 
ing obedience to a superior. It does not, therefore, pretend to 
cultivate the principles of its subjects, or to elevate their motives. 
It is directed almost exclusively to external conduct, and all its 
demands are satisfied, when the dress, deportment, movements, 
and efforts of the student are in conformity with its regulations. It 
is necessary for those who act on this principle, to presume that 
all is right, when the conduct of a student in his official relations is 
correct ; and yet, the very youth who is without a blot on the offi- 
cial roll of demerit, may be in danger of ruin from the false prin- 
ciples he adopts, and the wrong motives which influence him. 
He may be preparing to become a Cataline or an Arnold, and to 
pervert all the knowledge he has gained to the ruin of his country. 

The system of means for preventing open evil is, indeed, well 
airanged, and, we believe, faithfully applied. The cadets are 
compelled to rise early, and to employ the day diligently in active 
exercise, or close application, and to retire early. A constant 
gi|af4 is kept to notice any deviations from order, and each room 



Defau. 847 

b visited, at least four times a day, to ascertain its condition, and 
the employments of its occupants. In theory, one would be led 
to suppose the remark of one of its pupik to be correct, ' that at 
this school, there is no corner for idleness to lurk in, and no unob- 
served place for dissipation to revel in.' But we find sad evidence 
to the contrary, in the public disorders which are recorded in the 
history of the institution, and in the private vices which have dis- 
graced and destroyed so many of its pupils. We do not mean to 
place it in odious contrast with other institutions in this respect ; for 
we are aware that its subjects are often received in a state of 
thorough corruption, which is concealed by the official or indi- 
vidual patronage which presents them ; nay, that it has been em- 
ployed, to some extent, as a house of correction, for youth who are 
ungovernable in all other places, by those who use their influence 
in appointments, rather with a view to the interest of individuals, 
than to the good of the country. We are aware, too, that 
many, and among tliem, we fear, are found some of the wise and 
good, so far degrade the military profession, — so far forget the 
danger of entrusting power to improper hands — that they consider 
it advisable to fill the army and navy with young men who are too 
corrupt for any otfier situation in life. It is astonishing that they 
do not perceive, that in every young man of this character, to 
whom they entrust the sword, and communicate skill in using it, 
they are more likely to train up a Cesar or a Nero, who would 
embrace the first opportunities of destroying the liberties of his 
country, than a Wasliington or a Warren, who would hazard his 
life for its welfare. We trust that the majority of pupils at West 
Point are appointed on otlier principles ; or we sliould consider it 
more danijerous to our country than a Bastile, or an Inquisition, 
and should join with its most bitter enemies in wishing it a speedy 
downfull. We would suggest to its friends, that no measure is 
more important to its usefulness and permanency, than increased 
caution and impartiality in the appointment of its cadets. 

It is admitted in theory and practice, that regular religious in- 
struction is necessary in this institution, and a chaplain is accord- 
ingly maintained ; but his public labors are limited to a single ser- 
vice on the Sabbath, too often conducted in a manner lilde calcu- 
lated to excite any regard for religion. It is painful to see, that at 
the last annual visitation, this officer was under arrest ; for what 
cause it is not i^tated. We rejoice however to find, that the 
visitors regret the interruption of religious and moral instruction, 
and recommend the erection of a new and appropriate building for 
a chapel. But we consider even more than this necessary, to 
render it a permanent blessing to our country. Whatever may 



848 h^ravtauiUt dtnrMt. 

be the original character of its pupils, if they are trained fiir three 
years at the forming period of their characters, to consider the 
' General Regulations for the Army,' and tlie ' Regulations of the 
United States Military Academy,' as the text book of morahty and 
duty — if instructions in the principles of morals continues to be 
deferred until the last year of their course — if a knowledge of their 
duties as men and citizens must be combined with two other sci- 
ences in order to possess the same rank on the official scale of 
value as * Infantry Tactics ' — their standard of right, their prin- 
ciples of action, cannot be of that pure and elevated character, 
which is especially important in the defenders of their country's 
rights. LfCt the bible be acknowledged and employed as the text 
book of religious truth, and moral duty, and let not the religious 
instruction of these youth be* limited, as it oilen has been, to a 
single dry dissertation about religion on one part of the Sabbath, if 
it is intended to produce any but mechanical virtue or official 
morals. I jCt that part of the religious festival of our country which 
is given up to mere listlcssness or recreation, be consecrated to the 
study of divine wisdom ; and let the Sunday inspection, that 
wanton violation of the day of rest, for which necessity cannot 
here plead, be exchanged for the Bible Class ; and if the 
vicious are not refonned, at least the virtuous may be preserved 
from that wreck of character and principle, which are the natural 
consequence of the neglect of thorougli moral and religious instruc- 
tion. 

We have thus given an imperfect sketch of the only national 
institution in our country, and have procured an engraving orig- 
inally prepared for the American Mairazine, which will give our 
readers some idea of its situation, and its appearance at a distance. 
It will only assist them however in imagining liow beautiful a 
spot thus situated may be, and how favorable a site it is for a pub- 
lic institution. We earnestly hope, that if it be deemed unad- 
visable to continue it as a military school, it may still be main- 
tained, for the honor and tlie benefit of our country, as a place of 
education for civil enj;jineers, and for men devoted to the applica- 
tion of science to the arts. Of these, we have daily more urgent 
need, and they will seek elsewhere in vain, for the instruction 
and the assistance which they need. 



Letter from Vice President Ma$juera. 349 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE OF THE AMERICAN LTCEUM: 

Extracts of Idlers from the Hon. JoAquiN MosquiEA, iflAen Ftce Frttt- 

dent qf^tw Granada, 

BoMTAf Mat 23, 1834. 

I have read, and read again, with much |5[ratitude and sym- 
pathy, the letter from one of the officers of the American Lyceum, 
acknowledging the receipt of the diploma which I had sent him, 
of Corresponding Member of the Ponayan Society of Primary and 
Elementary Education. It i9 one ot the most gratifying rewards 
to which I can aspire, to receive expressions of approbation from 
such a friend of education and the human race. « * I regret 
that I do not receive, with regularity, the Annals of Education. 

I have the pleasure of informing you, that the Society con- 
tinues to labor with untiring constancy, and that I daily gain re- 
cruits in this holy war against immorality and ignorance. I main- 
tain a continual correspondence with the Society, and the masters 
of the schools which they have established, and frequently receive 
from the latter, gratifying evidence that they are making progress 
in their profession, and that the enthusiasm in favor of our enter- 
prise is increasing. 

The Ladies' Committee have collected a considerable amount 
of money, and continue to make exertions, that they may not be 
excelled by the men. If I had not been thrust into this Vice 
Presidency, in opposition to my wishes, I should have done much 
more ; but I am drawn by force into political life, and suffer much 
from the disappointment, counting the days which remain before 
I can leave the Executive, and return to the care of my pupils.* 
I am now laboring to promote the physical education of children, 
on the plan of Locke ; and 1 constantly say to my countrymen : 
* Let us form vigorous frames, and fortify the minds with good 
moral education, according to the principles of the Gospel, and 
God will grant his blessings to our country.' My soul exults^ and 
lives many ages in posterity, contemplating what will be the re- 
sults of these enterprises if they are pursued with perseverance. 
Do you not remember the proverb of Fratiklin ? * With patience 
and perseverance the mouse gnawed the cable in two.' Thb 
stimulates my exertions in a country whose foundations are now to 
be laid — a land of obstacles. 

'* As we have stated elsewhere, this ardent desire is at leiiffth realised, and 
another is added to the few noble examples of men who have voluntarily 
retired from eminent stations, not merely to enjoy a dignified retirement, or % 
life of literary or social enjoyment, bat to labor with unremitted leat, for th* 
good of their fellow men. — Ed. 

VOL. V. NO. VIII. 30 



350 Education in N^w Grenada. 

I must also tell you that I have been trying, for the last five 
months, to form in Bogota, a Society like that of Popayan, but 
have thus far met with difficulty. Yet I do not despair, and 
I never will despair as long as I live. I am now printing reading 
cards, which I have formed on the principles of general grammar 
and ideology, consulting everything good which has ever appeared 
in the Spanish language. 1 will send you a collection when I 
have done ; and I think I do not deceive myself when 1 say, that 
nothing has yet appeared in Castillian, so easy, and so nearly 
perfect. I am also overseeing the printing of ten thousand copies 
of Fleury's Compendium of Religion, to be distributed gra- 
tuitously among the schools, at the expense of the public treasury, 
and by the order of the government. I entertain hopes that a 
thousand new schools may be founded this year. 

General Santnnder has handed me copies of the 12th and 13th 
numbers of the Proceedings of the American liyceum, which I 
shall transmit to the Society of Popayan on the 28th inst. I have 
seen the notices they have been pleased to give of what 1 was 
doing; and when I reflect that they have been laid before many 
distinguished citizens of the United States, I am oppressed with 
the consideration of the feebleness of my exertions compared with 
the honor thus conferred upon me. 

Bogota, Oct. 4, 1834. 

I continue my efforts to promote the education of the people 
on the benevolent and imperishable principles of the Gospel. The 
Society of Popayan are active and prosperous, and are extending 
their operations even to founding schools in the province of Pasto 
and Neiva. 1 am now highly gratified at the measures taken to 
form a similar Society in the capital. The legislature of that de- 
partment have established a society with a constitution founded on 
our own, and granted ^500 for its use. The project is patronized 
by the governor, as well as by President Santander. I shall make 
every exertion in my power to render the public ceremonies at its 
organization imposing, and the effect patriotic, general and lasting. 

The Congress and public officers are doing all they can, in the 
circumstances of an infant nation, in favor of popular and classical 
education. Our Society must act as an auxiliary corps, skirmish- 
ing where there is room, reinforcing weak points, and doing its 
best for the benefit of mankind. 

The collpt^e buildin^j in Pasto was ruined by the late earthquake ; 
but subscriptions have been raised in all pails of New Granada ; 
and it is already rising again. A school has also been opened 
there, and a youtb ha^ been sent to Popayan tu be educated for 
its teacher. 



um in Ventzuehi. 851 



My desires are unlimited ; but our great distance from the coast, 
the want of frequent communication with the United States and 
Europe, tlie scarcity of paper, books, and printing presses so 
greatly oppose me, that I have to look at future prospects, to pre- 
rent despair. What labor it is to be the founder of new institu- 
tions ! It seems to me that I am left here destitute of all great 
elements, except space and vacuity, and that I need almost the 
power of creation. 

[Under the fostering care of President Santander, and the en- 
lightened friends associated with him in the government, education 
has already greatly advanced in the Republic of New Grenada ; 
and the public papers constantly show most gratifying evidence of 
the progress making in its various departments. The official 
reports of the annual Certamenes of the Universities and Col- 
leges, (which correspond with our Commencements,) which have 
recently come to hand in the government Gazette, furnish many 
details concerning those institutions, which cannot be introduced in 
th'is place for the want of room. The range of studies, compared 
with everything known in former years, in that continent^ is 
liberal and various in a high degree.] 

State of Education in Venezueku 

[A valued correspondent in^Caracas, (Venezuela,) whose situa- 
tion enables him to act efficiently for the improvement of educa- 
tion, has sent us published evidence of the measures pursued by 
the government and individuals. 

Among other interesting facts, we learn that one thousand dol- 
lars have been recently appropriated for the increase of the national 
library ; and that hopes were entertained that the Congress would 
make an annual appropriation for that important object. Senoi 
Feliciano Montenegro, who is engaged in writing a Geography for 
schools, has received encouragement from the government, that a 
sum of money will be granted him, sufficient to enable him to 
employ an assistant in a part of the work. Guzman, the Secre- 
tary of the Interior and of War, in laying the petition before the 
Congress, says: — ^It cannot but be evident to the Congress, how 
much benefit the country must derive from a work, in which will 
be collected, for the first time, all the scattered facts relating to 
the Geography of Venezuela, with much that is entirely new, fur- 
nished by the Minister of the Interior, the Minister of War and 
the Treasury, the Topographical Commission of Senor Godazzi, 
the Caracas Society of Friends of the Country, and also by the 
Governors of provinces and other magistrates and citizens, from 
all of whom, precbus materials have been obtained.'] 



353 Pickmsig'i Alphabet. 

PICKERING'S ALPHABET FOR THE INDIAN LANGUAGES. 

(From lb« TmoMctiont oftb* American Aemdemy of Arti »nd Sciencea.) 

The alphabet devised by the Hon. John Pickerinor, for the 
Indian languages of North America, has been adopted by most of 
the American Missionaries, in their attempts to reduce the lan- 
guages of savage tribes to writing. It was described in a paper 
f)resented to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, pub- 
ished in 1820 ; but the copies are now so scarce, that we believe 
our readers will be gratified to see it in our pages, especially as it 
is referred to in subsequent articles. It will be useful to every 
one in assisting him to analyze the sounds of our language. Some 
reference to the original paper will be seen to be necessary, in 
order to understand all the details. 

Tabk of the Alphabet. 

A aa 10 the English words, far, father^ &c (But tea the J^TaU on the 

VowtUy p. 37.) 

B aa in Englisli, French, &c. 

D (the samej 

E aa in the English word ihtrt ; and also short e, as in me<, &c. 

F as in English, &c. 

G English g hard, as in rame, gone, &c, 

H an aspiration, as in Elnglish, &c. 

I as in marint^ machine, (or English ee ;) and also short t in kitn. 

K as in English. 

L (the same.^ 

M (the same.) 

N (the same.) 

English long o, as in robe ; and also the o in Mme, among, ahwe^ 

&e., which is equivalent to the English short u in ni6, Urn, &€< 

(But see the remarks on this letter, p. 39,) 
P as in English, &c. 
R (the same,] 

S as in English at the beginning of a word. 
T as in English, d&c. 
U English oo, both long and short ; French on. 

V English v, German w, Russian 6, modem Greek J?. 
W as in English ; French ou. 

Y as in the English words, yet, you, &c. 
Z as in English, &c. 

IfASALS. 

A as 10 ang (sounding the a itself, as '\u father,) But for a better descrip- 
^ tion of this and the other nasals, see the JV*o/e on the A/hsaU, p. S9, 

£ Umg, as in eyng (pronouncing the ej^ as in they;) and short, as in the 
5 word ginning ; Portuguese em final. (See ATote on the NdtaU, p. 39.) 

1 loftf, as in umg ; and $hoH^ as in ing ; Portugueae tm finaL (Sea 
S N'oU Wi dkt Abfolf, p. 39.) 



PicJcering^s Alphalet. 8S8 

O longf aa in otm^ (founding the ow as in aum ;) French on ; Poitu- 

S guese offi final. Thia character will also be uaed for o abort 

nasaltMedj which is very nearly the same with ong in amongt aa 
this latter is equivalent toung in lung^ &c. See ff^aUUr'a Did, 
Principles^ Ab. 165. See also the Ab/ea <m tht Vowel O, and an 
the MuaU, p. 38, 39. 

U aa in oong ; Portuguese um final. 

^ To these should be added a character for the naaal awng or 

ong, which corresponds to our o in /or, fior, &c And, aa I have 
proposed (in p. 38), to denote this vocal aound,when not naaalisedf 
by awy so it would be most strictly conformable to my plan, to de- 
note the same vocal sound, when it is nasalised^ by aw or aw. But 

55 5 

perhaps the letter a itself, with the cedilla (a), may be uaed 

5 

without inconvenience for this broad nasal sound, and we may 
atill, in the common vowels, reserve the simple a to denote the 
sound it has io the word father^ and not the sound of aw. For 
it may be found, that the first nasal sound in this Table ia not 
common in the Indian languages; in which caae, it would bf 
beat to use the simple a for the broad nasal here mentioned. 

5 



DIPHTHOIIGS. 

Ai English t in pine, 

▲V English ow in how^ note, d&c, and ou in our. 

10 English u in pure ; French ioii. 

Tu to be used at the beginning, as iu may be in the middle of worda. 

ADDITIONAL CONSONANTS. 

Dj, DSH, or DZH, English J and dg, \n Judge; French dg. 

Du, as in the English words, thity thai; the d of the 

modem Greeks. 

Di;Dz; Ts, Tz, English is in the proper name Betsy; German and 

Italian z; German e l>efore the vowela e andt; 
Polish c before all the vowels; Russian isi. These 
four compounds being nearly alike (as Mr. Du Pon« 
ceuu justly obscrvea to me) the ear of the writer muat 
direct him which to use, as the respective cqnsonanta 
predominate. 

en, See kh Lielow. 

oz, or OS, English x in example^ exact 

Hw, English wh in what, when, 

KH, guttural, like the Greek x ; Spanish », g and J ; German ck ; 

Dutch gh, I have, in the preceding pafier, given tlia 
preference to kh for the purpose of expressing this 
pfiittural sound ; but gh pronounced aa the Irish do 
in their name drogheda^ &c., may be better, in certain 
cases, where this guttural jmrtakea more of the flat 
Bound, g, than of the sharp one, k. It may be ob- 
•30 



353 PiekcrisigU AlphaUt. 



PICKERING'S ALPHABET FOR THE INDIAN LANGUAGES. 

(From lb« TraaMctiont oftb* American Aeadtmy of Arti and SciencM.) 

The alphabet devised by the Hon. John Pickering;, for the 
Indian languages of North America, has been adopted by most of 
the American Missionaries, in their attempts to reduce the lan- 
guages of savage tribes to writing. It was described in a paper 
1)resented to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, pub- 
ished in 1820; but the copies are now so scarce, that we believe 
our readers will be gratified to see it in our pages, especially as it 
is referred to in subsequent articles. It will be useful to every 
one in assisting him to analyze the sounds of our language. Some 
reference to the original paper will be seen to be necessary, in 
order to understand all the details. 

Table of the Alphabet. 

A aa 10 the English words, far^faiher^ &c. (But aee the AToU on tk» 

VowtUf p. 37.) 

B as in English, French, &c. 

D (the samej 

E as in the English word there ; and also short e, as in fne(, &c^ 

F as in English, &c. 

G English g bani, as in rame, gone, &c, 

H an aspiration, as in E^nglish, &c. 

I as in mariney machifUy (or English ee ;) and also short t in him. 

K as in English. 

L (the same.^ 

M (the same.) 

N (the same.) 

English lone e, as in robe ; and also the e in Mme, amangt above^ 

&e., which is equivalent to the English short u in m^, dm, &€< 

(But see the remarks on this letter, p. 39,) 
P as in Engliafhy &c 
R (the same,] 

S as in English AX the beginning of a word. 
T as in English, 8lc. 
U English oo^ both long and short ; French ou. 

V English v, German to, Russian 6, modem Greek ^. 
W as in English ; French ou. 

Y as in the English words, yet, you, &c. 
Z as in English, &c. 

IfASALS. 

A as in ang (sounding the a itself, as in ftUher.) But for a better deacrjp- 
s tion of this and the other nasalfi, see the JVbfe on the Mtsals, p. 29. 

£ Umg, as in eyng (pronouncing the ej^ as in they;) and short, as in the 
5 word ginnng ; Portuguese em final. (See JVbf e on the N'ataU, p. 39.) 

1 Umg^ as in eniut ; and 9hoH^ as in ing ; Portufueae un fioak (See 
^ NbU w ih$ Mual9, p. 39.) 



PicJcering'i Alphabet. 8S8 

O longf B8 in ouw (founding the ow as in oton ;) French on ; Poitu- 

5 guese offi mial. Thin character will also be used for o short 

nasalised, which b very nearly the same with ong- in amongt as 
this latter is equivalent to-ung in lung, &c. See H^alker'sDiei. 
Principles^ JVb. 165. See also the MUes on (he Vowel O, and on 
the Misals, p. 38, 39. 

U as in oong ; Portuguese wn final. 

S To these should be added a character for the nasal awng or 

ong, which corresponds to our o in^or, nor, d&c. And, as I have 
proposed (in p. 38), to denote this vocal sound, when not nasalised^ 
by aw, so it would be most strictly conformable to my plan, to de- 
note the same vocal sound, when it is nasalised, by aw or aw. But 

55 5 
perhaps the letter a itself, with the cedilla (a), may be used 

5 

without inconvenience for this broad nasal sound, and we may 
still, in the common vowels, reserve the simple a to denote the 
sound it has io the word father, and not the sound of aw. For 
it may be found, that the first nasal sound in this Table is not 
common in the Indian languages; in which case, it would bf 

best to use the simple a for the broad nasal here mentioned. 

5 



DIPHTHOlfGS. 

▲I English t in pine. 

▲V English ow in how, noxo, d&c, and ou in our. 

10 English u in pure ; French iou. 

Tu to be used at the beginning, as iu may be in the middle of words. 

ADDITIONAL COIf SONAIfTS. 

Dj, D8H, or DZH, English J and dg, m judge ; French dg. 

Du, as in the English words, this, that; the d of the 

modem Greeks. 

Di;Dz; Ts, Tz, English is in the proper name Betsy; German and 

Iialiun z; German e liefore the vowels e andt; 
I'ulish c before all the vowels; Russian isi. These 
four compounds being nearly alike (as Mr. Du Pon« 
ceuti justly observes to me) the ear of the writer roust 
direct him which to use, as the respective cqnsonants 
predominate. 

en. See kh below. 

ox, or OS, English x in example, exact 

Hw, English wh in what, when. 

KH, guttural, like the Greek x ; Spanish », g and / ; German eh ; 

Dutch gh. I have, in the preceding pa|ier, given tlia 
preference to kh for the purpose of expressing this 
pftittural sound ; but gh pronounced as the Irish do 
in their name drogheda, &c., may he better, in certain 
cases, where this guttural partakes more of the flat 
sound, g, than of the sharp one, k. It may be ob- 
•30 



864 Ihmuiie Carrttpamdmce of the American LyccMi. 

wnred, that M has been already oaed in aoine of the 
books printed for the use of the Indiana, 
xa, English x in morim, txercUe. 

Ksa, xt in eomjUexion ; xu in luxury. The formation of this 

combination would be obvious ; but aa the sound is 
actually often used in the Delaware language, I have 
thought it beat to notice it. 

KW, English fu. 

LT or LI, aa in the English word stedyard; French / stouiOee, 

Spanish U^ Portuguese Ik, Italian gl before i. 

iiT or in, aa in the Eni^lish proper name Bunyan^ and the words 

onion, apinum, olc* 

TH, in the English word thin ; Greek ^. 



TS 

TX 



See di above. 



TSH, English dk, in cKair; Spanish ck in mudi; Italian c 

before e and t; German Uch; Russian i|. 

I^T, aa in the Delaware language. 

ZH, aa < in pleasure ; French and Portugueae j ; Polish z, 

with comma over it (z). 



DOMESTIC CORRESPONDENCE OF TIIE AMERICAN LYCEUM. 

ON THE IHDIAN LANGUAGES. 

Citpy of a letter from Mr. Elisba Loomis, formerly of the Mission to the 

Sandwich Islands. 

Rusbville, N. Y., April 18, 183S. 

T* tlM CoireipoadMif Secraurjr of th« American Lyceum. 

Dear Sir ; — When, two years since, I attended the Annual 
Meeting of the American Lyceum, as a delegate from the Andover 
Convention of Teachers, I promised you a copy of the O-jip-ue* 
Spelling Book, which, with the aid of Dr. Edwin James, and 
others, I had fonned while at Mackinac, a year or two previous. 
I omitted to send it by mail, thinking there would be an opportu- 
nity of forwarding it by private conveyance. For a time, it 
escaped my memory ; and for nearly a year past, I have been con- 
fined with sickness. 

The orthography which I adopted is similar, in most respects, 
to that recommended by the Hon. John Pickering, for writing the 
Indian Languages of North America. For each radical sound,. 

* Pronounced O-iip-waj, the diphthong ue^ being equiralent to utmy. The u, 
conihined with other rowcli, and pronounoed aa when bj themaelTea, render* 
the ID aimeceiBary. 



On the Of^fme Language. 356 

there b a fieparale character, and this character has always the 
same sound, under every combination which can be made. There 
18, in some words, a slight variation of the sound of the vowels ; 
but this variation appears to be in quantity only, not in quality ; 
and therefore it would be improper to represent it by a different 
character. These variations are so slight, that it was not deemed 
expedient to distin^ish them by marks of quantity in the ordinary 
Spelling and Reading Lessons, (although they are thus distin- 
guished in the Alphabet,) except in the vowek a and o, where the 
variation is so great, as to render the distinction by ma^, of some 
importance. 

in the Alphabet, English characters are used, and one of the 
sounds of the English letters is appropriated to each. Thus the 
a b sounded as heard in father y the e, as a in fate, or e in they ; 
the t, as t in machine, the o, as o in pole, and the u, as oo in fool. 
The sound of the diphthongs is sunply tliat of the vowels com- 
bnied, each being fully sounded. 

When a person has learned the alphabet, he can, in every 
respect, except the accent, give the proper pronunciation of any 
word in the language ; and a native who knows how to form 
letters with the pen, will, in writing, always spell aright, although 
he may have never before seen the word represented on paper ; 
because each word is spelled exactly as it is pronounced, and there 
are not two ways of expressing the same sound. Suppose a 
native were asked to write the word Kauin, (pronounced Kah- 
ween,) he could find no combination of letters that would produce 
this sound, except the one I have given. 

The nasal sounds in the O-jip-ue language are numerous, and 
are distinguished by the cedilla ; by which means, the words in 
which they occur, are shortened three or four letters. Thus, the 
sound expressed in English by ahngJc, is, in O-jip-ue, expressed 
by the vowel a, with the cedilla, thus, a. In like manner, we 

5 

have e i o, be, pronounced aingk, eengk, oumgJc, or oangTc. 

5 5 5 

These sounds often occur in the last syllable of a word, as in 
tO'ta-mi, (pronounced to-tah-meengk.) 

5 

There are some sounds which appear to be interchangeable ; 
that is, different sounds are applied to the same words by differ- 
ent individuals, all of which sounds are admitted to be right. 
Thus one native is understood to say O-jip-ue, (O-jip-way,) an- 
other, O-jib-ue, another, O-chip-ue, and another, O-chib-ue ; the 
p and b, and thej and ch, (as in chip,^ being interchangeable. 
A similar defect is found in most or all of the dialects of the Poly- 
nesian language, and, I believe, also in the Cherokee, as I recol- 



356 On the ut$ of Syttalric Characters. 

lect, David Brown, a distinguished Cherokee, used to speak of 

* the sweet language of Tsul-lo-kee.' At the Sandwich Islands, 
the obscurity arising from this source has been obviated, by reject- 
ing one of each of the interchangeable letters. Thus the r and t, 
the b and v, are not now used by the missionaries, except in spell- 
ing foreign words. Before this plan was agreed upon, the word 

* Ke-a-la-ke-ku-a ' (the bay where Capt. Cook was killed) niight 
be spelled in sixteen different ways, and each way would be right. 
In the O-jip-ue language, I found some words, that by the use of 
the interchangeable letters, might be spelled sixty-four different 
ways ; and yet cither or all of these ways, pronounced as written, 
would be considered correct by every native. In the Spelling 
Book, I have omitted one of each of these letters. Whether the 
missionaries of the American Board will choose to make use of the 
letters 1 have retained, or prefer those rejected, 1 know not, nor is 
it much matter. 

But, I had no intention of writing an Essay, when I commenced 
this letter, and will not pursue the subject further. I feel a deep 
interest in the cause of education, and hope the American Lycepm 
will greatly prosper. Our village Lyceum, in this place, has been 
productive of much benefit, to the members and to the community, 
during the past season. 

Extract of a letter from Heiirt R. Schoolcraft, Esq. 

MiCHILIMACKTNAC, OcT. 10, 1834. 

You ask, ' whether a syllabic, or semi-syllabic alphabet cannot 
be applied to our Indian tongues ? ' Doubtless it might. But I 
think the syllabic a cumbrous system of notation. I think Cham- 
poUiou gives the term phonetic to the ancient Egyptian system, 
which is a hieroglyphic-syllabic, differing but little from the actual 
system of our Indians. Whole words are implied by the signs ; 
and it is inferred, that the order of the signs implied something like 
a syntax. The Chinese is certainly an improvement, so far as 
respects certainty in the conveyance of meaning ; but it is laborious 
and clumsy beyond all parallel. The Cherokee alphabet is an 
attempt of modern date, but bating the surprising fact, of its 
being the invention of an Indian, it is liable to serious objections. 

I have long believed that a peculiar character could be used to 
the best advantage, in writing our Indian dialect. Brevity and 
precision, are the two great objects to be attained by it. Our 
vowels arc so vaguelv employed, that neither Mr. Fickering's, 
(which is very clever,) nor any other system which I have had an 
opportunity to examine, is free from objections. Diphthongs are a 
defect in all systems of notation, and they can only be avoided by 
the invention of peculiar characters. 



Eitex County Teachers^ Association. 357 

I willy sometime, if convenient, submit to you my attempts in 
this way, with the nortliern languages, believing, although it should 
subserve no other purpose but that of a literary curiosity, you will 
feel an interest in the subject. I will merely add, that the con- 
ception of my system of characters, is purely a mathematical one, 
and is based, as a principle, on divisions and combinations of a 
cube, circle, quadrangle, &ic. 

I am not insensible, however, to the claims of a syllabic system, 
the excellency of which, must forever depend essentially on the 
cleverness of the invention, and its ready adaption to the convey- 
ance of dear and rapid conceptions. 



B8SXX couutt txachbeb* association. 
Extract of a Utter from (kt Rev. Gaedrbr.B. Peert, of Bradford, Mass, 

Had it not been for the state of my health, I would have given 
an earlier reply to yours of the 14th of March. And now, I shall 
not, on that account, be able to give so full an account as I could 
wish, of the Institution to which you refer. 

The ^ Essex County Teachers' Association ' is, what its name 
implies, an association of tliose who are actually engaged in 
school instruction ; though others, like myself, not actually occu- 
pied in that employment have, by indulgence, been permitted to 
join it, and take part in its deliberations. Its life and vigor, how- 
ever, are in those engaged in teaching. It is five years since its 
organization . Its meetings are semi-annual , and continue two days. 
These have been held at Topsfield Academy, the proprietors of 
which have generously granted the free use of it to tlie society. 

These meetings have been well attended and supported, from 
the first ; and evidently, with increasing interest and usefulness. 

The exercises are Lectures, generally four or five, on subjects 
connected with the design of the association. It has always been 
the wish, to have these of a practical tendency. I have written to 
the Corresponding Secretary, Mr. Alfred Greenleaf, to send you a 
list of the subjects which have been treated upon in these exer- 
cises, which I have no doubt he will do, if his engagements allow. 

After each lecture, it is the habit of the Society to discuss the 
principles advanced in it, freely ; and to make whatever observa- 
tions on the subject discussed, are deemed important. 

Subjects for discussion are also given out, on whk;h the members 
speak. 

Subjects are also assigned to members on which they are ex- 
pected to report. 



358 ExtrcUes* — Collection. 

Among tliese have been the comparative merits of the various 
school books before tlie public ; tlie principles of government ; 
>vhat studies should be introduced into common schoob ; sclibol 
houses, &Lc. 

On this last subject I will remark, that a committee visited 
nearly all the school houses in the county, took their dimensions, 
noted tlieir condition, the manner of teaching, iic. ; making a very 
laborious and important report, which was drawn up with much 
labor and ability, by Mr. Francis Vose, formerly Corresponding 
Secretary of the Society. In this, perhaps, it may be proper to 
observe, as you refer to school houses particularly, that I took 
some part. And as I may not have a better opportunity, I will 
just add, that I will, as you request, furnish the American Lyceum 
with a model or draft of the one you mention, at as early a period 
as I can well do it. 

The Society have collected at their deposit, at Topsfield, a 
large number of the various school books, and works upon educa- 
tk)n, and intend to have there a copy of all books of that descrip- 
tion, as fast as they can be collected. Many of these are donations 
from the authors and publishers. 

There is, also, a collection of minerals ; and arrangements have 
been made to enrich the deposit by botanical specimens. 

There is, also, a collection of school apparatus ; and one of the 
exercises of the Society has often been to exhibit and explain the 
use and manner of teaching by them. 

Perhaps I shall pass unnoticed some things which deserve par- 
ticular attention. But I will proceed to some of the obvious ad- 
vantages which have arisen from this institution. 

1. It has increased acquaintances among teachers, and so ex- 
tended social enjoyment. 

2. By bringing before the community the talents, industry and 
enterprise of instructors, it has greatly elevated them in the esti- 
mation of the community. And this deservedly ; for (I may be 
permitted to speak, not being of the number) there is not in the 
county a more worthy class of citizens. Many of them are schol- 
ars of tlie highest order ; and in all the meetings, the most gentle- 
manly conduct and feeling have been exhibited by all. 

3. Much information has been mutually given in respect to 
the modes of instruction and government. While the various sys- 
tems have been compared and balanced, and the good in each 
sifted out and carried home, and practised, the defects have been 
permitted to fall and be forgotten. 

4. It has excited in the community a greater interest in educa- 
tion. It has led them to think more about the importance of good 



Good Eff^ectt. 359 

schools, and produced an increased willingness to provide such, for 
the rising generation, and a forwardness more fully to supply them 
with the necessary means of knowledge, — books, maps, &c. 

5. It has directed the attention of society, in some degree, to 
the importance of having suitable houses for the accommodation 
of schools ; and I believe that more has been done in the county 
in building and repairing school houses, during the two last years, 
than in the twelve or fifteen vears before. 

6. It has led to a milder and more rational mode of discipline 
in school, and of course, to better and more effectual government. 

7. It has elevated the taste of the youth — led them to improve 
the school house yards — cultivate flowers all around them ; and 
frequently, to ornament the rooms with the blooming beauties of 
the year. It has convinced some instnictors and parents, that it 
was not a crime in a child to love a rose, or a fault to pin upon 
the walls of the house a *pojy' of opening flowers. 

8. It has been instrumental in introducing many useful studies 
into the common and higher schools ; and in awakening among 
the young, a greater interest in school, and an inci*eased desire to 
nn prove. 

Such are some of the advantages which, I am confident, have, 
to a good degree, resulted from tlie eflbrts of the society. I might, 
with equal propriety, refer to others, of perhaps equal, or greater 
importance. I re<;ard the institution as among the most interesting 
and useful. 1 have found much enjoyment, and the means of 
much impi-ovement, at the meetings I have attended ; and I iiave 
attended nearly all. 

It would give me great pleasure could I attend the meeting of 
the American Lyceum this spring ; but I have no rational pros- 
pect of being able to do it. I have read, with much interest, the 
doings of that body; and have no doubt, great and extensive good 
will result from their efforts. I hope the Institution will flourish, 
and the field of its useful operations enlarge, and the number who 
are able and willing to helj) on its purposes increase, until your 
highest anticipations be more than realized. An enlightened 
mind is not all that is needed to perfect the human character ; but 
it is that without which, man will never be what it is his privilege 
to become. Nor should any one feel that he comes up to the 
great purposes of his existence, unless he puts forth his best 
eflforts to improve in useful knowledge, — or that he has discharged 
his obligations of benevolence to others, if he fails to excite their 
attention to the cultivation of their mental pow ers, and hold out 
means for such a cultivation. 



360 Preparaium far Damuiic Life. 

FEMALE EDUCATION.— No. IIL 

I>0ME8TIC HABITS. 
(CoromanicMed for the Amwli of Ednc«lioa.) 

In advising as to the course of early female education, I have 
insisted on the necessity of cultivating, in childhood, the habits of 
Temperance, Order, Activity, Industry, and Self-commandy as 
essential to the health, happiness, and usefulness of woman. 

There is another branch of female education of the first impor- 
tance which involves many particulars, but may be termed, the 
preparation far domestic life. This involves both habit and 
skill in domestic employments. 

We must begin with forming domestic iiabits. No quality is 
more essential to the dignity of the female character ; and without 
it there will never be patience in the acquisition of domestic skill. 
On the other hand, the domestic disposition is best cultivated by 
giving domestic employments. Useless objects and occupations 
soon tire us. Splendid furniture and ornaments, and mere amuse- 
ments, produce a weariness, from which there is no escape, but by 
perpetual change. On this plan, how many familfes are made, 
not automatons, unfortunately, but locomotioeSy active only in vain 
and mischievous eftorts for * some new thing.' As capable of 
happiness as their neit^hbors, the} have never learned the true 
mode of enjoying it. They promenade the streets; they wander 
from shop to shop, from house to house, from street to street, 
gathering every subject for vanity or trifling, every secret or wit- 
ticism, or report they can find, to enlarge their supply of occupa- 
tion for idle hours. Such * busy-bodies ' always leave their own 
duties undone, or ill-done ; and the habit of neglecting their own 
concerns, necessarily leads them to occupy themselves with the 
afliairs of others, and to internipt them in their occupations, or 
interfere with their peace. 

Let the daughter then be guarded against this pernicious fault. 
Let her be trained to feel, that \\qv first great duty^ when not en- 
gaged in the acquisition of useful knowledge, is at home — that she 
is her mother's natural assistant or substitute, in the care of the 
nursery, and the family. When she has well-learned the lesson 
of obedience and self-command, she may safely be entrusted with 
the direction of the other children, but not till then. Under the 
direction of her mother, she may, in this way, complete her course 
of training in self-government, and learn to imitate her heavenly 
father who is ^ kind even to the evil and unthankful.' 



2%e Atfffery.— 3%e Kitchen. 361 

But she must also learn in the nursery, that peculiar duty of 
Ti^oman, — the care of the feeble and the sick. Every family, and 
every child, are every day liable to accident and disease. Nothing 
in the nursery is so important as habitual care to prevent disease^ 
and to relieve pain, or remove the cause at once, when it oc- 
curs. More can be accomplished to secure the health of children 
by the faithful, interested nurse, always present, than by the ab- 
sent physician, however skilful, in occasional visits, which often 
prove too late to remedy the evil. This office, the elder sisters, 
and each of them, as they grow up, should be taught and accus- 
tomed to fill. For this purpose, she must acquire, not merely 
skill in watching and providing]; for the wants of her charge. Pres- 
ence of mind, gentleness of disposition, combined with firmness of 
resolution, are indispensable to the good nurse. Tiiese must, 
therefore, be cultivated and matured by constant practice. 
Daughters who are not trained in this manner, can never be safely 
entrusted with the health of a family. Poor and pitiable matrons-— 
still poorer and more pitiable, their companions, and their families! 

But the nursery is not the only place for domestic duties and skill. 
Humble as the theme is, we cannot complete our view of female 
education without descending to the kitchen : for the table of the 
king himself must be furnished from it ; and even the health of 
the family depends upon its right management. Order, and skill, 
and vigilance must herein there, or comfort can never inhabit the 
house. She who governs it must learn in the only way possible — 
by acquiring practical skill in all that is to be done. This is 
an every day business, not to be accomplished by one great effort, 
or by some wonderful plan, but by liie regular, returning care of 
a directing eye, and a skilful hand. The mistress of a house be- 
comes a pitiable cypher, if she has not the practical knowledge to 
direct the when, and the where, and the how, of everything that 
concerns her family afiaii-s ; and she can learn this only by experi- 
ence. Respect is paid to authority, only when those who exert 
it know how to give directions in the right time, and the right 
manner. 

Let the daughter, then, as much as possible, learn every part of 
household duty, jf?rac//t*a//y. It was a wise step in a circle of 
ladies in one of our cities, to finish the education of their daughters 
in a cookery school. They attended punctually, and daily, for a 
certain number of hours, long enough to give them a competent 
and practical knowledge of the arts and the economy of the 
kitchen. Their works praised them ; and the convenience and 
pleasure of a well regulated, economical, and healthy table was the 
reward of their efforts. Regularity and order prevailed in every 
department of the house, because the whole was directed with 

VOL. v. ^NO. VIII. 31 



962 Modem FamitUt. 

mtelligence and skill. The incessant causes of scolding, and fret- 
fulness, and discontent, were in a great measure, removed, by the 
training which not only gave these matrons habits of industry and 
self-command for themselves, but taught them how to direct the 
employments of others with regularity and success. 

In visiting the house of Mrs. , every one is ready to ask, 

* How could you bring your family to this regular, quiet, pleasant 
state?' The simple answer is, * By understanding what every 
one ought to do, and how it was done, by beginning right and per- 
severing in the right course, until every one knew her duties, and 
could do them well.' A course of actions will form a habit; and 
habit, we know, is second nature. In this way, hard things become 
easy, and labor pleasant. Idleness will be at length painful, and 
fretfulness, intolerable. It will be easier to do right, than to resist 
the steady current of order in the family ; and every disturber of 
the peace will be frowned upon, as an enemy of the whole. 

And while I am urijing this duty, I cannot help alluding to the 
sad neglect of it in modern days. What is to be the history of the 
rising generation ? Must it be told in language like this ? 

— ' Fashion, and accomplishments, and amusements, and unneces- 
sary display in literature and science, absorbed the whole time of 
the females of this period. Domestic cares and virtue seem to 
have descended to the tomb with their Grandames, or to be con- 
signed with their pictures to the garret. Their domestic skill was 
lost, and their domestic habits forgotten or despised ; and when the 
tale was told by some relic of former days, or appealed to as an 
example, it was only met with a suppressed smile at such anti- 
quated notions, or an open scoff, at those who busied themselves 
at home in ignorance, or submitted to be slaves to their husbands 
and children. The immediate consequences were such as might 
be anticipated. The wealth which industry abroad and frugality 
at home had accumulated, was scattered by indolence and igno- 
rance, and prodigal expense. The noble dwellings which it had 
raised and furnished, were sold to pay the debts of extravagance, 
or pulled down to make way for others, which soon shared the 
same fate. Many a mechanic, who ^row rich by the obsolete vir- 
tues of industry and economy, occupied the splendid house of those 
who looked down upon him, and despised his virtues ; and his 
daughters held the first station in society, while those of his em- 
ployer might be found in some obscure corner, with little to cover 
them but worn-out finery, ami apparently, with little to sustain 
them but their pride in what they had been. Nay, the domestic 
was often to be seen taking the place of his master, and occupying 
the station from which his children had fallen, by the neglect of 
/arming domestic and industrious habits in their education.' — 



Rctiew of Litctwrti before the hutitute, 36S 

Whether this shall be the record of the whole generation or not, 
such is, unhappily, the history of many a family, and is likely to 
be that of many more. Perhaps I shall not even obtain a hearing, 
from those who have already begun this course. The whirlpool 
seldom permits any to escape who have once entered, even its 
margin. But those who are approaching it may, perhaps, hear me ; 
and I warn them, that they guard against its powerful current be- 
fore it is too late ; for I have witnessed more examples than I can 
mention, of its ruinous effects. 

I am aware that economy and its attendant train of minor vir- 
tues, are old fashioned matters. They are found in here and 
there a family ; but the very names seem rather to belong to the 
dictionaries of the last century. But there is a section in an old 
book, too seldom studied — the last counsel of a wise man — which 
recommends them ; and as it describes particularly the virtues and 
the defects of women, it ought to be often read by mothers and 
daughters. Although not new, its very antiquity, 1 trust, will give 
it authority with most readers ; and in addition to other salutary 
truths, tiiey will learn that in female education, and in female du- 
ties above all things, ' The fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.' 

Senex. 



REVIEW OF LECTURES BEFORE THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 

INSTRUCTION. 

Thf Introductory Discourse and the Lectures delivered before the Ameriecm 
Institute of Instruction, in Ai^unt, 1834. Includim^ the journal q/* 
the Proceedings^ and a list of the Officers, Piil)lii(he(i under the Direc- 
tion of the Board of Ceuiiors. Busiou : Carter, Uendee & Co. 1835. 
8vo. pp. 276. 

We have perused most of the lectures in this volume with 
interest, and we have been gratified to see, how many of its pages 
are devoted to the illustration, in one form or other, of the truths 
which we have made it our great object to present, that Instrwy 
Hon is not Education^ — and that the most essential part of educa- 
tion is Moral education, — the cultivation of the heart, — the im- 
provement of the character. It forms the leading topic of the In- 
troductory discourse, and is designed to be the principal subject 
of the lectures of Mr. Burton, Mr. Abbott, and Mr. Carll, while it is 
insisted on or alluded to, by other lecturers, and the principle di^ 
tinctly avowed^ that the Bible must be the basis of a right moral 
educatioo. 



864 Importance of Moral Educaiion. 

In the Introductory Discourse, Mr. Gushing proposes to illus- 
trate * the true uses of instruction.' He alludes to the false con- 
clusions sometimes drawn^ from the cotemporaneous advance of 
knowledge and crime, which even some modem politicians have 
been weak enough to bring forward against the diffusion of knowl- 
edge, and shows their fallacy. 

We think Mr. Gushing does not distinguish, with sufficient care, 
the mere communication of * good opinions, and right principles,' 
by instruction, and the * moral cultvre,^ which he speaks of in 
the same paragraph, and without which, every parent and teacher 
knows, that mere instruction is almost unavailing. We mention 
this, not so much for the sake of criticism, as to meet an error 
which lies at the foundation of the ill success of many who are en- 
gaged in endeavoring to improve mankind, and who seem to im- 
agine, that if they can only fill the ear, and load the memory with 
instructions and directions, the effect will as certainly follow^, as 
from the remedies administered by the physician. 

But the authorities quoted by Mr. C., present this subject in 
the rio;ht lidit. 

o o • 

*It is curious to observe how the same questions recur upon men from 
time to time ; nnd how coniiniinlly we travel over nnd retread anew the 
sauie field of dispute in successive ages. That profound thinker, John 
Locke, insisted, in his (hiy, upon this capital object of Education, moral 
cultivation. ** It is virtue, then, direct virtue,' he says in his Thoughts 
concerning Education, *' which is the liard and valuable part to be 
aimed at in education, and not a forward pertncss, or any liulo arts of 
shifting. All other considerations should give way and be postponed to 
this. This is the solid and suhstaniini good, which tutors should not 
only read, lecture and talk of, hut the labor and art of education should 
furnish the mind with, and fasten there, and never cease till the young 
man had a true relish of it, and placed his strength, his glory and his 

Eleasure in it." To the same eflcct is Lord Kanies, who says, in his 
lints on Education : " It appears unaccountable that our teachers, gene- 
rally, have directed their instructions to the head, with very little atten* 
tion to the heart. From Aristotle down to Locke, books without number 
liave been compiled for cultivating and improving the understanding, 
few in proportion for cultivating nnd improving the affections." And so 
Milton, also, in the very outset of his Letter on Education, premises that, 
"The end, then, of learning is to repair the ruin of our first parents, by 
inquiring to know God aright, and out of that knowledge to lovo him, 
to imitate him, to be like him, as we may the nearest, by possessing our 
souls of true virtue, which, being united to the heavenly grace of faith, 
makes up the highest perfection." And these are the suggestions of the 
truest and most practical wisdom not less than of venerable names and 
exalted authority : considerations, which have entirely escaped those, 
who so much depreciate the uses of Instruction in the improvement of 
Bocietv.' 

* 

Mr. Gushing then proceeds to examine the debate in the British 
House of CommoDSi of which we have given some account itk 



Ledurei of Mr. Burian and Mr. CarU. 365 

ibrmer Dumbers, and the erroneous impression produced with 
regard to the connection of knowledge and crime in our own 
country. The truth on this subject is summed up in the remark 
of Lord Brougham in the debate before alluded to. ' KnowUd^t 
is power in whatever way it is used ; but whether that power will 
be available to virtue, depends upon the kind of education which 
has been given.' 

The lecture of Mr. Burton on fixing the Attention of the 
Young, is principally occupied in exposing the evils of emulation, 
and in ofTering as a substitute, motives which shall tend to improve, 
instead of impairing the moral character. He believes, Tand we 
have found it to be true in our own experience,) that selj-emulo' 
tion, excited and cherished by constant examination and registry 
of a pupil's progress, will be equally effectual,