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BINDING LIT JUN 151921 



\oi. cx\m 

July-December 

1920 



Special Index Issue 

THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



243 West 39th Street 
NEW YORK 



Founded 1876 

Published Weekly 
in New York 



Ten Dollar! 
Yearly 



This index covers six months twenty-six weekly issues. During that period there were presented more 
than 875 pages of text and above 300 full page plates, illustrating the latest and best of new construction in 
the Architectural and Engineering fields. 

There were also included in this volume more than 400 text cuts of large suggestive vaiuf as supple- 
menting the various topics to ivhich they refer. 

There were more than 200 pages of technical information on Architectural Engineering and a like number 
on the Economic Aspects of Building. 

During the six months covered by this volume there were presented as Current News more than 150 pages 
of happenings in the field of Architecture and its allied arts. 

Twenty-six frontispieces of the highest artistic and suggestive value are included, as are also twenty-six 
full page plates reproduced from original drawings of early American Architecture by Otto R. Eggers. 

All of this in six months of issues at a cost of but $5.00 to the annual subscriber. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

Figures refer to text pages 



A 

Advertising the Architect, 322. 
American Specification Institute, 643. 
Architect and Engineer, 789. 
Architect's Function? 286. 
Architectural Competitions, 644. 
Architectural Quicksands, 113. 
Art, Cultivating a National, 252. 
"Artist," Again the, 790. 

B 

Bomb Explosion, 444. 

Building Industry, Reputable and Disrepu- 
table Practices in, 823. 

Building Industry, What is the Matter With, 
671. 

Building Trades Inquiry, 605. 

By- Product, Utilizing a, 443. 

C 

A Case in Point, 411. 
Cass Gilbert Visits England, 213. 
Color in the City Street, 146. 
Condition and its Cure, 354. 
Car Shortage, Facts About, 76. 

D 

Draftsmen, A New Effort to Unionize, 789. 

E 

Early American Architecture, Notable Ex- 
amples Drawn by O. R. Egrgcrs, 145. 
Education in the Fine Arts, 285. 
Eggers' Sketches, 11. 
Europe's Debt to Us, When She Pays, 382. 



F 

Farm, Exodus from the, 577. 
Fifteen to Thirty Per Cent., 535. 



Graft, High Cost of, 577. 
Guild System, 824. 

H 

Housing for Health, 502. 
Housing Question, 285. 

I 

Illinois Architects Co-operate with Calder 
Committee, 672. 

K 

Knack and Efficiency, Regaining, 75. 



Labor Over-Turn, 43. 

Lincoln Memorial, 501. 

Lockwood Building Committee Investigation 

in New York, 672. 
Look Ahead, A, 861. 

M 

Middle West Has the Right Idea, 444. 
Misapplied Maxims, 536. 

Model Making at Columbia University. 113. 
Models, Scale, at Architectural Exhibition!, 

473. 

Morals and Architecture, 705. 
Mortgage Tax Exemptions as Impetus to 

Building, 381. 
Motion Pictures, Architect and, 12. 



N 

National Construction Congress, 353. 
The Newly Poor, 412. 
New York's Hotels, Old and New, 43. 
Not What I Have but What I Do Is My 
Kingdom, 11. 



Office Accounting, 145. 

"On With the Dance, Let Joy Be Uncon- 

fined," 411. 
Opportunities, Wasting, 177 

P 

Postal Arrangements, Pressing Need for, 251. 

R 

Railway Labor Board Award, 145. 
Registration Boards, Conference of, 474. 
Registration, Question of Joint, 705. 



Sculpture to Architecture, Relation of, 737. 

See America First, 578. 

Sleepy Hollow, A Legend of, 473. 

Slum Areas, Planning in, 321. 

State Society, An Efficient, 177. 

T 

Theatre vs. Home, 213. 
Transportation, More, 353. 

w 

War Memorial in New York, 178. 

War Memorial Building in Washington, 474. 

Waste Spaces, 738. 

Wasting Our Water Power. 213. 

"What is Art?" 501, 60S. 

Will History Repeat Itself? 737. 

Wrecking of Old Buildings, 535. 



TEXT ACCORDING TO SUBJECT 



A 

Alma-Tadema, The House of a Great Artist, 

409. 

Alteration Movement in New York, 691. 
American Lumber Industry, 212. 
Americanizing from the Start, 601. 



Figures refer to text pages 

Anecdotes of English Architects, 703. 
Apartment House Plan, New, Has Good Re- 
sults, 379. 

Apartments, Group Ownership of, 378. 
Apartments Necessary. Are? 78. 
Arcades, Builders', 695. 
Architect, What is An, 6. 



1 



Architect's Relation to his Professional Or- 
ganization. By Frank E. Davidson, 42. 

Architectural Acoustics. By Paul E. Sabine, 
102. 

Architectural Quicksands. By Clinton H. 
Blake, Jr., W, 137, 174. 316, 373, 433. SO*. 
S69, 743, 821. 




INDEX 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY TO DECEMBER, 1920 



TEXT ACCORDING TO SUBJECT 

(Continued) 



Architecture, Relation of Painting to. By 

George Bellows, 847. 
Architecture, Relation of Sculpture to. By 

A. Stirling Calder, 723, 775. 
Art and Architectural Artifice. By Jerome 

Lachenbruch, 563. 

B 

Back Yard, Making the Most of the, 575. 

Battle of Atlanta, 210. 

Beaux Arts Institute of Design, 109, 149, 243, 

281, 319, 348. 
Billboard Ordinances, Reasonable. By A. L. 

H. Street, 573. 

Bombay Plans SO.OCO Tenements, 470. 
Brownstone Front Loses Distinction, 750. 
Building Industry, What is the Matter with, 

659. 

Building Industry, Present Situation in, 248. 
Building Prospects, 406. 
Building Situation in Chicago, 666. 
Buxton Hall, Williamstown, Mass. Country 

House of Alvah K. Lowrie, James Purdon, 

Architect, 397. 



Cenotaph and the Abbey, 855. 

Client, The Suspicious, 574. 

Community Center Developments, North 
Shore Suburbs of Chicago, 272. 

Converting Private Houses Into Small Apart- 
ments, 597. 

Co-operative Art Building, 77. 

Crosses and Lych Gates, 100. 

D 

Dickens' Haunts to be Pulled Down, 603. 
Dynamic Symmetry and the Greek Vase, 669. 

E 

Ecclesiastical Metal Work of Ireland. By W. 
H. McGinty, 437. 

Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., 429. 

Employers' Housing Project, 315. 

Engineers and Architects in Artistic Collab- 
oration Shaft Houses at Ishpeming, Mich 
By Arthur T. North, 783. 

England Has 10,000 Housing Schemes, 471. 

English Housing and Town Planning Legis- 
lation, 290. 

G 

Gas, Early History of. in New York, 436. 



A 

Adobe. Denver to Build Houses of, 392. 
Advertising Literature of Interest, 300. 
Air Route to Alaska, Ten Hours, 556. 
Alaska Gets First Concrete Building, 152. 
Alaska Has Museum, 422. 
Albany Builders Organize. 363. 
A. I. A. Co-operates with Thrift Week, 873. 
Amazon Valley Riches Undeveloped, 556. 
American Reconstruction Unit Leaves for 

France, 225. 

American Wooden Houses in France, 85. 
Annexations and City Planning, 228. 
Apartment for Babies. 685. 
Apartment in New York. 590. 
Arc de Triomphe Scoured, 19, 
Architects in Vienna, 393. 

Architectural Cours s Mpss. Inst. Tech 838 
Architectural League Spring Meeting, 872. 
Architecture, the Art, 454. 
Architecture (in Judge), 226. 
Architecture. International Exhibit of, 762. 
Are You a Leader in Your Town? 763 
Army Houses to be Sold, 22. 
Army and Navy Club's Memorial Building. 

Art, American, 453. 

Art and Commerce, Brotherhood of 265 

Art, Increasing Interest in, 484. 

Art. London's Indifference to, 453 

Art Restoration Planned, 85 

Artificial Stone, New Kind of, 85 

Asbestos Cement. 872. 

Automatic Fire Escape Approved 621 

Aztec Shrine Reveals Fine Workmanship 392 

B 

Bnd Stand for Philadelphia, 622. 



H 

Hartfor4 Times Building. Donn Barber, 
Architect, 140. 

Holabird & Roche, Work of, 165. 

Hotel Ambassador, Atlantic City, N. J. 
Warren & Wetmore, Architects, 314. 

House of Albert G. Mtlbank. John Mead 
Howells, Architect, 351. 

Housing Boards, Need for Permanent, 698. 

Housing Committee Report, N. Y. State As- 
sociation of Architects, 733. 

Housing Legislation in the United States, 408. 

Housing Plan Suggested by Labor Party, 376. 

Housing Problem, Series of Interviews on, 
627. 

Housing Relief in New York, Proposed for; 
Plan Suggested by Labor Party; Relief 
as Proposed by Mayor's Committee, 16. 

I 

Industry, Trinity of, 735. 

K 

Kitchen Model, Competition for. Herbert 
Foltz, Professional Adviser, 745. 

L 

Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. 

Henry Bacon, Architect. By Glenn Brown, 

489, 523. 
Lumber Sizes Standardized, 544. 

M 

Madrid's Scheme of City Planning, 173. 

Mayflower, Finding of the, 595. 

Memorial Bridge Proposed for New York, 250. 

Men and Business, 471. 

Milwaukee County General Hospital Compe- 
tition, 630. 

Mission Inn at Riverside. Cal. By Dwight 
James Baum, 201. 

Model Making by Architects. 749. 

Motion Picture Production, Architectural 
Problems in. By James Hood MacFarland, 
65. 

Motion Picture Settings, Architecture of, 1. 

N 

Nebraska State Capitol Competition, 79. 
New England Farm House, Seventeenth Cen- 
tury, 320. 
Notes from London, 14. 208, 369, 595, 819. 

O 

Office Sketches to Promote Business. By Al- 
fred Hopkins. 33. 



CURRENT NEWS 

Figures refer to text pages 
Bank Built of Rocks from Near-by Fields, 

Bath, Glass, in New "Luxury" House, 153 

Bath Truck for Travelers, 874. 

Beaux Arts Prize Winner, 115. 

Belgium Organizes for Cheap Homes 715 

Herlm's Populace Discontented with Hous- 
ing Conditions, 335. 

'AT, 111 ' 3 offers Tourist Accommodations, 686. 

Billboards, How One Artist Cleared Away 49 
lllboards, Victory Over, 300. 

Rlack Beetle Destroys Forests, 685 

Book by John Nolen, 85. 

Book Notes-Blue Print Reading, Personnel 
Administration, Hellenic Architecture 542 

Analysis of Paint Vehicles. Taoans, etc.,' 377 

Boston Society Exhibition. 517 

Breck, George W., Dead, 841. 

Brick by Parcel Post, 555. 

Bricklaying, Facts on, 871. 

Bridge Builders, Opportunity for, 421 

Bridge Into Juneau Park, Milwaukee 365 

Bridges Surround New Construction to Pro- 
tect Public. W. 

Buenos Aires, Houses Scare in, 423 
an ders Advocate Lower Structures, 84. 

| u ! <1 s 'Exchange Hold Exhibit, 555. 

Builders Uso Camp Dix Materials to Reduce 
Costs, 337. 

Building Associations Grow, 263 

Building Blocks Interlock with' Herringbon- 

Grooves, 556. 
Building Costs Less than Other Commodities 

93B, 

Building Decreases in Brooklyn, 301 
Building Figures, 483. 

B "' fndStr ' eS ASk ReCO S nition in Car 



Organization, Management and an Account- 
ing System for an Architect's Office. By 
H. P. Van Arsdall, 129, 179. 

P 

Pan-American Congress of Architects' Reso- 
lutions, 602. 

Playgrounds, 463. 

Post War Housing, 809. 

Prague, The Palace-Fortress of Hradcany. 
By Selwyn Brinton, 269, 739. 

Pyramids, Theories on Construction of, 751. 

R 

Radium, 700. 

Reconstruction of Northern France. By Ralph 

Fanning. 71, 345, 401, 540. 
Rural Problem, Solution for, 539. 

Safety, State Campaigning for, 735. 

Salvage from Old Buildings on New Plane, 

440. 
Schoolhouse Design and Construction. By 

Frank Irving Cooper, 9. 
Scottish Rite Hospital for Crippled Children, 

Atlanta, Ga. Hentz, Reid & Adler, Archi- 
tects, 341. 
Small-Town Architect and His Problems. By 

Ralph Bryan, 852. 
Spain to Have Skyscraper, 856. 
Spanish Seaport a Colorful Old City, 543. 
Specification Clauses. By Francis W. Grant, 

279. 
State Departments of Architecture. By E. T. 

Huddleston, 287. 
''"-face, Saving, With Paint and Varnish. 

147. 



Surf: 



147 



T 



Tenement Block, Architectural Competition 

for, 305. 

Theatre Regulations in Pennsylvania, 284. 
Town- [Manning, Early, in New England. By 

Oliver H. Howe, 464. 
Tree Planting for Beautification, 539. 

W 

Waste Spaces in New York. Interview with 

Thomas Hastings, 771. 
What is Art? 568. 

Z 

Zoning Regulation in New York. By Thomai 
Hastings, 461. 

A ' 









Building Loan Associations, 301. 
Building Problem Discussed, 335. 
Building Program, Gigantic, Planned, 264. 
Building Stone, Valuable, Found, 49. 
Building Trades Reperesented by D. K. Boyd, 

Buildings. Low, Pay More Than Skyscrap- 

ers, 301. 

Business Men's Art Club, 623. 
Business Men's Art Club for Boston, 684. 
Business. Who Owns a, 470. 

C 

Can 33 < 7 a " Highway ' Five Million Dollars for, 
Canada to Replant Forests. 555. 



Canal Blasted to Increase Fish Supply 621 
Cedars of Lebanon Almost Extinct 393 

454' Construction . Theory and Practice in, 
Cement from Dead Sea, 716. 
Cement Lawn Painted, Has Advantages, 423. 
Cement Mortar, Contraction of 423 
Cement, Open Carload, Protected ' by Own 

Crust, 556. 
Cheap Houses. 619. 

Chicago Architectural Exhibit, Further De- 
Chicago's $5,000,000 Dwelling Fund Grows 589 
n.catto to Have Huge Post Office Terminal, 



Chicago Improves South Water Street llfi 
Chicago to Rebuild Fort Dearborn 422 
Chimney Two Miles Long 590 
Chimneys Not Needed, 364 
China, Construction in, 152 
China Wants Industrial Information, 65.1 
ninese City Becomes Modern, 556 



INDEX 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY TO DECEMBER, 1920 



Chinese Manufacturing Town Develops Large 

Industries, 50. 
Church 125 Years Old, 684. 
Church for Children, 83. 
Civil Service Examination, U. S., 338. 
Cliff Dwellings Found in Colorado, 782. 
Color in the Hospital. 226. 
Color Screens for Show-Window Lights, 838. 
Communal Forests Solve Up-State Tax Prob 

lems, 21. 

Community Centers for Indianapolis, 337. 
Community Systems, Our Outworn, 19. 
Concrete Brine Troughs Protect Railway- 
Bridges, 841. 

Concrete Building Seventeen Stories, 839. 
Concrete Cascades Protect Railroad Right of 

Way, 717. 
Concrete Slab Bridge Not Reinforced, Fails, 

621. 
Concrete Window Weight Replaces Cast 

Iron, 717. 

Confederate White House to Be Moved, 872. 
Conservation of Material Studied, 363. 
Construction Division. Decentralizing, 300. 
Consumer's Dollar, Dividing, 300. 
Convention Hall Had Unusual Equipment, 

590. 

Cornerstone, Ceremony of, 871. 
Credit Rates, 81. 
Cypress Durability, 765. 
Cylindrical House, 424. 

D 

Dallas Architects Organize, 188. 

Death Announcement, False, 761. 

Decorations in the Business Office, 685. 

Decoration, Moneybag, 84. 

Defective Flues. 483. 

Desks, Eight, Combined in One, 623. 

Disciples Build 113 Churches in United States, 

718. 

Distinguish Mahogany and Walnut From 

Imitations, 51. 

Doorway Without a Door, 364. 
Doors of His'^rv. l ; am'Mis. 558. 
Double Deck Subway Planned. 619. 
Dust, An Industrial Criminal, 685. 

E 

Electric Homes Go Up in the West, 335. 

Electric Wiring, For Adequate, 336. 

Electrical Houseboat to Educate Chinese, 620. 

Electricity by Wind Power, 718. 

Ellis Island Asks for More Buildings, 687. 

Elms, To Save Fifth Avenue. 589. 

Employment for Builders, All-Weather, 189. 

Engineer. The Liner. 421. 

Engineering Council Formed, 875. 

England, Construction in. 265. 

English Imnressions of New York Architec- 
ture, 765. 

English Names for English Streets. 151. 

Esperanto Cains Recognition. 425. 

European Hotels to be Built in China an. I 
Japan, 622. 

Exchange Council Formed in East. 555. 

F 

Farmers' Cooperative Association in New 

Zealand, 116. 
Fenner on the Witness Stand Before Lock 

wood Commission, 803. 
Fifth Avenue Association Awards, 715. 
Fine Arts. Report of National Commission, 

188. 

Fires, Percentage of. 116. 
Fire Prevention in Public Schools. 20. 
Fire Resistant Wood Made So by Paint, 50. 
Fire Waste and the Business Men, 558, 621. 
Foundation Method, Novel, 117 
Forest Under Water. 872. 
Freight Situation Halts Building, 48. 
Frenrh C"al Plants. Electrifying, to Save 

Coal. 454. 

French Dwellings. State Aid for Cheap, 18. 
French Property Damaged by War, 440. 
Fuel Saving by Electrifying Railroads, 152. 
Fuel-Saving Plan Announced. 619. 
Furniture, Revival of Hand Painted, 683. 
Furniture Situation Acute, 393. 



Gasoline Baby, 455. 
Gateway Built of Hay, 620. 
Ghosts No Drawback R'8 

Glacier Park Highway Will Croft Divide, 622. 
Gorgas Memorial Contemplated. 392. 
Government-Built Workmen's Houses in New 
Zealand. 82. 



CURRENT NEWS 

(Continued) 

Grand Union Hotel Site Used by Bowery 

Savings Bank, 840. 

Grant Memorial to be Unveiled, 803. * 
Growing Homes, 716. 



H 

Hair as a Building Material, 655. 
Hall of Fame Slow to Admit Artists, 
Hancock House Still Stands, 622. 
Hancock House, 761. 



763. 




Ihldcr is Manager, Civic Development De- 
partment, 765. 

Illinois Society Monthly Meetings, 517. 

India Builds Dam to Avert Famine, 838. 

India to Exploit Its Forests, 364. 

Industrial Reconstruction in Northern France, 
365. 

Iowa Chapter Discusses Housing Problems, 
588. 

Isle of Artists. Lake Como, 242. 

-J- 

Japanese Architectxire Gives Way to Modern 
Styles, K39. 

Jefferson's Homo for National Memorial, 48. 

Judgment Deferred in N. Y. Tenement Com- 
petition. 225. 

Junk Pile, Robbing the. 455. 

jurisdictional Awards, Board of, Meets, 300. 

K 

Kaiser's Home Used, 422. 

Keys Not Needed in Russia, 589. 



Labor Party Proposed Housing Relief. 16. 

Labor, Skilled, Lacking to Build Houses, 655. 

Landscape Architects Meet. 81. 

Landscape Painting. History of, 453. 

Laws for Housing Crisis, Suggest New, 226. 

Lehigh Valley Architects Affiliate with A. I. 
A., 588. 

Library Serves Its Public, How One, 84. 

Liege Defence Memorial. 557. 

Lightning Rods and Buildings, 151. 

Limit Chimney Area to Reduce Fuel Con- 
sumption. 485. 

Limousine Fitted for Touring. 874. 

Lincoln Highway Association Issues History 
of Work. 117. 

Living in the South. 112. 

Loan Plan, New, to Encourage Building of 
Houses, 112. 

I-ondon Astor House to be Sold, 716. 

London Hotel for Infants Only. 557. 

Louvre Extends Appeal to Art Lovers, 20. 

Lumber in America, Use of. 654. 

Lumber in Building. Use of, 227. 

Lumber Company Closes Plant. 762. 

Lumber Supply Threatened. 152. 

Lumber Tragedy of the United State*, 17. 

M 

Manila. National Theatre in, 424. 
Master's Rooms Cost More, 457. 
Mayor's Committee Proposes Housing Relief. 
UL 



Memorial, Design. Competition for, 421. 

Memorial, A Sacred, 117. 

Memorial Where Washington Crossed Dele- 
ware, 392. 

Memorial to Grant Unveiled, 873. 

Mexico Has Building Boom, 555. 

Mexico Retains Its Strength, 837. 

Militarism Disappears, 655. 

Moorish Walls, Paving With, 761. 

Motion Picture Field, Designer Enters, 49. 

Motor Convoy Sent by War Department 
Cross Country, 18. 

Motor Trucks for Street Cleaning, 622. 

Municipal House Building Considered, 424. 

Municipal Loan Association, 116. 

Museum Unearths Old Glass, 422. 

Museum for War Relics. 590. 

Museum Will Be Wrecked, 153. 

N 

National Academy Elects Officers, 115. 

National Housing Conference, 763. 

Nature Models in Clay, 715. 

Neater City, Mayor's Plea for, 52. 

New England, Old-Time, 336. 

New York Society of Architects, 82. 

New York Society of Architects, 457. 

N. Y. State Association of Architects. 588. 

New Zealand Will Develop Water Power, 299. 

New Zealand Gets Homes, How, 19. 

Noiseless Chamber at University of Utrecht. 

686. 
Northern and Southern Estates Change 

Hands, 352. 
Norway. Housing in, 393. 



Oak Lasts for Centuries, 804. 

Odd Construction Preserves Old Utah Fort, 

620. 
Omaha Architects to Reduct Building Colt, 

151. 

Omaha Tenants Form Corporation, 299. 
Open Kires, 518. 
Oregon Chapter A. I. A., 263. 

P 

Palace of Colored Stone. Work of One Man, 

654. 

Palestine is Transformed, 556. 
Palm Ix.ivcs Replace Canvas in Tent Walls, 

S'S 

Papyri, Store of. Found, 653. 
Paris Again a Glitter of Lights, 623. 
Paris to Build Mohammedan Mosque. 484. 
Paris, House Shortage in, 422. 
Park. Olean, N. Y.. "Builds, 337. 
Park Preservation Assured, 423. 
Payment for Estimating, 116. 
Peru Spends Thirty Million for Building, 422. 
Philadelphia!!! Appoint Committee on Town 

I'lamn'ng and Housing. 761. 
Pictures. New Method of Producing, 423. 
I'irlnre Sells at $15.000. 153. 
Pioneer. Halt of the. 52. 

I'lnns Filed in Manhattan During July, 299. 
Playground Built in Tiers, 264. 
Plymouth Rock, to Reset, 405. 874. 
Pne Cottage, Funds to Preserve, 589. 
Poland's Landlords Gouging. 762. 
Post Office Buildings in New York, 335. 
Postal Savings Funds to Aid Home Builders? 

589. 
Powder Depot on Sandy Hook Hidden by 

Camouflage, 621. 

Priority for Rnililinc Materials Urged. 365. 
Prison Bar, Novel, Designed, 685. 
Prize Offered to Architects. 188. 
Prizes for Fifth Avenue Buildings, 115. 
Progress, Good New Work the Milestone of, 

189. 

R 

Race Suicide and the Housing Shortage. 65J. 

Rat Proof Houses Demanded by Building 
Codes, 365. 

Rebuilding Ruined Areas. 684. 

Recreation Suggestions, 189. 

Registration Board, National, to Meet In St. 
Louis. 456. 

Registration Boards Hold Formal Meeting, 
518. 

Rent Increases in the Fall. 264. 

Replannin? Field Columbian Museum In Chi- 
cago, 620. 

Rhrims Foundation, Older Church Found 
Under. 424. 

Rio Janeiro Has Shortage of Houses, 484. 

Room Without Columns. Largest, 555. 

Royton Hall, a Home of the Byrons. 654. 

Russia. Hunger and Want, but Order In, says 
Wells. 718. 



INDEX 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY TO DECEMBER, 1920 



Safety Congress in Syracuse, 715. 

Safety Engineers to Meet, 762. 

Salisbury Cathedral, 225. 

School Betterment, National Conference 
Pledges, 152. 

School Buildings, Temporary, 226. 

Scientists Will Explore Amazon, 621. 

Senate Resolution, 189, 350. 

Shingle Production in Washington State, 227. 

Sidewalks in Buildings Make Streets Wider, 
557. 

Sign Posts Elaborately Carved. 623. 

Skyscraper, New York, to be Largest, 425. 

Small House Service Bureau for Illinois, 555. 

Smoke Evil an Architectural Problem, 263. 

Snow Sheds to be Used as Motor Path, Rail- 
road, 838. 

Soundproof and Sightproof, 18. 

Sportsman's Stable Becomes Restaurant, 589. 

Stained Glass, Progress Made in Art of, 337. 

Stamps and Housing, 686. 

State Federation of Architects and Engi- 
gineers, Minnesota Proposes, 115. 

Stonehenge, Restoring, 653. 

Store on Wheels, 763. 

St. Louis, Comprehensive Plan for East, 151. 

St. Louis' Problem, 335. 

Strikes, A Record Year for, 228. 

Subway Needs, New York's, 839. 

Sunny Cells in Joliet, 299. 

Sweu. TI S-utTtrs From Money Shortage, 684. 



CURRENT NEWS 

(Continued) 
T 

Temple in the Jungle, Sixth Century, 837. 

Theatre Built Instead of Houses, 264. 

Timber Cut From Live and Dead Trees, 
Comparative Value of, 51. 

Timber in New England, 22. 

Thames River to Have New Bridge, 589. 

Timber From Dead Trees, 623. 

Timber, Northwest Situation, 454. 

Timbers. Longer Life For Mine, 839. 

Town Burned to be Rid of Rats, 422. 

Town Planning a Necessity, 555. 

Transportation of Building Materials, to Re- 
lieve, 394. 

Tunnel, Largest World, 838. 

Turkish Buildings Seldom Painted, 558. 

TJ , 

rni-e.l Sta'es Sells Housing Land, 21. 
Utah Architects to Design War Monument, 
588. 

V 

Vamlerbilt Home to be Bank, 874. 
Vanderlip Preserves "Beautiful Pieces of 

Architecture," 717. 
Veneer Waste as Paper Source, 839. 
Vienna's Art in Vienna, to Keep, 365. 

w 

Wall Papers, Old, Sought, 655. 

War Memorial, Pittsburgh Plans High 

Building as, 17. 
War Memorials, Projected, 301. 



War Memorial in Ten Years, 83. 

Warren, Whitney, to Restore Louvain, 841. 

Washington, D. C., Still Feels Building Pinch, 

518. 
Warsaw Limits Every Family to Three 

Rooms, 683. 

Waste Heat to Reduce Fuel Costs, 558. 
Waterpower Bill, Federal, 264. 
Way of Roses Proposed to Cross New York 

State, 717. 

Westminster Abbey in Need of Repair, 83. 
Wet and Dry Sand for Concrete, 804. 
"White Coal" in Canada, 839. 
White House for Tokio, 484. 
White Mouse Modeled After Palace, 557. 
Women Engineers and Architects Organize, 

392. 

Wood Construction in Shamrock IV, 82. 
Wood That Does Not Rot, 839. 
Wooden Houses for Northern France, 336. 
Woods How to Distinguish, 764. 
Woolworth Building, Cass Gilbert Explains, 

299. 

Worcester Architect, 686. 
World War Musuem, 263. 
Workers Idle, Many, 484. 

Y 

Yellow Light Best, 19. 

Z 

Zone System for Camden, 518. 



TEXT ACCORDING TO AUTHORS 



B 

Barber, Donn: 

Hartford Times Building, 140. 
Baum, Dwight James: 201. 
Bellows, George: 

Relation of Painting to Architecture, 847. 
Blake. Clinton If., Jr.: 
Architectural Ouicksands, 97, 137, 174, 316, 

373, 433, 506. 569. 743, 821. 
Boughlon, W. H.:-- 

Southern California Earthquake, 157. 
Bourne, Frank A. : 
Architect a Necessary Factory in Bridge 

Building, 217. 
Brin ton, Selwyn: 
Prague, The Palace-Fortress of Hradcany, 

269, 739. 

Blown, Glenn: 
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. 

Henry Bacon, Architect, 483. 523. 
Ryan, Ralph: 

Small Town Architect and His Prob- 
lems. 852. 



Calder, A. Stirling: 

Relation of Sculpture to Architecture, 723. 

775. 
Cooper, Frank Irving: 

Schoolhouse Design and Construction, 9. 
Covvies, Louis: 

Improved Contract Forms, 419. 



Davidson, Frank E: 

Architect's Relation to Professional Organ- 
ization, 42. 

E 

Edwards-Ficken, H. 
Other Side of Billboards, 147. 



l-itiiii't'S refer to text pages 

Eisen, Gustavus: 

Dynamic Symmetery, 701. 

F 

Fallows, Ernest: 

Modern Textile Mills, 675. 
Fanning, Ralph: 

Reconstruction in Northern France, 71, 345, 
401, 540. 

G 

Gardner, Henry A.: 445. 
Grant, Francis W. : 
Specification Clauses, 279. 

H 

Hastings, Thomas: 

Zoning Regulations in New York, 461. 
Hentz, Reid & Adler: 

Scottish Rite Hospital for Crippled Chil- 
dren, 341. 
Helmle & Corbett: 

The Bush Addition, 509. 
Hopkins, Alfred: 

Office Sketches to Promote Business, 33. 
Howe, Oliver H.: 

Early Town'Planning in New England, 464. 
Howells, John Mead: 

House of Albert G. Milbank, 351. 
Hubbard, Charles L.: 

Heating and Ventilating Industrial Build- 
ings, 545, 707. 
Huddleston, E. T.: 

State Departments of Architecture, 287. 
Hunt, George M. : 

Forest Products Laboratory and Engineer- 
ing, 25. 



Lachenbruch, Jerome: 
Art and Architectural Artifice, 563. 



M 

MacFarland, James Hood: 

Architectural Problems in Motion Picture 

Production, 65. 
McGinty, W. H.: 

Ecclesiastical Metal Work of Ireland, 437. 

P 

Perrot, Emile G.: 
Office of an Architect and Engineer, 121. 



Sabine, Paul E.: 

Architectural Acoustics, 102. 
Smith Howard Dwight: 

Stadia in Various Universities, 94, 124, 160, 

221, 260. 
Street, A. L. H.: 

Reasonable Billboard Ordinances, 573. 
Swales, Frances S. : 

Competitions, 45. 



Tucker, Wm. C.: 

Safeguarding Water Supply for Isolated 
House, 383. 

V 

Van Arsdall, H. P.: 

Organization, Management and an Account 
'" System for an Architect's Office, 129. 

W 

Warren & Wetmore: 

Hotel Ambassador, Atlantic City, N J 314 
Whiting, R. S.: 

Some Phases of Lumber Manufacture, 28. 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



American Specification Institute. Communi- 

cations from Architects, 792, 825. 
Billboards. By H. Edwards- Ficken, 147. 



Figures refer to text pages 

Competitions. By Frances S. Swales 48 
Dynamic Symmetry and Its Reviewer. By 
Gustavus Eisen, 701. 



Jurisdictional Awards. By Robert D. Kohn. 
Knack and Efficiency, 249. 



INDEX 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY TO DECEMBER, 1920 



DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING 



American Society for Testing Materials, An- 
nual Meeting, 57. 

Arc Welded Building in Course of Erection, 
297. 

Architect a Necessary Factor in Bri'dge 
Building. By Frank A. Bourne, 217. 

Architects and Engineers Co-operate, 618. 

Book Notes Earthwork and Its Cost, 757; 
Modern Brickmaking, 802. 

Building Code for Pennsylvania, 681. 

Bush Addition, Features of Interest in. 
Helmle & Corbett, Architects, 509. 

Calculations, Short Cuts to Accurate, 416. 

Calculation, Short Cuts to Accurate, 450. 

Capper Resolution, 298. 

Chimney Construction, Data on, 123. 

Contract Forms, Improved. By Louis Cowles, 
419. 

Corrosion Tests, National Lime Assn., 385. 

Cost Plus Fixed Fee, 867. 

Creosote Oils in Wood Preservation, 64. 

Drain Tile and Sewer Pipe Under Different 
Conditions, 27. 

Earthquake, Observations on Southern Cali- 
fornia. By W. H. Boughton, 157. 

Engineer and Architect, Historical Notes on, 
334. 

Engineers Discuss Transit Development, 800. 

Fire Protection and the Lumber Industry, 30. 

Forest Products Laboratory and Engineer- 
ing. By George M. Hunt, 25. 

Foundation and Roof Construction, Building 
for Stromberg Motor Device Co. N. Max 
Dunning, Architect, 291. 



Figures refer In text pa^es 

Foundations, Their Selection, Design and 

Construction, 386, 579, 795. 
Foundation Work, Novel Method in, 513. 
Glass, New Type, Resists Shock, 415. 
Government Bulk-tins Issued, 332. 
Heating and Ventilating Industrial Buildings. 

By Charles L. Hubbard, 545, 707. 
Hoover President of Engineering Federation, 

Idiosyncrasies of Building Materials, Lime. 

615. 
Illumination Design, Fundamental Principles, 

475. 
Insulating Values of Various Coverings [or 

Hot Air Pipes, 648. 
Jurisdictional Awards, 360. 
Linoleum as a Safety Stair Tread, 31. 

Lumber Manufacture, Some Phases of. By 
R. S. Whiting, 28. 

Material, New, I'scd in Manufacturing Build- 
ing, Newark, I'on-te Mfg. Co., 255. 

Modern Textile Mill. By Ernest Fallows, 675. 

Motion Picture Theatres, Artificial Illumina- 
tion of, 645, 67S, 801. 

National Lime Association Holds Annual 
Meeting, 64. 

National Public Works Progress Report, 332. 

Office of an Architect and Engineer. By 
Emile I'crrot, 121. 

Ohio Stadium, 617. 

Paint Exposure Tests. By Henry A. Gardner, 
445. 



Port Development at Portland, Ore, 863. 

Precast Pile, Method of Driving, 295. 

Quantity Survey, Action of A. I. A. on, 334. 

Schoolhouse Entrance Doors, 389. 

Quantity Survey System Receives Further 
Endorsement, 127. 

Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Design, 89. 

Reinforced Concrete Tanks for Storage of 
Fuel Oil, 753. 

Revolving Door, 327, 355. 

Rigidity Tests on Various Types of Wall Con- 
struction Made by Omaha Building De- 
partment, 199. 

Safeguard Water Supply for Isolated House. 
By Wm. C. Tucker, 383. 

Senate Committee to Consider Crises, 128. 

Shccpshead Hay Race Track Demolished, 60. 

Stadia in Various Universities. By Howard 
Dwight Smith. 94, 124, 160. 221, 260. 

Stadia Design, Shall Architect or Engineer 
Predominate, 333. 

Structural Slate, Data mi, 262. 

Stucco, Successful Building in, 61. 

Thermal Conductivities of Insulating and 
Building Materials, 682. 

Tile and Concrete Moor Shows to Advantage, 
193. 

Transportation, Engineers Discuss, 647. 

Ventilation of Public Comfort Stations, 611. 

Wall Construction, Distortion Tests on Types 
of, 413. 

/oning Ordinance Modified, 71.5. 



ILLUSTRATIONS ACCORDING TO AUTHORS 

Figures refer to the number of the issue, not to the text pages 



Barnett, T. P.: 
House of George S. Johns, St. Louis, Mo., 

2349. 

Barber, Donn: 
Hartford Times Building, Hartford, Conn., 

2328. 

Benedict, J. B.: 
House of George E. Cranmenr, Denver, 

Colo., 2344. 

Benjamin, Charles H.: 
House of Robert J. Edwards, 
House of James Warburton, Jr., 
House of James J. Zisette. 
House of John J. Fisher, Paterson, N. J., 

2341. 

Carrere & Hastings and R. H. Shreve: 
Fisk Building, New York, 2338. 
Liggett-Winchester-I.ey Building, New 

York, 2338. 
Comes, John T. : 

St. Columba's Church, Johnstown, Pa., 2335. 
Cram, Ralph Adams: 

Chapel at Nahant, Mass., 2330. 
Eggers, O. R.: 
Drawings of Early American Architecture: 

St. Paul's Chapel, New York, 2328. 
Portico, St. John's Chapel, New York, 
2329. 
Doorway, Washington Square, New York, 

2330. 

Patchin Place, New York, 2331. 
No. 7 State Street, New York, 2332. 
City Hall, New York, 2333. 
Eastern Portico, St. Paul's Chapel, N. Y., 

2334. 
House, Washington Square, New York, 

2335. 

Old Town Hall, Hartford, Conn., 2336. 
St. George's Church, Hempstead L. I. 2337. 
St. Mark's Church New York 2338. 
St. George's Church Yard Hempstead L. 

I. 2339. 

Dyckman House New York 2340. 
Street Bridge, Hartford, Conn., 2341. 
House in Litchfield, Conn., 2342. 
Doorway, Old Town Hall, Hartford, Conn., 
2343. 



Daniel Lake House, Staten Island, N. Y., 

2344. 

On the Green, Plymouth, Conn., 2345. 
Mount Vernon, Va., Home of Washing- 
ton, 2346. 
Detail of a House in Litchfield, Conn., 

2347. 
Gateway to Thomas Cowoes House, Farm- 

ingtun. Conn, 2549. 
Graham, Anderson, Probst & White: 

Kimball Hall. Chicago, 111., 2332. 
Haas, Robert : 

Motion Picture Sets, 2324. 
Hentz, Reid & Adlcr:- 

Scottish Kite Hospital for Crippled Chil- 
dren, Atlanta, Ga., 2334. 
Holabird S: Roche: 

Miscellaneous Works, 2329, 2331, 2339. 
Holabird & Roche, Architects: 

Nursery and Orphan Asylum. Chicago, 111. 
Commonwealth Kdison Co., Chicago, 111. 
Margaret Mackin Hall, Chicago, 111. 
Franklin Kxchange, Chicago, 111. 
Kildare Exchange, Chicago. 111. 
McKinley Exchange. Chicago, 111. 
John Crerar Library, Chicago, 111., 
McCormick Building, Chicago, 111., 
Mandel Bros.' Store, Chicago, 111., 
La Salic Garage. Chicago, III. 
Hotel Deshler, Columbus Ohio, 
Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 111., 

2329, 2331. 

Second Artillery Armory, Chicago, 
Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago, 
Geological Building. Chicago University, 

2339. 
Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, HI., 

2339. 
Century Building, Chicago, 111., 2339. 

Hopkins, Alfred: 
Office Sketches to Promote Business, 2325. 

Hornbostel, H. : 

Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., 2337. 
Howells, John Mead: 

Corona Building, New York, 2334. 

Memorial for City of Beloit, Wis., 2334. 



House oi A. G. Milbaiik, Iluntington, L. I., 

2334. 
Jackson, John F. : 

House of Win H. Carey. Passaic, N. J., 2325. 
House of Charles I. Denison, Passaic, N. 

J., 2335. 
House of Judge W. W. Watson, Passaic, 

N. J., 2335. 

House of B. D. Benson, Passaic, N. J., 2342. 
Keefe, Charles S. : 

Store Building. Hudson New York, 2335. 
Housing at Kingston, N. Y., 2335. 
Mayer, Gordon E. : 
House of Mrs. Helen S. Pearson. Miami, 

Fla., 2348. 
House of Miss Caroline J. Brownell. Miami, 

Fla., 2348. 

Mcllvain & Roberts: 
House of Lawrence D. Ili-ggs, Harford, Pa., 

2338. 
Otto, Olaf: 

House of G. I. Taggart, Savannah, Ga., 

2347. 

I'urdon, James: 

Ruxtnn Hall Williamstown. Mass.. 2336. 
Houses at Williamstown, Mass., 2347. 
Schmidt, Garden & Martin: 

Milwaukee County General Hospital, 2343. 
Study, Guy:-- 

House of Guido Doering, St. Louis, Mo., 

2345. 

Study & Farrar: 
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes, St. Louis, 

Mo., 2345. 
Sutton & Whitney: 

Garage Building, Portland, Oregon, 2332. 
Thomson, R. B. : 
House of Mrs. C. B. Adams, Dallas, Texas, 

2349. 

Van Leycti, Schilling & Keogh: 
Public Comfort Stations, Detroit, Mich., 

2342. 
Warren & Wctmore: 

Hotel Ambassador, Atlantic City, N. J., 

2333. 

York & Sawyer: 
United States Assay Office, New York, 2337. 



ILLUSTRATIONS ACCORDING TO SUBJECT 



Figures refer to the number of the issue, not to the text pages 

wout, Cret and Zantziger, Boric A Me- 
dary, 2326. 
Magonigle, Bliss & Faville, Ellery Davis, 



Administrative and Governmental Milwaukee County General Hospital. Richard 

Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago. Hola- E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Architects, 

bird & Roche, Architects, 2339. 2343. 

Horace White Memorial for City of Beloit, Nebraska State Capitol Competition: 

Wis. John Mead Howells, Architect, 2334. Goodhue, Pope, McKim, Tracy & Swart- McDonald, 2327. 



INDEX 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY TO DECEMBER, 1920 



ILLUSTRATIONS ACCORDING TO SUBJECT 

(Continued) 



Public Comfort Station, Detroit, Mich. Van 
Leyen, Schilling & Keogh, Architects, 2342. 

Scottish Rite Hospital for Crippled Children, 
Atlanta, Ga. Hentz, Reid & Adler, Archi- 
tects, 2334. 

Second Artillery Armory, Chicago, Holabird 
& Roche, Architects, 2339. 

United States Assay Office, New York. York 
& Sawyer, Architects, 2337. 

Ecclesiastical 

Chapel at Xahant. Mass. Ralph Adams Cram, 

Architect, 2330. 
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes, St. Louis, 

Mo. Study & Farrar, Architects, 2345. 
St. Columba's Church, Johnstown, Pa. John 

T. Comes, Architect, 2335. 

Educational 

Emory University, Atlanta, Ga. H. Horn 

hostel, Architect, 2337. 
Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 111. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects, 2339. 
Geological Building, Chicago University. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 2339. 

Frontispieces 

1 

Vestibule of St. Mark's, Venice, 2324. 
Detail, Palace of the Doges, Venice, 2325. 
Detail, Church of St. Mark's, Venice, 2326. 
Gallery in St. Mark's, Venice, 2327. 
Doorway, Church of S. Maria Maggiore, Bo- 
logna, 2328. 

Old Buildings, Salamanca, Spain, 2329 
City Hall, Elche, Alicante, 2330. 
Detail, Alhambra, Granada, 2331. 
Cathedral of St. Vitus. Hradcany, 2332. 
Detail, the Alhambra, Granada, 2333. 
Gateway, the Alcazar, Avila, 2334. 
Old Convent, Tarragona, 2335. 
The Alcazar, Segovia. 2336. 
Detail of Cathedral, Murcia, 2337. 
Church of St. Maclou. Rouen, 2338. 
Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D. C., 2339. 
Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D. C., 2340. 
Old Tower in Salamanca, 2341. 



Old Houses on the Plaza, Segovia, 2342. 
Doorway, Palace on Rio Bella Fava, Venice, 

2343. 

Detail of an Old Palace, Toledo, 2344. 
Renaissance Doorway, Hotel De Vogue, Dijon, 

2345. 

Detail, Washington Arch. New York, 2346. 
Old City Walls, Tarragona, Spain, 2347. 
Facade, Church of S. Zaccaria, Alinari, Italy, 

2348. 
Chateau de Chaumont sur Loire, 2349. 

Industrial 

Century Uuildiny. Chicago. Holabird & 
Roche, Architects, 2339. 

Corona Building. Xew York. lohn Mead 
Howells, Architect, 2334. 

Fisk Building, New York City. Carrere & Hast- 
ings and R. H. Shreve, Architects, 2338. 

Garage Building, Portland, Oregon. Sutton & 
Whitney, Architects, 2332. 

Hartford Times Building, Hartford, Conn. 
Donn Barber, Architect, 2328. 

Kirnball Hall, Chicago, 111. Graham, Ander- 
son, Probst & White, Architects, 2332. 

La Salle Garage, Chicago, III. Holabird & 
Roche, Architects, 2331. 

Liggett- Winchester-Ley Corp. Bldg., New 
York City. Carrere & Hastings and R. H. 
Shreve, Architects, 2338. 

McCormick Building and Mandel Bros.' Store, 
Chicago. Holabird & Roche, Architects, 
2329. 

Store Building, Hudson, New York. Charles 

S. Keefe, Architect, 2335. 

Telephone Exchanges, Chicago. Holabird & 
Roche, Architects, 2329. 

Residences 

House of Mrs. C. P. Adams, Dallas Texas 
H. B Thomson, Architect, 2349. 

House of Lawrence D. Beggs, Harford, Pa. 
Mcllvain & Roberts, Architects, 2338. 

House of B. D. Benson, Passaic, N. J. John 
F. Jackson, Architect, 2342. 



House of Miss Caroline J. Brownell, Miami, 

Fla. Gordon E. Mayer, Architect, 2348. 
Buxton Hall, Williamstown, Mass. James 

Purdon, Architect, 2336. 
House of Wm. H. Carey, Passaic, N. J. John 

F. Jackson, Architect, 2325. 
House of George E. Cranmer, Denver, Colo. 

J. B. Benedict, Architect, 2344. 
House of Charles L. Denison, Passaic, N. J. 

John F. Jackson, Architect, 2335. ' 
House of Guido Doering, St. Louis, Mo. Guy 

Study, Architect, 2345. 

House of Robert J. Edwards, Paterson, N. J., 
House of James Warburton, Jr., Paterson, 

N. J., 

House of James J. Zisette. Paterson, X. J., 
House of John J. Fisher, Paterson, Js. J., 

Charles H. Benjamin, Architect, 2341. 
House of A. G. Milbank, Huntington, L. 1. 

John Mead Howells, Architect, 2334. 
House of George S. Johns, St. Louis, Mo. 

T. B. Barnett, Architect, 2349. 
House of Mrs. Helen S. Pearson, Miami, Fla. 

Gordon E. Mayer, Architect, 2348. 
House of G. I. Taggart, Savannah, Ga. Olaf 

Otto, Architect, 2347. 

Houses at Williamstown, Mass. James Pur- 
don, Architect, 2347. 
House of Judge W. W. Watson, Passaic, N. J. 

John F. Jackson, Architect, 2335. 
Housing at Kingston, N. Y. Charles S. 

Keefe. Architect, 2335. 

Office Sketches to Promote Business. Alfred 
Hopkins, Architect, 2325. 

Miscellaneous 

Cyclorama Building, Atlanta, Ga. Competi- 
tive Designs, 2330. 

Motion Picture Sets. Work of Robert Haas, 
Architect, 2324. 

Hotels 

Hotel Ambassador, Atlantic City, N. J. War- 
ren & Wetmore, Architects, 2333. 

Hotel De shier, Columbus, Ohio. Holabird & 
Roche, Architects, 2329. 



ILLUSTRATIONS ACCORDING TO LOCATION 

/'inures refer to the number of the issue, not to the text pages 



Colorado- 
Denver: 

House of George E. Cranmer. J. B. Bene- 
dict, Architect, 2344. 

Connecticut 

Hartford: 

Hartford Times Building. Donn Barber 
Architect, 2328. 

Florida- 
Miami: 
House of Mrs. Helen S. Pearson. Gordon 

E. Mayer, Architect, 2348. 
House of Miss Caroline J. Brownell. Gor- 
don E. Mayer, Architect, 2348. 

Georgia- 
Atlanta: 
Cvrlorama Building. Competitive Designs, 

2330. 

Scottish Kile Hospital for Crippled Chil- 
dren. Hentz, Reids & Adler, Architects, 

En ect V ^ 3 mversit >'- H - Hornbostel, Archi- 
Savannah: 

House of G. I. Taggart. Olaf Otto, Arch 
itect, 2347. 

Illinois 

Chicago: 

Ki I" l J?r'I- Ha "- r ' rana m Anderson, Probst 
& White, Architects, 2332. 

2339* ' Holabird & R <=he, 2329, 2331, 
Second Artillery Armory, 
Children's Memorial Hospital 
Geological Building. Holabird & Roche 

Architects, 2339. 
Evanston: 

H " bW & 



Massachusetts < 

Nahant : 

Chapel, Ralph Adams Cram, Architect, 

2330. 
Williamstown :- - 

Buxton Hall, James Purdon Architect, 

Houses by James Purdon, 2347. 

Michigan- 

Detroit : 

Public Comfort Stations. Van Leyen. 
Schilling & Keogh, Architects, 2342. 

Missouri 

St. Louis: 

Church of Our Lady of Lourdes. Study 
& I'arrar, Architects, 2345. 

H Architec tl G 2MS ***""* Guy StU " y ' 

"KSiSJcS'SE L - Johns - T - B - Barnett ' 

New Jersey- 

Atlantic City 



Passaic: 
House of Judge W. W. Watson. John F 

Jackson, Architect, 2335 
House of Charles L. Denison. John F 

Jackson, Architect, 2335 
House of Wm. H. Carey. John F Tack 

son, Architect, 2325 
House of B. D. Benson. John F Tack- 

son, Architect, 2342. J 

Paterson: 

House of Robert J. Edwards 
House of James Warburton, Jr., 
House of James J. Zisette, 
House of John J. Fisher. Charles H. 

Benjamin, Architect, 2341. 

New York- 

Hudson: 



Store Building. Charles S. Keefe, Archi- 

tect, 2335. 

Huntington, L. I. : 
House of A. G. Milbank. John Mead 

Howells, Architect, 2334. 
Kingston: 
Housing at Kingston. Charles S. Keefe 

Architect, 2335. 
New York: 
United States Assay Office. York & Saw- 

yer, Architects, 2337. 

Liggett-Winchester-Ley Building. Carrere 
& Hastings and R. H. Shreve Archi- 
tects, 2338. 



F 'i? k j*";, 1 !''"*- Carrere & Hastings and 

K. H. Shreve, Architects, 2338. 
Ohio 
Columbus: 

H>tDCr ' Holabird & Roche . Archi - 



Oregron 

Portland: 
Garage Building. 
Architects, 2332. 
Pennsylvania 
Harford: 



Sutton & Whitney, 



H & U Ror, f t Law , ren D - B =ggs. Mcllvain 

Koberts, Architects, 2338 
Johnstown: 



^H-IULCJC[, A)J3. 

Texas 

"Sr^rcSect C 2l49 AdamS - H " B " Th 
Wisconsin 

3wswsrsst Joh - Mead 

Milwaukee: 

C ^'^ < vffS^ Hospital. Schmidt, Gar- 
den & Martin Architects, 2343. 



1,1 




a 



I 
I 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

VOL. CXVIII WEDNESDAY, JULY 7, 1920 



NUMBER 2324 







A MOTION PICTURE SK'I 



DESIGNED AND EXKCUTED UNDER THE DIRECTION Ol- 
ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 



This is a representation of a patio in an American house. It is a garden scene as constructed on the studio floor. 
The pool and fountain are substantially constructed to use actual water. The floral decorations are living plants. 
The steps and platform were huilt with sufficient strength to support the players during a part of the action. 

The Architecture of Motion Picture Settings 

Illustrated by Examples of the Work of Robert Haas, Architect, for 
Famous Players-Lasky Corporation 



MURE than two years ago THE AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT, in commenting on the develop- 
ment of motion pictures, ventured the opin- 
ion that as the cinema settings were not problems 
of color but chiefly of correct and pleasing adap- 
tation of forms to spaces, it would be logical to ex- 
pect them to be solved by the architectural pro- 
fession. 

At the earliest stages of the cinema, it was an 
art strongly influenced by the theatre and the scen- 
ery was such as had been supplied by scenic painters 
for the stage. Subsequently, well-known painters 
and decorators were engaged for the work. But 



now, within the past year, the larger and more 
successful producers have been engaging architects 
to plan and superintend the building of their "sets." 
The results are so satisfying that the differentiation 
between stage and cinema design now seems to be 
clear the former is one of the decorative and the 
latter of the structural arts. 

It is a fertile field for architects. With the re- 
sults of invention so quickly materialized, with free- 
dom from the whims of clients and from the prac- 
tical exigencies of contractors, and with the subse- 
quent possibility of aesthetic experiments of a most 
pronounced character it is a rare opportunity for 



Copyright, 1SZO, The Architectural d Building Press (Inc.} 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED UNDER THE DIRECTION OE 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 



a richly creative talent. And it is a work, too, 
which is potentially one of our most powerful edu- 
cational forces. The people, through this pastime, 
may be made familiar with that which is beauti- 
ful ; they may see what good architecture and well- 
arranged interiors look like. Fortunate it is that 
the times are past when, if they went to the 
"movies," they must deprave their taste with every- 
thing that was bad. 

The settings are now coming within the influence 
of trained architectural skill. \Ye may, for this 
reason, safely expect interesting and perhaps even 
an inspiring architectural development in the new- 
est of the arts. 

IT seems almost banal to indicate the educative 
power of the motion picture. As a factor of 
instruction the screen has been recognized by com- 
merce, by moral propagandists and even by the gov- 
ernments. During the Great War it was the means 
of suggesting the aims and showing the methods of 
armies. It attracted recruits as posters and as 
speeches never could and it aroused patriotism with 
its presentation of the magnificent panoply of war. 
These results were achieved not solely by the pic- 
tures issued by the governments obviously for such 
a purpose, but indirectly and powerfully by those 
scenarios sketched against a romantic background 



of war. In these fictional presentations the educa- 
tive influence has been far more insidious. The au- 
dience opened its mind to the plot and the back- 
ground made its certain impression unsought, but 
effective. The motion picture should be taken 
seriously. 

\Yhen the motion picture was nothing more nor 
less than a mechanical toy, plots were unfolded by 
characters who moved about in rooms such as 
never were inhabited by man. There were flat 
stairways painted quite out of the perspective of 
normal eyes, there were immovable palms of one 
dimension. The drawing rooms of English nobility 
were stuffed with onyx tables, with furniture of 
an unknown period, and with bric-a-brac such as 
even a parvenu would not be guilty of possessing. 
And when the exteriors were then shown, the be- 
holder was astonished that they could contain the 
spacious halls and the palm trees, and so much 
furniture. 

The development came rapidly. Producers rea- 
lized they must do better than that. They began 
to take themselves and their productions seriously. 
There was a reaching for verities. Actual houses 
were sometimes temporarily rented for "proper- 
ties" and finally the stage of growth has been 
reached where the entire background is conceived 
and built to fit the plot. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED UNDER THI-. DIRECTION OF 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 



This illustration, with the one on the opposite page, represent two periods 
for the production of "The Copperhead." The land where the town star 
brush, somewhere on Long Island, N. V. The representation of the towi 
on the opposite page) was finished after four weeks' woik by the carf 
constructed and roofed, and sufficiently well built to be used as living quart 



i the life of an Illinois town, as constructed 
s was barren fields overgrown with under- 
as it appeared during the Civil War (shown 
nters. All of the houses were actually 
rs. Note the comparison of the two scenes. 



The church and town hall are retained in the picture abcve and several other buildings are clumsily remodeled. 
There is a new postoffice. The brick gutters and concrete walks are replaced by asphalt. The kerosene street lamps 

are replaced by electric. 



An architect who is engaged in this work says 
that he first reads the story and gets acquainted 
with the character who is to live in the scene which 
he must build. That character, fictitious, but of 
clearly defined tastes and habits, becomes his client. 
A house is to be built and rooms are to be deco- 
rated to suit such a personality. Perhaps it is a man 
who has lived for many years .in the Far East or 
it may be an English gentleman living in Constan- 
tinople ; in such cases the blend of two cultures 
must be evident. It may be a man shown at ten 
year intervals but living always in the same town 
as in "The Copperhead." Here there must be 
no anachronism in showing the progress of the 
years and the individual taste of the character in 
his surroundings must be preserved. If an Italian 
inn is required, a Connecticut farmhouse will not 
do; the audience is too intelligent. Any one might 



wonder in what sort of a house Dr. Jekyll would 
have lived, or Adam Bede. or Robespierre but it 
is a clearly defined problem for an architect to 
decide. 

In his attempt to attain the proper effects, the 
architect draws his plans. And from his blue prints 
the carpenters build in actual materials, which are 
in some cases cleverly disguised as brick, or stone, 
or plaster. The house is very much as any house 
except that the ceilings may be missing, or the roof ; 
a stairway may lead to a second floor which does 
not exist. It may be a house of thirty rooms, of 
which four only are to be used the other twenty- 
six therefore are not drawn or built but are present 
only in the architect's mind and in the imagination 
of the audiemv. 

Such an architect is not troubled with problems 
of durability or of plumbing. In three or four 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



days' time he directs the construction and interior 
decoration of the living rooms of an English manor, 
and its facade with spacious doorway. It stands 
for a day peopled by gentry meeting the climax of 
their lives. For one day the clocks tick on the 
mantels and the butler stands in the hall. For one 
day there is an illumination of glaring blue light 
and then the walls are torn down. A town house 
appears pavement, steps, wrought iron railings and 
so forth. The Adam decorations of the interior 
have been discarded that Tart noveau may appear. 

And though such scenes may occupy but a few 
minutes upon the screen at the theatre yet thousands 
of dollars are spent in their construction. For it is 
held fundamentally important that they shall be, 
with good taste, a reflection of the character of the 
mannikins who move before them. If fiction and 
drama record and develop the social aspirations 
of civilization, do not these backgrounds or "sets" 
record the surroundings in which the civilization 
lives and have they not the same potentiality for 
developing taste? 

THROUGHOUT the winter months in the large 
cities there are held architectural exhibits 
which are prompted with a view of promoting good 
architecture and bringing to the general public a 
realization of what is being done and of what good 
architecture is. As a vehicle for achieving a similar 
purpose the moving picture should be taken ser- 
iously. It would not be contended that the finest 
development of architectural forms are shown on 
the screen, but it may be stated with assurance that 
the educative influence is there. The architects who 
do this work have the responsibility of widest in- 
fluence in the molding of public taste. Wherever 
the film goes their influence extends. THE AMERI- 
CAN ARCHITECT, therefore, believes it does a valu- 
able service to reproduce examples which show the 
trend in this field and to express the serious purpose 
which dignifies the work being done by one member 
of the architectural profession. 

There may be in some minds a question whether 
the men who create two or three sided, roofless 
and impermanent buildings are architects but this 
would seem to others a matter of overfine distinction 
and a splitting of hairs which ends in separation 
where there should be co-operation. It is in the 
same sense that there may be men who refuse to 
recognize Bakst as a serious artist ; yet, without 
doubt, Bakst has made a profound impression upon 
the present generation's sense of color. In the long 
run it is the result that counts. It is the influence 
which the work of a creative imagination has upon 
the culture of its time and upon some specific ex- 
pression of that culture. Just how much influence 



upon architecture the designer of buildings used for 
motion picture settings might have, clearly depends 
upon the distinction of his individual talent. 

Impermanence of structure was never used as an 
argument against the serious purpose of a designer 
of buildings for an exposition. That a building is 
seen by the few and has made its influence vitally 
felt through means of the camera would. never be 
held against the Parthenon. One fundamental fact 
which always remains is that an architect is at all 
times responsible, when he undertakes the creation 
of a building which shall serve the life of some in- 
dividual or group of individuals, that he shall make 
that building a simple and beautiful expression of 
their needs. If the occupants don't need a roof he 
shouldn't build one, if they demand a Georgian 
fac,ade but no rear elevation whatsoever, he fills 
their needs and nothing more. That is the architect, 
is it not ? His work satisfies the requirements of his 
clients be they imaginary or real, or he is no longer 
retained. And insofar as he transcends these re- 
quirements and envelopes them with beauty, thus 
far docs he serve his profession and his generation. 
That is an aesthetic ideal, is it not? 

IT has been contended, and with much insistence 
by men in the profession of architecture, that 
motion picture work as carried on after the methods 
shown in these illustrations was unethical and had 
a tendency toward commercialization. Further, it 
has been contended that ethically an architect could 
only render service in motion picture work as in a 
consulting capacity and that when he confined his 
work to a single client, he had in a sense taken him- 
self out of the professional rank. 

The inconsistency of such an attitude at once be- 
comes apparent when we consider that large group 
of extremely competent men who are today engaged 
on architectural work for cities, states and the na- 
tional government. When a man devotes his entire 
time to a municipality as superintendent of design 
and construction of its school buildings, he works 
for a single client at a salary. Or, when he com- 
petently acts as a State Architect, reforming the de- 
sign and construction of its buildings, and acts as 
consultant on all the many vital matters that the 
well-trained architect is so competent to advise, and 
all for a salary is he unethical ? Probably if there 
were enough of these important and dignified offices 
to go around, we should find the public clamoring 
for architectural assistance and the only aid available 
would be that small group who shout ethics on every 
occasion, and who were sulking because they had 
been taken at their word and overlooked. 

Like many another sweeping statement, this one 
of unethical commercialization of architecture in 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OE ROBERT HAAS. 

ARCHITECT 

The two illustrations on this page show two views of an old street in 
London in the period 1850-60 as it was reproduced and used as a setting 
for the John Barrymorc production of "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde." It 
was constructed on the studio floor of wood and plaster. 

motion picture work is based on lack of knowl- 
edge of the actual and surrounding conditions. 
It would seem to be inconsistent for those 
men in the profession of architecture who in- 
sistently claim that architecture is entirely an 
art and resent with uplifted hand and arched 
eye-brows the very suggestion that it is in any 
way a business to declare unethical the work 
of an architect when competently directed 
toward the improvement of motion picture 
production. In work of this character the 
more sordid elements of construction are es- 
caped and the aesthetic elements are raised to 
their highest position. The architect may 
witness the growth in a few days of a struc- 
ture designed as a setting for an important 
gathering of people that, if it were an every- 
day construction, he might wait for months 
for completion and perhaps with less satis- 
faction as to the results attained. 
As was stated at the outset of this article, it 



is now a matter of years since this magazine 
first contended that there was a valuable field 
for architects in connection with the higher 
type of motion picture work, and it is believed 
that the thoughtful reader who will carefully 
examine the various illustrations reproduced 
with this series will be compelled to admit 
that there can be no more dignified, more 
valuable or more instructive work in architec- 
tural practice than is shown by the architect 
who has permitted us to avail ourselves of 
these examples of his work. 

In a succeeding issue probably that of July 
21st there will appear another article from 
the standpoint of the producer which takes 
up the matter of constructing motion picture 
"sets" and which gives some of the problems 
presented and tells how they are met. 

This makes entertaining reading and pre- 
sents for the first time informing facts of that 
half-way ground between reality and romance, 
which is the evening playground of so many 
of us. 




\ MOTION PICTURE SET. DESIGNED AND EXECUTED- 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OE ROBERT HAAS, 

ARCHITECT 



What Is an Architect? 

Extracts from the Inaugural Address of John W. Simpson, President, R. I. B. A. 



IN all the world's history, there has been never 
an epoch like that to which we are come. Four 
years of energy and skill have been devoted by 
the nations to the work of mutual destruction ; and 
now they see, revealed by the light of peace, the 
precipice of ruin to which their struggles have 
brought them. Aghast at the imminent danger, 
they turn still faint and bruised with .fighting to 
mend the neglected structure of their prosperity, to 
renew the arrested progress of their social welfare. 
In these tremendous circumstances, I invite your 
attention to the functions of the architect. Plan 
born of the fertile union of reflection, analyzing the 
conditions of the problem, with imagination, quick 
to perceive its true solution ; construction, daughter 
of caution, testing the soundness of each audacious 
artifice. Such faculties, at once quickened and 
chastened by severe technical training, conduce 
as I shall submit to a type of intellect in the de- 
designer of buildings which is a national asset ; an 
instrument to be employed to its very'limit at this 

present time. 

* * * 

. What is an architect ? 

There can be no better definition than that given 
by the dictionary of the Academic Franchise : "The 
artist who composes buildings, determines their 
proportions, distributions and decorations, directs 
their execution, and controls the expenditure upon 
them." 

First then, foremost, and above all, he is an artist. 
And by the term artist, I understand no more a 
painter, or a draughtsman, than I do an actor, or 
for that matter, a hairdresser but that which all 
who honestly practice those professions would wish 
to be ; delighting in their work for its own sake, yet 
discontented with it because of perpetual endeavor 
to reach a higher perfection. Not that fitful dilet- 
tante who justifies himself his idle hours with 
empty phrases "a lack of inspiration," or the like 
but a man with a life's work before him, and the 
time desperately inadequate in which to do it. A 
man of remorseless severity in the standard of his 
own attainment, insomuch that he shall grudge no 
expenditure of time and pains to achieve the small- 
est improvement in his work. One in whose mouth 
the words "it will do," and "near enough," are not 
found; nor will he tolerate them in the mouths of 
those who work with him. 

With such a temperament, imagination, an eye 



trained to the appreciation of form and color, and 
the rare creative faculty, endowed with all attributes 
of the artist he is yet but an imperfect' architect. 
For to the artist must be added the technician, to 
make the architect. Of what avail is his gift of 
creation, if he have not constructive science that 
alone shall enable the offspring of his vision to reach 
maturity ? 

And, what a very mountain range of obstacles 
now appears between our eager artist and the prom- 
ised land of his desire. Not seldom, indeed, his 
heart fails at the steep ascent, and either he turns 
aside into by-paths which he conceives easier or 
more direct or, he becomes fascinated with the 
very ruggedness of his toil, and remains contentedly 
constructing, with never a regret for what lies be- 
yond his vision. 

The artist, then, must train his unaccustomed feet 
to tread firmly the slippery planes of geometry ; for 
he is to be able, you must remember, to delineate 
things, not merely as they exist, but as they are to 
be. Geometer and that he may calculate mathe- 
matician, he must still surmount and master the 
rocky intricacies of the trades. Mason and brick- 
layer shall he become, and carpenter to boot. The 
workers in metal must yield to him the secrets of 
their crafts, nor shall he rest till he has explored the 
whole mystery of material rocks and trees, and 
sand which is by the seashore. 

Something of an engineer he will find himself 
nowadays, being called upon to deal with steel as 
a familiar friend ; recognizing its great possibilities, 
and its limitations. He is but a poor designer 
who shall set aside materials as "inartistic" ; rather 
should he recognize it as his duty, by masterful 
handling, to imbue them with beauty. 

The study of hygiene is within his province ; for 
he must be nicely studious in arranging all sanitary 
matters, and that not merely as to their general 
disposal. Judging no detail of pipe, trap, joint or 
fitting unworthy of attention, he must narrowly 
supervise each with the authority which is born of 
knowledge. Upon climate, aspect, rain-fall, sub- 
soils, and all matters pertaining to the public health, 
he will be required to advise ; and to plan aright 
the defences against those insidious, persistent foes 
of humanity, sickness and disease. 

Armed, then, with this panoply of attainments, 
and the vigorous constitution proper for their ex- 
ercise, yet another gift is needed for his full equip- 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ment. The very weight of his intellectual armor 
may be his disadvantage and undoing, it it be not 
supported by that solid sense of proportion -those 
powers of inductive and deductive reasoning which 
go to make what is commonly called ''business 
ability." 

And here we come upon our architect in an aspect 
quite different from any in which we have hitherto 
viewed him. An aspect, too, which perhaps most 
of all differentiates him from his brethren who take 
the arts for their trade. 

For, consider his postion who is entrusted with 
an important work of architecture, and how his 
conditions vary from those of the painter or the 
sculptor. These last produce their work, agree 
terms of its purchase, and there's an end to the 
transaction ! A mere matter of interchange, so far 
as finance is concerned. 

But the architect, from the moment the building 
contract is signed, is invested with the discretion of 
an almost unfettered trustee. Vast sums of money 
are at his disposition, and are disbursed by his di- 
rection. None can tell, till such time as the work 
is completed and the cost reckoned, whether or no 
he has wisely and honestly acquitted himself of his 
stewardship, and obtained full value for the moneys 
entrusted to him. 

A trustee, did I say? Nay, more; a very judge. 
As the employer lays down his gold, so the builder 
bestows freely his work at the word of the architect, 
neither doubting but that justice shall be done them. 
When I think of the unlimited trust and confidence 
which are placed in us day by day, year by year, by 
men of opposing interests, strangers moreover for 
the most part, who know us not at all in private 
life ; when I think, too, that among both small and 
great, high and low, that trust and that confidence 
are justified I profess I am proud of my calling. 
Mistakes are made, no doubt, "to err is human" ; I 
have known cases of unpardonable oversight but 
(I speak of those who rightly bear the title) who 
ever heard of a dishonest architect ? 

To prolong the list would weary you. I could 
speak of the necessary knowledge of accounts ; of 
some familiarity with the law, as it affects the draw- 
ing of contracts, the rights of dominant and servient 
owners of easements, the complexities of building 
acts and such like mysteries ; of the need that he 
should be able to express his views with clarity 
and terseness, whether in writing or in speech; of 
the architect as the "polite letter writer," dealing 
daily with the correspondence of a bishop. 

You will say I fear that my sketch of the "com- 
plete architect" is but a fancy portrait, that so many 
accomplishments cannot crowd into the few years 
of a working life. My picture, it may be, is exactly 



true of none of us, as we are I freely disclaim its 
likeness to the author but it may stand for all of 
us as we would be. 

* * * 

Be this of the workman as it may be. XYhat of the 
work ? 

It will not have escaped you that, although the 
quality of artist stands foremost in the making of 
an architect, I have described in greater detail his 
faculties of construction and administration. It is 
with intention that I have chosen for my discourse 
these less familiar aspects of our art. To cultured 
minds, the aesthetics of architecture are a perennial 
interest, and, since buildings make appeal to the 
sense of beauty, the emotions they inspire must 
form the measure for their criticism. Yet it is 
seldom realized how much of the greatness of the 
art of architecture is due to the severely practical 
nature of its medium, to the necessity of express- 
ing the artist's ideal in terms of cubic reality. When 
the enthusiast speaks of it as "frozen music," he is 
apt to forget that the freezing inspired, and is the 
very essence of, the music. For architecture is, 
above all, building; the calculated, right disposition 
of proportioned solids and voids in other words, 
plan and construction ; not the cornices, moldings 
and carvings which define the masses, add desired 
emphasis to light and shadow. To create it, no 
dexterous suggestive sketch suffices ; no magic wand, 
nor lam]), nor potent incantation will raise it frtnn 
the ground. Patient complex diagrams of geomet- 
rical projection, sown with myriad notes and figures, 
must show how bricks are placed in unseen founda- 
tions, and how joints of cunning fashion couple the 
roof beams. 

But, for all that I have dwelt upon the material. 
I would not be thought unmindful of the spiritual 
aspect of our calling. "Morality, in fact, is archi- 
tectonic ; and goodness, for human nature, is the 
queen over truth and beauty.'' I quote from Add- 
ington Symonds. "Experience leads me," he adds, 
"to think that there are numerous human beings in 
each nation who receive powerful and permanent 
tone from the impressions communicated to them 
by architecture." Very great, therefore, is the im- 
portance of a prevailing standard of good design, 
of logical, comely compliance with our domestic and 
commercial needs. 

I am not now thinking of great monuments. 
Placed in the hands of competent designers, the 
government housing scheme may effect ethical re- 
sults of more value to the nation than the satisfac- 
tion of its physical demands. The clerk and the 
artisan, on their way to the morning train, pass by 
rows of dwelling places, ill planned within, monoton- 
ously vulgar without. "One of these days," thinks 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



our friend, "I will have a house of by own," and 
in his mind the house of his desire shapes itself, 
like to those he daily sees. What an ideal ! Yet 
how should it be otherwise ? The only effective edu- 
cation of the public in architecture is the object 
lesson of good design. 

AH creative art must have a motive. Gaudet, in 
his wonderful "Cours d'Architecture," reveals the 
basic influence which governs our art, in an illum- 
inating phrase. "The great architect of a period," 
says he, "is its social condition ; the technician real- 
izes, but does not create, the aspirations of his 
time." Yet, while it remains true that architecture 
reflects, and writes in stone, the history of its time, 
the legend is no mere transcript, but a conception 
whereby the fertilizing suggestion is transmuted, 
vitalized and perfected. Versailles owed its exis- 
tence to the autocratic splendor of Louis XIV, but 
the minds that created it were those of Mansard, of 
Le Notre, and Le Brun.* 

The pageant of Versailles has passed into the 
shades ; there breathes no wind of life among the 
phantoms of that splendid court ; alone, the artists' 
work remains, immortal. To us as it did to them 
inspiration must come from the living world, from 
them that are night to us, from the resistless, limit- 
less future. For good or ill, the old order is well 
nigh gone ; the short retrospect of our own lives 
tells of a mighty social change, and in the fruition 
of the new state, architecture must fulfil its glorious 
part. "Did you, O friend," said Whitman, "suppose 
democracy was only for elections, for politics, or 
for a party name?" and, "To the men and women 
of a country, its aesthetics furnish materials and sug- 
gestions of personality, and enforce them in a thou- 
sand effective ways." 

To those impatient for results, let me say that 
economy in building is effected, not by the omission 
of ornamental details and, indeed, it is but a poor 
design which needs them but, by minute study of 
the plan and construction, upon whose importance 
I have already insisted. "Plan" means far more 
than the arrangement of rooms ; it comprises the 
scrutiny of every foot of ground, its contours and 
subsoil, whereby foundation work is saved; it covers 
the economical disposition and grading of roads, the 
aspect of each house site, the water supply, lighting, 
drainage, and in mnay cases reasoned investiga- 
tion of the general and local social problems inci- 
dent to the formation of a township. "Construc- 
tion," too, may be but a small thing, in for ex- 
amplea cottage roof; but to perfect it, so that 
wood, slate, lead and labor may be reduced in each 

"On ne peut pas. Sire, employer trop delude pour concevlnr 
auelque dessin qui reponda a la grandeur de vos actions Comme 
elles ont surpass* tout se qui s'est fait dans les autres temSf 

?^^F-%S%' B %SS t aussl au - dessus de 



of several hundred cottages, will perhaps need days 
of work and experiment. And the time lost in pre- 
liminary study is regained many fold in the end. To 
produce in bulk such comparatively simple things as 
shells needed months of preparation, but, when or- 
ganization was complete, they poured forth like 
water from a pierced dam. So, houses, far more 
complex constructions than shells, will presently 
arise as by enchantment; the process has already 
begun. 

Like religion, architecture, if it is to profit a 
nation, must be part of its daily life. It is in plan 
that lies the true economy prevention of waste. 
Waste of time and energy, wandering about the 
tortuous passages of tube stations, where lifts are 
planned remote from trains, and fatuous stairs in- 
tervene between them and the platforms. Waste 
of property in the squalid hinder parts of main line 
stations, untidy sprawling areas dotted with lament- 
able sheds, and linked by bridges whose building 
has darkened and desolated streets of houses ; waste 
which defiles and depresses whole communities. I 
mention "backs," because architecture is matter not 
only, as is sometimes thought, for fronts, but equally 
for backs and sides ; for all, in short, that connotes 
orderly, cleanly life, and the beauty of efficiency. 

* * * 

\Yar, like architecture, is an art, and is practised 
"according to plan." Its principles demand the same 
insistence on a leading motive, the same subordina- 
tion of the part of the whole ; and there is the hazard 
variant from which skill may make, or folly mar, 
success. The commander, like the architect, must 
work within the limitations of his budget, though 
his expenditure is counted not, alas, in terms of his 
employer's money, but of his men's lives! Marshall 
Koch, indeed, pushes the parallel still closer. "The 
development of the art of war is like that of the art 
of architecture. The materials you use for your 
buildings may change; they may be wood, stone, 
steel. But the static principles on which you house 
must be built are permanent." 

Those who know me will not misunderstand; 
will not think me less enthusiastic for art, that I 
have dwelt almost wholly tonight upon plan and 
construction. Assuredly, I yield to none in my rev- 
erence for the sublime qualities of painting, music, 
sculpture. But, among the fine arts, architecture is 
unique in that it alone subserves utility. By reason 
of its very limitations the intimacy of its relation 
to the needs of humanity, its incessant conforma- 
tion with cosmic fact, and the rigorous severity of 
its principles its votaries are compelled to under- 
stand widely, to see quickly and well, to be eclectic 
and tolerant while holding unsullied their own ar- 
tistic faith. It is more particularly upon these 



8 



AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



grounds that I have ventured to assert the value of 
our profession to the state. 

It is not among those callings which bestows great 
wealth on those who practise it. Few architects 
retire upon their earnings; fewer still leave riches 
at their death. Yet no art bestows greater fortune 



of pleasure upon those who give themselves wholly 
to its service ; and what can money give besides ? 

To us, architects, the immortal words which Car- 
lyle puts in the mouth of Teufelsdrockh yield their 
fullest meaning. "Xot what I have." said he, "but 
what I do is my kingdom." 



Standard Test for Schoolhouse Design 

and Construction 

BY FRANK IRVING COOPER, Architect 

Chairman of The National Education Association Committee on Standardization 

of Schoolhouse Planning 



POSSIBLY one of the most remarkable omis- 
sions in the literature on school building is 
the absence of any work upon the economical 
utilization of floor space in a modern departmental 
school building. 

The subject is of great importance, in these times 
of high prices of materials and labor of all kinds. 
It is of importance, not only to the taxpayer, who 
must foot the bills, but to the artificers, who must 
gain their daily bread by work upon new structures. 
The artificers suffer when the high cost of school 
building prevents the carrying out of new under- 
takings. 

The investigation undertaken by the Commit- 
tee on Standardization of Schoolhouse Planning and 
Construction, of the National Education Associa- 
tion, purposed to determine if such an ambition 
may be permitted without speculations as to what 
might be ideal planning, what part of the modern 
school building could reasonably be declared as be- 
ing used for the purpose of instruction, the object 
for which the building was erected. 

For a historian, the story of the committee's 
tabulations, its comparison of data, and its experi- 
ments to discover the use of floor space in school 
buildings, will prove interesting reading. It reveals 
a condition of lack of interest and study on the 
part of those responsible for the school plan that 
passes belief. 

Spaces in the school plans were marked as being 
used for purposes for which they were totally un- 
suitable. Spaces were marked for activities which, 
if carried on in the areas assigned to them, defied all 
sense of proportion in curriculum and class unit. 

What our tabulators thought about these things 
is their own affair. The architects are safe because 
the tabulations were known only by numbers and 



complexity of findings meant little to the draughts- 
man and measurer of plans. 

It is another story, however, when plans of ne\v 
school buildings are seen, appearing in current 
magazines, plans based on old formulas apparently 
still serving architects as if they were beginners, in- 
stead of designers living in an age when all is mo- 
tion. A Schoolhouse plan should be luminous from 
its purposeful energy to serve the spirit of modern 
education. 

Previous to the year 1 ( '2() there was progress, 
but the progress was. year by year, hardly measur- 
able. The awakening and development of school 
life, since the tragedy of America's unpreparedness 
in 1916. has served to hasten the slow moving 
steps of progress in the science of school planning. 

The building of school houses ceased during tin- 
war and now comes the reaction. Progress comes 
into her own. Natural law affirms that progress, 
which well nigh ceased, shall take on new energy 
and the educational and architectural world look to 
the committee of the National Educational Associa- 
tion for an accounting of its time, during the period 
of seeming inactivity. 

The president of this society has very kindly 
intimated that this accounting shall be termed "The 
Next Step." and this indicates that steps have been 
already taken by which the committee has arrived 
at its present position ; and because there have been 
previous steps, it may not be amiss to acquaint the 
reader with the standards adopted by the commit- 
tee and already generally accepted. 

The most important of these standards is called 
the Candle of Efficiency. This was determined upon 
after some two hundred school buildings had been 
tabulated, to discover how the floor area of each 
had been used. Step by step the statistical facts 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



were obtained and averages taken ; then these aver- 
ages were assembled, tabulated and studied. 

This Candle of Efficiency, with its six main divi- 
sions, is now being used in checking school plans in 
some of our most important architects' offices and 
the rules for measuring the floor spaces are here 
given, that an understanding may be had of the 
practical every day use of this measure. 



C. Compute each floor and mezzanine separately. 

D. The area of light wells, courts, air shafts, 
etc., are not to be included in floor areas. 

E. In rooms and auditoriums 'hich extend 
through more than one story the area of such space 
shall be deducted from the floor or floors through 
which it extends. 

F. In the case of an Assembly Hall or Gym- 



CHART FOR. COMPUTATION FOR THE NUMBER. OF RGDMS NEEDED FOd INSTRUCTION 
PURPOSES IN A SCHOOL BUILDING DA5ED ON ONE WEEKS PROGRAM 




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NOTE; THIS CHART is &ASED ON AN ACTUAL PROGRAM IN A SMALL HIGH SCHOOL . 

SPECIAL ROOMS, LABORATORIES AND COMMERCIAL ROOMS HAVE 164 SPARE PERIODS AND 
WOULD HAVE SUPPORTED MORE PUPILS BUT THE GYMNASIUM AND TYPEWRITING ROOM 
ARE IN USE DURING THE ENTIRE SCHOOL WEEK 



Rules for measurement and tabulation of school 
buildings as formulated by the Committee on 
Standardization of Schoolhouse Planning and Con- 
struction of the National Education Association. 

RULE 1. COMPUTING AREAS. 

A. Line of measurement for area of all floors 
is to be taken at the outside face of exterior walls. 
Deduct all recesses which are the full story height. 

B. The area of basement floor is to be measured 
from same line as outside wall of first floor. 



nasium which has a balcony, the area of such bal- 
cony shall be taken separately. 

G. In figuring wall or partition areas, no door 
or window openings shall be deducted but the wall 
shall be figured solid as though no openings oc- 
curred. 

H. Exterior walls and interior partitions are 
to be figured the finished thickness including any 
lath and plastering. 

(Continued on page 13) 



10 



lKffl^ 








EDITOOIMM 




Mr. Eggers' Sketches 

IT was the announced purpose to commence in 
this issue the presentation of a series of sketches, 
specially made for THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT, by 
Mr. Otto Eggers, of old type.- of architecture in the 
United States. 

Owing to the shortage of high grade print paper, 
on which it was proposed to present these drawings, 
it has been found impossible to print these plates 
in time for this issue, nor does it seem likely that 
they can first appear earlier than our issue of 
August 4. 



Not What I Have, but What I Do 
is My Kingdom 

ATTENTION' of the reader is directed to an 
extract from the inaugural address of Mr. 
John Simpson, president of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, printed in this issue. 

Mr. Simpson asks, "What is an Architect?" and 
proceeds to give his conception of the attributes of 
a many sided professional man. It is both satis- 
factory and interesting to note that in stating the 
exact field in which the architect is in these days 
expected to function, Mr. Simpson is entirely in 
accord with the opinion so long urged by THE 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT. First and foremost con- 
tends Mr. Simpson, the architect is an artist. A 
man "delighting in his work for its own sake, yet 
discontented because of a perpetual endeavor to 
reach a higher perfection." This exactly analyzes 
the true mental attitude of the artist architect toward 
his profession The perpetual endeavor toward a 
higher perfection is the straining for every last bit of 
knowledge that a man may acquire toward his work 
as an architect. 

And in making this endeavor, the thoughtful man, 
early in his career, learns that he shall have to group 
with his inclination as an artist, many attributes 
that in his early or student days he firmly believed 



were incompatible with the artist's attitude toward 
his work. Just what all these things are Mr. Simp- 
son has stated with profound knowledge. The 
poseur who aims to practice the fine arts generally 
is of a mentally lazy disposition, and it is his habit 
to cieate an impression among his listeners that 
all the practical elements that accompany his work 
are sordid and non-essential. Hehind such a plea 
he shows an ignorance that is profound. It is the 
cultivation of such an attitude by architects that 
has led to certain well defined opinions of the gen- 
eral public that architects are impractical men. Tims. 
they have seen their once proud positions as Mas- 
ter Builders gradually declining and have been lazily 
willing to allow others outside of their profession 
to assume responsibilities which they, through in- 
action and consequent loss of ability, are not qual- 
ified to perform. 

AS Mr. Simpson correctly puts it. the architect 
from the moment the building contract is 
signed is invested with the discretion of an almost 
unfettered trustee, a very judge. It is, therefore, 
necessary that an architect should be qualified to 
accept so great a responsibility. To dodge it on the 
plea that lie is an artist and not also a business man 
is to shirk a responsibility. 

More and more every day is this correct idea of 
the true meaning of the practice of architecture be- 
coming accepted. Its general acceptance will re- 
sult in more complete and modern forms of archi- 
tectural education. Education is undoubtedly the 
cause of the present misguided views as to the true 
meaning of an architect's attitude toward his work. 
It will be by a devision of educational methods by 
the practical men of the profession that we shall 
become set upon the right road. 

The education of the architectural student is not 
confined to that curriculum of study that he will 
for a certain course pursue at the the architectural 
school. It is largely influenced by the attitude or 
expressed opinion of men in his profession to 



11 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



whose spoken and written words he will lend a 
listening ear. It, therefore, becomes necessary that 
the man in practice should by careful consideration 
of this important question so bring his ideas up to 
the conditions of modern practice that he will not 
mislead his younger brethren, but by sound precept 
and good example show them that, while they are 
embarking on the oldest and greatest of all the arts, 
they are at the same time to become immersed in all 
the complex problems that attend every business 
venture. 

The Architect and the Motion 
Picture 

THERE appears in this issue the first of two 
articles, very fully illustrated, on the relation 
of architects to motion picture production. 

As a means of educating the masses, and more 
particularly the large number of people in this coun- 
try not yet fully Americanized, the motion picture 
is considered as of the highest value. Also the 
audiences have become extremely cultured, and to 
an extent that all producers know that to slight 
them by presenting "sets" not accurate in every de- 
tail is the worst possible business policy. 

How was the public to become assured that the 
architecture shown on the screen was good, or sim- 
ply florid, sensational or grossly inaccurate? This 
problem of placing the stamp of correctness on the 
architecture of "sets" was at once solved by a large 
picture corporation when they included in the "le- 



gend" that was shown prefatory to the running of 
the reels, the statement that the architectural and 
decorative effects were produced under the direc- 
tion of a certain architect whose name was promi- 
nently displayed. 

It was this unusual attribution of authorship, and 
commendably proper regard for the architectural 
verities that led to an investigation which resulted 
in the careful preparation of this series of articles. 

It is erroneous to assume that the "sets" used 
by the larger motion picture producers are not in 
the truest sense structural. Visiting a large studio 
in New York City, there was found a carpenter 
shop of vast area, equipped with the most modern 
woodworking machinery and in which more than 
fifty skilled men were engaged in construction work. 
On the main floor of this studio, an equally large 
group were building in the most solid manner and 
decorating and furnishing the most substantial in- 
terior and exterior "sets." 

Every detail was constantly under the direct 
supervision of the architect or one of his trained as- 
sistants. The basis from which this work was con- 
structed were sets of plans and specifications as 
carefully drawn as if for absolutely permanent 
construction. 

Motion picture sets constructed in this manner 
are sure to be as correct in their interpretation of 
architecture as any could be. The value of the 
architects work in their production is proven beyond 
question. 




PATIO OF THE LIONS THE ALHAMBRA 
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VOL. CXVIII, No. 2324 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 7. 1920 




' 



-. . - -.."* 



FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF AN AMERICAN COUNTRY HOME. 




MOTION PICTURE SETS, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 

V scene for use in "The Avalanche" to represent a Spanish inn. The building was not as a copy but a composite. All the 

vails arc of real plaster and the stairs and platform are solidly built for use by the actors. There are entrances from the 

platform to three rooms in which subsequent action was carried on. 



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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Standard Test for Schoolhouse De- 
sign and Construction 

(Continued from page 10) 

I. Flues are to be figured to include all sur- 
rounding walls and partitions except interior walls 
and partitions figured under H. 

J. Where closets or bookcases or dead spaces 
occur in a bank of flues, same are to be figured 
in as flue area. 

K. Stairs extending a full story in height are 
to be taken as stair area. Steps not a full story in 
height are to be taken as part of the floor area of 
the room or corridor in which they occur. 

L. Large piers occurring in rooms are to be de- 
ducted from floor areas and added to wall areas. 

M. Chimneys are to be figured in as flue areas. 

N. Area of each individual space is to be taken 
separately in accordance with schedule. 

O. Areas of arcades, open porches, uncovered 
corridors, pergolas and open air theatres or audi- 
toriums, are to be figured separately. 

Rn.E 2. COMMITTING Crmr.\L CONTENTS. 

A. Ascertain the cubical contents of the build- 
ing by multiplying the area of the first floor com- 
puted by Rule 1, by the height of the building from 
the underside of basement floor to the mean of the 
roof. 

B. In buildings whose basements are not en- 
tirely excavated, multiply the area of the first floor 
computed by Rule A ( areas) by the height of the 
building from the underside of the first floor to 
the mean of the roof. To this content add the 
cubical content of any space between the underside 
of the first floor and the surface of the excavation. 
and in addition add the cubical contents of any par- 
tial basement which may be found in the building. 

C. When portions of the building are built to 
different heights, each portion is to be taken as an 
individual unit. 

D. Projecting entrance porches are not to be 
included. 

E. Porches, covered verandas, used for school 
activities and open air rooms and auditoriums are 
to be included. 

The percentages of the Candle of Efficiency have 
given standards by which architects reach a better 
understanding as to whether their plans are well 
designed for economy of floor space. 

The study of school building plans, taken the 
country over, revealed a startling variation between 
them. Even when the buildings were designed to 
house practically the same number of pupils, en- 
gaged upon similar lines of work, there was often 
no similarity between the details of the plans. It 



would appear that building programs are prepared 
and working plans made without comprehension 
of the fundamental facts covering the conditions 
of the work to be later performed by the teachers 
and pupils in the every day order of school exer- 
cises. 

If the probable future program is laid out for 
a definite number of pupils and the type and num- 
ber of rooms to fit this program is determined, a 
foundation of fact is laid, upon which to plan the 
lay out of the proposed new school building. 

The success of the school in the use of a new 
building is largely determined before a line is drawn 
in the architect's office, by the care with which this 
future program is studied. 

Once the foundation of fact above referred to is 
laid, the architect can make every dollar expended 
upon the new building carry a peak load, by spend- 
ing at least fifty cents of every dollar for those 
parts of the building to be devoted to purposes of 
instruction. 

A study of the fundamental facts and a deter- 
mination of what is required, in the way of a build- 
ing program to meet those facts, will enable the 
superintendent to face the financial world and de- 
mand, with every assurance of success, the appro- 
priations required properly to carry on the educa- 
tional program needed for the proper development 
of his town. 

Our next step, therefore, is the development of 
a method, or rule, by which the general size of the 
new school building may be determined. 

If we can do this, by the application of a method 
that will work the greater number of times it is 
tried, the planning of school buildings will no longer 
be a matter of opinions and guesses. The new 
building will be founded on a basis of fact. No 
argument is needed to prove that such a method is 
desirable provided it is confined to translating the 
superintendent's data, on the maximum number of 
proposed pupil occupants, and the course of study 
into the number and the size of rooms and their 
floor area required to accommodate a definite num- 
ber of pupils, when engaged upon their school work. 

The rule should solve this problem and should in 
no way hamper or interfere with the creative im- 
pulse of the skilled architect. Such a rule used with 
the per cents of the Candle of Efficiency will be the 
means of ending the confusion and waste now so 
apparent in the planning of school buildings. It 
will result in the same form of economy that now 
comes from the use of the budget system in finan- 
cial undertakings. With such a rule, guess work, 
uncertainty, worry and loss of time in laying out 
the requirements of the floor plan are eliminated 
and the designer, given his problem, may at once 



13 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



proceed on a sure footing, for he will know from 
the start the exact requirements which he will he 
called upon to meet. 

A six months' study of this problem and the 
trial and elimination of numerous methods in the 
practical work of the architect's office, gradually 
produced a certainty that facts obtained by the fol- 
lowing rule were the basis upon which to plan. 

SUGGESTED METHOD OF COMPUTATION FOR SIZE OF 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

Compute the probable maximum number of pu- 
pils in each grade for which the building is to be 
planned. Each study and special activity for each 
grade, with their period allotment per week, is to 
be worked out by the superintendent. Determine 
the maximum number of pupils that would prob- 
ably take each study and special activity. The 
maximum number of pupils taking a subject is 



multiplied by the number of periods per week al- 
lotted to that subject. This product is divided by 
the average number of pupils in a group or class 
in that subject. This is divided by the number 
of periods in which a room can be used in a week. 

In the last computation any fraction is counted 
as a whole number. 

The result is then charted for use of rooms. 
First is shown each room with its distinctive pur- 
pose, then any supplementary or duplicate use that 
might be made of the room, then the home room 
pupil accommodation, and then the teacher use of 
the room. 

Charting the school, first by special activities and 
studies and then by rooms and their possible mul- 
tiple use, shows what margin for flexibility will be 
required in determining the final number of class 
and study rooms. 



Notes from London 

By Special Correspondent of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



THE conclusions recently arrived at by the City 
of London Churches Commission, and ex- 
pressed in their report, recommending the re- 
moval of nineteen churches and the sale of their 
sites have aroused a storm of indignant protest 
in this country. Even in signing the report Lord 
Hugh Cecil added a note, in which he said, ''I must 
add that I think the removal of a church and the 
desecration of its site a great evil" ; and the offer 
in the report itself that "wherever the tower is 
worth keeping we have recommended that it should 
be kept" does not by any means satisfy public 
opinion. 

The Lord Mayor has stated that he is not in 
favor of demolition of some of the nineteen 
churches on the list for destruction, and mentioned 
particularly St. Mary Woolnoth as one which 
should be spared, adding the wise suggestion that 
a special committee of archaeologists and experts 
should be appointed to inspect the churches, and 
report before the matter were definitely decided 
and Sir Banister Fletcher F. R. I. B. A., the well- 
known architectural historian, said that the city 
churches form an architectural heirloom of which 
any city might be proud, and any attempt such as 
was being now tried to destroy or remove them 
should be resisted to the utmost. Mr. Frederick 
Hiorns, writing yesterday in "The Observer," savs : 
"Such contemplated vandalism is almost past belief 
- . . . Of the original fifty churches which 



\Yren built eighteen have already suffered destruc- 
tion, making it the more desirable to retain the 
thirty-two that remain. Yet we are to understand 
that thirteen more of \Yren's structures are now 
threatened, and they include examples of such 
beauty and interest as St. Vedast, St. Magnus, 
All Hallows-Lombart street, St. Anne and St. 
Agnes, and St. Mary-at-Hill (the last two with 
most original and beautiful interiors), while of the 
churches of Wren's successors we are warned that 
a work of the exceptional merit of Hawksmmor's 
St. Mary Woolnoth may, after long hesitation, be 
swept away .... The financial needs of the 
Church, even when supported by demonstration of 
the "superfluity" of this or that of its buildings, 
cannot here be the final word ; and there is here a 
strong case for considering primarily the spiritual 
as opposed to the financial and materialistic aspect 
of buildings which embody fine architecture." 

Another suggestion offered is that these churches 
should be "carefully taken down and re-erected 
complete in suburbs that needs churches." Among 
the notable Wren churches which are now threat- 
ened are those of St. Anne and St. Agnes, with 
its garden upon Gresham St., St. Nicholas Cole 
Abbey, which has been called "a jewel like example 
of Wren's conception of a preaching-house," and 
St. Vedast, whose walls withstood the great fire and 
are partly recased, and which possesses a notable 
steeple enclosing a clock whose mechanism is com- 



14 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



plete, but which has no dial face. One humorist 
remarks of the commissioners, "How such valuable 
sites as those occupied by the Abbey at Westminster 
and the Cathedrals of St. Paul and St. Saviour 
came to escape their attention it is remarkable, in- 
deed, to conceive." 

Architecture at the Royal Academy 

ON the whole this may be considered a very suc- 
cessful Royal Academy as far as architecture 
is concerned. There are noticeably few photographs 
of executed work, which is to be regretted, for 
in the case of some buildings these are most valu- 
able ; but their absence may be accounted for by 
the new regulation that photographs, which must 
not exceed half -plate size, are only admissible when 
exhibited in connection with working drawings and 
in the same frame. 

Apart from this the work seemed to me good 
throughout, and the drawings in many cases ex- 
cellent. This remark applies to Mr. Robert Atkin- 
son's two well-handled drawings of ''Entrance Hall 
to Theatre, Brighton'' and "Proposed Theatre and 
Winter Garden at Liverpool"; to Mr. Raffles Davi- 
son's work "Stornoway Town Improvement" and 
elsewhere which is always good throughout, using 
pencil, brown ink and watercolor to get the effect 
needed ; and to that fine water-color artist William 
Walcot's masterly drawing for Sir Edwin Lutyens' 
"Jaipur Column," which has, skilfully combined 
with Renaissance elements just the note of the East 
which is needed for the soil of India. 

I imagine we may trace the same artist's hand 
in the drawing of the Imperial Ballroom (interior) 
at Delhi from Sir E. Lutyens' design; and coming 
to domestic architecture we can have nothing but 
praise for Mr. Ernest Newton's "Flint House, Gor- 
ing" (entrance front and garden front) and "House 
at Kingswood. Garden Front," which are typical 



(From The Architectural Ju 





of this architect in house design. I admired also 
his '^Memorial Shrine for Uppingham School." 
The group of buildings at Whiteley Village, Bur- 
hill, Surrey by Sir Aston Webb, P. R. A. and Mr. 
Maurice Webb are to be noted; and I liked par- 
ticularly, for general composition and detail of 
work the "Elevation of the London County West- 
minster and Parr's Bank, Antwerp Branch." ex- 
hibited by Messrs Mewes and Davis. To be com- 
pared with this is Mr. Curtis Green's "Reconstruc- 
tion of Nos. 258-260, Piccadilly," in Renaissance 
composition. But yet more important, in London 
street architecture, is the "Model of East Pavilion: 
south side of the Quadrant." in which Sir Aston 
Webb, Sir Reginald Blomfield and Mr. Ernst Xew- 
ton have collaborated, the problem being, as I 
imagine, to combine harmony with existing build- 
ings on this important West End centre with the 
legitimate requirements as to frontage of shop- 
holders. 

\Yar Memorials are, of course, still well to the 
front in this academy ; and I should select for no- 
tice the "Harrow School War Memorial" by Her- 
bert Baker F. R. I. B. A., the "Proposed War 
Memorial Hall at Lambeth" by H. Austen Hall, 
though I do not care so much for Frederick Wil- 
son's "Memorial Church." Very noticeable among 
memorial schemes is the perspective view of the 
Egyptian Expeditionary Force Memorial at Jeru- 
salem by W. Palmer Jones, shown also here in a 
large-scale model, in which Greek and Egyptian 
elements have been blended into the design, which 
is boldly conceived but somewhat overweighted by 
the towering centre-piece. A very pleasing de- 
sign for domestic architecture is Mr. II. S. good- 
hart-Rendel's "Cottages and Village Shop on an 
Estate in Hertfordshire"; and with these last may 
be compared the "Group of Cottages at Turner's 
Hill Sussex, exhibited by Sir Aston Webb. P. R. A. 
and Mr. Maurice Webb. 






SMALL CONSOLES FROM A PARIS BUILDING (LOUIS XVI) 

15 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Proposals for Housing Relief in New York 



Plan Suggested by Labor Party 

Labor must be given a responsible part in any 
successful housing programme, states Frank E. 
Hill in the New York Globe. 

Participation by labor becomes possible with the 
extension of state loans for housing and the crea- 
tion of state housing boards. 

These boards should contain definite labor rep- 
resentation, and should encourage the formation of 
non-profit-making societies of architects, builders 
and workers which could employ state funds for 
furnishing houses to the laboring classes. 

These are the conclusions of certain labor spec- 
ialists, architects and workmen. They have just 
been adopted at Schenectady by the American Labor 
Party. They are believed by Ordway Tead of the 
Bureau of Industrial Research, a member of the 
committee of experts which drafted a plan at the 
request of the American Labor Party, to offer re- 
markable promise for a solution of labor difficulties 
in connection with present day construction. Ac- 
cording to many who meet labor in a practical way 
in the building field, such a plan has a promise of 
success. 

It is generally admitted that the present labor 
situation is unsatisfactory. Wages are high. In 
many cases the men insist on a ten-hour day with 
two hours paid at overtime rates. Labor of all 
kinds is scarce, and skilled labor is scarest of all. 
It has gone into the factories and into transporta- 
tion service where brawn can command high rates 
at loading and unloading. That disagreements and 
strikes frequently interrupt building operations is 
the general testimony of both speculative builders 
and architects, and even when work is done it is 
often not as efficient work as was performed ten 
years ago. 

The plan of the American Labor Party, in Mr. 
Tead's opinion, will strike at all of these evils. 

"One of the great difficulties," he declared, "is 
as usual a psychological difficulty. 



Relief as Proposed by Mayor's 
Committee 

The Mayor's Committee on Housing is working 
valiantly to stimulate the building of apartments 
and it is accomplishing a partial relief. It is, for 
instance, securing pledges of loans on second mort- 
gages ; it has secured the promise of a thousand 
building lots on terms by which the first mortgage 
shall cover the cost of the ground and no initial pay- 



ment shall be required from home builders who pur- 
chase them, and it is trying to induce employers to 
join a building association which, shall co-operate 
with various loaning organizations so that their 
employes may be able to build homes for themselves 
on the credit of their characters and their jobs. 

All these are excellent steps so far as they go and 
are especially excellent in that they stimulate men 
to own their own homes and to pay for them out 
of their savings. But if all the reliable and perma- 
nent workers who could be induced to make this 
home building venture were to be housed upon sub- 
urban lots under conditions of long and easy credit, 
the pressure for apartments in the more central sec- 
tions would be reduced but little. New York is so 
far behind in its building program that nothing but 
a very large investment the committee figures it at 
$560,000,000 will meet the need. 

Banks and insurance companies are lending less 
money on building mortgages than they would do if 
they could get the same returns for their capital as 
they can in other lines. Building mortgages yield 
small returns because of the Federal and State in- 
come taxes, and this results in building congestion, 
not only in New York but quite generally through- 
out the country. To remove that obstacle the com- 
mittee urges that the income from such mortgages 
be exempted by Congress from the payment of in- 
come taxes. 

The representatives of several insurance com- 
panies said that their companies were lending on 
building in preference to more profitable forms of 
security because the housing situation here is so 
grave as to require emergency relief, but, of course, 
such a course cannot be depended upon. Unless 
building loans can compete with other forms of in- 
vestment, building will be squeezed down to the 
lowest limits. The exemption of such loans from 
the Federal income tax is the obvious means of 
making them attractive. The Government can bet- 
ter afford to lose the income derived from that 
source than it can to encourage housing conditions 
which congest population to the danger of health 
and which prevent the revival of business activity 
in building materials. 



A Correction 

We are in receipt of a letter from Mr. T. Mac- 
Laren, of Colorado Spring, in which he states : 

"In your issue of April 21, 1920, appear illustra- 
tions of Durango High Scool, Colorado, credited 
in error to Charles E. Thomas, architect, instead of 
the former firm of MacLaren and Thomas." 



16 



Current News 



Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 

Pittsburgh Plans High Building as Building Industries Ask Recognition 
War Memorial in Car Service 

The world's tallest building is being planned by 
Pittsburgh citizens as a memorial for Pennsylvanians 
in the war, according to an announcement by the 
bureau of memorial buildings of the War Camp 
Community Service. The tower is expected to 
reach an altitude of 2,100 feet, high above the smoke 
screen of the city, and will be almost three times 
the height of the Woolworth Building and seven 
times as high as the Flatiron Building. 

On the 2,000-foot level an observation tower will 
give a view of 40 miles radius, and vari-colored 
electric searchlights will radiate in various points of 
the compass. An assembly hall to accommodate 
15,000 persons will occupy the second story, which 
will exceed by 5,000 the proposed capacity of Vic- 
tory Hall in Pershing Square, New York. A 
restaurant will occupy the floor at the 1,000-foot 
level, which will offer a wide view of the city. A 
memorial room, situated 500 feet above this, will 
be large enough to house any instrument used by 
the army in the war. 



Lumber Tragedy of the United States 

1. The New England states are no longer self- 
supporting in a lumber way. 

2. The Lake States, once our greatest producers 
of lumber, are now importing lumber to keep alive 
the many wood using industries in that section. 

3. The center of the lumber industry is fast 
moving to the Pacific Coast, which means long 
hauls and high freight rates. 

4. The lumber people of the Southern States 
admit they are through in fifteen or twenty years, 
as far as yellow pine is concerned. 

5. The forest fire loss in thts country is about 
$28,000,000 every year, and the area burned over 
is ten times greater every year than the devastated 
areas of France we have heard so much about. 
This must stop: U. S. Agricultural Department. 



Following the petition of the carriers to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission to invoke its executive 
powers to relieve the nation-wide freight congestion, 
the National Federation of Construction Industries 
has addressed a request to the commission asking 
that recognition be given the various branches of 
the construction industry in such orders for car 
service as might be issued by the commission. The 
closing paragraph of the builders' petition follow : 

"The railroads are dependent upon the construc- 
tion industry for the material wherewith to maintain 
their roadbeds. Highways, bridges, agricultural, 
industrial and other structures are products of this 
industry. Approximately fifty per cent, of the ce- 
ment produced in this country, and large quantities 
of hollow tile, brick, lumber, lime, crushed stone, 
sand and gravel and other materials supplied by 
the industry are consumed by the farmers of the 
United States, mainly in the improvement and en- 
largement of their productive units. 

"The attention of the commission is respectfully 
called to the fact that the uses to which construc- 
tion materials are usually put are essential to the 
welfare of the general public : and that the degree 
of essentiality of any material in an emergency such 
as is now reported to exist should be determined by 
the consideration of the purpose to which it is 
put. 

"IVhereforc, having called the earnest attention 
of the commission to the essential character of the 
construction industry, and having set forth all the 
matters hereinbefore menlioned, and now assuring 
the commission of its willingness to furnish to the 
commission upon request any additional facts which 
it may have in its possession or may be able to ob- 
tain, your petitioner prays that in the effective ex- 
ercise of the powers and duties cast upon the com- 
mission by law in emergencies such as are reported 
now to exist, the commission will recognize the es- 
sential character of the service being rendered by 
the construction industry and save the same harm- 
less in this emergency. 



17 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Sound-proof and Sight-proof 

A western paper looks into the future and states 
that with the invention of the geophone the world 
will have to be made sound-proof. 

The device enables the human voice to be heard 
through fifty feet of solid coal and the voice has 
been detected one hundred and fifty feet away 
through less solid substances. It would seem that 
the dictagraph will be supplanted. Anybody can 
place a geophone and no one be the wiser. This 
paper says in part, "A law may have to be devised 
to forbid its use because it can be turned to any 
number of improper and even very embarrassing 
employments. Applied to the walls of a room it 
would give facility to hear anything said in an ad- 
joining room. Fancy the United States Senate in 
secret session, regarding which it is very sensitive. 
It would be easy to apply the instrument and listen 
to all the learned senators might have to say. One 
would not be dependent upon some senator who 
took notes on his cuffs for translation outside, 

"It would seem that conferences involving secrecy 
might be compelled to devise new means of con- 
duct. Such conferences may have to employ writ- 
ing for communication between the individuals." 

It is today permitted to observe as far as the 
eye can see. \Yliy not leave unrestricted the hear- 
ing facility. If people conduct themselves as they 
should, there need be no embarrassment. Charac- 
ter has been defined as "what you are in the dark." 
If we need the lights turned on to keep at the level 
of our best moments, why, let us have the geophone 
to help us. 



oughly establish the necessity of the Federal Gov- 
ernment undertaking the construction and main- 
tenance of a definite system of national highways. 

The convoy will be under the supervision of the 
Motor Transport Corps and will consist of a motor 
transport unit complete, at war strength, one ser- 
vice park unit, at war strength, detachment from 
Engineers Corps, and detachment from Medical 
Corps. All motor trucks will be one and one-half 
tons capacity equipped with pneumatic tires. 

The tour will start from Washington passing 
through the following states: Virginia, North and 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona 
and California, ending at Los Angeles. 



War Department to Send Motor 

Convoy from Washington to 

Los Angeles 

Plans have been completed whereby the War De- 
partment will send a motor convoy from Washing- 
ton to Los Angeles over the Bankhead National 
Highway on or about June 15, due to arrive at 
Los Angeles September 1. 

The purpose of this and other overland trips 
will be to study the handicaps which surround the 
transportation needs of the army on account of the 
lack of dependable and definite systems of high- 
ways ; to secure data relative to the use of various 
types of motor vehicles ; to secure relative data on 
solid and pneumatic tires ; to train officers and men 
en extended field operations, and to recruit per- 
sonnel for the various branches of the army. 

The Federal Highway Council feels that such 
study by the Motor Transport Corps will be of great 
value to the entire country, because it will thor- 



State Aid for Cheap French Dwellings 

The French law of April 12, 1906, amended Dec. 
23, 1912, relative to state loans to enterprises en- 
gaged in the building of cheap dwellings has been 
further amended so as to provide for multiple 
dwellings, or apartment houses. The principal pro- 
visions of the amendment according to a recent is- 
sue of the Monthly Labor Review issued by the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of 
Labor, allow certain state aid on multiple dwellings 
when the annual rent of each apartment does not 
exceed at the time of construction a maximum of 
300 francs per year for three rooms and toilet 
containing a total floor area of from 376.7 to 484.4 
sq. ft., for communes having a population of 5,000 
and under ; to 720 francs per year for the city of 
Paris for the same number of rooms, with the same 
approximate floor area. For more than 484.4 sq. ft. 
of floor space the maximum annual rental is fixed 
at 325 francs for communes of 5,000 population 
and under to 760 francs to the city of Paris and 
the Province of the Seine. The law also applies 
to construction of apartments containing two rooms 
with kitchen and toilet,' one room with kitchen, and 
one isolated sleeping room. 

The annual rental of individual dwellings is fixed 
at 4 per cent, of the actual cost. The state may 
advance through the mortgage bank not more than 
200,000,000 francs and the Bank of Deposit and 
Consignation (under government supervision) is 
authorized to advance not more than 300,000,000 
francs for such enterprises. 

Loans are to draw 2 per cent, interest annually 
if used in the acquisition or construction of in- 
dividual cheap dwellings, or in the acquisition of 
small properties, under the provisions of the law 
of April 12, 1906, that of April 10, 1908, and sub- 
sequent laws. If used for the acquisition or con- 
struction of cheap dwellings or small properties for 



18 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



rent only, the rate of interest is 2 l / 2 per cent. Pro- 
vision is made for loans for completing dwellings 
now under construction. 



Arc de Triomphe Scoured 

The world famous Arc de Triomphe, which is 
perhaps the dominating symbol of the French capi- 
tal in the minds of many foreigners, became the 
subject of a heated controversy between a Paris 
newspaper, the Intransigcant, and the local govern- 
ment authorities. According to the report in the 
Philadelphia Lcdyer, it appears that tin- French 
peace loan posters, which were issued in innumerable 
variety, had been plastered through the length and 
breadth of the capital, but only were stuck on gov- 
ernment buildings, banks and such places as per- 
mission was not necessary to ask. The bill poster 
men did a thorough job. They plastered the walls 
of the Louvre, the colonnades of the Kue de Uivoli. 
church walls, palaces and monuments, and the hand- 
some arch was literally covered with posters over 
the ones already stuck up. 

The arch was a cubist-furturist delight in a dazz- 
ling array of colors. Its camouflaging was so com- 
plete that long after the loan passed the posters 
remained ragged, dog-eared, torn and weather 
beaten. The newspaper protested with photographic 
eloquence and editorial invective, the public, too. 
felt the shock to their .'esthetic sense, but the govern- 
ment remained impassive. After due warning, the 
newspaper hired a wagon and a gang of laborers, 
armed them with ladders, sponges, scrappers, hot 
water and soap and, while puzzled gendarmes looked 
on, the premiere toilette of the arch was performed. 
A load of rubbish was scraped off and the monu- 
ment emerged from its chrysalis of rags and tatters 
with all the architectmal beauty and dignity that 
its name suggests. 






How New Zealand is Getting Homes 

Most of the other countries affected like the 
United States, by a shortage of houses, have estab- 
lished some system of governmental aid for those 
who want to own their own homes. ( )ne of the 
most interesting arrangements is that of New 
Zealand. 

The housing act passed last year provides a na- 
tional board, in charge of a fund for helping any- 
one who meets the conditions set down. The meas- 
ure is intended to help only those of comparatively 
small incomes. No citizen whose income exceeds 
$1,525 a year is eligible, and the limit is lower for 
small families. The price of the house, too, is 
limited ; a wooden house may not cost more than 



$3.750, and a brick or stone house not more than 
$4.250. 

The dwellings are built by the government, and 
the buyer obtains possession by paying only $50 
down and guaranteeing to pay the rest in install- 
ments over a period of 25^ years to 36^ years. 
\Vith each installment he pays the interest, at 5 l /2 
per cent., due on the balance outstanding at the 
time. He may pay off at any time as much of the 
principal as he pleases, and in case of defaulted pay- 
ments he receives back whatever he h.is paid, less 
a stated allowance for depreciation of the property 
during his occupation. lie also pays the insurance 
charges. 

Some extremely conservative folk might term 
this "socialism." It is at least an extreme form 
of national "paternalism." Nevertheless such a 
plan does not look half so radical as it would have 
looked before the war. Some of the conditions 
would obviously not be suitable for the United 
States; the price limits, for example, are too low, 
and perhaps the time allowed for payment is un- 
necessarily long. These, however, are more or less 
accidental details. The point is that here is a definite 
plan whereby the entire community is helping its 
homeless members to obtain homes, on terms fair 
t<> both parties, and that it is considered in almost 
every civilized country a legitimate and commend- 
able public enterprise. 

It matters little whether the enterprise be con- 
ducted by the nation or state or city, so long as it 
is in responsible hands. A writer in the Lansing. 
Mich., daily press believes that Americans might 
profitably follow the example. 



Yellow Light Best 

Illuminating engineers some months ago made a 
series of tests with incandescent electric lamps, gas, 
gas mantles graded for color, and oil lapms, the 
cancllepower being the same in each case. The 
larger the number of yellow rays in the light, it was 
found, the greater the optical efficiency. Blue rays 
were found to be conducive to earlier fatigue of 
the eyes. Thus, it appears, that the general pre- 
ference for light of a yellowish cast is not the re- 
sult of mere whim or habit, but of the eyes' recog- 
nition of the fact that such a light is less tiring. 



Our Outworn Community Systems 

The world is coming to realize that our whole 
theory of community building will be made over. 
( )ld communities are struggling in the throes of 
congestion of all kinds and yet there are not enough 
houses or recreation places or schools or buildings 
of all types in these centers. 



19 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



What will be the streets of the future? Will 
street level sidewalks disappear in our cities ? What 
is to become of pedestrians ? Where shall we park 
the comming 50,000,000 automobiles by day ? Where 
will they be stored by night? Where will the hun- 
dreds of airplanes land. And for the countryside, 
what of our national highways. 

What is the answer? The Seattle Daily Journal 
justly states that it is science. Science which is 
the business of knowing what to do. The whole 
civilized world wants to know what to do with its 
outworn community systems. It is groping for the 
answer and only groping. London is planning a 
new city of a quarter million to take care of its 
human overflow. A new paved highway 100 feet 
wide it to be built between Edinburgh and London. 
England would seem to be feeling the urge for 
the new order of things first and is groping but 
only groping. 

The restless fever of men, in all callings, will 
no longer be abated by the old prescriptions. Men 
are seeking more of a chance to live for them- 
selves and their families. 

But living involves communities, giving comfort 
and convenience and full of life, variety and color 
in a broader sense. 

We used to think that people lived in houses. It 
was our great mistake in building communities. 
People dwell in houses but living is another matter. 
It involves life, contacts with other lives, the spirit 
of play, recreation and work, of festival and pa- 
geant, of music, decoration, schools, theatres, gar- 
dens, woods, streams and grass that does not warn 
us to keep off. 



Fire Prevention in Public Schools 

The study of fire prevention has been added to 
the curriculum of the New York public schools 
by the Board of Education. The board has adopted 
as a basis for regular study the school manual en- 
titled "Safeguarding the Home Against Fire" pre- 
pared for the United States Bureau of Education 
by the National Board of Fire Underwriters. 

Emphasis will be laid in the instruction upon 
the fact that a fire occurs in New York City on an 
average of every twenty-one minutes, day and night, 
with "most of these due to carelessness, according 
to engineering experts." Many of the fires occur 
in homes and so many are attended by injury or 
loss of life that it has been estimated that about 
100 persons are burned to death in Greater New 
York each year and many more seriously injured. 

Making this study compulsory is following the 
example of many other communities. Kentucky has 
had a statute for some time making the study of 



fire prevention compulsory and the last New Jersey 
legislature passed a law providing for this study 
in September. In Minnesota it is also planned that 
pupils and teachers should study the subject be- 
fore the close of the school year. 



Louvre Extends Appeal to Art Lovers 

Artists and the art lovers of Paris, as well as the 
American tourists, are much interested in the open- 
ing of the Grand Gallery of the Louvre Museum, 
which, with the Chauchard and the Schlichting col- 
lections, comprise the most admirable offerings 
found in any national museum. The square salons 
have been entirely remodelled, while the new ar- 
rangement of the gallery is said to effect a greater 
range of lighting interpretation than ever was be- 
fore possible. 

The parts to be reopened offer principally the 
works of Rembrandt and Rubens and those of their 
schools, with Dutch and Flemish subjects. In the 
Rubens salon nothing has been changed. Rem- 
brandt's grandeur and profound expression are 
found expression are found especially in the series 
containing "La Bethsabee," "Saint Luke," the 
"Good Samaritan," the "Two Philosophers." the 
"Disciples of Emmaus" and several portraits. 

M. Arsene Alexanclre, the leading French art 
critic, considers this the most wonderful collection 
in the world and he only regrets that Paris has not 
yet obtained "The Syndics and the Ronde de Jour" 
from Amsterdam, which would give fuller scope 
to the realization of what the Rembrandt school 
intended to convey. 

The smaller salons are being redecorated, main- 
taining throughout the high sense of artisticity 
which always characterized the Louvre arrange- 
ments, especially as far as the art section is con- 
cerned. These salons later will be used to house 
the Chauchard and Schlichting collections which 
have been lost in comparative darkness, in the 
drearier corners of the Salle Lacaze. 

But while the Louvre makes a constant appeal to 
the trained art lover, it is now intended to inaugu- 
rate a series of lectures, commencing next Novem- 
ber for the benefit of the academic pupils. Twelve 
sections are being formed, each one to be guided 
by an authority who is familiar with the artistic 
and historical relics of his particular section. In 
the past, teachers of art frequently have conducted 
brief courses of study in the Louvre, but this is the 
first time that an effort is made to employ the na- 
tional institution for public instruction, similar to 
the practice prevailing in the American museums of 
art and natural history. 

It may be that some complaint will be made that 



20 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ihe chattering of the young students will disturb the 
serious reflections of the older visitors to the gal- 
leries, but in official circles praise is given to the 
author of the innovation, which, it is asserted, will 
have a widespread effect on the future welfare of 
the French nation in the sense that even the or- 
dinary individuals will begin to appreciate what a 
wealth of art remains for their admiration. 



Communal Forests Planned to Solve 
Up-State Tax Problems 

The Northern New York Development League, 
a regional Chamber of Commerce, including all the 
varied interests of the northern third of the state, 
has decided to actively undertake and sponsor a 
reforestation program whereby it is hoped that it 
will impress upon the public not only the value of 
the forests in industrial lines, but in the deriving of 
revenues from the forest which has proved suc- 
cessful in the reducing of taxation in many parts 
of Europe. 

The fundamental principle of the league's cam- 
paign is the communal or public forest, which does 
not mean that it will be less active for private v>r 
corporation reforestation. It stands first for the 
public idea because the private idea will thereby lie- 
given encouragement and private effort will then 
have a constant example of public accomplishment 
along the same lines. 

One of the best known examples of a communal 
forest, cited by the New York Times, is that of 
Zurich, Switzerland, which city controls 2.840 acres 
of land, of which the city uses the forest mainly for 
fuel wood which furnishes 64 per cent, of the in- 
come from the forest. Lumber, ties and miscellan- 
eous materials make up the balance of the revenue. 
There is one technical man in charge of the forest, 
which has netted the municipality an average in- 
come of nearly $20,000 annually. 

The state laws now provide full authority for 
communal forests. Chapter 74 of the Laws of New 
York, General Municipality, which became effective 
on March 26, 1912, allows the governing board of a 
county, town or village to acquire by purchase, gift, 
lease or condemnation and hold as the property of 
such municipality, such tracts of land, and may ap- 
propriate therefor the necessary moneys of the 
county, town or village for which lands are acquired. 
The procedure is by resolution of such board, after 
having published notice two weeks in the newspapers 
prior to such action. The lands acquired for public 
forests may be located outside of the municipality 
and may be located in separate parcels of land, if 
desired. Part or all the municipal forest may be 



located around the water supply of the municipality 
to protect and to perpetuate the future supply of 
water. 

Many communities have already started small 
forests for this purpose, but the real communal 
forest is one that provides public revenues. These 
forests by law can be cut off along the lines of 
scientific forest management and the timber sold in 
the interest of public revenues. Not only do they 
offer a perpetual income to the taxpayers of the 
community, but also the advantage of forest cover 
which means the protection from floods, snow slides, 
earth slides, the regulation and the preservation of 
the water of streams, shelter from winds, protection 
of birds, fish and game, and healthful playgrounds 
for the young and old. 

Little or nothing has been done under this law 
and it is proposed to have the North Country take 
the leading place in this kind of work and set an 
example to the rest of the nation. Northern New 
York has had a leading place in private reforesting 
and some of the best individual and corporation 
planting programs have been carried out here. 

Many of our large interests are practising scien- 
tific forestry by cutting down only certain sizes and 
varieties of trees and are contributing their share 
in the reforestation movement. A very large frac- 
tion of the land in Northern New York is not suited 
to farming purposes but is excellent for reforesting. 
These lands are well adapted to become communal 
forests, which will substantially decrease taxes and 
thereby keep up the roads and contribute generally 
to public improvements. 

The State Conservation Commission offers effec- 
tive assistance in furnishing trees of many varie- 
ties at low cost. The league has been working on 
the proposed free-tree law and there is every ex- 
pectation of success in the near future. Whether 
we have this law or not the present cost of trees is 
so reasonable that any one can afford to reforest 
to some extent. The College of Forestry is co- 
operating in this work and offers practical assistance 
to the municipalities and to the northern section in 
mapping out local programs and in superintending 
the setting out of trees. 



United States To Sell Housing Land 

The United States housing corporation tract of 
376 acres in East Bethlehem, known as Pembroke 
village, which cost the government about $2,800,000 
before the armistice, which amount included $376,- 
000 paid by the corporation to the Bethlehem Steel 
Co., former owner, will be sold through the hous- 
ing corporation of Bethlehem. 



21 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Army Houses To Be Sold 

Washington, District of Columbia. Sale of pub- 
lic auction of 690 buildings at Camp Dodge, Iowa, 
has been authorized by the War Department as a 
means of relieving the housing situation at Des 
Moines, Iowa. These buildings were put up to 
house army squads of eight men each, and are said 
to be available for family use. It is expected that 
they will help materially to improve conditions in 
Des Moines. 



Timber in New England 

The output of lumber in the next decade in 
Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire will be 
greatly reduced because of the heavy inroads on 
the timber made by the pulp and paper industry. 
The paper manufacturers are making an effort to 
get all available pulp stock before it is necessary 
to abandon their plants. The result is that much 
of the timber that would otherwise be cut into lum- 
ber has been made into wood pulp. If it were not 
for the pulp and paper interests, the Xew England 
states, say a recent investigator of timber condi- 
tions, could keep up their present rate of lumber 
production for a long period. It is estimated that 
the production in Maine will shrink a quarter of a 
billion feet in the next ten years, although it has 
been said that Maine would hold her own from now 
on. The same situation prevails in a proportionate 
degree in Vermont and New Hampshire. 

The Forest Service has been investigating pro- 
duction, timber stand, etc., in these New Eng- 
land states this spring in preparation for the re- 
port required by the Senate under the Capper Reso- 
lution. 



Personal 

George W. Maher announces the removal of his 
office from 208 South LaSalle St., Chicago, to his 
building, 157 East Erie St., Chicago. 

Stork & Knappe, school architects, have moved 
from Palisade, N. J., to King St., Ardsley, N. Y. 

A. Kingsley Porter, known to readers of this 
paper as an authority on mediaeval architecture, 
and author of numerous articles on that topic pub- 
lished in The American Architect, has resigned 
as assistant professor of the history of art at Yale 
to accept an appointment as professor of fine arts 
at Harvard. 

Frank A. Spangenberg, architect, and Earl Mar- 
tin, associate, have moved from 160 Franklin street, 
to 1322 Prudential Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 



Joseph Impellitier, architect, formerly of 280 
Prospect avenue, announces removal of his offices 
to 156 Elmwood avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Nathaniel Koenigsberg and Louis I. Simon an- 
nounce their association as architects and engineers 
at 8 South Dearborn street, Chicago. 

Westinghouse, Church & Kerr have moved their 
offices from 37 Wall street, to Grand Central Palace, 
New York City. 

Sanford O. Lacey and Gerald G. Schenck an- 
nounce that George Bain Cummings, formerly of 
New York, has been admitted to partnership. The 
new firm will continue architectural practice at 
514-6 Phelps Building, Binghamton, N. Y. 

George R. Morris and the Apartment Corpora- 
tion have moved to the Morris Building, Charles 
and Saratoga streets, Baltimore, Md. 

Win. T. Braun has formed a partnership with 
Edward A. Nitsche and will continue the practice 
of architecture at Steinway Hall, 64 East Van 
Buren street, Chicago. 

Warren W. Day has formed a partnership with 
Clark Wesley Bullard of Champaign, 111. A gen- 
eral practice of architecture will be conducted under 
the name of Day & Bullard at 527 Main street, 
Peoria, 111. 

A partnership for the practice of architecture 
and engineering has been formed between Clarence 
H. Larsen and John Glenn Mason, both of Lincoln, 
Neb., with offices at 408 Terminal Building. 

George M. Hopkinson and Wellington J. 
Schaefer have formed a partnership with offices at 
5716 Euclid avenue, Cleveland, O. Samples and 
catalogues are desired. 

H. H. Whiteley, Los Angeles, Cal., formerly at 
429 Story Building, is opening new offices at "La 
Cabana Azul" 520 South Western avenue. He de- 
sires samples and catalogues. 

George S. McCrea, architect in the Pacific Build- 
ing, Oakland, has moved to Capitola, Cal. 

Charles W. Deusner and Miss Helen Dupuy 
Deusner announce that they have resumed the prac- 
tice of landscape architecture in Southern Cali- 
fornia, under the firm name of C. W. and H. D. 
Deusner, with an office at 15 North Euclid avenue, 
Pasadena, Cal. 

Edgar W. Maybury, of Pomona, Cal., has estab- 
lished offices at 125 West Monroe street, Phoenix, 
Ariz., as representative of Messrs. Reginald D. 
Johnson, architect, and Gordon B. Kaufman, as- 
sociate, of Pasadena. He desires catalogues and 
building samples from the trade. 



22 



Weekly Review of Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Prominent Regional Centers 



"Firm Minus Pint of Oil or Foot of Land Sold 
$20,000,000 Stock." So it goes according to a head- 
line in a New York daily. 

We don't know where this $20,000,000 came from 
but it is safe to suppose it is cheerfully offered by 
the dear public. 

We don't know why people prefer to put up their 
money for the perpetuation of a get-rich dream 
rather than for something they need, but we hazard 
a guess that they rather spend their thoughts and 
money for the imagination of a vain thing than 
for a house and lot. 

It seems fair to suppose that this money came 
into New York not from those who have both 
town and country houses, but from those who want 
to have them. There is a continual multiplication of 
the type which imagines an ambuscade against work 
and looks for quickly made money to build such a 
bulwark. 

What folly it is to discuss means of relieving the 
financial stringency which has been brought about 
by goods held in transit, by low returns on mort- 
gages and other building investments, by general 
unsettlement and uncertainty as to the future 
when the people of this country are so gullible as 
to listen to the claptrap of promoters; or rather, 
not to listen to it but to interrupt a fantastic story 
by coughing up $20,000,000 into their faces. 

So many little communities there are. where the 
worn out farms are now called upon to gush forth 
wealth upon the inhabitants. The hopeful owners 
sit before their weather-beaten doorways and ex- 
pectorate. So many brokers' offices all over the 
country are handling the surplus of wages of the 
common every-day people whose minds have newly 
evolved the old hope of acquiring, without work, 
money, leisure, and everything their heart desires. 

Idealistic America: probably it will always be 
that. But idealism sometimes goes wrong. When 
it aims at a new heaven upon earth which shall be 
a place without work and cheered perhaps by 
twanging harps and jazz bands; the entrance fees 
to be paid by stock exchange profits or by the edict 
of some new social system : then do we succeed in 
perverting our noblest quality. 

On the day this item appeared on the front page, 
the same paper's financial column announced that 
capital before giving permission for its money to 
be used in safe and legitimate enterprises was de- 
manding interest of eight per cent., that during the 
afternoon its demand increased to fourteen per cent. 

And the people give it away. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect. ) 

Chicago. Strikes, higher wages, lack of trans- 
portation, higher building costs, increased money 
rates, checked construction ! When will the situa- 
tion change for the better? When will common 
sense return, production rise to normal and 
profiteering and extravagance cease? Well, any- 
way 

Overtures made recently to the employers by 
representatives of the Chicago building crafts, urg- 
ing resumption of normal building activities, and 
promising increased output as a part solution of the 
high building costs, indicate that labor is beginning 
partly to realize its responsibility in tlv.' decline of 
constructon work here which has amounted to ap- 
proximately $100.000.000 since the first of the year. 

Though many of the craft lay the slump in in- 
dividual production to the cost-plus svsU'in, with its 
opportunities to pile on labor costs and thus increase 
the percentage to the contractor, the average man 
on the job is willing to acknowledge he has about 
"killed the goose that lays the golden egg." Follow- 
ing restricted output come high wages and less work 
and the fact is driven home. 

Carpenters, bricklayers, plumbers and the rest 
of the track's are facing a slack season, unless some- 
thing happens. This is accounted for in the slack- 
ening in building activities and the influx of work- 
men from other points attracted by the higher wage 
scale. Competition for work has stimulated the 
output. Builders report the attitude of labor has 
changed within the last month and an increase of 
from 15 to 20 per cent, in man hour output is noted. 
It is apparent that the men realize they will have to 
speed up if they want to keep their jobs. 

There also has been a change in the building 
material market, to some extent. Where formerly 
it was the builder who was frantically bidding for 
supplies, now it is the brickyards, the cement works 
and the manufacturerers who are anxiously inquir- 
ing why orders are not coming in in larger volume. 
While transportation conditions are a little better 
and building supplies somewhat easier to get in 
some lines, owing to restrictions placed on less es- 
sential industries, prices on building materials are 
still abnormally high. Builders do not look for any 
big increase in construction activities until there is 
a decided drop in building costs. Building permits 
this week totalled 36, valued at $2,148.000 as com- 
pared with 125 permits and $3,603,300 for the cor- 
responding week last year. 



23 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect. ) 

San Francisco. There seems little doubt that 
San Francisco is on the verge of greatly increased 
building activity, and local architects are busy with 
plans for new structures which will undoubtedly be 
undertaken in the very near future. Speaking on 
this conditions, R. W. Kline, head of the construc- 
tion department of Willis Polk & Co., says : 

"Housing conditions have become acute, apart- 
ments are overcrowded and the same applies to 
office buildings. With office and business structures 
occupied 100 per cent. plus, there is a general de- 
mand among business firms for room to expand, 
and none is now available. New rental standards 
have been generally adopted showing an increase 
of 30 to 40 per cent. While the costs of building 
have gone up these new standards permit construc- 
tion on a profitable basis. This means that in the 
very near future building will become heavy. At 
the present time we are about three years behind 
in our building program ; there has been much 
emergency work, and there is much to be done ; 
but a great wave of new building is now due, and 
the industry will, almost before we know it, be 
one of the most important activities in the city." 

A local banker of prominence gave the follow- 
ing advice this week to a prospective home builder: 
"When you build a home yon should locate in a 
district where the homes surrounding yours are as 
good or better than your own. Such conditions 
make your property more valuable and more readily 
saleable if you ever have to dispose of the place. 
You should chose a lot that has some particular 
individuality not to be found in any other lot in 
San Francisco and then plan your home to conform 
to the lot." 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect) 

Seattle. North Coast jobbers are able to report 
an improvement in the delivery of steel building 
products from the East and although three cars 
of nails to one house in a week is under normal 
conditions but a circumstance, it so far overshadows 
what has been the course of deliveries during the 
past ninety days that the trade is greatly encour- 
aged. In addition, sheet metal is being released to a 
marked degree. There is no improvement in the 
condition of delivery of steel pipe, especially the 
smaller sizes necessary in plumbing and heating. 
The markets on all steel products are steady. 

The car shortage and its train of evils in the dis- 
turbance of business credits and profits may be 



relieved through the Jones bill before the United 
States Senate which would permit the Steel Cor- 
poration to operate coastwise ships from the Atlan- 
tic seaboard through the Panama Canal under the 
name of the Isthmian Steamship Company. This 
line has notified jobbers that it expects to make the 
trip in 26 days and will undertake to guarantee to 
cover the distance between New York and Puget 
Sound in 30 days. Sailings are to be spaced ten 
days apart. But this new transportation is not ex- 
pected to aid the delivery of the smaller pipe and 
essentials to any marked degree owing to the fact 
that the mills are not turning the material out. It 
would, however, closely approach a miracle in the 
delivery of structural steel and sheet metal stock. 
All the North Coast jobbing interests favored the 
Jones bill. 

Building projects have eased off, and the outlook 
today is that work under way will be completed 
at as early a date as possible, but there will be 
no new large commitments this summer. Jobbers 
of pipe, fabricated steel, brick, cement, roofing 
and lumber are almost a unit in the expression that 
they have no hope for a beneficial improvement 
during future months. 

Jobbers this week picked up the first lot of chan- 
nel iron that has been seen here for 90 days. 

The demand in Alaska for minor building essen- 
tials is very brisk, and this trade is helping mater- 
ially to keep Seattle architects at work on the 
smaller jobs and it also makes for the movement 
of brick, cement, lumber and roofing into the North. 

Fir lumber held steady for the week after the 
slump a week ago of $3 to $5, and it is almost uni- 
versally felt, in unprejudiced sources that builders 
will not be able to buy fir lumber any cheaper 
this year. Common dimension is selling at $1.50 
under the bare cost of the logs. The mills are clos- 
ing down for the annual overhauling, and the dura- 
tion of the suspension may reach sixty days. Log- 
ging camps are to be shut down on account of the 
fire hazard, and production will fall rapidly during 
July. The mills are not expecting to make any fur- 
ther price concessions, but reports from eastern 
builders indicate a dull Summer and a limited fir 
lumber movement eastward. 

The paint and oil market is steady. Carload prices 
of lead f. o. b. Seattle have declined slighty. The 
weakness in the raw lead market in New York dur- 
ing the week was not reflected here. Paint jobbers 
predict a higher market for oils in the Autumn. 

A diminution of the movement of paints corrobor- 
ates the report from lumber and building material 
jobbers of an impending lull in the demand. 



24 




ji,..-i .;., .-, i, > ,;.-..; . , .-. r. : ^ ii^LiiiiiLi.ii.^ai^f^.rsAiiJfirj.ajj'.t^f.'if!' r:rr .-.>... ..,.-,.} 



The Relation of the Work of the Forest 
Products Laboratory to Engineering* 

BY GEORGE M. HUNT 
In Charge, Section of Wood Preservation. Forest Products Laboratory. Madison. Wisconsin. 



IT is my intention to present something about the 
laboratory, what it is, and what it has that might 
interest you, so that when faced with a problem 
concerning the use of wood, the Forest Products 
Laboratory and its equipment will be at the disposal 
of the technical profession. 

The Forest Products Laboratory is a branch of 
the United States Forest Service, which is a branch 
of the Department of Agriculture. The Forest 
Service has for its principal work the administra- 
tion of the public forests, protecting them from 
fire, re-foresting burned over areas, protecting them 
from timber thieves, and regulating the grazing. 
The grazing feature alone on the National Forests 
for cattle, horses, sheep and hogs is a big business. 
It amounted to over two and one-half million dol- 
lars last year in grazing fees. The Forest Service 
also has, of course, the disposal of the timber that 
grows on the forest. When the timber is ready to 
be cut and when a market is available then obviously 
the thing to do is to sell it. If left standing, it 
deteriorates, and after a while there remains a 
forest which is half full of dead and decaying trees. 
It would not be right to sell to the public this 
timber, letting them make what use of it they can, 
without giving them as much information as possible 
about what timber is and what are its peculiar prop- 
erties, how different species vary from each other, 
and how wood may be most efficiently used in the 
various lines of work where it finds application. 
The need for technical data about wood was recog- 
nized a good many years before the laboratory was 
established, and efforts were made to collect infor- 

Abstraft of an addrexB before tbe Western Society of Engineers. 



mation of this kind. For many years people have 
been interested in the study of wood. There has 
never been a concerted effort on an extensive scale 
to gather the technical data that is needed. 

The field of forest products is a very broad one 
when studied carefully. It does not consist merely 
of strength tests on timber or of studying the chem- 
ical products that can be made from wood. There 
are unlimited fields for study and in order to attack 
the problem in the best possible way, the organiza- 
tion of the laboratory was grouped into a number of 
sections. \Ve have the director and the assistant 
director in general charge of the work, then five 
technical sections. 

The section of timber physics includes kiln dry- 
ing. The importance of artificially seasoning tim- 
ber became evident during the war when a stock 
of air dried timber was needed for making vehicles 
and artillery trucks, automobile trucks, propellers, 
airplanes, and the various other implements of war 
and of peace also where wood was required. 
Seasoned timber was not available. There was 
only one thing to do, and that was to cut down green 
trees and season them. 

There had always been a prejudice against kiln 
dried timber. It has been said that when timber 
is kiln dried the strength is reduced, it breaks easy, 
and that it will spoil in a dozen other ways. They 
were correct in part. Unless the timber is properly 
dried it is injured, but the tests that have (been 
going on for the last ten years, and especially those 
during the last two and a half years, have shown 
conclusively that timber can be kiln dried without 
injury. In fact, if th drying is properly done, the 



25 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



timber is likely to be a little bit better than it would 
be if air dried. 

The time required by kiln drying, of course, will 
depend upon the size of the timber. If it is inch 
boards it can be dried much more quickly than 
four by four or six by six wagon stock ; but what- 
ever the size of the timber, it can be dried much 
more quickly in a kiln than by air seasoning. 

Kiln drying work is being continued, because the 
demand for timber is, if anything, greater now than 
it was during the war, because of the demand of the 
furniture industry and various other industries 
which were partly closed down during the war, but 
are working full force now. 

In the section of timber physics they also study 
the microscopic structure of timber. The micro- 
scope is a valuable instrument in the study of forest 
products and tells a great deal about timber that 
cannot be learned in any other way. It tells why it 
is easy to force wood preservative through a red 
oak stick when it cannot possibly be forced through 
a white oak stick. It tells the difference between 
a piece of pine and a piece of fir or a piece of spruce. 
By means of the microscope species of wood can 
be identified that cannot very well be identified in 
any other way; and since the properties of wood 
depend very largely upon the species, identification 
is often very important. 

As an illustration of the practical use of the mic- 
roscope I can cite one instance. A few years ago 
a railroad company was buying several carloads of 
oak ties. They ordered white oak. When the ties 
arrived the railroad men claimed they were red oak, 
while the tie contractor claimed they were white 
oak. Both parties secured samples of the ties in 
question and brought them to Madison. They were 
examined under the microscope and it was found 
that the shipment contained both white oak and 
red oak. 

PERHAPS the section which would be most in- 
teresting to the bridge and structural section of 
this society is the section of timber mechanics. This 
is a section which studies the mechanical properties 
of timber, which attempts to find out why one tim- 
ber is strong and another one is weak, which 
attempts to find the average strength of various 
species of timber. 

One thing included in the study of mechanical 
properties is the relation of the strength of timber 
to its density. It has been conclusively shown that 
the strength of a stick of timber, other things being 
equal, is very largely dependent upon its specific 
gravity, its density, which means, to be exact, the 
amount of wood substance there. Wood is com- 
posed of woody material and air and the more 



woody material there is in a cubic foot of wood, the 
greater its density and the greater its strength. 
That is a general rule. There are exceptions to it, 
and slight variations from it. Ordinarily, a person 
is likely to think that the strength of oak is so much ; 
the strength of pine is so much that is the general 
impression. As a matter of fact, one can get pieces 
of oak that are much weaker than pieces of pine, 
and pieces of pine that are much weaker than other 
pieces of oak. It is easy to get pieces of pine which 
will have less than one-third of the strength of 
other pieces of the same species, and to the man 
uninformed, it is hard to tell the difference. 

The need for some means of telling the differ- 
ence has resulted in density grading rules for struc- 
tural timbers. By means of these grading rules it 
is possible for a man with relatively little study to 
select the wood which has the required strength 
and thus eleminate the weak timbers. The relation 
of density to strength, of course, assumes that all 
other factors are equal, but of two sticks of equal 
density one may be spiral grained and the other 
straight grained. The spiral grained stick will be 
weaker. 

ANEW development in timber construction 
which is receiving increased attention is the 
use of laminated members instead of solid members. 
As timber becomes more expensive and the larger 
pieces are harder to get, it is of greater advantage 
to be able to use smaller lumber and build it up into 
the sizes and shapes desired in structural members. 
In doing that, it is necessary to know the effect of 
various methods of fastening these laminations to- 
gether; one must know the effect of defects. Can 
we put five 2-inch planks together to make a beam, 
allow defects in three of those and get sufficient 
strength? If we can allow defects, in what-part of 
the member can they be permitted ? Does the 
strongest plank of the five break first or does it 
break last? Those and numerous other questions 
can be asked, but some of them cannot very well be 
answered until a great deal more work is done. 

In the section of wood preservation we formerly 
confined ourselves to the study of the preservative 
treatment of wood, the durability of wood and the 
fire-proofing of wood. But because we were called 
on for so many other things during the war, we had 
to include also the study of glues and glueing, the 
study of the manufacture of airplane propellers and 
methods of coating wood to prevent the entrance of 
moisture. An airplane propeller is a rather deli- 
cate instrument. If it is not properly balanced it 
is likely to tear the engine from its bearings when it 
gets to going 1,500 or 1,800 revolutions per minute. 
If it warps a little bit more one one side than it 



26 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



does on the other, it is apt to be inefficient, or to 
damage the machine. It has been found that chang- 
ing moisture content causes the warping and shrink- 
ing of wood. When water leaves wood it shrinks. 
When water is absorbed by wood, the wood swells. 
If wood is to "stay put" to remain at the size de- 
sired the moisture must be kept from changing 
back and forth. 

Airplane propellers are used out in the open and 
cannot be protected like a piece of furniture. They 
needed, then, a method of keeping out moisture 
which was better than anything we knew of. It is 
commonly considered that varnish will prevent the 
absorption of moisture. As a matter of fact, varnish 
merely retards the absorption. Ultimately, if the 
varnished piece of wood is kept under constant con- 
ditions, the moisture will come to practically the 
same point that it would if there were no varnish 
present. 

Various methods of preventing moisture changes 
were studied. Finally, by accident, as much as any- 
thing else, a method which is nearly one hundred 
per cent, efficient was discovered. This is done by 
first sizing the wood, then coating it with varnish, 
then, while the varnish is still "tacky," laying very 
thin aluminum leaf on it and afterwards varnishing 
again. That gives a thin metal coating around the 
wood. Its weight is negligible. It takes less than 
half a gram of aluminum leaf to coat an eight-foot 
propeller. The aluminum leaf is so thin that it 
takes about 15,000 sheets to make an inch. The 
cost of it is practically nothing. So we have for 
airplane propellers a means of keeping out moisture 
that is entirely practical. The process also has 
possibilities for other purposes that have not yet 
been worked out. 

WE have a big subject in the study of glues. 
You may not realize that glue is really a 
structural material. It permits the manufacture of 
ply-wood and out of ply-wood airplanes are made. 
If we had this ideal glue our whole system of for- 
estry might be altered. By means of glue small 
pieces of wood can be joined together to make large 
pieces. Waste wood can be used in that way to a 
greater extent than available means now permit. 
We would not have to wait for trees to grow so 
large as they do now to get large timbers. Until 
we find that perfect glue, however, we will have to 
continue along many lines very much as we have 
in the past. We must take advantage of each prog- 
ressive step and use it to its fullest measure, and 
hope that some day, somebody will find the perfct 
glue. 

In wood prservation we have studied methods of 
injecting preservatives into woods ; how different 



woods take preservative treatment ; and methods of 
protecting piling against decay and marine borers. 
How can the damage created by marine borers be 
prevented? A great deal, of course, is already 
known. The use of creosotes is fairly well, but not 
well enough, understood. We do not know what 
is the best creosote to use against marine borers. 
\Ve do not know how to get the best penetration; 
how to get the oil in uniformly and deeply enough. 
It will take a long time to find the preservative 
which will prevent marine borers from attacking 
timber throughout its useful life. The same is 
true, to a certain extent, of preventing decay in land 
structures. 

The structural engineer and architect can find 
information on safe working stresses for structural 
timbers, the effect of defects on strength, the effect 
of seasoning on strength, density grading rules, 
the durability of various species of wood, the effi- 
ciency of joints and fastenings, and the strength 
of built-up or laminated structural members. 

More and more people are learning what the 
laboratory is and what it has, by writing in for in- 
formation on technical problems. Sometimes they 
get what they want. Sometimes they must be dis- 
appointed because the information is not available. 
We give them the best we can. 



Supporting Strength of Drain Tile 
and Sewer Pipe Under Different 
Pipe-Laying Conditions 

Under the above title, the Iowa State College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts of Ames, Iowa, has 
issued bulletin 57, prepared by W. J. Schlick. drain- 
age engineer. 

The purpose of the tests was to obtain reliable 
data for the use of those engaged in the design and 
construction of such work. The engineers charged 
with the design of pipe drains and sewers have been 
compelled, until within comparatively recent years, 
to depend wholly upon rule-of-thumb methods to 
determine whether or not the pipe to be used in each 
drain or sewer would have the supporting strength 
required safely to support the loads due to, or trans- 
mitted through, the ditch filling materials. This 
practice has resulted necessarily in the construction 
of many drains and sewers which later cracked and 
often collapsed because of insufficient supporting 
strength. 

Copies of this bulletin may be obtained through a 
request addressed to the Engineering Experiment 
Station, Ames, Iowa. 



27 



Some Phases of Lumber Manufacture 

I. Shingles in the Making 

BY R. S. WHITING, Architectural Engineer 



F the materials in most common use and 
particularly those constantly before us we 
give perhaps less thought than to those which 
are not so common but which have been more re- 
cently brought to our notice, because of the new 
properties they may possess, or because of a sup- 
posed need they may seem to fill. 

Shingles, for example, are one of the oldest of 




FIG. 1. SELECTING STANDING TIMBER SUITABLE 
FOR FELLING 

our building materials, having been in constant use 
in this country for nearly three hundred years. 
Because of the great demand for them the old 
methods of manufacture have long since been done 
away with and have been replaced by the use of 
the most modern machinery. Shingles were first 
rived from the solid wood and later split in order 
to obtain a straight and more even gran. Now they 
are manufactured in a most scientific and economical 
manner. 

To correct the impression that shingles are manu- 



factured from slabs and other waste from the 
log, these reproductions, showing the process of 
manufacture from the log to the finished material, 
have been made. The views illustrating this article 
were taken in a typical shingle mill in the North- 
west where most of our shingles are manufactured 
and are intended to show as nearly as possible the 
complete process of their manufacture. 

Of the eleven hundred shingle mills operating in 
the United States, the majority of them are located 
on some body of water where the logs may be 
conveniently floated into the "pond" adjoining the 
mill. From this they may be easily carried to the 
second floor by means of a conveyor. After they 
have been washed by a spray of water, the conveyor 
further brings them to the teeth of the first saw 
where they are cut into "bolts" sixteen, eighteen or 
twenty inches thick, depending on the length of 
shingles required. 

These "bolts" are then passed along to the second 
saw where each of them is "quartered," and thence 
to a third where they are trimmed and the defects 
cut out. The quartering of the bolts not only works 
them down to a more practical size to be handled 
in the process of manufacture but also is the initial 
operation by which an edge grain shingle is made. 

An edge grain shingle, because of the natural 
grain of the wood, will not warp or curl when in 
place on the roof or wall of a building, because of 
atmosphere conditions, and is, therefore, much pref- 
erable to flat grain shingle for exterior coverings 
for buildings. The flat grain shingles will cup 
and curl when subjected to the hot rays of the sun, 




FIG. 2. THE LOG BEING CUT INTO "BOLTS" 



28 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




FIG. 3. QUARTERING 

often to such an extent that the surface over which 
they are placed will become leaky. 

The bolts, after being quartered and trimmed, arc 
passed on to the "shingle machine" where they are 
run through two more saws completing the process 
of manufacture. Each quarter bolt is gripped in 
the machine which moves forward and backward 
m the fourth saw automatically feeding out the 
bolts as the saw cuts off the shingles. The shingles 
then drop to the left of the machine operator who 
squares up 'the edges by means of a fifth and last 
saw. 

As the machine operator completes his part of the 
work, the finished shingles are passed down a chute 
to the "packer" on the floor below, where they are 
gathered in bundles of a standard size, banded and 
placed on conveyors which carry them to freight 
cars to be packed for shipment. 

When shingles are to be dried they are either 




piled on trucks and run into the kiln for the re- 
quired length of time or stacked out of doors for 
nature to do the drying. In either case, after being 
dried, it is necessary to reband the bundles since in 
the process of drying there is some shrinkage which 
loosens the shingles in the bundle. 

Shingles are packed so that there are a sufficient 
number in each four bundles to cover an area of 
100 square feet, commonly known as a "square," 
when laid on a roof or wall surface. The average 
exposure to the weather when laid on a roof is 
four and one-half inches and on walls five inches. 
When laid four and one-half inches to the weather 




FIG. 5. THE SHINGLE MACHINE 

The quarter sections are gripped by machine at left, 

which moves forward and backward on saw. Machine 

operator squares up edges 



FIG. 4. QUARTER SECTIONS BEING TRIMMED 

It is in this part of the process that any defects 

appearing in the lumber are cut out 

there are about 863 shingles to the square, and 
when laid five inches to the weather about 782 
shingles, using the unit shingle which has a width 
of four inches. As a matter of fact, however, there 
are on the average 460 actual shingle pieces in one 
square of 16-inch shingles. 

The number of shingles reported produced in the 
United States during the year 1918 was 5,690,182,- 
000, three-fourths of which number were manufac- 
tured in the state of Washington. These shingles, 
if laid four and one half inches to the weather, 
would cover an area of equal to 647,761,500 square 
feet or 23 square miles. 



29 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



The terms 5 to 2 and 6 to 2 refer to the standard 
thickness and mean that five shingles will measure 
2 inches in thickness at the butts or six shingles will 
measure 2 inches in thickness at the butts. That is. 
the fewer the number of shingles measuring 2 
inches at the butts, the thicker the shingles. 

Four bundles of 5 to 2 16-inch shingles (enough 
to cover a square of roof or wall surface) will 
weight about 160 pounds and the same number of 
bundles of 6 to 2 16-inch shingles will weight 
about 140 pounds, while four bundles of 5 to 2-- 
18-inch shingles will weigh about 150 pounds. 

It will thus be seen that the production of the 
shingle forms an important branch of the lumber 
industry. For suburban structures, and especially 



reprinted from the American Lumberman, have 
been widely distributed by the National Fire Pro- 
tection Association. 

The combustibility of the frame structure has 




FIG. 6. THE SHINGLES ARE BUNDLED AND 
CONVEYED TO FREIGHT CARS 

dwellings, wood shingles have been ind still are 
used extensively. In congested sections, the build- 
laws usually require the roof surface to be of in- 
combustible material. When properly painted the 
fire hazard of the shingle roof is materially reduced. 
Special fire-retardent paints are made for shingles 
containing asbestine and other mineral pigments 
not reducible to metals. These are ground in linseed 
oil with thinner and drier. The preservative quali- 
ties of shingle stains are well known. They are 
usually prepared of a high grade of creosote mixed 
with various colors and ground in oil. Attractive 
finishes in many colors are thus to be had. 



Fire Protection and the Lumber 
Industry. 

IN an address before the Southern Pine Associa- 
tion, Mr. Wharton Clay, Commissioner of the 
Associated Metal Lath Manufacturers, chose the 
above title as his topic. Copies of this address, 




FIG. 7. ENTERING THE FREIGHT CAR READY 
FOR USE 

always been a talking point in favor of other types 
of buildings. We have not yet developed a type 
of construction totally unaffected by fire, and, there- 
fore, the fireproof building is yet an ideal to strive 
after and not an accomplished fact. What we have 
done is to develop types of construction that are 
fire resisting to varying degrees. The timber stru- 
ture is not necessarily the one which will be the 
most greatly damaged by fire. Some of the old log 
cabins could well resist the effects of this destruc- 
tive agent. One of the safest types of structure 
from the fire hazard standpoint, known as "mill 
construction," employs the use of heavy timbers. 
But wood will burn, and the common type of frame 
building is undoubtedly a fire hazard in built-up 
sections. However, as Mr. Clay points out, timber 
can be protected and frame structures thus ren- 
dered more fire resisting. In his address he stated : 
''Your industry has done splendid work in co- 
operation with various insurance and fire prevention 
agencies on mill construction and placed this type 
of a building in high public esteem. There is no 
reason why the neglected construction, consisting 
of joists and studs, which affects such a large per- 
centage of the lives of the common people, should 
not be equally studied from a scientific standpoint 
and made equally as safe from fire. Single handed, 
the Associated Metal Lath Manufacturers have es- 
tablished the 1-hour rating for exterior stud walls, 
and every indication points to a 1-hour rating for 
interior bearing partitions, and I am asked to an- 
nounce at this meeting that the National Lumber 



30 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Manufacturers' Association and ours will jointly 
apply to the Underwriters' Laboratories for a test 
and rating on the other principal structural element 
in this type of building; namely, floors with wood 
joists protected by metal lath." 

It would seem that", in line with other conserva- 



tion measures, the lumber industry could do real 
public service by co-operating to the fullest extent 
with all other agencies who have for their object a 
reduction of the fire loss. More important than ever 
before is the need of conserving the homes now be- 
ing built, for they are doubly needed. 



The Use of Linoleum as a Safety Stair Tread 

A Further Discussion of Accident Prevention on Stairways 



THE necessity for correctly designing stairways 
is being realized to an increasing extent. The 
figures given in the article entitled, "Safety En- 
gineering," published in the June 16 issue, furnish 
opportunity for thought. A great many accidents 
are caused by slipping in public places, such as 
stairs, corridors, etc. Several types of safety treads 
were discussed in a paper by (i. L. H. Arnold, en- 
titled, "Factory Stairs and Stairways," published in 
two parts (see THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT, issues 
of January 28 and February 4, 1920), the types 
of treads discussed therein being by no means re- 
stricted to factory use. Additional materials fo-~ 
special uses are available. 

In public and semi-public buildings where quiet- 
ness, non-slipperincss and durability are essential 
to the staircase, stair treads surfaced with linoleum 
have been found to give satisfactory service. This 
material can be readily applied cither to new or 
existing stairs, whether of wood, metal or concrete. 

The heaviest grade of plain linoleum, one-quartei" 
inch thick and known as Battleship, is best suited 
for heavy traffic conditions. For a wood stair, a pad 
of linoleum should be cut the exact size of the tread 
and cemented firmly to its upper surface with a 
high grade waterproof linoleum cement. A shellac 
cement is recommended. The cheaper cements 
usually contain sodium silicate (water-glass) which, 
in the presence of water, becomes injurious to all 
linoleum. 

As a nosing to protect the forward edge of the 
surface from breaking or being torn loose by the 
traffic, a brass strip may be attached to the edge of 
the step, brought flush with the surface. This pro- 
vides satisfactory protection, with a minimum of 
metal on the tread proper, and at the same time 
gives a neat and finished appearance to the stair. 

In installing linoleum on a metal tread the same 
method of cementing as employed over wood will 
serve. That a good adhesive will hold to iron is 
proved by the United States Government's ex- 
perience in cementing thousands of yards of lino- 
leum to the steel decks of battleships every year. 



Care must be taken, where the nosing forms a part 
of the metal riser or tread, to cut the linoleum 
to fit snugly against the nosing as well as against 
the other edges of the step. In case the metal stair 
has no built-on nosing, such a strip of brass or other 
metal may be employed as with wood. 

For a concrete stair, linoleum may be used to 
serve both as tread and as riser, if desired. The 
concrete must be given a smooth and even finish, 
as any inequalities will also appear on the linoleum 
surface. The concrete must also be thoroughly dry, 
as any moisture remaining in it will tend to lessen 
the adhesive powers of the cement. Two or three 
months, depending on weather conditions, should 
be given the concrete for seasoning before the sur- 
facing material is applied. A metal nosing, anchored 
in the concrete when it is laid, is most satisfactory. 
The nosing should be set a quarter inch above the 
surface of the concrete, so as to finish flush with 
the linoleum when the latter is cemented down. 
In case linoleum is to cover the riser, similar pre- 
caution should be taken t<> make the forward edge 
of nosing cover the upper edge of the linoleum 
riser. Separate pieces of linoleum should be cut 
to fit exactly the tread surface and the riser sur- 
face and cemented in place. 

It is often found advisable to install linoleum on 
the treads over a layer of building felt paper. In 
the case of concrete, felt paper helps take up any 
irregularities there may be in the surface, while 
with wood stairs it absorbs any expansion or con- 
traction that may take place, thereby lessening the 
strain on the linoleum. When it is desired to use 
the felt layer, this material, cut to proper size, 
is first cemented to the step, after which the linoleum 
is cemented down firmly on top of the felt. 

A linoleum stair offers the same ease of cleaning 
that has made this material invaluable as a house- 
hold floor. Its non-slip qualities, due to the large 
percentage of cork used in its manufacture, are 
well known. The resiliency of the cork, which en- 
ables the foot to gain a firm grip on the step, also 
renders the linoleum stair a quiet stair, especially 



31 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



suitable for hospitals and sanitariums where silence under hard usage for many years. 

is a necessity. The material withstands severe abra- Figures 1 to 4 illustrate the methods here 

sion tests, and stairs covered with it have stood up described. 



LINOLEUM ON WOOD TGEAD3 



V/OO& 
METAL 




LINOLEUM ON WOODTEEAD3 



WOOD N03t/\ 




LINOLEUM ON STEEL TEEAD3 




LINOLEUM ON CONCGE.TE1 
TGE1AD3 




FIG. 4 



CONSTRUCTION DETAILS FOR THE LINOLEUM STAIR TREAD 

32 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 14, 1920 NUMBER 2325 



VOL. CXVIII 




NOLI H TTtvAfi o N 

PROPOSED HOfSE FOR JAMES H. PERKINS. (;REEN\VICIf, COXX. 



Office Sketches to Promote Business 

Illustrated b\ Sketches b\ ALFRED HOPKINS, Architect 



UNTIL comparatively recently, the ethics of 
architectural practice arbitrarily forbade that 
architects advertise or take any of those 
methods of publicity that in commercial fields and 
some professional ones are considered as legitimate 
and proper means of earning a livelihood. It has 
been commented on that so small a proportion of 
architects have paid income tax as to make the num- 
ber insignificant. The average of income in the pro- 
fession of, architecture certainly does not favorably 
compare with other professions, yet architects must 
live and they must present a "front" compatible 
with that of other professional men, and in keeping 
with the very high ideals that must govern their 
work. 

The same amount of diplomacy that has enabled 
architects to pursue the evasive client and secure the 
commission and not infringe u\yon the ethics of his 
profession as put forth by men who have arrived 
a"d seem to have forgotten their own early strug- 
gle's, would if placed at the disposal of our De- 
partment of State, very greatly raise the efficiency 
of our consular and diplomatic service. It is now 
conceded by thoughtful men that architecture, at 



all times the greatest of tin- arts, has to-day become 
in the most pronounced way, a business. 

Any business conducted along lines of artistic 
organization stands small chance in the open com- 
petitive field of to-day. Architects must therefore, 
if they are to get a proper remuneration for their 
work or get sufficient work to be moderately satis- 
factory in remuneration, regard in a practical way 
the business-securing things that lead toward com- 
missions. 

Every architect knows that in the field of domestic 
architecture the prospective client must be stimu- 
lated to a point of interest that will arouse a some- 
what lethargic intention to build "some day" into 
a very acute activity that will urge him to build now. 
A prospective client having been located, his prob- 
able location discovered and the extent of his spend- 
ing power determined, the architect sets about the 
preparation of a tentative design and plan, made to 
suit the client's purse and family. Some of the hap- 
piest things that architects have done, have had their 
origin in these tentative sketches or colored draw- 
ings. 

There is the essence of good salesmanship in such 



Copyright, 19iO, The Architectural d Building Preni (Inc.) 




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34 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




SOUTH- LLE.VATION- 



PROPOSED HOUSE FOR JAMES II. PERKIXS, (;REEX\VICI 1, COXX. 



work. First discovering an inclination, then pro- 
viding a tantalizing suggestion to be followed by a 
closing of a deal that will make both the architect 
and his new client happy. Undoubtedly the sug- 
gestiveness of these designs, their elaboration of de- 
tail, their suggestion of planting and garden sur- 
roundings will represent an aggregate of cost larger 
than the present client can consider. But he has 
before him what would be the desired culmination 
of a long indulged "day dream," a castle perhaps not 
in Spain, but nearly as visionary. There is at once 
secured an ideal, something to work for. something 
to practice self-denial and for which to exercise 
correct habits of thrift. In this very considerable 
education of people, the profession of architecture 
plays a most important part. 

To illustrate in a certain sense the idea we have 
been attempting to express, we are fortunate in 
having secured from Mr. Alfred Hopkins, archi- 
tect, a series of office sketches, and while these 
drawings were not made to "promote" a project we 
would like to point out how effective they might be 
for such a use. It is correct to state that while 
none of these sketches have proceeded further than 



the oirice stage, it was only by rea.-on of the deter- 
ring conditions set up by the war that they have not 
been. 

At the request of the editors, the architect has 
dictated a series of notes that describe briefly the 
more important of these sketches. They are in the 
largest sense educational, particularly to younger 
men in the profession, and we believe will be read 
with considerable interest. 



Notes by the architect on a series of his office 
sketches : 

The proposed house for William T. Hyde at 
Cooperstown was drawn during the war period and 
is to be built in the near future. It will be con- 
structed of native stone which breaks out in small 
flat pieces which are admirably suited to the Tudor 
type of architecture. This type is particularly adapt- 
ed to American conditions, requires little detail in 
the way of stone moldings and carvings and when 
judiciously used gives an unusual architectural ex- 
pression to the country home. 

The principal things to bear in mind in designing 







ENTRANCE FRONT 

HOUSE FOR GEORGE P. GREENHALGH, TOLEDO, OHIO 

35 




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36 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




ELEVATION TOWARDS RIVER 
HOUSE FOR GEORGF. P. GREEXHALGH, TOLEDO, OHIO 



this style, and in fact any other for country build- 
ing, is the outline of the roof. \Yith an agreeable 
roof silhouette the rest of the work should be easy 
Nothing therefore could be simpler or more natural 
than the roofing of the Hyde house, which will be of 
rough slate, with the slate laid but three or four 
inches to the weather. This laying of s'.ate is an 
important matter to bear in mind, as many of the 
old Tudor slates were small, thus giving a more 
artistic appearance to. the roof. The edges of the 
slate being rough the more edges that are seen the 
better the roof will look. 

Architectural ornaments have been reduced in 
this house to the minimum and the effect has been 
obtained by breaking the building up into various 
parts. Advantage has been taken of the beautiful 
bay windows of this style not only for exterior but 
interior ornament. Nothing can be finer in effect 
than the lighting which these windows afford to a 
big room. One feature of the house is the two liv- 



.Q- 



ing porches at each end of the living-room. The 
owner has four children and one living porch is 
being especially set apart for them and their friends. 
The dining-room will be a spacious room extend- 
ing through two stories while the living-room will 
gain in height by being below the floor level of the 
rest of the house. The bouse has a fine setting, 
overlooking a beautiful lake. 



The bouse of James 11. Perkins at Greenwich is 
carried out in the same style as the Hyde house, but 
in a much smaller building. ( )ne of the great ad- 
vantages of this style is that it is just as suitable 
to the small structure as the large. This bouse also 
had the advantage of a picturesque site. The 
thought was to place it at the very edge of a deep 
gully and near the large oak tree which is indicated 
in the sketch. 

In this plan it was desirable to take advantage 
of the artistic effect to be gained by not having all 



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PROPOSED HOUSE FOR GEORGE P. GREENHALGH, TOLEDO, OHIO 

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38 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the angles right angles. The Tudor style is very 
much enhanced in its effect by this sort of treat- 
ment. Any change in straight lines is an advantage. 
The T square and triangle methods of design are 
not suited to the Tudor. 

An interesting feature of the Perkins plan is the 




PROPOSED HOUSE FOR GEORGE P. GREENHALGH, TOLEDO, OHIO 

location of the great rooms by themselves entered 
from the living porch. The guest rooms have a 
pleasant outlook on the garden. This is an always 
attractive feature and is a useful way to dispose of 
the guest rooms. Our modern requirements as a 
rule demand more room on the second floor than on 
the first. For some time it has been usual to make 
the first floor larger than is required or desired 
simply to give space above for additional bedrooms. 
By putting these rooms in a one-story wing greatly 
adds to the effectiveness of the building and makes 
particularly agreeable guest rooms. The owner 
was anxious to see an alternative sketch for a 
Colonial house for the same location, so such a 
scheme was made which is more conventional and 
less attractive. 



The residence for Geo. B. Greenhalgh at Perrys- 
ville, Ohio, is a project in the same style, but a some- 
what different plan. The central hallway was intro- 
duced so as to get the advantage of all outside 
rooms. This house has a pleasing location over- 
looking the Maumee River. The colonnade on the 
front provides a porch on 
the second story as well as 
on the first. Advantage has 
been taken here of the one- 
story building in order to 
throw out and make prom- 
inent the central mass. A 
trophy room and an extra 
guest room occupies one 
wing, with the servant's room 
in the other wing. The owner 
stipulated that he wanted the 
drying yard where the wash 
would not be on view when 
hung to dry, so that this 
yard has been made of un- 
usual size with a tool house 
in one corner and a servant's 
porch at the other. In all 
these plans it will be noted 



that the servants have been as much as possible 
segregated from the family for the comfort and 
satisfaction of all. 



The plan of the large house at Guinea Chase 
Farm is also to be proceeded with when building 
conditions become more stable. The special fea- 
tures of this house are the grouping of some bache- 
lor rooms around the swimming pool and the small 
winter cottage to the right, with its own garden. In 
the summer time this is to be used as a guest cot- 
tage. A very delightful arrangement. Otherwise 
the plan follows out a usual scheme except, perhaps, 
as to location, the natural contours of the site allow- 
ing for a large sunken garden some twelve or fifteen 




5 t C 14 !> f-LOOIL- t>l A N 

PROPOSED HOUSE FOR W. T. HYDE, COOPERSTOWN, N. V. 

39 




OFFICE SKETCHES TO PROMOTE BUSINESS 
ALFRED HOPKINS, ARCHITECT 

40 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



feet below the main terrace. The building is to be 
built of brick and limestone along the simple lines 
indicated. 

The owner, however, thinking this may prove 
too expensive, wanted to see a design carried out 
in wood, so the alternative sketches showing a 
Colonial house with shingle walls and wood trim 
were made. 



The Labor Party on Housing 

THERE has always been a shortage in the sup- 
ply of suitable houses for workingmen, says a 
report of the special problems committee of the Xew 
York State Labor party. Therefore relief measures 
must not only go beyond such feeble attempts to 
curb rent profiteering as were made bv the Xew 
York Legislature in its recent session they must 
go beyond the present emergency entirely. The 
fundamental difficulty, according to the report, is 
that investments in wage-earners' houses have never 
been as profitable as investments in expensive apart- 
ment houses and office buildings. Remedies designed 
to touch this central difficulty are proposed in a 
housing platform which has been adopted by the 
Labor party. Some of the suggestions may be sum- 
marized as follows : 

State credit should be extended on a large scale 
to aid in the construction of moderate priced houses 
through the sale of state housing bonds carrying a 
low interest charge. These bonds could be bought 
by banks and insurance companies as legal invest- 
ments. Thus the savings of working class people, 
accumulated by savings banks and insurance com- 
panies, would be applied to working class housing, 
instead of being used as they are now for more 
profitable building ventures which do not benefit 
the workers. 

The granting of state credit should be adminis- 
tered by a state housing board and local boards in 
cities. On these boards there should be representa- 
tives of the organized workers, both in general and 
in the building trades, and actual working class 
tenants. 

The state, cities and towns should be enabled to 
go into the business of building, owning and rent- 
ing houses. This competition would break the "ex- 
tortionate hold" of manufacturers of building ma- 
terials on the market. 

Cities should take by right of eminent domain 
outlying land in the line of probable housing de- 
velopment, so that the unearned increment would 
go to the community. 



Non-profit making corporations of actual build- 
ing workers, including architects, construction en- 
gineers and manual workers, should be organized 
to carry on building operations as a public service, 
under the direction of the housing boards. 

The program has the merit of flexibility ; it holds 
out the possibility of different plans being worked 
nut in different places and at different times. The 
final suggestion, which evidently has its inspiration 
in the Manchester building guild, seems to be the 
ultimate development which is hoped for. "This 
type of autonomous industrial development is to 
be preferred." it is stated, "because in this way, with 
the motive of public service, the actual hand and 
brain workers can be brought to a maximum co- 
operation and effectiveness in producing units.'' 



House Shortage in Marseille 

The housing problem in Marseille is becoming 
more serious every day. Although there has been 
during the war an increase of at least 2(X).000 in the 
population of the city, which has now SOO.OOO in- 
habitants, only a few new buildings were erected 
during the last six years. Rents have also been in- 
creased by 300 to 400 per cent., and in many cases 
the percentage of increase is much higher. 

A colonial exhibition is to be held in Marseille in 
the summer of V>22, which will probably aggravate 
the housing crisis, unless steps are soon taken to 
provide lodging accommodations for the visitors. 
There is an abundance of available building sites in 
the central section of the city, which could be pur- 
chased at fairly reasonable prices. The erection of 
wooden structures on the American pattern, with 
American materials, was considered, but owing to 
the exchange situation this idea appears to have 
been abandoned. 

The matter is one which deserves the attention of 
American architects, builders and financiers. But 
it will be impossible to achieve any result without 
personal contact with the local architects and in- 
vestors. The extension of long-term credits would 
also be required and provisions made for payment 
when the rate of exchange is about normal. Unless 
adequate financial cooperation is assured it will be 
useless to approach the local contractors and dealers. 
Definite proposals along these lines should also be 
submitted. This consulate general would be glad 
to extend all possible assistance in this connection, 
but it should be noted that little, if anything, could 
be achieved through correspondence in this case. 



41 



The Architect's True Relation to His Pro- 
fessional Organization 

An Address b\ V. E. DAVIDSON, President-Elect Illinois Society of Architects 



A GOOD architect is one who is ever willing 
to give of his time, experience and worldly 
goods to the advancement of his profession, 
and who is so interested in the work of his pro- 
fessional society that he is not only a regular at- 
tendant at its meetings, but has thrown away his 
hammer and bought a horn. 

In this age of organizations we will not secure 
very much recognition, nor will we amount to 
very much to society if the light of our organiza- 
tion is hidden under the bushel of indifference. 
Our problem is not so much what the Society can 
do for our individual members, but, what can our 
members do for the Society, and through the So- 
ciety, for the profession as a whole, and for society 
in general. 

Dr. Ebersoll, at the recent convention of the 
American Institute of Architects, at Washington, 
wrote the following specification of what a pro- 
fession should stand for: 

First Service to Society. Second Service to 
the individual client. Third Service to the pro- 
fessional society ; and, Fourth Adequate remun- 
eration to the individual supplying that service. 

As members of the Illinois Society of Architects, 
how nearly do we comply with this specification ? 

Committees of the Society have placed their 
services at the disposal of our state and municipal 
authorities, and these services have been gratefully 
accepted. The influence of our Society has been 
felt in the legislative halls of our state, as well as 
in the council assembly room of many of our cities. 
During the past year, the Society has broadened the 
scope of its activities and resulting influences. 
More, however, needs to be done. 

Why should not the Society become active in the 
political life of our state and its cities? We must 
play the game of life with the cards we hold, not 
those in the discard. If the Illinois Society would 
agree as a body, to support men and measures, 
friendly to the profession, and would devote to the 
accomplishment of that object, the same thought, 
system and energy we all display in handling any 
of our clients' problems, the influence we would 
then have, with the aid of contractors, supply 
dealers, and others requesting favors at our offices, 
would be at once recognized as one to be reckoned 
with. If there is any one thing that those in politi- 
cal life recognize, it is the power of organization. 

I am also convinced that the Illinois Society of 



Architects should be the important factor in ad- 
justing differences between contractors and labor 
organizations. I believe that a federation of all 
the construction interests of the state should be 
at once formed. Such a federation, if properly 
organized and managed, could be all-powerful in 
the field of construction. The following interests 
should compose this federation : 

First Architectural societies. Second Banking 
interests. Third Real estate interests. Fourth 
Contracting associations. Fifth The labor or- 
ganizations themselves. 

It is only by the cooperation of all interests that 
the right solution of the many problems of our busi- 
ness, the business of constructing buildings, may be 
rightly solved. I believe that the officers of the 
societies of every interest I have mentioned will 
welcome such cooperation, and that now is the 
time to perfect such an organization. 

THE recent futile and lamentably ineffective 
attempt made by the Building Construction 
Employers' Association of Chicago to prevent the 
twenty-five or more per cent, increase in the rate 
of wages paid to building mechanics, as well as their 
attempt to keep peace in the building trades, is proof 
of this statement. Here is a powerful organization, 
that finds itself utterly helpless because it has not 
and cannot secure the support of all interests hav- 
ing to do with buildings. The bankers are absent, 
the real estate men do nothing, and the committee 
appointed to represent the architectural profession 
is mostly conspicuous by its absence. The result : 
Organized labor gets everything it asks for and 
new building construction has practically ceased. 
But little new work is in sight, a result largely 
brought about by a most ludicrous lack of coopera- 
tive effort. 

Notwithstanding the new agreements made with 
organized labor, as we all know, there have been 
more strikes and interruptions to work than ever 
before. At present, there appears to be no method 
of preventing these unnecessary and ever costly 
delays to our work delays that benefit no one ex- 
cept the business agent who is successful in forc- 
ing the owner or contractor to "come across." 

The next duty of the architect is to his individual 
client. Our Society, in cooperation with the Illinois 
Chapter, has recommended to the American Insti- 



(Continued on page 46) 



42 




Labor Over-turn 

THE Todcl Shipyard Corporation, it is stated in 
the daily press, have begun the distribution to 
faithful employees of bonus stock of the company. 
This distribution is in fulfillment of a promise made 
in 1916 when all those employed by this company 
were informed that every one loyal for a period of 
four years and who faithfully worked to help the 
company make good on its contracts would be suit- 
ably rewarded. In all $1,000,000 of shares, now 
worth $165 each have been distributed among 727 
employees. 

Commenting on this The Sun and Xcw York 
Herald pertinently comments : "This is tine, but 
there is another side to the picture," and directs at- 
tention to the fact that of an approximate total of 
15,000 employees but 727 are entitled to the bonus. 

Here is an accurate illustration of the extravagant 
labor over-turn which characterizes our American 
industries. Further quoting from The -Vioi and 
New York Herald, we read : "Investigation would 
unquestionably reveal the fact that a high propor- 
tion of the persons who quit the Todd corporation 
in four years did so for no adequate reason. Some 
of these went out for adventure, some of them 
looked for that ideal shop which is always in the 
next town, some of them quit through sheer in- 
ability to stay long on any job. Many of them 
were not conscious slackers, though everybody 
knows it takes time and money to train a man for 
a job. Altogether the expense and delays to he- 
charged to this class of labor are tremendous." 

This corporation has renewed its offer for a 
further period of four years. Will labor learn a 
wholesome lesson from this actual illustration of 
the good results that accrue from "sticking to the 
job." or will it continue the scramble for higher 
wages and supposedly better conditions that really 
are never in the end found to be so satisfactory as 
patient and persistent effort at a single well-paid job. 

New York's Hotels, Old and New 



WHAT boots it. now that we have the eigh- 
teenth amendment and are debarred from even 
the mention of varied and sundry seductive concoc- 



tions known as cocktails, now prohibited what 
boots it to mourn the passing of the hotel where 
the famous ''Manhattan'' originated. That which 
was once a daily habit has long since become a 
memory. Nor can \ve make a pilgrimage to the 
shrine where the man with a gift for invention 
which found recognition around the world, first 
developed "the Manhattan." 

The passing of our landmaiks no longer seriously 
affects us. We can even read in the daily paper, as 
we have just done, that the famous Manhattan 
Hotel on 42d Street and Madison Avenue will soon 
he replaced by a towering office building. At the 
same time it is stated that the Commodore Hotel, 
hut only recently completed, is to be doubled in 
its number of rooms by an addition to be built along 
Lexington Avenue. Further, the historic old Murray 
Hill Hotel, a short two blocks from the Commodore, 
is to he razed and rebuilt to a great height. On its 
completion there will have been formed the largest 
hotel group development in the world, with a total 
of 10.000 rooms. 

There are traditions hovering about the early 
hotels of Xew York, full of interesting reminiscence 
to the old Xew Yorker. The Grand Union, long 
a popular resort, was directly across the street from 
where the Commodore now rears its height. Here 
was housed the famous collection of pictures gath- 
ered by Samuel Shaw, part owner and proprietor, 
and one of Xew York's foremost art collectors. 
The walls of the public rooms of this old hostelry 
were hung with masterpieces of modern art and 
in each sleeping room, in place of the hideous 
chronio or duplicated etching that many larger and 
more popular hotels are wont to inflect on guests, 
there hung equally important examples of good 
American art. And there was Simeon Ford, Shaw's 
partner. Xo public function was complete without 
the presence of that brilliant after-dinner speaker. 
His wit was keen and honest ; his stories clean and 
to the point. 



HERE were the "links" of the famous "Forty- 
second Street Country Club." Here, during 
the days before the Volstead act. the golfers would 
"drive off" from the bar at the Grand Union to the 



43 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



"nine hole course'' that took in the Belmont, Park 
Avenue, Murray Hill, Knickerbocker, Wallicks, 
Astor. Ritz-Carlton and Vanderbilt "holeing out" 
as a sort of "nineteenth" hole at the Manhattan. 
And these things are now tradition. The Grand 
Union is but a memory; the Knickerbocker has 
closed its doors. The Murray Hill and Manhattan 
are soon to pass, and this famous and well played 
course is now no more. 

With the completion of the Viaduct continuing 
Park Avenue to and around the Grand Central Sta- 
tion, and with the many important buildings com- 
prising the Grand Central Group, that section of 
Ne\\; York has risen from a somewhat common- 
place neighborhood t-/ one of importance and dig- 
nity. The construction of the three large buildings 
now projected will give to this section of the city 
a very decided interest. The addition of more than 
5,000 rooms to New York's hotel capacity will 
merely rill a present need and not. as it might appear, 
provide for future growth. 

These things would seem to indicate more 
strongly than ever that the Manhattanite will, in 
the future, become a hotel dweller, and that the 
stately private house or many-roomed and very 
expensive apartment have had their day. To finance 
these large operations will take vast sums of money 
and the tendency, therefore, towards the erection 
of the apartment house with five to eight rooms 
or more would seem to be lessened. Just where 
the middle class man of moderate income will be 
able to find a home on Manhattan Island is not 
apparent. Real estate agents report that they could 
rent four times as many of the medium sized apart- 
ments as they have available. Meanwhile, owners 
of houses everywhere in the city are converting 
them into "race suicide flats," the small two and 
three room apartments where kitchens or even 
kitchenettes are unknown and where gas is not 
introduced so that tenants are prevented from lire- 
paring even the simplest of meals, except on the 
most primitive of electric "griddles." 

HE atmosphere of domesticity is changing in 
New York. We may soon look in vain, south 
of 110th Street, for a sign of those places which, 
even though they were apartment houses, contained 
what were in the truest sense homes. The jaded 
New Yorker, tired of all the bustle of our commer- 
cial activity, sighing for the change that comes with 
association of wooded areas and country roadsides, 
may, if he knows his New York, find all these rest- 
ful places without leaving the limits of Manhattan 
Island. Most New Yorkers do not know that leav- 



ing the West Side subway at 215th Street there is a 
neighborhood absolutely untouched that stands today 
just as it did when Hendrik Hudson and his crew 
rested beneath the famous tulip tree near Spuyten 
Duyvil creek now so carefully preserved from 
vandalism. The searcher for this neighborhood 
has only to scale the easy heights of Isham Park 
and wend his way through tree embowered roads 
along the southern edge of Spuyten Duyvil, finally 
to emerge through trees of forest growth to the 
sunlit waters of the Hudson. Not yet has the 
speculative builder invaded this wondrously beauti- 
ful neighborhood. Here the man or woman in 
search of rest from the nervous activities of the 
city's daily life, may walk and view from the 
heights the vast expanse of Van Cortland Park and 
the Bronx stretching away to the Eastward. It is 
less than forty minutes from the bustling location 
of the Hotel Commodore. 

One may, on these brilliant summer days visit 
this section in a matter of two or three hours. He 
can then vividly compare the New York of today 
with that of even a hundred years ago. The experi- 
ence is a novel one and one does not need a motor 
car to avail of it. 

PERHAPS no other city can present as many 
A radical changes in its growth as can that part of 
Greater New York, located on Manhattan Island. 
Our early Dutch settlers could not in their wildest 
visions have foreseen the changes that have oc- 
curred in two centuries. The contour of Manhattan 
Island has caused these things. The extreme length 
of about twelve miles and width at no place to 
exceed three miles, with the early location of its 
business centers at the southern extremity has 
caused an ebb and flow of daily traffic. This has 
seriously complicated traffic problems, many of them 
yet unsolved. 

The congregation of specific lines of business ex- 
clusively in certain areas and their rapid expansion 
is a further interesting phase of the growth on 
Manhattan Island. And now, so rapidly are all 
these changes occurring that in place of being things 
that one generation may describe to another, they 
are matters of less than a year's development. Wit- 
ness the case with which we first set out to write 
these lines, the building up of the Grand Central 
district. From any tall building at 42d Street and 
Broadway, looking south toward the Pennsylvania 
Station, note the many skeleton frames soon to be- 
come buildings that will house the clothing trade. 
Here are radical changes that will have matured 
within but a few months. 



44 



Criticism and Comment 



The Editors, THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Your Editorial, "A Matter of Competitions,' 1 
appearing in your issue of June 16th should re- 
ceive the attention and start some action on the 
part of architects \vlio enter competitions, the offi- 
cers of architectural associations and especially 
upon the part of advisers who prepare programs 
and conditions of competition. 

The instance of an invited competition given 
in your article, in which the cost to each competi- 
tor amounted to double the amount paid "to defray 
the cost of the competition drawings" indicates that 
in that particular case the client was unusually gen- 
erous. So very few people, including professional 
advisers, realize the amount of unnecessary ex- 
pense, frequently exceeding a thousand dollars, in 
stupid mechanical labor, required by conditions call- 
ing for drawings at a scale too large for convenient 
study; for the drawings to be in "India ink and 
no other color" when pencil and wash would be 
much more expressive of the designer's ideas and 
intentions; for drawings to be made upon sheets 
which are either unusual sizes for hand made paper 
or do not allow for trimming after stretching on 
the boards ; for showing the dimensions and areas 
of rooms in figures on the plans and demanding 
"the walls and solid supports to be blacked in solid," 
and the useless requirement, which still occasionally 
crops up, of "a perspective," which is at its worst 
when required to lie "in line only." Surely all of 
the above requirements should be eliminated as be- 
ing of no assistance whatever to any competent 
judge of architectural design, and as demands for 
sheer waste of the architects' time and money. In 
these times, when well-informed draftsmen are not 
available for temporary assistance, when space for 
temporary expansion of the architects' offices in 
New York at least is out of the question ; and 
even material, such as good sheets of paper of the 
larger sizes, suitable for fine renderings, cannot be 
readily obtained, some thought should be given by 
advisers to avoid waste labor, and inconvenience in 
the preparation of the merely tentative drawings 
which is all that competitive drawings can, or 
should attempt, to be. 

I think that at least the following points should 
be observed in the preparation of programs : 

1. All drawings should be at a uniform scale, 
except in the case of large sites the block plan might 
be at a smaller scale. 

It would be a convenience if the survey or dia- 
gram of the site were provided on white paper at 
the scale required for the block plan, so that it might 



be drawn directly on the sheet supplied. In cases 
when the adviser deems it necessary to define the 
type of lettering to be used, such sheet should 
be printed to serve as a model of the type and 
size of lettering desired. 

2. Drawings should be as few in number, and 
as small in scale as possible to adequately show 
the general working out of the parti adopted, and 
no more. 

Plans and elevations of buildings having a great- 
est dimension of 200 feet, should be at not more 
than one-sixteenth inch scale; those of 400 feet, not 
more than one-thirty-second inch scale, and those of 
SOO feet at one-sixty-fourth inch scale. A drawing 
of some feature at one-sixteenth scale in the case 
of very large buildings would ordinarily be suffi- 
cient to show the character of the architecture and 
quality of detail which the designer proposes. 

3. Xo inked-in drawings should be required, but 
should not be prohibited. The kind of drawing 
(the medium') should be left to the competitor, and 
should be that in which he can best express his 
ideas. 

I contend that the man who can draw should 
not he held down to the level of the one who can- 
not, especially as in these times every good designer 
is a good draughtsman. 

4. Lettering, figuring, dimensions and areas, ex- 
cept of the more important rooms, close computa- 
tions of cubic dimensions and diagrams to show how 
the cube is arrived at should not be required in 
any event not upon the drawings. Rooms could be 
numbered on the plans and the areas, etc. given in a 
typewritten schedule in the report. 

Such detail does not l>ear anv weight with a judge 
or jury until all but two or three designs have been 
eliminated. Therefore it is preposterous to require 
sometimes as many as one hundred competitors to 
put in lettering and figuring of unimportant details 
demanding in each case the time of an expensive 
draughtsman during a week or more, when the 
judge can find out for himself in a few minutes by 
scaling, all that he wishes to know regarding the 
two or three designs remaining for final considera- 
tion. It should be observed that in the working 
drawings the dimensions of rooms are almost in- 
variably changed from those required in the C9tn- 
petitipn programs. 

5. Perspectives should be prohibited. 

They are of no assistance to a good judge of de- 
sign. The architect of such little experience, knowl- 
edge or imagination who requires the help of a per- 

(Coittinued on paye 48) 



45 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



The Architect's True Relation 

(Continued from page 42) 

tute of Architects, an amendment to its code of 
practice, making it the duty of architects to furnish 
complete services and all for one fee. In order 
to compete with the builders, and the so-called pro- 
fessional interests who are unable to qualify under 
the law as architects, yet who have by the weight 
of organized numbers, been able to secure legisla- 
tion that legally qualifies them to plan buildings, and 
who are now competing with our profession for 
work ; architects must give, not only complete serv- 
ice, but a quality of service that can be given by 
no 'one else. Our training and experience has quali- 
fied us to give that quality of service; and when 
architects as a profession, give to their clients this 
super-service, owners will soon learn that it always 
pays to employ an architect. An architect has some- 
thing to give as well as something to sell, not pos- 
sessed by any one else. 

Regarding the third paragraph of Dr. Ebersoll's 
specification Service to the professional Society 
For some reasons our members have not supported 
the Society as loyally as I believe they should. 
There has been evidenced on the part of some a 
general feeling of indifference. 

The Illinois Society of Architects is not a kinder- 
garten. It is not conducting a soup kitchen. It is 
organized to perform a definite service to society 
and to its members, and any man unwilling to do 
his share should not remain a member. We want 
with us every architect who is willing to do his bit, 
but there is no room in our ranks for the parasite, 
the mere hanger-on, who only joins for what he 
may secure in prestige. Every member of the So- 
ciety should and must evidence the utmost loyalty 
to the Society and show as commendable a willing- 
ness to work for the common good as that shown 
by your officers and directors. It is not enough 
that you elect some of your members to office. 
Your officers must have the loyal cooperation of our 
members. You are or should be just as much in- 
terested in the Society as they are. If you are will- 
ing to work as a member of any committee, advise 
your president of your desires. If you think of 
some way to extend the Society's influence, and 
thus increase your own standing as an individual, 
let your officers know about it. Make the Society 
your own society. You can do it and we will all be 
benefitted. 

IF we may rightly read the signs of the times, 
you will for some time have plenty of oppor- 
tunity to think and study professional and society 
matters. As Mr. Dunning so ably stated in the 
report of the Post-War Committee on Architec- 



tural Practice to the 53rd Annual Convention of the 
American Institute of Architects, "The Committee 
is regrettably led to the conclusion that architects 
do not actively interest themselves in the problems 
concerning their profession, except in times of de- 
pression. Then they turn to the organization for 
help and suggestions with which they may meet 
the problems incident to depression, only to find that 
they themselves have neglected to help their own 
organization in the task of preparing for just such 
emergencies." 

The next paragraph of Dr. Ebersoll's specifica- 
tion demands adequate remuneration for individual 
service. Perhaps no profession is less adequately 
paid for services rendered than architects. No pro- 
fession assumes a greater responsibility or renders 
a greater service to society or the individual client. 
It has been estimated that the net average income 
of the architects of Illinois is less than the average 
net income of members of the Chicago Building 
Trades Council, and this, notwithstanding the many 
years of study required for the necessary educa- 
tion and training in order to qualify as an architect. 
The financial return even to the most successful in 
the profession is not commensurate with the time 
spent in preparing for the profession and for the 
service rendered. The same preparation, the same 
concentration of purpose, the same consecration of 
every energy of mind and heart in commercial fields 
of endeavor would make millionaires of us all. 

A change in the system of payment for archi- ' 
tectural service is now being considered seriously 
by the profession as a whole, and we may predict 
that at the next Annual Convention of the Institute, 
definite recommendations will be made which will 
at least increase the recognized minimum fee for 
architectural service, if said fee is to be based on a 
percentage of the cost of work. 

I would add a fifth paragraph to the specification 
for a profession. I would add, Service to the In- 
dividual member by the Professional Society. 

If we will compare the service rendered to the 
individual by the society in the learned professions, 
we will find I am sure, that as architects, we do 
not compare very favorably with the professions 
of law or medicine. Who ever heard of a doctor 
testifying on the witness stand in a Court of Record, 
against the charge of a brother physician, yet how 
often we observe architects using their testimony 
to defeat the righteous cause of a brother architect. 
Who ever heard of a doctor belittling the skill and 
professionalism of a brother physician? In the 
mad scramble for jobs that now seems the rule, is 
this primary and fundamental rule of conduct al- 
ways observed by us ? Let any of my hearers who 
has not sinned, raise his voice in protest. Re- 
member that your clients and the public will never 



46 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



place a higher valuation on your own services than 
you yourselves do, and will judge you as much by 
what you say as by what you do. 

One of the first things I propose to do as your 
president, if you and our board of directors will 
approve, is to appoint a strong committee on "legal 
service." The specific duty of this committee will 
be to advise any of our members who may wish 
assistance, as to the proper procedure to be fol- 
lowed in collecting their just fees. The most ex- 
perienced of us may find that he has a crook for 
a client and quite frequently, the younger practi- 
tioner finds that either he failed to secure a legal 
contract for services, or finds that he can only se- 
cure payment for services rendered by a suit at 
law, and is confronted with the problem as to how 
to proceed. Our committee will be able to suggest 
proper procedure and may even with propriety, 
suggest the names of legal counsellors that they 
know to be all that an attorney should be, 

The second duty of this committee will be to in- 
vestigate and report to the board of directors for 
action on those cases where architects appear as 
expert witnesses against another architect. 

I shall also insist that the membership committee 
I shall appoint endeavors to secure the applica- 
tion for membership of the younger men all thos. 1 
just entering practice. It is to these we may look 
with certainty as the coming men who shall take- 
up the work we shall ultimately be compelled to 
relinquish. \Ye should take them in and inspire 
them to give our work the spirit of loyal devotion 
that animates most of us. 

Since the beginning of the Oeat \\'a.r there have 
been many changes as affecting the practice of ar- 
"hitecture. It was an Art, or a Business. I believe 
it was, and is, both an Art and a Business, that 



while we are at all times artists, we are at the same 
time, Master Builders, whose duties, as the result 
of modern commercial methods, bring us so in- 
timately into association with every commercial de- 
tail, that to conserve the best interests of our clients, 
we must needs be equipped with more business 
acumen than is necessary in any of the arts allied 
to ours. Any architect who fails to recognize this 
rapidly growing condition, will find scant recog- 
nition for ability when he comes in contact with 
that hard-fisted client who, while perhaps willing 
to give a grudging assent to the introduction of cer- 
tain features of our art in his building, is more 
anxious to learn its true rental return. 

The success of our Society, devoting its activities 
largely to the business problems of the profession. 
is proof of the importance of the business aspect 
of the profession. 

IX conclusion, let me say a word about our So- 
ciety as a National influence. It is a source of 
satisfaction to me, as 1 know it must be to you, to 
know that wherever and whenever state societies 
are discussed, the Illinois Society of Architects is 
held up as the best example of an efficient working 
organization. We have it, therefore, as a duty, 
to maintain this reputation and secure for our mem- 
bership the largest proportion of eligible men it is 
possible to obtain. In this effort, I am hopeful of 
your earnest and loyal cooperation. \Yc may not 
set a limit on our activities, but I hope we may so 
organize our activities that they will draw to us a 
membership that will make the Illinois Society of 
Architects so powerful a factor in organized ar- 
chitecture that it will be something to reckon with 
a power in itself. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Criticism and Comment 

(Continued from page 45) 

spective in order to judge of the appearance of the 
design, is unfit to be a judge, or to act as adviser 
of a competition. 

6. The size of sheet should be an ordinary What- 
man paper size, less two inches in each dimension 
to permit stretching, cutting from the board and 
trimming. Borders to sheets should be left to the 
judgment of competitors. 

While the above points are but a few of many 
improvements that might be made to the sort of 
program that is approved by or gets by the Am- 
erican Institute of Architects' censors, they repre- 
sent fifty per cent of the cost of the ordinary set 
of competition drawings to each competitor. Ob- 
servance of those points would allow more time 
the designer for the important thing the study. It 
would result in more and better designs being sub- 
mitted in competitions by the older men to whom 
time is the matter of importance, and afford the 
usually intended opportunity to the younger indiv- 
idual, who believes in his own talent, to try his 
skill without being obliged to require assistance be- 
yond his means. 

FRANCIS S. SWALES. 

Xew York. 



Freight Situation Continues to 
Halt Building 

In an effort to break the embargo on building ma- 
terials, Senator William M. Calder of New York, 
chairman of the Senate Special Committee on Re- 
construction and Production, sent the following tele- 
gram recently to the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion : 

"There is now before your body an application 
filed by the sand and gravel interests requesting per- 
mission for the building industry to appear before 
your Commission and present facts concerning the 
serious conditions now confronting the building in- 
dustry of the country as a result of recent car ser- 
vice orders, which amount to an embargo on the 
transportation of building materials. As chairman 
of the Senate Special Committee on Reconstruction 
and Production, I respectfully request that all 
branches of the building industry be given an op- 
portunity to present to your Commission facts as to 
the inevitable results of a continuance in operation 



of the recent car service orders. Preliminary inves- 
tigation made by experts of Senate committee is de- 
veloping the fact that the country is in a critical 
condition because of lack of housing and general 
construction." 

Senator Calder has also conferred with several 
of the leading railroad executives, drawing their at- 
tention to the importance of immediate transporta- 
tion of building materials to New York City, where 
construction must be started during the next two 
or three months if relief is to be expected this year. 

Senator Calder pointed out that the building 
shortage is so acute in New York City that the 
movement of building materials should take pre- 
cedence over all shipments, excepting food and fuel. 

Senator Calder explained that at a meeting of the 
leading building material manufacturers of the 
country last Friday evening at the Engineers' Club 
it was developed that there is in existence today 
at the several plants sufficient building materials to 
meet all present requirements of the industry, but 
that the need of additional cars to move those ma- 
terials to the places of consumption had cut down 
the shipments about 662-3 per cent. 



Jefferson's Home for National 
Memorial 

Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, at 
Charlottesville, Va., which has been sought as a na- 
tional memorial by public-spirited citizens organized 
to purchase the historic property from its owner, 
Jefferson M. Levy, may be bought soon by the 
Thomas Jefferson Memorial, of which James W. 
(jerard, former Ambassador to Germany, is presi- 
dent, according to Charles W. Swan, secretary of 
the organization. 

The estate, comprising nearly 700 acres, has been 
offered by Mr. Levy for $1,000,000, on condition 
that it be converted into a national memorial. 

The restoration of Thomas Jefferson's home has 
been completed in the smallest detail by the present 
owner, whose family came into possession of it in 
1820. The house has been described as one of the 
most perfect pieces of Colonial architecture in 
America. The estate has been open to the public, 
and thousands of persons daily make pilgrimage to 
the home of the signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and former President. 



48 



VOL. CXVIII, No. 2325 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 14, 1920 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE 

HOUSE OF WILLIAM H. CAREY. PASSAIC, X. J. 

JOHN F. JACKSON. ARC Him "I 



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VOL. CXVIII, No. 2325 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 14, 1920 





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PROPOSED HOUSE FOR JAMES H. PERKINS, GREENWICH, CONN. 

ALFRED HOPKINS, ARCHITECT 
(See page 40 for exterior views) 



Vi >!.. CXVIII, .No. 2325 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 14, 1920 



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Current News 



Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 



Designer Enters the Motion Picture 
Field 

The decorations of New York City for the re- 
turn of the troops from France and the planning of 
other smaller fetes may be recalled as the work of 
Mr. Paul Chaflin. We now learn from the news- 
papers that he is going to California to assist Cecil 
DeMille in the production of motion pictures. Mr. 
Chaflin studied art in New York, subsequently 
at the ficole des Beaux Arts in Paris and at the 
Amsterdam Academy in Rome. 

With men who are trained in the arts turning 
their talents to the motion picture field, we may 
expect to find some worthwhile and carefully 
planned effects coming along with the evening's 
amusement. 



How One Artist Cleared Away 
Billboards 

The following story was recounted by W. A. 
Rogers in the New York Times, as a word of en- 
couragement to Mr. Pennell. This happened in 
1879 in Colorado, at the time of the great Lead- 
ville boom : 

Tom Parrish of Colorado Springs was in 1879 
an etcher, and a very good one. He was also in- 
terested in mining properties. Both these lines 
of endeavor took him about in the mountains and 
he was greatly distressed when he saw advertising 
signs, with letters ten and twenty feet high, painted 
on the great cliffs which formed the mountain sides 
of that wonderful region. 

Tom Parrish was a mining man by stress of cir- 
cumstances, but he was an artist by nature. 

Artists, public opinion to the contrary notwith- 
standing, are practical people. They deal with the 
visible world, and the visible world in Colorado was 
being ruined by a lot of vandals.- 

Tom Parrish was a popular man in Colorado 
Springs. He got himself nominated for state sena- 
tor and won the election. 

Then he prepared a bill making it an offence 
punishable by a fine of $1,000 or one year in jail to 
deface the scenery in the state of Colorado. This 
bill also provided that offenders should at their own 
expense obliterate all signs hitherto painted on the 



rocks. When his bill was presented and read be- 
fore the legislature a howl of derision greeted it. 

"We are practical men," said the other members 
of the legislature, "not a lot of fool dreamers. We 
want business, and advertising makes business. 
You'd better go back to making pictures and not 
laws, Parrish.'' 

"All right," said Parrish. "I'll make- you a pic- 
ture right now that maybe you can sec. You want 
business; so do I. What has Colorado got to sell? 
Silver and scenery! Just those two products sil- 
ver to the mints, scenery to the tourists. You 
haven't another thing today to offer. And the b';st 
and surest product you've got you are willing to 
let a lot of rustlers destroy. There's my picture 1 
what are you going to do about it ':" 

An old miner got up and banged his list down 
on his desk. "Parrish is right. He's got more 
business in his head than all of us put together. 
Let's pass his bill !" 

They did, the governor signed it and it became 
the law of the state. 



Valuable Building Stone Found 

\\ hat geologists and experienced quarrymen pro- 
nounce to be the most valuable building stone ever 
found in the United States has been discovered 
ninety miles south of Memphis, in North Missis- 
sippi, along Big Bear Creek. It is said to be the 
finest Silica stone in America and the only specimen 
of its kind is found near Edinburgh, Scotland, 
where most public buildings have been erected of it. 

Practically all of the stone lies in a deep gorge, 
through which flows Big Bear Creek. Acres of it 
is on top of the ground, formed in such a way 
that it can be gotten in slabs or blocks of most any 
size. There is little overburden to any of it. 

Dr. L. C. Glenn, geologist at Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, Nashville, who went to the locality and 
made a report of his findings, said the vein averaged 
25 and 30 feet deep and that its bedding is usually 
remarkably uniform and parallel, so that when split 
along the bedding planes the blocks have almost 
perfectly even surfaces. 

When the stone is exposed to air it readily 
hardens, according to Dr. Glenn. It will resist 
weather indefinitely without crumbling or disin- 
tegrating. The natural color of the stone is white 



49 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



and free from the influence of surface percolating HoUSC Built Like Refrigerator 



waters. 

Experts say the stone can be marketed in Mem- 
phis fifty per cent, cheaper than any other class 
of white building stone, and considerably cheaper 
than cement or brick. The Illinois Central Rail- 
road has a track extending through the property. 

In order to market the stone, C. C. and Thos. J. 
Wellford of Memphis and \Y. F. Dunbar of Atlanta 
have secured an option on 1,100 acres of land 
through which the vein of rock has been traced. 
They are now organizing a $1.000,000 company to 
market the stone. 



Chinese Manufacturing Town Devel- 
oping Large Industries 

Seventeen hundred years ago, the Chinese pot- 
ters began work in Kingtecheng, for the town, now 
one of the four largest towns in the country, dates 
from the I Tan dynasty, when, according to the rec- 
ords, porcelain was first made in China, although 
vessels of earthenware were probably; produced 
some centuries earlier. 

A large and picturesque town of potters it still 
is, to judge by Frank R. Lenz's description in Mil- 
lard's Review, and modernly interesting because its 
product, hitherto largely confined to China, will no 
doubt enter more and more into world trade with 
the present development of international commerce. 
They call it a "town" in China, because, although 
some 300,000 people live in it, it has no wall ; prac- 
tically it is a great manufacturing city, where ware- 
houses, shops, furnaces, and the homes of the peo- 
ple are all jumbled together, as they have come into 
being during the centuries, and where, century by 
century, the great mounds of chipped and defective 
pottery have grown steadily higher along the banks 
of the river. 

One reaches the town by launch or houseboat 
from Nanchang, and is likely to meet the small flat- 
bottomed boats loaded with soft white bricks, that 
bring the clay to the potteries from the various de- 
posits around Poyang Lake, that so long ago led 
the earliest potters to establish themselves in King- 
techeng. Nowadays there are at least 200 firms en- 
gaged in the occupation, 120 pottery kilns, 1,500 
art shops, and more than 2,000 form factories ; and 
of the 300,000 inhabitants, about 200,000 live by the 
manufacture and sale of porcelain and pottery. And 
although Kintecheng is not governed by unions, 
and the worker is paid by the piece, there is a simple 
custom in force which takes the place of the eight- 
hour day elsewhere. If a workman works too long, 
the other workmen beat him. 



Built on the principle of a refrigerator, with its 
walls insulated to keep the cold out, a new idea in 
construction of residences is according to the Im- 
provement Bulletin being tested in the cold coun- 
try in Canada. The residence has been used for a 
year, being occupied by the designer and his family. 
It was tested severely during the last winter when 
temperature ran to forty below zero, but it stood the 
test and was heated throughout with electrical heat 
during the hardest weather. The walls were de- 
signed to keep the cold out and appear to have 
done so. 

The walls are hollow, the outer walls being ce- 
ment plaster on metal lath with a top coat of stucco. 
Back plaster is placed between the metal lath and 
the studding. The outer wall is a sheet of concrete 
one and one-half inches thick. The inner wall is of 
two layers of asphalt paper with wood lath and 
plaster on top. The airtight space in the walls filled 
with insulating material, granulated cork with a 
mixture of planer shavings. The theory on which it 
is built is to prevent the movement of warmed air 
toward a cold surface. 

The cost of construction was given as 10 per 
cent, above ordinary methods. The purpose of the 
test in construction was to learn how greatly heat 
conservation might be developed. On the cold 
prairies of Saskatoon the conservation of heat and 
fuel in winter is an important item. The test house 
has attracted much attention from construction and 
heating engineers. 



Making Wood Fire Resistant With 
Paint 

Fire retardent paints are the most practical means 
so far discovered by the Forest Products Labora- 
tory by which small amounts of wood can economi- 
cally be made fire resistant. The only other known 
methods of decreasing the inflammability of wood 
are to keep it wet, or to inject into it certain chemi- 
cals under pressure. These methods, though more 
effective than painting, are usually either imprac- 
ticable or too expensive to be considered. 

Ordinary calcimine or whitewash has proved in 
tests to be as fire resistant as any paint covering 
dried. It is cheap and convenient to use. Although 
it will not prevent the burning of wood exposed 
continuously to a high heat, a good coat of calci- 
mine on wood will decrease the danger of a blaze 
spreading from burning cigarettes, sparks, matches 
and similar small sources of fire. Calcimine is, of 
course, more effective for inside than for outside 



use. 



For exterior use numerous patented fire retar'dent 



50 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



paints are available. An effective outdoor paint 
which has been developed at the Forest Products 
Laboratory consists of linseed oil, zinc borate and 
chrome green. This paint has maintained its fiic 
resisting properties through more than three years 
of exposure to the weather. 



How To Distinguish Mahogany and 
Walnut From Red Gum 

In the manufacture of furniture and cabinets a 
great deal of red gum is used as an imitation of 
mahogany or Circassian walnut. When red gum 
is properly finished it can be made to look so much 
like either of these woods that only by very care- 
ful observation can the true be distinguished from 
the substitute. There is a very distinct difference, 
however, between red gum and mahogany or wal- 
nut. This difference lies in the size of the pores. 

In mahogany, Circassian walnut and black wal- 
nut the pores are so large that they can be seen 
very distinctly on a smoothly-cut surface of the end 
grain, where they appear as minute openings smaller 
than pin holes but visible without magnification. 
On surfaced faces the pores appear as tine grooves, 
running parallel with the grain. They are even 
visible through the varnish, appearing as dark lines. 

In red gum the pores are much smaller and can 
be seen only with a magnifying glass. 



Comparative Value of Timber Cut 
From Live and Dead Trees 

Prejudice exists in certain quarters against the 
use of timber cut from dead trees, and ?ome pur- 
chase specifications insist that only timber cut from 
live trees will be acceptable. As a matter of fact 
when soun dead trees are sawed into lumber, and 
the weathered or charred outside is cut away, there 
is no method known to the Forest Products Labora- 
tory by which the lumber can be distinguished from 
that cut from live trees, except that the lumber 
from dead trees may be partly seasoned when 
sawed. 

All the information available at the laboratory 
indicates that timber cut from insect or fire killed 
trees is just as good for any structural purpose 
as that cut from live trees of similar quality, pro- 
viding the wood has not been subsequently injured 
by decay or further. insect attack. If a tree stands 
on the stump too long after it is killed, the sapwood 
is likely to become decayed or badly infested by 
wood-boring insects ; and in time the heart-wood 
also will be similarly affected. The same thing is 
true of logs cut from live trees and not properly 
cared for. Until the wood becomes affected by 



these destructive agents, dead tree wood should 
be just as strong and just as durable as sound 
live tree wood. 

In considering the subject it may be useful to 
remember that the heartwood of a living tree is 
entirely dead, and in the sapwood only a compara- 
tively few cells are living. Most of the wood cut 
from trees is dead, therefore, regardless of whether 
the tree itself Is living or not. Such being the case 
purchase specifications, instead of providing that 
material must not be from dead trees, should state 
that material showing evidence of decay or insect 
infestation exceeding a specified limit will not be 
accepted. 



Urge Relief for Housing Trouble 

lenement I louse Commissioner Frank Mann -it 
the next meeting of the .Mayor's Housing Confer- 
ence Committee, in Xew York, will submit the draft 
't a bill to be introduced at the next session of the 
Legislature exempting real estate mortgages from 
the income tax law. Congress will he asked to adopt 
a similar amendment to the Federal incojne tax law. 
The necessity for such acticn. if the housing situa- 
tion is to be relieved, was dwelt upon by U'alter I. 
Stabler of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Com- 
pany, at a meeting of the committee held in tin- 
City Hall yesterday, over which Mr. Stabler pre- 
sided. 

"I feel certain." In- said, "that if Congress does 
not do something to help the situation, a crisis is not 
far off. Investors in mortgages are withdrawing 
on account of the income tax. They are taxed so 
heavily that there is very little left. Tin-re should 
be a total exemption in both the Federal and State 
income tax for real estate mortgages." 

According to C. II. Kelsey of the Title Guarantee 
and Trust Company, there appears to be a disposi- 
tion on the part of lenders to call in their loans. 
"lint," he said, ''my company, since January 1. has 
taken $27,000,000 in loans and sold $25,000,000." 

Charles Froeb, president of the Lincoln Savings 
Bank of Brooklyn, reported to the committee that 
his bank had lent $1,000.000 on new construction 
since the first of the year. A resolution offered 
by Mr. Froeb that the Board of Estimate be re- 
quested not to demolish houses to make room for 
public improvements until the housing situation has 
been to some extent relieved was adopted. 

The Guarantee Life Insurance Company in- 
formed the committee that in its loans thus far this 
year, amounting to $4,500,000, it had given prefer- 
ence to the construction of new houses. The Frank- 
lin Savings Bank reported loans of $1,000,000 a 
month for the last vear. 



51 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



The Prudential Savings Bank of Brooklyn re- 
ported that it had lent from 50 to 60 per cent, of 
its deposits on new buildings, and a representative 
of the Long Island City Savings Bank stated that 
his institution had lent more than $7,000,000 to aid 
the construction of 1,286 buildings and expected to 
lend $1,000,000 more for that purpose before the 
end of the year. The spokesman for S. W. Straus 
& Co. reported that his firm had lent about $70,- 
000,000 in the last year, two-thirds of that amount 
being for the construction of apartment houses. 

Edward P. Doyle, secretary of the Mayor's Con- 
ference Committee, said today that about half a 
billion of capital would be required for the con- 
struction of enough apartment houses to thoroughly 
relieve the housing situation. 



Mayor's Plea for Neater City 

Every man who owns or rents a house or holds 
title to vacant lots ought to give serious attention to 
Mayor Hylan's plea for a neater city. New York is 
comparatively free from nuisances that imperil pub- 
lic health. She is notoriously careless about the little 
things that make for the effect of neatness and 
beauty. Lots filled with unsightly weeds that scat- 
ter their seeds on all well-kept lawns and front- 
yard flower gardens in the vicinage, piles of ashes, 
or rubbish, tin cans, broken bottles, discarded shoes, 
offend the eye. The issue is not trivial, not neg- 
ligible. 

We do not know how far the Mayor's menace of 
prosecution for some offenders may be backed by 
existing statutes and ordinances. Unauthorized 
billboards on private property, or on city property, 
should be torn down. We think there is no or- 
dinance to compel a man to keep vacant lots clear 
of weeds. New Orleans has such an ordinance, 
and it is a good one. 

One phase of what the Mayor protests against 
is largely the fault of his Street Cleaning Depart- 
ment. Carelessness in emptying ashes, and in let- 
ting loose papers fly into the street is noticeable for 
any one who cares to keep his eyes open. An ounce 
of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Citizens 
who have done all they could to meet complex or- 
ders of the department can hardly be expected to 
clean up after Mayor Hylan's cleaners. His Com- 
missioner should insist on care, and get rid of the 
men who leave trails of unsightliness. But quibbles 
over technical responsibility are to be avoided. The 
best rule for department employees or for the citi- 
zen is to brush up where brushing up is needed. 
Duties are of more importance than rights to the 
thinking American, and the city itself should exhibit 
the pride it wants instilled in its citizens. 



The Halt of the Pioneer 

HOWEVER incomplete up to the time of writ- 
ing, the census figures of 1920 show a de- 
cided check to the westward march of the popula- 
tion. Another fact already established is a decline 
in the rate of increase of population for the coun- 
try as a whole, urban as well as rural. Not only 
was immigration shut off during the war, but there 
has been a further decline in the size of the family. 
Some very remarkable changes have taken place in 
the population increase of individual cities : Listed 
in the Survey, two small towns in Michigan, both 
of them suburbs of Detroit, Hamtranck and High- 
land Park, have in the last decade increased by over 
1,000 per cent. Flint and Pontiac, of the same state, 
have an increase of 136 and 138 per cent., respec- 
tively. Akron. Ohio, is the only large city so far 
returned with an increase of over 200 per cent. To- 
ledo's growth was 44 per cent., that of Dayton only 
31 per cent., and that of Cincinnati only 10 per 
cent. Louisville, Kentucky, comes very low in the 
scale with an increase of less than 5 per cent., while 
Spokane, Wash., has remained quite stationary. 
There are no outstanding examples of new boom 
towns in the mine and lumber region of the West ; 
most of the large increases are east of the Mis- 
sissippi. Nevertheless, grouping them by states and 
regions, the cities and towns of the West still in- 
crease faster than those of the Atlantic coast and 
of the center. 

Patriotic Englishmen recognize with sorrow that 
in their geographies they will probably have to 
erase London and substitute New York as the 
largest city. As in the case of the figures just 
quoted for two of Detroit's suburbs, ho-vever, such 
comparisons are very misleading. London simply 
is twenty years ahead of New York in the move- 
ment of decentralisation, which has extended be- 
yond the so-called "outer ring" of Greater Lon- 
don ; and a far greater proportion of its industries 
and residences are situated in pleasant satellite 
towns. An editorial in Community Leadership, 
the organ of the American City Bureau, aptly ex- 
presses a sentiment in this respect which has on 
various occasions been voiced in these columns: 

In American we have grown so accustomed to 
thinking in terms of size and numbers that we sel- 
dom pause to ask ourselves whether an increase in 
population is an asset or a liability. Too often we 
have deluded ourselves with the belief that size it- 
self was a virtue, but the war has taught us anew 
that it is not the biggest man or the biggest imple- 
ment that best withstands the crucial test, but that 
one in which all the parts are best coordinated. 
Accordingly, as the census figures are announced, 
it is an opportune time to ask ourselves whether 



52 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the measure of our cities should be numbers of in- 
habitants or quality of citizenship. Each newcomer 
adds to the city's responsibilities. 



Army and Navy Club's Memorial 
Building 

As a permanent memorial to the more than 3,000 
American officers who died in the world war the 
Army and Navy Club of America, of 18 Gramercy 
Park, will establish in New York City a $3,000,000 
service club house, where, among other memorial 
features, the military record of every officer will be 
preserved for future generations. 

In making the announcement Rear Admiral Brad- 
ley A. Fiske, U. S. N., retired, president of the club, 
said that it is proposed not only to make the ne>v 
building a memorial of national significance, on the 
order of Grant's Tomb on the Hudson, but also to 
establish a graet center for general patriotic activi- 
ties and an auditorium for large public assemblages. 

With 2,500 members already in the club and ap- 
proximately 195,000 others, in all branches of the 
service, to draw from the club in time should be- 
come, even without civilian memberships, by far the 
largest in the world, Admiral Fiske said. 

It is the intention of the club, however, lie said 
to make the memorial feature predominant. 

The record of all officers, with personal data and 
souvenirs contributed by their families, will be pre- 
served in the new building in a special memorial 
court or hall, which will be built from plans drawn 
in competition by leading architects of the country. 
The memorial in this respect would be unique, no- 
thing like it ever before having been attempted. 

It is planned, by appealing to the adjutant gene- 
rals, to the Red Cross and other organizations, to 
make the final list of those who died in service the 
most complete and authentic in the country. 

"It is planned to make the new building not only 
a monument to the heroic dead, but a home for the 
living, where the best traditions of the service will 
be maintained," Admiral Fiske said. 

"Officers in all branches of the service coming to 
New York can find at this club accomodations at 
prices commensurate with their incomes. Our pres- 
ent quarters are entirely inadequate, and something 
must be done to provide for the hundreds of officers 
who are passing through New York at all times and 
for many of whom satisfactory hotel accommoda- 
tions are a serious problem. 

"Dues and house charges, accordingly, will be ex- 
eedingly moderate. There will be a large number 
bedrooms, but in addition, the plans include a 
lormitory furnished with cots, where army officers 
nay always be sure of a place to sleep. The new 
iiilding will also have, besides the meeting rooms 



for patriotic societies, a special dining room with 
private entrance for ladies, and others attractions 
appealing to patriotic men and women. 

"It is hoped that the building will become a center 
of patriotism, where the histories of the officers of 
the United States Army and Navy may be kept and 
where coming generations may find inspiration. This 
will serve also in keeping before the public the im- 
portance of officer service. 

"Civilians will be eligible to associate membership, 
it being the desire to establish a place where officers 
and men of affairs can get closer together to their 
mutual advantage. 

"\Ve want the new club, in fact, to be a national 
institution for the preservation of American ideals 
and the propagation of American principles." 



News Notes from Various Sources 

Frederick Kasmussen, Pennsylvania State Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, says there are from 4.000 to 
6,000 idle farms in Pennsylvania today, many of 
them among the most fertile in the State. 

* * * 

Trustees of General Kducational Hoard and of 
Rockefeller Foundation announced appropriations 
totaling $20,261,900 for various purposes of general 
education and medical schools. 

* * * 

Dwelling house tires in 1919 numbered 210,000. 
and represented over 22 per cent, of the total value 
of the fire loss of the country, according to the an- 
nual report of the statistical bureau of the Xational 
Hoard of Fire Underwriters. 

* * * 

Plans for organization of a Xational Chamber of 
Agriculture along lines of Chamber of Commerce 
of United States were made at opening at Wash- 
ington June 17 of first annual convention of Ameri- 
can Association of Agricultural Fditors. 

* * * 

Chicago has adopted daylight saving, and has 
set the clock forward for one hour, following the 
example of New York City. The municipal, State 
and Federal departments have agreed to adopt the 
new time, but it does not affect railway trains. 

* * * 

Construction Division, one of the emergency 
creations of the war, is about to pass out of existence 
as a separate institution. Plans for its merger with 
the Quartermaster General's Department, from 
which it was made at beginning of war, are now 
in hands of Quartermaster General. 

* * * 

A conference of representatives of various wood- 
using industries is to be held in Madison. \Yis.. on 
the afternoon of July 23, 1920, and the question 



53 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



of a national forest policy will be discussed. It will 
be an open meeting, and the discussions should be 
of wide general interest. 

* * * 

At the Commencement of the University of 
Illinois on June 16, 1920, and at various times dur- 
ing the year, 162 B. S. degrees were granted to stu- 
dents of the College of Engineering. Of these 18 
were for architecture and 24 for architectural 
engineering. 



Personals 

Jerauld Dahler, architect, is now located at 320 
Fifth Ave., New York City. 

T. L. Yannucci, architect, has gone into business 
at 1024 Main street, Bridgeport, Conn. 

John D. Boyd, architect, has opened an office at 
105 West Fortieth street, New York City. 

Steinler and Kritz, architects, formerly of 103 
Park Ave., New York City, have gone out of 
business. 

Frank Newman and Norman McGlashen have 
opened an office for architectural practice at 120 
Fast Fortieth street, New York City. 

An architectural office has been opened by John 
Y. Yan Pelt at 126 East Fifty-ninth street, New 
York City. 

The firm of Ford, Buck and Sheldon, 60 Prospect 
street, Hartford, Conn., is now known as Buck & 
Sheldon, Inc., architects and engineers. 

Howard Major, architect, has recently become 
associated with Walter D. Blair, with offices at 154 
East 61st street, New York. 

Lockwood, Green & Co., engineers, 101 Park ave- 
nue, have established an office in Philadelphia under 
the management of Charles P. Wood. 

Ely & Haniann, architects, announce the removal 
of their offices from 833 St. Johns place to 551 
Nostrand avenue, Brooklyn, New York. 

G. C. Freeman has removed his office from 1111 
North llth Street to the Reading Liberty Bank 
Building, Reading, Pa. 

Rudolph Kruger and Nathan Siegler announce 
that they have opened offices at 207 Market St., 
Newark, N. J., for the practice of architecture and 
engineering. Catalogues are desired. 

Theodore A. Meyer has moved from 114 East 
28th St., New York, to 150 E. 41st street. New 
York, and desires manufacturers' catalogues. 



John C. Black, landscape architect and engineer, 
Tacoma, has gone to Chicago to take an editorial 
position on "Engineering and Contracting." 

Earl A. Roberts, architect, now located in the 
American Bank Building, Seattle, is to take up 
quarters at 1056 Empire Building. 

Harry Bryant, architect, formerly at 291 Hins- 
dale street, has moved his offices to 367 Fulton 
street, Brooklyn, New York, Room 512. 

Hays & Hoadley, architects, formerly at Broad- 
way and 68th street, are now located at 204 Am- 
sterdam avenue, New York. 

Marohak & Hickey, architects, Strand Bldg., 
Providence, R. L, have dissolved partnership and 
the firm is now under the name of Joseph A. 
Hickey. 

Milton P. Pettebone has opened an office for the 
practice of architecture at 71 Broadway, Detroit, 
Mich. Mr. Pettebone was formerly with McKee, 
Williams and Pettebone, Newport News, Va. 

Announcement has been made that Stork & 
Knappe, architects, formerly of Palisades, N. J., 
have removed to Ardsley, N. Y., where they are 
located on King street. 

Removal notice has been issued by T- Floto, ar- 
chitect, whose offices were formerly at 139 North 
Clark street. He is now at 189 West Madison 
street. 

H. H. Whiteley of Los Angeles, California, for- 
merly 429 Story Building, has opened new offices at 
520 South Western avenue, Los Angeles, for the 
practice of architecture. He wishes samples and 
catalogues. 

John H. Holler, Jr., and John G. Kleinhenz, ar- 
chitects, have formed a partnership for the general 
practice of their Profession, with offices at 1012 
Gates avenue, Brooklyn, New York. Mr. Holler 
was formerly a member of the architectural firm of 
Froling & Holler, 150 Nassau street, Manhattan, 
which was dissolved some time ago. 

Samuel L. Malkind, architect, formerly located 
at 1270 54th street, has moved his office to 16 Canal 
street, Brooklyn. 

Mann & MacNeille, architects and engineers, with 
offices at 70 East Forty-fifth street, New York, have 
been compelled by their steadily growing practice 
to open a permanent Western branch office, which 
is located in the Book Building, Detroit, Mich. 
This firm specializes in town planning and civic de- 
velopment. 



54 



Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Prominent Regional Centers 



FROM Glasgow, Scotland, conies the news of 
a just, common-sense view of restrictions 
and limitations laid upon the building pro- 
gram. 

There is so generally current a theory of the 
exclusive importance of dwelling house construction 
and such an easy-going acceptance of such a pro- 
nouncement that it is a relief to see the carefully 
stated decision of the Appeal Tribunal at Glasgow, 
published in The Architect. London. The Corpora- 
tion had prohibited the erection of nine motion pic- 
ture theaters ; but on the judgment of Tribunal this 
prohibition has been annulled. The judgment is such 
a simple, straightforward statement of facts that 
we quote : 

"This tribunal is fully alive to the importance and 
the need of building dwelling houses in Glasgow. But 
this statutory tribunal has been set up to protect the 
interests not only of the building trade generally but 
of the community as a whole, and they have a great 
deal more to consider than the needs of the contrac- 
tors who have been selected by the respondents to 
do their dwelling-house work. The purpose of the 
creation of this tribunal is to safeguard the interests 
of others than those carrying out the housing schemes 
of local authorities. The duty of this tribunal is to 
interpret and administer this Act of Parliament; not 
merely to register their assent to orders made by 
a local authority, unless the local authority has dis- 
charged the onus resting upon them of showing that 
the making of such orders was an absolute necessity 
of the circumstances. A statute conferring powers of 
restricting trade or industry is to be strictly construed 
against those operating such restrictions. 

"It does not appear to the tribunal that there need 
necessarily be competition for men or material be- 
tween the buildings prohibited and the housing 
schemes of the respondents. It has not been established 
that material or labor would become available to re- 
spondents' housing contractors by the appellants' 
buildings being prohibited. 

"In the opinion of the tribunal, the extent of the 
responsibility laid upon local authority under the stat- 
ute is very much more extensive than merely to con- 
trast the relative importance of dwelling-houses and 
cinema houses after they have been built. If this had 
been intended to be the limit of a local authority's 
outlook, there was no need for an Act of Parliament 
at all, for everybody realizes, and none more so than 
the members of this tribunal, that dwelling accommo- 
dation is the pressing national necessity. But the 
duty laid upon a local authority is to have regard 
to the relative public importance of all building 
operations, and it is not the intention of this statute 
that the interests of many sections of the building 
trade should by prohibition be sacrificed to the inter- 
ests of one section, unless there is no other way, 
after every effort has been made to find it, of ac- 
complishing the house building." 



\\ e are having our fill of dwelling-house propa- 
ganda, whether it comes from political, or journal- 
istic, or some other source. \\ e all know that small 
dwelling-houses are needed, but whether they are 
to be constructed to the extinction of all other forms 
<>f construction, is another matter. Probably there 
will be no such entanglement with restrictions of 
officialdom in this country as in England and the 
buildings put up will be those so urgently needed 
that the effort brought to Ix-ar will overcome all 
difficulties and competition. 

It is difficult to decide just which type of building 
is most important and which of a secondary na- 
ture: whether factories, apartments, or workers' 
cottages. Hut such economic problems have a way 
of working their own solution and we need not fear 
under present conditions that an appreciable amount 
of building which is without great economic value 
will manage to get itself done. 



(Hv Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect. ) 

Chicago. The construction industry of Chicago 
seems to he playing a waiting game. Apparently 
the builders are willing to wait to allow the material 
men to tight the battles with building labor. 

The building supply men. particularly the lumber 
interests, have been roused by the falling off in the 
demand for their products. And they blame the 
present high prices and consequent decrease in 
building on labor and its "Unreasonable wage 
demands.'' They believe that many contractors and 
builders have been antagonized by the attitude of 
labor and hampered by the constantly recurring 
jurisdictional strikes until they have ceased all build- 
ing operations rather than submit to wage demands 
which in many instances have exceeded reason. 

It is expected by both building and lumber interests 
that this stand on the part of the employers will 
eventually bring prices and wages down. Much un- 
employment in the trades is said to exist and expert 
building craftsmen are reported to be now seeking 
employment in shops offering to work at any job 
or any wage. 

\Yhile high prices of labor and materials lead in 
reasons for light construction, a third cause for the 
present stagnation is found in the shortage of cars. 
The heads of building material companies say that 
the present assignment of all opentop cars for coal 
and of tight box cars for grain has left the building 
material interests absolutely without cars. A dele- 



55 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



gation from Chicago has appeared before the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission urging that body to 
apportion cars to their industries. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 

Architect.) 

Seattle. There has been some relief in the move- 
ment of small pipe into this territory from eastern 
mills, but three-quarter inch stock is still short. 
There have been no price fluctuations in these ma- 
terials. Nails are still being rationed although ten- 
tatively jobbers are getting more of a supply. 

The car shortage is sharing honors with the lack 
of skilled workmanship in the eastern mills in keep- 
ing the supply at a heavy percentage under the de- 
mand. In all products where skill is requisite, there 
seems to be a woeful lack of arrivals. Jobbers who 
have examined recent receipts of shingle nails have 
discovered that the small blued nails do not even at- 
tempt to conform to equality in size, and here can be 
found the proof of the claims of manufacturers of 
their inability to get experienced men. 

There has been a fair increase in the stocks of 
black pipe, which has carried the bulk of the demand 
so far during the building season. There is more 
half -inch pipe on hand. The demand has fallen. All 
the big jobs in this territory so far known to be go- 
ing through have been taken care of on sub-con- 
tract, and due to the presidential election year with 
its disturbance of business jobbers of building ma- 
terials predict that the North Coast territory is in 
for a dull period. 

Fire brick advanced to $75 per thousand this 
week. During the past four months, while shipyards 
that had been on the speeding-up war basis of war 
time have been dismantling, 200,000 low heat fire 
brick have been offered which upset the market for 
high standard materials. The last of this lot has 
been cleaned up, and instant strengthening of the 
market followed. Some of these yards have catapul- 
ted a bearish tone into the steel market by throwing 
2,000 tons of steel materials at the buyers. The bulk 
of this is steel bars. Until the lot is cleaned up un- 
settlement is expected. 

Eastern steel mills claim to be sold up on all 
small sizes and complain of the difficulty of turning 
out materials that run heavily into tonnage. On this 
account they are firming orders for the third quar- 
ter with the reservation that they make delivery in 
the fourth quarter. 

The reduction in the rates on steel from Colorado 
mill points to Puget Sound this week is taken to 
mean that this district is to be permitted to enter 



into closer competition with Pittsburgh against the 
forthcoming resumption of coast-to-coast water 
service through the Panama Canal. Pittsburgh has 
a rate of 99 cents by combination of rail to the At- 
lantic and water to Puget Sound against an all-rail 
rate of $1.25. The new rate from Pueblo, Colo., 
will be 86^2 cents per cwt. on iron and steel, a re- 
duction from 94 cents. The bulk of nails for this 
territory is coming from Colorado. 

Lath is down to $7.50 delivered on the job. More 
roofing, plaster board, cement and brick is being 
offered than the jobbers can move. 

Lumber is steady. Wholesalers state they can get 
plenty of new business if they will cut the market, 
but this they are refusing to do on the ground 
that the market is near a rally. They are hedging 
by accumulating a lot of orders on the "short" basis. 
The firm mills are 6,500 carloads behind on their 
eastern rail business, or 50 per cent of the accumu- 
lations during the high midwinter market. The car 
shortage is getting more serious. 

The red cedar shingle market broke again to 
$3.75 for clears and $3.25 for stars, f.o.b. mill. 



(From our New England Correspondent) 
BOSTON. This week started off with a marked 
improvement in the tangled railroad situation and 
with bright prospects for an early increase in coal 
shipments to relieve the acute need in New England. 
Although many industrial plants are running on 
three or four day schedules, the coal shortage is so 
serious that these plants must close down entirely 
unless some increase is shown in the shipments this 
coming week. It is also reported that two of the 
railroad systems have only a sufficient quantity of 
coal on hand to carry them through the next thirty- 
six hours. 

The now "outlaw" strike on the part of certain 
of the railroad employees is hampering the return of 
cars to the mines for fresh loadings and slackening 
the flow of goods to and from New England. By 
holding up the transport of goods, this strike is also 
retarding the liquidation in commodities and the 
reduction of loans, which the banks are so anxious 
to bring about in the interests of national business 
safety. 

That 400 new one and two-family houses and 
one big apartment block will be available in Spring- 
field, Mass., in the fall was the estimate made this 
week by the president of the Tenants' Protective 
Association. One of the men sent out to investigate 
building operations reported about 200 houses going 
up on a two-mile stretch in one of the suburbs. 



56 



, .:.m.:j:c.c-T^'^ 




Annual Meeting of American Society for 

Testing Materials 



Asbury Park, N. J., June 22-25 



THE twenty-third annual meeting of the 
American Society for Testing materials was 
held at the New Monterey Hotel, Asbury 
Park, N. J., June 22 to 25, 1920. The total registra- 
tion was 550 members, 108 non-members and 143 
ladies, a total of 801 persons. 

Many reports and papers were presented, cover- 
ing a wide range of subjects. Only those of par- 
ticular interest to the architectural profession will 
be here mentioned. 

In the annual address, J. A. Capp. retiring presi- 
dent, said in part : 

In the charter of the American Society for Testing 
Materials it is stated that "the corporation is formed 
for the promotion of knowledge of the materials of 
engineering, and the standardization of specifications 
and the methods of testing." Our founders appear to 
have divided the field which they selected rather 
sharply into two sections or divisions. That the two 
sections are closely interrelated is evident; in fact, one 
may say that successful cultivation of one section may 
not be expected until after the reaping of crops from 
the other. Standardization of specifications for ma- 
terials before a reasonable knowledge of those ma- 
terials has been obtained is patently absurd and this 
knowledge may only have been acquired through de- 
velopment and application of methods of testing which, 
in turn, must have been so commonly used that in- 
vestigators may understand the recorded results of 
others and compare them with their own. Yet our 
founders had good reason to define two sections in 
the field of our society's work. While all standardiza- 
tion is founded upon knowledge of materials it does not 
follow that all the knowledge of materials which we 
may acquire leads necessarily to the formulation of 
specifications, nor even to standardization of methods 
of testing. * * * * * 

No time need be spent in arguing for or against the 
desirability of establishing standards. Last year, 



President Clamer ably discussed this subject, and the 
perilous times through which we have recently passed 
have taught us the great value of standardizing. There 
is, in fact, a great wave of effort to unite in standardiz- 
ing work passing over not only this country but prac- 
tically over the civilized world. The American 
Engineering Standards Committee has gotten into its 
stride and rapid progress is being made both in or- 
ganizing for work on proper lines of co-operation 
among the bodies in this country which have hereto- 
fore carried on their efforts more or less independently, 
and for concurrent work with other countries. What- 
ever may be the opinion of some who pessimistically 
believe that standardization will retard progress, we 
must recognize that fact that the day of standardiza- 
tion is here. We need have no fear of stopping prog- 
ress. So long as human beings are richly endowed 
with curiosity and with a desire to learn and excel, 
progress will be made in all fields of human endeavor. 
No amount of fixing of rules will stop man trying the 
effect of breaking rules or of making new ones to cover 
new conditions. No standards can continue to hold 
in the face of newly developed qualities or materials 
which can be shown to be improvements upon those 
previously fixed. ***** 

The making of specifications presupposes a knowl- 
edge of the materials covered. None who have had 
the privilege of participating in committee activities 
will ever have any other impression than that of a 
wide knowledge of materials among the committee 
members. In fact, that is why they are members. It 
is a safe statement that the issue of each set of speci- 
fications marks a distinct and definite step forward in 
our knowledge of materials. ***** 

The real user of engineering materials is the de- 
signing engineer who must make a definite selection 
of the material to be used in the fabrication of each part 
of his design. He must base this selection upon facts 
which may be listed under three headings cost, avail- 
ability and suitability. Market conditions supply the 
matter to be placed under cost and availability, while 
under suitability must be included all of the knowledge 
of the materials which he can gather together. He 



57 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



must have not only the control properties commonly 
specified, but also data on such questions as reliability 
and duplication and on the special qualifications which 
must be possessed in order that the part in question 
may render the service demanded of it. The develop- 
ment of modern engineering practice has made neces- 
sary a much more intimate knowledge of the 
general and special properties of materials than was 
formerly required and there has grown into exis- 
tence among engineers a class of specialists on 
materials. ***** 

The designer presents a concrete problem, he wants 
to know what material he should use in a certain part 
and why. The listing of properties as determined by 
tests, even including many sorts of tests not usually 
made in routine inspection, is not a sufficient answer, 
because it is not usually possible to say in any quantita- 
tive sense what influence any given property has upon 
the useful life of the material in a specific application. 
The questions asked by the designer must be answered 
and in most cases, the answer is possible only by long 
explanations and discussions which lead to a decision 
based upon inferences drawn from experience and 
backed up by judgment. This process has sometimes 
been called "educated guessing," and that so much of 
engineering is based upon inference and judgment is 
simply because tlie demand for knowledge has grown 
so much more rapidly than the supply. 

The demand was recognized when, twenty-three 
years ago, our society was organized. The first problem 
to be attacked was obviously that of standardizing the 
commonly available materials and the methods of 
testing them. To that problem our committees have 
addressed themselves and the results have been of 
inestimable value. The work will never be completd 
because new materials are constantly being developed 
and old materials improved as methods of manufacture 
are bettered. There will never come a time when 
there need no longer be committees whose main busi- 
ness is the formulation of specifications. ***** 

We know the conditions to be met in service by any 
structural part and we know many of the useful prop- 
erties of materials. Must we not now address our- 
selves to the solution of the problem "on what 
properties does the suitability of a material for par- 
ticular applications depend and how may these 
properties be used to measure suitability"? 

There is no more profitable field for committee work 
and it is one obviously within the boundaries set 
and described by our founders in their application for 
a charter. If we do not actively cultivate this field 
through committee work and every other sort of society 
activity, are we doing all we should do for "the pro- 
motion of knowledge of engineering Materials"? 

Steel Pipe. The report of Committee A-l on 
steel includes proposed revised standard specifica- 
tions for welded steel pipe. Contained therein are 
tables of weights, dimensions and test pressures for 
standard and extra strong welded pipe of diameters 
from Y% to 12 inches, the latter size being the pres- 
ent limit for commercial sizes. 

Timber. Committee D-7 included in its report 
proposed revised tentative specifications for struc- 
tural Douglas fir. The previous specifications were 
based largely on a visual method for determining 
density, as was the case for southern pine, but be- 



cause of the difference in the size and the charac- 
teristics of growth of Douglas fir and southern pine, 
it was found after considerable experience that many 
serviceable pieces of Douglas fir timber were re- 
jected under the clauses of the tentative specifica- 
tions. Since the original publication of the specifi- 
cations, a good many tests have been conducted by 
the U. S. Forest Service and others, as a result of 
which much information has been developed that 
is of importance in connection with the revised 
specifications submitted with this report. It is of 
particular interest to summarize briefly the signifi- 
cance of density and structural grading rules : 

Tests at the Forest Products Laboratory of the 
U. S. Forest Service and elsewhere have shown that 
the production of timbers wherein uniformity of 
strength properties, durability and resistance to wear 
and abrasion are required is dependent chiefly upon 
two factors: (1) The density or dry weight per 
cubic foot of the wood ; and (2) the character, size, 
number and location of defects. Strength is closely 
proportional to the density of the clear wood and is 
limited by the defects present. Density is a factor 
in durability and in resistance to abrasion. 

Heartwood and sapwood are not factors in 
strength, exhaustive tests having shown them to be 
of practically equal strength ; but they are important 
factors in durability, heartwood being far more 
durable than sapwood. Heartwood requirement is 
not, therefore, a part of a structural grading rule 
except as a special requirement in timbers which 
will be subject to decay-producing conditions. 

The production of good structural material of 
any species, therefore, depends upon enforcing a / 
specification which provides : ( 1 ) That the density, 
or dry weight of the wood, shall not be below a 
certain minimum ; and (2) that the defects shall 
not exceed certain definite limitations. 

Brick. The report of Committee C-3 on brick, 
which was adopted, recommends that a revision be 
made in the specifications so as to change the pro- 
posed standard size for building brick from 2)4 
by 3% by 8 inches to 2>4 by 3^4 by 8 inches. This 
change was made for the purpose of conforming to 
the standard sizes adopted by the Common Brick 
Manufacturers' Association and other organiza- 
tions. The tentative specifications for building 
brick, as thus revised will be referred to letter ballot 
of the society for adoption as standard. 

Sand. The importance of sand is not generally 
recognized. At the last annual meeting Committee 
C-7 on lime, of which D. K. Boyd, F.A.I.A., is 
chairman, requested that as nearly all of the "Group 
C" committees of the society are interested in and 
have to deal with the question -of sand as an ad- 
mixture with the material over which each com- 
mittee has jurisdiction, the Executive Committee be 
requested to instruct all standing committees inter- 



58 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ested in sand to elect sub-committees on this ma- 
terial ; and that the Executive Committee be 
requested to create a standing committee on sand 
to be composed of one delegate from each of the 
above mentioned sub-committees. 

The Executive Committee subsequently went on 
record as follows : 

"That it is undesirable to create a separate stand- 
ing committee on sand as suggested by Committee 
C-7, and that if any committees of the society con- 
cerned with specifications for sand desire, the pres- 
ent machinery of the society provides a satisfactory 
means of discussing matters of common interest 
through the formation of a conference committee 
on which each standing committee concerned would 
be represented." 

During the annual meeting a conference on sand, 
as suggested by the Executive Committee, was held. 

Structural Lime. Sub-Committee II of Com- 
mittee C-7 on structural line reported that it has been 
unable to obtain a satisfactory standard sand for 
use in laboratory tests of lime ; also that the desired 
co-operation with Committees C-l, C-9 and C-ll 
has not yet been perfected in detail. 

After a general review of its previous work the 
sub-committee finds that there are some fifteen prop- 
erties which should be included in specifications for 
different kinds of structural lime. It is now pre- 
pared to write the requirements for most of these 
properties. Information is required concerning a 
few properties, and the year has been spent in tile- 
development of the necessary test data. The items 
of particular interest are plasticity and soundness. 

Gypsum. The report of Committee C-ll on 
gypsum includes proposed tentative specifications 
for gypsum, calcined gypsum and gypsum plasters, 
as well as for tests of gypsum and gypsum products. 

Cement. Committee C-l on cement reported that 
its activities during the past year have been largely 
centralized in the endeavor to secure one generally 
accepted "Specifications and Tests for Portland Ce- 
ment." 

The present specifications of the American So- 
ciety for Testing Materials for Portland cement be- 
came effective on January 1, 1917. There was an 
opinion among some, however, that the specification 
for the "fineness" should be different and for this 
reason the U. S. Government Departmental Com- 
mittee concluded to specify a fineness with a per- 
missible 2 per cent, less residue on the No. 200 sieve 
than that permitted by the American Society for 
Testing Materials specifications. Their specifica- 
tion was finally made by the Government Depart- 
mental Committee to become effective January 1. 
1920. 

A conference between committees appointed by 
the Government Departmental Committee and the 



Executive Committee of the society was held on 
May 10 at the Bureau of Standards. Washington, 1). 
C. This conference entered fully into the effect 
of fineness on the strength of cement and concrete 
and also into the cost of producing additional per- 
centages of fineness. The results of the conference 
were most satisfactory. 

As a result. Committee C-l requested the society 
to withdraw from the standard specifications and 
tests for Portland cement section 36 on permissible 
variation in fineness. This request was acted on 
favorably at the annual meeting. 

Reinforced Concrete. Committee C-2 on rein- 
forced concrete is co-operating with the Joint Com- 
mittee. It will probably be some time, however, 
before the work of the Joint Committee has pro- 
gressed to a point where tentative specifications can 
be published. 

At its meeting on May 12- 1920, Committee C-2, 
after careful consideration of the situation, decided 
it would be unwise to undertake any work until the 
Joint Committee had made sufficient progress in its 
work as would indicate along what lines Committee 
C-2 could assist in the work of preparing specifi- 
cations for concrete and reinforced concrete. 

Concrete. The report of Committee C-9 on 
concrete aggregates was devoted largely to the re- 
sults of investigations of various methods to de- 
termine the method and apparatus by which till- 
most satisfactory results may be obtained in the 
determination of the unit weight of aggregates by 
different operators under different conditions. 

The method found most satisfactory is specified 
as the rod method. Its application is described as 
follows : 

Fill the measure one-third full, level off top sur- 
face with the fingers, tamp with pointed rod 25 
times. Fill measure two-thirds full and tamp 25 
times. Fill measure to overflowing, tamp 25 times. 
Strike off surplus aggregate, using rod as straight 
edge and weigh. 

Accompanying the report of this committee were 
two appendices as follows: Appendix I. Recom- 
mended Practice for Making Compression Tests of 
Concrete; Appendix II. Effect of Tannic Acid on 
the Strength of Concrete, by Professor Duff A. 
Abrams. The latter gave results which sand con- 
taining varying degrees of impurities organic 
matter might be expected to have on the strength 
of concrete. The results thus obtained will be 
printed in a later issue. 

The annual golf tournament was held on the 
afternoon of June 25, and a goodly number tried 
their skill. 

Considerable merriment as well as some em- 
barrassment to Mr. E. D. Boyer, chairman of the 
Entertainment Committee, was caused at the evening 



59 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



session when the time came to present the two cups 
and three medals awarded by the society to the 
winners. This was due to the mysterious disap- 
pearance of two of the medals. Mr. Boyer placed 
the blame on some jealous golfer. However, the 
missing medals were later located, and all ended 
well. 

Other Papers. At the closing session among 



other interesting papers presented was one on the 
"Effect of Hydrated Lime and Other Powdered 
Admixtures in Concrete," by Professor Duff A. 
Abrams, and the "Effect of Rodding Concrete," by 
Professor F. E. Giesecke. The important points 
brought out in these papers will be summarized, in 
a later issue. The effect of hydrated lime on con- 
crete has been a subject of interest for several years. 



Sheepshead Bay Race Track Demolished 

Former Structures Will Probably Be Replaced with Dwellings 



IX 1915 one of the finest automobile race tracks 
in the East was completed at Sheepshead Bay, 
N. Y., at a cost of several millions of dollars. The 
track, which was timber surfaced over a structural 
steel framework, was of oval shape, two miles to 




THE GRANDSTAND, WHICH PROVIDED SEATING 

ACCOMMODATIONS FOR 35,000 PERSONS, 

IX COURSE OF DEMOLITION 

the lap, one-half mile on each straightaway and 
one-half mile at the turns. The grandstand pro- 
vided seating accommodations for 3,500 persons, 
and 3,000 persons could be seated in the "bleachers." 
Tl.e entire area occupied by the track and accessory 
structures included an area of 430 acres. Ap- 
parently the venture proved disappointing from a 
financial standpoint, and a decision was recently 
arrived at by the owners to demolish the entire 
structure. 

The illustrations show the track and grandstand 
in process of removal. The steel, timber, etc., is 
being sold for what it will bring, but it is doubtful 
if any material balance will remain after the 
demolition costs have been deducted. 

The steel track beams were very costly due to 



the necessity of bending them against the webs to a 
specified curvature in order to produce the saucer- 
shaped track. These are now of very little com- 
mercial value due to this very feature which added 
so materially to their original cost. 

The primary reason given for the demolition is 
the consequent reduction of taxes. Since this 
property is adjacent to a well developed residential 
section, and forms a very valuable site for such 
further development, it is quite possible that the 
removal of the track is but the preliminary step to 
an extensive residence building program on the site. 
Such buildings are greatly needed, and undoubtedly 




A VIEW OF THE TWO-MILE TRACK, WITH TIMBER 
SURFACE REMOVED 

would prove more successful financially than the 
structures now taken down. 

Koehler, Spyer & Farrington were the architects 
and engineers of the structure, the construction 
work of which was completed within five months. 

The frabricated structural steel amounted to ap- 
proximately 4/500 tons and some seven million feet 
B.M. of yellow pine were employed in the construc- 
tion. 



Successful Building in Stucco 

VIII The Reinforced Concrete Frame Building 



THE preceding articles of this series dealing 
with proper methods of building in stucco, 
lend additional interest to a recently devel- 
oped system of concrete frame and stucco construc- 
tion that has successfully withstood the preliminary 
tests of actual building operations. 




KIG. 1. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OK THE 
FRAMEWORK 

In this new system, here described and illustrated, 
no sheeting nor back-plastering is employed. It 
produces a house with \ l / 2 in. reinforced concrete 
outer wall with stucco finish, cast as a monolith 
and supported by a reinforced concrete framework. 
The originator of the system, having had experience 
with various forms of construction, brick, hollow 
tile, stucco and combinations, became convinced 
that the solution of the problem required some new 
and permanent form of masonry construction, suf- 
ficiently low in cost to be within the purchasing 
power of a man of ordinary means, yet of a type 
which should provide a permanent structure with 
low upkeep cost. 

In solving the problem the general ideas of rein- 
forced concrete factory construction have been 
largely followed. Where, in the factory, there are 
main columns, lintels and girders as a frame, and 
openings in the outer wall filled with spandrels of 
"brick, window s, 
etc., i n dwellings 
there are 3 in. x 4 
in. reinforced con- < 
crete studs, not 
over four feet on 
centers and rein- 
forced c on c r et e 



girders, lintels and ledger boards, all forming a com- 
plete frame-work with which is cast as a monolith 
the \Y> in. reinforced concrete outer shell. The 
character of the final structure was not the only 
consideration but the details of this system were de- 
veloped with the view of also simplifying methods 
of construction, which may be described as follows: 

After the cellar has been excavated, the stone 
or concrete foundation wall is built, the first floor 
wood joists are set in place on the foundation walls. 
On this a frame, consisting of studs, joists and 
rafters, is erected, following the usual method of 
building the skeleton of a timber frame house with 
these slight modifications to adapt it to this system : 
(1) Every fourth stud is doubled, allowing a 3 in. 
x 4 in. space between, which, when filled with con- 
crete, will form a concrete stud. (2) At the second 
fioor and roof levels ledger boards, with bottoms 
attached, are placed over the studs and so arranged 
that when filled with concrete they form beams, 
which, in connection with the vertical concrete studs 
make a complete homogeneous concrete frame. The 
concrete studs when filled form continuous posts 
from foundation to roof, and the main beams form 
continuous bands entirely around the building. 

The wood framework of the building is erected 
and the roof is completed, as well as the door and 
window frames, before the placing of the concrete 
or stucco. If necessary, either because of delay or 
for economy of construction this wood framework 
can stand for some time, as it is amply self-support- 
ing- 

The next operation is the nailing of heavy water- 
proof paper on the outside of the exterior wall 
studs, leaving open the space between the double 
studs and the spaces made in front of the lintels 
and ledger boards to receive the concrete. Over 
the waterproof paper, expanded metal or other form 
of reinforcement is stretched, care being taken to 
place sheet metal chairs under the reinforcing so 
that it is held l / 2 in. away from the surface of the 
paper. 

The concrete work can now be started. The \ 1 /? 
in. thick concrete coating can be applied to the exter- 



./ 



ffi" CONCRC Tt OUTER COATIM 

KTUCCO nNiSM 



RElHfORCEMBNT-i"mTAl. CHAIR N. 

WATEHPROOT MPCN 



I jl 7. 4' WOOD STUBS - 

Vfl 



n ON MITAL LATH 



J^S 






{5 * * HCIWFOHteO CONCRETE STU 1 
Z Z , *.- CMCLOSINQ STUt> 



FIG. 2. TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION OF THE OUTSIDE WALL 
61 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




FIG. 3. IXSIDE VIEW OF WALL, SHOWING CONCRETE STTDS, 
ALSO SPECIAL LINTEL OVER TRIPLE WINDOW 

ior either by hand plastering, cement gun or stucco 
machine. If applied by hand, the concrete studs, 
beams and ledger boards are generally poured in 
advance and a reinforcement of rather tine mesh 
is used. This reinforcement covers the openings 
left in the waterproof paper and thus becomes the 
front form for the studs and beams. The concrete, 
when poured, flows only partially 
through the fine mesh, leaving a 
rough face which later on forms a 
good bond with the 1 J/j in. outer 
coating. The general arrangement 
is illustrated in Figure 1. When 
the exterior coating is applied by a 
cement gun or stucco machine, the 
reinforcing is of a larger mesh and 
the concrete studs and beams are 
filled at the same time that the outer 
coating is applied, the concrete ma- 
terial passing readily through the 
large mesh of the reinforcement. 

The addition of mortar stain to 
the concrete while it is being mixed, 
makes possible any desired color 
effects. Any of the well-known, 
successful types of stucco finish can 
be used. Moreover, in place of the 
\ l /2 in. concrete slab, a 4 in. brick 
wall can be substituted, the brick be- 
ing anchored securely to the con- 
crete studs. Pleasing variety can 
be obtained by having a brick first 



floor and a stucco second floor, or 
by having stucco throughout with 
brick trim, or by a number of other 
equally attractive combinations. 

The exterior wall work being 
completed, metal lath is applied to 
the inside of the wooden studs, and 
the interior of the building is plas- 
tered. This completely encloses the 
wooden studs and gives that high- 
ly desirable dead-air space. The 
wood studs act in a dual capacity, 
as a temporary support for the 
stucco and concrete frame while it 
is being placed, and later on as fur- 
ring strips in the finished building. 

As soon as the concrete and 
stucco work has set up, the entire 
weight of the building, including 
roof and floor loads, is carried on 
this concrete frame. The general 
wall cross section shown in Figure 
2 shows the complete absence of 
sheeting, and illustrates how the 
reinforcing is held }/2 in. away from the water- 
proof paper. It also shows that when the \ l /2 in. 
outer coating is put on and forced in place against 
the paper the concrete is folded back on it- 
self and completely and thoroughly encloses the 
metal reinforcement, and no back plastering is nec- 
essary. 




FIG. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING PAPER AND REINFORCE- 
MENT IN PLACE. Concrete studs and beams have just been cast. 

62 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Xo attempt has been made to make the entire 
house fireproof, as for commercial and financial 
reasons, it was deemed sufficient to have the ex- 
terior and party walls, as well as the roof of fire- 
resisting construction, it being a well established 
fact that in group houses with party walls made 
of fire-resisting materials there is little danger of 
fire spreading to other houses, each house in itself 
being an independent unit when the spread of lire is 
considered. The roof covering most generally used 
with this type of construction has been slate or as- 
bestos shingles or some similar material. 

This wooden floor construction, however, has 
merely been a matter of economy. If desired, the 
floors can be constructed of thin concrete slabs sup- 
ported on concrete beams. In fact, because of the 
scientific design of the walls as compared with a 







FIG. 5. TIMBER FRAMEWORK COMPLETE 

Waterproof paper partly in place showing openings leit 

for studs 

solid 6 in. or thicker concrete wall, there is enough 
saving to supply all the material necessary for these 
floors. Also, in the design of the frame- work, the 
system is extremely flexible, and especially designed 
beams or lintels can be placed over long window 
openings and similar places if desired, as shown in 
Figures 3 and 4. This type of construction being 
purely an engineering design, openings can be left 
at any place and members reinforced to take care 
of any loads coming down, thus giving great latitude 
in design. 

This new type of construction should not be 
confused with the ordinary type of stucco on wood 
or metal lath over standard wooden frame where 
trouble is more likely to occur from cracks due to 
shrinkage or settlement. It is something radically 
different from this older form of construction. 

The fundamental causes of cracking and crazing 
are eliminated since the outer coating is backed up 








Kill. 6. OUTSIDE REINFORCEMENT ENTIRELY 

IN PLACE 

Pouring of all beams and studs completed, ready to receive 
the outside coating 

and supported by rigid reinforced concrete studs 
and beams. 

The stucco has been made up of Portland Cement 
Mortar and treated with waterproof materials. The 
\\aterproof treatment prevents rusting of the rein- 
forcing metal as well as stops the passage of mois- 
ture through the 1'j in. slab. 

The advantage of this system over the older 
forms of stucco construction may be summarized as 
lollows: It possesses in large measure virtues and 
advantages common to masonrv construction, while 
retaining the economies of wood. It permits the 
erection of a reinforced concrete masonry house 
by ordinary members of the building trades, with- 
out requiring of them any additional skill or knowl- 
edge other than what they already possess. It re- 




FIG. 7. OUTSIDE STUCCO WORK IN PLACE. 
BUILDING COMPLETED. 



63 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



quires no special forms for erection and, therefore, 
dispenses with any costly form rentals. It offers a 
limitless variety of outline or architectural treatment 
a variety in fact limited only by the desires of the 
owner'or scope of the architect. It does not require 
that a large number of houses be erected in order 
to attain a fair degree of economy, but retains econ- 
omy with even a single house. It imparts all the 
benefits accruing from a dead-air space with the 
walls, thus eliminating condensation and dampness, 
and providing a house which will be cool in summer 
and easy to heat in winter. While the wooden 
frame house is slightly cheaper in first cost, its 
maintenance will be quite likely to increase the ulti- 
mate cost to a higher figure than a house built by 
the concrete frame system. The accompanying pho- 
tographs show a typical twin house in various stages 
of construction built by the new system. 

Because of its recent appearance, the building 
code of the average city has not yet recognized 
this form of fire resisting construction. Thus under 
present building requirements, in many places, it has 
not, as yet, been permitted within the fire limits. 
However, this is a matter which will undoubtedly 
be corrected in time and the recent tests made by 
the Fire Underwriters' Laboratories at Chicago, of 
typical sections of wall 10 ft. x 11 ft. were so suc- 
cessful that there should be no trouble overcoming 
this difficulty. 

The original investigations and later development 
of the system, (patented) were carried out by Mr. 
Emile G. Perrot, of the firm of Ballinger & Perrot, 
Architects and Engineers, Philadelphia, Pa. It has 
already found considerable favor and a large num- 
ber of dwellings have been constructed by this 
method. 



National Lime Association Holds 
Annual Meeting 

The second annual meeting of the National Lime 
Association was held June 16-18 at the Hotel Astor, 
New York City. 

The first day's session was devoted to the meeting 
of the Board of Directors. 

At the second session, on June 17, various topics 
were discussed, including a review of the year's 
work of the National Lime Association and its 
ainis and ideals ; reports of Standing Committees on 
uniform cost accounting, trade practices and acci- 
dent prevention and insurance ; statistics of the lima 
industry and their place in business development ; 
the new electrolytic lime treatment of sewage, and 
the use of lime in construction : the needs, problems 
and methods. 

The discussion of the latter subject by Mr. T. B 



Shertzer, engineer, Eastern bureau of the associa- 
tion, was particularly interesting. Mr. Shertzer had 
recently returned from a 10,000-mile trip and gave 
his impressions, gathered therefrom, especially with 
reference to the use of lime in building construction. 
Because of the lateness of the hour, it was agreed 
to carry over the discussion of this topic until the 
following day. 

Due to illness, President Charles Warner was 
unable to attend several of the sessions, but was 
sufficiently recovered to take the chair on June 18. 

The subject relating to the regional bureau as an 
agency for effective association work was discussed 
June 18, as well as the matter of the advantage to 
the industry of well planned field work in the re- 
gional bureau, and several other topics. 

The excellent attendence and interest of the mem- 
bers present indicate that the National Lime As- 
sociation is a live and "going" concern. 



Creosote Oils in Wood Preservation 

LIGHT creosote oils properly injected into wood 
apparently will prevent decay until the wood 
wears out or until it checks so badly that the un- 
treated portions are exposed. Such is the indica- 
tion of service records collected by the Forest Prod- 
ucts Laboratory on railway ties and telegraph poles 
preserved with low boiling creosotes. The ties so 
treated lasted from 15 to 20 years, and failure was 
traceable in most cases to mechanical wear, such as 
rail cutting and spike killing. In no case was failure 
found to be the fault of the preservative. 

Of 1,558 telegraph poles in the Montgomery-New 
Orleans line, which were pressure treated with a 
light creosote oil, 1,049 poles were still sound after 
16 years. In 91 per cent, of the cases of decay, the 
fungi had entered the wood through checks and 
shakes. Representative sections in the Norfolk- 
Washington line showed that after 17 years' service, 
of the 1,614 poles inspected, 1,469 were sound, 92 
decayed at the top and 105 decayed at the ground 
line. The decay at the top was caused chiefly by 
cutting off the poles. In those decayed at the ground 
line, the causes of failure, as determined in 88 per 
cent, of the cases, were checks or shakes. Here 
again as in the tiles, the preservative outlasted the 
mechanical life of the wood. 

Unless some other factor than protection from 
decay is considered important, therefore, there is 
apparently no need to specify high boiling oils. The 
important point is that any coal tar creosote which 
is not extremely low boiling or extremely high boil- 
ing will satisfactorily prevent decay, and in the se- 
lection of an oil, factors, such as price, penetrability 
and convenience in handling, should receive greater 
consideration than moderate differences in volatility. 



64 



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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



VOL. CXVIII 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 21, 1920 



NUMBER 2326 



V 

. ' * 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 

This building and gateway represents the yard of a Spanish convent for the production of "The Avalanche." It was 
constructed out of doors with plaster walls, Spanish tile and real stone pavements 

Architectural Problems in Motion 
Picture Production 

B\< JAMES HOOD MACFARLAND 

Illustrated by Examples of the Work of Robert Haas, Architect for 
Famous Players-Lasky Corporation 



A NOVEL having a sale of twenty-five thou- 
sand copies is a successful and popular novel. 
A newspaper having a circulation of one hun- 
dred thousand copies is a successful paper of great 
influence. A magazine of one million copies in 
each issue cannot be overlooked. But let us con- 
sider the motion picture production. 

Statistics have told us that ten million people 
see motion pictures each day. The average at- 



tendance at one of New York's motion picture 
theatres is eight thousand daily. The picture runs 
for seven days and fifty-six thousand people view 
it. If at the same time the picture is being shown 
as is usual in twenty-seven other cities for a 
week's run, our estimate is that a million five hun- 
dred thousand people over the country view the 
same picture the first week it is run. That is the 
beginning of the picture's life and influence. 



Copi/riyht, 1920, The Architectural Ji Building Press (Inc.) 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Six years ago, at the time when the first feature 
picture made its appearance, not much attention 
was given to the building and construction of in- 
terior and exterior ''sets," the attention being par- 
ticularly directed to the action of the scene. The 
backgrounds upon which a plot was enacted were 
borrowed from the stage, which was, of course, the 
natural thing to do. Settings were used which now 
appear to be ludicrous : a painted drop, for ex- 
ample, giving the impression of trees but with a 
branch from a real tree secured through it to im- 
part realism. The branch was hitched with a string 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND 

EXECUTED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 

This room in L'Art Nouveau was constructed for "On with the 
Dance," a George Fitzmaurice production. It was imagined for the 
occupancy of a woman of the demi-monde. Particular interest 
attaches to the room because it is one of the few times that a 
ceiling has been built to be shown in a motion picture interior 

and it swayed realistically when a stage hand 
yanked it. Or again there were rooms made of 
canvas and painted, rooms which shook and swayed 
and threatened to fall as the characters opened and 
closed the doors. 

Throughout the six years time in which the mo- 
tion picture has risen from a cheap form of enter- 
tainment to the fifth largest industry in the country, 



more and more attention has been paid co the selec- 
tion, designing, building and decorating of the back- 
grounds, or "sets" as they are called in the tech- 
nical language of the motion picture studio. 

IONG before the public had a chance to demand 
-* it, the producers always with a finger on the 
pulse of the public realized that if motion pictures 
were to hold their increasing popularity more ef- 
fort must be devoted to the selection and building 
of suitable backgrounds upon which to tell the story 
and it was then that suggestion as it is used upon 
the stage became substituted by realism. 

Architects and decorators were attracted to this 
new industry and now there is hardly a company 
which does not employ the skill of experienced ar- 
chitects, many of whom gave up excellent prac- 
tices for the opportunity of assisting to place be- 
fore the public correct architecture and decoration. 
An attempt has been made to show, at the begin- 
ning of this article, the tremendous public witness- 
ing the work of these men and now we may ask 
ourselves Does the public appreciate this work? 

And the answer is Yes, not only does the pub- 
lic appreciate it but the architectural profession as 
well. For the producers have received unsolicited 
letters of commendation from architects, letters 
which were inspired by nothing other than the 
beauty and correctness of the architecture as rep- 
resented in the pictures. As for educating the pub- 
lic to appreciate the beautiful, there is no doubt 
but that the efforts are successful, possibly in most 
cases only in a subconscious way, but it is every- 
where apparent the general demand is always that 
more attention be paid to the correctness of the 
surroundings in which the action takes place. 

One thing must be borne in mind when consider- 
ing from an artistic standpoint the educational value 
of motion pictures. In planning ''sets" every ef- 
fort is made to place the characters in the surround- 
ings which they would choose in real life rather 
than to make each "set" an example of some form 
of absolute artistic achievement. Take for example 
the character of a newly made millionaire who 
comes to New York for a splurge. He would sur- 
round himself with gaudy, flashy appointments, with 
the idea of exhibiting his newly acquired wealth. 
By placing him in surroundings such as he would 
himself choose, his character may be forcibly and 
quickly pictured "put over," so to speak, without 
encroaching on the field of literature with long and 
tiresome explanatory titles. An establishment set 
up by a titled Englishwoman who brings her daugh- 
ter to this country in an effort to arrange an ad- 
vantageous match would be perfect in the taste of 
all its appointments. Therefore, when criticising 



66 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the "sets" it will be seen that it is necessary to also of Long Island, picking up driftwood and galvanized 
consider the character. iron until enough buil(Iing niater i a l was accumulated 

Reproductions of internationally known buildings, 
places of interest and objects of art are being made 
faithful to detail through the use of reference 



to construct several shacks and from this debris the 
architects made careful choice. 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECTTED 
UNDER THE DIRECTION OE ROBERT HAAS, 
ARCHITECT 

This house is intended to be characteristic of the hard lines so common 

in the early work of the Middle West. The people who are supposed to 

have lived in this house were hard-fisted and without taste. Probably 

they were economical on architect's fees 



libraries which are kept constantly up-to-date. 
Scenes depicting the Casino at Monte Carlo art- 
constructed in the studio ; they would be passed 
without criticism by any one familiar with that 
famous gambling resort. 

Once at a New York theatre when the pro- 
gram included as a feature film, ''The Society 
Exile," which opens in Venice upon a canal 
built with all elaboration in the studio; tilt- 
theatre management developed its program in 
this way. It gave first a travel picture of a trip 
about Venice which closed with a long shot of 
the Grand Canal. Then, without intermission, 
came a long shot of the studio-built canal ; 
actual water, mooring posts and moving gon- 
dolas. It was a trying comparison, a stiff test, 
yet the audience never thought but that they 
were still watching pictures which were taken 
in Venice. 

The public is demanding that the pictures 
be accurate in every little detail and the lengths 
to -which the producers will go to reproduce 
scenes with absolute realism are interesting. 
In building a shack to represent a structure on 
the South Sea Islands, three trucks were 
dispatched from the studio to scour the beaches 



WHEX the interiors are constructed upon 
the studio floor, they are built by the 
carpenters from carefully prepared blue-prints 
made in the Art and Decoration department. 
Xo tricks of perspective are used in the con- 
struction of these "sets," which seems to be 
contrary to the general belief; the rooms and 
houses are built (though with certain elimina- 
tions I exactly as they would be if intended for 
actual use. The men who design the "sets" 
are constantly striving for the better effect of 
actuality. 

( )ne of the recent developments has been the 
construction of rooms in a proper and har- 
monious group rather than tilt- building of <>ne 
room at a time. It is not an unusual thing to 
see an entire lower floor representing the in- 
terior of a spacious home built upon the stage 
at one time. Entering through a doorway out- 
walks into the reception hallway and on the 
left finds the reception room, he sees a library 
and to the right a living room and dining 
room. Somewhere in the group is a stairway 
leading upstairs and through some distant 
door may be seen a sunny porch or con- 
servatory. This adds more realism and permits 
the artistic camera shots through vistas which 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED 
UNDER THE DIRECTION OE ROBERT HAAS. 
ARCHITECT 

A reproduction of an old English inn. The fireplace shows the Italian 
influence brought to England with the sculptors imported by Queen 



Elizabeth 



67 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 



This set used in a George Fitzmaurice production called "The Right to Love," represents the upper hall of a house presumed 
to have been built in Turkey by an English architect for the occupancy by an English gentleman. Real plaster walls 



have been built with actual tiles inserted for decoration 



could not be obtained if a single room were con- 
structed at a time. For instance, when the camera 
follows a guest who approaches the entrance door, 
the guest is not left standing there, but is admitted 
by the butler. As the door swings open we may 
follow him through the reception hallway and have 
glimpses of other rooms just as we would in real 
life ; and when, in the further development of the 
plot, these rooms are shown more completely, we 
recall them and the memory serves as another means 
of knitting up the unity of impressions. 

When planning the locations for the George Fitz- 
maurice production, "The Right to Love/' it was de- 
cided, in representing a palace on the Bosphorous, 
to use an estate occupying one of the islands off 
the coast of Florida. After permission was ob- 
tained a cameraman was dispatched to make photo- 
graphs of the estate from every angle. He re- 
turned with nearly seventy-five pictures, including 
close-ups of doors and windows. The department 



of Art and Decoration, using these photographs 
to guide them, went ahead on plans for the in- 
teriors. In this manner it was possible to match 
up the interiors and exteriors perfectly although they 
were separated by many miles. As an example of 
the attention to detail, the director of the picture 1 
stopped all work until the proper kind of handle 
for the door was procured. 

One who is not familiar with the mechanical side 
of the production of motion pictures would natural- 
ly inquire what was the reason for not taking the 
interiors while the company was there on the loca- 
tion ; why, in this film were not the interiors also 
taken upon the estate off the coast of Florida, thus 
avoiding all the work of building the sets in the 
studio? This could have been done if it was prac- 
tical to transport the necessary lights. There are 
sunlight arcs of three thousand candle power 
strong (exposure to this light for half an hour will 
produce a sunburn quite as good as a day spent on 



68 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED UNDER 'I'HK DIRECTION OE 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 

Representation of an American colonial hallway. A complete room adjoins at the left and the stairway leads out of the 

picture to a platform. The house had no second floor. Xote the stair carpet, which gives the required touch of modernity. 

The cable of the studio lighting device had not been put in place and hangs over the mahogany hall table 



the beach) ; there are Cooper-Hewitt banks, spots 
and Kleigs all necessary to secure the illumination 
of interior views but bulky and difficult to handle 
in the restricted spaces of normal rooms, even 
if it were possible to obtain the current necessary 
to operate these batteries of lights. Special cables 
supply the studio. Another reason for constructing 
the interiors in the studio brings up an old story 
about a motion picture carpenter not being trusted 
with the building of a house, for he might leave off 
the roof or a side. It is exceptional to see the ceil- 
ing of a room in a motion picture. The ceiling is 
left off, for in its place there must be enormous 
flood lights to eliminate all shadows. 

The detail involved in a production such as 
"The Copperhead" which was recently produced 
by the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation is tre- 
mendous. Two months before the production was 
begun, the Art and Decoration department began 
their research work. After many vain attempt 



to find the documents they required to reconstruct 
a town of the period 1846, the information was 
finally located in the Newark Public Library. From 
the information secured a town was built at Elm- 
burst, L. I., in addition to the court house and 
church it contained ten houses lining the main street. 
One interesting fact in the construction of this 
town was that contrary to usual, the houses were 
built up on all four sides, making it possible to 
photograph from any a;jle. The houses were used 
by the workmen while building the town and by 
the thousand people employed to lend atmosphere 
when photographing. This same town went 
through three periods: first 1846, after which it 
was remodeled for 1861 and after that 1904. The 
changes were marked and were worked out with 
a careful attention to detail ; a flag (as one in- 
stance) was made which bore but twenty-nine stars, 
although at no time was the flag close enough to 
the camera to register plainly. 



69 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



In the tremendous audience of a motion picture 
there are bound to be those who are familiar with 
some one particular thing and only too willing to 
show their knowledge in criticism. These are the 
ones who appreciate the attention to detail, such as 
has herein been in part described, and it is for the 
most critical audience that motion pictures are now 
made. 



Museums Urge Fine and Industrial 
Art Combinations 

Museums and the influence they should exert on 
the communities in which they are established were 
among topics discussed at the recent annual conven- 
tion of the American Federation of Arts in the Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Arts, in New York. 

The future museum, Richard F. Bach, of the Met- 
ropolitan, said in his address, will be a combination 
of the fine art and industrial art institutions under a 
single governing body with separate directors. Such 
a museum, he declared, would maintain close rela- 
tions with the industries of the town or city in which 
it was established and work with them to raise the 



artistic standard of American productions of all 
sorts. 

Charles L. Hutchinson, President of the Chicago 
Art Institute, led the discussion on the best methods 
of extending the influence of the federation. He 
announced that a clearing house for art information 
had been established and was proving effective in 
fostering interest in Western and mid-Western 
States. 

George W. Stevens, director of the Toledo, Ohio, 
Art Museum, spoke on "How to Establish an Art 
Museum,'' saying that his city had not waited for 
"some woman to die" in order to obtain funds for 
the establishment of such an institution, but had 
plunged boldly in and to-day had on hand assets of 
$3,000.000. 

George W. Eggers, director of the Chicago Art 
Institute, discussed ''Museums as Community Cen- 
ters." Francis G. Jones, Allen Eaton and Joseph 
Fennel presented a petition signed by more than 500 
artists here and abroad urging that reforms in the 
copyright law be accomplished to make it conform 
to the British law. 

George S. Booth, of Detroit, and H. K. Bush- 
Brown, of Washington, also spoke. 




A MOTION PICTURE SET, DESIGNED AND EXECUTED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

ROBERT HAAS, ARCHITECT 



70 




RHEIMS, FROM THE AIR 



Reconstruction of Northern France Part II 



B\ RALPH FANNING, M. A., B. Arch. 



The Northern French Village Before The War 



THE present day tourist, bent upon obtaining 
"cle luxe" all the war thrills that a well or- 
ganized Cook's can crowd into a trip of sev- 
eral days, is hurried from the Somme through the 
departments of the Aisne, the Ardennes and the 
Meuse. If he registers impressions well, he is 
rather certain to return with crowded reels of 
battlefields, trenches, desolate landscapes and de- 
stroyed towns, recorded on his mental films. After 
being deeply impressed by the great waste areas 
of the old battle lines, awed by the vast destruc- 
tion outside of Verdun, and thrilled by battered 
Rheims with its great cathedral, more majestic 
than ever, towering above the ruins with an im- 
mortal beauty, he has, perhaps, little energy left 
for the contemplation of reconstruction problems 
for these tragic scenes. Yet there is a feeling 
among most who have witnessed these scenes that 
all expediency should be used in erasing and ob- 
literating the scars of war, as one would try to 



conceal the blots upon the records of a boasted 
civilization. Nature has already done much to heal 
the wounds. Man, shackled with all the fetters of 
complicated political and economic modernism, must 
strive to do his part. 

In approaching the problems of reconstruction in 
Northern France, it may be well for one to carry 
a mental picture of the pre-war village of these 
districts, so few of which have not been sadly 
changed. There is the immediate need of recreat- 
ing the villages, churches and farms, that are now 
but crumbling masses of ruin, to facilitate the con- 
tinuation of a course of life that centuries of civili- 
zation had developed. Americans, for the past 
fifty years, have been accustomed to seeing cities 
spring up in a marvelously short space of time 
with the rapid growth of virile industries. The 
West has frequent instances of this mushroom 
growth in its municipal life, but it is invariably 
upon virgin fields nourished by undrained resources. 



71 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Such are not the problems of Northern France. 
Here is a country exhausted of much of its natural 
and artificial wealth, but already refilled with a 
loyal, pathetically home-loving people bound by cer- 
tain very strict traditions of life and building. To 
understand this and approach the problem in a just 
manner, one must try to recall the little French vil- 
lage in its pre-war days the little village because 
these harbor much that is real and true and worthy 
of preservation in French national life. 

Let one close one's eyes for a moment on the 
debris and barbed-wire, on the acres of crosses 




A VILLAGE STREET 

and the fragments of churches and try to recall 
the picture of another day. Let it be a picture 
on a day in spring or early summer in 1912 or 13. 
A turn on a hard white road revealed a cluster of 
warm red-tiled roofs huddled about some tower- 
ing gray spire in the midst of 'many colored fields 
running over the slightly rolling hills like a grand- 
mother's crazy-patch-work quilt over a soft feather- 
bed. Fresh greens and yellows and madders with 
strips of dark woodland and gray willow banks 
enframed the village : smoke blue horizon and dis- 
tant hills melting into freshly washed sky-blue 
made a background. It was a picture to entice one 
to turn from the dust growing road and stop by 
tne blue smocked old stone-breaker, leisurely pound- 
ing in the shade of the wayside fruit trees, to ask 



the name of the "petite ville'' and inquire as to 
which of its cafes would serve the best supper. 
The name of the village might have been "Villers 
en Argonne" or "Dun stir Meuse" or numerous 
variations of "Clermont'' or "Brabant," of "Beau- 
champs" or "Chaudfontains." One was sure to 
find the recommended Cafe de la Madeleine or 
Cafe du Singe Verte or Hotel de Paix, with its 
genial, bemoustached host and politely shrewd 
Madame to give one welcome and cater to ones 
desire for "cafe au lait'' or "vin rouge ordinaire." 

There would usually be one long main street on 
either side of which the century old houses clus- 
tered, leaning on one another in relaxed familiarity. 
Soft yellow and gray stone might be varied by 
plaster and hall -timber, while a more vivid brick 
might add a warmer note to harmonize in the moss- 
grown tile roofs and terra cotta chimney-pots. Gen- 
tile freedom, but no license, was the key-note of 
the village street. A graceful curve was in its 
course and to its line the houses conformed. Here, 
the street might invite domestic intimacy and even 
familiarity as it gave place for farm carts around 
a drinking trough, or for the games of a crowd of 
black-aproned gargons. Beyond, realizing its pub- 
lic importance, it would widen out into pronounced 
formality to announce the mairie by an introduc- 
tion of trimmed planes or rarer clipped yews. It 
might even develop into a proper village square 
with a fountain and promenades for public func- 
tions or space for an out-door market-place. Then, 
relaxing from the dignity demanded by municipal 
life, the friendly road would take an easy curve 
down over an old stone bridge, even giving way 
to such wanton abandon as to dip into the flowing 
stream where old housewives on their knees in 
boxes of straw, with back-aching industry, paddled 
the linen white in the frothy waters. 

T N many villages, the dusty highway would have 
-I a rival for its locomotive interest in the canal 
\vith its shady cow-paths, its locks and bridges, 
inviting prolonged interest. An old stone cross by 
the roadside, a nitch sheltered Virgin enshrined on 
a bridge, proclaimed devout progenitors. If such 
did not call forth the obeisance of the passing mar- 
ketman, a deserted stone "octroi" might well make 
him give thanks for the better day when an eighth 
of his produce did not have to be surrendered as 
toll or tax to stronger though worldier powers. 

Over road and bridge from field or barge, the 
peasants would come driving their tandem teams 
before loaded two-wheeled carts, or with village 
flock or herd with barking dogs and squalling 
geese to arouse the village from its afternoon quiet. 
The doors of the old houses would open to admit 



72 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the homecomers and emit the savory odors of cook- 
ing suppers. The wider street doors with stone 
arches or great oaken lintels supporting the wall 
above, admitted the teams and cattle into the rear 
courtyards where, in compact quarters, were the 
seats of household activities, be they agriculture, 
commerce or craft. Passing from the courtyard 
into the house, which also opened directly from 
the street either as shop or dwelling, one found a 
simple arrangement. The main room \vas the liv- 
ing room in fact, with cooking range or great fire- 
place with its shining array of copper and pew- 
ter; the table laid with colored linen and figured 
plates and bowls ; flowers blooming in the small 
windows and cat and canary to welcome one into 
the family. Perhaps a spiral stairway in the corner 
led to sleeping rooms above with their great feather 
beds covered with red satin "duvets"' reflected in 
the much belabored parquet floors. (Ireat ceiling 
beams would tell of the age of the house built in the 
days of rough hewn but solid construction. 

Hospitality was the law of the land, the inn sim- 
ply being a home where it could be dispensed with 
greater ease. It would be built and furnished like 
the other homes, but naturally on a somewhat 
grander scale, and with a more conspicuous front- 
age for the public gaze. Exteriorly, nearly all pre- 
sented the same appearance of soft stone walls with 
pleasing variations of wood and plaster, small panes 
in casement windows behind wooden shutters, mod- 
erately pitched roofs with dormers symmetrically 
placed, but saved from any monotony by varying 
levels and varieties of hipped gables and unexpected 
chimneys. 

Mingling in the common conversation of the inn, 
it would be strange if one did not hear some refer- 




FARM CHATEAU IN THE MIDST OF THE 
ARGONNE BEAUCHAMPS 

ence to the chateau. This might be only an isolated 
little mansion apart from the village, or, on the 
other hand, a grand affair set in a wide park with 
elaborate gardens. In any case, the chateau, with 



the saintliness or villainy of its occupants, seem 
ever to have been an important factor in village 
life, and the building the object to be pointed out 
with pride to all visitors. There was something in- 
variably characteristic, invariably charming about 
the French country-seat, although the last century 
had witnessed the building of many that did not add 




THE CHATEAU-WALL Y MEUSE 

to the credit of architectural taste. In most cases 
might be found a graceful setting, a studied for- 
mality and a pretentious design. These, of any 
class, of buildings in the invaded regions, seem more 
often to have escaped damage except by occupation. 
Dominating over all the village architecturally 
as well as socially, would be the church. Volumes 
could be written about the part the church has played 
in French life, and nothing could be of more inter- 
est than these structures which greatly antedated 
any other building in the village. Often reaching 
back almost to Roman times, they were built with a 
solidity that, until the great war, had defied most 
of the destructive agencies of time. The rest of 
the village might change, burn or decay, but the 
church remained the main motif of the village pic- 
ture. Simple, basilican types, these churches would 
often show excellent stone vaulting over the nave 
and side aisles with massive supports of columns 
and thick walls. The small windows would be 
filled with well executed stone tracery and bits of 
early glass were not rare, although in the poorer 
districts, much of the glass was painted. A Ro- 



73 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



manesque tower of sturdy proportions seemed of- 
ten to antedate and oddly join a later Gothic struc- 
ture, but in most cases this formed the dominating 
feature regardless of the more recent additions of 
copper plated turrets, ogive openings or Rococo 




BRIZEAU MEUSE 

doorways which different periods imposed upon 
the chief architectural structure of the village. 

\ 

IN such a setting, one can picture the pre-war 
village of the now devastated regions of 
Northern France. Of course, the villages and towns 
were not all the same. In fact, one of the most 
typical things about French villages at large was 
their individuality, each with its prided feature of 
ancient tower or historical shrine or, perhaps, only 
its reputation for the output of a special brand 
of "confiture." Another typical characteristic was 
their isolation and contentment with such, for many 
were the old dames who had seldom if ever traveled 
beyond a ten kilometer radius. Yet, village life 
had much that was common to every other village. 
France, the land of democracy, had in its local 
government all the merits of an autocracy, not to 
mention any of the defects. As the character of 
the prefect, so were the affairs of the department; 
as the character of the mayor, so was the rule of 
the village. Once the mayor had his affairs of 
State safely in hand, his powers were immense, be- 
ing disputed only by the cure and the schoolmaster 
with their more limited temporal potentiality. With 
the houses of a village all grouped together, there 
was little of the isolation of English and Ameri- 
can family life where a man's house is his castle. 
The Frenchman's home was the property of his 
neighbors. They were about as "au courant" with 
what went on within its walls as he himself more 
so if he worked long hours in his fields and they 
kept shop next door. Hence the feuds and many 
tasks for the mayor and cure who must needs have 
a share in all. This communal and congested life 
was no doubt a product of early feudal days when 



men of necessity lived close together for protec- 
tion and defense. Thus the Frenchman inherited, 
together with his towny little village, a dread of 
living alone and a love of village life and his neigh- 
bor's affairs. 

The village life was also promoted by the land 
system which made each man owner of his own 
strip of land. Thus if a man with thirty hectares 
of land had six sons, each son automatically became 
heir to five hectares, which on their death would 
again be subdivided. Endless subdivision continued 
until the whole countryside was divided into small 
strips which, planted in different crops according 
to individual desires, made the landscape look like 
a futurist painting. One cultivator might own a 
dozen or more separate patches scattered around 
the village, necessitating his spending his time in 
hand labor and in going from one patch to another. 
The system tended to make the transfer of land 
difficult and any one such "terrain morcele'' too 
.-.mall to accommodate anything like proper farm 
buildings. Thus the farmyard, huddled and insani- 
tary, was apt to be in the village. With all the dis- 
advantages of this old system, it probably helped to 
give the French peasant that independence and sta- 
bility of character that proved so great a strength 
t i the nation in her days of stress. 

Nor were the tradesmen and craftsmen less in- 




A VERANDA CHAUMONT 

dependent and sturdy. Crafts and trades were of- 
ten inherited, passing from father to son. Particu- 
larly in the building trades, did one find prevalent 
a love of well executed work, a pride of crafts- 
manship and a personal interest in handicraft as 
opposed to the machine made. A man might win 
a lifelong repute and live under a halo of local re- 

(Continued on page 77) 



74 



Regaining Knack and Efficiency 

FE\Y men who took part in the late war, either 
on land or on the sea, either as soldier or sailor. 
followed in even a limited degree the same class of 
work they had been engaged in when they took up 
arms. The question arises whether cessation from 
a certain type of work, in many cases the result of 
special training, causes impairment of ability when 
resumption is attempted, or whether the enforced 
change from a previous occupation has been in a 
sense rest, effecting increased vigor and a largely 
augmented power for performance. 

One of the errors in both naval and military ad- 
ministration during the world conflict was that the 
governments failed to assign men by special selec- 
tion to a line of duty for which they might be 
assumed to be well fitted by previous education. 
Take architects and engineers for example. It is 
well known that men of unquestioned ability in 
these two professions were assigned to duties very 
far removed from work for which they had previ- 
ously been thoroughly trained. It was not until 
almost the very close of the war that this error was 
realized. And after the armistice, in the way of 
preparation for peace, schools of instruction were 
started in France and conducted under men spe- 
cially selected for their ability. The good results 
have been widely acknowledged. But of that large 
class of men who were compelled so radically to 
change their daily activities as completely to dis- 
associate them from former work what has been 
the result? Have they resumed their civilian ac- 
tivities better equipped than before, or have they 
suffered a lack of enthusiasm? It would be in- 
teresting to learn the opinion of readers of this 
journal who have seen service. 

HE ARCHITECTS' JOURNAL of London, 
editorially discussing the matter of "regaining 
knack and efficiency," states the opinion that it has 
been the experience of most men that knack and 
knowledge were more easily lost than acquired. Con- 
tinuing, it is stated : "In five years or more of dis- 



use, the mechanic lost much of his skill of hand 
his 'touch,' his 'knack.' his habit of concentra- 
tion. In most instances the old mechanical dexterity 
will be restored through renewal of steady applica- 
tion to the old work. In this comparatively simple 
matter of handicraft there is no other way, although 
the craftsman anxious to recover his old form will 
be less disdainful than it is said that he used to be 
of the aid of technical manuals. To these he will 
now turn more eagerly than ever before in the 
hope that they will show him a short cut to the 
recovery of his old skill and efficiency. More difficult 
and more painful is the effort of the professional 
man to 'come back to his old form.' Not only has 
much of his laboriously acquired knowledge com- 
pletely evaporated, but some of that which has re- 
mained with him he finds, to his dismay, is incom- 
plete and out of date. He cannot apply it easily to 
the new conditions that have sprung up during his 
absence." 

Considering the case of the professional man. just 
how far may the statement that it is a difficult 
and painful effort for the professionally trained 
man to "come back to form" be correct? The first 
impression is that the case is over stated, this im- 
pression being formed by association with men who 
have come back to "form" and in many cases much 
better form. 

Some professional men, it is true, used and de- 
veloped their knowledge ( often in a sea of detail), 
but these were chiefly in the sciences. Some artists 
developed out of the material at hand both their 
technique and their vision. P.ut the architect, an 
amphibious animal, what of him? So far as the 
creative side is concerned, he may well be compared 
with the artists. It is a well recognized fact among 
painters and sculptors that a complete rest for long 
periods from application to their art makes for in- 
creased efficiency. Even though a painter may lay 
down his palette and never touch a brush for many 
months lie will be unconsciously studying and ana- 
lyzing form and color wherever he finds it. Mean- 
time he has opportunity to digest what he already 
knows, docket it in his subconscious mind, and when 



75 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



he resumes his work he finds that he has made 
progress and has increased ability. 

It would seem that every professional man would 
find the same results through a period of abstention 
from professional effort, and that no matter what 
a man's work may have been before be took ser- 
vice under the colors, he would be better fitted to 
take up that work on his return. Js this reasoning 
correct ? 

The Facts About the Car Shortage 

WASHINGTON is filled, it is said, with repre- 
sentatives of all classes of shippers who are 
there to make application for cars. Invariably they 
are being turned down hundreds every day and 
are compelled to leave the city without obtaining any 
satisfaction or encouragement. The two commit- 
tees which have authority over the disposition of 
all railroad stock, that is to say, the Car Service 
Bureau of the Interstate Commerce Commission and 
the Commission on Car Service of the American 
Railroad Association, find themselves unable to 
promise anything like immediate relief from the car 
shortage. 

During the war not more than 100.000 cars were 
constructed, an amount far less than the number of 
cars retired. And now it is stated that a large num- 
ber of cars still in service must soon be discarded. 
Never in the history of America has our transporta- 
tion system been so nearly broken down. 

Just before the closing of its late session, the 
United States Senate appointed a Committee on Re- 
construction and Production. One of the chief du- 
ties of this committee is to investigate the causes for 
the existing car shortage, and for this purpose hear- 
ings are to be held in various parts of the country. 
But most important among the measures for relief 
already active is that the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission has recommended a loan of $125,000,000 
out of the revolving fund authorized by Congress. 
In order to avail themselves of this assistance the 
carriers must organize separate corporations which 
shall advance an amount equal to that loaned by the 
Government. This they are preparing to do, but 
it will mean at least a year before the equipment 
authorized can be made available. 

ANOTHER development which seems significant 
is the purchase of rolling stock by the indus- 
trial companies. For, although this amounts to 
but a few thousand cars, which is but slight relief, 



still it promises a more immediate effect and gives 
the car shops which have been operating at about 10 
per cent, of their capacity a chance to increase their 
production. 

The situation just at the present time is com- 
plicated to the utmost degree. Statistics of many 
of the roads show that with the limited rolling stock 
which is available they are handling a greater volume 
of tonnage than for many years. But there seems 
to be trouble not only with the shortage of cars, 
but with the congestion of the terminals as well. 
Several thousand cars loaded with coal are now at 
the Atlantic seaboard awaiting export. This tie-up 
will not be increased, as an order has now been 
issued prohibiting further exportation of coal; but 
such an order cannot be prolonged indefinitely, be- 
cause the Government is committed to the shipment 
of a large amount of coal to Italy. The Gulf ports, 
it is said, are encumbered with large numbers of 
cars of miscellaneous material which await the ar- 
rival of steamers before they can be unloaded. 
Efforts are being made to find storage space in order 
to relieve these cars. 

The condition of the terminals was made worse 
by the strikes of the switchmen, those so-called 
"outlaw" strikes which were carried on either as a 
protest against the delay of the Labor Wage Board 
or else in the interest of the Plumb plan. 

EXTREME efforts have been made to locate 
equipment in which to handle the crop, and 
adverse criticism was aroused when for this pur- 
pose many cars were sent empty from the East to 
the grain belt. It was explained that if these cars 
were loaded for Western destination there would 
be no certainty that they would not be diverted and 
become unavailable for the shipment of grain. 

The rule prohibiting the use of open cars for 
anything but the transportation of coal has also 
created loud protest. It was shown, however, that 
unless the coal was moved now and stored there 
would be severe suffering in the coming winter. 

On the whole it seems a tangle of almost unsur- 
mountable difficulties. The solution calls for that 
aptitude in administration and organization which 
is assumed to be typically American. The public 
was warned six months back that it must have 
patience with the railroads during a period of res- 
toration. The public has patience under its incon- 
venience lots of it. But the public is impatient to 
see attack vigorously applied to some vulnerable 
point of this tangle. 



76 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Reconstruction of France 

{Continued from paije 74) 

nown because he, Monsieur le Charpentier, had 
made the wooden cock, the vane that turned on the 
village church spire. Rather much of a solo per- 
former, the French craftsman liked to do his job 
in his own way, and what better way could there 
be since it was the way his father and grandfather 




HONEST STONE WORK OF THE MEUSE 

and, no doubt, great and greater grandfathers had 
done before him? Trade unions with rules and 
hours might flourish in larger towns, but they did 
not greatly concern Monsieur le Maqon in his little 
village. Yet among him and his companions there 
seemed to exist more of that spirit of the old craft 
guilds that made mediaeval France productive of 
some of the most beautiful of buildings. 

Such are but a few ill-illumined pictures of the 
pre-war village of Northern France and of the life 



that went its leisurely course under the slowly warp- 
ing roof tiles and down their quiet village streets. 
Whether they are pictures to be restored or not, 
only time can tell, but certain it is that the world 
of beauty will be the loser if the picturesque charm 
produced by their simple building be unheeded and 
discarded. 



Co-operative Art Building 

At a meeting of representatives of seven art or- 
ganizations, the American Institute of Graphic Arts, 
the Art Alliance of America. Louis C. Tiffany 
foundation. National Society of Craftsmen, Pic- 
torial Photographers of America, Society of Illus- 
trators and Society of Jewelry Designers, held re- 
cently, the plans of a proposed Co-operative Art 
Building, to house, with offices and exhibition rooms, 
the Societies above noted, and to afford a much- 
needed assembly place for all Metropolitan art or- 
ganizations were discussed. 

The purpose of the co-operative building is briefly 
as follows: To avoid duplication of effort, obtain 
a common meeting place and exhibition galleries, 
each society to have its own quarters with a central 
ollicc and statt. The unity of these organizations 
will reflect on public taste, inspire a keener appre- 
ciation and elevate the standards and usefulness of 
the craft>. the graphic and the industrial arts to the 
benefit ot the artUi. artisan, producer and consumer. 

There are now more than 100 seperate art organi- 
zations in Xew York City with more or less common 
aims, the majority of which have no permanent head- 
quarters, because there is now no central clearing 
house for the co-ordination of their interests and 
efforts, and because there is no permanent exhibi- 
tion and sales galleries for general promotion of 
their interests. 

There are more workers in the various crafts in 
Xew York City than in all the rest of the United 
States and infinitely greater demand for the pro- 
duction and sale of their work. In spite of that, 
other cities with smaller population, less wealth and 
demand have large, flourishing and profitable head- 
quarters. 

Such a unity of effort will inspire higher stand- 
ards of art and their application to trade, because 
such a unity of effort will increase the efficiency 
of each organization and strengthen the individual 
aims. 

The organization plans to purchase two or three 
houses in an accessible and central location, to re- 
model them with exhibition galleries, auditorium, 
individual organization rooms, central office staff, 
salesrooms and restaurant. 



77 



Are Apartments Necessary? 

An Important Test as to the Legality of Zoning Regulations. Judge 

Kramer Rules Against Establishment of Apartment 

Houses in Resident Sections 



THE legality of regulation for different types of 
residence district was tested recently in an 
interesting case in East Cleveland, a suburb 
of Cleveland, with a population of about 30,000 ad- 
ministered under the commission form of govern- 
ment. The case arose from the refusal of the build- 
ing inspector to issue a permit for the erection of 
eight apartments in a zone restricted to one or two- 
family dwellings. After a decision adverse to them, 
according to a report in the Survey, the plaintiffs 
secured a rehearing at which, in addition to the 
city manager, such authorities as Haven Emerson, 
former health commissioner of New York city; 
Robert H. Whitten, adviser of the Cleveland City 
Plan Commission, and Paul Feiss, chairman of the 
housing committee of the Cleveland Chamber of 
Commerce, gave evidence. In sustaining the earlier 
judgment, Judge Kramer said: 

It would seem that there could be no two 
opinions upon the proposition that the apartment 
house, or tenement, in a section of private resi- 
dences, is a nuisance to those in its immediate vicin- 
ity. Under the evidence, and as a matter of com- 
mon knowledge, of which the court may take judi- 
cial notice (16 Cyc. 582), it shuts off the light and 
air from its neighbors, it invades their privacy, 't 
spreads smoke and soot throughout the neighbor- 
hood. The noise of constant deliveries is almost 
continuous. The fire hazard is recognized to be in- 
creased. The number of people passing in and out 
render immoral practices therein more difficult of 
detection and suppression. The light, air and ven- 
tilation are necessarily limited, from the nature of 
its construction. The danger of the spread of in- 
fectious disease is undoubtedly increased, however 
little, where a number of families use a common 
hallway, and common front and rear stairways. 

The erection of one apartment house in a dis- 
trict of private homes would seriously affect only 
those persons living in the immediate vicinity 
thereof, but the common experience is that the erec- 
tion of one apartment drives out the single resi- 
dences adjacent thereto, to make way for more 
apartments. The result is that, in time, and not a 
very great time, when one apartment is erected, the 



whole street is given over largely to apartment 
houses. 

With the growth of its population, it appears to 
be practically certain that unless restricted, the 
greater part of East Cleveland will be built up with 
apartments, and the home owners must choose either 
to adopt apartment life or abandon their depre- 
ciated property, and move out of the city or into 
its more remote parts. 

If the claim of the relator here is sound, a city 
of private homes, grass plots, trees and open spaces, 
with the civic pride and quality of citizenship which 
is usually found in such circumstances, is power- 
less to protect itself against the obliteration of 
its private residence districts, by apartments, which 
shut out the sun and sky from its streets, and one 
another, and are generally owned by those whose 
greatest interest is in the revenue that the building 
will produce. If such is the law, it must be con- 
ceded that it is unfortunate. 

The apartment house is, for many, a desirable 
convenience and, for some, a necessity. They are 
a recognized necessity in cities of any size. Their 
erection should not be prohibited and, under this 
ordinance, are not prohibited. Private residences, 
with yards for play spaces, with grass, trees and 
flowers, are necessities for people with children, 
and as much a convenience to the people without 
children who take an old-fashioned pride in owning 
their homes, as is the apartment to those who are 
willing to accept its restrictions for its compensa- 
tory freedom from responsibilities. It is at least 
equally important to preserve the private home for 
this class as it is to provide the apartment for the 
first. Under this zoning ordinance, both the private 
home is preserved and the apartment house is 
provided. 

It seems eminently fair to restrict the apartment 
builder to a limited area, where his use of his prop- 
erty will do the least damage to others and to the 
community. The necessities or convenience of those 
who live in them will be served thus with the least 
sacrifice of the necessities and conveniences of 
others. Whatever of the burden arising from apart- 
ments there is, will be borne by those whose pur- 
poses they serve, and not shifted to the other 
property owners of the city, to make their property 
unfit for use as a home. 



78 



Vol.. CXVIII, No. 2326 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 21, 1920 




FINAL STAGE, NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL COMPETITION 

WINNING DESIGN 
BERTRAM G. GOODHUE, ARCHITECT 






Vol.. CXVIII. Xo. 2326 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 21, 1920 




FINAL STAGE, NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL COMPETITION 

WINNING DESIGN 
BERTRAM G. GOODHUE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. CXVIII, No. 2326 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 21, 1920 




FINAL STAGE, NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL COMPETITION 

WINNING DESIGN 
BERTRAM G. GOODHUE, ARCHITECT 



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VOL. cxvm, NO. 2326 THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 21. 1920 




? ROP05ED CAPITOL FOP THE S '; A T E OK NEBRASKA IN Till' i" IT 






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FINAL STAGE, NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL COMPETITION 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY 
TRACY & SWARTWOUT, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. CXVIII, No. 2326 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 21, 1920 





FINAL STAGE, NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL COMPETITION 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY 
PAUL P. CRET AND ZANTZINOER, BORIE & MEDARY, ArchHecU 



Nebraska State Capitol Competition 

Statement by the Capitol Commission 



A S RECITED in the program for the pre- 
r\ liminary stage of this competition, the ul- 
timate object of the Commission is to se- 
cure to the citizens of Nebraska the best Capitol 
that is obtainable under present conditions. In 
adopting a competition as the best means of select- 
ing an architect, the Commission is following what 
it believes to be the best custom, and in detail is 
being guided by the usage of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects, and in accord therewith has ap- 
pointed Thomas R. Kimball, Architect, of Omaha. 
Nebraska, its Professional Adviser, and has con- 
ducted the preliminary stage of this competition 
under his guidance. 

As to plan, scope, style, type 01 material, the capi- 
tol commission will offer no suggestion. Even in the 
matter of tradition it is clearly the desire of the 
commission that each competitor shall feel free to 
express what is in his heart, unmindful of what 
has been inherited in this regard, willing even that 
the legacies of the masters should guide and restrain 
rather than fetter. 

While the commission is very anxious not to 
handicap the competitors, or to limit the possibili- 
ties, it is nevertheless quite clear on much that it 
seeks to realize in the final result, and is certain 
to be disappointed should the capitol finally erected 
not prove to be : 



AIMS Sr.\i M 

First A practical working home for the govern- 
mental machinery of the state; adequate not only 
for present needs, but with provision made or antici- 
pated for development and growth for a century 
to come. 

Second An inspiring monument worthy of the 
state for which it stands ; a thing of beauty, so con- 
ceived and fashioned as to properly record and ex- 
ploit our civilization, aspirations and patriotism. 
past, present and future ; intelligently designed, 
durably and conscientiously built, and of worthy 
materials: and all beautifully and fittingly set. sur- 
rounded. embellished and adequately furnished. 

Third The whole accomplished without friction, 
scandal, extravagance, or waste a work calculated 
to inspire pride in every Nebraskan. 

The commission believes that the following 
memorandum (New Capitol Requirements) quite 
accurately represents the requirements of the offices 
and departments for which provision is to be made, 
and offers it and the accompanying observations as 
representing its latest opinion. In studying these 



suggestions competitors are referred to the accom- 
panying pamphlet by Governor S. R. McKelvie, 
entitled "A Responsible Form of Government," and 
marked Exhibit "D," which includes the scheme of 
governmental machinery now being tried in 
Nebraska. 

( )ISSI-:RV. \TIO.\S ON ARRANGEMENT 
Should a separate housing be suggested for some 
of the large and growing, though less conspicuous 






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PLOT PLAN 
TRACY & SWARTWOUT, ARCHITECTS 

departments, it is pointed out that the monumental 
or more distinguished group or groups, should still 
include in addition to the legislative halls, supreme 
court and library, the offices and quarters for all 
the elective officials of the state and a war memorial 
room. However, the supreme court, state library 



79 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



and attorney general's office might function per- 
fectly as an independent unit. It is desired that 
each competitor charge himself with sufficient study 
of the requirements of state governments in general 
and of Nebraska in particular to enable him to offer 
a solution based on his original research and under- 
standing of the whole problem : particularly is this 
desirable in the groupings of important departments 
with relation to each other, and of accessory ele- 
ments with relation to the important units with 
which they are intended to function. 

PURPOSES OF COMPETITION 

Here, however, competitors are again reminded 
that in their solutions they are not asked to make 
working drawings or even sketches for any pur- 
pose other than to aid in the selection of an archi- 
tect, and that the study of the broad problem is far 
more important at this time than striving for exact 
disposition of minor details. 

NEW CAPITOL REQUIREMENTS. 
SENATE CHAMBER (thirty-three senators). 
For the senate there should be provided about 
twelve committee rooms with proper dependencies, 
and reasonable space for visitors. 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (one hundred 

members). 

For the house of representatives there should be 
provided about twelve committee rooms with proper 
dependencies, and reasonable space for visitors. 

LEGISLATIVE REFERENCES. 

For this bureau, which functions only while the 
legislature is in session, there should be provided 
at least three rooms reading room, reference 
library and stenographer's room. 

SUPREME COURT (seven judges and three 

commissioners) . 

For the supreme court there should be provided 
two court rooms, two consultation rooms, ten 
judge's rooms, with stenographer's rooms attached, 
one lawyer's retiring room, all with proper 
dependencies. 

One clerk's room to function with main court 
room and to accommodate clerk, deputy clerk, jour- 
nal clerk, opinion clerk and stenographer. 

An adjoining bookkeeper's room, and receiving 
and storing room for briefs, blanks, etc. A con- 
necting vault and two reporter's room adjacent to 
state library. 

STATE LIBRARY (in same building with supreme 

court) . 
A law library of 80,000 volumes, increasing at 



the rate of 2,000 per year (400 feet of shelving 
added per year). 

The state library should have an adequate read- 
ing room with separate rooms for receiving and for- 
warding, cataloguing, preparation for binding, and 
correspondence, with five or six small private rooms 
for dictation and a stack room with adequate ulti- 
mate shelving capacity. 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS. 
In addition to the above requirements, about 
eighty thousand square feet of floor space seem to 
be advisable. 

THE OLD CAPITOL. 

The present capitol is a four-story and basement 
building, of local limestone, in a very bad state of 
repair ; it was erected in 1886, and is today wholly 
outgrown and inadequate. Its total length is three 
hundred twenty feet ; the central portion measures 
one hundred by a depth of one hundred and eighty 
feet : the wings are ninety-five feet deep by one 
hundred long. 

The site is practically level (sloping slightly from 
the building in all directions), and is generously cov- 
ered with well-grown trees. 

Prevailing winds are from the south in summer, 
and northwest in winter. The climate ranges be- 
tween extremes, and the west exposure is hot, dry 
and glaring in summer. Manifestly the power plant 
should not be located on the building site proper ; 
suitable locations on trackage and within practical 
distances are available and need not be given much 
consideration at this time. 

It is estimated that about three-quarters of the 
traffic approaches from the northwest at present, 
with the major part of that coming from the west; 
also that fully one-half of those entering the old 
building do so by the west door, and about one- 
quarter by the east door, a distribution likely to 
continue indefinitely. 

Present property lines, topography, neighboring 
traffic arteries, with car-lines and other public serv- 
ice contracts, will be shown on the Survey (Exhibit 
"C" herein) and the location in the city is shown 
on the map of Lincoln (Exhibit "F" herewith). 

Attention is directed to French's bronze statue of 
Lincoln at present on the site. Solutions should 
consider this monument and suggest for it a proper 
part in the ensemble, preferably but not impera- 
tively on the building site proper. 

Nebraska produces practically no coal, and only 
minor lines of building material, thus relieving the 
problem of home-production complications and 
handicaps. 



80 



Current News 



Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 



Landscape Architects Meet 

A number of leading authorities on landscape 
architecture were present at the national conference 
on professional instruction, recently held in Cam- 
bridge. The architects met on the invitation of 
Professor James S. Pray of the Harvard School of 
Landscape Architecture, and represented thirteen 
institutions over the country. Among the delegates 
were Frank A. \Yaugh of Massachusettss Agricul- 
tural College, who is in the employ of the Federal 
Forest Service in connection with recreation areas ; 
Professor E. Gorton Davis, in charge of landscape 
architecture at Cornell, and Professor Frederic X. 
Evans, occupying a similar position s\. the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 

The conference continued through three days and 
included an exhibition of drawings and plans In 
students from the schools represented. One session 
was for the purpose of appointing committees on in- 
struction, landscape extension, town-planning and 
publicity. It was decided to make the conference 
an annual affair, at which the American Society of 
Landscape Architects would be represented by the 
standing committee, and by delegates from the 
schools throughout the country. 

After the business session the architects adjourn- 
ed to the Cambridge School of Domestic Architec- 
ture and the party w r ent by automobile to the Arnold 
Arboretum, (iorham P. Stevens; director of Un- 
American Academy at Rome, spoke on the work 
of the American Academy, and Charles N. Lowrie, 
chairman of the standing committee of the American 
Society of Landscape Architects, discussed the pro- 
fessional needs for education in landscape architec- 
ture, at the dinner at the St. Kotolph Club. 

The conference was motored the next day through 
the Boston Park system. At the final session formal 
action was taken upon the recommendations of 
the committees previously appointed. The fol- 
lowing-named institutions sent representatives to 
the meetings in Cambridge : Cambridge School of 
Domestic Architecture and Landscape Architecture 
for Women, Cornell University, Lowthorpe School 
of Landscape Architecture for Women ; Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College, Michigan Agricultural 
College, New York State College of Forestry, Ohio 
State University, Pennsylvania State College, Uni- 



versity of California. University of Illinois, Univer- 
sity of Missouri, Missouri Botancial Garden,. Har- 
vard University. 



Chicago Banker Talks About Credit 
Rates 

At the convention of the Illinois State Bankers, 
Mr. Arthur Reynolds of the Continental & Commer- 
cial Xational liank said, in expressing his view of 
the present conditions: 

"There is a reported shortage of commodities all 
<>ver the world, and holders have the comfortable 
lecling that as fast as produce, raw materials and 
manufactured goods can be moved to market, they 
can be converted into cash with which to pay in- 
debtedness. J'.ut we must not make the mistake of 
thinking that because we have the federal reserve 
banks we can go on expanding without limitation. 
The object in creating those institutions was to as- 
sist legitimate business, not to foster undue expan- 
sion or speculations; in fact they were designed 
partly as a steadying factor; it was the intention 
that they should call a halt when necessary to cor- 
rect a situation that might be getting unhealthy; 
and they were also intended as a resource to which 
the individual banks could apply for help in meeting 
the seasonal ebb and flow of industry as a whole. 

"Up to now, in our orgy of general expansion and 
extravagance, the thought seems to have been com- 
mon that credit was limitless, like air; that all the 
producer of raw materials had to do was to find a 
purchaser who would promise to pay almost any 
price and then ship the materials, that the manufac- 
turer could do the same, and that the retailer could 
follow their example. The opinion seemed to be 
that the banks could supply the credit without any 
limitation whatever as to amount. 

''But the cheap credit policy as a means of stimu- 
lating production and lowering the price level has 
been a complete failure. Fifteen months after the 
armistice, the loans of the reserve banks were $800,- 
000,000 more than in the preceding year and upon 
the basis of these enlarged reserves the commercial 
banks had expanded their credits to several times 
that amount. The treasury continued to place cer- 
tificates at low rates for mor: than a year and the 



81 



THE 'AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ease with which money was obtainable contributed 
to fundamental extravagance and all the machinery 
of war, except troops, was maintained. The rail- 
roads continued to be run at a loss. The cry for a 
bonus to soldiers was raised and production was not 
increased. 

"Suddenly we find that cheap credit is an illusion 
and we proceed to make credit clear. The reserve 
bank's rates are increased and then increased again, 
and they may be increased again. Sliding scales are 
adopted in some cases to penalize heavy borrowers. 
The treasury rate on its new issues of notes is ad- 
vanced to 5 per cent, and then to 6 per cent." 



Government-Built Workmen's 
Homes in New Zealand 

The Prime Minister of New Zealand has an- 
nounced that good progress is being made in carry- 
ing out the law, passed at the last session of the 
legislature, which provides for the erection of work- 
men's homes in the different centers of the Domin- 
ion. One hundred and eighty-three houses are now 
in course of erection and 122 additional under con- 
sideration, with several other centers to be can- 
vassed, including the city of Auckland. Of these 
dwellings, 113 have been or are being erected at 
Wellington and suburbs. These homes are being 
built by the Government and sold to workmen at 
cost, with the privilege of paying in monthly in- 
stallments. 

The Prime Minister stated that he is satisfied 
there are more buildings in course of construction 
in New Zealand at this time than ever before in the 
history of the country ; and it would seem that this 
is but a beginning of the general move for the de- 
velopment, not only of the business and industrial 
centers of the Dominion, but for the smaller cities 
and towns, as well as rural districts. 

The cost of building is so high in New Zealand 
that private capital is not attracted to the erection 
of homes, so the Government is assuming the re- 
sponsibility. Five years ago Oregon pine sold here 
at $3.53 per 100 feet, while now it sells at $14.60. 
Redwood has advanced at about the same ratio, and 
Australian lumber is expensive and hard to get at 
any price. A good grade of English corrugated 
iron sells at $404 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and nails 
at $263 per ton. It is stated that a home that would 
have cost $3,000 to build before the war would 
now cost more than $5,000. 



To improve Grand Central Station ten stories will 
be added to Grand Central Station, New York, for 
office space, according to Whitney Warren, of 
Warren & Wetmore, architects. 



Wood Construction in "Shamrock 
IV" 

The wonderful strength of carefully selected, 
well-seasoned and properly disposed wood is em- 
phasized by the designers of Sir Thomas Lipton's 
challenging yacht, "Shamrock IV," as quoted in an 
article in a recent "Scientific American" which gives 
the leading characteristics of this craft. The inter- 
national yacht races held July 15 have arrested 
widespread attention, as in former years. 

Although "Shamrock IV" is of practically the 
same displacement as the cup defender "Resolute," 
it carries 25 per cent, more canvas or 10,800 square 
feet as against 8,650 square feet for "Resolute." 
"Shamrock IV" is a boat of great initial stability, 
capable of carrying a huge spread of canvas its 
spread of sail reaching 170 feet above the deck 
and this ability is due, according to its designer, to 
the "wonderful strength'' of the wood. The hull 
is sheathed with three layers of mahogany, two 
layers inch thick, placed diagonally in opposite di- 
rections at 40 degrees to the vertical, and an outer 
layer 5-8 of an inch thick, placed longitudinally, 
the whole being very thoroughly fastened together 
with the joints evenly distributed. The deck is of 
birch veneer, 5-8 of an inch thick and the hull is 
stiffened against distortion by running birch veneer 
bulkheads at each web frame from the bilge to the 
deck along each side of the hull. The hull is also 
stiffened longitudinally by a series of wood longi- 
tudinals, about 2Y-2 inches square in section. 

The mast, two feet in diameter, is of wood and 
hollow, as are the other spars. The topmast truck 
is '145 feet and the top of the clubtop sail 170 feet 
above the deck. This means that if Shamrock were 
afloat on Broadway the topmost point of her club- 
topsail would be level with the cornice of a 14-story 
building, and this, on a waterline of 75 feet. 



New York Society of Architects 

About three dozen members of the above-named 
society had a most enjoyable outing on June 30 to 
Bayville, L. I. 

Leaving the Society's headquarters, West 39th 
Street, at 10 a. m., the party proceeded by motor 
bus via Queensborough Bridge, Jamaica, Hollis and 
Oyster Bay a three hours' ride through some of 
the most picturesque scenery in this section of the 
country. The weather was propitious and the season 
of the year at its best. 

After a refreshing dip in the clear and cooling 
waters of the Sound so far as the somewhat lim- 
ited supply of bathing suits would allow of it full 
justice was done by members to a liberal and varied 



82 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



repast. This was followed by a game of baseball, 
and the skill and agility displayed by some of the 
older men, who it is safe to say had not handled a 
bat for 20 years or more, was as remarkable as it 
was gratifying to behold. 

Genial humor nd good fellowship were the order 
of the day, and it was felt on the whole that the 
time could not have been better spent than it was ; 
the hope being expressed that a recurrence of the 
occasion might take place in the near future. 



Church for Children 

CZECHOSLOVAKS of New York City have 
established a church solely for children, with a 
children's choir and orchestra and child ushers. Its 
doors are open only to those under 15 years, with 
the exception of the pastor and organist. 

Look in on the P>ohetnian colony over on the up- 
per east side of New York any Sunday morning 
and you will see scores of little girls in stiffly 
starched white dresses and as many small boys with 
their hair slicked back and shoes carefully polished 
making their way toward the attractive little stone 
church at 374 East Seventy-fourth street. They 
don't have the doleful, "wish-it-were-Monday" ap- 
pearance customary with youngsters being dragged 
unwillingly to church by their parents. They look 
as though they expected a good time. 

When 300 children go to church regularly every 
Sunday in the year, one can be sure there is some- 
thing unusual about the service. The pastor, the 
Rev. Albert J. Murphy, boasts that it has all the 
elements of a regular Presbyterian church service 
from invocation to benediction, but he has skilfully 
adapted it so that it will be attractive to the young 
mind. 

The church Jan Hus Church, it is called is the 
kind of a place any one feels more cheerful for be- 
ing in, especially the light-hearted Bohemians, whose 
mother country has endowed them with a love of 
the gay and vivid. The panels of the walls are dec- 
orated in Czechoslovak fashion, with brilliantly col- 
ored designs. The painting was done by one of the 
neighborhood men, by trade an ordinary artisan, 
but with the unerring skill and feeling for color of 
the true artist. His work has made of the church 
a place full of life and beauty. No wonder it is the 
mecca for all Bohemians who live in the eastern 
part of the country. 

To come to the children's service at nine-thirty 
on Sunday morning when the little ushers in their 
stiff Buster Brown collars have finished their task 
of seating the congregation, the boys' choir, thirty 
strong, enters marching in processional. It is one 
of the finest boys' choirs in the city, having as its 



director Francis Pangrac, a -Metropolitan baritone. 

The stringed orchestra, which supplements the 
choir, is the product of the Jan Hus Neighborhood 
House, which is conducted in connection with the 
church. This is one of the United Neighborhood 
Houses of New York, a federation of forty-seven 
settlements. It is the community centre of the 
30,000 Bohemians who live in the district, the place 
where the young people come for athletics, dancing, 
lessons in cooking, arts and crafts and music; the 
older generation, to learn English, to dance the folk 
dances of their beloved Bohemia, or just to enjoy 
one another's society in the comfortable clubrooms. 

To return to the children's service what of the 
sermon ? There arc no dry, doctrinal harangues in 
the children's church. Mr. Murphy has solved the 
problem of retaining the sermon and yet keeping 
his youthful congregation interested. 

"Preaching and moralizing are horrible," he says. 
"It is much better to let the children draw their own 
lesson from some interesting tale." 

So he tells them stories, sometimes old Bohem- 
ian folktales translated into English, sometimes a 
Bible storv, and sometimes a modern storv. 



Westminster Abbey in Need of 
Repair 

But little attention was paid to the needs for re- 
pair in Westminster Abbey during the war and it is 
now estimated by the Dean that it will be necessary 
to spend as much as $500.000 to put the structure in 
a condition worthy of so dignified and revcrei! a 
monument. The sum fixed for maintenance of the 
Abbey some fifty years ago is quite inadequate and 
the Dean, in his appeal for funds for repair, has 
asked for 150,000 in addition to be used for the 
establishment of a fund which shall keep the build- 
ing in a constant state of efficiency. 

It may be the vibration from the continual and 
constantly increasing traffic, or it may be the nat- 
ural result of age which makes constant attention 
and renovation necessary. At any rate, great masses 
of decaving stonework are badly in need of recon- 
struction and the authorities are without funds. Al- 
though the abbey was started so long ago as when 
there was a King Sebert of Essex, and that was in 
616, it isn't so old that it should be permitted to fall 
apart not yet. The King has headed a subscription 
list with a donation of 1,000. 



i 

War Memorial in Ten Years 

After discussing details as to the nv^t recent of 
several ineffective conferences held in Xew York by 
the Mavor's War Memorial Committee, the Xew 



83 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



York Times recommends that the example of Paris 
be carefully noted. 

That city is perhaps the most spacious, orderly 
and harmonious in the modern world. The French 
have in full measure the instinct and the skill for 
monumental works of art. Yet they have lately de- 
cided not to begin the planning and construction of 
their War Memorial until after the lapse of ten 
years. As the Jury of Artists well says : "Only time 
can develop the full strength of the artistic talent 
and imagination of the community." To settle the 
fate of so momentous a project forever at a meet- 
ing held at the end of July would be, all too literally, 
midsummer madness. 



Moneybag Decoration 

The statement of the president of the Incor- 
porated Institute of British Decorators that the In- 
stitute desired to direct decorative art into a thor- 
oughly English channel and to restrain it, because 
there is a danger that decoration may be carried 
out under the orders of war millionaires, whose 
money may be in excess of their taste, opens a sub- 
ject of speculative interest in these transitional 
times, states the Glasgow Herald. What exactly 
is meant by directing decorative art into a thor- 
oughly English channel we confess we cannot un- 
derstand. Heaven help the art, or the people fated 
to live with it, which is "thoroughly English." But 
we presume it to be the intention of this body to 
encourage the development of English tendencies 
in art and to permeate whatever of "foreign" art 
as may be introduced, with the traditional spirit of 
the environment and setting to which it may be 
adapted. The point of interest, however, will be 
to watch the conflict which is sure to come in the 
artistic world between those whose work has been 
strengthened and tightened and steeled by the fact 
of war and the artists whose works will be pro- 
duced to meet the demands of a new public, largely 
an uneducated public so far as art is concerned, 
and a public with moneybag. 

History shows that the transference of wealth 
which follows all great national struggles and up- 
heavals, and the consequent change of patrons of the 
arts, has reacted on art in a manner which has in the 
long run proved beneficial to the progress of much 
that is best in art, including the decorative branches 
of it. Be that as it may, we nevertheless sympathize 
with such members of the Incorporated Institute 
of British Decorators who come into actual contact 
with the war millionaire who dreams of possessing 
a succession of glittering and gaudy salons in the 
rococo style, and is ushered in by his decorator to 
quiet rooms panelled in the tones of ' Morris. It 
would almost be as dangerous as condemning the 



furs of his wife in favor of a Greenavvay cloak. 
That is, of course, taking the war millionaire at the 
Decorators' estimate. Nevertheless it is a scheme 
on the right lines and one that could well be applied 
to more than the newly rich. But the greatest in- 
fluence which will counteract extravagance in affairs 
of art lies in the war-tempered school to which we 
have referred. 



Builders Advocate Lower Structures 

Building skyscrapers on their sides, instead of 
one end in the air in order to save the tremendous 
cost of foundation and enormous elevator equip- 
ment, also to spread business districts of cities over 
a wide area, was discussed at the recent annual con- 
vention of the National Association of Building 
Owners and Managers in the Twin Cities. 

Low buildings in the business district was the 
theme of a paper on "Analysis of the comparative 
investment value of office buildings of various 
height," was read in Minneapolis by Edwin S. 
Jewell of Omaha. 

Jewell advocated the building of low buildings 
in place of the sky-scraper thereby spreading the 
business section of a city over wide territory. 

Pointing out that land values comes from the size 
of population in a section and not from the buildings 
put on it, he declared that low building on large lots 
were more profitable than a structure towering in 
the air. 

Other papers of the afternoon were read by Ad- 
rien W. Vollmer of Philadelphia on "The ethics of 
office building ownership and management," and by 
Colonel Gordon Strong of Chicago on the "Fun- 
damentals of the office building business for profit." 



How One Library Serves Its Public 

It's a dull day in Newark, New Jersey, editorial- 
ly comments The Sun and New York Herald, 
on which John Cotton Dana does not find a new 
way to make the public library more useful. One of 
his recent exploits is a scheme to "Get Wise Quick," 
which is "addressed to young people ; but men and 
women will find it useful if they wish to begin again 
to learn." To get wise quick, of course, the am- 
bitious youngster or adult is to make intelligent use 
of the public library, of which the bulletin issued on 
this subject says : 

"In your library are 240,000 books. In these books lie the sum 
and substance of all the wisdom getting, memory improving and 
salary raising ideas that anybody has ever had since the world 
began. 

"And in your library are persons who jump at the chance to pick 
out just the books and parts of books that will best help you to 
just exactly what you want to learn. 

"Their work is paid for already." 

Mr. Dana would like to have the potential stu- 



84 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



dent come to the library, but for those who cannot 
manage to do this he has prepared a card to be filled 
in and mailed by the would-be student. On this card 
the librarian says : 

"Mail this card in an envelope if you so prefer. Why not write 
a letter telling what you have studied, and what trade you have 
worked at? This is all confidential, of course." 

The library encourages those to whom it appeals 
by telling them that it has "learned, what thousands 
of self-taught citizens have proved, that every man 
or boy or girl is his own best teacher." There is no 
attempt to mystify or to awe the prospective delver 
after knowledge; he is not approached as if he were 
a suitable object for charitable treatment; there is 
no hint of patronizing in this circular advertisement 
of "the biggest academy in Xew Jersey, with the 
best staff of teachers in the world (the writers of 
the 240,000 books and with the finest student body 
you can find yourself. 

If Newark's population does not attain intellectual 
supremacy over all the other people in the United 
States its failure cannot fairly be laid at the door 
of the public library. 



New Kind of Artificial Stone 

Consul General Yeo J. Keena reports from Zurich. 
Switzerland, that the Gyr-Guyer Bank for Financing 
(Gyr-Guyer Banque pour Financements) of Zurich 
states that they are holders of a Swiss patent for the 
manufacture' of a kind of artificial stone which can 
be made at one-third the cost of ordinary artificial 
stone. A description of this stone and a report of 
an examination of it made by the Examing Hoard 
of the Federal Laboratory for Material Analysis, 
at Zurich, may be inspected at the Bureau of For- 
eign and Domestic Commerce on referring to file 
No. 8492. 



A Recent Book By John Nolen 

A new book by John Nolen is always a matter of 
interest in the town planning world. His latest book, 
"Xew Ideals in the Planning of Cities. Towns and 
Villages," is really a primer of town planning, writ- 
ten as it was for use in the Army Educational 
Course with the boys "over there." The book has 
the great advantage of being attractive in form, 
being small and something that one can slip into a 
coat pocket and yet being very comprehensive and 



attractive in appearance. It is pointed out that the 
book is not a dissertation on "City Beautiful" vaga- 
ries that look well on blue prints, but which never 
get themselves adopted, but is a thoroughly prac- 
tical book that coordinates industrial and business 
needs with the best thought on beautification. It 
reflects not only a faithful history of the city plan- 
ning movement, but is as well a text-book for meth- 
ods of procedure. In it Mr. Nolen discusses such 
topics as Specific Needs of the Smaller Cities, City 
Planning Misconceptions, How to Replan a City, 
Controlling purposes of a City Plan, How to Get a 
City Plan into Action, Does City Planning Pay, and 
a number of similar important phases of the city 
planning movement. 

The book is published by the American City Mag- 
azine, Tribune Building, Nassau Street, N. Y. City. 



American Wooden Houses in France 

Five hundred from an order of 1,000 wooden 
houses for the devastated regions of northern 
France have been delivered by a Xew York firm 
this spring. These houses are 7 meters or about 23 
feet square and have three rooms and a shed. They 
are delivered in sections and complete, according 
to the Review of the American Chamber of Com- 
merce in France, including windows, doors, glass, 
paint, nails, bolts, all ready for erection. Their 
erection is under the directon of one of the French 
building departments. About a hundred of these 
houses are being erected in the Arras and I. ens dis- 
tricts. 



Art Restoration Planned 

Arrangements are under wav to restore the 150 
portraits of the signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, members of the Continental Congress and 
other celebrities of Revolutionary days, which are 
now stored in one of the upper rooms of Indepen- 
dence Hall. 

"These paintings," said Joseph C. Wagner, act- 
ing Director of Public Works, "are valued at over 
$500,000, and for the sum of $10.000 they can be 
restored. We have $1,000 available !.>r the purpose 
and I propose to ask City Council to appropriate 
additional money for the purpose." 

The work will be done by Prof. Pasqualr ;'.. ' >.. 



85 



Housing Brevities 



Housing Plans for Railroad 
Employees 

Plans for building homes for employees are be- 
ing considered by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Their 
plan provides for the construction of houses, either 
singly or in groups at division points and terminals. 
The houses would be rented to the employees or sold 
to them at the cost of construction. Railroads have 
difficulty in getting labor, frequently because the 
men cannot secure living accommodations. 

The laws of some states, however, do not allow 
the railroad corporations to engage in the real estate 
business. The lawyers say, however, that if the 
houses are used exclusively for Pennsylvania em- 
ployees on a cost basis, the legal barrier might be 
overcome. 

The Pullman Company built the town of Pull- 
man and rented houses to employees. The state 
attacked the plan and the courts ruled that the com- 
pany could not engage in the real estate business 
and accordingly the company sold the houses. 



Revised Edition of "Model Housing 
Law" 

1 \Yhen Lawrence Yeiller's book, "A Model Hous- 
ing Law," was published five years ago it was to a 
large extent a pioneer effort ; for, at that time there 
were no housing laws in the country, but only tene- 
ment house laws, most of which had been modeled 
upon the New York Tenement House Law. 

Since then, through the activities of the National 
Housing Association, housing laws have become 
firmly established in many states and the country 
has accepted such legislation and no one outside of 
New York City thinks any longer in terms of tene- 
ment laws. 

The experience of the past five years in adapting 
the Model Housing Law to the varying conditions 
existing in different communities has developed 
many important and new features in housing legis- 
lation. 

The result of this experience has been embodied 
by Mr. Veiller in a Revised Edition of this book 
which has just been published. 

The Revised Edition is almost a new book, for 
many changes have been made in the law. 

To those who are not interested in legislation but 
who seek information as to what should be the hous- 
ing standards that should prevail in their commun- 
ity this book should prove of value. The law itself 



serves as a set of standards and the copious notes 
and explanations with the reasons for the adop- 
throw much light upon the reasons for the adop- 
tion of a particular standard. 

In addition the author has included in the Re- 
vised Edition a new chapter on "Housing Stan- 
dards" and has included there the verbatim text of 
the ''Housing Standards" adopted by the Federal 
Government of which Mr. Yeiller was the chiaf 
author. 

He has also included in the book a new chapter 
on ''Zoning" and has accompanied it with a Model 
Zoning Enabling Act to be adopted in large cities 
before zoning is attempted. 

The book can be obtained from the publishers, 
the Russell Sage Foundation, 130 East 22d Street, 
New York City 380 pages. 



More Hotels for New York 

Plans for doubling the size of the Hotel Commo- 
dore here to 4,000 rooms, making it the largest hotel 
in the world, were announced by John McE. Bow- 
man, proprietor. Mr. Bowman, who owns several 
hotels here, also announced that a new 3,000-room 
hotel would be built on the site of the Murray Hill 
Hotel. Mr. Bowman recently sold the Manhattan 
Hotel to the National City Company, which will 
convert it into an office structure. 



Dividing Old Houses 

IT IS a significant and gratifying fact to notice, 
among the permits for building granted in the last 
few months a large number of "remodeling and 
alteration" permits, where old homes are being made 
up-to-date or changed into apartments, housing two 
or three families where one was housed before, and 
tending to do away with the much-mooted question 
as to why so many large dwelling houses stood idle 
and dusty while the clamor increased for homes. 
This fact was recorded by E. E. Hollenback, Presi- 
dent of the Master Builders' Exchange in Phila- 
delphia. 

In a time when building materials are subject to 
so much delay in transportation and prices fluctuate 
almost with the temperature, it is a wise move to 
make habitable houses already built, make two 
homes grow where but one was before, and help to 
house the working force of this country, who can- 
not, of necessity, produce more unless comfortably 
sheltered. 



86 



Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Prominent Regional Centers 



Slight changes are evident during the past week 
in the construction industry, if indeed there be 
any change. The general trend in regard to labor 
seems to be toward a more free supply which was 
to be expected as a result of the shortages in ma- 
terial and the impossibility of pressing forward 
work now on the way or already started. 

The chief interest of the builders at the present 
time is to get their materials. Prices have been so 
erratic that practically all work is done on a cost- 
plus basis and speculation as to whether prices will 
come down or go higher is beside the mark, the 
question is whether or not the building materials 
can be obtained. This is dependent on the trans- 
portation problem and hardship is felt as it has 
been felt for months. Several cars just arrived at 
Toronto have been twelve weeks on the way from 
Pittsburgh, so it is told. Every contractor has 
similar stories to tell, and only too frequently the 
difference in his story is that the cars haven't ar- 
rived yet. 

Xow a question seems to be coming to the fore 
as to whether the manufacturers will be able to 
accumulate enough coal to keep running. Opinions 
as to the facts seem varied by the expression of 
one coal operator that there was no shortage of 
coal. Possibly not and it is comforting to suppose 
that General Order No. 7 which restricts the use 
of open top cars to the carrying of coal has had 
something to do with achieving this consumma- 
tion. There is being held in Washington, at this 
writing, a conference between the coal operators 
and the railway executives. 

There is but one certain solution to the car 
shortage and that is to build more cars ; it is quite 
as simple as the solution to the building shortage. 
Which is very easy to say and to put on paper. 
But quite apart from the realm of gentle criticism 
is the announcement of straight fact that the manu- 
facturers of lime have closed down for lack of 
coal. And that there is talk among the steel mills 
of suspending operations to permit a clearing away 
of the congestion. Iron Age estimates stocks of 
finished material awaiting shipment in the Pitts- 
burgh, Youngstown and Shenango districts to ag- 
gregate 1,000,000 tons. 

(By Special Correspondence to The American 

Architect.) 

San Francisco. With the National DemoL-rat it- 
Convention in full swing throughout the week, the 
minds of San Francisco people have been more on 



politics than upon pushing plans for new struc- 
tures. The most important development of the 
week has been the letting of contracts for the steel 
and some other parts of the twelve story and base- 
ment Class "A" building to be erected by the 
Standard ( >il Co. at Hush and Sansome streets on 
the plans prepared by (ieorge William Kelham. 
The building will cost approximately $4,000.000 
and an interesting feature in connection with tin- 
project is the leasing of the ground floor for a 
term of fifty years to the Anglo and London- 
I'aris National Hank for a total rental of $2,000,000. 
This bank is now located at Sansom and Sutler 
streets and it has acquired the property between its 
present site and the new Standard ( )il building 
upon which to erect a building connecting its pres- 
ent quarters with the Standard Oil building. 

Huildings constructed of adobe are coming into 
some popularity in the southern part of the State. 
W. H. Austin, a Long Reach architect, says of 
this matt-rial: ''The adobe house lends itself to 
attractive architecture. It is a material which is 
most artistic. The architect can use ideas which 
would not work out so well in a frame construc- 
tion. It set-ins to me that adobe houses would do 
much to relieve the present difficulties and at the 
same time would have such a variety of architec- 
tural expression as to be a distinctly beautv asset." 



Spccwl Correspondence to 

Architect.) 



The American 



Seattle. Rationing of steel building prod- 
ucts, including nails and small pipe, must continue 
in the North Coast jobbing territory until the east- 
ern mills are able to secure competent production. 
This is the opinion of jobbers as expressed this 
week. Hope for relief in that direction seems re- 
mote, as several of the larger mills have wired that, 
due to incompetent labor, they are expecting to 
close down. 

Prices, however, are holding steady, and the talk 
is not for lower quotations, but none feel that they 
will advance due to the liberal offerings in compari- 
son with the demand. Building seems to be at a 
standstill, and no new jobs of moment have come 
out of the hands of architects during the past thirty 
days. 

There is a keen shortage of three-quarter inch 
pipe. Black pipe of an inch and two inches seems to 
be plentiful, if a dull demand can balance against 
a light supply. Sizes of \ l /2 and 2-inch pipe are 



87 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



short and lots badly broken. North Coast jobbers 
are of the opinion that the threatened close down 
by the mills for 60 days because of shortage of 
labor is more than of a commercial nature. 

Shortage of materials seems to be caused more 
through light production than the car shortage, al- 
though both are serious enough. 

Screws are plentiful, but small nails are being 
rationed out through the entire territory, particu- 
larly in staple sizes. Jobbers say there would be 
more buying if the material was here. 

Because of the high cost of tile, builders are 
making enquiry and experiments with hard plaster 
for bath rooms. Results are being watched with 
much interest. 

Moulding plaster, with Kansas as the shipping 
source, is scarce. White cement is just coming 
through from York, Penna. Fire brick is slow. 
Plenty of patent roofing is now being offered. 

Real estate is dull and there is an increasing num- 
ber of houses for sale, but not for rent. 

Fir lumber is steady. A new price list issued by 
one of the largest mills with its own selling agency 
carries quotations of $26.50 for No. 1 common 
dimension, $77 for No. 2 vertical grain flooring, $54 
for Xo. 2 and better slash grain, $51 for drop sid- 
ing, $29.50 for boards and shiplap and $7 for lath, 
all as a basis to the eastern trade at the mill. This, 
however, is practically what wholesalers have been 
quoting for ten days. The mills and logging camps 
have closed for the early July period, and declare 
the}' will not resume until the railroads can defin- 
itely promise relief in the car emergency. 

(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

Boston. Construction work continues ham- 
pered by lack of money, material and transporta- 
tion, while industrial plants are confronted with the 
possibility of shut down due to shortage of coal 
and cars for the bringing in of raw materials and 
the transportation of finished products. 

Various housing projects, though, .are under way: 
one in Worcester with a contemplated expenditure 
of $1,500,000 and averaging around $6,000 per 
dwelling was started this week. 

The delay in bringing the much-needed coal into 
New England can be laid at the door of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission which under a recent 
act was directly charged with the responsibility of 
meeting transportation emergencies. Although they 
have issued a so-called priority order, up to the 
present writing they have taken no practical steps 
lo ward off the approaching coal crisis. 



With a return to more normal transportation con- 
ditions brought about by an increased supply of 
coal and cars, building construction should gain a 
decided impetus. Reports show that there is an 
ample labor supply : meaning competition for jobs 
and a more nearly normal production. 

The restrictions in business circles are beginning 
to make themselves felt in decreases in the volume 
of clearings at the various clearing house centers 
throughout the country. Until a few weeks ago, 
it was customary for clearings to show a substantial 
increase week after week as compared with the pre- 
vious week. That was partly because of more 
active business and partly because check transactions 
passing through the banks were swollen by the 
rising commodity prices. In New England, in the 
first five months of this year, clearings were 24.9 
per cent, greater than in the corresponding time of 
a year ago. In the month of May alone, bank clear- 
ings throughout the country showed a total in- 
crease of 10.5 per cent, over the same month last 
year and New England showed an increase of 17.1 
per cent. 

But in June, when business retrenchment became 
popular, gains have been very much smaller and 
in many cases actual losses are shown. In the week 
ending June 5 New England showed a decrease 
of 5.4 per cent. In the week ending June 12 it 
showed a decrease of 0.8 per cent. And so the tide 
of business contraction which was forced by the 
contraction of credits throughout the country is 
being written into reduced volumes of commercial 
transactions. This situation can be explained also, 
in part, by the fact that the business world usually 
experiences some let-up in activity around the mid- 
year period. It is the between seasons in many 
lines and the beginning of the holiday months. 

(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

Birmingham. With a population just re- 
ported by the Government to be in excess of 178,000, 
Birmingham stands well toward the front in its 
urgent need for more dwellings and apartments in 
which to house its population. This condition, while 
not specially different from that prevailing through- 
out the country, is becoming more serious as the 
Federal Reserve Bank's effort at deflation strikes a 
note of discouragement for those who have been 
contemplating building on borrowed money. The 
local result of this has been the abandonment of 
quite a number of prospective efforts at construction 
which could not be carried forward without the aid 
of reasonable loans. 



88 



* 



mcHmmm^L? ENGINE 



1 ...:".. -.v-Vaz.; 



New York City Adopts Rules Governing 

Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Design 

and Construction 

Uniform Regulations Advocated by THE AMERICAN' ARCHITECT Become 

Effective August 2, 1920 



OX July 8, 1920. the Board of Standards and 
Appeals of Xe\v York City adopted regula- 
tions governing the design and construc- 
tion of the flat slab type of reinforced concrete 
building. This marks a 
notable step in advance, 
and these regulations can 
be profitably studied by 
other cities. 

New York City consists 
of five separate boroughs 
Manhattan, Bronx. 
Kings, Queens and Rich- 
mond, each of which pos- 
se s s e s an autonomous 
form of government, 
headed by a Borough 
President under whose 
jurisdiction comes the 
Building Bureau of that 
borough. Thus while the 
provisions of one building 
code govern throughout 
the city, there may be five 
different interpretations 
of a single section or 
clause. Prior to the crea- 
tion of the Board of 
Standards and Appeals in 
1916, the Superintendent of Buildings of each bor- 
ough had the authority to adopt rules governing 
various phases of building construction, such as ele- 



-* flat slab 
t ten years, 



valors, plumbing, reinforced concrete, etc.. provided 
such rules were not in conflict with any specific pro- 
visions of the building code. All such rules re- 
mained in force until amended or superseded by new 

rules adopted by the 
Board of Standards and 
Appeals after public no- 
tice and hearing. Since 
these old rules varied in 
the different boroughs, 
the Board of Standards 
and Appeals has done 
much meritorious work in 
promulgating and adopt- 
ing uniform rules super- 
seding the older ones. 

However, where rules 
existed, even though in 
need of revision, they at 
least furnished a guide to 
the designer. Where no 
rules existed and the mat- 
ter was left entirely to 
the discretion of the su- 
perintendent of buildings 
of each borough added 
difficulties arose. This 
was exactly the situation 
with respect to the "flat 
slab" type of reinforced concrete construction. The 
reinforced concrete regulations of the building code 
made no provision for it. and each borough . 



lb the Honorable 

The Board of standards and appeals 

City of Res Tort 

a fora of building corutruct.on, cgnonly lottn 
reinforced concrete type, has OMB developed. dcriiVT tne 
to a hii attto of perfeotion. 

Scientific tsti OAT* bn ala at xperiewntal iaboritjriti, t& 
Bfttnanttoftl thoory of dMlgn baa bn *tabliflhl ana rractiaal oxpar- 
laoo* haa baaa had In Its aje. la a raault, to larfir olllll of talc 
country bav* unacted ordinances and railage daflclng t:J 3Bt!v>li to be used 
In designing tbls type 3f construotloiu 

Tfca City ^f ase Tor^ nas DO logai re^ulremez.t fpvraitt: tbls c.ajs 
of ccnstraotlon, each Boraagh jslnf; ltd ovn dlsoretlon xltn ao twj oouioro- 
Ing to any one oethod. die condition greatly handicaps &r3blteata aad 
engineers la the design of this kind of eork which 1- an l^ortant factor 
In the building Industry. IB view of this situation and l.i secure uniform- 
ity of design la the Boroufns of this ell;', the tiEieraigned reapeotfuli/ 

out the Borougaa of the City of Ke Vjrb 




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



parently had different ideas as to how this form of 
design should be treated. Accordingly a building 
erected in Queens and approved by the Building 
Bureau there might be declared weak in Manhattan, 
and similarly for other boroughs. Such a condition 
was not so embarrasing to the architect when but 
comparatively few structures of this type were being 
built, but as their number increased, so did a most 
difficult situation, as the designer had no definite 
guide. Clearly some remedy was necessary. 

This condition was brought to the attention of 
THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT early in 1919, by some 
of the leading architects and engineers of the city, 
and after an investigation made by Mr. Arthur '1 . 
North then Engineering (now \Yestern) Editor, it 
was found that the only solution lay with the Board 
of Standards and Appeals, in whom was vested the 
power to adopt uniform rules governing such con- 
struction. Accordingly a petition to this effect was 
presented March 31. 1919, a reproduction of which 
is shown on page 89. 

The matter was referred to a committee of the 
board and seemed to lay dormant for some time. In 
the meantime, realizing that the drafting of satis- 
factory rules was a most difficult task, and did not 
consist of simply duplicating those already in use 
in other cities, THE AMERICAN* ARCHITECT at once 
set about to get the necessary machinery in motion 
for accomplishing this purpose, so that it could be 
of the greatest assistance to the City Board. 

After a conference of those who signed the peti- 
tion it was realized that each was exceedingly busy 
attending to his own business, and could not give 
the time needed to this highly specialized work. 
The situation was very aptly stated by Mr. Robert 

D. Kohn as follows : 

"I have so many public obligations outside of un- 
professional work that I cannot possibly assume an 
additional one (drafting flat slab rules). What is 
more to the point perhaps is that I am not a't all 
qualified to be of assistance in such a matter.'' 

The consensus of opinion was that a consulting 
engineer who could devote adequate time to the 
task was necessary, and no one seemed better quali- 
fied for the work than Mr. Rudolph P. Miller, who 
later agreed to take over this task. Shortly after 
retaining the services of Mr. Miller, Mr. George 

E. Strehan (who had just returned from overseas 
military service) and Mr. Miller became associated 
as consulting engineers, and as Mr. Strehan's pre- 
vious experience was most valuable in this work, 
both cooperated in the preparation of the flat slab 
rules. Many drafts were prepared and numerous 
conferences held with those intimately connected 
with this type of construction. Members of the 
board were freely consulted, and a conference held 
with the several superintendents of buildings. It 



was an arduous task, however, and on the first of 
January, 1920, the acceptance of appointment as su- 
perintendent of buildings, Borough of Manhattan 
made necessary the relinquishment of this work by 
Mr. Miller, Mr. Strehan, continuing as consulting 
engineer. Months were consumed, but finally what 
seemed to be a satisfactory draft was prepared and 
1,000 copies of it printed by THE AMERICAN AR- 
CHITECT and mailed to leading architects and en- 
gineers throughout the country for criticism and 
comment. The replies received were on minor 
items. All criticism was carefully analyzed and 
several slight changes made, and the revised draft 
submitted to the Board of Standards and Appeals 
early in June, 1920. After consideration by a com- 
mittee of the board, the rules were reported for 
public hearing, and on July 8 the revised rules 
printed below were adopted. 



TABLE. 1. 
COMPARISON OF MOMENT FACTORS. 


REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT .SLAB PE.5ION. 


W = Toral Load on Frjnel-uri. z L= Length of Square Panel. 
Dimension of Capital Assumed as o.zz5L;of Drop, as O.33L. 


AUTHORITY 


MOME.NT SECTIONS 


TOTAL- 
MOMENT 


E. E M A JS. K.S 


Z-COLHW 


M 1 C 1 


INNER 


Z.- OUTER 


New YOCK CITY 
Rules Adopted T-a-V 


-jjW.L 


--Lull 
IM* 1 


^"L 


^ WL . 


TT WL 




CHICAGO 
CINCINNATI 
INDIANAPOLIS 
MINNEAPOLIS 


-k* L 

t-jii 


-|> 
t-ife 


+ ,V"- 
t+ife 


t i WL 

r+w 


K5 WL 
fc 


Allow -Steel Stress of 
i^ooo ibs. sq. in. factors 
marKedf are based on 
.Sheel stress of i^ooo fbwfjfl 


PHILAPELPHIA 
BALTIMORE 


-H* 


-&" 


f ii m - 


^o wi 


-1-WL 
Ife9 




P1TT5&UROH 


-*> 


.SPECIFIED 


+ ii/ L 


<&> 


&"" 


^=Total PosUiveMoment 
oriSrtular.Sedion'tonj tonel C&f- 


DETROIT 


-JT""- 


-,ii*' 


-hiV"- 


<-i WL 


&*>- 




ST LOUIS 


--LL 
33* L 


-&* 


'-;'""- 


+J=jL 


1^ W1 - 




NEW YORK CITY 

BOB OF MANHN 


-i>- 


-,45*"- 


^ W1 - 


^" L 


-rr ftL 




TAYLOE^THOMP^ON 


-vk 1 "- 


-^ 


+<& 


^ L 


&*> 




MEN5CH 


3c 


-ii> WL 


+ h m 


+J- 7 HL 


T37 wl - 




5. M 1 


3e 


-rfe" L 


4 i WL 


+ ^ L 


T!T^ L 




NICHOLS 










^"- 


pistribuHon ntrt .Specified 


JOINT COMMITTEE 
WASHINGTON 
BOTTOM 


v r 
-k L 


-* L 


^ 


Ife 
+ tj "L 

ai>s 


1 nil 
13 "' 


PCS Moment =3ii> Total. 
Neg- Moment-fczi */ -ratal. 
Minimum Specified Values 
Given Fof tach -Sech'on. 


AM CONCRETE (N5H 


TiiS^ 

-J8-5 1 "- 


-,?v L 


+ ,ir 


-.i-/"- 


&4- WL 


PaS. MOfTl= 33ii/oTOt-Ql- 

Neq Mom*66%5/ Total. 

Miir^ecw toes Tor tacrt,5ec. 


FORMULAE 
Derived Analytical) 


-*!" 

-A* 1 - 


-rt 8 L 


*>" 


VTI'"- 
4^""- 


iJ," L 


Pos Mom =>3J /, Total 
Neg. mom.=&So/. Total 
Mm .Spec Values for Each Sec 


witH and Without Drops. NOTE: Third Value of Joint 
Committee. Moment on Outer.5ec.tion Used boDeterminc^lab Triicfcness OnN 



In the preparation of the rules the data obtained from the many 
extensometer tests made both on actual structures and at 
recognized experimental laboratories on test structures, was 
carefully analyzed and considered. It has been stated that the 
fundamental principles of applied mechanics determine the design 
of flat slabs as they do of all other structures. Yet designing 
engineers and mathematicians differ radically in the application 
of those fundamental principles to this type of structure because 
there exist factors which have not yet been satisfactorily analyzed 
and reduced to a basis of practical design. 

A table showing how the moment coefficients con- 
tained in these rules compare with those specified 
by other authorities is here included, as well as 
diagrams (Plates I and II) which will more clearly 
illustrate the terms used. 

Several articles have appeared in THE AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT dealing with the waste of materials of- 



90 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ten required by too conservative building codes. 
THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT took the action it did 
because it believed that sufficient tests had been 
made to demonstrate the possibility of a more 
economical design than that which had existed in 
several of the boroughs, as well as with a view to 
simplifying the work of the designing engineer, 
and providing for him a guide by which to work. 
At the present time this is more necessary than ai 
the time the original petition was presented, in order 
that not a single pound of steel or yard of concrete 
above that required, be placed in the building. 

The economy thus made possible is clearly dem- 
onstrated by the following incident : A large rein- 
forced concrete building for which McKenzie. 
Voorhees & Gmelin are architects will shortlv be 



constructed in the lower part of Manhattan Island. 
T he design worked out under the rules just adopted 
will permit a saving of approximately $35,000, com- 
pared with a design based on the requirements pre- 
viously in force in the Borough of Manhattan. 

Mr. John P. Leo. chairman of the Hoard of 
Standards and Appeals, himself an architect, is to 
be commended on his attitude of support and co- 
operation on this matter, which is in line with his 
previous stand on other matters which have come 
before the tJoard, where economy of construction 
was possible without sacrificing safety. 

Mr. I.eo has just been reappointed by Mayor 
I lylan for a further term of three years. Xew York 
City is fortunate in having so able and conscientious 
a man serving at the head of this important Hoard. 



Rules Governing the Design of Reinforced 
Concrete Flat Slabs in New York City 

Adopted by the Board of Standards and Appeals July S, n>2O. Effective . \uirust 2, i<;2O 



Rule 1. Application. The rules governing the design of 
reinforced concrete flat slabs shall apply to such floors 
and roofs, consisting of three or more rows of slalis, with- 
out beams or girders, supported on columns, the construc- 
tion being continuous over the columns and forming with 
them a monolithic structure. 

Rule 2. Compliance 'cith Building Code. Jn the de- 
sign of reinforced concrete flat slabs, the provisions of 
article 16 of the building code shall govern with respect 
to such matters as are specified therein. 

Rule 3. .-Issiniiftions. In calculations for the strength 
of reinforced concrete flat slabs, the following assumptions 
shall be made : 

(a) A plane section before bending remains plane after 
bending; 

(b) The modulus of elasticity of concrete in compres- 
sion within the allowable working stresses is constant : 

(c) The adhesion between concrete and reinforcement 
is perfect ; 

(d) The tensile strength of concrete is nil; 

(e) Initial stress in the reinforcement due to contrac- 
tion or expansion in the concrete is negligible. 

Rule 4. Stresses, (a) The allowable unit shear in 
reinforced concrete flat slabs on bd section around the 
perimeter of the column capital shall not exceed one hun- 
dred twenty (120) pounds per square inch; and the allow- 
able unit shearing stress on the bjd section around the peri- 
meter of the drop shall not exceed sixty (60) pounds 
per square inch, provided that the reinforcement is so 
arranged or anchored that the stress may be fully devel- 
oped for both positive and negative moments. 

(b) The extre'me fibre stress to be used in concrete in 
compression at the column head section shall not exceed 
seven hundred fifty (750) pounds per square inch. 

Rule 5. Columns. For columns supporting- reinforced 
concrete flat slabs, the least dimension of any column shall 
be not less than one-fifteenth (1/15) of the average span 
of any slabs supported by the columns ; but in no case shall 



such least dimension oi anv interior column supporting a 
floor or roof be less than sixteen (Id) inches when round 
nor fourteen (14) inches when square; nor shall the least 
dimension of any exterior column be less than fourteen 
( 14 ) inches. 

Rule 6. Column Capittil. Kvery reinforced concrete 
column supporting a flat slab shall be provided with a 
capital whose diameter is not less than 0.225 of the average 
span of any slabs supported by it. Such diameter shall be 
measured where the vertical thickness of the capital is at 
least one and one-half (!}_>) inches, and shall he the 
diameter of the inscribed circle in that horizontal plane. 
The slope of the capital considered effective below the 
point where its diameter is measured shall nowhere make 
an angle with the vertical of more than forty-five (45) 
degrees. In case a cap of less dimensions than hereinafter 
described as a drop, is placed above the column capital, 
the part of this cap enclosed within the lines of the column 
capital extended upward to the bottom of the slab or drop 
at the slope of forty-live (45) degrees may be considered 
as part of the column capital in determining the diameter 
for design purposes. 

Rule 7. Dro[>. When a reinforced concrete flat slab 
is thicker in that portion adjacent to or surrounding the 
column, the thickened portion shall be known as a drop. 
The width of such drop when used, shall be determined 
by the shearing stress in the slab around the perimeter of 
the drop, but in no case shall the width be less than 0.33 
of the average span of any slabs of which it forms a part. 
In computing the thickness of drop required by the nega- 
tive moment on the column head section, the width of the 
drop only shall be considered as effective in resisting the 
compressive stress, but in no case shall the thickness of 
such drops be less than 0.33 of the thickness of the slab. 
Where drops are used over interior columns, correspond- 
ing drops shall be employed over exterior columns and 
shall extend to the sixth (1/6) point of the panel from 
the center of the column. 



91 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Rule 8. Slab Thickness. The thickness of a reinforced 
concrete flat slab shall be not less than that derived by 
the formulae t = 0.024 L V w + \ l / 2 for slabs without 
drops, and t = 0.02 L V \v + i for slabs with drops, in 
which t is the thickness of the slab in inches, L is the 
average span of the slab in feet, and w is the total live 



Width o 


f> L AT E. 2. 




' Prop i 




not KSJ 
. overage 
of slat 


thanaa 1 Se.eK.ule T. For thickness of 
span I /islab -see R.ule 8 


t"-'"" A ' 


'"!," ', : i" ? . ' '. ' .f /' " . " ". ..''' f '-- 


n\ 

L V 


/ ^Not lss than 033 \ 
/ tfiictneAs of sJab \ 


** 


Jsi 


^-^ O.Z.1S average span of stabs. -5ee Ruleb 
/- ^Diameter of Column not less than 


Not more j_ averaqe span or-slabs.-5eeR.ule-5. 
thanis' L^03> ls 



and dead load in pounds per square foot; but in no case 
shall this thickness be Itss than one-thirty-second (1/32) 
of the average span of the slab for floors, nor less than one- 
fortieth (1/40) of the average span of the slab for roofs, 
nor less than six (6) inches for Moors nor less than live 
(5) inches for roofs. 

Rule 9. Reinforcement, (a) In the calculation of mo- 
ments at any section, all the reinforcing bars which cross 
that section may lie used, provided that such bars extend 
far enough on each side of such section to develop the 
full amount of the stress at that section. The effective 
area of the reinforcement: at any moment section shall be 
the sectional area of the bars crossing such section mul- 
tiplied by the sine of the angle of such bars with the plane 
of the section. The distribution of the reinforcement of 
the several bands shall be arranged to fully provide for 
the intermediate moments at any sections. 

(b) Splices in bars may lie made wherever convenient 
but preferably at points of minimum stress. The length 
of any splice shall be not less than eighty (80) bar diame- 
ters and in no case less than two (2) feet. The splicing 
of adjacent bars shall be avoided as far as possible. Slab 
bars which are lapped over the column, the sectional area 
of both being included in the calculation for negative mo- 
ment, shall extend to the lines of inflection beyond the 
column center. 

(c) When the reinforcement is arranged in bands, at 
least fifty (50) per cent, of the bars in any band shall be 
of a length not less than the distance center to center of 
columns measured rectangularly and diagonally ; no bars 
used as positive reinforcement shall be of a length less 
than half ( l />) the panel length plus forty (40) bar diame- 
ters for cross bands, or less than seven-tenths (7/10) of -the 
panel length plus forty (40) bar diameters for diagonal 
bands and no bars used as negative reinforcement shall 
be of a length less than half (%) the panel length. All 
reinforcement framing perpendicular to the wall in ex- 
terior panels shall extend to the outer edge of the panel 
and shall be hooked or otherwise anchored. 

(d) Adequate means shall be provided for properly 
maintaining all slab reinforcement in the position as- 
sumed by the computations. 

Rule 10. Line of Inflection. In the design of rein- 
forced concrete flat slab construction, for the purpose 
of making calculations of the bending moments at sec- 
tions other than defined in these rules, the line of inflec- 
tion shall be considered as being located one-quarter 



the distance, center to center, of columns, rectangularly 
and diagonally, from center of columns for panels with- 
out drops, and three-tenths (3/10) of such distance for 
panels with drops. 

Rule 11. Moment Sections. For the purpose of design 
of reinforced concrete flat slabs, that portion of the 
section across a panel, along a line midway between 
columns, which lies within the middle two quarters of the 
width of the panel shall be known as the inner section, 
and those portions of the section in the two outer quar- 
ters of the width of the panel shall be known as the 
outer sections. Of the section which follows a panel 
edge from column to column and which includes the 
quarter perimeters of the edges of the column capitals, 
that portion within the middle two quarters of the panel 
width shall be known as the mid section and the two 
remaining portions, each having a projected width equal 
to one-quarter of the panel width, shall be known as 
the column head sections. 

Rule 12. Bending Moments. In the design of rein- 
forced concrete flat slabs the following provisions with 
respect to bending moments shall be observed. In the 
moment expressions used : 

W is the total dead and live load on the panel under 
consideration, including the weight of drop whether a 
square, rectangle or parallelogram ; 





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MOMENT SECTIONS FOIS R.EINFORCE.D 


CONCRETE' FLAT SLAB CONSTRUCTION 






Wi is the total live load on the panel under consid- 
eration ; 

L is the length of side of a square panel center to 
center of columns ; or the average span of a rectangular 
panel which is the mean length of the two sides ; 



92 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



n is the ratio of the greater to the less dimension of 
the panel ; 

h is the unsupported length of a column in inches, 
measured from top of slab to base of capital ; 

I is the moment of inertia of the reinforced concrete 
column section. 

A. Interior Square Panels. The numerical sum of the 
positive and negative moments shall be not less than 
1/17 \V L. A variation of plus or minus live (5) pur 
cent, shall be permitted in the expression for the moment 
on any section, but in no case shall the sum of tin- 
negative moments be less than sixty-six (66) per cent, 
of the total moment, nor the sum of the positive moments 
be less than thirty-four (34) per cent, of the total moment 
for slabs with drops; nor shall the sum of the negati'-c 
moments be less than sixty (60) per cent, of the total 
moment, nor the sum of the positive moments be less 
than forty (40) per cent, of the total moment for slabs 
without drops. 

1. In two-way systems, for slabs with drops, the nega- 
tive moment resisted on two column head sections shall 
be 1/32 W L; the negative moment on the mid section 
shall be 1/133 \V L; the positive moment on the two 
outer sections shall be + 1/80 \V L and the positive mo- 
ment on the inner section shall be + 1/133 \V L and 
for slabs without drops, the negative moment resisted 
on two column head sections shall be 1/36 \V L. the 
negative moment on the mid section shall be 1/133 \V L, 
the positive moment on the two outer sections shall be 
+ 1/63 \V L and the positive moment on the inner sec- 
tion shall be + 1/133 W L. 

2. In four-may systems, the negative moments shall be 
as specified for Two-Way Systems ; the positive moment 
on the two outer sections shall be + 1/100 W L, and the 
positive moment on the inner section shall be + 1/100 
W L for slabs with drops ; and the positive moment on 
the two outer sections shall be + 1/74 W L, and the 
positive moment on the inner section shall be + 1/100 
W L, for slabs without drops. 

3. In three-way systems, the negative moment on the 
column head and mid sections and the positive moment 
on the two outer sections, shall be as specified for Four- 
Way Systems. In the expression for the bending mo- 
ments on the various sections, the length L shall be 
assumed as the distance center to center of columns, and 
the load W as the load on the parallelogram panel. 

B. Interior Rectangular Panels. 

1. When the ratio n does not exceed 1.1, all compu- 
tations shall be based on a square panel of a length 
equal to the average span, and the reinforcement shall 
be equally distributed in the short and long directions 
according to the bending moment coefficients specified 
for interior square panels. 

2. When the ratio n lies between 1.1 and 1.33. the 
bending moment coefficients specified for interior square 
panels shall be applied in the following manner: 

(a) In two-way systems, the negative moments on the 
two column head sections and the mid section and the 
positive moment on the two outer sections and the inner 
section at right angles to the long direction shall be 
determined as for a square panel of a length equal to 
the greater dimension of the rectangular panel ; and the 
corresponding moments on the sections at right angles 
to the short direction shall be determined as for a square 
panel of a length equal to the lesser dimension of the 
rectangular panel. In no case shall the amount of rein- 
forcement in the short direction be less than two-thirds 
(2/3) of that in the long direction. The load W shall 



be taken as the load on the rectangular panel under 
consideration. 

(b) In four-way systems, for the rectangular bands, the 
negative moment on the column head sections and the 
positive moment on the outer sections shall be determined 
in the same manner as indicated for two-way systems. 

I'or the diagonal bands, the negative moments on the 
column head and mid sections and the positive moment 
on the inner section shall be determined as for a square 
panel of a length equal to the average span of the rec- 
angle. The load W shall be taken as the load on the 
rectangular panel under consideration. 

(c) In three-way systems, the negative and positive 
moments on the bands running parallel to the long di- 
rection shall be determined as for a square whoso side is 
equal to the greater dimension; and the moments on the 
bands running parallel to the short direction shall be 
determined as lor a square whose side is equal to the 
lesser dimension. The load W shall be taken as the 
load on the parallelogram panel under consideration. 

C. l : .xterinr I'ancls. The negative moments at the first 
interior row of columns and the positive moments at the 
center of the exterior panels on moment sections parallel 
to the wall, shall be increased twenty (20) per cent. 
over those specified above for interior panels. The nega- 
tive moment on moment sections at the wall and parallel 
thereto shall be determined by the conditions of restraint, 
but the negative moment on the mid section shall never 
be considered less than fifty (50) per cent, and the 
negative moment on the column head section never less 
than eighty (SO) per cent, of the corresponding moments 
at the first interior row of columns. 

I). Interior Columns shall be designed for the bending 
moments developed by unequally loaded panels, eccentric 
loading or uneven spacing of columns. The bending 
moment resulting from unequally loaded panels shall be 
considered as 1/40 \Vi L. and shall be resisted by the 
columns immediately above and below the floor line under 
consideration in direct proportion to the values of their 
ratios of I/h. 

E. ll'all Columns shall be designed to resist bending 
in the same manner as interior columns, except that \Y 
shall be substituted for \V, in the formula for the moment. 
The moment so computed may be reduced by the counter 
moment of the weight of the structure which projects 
beyond the center line of the wall columns. 

F. Roof Columns shall be designed to resist the total 
moment resulting from unequally loaded panels, as ex- 
pressed by the formulae in paragraphs (D) and (E) of 
this rule. 

Rule 13. ll'alls and Openings. In the design and con- 
struction of reinforced concrete flat slabs, additional slab 
thickness, girders or beams shall be provided to carry 
any walls or concentrated loads in addition to the speci- 
fied uniform live and dead loads. Such girders or beams 
shall be assumed to carry twenty (20) per cent, of the 
total live and dead panel load in addition to the wall 
load. Beams shall also be provided in case openings in 
the floor reduce the working strength of the slab below 
the prescribed carrying capacity. 

Rule 14. Special Panels. For structures having a 
width of less than three (3) rows of slabs, or in which 
exterior drops, capitals or columns are omitted, or in 
which irregular or special panels are used, and for which 
the rules relating to the design of reinforced flat slabs 
do not directly apply, the computations in the analysis 
of the design of such panels, shall, when so required, 
be filed with the superintendent of buildings. 

93 



Report on Trip to Princeton, College of City of New York, 

Yale and Harvard for the Purpose of Inspecting the 

Stadia at those Universities 



Parti 

B\ HOWARD DWIGHT SMITH 



I 



T is a well established principle of design that 
in extensive new operations, the lessons of 
success and failure of preceding operations of 
.similar nature be carefully studied. Progress in 
all lines of human endeavor is largely based upon 
this principle. It is particularly so in architecture 
and engineering. 

Documents and records covering the subject cf 
stadia have been carefully studied in connection 
with the design of a new Stadium at Ohio State 
University. The problems confronting the builders 
of classic times in the erection of their amphi- 
theaters, Stadia, circuses and odeons have been 
studied. The work of modern engineers and archi- 
tects in contemporary structures as described and 
discussed in current publications has also been very 
carefully studied. Plans, sight lines, cross sections, 
seating facilities, crowd control and construction 
methods have influenced very largely the study of 
the impending problem at Ohio State. 

It was with a view to making the intensive study 
of contemporary work as effective as possible in 
the light of experience, that an inspection trip was 
authorized by the University Cabinet and the Ath- 
letic Board. This inspection trip, made from May 
7 to May 14 included visits to Princeton University 
at Princeton, N. J., the College of the City of New 
York, Yale University at New Haven, Conn., and 



Harvard University at Cambridge, Mass. An in- 
spection was also made of the United States Army 
Supply Base, Brooklyn, N. Y., which is recognized 
as one of the most successful monolithic struc- 
tures of the present decade. 

In order best to obtain the proper benefit from 
an inspection the studies and observations were of 
two kinds. The first was a careful examination of 
the various structures as to their present physical 
condition, state of repair and the relations between 
original methods of construction in each case and 
their present condition. The second form of ob- 
servation consisted in discussions with the men at 
the institutions who have charge of the athletic 
plants, men who are in a position to judge as to 
the effectiveness of the structures and equipment 
with which they work. These men unprejudiced 
by structural preconceptions are qualified to say 
wherein their stadia have been successful and 
wherein they might be improved. 

The extent of the second phase of the inspec- 
tion at Princeton was somewhat limited on account 
of the absence from the University of Dr. Ray- 
croft, the Director of Athletics. The efficiency 
of the plan and seating arrangement, and the hand- 
ling of the crowds at big games has been fairly 
well established in the six years of its use. 

The inspection of the Stadium was made dur- 




THE PALMER STADIUM, PRINCETON, N. J. H. J. HARDENBERGH, ARCHITECT 

Note openings to runways giving access to and egress from seating sections 

94 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




MAIN ENTRANCE, PALMER STADIUM 

ing a rain storm, but all parts of the structure were 
examined. The first general impression obtained 
of the structure was that it was very brown or 
tannish, rather than white or gray, as most of the 
photographs would seem to indicate. This im- 
pression was perhaps accentuated by the fact that 
the surface of the structure was wet. \Yhether this 
brown appearance is due to artificial coloring mat- 
ter in the concrete or whether it is due to the color 
of the sand used was not determined. 

As for architectural design, it is evident from 
the details that the architect is striving to make 
the structure look "Tudor" in style, in order that 
it may be somewhat in keeping with the Tudor or 
Collegiate Gothic buildings of the campus. This 
perhaps is somewhat forced, for the mass of the 
structure hardly lends itself to the spirit of the 
Tudor style without a great deal of intricate and 
ornamental detail. The pointed-top buttresses at 
each of the outside piers do not sufficiently satisfy 
this requirement, and the thin exterior arcade forms 
only a scant screen for the concrete piers, posts, 
girders, beams and rafters of the interior structure 
which are anything but Tudor in effect. 

The plan of the Princeton Stadium has the shape 
of a letter U, in which the closed end is flattened 
into a three-centered curve, in the center of which 
is a large entrance feature consisting of a wide arch- 



YIKW DURING CONSTRUCTION 

way flanked by two hexagonal towers. The struc- 
ture is 652 feet long and 520 feet wide, seating 
about 42.000 people. The seats are reached by a 
series of 26 runways which are slightly inclined up 
from the exterior arcade to openings or "eyes" 
located about half way up the entire tier of seats. 
The level of the playing field is about 15 feet below 
the general level of the ground outside of the sta- 
dium. The topography shows a falling off from 
the open end so that the straightaway portion of 
the running track does not cut into this higher gen- 
eral level. The entire area surrounding the Stadium 
is fenced off in order to control the approach of 
crowds toward the structure itself. The ''sight 
line" of the cross section is considered quite satis- 
factory, and the location of the track with refer- 
ence to the inside wall of the Stadium is such 
that all spectators can see the track events. This 
is in contrast to the unsatisfactory condition at Har- 
vard which will be discussed later. This inner 
wall is 4 feet 9 inches high, and along the two 
sides it is 5 feet from the edge of the running track. 
A curtain wall 3 feet high marks the edge of the 
track and serves as a suitable barrier between the 
first row of seats and the track itself. Experience 
has demonstrated that the greatest difficulty in hand- 
ling crowds at track meets is that of keeping the 
spectators off of the field. It is desirable for pur- 



'"'A 




EXTERIOR, PALMKK STADIUM, I'KINCKTON, N. .1. 
Main entrance can be seen at extreme left 

95 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




UNDERSIDE SEATING SECTIONS 

poses of the convenience of great crowds leaving 
the Stadium after games or meets that access to 
the field be provided, but ample provision should 
be made properly to control such access. Some 
space under the seating structure has been used 
for storage of field apparatus and ground keeper's 
tools, but no extensive use of the space for hous- 
ing has been attempted. 

A careful examination of the Stadium at Prince- 
ton discloses a number of apparent defects in con- 
struction. There is evidence of deterioration in 
many places. This deterioration takes the form of 
cracks, spalls, buckling and breaking off of finish 
surfaces, and cracking of outside piers. In some 
places the surface of the seats has scaled and 
broken up rather extensively. In other places frost 
action has evidently caused some damage where 
small cracks have not been pointed up. In two of 
the exterior piers to the left of the main entrance 
there are rather large transverse cracks, about mid- 
way of their heights, from which there has been 
some extensive seepage. This seepage appears to 
be clue to the fact that water gets into the body 
of the structure from above and finds its way out 
at these cracks. 

What is written here must not be assumed to be 
by way of caustic criticism of the Palmer Stadium 
or those who have designed and built it, nor of 
those who are now responsible for its maintenance. 
It is only intended here to record some personal 
observations with the hope that while the good 
features of the Stadium, particularly as to plan 
arrangement may be used as inspiration in new 
work, the repetition of some of the less desirable 
features may be avoided. Articles appearing in 
the current technical publications upon the compler 
tion of any engineering operation of great magni- 
tude or singular importance are usually of a highly 



lauditory character, in which, quite rightly, all the 
distinctive features are emphasized and rightly 
praised. In the light of time and the experience 
of usage some of these features prove most ad- 
mirably suited to the purpose for which they were 
intended. Others do not and these observations 
have as their object the notation of features which 
come in either of these two classes. 

It is probably true that the absence of expansion 
joints in sufficient number and size is partly re- 
sponsible for some of the cracking and disintegrat- 
ing which is apparent in many places. Some tight 
or "butt" joints are noticeable but there is not suffi- 
cient space allowed for the "play" f expansion and 
contraction. The opinion is also hazarded that 
the materials and workmanship throughout the 
structure are not of that laboratory uniformity 
which is so essential to perfection in reinforced 
concrete construction. 

Great publicity has been given to the incredible 
speed with which the Princeton Stadium was built. 
It is barely possible that the demand for speed may 
have had a deletorious effect upon supervision. All 
of these things are probably contributory factors 
to the condition of the Princeton Stadium to-day. 
While it ranks as the best in its convenience of ar- 
rangement and its facilities, it cannot be truthfully 
said that it compares favorably with other struc- 
tures of its class in its structural qualities. 

(For details of construction refer to "Engineer- 
ing and Contracting" May 26, 1915, Vol. XLIII, 
No. 21, page 472). 

(To fre continues) 




VIEW SHOWING SUPPORTING CONSTRUCTION 



96 



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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



VOL. CXVIII 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 28, 1920 



NUMBER 2327 



Architectural Quicksands 

By Clinton H. Blake, Jr., of the New York and Federal Bars 
With an Introduction by Daniel Paul Higgins 



UNDER the heading of "The Business of 
Architecture," articles have appeared in the 
September, October, November and Decem- 
ber, 1916; January, February and March, 1918, 
issues of "The Architectural Review" by the writer, 
and continued by Professor H. D. Smith under the 
same heading and in the same journal in May, June, 
July and August, 1918, and beginning again in June, 
1920, issue, as well as articles by the writer in THE 
AMERICAN ARCHITECT under the heading "Archi- 
tect's Office Organization to Meet Post-\Yar Condi- 
tions." 

These early articles have analyzed and charted 
the various forms of important architect's organi- 
zations as they actually exist with many pertinent 
remarks and criticisms concerning same and in the 
final analysis have presented an ideal and prac- 
tical organization based upon the conception that 
the most comprehensive organization can be built 
up with a series of units effecting special and tech- 
nical training. The corollary of this proposition 
is that the function of the proper business admin- 
istration is to maintain a balance among other units 
rather than to attempt the arbitrary control and 
administration of each unit. The trend of this 
administration is toward centralization, and is a 
system of checks and balances that centralization 
does not carry to the extent of devitalizing the 
other units such as design, engineering, supervision 
and decoration. The aggregation of these units 
will result in a unit sufficiently complete within 
itself for all practical purposes balancing a num- 
ber of highly specialized functions to produce a 
homogeneous economical result. 

In the previous review of the ideal organization 
and to complete the system of checks and balances 
it is pointed out that an architect with an im- 
portant practice should have the legal guidance 
of a lawyer skilled in the law of architecture and 
building so that he may protect and understand 
the rights and obligations of himself and of his 
clients, thereby reaping the . benefits accorded by 



this law and avoiding the penalties provided for a 
breach of it. 

An architect who exercises the duties and re- 
sponsibilities of contracting for work and assumes 
the responsibilities for the execution of same as 
the owner's agent without the knowledge of tin- 
first principles of the law of contracts and in the 
absence of the proper legal advice and surveillance 
is not diligently or honestly acting for his client's 
best interest. Apart from his duties and obliga- 
tions to his client, in this respect, self interest 
should induce the intelligent architect to under- 
stand his own rights and obligations. 

For further amplification of the legal problem 
and complication which the modern architect has 
to face in the course of his practice and in order 
that he may clearly grasp the significance of the 
importance of attention to this part of his practice 
THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT has with good judgment 
secured the services of Mr. Clinton H. Blake, Jr.. 
whose experience and familiarity with the law 
affecting Architecture and Building equip him to 
give an authoritative review of mistakes commonly 
made by architects of his acquaintance and to 
present essential remedies for such errors. 

Mr. Blake, who is the author of the text book 
and writings on "The Law of Architect, Owner 
and Contractor" and "The I^aw of Architecture 
and Building," is a graduate of Columbia College 
1904, Master of Arts, Columbia University (School 
of Political Science) 1905, and a graduate of Co- 
lumbia Law School in the class 1906. Mr. Blake 
was admitted to the New York Bar in 1906 and 
in taking his degree of Master of Arts specialized 
in constitutional and administrative law. He has 
always taken a keen interest in architecture, and 
in addition to his general practice has specialized 
in the laws affecting Architecture and Building. 
He has made a special study of these laws both 
the New York and Federal laws and the laws of 
other countries and has won much recognition by 
his practical presentation of the subjects in his 



Copyright, 1920, The Architectural <t Buildinii Presf llnc.t 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



writings. In practice he has shown rare ability 
in the application of the principles affecting the 
above subjects, and in his handling of cases affect- 
ing the mutual rights of architect, owner and con- 
tractor. 

In 1908 Mr. Blake became a member of the 
firm of Strong, Blake & McAneny and has con- 



tinued as a member of that firm and its successors, 
the firm name now being Blake, McAneny, Dur- 
ham & DiMilhau. The firm has a general prac- 
tice in the New York and Federal Courts with 
specialization in Architectural and Building Law, 
and in the law of estates and corporations. 

DANIEL PAUL HIGGINS 



The Business Side of Architecture 



ARCHITECTURE has long been regarded 
and still is properly classified as one of the 
fine arts. Every element of tradition in the 
profession has served to confirm this classification 
and to emphasize in the mind of the architect the 
fact that the profession is primarily an art. All 
this is, of course, fundamentally sound, and I have 
no quarrel with it in any particular, except in so far 
as it is sought to regard the profession as an art 
solely and to disregard the everyday prosaic busi- 
nesss elements entering into the practice of it. 
During recent years especially, it has become in- 
creasingly apparent that architecture has a business 
side, as well as an artistic side, and that the archi- 
tect who would protect his client's interests and his 
own rights and avoid serious embarrassment and 
loss must recognize the fact that this is so. 

Architects, as a class, unquestionably regard the 
artistic element as paramount, and it is right that 
they should do so. The difficulty is that very many 
the great majority, I fear persist in viewing their 
profession as an art alone, and seem to have a feel- 
ing that in some way directly or indirectly they are 
untrue to that art, if they deign to practice it on a 
basis of business efficiency and organization. For 
years I have been preaching to my architect clients 
the doctrine that this point of view is false, that the 
profession can be followed with due regard to its 
standing as a fine art, and without cheapening its 
standing as such in any way, and that at the same 
time, due regard may be given to the rules of busi- 
ness organization and conduct. In other words, I 
am heretical enough to believe that an architect may 
be a great artist in the truest sense of that term and 
at the same time a man possessed of sound business 
sense and judgment, and that he may organize his 
office on business principles and conduct it on a 
basis of business efficiency, and at the same time 
develop work of the highest artistic and architec- 
tural excellence. In fact, I know that this is so, be- 
cause some of my very good friends and clients in 
the profession men whose work is nationally rec- 
ognized as deserving of the warmest praise are 
also keen business men, who deliberately make use 



of their business judgment and ability for the ex- 
press purpose of safeguarding their own interests 
in the practice of their profession, and the interests 
of the clients whom they represent. If one con- 
sider the elements entering into the practice of arch- 
itecture today, he must realize that the drafting of 
specifications, the securing of estimates, and the 
drafting and operation of the building contract, 
while part and parcel of the primary purpose to 
achieve an artistic result, have, nevertheless, each of 
them a purely business side. All of these phases 
of the work, the superintendence of the job, the ar- 
ranging with the client for the payment of the fee 
due, and like items entering into the construction 
of every work undertaken and carried out, are fun- 
damentally business propositions. 

Art and business are not so diametrically and 
hopelessly opposed as many would have us believe. 
They may well go hand in hand in the conception 
and execution of work at once meritorious from the 
point of view of the most fastidious artistic critic, 
and at the same time satisfactory and successful, 
in that it has been carried forward to completion 
on a sound business basis and in accordance with 
such business principles as are necessary to protect 
archiect, client and contractor alike. It is because 
I feel very strongly on this point and realize the 
benefit which must accrue to the architectural pro 
fession, by a more general adoption of business 
organization and principles by architects in their 
practice, that I am glad of the opportunity to con- 
tribute these articles to THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT; 
to hang up along the architectural highways, as it 
were, a series of danger signals, so that the archi- 
tect who travels them may at least be able to sense 
the spots in the practice of his profession, where 
danger lurks, and to secure advice or perfect his 
judgment in time to avoid unnecessary loss and 
embarrassment to his client and to himself. 

These danger points or "architectural quicksands," 
as I have called them, in the title, can be most 
graphically and interestingly illustrated by reference 
to actual cases and difficulties which have arisen in 
the practice of architects heretofore. I purpose 



98 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



therefor to emphasize the points which I would 
make, by references to typical examples illustrative 
of the manner in which the architect may easily in- 
volve the client, the builder and himself, particular- 
ly, in difficulties and serious loss, for want of an 
understanding of the more important rules upon 
which the relationship of all the parties to the or- 
dinary building operation are based, and for want 
of an observance on his part of rules which art- 
fundamental in any successful business undertaking. 

My good friend, Mr. Daniel P. lliggins, of New 
York, and Howard Dwight Smith, professor of 
architecture in the Ohio State University, and for 
many years a practising architect in Xew York, de- 
serve the thanks of every architect for the manner 
in which they have, in their admirable writings in 
various architectural publications, emphasized the 
wisdom and necessity of organizing the architect's 
office upon a business basis and in accordance with 
the well-settled and recognized rules of business 
conduct and efficiency. 

Mr. lliggins has, hi his articles on the "Busi- 
ness of Architecture,'' set forth with admirable 
clarity and force the desirability and necessity of 
so organizing the office of the architect that the 
architect's practice will be carried on with busi- 
ness despatch and accuracy. He has shown that the 
ideal office organization, which he has so carefully 
and concisely outlined, is one which is at the same 
time entirely practicable. There is no reason why 
any architect can not organize his organization along 
the lines which Mr. Higgins has outlined, with such 
modifications to suit his own special conditions as 
may be necessary. The fundamentals are so clearly 
stated by Mr. Higgins and the details so nicely 
worked out that a careful study of his articles and 
the practical charts and suggestions embodied in them 
should convince the most skeptical that the points 
which he makes are well taken and the form of 
organization which he suggests admirable in its 
scope and detail. 

It cannot be logically maintained that a man is 
any the less an artist because before undertaking his 



tion are checked by an employee with a reasonable 
working understanding of accountancy. 

( )ne of the most successful and artistic architects 
whom I know makes it his regular practice to assume 
a sort of guardianship over the interests of his 
client* in their dealings with contractors far beyond 
the point that the ethics of the profession require 
that he do this. In repeated instances he has called 
upon me for advice upon matters involving solely 
ihe client's interests, not coining within his province 
as architect as his duties are laid down in the 
canons of ethics or usually considered, and which 
he might quite conscientiously and properly have 
passed along to the client for attention and de- 
termination, lie has done all this and has not 
"passed the buck,' 1 as he might have done, because 
he has realized that by reason of his special knowl- 
edge of the situation and facts involved and of the 
work done, and of the attitude of the contractor 
and the general psychology of the situation, he has 
been in a position to give valuable help to the client 
and to aid him in avoiding unpleasant and expensive 
complications. This architect has paid for such 
legal services from his own pocket, and yet, from 
personal observation, 1 am convinced that the prac- 
tice which, he has thus followed has been a very 
great asset to him in his relations with his clients, 
an element of prime importance in building up the 
reputation which his office enjoys, and a mighty 
good investment from every point of view. 

The Value of Ik-ing Definite 

II'" I were asked to sum up in one word the great- 
est need of the architect of today in the success- 
ful practice of his profession aside, of course, from 
artistic and engineering training and ability I 
should unhesitatingly answer "definiteness." More 
troubles brought into my office by architect clients 
result from a lack of definitcness than from any 
other dozen causes combined. The architect may be 
a genius. He may possess all the artistic and 
mechanical ability and training in the world. He 
mav have the most charming of personalities and 



work he arrives at a clear understanding with his very unusual opportunities to make it felt. Yet, if 
client as to what his compensation is to be, or as 
to the basis upon which he is to act. Similarly, he 
does not lose any of his artistic ability because he 
sees to it that his office is so organized that the 
business aspects of the contract, specifications, esti- 
mates and the like, and the engineering phases of the 
vork, are passed upon by men trained to appreciate 
and check them, and that as the 'work progresses 



he has not acquired the faculty of being definite, 
he will sooner or later, if his practice be on a 
reallv worth while and successful scale, experience 
a jolt which will cause him embarrassment and 
difficulty, and in all likelihood substantial financial 
loss. "Be definite" should be the watch word in 
the office and throughout the organization of every 
architect who would avoid disputes with his clients, 



the sums becoming due to the contractor, the ac- disputes between his clients and the contractors, 

curacy of the items embodied in the certificates, disputes between the contractors and his own <>r- 

the payments to sub-contractors, and all of the other ganization, and the danger of loss and entangle- 

similar items entering into the usual building opera- ment in litigation. 



99 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



If one trace the course of an architect's dealings 
with his client in a typical case, one will find that 
beginning at the first interview and continuing 
through the selection of the site, the preparation and 
submissions of sketches, plans, working drawings, 
specifications and details, and the general superin- 
tendence of construction, not a step is taken which 
can be safely taken on any basis other than one of 
definite and complete mutual understanding. If 
you were to tell the ordinary business man that he 
should be sure that everything is understood thor- 
oughly in putting through a business deal involving 
the payment of large sums of money he would in all 
likelihood think that you were mildly insane in 
thinking that he would pursue any other course. 
And yet, if you suggest to the ordinary architect 
that in his first interview with his client, or at least 
at the interview at which he is finally employed 
and told to proceed with the work proposed, the 
matter of the compensation to be paid him and all 
of the other more important elements involved in 



his employment should be discussed, made clear and 
decided upon, the chances are about ninety-nine to 
one that he will tell you that he can not discuss 
these subjects with his client at that time, without 
creating a wrong impression and quite possibly los- 
ing the job in prospect. I can quite understand how 
the architect may feel that this is so, but as a prac- 
tical matter, I am clear that the difficulty which he 
fears is, in the very great majority of cases, wholly 
imaginary, and that the client would, indeed, much 
prefer to start out with a full understanding of all 
the fundamental rights and obligations involved. I 
believe that he would not think less of the abilities 
of his architect because the latter desired to place 
his dealings upon a clear and business-like basis, 
and that his mental reaction would, on the contrary, 
be distinctly favorable to that architect who ap- 
proached the job on such a basis of an accurate 
and thorough understanding. 

CLINTON H. BLAKE, JR. 

(To be continued) 



Old Crosses and Lych Gates' 



WHEN, under Constantino, the Christian re- 
ligion was proclaimed to the then known 
world, among the efforts made firmly to 
establish the new faith was the obliteration, all 
over Europe of every existing evidence of the 
idolatrous religions then waning. This led to the 
substitution everywhere of shrines or crosses, for 
the mythological emblems of the supplanted faiths. 
These crosses and shrines, first of a crude character, 
were simply monolithic shafts surmounted by a 
stone cross. With the growth and advance of Chris- 
tianity the wayside shrine and cross became import- 
ant landmarks and as such were dignified by all the 
embellishment that a newly awakened art could pro- 
vide. 

The custom of erecting shrines and crosses was 
early taken up in Great Britain and there the road- 
side became in a like manner embellished. More 
often erected to mark a pious impulse, they also 
stood as memorials of historic association. In their 
most rudimentary form these crosses, as stated, 
simple monoliths of stone, a shaft tapering often to 
a pointed apex. In many cases the roadside crosses 
became rostrums from which religious services were 
held. A base, generally of three stone steps, formed 
a circular platform from the center of which the 
base of the cross sprang. 

*Old Crosses and Lych Gates by Aymer Vallance. Full cloth, 
190 pp., with many illustrations. London, B. T. Batsford, Ltd. 
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 



It is interesting to trace the artistic development 
of these roadside crosses from the simplest, crudest 
form to the architecturally designed "Eleanor 
Crosses" that are the delight of archaeologists and 
the reverent pride of possession in the communities 
in which they are located. 

The preaching cross, or cross with steps, became 
later developed as the market cross, set up in towns 
to mark the civic centers. From the platforms of 
these crosses were made the announcements to the 
public of matters of importance, and they were often 
used as pulpits where were held the religious serv- 
ices so much affected by the people of the Middle 
Ages. 

A careful study of. these crosses develops a cer- 
tain style as belonging to a certain period. They are 
held in veneration by the people of Great Britain, 
and their artistic features of design have been many 
times illustrated. Mr. Vallance has gathered and 
published in his interesting work a series of illus- 
trations of these old crosses that constitute a valu- 
able record and offer a wide field of suggestion in 
modern design. 

The Lych Gate, or literally Gate of the Dead, is 
a picturesque feature of every English country 
churchyard. Through this entrance to the grave- 
yard and pathway to the church door, the dead body 
was carried and here the bearers sel down the corpse 
to rest a spell before carrying the body to the grave. 
As a rule these old Lych Gates were built of ma- 



100 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



terial the same as that used in the construction of 
the church structure, and also followed in design 
that of the church itself. 

Their size and dignity varied. Early examples 







- 



are of considerable size. They have a slab on 
which to rest the pall, with seats on either side for 
the bearers. Other Lych Gates are, as their name 
imply, simply gates with a roof or awning. In Mr. 
Yallance's volume already referred to there has 
been made by the author an attempt to classify 
these gates as to their design. These he groups as 
porch shape, in which the roof has the same axis as 
the passageway, the shed like form in which the roof 
runs transversely to the axial line of the passage- 




THE ELEANOR CROSS. NORTHAMPTON 



<;ATK, WITH COFFIN SLAB, AT 
CHII>DIN<;F( >i.i>. SI'RKF.Y 



way. and a rare variety that combines both (if these 
features. 

Much of the charm of the Knglish countryside is 
due to the picturesque construction and aging of 
these old gates through whose portals many genera- 
tions have been borne to their final resting place in 
the church graveyard. 



101 



Architectural Acoustics 



Transmission of Sound Through Doors and Windows 

B\ PAUL E. SABINE 



THEORETICALLY and practically the trans- 
mission of sound through partitions between 
adjoining rooms is a complicated phenome- 
non. The theoretical solution of the problem of the 
relative sound intensities on the two sides of a sim- 
ple geometrical form, is difficult, perhaps impos- 
sible. Moreover, given the solution of the problem 
for the ideal case, its practical application would 
present even greater difficulties, since the assump- 
tions necessary for the theoretical solution, do not 
in any considerable degree approximate the condi- 
tions to be met in actual construction. The only 
method of attack, therefore, is experimental, and 
since the number of factors entering into any par- 
ticular problem is so great, and their relative im- 
portance is unknown, the experimental conditions 
must approximate the actual conditions of ordinary 
construction as nearly as may be, if the results are 
to possess any practical significance for the archi- 
tect or the engineer. A laboratory experiment can 
be devised for measuring the transmission of sound 
through a single unit of building material, let us 
say, a terra cotta tile, a gypsum block, or a concrete 
slab. Whether the results of such an experiment 
would have any significance at all, when applied to 
the practical problem of the sound insulating prop- 
erties of walls made up of such units, is prob- 
lematical, since the latter depends upon the physical 
properties of the entire construction considered as 
a whole quite as much as upon those of the mate- 
rials of which it is composed. In order to meet 
the necessity for securing test conditions which shall 
approximate those in ordinary practice, a special 
laboratory was built which has been described in 
detail in an earlier number of THE AMERICAN AR- 
CHITECT.* It is hoped that by a thoroughly sys- 
tematic study of many units and types of construc- 
tion, a mass of quantitative data may be secured 
from which conclusions of general applicability may 
be drawn, as well as numerical coefficients by which 
the sound-insulating merits of materials and con- 
structions may be compared. 

It is important to distinguish at least two dif- 
ferent processes by which the mechanical vibrations 
of a musical instrument or other source of sound 



*The experimental study of the problem of Sound Transmission 
was begun by the late Professor Wallace C. Sabine in 1014. It 
was interrupted by the war. Meanwhile the new laboratory, which 
now bears Professor Sabine's name, was completed at Riverbank, 
Geneva, Illinois, by Colonel George Fabyan. A full description 
of the laboratory and its equipment appears In "The American 
Architect" of July 30, 1919. The present paper is a report on 
that portion which has been completed of the extensive program 
originally planned by Professor Sabine for this laboratory. Other 
researches are in progress, and will be reported from time to time. 



in one room may result in the aeriaj vibrations of 
sound in an adjoining room. If the vibrating source 
is in solid contact with the floor, then the vibrations 
may be conducted directly to the floor, and thence 
along timbers or beams to the floor of adjacent 
rooms, there to give rise to the aerial vibration. A 
large proportion of the sound from a piano, cello, 
or any stringed instrument, resting on the floor, as 
well as the hum of motors or machinery, is trans- 
mitted through buildings in this way. Thus far 
no attempt has been made to deal with this aspect 
of the problem. In the second method of trans- 
mission the alternating pressure of the sound wave 
in one room produces vibration of walls or parti- 
tions, which in turn communicate their motion to 
the air of the adjoining room. Throughout the 
present paper, only this latter method of transmis- 
sion will be considered. In the case of previous 
partitions such as felts or fabrics, the motion of the 
air may be communicated from room to room 
through the pores of the materials, with perhaps lit- 
tle or no motion of the partition itself. This latter 
case will be the subject of a later paper. The pres- 
ent report will concern itself only with the trans- 
mission by doors and windows made of impervious 
materials. 

The method of conducting the tests was essen- 
tially that described by Professor Wallace C. Sabine, 
in an article published in 1915. The passageway 
between two adjoining rooms is closed by the par- 
tition under test. Sound is produced in one room, 
the Sound Chamber, and its intensity is made to de- 
crease by stopping the source and allowing the 
sound to die away at a determinable rate by suc- 
cessive reflections from the walls. From the time 
required for it to become barely audible in the test 
chamber, on the other side of the partition, and the 
known rate at which it dies away in the sound 
chamber, the ratio of the intensity on the two sides 
may be computed. For the details of .the method 
together with the precautions taken to insure that 
sound shall pass between the two rooms only by 
way of the partition under test, the paper just re- 
ferred to and that in THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT of 
July 30, 1919, may be consulted. For convenience 
of the reader, a plan showing the arrangement of 
the sound chambers and the test chambers is given 
in Figure 1. The very low absorption of sound by 
the walls of the sound chamber, makes the duration 
of audible sound very great, thus allowing consider- 
able precision in the measurements. 



102 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



REPRESENTATION OF RESULTS 

IT is of importance that the results of any scien- 
tific investigation intended for readers who are 
primarily interested in the practical rather than in 
the theoretical aspects of the subject, be presented 
in a form such that they may be applied to common 
experience. In the present investigation what has 
been determined is the ratio of the intensities of 
sounds covering the whole range of frequencies or- 



dinarily used in music and speech, i. e., 64 to 
4,096 double vibrations per second, on opposite sides 
of doors and windows of various sorts. Thus sound 
of the pitch violin C (512 double vibrations) is re- 
duced in intensity in the ratio of approximately 
100 to 1, in passing through a light panelled birch 
door, and in the ratio of 1,000 to 1 in passing 
through a steel door one-quarter of an inch thick. 
The significance of such figures is more apparent 




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



if it is recalled that in the open air at a distance 
from all reflecting surfaces the intensity of sound 
from a constant source decreases as the square of 
the, distance increases. Thus increasing ten fold the 
distance between the source of sound and the ob- 
server in the open, produces the same reduction in 
the intensity, as is produced by the passage through 
the birch door. The steel door effects the same re- 
ductions as increasing the distance thirty-one fold. 
A further illustration : Ordinary conversation can 
be distinctly heard and understood through the 
light door mentioned above. It can be faintly heard 
but not understood through two such doors acous- 
tically separated from each other. If it be assumed 
that the reduction in intensity in passing through 
the second door is equal to that in passing through 
the first (an assumption, which can be made only 
with certain important qualifications) then we have 
an idea of the effect upon the audibility of a sound 
of a reduction to one ten thousandth of its original 
intensity. 

There are a number of ways in which the rela- 
tive transmission of the various partitions studied 
might be represented. For example, the fraction 
of the sound, transmitted might be plotted as or- 
dinate with the pitch of the tone as abscissa. The 
large difference between different constructions, 
represented in this way would, however, be mis- 
leading to one interested in the reduction of the 
audibility of the transmitted sound, since the sensa- 
tion of loudness is proportional not to the intensity 
of the sound, but more nearly to the logarithm of 
this quantity. A very considerable difference in 
the measured intensity is necessary to produce a 
perceptible difference in the sensation produced on 
the ear. Thus it has been found that opening a hole 
three inches in diameter in the wall between two 
adjoining rooms in one of which was a continuous 
source of sound, increased the intensity of the 
sound transmitted to the other by about twenty 
per cent. Yet the change in loudness made by 
opening or closing a hole of this size could barely 
be detected. Thus it appears that while a difference 
of twenty per cent, in the sound insulating proper- 
ties of two types of partitions is easily measur- 
able, it is quite negligible in the problem of reduc- 
ing the audibility of sound transmitted from room 
to room. 

In the accompanying figures, the ordinates rep- 
resent the logarithm of what may be called the Re- 
duction factor of the partition in question. The 
reduction factor for a partition is the ratio of the, 
average intensity in the room in which the sound 
is produced to its average intensity on the opposite 
side of the partition and near it, no sound being 
transmitted., except through the partition.. The log- 
arithm of this ratio which is the length of the or-' 



dinate, measures roughly the difference in loudness 
on the two sides of the door or window, in ques- 
tion. Approximately one tenth of the unit ordinate 
represents a difference in loudness that is easily per- 
ceptible. This method of representation has the 
advantage of making the comparison between the 
various partitions in magnitudes that represent the 
audible sensations with which we are concerned. 

RESONANCE PHENOMENA IN TRANSMISSION 

THE question as to the process by which sound 
produced in one room is transmitted through 
a solid partition, a steel door, for example, may be 
briefly considered. It is conceivable that the im- 
pact of the vibrating L'ir particles on one side, may 
be imparted to the molecules of the solid and in 
turn communicated by them to the air particles on 
the other side. Thus a pulse of compression in the 
air wave would give rise to a similar pulse in the 
solid, and this in turn to the air on the other side. 
Both theory and experiment indicate that in thin 
partitions, transmission by this means is vanishingly 
small in comparison with the actual transmission. 
Experiment shows, on the other hand, that there is 
a flexural yielding of the partition under the al- 
ternating pressure of the sound wave, and that the 
vibration is communicated to the air by this flexurai 
vibration of the partition. By a delicate mechanism, 
which need not be here described, the actual mo- 
tion has been measured and has been found to cor- 
respond very closely to the vibration of the air par- 
ticles in the sound wave, thus confirming the idea 
that transmission occurs very largely by flexural 
rather than compressional waves in the partition. 

Theoretical considerations show that a partition 
of a type approximating a rectangular uniform 
plate, clamped at the edges, will respond to a series 
of tones of definite frequencies, in a manner quite 
comparable to that of a stretched string. The phe- 
nomenon is complicated, however, by the fact that 
two dimensions are involved in the response of the 
plate. In the case of the string the different na- 
tural frequencies of vibration are all multiples of 
a single fundamental frequency, the string vibrating 
in segments to produce the various frequencies to 
which it will respond. No such simple relatio i 
holds between the natural frequencies of a plate, 
since both its length anc 1 breadth enter into the phe- 
nomenon. Calculation shows, for example, that 
with frequencies less than one thousand, a plate of 
one-quarter inch glass of the dimension vised in the 
tests, has some thirty-seven different natural modes 
of vibration. Its response to a tone of any of these 
natural frequencies would theoretically be much 
greater than to other nearby frequencies, and its 
transmission of sounds of frequencies correspond- 
ing to its own natural vibrations would be corres- 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



pondingly great. In other words, the phenomenon 
of resonance may well be expected to appear promi- 
nently in transmission measurements. The experi- 
ments amply fulfil this expectation, so much so in 
fact, that a thorough study of the properties of a 
single partition should involve measurements us- 
ing a large number of tones taken at very small 
intervals of the musical scale, and entail an amount 
of work that would b^ prohibitively great. Arbi- 
trarily, therefore, the seven tones an octave apart 
from Ci 64 to C 7 4096 vibrations per second have 
been used, and the reduction factor for each deter- 
mined. Trials with intermediate tones have shown 
that although the intermediate points do not lie on a 
smooth curve, yet the general trend of the reduc- 
tion of intensity factor, considered as a function 
of the pitch of the sound, is represented by tin- 
curves given. Moreover, the variations from the 
smooth curve are, in general, slight in comparison 
with the relatively large differences which arc- neces- 
sary to give one construction a decided advantage 
over another as a sound insulator in actual practice. 

The securing of the data given represents a year's 
work. A large number of detailed questions have 
called for experimental study, with which it is not 
necessary to weary the reader, but which had t<> 
be answered before one could feel any assurance 
of the reliability of the results of the investigation. 
As an illustration, one may cite the question of the 
effect of the acoustic properties of the room into 
which the sound is transmitted upon the values of 
the apparent transmission as determined by this 
method. 

The average intensity of sound in a room con- 
taining a steady source of sound is inversely pro- 
portional to the product of the volume and absorp- 
tion of the room. When sound is entering a room 
through a closed door or window, the latter may be 
considered as such a source, and the average in- 
tensity in the room will depend not only upon the 
. amount of sound transmitted, but also upon the 
acoustic properties of the room itself. The experi- 
ments showed that an increase in either the volume 
or the absorbing power of the receiving chamber, 
did effect a decrease in the average intensity of the 
transmitted sound, measured at a number of differ- 
ent points in the room. If, however, the observations 
are confined to positions near the transmitting wall, 
the effect of changing the amount of absorbing ma- 
terial in the receiving room is negligible, and a 
'arge change in the volume produces only a small 
change in the intensity thus measured. The curves 
in Figure 2 illustrate this effect. Curve 1 gives the 
logarithms of the reduction factor for tones of the 
frequencies shown. Curve 2 represents similar con- 
ditions, except that the volume of the receiving 
chamber is increased from 104 cu. ft. to 413 cu. ft. 



by the opening of a door arranged for the purpose. 
Further increase of volume produced no further ap- 
preciable effect. The point to be emphasized is that 
the apparent transmission of sound from room to 
room is in some degree at least a matter of the 
acoustic properties of the room into which the sound 



MX 



10' 




C, 



O 

(BIS) 



c. c, 



(.'nrvt- 1. Ki-iluciion ..f intrn*ity of > 
;i ^ni.ill room. Curve _'. Uriluclion 
transinittc<l into a lar 



il transmitted into 
intensity of sound 



is transmitted, as well as of the separating walls. 
Experience shows that an appreciable reduction of 
noise in a room, transmitted from outside sources, 
may be secured by proper acoustical treatment of 
the interior of the room itself. In the results 
given hereafter the receiving chamber has been 
kept acoustically constant, with a volume of 413 cu. 
ft. the walls, floor and ceiling being of hard brick, 
cement and hard plaster. 

In the later paper an attempt will be made to 
correlate the sound insulating properties of parti- 
tions of the type here considered with their mechani- 
cal properties of mass, viscosity and stiffness. For 
the present, only the results of experiment can be 
given. The units tested were of uniform dimen- 
sions 7 ( ) inches by 31 inches. The doors were set 
tight in a heavy frame of yellow pine, all cracks 
being carefully sealed with putty. The effective 
area transmitting sound was the same in all cases. 
Tests have been made upon some twelve different 
constructions. In order to save space, the numerical 
values of the reduction factor will not be given. 
They can be taken -from the curves. The ordinate 
for any frequency as has been stated is the logarithm 
(base 10) of the reduction factor. The magnitude 
of the ordinate is a measure of the insulating prop- 
erty of door or window in question. The fraction 
of the sound transmitted is the reciprocal of the 
number whose logarithm is the length of the 
ordinate. 



105 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



WINDOWS 

THE transmission by a window depends upon 
the quality and thickness of the glass, and 
upon the mode of setting in the sash. In Figure 
3 the latter factor is the same for all three curves. 
Four panes, each 15 inches by 39 inches, were set 
in the sash described. Curve 1 is for a specially 
prepared three-ply material, consisting of two sheets 
of 1/16 inch window glass sealed together with an 
intermediate sheet of celluloid, the whole forming 
a 3/16 inch pane of approximately the same mass 
as ordinary plate. Curve 2 is for 3/16 inch plate 
glass, and curve 3 is for J4 inch plate. The increase 
of insulating power of the heavier glass is clearly 
indicated. The increased reduction in substituting 
Y\ inch for 3/16 inch glass in telephone booths, for 
example, would on the average be that secured by 
increasing the distance from the source of sound 
in the ratio of 14 to 10. The lower reduction affected 
by the triplex glass is of interest. It is known that 
under certain conditions discontinuities in stiffness 
and density increase the insulating power of parti- 
tions. In the present instance, however, the decrease 
in rigidity occasioned by introducing the celluloid, 
probably, more than offsets any possible advantage 



10 5 



10* 



10 3 



10 2 



10' 





c, 



c. 



(818) 

FIG. 3. 



Curve 1. Reduction produced by triplex glass. Curve 2. By 
3/16" plate. Curve 3. By }4" plate. 

of the discontinuities in the physical properties, 
which confirms the notion that flexural vibration is 
the important factor in transmission of sound by thin 
partitions. 

The five curves in Figure 4 are for decidedly dif- 
ferent constructions, but a comparison made in con- 
nection with the type of construction in each case 
proves significant. Taken in order, curve 1 is for a 
solid steel door ^4 mcn think filling the doorway 
described. Curve 2 is for the four pane window 
of J4 inch plate glass described above, curve 3 is for 
' a single pane window of *4 inch plate glass 79 inches 



by 31 inches. Curve 4 is for a window with dia- 
mond shaped panes 3/16 inch thick, leased in each 
pane having an area of 16 square inches. Curve 
5 is for a twelve pane window of light construction 
of % inch glass, the panes being 10 inches by 19 
inches. For the lower tones the reductions of in- 
tensity by the different partitions are in the same 
order as masses of the various partitions. That is, 
the more massive constructions produce the greater 
reduction in intensity for the lower tones. This 
order does not hold over the entire range of fre- 
quencies, however. For the higher tone the stiff- 
ness of the construction seems to be the more im- 



10 s 



10* 



10 2 



10' 




C 4 

(612) 

FIG. 4. 



C 5 



Curve 1. Reduction produced by door of ^4" steel. Curve 

2. By y$" plate glass with cross bracing. Curve 3. By Ye," 

plate without cross bracing. Curve 4. By 3/16" small 

leaded panes. Curve 5. By %" panes 10" x 19". 

portant factor. Inspection shows that curves 1, 4 
and 5 have the same shape. Apparently this is 
to be accounted for by the added stiffness afforded 
the leaded pane and the twelve paned windows by 
the cross bracing of the sash. It appears that the 
well braced lighter glass constructions of 4 and 5 * 
may be as effective in reducing the transmitted in- 
tensity of the higher notes as is heavier material 
use in larger units. The transmission from the form 
of curve given by the more flexible single pane to 
that of the rigid steel is shown by curve 2 for the 
four paned window. 

The effectiveness of a so-called "dead air space" 
is often mentioned in connection with sound insula- 
tion. The curves of Figure 4 illustrate well a con- 
dition that must always be met if such a space is to 
produce the desired results, namely, that the "dead 
air space" must not be bridged by any solid connec- 
tion, even at the boundaries, curve 7 represents the 
reduction produced by a single glazed two pane 
window, each pane being 31 inches by 39 inches, and 
slightly less than 3/16 inch thick. Curve 2 is for the 



106 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



same window double glazed, that is, with glass set 
"on both sides of the sash." The separation between 
the two panes was about 1 inch. As appears from 
the curves, the sound insulation afforded by the two 
thicknesses of glass does not at all approach what 
would be expected upon the assumption that the 
second thickness produced a reduction in intensity 
comparable to that produced by the first. It is ap- 
parent that the vibration of the first pane is trans- 
mitted directly to the second through the sash and 
that the air space is quite ineffective. Curve 3 
shows the results of an attempt to insulate the two 
panes by setting the second one in ]/ 2 inch saddler's 
felt rather than in putty. For the lower frequencies 
it appears that the felt is practically without effect, 
but that it does produce an improvement in the re- 
duction of intensity for the higher notes. Further 
experiments on this point are in progress. 

DOORS 

A LARGE number of tests on doors of various 
constructions have been made, detailed account 
of which may be omitted from present consideration. 
The results of four widely different types are pre- 



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Curve 1. Reduction produced by single glazed window 3/16" 

plate. Curve 2. By double glazed window, with panes set 

in putty. Curve 3. By double glazed window, panes set 

in felt. 

sented in Figure 5. Curve 1 is for a light, four 
panelled door of birch veneer. Curve 2 is for a 
heavy solid oak door, well seasoned, 1^4 inches 
thick. Curve 3 is a heavy double walled door 4 
inches thick, of yellow pine sheathing, filled with 
heat insulating material, of the type used in refrig- 
erating and cold storage plants ; while curve 4 is 
for the heavy steel door referred to above. The 
marked superiority in insulating power of the steel 
over the heavy "ice-box" door was scarcely to be 
expected in view of the generally accepted notions 
of the conditions for sound insulation. It was 



found that through the latter it is possible to hear 
easily and to understand with slight difficulty speech 
of conversational loudness. Through two such 
doors on opposite sides of a small vestibule it is 
possible to hear and understand very loud speech. 
The slight advantage of this type over the less mas- 
sive solid oak door is also of interest. 

How important a factor the state of seasoning 
of a wooden partition may be is shown by curves 2 
and 3 of Figure 6. Curve 3 represents the reduc- 



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FK;. 6. 

( ur\L- I. Reduction produced liy four-panel door of light 
birch veneer. Curve -. liy solid oak 1M" thick. Curve 3. 
By double wall "ice box" door. Curve 4. By door of %" steel. 

tion produced by the oak door described, while some- 
what damp from having been stored in a poorly 
ventilated room for several months. 'I his was one 
of the first partitions tested. After having been 
kept in a dry room for a period of six months it was 
tested a second time, simply with a view to check- 
ing the earlier measurements. Curve 2 presents 
the results of this second test. The marked dif- 
ference between the two tests placed the reliability 
of the method in considerable doubt, until a repeti- 
tion of the early tests made on glass windows gave 
results in excellent agreement with those originally 
obtained, indicating that there had been a change 
in the properties of the wood through drying. The 
increased transmission for the extremely high and 
low tones of the dry, over the damp door, suggests 
the more nearly uniform response to the whole range 
of tones of the well seasoned old violin or 'cello, as 
compared with the "green instrument" of recent 
make. 

In tests just described all precautions were taken 
to prevent the transmission of sound through cracks 
or openings of any kind. In practice, doors and 
windows are not closed air tight. The theoretical 
problem of the passage of sound through an opening 
is far from simple, and the practical problem calls 



107 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



for an extensive experimental research. For the 
present the comparison of the reduction of intensity 
produced by a door sealed "air tight'' into its case- 
ment, and that of the same door hung upon hinges 
must suffice. Curve 1 of Figure 6 is for the solid 
oak door, hung upon hinges and set so as to open 



10* 



10 2 



10' 




0, 



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(618) 

FIG. 7. 



Curve 1. Reduction produced by 1U" solid oak door as 

ordinarily hung. Curve 2. By the same door well seasoned 

and scaled air tight. Curve 3. By same door swollen with 

dampness. 

and close freely. The very marked decrease in its 
effectiveness in shutting out sound is shown by com- 
parison with curve 2. The experiment does not 
permit us to decide how much of this decreased 
effectiveness is due to the passage of sound through 
the crevices, and how much is due to the different 
mode of supporting the door. Other experiments on 
this point have shown, however, that the transmis- 



sion of sound through long, narrow cracks, is sur- 
prisingly large. 

In the foregoing enough has been presented to in- 
dicate the limitations and advantages of ordinary 
door and window construction in the way of sound 
insulation. The aim has been not so much to de- 
velop means for preventing completely the passage 
of sound from room to room as to secure reliable 
quantitative data on the transmission through par- 
titions of ordinary construction. Such a study serves 
several useful purposes. The methods for securing 
the greatest degree of sound insulation under the 
conditions of common practice become apparent. 
Some notion of the relative importance of the va- 
rious factors that together determine the degree of 
sound transmission is arrived at, and consequently a 
clearer idea of the direction in which improvement 
lies. Finally, commonly accepted ideas are sub- 
mitted to the test of actual experiment Thus the 
frequently expressed opinion that good heat insula- 
tion and good sound insulation are concomitant 
conditions is scarcely supported by the investigation 
thus far. 

Along with this study of simple partitions there 
is being conducted a study of the more complicated 
problem of wall construction, in which the method 
is to secure data on the transmission of walls of 
various types in each stage of construction. A simi- 
lar investigation on the efficiency of so-called "sound 
deadening" materials is being pursued. It appears 
evident that in none but the most thoroughgoing 
and detailed study can results be arrived at which 
will be of value in the practical solution of this de- 
cidedly complex physical problem. 



108 



Beaux-Arts Institute of Design 

DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE, LLOYD WARREX 

ARCHITECTURE, WILLIAM F. LAMB SCULPTURE, JOHN CRECnRY 

INTERIOR DECORATION, ERNEST F. TYLER MURAL PAINTING, ERNEST C. I'EIXOTTO 



Official Notification of Awards- 
Judgment of March 16th, 1920 

SECOND PRELIMINARY COMPETITION EOR Till-. 
13th PARIS FRIZI-. 

OF THK 

SOCIETY OK BEAl'X-ARTS ARCHITECTS 

PROGRAM 
The Annual Committee on the Paris Prize proposes a- 

subject of this Competition : 
-A SAILORS' Y. M. C. A. AT MANILA" 
INTRODUCTION: 

The entertainment of soldiers and sailors while on leave 
has been, during and since the war, the subject of a great 
deal of study and consideration by various societies and 
organizations. The Y. M. C. A., in continuing this work, 
wishes to establish at Manila a recreation center for 
the sailors from the visiting warships and the naval 
bases located there. 

The climate is sub-tropical. It is desirable, therefore. 
that the plan be conceived in such fashion as to provide 



adeqinte shelter from the sun, and to allow free passage 
to the breeze, securing in this manner, the greatest pro- 
tection and comfort to those who are pursuing the varii ill- 
activities provided for them. 

THE PROBLEM : 

The ground to be occupied by this recreation center is 
on the harbor, easily accessible to the ships at anchor 
bv means of launches and other small b iats, an 1 to the 
naval base by a boulevard which runs parallel to the shore 
front. It is rectangular in shape, and its greatest dimen- 
sion must not exceed 600 feet. 

Provision is to be made for the following departments: 

1. ATHLETICS: 

Vestibule with stairways. 

Physical director's room and examination rooms. 

The gymnasium of not over K.OOO sq. ft. area, with 

running track and spectators' gallery. 
A swimming pool not over 4,000 sq. ft. in area, with 

showers, baths, drying room, lockers, toilets and 

a barber shop. 
Squash and hand ball courts. 
There should be provided, out-of-door space lor tennis. 

basketball and other minor sports. I'.aseball and 

football fields will be outside the grounds. 



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I-I.ACKI) KIRST 




W. F. McCAUGHEY, Jr. 



TMVKKSITV OF ILLINOIS 



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110 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



3. 



EDUCATION AND ADMINISTRATION: 

An auditorium for lectures, concerts and moving pic- 

tures to seat 500 persons. 
A library. 

Four or five classrooms. 

A laboratory for general scientific education. 
The offices for the general administration, including 

the central office and several secretaries' offices. 

SOCIAL AND RESIDENCE: 
Entrance lobby. 



Number of drawings submitted 13. 
All'ARDS: 

PLACED FIRST (2nd Medal) : \V. F. McCaughey, 
Jr., Univ. of Illinois. Urbana, 111. 

PLACED SECOND (2nd Medal) : D. McLachlan, Jr., 
Atelier H irons. New York City, N. Y. 

PLACED THIRD (2nd Medal) : F. A. Chapman, 
Atelier A. Brown, Jr.. S. F. A. C, San Francisco, Cal. 

PLACED FOURTH (2nd Medal) : E. R. Purves, 
Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Pa. 



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PLACED SECOND 



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Social hall. 

Billiard room (8 or 10 tables). 

Several small club rooms and card rooms. 

Outdoor rest rooms or porches overlooking the bay. 

Cafeteria for about 300, with serving pantry. (The 

kitchen and store rooms may be in the basement.) 
Dormitories for 200 men on the floor above. 

JURY OF AWARD: L. Warren, H. R. Sedgwick, W. 
F. Lamb, R. M. Hood, F. A. Godley, J. O. Post, W. L. 
Bottomley, L. Ayers, W. Van Alen, M. J. Schiavoni and 
R H. Dana, Jr., chairman. 



PLACED FIFTH (2nd Medal): R. S. Simpson, Pitts- 
burgh Archtl. Club, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

PLACED SIXTH FIRST ALTERNATE ( Mention) : 
E. L. Howard, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

PLACED SEVENTH SECOND ALTERNATE 
(Mention): J. K. Smith, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

MENTION: A. F. Stokes, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge; F. J. Kuchler, University of Pennsylvania, Phila. ; 
L. Simpson, Washington University, St. Louis; L. Fentnor, 
Atelier Wynkoop, N. Y. C. 



Ill 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




on the total investment is compara- 
tively small. 

The big idea here is to await the 
day when lower building costs will 
permit the main house to be con- 
structed at a very much lower price 
than that for which it can now be 
built. If this period happens to be 
deferred a few years the modest man- 
ner of living forced upon the rear- 
enders, as they may be termed, will 
enable them to catch up on other 
things, at the same time furnishing 
an opportunity for practical lessons 
in thrift that should be helpful in 
years to come. When in time the 
larger home is built on the front of 
the lot the emergency bungalow can 
be easily converted into a combination 
servants' house and garage where it 
will continue to serve a good and 
valuable purpose in the general scheme 
of a completed home. 

Some fifty or more of these propo- 
sitions have been worked out with ap- 
parent satisfaction and it is believed 
that in this way many will find a sea- 
sonably happy escape from the re- 
stricted and congested life of the small 
apartment in which people are now 
being packed away like sardines in a 
box. 



R. S. SIMPSON PLACED FIFTH PITTSBURGH ARCHITECTURAL CLUB 

SECOND PRELIMINARY COMPETITION, PARIS PRIZE, 
BEAUX-ARTS INSTITUTE OF DESIGN 

Living in the South 

As a temporary relief measure to meet the em- 
barrassing shortage of homes in the Birmingham 
district, owners of vacant lots are finding it expedi- 
ent to assist prospective home builders to get a roof 
over their heads by building on the rear of the said 
lots a small plain structure that can be made to 
serve as a dwelling for a small family, at the same 
time helping to combat the high cost of everything 
on several important counts. This emergency domi- 
cile will comfortably house a family of three or four 
people requiring but limited and what used to be 
inexpensive furnishings, and the housekeeping effort 
is likewise brief and inexpensive, while the interest 



New Loan Plan to Encour- 
age Building of Houses 

The announcement of a new policy 
with regard to industrial financing has 
been made by S. W. Straus & Co., 
who state that hereafter they will 
make loans in the form of first mortgage serial 
amortized bond issues in amounts of $500,000 and 
over to reliable industrial corporations engaged in 
the production of essential commodities, the pro- 
ceeds of the loan to be devoted to the construction 
of dwellings for employees. 

The opinion is expressed that large institutions 
should develop this field of financing because of the 
enormous demand for housing facilities ' and the 
stabilizing influence which widespread ownership 
of homes by the working classes will have. It is 
also predicted that the next few years will be a 
period of very extensive home building activities 
as a result of this co-operation between financial 
houses and industrial corporations. 



112. 




Architectural Quicksands 



^HE first of a series of articles by Clinton II. 

A Blake, Jr., of the New York bar, with an in- 
troduction by Daniel Paul Higgins, of the office of 
John Russell Pope, architect, appears in this issue. 

Architecture differs from all the other arts to 
which it is allied, as in its practical application it 
is an exact science. There may be no "poetical 
license" in architecture. There can be no exercise 
of artistic fervor when the architect conies to thai 
part of his work where the client's interests are con- 
cerned, or where his own should be safeguarded. 
Architects may indulge in the fervor of art while 
designing, may take certain liberties and exercise 
much personality in planning. Having passed 
those points and set out on a sea of pure commer- 
cialism in the construction of the building there are 
quicksands that, if success is to attend the final 
result, must be avoided. 

The mariner has his charts from which he may 
learn the location of rocks and shoals, of currents 
and trade winds. All these insure a safe and 
speedy voyage. But architects have available few 
of these helps and safeguards. It is to supply some 
of them to the profession that Mr. Blake has been 
invited to prepare what we are sure the readers of 
THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT will agree is a most 
valuable and reliable series. 



Model Making at Columbia Uni- 
versity 

AMONG the innovations that it will be neces- 
sary to effect in architectural educational 
methods will be the elimination of one dimensional 
portrayal of design, and the overcoming of the ma- 
licious influence of white paper on the mind of 
architectural students. All great architects have 
been known to possess in the highest development 
an ability to visualize their work in its three dimen- 
sions. Men who have achieved wide reputation as 
designers, who, through the medium of white paper 
and cleverly executed designs in elevation, have 
been able to create wonderfully beautiful concep- 



tions, are known to be simply designers and not, 
in the fullest sense, architects. 

<>l recent years there lias been a pronounced 
tendency to avoid these studentish preliminary rep- 
resentations and to substitute something that would 
in a more tangible way present the proposed build- 
ing. What was desired was a method of three 
dimensions. Logically the model wa> the thing. 
But, except in rare cases, or in that of the mcunimi-i.- 
tal structure, there was no disposition to take up aiu, 
encourage the creation of good architectural de- 
sign by means of the model, and the long established 
custom of drawings on white paper, of elevations 
an-' (!, -tails, has persisted. 

I he tendency has been to encourage good drafts- 
manship at the expense of good architecture. Men 
but recently graduated, whose ability to create good 
drawings or to make line renderings in color, have 
been misled in their own opinions as to their abil- 
ity as architects by the steady demand for their 
services. 

All the methods of the past have trained the 
student largely in an appreciation in but one dimen- 
sion, lie has never had opportunity to see his 
work in any other form, and he has gone through 
his college training purely along that line. It is 
a satisfaction to learn that the first of probably 
many and much needed reforms in architectural 
educational methods has been put into practice 
at the school of architecture at Columbia Univer- 
sity in New York. 



A DEPARTMENT of model making is now in 
operation at Columbia University, and in an- 
nouncing this innovation it is stated : "It has long 
been appreciated that the student of architecture 
is trained largely in feeling for one dimensional 
architecture presented entirely upon paper and 
in the form of a plain elevation drawing. The 
student never has the opportunity which the prac- 
ticing architect finds of observing his design com- 
pleted in all three dimensions. This privilege only 
belongs to the architect who has secured his com- 
mission and has had his building erected at the cx- 



113 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



pense of his client. Many such architects have 
been astonished at mistakes in their design due 
to the inability of drawings fully to represent the 
truth as it would appear in three dimensions. 
When the building is completed he has no oppor- 
tunity of changing the form, and his mistake must 
stand as a glaring fault through many generations. 

"The student of architecture who has designed 
a building or a group of buildings first on paper 
and then completed the same in the form of a 
model has all the opportunities of observing the 
mistakes of his design without the cost of erecting 
the building. Moreover, he has removed the ma- 
licious influence which pure paper design has upon 
his imagination. 

"Many a designer who has unusual skill in draw- 
ing and rendering and who is blessed with an ex- 
tremely fertile imagination is often able to mis- 
lead himself with his pictures and regard the thing 
he has erected on paper as beautiful architecture, 
while if it were constructed in three dimensions, 
in the form of a model, it would appear entirely 
absurd and ridiculous." 

THIS is exactly true. There yet lingers in the 
minds of many teachers of architecture, and 
the impression has been conveyed to students, that 
model making is purely a mechanical process, one 
that may properly be turned over to some one less 



artistically educated. This is certainly all wrong. 
Much of the time now spent in the making of pretty 
but useless water color drawings might better be 
employed in coloring the models. There is a certain 
fascination in model making in noting the growth 
of the miniature and correctly scaled structure. 
Mistakes never apparent in the white paper draw- 
ing are constantly to be detected in the model and 
can be intelligently corrected. Further, there is 
the stimulation of the students' ingenuity in the 
simulation of materials and their texture and the 
development of planting effects. As a recreation 
from the hard mental concentration of the study 
of architecture, model making provides a means 
of relaxation that is greatly to be desired. 

The development of scenic art is largely due to 
the use of the model for preliminary study. In 
fact, no production of consequence is begun until 
all the 'various effects of color, of lighting, placing 
and construction in general have been carefully 
considered in the small scale model. The design 
and construction of motion picture "sets" has 
grown to its present importance as the result of 
an intelligent and constant use of models. 

Columbia University's school of architecture is to 
be congratulated in being the first of our important 
architectural educational institutions to recognize 
the importance of model making in the study of 
architecture. 




CHURCH OF S. MARIA NOVELLA, FLORENCE, ITALY. 

114 






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VOL. CXVIII. No. 2327 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 28, 1920 



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FINAL STAGE, NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL COMPETITION 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BY 
. JI. VAN BUREN MACONIGI.E, ARCHITECT 



VOL. CXVIII. No. 2327 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 28, 1920 






FINAL STAGE, NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL COMPETITION 

DESIGN SUBMITTED BT 
BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS 



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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 28, 





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VOL. CXVIII. No. 2327 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



JULY 28, 1920 



PJgmi^ C4I 




FINAL STAGE, 
NEBRASKA I 

STATE 

CAPITOL 

COMPETITION 




"""- 

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DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY 
JOHN MCDONALD 

and 

ALAN MCDONALD, 
ARCHITECTS 



Current News 



Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 



National Academy Elects Officers 

At the annual meeting of the National Academy 
of Design, New York, Air. Edwin II. I.lashfield 
was elected president ; Mr. Harry \Y. Watrous, vice- 
president ; Mr. Charles C. Curren. corresponding 
secretary; Mr. Douglas Volk. recording secretary, 
and Mr. Francis C. Jones, treasurer. At the same 
time Mr. Max Bohm, Mr. Frank De Haven, Mr. 
August Franzen, Mr. Hobart Nichols, Mr. Carl 
Rungius, Mr. Chauncey F. Ryder and Mr. Robert 
Spencer were made academicians. 



Minnesota Proposes State Federation 
of Architects and Engineers 

Representative architects and engineers from all 
parts of Minnesota met at Duluth recently and took 
the first step toward the organization of a State 
Federation of Architects and Engineers. 

The unanimous sentiment of those in attendance. 
as well as of other engineers and architects, who. 
for one reason or another, were unable to be pres- 
ent at the meeting, was in favor of such a federa- 
tion. Only by unification into one state-wide organi- 
zation will the engineers and architects of Minne- 
sota have the power and weight of numbers behind 
them to force attention to matters of public con- 
cern having to do with problems of engineering and 
architecture, or with the regulation of affairs affect- 
ing the joint interest of these related professions. 

It was pointed out by Max Toltz, chairman of 
the meeting, that there are about 4,<SOO engineers, 
architects and draftsmen in Minnesota. Many of 
these men are not identified with any existing or- 
ganization. It is not the purpose of the men who 
are back of the proposed federation to supplant any 
existing organization, but it will be in fact what the 
name indicates, a federation of existing societies, 
and no man will be eligible to membership except 
through membership in his local organization. 

Engineers scattered throughout the state in the 
smaller towns, having no engineering society, may 
join by becoming associated with the Minnesota 
Surveyors' and Engineers' Society, which has state- 
wide membership. The same is true of architects, 
who are eligible to membership in the Minnesota 
Society of the American Institute of Architects. 

The engineers and architects who attended the 



Duluth meeting were the guests of the Duluth En- 
gineers' Club. The meeting was held at the Com- 
mercial Club. It was called to order by W. C. Arm- 
strong, engineer, of St. Paul. Mr. Toltz was elected 
chairman of the meeting, and Professor Frederick 
Bass, of the University of Minnesota, was elected 
secretary. 



Wins Beaux Arts Pri/.e 

1'. Mcl-aughlin. Jr., a student at Atelier Hirons, 
this city, yesterday received the annual Paris Prize 
of the Society of Beaux Arts Architects. The prize 
amounts to $3.000 for study abroad, and by special 
arrangement the winner is allowed to enter the 
most advanced class of the Ecole des Beaux Arts 
in Paris, a privilege which is denied all Frenchmen. 

The designs called for by the conditions of the 
contest were for the proposed war memorial for tin- 
city at the northern end of Manhattan Island, on the 
wooded knoll between Dyckman street and Spuyten 
Duvvil Creek. Five designs were selected for the 
final competition. Mr. McLaughlin's were placed 
first in the jury's award, and the four others were 
rated in the following order: R. S. Simpson, Pitts- 
burgh ; F. A. Chapman. San Francisco ; K. R. 
Purves, University of Pennsylvania, and \V. F. Mc- 
Coughey, Jr., University of Illinois. 

The drawings were placed on exhibition at the 
Beaux Arts Institute of Design. 126 East Seventy- 
fifth street, where they will remain until July 24. 
The designs have no connection with the official 
memorial project. The full illustrations of the prize 
winning and other designs will appear in our issue 
of lulv 28. 



Prizes for Fifth Avenue Buildings 

The Fifth Avenue Association will resume the 
presentation of medals for the best new buildings 
and alterations in the Fifth avenue section this year. 
This practice was discontinued for a couple of 
years owing to the cessation of building. It is un- 
derstood that will be made formally at the annual 
dinner of the association in November. The mem- 
bers of the Architectural Harmony Committee who 
make the decisions are as follows : Walter Stabler, 
chairman ; Douglas L. Elliman, secretary ; Michael 
Drecier, Robert D. Kohn, C. Grant LaFarge and H. 
Van Buren Magonigle. 



115 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 






Chicago Improves South Water Street 

Chicago's next big public improvement which 
many experts consider as important to the city as 
the Michigan avenue link converting the present 
narrow, congested, dirty, unsanitary, dangerous and 
ugly South Water street into a broad, clean, utili- 
tarian and beautiful double decked boulevard and 
traffic thoroughfare, has recently received two tre- 
mendous boosts. One was the opening of the Michi- 
gan avenue bridge and the other was the more re- 
cent announcement that at last the South Water 
street commission merchants have signed an agree- 
ment and put up the cash to finance a magnificent 
new produce mart outside of the loop. 



disclosing the great need of education that will cure 
the housewife of the dangerous practices of accel- 
erating sluggish kitchen fires with kerosene and 
gasoline cleaning with gasoline and using improperly 
constructed and cared for oil lamps. 

"Open lights" in dwellings caused 39.1 per cent. 
of the losses in this column. Under this heading 
comes fires resulting from unprotected gas flames, 
candles, torches, tapers and similar dangerous means 
of illumination. 



Payment for Estimating 

In October, 1919, the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, Engineering Council, and Associated General 
Contractors of America, appointed three conferees 
each, to discuss the matter of payment for estimat- 
ing. These conferees agreed upon a report which 
was submitted to their respective organizations under 
date of February 17, 1920, and has since been 
under considerationg by them. Engineering Coun- 
cil, at its meeting June 17, adopted the conclusion 
in a report of a special committee to which the re- 
port of the conferees had been referred, as follows : 

"Whenever in the execution of work, competitive 
bids are asked for on detailed plans and specifica- 
tions, those invited to bid should be provided with 
such an estimate of the quantities involved in the 
work as the surveys, plans and specifications permit 
to be made. The intent of this requirement is that 
a single estimate of quantities should be made by 
or for the engineer, architect, or other representa- 
tive of the owner, so that each separate bidder will 
not be put to the expense of making up a separate 
schedule of estimates. This latter practice not only 
means a needless waste in the carrying on of con- 
tract work, but also discourages bidders and causes 
repeated handling of official plans and specifications 
in making up separate schedules of estimates." 



Farmer's Cooperative Associations in 
New Zealand 

The farmers' co-operative associations in New 
Zealand have steadily developed until they are now 
important factors in the business life of the Domin- 
ion, and are very rapidly gaining in strength. The 
Farmers' Union Trading Co. of this city is now 
the second farmers' trading co-operative associa- 
tion, in point of size, in the Dominion. It has lately 
taken over important interests north of the city, and 
now claims about 10,000 members. This company 
is sending a representative to open up offices in New 
York City through which they expect to sell New 
Zealand products and to purchase supplies for this 
Dominion. The representative will arrive in that 
city about the first of October. 

These associations are taking up different lines 
of development and trade. Some of the associa- 
tions have under consideration building and operat- 
ing their own floor mills, establishing hydro-electric 
plants for the benefit of members of the association, 
as well as using their influence for better roads 
throughout the Dominion. They are also interested 
in fertilizer and cement plants, and, in the aggre- 
gate, control a large portion of the business of the 
country. 



Percentage of Fires 

According to the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers, the highest percentage of the fires which 
occurred last year, 68.5 per cent, was registered by 
"sparks on roofs," which is the natural result of the 
prevalence of wooden-shingle roofs in so many of 
our cities. "Defective chimneys and flues" held 
second place with a ratio of 66.6 per cent, and 
"lightning" the third with 51.2 per cent. "Petroleum 
and its products" stood fifth, with 42.5 per cent., 



Municipal Loan Association 

The municipal employes of New York City under 
the supervision of the Mayor's Housing Committee 
have formed an organization to be known as the 
Municipal Employes' Building Loan and Savings 
Association. Shares are to be sold at the rate of 50 
cents a month. The par value of the shares is to 
be $100. It is planned to sell 50,000 shares to the 
value of $5,000,000. 

The money will be used to aid municipal em- 
ployes to build homes. The organization will be 
conducted on the lines of similar associations. 

When the charter is granted a mass meeting of 
city employes will be called and their membership 
solicited. The directors for the first year, according 



116 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



to Mr. Doyle, will be Frank Mann, Tenement House 
Commission ; Frank J. Prial, Deputy Controller ; L. 
J. O'Reilly, Colin H. Woodward, Duncan McGuin- 
ness and William J. Walsh. 



Novel Foundation Method 

Builders and architects throughout the country 
have been interested in the new idea which was in- 
troduced with the construction of the 400-room 
addition to the Ambassador Hotel at Atlantic City, 
N. J., now practically completed. Under ordinary 
conditions the new structure could not have been 
opened, it is said, prior to September 1, so that the 
process has shortened the construction period by 
fully sixty days. It is believed that the success of 
the experiment will revolutionize construction meth- 
ods where excavation is made in sand soil. In fact, 
the same method is now being applied in the new 
Ritz-Carlton Hotel operation in Atlantic City, as 
well as in the cases of other buildings where the 
soil formation is of a character to lend itself to the 
innovation. 

Briefly, the scheme as carried out at the Ambassa- 
dor Hotel addition, consisted of punching l^j-inch 
holes in the sand 18 feet deep. \Vell-i>oints were 
then introduced and the water was pumped out from 
a level far below the surface. Eight hundred well- 
points were used constantly in preparing for the 
Ambassador Hotel foundation. The tip of each 
point was covered with a 60-mesh screen so that no 
sand was sucked up by the pumps. The excavation 
work for the caissons was therefore done in dry 
sand and no boxing was necessary. In this way tin- 
job proceeded much more rapidly, and the Thomp- 
son-Starret Company, who did the building work, 
say there will be no settling. A similar process lias 
been used heretofore in digging tunnels, sewers and 
excavations of that nature, but the Ambassador 
Hotel job is the first where the new method has 
ever been introduced in building work of this nature. 



Lincoln Highway Association Issues 
History of Work 

The headquarters of the Lincoln Highway Asso- 
ciation in Detroit have just published a handsome 
illustrated volume entitled "A Picture of Progress 
on the Lincoln Way." 

This 40-page volume, profusely illustrated with 
photographic reproductions of scenes along the 
Lincoln Highway between the two coasts, traces the 
progress of the association's inception and work 
from 1913 to "the beginning of the nation's real 
era of highway building" in 1920. 



In a preface to the book, which is the most pre- 
tentious publication ever put out by the Lincoln 
Highway Association headquarters, its author, A. 
F. Bement, vice-president and secretary of the Lin- 
coln Highway Association, says: 

"As a statement of the status of the American 
highway situation generally, as well as a report 
of the accomplishments on the Lincoln Highway 
specifically, from men who with the best of facili- 
ties have made it their business for six years to 
study, investigate and endeavor to mold and lead 
American highway sentiment, this booklet should 
be of interest to every American everywhere." 

A portion of the publication is devoted to a state- 
ment of the vast progress made in Lincoln High- 
way construction during 191 ( .>. Several pages are 
also devoted to picturing and describing the army 
convoy run over the Lincoln Highway last year, 
while a complete explanation of the provisions of 
the Townsend Highway Bill providing for a Fed- 
eral Highway System is given. 

Anyone interested in gaining a brief picture of 
the work and accomplishments of America's for- 
most highway promotional organization should 
write to the Lincoln Highway Association headquar- 
ters for a copy of this booklet. 



A Sacred Memorial 

The women's committee of one hundred of 
the Valley Forge Historical Society has completed 
its plans and will begin work this week in the 
effort to raise the money for the completion of 
the Washington Memorial at that historic shrine. 

This is a movement which deserves the hearty 
support of every American, both from motives of 
local and of national pride. As a people, we are 
none too careful of our historic places, and there are 
few in the country or in the world which can com- 
pare in interest with Valley Forge. As one of the 
great turning points of the Revolution it has a sanc- 
tity perhaps felt to a higher degree by visitors from 
a distance than by our own people. 

When the plans of the society are carried out, 
Valley Forge will be not only a memorial to the sol- 
diers of the war which made our country possible, 
but a memorial to all of those Americans who have 
given their lives for freedom since the nation's birth. 
The Hall of Victory is to be a memorial to the sol- 
diers of the late war, and thus the past will be linked 
to the present in the honoring of all those of our 
nation who died that freedom might live. 

Surely a project like this, which has as its motive 
the inculcation and the perpetuation of the highest 
form of national idealism that any country can 
know, deserves the support of the country at large. 



117 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Personals 

Mr. M. O. Leighton and Major C. T. Chenery, 
members of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, and Mr. A. C. Oliphant, associate member 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
have formed a co-partnership under the name of 
M. O. Leihgton & Company, with offices at 700 
Tenth street, Washington, D. C., for the purpose of 
engaging in general engineering practice and indus- 
trial representation before the Federal departments. 
Mr. Leighton and Major Chenery will continue for 
the time being as chairman and secretary of the 
National Public Works Department Association, 
while Mr. Leighton and Mr. Oliphant will continue 
service in the Washington Office of Engineering 
Council pending the displacement of that body by 
the Federated American Engineering Societies. 

W. H. Rockefeller has opened offices at 214 
Market square, Sunbury, Pa., for the practice of 
architecture. Catalogues and samples are desired. 

Frederick A. Fletcher, architect, formerly located 
in the Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md., may 
now be found at 407 North Charles street. 

E. L. Rice, Jr., Co., architects, are now practicing 
at 17 East Seventh street, Wilmington, Del. 

Reed & Brothers, general contractors, have moved 
to 702 Orange street, Wilmington, Del. 

Edmund Herrmann, architect, has moved his of- 
fice from 328 Market avenue to 134 Cleveland 
avenue, Canton, O. 

Severance & Van Alen, architects, have moved 
from 111 East Fortieth street to the southwest cor- 
ner of Forty-first street and Lexington avenue, New 
York City. 

L. C. Patton, architect, has moved his place of 
business from 597 Fifth avenue, New York City, 
to 2 West Fifty-sixth street. 

B. S. King & Campbell, architects, may now be 
found at 36 West Fortieth street, New York City. 

John A. Hamilton, architect, has moved from 32 
Broadway to 126 Liberty street, New York City. 

John D. Boyd, architect, has recently established 
an office at 105 West Fortieth street. 

John V. Van Pelt, architect, is now located at 126 
East Fifty-ninth street. 



News Notes from Various Sources 

British newspapers believe the laying of 30 bricks 
per man per hour is not a fair output. 

* * * 

"Sees Worldwide Housing Shortage" is title of 
article in New York Times, June 27, based on views 
of Frank Mann, Tenement House Commissioner, 

New York City. 

* * * 

About 60 per cent, of recent immigration has been 
composed of women and girls. 

* * * 

The United States Civil Service Commission an- 
nounces the postponement until August 3, 1920, of 
the close of receipt of applications for the open 
competitive non-assembled examination for senior 
architect ; salary $2,100 to $2,700. 

* * * 

"Go to School" drive will be conducted this sum- 
mer by New York State Board of Education among 
the 200,000 illiterates and non-English speaking per- 
sons in Manhattan and the Bronx. 

* * * 

The seating capacity of Madison Square Garden, 
New York, will be increased from 8,000 to 20,000 
by Tex Rickard, prize fighter, who has a ten-year 
lease. The traditions of the landmark will be pre- 
served. 

* * * 

According to compilation by O. P. Austin, statis- 
tical! of National City Bank, New York, in current 
issue of The Americas, debts of world now aggre- 
gate $265,000,000,000, compared with $44,000,000,- 
000 at beginning of World War. 

* * * 

Between three and four miles of permanent high- 
way is being built each day by the State of Illinois. 
The State Director of Public Works says he hopes 
to finish more than 400 miles before frost. 

* * * 

Graphic illustration of unprecedented rise since 
1914 in cost of materials and labor which enter into 
New York City building construction were provided 
by C. A. Chase, member of subcommittee on build- 
ing of Mayor's Housing Conference Committee, in 
special report. Mr. Chase's findings cover every 
phase of construction cost situation. They indicate 
advances in prices of building material ranging 
from 10 per cent, to 366 2/3 per cent. Show that 
labor costs have gone up, but not as much as ma- 
terial prices. Biggest advance in wages has been 
granted to common laborers and to plumbers' la- 
borers, whose rate of pay has increased 300 per 
cent. 



118 



Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Prominent Regional Centers 



UPON transportation conditions depends the 
course of the building industry. At the pres- 
ent time prices and supplies of materials are almost 
entirely a local matter. Even when manufacturers 
are able to procure cars to make shipment, they us- 
ually find them to be available only for short hauls. 
So far as New York is concerned, although prices 
are said to be stiffening, no precise changes of any 
great interest have been announced. 

The present and immediate future of the build- 
ing industry depending as it does upon transporta- 
tion, it is but one more disappointment to learn 
that "Order No. 7" which has restricted the use of 
open-top cars to the transportation of coal, has been 
extended until August 22. And there is but faint 
hope that the complaints made by the construction 
industry against this order will influence the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission to change its ruling. 

Upon the eve of the announcement of the de- 
cision of the Railroad Labor Wage Board, the Penn- 
sylvania Lines made statement that they would im- 
mediately put into effect their intention to lay off 
12,000 men in order to reduce operating costs and 
in the interest of efficiency. The various statements 
that this action has been enforced by a decrease in 
revenue have not been authorized. The company 
says, however, that "some men have merely held 
jobs" and although the company has 18 per cent, 
more men than at the time the Government took 
over the operation of the roads, it was necessary a 
few months ago to send locomotives to outside shops 
for repairs- an unprecedented situation. This is 
but another example of the restricted labor output. 

In connection with the labor output, it is encour- 
aging to read the report of the Merchants Asso- 
ciation : "Although production per man per hour 
has not yet reached normal, it has been gradually 
improving since last September." They arrive at 
this opinion through the reports of 49 manufac- 
turers. Twenty-three of these stated that the effi- 
ciency of their employes has noticeably increased. 
5 say that although they have observed no increase 
they have sensed a better spirit, 17 say that they 
have observed no change and 3 have noted a de- 
crease in efficiency. These same manufacturers re- 
ported in September that their labor was not more 
than 70 per cent, efficient. 



gard to municipal wage boosts should make aii 
thinking men in the building trades "stop look and 
listen." The recommendation says in part : To 
balance union labor increases amounting to $965,- 
000.000 the committee recommends that enough car- 
penters, painters, plumbers, bricklayers, etc., be laid 
off to save that sum. 

Incidentally, city construction and repair work 
would be cut 20 per cent, under the plan. In the 
face of this recommendation it is reported that 
every building tradesman employed by the city will 
be called out "to see that labor gets its demands." 
The demands being in this case $10 a day for 
municipal shop work. 

The union wage of $10 a day for "outside work" 
and $9 a day for "inside work" was recommended, 
but this was not satisfactory to the craft. While 
the tradesman shortsightedly insists upon a higher 
daily wage his working week is being steadily cut 
down. 

The building boom which was confidently pre- 
dicted would take place has failed to materialize. 
The man with money to build is playing a waiting 
game. While labor demands, contractors "pass the 
buck" and building costs steadily advance. 

Common brick is now selling at S16 a thousand, 
an advance of $2 over a month ago. Crushed stone 
is now $4 a yard as against $2.85 and $3.50. Sand 
and gravel have also advanced, while cement manu- 
facturers are refusing contracts and builders are 
offering premiums for deliveries. 

All hope for a lower interest rate and a loosening 
up of credit condition which would do much to 
facilitate construction work has been given up. The 
current talk among bankers is to the effect that 
money rates may be stronger in the fall 7 per cent. 
is a minimum charge now for collateral loans, while 
commercial paper ranges from 7JX to S l /2 per cent. 

Building permits show a decrease of 66 2/3 per 
cent, under the same week of a year ago. They 
show 31 for the week at a cost of $582,400, as 
against 97 for the same week last year valuation 
$2,606,300. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 

Architect.) 

Chicago : The recent recommendation made by 
the Finance Committee of the City Council in re- 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

Seattle. Prices, finance and car shortages have 
been submerged in the difficulty of getting skilled 
labor to turn out small pipe and nails, and the la- 
bor question is paramount as the cause of irregular 
delivery from eastern mills to North Coast jobbers. 



119 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



The pipe situation has not improved in 30 days, 
and while prices are stationary and no advance i.; 
expected, jobbers are passing through a critical pe- 
riod in taking care of not to exceed 40 per cent, 
of the demand. 

Country buyers of builders' hardware and pipe 
are so thoroughly cognizant of the trouble that 
they are placing orders with large distributors here 
subject to shipment at the earliest opportunity. Job- 
bers are 60 days behind in filling orders, for nails 
and steel products excepting pipe fittings. 

There seems no doubt in the minds of jobbers 
in this territory that the complaint as to difficulty 
of the eastern mills in getting skilled men who will 
work in the heat at the wages paid when they can 
secure easier environment elsewhere at as good a 
wage is sincere. Reduced production in conse- 
quence is anticipated for months to come. Only a 
small percentage of pipe needed is being delivered 
although building projects are not brisk. Cali- 
fornia jobbers have been reaching up into this ter- 
ritory with placements but jobbers have refused ac- 
ceptance owing to the difficulty of taking care of 
their own territory. This enquiry from the south 
clearly indicates that stocks from the Canadian 
to the Mexican line are very low. Export orders 
also are being rationed while one length of small 
pipe is made to do the work of two. It is the opin- 
ion of jobbers here that normal conditions cannot 
return in the steel building industry in less than 
five years. 

Colorado mills, which promised 50 per cent, of 
the small nail supply by July 1, have been able only 
to get out 40 per cent, of the requirements. Manu- 
factured hardware which includes faucets and 
valves are coming this week more freely and job- 
bers' stocks are in fair condition. Satisfactory 
arrivals in fittings as against lean receipts of pipe 
is explained in the fact that the mills are concen- 
trating what skilled labor they can get on turning 
out the materials that bring the highest profits. 

Brick, plaster, plaster board, cement and patent 
roofing are offering two to one to the demand. 
Prospective construction of office buildings, which 
are two years behind in this city, is being deferred. 
Investors do not seem to care to pay present prices 
believing that they can save considerable money by 
waiting at least a year. 

Red cedar shingles are stronger by 35 to 40 cents 
than ten days ago for clears and 75 to 80 cents 
higher on stars. The low points has evidently been 
passed. Standard clears, mill basis, are $4.30 to 
$4.50 per 1,000 and stars $3.85 to $3.90. A ma- 
jority of the mills are down for a prolonged sea- 
son of repairs. Fir lumber is firm to stronger. 
New price lists carrying higher quotations are be- 
lieved to be impending. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

San Francisco: While no doubt much building 
has been postponed from time to time and is still 
being delayed on account of high costs of materials 
and labor, the first half of the year showed a big 
advance in construction work in and about San 
Francisco as compared with the first six months of 
1919. Local architects, as well as contractors and 
building material interests consider the outlook 
bright for a proportionate increase during the lat- 
ter part of 1920. The preparation of plans and 
specifications by the architects continues quite a bit 
ahead of the actual starting of work on many as- 
signments, on account of the difficulty experienced 
in getting materials and labor to push the work 
along. Now a shortage of steel is one of the most 
serious drawbacks on large buildings in the down- 
town business districts. Not only is this shortage 
delaying the starting of certain buildings, it is halt- 
ing work already in progress. 

For instance, work on the California State Build- 
ing on McAllister street, between Larkin and Polk 
streets, which is to complete the northerly frontage 
of the Civic Center, has been suspended owing to 
the delay in the arrival from the East of light sizes 
of structural steel required for floor beams. It is 
understood this contingency is confronting other 
contractors also. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

Boston. June building operations in New Eng- 
land amounted to $32,795,000 which was somewhat 
less than the May figure, although greater than 
that of April. The total number of contracts 
awarded during the first half of the year was 5440 
and the amount involved was $178,854,000 as com- 
pared with 5070 contracts amounting to $82,111,000 
for the first half of 1919. 

Industrial building led in this section during the 
first half of the current year, amounting to $55,- 
582,000 or 31 per cent, of the total. Other im- 
portant classes of buildings were as follows : Resi- 
dential $49,035,000, or 27 per cent. ; business build- 
ing $37,468,000, or 21 per cent.; public works and 
utilities $15,446,000, or 9 per cent. Contemplated 
or projected work was reported from January 1st- 
to July 1st as amounting to over $340,000,000. This 
large figure is an indication that the rate of activ- 
ity which prevailed before July 1st is likely to 
continue throughout the year. 

Statistics of building and engineering operations 
in New England show that contracts awarded from 
January 1st to July 8, 1890 amounted to $188,- 
622,000 as against $89,866,000 for a correspond- 
ing period in 1919 and $76,328,000 in 1918. 



120 




-T''TT r r v lf>/C : 'vlnfr 7Tr> A T' T^Tv 

HM^ E 






^^7;-^ 



The Office of an Architect and Engineer 



R\ RMILE G. PERROT 



IN connection with the article entitled "Tlie Bal- 
ance," which appeared m the May 19 issue of 
THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT, and which very ahly 
portrayed the balance that should exist between 
architect and engineer, it is interesting to note that 
many organizations have. 
under the stress of 
necessity, solved this 
problem by combining 
the services of architect 
and engineer in a single 
organization. 

The concern w i t h 
which the writer is con- 
nected has been per- 
forming its work in this 
balanced fashion for the 
past twenty years. One 
purpose only controlled 
the laying out of their 
present offices, namely, 
the creation of an effi- 
cient workshop where 
client, architect, en- 
gineer and contractor 
could all labor fruitfully 
and satisfactorily to- 
gether. 

The needs of this par- 
ticular office are to some 
extent unusual, since the 
firm has a clientele 
whose requirements em- 
brace a wide diversity 
of work. Thus a por- 
tion of the activities of our organization covers 
institutions, churches and schools ; another phase 
brings us in contact with business buildings 




7TH FLOOR 



8TH FLOOR 

ARCHITECTURAL OFFICES OF BALL1NGER & 
PERROT, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



and industrial plants, while a third, related to both 
the above and yet different from either, directs our 
energies towards industrial housing and town plan- 
ning. In all three fields, the architectural, the en- 
gineering and the equipment features are handled 

and developed simul- 
taneously. This concern 
specializes also in me- 
chanical work, such as 
]) r o c e s s engineering, 
power plants, and simi- 
lar developments. 

Such a variety of 
work necessitates the 
establishment of a work- 
shop or office having am- 
ple provision for effi- 
ciently handling these 
several lines of en- 
deavor, and so organized 
that work may be car- 
ried on simultaneously 
and independently if 
desired, while permit- 
ting work of two or 
more branches to be co- 
related whenever the 
advantage thereof is ap- 
parent. 



The offices here illus- 
trated occupy the entire 
top floor of a building 
90 by 150 ft. in area, 
receiving natural light 
on all four sides and in 



addition a large skylight furnishes daylight over the 
central portion. This floor is devoted to lobby, con- 
sulting room, library, general offices, private offices, 



121 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




OFFICES OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS IN 
FOREGROUND 

drafting room, tile room, etc. On the floor below we 
occupy a row of offices, extending entirely across 
the north side of the building. A section of this 
space is devoted to a reproduction plant, wherein 
are blueprint machines, equipment for tracing repro- 
ductions and a photostat machine. Another section 
embraces sample rooms and contractor's estimating 
room, in which contractors who have not received 
plans and specifications, may leisurely and quietly 
take off quantities, preliminary to preparing their 
bids. 

As will be noted from the floor plan of the top 
floor, the lobby, or reception room, the consulting 
room, the library, the contract and accounting de- 
partments, with general manager's office, stretch 
across the front of the building. These rooms have 
opaque partitions and are to all intents and pur- 
poses, soundproof. Next, in a commanding posi- 
tion, are the private offices of the firm. These of- 
fices are enclosed in light glass partitions which are 



translucent to a point about five feet above the 
floor, providing complete seclusion to the occupants 
when seated, and yet, permitting them, when stand- 
ing, to view almost the entire organization at a 
glance. In this row is also located the telephone 
switchboard, which is elevated to permit the opera- 
tor to view the entire floor and readily locate any 
person wanted no matter how far he may have 
wandered from his individual telephone. 

Next comes the row of executives, or heads of 
departments, with offices enclosed only by railings 
sufficiently low so that they do not obstruct the 
view from the private offices just mentioned. In 
this are the chief architect, production engineer, 
chief mechanical engineer, and construction manager 
with their assistants. On one end of this row, 
separated by a small ajsie is a glass partition, hous- 
ing the chief specification engineer, with his heaps 
of samples and manufacturers' catalogs; while 
situated on the other end is the chief structural 





PORTION OF DRAUGHTING ROOM 



GENERAL OFFICE, CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. 

engineer, with the estimating division immediately 
adjacent. From here, on back to the rear of the 
building are the drafting tables, arranged so that 
the forces of each department are in line with the 
office of their department head. 

At the extreme rear an enclosed filing room is 
located. This consists of a large open space with 
wire partition, through an aperture of which draw- 
ings are handed out to those authorized to receive 
them. Here is also contained a fireproof vault in 
which are stored the record drawings of completed 
work. 

When the work of any particular project is well 
under way, five or six tracing reproductions of the 
main outline of the particular structure are made 
and a complete set given each department. This 
not only saves time and expense, but each depart- 
ment has a set of drawings which are exact dupli- 



122 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




BLUE PRINTING DEPARTMENT 

cates of sets given to other departments, being iden- 
tical as to scale and detail. In carrying forward 
the work after it leaves the conference with client, 
there are frequent conferences between the execu- 
tives of different departments, as well as between 
the squad bosses in command of the various gr . >uus 
of draftsmen. 

The several features of any structure, including 
the architectural treatment, the engineering and 
equipment details, are carried forward together. 



with the result that when the final drawings are 
made, all these various features have, as it were, 
been built into the drawings, producing a complete, 
harmonious and unified structure, a culmination not 
always possible where the architectural work is first 
completed, and then the equipment and engineering 
provided from sources outside the architects office, 
which latter method, from the very nature of 
things, must subordinate such features and make 
them mere additions to the architectural drawings. 

This firm has found through long experience that 
its clients' interests as well as its own have been 
best conserved by having all branches of architec- 
ture and engineering necessary for the proper and 
complete designing of structures, under one roof, 
and also under one governing, responsible head. 

The illustrations portray better than a detailed 
description can, the complete balance existing be- 
tween the various departments and the ease with 
which the department heads can co-operate. The 
fact that they are all located on one floor with an 
unobstructed view of each other and their respec- 
tive subordinates, reduces to a minimum, the time 
generally consumed in a useless hunt for an in- 
dividual who may not be free just at the moment 
wanted. 

Efficient business methods are as essential to ihe 
practice of architecture as in any other business. 



KALI.INCtR PERROT 

AUCfllTLCTS . LKCIsrF.P.1 AND COHMHUCTOR-S 



ORGANIZATION CHART 




American Wooden Houses in France 

Five hundred from an order of 1,000 wooden 
houses for the devastated regions of northern 
France have been delivered by a New York firm 
this spring. These houses are 7 meters or about 
23 feet square and have three rooms and a shed. 
1 hey are delivered in sections and complete, ac- 
cording to the Review of the American Chamber of 
Commerce in France, including windows, doors, 
glass, paint, nails, bolts, all ready for erection. 
Their erection is under the director of one of the 
French building departments. About a hundred of 
these houses are being erected in the Arras and 
Lens districts. 



Data on Chimney Construction 

The National Hoard of Fire Underwriters has 
issued an illustrated 12-page pamphlet entitled "An 
Ordinance for Construction of Chimneys." It is so 
drawn as to be suitable for use in cities and towns 
of any size, and is also suitable for individual use as 
a safe guide for the construction of chimneys in- 
tended for moderate temperatures. 

Due to the large number of fires whose origin can 
be traced to defective chimneys, it is to be hoped 
that the recommendations contained in this pam- 
phlet will receive careful attention and the principles 
laid down be put into practice more extensively than 
in the past. 



123 



Report on Trip to Princeton, College of City of New York, 

Yale and Harvard for the Purpose of Inspecting the 

Stadia at those Universities 

By HOWARD DWIGHT SMITH 

Part II 



AFTER observing the Palmer Stadium at 
Princeton and going immediately on to the 
one given to the College of the City of New 
York by Mr. Adolph Lewisohn one is impressed 
by the similarity in color. The tannish color no- 
ticed at Princeton is quite predominant at the City 
College. In size and in the shape of its inside 
curve, the City College Stadium is quite similar 
to the closed flattened end of the Princeton struc- 
ture. It is in reality a sort of "hemi-stadium," its 
internal plan being half of an ellipse which has been 
bisected along its major axis. 

Its seating capacity is 7,000, and the space which 
it encloses on one side is barely large enough for 
a football field. The running track is less than a 
quarter of a mile and a long straightaway is im- 



possible. The structure is placed between two city 
streets (135th and 136th streets) and abutts on a 
third (Amsterdam avenue). The exterior of the 
structure on each of these three streets consists of 
a solid wall with entrances at the street intersec- 
tions. On the interior the upper line of the semi- 
ellipse, at the top of the rows of seats, is marked 
by a simple Doric colonnade which terminates at 
each end in sturdy square towers. The placing 
of this colonnade gives an interesting and dignified 
appearance to the structure and because of the close 
spacing of the columns, the irregularities of the 
triangular spaces at each of the corner entrances 
are successfully masked. The great number of 
columns gives "scale'' or an appearance of com- 
paratively great size to the structure. 







STADIUM FOR THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 
ARNOLD W. BRUNNER, ARCHITECT 

124 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



FOR. THE COLLEGENOI 
THE CITY OF NEW YOR.K 




The problem of handling crowds is not great. 
Entrance and exit is only by way of the openings 
at the street corners. No provision is made for 
egress from the seats to the field except by small 
stairways in the end towers. The wall at the inner 
line is 7 l / 2 feet high, the lowest aisle level being 
5 feet above the playing field. All seat drainage is 
into this lower aisle and thence down into a cement 
glitter along the wall at the playing field level. 

In the towers at each end of the Stadium there 
are showers and dressing rooms, and the stairs men- 
tioned above. The dressing rooms and showers 
are quite extensively used, even though the gym- 
nasium of the College is just across 136th street. 
The rise and width of the seats at City College is 
uniformly 16 to 28 inches which give a very satis- 
factory sight line. 

After having been impressed with the apparent 
insufficiency of expansion joints at Princeton, care- 
ful observation of those at the City College stadium 
seemed important. It was founde th.it the Stadium 



had been built in sections with expansion joints lo- 
cated about 30 or 40 feet apart, around the elli|>se 
and with a joint at the top row of seats along the flat 
archway or promenade at the upper entrance level. 
These expansion joints are of the overlapping or 
slip joint type in which lead plates and mastic ce- 
ment have been used. The efficacy of these joints 
is testified to by the fact that after five years of 
contraction and expansion there is practically no 
unsightly cracking from temperature stresses or 
unequal settlement, except at a few points where 
the parapets of the four upper observation boxes 
overlap the expansion joints. There is a very defi- 
nite lesson to be learned from this condition, and 
that is that extension joints should be absolutely 
continuous throughout the structure, that they 
should be designed to be a part of the architec- 
tural embellishments as well as of the structural 
necessities. 

The expansion joints between the seat sections 
occur at one side of each aisle of steps. In prin- 



125 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ciple this appears to be a satisfactory solution. In- 
spection of the drawings and diagrams published 
in the Engineering Record of January 1, 1916 (Vol. 
73, No. 1, pages 10, 12), shows that it was intended 
that the steps in these aisles should be so located 
as to have the riser of each alternate step line up 
with the riser of the adjoining seat. This of course 
would have led to difficulties with the expansion 
joint for the face of the joint would have been 
exposed for a few inches at each seat riser. This 
evidently has been overcome by moving the face 
of the step risers in order to keep the expansion 
covered by the overlap of the seat riser. In some 
cases this overlap hardly appears to be quite suffi- 
cient and some slight cracking has resulted. 

The expansion joints in the floor of the promen- 
ade area at the top of the seats are covered with 
metal floor plates which are about 4 inches wide, 
secured to one section and allowed to slide over 
the edge of the other. This appears to be quite 
effective. In the vertical walls along the three ad- 
joining; streets the expansion joints have been cov- 
ered by sheet copper plates. These plates not only 
cover the joints on the flat surfaces but have been 
formed to fit the profiles of the classic cornices 
and mouldings. The fineness of some of these 
mouldings has made it somewhat difficult to main- 
tain proper contact and profiles. The lesson which 
is drawn from this is that (1) joints through 
moulded members should be plain, butt joints which 
should be free to open and close as necessary (with 
proper protection on top horizontal surfaces ex- 
posed to the weather) ; or, (2) that moulded courses 
should be designed to avoid expansion joints ; or, 
(3) omit moulded courses, except of the most sim- 
ple nature. ( For structural and technical details 
refer to Engineering Record mentioned above). 

For additional illustrations see THE AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT, Aug. 4, 1915. 

It is realized that the problems of designing and 
erecting monolithic structures of reinforced con- 
crete are not confined to stadia. Many buildings 
and engineering structures are being erected to-day 
where the problems of structural design involved 
are the same as or similar to those of a Stadium. 
Several large bridges recently built are recom- 
mended for further study. 

The United States Army Supply Base at Brook- 
lyn completed in August, 1918, consists of a group 
of five buildings, all built hurriedly and as a war 
emergency. Speed and economy of construction 
were prime considerations. Pretentious design is 
not aimed at, but the care with which the various 
structural members have been spaced and propor- 
tioned is sufficient indication that the fundamental 
principles of design can be applied to apparently 
so crude a material as concrete. The emphasis 



of vertical lines, the suppression of the heavy hori- 
zontal lines at each floor level, the logical location 
of solid towers, and the frank expression of mate- 
rial, shown by the form marks which have in gen- 
eral been left untouched, mark this factory-like 
group of buildings as a very interesting and suc- 
cessful example of reinforced concrete construction. 
The two large warehouses dominate this group. 
One is 200 feet wide, the other is 300 feet wide. 
Each is 980 feet long and eight stories high. To 
take up expansion and contraction in such large 
masses, each building has been divided into four 
parts by three continuous transverse expansion 
joints. The joints in the side walls are sliding 




NORTHEAST PAVILION 

joints filled with mastic. The joints in the floor 
slabs are covered with steel sliding plates. The 
joints in the roof are made weather proof by flex- 
ible "V" shaped copper plates. In principle all of 
these forms of joints just mentioned are satisfac- 
tory. However, Major H. L. Green (U. S. Q. C.) 
now Utilities Officer at the Supply Base, says : 

"The expansion joints run all the way through 
the building from roof to foundation. Foundations, 
however, are not divided. Experience has shown 
that the placing of these expansion joints is not 
quite sufficient as there have been evidences that 
tend to show the area of the sections, 250 feet by 
200 feet is too great and that under the changes 
of temperature, stresses are discovered which result 
in cracks." 

Time alone will tell how these buildings will wear 
and the evidence of good workmanship and mate- 
rial even in spite of the roughness of surfaces due 
to the presence of form marks, is apparent from 
an inspection of the structures at the Supply Base. 



126 






Quantity Survey System Receives Further 

Endorsement 

Engineering Council Takes Action on Report of Its Committee 



IN October 1919 the American Institute of Ar- 
chitects, Engineering Council and the Asso- 
ciated General Contractors of America eacii 
appointed three conferees, which formed a joint 
committee to discuss the matter of payment for 
estimating with a view to agreeing upon certain 
recommendations to be submitted to their respec- 
tive organizations for action. At a meeting of this 
joint committee, held February 16, 1920. the fol- 
lowing resolutions were adopted : 

WHEREAS, there is great economic waste in the 
present usual methods of individual estimating- of the 
same quantities by several different bidders on the same 
project; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the following are the conclusions of 
this conference : 

(1) That any system of duplication of effort in esti- 
mating wherein each bidder separately estimates the quan- 
tities should be condemned. 

(2) That all competitive bids should be based upon a 
detailed schedule of quantities prepared from a survey 
of the plans and specifications and submitted therewith, 
the cost of the preparation of such survey of quantities 
to be borne by the owner. 

(3) That while the owner should furnish a quantity 
survey as the basis of bids and contracts, and should 
submit them with the plans and specifications, and should 
pay for the same, the bidders should make no charge 
to the owner for submitting proposals, based on said 
plans, specifications and quantity survey. 

(4) That in general, competitive bids should not be 
invited nor submitted on projects, the plans and speci- 
fications for which are not accompanied by a quantity 
survey, unless the owner agrees to pay a predetermined 
fee to each bidder for preparing the quantities and sub- 
mitting an estimate. 

On the following day, Henry K. Holsman, presi- 
dent of the Illinois Chapter, A. I. A., and a member 
of the joint committee, addressed the National 
Conference on Construction of the Associated Gen- 
eral Contractors of America on the "Expense of 
Estimating." This address was printed in full in 
the April 14th issue of the AMERICAN ARCHITECT. 
^ During this conference, the Associated General 
Contractors adopted the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the progress report of the joint con- 
ference of the American Institute of Architects, Engi- 
neering Council and the Associated General Contractors. 



on payment for estimating construction work as sub- 
mitted to the annual meeting by the Committee on 
Methods, be adopted. 

Engineering Council appointed a special com- 
mittee to consider the report of the joint conferees, 
and at a meeting held June 17, Engineering Council 
adopted the conclusion of its committee, which 
follows : 

\\henevcr in the execution of work, competitive bids 
are asked for on detailed plans and specifications, those 
united to bid should be provided with such an estimate 
"f the quantities involved in the work as the surveys, 
plans and specifications permit to be made. The intent 
'>f this requirement is that a single estimate of quantities 
should be made by or for the engineer, architect, or 
other representative of the owner, so that each separate 
bidder will not be put to the expense of mnking up a 
separate schedule of estimates. This latter practice not 
only means a needless waste in the carrying on of con- 
tract work, but also discourages bidders a'nd causes need- 
less repeated handling of official plans and specifications 
in making up separate schedules of estimates. 

Eight months have passed since the nine rep- 
resentatives of the various organizations were ap- 
pointed to the joint committee and live months 
since these conferees set forth their recommenda- 
tions. During this period, two of the organizations 
represented have endorsed the findings of this joint 
committee. At the convention of the American 
Institute of Architects, held in Washington last 
May, no action was taken on this matter, and to 
date it is not known whether the report of the con- 
ferees has the approval of the Institute or not. 
In the meantime, it is interesting to note that the 
Philadelphia Chapter has gone on record as en- 
dorsing the recommendations of the joint confer- 
ence, and it would seem likely that other chapters 
will give similar individual indorsement. 

This is a matter of vital interest to the prac- 
tising architect, and it is to be hoped that action 
will shortly be taken by the Executive Committee 
of the Institute removing all uncertainty, if indeed 
any can exist, as to the attitude of that organiza- 
tion toward a plan that makes for convenience, a 
reduction in the labor of estimating, greater accu- 
racy, truer competition in bidding, and as an in- 
evitable result of these attributes economy. 



127 



Senate Committee to Consider Crises 

National Federation of Construction Industries to Aid in Presenting Accurate Data 



THE presidents and secretaries of the fifty 
odd associations affiliated with the National 
Federation of Construction Industries, met 
at the Union League Club, Philadelphia, June 17, 
to arrange for the preparation of statements to be 
submitted to the United States Senate Special Com- 
mittee on Reconstruction and Production, which has 
recently been appointed and is particularly charged 
with the fostering and stimulating of construction 
work of all kinds. 

There is a growing feeling of confidence in the 
work of this Senate Committee among those en- 
gaged in the construction industry, those dealing in 
real estate, as well as among housing and labor ex- 
perts, for the reason that the chairman of the com- 
mittee, Senator William M. Calder, of New York," is 
not only a practical builder, but has a thorough 
knowledge of the economic conditions surrounding 
the industry, as well as of the national problems 
with which the industry must synchronize. The 
personnel of the Senate Committee is as follows : 
Hon. William M. Calder, of New York, Chairman; 
Hon. William S. Kenyon, of Iowa ; Hon. Walter 
E. Edge, of New York; Hon. Josiah O. Wolcott, 
of Delaware; and Hon. Edward J. Gay, of Louisi- 
ana. It is understood that the research work of the 
Senate Committee is being very carefully organized 
in advance and is in charge of Mr. Franklin T. Mil- 
ler, who is a recognized authority on the economics 
of the construction industry. 

The National Federation of Construction Indus- 
tries represents, as a clearing house of information 
and action on the major problems of the whole in- 
dustry, several hundred national and local associa- 
tions engaged in the manufacture and assembly of 
construction materials. It is the purpose of the 
Federation to place before the Senate Committee 
exact information from each of its component as- 
sociations. This information will be obtained by 
each of these associations from the thousands of 
concerns who are its own individual members and 
who are familiar with local conditions in every sec- 
tion of the country. 

It is the hope of the Federation and of its affilia- 
ted bodies to thus briefly and clearly indicate to the 
Senate Committee the existing situation in each of 
the building trades, so called, to compare the po- 
tential capacity of each with the present quantity 
of its output, to compare the prices of the products 
of each with the prices of general commodities, and 
to draw the attention of the Senate Committee to 
the great influence of the factor of uncertainty 



which is now so seriously affecting costs and quan- 
tity of production, as well as making for uncertainty 
of delivery and speculation as to future delivery. 

It is believed by many that this item of uncer- 
tainty is one of the largest items entering into the 
cost of construction at the present time. The labor 
factor is hardly more uncertain than the transpor- 
tation or the financial factor. The cost of the raw 
material used in construction is, in itself, a very 
small item ; it is the repeated application to the raw 
material of overhead, labor, transportation charges 
together with the speculation due to uncertainty of 
delivery which make up the final price to the con- 
sumer. 

It is very evident that the construction industry 
can not function at all without capital, transporta- 
tion, fuel and labor. It is equally evident that the 
greater the supply of these necessary elements, the 
more speedy will be the completion and the less 
the costs and the lower the rentals. 

The full effect of the order of June 2nd, issued 
by the American Railroad Association, which gave 
preference to the shipment of coal, has not yet been 
fully realized. It is believed by many that this has 
placed a practical embargo on the movement of 
building materials and will bring about speculation 
in materials already available. 

Freight rates, which in June 1918, were increased 
on the average of 25 per cent on general commodi- 
ties, were, it is estimated, increased 50 per cent 
on some important building materials and now 
there is a prospect of a further increase. The ulti- 
mate cost to the consumer through increased freight 
rates and the uncertainty of the transportation are 
grasped with difficulty. In Chicago, sand is now 
costing from $4 to $5 a yard, and Chicago is built 
on sand dunes. 

A statement of the actual conditions presented in 
an orderly fashion by the entire construction indus- 
try, by the financial, transportation, groups and by 
labor and housing experts, will go far to clarify 
the situation and encourage individual initiative, 
and at least decrease one of the largest items of 
expense the item of uncertainty. 

It is the hope of the optimists of the construction 
industry that the present necessity may greatly ad 
vance the standardization of materials used in con- 
struction, so that costs may be reduced through 
quantity of production and speedy assembly. After 
all Necessity is the Mother of Invention, and the 
construction industry is just commencing to learn 
what it can accomplish through standardization. 




128 





DOORWAY CHURCH OF S. MARIA MAGGIORE, BOLOGNA. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



VOL. CXVIII 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 4, 1920 



NUMBER 2328 



Organization, Management and An 

Accounting System for An 

Architect's Office 

B\' H. P. VAN ARSDAI.L, of Samuel Hannaford <'r Sons, .Irchitccts, (.'inciiniati, Ohio 



INTRODUCTION : 

THE average architect, like the average doc- 
tor or lawyer, enjoys only a moderate in- 
come from his professional practice and his 
accumulations after the normal term of activity pro- 
vide, at best, only a very modest competency. 

In the writer's opinion the reason for this condi- 
tion is to be found in their general indifference to 
the commercial side of the profession. 

The practice of architecture, while very properly 
classed as professional in the same degree as the 
practice of law or medicine, is unlike others, dis- 
tinctly commercial in its methods of achieving re- 
sults. It is doubtless true that the creative faculty 
leaves little opportunity for the successful develop- 
ment of purely commercial functions, but since ex- 
istence depends on income, there seems no valid ex- 
cuse for inefficiency in management of the business 
end. 

Architecture, as a business, has as definite an out- 
put as a factory, namely buildings, and as an inter- 
mediate process, plans and specifications. 

Architects, as a rule, are liberal in their invest- 
ment in literature, plates and technical information, 
but suggestions looking to improvement and mod- 
ernization in methods of production and accounting 
are too frequently dismissed with little consideration 
for fear of reducing the office to a purely industrial 
level, .with a consequent loss of caste by the office 
force. This attitude and its correlative inefficiency 
is frequently a surprising revelation to clients affili- 
ated with well organized industries and indicates an 
inexcusable ignorance of fundamental business prin- 
ciples on the part of those assuming it. 

Few architects seem either to understand, or to 
utilize any rational system of cost accounting and, as 
long as they have a balance in bank, appear indiffer- 
ent to the matter. In fact, very few have any ade- 
quate idea of the cost of producing a set of plans 
and specifications. The writer recently asked three 



prominent architects, all working under practically 
the same conditions, as to their average rate of 
overhead expense. One of them replied "40 per 
cent, of the draftsmen time," one "56 per cent, of the 
draftsmen time," the third man did not know and 
was not interested. The head of a factory would 
think such ignorance imbecile, for he knows that 
only the ( irace of (iod prevents bankruptcy of any 
concern which does not know the cost of production 
for the commodity sold. 

It happens otten that plans and specifications are 
prepared for a building and after bids are received 
the whole project is abandoned. The architect then 
wonders, notwithstanding the fact that the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects has laid down a schedule 
of charges, what he will get out of it or how much 
he should charge. Nine out of ten don't know what 
to charge, but make a rank guess and send out a bill. 
If the client objects to the amount of the bill, the 
architect usually has no cost records to back up his 
claim and under the conditions has to make the best 
settlement possible. 

The installation of improved methods in office 
management and accounting cannot be accomplished 
in a day. It requires considerable time, labor and 
thought, but once installed, all friction and dupli- 
cation is avoided and the organization operates like 
a well balanced machine. 

This article was written for the sole purpose of 
pointing out the vital necessity of modern methods, 
with some suggestions looking toward improvement 
in a commercial sense. 
ORGANIZATION : 

Organization has been denned as the collecting 
together of individuals for the purpose of producing 
certain things, and the division of authority among 
these individuals in order that they may perform 
their special functions harmoniously and efficiently 
for the common good of all. 

There are three principal forms of organization 



Copyright, 19X0, The Arcliittctimtl rf Ruildinri Press (Inc. ) 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



that may be used; viz., individual proprietorship, 
partnership, corporate. 

INDIVIDUAL PROPRIETORSHIP: 

Individual ownership is the simplest form in 
which business can be conducted and is best suited 
where the amount of capital required is small and 
the business risk is slight. An individual may select 
his own time to start operating and can retire at 
will, providing all obligations have been met. Since 
all responsibility and authority is vested in one per- 
son, matters of importance that require quick deci- 
sions can be settled promptly ; whereas with the 
other forms of organization, more time is required, 
as questions of vital importance are usually referred 
to two or more persons. This form has many disad- 
vantages; the most conspicuous of these is limited 
capital, and a single mind to pass judgment on im- 
portant matters. Quick action often leads to serious 
results. It is only in rare instances where you find 
a combination of keen business judgment and de- 
signing skill in one person. It has been demon- 
strated to the writer time and again that the strictly 
architectural designing mind abhors matters pertain- 
ing of finance and business. This type is eager to 
offer suggestions and advice, but shifts responsi- 
bility when results are bad. 

This form of ownership cannot be recommended, 
except in the smallest of offices. 

PARTNERSHIP : 

A partnership may be described as an association 
of two or more competent persons for the purpose 
of combining capital, labor and skill in the prosecu- 
tion of some lawful business for profit. 

Our laws grant the right to any two legally re- 
sponsible parties to enter into this arrangement of 
business organization. 

Each partner is an agent of the firm, and when 
acting in the interest of or for the partnership can 
legally bind the other members to any agreement 
entered into. 

In the case of partnership debts each firm mem- 
ber is liable for the full amount. 

The partnership permits of a division of author- 
ity, which is very essential in any business. Usually 
in forming a partnership one member is of the ex- 
ecutive type and the other man of designing ability. 
The executive should be familiar with good business 
practice and management and have a thorough 
knowledge of architecture; the other member or 
members have charge of the drafting room and 
the actual supervision of building construction. 

This form of organization lends itself more read- 
ily to the architectural business than any other, and 
where harmony is secured it is the most desirable 
and profitable. 



In the forming of a partnership the following 
points should be written in the articles of co-part- 
nership : ( 1 ) The names of the contracting parties ; 
(2) the firm name; (3) the purpose for which the 
partnership is formed; (4) the invested capital of 
each partner and the division of profits and losses ; 
(5) the system of accounting; (6) the method of 
conducting business ; (7) the privileges and rights 
of the partners ; (8) the dissolution of the partner- 
ship. 

CORPORATION : 

Blackstone defines a corporation as "An artificial 
person created for preserving in perpetual succes- 
sion certain rights which being conferred on natural 
persons only would fail in the process of time." 

A corporation is a "legal entity'' and has its origin 
under the laws of some state. Its powers are all 
conferred by the state under which it is organized. 

It can own property in its own name, can sue and 
be sued ; whereas a partnership can do neither. It 
is financed by the sale of stock or shares of equal 
value to individuals, and the individual's voice in 
the operation of the company is governed by the 
amount of stock held. 

Since the services of an architect are strictly pro- 
fessional, and constitute a personal service, it can 
readily be seen that the removal of one of the 
principal units of the organization would destroy 
the foundation that your whole business is built 
upon. 

It is therefore recommended that this form of 
organization be not considered. 

MANAGEMENT : 

The life of any business depends upon its man- 
agement. It should therefore be organized in an 
orderly and systematic fashion, purposed to gain 
maximum production at a minimum cost. This re- 
sult cannot be obtained indirectly ; direct methods 
must be employed. Thought spent in planning your 
working arrangement will prove to be valuable, as 
it will produce harmony among your forces and at 
the same time increase production. 

Clearly define authority and responsibility among 
subordinates to insure the successful co-operation of 
divided effort. 

In many offices the old moss-eaten idea of never 
increasing a man's wages until he asks for it still 
prevails. Draftsmen and office help should not be 
placed in this embarrassing position. It is humiliat- 
ing to ask for a "raise." An executive should 
quickly reward good service, as it encourages a man 
more than anything else. A haphazard method of 
increasing salaries creates dissatisfaction among 
employees and kills ambition. 

It is a good practice (during normal times) for 
a firm to fix upon a just schedule of wages, and in- 






130 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



form the employees that through meritorious work 
their wages will be increased in accordance with 
their efficiency records, and then go through with 
it. 

In order to have a definite working arrangement 
the organization chart should be used, which clearly 
defines authority. 

An organization chart is simple and readily under- 
stood. No one is laboring with a false idea of his 
position. 



color drawings is done in this section. Approxi- 
mate estimates of cost are also made. 

2. Clients: In the preparation of sketches, etc., 
it is necessary that consultations be had with the 
client. In this connection it is suggested that the 
head draftsman sit in these conferences and take 
notes of all question discussed. After the confer- 
ence a letter giving in detail the results of the dis- 
cussion should be sent to the client and a copy re- 
tained in the office for reference. This procedure 



MODE.L 



ClUitT 




H-f.Van,,Arsdall 



The model chart presented is a suggestive ar- 
rangement that will go far toward effecting an 
efficient working 'force. 

DESCRIPTION OF CHARTS 

Firm : The firm is represented by the rectangle. 

Senior Member No. 1 : Is the executive member 
of the firm who directs the business policy, solicits 
business, makes contracts, interviews clients, and 
exerts a general supervision over the entire office. 
RIGHT BRANCH OF CHART: 

Member No. 2 : Is the firm member having charge 
of the production end of the business. It is cus- 
tomary to divide his work into three sections. 

1. Studies, Sketches and Interior Decorations: 
The preparation of all studies, sketches and water 



silences all future argument as to what was agreed 
upon. 

3. Head Draftsman: The head draftsman is di- 
rectly responsible to the head of this department. 
All instructions from the head of the department 
to any subordinate department must pass through 
the head draftsman. In this way he is in constant 
touch with all work in the office. All questions 
concerning the work in divisions below shall be 
brought to the head draftsman, and his decision 
shall be final, except where, in his judgment, the 
matter should be submitted to the head of the de- 
partment. In the submission of matters to the head 
of the department a convenient and regular time 
should be selected. 

It can be seen that this arrangement will relieve 



\ 



131 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



member No. 2 of much detail and routine work and 
will allow him to devote his time to more pressing 
matters. 

The head draftsman divides his work into four 
departments : 

(a) Shop Drawings : On the submission of shop 
drawings by a contractor the head draftsman looks 
them over and has them checked by the regular 
checker or by the draftsman that is most familiar 
with the work. After the drawings are checked, 
corrected and approved he sees that they are re- 
turned and proper distribution made to the parties 
requiring them, together with any written instruc- 
tions. A copy should be kept for the office file. 

(b) Specifications: The writing of specifications 
is one of the most important branches of work and 
should be done by one specially fitted for it. All 
specifications (except those in connection with the 
mechanical department) are prepared in this de- 
partment. 

(c) Explanation and Interpretation of Drmtnngs 
and Specifications: It is desirable and advisable that 
this be done by the head draftsman. It happens so 
often, in many offices, that a contractor, when bid- 
ding on work, asks questions regarding the meaning 
and intent of certain things in the drawings and 
specifications ; usually the question is put to the first 
person seen, and he answers it in his own way. 
Then the same performance is gone through with 
some one else, and consequently a multitude of 
answers have been given, with no one responsible 
for them. The head draftsman should answer all 
questions and keep a record of questions and ans- 
wers. 

(rf) Drafting Room: The drafting room is under 
the supervision and control of the head draftsman. 
Member No. 2 looks to him for its efficient and suc- 
cessful operation. 

Every man in the drafting room should be in- 
structed as to his duties and understand and recog- 
nize the position of other draftsmen. 

In most drafting rooms considerable waste oc- 
curs through the careless handling of tracing cloth, 
paper and pencils. A saving in these materials can 
be effected by keeping them under lock and key and 
have one person issue supplies. 

A list of standard size sheets for tracing cloth 
should be made, and when the office boy is not busy 
sheets can be cut to size and placed in a drawer 
ready for use. 

A proper filing system for the filing of drawings, 
specifications, shop drawings, photographs of fin- 
ished buildings, and catalogues should be worked 
out. There are many systems now in use. A sys- 
tem of filing, familiar to the writer and one that has 
proven fairly good, is handled in the following man- 
ner : Drawings are filed, in a vault, flat on shelves 



40 by 50 inches, a space of 2 inches is left between, 
and a card with the name of the job is tacked on the 
edge of the shelf. On completion of the building, 
drawings, specifications, details and shop drawings 
are rolled up together in one bundle and filed in the 
store room. Specifications are filed in folders in a 
vertical letter file. Shop drawings are filed the same 
as tracings. 

Photographs of finished buildings are made with 
linen backs, size 7 by 10 inches, with a 2-inch binder 
edge for inserting in a loose leaf binder. Photo- 
graphs are of great value in interesting clients. 

Catalogues are the ost difficult to file and the 
greatest source of trouble in the office. A very good 
solution of this problem is to file them in a vertical 
letter file, in folders, and classify them as "electric 
supplies," "plumbing supplies," "tile," "roofing," 
etc. Heavy and large catalogues are placed on 
shelves. 

The drafting room organization is divided into 
three departments : General, Structural and Mechan- 
ical. 

(a) General: This department is charged with 
the production of all drawings, details, etc., and the 
embodying in the general drawings of all the work 
of other departments necessary to make same com- 
plete. 

When drawings and specifications are completed, 
checked, numbered and signed (see Drawing Re- 
cord Book page), they are delivered to the business 
office manager, who secures the necessary bids. 

(b) Structural: This department does all design- 
ing and drawing for structural work, principally 
steel and concrete. The department is composed 
of a structural engineer, with assistants from the 
drafting room, as the work in hand requires. 

(c) Mechanical: This department is in charge 
of a mechanical engineer, with such assistants as 
are necessary. 

All work of a mechanical nature, such as heating, 
ventilating, power piping, plumbing, elevators and 
electrical work coming into the office, is handled by 
this department and the mechanical engineer is re- 
sponsible for the production of all drawings, speci- 
fications, etc., required. 

It might be well to suggest before concluding the 
description of this department that the drafting 
room should be located with the general offices in a 
modern, easily accessible office building. The offices 
should be well lighted and ventilated and properly 
furnished in keeping with the profession. It is de- 
pressing for a man to work in poor surroundings, 
all good inspirations die quickly and lack of interest 
is manifested. Equipment should be of the best and 
every man provided with proper tools. Dull tools 
produce a like product. 



132 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



LEFT BRANCH OF CHARTS: 

Firm Member No. 1. This member is in direct 
charge of the left branch of the chart, and includes 
the Business office. Job Management and Super- 
intending of Construction, Promotion of Building 
Projects, Interviewing Clients and Employment of 
all help. 
SUPERINTENDENT : 

The Superintendent of Construction has complete 
charge of all building construction, management of 
jobs, the making of monthly estimates for the pur- 
pose of paying contractors and supervises the work 
of all inspectors who are actively engaged on one 
job. 

It is the duty of the Superintendent to make regu- 
lar weekly reports, stating in detail the progress of 
the work. For each job a report is sent to the client. 
These reports, on completion of the building, show 
a history of the entire operation, from the breaking 
of ground to the occupancy of the building. 



WAITING ROOM : 

The waiting room is in charge of a young lady. 
It is her duty first of all to be courteous to everyone. 
When a person enters the office she has him state 
his name and mission : if she can answer his ques- 
tions satisfactorily the party is sent away without 
disturbing the office, if not, the proper person is 
called. 

FILING : 

The careful tiling of documents, letters, etc., is 
highly essential. 

For letters any standard vertical file case may be 
used, preferably metal. The drawers of these cases 
measure approximately 12 inches by 11 inches, are 
3 feet deep and have alphabetical indexes. All cor- 
respondence relating to a building may be filed by 
number or name in separate folders made for this 
purpose. All letters of any one job are placed in a 
single folder, and where the job is of any magnitude 
the correspondence may be divided up into separate 



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BUSINESS OFFICE: 

The Business Office Manager has charge of all 
records, documents, books, routine correspondence, 
securing of bids, writing contracts and bonds, issu- 
ing certificates of payment to contractors, and the 
handling of all financial matters. He also super- 
vises the work of stenographers, the accounting de- 
partment, office assistants, and looks after the gen- 
eral welfare of the office. 



folders for each branch of work. Miscellaneous 
correspondence is filed in alphabetical order, in sep- 
arate folders. 

A Record Book, alphabetically arranged, should 
be kept, showing the cost of every building erected, 
together with the cost per cubic foot complete, and 
the cost per cubic foot without heating and mechani- 
cal equipment, furnishings, etc. 

Documents such as contracts, bids, accepted prop- 



133 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ositions, etc., are filed in reversible folders and 
placed in standard document file cases. 

Superintendent's reports are filed in separate 
folders in a small file case. 

Six months after completion and acceptance by 
the owner of a building all documents, superinten- 
dent's reports and letters, are placed in the transfer 
case. 



BUILDING CONTRACT RECORDS : 

Two books are necessary. A Contract Book (see 
typical page, for No. 5) and a Contract Ledger (see 
typical page, form No. 6). 

When contracts for a building are awarded the 
name of the owner and the location of the building 
are entered on the top line of a page in the Contract 
Book. The name and location are also written in 



Cincinnati, 
OFFICE OF 



. JUNS019I* 



SAMUEL HANNAFORD & SONS 

ARCHITECTS 




Received Ordfr fr\ e l l %ooZ? 




*>"*) SAMUEL HANNAFORD & SONS 

ARCHITECTS 





lertbp C ertifp that 

jxryment /. Tu^^fetZv ~ 

being *3_o__/y<'*- cent, of our ctttinmtf on 



Stenographer's note books, when filled, are filed 
away chronologically. 

STANDARD FORMS : 

It is desirable that every office have a complete 
set of Standard Forms, including large and small 
size Envelopes and Letterheads. Contracts. Bonds, 
Superintendent's Reports, Time Cards, Extra Or- 
ders, Certificates, etc. By standardizing the various 
forms it eliminates the necessity of working out 
something new every time an order is given for 
printing. The following forms are shown: No. 1, 
Drawing & Specification Record Book ; No. 2, Cer- 
tificate for Payment ; No. 3, Superintendent's Re- 
port ; No. 4, Extra Order. 

ACCOUNTING SYSTEM. 

This department keeps a record of all contracts 
for the various building operations -ind all firm 
financial books. 



Samuel Hannaford & Sons 

Jlrchilefls 




The V, & K. Auto Go's, new Factory 




/ May 22. 1920. Wm - D ' Dingier 


Excavators have bean removing dirt from the premises. 
Plumbers are running In drain and water lines from street. 

Concrete footings hare bean poured and carpenters are 
erecting form work for the super structure. 

Bricklayer Is delivering brick on the premises. 

Weather- Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday clear, Thursday, 
Friday and Saturday cold and rainy. 

Respectfully, 
(Signature) 



the index, with the page number for ready reference. 
Just below the double line insert the following: 
Cubic contents of building. 
Cost of building complete. 

Cost of building without mechanical equipment, 
fixtures, etc. 

Cost per cubic foot complete. 
Cost per cubic foot without mechanical equip- 
ment, .fixtures, etc. 

The above figures cannot be finally determined 
until the building is completed. 

Dropping down at least two lines we insert the 
contract, as follows : 

Beginning on the left hand side of the page, place 
the date, the contract, the name of contractor, and 
in the ruled column the amount of contract. The 
second ruled column is used for the page number 
in the Contract Ledger. Where a contract is small 
and only one or two payments will likely be made 
before it is competed entries of payment are 
placed in this space. In the case of a large 
contract, where many payments will be made 
before the work is completed, it is transferred 
to the Contract Ledger. 

The Contract Ledger page, as you will note, 
is constructed with the standard ruling. The 
name of the owner and the name of the con- 
tractor are written at the top of the page. On 
the credit or right side of the page is written 
the date, contract and amount. The left side 
of the page is for the purpose of entering pay- 
ments. This system of keeping contract rec- 
ords is very simple, and at the same time effi- 
cient, no matter how large the operation. 



134 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




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FORMS 5 AND 6, ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS FOR AN ARCHITECT'S OFFICE 



135 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



SAMUEL HANNAFORO & SONS 

ARCHITECTS 

.... liar latb. ,n o. c.N<,-l 


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*UUICT- General Contract. 




To 40 " " " concratB ^ 20. OC 


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1 (Signature) ._ 


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Omissions and credits are entered with red ink. 

Entries of payments to these books are made from 
the certificate stubs in certificate book (see Form 
No. 2). 

(To be Ciintinuea') 

Outlook for Building 

There will be no substantial relief from the hous- 
ing and renting crisis from which New York suffers 
for at least two years yet, while the building short- 
age in the city cannot be fully made up until 1927, 
according to a booklet just issued by the New Busi- 
ness Department of the American Trust Company, 
Broadway and Cedar street. 

This booklet, which was prepared by \Y. Burke 
Harmon, real estate expert, consists of a careful 
study of the housing situation, as indicated by past 
records, from 1914 to date, and as forecasted by 
probable developments from now until 1928. 

The shortage in housing at the end of each year, 
measured by the gradually depreciating dollar, has 
been studied and conclusions reached that the pres- 
ent housing shortage is $660,000,000, and that the 
maximum will be reached in 1923, with a deficit of 
$960,000,000, whereupon the shortage will gradu- 



ally begin to decrease and will continue to de- 
crease until the normal condition is resumed in 
1927. 

Figured from the point of view of its pur- 
chasing power as measured by. cubic feet of 
construction, the value of the dollar, assumed 
to be normal in 1914, is now reduced to 50 
cents, and Mr. Harmon concludes that the dol- 
lar will begin to increase in its purchasing 
power in 1922, or, in other words, construction 
prices will begin to fall materially next year. 



Building Progress in New York 

The report of the Manhattan Bureau of 
Buildings for the six months ending June 30, 
as compiled by Superintendent Rudolph P. 
Miller, shows that plans were filed for the con- 
struction of 434 new buildings costing a total 
of $67,382,458, as against 182. costing $24,- 
034,468 during- the same period last year. 
Plans were filed for ten 'dwellings, fifteen tene- 
ments, two hotels, twenty-eight store and loft 
buildings, forty-eight office buildings, sixteen 
factories and workshops, three schoolhouses, 
one church, one municipal building, eleven 
places of amusement, six hospitals, 269 stables 
and garages and twenty-four other structures. 
The report also shows that applications were 
made for alterations to 2,395 buildings, at an 
estimated cost of $23,704,908, for the first six 
months this year, as against 1,825 alteration plans 
costing $11,192,156, during the same period las: 
year. 

For the month of June the report shows that 
plans were filed for the construction of 104 new 
buildings costing $8,447,500, as against forty-two 
buildings, costing $10,700,286, for the same month 
in 1919. 



Colossal Statue Completed 

Lorado Taft's "Fountain of Time," the largest 
piece of sculpture in Chicago/ has been completed 
and set up in Washington Park fronting the Mid- 
way. It is now in plaster, done at a cost of $50,000. 
If it meets with approval and it is decided to give it 
permanent form in bronze its further cost will be 
around $250,000. 

Mr. Taft, who is one of the best known sculptors 
in the west, began working on his monumental work 
in 1913. He was commissioned by the B. E. Fergu- 
son Fund, of which the Art Institute is the trustee, 
and which has already given several notable pieces 
of sculpture to the city. 

The group depicts Father Time, a colossal statue, 
watching the procession of humanity file by. 



136 



Architectural Quicksands 

Part II 

By CLINTON H. BLAKE, JR., of the New York and Federal Bars 



IT must be remembered that from the point of 
view of the client the building of a house is pri- 
marily a business undertaking, and his relations 
with the contractor and architect alike are business 
relations purely. He employs the architect, it is 
true, as an expert trained to give him both a pleas- 
ing result and a house suited to his particular re- 
quirements, but he nevertheless regards, and quite 
properly regards, his relations with the architect 
as business relations in the sense that the pro- 
fessional relationship involved is upon an ordinary 
business basis. The client does not resent, and 
rather welcomes, the desire of the contractor to 
have even thing clearly understood before the work 
is undertaken, and there is every reason why he 
should welcome a similar attitude and desire on the 
part of his architect. If a customer desires to buy 
some commercial product, he will wish to know the 
terms upon which it will be sold; if he desires a 
portrait painted, he will wish to know how much 
the artist will charge for painting it. So, if a client 
desires to have plans prepared for a country home 
and to have the erection of the house superintended 
by a trained architect, there is every reason in 
common sense why he should prefer to know the 
basis upon which the architect will charge and 
the other terms and conditions, both as respects 
the rights of the architect and his own rights, upon 
which the work will be undertaken and carried to 
completion. I am glad to say that there has recently 
been evident an increasing and very gratifying 
tendency on the part of architects to appreciate the 
fact that this is so and to exercise a much greater 
degree of care in arriving at a fair and full under- 
standing before undertaking the work. 

The Contract Between Client and 
Architect 

ONE of my clients has adopted a rather in- 
genious compromise, which, while not as effec- 
tive as the making of a proper contract with the 
client, is nevertheless interesting. He has printed 
a small and rather informal-appearing schedule of 
his charges in general terms based largely upon the 
schedule of charges of the American Institute and 
of the New York Chapter, and headed, "Practice 
and Charges of (name of the architect)." When 
a client calls and asks him to undertake a new piece 
of work he hands him, in the course of the dis- 



cussion, one of these schedules. He does not ask 
the client to sign any agreement or sign or initial 
the schedule, and does not lay any particular stress 
on the schedule. He says simply enough to indicate 
that this is the basis on which his work is done. 

This procedure is frankly a compromise between 
the alternative on the one hand of not mentioning 
the matter of charges and the other terms upon 
which the work is undertaken and trusting to secure 
payment of the reasonable value of the work done 
in due course, and the alternative, on the other hand, 
of asking the client to sign a formal agreement speci- 
fying the exact terms upon which the work is under- 
taken, and the rights and liabilities of the architect 
and the client in connection therewith. The best 
that can be said of it is that it is a vast improve- 
ment on the custom of most architects of saying 
nothing, and that in the case of a dispute it enables 
the architect to urge, with a fair chance of success, 
that the client was put ''on notice" as to the terms 
upon which the work was to be carried out. 

In a number of cases which have arisen, I have 
brought suit for this particular architect success- 
full v on the theory that there was a definite con- 
tract between the client and himself to the effect 
that the work would be done and paid for under 
the conditions and at the rates specified in the 
schedule which he handed to the client. This is on 
the theory that the client, in going ahead with the 
work, after having been given a copy of the schedule 
and told that it represented the charges and terms 
of the architect, must be deemed legally to have 
agreed that the work should be done and paid for 
accordingly. This is treading upon very treacherous 
ground, however, and I am never very happy in 
these particular cases until the court or the jury 
has finally determined that a contract really did 
exist and that the terms of the contract are the 
terms which are stated in the memorandum. Testi- 
mony by the client or in his behalf that the memoran- 
dum was brought to his attention in a casual way 
only, or that it was not made clear to him that it 
was to control the particular job in which he was 
interested, or that verbal modifications of the terms 
stated in it were agreed upon, might well upset th.e 
whole contract theory and rob the schedule of much, 
if not all, of its effect. 

In such event the architect would not be able to 
sue upon the theory of an express contract, but 



137 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



would have to depend for his recovery and for the 
enforcement of his rights upon the theory of what 
the lawyer calls a "quantum meruit." Translated 
into everyday English this means upon an implied 
agreement by the client to pay the reasonable value 
of the work clone. When this is the case entirely 
new elements are introduced into the situation. The 
architect can not go into court and show that the 
client promised to pay him a definite sum and recover 
that sum accordingly. He must, on the contrary, 
bring in expert testimony in addition to his own 
to prove to the satisfaction of the court and jury 
the reasonable value of the services performed by 
the architect. The client can then introduce, on his 
part, testimony to show that the work was not of 
the value claimed, and that the experts who have 
testified for the architect have placed upon it too 
high a valuation. Thus, an entirely unnecessary 
issue is at once presented for the consideration of 
the jury, and the old condition of opposing experts 
testifying, some for the plaintiff and some for the 
defendant, is again presented. The result will prob- 
ably be a compromise verdict at the best. 

It needs no elaborate argument to show that a 
litigant who can present a definite contract signed 
by the man whom he sues is in a much stronger 
and more advantageous position than the claimant 
who comes into court without any such basis for 
his suit. Where a contract is made the defendant 
cannot avoid the issue by contending that the terms 
embodied in the agreement were not the terms upon 
which the work was done, because the court will not 
allow the terms of a written agreement to be varied 
or changed by an alleged verbal understanding in- 
consistent with them. Again, the client will not be 
allowed to attempt to show that the consideration 
to be paid the architect, as stated in the contract, 
is more than the work is worth, because, having 
agreed in writing to the specific amount, the court 
will hold that he is bound by the agreement which 
he has deliberately made. Proof of the written 
agreement and of the proper performance of the 
work contemplated by it will be enough. No expert 
testimony will be required as to the value of the 
work, and the jury, having the definite writing 
before it, will usually find a verdict for the full 
amount agreed upon. 

The Danger of Any Representations or 
Guarantees with Respect to Cost 

THE sum to be paid to the architect for his ser- 
vices is only one of the items which should be 
clearly understood and agreed upon. In many ways, 
it is of less importance than other points, such as 
the right of the architect to make necessary modi- 
fications, to authorize extras, the fact that the archi- 



tect does not guarantee that the work can be done 
for any specified amount, the ownership of 
plans and similar provisions. 

If the amount due for services be the only issue, 
the architect may at the worst lose a portion of the 
gain which he anticipated would accrue to him from 
a particular job, and find that he has given his time 
for nothing or for less than he should receive for it. 
If, on the other hand, the client comes in with a 
claim against the architect based, for instance, on 
the allegation that the architect has represented and 
guaranteed that the work can be done for a definite 
amount, whereas in fact the cost of the work has 
been vastly more than the limit set by the architect, 
the latter is not only faced with the danger of losing 
his fee, but is quite likely to be called upon to pay 
the difference between the estimated cost and the 
actual cost. It is to prevent just such a claim as 
this, and to anticipate and make impossible mis- 
understandings and claims against the architect on 
many other points which I propose to note that the 
contract between the client and the architect is de- 
signed. The contract, if properly drawn, will take 
care of all of the danger spots in the ordinary re- 
lationship of client and architect. 

For some years I have made notes of the danger 
points in the relations of client and architect from 
the point of view of the architect especially, and in 
getting out drafts of agreements governing the re- 
lationships of the two I have had in mind these very 
points. In asking me to write these articles, the 
editors of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT believed 
that it would be of interest if I were among other 
things to point out the more important of these 
dangers and show how they can be guarded against 
and how a comparatively simple contract between 
architect and owner will remove the dangers and 
prevent unnecessary litigation and loss to the 
architect. 

The matter of an alleged or impleaded guarantee 
by the architect, to which I have already referred, 
is very seldom considered by architects in their 
dealings with their clients, and yet among the earli- 
est legal decisions are cases holding the architect 
liable on the theory of a guarantee of price on his 
part. This naturally comes about because one of 
the primary considerations with the ordinary client 
is that of expense and the cost of the work. This 
being so, at the first interview or interviews with 
the architect it is inevitable that such a client will 
ask the architect to tell him for how much the work 
can be done. This is the danger point. If the archi- 
tect replies that he believes it can be done for a 
certain amount, but that he can manifestly only 
guess and give to the client his best judgment, and 
if he makes it clear that he does not in any way 



138 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



guarantee that it can be done for the amount which 
he names the danger point is successfully passed 
and there will be no "come-back" against the archi- 
tect. If, on the other hand, the architect, either in 
his natural desire to secure a lucrative or interesting 
piece of work, or thoughtlessly and with the best of 
intentions and desire to help the client and being 
convinced in his own mind of the accuracy of his 
judgment, states that the work can be done for a 
definite amount it is quite possible that he will so 
phrase his statement that the court will construe it 
to be a guarantee on his part that the work will be 
done for this amount, or, at the least, a representa- 
tion by him made to induce the client to proceed with 
the work and binding upon him in the event that the 
client does so in reliance upon it. The written con- 
tract contains a clause providing specifically that 
any statements made by the architect regarding cost 
are not to be construed in any way as representa- 
tions or as guarantees, but that, on the contrary, they 
are merely statements made by the architect and ex- 
pressive of his belief ; that they are made solely for 
the information of the client and that the architect 
is not to be held liable in any way on the theory of 
guarantee or otherwise in the event that the cost 
exceeds the amount estimated by him. This is a 
perfectly fair provision, and is so worded in the 
contract that no fair-minded client can well take 
exception to it. It effectually prevents, however, 
any danger of loss to the architect on this point, 
and at the same time is helpful to the client in 
that the architect being thus protected is willing to 
express himself with much more freedom than he 
would if he had in mind the necessity of making 
guarded estimates in the absence of such a contract 
provision. The client in consequence receives the 
benefit of estimates which the architect might or- 
dinarily be unwilling to make. 

Do Not Act as the Contractor 

THERE is a somewhat similar but a less com- 
mon danger in which the architect may become 
involved, namely, that he may, if his statements to 
the client regarding the cost of the building are 
phrased loosely, be held to have assumed himself 
the relationship and obligations of a contractor. This 
is not at all a fanciful danger, and is one which, if 
it come to pass, is calculated to place the architect 
in a distinctly unpleasant position. 

It is but a few months ago that a well-known 
Xew York architect consulted me in a case where, 
innocently and without any intention on his part of 
assuming any obligations as contractor, he had be- 
come involved in this very particular. It all came 
about because the architect had written a few letters, 
the legal effect of which he did not consider, and 



which he quite naturally regarded as merely routine 
letters incident to the work proposed. A client had 
come to him with some tentative plans for the 
alteration of an existing building. After examin- 
ing them, he had advised that certain changes be 
made which would improve the general lay-out and 
scope of the work. The client, as usual, wished to 
know how much the work would cost. The archi- 
tect promptly sat down, and, in blissful ignorance 
of the legal effect of his phraseology, wrote a letter 
by which he meant to state merely the amount which 
lie estimated would be involved, but which, as a 
matter of fact, was so worded as to give some 
ground for a claim by the client that the architect 
had ottered, as contractor, to do the work for the 
>um which lie mentioned in the letter. 

The plan which had really been contemplated was 
that the client should place the monies necessary to 
cover expenses in the hands of tiie architect from 
time to time as the work progressed ; that the archi- 
tect should attend to the employment of the con- 
tractors to do the work and should make payment 
to them, for the account of the client, from the 
monies so received, and for his services should re- 
ceive merely a stated architect's commission. This 
would have been all very well if the architect had 
covered himself by a proper letter or contract, but 
the situation was aggravated by the fact that in 
addition to writing the client as he did he did not 
make clear to the contractors the fact that he was 
employing them in behalf of the client, but carried 
on his correspondence with them and requested and 
accepted their bids, in many instances, in his own 
name. The client almost from the first made 
changes, some minor and some radical, in the pro- 
posed plans and work, and the cost of the work 
naturally began to run far beyond the figure origin- 
ally contemplated. The client, as is sometimes the 
case, did not understand why making changes in 
the middle of the work taking out a staircase here 
and putting it in there, changing a swell-front to a 
square-front and vice versa and the like should 
affect the cost as it did. The inevitable result was 
that disagreements arose between the client and the 
architect, and the client, seeking legal advice, was 
advised to hold the architect responsible as the con- 
tractor for the work on the theory that the architect 
had assumed this obligation, and that the contractors 
whom the architect had employed were really sub- 
contractors of the general contractor, the architect. 

The situation was further aggravated by the fact 
that many of these same so-called sub-contractors, 
not receiving the amounts due them because the 
client refused to advance further monies, manifested 
a determination to hold the architect responsible as 
the principal with whom they had dealt. The archi- 



139 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



tect, accordingly, was faced with the danger of los- 
ing his fee and of being held responsible as contrac- 
tor for the performance of the work at a price far 
below the actual cost. All this was manifestly un- 
fair to the architect, as he had undertaken the work 
in the best of faith and had suggested that he let 
the contracts to the contractors and attend to the 
payments for the purpose of saving money for the 
client. The client did not appreciate this, or if he 
did appreciate it was not inclined to "play the game," 
and, as a result, we had real difficulty in working 
out the situation in such a way as to safeguard the 
architect and extricate him from the position in 
which he had placed himself. If he had, in the first 



instance, drawn up some simple contract with the 
client the danger would never have arisen, as it 
would have been made clear at once by the contract 
that the architect was assuming merely the ordinary 
obligations of an architect, and was acting as the 
agent of the client in arranging for the carrying 
out of the work by the contractors. If the archi- 
tect had at that time had at his office a form of con- 
tract such as that to which I have referred he would 
have had no difficulty in securing the signature of 
the client, the work would have been completed 
without loss to the architect, and in all probability 
the client would have remained satisfied. 

(7*o be continued) 



The Hartford Times Building 



Doxx BARBER, Architect 



IT has become customary nowadays to use a thing 
once, then throw it away ; but in the older order, 
when there was a more profound respect for 
material (and perhaps more difficulty in getting it 
than we are even at the moment encountering) it 
was quite general for the treasures of demolished 
buildings to become reintegrated in the new. 

The Madison Square Presbyterian Church was 
not only epoch making in its architectural design, 
"a protest," as Stanford White, the architect, said, 
''against the prevalent idea that to be church-like a 
building must be in mediavel style," but it was also 
the first instance in this country where glazed tile 
was used throughout the architectural members in 
a carefully executed color-scheme. Through a co- 
operation between the manufacturers and the archi- 
tect this tile was especially made to harmonize with 
the pale green columns of polished granite in the 
presentation of a jewel of architecture. 

It happened at the time this church was being torn 
down that the Hartford Times was planning a build- 
ing for a conspicuous situation to fill, in fact, a 
vista between the Morgan Memorial (built of pink 
Tennessee Marble) and the new municipal building. 
It was necessary that the building make some contri- 
bution to such an environment. 

At first a facade was studied along restrained 
colonial lines, built of face brick with stone trim; 
the cost seemed quite out of proportion for the result 
achieved. It was at this state of affairs that the 
material to be salvaged from the Madison Square 
church entered in. In a most entertaining way the 



story is told by Mr. Donn Barber, the architect, and 
published in the Hartford Daily Times, as follows: 

''It was a curious and most unusual combination 
of circumstances that led to the use of the materials 
in the old Parkhurst church for the principal facade 
of the new Times building. In contemplating the 
problem presented for the facade of the new build- 
ing and its important position and setting at the end 
of the wide short street between the Morgan Me- 
morial and the municipal building, the matter of 
style, scale, color and materials became a serious 
and difficult consideration. 

"It so happened that the proposed Times building, 
being a commercial building in every sense, and being 
a free standing building with light on all sides ad- 
mitted of the principal facade being treated more 
or less independently of the other facades and some- 
what in the nature of an architectural screen. The 
plan, arrangement and access to the building required 
merely a generous entrance into a public space on 
the first floor doing business with the public ; access 
to stairways, corridors and to certain private offices. 
The lighting of these services was easy to arrange ; 
therefore a wide latitude was possible in the selec- 
tion of the size and character of openings. It was 
found that all the practical and working end of the 
building could be placed back of this front line of 
service and amply lighted through the other three 
surrounding walls. 

"My attention having been called to the fact that 
the Parkhurst church, with its fine classic portico, 
was being demolished, I instinctively recalled to mind 



140 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the beautiful colonnades of Europe at the ends of 
streets and vistas ; the Madeleine, Pantheon, and the 
Chambre des Deputes in Paris, and any number of 
examples in Italy and elsewhere. To refresh my 
memory in detail I turned to a photograph of the 
church and immediately seemed to see a possibility 
of using the six granite columns and two granite 
pilasters arranged as the porch motif of five bays 
on the church, into a colonnade motif of seven bays 
by bringing the wall pilasters around and out to a 
line in the plane of the columns ; also, with many 
running feet of cornice and other members encircling 
the church, the chance of creating a long, flat com- 
position. 

"The wonderfully beautiful and picturesque pre- 
cedents of the buildings of Italy, where the principal 
facades are treated frankly as such and backed up 
in many cases by buildings of an entirely different 
character in design, occurred to me. I went down 
to the church and satisfied myself that, instead of 
demolishing the building in the usual way, it was pos- 
sible, with care, to take it down piece by piece, and 
number, pack and ship the pieces. I became enthusi- 
astic and entered into negotiations with the contrac- 
tor, which finally resulted in obtaining the major por- 
tion of the exterior materials of the entire church. 

"In the design of the new Times facade, the ori- 
ginal columns, pilasters and cornices are used : the 
steps, plat forms and base courses all fitted together 
as they were originally, with the exception of the 
change in position of the pilasters. In the back wall 
of the arcade are used all the principal openings in 
the church facades. The large circular headed win- 
dows on the Twenty-fourth street facade have been 
used to form circular headed -entrance doors, and the 
other windows on the Twenty-fourth street facade 
and the windows under the columns on the Madison 
avenue facade, and the two side doors, are also used 
in the new arrangement in this wall. 

As the church was being taken down each piece 
of terra cotta was numbered according to an ar- 
ranged scheme and although many of the pieces in 
the new building find themselves side by side as of 
old, transpositions have been made necessary in 
many places. For instance, there existed a certain 
number of definitely designed breaks and right 
angle turns in the cornice, so that I was limited in 
the new composition to these breaks that existed. 

"It was also necessary to recombine the materials 
without any cutting, since that would have destroyed 
the spacing of the running ornament. It all happened 
very quickly after the church had been taken down, 
and the materials carefully packed and shipped, we 
were left with our numbered diagrams and numbered 
pieces to work with, inflexible in their sizes and their 



sequence, and certain photographs especially taken 
of what had been existing conditions. It amounted 
to a cut-up puzzle of a certain picture with the pos- 
sibility of creating a new picture of the pieces of the 
old. 

"In the new composition the original Corinthian 
order is changed to Ionic. P>y the use of an Ionic 
cap in the order and an added plinth between the 
column base and pedestal we were enabled to adjust 
the height of the order to our established required 
story heights. In comparing a photograph of the 
old church, now destroyed, with the studies of the 
new Times building, it is easy to see what materials 
have been used and in what combinations. 

''It has been an inspiration and a most interesting 
experience to have been able to preserve and use 
these gorgeous materials, most of which could in all 
probability not be duplicated at the present time 
under the conditions obtaining in the material market, 
and also owing to the tremendously increased cost of 
building materials. The facade itself having been 
arranged for, the other problem was that of placing 
the facade of the Times building in a proper relation 
of height to the Morgan Memorial and Municipal 
building. 

"There is a slight crown to Atheneus street from 
Main to Prospect street; the Prospect street end of 
Atheneum is somewhat lower than the Main street 
end. There is quite a sudden down hill grade on 
Prospect street from left to right, looking from Main. 
I have therefore taken the water table line of the 
Morgan Memorial and the corresponding water table 
line of the Municipal building, which are practically 
at the same level, and carried these lines across the 
Prospect street front of the Times building, creating 
a platform or approach on which the arcade motif of 
the building is placed. 

"Curiously enough, it was possible to carry the 
balustrade motif round on a level of the balustrade 
motif of the other two buildings. Tile roofs have 
been added to increase the height of the building. 
These, with the trees on Prospect street and around 
the Times building, should add tremendously to the 
color and framing of the picture. It seemed to me 
little less than a crime that all the effort, skill, study 
and craftsmanship of the unique and wonderful ma- 
terials that went to make up the Parkhurst church 
should be deliberately thrown to waste. 

"I have every hope now that the drawings have 
all been worked out and details are settled, for suc- 
cess in the scheme and what we are able to accomp- 
lish may lead later to the saving of the materials of 
other distinguished buildings, which, in their turn, 
may have to be destroyed for the practical and com- 
mercial development of our cities." 



141 



VOL. CXVIII. No. 2328. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 4, 1920 




THE MADISON SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NEW YORK 

STANFORD WHITE, ARCHITECT 



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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



St. Paul's Chapel, New York 

MCBEAN, Architect 

(See reproduction of the original drawing' by O. R. Eggers in this issue) 



WHEN, in 1764, this venerable chapel of 
Trinity Parish was begun, it was placed 
to face the river whose banks at that time 
were many hundred feet nearer to the church than 
they are today. Its eastern end was close to what 
is now known as Broadway and owing to the pedi- 
mented portico that adorns it, is often mistakenly 
believed to be the front of the church. 

One McBean was the architect and it is gleaned 
from the records of the church that, owing to slow 
means of transportation of material and a scarcity 
of competent labor, this chapel was three years 
under construction. It has been claimed that Mc- 
Bean was at one time a pupil of Gibbs of London 
and this claim is bolstered by the fact that this 
church strongly resembles St. Martin's-in-the-Field 
in London, which was designed by Gibbs. The fact 
remains that "old St. Paul's," as it is affectionately 
called by New Yorkers, is one of the most satis- 
factory examples of our extant Colonial ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture. It stands in the center of its 
churchyard on the block bounded by Vesey. Fulton, 
Broadway and Church streets and is today, as for 



more than a century past, a spot hallowed by every 
association, religious and civic, that is part of the 
heritage of every New Yorker. Its interior pre- 
serves all of the aspects of its English origin even 
to the three ostrich plumes (the crest of the Prince 
of Wales) that surmount the canopy over the altar. 
Here Washington came after his inauguration as 
President of the United States to attend the solemn 
service that formed a part of his inauguration cer- 
emony. The pew in which he sat has been kept 
exactly as it was at that time. 

One may judge the influence of the quiet dignity of 
this church if on any noonday he will visit it. Either 
within the dimly lighted interior, or the steps of its 
front or western entrance, or along the pleasant 
paths of the graveyard, there will be seen many 
office workers in the neighborhood. Here they daily 
seek for an all too brief spell the quietness and rest 
that such a sanctuary will afford. 

On the wall of the eastern or Broadway end of 
the church there is a wall monument placed there 
as a record to the memory of General Richard 
Montgomery who lies buried in the churchyard. 




BASILICA OF S. EUSTORGIO, MILAN, ITALY 
144 




ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL, NEW YORK. 

THF AMERICAN ARCHITECT tirl,, of Earl, Amtritan Anhilttlar, 




Notable Examples of Early American 
Architecture 

THE more nearly we approach to certain ideals 
in the development of architecture in this 
country, the more reverently and respect- 
fully do we regard the few remaining examples of 
the architecture that was created in these United 
States between the close of the Revolution and the 
opening of the Civil War. In fact, it may be said 
that there is a pronounced tendency on the part 
of many of our most successful architects to hark 
back to the architecture of the latter years of the 
eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. 

This sentiment is now more prevalent than ever 
before. Men, who from the theatre of the war in 
Europe have viewed the awful calamity of devas- 
tated areas have seen the architectural masterpieces 
of the world laid in ruin, have now returned to this 
country imbued with an increased respect for tilt- 
tangible evidence of the good in their profession 
and a strongly marked veneration for that which 
is left to us in the United States. 

It is futile to hope that these may all be saved. 
The dollar must have its way. Its present impetus 
would seem to menace many structures whose quiet 
dignity, good architecture and venerable tradition 
should be but are not, it would seem a valid rea- 
son for their preservation. The devastating march 
of what is called "progress" will slowly but inevit- 
ably destroy landmarks that are to architects the 
very essence of their art, the things that should live 
forever. 

To make a permanent and the best artistic record 
of at least parts of some of the more meritorious 
of these early American buildings, THE AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT has arranged for the presentation of a 
series of reproductions of drawings the first of 
which appears in this issue. The selection of sub- 
jects has been carefully made and, as delineated by 
Mr. O. R. Eggers, is of the highest architectural 
value. When completed these drawings will pro- 
vide a collection of unusual historical and architec- 
tural value and a fund of suggestion of the largest 
importance. 



Office Accounting 

THERE is presented in this issue the first of a 
scries on Organization and Accounting Sys- 
tems for Architects' Offices. 

Xo other artist finds it necessary to maintain 
an accurate system of accounts. Xo man engaged 
in any of the arts handles, as agent for another, 
such vast sums of money as do architects. 

Obviously it is necessary that an accurate record 
be kept of all these tiansactions. In fact, success 
in practice hinges on a satisfactory account ing. 

To support the contention that architecture is a 
business as well as an art, this one thing of accurate 
system ot accounts is alone sufficiently convincing 

Mr. Van Arsdall's long association with one of 
the largest architectural organizations in the Mid- 
dle \YcM, qualities him to authoritatively present 
his topic. The method outlined is not a theoret- 
ical discussion, but the description and various 
forms presented constitute part of a system that has 
been in actual use for a long time. 

Articles of this sort have a very large practical 
value. Tust at this time while most important 
building operations are suffering from the influ- 
ence of the government probably meant to be 
paternal, but smacking largely of a "step-father'' 
attitude, architects will have time to put their offices 
in order. Mr. Van Arsdall outlines a safe method 
of procedure. 



The Railway Labor Board Award 

H( )W are we to find money to pay the award of 
the Railway Labor Board? Does it mean that 
further inroads are to be made upon the architect's 
already meagre portion ? 

Now comes an award of $600,000,000 increase 
in wages to the railway employes of the country 
an immense sum of money which must blossom 
forth from nowhere or be pared off of somebody's 
portion. Doubtless the $600,000,000 is going to be 
added to freight rates and with it a few hundred 
million more which is necessary for the rehabilita- 
tion and development of the railways. And this 
increase in the cost of delivery of goods is to be 



145 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



added to the bill the consumer gets, with some 
slight and commensurate added profit for the trades- 
man who collects the bill. 

Payment in advance for our transportation de- 
velopment seems the only thing to do. There are 
two alternatives pay or go without. We may even 
do both for a while. 

The inveterate optimist cannot expect any stimu- 
lus to building programs from this one more added 
burden. And the particularly unfortunate position 
of the architectural profession is this : That an 
income already too picayune to be taxed must be 
further reduced by the retardance of building con- 
struction that has long been contemplated and by 
the abandonment of schemes even less well de- 
fined. 

It does seem, however, that we are now getting 
so deep in the mud that we must soon strike rock. 
More fundamental than the matters of profits and 
high wages is an actual need for buildings and with 
it the basic fact that buildings to be built for effi- 
ciency must be planned by one who knows his 
business. 

The tone of the newspapers in regard to these 
matters of wage awards and taxes, is that "the 
American public which foots all the bills, isn't going 
to be bled white forever." Most of this bleeding 
seems to be but a transfusion a trick to which 
the professions have not yet caught on. But if 
they are of this "public which foots all the bills," 
well, there is just so much blood in a turnip and 
no more. 



Color in the City Streets 

IX letters to the editors published in the London 
architectural press there arises a plaint against 
innovations that originate mainly in this country. 
The bulk of this tale of woe seems to consist of 
objections to tall buildings as destructive of tradi- 
tions long cherished and which many ultra-conserva- 
tive men are loath to relinquish. Just now there 
are published letters both for and against color in 
street architecture. One man rails at the tendency 
to introduce multi-colored terra cotta in areas that 
for centuries have been gloomy through dinginess. 
Another will loudly acclaim the merits of color that 
is shown in the smoke and fog stained surface of 
stone or granite. Still a third holds the stucco 
facade that has been stained in lighter shades as 
anathema. "Who shall decide when doctors dis- 
agree ?" 



It would not seem necessary to advance many 
arguments as to the desirability of color in our city 
streets, and particularly in a city whose atmos- 
pheric conditions are like our own Pittsburgh. The 
very monotony of brick and stone and mortar in 
their natural colors breeds morbidity and makes one 
yearn for the country roadside and the open places. 
There are no good reasons why all this question of 
color should not more seriously receive the atten- 
tion of architects both here and in England. "How 
use doth breed a habit in a man." How we do 
go on year after year following in the rut and dead 
level of monotony. 

Here and there in all the cities of this country 
are to be found men of sufficient originality to at- 
tempt an introduction of color in the facade of 
buildings. The results, while often not satisfactory 
from an accurate color standpoint, are none the less 
encouraging indications of a desire to get away 
from the commonplace. The trouble with the intro- 
duction of color is exactly similar to the selection 
of motives of design in any particular locality. Each 
architect and his client works independently of his 
neighbor and the result while taken independently 
is commendable, is not when grouped as satisfac- 
tory. 

DOWN in Greenwich Village, in this city, where 
the conversion of substantial dwellings into 
two and three room apartments is being carried for- 
ward on a large scale, it has been desired to pre- 
serve the artistic aspect of this old neighborhood. 
As a means to such an end, the brick fronts are be- 
ing covered with colored stucco and the window 
and door frames given a contrasting color. It is 
interesting to note how this innovation is alluring 
tenants and how eagerly these converted structures 
are sought out and rented at good prices and fo; 
long terms. Whole blocks have been transformed 
from a dreary monotony of red brick, duplicated 
structures, to broken lines of color that present a 
pleasing contrast. 

In more pretentious buildings of the loft and 
office types, there has been a tendency towards the 
introduction of color, but mainly -in low tones that 
do not impress their excellence of effect and which 
with weathering become uninteresting. 

The selection of color of sufficient brilliancy 
should be easy, and with its more general introduc- 
tion it is safe to predict the popular verdict will be 
a strong support of every architect who will essay a 
venture in the direction of applied color to the ex- 
teriors of his buildings. 



146 






Criticism and Comment 



The Other Side of Billboards 

The Editors, THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

In connection with the "Other Side" of Bill- 
boards appearing in your June 30th number I would 
suggest to Mr. Oakley, whose presentation of the 
Other Side you quote, that he discovers all the 
spots in nature where she is absolutely hideous and 
by him supposed capable of artistic improvement 
by spellbinding masterpieces, "the fairy dream-like 
inspirations of artist's messages" and there erect 
them that all who run may read how God's works 
are infinitely inferior. 

A further suggestion would be to cover the 
"frightful piles of stone and iron slung together by 
contractors" and the "thousands upon thousands of 
repellant rows of houses" with the powerful ap- 



peals of Mr. Oakley's enthusiastic imagination thai 
all their ugliness he alleges may be obliterated in 
chromatic posters in their "commanding dignity," 
"force and grandeur." 

We have seen the city made hideous with posters 
and designed by "master-painters" and the run- 
ner did not stop to read, but fled. It is sad to realize 
that the impressionist sometimes seems to really 
believe in his impressions from some erratic or con- 
tradicting bent of mentality ; hence our asylums for 
their care. 

The influence of the billboard for "better art" and 
"better life" is to heartily curse the cause that gave 
it birth as Mr. Pennell does so eloquently. 

It is possible Mr. Oakley is a humorist, in which 
case 1 apologize for taking him seriously. 

Xew York. II. EowARDS-FlCKEN 



Saving the Surface with Paint and Varnish 



The decay of structural materials is rapid. The 
microscope will record the initial start of such de- 
cay even after twenty-four hours' exposure of some 
building products, states Henry A. Gardner in The 
Decorator, and the naked eye is sufficiently strong 
to perceive the erosion often evidenced in a few 
weeks. Those materials that show relatively slow 
decay almost invariably present at first, or later as- 
sume, a gloomy color that is objectionable from 
several standpoints. It is, therefore, apparent that 
surface protection through paint or varnish appli- 
cation is quite as important as sound engineering or 
design. 

A microscopic view of even the dressed timber 
that is used for interior trim in building, for musi- 
cal instruments and cabinet work, for automobile or 
yacht construction, will show the deep channel-Hke 
grain of the wood fibre. When varnish is applied 
the pores are filled up and a smooth water repelling, 
wear-resisting surface results. The beauty of the 
grain and coloring of the wood is at the same time 
greatly enhanced. 

The printed designs on some types of floor cover- 
ings wear off as the result of foot abrasion. The 
unsightly dark colored base may then be exposed. 
Occasional coats of varnish prevent this defect. 
Even high-grade, inlaid linoleum is improved and 
given greater longevity when varnished. The sur- 
faces of all types of floors or floor coverings may 



be beautified and made dirt and water resisting with 
floor varnishes. 

BRICK AND METAL SURFACES: 

Building brick may absorb from 10 to 15 per 
cent, of water. If a brick building should be sub- 
jected to constant rain for several days it is con- 
ceivable that many tons of water would be absorbed. 
Dampness might then prevail within the building, 
and in cold weather the tonnage of coal required 
to heat the interior would probably be greatly in- 
creased. The application of paint to brick fills up 
the pores and produces a water-resisting film. The 
use of white or light tinted paints improves the ap- 
pearance of the structure and gives sufficient light 
reflection to the airways to repay for the expense 
of painting. 

The almost universal custom of painting the in- 
terior brick walls of factories is now being extended 
to cover the exterior walls as well. Many gloomy 
appearing brick residences are also being trans- 
formed by exterior painting. 

Metal surfaces may appear smooth to the naked 
eye, but under the microscope they often evidence 
a rough, porous condition. On many metals this 
condition is responsible for moisture retention and 
subsequent corrosion. Such metals as iron and steel 
demand immediate protection to prevent rust ac- 
cumulation. The loss suffered yearly through ne- 



147 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



gle'ct to keep metal well painted amounts to many 
millions of dollars. 

CEMENT AND WOOD : 

Cement or stucco invariably present a rough sur- 
face. Water absorption is rapid. Dust and soot 
accumulation is marked, especially in industrial com- 
munities. All these defects may be prevented by 
paint application. It is safe to state that the value 
of any cement building may be increased from 10 to 
20 per cent, by the use of a pore-filling, water-re- 
sisting paint. Dust adherence then becomes mini- 
mised. Cement structures are almost invariably 
painted when appearance is a consideration. 

A wood panel one-half of an inch thick, when ex- 
posed to moisture, may gain ten ounces per square 
yard in a week. When exposed to water it may 
gain 50 ounces. Moisture absorption, checking, fun- 
gus growth and fibre abrasion may take place on 
uncoated wood. "When coated with paint, the mois- 
ture absorption is reduced to a negligible quantity 
and the surface is preserved from attack. Wood 
lasts indefinitely if kept well painted. 

Wall paper is fibrous and absorbent. It may re- 
tain moisture and dust. Paints are, therefore, gen- 
erally preferred for wall decoration. On existing 
papered walls, paints may be applied direct to the 
paper if desired. A smooth, washable surface of any 
color may thus be produced. 

T.Tc.irnxd WITH PAINT: 

People are just beginning to appreciate the value 
of paint from a lighting standpoint. For instance, 
the now almost universal practice of painting the 
interior walls and ceilings of factories in order to 
increase the illumination has developed within a 
few years. The tremendous savings in electricity or 
other illuminants, and the increased efficiency of the 
workers resulting from such practice, have given 
mill owners an appreciation of paint for this pur- 
pose. Discussing these matters in The Decorator, 
Mr. Henry A. ( lardner believes a further and even 
greatly extended use of paint as an illuminant re- 
flector will soon be observed. 

In practically every old-style urban railroad termi- 
nal, he says, there are immense train sheds which 
present a neglected and gloomy appearance. Where 
paint was used a very dark color was generally se- 
lected, as paint was looked upon simply as a pre- 
servative, and black was the prevailing color of 
metal preservative paints. In some instances, how- 
ever, no paint was applied. If such structures 
should now be painted so as to provide a finishing 
coat of white or of light tint, the amount of light 
inside the sheds would be tremendously increased. 



Accidents would be prevented and many glaring 
lights might be done away with. Moreover, the 
arriving guest would not feel depressed or secure a 
wrong impression of the community. 

While it is appreciated that the smoke from the 
locomotives would stain white paint, its surface 
would not become as dark as the uncoated structure. 
In any event, the lower parts might be washed occa- 
sionally. Similarly, in warehouses, freight sheds, 
wharf houses, interiors of freight cars, vessel holds, 
etc., the application of light paints to the present 
uncoated interiors would immensely improve the 
working conditions. 

Very little has so far been done with paint or 
lighting machinery. For instance, many of the sur- 
faces of the machines in large factories are un- 
coated. They gradually assume a dark color that 
gives shadows that may be responsible for many ac- 
cidents. If the working surfaces of such machines 
should be painted white, a much greater amount of 
white light would be obtained. Accidents would 
thus be minimized and production efficiency in- 
creased. 

While the use of paint for marking asphalt street 
for traffic regulation purposes has increased in some 
cities to quite an extent and has effectually aided in 
bringing about a more general observance of the 
rules of traffic, it can readily be seen how much 
greater should be the extension of this principle. 
For instance, all stone curbing on dark or poorly 
lighted streets might be painted white. A decrease 
in motor accidents would probably result. Along 
the open highways and boulevards, especially at 
dangerous corners and along embankments, mark- 
ing stones and the trunks of trees at well-defined 
distances on either side, if painted white, would re- 
flect the illumination afforded by headlights and 
make night driving much safer. 

( )XE WAY TO CONSERVE FORESTS : 

It would be difficult to state how many million 
telegraph poles line the highways and railroads of 
America. It is not difficult, however, to show that 
these poles, under the climatic conditions existing 
in many sections, do not last indefinitely. Impregna 
tion of the underground part is a practice that is 
generally adhered to in order to provide protection 
from underground decay. The upper part, exposed 
to the air, is seldom surfaced, and the ravages caused 
by exposure to the air soon become apparent. It 
is quite fair to state that overground protection, t<- 
be had through paint application, is also necessary, 
especially on all that are squared or otherwise 
dressed. Such treatment would extend the replace- 
ment period and help to conserve forests. 



148 




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\<n.. CXVIll. No. 2328. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST -1, 1920 




MAIN FLOOR PLAN 

HARTFORD TIMES BUILDING, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 

DONN BARBER, ARCHITECT 



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Vol.. (XVIII. Xo. 2328. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 4, 1920 






D. McLACHLAN, JR. ATELIEIt EflRONS 

PRIZE WINNING DESIGN (1st Medal). 
FINAL COMPETITION FOR THIRTEENTH PARIS PRIZE, SOCIETY OF BEAUX ARTS ARCHITECTS. 



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voL.cxvm. NO. 2328. THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 4, 1920 








H. S. SIMPSON 




CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND 
PITTSBURGH ARCHITECTURAL CLUB. 



PLACED ' SECOND (1st Medal). 

FINAL COMPETITION FOR THIRTEENTH PARIS PRIZE, SOCIETY OF BEAUX ARTS ARCHITECTS. 



VOL. cxvm. NO. 2328. THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 4, 1920 






.... 











F. A. CHAPMAN 







UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA AND 
SAN FRANCISCO ARCHITECTURAL CLUB. 



PLACED THIRD (2d Medal). 
FINAL COMPETITION FOR THIRTEENTH PARIS PRIZE. SOCIETY OP BEUTX ARTS ARCHITECTS 



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Beaux-Arts Institute of Design 

DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE, LLOYD WARREN 

ARCHITECTURE, WILLIAM F. LAMB SCULPTURE, JOHN GREGORY 

MURAL PAINTING, ERNEST C. PEIXOTTO INTERIOR DECORATION, ERNEST F. TYLER 



Official Notification of Awards- 
Judgment of July 13th, 1920 

FINAL COMPETITION FOR THE 13th PARIS PRIZE 

OF THE 
SOCIETY OF BEAUX-ARTS ARCHITECTS. 

PROGRAM 
The Paris Prize Committee proposes as subject of this 

Competition : 
"THE GREAT WAR MEMORIAL FOR THE CITY OF 

NEW YORK." 
FOREWORD : 

The program is based on the assumption that the City 
of New York, Metropolis of the Greatest of Free Govern- 
ments, fully appreciating its privilege and duty, has, for 
the purpose of creating an enduring Memorial, supreme 
in conception and in art, and worthy of the City and occa- 
sion, secured a commanding site of ample dimension, as- 
pect and prospect; and has by public subscription and en- 
actment, arranged for the necessary funds for a monu- 
mental project of the first importance. 

The will of the Citizens' has been made certain that as 
regards the Memorial they are to erect, they desire it to 
be for all time, an emblem, hallowed to- the- memory of 
those who were prepared to, and to those who did, make 
the Supreme Sacrifice ii. defense of their country and of 



hattan Island, bounded by Uyckman street on the south, 
the Hudson River on ihe West, the Spuyten Duyvil Creek 
on the north and the low-lying land at the base of the cliff 
on the East. It is a wooded height of rock formation, 
rising from the river to sn extreme height of 230 feet and 
near the summit is approximately oval. The Western, 
Northern and Southern sides slope steeply up from the 
water level, but these may at the option of the competitor 
be interrupted by a gently sloping shelf constructed at 
about two-thirds of the way up. The Eastern side, how- 
ever, is nearly a vertical precipice. North and South of the 
high ground are valleys running in an East uid West di- 
rection. Through the North valley a small river Hows 
West into the Hudson ; through the South valley Dyck- 
inan Street leads to a ferry landing. The far side of these 
two valleys rise steeply to the level of the shelf above 
or bridges, over which a Great Highway is to pass at ap- 
proximately a level of ISO feet above the river. 

This highway may be developed at its intersection with 
the easterly or transverse axis of the general plan, if- there 
be one, into a public place arranged in proper relation to 
the memorial itself. 

Tlie memorial should be situated so as to dominate the 
site, the river and the surrounding city and country. 
- No restriction is placed on the treatment of the- s-ite as 
regards public place, ramps, stairways, land'ng stage -on 
the river front, etc., nor is any one of these mandatory ; 
if, however, any or all are introduced into the project the 
treatment thereof shall be dignified and in a subordinate 
relationship to the memorial itself. The highway and 
viaducts, however, are essential features of the problem. 

THE MEMORIAL. 

The memorial shall be of stone construction, monu- 
mental in design and suitably embellished with sculptural 
and color decoration used with discretion. It mav take 







W. F. 



McCAUGHEY, JR., UNIVERSITY 
ILLINOIS 

PLACED FIFTH (2ND MEDAL) 



OF 



the rights and decencies of civilization. To this end they 
have determined that tht Memorial shall in its essential 
particulars be removed as far as possible froin any world- 
ly, utilitarian or commercial nature, and that it shall in 
its conception, design and execution represent the highest 
idealism. 

The site is so large ihat certain features of a practical 
nature are necessary, such as viaducts, approaches, con- 
venience and shelter for crowds who will assemble on oc- 
casions of National importance to do honor to their dead. 
The solemn and dignified character of the Memorial must 
be clearly expressed in the development of the project 
and it should not be subordinated to other features of the 
design. 

Architecture, Mistress of the Arts, has been called upon 
to produce the Great Design, and, as in the past, will call 
to her aid. her Hand Maidens, Sculpture and Painting. 

SITE: 
The site determined upon is the northerly end of Man-. 




W. F. McCAUGHEY, JR., UNIVERSITY 

ILLINOIS 
PLACED FIFTH (2ND MEDAL) 



OF 



any form desired by the competitor, such as a cenotaph 
(an empty tomb or sculptural monument), a memorial 
temple, shrine, arch, shaft, tower or other composition. 

Provision shall be made for memorial ceremonies, tablets, 
statues and inscriptions, and the memorial shall be set in 
an entourage of garden or landscape treatment distinguished 
by dignity of character. 

The site is such that the memorial may be placed, so as 
to be visible for many miles up and down the river, and 
the eastern face of the cliff is visible from the main line 



149 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




E. R. PURVES 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



PLACED FOURTH (2d Medal) 



of the railway and the city beyond the low lying ground 
which is adjacent to the base of the cliff. This basin or 
low lying ground may be considered as the subject of a 
city development into a large recreation park, which, to- 
gether with the site of the memorial itself, is accessible by 
electric transportation systems and by harbor vessels of 
all descriptions. A railway freight line operated elec- 
trically passes along the west front of the site about rive 
feet above the water level. This may be diverted, tunneled 
or concealed behind an embankment, or rendered unobjec- 
tionable in such manner as the competitor may devise. 
JURY OK AWARD: 

B. W. Morris, P. A. Cusachs, F. A. Godley, H. R. Sedg- 
wick, R. M. Hood, G. A. Licht, L. G. White, H. Bacon, L. 
Ayers, and R. H. Dana, Jr., chairman. 



\r.\lKF.K OF DRAWINGS SUBMITTED: Five. 
AWARDS: 

Paris Prize Winner (1st Medal) : D. McLachlan, Jr., 
Atelier H irons, New York City. 

Placed Second (1st Medal) : R. S. Simpson, Carnegie 
Inst. of Technology and Pittsburgh Archtl. Club, Pitts- 
'burgh, Pa. 

Placed Third (2d Medal) : F. A. Chapman, University 
of Pennsylvania and San Francisco Archtl. Club, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Placed Fourth (2d Medal) : E. R. Purves, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Placed Fifth (2d Medal) : W. F. McCaughey, Jr., Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 




E. R. PURVES 



PLACED FOURTH (2d Medal) 
150 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Current News 



Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 



Comprehensive Plan for East St. Louis 

An exhaustive plan for a definite scheme of de- 
velopment for the City of East St. Louis, 111., has 
been prepared under the direction of the War Civics 
Committee by Harland Bartholomew, City Plan 
Engineer. 

The features of this plan are presented in a com- 
prehensive report of some seventy-five printed pages. 
The report is very completely illustrated by spe- 
cially prepared plans and a large number of photo- 
graphic illustrations. 

East St. Louis finds, as many American cities 
have found, that the correction of errors due to in- 
judicious early methods is extremely expensive. It 
is now proposed to take into consideration every 
feature of the possible growth of East St. Louis 
and by skillful planning, after exhaustive review 
and study of conditions, so direct the future growth 
of the city as to ultimately reach a much desired 
result. 

This report is an extremely valuable one. Tt not 
only discusses problems that will particularly refer 
to the present operations, but it discusses them in 
a manner that makes the solution of these various 
problems readily adaptable to other cities where a 
reconstruction of the city plan is contemplated. The 
report will be of wide interest and not solely as re- 
ferring to a specific problem. 



Buildings and Lightning Rods 

During the recent storms many buildings were 
"struck "by lightning," as the popular phrase has it. 
Most of them, it would seem, were quite small 
houses, and hence arises the question whether it is 
justifiable to leave such buildings so entirely and so 
generally unprotected as they are. The efficacy of 
lightning rods in protecting buildings from stroke, 
by earthing the current received at some high point 
by a copper conductor, is mainly a theoretic assump- 
tion, but the comparative immunity of large build- 
ings that are provided with lightning conductors, 
and the frequency with which unprotected buildings 
are struck, are facts that seem conclusive. The fre- 
quency and destructiveness of recent thunderstorms 
suggests the desirability of closer investigation of 
the subject for the better protection of men and 
beasts and buildings and trees. 



Omaha Architects Plan to Reduce 
Building Cost 

Organization of the "Architects Small House 
Service Bureau ( Inc.) of Nebraska" has been start- 
ed at a meeting of Omaha architects, realtors and 
home owners. A system of perfecting standard plans 
for modest home builders will be adopted, together 
with professional counsel, working, drawings, de- 
tails and specifications. 



English Names for English Streets 

A very just comment appears in the English archi- 
tectural press on the subject of the futility of ex- 
pecting accurate pronunciation of foreign names as 
applied to English streets and other public places. 
In England, he says, is not Weston-SUper-Mare pro- 
nounced Weston-super-Mayor ? And Beaulicu is 
called Bulev. Moreover, he says, Ma-i-da Va-le is 
pronounced Maidcnveil by twelve out of thirteen 
"of the proletarian class." We never heard it called 
that, but something just as bad; yet to pronounce 
it as the correspondent would seem to advocate 
would be to incur doubts as to one's sanity or good 
faith. Even a more notorious instance than anv 
of those cited is that of Trafalgar, in which stress is 
never laid on the last syllable, as the pendants hold 
that it should be. It is not only with foreign names 
that we are at fault. Hundreds of English names 
are maltreated in the same way. Whosoever has not 
heard Westminister, for example, must lead a clois- 
tered life. In the southerly suburb of Brixton. the 
inquirer for Robsart street would be met by a vacu- 
ous stare, with from a really intelligent inhabitant 
the counter-query whether you meant Robert 
street. 

There would be less need to miscall the streets if 
they were conspicuously labeled, as, generally 
speaking, they certainly are not. Now that the 
omnibus companies are putting up sign-posts and 
painting the pavements to show where their vehicles 
stop, the local authorities may chance to regard this 
enterprise as a reminder of their own neglected duty. 
As we have said before, every street, court, and 
alley, in every town, should be conspicuously 
labeled, with the name well illuminated at night. 
But it would be weak to stop short at bare necessity. 
In each instance the name should be accompanied 



151 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



by an indication of the run of the house-numbers, 
and the names of the branch streets right and left 
of the chief line. And these directions should be 
architecturally designed. 

This point is very well taken. In the large city 
where there is much transient population, not only 
are the names of places likely to be abused, but the 
traveler is at a loss to know where he is. The 
inconvenience of having to make repeated inquiry 
makes a bad impression, whereas architecturally 
designed direction posts, as suggested, would give 
an air of hospitality and interest that would be 
appreciated. 



National Conference Pledges School 
Betterment 

At national conference on educational campaigns. 
\Yashington, June 26, called by Commsisioner of 
Education Claxton, representatives of 31 national 
organizations, composed of hundreds of thousands 
of members, pledged themselves to promote Bureau 
of Education's national campaign for school better- 
ment throughout the United States. Resolutions 
adopted by conference urged: (a) Assurance of 
adequate supply of properly prepared teachers, in- 
cluding greatly extended facilities for this prepara- 
tion ; (b) increased financial support for schools 
and educational agencies of all kinds; (c) readjust- 
ment of educational programs to meet demands of 
new era. 



Enormous Consumption of Lumber 
Threatens Future Supply 

We are consuming lumber three times as fast as 
we are procuring it. Experts predict our saw log 
lumber will be gone in fifty years. The bulk of the 
original supplies of yellow pine in the South will 
be gone in ten years and within seven years 3,000 
manufacturing plants there will go out of existence. 
White pine in the Lake States is nearing exhaustion 
and these states are paying $6,000,000 a year in 
freight bills to import timber. New England, self- 
supporting in lumber twenty years ago, now has to 
import one-third of the amount used. It has $300,- 
000,000 invested in wood and forest industries, em- 
ploying over 90,000 wage earners. Fire destroys 
over $20,000,000 worth of timber every year and 
kills the reproduction upon thousands of acres of 
forest lands. 



Construction in China* 

All lumber for building in China is bought in the 
log. As soon as the logs begin to arrive the con- 
tractor tackles them with the sawyers. These men 
are paid piece rates which average about three cash 
or one-tenth of a cent per square foot of surface 
sawed. They average a better wage than a carpenter, 
getting about ten cents a day, as compared with 
eight cents a day for the carpenter. At this rate 
they are cheaper than any steam sawmill that can 
operate in China. In fact, the only reason a sawmill 
can operate in China at all is because it can produce 
quickly and with a more even thickness than the 
native sawyers. The necessary doors, frames and 
window sashes are all made by hand. 

Three Chinese carpenters at eight cents a day 
with their native tools can accomplish about the 
same work done by one American carpenter with 
all equipment. The work is well done if well super- 
vised. The American carpenter has all his wood 
surfaced, so the Chinese carpenter is at a disadvan- 
tage. In comparison, I should say that about five 
Chinese carpenters at eight cents a day each are 
necessary to do the work of an American carpenter 
who receives $6 a day and has all his wood prepared 
for him. 



*From Face to Face With Business in Szechuan, by H. 
Richardson, in Asia. 



Fuel Saving by Electrifying Rail- 
roads 

A fuel saving of 122,500,000 tons of coal per 
year would be effected by the electrification of all of 
the railroads in the United States, according to a 
statement of Frank M. Kerr, Montana Power Co.,. 
Butte, Mont., in making the report of the Commit- 
tee on the Electrification of Steam Railroads before 
the recent annual convention of the National Elec- 
tric Light Association in Pasadena, Cal. "If all the 
steam railroads in the country were electrified with 
power furnished from large steam generating elec- 
tric stations, the total fuel required would be equiva- 
lent to 53,500,000 tons of coal, as against the actual 
figure for railroad coal used during the year 1918- 
of 175,000,000 tons." 



Alaska Gets First Concrete Building 

A reinforced concrete office building will be 
erected in Ketchikan, Alaska. This will be the first 
of its kind in Alaska. The structure, for bank and" 
post office purposes, was designed by George W. 
Lawton and H. Mouldenham, Seattle architects. 



152 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Old Field Museum Will Be Wrecked 

The old Field Museum in Jackson Park, originally 
the art gallery of the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion and one of the last remaining relics of the 1893 
fair, will be wrecked, it was announced by the South 
Park commissioners. Tennis courts will be laid out 
on the ground it occupies. 

Although efforts have been made to save the 
building, considered one of the finest pieces of archi- 
tecture in the country, the commissioners said it 
would cost several million dollars to make perma- 
nent repairs. The moving of exhibits to the new 
Field Museum in Grant Park has virtually been 
completed. 



Glass Bath in New "Luxury" House 

In house fixtures in London a novelty is the glass 
bath. 

It has been introduced here by Paul Poiret, the 
dress designer, who is going in also for household 
decoration in order that his gowns might have 
worthy settings. 

Despite many other attempts at the aesthetic 
bathtub, none have come up to Poiret's for beauty 
. as well as utility. 

Many folks seeking domestic luxury in their ablu- 
tions, have pounced on the idea of a marble bath- 
tub, only to return a verdict that it was "cold and 
uncomfortable." Some plutocrats have even gone 
so far as to use a gold or silver bath, but these have 
been pronounced bad form, and certainly they 
haven't been approved very extensively by the "best 
people." 

Poiret would seem to have solved a problem 
which has baffled many, for his bath is of translu- 
cent green, and the walls of its shrine decorated with 
fishes. A shell acts as light diffuser and there is a 
sea-foam frieze. 

This glass bath is to be the finishing touch to 
what is already described as the "most colorful 
house in London." 



One Picture Sells at $15,000 

Artists exhibiting at the Chicago Art Institute the 
last year have received encouragement through the 
museum's delegating one of its staff to stimulate 
sales. Several pictures sold at $8,000, one at $11,000 
and another at $15,000. The total ran into a sub- 
stantial sum. The man working on sales has an 
assistant during exhibitions. 

"If we don't support the artists we don't have 
the art," commented this official reviewing results 
of the last season. 



Personals 

John J. Donovan, Oakland, Cal., has moved his 
offices from the Perry Building to the fifth floor 
of the Pacific Building. 

Beverly S. King and Shiras Campbell have re- 
moved their offices from 103 Park avenue to 36 W. 
40th street, New York. 

Willis Polk and R. W. Kinne, Hobart Building, 
San Francisco, announce that L. Gerstle Mack has 
become a member of the firm of Willis Polk & Co. 

The architectural firm of Ashton & Huntress, 
477 Essex street, Lawrence, Mass., is now Ashton, 
Huntress & Allen, with offices at the same address. 

Stork & Knappe, architects, formerly at Palisades, 
N. J., have moved their office to Ardsley, N. Y. 

Joseph J. Galizia, architect, formerly at 2845 
West Twenty-third street. Coney Island, has moved 
his office to 2930 West Nineteenth street. 

Kallich & Subkis, architects, formerly located at 
2208 Bath avenue, have moved their offices to 7922 
Twenty-first avenue. Brooklyn. 

Martyn X. Weinstein, architect, formerly located 
at 1270 Fifty-fourth street, has recently moved his 
office to 16 Court street. Brooklyn. 

["rank Newman and Norman McGlashan, archi- 
tects, have become associated for the practice of 
their profession and have established offices at 120 
F.ast Fortieth street. 

II. C. Meyer, architect, 357 Flatbush avenue, 
Brooklyn, has formed a partnership with Joseph 
Mathieu, under the firm name of Meyers & Mathieu, 
for the general practice of their profession, with 
offices at the old address. 

Thompson & Mellema. architects and engineers, 
formerly at 640 Broadway, Manhattan, have dis- 
solved partnership. Missac Thompson, of this firm, 
has recently established an office at 189 Montague 
street, Brooklyn, where he will carry on his practice 
as architect and engineer. 

Mahan & Broadvvell, of Memphis, Tenn., have 
opened offices in Greenwood, Miss., ..with H. B. 
Hammond associated. Catalogues requested. 

A. L. Thayer, New Castle, Pa., and R. M. John- 
son, formerly with Walker & Weeks, Cleveland, 
are associated for architectural practice. Offices at 
5716 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, and New Castle. Pa. 



153 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Housing Brevities 

Overcrowding 

The Duluth News-Tribune recently made a sur- 
vey of housing conditions in Northern Minnesota 
and Wisconsin towns. The result in most cases 
show serious overcrowding, though it must be ad- 
mitted that it does not in any instance equal the 
serious overcrowding reported in an Eastern one- 
room cottage, where, rumor said, the family living 
in the center of the room moved out without waiting 
for the end of the month because the children quar- 
reled with the children of the family living in the 
northeast corner of the room. 



Houseboat on Land 

The housing shortage in Cincinnati is presenting 
some unique problems to the building commissioner, 
George Hauser. The owner of a houseboat on the 
Ohio river asked permission to transfer the cabin 
of his boat to a foundation which he has prepared 
on Southside avenue. In the summer he plans to 
restore it to the boat, thus using the cabin as an all- 
year-round home. The purchaser of a number of 
discarded cottages built for the government nitrate 
plant at Ancor, near Cincinnati, has applied for a 
permit to bring them into the city and erect them 
into flat buildings by arranging them three on to]) 
of each other. He contends that this can be done 
with safety and convenience. 



New York's Rent Laws Ineffective 
The new state rent laws are ineffective and have 
not deterred profiteering landlords from continuing 
rent-gouging assaults on thousands of tenants in 
Xew York City, according to Leo Kenneth Mayer, 
chief counsel for the Mayor's Committee on Rent 
Profiteering. The landlords are adopting divers 
methods to circumvent the new laws, Mr. Mayer 
declared, and have been successful to a certain ex- 
tent. 

The Rent Committee, which has been in opera- 
tion for fifteen months, has handled more than 
80,000 cases, of which 62,000 have been settled in 
and out of court. Of the remaining cases 8,000 are 
listed as hopeless and no settlement is possible. There 
is a constant flood of complaints into the commit- 
tee's office, which is visited by about 5,000 tenants 
every week. 



News from Various Sources 

Reclamation Service issues summary of work to 
December 31, 1919. Shows that projects now under 
way or completed embrace approximately 3,200,000 
acres of irrigable land divided into about 67,500 
farms of from 10 to 160 acres each. During the 
year water was available from Government ditches 
for 1,935,278 acres on 41,836 farms, and Govern- 
ment was under contract to supply water to approx- 
imately 1,690,000 acres. Available reservoir ca- 
pacity at this time was approximately 9,432,000 
acre-feet. 

;-. % :: 

Galveston, Texas, has adopted a rat-proofing 
ordinance which is applicable to all classes of build- 
ings in the city, on the recommendation of Dr. J. 
Holmes Smith, Jr., of the U. S. Public-Health Ser- 
vice, and Dr. C. W. Goddard, State Health Officer. 
The complete ordinance may be read in the Gal- 
veston Tribune of July 10. 

* * * 

A new town is to be built at Dagenham, Essex, by 
the London County Council, in order to overcome 
the dearth of houses. Accommodation will be pro- 
vided for 120,000 people on a 3,000-acre site at a 
cost of $150,000,000. 

* * * 

Preliminary investigations by experts of Senate 
Committee on Reconstruction are developing that 
lack of transportation may postpone any relief for 
housing shortage during present year. The coal 
shortage, one of the causes of recent freight em- 
bargoes, is reported due partly to abnormal exporta- 
tion of coal. Coastwise shipments are inadequate 
to relieve railroad congestion, it is said. 



Dispatch from Pittsburgh states that conditions 
affecting iron and steel trade have grown worse on 
the whole and June, despite efforts of railroads, 
closed with greater accumulation of material in mill 
yards and with large number of plants closed. Pro- 
duction was maintained in excess of May and not 
far from rate of last March. 



Henry H. Curran, President of the/ .Borough of 
Manhattan, suggests that Governor Smith call a 
special session of the Legislature this summer to 
consider measures for the relief of the housing situ- 
ation in New York City. Mr. Curran practically 
wants the Legislature to take steps to amend the 
State Constitution in such a way as to give the city 
power to utilize its own land in the construction of 
municipal apartment houses to be rented to families. 



154 






Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Prominent Regional Centers 



Cement has been one of the few materials which 
contractors felt reasonably sure of obtaining, it has 
accordingly felt an increasing demand and the sup- 
plies carried on hand have diminished much below 
normal. It is stated that in the Lehigh and 
Hudson districts the plants are now suffering an 
enforced shut-down for lack of raw materials. The 
price of this material has recently been advanced 
30 cents a barrel in New York. 

Another of the more available materials has been 
lumber which in the early summer fell a little in 
price. The market now shows evidence of stiffen- 
ing. Although, however, the production of this ma- 
terial has been somewhat reduced, running accord- 
ing to some opinions 25 to 30 per cent, below nor- 
mal, the bullish arguments are chiefly those of trans- 
portation. 

Steel production goes on, suffering only the slight 
diminution which comes because of the congestion 
of the plants. The demand for structurals is fall- 
ing off slightly but prices are well sustained as 
no manufacturer has as yet to go out for business. 
In fact, some authorities believe that indications 
point to still higher prices. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

Chicago. Chicago building and material inter- 
ests, which had hoped for a modification of the 
open car order in their favor, as a result of the 
hearing before the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion were greatly disappointed when it became 
known the priority order affecting coal had been 
extended until August 20 as the railroads requested. 
In the opinion of many dealers the retaining of open 
cars for coal only will prove disastrous to the whole 
construction field which is already in a chaotic state. 
Some go so far as to predict the cessation of all 
activity in every phase of the construction indus- 
try within the next sixty days. Others are look- 
ing forward with renewed hope to the hearings 
which the United States Senate Committee on Re- 
construction and Production plans to hold in the 
next two or three weeks. The committee will in- 
vestigate construction conditions in the central west. 

In the meantime, however, materials are almost 
impossible to obtain, and when received prove to be 
of inferior grade. Sand and gravel, two of the most 
important basic materials used in the construction 
of both roads and building, are especially difficult 
to get. Prices continue to advance. Sand is now 



costing $4 per square yard. Dealers handling a well 
known brand of cement were notified the price had 
advanced to $3.99 per barrel wholesale a raise of 
fifty cents within a week. This same product had 
retailed recently at $3.85 per barrel. 

Shipments of cement to Chicago have been ex- 
ceedingly low and most of the cement used recently 
had been hauled by truck from Indiana. Even 
this source may soon be cut off as it is claimed the 
heavy truck loads are tearing up the roads and 
villages and towns along the route are protesting 
against further use of the roads for this purpose. 



(By Special 'Correspondence to The American 
Architect.} 

Seattle. Outstanding features for the steel and 
vitroware markets of the Pacific Coast this week 
was decrease in the delivery of nails with further 
extensions of the rationing system, firm but un- 
changed prices, more offerings of building paper, 
plaster board and patent roofing and a coming ad- 
vance in fire brick of $5 per ton. Common dimen- 
sion fir lumber is $1 higher due to the inability of 
the mills to get cars for loading. 

Eastern 'mills are reporting to Pacific Coast job- 
bers this week that conditions are easier there as to 
production, but the railways arc unable to carry out 
the feeling as (o the car supply. Steel pipe used 
in essential building projects is scarce, with one-half 
and three-fourths sizes so short that rationing has 
been resorted to. 

There has been a noticeable improvement in the 
loading of steel at eastern points by "outside" mills 
whenever jobbers expressed a willingness to pay a 
premium over the market. Several jobbers frankly 
stated that the more that is paid, the quicker the 
delivery. As the situation is now looked upon by 
the heaviest jobbing interests of the Pacific Coast 
there will be little improvement inside of 90 days. 
There is a limited acceptance by the eastern mills of 
business for the third quarter but the railway de- 
livery situation promised to become more compli- 
cated in the announcement that it is proposed to 
move the Middle Western wheat through the North 
Pacific ports to Europe and reload the cars east- 
bound with lumber for the Central and Seaboard 
building trade. This would, as jobbers see it, with- 
draw cars from steel and merchandise service until 
such time as the bulk of the wheat had been moved. 

Vitroware and earthenware are very scarce and 
none of the Pacific Coast cities have any supply 



155 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ahead. Manufacturers are able to make delivery 
of about 33 1/3 per cent, of requirements. Ship- 
ments ordered early in January are just now being 
unloaded at Pacific Coast points. To all the pleas 
for more, manufacturers say the railways and not 
themselves are defaulting. Crane & Co. received 
four carloads at their Seattle base this week. 
Manufacturers are willing to say at this time that 
they are rapidly catching up and may be able to 
promise normal delivery within sixty days if they 
can get cars. The demand for vitroware and earth- 
enware is increasing. 

Cast iron boilers, 48 inch, for low pressure heat- 
ing plants have advanced 5 per cent, this week. 
There have heretofore been slight advances which 
the jobbers were able to absorb and to check the 
rise at the warehouse. 

While the market has remained stationary in 
building paper, cement and plaster board, there are 
too many offerings for absorption by the jobbing 
trade during a period of what seems to be reaction 
in building as in extravagance. Jobbers have in 
consequence been looking for a decline. Owing to 
some opportune pickups, the North Coast jobbing 
trade has been able to get a fair supply of cement, 
but there is a critical scarcity all along the Coast 
as in the East as reflected in reports to the West 
Coast lumber trade from eastern lumber buyers. 
These buyers, who had been expecting a continued 
bear market in lumber, say they would buy if they 
could get cement both commodities seem to be 
linked up in an uncommon fashion this season. 
Difficulty of financing cement stocks for future 
month delivery is preventing moderate sized job- 
bers from laying in a supply. Stocks of not less 
than $40,000 to $50,000 will equip a corporation in 
this territory to go into competition for the cement 
business. 

San Francisco is buying fir lumber and shingles 
on the West Coast market. There is great delay in 
getting white cement from York, Pa. Orders 
placed in March have been shipped but the cars 
have been lost. 

Red cedar shingles are stronger due to the car 
scarcity at $4.85 for clears and $4.20 to $4.25 for 
stars mill basis. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.*) 

Boston. The report that the Association of Rail- 
way Executives is attempting to increase the rate 
of freight car travel to thirty miles per car per day 
in solution of the car shortage is encouraging both 
to shippers and users of building materials. Dur- 
ing the war, when the Government had at its com- 
mand all the labor that it needed, had the authority 



and the right of way everywhere, it got up a speed 
of 26.01 miles per day. 

The western transcontinental lines have an enor- 
mous movement, running as high as 60 miles per 
day, because of their long distances. Now Eng- 
land, on the other hand, is virtually a terminal yard 
in which movement is impeded by short runs and 
switching and by frequent congestion. The average 
movement here is only in the vicinity of 18 miles 
per day. 

A large quantity of lath is now noticed on the 
sidings in Maine. The mills have been handicapped 
because of poor shipping conditions, but are now 
daily receiving additional supplies of empty cars. 
Prices are more steady in lumber and brick, and al- 
though cement mills report plentiful supplies on 
hand it is still scarce at the job. 

One large lumber company reports as follows: 
with the non-delivery of lumber, caused by the rail- 
road strike, practically every lumber dealer in the 
country has been forced to extend his financial re- 
sources to the limit. It is impossible in many locali- 
ties to collect for lumber until after it has reached 
destination, thus doubling the financial responsibil- 
ity of the shipper. Within the last thirty days there 
has been a material reduction in lumber prices, 
but these will strengthen the minute we have a lit- 
tle reaction. A great many commodities are now 
being sold at less than the actual cost of produc- 
tion, caused largely by the indiscriminate use of the 
transit car privilege. 

New England should spend $365,000,000 to re- 
lieve the housing shortage so the City Planning 
Board reported this past week to the mayor. This 
report which is the result of a six weeks' survey, 
points out that 6,546 Boston families now have 
their furniture in storage, having apparently 
"doubled up" with their relatives or gone to lodging 
houses or hotels to live ; and that fully 20,000 of 
the 39,395 industrial employes who were accounted 
for in the survey complained they were affected by 
the housing shortage. The Board received reports 
of conditions from 89 industrial plants employing 
28.978 men and 10,357 women of whom 80 per cent. 
live within the city limits. Fifty-one employers 
stated that there were indications that many of their 
employes desired to purchase their homes on a 
monthly payment plan. Nine of them submitted fig- 
ures snowing that 700 of their employes had ex- 
pressed a desire to become home owners at once. 

Statistics of building and engineering operations 
in New England show that contracts awarded from 
Tanuary 1 to July 15, 1920, amounted to $193,683,- 
000 as compared with $97,739,000 for a correspond- 
ing period in 1919; $78,742,000 in 1918; $111,064- 
000 in 1917; $110,141,000 in 1916; and $93.152,000 
in 1915. 



156 



MUUMH |HBDfflE 1 S ,i graiMpinp y llil '! ,, I" ' C 

"!-,-,' . .:,ffl^^iCr:vT'3:.^^.,fAP!:^js^.iggi:iuA^^^^ 




Observations on the Southern California 

Earthquake 



W 



By W. H. BOUGHTON 

HILK earthquakes are far from welcome, pletely cut off, water mains were broken and all 
they present an opportunity to study the public service generally demoralized. 



manner in which different types of con- 
struction are affected, and from this viewpoint they 



These shocks were followed by intermittent tre- 
mors during the night and a quite severe shock oc- 



present an educational advantage. Much has been curred about noon of the day following, June 22. 



learned from such catastrophes as the Baltimore 
fire, and the San Francisco earthquake and lire. 



Scientists who have investigated the phenomena 
of earthquakes offer the opinion that the disturb- 



There recently occurred in Southern California an ances which occurred during these two days re- 
earthquake, the effects of which, given below 
worthy of more than passing notice. 

HISTORY 

On June 21, 1920, at 
6:47 P. M. the first shock 
was felt. This was rapidly 
followed by a longer and 
I more severe one. The 
direction of the initial tre- 
mor- was from approxi- 
. mately Kast to West 
while the second one 
passed from North to 

South. These shocks 
Jwere felt as far north as 

Ventura and as far inland 
as San Bernardino down 
through the Imperial Val- 

ey and south to San 
(Diego. All of the places 

within this circle felt the 
hock, more or less. In some places as many as six 

distinct shocks were felt, although the heaviest shocks 
were centralized around the town of Inglewood and 

Hyde I 'ark. where the greatest damage was done. 




suited from a slipping of the strata in the principal 
geological fault which follows the coastal range 

from a point 200 miles 
north of San Francisco to 
the (iulf of Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

f This fault reaches to .1 

point 100 miles below San 
Francisco where it swerves 
twenty miles to the interior 
and reaches the Imperial 
Valley by traversing Los 
Angeles, Riverside and 
San Diego counties. 
There are at least three 
such geological faults in 
the state, two of which 
are in the north. 

At Santa Monica the 



FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, INGLE- 
WOOD, CAL. 



shock was severe enough 
to rock the walls of 
houses and sway trees and telephone and elec- 
tric light wires. The writer was in the kit- 
chen of his bungalow at the time, with his 
wife and son, and the only description that can be 



Fronts of buildings were thrown into the street, given is likened to a steamer which is going full 
telephone and electric power service was com- speed ahead when suddenly the engines are reversed 



157 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




VIEW SHOWING SHORING OF PORTICO OF 
FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING. 

full speed astern, causing the walls and floors to 
heave and rock with apparent intentions of col- 
lapsing. This being our first earthquake experi- 
ence, we were too astonished to do more than sit 
and watch things rock and, after it was over, rush 
out into the yard, carrying with us the things that 
were in our hands at the time. 

RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS 

TUESDAY morning, June 22, I started out by 
automobile to visit all of the places where the 
shocks were reported and where any damage was 
done, in order to find out how serious had been the 
damages. I finally decided to confine my efforts in 
and around the center of the damaged area which 
was the town of Inglewood. Here the damage 
was very severe. 

The front of the Hotel Inglewood, a two-story 
brick and frame building with wood floor joists 
and plastered ceilings on wood lath, was out in 
the street, exposing the front bed rooms to view, 
while the plastered ceilings had fallen to the floor. 
The brick front wall in being thrown into the street, 
crushed a Ford car that was parked in .front of the 
hotel. Little or no plastered work was left intact. 

The Inglewood sub-station of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Edison Company, a two-story brick struc- 
ture was badly wrecked, most of the front wall 



having been thrown into the street. The ceilings 
were plastered on wood lath and large sections of 
the plaster had fallen. 

The First National Bank Building, a compara- 
tively new one-story structure with brick walls faced 
with enameled brick and terra cotta trim, was badly 
damaged above the cornice line and the walls 
cracked at the corners. The damage was consid- 
ered sufficiently dangerous to warrant shoring up 
the walls over the main entrance. An inspection of 
the interior revealed that the exterior walls were 
furred with hollow tile on which the interior plas- 
tering was applied. These walls were cracked in 
many places, and much of the plaster loosened and 
tore away from the base. The ceiling was a sus- 
pended ceiling of metal lath and, aside from the 
cracks around the angles of the walls, no cracks 
were visible. 

The main building of the grammar school, erected 
in 1910 at a cost $75,000, was constructed with brick 
walls, stuccoed on the exterior and lined with hol- 
low tile. The ceilings were of plaster on metal 
lath. The accompanying photographs will show the 
character of this building, also the present condir 
tion of the exterior. It was not possible to get into 
the interior as the walls were in danger of col- 
lapsing under the slightest additional shock. The 
one-story buildings or annex shown in one of the 




CORNER OF THE MAIN BUILDING, INGLE- 
WOOD GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



158 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



photographs were erected in 1915 and 1919, and 
are constructed with walls of wood stud, lathed 
on both sides with metal lath, stuccoed on the ex- 
terior and plastered with hard wall plaster inside. 
On the top floor, over the central section of the 




HOTEL INGLEWOOD AT REAR. 

Front wall entirely out. 

building was located the auditorium. This portion 
of the structure fell clear through to the first floor, 
while the supporting walls were thrust sideways, 
leaving this section of the building a complete 
wreck. From present indications the main build- 
ing will have to be torn down and rebuilt. The 
local authorities who had made an inspection of the 
interior reported that the plastered walls were badly 
cracked, even the blackboards backing up on the 
hollow tile being stripped clean. Floors lathed on 
the underside with metal lath, were reported to 
be in good condition, excepting where the floors 





INGLEWOOD GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

One-Story Annex in the foreground is practically undamaged. 

fell through. The annexes were open for inspec- 
tion and these buildings were remarkably free from 
cracking, either on the exterior or interior. 

It was impossible to find much left in the way of 
chimneys in Inglewood, Hyde Park or Angeles 




SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON BUILDING, 
INGLEWOOD, CAL. 

Mesa. At Inglewood, the fire apparatus was parked 
in the street, as the engine house will have to be 
torn down and rebuilt. This structure is a brick- 
stucco building, and the stucco has cracked and 
fallen. 

The accompanying illustrations indicate, better 
than a written description can, the nature of the 




* tiff 



SCHOOL AT HYDE PARK, CAL. 



ANOTHER VIEW OF THE HYDE PARK SCHOOL. 



159 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



damage caused by this earth upheaval. In sections 
where such phenomena are likely to occur, the 
forms of construction adopted should be capable 
of resisting, to some extent at least, the strains 
thus induced, without causing the collapse of the 
structure or any extensive damage thereto. It is 
believed that a system of construction which will 
fulfil these requirements can be developed, and 
should meet with approval by the architectural 
profession. 

In working along this line it is necessary con- 
stantly to bear in mind the fact that whatever con- 
struction is employed it should be fire-resisting, 
since fire is quite likely to result as an aftermath of 
an earthquake. By eliminating as much as possible, 
materials that present a fire hazard the total damage 



will be kept at a minimum, which is the object 
sought. 




A STORE AT INGLEWOOD, CAL. 



Report on Trip to Princeton, College of City of New York, 

Yale and Harvard for the Purpose of Inspecting the 

Stadia at those Universities 



By HOWARD DWIGHT SMITH 

Part III 



THERE is something distinctive about the 
name "Yale Bowl." The effectiveness of the 
structure in seating a large number of peo- 
ple in comparatively close proximity to a playing 
field justifies that distinction. 

An inspection of the Yale Bowl was made on 
Tuesday, May 11, and certain observations noted 
before an interview was obtained with Dr. Al. 
Sharpe, Director of Athletics at the University. As 
the interview with Dr. Sharpe dealt more with the 
effectiveness of the structure in fulfilling the re- 
quirements for which it was built than it dealt with 
the physical condition of the work or its engineer- 
ing features, it may be well to treat that part of the 
discussion first. 

The Yale Bowl is located at the edge of the City 
of New Haven with the rest of the athletic plant, 
quite some distance from the academic and social 
activities of the University. This is a condition 
with which quite a number of large institutions 
have to contend, especially with the growing ten- 
dency toward participation in so-called "mass ath- 
letics." At New Haven it is necessary to go by 
street car or motor to reach Yale Field from the 
campus. Dr. Sharpe deplored this fact quite as 
much as he did the fact that it is quite impossible 
for him to have his football candidates' fall 
schedules so arranged that they may have no classes 
in the afternoon, and their morning academic work 
arranged so as to leave their nights for rest rather 
than study. 



The entire athletic plant at Yale Field is quite 
extensive. The Bowl is only a single feature of 
the entire group, and while it is enormous in size, 
still it is perhaps the least used of the entire group. 
There is a separate Varsity diamond with grand- 
stand and bleachers, several class diamonds and a 
running track entirely separate from the other fea- 
tures. There is a new armory for the artillery unit 
(R. O. T. C.) and a large number of tennis courts. 
A large new Club house, proposed in 1915 but with- 
held from construction during the war will add 
greatly to the efficiency and convenience of the ath- 
letic group. 

One of the first things Dr. Sharpe mentioned in 
his interview was with reference to the use of such 
a large structure as the Yale Bowl for so few events. 
This, of course, is a very pertinent question and 
one which always comes up in a discussion of the 
Yale Bowl. The Bowl in its design and construc- 
tion is a monument to that wonderful spirit of Yale 
Alumni, which has traditionally come to place more 
importance on the climax of fall athletics, the foot- 
ball game with Harvard, than upon any other single 
thing connected with the institution. 

The spirit with which the idea was conceived and 
carried out by the alumni is most commendable. 
The whole and sole idea back of the Bowl was 
that a maximum number of people be accommodated 
at the game with Harvard, and that they be accomo- 
daterl as conveniently and practically as possible, in 
the most economical way. This has been accom- 



160 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



plished and the Bowl is a success from that point of 
view. Its builders and patrons are interested in one 
day out of 365 and are willing that a large part of 
their investment lie idle the other 364 days. Thus 
are the strong ties of Alma Mater evidenced. 

It is easy to see, therefore, how the size and shape 
of the Bowl was determined. A gridiron was laid 
out and a minimum distance from the corners to the 
inner wall was fixed upon by the Athletic Mentors. 
Through four points thus determined an approxi- 



Bearing in mind the ideas of the original donors 
of the Bowl, this is not a disadvantage. Any addi- 
tional use which may be made of it may be con- 
sidered as extra efficiency. Dr. Sharpe informs us 
that he proposes using the field for La Crosse in 
winter and spring when the playing surface will 
permit. During the last football season ( fall of 
1919) excessive rains and the wear of hard play- 
ing, left the turf in bad condition. Kesndding of 
large portions of the playing field during the spring 




THE YALE BOWL, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

DONN BARBER, ARCHITECT. 
View looking toward the narrow end of the eliptical field. 



mate ellipse was described which forms the inner 
perimeter of the seating structure, placing the first 
row of spectators, as near the gridiron as possible, 
this being one of the prime considerations. The 
length of this internal perimeter is, therefore, con- 
siderably less than a quarter of a mile and the 
placing of a regulation running track within it be- 
came impossible, even if there had been sufficient 
space to pass the corners of the gridiron. Straight- 
away tracks also being impossible, it is evident that 
as far as the track team is concerned, the Yale Bowl 
is c if little or no use. 



has precluded its use for La Crosse for the current 
season. 

The general scheme of building the Bowl has 
been so often described that it is hardly necessary 
to go into detail here. The earth was scooped 
from the central portions and banked up around 
the outside, placing the lower half of the seat sec- 
tion on solid ground and the upper half on ex- 
cavated ground. The playing field is about 25 feet 
below the level of the surrounding ground and 
the top row of seats is about the same distance 
above it. This makes the top row of seats some 50 



161 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



feet above the level of the playing field. The lower 
half of the seating section has been built permanent- 
ly of concrete, but the upper half of the seating 
section, that which rests on the bank filled with the 




MODEL OF THE YALE BOWL. 

earth excavated from the center of the bowl has 
only been built up temporarily of wood. Of the 
structural properties of these concrete seats, more 
will be said later, but it might be mentioned here 
that the greatest part of Yale's problem is ahead 
of it. The sandy nature of the soil has been quite 
an advantage for good drainage of the field itself, 
but as for being good for bank fill this sandy soil 
leaves much to be desired. It doesn't seem to settle 
properly and it will not "stay put." One of the 
greatest problems of maintenance is to keep the 
sand from the upper filled bank from washing down 
and filling up lower portions of the concrete seats 
and drains. Fill of this nature will be hard to build 
additional concrete seats on. 

The ellipse of the top row of seats is about 150 
feet outside of the perimeter of the inner wall. The 
idea has often been expressed that it might be 
necessary for spectators on the top seats to use 



binoculars to see the game. Perhaps this feeling 
is due from the impression obtained from photo- 
graphs. The peculiar size and shape of the Bowl 
make it impossible for any photograph, save an air- 
plane view to convey the real idea. This feeling 
does not come to one who visits the structure when 
it is empty. Perhaps the vastness of the Bowl is 
more apparent and more impressive when it is filled 
to capacity, but the perimeter of the inside wall of 
the Bowl has been made so small that the fartherest 
row of seats at the end of the ellipse is not more 
than 400 feet from the actual center of the play- 
ing field. 

Entrance to the Bowl is effected through a single 
row of thirty-two tunnels each of which leads from 
the outside ground level through the upper bank 
fill to an eye or a portal. These portals take care of 
the crowd quite satisfactorily. It has been found 
necessary to fence off the area surrounding the 
bowl with a high fence in order better to control 
the crowds. The business manager of the Athletic 
Association, Mr. Woodstock, assures us that the 
handling of the crowds at the Bowl itself is quite 
satisfactory, because seats are easily found from 
these portals or eyes which are about midway of 
the seating section. The greatest difficulty seems 
to be to get the crowds distributed as much as pos- 
sible at some distance from the structure itself, in 
order to avoid congestion at few points. 

Casual visitors are admitted to inspect the Bowl 
daily from 9 to 5. One gate in the outside wire 
fence is left open and one of the tunnel entrances 
to the Bowl itself is left open. No attendants are 




THE YALE BOWL AS IT APPEARED 

Over 61,000 persons are comfortably seated, each possessing an unobstructed view of the field. 



162 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



left in charge and all parts of the structure are 
open to inspection. 

The top part of the exterior slope of the filled 
bank is covered with turf. The lower portion is 
held up by a retaining wall some 10 feet high, 
through which the tunnel entrances are cut. In 
these tunnel entrances it is evident that an attempt 
has been made to vary the color and texture of the 
concrete. There is quite an opportunity in using 
varying textures and colors in stucco, if sufficiently 
studied to be harmonious. In the case of these 
tunnel portals, the prevailing pinkish cast of the 
main portion of the wall does not harmonize too 
successfully with the dull gray tone of the rough 
textured portion immediately surrounding each 
door. 

On the inside of the Bowl, the general elliptical 
line of the inner wall is apparent, but an appear- 
ance of crudity in execution is given by the build- 
ing of the inner wall in straight chords ap- 
proximately 10 feet in length. This is probably 
quite an economical method of construction and its 
use in the layout of the seating tiers is quite com- 
mendable from that point of view. The building 
of the inner wall in circle arcs, however, would 
have added much by way of an appearance of neat- 
ness and thoroughness which would have well been 
worth what slight additional expenditures it would 
have necessitated. The heavy coping over the in- 
ner wall is of rather ponderous cross section, and 
does not add to the refinement of line which might 
have been possible otherwise. 

Two peculiar physical characteristics of the Yale 
Bowl have been noted. Dr. Sharpe points out that 



in the fali the temperature within the Bowl, down 
on the playing field particularly, is from five to 
ten degrees higher than outside. This is due to the 
air pocket, which the Bowl itself forms within which 
there is little or no air circulation, and it is seldom 
that there is much of a breeze down near the field 
level. The thirty-two horizontal tunnels usually 
have a distinct outward draft, but they only effect 
the air down to their own floor levels which are 
some 25 feet above the playing field. This differ- 
ence in the temperature is ordinarily found within 
all closed stadia. In those closed stadia where track 
work is provided for and straightaways are pro- 
vided through tunnels under the seats at any one 
point (as at Syracuse, for instance), there is a 
decided draft from the inside warmer air to the 
outside cooler air. This draft moves in the op- 
posite direction to the runners in the dashes and 
adds greatly to the inconvenience of running. ( )ther 
inconveniences in running through a tunnel of this 
nature are sudden change of light, and a sudden 
change of temperature. 

The other peculiar physical characteristic of the 
Yale Bowl which was particularly noticeable was 
its acoustics. From any given point at the level of 
the playing field even the faintest sounds made 
along the upper row of seats is plainly audible. 
During the inspection of the Bowl a party of four 
visitors entered through the open tunnel and por- 
tal. This party ascended to the crest of the em- 
bankment at the top seat and walked entirely around 
the ellipse. Kvery word spoken by the members 
of the party and even the sounds of their footsteps 
could be plainly heard from points along the inner 




Jl'RIXG A YALE-HAVARD FOOTBALL GAME. 

Thirty-two tunnels give entrance to the bowl. The portals to these tunnels can lie clearly seen. 



163 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



wall, at the playing field level, except for a space 
of some 90 feet while they were passing outside 
the temporary press stand on the north. While 
the party of visitors was walking along the crest 
behind that stand, there were no sounds of any 
kind heard. Mention is made here f this phenome- 
non of acoustics more for its passing interest than 
for any conclusions or lessons to be drawn from 
it. The clearness and audibility of sounds when 
the Bowl is filled to capacity perhaps has little ef- 
fect upon the crowd itself. 

The engineering and structural problems involved 
in the constmction of the Yale Bowl are somewhat 
different from those of most other structures. A 
large part of the construction consisted in moving 
the 175,000 cubic feet of earth from the bottom of 
the Bowl and placing it to form the surrounding em- 
bankment. The concrete work involved (1), the 
building of the lower tiers of seats, supported direct- 
ly upon the inner slope of the excavation; (2) the 
entrance tunnels, which were built in the open and 
later filled by the embankment; (3) the outside re- 
taining wall to hold the embankment ; and (4) the 
two gate house structures, the larger one on the 
south, the smaller one on the north. 

None of these concrete operations involved the 
question of vertical support which is found in most 
structures for the seating of a great number of 
people. The problems of reinforcing are largely 
confined to the design of the seat slabs to avoid 
cracking from unequal support or unequal settle- 
ment. It is quite evident that a larger structural 
problem will present itself to the engineers and 
builders when it becomes necessary to construct the 
upper part of the seat section on the sandy fill of the 
upper embankment. 

Expansion and contraction in the seat section 
already built has been very successfully taken care 
of in the method of construction. The seats have 
been cast in position in blocks three steps high and 
in sections 10 to 16 feet long (depending on the dis- 
tance from the inside ellipse). These blocks have 
been separated from each other simply by pieces of 
tarred felt. Three of these structural section taken 
together form one seating section extending from 
tunnel to tunnel. At one of these radial joints be- 
tween tunnels there has been placed a regular street 
paving joint which has been filled with an elastic 
material. There are, therefore, in this lower part 
of the Bowl a total of thirty-two radial joints espe- 
cially provided for temperature movement, and most 
of the advantages of small stone masonry construc- 
tion have been obtained by the jointing of the struc- 
ture into integral blocks, none of which is over 120 
square feet in horizontal area. The joints about these 
comparatively small blocks are not designed to take 
up expansion and contraction, but they do permit a 



certain amount of flexibility which prevents crack- 
ing and consequent disintegration. The condition of 
the concrete in these seats, after five and one-half 
years of wear, is nearly perfect. The parapet wail 
at the inner edge of the seats stands about 4 feet 
high from the field level and about 30 inches high 
from the first seating space. This wall is 12 inches 
thick, much thicker than would ordinarily be neces- 
sary, but it is just such excess mass that makes for 
durability and creates the impression of permanence. 

One of the distinctive features of the Yale Bowl 
is the method of placing wood seats on the stone 
steps. . The depth of the stone steps is not sufficient 
to provide comfortable seating without raising the 
actual seating surface. This has been accomplished 
by securing heavy galvanized iron standards to the 
front edge of each step by means of bronze U bolts. 
These galvanized iron standards support wooden 
seats and back rests built of Douglas fir. These 
standards are so built as to bring the wood seat al- 
ways 18 inches above the foot rest of each step. 

On the outside retaining wall, sliding expansion 
joints have been provided at the overlapping pil- 
asters at each of the tunnel entrances. These joints 
have not been as effective as the plain butt joints 
of the seat structure. There are a number of in- 
stances of spalling off. These spalls appear to be 
of three kinds; (1) those caused by strains due toi 
pressure of natural expansion or contraction; (2) 
those caused by frost action; (3) those caused by 
seepage from within the wall kself. The third kind 
is only slightly in evidence and may probably be 
considered as partly affected by the second class. 
Evidence of disintegration is very small as com- 
pared with the magnitude of the structure and the 
general appearance of the concrete is quite encour- 
aging to those who contemplate its use in such large 
quantities. 

Reference is made to Engineering Record, March 
28, 1914, and November 21, 1914, for discussion of 
the technical features of the Yale Bowl. 

To be continued 



The Erection, Repair or Demolition 
of Buildings 

Under the above title the New York State Indus- 
trial Commission has issued Bulletin No. 23. The 
rules contained in this Bulletin deal with ladders, 
scaffolds, runways, derricks, hoisting apparatus, 
etc., used in connection with the erection, altering 
and demolition of buildings, as well as with oxy- 
acetylene welding and cutting. Copies may be had 
on application to the Bureau of Industrial Code, 
124 East Twenty-eighth street, New York City. 



164 






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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 11, 1920 NUMBER 2329 



VOL. CX VI 1 1 




THE YARD, CHICAGO NURSERY AND HALF ORPHAN ASYLUM 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 

The Work of Holabird & Roche, Architects 



WE are all more or less familiar with the 
monumental works of the various architec- 
tural organizations in this country as such 
works are usually widely published and studied. 
Are such works a true criterion of an organization's 
capabilities? Are we not too prone to base an 
evaluation of the organization on such works . J By 
extreme effort an ordinary organization can be so 
amplified and co-ordinated that a really creditable 
work is produced, but the real ability of an or- 
ganization is more truly indicated by the mass of 
production that which makes up the daily grist. 
Meritorious works can only be the result of labor 
expended, a real effort, and when this is done con- 
sistently on minor projects through a period of years 
nd under all conditions, it bespeaks an honesty of 
arpose and a real enthusiasm and love for archi- 
tural creation. In fact any successful organiza- 
must be imbued with the desire to participate 
good architectural performances and anticipate 
satisfaction resulting from work well done. 
The object of this showing of the work of Hola- 
liinl & Roche in this and succeeding issues is to il- 
lustrate some of the minor projects that have been 
Executed by them. The examples embrace con- 



structions of a diverse character, a study of which 
will make manifest the ability of such an organiza- 
tion to solve the problem at hand. Although this 
organization has constructed or enlarged some thirty 
telephone exchanges, it would rather resent the 
intimation that it was a specialist in such works. 
It is true that such structures include many fea- 
tures special to the operation of telephones and they 
are of a character that require very careful study 
and exact planning. Holabird & Roche contend, 
however, that being specialists implies a limited 
ability and that an architectural organization 
properly set up can produce a structure adequate 
to the demands for whatever purpose it is intended. 

The larger works of this organization are well 
known to all students of American architecture. 
Of them are the County and City Building at Chi- 
cago ; the Hotels La Salle and Sherman ; office 
buildings, Otis. Lumber Exchange, Monroe, Mc- 
Cormick, Marquette, Monadnock and Old Colony ; 
department stores, The Boston, Mandel Brothers' 
and Rothschilds' ; the University Club and many 
others in Chicago and other cities. 

To this organization belongs the credit of hav- 
ing planned the first all-metal frame skyscraper ever 



165 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



erected, the twelve story Taconia Building erected 
in 1888. It can be said that all of the developments 
that make possible the great structures of today, 
including the mechanical equipments and sanitary 
conveniences, have been made within the existence 
of this organization and to which it has made many 
notable contributions. 

THIS firm originally consisting of William 
Holabird and Ossian C. Simonds, began busi- 
pess in 1880. In September, 1881, Martin Roche 
became a member of the firm under the name of 
Holabird, Simonds & Roche. In January, 1883, Os- 
sian C. Simonds withdrew from the firm which 



ing every feature of modern building construction, 
specification writers, superintendents and ac- 
countants. 

THE telephone exchanges erected by the Chicago 
Telephone Company in outlying districts are 
provided with ample grounds so that light is pro- 
vided on the sides and rear, allowing space for ten- 
nis courts, flower gardens and grass plots. The 
completed structure is to occupy only fifty per cent 
of the ground area. These buildings are not detri- 
mental to the best residential districts and are con- 
structed so as to be as fire resisting as possible. 
It is necessary to plan the first unit with a view 




THIRD FLOOR PLAX, THE McKIXLEY EXCHANGE, CHICAGO 
TELEPHOXE COMPAXY 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 
(See plate four for other floor plans) 



then became Holabird & Roche. In 1896, Edward 
A. Renwick was admitted into the partnership but 
no change was made in the name of the firm. These 
three gentlemen are still active in the affairs of the 
organization. 

The four decades just elapsed have probably been 
the most important in architectural history. It is 
apparent that the housing of manufacturing plants, 
commercial enterprises, offices, governmental de- 
partments, social, educational and religious organi- 
zations ; penal, eleemosynary and correctional institu- 
tions ; hospitals and sanitaria; hotels, clubs and 
residential buildings all have progressed more 
than during any four centuries of the world's his- 
tory. Those who have contributed to this develop- 
ment will find their place in the architectural his- 
tories to be written in the future. 

This organization was one of the first to be set 
up along modern lines. Its personnel comprises 
not only architects but engineers capable of design- 



i 




to future expansion and this requires that the build- 
ing possess proper architectural appearance at all 
stages of its development. The drawings of the 
elevation of the McKinley Exchange indicates how 
this is accomplished. The design of the McKinley 
Exchange is rather typical of the style approved 
by the company. The Kildare Exchange is one 
of the deviations from this standard. The illustra- 
tions of these two exchanges show the first units 
to be constructed. A completed exchange is a 
duplication of the plan shown. 

In the basement are located the cable vaults, 
storage- batteries, boiler room and cooling plant for 
drinking water. The first floor contains the ap- 
paratus room in which is placed the distributing 
frame, power machinery, testing apparatus, repair 
department and wire chief's office. The second 
floor is occupied by the switchboard. The third 
floor contains the rest room, toilet and locker rooms, 
dining room and kitchen. Buildings four or more 



166 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



stories high are provided with a passenger elevator 
and the added stories devoted to switchboard op- 
erating rooms. 

In the Franklin Exchange no business is con- 
ducted with the public and the design well ex- 
presses the idea of an occupancy devoted exclusive- 
ly to operating purposes. The design is in the 
Italian Romanesque style of the Venetian type, giv- 
ing a certain individuality to the building without 
undue cost. The sides and rear of the building 



provided for. All windows are of metal frames 
and sash with wire glass. The windows on sides 
and rear have the added protection of automatic 
rolling steel shutters in front of the windows and 
which are placed back of the masonry spandrel 
above the windows and concealed from view. The 
exits consist of two enclosed stairways back of 
the elevators and two enclosed smoke proof stairs 
in the rear, which are entered from an exterior 
balcony. 




THE KILDARE EXCHANGE, CHICAGO TELEPHONE COMPANY, CHICAGO 
IIOLABIKD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



are faced with the same brick and ornamentation 
as the front. The wall surfaces are of dark red 
vitrified paving brick, Bedford stone strimmings 
.and the base on the street front is of granite and 
extends to the second floor. The court, facing 
south, is faced with white enamelled brick and 
terra cotta. 

This building has a street frontage of 135 feet 5 
inches and is 181 feet deep with 16 foot alleys on 
the west and south sides. As erected it is eleven 
stories high, with basement and partial sub-base- 
ment. It is so designed that five additional stories 
can be added. Fire resistance has been especially 



Men are provided with locker and rest rooms, 
toilet and showers. Women operators arc provided 1 
with dining, locker and rest rooms, kitchen and hos- 
pital. In addition there are provided drying rooms 
where rain coats and wet clothing can be properly 
dried. An assembly room is provided for concerts 
by their various choruses and bands and several 
committee rooms for smaller meetings. 

About thirty miles west of Chicago, the Chicago 
Telephone Company has erected a country home 
where their women employes may, at nominal cost, 
spend their vacations make short visits or spend 
periods of rest during convalescence. It is not a 



167 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



hospital or charitable institution. It is known as the 
Margaret Mackin Hall, named in honor of the "best 
telephone operator in the world." 

The public institution, usually known as an asy- 
lum or home, is generally designed with a view of 
presenting an imposing appearance with domes, 
towers, stately classic porticoes and whatnot. The 
interior is planned with large rotundas and wide 
corridors of great length, giving an impression of 



sents some problems of unusual interest and these 
factors were considered by the architects. The 
plant is a success and it is frequently visited and 
inspected by architects and committees from all 
parts of the United States and Canada. The usual 
depressing influence of such an institution is want- 
ing and one scarcely realizes its purpose measured 
by experiences in visiting similar institutions. 

The institution stands on a splendid location with 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, FRANKLIN TELEPHONE EXCHANGE, CHICAGO TELEPHONE CO., CHICAGO 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



formality and repression which exerts a depressing 
effect on the normal visitor. The effect on the un- 
fortunates housed therein must be of a greater in- 
tensity. The idea that such places should be de- 
signed as places of human habitation, homelike and 
congenial, seems to have been overlooked. Perhaps 
the influence of the word "public" is the cause of 
this, as communities are apt to outdo their neighbors 
in outward show rather than by inward workings. 

In the Chicago Nursery and Half Orphan Asy- 
lum all of the traditions for such institutions have 
been discarded and the institution was planned along 
rational and humane lines. The half orphan pre- 



ample grounds for all of its needs. There is noth- 
ing monumental about it. It stands unpretentious 
but very interesting in all of the varied and charm- 
ing aspects which it presents, all made possible 
through its irregular plan. From all viewpoints, 
both front and rear, is seen the careful designing 
which is uniformly good in every particular. The 
simplicity of the designing makes this building 
specially expressive of its use a home for children. 
The keynote of the design is the elimination of 
waste space in the interests of economy and avoid- 
ance of the usual institution feeling. In plan the 
building is really a group of separate buildings con- 



168 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



net-ted l>y stair halls, shut off by fire doors, and with 
an entire absence of corridors. 

The buildings are three stories high with part 
basement, in which is located the mechanical plant, 
laundry, manual training, trunk and store rooms. 
The story heights are nine feet, six inches in the 
clear generally, the kindergarten is twelve feet, 
eight inches high and the gymnasjum extends up 
into the pitch of the roof. The exterior is faced 



has the same facilities and capacity for children 
three to six years of age; the. third floor has the 
same capacity for those more than six years of age. 
The south wing, first floor, has a large lobby, din- 
ing rooms, toilets and pantry ; the second floor is 
the same as the west wing with capacity for twenty- 
eight children three to six years old ; the third floor 
has dormitory for fourteen children over six years 
old and an infirmary with twelve beds. The serv- 



w, m 

OPEEATINQ C.OOM 




FOURTH FLOOR PLAN, FRANKLIN EXCHANGE, CHICAGO TELEPHONE CO., CHICAGO 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



with rough finished brick of pastel shades and the 
roof covered with heavy graded slate. The interior 
finish is simple and is gray stained oak. The floors 
are finished cement with linoleum covering; cement 
base and wainscot throughout. The plumbing fix- 
tures are of three sizes for children. 

The central building contains the administrative 
offices, library, kindergarten and gymnasium. The 
west wing, first floor, contains dormitories, play- 
"'in, sun porch, lockers, toilet rooms and care- 
takers quarters, with a capacity for twenty-eight 
children under three years of age ; the second floor 



ice wing at the extreme south has, on the first floor 
the kitchen, store room, caretakers and servants 
dining rooms, canning room, engineers' and jani- 
tor's quarters ; the second floor contains the sleep- 
ing quarters for the caretakers and servants; the 
third floor cares for twenty infants in two wards 
with changing rooms, sun porches and roof 
terraces. 

Sleeping rooms are provided for one janitor, two 
engineers, one matron, one housekeeper, one seam- 
stress, thirteen caretakers, two teachers, two nurses, 
twelve servants a total of thirty-five. Accommo- 



169 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, YARD ELEVATIONS 




THE ISOLATION PAVILION 

CHICAGO NURSERY AND HALF ORPHAN ASYLUM, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 

170 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



dations provided for one hundred and forty-six 
children, with an infirmary of twelve beds, making 
total of one hundred and fifty-eight beds. 

In the group is an observation and isolation build- 
ing, 57x37 feet in size, one and one-half stories high, 
furnishing accommodations for fifteen girls and fif- 
teen boys, diet kitchen, pantries, quarters for doc- 
tors and caretakers, toilets and baths. 

Taking the entire group in relation to the total 
number of children's beds, there is 3,106 cubic feet 
per bed at the cost of $960 per bed. 

The practice of architecture involves much 



or the inspection of the plant in operation, will be 
of intense interest. 

A POWER plant is not usually considered to be 
an attractive proposition from the purely ar- 
chitectural viewpoint. Like every other structure its 
design should properly express its purpose. We are 
all accustomed to power plants for a few hundred 
horse power and they are easily hidden in the 
structure which is largely devoted to other pur- 
poses. To house 220,000 horse power is a problem 
worthy of the most careful study. Its magnitude 




CENTRAL PAVILION AND MAIN ENTRANCE 
CHICAGO NURSERY AND HALF ORPHAN ASYLUM, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



more than the mere planning of a building for 
which a fee is received. There is a moral ob- 
ligation included which demands that the building 
be suited for its purpose and render the utmost 
service to its occupants. When the occupants are 
children or those physically or mentally afflicted, 
the duty of the architect is greatly increased. The 
occupants of public institutions are not there by 
choice, but as a matter of necessity, or else are re- 
strained for the public welfare. To the architect 
who appreciates these facts the study of this plan 



demands that the treatment be dignified and worthy. 
While these buildings serve a mere utilitarian pur- 
pose, their immense size makes them a conspicuous 
object and a duty to the public and the surround- 
ing property owners is to be considered. 

The Northwest Power House of the Common- 
wealth-Edison Company, Chicago, is a plant of the 
capacity mentioned. Two buildings are required, 
one for the boilers and generators and one for the 
distributing of the electric power through the bus- 
board and switches. The design is severely plain 



171 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




THE CARETAKER'S HOUSE, MARGARET MACKIN HALL, 

CHICAGO TELEPHONE COMPANY, CHICAGO 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



and treated with re- 
gard to the mass. The 
disposition of the or- 
n a in e n t a t i o n and 
fenestration is very 
carefully studied and 
the result is satisfac- 
tory. A very large, 
dark red impervious 
brick is used through- 
put the exterior ex- 
cept the fan, the cop- 
ing and window-sills. 
The large panels in 
the distributing build- 
ing and the manner of 
laying the brick are 
very effective. 

Some power houses 
of extensive capacity 
have been designed in 
which details and 
motifs were adapted 
from classic, renais- 
sance or gothic build- 
ings. When we con- 
sider that the develop- 
ment of steam and 
electric power is a 
modern enterprise the 
temple or French 
Renaissance palace, in 
whole or in part, can- 
not express properly 
the modern power 
house. It is unfor- 



tunate that the owners and operat- 
ing engineers of such plants insist 
on having the chimneys painted 
black. It is true that certain kinds 
of black paint are a very effective 
protection, against the corrosion of 
steel stacks, but appreciation of ap- 
pearances and the interest of the 
public should be considered. If 
such chimneys were painted in 
strong colors or light blue or pearl 
gray they would not be so notice- 
able and would really appear 
larger than when painted in black. 
The indistinctness brought about 
by a proper color scheme would 
cause this effect and the tops 
would be made barely visible by 
the light colored vapor emitted 
from the tops. 




PLOT PLAN, CHICAGO NURSERY AND HALF ORPHAN ASYLUM 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



172 



Madrid's Scheme of City -Planning 



A REMARKABLE transformation is passing 
over the capital of Spain in the matter of its 
general appearance, and particularly its pub- 
lic, its semi-public and private buildings. The pro- 
gram of reconstruction has already been executed. 
In six or seven years the changes that have been 
made have been enormous and are deeply impressive. 
The new Casa de Correos, the many new banks 
which indeed are more like palaces than banks the 
new hotels, new buildings of every description, the 
new underground railway, and of course the Gran 
Via with all its new magnificent structures, including 
the Naval and Military Club all these, and many 
more, make up a new Madrid that would puzzle 
somewhat those who only knew the old one. 

Such a great process of transformation is unique 
in the history of cities ; it has been necessitated 
by the peculiar circumstances of the history of 
Madrid, and the vastly changed fortunes of the 
country which, now rich, wishes for a better capital 
for itself. And while one speaks so much of Mad- 
rid, this note of transformation, improvement and 
beautification is repeated in many other parts of the 
country. It is heard clearly in Bilbao and in Vigo, 
and its echo rings in Barcelc na. 

The acknowledged chief architect of the country, 
who has designed and carried out a majority of 
the most important constructions of recent years, 
is Antonio Palacios, who gave an interesting inter- 
view to a representative of the daily press, at his 
residence in the very center of Madrid. 

During an interval in the conversation, he 
mounted to what he playfully called his Madrilenian 
"azotea," one of the highest points of Madrid. 
From the mass of masonry the Casa de Correos 
and the Rio de la Plata Bank stood out prominently 
in one direction, and it was curious that the bank 
seemed to vie for prominence with all the rest, not 
to be beaten either. Its huge Corinthian columns 
r ise majestically, and the "atico" which rests upon 
the massive square block seemed like the lid of a 
gigantic and beautiful box. 

"That is rather interesting in a way," Mr. Pala- 
cios said, "for in the case of that bank I had a 
peculiar problem to solve. As you see it stands 
across the plaza almost opposite to the new Casa 
de Correos, which was built before it, and which 
obviously challenged comparison with any other 
architecture in the neighborhood, and challenged 
it fearlessly. 



"The difficulty, however, was, that they had but 
a small plot of land for it, 1,000 square meters, 
since they desired this site in the Alcala at the cor- 
ner of the Calle de Barquillo, and in the other di- 
rection along the Alcala they were absolutely 
stopped by the building and gardens of the War 
Department. The ground occupied by the Casa de 
Correos is twelve times as extensive as that at the 
disposal of the bank, but my building was to bear 
a certain comparison. There it is !" It certainly 
bears the comparison well, /or it stands up strongly 
and boldly among all the edifices of the capital. It 
is in a neo-Grecian style, and it is stated that those 
marvelous columns cost 70,000 pesetas each. 

"The problem of the architect now is difficult. 
There is Yigo, for instance. I am greatly inter- 
ested in Yigo, which has, I think a magnificent 
future as the chief Atlantic port of Europe. I am 
interested in it professionally as well as personally. 
The new theatre which I planned, and which will 
be one of the finest in existence, is approaching com- 
pletion. Vigo, as it is, has been a natural evolu- 
tion like other cities, but its situation is very difficult 
for development, because it lies largely on a 
slope. 

"Vigo will be different from most other cities 
in Spain ; it is even different now. It is in constant, 
close, and what you might call personal contact 
with the English ports; it has English influences 
upon it, and when it wants a new thing it is in- 
clined to look toward England, to Liverpool or 
London, with which it is in continual communica- 
tion, for an idea. 

"As to improvements and new buildings in gen- 
eral," Mr. Palacios containued, "the chief and really 
only difficulty, in the matter of a speedy fulfillment 
of our ambitions and intentions, is the labor one. 
There is the universal desire on the part of munici- 
palities, private communities and the people to 
build and improve, and the money is always ready. 
The money is the least of all difficulties; it is, in 
fact, no difficulty at all." 

The scene of conversation being transferred from 
the housetop to the studio, the architect produced 
the scheme of his magnum opus*, the plans for the 
reconstruction of the whole of central Madrid, 
which he now exhibited for the first time. It is 
indeed a marvelous proposal. The plans are now 
being laid before the "ayuntamiento," or municipal 
council, for consideration. 



173 



Architectural Quicksands 

By CLINTON H. BLAKE, JR., of the New York and Federal Bars 

Part III 



Protect Your Rights in the Plans 

IN another rather interesting case an architect de- 
veloped a very unique and clever plan for a cer- 
tain type of semi-public building. The plan 
combined unusual elements both of utilitarian and 
artistic merit. After the architect had made the 
preliminary sketches, been responsible for the com- 
pletion of the plan and completed the drawings, the 
client paid him for the work done up to that point, 
and then turned over the work to another firm of 
architects, who proceeded with it and supervised 
the erection of the building. I do not know whether 
these latter architects were aware of all the facts, 
and prefer to assume that they were not in view of 
the ethics involved. The net result unquestionably 
was, however, that the architect whose talent and 
ability was responsible for the idea received a very 
modest sum for the sketches and plan, and that the 
chief compensation was received by the architects 
who superintended the construction in accordance 
with the plans which my client had made. There 
was nothing which the latter could do as between 
himself and his client, as he had neglected to make 
any contract or secure any memorandum covering 
the relationship between the client and himself. In 
the absence of an agreement, the law governing the 
case provided that the plans belonged to the client 
and not to the architect, and the client, having paid 
for the plans, had consequently a legal right to turn 
over the work of superintendence to the other archi- 
tects. If my client had had a contract, he would 
have been protected, as the contract contains a 
simple but sufficient provision vesting the owner- 
ship of plans in the architect and covering the con- 
tingency in question. There would consequently 
have been no possibility of the client taking the 
action which he did, and the architect would not have 
laid himself open to the treatment which was thus 
accorded him. 



Alternative Forms of Contract 

A HIS architect has now adopted, as a regular 
-*- policy of his organization the making of a con- 
tract between his clients and himself. Recognizing 
the fact that in many cases it is not practical to 
insist upon a full form of contract which may look 
a bit too formidable to some clients, we have pre- 
pared for him two alternative forms of contract. 



The one is in a full form, providing for all con- 
tingencies which are at all likely to arise, and covers 
the rights and relationship of the parties in detail. 
This form is, of course, preferable where it can be 
employed, as it is the result of a study and knowl- 
edge of tiie difficulties which various clients have 
actually experienced in their practice, and provides 
against a repetition of them. In its printed form 
it is on one sheet of paper. The face of the paper, 
where the signatures are attached, bears only a few 
lines reciting the agreement of the parties, and on 
the reverse side, in fine type, are given the general 
conditions and the like embodied in the contract. 
This arrangement makes the contract much simpler 
appearing than would be the case if the conditions, 
were embodied in the formal agreement clause at 
lengths on the face of the contract. 

Notwithstanding the care which has been taken 
to make the contract appear as simple and innocuous 
as possible, there are inevitably now and then clients 
who do not care to sign the long form of contract, 
or clients who might be quite willing to sign it, but 
to whom the architect does not care to suggest sign- 
ing it. For these cases the second and so-called 
short form of contract has been prepared. It con- 
sists of a very few lines reciting the employment 
of the architect and incorporates, among its terms, 
simply by reference, and without setting them out 
as a part of it or at length, the terms and pro- 
visions of the schedules of practice and charges of 
the American Institute and of the New York Chap- 
ter and the canons of ethics of the American Insti- 
tute. There are a number of important points which 
the schedules of the Institute and the New York 
Chapter and the canons of ethics do not cover, so that 
as to these, the short form contract is silent, whereas 
they are covered by the longer form. Nevertheless, 
the short form has been found to serve a most use- 
ful purpose. It is immeasurably better than no con- 
tract, and it would be a captious client indeed who 
would take any offense at a request that he sign it. 
As a matter of fact, I have in some cases incor- 
porated in it, without sacrificing its generally brief 
form, provisions sufficient to meet a number of the 
points which are not covered by the schedules of 
charges and practice. 

Both of these contracts are printed in moderat 
quantities and kept in the office of the architect read 
for immediate use. Wherever circumstances are 






174 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



such that the fuller form may be used it is employed. 
\Vhere this is not practicable, the short form is 
relied upon. Since these contract forms have been 
in use in the office of this architect, he has not once 
had occasion to resort to legal proceedings as be- 
tween his client and himself, in any case where the 
contracts have been used. The contracts have been 
accepted by his clients as a matter of course, and the 
clients have, I think, been rather favorably im- 
pressed by the business-like character of the pro- 
ceeding. It is needless to say that there is nothing 
in either contract unfair to the client. The con- 
tracts merely give definite and concrete expression 
to the terms upon which the parties, in fairness to 
each of them, should proceed, instead of having 
these terms to conjecture and inference, and so 
inviting disputes and misunderstanding. 

Payment for Plans Made But Not Used 

UNDER the present extraordinary post-war con- 
ditions definiteness in the preliminary under- 
standing with the client is of unusual importance. 
Building costs are such at the present time that, in 
repeated instances, it will happen that the client will 
consult the architect, request him to prepare 
sketches, plans and specifications, and advertise for 
bids, and then, when the latter are received, decide 
that the cost is prohibitieve and abandon the pur- 
pose of letting the contract and proceeding with 
construction. Where this occurs, it is amazing how 
many clients, including men familiar with and 
trained in business dealings, seem to have the im- 
pression that the architect is a sort of eleemosynary 
institution, and that he is not entitled to any com- 
pensation for the work which he has done, inasmuch 
as the job has not actually been proceeded with. 
This is especially true in those cases where the 
architect has prepared preliminary sketches only 
and the project is then abandoned. The client as- 
sumes, apparently, that such sketches are submitted 
merely in the hope that they will be acceptable and 
that the work will then be proceeded with and that 
the architect is giving his time and experience to 
the preparation of the sketches, on the chances that 
by doing so he will be selected as the architect for 
the job when and if especially if the client de- 
cides to go ahead with it. 

There is manifestly no reason why the architect 
should not be paid for the work which he does, 
irrespective of whether or not the client decides to 
make use of the sketches and plans and complete 
the building operation. No architect can afford to 
prepare the many sketches and layouts desired and 
required by optimistic clients who believe that de- 
spite prevailing building costs they will, in some 
way and in their particular building operations, be 



able to secure moderate bids, unless he is to collect 
the value of the work done by him in preparing 
them. The law recognizes that this is so and, in the 
absence of a formal contract, allows him to recover 
in such a case on the "quantum meruit" theory the 
reasonable value of the work done. The architect 
cannot afford, however, to run the risk of the ex- 
pense and loss of time and good will incident to re- 
peated misunderstandings with clients regarding 
payment for such preliminary work. By exercising 
the slight care necessary to secure a contract with 
the client all this difficulty will be obviated and the 
client will know, in the beginning, that the architect 
is to be paid for whatever work he does, irrespective 
of whether or not the work is utilized by the client 
thereafter and the building erected. 

1 he high cost of building today also em- 
phasizes, with special clearness, the necessity 
of avoiding any reference to an implied guar- 
antee of cost. A little negligence on this 
point, under present building conditions, may 
result in a claim against the architect for many 
thousands of dollars. At a time when builders, al- 
most without exception, are refusing to give binding 
estimates or make bids for work done and are in- 
sisting upon cost plus percentage contracts, it is self- 
evident that the architect must exercise special care 
to so conduct his interviews, correspondence, and 
dealings with the client, that there may lie no ground 
whatsoever for any claim bv the latter that the 
architect has assumed any obligations with respect 
to the cost of the building, or made any guarantee 
that the cost will not exceed a certain amount, or 
in any way assumed liability in connection with the 
job, other than the ordinary obligation to perform 
his work in good faith and with reasonable care, 
skill, and intelligence. 

Avoid Misunderstandings of Institute 
Schedules 

THE architect who suffers most, bv reason of a 
failure to arrive at a preliminary and definite 
understanding as to the amount of his commission, 
is he whose regular percentage charge is larger than 
the minimum charges specified in the schedules of 
the American Institute and of the chapters of the 
Institute in the states in which he practices. The 
rates given in the schedule of the American Insti- 
tute and in the schedule of the New York Chapter 
are minimum rates, and the schedules specify that 
they are such. Nevertheless, even a client who has 
heard of the American Institute and of its schedules 
of charges, as most clients unquestionably have not, 
will often assume in perfectly good faith, in the 
absence of a definite agreement, that a charge by the 
architect in excess of the charges specified in the 



175 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Institute's schedules is an excessive charge. I had 
occasion but recently, in the interest of a client, to 
interview a business man of long training and large 
affairs, with reference to a claim due and unpaid to 
my client. The architect, in submitting his charge, 
had made some reference to the schedule of charges 
of the American Institute. The business man in 
question, noticing this, had carefully provided him- 
self with a copy of the schedule of the Institute 
and also with a copy of the schedule of the New 
York Chapter. As soon as our conference opened 
he made the point that the charge was exorbitant, 
in that it was in excess of the charges specified in 
these schedules, that the price to be paid had never 
been agreed upon specifically, and that for these 
reasons he would not pay the bill as rendered. As 
a matter of fact the percentage charge was entirely 
reasonable, and any experienced member of the 
profession would have recognized it as an entirely 
proper charge to be made by an architect of my 
client's standing, for work of the character involved. 
No amount of argument on my part could at first 
convince the client that the architect was not acting 
improperly in charging a higher rate than that speci- 
fied in the Institute schedule. The fact that the 
schedule specifically stated that the amounts speci- 
fied therein were the minimum amounts which an 



architect should charge, and the fact that my client 
was regularly receiving fees on a much higher per- 
centage, affected him not at all. He would ac- 
knowledge, after considerable argument, that the 
schedule as worded did refer to a minimum charge, 
and within the next few moments would again as- 
sume, with a complete lack of logic albeit in entire 
good faith, that the schedule nevertheless did not 
contemplate the making of a higher charge. Finally, 
following repeated interviews and conferences, I 
succeeded in getting him to refer the matter to his 
counsel and it was then agreed that the charge as 
made would be allowed. The net result was that in 
securing the acknowledgment of the claim, many 
hours of my time and of my client's time had been 
taken up with interviews, arguments, correspon- 
dence and the like, and the client, I firmly believe, is 
convinced to this day that he was not dealt with in 
entire fairness. If an agreement had existed the 
question would never have arisen ; the entirely 
proper charge as made would not have been ques- 
tioned ; the rates of the American Institute would 
not have been introduced into the matter or com- 
plicated the issue ; the client would have been satis- 
fied and not disgruntled, and the architect would 
have avoided the loss of his time and the expense 
which he incurred for legal services. 



Portico of St. John's Chapel, Varick Street, 

New York 

(See reproduction of the original drawings by 0. R, Eggers in this issue) 



NEW YORK'S growth is glacier-like in its 
movement. Slow, but irresistable. What- 
ever obstructs its progress is swept aside or 
over ridden. Dignified St. John's has shared the 
fate of many another of our venerable and vener- 
ated structures. The extension of Seventh avenue 
and the building of the subway has caused the pass- 
ing of this church. 

Another of the chapels of Trinity Parish (St. 
Paul's Chapel has been previously illustrated), and 
while not as old as St. Paul's, having been built 
about 1807, it was none the less a structure that all 
New Yorkers regarded with great respect and many 
with the attachment of actual association. 

The master builders, which in those days was 
equivalent to being the architects, were T. C. Taylor, 
Henry Hedley, Daniel Domanick and Isaac Mc- 
Comb. The original location of this church was 
one of the most attractive in New York. It stood 
on the easterly side of St. John's Park whose em- 



bowered walks were a favorite recreative spot for 
the well-to-do residents of the neighborhood. 

In the early 70's the New York Central Railroad 
secured this park for a downtown freight terminal. 
This unfortunate occurence not only changed the 
character of the residential section nearby, but the 
influence of so undesirable a location was felt for 
many blocks in every direction. What had been a 
neighborhood of aristrocratic dwellings was reduced 
to a slovenly purlieu of ramshackle buildings. 

St. John's was deserted, and its services became 
those of a strictly mission chapel. At last it ceased 
to exist. Those who venerate the traditions of New 
York could calmly watch its passing. The building 
was too good to have sunk to so low an estate and 
it was better that it should be razed. The memory 
of its graceful spire, its resonant bells and the shade 
of the portico, shown in Mr. Eggers' admirable 
sketch are to many, a reminiscence fraught with 
deep satisfaction and quiet contentment. 



176 



\v> 







PORTICO, ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, VARICK STREET, NEW YORK 

THA .1.V/..KK.X/V ARCHITECT Srf of ar/, AmirUaa Anhittctur, 



1MJL 




Wasting Opportunities 

FIFTY years hence, the historian writing on the 
civic development of New York City will prob- 
ably refer to Seventh Avenue as "a lost oppor- 
tunity," just exactly as we now describe Times 
Square as an example of the failure properly to 
conserve our architectural resources. 

With the erection of the Pennsylvania Station 
and the Hotel Pennsylvania, both by McKim, Mead 
& White, and the completion of Warren & Wet- 
more's Grand Central Station group, two exceed- 
ingly dignified architectural centers were estab- 
lished. There was a movement, unfortunately 
"dead aborning," to link these important terminals 
by a diagonal street that would be most advantage- 
ous in every way. The condemnations to effect this 
improvement were not prohibitive, but there lacked 
the necessary enthusiasm to carry it forward. 

Seventh Avenue having been paved and redeemed 
as a traffic thoroughfare, it was hoped that the de- 
velopment between Times Square and the Penn- 
sylvania Station would be of so fine a character as 
to make it one of the best in the city. Now it has 
apparently been taken over as the site for the new 
grouping of the garment making trades and there 
are in course of construction at least a dozen very 
important structures. It is not difficult to foresee 
that conditions that made lower Fifth Avenue so 
very undesirable and threatened with the same fate 
the shopping district between 42nd and 34th Streets 
will become permanent on Seventh Avenue. 

Seventh Avenue between 42nd and 34th Streets 
was logically a hotel street, in the same way and 
for the same reasons as has secured for 42nd 
Street the location of our most important hotels. 
The few hotels now located on Seventh Avenue may 
soon find that conditions of street or sidewalk con- 
gestion will seriously impair the value of their 
location. 

THE majority of the garment workers are col- 
onized as to residence on the lower East 
side. The new location of the industry on the 
West side will create, if possible, an even worse 



condition of crosstown surface car traffic than 
unfortunately now exists. 

It has never been possible to get serious considera- 
tion of the project to colonize the garment industry 
in the suburbs. Just the number of people engaged 
in this business is not accurately known to us but 
it is very large. It is patent to even the casual 
observer of present conditions that the location of 
this industry in the suburbs would work for the 
very best results. The development of :i community 
with proper housing, more healthful working sur- 
roundings would solve several important problems. 
It would help New York's East Side district to a 
less congested condition ; it would swiftly advance 
the Americanization of a large number of people of 
a certain class that seem to resist any efforts to 
change them from old world ways which unfit them 
for the best duties of citizenship and correct social 
habits ; it would conserve the dignity of Seventh 
avenue, and, finally, it would lessen the force of 
that insidious propaganda for civic unrest that best 
flourishes in the purlieus of cities, the hiding places 
of men and women of pernicious activity. 



An Efficient State Society 

JUST exactly what is the value of state societies in 
the field of organized architecture can be learned 
by a careful review of the July Moittlily Bulletin, 
the official publication of the Illinois State Society of 
Architects. Scanning the pages of this well edited 
publication it is found that in every phase of prac- 
tice the Illinois society with watchful and efficiently 
directed energy is valuably functioning. In scru- 
tinizing the examination papers for registration with 
a view of determining their proper value, in ex- 
tending paternal and substantial aid to junior or- 
ganizations, in safeguarding the ethics of practice or 
in taking steps to effect a pleasant and at the same 
time just relation between its own society and others 
that are allied to its field the Illinois society is 
always alert. Perhaps a principal reason for this 
high efficiency lies in the fact that as a state society, 
the Illinois organization is a host unto itself. 

There is no red tape of procedure in its action, no 



177 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



slowing up by delay in reporting to a board of di- 
rectors for permission to act. When there's some- 
thing wrong this society sets it right. There is no 
procrastination. Its whole course is dominated by 
the two essentials to produce good results action 
and efficient service. There's no patent or coypright 
on that sort of thing. It's as free as air, every state 
in the Union can similarly proceed. The marvel is, 
why they don't do it ? New York has made a fine 
start and will with its fast increasing membership 
soon take its place at the front. Michigan has long 
been a wide-awake state in the matter of its society. 
There are several other states, more or less alive. 

No good reason has ever been advanced for not 
extending organizations of state societies to every 
state. When that has been accomplished, organized 
architecture will become an important, dignified and 
truly representative thing. Meanwhile, there's the 
example of those states now thoroughly and effi- 
ciently working to set forth an argument so abso- 
lutely correct in its premise that no one may 
refute it. 



The War Memorial In New York 

"EW YORK CITY can prevent many a flagrant 
artistic error by so acting as not mistakenly to 
proceed in the matter of the proposed war memorial. 
One step in the right direction is the abandonment of 
the Grand Union Hotel site. As stated in these col- 
umns some time ago when discussing the proposed 
building for that site, by no stretch of imagination 
could such a type of building find place on that site 
and be a dignified memorial. Now that the city has 
disposed of the land, one menace at least has been 
removed. But there are others equally dangerous. 

A certain group of the committee strenuously urge 
a memorial bridge : one built to carry all the varied 
traffic that now makes our city streets a maelstrom 
and a babel of discordant noises. We need a bridge 
across the Hudson, and we need one badly, but past 
experience has shown that there is no possibility of 
combining a respectful memorial aspect with such 
a structure. Imagine converting the approaches of 
any of the bridges across the East river into mem- 
orials for New York and Brooklyn men. The idea 
cannot be seriously regarded. 

"Let us calm ourselves" states an editorial in the 
Times, "with a glance across the ocean. France, 
which has a native instinct and an educated taste 
in public memorials which have never been rivaled 
since 'the glory that was Greece and the grandeur 
that was Rome,' has decided to take counsel for ten 



years, for fear of committing an atrocity 'upon her 
heroic dead." As everyone knows, they do these 
things better in France, and when they erect mem- 
orials they are such in the truest sense. They do 
not, as we have done in this country, proceed with 
ill-advised haste and create results which cause suc- 
ceeding generations to feel the deepest regret. 

Further, referring to the Tim-es editorhl, we learn 
that England is impetuously starting out on a path 
of error as great as that which now lies before us. 
With the Albert Memorial and the Shakespeare 
Memorial at Stratford as permanent "horrible ex- 
amples" they are "trembling even more perilously 
that we are on the brink of abysmal folly." It is 
proposed to commemorate the great sacrifice of the 
British soldier by a gateway 100 feet high, with 
a great hall at its base and a temple on either flank, 
"the whole," says the Times, "in the style dear to 
Egyptian conquerors and slave drivers." And to 
this end, it is proposed to appropriate, and to dese- 
crate one of the two of the finest sites in London. 

What most forcibly strikes the patient, or perhaps 
more correctly speaking, impatient observer, is the 
ignoring of the existence of societies, the vary na- 
ture of whose organization absolutely qualifies them 
to take up, discuss and design the type of memorial 
we should have. We have no criticism to make as 
to the personnel of the present commission, as to 
their entire willingness to do the very best thing, 
but the majority is not equipped either by knowledge 
or training to undertake a problem of this character. 

Why not give the whole thing over to the Fine- 
Arts Federation, receive their report and recom- 
mendations and submit it to the people for a de- 
cision ? The Architectural League, the National 
Academy and the National Sculpture Society could 
bring to a discussion and determination of this im- 
portant matter just the sort of ability that would 
insure success. Can this and similar great under- 
takings be spared the admixture of politics ? It was 
by private effort that Stanford White's fine arch in 
Washington Square was left to mark the great work 
of Admiral Dewey. The great arch that the sculp- 
tors set up in Madison Square was lost in perpetua- 
tion because it became involved in a maze of local 
political manipulation. 

France sets a good example. Better to wait a 
decade and do it right than, fearing the ignorant 
criticism of those who would rush us into some 
great error, take the best that is now attainable, 
never good, nor appropriate, and perhaps so ignor- 
antly projected as to be absolutely disrespectful, and 
a constant source of regret. 



178 



Organization, Management and an Ac- 
counting System for an Architect's Office 

By H. P. VAX ARSDALL, of Samuel Hannaford & Sons. Architects, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Part II 



FIRM FINANCIAL RECORDS & COST SYSTEM : 

This department keeps all financial records of the 
lirm, including the cost system. 

For many years the architectural profession has 
been endeavoring to find a system of accounting that 
would be applicable to their business. So far no 
general scheme has been devised that could be used 
universally. It has only been in the larger offices, 
where accounting systems have been installed. The 
writer knows from experience that the lack of an 
accounting system has proven very painful to cer- 
tain architects. It is the common belief that the 
installation of an accounting system requires a large 
expenditure of money and the employing of addi- 
tional, help. This is true to a degree. The financial 
books, as outlined and shown in this article, cost ap- 
proximately $150, including ten thousand time cards. 
It is necessary, however, to spend more time on this 
system than on the old method of keeping books on 
the receipt and disbursement basis, but additional 
help is not required. 

The financial records are designed for "double 
entry" and are kept on the so-called "accrual sys- 
tem." At the end of an accounting period ( month ) 
accrued wages, expenses, etc., are shown as liabili- 
ties, while fees earned but uncollected are shown 
as assets. 

Deferred charges, such as prepaid insurance, are 
shown as assets and are extinguished by charging 
to an expense account the monthly proportion of 
the total amount. This procedure is necessary to 
show a true statement of affairs. 

After all adjustments and entries from the jour- 
nal to the ledger have been made a "trial balance" 
is taken from the ledger to prove the completeness 
of entry. 

The cost system is planned so as to distribute 
overhead expense on the "Man-Hour Plan." Under 
this scheme no account is taken of the difference in 
rate of wages. It is assumed that every employee 
in a general way requires the same amount of 
supervision, light, heat, space, insurance, drinking 
water, toilet facilities, etc. 

All time is divided into "Productive" and "Non- 
productive" hours. Productive time is spent direct- 
ly producing some particular job. Non-productive 
time is spent on work not chargeable to any par- 
ticular job. 



Since overhead expense is a vital part of produc- 
tion costs it becomes necessary to distribute it in 
the proper proportion to the various jobs benefited. 

To determine the amount chargeable to each job 
the rate (per productive hour) is found by dividing 
the total number of productive hours worked in the 
office during the month into the total overhead for 
the same period. 

The total overhead is distributed each month. 

The following model classification of accounts 
may be used for a small or large office. It can be 
extended or contracted in order to meet individual 
needs. 

CLASSIFICATION OF Accorxrs. 
1. Assets. 

11. Fixed Assets. 

111. Office Furniture and Fixtures. 

112. Books. 
113. 

114. 
115. 

12. Current Assets. 

121. Imprest Fund. 

122. Cash in Bank. 

123. Accounts Receivable (Controlling). 

A 
B 
C 

124. Sundry Debtors (Controlling). 

A 
B 
C 

125. Investment (Bonds). 

126. Materials and Supplies on hand. 

1261. Printing and Stationery Materials. 

1262. Drawing Materials. 
127. 

128. 
129. 

13. Prepaid Accounts. 

131. Prepaid Insurance. 

132. Advances. 

14. Working. 

141. Work in Process (Controlling). 

142. 

143. 



179 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



15. Expenses. 

151. Draughting Room Salaries (To be Dis- 
tributed). 

152. Engineering Expense (To be Distribut- 
ed). 

153. Superintendents' Salaries (To be Dis- 
tributed). 

154. Undistributed Expense (Overhead). 
(Accounts 151, 152, 153 and 154 are all 

controlling accounts). 

1541. Non-chargeable time of principal. 

1542. Non-chargeable time of Draughts- 
men. 

1543. Non-chargeable time of Engineers 

1544. Non-chargeable time of Superin- 
tendent. 

1545. Overtime allowance. 

1546. Lost time, vacations, etc. 

1547. Office Salaries (Controlling). 

A 
B 
C 

1548. Rent. 

1549. Printing and Stationery. 

1550. Drawing Material. 

1551. Telephone and Telegraph. 

1552. Membership and Dues. 

1553. Donations. 

1554. Light. 

1555. Insurance. 

1556. Traveling. 

1557. Periodicals. 

1558. Legal and Accounting. 

1559. Taxes. 

1560. Depreciation of Equipment. 

1561. Bad Debts. 

1562. Miscellaneous Office. 

1563. Variations in Undistributed Ex- 
pense. 

2. Liabilities. 

21. Fixed Liabilities. 

22. Current Liabilities. 

221. Accounts Payable. 

222. Notes Payable (Loans). 

223. Salaries Payable. 

224. Sundry Creditors (Controlling). 

225. Variations in Undistributed Expense. 

226. Reserve for Depreciation. 

227. Reserve for Bad Debts. 

228. Accrued Expenses. 

229. Reserve for Lost Time, Vacations, etc. 

3. Proprietary Interest. \ 

31. Capital Investment (Controlling). 

A 
B 

32. Surplus. 

33. Profit and Loss. 



4. Operation Profit and Loss. 

41. Cost of Completed Work (Controlling). 

A 
B 

C 

42. Fees. 

5. Incidental Profit and Loss. 

51. Incidental Income. 

52. Incidental Expense. 
521. Interest. 

522. 

In order to more fully explain the 
working of this system the writer 
feels that it is necessary to state the 
nature and purpose of all accounts 
under the classification. 

1. Assets. -- Assets Accounts represent values 
owned. 

11. Fixed Assets. Fixed Assets are properties 
owned that are necessary in the operation 
of the business. These assets, of course, are 
not to be sold. The subsidiary accounts 
under Fixed Assets are : 

111. Office Furniture and Fixtures. 

112. Books. 

To these accounts is charged all 
new equipment and books that are 
purchased and have a life beyond one 
year's time. These accounts should 
be depreciated quarterly and the 
depreciation figured on a 10 per cent, 
annual basis. At no time should you 
reduce the original book value, but on 
the balance sheet deduct the allow- 
ance for depreciation in order that 
the original value will not be dis- 
turbed until it is completely wiped 
out. 

12. Current Assets. Current Assets represent 
values owned that are constantly changing 
in value. The following accounts come 
under Current Assets. 

121. Imprest Fund. 

At the beginning of operation this 
account is debited with a certain sum 
(say, $25) and cash credited. This 
sum is placed in the cash box and is 
used for paying small current bills 
When the fund is nearly consumed a 
check is drawn for the amount of bills 
paid during the period, restoring the 
fund to its original amount, and the 
various bills are charged to their 
proper accounts. 

122. Cash in Bank. 

Cash in Bank should represent at 
all times the amount of cash owned 
(not including Imprest Fund). All 
cash receipts should be deposited in 
the Bank intact and all disburse- 
ments made by check. 

123. Accounts Receivable. 

This is a controlling account and 

receives only the monthly totals from 

the Journal. The subsidiary accounts 

controlled by Accounts Receivable 

represents all moneys owing by 



180 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



clients. When these accounts are 
debited with fees Account No. 42 
should be credited. 

Advances paid out for clients in the 
way of Building and Water permits, 
etc., are to be charged direct to 
client's account and cash credited. 

124. Sundry Debtors. 

This is a controlling account. The 
accounts that are controlled are the 
drawing accounts of firm members 
and other accounts of this nature. 

125. Investments. 

This account shows at all times any 
Bonds, Stock, etc., owned by the firm. 
It is credited when the Stocks, Bonds, 
etc., are sold. 

126. Materials and Supplies on Hand. 

This account is charged with all 
materials and supplies purchased and 
is credited monthly with all supplies 
used. The corresponding charge is 
made to one of the various expense 
accounts. 

13. Prepaid Accounts. The subsidiary ac- 
counts are such items as : 

131. Prepaid Insurance. 

This account is charged witli all in- 
surance premiums paid during the 
year and credited monthly with 1/12 
of the total, and the corresponding' 
charge is made to Account 1555. 

14. Working Assets. This account represents 
the work passing through the office. The 
subsidiary account is : 

141. Work in Process. 

To it is charged all Draughting 
Room expense, Engineering and 
Superintendents' time, and the total 
of the undisturbed (overhead) ex- 
pense. This is taken from the Time 
Distribution Sheet and Overhead Dis- 
tribution monthly. When work is 
completed this account is credited and 
cost of completed work debited. 

15. Expenses. The subsidiary accounts are: 

151. Draughting Room Salaries Account. 

This account is charged with all 
Draughting Room salaries, and at the 
end of the month is credited, and the 
amounts debited to proper jobs in 
Work in Process. 

152. Engineering Expense. 

This is treated the same as Account 
151. 

153. Superintendents' Salaries. 

This is treated the same as Account 
151. 

154. Undistributed Expense. 

This account controls the following 
subsidiary accounts : 

1541. Non-chargeable Time of Princi- 
pal. 

All time of firm members not 
actually chargeable to jobs is debited 
to this account. 

1542. Non-chargeable Time of Draughts- 
men. 

1543. Non-chargeable Time of Engi- 
neers. 



1544. Non-chargeable Time of Superin- 
tendent. 

These three accounts are treated 
the same as Account 1541. 

1545. Overtime Allowance. 

To this is charged any increased 
rate of pay that is paid to draughts- 
men on account of overtime work. It 
is not just that any particular job 
should be burdened with this expense 
on account of it having been the par- 
ticular job to rush through the office. 

1546. Lost Time, Vacations, etc. 
(Draughtsmen, Engineers and Superin- 
tendents.) 

This account is debited monthly 
with 1/12 of the annual amount set 
up in Reserve Account (229). A re- 
serve account for Lost Time, Vaca- 
tions, etc., will be set up, and the 
accrued expense shown as a credit 
each month and the same amount 
should be debited to this account. 

When the actual money is paid out 
for the lost time, cash is credited, and 
the Reserve Account debited. 

1547. Office Salaries. 

Firm members are paid salaries the 
same as others in the office. 'Hie 
executive's salary is charged to over- 
head expense, and the other members 
are classed as draughtsmen or super- 
intendents, as the case may be. 

This account is charged with the 
salaries of the principal, the office 
business manager, stenographer and 
office boy. 
154S. Kent. 

This is paid monthly and is charged 
as a regular monthly expense. Credit 
cash and debit rent when it is paid. 

1549. Printing and Stationery. 

Charge this account each month 
with the amount of materials used 
and credit Account 1261. 

1550. Drawing Material. 

Treat same as Account 1549. 

1551. Telephone and Telegraph. 
Treat same as Account 1548. 

1552. Membership and Dues. 

This account is charged with all 
dues, membership fees, etc. If any 
one month should be overly burdened 
then a prepaid account should be set 
up and the expense distributed over 
the twelve months. 

1553. Donations. 

Treat same as Account 1548. 

1554. Light. 

Treat same as Account 1548. 

1555. Insurance. 

This account is charged monthly 
with 1/12 of the total annual prepaid 
insurance, and credit is made to Pre- 
paid Insurance Account. 

1556. Traveling. 

Debit this account with all travel- 
ing expenses when it is not directly 
chargeable to a job. 

1557. Periodicals. 

Debit with all magazines, papers, 
etc. 



181 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



1558. Legal and Accounting. 

Charge with all attorney and 
accountant fees. 

1559. Taxes. 

An architect's taxes are usually 
small and it is not necessary to dis- 
tribute the sum over the entire year. 
When taxes are paid, debit this ac- 
count and credit cash. 

1560. Depreciation of Equipment. 

Debit this account montly with 1/12 
of depreciation charge and credit the 
Reserve Account. 

1561. Bad Debts. 

Handle same as Account 1560. 

1562. Miscellaneous, Office. 

Expenses of all other kinds are 
charged to this account (small). 

1563. Variations in Undistributed Ex- 
pense. 

Where there is a balance in Account 
225 it is charged out the next month 
and debited to this account. 

2. Liabilities. Liabilities are all values owed. 

21. Fixed Liabilities. Liabilities of a fixed 
nature only are credited to this account. 
Ordinarily, an architect has no fixed Liabili 
ties, unless they have issued bonds or stocks. 

22. Current Liabilities. These are Liabilities 
that are alive and are constantly changing in 
value. This is a controlling account and has 
the following subsidiary accounts. 

221. Accounts Payable. 

All accounts due and payable are 
credited to this account. 

222. Notes Payable. 

Treat same as account 221. 

223. Salaries Payable. 

This account will be credited at time 
of closing books or when the end of 
the month falls in the middle of the 
week, with all accrued salaries up to 
date. When salaries are paid cash is 
credited and this account debited. 

224. Sundry Creditors. 

This account will be credited with 
all items not included under Accounts 
Payable. 

225. Variations and Undistributed Expense. 

Any balance at end r,{ period re- 
maining in Account 154 is absorbed by 
this Account. 

226. Reserve for Depreciation. 

This account is credited monthly 
with the regular amounts of depreci- 
ation fixed upon. 

227. Reserve for Bad Debts. - 

This account is credited monthly 
with the approximate or estimated 
allowance for bad debts. 

228. Accrued Expenses. 

At the end of any accounting period 
any expenses not as yet paid, but ac- 
crued, are credited to this account. 

229. Reserve for Lost Time, Vacations, etc. 

This account is credited monthly 
with 1112 of the annual estimated lost 



time, etc., and the corresponding debit 
made to Account No. 1546. 

3. Proprietary Interest. This account represents 
the net worth of the business. The subsidiary 
accounts are as follows : 

31. Capital Investment. This is a controlling 
account and shows the original investment at 
start of business and represents the amounts 
paid in by the firm members. 

32. Surplus. All profit or loss at end of 
year is debited or credited to this account, 
as the case may be. Any dividends paid are 
debited to this account. 

33. Profit and Loss. All trading or operating 
accounts are closed into this account at the 
closing period, or once a year. 

4. Operation Profit and Loss. Accounts Nos. 41 
and 42 are closed into this account at end of ac- 
counting period. 

41. Cost of Completed Work. This account 
is a controlling account and controls all jobs 
that have been completed. These are listed 
in alphabetical order and on the completion of 
any job, \York in Process is credited and this 
account debited. 

42. Fees. When Accounts Receivable is debit- 
ed with a fee this account is credited. 

5. Incidental Profit end Loss. Accounts No. 51 
and No. 52 are closed into this account at the end 
of accounting period. 

51. Incidental Income. This account records 
any earnings received outside of the regular 
order of business, such as money paid for 
renting a portion of the office to an outside 
person. 

52. Incidental Expense. This is a controlling 
account and ha? the following subsidiary ac- 
counts : 

521. Interest. 

This account is debited with any in- 
terest paid out. Interest cannot be 
charged as an Overhead expense. 

ORIGINAL ENTRIES : 

In opening the books a Balance Sheet is prepared, 
listing in detail Assets, Liabilities and Capital. These 
items are then entered in the Journal, and from the 
Journal posted to the Ledger. 

OPERATION OF SYSTEM : 

The forms presented for the operation of the 
system are handled in the following manner : 

The Daily Time Card (Form No. 7) is arranged 
in half-hour divisions and it is a simple matter for 
a draughtsman to indicate on the card just what 
particular work is performed during the day. A 
white card is used for productive work and a blue 
card for non-productive work. It is not necessary, 
but advisable, that a separate card be used for each 
job worked on during the day, since this permits of 



182 




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V< )!.. CXVIII, No. 2329. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 11, 1920 



DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE 

AND 
SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



CHICAGO NURSERY 

AND 
HALF ORPHAN ASYLUM 



IIOI.ABIKI) & ROCHE, 
ARCHITECTS 








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VOL. CXVIII, No. 2329. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 11, 1920 



^ 
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NORTHWEST STATION, COMMONWEALTH EDISON COMPANY, CHICAGO 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHlTi.i. 7s 



VOL. CXVIII, No. 2329. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 11, 1920 






MARGARET MACKIX HALL, 

CHICAGO TELEPHONE COM- 

PAXY, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

I*-IF (Sec text for other illustrations) 




HOLABIRD & ROCHE, 
ARCHITECTS 



\'(il.. CXVIII, No. 2329. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 11, 1920 




FRANKLIN EXCHANGE, CHICAGO TELEPHONE COMPANY 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 






VOL. CXVIII, No. 2329. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 11, 1920 







'X 

. *v 



DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE 
KILDARE EXCHANGE, CHICAGO TELEPHONE COMPANY 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 
(See text for other illustration) 



t 



VOL. CXVIII, No. 2329 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 11, 1920 







McKIXLEV EXCHANGE, CHICAGO TELKI'HOXK COMPANY 
HOLAI1IRI) & ROCHE, A 




VOL. CXVIII, No. 2329. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 11, 1920 




McKIXLKY EXCHANGE, 

CHICAGO TELEPHONE COMPANY 

HOI.AHIKl) & KOCIIK, ARCHITECTS 







SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the filing of all cards together that show time for 
one job. Cards are gathered up daily and are en- 
tered on the monthly individual time summaries 
(Form No. 8). 

On Form No. 8 time for the various jobs that 
have been worked on during the month is listed in 
the columns indicated. Also, all the time that is 
non-chargeable to jobs listed, and at the end of the 



FOHM 1 BM 1-1-20 

SAMUEL HANNAFORD & SONS 

ARCHITECTS 

CINCINNATI. OHIO 



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APPROVED BY 



time space, as provided. These totals are then 
debited to Work in Process and Undistributed Ex- 
pense, respectively. 

At the bottom of the Time Distribution sheet 
the totals of the individual columns under em- 
ployees' names are credited to the individual sal- 
aries accounts. This is done on account of charg- 
ing the regular pay roll to Salary Accounts in the 
ledger. It then becomes necessary to credit these 
accounts and place salaries in Work in Process. The 
reason for this is to have a record showing all sal- 
aries paid. You then enter on the journal (Form 
Xo. 10) the charges to Work in Process and charges 
to non-chargeable time and credit the individual 
salary accounts. 

You are now ready to distribute the Overhead 
Expense ( honn Xo. 9). Since the man-hour basis 
for distribution is being used \ve enter productive 
time opposite the various jobs in the columns for 
the various employees and carry the total horizon- 
tally over its proper space on the right-hand side 
of the sheet. Since we know the total productive 
man-hours for the month, and the overhead for the 
month, the rale can be found by dividing the total 
man-hours into the total overhead. 

When the rate has been determined, this figure 
is used for arriving at the overhead for each par- 
ticular job during the month. Entries are then made 
to the journal and the various jobs charged. The 
total of the overhead column is then credited to 
Undistributed Expense, which places all of the time 
and overhead during the month in the proper Work 
in Process account. 

In designing the Journal it was thought best to 
use one book instead of having separate journals 
for cash receipts, cash disbursements and so on. 

You will note that all accounts that are used fre- 
i|tiently have been allotted special columns. Those 
that are infrequently used will be handled through 
the Other Accounts column and be designated by 
their proper numbers. The necessary columns have 



month the total hours for each job is inserted in been provided for work in process and a single col- 



the "Total Hours" column, and the adjoining 
Amount Column contains the cost in dollars. 

The monthly time summary for each employee 
is then taken and distributed on the Time Distribu- 
tion sheet (Form No. 9) to the proper jobs. You 
will note there is a space for each employee's account 



umn for Cost of Completed Work. 

The other forms, Xo. 11 and No. 12, are self- 
explanatory and need no discussion. 

The forms shown are bound in books and filed as 
follows : 

Form No. 7, the Daily Time Cards, are filed in 



number. (The account number is used instead of me< i; uni weight envelopes. 5 by 7J4 inches. These 



writing out the name), and just below it, in the cor- 

responding column, is the total time, in dollars, for 

the month opposite its particular job. The hpri- 

zontal extension of this time is placed in draughting. n ,, . . 

engineering and superintending, or non-chargeable 

183 



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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 






MONTHLY TIME SUMMARY 

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DISTRIBUTION SHEET 

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Form No. 9, Time Distribution Sheet, may be 
folded and kept in any available file, where they are 
safe from fire. 

Form No. 11, Job Cost Sheet, and Form No. 12, 
Ledger Page, composf. one book, and are bound in a 
single binder. This binder is loose leaf, size 8 by 
inches. 

Form No. 10, Journal, is a regular bound book, 
size 14^4 by 15J/2 inches. 

The measurements given are the over all dimensions 
of the binders containing the pages. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS : 

The completion of an accounting period is signal- 
ized by the preparation of a Balance Sheet and a 
Profit and Loss Statement. 

The Balance Sheet is a complete statement of as- 
sets, liabilities, capital and surplus at time of clos- 
ing books. 

The Profit and Loss Statement shows how profits 
were gained and losses were made. It pictures the 
actual operation of the business. 






The following model statements in a general way 
show how they are prepared : 

MODEL BALANCE SHEET OF DECEMBER 31, 1919. 



ASSETS. 



Fixed Assets : 
Office Equipment 
Hooks 



.f2,100.00 
UOO.OO 



Current Assets : 

Imprest Fund 25.00 

Cash in Bank 3,243.59 

Accounts Receivable 8,753.41 



Sundry Debtors '. 
Finn Member No. 
1 



Firm Member No. 



Investments : 
Bonds .... 



Deferred Assets : 
Prepaid Insurance . 



1,522 04 
72000 



250.00 



64.60 



Working : 
Work in Process... 10,169.27 



LIABILITIES. 
Current Liabilities : 
Accounts Payable.. 
Salaries Payable. . . 

Sundry Creditors : 
Tom Jones 



$78.20 
253.52 



... 275.01 
John Smith 2.7S2.7& 



Reserves : 

Reserve for 

preciaiton . 
Reserve for 

Debts 

Reserve for 

Time, etc. . 



De- 
Bad 

Lost 



Capital : 

Firm Member* No. 



67.53 

30.00- 

166.96 

5,000.00- 



1 

Firm Member No. 
2 5,000.00 



Surplus : 

Undivided Profits 



13.794.SJ 



Balancing Total. .$27,448.81 



Balancing Total. .$27,448.81 



186 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




MODEL STATEMENT OF PROFIT AND Loss 

JAN. 1 TO DEC. 31, 1919. 
OPERATION I*ROFIT A\D LOSS. 

Fees earned during year $48,771.91 

Work in process Jan. 1, 1919. . $8,468.20 
Work Put in Process During Year : 

Drafting ,.$13,660.56 

Superintending . . 4,553.52 

Overhead 18,214.09 

- 36,428.17 



INCIDENTAL PROFIT AND LOSS. 

Incidental income $50.00 

Less incidental expense 300.00 



Less incidental loss 250.00 



$44,896.37 
Less work in process Dec. 

31, 1919 $10,169.27 



Cost of completed work 34,727.10 



Operation profit $14,044.8! 



Xet profit for year $13,7')4.81 

The writer is deeply indebted to Samuel llanna- 
ford 6t Sons, architects, Cincinnati, Ohio, for the 
use of the various printed forms illustrated herein. 

If those who have managed to wade through 
this dry and somewhat tedious article have found 
any ^suggestions that prove valuable in furthering 
the interests of their business, the writer will feel 
well repaid for the effort and study devoted to this 
subject. 



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187 



Current News 



Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 



Dallas Architects Organize 

The Dallas Architectural Club announces its 
founding and organization on the second of June, 
1920. The purpose of the organization is, primar- 
ily, the bringing together of individuals interested 
in architecture and its allied art, in and about Dal- 
las, for the general good of the profession in the 
community. 

The active membership is limited to architectural 
draftsmen. The practicing architects of Dallas have 
been invited into membership as "patrons of the 
club," while contractors, material men and others 
indirectly interested in the profession may obtain 
membership as associate members. 

It is the intention of the club to maintain an ate- 
lier beginning in the fall, and, by means of exhibi- 
tions and talks on things architectural, to stimulate 
the public as well as the professional interest in 
architecture. 

Club quarters have been obtained in conjunction 
with the Arts Club of Dallas at 108 North Poydras 
street, where meetings are held the first and third 
Mondays of each month. Communications may be 
addressed to Mr. J. A. Williamson, secretary, at 
the above address. 



Chicago Artist Offers Prize to Archi- 
tects and Interior Designers 

At a recent meeting of the Illinois Chapter, A. I. 
A., Mr. Joseph Pierre Birren, a well-known Chi- 
cago artist, delegate of the Chicago Society of Ar- 
tists, proposed to give a prize of fifty dollars to be 
awarded at the annual exhibition of architects in 
1921 for the best design in color showing an interior 
of two walls with at least one window, one door, a 
mantel and appropriate spaces for the distribution 
of the following standard sized paintings : one 34x 
40, one 20x24 and one or two 16x20 framed can- 
vases. (Sizes are exclusive of frames.) 

The object of this "Birren prize" is to bring about 
a co-operative spirit between architect and artist 
painter and stimulate the architect's desire to make 
a more artistic appropriate use of wall spaces than 
has been the tendency of the past. It is Mr. Bir- 
ren's contention that less expense in mouldings and 
plastic ornamentation and more thought given to the 



painter's art in the proper handling of flat surfaces 
would be restful, more comfortable and pleasing 
to the eye. 

It is also contended that framing and hanging of 
pictures as at present practiced is inconsistent with 
present interior designs and taste, and that the 
mouldings and ornamentation of frames is often 
ridiculously unrelated in style to a well designed in- 
terior and that it be made the architect's business 
to suggest fitting and harmonious moulding for 
frames and tasteful installation of the canvas on the 
wall, thereby working in sympathy with his client, 
the possible owner of cherished and appropriate pic- 
tures working with the owner or tenant of the 
building and creating a co-operative harmony, 
rather than is so often practiced by that method of 
washing one's hands of a troublesome, unsolved 
problem and advising the exclusion of painting art, 
will unquestionably eventually tend toward a disor- 
ganized condition of all the arts related to building. 

Mr. Birren believes that the day of temporary 
suspension hanging of paintings in permanent spaces 
is passing and that instead framed pictures should 
be fastened flat against the wall with a frame, which 
in design and pattern of moulding is related to and 
in keeping with other mouldings of the room and 
treated so that it would blend or recede to the wall 
and making it a part of the wall. The matter of 
color appropriateness of the picture comes more 
within the province of the painter, and co-operation 
would be welcomed by the client. It seem difficult 
to accept low-keyed paintings in our present high- 
keyed interiors and artists feel that they should be 
consulted by those who wish to have their paintings 
show to advantage when making color changes. 



National 



Commission of 
Report 



Fine Arts 



Containing a review of the progress made in car- 
rying out the plan of Washington prepared in 1901 
under the direction of the late Senator- McMillan 
by the commission composed of Messrs. .Burnham, 
McKim, Saint-Gaudens and Olmsted and outlining 
the work to be done in the immediate future for the 
development of the National Capitol. Including also 
material on the improvement of Army and Navy 
medals and insignia, a discussion of the plans for 



188 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



American cemeteries in France, and advice to per- 
sons interested in erecting war memorials There 
is a chapter on the memorials now being erected in 
Washington. 148 pp. and 70 illustrations, including 
a full set of pictures of the Lincoln Memorial. ( Ap- 
ply to the Government Printing Office). 



D. R. Boyd to Represent Allied 
Building Trades 

The Council of the Allied Building Trades, at a 
meeting of its executive committee in Philadelphia. 
has requested D. Knickerbacker Boyd, former sec- 
retary and vice president of the American Institute 
of Architects and a leader in local construction 
and city planning 1 movements, to act as spokesman 
for labor in all affairs under its jurisdiction. The 
council represents nineteen different labor unions in 
the American Federation of Labor. 

The delegates discussed the fact that there was 
very little co-operation in the building construction 
field. Both labor and the employers held meetings 
of their own, which did not tend to solve the ques- 
tions causing strife between the organizations. It 
was finally decided, without a dissenting vote, to 
have Mr. Boyd act as the representative of organ- 
ized labor, although he does not belong to that 
branch of the building industry. 



tal, but Manchester stands ready to meet this diffi- 
culty. 

The municipality is to provide the funds for 
erecting 1,000 houses in one of its suburbs, while 
the building guild is to furnish not only the manual 
labor, "but also the technical and administrative 
workers. The city is to pay the labor cost and 10 
per cent, additional ;ind is to receive the houses 
when they are built. The extra 10 per cent, is to 
cover losses, transportation cost, etc.. and the city 
council is to buy the building material. 



Good New Work the Milestone of 
Progress 

Willis Polk advises the architectural student a> 
follows : 

"Old stuff can't be made new; new stuff shouldn't 

'be made old ; good stuff alone may invite the toning 

of Time's delicate palette. First of all, make it 

good; second, make it new ; third, antique it if there 

is no other way to attain results." 

Moral: Good old stuff, is better than poor new- 
stuff, but good new stuff is the milestone of 
progress. 



All-Weather Employment for Builders 

One of the features in a home building experi- 
ment in Manchester, England, as given in the last 
Monthly Labor Review, is the provision made for 
full week or all-weather employment by having one 
staff for both inside and outside work. In fine 
weather all the workers are concentrated on outside 
jobs and in wet weather they are shifted to the in- 
side. This method will result in having many 
houses at different stages of completion at one time 
and calls for a corresponding large working capi- 



Recreation Suggestions 

Three pamphlets published by Community Service 
(Incorporated), 1 .Madison Avenue. Xew York 
City, the first one in cooperation with the Play- 
groundand Recreation Association of America : 
"Community Recreation," December. 1919, 122 pp.. 
containing suggestions for recreation boards, 
superintendents of recreation, and community 
recreation workers; "Comrades in Play," Feb- 
ruary, 1920. 84 pp., describing leisure- time ac- 
tivities which the young men and young women of 
.American can enjoy together; "Summer Camps, 
Municipal and Industrial." June. 1 ( '2<). 4,i pp. 
Fach one of handy size and full of practical, de- 
tailed information. 



Senate Resolution 350 

Whereas, The general construction of houses, 
manufacturing establishments and buildings neces- 
sarv for the development of the nation's resources, 
the production of essential materials, and the ameli- 
oration of present housing conditions, was curtailed 
by Federal action during the war and is now seri- 
ously hampered by an unprecedented demand for 
consumables and luxuries which has diverted capi- 
tal, labor and materials into non-productive or non- 
essential fields ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That a committee of five Senators, 
consisting of three members of the majority party 
and two members of the minority party, appointed 
by the President of the Senate, is hereby authorized 
to inquire into the report to the Senate on or before 
December 1. 1920: 

(a) The existing situation in relation to the gen- 
eral construction of houses, manufacturing estab- 
lishments, and buildings, and the effect thereof 
upon other industries and upon the public welfare; 
and 

(b) Such measures as it may deem necessary to 
stimulate and encourage such construction work, 
to encourage popular investment rather than spend- 
ing, to foster private initiative in building, and to in- 
sure co-operation between labor and persons or 
corporations engaged in transportation, banking, or 



189 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



other business necessary to the development of such 
construction. 

Such committee is hereby authorized during- the 
Sixty-sixth Congress to sit during the sessions or 
recesses of the Congress, at Washington or at any 
other place in the United States, to send for per- 
sons, books and papers, to administer oaths and to 
employ experts deemed necessary by such commit- 
tee, a clerk and a stenographer to report such hear- 
ings as may be had in connection with any subject 
which may be before such committee, such stenog- 
rapher's service to be rendered at a cost not exceed- 
ing $1 per printed page, the expenses involved in 
carrying out the provisions of this resolution to be 
paid out of the contingent fund of the Senate. 

The committee appointed consisted of W. M. 
Calder ("New York), chairman; W. S. Kenyon 
(Iowa) ; W. E. Edg<> (New Jersey) ; E. J. Gay 
(Louisiana), and J. () YVolcott (Delaware). 

If your firm is being held up in the execution of 
any contracts for buildings you should communicate 
with the Senate Committee. 



News from Various Sources 

A competition for plans for the reconstructions, 
extension and embellishment of the city of Lille has 
been inaugurated. Full information on the subject 
can be obtained at the Renaissance des Cites, 23, rue 
Louis-le-Grand, Pans. 



U. S. Senate Special Committee on Reconstruc- 
tion and Production is holding first hearings in New 
York bearing upon transportation and fuel neces- 
sary for general industry and construction. 

:f * # 

An organization calling itself the "Society of 
Decorators" has beer, formed at 9 West 47th street, 
New York, to place interior decorating on a profes- 
sional plane, to raise the aesthetic standards, to write 
a code of ethics and to protect the public against the 
incompetent, happy-go-lucky practitioners now en- 
gaged in decorating as a business. 

* * * 

Dr. Royal S. Copeland. representing New York 
at the International Housing Conference at Lon- 
don and the Royal Institute Health Conference at 
Brussels, states that in Europe it is recognized that 
the housing problem has become so pressing as to 
demand its recognition as a public utility, to be dealt 
with as is any other public necessity. 

It is stated by Dr. Copeland that typhus and 
cholera are epidemic in Europe, and that London's 
milk supply cannot compare with the purity and 
safety had in this country. 



Personals 

Resell, Edward Mitchell & Co., Ltd., architects, 
engineers and town-planners, have moved their 
main office to 817 Fourteenth St., N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C., from Norfolk, Va. Manufacturers' 
catalogues are desired. 

Bollard & Webster have moved from 303 Mc- 
Cagne Building, Omaha, Neb., to 521 Paxton Block, 
same city. 

Walter B. Wills, Inc., architect and engineer, an- 
nounces the removal of his offices from 1181 Myrtle 
Ave. to 1159 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn. 

Samuel Gardstein, architect, 1154 47th St., 
Brooklyn, has recently established his main office 
at 26 Court St. The former address will be main- 
tained as a branch. 

National Engineering Service Corporation, which 
maintains its headquarters in the Middle West, has 
recently opened an Eastern office at 30 Church St., 
New York City. 

Severance & Van Alen, architects, have moved 
their offices from 111 East 40th St. to the building 
they recently bought and remodeled for their own 
use at the southwest corner of Lexington Ave. and 

41st St. 

McLanahan & Bencker, Bellevue Court Building, 
1418 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. r is the name of 
the architectural firm which was known before July 
1 as Price & McLanahan. 

James A. McCarroll, architect, formerly located at 
200 Montague St., Brooklyn, N. Y., may now be 
found at 33 Clinton St., Brooklyn. 

Henry Firth, architect, is located at 8515 Bay 
Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

G. C. Freeman, of Reading, Pa., has announced 
the removal of his architectural office from 111 
North Eleventh St. to the Reading Liberty Bank 
Building. 

Kallich and Subkis, architects, formerly at 2208 
Bath Ave., Brooklyn, have moved to 7922 Twenty- 
first Ave., Brooklyn. 

I. W. Eisinger, architect, announces his present 
address as 21-23 West Thirty-sixth St., New York 
City. 

Morris Schwartz, architect, is located now at 1400 
Broadway, New York City. 

H. C. Meyer, architect, of 357 Flatbush Ave., 
Brooklyn, has formed a partnership with Joseph 
Mathieu, known as Meyer & Mathieu. 



190 



Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Prominent Regional Centers 



One hears of a summer lull. 1 he many projects 
that have kept indefatigably on their way through 
difficulty after difficulty are not feeling any bad 
effect from the season of the year. And though it is 
true that new business is not noticeable, the opinion 
generally expressd is that this is more directly due 
to the many obstacles in the way of financing and 
accomplishing construction and that there is a hold- 
ing off in the expectation of better times ahead. 

The attempts of the Federal Reserve banks to 
limit the loans to requirements of essential rather 
than speculative enterprise have been fairly success- 
ful, hut have not accomplished any decided reduc- 
tion of the credits outstanding. The influence, how- 
ever, is toward stability and though it directly con- 
cerns the transitory requirements such as the mat- 
ter of crop moving, for example the investments 
in building and industrial activities must eventually 
feel its good effect. 

Production seems to have developed from a by- 
word into a fact if the statistics of some of the 
more basic materials may be accepted as indicative, 
since March of this year, which was an exceptional 
Pig iron production in June was at the highest figure 
month, and approaches near to the average monthly 
production of the maximum year, i. e. 1 ( H6. Hitu- 
ininous coal averaged in June ten million tons week- 
ly production, which is two million in excess of the 
1919 average. It is not expected in the face of trans- 
portation inadequacies that this rate of production 
can be steadily maintained, but it is encouraging and 
valuable to know these things as an evidence that 
we are hitching along. 

Manufacturers generally are reporting increased 
difficulty in securing raw materials. Rut their chief 
difficulty is shown in a striking way by the case of 
the National Tube Co., which shut down on July 3 
because of a congestion of finished material, but has 
now again begun operations. It was stated before 
the Interstate Commerce Commission that this com- 
pany's stock on hand aggregated 100,000 tons. 



(Hy Special Correspondence to The American 

Architect.) 

CHICAGO. The continued seriousness of the traf- 
fic outlook and the prospective coal shortage is 
causing uneasiness in Chicago's business and indus- 
trial circles. Many industrial leaders are advocating 
the vo'untary closing of plants for thirty or sixty 
days in order to accumulate a coal supply, claiming 
that only a drastic measure of this sort will avert a 
severe depression later. Already hundreds of men 



are out of work through the shutting down of in- 
dustries because of lack of coal. 

The building situation in Chicago is practically 
unchanged. The demand for new building con- 
tinues unabated, but the industry is proceeding at 
such a disadvantage that it is exceedingly doubtful 
if the present season will accomplish any appreciable 
reduction in the hons; shortage. Building permits 
of this city do not show the actual situation, since 
many projects are abandoned after the permits were 
taken out. 

Although, in building circles, considerable relief 
is expressed over the rail award, no immediate im- 
provement is looked for in the transportation of 
building materials. This week's report of the rail- 
roads shows further decrease in the shipment of 
lumber, amounting on one road to but 38 per cent. 
of the movement in the same week of last year. 

Housing conditions are growing worse and consti- 
tute a severe menace to the city, say housing ex- 
perts. "Something must be done," is the cry. In 
defense, the builders claim they are helpless to reme- 
dy the situation and point out that a recognition of 
the importance of their industry must come from 
the railroads and the Government before anything 
can lie accomplished. 

In the recent hearing granted to construction and 
material interests by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, Mr. Lemuel F. Owen, manager of the Chi- 
cago Building Materials Exchange, made an able- 
report dealing with construction conditions in Chi- 
cago during the past live years. Mr. Owen says in 
part : ''Upwards of 10,000 families are without 
homes. 40,000 people were denied admission to hos- 
pitals during the month of June because of lack of 
space, over 30,000 school children are housed in 
schools and basements which are poorly heated and 
unventilated." He concludes his report with this 
significant statement : "Under present operations 
these same conditions will last for an indefinite 
period." 

The construction problems of Chicago are most 
serious and merit earnest consideration by the 
United States Senate Committee on Construction, 
which is expected to begin hearings in this city next 
week. 



(B\ Special Correspondence to The American 

Architect.) 

SEATTLE. Only slight changes in the situation 
are needed to produce a hopeful response in the 
building trade on the Pacific Coast, and jobbers in 



191 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



this territory were considerably heartened during 
the week by the improvement in the delivery of sheet 
metal. All manufacturers of the East seem able to 
promise, however, is that sometime within the next 
four months they hope to get production and de- 
livery somewhere near normal. Prices are almost 
invariably stationary. 

To complaints of poor delivery Western mills re- 
iterate their pleas that they cannot get cars for 
shipping raw productions in, nor cars to ship manu- 
factured materials out and while it is extremely 
difficult to get sufficient skilled labor to turn out 
small pipe and nails, they believe that if the car 
situation could be relieved, jobbers would have little 
cause for complaint. 

Conditions in the steel market on the Pacific 
Coast are identical as to prices, and all large jobbing 
centers have been encouraged this week by the ac- 
ceptance in Eastern mills of placements for the 
fourth quarter. The mills specifically state that the 
delay in delivery on the Coast is due to congestion 
in the Chicago car zone. 

There is no improvement in receipts of vitro- 
ware or enamel ware. Stocks all along the Pacific 
Coast are low, but the demand is not heavy. Mamir 
facturers of these essentials wire that they are hope- 
ful of an improvement by December 1. Jobbers are 
carefully studying the wheat movement, as it is be- 
lieved cars will be marshalled by the common carri- 
ers to take care of this as a preferential over all 
building materials. \Yest Coast fir lumbermen have 
already conceded this point, and are not hoping for 
better than 25 to 30 per cent, of a normal car sup- 
ply until the wheat has been warehoused. 

Offerings on the Coast of roofing and plaster 
board have been so heavy that the market has re- 
ceded. Jobbers are able this week to quote plaster 
wall board at $55, as against $60 per 1,000 square 
feet. Cement is short in California, but in the 
North Coast territory jobbers have been fortunate 
in picking up odd lots. Scarcity of cars and of sacks 
is the primary reason for the cement shortage here. 

Fire brick has been advanced to $75 and $80 de- 
livered in the .first building zone. Arrivals of ma- 
terials from the East are poor in the North Coast 
territory, but California jobbers are more fortunate, 
as stocks of fire clay and which cement, there are 
plentiful. Seattle jobbers can get delivery in ten 
days by placing orders in the South as against the 
East. Discrimination is being hinted at. 

The West Coast fir lumber mills received from 
the railroads a total of 1,330 cars for shipping lum- 
ber to eastern builders, 1,000 less than was demand- 
ed. The delivery this week is averaging 25 per 
cent, of normal. One of the larger mills got 74 
cars, against an order for 400. The fir lumber mar- 
ket is $3 to $5 higher mill basis on finishing assort- 



ments and $1 to $2 higher on dimension- due exclu- 
sively to the car shortage, as new business is light. 
Orders for lumber coming in now are filling out re- 
tail yard stocks in the country and not the buying 
for city building. 

A majority of the fir lumber mills have been idle 
since July 4, and it is announced that they may not 
resume until there is an improvement in the car 
situation. A brisk buying movement in fir lumber 
is anticipated when the new transcontinental freight 
rate advance is announced. 

A brisk and higher autumn market in paints and 
oils is predicted by the paint trade. Lead is arriv- 
ing from Chicago and San Francisco in increasing 
volume. General use of light colors will be the rule. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

WATERBURY, CONN. During the last few days 
large numbers of brass workers in the Naugatuck 
Valley have gone back to work after an idleness of 
about three months. The men struck about the mid- 
dle of April, and since then the Connecticut brass 
mills have been working only part time. As the 
products of these plants enter to a large amount in 
building construction in one form or another, a re- 
sumption ot full time should be welcome news. 

Large quantities of copper ordered for delivery 
during the second quarter were deferred in ship- 
ment. The railroad strike, which also occurred dur- 
ing this period, tended further to restrict the 
movement of raw supplies and the transportation 
of finished goods outward bound. In the meantime, 
the mills have been working up their raw copper 
stocks. It is expected among the producers that 
the buying for domestic account will be resumed in 
a few days. 

It has been noted iccently that tightness of money 
has developed into the chief cause for housing con- 
gestion. It is impossible to obtain anything like the 
amount of a loan on property such as could be se- 
cured in the past, since in some quarters there is a 
general fear that the real estate market is due for 
a decline. High prices of building materials and 
labor add still further to the difficulties of the situa- 
tion. 

The Federal Reserve Board seems to have noth- 
ing to offer in the way of remedy except to repeat 
its admonition to "work and save." The board can 
exercise supervision over commercial paper, but not 
investment paper, and cannot give any preferential 
approval to one class of borrowers over another. So 
long as the banks of the country are loaded up with 
Government bonds on which the public has not com- 
pleted payments, officials point out there is little re- 
lief in sight in the money market. 



192 




. 








TEST SLAB UNDER FINAL LOAD 



Tile and Concrete Floor Shows to Advan- 
tage Under Test 

Bureau of Standards Investigation Produces Valuable Design Data 



WHILE new types of construction are con- 
stantly appearing, only those of proven 
merit should be employed in the building 
of any structure. Originators of such new forms 
of construction have complained that only with 
difficulty, if at all, could they persuade the archi- 
tect to give serious consideration to their claims 
with a view to having their system specified for 
some structure being planned by him. The archi- 
tect, though ever alert to learn of improved 
methods of building, by which it may be possible 
in execute his design more efficiently and economic- 
ally, of necessity shows a conservative attitude 
when it comes to departing from the beaten path 
of precedent. His professional duty to his client 
compels him to be reasonably sure that he is mak- 



ing a wise selection when specifying new materials, 
or new combinations of known materials.. Of 
course, after any new system of construction has 
been employed with successful results in several 
structures a greater degree of confidence is naturally 
felt in the claims made for it, and its extended use 
becomes less difficult. 

The characteristics of any new form of construc- 
tion claiming the attention of architects should not 
be left to speculation, or to be discovered after 
the building in which they are employed has been 
erected, if it is possible to determine them by 
reliable tests. Whenever such tests are made, the 
results should be given the widest publicity. 

The extensive series of tests recently conducted 
upon a type of floor construction, which appar- 



193 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




REINFORCEMENT FOR TEST SLAB IN PLACE 

ently possesses many meritorious features, are, 
therefore, of particular interest to the architectural 
profession. The system employs hollow tile in 
combination with reinforced concrete. From a 
cursory inspection of the photographs, it might be 
assumed that the construction tested does not pos- 
sess any novel features, and it is true that com- 
bination systems similar to this have been used to 
a limited extent (See AMERICAN ARCHITECT, Sept. 
3, 1919, page 321). Upon further study it will 
be noted that no concrete slab above the tile 
has been employed, hi most of the combination 
tile and concrete systems hitherto employed, it has 
been customary to pour a 2 inch or thicker top 
slab over the tile, and this in connection with the 
concrete ribs forms a series of reinforced concrete 
Tee beams, the tiles being considered simply as 
fillers to reduce the dead load below what it would 
be were a solid concrete slab employed. In the 
design tested, the orinigators believed that the tiles 
were not mere fillers, but became an actual and in- 
tegral part of the flat slab and aided the concrete 
in resisting both compressive and shearing stresses. 
That this is true, the results of the tests clearly 
indicate. However, it was necessary to conduct 
an investigation of this nature in order to lay the 
basis for economical design. 

The purpose of the test, as stated in the report, 
was to obtain data which would afford a basis for 
the design of a concrete and hollow tile floor re- 
inforced in two directions. The test was planned 
to obtain information on: (1) The effect of varia- 
tion in the ratio of length to width of panels upo" 
the bending moments in two directions at right 
angles to each other; (2) the relation of maximum 
negative moment to maximum positive moment in 
the same panel; (3) distribution of tensile and 
compressive stresses at sections of maximum nega- 
tive and maximum positive moment ; (4) the 
amount of deflection of the slab and girders under 
different loadings, and (5) the location of the point 
of zero stress in order to determine the length 



of reinforcement required to give proper anchorage 
beyond points of support. 

For the purpose of obtaining the data desired, 
a large floor slab consisting of 18 panels was con- 
structed at Waynesburg, Ohio, in 1919. Measure- 
ments to determine the stress under different loads 
were taken on approximately 900 gage lines in the 
reinforcement, 500 gage lines in the concrete and 
75 gage lines in the tiles of the slab. Deflections 
were observed in 40 places. To obtain additional 
information on the action of the tiles in this type 
of floor, two small slab specimens, termed "control 
slabs," were constructed upon which strain gage 
measurements were taken in the reinforcement, the 
concrete and the tiles. 

The test was made for J. J. Whitacre of Waynes- 
burg, Ohio, under the direction of Mr. W. A. Slater 
representing the Bureau of Standards, with the co- 
operation of Professor R. H. Danforth of the Case 
School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. The 
slab was constructed under the supervision of Mr. 
Anthes. The observations used in the report were 
made by Messrs. Anthes, Hagener and G. G. Sco- 
field, all experienced observers in this line of in- 
vestigation. Acknowledgment is made of the 
valuable assistance of R. R. Zipprodt of the Bu- 
reau of Standards during the concreting of the slab 
and its preparation for test and in organizing the 
work of testing. The report was prepared by 
Messrs. Slater, Hagener and Anthes. 

Tests of the materials used in the slab were 
made at the laboratory of the Case School of 
Applied Science. 

The average results of tests on six specimens of 
reinforcement used in the slab gave a yield point of 
53,560 pounds per square inch and an ultimate 
strength of 87,220 pounds per square inch. Tests 
made on eleven 6 by 12 inch concrete cylinders 
made during the pouring of the concrete for the 
.slab gave an average ultimate strength of 2,030 
pounds per square inch at an age of 35 days, and 




CONSTRUCTION OF FOOTINGS 

A continuous slab of reinforced concrete and hollow tile was 
placed to guard against settlement 



19A 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



for 8 cylinders tested at an age of 115 days, the 
average ultimate strength was 2,980 pounds per 
square inch. 

The tiles were furnished by the \Vhitacre-Greer 
Fireproofing Co. of Waynesburg, Ohio. They were 
of the six-cell type, 6 by 12 by 12 inches in size and 
weighed approximately 30 pounds each. 

Tests on 8 specimen tiles with the load applied on 
the open ends gave an average ultimate strength of 



were measured from the center to center of support- 
ing columns. The panels were supported by rein- 
forced concrete girders, the stems of which were 
generally 12 inches wide, making the clear spans 
about 12 inches less than the dimensions given above. 
The slab was made of 6 by 12 by 12-inch clay tiles 
laid in concrete and arranged in rows at right angles 
to each other. The rows in both directions were 
separated by ribs of concrete 4 inches wide and 6 



Mote- Dimensxns an/ jver to r*fairfa/ are 
fir neyofire reinforcement. Bars of the Jome 
stf are in thf fartorru of tie rita fe resist- 
pantve moment, nan ejrfend acroa fhe 

aor , poneb /rom center Ane /b center 
/me of yr-gkrj. 

t,x> 




~ .ig.--g-g:-Jlffi __ 








Section ot Exterior Girder 



Section thru s/abporo/k 

to cells of tl/e. p/an and Section of Jbt Shomm 



FIG. 1. PLAN OF TEST SLAB SHOWING REINFORCEMENT 

Cross sections indicate method of placing tiles 



4,920 pounds per square inch, and for 6 specimens 
in which the load was applied perpendicular to the 
axis of the cells, the average ultimate strength was 
4,000 pounds per square inch. 

The compressive strength was computed on the 
basis of the net area of the section through the cells 
parallel to the bearing surfaces . 

Design and Construction of Slab. The slab was 
117 feet 6 inches long by 50 feet wide, divided into 
18 panels. Six of these panels were 16 feet square: 
six were 16 feet by 19 feet 3 inches, and six were 
Hi feet by 22 (eet 6 inches. These panel dimensions 



inches deep. The tiles throughout the slab, were 
laid with the cells running in the north and south di-. 
rection, that is, the short direction of the oblong 
panels. The ends of the tiles were left open, allow- : 
ing a small amount of concrete to enter and making , 
the tiles form an integral part of the slab. 

Each concrete rib between rows of tiles was rein- 
forced in the bottom with one J^-inch plain round . 
bar extending the full length of the. rib and in the 
top with one J^-inch plain round bar at -each end 
which extended from a point one- fourth of the span 
length from the end of the rib and passed through 






195 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




UNDER SIDE OF TEST SLAB 

Holes in concrete show points at which strain gage readings were taken 
on reinforcement 



the top of the supporting girder into the rib on the 
opposite side of the girder. The centers of the bot- 
tom bars were 1 inch and \ l /> inches from the bot- 
tom surface of the rib for the short and long di- 
rections of the panel, respectively. The centers of 
the top bars were 1% inches below the top of the 
rib. The top bars were hooked at their ends to pre- 
vent slipping. Figure 1 shows the design of the 
slab. 

In order to avoid any chance of settlement of the 
footings, a continuous flat slab foundation was con- 
structed. 

Work on the footings began on July 26, 1919. 
The columns were poured on September 25 up to 
the soffits of the girders, and the slab was poured 
between October 2 and October 10, 1919. 

Radial chimney bricks were used as loading ma- 
terial. To prevent arching of the load and to leave 
all of the gage lines accessible on top of the slab, 
the load on each panel was divided into four stacks, 
as shown in Figure 2. 

To avoid difficulty in stacking the bricks, due to 
slight irregularities in the surface of the slab, sand 
cushions \ l /2 inches thick were laid before any 
bricks were placed. The sand was retained in place 
by wooden frames which defined the size of the 
piles and the location of the aisles and served as 
screeds for leveling off the sand cushions upon which 
to apply the load. 

Loading began on December 20, 1919, and con- 
tinued at intervals up to February 5, 1920. The 
loaded areas and the intensities of the load on the 
latter date are given in Figure 2. This load is 



termed the ''maximum uniform 
load." For this total amount of 
load no other practicable dis- 
tribution would have produced a 
higher negative moment. 

The maximum uniform load 
was left in place until April 3, 
1920. Shifting of the load from 
one part of the slab to another 
was then begun and continued up 
to April 22, 1920. The load was 
shifted in such a way as to main- 
tain as nearly as possible a con- 
stant stress in the reinforcement 
resisting the negative moments 
and at the same time to increase 
the stress in the reinforcement 
resisting positive moments in 
typical panels. The loaded areas 
and the intensities of the load on 
April 22 are given in Figure 3. 
This load is termed the "final 
load." 

The load per square foot was 
obtained by dividing the total load on the panel by 
the area of the panel within the girder lines, that is. 
the area represented by the product of the clear 
spans. This method was found by approximate an- 
alysis to give values of bending moments which did 
not vary by more than two or three per cent, from the 
moments computed from the loads as actually placed. 
The deformation in the reinforcement and in the 
concrete under the applied loads were observed with 
a strain gage having a gage length of four inches 
and in the tiles with a strain gage having a gage 
length of eight inches. The multiplication ratio of 
each instrument was 5:1. 

Considerable study was given to determining a 
basis for correcting the strain gage readings for 
changes in the length of gage lines due to changes 
in weather conditions. As a result of this study, it 
was decided that the most satisfactory basis for 
making corrections in the strain gage readings was 
to assume that the readings varied directly in pro- 
portion to the temperature changes. 

Recorded deflections are given in tables 1, 2 and 
3. Recovery due to partial removal of the load is 
shown in table 4. 



TABLE 1 DEFLECTION FOR SQUARE PANELS UNDER CON- 
STANT LOAD, 
lime 

Applied under eon- , Deflection * 

Final 
inches 
0.00 
0.10 
0.00 
0.12 
0.22 



I'anel 


load in Ib. 
per M. ft. 
160 


stant load 
in days 




..160 


7 


H (Interior) 


..210 


7 




..210 


7 


H (Interior) 


397 


52 




..372 


53 


H (Interior) 


730 


30 


A (Exterior).. 


...615 


23 



After one 
day inches 

0.00 

0.08 

0.00 

0.12 

0.09 

0.37 

0.55 

1.36 



0.70 
0.68 
1.52 



196 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



atant load 


After one 


Final 


in -(.I'- 


day indies 


Incites 


ll 


0.111 


0.11 


18 


0.14 


0.17 


55 


0.15 


(l.2( 


55 


0.28 


0.44 


25 


0.88 


1.15 


2-' 


1.19 


1.52 



TABLE I' DEFLECTION FOR INTERMEDIATE SIZE RECTAN- 
GULAR PANELS UNDER CONSTANT LOAD. 
Time 

Applied under con- , Deflection . 

load in Ib. 
I'anvl Per SQ. ft. 

1 (Interior) 230 

P (Etxerior) 230 

I (Interior) 28(1 

P (Exterior) 28O 

I (Interior) 605 

P (Exterior) 525 

TABLE 3 DEFLECTIONS FOR LONG PANELS UNDER CON- 
STANT LOAD. 
Time 

Applied under con- , Deflection , 

load In II). stain load After one Final 

Panel per aq. ft. in days day in'-hes inches 

K (Interior) 230 till o.ll 0.11 

P (Exterior) 230 t <>.: ".7:! 

K (Interior) 505 25 1.04 

F (Exterior) 370 25 1.38 1.72 

TABLE 4 RECOVERY FROM DEFLECTION UPON REMOVA 
OF LOAD FROM EXTERIOR PANELS. 

r -Ix>ad Removed^ , Recovery s 

Applied IVr 

load in Deflec- cent, of 

Ih. IH.T lion in I.b. l*r applied 
inches sq. ft. load 
0.05 321 SI 
0.52 22! 82 
0.31 14K 64 
0.53 15* 69 



Panel sq. ft. 

G (Square) 397 

O (Int.) 280 

E (Long) 230 

L (Long 23d 



per cent. 
I'er of load 
in cent, of Removed 
incheadenection percent. 
0.33 51 .63 

0.29 56 .68 

0.34 110 1.71 
0.45 85 1.24 



A careful study of these deflection tables is in- 
teresting. It must be remembered that the slab 
was but 6 inches thick and the panels varied from 
16 feet square to 16 feet by 22 feet 6 inches center 
to center of supporting girders. 

It will be noted that for panel "H" a square in- 
terior panel, no deflection was recorded under an 
applied load of 210 pounds per square foot after 
this had remained in place 7 days and only 11/16 
inch under a load of 730 pounds per square foot 
after this increased load had remained in place 
for 30 days. The deflection recorded for panel 
"A," an exterior square panel, 
was greater, as was to be ex- 
pected, but this could not be con- 
sidered excessive. The greatest 
deflection recorded was 1.72 inch 
for "F," an exterior long panel H 
under a load of 370 pounds per 
square foot in place 25 days. 

From table 4 (last column) it 
will be seen that the per cent, of 
recovery for each per cent, of 
load removed varied from .63 to 
1.71. In the latter case no de- 
flection existed after approxi- 
mately 60 per cent, of the load 
had been removed. The recov- 
ery in the panels referred to in 
table 4 was assisted by the in- 
crease in load on the adjacent 
panels simultaneously with the 
decrease in load on panels G, O, 
E and L. 

Auxiliary Slabs. The two 
slab specimens termed control 



slabs already referred to, were 2 ft. 6 in. widt 
and 12 ft. long and of similar construction to 
the large slab. They were constructed in order to 
determine the effectiveness of the tiles in resisting 
compressive stresses in this type of construction. 
Fig. 4 is a view of one of these slabs under load. 
The load was applied by the reaction of two springs 
which had been previously rated in a testing ma- 
chine, obtaining the amount of compression corres- 
ponding to a given load. 

The central concrete rib in each of the control 
slabs was reinforced in the bottom with three *j?-in. 
round bars. This gave a much higher percentage 
of reinforcement than was used in the large test 
slab. This was necessary in order to obtain large 
deformations in the tiles and concrete before failure. 

The longitudinal axes of the cells of the tiles 
at mid span were parallel to the span in control 
slab Xo. 1 and perpendicular to the span in control 
slab Xo. 2. Control slab Xo. 1 was tested at the 
same time as the large slab, under loads giving 
stresses in the reinforcement as nearly as possible 
the same as the stresses in the negative reinforce- 
ment in the large slab. The test extended over a 
period of 84 days. Control slab Xo. 2 was tested 
to failure in one day, April 15, 1920, observations 
being made under different loads before failure. 

Reliability of Results. Ik-cause of the unusually 
severe weather conditions in lanuary and Feb- 
ruary, extreme precautions had to be taken to se- 
cure accurate strain gage readings and to protect 
the observation points from damage. In order to 
secure accuracy of readings, check readings were 




CLOSE-UP VIEW OF SLAB UNDER FINAL LOAD 



197 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




FIG. 2. DIAGRAM OF MAXIMUM UNIFORM LOAD 



Showing location and intensities of load which remained in 
place from Feb. 5 to April 3, 1920 

frequently taken. In some series readings were 
taken for each gage line twice, or even more if 
necessary to obtain satisfactory check readings. 
Due to the favorable weather in April, it is be- 
lieved that the error in readings taken at that time 
was considerably less than the error in the readings 
taken in January and February. The total error in 
the corrected observations probably did not often 
exceed plus or minus one division of the instru- 
ment, which is equivalent to a stress of 1,500 Ib. per 
sq. in. in the reinforcement. 

The complete report is most exhaustive and con- 
tains numerous tables and charts giving the entire 
results of all the readings. It is not possible, due 
to limited space, to reproduce these, but the essence 
of these many observations and the deductions made 
therefrom are contained in the following summary, 
taken from the report. 

Sniiiinarv. Deformations in the tiles were ap- 
proximately 70 per cent, as great as those in the 
concrete, This shows that the tiles contributed a 
proportional share to the strength of the slab. The 
unit stresses in the tiles must be equal to, or greater 
than, the unit stresses in the concrete. 

In this type of construction, it seems reasonable 
-that the ribs of the tile in contact with the concrete 




ribs should be considered as being effective in re- 
sisting shearing stresses equally with the concrete. 
The test results indicate that the ribs of the tiles 
were effective in resisting shearing stresses. 

Average values of the negative resisting moment 
of the stresses in the reinforcement where the bars 
cross the edges of the slabs are given in table 5. 

TABLE ' NEGATIVE MOMENTS IN INTERIOR PANELS 



Basis 


Direction 


of co- 


of moment 


efficients 






Short 


Live load 


direction 


only 


Long 




direction 


Sum of live 


Short 


and dead 


direction 


loads / 


Long 




direction 



Square 
panels 

.011I3W1 



.0171W1 



Intermediate 
sized panels 

.U103W1 

.Oi'Uwi 

.U2.-MW1 
.01U6W1 



Long 
panels 

.H44I>W1 
.0201 Wl 
.03GGW1 



In. a few cases maximum values exceeded the aver- 
age by as much as 33 per cent. The intensity of 
the measured stress from which these moments 
were computed was generally close to the yield 
point. The load on the slab was 397 Ib. per sq. ft. 
for the square panels, 280 Ib. per sq. ft. for the 
intermediate size panels, and 230 Ib. per sq. ft. for 
the long panels. 

At the stage of the test at which the negative 
moments given in table 5 were developed the 
stresses at the centers of the spans were resisted 




FIG. 3. DIAGRAM OF FINAL LOAD 

Shifting of load commenced April 3, and was completed April 
22, 1920 






FIG. 4. 'VIEW OF CONTROL SLAB NO. 1. 

Insert shows cross section; the black marks on top surface of 

tiles are points at which deformation readings 

were taker .o determine stress in tiles 

so largely by the tension in the concrete that in 
order to obtain representative positive moments 
for the reinforcement it was necessary to apply 
more load to the slab in such a way as to increase 
the positive moments without affecting greatly the 
negative moments. For this purpose the load dis- 
tribution shown in Fig. 3 was used. The positive 
moments for the loads in the heavily loaded panels 
shown -in Fig. 3 averaged 49 per cent, of the nega- 
tive moments given in table 5 for the loads shown 
in Fig. 2. The observed stresses at the time that 
the loads shown in Fig. 3 were in place were gen- 



198 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



erally from 30,CCO to 40,000 Ibs. per sq. in. for the 
positive reinforcement in the short direction of 
the panel and from 16.000 to 38,000 Ibs. per sq. in. 
for the positive reinforcement in the long direction 
of the panel. 

The average negative bending .moment for the 
exterior panels was 20 per cent, greater than that 
for interior panels of like size ; in one case it was 
26 per cent, greater. 

By the term "Moment for the exterior panels" 
is meant the moment across the girder one span 
length from the wall. 

The average positive bending moment for ex- 
terior panels was 23 pel cent, greater than the posi- 
tive bending moment for interior panels. This com- 
parison was made with reinforcement extending into 
the wall girders. 

The distance of the point of zero stress in the 
negative reinforcement from the edge of the sup- 
porting girder was slightly less than one-fifth of 
the clear span from edge to edge of the girders. 

For uniform applied loads of about 175 Ibs. per 
sq. ft. on the long panels (except corner panel R). 
230 Ibs. per sq. ft. on the intermediate size panels and 
275 Ibs. per sq. ft. on the square panels, the 
deflection at the center of the panels was less than 
1/900 of the clear span. The deflections for the 
exterior panels were generally somewhat larger. 



It. would seem that sufficient reliable data has 
been made available as a result of these extensive 
tests, to permit of economical design of this type of 
floor construction, with a feeling of confidence, 
based not upon unsubstantiated claims, but upon as 
precise data as it is possible to obtain in this type 
of construction. 

It must ever be kept in mind that expert work- 
manship is as essential to successful construction 
as accurate design, and only experienced builders 















.0128 


.0173 




.|51?96 




A ^ 


R 


1 C 


S n 


o f ^ 


r 


Co 


3 "^ 






s s 


s 


.0250 < 


.0171 


.0/73 


.0256 


.0309 


.04OJ 


0234 


.0226 


.0337 


.^347 


.0423 


.0403 


^> 


V) <*) 


^ 5* 


r- "1 


CN Co 


-% 


6 


| H 5 


5 / ^ 


Qj O 


(Nj ^1 <\J 

Q <3 


i L 


.0192 < 


.0226 


.5347 


.0^7 


.0423 


MZ3 


.0260 


. :. 


.0337 


.0236 


.O4Z3 


.O423 


M 
o 


t*4 ^ 

5 ^ 


I o I 


Z P ^ 

Q> C) 


i o | 


e o 
^ ^ 















IMG. 5. DIAGRAM OF NEGATIVE BENDING 
MOMENT COEFFICIENTS 

Values shown (bast-el on readings taken after load had been 
in place 55 to 73 days) arc computed from weighted maximum 
stresses in the reinforcement crossing the edges of the panels. 
These should not lie confused with the average values of 
negative moment coefficients given in Table 5, which are the 
average values of all the computed values of all the panels 
of each type 

should be permitted to carry out work of this kind. 



Rigidity Tests on Various Types of Wall 

Construction Made by Omaha 

Building Department 

Results Prove That Code Requirements Should Be Amended 



TESTS, supervised by municipal experts, of six 
different types of exterior wall panels, show 
that forms of construction not hitherto per- 
mitted by the Oriiaha, Neb., building code are ac- 
tually superior, from the standpoint of rigidity, to 
the type of frame wall construction specified by 
the code. 

The test panels were each 4 ft. high and 8 ft. 
lung, constructed of 2 in. by 4 in. studs, 16 in. on 
venters. The studs were nailed to a top and bot- 
tom sill piece with 3-20 D nails at each corner, the 
intermediate studs being nailed with 2-20 D nails 
top and bottom. These panels were covered as 
follows : 

No. 1. Exterior: 6 in. x % in. wood sheathing, 
nailed with 2-10 D nails at each stud. Interior: 
Wood lath nailed at each bearing by 4 D nails. No 
plaster or stucco. 



Xo. 2. Exterior : Bishopric heavy weight 
sheathing board nailed direct to studs with a 6 1) 
nail through each wood strip at each bearing. In- 
terior: \Voud lath as in No. 1. Xo plaster or 
stucco. 

Xo. 3. Standard construction in the City of 
Omaha. Exterior: 6 in. x % in. wood sheathing 
nailed to studs as in No. 1, then covered with (a) 
tarred felt building paper; (bj ^ in. x V/t in. fur- 
ring strips 16 in. o. c. ; (c) wood lath nailed to fur- 
ring strips with 4 D nails; and (d) one coat Port- 
land cement stucco with dash finish. Interior : 
wood lath as in No. 1. 

No. 4. Exterior: Bishopric medium weight 
stucco board nailed direct to studs by one 5 D nail 
through each strip at each bearing; one coat Port- 
land cement stucco, dash finish. Interior : Wood 
lath as in No. 1. 



199 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




VIEW OF TEST PANEL NO. 1 BEFORE TEST 

No. 5. Same as No. 3 except Magnesite stucco 
was substituted for Portland cement stucco. 

No. 6. Exterior: Back-plastered metal lath, 
Portland cement stucco. No interior lath. 

In testing, each panel was set separately on a 
base of 8 in. by <S in. timbers, 12 ft. long. The test- 
ing apparatus consisted of a screw jack for apply- 
ing the load, set between the testing frame and Bell 
crank lever constructed of timbers and a Fairbanks 
platform scale. The jack acting at one of the up- 
per corners applied increasing pressures to the 
frame under test, thus causing distortion. To pre- 
vent the frame under test from pulling up at the 
lower corner, it was secured to the base by a heavy 
bolt let through the frame at the corner directly 
below that to which the screw jack was applied. 

The results of these tests are plotted on the chart 
(Fig. 1). They should be carefully studied. The 
graphs marked 4a and 6a indicate the results of a 
second test made on both panels No. 4 and 6. 

Test panels No. 1 and 2 are comparable. The re- 
sults show that considerably greater stiffness was 
shown by panel No. 2 covered with Bishopric 
sheathing board than by panel No. 1 with wood 
sheathing. Test panels No. 3 and 4 are also com- 




PANEL XO. 6 BACK PLASTERED METAL LATH 

parable. Here again panel No. 4, using Bishopric 
stucco board, showed up to better advantage than 
No. 3 which is the type of construction specified by 
the Omaha code. 

It is interesting to note from Fig. 1 that the back 
plastered metal lath panel, the only one in which 
interior wood lath was dispensed with, showed the 
greatest rigidity of all the panels tested. 

This test panel, tested to the limit of the appara- 
tus 3.500 Ibs. showed no cracks, while both of the 
Bishopric board panels showed greater stiffness than 
the type of construction permitted by the code. 

The Omaha code should be amended and modern- 
ized in this respect at least. It would seem that 
there is no option in the matter. The more quickly 
the city officials act, the more quickly will they per- 
form a public service. 

The tests were successfully carried out through 
the full co-operation of the following code revision 
committee : Harry B. Zimman, alderman ; Rodney 
M. Brown, former building inspector; Geo. B. 
Prinz, architect; A. C. Arend, consulting engineer; 
R. E. Myers, realtor; Rex Edgecomb, present build- 
ing inspector, secretary. Their recommendations 
should be at once forthcoming. 







'/<" ft' 



/' I'/i I'/i I'/i 2" Z'K 2K 
DISTORTION IN Incuts 



PANEL NO. 1 AFTER TEST 

Distortion of 5% in. Occurred Under Load of 2,100 Lbs. 



FIG. 1. DIAGRAM SHOWING DISTORTION OF 
PANELS UNDER TEST 



200 



, 

4.00 



/^ 







x 
u 



s 

5 



5 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



VOL. CXVIII 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 18, 1920 



NUMBER 2330 




THK PATIO 



The Mission Inn at Riverside, California 



By DWIGIIT JAMES HAI-.M. B.A. rA.I.A. 
Photographed Chiefly by the Writer 



AN American gentleman was touring Spain 
just before the great war and in searching 
for art objects, frequented the inland towns. 
In one of these he met a recognized authority on 
Spanish art and craftsmanship. Their conversa- 
tion turned to ironwork and the American, of 
course, praised the craftsmen of the past and the 
wonderful artistry shown in metals. Finally the 
Spaniard suggested that the American take a trip 
to California where there was an Inn with a col- 
lection larger than any in Spain. The comment 
was received with much pride by the visitor, for he 



happened to be Mr. Frank Miller, Master of the 
Mission Inn at Riverside, California, and the owner 
of the collection referred to. 

The writer recently spent a few weeks at this 
most interesting place, created all out of the mind 
of Mr. Miller who started this work in a small adobe 
which now serves as a tea room in the entrance court. 

The structure with its several annexes now 
covers an entire square of no mean proportions, 
the buildings being grouped around an entrance 
court and a patio. The main buildings (2) were 
designed by Arthur Benton of Los Angeles and 



201 






THE 

this portion includes 
the grouping around 
the forecourt and the 
music room. The wing 
(3) called the cloister 
and the Patio was de- 
signed by Myron Hunt 
of Los Angeles and 
this includes the new 
art gallery. The foun- 
tain (4) in the Patio 
was designed by Elmer 
Grey of Los Angeles. 

The exterior eleva- 
tions are designed from 
motifs seen on four of 

the missions in Southern California, the entrance 
front is graced by an arched arcade between the 
curb and sidewalks which is shaded by some won- 
derful live oaks and covered with ivy and the most 
luxuriant semi-tropical foliage. 

The left side is most effective with its heavy 
buttresses partly covered with foliage, the balconies 
of iron and the window grilles, some of the fine 
examples of Spanish iron work referred to above. 



AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

These graceful 
screens, doors and rails 
have taken on by age 
a greenish tinge to the 
usual wrought iron 
color and set as they 
are in openings of 
rough cream colored 
concrete and stucco and 
partly covered with 
moss and ivy, puts one 
in mind of a jewel in 
a rich setting. For 
grace of proportions 
and delicacy of the de- 
tail, this Spanish iron- 
work, it is claimed, has never been surpassed. 

Probably the most interesting part of the Inn is 
the Patio. It is hard to imagine a more interesting 
place in which to spend one's time sitting on one of 
the various balconies. The simple lines, frank use 
of materials and colors introduced in tiles, canopy 
and striped sun shade above, present a unique archi- 
tectural setting- and one worth traveling a long dis- 
tance to see. The fountain designed by Elme 




A CORNER IN THE PATIO. 




THE GALLERY OF SPANISH ART 



MYRON HUNT, ARCHITECT 



202 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




THE PATIO 

Grey is a most effective point of interest both to 
color and design. The Spanish influence is again 
recalled combined with Indian modeling as seen in 
the Aztec temples. 

AT one end of the Patio there is a gallery called 
the "Court of Bells" where is assembled prob- 
ably the largest collec- 
tion of bells to be seen 
at one place. This ter- 
race has various feat- 
ures that makes it in- 
teresting in itself. These 
include unusual wood 
grilles over various 
window, tile inserts in 
the walls, a wall foun- 
tain of Moorish design, 
low walls with arched 



MYRON HUNT & ELMER GREY, AKi'HITl-CTS 



"igs and capping 
of hand made Spanish 
in reds and 
browns. 

The upper balconies 
arc vcrv c ffective framed 



against the sky with striped awnings of red and 
yellow, tile roofs and a quaint corner treatment 
which has for its point of interest a large clock with 
carved frame and face of wood. The finest suites 
of rooms open from the top terrace and all have 
shuttered doors and screens formed by splitting 

small balusters in two 
and tacking on each 
side of netting making 
both a practical and 
artistic door. 

Most interesting vis- 
tas can lie obtained 
from these balconies, 
but probably the most 
effective one shows some 
very graceful ironwork 
as well as the bracketed 
cornice from La Gran- 
ada at Seville, a fine ex- 
ample of carved wood- 
work. These brackets 

GLIMPSE FROM THE BALCONY, SHOWING ORIG- were wor . m eaten and 
INAL BRACKETS FROM SEVILLE the Spaniards did not 




203 





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205 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



'.- - 




IN THE COURT OF THE BELLS 

know how to save them so had them replaced. Mr. 
Miller's representative bought them and American 
ingenuity saved them from being destroyed. 

There are several very interesting interiors, the 
most unusual being the underground cloisters with 
their various arches and niches filled with paint- 
ings of the old monasteries, figures of monks and 
in some cases alcove rooms filled with interesting 
architectural and decorative objects. 

The guest hall as designed by Mr. Arthur Benton 
is a room of considerable size that is used for 
lounging and concerts. Choir stalls on two sides 
and also on two balconies give plentv of seating 
space and serve to add to the old world appearance 
and attractiveness. 

One of the most interesting parts of the entire 
structure is the Spanish art gallery designed by 
Mr. Myron Hunt. The most unusual proportions 
of the room are handled very successfully, the sim- 
ple wall spaces are effectively broken up with a 
few features only allowing the old Spanish por- 



traits to serve as integral parts of the entire scheme. 
The hanging ceiling of gold was partly caused by 
necessity. Not having an appropriation large 
enough to do what he originally desired, Mr. Hunt 
took large pieces of burlap which he held in place 




STEEET 

GROUND PLAN 

by rope. Then an air gun was used spraying the 
entire surface with gold bronze. The ends of the 
rope were unwoven making large tassels. This 
different ceiling serves as well as many other fea- 
tures around the building to give pleasure to the 
many tourists from all over the world who are con- 
stantly filling this most unusual Inn. 




COURT OF THE BELLS 
206 



Vol.. CXV111. No. 2330 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGl'ST 18, 1920 




DETAIL OF FOUNTAIN IN PATIO 
MISSION INN, RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA 

ELMER GREY, ARCHITECT 
207 



Notes from London 



The Proposed Restoration of Westminster Abbey 

By Special Correspondent of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



A STRONG appeal has been 
issued from the Dean of 
Westminster for public sup- 
port toward the urgently needed re- 
pairs of that priceless heritage of 
our race, \Yestininster Abbey. Dur- 
ing the recent war the venerable pile 
certainly ran very great danger : as 
far as possible monuments in the 
interior such as Edward the Con- 
fessor's shrine, the tomb of Henry 
III, the great builder of this Abbey, 
and that richly sculptured of Henry 
VII, were protected by sandbags, 
but the grand old building itself 
had to take its chance of bombs 
from the Zeppelins with which we 
Londoners were then being 
molested. I never passed the old 
Abbey in those anxious days with- 
out a feeling of thankfulness that 
it had so far escaped, and a prayer 
that it might be still preserved to 
us uninjured. 

It has escaped safely the dan- 
gers from the enemy, but is now 
faced with the no less serious risks 
of internal decay. "We are now," 
writes the Dean, "faced with a des- 
perate state of things. The sum of 
money which more than fifty years 
ago was fixed for the maintenance 
of the fabric and services of the 
Abbey has become utterly in- 
adequate for those purposes. The immense rise in the 
cost of materials and in the wages of the staff, to- 
gether with the greatly increased standard of effi- 
ciency demanded from every branch of service to 
Church and nation, have brought us to the verge of 
bankruptcy. It has been even necessary, while fabric- 
repairs have been unavoidably postponed, to divert 
to the absolutely essential duty of keeping up the 
services and worship of the Abbey the inadequate 
sum of money which had been 'earmarked' for 
keeping the fabric in repair. We are no longer able 
to pay our way." 

At the same time there is urgent need for : 
(1) The repair to a condition of safety of the 
two great western towers. 




HENRY VII'S CHAPEL, WESTMINSTER ABBEY 

(2) The reparation of the external stonework 
of Henry VII's Chapel. 

(3) The renovation of a large portion of the 
parapet running round the roof. 

(4) The repair of clerestories and flying but- 
tresses. 

There is besides a continual large outlay required 
by the maintenance in proper repair of much the 
decayed Cloisters and the ancient dwellings which, 
at the present scale of prices cannot be kept in suit- 
able structural repair at the private cost of the 
officials who are their temporary occupants. 

Bishop Ryle goes on to point out that it is ii 
possible to meet this deficit by the funds at the dis 
posal of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, as those 



208 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



funds are required for poor incumbents and cur- 
ates, .and are not permitted by Parliament to be 
UM'd otherwise. "But," he continues, "the Abbey 
must not be allowed to suffer. The English-speak- 
ing peoples of the world glory in Westminster Ab- 
bey. They will not tolerate the thought that its 
structural condition should suffer from lack of 
adequate funds. They will expect me to take them 
into my confidence, as I now do. I know well after 
residence for over nine years in this place, I know 
well from the extraordinary experiences in the Ab- 
bey during the years of the Great War, how dear 
is this church to the people of this country, to our 
brothers and sisters in Canada, Australia, Xew 
Zealand. South Africa and India, and in a peculiar 




THE TOWERS OF WESTMINSTER ABBEY 



degree to our brothers and sisters of the great Re- 
public of America. I appeal to them. I ask for the 
sum of 250,000. 'Of this the sum of 100,000 is 
required for structural repairs in the immediate 
future. The remaining sum of 150,000 should 
constitute a fund by which the whole Abbey and 
any buildings of which the Dean and Chapter are 
custodians should in future time be kept in a con- 
stant condition of complete efficiency and repair, 
and be finally freed from the humiliating necessity 
of appeals being made now for this object and now 
for that." 

The learned Dean has not made his appeal in 
vain. The Abbey is something more to us than any 
other Church or Cathedral. It is the shrine of our 
race the epitome of England's history Dating 
back to Edward the Confessor, and yet earlier to 
tlic first foundation of Sebert, it was added to and 
enlarged by Henry III., while it was Henry VII. 
who enriched it with that wonderful Chapel, a forest 
of fretted stone-work in which the keying of each 
separate part, the thrust and support of the piers 
is so admirably planned. In the days of the war 
Australians. Canadians, South Africans and Ameri- 
cans came streaming into the Abbey from the 
great military camps and felt, as we feel now, that 
the Abbey does not belong to the Church or to our- 
selves, it is the heritage for which we are trustees 
for our race, for all the English-speaking peoples. 

Already, on Friday last, three days after the 
appeal had been made, more than 30,000 had been 
received, and the next day was expected to give 
50,000 to the fund. There is good reason to hope 
that the amount required will be obtained, with 
enough over to purchase adjacent ground so that 
our Abbey mav never be encroached upon, like St. 
Paul's, with crowding blocks of office structures. 

At the meeting held this week at the Mansion 
House the question of "adoption" of devastated 
Erench towns was warmly supported by the Lord 
Mayor, Sir E. Cooper, the Earl of Denbigh. Vis- 
count Hurnham and other speakers. Already the 
lead in this movement has been taken by our Lan- 
cashire industrial centres, Manchester having 
adopted Mezieres and Liverpool become godmother 
of Attigny. It is to be hoped that the City of Lon- 
don will assume a similar relationship to the ancient 
and devastated city of Rheiins. 

My illustrations of Westminster Abbey include 
the towers, which from the point of view of Gothic 
design are perhaps less interesting than other por- 
tions of the structure, and that wonderful Chapel 
of Henry VII., whose stone roof, as Mr. Russell 
Sturgis remarks in his "Appreciation of Architec- 
ture," was "one worthy of the shrewdest and most 
daring builder of the time. The stone ribs," he 
adds, "which spring directly from the liprights 



209 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

with but the slightest pretense at vaulting shafts structure of the roof." The design marks the cul- 
in little round mouldings with slightly marked capi- mination of our beautiful English Gothic; no one 
tals, are really the arches which carry the whole can remain indifferent to its charm. S. B. 




DESIGN SELECTED BY ATLANTA PARK COMMISSION 
J. F. DOWNING, ARCHITECT 



The Battle of Atlanta 

By Special Correspondent of THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



THE Battle of Atlanta is still being fought. 
On those wooded slopes and open spaces 
where once the uproar of battle attended 
the infernal destruction of war, is now a public 
park dedicated to peace, happiness and public wel- 
fare. In Grant Park is to be placed a great por- 
trayal of this battle in cycloramic form, a fine rep- 
resentation of a beautiful southern landscape with 
all the details of ruthless human combat. Properly 
to preserve and house this important record of an 
historical event, the park commissioners will erect a 
permanent structure. 

A competition was recently held among the At- 
lanta architects with the understanding that the 
award would be based on the recommendations of 
the Atlanta Art Commission. The design by Ed- 
wards & Sayward was recommended by the art com- 



mission ; the park commissioners, however, selected 
the design of |. F. Downing. These, with the de- 
signs by Burge, Stevens & Conklin, and A. Ten 
Eyck Brown, are now illustrated and described. 

In addition to housing the painting of the battle, 
the building is intended to include a war museum, 
two famous war-time locomotives used in historical 
raids, public comfort stations, restaurant, service 
and attendants' quarters. 

Of the four designs illustrated, three clearly in- 
dicate the main function of the structure as hous- 
ing a cyclorama. The selected design rather subor- 
dinates this feature and places more emphasis on the 
museum and service features. 

The design of Edwards & Sayward, which was 
recommended by the Atlanta Art Commission, in- 
dicates the purpose of the building interpreted ir 



210 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the most simple and direct terms. The circular 
superstructure befits a cyclorama according to the 
necessities of the interior requirements. The ex- 
terior of the wall is divided into twenty vertical 
panels, at the top of each is placed the coat-of-arms 
of the Confederate State whose name is carved in 
the frieze immediately above the panel. The cor- 
nice is completed in a simple and well proportioned 
manner, the roof is of slight pitch and inconspicu- 
ous. The base or lower story is octagonal in plan, 
simple in detail and monumental in character. The 
design is dignified and imposing in its simplicity. 

The design submitted by Burge, Stevens & Conk- 
lin is octagonal in plan throughout both stories. In 
this plan the cyclorama feature also dominates the 
design and the museum and service portion is subor- 
dinate. The base might appear more substantial 
under the large wall space above if the fenestration 
were differently arranged, a detail that could be 
perfected by further study. The cornice is simple 
and effective and makes a satisfactory combination 
with the colored tile roof. The main feature of this 
design is the large paneled surfaces of the upper 
story. The diaper pattern in subdued colors give 
the necessary effect of coherence in such large areas. 
The body of the panel constructed with carefully 
selected and graded texture surfaces of brick, or 
possibly marbles, would have a harmonious tonal 
effect of color that would make this a most beauti- 
ful structure. There are great possibilities in this 
type of design. 

The design submitted by A. Ten Eyck Brown em- 
phasizes the cyclorama feature as prominently as 
the others mentioned. The museum floor is subor- 
dinated to such an extent that it is hardly notice- 
able in the mass of the structure. It is. however, 
a very effective base. The roof and cornice are 
more prominently featured, the sculptured frieze 
being a conspicuous element of the design. The 
walls are variously paneled by the use of pilasters 
and are divided horizontally by a heavy belt course 
near the top. Perhaps some of the effectiveness 
of the general design is lost through the elabo- 



rateness of the details, but it is consistently worked 
out withal. The plan is especially interesting and 
well considered. 

The design submitted by J. F. Downing, selected 
by the park commissioners, differs materially from 
the others. The building is considerably lower than 
the others illustrated. The floor of the cyclorama 
section is several feet lower than the general first 
floor level and this portion of the building is a deca- 
gon in plan, to three sides of which is connected the 
museum and service portion of the building. This 
portion of the building is rectangular in plan, the 
first story of which is devoted to the refreshment 
and comfort service, attendants and park board 
quarters. The locomotives previously mentioned 
will be stored in a basement under this portion of 
the building. The second story is devoted to mu- 
seum purposes. The building is low as compared 
with the other designs submitted, and will not, due 
to this fact, be as imposing in appearance. The 
polygonal portion of the building is severely plain 
in design. The main features of the exterior de- 
sign are confined to the front elevation, which is 
enriched by the sculptured panels in lieu of the 
second story windows. The loggia is t\i o stories 
in height with Ionic columns and pilasters. The 
elevation is well proportioned and consistently de- 
tailed. The cornice extends entirely around the 
building at a uniform level. 

All of the designs will adequately serve the pur- 
pose from the utilitarian standpoint. There is 
ground, however, for a difference of opinion as to 
which type of building will present the better archi- 
tectural appearance in connection with the place and 
surroundings. It is said that this is the only building 
used for this specific purpose in this country, and 
as such it might be worthy of a distinctive appear- 
ance which would readily proclaim its use through 
its design. In any event, the battle, depicted in 
such a masterly manner, will continue to represent 
the scenes of mortal combat housed in a beautiful 
building erected on the ground on which the his- 
toric action took place. 



211 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Doorway of a House on Washington Square 

North, New York 

(See reproduction of the original drawings by O. R. Eggers in this issue} 



ONE of the most interesting periods of the 
architectural development of New York 
City is that called by architectural writers 
as of the Greek Revival. Men of large means and 
of much culture who located their homes in the 
then aristocratic Washington Square section, which 
included lower Fifth avenue, readily availed of the 
suggestion that their houses be designed after these 
classical and refined motives. The portico illus- 
trated is of the house standing on the northwest 
corner of Fifth avenue and Washington Square 
North and is typical of the majority of the houses 
in its neighborhood. Mr. Eggers has with charac- 
teristic skill retained in his sketch all the beauty of 
proportion and classical adaptation of this entrance 
detail. Of the various well known architects that 
lived and worked during the early thirties, Robert 
Mills is on good authority believed to be the man 
who first designed in the style now known as "the 
Greek Revival." The late Montgomery Schuyler. 
in a series of articles contributed to The American 
Architect in 1910 expressed the conviction that it 
was largely through the examples of Robert Mills 
that this dignified method of architectural expres- 



sion found favor not only in the domestic archi- 
tecture of all of our then large cities, but was also 
plainly shown in all of the important work on which 
Mills was engaged. 

Undoubtedly good architecture is influential in 
setting a good example wherever it is successfully 
grouped. In spite of the many vicissitudes through 
which the Washington Square section has passed, 
the northern boundary of the "Square" yet presents 
a quiet dignity, a staid respectability, even though 
its neighboring boundaries on the south and east 
and west have long since lost all architectural co- 
herance. The well appointed phaeton with two 
liveried men on the box no longer waits in front of 
these houses. Where once the future aristrocrats 
pla\ed in the Square under the watchful eye of 
nurses and grooms, the "Villagers" congregate under 
the shadows of the Washington Arch or overspread 
the walks and lawns to listen to the music of the city 
band. And these stately old houses, closely shut- 
tered, sit in all their isolation of a past splendor 
calmly awaiting the day when the wreckers for 
speculative building interests will fall upon them 
and raze them to the ground. 



The American Lumher Industry 



IT is estimated that the United States originally 
possessed 850,000,000 acres of timberland, of 
which only about 545,000,000 acres remain, 
says the National Bank of Commerce, in an analysis 
published in its monthly magazine. And yet, in 
spite of the methods of lumbering that have wasted 
so much of our original timber, the United States is 
still the third country of the world in respect to for- 
est acreage, being led only by Russia and Canada. 
The remaining virgin stands, says this article, consist 
chiefly of various species of hardwoods in the cen- 
tral and southern hardwood regions, the yellow pine 
along the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and the 
Douglas fir, spruce and cedar of the far Northwest, 



with smaller stands of redwood, California sugar 
and white pine, western yellow pine and Idali 
white pine in the inland empire region, white pine 
in northern Minnesota and Wisconsin and spruce 
in Maine. Lumber production in this country 
reached its peak in 1906 and 1907. Since then it 
has steadily declined. 

One hundred years ago lumbering in the Unite 
States was confined to small sawmills on the coast 
and river courses of the East. Except for a small 
export trade the markets supplied were entirely lo- 
cal. As the Middle West became settled and rail- 
road transportation developed, the center of lumber 
manufacture shifted to the region of the Great 

(Continued on page 213) 



212 



i 




. 



,' 



DOORWAY, WASHINGTON SQUARE NORTH, NEW YORK 

ARCHITECT S.rl.. of E.rl, A ne ,i t an A,<hi,,<, u r. 










Cass Gilbert Visits England 

CASS GILBERT'S sojourn in London was 
marked by the most delightful manifestations 
of good will by members of the profession in that 
city and a very fine appreciation of his high position 
among his brother architects in this country. Mr. 
Gilbert's fine personality would naturally attract 
and suggest the sort of comment that marked his 
visit. 

It will be gratifying to architects in this country 
to note among the many references in the Kngiish 
press, that there is also included a verv unselfish 
expression of appreciation of the work of architects 
in the United States. 

The Architects' Journal of London writes of Mr. 
Gilbert and of contemporaneous and earlier Ameri- 
can architects as follows : 

"Xo American architect enjoys a higher reputa- 
tion among us than Mr. Cass ( iilbert. and the British 
architects who have been able to meet him personally 
will always consider themselves very fortunate. 
Very possibly it may have been the bruit of the gi- 
gantic \Yoolworth building that first brought his 
name into prominence here among the general pub- 
lic; but among British architects it was well known 
that Mr. Gilbert was capable of higher things 
we mean qualitatively. It was known that he is a 
man of parts, a scholar who had sketched the an- 
cient monuments of Greece and Rome, and had 
turned his accomplishments to fine practical account 
as assistant to Stanford White. Cass Gilbert is not 
to be classed among those superb specialists who 
will not, or cannot, or by an exacting public are not, 
allowed to forsake the class of work in which they 
have achieved reputation. Nor is he the all-round 
man, the 'general practitioner' whose deversity 
tends to mediocrity. He is of the rare type of those 
who do all things well. In this respect he is a true 
^cion of the great house of McKim, Mead and 
White, whose miscellaneousness was their most as- 
tounding quality. It takes a great man to be as 
various as Mr. Cass Gilbert has been his work- 
ranging from a monumental building to a humble 
cottage and, on the quality as well as on the variety 
of work, it is not an abuse of words to say that Cass 



Gilbert is a great man. coming as near to genius as 
any architect that the Continent of America has yet 
produced, hardly excepting his great teachers, 
Charles Pollen McKim and Stanford White. Con- 
cerning the \Voolworth Building, the chief thing to 
take into account is not its gigantic size, but its em- 
bodiment of a very successful attempt to invest a 
skyscraper with architectural character." 



B 

Wasting Our Water Power 

Till", complication as to the mining and distri- 
bution of coal, and the prediction of experts 
that we are drawing perilously near the limit of 
production of fuel oil, makes consideration of the 
development and conservation of the enormous 
water power available in the L'nited States a ques- 
tion of first importance. 

The Federal \Vater Power bill, recently enacted 
into a law, makes possible the development of this 
power in a wav that it will become a national asset 
and not one controlled by private enterprises. 

It is claimed that there is in the L'nited States 
available for development between 20,000.000 and 
30.000,000 horse-power of water power that is to- 
day wasted. The use of this enormous power, when 
finally harnessed, will effect a corresponding saving 
in coal consumption, It is estimated that this sav- 
ing would amount to at least one-half of the present 
coal consumption. 



The Theatre vs. the Home 

AMOXCJ the different types of buildings pro- 
jected all over the United States, it is signif- 
icant that a very large number, representing a great 
amount of invested dollars is in theater buildings, 
principally of the moving picture type. It would 
seem to be indicated that it was more important 
that we Americans should be amused than prop- 
erly housed. There are indications in this tendency 
to cater to our desire for amusement and ignore 
our needs for proper housing that we are becoming 
a frivolous and thoughtless people. 

As a mass we are only the composite expression 
of the individual. And the individual, in spite of 



213 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



the many warnings that have been given, calmly 
decides to relinquish next October the apartment 
he now occupies and lazily postpones ''until the 
weather is cooler" the search for shelter for himself 
and family. Meantime, he recreates himself with 
the movies. And those who cater to that form of 
amusement sense an increasing business and decide 
on new playhouses. 

Taking, for example, the present condition in 
New York City, where it is estimated there is a 
shortage of 60,000 homes, we learn that a survey 
recently made of theater construction discloses that 
$25,000,000 worth of new amusement houses were 
underway. One may judge of the large profits that 
attend the amusement business, when at the present 
high cost of building it is considered "good busi- 
ness" to promote to so large an amount that type 
of building. 



Is Building an Essential Loan 

IN the discussions as to what are the "essential" 
and what the "non-essential" loans referred to by 
the Federal Reserve Board stands the answer by- 
Governor Harding of the Federal Reserve Board 10 
a communication from Mr. M. Morganthau, Jr.. of 



New York. The letter addressed to Governor Hard- 
ing contended that there was no reason why the 
Federal Reserve banks should not make temporary 
loans as required by builders during the construc- 
tion which would subsequently be financed with 
permanent loans from savings banks or similar in- 
stitutions. 

The reply from the head of the Federal Reserve 
Board said that there was never an intention to 
convey the impression that essential loans were con- 
fined to those relating to the production or distribu- 
tion of "clothing, food and fueL" After saying 
that the various war boards had experienced much 
difficulty in defining essential and non-essential 
loans. Governor Harding declared that it would be 
practically impossible for the Federal Reserve 
Board to make any general ruling or country-wide 
applications and urged that such discrimination 
might lie made at the source by the member banks 
themselves. He added that the Board "has con- 
sistently declined to express any opinion as to the 
essential or non-essential character of any particular 
loan." The point was made also that the Federal 
Reserve Act permits only loans by the Federal Re- 
serve banks to member banks direct and never to 
individuals direct. 







CHURCH OF SS. STEPHAN AND NICOLAS, PESCIA, ITALY 



214 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



The American Lumber Industry 

(Continued from page 212) 

Lakes. The famous white pine industry of the 
Lake states began about 1850 and did not decline 
until the end of the eighties. The industry differed 
from the former industry of the eastern coast in 
being organized and capitalized on a large scale. It 
catered principally to eastern and central markets. 

As the white pine industry declined toward the 
end of the century, owing to the depletion of the 
virgin forest, the lumber market was diverted to 
pine from the southern states. In the eighties and 
irly nineties, southern pine first extended itself be- 
yond local consumption. Central, eastern and cen- 
tral markets of the United States now depend main- 
ly on the southern forests for their lumber, but in 
the course of a few years the southern pine indus- 
try will return to local production on isolated bits 
of virgin timber and on second growth, as has ai- 
ready taken place in turn with the eastern forests. 

The lumber industry of the Pacific Coast, which 
has come to be important since 1900, is the large 
scale American lumber industry of the future. Of 
the total available timber supply 54 per rent, is esti- 
mated to be in the Pacific Northwest. The terri- 
tory from the Pacific Coast to the Missouri River 
and southward to western Kansas is now almost 
entirely dependent on west coast mills for its lum- 
ber supply. The tendency is to extend eastward 
and southward. However, for some time to come, 
southern yellow pine will predominate in central 
and eastern markets. 

The United States is the largest wood-using coun- 
try in the world. The great majority of dwellings 
and of farm buildings is made of wood. Of our 
total domestic consumption, more than half is ac- 
counted for by use for construction timber and lum- 
ber in the form of planing mill products Lumber 
consumption in the United States, however, has of 
late years shown a tendency to decrease. 

The organization of the lumber industry comprises 
i five successive functions, which are carried out in 
great diversity of combination by industrial units. 
These functions are the ownership or control of 
standing timber, logging, manufacturing of lumber, 
wholesale distribution and retail distribution. The 
most common industrial unit combines the first three 
functions, and often undertakes the distribution of 
its own lumber to the retailer, or even the ultimate 
consumer. The lumber manufacturer ordinarily 
-,. owns his timber. There has been a recent tendency 
toward the consolidation of holdings in large tracts. 
Owing to the unwise policy of the Government part- 
ing with its timberlands, there has been, since 1870, 
I a vast speculative purchase of timberland far in ad- 
vance of any possible use of the timber. Hence it is 
generally recognized that the big profit in the North- 



west and also to a great degree in the South has not 
been in lumber manufacturing, but in the increase 
in the value of timberlands. 

There is great divetsity in the size and character 
of the American lumber mills. There is every vari- 
ety and style of sawmill from the little stationary 
plant with a sash saw worked by water power to the 
large plant, with its main and secondary kilns. The 
largest mills, those having an output of 10,000,000 - 
feet or more per year, though they constitute only 
about 4 per cent, of the total number of mills, now 
produce about 60 per cent, of the country's lumber. 
The proportion, both of the largest size mill and of 
their cut to the total, has increased during the last 
ten years. 

But the most striking characteristic of the Ameri- 
can lumber industry has been its lack of cohesion. 
This has led to a maladjustment of lumber produc- 
tion to the requirements of its market. Though the 
industry is at the present time prosperous, it con- 
tains elements of instability. It has been dominated 
by a strong individualism and has been backward in 
developing common ideas about its products. Co- 
ordination has been made difficult by the fact that it 
is not economically feasible to assemble the raw 
material ("timber) at a few points where manufac- 
turing may be concentrated. 

The principal handicap of the lumber industry as 
it exists in the Pacific Northwest, and also to a great 
degree in the South, is the burden of timberland in- 
vestments. In the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century lavish grants of public lands and loose, poor- 
ly defined and ill enforced land laws allowed the 
concentration of timberlands in private ownership. 
A rapid and enormous capitalization of stumpagc 
took place, largely with borrowed funds. The result 
of these conditions has been that the lumber cut has 
tended increasingly to be governed by the financial 
requirements instead of demands of the market. This 
movement to unload stumpage while the opportunity 
for profit exists is the most serious cause of over- 
production in the West 

Violent and destructive competition exists between 
different regions and between different mills in the 
same region. The lumber industry is equipped to 
produce at least 50 per cent, more lumber than it 
has so far in any year, and probably about twice the 
present consumption. There has been a lack of sen- 
sitive adjustment of supply and demand. Naturally 
this loose and haphazard structure of the industry 
has operated with the speculative character of tim- 
ber ownership to produce violent fluctuations in 
output and prices. 

The value of lumber has multiplied many times 
since the beginning of the war. In 1914 the average 
price of yellow pine shipments was about $14.50 per 
M. feet. In January, 1920, the price was about $55 
per M. The lumber industry of the United States 



215 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



had to meet hitherto unknown conditions in 1919. 
The year started with stagnation and uncertainty. 
In the latter part of the spring the long expected 
building boom began to materialize and by summer 
there was a great demand for lumber of all sorts. 
Production, however, was hindered by unfavorable 
weather, by labor difficulties and by car shortage. 
It was a very prosperous year for the industry, but, 
on account of the handicaps mentioned, production 
was less than in previous years. It is now recog- 
nized that the present housing shortage will be 
taken care of not by a building boom but by quiet 
and gradual expansion of building operations. Mill 
stocks are low and output only fair in some areas 
considerably below normal. 

The annual timber growth of the country is about 
one-third of the annual cut. The opinion has been 
expressed in the lumber trade that it may be desir- 
able ultimately to double the present acreage of fhe 



public forests, so that they would amount to from 
40 to 50 per cent, of the total forest area. State and 
municipal forests might also be established and some 
depleted and wasted cutover and burned lands should 
be rehabilitated. Tax accumulations, the fire men- 
ace, the fact that timber takes generations to mature, 
all tend to discourage icforestration by private own- 
ers, who too often take a short-sighted view of their 
functions. 

According to Henry S. Graves, formerly chief of 
the United States Forest Service, if we began at 
the present time to protect our cut-over lands from 
fire and used wholly practical forestry methods to 
insure reproduction after logging, we could secure, 
in the next fifty or sixty years, an annual produc- 
tion of over 60,000,000,000 feet of lumber per year 
without lessening our forest capital. The produc- 
tion in 1918 was about one-half that amount and 
means vast needs be found for its increase. 



Book Notes 



There has just been published by the Chamber of 
Commerce of the Borough of Queens, New York, a 
240-page publication of considerable interest, to 
architects, particularly metropolitan architects. 

The book has as its object to reveal the manifold 
opportunities presented by this borough, for con- 
ducting vast industries and for housing great num- 
bers of people. 

To do this a history of the founding and subse- 
quent growth of Queens Borough is included, and 
a very complete discussion of the assets of that sec- 
tion of Greater New York, as bearing upon its pres- 
ent remarkable development is fully set forth. 

The volume is thoroughly illustrated with many 
pictures of the hundreds of indnstrial plants, and 
homes of various types, of new bridges and high- 
ways and other innumerable institutions that form 
part of a great city. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT has frequently had 
occasion to comment on the small editions of vari- 
ous housing publications issued by the Government 
during the war. All of the more important 
industrial housing developments have been carefully 
illustrated in these pages, but it has remained for a 
collection to be made that would adequately provide 
the many architects interested with descriptions and 
illustrations of some of the larger undertakings. 

There is now off the press "The Housing Book," 
which contains photographic illustrations with floor 
plans of workingmen's homes, one and two family 
houses of frame, brick, stucco and concrete con- 



struction, and also four, six and nine family apart- 
ment houses, showing single houses, blocks of 
houses, groups and developments that have been 
built in various parts of the United States. There 
are 150 illustrations and plans, 132 pages, 8^x11 
inches, cloth bound. \Ym. T. Comstock Co., Xe\v 
York, publisher. 



An analysis of the present financial and economic 
problem of supplying homes for workers. It dis- 
cusses proper rents, the advantages of home own- 
ing, the guarantee of repurchase by the employer 
the financing of building undertakings by Loan As- 
sociations, Mortgage Finance Corporations, and 
Consolidated and Individual Realty Companies, 
methods of selling, and co-partnership housing. Vil- 
lage planning, types of houses and their essentials 
are also touched upon. The appendix contains 
many forms for use by employers in selling or rent- 
ing to employes. (Apply to Fred T. Ley & Co., 
Inc., 50 Central Park West, New York City.) 



"Town Planning with Reference to Factory De- 
velopment and the Distribution of Goods," by \V. 
H. Gaunt, read at the March 5, 1920, meeting of 
the Town Planning Institute ; "Town Planning Re- 
ports and the Graphic Representation of Statis- 
tics," by Major George B. Ford, read at the meeting 
of the Institute on April 6, 1920. Each with the 
discussion thereon. Quarto. (Published by the 
Town Planning Institute, 4, Arundel St., London, 
W. C. England.) 



216 






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VOL. CXVIII, No. 2330 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 18, 1920 







COMPETITION FOR A CYCLORAMA BUILDING AT ATLANTA, GA. 

EDWARD & SAYWARD, ARCHITECTS 



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^S^^^H^^^T^ 



The Architect a Necessary Factor in Bridge 

Building 

Co-operation Between Architect and Engineer Essential to Improved Bridge Design 

By FRANK A. BOURNE 



THERE are two points of view in bridge build- 
ing. One relates to putting up a structure as 
inexpensively as possible to carry the traffic ; the 
other relates to building a bridge that will be an or- 
nament to the landscape. In Boston, as elsewhere, 
there are both kinds. The railroad bridges leading 
out from the North Station are apparently built as 



is very unpleasant, as well as disconcerting, to the 
observer. The smaller span is not sufficiently nar- 
row to form a correctly proportioned alternate 
span, and yet not wide enough to present the ap- 
pearance of continuous even spacing. The best 
argument in favor of a different form of construc- 
tion is to compare Harvard Bridge with the West 



I 




THE WEST BOSTON BRIDGE 



nically as is consistent with holding up traffic. 
The Harvard Bridge, illustrated on page 218, and 
which goes with a series of hops, skips and jumps 
across the Charles River, is not likely to cause a feel- 
ing of pride in the Bostonian's heart. The skip and 
jump construction, which is quite noticeable i. e., 
one rather narrow span alternating with a wider one 



Boston Bridge, an illustration of which appears 
above. We may, of course, criticise the 
towers of this latter bridge, and speculate as 
to the reason which led to placing the carved deco- 
ration out on the large piers at a point where no 
one who is not a Union Boat Club member can 
see it, and he only at the risk of taking a sudden 



217 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



capsize. Yet the effect of the bridge on the basin cost may be the amount that you will want to 
is extraordinarily beautiful. Seen through the charge for your civic pride, or possibly if the 



mist, it has an interesting skyline ; in bright sun- 
light the shadows cast are very effective, while at 
night the reflections of the light in the water are 
like strands of variegated colored worsted, and the 
line of lights is extremely interesting against the 
sky. 

Another interesting bridge is the Larz Anderson 
Bridge near Soldiers' Field. The curve of this 



bridge, as will be noted from the illustration, is 



bridge be a memorial, that difference may be what 
you could charge off as the cost of the memorial. 
The bridge will have to be built in any event, there- 
fore, it is unfair to charge that part of it which 
represents stability alone to the cost of the me- 
morial. The additional something which lifts such 
a structure above the ordinary and places it with 
things beautiful is the feature that will call to mind 
the service to be memorialized. And while it may 




THE HARVARD BRIDGE 



better than that of the West Boston Bridge, and the 
use of materials very striking. 

THE point of view of the two different kinds 
of bridges is that of the civil engineer in con- 
trast to the architect. It is the duty of the civil 
engineer to provide a stable structure with the 
utmost economy. He follows the most advanced 
"theory of structures," and stress diagrams, bend- 
ing moments and mathematical formulae are ever 
before him. While these are all necessary and es- 
sential to safety, the architect feels they are but a 
means to an end. His prime duty is to harmonize 
the structure with the landscape, and like any mas- 
ter builder building well, it is also his duty to build 
beautifully. Take the problem of a bridge and give 
it to an architect, let him develop it freely and un- 
hampered ; then give the same problem to an engi- 
neer and have it developed from the other point 
of view. Compare the costs and the difference in 



sometimes be the case, it does not certainly follow 
that the architect's scheme will be more expensive 
than the engineer's. It may be that the beautiful 
line of a Melan arch will in certain localities work 
out as inexpensively as the crude, harsh lines of 
a Pratt steel truss. It may be that a perfectly 
simple straight line is the line that will harmonize 
best with the landscape, and at this point both the 
architect and the engineer can meet. One of the 
ablest civil engineers I know is very clever with hi-- 
own pencil ; another is an authority on French and 
American painters. A mechanical engineer of my 
acquaintance is an extremely good illustrator, and 
some of the sketches of "The Wonder of \\oiv' 
are very alluring artistically and practically. Any 
of these men can outdo many architects on these 
particular lines. It is perfectly possible to ask what 
is in a name, but primarily the engineer starts with 
a cold mathematical, usually inelastic, analysis of 
the problem, while the architect starts from the 



218 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



imaginary end. If the construction is 
to be a work of art it should be from 
the imagination first ; then while the 
idea is' in its plastic state, it should be 
moulded and carried further until per- 
fected in every detail. When the 
engineer and the architect have both 
arrived at perfection, they will have 
met at the same point. 

Is the bridge to be a memorial? 
What better can you think of ? Take 
such a type as the Alexander Bridge 
in Paris, or the picturesque old bridge 
favorite of etchers, with all its pictures 
and statuary, in Prague. Notice the 
pride that our City Fathers take in 
putting tablets on bridges all over the 
United States. 

Are you looking for interesting de- 
tails? Compare the arches in this 
bridge construction with all other arch 
construction. Everything from a covert 
to a long steel arch can have beautiful 
lines. Even out of a draw-bridge you can make 
something interesting. The steel trusses may have 
aesthetic lines. There is something picturesque 
about the long viaduct leading to Hell Gate Bridge. 
The great war has taught us the military significance 
of bridges. 

THE literature of bridge building is volumin- 
ous. United States Government in its various 
bureaus publishes material; the New York Rapid 





GREEN STREET BRIDGE, IPSWICH, MASS. 



CHOATE BRIDGE, IPSWICH, MASS. 

Transit Commission, and many other city commis- 
sions, have illustrated reports. Bridge building has 
its own periodicals in the Annales des Fonts et 
Chaussees; the Stadtbaurath of Berlin, Germany, 
has something to say on the subject; the British 
School of Athens has published drawings of old 
bridges. The periodical, The American City, pub- 
lishes a pamphlet, No 101, on the subject; the 
Stadtebauliche Vortrage has material on the sub- 
ject ; the International Library of Technology in its 
correspondence course teaches bridge 
building. 

Bearing on the engineering and con- 
struction phase, principally in steel 
construction, since 1807, the following 
authors' and engineers' names appear : 
Boiler, Burr, Davies, Dilworth, Fidler, 
Grimm, Hodge, Ketcham, Kunz, Leon- 
ard (concrete), Merriman and Jacoby, 
Skinner, Tedesco (concrete), Thom- 
son, Tyrrell, Waddell, Wells, and back 
in the '90s George S. Morrison. Mor- 
rison's name should not be forgotten ; 
all through the United States are 
found reports on his bridges. St. 
Louis, Bellefontaine, Bismarck, Blair 
Crossing and others too numerous to 
enumerate. Plans of all these may be 
found in the Peterborough house that 
he built. In this Peterborough house, 
since occupied by the late Miss Mary 
Morrison, so well known in Boston, a 
bridge engineer might find much of in- 



219 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



terest, since here are all the drawings, drawn with 
the utmost care, rolled and filed in a fireproof vault, 
so that each could be readily located and consulted. 
Page writes on Roads and Bridges for the Farm- 
ers' Practical Library ; Seaton on Concrete for rural 
communities, containing a chapter on small high- 
way bridges. 

What more inspiring book can you find than 
Brangwyn's Sketches in Color of Bridges all over 
Europe, published by Lane in London, 1915? This 
is a good book for any one's table. I came across a 
title, The Antietam and Its Bridges ; I have not yet 
seen the book, but I can imagine following some 
southern river up its course and taking photographs 
of the different old bridges. What an interesting 
trip it would make to follow the Connecticut 
in the same way ! An author, Tyrrell, who generally 
writes on engineering subjects, has written a book, 
published in 1912, on Artistic Bridge Design. I fear 
that he is somewhat influenced by his engineering 
point of view, but the book is quite worth while. 
Dartein published in Paris in 1907 a book on Old 
Stone Bridges previous to the 19th century, remark- 
able for their decoration. Duplomb wrote a his- 
tory of the bridges of Paris, published in 1911. 
Mehrtens gives illustrations of A Hundred Years 
of German Bridge Building. Waddell describes a 
system of bridges for Japan. Cresy wrote on the 
works of Rennie in 1839. Gennete described a 
wooden bridge "202 pies de longueur" in 1770. 
Hutton wrote on the principles of bridges in 1801. 
Grothe described the Tay Bridge in 1878. Per- 
ronet, the bridges of Neuilly, etc., in 1772. Leupold 
used the Latin title, which at first sight seemed 
to have something to do with a church : Theatrum 
pontificiale, Leipzig, 1726. Ware wrote on bridges 
in London, 1822. Welch described the Tower 
Bridge, 1894. The Calcografia Camerale published 



some interesting designs for bridges by Aquaroni 
in Rome, 1836. Swan collected designs in architec- 
ture, to which are added Curious Designs of 
Bridges, London, 1757. Our own New England 
Ithiel Town, who lived from 1784 to 1844 and built 
many churches throughout New England, published 
in New Haven in 1821 a book on Bridge Building, 
republished again in New York in 1831 and 1839. 

THIS shows that even in those days architects 
were well known as bridge builders. Even 
if it meant no more in many cases than the curious 
old covered bridges with Greek or Egyptian por- 
tals, the results achieved in most instances were 
certainly far better than their successors, the steel 
trusses, of the last twenty or thirty years. An 
awful example of this stood for years, and may be 
standing now, over the Penobscot. Originally it 
was a long covered bridge, with a quaint, heavy 
classic entrance portal. The middle span having 
become weak, or else damaged by a freshet, was re- 
placed by a steel truss. The other spans of the 
bridge remained untouched, thus leaving a struc- 
ture neither fish, flesh, fowl, nor yet good red her- 
ring. The old Choate Bridge, a photograph of 
which appears on page 219, has the reputation of 
being the earliest stone bridge in the country. It is 
located on the main automobile route to the north 
of Boston, just on entering the town square of Ips- 
wich, and is worth more than a moment's pause. 
It is indeed a picturesque old stone arched bridge. 
The Green St. Bridge, also illustrated, is but a short 
distance away, in the same town. It is also most 
picturesque, being a two arch bridge and deserves 
more than passing notice. Both of these structures 
show that for permanence stone arches are cer- 
tainly worth while. Of the materials, wood, steel, 
concrete and stone, the last is the one that has best 








THE LARZ ANDERSON BRIDGE 



220 




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

stood the test of time, although its selection is not bridge design will bring to these structures a beauty 
possible as a suitable material for long span bridges, of line not heretofore attained in the majority of 
The collaboration of architect and engineer in American bridges. 




ROADWAY, LARZ ANDERSON BRIDGE 



Report on Trip to Princeton, College of City of New York, 

Yale and Harvard for the Purpose of Inspecting the 

Stadia at those Universities 



By HOWARD DWIGHT SMITH 

Part IV 



THE information received at Harvard Univer- 
sity both from the point of view arrangement 
as well as from the structural and architec- 
tural point of view is quite valuable. 

Seventeen years of experience in staging athletic 
contests of all kinds and handling crowds of varying 
sizes has given the Harvard Athletic Association 
the opportunity to analyse their problem fairly well 
and to know wherein their present structure is suc- 
cessful and wherein it leaves something to be de- 
sired. The present Graduate Manager. Mr. Fred 
W. Moore, has been directly in charge for some 
eight years and has had considerable previous ex- 
perience in the management of athletics at the 
Springfield Y. M. C. A. Training School. 

Managing a large and extensive collegiate athletic 
event with a large number of spectators is not unlike 
managing a circus. Experience adds wonderfully 
to facility in handling both the exhibition and the 
crowds. Harvard has probably had more experience 
along this line than any of the large universities, 
and it must be said for their athletic management 



that they are very generous and more than willing 
to be of assistance to persons who are studying their 
problems. 

Most of the observations herein noted, particu- 
larly those which do not deal directly with archi- 
tectural features, are inspired by the very interesting 
data furnished by Mr. Moore, Dr. Withington and 
the ground keeper of Soldiers' Field. Mr. Moore- 
has said that a great deal of correspondence has 
come to his office containing inquiries with reference 
to the Harvard Stadium. These he has always tried 
to answer as fully as possible, but he says that sel- 
dom has any one seen fit to have a personal interview 
with his organization with a view to obtaining ex- 
tensive information at first hand. On the occasion of 
this inspection, the interest shown by the Harvard 
men in the problem involved in the proposed Stadi- 
um at Ohio State University was as great as if the 
new structure were to be built for Harvard itself. 

Of the many thoughts obtained at Harvard the 
first was this: If you have competent athletic man- 
agement and experienced business management of 



221 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




ONE OF THE STRAIGHT SIDES OF THE "U" HARVARD STADIUM 



athletic affairs, take them into your confidence, they 
will help make your problems practical, they know 
the particular peculiarities of your problems as no 
one else does. 

Reference is made at this point to the system of 
handling the distribution of tickets among the alum- 
ni for the important events. Business managers of 
other organizations would do well to study the 
methods developed by years of experience, whereby 
applications are received and tickets distributed for 
events where the demand for seats always exceeds 
the supply. Equitable distribution, avoidance of 
speculation, and facility of operation are features of 
the system which are commendable. 

The Harvard Stadium is located on Soldiers' 
Field, the great athletic ground of the university on 
the Boston side of the Charles River. It is reached 
from Cambridge by way of the new Larz Anderson 
Memorial Bridge. The proximity of the field to the 
college buildings, particularly the newer and larger 
of the dormitory groups is quite fortunate. 

Although the seating capacity of the masonry 
portion of the structure is hardly more than a third 
of that of the Yale Bowl or half of that of the 
Palmer Stadium at Princeton, the Harvard Stadium 
is by great odds the most imposing. The fact that the 
playing field is not sunken below the level of the 
surrounding turf makes the structure rise actually 
higher from the ground than either of the others 
mentioned, giving it a most imposing size as viewed 
from the Anderson Bridge or across the river. Every 
advantage, has been taken by the designer of its 
great size, which has been emphasized by crowning 



the structure with a great colonnade. This colon- 
nade is composed of so many parts as to make it look 
to be of enormous length. By breaking up the line 
of the upper seats by this architectural feature of 
many comparatively small parts, its developed length 
of some 1,350 feet appears to be considerably longer 
than the line of upper seats of the Yale Bowl, the 
developed length of which is about 2,400 feet. 

The Stadium is U shaped, the closed end is built 
on an arc of a true circle, in contrast to the flattened 
curve as at Princeton, and with square towers at the 
end of each of the straight sides. Within this space 
there is the football gridiron and a quarter mile 
track. The track follows the circle arc curve of the 
closed end of the U and the opposite end of the 
closed track extends outside the tips of straight sides 
of the structure. 

The inner wall of the Stadium is 9 feet high, and 
the space across the field from wall to wall is 230 
feet. This places sides of the gridiron 35 feet from 
the inner wall of the stadium, but only 15 feet from 
the edge of the running track. Attention is directed 
to the fact that a hard track curb so close to the 
gridiron is not desirable, although under present 
rules there is less chance of danger to football 
players from this source than heretofore. The ex- 
treme height of the -inner wall is of advantage in al- 
lowing the placing of twelve additional rows of seats 
over the running track within the entire structure, 
accommodating some 7,000 persons. But the great 
height of this wall and the closeness of the track to 
it make it impossible for spectators beyond the sec- 
ond row of seats to see any track events on the near 



222 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



side. Consequently it has been found more desirable 
to sell seats on the side opposite the straightaway for 
track events. Circumstances have shown, however, 
that the best seats at the important meets are those 
around the circular end, because of the closeness to 
finish line of the dashes. The high seats in the cir- 
cular end have proven especially desirable because of 
the fact that they are high enough up to allow the 
spectator to get a slanting view of the runners dur- 
ing the dashes and are close to the finish line. 

Accompanying this report is a diagram of seats 
for the Yale-Harvard track meet, showing the prices 
of seats. This diagram shows that only $1.50 seats 
include only two rows along the side of the straight- 
away up to the curved end. Practically the entire half 
of the curved end on the straightaway line is included 
in the $1.50 section. The other half of the curved 
end is included in the $1.00 section, while the entire 
tier of seats on the side of the U opposite the 
straightaway are in the 50 cent section. This cir- 
cular end of the stadium will seat about 8,000 per- 
sons and is always used for class day exercises and 
for pageants, Greek plays, etc. The acoustics are 
very satisfactory and the university is considering 
the advisability of holding commencement exercises 
there. 

In the stadium proper there are thirty-one tiers of 
seats, between the inner 9 foot wall and the col- 
onnade at the top. The flat space behind the colon- 
nade at the top was originally intended to be used 



only as a promenade. The demand for additional 
seating capacity led to the placing of temporary 
wooden stands on the promenade back of the col- 
umns. These temporary stands accommodate 8,000 
persons, and on account of the expense of taking 
down and putting up each season, and because the 
promenade was of little use as such, these seats have 
become a permanent feature. The great demand 
for seats evidently has accounted for the apparent 
lack of criticism of seats behind the columns. 

A row of seats has also been provided on the roof 
of the colonnade, adding another thousand. The 
temporary stands placed at the open end of the sta- 
dium are arranged to seat about 12,000. The total 
number of seats for the Yale-Harvard game of 
lyiy was approximately 50,000. 

The seats in the stadium proper are reached by a 
series of thirty-eight stairways, which rise directly 
from the ground beneath the seats to portals or 
eyes in the aisles about one-third way up. There is 
a second row of portals or eyes about two-thirds of 
the way up, which are reached from an interior 
promenade about 30 feet above the ground level. 
This promenade is reached by four large stairs, one 
in each of the end towers and at a point approxi- 
mately where the straight sides join the circular end. 
These upper eyes or portals have been closed up 
where there have been large crowds for three rea- 
sons: (1) Those persons attempting exit by them 
have invariably tried to use the tower stairs, caus- 




AN AIRPLANE VIEW OF THE HARVARD STADIUM 

Me KIM, MEAD & WHITE, ARCHITECTS 



223 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



ing congestion on the upper promenade near the 
towers ; (2) experience has shown that the lower 
series of portals is sufficient for all practical pur- 
poses in emptying the stadium of a capacity crowd ; 
(3) temporary seats in these upper portals increases 
the seating by 550, which is an important item where 
the demand and the added income are considered. 
There are no openings through the inner 9-foot wafl 
to allow egress to the field directly from the seats. 
After football games, however, when the twelve 
rows of temporary seats are in place, access to the 
field is easy. It has been found that there is some 
difficulty in keeping persons from scaling the 9-foot 
wall and getting out onto the field during a track 
meet. This contingency should be avoided if pos- 
sible. 

One of the advantages of having two rows of 
portals or exits from the seat tiers would seem to 
be the ease with which the stadium might be emptied 
of a capacity crowd. Experience has shown, how- 
ever, that the circulation congestion does not occur 
at the stadium itself, but at the Anderson Bridge, 
which provides the only means of egress from Sol- 
diers' Field to Cambridge. Harvard Stadium crowds 
have learned that haste in exit from the Stadium it- 
self is useless on account of the "bottle-necking" 
of the traffic at the bridge over the Charles River. 
The lesson to be learned from this circumstance is 
that the problem of handling the large crowds is 
not confined to the structure alone but to the fea- 
tures of the surrounding territory as well. 

In controlling the crowds at entrances it has been 
learned that they should be separated and directed 
to their respective sections as far away from the 
actual entrances as possible. Crowd psychology 
leads to congestion at those openings which are of 
easy access or prominent in appearance. All signs 
or placards indicating section numbers or giving 
directions should be large and as high as possible. 

As an example of this principle it might be men- 
tioned that in order to prevent congestion at the 
first few openings adjoining the southwest tower, 
a long rope is stretched diagonally out from the 
corner of the tower in order that persons may not 
turn the corner so close to the structure as not to be 
able to see the entrances farther down the long line 
of the Stadium. 

Numerous propositions have been considered at 



Harvard to increase the maximum seating capacity. 
It has even been suggested by one alumnus that 
permanent seats be built out over the track, that 
the sight line or slope of the existing tier of seats 
be lowered in the rear and that an upper deck be 
biu'lt over the rear third without increasing the 
height of the exterior wall. It is hoped that this 
will not be done without the advice and assistance 
of a designer who might study the problem with a 
view to retaining the present dignified architectural 
character. While this alteration has not yet been 
seriously considered, it is of interest to Ohio State 
University, because of the fact that the athletic au- 
thorities have presented the definite requirement of 
a double deck in their proposed new structure, since 
it gives increased seating capacity nearer the play- 
ing field than does a single tier of seats, and it also 
provides roof protection over a portion of the seats, 
which is of advantage in inclement weather as well 
as in extremely warm weather. 

It is also interesting to note the comment of the 
Harvard management on the straight sided stadium, 
as contrasted to a structure with curved or "bowled" 
sides. They recognize that there is a certain psy- 
chological advantage in having the crowds so 
placed as to permit each person to see as much of 
the entire crowd as possible. This is especially 
noticeable with cheering sections. But an addition- 
al advantage of the "bowled" side is in the partial 
equalization of the desirable seats. The greatest de- 
mand for seats is, of course, along the middle of 
the sides. If, however, the middle sections are 
moved back from the edge of the playing field any 
appreciable distance there is less apparent differ- 
ence between the value of seats in the middle sec- 
tion and those of the sections nearer the ends of 
the fields. This may be illustrated in this way : 
Assume a seat in the first row, opposite the middle 
of the playing field, and draw a line from it to the 
goal posts at each end of the gridiron ; then assume 
a seat in the front row, opposite the goal posts at 
one end of the gridiron, and draw lines from it to 
the goal posts as before. The lengths of the lines 
from each of the seats to the goal posts in a curved 
side structure, show the seats in the end sections 
to be relatively much more desirable than in a 
straight-sided structure. 

(To be concluded.) 




224 



Cu 



rrent News 



Happenings and Comments in the Field of Architecture 

and the Allied Arts 



Judgment of the Competition for 

Remodeling a New York City 

Tenement Block Is Deferred 

It is announced that the final judgment of the 
Competition for the Remodeling of a New York 
City Tenement Block, which is being held under the 
auspices of the Joint Legislative Committee on 
Housing and the Reconstruction Commission of 
the State of New York, has been deferred until the 
middle of August. 

A large number of very interesting solutions that 
promise possibilities of increased light and air have 
been submitted. 

The competition program stated that the object 
of the competition was to find a plan of remodel- 
ing that would encourage such alterations by the 
demonstration of its economic wisdom and the 
value that would come from the improvements, and 
that the relation of costs to results obtained will 
be a predominating factor in determining the 
judgment. 

So as to better judge the actual costs, it has been 
found necessary to procure estimates on the com- 
peting drawings. As soon as these estimates have 
been received, the jury will be prepared to make 
final judgment and an exhibition of the drawings 
will be held. 



American Reconstruction Unit 
Leaves for France 

One of the first officially recognized groups of 
American engineers and landscape architects who 
will engage in reconstruction work in the devastated 
area in France sailed from New York, July 8, under 
the name of the Harvard Reconstruction Unit. The 
organization consists of twenty members, headed by 
Reginald Coggeshall, Department of Government. 
Harvard University, who was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lowell to take charge of the unit after it was 
organized by Robert Buell and Guy H. Lee of the 
graduate school of landscape architecture at Har- 
vard. 

The membership of the unit is made up largely of 
post-graduate students as follows : Harvard, four- 
teen ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, two ; 
Columbia, one; Yale, one, and Princeton, one. Al- 



most all of the members are former A. E. F. men. 
Town planning work in co-operation with the 
French authorities covering a period of three months 
has been outlined, the American unit serving without 
compensation, but with expenses while in France 
paid by the French Government and the Depart- 
ment of the Meuse to which it has been assigned. 
Its work will be carried on in the Argonnc district. 
The temporary address of the organization is Har- 
vard Reconstruction Unit, care Guarantv Trust 
Co.. 1 Rue Des Italiennes, Paris. 



Salisbury Cathedral 

The Salisbury Cathedral was begun in 1220, and 
it celebrated its seventh centenary last month. Sal- 
isbury's cathedral is unique among English cathe- 
drals as having been built practically all at one 
time and in one coherent style. Its most famous 
feature is the lofty stone spire, finished in 1258, the 
highest spire in England (404 feet). E. Slocombe's 
well-known etching of this Gothic monument is 
handsomely reproduced in the Illustrated London 
Xews for June 26, as i mark of the occasion. Bae- 
deker says Salisbury Cathedral is a "splendid ex- 
ample of pure Early English," and that it was be- 
gun and finished within a period of forty years. 
Fergusson points out that there is scarcely a trace 
of foreign influence in the building, and that it is 
"one of the best proportioned and at the same time 
most poetic designs of the Middle Ages." Bae- 
deker speaks of the interior as somewhat cold and 
bare, which is, we believe, quite true. We also re- 
member the West Front as being quite the worst of 
any in England. But the cloisters are very lovely. 
( )n the whole, however, Salisbury is not by any 
means to be compared with Canterbury, Wells, Lin- 
coln, York, Durham, or Ely for architectural beauty 
and character. It has a sort of cold correctness that 
some of the other English cathedrals lark, but, in 
spite of its "coherent style," it does not make the 
wonderful appeal to the heart of the beholder that 
the matchless mediaeval monuments above-men- 
tioned invariably do make in their several distinctive 
ways. No study of England's ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture would be complete without a careful refer- 
ence to Salisbury. 



225 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Architecture 

By ALEXANDER HARVEY, in "Judge" 

Architecture is that part of a rich man's home of 
which he knows the least, although it cost him the 
most. 

A great architect is one who has been dead such a 
long time that he can be copied with impunity. 

A writer must be able to say many offensive 
things before he can become an authority on archi- 
tecture. 

A school of architecture is a collection of men 
with the same unintelligible idea. 

Queen Anne knew nothing at all about the archi- 
tecture of her period, in which respect she was no 
worse off than are the people who chatter about it 
today. 

Success in architecture can be achieved only 
through the medium of an appropriate vocabulary. 

A flourishing period of architecture in the past 
was fostered by the church. A flourishing period 
of architecture nowadays is fostered by the wives 
of millionaires. 

If bad architecture lasts long enough it becomes 
good. 

The most devoted lovers of the antique in archi- 
tecture are the ghosts. 



As to Temporary Buildings for 
Schools 

In New Bedford, Mass., the suggestion was made 
at the City Property Committee meeting that the 
school construction program be dropped for the 
present and that temporary buildings be erected to 
house the pupils. Mayor Ashley said it was "ab- 
surd when you undertake to put up temporary build- 
ings," he pointed out, "you have to provide heating 
and ventilating systems the same as you would put 
into permanent buildings and when you get through, 
you will find that you have tackled a pretty ex- 
pensive proposition and it is only a make-shift after 
all. Taking care of 1,000 or more children in tem- 
porary buildings is a waste of money. 

"We've got to go ahead with school construction ; 
we can't stop, we must face conditions as they are. 
I don't know how far we can go." 



Suggest New Laws for Housing Crisis 

Legislation making it a crime for any individual 
or organization to call a strike on any building being 
erected for dwelling purposes, or for any individual 
or organization to endeavor to limit the output of 
workmen on similar construction, was urged by Ed- 



ward P. Doyle, secretary of the Mayor's Housing 
Conference Committee, in a brief submitted to the 
Lockwood Joint Legislative Committee on Housing. 
The committee is gathering data to determine 
whether or not to recommend a special session of 
the Legislature to relieve the housing crisis antici- 
pated next October. 

The Doyle brief attacked the Lockwood rent re- 
lief laws passed by the last Legislature as "ill-con- 
sidered and hasty legislation," in that they deprived 
owners of the control of their properties and placed 
it in the hands of Municipal Court judges. Without 
such legislation which discouraged builders and in- 
vestors, he argued, the natural laws of supply and 
demand would have already operated to remedy the 
situation. 

The Doyle brief was the only criticism of the rent 
laws. Municipal Court justices have been practi- 
cally unanimous that the new laws have had a 
salutary effect and that a special session of the 
Legislature is not necessary. 

The brief was not accepted by Chairman Lock- 
wood, as the committee wants to cross-examine its 
author at the next meeting. 

Witnesses heard today were Municipal Court Jus- 
tices Timothy A. Leary of Manhattan and Charles 
J. Carroll of Brooklyn. Justice Bogenschutz of 
Brooklyn sent a letter stating that the rent laws 
were working well. 

One of the weaknesses of the present laws, it was 
declared, was in the fact that tenants are given not 
more than one year's stay in holdover proceedings. 
It would be beneficial in some cases if the period 
could be made a longet one, he felt. On the other 
hand, such a change in the law, he admitted, might 
discourage builders. 



Color in the Hospital 

By WILLIAM O. LUDLOW, of Ludlow & Peabody, 
Architects. 

There is a general feeling of antipathy toward 
the hospital, that should not and need not exist. 
True, it is a place of suffering, but its chief object 
is relief of suffering, and its most important func- 
tion is convalescence. 

Our feelings and sentiments of antipathy or at- 
traction are largely influenced by the impression 
that the appearance of things makes on our minds, 
and the heretofore grim and institutional aspect of 
the hospital without, and its cheerless and barren 
appearance within, are partly responsible for the 
common dread of an institution whose very atmos- 
phere should breathe a welcome to tender care and 
comfort. 

But our thought has been so engaged in bringing 
about ideal negative conditions no dirt, no noise, 



226 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



no odor that we have forgotten often the positive 
conditions of environment that may be more effec- 
tive in bringing back bodily health than what the 
nurse gives from the spoon. 

During the period of recovery, the mind of the 
one in the hospital bed is perhaps more than usually 
responsive to the aspect of his surroundings. The 
tired eye that forever roams over wall and ceiling 
until every crack is known by heart, craves some- 
thing more positive than barren white walls ; it wants 
objects of interest, such as pictures, stenciled pat- 
terns, hangings at the windows, and above all, the 
repose and warmth that only color can give. 

White is negative ; the convalescent needs the 
therapeutic reaction of the positive colors that Na- 
ture has spread so lavishly for her children. Her 
forest walls of white leaves! Her carpet of white 
grass! Her limitless ceiling of white! God forbid. 
Our eyes were made to find rest and contentment 
in soft greens, pale blues, in occasional touches of 
red, but above all, in the glorious golden yellow 
of the sunshine. 

White is the winter color, dazzling and brilliant, 
but is somehow reminiscent of the cold and cheer- 
lessness of that season. 

Let us then cover our hospital walls with color, 
selecting those that give warmth and quiet, and that 
gentle stimulation that helps the feeble body along 
the road to recovery. 



plans now in effect, hopes to aid those who are now 
bending their energies to relieve the shortage 
through the organization of home-building com- 
panies. 



Housing Plans for Cities 

Realizing the difficulties confronting the prospec- 
tive home owner of small means and the almost com- 
plete withdrawal of the speculative builder from the 
present field of building activity, the Southern Pine 
Association has taken up the housing shortage ques- 
tion in what seems to it to be the only open road to 
that activity which alone can bring about a solution 
of the problem. And it may be said here that the 
problem now is as pressing as at any time and the 
troubles of the home seekers will soon reappear and 
possibly will be more aggravated. So the association 
has taken up the proposition along the line of furn- 
ishing information on how we can build now, and 
its first effort is a new pamphlet entitled "Housing 
for Cities." This publication is being distributed to 
boards of trade, libraries, corporations, building and 
loan associations, retail lumber dealers, architects, 
engineers and others. The booklet describes the 
various plans adopted by industrial corporations 
and other bodies to meet the situation in various 
cities. 

The desire to build is widespread, but the great 
trouble is to finance the work, and the association, by 
making available full and reliable information of 



Shingle Production In Washington 
State 

Production of shingles in 1918 was three-fourths 
of the entire shingle output of the United States, ac- 
cording to official compilations just completed by 
the government forest service and dispatched to 
Seattle lumbermen Monday. During 1918 a total 
of 158 mills in this state cut 4,238,714,000 shingles, 
while the production of the entire country totaled 
5,690,182,000 shingles. 

In the production of lath a decrease from the pre- 
vious year is shown in the 1918 forest service figures 
amounting to 40 per cent. This smaller output re- 
flected the light demand and the character of con- 
struction work carried on during that year ; lath 
production fluctuates each year with the number and 
class of buildings constructed. Forty-two Washing- 
ton state mills cut a total of 154,668,000 laths dur- 
ing 1918, ranking third among the states, with 
Louisiana and Minnesota in the lead. In the pre- 
vious year this state produced 230,194,000 laths. 

The forest service also illustrates the quantity and 
kinds of woods cut by 455 Washington state mills 
in 1918 as follows: 

Douglas fir, 3,578,831,000 feet; white pine, 65,- 
865,000 feet ; Western yellow pine, 220,231,000 feet ; 
hemlock, 275,693,000 feet; spruce, 275,826.000 feet; 
cottonwood, 88-1,000 feet ; ash, 47,000 feet, and 936,- 
feet of minor species. 

The number of shingles cut by five leading pro- 
ducing states in 1918 is as follows: Washington, 
4,238,714,000; Oregon, 281,138,000; Louisiana, 272.- 
866,000; Michigan, 148,565.000; California, 146,- 
071,000; Florida, 102.725,000. 



The Use of Lumber in Building 

More lumber is used in the United States for gen- 
eral building and construction than for any other 
purpose, says the U. S. Forest Service report of 
June 1, 1920, before the Senate. In normal years 
probably 28 billion board feet is used in this way 
out of an average annual cut of 40 billion feet. 

For the five years before the war, 1910-14, the 
average annual building bill of the country shown 
by building permits was approximately $670.000,000. 
After dropping to $445,549,493 in 1918, it rose in 
1919 to $1,326,736,702; but with building costs in- 
creased 100 per cent, or more, actual construction did 
not much, if any, exceed the pre-war average. Ap- 



227 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



parently construction work throughout the United 
States is behind requirements. The deficit is great- 
est in dwelling houses. 

The building permits issued in 21 cities of various 
sizes widely distributed over the country show that, 
in values, housing construction formed 36 per cent, 
of all building in 1913 ; 21 per cent, in 1918, and 27 
per cent, in 1919. The amount of housing construc- 
tion in 1913 was exceeded in 1918 in only two of the 
21 cities, and in 1919 in only six, in spite of the 
"build-a-home" campaign. The falling off in house 
construction, continues the Forest Service report, 
generally appears to have been particularly marked 
since the latter part of 1919, when the greatest up- 
ward movement of lumber prices began. 

The United States Housing Corporation states 
that normally 30 per cent, of the number of build- 
ings constructed are dwellings ; that in 1919 dwell- 
ings were only 15 per cent.; that 1,000.000 families 
in the United States desired houses even before the 
war ; that the shortage has since increased very rap- 
idly; that there were but 70,000 houses built in 1919, 
when to have met the requirements there should 
have been 500,000, and that in 1890 an average of 
IW/2 families occupied 100 homes, but today 121 
families occupy 100 homes. 



Annexations and City Planning 

Annexations of territory to cities are generally 
made either through a desire for. increase in size or 
to secure public improvements in cutlying districts. 
An added reason might wellbe the furtherance -of 
comprehensive city planning comments Engineering- 
News Record. This does often enter in to some 
extent, but generally in a detached way and rarely 
if ever with a clear far reaching view of all that 
enters into city planning major traffic streets from 
outlying districts to the center of the city, parks, 
transportation service and other utilities. The ar- 
gument should not be carried as far as to make the 
extension of these facilities conditional on annexa- 
tion, for a proper spirit of co-operation between 
cities and outlying districts will make regional plan- 
ning possible without consolidation. 



A Record Year for Strikes 

The Bureau of Labor statistics of strikes during 
the year 1919, which have just been compiled, 
show the last year to be a high record in the num- 
ber of men involved and the number of work days 
lost. The actual number of strikes and lockouts 
was more than in 1918, but less than in 1916 and 
1917. 

The strikes of the past year were found to in- 
clude larger bodies of men. There were nine, in 
each of which more than 60,000 men were involved. 



In 1916 there was but one of this magnitude, in 
1917 there was but one in which more than 40,000 
men struck. 

The average duration of the strikes also reached 
new high figures in 1919, being 34 days for a strike 
and 38 days for a lockout. In 1918 the average 
length of the former was but 18 days, and of the 
latter 31 days. In 1917 the averages were 18 and 
56 days respectively, and in 1916, 22 and 64 days 
respectively. 



Personals 

Chester Walcott now has offices at 8 East Huron 
St., Chicago. 

William H. Furst, architect, has opened offices, 
with R. G. Wolff in the Marquette Building, 
Chicago. 

William Whitehill, architect, has moved from 
32 Union Square, New York City, to 12 Elm St., 
that city. 

Nathaniel Koeingsberg and Louis I. Simon an- 
nounce their association as architects and engineers 
at 8 South Dearborn St., Chicago. 

John A. Armstrong, architect, has moved from 11 
South La Salle St. to 127 North Dearborn St., the 
American Bond and Mortgage Building, Chicago. 

William T. Braun and Edward A. Nitsche have 
formed the architectural firm of Braun & Nitsche, 
and have offices at 64 East Van Buren St., Chicago. 

Morgan D. E..Hite and Walter J. Ferguson, ar- 
chitects, -New Orleans, La., announce the removal 
of their offices to Canal Bank Annex, 211 Camp 
Street. 

The Industrial Development and Improvement 
Company, architects and engineers, have moved 
from 230 South La Salle : St. to 118 North La Salle 
St., Chicago. 

Joseph J. Galizia, whose architectural office was 
formerly located at 2845 West Twenty-third St., 
Coney Island, Brooklyn, is now located at 2930 
West Nineteenth St. 

Thompson-, Mellema, architects, formerly of 
640 Broadway, New York City, have dissolved 
partnership. Mr. Thompson has established an 
office at 189 Montague St., Brooklyn, and Mr. 
Mellema has gone to California. 

Thompson & Binger, Inc., engineers and contrac- 
tors, New York and Syracuse, have moved their 
New York engineering offices to 150 East 41st 
Street. They desire to receive catalogues of build- 
ing material supplies. 



228 




Weekly Review of the Construction Field 

With Reports of Special Correspondents in Prominent Regional Centers 



The view of the Federal Reserve Board upon 
the building situation starts with the observation: 
"There appears to be no difference of opinion con- 
cerning the causes that are responsible for the diffi- 
culties that hamper building operations. The hin- 
drances are summed up under the all-inclusive heads 
of high prices of structural materials and heavy 
labor costs ; transportation troubles that make the 
securing of supplies problematical ; and inability to 
obtain funds for financing contemplated projects, 
especially residential structures." 

And then this report says : "It is true that al- 
though all these factors are operative, reports from 
certain districts are inclined to stress some one fac- 
tor while minimizing the importance of others. The 
situation in the West and Southwest appears to be 
much more favorable than in othei parts of the coun- 
try. District No. 11 (Dallas) and Xo. 12 (San 
Francisco) both report increased activity in the 
month of June as compared with May. District 
Xo. T (Boston) emphasizes the shortage of lumber 
and other structural materials resulting from con- 
gested traffic conditions, and predicts that prices 
will remain high, probably into the spring of 1921. 
However, the total value of building permits in 13 
principal cities outside Boston showed an increase of 
4.1 per cent, in amount for the first six months of 
1920, as compared with the same period in 1919, al- 
though the actual number of permits declined from 
3.614 to 3,440. District Xo. 2 (Xew York) thinks 
that the principal deterrent to the execution of hous- 
ing programs is scarcity of mortgage money, the 
Xew York situation being made worse by the fact 
that industrial projects have secured the limited 
amount of labor and materials available. District 
Xo. 4 (Cleveland), although stating that there has 
been some improvement in securing raw materials, 
especially cement, during the last few weeks, says 
that building operations are very low for the season 
and the outlook for the fall is uncertain. In District 
Xi>. 5 (Richmond) no improvement is noted a 
decrease in the value of permits issued as compared 
\\.tli May is recorded. As for building materials, it 
becomes increasingly difficult to secure them and a 

r numlx?r of lumber mills have shut down because of 
inability to make deliveries, while cement, crushed 
stone, steel, brick, etc., are practically impossible of 
iiisition. Cessation of construction in Richmond 
is threatened unless the local situation is relieved. In 
District Xo. 6 (Atlanta), on the other hand, there 

has been an increase in the value of permits in some 



of the large cities, such as Atlanta, Augusta, Savan- 
nah and Mobile. A marked drop in the total volume 
of building permits in New Orleans was no doubt 
the result of the local carpenters' strike. In District 
No. 8 (St. Louis) as a result of better weather and 
improvement in transportation, work already be- 
gun has been resumed, but new projects are few. 
There is no improvement in the housing situation. 
Labor troubles have also been experienced. Both 
in the Minneapolis and Kansas City districts the June 
reports show a reduction in building permits by 
number and value as compared with May. In Dis- 
trict Xo. 11 (Dallas), on the other hand, improve- 
ment has occurred in June, an increase of 15 per 
cent, in total valuations over the month of May being 
noted, although the total is 16 per cent, below the 
record for June a year ago. For the first six months 
(if (he year the 1920 valuations exceeded those of 
1919 by 147 per cent. Similarly, in the 12th District 
(San Francisco) building is active, permits issued 
in 19 cities showing valuation increases of 7.7 per 
cent, as compared with May, and 63.3 per cent, as 
compared with June a year ago. For the six month 
period an increase of 107.17 per cent, was recorded." 
In Xew York as the prices of building materials 
advance the demand has fallen off and it is expected 
by many that the prices will thereby be lowered. The 
larger operations, however, are being carried on 
with premium prices frequently paid. It is observed 
by those interested in these larger enterprises, which 
arc to a large extent commercial, the industry is be- 
ing curtailed through the shortage of raw products 
at the mills, that coal is not only difficult to get but 
increasingly expensive and that there is no probabil- 
ity of a marked increase in the production of build- 
ing materials for a long time to come nor of a re- 
duction in the prices of the same. 



(By Special Correspondence to The American 

Architect. ) 

CHICAGO. The high rental of capital is still the 
menacing obstacle in the path of business and it 
looks like a permanent monument. The financial 
powers are pursuing their policy of repression and 
the labor supply is too small to admit of any advance 
enterprises. There is no general expectation that by 
the postponing of new building for a few months, 
marked savings may be realized through future de- 
clines in prices. Even should the long-desired defi- 
nite recession in prices develop there is much ground 
for the belief that for some time yet building costs 



229 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



will show at best but slight decline apart from some 
temporary fluctuations. It is believed by many that 
there will be still further advances in building costs 
generally. As for the influence of credit stringency 
upon building operations, other lines of business en- 
terprises are also affected, but most of them show 
no such marked decline in activity as does the build- 
ing industry. 



(B\ Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

SEATTLE. More hopeful signs of a resumption of 
building activity on the Pacific Coast has been voiced 
by jobbers during the past week. The improvement 
as they see it is to begin after the announcement of 
the new freight rates. A number of the leaders in 
their lines frankly stated that they had every reason 
to expect a calming of disturbed business conditions 
as soon as the railway traffic officials were in position 
to quote rates from officially published tariffs. 

The car situation .however, is showing no change 
that will aid the distribution of steel products from 
the 'East. All markets seem to be steady. Where 
there has been an occasional fractional advance job- 
bers have absorbed it, but it has been noted in all 
deliveries to the Coast from the eastern mills that 
the jobber who is willing to meet what might be 
termed a premium over the market can get delivery 
in two or three weeks, while he is required to wait 
60 to 120 days by following the horizontal prices. 

The threatened closing down of the eastern steel 
mills was of slightly bullish tendency, although it 
would require the actual fact to produce an upward 
swing to prices. Smaller sizes of steel pipe in halves 
and three-quarters are leading in scarcity and there 
are no stocks on the Coast. Orders for these sizes 
placed as long ago as last September have not yet 
been shipped. An occasional car, four months be- 
hind the acceptance of contents, gets through. The 
only improvement in transportation is shown in the 
delivery of sheet metals, but the small pipe required 
for small swellings is almost unobtainable and job- 
bers must continue the ration plan until there is 
some relief. Similar conditions prevail as to nails. 

Lead advanced 10 per cent. Earthenware and 
enamelware is steady. Jobbers report fair delivery 
in staple lines, but where specialties are required 
they are unable to get delivery under 6 to 8 months. 
Brass goods and fittings are 30 to 90 days en 
route. 

Plenty of roofing and brick is offering all along 
the Coast. Cement is stronger, with delivery in the 
first zone, Seattle, at $4.60. Jobbers place the re- 
sponsibility for the cement scarcity on the sack 
shortage. There is not any demand for metal lath. 
High rib is $1.15, due to the fact that nothing else 



is used in Class A construction in the Coast cities. 
Hard wall plaster as in good demand, due to the 
impossible prices on tile. Many small home owners 
and builders are using this substitute, as it is said 
not to chip. Labor in the tile setting is $10 for 
eight hours and production is not over 60 per cent, 
of normal. 

Lumber is again unsettled, although wholesalers 
who do the bulk of the buying for eastern building 
account report their inability to get acceptances at 
any easier rate or lower prices. The market has 
been firm and it was thought at the turn, but per- 
sistent reports, which seem to be verified in more 
or less degree, are that due to the congestion at the 
Gulf, the Middle Western grain will move to Europe 
through Puget Sound. In that event the lumber 
mills would have more cars than they could load 
for the return haul. The back orders of 7,200 car- 
loads for Eastern building account would be quickly 
cleaned up and an irresponsible scramble for new 
business at cut prices would follow. Buying time 
for lumber does not look as opportune as a week 
ago. 

Red cedar shingles are firm at $5 for clears at 
the mill, due directly to the car shortage. 

Fir lumber orders now coming in are exclusively 
for country account in the East ; city building, as 
reflected through the mills of the West Coast, show- 
ing quiet in that field. 



(By 



Special Correspondence to The American 
Architect.) 

SAN FRANCISCO. Notwithstanding the fact that 
the building situation here is being hampered by the 
car shortage and non-arrival of material, as well as 
by the contraction of credits in the banks, the archi- 
tects are busy making plans for the future. The 
feeling is prevailing that while building may be 
slowed up until after the November election, the 
requirements in this territory are so heavy that this 
summer will see practically a normal amount of con- 
struction work done, and as soon as the election is 
out of the way a very decided increase in business 
will be manifested. 

School construction will undoubtedly go on ahead 
of almost all other kinds of new buildings, and new 
bond elections in a number of districts are to be 
held during the next sixty days. 

During the coming week a bond election will be 
held in the San Pablo Grammar School District, 
Contra Costa county, to vote on bonds to the amount 
of $35,000 for school buildings. The Vacaville 
Union High School District in Solano county, will 
also decide on the question of issuing bonds for 
$35,000 for a new gymnasium and manual training 
building. 






230 




DETAII^-THE ALHAMBRA, GRANADA 



THL- AMERICAN ARCHITEC1 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

VOL. CXVIII WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 25, 1920 NUMBER 2331 




THE GARRETT BIBLICAL INSTITUTE, EVANSTON, ILLINOIS 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 

The Work of Holabird & Roche, Architects 

Part II 



THE combining of a library with space devoted 
to business purposes is a rather unusual prob- 
lem, as libraries are generally housed in iso- 
lated buildings. The design of a building devoted to 
such uses requires that both purposes be expressed. 
This has been done in the John Crerar Library 
Building now being erected in Chicago. As this 
library is a reference library only, it is necessary 
that it be located, in the business district in order 



to be of easy access to the professional and business 
men who use it. Its location makes it possible to 
use a very large portion of the building for office 
and commercial purposes. At present the library 
contains 425,000 volumes and more than 150,000 
pamphlets. That portion of the building now under 
construction provides space for housing 650,000 
volumes and seats for 400 readers. The books are 
apportioned to various interests in the following 



Copyright, 1020, The Architectural & Building Pre (Inc.) 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




THE JOHN CRERAR LIBRARY, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 

232 




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



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LUNCH 
ROOM 




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1RC.CTOC.5 I 



LIBP.AR1AN 



ELEVEN! H I-'I.OOR IM.AN 





SEVENTH FLOOR PLAN 

THE JOHN CRERAR LIBRARY, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



233 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



order to physicians, engineers, chemists, teachers 
and business men. 

When completed the building will cover an area 
of 127 feet by 135 feet. The portion now under 
construction has a frontage of 85 feet on East Ran- 




THIKTEKNTH FLOOR PLAN 

dolph Street and 78 feet on North Michigan Boule- 
vard. It is fifteen stories in height, being limited 
(o that height by the building ordinance in effect at 
the time construction was started. The building is 
faced with Bedford stone designed in a modified 
Romanesque style ; the entrance lobby opening on 
Randolph Street is also finished in Bedford stone. 
The caisson foundations extend to rock; the frame- 
is of steel, and floor construction of hollow tile. 
There is no wood used in the construction or finish 
of the building. Three high speed passenger eleva- 




tors serve the present portion of the building, the 
library is provided with a service elevator, two 
dumb-waiters and a back conveyor. 

This building is in a very favorable position on 
the west side of Michigan Boulevard and imme- 
diately north of the lower Public Library. The 
John Crerar Library, with the University Club, 
Monroe and McCormick Buildings, are the contri- 
butions of this architectural organization to that 
great thoroughfare. 

Transportation is one of the most important fac- 
tors in office building service. A combination of a 
high speed elevator, with easy access thereto, is 
necessary to satisfactory elevator transportation. 
The latter element of the service is influenced by the 
plan. In the McCormick Building there are eleven 
passenger elevators so arranged that the passenger 
on any floor can station himself within a very short 




FIFTEENTH FLOOR PLAN 



FOURTEENTH FLOOR PLAN 
THE JOHN CRERAR LIBRARY, CHICAGO, 

ILLINOIS 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 

distance of any elevator. This materially shortens 
the stops at each floor where the time is generally 
lost. It will be seen that the best arrangement >s 
to place the elevators about three sides of the hall, 
making the hall as small as possible. The service in 
this building is satisfactory and each elevator serves 
33,500 square feet of rental office area above the 
first floor. 

THE McCormick Building faces 183 feet on 
South Michigan Boulevard and extends 172 
feet on East Van Buren Street to an 18-foot alley, 
with light on three sides. It is usual with buildings 
of this kind and size to use an enclosed interior 



234 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




FIRST FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY 

MrCORMICK BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

HOLAB1RD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



235 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




FIRST FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY 

McCORMICK BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



court with offices facing the alley. In this plan an 
open interior court is used and excellent light ob- 
tained in the court rooms. With no obstructions 
on the east side of Michigan Boulevard, the light 
penetrates farther into the buildings on the west 
side than in any other location in Chicago and the 
offices facing that street are made unusually deep. 
The building is placed on a lot area of 31,543 
square feet, of which 5,358 square feet is court 
area leaving 26,185 square feet of typical floor area 
and 19,469 square feet of typical floor renting area, 
hi percentages the court area is 16.9 per cent, of the 
lot area; the typical floor building area is 83.1 per 
cent, of the lot area ; the typical floor renting area is 



61.8 per cent, of the lot area; the typical floor rent- 
ing area is 74.4 per cent, of the typical floor building 
area. The cubic contents of the building is 8,325,282 
cubic feet, and cost of construction was 36 cents 
per cubic foot. 

TJ IK Hotel La Salle Garage is 5 stories and base- 
ment in height, 80 feet wide and 180 feet long, 
facing on \Yest Washington Street and extending 
through to Calhoun Place. All of the floors are used 
for storage of automobiles, which are driven to each 
floor on an inclined driveway, semi-eliptical in plan, 
which has a rise of 14 feet in 100-foot run. This 
grade has been found satisfactory for cars on second 



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BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 

MANDEL BROTHERS' STORE BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 

236 




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



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ROCHE, .-IRCHITKi' 



HOI.ABIRI) 



237 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



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BASEMENT PLAN 




FJRST FLOOK PLAN 



HOTEL LASALLE GARAGE, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



238 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



speed. An elevator is provided for emergency use 
and an elevator is also provided for passengers. 
This is one of the first multi-story garages to be con- 
structed and is a good example of the spiral drive- 
way type. 

THE Garrett Biblical Institute is located on the 
shores of Lake Michigan adjoining the North- 
western University at Evanston. It consists of 
dormitories and a recitation hall, arranged about 
three sides of a quadrangle open on the east to 
Lake Michigan. A street is continued through 
the recitation hall into the quadrangle. Between the 
recitation hall and Sheridan road another quadrangle 
will be provided about which will be grouped the 
library and chapel. 

'\Yhile the dormitories are quite severely plain in 



poses, generally to a depth of 45 feet to 50 feet be- 
low the sidewalk level. This is made possible by the 
absence of rock until a depth of about 100 feet is 
attained. The freight subways of the Illinois Tun- 
nel Company are at the depths mentioned and enter 
the buildings as shown in the subway basement 
plan of Mandel Brothers' Store Building. Coal and 
freight is brought to the building and ashes and 
refuse carried awav through these tunnels. This is 
one reason that Chicago streets are not littered with 
ash cans which are hoisted to the sidewalks in some 
cities. Excavation for basements is also removed 
through the tunnels with a consequent relief from 
street congestion and dirt. In the subway basement 
is located the mechanical equipment and the shipping 
department. In the sub-basement is located the 
coal hoppers, breeching and some other parts of 
















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SECOND, THIRD AND Kol'RTH FLOOR PLANS 
HOTEL LA SALLE GARAGE, CHICAGO, ILI.IXOIS 

JIOI.ABIRD & ROC1IK, .(/ 7//77:'C T.S 



design, they are not monotonous in appearance. 
Space has been economized in planning, still afford- 
ing ample room for the students. Generally, each 
entrance serves twelve students and the study rooms 
have been placed on the south side of the buildings, 
also bath and toilet for every four students. In 
building D a small social hall is provided. Two- 
thirds of the accommodations in suites comprise 
bedrooms and study, one-third of the accommoda- 
tions consists of single rooms. All entrances open 
on the quadrangle. The buildings accommodate 
106 students and cost $1,223 per student. 

Building below grade is little appreciated by the 

ordinary observer because it is not readily seen. The 

;t retail stores of Chicago utilize the lot area 

and the area under the sidewalks for business pur- 



the mechanical equipment, locker and wash rooms 
for employes and a salesroom. The basement is 
used entirely for sales purposes. The high cost 
of real estate and the comparative cheapness of ex- 
cavation justifies the construction of these deep base- 
ments. In some buildings. 20 stories high, the cost 
of construction below grade, including caisson foun- 
dations to rock, is from 20 to 30 per cent, of the 
total cost of the building. This will indicate the 
value of the sub-structures which are seldom seen 
by the public. 

AMONG the later hotels designed by Holabird 
and Roche, is the Deshler at Columbus, Ohio, 
which was completed in August, 1916. This build- 
ing faces on three streets, 110 feet by 200 feet in 



239 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

LINE: WALL, 



TT TT TT 

rfiet Ov-riCK JQO Orr-ict Or-Mct 

P "-S-- ( 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN 
McCORMICK BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

HOLABIKD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



240 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



>i/e, T2 stories and basement in height. The ex- 
terior is of red brick, gray terra cotta and granite 
base. 

Architecturally, the style of the building on the 
exterior and the interior, as well as the furnishings. 




v HALL 
TMICP TLOOC. PLA.M 

GARRETT BIBLICAL INSTITUTE, EVAXSTOX, 

BUILDIXC B. HALLS 4, 5 AM) 6 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 

is Pompeiian. This style was selected because of 
its flexibility and its sympathy with the (ireek and 
Roman. Modern life as exemplified in its games, 
dances and costumes, may be adapted to this style 
by careful designing. It has a grace and liveliness 
which is especially pleasing in a hotel structure and 
does not have that flatness and insipidity which is 
so often seen in hotels designed in the Adam style. 
The basement extends under the sidewalk to the 
curb line on the three streets, occupying a space 
130 feet by 210 feet. The basement lobby is entered 
through the elevators and main stairs and is con- 
nected with the Ionian grill room, billiard room, bar- 
licr shop and men's and women's toilets. The bal- 
of the space is divided between the engine and 
ier room and the main kitchen. 

first floor lobby is 65 feet by 102 feet with 
.... street entrances, between which are located the 
elevators and main stairs. A section of the lobby is 
devoted to the use of women with retiring room 
connected. The main dining room and bar and grill 



ber sli 
am-c o 
boiler 
The 
thp ^t i 



room are located to the west of the lobby. Five 
shops are located on the High Street frontage and 
these with the usual service, check and baggage 
rooms complete the first floor departments. 

The second floor contains a ball room 56 feet by 
HO feet, into which can be opened 
an assembly room 30 feet by 65 feet 
in size. Three large private dining 
rooms and a service pantry are 
located on this floor, the latter con- 
nected with the basement kitchen by 
dumb-waiters and a service stair- 
way. Special toilet facilities are con- 
veniently located adjoining the ball 
room. The balance of the floor is 
used for parlors and guest rooms. 

In the typical floor plans the sam- 
ple rooms are located in the west 
wing adjacent to the freight eleva- 
tors. The balance of the floor is 
devoted to the usual guest room 
arrangements. An unusual feature 
is the extension of the corridors to 
the outside of the building. The 
service closets are grouped back of 
the elevators and stairs. The hotel 
contains 269 bed rooms and 57 sam- 
ple rooms with bath, 31 rooms with 
toilets and 2 parlors, making in all 
359 rooms. 

The Broad Street vestibule has a 
barrel-vaulted ceiling and is lined 
with gray terra cotta. The main 
lobby is lined to a height of 12 feet 
with silver gray maple and the 
floor is of gray Tennessee marble. The prevailing 
tone of the main dining room, buffet and cafe is 
gray, with the ornaments emphasized by the use of 
black and gold. 

Located diagonally opposite to the northwest 
corner of the State House Square, this hotel can 
be seen in its entirety and its design and propor- 
tions studied with more satisfaction than is the case 
with the majority of city buildings. It is not the 
usual good fortune of the "architect to be permitted 
to design such a structure in such an open and com- 
manding position. The absence of the clumsy, heavy 
and ornate details that are common to many hotels 
causes the Deshler to be readily recognized as of 
superior design. The ornamentation is simple, re- 
fined and properly proportioned, according to its 
location ; its relation to the entire mass is well 
worked out and the color effects harmonious and 
pleasing. This is one of the conspicuously good 
hotels that have been erected in recent years, either 
in Columbus or elsewhere. 



ILLINOIS 



241 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Our Isles of Artists 

LAKE COMO TO HAVE AN ARTISTS ARCADIA 

THROUGH a characteristic act of generosity 
and courtesy on the part of the King of Bel- 
gium, and with the co-operation of the Italian 
Government, says the New York Sun, editorially, 
there has been established in Lake Como an Isle of 
Artists. The island was bequeathed to King Albert 
by its owner and the king accepted the legacy, offer- 
ing it in turn to the Italian Government on condition 
that it should become a place of residence for artists. 
Under the direction of the Italian Under-Secretary 
of the Fine Arts the plan for converting the island 
into a center for artists was put under way. It is 
proposed to have pavilions for exhibitions and con- 
certs, homes for the artists and a hotel, the building 
scheme to be completed by next summer. With a 
nice touch of international courtesv one of the build- 



ings is to be called Belgian House and will be re- 
served exclusively for King Albert's subjects. 

This is a fresh illustration of the long cherished 
idea that workers in the arts should have refuges, if 
no more than temporary, from the bustle and dis- 
tractions of the work-a-day world. Sometimes these 
are no more definite than such artists' colonies as 
the one from which the Barbizon school took its 
name in France, or our own Lyme, or Gloucester, 
or New Hope. The MacDowell memorial estate 
in New Hampshire is one American manifestation of 
this idea of an Isle of Artists. The Tiffany Founda- 
tion of Long Island is another. It is also illustrated 
locally by George Grey Barnard's Gothic museum on 
Washington Heights. Of this bit of the Old World 
set down in a teeming center of the New World's 
modernity Mr. Bernard has said that he hoped 
"young painters and sculptors and poets would come 
and read old books as they walked up and down in 
this old garden." 







GARRETT BIBLICAL INSTITUTE, EVANSTON, ILLINOIS 

BUILDING C, HALL 7 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



242 



Beaux-Arts Institute of Design 

DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE, LLOYD WARREN 

ARCHITECTURE, WILLIAM F. LAMP, SCULPTURE, JOHN GREGORY 

MURAL PAINTING, ERNEST C. PEIXOTTO INTERIOR DECORATION, ERNEST F. TYLER 

Official Notification of Awards- 
Judgment of February 24, 1920 



THE PUPIN PRIZE. 

The Gift of Prof. M. I. Pupin of Columbia University, 

Offered for the ornamental treatment of some Scientific 

Appliance. 

FIRST PRIZE $50.00 SECOND PRIZE $25.00 

PROGRAM 
"A DIRIGIBLE BALLOON FOR THE LEAGUE OF 

NATIONS." 

The transatlantic voyage lately accomplished by the Brit- 
ish dirigible has established its practicability to transport 
a great number of passengers comfortably, safely, and swift- 
ly to all parts of the glol>e. The use of hydrogen gas for 
buoyancy or lifting power is the only factor of danger, and 
for this reason the power plants for propulsion have been 
suspended in three or four well isolated units from tin- 
rigid envelope, which, in turn, contained the hydrogen gas 
bags. The power plants, thus suspended, complicated tin- 
entire structure, and made an efficient stream line design 
difficult, besides being cumbersome and easily damaged 
when landing. The introduction of the dead or non-ex- 
plosive gas, helium, into the gas bags contained in the rigid 
outer hull, allows the power plants to be incorporated in 
the structure itself, that is to say, in the gondola or 
gondolas along the keel, or from the sides or ends of the 
rigid envelope, care naturally being taken to prevent the 
propeller from damaging the envelope. This fundamental 




J. K. SMITH 2d PRIZE UNIV. OF PENNA. 

PUPIN PRIZE COMPETITION 

A DIRIGIBLE BALLOON FOR THE LEAGUE OF 
NATIONS 

ntage allows the stream line design of these monster 

res to be greatly simplified. The center of gravity 

of the entire structure should be as low as possible so as to 

num overturning. The lifting, or steering planes should 

well placed, the recent photographs of the English dir- 

howing these very plainly. 

ATI observation platform on top, an entrance at the head 

nl a platform or poop at the rear are features of special 

The envelope itself has possibilities for mural 

\ wireless outfit should also be considered. 



and the large dirigibles should provide for an aeroplane on 
top with a starting and landing stage. None of these ac- 
cessories should be below the gondola, as they would inter- 
fere in landing. The gondola or gondolas along the keel 
may be one or more stories high, and should have decks 
for passengers. Arrangements should also be considered 
for searchlights, and methods devised for illumination and 
decoration for gala occasions. 

THE PROGRAM. 

The government of the United States of America, which 
possesses the only supply of heiulm pas, has been requested 




K. I'. VAMJKKPOEL 1st PRIZE SYRACUSE UNIV. 

PUPIN PRIZE COMPETITION 

A DIRIGIBLE BALLOON FOR THE LEAGUE OF 
NATIONS 

to construct a large dirigible to transport the representa- 
tives and delegates of the different countries to and from 
the seat of the League of Nations. This dirigible should 
contain in its design all the features described above am! 
should be 1,000 feet long. 
JURY OF AWARD: 

K. M. Hood. W. F. Lamb. F. A. (iodley. F. S. Hewitt. 
I. \Y. O'Connor and C. S. Pealxwly. 

NUMBER OF DRAWINGS SUBMITTED: Thirty- 
three. 
AWARDS: 

First Prize ($50) : 
versity, Syracuse. 

Second Prize ($25) : 
sylvania, Philadelphia. 

Placed Third: (',. M. 
Philadelphia. 

Placed Fourth : 
N. Y. C. 

Placed Fifth: H. Nolan, Cornell University, Ithaca. 



R. P. VanderPoel, Syracuse Uni- 
J. K. Smith, University of Penn- 
Martin, University of Pennsylvania. 
R. W. Craton, Columbia University, 



PROGRAM. 
CLASS "A" III PROJECT. 

The Committee on Architecture proposes as subject of this 
Competition : 

"A PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT." 
A company, printing and publishing books and mag- 
azines, has decided, owing to labor conditions and to 
secure greater economy of operation, to remove their plant 
to the suburbs of a large city. It has, therefore, secured a 
tract of land of considerable area near the main line of a 



243 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



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P. DOMVILLE 



FIRST MEDAL UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

CLASS "A" III A ..PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT 
STUDENT WORK, BEAUX ARTS INSTITUTE OF DESIGN 

244 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




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CLASS "A" III PKOJET 
A PRIXTIXG ESTABLISHMENT 

2<1 MEDAI. 
I.KVV I'XIV. <)! I'KNNSVI.VAMA 

STl'DEXT WORK 
BEAUX ARTS INSTITUTE OF DESKIX 




245 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



railway and facing an important thoroughfare leading to 
the city. Upon this site it intends to build a complete 
establishment, including the plant, a development for the 
housing of employees, and a landscape treatment that will 
make the scheme attractive from an artistic point of view, 
and will also serve as an advertisement for the company. 

The problem will consist of the plant proper, excluding 
the housing development, but comprising the immediate 




J>. F. TAYLOR 3d MEDAL UNIV. OF PENNA. 

CLASS "A" AND "B" ARCHAEOLOGY II PROJET 

THE SULTAN'S TRIBUNE IN A TURKISH MOSQUE 

surroundings, and will contain, in a basement and two 
floors, the following : 

A. A Vestibule for the reception of visitors with stair- 
way or stairways to the other lioors. 

A Library or .Museum for the exhibition of rare ex- 
amples of the printing craft. 

Tlie Administration, consisting of offices for the various 
managers and superintendents and their assistants, and for 
members of the executive force. 

The Editorial Rooms, which should be on the second 
floor, and in close connection with the composing room 
mentioned below for the convenience of copy distribution 
and proof correction. 

B. The Mechanical Plant. 

This should be so arranged that there will be the great- 
est economy of operation, and the various pieces of ma- 
chinery should be so disposed that there is a progressive 
operation from the beginning to the finished product. There 
should be provided storage space in the basement for the 
paper and other raw materials which arrive by a spur from 
the railroad or by motor truck from the city. This stor- 
age space should be readily accessible, by means of stairs 
and elevators, to the point where the operation begins, and 



a space should be provided on the main floor for sufficie 
supplies for the day's work. 

On the main floor there will be sixteen (16) presses, 
each with an overall dimension of 10 x 18 feet, a machine 
which collects and arranges automatically the various 
sheets, and three (3) or four (4) folding and binding 
machines. 

Besides the storage in the basement for the finished prod- 
uct, there should also be storage and packing facilities 
near the shipping platform, which is accessible to the spur 
track or motor truck delivery. 

Above the press room are to be the Setting-up Rooms 
with Linotype machines which are to be in close connec- 
tion with the presses by means of stairs and elevators ; the 
Electrotyping Room, the Type Foundry where the final 
forms are cast ; a small Rest Room and Hospital. 

All these should have abundant light in fact, the whole 
mechanical plant should be well lighted and ventilated. 

The basement will contain, besides the storage space 
above mentioned, the power plant for the generation of heat 
and electricity for light and power. 

Elevators and stairways should be provided throughout 
the plant to give ample communication between floors. 

The land devoted to the building above must not ex- 
ceed 350 x 250 feet. 

JURY OF AWARD : 

W. F. Lamb, B. W. Morris, P. Cret, M. Prevot, G. A. 
Licht, A. E. Flanagan, C. S. Peabody and J. W. O'Connor. 
NUMBER OF DRAWINGS SUBMITTED: Thirty- 







G. B. HOUK 1st MENTION CORNELL UNIV. 

CLASS "B" III ESQUISSE-ESQUISSE 

A RUSTIC BRIDGE 






246 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AWARDS: 

First Medal : P. Domville, University of Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia. 

SHCOND MEDAL: 11. G. Marceau, C. Denison and J. 
G. Schumann, Jr., Columbia University, N. Y. C. ; R. 
Nickel, "T" Square Club, Philadelphia; A. Levy and S. J. 
Laschenski, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
MENTION: 

Rosamond Wolcott, A. W. Bitterman, Florence Win- 
gate and S. Oxhandler, Columbia University, N. Y. C. ; J. K 
McCool, C. E. Silling, J. P. Davis, \V.~ J, Perkins, P. 
Friedman and S. P. Stewart. Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology, Pittsburgh; R. Platt, "T" Square Club, Philadel- 
phia; G. F. Street, University of Kansas, Lawrence; \Y. F. 
McCaughey, Jr., University of Illinois, Urbana ; T. I!. 
Epps. G. K. Trautwein, E .Coscia and A. E. Westover Jr... 
University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia ; N. Larson, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis ; T. F. Price and P. X. 
Jensen, Atelier Wynkoop, X. Y. C. 
H. C.: 




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D. M. ALLISON 3d MEDAL UNIV. OK ILLS. 

CLASS "A" III-ESQUISSE-ESQUISSE 
A GALLERY OVER A RIVER 

PROGRAM. 

CLASS "E" III ESQUISSE-ESQUISSE. 
The Committee on Architecture proposes as subject of 

this Competition : 
"A RUSTIC BRIDGE." 

This bridge, which spans a small stream 15 feet wide in 
a picturesque and wooded part of a public park, is for ped- 
estrians only. The banks of the stream are about 5 feet 
above the level of the water, and slope at an approximate 
angle of 45 degrees. The material used in the construction 



of the bridge may be either wood or stone, or a com- 
bination of both, at the option of the competitor. 
JURY OF AWARD: 

R. M. Hood, F. A. Godley, H. R. Sedgwick, H. W. 
Corbett, E. S. Hewitt and M. B. Stout. 

This jury also served as Jury of Award for Class "A" 
III Esquissc-Esquisse and Class "A" and "B" Archaeology 
H Project and II Measured Drawings. 
NUMBER OF DRAWINGS SUBMITTED: Sixty-nine. 
AWARDS : 

First Mention: P. F. Simpson. J. (). Cahill and K. 
Snow, Carnegie Institute of Technology. Pittsburgh; 
G. B. Houck, Cornell University, Ithaca; H. W. Gill, Col- 
umbia University, N. Y. C. ; G. Chittenden, Los Angeles 
Architectural Club, Los Angeles. 

Mention: C. B. Marks, C.-A. Lake. E. A. Early. D. H. 
Bod in and R. Schmert/. Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nologyy, Pittsburgh ; E. B. Mason. Cornell University, 
Ithaca; L. Rombotis and M. Sabransky, Los Angeles Archi- 
tectural Club, Los Angeles. 

PROGRAM. 

CLASS "A" 111 KSQUISSE-KSQUISSE. 
The Committee on Architecture proposes as subject of this 

Competition. 
"A GALLERY OVER A RIVER." 

As an addition to a great country residence situated mi 
the banks of a small river which flows through the estate, 
it is proposed to erect a wing or gallery, which on its 
main floor will contain a suite of rooms devoted to social 
functions, and on its second floor will house the owner's 
collection of antique furniture and objets d'arl. 

This gallery will span the river, being carried on a series 
of arches, and will terminate on the bank opposite to that 
on which the present residence stands, in a pavilion con- 
taining the entrance vestibule, stair hall, retiring rooms, etc., 
which serve the gallery. 

The level of the main floor is 25 feet above the sur- 
face of the water, and the total length of the gallery not 
including the entrance pavilion, is 100 feet. The entrance 
pavilion is not required in this problem. 
NUMBER OF DRAWNGS SUBMITTED: Seventeen. 
AWARDS: 

Third Mention : G. W. Trofast-Gillette, Columbia Uni- 
versity, N. Y. C. ; E. R. Froesce. Atelier St. Louis, St. 
Louis; D. M. Allison. University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Mention : R. P. Yander Pocl. Syracuse University. Syra- 
cuse : S. H. Brown and T. E. "Ash, "T" Square Club 
Philadelphia. 

PROGRAM. 

CLASS "A" AND "B" ARCHAEOLOGY II I'ROJFT. 
The Committee on Architecture proposes as subject of this 

Competition. 

'THE SULTAN'S TRIBUNE IN A TURKISH 
MOSQUE." 

The Byzantine and the Early Christian styles of Archi- 
tecture, while closely allied in many points, are sep- 
arated by one basic distinction, for the domical plan is 
characteristic of the former while the basilian is of the 
latter . Also the Byzantine is largely a style of veneer. 
The buildings are of brick or wood, clothed with marbles, 
tiles or carved wood and embellished with elaborate sur- 
face detail in color and inlay. Marble columns with 
fantastic capitals and rich cornices of classic types are used, 
though the typical mouldings are flat with surface decora- 
tion. St. Sophia in Constantinople is the typical example 
of the style and its strong influence can be seen in St. 
Marks. Venice, and even in St. Front, Perigeux. 

The subject of this problem is the special tribune provided 
for the Sultan in a Turkish mosque. 

It shall be supposed to occur near one of the great 
corner piers supporting the central dome of the mosque, 
and shall be carried on piers or columns, so that its floor 
shall be approximately 10 feet above the floor of the 



247 






THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



mosque. The tribune itself, which shall not exceed 20 feet 
in any horizontal dimension, is to be enclosed on the sides 
to protect the Sultan from the view of the public by means 
of pierced grills of wood or marble, and shall be covered 
by a wooden roof or canopy. A gallery, similarly pro- 
tected on the sides, shall lead from the tribune to the Sul- 
tan's private entrance. The tribune shall be rectangular 
or polygonal in form. 

NUMBER OF DRAWINGS SUBMITTED: Three. 
AWARDS: 

Third Medal : R. W. Craton, Columbia University, N. 
V. C. ; P. F. Taylor and J. W. Brooks, University of 
Pennsylvania, Phila. 

CLASS "A" & "B" ARCHAEOLOGY II MEASURED 

DRAWINGS. 
NUMBER OF DRAWINGS SUBMITTED: Three. 



SUBJECT: 
The Swisher Mansion, Austin, Texas. 

AWARD : 

Mention : K. B. Niven, University of Texas, Austin, 

SUBJECT : 

Old Land Office, Austin, Texas. 

AWARD : 

Mention : K. B. Niven, Univresity of Texas, Austin. 

SUBJECT: 
The Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. 

AWARD: 

Mention : K. D. Beckmann. University of Texas, Austin. 



Present Situation in the Building Industry 

B\ H. H. Fox, Vice-President of the Turner Construction Co. . 



ABOUT May 1 there was a falling off in the 
demand for new buildings and there were 
some cancellations of contracts and some 
stoppage of work on buildings already under con- 
struction. 

The probable causes of this situation seem to be 
as follows : 

1. High estimates of the cost of new buildings. 

2. Uncertainty in the minds of owners, particu- 
larly on the following points : 

(a) \Yill the actal cost of a new building be 
within the estimate or will a situation prevail 
such as prevailed during the fall of 1919 and the 
winter of 1920 in which, owing to strikes, not only 
in the building trades but in the steel, coal and 
railroad industries, costs in general exceeded es- 
timates ? 

(b) Will it be possible to complete a building 
within a reasonable length of time in view of the 
shortage of materials and the congestion of the 
railroads? 

(c) Will it be possible to build a building a 
year or two hence for materially less than it would 
cost now ? 

(d) Will a sufficient demand for manufac- 
tured goods exist during the next few years so 
that a manufacturer can hope to earn a fair re- 
turn on an investment made in a building at the 
present time? 

O) Will a sufficient supply of labor exist and 
will this labor work with efficiency so that a man- 
ufacturer can hope to operate a new plant to ad- 
vantage ? 

3. High money rates. 

4. Politics. 



Taking up the above points in order : 

1 . There is no doubt whatever that the estimated 
costs of buildings today are higher than they have 
ever been. It is a fact, however, that building costs 
have not risen as much in the last five years as com- 
modity prices. 

(a) Will the actual cost of a new building be 
within the estimate or will a situation prevail such 
as prevailed during the fall of 1919 and the winter 
of 1920 in which, owing to strikes, not only in the 
building trades but in the steel, coal and railroad in- 
dustries, costs in general exceed estimates? 

The most important factor in considering this 
question is the railroad situation. Supplies of the 
principal building materials, namely, steel, cement 
and lumber, exist at the points of origin but on ac- 
count of the car shortage which amounts to over 
100,000 cars contrasted with a surplus a year ago 
of over 300,000) these supplies cannot be moved 
away as fast as they can be manufactured. With 
the present demand for cars for the shipment of 
coal, and the demand which will develop in the fall 
for the shipment of grain, it is difficult to see how 
this situation can be overcome in the immediate 
future. However, the increase in wages for rail- 
road employees and the freight rate increases, which 
will enable the railroads to improve their equipment, 
should mark the beginning of a lasting improvement 
in this situation. 

There is an actual shortage of clay products, such 
as brick and hollow tile as these require considerable 
coal for their manufacture and the requisite coal 
cannot be obtained. This is another result of the 
car shortage. 

(Continued on page 253) 



248 



Criticism and Comment 



The Editors THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

On reading the leading editorial in your issue of 
July 21 a trail of thought is unfolded to the writer, 
who is prompted to present his observations on the 
subject. 

In noting these observations the writer is not un- 
mindful of the fact that, though he held a diploma 
from one of the leading schools of architecture in 
the United States and had had considerable experi- 
ence over the drafting board, these qualifications 
were not considered when he tried to enter the ser- 
vice. Because of a slight physical defect his appli- 
cation for enlistment in the Corps of Engineers was 
rejected, and because of his being within the age 
limits of the "Selective" Service Act, he was unable 
to secure employment with the Construction Divi- 
sion of the army, although his experience in con- 
nection with Industrial Housing would have rend- 
ered his services in this department peculiarly valu- 
able. The same defect that had prevented his en- 
listment in the Engineers' Corps, as well as in other 
branches of the service, did not prevent his induc- 
tion into the service when his number was reached. 
Having entered the service his professional qual- 
ifications seem to have been ignored. The fact that 
he had had some experience as a musician was be- 
lieved as of more importance, although lie had had 
no experience whatever with a band. He was ac- 
cordingly given the gracious rank of Drum Major, 
carrying with it the stripe of a Band Corporal. 
This rank he retained until discharged from the 
service after the armistice. 

The perusal of your editorial brings up the ques- 
tion : Are modern industrial life and business life 
in general based on considerations of personal .fit- 
ness and do present-day methods of education and 
training place sufficient importance upon the quali- 
fications of the individual? The writer's observa- 
tions lead him to the conclusion that too much im- 
portance seems to be attached to a man's affiliations, 
his personal and social connections, and his influ- 
ence, and too little to the question of whether he is 
of the proper calibre for the job. This is not ut- 
tered in a spirit of indictment or resentment, but 
merely as an observation on a widely prevalent con- 
dition. Neither does the writer think the condition 
universal. 

lour years attendance at a leading university 
brought the writer into contact with hundreds of 
men of all types. True, the majority were serious 



and pursuing courses to which they were undoubt- 
edly suited. On the other hand, many men's sole 
claim to a place on the register of the university 
was the fact that they (or their paters) were able 
to pay the Bursor at the proper time and, by dint 
of cramming they were able to pass the examina- 
tions. Such men almost invariably are invited into 
a fraternity (and are accepted) and in the after- 
college years, wield considerable influence by virtue 
of their fraternal connections and "get away with 
it." Too often this influence places them in posi- 
tions where they ultimately fail. 

Similar conditions have too strong an influence 
in the U. S. Army to be beneficial. Too often has 
the writer seen men whose principal claim was their 
good fellowship or their affiliations make headway 
in preference to the man who had a more solid 
foundation. 

\\ bile the broadening influence upon the mind 
resulting from association with men of all classes, 
races and creeds, such as is experienced in the war- 
time army, is of undoubted importance, the writer, 
nevertheless, cannot help but believe that its value 
could be greatly enhanced were more importance 
attached to the man's personal qualifications an 1 
less to his affiliations. 

Referring specifically to the question in your edi- 
torial whether or not professional men left the ser- 
vice better equipped for their work, it cannot be 
doubted that the majority of the men gained in 
health and became better acquainted with the world 
in general. But the universal and unavoidable ten- 
dency of the rank and file of armies to pull the 
higher level of intellect to the plane of the average 
or lower intellect certainly had an unwholesome ef- 
fect upon men accustomed to seeing and appreci- 
ating the liner things in life fas an example of this 
tendency witness the average souvenir store cater- 
ing to the soldier, with its display of gaudy and silly 
souvenirs and trinkets). Furthermore, the total 
cessation of professional duties, as was the case with 
most professional men, and the assumption of the 
strenuous routine of army life could not but tend 
to reduce professional efficiency. Close observation 
since again coming in contact with professional men 
convinces the writer that while military service im- 
proved the physique and health it did not tend to 
better equip the men for the resumption of their 
professional duties. 



New York. 



EX-SERVICE. 



249 



Memorial Bridge Proposed for New York 



THE War Memorial Committee of Mew York 
City looked with particular favor upon a bridge 
across the Hudson River. A letter to the com- 
mittee from the North River Bridge Company an- 
swers some of the objections which were made to 
this .form of memorial. As to the bridge which that 
company proposed to build under a perpetual Federal 
charter granted in 1890, it says: "Its colossal size is 
dictated by the needs of the city. Every foot of the 
two decks, each 180 feet wide, will be needed after 
its completion for the very pressing traffic across the 
river. The objections of your jury of artists to the 
profanation of a war memorial by the noise and 
clatter of railroad traffic can be readily understood 
and indorsed, but in this case are not well founded. 
The solemn monumental character of the bridge will 
not be impaired by railroad tracks, since they will 
be electrified and on the lower deck, entirely out of 
sight from the street level, which will be on the upper 
deck. They will be no more visible or noticeable 
than the subwavs are in our streets. 



''The middle boulevard, eighty feet wide, will be 
on the upper deck, rising with an easy grade from 
Ninth avenue and connecting with the existing boule- 
vard on top of the Palisades. The side avenues, 
with surface tracks, will be screened separate and 
screened from the middle boulevard by trusses. A 
grander concourse can hardly be conceived. The 
massive anchorages and the bridge towers on both 
sides of the river lend themselves in an extraord- 
inary degree to monumental stone architecture of 
colossal proportions which decorative art can beau- 
tify to meet the most artistic taste." 

Another plan for a bridge across the Hudson is 
now in the hands of the New York-New Jersey Port 
Commission, which is proposed to cross at Grand 
street. This bride was designed by Alfred C. Bos- 
som, architect, chiefly from the point of view of 
transportation necessities. It would provide ten 
tracks on its lower level which would greatly facili- 
tate the handling of freight in and out of Manhattan 
Island. 



Patchin Place, Tenth Street, New York City 

(Sec reproduction of the original drawing by O. R. Eggcrs in this issue) 



LYING in the very heart of Greenwich Village 
is Patchin Place. So well protected is it in 
its privacy and the absence of contact with 
the busy New York of today, that one has to search 
keenly for this quaint old neighborhood almost the 
last record of a dignified residence location. 

Patchin Place is located on that slanting direction 
of Tenth Street which inconsistently as it may seem 
crosses Ninth and Fourth Streets in its progress 
toward the Hudson River. Halfway of the block 
between Sixth and Greenwich Avenues this little 
group of well proportioned houses lies in a veritable 
cul-de-sac. Its narrow sidewalks are simple ap- 
proaches for the dozen houses which, six abreast, 
front on an equally narrow roadway. From close 
to the building line there spring Acanthus trees 
whose tops meet in a leafy arch that embowers the 
street. Standing with one's back to the wall that 
serves as a barrier to the further extension of the 
place and on a moonlight night looking through a 
tracery of leaves toward the spires and minarets of 
the court building on the opposite side of Tenth 



Street, it is difficult to imagine that one is exactly 
in the center of Greenwich Village a bustling, ever 
restless part of the city. The isolation is complete. 
The hum and jarring noises of the city's traffic, the 
rumble of the nearby elevated trains, all those many 
discordant elements of city life are hushed to still- 
ness in Patchin Place. 

Who built this row of fine old houses we do not 
know, for diligent inquiry has not enabled us to 
discover the identity of the architect. But they 
arose during a period when the classically correct 
proportioning of solids to voids was considered the 
very essence of good architectural design. It seems 
futile to hope that this quaint location can very long 
withstand the progress of the city's growth, but it 
is reassuring to have been able to observe on the oc- 
casion of a recent visit to Patchin Place that certain 
necessary repairs and restorations were in progress. 
This gives rise to the hope that the present owners 
realize the artistic and historical significance of this 
little gem and are desirous of keeping it as it always 
has been. 



250 




PATCHIN PLACE, NEW YORK 
ARCHITECT Sii-lti of Ktrly Amcrttan Arthlltttur, 



mam mm 



wsM. 




The Pressing Need for New Postal 
Arrangements 

THE announcement that the United States Post 
Office Department has taken a long term lease 
of a building soon to be erected <m 3Sth Street. New 
York, lends encouragement to the hope that Xe\v 
York may eventually rind relief from the poor postal 
service that now creates an intolerable condition. 
\e\v York City transacts about one-ninth of the 
entire post office business of the country. Any lack 
of proper facilities for the easy handling and quick 
despatch of mail matter there accordingly affects 
the entire country. The proposed building on 38th 
Street but touches the rim of Xew York's necessities. 
Congress should at the earliest moment provide the 
needed authority for other similar buildings. 

There should first be one in the downtown finan- 
cial district. This will bring up the much discussed 
matter of the long delayed removal of the awful 
building that now spreads its disfiguring bulk along 
the southern end of City Hall Park, l-'urther. Con- 
gress should provide for the extension of the Penn- 
sylvania Terminal Post Office Building, either by en- 
largement or by another and new building in the im- 
mediate vicinity. There have been no new post 
office buildings erected in New York since 1912, in 
which year the Pennsylvania Branch Post Office 
Building was completed. Xo provision was made 
in the building for the enormous increase in the 
parcel post business. The rapidly growing sections 
in the outlying districts of the greater city will also 
need buildings to accommodate their imperative 
needs, while the Grand Central Terminal Branch 
Post Office has already become so congested by an 
enormous increase as to handicap very seriously 
the efficient handling of mail matter. 

WHAT is true as to Xew York is true in an 
only slightly lesser degree in every large city 
of the United Sates. "The Postal Service," to quote 
Mr. Koons, the first assistant postmaster general, 
"is simply a big business of more than $450,000,000 
annually and is increasing at a rate never heretofore 
known." 



Congress must soon tire of the game of politics 
it is so constantly playing and become alive to the 
necessity for some speedy relief in the handling of 
our enormous bulk of mail. When the government 
resumes its building operations, the needs of the 
Post Office Department should receive first consid- 
eration. And as these building needs are of the most 
commercial character, we shall have to evolve a 
new type of post office building, one that will serve 
all the necessities of the department and not become 
a further development of those purely ornamental 
civic monuments that are spread broadcast all over 
the United States. 

The new post office buildings should be exactly 
for the utilitarian purposes they are intended to 
serve. Owing to land values, the ground areas will 
necessarily be restricted and it will, therefore, be 
necessary to carry these buildings to a height greater 
than buildings of this type hitherto constructed. 
This will be necessary not only to afford room for 
the large volume of business that will be conducted, 
but also to provide the needed light and air. 

The policy of constructing post office buildings 
with provision for the rental by the government of 
space to private enterprises not connected with postal 
business should be discontinued. The undesirability 
of such a method has been demonstrated in all of 
our large cities, and particularly in Xew York. In 
this city there are instances where the Post Office 
Department has rented for its use the lower stories 
of buildings in busy sections. The conditions created 
have become intolerable, and have maintained a 
state that not only interfere with the public's com- 
fort but often menace its safety. 

THESE conditions of congestion and public dis- 
comfort suggest the serious consideration of 
some proper means of intercommunication between 
the various branch buildings and the railroad ter- 
minals. The logical method, because the most prac- 
tical, is one of subways. This would solve the 
shipping problem, and prevent the blocking of side- 
walks and the congestion of street traffic due to load- 
ing and unloading countless mail wagons during the 
entire twenty- four hours of each day. 



251 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



There can be no street regulation of the postal 
traffic after the manner of the usual regulation of 
ordinary street traffic. The mails must not be de- 
layed, hence the right of way is arbitrarily con- 
strued by employes as permission practically to com- 
pletely blockade the streets and sidewalks in front of 
these temporary branches of the Post Office De- 
partment. The increase in business and the very 
radical change in its character by reason of the addi- 
tion of the parcel post have created a condition that 
cannot be solved by precedent nor carried forward 
by the exercise of previous custom. It will require 
a new type of building, new methods and the abolish- 
ment of certain systems now antiquated and out- 
worn. Congress should be brought to a realizing 
sense of the need that has developed and the present 
inadequacy of the methods employed to serve it. 
We should not wait until alter election. We should 
get busy now. 



Cultivating a National Art 

WE have got to travel a long road in this coun- 
try before we learn just what to us as a 
nation is the true value of art. Hetween the people 
and the end of the road there stands a barrier that 
has been many times approached and but seldom 
surmounted. That barrier is politics. We shall never 
progress unimpeded along the road to our ideals in 
art until we are able to show by a steadily increasing 
popular sentiment a sentiment that means a pre- 
ponderance of votes, that the majority demand the 
best expression of art in our architecture and all 
the arts to which architecture is allied. 



We instinctively turn to France when we seek to 
name a country where art has really become a factor 
of civic government. The idea that art and the 
knowledge of art could ever be considered as of no 
importance by a civilized people or made to rank 
below the sordid interests that lead to money making, 
finds no sympathetic adherents in France. To the 
French, art is a necessity, not a luxury, and those in 
office who fail to realize this find their tenure short. 
Jn France, art and politics are indissolubly joined, 
but the junction is so much a part of the govern- 
mental ideals those ideals that every man in public 
office must know, and knowing, further that the 
union becomes one of vast importance and marks 
the continued progress of the French nation. 

It will be the height of unwisdom first to bend 
every effort toward the accumulation of riches and 
then seek to acquire an art. You may not teach 
old dogs new tricks. The habit acquired by years of 
sordid plodding do not lead to an appreciation of 
art. As a nation we shall need to act along the same 
lines that might govern the individual. We must 
acquire an education in art and the refinements of 
life at the same time that we shall accumulate the 
money which will enable us to acquire good art and 
to appreciate what such acquisition means. Art is 
not a luxury, it is a necessity of our daily lives. No 
man is so much to be pitied as that very rich one 
who, having spent his life in the acquiring of money, 
finds that he has absolutely no ability to appreciate 
its advantages. These conditions may very well 
apply to a nation. 




DECORATION, BERTINI GALLERY, MILAN 
252 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Present Situation in the Building 
Industry 

(Continued from page 248) 

( >ne result of this situation has been to stop or 
slow down work on many projects and consequently 
throw many workmen out of work. This has created 
a surplus instead of a shortage of labor and should 
tend to increase the efficiency of labor. In several 
industries which we have investigated, it has had 
exactly this effect. 

It would seem, therefore, that for the next feu- 
months labor troubles will be less frequent. 

The major difficulty, therefore, is one of trans- 
portation rather than of materials or labor, and the 
situation is one which will affect the time of comple- 
tion of a building more than the cost, although costs 
will be increased by increased freight rates, by the 
cost of expediting rail shipments, and to some extent 
by general inefficiency resulting from inability to 
have materials at the work when needed. 

(b) Will it be possible to complete a building 
within a reasonable length of time in view of the 
shortage of materials and the congestion of the rail- 
roads ? 

Owing to the railroad situation it is impossible for 
a contractor at the present time to guarantee a date 
of completion of a large building. It is, nevertheless. 
a fact that many operations, both large and small, 
are at present under way and are being completed 
within a reasonable time. 

(V ) Will it be possible to build a building a year 
or two hence for materially less than it would cost 
now? 

Consideration of this question involves two prin- 
cipal factors the general price level ; that is. the 
value of the dollar, and the demand for building 
construction. 

Many articles have been written on the prospects 
of a decrease in the general price level and it is not 
necessary to discuss this topic at length. In view of 
the enormous increase of money in circulation ($56 
per capita today, against $35 per capita in 1914) ; 
increased credit facilities due to the Federal Re- 
serve System, making money easier to get and. 
therefore, easier to spend; high prices, shortage of 
raw materials, and inefficiency of labor in foreign 
countries which will prevent foreign competition 
which will prevent foreign competition from being a 
vital factor for some time, it seems unreasonable 
I to hope for a rapid drop in the general price level. 

Regarding the demand for buildings, a table was 
published in the Financial Chronical of February 1 \ 
giving the money value of building permits issued 
in I he principal cities of the United States from 
I'*K> to 1919. The figure for 1906 was about $805,- 
000.000 and for 1919 $1.498.000,000. 



Both 1906 and 1912 were years of good business. 
and according to the Chronicle's figures, the increase 
in building permits between those two years (dis- 
regarding the fact that several small cities are in- 
cluded in the 1912 table which were not in the 1906 
table) was about 30 per cent. If this is considere 1 
a normal increase for a period of six years, the 
building permits issued in 1919 would normally have 
been about $1,400,000.000. This figure, however, is 
based on prices prevailing between 1906 and 1912. 
Based on 1919 prices the normal amount of build- 
ing permits in 1919 would have been about $2 - 
( XX),0000,000. 

If we correct the figures from 1912 to 1919 ; ,o 
that they are on the same cost basis and show the 
quantity of building done instead of the cost, we 
find that the building work done between 1912 and 
1919 was short of normal requirements by the fol- 
lowing amounts : 



$50.000.000 
'160.000,000 
150.000.000 
160.000,000 
730.000.000 
191S .................... 1.050.000.000 

1919 ........ 600.000.000 



1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 



Total $2.900.000,000 

This figure is still based on the 1912 cost stand- 
ard. Based on present day cost it would be over $7,- 
000,000.000, representing more than two years' nor- 
mal building construction. 

A further factor tending to increase the dcman i 
tor buildings at the present time is the reduction 
in working hours which has taken place in many 
industries, necessitating a corresponding increase 
in working space if goods are to be produced in 
the same quantity. 

In the face of this condition it is hard to see 
how there can be any material decrease in the cost 
of buildings for many years, excepting as these costs 
may be reduced by a drop in the general price level. 
(d) \Vil1 ;i sufficient demand for manufacture 1 
goods exist during the next few years so that a man- 
ufacturer can hope to earn a fair return on an in- 
vestment made in a building at the present time? 

It is difficult to obtain figures on quantities of 
goods manufactured. Figures on basic commodi- 
ties, however, are easily obtainable and it is reason- 
able to suppose that the amount of manufactured 
goods must fluctuate with the amount of basic com- 
modities produced. 

The Irving National Bank published a booklet in 
May, 1920. entitled "Problem of Prices," in which 
was shown the "Federal Reserve Bank curve of pro- 
duction in the United States of ten basic products." 



253 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



With production in the year 1900 taken as 100 per 
cent., production in 1912 is shown as 160 per cent., 
and production in 1918 as 195 per cent. This indi- 
cates that in the years 1912 to 1918 approximately 
the same rate of increase was maintained as in the 
years 1900 to 1912. In 1919, however, the produc- 
tion decreased to 182 per cent. The production in 
1919 was, therefore, below normal requirements, 
and if we take into account the fact that during the 
war years a large part of the basic commodities 
produced were used up in the war, there is un- 
doubtedly at the present day a considerable shortage 
to be made up. 

Contrast this condition to the one which pre- 
vailed just previous to the 1907 panic. In 1906 the 
production of wheat was larger than in any previous 
year with the exception of 1901. In 1906 the pro- 
duction of corn was greater than in any previous 
year. In 1906 the production of cotton was greater 
than in any previous year with the exception of 1904. 
In both 1906 and 1907 the production of pig iron 
was greater than in any previous year. In 1906 the 
production of copper was greater than in any pre- 
vious year. 

The condition as to production of commodities 
today is so radically different from conditions which 
have preceded periods of depression in the past th;it 
it is difficult to believe that any falling off in demand 
for goods of all kinds can continue for more than 
a short period. 

(c) Will a sufficient supply of labor exist and 
will this labor work with efficiency so that a manu- 
facturer can hope to operate a new plant to ad- 
vantage ? 

There are already indications that the efficiency 
of labor is increasing. We know of specific in- 
stances in which manufacturers have laid off part 
of their working force without decreasing the quan- 
tity of their product. The railroad situation has 
caused enforced idleness in many industries so that 
workmen can no longer show the indifference which 
unfortunately has prevailed during the past year and 
still be sure of holding their jobs. Immigration is 
increasing. There are good grounds for hope that 
in the immediate future employers will be less 
troubled with shortage and inefficiency of labor than 
during the past year. 

3. High money rates are due largely to the fact 
that owing to high prices, about 2 l / 2 times as much 
money is required to finance a given undertaking as 
formerly was the case; and also to the enormous 
volume of new securities issued (on top of the Lib- 
erty Bond issues about $3,700,000,000 of new se- 
curities were issued in the twelve months ending 
April 30, 1920, against a previous yearly maximum 
of $2,300,000,000 in 1912). This situation has been 
intensified by the railroad situation which has kept 



manufactured goods from reaching the consumer. 
High money rates compared with the old standards 
are likely to continue for several years, although 
there should be some relaxation after the railroad 
situation is straightened out and the crops are 
moved. Equipment bonds of first class railroads 
running for ten years or more have recently been 
sold on a 7 per cent, basis. The United States 
Government has announced an issue of treasury 
certificates maturing in one year and carrying 6 
per cent, interest, a rate which has not been paid 
by the Government since 1867. It may be inferred 
that our treasury department and railroads who 
are in a position to secure the best financial advice 
would not be borrowing at these rates for such 
long periods if any radical decrease in money rates 
were in prospect. 

4. Politics: Much as we may have been 
chagrined during the past year at the failure of our 
Legislative and Executive Departments to co- 
operate, and much as we may wish to see the in- 
ternational position of the United States clearly 
defined, the fact remains that it is entirely possible 
that no bills will be introduced in Washington dur- 
ing the next four years of such vital importance to 
the purely material interests of the country as the 
Federal Reserve Law and the Railroad Law which 
are already safely on the statute books. Individual 
initiative and the law of supply and demand will 
have a greater effect on business than will legis- 
lative activities. 

Conclusion: The shortage in buildings today is 
so great that it cannot be corrected for many years 
and for this reason it is not probable that there will 
be any material decrease in the cost of building. 

If the railroad wage award handed down by the 
Railroad Labor Board imbues in the railroad em- 
ployees a desire to hold their jobs; and if the fact 
that jobs are not as easy to pick up as they have 
been, makes them realize that they must work a 
little harder in order to hold their jobs, the railroad 
situation should begin to straighten out. The in- 
creased freight rates agreed upon by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission will enable the railroads to 
prepare a budget and place orders for equipment. 
In time the car shortage will be turned into a sur- 
plus and the abnormal amount of credit now tied 
up on goods in transit will be released. 

The prospective builder must be prepared for 
some delay in the completion of work ordered in the 
immediate future ; but he can, nevertheless, in our 
opinion, undertake construction work without fear 
either that there wilt be a sharp drop in building 
costs after his work is completed, or that there will 
be a material falling off in the demand for his 
products. 



254 



VOL. (-XVIII, Xo. 2331 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 25, 1920 





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HOTEL DESHLER, COLUMBUS, OHIO 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



7 

- 




Vi il.. rXVIII, No. 2331 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 23, 1920 



If 




DETAIL OK COKNICK 

HOTEL DESHLER, COLUMBUS, OHIO 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 






V i ,(.. (\\1II. No. 2.V1 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



Al'Gl'ST 25, 1920 




IIIK LADIES' I'AKI.DK 

HOTEL DESHLER, COLUMBUS, OHIO 

HOI.ABIRD & ROC'HE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. CXVIII, No. 2331 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 25, 1920 




MM M 




t 1 




DETAIL OF BALL ROOM 

HOTEL DESHLER, COLUMBUS, OHIO 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. cxviu, NO. 2331 THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 25, 1920 




THE VESTIBULE 

HOTEL DESHLER, COLUMBUS, OHIO 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



Vol.. i XVIII. No. 2331 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 

L 



AUGUST 25, 1920 



.- - 

J. ' '/ I . j/, j -, . 

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EXTERIOR DETAIL OF FIRST STORY 

HOTEL DESHLER. COLUMBUS, OHIO 

HOLABIKD & ROCHE, ARCHITECT* 



VOL. c xvm, NO 233! THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 25, 1920 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




PLANS OF THE FOURTH FLOOR AND ABOVE 

HOTEL DESHLER, COLUMBUS, OHIO 

HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



Vol.. < XVIII. No- 2331 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



AUGUST 25, 1920 



a 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




BASEMENT PLAN 
HOTEL DESHLER. COLUMBUS, OHIO 

HOLABIRU & KOCHE, ARCHITECTS 










New Material Used in Manufacturing 
Building at Newark, N. J. 



THE war was both directly and indirectly re- 
ponsible for the development of many new 
types of building construction. The fact that 
certain of these are only now making their appear- 
ance is but proof of the extensive experimental 
work carried on during preceding years, accelerated 
by the hope that a practical stage of development 



lions of reconstruction, which must be brought to 
a successful end before we may even enjoy the 
fruits of peace and victory. The building industry 
suffered during the war more than any other, and 
now that private building operations arc again pos- 
sible, it becomes necessary to construct with greater 
efficiency than ever before and to avoid all waste. 




NEW BUILDING, PORETE MANUFACTURING CO., NEWARK, N. J. 

E. WALTER, DESIGNING ENGINEEK 



could be reached prior to the termination of hos- 
tilities, that thereby aid might be rendered to one or 
more of the agencies conducting the Government's 
vast building program. But if improved materials 
and methods of construction were essential to the 
solving of our war problems, they are doubly so 
now, when we are face to face with the complica- 



In past issues THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT has set 
forth various methods by which improved construc- 
tion is possible. In this article a new material 
a porous concrete is described and methods of its 
application to building construction set forth and 
illustrated. 

The laboratory research work has only recently 



255 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 




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256 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



reached that point where the production of the ma- 
terial on a commercial basis has become possible. 
At present it is being produced in slabs 1 inch and 
\ l /s inches thick, and 24 inches by 32 inches wide. 
The 1 inch slabs or boards are reinforced with light 
2-inch mesh poultry wire netting and are used for 
wall and partition construction, while the l>-inch 
slabs are reinforced with expanded metal and arc- 
used for roof construction. The material weighs 



that which has any detrimental effect on the con- 
crete. Thus by leaching out and evaporating the 
material composing the pellets, the spaces formerly 
occupied by them become voids and the structure 
of the resultant concrete very much resembles that 
of a rubber sponge. The material forming the pel- 
lets is recuperated and used over and over again. 
The process as well as the product is covered by 
U. S. Patents. A fine Rockaway Beach sand is used 




r - ; 




INTERIOR VIEW OF PLANT SHOWING WALL AND ROOF CONSTRUCTION 



approximately 50 pounds per cubic foot, slightly 
more than that of the commonly used grades of 
lumber, and the slabs can be easily handled. 

The porous character of the product is obtained 
by mixing with Portland cement and sand a quan- 
tity of mechanically produced pellets of a neutral 
wax-like material, about the size of "B B" shot. 
These pellets, while unaffected during the process 
of mixing and setting of the cement, are affected 
y heat, and melt or vaporize at a temperature below 



in the mix. The slabs are cast in metal forms, and 
while the upper surface of the finished slab is rough 
and porous, the tinder surface, due to contact with 
the form, is smooth. After the leaching process the 
slabs are stacked outdoors where they remain until 
shipment. An examination of a number of the 
earlier slabs, produced about a year ago, showed the 
material to be in good condition, and also consider- 
ably harder, as the setting process goes on, the same 
as with any Portland cement concrete. These hail 



257 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



not been protected in any way and thus had been 
exposed to the elements during the past winter. 

A plant for the manufacture of this product, ap- 
proximately 50 feet by 100 feet in area and one 
story (20 feet) high has just been completed at 
Newark, N. J. The manufacturers have employed 
this material wherever possible in the construction 




SSL 



CONSTRUCTING AN END WALL OF POROUS 
CONCRETE SLABS 

of this building. Thus it has been used for all side 
walls, roof and interior partition construction as 
well as for the doors. Since this plant is the first, 
and so far as the editors know, the only structure 
so constructed, it is here illustrated in considerable 
detail. 

All footings are of normal concrete, carried 4 feet 
below grade. A concrete wall, 12 inches thick and' 
extending 4 feet above grade, has been placed 
around the entire exterior, and this feature seems to 
be desirable, since it acts as a guard against damage 
by motor trucks, etc. The entire framework of the 
structure is of steel. The exterior columns are 5- 
inch H section and extend from 3 inches below 
grade to 20 feet above. The interior columns, form- 
ing a row in the center, are of 6-inch H section, and 
approximately 21 feet high. All columns are spaced 
20 feet on centers parallel to the long axis of the 
building. The roof girders are 18-inch I beams set 
on a slight pitch, and braced to the columns by 
angle knee braces. The roof purlins are 7-inch chan- 
nels 2 feet, 8 inches on centers, with lower flanges 
resting on and bolted to the girders. It would have 
been possible to have constructed a considerable 
lighter steel roof structure by using I beams instead 
of channels as roof beams, set farther apart and 
light angle iron purlins at 32-inch centers to carry 
the slabs. However, the owners preferred the 
heavier construction to simplify the structure. Hori- 
zontal angles, spaced 2 feet, 8 inches apart are 
connected to the outside flanges of the wall columns. 
All door and window openings are framed with 



angles and channels. The entire steel framework is 
well braced. A good conception of the construction 
will be obtained from an inspection of the photo- 
graph of the interior. 

After the erection of the steel framework, the 
walls were covered with the porous concrete slabs, 
set with the long dimension vertical. The slabs are 
held in place by specially constructed, heavily gal- 
vanized metal clips. Se