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Full text of "American anti-slavery reporter"

CAGE 



THE EISENHOWER LIBRARY 



llllillllllillllllllilill 

3 1151 02543 4857 



AMERICAN 

ANTI- SLAVERY REPORTER. 

VOL I] JANUARY, 1834. [NO. i. 



AMERICAN ANT I. SLAVERY REPORTER. 

Six numbers of a periodical with the title, Anti-Slavery Reporter, have been issued 
during the last year gratuitously, and extensively circulated. This number commences 
a new series which will be published by the Astf.rican Anti-Slavkry Society. 
Though issued in February, it is dated, January, for the sake of conforming the volume 
to the year. The number for February will be issued during the month, and hereafter 
the work will make its appearance as near the first of each month as practicable. It 
will be filled with original essays, and authentic matters of fact, adapted to probe 
American Slavery to the core. It will have nothing to do with Slavery " in the abstract." 
We are not at war with innocent imaginations but with wicked realities. May God 
grant us wisdom, energy, perseverance and courage enough to hold up, in its own meaa- 
ness and cruelty, the system of American Slavery to the scorn and indignation of all 
honest men. For not till Slavery shall be made odious, as the consummation of theft 
and robbery, will it be exploded from this tyrant-ridden world. We have nothing to do 
with dead slaveholders,— we are not their judges,— but to the living we must speak 
plainly. We feel for them as fellow men ; we are their best friends. But we must not 
apologize nor flatter. If they do not choose to enter the door of eternal infamy which 
is opening before them, let them have the magnanimity to be just. Let them cease to 
make merchandize of God's image, and to " fare sumptuously every day" upon the 
avails of unrecompensed toil ! We take for our motto the language of the prophet, as 
expressive both of the duty and the consequences of immmdiate emancipation : " If 
thou take away from the midst of thee the YOKE, the putting forth of the finger, and 
speaking vanity ; and if thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted 

soul; THEN SIIALI. THY LIGHT RISE IN OBSCURITY, AND THY DARKNESS B» AS THE 
NOON DAY." 

For the terms of subscription see the last page. 



^^ When gratuitous, piease to read and hand it to your neighbor. 43 



II E \^ I E W 

OF THE SPEECHES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE RECENT ANNUAL MEP:T1NG OK THE 
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Through the laudable zeal of the Editors of i is "bankrupt' in Junds, but because this bank- 
the N. Y. E\angelist and the N. Y. Observer, I ruptcy was produced by a bankruptcy of moral 
the public has been favored with very full re- ! principle. We speak of the society as it ap- 
ports of ihe late Colonization Anniversary at; pears between the covers of its authorized pub- 
Washington. We are not av.are that these ; Jications. Its present calamity is the fruit of a 
reports disagree as to any important fact or ex- | system of concealment, a time-st rviSig "expc- 
pression. In the following pages, except when jdiency," an assumption, more dishonest than 
the reader is otherwise notified, we quote from ! uncommon, that the end sanctities the means, 
the Evangelist, for brevity's sake. We earn- j To conciliate slaveholders, the Tight of jiroj'ertt/ 
estiy commend tliis expose to all who prefer m slaves was admitted, and thus the society 
light to darkness, and are conscientiously dcsi- g:are up forever the power of plain honest truth. 
rous to do their whole duty. | in the execution of its plan it was necessary to 

In our opposition to the Colonization Society ' make the public believe the ci)lor.y prosperous 
we have not been fighting against 7mii, but ! and happy ; it was necessary to make the pub- 
against /aZse principles and an injurious plan.l iic believe, that alter the emigrants were landed 
There have been men connected with tlie Colo- and reasoned, they could support themselves, 
nization enterprize whoso memories are dear! <Itc. and under the strong temptation to produce 
to all abolitionists. But we must say, they la- this belief at amj rale, tiie managers it seems 
bored under a sad mistake. There are men have permitted their agents at the colony, year 
connected with it still, whom we love and ad- . afler year, to neglect making any definite rc- 
mire, and ujjon whose co-operation with us, at i turns, in the shape of bills of mortality, accounts 
no distant day, we repose ail confidence. 'Ihe j of exi)enditures, statistics of agriculture, &c. 
disclosures wiiich wo are about to review will ! Vague statements have been received by the 
open their eyes. We know that our feelings |i managers in regard to all tiiese important in- 
are not tho.?o of triumph over a fallen enemy, .terests, bearing always in favor of the t eb -.y, 
We once ourselves sympathized in some of the ' and have been by them widely circulated. VVe 
hopes which are now sufiering disappointment. :, charge this as a culpable negligence, upon the 
But we should be inhuman to conceal our icy, 'managers, and we call common sense to wit- 
that one grett obstacle to the fieedom of'^the ness, whether men who were detemiined to be 
slave is likely soon to be removed— tliat a mas- honest, and let con.scquences take care of them- 
ter delusion which has blinded the community • selves, could continue to support agents who 
to the wror.gs of their fellow men is just bidding, i-i'Onld thus neglect to n)ake accurate returns, 
adieu to things sublunary. ^ Is there not a strong ground to presume, first. 

As a scheme of benevolence the Colonization ,^^'^^t ^^e agents at the colony had nothing to ro- 
Societv is f/eflrf.* It mav, however, replenish its P"rt which would bear detail; and secondly, 
overdrawn treasury— it mav conduct a greater t'"!* the managers suspected this and connived 
business of transportation than ever— but still it ^^ ^^ • ^^ ^^<'^"'« ^o I's cruel for the managers to 
\sdead. It will never regain the confidence '^'^f"*^t'i'>»g<^»fs as being slack about returns— 
of those u-ho really seek'the freedom of the |^l"?y trained them up to this very habit by pub- 
slave. Why? Not simply because the Pocietv I ^"'''I'lff ^^'ith great zest and exultation those 

. ' ii" letters from the colony" which contained any 

* We are aware that some of t'hc ablest liicnds of thin;/ but information. The public were delud- 
the society at the North cling to it iu the hope, that ed. ^ Tiiey thought Liberia a paradise, or at any 
by a refer,,, ,t wi ! m out of the. way of tb.o Anu- ^^^^^. ^,,1^^. ^„^^,,.,, ^^^ ^„^ ,.j^^.,^ p^^^j,,^. ,p,„,J 

poured their money into the colonization treas- 
ury ; and urged the managers to prosecute tlicir 
grand enterprize of removing the whole colored 
population. The consequence was, that, from 
the latter part of the year 1831 to the first of 
nKntit:«:if-.-;>!;r;iishdd;-biitcaniVbefu^compiiph«^^ 1168 emigrants had been despatched to 

Docs Mr. Girr.tt Smith's giving up Iiis resolution to;, the colony. And although tlie agents at the 
amend the roi.Miiutionin an important respect, ''/or colony had found some difficulty in accommoda- 
thc sake ,>;• hm-r,:ovy" look like it ? V.e do not l"- ti„g this large accession, wo find the following 
bcvc thr soc.iy wii! b, ar r.foranng. It has not the j^.f^^.^ge in the Annual Report of 1883. 



Slavery Society and jiive up the scheme of removii ^ 
the entire colbrcd population or any considerable pan 
of it. In fact, their plan is, la disclaim any ac:ion 
whntfcever in regard to slavery, io cease to Ecnc 
emigrants, and coniiue their labors to the moral f;jid 
physicnl nij rf.vvieent of tlic colony. This is all as 
It fchoidd be. W'v. lay down our arni^ [pens] the i 



requisite ni'ii;;! ^-tninina. It will die under theoj 
tion. I.<_t tht: Truly btntvolent coloiiizationisls I'orrn 

a vctf nGclciy for the physical relief and moral ini- , . , , , ,. 

provemcnt of Liberia. At any rate, let them drop "ow piep:ired to receive a much larger numbrr of 
nization, when they drop the t-'nJ'gi^nts annually, than the means of the society 



'The managers arc convinecd that Liberia i? 



the odious r\ame of colonization, 
deed. 



have lieretofirc enabled il to colonize. They b»- 



COLONIZATION SOCIKTY- 



lieve there is jio ruasoii to iippreliRud tlial tlio re- !j tlinary pre.-siire of sponta,neoiis emigrants carry 
sources of the society will ever exceud the demands [j the humanity ofthc managers beyond their pru- 
for aid from those anxious to emigrate, or the caj] donee? We tliink not; for after they were fully 
pabllities of the colony to afford accomimdation aiulL^y^-^.^-^Q of tlieir insolvency, they "got up" anex- 
subsistencv to those who may choose to make tlth^ir\^^^^j^:^^^f^^^ confessedly as a lure to draw funds 
residence:^ tl trom New- Vork. 

Now observe how much "good men" may be j Now we beseech our readers to understand, 
mistaken. Since that time the society has co-llthat while we do blame the manao'crs for their 
Ionized but about 257, it has receivf^d upwards ''disingenuous policy, we would not hold them 
of ^37,000, and is found to be in debt .1^40,000 ! !jl up as peculiarly dishonest. We quale their 
Even if we add, as Elliott Cresson suggests, to \ faults only as illustrating the tendency qf their 
the expeditions of the past year the ship Her- jjic/ieme. That scheme, we pretend not to deny, 
cules of the preceding, we shall have but 437 1| numbers among its friends many of the wisest 
emigrants, for whom, after deducting •'$10,000 !| and best men of our land; and yet we should 
for other expenses, we shall have ^(iO apiece, ;| despair of selecting from them aboard of mane - 
more by !$20 or ?^30 than the estimated expense jigcrs any more worthy of confidence than that 
of transporting and seasoning au emigrant. Here j| v/hich has hitherto existed. There is a sort of 
then is a debt for Ihe support of the colony, i| insanity in the scheme itself, which is totally, 
accruing within less than two years, over and | destructive of that straight-forwardness which 

above the estimates, of more than '$40,000. Mr. ' — 

Gerritt Smith says the debt would have bee 
less by f^lOjOOO if the managers had sent oi 
sufficient supplies. But did not the m:i!i:i'.':i'i 
know, morcthana year ago,that "the rj.-' ;■;■.! 
had failed" ? Did they not know that there \' - 
nothing like agriculture in the colony.' Did||t^': 



I'n'y . ' r;,' a<iof!s in the public store. -Our 
■■',:>•'.■'. in'! !;,:!:!y other iniporlant articles 
^[■■■'■< i'^ii'.i. ^1 k,i:v.??] is nt present exhausi- 
(■.:i! tii.y I'.' |;;rM-:i,-,-,.,| 1;. re, except on a v-cry 
v,!,ir,. .,i, 11, ri,.-i r.isi ill the United States. 
thf iiiiic i'lr p^rclKisiii!,' rice and palm oil ; 
_ vc; iiro getting in llitir new crops ; and if we 

hoy not know v/hat sort of "materials" they 1^''^ ""V''i'''"'',"'''f*'''''l''^-^''^ "'''''"""'''r''' '''° '^'■•^'"^ 

-■' ---11 Tf^i i-j I feat duiiculiy nerealtcr ni procurni'T tiie (iiianlitv re- 

:• colony ? li they did ^...^i^.,^,, j-,., ,hc .ubsi.tHu-e o'-our people." * ^ 



had sent out to build up th 

not, it was not the fault of tlie abolitionists, no 

indeed, of Gov. Mechlin.* But did the extraor 



peo])! 
Ijiidcr date vd Sept. S, Ij>2, Gov. Mechlin writes as 
follows. See .\f. Repos. for Nov. 1832. 

j " You have doubtless, ere this, received drafts oh 

* Extracts from Gov. Mechlin's letters in the Af- ^^'^ ^f '^ty to a considerable amount This extra de- 
^^ a Repository for i\ov. 1831. "^^"^ «" y"""" '"esources wns Irom the nature ot c,r- 



" We have not yet adopted, to any extent, the a, 
ricultural improvements of civilized countries, &c. 



cumstanct 



■ \grat 
\\ the 



ity suvpli 



"The crops of last year did not svicceed v.-.ll,ni ', :,!, u; |.i tli.' : iv.-Hmii , 
consequence of unusual drought: the rice siiirLicd (i.iiiuii, ;:i,>! . iliir >■ : < 
more from this enuse than from any other; as v.i- dn tiiJ.d i:i Jii.\ i ■ :i;!i::. 
not her', as in the southern states, plant it in low ij caused our disbur.'^emeai 
situations, which can be readily irrigated from adja- \\ he much greater th.'Hn coi 
cent water -corirsL-s ; but, on the contrary, it may be![c 
seen growiir_ m {'/.■■ \lV' -U'-; lnX'ni.T.ir'' ow I'w i;i::'i- 
est 'growv.'^' . ■.. . ■ -i'' !>■ \'"v ii~ !'i-.'-|'",'-i'\' ■<\\ 
copious ^^li .■• ,... .^\.■ ■'{ ,1 ,"///v [n it ,iU\-a\ -] Tall (:ii- ', 
ring four or live Hioiiiiis m tnc year. v. c are, hov,-- ,| 
ever, pelting into the icay of raising Indian corn, j o 
though not"^to an extent sufTicient to rely upon it as !l ,'- 
an article of subsistence. The corn of tiiis comitryjp .Mi. ml' 
of an inferior kind, and not near so productive as t.'iai ..,;[;i • 
of the United States. * * * * 1,. j u 

" Formerly, the public store was the only resource , ■,; Jh; i,- 
r most of the people employed by the agency, a«t^i provid 
ey were glad to receive their -pay ;ln goods at a j hood In- 
GREAT adv.ance! * * * * IbeCOlllL 

" I regret to learn you had pled<^cd yourselves lo\\c.rpsdit'< 
send out six expcd'tions during liie ensuing twelve I! circutns 
months; and I fear, if per.sisted in, this will in th:|Jnot 



ted." 

he following is .<"ro: 
liig Liberia." It m 
Dec. 1S3-2. 


1 am at t:: • 
bui. .!;•:■! 1 
.1.' (if t'-.i 





upon our handa, and 
lat were sent out by the 
h.fv, ,.,!-.. i;r,\'-.-.inly in- 



ior the few moniiis past to 
d possibly have been anti- 

ihe said "conimunications 
be found in the Af. Repos. 

;■ •- I !■; -;i:^ to at least 
' ■ I'dvecxirired. 

: 1 ■ : ^■':iirfs from 



[I2c 
stanced ; 



■ America,! are 
to do With the: 



Siiniiarly 
, I know 



end prove very injurious. I may be wron;r, and you 
may have greater funds at your disposal than I am 
aware of; but if you have not, great pecuniary em- 
barrassments will certainly ensue. * * 
Bui I have great hopes your treasuiy will receive an 



With the same letter, Br. Mei-blin traas.miltc-d 
drafts to a_ considerable amount," fer expense of 
receptacL-s," '•ho.vpiial expenses," tho purchase of 
rice and \)a\\n oil," itc for which their " disbursc- 
lents" he say.s, had be- n "far beyond what wa.s an- 

mismarv- 
denied 
N. B. — The letters from whic'i we quote the above :i tJiat he gave ilitun ■ ' '-n: to desist from their 

arc dated in July, 1S31. | suad schenic of try ; oim- whole colored pop- 

la the Af. Repos. for Sept. 1832, we find the fol- ,| ulation. The p'a'.,. ..;■>. ...i : ;.-, the managers had 
lowing in a letter from Gov. Mechlin, dated .luly 13, | uiade foolish boasi:^, tlu y had committed themsclve , 
1S32: • i', — aid their pride drove them over the eararacl i 

"i have before urged ihe necessity of keeping a ro- ;i bankrupicy 'vitb th«r cy..3 open. 



unusual irlfiux of money, or you will spare us two or ! ticipated." Dr. Mr-cidii mav lave grossly mis 
three of the threatened expeditions'' !' a^cd the affairs o'' t!' V ■■■■■: !•':; it cannot be t 



REVIEW OF THK 



ve commonly call honesty. While the enter- 
n-ise flourished, its friends assigned too many 
easons for its prosecution ; and now that it is 
trought to a stand, they assign too many reasons 
OF or its failure. 

But we will not detain the reader from the 
«port cf the committee on the finances of the 
liociety. We quote it as follows, from tlie N. 
the 4^. Observer. 

*' Tho Committee appointed to inquire into the 
J?°Mato of (he financial concerns of the society, re- 

*^ Sort as f.jUows, that tlie debts owing by tho soci- 
r^Psty, now due, and that will fall due, by tho first of 
prepay next, amount to a sum varying from §40,000, 
theto ^41,000 

the This unprecedented and alarming' amount of 
estJebt against the society is accounted for, by the 
liglbllowing reasons : 

rou 1st. The rice crop in the colony and on tlie coast 
Jfcnerally, the last year, failed almost entirely ; and 
wc*y '^'''^ Providence, a considerable share of the, 
jjfrgjolonists, who would otherwise have been able to [ 
fjf] nibsist upon thoir own rneans, were thrown upon 

• ,lro bouniy and humanity of tho government of the 

"'^.^lony ' 

to i - ■ •'- 

bor, 



2d. Tho Ajax, which sailed from New. Orleans 
(filh 150 emigrants, lost 29 of them by the cliojc- 



cor.^j was double the usual length of lime making 
mil lie voyage, and arrived at the colony with but two 
no yeeks supply of provisions, instead of the usual 
dis^upply for six months, 

ope 3(1. An unusually large proportion of the late 
aresmigrants are im])rovident, and reluctant to be- 
Wf^ko themselves to ngricullurc. 
hoj 4th. In some instances among the lalo cmi- 
Biigxants, families without male heads have been sent 
jfjj^.o the colony — and, in many instances, the great 
g|jj,nortality in the colony, during the last year has 
j^ leprived families of their male heads and left them 
. t> the humane and expensive provisions of the 

j.fovcrnmcnt of the colony. 
'^ ' 5th. The supplies of the colonial store have not 
^cn ample, as they ever should be. This defi- 
botiency, however, is not to be charged to iniprovi- 
ovdonce in the Board of Man-gers; but to their pe 
biisJuniary inability to do on tliis subject what they 
is fvero very solicitous to do. This deficiency has 
of nade it necessary for the government of tlic colo- 
gl^iy to purchase at 100 to iJOO per cent, profit, large, 
vmounls of supplies from merchnnts in the colony, , 
*ind from vessels touching at liie colony. 
^'' In view of existing pecuniary embarrassments 
^^ >f tho society, tho conimiiu e wouhl advise that 
'l 'he society send out no emigrunls the present year, 
,jj-^inless under very spcci.il circumstances, and 
^v'lWhen the society would be put to comparatively 
cnV-mall expense, in sending out and provisioning the 
plnmigrants. To guard against !:Ucli heavy enibar- 
U htassments in future, the committee advise, that 
""'he society do never, except in tlie extraorciinnry 
_ ■'^'tascs above referred to, send out emigrants whilst 
V,",'hey are under a debt excoeding tiJ10,000. 
iic\ The committee hope that tho Board of Mana- 
rcci;ers will, as soon as the means at their disposal 
tioivill allow, so far furnish the colonial store v.'ilh 
i^' '■';oods and provisions as to preclude the necessity! 
P™f purchasing tl;em on l^rms so disadvantageous 
V^'s those above referred to. This necessity having I 



" existed for the last two years particularly, and 
'' which has been unavoidable on account of tho largo 
disbursements of the socitty for the expenses of 
; emigration, has swelled tho debt of the society to 
{ an amount of many thousand dollars greater than 
; it would have been, if this necessity had not ex. 

islcd. 
1. The committee are highly pleased to learn that 
the Board of Managers have adopted and are con- 
! tcmplaling measures for bringing w ithin ascertain- 
ed and the mrrowest limits, the compensation 
made to the oflicers of the society residing in the 
colony — and, also for avoiding the surprise of large 
drafts upon its treasury." 

This report is really a very slim affair. " The 
; rice crop failed in the colony." And for the 
very good reason that it is not cultivated. This 
ought to have been stated. Docs the society 
pretend that there is any person in Liberia who 
in ordinary years gets his living by agriculture ? 
Is it a very uncommon occurrence for the rice 
crop to fail on that coast ! Why did not the 
committee tell the society plainly, that the co- 
lonists have always depended to a large extent 
on foreign importation for their provisions, and 
that while the colony was small they managed 
to purchase them by the proceeds of their petty 
trades, but now that, by a spasmodic effort, the 
colony has been overpeopled, there are multi- 
tudes, many of them women and children, who 
are "reluctant to betake themselves to agricul- 
ture" because they have no agricultural imple- 
ments but such as nature has provided, and who 
must be supported at the expense of the society, 
or starve. We are told that the government of 
the colony had to purchase provisions at an ad- 
vance of 100 or 200 per cent, on the co^t in 
this country, but we are not told whether this 
is an unusual advance, nor whether any mer- 
chant can take the risks of transjjorting provis- 
ions to that tropical climate for less. We do- 
not see what the loss of the 29 passengers of 
the ship Aja.x, had to do with cutting short the 
supplies, nor indeed how the reduced number of 
passengers could contrive, by merely doubling 
the " usual time" of their voyage, so nearly to 
eat up the "six months" provision for the 
whole.* It really seems to us tliat the causes 
of expense assigned by the committee are mostly 
not temporary, but such as must cleave to the 
enterprize — and with the more force, the more 
rapidly it is pushed forward. 

The committee advise, as a matter of econo- 
my, that " no emigrants be sent out the present 
year." We would go farther, and advisp, that 
those sent out in former years be brought back. 
It will cost less to bring them home, than to 
support them there ; and we presume their con- 
sent may be obtained as easily as it was in the 
first instance. 

We cannot better, expose the society's scheme 
to the reprobation of the benevolent and ingemi- 

Thc Ajax was eighty-tico days on her passage, 
S?,300 of her outfit was paid by the Kentucky 



and ^-, ..^. -- 

ty having I Colonization Society 



ons, than by quoting largely from the debate ] 
upon this report. i 

" Mr. BuECKiNRrDSE said tliis report was not at ; 
all what ho expected. He wished to know all ' 
about this business, how and when this debt had 
4irisen, and by whoso neglisjence, or misinanagc- ! 
Bient, or extravaganee. He felt himself all in 
darkness about it. This debt was absolutely fright- 
ful, to him. It is over a whole year's income.; 
And yet the coinmittoe propose to discontinue 
sending out emigrants for a whole year. He ; 
thought this would be like killing the goose that' 
laid the golden eggs. For it is only to carry out 
emigrants that you can get money, to any extent. ; 
A few persons of a tiiorougli missionary spirit, will 
give you money professedly to build up religion 
and education in the colony. But the most even 
of these will think tliere arc so many other ways 
to give their money, that you will get but little. 
But the great mass of the people will not give you! 
a dollar unless you connect with it the carrying 1 
out of emigrants. He hoped the report would i)e 
referred to the committee, for the purpose of hav-i 
ing it made more explicit, and of liaving a more ji 
thorough examination. He wanted to know who' 
these merchants are in the colony, that cliargo the j| 
society an advance of 100 or 200 per cent, lu time' 
of famine." ,; 

And wliy should they not so cliarge tlie so-ji 
ciety 1 Had not the society taught them the li 
lesson by charging a similar advance to the!| 
colonists ? ji 

" Mr. GuRLEY said ho beilieved he conld explain! 
the affair so as to show that it was no improvi-! 
dence on the part of the managers that had brought j! 
this debt upon them. The society wil! recollect! 
that two or three years ago the desire became very 
strong to see a considerable increase of emigration. ; 
It was thought the interest of the society required, 
it, and the applications were also numerous and 
pressing. And the managers were willing to go : 
even somewhat beyond their moans with the con- 
fident hope that the community would sustain jj 
them. In consequence, at tlie close of the yearj' 
1832, they had increased their responsibilities be-ij 
yond their receipts to the amount of from $12,000 jl 
to ,f 1.5,000 and were calculating to enter upon a ij 
course of means to increase tlieir resources com-jj 
mensurato lo their want. Bnt the early part of j 
-the year tlie demands from the colony began to' 
come in most unexpectedly both for number and ij 
amount. He had not the means before him of an ]| 
exact statement, but he believed that in four'i 
months they paid and accepted drafts from the|' 
agent exceeding !$20,000, and that the whole of;! 
their acceptances on this amount were more tiian ij 
$30,000. The managers did not suppose they had j 
been so very negligent in sending out supplies to'; 
the colonial store. The Hercules took out $6,000 ;; 
in trade goods, [liow much rum, gunpowder atid\^ 
tobacco, and how many " spear-pointed kiuves"'\ 
and ^'^ brass blunderbusses 7"] as they are called, Ij 
which it was supposed would bo worth from twelve j 
to $20,000 in sustaining the colony. But the rice Ij 
crop came short and the agent was obliged to pur-il 
chase. It is plain there has been an accumulating j 
debt at the colony, of which the managers werejj 



COLONIZATIO.V SOCIETY. 



1 not aware, for some of the bills received this year: 
! were for accounts that had been running on fo; 
several years. He had not examined particularly 
but he was inclined to think there was some ir 
regularity in the colony in regard to salaries. Thii 
amount then is not a demand for this year onlyi 
; tiiough it has come upon us all at once. The re.j 
mote causes of the debt were doubtless these : the 
improvidence of many of the emigrants, and thehj 
neglect of agriculture ; the unfortunate character 
of some of the materials sent out to build a colony ; 
the agent was much of the time in feeble health ; 
sickness prevailed to a great extent ; both the phy- 
sicians were absent, and the whole care throwH 
upon Dr. Mechlin : and under these circumstances j 
it is impossible to suppose tiiat the general admin- 
istration of the colony could be so economical or 
so correct as would be desirable. There was one 
other cause, (for the society ought to be made per- 
fectly acquainted with the whole truth ;) during 
the early part of the year, there had been great de- 
bility, to use the mildest expression, in the opera- 
tions of tlie Board. It arose, in part at least, from 
the excitement which grew out of the elections 
last year, and the introduction of several new mem. 
bers into the board, who were not accustomed to 
its proceedings. Tiiere was a cessation, of course, 
of holding meetings once in two weeks, and a sub. 
stitution of an executive Committee, of very limit, 
ed powers, not equal to the necessities of the case, 
and very many things were neglected ; and among 
them, efforts to raise tho means to meet our in- 
creasing expenses. In the course of the summer^ 
I proposed to the Board a, united effort to sustain 
t!ie credit of the society, by a loan on the individ- 
ual responsiliility of tlie members. But it did not 
succeed. If done, to the amount of 15 or $20,000, 
he believed the revenue of the society could have 
been greatly increased. In his efforts at the north, 
his greatest difiiculty was not in the fact that the ! 
society was? in debt, but that we had failed, and our 
drafts were under a protest, and that whatever 
people gave would go for paying an old debt. Still 
he did not think affairs looked so very dark. There 
were many things, it is true, in the colony as well j 
as here, to be regretted. But they were not such | 
as to authorize despondency, much less despair." : 

Ah ! Mr. Gurley, this mild, soft way of plas- I 
tering over every body's faults may be very j 
amiable in a popisli forgiver of sins, but it will 
not do in a man who undertakes to manage tlie 
charities of plain matter-of-fact people. As we 
iiave sliown in a former note, you knew long- 
ago that the '• remote causes of the debt," were 
in active operation, and yet you say, that in the , 
early part of the year the demands from the j 
colony began to come in most unexpectedly ! !" i 

" Mr. Frelingiiuvben was glad to hear this ex- ■ 
planation. When the fact respecting our debt was 
first developed last night, it made his heart feel 
sick ; especially because it will be employed so ef- i 
fectively against us. It will be seized with avidity 
by our adversaries, and pressed with great power. 
If I had not strong confidence in the goodness of 
our cause, and in Him who patronizes and protects 
every good cause, I would sit down in ilespair. 
While we were holding ourselvas out to the pub- 
lic, as able to transport any number of emigraats 



REVIEW OF THE 



for §30 oacli, and thai the colony was prosperous,; No doubt the secretary will try his art. But it 
nnd the emigrants tliriving and happy, these dis- is too late, — the thing has been mended too 
closures came upon us. In tlie midst, too, of our rnany times already, 
eonflict with the abolitionists, as well as in the ' 

midst of this triumph respcctinff the colony, we , " Bishop Mfade said, \\hcn smful, frail beings 
have gone in debt, in two years to the amount of g^t into ditficulty, we should first examine our. 
more than .§40,000. With a large portion of the selves, and see why it is so. Tins examination 
community, tliis blow will be irretrievable at pre- should be very .<-tnet and faithful, and we should be 
.sent. Thev will point to thf foot of our Icger. and <:"pfu! not to ascribe our trouble to any wrong 
pass upon lis a sentence of reprobation. Still I cause?. I do not doubt that the secr.-tary has 
will give way to no despondency. We have come g'ven us a faithful exposiiion of tlie business, as 
now to a crisis in the history of the societv, and if ''^ s-upposed. And so far as it goes, it is vyell 
we improve it uropcrly, \rc may dale froni this an. • enough. But all must be satisfied that the radical 
niversary a neiv era of prosperity and success. I defect is in the colony. For durmg the last year, 
hope wo shall not onlvre-ortranizc our constitution, our expenditure on emigration h.s been less than 
but adopt a ncvv set of priirciples in the manage- "s^^^'- And the funds which have been contribu- 
mentof our ntlairs. Our Board, and all who are 
employed, must be made to have 

responsibility, that not a dollar si ^..^ - 

which shall not be satisfactorily accunled for. It ^ed on our way, as fast as possible The Bishop- 
must not be allowed to anv agent to run t!ie soci- tl'C-usht a successful appeal mignt be made to the 
ely in debt, or to draw bi'Us without sending an l^^g'-'^lntures of the adjoining states for aid m this 
account. They must go to liioir work with a sense P'nergency. With \ irginia, our plea must be ac 
of as deep responsibility as if they w.tc next do,;r '^'^ov^•.=;dgl■a jujt Last year the Icg.sature appro. 
to the Board, and feel that this nu-noy is drawn Pf'^'C'l ahout .S'-'O.OOO for colonizing her f^ree peo. 
from the public charity, and every dollar must be Pl« ?<^ color m Africa. And if it had not been for 
stritly accounted for. And then we can go on. ^^^ imprudent and ej^cessivezxal of r^^^ 

If I did not feel sure, said Mr. F. that this cause is ' '" "'" """ ' 

deeply seated in tlie!)ffections of the American pco. 
pie, I would niovo instantly to adjourn sJne die. 
But I do believe all tliesc tilings are sent upon us 
by the hand of Ilini who would draw our depend. 
onco away from all human contrivances. Let us 
now rep )se our cause on his arm, and he will bless 
us. Let the abolitionists clamor. Let fanaticism 
rage as it may. I cannot yet brin^ myself to bo. 

liovo, that Fi'nlcy has died — that .Mills has perish- . , . n, , 11,1,1 

od on the ocean in behalf of Africa, to no purpose. P'^C'^l"'" >'; '''"J^ ^o Maryland ? And thus our 
I trust that, when the secretary comes to publish, i^^^iety might be speedily extricated from this un- 
his report, he will prcpara a stftemeM on this su;,- , f-^I'^'C'^d «"<' ^'^d catastrophe ; and we might say 
ject, so that the public may have what I apprehend [' our enemies, that though we have erred against 
will be a perfectly satisf .ctorv explanation of this l'^"; ["'j' ."' PJ"^^""', yet He who originated this 
business" ' notilo design has not permitted our errors to de. 

j stroy the work. 
Wliat a precious compound of absurdity. " Ri'v-. REniicx Post, of Washington, said that 
This noble Senator " was glad to hear an kx- ' ""'.v » ^'"J «'"all portion of this debt was incurred 
PLANATION," which covered up things. He had '" ^''^ '''''^T''"'- ^l^^'n^' expeditions have not 
felt sick at the thought .f being d.tcWd by the ^"^' -".'f^ *"• -"Sl^.OOO The two which went 
. ,... • . TT r .1 * ti • t ■ from Virginia were sent at the urjrcnt request ot 

aboh lonists. He confesses that the society is . j.^j^.„^^ i.rxorfolk. Mr. Maxwell and others. The 
oaiight m the very act of deceiving tlie public- ^.^^^^ ^P „^,^^^ ^^^^ j-^^„^ ^^^^, Orleans was de. 
and getting money under false iiretences, and, frayed, it is understood, by the Kentucky and 
yet he professes to have confidence "in Him other Western societies. The great amount were 
who patronizes every good cause ! ' !" What sent the j'car before last, chiefly from Virginia, 
pious swindling ! — (iood courage — no despond-' and those very ill fitted to go. And the Board 
enicy — indeed it makes 11s tliiiik of a couple of have resolved that they will not send any more 
scared urcliins in the dark; "Jack," says one, unless the funds are provided in hand. Another 
of them, "are you afraidr' "No, I'm notf ircumstance was, that their whole affairs rested 
afraid." " Nor "l neither." How wonderfully; o" one person, except that a part of the year ho 
courao-eous ' " I had had an as.sistant in the office. The Board 

"Let fanaticism rage as it may," sayshe,:^"'! appointed several gentlemen from Virginia, 
« I cannot believe that cause will fail which two : '^"'^ t"^/ .^o engage thrni as general agents but 
J II- t- M \\^\ t • n- 1 » none of them would accept. And they liavclook. 

good men died in promoting. \^ hat ,s this b« ^^ ,^ ^^^.^ ^^^^^. .^ ^,,^ \ ^,^^^ J^^^ ^^^„^ 

miperstition— the very parent of fanaacism ? .nijjht be found to take hold. 
Last of all, he hopes the secretary will plaster ^j^. Breckenridge said. It is not the magnitude 
this up nicely in the annual report, so that it ^f Hje debt that disturbs me. But the causes as- 
will be "satisfactory." We are not master of signed by the committee do not account for it, for 
English suitable to express our views of such a : most of them were, as it appears, posterior to its 
aentiment, and we shall not make the attempt, occurrence. The 769 emigrants sent out in 1832, 



usual. 

ted are greater than ever before in a year. We 
deep sense of '"''J' dwell too long upon lamentation. When we 
II !)c expended ^^•'' ^^ ^ .should not lie lamenting, but rise and pro- 



the appropriation would have been §100,000. As 
it was. tiiC}' so trammelled it as to make it incfTec 
tivc for the ]5Urposcs designed. And, said he, I 
cannot but hope that now, if the legislature now 
in ses«ion can be approached through some of its 
popular members, they may make the appropria. 
tion this year in such a way as to relieve us. They 
will recollect this society has been carrying on its 
operations without legislative aid, and a kind of 
debt thereby contracted. Might not a similnr a]). 



CO^^I^J^T^fi^ SjOfCI ET Y . 



if supported the whole j'ear, could not have cost 
$40,000. Sir, if these drafts are wrongfully 
drawn, I say thoy sliould not be paid. Tlioso who 
drow thoin ou^hl to suffer. If drawn for expen- 
ditures not warranted by tb.e Board, they should 
not liavc been accepted. If the managers do not 
know liow it came, they ought to know, and they 
ouglit to suffer, and we ought to change our offi- 
cers. FORTY THOUSAND DOLLARS is a 
small snin, in connection witii such an o!)ject as 
llie reuioval of our colored race to Africa. Bui it 
is the mismanagonicnt bj' which the debt has been 
produced that I complain of. To mo it seems 
perfectly uefarious tliat the inercliants of our colony 
should charge us throe or four hundred p^r cent.: 
advance. And it has been slated, and publish 
cd, that the agents whom we S(!nt out and support- 
ed are these very merchants. I hope the report 
will go back to the committee, v/hoare ca|:)ablH of: 
searching to the bottom of tho whole. There is 
an immense aggregate of blame somewhere; and 
I want to find out where it belongs, and put it 
there. I want to know who did it, aud what for. 
Two years ago, I warned tije managers against ■ 
this Virginia business. And yet they sent out two ; 
ship loads of vagabonds, not fit to go to such a' 
place, and that were coerced away, as truly as if 
it had been done with a cart whip. They werej 
uot driven by force. But after the Southampton i 
afTair, tho legislature enacted severe laws, which | 
required the free negroes to go through certain;- 
operations and forms of law in order to remain. 
They were ignorant and terrified, and you willji 
not wonder at it if you look at the legislative re-' 
ports of the slaughter. And so they Had to our 
agents, who took them and sent them away. And I 
think we have a just claim upon Virginia on their' 
account, as well as just cause of complaint against i' 
those who let them go to our colony. ! 

Sir, we are not only embarrassed but we are I 
broke. And if we lose our character we lose all.! 
But if we can comn out now with a fair character,! 
the public will sustain us and pay our debts. i 

Mr. GuRLEY said, I cannot concur in the vievvj 
that any part of this has come from the weight of 
business on myself In regard to any business en- 1 
trusted to myself by the Board of Managers, it j; 
has been douo, and done faithfully. Tlie difficulty ! 
is not with minagers. Two years ago, they sent i 
out full instructions to the agent, to enforce the 
strictest accountability, and demanding quarterly ; 
returSis of all ex|)enditures. But they had m> 
returns with any regularity or to any extent. I :| 
believe one reason has been the sickness of the j: 
agent, and the weight of affairs that pressed on;' 
him. No strictness of instructions can secure a ! 
correct administration of affairs unless they are j 
obeyed. I cannot concur in the entire unfitness 
of what are called the Southampton emigrants, 
or that we did wrong in receiving them, and send-; 
ing them out, when they were coerced away. Our 
friends at Norfolk appealed to us, and said thej 
people were persecuted, and that it was a matter! 
of humanity to take them. Our agents said they 
were driven from the county, and iiad appealed to 
him and begged to go to Liberia, and certified that 
they were respectable and industrious. Our ex- j 
peditions have been small this year. The Jupiter j; 
was fitted out at the earnest solicitation of Ihel 



J New-York City Society. They stated to mo that 

there was no hoj)e of raising funds there unless 

some project could be started for a New-York ex- 

pedition to send out emigrants. It was not tho 

ij debt which embarrassed us, but the entire failure 

' of our credit. Our friends at New. York said t?ie 

best way was only to let it be known to a few 

warm friends, but to start an expedition, and t'len 

I many will give for the project, and many others 

will give for the general purposes of the Soc.'ety^ 

I wrote to tlio managers on the subject, and ihey 

^ held a meeting, and gave their consent to the 

plan. 

Gerkit Smitic hoped the motion to re-coianiit 
would not prevail. Fo could not see any food 
from it. As a member of that committee, he had 
spent several hours in examining the affairs and 
interrogating Mr. Gurley and Dr. Laurie, and ho 
saw that to obtain the minute information called 
for would require tlie labor of many dayc, and he 
for one had not time to spend here to do it. We 
have arrived satisfactorily at the general causes, 
which the report unfolds, and we should not be 
greatly benefited by spreading out tht details. It 
is certain there is a very bad system of operations, 
or rather then! is no system at all. This debt is 
fro.m five to ten thousand dollars greater than it 
would have been if there had been a constant sup. 
ply of goods in the colonial store. In looking 
over the accounts of Colston M. Waring & Co. 
and others, with the Agent, I find prices charged 
two, three, and even four times higher than the 
cost in this country. The reason assigned by the 
treasurer for their not keeping the store supplied 
is not satisfactory. It might have been a little 
bold, perhaps, for tiiis Board to incur a debt of a 
fev; thousands in order to send on supplies in sea- 
son. But the result shows that it v.'ould have been 
economical. Tliere is an excessive number of 
officers in Africa, and their saiaiies amount to a 
very considerable sum, not far from ^5,000 a 
year. The colonial governor and the physician, 
whose salaries arc very handsome, including what 
they receive from the government of the United 
States, one being ^2,400, and the other ^1,200, 
in addition to all this, they are allowed to furnish 
their whole domestic establishment at the public 
expense, and some of these bills are very large. 

As Mr. S. was sitting down, several gentlemen 
begged him to go on, but he said he had rather 
not. He might misapprehend or mis-state some- 
thing. 

Dr. Laurie said the salary the agent received 
from the society was only .$80. 

Mr. Cresson said that having devoted five year* 
of his life to the Society, without any compensa- 
tion, direct or indirect, ho supposed his explana- 
tions might have some weight. It will be ob- 
served, that one item of debt, amounting to one- 
fourth of the whole, is the charier party and ex. 
l)enses of the ship Hercules, in 1833. There had 
also been IIOO emigrants landed in the colony in 
a little more than 12 months, which had increased 
the expense of their accommodation. In short, 
to borrow a phrase from tho negroes of Virginia, 
" It is as it is and it can't be no tis-cr." Tho 
prices, of provisions at Liberia, and on the coast 
were increased in conBeqsence of the famine at 
th« Cape de Verds. He was satisfied that none of 



mVTlBW •? TRB 



the Society's agents had benefitted themselves by 
participating in any commercial transaction. Mr. 
Waring and Mr. McGill were not capitalists, 
trading on their own accounts, but commission 
merchants, and therefore bound to sell to the best 
advantage for the interest of their principals. — 
The debt could not have been avoided without 
Btirvation in the colony. 

Mr. Fkelinghuysen said there was no need to 
send the report back for further particulars, in or- 
der to make a very sad statement indeed. We 
caa't help it, and wc must make the best of it 
The managers should not accept drafts 'from the 
colony, unless preceded by advices, and accom- 
panied by accounts stated. No merchant would 
have done it. They must make it a strictly ac- 
accountable concern. 

Bishop Meade said if wo called for these ac 
counts, it might show those merchants that we 
disapprove of tlieir conduct. 

Mr. CoxE thought it necessary to have some de- 
cided expression of opinion from tlie society. — 
Tliere was a resolution of the Board already, not | 
to accept of drafts unless preceded by advices and 
accompanied by accounts. He would ask the 
Board whetlier there has been no draft accepted ! 



and will spontanoously help themselves to Liberia. 
And whenever they became desirous to go, they 
did not need a society to help them. The free 
black who cannot earn $30 is not fit for the 
colony, and ought not to go. 

The motion to recommit was withdrawn, and 
the report accepted." 

We have dwelt thus long on the state of the 
Society's finances because it illustrates the 
capital defect of its morals. Mr. Frelinghuy- 
sen recommends the adoption of a " new set of 
principles." Hone.sty should be one of them. 
We can but glance at the interesting matters 
contained in other parts of the report. 

The annual report, read by Mr. Gurley, of 
which wc have some of tlie heads, is deceptive 
as usual. It represents the Sabbalh as being 
well observed, many added to the church, &c. 
while it utters not one word about iniquities 
that have been practiced there in high places. 
If at some station of the American Board the 
leading missionaries had been guilty of numer- 
ous seductions ; if by their extravagance and 
i profligacy they had brought religion into con- 
tlie morals of the commu- 



P , : tempt, and unhinged 
of the t ,. ' . » .1 ^ 
propriety of this oourse, but^they do not act up 'l "/^y ^^^''^ \'''^";' ^^•«" ,. . . .^ ^, 

to it. The attention of the Board has been called ,1 ^^^ m^"^!" ^o the public by sayuig " there are 
to this subject. I would ask also, if any member "'"^ meeting houses ; the Sabbath, is well oh- 
of the Board can tell how many officers we have |!ser^■ed, &c." \et such is the sad fact in regard 
at Liberia, and what arc their expenses? For 1 to the late leading authorities ot Liberia, as we 
one, I believe it is impossible to get along, unless;! knew long ago from private letters from the 
things can bo placed on a proper basis. He hoped !', Colony, and as we kiww now by the confessionB 
the society would take it up once for all, and if it ;of one of the standard hearers of Colonization 



should take a week, or a month, it would be a 
saving of time in the end, as well ns a great saving 
of money. 

Mr. GuRLKT said there was one difficulty the 
Board had to encounter. Tlicy had not had cor- 
rect information in regard to the expense of su 



(just returned from the Anniversary. Indeed 
[the report goes still farther in covering up mat- 
ters, and says of Dr. Mechlin, •' His self-deny- 
jing services, and successful efforts for enlarging 
{and improving the colony, entitle him to the 
crrateful regards of the Society." Self-denying'. 



portmg enugrants n the colony. They had been ..p,,;^ appears from the facts we have just men- 
told th^t 810 worth of goods 'n this country ^i^,^gj ,-^^^^ j,^^ ^^j of «!-2400, and from a 
would bnng enough there for each And they j„ ^ ^ ^^ ■ ^ . , j^. 

had always made their estimate on tins basis, tor,., , ^. \^ , ,• , " , ,,> m i .u 

each expedition. But they have now found that domestic establishment ! ' Truly even the 
their estimate was quite inadequate. As to t|,e most "self-denying" governors are somewhat 
resolutions of ihc Board spoken of l.y Mr. Coxe. e.xpensivc. 

it was proper to say, that they were passed afterj The annual report, as usual, eulogizes Mr. 
this great amount of debt had come upon us, and jj Cres,<;on, that veracious person who told the ven- 
in consequence of it. Tlio letters of advice tic- '(^rahle C]a.T]ison t[.at or^e hundred thoxixaud s\a.veB 
companying the drafts, have generally been very l were ready to be liberated, if stven pounds and 
brief, and not explicit or full. Tlie expense of tlie ten shillings could be raised for the transport- 
officers in the colony was doubtless an unfortu- igtion of each, and then hacked up the monstrous 
nate arrangement. The full development of the igtory, bv another, that this state of things had 
course thmgs were taking, never reached us tillt k^p " roduced hy the fai/hfuhiess of the minis. 
sprmg or sunmier. |t^^^^ ^y ,f^^ gospel at the Snulh ! ! We put the 

Mr. Bacon said that in regard to the recom. ; „es^ion to jyir. Cresson, recently at Philadel- 
endat.on of the committee not to send out any jj ,,5^^ whether he made these statements to Mr. 
more emigrants this year, one gentleman has f,,^^^^^^ jj^ ^ jj^,, ^^^^ ,^^ ^^^p, ^t^t^j 
vaynot to obtam funds. ,,j --^.. -- -^ 



last 



\m opinion! What a happy re- 



urged that this was the 

But Mr. B. believed it to be the only way in which i,T"Pse tilings as 1 ... 

affairs caa be managed to revive the confidence of i^^^^^ behind his own insignificance ! We know 
the public. And he hoped it would lead to a per- i"ot which most to admire, the inexhaustible im- 
manent change in the policy of the society in re-iiP"dence of Mr. Cresson, or the unparalleled 
gard to sending out emigrants. Let us b«nd our jj effrontery of the Society in sustaining hins 
efforts t.> make the colony what it ought to be, ;, against the "organized opposition" of British 
and what it might be, and we shall find the freel|philanthropi8tB. No doubt the Society will re- 
people will begin to look at it in a difftrent light, [jceive the thanka of Lord Bexby, the Duke of 



COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



laBt five years, wo find among our emigrants, that 
the proportion of slaven emancipated for the pur* 
pose of colonizing has greatly increased. I was 
surprised to learn, by the report read to night, that 
I of tlie erpigrante from Kentucky, my native state, 
1 90 per cent, were manumitted slaves, and from 
j tlic whole valley 75 per cent, notwithstanding 
there are a hundred thousand people of color 
there. And this spirit among the free blacks will 
grow every day, because the party who have poi- 
soned tlieir minds will grow, because some states 
will take up the subject, and because we have 



Sussex, and the whole body of West India 
slave-holders. 

Robert S. Finley, Esq. at the anniversary in 
the Capitol, introduced a very pertinent and sea- 
sonable resolution relative to ardent spirits in 
the Colony. He was very happy as usual in refut- 
ing his own argument. " The Colony," he 
said, " had already done much to arrest tiie tide 
of intemperance, which for 200 years lias been 
rolling over Africa hke a tlood." And yet t.lie 

Colony has carried on an extensive trathc in 

ardent spirits, — a traffic which Mr. Finley says grown wise" by experience, and do not intend to 
"is a greater crime than the slave trade, be- |j let you send out your ship loads of free vagabonds 
cause it supports the slave trade." This is ini-i^ to Christianize Africa. We had rather have those 
plied by Mr. Finley's proposing that "all future;! who are sent out by humane men, tliat will manu- 
settlements" should be founded on "temperance || ">it their.slaves from conscientious principles. If 
principles." If Mr. Finley were only a doctor, | we cannot have men of good character, we want 



none. You do more hurt than good by every ship 
load of these free vagabonds." 

The following sentiment is in accordance with 
the views of the abolitionists as expressed in the 
Declaration of the Anti-Slavery Convention. 
We believe it has not been sufficiently pondered 
by those upon whom the responsibility rests. 

"As to any otiier means of abolishing slavery, I 
will say nothing of the power of tha United 
States government; otdy that the constitutional 
auihority which forbids the importation of slaves 
from foreign countries, is plainly competent to 
forbid their importation from other states. Con- 
gress have already exercised this authority towards 
several now flourishing states of this confederacy, 
and over all our territories lying north of a certain 
parallel of latitude. And the day when tliis au. 
thority shall be exercised over all the t^tatcs, is the 
day that slavery terminates its power. Slavery 
cannot survive such a blow. Tiiis, sir, is, I ad- 
mit, an engine of vast potency against ^lavery. 
And it is not to be exercised until the good sense 
and piety and humanity of the nation shall call 
it forth." 

We trust that the "good sense and piety" of 
'tlie nation are now beginning to awake. Such 
language as tiie following from a Southern mao 
is some proof of it. 

I "No man can read either the Old Testament or 
the New, but he must see it is hostile to slavery. 
And though you may say that, as Christians it is 
" The view which I wish to present is this ; the j; out of our province to urge such considerations 
future prospects of the Society in regard to pro- 1; upon the government, yet as Christians wo may 
curing proper emigrants. In the Providence of |J speak to one another, and admonish each other of 
God, the free blacks have become hostile to us — !| wrong. And, sir, as the man who kills another 
intensely hostile. I know the fact, and it is use- j' is prima facie a murderer, and is held to clear 
Jess to disguise it. I believe they are unalterably | himself by showing justifiable grounds for his 
hostile. They have been made so, on system, by ['deed, so the man who claims title in his fellow 
a great and growing party in our country, to ■! man, in his bones and sinews and blood, sliall be 
which I am decidedly hostile. We owe thanks to jj considered prima facie a sinner, and shall be held 
God, that when the Society first started, and could j to prove that liis title has originated in such cir- 
not procure slaves to colonize, the free people of j cumstances, and is held for such purposes, as are 
color were willing to go. The first four or five , consistent with the spirit and principles of the 
hundred who were sent out were chiefly free. And j' gospel. And, sir, the Presbyterian church, of 
by their success we were enabled to demonstrate 'which I am a member, can biing forward throo 
the feasibility of our plan of colonization. And j! hundred thousand persoas who will maintain this, 
now these free people of color, without just cause, [| and will act upon it. 

and under tho influence of wrong instructions, I have spoken freely of the abolitionists, but it 
are going farther and farther from ua. For the [j is not in iinkindness. I agreo with tho slave- hol<U 



he would probably prescribe brandy for delirium 
tremens. According to his statement the Colo- 
nists, selling 3,000 barrels ofrum in a year, have 
outstripped the best of us in the temperance re- 
formation, and liavc done wonders in breaking 
up the slave trade, and yet the sagacious Mr. 
Finley says, ardent spirits, are injurious to the 
colony! It is a little singular that the Col. 
Board should hesitate to pass a law excluding 
ardent spirits from the Colony for fear those 
moral people should refuse to sustain it. 

Bishop Meade, of Va., made a speech in which 
there ia nothing more remarkable than the fol- 
lowing sentiment : 

" The object of this Society is benevolent. Its 
object is to improve the condition of those who 
are formed in some respects after the image of 
God, but who are nevertheless so formed as to be 
liable to many calamities. And is not this benev- 
olent 1" 

Rev. Robert J. Breckinridge uttered senti- 
ments which were probably as little relished by 
his audience as they were expected. W^ere it 
not that he now and then threw a sop to Cerbe- 
rus, we might take him for a genuine abolitionist. 
He evidently lacks not courage. Some of his 
rebukes are enough to raise a blush on the palest 
face of "dough." He most fully confirms sev- 
eral of the positions of the abolitionists, as a 
few extracts will show. 



10 



RKPOUT OF THE 



er, that the free people of color must go awny or |i of a similar character before the Kentucky Col 
^^ .S':r 7L:r:ti'!:!f?-.^':.^^ '- e,se.no,:i.at:on Socioty in 18.1. It a^ earrln'S 



, , J --appears m the 

na u.ai African Repository for August of tlie 



where conceded that the}- will not go 

the society ca/j«o/ carry them. 1 And if unv one „., t* t- • i - i ■" 

doubts the' truth of this, let him con>e to Bait i J'"'''- ^^ f^^"-"'«>'f ''''"'"'^ ^^"^ «"'>' ^"^"fi-Slave. 
more, and I will .show it to him. There he will " ''^ ^"'"""^"ts to be found in lliat periodical for 
fmd that our lawyers will not admit a colored man ■ '""^ years ; but, on the 185th page of the same 
to the bar, nor oar druggists to their profession. ""'^°^''' ^''*^ ^'^^'^"'' '"'^ the Repository takes oc- 
Our hack .stands show few men of color. Even .^^^^*^" to enter a Jesnistical disclainn^r. He 
our draymen are nearly all white. We exclude the '1^*}'^ • 
colored men from every omplovmfml in which I 

men can rise. And they are there perishing for i " ' , '^enlnn-Mits of this speech generalb', wo 
the want of daily food. 'j concur, but we wish it to be distinctly understood, 

But the dav is coming, too, when the other side '*''^' "'•'' consider slavery to be an evil, which can. 
of this .subject will come up. If the slave-holder I' ","^ -^V '°"'' '"""''"'^'"^ '^^'''^ ^'''^^*^'" ^''"" '''**''^' ^" 
forces us to a stand in our present course, and com. !i ^°°''**'"^''> except by deliberate, cautious and grad- 
pels us to decide whether slavery sliall be abolish- •'i","^^^^"'"*"^'" '^''" P'^seut generation did not 
cd instantly, or endure forever, wc come to a new )I*''°'^"'^'^' ^"'^ '^f'- "o!- Hierefore responsible for the 
position. And I, for one, am prepared to mfcl it '".'^'■''''f'"^'' of the present form of seciety in our 
Let the .slave holder beware how ho drive- us li •""'"" ^^"'"^""''"^''- If (!!) tl"-' state of tilings 
away. We siaml i„ ihf. breach for him to keep off '^ '^'■7?' '^ «=''0u!'^ '■'' «-t right, but only \\*lh due 
the abolitiouisls. We are his friends, but only to i ?^„ ^" the riglitt, and interests of all parties, 
give him time. If we an; driven away, where can ! ' 

hejind an allyl Where in the literature of the 1 AVhor. M \^v .. <-> • 1 , 

whole world, in th. public opinion of (he wh le 'If J:*. l'^/";:tt Cresson wished to per- 
world, in the religion of the whole «orld. will he i i^*" a certain distinguished Anti-Slavery man 
find an advocate ? The abolitionist is upon him.'-" i'"""""' tbat the Colonization Society was 
And if he attempts to nniintain slavery as perpet- i!" ' ^}^ Ahoiition Society, Jie presented him 
ual, every one of us will be upon him too. Yon,!' 

Mr. President, and I 

abolitionist in such ; 

slavery. Rather than slavery, with " its' horrors'; ■ ^^i^aimer had been nicely CUT OUT! It ,„ 
shall exist forever in this coun ry, let u.s suffer the i needless to tell the re.sult of this inexprcted 
evils incidental to it.s iuittant abolition. Ifaboli. discove-y. If i\Ir. Cre.^son wishes to stick 
tion must bcMmmediale or not at all, let it be im- this additional feallior in the cap of his dis- 
mediate, come whr.t uill. For it is one of the, grace, he may l.avo the names of all the par- 

[:;Tv;p;!lr:i:-rn:r::^rwS^;o;ris.^j;i!^'^^^'^^ - ^'- Anti-siaveryomcSm 

made one man to own a title to another, I mus ' ^' 

reply, Nuy. To nie, it is self-evident, tl 

beings whom God made in his own image, h.- ,■ x- .. c. , ■ ■ , . 

must have made free. We are the only frinid.<» „f '^°"'-°" "* *'"■ '^t)c-iety s inimenbe debt proves 
^- . ■ •■ -^ . . ■ . ■;e.xtraordinaiT honesty, made a very sensible 
speech. But v.c wonder how, with all his can- 
and nieans of information, he fell into cer- 
tain mistakes. Atler commending the aboli- 



nd all of us will join the |^"^'^ succeeded admirably, for, as was after- 
cause, against perpetuating "'^f'^s discovered the leaf containing the dis- 



I Mr. Gerrit Smith, whose philanthropy none 
- ^'"'i will doubt, and whose offer to pay so large a 



the slave holder, for we give him ;imo 

all ho can ask— timi- to act and aboii.vh slavery.! '*^"^' 

And in regard to t!ic otlier branch of our labors, ''"'' 



the colonizinir of tl 
manity of ih 
drive th 
provide 



e tree, we appeal to the hu- 



of the slave holder, and ask him, Will you h Zionists for the best intentions, he says .• 
is free man av.-ay, and not let us unite to! t -i t ii 

him a home ? Our brethren at the South !!. .*■''''*''■ ,.'^°"''^ ''''•^' ^'s "^"ch in commendn 

will surely become our friends and the friends of , J,'' P"'^''cation.s, as I 

our cnterpri.se, I do not say if they will understand ' "^" u '"*' ''''' '""''" °^ 



lation of 
I can of tlicir intentions, 
their documents v/hich I 
but ifthey will only so far comtnandtheir'feeK'T*''] ^^^'^^'^ as admirable exhibitions of truth, 
ings as to give us tiuio to cry to thcin, "Strike '" ^^ , ' '^''"".^ '"-'.'oo widely circulated or too ear- 
but hear us." " ':, nestly considered. But I am compelled to declare 

ji that many of them are also rash, ill-judged, un. 
Give the slaveholders time I That is all they ' "'"^"tablo and slanderous, and not a few of them 
ask. The Colonization Society is alwaj's giv. ''.^^'"'"'^O'- to the last degree. I believe the sen- 
ing them ^w?c, and therefore the time to repent ll®''^''' ""^ ^^^^^ '"'^" among them (and I take a 
never comes. As for ns, we think the time '' P''^^^"''® '" acknowledging there are many such) 
has come. It came long ago, and every hour's ii '"*"' '^ ^° ^^ "" ^"*'- 

delay adds immensely to the obligation to re- ji It should be understood that he was speaking 
pent immediately. _ ;| not of individual abolitionists but of "the Anti- 



Mr. Breckinridge, it seems, received some 
Bignificant growls from the lion, for making so 
free with his beard in his own den. But he is 
not easily frightened, and we trust the disci- 
pline he will receive from his slave-holding 
brethren will drive him of!' from some of his 
strange inconsistencies. He delivered a speech 



Slavery Society." We beg of Mr. Smith to 
put iiis finger on some of our slanderous and 
"incendiary" documents. We hold ourselves 
responsible only for what we publish. We sus- 
pect Mr. Smith may take to himself the reproof 
which he administers to us : " They have done 
the Society injustice by holding us too much re- 



COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



U I 



sponsible for the acts and speeches of indvidiial ' Nortli, that our society obstructs tlte progress of 
members. " 1 ciiKincipalioii. And I couhl wish that we had 

In rejrard t« our charge ao-ainst the Colony i given no occasion. But we iiave given some oc 
for trafficking in ardent spirits he is under a ; f ^'^i"»; We are not an Ant.-Slavery Society. We 
great misapprehension. He says, 1 have l.terally noti.mg to do w.th slaves. Our con- 

■= ' ' -^ , stitnlKin conhncs us to anollicr class oi persons 

They have also created a strong prejudioo by c,-,,;re]y. Wliatevcr .some of our members or 
harping on flic fact that ardent spirit continues to : agents may have said, our society sets up no pre- 
be sold at the colony. On this subject I will ■'iay i tenMnns to the abolilion of slavery. And those 
(and my neighbors, at least, know that I am notj „,],o denounce us for not doing this, miglit with 
a friend to rum, and will therefore attach some| the saaie propriety denounce the Bible Society, or 
value to the declaration) that T have, both at for- j| any similar institution, for not going out of iheir 
mer times and now, inquired into the measures, |; iijj,jt(,^ t„ promote the abolilion of Klavery- Bui 
which have been adopted by the Board of Man- j: it i.^ equally true that we are not a Pro.Slavery 
agers from lime to time, in relation to this subject, society. If there arc under any circumstances?, 
and I fully approve tiiem. We are denounced for,, any apologies to be oifered for slavery, it is no part 
having omiitcd to make the attempt of suppress- ^j of .;;;,■ bus<innss to liunt ihem up. And if efforts 
inglhe traffic m ardent spirit by law, with an ill | a,.e ,r\v.<\c. by any of our fellow chizen-s to abolish 
grace indeed, until at least some one of our gov- ; sl,i'. .^ry, it does "not become us to oppose those ef- 
ernmentsat home shall have .set the example (so}' forts. " The objection has been well taken, I con- 
rauch needed) of shutting on the grog-shops iniiceive, that we want to engross th.e field. I think 
Ihfeir jurisdiction. i| ^e have tried to assume the position that slavery 

Now we ourselves "fully approve" » the ll f^^"'^' ^« '■'^f''^.'^°"'y^V indirect n.eans, and that 

measures adopted by the Board of Managers" I' ^'"^ ^^'^ ^T xv^ '.' ""./• ' v '""?' 

c *i A 1 1 4. .£ J i can be allowed. VVnetlier this position is true or 

SO far as they go. And we do not denounce j, ^^^^ j ^^.jj, ^^^ ^^^., ^^ ^^ ,,i'^,^„^^_ g^^^ j ^^.j,, 

them for having omitted to make the atti-rapt to , ^^^^^ „,^ ^^ well abandon at once all hope 

suppress the traffic" by law, hut for holdimr up'^^^ support from the North, as attempt to engross 

the Colony as a missionary station, when they :: for our own society the whole of public .sympatliy 

very well know that a law tor the suppression and interest in regard to the abolilion of slavery. 

of the traffic would be useless for the wantof at Tlie North will no more bear the attempt to make 

proper public opinion in the colony to sustain [• this laigross the ground in regnrd to the abolition 

it. While Mr. Smitii cannot deny tliat the j! of ^^li very, than the South would bear to have it 

rum-traffic is carried on largely in Liberia, it is {[expressly oppose slavery. Both claim, and have a 

" with an ill grace indeed," that he ridicules us i "S''^ ^o claim, that we siiould maintain a strict 

for makino- the colony "appear l.ut a conven-!i"'^"'^''''''y- ^^"^ '^^' p» ^''c ""e 'I'-^nd, we arc not 

ience for the slave-trader." j, *° ''f"'^""^'' "'"'Vcy, so on the oil. 



we are not 

an}', even the wildest schemes for its 

j abolition. So tliat our members may be either 

)lders or abolitionists, witiiout doing any 

I violence to tlieir principle.^ or their eonneclions. 

. But there is another objection against this so. 

bociety, emancipation would have gone for- iduty, which to my mind is .still more weiglity. It 

'is, tliat il has been greatly, lamentably, wickedly 



Mr. Smith also ridicuies the assertion that 
"there are now in slavery 265,000 persons who j 
would have been free but for the influence of |il 
the Society :" in other words, that but for the 



deficionl in pity for the free people of color. Their 
nutnlior in this land is more than four hundred 
thoii-^and. They arc scattered through all our 
slat''?, but every where they have lav.', custom, 
and i-.rejndico arrayed against them. They are 
persecuted at the North as well as the South. And 
whenever I hear the people of the North complain 
of tiio cruel treatment of the blacks at the South, 
I cannot but exclaim, O what hypocrisy! It is 
the >.!l!ed policy of mj'own native state of New. 
York. I am ;is!mmc(i and grieved to confess it, 
but if is tru-, tliat tlie whole policy has been to 



ward to this time at the same rate as it did be 
fore the existence of the Society. Now be 
this as it may, while Mr. Smith grants that the 
Society has stood somewhat in the way of 
emancipation, we do not see how he can say that 
the assertion "makes ridiculously large drafts 
upon public credulity." 

The following concessions are honest and 
manly, and we feel no disposition to withhold a 
tribute of respect for the moral courage it took 
to utter them, on such an occasion as the Colo- 
nization Anniversary in the Representatives' 

Hall We presume the Representatives ofj|koep this people vile, by' w'ith'holdi'ngfrom the... 
southern "property" will take care to give a li every inducement to well-doing. We make oven 
casting vote against the repetition of such here- I the gift of freedom a mockery, 
sies in that sacred place. 1} 

Il What will those presses, which have so 

Buttrulh compels me to say, that this is not the jj abundantly reviled Mr. Garrison as the slan- 
Ghsracter of al that the Anti-Slavery Society hasjlj^rer of his country, say to Mr. Smith, who ha.s 

somTnrT'"' "'• t '\r'"r\ ^,"^!"i in a similar manner slandered his native state? 

some ot the charges wo should make haste loll 

plead guilty, and make haste to profit by the ad- I ^^ ^ "^^^ room but tor a single extract more 
monition. Fas est ah hoste doceri. They have jl of Mr. Smith's speech. He professes still to 
told us many wholesome truths about ourselves j cherish the highest hopes of Liberia, "that foun- 
and our influence, for which I thank them. ntain from which .'Vfrica, is already deriving her 

The opinion is gaining ground rapidly, at the |j many streams of knowledge and improvement '* 



12 



RBPORT OF THB 



This is astonishing after Mr. Pinney lias told 
us, " The natives are in fact menials, (I mean 
those in town) and sorry I am to be obliged to 
say, that from my limited observation, it is evi- 
dent that as little effort is made by the colonists 
to elevate them, as is usually made by the higher 
classes in the United States to better the condi- 
tion of the lower." Mr. Smith nevertheless 
wishes all the people of color to consent to go 
to Liberia. He acknowledges their right to a 
home here, and, we rejoice to say it, adminis- 
ters a deserved rebuke to those who have so 
often denied that right ; but, after all, he thinks 
it best for them to go. He thinks the colony 
can be improved so as to make it all, that, in 
our ignorance, we have fondly dreamed about 
it. We repeat, that we are beyond measure 
astonished at this, in a man so well acquainted 
as Mr. Smith with the materials of which the 
Board of Managers is composed, and who 
knows so well that the morals of the colony 
■are in a wretched state. To hold on with such 
a board, for the purpose of reforming such a 
colony, is in our humble apprehension some- 
thing like marrying a shrew to improve her 
temper. Such a thing may do well enougii in 
romance, but we have no faith in it in real life. 

" Let the measures of our society be prompted 
by a strong desire to relieve the distress of I he free 
people of color, and I must beg leave to ditTer 
from my reverend friend who has upoken ; I be- 
lieve the people will become as unanimous in go' 
ing to Liberia, as tlioy are now unanimous in op- i 
position. It is no wonder to me, that lliey liavei 
had feeliiigs of jealousy towards us, and a want of i 

confidence in the sincerity of our professions of 'i<i«'» African Colonization Society, and would 
liindness. Wo ourselves have given loo nmchjlgladly Co-operate with them in promoting the 
occasion for this, in our speeches and puhlicaiious. jgreat objects in view." We hope Mr. Cresson 
Wo have looked too little to their benefit, and too I w-ill keep us duly advised of all the benevolent 
much to the political and social advantages wh.ich |; operations of this precious junta of antiquated 
we supposed would arise to ourse/rc.x, from the aristocrats, under the patronage of his noble 
separation. And our project, which should have i friends Lord Be.xley and the Duke of Sussex, 
been held up as one of the purest and highest lie- 1 No doubt there are strong affinities between 
nevolence, has been degraded to a mere drain for i the two societies, 
the escape of this nuisance. Let us correct this, ] 

and place our society on its true ground; let us i "Mr. C. said he could not but rejoice in the 
make Africa a desirable home for men of col-;!humble instrumentality which he had been per- 
or, and they will find their own way to its shores." Ilmitted to have in producing this result. As for 

I the slanders which had been heaped upon him 

In the speech ot Mr. Terry who succeeded for it. so fur as he was personally concerned, he 
Mr. Smith, there is nothing remarkable. It is j] cast them off. But as an American he deeply re- 



"Detected wretch ! of all the reprobate, 
None seemed maturer for the flames of hell, 
Where still his face, from ancient custom, wears 
A holy air, which says to all that pass 
Him by, 'I was a hypocrite on earth.' " 

What a comment on this resolution is fur- 
nished by the debate of the succeeding Thurs- 
day, in which Mr. Terry, the mover, admits that 
the colony is " in a suffering state," — many 
persons "in a bad condition, and who might 
be relieved by the accommodation of ' cabins, 
similar to these used by the natives !' " and Mr. 
Bacon said, " there was something to come out 
to which all this [the pecuniary embarrassment] 
was as the dust of the balance. There were 
things to come out, frightful in their import, 
but they could no more be concealed than the 
sun at noon day !" [See N. Y. Observer.] And 
" that the condition of the colony was such as 
must horrify every friend of the cause." Why 
icere not Drs. Mechlin and Todsen there to sup- 
port this resolution by a narrative of some of the 
items of good done to Africa 1 E.xcellent and 
self-denying missionaries ! why are their labors 
for the benefit of the colony and the natives 
permitted to lie in obscurity ! 

We are now arrived, in the course of tliis 
splendid and "cheering" anniversary, at the 
set speech of " Elliott Cuesson, Esq." 
This wonderful man seems to be a sort of per- 
sonification of the colonization scheme; — the 
tutelar divinity of the rnterprize. Whenever 
he speaks of the society, he speaks of himself. 
He offered the aj)propriate resolution ; " That 
the meeting rejoice in the formation of the Bri- 



ef the old sort — the common product of the 
colonization mill. In the language of the re- 
porter, — 

" He then moved a ••esolution, expressing that 
the meeting is cheered by the good effects of the 
colony on the surrounding native tribes, affording 
bright hopes that the light will spread farther and 
farther, until Africa shall take her equal rank 
among Christian nations." 

What marvelous men ! " cheered 



gretted, that one hearing the name of citizen had 
dared to declare, before a British audience, that 
the American constitution was the vilest outrage 
upon humanity that was ever perpetrated." 

And when Mr, Cresson heard this vile slan- 
der upon his country, why did he not rise and 
rebuke it? We have a faint recollection that 
Mr. Cresson was challenged by " one bearing 
! the name of citizen" to defend his darling so- 
by their [jciety, — "the bond of union among mankind," 
very disappointments! "cheered" amidst the land" that \\\s friends advised him to keep out of 
ruins of all their hopes ! But this pitiful mock-jls^/i^ Doubtless they had their reasons, 
ery is as much out of place as hypocrisy will |j But for ourselves we confess, we do not 
be after the day of judgment. It reminds us! believe that any one bearing the name of aa 
of a passage in Pollok. !! American ever made such a declciration b*foj:« » 



COLONIZATION HOCirTT. 



13 



British audience. We must have some other || 
proof than Mr. Cresson's assertion. 

" Ho was happy, however, to bo able to say, j, 
that 6uch men as the excellent Clarkson, and the ' 
deceased and sainted Wilberforce, had fully ap- jj 
proved the objects of the society. Pains are taken | 
to make the American public believe that VVilber- [j 
force had denounced the society. Tbe charge is || 
untrue. In the vigor of his mind, three years ago, 
he expressed his ardent love for this society. His I 
pretended signature to the noted "proteBt," was! 
affixed when he was on his death bed, the very: 
week of the termination of his valuable life. Sub- " 
sequently, some of his nearest and dearest friends 
had reprobated the act which affi.xed his signature. 
Others had also stricken their names from the of- 
fensive document." 

To Mr. Cresson himself we " have nothing to 
say" in regard to these statements. The man 1 
is incapable of shame. But to the hearers who 
listened to, and drank in such monstrous in- i 
credibilities we must be permitted to say, tliat 
our indignation at their prejudice has given j 
place to a feeling half way between pity and 
contempt for the weakness of their intellects. I 
The lies, to use a term more appropriate than I 
polite, are exquisite ; but then, they are put to- 
gether with very bad logic. A man frequently j 
does a good thing on his " death bed" which he Jj 
would by no means have done three years be- 1 
fore. If we are not mistaken a poet has some- 
where said, "Death is an honest hour." For[ 
the benefit of those who cannot see truth i 
through so many thicknesses of falsehood, we [ 
eubjoin a note on this passage by the editor of 
the Emancipator. 

" We feel it our duty to affirm, positively, and 
solemnly, and on our own personal knowledge | 
and responsibility, that this statement is untrue. — j 
Tho original manuscript, drawn up by one of the 
protesting gcniletnen, and to which is appended all 
the original signatures is now in this country. 
Wc have examined it. and so have scores of re- 
spectable gentlemen who will attest to the truth 
of what we say. No name is erased from it, nor 
has any request or order been received from either 
of tho signers, (or from any one professedly on 
their behalf,) cither to erase a name, or express a 
dissent. The signature of " William Wilber- 
force" stands in a bold and firm hund. No man, 
tnless it be E. Cresson, has denied that it is his 
real signature, written by himself. It was placed 
in the hands of Mr. Garrison, with all the signa-' 
tures, before he was apprized that such a measure 
was in progress. The charge of forgery, if it were 
made, would be made on distinguishedBritish Ab- 
olitionists. It is said, and cannot be disproved, 
that Mr. Wilberforce was in his usual health at 
the time of signing it, and was moving abroad for [ 
some time afterwards. — To this statement I affix ; 
jny signature, which is not a "pretended" one, I 
and I hereby challenge Elliot Cresson and all the \ 
Colonizalioiiists on earth to disprove what I have 
here written. WILLIAM GOODELL. 

New-Yoik, Feb. 1, 1834." 

The plain fact is, that many excellent British 



abolitionists, " three years age," expressed their 
approbation of the Colonization Society, be- 
cause they had been told by Mr. Cresson that 
one of its objects was 'Uo assist in emancipating, 
all the slaves in (he United Slates." This was 
the basis of their approbation. Mr. Clarkson 
himself used this very langu.age in describing, 
what he considered the objects of the Society 
in a letter to Elliott Cresson, Esq., which was 
partly published in the African Repository for 
Nov. 1832. But let it be pondered, according 
to the settled policy of the Society, the language of 
Clarkson was suppressed, and the words, "to 
promotk the voluntary emigration to 
Africa of the Colored population of the 
United States ;" was put in its stead.* Ail 
this to propitiate the South ! If an abolition- 
ist had been found guilty of such a forgery, it 
would have been the hicjacet of his reputation, 
perhaps of his cause. It is the fate of deceiv- 
ers to overdo. Consequently the dupes of Mr.. 
Cresson soon began to find him out, and long 
before Mr. Garrison's arrival in England he v/as 
complaining of the "slander" and "opposition" 
of such men as Suart, Thompson, and Cropper I 
But as soon as Mr. Garrison made his appear- 
ance with a trunk full of African Repositories 
and Annual Reports, the spell was broken ; the 
Immediatists of Great Britain saw through the 
trick, and the result was a spontaneous protest 
signed by Wilberforce and his compeers, resist- 
less as a thunderbolt, and burning with the in- 
dignation of men who felt themselves to have 
been deceived. Mr. Clarkson was prevented 
from signing it, only by having committed him- 
self to a perfect neutrality at an earlier stage- 
of the development. It is to this storm of op- 
position that we owe the presence of Mr. Cres- 
son in this country. He first took shelter un- 
der the gracious smiles of the Duke of Sussex 
a.nd Lord Bexly, by whose munificence he was 
presented with a grand castle of moonshine, 
by the name of the British African Coloniza- 
tion Society. But even in this, he was not safe 
from the impertinence of such matter-of-fact 
people as Charles Stuart, Fowell Buxton, Dan- 
iel O'Connell and the like ; he therefore pru- 
dently took ship for his native land. 

It should not be omitted to the credit of Mr. 
Cresson's gratitude, that he has not forgotten 
his benefactors, but has sought for their names 
the distinguished honor of being enrolled on 
the Society's list of Vice Presidents. Can any 
one tell us why he has been unsuccessfid in this 
laudable efl^ort. 

We shall have something to say of Mr. Ba- 
con by and by. His public speech dissuades 
further expense in sending out emigrants, and 
with a sort of Hibernian logic admits that the 
Society has given good grounds for the "mis- 
representations" of its enemies. Mr. Bacon has 
had the sagacity to discover that there is2,no 

*Any person may be satisfied of this if he will 
compare the letter as published in the Boston Recor- 
der, for Sept. 5, 1832, with the Repository. 



14 



KKPORT OF THK 



use in keeping a "secret" that every body 
knows ; and he accordingly concedes a gfreat 
variety of facts which would otherwise be kept 
close. 

Rev. Dr. Spring labored to show his South- 
ern brethren that they might have confidence 
in the co-operation ofthe ministers of the JNorth. 
They were not becoming abolitionists so rapid- 
ly as was supposed. In proof of this he refer- 
red to the vote of the General Assembly at its 
meeting last spring, in tavorofthe Colonization 
Society. He might have said further, that the 
committee of the General Assembly whose bu- 
siness it became to distribute to the members a 
quantity of al)olition pamphlets sent on from 
New-York took upon themselves the responsi- 
bility of using them for " waste paper." This 
<:ertainly showed a willingness, 'at that time, to 
"■co-operate' with slave holders. The inferen- 
ces derivable from Dr. Spring's facts, remind 
«s of one which he drew on another occasion, 
when he said, " My co;;fidcnce in the Coloni- 
zation Society will never be shaken so long as 
I retain the memory of Samuel J. Mills ! !"* 

In regard to the vote in favor of Colonization, 
the Dr. says, " The same is true of the repre- 
sentative bodies of other denominations." We 
do not know that tiie Pastoral Association of 
Massachusetts would be regarded as such a 
body, but we well remember that at its meeting 
last spring in Boston the Rev. Mr. Plummer, ot 
Virginia, delivered before it a large mass of pro- 
slax^ry cant in behalf of the Colonization So- 
ciety. But no commendatory resolution was 
proposed, and the Association adjourned with- 
>out loss of time. Wo presume this was con- 
sidered a mattei of prudence, inasmuch as a 
number of ministers were taking notes, and, if 
thei'e was any truth in the glistening of their 
eyes, they would have dissected tiie Rev. advo- 
cate of slavery to tlie minutest iibre, if tliey 
had been permitted to get at him. We have 
understood tha.t some othe.r ecclesiastical bodies 



ing of heaven descending, and the wise and good 
of all nations smiling upon it, all at once the ob- 
jects of the society, ils friends and its patrons are 
denounced, and ils plans declared to lie a scheme 
of heartless cupidity, injurious to tiic people of 
color, and obstructing the progress of freedom." 

This last .sentence sounds strangely in juxta- 
position witli one which we have already quoted 
from his subseqi:- nt speech. He then said, 

" While wo were holding ourselves out to tlie 
public, as able to transport any number of emi- 
grants for SJSO each, and that iho, colony was pios- 
perous, and the vinigratits thrivi.ng a.nw happy, 

THESE DISCLOSURES CAME IPON L'S I !" 

What disclosures? Why, that the colony is 
in a wretched state, both as to its physical re- 

! sources and its morals, and the society bankrupt 
lo the amount of -^-10,000 ! As Mr. Frelinghuy- 
sen has probably been too busily engaged to 
w: tch the progress of the colonization contro- 
versy, these disclosures, perhaps, had not come 
to his knowk'dge, when he delivered his first 

I speech, tor if they had, they certainly would have 

[saved him some of his arguments as well as a 
great deal of his fine rhetoric. As it is, they will 

.save us the necessity of much reply. For cu- 
riosity's sake we must hold uj) a i'cw jiaragraph's 
of this tlorid eloquence in the light of facts. 

"I beg now that we m,iy go back to fir.>t prin- 
ciples, and see wliethcr tlieru is any ground for all 
this. I would treat our foes charit.kbly. But let 
us re e.\anunc our institution and ils original de. 
sign, and sec whctiier there is any thing iu it, that 
ought to provoke the frowns either of heaven or 
of our fellow. men. We owe it to ourselves not 
10 remain silent spectators while this wildfire is 
runying its course. We owe it to these misguided 
men to interpose and s.ive them and tl'.eir country 
fr;>in the fatal effects of their mad speculations. 

'• The objection is clamorously urged against uf, 
and we lind it even imported from abroad, in the 
sliapeofa British Protect, that the society is an 
obstruction to liberty. But what will be thought 



that have met more recently, have failed to pass "* ^"'is "JJ^^l'""' ^^'"^" '•• '« understood that a ma- 



the vote of commendation. We trust in God 
that there are hundreds of ministers now in the 
land who would sooner have their tongues 
cleave to tlie roof of tiieir mouths, than they 
would say with Dr. Spring, " Yon cannot elevate 
the negro here, but you can in Africa.^' 

The Hon. Theodore Fuemngiiuysen, made 
a speech at the public meeting, which, as a 
specimen of colonization logic, deserves a se- 
parate review. We can do no justice to its 
merit in a passing notice. 

"We iiava reaciied a peculiarly interesting pe- 
riod In the iiistory of the Colonization Society. It 
has struggled through ils early difficulties, it lias 
outlivcd ihc scorn of ils first years, when we find 
it is assailed by new and unexpected prejudices, 
and many of its wounds are received in the house 
of its friends. Al\er the most unexnmpleil pros 
■perity, and when the colony has ome up in advance 
of our most sanguine expectations, with the blcss- 



jority of that happy company whom you have 
planted on the shores of Africa, arc liberated 
I slaves, emancipated by Southern masters for the 
purpose of breathing the j)ure air of !il)erty ? Yet 
this wild spirit of fanaticism denounces the cido- 
ny as an obstruction to liberty. 

But there is another objection still more strange. 
It is said ibat persuading these men, who arc here 
.vrithing under our scorn, to eeek themselves a 
new home in Africa, is an invasion of their rights. 
.\ll this is the mere effusion of a sickly sensibility. 
Why sliould it be such a terrible thing to advise or 
aid men in seeking a nev.' home? The whole 
earth is moved by this principle of colonization. 
Ever since the father of the faithful left his native 
Ur of the ChaldeanP, emigration has bccoina one 
of the established habits of mankind. Tfic bro- 
ken fragments of the Roman empire were colo- 
nized from the Northern hive. What arc \vc hero 
lo-night, but living proofs of tha beriefit of colo- 
nization ? Whence are thc?c 15 millions of freo 
and enlightened people? whence these pplendid 
erections of art, those schools and churches, citif^a 



COLONIZATION SOCIKTV. 



IS 



and towns, this wide spread cinpiie, and all theso jcrtse requires ! !" Really this is a pretty situation 
blossed fruits of liberty ? I see in this audience ; for a society that sends its agentp all over the 
around me many respected colonists, who in for- | country to gather up the contributions of the 
mer years left tiie graves of their fathers and benevolent, — the mites of tlie widows and Or- 
struck their course to the great Western Valley, p|,^„g , No responsibilitv, forsootii ! And of 
and having there assisted in! nfining up thosciovc-^.y^i^gp^ nobody knowi, \vhat becomes of the 
lysistersof the confederacy, they have now come ,j.^|.^jg, ^^ confess we have for some time 



hither to nnngle their counsels with ours for th 
welfare of the whole. The whole Atlantic slope, 
from the sea coast to the inountuius, is at tiiis mo- 
ment alive with co!uui.-ts, wi'o are pressing to the 
land of premise, to gather the grapes of Eshcol. 



tiiought the society a sicindling concern, but we 
hardly dared to whisper it, tor fear of impeach- 
ing "good men." 

A variety of remedies were suggested, which 



And yet, barely to invite thcso degraded, whom : 't is of no consequence for us to examine. 



cireutnstances have kept down, and will still keep 
down, to go home to the land of their fathers, is 
denounced as cruel oppression. 

Strange that there should be none of the " pure 
air of liberty" fit for a black man to breathe, 
nearer to us than the coast of Africa ! If there is, J" 



We 

lave no doubt of the mismanagement, but the 
disease is immedicable. The colony is a way- 
ward child which cannot be managed by such a 
parent — a voluntary association made up of poli- 
tics and religion, piety and prejudice, humanity 
and oppression. Tlie society has soared up 



nean .o u. u au u.e cua.. ui .uuca : u uiere -N , jj^j^ but the sunshine of truth has melted 

and they r.-^a! y may breatlie it here at home, ^^^^^.^^ ^^4^^ ^^ ^^^^1 ^^ j^ ,^^^^ plunging into 
then we say, that a society w men holds a con- ■ - ° — •■ «■;"." 



another element. The idea of a benevolent ^o- 
ciety managing a line of colonies — a trans-ocean 
emi'ire — was too absurd even for the most san- 
guine originators of the scheme. They there- 
fore looked to the ultimate inteiference of Con- 
srross. They intended to try an experiment and 
turn it over into the hands of I lie General Go- 
vernment as soon as it should prove itself suc- 
,, . r- r »i i .1-11 117 /» cessful. But, we are now told, that ail hope of 

pelle.1 our forefat lers from the old wor d ?~Or ^,,^ interference of Congress is at an end. No- 



trary doctrine, obstructs liberty, 

" Emigration is one of the established habits 
of mankind," — So is oppression. Does it thencx; 
follow that we have a right to procure the emi- 
gration of those w'iiom we dislike, by treating 
llieni as we would not be treated ourselves ? We 
ourselves feel the benefit of colonization. Does 
it thenc follow that those are riofhtcous who ex- 



evon those who dichiot expel them, but who never ^^^.^^^ .^ j^^^.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^J^ ^^j^^ j^^^^ brought this 

jirecious bantling into the world, to support it as 
well as they can. 

We should suppose that one of the managers 
;at least, was convinced of the utter iinpractica 



rebuked their persecutors, and were so glad to 
get rid of them that they paid their passage ? 
May ice do evil that good may come .' If the 
colored people go spontaneously to Africa, we 
shall not object; but thus far "they have been , .,. „ , ^ 
duped away, and that is what we complain of. I^'lity of the scheme. 

It may he, that they do not die faster in Liberia | j^^^ p^_ ^ Gurley said, " He fully agreed in the 
than they have done in some other colonies ; but Icxpcdicncy of seeking a new organization, and ho 
then they die faster tiian they would here at ! rejoiced in the union of feeling tiiat wns witness- 
home, and what right Imve we to sacrinco human i ed. lie kIiouUI be able to show lliat all the debt 



life to verify our theory of colonization? 

" And yet Liberia, in 12 years, cheered by no 
roya! favor, and sustained by no governmental 
patronage, progressing amid obloquy and scorn 
and indiilerence, now niunber.s more than 3,000 



and all the unnecess.iry expenditure in Africa, had 
resulted from no individual neglect or mismanage 
ment, ( !! ) hut from the adsolute impossibility 
I OF doing what tiif.v wished to do." 

This impracticability of the scheme, now so 



happy and redeemed souls, who there enjoy the ! fully demonstrated, is the best thing about it. 



privileges and hopes of freedom. Not only reli 
gion, but history thus .'■ets her seal to tlic colony. 
The cduso of liberty was never so efFectually plead, 
as it is now plead by the colony. That is tlie 
great beacon of !ii>erty ; the wondering eyes of 
nations are turned to it, and ihc hope is cherish- 
ed in the bosom of every j)hi!anthropist, that the 
redemption of Africi dr;\wfth nigh." 



If it were within the limit o? jrracticabillties, there 

is prejudice enough in the land to drive it 

through, cost what it might of toil or woe. Mr. 

Bacon mistakes in one point when he says, 

I" The opposition to our cause is increasing and 

\is bnil/ lip more for trani of efflciencij li^reandin 

'.Africa, than from all other causes. And if this 

is not remedied, it will be impossible to iiold it 

Sad nii.stakc ! IIow chilling thi; reality com- up any longer." Tlie more ofHcicnt they are, the 

pared with the picture ! " ,! more "mischief they do ; and the more opposition 

From tlie long and animated debate upon the ^will they excite from tho.^c who love their couh- 

alteration of the constitution, we learn that there try and their race. 

is " A TOTAL WANT OF RESPOxNSIBILI- | - 

TY," on ihej)artofthe Colony and its agents, " to] [We are obliged to postpone the remainder 
the Board of Man.vgkrs." And that the;|(,fU)is review till the next number. We regret 
"MEMBERS OK TIIE Boaud" '■' reallu have not ; , . . , , ,• , 

time to spare, to look into the husineJ, and make jth'-s, inasmuch as the disclosures it contains are 
tke'/nsekes as inlimatehj conversant with it as the J more important than any yet made. — Ed.] 



13 



rORTRAIT OF SLAVESY DOKATION8 TBBM8. 



A PORTRAIT OF SLAVERY. 

BY A BOOTHEHM MAN. 



n tenng excuses, in all parts of the land. And is it 
F really so ? If indeed it be ; if that " necessity" which 
"tolerates this condition be really "unavoidable," in 
Wc extract the following from an article in I ^"^ ^^'^^ sense, that we are constrained lor one mo- 
thp last nnmhpr nf thp AfrTpan R^nncitMrv hv' "''^"'' '° P"' °^ ^^^ course of conduct which shall 
tne last number ot tlte Atrican Kepository by , ^.^st certainly and most effectually subvert a system 
the Kev. Robert J. Breckenndge. The whole , which is utterly indefensible on every correct human 
article is written with the impetus of a powerful, I principle, and utterly abhorrent from every law of 
hut undisciplined intellect ; and, amidst a wil- ! God,— then, indeed, let Ichabod be graven 'in letters 




is as wonderful and interesting as a mountain ; good time and way, break the rod of the oppressor, 
would be thrown upon the flat and monotonous ami let all the oppressed go free. He has indeed corn- 
scenery of Holland. We regret that our limits ■ ' ' "" ' * ^ ' 



forbid us to review the article at length, or to 
make more copious extracts. The writer won- 
derfully misapprehends the views of the aboli- 
tionists in regard to the matter of " amalgama- ^ 
turn." Abolitionism leaves every man to the free i 



manded servants to be obedient to their masters ; and 
it is their bounden duty to be so. We ask not now, 
what the servants were, nor who the masters were. — 
It is enough that all masters are commanded to "give 
unto their servants that which is just and equal ;" 
and to what feature of slavery may that description 
apply? Just and equal! what care I, whether my 
, ■ „ ci ■ t t u*tj ' »i* pockets are picked, or the proceeds of my labor are 

e.xercise of his taste, b tit it denies that any man '< \^^^^ f^om me ? What matters it whether my horse 
ha.s a right to withhold from another any right i» stolen, or the value of him in my labor be taken 
or privilege, to which he may be fairly entitled, from me? Do we talk of violating the rigi.ts of mas- 
lest the conspquence should be, that he himself 'era, and depriving them of their property in their 

or some one else should violate the present die- ' ^i"^'*^" • ^"^ .^'''' ^°'l^ °"^ "^" "^' '*" '^^"^ ^? vny 
. , ri • » . Au ^u■ * -.I thing in which a man ha.s, or can have, so perfect a 

tate of his taste. Abohtionists neither encourage righf of property, as in his own limbs, bones and 
nor deprecate "amalgamation." It has nothing sihews ? Out upon such folly ! The man who can- 
to do with tiieir scheme. Neither the wishes ' not see that involuntary domestic slavery, as it exists 
! nor the necessities of our colored brethren re- i' among us, is founded upon the pn iciple of taking by 
! quire it. If it shall succeed an act of equal 1^^'^';^^ "'''' '''"''^ '=" another s, has simply no moral 

justice, it will succeed in accordance with the j" ' 

taste of every individual concerned ; and why I 
; need any one's taste be horrified at the pros- j DONATIONS 

I pect 1 It is the present system of amalgama- j To the American Anti-Slavery Society, received up 
' tion which ought to be dreaded, not that which to Feb. 15, 1834 : 

I may possibly ensue the establishment of equal ii Benj C. Bacon, S."?; W. L. Garrison, 2; Isaac 
' riHits. iKnapp, 2; David Thurston, 1 ; Jas. Loughhead, 1 ; 

" I Enoch Mack, 1 ; E. L. Capron, .5 ; J. M. MeKim, 1 ; 

What, then, is slavery ? for the question relates to i C. Gillingham, 1 ; Amos A. Phelps, 1 ; D. E. Jewitt, 
the action of certain principles on it, and to its proba- 1 0,50 ; Jas. F. Otis, 1 ; Samuel J. May, 3 ; C. W. Den- 
ble and projier results; what is slavery as it exists i.ison, 2; A. L. Cox, 1 ; Nathan Winslow, 5 ; Thoniaa 
among us? We reply, it is that condition enforced i Shipley, 3; Isaac Winslow, 5; Robt. Purvi.«, 10, 
by the laws of one-half the states of this confederacj', Jas. McCnimmel, I ; H. P. Wakefield, 1 ; J. C. Bar- 
in which one portion of the community, called mas- j badoes, 1 ; Jos. Casscy, 10; Jos. Southwick, 3; Ev- 
ters, is allowed such power over another portion call- !' an Lewis, 0,50 ; Jno. Parkhurst, I ; Jas. V. hiie, 1 ; 
ed slaves; as, | J. R. Cambell, 2 ; D. T. Kimball, jr. 5 ; J. Sharp, jr. 

1. To deprive them of the entire earnings of their j 5; A. Kingsiey, 10; J. G. Whitticr, 3; John Prentiss, 
own labor, except only so much as is necessary to i 1 i Levi Sutlifli I ; Milton Sutliff, 1 ; B. Fussel, 1 ; S. 
continue labor itself, by continuing healthful exist- 1 S. Joceiyn, 1; Jas. Molt, 5; D. Cambell, 1 ; Beriah 
ence, thus committing clear robbery ; (Green, 1; E. Wtight, jr. 1; John Rankin, 100; A 

2. To reduce them to the necessity of universal con -I Friend in Philadelphia, 500 ; Students of the W. R. 
cubinage, bv denying to them the civil rights of mar- [College, 28; E. P. Atlee, 5 ; D. L. Child. 2; Joshua 
riage ; thus breaking up the dearest relations of life, Coffin, 1 ; No. 3. 0.50. W. GREEN, Jr. Treaa. 
and encouraging universal prostitution ; :• 

3. To deprive them of the means and opportunities tj 

of moral and intellectual culture, in many states mak- fi 
ing 11 a high penal offence to tench them to read ; 'jj 
thus perpetuating whatever of evil there is that pro- r 
ceeds from iL;noranc'; I, -- ^, „„- , 

4. To set up between parents and their children an ll''^" "' *' ^"^ Pf ^'\"/""> ^°"^ "P '" => "^^t/over ; 
authority higher than the impulse of nature and „„> I! ^r 50 cents, without the cover To those who take 
laws of God; which breaks up the authority of theii^r*'"' '^'^P"^^, "" discount will be made as follows : 
father over his own offspring, and at pleasure sepa- ]. ^^ ff,' *^^*^"'- ^"'^^ '"P'^'"' -^ P^L^^ent. for 25 copies, 
rates the mother at a returnless distance from her ^"^ -^ ^u ^ \J'\^o m^'"^\ A '^""^'i^y ^"ff 
child ; thus abrogating the clearest laws of nature; l'^^ " ^V''^^*^ ^f'^ ^' ^-'^^ Pf h""'^'-':'^- , Payment to 
thus outraging all decencv and justice, and demndm^l'^e made in all cases in a</rri«c.. Letters, po..tage, 
and opprelsing thousands upon thousands of^emgs i 'Jt''^' addressed to the "Editor ol the Anierican Anti- 
created like themselves in the image of the Most Hi|h ' •^'.f.T"'' ^""^^T? ^ *"• ^'^^ ^"^^ssau-st. New-\ork, 
Qoj I " '= |,wdl be attended to. 

This is slavery as it is daily exhibited in every slave 
etate. This is that " dreadful but unavoidable ncc^s- s. w. be.n'EDICT & co. print 



TERMS, 
fj* This periodical will be furnished tojsubscri- 



sity," for which you may hear so many mouths ut- 



162 Nassau street.