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AMiejr. Restoration of St. Alban's, 177 
Academy of Design. The Brooklyn, IS 
** " The Chicago, 177 

" " New York. Exhibi- 

tion of the, 149 

" Exhibition. The Royal, 183 
Accident, at Brooklyn, 35 

in a Brooklyn Court Room, 124 
" at Providence, 35 
" tt Springfield. Almost an, 35 
" Bridge, at Poland, 0., 140 
" Elevator, 72, 159 
" Elevator, at the Grand Hotel, 

Paris, 83, 104 
" Explosion of the N. Y. Candy 

Factory, 1 

" " of Flour Mills at Min- 

neapolis, 161, 228 

" " of a Sulphur Factory, 


* " in a Thermometer 

Factory, 132 
Fall of Arch of Brooklyn Bridge 

Approach, 7, 32 

" " a Baltimore House, 20 

" " a Brick Floor on Mott 

Street, N. Y., 222 
" " Brick House in New York, 


" " a Bridge at Aurora, 208 

" a Brooklyn Factory, 60 
" " a Building, 72 

" Buildings at the Hay- 

market, 53 
" " Buildings in Lexington 

St., New York, 74 
Building at Palmyra, N. 

Y., 163 
" Buildings at St. John, 7, 


" t Clock Weight, 24 
" a Floor on Mercer St., 

New York, 196, 201 
" " Floors at St. John, 161 

" " an Iron Roof at Cam- 

bridge, 45 
a Keystone, 140 
" "New York Armory Floor, 

a New York Armory Wall, 


" " a Row of Building*, 83. 

" "a Salem, Mass., House, 


" South St. Bridge, Phila- 

delphia, 60, 62 
" " a Stable Floor in New 

York, 189 
" " the Tariffville Bridge, 26. 

37, 44, 74 

" a Vat at Buffalo, 132 
" Warehouse Floor in New 

York, 182 
" Fire Drill in St. Louis Schools, 

14 Lightning Conductors and Earth 

Coiitact, 203 

Painters' Hooks at St. John, 168 
Uplifting of a Floor, 175 
Accidents. Bridge, 88 
Aconcagua Mountain, 104 
Acoustics. A Problem in. 139, 150, 1B9 
Adams's R. R Commisioner Bill Mr., 81 
Advantage of the Metric System to Archi- 
tects and Builders, 79 
Africa. The Monitcur'i Expedition into, 


Air-Filter. An, 18 
Air. Process of Purifying the, MS 
Albany Capitol Contracts, 138 
Alphabets. Ornamental, JS 

Alterations. Architects' Fees for, 155 
American Architecture. The Architect on, 2 
41 from a French 

Standpoint, 57 
" " Mr. O. Smith on, 


" Old, 10 

11 Art. Originality in, 3 

Clock. A remarkable, 36 
Exhibit at Paris, 73 

" Institute of Architects. Con- 
vention of, 50, 66 
" Vernacular Architecture, 182, 


Anachronisms. Modern, 96 
Anecdotes : 

Adventures of an Inscription, 24 
Bill Stumps Redivivus, 104 
Drapers as Building Contractors, 86 
Eccentricities of Forgetfulness. The, 


Humors of Russian Bridge building, 220 
Plumbers as Witnesses, 24 
Stuffing Extraordinary, 124 
Ultramontanism, 8 
Antiquities. Mexican, 98 
Antwerp Cathedral. Spire of, 110 
Apartment Houses and Tenement Houses, 


Aquarium at the Paris Exhibition, 212 
Archaeological : 
Amphitheatre at Vintimiglia, 72 
Archaeological Discoveries in Rome, 204 
Bronze Foundry at Cagli, 176 
Discoveries at the* Baths of Diocletian, 


Excavations in the Roman Forum, 74 
Explorations in Samothrice, 181 
Goslar. The Restorations at, 120 
Historical Buildings in Holland, 183 
Inscriptions found at Nineveh, 228 
Mexican Antiquities, 96 
Missouri Mounds, 132 
Mural Mosaic at Rome, 160 

44 Painting in Switzerland 152, 
Necropolis at Suessula, 152 
New Works of Michael Angelo In Ven- 
ice, 124 

Sipoutum Unearthing, 8, 88 
Arches. Second-hand Triumphal, 116 
Architect. An Obstructive, 198 

Report of the Supervising, 61 
Architect's Drawings. Custody of an, 206 
Fees for Alterations. An, 155 
Suit for his Fee. An, 159 
Architects Common Councilmen as, 203 
Complaint of the, 133 
Eleventh Convention of, 50, 66 
and the Metric System, 79 
" Frizes of the Boston Society of, 

" The Qualifying of, 134, 142, 

Responsibility of, 26 
" Sir E. Becket ou the Frailties 

of, 107 

as Witnesses, 176 
Architectural Copartnership. An, 198 

" Description. Two Kinds of, 


Dictionary. M. Bosc's, 13 
Models. French Use of, 8 
Restoration, 98 
" Schools, 164 

Architecture. American Vernacular, 182, 

The Arrhittct's Criticism on 

American, 2 

at the Centennial from a 
French Standpoint. Jot- 

Architecture. Church, 158 

from a French Standpoint. 

American, 5( 

that we need. The Church, 10 
Modern Church, 130, 139, 167 
Possibilities of a New Style 

of. The, 22 
Religious, 156 
Smith, Mr. G., on American 


Armagh. The Observatory at, 140 
Armory Floor, New York. Accident to, 44 
Art and the Cesnola Collection. Byzan- 
tine, 215 

" at Washington, 118 
' Decoration applied to Furniture, 77 
" Mr. Corcoran's Proposed Academy of 

Fine, It8 

" Originality in American, 3 
" Science, Architecture, and Literature, 


Art-Worlctr. The, 78 
Art-workmen, 131 

Artesian Well at Charleston, S. C., 96 
Artificial Black Walnut, 104 

" Stone, 228 

Atlantic City. Light -house at, 88 
Australia. Concrete Building in, 14 
Austrian Art at the Centennial, 69 
Authorities on the Strength of Materials, 

Automatic Hatchway Closers, 102 

Ballast Hill. A, 220 

Balloon at Paris. The Captive, 124, 212 

Baltimore Building Law, 148, 201 

" Decorative Art Society, 201 
" House. Fall of a, 206 
Letters from, 148, 201 
Private Collection at, 201 
Public Squares in, 148 
Soldiers' Monument, 81 
Barcelona Gas-consumers' Strihe, 204 
Barry and the Sheffield School of Art. Mr., 


Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty, 116, 160 
Bastille. The, 132 
Baths of Diocletian. Discoveries at the, 


Beaux- Arts. M. Viollet-Ie-Duc and the, 116 
Becket on the Frailties of Architects. Sir 

E., 107 

Beggars' Bridge at Florence, 8 
Belgian Art at the Centennial, 69 

R Iron, 220 

Bellona, N. Y. Geological Footprints at, 8 
Bells. Japanese, 72 
Bennington Monument. The, 16 
Berlin as a Seaport, 60 
Bids. Insincere, 206 
Black Hole at Calcutta, The, 166 
Blackwell's Island Bridge, 152 
Blast. A Heavy, 124 
" at Quincy. A Large, 176 
" The Sand, 152 
Board of Health Pamphlet. The New York, 

14 Works and a Dilapidation Case. 

The London, 118 
Bondsmen. Mullins and his 208 
Bonomi. Death of Joseph, 82 
Bonus Building In Philadelphia, 148 
Books. See u Reviews " 
Bosc's Architectural Dictionary. M., 13 
Boston Art Club Exhibition, 195 

44 Auxiliary Society of Decorative Art, 

44 Chapter A. I. A. 67,86,93,129,167 
" Court House. The Propwed Now, 

" A'Dyui,116 ., 

Boston Free-Evening-School Drawings, 198 
44 Ground- water in the Back Bar 

Land, The, 118 
Lafarge's Decoration of Trinity, 

14 Letters from, 195, 202 

14 Old South Fund. Statement of 

the, 71 

Park Plans. The, 202, 222 
44 Prizes of the Society of Architects. 


Procession of the Unemployed, 28 
41 Report of the Inspector of Build- 
ings, 133 
44 Report on the Museum of Fine 

Arts, 89 

44 Sewerage System. The New, 9 
44 Society of Architects. The, 198 
44 Water Park. The New, 222 
Brabazon rs. Trinity College, 59, 115, 139 
Brass Font at Liege. The, 140 
Brassey, M. P., on English Wages. Mr., 73 
Bribery, 35 

" in the Indiana Capitol Competi- 
tion, 17 

Brick Kiln. A Novel, 188 
Bricks. Spalling of, 87 

White Incrustations on, 8 
Bridge Accident at Poland, 0. 140 
41 Accidents, SS 
44 at Aurora. Fall of a, 206 
44 Blarkwell's Island, 152 
44 Building. Humors of Russian, 220 
44 The Douro, 132 
44 Hooghly Floating, 151 
44 Fall of a Philadelphia, 60, 62 
4 over the Mississippi, 126 
44 Poughkeepsie, 140 
44 Strength of the East River, 190 

4 Tariffville, 26, 37, 

44, 74 

1 Track Gauge on the Brooklyn, 214 
4 over the Thames. New, 140 
44 Verdict on the Tariffville Accident, 


Bridges. Testing Railroad, 81 
Bronze Foundry at Cngli, 176 
Brookfield, Mich. Big Ditch at, 228 
Brooklyn Academy of Design, 18 

41 Bridge. Accident at the, 7, 33 
44 4l Strength of, 190, 2U 

14 4I Track Gauge on, 214 

44 Building Accident at, 86 
14 Explosion of a Sulphur Factory 

at, 24 

41 Fall of Factory at, 60 

14 Music Hall. The, 43 

44 Kapid Transit in, 208 

44 Small Houses in, 142 

Brussels. The Palais de Justice, 104 

Buenos Ayres. Workmen emigrating to, 


Buffalo. Fall of a Vat at, 132 
Builders' Exchange. The Cincinnati, 38 
Building Inspectors at Philadelphia, 9 
44 in Kansas, 88 

14 Law. The Providence, 24, 45, 142 
14 Laws Parisian, 70 
14 Materials. The Permeability of, 


" Statistics of New York, 71 
Buildings. New Government, 160 

44 Mr. Schleicher's Bill for OOT- 

ernnient, 98, 190, 220 
11 Charges against the N. Y. Su- 
perintendent of, 221 
Burning Wells, 80 
Butler's Plan for Advertising Government 

Contracts. Mr., 196 

Byzantine Art&od tte Owmola Collection, 


The American Architect and Building News. Index. 

[Vol. iii. 

Caissons. Working in, 168 

California State Convention. Kearney and 

the, 2i2 
Cambridge, Mass. Fall of an Iron Roof 

in, 45 
Canal. Cape Cod Ship, 52, 133 

" The Wellaud, 204 
Candy Factory, N. Y. The Greenfield, 1 
Cannon Range. Herr Krupp's, 17u 
Cape Uod. Mr. Redmond's Scheme for 

Crossing, 52, 133 
Capital Commission . Mr. Martin. The 

N. Y., 125 

" Contract for the N. Y., 138 
" Cost of theN. Y.,60 
" at Hartford. The, 166 
" The Illinois, 35 
Carpenter Picture. The Presentation of 

the, 117 

Castellan! Collection. The, 62 
Catenary Spires, 38 
Cathedral at Florence. " Restoring-' the, 


" Milan. The Marble of, 214 
" New York. St. 1'atrick's, 20 
" The Stewart Memorial, 1J, 32 
Cement. Hydraulic, 8 

" The Manufacture of Portland, 


" A New, 104 
" in New York. Beds of, 220 
" in the Rhine. A Boatload of, 

" Water-tight. Making Portland, 


" for Wood, 176 
Cemeteries in Europe, 204 
Centennial. Painting and Sculpture at 

the, 28, 40, 69, 78,111, 121 
Cervantes. Monument to, 196 
Cesuola's Collection. Byzantine Art and 

the, 215 

" Cyprus. Di, 83 
Chapter A. 1. A. Boston, 57, 86, 93, 129, 


ii < .. The Chicago, 111 
11 " " " The Cincinnati, 78 
Charcoal Dust. The Explosiveuesa of, 104 
Charges against Superintendent Adams. 

The, 221 

Charlemagne. Statue of, 1G8 
Charleston, S. C., Artesian Well, 96 
Check-valve. Waring 's, 167 
Chester, 111. Relic of the Mound Builders 

at, 80 

Chestnut in Old Timber-roofs, 170 
Chicago. The Academy of Design, 177 
" Chapter A. I. A., Ill 
" City Hall in, 42 
" Communism in, 154 
" Court House Dome. The, 1, 42, 

45, 53, 104 

" Court House Stone, 213 
" Custom House Frauds. Mr. Hill's 

Letter, 197 
" Custom House Stone Cutting 

Frauds, 153, 189, 197, 209 
" Elevator Accident, 159 
" Fire Protection in, 102 
" Letter from, 102 
" Miniature Water Works at, 60 

Security in Theatres in, 17 
** Secretary French on the Chicago 

Custom House Frauds, 213 
" Singer Building. Fire in the, 54, 

" Summer Session of the Illinois 

Industrial University, 177 
" The Water Tank Law in, 71 
Christiania, Norway. Strike at, 176 
Church Architecture, 158 

" that We need. The, 


" Modern, 130, 139, 167 

" Prague. The Thein, 42 
Churches of England. The, 36 

" in London. Destroying Wren's 


Cincinnati Builders' Exchange, 38 
" Chapter A. I. A., 78 
" Elevator Accident at, 72 
" Labor Troubles in, 93 
" Music Hall. The, 145 
" Probasco's Offer to the City. 

Sir., 104 

" Schools. The, 212 
" ShiUito Building. The, 87 
Cinders. Explosion of Hot, 72 
Circular to the Treasury Officials, 23 
Cisterns. Rain-water, 36 
Clark exonerated. Mr., 160 
Clay. Modelling, 24 
Cleaning a Water-pipe, 36 
Cleopatra's Needle, 24, 62, 96, 165 
Clessiuger's Statue of the Republic. M.. 


Clock. A Remarkable American, 36 
Clock Weight. Fall of a. 24 
Cohoes, N. Y. Illuminated Cross at. 60 
Cold Air. Manufacturing, 132 
Cold Water Faucet, 24 
Collection. The Castellani, 62 
College Dormitories, 16 
Colonial Houses and their Uses to Art, 12 
Colorado. Narrow Gauge Railway in, 220 
Colosseum. Roofing the, 8 
Columbia College New Building, 201 
Columbus, O. Fall of a Building at, 72 
Combustion. Spontaneous, 140 
Commissioners. Dill to appoint R. R., 81 
Report on the Washington 

Public Buildings, 1 
Communism, 62 

In Chicago, 154 

Labor and, 205 

in New York. 154, 162 

In St Louis, 98, 162 

In San Francisco, 1B4, 180, 

Communism and the Socialists, 178 

** in the United States, 170 

Competition for Gas Fixtures at Providence, 

* for the Evreux Town Hall, 

" fcr the Indiana State House, 


" for the Patent Office, 221 
Competitions in Interior Decoration, 35, 

80, 104,139, 159, 188 
" in Interior Decoration. Re- 

ports upon the, 146, 191 
Concrete Building in Australia, 14 

" House at Vorwohle, 92 
Congress aiid the Eight Hour Law, 169, 

Congressional Library. The, 89 

" " Site. Committee's 

Report on the, 205 
Connecticut School of Design, 114 

" Museum of Industrial Art. 

The, 114 

Conscience of a Contractor. The, 82 
Construction. Fire-proof, 5 
Contractor. The Conscience of a, 82 
Contracts. Mr. Butler's Plan for Adver- 
tising Government, 196 
*' Government. Percentage, 153 
Contributors. A \Vord to, 18 
Convention of the A. I. A. Eleventh, 50, 

11 of Am. Soc. C. E. at Boston, 


Convict-labor and Workingmen, 106 
Cook's Criticism on Lafarge, 46 
Cooper Union. Women at the, 204 
Copenhagen. Rosenberg Castle at, 5 
Corconm's School of Art at Washington. 

Mr., 198 

Cork Linings for Walla, 168 
Corner Stone. A Metallic, 124 
Cotton Operatives. Strike of the English, 

134, 142, 169, 178 

Councilman as Architects. Common, 203 
Court House, Boston. Proposed New, 90 
" " Dispute over stone for Chi- 
cago, 213 
" " Dome. The Chicago, 1, 42, 

45, 58, 104 
41 " New York. Third District, 


Cradock's House. Gov., 52 
CiTosoting Wood, 168 
Cremation, 80 

in Italy, 176 

Crispin Strike in Mass., 25, 54, 62, 74 
Cross at Cohoes, N. Y. Illuminated, 60 
Custer. Memorial of Gen., 168 
Custody of an Architect's Drawings, 206 
Custom House Stone Cutting Frauds. The 
Chicago, 153, 189, 197, 209 
" " Frauds. Secretary French 

on the Chicago, 213 
Cyclorama of Paris. Sale of the, 140 
Cyprus. Di Cesnola's, 83 

Dams. Unsafe, 140 

Danube feeds the Aach. How the, 24 

Davioud. M., 6 

Dawes. Letter from Boston Chapter A. I. 

A. to Mr., 86 

Decorative Art, Boston. Auxiliary Soci- 
ety of, 97 
" and Designers. The New 

York Society of, 107 
" Hartford Society of, 114 

Society. Baltimore, fcOl 
" Society. The Loan Exhibi- 

tion of the, 34 

De Kalb. Monument to Baron, 96 
Delaware. Tunneling the, 228 
Description. Two Kinds of Architectural, 


Design. Rhode Island School of, 177 
Dictionary. Bosc's Architectural, 13 
Ditch at Brookfield, Mich. Long, 228 
Dividers. Improvement in Proportional, 


Docks on the Clyde. New, 176 
Dodona. The Oracle at, 176 
Dome of the Chicago Court House, 1, 42. 

45, 58, 104 

Doric Capitals. Krell's, 110 
Dormitories. College, 16 
Douro Bridge. The, 132 
Doyle ou the new Building Law at Provi- 
dence. Mayor, 24 

Drainage. Disputed Points in, 103, 130 
" See under " Sewers '' 
" and Water Service. House, 208 
Drapers as Building Contractors, 36 
Draughtsmen in New York. A Society of, 

Drawing. Japanese, 187 

" Studies. Woodward's Artistic, 

Drawings. Custody of an Architect's, 


Dry-rot, 58, 228 
Durability of Zinc, 24 
Dust. Explosive, 116 

" Inflammability of Flour, 35 
Dusts. Explosiveness of, 104 
Dutch Art at the Centennial, 69 

Company draining Lake Mareotla 96 
Facade at the Paris Exhibition, 228 
" Room. The Harpers', 14 

Eads and General Humphreys. Captain, 


Easement of Light in England, 97 
Edinburgh Cooperative Sanitary Society, 


Educational Voyages, 204 
Eight Hour Law in Congress. The, 169, 

Electric Light, 162 

1 at Madrid, 163 

Electric Light iu the Place de* 1'Opera, 

Pans, 113, 162 

Electricity. Engraving on Glass by, 96 
" Mr. Magg's Plan for Lighting 

Cities by, 162 
Elevated Railways affect City Streets? 

How will, 228 

Elevator Accident at Chicago, 159 
" " at Cincinnati, 72 

" " at the Grand Hotel, 

Paris, 88, 104 
" Wire Rope, 214 
Elevators. Inspection of, 72 
Engineering : 

Big Ditch at Brookfield, Mich., 228 
Blackwell's Island Bridge, 152 
Bridge Accidents, 88 
Cape Cod Ship Canal, 52, 133 
Douro Bridge. The, 132 
Draining Lake Mareotis, 96 
Driving Piles in Sand, 228 
Florentine Water Works. The, 88 
Haupt's Manual of Specifications, 93 
Head \Vatersof the Mississippi. The, 226 
Humors of Russian Bridge Building, 220 
Hooghly Floating Bridge, 151 
Improving the Landes of France, 228 
Mississippi Jetties. The, 204, 212, 214 
Narrow-gauge Railroad in Colorado, 220 
New Bridge over the Thames, 140 
New Docks on the Clyde, 176 
Poughkeepsie Bridge, 140 
Power of the Waves, 96 
Rapid Bridge Building, 104 
Railroad Bridges. Testing, 81 
Railroad across the Sahara. A, 160 
Redmond's Scheme for crossing Cape 

Cod. Mr.,5i, 133 
St. Gothard Tunnel. The, 212 
Strength of the East Hiver Bridge, 190, 


Sutro Tunnel. The, 72. 
Track Gauge of the Brooklyn Bridge, 214 
Tunneling the Delaware, 228 
Wcllnnd Uanal. The, 2U4 
Engineers. Annual Convention of Am. 

Soc. Civil, 190 

England. The Water Supply of, 212 
English Architectural Drawings at Paris, 


" Art at the Centennial, 28 
" Churches, 36 
" Cotton Spinners' Strike, 134, 142, 

169, 178 

" Monastery. An, 16 
" Obelisk. The, 24, 62, 96, 165 
" Tapestry, 169 
Engraving on Glass by Electricity, 96 

" on Wood, 188 

Engravings, 159 
Envois de Rome, 18 
Equilibrium Polygon and Roof Trusses. 

Mr. U'illett's, Si), 41, 55 
Escape. Fire, 104 
Europe. Cemeteries in, 204 
Evreux Town Hall Competition, 10 
Excelsior Building, New York. Burning of 

the, 62 

Exchange, Cincinnati. Builders', 38 
Exhibit at Paris. The American, 73 
" " The German, 220 

Exhibition. The Paris, 122 

America at the Paris, 73 
American Painting at the 

Paris, 89 
" Architectural Drawings at 

the Paris, 106 
Catalogue of the Paris, 152 
" Financial Result of the Paris, 


French. The, 225 
" German Pictures at the Paris, 


Mr. Story and the Paris, 53 
National Facades at the Paris, 


" of the N. Y. Academy of De- 

sign, 149 

Opening of the Paris, 161 
" The Sat. Wtekly litvinc on 

the Paris, 194, 218, 225 
Expedition. The Olympian, 127 
Explorations in Samothracc, 181 
Explosion of a Candy Factory in New 

York, 1 
14 of Flour Mills at Minneapolis, 

161, 228 

of Hot Cinders, 72 
" of a Sulphur Factory, 24 

Explosive Dust, 116 

" Gelatine, 124 
Explosives. Unsuspected, 104 

Facade of the United States Building at 

Paris, 228 
Facades at the Paris Exhibition. National, 


Faucet. A Water-cooling, 24 
Fee. An Architect's Suit for his, 159 
Fees for Stores. Architects', 141 

" for Alterations. Architects', 156 
Field, Leiter& Co.'s Building, 54. 
Figure. The Study of the Human, 90 
Filter. An Air, 16 
Fire : 

Burning of the Excelsior Building, New 

York, 62 
Fire Drill in the St. Louis Schools, 74 

" Escape, 104 

" Escapes for Dormitories, 16 

" Protection in Chicago, 102 

*' Question. The, 75 
Fire-proof Composition for Theatre Walls, 


" Construction, 5, 42, 224 

Fire-proofing the Government Buildings, 1 
Fires in France, 70 

" in Paris, 116 

" in Sau Francisco, 36 

Flexibility of Freestone. The, 132 
Flood. In Danger of a, 188 
Floor. Accident to a N. Y. Armory, 44 
" on Mercer St., N.Y. Fall of a, 196, 

" on Mott Street, N. Y. Fall of a 

Brick, 222. 

" at N. Y. Fall of Warehouse, 162 
" of 6th Ave. R. H. Stable. Fall of 

a, 189 

Floors. Cleaning Polished, 8 
" Hard-wood, 24 
" at St. John. Fall of, 161 
" Stable, 159 
Florence. The Beggars' Bridge at, 8 

" " Restoring '' the Cathedral at, 


" Water Works at, 88 
Flour Dust Explosion at Minneapolis, 161, 


" Inflammability of 35 
Font at Liege. The Brass, 140 
1'oreign Architecture at the Centennial 

from a French Standpoint, 112 
Foreign Wages, 228 
Foundations in London. Unwholesome, 


France. Strange Sinking of Land in, 188 
Fraser and the Committee on Claims. Mr., 


Freestone. The Flexibility of, 132 
French Art at the Centennial, 40 

" on the Chicago Custom House 

Frauds. Secretary , 213 
" Standpoint. Foreign Architecture 

from a, 112 
" Strikes, 188 

" Use of Architectural Models, 
Fuller and his Electric Lamp. Mr. J. B., 

Furniture. Art Decoration applied to, 77 

Galvanized Iron, 68 

Galvano-Plastic. Statue of Jan Van Eyck, 


Gaslight is lost. How, 160 
Gas-wells, 80 
Geological Foot-prints, 8 
Georgian Houses of New England, 54 
German Art at the Centennial, 69 
" Exhibit at Paris. The, 220 
" Painters at Paris, 96 
" Patents, 33 . 

Giffard's Balloon at Paris. M., 124, 212 
Gilding of the Present Day. The, 24 
Gilniiin r.. Stevens, 25 
Glass by Electricity. Engraving on , 96 
Goldsmiths' Work at Mycenae, 170, 178 
Goslar. The Restorations at, 120 
Government Buildings. Mr. Schleicher's 
Bill for, 98, 
190, 220 
New, 160 
Security of, 1 

" Contracts. Advertising, 196 

Grace Church, New York. Reredos in, 88, 


Gramme. M.,24 
Graphic Analysis of Roof Trusses, 30, 41. 


Gregorian Calendar in Russia. The, 227 
Ground-water in the Back Bay Land, 118 

Harpers' Dutch Room. The, 14 
Hartford. Catholic School at, 166 

" - Letter from, 59, 87, 114, 166' 
" Society of Decorative Art, 114 

" State House at, 166 

" Trinity College Laboratory, 166 
Ilartranft on the late Strikes. Gov., 9 
Hatchways. Automatic, 102 
Haupt's Engineering Specifications, 93 
Hay market, London. Fall of Buildings in 

the, 63 

Health Pamphlet. The N. Y. Board of, 65 
Heat and Ventilation, 155, 164 
Heating Towns by StealE,80 

" and Ventilation. Manual of , 57 
Herbert and the Picture Dealer. Mr., 18 
Heroes. Pennsylvania's, 140 
Hill's Letter on the Chicago Custom House. 

Mr., 197 
Ilissarlik, 96 

Holland. Historical Buildings In, 183 
Holly Patent. Validity of the, 124 
Holly's Modem Dwellings. Mr., 198, 212 
Home Interiors. Mr. Gardner's, 147 
Homes for the People, 17 
Hooghly Floating Bridge, 151 
Hope's Toast at the Institute Dinner. Mr., 

Hopkins Hospital. Ventilation at the 

Johns, 105 
Hospital at Milwaukee. A Bad, 203 

*' Ventilation at the Johns Hopkins, 


" West Point, 80 
Hot Air. Moistening, 36 

" Water Well at Pesth, 8, 204 
Hotel de Ville, Paris, 113 
House Beautiful. The, 48 

" Painter's Hand Book, 78 
Houses in Brooklyn. Small, 142 
Housing in New York. Urban, 90, 137, 


Iluggins on Catenary Spires. Mr., 38 
Human Figure. The Study of the, 90 
Humphreys' Opposition to the Mississippi 

Jetties, 214 

Hunt M. Stevens, 25, 61 
Hydraulic Cement, 8 

" Press. A Novel, 175 

Ice Machine for New Orleans, 80 

Illinois Industrial University at Chicago. 

Summer Session of the. 177 
Illinois State House. The, 35 
Illuminated Cross. An, 60 
Indian Pottery, 116 

The American Architect and Building News. Index. 

Indian Relict*, 124 

Indiana State House Commission rj. Mr. 

Tibbetts, 125 

" " " Competition. 16, 17, 

105, 126, 13J, 139, 
HI, 163 

" " " Competition. Brib- 

ing Letters, 17 
* " " Complaint of the 

Architect, 133 

" " Conditions of Mr. 
May's Contract, 
" " Mr. May's Plans for 

the, 105, 130 
Industrial Art. Th Connecticut Museum 

of, 114 

Inflammability of Flour Dust, 35. 
Ingres'a Sketches. Suit concerning, 61. 
Inscription. Adventures of an, 24. 
Inspector of Buildings. Report of the 

Boston, 133 
Institute of Architects. American, 7, 50, 

Interior Decoration, 77 

" " Competitions in, 35, 80, 

104, 139, 159, 188 

" " Reports upon the Com- 

petitions In, 146, 191 
Interiors. Gardner's Home, 147 
International Courtesy. An, 100 

" Society. Mr. Maverick's Ac- 

count of the, 1)4 
Irish Institute Prizes, 10 
Iron at different temperatures. Strength 

of, 72 

" Belgian, 220 
" Phosphorus and, 72 
" Roof at Cambridge. Fall of, 45 
" " at Hamburg. A largo, 176 
" Strength of Wrought, 138 
" Tiles. Olazed Cast, 22 
Italian Facade at the Paris Exhibition, 8 
Italy. Cremation in, 176 

Japanese Bell, 72 

" Drawing, 1S7. 
" Statue. Large Bronze, 124 
Jefferson Market Prison, 56 
Jetties. The Mississippi, 204, 212, 214 
" Opposition of General Hum- 
phreys to the, 214 

" Windom's Bill for the Mississippi. 
Mr , 204 

Kansas. Building in, 83 

Kearney and the California State Conven- 
tion, 222 

Keely Motor. Mr. Knight's Report on the, 

Key-stone. Fall of a, 140 

Kiln. A Novel Brick, 183 

Knight's Keport on the Keely Motor, 126 

Krell's Doric Capitals, 110 

Krupp Ironworks The, 132 

Krupp's Cannon Range, llcrr, 178 

Labor and Communism, 205 

" Reform League in New York, 162 

" Troubles. The, 33, 62 

" " in Cincinnati, 93 

" " in Massachusetts, 25,54, 


Laboratories. Trinity College, 166 
Lacustrine Villages. Relics of,s 
Lai'arge'l Decoration of St. Thomas's, 

N. ., 168 
" Decoration of Trinity Church, 

Boston, 46 

Landes of France. Improving the, 228 
Law. The Providence Building, 24, 45 
Lead Poisoning. Death from, 124 
Leak. How to Trace a, 104 
Lee. Statue of General, 124 
Legal : 

Architect's Suit for his Fee. An, 159 
Architectural Litigation, 141 
The Baltimore Building L-iw, 148, 201 
Brabazon r.i. Trinity College, 59,113, 139 
Building Inspectors in Philadelphia, 9 
Competition for Town llall at Lvrcux, 


Definition of a Storehouse, 201 
Dispute over Stoue for Chicago Court 

House, 213 
Eight Hour Law in Congress. The, 169, 

Fraser i-s. the Committee on Claims. Mr.. 


Herbert and the Picture Dealer. Mr., 13 
Hunt IM. Stevens, 25, 61 
Hurlburt r. \Vood, 
Law of Ancient Light. 97 
Legal vs. Sentimental Nuisances, 36 
London Board of Works and a Dilapida- 
tion Case. The, 118 

Martin rj. The New York Capitol Com- 
mission, 125 
Mechanic's Lien, 152 
Mu II ins and his Bondsmen, 206 
Obstructive English Architect. An, 198 
Paterson, N. J., Sewers, The, 60 
Power of the Public Buildings Commis- 
sioners, 97 

Providence Building Law, 24, 45, 142 
Question of Domicile. A, 188 
St. Louis Custom House Trials, 15 
Bchleicher's Bill for Government Build- 
Ings. Mr., 98. 190 
Sherwood . Musgrare, 45 
Suit for Two Inches. A, 204 
Suit over the Sketches of M- Ingres, 61 
Tibbetts P.V. the In'l. Capitol Commis- 
sion. Mr., 125 

Validity of the Holly Patent, 124 
Washburn . Wildes, 141 
Letters from Baltimore. 148, 201 
" Boston, 195, 202 
" Chicago, 42, 68, 102,209 

Letters from Cincinnati, 130 

" " Hartford, 59, 87. 114, 166 

" " London, 122, 183 

" " Minneapolis, 226 

" " New York, 14, 32, 42, 71, 94, 

123, 138. 184, 201 
" " Paris, 6, 70, 113 
" " Philadelphia, 148. 
" " St. John, 94, 114, 175 
" " St. Louis, 184 
Lexington St., New York. Fall of Houses 

on, *4 

Liber Studiorum. Ruskin's, 126 
Liberty. Bartholdi's Statue of, 116, 160 
Library. The Congressional, 89 

** Site. Committee's Report on the 

Congressional. 205 
Liebig. Monument to, 8 
Liege. The Brass Font at, 140 
Lien. Mechanic's, 152 
Light. Law of Ancient, 97 
Light-house at Atlantic City, 88 
Lightning Conductors and Earth Contact, 


Loan Exhibition in New York. The, 34 
Lockport heated by Steam, 80 
London. The Board of Works and a Di- 
lapidation Case. 118 
" Bridge over the Thames. New, 


Decorating St. Paul's, 220 
" Destroying Wren's Churches, 


" Fall of Buildings at the Hay- 
market, 53 

" Fatal Accident, 53 
" Letter from, 122, 183 
" Masons' Strike. The, 54, 122 
" Masons' Strike. End of the, 134 
" Obelisk. The, 24, 82, 96, 165 

" Sewage Flood. A, 140 

" Sewerage System of. The, 9 

" Unwholesome Foundations, 173 

Luminous Wall Papers, 104 
Luxembourg. Paintings at the. 140 

u etc., at the Paris Exhibition. 

Facade of, 196 
Lynn Strikes. The, 25, 54, 62, 74 

Machinery Hall, Philadelphia. The Spolia- 
tion of, 188 

Magg's Plan of Lighting Cities by Electric- 
ity. Mr., 162 
Maine R. R. Bridges, 81 
Manchester Town llall, 72 
Manslaughter. Builder convicted of, 53 
Maps of London and Paris, 93 
Marble of Milan Cathedral. The, 214 
Majcotis. Draining Kake, 96. 
Martin r. N. Y. Capitol Commission. Mr., 


Masons' Strike. The London, 64, 122 
" " London, End of the, 134 

" " The New York, 132 

Maverick's Account of the Internationals. 

Mr., 154 
Mav's Contract with the Indiana State 

House Commissioners. Mr., 141 
Mazzini. Bust of, 98 
Mead's Design for the Morton Memorial. 

Mr., 24 

Mechanic's Lien, 152 
Medal given to Mr. Waterhouse. Royal 

Gold, 228 

Memorial Hall, Philadelphia, 152 
" The Morton, 24 
" Theatre. Shakespeare, 176 
Mengoni. Death of Signor, 37 
Merriman on the Tariff ville Bridge. Prof., 


Metallic Corner Stone, 124 
Metals at the Navy Yards. Testing, 196 
Metric System and Architects, 79 
" " A. II. Stephens'! Substitute 

for the, 126 

Mexican Antiquities, 96 
Michael Angelo in Venice. New Works of, 


Milan Cathedral. Decay of, 214 
Millions in it, 204 
Milwaukee. The Mitchell Building, 42 

" Hospital. A Bad, 20ij 

Mine on Fire. A, 168 
Miniature Water Works, 60 
Minneapolis. Letter from, 226 

" Mill Explosion, 161, 228 

Mississippi Jetties. The, 204, 212, 214 

44 " Mr. Windom's Bill, 

Mississippi. Improving the Head Waters 

of the, 226 

Mitchell Building, Milwaukee. The, 42 
Model Tenement, London, 140 
Modelling Clay, 24 

Models. French Use of Architectural, 6 
Modern Anachronisms, 96 

" Church Architecture, 130, 139, 


" Plumbing, 101, 109, 144, ISO 
Moistening Hot Air in Rooms, 38 
Monaco at the Paris Exhibition, 198 
Monastery. An English, 16 
Monitcur't Expedition into Africa. The, 


Monument. Baltimore Soldiers', SI 
" Baron De Kalb, 96 

" Bennington The, 16 

" to J. C. Breckenridge, 96 

" to Cervantes, 196 

" to Gen. Custer, 163 

" to Liebig, 8 

" Mazzini. Bust of, 96 

" The Naval, 60 

" The Washington, 7, 170, 212 

" $36,000 to be .MI'-III on the 

Washington, 126 
" The Wellington, 183 

Monument* of Great Men, 168 

" Ordnance ae Adjunct! of, 162 

Moore and the Cathedral at Florence. Mr., 

Mormon Temple. The, 132 

Morris protests against the Destruction of 

Wren's Churches. Mr., 169 
Mortar. Yellow, 186 
Morton Memorial The, 24. 
Mosaic at Rome. A Mural, 160. 
Motion Self-sustaining, 60 
Motor. Mr. Knight's Report on the Keely, 


Mottoes. Trade, 104. 
Mound Builders' Idol. A, 80 
Mounds on the Blackwater River, 132 
Mountains. One of the Highest, 104 
Mt. Vernon and Washington's Tomb, 72 
Moving a Brick House, 24 

" Town. A, 132 
Mucilage. A Good, 228 
Mueller and the Chicago Custom House, 

153, 189, 197, 209, 21? 
Mullins and his Bondsmen, 206 
Mural Painting in Switzerland, 152 
Musgrave rs. Sherwood, 45 
Museum of Fine Arts. The Boston, 89 
" of Industrial Art. Connecticut, 

" and School of Industrial Art 

Pennsylvania, 81 
" The National, 8, 44 
Music Hall. The Brooklyn, 43 

" " The Cincinnati, 145 
Mycenae. Goldsmith's Work at, 170, 178 
SchliemamTs, 118, 162 

Nanking. The Porcelain Tower, 72 

Narrow Gauge Railway in Colorado, 220 

Natal Pottery, 202 

National Museum. The, 8, 44 

Naval Monument. The, 60 

Navy Yards. Testing Metals at the, 196 

Needle. Cleopatra's, 24, 62, 96, 195 

New England. Georgian Houses of, 54 

New York. Accident to an Armory Floor, 

" Annual Exhibition of the 

Academy of Design, 149 

Building Statistics, il 

The Buildings in City Hall 
Square, 94 

Burning of the Excelsior 
Building, 62 

Capitol at Albany. The, 60, 

Capitol Commission vs. Mr. 

Martin. The, 125 
Castellan! Collection. The, 62 
" Columbia College New Build- 

ing, 201 

Convention of the Labor Re- 
form League, 162 
Decoration of St. Thomas's, 


Draughtsmen's Society. A, 170 
Fall of an Armory Wall, 52 
" a Brick Floor on Mott 

Street, 222 
" " a Floor on Mercer St., 

196, 201 
44 " Houses in Lexington 

St., 74 

" a Stable Floor, 139 
44 a Warehouse Floor, 

Government's Lease of the 

Post Office, 107 
Grace Church Reredos, 88, 196 
" Harpers' Dutch Room. The, 


" Jefferson Market Prison, 56 

" Letters from, 14, 32, 42, 71, 

94, 123, 138, 184, 201 
" Loan Exhibition. The, 34 

Masons' Strike, 132 

11 Monument to Cervantes, 196 

Obelisk for. The, 8 

Old Reservoir. The, 43 

" Partitions in the Post Office. 

The, 37, 43 

" Post Office. Model of the, 52 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, 20 
School-houses in, 45 
14 Society of Decorative Art and 

Designers. The, 107 
State Survey, 106 
14 Stations for the Elevated R. 

" Third District Court House, 


41 Urban Housing In , 90, 137, 171 

Niobe of Mt. Sipylus. The, 36 
Nineveh. luscrip ions found at, 228 
Norton and the Liber Studiorum. Prof., 

Norton's Theory of Proportions. Prof., 

Nuisance. Legal and Sentimental , 36 

Obelisk. The English, 24, 62, 165 
t4 for New York, 8 
44 The Salvage upon the English, 

Obituary. Joseph Bonomi, 82 

" Death of Siguor Mengoni, 37 

44 M. Auguste Rougeviu, 152 

41 Sir Gilbert Scott, 117 

Observatory t Armagh. The, 140 
Oils. Spontaneous Combustion of, 140 
Old Houses made New, 175 
" South Fund. Statement of the, 71, 


Olynipia. Casts of the Sculptures at, SO 
" Professor Norton on the Tem- 

ple of Zeus at, 128 
Olympian Expedition. The, 127 
Oracle at Dodona, 176 
Ordnance as Adj uncts of Monument*, 152 
Organ for the Trocaddro, 168 
Originality in American Art, 3 

Paiut. Durable, 73 

Painters' Hooks. Accident caused by. 

Painting and Sculpture at the Centennial. 

28, 40, 69, 78, 111, 121, 129 
Paintings at the Luxembourg, 140 

44 at the Paris Exhibition. Ameri- 
can, 89 
Palermo, 146 

Palmyra, N. Y. Fall of a Building at, I6S 
Panic at a French Circus, 60. 
Paper Shutters, 188 
Paris. Building Laws. The, 70 
44 Captive Balloon. The, 124, 212 
44 Cycloramaof the City of. The, 140 
" Electric Light on the Place da 

1'Opera, 113, 162 
" Elevator Accident at the Grand 

Hotel, S3, 104 

41 Exhibition. The, 122, 194, 218 
41 ' 4 The American Exhib- 

it, 63, 73 
" " American Paintings 

at the, 89 
Buildings. The, 6 
44 Financial Result of 

the, 220 
" " The German Exhibit 

at the, 220 
11 " The National Facade! 

at the, 220 
Notes, 212 

44 Opening of the, 161 

Facade of Luxembourg, etc., 196 
44 " of the Tuileries on the Rut 

de Itivoli, 113 
11 Fires, 70, 116 
44 Hotel de Ville. The, 113 
41 Italian Facade at the Exhibition. 

The, 8 

Letters from, 6, 70, 113 
44 Paintings at the Luxembourg. The, 


Palace of the Trocadero. The, 70 
44 Statue of Charlemagne, 168 
14 " of Voltaire. The, 220 

44 Story to go to. Mr., 53 
41 United States Facade at The, 223. 
11 What is to be done with the Tui- 

leries, 134 
Park for Boston. The New Water, 220 

41 Plans. The Boston, 202, 222 
Patent Office Competition. The, 221 
Patents. German, 33 
Pennsylvania Museum and School of In- 
dustrial Art, 81 
Pennsylvania's Heroes. 140 
Peppermint in Tracing Leaks. The Use of, 


Permeability of Building Materials, 18 
Perspective. Papers on, 4. 19, 46, 64,85, 

99, 135, 157, 173, 199, 218 
Perspective of Statues. The, 131 
Petrifying Liquid, 227 . 
Pesth. Hot Water Well at, 8, 204. 
Pews, 204 

Pozzuolana and Dry Rot, 228 
Philadelphia Bonus Building, 143 

Building Inspectors, 9 
14 The Chimes of St. Mark's, 

14 Fall of South St. Bridge, 60, 


44 Letter from, 148 

44 Memorial Hall, 162 

Moving a Brick House in. 24 
44 Power of the Public Build- 

ings Commissioners. The. 

41 Sewerage in, 118 

14 Spoliation of .Machinery 

Hall, 188 

" Water Supply, 132 

Phosphorus and Iron, 72 
Photography. Solar, 176 
Picture Dealer. Mr Herbert and the, IS 
Pile-building Period of Switzerland, 220 
Pjles iu Sand. Driving, 124, 228 
Planters Method of Engraving on Glass. 

M., 96 

Plaster. Soot-stained, 96, 115, 124 
Plongeon's Troubles with Mexico Dr. 

Le, 176 

Plumber and Sanitary Engineer, 24 
" Houses, 13 

PI umbers as Witnesses, 24 
Plumbing. Modem, 101, 109, 144, ISO 
Poisonous Wall-paper, 36 
Poland, O. Bridge Accident at, 140 
Polished Floors. Cleaning, 8 
Polygon and Roof Trusses. The Equilib- 
rium, 30, 41, 55 

Porcelain Tower at Nanking, 72 
Portland Cement. The Manufacture of, 

44 " Water-tight. Making, 

Post Office. The Government's Lease of 

the New York, 107 

41 " Model of the New York, 52 
44 " Partitions. The New York, 

37, 43 
Pottery. Indian, 116 

44 Natal, 202 
Poughkeepsie Bridge, 140 
Prague. The Thein Church at, 42 
Prizes of the Boston Society of Architects, 


FrolMseo's Offer to Cincinnati. Mr., 104 
Prominent. Too, 138 
Proportional Dividers. Improvement in, 

Providence. Accident to a Cellar Floor, 


44 Building Accident at, 25 

44 Building Law. The, 24, 45, 

" Competition forGas Fixtures, 


The American Architect and Building News. Index. 

[Vol. iii- 

Public Buildings Commissioners. Power 

of the, 1(7 
" " Mr. Schleicher's Bill for, 

93, 190, 220 

< " at Washington, 1 

Puerto del Sol. The, 132 
Purifying the Air. Process of, 168 

Qualifying of Architects. The, 134, 142, 

185, 197, 203, 211, 219 
Quantities, 110 
Quincy. A Large Blast at, 1/6 

Radiation and Ventilation. Direct, 94 
KailroLul Commissioners. Bill to appoint 

. United States, 81 
11 Signals. Utilizing, 33 
Railway in Colorado. Narrow Gauge, 220 
Railways affect City Streets? How will 

Elevated, 223 
Rain-tree. The, 124 
Rain-water Cisterns, 3S 
Rapid Transit in Brooklyn, 208 
Redmond's Scheme for crossing Cape Cod. 

Mr., 52, 133 

Refrigerating Apparatus. 38 
Religious Architecture, 156 
Keredos of Grace Church, N. Y., 88, 198 
Responsibility of Architects, 26 
Restoration. Architectural, 98 
Restorations at Goslar. The, 120 
Reviews : 
American Machinist, 72 
Art Decoration applied to Furniture, Tt 
. Art-Worker. The, 78 
Book on Building. A, 107 
Cyprus, 83 

Dimensions and Proportion* of the Tem- 
ple of Zeus at Oiyuipia, 128 
Early New England Interiors, 12 
Holly's Modern Dwellings. Mr., 212 
Home Interiors. Gardner's, 14i 
House Beautiful. Tile, 43 
liouse Drainage and Water Service, 208 

" Painters' Hand-book, 78 
Hyatt's Book on Concrete, 13 
Krell's Doric Capitals, 111) 
Manual of Engineering Specifications 

and Contracts, 93 
11 " Heating and Ventilating, 


Maps of London and Paris, 93 
Mycenae, 118. 
Old Houses made New, 175 
Ornamental Alphabets, 78 
number and Sanitary Engineer. The, 


Plumber and Sanitary Houses. Tile, 13 
Quantities, 110 
Rohrleger. Dcr, 78 
Schliemann's Mycenae. Dr., 162 
Scientific News. 72 
Useful. The, 90 

Woodward's National Architect, 182 
Rhine. A Boatload of Cement in the, 124 
Rhode Island School of Design, 177 
River Beds. Tin in old, 80 
Rochester Thermometer Factory Explosion, 


Rock. Sound and Solid, 124 
Rockaway, N. J. Trinity Church at, 184 
Rohrleger. Der, 78 
Hniiiui AmpMlheatre, 72 
Roman Colosseum. Hoofing the, 8 

" Forum. Excavations in the, 74 
Rome. Archaeological Discoveries at, 201 
" L.idies' School of Fine Arts at, 191 
" Discovery of Mural Mosaic in, 1:JJ 
" The Treasures of the Tiber, ISO 
" The iValls of, 8 
" Work of French Students at, 18 
Roof at Cambridge. Fall of a, 45 

" Hamburg. A Large Iron, 108 
Roofers' Tricks, 58 
Roofs. Chestnut in 01 1 Timber, 170 
Rosenborg Castle, Copenhigen, 5 
Rougevin. Death of M , 152. 
Royal Gold Medal, 228 
Ruskin's Liber Stn.liorum, 127 
Russia. The Gregorian Calendar in, 227 
Russian Bridge building. Humors of, 220 
Rusting Nails, 60 

Sahara. A Railroad across the, 1GO 
Saint Alban's Abbey, 131 
" " " Restorations of, 177 

" Gothara Tunnel. The, 212 
" Johu. Accident caused by Painters' 

Hooks at, 158. 

" " Building Accident at, 7, 16 
" " Fall of Floors at, 1G1 
" " Letters from, 33, 94, 114, 175 
" " New Work at, 33 
" Louis. Absurd Socialist Resolution 

at, 222 

Communism In, 98, 162 
" " Custom-house Trials. The, 

Saint Louis. Its Growth and Advantages, 


" " Letter from, 184 
" ' School Fire Drill, 71 

Saint Louis. Statue of Shakespeare in, 


" Mark's Chimes, Philadelphia, 35 
" Patrick's Cathedral, New York, 20 
" Paul's, London. Decorating, 220 
Salem, Mass. Fall of a House at, 228 
Salvage upon Cleopatra's Needle, 96 
Samothrace. Explorations in, 181 
Sand Blast. The, 152 

" Driving Piles in, 124, 228 
San Francisco. Communism in, 160 
" " Fires iu, 35 

Sanitary : 

Boston Sewerage System. The, 9 
Disputed Points in House Drainage, 102, 

Edinburgh Cooperative Sanitary Society, 


Exclusion of Sewer Gas, 31 
Ground-water in the Back Bay Land, 

Boston, 118 

House Drainage and Water Service, 208 
How to trace a Leak, 104 
London Sewerage System. The, 9 
New York Board of Health Pamphlet, 65 
Norman Shaw's open Soil-pipe, 82 
Plumbing in an American Dwelling, 49 
Plumbing. Modern, 101, 109, 144, 180 
Sewerage in Philadelphia, 118 
Sewer Ventilation, 72 
Sewers and the Rate of Mortality, 72 
Sewers at Paterson, N. J., 60 
Soil Pollution, 220 
Street Sweepings, 24 
Wall-paper. Poisonous, 36 
Waring's Check-valve, 50, 167. 

" Water-closet, 50 
Water Supply of England. The, 212 
Saratoga Decorative Art Society, 109 
Schleicher's Government Building Bill, 98, 


Schliemann's Mycenae, 118, 162 
School of Design. Connecticut, 114 

" The Rhode Island, 177 
" Of Fine Arts for Ladies at Rome, 


School-houses in New York, 45 
Schools. Architectural, 154 
" The Cincinnati, 212 

" Fire Drill in, 74 
Scott. Sir G. G., 150, 166, 183 
" Death of Sir G. G., 117 
" Works and Character of Sir G. G. , 


Scott's Funeral. Sir G. O , 154 
u Restoration of Saint Alban's Abbey, 


Sculpture at the Centennial. Painting and, 

28, 40, 69, 111, 121, 129 
Sculptures at Olympia. Casts of the, 80. 
Security of -Theatres in Chicago, 17 
Sewer Air. Exclusion of, 31 

" The Boston, 9 

" London. A broken, 140 

" London, The, 9 

" Paterson, The 60 

" Ventilation, 72 
Sewers and the Kate of Mortality, 72 
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, 176 

" Statue of, 152 

Sham Building in Minnesota, 226 
Shaw's Open Soil-pipe. Norman, 82 
Sheffield School of Art. Mr. Barry and 

the, 89 

Sherwood vs. Musgrave, 45 
SliillHo Building, Cincinnati. The Bricks 

in, 87 

Shutters Paper, 188 
Singer Building. Chicago. The, 54, 58 
Sinking of Land in France, 188 
Sipontum. Unearthing, 8, 88 
Sipylus. The Niobo of Ml., 38 
Slate. Strength of, 93 

" The Export of, 228 
Smith on American Architecture. Gold- 
win, 23 
Smith's Report on the Chicago Custom 

House. Collector, 189 
Society of Draughtsmen iu New York. A, 


" Lodge at Trinity College, 87 
Soil-pipe. Norman Shaw's, 82 
Soil-pipes. Leaky, 116 
Soil Pollution, 220 
Solar Photography, 176 
Soldiers' Monument at Baltimore, 81 
Soot-stained Plaster, 93, 115, 124 
Sound and Solid Rork, 124 
Spilling of Bricks, 87 
Spires. Mr. Huggins on Catenary, 38 
Spontaneous Combustion, 140 
Springfield. Almost an Accident at, 35 
Stables. Flours of, 159 
Stain. Wood, 22fl 
Stat-|Iouse Commission. The Architects 

and the Indiana, 133 

State House Competition. The Indiana 
16. 17, 105, 126, 130, 133, 139 
141, 153 
" " The Illinois, 35 

" " The Indiana, 16, 17 

" " The New York, 60 

Statue. Bronze Japanese, 124 

" of Charlemagne, 168 

11 ' a Roman Empress, 124 

" " Gen. Lee, 124 

" " Liberty. Bartholdi's, 116, 160 

" " the French Republic, 152, 212 

" " Shakespeare, 152 

" " Titian, '228 

" " Jan van hyrk, 176 

" " Voltaire, Paris. The, 220 
Statues at the Exhibition. The National, 

" The Perspective of, 131 
Steam. Heating Towns by, 80 

" Power of the World, 116 
Stephens'* Metric System. Mr., 126 
Stevens vs. Oilman, 25 

" fj. Hunt, 26, 61 
Stewart Memorial Cathedral, 16, 32 
Stone. Artificial, 228 
" Cutting Frauds. Chicago Custom- 
house, 153,189,197,209,213 
Storehouse. Legal Definition of a, 201 
Stores. An Architect's Commission on, 141 
Story. The Appointment of Mr., 53 
Street Sweepings, 24 
Strength of Iron at Different Temperatures, 

" " Materials. Authorities on the, 


" " Slate, 96 
" " Wire Rope, 214 
" " Wrought-iron, 188 
Strike atBarcelpna. Gas-consumers', 204 
" at Christiattia, Norway, 176 
" in Edinburgh. Plumbers', 160 
" The English Cotton Spinners', 134, 

142, 169, 178 

" The London Masons', 54, 122, 134 
" The Lynn, 26, 54, 62. 74 
" New York Masons', 132 
" A Paupers', 124 
" at the Topeka Asylum, 132, 152 
Strikes in England, 176 
" French, 188 

" Gov. Hartranft on the Inte, 9 
Study of the Human Figure. The, 90 
Stuffing Extraordinary, 124 
Stvle of Architecture. Possibility of a 

New, 22 

Sue.wula. Necropolis at, 152 
Superintendence, 61 

Supervising Architect's Report. The, 61 
Sutro Tunnel. The, 72, 228 
Switzerland. Mural Painting in, 152 

" The Pile-building Period of, 


Talc and Its Uses, 36 

Tanks. Largo Oil, 228 

Tapestry Manufacture. English, 169 

Tarin* Bill. The Workingmen's Protest 

against, 142. 

TarifEville Accident. Verdict on the, 74 
" Bridge. Strength of the, 26, 

37, 44, 74 

Technical Journal. A much needed, 23 
Telegraphy. Overground w. Underground, 


Telephone. Early Forms of the, 41 
Temple Canon, 168 
Tenement Houses and Apartment Houses, 


Testing Metals at the Navy Yards, 196 
Thames. New Bridge over the 140 
Theatre burned. A Chicago, 52 
" A Natural, 168 
" Shakespeare Memorial, 176 
Theatres in Chicago. Security of, 17 
" from Fire. Protecting, 176 
" Fire and Smoke Escape in, 102 
Thein Church, Prague. The, 42 
Tibbettst-i. the Indiana Capitol Commis 

sion. Mr., 125 

Tiber. Examining the Bed of the, 160 
Tiles. Cast-iron Glazed, 22 
Timber-roofs. Chestnut in Old, 170 
Timber. Unconsidered Uses of, 211 
Tin in Old River Beds, 80 
Titian. Statue of, 228 
Topeka Asylum. Strike at the, 132, 152 
Toselli's Refrigerating Apparatus, 36 
Tower at Nanking. The Porcelain, 72 
Trade Mottoes, 104 

" Union Troubles, 38 
Transit in Brooklyn. Rapid, 206 
Treasury Officials. Circular to, 23 
Trinity Church. LaFarge's Decoration at 

" College w. Brnbazon, 59, 115, 139 

" Laboratories, Hartford, 166 
" " Society Lodge at, 87 

Triumphal Arches. Second-hand, 116 
Trocadero. Palace of the, 70 
Troubles. The Labor, 3S, 62 
Trustees A. I. A. Board of, 7 
Tuileries on the Rue de Rivoli. The Fa- 
cade of the, 113 

" What is to be done with the, 134 
Tunnel. The St. Gothard, 212 
" The Sutro, 72 

under the Delaware, 223 

Ultramontanism, 8 

Umber Bed. An, 140 

Unemployed iu Boston. Procession of the, 


United States at the Paris Exhibition, 63 
Unwholesome Building Sites in London, 


Urban Housing in New York, 90, 137, 171 
Useful. The, 93 

Van Eyck. Galvano-Plartic Statue of, 176 
Ventilation. Direct Radiation and, 94 
Heat and, 155, 164 
fit the Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital, 105 
" Sewer, 72 

Vernacular Architecture. American, 182, 


Versailles Gallery. The, 140 
Viennese Architects. Forgetfulness of, 


Vintimiglia. Amphitheatre at, 72 
Viollet-le-Duc. Articles on the Exhibition, 

and the Direction of the 

Beaux-Arts, 116 
" and the Evreux Competition, 


Virginia City. Sliding of, 132 
Voltaire, Paris. The Statue of, 220 
Volumes. Dividing the Year's Issue into 

two, 227 

Volunteer Estimates, 59 
Vonvohle. Concrete House at, 92 
Voyages. Educational, 204 

Wages abroad, 228 
71 in England, 73 
" Market. The. 188 
" Mr. Brassey, M P., on, 73 
Wall. Fall of a New York Armory, 52 ' 

Paper. Self-luminous, 104 
" Papers. Poisonous, 36 . 
Walls of Rome. The, 8 
Waring s Check-valve, 50, 167 
Washburn vs. Wildes, 141 
Washington. Art at, 117 
Bust of, 80 
Capitol. The Architect of 

the, 160 
'* The Congressional Library, 


Gas-light at, 132 
Jail. Mr. Fraser as Expert 

upon the, 189 

Monument. The, 7, 170, 212 
" " Protest of Bos- 

ton Chapter 
against, 86 

" " $36,000 to be 

spent on, 126 

" The National Museum at, 8, 


Naval Monument. The, 60 
Proposed School of Art, 198 
" Public Buildings, 1 

Waterhouse, A. R. A. Mr , 72 

made Gold Medalist. Mr., 223 
Water-pipe. Cleaning a, 36 

" Supply of England. The, 212 
" The Philadelphia, 132 
" Tanks in Chicago, 71 
" Works. Miniature. 60 
Waves. Power of the, 96 
Weir's Report on the Fine Arts at Phila- 
delphia, 28. 40, 69, 111, 121, 129 
Well at Charleston, S. C. Artesian, 98 

" atPesth. Hot Water, 8, 204 
Welland Canal. The, 204 
Wellington Monument. The, 183 
Wells. Gas, 80 
West Point Hospital, 80 
Whispering Gallery. A, 2^3 
Whistler's House. Mr., 160 
White's Tenement at. Brooklyn. Mr., 17 
Wick. Power of the Waves at, 98 
Wildes M. Washburn, 141 
Willett's Equilibrium Polygon, 30, 41, 5 
Wire Rope. Strength of, 214 
Witnesses. Architects as, ITS 
Women as Artists, 204 
Wood Engraving, 186 
" Injection, 168 
" Stain, 220 

11 The Unconsidered Uses of, 211 
Woodruff Expedition. The, 204 
Woodward's Artistic Drawing Studies, 183 

" National Architect, 182 

Word to Contributors. A, 17 
Worklngmen and Convict-labor, 106 
Workingineu's Homes, 17 

11 at Wurtemberp, 8 
" Protest against the Tariff 

Bill, 142 
Workmen. Art, 131 

Emigrating, 152 

Wren's Churches in London. Destroying, 

Yellow Mortar, 186 
Zinc. Durability of, 24 


The American Architect and Building News. Index. 



[The figures refer to the number of the Journal, and not to the page.] 


Mulr College, Allahabad, India, 120 

It. Luke'l Memorial Hall. University of 

the South, Tennessee, 124 
gchoolhouae at Deerfield, Mass,, 122 
Thayer Academy, South Braiutree, Mass., 

Trinity Parish School, New York, 119 


Details of the Orient Insurance Building, 

New York, 114 
" Philadelphia Public Buildings, 

" Mufteum of Fine Arts, Boston, 


Trinity Church Addition, New York, 110 
Wrought-irou Lamp Standards, 128 


Apartment House on 21st St., New York, 


Half-houses in New York, 117 
Bouse at Akron, 0., 108 

" near Albany, N. Y, 127 

" at Auburn, 116 

" for Binghamton, N. Y., 121 

" on Clarendon St., Boston, 126 

" in Brookline, Mass., 116 

" on Brush Hill, Mass., 112 

" near Cincinnati, 0., 127 

" at Harrison, N. Y., 113 

" at Holland Patent, 127 

" at Jenkintown. Penn., 127. 

" at Manchester, Conn., 126 

" at Newport, R. I., 117 

" at New Rohelle, N. Y., 109 

" at North Adams, Mass., 131 

" at North Andover, Mass., 131 

at Price's Hill, 0., 129 

" at St. John, N. B., 129 

" at St. Paul, Minn., 113 

House at Spring Hill, Mass., 108 

Houses on Commonwealth Are., Boston, 


" in Chicago, 111., 112 
" at Dorchester, Mass., 119 

Proposed House at Newark, N. J., 128 

Design for a Country House, 117 
** " Country House, 121 
" " Workman's Cottage, 120 


Cathedral at Queenstown, 117 
Church at Moscow, Russia, 123 
Concrete House at Vorwohle, 116 
Fountains at Viterbo and Paris, 109 
Muir College, Allahabad, India, 120 
The Nassau House, Nuremberg, 121 
Parish Churches in Monmouthshire, Eng., 


Rosenberg Castle, Copenhagen, 106 
Saint Alban's Abbey, 131 
Sketches from Rothenburg, 115 
The Tin-in Church, Prague, 110 
View in Palermo, 122 


Chairs and Table, 107 
Hall Stand and Chairs, 116 
Sideboard, 129 

Hudson River Insane Asylum, Poughkeep- 

sie, N. Y., 118 
Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, 124, 

St. Mary's Free Hospital for Children, New 

York, 106 


Nave of Central Falls Baptist Church, Lin- 
coln, R. I., 127 

Nave of Queenstown Cathedral, 117 
St. Alban's Abbey, 131 
Staircase Halls, 118 


Bay-windows, 119, 120 

Library, 116 

Staircases, 114, 115 

A \Vall-decoration, 126, 127, 123 


The Buffalo Rink Alterations, 113 
Mutual Life Insurance Building, Boston, 

Orient Mutual Insurance Building, New 

York, 114 

Store on Franklin St., Boston, 117 
Store in Providence, R. I., 119 
Warehouse on Federal St. , Boston, 107 


Barn for Cornell University, 120 
Canadian Trophy for Paris 107 
Cemetery Entrance, Newark, N. J., 120 
Design for an Engine House. 110 

" " a Park Bridge, 121 
The Hulk, Magnolia, Mass., 113 
Plumbing in a City House, 111 
Sketches in New York, 125 
The Taylor Mausoleum, 114 
Tomb of a Musician, 118 


Direction and Magnitudes by Scale, 116 
Division by Triangles, 113 
General Phenomena, 108 
Measurement of Inclined Lines. 117 
The Object at 45, 117 
Parallel Perspective, 121 
The Perspective Plan, 111 

of Circles, 130 

The Perspective of Reflection!, 121 

" f ' " Shadowi, 125 

Three-point Perspective, 123 
The Use of Diagonals, 111 


City Hall, Providence, R. I., 118 

"The Cottage," Roger William! Park, 

Providence. R. I., 107 
Design for Library at Utica, 131 
Details of Philadelphia Public Building!, 


Fire Station, Concord, N. H., 127 
The Highland House, Cincinnati, 114 
Market House, Chicago, 111., 109 
Police Station at St. John, N. B., 123 
R. I. State Prison, 128 
Rogers Free Library, Bristol, Mass.. Ill 
The Snow Library, Orleans, Mass., Ill 
Third District Court House, New York, 


Whiting Building and Opera House, Hoi- 
yoke, Mass., 116 


Addition to Trinity Church, New York, 

Baptist Church at Bennington, Vt., 108, 

Church at Moscow, Russia, 123 

" " Perrysburgh, O., 126 

" of St. Thomas, Hanover, N. H., 124 
Design for Chapel near Boston, 127 

" " a Country Church, 111 
Jefferson Park Church, Chicago, 131 
Nave of St. Alban's Abbey, 131 
Nave of Central Falls Baptist Church, 127 
St Alban's Abbey, 131 
St. John's Church, Dubuqne, 112 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, 10$ 
The Thein Church, Prague, 110 
Tower of Brattle Street Church, 131 


Akron, 0. House of A and M. J. Allen, 1CS 
Albany, N. Y. House of C. B. Tillinghast 

near, 127 

Allahabad, India. Muir College, 120 
Auburn, N. Y. Parsonage at, 116 

Baltimore, Md. The Bishop Cumminga 

Memorial Church, 130 

" Johns Hopkins Hospital, 


Bayshore, L. I. House at, 117 
Bennington, Vt. Baptist Church at, 106, 


Binghamton, N. Y. House for, 121 
Bristol, R. I. Rogers Free Library at, 111 
Brookline, Mass. House of Mr. Pierce, 116 
Brush Hill, Mass. House at, 112 
Buffalo, N. Y. The Rink, 113 
Boston, Mass. Chapel near, 127 

" " Details of the Museum of 

Fine Arts, 120 
House of Mrs. Flske, 125 
" " Houses on Commonwealth 

Ave., Ill 

Iron Lamp Standards, 128 
N. Y. Mutual Life Insurance 

Building, 116 

' Staircase Halls on Common- 
wealth Ave., 118 
" Store on Franklin St., 117 
" Tower of Brattle St Church, 

Warehouse on Federal St., 

Chicago, 111. House of E. Engle, 112 
" " House of W. E. Tucker, 112 
" " Jefferson Park Church, 131 
" " Market Hall, 109 
" " The Taylor Mausoleum, 114 
Cincinnati, O. The Highland House, 114 
" " House of W. Pogue, 127 

" " The Music Hall, 123 

Concord, N. H. Fire Station at, 127 
Copenhagen, Denmark. Rosenborg Castle 
at, 106 

DeerReld, Mass. The Dickinson School, 122 
Dorchester, Mass. Houses at, 119 
Dubuque, lo. St. John's Church at, 112 

Grenoble, France. Fountain at, 109 

Hanover. N. H. St. Thomas's Church. 124 
Harrison, N. Y. House of IV. Matthews. 113 
Holland Patent, N Y. Houso ' 
Holyoke, Mass. The Whiting Hi di ':<nd 
Opera House at, 116 

Ithaca, N. Y. Bam for Cornell University, 

Jenkintown, Penn. House of W. Barker, 

Lincoln, R. I. Central Fall! Baptist 
Church at, 127 

Magnolia, Man. " The Hulk," 113 

Moscow, Russia. Church of the Trinity, 123 

Newark, N. J. Cemetery Entrance, 120 

" " House for D. S. Wood, 128 

Newport, R. I. House of Com. Baldwin, 

New Rochelle, N. Y. House of De Lancey 

Kane, 109 
New York, N. Y. Additions to Trinity 

Church, 110. 
" " " Apartment House East 

21st St., 123 
" " " Half-houses on West 

15th St., 117 

" " " House on 38th St. 130 
" " " The Orient Mutual In- 
surance Building, 114 
" " " St Mary's Free Hospi- 
tal for Children, 106 
" " " St. Patrick's Cathedral, 


" " " Sketches In, 125 
" " " Third District Court 

House, 129 
" " " Trinity Parish Schools, 

North Andover, Mass. House of Mn. 

Frothingham, 131 

Nuremberg, Bavaria. The Nassau House, 

Orleans, Masi. The Snow Library at, 111 
Palermo, Sicily. View in, 122 

Perrysburgh, 0. Presbyterian Church *^ 

Philadelphia, Penn. Detail! of the Public 

Building, 112 
Foughkeepsie, N. Y. The Hudson Riret 

Hospital for the Insane, 118 
Prague, Bavaria. The Thein Church at, 

Price's Will, 0. House of G. Gerke, 129 
Providence, R. I. Building for R. W 

Aldrich, 119 

" The City Hall at, 118 
" " The Cottage at 
Roger William! 

Park, 107 
" The State Prison, 123 

Qneenstown, Ireland. Nave of the Cathe- 
dral, 117 

Rothenberg, Bavaria. Sketches from, lit 

St. John, N.B. House of C. Flood, 12 
" " Police Station at, 123 

St. Paul, Minn. House at, 118 

South Braintree, Mass. Thayer Academy 
at, 109 

South Manchester, Conn. House of J. 
Cheney, 126 

Spring Hill, Mail. House of C. H. Brad- 
chaw, 108 

Viterbo, Italy. Fountain at, 109 
Vorwohle. Concrete HOUM at, lit 

. ei. 


VOL. III.]. 

Copyright, 1878, JAMES K. OSOOOD & Co. 

[NO. 106. 




The Commissioners' Report on the Public Buildings at Wash- 
ington. The Recommendations of the Commissioners. 
The Chicago Court House. The Greenfield Building Ex- 
plosion. The Architect on American Art. Our Progress 
in Architecture ................. 1 


PAPERS ON PERSPECTIVE. 1 ................ 4 


Rosenborg Castle. St. Mary's Free Hospital, New York. 
Baptist Church at Benniugton ........... 5 

FIRE-PROOF CONSTRUCTION ............... 5 


Letter from Paris ................. 6 


The Late Building Accident at St. John, N.B ....... 7 


NOTES AND CLIPPINGS ................. 7 

COL. CASEY of the Engineer Corps, Mr.. Hill, the Super- 
vising Architect, and Mr. Clark, the Architect of the Capi- 
tol, were the Commission appointed Iry the President after the 
fire in the Patent Office to inquire into the security of the 
public buildings against fire (see American Architect, No. 
93). Their report was submitted to the President, and by 
him referred to Congress just before the holidays. Of the 
Capitol, they say that it is mostly of fire-proof construction, 
but the roof of the old building immediately about the dome is 
of wood, and the space under it is used for storage of books 
and documents, the ceiling below being also of wood. A 
fire in this part of the building might endanger the colon- 
nade of the dome. In the libraries of the Senate and House 
the galleries, shelves, and cases are of wood. The Treasury, 
Post Office, and Patent Office are mostly fire-proof ; but in 
the Treasury the file-room over the eastern colonnade has a 
wooden floor on wooden joists, and all the old part of the 
roof is sheathed in wood, coppered. All that remains of the 
roof of the Patent Office and part of that of the Post Office 
are wooden, and in both buildings are combustible ceilings. 
In the basement of the Treasury, moreover, are a cabinet- 
maker's and a carpenter's shops, and store-rooms of inflam- 
mable material. The new State Department is of fire-proof 
material throughout, excepting only the doors, and the board- 
ing of the floors, which is laid in concrete. The War and 
Navy Departments, the Printing Office, and the buildings in 
which various bureaus of the War and Treasury Depart- 
ments are forced to find lodgings for want of room at home, 
are pretty much all combustible. The buildings of the Naval 
Observatory are of ordinary construction, with scarcely any 
protection, " old and too much worn to be susceptible of 
being remodelled into fire-proof structures." They add 
that : 

" Generally the public buildings not of fire-proof construction, and 
used for office purposes, are much endangered by the character of 
their contents. The files, cases and boxes, books, papers, etc., be- 
longing to the several departments of the Government, have accumu- 
lated to such an extent as to crowd the spaces provided for them, and 
a fire fairly under way would be difficult to control. Workshops of 
various kinds are also connected with some of the buildings, in which 
are kept materials of a combustible character, thus contributing to 
the causes of disaster." 

THE Commission recommends specific improvements in the 
various buildings, replacing combustible material by incom- 
bustible, the removal of dangerous contents and stores of 
combustible materials, and the supply of pipes and hydrants 
where there is need. They ad vise the building of afire-proof 
observatory, and suggest the removal of the Bureau of En- 
graving and Printing from the Treasury. Of one proposi- 
tion which has been set before them, they say wisely : 

" The number of papers is increasing rapidly, and in the considera- 
tion of the care and preservation of the files this Commission has met 
with the suggestion that many of the papers could well be destroyed. 
After a careful examination oi. this question, we do not consider it 
advisable to recommend this course with any of the records, however 
unimportant they may appear. Every paper worthy at any time to 
be recorded and placed on the public files may be of value at some 
future time, either in a historical, biographical, or pecuniary way, to 

the citizen or the nation. Papers seemingly of the least importance 
have been connected with the proof of false demands against the 
Government; and it is scarcely possible to arrive at a decision of 
what is important to be preserved, and what is useless to be de- 

They consequently recommend that a special fire-proof 
building be put up for the archives of the Government, where 
all papers that arc not needed for frequent reference can be 
filed away, to the relief of the file-rooms in the departments. 
By way of general suggestions they say : 

"Very little can be done without further legislation to insure 
greater security against fire. More stringent police regulations, with 
adequate apparatus, and the changes herein recommended, will con- 
tribute in a measure to this end; but the great danger is to be found 
in the structural character of the buildings themselves, and the 
changes necessary to remedy this can only be made after authoriza- 
tion by Congress. In the opinion of the Commission, only fire-proof 
materials and fire-proof methods of construction should be permitted 
in important structures now being or hereafter to be built for public 
use. It is respectfully recommended that Congress be asked to grant 
the authority to carry out such of the recommendations of this report 
as may meet the approval of the Executive." 

THE quarrel between the commissioners of Cook County, 
111., and the common council of the city of Chicago, over 
the new combined Court House and City Hall, which has for 
two years past been a fruitful source of comment in these 
pages, has now assumed a new phase, disgraceful and ex- 
pensive to that city, but interesting and picturesque to all 
outside observers. Our readers may remember that after a 
ludicrous complication of competitions the opposing parties 
failed to agree upon an architect, and solved the difficulty 
in an original way by appointing two, one in the interest of 
each party. Before long the architects themselves fell out, 
the main point of controversy being the erection of a dome 
upon the dividing line between the two halves of the build- 
ing. The county commissioners, who insist upon the adop- 
tion of this feature, or as much of 'it as can be built upon 
their side of the line, have pressed on their part of the build- 
ing with haste, and are now making ready for the dome : 
the city authorities on the other hand have apparently got 
but little farther than their foundations, but these have been 
laid upon a different principle, and do not contemplate making 
a dome, which is stoutly repudiated as an invention of the 
enemy. The two halves of the building are therefore con- 
ceived on totally different plans ; and, moreover, the county 
half is built upon piles with foundations capable of sustain- 
ing a load of ten tons to the square foot, while the city half 
is built without piles and is capable of bearing about one- 
fifth of that weight. At length a new and inconveniently 
conscientious member of the Board had the happy thought 
of asking the county attorney whether the city has a right to 
construct its portion without the dome provided in the 
designs of Mr. Egan, the architect of the commissioners. 
The opinion of this official is by no means conclusive or 
comforting to the Board, and now a serious dilemma is pre- 
sented : if the city wins, the county must demolish work 
which has cost $70,000 ; if the county succeeds, a large part 
of the work already done on the city side will be worse than 
wasted, the plans of Mr. Tilley, the architect of the city 
half, must be fundamentally altered, and a very large bill of 
expenses must inevitably follow. Both parties have passed 
resolutions declining the appointment of expert committees 
of investigation, and so the matter stands. If fraud and 
incapacity must needs have a monument, a half dome would 
perhaps be as appropriate as any other form unknown to art. 

A NEW theory for the cause of the destruction of the 
Greenfield candy-factory in New York has been suggested, 
and seems by the newspaper accounts to have found more 
favor than it deserves. In the loft of the building adjoining 
on the east, one story higher than the Greenfield building, a 
large amount of wool was stored, over three hundred thou- 
sand pounds. The buildings were both old and weak, it i3 
said ; and that on the other side of the candy-factory, being 
two stories lower, gave it no lateral support. The theory is 
that the pressure of the wool upon the Greenfields' party-wall 
forced their building over sideways, and so threw down its 
unbuttressed west wall upon its lower neighbor. This strikes 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 106. 

us as a very unreasonable explanation. The explosion, to 
which there seems to be convincing testimony, might, it is 
true, have followed the fall instead of occasioning it ; but 
it is difficult to see how the weight of the wool could have 
had an}- such effect a is suggested. The wool could not 
exert the lateral pressure of a fluid, and so if the building 
yielded to it, this must have been by canting over bodily to 
one side, like a house of cards. In this case both buildings 
would have fallen together, which they did not. Moreover 
the side wall of the Greenfield building must have fallen all 
at once and let down the floors which it carried ; whereas 
it is in evidence that persons were seen running back and 
forth in the upper stories for some minutes after the first ex- 
plosion. This is confirmed by the testimony of Baacke, the 
machinist, who, after the explosion had thrown out a portion 
of the west wall, went to the windows on that side and 
looked out toward Greenwich Street, upon the roofs of the 
adjoining building. 

A LEADING article in the Architect of Dec. 15, discussing 
the question of originality in modern art, asks, in view of 
the copyism which infects the English art of the da}-, whether 
new countries are more successful in original art than old, 
and what many people, and Americans especially, arc in 
the habit of asking whether Americans arc developing, or 
show an aptitude to develop, any new phase of art. Its 
conclusion is that " neither in painting, in sculpture, nor in 
architecture and the decorative arts, does America furnish the 
slightest evidence of being able to strike out a new path." 
The Architect gives a not very flattering picture of the condi- 
tion and prospects of art in the United States, which it takes 
as the best example of what ma}- be expected in art from the 
new countries of the world. It takes its cue especially from 
architecture, of which it says what perhaps is true in modern 
civilization, though certainly not in older times, that it is 
"after all probably the best of all tests of any thing like 
public artistic aptitude of a high order;" being apt to lag 
behind the other arts in appreciation. " Accordingly," it 
says, "what we find in America is a good deal of national 
taste for poetry, and not much less for music, a very moder- 
ate knowledge at the best of painting and sculpture, and in 
respect of architecture a remarkably simple condition of 
things. There are a goodly number of big buildings, but the 
grand dome of AVashington, like that of St. Petersburg, is 
built upon a secret skeleton of cast-iron. It is not to be de- 
nied that Gothic spires of deal, painted and ' splashed ' in 
imitation of granite, or in some other way made to resemble 
any thing but the true material, are everywhere character- 
istic monuments. In the great parliament-houses of the 
several States, the style of design is generally some very 
showy and feeble rendering of what we call bastard Italian. 
The country houses, such as they are, can only be designated 
in fairness as questionable reproductions of the suburban 
villas of London. Here and there a European-bred native 
architect, or a European immigrant, can make a creditable 
copy of a Gothic church. But beyond such efforts no one 
seems able to venture." It adds that, " on the whole, Amer- 
ican architecture most certainly exhibits in practice, certain 
endeavors after that originality which we have heard so much 
called for in theory ; but all such endeavors are in effect fran- 
tic and undisciplined, and the more they are novel are the 
less artistic." 

IT is not so easy even for an American to find out just 
what is the condition of American architecture. The coun- 
try is wide, its cities far apart, and changing very rapidly 
in aspect. Buildings cannot be carted about for exhibition 
like pictures and statues ; and one must be at some pains, 
and travel a good many thousands of miles, to get a general 
view of what its buildings are. For a representative view it 
is different ; and two or three cities looked at with some care 
might give a pretty fair idea of what our tendency is now. 
But the question occurs, What is a representative view ? If it 
is an average view, the picture which the Architect draws is 
not very far wrong. Into our average goes a vast amount of 
work designed by persons who are not architects at all, or 
by architects whose skill is of the slenderest, and most of 
it clone anywhere from ten to thirty years ago. . But if one 
is to judge the tendency of our architecture, the things to 

look at are those that are doing now, the things that are 
done by men who are in the front rank, and who are mov- 
ing first in the direction in which the mass are following. 
Of most of these things there is no record. The illustrated 
journals, our own included, do not give any adequate idea 
of them ; and travellers cannot be expected to keep up with 
them. Twenty years ago, or even less, it was probably true 
that wooden Gothic spires, painted like stone, were charac- 
teristic monuments. They are still built more or less by 
ambitious builders, or architects in country towns ; but they 
are banished from work of any pretension to consideration, 
and have altogether ceased to be characteristic. Our state- 
houses, which certainly are nothing to boast of, are all things 
of the past, except those which are of the future. The 
truth is, that the last ten years, we might almost say the last 
half-dozen, have altogether changed the character of our 
building. A person who was familiar with Chicago or Bos- 
ton six years ago might be hopelessly lost in them to-dav, 
so far as his recollection would serve him. In Boston he 
might imagine himself in a different country, but it would be 
neither England nor France. It is true that there is a great 
deal of confusion of style, and a considerable lack of style, 
in our new work. It borrows rather recklessly from all sides, 
and it is difficult -enough to tell to just what it is tending; 
but it is very far from being mere reproduction of what is 
done abroad, and the best of it is by no means frantic in its 

ON the question of originality, we have said something in 
another part of this paper : the essential inquiry to any one who 
cares to judge of the prospects of architecture in the United 
States is, what progress have we made in the ten or twenty 
years during which we have been actively building ; and no- 
body who is here to see can deny that the progress is very 
great, great enough to make the future hopeful for excel- 
lence if not for originality. Our first architects have not the 
acquirement nor the firmly disciplined power of the first 
architects of the leading cities of Europe ; but they would 
take good rank anywhere. Our public buildings are far be- 
low the European standards ; our better churches are, with 
a very few exceptions, decidedly inferior to the English, and 
the same may be said, on the whole, of the exterior archi- 
tecture of our country houses. Our best and most character- 
istic work has been in domestic and street architecture, for 
this has been our chief need and so our chief stud}-. The 
planning of our dwelling-houses, especially of city houses, 
has been altogether revolutionized in a dozen years. Amor-' 
icans adhere to the English habit of living in separate city 
houses, and so far as our opportunities allow us to judge 
we may be as imperfectly informed as the Architect is, or the 
writer in the Revue Generate, about American architecture 
the planning of city houses is distinctly less successful and 
skilful in England than here. As for street architecture, our 
best is not as good as the French ; but we are inclined to 
think it is as good as the English or the German, and it is 
not a copy of either of these, though influenced perhaps by all. 
But these comparisons are fruitless, since absolute excellence, 
and not relative, is the one important thing. The trouble is, 
the best is an unduly small part of the whole, and the interval 
between the best and the ordinary is much more conspicuous 
than in older countries ; but perhaps where there is progress, 
this interval is a pretty satisfactory index of it. 

ON the whole, the promise of American architecture seems 
to us encouraging enough. Whether we are to lead the world 
into new paths or not, we need not stop to consider : we are 
certainly not ready for it yet. We have faults enough, os- 
tentation, self-confidence, impatience of restraint, and thus 
far little discipline or acquirement ; but we have also inven- 
tiveness, independence, straightforwardness, and apparently 
a fair share of native artistic sense. At present, unluckily, 
consistency is not a part of our plan : until it is, we cannot 
hope for the best result. No people ever went far in art 
or in any other pursuit except by a united effort in a com- 
mon direction. Till our architects learn to work together 
better than they do now, we are not likely to accomplish any 
thing great ; but this is one of the respects in which we are 
improving. A great drawback to our success is our impa- 
tience of criticism, both from each other and from outside. 

JANUARY 5, 1878.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 

The strictures of foreigners, even the more dispassionate, 
have been wont especially to; stir us into an unnecessary in- 
dignation, that made us blind to what value they might have. 
So long as we consider it an affront and evidence of personal 
hostility to point out the faults of our work, we shut ourselves 
out from one of the surest means of bettering it. It will be 
well for us when we are able to give and receive correction 
among ourselves with truth and soberness ; and we can al- 
ways afford to take note of what competent outsiders say of 
us, and pay heed to whatever of truth we can find in it, with- 
out inquiring too curiously into the respectfulness of their 
attitude or the fulness of their appreciation, which is more 
their concern than ours. 


ENTHUSIASTIC friends of the United States have always 
called upon her to lead the way to a new day in art, and this 
century had hardly opened before the cry for a national liter- 
ature and a national art was raised at home ; nor has it yet 
ceased to be heard above the clamor of business and politics. 
Architecture has been especially singled out as a fitting sub- 
ject for originality. Long before means were provided for 
instructing our architects in any kind of design, they- were 
exhorted to attack a difficulty which the best-trained of our 
day in any country have not yet fully succeeded in mastering. 
Recipes of Indian corn, and we know not what other decora- 
tive material, were showered upon them, and an abundance 
of abstract ideas, moral, social, and political, thrust forward 
for concrete expression in architecture by eager laymen. The 
outcome of these aspirations has not been great, for fortu- 
nately architects have been too busy learning their business 
to pay much heed to them. Whatever has been accomplished 
in giving an individual character and a good deal has been 
done lately in an unambitious way- has been clone, as all 
architectural progress is made, by simply studying to meet the 
natural exigencies of use and construction as they grew, while 
the more aspiring efforts that have been made have borne 
less fruit in improvement. 

Without stopping for the moment to discuss the fairness 
of the account of our architectural condition to which we 
have alluded elsewhere, we may say with regard to all the 
expectations or prophecies of, and exhortations concerning, 
an original art in our new country, of which we have heard 
so much, that we believe they are all wrong, and for the 
present not pertinent. We do not believe in the exhibition 
of infant phenomena, individual or national. A new country 
is exactly the wrong place to look to for originality in any 
pursuit which is the fruit of development and special training, 
most of all in art. New countries arc not peopled by artists, 
nor by men who have the leisure or the means to encourage 
art ; but by men who have their living to get. Their first 
generations are busy subduing their land and providing for 
their subsistence. Whatever artistic faculty they inherit lies 
dormant meanwhile, and deteriorates from disuse ; so that 
when they reach the point where leisure and wealth allow of 
the serious study of art, they have a long leeway 7 to make up, 
and recommence at a disadvantage. Art requires continuity 
of development as much as science, and its development is 
even slower. The people vho have gone aside to colonize 
a new country must be contented, when they rejoin the 
moving current of progress in art, t take a place behind 
that'which they left. They have a certain advantage of 
fresh interest and a starting-point outside of prejudices ; but 
the disadvantage of aptitudes rusty with disuse, broken 
traditions, paucity of examples in art, and absolute lack of 
means of training. To count first on originality under such 
circumstances is unreasonable in outsiders : it is mischievous 
in the people themselves, for what they need is steady train- 
ing without temptation to vagaries. 

So far as we see, only two kinds of originality are possible 
in art. One is the originality which begins with no acquire- 
ment or habit ; develops its own forms and methods in native 
experimental ways. This is the originality of barbarous art ; 
it is simple, naive, and in the hands of an apt people always 
has a charm of its own. It is manifestly impossible in any 
people which has the appliances of civilized life. It has 
nevertheless been attempted in our day, or something more 
like it than the practitioners would be willing to confess, in 
the efforts of doctrinaires and enthusiasts to produce decora- 

tion, furniture, and even architecture by the light of nature 
alone, while yet they cannot divest themselves of the habits 
they owe to the art of another kind, by which they are always 
surrounded without having mastered it. The -result is the 
originality of the sophisticated savage, who uses beads for 
his money', and hangs a pair of boots about his neck for 
ornament. The other kind of originality, the only kind 
which is possible or desirable in a high civilization, is that 
of thoroughly trained artists, whose skill is cumulative, 
advancing step by step from the mastery of old forms to the 
development of new. In this case changes of form, though 
they may be rapid, are never discontinuous. They are not 
the product of undisciplined effort, but the fruit of men's labor 
whose power is the accumulation of generations. Such fruit 
ripens slowly. It took hundreds of years to produce cither 
Greek or Gothic architecture, and that after the chief produc- 
tive energy of whole peoples had been directed to art. It is 
true that no civilized people has to start from the very begin- 
ning as those did, and that the long work of those centuries 
was not the invention of forms so much as the education of a 
community ; but this also is a part of our work, and now the 
greater portion of our energy is turned in other directions. 

Moreover, we doubt the value of a search after originality 
beyond the natural desire to avoid the trite and common- 
place, with which the customary is not to be confounded. 
It is something like the search for happiness : that kind 
which is found by hunting it for its own sake is not likely 7 to 
be worth much when it is got. Novelty for the mere sake 
of novelty and this is what the cry for originality amounts 
to always seems purposeless and therefore feeble. Most 
of all is this true in architecture, an art in which every great 
development hitherto has had an obvious and convincing 
reason. It is an art which embodies so much virility and 
directness of purpose that motiveless changes of it are an 
offence. All real originality in it has resulted from modi- 
fication of the conditions of life, or from the influence of 
new materials in construction, joined with the spontaneous 
action of a national instinct in design, itself a thing of long 
growth, the result of numberless consenting tendencies, and 
not to be resisted or changed, unless in extraordinary circum- 
stances, by individual effort. Changes in art which are due 
to this instinct have the dignity- and authority that belong to 
the steady irreversible movement of a whole people or of an 
age. In the present time, the adaptation of new materials 
is undetermined ; the conditions of modern life are in a state 
of flux ; general instinct of design there is none ; and 
national instinct for art, at least in a new country, is not 
likely to take shape till there is some fixity in the other influ- 
ences. Under these circumstances our changes are only 
likely to be what they have been through this century in Eng- 
land and America, mere vacillations of fashion, expressive 
of nothing, suited for millinery, but unworthy of a serious 
art whose works are to outlast the lives of men. 

To a young nation then, as to a young artist, one may 
safely say : It is much more important that j-our art should be 
good in its kind than that it should be original. Have no fear 
lest, after j - ou have acquired a mastery of expression, if you 
have any thing to say, you shall be backward in saying it. 
Therefore be in no haste for originality, but learn the mastery 
of expression in art, by learning to control the elements and 
combinations that are ready to your hand. Discipline your 
power by working with the material of whose successful use 
you have examples before you. Then when you have ac- 
quired a trained sense and a sure hand, a safe mastery of 
form, proportion, and combination, if you have time left, and 
ideas of your own that want expression, devote yourself to 
being original ; or better, to expressing them as straightfor- 
wardly as possible, and you will be original enough. If you 
have not, leave it to your son or your grandson, who, by vir- 
tue of his inheritance beginning where you left off, may with 
equal strength climb to heights which you could not reach. 
As for America, her artistic activity is a thing of one gener- 
ation. A generation counts for little in the development of 
art, ftxt very little when the whole shaping of a national 
instinct is involved. No nation ever pursued art with a per- 
sistent and thoroughly earnest interest, that did not in the end 
produce an art original enough, for such an interest is the 
index of aptitude. We cannot suppose that Americans, if 
they really show such an interest, will fail of individuality in 
their art ; but there is no need to be in a hurry. 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 106. 


IN compliance with the wishes of my friends and pupils, and in 
fulfilment of a promise made more than a year ago to the editors 
of the American Architect and Building News, I propose to furnish 
to its readers, from week to week, a series of papers upon Perspec- 
tive. A new treatment of so old a theme would be uncalled for, but 
that even the more elaborate treatises are deficient in comprehen- 
siveness and scientific simplicity, while the practical hand-books 
fail to make the reader acquainted with methods that are found 
in experience to be the most convenient and practical of all. Most 
of what I shall have to say is of course, in substance, an old story ; 
but it is a story which can, I think, be told anew with profit, so as 
the better to lead up to the chapters that are comparatively new. 
That I have any thing to offer which is absolutely new, that I have 
in my explorations found any field absolutely untrodden by my 
predecessors, I can hardly suppose : I am too used, in these regions, 
to discover the footprints of unknown or forgotten pioneers in 
what I had taken to be really terra incor/nita. But I am sure that 
if the reader will accompany me he will come to some things that, 
if not absolutely novel, are new to him, and that he will reach 
some points of view from which the more familiar ground will 
present an unaccustomed aspect. 

This discussion of the subject will differ from that generally 
given, in several particulars ; much greater prominence being 
assigned to the phenomena of parallel planes than is usual, and 
use being made of the laws thus established to determine the 
perspective of shadows, a subject that seems hitherto to have 
received but little attention. 

In the course of this investigation it will be shown that the 
horizontal plane hardly deserves the paramount importance com- 
monly assigned to it, and that the practice of referring all construc- 
tions to that plane is productive of needless inconvenience. The 
well-known method, also, of points of distance, or points of meas- 
ures, which is generally treated as an auxiliary method of but lim- 
ited serviceability, will be shown to be of universal application, 
and to suffice for the solution of almost all problems. The devel- 
opment of this method to its legitimate results leads to the con- 
struction of a perspective plan, rendering unnecessary the construc- 
tion of the orthographic plan, by the aid of which perspective 
drawings are commonly made. 

Any treatise on perspective is, of course, mainly directed to meet 
the wants of the architect ; and the problems with which he deals 
are free from most of the perplexities that constantly annoy the 
student of nature. But there are difficulties and apparent anom- 
alies which confuse the mind even of the architectural draughts- 
man, in disposing of which we shall also be able to explain the dis- 
crepancies which are always found to exist between sketches made 
faithfully from nature, and drawings made according to the com- 
mon perspective rules, discrepancies which have naturally pro- 
duced among artists a certain disregard and contempt for the 
rules themselves. It will be shown, as indeed hardly needs to be 
pointed out, that in drawing from nature, one works, in fact, not 
upon a plane, but upon a cylinder. The discussion of Plane Per- 
spective needs to be supplemented, then, by a chapter on Cylin- 
drical, or, as it is sometimes called, Panoramic Perspective, and an 
explanation of the principles and rules of this method will show 
its results to be exactly conformable, in kind, to those reached 
when drawing merely by the eye. Much that I shall have to say 
will thus be as pertinent to the work of the landscape painter or 
the historical painter as to that of the architect. 

Finally we will briefly review some ingenious methods of limit- 
ing the space required for making drawings in perspective, espe- 
cially that of the late M. Adhemar ; methods of the greatest value 
when, as in fresco-painting or scene-painting, the picture is large 
compared with the size of the room in which it is to be made. To 
this I hope to add some historical notes, showing the gradual 
development of the art, and of the scientific ideas on which it is 
based. W. R. W. 


1. A drawing made in perspective undertakes to represent objects 
of the shape and size that they actually appear from a given point. 
It has to do only indirectly with their real shape and size, being 
mainly concerned with their apparent outlines and dimensions. 
Before trying to learn how to draw them, then, it is obviously 
desirable to find out how they really look. This first paper will 
accordingly be taken up with considering the appearances of things, 
the phenomena with which perspective has to do. 

2. The things in question, as always in the scientific study of 
form, are lines, especially straight lines ; plane figures, especially 
rectangular figures and the circle ; and solid objects, especially the 
sphere and cylinder. The appearance of solids bounded by plane 
surfaces is determined, of course, by the aspect of the plane 
figures that bound them. 

3. Certain phenomena in regard to the shape and size of these 
things are sufficiently obvious. It does not need to be pointed out 
that everything seems smaller that is to say, subtends a smaller 
visual angle when at a distance from the eye than when near ; 
that consequently the more distant portions of a straight line seem 
smaller than equal divisions near at hand; that in rectangular 
figures the farther sides occupy less space to the eye than the 

nearer sides, so that they present, in most positions, a trapezoidal 
rather than a rectangular aspect, the sides inclining towards one 
another; that a circle when seen in perspective generally appears 
as an ellipse, and that the centre of the circle does net occupy the- 
centre of the eljipse, but is nearer to the farther than to the hither 
edge. These qualitative determinations are easy enough. But it is 
not so easy to determine the relations of quantity, to tell how much 
smaller a given distance will make a given line appear, or just at 
what angle the sides of the rectangle seem inclined, and in what 
direction they seem to run. To determine these things with 
exactness is the chief object of these methods, an object to be 
reached through the study of another class of phenomena, the ap- 
pearances not of limited and finite lines and planes, but of lines 
and planes supposed to be indefinitely extended. Indeed, finite 
lines and planes are in perspective considered merely as portions 
of the indefinitely extended lines and planes in which they lie. 

4. All lines lying in one and the same direction, and conse 
quently parallel to each other, are said to belong to the same 
system of lines. Each line is an element of the system. 

In like manner, all pianos parallel to one another, and whose 
axes accordingly belong to the same system of lines, are said to 
belong to the same system of planes. Each plane is an element of 
the system. By the axis of a plane is meant any line at right 
angles, or perpendicular, to it. 

The position of the spectator, that is to say, of the spectator's 
eye, is called the station point. 

' Now if we imagine the lines of any system to be indefinitely 
extended both ways, we shall encounter the following phenomena. 

5. All the lines of a system, that is, all lines parallel 4o each 
other in space, seem to converge towards two infinitely distant 
points. These points are called the vanishing points of that system 
of lines. They are 180 distant from each other. 

The vanishing points of a line are the utmost possible limits of 
its apparent extension, even though infinitely extended. For a 
straight line, although infinitely long, cannot subtend an arc of 
more than 180 ; it cannot seem more than a semicircle. 

The beams of the sun, or the shadows of clouds, at sunset, 
which seem to separate overhead and converge near the opposite 
horizon, afford a capital instance of parallel lines with two van- 
ishing points. So also do parallel lines of cloud, and, in streets, 
the lines of sidewalks, eaves, and house-tops. They appear as 
great circles of the sphere of which the eye is the centre. 

6. Now what is very curious is that whichever element of the 
system one looks at seems straight ; the others, on both sides, seem- 
ing concave towards it. The horizon itself, which seems straight 
when one looks at it, seems curved if one looks up or down. 
Other horizontal lines, when regarded with reference to the hori- 
zon, seem parallel to it, and farthest removed from it, where they 
are nearest the eye, approaching it at a constantly increasing an- 
gle as they retreat towards their vanishing points. 

These singular phenomena, though constantly before our eyes, 
are little noticed, and consequently but little known. But they 
sometimes force themselves upon the draughtsman's attention, 
causing much confusion in his drawing and in his mind. The 
fact that most straight lines, all indeed except one, always seem 
curved, is the basis of the method of curvilinear or panoramic 
perspective, which will form the subject of a subsequent paper. 

7. Either vanishing point of any system of lines may be found 
by looking in the direction followed by the lines of that system; 
the vanishing point will then be seen full in front of the eye. 

That element of the system which passes through the eye, or 
station point, will be seen endwise, the line appearing as a point, 
coinciding with and covering the vanishing point, which is at its 
farther extremity. 

8. All the planes of a system, that is, all planes parallel to each 
other in space, seem to converge towards an infinitely distant line, 
which is the limit of their apparent extension. A plane, though 
seemingly infinitely extended, like the sea, cannot subtend an arc 
of more than 180 in every direction ; it cannot seem more than 
a hemisphere. Its limiting line accordingly will be a great circle 
of the infinite sphere, of which the eye, or station point, is the 

9. The vanishing trace of any system of planes may be found 
by glancing along that plane of the system which passes through 
the eye. On looking in any direction at right angles to the axis 
of the system of planes, it is seen full in front of the eye. That 
element of the system of planes which passes through the eye is 
seen edgewise, the plane appearing as a line, covering and coin- 
ciding with the vanishing trace, or horizon, of the system, which 
is its outer extremity. 

Such a line is the horizon, which limits at once the plane of the 
earth, and the plane, or hemisphere, of the sky. We might call 
such a line the vanishing line of a system of planes, just as we 
speak of the vanishing point of a system of lines ; but as it is 
common to call any indefinitely extended right line a vanishing 
line, it is more convenient to borrow a term from Descriptive Geom- 
etry, and speak of the vanishing trace of a system of planes. Or 
we may borrow another word, and speak of the horizon of a system 
of planes, distinguishing the real Horizon, or vanishing trace of 
horizontal planes, by a capital H . 

10. Any point or line lying in a line passing through the eye 
seems exactly to cover and coincide with the vanishing point of the 






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JAJSTTJARY 5, 1878.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 

system to which the line belongs. So also any line, figure, or sur- 
face, lying in a plane passing through the eye, appears as a right 
line, and seems to cover and coincide with a portion of the trace 
of the system to which the plane belongs. 

11. Vanishing points and vanishing traces have to do only 
with the direction of lines and planes, not with their position, 
Hence objects whose lines and planes are parallel have the same 
vanishing points and traces, whatever their position to the right 
or to the left, above or below the spectator. 

12. A plane surface upon a solid object cannot be seen unless it 
, is on the side of the object towards the trace of that plane. 

13. It is obvious that all systems of horizontal lines have their 
vanishing points in the Horizon, and conversely, that the Horizon 
passes through the vanishing points of all systems of horizontal 
lines. The same is true, of course, of vertical or inclined planes, 
and the lines that lie in them or are parallel to them. From these 
considerations we can frame the following propositions, which are 
the fundamental propositions of our system of perspective. 

(a) All lines, or systems of lines, lying in or parallel to a sys- 
tem of planes, have their vanishing points in the trace or horizon 
of that system. 

Conversely : 

The trace, or horizon, of any system of planes passes through 
the vanishing points of all lines parallel to them. 

(6) The traces of all the systems of planes which can be passed 
through a line, or parallel to it, in any direction, pass through the 
vanishing point of the system to which the line belongs, and 
intersect each other at that point. 


A line, or system of lines, lying in or parallel to two planes, has 
its vanishing point at the intersection of their traces. 

Hence : 

(c) The trace of a plane passes through the vanishing points of any 
two lines lying in it, that is, of any two elements of the plane. 

(rf) A line lying in a plane has its vanishing point in the trace of that 

(e) The line of intersection of two planes has its vanishing point at 
the intersection of their traces. 

14. The reader is recommended to take the pains not only to 
satisfy himself of the truth of these propositions, which he will 
easily do, but also to verify them by examples, determining for 
himself, in his daily walks, at what distant points in the earth or 
the sky the vanishing points of different lines are to be looked 
for, lines horizontal, vertical, or inclined; and in like manner to 
trace the horizons of the different planes he encounters in roofs or 
walls, exemplifying these propositions over and over again until 
they become perfectly obvious and familiar. 

The vanishing points of the eaves, for example, and of the rak- 
ing cornice or other steepest line of a roof, are easily found by 
looking in the directions they pursue. These two directions deter- 
mine the inclination of the plane of the roof in which they lie. 
Its trace, or horizon, is a great circle, or straight line, cutting 
across the sky from one of these vanishing points to the other. 
In the case of two intersecting roofs, the vanishing point of the 
hip or valley that marks their intersection is found at the inter- 
section of their horizons. 

15. The discussion of a problem in perspective cannot be con- 
sidered complete until the vanishing point of every line, and the 
vanishing trace of every plane, has been determined. 



ROSENBORG CASTLE, of which we give an illustration, is one of 
the very few buildings of architectural interest, that repeated de- 
structive conflagrations have left in the city of Copenhagen. It was 
built in the early part of the seventeenth century by King Chris- 
tian IV., who used it for a summer residence, situated as it was, at 
the time of erection, only a short distance outside the city walls. 
A few years later, the fortifications were extended so as to enclose 
Rosenberg within the city limits, and finally the rapid growth of 
Copenhagen made it necessary a few years ago to demolish the 
earthworks, in order to give room for boulevards and streets which 
made this picturesque building with its surrounding park almost 
the centre of the Danish capital. The castle was formerly defended 
by walls, moats, and a draw-bridge, which have partly disappeared 
to be replaced by the more peaceful flower-gardens and lawns ; and 
only a portion of the moat and the bridge remain to remind one of 
its fallen greatness. It is evident that the architect of this structure, 
Steenwinkel, must have been educated in Holland or northern Ger- 
many, as all his works, and they are many, bear a strong resemblance 
to buildings in Amsterdam, Leydeu, and Hanover; so much so, 
that " Dutch Renaissance " has become a generally accepted term in 
Denmark, for the style of architecture they represent. The castle 
is built of brick ; and the four bay-windows as well as cornices, 
belts, and window-casings, are made of sandstone. The roofs are 
all covered with rather wide strips of copper. It is by no means a 
beautiful architectural creation, but its eccentric gables and nu- 
merous carvings in unexpected places do not lack a certain grace, 
which, together with the time-softened red color of the bricks, 

streaked with yellow-tinted sandstone, and the greenish copper 
roofs which are enlivened by gilt finials and vanes, make a cheer- 
ful and pleasing ensemble. The building has not been inhabited 
for many years, but is used as a depository for many important 
state documents, and for an invaluable collection of rare gems, gold 
and silver ware, etc., the property of former members of the royal 
house. The first story, which is entered through doors hardly 
three feet wide, by little more than six feet in height, is cut up 
into a number of small rooms, very cosey and homelike, but hardly 
what might be expected would satisfy royalty. Some of these 
rooms are loaded with carvings and paintings, and contain a great 
many interesting pieces of furniture, made famous by their connec- 
tion with important events in the history of the kingdom. The 
second story is also divided up into rather small rooms; one of 
which is decorated in a peculiar style, the walls, ceiling, and cen- 
tre of the floor being completely covered with mirrors ; and another 
room is finished in dark wood, highly varnished, and inlaid with a 
profusion of precious stones and pearls. The third story consists 
of one large hall, occupying the entire length and width of the 
main building, with ante-rooms, etc., in the towers. The walls of 
this hall (Hall of the Knights) are hung with twelve pieces of 
tapestry, representing battles on land and sea, and other historical 
events. This tapestry was all made in a small town a few miles 
from Copenhagen. One end of this vast room is occupied by the 
royal throne, and the opposite end by the baptismal font, wrought 
in silver and gold. The whole castle has recently been repaired 
and restored, and makes a very pleasing feature in a city otherwise 
poor in interesting architecture. 



This design contemplates the alteration and enlargement of the 
present building, which is an ordinary city dwelling. An adjoin- 
ing lot of twenty-five feet width has been purchased for this 
purpose. Provision is made for three wards containing sixty 
beds, with an isolation ward in cases of necessity. The basement 
contains reception ward, dining-room, kitchen, laundry, etc. The 
first floor : reception-room, office, and sisters' dining-room, with 
pantries, etc., and one large ward for patients. The second floor 
provides two large wards for patients, with dining-rooms, ward- 
closets, etc. The third floor : sisters' bedrooms and infirmary, chap- 
el, nurses' rooms, and store-rooms. The fourth floor : operating- 
room, isolation ward, servants' dormitory, children's play-room, 
and house-surgeons' apartments. There are also three good rooms 
in the attic. A central hall fifteen feet wide on each floor gives 
access to the different departments ; and an elevator Communicates 
with each floor from cellar to attic ; while dumb-waiters run from 
the kitchen floor to the ward dining-roomsT The building is to 
be heated by steam, and ample provision is made for ventilation. 
The hospital is in charge of the Sisters of St. Mary. It is hoped 
that the work will be commenced in the spring of 1878. 




[A paper by Dctlef Lienau, P.A.I. A., read at the Eleventh Annual Convention of 
the American Institute of Architects.] 

THE effort to diminish danger by fire to our constructions is one 
of the greatest importance, and should enlist the energy and all 
the solicitude of our profession ; and even more so in this coun- 
try, where the difficulties occasioned by the influences of our 
climate are indeed vastly greater than in the countries of the Old 
World, from whence we are apt to take our precedents. 

The large conflagrations to which many of our cities have lately 
been exposed have at least taught us this lesson : that the most 
destructible of our building materials is wood, and the least de- 
structible brick. We should therefore, as much as possible, dis- 
card wood, and instead use brick for our principal building mate- 
rial. Among the many suggestions made after our large fires, 
there has not been mentioned one system of fire-proof vaulting, 
especially adapted for warehouses and some kind of factories, to 
which I beg leave to draw your attention for a few moments. 
This system, which is very common in the North of Germany, 
where it has existed since the Middle Ages, is well worthy of 
imitation, not only on account of its easy and practical execution, 
but also on account of its inexpensiveness. This vaulting consists 
of a series of strong elliptical arches, built parallel to each other 
across the building at intervals of say ten to twelve feet from 
centres : the spandrels of these arches are regularly built up to a 
level, and serve to support flat segmental arches turned between 
them. As a general thing the cellars in all buildings (dwelling- 
houses and others) are arched over in this manner ; and in store- 
houses, breweries, distilleries, etc., you often find four or five stories, 
one above the other, arched over in the same manner. These 
buildings are built entirely of brick, and are often finished in this 
manner to the very roof, for which the arches are laid with the 
proper inclination, and then covered directly with cement, tile, or 
metal. With stairs of brick, stone, or iron, and enclosed in brick 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 106. 

wells, and having doors, windows, and shutters of iron, you have 
a construction as fire-proof as can be made, particularly adapted 
to storehouses, factories, or to cellars of dwelling-houses, and one 
not more costly, if as much, as the more modern system of 
wrought-iron beams filled in with brick arches. A fire from the 
outside cannot attack such a building vaulted over from cellar to 
garret, and a fire originating inside of it will in most cases be 
confined to the story in which it started. 

Our system of wrought-iron beams filled in with brick arches, 
or arches of other fire-proof materials, has some great advantages : 
not the least one is, that it gives more available room on each 
floor, and that it requires less thickness of walls than the former 
system of all brick. But it is not as fire-proof on account of 
the exposure of the iron to the fire : this danger ought to be over- 

In order to diminish this danger to the iron beams, a thick coat 
of plaster of Paris can be stuck to the under side of the beams for 
protection. For this purpose the arches may be started one-half 
inch below the lower edge of the beams, and this will give a coat 
of at least one inch thick the requisite support from and attach- 
ment to the arches. 

To protect from the heat the end-beams at well-holes, also iron 
girders composed of two H-beams, and to give them at the same 
time an inexpensive finish, I have lately used stout hoop-iron ( T 8 ? by 
| inch), stretched and bound tightly and riveted around the beams 
and girders every eight inches from centres ; the open channels at 
the sides of the beams are tlien filled in and built up with brick 
laid in cement. The hoop-iron keeps the bricks in their places till, 
the cement has set ; afterwards the sides and bottoms are plastered, 
and mouldings run on them if desired. If the girder-beams are far 
enough apart to allow the mason to reach with his hands inside, 
then the cavity- between them is filled in with brick likewise. 
This device gives some considerable protection against heat in case 
of a fire, and has the advantage of not being costly. 

For storehouses, factories, etc., where the danger of fire is 
greater, a good protection to cast-iron columns and wrought-iron 
girders might be built by enclosing the columns in brick piers. 
Suppose an 8" or 12'-' column: build an 8" wall around it; this 
would make a pier of 24" or 28" square. To protect the girders, 
turn, in direction of the same, from pier to pier 8" segmental arches 
24" or 28" wide, the extrados of the same to touch the bottom of 
the girders; then level up the haunches, and build 8'' dwarf-walls 
on each side of the girders to the top of the same. This will give 
an excellent protection against fire, and where it is most wanted 
in these kinds of buildings. 

In most cases, a 4" instead of an 8" wall would be sufficient ; 
but in extreme cases of storage of inflammable materials the 8" 
walls and arches would be necessary. 

In all our buildings the effort should be to build with fire-proof 
materials, that is, with stone, brick, iron, and some of the plaster 
compounds for partitions and fun-ing. Iron beams, which are the 
most costly of our materials, should be used as sparingly as possi- 
ble, and we ought to calculate the strength required at every step 
of our building operation, so that no more iron may enter into our 
buildings than is absolutely necessary. In order to economize in 
the right direction, let us use as little wood as possible. 

A French architect completes his buildings with less than one- 
half the amount of wood which we put into ours in the way of 
finish. The less wood we have in them, the less danger of com- 
promising them in case of fire. 

In the matter of roofing, there exists on the Continent of Europe 
a very safe kind of tile, which might well be adopted here. Not 
that new fancy tiling that has lately been introduced, and is not 
good for our purpose. The tile I mean is a plain rectangular tile, 
with a hook at the top to hook behind a wooden or iron lath, 13 
or 10 inches long, 6 or G inches wide, with a thickness of half 
an inch, which is laid 3 thick in mortar, showing 4 or 5 inches to 
the weather, and rendered underneath with cement or mortar ; in 
other words, it is laid like slate. This tile roof can be laid at a 
pitch of three to four inches to the foot, and is not only a great 
security against fire, but also, when of the proper materials, a very 
lasting roof. When the sparing use of iron is advocated above, it 
is for the reason of reducing the cost of the iron construction, and 
in order to popularize the same. And that this can be done there 
is no shadow of a doubt. To put the beams as wide apart as their 
more or less length of bearing requires, would in many cases re- 
duce the weight of iron to a very considerable extent. 

The more we do in this direction, the nearer we come to the 
period when we can expect to have structures which will stand 
with credit an attack of fire from both the inside and the outside 
of the building. 



PABIS, Dec. 10, 1877. 

IT was a fortunate idea for the French to have planned a Uni- 
versal Exhibition at a time of anticipated political disturbance, 
as it has served as an anchor to public interests amid the turbulent 
currents of politics. Although Victor Hugo, in his lately pub- 

lished " Histoire d'un Crime," sarcastically recounts how loud on 
all sides were the protestations of the absurdity and impossibility 
of a coup d'etat, even up to the very eve of Napoleon's overthrow of 
the Republic in '51, still it is incredible, in view of the immense 
interests in the maintenance of order now at stake, that any 
party can think of attempting a movement which would render 
useless the vast works for the Exhibition. 

The site of these works is almost ideal ; and as the broad plain 
of the Champ de Mars, accessible on all sides, and covered with 
vast iron buildings, is appropriate for an exhibition of the world's 
commercial industries, so the noble stone edifice on the height 
opposite is most happily consecrated as a temple to the arts ; for 
the Palais du Trocadero, at first projected as only an accessory to 
the constructions on the Champ de Mars, is to remain a permanent 

A recent visit to these buildings shows every thing so advanced, 
that there is no doubt that all will be ready by the first of May. 
The works have been pushed with wonderful rapidity, and are 
about ready to receive the interior decorations, which are left to 
the charge of the exhibitors, whether nations or individuals. They 
have almost finished the giant iron skeletons of the two great jes- 
tibules which form the facades towards the Seine and the Ecole 
Militaire, and are placing in position the enormous plaster panels 
which form the ceiling. A great number of workmen have been 
for some time past employed in casting these panels, made of 
plaster with a large proportion of hemp, or some such material, to 
give them elasticity ; for they are extremely thin and light, with no 
inner frame, and bend under their own weight without cracking. 
They fit into the iron web of the roof and form cupolas and cais- 
sons. It will be remembered, that the vestibules forming the end 
facades, 1,178 feet long and 82 feet wide, are connected together 
by, and give access to, nine galleries of exhibition. The largest of 
these are the two outside ones, forming the side facades, 2,145 feet 
in length and 115 feet in width, and destined for the machinery, 
which will be worked by motive-power generated outside the 
building. Not a spark of fire need therefore enter this gallery. 
The other galleries are to be devoted to raw materials, goods and 
furniture. The section of the Fine Arts is placed in the centre, 
and is interrupted to form a garden in the middle. This gallery, 
of stone to guard against fire, is isolated ; and the avenues on 
either side will be interesting, for the different countries will deco- 
rate their sections upon it by their characteristic architecture. 
The only one of these facades yet completed is that of England, 
in brick and stone ; and it is so ugly and contemptible, that one 
would pass it by without comment, did it not pretend to represent 
the fine old Elizabethan style. The United States is, they say, 
to be represented by a portable house. 

The principal difference between this building and that of 1867 
is that the latter was elliptic in form, while the new one, by the 
same architect, M. Hardy, is rectangular; and though contain- 
ing some 792,000 square feet, while the building of 1807 contained 
only 501,900, yet the vestibules have this time been made so much 
more spacious, and the Art Section three or four times larger, the 
exhibition space is thus reduced to nearly the same area. The 
French section comprises one-half the building, and it is perhaps a 
pity, since as it is divided from the other nations by the Art Gal- 
lery and avenues, its exhibitions cannot be so easily compared. 
The iron construction is the simplest possible, with no attempt at 
ornamentation, as it will be entirely hidden by the various deco- 
rations. The'building can have no pretensions to beauty, but its 
immense size and huge corner pavilions will give it a certain 
dignity, and then the traditional flags may do something for it. 

The park in front, along the Seine, is already laid out with 
trees, fountains, and grottos, which are covered with ivy, and 
contain stalactites cleverly imitated in carbonate of lime, which 
look as if formed there a century ago, instead of a week. 

Crossing the river to the Palais du Trocadero, the case is dif- 
ferent, and architectural criticism can be more exacting. The 
design is by MM. Davioud and Bourdais, who were supposed to 
have been chosen in a competition, but who, it is whispered, had 
no anxiety beforehand about the result; for wire-pulling is as pow- 
erful in Paris as anywhere, and M. Davioud is not the man to 
suffer from the fact. 

The building has little resemblance to the design submitted in 
the competition, for no time was lost in profiting by the clever 
ideas of the less fortunate competitors. On the whole, the effect 
is fine of the great central circular theatre, or concert-hall, with 
lofty towers, and flanked by semicircular porticos, which have a 
development of some 1,320 feet in length. Nearer approach shows 
many features, however, open to criticism. M. Davioud has what is 
commonly called "good taste," and designs charming little details, 
his capitals and mouldings being generally designed with much 
delicacy and refinement ; but with this will be joined, as in his 
fountain St. Michel, gross faults of scale and proportion, some of 
which are here already apparent. 

As M. Davioud is the architect of the fountains in Paris, he has 
allowed himself the luxury of designing something in which he 
may be supposed to be most at home ; and in front of the building 
is to be an enormous fountain and cascades, to surpass those at 
St. Cloud and Versailles, and to cost 650,000 francs ; the latter 
fact more probable than the former. 

JANUARY 5, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 

M. Mercie, the first of the modern French sculptors, and author 
of "Gloria Victis " and the "Genie des Arts" just finished for 
the entrance to the Louvre, has modelled a winged " Fame " nearly 
twenty feet high, to be cast in brass, which is to surmount the 
main building, making this the highest point in Paris. A rough 
cast from the model is to be placed in position, to allow the sculp- 
tor to judge of its effect. The figure itself, they say, is superb in 
its pose, but to judge it fairly, it must be first raised to its lofty 
pedestal. So thoroughly understood in France is this desideratum, 
that no time nor expense are spared to accomplish it. Models in 
plaster are made of all important details, that the architect may 
not be misled by his drawings ; and this considerable expense is 
taken as a matter of course. Probably in the United States it 
would be thought preposterous to permit the delay and expense 
of raising the model of this statue to the pinnacle of the roof, 
merely to gratify the whim of a distrustful sculptor. " If he 
thinks he can't make it right the first time, we will find somebody 
who can," would be the comment of the committee. But the 
difficulties of art are better appreciated here. Not long ago M. 
Vaudremer, architect in charge of the churches of Paris, was 
intrusted with designing brackets and candelabra for lighting St. 
Eustaehe. After the work of several months, a full-sized design 
was completed ; and from this a plaster model costing 1,000 francs 
was carefully made. On being set up in the church, it appeared 
too small to the fastidious architect, and it was thrown aside, to 
be replaced by an equally careful model a little larger ; the item 
of the 1,000 francs for the first model being set down as one of the 
necessary incidental expenses, without thought of remonstrance 
from the givers of the candelabra. The whole set are now mounted ; 
and it may appear less surprising to our "happy-go-lucky " archi- 
tects, that not only in the conscientious labor spent on them, but 
in their great beauty, they can compare with the best metal-work 
of the Middle Ages, when one of the greatest sculptors was willing 
to pass a long life in work upon a pair of doors. 

5L Coquart, who a few years ago decorated the interior court of 
the Ecole ties Beaux- Arts, was not content with careful studies on a 
large scale, but for a long time studied their effect when hung 
upon the walls themselves, in vast sheets of paper. Until we 
realize in America, that the best art must cost dear in time and 
money, the highest art cannot flourish among us ; but our chief 
fault is impatience at delays which must occur in the studies of 
conscientious artists, rather than want of liberality in expense. 



NEW YORK, Dec. 27, 1877. 


Dear Sir, We have just read the letter of your St. John, N.B., 
correspondent, and we cannot allow his statement to pass current 
either with the public or our professional brethren. We send you 
an account of the accident, and hope that you will correct in your 
next issue your correspondent's statements. 

The buildings on King Street, St. John, N.B., referred to in 
" Warrington's " letter, were one for Messrs. A. and J. Hay, which 
had a frontage of 24' 3", with party-wall of brick 12" thick ; and 
adjoining it was one for Judge Skinner, with a frontage 16' 3' . 
The Hay building was built first, and had a 12" wall butting 
against a 12" wall on the other side from Judge Skinner's. The 
Hay building was divided into two stores, with a 3' stairway in 
the centre leading from the front : the stud partition running all 
the way up, and so dividing it into two buildings. Our arrange- 
ment with the Messrs. Hay was to supply plans and specifications, 
and to superintend only the mason, iron, stone, and granite work, as 
they had a carpenter in whom they placed complete confidence. 
The object of this was to reduce our charge for superintendence. 
It was the first case of partial superintendence we ever had, and 
the sequel showed its in judiciousness. The senior member of our 
firm was residing in St. John at the time. He has had twenty- 
seven years experience as an architect, and ihis is the first case of 
a building falling down with which he was in any way connected. 
As it was, he detected the studs buckling the evening before the 
accident occurred, and notified the owner and carpenter, who said 
they would attend to it next day ; but it did not wait until next 
day, and therefore the accident. The case has been investigated, 
and settled by arbitration, and the following facts have been 
obtained, which throw the blame where it belonged; i. e., on the 
carpenter for neglecting to follow the specifications, and on Messrs. 
Hay for false economy. The specifications called for 3" x 4" 
studs, but the carpenter put in 2" x 3" studs, and these he set flat- 
ways. The beams called for were 3" x 9", and these he put in in 
two lengths, contrary to our instructions, but the owners sustained 
him in this false economy of material. Now these beams, nine- 
tenths of which were in two lengths of 12 feet each, all rested on 
the stud partition in the centre. The rough floor was laid, and 
the roof only sheathed in ; the rain soaked the floors, making the 
weight too great for the small 2" x 3" studs, which buckled and 
let down the floor-timbers in the centre, and so thrust out the 
party-wall between the Hay and Skinner buildings. The beams 
on Skinner's side, Laving been put in after this party-wall was run 

up, were of course no support to the party-wall from that side. 
All of these facts were fully demonstrated at the arbitration 
examination, and the blame settled on the carpenter alone, as he 
had the entire and sole control of his work ; and the expense of 
rebuilding is put upon the owner and his carpenter. 

We solicit your careful perusal of these facts, and trust you will 
speedily correct the false impression caused by your correspond- 
ent's statements. 

Very respectfully yours, WEST AND ANDERSON. 



REGULAR monthly meeting Nov. 1, 1877. 

The Treasurer called for exact information as to the resolution 
passed at the late convention, in relation to the formation and 
duties of a special Committee on Ways and Means. The Secretary 
read the resolution. 

Attention was directed to the fact that the resolution called for 
said committee to be appointed by the chair, and "to consist of 
three members, one of whom shall be a member of the Board of 

The Secretary said that it seemed to him there would be danger 
of cross-purposes between the Committee on Ways and Means and 
the Board of Trustees if the Treasurer were not a member of both, 
and moved that the Board records its opinion that the Treasurer 
should be a member of the Committee on Ways and Means, and 
so inform the President. Carried. 

The Secretary presented several resolutions passed at the late 
convention, and referred to the Board of Trustees as follows : 

In relation to Honorary Membership. It was ordered that the 
resolution be placed in the minutes. 

In relation to testing so-called fire-proof material. The Secre- 
tary was requested to ask the President for information as to the 
proper authorities. 

" In relation to Committees of Examination. The Secretary was 
instructed to communicate the preambles and resolution to the 
Chapters that do not yet include a Committee of Examination in 
their organization, and request them to act on the recommendation 
of the Convention. The Secretary asked for authority to let au- 
thors of documents have them back for verbal revision. The Sec- 
retary was authorized to send copies thereof, but not the originals. 

Regular quarterly meeting Dec. 6, 1877. 

On motion of the Treasurer it was resolved that the Secretary 
communicate with the Chairman of the Committee on Ways and 
Means, and inquire what progress has been- made toward ascer- 
taining the will of the Chapters in regard to the proposed change 
in the annual dues, and to call attention to the fact that until a 
decision by the Chapters is reached in favor of the proposed sys- 
tem of payments, the present system is in force, and will rule in 
the payments shortly to be demanded. 

The Secretary called up the cases of several candidates. 

Mr. Upjohn moved that the Board take up the question of Hon- 
orary Members who are deriving emolument from the practice of 
architecture. The Secretary deprecated hasty action on a subject 
so' delicate, and read from the minutes of the Board for Oct. 4, 
1877, the resolution of Mr. Upjohn's which had been incorporated 
into the annual report of the Board, and on which the action of the 
Convention had been based. The Treasurer also spoke in favor 
of a calm consideration of the matter, and Mr. Upjohn withdrew 
his motion. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. A. J. Bicknell, under date 
of Oct. 22, 1877, and his answer thereto under date of Nov. ,2, 
1877, in reference to the exchange and sale of formula for building 
contracts issued by the Institute, and Mr. Bicknell. The Secre- 
tary's letter was accepted as the answer of the Board of Trustees, 
and the matter was laid on the table. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. P. B. Wight, under date 
of Nov. 11, 1877, offering suggestions as to practicable methods 
for carrying out the resolution of the late Convention in relation 
to the testing of fire-proof materials and methods. 

The Secretary was requested to request Mr. Wight to follow up 
the subject, and to ask Hon. Abram S. Hewitt to interest himself 
in it. 


THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT. Professor Henry and other direct- 
ors of the Washington National Monument will ask from Congress, 
after the recess, authority to use a portion of the $200,000 appropriated 
last year, in giving greater stability to the foundation if desirable. 
They still propose to carry up the monument to a height of 485 feet, 
in accordance with the plan approved by Congress. 

ACCIDENT. As the workmen were finishing one of the brick 
arches which aid in supporting the approach to the East River Bridge, 
on York Street, near Fulton Street, Brooklyn, on Saturday, Dec. 22, it 
fell. All the laborers had sufficient warning to escape, except Neil 
Mullen, who was buried under tan tons of brick, and instantly killed. 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 106. 

THE OBELISK FOB NEW YOKK. A private letter from Egypt, 
which has found its way into the New York Times, suggests that our 
congratulations over the prospect of an Alexandrian obelisk in 
America have been rather premature. No one in the Egyptian 
capital has heard that the Khedive has made any such gift to this 
country, though those who have daily access to his Highness would 
be as apt to learn the news as an English engineer. It seems quite 
likely that the one hundred thousand dollars required to bring the 
obelisk to New York will not have to be forthcoming yet awhile. 

Philadelphia County Medical Society, held Dec. 26, this subject was 
reported upon by the Committee on Microscopy, Dr. Jos. G. Richard- 
son, chairman. The committee decided the white deposit to be sul- 
phate of magnesia, better known as Epsom salts. In the deposit, the 
microscope revealed the presence of epithelial scales from the human 
skin, and the debris of many plants. The sulphuric acid comes from 
the coal-gas and the coal burned in the city; the base, or magnesia, is 
from the bricks themselves, a large quantity being found in the clay 
of which they are made. It is not regarded as in any way injurious, 
though quite unsightly and destructive to the walls. This coating 
may be prevented by a thick coat of paint on the wall, or the immer- 
sion of the bricks before use in a bath of sulphuric acid, and subse- 
quently to the action of running water. 

THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. It is to be hoped that Congress will 
shortly appropriate the necessary money for building a National Mu- 
seum, which shall receive as the nucleus of its collections the articles 
presented to the Government by the exhibitors in the late Centennial 
Exhibition, both private and public. These articles, which are worth 
more than a million dollars, are at present stored in their boxes at the 
Smithsonian Institute at Washington, and are presumably in danger 
of deterioration through neglect. 

RELICS or THE LACUSTBINE VILLAGES. A collection of relics 
from the lacustrine villages of Switzerland has been secured for ex- 
hibition by the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art at 
Philadelphia. Professor Ferdinand Keller made the collection, which 
consists of charred fragments of woven fabrics, bone implements, 
needles, scrapers, chisels, awls, and circular perforated disks for 
weaving, charred fruit, nuts, and grain, bronze implements, spears, 
knives, razors, sickles, armlets, needles, etc., stone axe-heads set in 
deer-horn, fragments of pottery rudely ornamented, and numerous 
unshaped pieces of horn and bone. The specimens are from various 
localities in the lake region of Switzerland ; some from the remark- 
able village of Robenhausen, near Lake Plaffinin, in the canton of 
Zurich, and others from the dwellings of a later period in Lake 

ago the Wurtemberg Goverment erected a number of dwellings for 
the men employed in its iron-works, and lately has built quite a little 
town at Stuttgart for the benefit of its employees in the railroad and 
post-office departments. What led to their erection was the very 
rapid increase in the rentals and cost of living. The Government 
leases these buildings, which are admirably designed for comfort and 
economy, to its employees, who pay a moderate rent. This course 
was probably found to be much more economical than raising their 
salaries. In connection with the dwellings are a public kitchen and 
large baths and wash-houses, and every possible sanitary precaution 
has been taken. 

A MONUMENT TO LIEBIG. The city of Munich has instituted a 
competition for a design for a monument to Liebig, and will grant- a 
first prize of the value of $400, and a second prize of the value of 
$300. Models of the monument must not exceed three feet in 
height, including the pedestal. These models will be transported to 
Munich free of expense to the competitors. The competition is closed 
on the fifteenth day of June next. 

USING THE ROMAN COLISEUM. We rather wonder that the idea 
tl;at has occurred to Mr. Scott Russell, the builder of the Crystal 
Palace at Sydenham, has never struck anybody else. He proposes to 
provide Rome with a place for holding an international exhibition 
which would of itself form one of the chiefest attractions of such a 
fair. He offers to change the Coliseum into a covered building suit- 
able to exhibition purposes at the comparatively small expense of 
stretching a velarium over it. Imagine the coup d'ceil from the 
topmost range of seats ! 

French architects are much surprised at and pleased by the beauty of 
the facade which the Italians are building for their compartment in 
the great exhibition building. 

THE WALLS OF ROME. The removal of the mound of earth and 
debris to the east of the railway station on the Esquiline at Rome 
has brought to light a fine fragment of the city wall in the time of the 
Kings. It is to be hoped that some steps will be taken to preserve it, 
together with the remains of handsome houses, probably of the time 
of Augustus, which were found built against it. The wall is here over 
thirty feet high. 

THE BEGGARS' BRIDGE AT FLORENCE. There is a legend in 
Florence that a Grand Duke once proclaimed that every beggar who 
would appear in the grand plaza at a certain time should be given a 
new suit of clothes. The beggars of the city were on hand promptly, 
when all avenues to the plaza were closed, and each beggar was com- 
pelled to strip off his old clothes before receiving the new suit. In 
the old clothes thus collected, enough money was found secreted to 
build a bridge over the Arno, which is still called the Beggars' Bridge. 

AN OLD ITALIAN BUBIED TOWN. An interesting archaeological 
discovery has just been made in Italy, that of a buried town, a new 
Pompeii, unexpectedly found near Manfredonia, at the foot of Mount 
Gargano. A temple of Diana was first brought to light ; and then a 
portico about twenty meters in length, with columns without capi- 
tals; and finally a necropolis, covering 15,000 square meters (about 
3J acres). A large number of inscriptions have been collected, and 
some of them have been sent to the museum at Naples. The town 
discovered is the ancient Sipontum, of which Strabo, Polybeus, and 
Livy speak, and which was buried by an earthquake. The houses 
are twenty feet below the surface of the soil. The Italian Govern- 
ment has taken measures to continue the excavations on a large scale. 
Every day, some fresh object of interest turns up. The latest is a 
monument erected in honor of Pompey, after his victory over the 
pirates, and a large quantity of coins in gold and copper. 

HOT-WATER IN THE CITY or PESTH. The city of Pesth has 
almost accomplished the task of obtaining an unlimited supply of 
nearly boiling water, which will be available for public and private 
use. ' The ready heated fluid is obtained from a deep artesian well, ' 
from which when completed the water will issue in a mighty fountain, 
to the height of nearly fifty feet. The deepest artesian well in the 
world has hitherto been that at Paris, which measures 1,794 feet in 
depth. The Pesth, well has already attained a depth of 3,120 feet, and 
will, when bored the required depth, more than double the depth of 
its Paris rival. The water now issuing from the bowels of the earth, 
three-fifths of a mile below the surface, has a temperature of 1C1 
Fahrenheit, and the work will be prosecuted until a warmth of 178 
Fahrenheit is obtained. The meaning of these figures will be better 
understood when it is remembered that the temperature of a hot 
bath is 98, while that of boiling water is 212. The daily supply 
is already 175,000 gallons, a quantity which will he greatly increased 
at the enhanced depth. The work progresses at the rate of 50 feet a 
month, and recent improvements in the mechanical appliances ren- 
der possible a still more rapid rate of working. This remarkable un- 
dertaking is being carried on partly at the expense of the city, and 
partly at the expense of the engineers, Messrs. Zsigmondy. Building 

ULTRAMONTANISM. At a recent meeting of the Buda-Pesth So- 
ciety of Architects and Engineers it was discussed " whether architects 
of other than Roman Catholic religious belief are able to give pro- 
fessional judgment on the plans of Catholic churches." Strange as 
may seem the proposition of such a question to a scientific body, the 
decision that they are not is yet more astonishing. The case which 
gave rise to the discussion was as follows: The architectural section 
of the society was requested to give a technical opinion on plans 
submitted for the new church of Telegyhaza. For this purpose jurors 
were chosen by ballot. It so happened that because of their profes- 
sional ability, a Protestant and a Jew were elected. Hereupon there 
was a great outcry from the ultramontanes, which resulted in the res- 
ignation of the gentlemen chosen, and the speedy substitution of good 
Roman Catholics in their place. 

GEOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS. It is not generally known that the 
glen at Ballona, Yates County, contains a remarkable curiosity. In 
the bed of the stream, just above the village of Bellona, is a rock 
about fifty feet square, uncovered at low water. It is entirely covered 
with footprints, deep in the rock, of men, and birds, and extinct 
animals. They are are clearly denned as the footprints of the chil- 
dren who had played on the damp bank the morning I visited the 
glen. Some of these human footprints are very small and delicate ; 
others are large shockingly large yet retain their symmetry. The 
distinctness of these tracks and their relative position preclude any 
doubt of their character, even to an unscientific observer. I found 
tracks of some animal in this rock which measure thirty inches in 
length ; I mean distinctive tracks, several times repeated, with such 
exactness of outline as to identify the species to which the animal 
belonged. These rocks are a favorite resort of geologists from all 
parts of the country. The layer of limestone upon the surface of 
which these footprints appear is about two feet in thickness. Some 
of the finest specimens" have been destroyed by removal of parts of 
the rock for building purposes a fate which awaits the remainder. 
I shall endeavor to procure casts of several of those remaining. It is 
stated by reliable witnesses that many years ago, while workmen were 
blasting these rocks to obtain building stone, a perfect petrification of 
a human head and face of an unknown type was found. The work- 
men and many others crowded around to examine it, and one of 
them, impatient at the work being stopped, struck it with his hammer 
and destroyed it. Letter to the Rochester Democrat. 

HYDRAULIC CEMENT. An excellent cement for foot-walks, and 
for all uses which require exposure to the weather or to dampness, is 
described in Der Practische Maschinen-Constructeur. It is made by 
thoroughly stirring Portland cement, or good hydraulic lime, into a 
warm solution of glue, so as to make a thick paste, and applying it 
immediately. In three days it acquires extraordinary hardness and 
tenacity. It is an excellent cement for joining the porcelain heads to 
the metal spikes which are used as ornamental nails. 

CLEANING POLISHED FLOORS. An oak floor needs only to be 
rubbed about once a month, with a well-oiled cloth, if in the interim 
it is rubbed daily with a dry one ; but for polished wood that has been 
neglected, rub in plain linseed oil, and let it dry; and then apply the 
following on a flannel cloth : shave -J Ib. of beeswax into an earthen- 
ware jar, pour in enough turpentine to cover the wax, and place near 
the fire till the substance is quite dissolved. 

PRIZES. The attention of our readers is directed to the publishers' 
announcement regarding subscription prizes, which will be seen on 
the opposite page. 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES R. OSGOOD & Co. 

[NO. 107. 

BOSTON, JANUARY 12, 1878. 


The Building Inspectors in Philadelphia. A Conflict of Au- 
thority. Gov. Hartranft's Message. The Sewage of Lon- 
don. The Sewerage Question in Boston. Competition for 
the Town Hall at Evreux. Studies of Old Architecture . . 9 




Canadian Trophy for the Paris Exhibition. " The Cottage" 
at Roger Williams Park, Providence, It. I. Designs for 

Chairs and Table. Warehouse in Boston 13 


Cement and Iron. The Plumber and Sanitary Houses . . . 13 

Letter from New York 14 



The St. Louis Custom House Trial. The Recent Building 

Accident at St. John 15 


A CASE of some importance touching the construction of 
buildings has lately been decided in Philadelphia, as we learn 
from the Heal Estate Reporter. In last February an Act of 
Assembly was passed, ordering that the building of all 
schoolhouses for which appropriations should be made by 
the city of Philadelphia should be under the direction of the 
Board of Public Education of the fit}', who were to provide 
proper plans and specifications, and advertise for proposals 
for the work. In May the City Councils passed an ordi- 
nance that no permits should be issued by the Building In- 
spectors for the erection of places of worship, hotels, public 
halls, theatres, or schools, unless plans were submitted to 
the Inspectors, and the modes of ingress and egress shown 
were approved by them. The Board of Inspectors then 
passed the wise resolution that the stairways of all public 
schoolhouses should be built of non-inflammable materials, 
and enclosed in stone or brick walls. Soon after, the Board 
applied to Court for an injunction upon the contractor for a 
new schoolhouse, alleging that he had, submitted plans and 
applied for a permit ; that they had found the means of egress 
insufficient, and staircases dangerous, and had refused to 
give a permit for the building, notwithstanding which the 
contractor had persisted in carrying it on without modifying 
the plans. The}' then prayed that he should be ordered to 
construct the stairs and entrances in such ways as they should 
approve, and be enjoined from continuing as he had begun. 
The builder's answer was that he had contracted with the 
city to build a schoolhouse according to the plans and speci- 
fications of the architect of the Board of Public Education, 
and to finish it by a specified day under penalty of ten dol- 
lars forfeiture for every day's delay, and had given bonds to 
the city for the performance of his contract ; that he was 
acting under the authority of the Board of Public Education, 
in whom, he was advised, the entire control of the building 
was vested by the Act of Assembly, subject to no authority 
of the Board of Inspectors. 

THE Court, at a preliminary hearing, granted a temporary 
injunction restraining the builder from putting up his stair- 
way, according to the first plan, and ordering him to subrnil 
a plan that should be approved by the Inspectors. Now, 
after a full hearing, it has decided in favor of the Inspectors, 
declares its first order " peremptory, mandatory, and final,' 
and continues the injunction. The real quarrel is, of course 
between the two Boards, the contractor being only the scape- 
goat ; and since one claims its powers by virtue of a city 
ordinance, and the other of an Act of Assembly, we are lee 
to suppose that it is a phase of the continued quarrel between 
the authorities of the State and City, of which the muddle 
over the Public Buildings is the chief event. The legal ques- 
tion involved is local, and not a subject for lay criticism ; bu 
it is a matter of general interest and of great importance in 
the interest of a good system of building, that wherever 

Building laws exist, no one should have the power to override 

hem. There is no part of such a system that is more irn- 

jortant than proper restrictions on the stairways and exits 

if public buildings and schools. The rule laid down by the 

ioard of Inspectors is one that ought to be enforced in every 

city ; and to have it contumaciously set aside by the authori- 

ies anywhere in the first conspicuous attempt to enforce it 

would be a serious blow at an important reform. If there 

s likelihood of conflict of authority in such matters, it would 

seem to suggest to other States the desirability of providing 

br safety by the interposition of the higher authority, and 

the enactment of building laws by State Legislatures, of which 

Dhio has already set an example, and of which there has 

jeen some discussion in other States. 

Gov. HARTRANFT'S message to the Pennsylvania Legisla- 
ture last week contained a great many sound and sensible 
remarks on the condition and present tendencies of working- 
men. His position as governor of the chief industrial State 
in the Union makes it natural for him to recognize and de- 
clare the paramount importance of the labor question in our 
day. He steers dispassionately between favor for capitalists 
or for working-men, and sets i'orth in a few clear words the 
errors and mischief's of the present policy of labor agitations 
and trades-unions. We have not space to do justice here to 
what he says on this subject, but may have occasion to return 
to it hereafter. A large portion of the message is naturally 
given to an account of the riot of last summer, for which he 
fairly and very moderately sets forth the responsibility of the 
strikers thus : 

" While it is true that the working-men, who began it, contemplated 
no such terrible results, it cannot be denied that the manner in which 
they proceeded to enforce their demands, by stopping inland com- 
merce and seizing the property of corporations and individuals, and 
driving citizens from their usual occupations, in defiance of law, 
made the breach through which the lawless elements of society 
poured to plunder and destroy. By thus inconsiderately inviting the 
co-operation of the criminal classes, labor did itself a great and 
grievous injury ; and it will be long before it can remove the suspicion 
and distrust with which the people will view its strikes and organ- 

IT is only three or four years since London finished her 
very expensive system of sewers. By them she delivered 
that part of the Thames which lies within her territory from 
the pestilential condition to which her old system of direct 
drainage had brought it, and supposed she had permanently 
relieved herself from embarrassment. Huge sewers were 
built on the north bank, and, intercepting the sewage, car- 
ried it some miles clown the river,' delivering it at Barking 
Creek, below the docks and Woolwich, where it was thought 
that it would be beyond making trouble at the reflux of the 
tide. But the Conservators of the Thames have already 
found reason to be alarmed at accumulations in the river-bed, 
and have lately been studying the actual operation of the 
sewers. It appears that the sewage is by no means carried 
by the ebb-tide beyond the danger of returning. Capt. Cal- 
vert, who has made the observations, reports that there is in 
the river a permanent body of polluted water "eight miles 
long, seven hundred and fifty yards wide, and four and a 
half feet deep," which he calls a sewage-section ; and which, 
" charged with offensive matter, both fluid and solid, moves 
up and down the channel four times daily between Gravesend 
and Blackwall," and deposits its suspended matter wherever 
slack water favors it. By this deposit, it was found, the 
channel of the river had lost a quarter of its capacity at low 
water opposite the southern outfall ; the creeks near it are 
said to be filling up, and banks are forming in the river as 
far up as Battersea, on the western edge of the city, and 
miles above the point where the sewage is delivered. The 
evidence of the senses was enough to show that the deposits 
were of matter from the sewers, without the careful analysis 
by which this was proved. The rapidity with which they 
have formed gives reason for serious fear that the present 
sewerage of London is spoiling the river-bed. 

THESE deposits indicate that the concentration of all the 
wash of a great city at one point of delivery makes a burden 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 107. 

that the current of an ordinary tidal river like the Thames 
cannot carry away. On the other hand, the distributed de- 
livery of it had for many years before grown to be intol- 
erable, and it looks as if all the difficulty of the problem 
were to return upon the Londoners. The Boston papers 
have been led by this experience to talk more anxiously 
about the new plan of sewerage which has been adopted for 
their city. In this case, however, the great object is to keep 
the sewage out of the small tidal rivers that flow into Boston 
Harbor ; and much money is to be spent in carrying it by a 
tunnel to an island, where it may be delivered well out in the 
harbor into a free tideway, and by being discharged on 
the ebb will, it is hoped, be carried out of harm's way. 
The probability of success depends here upon the accuracy 
of the experiments that have been made on the flow of the 
tide, and the security of the deductions from them ; the trust- 
worthiness of which we presume there is no reason to 
doubt. Unfortunately it is inevitable to regard any system 
of city sewerage that may be proposed as iu some degree 
tentative, for the whole question is a new one. What 
people call sanitary science is but in its infancy, and all its 
Methods are .still experimental. Yet its problems must be 
solved, and can only be solved by experiments. Costly as 
these may be, and are, there is no substitute for them : the 
only choice is of those which promise best, and at least cost 
in proportion to the results they promise. Mr. Mansfield, 
F.K.S., of Glasgow, is cited as saying that engineers would 
be driven to excluding from the sewers ever}" thing but the 
street-sweepings. These, however, are just the accumula- 
tions of which it is possible to get rid without using the 
sewers ; and also the part of sewage which from containing 
most inorganic dust makes the heaviest deposit. A point 
to be remembered is that when sewage is discharged into a 
current or basin that dilutes it till it ceases to be poisonous 
to the animal and vegetable scavengers that inhabit water, 
it is rapidly taken up by them. Every piece of water that is 
not stagnant can in this way dispose of a certain amount of 
refuse-matter. One of the questions to be determined in the 
system of water-carriage is, how great an access of water is 
necessary to produce this result. If it proves that for a 
large city nothing less than an outfall into the Gulf Stream 
will suffice, we shall be driven in most cases to abandon 
water-carriage, or at least to follow the example of Paris in 
excluding from sewers the most mischievous part of city 
refuse, and to find some other way of disposing of it. 

SOME interest and feeling have been excited among a 
number of French architects by a competition for a town hall 
at Evreux, under circumstances somewhat peculiar. The 
brothers Delhommc had bequeathed to the town 375,000 francs 
(875,000) to build a town-hall ; and the municipality, we are 
told by La Semaine des Const ructeurs, advertised last spring 
for designs in competition, publishing a list of requirements, 
one of which was that the estimated cost of the building 
should not exceed the sum bequeathed. Three prizes were 
offered, a gold medal and the execution of the work, and 
two premiums of 2,000 and 1,200 francs. The municipal 
commission were wise enough to call in professional advisers, 
and invited MM. Viollet-le-Duc, Trelat, and Bourdais to 
examine the designs, and award the prizes. When the three 
experts had made their selection, a member of the commis- 
sion interposed the objection that no one of the premiated 
designs could be carried out for the stipulated sum. The 
experts in their report referred to this question, and gave 
their opinion that it was impossible to satisfy the require- 
ments of the programme for that sum, saying that these 
requirements exacted at least nine hundred superficial metres 
of building, and that such a structure as was called for could 
not be built for less than 600 francs the metre, which would 
raise the cost to 540,000 francs. They, however, awarded 
the prizes to three designs, each of which exceeded the area 
they named. Upon this the maire, accepting this statement 
of the necessary cost, declared the competition null, and the 
prizes not awarded, on account of the impossibility of the 
problem. The experts nevertheless declared, while adhering 
to their position that the limit set was an impracticable one, 
that the plans having been accompanied by estimates which 
fulfilled the condition of being below the limit, it was not 
equitable, and therefore not possible, to refuse to award the 

prizes to them ; and the commission, after deliberation, ac- 
cepting the report of the experts, awarded the prizes accord- 

Then followed a variety of recriminations from disappointed 
competitors, and accusations that premiums had been given 
to designs whose estimates were 105,000 francs beyond the 
cost appointed, without regard to the fact that this excess 
was simply the guess of the experts. La Semaine in com- 
menting upon the matter, reminds the competitors that there 
is no evidence that the cost of the "accepted design would 
pass the limit, and that the guess of the experts is not lightly 
to be preferred to the carefully prepared estimates received 
with the projects ; and then goes on to read a lecture to 
MM. Viollet-le-Duc, Trelat, and Bourdais,. for exceeding 
the limit of their duties. AVhich way the matter will finally 
turn, does not Appear. The principle of expert adjudication 
upon architectural competitions is one so important to uphold 
that we can only regret every embarrassment that seems to 
threaten it with disparagement. 

WE notice in the English building-journals an advertise- 
ment by the Irish Institute, of prizes to students for an 
essay on the objects of architectural interest in or near Dub- 
lin. This is the carrying out of a policy of the English pro- 
fessional associations which has borne good fruit, and reminds 
us of the judicious suggestions of Mr. McKim at a late meet- 
ing of the New York Chapter of the American Institute, 
reported by our New York correspondent in our number of 
the 29th ult., which were followed by the appointment of an 
Antiquarian Committee. The careful study of old work 
which is necessary in making drawings of it is one of the 
best possible means of discipline for students. It is an 
essential part, wherever it is practicable, of ever}- course of 
instruction in architecture. One of the duties of the prize 
students from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, who are maintained 
in the French Academy at Koine and on their travels, is to 
send home thorough studies and restorations of ancient build- 
ings. The system is good in another way, for it is a means 
by which students may increase the world's store of historical 
information from which they draw. Much valuable work has 
been done by the French by this means, and by the English 
students encouraged through the prizes of the English Insti- 
tute and Association. Our fellow journal, the Building Neias, 
has done excellent service in this way. Hitherto there has 
not been much done fgr American architecture, partly because 
there has not been till lately any regular instruction or any 
stimulus for students here ; parti}- because no one has thought 
old American buildings worth notice. This is to be regretted, 
for though there is no great work, or very old work, to look 
back to, there is a good deal that is interesting enough to 
be worth making a record of. Now that the English have 
drawn attention to the work of the mother country in our 
colonial times, there is a new interest in our own, which is 
going so fast nowadays, that it is worth while to put it on 
record as promptly as may be. We shall be glad to publish 
any well-executed drawings of interesting work of the kind 
which are sent to us. This study, however, is emphatically 
of the kind which is justified only by being well done. The 
value of such drawings depends on the faithfulness, pre- 
cision, and understanding with which they are made. There 
is a kind of refinement in the best of the Continental work, 
which altogether eludes a careless or unsympathetic repre- 
sentation, but which is an admirable corrective for the slash- 
ing and rather coarse kind of work to which Americans have 
tended of late years. 


SA paper read at the Fourth Church Congress held at New York, Oct. 30. 1877, by 
en T. Littell, F.A.I.A.] 

A cnuRCii is indeed the temple of God ; but it is not for Him 
alone that it should be built. The temple is the place where the 
people assemble to be in His presence : and hence it follows that 
proper provision must be made for such assembly, that all things 
may be done decently and in order. The architecture of a church, 
then, must special note, first, of the rites to be performed 
therein ; second, of the proper accommodation of the people who 
come to witness and to join in the ceremonies. 

In considering the kind of church architecture that we need, it 
is necessary to start from the ground that underlies all architec- 
ture; namely, that we must build upon the works of those who 

JANUARY 12, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


have gone before us. It is in art as in speech, a language has 
grown up through invention, accretion, modification, which meets 
the wants of the people who use it, furnishing a medium of com- 
munication flexible to all requirements, whether of the homely 
needs of every-day intercourse, or the highest flights of oratory, 
poetry, or science. This great scope and pliability cannot be the 
work of any one mind, or any one combination of minds : it is 
the outgrowth of generations. And so we must dismiss once and 
forever the idea that we need a new architecture ; and leaving 
out all attempts to create a new style, letting originality take care 
of itself, we should endeavor so to use the styles which form a 
traditional architectural language as to expand them into new 
forms and modifications which shall express our progress and light. 
AVe must progress in art-work : there is no such thing as standing 
still ; and if we do not bring to bear vipon church architecture 
all the light which experience and intellect can give, we shall 
inevitably retrograde through mannerism into imbecility. The 
cause of art decay is as evident as the result. It needs little skill 
to discern the reason why the pure French Gothic declined into 
the Flamboyant, or why the English Gothic degenerated into the 
Perpendk ular, it was the substitution of formula and copyism 
for brain-work. 

It is hardly to be presumed, that in the selection of the true 
style to form a basis for our future church architecture, many will 
seriously maintain that we have a choice other than the English 
Gothic. It is the work of the English Church and the English 
nation ; and we, as successors to both, would scarcely be wise to 
seek another, even if better were to be found : new departures 
are perilous. But it has claims upon us other than these : it is 
rich and simple, strong and flexible, adapted equally to the cathe- 
dral, the parish church, the castle, the cottage, in its own country, 
and it easily and naturally moulds itself to any climatic require- 
ments. Given, then, the English Gothic as our general style, we 
should seek to discover at what time it had fully developed its 
characteristics, while preserving its purity; and this we find to 
have been the early part of the fourteenth century, a period gen- 
erally known as that of the "early geometrical " or " decorated." 
We can do no better than to work from this standard, allowing 
occasional wanderings into the period of " Early English," and, 
when a round-arched style is necessary, into a modification of the 
later " Norman " or " Romanesque." Moreover, it would be well 
not to confine our study to the examples on English soil, but to 
extend it to the architecture of the North of France, a very impor- 
tant and well-developed branch of the same style. And our style 
thus adopted should not be merely followed : it should be embraced, 
assimilated, made in all things a part of ourselves. There should 
be brain and heart visible in all its workings; there should be no 
slavish submission to precedent, merely because it is precedent, 
but the spirit of the medieval times should be the guide rather 
than the letter. The men of those days built in the true spirit ; 
trained fully in the works of those who had gone before them, 
they allowed those works to give direction to their own, while 
hungrily availing themselves of all improvements which science 
offered or study educed, and of the examples .of their contempo- 
raries in their own or foreign lands. 

We must do the same : it would be folly to tie ourselves down 
to mere imitation, to refuse the innumerable advantages given to 
us and denied to them. Such refusal would cause our churches to 
be mainly lifeless reproductions in place of living architecture, 
medievalism in place of art; and although mediaeval work teas 
admirable, and is admirable, yet for modern days it is not to be 
desired, except in those cases where the needs of the two ages, the 
past and the present, run closely parallel or exactly coincide. We 
must exercise, then, the broadest, the wisest, the most conservative 
eclecticism. Our architecture must above all things be truthful. 
Every thing that is used therein must be exactly what it seems to 
be, and nothing else. Plaster when used must not imitate stone. 
Cheap lumber must not masquerade as precious wood. Veneers 
and shams of all kinds must be contemptuously discarded. And 
this principle of veracity must apply not only to material but to 
methods, whether of construction or design. The science of 
architectural engineering, for example, has developed a character 
of general construction very different from that with which our 
predecessors were acquainted; and this added knowledge should 
be shown in our work, or it will be fairly liable to the imputation 
of untruth fulness. The same remark will apply as well to joinery, 
locksmithing, and the majority of the minor arts ; the simulation 
of ignorance and rudeness therein is an evident deceit. Our 
architecture must be comfortable; the uneasiness of the body 
necessarily distracts the mind from worship, and every ancient 
or modern appliance which provides fresh air, full light, gentle 
heat, et cetera, should be faithfully used to the end that the 
congregation shall not undergo unwilling penance. Then, as a 
natural sequence of true comfort, our churches will be healthful, 
and hereafter darkness, dampness, and foul air will not depress 
the vifal powers and sow the seeds of disease. Our architecture 
must be symbolical. Why should great masses of masonry, 
timber, and iron be heaped together and made complete for the 
body, if the mind is not provided for ? To rear a pile which shall 
not speak to the intellect and soul from every nook and corner, 
would be as if we were to make a pulpit where there was no 

preacher. True symbols will fill the soul with devotional thought, 
even when by chance the pulpit sermon only "preacheth patience." 
And in the young the object-teaching given by them will remain 
firmly fixed, when spoken words might have been too deep for 
their understanding. In the application of our principles to the 
production of such church architecture as we need we are pain- 
fully conscious that owing to the constant changes of the popula- 
tion of the country, and to the small means generally available, 
churches are in most cases provisional in thek- character, few 
being likely to remain for more than three or four generations at 
the longest. It is during this provisional period, however, that 
the transition is to be made from AngKcau church architecture to 
American church architecture; and our processes if not correct 
during this time will lead us to a lamentable result. 

The plan, the ground plan, of a church, should in a great 
measure control the exterior ; or rather they should be thought out 
together, with mutual dependence, so that from the exterior the 
plan can be approximately understood. In the making of the 
plan the rule of orientation, as an expedient of art, deserves more 
consideration than it generally obtains ; more especially in the 
building of city churches, for it compels them to a greater indi- 
viduality by preventing the adoption of the simplest method of 
enclosing a rectangular space, and gives an infinite scope to variety 
in grouping, the more desirable where all buildings around tend 
towards showing mere fa9ades. And the building should declare 
its nature at first sight, not only showing that it is intended for a 
place of worship, it should distinctly impress upon the minds of 
beholders that it is a church, belonging to the lineage of the 
Anglican Church, and could by no possibility have been designed 
for any other use. And by its solemnity, beauty, and grandeur it 
should urge upon the merest passer-by the importance and mystery 
of the great ceremonies performed within its walls ; and it should 
invite the stranger to enter, to worship, and to feel that it is a 
home. And it should be a landmark, so set and built that even in 
the midst of a crowded city it cannot be passed by unwittingly. 
In the city or undulating country, the lofty spires should mark its 
location, breaking the sky-line with their sharp, cross-surmounted 
peaks. In level meadow-land, or on abrupt blutfs, the massive 
towers should suggest the thought of a refuge and a stronghold. 

There seems to be small reason to doubt that in the architec- 
ture of future churches the chancel will hold, and develop more 
greatly than in years just past, its rightful superiority. It is 
evident that being the visual focus of all assembled in the build- 
ing, it should have proportions sufficient to redeem it from any 
appearance of meanness. Being the place where numerous offices 
are performed, it should have more than enough space for the 
proper conduct of them all, that crowding or confusion therein 
should be an impossible event. Breadth and height all will agree 
to give to it ; and if for no other reason than ease to the eyes of 
the congregation, and artistic effect, it should have ample depth. 
Its space should then be properly apportioned, giving in a chancel 
of ordinary depth, one-third to the sanctuary, and two-thirds to the 
choir. The organ should be placed in a choir transept or chapel, 
opening widely where practicable both into nave and chancel. The 
font belongs by right to an entrance porch or baptistery, prefera- 
bly to one near the chancel and opening into it as well as to the 
nave. With regard to the conflicting claims of the square end 
and apse as chancel terminations, the Anglican traditions point to 
the former ; but perhaps it would be better to allow the use of both 
on equal footing, making only this distinction, that the square end 
is preferable when the depth of the chancel is limited, the apse 
when the depth is great. Except in small churches the most 
effective series of elevations for the different parts of the chancel 
is, three steps from nave to choir, one or more from choir to sanc- 
tuary, but generally three, and three steps from the floor of the 
sanctuary to the foot-pace of the altar. The chancel, being the 
head of the church, should be its crown, its glory, and should be 
so recognized within and without. Whatever of treasure, or 
thought, or art, there may be, here is the place where it must first 
be disposed ; let the rest of the building go bare, but make the 
chancel rich. And make it so in gradation : let the sanctuary be 
richer than the choir, the reredos the richest part of the sanctuary, 
and above all other things let the altar predominate, the most 
glorious point of all the edifice, of the most precious material, 
most carefully worked. 

The most obvious plan for the body of the church is *he simple 
nave ; this has the advantage of economy when the span is moder- 
ate, and also that of an unobstructed passage for sight and sound. 
On the other hand it is difficult, especially in a large nave, to avoid 
monotony of effect; and further, the congregation collected in a 
mass has very much the appearance of a crowd, and individuality 
is in a measure lost. There is a natural instinct to adhere to the 
traditional plan handed down from the basilica of Rome, through 
all changes of architecture, to the present time. And in truth it 
is difficult to find one nearly so beautiful in its subdivision of 
nave, aisles, and clere-story supported by arcades, making con- 
stantly changing effects of light and shade and color. The ob- 
jections urged against this plan are very strong in the minds of 
some, especially among the laity, who feel that the interference of 
the supports with sight and hearing is a very serious one, and 
renders worship difficult. In a measure this interference can bo 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 107. 

avoided by using for the shafts of the interposing columns eithe: 
granite or iron, whose great strength allows a reduction of tin 
thickness of the pillars to a few inches, so that a slight motion 
removes the eye from behind the obstacle. Or again, it can be 
entirely avoided by relegating the aisles to their original use as 
ambulatories, and, in order not to waste room, diminishing their 
width almost to that of ordinary passages. This will also allow 
an overflow from the nave when a special occasion brings together 
:i large congregation. Supposing either of these methods of re- 
lief to be adopted, there is no apparent reason why this plai: 
should not remain a favorite one in the future as in the past 
evenly dividing supremacy with the simple nave. 

The cruciform plan has great beauty, but has also decided de- 
fects. Unless the transepts are of but very slight projection, or 
unless they are modified above the floor line into aisles or chapels, 
the sound will probably be unpleasantly confused and broken ; anc 
to fill with the voice a cruciform building of any size, will almost 
invariably require painful exertion to the speaker, and even then 
with an unsatisfactory result to his hearers. 

No matter what system of planning may be the favored one, 
the treatment of the nave, as being the chief place of the gathering 
of the people, demands most careful consideration. A nave of two 
to two and a half diameters in length gives the best combined 
results as to capacity, convenience, and appearance ; and the natural 
limit of the power of the human voice in public speaking gives 
ninety feet as a length beyond which it is not well to go, except 
in churches where a musical or semi-musical service is contem- 
plated. Of course it is not to be supposed that galleries would, in 
any case be erected : they interfere with light, heat, ventilation, 
and hearing, they are unsightly, and they are unnecessary; as 
many persons can be accommodated upon one plane, within sound 
and sight of the chancel, as the most energetic priest with the 
amplest assistance would desire to have in his parish. 

The acoustic qualities of the nave are favored when the apex of 
the roof is not too high above the floor, perhaps not more than 
one and a half diameters ; when the pitch of the roof is not exces- 
sive, running from fifty to fifty-five degrees; when the walls are 
covered with rough-surfaced plaster; and when both roof and 
walls are frequently broken by panels, projections, or timbers. A 
wooden ceiling following the lines of the braces, collars, etc., of 
the principal framing, so as to form a semi-polygon, without con- 
cealing the important parts of the roof construction, is of great 
assistance to the quality of the sound, as well as to the comfort of 
the building. In a full open-timbered roof, which is of such 
exquisite beauty, care should be taken that the roof skin, as it may 
be called, should be double, enclosing an air-chamber of a few 
inches in thickness, sufficiently ventilated. Without this precau- 
tion, the heat of summer, the cold of winter, and the noise of 
heavy rain and wind, would be each intolerable. 

But the details crowd in so rapidly upon us, if an entrance is 
once given to them, that we are debarred from their consideration; 
therefore it will suffice to say in general, that our desired church 
architecture must lay under tribute all the resources of art, paint- 
ing, carving, sculpture, and polychromatic decoration, whether pro- 
duced by pigments or in construction. All these are to be used- 
constantly ; they are aids to the purposes for which churches are 
built, which cannot be slighted without serious loss to the esthetic 
qualities of the buildings, and to religion. And they must be 
used in pursuance of carefully-laid plans ; the finest carvings, 
paintings, and mosaics should be placed nearest to the eye, so that 
their effect shall be fully gained, their stories plainly told. The 
farther the work recedes from the spectator, the more abstract 
and conventional it should become ; but at no point should it ever 
be careless or unconsidered : the crockets climbing the side of the 
lofty spire deserve their fair proportion of study, as well as the 
capitals which greet us at the entrance to the porch. We are such 
a practical people, and so full of economy, that we are especially 
apt to slight aesthetics in our buildings; and churches suffer in 
common with the others from this national peculiarity. When 
therefore, we undertake church building, we should, knowing this 
danger, take all precautions against it. The aesthetic qualities of 
a church do not depend upon its money value; a fair amount 
thereof are within the reach of the poorest mission chapel; and a 
glance at this or any other city will show that vast expense may 
be incurred without offering a single glimpse of religious or devc- 
tional art feeling. 

It is beyond the power of any one to prophesy with reasonable 
hope of accuracy what shall be the final result of our attempts to 
elaborate a church architecture of our own, fitted to our needs 
now, and expanding with them hereafter. But starting with a 
pure style, reverently treated, not slavishly followed, with minds 
devoted to the study of church architecture as historically set 
before us, and as the mental and physical conditions of our country 
and our times demand, and with the principle always in view that 
churches are built for the glory of God as well as for the use of 
man the church architecture that we need will come to us, of itself 
in the very form which is the most to be desired; but it will come 
step by step, and not by a sudden inspiration. 

U S' C I nT,U Y STAincASE -The staircase of the Merchants' Exchange 
at tR. Louis, Mo., is said to have cost $38,000. 


WHAT has distinguished the eclecticism of American architects 
from that of all others in the profession elsewhere is the fact that 
hitherto it has received no conscious influence from local antiqua- 
rianism. In choice of style we have been cosmopolitan. Our 
architecture has borrowed inspiration from all countries and ages 
but our own, and has for the most part contented itself with accli- 
mating the revivals, the transitions, and the archseological enthu- 
siasms of the older nations as they have occurred in the history of 
contemporary art. It so happens, however, that the new Georgian 
revival in England refers back to a period coincident with much 
of our own earlier colonial history, and we find that our brethren 
in England do not disdain to look even so far off as this country 
for authentic details of the revived art (see Building News of Sept. 
21, 1877 : " Sketches from Mount Vernon "). Thus at last we also 
are led to look for models of style nearer home, and to find cer- 
tain .-esthetic virtues in the colonial mansions. This movement 
introduces us into a new atmosphere, and supplies us with a new 
motive for architectural composition, a motive of patriotism, which, 
if we rightly improve it, may lead us to more distinctive local 
expressions in art, and relieve us from such unflattering imputa- 
tions as those of our English contemporary, the Architect. 

To the healthy development of this new style among us there is 
first needed knowledge of local precedent, such as we may hope 
to receive from the well-known antiquarian fervor of Mr. McKim, 
the new Secretary of the Institute, and such as Mr. Arthur Little 
has contributed in his " Early New England Interiors." 1 

This book contains thirty-eight sketches of interiors of the 
eighteenth century, from some of the older seaport towns of the 
New England colonies. Mr. Little modestly states in his brief 
preface, that they "are the results of a summer's work, undertaken 
for his own pleasure and instruction, and also with the desire to 
preserve the relics of a style fast disappearing ; this disappearance 
owing partly to the perishable materials of the work, but. chiefly 
to the national love of new things in preference to old." The 
subjects are well selected, and, though drawn with a heavy hand, 
not too well, and with a want of appreciation of the value of de- 
tail, which is to be regretted, preserve the essential features of the 
characteristic staircases, chimney-pieces, doorways, and corner 
buffets of our ancestors. Such examples are precious, not only 
for their associations and for their technical qualities, but because 
they are the genuine, unaffected, and unsophisticated productions 
of a certain phase of antiquity. Thus the parlor chimney-piece 
in the Devereux House, the doorway in the east parlor of the 
Nichols House, the Cabot House staircase, all in Salem, which 
perhaps are better preserved in Mr. Little's drawings than the 
other contents of his volume, are fair indications of a style so 
disciplined and ordered as to be capable of a certain degree of 
elegant expression, even in the hands of an uneducated carpenter. 
The chimney-piece, in especial, is full of the flavor of polite colo- 
nial life, restrained, fastidious, formal, and to our eyes quaint and 
somewhat pathetic in its unconscious innocence of the quips and 
cranks of modern art. The delicately panelled pilasters on the 
sides, with their precise strings of buds dropped from a correct 
bow-knot at the top, the frieze with its delicate conventional 
festoons and vases, and the lyre and leafage in the centre panel 
enclosed in a thin oval wreath of buds, the shelf with its fine sub- 
divisions of mouldings, and its careful detail of dentils, all these 
ieatures enable us to realize the well-ordered households of the 
Vladam Esmonds of the colony, and, combined, seem to give to 
history the very essence of the epoch. 

An architecture possessing such capacities of expression in its 
details, and titanding but a little distance aside from the traffic 
ind bustle of modern life, is worthy of a more careful setting 
'orth than it gets in the work before us. If the studious measur- 
'ng and careful drawing of such bits of antiquity as the panelling, 
lie mouldings, the twisted balusters, three different patterns to a 
read, the carved newel-posts, and the workmanlike string-pieces 
if the staircases in the Ladd and Langdon Mansions at Portsmouth, 
he Hooper House and Lee House at Marblehead, the Cabot 
iouse at Salem, if the study of such honest details as these 
vere made a necessary part of the .education of our young archi- 
;ects, the architecture of the future would profit by it, and history 
would receive a new and notable illustration. 

For these reasons, although applauding the idea and the inten- 

ion of Mr. Little's volume, and although thankful to him for what 

B has done, we regret the absence of a more elegant and exact 

xecution, and more especially of such measured profiles and details 

as are essential to the full understanding and realization of the 

ubject. In fact, the details are the essence of the style ; but to 

an uninstructed mind, they cannot be predicated from these 

ketches, to the proper interpretation of which the modern imagi- 

lation is a perilous assistant. It seems to us that the pictures, as 

lictures appealing to the popular eye, would have lost none of 

heir interest if the enlarged details had been properly set forth, 

is a margin perhaps upon each page ; certainly not if the pictures 

lad been treated more graphically, and if the old-fashioned acces- 

ories of furniture, old china, and bric-a-brac had been added to 

1 Karly New England Interiors : Sketches In Salem, Marblehead, Portsmouth, 
treet Do'aton 18" r LUtle- 1>ubliBhl;d by A. Williams & Co., 283 Washington 














tr 1 












' 1 











r 1 


















JANUARY 12, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


heighten the peculiar charm of the scene. Andirons, logs, hearth- 
rugs, and fire-irons, for instance, would better set forth the old 
chimneys than the painfully-drawn summer blinds or screens 
which fill the void of the fireplace in many of these sketches, and 
deny its cheerful suggestions. 

Now that Mr. Little has been enterprising and ingenious enough 
to begin for us the work of preserving our antiquities with his 
pencil, we trust that others may be tempted to carry it on to a 
more complete and satisfactory conclusion. The materials are 
ample in all the older parts of the country, the lessons to be drawn 
from them are much needed, and the demand for them will in- 
crease with our civilization. 



THIS structure will be erected in one of the towers of the Exhi- 
bition Building at Paris. The design, after being prepared by the 
Chief Architect, Mr. Scott, was submitted to the French Legation 
in London, by whom it was highly approved. It is now being 
framed at Ottawa, from whence all the necessary materials for 
its completion will be sent. The trophy will be of wood, one hun- 
dred feet in height, in four stages, the lowest of which will cover 
a superficial area of nine hundred square feet. It is difficult to 
give a complete description of the trophy as it will appear at the 
exhibition, but the following articles have been provided for : 
Canadian wild flowers, exhibits of wheels, gas fittings, and such 
small articles as do not need to be covered, around the front of 
the gallery. The shelvi ig upon the second stage will be occupied 
by geological specimens and such agricultural produce as may 
be contained in bottles. Festoons of rope, etc., are to be hung 
from the gallery above. The third stage will be devoted to lum- 
bermen's tools and agricultural implements. Over the doorway on 
each side of the tower specimens of moose and elk heads will be 
placed. Suspended from the gallery above are to be some good 
specimens of Indian canoes ; and in the centre of each side of the 
gallery, groupings of fishing-nets, spears, paddles, buffalo-robes, 
and Indian work. Four large buffalo-heads will surmount the 
doorways, and larger kinds of corn brooms and miscellaneous arti- 
cles will decorate the sides of the tower. The roofing will exhibit 
specimens of Canadian slates and shingles. 


This cottage is now building in Roger Williams Park, by the 
Union Railroad Company, and is to be used as a restaurant and 
for the accommodation of visitors to the Park. The octagonal 
end overlooks the pond, the piazza commanding a fine view of the 
same. The piazza at the other end is two stories high, the second 
story being intended for a band stand. 


This building was built in 1873, and with some effort to make 
it safe against danger from fire. The floors throughout are built 
with heavy girders from 4' 4" to 6' 6" on centres, covered with 
3" plank dowelled together, with an upper floor for finish. Believ- 
ing that the upper part of a building is most vulnerable, it was a 
part of the purpose to omit windows near the adjoining estate in 
the upper stories. The roof is wholly of incombustible materials, 
iron rafters, with the Cornell lath-iron plastered underneath and 
covered with concrete, hollow tiles, tar and gravel. The building 
covers 11,000 feet of ground. 




NOT long ago, a builder distinguished for his thoughtful inter- 
est in the details of his profession called our attention to the 
tenacity with which Portland cement adhered to iron, and ex- 
pressed his conviction that before long some way would be found 
of using the two substances together. 

This prophecy seems likely to be fulfilled, to judge from the 
interesting account just published of certain tests made upon 
beams of concrete with iron ties embedded in them, the invention 
of Mr. Thaddeus Hyatt. 1 

In studying the theory of a variety of fire-proof floor common 
in France and used to some extent in other countries, which con- 
sists of a tier of rolled iron I-beams supporting, either with or 
without the help of a network of small rods, a mass of concrete 
which completely encloses the iron, the idea seems to have occurred 
to him, that if the lower flange of the iron beam could be con- 

1 An Account of Some Experiments with Portland Cement Concrete combined 
With Iron, as a Building Material. Printed for private circulation. 

joined with the concrete by an adhesion equivalent to that with 
which it is connected to the web of the beam, the web and the 
upper flange of the beam could be dispensed with, and the resist- 
ance to compression which had been the duty of the upper flange 
could be supplied by the concrete itself, which would require the 
help of the iron only in resisting the tensile strain upon the por- 
tion below the line of the neutral axis. 

If a floor could really be composed in this manner of a monolith 
of indestructible concrete enclosing iron ties, in which the strains 
and resistances could be calculated with as much certainty as in a 
floor of brick arches between iron beams, but requiring only one- 
third the iron, we might consider that the perfect fire-proof floor 
had been attained ; and these experiments show how nearly Mr. 
Hyatt has realized this ideal. 

A Portland cement was specially prepared, he does not tell us 
how, for resisting fire ; and by a remarkable coincidence the co- 
efficients of expansion by heat of the cement and of wrought-iron, 
within a range of 180, were found to be practically identical. 
How successfully the new cement resisted fire, and how completely 
the concrete and the iron acted together, is strikingly shown in the 
experiment described on page 20. A slab of concrete G feet long, 
2 feet wide and 7 inches thick, tied with seven flat bars embed- 
ded in the concrete, was laid over a furnace, with a clear spaa 
of 5 feet, loaded with an average weight of 300 pounds to the 
square foot over the whole surface, and heated for ten hours, the 
bottom of the concrete being red-hot for the last five hours. At 
the end of the ten hours the slab had deflected | o f an inch. Cold 
water was then thrown by a force-pump against the under side of 
the slab, and the load was removed; when cool, the concrete 
was found uninjured, and the deflection had disappeared. 

A second trial was made ; this time the load was left upon the 
slab, which during the firing deflected as before, but upon cooling 
returned to its original level, tifliny the lua/l u-ilh it. 

In practice, Mr. Hyatt finds it advisable to place the flat iron 
bars which serve as ties vertically, in which position they are 
better protected by the concrete, and to connect them by wires 
passing through holes in the ties. These wires prevent the bars 
from moving in the concrete when under strain. 

This simple gridiron of bars \ inch thick, threaded upon wires 
of \ inch diameter, is shown by the tabular results of the tests to 
be sufficient for concrete floors of great span ; but architects will 
welcome the system especially for its applicability to dwelling- 
houses, where by the new method a few bundle's of light bars and 
two or three coils of wire, with materials for concrete, may take 
the place of the unmanageable and costly iron beams, and the 
brick arches whose soffits are ugly when exposed, and difficult to 
cover with a level ceiling. 

Many other applications of the principle will suggest them- 
selves, and the author promises to give accounts of further experi- 
ments. To show the extensive range of future use which he 
foresees for the combined beam of iron or steel and concrete, he 
considers that it may serve even in bridge construction. How- 
ever that may prove, there are many other problems which such 
a material will help to solve; and we shall look with interest for 
developments of the system from any quarter. 


THIS is a curious book. It is printed in luxurious style, with- 
several illustrations after the manner of the art-furniture cata- 
logues, not at all bad illustrations, after their manner. Practi- 
cally considered, it is rather a good sort of book, if read with 
sufficient knowledge; and, for American practice, if read with due 
allowance for the severity of our winter climate. Perhaps it would 
be fair to say that it is a book which ought to find its place in 
every sanitary library which pretends to completeness ; but it 
certainly should not be taken as a guide to practice in the impor- 
tant matters of which it treats. It seems quite to ignore two most 
conspicuous and valuable discoveries of modern sanitary engineer- 
ing: (1) the freedom with which sewer-gases pass through the 
water-seal of a trap ; (2) the effect of sewer-gases in corroding 
lead pipes. These two principles may be regarded as fundament- 
al, and Mr. Hellyer's obvious ignorance of them disqualifies him 
as a public teacher. Instead of "the best means for -excluding 
noxious gases from our houses," he recommends some of the most 
efficient means of introducing these gases. 

The book is very much such an one as might have been written 
by the educated son of a practical plumber, who had taken his 
ideas of the work from his father's untutored practice ; who had 
sufficient cultivation to write well, and to give a tasteful dress to 
his ideas; and who had given his mind to the invention (and 
patenting) of certain minor appliances of the paternal craft. 

Bosc's ARCHITECTURAL DICTIONARY. The seventh number of 
Monsieur Bosc's Dictionnaire Raisonne d' Architecture has lately 
been issued. This number carries the work as far as the letter E, 
and among other subjects treats of Egyptian and Etruscan architec- 

1 The Plumber and Sanitary Houses : a Practical Treatise on the Principles of 
Internal Plumbing Work for the Best Means of excluding Noxious Oases from our 
Houses. By 8. Stevens Hellyer. Published by T. B. Batsford, London, 1877. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 107. 




AMONG the new things is one which is not only new but novel ; 
and among the quaint things of the city which visitors bent on 
seeing its real gems will not omit, the Dutch room at Harpers' 
may safely be included. It is the outcome of a whim on the part 
of some of the firm, to surprise certain associate members upon 
their return from a European tour. The room is also a memorial 
to the mother of the Harper brothers, whosa united effort founded 
this great publishing house. She was of Dutch descent ; and it 
was resolved to fit up the private office of the firm in true Dutch 
style. It was to be a room such as might have been found in 
mansions along the banks of the Scheldt, or in the residences of 
the rich traders of the Hague. Time pressed, and Mr. J. Cleve- 
land Cady, when given the commission, was urged to all possible 
speed. No expense was to be spared, but every thing was to be 
thoroughly honest, without any flashiness or "splurge;" and in 
this spirit" Mr. Cady lias given to whoever may be fortunate enough 
to see the room an opportunity of stepping back to the memory 
of William and Mary, and of breathing, so far as surroundings 
go, in a truly Dutch atmosphere. Mr. Cady selected the Flemish 
type as being more refined in many details and in the general treat- 
ment than the pure and simple boer Dutch. The room given him 
for treatment is on the main business floor of the publishing house, 
and in plan is about twenty by thirty feet, with a ceiling about 
thirteen feet high. It has a southern exposure, and its four win- 
dows occupy one side almost entirely. An iron column caused 
some trouble, but when enclosed gave a good corner pier to a 
couple of closets which fill the offices of sideboard and wardrobe. 
For not only was the room to be used as a private retreat, but it 
was especially intended as a place where the members of the 
firm might meet in friendly chat with the distinguished authors 
who have always found so hospitable a welcome at the hands of 
the Harpers. The ceiling is of solid oak timbers placed against 
the iron-girder and brick-arch construction of the building. This 
is no treatment of thin panels glued between thin make-believe 
ribs, but real heavy oak pieces with the ribbed work and coves so 
dear to the Dutch carpenter's heart. The floor is laid in mar- 
quetry. In shape the room is somewhat broken, the closets, some 
four feet deep, extending down one side about twelve feet, leave 
a nook into which the chimney is set. In entering the room from 
the doorway in the corner, the eye falls first and naturally upon 
this important feature. It may appear strange that the brilliant 
Dutch tile above the great open fireplace should be wanting ; but 
in omitting this characteristic, Mr. Cady has lost nothing from the 
spirit of the room, but has been enabled the better to keep to the 
subdued treatment for which he was striving. The chimney is in 
red Philadelphia brick, oiled, without conspicuous joints. The 
arch over the fireplace is a flat segment, with a course of headers 
in carved brick as voussoirs. This carving was done by chisel, 
and the work is clean and full of verve, without the flatness of 
moulded work. A broad heavy black marble mantel has three 
deep arches of brick, fitting niches for rare samples of Delft- 
ware. The whole chimney-breast is about seven feet broad, with 
a projection of over three feet. Above the arches the face recedes ; 
and about the top run other courses of carved brickwork. Imme- 
diately below the mantel runs the legend painted in black upon 
the red brick, " My flame expires, but let true hands pass on 
An unextinguished torch from sire to son." The finish of the 
room is in a high, many-panelled wainscoting of mahogany ; (it is 
all solid), while between the windows and at the door-jambs, also 
in mahogany, are pilasters with those peculiar Dutch scrolls, which 
are yet sufficiently toned down to remove any unsightly heaviness. 
Above the wainscoting the wall is in plaster painted a bluish- 
green color, well stencilled with a pattern in oil of the same color, 
but a different shade, while a deep maroon border runs about it. 
This section of the side walls is some five feet broad, and above it, 
reaching to the ceiling, the finish is in oak panels containing a 
series of paintings ; this frieze, the panels about eighteen inches 
deep, extending entirely about the room. On one side the paintings 
tell a story of the history of America, while upon the other the 
general subject is the history of printing. These paintings were 
made by prominent New York artists who were at different times 
employed by the Harpers. The paintings generally are on a gold 
or bright background, the figures in black outline filled in with 
brilliant colors. Over the entrance door, which is in one corner, 
a panel shows the four Harper brothers John, James, Fletcher, 
and Wesley at their trade. One reads a proof which another 
has just drawn from a quaint old press ; another is carrying two 
full forms, while the fourth is working at a case. Filling a tall 
panel on either side are a stork, and a standing figure of Benjamin 
Franklin. In the next panel a group of monks are busily at work 
copying manuscripts ; next, in narrow panel, the carving on the 
beech-tree is shown. Gutenberg printing the first Bible occupies 
the next full panel, while Caxton's standing figure follows in the 
series, where Albert Diirer is cutting the first blocks for printing 
from. This fills up one side of the room. 

On the opposite side, the first panel next the window has a view 
of the discovery of America by Columbus, while on the other side 

the discovery of the Hudson forms the subject of a panel. Old 
Peter Stuyvesant on the " Batterie " is next shown stumping along 
on his wooden leg, while over the doors of the wardrobe mid larder 
are pictures from New York history, one giving the, fight in John 
Street between the citizens and English soldiers. 

On the side opposite the windows are five panels. In the cen- 
tral one, Puck, bearing in one hand a flaming torch, and in the 
other a telegraphic bobbin of wire, girdles the earth. On one 
side of this is a view of the arrival of the first ocean steamship 
in New York Harbor, and on the other the view of a modern Wal- 
ter press, the latest and best of printing devices. The other 
panels contain, one the city coat-of-arrns, and the other a sage-look- 
ing owl. The windows are in a mosaic of colored glass for a height 
of six feet, then comes a space of clear glass, and above in the 
heads is more colored glass set in mosaic, the principal lines form- 
ing the semicircles and radiating lines so often noted in the sash- 
bars of old Knickerbocker glazing. Although the glass is colored, it 
is not at all ecclesiastical in appearance. The Dutch curl is again 
met with, and many of the smaller circles are filled in with the 
old style " bull's-eyes," in colored glass, in a quaintly-mixed red 
and orange tint, which, when the sun shines upon or through them, 
show out with the brilliancy of gems. 

The furnishing of the room is in full accord with the general 
spirit. Along one side, extending from door to window, runs a 
low book-case with drawers, supported on those characteristic 
twisted rope columns, tapering at either end. The metal-work is 
heavy, and only as much as necessity detnanded has been used ; 
thus the general effect is not disturbed by any specially brilliant 
details. A table in the centre of the floor is as fine a piece of 
honest carpentry as is often seen. The legs have the ribbed 
bulbs which are peculiarly Dutch, with the egg-and-dart moulding 
above the edges of the table-top. The chairs, like the rest of the 
furniture in solid mahogany, are of various sorts, some heavy, 
with solid timber legs, others with tall turned backs and low bot- 
toms, while on either side of the fireplace are a pair of wooden- 
bottomed chairs, with legs and backs reminding one of the parts 
of old spinning-wheels. An old chest bound in iron, and a pair 
of polished writing-desks or secretaries, heirlooms in the Harper 
family, are placed in the room; but except these, every thing is 
designed by Mr. Cady. A fabric in raw silk, full of mixed, low- 
toned color, is used in upholstering the furniture, harmonizing very 
well with the general sombre tone. On the hearth rest a couple 
of great fire-dogs, quaint enough to weave the most fantastic 
dreams about as the flames from the logs leap about their feet. 

The whole room is the quaintest of the quaint, a place to linger 
in. New oddities constantly strike the eye, while the frieze of 
paintings by such artists as Fredericks, Abbey, Nast, Homer, Rein- 
hart, Parsons, etc., are worth a special visit. To the Harpers the 
room is full of family suggestions ; and in occupying it they may 
fairly be said to live in the very presence of their sturdy ancestry. 


AT a recent meeting of the Adelaide (South Australia) Philo- 
sophical Society, Mr. B. Herschel Babbage read a paper in which 
he described at considerable length the experiments he had made 
in the past, and was now making, in the construction of buildings 
composed of a concrete formed of sand, gravel, common earth, 
and lime. Amongst other buildings a very slight building was 
erected in 1863, which is used for a still-house; it is. 11 feet 4 
inches long, by 9 feet wide. The arch only rises 12 inches, or one- 
ninth of the span. One side of this building is supported by a 
cellar wall, the other by a wall 15 inches thick; one-third of the 
arch is cut away at one end, and a dome of about 8 feet 6 inches 
external diameter is built partially on the old and partially on the 
new structure. Though the weight of this dome is about six tons, 
only one very slight crack has been noticed in the whole structure. 
Besides buildings, Mr. Babbage has constructed several smaller 
works, such as cattle-troughs and bridges, all of which answer the 
purpose for which they were designed. 

Mr. Babbage has also constructed an entire house of concrete, 
walls, roof, staircases, all being formed of the same material, 
of which he says : 

"I have never seen a house of this kind; and I have looked 
through every page of the volumes of the Builder for twenty years 
back, to see if there is any record of such a building having been 
made, but can find none. I am justified, therefore, in calling it 
an experiment, and I believe that 1 may add, a successful one. By 
using Portland cement concrete, 'that is, concrete in which the 
lime is replaced by Portland cement, you would undoubtedly' 
have a material which would set much sooner than lime concrete; 
but whether it would at the end of a thousand years be as lime 
concrete has been found to be at that age as hard as or harder 
than rock, remains yet to be proved, our experience of Portland 
cement extending over only fifty or sixty years. The great objec- 
tion, however, to using Portland cement in any quantity in this 
country is its high price as compared with lime. Even in Eng- 
land, where the price is, I believe, less than one third of its price 
here, they economize by making the walls very thin, a proceeding 
which does not suit this climate if a cool dwelling is wished for. 

JANUARY 12, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


On commencing my new house, I determined to make an experi- 
ment that should be adapted to ordinary use by its cheapness. I 
therefore took no pains to wash the gravel, using it as it came from 
the creeks in my neighborhood. Undoubtedly, by washing the 
gravel carefully you can make a better concrete; but where man- 
ual labor is so expensive as, it is here, the extra time employed in 
the washing would bo a consideration. A good deal of the gravel 
I used was obtained from a gravel-pit in the neighborhood, and 
verged upon being too dirty to be used. If I have succeeded with 
such gravel as this, clean gravel cannot fail to be a success. The 
style which I have adopted is Venetian Gothic, as one which, 
while sufficiently ornamental, -consorts well with flat roofs, and 
admits of such irregularities as the necessities of my case required. 
The part to the right of the entrance-porch is built upon the site 
and partly upon the foundations of the old house. It is two 
stories in height, each story being arched over, the top of the 
arches of the ground-floor forming the floor of the rooms above ; 
and, again, the arches of the upper floor form a flat-terraced house- 
top, such as we read of in the Bible and in accounts of Eastern 
buildings. Above the top floor is to be, an arched corridor, open- 
ing into the tower at one end, and facing the terrace roof at the 
side, so that it will form a pleasant retreat for people to sit in to 
work or read whilst enjoying the view and the fresh air, thus 
utilizing in an agreeable manner a part of the house which is 
entirely unavailable in houses of the ordinary construction. A few 
iron rings built into the tops of the buttresses will enable an awn- 
ing to be spread over part of the terrace as a shade when the sun is 
too hot. The arch of tho diiiing-room is 15 feet in width, with a 
rise of 2 feet 10 inches, the rise being nearly one-fifth of tho span. 
The side walls were 1 foot G inches inside the house, and 1 foot 10 
inches outside, with buttresses at the outer angles. The lime 
concrete at the crown of the arch is 10 inches thick, and at the 
springing 3 feet 8| inches. After the centres were removed, and 
the concrete was thoroughly set, a layer of 2} inches of Portland 
cement concrete one of Portland cement to seven of fine gravel 
sand was spread over it; and finally this was covered with a 
layer of one of cement to one of sand, 4-inch to J-inch thick, which 
was trowelled to a smooth face to form tho floor of tho room above. 
Thus the finished arch was about one foot one inch thick at the 
crown, and nearly four feet at the haunches. The weight of this 
arch is about 32} tons now that it is thoroughly dry, reckoning 1.4 
of a ton to the cubic yard. This is about the weight given in archi- 
tectural text-books, and corresponds with the result of an experi- 
ment which I made myself. The weight of the arch of the rnorn- 
ing-room is about 23^ tons. The floor of the dining-room is made 
of 5 inches of lime concrete, with cement concrete and facing above 
it of the same thickness as those upon the arch. The floor rests 
upon 18 inches of made earth, it being raised above the natural 
surface of the ground; and the consequence is that some slight 
cracks have taken place in tho floor owing to its settlement. ""No 
cracks are to be seen either in the floor of the room above or on 
the arch forming the roof of the top room. The weight of tho 
arch of the bedroom above the dining-room is 27 tons, tho bow 
window being confined to the lower story. The wooden centres, 
upon which the lower arch was built, were left for eleven weeks 
before being removed, as it is a large arch, and I did not liko to 
risk a settlement; but 1 am convinced that they might have been 
removed sooner if it had been wanted. The arch above was not 
commenced until six months afterwards. As tho ribs of the cen- 
tres are formed with 1^-inch flooring boards, cut to tho sweep of 
the arch, roughly nailed together with tics and struts 1 \ inches. 
thick, the chief dependence for supporting the arches during the 
building is placed upon a considerable number of uprights and 
raking struts resting upon the arch of the floor below. Thus the 
whole weight of the upper arch when the concrete was wet (which 
must have been upwards of 35 tons) was borne by struts resting 
entirely upon the lower arch ; so that tho new arch (nine months 
old) had to undergo a test very much greater than any weight 
that could ever be put upon it in its use as a habitation. All the 
arches of tho ground floor had to undergo a similar ordeal during 
the construction of the arches above. In two cases I have had a 
slight settlement take place whilst the concrete of the arch was 
quite soft, owing to imperfect strutting; and in a third case I was 
taking down the centres during very wet weather, three weeks 
after the arch had been built, when we discovered a settlement 
of the arch beginning to take place from the concrete not- being 
sufficiently set, and we had to put the centres up again. The 
result was that after leaving the centres up about two weeks 
longer, when we took them down we discovered a flaw in the 
crown of the arch. It was the arch over the morning-room, of 11 
feet 9 inches span. As the simplest way of remedying this, I 
cut a hole right through the arch where it was defective, being 
about a square yard, and left the edges of the hole sloping like 
a keystone ; then put up the centres again, and filled in the hole 
with fresh concrete. All these arches in duo time had their cement 
covering put upon them, which would at once have shown by its 
cracking if any fresh settlement whatever had taken place. I 
have now built in this house upwards of sixteen arches of varying 
size, from feet square to 21 feet by 10 feet 6 inches ; and in no 
one case has any settlement whatsoever shown itself since they had 
their cement covering put upon them. Tho only failures it they 

can be called so that I have met with were, on one occasion, the 
giving way of a barrel-arch 4 feet span, forming a flight of steps, 
owing to one of tho principal props breaking in half and causing 
the fall of the centring, and the wet concrete put upon it; and 
upon another occasion when a horse mistaking the house-door for 
a stable-door, came in upon a new arch, the concrete of which 
was yet green, when one of its hind legs broke tho crown of the 
arch and went down through it. This damage was, of course, 
easily repaired by cutting the breakage out as described in the 
account of the preceding arch, and putting in a new wedge-shaped 
mass of concrete. There is a small inner hall, showing a gallery 
round it, level with the floor of the bedrooms to give access to 
them. This gallery is arched over at top. The arches I have 
described above are barrel-arches extending the length of tho 
rooms, and having a flat Gothic arch. The ground and upper 
floors of this inner hall are built differently, as the arched ceilings 
rise from all four sides, so that the arches intersect each other in 
tho angles, forming groins, and would meet in a point at the 
centre if carried out entirely ; but an octagonal aperture is cut in 
the top, thus forming the gallery before mentioned. Tho upper 
part of tho hall above this gallery is also arched over in a similar 
manner, but an octagon is cut out of it, upon the margin of which 
is built a dome, feet G inches in diameter inside, feet outside, 
which, including the drum, is 8 feet high inside. The whole 
weight of this drum and dome, amounting to 21 tons, rests upon 
the edge of the octagonal opening. The first flight of stairs in my 
new building consists of a flying arch, the bottom resting upon the 
top of the arched landing over the stairs below, and the upper end 
abutting nearly at right angles against the wall of the staircasa. 
Upon the upper surface of this flying arch tho steps are cut out, or 
rather moulded, when the arch is made. In building this arch 
channels or holes wero cut in the face of the sido walls against 
which it rests, so that the concrete of the arch might unite with 
that of the side wall. Whenever, from any cause during the 
building, it became necessary to put new concrete against the faco 
of the old work, channels were cut here and there in tho old face, 
to form a better junction between them. After the concrete st-.'ps 
wero well set, they were covered with a layer of two inches of fino 
cement concrete, and finished over with half an inch of fine 
cement, consisting of one of cement to one of sand; like the floor, 
tho nosing of the steps was formed in the cement concrete by tli3 
help of wooden moulds. The surface of concrete walls is well 
adapted for receiving plaster, as it offers a good natural key for it, 
and the plaster incorporates itself with the concrete, forming a 
solid body. For plastering my house both externally and inter- 
nally, I use a mortar to which a small quantity of sugar has been 
added. The mixture I adopt consists of fourteen bushels of sand, 
four bushels of unslaked lime, and twelve pounds of the coarsest 
and cheapest sugar I can get. I generally mix these quantities at 
one time in a ' bay.' The sand is put round in a ring, the lime, 
slaked and riddled, is put inside in the usual manner, and the 
twelve pounds of sugar dissolved in a small quantity of hot water 
poured over it, and tho whole well mixed together. The original 
recipe was obtained from Algiers by Col. llobe, a former governor 
of this colony, but there was some mistake in the proportions given 
in it. Those I have given above are the result of a number of 
experiments that I have made myself. This mortar sets quicker 
than common mortar, has more adhesive power, and is very much 
harder; it has, besides, tho additional recommendation of b^ing 
partially waterproof. I have used for lining baths, small t:mks, 
etc., a mortar mixed in the proportion of 1 sand to one of lima, 
with | pound of sugar added to each gallon of tho mixture, and 
found it quite waterproof. The theory of it I take to bo that tho 
sugar combines with the lime, and forms a saccharide of lime, 
which is only sparingly soluble in water. Tho string-course, cor- 
nice, and mouldings over tho windows are made in concrete by 
applying wooden moulds of the requisite forms to tho place whcro 
these ornaments are to be put, and filling these moulds with con- 
crete. I find that by liuing the moulds with damped paper I 
obtain a better surface, and that it is easier to detach the moulds. 
For the outer surface of tho mouldings I use ' sugar-cement con- 
crete ' made of four bushels of fine gravel, one bushel of lime, and 
six pounds of sugar. The moulds are lined with this fine concrete, 
and then backed up with the ordinary concrete, so that tho mould- 
ings form a solid projection of the substance of the wall itself." 

Mr. Babbage's paper was illustrated byw number of diagrams. 

In answer to questions, Mr. Babbage said that he considered the 
cost of concrete under ordfnary circumstances would bo 25 per 
cent loss than stone or brickwork, and even with that decrease in 
cost much thicker walls might be constructed, which was a great 
consideration in the climate of Australia. His house was cooler 
in summer and warmer in winter than most houses. The Builder. 


THE construction of the new Custom House at St. Louis has from 
the start been under tho direction of Mr. Thomas Walsh as super- 
intendent, and till recently of William K. Patrick as assistant. 
The walls are now nearly three stories high above ground. 

In the summer of 1&<6 tho Grand Juryof the United States 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 107. 

District Court at St. Louis made a preliminary investigation of 
certain charges of dishonest}' in the construction of the new Cus- 
tom House, but left the work incomplete. At its November ses- 
sion, 1877, however, three indictments were found, one against 
Messrs. Walsh and Patrick for conspiracy to defraud the govern- 
ment, and one each against Lyddan the master mason, and Run- 
yan the master carpenter, for perjury in testifying that certain 
piers built under their direction were solid when they knew them 
to be otherwise. 

By .orders from Washington the trial of Lyddan was taken up 
at once, although the prosecution was not prepared with all its 
evidence, and had to ask several intermissions until permission 
could be obtained to cut into the piers and ascertain their con- 
struction. Three piers out of over a hundred were tapped, and 
were found in each case to contain a cavity filled with broken 
stone and cement. Permission was sought to explore upward 
in order to determine the vertical extent of this filling; but the 
superintendent refused, on the ground that the stability of the 
superstructure would be seriously endangered thereby. Messrs. 
Henry Flad, chief engineer in charge of the construction of the 
St. Louis Bridge, and C. Shaler Smith, civil engineer, testified 
that if this filled hollow were properly capped with large stones 
above, no harm could come from the proposed exploration ; but 
that if it were not so capped, but the cavity continued up through 
the height of the pier, further boring would indeed imperil the 
work above, and that iu that case the whole must be styled bad 

Since the required permission was withheld, the prosecution 
rested here, and the jury gave a verdict of acquittal. The case 
turned largely upon the question whether or not the kind of work 
done could properly be styled "solid masonry," as Lyddan had 
pronounced the piers to be. 

Runyan's case followed. He had declared the piers to be of 
"solid stone," "as solid as the Rock of Gibraltar itself." The 
judge, however, instructed the jury to acquit Ilunyan on some 
legal technicality, although his indictment was identically the 
same with Lyddan's, save in the name of the accused. 

At the request of the United States prosecuting attorney, the 
case of Messrs. Walsh and Patrick has been transferred 'from 
Judge Treat, before whom the above cases were tried, to Judge 
Dillon, and is set for the January term of 1878. * 


ST. JOHN, N.B., Jan. 3, 1878. 

Sir, An article has just been laid before me, published in 
your issue of Dee. 22, 1877, relating to the recent disaster to the 
Walker buildings in Prince William Street in this city, of which 
Mr. John C. Babcock of New York was the architect, and which in 
their fall damaged seriously the four-story brick store of Messrs. J. 
and A. McMillan adjoining, of which we, Croff and Camp, are the 
architects. The article referred to is quite inexact in its infer- 
ences, as the statement concerning imperfect construction and 
weakness of the McMillan building is an absolutely mistaken one. 
The destruction of the Walker buildings, it is now generally con- 
ceded by the leading experts of the city, was caused by the im- 
mense volume of water that fSll during the last twenty-four hours 
previous to the accident ; the cambered floors being boarded close be- 
fore the roof was on, forming a complete water-shed that discharged 
into the central wall, leaching away the lime from the mortar till 
it ran down the sides of the wall like milk, leaving a mass of wet 
sand and bricks which caused the central wall to slip and buckle, 
as was seen by several eye-witnesses; and that portion of one side 
wall of the McMillan building that fell was wrenched out by the 
falling of the heavy timbers of the Walker building solidly an- 
chored to it. The statement made by your correspondent concern- 
ing Messrs. West and Anderson in the'same article is also erroneous. 
In conclusion I ask you most respectfully to publish this article at 
'the earliest possible date by way of reparation of the possible 
damage that may result from the article in question. 

I am, sir, very respectfully yours, 



sculptor, has made drawings of designs for three statues for the inte- 
rior of the Stewart Memorial Cathedral at Garden City. They will 
be of heroic size, and typical of " Everlasting Life," " Religion," and 
'Hope." Two of them are designed to till niches over the two 
Stewart memorial tablets, and the other is to crown the apex of the 
chancel arch. 

A FILTER TO PURIFY AIR. At a recent meeting of the New 
York Academy of Useful Arts, attention was called to a simple method 
of faltering the air of an apartment. The object is to free the air 
from dust, excessive dampness, and possibly from the germs of ma- 
laria. The contrivance consists of a fibrous woven fabric, strength- 
ened by brass wire. It is to be applied to windows and ventilators 
and may be of service on railway cars to exclude dust. It has at 
least the merit of checking draughts, while admitting air. 

COLLEGE DORMITORIES. Our attention has been drawn to the 
insecurity of college dormitories that is, if we may generalize from 
the examples so near at hand by a statement that long-needed fire- 
escapes have at length been put upon Matthews Hall at Cambridge. 
There are few buildings more exposed to the chance of burning, 
there are few buildings which it would be harder to escape from than 
some of these lofty building of more recent date, and there are few 
buildings to whose security from fire are intrusted lives more valuable 
to the country than these same college dormitories throughout the 
land. Thanks to late students, early risers, and students' servants, 
the buildings are not left for more than three hours out of the twenty- 
four without being the object of a certain supervision, superficial 
though it be. But students have a right to demand something more 
than this negative security; and it is to be hoped that the authorities 
of Harvard College at least will no longer overlook a lack which casts 
discredit on their prevision and their appreciation of the position they 
hold as the guardians as well as instructors of the young men who are 
intrusted to their charge. _ 

INDIANA STATE HOUSE. The State House Commissioners of 
Indiana have received the following instructions as to the nature 
of their report: 

1. Can the building be completed according; to the plans and specifications within 
the limit named in the law, namely, $2,000,000 ? 

2. Are the foundations in character and extent sufficient to support the super- 
structure in such manner that no injury is to be apprehended to any point of the 
work from settling or crushing? 

3. Are the materials of the superstructure in kind and quality such as to insure 
stability and permanence? 


7. Is ample provision made for safety, heating the building in all its parts, is also 
the needed supply of ivater easily and conveniently accessible? 

8. Is drainage amply provided for? 

Your opinion is also requested ato architectural symmetry, beauty and harmony 
of parts, including ornamentation and general conformity to the dignity, resources 
and progress of the State. 

THE BENNINGTON MONUMENT. The erection of the battle monu- 
ment at Bennington, Vt., is still contingent on raising a large sum of 
money which is to be obtained by private subscription. Until this 
sum has been raised, the association intends to abstain from all com- 
munication with artists, sculptors, or architects. Still it will be well 
for architects to bear in mind that they may presently have an oppor- 
tunity of designing a monument for an association which seems to 
desire to conduct its trust so as to secure the best results. The de- 
signs will, when submitted, be examined only in consultation with 
the governors of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. 

THE BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF DESIGN. The unhewn stone in the 
tympanum over the doorway of the Academy of Design in Brooklyn, 
which has so long remained unfinished, is shortly to have carved upon 
it a bas-relief, which will represent Michael Angelo when, as an old 
man deprived of sight, he is examining by touch, as was his habit, 
the works of the sculptors among whom he is seated. 

periments has been making in Paris by Professor Marcker and Dr. 
Berthold to determine what substances used in building are permea- 
ble by gases and vapors. It was found that bricks, sandstone, shelly 
tufa, mortar, and cement permit vapors to pass freely through them 
if they are not kept under water. Substances absolutely impermeable 
are granite, porphyry, slate, alabaster, limestone, and marble. One 
conclusion to be drawn from this is, that houses built in places where 
dangerous gases exhale from the ground are not made absolutely safe 
from this danger by cementing the cellar-floors, or by laying them with 
brick or tile, though of course these precautions do something to make 
the building a more sanitary dwelling. Whitewashing a wall does not 
make it less viable to noxious gases; but two coats of oil-paint will 
make it practically impermeable. Thin paper-hangings reduce the 
permeability of mortar seventeen per cent, and thick glazed paper forty 
per cent. More attention should be paid to making the walls and 
Boors of cellars impermeable by gases, especially those under which a 
sewer passes ; for as shown by these experiments, the bricks of which 
the sewer is built offer but little resistance to the passage of sewer-gas 
which in the winter time, at least, will be drawn up into a heated 
house more readily than it can work up through cold or frozen earth. 

AN ENGLISH MONASTERY. A monastery for a body of Carthusian 
monks has just been founded in the neighborhood of London. The 
buildings cover about nine acres of land. The great size of the 
monastery is due to the laws of the order which compel each monk 
io live by himself and to keep perpetual silence. To counterbalance 
the rigor of these rules each monk is allowed three rooms of mod- 
erate size, which often form individual houses, and a small garden 
where he can raise his own vegetables. The order, which was 
founded by St. Bruno in 1080, has been a powerful one, and to it is 
due the convent La Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble in France, and 
iho still more famous Certosa near Pavia. In England the name 
Chartreuse-house, which their first monasteries in England bore, be- 
came corrupted to Charter-house, a name which is associated in 
most persons' minds with the famous religious asylum in London 
founded by Sir Thomas Button, where eighty poor brethren over 
iifty years of age are supported, and, also, between forty and fifty 
scholars who must be the sons of poor gentlemen: besides these there 
is a large number of day scholars and extra boarders. The title of 
the order was taken from the name of its first monastery in Dau- 
phiny, Chartreux, the La;iu Cartusium. 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES R. OSGOOD & Co. 

[NO. 108. 

BOSTON, JANUARY 19, 1878. 


Homes for the People. Building Associations in Massachu- 
setts. Mr. White's Tenement Houses in Brooklyn. Secu- 
rity of Theatres in Chicago. The Indiana State-House 
Competition. French Architectural Scholarships. Artists 

and Forgers 17 




Boman Catholic Cathedral at New York. House at Akron, O. 
House at Spring Hill, Mass. Study in Perspective . . 20 






AT the annual meeting of the American Social Science 
Association in Boston, last week, the secretary read a paper 
on " Homes for the People." He said that, in pursuance of 
an act of the Massachusetts legislature, presented by some 
members of the association, and passed last spring, to legal- 
ize* Co-operative Saving Fund and Loan Associations, after 
the manner of those in Philadelphia, some six or eight of 
such associations had been formed in the State, chiefly in 
Boston, Cambridge, and Lynn, and were prospering. In- 
quiries made in Philadelphia had shown that the associations 
there had borne the pressure of hard times very well, 
better, it was said, than most of the savings-banks of the 
country, in spite of the hardships and difficulties which 
their members had met. There were signs of improvement 
in the condition of tenement-houses in Brooklyn ; and in 
New York a plan was on foot for raising some hundreds of 
thousands of dollars to be invested in building such houses, 
after the example of Mr. White of Brooklyn (of whose suc- 
cessful experiments in this way we have more than once 
spoken) . The secretary quoted from Mr. White an account 
of the financial success of this undertaking, wherein it 
appeared that about seventy thousand dollars, invested in 
the course of the last two years in two buildings for the 
housing of eighty families, had this year borne a net income 
of seven and a quarter per cent. This confirmed him in his 
opinion that " decent, healthy houses in flats (the ground 
being too dear for small houses) can be provided on New- 
York Island, paying a reasonable interest, six per cent or 
more." He had, however, confined his attempts to Brook- 
lyn, where he was building a block two rooms deep and two 
hundred feet long, and was expecting to invest some two 
hundred thousand dollars with confidence of a return. 

THE details of Mr. White's investment are instructive. 
The ' ' Home Buildings ' ' on the corner of Hicks Street and 
Baltic Street, Brooklyn, are two blocks, one fronting on each 
street, and occupying together a lot of land 105 by 152 feet, 
whose cost was $10,500. The Hicks-street building cost 
(allowing for its share of the land) $39,485. It contains 
forty tenements, or dwellings, whose rent for nine months 
was $2,742.50 ; and four shops, which have been rented seven 
months for $865. This is at the rate of $5,122 per year. 
The annual outgo, including taxes, water-rates, janitor's and 
other running expenses, and an allowance of one and a half 
per cent on cost for repairs, is set at $2,072, leaving $3,050, 
or nearly seven and three-quarters per cent, for the return. 
The Baltic-street building, apparently finished later, and con- 
taining likewise forty dwellings, will yield eight per cent. 
It appears from this trial, that to have a net income of seven 
per cent requires twelve and a quarter per cent in gross re- 
ceipts. The rents for the tenements of three rooms are from 
$1.40 to $1.90 per week, those in the upper stories being the 
cheapest ; for four rooms, from $1.90 to $2.70 per week. For 
similar tenements in New York, Mr. White estimates that it 
would be necessary to charge a quarter more, or, for three 
rooms, from ijl.GG to $2.26 per week, and for four rooms from 

$2.26 to $3.21, prices which he thinks would at once bring 
the rooms into demand. The shops in the Hicks-street building 
rent for from $25 to $40 per month. The most conspicuous 
part of Mr. White's success is his success with his tenants. 
Among fifty-three families that held rooms in the Hicks-street 
building during the ten months that it was occupied, there 
were only thirteen changes ; and only four failed to pay their 
rent promptly. Their behavior and their reasonable care of 
lodgings are indicated by the fact that only one family was 
ejected for disorder, and only two for damage done, and by 
Mr. White's recent note, that " repairs to water-works, etc., 
have not yet cost me one cent." A system of discount to 
those who paid their rent for several weeks at a time pre- 
sumably in advance resulted in nearly two-fifths taking 
advantage of the discount. These things, of course, show 
that such houses attract a better than ordinary class of ten- 
ants. So far, this too is an encouragement to capitalists, and 
it certainly will be an immense gain when these classes are 
fully provided for. Yet, when the demand of the thrift}' and 
well-behaved is supplied, the provision of such houses as a 
paying investment must stop ; and then the question remains, 
whether, in the interest of public health and order, any thing 
can be done for the unthrifty and disorderly. 

THE Superintendent of Buildings in Chicago not long ago 
rendered his annual report. In it he said that he had made 
a survey of all the theatres, public halls, schools, and church 
es in the city, and had served notiees on the lessees and 
managers of theatres and halls, directing what should be 
done to make them safe for the public. While some of the 
managers complied with the requirements of the superintend- 
ent, others refused ; and there was no law to compel them. 
He therefore urged the speedy passage of laws to regulate 
the planning and construction of such places of amusement, 
but apparent!}- with no great hope, for he added, "I fear 
the}- will remain in their present unsafe condition until some 
public calamit}' similar to the burning of the Brooklyn Thea- 
tre occurs, when public sentiment will be aroused, but too 
late to save valuable lives and property, the loss of which 
must inevitably result, in case of fire in some of our theatres 
or public halls." The subject has been brought before the 
citj' government, and we are reminded of the astuteness 
with which the Chicago inn-keepers staved off the impend- 
ing legislative restrictions upon them after the fatal burn- 
ing of the Southern Hotel some months ago ; for it appears 
that the board of aldermen has contumeliously rejected 
the ordinance for the security of theatres. The ordinance 
was apparently well drawn, and contained the minimum 
restrictions that are recognized as necessary for safety, 
the provision of proper exits and stairs, of stand-pipes and 
hose, of a brick fire-wall next the stage, and a prohibition 
against putting auditoriums too high up in buildings. But 
the committee which reported on it directed its attention to 
the dangerous condition of the audiences rather than of the 
buildings, declaring that " the fashion of trailing dresses 
has more to answer for in the frightful calamities that have 
happened to panic-stricken assemblies than any fault in the 
construction of buildings." No law regulating dress was 
enacted, however, it would appear ; and the building ordi- 
nance failed to pass ; so that the audiences of Chicago are 
left without protection ; the aldermen thinking, perhaps, that 
the fashion of a dress would outlast even a fire-proof theatre, 
and that if people will get into a fright, and upset each other 
on the floor, they may as well be burned there. 

THE building of the Indiana State Capitol seems to have 
been looked upon, from one side or the other, as likely to fur- 
nish a golden opportunity! or a dangerous provocation, for 
some kind of hocussing.. The legislative act to secure plans 
for the building surrounded the competition with a net-work 
of difficulties in which, we should think, no honest and 
discreet architect would have dared, to risk entangling him- 
self. This, however, did not deter Mr, John W. Blake from 
distributing the seductive letter to architects, which we 
printed in our number of June 2, 1877 ; and now we rend 
i that a similar letter (anonymous this time, it is said) has 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 108. 

been honorably exposed to the State House Commissioners, 
by Mr. Meyers, an architect of Detroit, to whom it was 
addressed, in which the writer offered to use influence to get 
Mr. Meyers 's plan adopted. The commissioners have there- 
upon incontinently dismissed their secretary as the guilt}' per- 
son, without waiting for his examination, which is to follow. 
The patli of the architect must be thorny in a State where it 
is necessary to put him under enormous bonds to insure the 
perfection of his plans, and the accuracy of his builder's 
estimates ; and where the prospect of this indulgence is 
enough to stimulate such profuse offers of underhand assist- 

WE alluded in our last number to the studies which the 
prize students in architecture at the French Academy in 
Rome are required to make and send home to Paris while 
they are maintained at the government expense. In the 
last-named number of La Semaine des Constructeurs we find 
the report of the academy on the Envois returned by the 
students in 1878. " The academy," says the report, " attests 
with great satisfaction the superiority of the Envois of the 
resident architects in this year over those of past years. It 
is long since it has been able to receive work of this kind 
with such entire praise, praise from which the slight reser- 
vations it has made are no detraction." The study of the 
first year's student, Mr. Paulin, is of the portico of the 
Pantheon at Rome, and of several buildings at Pompeii. It 
is singled out for special commendation. Those of the other 
students, or resident architects, as it will be seen that the 
report calls them, are the Temple of Castor and Pollux and 
the Temple of Concord at Romp, a restoration of the Erech- 
theium, and another of the Mausoleum at Ilalicnrnassus, 
with some smaller studies of Renaissance work, chiefly of 
the civic palace at Brescia, the work of Sansovino and Palla- 
dio. It will be noticed how strictly the academic tradition is 
maintained. The whole labor is spent upon classic work, 
excepting for a few slighter studies in the stricter Rennais- 
sanec. Not a glance stra3's in the direction of mediaeval 
archaeology or architecture, a notable contrast to the activity 
of their fellow-architects on the opposite side of the channel. 
And here we may suggest that the establishment of travelling 
scholarships in architecture is one of the things which Ameri- 
cans might well undertake. There are no artists, especially 
no architects, who need travel so much as Americans, because 
there are none who have so little to study at home. Private 
or corporate liberality could do nothing better to help the 
education of our profession than in founding such scholar- 
ships. It is not likely that their work would be of great 
value, except to themselves and to students like themselves ; 
nor is it important that it should. It would not for a long 
time, perhaps, add to the stock of archaeological knowledge, 
or bear such splendid fruit as has the work of the French 
pens ionnai res ; but its direct and indirect influence in educa- 
tion might be very great. 

A CURIOUS case has lately come before the English courts, 
likely to call out the sympathy of all artists in behalf of 
one of their calling who has appealed in vain for the protec- 
tion of the law against forgery. Mr. Herbert, R.A., was 
one day waited on by a picture-dealer, who told him that he 
had bought from another picture-dealer a painting bearing 
Iris signature, and requested him to authenticate it. The 
price actually paid for the picture was ten or twenty pounds ; 
but, accepted as the work of Mr. Herbert, it would be worth 
two hundred and fifty, for which reason the dealer was natu- 
rally anxious to have it acknowledged. Mr. Herbert at once 
declared it a forgery, and insisted that the dealer should sign 
an agreement not to sell it as genuine. This, however, the 
dealer refused to do, asserting that the picture was genuine, 
and maintaining his purpose to sell it as such ; whereupon 
Mr. Herbert seized it, and detained it as a forgery, leaving 
the dealer to his remedy at law. The dealer sued to recover 
the picture, with damages for its detention. The Court, 
after a full hearing, decided, not apparently without indicat- 
ing its sympathy with the painter, that the picture was the 
property of the dealer, and must be returned to him unin- 
jured, even to the false signature ; that the defendant was 
liable for its value if it was not so returned ; and that it was 
for the jury to dutermine the value, and the damages to be 

awarded for illegal detention. The jury appraised the picture 
at ten pounds, and awarded one shilling ^damages for the 
detention, leaving to Mr. Herbert, apparent!}', the option of 
destroying and paying for it, or seeing it go forth to be sold 
under his name, and, in either case, the pleasure of paying 
his own lawyer's fees. It thus appears that English law 
(and, we suppose, American) gives an artist no protection 
against counterfeiters. He might secure it, we presume, l>3 r 
copyrighting a trade-mark, and affixing it to his pictures ; 
but, if lie is unwilling to do this, he must submit to be black- 
mailed, like Mr. Herbert, when any one thinks it worth while. 
If he would suppress counterfeits, he must do it at his own 
cost, by seizing them when he can (like the Academician who 
had, it was whispered, in a previous instance broken one over 
the head of a dealer) , and paying damages therefor ; and, 
failing this precarious remedy, he must submit. 


THE beginning of a new year gives us an opportunity to 
make acknowledgment to the man}' friends who have helped 
the interest and usefulness of our paper with their contribu- 
tions. This acknowledgment is especially due to those 
whose assistance has been unsolicited, assistance of which 
the welcome is not to be measured by the scant}' recognition 
of it which it is possible to give in individual cases. We 
wish, once more, to remind our readers how much the value 
of our work may be increased by their co-operation. As we 
have said before, it is impossible for us to know where all the 
material is to be found that would be valuable to ns, and we 
must depend, therefore, in a good measure, upon what may be 
voluntarily offered. This is especially true in regard to mat- 
ter for illustration. The topics and news which it is worth 
while to touch upon can be discovered and collected with fail- 
success by a reasonable effort of editorial diligence, though 
here, too, help from without is always valuable ; but in a coun- 
try so wide, and cities so scattered as ours, it is impossible 
for us to be on the watch for all that would serve us for illus- 
tration, and we must rely in a good degree on spontaneous 
assistance. There is, in fact, no other means by which we 
can make our paper what we should like to have it, a suffi- 
cient record of the best work that is done in American archi- 
tecture. It does not need the comments of foreigners to 
remind us that the greater part of such work goes unrecorded 
at present ; and, from our point of view at least, it is very 
undesirable that this should be the case. We therefore invite 
our readers once more, wherever they may be, to favor us 
with designs or drawings of any important work they may 
have in hand ; and we shall be glad if correspondents, regu- 
lar or occasional, will bring to our notice work that it is desir- 
able to illustrate in our pages. The difficulty of purveying 
for ourselves is increased in the case of work which is not 
where it can be publicly seen, especially decorative work and 
furniture, of which we should like to publish more than we 
do, but which it is impossible for us to search out in the pri- 
vate places where it exists. 

We should not ask assistance from our readers, if we did 
not know that it is no less in their interest than in that of 
editors to make their technical journals as good and as catho- 
lic as possible. There is, nevertheless, one difficulty which 
must necessarily arise, and has occasionally been brought to 
our notice with some emphasis. It is not possible for us to 
publish every thing that is sent ; and, ungracious as it may 
seem to ask for things when there is a possibility that we 
may not use them, we are obliged to claim indulgence in 
this respect, and to beg those who find that we have no usf 
for what they are good enough to send to take our n turn of 
their contribution in good part. We now and then receive 
letters of complaint, sometimes of indignant complaint, from 
subscribers whose contributions we have had to return un- 
used. We must therefore qualify our general invitation 
by saying, that, glad as we are to receive such help from all 
sides, we do not invite it from persons who are not willing 
to leave us the option of declining it, and without offence, 
if we do- not find it suited to our purpose. To agree that 
subscription to our paper, or other favors, should confer a 
right of representation in its pages, would be to abdicate the 
editorial function altogether. Our friends will certainly not 
wish to deprive us of the semblance of authority, when we 
cannot divest ourselves- of responsibility. It is the aim 

JANUARY 19, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


and expectation of any journal to render in itself an equiva- 
lent for its subscription - price : without this expectation, 
it would be unreasonable to ask for subscribers. Those of 
our friends who give assistance other than their subscriptions 
will give it, we are assured, from interest in the cause we rep- 
resent, the support and improvement of our profession and 
its allied arts, not as a favor to the editors or the publish- 
ers, and therefore not as involving a right of control over 
them, for that is what a right to insert contributions must 
really imply. An editor must perhaps resign himself to en- 
counter now and then those who find an affront in the return 
of their contributions, or even make it the occasion for an 
accusation of favoritism. But they know little of his posi- 
tion, who are not aware that it is one of its chief gratifica- 
tions to discover new contributors, as it is one of its chief 
surprises to learn how many people there arc to whom it is 
incredible that an editor could by any honest possibility fail 
to admire their productions, or to find them useful. 

For ourselves, we are as far as possible from claiming 
infallibility, or from supposing that we do not make mistakes. 
The gradations about any line of selection are necessarily 
close, and it cannot be supposed that different people would 
quite agree concerning them, nor can we hope to altogether 
avoid errors of judgment. Nevertheless, selection is an 
absolute necessity ; and we may say frankly that we believe 
our faults to have been on the side of acceptance rather 
than of rejection.- This is not an inviting topic, and we do 
not propose to continue it, but only to assure our friends that 
we mean to be impartial ; that we wish to make our paper as 
good as we can, an object which is of more importance 
than any personal favor, and that it is always a satisfac- 
tion to an editor to welcome a new contributor, a satisfac- 
tion which is more likely to lead him into errors of leniency 
than is any personal admiration to mislead him into exclu- 



IN the last paper we considered the phenomena of perspective 
in nature ; that is to say, certain appearances of the geometrical 
lines and surfaces with which perspective has to do. 

Let us now leaving till another day all question of magni- 
tudes and of the exact determination of forms consider in like 
manner the principal phenomena, the main characteristics, of a 
perspective drawing. 

In so doing we will leave all quantitative determinations till by 
and by, and assume, or guess at, any dimensions or other data 
we may need; or determine them by judgment, or by the eye. 
But as this is just the way that such data are always determined 
when sketching either from nature or from the imagination, it fol- 
lows that these considerations are specially interesting to the artist 
and the amateur, since they comprise almost every thing that he 
needs in his own work. 

16. The picture is supposed to be drawn upon a plane surface 
called the plane of the picture, and so drawn that if the picture 
were transparent, every point and line of the drawing would 
cover and coincide with the corresponding points and lines of the 
objects represented, as seen from a given position, the station 
point ; the plane of the picture being at a given distance and in a 
given direction. 

17. The distance and direction of the picture are taken upon 
a line passing through the station point, at right angles with the 
plane of the picture. This line is of course an axis of that plane 
(1). It is called the Axis. If the Axis is horizontal, the picture is 
vertical, and this is the usual position. 15ut if the Axis is inclined 
to the horizontal plane, the plane of the picture is at an angle 
with the vertical direction, as sometimes happens. 

18. The point in the plane of the picture nearest to the eye, or 
Station point, S, is called the Centre of the picture, C. It is the 
point where the Axis pierces it. The distance from the station 
point to the Centre is the length of the Axis. 

19. The representation in a perspective drawing of a point, or 
line, or of the vanishing point of a line or system of lines, or of 
the vanishing trace, or horizon, of a plane or system of planes, is 
called the perspective of the point, or line, or vanishing point, or 

Figure 1 represents the picture-plane, PP, as a transparent plane 
on which are drawn the perspectives of the lines behind it. The 
perspectives of the lines drawn on the vertical plane behind it, and 
which are consequently parallel to the plane of the picture, are 
parallel to the lines themselves, whether horizontal, vertical, or 
inclined, and though shorter, they are divided proportionally to 
them. The lines in the planes at right angles to the plane of the 

picture, however, appear changed both in magnitude and direction. 
This illustrates the following propositions. 


Tia. t. 

20. Lines parallel to the picture-plane, whatever their direction, 
have their perspectives drawn parallel to themselves; that is, in 
their real direction. The magnitude of the perspective of any 
such line is less than that of the real line, according as the dis- 
tance of the line itself from the picture is greater, but its parts 
are proportional to the corresponding parts of the line represented. 

21. When such lines belong to the same system of parallel lines 
they have their perspectives parallel to each other, and to the 
lines themselves. 

22. The perspectives of lines not parallel to the plane of the 
picture are not parallel to the lines themselves, nor to each other, 
but are drawn converging towards a point which is the perspective 
of their vanishing point. In this case, as the real lines seem to 
converge towards their real vanishing point, so their perspective 
representations do converge towards the perspective of their van- 
ishing point. 

23. Hence if the picture-plane be vertical, as it usually is, the 
perspective of the horizontal lines that are parallel to tlie plane of 
the picture will be horizontal and parallel, that of inclined lines par- 
allel to the picture will be parallel and inclined at the same angle 
with the lines themselves, and that of all vertical lines will be 
drawn vertical and parallel. All other systems of lines will have 
their perspectives converging to the perspective of their vanishing 

24. Of the two vanishing points belonging' to every svstem of 
lines (5) one will, in general, be behind the spectator, and one ill 
front of him ; this last will be behind the plane of the picture, 
and its perspective will be somewhere in the plane of the picture, 
and at a finite distance. But if the lines of the system in question 
be parallel to the plane of the picture, the perspective of both 
vanishing points will be at an infinite distance upon it, in opposite 
directions ; and lines drawn to them will, of course, be parallel. 

25. It is often asked why the apparent convergence of vertical 
lines is not represented by the convergence of their perspectives, 
just as much as that of horizontal lines. It is, just as much. For 
it is only those horizontal Hues which are inclined to the picture 
whose perspectives are drawn to a vanishing point. The perspec- 
tives of lines parallel to the picture are drawn parallel to them- 
selves, just as those of vertical lines are. And when the Axis is 
inclined so that the plane of the picture is no longer vertical, and 
vertical lines are no longer parallel to it, they, too, are drawn con- 
verging, one of their vanishing points, either the zenith or nadir, 
being now behind the picture, and its perspective at a finite dis- 
tance upon it. 

This case will be discussed hereafter. 

26. Moreover, although lines parallel to the picture, whether 
vertical, horizontal, or inclined, do seem to converge towards a dis- 
tant vanishing point just as other lines do, it is not necessary to 
represent this convergence, since their perspective representations 
in the plane of the picture also seem to converge as they recede 
from the eye, and in the same degree, covering and coinciding with 
them. The perspective lines are themselves foreshortened and 
the space between them diminished by distance. 

27. To obtain this effect, however, in due degree, as, indeed, to 
obtain the just value of all other perspective effects, the eye of the 
spectator must remain at the station point. From other points 
the picture necessarily looks inexact or distorted. These distor- 
tions increase from the centre outward ; and since it is so incon- 
venient as to be practically impossible to keep the eye always at 
the station point, it is best, in order to keep this distortion within 
reasonable limits, not to extend the picture more than 60, i.e., not 
to make it wider than its distance from the eye. 

Some other phenomena relating to perspective drawings are 
represented in Figure 2 (Plate I.). 

In this plate, though a variety of objects are indicated, only one 
direction of each kind is employed. All the right-hand horizon- 
tal lines belong to a single system, and all the left-hand lines to 
another. This of course would not happen to this extent in nature ; 
but we have imagined, for simplicity's sake, that in the scene rep- 
resented all the buildings are parallel, and that all the roofs are of 
the same pitch. 

The Centre of the picture, C, the point nearest the eye and oppo- 
site the station point, S, is here not exactly in the middle of the pic- 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 108. 

ture, but considerably to tho right, being just below the church on 
the hill. The station point is about six inches from the paper; 
and the eye must of course occupy this position in order to make 
the things represented appear of their proper shape and size. 
This picture subtends an angle of more than 80. 

28. In this plate, the following notation is adopted, a notation 
that will be adhered to throughout these papers. Each direction 
is indicated by a single letter, the direction of each system of 
planes by two letters, which give the direction of two elements of 
the system ; each vanishing point by the letter V, with the letter 
denoting the direction of the lines to which it belongs written 
after it ; and the trace of each set of planes by the letter T, and 
the letters denoting the plane. 


Lines. Their Direction. Their Vanishing Points. 

Z. Vertical. (To the zenith, or [V 1 ] Vanishing point of vertical lines. 


R. Right hand horizontal. V* " " " Right hor. lines, 

[i.e. .horizontal lines going off to the right.] 

L. Left band horizontal. V 1 - 

M. Right hand inclined upwards. V 

M'. " " " downwards. V 

N. Left '* *' upwards. V* 

N"'. " " " downwards. V"' 

P, Q I ( Inclined lines formed by the V , V" ] 

P', Q' ! I intersection of planes. V", V' ] 

Left " 

Right incl. 

Left incl. 

( Lines of 
t Intersection. 

If there are several lines having the same general inclination 
they may be distinguished by figures, as R 1 , R 2 , II 3 , etc. Special 
vanishing points may be indicated as V 1 , V 2 , V 8 , etc. 

Planes. Their Direction. Their Vanishing Traces. 

RZ. [Any plane of the system which con- TRZ. Trace of the right-hand vertical 

tains, or is parallel to R and Z, planes. 

i.e., right-hand vertical planes.] 

LZ. To Land Z, i.e., left-hand vertical TLZ. Trace of the left-hand vertical 

planes. planes. 

RL. To R and L, i.e., horizontal planes. TRL. Trace of horizontal planes (i.e., 


RX. To Rand N," Inclined up to the left. TRX. Trace of the planes RX. 

RX'. To U and N' " " down" " TRX'. " " " EX'. 

LM. To L and M, " " up " right. TLM. " " " LM. 

LM'. To L and M' " " down" " TLM'. " " " LM'. 

29. Tho position of the various vanishing points, as well as the 
dimensions of tho various objects, aro supposed to be obtained, in 
this picture, as they would be obtained in a sketch from nature, 
or from the imagination. 

If we placo the eye at the station point, and look in the direc- 
tion followed by a system of lines, we shall see their vanishing 
point (8) ; and if the picture is supposed to be interposed wo 
shall see the perspective of the vanishing point in the same direc- 
tion, covering the real vanishing-point. Hence the perspective of 
the vanishing point of any system of linos is found by passing 
through the station point an element of that system. The point 
where it pierces the picture-plane is the perspective of the vanish- 
ing point of the system, coinciding with and covering the real 
vanishing point. 

30. As M and 51' are equally inclined to the horizontal plane, 
one looks up towards V" at exactly the same angle that he looks 
down towards V M/ . V M is accordingly just as far above the Hori- 
zon as V M/ is below it. 

The same is true of V s and V s '. But although M and N make 
the same angle with the ground, the distance of their vanishing 
points above the Horizon is not the same. For the eye at S, six 
inches in front of C, is further from V L than from V, L being 
less inclined to the plane of the picture than R is. Looking up, 
then, at the same angle, though the eye sees the real left-hand 
upper vanishing point at the same height as the right-hand one 
above the real Horizon, it sees its perspective, V s , higher up on 
the paper. 

31. In like manner the perspective of the trace of a plane or of 
a system of planes is found by passing through the station point 
an element of the system. The line where it intersects the plane 
of the picture is the perspective of the trace, or horizon, of the 
system of planes. 

For if the eye is at the station point, and glances along the ele- 
ment of the system passing through it, it will see the trace upon 
the plane of the picture covering and coinciding with the distant 
trace or horizon. 

32. And as the horizon of a system of planes passes through the 
vanishing points of all the lines that lie in it or are parallel to it, 

so do the perspectives of all such lines have their point of conver- 
gence or vanishing point in this trace. 

33. The propositions 12 a, b, c, d, e, are thus as true for the per- 
spectives in the plane of the picture as for the real lines and 
planes, vanishing points and horizons, as is exemplified over and 
over again in this plate. All the traces shown pass through sev- 
eral vanishing points, and every vanishing point lies in the trace 

of some system of planes. Every line which lies in two planes, 
as most of these lines do, has its vanishing point in both traces, 
that is, at their intersection ; and the traces of all the planes par- 
allel to any one of these lines meet at its vanishing point. 

34. It is specially to be noted that the lines of the hips and 
valleys lying at the intersection of two planes of the roofs have 
their vanishing points at the intersection of the traces of these 

Thus the lines P, P', Q, and Q', being at the intersection, re- 
spectively, of RN and LM, RN' and LM', RN and LM', and RN' 
and LM, we have V p at the intersection of TRN and TLM. 
V p/ " " TRN' " TLM'. 

V " >> TRN " TLM'. 

y/ TRN' " TLM. 

V", the vanishing point of Q, is off the paper, being at the in- 
tersection of the traces TRN and TLM' ; and so in like manner 
is that of Q' at the intersection of TRN' and TLM. 

On most of the roofs the planes LM' and RN', being on the 
further side, are out of sight. But the roof in the extreme fore- 
ground shows all four slopes. It has accordingly been selected for 

35. This plate shows also that if the picture is vertical the trace 
of a vertical plane, such as LZ or RZ, is a vertical line. For it 
must pass through the vanishing point, Vz, of the vertical lines 
that lie in it, and this point is tho infinitely distant zenith. 

Besides, it is the line in which that plane of the system which 
passes through the eye intersects the plane of the picture ; and 
as both these planes are vertical their intersection must be ver- 

30. Hence the hips and valleys, PP', which lie in parallel verti- 
cal planes, and accordingly have their vanishing points V p V' in 
tho trace of the system to which those planes belong, lie in a ver- 
tical line, one exactly above the other. As P and P' are equally 
inclined to the horizontal plane, V and V', as well as V M and 
V 1 ", or V s and V x ', are equally distant from the Horizon. These 
relations are indeed sufficiently obvious from the symmetry of the 

The vertical trace TPP' is not shown in the plate. 

37. The proposition that all lines lying in a plane have their 
vanishing points somewhere in the trace of that plane receives spe- 
cial illustration in the case of the paths which cross the flat open 
space beyond the railroad; being level, they have their vanishing 
points on the horizon, one at V, others at V s and V 2 . The lad- 
der lying on the roof to the right has the vanishing point of its 
sides, which aro supposed to be made parallel, at V 1 in the trace 
of the plane of the roof, TRN'. 

This proposition is very serviceable in putting in any parallel 
lines on any plane, as, for instance, in drawing the diagonal lines 
of slating on the roof to the left, tho vanishing points being shown 
at V* and V s in the trace of LM, the plane of the roof. 

38. This plate illustrates also the proposition (12) that in the case 
of solid objects the plane surfaces by which they are bounded are 
visible only on the sides towards their traces, or horizons; they are 
visible only when they are, so to speak, below their horizons. We 
see in the plate that the roof most nearly below the eye, being 
below all the horizons, shows all its slopes, and so does the next one 
to the left. In all the others, one, two, or three planes disappear, 
as they are above their traces ; until at last in the case of the church 
on the top of the hill, which is above all the traces, all the roofs are 
out of sight. One of the houses in the fort on the lower hill shows 
the roof LM just disappearing, the lines L and M both coinciding 
with the horizon TLM. 

39. It is to be observed that these traces, being portions of great 
circles, do not terminate at the vanishing points by which their 
position is determined, but pass through and beyond them. 

40. The perspective of a line or of a point is often called a 
perspective line or point, or when speaking of the picture, simply 
a line or point. But in this last case, to avoid confusion of mind, 
one must be careful to notice whether the real line or point and 
the infinitely distant vanishing point are spoken of, or their rep- 
resentations in the plane of the picture. 

So in speaking of the trace or horizon of a system of planes, 
one must be careful to notice whether the infinitely distant line, 
or the line in the picture which covers, and to the eye coincides 
with it, is intended. It might be well for distinction's sake, to 
call the former, or distant imaginary line, the horizon of the 
system of planes ; and the latter, or line where the plane passing 
through the eye cuts the picture, its trace. 


THE corner-stone of St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, was laid 
Aug. 15, 1858, by Archbishop Hughes, in the presence of over one 
hundred thousand persons. It stands on the highest point of 
Fifth Avenue, below the Park, and occupies the whole block 
bounded by Fifth and Madison Avenues, Fiftieth and Fifty-first 
Streets. The site is rocky, the bed-rock extending in some parts 
up to the surface, and necessitated much blasting. The founda- 
tions are in blue gneiss in very large blocks laid in cement mortar; 


rg). 18) A.IHIHJDtSBBaBSg3L-3i 






19, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


above the ground-lino, the first base course within and without 
the building is in Dix Island granite; above this the whole exte- 
rior is iu white marble from quarries at Pleasantvillc, Westchester 
County, N.Y., and at Lee, Mass. The walls are built with air- 
spaces and backed with selected hard brick ; and up to this time 
not a single crack or settlement has been detected. The design is 
in the decorated or geometric style of Gothic architecture, of 
which the Cathedrals of Rhciins, Amiens, and Cologne and the 
naves of York Minster, Westminster and Exeter, are examples. 
The ground-plan is in the form of the Latin cross, with nave, 
choir or sanctuary, and transepts, the nave and aisles being sepa- 
rated by thirty-two clustered columns in white marble. The gen- 
eral dimensions are : Interior length 300 feet; breadth of nave and 
choir 00 feet exclusive of the chapels, and 120 feet with these in- 
cluded; length of transept 1-10 feet, of which the central aisle is 
48 feet wide and 108 feet high; width of side aisles 24 feet, and 
height 54 feet. The ceilings are in plaster, ribbed, with rich 
bosses of foliage at the intersections of the groins, and the capitals 
of the nave and clere-story columns are similarly built up in plas- 
ter ; a triforium gallery is carried around the nave and along the 

The principal front is on Fifth Avenue, and as will be seen is a 
central gable, with a tower and spire on each side. The gable is 
15G feet in height, and the tower-spires each 330 feet. The grand 
doorway has its jambs richly decorated with columns with foliated 
capitals. The thickness of the wall here is 12 feet G inches, and 
the whole depth of the doorway is incrusted with marble. It is 
intended to place the statues of the twelve Apostles in rich taber- 
nacles of white marble in the jambs of the portal. The width of 
the opening is 30 feet and its height 51 feet; a transom richly 
decorated with foliated carving crosses it at the spring of the arch, 
while a traceried window fills the tympanum. The gablet over 
the main portal is filled with tracery, and has a shield bearing the 
diocesan arms in the central panel. The label over the gable is 
crocketed with a running design of intertwined grape-vine and 
morning-glory, with a very beautiful finial. The door is flanked on 
either side by buttresses v.hich terminate in panelled pinnacles, 
and between "these and the tower buttresses are niches for statues. 
The horizontal balustrade over the first story is of pierced tracery. 
Over this and across the face of the whole gable is a row of niches 
7 feet inches high, for statues. These'niches arc very richly dec- 
orated with capitals and gables, with tracery and finials, and are to 
be filled with figures of martyrs. Above this row is the great win- 
dow, the head of which is filled by a magnificent rose-window 20 
feet in diameter, filled with a design in stone tracery. Above this 
window the main gable is carried up to the roof-lines, and is 
veiled by a pierced screen of rich tracery terminated by a labcl,cor- 
nice, crocketed. The crockets are designed upon the passion-flower, 
flowing up and intwining a cross bearing an emblem of the Sacred 
Heart at the intersection. The towers are 3J feet square at the 
base exclusive of the buttresses, and maintain the square form for 
a height of 130 feet, where they change to octagonal lanterns 54 
feet high, and then come the spires 140 feet in height. The towers 
are divided into three stories : in the first are the doorways, corre- 
sponding in style with the central doorway, with crocketed gablets, 
having tracery and shields containing the arms of the United 
States and of the State of New York, over which are balustrades 
of pierced tracery. In the second story are windows with tracery 
and moulded jambs corresponding with the rose-window. The 
third story will have four small windows on each side, and will be 
terminated by a label mould, cornice, and pierced battlement. 
The towers are flanked by massive buttresses which are decorated 
with tabernacles at each offset, and will be terminated by clus- 
tered pinnacles which will join the buttresses of the octagonal 
lanterns over the towers. The lanterns will have windows with 
tracery on each side, with gables and tracery over, the whole 
terminated by cornices and pierced battlements. The spires will 
be octagonal and will be divided into two stories. The first story 
will have rich mouldings at the angles, and the faces panelled 
with traceries. The second story will be moulded and panelled 
like the first, and end in a rich finial carrying the terminal crosses 
which will be of copper. 

The first stories of the towers serve as vestibules from Fifth 
Avenue. Circular stone staircases are carried up in the buttresses 
of the towers to the organ-loft and upper stories of the tower, also 
to the triforium. A chime of bells will be placed in the third 
story of the towers, 110 feet above the level of the street. These 
bells are those which were rung at Machinery .Hall at the Centen- 
nial Exhibition. 

The side aisles of the nave are divided into five bays, each bay 
pierced by a window 13 feet G inches wide, and 27 feet high, which 
is divided into three parts by mullions and whose tympana are 
filled in with tracery. The transept fronts are divided into a cen- 
tral portion, 48 feet wide and 170 feet high to the top of the crosses 
of the gables and two side portions. In the centre of these facades 
arc portals corresponding to those of the front. Over each door is 
a large window. These two windows are 28 feet wide by 58 feet 
high, and are divided into six bays. The heads are filled in with 
rich decorated tracery. A row of niches crosses each transept at 
the line of the eaves, and above this the gable is richly panelled. 

The clere-story which rises 38 feet above the side aisle roofs, and 

104 feet above the ground-line to the eaves, is divided into six bays 
in the nave, and two in either transept ; three bays in the sanctu- 
ary on either side, and five in the apse, which is a half-doc'agon in 
plan. The bays are divided by buttresses which terminate in grand 
pinnacles rising 30 feet above the eaves ; each bay is pierced by a 
window 14 feet G inches by 2G feet high in four bays by ribbed 
mullions. These windows are surmounted by panelled gables with 
traceries, and the walls between the gables and pinnacles are fin- 
ished by pierced battlements. The roofs of the nave and side aisles 
will be slated, and the nave roof will have a cresting 5 feet G inches 
high, with a finial over the intersection of the nave and transepts 
15 feet high ; at the east end over the apse will be an ornamental 
cross 13 feet high. 

It had been the intention of the architect, Mr. Ilenwick, to put 
in a ceiling of brick vaulting, with stone ribs* and to resist the 
thrust, flying buttresses had been provided for without. With the 
putting in of the plaster ceiling, these flying buttresses were 
omitted, and the pinnacles shown upon the buttress piers were 
dropped down to the level of the aisle cornice. In looking at the 
illustration this change must be allowed for. The cathedral has a 
real triforium, a spacious passage, extending along either side of 
the nave, and down the transepts as well. Here will be placed the 
coils of steam-pipe to assist in warming the church by creating an 
upper stratum of warm air, and preventing any downward draughts 
of cold air from the clere-story windows. Over the triforium 
arcades the side walls are built in an artificial stone, harmoniz- 
ing very well in tint with the real marble-work. The windows 
throughout will be double glazed, and no small amount of care 
has been taken to make them the best stained glass windows 
in this country. The nave clere-story windows are in mosaic, by 
Morgan Brothers, as is also the great rose-window in the front 
gable. Some of the finished windows representing the imported 
work were shown at the Centennial Exhibition, and, from the 
windows now in place in the cathedral, give promise that when 
finished the effect will be very rich. The north transept window 
is by Nicholas Lorin of Chartrcs, and portrays the life of the- 
Virgin. In the south transept window, the life of St. Patrick is 
shown in a scries of mosaics by Henry Ely of Nantes. The flank- 
ing windows in the north transept are St. Augustine and St. 
Monica (Ely), and Paul at Athens (Lorin). In the south transept, 
the windows are the Sacred Heart (Ely), and St. Louis with the 
Crown of Thorns (Lorin). About the apse and choir, the clere- 
story windows are all by Lorin, and run as follows : South side, 

1, Sacrifice of Abraham; 2, Aaron; 3, the New Law. Apsidal 
windows, 1, Disciples at Emmaus; 2, the Key to Peter ; 3, the Res- 
urrection ; 4, the. Communion ; 5, Lazarus. North side, 1, Abel ; 

2, Noah; 3, Mclchisedcc. The five windows of the north aisle 
are, the Three Baptisms (Ely), St. Columba (Lorin), the Chris- 
tian Brotherhood (Lorin), Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (Lorin), 
and St. Bernard preaching to the Crusaders (Lorin). North tran- 
sept, St. Patrick (Lorin), St. Mark (Ely), St. Matthew (Ely). 
North side of sanctuary,' St. Anne (Lorin), Adoration of the 
Magi (Lorin), and one vacancy. The five windows of the south 
aisle are, starting from the front, St. Vincent de Paul (Ely), St. 
Elizabeth, St. Andrew, and St. Catherine (Lorin), The Annuncia- 
tion (Lorin), St. Henry (Lorin), Proclamation of the Immaculata 
Conception (Lorin). South transept, St. Charles Borromeo (Ely), 
St. Luke (Ely), St. John (Ely). South side of sanctuary. St. 
Agnes, St. James, and St. Thomas (Ely), and two vacancies. 
All these windows are the gifts of either individuals, corporations, 
or dioceses. 

The high altar will be placed on the chord line of the apse, about 
twelve feet from the easterly end of the building. The table of 
the altar is of white marble, and is divided into niches and panels 
on the face, the niches filled with figures, and the panels with bas- 
reliefs of the Saviour's life. The tabernacle over the altar will be 
of marble, decorated with Roman mosaics and precious stones, and 
will have a door of gilt bronze. The base of the reredos behind 
the altar will be of white marble nine feet high, with moulded 
bases of colored marble, and the whole front is laid with a diaper- 
work of alabaster. The screen above has a central tower with col- 
ond columns, tabernacles, statues, and rich foliage, above which 
rises a pierced spire of open tracery, surmounted by a gilt cross. 
The two flanks have niches with colored columns and gablets, 
with statues of St. Peter and St. Paul in them ; over these the side 
towers are also crowned with pierced spires of open tracery work. 
The spaces between the central and two corner towers are divided 
into six niches, containing angel figures, bearing shields with 
emblems of the Saviour's passion, and terminating in pierced gab- 
lets. The total height of the reredos is fifty feet, and the work 
upon it is now completed at Rome, Italy, and at St. Briene iu 
France. Its entire cost will be $35,000. The bishop's throne is 
also of marble, with a tabernacle of the same material, and is a 
most careful piece of carving. 

The general effect on entering the nave from the main entrance 
is very striking, the height to the ceiling being particularly 
noticeable. The double line of windows in the apse looks rather 
broken. The floor will be laid in tessellated work ; and though it 
was at first intended to avoid the cumbering of the interior with 
pews, it has lately been decided to fit up such sittings in ash. The 
space between the main buttresses on the outside has been used 


The American Architect and Building Netvs, 

[VOL. III. No. 108. 

for confessional alcoves, opening into the aisles beneath each aisle- 
window, five on each side the church. How many millions will be 
spent on the structure before its completion, it is almost impossible 
to say ; nor would it be at all safe to fix the date of completion. 
An arch-episcopal residence and a number of other buildings are to 
be built in connection with it; but on work has yet been 
done. Since 1853, when the first sketches for the structure were 
made, the work has gone on faster or slower, as the funds in hand 




For explanation of this cut, see the preceding article, " Papers on 


[A paper by Mr. A. F. Onkcy, A. T. A, read at the Eleventh Annual Convention of 
the American 'institute of Architects.] 

So many eminent authors have written on this subject, that it 
would seem little remains to be said; and yet I think that a care- 
ful comparison of the views of the best authors naturally suggests 
a conclusion that I find, whether intentionally or not, omitted, or 
rather not developed, in any of them. 

Mr. Fcrgusson says that a new style is to be found in a develop- 
ment of the Italian Renaissance, that no progress is possible in 
Gothic or Greek, and further, that archaeology is not architecture ; 
while Mr. Garbett, condemning the servile copyist, as strongly 
points to the possibility of a new style in the one constructive 
principle that lias never yet controlled a style, i. e. " the Tensile." 
lie believes that the Depressile and the Comjiressile have been ex- 
hausted, and that a system embodying '-the Tensile," together 
wilh a generalized imitation of nature, is the goal we seek. 
Guillaume agrees with Fergusson in the main, but looks for no 
change till architects are guided by science more than tradition. 

Much has been written by other distinguished professors, but in 
these three we have the sense of the discussion in its latest stage. 
I have looked in vain in the works of these authors, and in those 
of many others, for a statement or suggestion of a theory whose 
apparently unconscious corroboration has been, in Mr. Fergusson's 
case at least, the work of his life. I cannot read his history with- 
out being struck with the completeness of the evolution its pages 
record : there is no missing link in this work of nature ; for I 
must believe architecture, as an expression of the longings and 
aspirations of physical and intellectual man, the work of nature 
as actually as any thing Mr. Huxley can enlighten us upon. 

Until the fifteenth century, neither the whims of this or that 
architect or client, nor the accumulated traditional pedantry of 
either or both, could avail against the natural growth of forms 
born of bodily needs or religious superstition. The changes that 
were made from time to time, owing to climatical influences, or 
as the result of political or religious revolution, were as naturally 
consequent as the changes in the structure and exuberance of a 
vegetable when transplanted, or by treatment brought to a high 
state of cultivation. The cultivation must be in the right direc- 
tion, the inherent and essential qualities of the plant must be cul- 
tivated, or the species dies out, and we have nothing left but the 
chromo in the book to record how beautiful a flower it once bore. 

Why do we need now what the world never desired before ? 
Why are we divided to-day between the revivalists and the nov- 
elty-hunters ? and this last occupation the lowest incentive to 
architectural I might say all effort. On the one hand, are 
we to accept the conclusions of the fifteenth century as final in 
architecture more than in astronomy ? and on the other, is there 
not an inherent fitness in things in form, consistency, and expres- 
sion, that absolves us from any responsibility as to their age or 

The answers to these questions are not in favor of tin gargoyles, 
or in fact constructive lies of any kind. As Sir Joshua Reynolds 
says : ' The natural appetite of the human mind is for truth, 
whether that truth results from the real agreement or equality of 
original ideas among themselves, or of the representation of any 
object with the thing represented, or from the correspondence of 
the several parts of any arrangement with each other. It is the 
very same taste which relishes a demonstration in geometry, that 
is pleased with the resemblance of a picture to an original, and 
touched with the harmony of music." And again, what he says 
of other arts could well include architecture : " On the whole, it 
seems to me that there is but one presiding principle which regu- 
lates and gives stability to any art. The works, whether of poets, 
amters, moralists, or historians, which are built upon general 
iture, live forever ; while those which depend for existence on 
particular customs and habits, a partial view of nature, or the 
fluctuation of fashion, can only be coeval with that which fint 
raised them from obscurity." 

In what I have quoted, has not Sir Joshua said enough to cover 
the whole field of art? and yet we continue to this day to waste 
our clients' money in tessellated towers and the like conceits, as if 
we expected to be undermined by our neighbors, and to be con- 
sistent with which scenic representations, we should go masquer- 
ading in shapes with chain-armor under our doublets. 

To offset these archaeological reversions we have the provincial 
builder with his jig-saw and his balloon frame ; and we find our- 
selves admiring the progress of the engineer as the only worker 
in the field who has thought for himself, accepted the limitations 
of his problems, and.,met them with ingenuity: only his lack of 
artistic training enables us to find a living in our practice, unless 
we are content only to be called upon to minister to the unneces- 
sary and luxurious evidences of civilizations, and to take no part in 
the development that will go on. whether we move with it or not. 

It seems to me that Mr. Garbett is nearer the truth with his 
development of the Tensile system, than Mr. Fergusson with his 
Italian Renaissance; for this principle already shows its influence 
strongly in all our utilitarian work, i.e., work in which the 
requirements must be met without regard to expression ; and 
does not the expression follow inevitably ? 

Why should we discard the " Deprcssile " and " Campressile," 
simply because there is little room for invention in their applica- 
tion ? Ought we not rather be glad that the earth's surface 
abounds with the truest examples to guide us in our work ? It is 
no argument against a composite system of construction, that we 
have no precedents : we are in no sense bound to adhere to the 
peculiarities of any age. 

The question must always be one of the best means to an end ; 
and if the end is reached the means excuse themselves, especially 
as they are so bound up in it as to make it impossible to achieve 
a satisfactory result with insufficient means. Why have wo not 
the courage to think for ourselves, and, when we are asked in what 
stylo have we expressed our thoughts, to answer that we do not 
think it necessary to classify and ticket every thing, to name in 
one word an ever-varying system that eludes such an attempt ? 

The Eastlake style, forsooth, is even now a recognized term ; and 
yet it would puzzle the quill-drivers, or any one else, to say in 
what it consists.- I like the old English definition of architec- 
ture : " the art of well building; " and what is not well and truly 
built does not deserve the name. This, it seems to me, is all with 
which we have to concern ourselves, to study each problem by 
itself ; and, having met the requirements in plan, as we build 
up upon it, who shall hold us responsible for our style, if every 
purpose that was intended is served by ingenious, constructive 
economy ? 

_ I do not wish to inveigh against suitable and necessary decora- 
tion, necessary as regards the phonetic expression of a design ; 
but I can see no reason for reviving the mediaeval, grotesque, or 
shutting fair daylight out of a building where light is a desidera- 
tum, because we have precedents for these dispositions. And 
there's the rub: Have we precedents for any such thing? No 
more than we have precedents for stone spires made of wood. 
If there is one fact connected with the examples we blindly imi- 
tated, it is that they were built for purposes which they fulfilled ; 
and there is ample internal evidence that their designers would 
have treated our problems in an entirely different way. 

Because our ancestors were fortunate enough to unearth the 
classic poets, and unfortunate enough to consider it necessary to 
revert in every thing to the classic type, we have been obliged to 
go all over that old ground ; and it is not our fault if wo have not 
repeated every vagary of every decline until wo find ourselves 
where we started. Now that it has taken all these centuries to 
find the road we have strayed from, are we going to wander 
round 'the monuments of past ages, rhapsodizing this or that 
detail that has lost its significance in our day, ignoring the great 
principles that could lead us on, and mumbling about a new 
style ? No man or whole professional brotherhood can saddle the 
world with what it does not need to satisfy its utilitarian ends 
or its religious thought ; and it is worse than idle to grumble 
at the sway of the mighty dollar, to give as an excuse for con- 
structive lies, the reason that the money was not forthcoming to 
pay for a real stone vault or flying-buttress. If the stone vault 
bad been necessary, the money would have been forthcoming. 
The mighty dollar is the power of our age, and a power that 
places every process and every material within our reach if we 
would only avail ourselves of our opportunities. 

The underlying principles that enabled the mediaeval architects 
;o command our admiration and respect are as true to-day as they 
were then, and it is only by their application to our needs that we 
can achieve as grand results as ever expressed by the political or 
religious civilization of any people ; while we have the incentive 
of making our achievements forever stepping-stones for future 
generations in search not of a new style, but of truth. 

CAST-IKON GLAZED TILES. The Deutsche All;/emeine Zeitunrj 
says, At the iron-works of Groeditz, near Riesa, Germany, glazed 
cast-iron tiles for roofing are now made. They are not heavier than 
ordinary tiles, and are very strong. The railroad depots of Loebau 
and of Rcichenbach, and many private houses of Hamburg and 
Dresden, are roofed with them. 

JANUARY 19, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 



EVERY one who is interested in sanitary matters, and there are 
few who are not, will rejoice that a prospect is now open to them 
of being able to learn something of the experience of others in 
matters of plumbing and drainage, which shall be applicable to 
our own climate and circumstances, without undertaking the costly 
private experiments by which most of us have learned the difficul- 
ties of adapting to this region the sanitary systems and apparatus 
so enticingly described in the English books, which have been 
hitherto almost our only text-books. 

To take a single example : how many American architects have 
read with joy tho descriptions of the Jennings water-closet, think- 
ing that at last the specific for their troubles in that department 
was found, and hastened to include it in their next plumbing 
specification : how many have stood by in dismay when the work 
was done, to see the water of its own accord alternately fill the 
bowl and siphon out, two gallons at a time, until the tank was 
exhausted ? What consolation to be told by the plumber that 
they "always did so ; " and when we humbly inquired of his supe- 
rior experience what he considered the best thing of the kind, to 
hear that nothing had yet been invented so good as the familiar 
old abomination V 

The plumber was wrong, as we should have learned on a second 
trial ; but the most enthusiastic architect gets shy of experiment- 
ing either with his own or other people's money. 

Now, however, in the pages of a neat sixteen-page monthly jour- 
nal 1 we are to have an opportunity of relating our own mishaps, 
and learning wisdom from those of others, as well as of receiving 
instruction, not only from the best authorities in theoretical sani- 
tary science, but from practical plumbers and gas-fitters, in 
branches of house construction which are at once so difficult and 
so important to understand as plumbing and pipe-fitting. 

The first numbers are so good that it makes us anxious, thinking 
that the succeeding ones cannot possibly be equal to the first. We 
have the beginning of a series of scientific papers by C'ol. George 
E. Waring, jun. ; a short article on bath-boilers, which contains in 
a column more information on that mysterious subject than can be 
gleaned from hundreds of pages of ordinary books on sanitary 
science; and a sensible communication on that hardly less myste- 
rious subject, gas-fitting; while a few but important lines on 
damaged waste-pipes throw a flood of light on the murderous 
work which has been going on in some of "our Boston houses. It 
has a refreshingly practical sound to hear, after learning that the 
cracked and leaky waste-pipes rejected at the founderies have been 
extensively sold and put up in houses, that " if any of our Boston 
friends will take trouble to look through some of the speculation 
houses built in the South End and out Roxbury way, they may find 
a mile or so of this pipe," cemented over, and with traps, etc., all in 
good style for contract work. The editor remarks that most of the 
builders and plumbers concerned in such work have failed, but 
"very few," he fears, "have got into prison." He thinks the 
plumbers may inquire why he betrays their professional weak- 
nesses, and replies that he wishes to show the public why it costs 
more to do honest work than bad. 

We can give him a better excuse still, the interest of human- 
ity; and will add from our own knowledge, by way of commentary, 
that in one of these houses six persons died of zymotic disease, 
within one year. 

If such frankness would only last 1 

The managers promise not to sell their opinions or their columns ; 
but in these days of artful advertising the editor of such a paper 
must be a clear-headed and courageous man not to be entrapped or 
frightened away from his purpose, and it seems to us that his best 
friends ought to be the architects. They alone can speak with 
perfect impartiality of the sanitary experiments with which they 
have been concerned ; they have the best and most varied oppor- 
tunities for observing; and they are more interested than any 
others in learning the whole truth about the matters on which he 
proposes to furnish them information. Let him keep steadily in 
view his purpose of careful, accurate statement and fearless warn- 
ing ; and let us help him by such encouragement and criticism as 
we may, availing ourselves of his courtesy to share freely our own 
experience with others, and remembering that innocent lives 
depend upon the faithfulness with which we give and receive 
instruction in these matters, intrusted as they are by most clients, 
absolutely to our care. 


MR. GOLDWIN SMITH lately presented the prizes to the students 
of the Oxford School of Science and Art. He delivered an ad- 
dress, in the course of which he said : 

" America is supposed to be given over to ugliness. There are 
a good many ugly things there ; and the ugliest are the most pre- 
tentious. As it is in society, so it is in architecture : America is 
best when she is content to be herself. An American city, with 
its spacious streets, all planted with avenues of trees, its blocks of 
buildings, far from unimpeachable probably in detail, yet stately 

1 The Plumber and Sanitary Engineer, published monthly at SI 50 per year by 
the American Plumber rublisliing Company, No. 297 Pearl Street, New York. 

in the mass, its wide-spreading suburbs, where each artisan has 
his neat-looking house in his own plat of ground, with plenty of 
air and light and foliage, its countless church-towers and spires, 
not architecturally good but varying the outline, might not please 
a painter's eye ; but it fills your mind with a sense of well-re- 
warded industry, comfort, and even opulence, shared by the toiling 
many, a prosperous, law-loving, cheerful, and pious life. I can- 
not help fancying that Turner, whose genius got to the soul of 
every thing, would have made something even of an American 
city. The cities of the Middle Ages were picturesquely huddled 
within walls, for protection from the violence of the feudal era: 
the cities of the New World spread wide in the security of an age 
of law and a continent of peace. At Cleveland in Oliio there "is 
a great street, called Euclid Avenue, lined with villas, each stand- 
ing in its own grounds, and separated from each other and from 
the street only by a light iron fencing, instead of the high wall 
with which the true Briton shuts out his detested kind. The 
villas are not vast, or suggestive of overgrown plutocracy : they 
are suggestive of moderate wealth, pleasant summers, cheerful 
winters, and domestic happiness. I hardly think 'you would con- 
sider Euclid Avenue revolting. I say it with the diffidence of con- 
scious ignorance ; but I should not be much afraid to show you 
one or two buildings that our Professor of Architecture at Cornell 
University, Mr. Babcock, has put up for us over Cayuga Lake, on a 
site which you would certainly admit to be magnificent. If I could 
have ventured on any recommendation concerning art, I should 
have pleaded before the Commission for a professorship of archi- 
tecture here. It might endow us with some forms of beauty ; it 
might at all events endow us with rules for building a room in 
which you can be heard, one in which you can breathe, and a 
chimney which would not smoke. I said that in America the most 
pretentious buildings were the worst. Another source of failure 
in buildings, in dress, and not in these alone, is servile imitation 
of Europe. In Northern America the summer is tropical, the 
winter is arctic. A house ought to be regular and compact in 
shape, so as to be easily warmed from the centre, with a roof of 
simple construction, high-pitched to prevent the snow from lodg- 
ing, and large eaves to throw it off this for the arctic winter; 
for the tropical summer you want ample verandas, which, in fact, 
are the summer sitting-rooms. An American house built in this 
way is capable at least of the beauty which belongs to fitness. 
But as you see Parisian dresses under an alien sky, so you see 
Italian villas with excrescences which no stove can warm, and Tudor 
mansions with gables which hold all the snow. It is needless to 
say what is the result when the New World undertakes to repro- 
duce not only the architecture of the Old World, but that of 
classical Greece and Rome, or that of the Middle Ages. Jefferson, 
who was a classical republican, taught a number of his fellow- 
citizens to build their homes like Doric temples; and you may 
imagine what a Doric temple freely adapted to domestic purposes 
must be." The Architect. 


1877, Department No. 146, 
Secretary's Office. 

WASHINGTON, D.C., Dec. 81, 1377. 

THK following is based upon decision of the Supreme Court in 
the case of Hawkins vs. United States (No. 700 October term, 
1877); and publication is made for the information and guidance 
of officers in charge of public works, etc., under control of this 
Department, and all parties having, or seeking to have, dealings 
with the Department through such officers. 

I. When a service of a better or a higher grade than that 
required by contract is rendered upon the demand of a public 
agent, such demand being made upon an interpretation of the 
contract, the contractor can have no claim against the United 
States. Nor will notice given at the time to an unauthorized 
agent, of an intention to present a claim for additional allow- 
ance on account of such better service, change the rule. 

II. When a contractor holds himself not bound to a perform- 
ance which is sought to be required of him, he will immediately 
state his _ objections in writing to the agent in charge, who will 
forward it at once to the Department, with his report thereon, 
that the question may be decided by the proper authority. 

III. Claims for compensation on account of materials or ser- 
vices will not be considered unless they are founded in some 
agreement; and, when the agreement is claimed to have been 
entered into by an agent for or on behalf of the United States, it 
must be shown that lie had authority to make such agreement. 

IV. Verbal agreements between the parties to a written con- 
tract, made before or at the time of execution of the contract, are 
in general inadmissible to vary its terms or affect its construction ; 
the rule being, that all such verbal agreements are to be consid- 
ered as merged in the written instrument. Written contracts 
must therefore be held to express the intention of the parties at 
the time of contracting ; and their plain and reasonable construc- 
tion cannot be diminished or enlarged by verbal testimony in 
explanation of such intention. 

Neither can an implied promise exist with reference to any 
subject matter that is embraced in an express agreement. 

JOHN SHERMAN, Secretary. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 108. 


THE PROVIDENCE BUILDING LAW. Mayor Doyle, in his Thir- 
teenth Inaugural Address, says, "A bill was drawn with great care by 
the Rhode Island Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, 
which received a thorough examination by a committee of the city 
council, and a long and careful revision by the most experienced 
master-builders of this city, and, after being amended in many partic- 
ulars, was approved by the city council in April last, and is now 
pending before the General Assembly. The safety of life and property 
demands the enactment of this law, or the experience of Portland, 
Chicago, Boston, and other cities, will be repeated here. The rapidity 
with which the brick and iron buildings were destroyed at the above 
fires gave the citizens an opportunity to comprehend how an extensive 
conflagration can occur in a business-district where the buildings 
are of substantial character. When such structures are well on fire, 
their destruction is certain ; for even the most powerful streams from 
steamers are only of use in protecting the adjacent buildings: and 
when these are of great height, and only separated from the one on 
fire by a narrow street, the firemen cannot stay the progress of the 
flames, on account of the great heat, and the danger to which they are 
exposed by the falling walls. It is to be hoped that the approaching 
session of the General Assembly will not close without furnishing the 
city with authority to say in what manner buildings shall be con- 
structed within the limits of this municipality." 

EXPLOSION IN A SULPHUR-FACTORY. An explosion occurred at 
half-past six o'clock, Jan. 11, in the sulphur-factory of D. H. Gray, 
on Ninth Street, Brooklyn. The force of the explosion blew out the 
side of the building, causing a loss of about $000. It was reported 
that the boiler had exploded; but there is no boiler in the place: 
hence the explosion must have been caused by the confined vapor of 
some chemical used in the factory. 

MOVING A BEICK HOUSE. In many of our interior towns and 
cities it is a common occurrence to move houses from one place to 
another; but in Philadelphia such a feat is so rarely attempted, that 
the one now in progress is worthy of mention. At the corner of Hart 
Lane and Frankford Avenue there is now being removed, by means of 
screw-jacks, a distance of 93 feet, 30 feet one way and 60 another, 
a three-story brick house, 2S feet front and 74 feet deep, which weighs 
some five hundred tons. The property is owned by Mr. John Bly, who 
placed the job in the hands of Mr. James P. Davis. The placing this 
heavy weight on the timbers on which it slides was hazardous; but it 
was successfully done, not even a crack making its appearance in the 
whole building. Ten jacks are used to propel the structure. Three 
sets of heavy timbers are used ; for, as it is moved first easterly and 
then westerly, all the timbers have to be braced, so that there may be 
no slipping from their positions. The building is now almost in its 
new position, and about one week has been occupied in moving it to 
where it now rests. 

ACCIDENT IN A CLOCK-TOWER. A clock-weight in the tower of 
the Congregational Church in East Weymouth, Mass., weighing 
450 pounds, fell from its position recently, and passing down through 
the gallery-ceiling, a distance of 20 feet, lodged on the floor in the 
rear of the church-organ. Fortunately its passage was obstructed by 
a heavy cable which had been placed under it as a precaution, else it 
would have caused greater damage. 

THE MORTON MEMORIAL. Mr. Larkin G. Meade's design for 
the Indiana memorial to ex-Senator Morton is a marble monument 
crowned by a colossal statue of Liberty, with a profile of Gov. Morton 
on the shaft, and a panel near the base, representing him sending 
troops to the war. 

STREET-SWEEPING. A report lately presented to the Municipal 
Reform Association of New York contained the following state- 

" In London, with 1,410^ miles of pavement, every principal street 
is swept once in twenty-four hours, secondary streets three times a 
week, all others at least twice. In Liverpool, with 255 miles of 
pavement, like regulations are enforced. In Manchester, with 500 
miles of pavement, the principal streets, roads, and thoroughfares, 
together with the markets, are cleansed every day, secondary streets 
thrice a week, all others twice. In Boston, with 70 miles of pavement 
and 200 miles of MacAdam, the principal streets are swept every 
morning before eight o'clock, all others twice a week, the MacAdam 
once a week, and all gutters flushed and cleansed weekly. In Phila- 
delphia, with 600 miles of pavement, the principal thoroughfares are 
cleaned six times a week, secondary streets three times a week, and 
the whole city is thoroughly cleaned once a week. In New York, 
with 230 miles of pavement, the authorities claim to sweep her prin- 
cipal streets three times a week, and her other streets once a week. 
If the claim were well founded, she takes rank below every other 
important city above mentioned. How is it, then, when every citizen 
knows that the claim is baseless, and without shadow of right ? " 

Is circulating in Washington a petition to Congress to have plumbers 
excluded from the witness-stand and jury-box in the District of 

AN INGENIOUS WATER-FAUCET. A Californian is said to have 
invented an ingenious water-faucet, through which, if water is run, 
it comes out as cold as ice-water. Boiling water placed in any recep- 
tacle, and allowed to run through, will be found cool and fit to drink. 
The faucet contains numerous small tubes enclosed in large ones ; and 
between the outside of one and the inside of the other certain chemi- 
cals are packed, which produce the desired effect. The inventor de- 
clines to give further particulars. 

THE DURABILITY OF ZINC. It is stated that a portion of the 
cloisters of Canterbury Cathedral is roofed with zinc which after 
thirty-three years exposure to the weather has been pronounced by 
the architect to be in good condition. 

CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE. The litigation as to salvage for towing 
the Egyptian monolith into Ferrol, the Spanish port, has been so far 
settled as to allow another attempt to bring it to England to be made. 
Mr. Dixon writes to the London bureau of the New York Herald, 
" We purpose attempting to tow the Cleopatra to England about the 
10th inst., as we shall then have a good moon. Our tug is over- 
hauled, and, as it is projected, will leave about the 8th. Your 
weather prophecies from the United States have been so correct, that 
I shall venture to ask you about that time to telegraph immediately 
to my captain at Ferrol any news of probable weather that you may 
receive from the Herald. And, if you mention the matter pointedly to 
your Weather Bureau in New York, it might excite their interest in 
this undertaking, and induce them to give special attention to the 
weather in the Bay of Biscay." . 

M. GRAMME. M. Gramme, inventor of the machine for continuous 
magneto-electric currents, has received the Cross of the Legion of 
Honor. He was formerly, it is said, a working cabinet-maker. 

How THE DANUBE FEEDS THE AACII. Some time ago a dispute 
arose between the German Government and certain manufacturers on 
the River Aach, which involved the determining the source of the 
river which has its immediate source in a spring, one of the largest 
in Europe, as it discharges about 1,350 gallons a second. The bed of 
the Danube is calcareous, and its inclination is the same as that of 
the ground from the Danube to the source of the Aach, which is at a 
level eight hundred feet below. For a number of years it had been 
noticed that at a certain place the Danube lost a portion of its waters 
through holes and crevices in its bed : this loss was so great that in times 
of drought it caused great inconvenience to manufacturers on the 
Danube, who attempted to prevent it by filling up these holes. This 
caused a great outcry from the manufacturers on the Aach, who main- 
tained that the Aach was fed by the Danube, and that filling up the 
holes was an interference with their just and natural privileges. 
Hence investigations and experiments. First, twenty tons of salt 
were put into a hole in the bed of the Danube, and the water at the 
source of the Aach was analyzed for several days, and did give evi- 
dence of containing salt. To obtain more certain proof, advantage 
was taken of the wonderful coloring power of fluorescine, which is 
the first of a series of superb coloring substances, which vary as there 
is introduced into its composition bromine, iodine, or chlorine. Its 
power may be judged from the fact that one part of fluorescine to 
twenty million parts of water can be detected. In this experiment 
fifteeii gallons of a solution of fluorescine were thrown into the Dan- 
ube at the suspected point, on Oct. 9, at five o'clock. On Oct. 12, 
sixty hours after the solution had been thrown into the Danube, the 
watchers at the source of the Aach noticed the first discoloration of 
the water: this discoloration increased until the evening, and did not 
wholly disappear for more than twenty-four hours. It is said that 
when the discoloration was most marked, the water gushing from 
the spring presented a truly magnificent appearance, varying in color 
from the most intense green through light green to a brilliant yellow. 
This test established the fact that the mill-owners upon the Aach 
were in the right. 

HARD-WOOD FLOORS. The renovation of parquetry, or floors of 
inlaid wood of any kind, can be well effected by the following simple 
means: The floor is first washed, by means of a mop, with a caustic 
soda solution, which has been prepared by boiling one part each of 
slaked lime and dry carbonate of soda (soda ash), with fifteen parts 
of water, for forty-five minutes. After it has stood a short time, the 
dirt and old wax should be thoroughly removed by scrubbing with 
sand and water and a stiff brush. The floor is again washed with sul- 
phuric acid, diluted with eight parts of water. This restores its 
original color to the wood by penetrating its pores, and combining with 
the particles of dust and wax not reached by the soda solution. 
After being perfectly dried, the restored surface is waxed and polished 

ADVENTURES OP AN INSCRIPTION. There was an old house in 
Brighton which for many years had a Latin inscription in raised 
Roman letters, which, in consequence of the action of the weather, 
underwent a variety of vicissitudes. First the inscription seems to 
have been, Excitat acta robur (Strength awakes action). This became 
changed to Excitas actis robur (Thou awakenest strength by deeds). 
Again this became changed to Excitat actis robur (He rouses to 
strength by acts). Again came another change, Excitas acta robur. 
(Thou awakest to deeds of action, O strength!) But its last appear- 
ance defied all efforts at translation, Excitus ecta ropat; and as it only 
excited ridicule, it was entirely obliterated. Leisure Hour. 

THE GILDING OF THE PRESENT DAY. The "gold" gilding so 
profusely used for ornamental purposes at the present day is said to 
be silver-leaf, turned yellow and golden by the application of a shellac. 
The discovery of the process is accredited to a German tinsmith, who, 
while soldering a saucepan, accidentally dropped upon the metal some 
of the resin he had been using. This changed the bright tin to a sort 
of dead yellow, resembling gold. The development of the observation 
which this humble workman made years ago is the gilding process of 

To MAKE MODELLING-CLAY. Knead dry clay with glycerine in- 
stead of water, and a mass is obtained which continues moist and 
plastic for a length of time. This removes one of the greatest incon- 
veniences that is experienced by the modeller. 


VOL ill.] 

Copyright, 1878, JAMES E. OSOOOD & Co. 

[NO. 109. 

BOSTON, JANUARY 26, 1878. 


Architectural Litigation in New York. Hunt v. Stevens and 
Gilman vt. Stevens. Character of an Architect's Superin- 
tendence. Labor Troubles in Massachusetts. Working- 
men's Meeting in Boston. Charity and Communism. 
The Railway Bridge at Tariffville 25 





House at New Rochelle, N.Y. Thayer Academy at South 
Braintree, Mass. Hucksters' Market, Chicago, 111. Foun- 
tains at Viterbo, Italy, and at Grenoble, France 31 



Letter from New York. Letter from St. John, N.B 32 


The Loan Exhibition in New York. Personal Correspond- 
ence 34 



THE case of Hunt vs. Stevens, just decided in the New York 
Superior Court, has attracted a good deal of attention. Mr. 
R. M. Hunt, architect, had built some time ago an apartment 
house the Stevens House, at the corner of Fifth Avenue 
and Twenty-seventh Street for the late Mr. Paran Stevens. 
Later, under the orders of Mrs. Stevens, an addition to this 
house had been built on Fifth Avenue, by Mr. Arthur Gil- 
man, ' architect. Mr. Gilman had thought it necessary to 
drive piles for his foundation, and had used the party-wall 
against Mr. Hunt's part of the building to support his floors. 
After the building of Mr. Oilman's addition acrious dilapida- 
tions appeared in the front of Mr. Hunt's building, owing 
chiefly to settlement at its junction with the addition, dilapi- 
dations which it cost, as was said, a good many thousand 
dollars to repair. Mr. Stevens, who was on his death-bed 
when the building was finished, left unpaid one-third of Mr. 
Hunt's fee, amounting to five thousand dollars. This his 
executors refused to pay, and Mr. Hunt's suit was to recover 
it from Mrs. Stevens. The defendant maintained that the 
commission was nof due, because the dilapidation of the 
building was caused by the plaintiffs negligence in not 
securing proper material and workmanship ; that the water- 
pipea in the building were badly arranged and had to be re- 
placed, that his plans were faulty and his construction in- 
secure, and that the main arches in the front of the building 
had failed in consequence of bad construction, for which the 
plaintiff was responsible. 

IT was shown on the trial that Mr. Stevens had driven a 
close bargain with his architect, and had made a contract 
with him to furnish drawings and specifications with a gener- 
al oversight of the building for three per cent on an estimat- 
ed cost of half a million dollars (whereas'the building really 
cost eight hundred thousand) ; and 10 save money had given 
the actual superintendence to a man chosen and paid by him- 
self. The plaintiff contended that this arrangement relieved 
him from responsibility for the way in which the work was 
carried out, and that the faults in workmanship and material 
were due to deviations from his plans ordered by Mr. Ste- 
vens, and to the neglect of his superintendent or to the failure 
of men with whom he had independently contracted. It was 
further argued that driving piles for the new part of the 
building, and loading the party-wall with additional floors, 
had led to the settlement which injured the old part. A 
good deal of expert testimony more or less conflicting was 
brought in as to the injury likely to be done by piling close 
to walls already built, the quality of work and material in 
the building, and the adequacy of Mr. Hunt's plans ; but it 
was clearly shown that Mr. Stevens had interfered seriously 
with his architect's intentions, insisting on his trusting to the 
old foundation of the party-wall instead of building an inde- 
pendent pier on concrete foundation at the end of his facade, 

or underpinning the old wall, as he had proposed ; that he 
had himself prescribed the objectionable arrangement of 
water-pipes; and that when a crack showed itself in the 
facade, he countermanded Mr. Hunt's proposition to return 
to his first intention and put in a concrete foundation. The 
judge (Judge Sanford) charged that unless the architect could 
show that he had performed his part of his contract properly, 
the defendant was entitled to a verdict and an award of 
damages for the failure of the building, and that if it ap- 
peared that the arches of the building failed from faults of the 
design, or from deviations allowed by the architect, he had 
not fulfilled his contract ; whereas, if they failed from bad 
workmanship or material, and neglect of Mr. Stevens's 
superintendent, the architect was not responsible. The jury 
were out but ten minutes, and brought in a verdict for the 
plaintiff to the full amount of his claim, with interest. 

THIS building appears to have been fruitful in litigation ; 
for it is but a few months since the architect of the addition, 
Mr. Gilman, brought a suit "against Mrs. Stevens for the 
unpaid balance of his fees. In this case the defendant made 
the same charge of neglect in superintendence, and brought 
in a counter claim, for twenty thousand dollars by which, it 
was argued, the value of the building had suffered in conse- 
quence of such neglect. The architect's claim was not only 
for an unpaid balance ($832) of commission oil the building 
in question, but also for a commission of two and a half per 
cent of the estimated cost of another, for which he had made 
plans, but which had not been built, the whole claim being 
some ten thousand dollars. The court ruled that an archi- 
tect was liable for inferiority in labor or material to that 
required by his specification for work done under his superin- 
tendence, provided it could be shown that he neglected to 
use such care and diligence in supervision as is commonly 
rendered by men in his profession ; but not unless such neg- 
lect could be shown ; and the jury was charged to decide 
whether it had been shown. The validity of the claim for 
the unbuilt house turned on the question whether the plans 
and specifications were furnished at the request and for the 
advantage of the defendant. The court ruled that two and 
one-half per cent was the established fee for such services, 
the schedule of fees prepared by the Institute being offered 
in evidence, and accepted as the record of the existing 
usage in the profession. The jury was charged to decide 
whether the architect had neglected to use due, that is ordi- 
nary, care In superintendence, whether the plans for the un- 
built house had been furnished at the desire of the defend- 
ant, and to offset the damages due the defendant, if any, 
against the claim of the plaintiff. The verdict was for three 
thousand dollars in favor of the plaintiff. It would be inter- 
esting to know, what unfortunately docs not appear from the 
official report of the case, on what ground the jury based their 
award, whether the three thousand dollars is the residuum 
of the architect's claim after deducting a certain allowance 
for loss by his negligence ; or whether, disregarding the rul- 
ing of the judge, they decided that this was enough for the 
service rendered by the architect ; or whether they failed, as 
juries will, to make up their minds on the questions at issue, 
and pitched upon this as being a round sum which in virtue 
of all the probabilities it was reasonable to allow as a com- 

THE labor question is making itself felt again in Massachu- 
setts. For a good while the Crispins, the trades-union of 
the shoemakers, the most powerful in the State, have been 
making trouble by interfering between the shoe-manufactur- 
ers and their workmen ; and the trouble has grown so serious 
that a short time ago a majority of the manufacturers in Lynn 
decided to give no more employment to members of the 
order. This resulted immediately in a general strike, which 
extended to other towns in which the shoe business is pre- 
dominant. Most of the manufacturers in Lynn united in an 
"iron-clad" agreement to stop work altogether, though a 
few of the smaller factories were still kept running. This 
was soon followed by the shutting-down of the engine-houses 
which supplied power to the factories on the principal streets, 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 109. 

and by stoppages iu Maryborough and Beverly, so that the 
whole 'industry is at a stand-still in the eastern part of the 
State, except where an effort has been made to import work- 
men from New Hampshire, and in a -few shops that are sup- 
plied with hands independent of the Crispins. The cause is 
the usual one, the lowering of wages by employers on ac- 
count of the pressure of the times. There seems to be a de- 
termination on the part of both employers and men to make 
the conflict decisive, and both sides are preparing for a long 
struggle. It looks as if the result would be a serious injury 
to the towns whose prosperity depends on the shoe trade. 
Already some of the manufacturers have resolved to move 
their factories to Boston. The buyers from other parts of 
the country have united, it is said, in sustaining the masters, 
and have declared that they will order no goods of men who 
employ the Crispins. 

MEANWHILE the unemployed working-men of Boston have 
held a great out-door meeting, after the fashion of their fel- 
lows in San Francisco, but in a more peaceful spirit. Some 
thousands of them marched through the streets to the Com- 
mon, where they heard speeches, passed resolutions, and sent 
a committee to the mayor. The resolutions declared that the 
introduction of labor-saving machines and the creation of 
monopolies were rendering the future prospects of working- 
men gloomy in the extreme ; that they ought to bo taken care 
of in view of the fact that they had always paid the great bulk 
of the taxes, an astonishing statement which it was believed 
" could not be disputed by any sensible individual." The 
remedies demanded were the undertaking of public work 
for the sake of furnishing employment ; out-door relief for 
those who were not employed ; and an appeal to Congress for 
transportation and money-loans to those who wished to occupy 
unsettled public land. The repeal of the poll-tax was also 
demanded, as well as that of the law disfranchising paupers, 
and the abolition of the contract system ; and all attempts. 
to limit the suffrage were sternly rebuked. The mayor an- 
swered with great propriety the delegation that was sent to 
him, reminding them that he had no power to furnish work 
for them, since the whole power to appropriate money lay 
with the City Council, to whom a petition had already been 
presented in their behalf, lie added with commendable 
frankness that he thought it an unwise polic.y for a city to 
undertake work in order to furnish employment, and that 
whenever it had been attempted it had worked ill to the 
laboring classes instead of good. 

No considerate person is insensible to the hardships which 
unemployed men have to bear in these times. It is not 
likely, however, that the men who attended this meeting in 
Boston and passed these foolish resolutions were any greater 
sufferers or had any greater need of relief than thousands of 
others who do not appeal for public help. They are said 
to have been, on the whole, well-dressed and comfortable 
looking, and to have borne no mark of a hardship that should 
justify them in claiming such special relief. Of the constitu- 
ency of seventy-five thousand whom they claimed to repre- 
sent, it would probably be difficult to recruit any great 
number without drawing in a large body of Crispins and 
others who are out of work simply because they will not 
work for what wages are .offered them. It is to be said to 
the credit of the Boston meeting that it was entirely orderly, 
and gave no intimation of a disposition to use violence, ill 
spite of an inflammatory sentence or two on its banners ; 
and in so far it invites sympathy. But the truth is, that 
there are only two things in the name of which a call 
for public aid can be made : one is charity, and the other 
communism. Difficult as is the application of charity on a 
large scale, there is generally willingness when the need is 
great. But he who appeals to charity acknowledges that he 
asks a voluntary gift. This is not the attitude of the men 
who voted these resolutions, nor of the working-men all over 
the country who are insisting upon their right to be support- 
ed. A right to be supported means a right to take so much 
of other people's property ; a right to take a dollar with- 
out reference to its equivalent is a right to take a thou- 
sand. This means communism, and communism is an ugly 

Sucu inquiry as has already been made into the railway 
accident at Tariffville, Conn., where the breaking of a 
wooden Howe-truss bridge let a train into the river, killing a 
dozen people, and wounding nearly fifty more, seems to be 
enough to show that simple negligence was at the bottom of it. 
At first, if we may judge by newspaper comments, it was 
taken as a perfectly natural thing that the bridge should give 
way under a heavy passenger-train with two engines ; the 
theory seemed to be quietly accepted that a railway bridge 
should not be expected to carry two engines together, and 
that there was no need to look for further explanation. The 
inquest of the railroad commissioners has not as we write yet 
taken place ; but some examinations which arc published indi- 
cate that the condition of the bridge was visibly unsafe. We 
find it reported that the wooden chords of the truss were of 
poor material weakened by decay, having been seven years in 
place, exposed, we are told, to the acids of rusting iron, 
and that many of the angle-irons (cast-iron angle-blocks?) 
had evidently been broken for a good while. The immediate 
yielding of the truss is thought to be due to the breaking of 
one of the iron suspension-rods. These were warranted, it 
is said, to endure a strain of sixty thousand pounds per 
quarc inch, and the weight under which they broke is com- 
puted at sixteen thousand. We do not know what such a 
warrant may have meant ; but sixty thousand pounds is the 
breaking weight for the first quality of bar-iron ; and though 
it might be trusted with a third of this, carefully laid on, a 
prudent engineer does not subject such material to a live load 
of more than a sixth of its ultimate strength, that is ten thou- 
sand pounds per square inch. If the computations are true, 
the bridge was in truth not fit to carry the weight put upon 
it, even if it had been in good condition, and all that it 
claimed to lie : in other words, it was inadequate for a rail- 
road traffic, and ought never to have been built. It was in- 
spected a short time ago by the railroad commissioners ; that 
is, they rode over it in a light train, and considered it safe. 
Since the accident, the president of the road has requested 
them to inspect his other bridges. But what is to be said of 
the dut}' and responsibility of the officers of the road in such 
a case? If the appointment of railroad commissioners, and 
their inspection, is to relieve railway officers of the responsi- 
bility for the examination and security of their equipment, 
we should say that the commissioners were of questionable 


LAWSUITS entered by two architects of New York have 
lately brought into notice of the courts questions which are 
continually at issue between architects and their clients, with- 
out having received the careful attention or the formal dis- 
crimination which the convenience of practice requires. Of 
some points of these cases we have spoken elsewhere. Both, 
however, turn more or less on the vexed and little-understood 
questions : What is the nature of an architect's superinten- 
dence ? what kind of work is an architect who superintends a 
building to require of his builder? how far is he responsible 
for securing it, and under what penalty ? 

The question how far an architect is to be held responsible 
for the quality of work done under his superintendence, 
involves many points which are but vaguely determined in 
American practice. There are clients, a good many, we 
fancy, and perhaps most other people who have not con- 
sidered the matter agree with them, who think that an 
architect's superintendence ought to include a guaranty of 
complete excellence in workmanship and material ; that 
unless a builder is so elossly watched that he has no chance 
to slight his work, or scamp his material, or to get any thing 
wrong at any point, the architect has not done his duty. 
This is in reality requiring that the client shall be relieved 
from all risk whatever, and that every such risk shall be 
borne by the architect. It is a perfectly intelligible require- 
ment, and if all the other conditions are made to conform to 
it, not to be complained of when once agreed upon. It 
requires, however, that the architect's eye or his deputy's 
shall never be off the work that he superintends ; and this 
means, for watching every building of any importance, the 
whole of a capable man's time. 

For the salary of such a man, and the personal care and 
risk which the architect cannot avoid, the third part of an 

JANUARY 26, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


architect's fee, which is usually allowed for superintendence, 
is quite insufficient ; in fact, in many cases, the whole fee, 
as at present rated, is not more than a fair compensation for 
this kind of supervision. There are, it is known, in some of 
our cities, certain men who take the whole charge of build- 
ings as superintendents directly from clients, and who charge 
for their service a fee equivalent to an architect's. It is not 
rare for them, it is true, to agree to " throw in " plans and 
specifications ; but these they are used to regard as trifling 
matters and of little value which indeed in the administra- 
tion of these gentlemen they usually are. 

The minute and incessant supervision which is required 
from this point of view is not necessary in many cases, and 
it certainly is not habitual. If one enters into the scramble 
of general competition it is desirable as a defence against 
the tricks of many contractors, and possibly money enough 
may be saved out of cheap builders to make it profitable ; but 
it is nevertheless an unwholesome state of things that makes 
it necessary, a condition that is best avoided in each case by 
keeping work out of hands that are not to be trusted, it 
should be said, too, that the degree of responsibility to be 
thus secured is compatible only with absolute authority on 
the part of the architect. It cannot be demanded when the 
architect is not entire!}- free in the choice of contractors who 
shall bid or mechanics who arc hired for the work ; and any 
interference of the client with builders or men, or any orders 
given not through the architect, must be held to vitiate it. 
In the case of Mr. Hunt, the counter-charges against him of 
injury to the building from his negligence were rebutted by 
showing that the client had interfered to set aside his provis- 
ions, and had given independent directions to the workmen ; 
which was held to clear the architect of accountability. 

A stringent system which should make an architect thus 
answerable might perhaps be established here, and would 
doubtless please some persons. We doubt however, if it is 
suited to the present habits of our people, and we should say 
that the English practice of employing a clerk of the works, 
to be paid by the client and directed by the architect, was a 
more satisfactory one. At all events no such system exists 
among us. In ordinary practice, a fair supervision is one 
which assures that mistakes, or deviations from plans and 
specifications, shall not be made, and that the general stand- 
ard of work and material shall be satisfactory. This gives 
work enough to the faithful architect, and is all that the one 
and a half per cent allowed for superintendence in his regular 
commission will pa}' for. It does not mean such watchful- 
ness that the dishonest contractor can have no chance to 
smuggle anywhere any bad work or material, or to neglect 
any detail. The proper security against this is in the choice 
of a contractor. It does secure that on the whole he shall 
not put off an inferior piece of work for a good one. For 
the faults of the builder the architect is not responsible after 
the exercise of reasonable diligence. In the case of Mr. 
Gilman the judge charged the jury that " an architect is only 
required to perform his work with ordinary care, diligence, 
and skill. Ordinary or due skill means that degree of skill 
which" men engaged in that peculiar art usually employ;" 
and also that for any delay in the completion of the contract, 
the architect is not responsible unless it be the result of his 
own negligence in superintending. The charge to determine, 
"if the work and material were defective, whether such 
defects were in consequence of or owing to the negligence 
of the plaintiff in any regard," implies that in the mint! of 
the court, such defects might occur without being chargeable 
to the negligence of the architect. 

In one respect we have been using the word responsibility 
and its synonymes somewhat vague!}-, without stopping to 
define what kind of responsibility we meant. The only kind 
that is of much satisfaction to the client is that which makes 
the architect pecuniarily liable ; and here arises the question, 
How far shall this liability extend ? We have not opportuni- 
ty to examine cases bearing on this point, but we believe the 
common understanding here to have been that the architect 
is liable only to the amount of his commission. In France 
the law is much stricter, and extends the liability to the whole 
fortune of the. architect. The language of the charge in Mr. 
Oilman's case is not without obscurity, nor altogether co- 
herent ; but certain passages seem to show clearly that the 
court meant- to hold the architect liable, when the faults 
could be referred to his negligence, for the whole amount 

of the damage. Thus the court charged that " for any dam- 
age the defendant [the client] has sustained through neglect 
of the plaintiff', if there be any neglect, . . . the plaintiff is 
liable, and the amount of such damage should be allowed in 
this action to her." And again: "If the jury are satisfied 
that the plaintiff did not exercise ordinary care, diligence, 
and skill, . . . then the defendant is entitled to such dam- 
ages as were occasioned thereby, and such damages are the 
costs of making the work a good job according to the require 
ments of the contract." 

It is to be noticed that on one point the charges of the 
judges in the two cases were in direct opposition. The 
judge in the Oilman case charged that " the burden was 
upon the defendant to establish that the plaintiff did not. 
exercise ordinary care," etc. : the judge in the Hunt case, 
that the architect must show that he did use proper care, and 
that the injury to the building was not due to his neglect. 
We will not venture to touch the question on which side the 
presumption lies, from the legal point of view. As a matter 
of equity and reason, it seems at first glance rather severe to 
say that whenever an architect's work is called in question 
the presumption shall be that he is wrong, and he must 
therefore prove himself to be right ; as it would be to assume 
in case of a physician that he was guilty of malpractice till 
he had proved that he was not. There is, however, some- 
thing to be said on the other side : that it is difficult to prove 
neglect except by showing its results ; that it is assumed that 
an architect can by reasonable diligence guard against serious 
faults in the work which ho superintends, and therefore that 
the existence of such faults in such work is itself a presump- 
tion of his neglect. But again, this depends very much upon 
whether the faults are such as were in the nature of things 
visible to ordinary scrutiny as the work went on, or, as is 
oftcucr the case, faults which developed later in consequence 
of imperfections which were hidden during its progress. In 
most cases the question of the presumption would probably 
be a merely formal one ; for an architect accused in court of 
malpractice would be sure to do his best to show that he 
had been faithful. It is only in difficult and doubtful cases 
that the presumption would have any influence ; but then 
these arc just the cases for which presumptions are estab- 
lished, and for these the ruling of the judge in the Hunt trial 
looks a little oppressive. 

Another thing that strikes one in comparing the two trials 
is the absence of all concern for the contractors. Here were 
two buildings, one of which, according to the owner, had 
been damaged to the cost of a hundred thousand dollars, and 
the other to the cost of twenty thousand, by faults which 
had been committed by the contractor, if they were permitted 
by the architect ; but the only remedy which seems to have 
occurred to the client was to stop the payment of a fraction 
of the architect's fees. A loss of a hundred and twenty 
thousand dollars is a thing to which people are not apt to 
submit quietly if they can help it, and to wliich the fees 
retained were a mere bagatelle. Yet there is no mention of 
any action to recover from the contractors. It is true that 
a client, to whom his contract leaves no option but to pay 
what his architect certifies to, may not unnaturally be roused 
by anger to turn against the adviser who has led him to pay 
for what was not worth his money. Nevertheless in such 
cases the contractor is the chief delinquent, and we have 
never heard that the certificate of the architect relieved him 
from responsibility in case his work turned out bad. The 
architect has his own immediate responsibility, for which we 
are in favor of holding him to the strictest account, for errors 
in his plans and construction : in regard to the faults of the 
builder whom he is to oversee, his position seems to be 
analogous to that of one who indorses a note for its. princi- 
pal. The architect has his remedy for the loss he may have 
had to make good, in a suit for damages against the builder 
who has deceived him as well as the client ; but we do not 
believe it is for the public good to encourage contractors in 
thinking that if they slight their work to its detriment, the 
first consequences will fall on the architects who oversee 

It is greatly to be desired that a consistent usage in all 
the points that we have been discussing should grow up, 
and that what usage obtains should be distinctly recorded in 
the decisions of the courts. We have never been in favor of 
laxity in the professional dealings of architects. We believe 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 109. 

in such requirements as shall make it necessary for an archi- 
tect to know his business, and attend to it. But clients who 
are not satisfied with ordinary precaution, and wish to be 
sure that their intentions are carried out with exactness, 
ought to be informed that this requires more minute super- 
vision than belongs to an architect's regular service or is paid 
for by his usual fee. The introduction of the clerk of the 
works is meant to meet this want, and it does so sufficiently 
well ; but it adds to the cost of superintendence. Those who 
want absolute security must pay for it ; and those who call 
for plenary responsibility must in reason be careful that they 
allow plenary authority. 




[The report of Mr. John F. Weir In hchalf of the judges of Group XXVII., 
embracing Plastic and Graphic Art.] 

No department of the International Exhibition attracted more 
general attention than that of the Fine Arts, in Memorial Hall 
and its Annex, nor was any department the subject of more fre- 
quent and extended comment in the newspaper press. 

This fact is significant ; for the marked and general eagerness 
of the public to view the art-exhibits of the various nations 
evinced a very decided partiality for the attractions afforded by 
this display. That this susceptibility to the influence of art exists 
to a much wider extent with the public than may have been sup- 
posed, and that it only awaits opportunity for its proper gratifica- 
tion, is a natural conclusion. Museums and academies of the 
fine arts have become a prominent feature in our larger cities; 
and with the increase of facilities thus afforded for study and dis- 
cipline a very earnest and general desire is manifest on the part 
of the public for a more intimate knowledge of art than has hith- 
erto been possible, except with those who have been able to seek 
this knowledge abroad. 

These institutions, therefore, are not in advance of the general 
tendencies of the time, or of the wants of the people. The wealth 
of the nation is gradually insuring that leisure or repose which 
follows material development, and which is perhaps essential to 
the promotion of intellectual pursuits. From this source, also, 
follows the accumulation of works of art that a far-reaching com- 
merce supplies ; and the demand for the more mature and refining 
fruits of civilized life is becoming select and discriminating. 
Private collections, comprising in many cases the works of the 
most distinguished living artists, and in some instances their chkf 

E reductions, a're now by no means unfrequcnt. The recent exhi- 
ition at the National Academy and the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, in New York, of the selected works of contemporary art 
from these private collections, could hardly have been surpassed, 
within its limits, in any country, in its representative character. 
Consequently the art-exhibit at Philadelphia afforded few sur- 
prises for which the American public were unprepared, nor did it 
contribute materially to the knowledge we already possessed, 
through our own collections, of the present state of the fine arts 
among the different nations of Europe. 

But it is through the opportunity for comparison, afforded by 
international exhibitions, that the marked peculiarities which dis- 
tinguish styles and schools of art strike the observer with more 
than usual force. Their merits and demerits, also, are rendered 
more conspicuous through this severe and uncompromising test of 
juxtaposition, where they enter into close competition and fill the 
eye in rapid succession. Passing from one gallery to another, one 
is not insensible to some such experience as that of encountering 
a foreign tongue : every successive impression is in turn domi- 
nated by certain characteristic forms of expression peculiar to 
each nation. Thus it may, in some measure, afford a test of true 
excellence when it is found that the artist rises above the conven- 
tional level of local sympathies, and attains the higher plane of 
sentiments which are general and universal. For art, in its truer 
forms, is a common language, requiring no other interpretation 
than that derived from its own inherent powers of expression. 
Time and distinctions of race are obliterated in its universal aim. 
When, therefore, the art of any people appears to require some 
special explanation by reason of its local character or the fashion 
of a time or place, we may conclude that it is so far mannered or 
conventional, and consequently inartistic. 

In discussing the merits and characteristics of the art-exhibits 
of the different nations, it is but proper to view them with sympa- 
thy, so far as this is consistent with those principles upon which 
sound judgment is based. It is proper, also, to abstain from that 
narrow notion of applying a standard of estimate which is derived 
from a decided predilection for some one form of excellence in art 
to the exclusion of others. This is a common error in criticism, 
and one to which national prejudices are apt to contribute. It is 
quite possible for even the more honest and unsuspecting to be 
sometimes unconsciously swayed by certain unwarranted prefer- 
ences, from the influences of which they cannot escape ; for art is 
pre-eminently a question of impulse and feeling, and when these 
are undisciplined or enlisted hi some earnest and concentrated end 











France . 





Austria . 










Belgium _ 














Italy . 




Russia . 








Sweden . 


11 . 

- 2 







Canada . 



Argentine Repub ic 



Brazil . 





Mexico . 




United States 




Total .... 




it is not generally conducive to wide likings. But it should be re- 
membered that as art has manifold forms of excellence which are 
rarely united, and then only in the works of very exceptional gen- 
ius, these forms of excellence vary in all times and countries with 
the talents displayed in their manifestations. 

The following table will show what nations participated in the 
Exhibition, and to what extent : ' 

Number of galleries and halls, 71. 

The exhibit of Great Britain in painting was very complete and 
satisfactory. Manifestly the desire was to show not merely the 
present condition and progress of her art to the best advantage, 
but, by a liberal contribution of the works of many of her de- 
ceased artists, the property of the Royal Academy, to express, as 
well, a generous interest in the success of the International Exhi- 
bition of 1876. This friendly disposition deserved and received 
a most hearty recognition on the part of the people of the United 

In discussing the merits and characteristics of English art we 
are naturally led to consider English sentiment and character as 
manifested in this form of expression ; for it may be accepted as 
a self-evident truth that the art of a nation is a true exponent of 
the habits of mind and feeling peculiar to that people. And cer- 
tainly English art is strikingly illustrative of this fact. No such 
marked contrast is afforded by the art of other countries as that 
which subsists between France and England. English art is 
formed by moral ideas, and the subject or story is accorded an 
importance that is not usually recognized in French art : the em- 
phasis of the latter school is given to treatment rather than to 
subject, and this distinction lies at the root of the developments 
in the art of these nations. 

The leading sentiment in the art of any people is not peculiar 
to one form of expression : it pervades all ; and their literary 
issues will be found to be of a similar character with those which 
distinguish their art. From this fact there arises an important 
consideration respecting the value of international exhibitions in 
promoting a knowledge of the more subtle phases of thought and 
feeling peculiar to each nation ; and these exhibitions not only 
enable us to distinguish points of difference, but they also serve 
to show wherein the nations lose their individuality, in a measure, 
in the common aims of broader and more profound views qf art. 
English art-criticism is quite distinct from that of Germany or 
France. It is not without its prejudices, but these are not more 
marked, as a general thing, than are those of the other countries : 
the distinction in this respect is one of kind rather than degree. 
It has been observed with clearness by a recent English writer 
that " the poles between which aesthetic criticism has always oscil- 
lated, and will continue to oscillate, are those of form and ex- 
pression, the objective and the subjective truths involved in art, 
as in every other production of the human mind; " and French 
and English art are, in a measure, representative of these two 
fundamental ideas, which it is well to harmonize, and which are 
found united in truly great works of art. This exceptional and 
proper union may be met with in some of the pictures of the 
English collection ; and it is from them we derive a most favora- 
ble impression of what is really excellent as well as characteristic 
in English art. As a general thing, its character is exclusive and 
affected by insular tastes. This has been partially modified, and 
we find occasional evidence of outside influences affecting the tra- 
ditional methods of this school. 

Passing in review the English exhibit of oil-paintings, the im- 
pression made by the collection, as a whole, is that of lack of 
technical grasp. The methods are, for the most part, thin and 
stained in appearance, and the coloring tawny and monotonous. 
But in delicacy of sentiment, in the expression of ideas and emo- 
tions, and in the pure and poetic feeling manifested in many of 
the pictures, they possess much that demands the highest praise. 
" The Summer Moon " and " Interior of a Jew's House," by 

JANUARY 2G, l$78.] The American Architect and Building News. 


Mr. Leighton. are works deserving of special commendation. The 
former is exquisitely poetic in sentiment, rich and suggestive in 
tone, and admirable in grace of composition. The " Interior of a 
Jew's House " is a complete poem from the ancient world. The 
title is somewhat ambiguous, as it furnishes no clew to the picture, 
which has the character of ancient Greek civilization in sentiment 
and surroundings. The figures are painted with rare skill and 
grace, the drawing is admirable, and the archaeological learning 
which seems to be a matter of special pride in art to-day is 
most thorough. Few pictures are equally fine in sentiment, and 
at the same time so thoroughly well rendered with technical skill, 
as these by Mr. Leighton. 

"The Vintage Festival," "The Convalescent," and "The 
Mummy." by Mr. Alma Tadema, who, though a Belgian, is 
classed of late with the English school by reason of his residence 
in London, are in a somewhat similar vein, yet with entirely 
distinct individuality in treatment. In their technical qualities 
these pictures are no less admirable than for their learning and 
beautiful conception. It may be said, advisedly, that no pictures 
of the present day exhibit more thorough qualities of excellence 
than those by Mr. Tadema. Though, for the most part, Greek 
and Roman antiquity are the sources from which the inspirations 
of his art are derived, Mr. Tadema's pictures, as works of art, are 
never sacrificed to the mere pedantic display of skill and learning. 
Archaeology and brilliant technique are features prominently dis- 
played in contemporary art, and to a degree that may perhaps be 
regarded as dangerously subversive of truer aims, the emotion- 
al, the thoughtful, the expressive, which render art something 
more than mere manifestations of learned research, skill, or man- 
ual dexterity ; and it is agreeable to find that in the works of Mr. 
Leighton and Mr. Tadema they arc properly subordinated to these 
higher aims. 

" Trawlers Waiting for the Darkness," by Mr. Hunter, is a pic- 
ture of very exceptional power, both in sentiment and in the ad- 
mirable vigor of its treatment. The breezy expanse of sea at 
twilight, and the fishermen resting in the boat, are rendered with 
great truth. The picture is full of the solemnity of the hour and 
of nature. 

" God-speed," by Mr. Boughton, though in many respects repre- 
sentative of the excellent qualities of his art, is not thoroughly 
satisfactory. The composition is scattered and broken into epi- 
sodes, and the sentiment a little strained. Mr. Boughton is better 
represented in the exhibit of the United States, where he is 
claimed as a fellow-countryman by birth. His " New England 
Puritans going to Church " and " Going to seek his Fortune " are 
more satisfactory compositions. The sources from which this 
artist draws his best inspirations are Chaucer and our Puritan 
forefathers ; and no one has entered more thoroughly into the 
spirit of the time and the customs thus respectively derived, and 
with a more genuine sympathy, than Mr. Boughton. 

" The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away," by Mr. IIoll, 
though painful in subject, is rendered with great delicacy and 
pathos. The expression of sorrow which pervades the figures, and 
fills the place where death has left a void as with an atmosphere 
oppressively sad and afflicting, is wrought out with great power 
and truth. The picture manifests a most penetrating insight of 
heart-rending grief, yet so delicately and sympathetically depicted, 
that while we condemn the choice of subject as too painful, we 
cannot but admire the consummate skill of the artist evinced in 
this remarkable work. "Betty," by Mr. S. L. Fildes, is fresh 
and animated, well drawn, full of spirit and hearty grace. It 
proved one of the most attractive pictures of the Exhibition. Mr. 
Fildes's " Applicants for Admission to a Casual Ward " is a sub- 
ject no less painful than that chosen by Mr. IIoll. It is, however, a 
work of great power, and abounds in admirable individualization 
of character. But it is in such pictures that we find the tenden- 
cies of the English school, in moral aim, perhaps earned to excess. 
It is a question open for discussion, how far the artist may venture 
in depicting human suffering to accomplish strictly moral ends 
without endangering the distinctive sesthctic character of art, 
which is calculated to elevate rather than depress human feeling. 
This may be effected through sentiment expressed in a minor key; 
but should there not be a vista of hope through which we may 
discern some alleviating power at work, which leaves the sensibili- 
ty in a less morbid state V Even in the tragic drama the feeling 
of horror and dismay is properly surmounted by sentiments of a 
loftier and more triumphant character, that redeem the depression 
and the pain which would otherwise plunge the spectator into a 
most unhappy mood. He leaves the play, therefore, with his sen- 
sibilities gratified, and his emotions are, on the whole, pleasurable. 
But the very nature of painting, from its immobile character, 
precludes a similar movement of the moral action in scenes like 
this depicted by Mr. Fildes. They remain, therefore, transfixed, 
painful moral lessons rather than true works of art. If the end 
sought is purely moral, painting is not a legitimate means for its 
accomplishment, for its manifestations outlive the occasion and 
become too distressing for permanent contemplation. We do not 
question the rare skill and profound observation of character 
evinced in these pictures by Mr. IIoll and Mr. Fildes, but we can- 
not but think their choice of subjects would have been better 
&uited to less labored and less enduring forms of art. 

" Circe and the Companions of Ulysses," by Mr. B. Riviere, is 
conceived and executed with that rare skill which deservedly en- 
titles this artist to the high reputation he enjoys. The humor is 
admirably rendered, and exhibits a keen appreciation of the pos- 
sibilities of expression in swinish physiognomy. "The Sick 
Child," by Mr. J. Clark, is pathetic and tender in feeling, a 
sincere representation of that true touch of nature which makes 
the whole world kin. Few pictures of the English school evince 
more admirable qualities than this by Mr. Clark. " Baith Faither 
and Mither," by Mr. Faed, who has done for Scottish art what 
Burns lias done for Scottish song, is thoroughly characteristic of 

i 1 , . , 4 ,V. nnn --,-P 4-1-, ~ T>_:i.: ~i. i i i_ : _i_ . . i 1 1_ _ i i . 

turns to her father for some little assistance required in her dress, 
is told with very tender pathos. It is the translation into paint- 
ing of a subject suited to a poem. It is illustrative and readable, 
and in technical merit of a certain kind it is in many respects ad- 
mirable. It is rather poetic than artistic, if the distinction ex- 
plains itself. The conspicuous values are in the telling of the 
story rather than in the pictorial treatment. 

In portrait-painting, the most notable examples of the English 
collection are Mr. Watts's portrait of Millais; portrait of a lady, 
by Mr. Perugini ; Hon. W. E. Forster, by Mr. Wells; "The Three 
Sisters," by Mr. Archer ; and Earl Russell, by Sir Francis Grant. 
Mr. Watts's head is cleverly painted, unconventional, and spirited. 
Mr. Peruginrs is delicate, sensitive, and refined. Mr. Holman 
Hunt exhibits a portrait of himself which is rather curious than 
pleasing. It is thoughtful and serious, as Mr. Hunt's work always 
is ; but the coloring is disagreeable. It is to be regretted that 
this artist was not more adequately represented : certainly no pic- 
tures would have had greater interest for his many friends in this 
country than those which have made his name so widely and 
favorably known. Mr. Millais, also, was by no means properly 
represented in the single portrait-sketch which bore his name. 
Considering the prominence of these artists, and the very decided 
originality of their styles, the British collection suffered a serious 
omission in the absence of characteristic examples of their work. 
It cannot be said, in reviewing English portrait-painting in the 
collection at Philadelphia, that we discover in recent work, even 
remotely, those qualities of excellence evinced in Reynolds's por- 
trait of himself, loaned by the Royal Academy. This portrait is 
something more than the mere likeness of an extraordinary man; 
and portrait-painting, to be of interest to the world at large, must 
have a far higher aim than that of securing a likeness. The por- 
traits of Reynolds and Gainsborough were signally typical of a 
noble and aristocratic race. Time has wrought no decadence in 
the type, but it certainly has in the art, and English portrait- 
painters of the last century preserve a prestige which overshadows 
their successors of the present day. This may b3 partially ac- 
counted for by the fact that the most talented artists of this school 
are now altogether absorbed in genre. 

The two pictures by the late Sir Edwin Landseer, loaned by 
Lord Northbrook, were specially valuable as illustrating the 
change of manner or rather the transition of manner into style 
in this artist's work. "The Travelled Monkey," which evident- 
ly is an early picture, is one of a series that was etched in Land- 
seer's " Monkeyana," published many years since. The method is 
hard and dry, and, on the whole, very old-fashioned, but it is not 
lacking in character, for which his pictures were always remarka- 
ble. The later work, " The Sick Monkey," is something more 
than this : it is rich in color, admirable in technical dexterity, 
broad and simple in composition. Mr. Frith 'a "Pamela" is at- 
tractive and pleasing, but his ' Railway Station " did not gain the 
attention here that it did in England. Sentiment is preferred vo 
a mere fact, where this latter is an affair of every-day occurrence, 
and related to our practical needs; and Mr. Fildes's " Betty" had 
its throng of admirers, while Mr. Frith's picture was somewhat 
neglected. Mr. Frith understands, on his own ground, that to be 
popular it is always necessary to get down to the level of popu- 
larity. His pictures show an entire lack of mystery; they are 
crowded with numerous incidents and stories, well told, and calcu- 
lated to amuse the curious. But this is not art in any high accep- 
tation of the term. The stories ouce read, wo do not return to 
Mr. Frith's pictures again and again, as we are instinctively drawn 
by great works of art. His " Marriage of II. R. II. the Prince of 
Wales" was an object of interest to a continuous throng of spec- 
tators, for the reason that whatever pertains to England's sove- 
reign is always a subject of interest, and even affection, to the 
people of the United Statea. 

Mr. Brett contributed his " Morning among the Granite Boul- 
ders," which is in part admirable, particularly in the truth and 
simplicity of his treatment of the foreground, an expanse of 
shore strewn with rocks. The distant sea and sky are painted 
with less skill, and are crude in color; but, on the whole, the pic- 
ture is one of exceptional merit. " After the Battle," and " The 
Siesta," by Mr. Calderon, are both clever: the former tells its 
story with very decided interest ; the latter is probably a more re- 
cent work, evincing greater breadth and freedom in execution. 
" From under the Sea," by Mr. Hook, is a realistic work of de- 
cided power, displaying a strong, vigorous sense of nature. " Ce- 


The American Architect and Building Neios. [VOL. 'ill. No. 109. 

lia's Arbor," by Mr. George D. Leslie, is graceful and delicate, 
though not skilful rn its technical qualities. Mr. Poynter's " Ibis 
Girl " is also a work of decided merit. These pictures are repre- 
sentative of those qualities which constitute excellence in English 
art. The sentiment is rarely sacrificed to mere technical display ; 
on the contrary, the latter is hardly equal to the standard attained 
by some other painters of this school. 

On the whole, the impression made by the British art-exhibit 
was a decidedly favorable one. English art, as manifested in the 
best examples sent to Philadelphia, is poetic, pure, and sincere in 
character. While it sometimes sinks to the level of mere plati- 
tude, it is seldom strained, frivolous, or vulgar. As a school, it 
does not abound in painters of exceptional merit, but its represen- 
tative artists are not surpassed in those qualities which constitute 
true excellence, nor any painters of the present day more learned 
in the technical requirements of the art. 

In landscape-painting the English exhibit gave the impression 
of a prevailing mannerism that was neither agreeable nor vigor- 
ous ; but Mr. Hunter's " Trawlers Waiting for the Darkness " is a 
very marked exception to this criticism, manifesting great individ- 
uality. In water-color painting the superiority of the English has 
been long acknowledged ; it is of late, however, very adequately 
rivalled in France, and perhaps in some cases in this country. 
Messrs. Tadema, Linton, Jopling, Marks, Callow, and Gilbert 
were well represented in this branch of art. 

The British exhibit in sculpture was slight. The bust of Flax- 
man by Bailey, and that of West by Chantrey, loaned by the 
Royal Academy, were of interest, and the Venus, by Gibson, is 
worthy of his reputation; but these are all deceased sculptors. 
The large terra-cotta group of " America," from the Albert Memo- 
rial, by Mr. John Bell, is not without vigor and merit, though 
decorative in character. At the present time England possesses 
no sculptors of more than average ability, nor is a susceptibility 
to pure form a national characteristic. 


--... cm.) 



[A paper read before the Civil Engineers' Club of the North-West, Chicago, Sept. 
4, 1877.] 

SEVERAL works have been written on the graphical analysis of 
roof-trusses ; but in none that I know of have the re-actions at the 
supports been determined graphically, except when the loads were 
symmetrical and vertical. The purpose of this paper is to explain 

how, by means of the equi- 
librium polygon, the re- 
actions may be really ob- 
tained when the loads act 
in a variety of directions, 
no one of them being equal 
or parallel to any other. 
Bow's notation is used 
throughout. It is pre- 
sumed that the reader is 
acquainted with so much 
of graphical calculation as 
is shown in Bow's " Eco- 
nomics of Construction," 1 
Von Ott's "Graphic Sta- 
tics," 2 or Greene's " Graph- 
cal Analysis of Roof-Truss- 
es." 8 If a comprehensive 
work on graphical statics 
is desired, it can be found 
in Du Bois's " Graphical 
_ Statics." * 


Shows the equilibrium polygon as applied to vertical loads : it is 
similar to that shown in most works on graphical statics, and is 
given here to introduce the subject, and to exhibit Bow's notation 
as applied thereto. 

The loads are supposed to be applied to a beam shown in (i). 
The loads A B, B C, etc., are laid off (in) in a straight line, since 
they are all parallel. This constitutes the load, or force polygon; 
and its closing line AF overlies all the loads. Now the question 
is, AF being the sum of both re-actions, how much of it is borne 
by each support. 

Any point, P, is assumed as a pole; and lines are drawn from this 
pole to the ends of the several loads, A, B, C, etc. Then, parallel 

' Economics of Construction in relation to Framed Structures. By Robert H. 
Bow. London : E. & F. N. Spon. 

The Klcmcnu of Graphic Statics. By Karl Van Ott; translated by George 8. 
Clarke. London : E. & F. N. Spon. 

'Graphical Analysis of Roof-Trusses. By Charles E. Greene. Chicago : George 
J l . F rost. 

tiTi'i' 1 h e J 5 ' 01 " 18 of Graphical Statics. By A. J. Du Bois. New York: John 
Wiley & Won. 

to these lines, are drawn in (11) the lines a, b, c, etc., cutting the 
direction of, and being terminated by the prolongation of, the loads 
A B, B C, C D, etc. (i). Thus, from any point on the line AZ, the 
line a is drawn parallel to the line PA (in) from the pole to A. 
From the right-hand end of a, b is drawn parallel to PB, and 
from the right hand of b, c is drawn, and so on, until at last FZ 
is reached. Then the closing line z is drawn. By drawing from 
the pole P (m) the line PZ, parallel to z, the point Z is obtained, 
which is the dividing-point in AF; AZ being the re-action at one 
support, and ZF the re-action at the other. 

One advantage of Bow's notation may here be noted. The line 
a in (n) crosses the space A (i), and is parallel to the line in 
(in), from the pole P to A. The line l> in (n) crosses the space 
B (i), and is parallel to the line PB in (in), from the pole to 
B; and, generally, the line in (11) crossing the space between the 
directions of any two adjacent loads in (i), denoted by any letter, 
is parallel to the line in (in) from the pole to that letter. This is 
of use in keeping track of the corresponding lines. 


Indicates a beam which is acted on by unequal loads acting in 
various directions. The load or force polygon is shown in (iv), 
the loads being there laid off in both direction and amount. HA 
is the closing line ; that is, it gives the sum of the re-actions at 
both supports: P is taken as the pole. Two equilibrium polygons 


(n.) / 

are shown. We will first consider that shown in (n). This is 
drawn exactly as previously described for Fig. 1. A point on the 
direction of the force AZ is assumed ; a is drawn parallel to PA 
(IT) until it cuts the direction of the next load or force AB. b is 
drawn parallel to PB, and so on. z is the closing line of the equi- 
librium polygon ; and a line parallel to this, drawn through P, will 
give the point Z of division in the line AH; A Z being the re- 
action at one support, and ZH at the other. 

When the point of commencement of the line a is assumed 
lower down, as shown in (in), the equilibrium polygon will as- 
sume a different shape ; but, if it is correctly drawn, the closing 
line will be parallel to that found in (n). The only precaution to 
be taken is to be sure to draw the lines of the polygon from the 
direction of one load or force to the direction of the load or forco 
which is next adjacent at the beam, although, in so doing, you may 
cross the direction of other forces. 

Thus in (in) the line a is drawn parallel to PA (iv), from the 
direction of the force AZ to the dii>ction of the force AB. al- 
though, in doing so, it crosses the direction of the force BC; 
because, at the beam, AB is adjacent to AZ. Then b is drawn 
from the direction of AB to the direction BC, although, in doing 
so, it is drawn towards the left. Then c is drawn from BC to CD, 
crossing the direction of several forces ; and generally, the letters 
being placed in alphabetical order between the forces at the beam, 
the lines of the equilibrium polygon are drawn in the same order 
from the direction of AZ to the direction of AB, from AB to BC, 
from BC to CD, and so on. 

The two equilibrium polygons shown in (n) and (ill) are of 
different shape ; but their corresponding lines are parallel, their 
closing lines included : consequently the line drawn through P, 
parallel to either closing line, will cut All in the same point Z. 





I :. tttt .'" I ' B I 




!'^iz!S-zz:ir^ '-<^- 
Iliillipii TflO 

^n^ L jfilU 





JflN. 26. 157<S . 


JANUARY 6, 1878.] T/ie American Architect and Building News. 


As there is no necessity for actually drawing the lines from the 
role to the points on the polygon of forces, in future they will not 
be drawn. 


Is similar to Fig. 2, except that some of the forces act in an up- 
ward direction ; but that does not affect the solution. 

Diagram (iv) is the load, or force polygon; HA being the clos- 
ing line, AZ and ZH being the re-actions at the supports There 
are two equilibrium polygons (n) and (in) for the same set of 

It accidentally happens, that, in drawing the line a (in), it 
strikes the intersection of the forces AB and BC ; that is, the lines 
a, AB, and BC, all intersect in the same point: consequently the 
distance, in the equilibrium polygon, from AB to BC equal o ; that 
is to say, the line b = o, or disappears, and we have no line b in 
(in) corresponding with b in (n). 


Gives a common form of roof-truss. Diagram (in) is the polygon 
of forces. Since the tie-beam or lower chord is a straight line, and 
they act at the points of support, the forces III and 1 2 II 2 do not 
enter into the polygon of forces, as will be shown hereafter. The 
polygon of forces then is II, G, F, F 2 , G 2 , H 2 , II; the closing line 
being HH 2 . P is taken as the pole, and the equilibrium polygon 
(n) drawn precisely as before described. This gives Z as the 

dividing-point in the closing line, the re-actions at the supports 
being HZ and ZH 2 . The strains in the members of the truss can 
then be drawn in the usual way as described in Bow's " Economics 
of Construction," or Greene's " Analysis of Roof-Trusses." 

If it is desired to introduce the forces IH and I 2 H 2 , which act 
directly on the supports, it can be readily done by drawing them 
as shown in (in) ; then join I. and I 3 , which constitutes the closing 
line of all the forces ; and Z 2 is the dividing-point, the re-actions 
now being IZ 2 and Z 2 ! 2 . The only effect of this on the truss will 
be to alter the strains in the tie-beam, they being now measured 
from Z 2 , instead of Z ; the strains in all the other members re- 
maining the same. This also indicates that two equal amounts of 
horizontal force might be combined with the re-actions, one added 
to each, provided such amounts acted in contrary directions, with- 
out affecting any other member than the tie-beam. If the work 
is correctly done, the strain diagram will always close: if it does 
not do so, it is conclusive evidence that an error has been made in 
the work. 



THIS house has been built during the past year in a charming 
situation on the shore of Long Island Sound, about seventeen 
miles distant from the city of New York. Besides a desire to 
maintain the general expression of the old English domestic style, 
the owner was unwilling to forego the spaciousness and comfort 
of the ancient Dutch " stoop," so common in the older houses of the 
country. To meet this wish, the architect has endeavored to bring 
this local feature into harmony with the general style of the build- 
ing. The material of the lower or principal story is of Haversti-aw 
brick, with plinth course and bands of Amherst stone, the upper 
stories being also of brick, with solid exterior framing and barge- 
boards of a dark oak color. The rear of the house has a spacious 
veranda, with a semi-octagonal central pavilion and balcony over, 
which command a noble view of the Sound, and of the opposite 
hills of Long Island, a range of upwards of thirty miles. 




This explains itself as a covered hucksters' market, or Halle. 
It is designed to stand in one of the principal streets, at a point 
where the street widens for two squares to a width of about a 
hundred and fifty feet. Men having small vegetable-gardens, and 
farmers in the vicinity of the city, come with their wagons in great 
numbers to this point. Frequently there are as many as two hun- 
dred or more to be seen there of a morning, weather permitting. 
The building is to be erected at the expense of the property-holders 
in the vicinity. 


We here reproduce from the Fragments <? Architecture et de Sculp- 
ture of M. G. Bourgerel, one of the numerous fountains at Viterbo 
which were mentioned by Mr. Peabody in his account of a visit to 
Viterbo, published lately in this paper. 



This fountain is a notable feature of the facade of the market 
Sainle-Clalrc, and is here reproduced from an engraving in the 
Revue Generate de I' Architecture. 


[From a paper read by Richard Weaver, C. E., F. C. 8., Sanitary Surveyor, and 
published in the Journal of the Society of Arts.'} 

THERE are various reasons why the more perfect exclusion of 
sewage emanations from the interior of buildings has not at- 
tracted that close attention of sanitary engineers which the 
national importance of the subject demands. The magnitude 
and the emoluments of out-door works entirely dwarf the com- 
paratively trifling matter of the internal arrangements of domestic 
drainage ; and the indifference of the public to the subject, com- 
bined with the simplicity of faith and unwarranted assumption 
that things out of sight are right, have certainly not hitherto been 
very encouraging to the reformer. 

I know of no one who is more keenly sensitive than myself to 
the inconvenience of breathing tainted air or drinking foul water; 
but I cannot approve of the often-uttered expressions by men, 
even of experience and influence, such as the " deadly sewer-gas- 
es," and "death in the cistern." Their opinions, given with f;ood 
intentions, defeat their object; for people are apt to think that the 
shades are drawn deeper than requisite, and if the dangers were 
so great as presented, there would be fewer of us left to tarfc 
about it, considering that we all take our peck of dirt in the form 
of aerial and solid sewage rather frequently. 

There are congregations of populations within my knowledge 
who regularly consume their own filth, and drink up their fluid 
refuse with the water ; places where the receiving cesspits are in 
such near juxtaposition with the domestic well, that the water lines 
become identical, and intermittent exchange is maintained ; and yet 
many of these places are considered healthy, and figure so in the 
Registrar's returns. An example is within recollection of a small 
town where nothing more loathsome can well be conceived than 
the social habits of the inhabitants, where for fourteen years, the 
community enjoyed good health before an imported epidemic 
attacked more than a third of the population, of whom many 

The remedy for prevailing errors lies in a recognition of their 
existence, less by legislative action than by reform within the 
bosom of every family without distinction, and it should rightly 
begin with those who sit in high places ; for my range of observa- 
tion, if limited, is sufficiently wide to enable me to say with some 
confidence, that the larger and mpre important residences are 


The American Architect and Building Xews. [VOL. III. No. 109. 

relatively in a worse condition than the humbler abodes of the 
working: classes, causing necessity for a more frequent change of 
air and locality, due to the foul state of the atmosphere of metro- 
politan mansions, a condition of things rarely suspected, but 
universally existing. If, it may be said, there is not much detri- 
ment to health from the present state of dwelling-houses, when 
viewed from the poiut presented by reference to the mortality 
rat '8, I still venture to think that much of that indefined indispo- 
sition of families headache, nausea, dyspepsia, lassitude, and 
such small complaints are often created by breathing the foul 
atmosphere of the house, a foulness, most likely, not perceived by 
the usual inmates. 

There is no occasion for me to appear rude, and I have no in- 
tention of being so, in the following criticisms ; but I am induced 
to submit them, so as to bring home to every one the fact that, 
notwithstanding we pride ourselves on our decency and cleanliness, 
and our inclination to set ourselves up as patterns to Continental 
neighbors, I say, the fact is, we are a dirty and an unclean people. 

A few days ago, 1 made an inspection of a medical gentleman's 
house, a man who is a frequent attendant upon social confer- 
ences, and well read in matters of hygeia. Well, when I came to 
the water-cistern, he assured me the waste-pipe delivered into the 
ground a little below the surface ; but as I make it a point to take 
nothing for granted in my examinations, and must have personal 
demonstration, we opened out the subsoil, and found the overflow 
orifice discharged into a drain directly communicating with the 
sewer up which air of a fetid character arose. In point of fact, the 
waste-pipe acted as the upcast shaft to ventilate the house drains 
and public sewer, the delivery taking place in the cistern an inch 
or two above the water line. Of course, seeing the defect himself 
one of many the fact was confirmative, otherwise I think it 
would have been difficult to convince this gentleman of the nui- 

If a guest enters a drawing-room with boots spotted with 
honest mud, he is, peradvcnture, looked upon askance ; but it is a 
matter of no moment that the host immediately charges his lungs 
with abominations vomited forth from the common sewers, through 
defective closets and scullery sinks, with which the atmosphere of 
the house is tainted, curiously hidden in vapor of preparing viands 
ascending from the kitchen, which no mansion, however modern, 
seems to be without. 

It is a singular thing, and perhaps suspected by few minds, 
that the conditions essential for the enjoyment of sound, robust 
health, least exist in localities where they are most required ; and 
I put it to you as the fruit of observation, that our hospitals, as 
types of public institutions, are the most indecent in respect of 
their sanitary measures ; whilst the gin-palaces, as representative 
of another class, are the best. In the first, I include public build- 
ings, houses, churches, clubs, schools, hotels, and coffee-houses, 
with many others; and, in the second, the business parts of butch- 
ers', bakers', greengrocers', confectioners', with some other shops. 
Basing the calculation of averages from an examination of several 
hundred buildings, made within the last year, I am in a position 
to say that ninety-nine per cent of metropolitan dwellings are 
polluted very seriously by the admittance of sewage air through 
the various openings for the removal of liquid refuse. 

Before passing on to the practical object of this paper, the means 
available for effectually avoiding the current nuisances common to 
all dwellings, I will intrude upon you one more illustration of the 
indecencies of modern living, taken from the residence of a saga- 
cious, well-informed gentleman of eminence, who, always inter- 
ested in social subjects, is not unknown in this hall, which I was 
invited to inspect so recently that the evils pointed out still remain 
unameliorated. In the first place, in the kitchen, as there is no 
open fire-place, but close stoves and hot plates, the whole of the 
volatile culinary products are discharged into the basement, the 
bulk of which ascend to the upper premises. There are no venti- 
lating appliances in this palatial establishment, but a fair amount 
of air of a sort is procured from outside the building, conducted 
through the yard grids, and thence by the scullery-pipes to the 
several passages of the house. Another supply, voluminous in 
quantity, is emitted from the soil-pipes of the water-closets, 
another source being through the waste-pipes of the service cis- 
terns. The air of the whole building of the magnificent cham- 
bers of great length and height, and of the upper offices is sin- 
gularly stale and unpleasant. Nevertheless the servants express 
perfect satisfaction, and profess to enjoy excellent health ; but, if 
this is so, are the conditions of living proper are they decent 
even ? 

It is many years since I became acquainted with the inadequacy 
and insecurity of the usual hydraulic traps applied to house drain- 
age to stop the back flow of sewer air. At the most, and under 
the best conditions, assuming perfect joints, and with sound mate- 
rials, they merely obstructed the rush of air ; the passage from 
the, drains to the house took place more slowly and insidiously. 
Well, after laboring for some time for improvement, I adopted a 
simple device formed out of a siphon glazed-ware pipe, with an 
opening at the socket, and communicating with the ground sur- 
face for the entrance of fresh air, and then, by the aid of open- 
ings at the tops of stack, bath, and soil pipes, to keep up a system 
of natural and self-acting air circulation throughout the drainage ; 

so that any passage effected through the porous pipes, joints, or 
traps -very little, perhaps, by reason of the equal tension of the 
air within and without the pipes would be robbed of virulence, 
because the air, being ordinary atmospheric air, and not sewer 
emanations, is quite harmless. The idea was taken from and, 
in fact, was an attempt to adopt underground the system not 
much practised in London, but common in provincial towns, of 
severing connection with the scullery, by delivering the pipe into 
the air over a trapped grating, but which had never been carried 
into practice, so far as I know, with water-closets, nor with drains 
passing through the house. 

As the arrangement has become known through the professional 

Eress, and by the proceedings of a kindred association, and possi- 
ly is known to you, I need not further describe it. I may, how- 
ever, say that with some years' experience of its working it gives 
me every satisfaction, as it thoroughly effects complete severance 
between the house and sewer, preventing the admittance of any 
foul air and pollution to water, the whole being accomplished at a 
cost which, I think, is not immoderate considering the substantial 
benefits derived; and that it does not generally exceed 5 per house 
in occupied buildings, in new structures practically amounting to 
nothing extra upon the usual drainage outlay. 

Some question has arisen as to the feasibility of implied action 
of the siphon system of ventilating and trapping drains and sew- 
ers, which is best answered by stating the result of many hundred 
examinations. The air circulation is produced by compound 
causes ; first, we have the currents due to the natural mobility of 
the air, as exemplified in all vertical shafts open at each extremi- 
ty, and well illustrated by a chimney-flue without a fire. This 
motion is accelerated by the passage of water down the pipes, 
creating a reversed aerial current, and again by the warm dis- 
charges from the kitchen. The upward flow is augmented by the 
heat absorbed from the sun's rays by the ventilating pipes. But 
the most potent agent in keeping up the circulation is the wind 
blowing squarely across the mouth of ventilating pipes, creating 
an exhaust and consequent up-current, for it is old knowledge that 
the rapid passage of a fluid across the orifice of a tube reduces the 
tension within that tube. 

Under exceptional circumstances and local obstructions, there 
is occasionally a down draught through the pipes, which act as the 
long leg of the siphon system of ventilation ; but this is of no 
moment, for the outlet being lower down and outside the build- 
ing, the aerial discharge takes place there after sweeping through 
the drain-pipes, and is generally devoid of smell, for I find that, 
after a few weeks, operation with fairly laid glazed pipes, although 
they may have been down for years, the oxidizing effect of the 
continuous body of fresh air passing over the surface deposits 
within the pipes, entirely consumes the putrid matters. The cur- 
rents, however, are generally ascendant, and deliver at the roof 
level. A series of observations conducted under varying condi- 
tions and localities determine the average velocity of flow at three 
to four lineal feet per second in calm weather, which increases to 
nine feet, and often twelve feet with a strong wind. And it is to 
this severance of the house from the sewer by the water seal of 
the siphon trap, in conjunction with the sweeping air currents 
maintained through every drainage pipe of the house, that I de- 
pend for clean air and clean water within the building, and it is 
most certain in its action. 




THE New York and Brooklyn Bridge Company has just been 
brought in by a coroner's verdict as indirectly responsible for a loss 
of life by the falling of a pair of brick arches at the Brooklyn 
Anchorage. The construction is by a series of heavy brick arches 
turned between stout brick piers. The space between crowns 
is about eleven feet ; and two of these arches had been placed in 
position, when the top one was felt to be settling. The men sprang 
to the pier-top, and were all saved but Neil Mullen, a laborer 
working below the lower arch, who was crushed by the bricks of 
the two arches ; the upper one carrying down the lower in its fall. 
The testimony shows that in building one of the abutment-piers, a 
large granite skewback, weighing two tons or more, accidentally 
swung up against the brick pier, and gave it such a shock as to 
destroy the "set" of the mortar, and impair the cohesiveness of 
the pile. This was not observed at the time, and the stone was 
laid, and the arches turned; and it was not until the pier was 
taken down after the accident, that its instability and lack of 
power to withstand the thrust was noted. The jury found that 
the accident was in some degree caused by the too early knocking- 
out of the centring; but Mr. C. C. Martin and George \V. McNulty, 
the assistant engineers, placed the blame more particularly upon 
the weakened pier. The verdict reads : 

" It is the opinion of ther jury, that had the ' centres ' been allowed to 
remain a sufficient time to have admitted of the mortar becoming prop- 

JANUARY 26, 1878.] The American Architect and Biiildiny News. 


erly set, the accident, might have been avoided; and they are more 
strongly inclined to this belief, from the testimony that one of the piers 
which supported the arches in question had sustained an injury during 
the progress of the work, which was not deemed at the time to be of a 
very serious character by those in charge of the work, but was, it seems 
to the jury, of sufficient importance to have called for greater precau- 
tion in the construction of the arches, pending the construction of the 
final pier or abutment, with the completion of which, in our opinion, 
such an accident would be impossible." 

The Gilbert Elevated Railroad Company promises to do some- 
things creditable in the erection of the waiting-stations along the 
line of their rapid-transit road. Along the artery avenues, the sta- 
tions span the cross streets ; and a plan of one really means a treat- 
Trient for all. The company have decided to use sheet-iron, and 
to get at the best way of doing so invited designs from a number 
of architects, who declined, of course, to enter into such an indefi- 
nite competition ; and the company finally ordered sketches from a 
number of prominent architects, including Messrs. Potter & Rob- 
ertson, C. F. McKim, George Harney, A., I. Bloor, and others. The 
Board of Directors have not yet decided which, if any, of the plans 
will be adopted. 

Mr. Henry G. Harrison, the architect of the Stewart Memorial 
Cathedral at Garden City, has decided upon very radical changes 
in that building. The chancel has now thirteen sides, and the in- 
creased depth here, and the addition of a bay to the choir, has 
secured effects within and without which were painfully wanting 
in the first design. Work is progressing favorably, and the tem- 
porary roof is now on. The gargoyles along the cornice line and 
at other points have been modelled directly in the clay by Sir. 
Harrison, and for positive treatment are a valuable series of stud- 
ies. The crypt in which the bodies of Mr. and Mrs. Stewart are 
to be laid will now be placed immediately below the chancel, in- 
stead of below the vestry-room. The new crypt will be a fourteen- 
sided room, with triple columns of various-colored marbles at each 
of the angles. The light will be abundant; and the white marble 
groining and carving, with pierced screens of the same material 
cutting the crypt from the Sunday-school room, promise to give a 
rich effect. 

The Long Island Historical Society hava not yet decided by the 
aid of which of the dozen plans submitted they will expend the 
eighty thousand dollars set apart for their new building. One of 
the competitors is from Boston, one from Philadelphia, three from 
Brooklyn ; and the rest, some half-dozen in all, are of New York, 
Mr. Eidlitz taking no part in it. A decision will be probably 
reached in a few days. 

There is a movement on foot to organize a book club for the 
purchase of works on architecture ; the loaning of the volumes to 
be confined strictly to the members of the club. Mr. Hardenberg 
is pushing the project vigorously, and the books when secured will 
be kept in the Institute rooms. 

Gen. R. C. McCormick, the United States Commissioner to the 
Paris Exhibition, is much concerned about the facade which must 
be provided for the United States section in the main building. 
With the limited fund at his disposal, nothing very costly at least 
will be attempted. The section is between the English and Rus- 
sian sections, so that by immediate comparison at least an excel- 
lent opportunity is afforded. Mr. Pcttit, who was the engineer 
architect of the Main Building at Philadelphia in 1876, is now in 
Europe; and efforts are being made to summon him to Paris, that 
he may make and carry out a design for this facade. 

The Chamber of Commerce liere will make a renewed effort 
this winter to secure from Congress the right to purchase the old 
Post Office site for the erection of a new Commercial Exchange. 
The right to buy additional lots in the rear has been secured ; and 
if the project is carried out, a by-street will be run along the rear 
to obtain light on all sides. Congress can do no more equitable 
thing than grant the prayer of the New York merchants. 



A STRANGER coming to St. John now, nearly seven months after 
the great fire, would be surprised at the rapid progress which has 
been made in rebuilding the city ; warehouses, stores, and dwell- 
ings have sprung up almost in a day. Dock Street where the fire 
began, and King Street, have been nearly restored, most of the 
buildings are occupied, and business is going on much as usual. 
In other parts of the city the work has been quite as rapid, 
although, the tract of territory burnt being so large, the buildings 
are somewhat scattered. Nearly nine hundred buildings of all 
kinds have been erected; of these one-half are of brick, while the 
others are of wood, there having been as yet but one stone front 
put up. 

Architecturally the buildings may be characterized as mediocre, 
and it would be difficult to find a city of the size and commercial 
importance of St. John in which there were not more worthy 
buildings. If any one is in search of a vernacular American 
(Canadian?) architecture, he has but to come here. One might 
travel for weeks and months, and then not meet their equals in 
point of conception. The use of galvanized iron and colored 
bricks has done much to assist the development of this vernacular 
architecture ; cornices of three or four feet projection, immense 

gables, pediments, towers, etc., of galvanized iron, are innumerable ; 
in fact, there seems to be no limit to the uses to which it has been 
put. A store on Prince William Street has on its front some ten or 
twelve hundred dollars worth of this stuff, when for the same 
amount of money it might have been neatly finished with sand- 
stone. In passing along the street one has but to glance up at a 
building to see a couple of workmen placing into position an im- 
mense cornice, some twenty or thirty feet long, of what appears to 
be stone, but is really nothing but galvanized iron. The use of 
enamelled bricks has been quite as extensive as that of iron. I 
thought when I wrote my last, that the fever had reached its 
height, but no, the Globe office in Prince William Street, of 
which Messrs. Dunham & Clarke are the architects, is the climax, 
or perhaps 1 might say anti-climax, of this architecture : as an 
example of polychromatic decoration it stands unexcelled. Besides 
stone and iron, there are used in this front red, black, buff, white, 
blue, and I don't know how many other colors of bricks, giving it 
much the appearance of a kaleidoscopic pattern. 

Among the buildings begun or nearly completed, that were not 
mentioned in my last, are several schools and churches; of the 
former the rebuilt Victoria School by McKean & Fairweather is 
perhaps the costliest and best designed. It is of brick with sand- 
stone flush belts and other finish, there being no projecting orna- 
mentation from the basement to the cornice ; and consists of three 
high stories and Mansard roof, while on the front is a tower which 
rises a story higher. The window-openings have pointed stone 
and brick arches, with a band of buff enamelled bricks carried 
around the extrados, detracting somewhat from the otherwise care- 
ful design. On the opposite side of Duke Street, a little farther 
down, is the Central Madras School, one of the several schools of 
the Madras School Board connected with Trinity parish ; the 
architect is Mr. J. C. Babcock. The Roman Catholics have 
erected in Carmarthen Street, from the designs of M. Stead, ju,n., 
a large building called St. Malachi's Hall, to be used for school 
and other purposes. There is one other large building which 
may be classed with the schools, the Wiggin's Male Orphan 
Asylum, a Church-of-England institution, richly endowed ; it has 
been rebuilt with the addition of a Mansard roof, giving it much 
better accommodations. Among the churches may be mentioned 
St. David's, nearly completed ; St. Andrew's, from the designs of 
Langley, Langley, & Burke of Toronto, of which the Sunday school 
only has been built; and the Centenary Chapel, Methodist, which 
has been but lately begun; it is of stone to the top of the spire, 
while the other churches are almost entirely of brick, and it will 
cost nearly one hundred thousand dollars; the architect is Mr. John 
Welch of New York. The Germain Street Baptist Society have 
their building roofed in, Dumaresq & Dewar of Halifax being the 
architects. Nearly all the banks will rebuild. The competition 
for the Bank of New Brunswick has been awarded to II. F. Star- 
buck of Boston ; it will have two stories on Prince William Street, 
while on Water Street, which is some twenty and odd feet lower, 
there will be four stories; the dimensions are about 08 feet in the 
former street and 50 feet in the latter, with a depth of 90 feet. 
The entire Prince William Street story is used for banking pur- 
poses, with stockholders' and janitor's apartments in the second 
story ; the lower stories on Water Street will be rented as stores. 
The front is that of a classic temple. The Maritime Bank began 
operations several weeks ago on their lot in King Street, from the 
plans of Hopkins & Wiley of Montreal. The other banks will 
probably begin in the spring, when the weather is a little more 
suitable for building purposes than it is at present. 

In the burnt portion of the town the streets are rectangular, so 
that the lots would be quite easy to build upon if it were not for the 
dimensions, which are almost universally 40 x 100 feet, thus ren- 
dering the planning of a house quite difficult owing to the extreme 
length ; the houses are seldom over two, or two and a half stories 
high, and for this reason are carried out the full length of the lot. 
Another difficulty is found in the unusually hilly condition of the 
city, making it almost impossible, except on certain streets, to 
build a block of more than two houses. 

A number of persons here, acting and practising as architects, 
have taken upon themselves, besides their own legitimate business, 
the agency of building materials, such as tiles, enamelled bricks, 
sash-weights, window-fastenings, etc., while the dishonorable and 
unprofessional practice of receiving percentages from builders is 
carried on quite extensively. What with these practices and the 
cut-throat propensities of some members of the profession in un- 
derbidding each other for the sake of a job, architecture as a pro- 
fession has sunk considerably in the estimation of the people; so 
that clients run from one architect to another until they find one 
to suit them, he being not unfrequerttly the cheapest. 


GERMAN PATENTS. In the recent revision of its patent laws, the 
German Government has adopted some of the features of the United 
States patent system; among them that of publishing a periodical 
containing a description of recent inventions, similar to the United 
States Patent-Office Gazette. At the opening of the Imperial Patent 
Office a circular was issued explaining the plan upon which its busi- 
ness is to be conducted, and soliciting suggestions from other countries 
more conversant with the workings of the system. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 109. 


NEW YOKK, Jan. 1878. 

THE " Loan Exhibition" held at the Academy of Design, New 
York, has closed with most successful pecuniary results. The 
thrones that have visited it during the past month have unques- 
tionably carried away with them the memory of interesting objects 
in abundance and of a general coup ( of brilliant beauty. 
Whether they have gained much solid information as to the ever- 
lasting principles or past practices of decorative art, there is good 
reason to doubt. The exhibition has professed to be not only a 
pretty show of what could be gathered rare, valuable, and 
curious from the homes of New York, but also a temporary 
school of art. Claiming this, it invited criticism of a sort that 
would be ungracious had its claims been less high. Offering 
" culture " as well as gratification for the eye, the managers pur- 
posely put the price of admission very low, and invited to its 
rooms those who, as art students or artisans, would come for in- 
struction in their special fields. An exhibition planned with this 
object, carried out consistently, and employing with discretion the 
treasures to which it had access, might be followed by very good 
results; for there is no city where more attention is paid to-day to 
the decorative arts, where more earnest though sometimes lament- 
ably undirected efforts are being made to understand them and 
improve their practice. To be as useful as it might, such an ex- 
hibition would need to be in competent, and above all in strict 
hands ; it would need to be most carefully arranged in some sys- 
tematic way, in sequence chronological, geographical, according 
to material, or according to style. It would need to be fully and 
instructively catalogued witli reference to a rather low standpoint 
of knowledge of styles, peniods, and handiwork. Nothing inferior 
should be admitted, nothing vaguely labelled, or carelessly praised. 
When I say that the past exhibition has not met these require- 
ments, I mean no word of dispraise for the ladies who have ex- 
pended so great an amount of time and industry, and shown such 
excellent taste, in its arrangement. One does not blame the exhi- 
bition for being no more than it has been, a wonderfully attrac- 
tive and "fashionable" salon, a confused but eminently picturesque 
assemblage of interesting bric-a-brac : one only blames it for lay- 
ing claim to higher merit. It was a pretty show, but in no sense 
of the word even a temporary " school of art." 

The general effect was charming. Large quantities of tapestry 
and woven and embroidered hangings of all kinds were placed at 
the managers' disposal, and gave them a means of decoration 
which they used with unquestionable success. The Bric-a-brac 
Room, especially its farther end as seen from and framed by the 
door of the picture-gallery, was very beautiful. It was hard to 
single out any for especial admiration among the many gorgeous 
fabrics, yet some almost compelled particular mention. One in 
the corridor, a ''specimen" piece of Japanese embroidery in the 
most brilliant patterns on a yellow ground, bore witness that no 
depth or height of color is illegitimate in decorative art, if the 
hand that weaves it be cunning. Near it hung a Persian em- 
broidery of the well-known " sacred-tree " pattern, subdued in 
color, and admirable for conventional grace ; also two panels of 
gorgeous Japanese work, one of which, with birds and a mountain, 
could not well be surpassed for conventional treatment of land- 
scape. It is impossible, again, to overpraise the delicate and re- 
fined art of some of the Chinese and Persian needleworked bed- 
spreads, etc. Some of the Japanese work notably the large and 
splendid " Japanese Poet's Hanging," exhibited the effects possi- 
ble of production with massive gold lines to accentuate the design. 
An interesting piece of French tapestry marked A.D. 1500 would 
have justified an earlier date, and was in excellent preservation, 
characteristic and beautiful. But even this, how far inferior to 
Oriental work I Its color was harmonious through reserve ; while 
iu Asiatic work the coloring has the higher beauty of being har- 
monious in spite of because of the most daring brilliancy. 
To the specimens of modern work after good models sent by 
Messrs. Herter I give high praise when I say that their close con- 
tact with Oriental work did not decolorize and spoil them. On 
the other hand, there were some hangings with quasi-Oriental de- 
signs, the property of a New York artist, that were clever enough 
as amateur work, but hardly seen to advantage amid their mas- 
terly surroundings, and by no means entitled to hang as samples 
of what decorative art should be. 

The furniture in the Mediaeval Room was not very remarka- 
ble and was carelessly labelled. The most striking object was a 
Spanish cabinet in gilt-wood and velvet, attributed to the fifteenth 
century, and very probably of that age, as it seemed to show no 
traces of the Renaissance. It was more showy than artistic, except 
in the metal-work of the hinges, etc., and had evidently been regilt 
and painted at no very distant day. Near it were two very fine 
chairs which might teach the apostles of the present furniture 
reform that they have not yet exhausted all the good shapes. In 
the Bric-a-brac Room, were two more chairs, one iu ivory from 
Delhi said to be six hundred years old. It should have been noted 
that its ugly covering was a very modem addition. The other, 
marked "Louis Quirize,"was by no means that, but "Louis Seize" 
or " Empire," and its needlework, I should think, of the present 

Passing now to the cabinets of the Bric-h-brac Room, we find 
that their contents were arranged with inimitable graqe and effec- 
tiveness. But effect had been too exclusively sought, and the 
articles were not so well arranged, for the purposes of study, as 
they might have been. As with the hangings, Persian, Chinese, 
Japanese, modern, mediaeval, and Renaissance were inextricably 
mixed, and study of them almost impossible, so here, pottery of all 
times and climes, metal, jewelled, and enamelled works, were pic- 
turesquely huddled together. The pottery was not very good, but 
might have been moderatively instructive, had one not been obliged 
to hunt through many cases, and peer into many remote shelf- 
corners, to be sure whether or no a wished-for specimen was to fc . 
be found. Those who knew little of styles and specimens, and had 
no wish to find any particular thing, merely a desire for general 
information, must have been rather hopelessly bewildered. Sev- 
eral articles claimed to be " Chinese Imperial Yellow," which fact 
a critic might doubt. If they really are believed to be genuine, 
their pedigree should at least be shown. Of course there were most 
exquisite specimens of Satsuma, Kioto, and other Oriental wares ; 
but I did not find a single piece of Persian pottery, perhaps, if 
we except the best Greek art, the most perfect product that has 
ever left the wheel. Various examples of maiolica proved how 
entirely the value of Italian earthen-ware depends on painting as 
distinguished from modelling. To the artist it was absolutely of 
no moment whether or not a certain (/res jug " came over in the 
Mayflower," as it was said to have done. It was in any case a 
sample of true and excellent art, as well as a fine specimen of the 
combined use of the only three colors brown, gray, and cobalt 
used in this ware. Just what was meant by a label reading 
" Henri Deux faience ewer, reproduction, eighteenth century," it 
is hard to say. It was copied from the Oiron pottery, doubtless, 
though merely painted, not inlaid ; but it is new to hear of any 
reproduction of that ware dating from the last century. In pottery 
one found also good examples of M. Solon's art. Undeniably 
beautiful though it is, has it not been almost overpraised of late? 

It must be to many lovers of art a matter of regret that the dis- 
tinction between a work of art per se and decorative work of how- 
ever fine a grade is so often lost sight of. It is very well to hang, 
even to frame, fine Capo di Monte reliefs, or the masterly paintings 
of old maiolica ; but clever modern plaques, with broad contours 
and flat tints, like some of Deck's here shown, are, no matter what 
their correctness of line or harmony of color, decorative merely, 
and should find their place in the doors of a buffet or the panels of 
a wainscot, not in frames for independent effect. 

In gold and silver work there were some very pretty specimens, 
especially Qf the Queen Anne and rococo styles, a few fine Orien- 
tal and antique examples, and some characteristic Scandinavian 
and Russian handiwork. A few samples of contemporary work 
by Kirke and Tiffany seemed inferior to the older art in both vigor 
and delicacy of touch. In the Mediaeval Room was some good 
Italian work in copper and repousse brass, and one of the most 
beautiful objects in the whole collection, a Byzantine crucifix. 
The pictures which filled the large north room were not with a 
few exceptions of great excellence. They were chiefly remark- 
able as expressing the fashion of the day; almost all the artists 
represented ranking as first favorites with our public. 

More interesting than any of these must have been, to the archi- 
tect, the little specimens of window-glass, rather too often at vari- 
ance with their printed descriptions, but giving some interesting 
consecutive examples. The best piece was a circular compart- 
ment in the first style of mediaeval work, catalogued as "very 
old," and as representing the " Byzantine eagle." Whatever may 
represent that bird, this medallion certainly does not; for it showed 
a straight-beaked bird, with its bill open and wings flapping in the 
midst of flames, perhaps a phoenix? From the architectural de- 
tails of the background, the harmonious brilliancy and depth of 
color, this littlq gem may very easily date back to the twelfth cen- 
tury. Another bit of later work, " Angel Playing Chimes," was 
most beautiful. Two pieces attributed to Diirer should rather 
have been called " painted " than " stained glass," and should by 
no means have been noted as the " highest style of mediaeval art." 
" Mediaeval " art was done with in Durer's time, and with it the best 
days of glass. Some of the bits from Mr. Prime's collection were 
better than others; but all were very late work, fussy and inap- 
propriate. For bold, clever, and simple leading, for what the 
Germans call " style-ful " conventionalizing of the subject to suit 
the material, and for depth and perfection of color, we must go 
back to the two earliest specimens. 

A word in conclusion as to the unusual crowds that have visited 
the exhibition. The final report has not yet been made ; but I 
believe the number of entrance-fees received in about six weeks 
has been not less than forty thousand, almost a thousand a day. 
On " pay-days " the Metropolitan Museum is practically nnvisited, 
though the price is no higher including admittance to the Castel- 
lani Collection than at the Academy, and the objects of interest 
need I say it? a hundredfold more beautiful and instructive. 
One can hardly help drawing the rather painful deduction, that 
fashion, more than the love of art pure and simple, has made the 
"Loan Exhibition" so popular, and that the true beauty of porce- 
lain and " Venice point " has been less apparent to many visitors 
than the fact that they were looking at Airs. A's plates or Mrs. 

JANTJAKY 26, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


B's laces. It is for this very reason, because with us any thing 
stamped with the cachet of " society " becomes at once so promi- 
nent, that it is doubly necessary for enthusiastic and self-sacrifi- 
cing amateurs, when they desire to assist the art-education of the 
nation, to go about their work not only with zeal, devotion, and 
liberality, but with prudence and wise severity, and with the assist- 
ance of the best professional experience and the widest professional 
culture. M. G. VAN RENSSELAEH. 


THE following letters need no comment from us : 

LOUISVILLE, KT., Jan. 12, 1878. 

Dear Sir, I enclose herewith a communication I received yester- 

I think the writer is entitled to the legitimate benefit of this charac- 
ter of enterprise, and hope as his just due you will publish his commu- 
nication. Yours, etc., 


CLEVELAND, O M Jan. 8, 1878. 

Dear fiir, Will you be kind enough to inform me whether the work- 
house of which you are the architect is to be heated with steam, and, if so, 
who has the contract for same? I manufacture direct and indirect radiat- 
ors, and claim, especially for indirect radiator, that I furnish from twen- 
ty-live to forty per cent more heating-surface for same money than can 
bo had with any other pattern. What I want, of course, is to sell the 
radiators for this job, if any are to be used; and, if you can aid me to 
that end, I shall be very glad to arkumcleilye your assistance. My radi- 
ators are now going into a new Court House at Newark, O. Both the 
direct and indirect have been used very largely for past three years, and 
give, very best satisfaction. I should be glad to hear from you with any 
information you may have. Very respectfully, 



THE editors propose to institute a series of competitions, of 
which the first subjects will be in interior decoration, upon pro- 
grammes proposed by themselves; and prizes have been assigned 
by the publishers, subject to the following regulations : 

1. The programmes will be published in the columns of the 
paper at least four weeks before the reproduction of the drawings 
selected for publication. These drawings will be grouped on the 
page, and will form one of the regular illustrated pages, as often 
as once a month, oftener, if the number and excellence of the 
designs warrant. 

2. A first and second prize will be awarded to the best two de- 
signs submitted in each competition ; the decision resting with a 
jury of three architects. 

3. Each competitor is requested to sign his drawing by a motto 
or device, and to enclose to the editors his name and address. 

4. The designs to which have been awarded the prizes will be 
announced in the American Architect; the authors of the designs 
being indicated by their devices or mottoes only. The real names 
of the authors of prize designs will be published at the close of 
the year. 

5. Only those designs which in the eyes of the editors are 
worthy will be published. The order of the publication of the 
designs is to be taken as in no way indicative of the decision of 
the jury. 

G. Drawings which are received after the day named in the 
respective programmes will be thereby excluded from the compe- 
tition, but not necessarily from publication. 

7. In awarding the prizes, heed will be taken of the manner in 
which the programme has been followed, the excellence and appro- 
priateness of the design, and the execution of the drawing. 

8. Drawings may be sent flat or in rolls, by express or by mail. 
They will be returned to their authors at the close of each compe- 

9. The limits of the drawings must in no case exceed 10 J inches 
in length by 10J inches in breadth. This space is to be enclosed 
by a single line only by way of a frame. 

10. For instructions as to the manner of preparing drawings for 
reproduction, competitors are referred to the instructions which 
are regularly printed on p. viii. or ix. of the advertising pages. 

The first prize will be : 

sis of geometric form, and studies from nature of buds, leaves, 
flowers, and fruit. By James K. Colling, F.R.I.B.A. 72 plates. 
1 vol. large 4to #15 

DECORATION, taken from buildings of the twelfth to the fif- 
teenth century, with descriptive letter-press. By James K. Col- 
ling, F.R.I.B.A. 76 plates and many woodcuts. 1 vol. large 
4to $15 

Or. GOTHIC FORMS, applied to furniture, metal-work, and decora^ 
tion for domestic purposes. 31 plates. By B. J. Talbert, archi- 
tect, London. 1 vol. folio $15 

The second prize will be : 

THE STORY OF A HOUSE. Translated from the French of M. 
Viollet-le-Duc, by George M. Towle. Illustrated by the author. 
1 vol. 8vo, bevelled boards, red edges $5 

Or, HABITATIONS OF MAN IN ALL AGES. Translated from the 
French of M. Viollet-le-Duc by Benjamin Bucknall, architect. 
Fully illustrated. 1 vol. 8vo $5 

Or, ANNALS OF A FORTRESS. Translated from the French of M. 
Viollet-le-Duc by Benjamin Bucknall, architect. 85 illustra- 
tions, several in color. 1 vol. 8vo So 


The subject of the first competition is a wooden staircase in the 
dwelling-house of a person of means. It is to be contained with- 
in the walls of an entrance-hall which is 10 feet wide, and is 
lighted by a window at the end. The height of the story is 13J 
feet from floor to floor. The drawings required are the plan, ele- 
vation (or section), and details to a larger scale than the principal 
drawings ; in addition to these the designer may at his option ex- 
hibit the arrangement by a perspective sketch. All these draw- 
ings must be included on the sheet whose dimensions are given 
above. Drawings must be received at the office of the American 
Architect and Building News on or before Feb. 26, 1878. 


THE ILLINOIS STATE HOUSE. Work on the new State House has 
entirely ceased, as the amount limited by the constitution ($3,500,000) 
has been expended, and about $750,000 more will be required to finish 
the structure. The last General Assembly made an appropriation of 
$38,000 for repairs, which amount was used in finishing the dome. 
At the November election a proposition was submitted to the people 
to appropriate $500.000 for completing the new State House, which 
was rejected by an overwhelming majority. The building will stand 
in its unfinished condition for at least ten years before the people of 
Illinois ijre ready to expend any more money for this purpose. 

ALMOST AN ACCIDENT. While the vestry of Trinity Methodist 
Church at Springfield, Mass., was densely crowded at the Murphy 
temperance prayer-meeting on Jan. 10, it was observed that the floor 
was settling in one corner; the people in that part of the room were 
quietly advised to leave, and a panic was thus averted. An examina- 
tion showed that one of the brick piers supporting the building had 
been badly cracked by the great weight upon it, and it is thought that 
the discovery was made just in time to prevent disaster. 

BUILDING ACCIDENTS. While an old building in Providence, R.I., 
was being pulled down on Jan. 10, numbers of poor people busied 
themselves in carrying off the refuse sticks and chips, and in 
spite of the efforts of the police several of them succeeded in getting 
into the building, where one of them, George Wight by name, pulled 
out an important stanchion, and immediately the already enfeebled 
structure fell, and buried the unlucky author of the mishap and four 
others. Wight was thought to be mortally injured, and all the others 
are seriously hurt. 

A two-story frame house erecting on Bush, near Court Street, 
Brooklyn, N.Y., fell Saturday evening, Jan. 19. It belonged to Louis 
Blennell; his loss was $000. 

Three Congregational churches of Deer Isle, Me., were blown down 
by the gale a few days ago. 

Court has made an order, granting the modification asked on the 
part of St. Mark's Church for a modification of the decree in the case, 
with these exceptions, leave to ring the chimes on every day that had 
a full service, at all daily services for not more than five minutes, nor 
earlier than nine, A.M., nor later than eight, P.M., and at Sunday-school 
services for five minutes, not earlier than nine, A.M., was refused. 
The modification allowed permits the chimes to be rung on the 
following days, in addition to the times mentioned in the decree: 
Washington's Birthday, Fourth of July, New Year's Day, Epiphany, 
Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, Ascension Day, All-Saints' Day, 
Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and at weddings and funerals. 

charged with particles of fine flour is certainly highly inflammable, if 
not explosive. A week or so ago, the workmen employed in one of 
the largest flour-mills in Minneapolis, Minn., saw a volume of flame 
coursing through what is known as the blast-box, a conductor used in 
carrying fine dust from the burs to the open air. The workmen seized 
a number of fire-extinguishers, and without excitement or confusion 
brought the flames under control, but not till the woodwork of the 
long box had been charred from end to end. The explanation of the 
origin of this fire is quite simple. The foreman conjectures that one 
of the burs was revolving without feed, and while the upper stone 
was raised as usual, a nail or fragment of lime emitted a spark which 
was enough to ignite the fine dust which was carried through the 
blast-box. It will not be forgotten that the destruction of the candy- 
factory in Barclay Street has been ascribed to explosive vapors 
generated in the process of manufacture of gum-drops; and, more- 
over, that two of the workmen have seated that a lamp was upset on 
one of the upper floors where powdered starch was stored. Amongst 
other substances which become highly explosive when reduced to a 
finely-divided condition, is said to be cork. 

FIRES IN SAN FRANCISCO IN 1877. The total loss for the year 
1877 was $997,390.98, and the total insurance on property destroyed, 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 109. 

A REMARKABLE AMERICAN CLOCK. In Mengel's building is 
now on exhibition in all probability the most wonderful clock in the 
world. It was built by Stephen D. Engle, a watchmaker, at Hazle- 
ton He is about forty-five years of age, and was about twenty years 
in perfecting the clock. Mr. Reid paid Engle $5,000 for it. Engle 
never saw the Strasburg clock: in fact, he has not travelled more 
than two hundred miles from home at any time. The clock stands 
eleven feet high. At its base it is about four feet wide, and at the 
top about two. It is about three feet deep at the base, gradually less 
toward the top. Its colors arc dark brown and gold. The Strasburg 
clock is thirty feet high, yet its mechanism is not so intricate nor 
has it as many figures as the Hazleton clock. The Strasburg clock's 
figures are about three feet high, and the American clock about nine 
inches. Three minutes before the hour a pipe organ inside the clock 
plays an anthem. It has five tunes. Bells are then rung, and when 
the hour is struck, double doors in an alcove open, and a figure of 
Jesus appears. Double doors to the left then open, and the apostles 
slowly appear, one by one, in procession. As they appear and pass 
Jesus they turn toward him, Jesus bows, the apostle turns again, and 
proceeds through the double doors in an alcove on the right. As 
Peter approaches, Satan looks out of a window above, and tempts him. 
Five times the Devil appears ; and when Peter passes, denying Christ, 
the cock flaps its wings and crows. When Judas appears, Satan 
comes down from his window, and follows Judas out in the procession, 
and then goes back up to his place to watch Judas, appearing on both 
sides. As the procession has passed, Judas and the three Marys dis- 
appear, and the doors are closed. The scene can be repeated seven 
times in an hour if necessary, and the natural motion of the clock 
produces it four times an hour, whereas the Strasburg procession is 
made but once a day, at twelve o'clock. Below the piazza is the 
main dial, about thirteen inches in diameter. To its right is a figure 
of Time, with an hour-glass. Above this is a window, at which ap- 
pear figures representing Youth, Manhood, and Old Age. To the left 
of the dial is a skeleton representing Death. When the hour hand 
approaches the first quarter, Time reverses his hour-glass and strikes 
one on a bell with his scythe, when another bell inside responds ; then 
Childhood appears instantly. When the hour hand approaches the 
second quarter or half hour, there are heard the strokes of two bells. 
Them Youth appears, and the organ plays a hymn. After thfs, Time 
strikes two and reverses the hour-glass, when two bells respond in- 
side. One minute after this a chime of bells is heard, when a fold- 
ing door opens in the upper porch, and one at the right of the court, 
when the Saviour comes walking out. Then the apostles appear in 
procession. The clock also tells of the moon's changes, the tides, the 
seasons, days and day of the month and year, and the signs of the 
zodiac; and on top a soldier in armor is constantly on guard, walking 
back and forward. As the hours advance, Manhood, Old Age, and 
Death take part in the panorama. Reading (Penn.) Eagle. 

RAIN-WATER CISTERN. A Charleston (S. C.) gentleman says of 
the cisterns in that city, 

" We are almost entirely dependent upon our cisterns for drinking- 
purposes, more than three-fourths of the population being supplied 
with water in that way. Great care is therefore taken in the con- 
struction of our reservoirs. They arc built of brick laid in cement 
(no lime), and plastered inside and outside with the same. Within 
there is a double partition, from floor to ceiling, of brick laid in 
cement; and the space within this double wall (say six inches in 
width) is filled with fresh-water gravel. This wall is built in one of 
the corners of the cistern in a semicircle, and the pipe for the pump 
inserted in the enclosed space. The water is filtered through this 
wall, and is as pure as crystal. A little charcoal is sometimes 
thrown into the cistern. You will see, that, by allowing the roof and 
gutters to be thoroughly washed by the rain before letting water into 
the cistern, you get rid of all impurities; and, if the cistern is suffi- 
ciently large, only the fall and winter rains should be taken in. The 
impurities that float in the air during spring and summer are thus 
prevented from getting in. This is not always done, although it is 

REFUIGEBATINO APPARATUS. A description of a simple contriv- 
ance for the rapid cooling of liquids, invented by M. Toselli, is de- 
scribed in Lcs Mondeu. It consists of a cylindrical cup, for holding 
any liquid, into which may be plunged an inner goblet, shaped like an 
inverted truncated cone, and having a lid which rests on the outer cup. 
Putting 150 grammes of nitrate of ammonia in the inner goblet, filling 
it with cold water, and stirring it so as to hasten the solution, the tem- 
perature of the outer liquid is soon reduced at least 12 C. (22 Fan.) 
The salt may be used for an indefinite period, by spreading it on a 
plate after each trial, and exposing it to the sun until it crystallizes 
anew. The inventor prepares a salt which will lower the tempera- 
ture 28 C. (50 Fah.), in the warmest countries. 

TALC AND ITS USES. The hydrated silicate of magnesium known 
as talc occurs in foliated masses, ha* a soapy feeling, is fibrous, but 
not elastic. Large beds of this mineral are found in various sections 
of this country. It is quarried, broken into small pieces and ground 
by means of attrition mills, and bolted like flour. It is used in the 
manufacture of writing-paper, fifty per cent of the mineral with fifty 
per cent of cotton making a fine paper. Being, like asbestos, fire- 
proof, it is used largely in the manufacture of roofing-paper. 

POISONOUS WAtx PAPERS. Mr. Seefeold, of Manchester, Eng- 
land, has analyzed not less than 60 or 70 kinds of paper for covering 
walls, and lias found that 10 only were harmless, although the colors 
were not green, but pink, blue, red, brown, etc. 

THE CHURCHES OF ENGLAND. It is said that the Church of 
England has 10,003 religious .edifices, including 30 cathedrals, 10,000 
glebe houses, 31 /episcopal palaces, #nd 1,000,000 acres of land, much 
fa it ;iji goo(J condition for tillage. 

DRAPERS As BUILDING CONTRACTORS. That the present is an 
age of development is evident, and the results are seen on every 
hand. For one thing, we have seen how the tailor has passed from 
his original trade through that of ecclesiastical furnisher to church 
decorator-in-general, dealing largely in works of iron, glass, wood, 
and stone, and even executing some of the most important castings 
in bronze that the time affords. And, again, one has seen how the 
dealer in paper-hangings has developed into professional decorator, 
charging fees, and taking a leading part in a demonstration against 
the architectural profession, his original employers. These we have 
seen,. and more; but nothing probably is more strikingly novel than 
the fact now before us in the matter of the Congress Hall at present 
building at Croydon for the church meeting in that town next week. 
The work is proceeding in the usual way under the direction of an 
architect (Mr. Salter, of London); but, strange to relate, although 
tenders were offered by eminent builders, the contract has been taken 
by a fashionable West-end draper, who not only is building the hall, 
but has undertaken to supply the finishings and furnishings, besides 
the refreshments which will be required for the congress. If these 
details are correct, we can only remark that the character of the pro- 
cedure is novel, and we were not surprised to observe the dilatory 
manner in which the men were working as we passed the building a 
day or two since. For the sake of the church people it is perhaps a 
good thing they have got the supervision of an architect. The hall, 
we understand, is costing about 4,000. Buildiny News. 

NUISANCE. The English chancery judges have recently drawn the 
line between a legal nuisance and a sentimental grievance. A man 
in Brighton built a house so as unintentionally to deprive a neighbor 
of the use of his best bedroom. This room "had a bay-window, and 
the indiscreet neighbor had built his house on such a plan that some 
of its rooms commanded a full view of this window at a distance of 
seventeen feet. Ladies could not use the room, and the hospitable 
owner of the dwelling could not entertain his friends. He brought a 
suit against the owner of the new mansion as the author of a public 
nuisance, and the case finally was laid before the chancery judges. 
But the bench decided that there was only one test of a legal nui- 
sance: Was it injurious to the health of the complainant, or did it 
interfere materially with the passage of light and air ? If not, it was 
only a sentimental nuisance, and damages could not be claimed. 

MOISTENING HOT AIR IN ROOMS. An effective contrivance has 
been devised, says the New York Tribune, for overcoming the dryness 
of the air in heated rooms. It is called an " air moistener," and is 
of additional service by arresting the dust that comes up through hot- 
air flues. The device consists of a series of pans set in a frame. 
Each pan has an outlet tube which rises from the bottom to a height 
less than that of the sides of the pan. Consequently water poured 
into the top pan overflows through the outlet tube, and fills the pan 
below it, and so on, through the series. At the top of the frame 
there is a chamber of just sufficient capacity to hold water enough to 
fill all the pans; this is filled first; then its outlet-valve is opened, the 
pans fill, and the contrivance is ready for operation. The frame is to 
be hooked on in front of hot-air registers or set on top of a stove or 
furnace. The quantity of water evaporated is large, and the appara- 
tus needs to be filled at least once a day; but where it is inserted in 
cellar furnaces the filling can be made automatic by connection with 
the water-supply. 

THE NIOBE ON MOUNT SIPTLUS. The Niobe on Mour>t Sipylus, 
which is mentioned in the Iliad, is a rude effigy in the valley of the 
Hennus, near Magnesia. The figure is on the perpendicular face of a 
rocky cliff which has been hollowed out behind into a niche. A cor- 
respondent of the Daily News, who visited the valley last spring, 
and climbed up the heights to make a sketch of the Niobe, is confi- 
dent that the figure is the result of human labor, and not carved by 
the hand of Nature. Some of the fingers can still be traced, but not 
a feature of the face can be distinguished. The effigy is in a sitting 
position, with the rude representation of a chair. The figure seems 
to have -been well known to the old Greek writers, for a reference 
to it will be found in the "Antigone" of Sophocles: "I have heard 
that by a most mournful fate, perished on the promontory of Sipy- 
lus the Phrygian stranger, daughter of Tantalus. Her, like the cling- 
ing ivy, did the shoots of rock subdue; and her, dissolving away in 
showers, as the legends of mortals tell, the snow never leaves ; and 
from her eyes, that ever flow with tears, she bedews the cliffs." 

How A WATER-PIPE MAY BE CLEANED. A correspondent of the 
Forest and Stream gives a novel method employed to cleanse a two-inch 
water-pipe which had become choked with mud. A string was passed 
through a hole punched in the tail of a small eel which was straightway 
put into the pipe. An occasional jerk reminded the eel that it was 
incumbent on him to progress, which he did, arriving at the lower end 
of the pipe with the string. A bunch of rags was tied to the string, 
and thus the pipe was cleansed. 

UTILIZING RAILROAD SIGNS. The Railway World says that the 
Southern and Eastern railroad companies, of France, have recently 
acted upon a suggestion of the Lyons Geographical Society, and added 
to the names of their stations statistics concerning the geographical 
position, elevation above the sea-level, population, industries, etc., of 
the towns wherein they are located. To further popularize geograph- 
ical knowledge, some towns have also icrected stone pillars, upon 
which are placed various meteorological instruments, maps of the 
town and environs, the bearings and distances of the capitals of 
Europe, the places of interest in the neighborhood, and other infor- 

A BAPTIST CHAPEL is to be built at Athens, Greece. Subscriptions 
are being made in Boston and New York in its behalf. 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES K. OSGOOD & Co. 

[No. 110. 



The Death of Mengoni. His Works. The TariffVille Bridge. 
Opinions of Experts. The New York Post Office. Gen- 
eral vs. Divided Contracts. Catenary Spires 37 



Alterations at Trinity Church, N.Y. The "Thein " Church, 

Prag. Design for an Engine-House. Two Half Houses . 42 

Letter from Chicago. Letter from New York 42 



AT the very end of the last year Italy lost the most distin- 
guished of her recent architects almost the only one who 
had achieved a European reputation by a death as start- 
ling as his career had been brilliant. All travellers who 
have visited Milan within the last ten years remember the 
famous gallery or passage named after (he late king, the 
Galleria VMorio Emanuele, the work of the architect Giu- 
seppe Mengoni. It was the most splendid work of modern 
architecture in Milan, and the finest passage in Europe. 
Finished to all intents in 18G7, it was but a part of a grand 
scheme of the architect for renovating and embellishing the 
chief square of the city, the Piazza del Duomo, out of the 
middle of which rises the cathedral. The carrying out of 
this scheme, which languished during some j'ears, has lately 
been quickened, and the entrance fa9ade through which the 
gallery opens upon the square, which had been left unbuilt, 
was taken up last year. The work had been so vigorously 
pressed, that it was substantially done, a day for its dedica- 
tion was fixed, and the principal staging removed, leaving 
only a light temporary scaffold from which to give the 
last touch to the work. On the 30th of December, just 
ten days before the death of the king in whose name the 
gallery was dedicated, Mengoni went upon the scaffold to 
examine some detail which workmen were adjusting upon the 
cornice of the facade. He was seen to tread upon a loose 
board, which j'ieldcd under him ; to fall, clutching vainly at 
the scaffold ; and in a moment lay dead at the foot of his 
great work. 

MENGONI was a man of great energy, in the very prime of 
his powers, being only forty-five years old ; and his death is 
felt as a public calamity. The city of Milan honored him 
with a public funeral. He left a number of works which had 
given him reputation, among them the Savings Bank, and the 
arcades of the cemetery or Campo Santo, at Bologna. The 
galleiy at Milan was on a far more ambitious scale than any 
that had been built before it. It is two covered passages or 
streets, crossing each other at right angles, and penetrating 
one of the blocks, surrouneted by four thoroughfares, which 
border on the Piazza. The greatest length is C30 feet : the 
passages are nearly fifty feet wide and eighty-five high, roofed 
with iron and glass, and intersect in an octagon, the dome 
of which is a hundred and sixty feet above the pavement. 
The buildings which line them are of fine sandstone, the 
handsomest in the city, containing shops below, and if we 
remember rightly, apartments above ; the whole designed with 
breadth and richness, and showing in its detail unmistaka- 
ble marks of French influence ; the first modern Italian work 
perhaps in which that influence was notable. The treatment 
of the Piazza according to his great project was still unfin- 
ished ; but the fame of it had brought him commissions from 
all sides, even from out of Italy, so that his hands were full 
of designs. He had prepared among other things a project 
for a group of covered bazaars at Rome, and for a great 
mercantile building in the Stephan's Platz or Square of the 
Cathedral at Vienna. 

THE coroner's inquest on the fall of the Tariffville bridge 
will doubtless be finished before this is printed ; but at 

present the course of the testimony seems to wander vaguely 
enough about the points at issue. On reading the accounts 
of it, one is struck by the neglect of some of the main ques- 
tions, for instance, whether the bridge was properly con- 
structed in the first place, and whether it had been properly 
watch'ed since ; most of the attention having been given to 
the question how the accident happened, which is important 
only for its bearing on the first two. The testimony is some- 
what remarkable in showing a common foggiuess as to the 
construction of bridges, not only in those who have charge 
of them but in those who construct them. The superintend- 
ent of the road was not afraid to testify under oath that he 
knew that a bridge of like strength never failed before under 
a similar weight. One bridge-builder gave his opinion, which 
we may sincerely hope is not justified, that the bridge is 
heavier in iron and timbers than nine-tenths of the bridges 
in New England. The iron, he thought, could not have had 
more than 18,000 pounds per square inch to carry, and he 
could not see how it should have given way, unless the train 
left the track. He considered the wood strong enough to 
have borne three times the weight then put upon it. The 
road-master of another road testified that all the suspension 
rods which gave way were broken through the screw-threads 
(which would seem to show that they broke not on account 
of flaws, but because they were over-strained), and comput- 
ing the weight on the rods at not over 23,500 pounds to the 
square inch, " which was much less than they were warranted 
for," he could not see why the bridge gave way. A civil 
engineer testified that the iron and timber were heavier than 
is used in most bridges, and he thought that if one of the 
three suspension rods in n panel had broken, the otbsr two 
would have been enough to carry the load. 

ALL these thingrs point to a condition of dangerous ignor- 
ance in people who build bridges and those who use them. 
It looks as if they really believed that it is safe to warrant 
building-materials, and to load them, up to what the tests 
show to be their breaking weight. If these are a fair speci- 
men of the ideas current among railroad men, and we do 
not know why the}' should be exceptional, we may expect 
a plentiful supply of such accidents as those of Ashtabula and 
Tariffville in the next few years. The question, which has 
been much discussed, whether the train left the rails in the 
Tariffville case, is interesting only as a matter of detail, 
showing whether there was an extraordinary shock or not. 
If it were proved that it did not, it would show clearly that 
the bridge was weak : otherwise it leaves the question of its 
sufficiency untouched. But it is perfectly easy to show by 
examination and computation whether the construction was 
proper ; and it is prett} - sure that it was not. The letter to 
the Hartford Courant, which we copy in another column, 
gives the only intelligent account we have seen of the struc- 
ture. We have not verified Mr. Mcrriman's computations, 
with which other published, but probably less careful figures, 
agree sufficiently well, but we have no doubt of their accu- 
rac3 r ; and they show what we suggested in our last number, 
that the iron at least was loaded with double the weight which 
would have been put upon it by a prudent engineer. AVe do 
not see that his censure of the railroad company or of the 
commissioners is any more severe than the occasion warrants. 

THE lesson of the accident in the New York Post Office 
last year is apparently not lost upon the people who live in 
or near it ; for there has been great alarm lately over the set- 
tlement of partitions in the upper stories of the building, and 
the repairs to which they have led. The money-order depart- 
ment on the Broadwa_y front is a room a hundred feet long, 
over which are a number of smaller rooms, with brick parti- 
tions between carried on iron beams. It is a year and a half 
since horizontal cracks were noticed near the tops of these 
partitions, indicating settlement in the beams ; and although, 
being tested by strips of paper pasted over them, the cracks, 
it is said, have shown no considerable increase, it has been 
decided to strengthen the partitions by trussing ; and for this 
reason the rooms have been cleared, to the public alarm. 
The reason given for the strengthening process is not very 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 110. 

much to the point: viz., that it may be necessary at some 
time to put greater weight in the upper rooms, safes for 
instance : since the additional weight must come, not on the 
partitions, but on the floors, which are doubtless framed in- 
dependently of them. It does not appear that the settlement 
has been of a kind to indicate serious injury to the building. 
Nevertheless the whole fortune of the New York Post Office 
enforces the lesson that the kind of construction there adopt- 
ed the carrying of long and high brick partitions on iron 
beams is one to be employed with great caution ; because 
such beams, heavily loaded, are apt to take a permanent 
" set," and there are no data for determining under what 
circumstances and to what degree this set is likely to increase 
constantly in a long period of years ; so that, considering the 
uncertainty of the ordinary qualities of iron, it is necessary 
to allow a ver}' large factor of safety. There is, in fact, with 
the late improvements in the manufacture of concretes and 
terra-cotta, no longer an}' need of building partitions in fire- 
proof buildings of such heavy materials as have been used. 

THE recent establishment of a Builders' Exchange in 
Cincinnati, and the consequent increase of concert among 
the building trades, have led among other things, as we have 
reported, to a proposition to abolish the system of general 
contracts, and substitute the practice of letting out every 
kind of work in a building in a separate and independent 
contract directly to the man who is to do it. This resolution 
is sustained by a law that has been passed to regulate the 
conduct of public buildings, and there is consequently at this 
moment, or has just been, some confusion over a public 
building, which the authorities wished to let out " in the 
lump," unaware of the prohibition which exists. There is 
no doubt that the habit of giving out general contracts leads, 
where competition is keen, to a good many abuses. It 
brings a great pressure on sub-contractors from bidders who 
wish to take work cheaply, and subjects them to risk of loss 
when these bidders prove unsound. It commonly requires 
two profits instead of one, between the owner and the 
mechanic who fulfils the sub-contract, and therefore either 
increases the owner's expense or diminishes the mechanic's 
profit. In large works it makes the separate contracts amount 
to great sums, and so increases the risk to the employer. 
It makes it, moreover, more difficult to follow up and fairly 
compare the different estimates, or to make the most advan- 
tageous combination of them. These things are so impor- 
tant in public works, where the cost is generally large, and 
the work itself complex, where, moreover, it is difficult to 
make any exceptions among contractors, who, whatever their 
habits of work, must stand equally before the authorities, 
that the contracts are practically always subdivided. But 
in private building, unless on a very large scale, there is so 
much advantage in the directness of responsibility and ease 
of superintendence due to having one contractor, whose duty 
it is to see that all things work together, that there is, and 
perhaps always will be, a very common preference for him ; 
especially as the greater freedom of choice will always 
enable an employer who wishes to be on the safe side to 
choose his builder securely if he will. It is a matter, on the 
whole, to be best settled by the growth of a natural usage : we 
doubt the wisdom of attempting to regulate it by legislative 
enactment or by a rigid rule of practice. 

MK. SAMUEL HUGGINS writes to the Builder to propose 
a remarkable and ingenious way of building church spires. 
He would set in the axis of his spire a wrought-iron rod, 
or post, carrying a cast-iron finial ; to the top of this he 
would attach iron chains, which should form the ribs or 
arrises of the spire, four or eight as the case might be, 
and anchor them at the bottom into the masonry at the top 
of his tower. The spire should be completed by hanging 
between these chains successive courses of perforated and 
decorated bands, of iron we presume, which would give an 
effect analogous to an open-work mediaeval spire. The 
chains could be wrought in any shape "from a simple bead- 
form to one richly moulded and twined with flowers, leaves, 
and tendrils." " A spire so constructed," he says, " would 
be equal in effect to a completely pierced one of stone, a 
nervous, well-relieved, vigorous structure, worthy of associa- 

tion with any composition, Gothic or classic." Nervous, we 
should say, decidedly ; but not vigorous, unless by dint of a 
vigor in the designer which overpowered the essential expres- 
sion of his construction ; nor do we see to what known archi- 
tectural style Mr. Huggins's " catenary spire" could kindly 
ally itself. It is perhaps not likely that in the face of Eng- 
lish traditions any thing so radical will find favor, but if the 
projector were an American we should certainly expect to 
see it earned out here ; and although he manfully rejects any 
idea of shamming a stone spire, upholding his invention 
on its own merits, we fear that is precisely the form in 
which the contrivance would show itself in Yankee-land. 
No doubt the use of iron has many a new form in architectur- 
al design waiting for us; and it may as it grows distinctly 
modify our ideas of style. The catenary curve, too, is one 
that we have before this heard suggested as the outline of a 
spire, though 'it is much less expressive, to our mind, than a 
straight line, of the incomparable elan of a Gothic spire. 
But iron, like every other material, will doubtless win its 
way and mould its shapes in features which its own qualities 
suggest. We should prefer to see every tub on its own bot- 
tom, and should hardly take kindly to the prospect of seeing 
our stone spires mocked by bunches of festoons, even if we 
agreed with Mr. Huggins in saying, " Pierce a spire, and you 
become the rival of the fairies, and impart to it a ghostly, 
ethereal air, than which nothing can be more highly becoming 
in a structure of its character and office." 


THE outlook upon the world of labor is just now especial- 
ly gloomy. This is not so much because it is full of trou- 
bles for it has alwaj's been full of troubles as because 
these troubles, which used to be the isolated quarrels of one 
set of workmen with their employers, are nowadays gather- 
ing into combined struggles which overspread whole commu- 
nities, and threaten even to involve nations. The same 
union among workmen which widens their strikes makes 
them more bitter and prolonged, more mischievous in the 
present and more dangerous in the future. Every strug- 
gle teaches the workmen more and more the possibility of 
extended combinations among themselves, and the necessity 
of them if they are to carry out their policy of dictating by 
arbitrary compulsion the condition of the labor-markets of 
the world. Within the past year the ship-building business 
in the north of Great Britain has been kept in disorder for 
many months, and finally brought to a condition which threat- 
ens permanent decline, by the continued strikes of the ship- 
wrights. The iron-manufacturers of the kingdom, already 
somewhat crippled by the recent rivalry of other countries, 
notably of our own, have been seriously injured by the 
attacks made on them by their own operatives ; the obsti- 
nate strikes of carpenters and masons, not yet ended, have 
disorganized the English building-trades, and in London 
itself have brought the work of building to a stand-still, 
interrupting the greatest public works of the day, thrusting 
thousands of workmen out of employment, compelling mil- 
lions of capital to lie idle, and inflicting heavy loss upon a 
large part of the community. fli our own county- the chief 
industry of Massachusetts is at this moment crippled by a 
sudden revolt of the Crispin order of shoemakers, which, 
there is reason to believe, may work it irreparable mischief. 
The strike of the engineers, that last summer pararyzed for a 
time the intercommunication of the nation, and roused the 
proletariat of Pennsylvania into riots which it took the army 
of the United States to suppress, has hardly passed out of 
mind when we find the working-men of San Francisco rising 
to drive into the sea or burn in their houses a large body of 
rivals, and defying the civil authorities in threatening meet- 
ings, which clamor to Congress for class legislation, and 
menace with violence and plunder those who oppose their 

It is not our intention at this point to discuss the rights and 
wrongs of the aims of the unions that control these move- 
ments, although, whatever sympathy we may have for some 
of their objects, it is somewhat difficult to refrain from speaking 
in blame of their measures, but only to call attention to 
the importance of them, to remind our readers how great a 
factor the labor-unions aim to be and may become in politics 


FEBRUARY 2, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


and society, and how vital are the questions which they pro- 
pose, questions that are passed by at present in the con- 
flict of other interests, but may at any time be thrust forward 
in a way that will make them of the utmost moment. 

The immediate injury which results from the warfare of 
workmen in disorganizing industry, and waste of means, is 
patent enough,- though it seems as if only people who are 
concerned with the emplo3'ment of labor had as yet time to 
notice it. The broader secondary results are now begin- 
ning to be felt in the absolute decay with which it menaces 
some of the chief industries of the day. Apparently, if the 
present temper of working-men continues, we may expect 
that every productive industry known to civilization must, as 
soon as it becomes prominent enough to be the occasion of 
a quarrel, be thrown into disorder and its progress checked 
by strikes. So that while we are pluming ourselves on our 
present century as an age of ceaseless national progress and 
mechanical development, there has been growing up with it 
an influence which threatens by dint of wilful obstructiveness 
to blight it at every turn, as the worm follows the growth of 
the orchard, or rot the introduction of the potato. 

The thing which has distinguished the recent strikes, and 
given them weight as' indications of what we may look for in 
the future, is the breadth of the interests they involve, and 
the alliances they have led to, as much as the determination 
they have shown and in some cases the extremities to which 
they have led. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers 
last summer threatened to interrupt the whole traffic of the 
United States. The Crispins in Massachusetts are at this 
moment appealing for support to their fellows throughout the 
country, and contributions are made to them by many sym- 
pathizers outside their order. The striking trades in England 
are drawing aid from various parts of the kingdom ; and the 
efforts of the masters to import foreign men have led the 
workmen to employ emissaries through the United States and 
Canada, as well as in Continental cities, to counteract by 
timely representation the inducements of the employers. The 
International Association has existed for some time ; and 
though its workings are not much known, though its respon- 
sibility for the movements of the Paris Commune has doubt- 
less been exaggerated in popular report, and though its con- 
gresses have apparently amounted to little, it furnishes a 
means of communication, and will furnish, when the}' choose, 
a means of union, for workmen all over the world, a means 
of disseminating doctrines, of encouraging class-feeling, if 
need be, of concerting movements. There is a whole liter- 
ature of periodicals, pamphlets, and books, devoted to further- 
ing what are assumed to be the interests of working-men, 
advocating ideas and political doctrines which are not shared 
by the rest of the world, and a whole fraternity of agitators, 
spouters, and demagogues taking every opportunity to publish 
these doctrines. The anti-cooly organizations in California 
are occupying the chief attention of politicians in that State, 
and the legislature has at their instance appealed to Congress 
to place a prohibitory duty on Chinese immigrants. All these 
things are symptoms of an increasing disposition to general 
organization among the working-men, and of the growing 
breadth of their efforts and their contests. They indicate a 
tendency to a gradual consolidation of the men into a united 
class with class-feelings, class-prejudices, class-aims, and 

In England this consolidation has naturally gone much 
further than in the United States. The working-men's asso- 
ciations are wider, more united, and have made a more 
determined effort not only to rule the labor-market, but to 
make themselves felt in politics, and to secure a direct class 
representation in Parliament. The stratification of Engh'sh 
society, its immemorial division into aristocracy, burgesses, 
and yeomanry, the more recent growth of the great middle 
class, the present predominance of manufacturing, the still 
sharply defined social classification of the people, all these 
things make the consolidation of the working class a natural 
and perhaps an inevitable growth ; and in a political fabric 
that has grown under and been adapted to class government, 
such a discrimination is possibly salutary as well as neces- 
sary, even though it may reach its development through 
strife. In the United States the working-men have not as 
j-et sufficiently distinguished themselves from the mass of 
citizens to form an independent and united class throughout 
the country, though they may be fond of speaking of them- 

selves as such. It is only in certain States that such a class 
is conspicuous : in Massachusetts for instance, where manu- 
factures are in the ascendent, and where there has been for 
some years what is called a working-men's party, not yet of 
importance enough to claim much attention ; or in California, 
where the introduction of Chinese labor has compacted the 
"Caucasian" workmen into a solid opposition. Neverthe- 
less the indications we have described, and many others, are 
symptoms of the tendency to gradual formation of such a 
class throughout the country. Now whatever may be the 
effect of this in a country like England, whose political and 
social structure is founded on class distribution, it is quite 
sure that neither the social nor the political plan of the 
United States gives any room for a class which when com- 
pletely consolidated amounts almost to a caste. 

It is not necessary to enlarge on the embarrassment which 
the development of organized classes would bring upon us. 
We are just recovering from the desolating war which the 
only caste we have ever had among us indirectly brought 
upon us, not by its activity but by its mere presence. The 
trouble which an aggressive labor class would stir up for us 
would be of a very different kind from the trouble of 
slavery ; but it would be real. The experience we have had 
of the cases in which class legislation has been pressed upon 
our rulers is not encouraging. Our whole polity is adjusted 
on the understanding that every citizen is, first of all, an . 
American ; that the interests of one are the interests of all. 
Our system of party government is onlj" justified on the con- 
dition that parties are national. An isolated class, bent on 
special legislation for its own benefit and without interest in 
the general questions with which the country is concerned, is 
essentially an unpatriotic one. Read y at all times to trade 
off the general welfare for its own private interests, to any 
one who will promise support to the schemes on which it is 
intent, it offers the most dangerous temptation to dema- 
gogues, is the readiest tool of unscrupulous political ag- 
grandizement. In our own case the danger is aggravated by 
the fact that the mass of the working-men is made up of for- 
eigners imperfectly assimilated to the body politic ; of immi- 
grants, or the children of immigrants, who have not yet for- 
gotten the prepossessions of their own races, or arrived at 
interest or understanding for the important questions of our 
government ; who are accustomed to be led, and not to think ; 
and who therefore are at the mercy of whoever is most will- 
ing to flatter them. 

But if the establishment of one class is to be dreaded in 
the midst of a people whose form of government and of 
society is based on the idea of homogeneity in its people, the 
addition of others of conflicting interests is yet more danger- 
ous. The formation of one class stimulates the formation 
of another. The union of labor precedes and compels the 
union of capital. As yet, the employers of labor are not con- 
solidated into a class ; and the only thing likely to compress 
them into a close alliance is the aggression of labor-unions, 
which thus give consistency and force to the very oppressions, 
as they consider them, that they aim to resist. The diffi- 
culties which the pressure of capitalists, singly or in groups, 
have at times brought into our legislation, are enough to make 
us distrust any influences which tend to knit them also into a 
firmly united body. The antagonism of the two classes adds 
to the embarrassment of class-interests the perils of class- 
warfare. The experience of the past year is enough to show 
how bitter and wasteful such warfare is, and how heavily the 
burden of it bears upon the whole community. 

The mere uniting of men of like occupation in associations 
for common advantage is, of course, not a matter for criti- 
cism. The tendency of such associations is to be judged, 
not by their union but by their conduct. There are many 
ways in which they might work for the improvement of their 
condition, with the sympathy and support of all thoughtful 
people ; but unfortunately these are commonly not the ways 
to which they turn. When we consider the objects to which 
they do devote themselves, and, above all, the means to 
which they resort, their expansion into classes of national 
and international activity becomes a matter of very grave 
moment. It may be that our political fabric is firm enough 
and elastic enough to bear the strain of such activity, as it 
has borne still more threatening shocks, without injury ; hut 
we are likely at. any time to be called to face very trying 
difficulties ; and when we consider the possibilities of a 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 110. 

general union extending throughout Christendom, the out- 
look is serious enough. The extent and radical character 
of the measures demanded by the working-men, in their 
meetings in Massachusetts and California for instance, show 
the measure of the influence they wish to exert, the expul- 
sion of the Chinese ; the regulation by Congressional action 
of the hours and wages of labor ; the sequestration of lands 
which have been already bestowed by the government ; the 
transportation and setting up of colonists at the public 
expense ; the abolition of the contract system ; the assump- 
tion by the government of all railroads and telegraphs ; the 
abolition of poll-taxes, and of all restrictions, penal or 
otherwise, of the suffrage ; and the undertaking of public 
works, not for utility but for the support of working-men. 
How great the risk is of all these things, depends on the 
strength of the class-union which it may be possible to 
accomplish. The character of the means to which they are 
ready, or may be led to resort, is plain enough from the 
experience of last summer's railroad riots ; the peril of 
them, in the readiness of the working-men to ally themselves 
with the worst elements of the people, with the " hoodlums " 
of San Francisco and the mob of Pittsburgh ; the reckless- 
ness with which the men arc likely to be played upon and 
encouraged, in the truckling of newspapers and politicians, 
in the dishonorable complicity of the Pennsylvania militia, 
in the disgraceful presentment of the Pittsburgh Grand Jury, 
and in the incomprehensible blindness of legislators who are 
not ashamed to declaim in their places in Congress about the 
use of the troops, which alone could quell the riots, to 
oppress the working-men of the country. 


[The report of Mr. John F. \vVlr in behalf of the judges of Group XXVII., 
embracing Plastic and Graphic Art.] 


THE exhibit of France in painting and sculpture affords subject 
for comment, partly on the ground that their art was not fully 
represented in the Exhibition, as well as in review of the charac- 
ter of the works selected. 

France, unquestionably, is the nation which fills the most con- 
spicuous and the leading position in the art of the present century ; 
and a careful review of the art of that country would embrace, in 
many particulars, a criticism of the most marked and characteris- 
tic tendencies of modern art. In commenting on the various kinds 
of excellence that arc found united in this school, if, indeed, the 
term " school " finds any proper application in modern art, where 
such classifications are fast being obliterated, one is not slow to 
recognize that this superiority is due to several distinct causes. 
Passing by those considerations peculiar to the genius of the 
people, as well as the circumstances that affect the aesthetic tem- 
perament most favorably, the simple question of artistic discipline 
is one which the French have never underrated, if, indeed, the ten- 
dency has not been to carry this to excess by allowing technical 
skill to subvert higher aims in art. The admirable discipline 
afforded the art^student by the Ecole dcs Beaux-Arts, and in the 
private ateliers of the most distinguished artists of France, has 
tended to exalt and maintain this high standard of technical merit. 
An attractive and prevailing excellence of technique is certainly 
commendable in an art so difficult and complex as that of painting ; 
but it is on higher grounds than this that the critic should esti- 
mate those qualities which constitute greatness in art, that give to 
the picture that charm of expression which enkindles revery and 
raises the work of the artist upon a common plane with that of 
the poet, the philosopher, and, unconsciously, with that of the 
moralist. France has not a few artists of this stamp, whose merit 
we may estimate fairly by this higher standard, and whose power 
rests not merely in the skilful handling of the brush or the chisel, 
but in the intellectual grasp and scope evinced in their art, and in 
a true poetic instinct which renders all technical display subser- 
vient to the expression of ideas and emotions, which, indeed, is 
the true function of art. J. Francois Millet, Couture, and Dela- 
croix were artists of this stamp ; and others, now living, might be 
named who have impressed their individuality no less effectively 
on contemporary art. 

But the exhibit of France at Philadelphia was not even fairly 
representative of these higher achievements of French art. It af- 
fords, therefore, a less inviting subject for comment than if it 
were an adequate representation of the higher aims of this school. 
And it would be unjust to pretend that this display was, on the 
whole, a representative one. But in a more general, though less 
discriminating sense, we may consider it typical of many ideas 
prevailing among French artists at the present time, and as such 
it is worthy 'of attentive study. The absence, for the most part, 
of works of conspicuous originality and merit, leaves the ensemble 

of the exhibit to the mannerists who collectively form the school ; 
for the founders of schools are not to be confounded with the 
elements that compose their following. \Ve have here, then, very 
little that has earned for French art the high reputation it enjoys. 
It is necessary to observe the above distinction if we would dis- 
cuss, with any degree of intelligence, questions of artistic merit. 
Art lives by sincere emotions; its true aim is a thoughtful and 
expressive one; but when this sincerity, this expression, is sub- 
verted by motives and considerations that are entirely foreign to 
art, its products then become mere objects of commerce : other 
and distinct ends are sought, and are not to be mistaken for those 
that are genuine. The absence, therefore, for the most part, o 
the representative names of this school, is the cause of that unfa- 
vorable impression left by the exhibit of France at the Internation- 
al Exhibition of 1876. 

But it is with pleasure that we turn to those works which par- 
tially redeem this unfavorable impression. M. Carolus Duran 
contributed a fine portrait of Mile. Croizette, of the Theatre 
Francais. The young lady is seated on horseback by the seaside, 
and the action is exceedingly spirited and natural. There is, too, 
an open-aired sense of life and animation pervading the picture, 
which is admirable. The horse is well drawn, and the technical 
execution is clever and confident. " The Convalescent," by M. 
Sain, is thoughtful and tender in feeling, and has qualities of true 
excellence. " The King's Entertainment," by M. Comte, is also 
very sincere in its aim. The figures are earnestly and seriously 
engaged, and this in a manner, considering the humorous charac- 
ter of the subject, that is almost irresistible. "The Drawing- 
School,'' by M. Trupheine, is a clever sketch rather than a finished 
work ; though, after all, the question of finish is merely a relative? 
one, and if the intention of the artist is attained, the picture may 
perhaps be properly t'jrmed finished. But M. Trupheine's work 
has the character of a study made directly from the scene itself ; 
it has therefore the usual marks which distinguish the study 
from the work of the studio. The former has greater freshness 
and vivacity, the latter more completeness and finish. M. Pabst 
contributed "A Bride in Alsace," and M. Coltzman a "Court 
Scene," which are both commendable, though not strikingly 
meritorious. In c/enre, the pictures of this collection do not impress 
one favorably. They remind us of better things, done over and 
over again, and have little earnestness and less individuality. 
The usual boudoir scenes abound, slight, superficial nothings, 
of which the observer soon grows tired, and the cleverness of 
textual representation fails to redeem the lack of sentiment or 
thought. In landscape M. Luminais sends his " Gauls returning 
with' their Booty," which is bold, skilful, and decidedly effective. 
"The Oaks of Grand Moulin," by M. Dumeron, is also clever. M. 
Japy exhibited " The Valley of the Jura ; " M. Renie, " October 
Snow ; " M. Yon, " The River Seine ;" and M. Zuber, "Near the 
Farm." These works evince, to some extent, those excellent 
qualities that are peculiar to French landscape ; but they are not 
strikingly characteristic, nor of superior merit. But even subordi- 
nate artists of this school evince, in their treatment of this class of 
subject, a certain power that gives interest to their work. The. 
vigor and solidity of their method, united with a skilful appre- 
hension of the technical value of the xpn!, in landscape, are quali- 
ties which render their work effective, at least, if, indeed, to be 
effective is not necessarily to be truly artistic. It is to be regretted 
that the exhibit of this nation, which was a large one, contained 
no examples of Lambinet, Ziem, C. F. Daubigny, Rousseau, Diaz, 
the Bonheurs, and others. And the deceased painters Troyon and 
Corot should likewise have been represented. Historical painting 
in France has given place, as elsewhere, to genre, that is, if we 
accept the old conventional idea of history-painting, not infre- 
quently based on mere extent of canvas and hackneyed themes of 
classic verse. In a less conventional sense, however, the French 
school was perhaps never stronger than at present in history, if we 
accept the works of M. Gcrome and M. Meissonier as representa- 
tive of this class of subject. It is now discovered that genre may 
be even more strictly historical in character than canvases of a 
more pretentious title. 

While we recognize much that is of a superior order of excel- 
lence in French art, and accord this excellence perhaps the highest 
place and praise, as a school it is not exempt from many vicious 
tendencies that are not only subversive of good taste, but which 
tend directly to destroy a genuine and healthy feeling for art ; and 
these tendencies were abundantly displayed at Philadelphia. In 
fact, owing to the absence of better work, this impression dominated 
all others; and in order that we shall not do injustice to the more 
genuine character of French art, it is necessary to bear in mind that 
this representation was not complete. As an example of the style 
to which reference is here made, we may select M. Perrault's pic- 
ture termed " Rest," an odalisque reclining in a hammock above 
a running stream, in a sylvan solitude. The thorough knowledge 
of the human figure here displayed, the admirable drawing, the 
firmness and roundness of skilfully-modelled forms, and the clear- 
ness of the tones and flesh-tints, render this work captivating to 
the eye; but in saying this we say all that may be said of it in 
praise. This admirable rendering of the external forms, this 
clever execution, this merely realistic display of flesh, stimulate 
no elevated emotion, enkindle no revery. It is an attractive and 



. 2. 

Additions at rear of Church and 

:tions in 4 : Chancel 



y Room- 'Clioir Ro<*rn 

'"IS 6 24:0* 17:6 

Side Elevation 

Stonework & reddish brown Sandstone 

THE HELrtmpEPpjUTffloCo. 280 TiEi-jxaasE Si BOSTOH 


flN .HRCHITECT /IND BUILDING REWS ftes.. 2 . 1575 . 





S? ix^i 








v ^\C***rf wvi 

Iterations & Additions 

\\bodwork of A Ash 

Choir Room 


Elevation of Piscina , Credence e. Bay of Chancel 

Plan of Piscina- and Window 

(Caen Stone-) 

Section- 4-Elevation-of- Boys-Desks i- Elevation-of- Stalls 

(J Chancet Fittings 

- : ^^ :r "-' v -";-^ : -'f^n 

(^Chancel Steps vBase of Screen-of PUCP colored Marble-) 

Elevation of Chancel Screen* 

Old Stonework of 
Church Dark Brown 

(Screen of Caen Stone) 

Plan of 

2, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


artful appeal to mere sensuous emotion, in the absence of any high- 
er aim on the part of the artist. And this is by no means an ex- 
ceptional illustration of tendencies that are very pronounced in 
this school. It is perhaps a natural consequence of an excessive 
contemplation of the external, and a direct issue from allowing 
mere technical execution an undue prominence. 

A very ambitious illustration of the sensational in art is that of 
" Rizpah defending the Bodies of her Sons," by M. Georges Beck- 
er. This is a product of the annual exhibitions of the Salon, 
where it has become necessary to startle, or strike the observer 
with force, in order to command attention. Exaggeration and 
strained effect is essential for this when greater powers are want- 
ing; and the artist has here secured a sensation, not by means 
of the sublime or the impressive, but through the horrible, the 
ghastly, and the melodramatic ; and his technical skill has been 
more than equal to his purpose, for the picture is not -without de- 
cided merit of this kind : indeed, in this particular it is more 
than clever, it is masterly. Another equally large canvas is 
that of M. Clement, " The. Death of Csosar." When one has in 
mind the admirable and dramatic treatment of this subject by M. 
Gerome, and that cool reserve power with which this artist has 
dealt with the historic facts of this great event with profound 
learning as well as with great artistic skill, M. Clement's attempt 
appears altogether inadequate. The instant is ill chosen, and the 
action unhistoric and forced. A subject of such moment, about 
which cluster historic interests of the gravest kind, foreshadow- 
ing results to which limits can hardly be assigned, should not be 
treated as if it were a mere brutal assault in the amphitheatre. 
There are silent, inwardly-acting reserve forces of which a great 
artist knows how to avail himself in selecting the true moment for 
such a picture ; but in this case M. Clement has not risen to a 
level with his task. 

While we notice these overstrained tendencies and false aims, it 
would be unjust to allow them to overshadow the acknowledged 
merits of this school. Since David gave to French art an impulse 
which impelled it forward in the direction of thoroughness of 
form, it has made steady and rapid progress. It has oscillated 
between classic and romantic influences, which have both contrib- 
uted materially to nourish its growth. Ingres further stimulated 
that classic influence which is still strongly felt; while Gericault 
and Eugene Delacroix led the re-action of the romanticists, which 
is the influence now most pronounced. Had the exhibit of this 
nation at Philadelphia shown something of this march or progress 
in the development of French art, with but singlu examples of 
representative names, such as David, Ingres, Flandrin, Delaroche, 
Robert-Fleury, Delacroix, Couture, Decamp, and the recently-de- 
ceased artists Hamon and Gleyre, and others, together with the 
works of the foremost living artists of this school, the result would 
have been eminently instructive as well as satisfactory, and the 
impression made would have been quite a different one. So many 
admirable examples have been brought to this country of late that 
it may be said, without exaggeration, that its leading artists are 
quite as widely and favorably known here as they are in France, 
and not infrequently through their representative works. This 
opportunity for study renders it very easy to discriminate between 
that which is truly excellent and that which is imitative and mer- 
etricious in French art ; and it is well to have it clearly under- 
stood that this distinction is now generally recognized. 

In sculpture, the works in the French exhibit that commanded 
attention were in bronze: notably M. Bartholdi's "Young Vine- 
Grower;" "The Bohemian at the Spring," by M. Ross; "The 
Juggler," by M. Blanchard; "Italian Shepherd," by M. Moreau- 
Vauthier; "Mercury, Whispering," by M. Moulin; and "Girl of 
Megara," by M. Barrias. These works reflect some of the merits 
that are widely recognized in French sculpture, which evinces a 
decidedly original and successful attempt to infuse into it the 
spirit and sentiment of modern life .by drawing its inspirations 
not merely from tradition, or from a cold and calculating intellect- 
ual eclecticism, but from the living sources and sentiments that in 
every great epoch give character to art. 

EARLY FORMS or THE TELEPHONE. In the preface of a book by 
Robert Hooke, F.U.S., published about 1606, occurs the following: 

"And as Glasses have highly promoted our seeing so 'tis not im- 
probable but that there may be found many Mechanical Inventions to 
improve our other senses, of hearing, smelling, tasting, touching. 
'Tis not impossible to hear a whisper at a furlong's distance, it having 
been already done ; and perhaps the nature of the thing would not 
make it more impossible, though that furlong should be ten times 
multiply' d. And though some famous Authors have affirm'd it im- 
possible to hear through the thinnest plate of Muscovy glass ; yet I 
know a way, by which 'tis easie enough to hear one speak through a 
wall a yard thick. It has not yet been thoroughly examin'd, how far 
Otocousticons may be improv'd nor what other wayes there may be of 
quickning our hearing, or conveying sound through other bodies 
then [than] the Air: for Ifhat is not the only medium. I can assure 
the Reader, that I have, by help of a distended wire, propagated the 
sound to a very considerable distance in an instant, or with as seem- 
ingly quick a motion as that of light at least, incomparably swifter 
then [than] that, which at the same time was propagated through Air; 
and this not only in a straight line, or direct, but in one bended in 
many angles." 



[A paper read before the Civil Engineers' Club of the North-West, Chicago, Sept. . 

4, 1877.] 


Is similar in all respects to Fig. 4, except that some of the forces 
acting on the truss have an upward direction ; but this does not 
alter the solution. 


Is the same truss shown in Figs. 4 and 5 ; but it is loaded on the 
tie-beam as well as on the rafters. 

The forces acting on the tie-beam are treated as one set, and 
their polygon of forces is (in); KK 2 being their closing line, and 
Z 3 the dividing-point on it. Diagram (iv) is their equilibrium 

The forces acting on the rafters are treated as a separate set : 
their equilibrium polygon is shown by (n) ; and their polygon of 
forces is shown by the double line in (v). If the forces IH and 
PH a are not considered, the closing line will be HIP, and the 

cn)\U IV ' ' !/ WA 4J; 

dividing-point Z 4 . If HI and PH 2 are considered, the closing line 
will be IP, and the dividing-point Z 6 . We will consider thes? 
forces as brought in ; and therefore Z 6 will be the dividing-point 
on the closing line. 

In order to combine these polygons of forces, (in) and (y), sup- 
pose (in) to be superimposed on (v), so that the point Z 8 in (in) 
coincides with Z 5 in (v), the relative directions of all the forces 
being maintained : this will give a complete polygon of all the 


The American Architect and [Building News. [\ T OL. III. No. 110. 

forces ; and the re-actions at the supports will be IK and 1 2 K 3 . 
These re-actions appear in the diagram to be parallel ; but they are 
not necessarily so. The strains in the members of the truss can 
now be drawn in the usual way. 

In the equilibrium polygon (n) it may be observed that the 
lines g, GF, and F F 2 , all intersect in the same point, which causes 
the line f to equal o; and consequently it does not appear. This 
same effect is explained under the head of Fig. 3. 

If it is not desired to introduce the forces III and FH 2 , then the 
point Z 8 should be superimposed on Z 4 instead of Z 6 . 

It is to be remarked, that, in arranging the forces in polygons 
(in) and (v), they must bs arranged in a certain order ; thus, if 
the forces on the right hand of the truss which have the exponent 
2 are put in the upper part of (v), they must be put in the lower 
part of (in), or vice versa. 


Is similar in all respects to Fig. 6. except that some of the forces 
act in an upward direction, and there are no loads upon the points 
of support. It is introduced here to show the universality of the 



IN our issue of Nov. 18, 1876, we gave an illustration of an altar 
and reredos which was subsequently erected in Trinity Church, 
New York. The execution of this work involved several changes 
in the chancel arrangements ; and as the accommodation for the 
choristers had hitherto been insufficient, the vestry determined to 
build an addition in the rear of the church, and at the same time 
re-arrange the choir-stalls, etc. The addition is of stone, corre- 
sponding with the stone-work of the church which was built by 
Mr. 11. Upjohn in 1846, and contains a room 24 feet by 17 feet for 
the choristers, communicating with another for the clergv, with 
separate dressing-rooms, etc. The choristers enter through "a door- 
way on the west side, over which, in a panel, is sculptured an angel 
blowing a trumpet. The priests' entrance is on the south side, 
and adjoining it is a carved niche in which is placed a figure of 
St. Paul, carved by Ellin and Kitson from a model made by Rob- 
ert Smith of London. The interiors of the rooms are fitted up 
with ornamental ash wood-work, and the windows filled with 
colored mosaic glass by Charles Booth. In the chancel a doorway 
was cut in each of the side walls for the egress of the communi- 
cants; and, to obtain increased space for the choir, a Caen stone 
screen projecting three feet into the nave was built, and the stalls 
extended to the outside of the chancel arch. The stalls are of oak, 
the poppy-heads being richly carved. The floors are laid with 
Minton's encaustic tile, and the walls and groined ceiling decorat- 
ed in color. The contractor for the addition was Philip Herrman, 
and the interior work and the whole of the carving was done by 
Ellin and Kitson of New York. 


The old city hall square, "Der Altstadter Ring," the centre of 
the city of Prag, is, from a historical as well as architectural point 
of view, one of the most remarkable places in this old city, full as 
it is of interesting memorials of an eventful history. The west 
side of the square is occupied by the old Gothic Hath/iaus, while on 
the east side, above a succession of irregular arches, rise the towers 

of the " Thein " Church, 253 feet high. This church was built in 
the fifteenth century, by German merchants, and has been added to 
from time to time. King George Podiebrad built the two towers 
and the gabled roof, which he ornamented with a statue of himself, 
in full armor and with drawn sword in hand; while above was a 
gilded chalice, the Hussite emblem which indicated that com- 
munion was there administered in both kinds. The statue, how- 
ever, was at a later period taken down, and replaced by a statue 
of the Holy Virgin. The precursors of Johann Huss preached 
here as early as the fourteenth century, and from the pulpit once 
sounded the eloquent voice of the fiery Rohyeana. In the church 
are the tombs of Bishop Augustin Lucian and the Danish astrono- 
mer* Tycho Brahe, who died there in exile, having been invited to 
a seat in the University two years before. Entrance to the church 
is had through the archways in the lower part of the houses which, 
as with so many other European churches, were allowed to grow up 
around and against it. On the old square have been enacted some 
of the most violent and bloody deeds in the history of Bohemia, 
one of the last being the execution, by -order of Wallenstein, of 
eleven officers found guilty of cowardice at the battle of Lutzen 
during the Thirty Years' War. 



These two houses erected in May, 1877, on a full lot (25x100 
feet), are very substantially built, and are intended for small fami- 
lies, being in size something between a French apartment and an 
ordinary sized house. Each house contains 13 rooms exclusive 
of closets, of which there is one for each room. The depth is 60 
feet, and the extreme width of each house from plaster to plaster 
is 10 feet 9$ inches, the outside walls being furred. The front is 
of Philadelphia brick and Nova Scotia stone. The front doors are 
of cypress, and the dining-rooms and halls are finished with the 
same wood. 



CHICAGO, January. 

THE great dome controversy between the city and county 
authorities is still as far from an end as ever. The proportions it 
has assumed are amusing, if not profitable to the tax-payers. 
Your readers are more or 1 ss familiar with the circumstances 
attending the attempt to erect a city and county structure on one 
lot, but the situation of the building has not been made so clear 
in your columns. The lot is a square in the heart of the city, 
bounded by four streets. The county building occupies one side 
about 350 feet long, and fronts on three streets. The city build- 
ing is to occupy the other side, and also fronts on three streets. 
There is a space of about 60 feet between; and the projected dome, 
if it is ever built, will occupy the centre of this space, its founda- 
tions encroaching within the exterior lines of both buildings. 
The county building had already been carried up to the main 
story floor before the half of the dome on that side had been com- 
menced. Then the half dome was commenced, and the mild 
weather permitted the contractor to carry the walls up to nearly 
half the height of the main story. Meanwhile the main building 
has been carried up to the middle of the second storv, where work 
has ceased for the season. A gap is left on the side where the 
dome is to be. This has been nearly closed by the dome structure, 
but a few days since the building committee ordered the work to 
be stopped. The walls are built in the most substantial manner, 
being 10 feet thick in the basement story and laid up solid with 
dimension-stones averaging 16 cubic feet each. What is now 
built, being one-half only, presents a strange appearance as it can 
be seen in section from the west side. 

The concrete foundations for the city building had only been 
put down on one-third of the site when the superintendent 
ordered the work to be stopped for the winter. The contractors 
have therefore pushed along the cellar walls on that part until 
they now reach the grade line. Nothing has as yet been done on 
the foundations on the city's side, of the dome site. The piles 
which were driven by the county contractor, and which the city 
has never paid for, are the only things to remind one of the possi- 
bility of the completion of the dome. 

The whole county building and dome are the work of J. J. Egan, 
architect. The exterior of the city building is his work also. 
But Mr. L. D. Cleaveland, Superintendent of Buildings, who was 
ordered by the Department of Public Works to furnish his ser- 
vices as architect for the city, in his official capacity, has, under 
orders of the Building Committee of the City Council, changed 
the plan of that portion which might be occupied by half the 
dome, and provided for a connecting corridor which is to reach to 
the axis of the dome, where the authority of the city magnates 

Months ago several conferences were had by the county and city 

FEBRUARY 2, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


committees, -with a view to reconciling their differences on this 
question, which resulted in nothing. The county people have all 
along claimed that they have a contract with the city to build a 
dome conjointly. At that time it is well known that a compro- 
mise could have been effected, had the city people been will- 
ing to erect a rotunda or central exchange, only as high as the 
rest of the buildings. But on their part there was a display of 
negative obstinacy seldom equalled ; while the county authorities 
were determined to give additional evidence of their natural pro- 
pensity to spend as much money as possible, with reckless indiffer- 
ence to the wishes of those who are obliged to foot the bills. 
Consequently they ordered their half of the work to go on. 

It is since then that the city's ground plans have been made and 
building commenced. The county meanwhile has succeeded in 
spending $70,000 on the dome foundations and walls, most of which 
is money wasted unless a dome or tower of the projected height 
of 320 feet is built ; for if both parties should still agree to build 
a rotunda, the walls would be too thick, and would have to be re- 
duced to make a rotunda of respectable size. 

This is still the only practicable solution of the problem or 
rather contest, as it should be called. 

Mr. Cleavelaud, who is an able architect, has made an excellent 
plan for the interior arrangement of the city building, except in 
the connecting part, where he has been controlled by the building 
committee. In its constructive features the materials are not alone 
incombustible, a word too often mistaken for fire-proof, but are 
to be made fire-proof in the true acceptation of the term. All 
the iron-work is to be protected. The interior columns will be 
made according to Wight's method. The spaces between beams 
will be filled by terra-cotta arches which protect the beams, and 
the girders will be incased with the same material. 

This system of thorough protection to exposed iron-work has 
just been carried out in the Mitchell Building at Milwaukee, 
which will be ready for occupancy by the first of February. This 
is the most costly private building erected in the West for many 
years, and is a monument to its owner, Alexander Mitchell. It is 
the work of E. Townsend Mix, architect, of Milwaukee. The 
building covers about 100 by 125 feet, and stands on Water Street. 
This and the old Chamber of Commerce occupy the entire block 
running through to Broadway. Rumor says that the Chamber of 
Commerce, also belonging to Mr. Mitchell, is soon to be rebuilt 
in style equal if not superior to the Mitchell Building. The 
architecture of this is French Renaissance, perhaps too florid in 
treatment for a business building; but, as I said before, it is a 
monument, and the designer may be excused for making its archi- 
tecture verge on what Frenchmen would call the monumental. 

The material of the exterior is very light gray sandstone, with 
gome polished granite for contrast. The same material is used in 
the main vestibule, which is imposing and elaborate in design. 
It has a mansard roof with small pavilion roofs at the corners, and 
a high pavilion with dome-shaped roof over the main entrance. 
This is used as the United States signal station. The signal lan- 
tern is at the base of the flagstaff, and forms a good composition. 
Here for once the domical mansard roof with its appendages is 
expressive of the purpose for which it is used. The dormers and 
chimneys, which are heavy, and rather crowded, arc of stone ; but 
all the ribs and crowning members of the roof, which are of elabo- 
rate design and good detail, are of hard terra-cotta from the Chi- 
cago Terra-Cotta Works. The entire roof is covered with porous 
tiles set between T-iron rafters, the slates and metal covering 
being secured directly by nails to the porous terra-cotta. All the 
iron columns throughout the Interior are of the radiating web pat- 
tern, and made fire-proof by Wight's process. The girders are 
enclosed with porous terra-cotta ; and the spaces between the iron 
beams are filled by a system of brick arches and hollow tiles, 
which fully protects the beams, and affords a very light construc- 
tion, said to be not exceeding 40 pounds per foot. This is the 
invention of Sanford E. Loring of the Chicago Terra-Cotta Works. 
It is of such nature, however, as to require diagrams for a proper 
description. This is the first building in which it has been em- 
ployed. All the small partitions are of hollow bricks. The inte- 
rior finish is very elaborate. Wood has been used sparingly. 
The columns in the banking room which occupies the corner on 
the main floor, the basement office, and one in the second story, are 
finished on the exterior in a scagliola imitation of marble. All 
the others have a finish of Keene's cement. Sand being used 
with this exceedingly hard cement, they are fully as durable as 
stone. The girders are plastered on the porous tiles which incase 
them, and the ceilings on wooden lath suspended beneath the fire- 
proof protection to the beams. The decorative painting through- 
out is polychromatic, and is done by P. M. Almini of Chicago. 
It is a good example of progress in decorative art. The painting 
of the corridor ceilings in imitation of encaustic tiles, is original, 
but not to be commended. Hale's water-balance elevator is used 
for passengers, and a Hale direct-acting water elevator is pro- 
vided for the use of the janitor and for any freights that may 
require it. 

It is gratifying to know that in a time like this nearly the whole 
building is rented for an amount equal to 'a good interest on the 
investment. It is designed for offices throughout. The cost has 
been in the neighborhood of $100,090. 



WHAT to do with the old Distributing Reservoir on Fifth Avenue 
and Fortieth Street, still agitates the minds of many of our city 
fathers and meddlesome managers. Its mere removal will cos"t 
$50,000 ; and in response to a suggestion that it be roofed in and 
made to answer as a great armory and drill-room, Commissioner of 
Public Works Campbell estimates that certainly $450,000 will be 
required, or with an allowance for contingencies, say about half a 
million, certainly far more than New York is just now able to 
spend. Mr. Campbell very sensibly recommends that the space be 
turned into a public park, and thus avoid the error of rushing into 
building of any sort. 

On Friday evening, the 25th ult, Mr. William R. Stewart died 
at his residence on Fifth Avenue. Mr. Stewart will be remem- 
bered as an upright, an able; aud a successful builder. lie came to 
the city a lad from Vermont, and, following his trade of a mason, 
undertook some of the most important work now standing in the 
city. St. Luke's Hospital, the Herald Building, II. B. Claflin's 
store, A. T. Stewart's residence on Fifth Avenue, and the Hotel 
for Working Women, with many other prominent buildings, were 
built under his superintendence. He was one of that class of 
builders who were willing and able to do the very best class of 
work, and who would not stoop to the low shams now so common. 

Among the recent additions to our professional ranks is Mr. 
Bruce Price, whose first work here is a flat-house, at 21 East Twen- 
ty-first Street. Outside, Wyoming blue-stone is used up to the 
water-table; above, Philadelphia brick and Ohio stone with a red 
tile roof. It is an English basement house, with a segment-planned 
bay rising from a column resting on a bracket beside the entrance. 
The bay is treated somewhat as a single feature, and at its finish 
above is a large terra-cotta cornice decorated with foliage. The 
whole is six stories high, the roof showing a pediment with her- 
ring-bone brick- work, and a section of mansard. Within, the house 
is strictly fire-proof, with iron beams, and a main staircase carried 
up in a brick drum, with risers aud treads of slate. An elevator 
is provided, and a servants' staircase at the back of the building 
where the kitchens are placed. As the dining-rooms are in front, 
the arrangement will demand the French system of service ; and in 
many particulars the building recalls Parisian models, and reminds 
one of Mr. Price's long residence abroad. 

Mr. George B. Post has also a notable private residence ki hand, 
to be built at 15 East Thirty-sixth Street, for Mr. II. M. Braem, the 
Danish consul. It occupies an ordinary lot, but from the front a 
porch of North River blue-stone will project some feet and give 
opportunity for some careful carving. Moulded brick of the Peer- 
less Brick Co. is liberally used, while large panels of terra-cotta 
ornament will be inserted beneath the window openings. These 
panels are Chicago terra-cotta, and are to be moulded after original 
designs. The plan is simple and well arranged, with the stairway 
thrown across the centre of the building. Iron beams and arched 
flooring with heavy walls will make the structure as fire-proof as 
possible. Its cost will reach $30,000. Mr. Post has also under 
way and nearing completion the Brooklyn Music Hall at the junc- 
tion of Fulton and Flatbush Avenues, Brooklyn. The building is 
triangular in plan, the street sides about eighty feet long, and the 
broad end nearly one hundred. The street floor will be fitted up 
for stores. The entrance to the hall will be at the angle through 
a broad lobby and up stairs on either side. These stairs are pecul- 
iar in being double ; that is, in place of leaving the usual head- 
room from one flight to another, Mr. Post has introduced another 
set of flights leading to the gallery-floor. This is a very compact 
mode of construction, though sadly puzzling to the mechanics who 
estimated on the building. Above the hall, which seats about 
1,200 people, a series of lodge-rooms was required ; and in carrying 
these and the roof above, Mr. Post has thrown a pair of trusses 
from the rear wall to a poiut at the entrance-end of the hall be- 
low. Here a cluster of columns supports a plate upon which rests 
one end of the lower chord of the trusses, which are twelve feet 
deep. They are some seventy feet long, and bracing each other 
form a construction of the strongest character; smaller truss- 
girders make up the flooring and carry the plates of the flat ceil- 
ing below. It is an excellent solution of a difficult problem, and 
the construction of the building as a whole is worth study. 

For a work which is very far from being a model of construc- 
tion, if it be in fact a model of aught save ugly instability, the 
Post Office building claims attention. Again the papers are filled 
with stories of cracking walls ; and once more the public officers, 
for whose accommodation, security, and comfort the building was 
erected, are compelled to scurry from their quarters, while the 
shorers and patchers brace up the settling partitions and thrust in 
additional girders. The whole trouble is due to the practice of 
making large rooms on the lower floors and smaller ones in the 
upper stories, aud then failing to use girders strong enough to 
sustain the brick partitions above. Deflection follows, cracks are 
seen, and what was neglected at first has afterwards to be carried 
out at heavy expense. Entirely apart from the architectural de- 
fects of the building, which are many and glaring, the construction 
is by no means so good as is popularly believed; and some time 
hence the cast-iron in the foundations may be heard from in an 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 110. 

unpleasant manner. The wood-work, what little there is of it, is 
bad, the elevators are models of cumbersome unhandiness, while 
the staircases are so arranged as to be as far out of the way as 

Meantime, of all the architects in this city, Mr. Thomas R. Jack- 
sou, who built and defended the Brooklyn Theatre, is found to fill 
the post of resident architect. Apropos of shams is a story of 
what is going on in the way of tenement-house "skin " building, 
brought out by the exposure of a heartless contractor who econo- 
mized in plumbing by omitting his sewer-trap, and so caused the 
death of a tenant or two. But the whole story I will tell you in a 
subsequent letter, and speak now of the action of the Park Com- 
missioners in dismissing Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted from his post 
as landscape architect of the department. 

The yearly estimates of the department have been cut down ; and 
as a measure of economy Mr. Olmsted is dismissed, despite a gener- 
al protest. The opinion of the thinking classes here, who know 
Mr. Olmsted and his work, has been shown in a letter to the com- 
missioners signed by the bost of our business men and citizens. 

But after a long debate the commissioners in their wisdom cut 
the knot by the adoption of the following : 

Resolved, That Mr. Frederick Law Olmstod be and he is hereby 
removed from the position of landscape architect of this depart- 
ment ; and it is further 

Resolved, That Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted be and is hereby 
appointed consulting landscape architect to this department, his 
services to be paid for at such rate as this department may deter- 
mine from time to time, as they are availed of. W 


NEW HAVEN, CONN., Jau. 21, 1S78. 

To THE EDITOR OF THE COURANT, The Farmington River, 
which flows toward the north at Tariffville, is crossed obliquely by 
the Connecticut Western Railroad, and hence the bridge was built 
on a "skew" of about thirty-eight degrees with the direction of 
the abutments and pier. The total length of about 333 feet is 
divided into two spans, each about 102 feet in the clear. The west- 
ern span of the bridge fell when covered by a locomotive and cars ; 
the eastern span, though also covered with cars, remained stand- 
ing, and upon it the measurements given below were made. 

The bridge is of the type known as a Howe truss, the two 
chords and the braces of each truss being wood, and the vertical 
ties iron. The lower chord is twelve feet above the ice in the 
river, and upon this lower chord rest the cross beams which sup- 
port the stringers, ties, and rails of the single track. The width 
of the bridge is fourteen feet in the clear, or including trusses 
nineteen feet; and it has horizontal bracing both at top and at 
bottom. The depth of the trusses between centres is 21^ feet, 
and they are divided into sixteen panels, each 10 feet long. Each 
truss is terminated by the four vertical posts and stiffening rods 
usual in the Howe system ; but the chords were continuous over 
the middle pier, thus uniting the two spans, and possibly render- 
ing their action slightly different from that given by calculation. 
The southern truss of the west span fell first; and the chords are 
separated directly over the pier, those of the other truss breaking 
several feet west of the pier. The bridge was uncovered and uu- 

The weight of the bridge as computed from my measurement is 
1,320 pounds per linear foot. To determine the strength of tha sev- 
eral parts, I assume the live load or weight of the train to be 
2,250 pounds per linear foot. Engineers will bear witness that this 
is a small live load to use in discussing so light a bridge, particu- 
larly when no allowance oi "locomotive panel excess" is made. 

The top chord of the trusses is composed of four timbers, 10J 
inches deep; two of the timbers are 6 inches wide, and two are 
7 inches wide; these are spaced apart by blocks to 30 inches in 
width and bound together by bolts. The strain upon this top chord 
under the passage of a train is 983 pounds per square inch. The 
timber is pine, which, according to a recent recommendation by 
a committee of engineers, should never be subject to a compressive 
strain of more than 900 pounds per square inch, when (as in this 
case) the length of the piece exceeds ten times its least diameter. 
This recommendation extends only to sound timber. In the Tar- 
iifville bridge the timber of the top chord is badly decayed over 
the pier where it was torn apart, and in the fourth and fifth 
panels east of the pier. It is possible and probable that the top 
chord of the fallen truss was in a similar or perhaps a wtfrse con- 

The lower chord is composed of four pieces, two 6| inches 
wide, and two 7 inches wide, all 13J inches deep. There are two 
end main braces, each 9 by !! inches. Each panel has a counter 
brace usually 7 inches by 8^ inches. These dimensions will ena- 
ble engineers to compute the strains per square inch upon them. 

There are three vertical wrought-iron tie-roJs in five panels of 
the truss from each end, and two in the other panels. Between the 
first and second panels, two of the rods are If inches in diameter, 
and the other is 1J inches. The next set has two of 1J inches, and 
one of 1} inches. In the ii.xt set therj are two of Ijj inches, 

and one of 1^ inches. The next set (between the fourth and fifth 
panels) has all three rods 1-g inches in diameter. The strain up- 
on these rods under the passage of a train exceeds in two instances 
19,000 pounds per square inch, or nearly twice as much as that 
allowed by bridge-engineers who do their duty. There is evi- 
dence that in some of the tie-rods the ends were not properly 
upset (or increased in diameter) before cutting the screw-threads 
upon them; should such be the case with those just mentioned, 
their effective diameters would be decreased of an inch, and the 
strain upon them would be more than 22,000 pounds per square 
inch, exceeding probably the limit of elasticity of the iron. 

The above facts are sufficient to enable bridge-engineers to form 
an opinion concerning the strength of this bridge, and to judge 
of the causes of its failure. For the general public, however, these 
results need to be. further popularized and emphasized. 

The Tariffville bridge may have failed either by the breaking 
of the rotten upper chord, or by the breaking of the overstrained 
tie-rods. It is a matter of little importance which broke first: 
the defects of either are sufficient to account for the disaster. 

The antecedent causes of the failure of the bridge were three : 
it was not properly built, it was not properly kept in repair, and 
it was not properly inspected by a commission appointed and paid 
by the State to make such inspection. That it was not properly 
built, there can be furnished, besides the above figures, good engi- 
neering authority. Trautwine, for instance, gives the following 
as the proper dimensions for a Howe truss of 102 feet span (the 
Tariffville bridge is a few feet longer): for the upper chord, a 
cross section of 390 square inches the Tariffville bridge has 281; 
for the lower chord, 522 square inches the Tariffville bridge has 
305; for the end braces 255 square inches the Tariffville bridge 
has '203 ; for the end tie-rods, 15 square inches the Tariffviile 
bridge has less than 8. In short, the designers of this bridge 
violated mathematical calculation and engineering precedent; to 
save the money which a few pounds of iron would have cost, 
human lives were daily put in danger. 

Wooden bridges are usually covered to protect them from the 
action of the rain, ice, and snow ; but this was left exposed for six 
years until the upper chord became rotten enough to give way 
under a fraction of the strain which it was intended to support, 
and no steps were taken to repair it. Not even the iron rods were 
painted. To save the money which repairs would have cost, the 
lives of passengers were daily risked. 

It was not properly inspected by a commission which has exam- 
ined it every year since its erection on behalf of the State. An 
efficient inspection would have discovered the. defective tie-rods six 
years ago ; an effective inspection would not have allowed it to 
remain exposed to the action of the weather for six successive 
yeurs ; an intelligent inspection would have detected and repaired 
the rotten timbers. For the lack of such inspection, human lives 
were lost. 

Tin immediate responsibility for the accident must fall upon 
the officers of the railroad company, not for running two locomo- 
tives over the bridge, but for building such a structure and neg- 
lecting to keep it in repair. But the State of Connecticut is also 
responsible for sanctioning, as it has done annually by its railroad 
commissioners, the use of such an ill-proportioned and unsound 
bridge. The incompetency of such a commission to hold an 
investigation concerning the cause of the disaster will be apparent 
to every engineer. MANSFIELD MEURIMAN. 


THE NATIONAL MUSEUM BILL. The House Committee on Pub- 
lic Buildings and Grounds has agreed to report favorably the bill 
for the construction of a fire-proof building on the grounds of the 
Smithsonian Institute to be used as a national museum, appropriat- 
ing therefor $250,000. 

Ordnance of the Slate of New York, and the custodian of the State 
Arsenal on Thirty-fifth Street, says that duriir; an evening in the 
latter part of last December, he was sitting in his omce, which is on 
the second floor directly beneath the drill-room, when he heard a sharp 
crack like the report of a rifle in the gun-room adjoining his ofiice. 
lie at once made ag examination, and found that one of the girJers 
upon which the floor of the drill-room rests had sprung out of posi- 
tion, and the noise which he had heard was the snapping of an iron 
plate which connected the girder with another at the ends. The 
Twelfth Regiment was drilling in the room at the time, but as i; had 
nearly finished lie said nothinj to alarm the members, and on the 
following day he informed the Department of Buildings of the inci- 
dent. Deputy Superintendent Dudley, of the Department of Build- 
ings, made the examination, and submitted a report, of which the 
following is an extract : " One column on the floor below the drill- 
room we found slightly out of plumb, and the girder on the top, sup- 
porting the drill-room floor, was twisted at the ends and split. The 
girders supporting the drill-room floor are not of sufficient strength 
for their bearings. These girders arc only safe at 23,784 pounds, and 
have to sustain, under a vibratory load, 00,000 pounds. This is taking, 
according to our law, 120 pounds to the superficial foot, and double 
the same for a vibratory lo^d. The girders, in my opinion, are not 
of sufficient size for the purpose for which tho building is usjcl, and 
arc liable to become dangerous and unsafe." 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES E. OSGOOD & Co. 

[NO. III. 



ApartmentHouses and Tenement-Houses. The Dome Foun- 
dations of the Chicago Court-House. The Providence 
Building-Law. Fall of an Iron Roof. Schoolhouses in 
New York. The Decoration of Trinity Church, Boston . . 45 




The Snow Library. The Rogers Free Library. Houses in 
Boston. A Country Church. Study in Perspective. 

Plumbing in a City House 49 



TnE necessity of new terms in common use and in law to 
discriminate new things was illustrated in a recent suit at 
law in New York, where a decision turned, as it has in some 
other quarrels, on the question whether what is called an 
apartment-house is a tenement-house. Mrs. Musgraye had 
bought a house on Fifth Avenue from Mr. Sherwood half a 
dozen years ago, on the condition, stipulated in the deed, 
that no nuisances or tenement-houses should be put upon the 
adjoining land, which was occupied by houses belonging to 
Mr. Sherwood ; and on the understanding and agreement, as 
she claimed, that only private residences should be allowed 
there. Lately Mr. Sherwood had turned the two adjoining 
houses into an apartment-house or family hotel, and had 
begun to build on the party-wall next Mrs. Musgrave, who 
then sued for an injunction to restrain him. Three points 
were claimed by her counsel, that, the party -wall being 
completed when she bought her interest in it, he had no right 
to build it higher ; that the stipulation in the deed against 
a tenement-house estopped him from building an apartment- 
house ; and that the verbal agreement obliged him not to 
occupy the land with any thing but private dwellings. It is 
easy to see that the first point, if sustained by the court, 
would give rise to endless embarrassments among neighbors ; 
but the judge (Judge Van Vorst) ruled that either joint 
owner of a party-wall may extend it upward or downward at 
his pleasure, provided he does no injury thereby to his neigh- 
bor's property. The verbal agreements were ruled out as 
irrelevant ; and in regard to the second point the Court de- 
cided that as a tenement-house was defined by statute to be 
a house occupied by three or more families independently, 
while in the apartment-house the cooking and washing 
were done in common, the apartment-house was not a tene- 
ment-house. The decision, whatever may be its importance, 
in law, plainly leaves the real issue untouched ; for the disa- 
greeable thing in a tenement-house is not the fact that its 
occupants cat together or apart, but the number and kind of 
neighbors it brings. The beginning of this suit and the 
granting of the first injunction, which is now dissolved, was 
noticed in a letter of our New York correspondent in No. 89 
of this journal. 

THE ingenuity of the counsel i" this case is as nothing in 
comparison with that of the contractor who agreed to build 
the foundation of the dome of the famous and farcical 
Chicago Court House, and who having itegun to build will 
not be stopped, but continues building upward, claiming 
that the foundation of the dome extends above the roof of 
the building. This aspiration so displeases the tax-payers 
that they talk of enjoining the Board of Commissioners and 
putting the Court House into the hands of a receiver, in case 
the contractor's claim for compensation is allowed. This 
occurs, as we understand it, in the County's half of the build- 
ing, but we will not be too sure. 

TnE proposed building-law for the city of Providence 
which is before the Legislature of Rhode Island, and of 
which we have spoken before (American Architect, No. 60) , 
seems to be having a struggle for existence. It has appar- 
ently developed a good deal of opposition among a class of 

Duildcrs who like to build just as they please, and who are 
not deterred by any respect for their calling from appearing 
at a legislative hearing to oppose such provisions as those 
that require the testing of cast-iron girders, or that the cellars 
of houses built on made land should be concreted, or that 
wooden buildings more than eighteen feet high should not be 
built in the business part of the city, which last provision 
one of the remonstrants naively argued did not seem to apply 
to a wooden city like Providence. The low opinion held in 
some quarters, of our profession and one nearly allied to it, 
appeared in the remarks of a builder who objected that the 
bill put the control of building into inexperienced hands, by 
referring it to architects and engineers, instead of mechanics 
and builders, who understood the business. Notwithstanding 
the fact that the public is indebted to architects and engineers 
for most of the improvements in building that have been 
made of late .years, it is pretty sure that there is little hope 
of passing building-laws in any cities through their influence 
alone. But the better class of builders erery where are con- 
cerned in the advancement of good building, and it is encour- 
aging to know that in Providence they have taken a good 
part in preparing and forwarding the law. 

ANOTHER example of the insecurity of iron construction, 
as it is commonly used, is the fall of a roof in Cambridge, 
Mass., just before we write. The iron roof over the furnace- 
room of the New England Glass Works fell down suddenly 
without warning. It was a hundred feet long and ninety 
feet in span, put up seventeen years ago, and has lasted 
perhaps as long as witli our present habits of construc- 
tion any piece of ordinary iron-work can be expected to 
refrain from fulling. Fortunately no one was under it, and 
since nobody was hurt it is not likely that any great notice 
will be taken of the accident ; but it is none the less a warn- 
ing. The theories behind which ignorance takes refuge to 
avoid confession are fairly instanced in that which has been 
put forward in this case ; viz., that the furnaces being out for 
some weeks, the iron girders [or trusses] had so, contracted 
with the cold as to draw away from their bearings, A rough 
computation is enough to show the absurdity of such a sup- 
position. If we take the co-cfiicicnt of expansion of wrought 
iron at .000007, which Is large, and suppose that the tempera- 
ture was 70 degrees below that at which the roof was set up, 
we have a contraction of .000007 x 70 = ,00049, which, 
since the span was ninety feet, gives .00049x90== .044 feet, 
or about half an inch. This makes it unnecessary to inquire 
whether the roof had never been allowed to, get cold before, 
and whether it was built with the expectation that it never 
would. We have as yet learned nothing of the manner or 
circumstances of the building of it, and so have no opinion 
to give about it ; but we know, what even 1 engineer or archi- 
tect of any length of practice can con*' m from his own 
experience, that the majority of tho 'men who design iron 
constructions in this country are deplorably ignorant of the 
properties and use of tho material they employ ; in spite of 
which they have the confidence of employers, on the ground 
that they are practical men, 

THERE are no buildings to which the sanitary reformer can 
better direct his attention than to public school houses. 
They are usually built according to the worst traditions of 
an inconsiderate economy mingled with an inconsiderate ex- 
pense. They are often elaborate and costly, but are almost 
always contracted in plan, unduly crowded, containing five 
or six schools where they should hold but two or three, shot 
up into the air one or two stories too high, and with the 
youngest and most helpless pupils packed into the upper 
rooms. They are badly ventilated, their plumbing and water- 
closets carelessly arranged, and are constructed without any 
regard to security against fire ; the partitions and staircases 
being always of wood, and the means of egress in the older 
ones often very inadequate. A late report of Inspector Rus- 
sell to the New York Board of Health shows a very unfor- 
tunate condition of the primary schools in one district of the 
city. It is a pretty uniform story of bad light, bad ventila- 
tion, bad drainage, bad arrangement, and bud administra- 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 111. 

tion. The wash-basins were generally untrapped, the water- 
closets and privies dirty and neglected. In one place the 
sewer overflowed the cellar, in another the open junction of 
the rain-spout with the sewer gave a chance for gas to es- 
cape under the windows, in another the opening of the door 
of a class-room barred the upper flight of stairs. What 
with bad sewers, unclean tenement-houses, and unwhole- 
some school-houses, there is in New York a rich soil for 
the growth of sanitary improvements. 

WE have more than once spoken of Mr. LaFarge's decora- 
tion of Trinity Church in Boston, and have published lately 
a description of his work at St. Thomas's in New York. In 
an article in the Midwinter number of Scribner's Monthly, 
on " Recent Church Decoration," which is a description and 
criticism of these two undertakings, Mr. Clarence Cook 
records " a little natural disappointment to find how small a 
part as yet Mr. LaFarge's individual work plays in the inte- 
rior " of Trinity Church, and complains that "the debt we 
owe to Mr. Cottier in this church has never been so much as 
hinted at in an}- thing that has been printed about it." There 
is no doubt, we believe, that Mr. LaFarge derived much ben- 
efit from such technical suggestions as Mr. Cottier's experi- 
ences in mural painting (which was a new process to Mr. 
LaFarge) enabled him to give in the course of two short 
visits to the church, and from having at his disposal, for the 
mechanical part of the work, men who had been trained under 
Mr. Cottier's hand ; but it is equally true that no work of 
Mr. Cottier's design or execution is to be found in Trinity 
Church. It might properly have been said that Mr. LaFarge's 
original hand-work played a comparatively small part in the 
decoration ; for he shared the execution of the figures, which 
it would have been impossible for him to have painted him- 
self in any time that would have been allowed him, with the 
three artists whom we have before mentioned, Messrs. Mil- 
lett, Lathrop, and Maynard ; and of the purely decorative 
work he painted little. Nevertheless the figures were all paint- 
ed from sketches by his own hand ; and in the same way the 
decorative details designed mostly by Mr. Lathrop were 
in accordance with his sketches to a small scale for the whole 
interior. Since, then, the whole scheme of decoration, the 
arrangement of color, and the design of all the figures, is his, 
as well as a considerable part of the actual hand-work ; to 
conclude that his share in the undertaking was a small one, 
as, whatever was the writer's intention, a reader who derived 
his impression from the article we mention would be sure to 
conclude, would be a great injustice to Mr. LaFarge. 

THE thing which strikes us first in Mr. Cook's criticism, 
and which deserves mention because it is characteristic of 
most of the criticisms on artistic work with which the public 
is supplied by literary men, especially on such work as 
the architecture and decoration of a large building, is the 
completeness with which it misses the purpose and point of 
view of the artist. Mr. LnFarge's work was essentially one 
of decoration, and as decoration first of all it should be crit- 
icised. Here was a large interior of many parts combined in 
a clear and simply arranged but elaborate composition. He 
had to provide a decoration which should adapt itself to all 
the parts, and confirm the whole impression of the architec- 
ture. As decoration, in arrangement, in form, and above all 
in color, it should be beautiful ; should harmonize with the 
feeling of the architecture ; and should have its own expres- 
sion of dignity and religious solemnity. The figure-painting 
should, in keeping with all the rest, have 'its peculiar quali- 
ties of expression and technical merit. The paper in Scrib- 
ner gives some intelligent criticism of the conception of the 
paintings as pictures, and finds some fault with the icono- 
graphic scheme, which, however, is as yet too incompletely 
seen to be the subject of criticism ; but though it is a paper 
on decoration, of the decoration it says nothing. Even the 
prominent key-note on which the whole color is based seems 
never to have entered the writer's head, the powerful con- 
trast of red and green between the walls and the roof, the red 
toned into sobriety, the green reduced almost to a dusky 
gray ; both relieved, and the darkness of the roof especially 
subdued, by the multiplied ornament in gold and sober color 
with which it is covered. This contrast, heightened in the 
ground-colors of the great central tower into deeper red and 

darker green, but still more overlaid with paintings and con- 
ventional decoration in rich but still soberly harmonized 
colors, underlies the whole scheme, and with the general dis- 
tribution of the decoration must have been the first and lead- 
ing conception in the artist's mind. It sounds audacious in 
description, and we remember noticing that the Architect, with 
an appearance of amused surprise, quoted a description of it, 
under the title of " a Boston Basilica," from some American 
journal, in which it was roughly set forth as having red walls, 
a green roof, and the ceiling of the apse solidly gilded. Yet 
the power with which Mr. LaFarge has carried out his bold 
conception, and subdued his wide range of rich coloring, in 
spite of obvious faults of detail, into a harmony of unusual 
solemnity, is to us the most striking characteristic of the 
work. We doubt moreover whether any artist who had not 
got his first training in color as a painter of pictures rather 
than of decoration could have succeeded in it. 



HAVING in the first of these papers considered the nature of the 
phenomena with which perspective drawings have to do, we exam- 
ined in the last paper the aspect of the drawings themselves, first 
observing the relation which lines parallel to the plane of the 
picture bear to their perspective representations, and then the rela- 
tion that the perspective lines and planes, by which the objects 
represented are defined, bear to the perspective of their vanishing 
points and vanishing traces. 

41. Plate II. illustrates almost all the points raised in explaining 
Plate I.; the roofs that are below their traces being all visible, 
and those that are above them being all out of sight, while all the 
lines of intersection of the planes converge to the intersection of 
their traces. This is specially noticeable of the valleys of the main 
roof in the lower picture. 

42. The trace of the system of vertical planes PP' to which 
these valleys are parallel, and which accordingly passes through 
their vanishing points (13 c.), and which was not drawn in the 
previous plate, is here shown. Since the lines which indicate the 
position of these valleys in the perspective plan lie in the same 
vertical planes with the valleys themselves, they must have their 
vanishing point in this same vertical trace T P P' ; and since, like 
all the lines of this plan, they lie in a horizontal plane, their van- 
ishing point must lie in the Horizon (13 d): it is therefore to be 
sought at the intersection of TPP' with the Horizon, at the point 
marked V x (13 e). Since the vertical planes in which these val- 
leys lie are obviously at an angle of 45 with the principal vertical 
planes R Z and L Z, this line X, whose vanishing point is at V x , is 
at 45 with the lines R and L. 

43. If we put the eye at the station-point S, four or five inchf s 
in front of C, and, looking first at V B and V L in directions at right 
angles to each other, look then between them so as exactly to 
divide the angle, we shall be looking in the direction X, and shall 
see V x directly in front of the eye (7). 

We will retain this notation, V x , throughout these papers, to 
denote the vanishing point of horizontal lines making an angle of 
45 with the principal horizontal lines, R and L; and shall call 
it, for brevity, the vanishing point of 45. 

44. The little building on the left has steeper roofs than the 
other, their slope being the same as that of the roof of the tower. 
Their vanishing points are accordingly N,, M,, P,, etc. 

As the tower roof is supposed to slope alike all round, the hips 
P, and P,' lie also in parallel planes, at 45 : their projection on 
the perspective plan has V x for its vanishing point, and V P1 and 
V n ' lie in the trace of the plane P P' at equal distances above and 
below the Horizon (30). 

45. The position of these vanishing points and traces is sup- 
posed to be determined just as the position of the other leading 
points in the picture is determined; that is to say, their relative 
position on the paper is made to correspond to the relative position 
of the real points and vanishing points, as nearly as may be, by the 
eye; by looking first at the point, and then looking for the corre- 
sponding place on the paper. The position of the leading van- 
ishing points being thus determined, the vanishing traces can be 
drawn connecting them, and new vanishing points such as V P aud 

p' determined by their intersection. 

If the propositions illustrated in the last paper are borne in 
mind, a consistent and tolerably correct perspective sketch can 
easily be made, the eye being greatly aided in its estimate of the 
relations of things and their apparent shape and dimensions, by 
the considerations to which attention is thus directed. The princi- 
pal points being fixed by the eye, the other points are then deter- 
mined, partly by the eye, partly by means of lines drawn to the 
vanishing points. 

46. A great advantage may also be found in the use of a per- 
spective plan of any object that is to be drawn, especially in sketch- 

FEBRUARY 9, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


ing not from objects but from the imagination. Thus in the 
figure (Fig. 5), although the main building could be drawn without 
much chance of error, it is by no means so easy to determine just 
where the tower behind it should make its appearance over the 
roof. By completing the plan, however, as is done by dotted 
lines, its position is at once determined. The objection that it is 
undesirable to cover the drawing with construction lines may be 
entirely met by drawing the plan at a lower level, as if it were 
the plan of the bottom of the cellar, ten or twenty feet under- 
ground, as is done in the figure; and for the purpose in hand the 
cellar may be supposed to be of any convenient depth, so as to get 
the plan entirely out of the picture. 

47. This sinking of the perspective plan has two incidental 
advantages. In the first place, it makes it practicable to draw it 
on a separate piece of paper, which may be removed and kept for 
use a second time, if, as often happens, a perspective drawing needs 
to be made over again. In the second place, it defines the posi- 
tions of things much more accurately; the lines by whose inter- 
section the position of the vertical lines is determined cutting 
each other more nearly at right angles. It will be seen in the 
figure that the lines in the real floor-plan cut each other so 
obliquely that it is not easy to tell exactly where the corners of the 
tower do come. 

48. It follows from this that the level at which the object is to 
be shown in perspective is quite independent of the level chosen 
for its plan. This also is illustrated in the figure; the same plan 
serving for three representations of the building, at different 
levels, one nearly even with the eye, with a bird's-eye view below, 
and with what might be called a toad's-eye view of it above. The 
same vanishing points being employed in all three sketches, the 
phenomena pointed out in the previous paper, of the appearance 
and disappearance of plane surfaces according as they come below 
or above their horizons, are here again illustrated. 

49. In thus sketching in perspective, whether from nature 
that is, from a real object or from the imagination, it will be 
found much easier to determine vertical magnitudes than hori- 
zontal ones ; that is to say, it is easy to determine the position 
of horizontal lines, but not their length; and the length of vertical 
lines, but not their position. 

In the sketch, for example, the position of the vanishing points, 
and the position and height of the front corner of the building to 
be represented, being once assumed or determined, other heights, 
whether equal or different, can easily be determined by means of 
parallel lines drawn to the vanishing points. The height of an 
object having been assumed in one part of the picture, an object 
of the same height can be put in anywhere else by the employ- 
ment of parallel lines. 

But though it is thus easy to represent the three gable-ends in 
this sketch as being of the same height, it is not so obvious how 
to draw them so that they shall all seem equally wide. 

50. Moreover, the subdivision of the perspective of vertical lines, 
whether into equal parts or according to some given proportion, 
presents no difficulty; for the vertical lines are parallel to the 
picture, and their perspectives will accordingly be divided just as 
the lines themselves are (20). 

But while the division of vertical lines and their apparent dimi- 
nution in size is easily managed, the subdivision of horizontal and 
inclined lines (except those which like the vertical lines are paral- 
lel to the plane of the picture) is a matter of difficulty. The fur- 
ther divisions are smaller, but it is not clear how much smaller. 

Two methods are adopted to determine this, the method of 
Diagonals and the method of Triangles. Let us take the first, 

The method of Diagonals is illustrated in the various figures of 
Plate II. It applies to parallelograms whose perspectives are 
given or assumed the following propositions : 

51. Proposition 1. A line drawn through the intersection of the 
diagonals of a parallelogram, parallel to two of its sides, bisects 
the other sides and the parallelogram itself. 

This process may be repeated with each half, and the given 
figure, or any line in it, divided into 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 equal parts, 
etc. See Fig. 3, 1. 

The application of this to the perspective of a parallelogram is 
shown in Fig. 5, where the left-hand side of the larger building is 
thus divided. 

52. This is the common way of dividing a perspective line or 
surface into halves; and it is constantly used, as in the left-hand 
side of this building, and on the right-hand side of the building 
above (Fig. 4), to determine the centre line of a gable, and the 
position of its apex. 

53. Less familiar is the employment of this principle to ascer- 
tain the vertical axis of a tower two of whose sides are given in 
perspective, as in Fig. 5. If diagonals are drawn across the tower, 
from two points on the right-hand vertical corner to points at 
the same levels on the left-hand corner, they will intersect in the 
middle of the tower, and a vertical line through their intersection 
may be used to determine the apex of the roof which covers it, 
as in the figure. These diagonals lie in a vertical plane that 
crosses the tower diagonally. 

54. It is obvious that this furnishes an alternative method of 

determining the slope of these roofs. Instead, that is, of fixing 
the position of the vanishing points of M and M', P and P', and 
thus obtaining the direction of these inclined lines, we may assume 
at once the direction of any one of these lines, say the nearest 
one. The intersection of th'is line with the central vertical line 
fixes the height of the roof ; the other slope and the other roofs 
are then easily drawn. 

55. Perspective is full of these alternative methods, different 
ways of doing the same thing. Which way it is best to adopt in 
any given case, depends upon the nature of the case. In the present 
instance, the vanishing points V M and V M ' being outside the pic- 
ture, the method of diagonals is rather the most convenient. 

56. It is to be observed, however, that though V M and V m are off 
the paper, V p and V P , are within easy reach. It is generally worth 
while accordingly to fix the position of the more remote vanishing 
points, so as to determine the position of the traces or horizons 
that lie between them, and the points where those traces intersect, 
even if we make no direct use of the vanishing points themselves. 
Thus in the plate, although the lines M,, N,, M/, and N,', which 
give the slope of the roofs of the small house and of the tower, are 
all at a distance, the traces of the planes of the roofs TRN,, 
TLM,, TUN,', and TLM,', all cross the paper, and their inter- 
sections V P1 and Vp/ are close at hand. 

57. Proposition 2. If through the intersection of the diagonals a 
second line is drawn parallel to the other two sides of the paral- 
lelogram, a single diagonal suffices to effect the subsequent subdi- 
visions, as is exemplified in Fig. 3, 2, and on the left-hand side of 
the larger building in Fig. 6, below. 

58. Proposition 3. Conversely, if a line drawn from one corner of 
a parallelogram to the middle of one of the opposite sides be 
continued until it meets the other side, prolonged, the length of 
that side, or of the parallelogram itself, may be doubled, and, by 
a repetition of the process, tripled, quadrupled, etc. See Fig. 3, 3. 

This proposition is of great use in perspective drawing, as may 
be seen in Fig. 5, where the gabled end on the right is several times 
repeated, each time smaller than before. 

It will be seen that the gable ends of the roofs grow steeper and 
steeper, their lines converging, in fact, to the distant vanishing 
points M and M'. By obtaining those points, the accuracy of these 
results can be tested. 

59. Proposition 4. If one side of a parallelogram be divided in 
any way at one end, equal divisions may be laid off at the other 
end by means of two diagonals. See Fig. 3, 6. 

This is very useful in giving a symmetrical treatment to a sur- 
face shown in perspective, as is seen in the left-hand building, 
Fig. 5. The position and width of the nearer window on the side 
of the building being assumed, the vertical lines enclosing the 
further window are easily found. 

At the end of the building the inclined lines of the gable, which 
may be regarded as the semi-diagonals of an unfinished parallelo- 
gram, answer the same purpose. The base of any isosceles trian- 
gle can be divided in this way. 

60. Proposition 5. If one side of a parallelogram be divided in 
any way, the adjacent sides may be similarly divided into propor- 
tional parts, by means of one diagonal ; and by using the other 
diagonal the order of the parts may be reversed. See Fig. 3, 4. 

By this means any required division of a line given in per- 
spective may be effected, as is shown in Fig. 6, on the right-hand 
or shaded sides of both buildings. The required division is made 
on the vertical line, and than transferred to the horizontal line by 
means of the diagonal, the nearest corner of the small house being 
divided according to the desired position of the door and windows, 
and that of the large building into three equal parts. 

61. If the diagonal makes an angle of 45 with the adjacent 
sides, their segments will of course be not only proportional, but 
equal, each to each. 

In the perspective plan of the small building, for example, in 
which the diagonal is directed to V x , the " vanishing point of 45," 
and accordingly makes an angle of 45 with the sides of the build- 
ing, it appears that the window is just as far from the corner on 
one side as the farther edge of the door is on the other. It appears 
also that the plan of this building is just four squares, though it 
hardly looks so, the side being greatly foreshortened, while the 
main part of the other building is just as broad as it is long, com- 
prising nine squares .each as large in plan as the tower. 

62. In applying this proposition to a perspective drawing, the 
line on which these parts are first laid off must of .course be a ver- 
tical line, or some other line parallel to the plane of the picture, 
as it is only in the case of such lines that the division of the per- 
spectives is proportional to that of the lines themselves (20). 

63. Proposition 6. It is not necessary that the length of this line 
shall be previously determined. Indeed, it is more convenient that 
it should not be, as it is easier to establish a given ratio of parts 
on an indefinite line. The equal or proportionate parts may be 
set off at any convenient scale on any convenient line, that touches 
the end of the line to be divided, and the diagonal drawn without 
completing the parallelogram, as in Fig. 3, 5. 

The division of the long wall in Fig. 6, for instance, is effected 
by setting off three equal distances upon the further corner, just as 
well as by dividing the near corner into three equal parts. 

64. It is not necessary in any of these cases, of course, that the 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 111. 

parallelogram shall be a rectangle. The inclined line N, for exam- 
ple, in the middle of the upper figure, Fig. 4, is divided into three 
equal parts by equal divisions laid off on the vertical line that 
bisects the gable. . 

In these last propositions, it \vill be observed, use has been made 
of only half a parallelogram, that is to say, of a triangle. 

65. Proposition 5 may then be re-stated as follows : 

If one side of a triangle be divided in any way, the adjacent 
side may be divided into proportional parts by means of lines 
drawn parallel to these two sides and meeting on the third side. 
See 4, Fig. 3. 

GG. And from Proposition 6 we may derive this : 

If from one end of a line there be drawn an auxiliary-parallel 
to the plane of the picture, any parts taken upon the perspective 
of this auxiliary may be transferred to the perspective of the line, 
in their true proportions, by means of a third line joining the last 
point taken on the auxiliary with the other end of the first line 

67. But as any line, drawn in the picture at random, may be 
conceived of as being the perspective of a line, which it exactly 
covers and conceals, drawn parallel to the picture, it follows that 
any line whatever, touching one end of a perspective line, may be used 
as an auxiliary bi/ which to divide it in any required proportion ; and, 
the triangle 'being completed, the first segments of the broken 
lines by which the proportions are transferred will be parallel to 
the line to be divided and directed to its vanishing point, and the 
second segments will be actually parallel to the auxiliary line, 
since its vanishing point is at an infinite distance. 

GS. Thus if it is required to divide the plan of the left-hand build- 
ing into five equal parts, instead of four, we may from the further 
end of the side draw a line in any direction, say at an angle of 
GO , and lay off on that line five equal parts, using any convenient 
scale, as in the figure. Completing the triangle and proceeding as 
above, we get the points of division desired. This triangle does not 
lie in the horizontal plane, but in an oblique plane, containing 
both the horizontal line to be divided and the auxiliary line ; this 
line is parallel to the picture, and is shown in its true direction. 

The next paper will take up the division of lines by the Method 
of Triangles. 


AMONG the many publications which the steady growth of pop- 
ular enthusiasm for the various forms of house decoration has 
called out with the aim of assisting those who feel the impulse of 
the time, there has appeared, in answer to the general demand for 
some definite advice, The House Beautiful, 1 by Clarence Cook. 
The essays on Beds and Tables, Candlesticks and Stools, that com- 
prise it, were published originally in Scribner's Afar/azine, where they 
gained popularity by the interest of the subject, by their own live- 
liness, and the beauty and number of their illustrations. Mr. Cook 
has introduced his essays to the public, without apparent altera- 
tion, in the form of a large and sumptuous book, fine to look 
upon, and uncomfortable to read, forgetting that the lively and 
somewhat thin talk which is accepted in a popular magazine may 
ill support the dignity of a bulky volume. 

The introduction and preface through which one enters the 
House Beautiful are sensible and without pretence, and give a 
pleasant suggestion of the simplicity, beauty, and utility to be 
looked for in the following chapters. His advice to the reader is 
to consult his own needs and desires, assuring him that with good 
taste and contrivance these necessities will give a charm to the 
home that wealth without taste cannot bestow. The book itself 
does not bear out the promise of its vestibule. It contains a great 
many sensible suggestions, much useful information, and the indi- 
cations of a wide reading, but displayed with little coherence of 
idea, and diluted with a great amount of what it is hard to call 
by any better name than artistic twaddle. It is divided among 
four subjects, the Entrance, the Living-Room, the Dining-Room, 
and the Bedroom ; and in each the author makes some common- 
sense and practical suggestions, although there is a want of method 
in his advice that must be sometimes puzzling. 

A hall, he says, should be large in proportion to the rest of the 
house, giving a hospitable and generous look to the whole; and 
draws the plan of a small house differing from the general style 
of New York houses, where there is plenty of room and light. 
The dining-room should be large and hospitable, with no more 
furniture than called for; not of necessity sober in coloring as 
has been the fashion for many years, but cheerful and home- 
like in appearance. He shows several cuts of old-fashioned side- 
boards that would look well in dining-rooms, but gives the advice 
that " unless he could get an old one and a good one too, he should 
much prefer having one made after a design of his own time." 
There however are no modern designs among these illustrations. 
The old blue India china is considered " the most serviceable for 
every-day use ; and although many people will be a little repelled 
by the first blush coarseness of the ordinary blue India china, let 
them remember that this coarseness troubles them more than it 

1 Thu House Beautiful. Essays on Beds arid Tables, Stools and Candlesticks. 
By Clarence Cook. New York : bcribner, Armstrong, & Co. 1878. 

would if they had not been used to the impeccable smoothness of 
the French porcelain, .and then it is really not the china that is 
coarse, but the decoration," which, we may add, is quite enough. 

He has a wholesome disdain for finery (unless it be in book- 
making), and "uses the word living-room instead of parlor because 
he is not intending to have any thing to say about parlors; " and 
" begins with taking the largest and pleasantest and most accessi- 
ble room in the house, gives it up to the wife and children in the 
day-time, and to the meeting of the whole family when evening 
comes. The furniture should be the best designed and best made 
that we can afford, all of it necessary to our comfort, and intended 
to be used ; not an article allowed that cannot earn its living and 
cannot prove its right to be there. The wants first provided for, 
we will then admit the ornament of life, casts, pictures, engrav- 
ings, bronzes, books, chief nourishers in life's feast ; but in the be- 
ginning these are to be few, and the greatest care is to be taken in 
admitting a new-comer. The room ought to represent the culture 
of the family what is their taste, and what feeling they have for 
art ; it should represent themselves, and not other people ; and the 
troublesome fact is that it will represent them whether its owners 
would let it or no." A piece of good advice here given is " that 
every piece of furniture in the room must have a good and clear 
reason for being there." Then follow many designs for chairs, 
sofas, bookcases, cabinets, etc., suitable for use in such a room, 
few of which seem to possess one essential requisite for their 
admittance to the House Beautiful, that of beauty; as for in- 
stance, in No. 17, there is neither beauty nor utility in the " chaise 
lont/ue," and although interest attaches to it from the fact that 
George Fox once slept on it, that is hardly a recommendation for 
a book that assumes to instruct us in the beauty with which a 
house should be adorned. The chair in No. 23, " which appears 
perfect of its kind, both for the elegance of its lines and its 
comfortableness as a seat," gives, we must say, little impression 
of flowing lines or gracefulness to the reader. The greater num- 
ber of the chairs seem to be heavy or clumsy in their construc- 
tion, and ugly; they may be comfortable, but one does not feel 
inclined to try them. " The handsome chair of carved oak " 
(p. 200) hardly agrees with either simplicity or beauty of style. 
The carving maybe handsome, and the chair comfortable; but 
whatever its history, it could not have been more involved than its 
construction. In Nos. 14 and 15, where the designs made from 
the settle or ironing-table of the present day are found, Mr. Cook 
introduces the pictures, but finds fault with the design, the form, 
and the workmanship, so that we feel as if led into a perplexing 
place, only to be cast adrift. 

These examples suggest what seems to us the fundamental fault 
of Mr. Cook's book. We do not see how it is to be a guide in 
taste for anybody ; for the author's ideas of taste seem to be all 
at sixes and sevens. A bit of furniture may 'take his fancy by 
quaintness, by association or history, or by an assumption of fit- 
ness; and uncouthness, ill proportion, or recklessness of design, 
are no barrier to his admiration. Sometimes it is primness and 
sometimes license, sometimes clumsiness and sometimes flimsiness, 
that seems to win his applause. Mr. Cook, to bo sure, disclaims 
any intention of furnishing his readers with a series of examples 
to be copied; but we can only infer, then, that his profuse illus- 
trations are meant as guides to their tastes. If he had only meant 
to give them practical information, he might have saved himself 
three-fourths of his writing, and them three-fourths of their 

The wood-cuts, for which Scribner's Magazine is justly famous, 
are here mostly the work of Mr. Marsh, and are marvels of cutting 
superbly printed. As specimens they deserve, as Mr. Cook says, 
to be preserved in a volume. It is only to be regretted that they 
are often wasted on indifferent subjects, and, we must say frankly, 
on inferior drawings. Mr. Cook's comments on them, which are 
mainly indiscriminate eulogy of Mr. Lathrop's work, seem to us 
decidedly inexpert. Mr. Lathrop's illustrations, besides being often 
undecided and faulty in drawing, are apt to be disagreeable in 
texture, full of uncalled-for black lines and stains, and harsh and 
spotty in effect. On page 38, for instance, it is found necessary to 
bring out the glass by means of a large spot of black behind it; 
so on page 298, all tone and gradation is lost, and the cleverness with 
which the effect of firelight is secured cannot disguise the essential 
ugliness of the picture. The few drawings by Mr. Sandier, which 
tell their story simply and with refined precision, in spite of a little 
want of emphasis, are a relief to the eye after the blaze of Mr. 
Lathrop's coruscations in black and white. 

Perhaps the worst sin against good taste is the frequent mention 
of the author's friends, and the way in which he constantly drags 
them before the public. There is scarcely a page in the whole 
volume on which Mr. Marsh's or Mr. Lathrop's name does not 
appear, and with praise little less than fulsome. What are those 
who live beyond the pale of New York to think of Mr. Sypher and 
his bric-a-brac, emancipated from the pawnbroker's shop? How 
are Cottier and others to supply tho immense demand for cabinets, 
chairs, and stuffs, that would naturally spring from so flattering a 
notice as this? On one page his friend's beautiful drawings are 
recommended to us, and on the next the lovely chintzes and alge"- 
riennes of Miol and Colinshaw. Messrs. Cottier, Marcotte, and 
Herter are sedulously recommended, although their beautiful 



FIG. 3. 


1.~~- -, 


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x f 

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,.,. . r - _, ;; ^^^ I J 


i | t*fKfiiitaivt \ ioiv nF a (omitty 






FEBRUARY 9, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


designs and exquisite taste in decoration are beyond the limited 
purses of those to whom this book is specially addressed ; nor are 
many so fortunate as to number among their friends so skilful and 
ingenious a carpenter as Mr. Matt Miller. In short, after going 
over this book with its curious compound of moderation and pre- 
tence, of good, bad, and indifferent subjects superbly illustrated, 
of common sense and literary foppery, the reader is tempted to 
quote to the author a sentence from his introduction, which, 
if not a guide to beauty, is at least a sound warning against vaga- 
ries : 

" If I am pushed to the wall with a question as to my right to 
be heard in this matter, I can only say that after much tribula- 
tion I have reached a point where simplicity seems to me a good 
part of beauty, and utility only beauty in a mask." 



MR. DAVID SNOW left $5,000 for the purchase of books, on con- 
dition bhat the town of Orleans would put up a permanent build- 
ing. The town voted $2,000, and $1,000 more were subscribed by 
former residents of the town, students of the academy which had 
stood on the site selected for the library. The main building 
measures on the outside 28 feet by 30 feet, with a projection of 12 
feet by 16 feet for the librarian's room, and stairs to cellar. It is 
hoped the bell of the academy may be found, and hung in the pro- 
jection of the front gable. The library is one story, high enough 
for a gallery, with open timber roof. The construction is a wall 
of pasture stone, five feet from ground, upon which is a nine- 
inch brick wall, with an inch air-space, the offset being covered 
with North-River stone. There is a cellar under the whole of the 
building. The cost was $3,200, and Mr. J. B. Wilson of Charles- 
town was the builder. 


The walls of the building are of Longmeadow brown stone, in 
rock-face broken ashlar work, and the inside is finished throughout 
in ash. The building is the gift of Mrs. M. DcW. Rogers, and has 
been erected at a cost of $15,000. Only the upper story is at pres- 
ent to be used for library purposes, the lower story being leased to 


These houses are built of brick, with sills, caps, belts, and other 
finish of Chicago terra-cotta. 



See the " Paper on Perspective " in this number. 


This section of an American city dwelling, which shows an 
arrangement of plumbing and waste pipes having specially in view 
the exclusion of noxious gases, may serve at once as a diagram 
and as an outline specification for first-class plumbing-work. Now- 
adays an architect can hardly assume that he has done his whole 
duty to his client until he has, either unaided or in consultation 
with a competent sanitary engineer, planned the arrangement of 
all plumbing-work ; and this drawing suggests the practical utility 
there would be in adding to the ordinary drawings of a house a 
"quarter-scale" drawing, showing the arrangement of plumbing 
and draining. 

A is a vent-pipe for the escape of gas from the sewer, should the 
trap E be forced by back-pressure. B is a four-inch pipe. The 
traps emptying into it are an inch and a half in bore; and it is 
not deemed necessary to ventilate them separately, as shown at D 
and at the basins at C. 

C is a six-inch pipe, into which a four-inch water-closet trap 
empties on one side, and, on the other side, an inch and a half 
trap from the basin. The basin-traps are ventilated by a pipe en- 
tering the main ventilating-pipe just above the slop-sink No. 13. 

D is a six-inch pipe, which has a four-inch inlet, and hence can 
never be filled by the inflow, intended to carry off the rain-water 
and the waste from the butler's pantry and servant's water-closet, 
each of whose traps is separately ventilated by a pipe branching 
into the pipe A', which is also a vent for the main pipe D. 

G is a fresh air or ventilating shaft, which has its opening at 
the curb covered by an iron grating, which can be concealed by 
a hollow carriage-block with perforated sides, in which a basket 
of pulverized charcoal can be hung, if desired, although its dis- 
tance from the house would preclude the possibility of any offen- 
sive smell entering by the front-windows. This pipe G is also in- 
tended as a vent for gas when a column of water or solid matter 

is coming down the main pipes, and precludes the possibility of 
the traps up stairs being forced by back-pressure. It will be 
noticed that the main waste-pipe passes not under the cellar-floor 
but along the cellar-wall, where any defect or leakage can be 
easily discovered. 

No. 1 is a three-inch double-acting pump of the improved pat- 
tern, made for house use by, say, Carr, Coleman, or Baxter, to be 
used when the head of water is not enough to raise it to the tank. 

No. 2 is a laundry range, with a forty-gallon pressure boiler. 

No. 3 is a set of earthen wash-trays supplied by " Fuller's 
patent faucets. 

No. 4 is a refrigerator with waste. It will be noticed that the 
waste is not directly connected with the sewer, a necessary pre- 
caution, as there may be times when ice is not taken, or the house 
left unoccupied ; in either of which cases the trap would become 
dry, and the refrigerator would become foul. 

No. 5 is an improved kitchen-sink made to waste through one 
of the legs. 

No. G is a range with a seventy-gallon pressure boiler. 

No. 7 is the servant's water-closet, supplied by a patented tank 
which combines an ordinary reservoir, a measuring-cistern (con- 
taining a given amount of water), and an extra large service-box. 
By an ingenious arrangement of valves, no water can enter the 
measuring-cistern from the reservoir while the handle of the water- 
closet is raised: so only three gallons can be used, if it is held 
open for an indefinite period. While, on the other hand, the valve 
that lets water into the service-box being four inches, and the out- 
let to the water-closet one inch, an abundant supply is obtained, 
even if the handle is held up only five seconds, to flush out, and 
fill the bowl. 

No. 8 is a planished copper pantry-sink. 

No. 9 is a fifteen-inch overflow basin supplied by No. 4J Ful- 
ler's pantry-cocks, and emptied by Weaver's basin-wastes. 

No. 10 is a sixteen-ounce tinned and planished French bath- 
tub supplied by a double bath-cock, and emptied by Meyer's 

No. 11 is a Jennings all earthenware water-closet, which is too 
well known to need description, 
arranged for and supplied by the 
cistern described in No. 7. 

No. 12 is a fourteen-inch marbled 
basin with No. 1 Fuller basin-cocks, 
with basin-plug and chain-stay. 

No. 13 is a slop-sink with self- 
closing cocks. 

No. 14 is a cast-iron tank, sup- 
plied from street main through one-inch Fuller-Meyer patent tank- 
regulator, or by the pump No. 1. 

[The peculiarity of the Fuller fancets is, that they shut off by 
means of a tapering, elastic plug, which has its end protected by a 
metal shield, and is drawn to a seat by an eccen- 
tric. It will be noticed, that, closing in the 
direction of the flow of water, the pressure of the 
water itself tends to keep them tight. The com- 
position of which the elastic plug is made is 
specially prepared to be durable in hot water. 
The strain on the valve is restricted by the move- 
ment of the eccentric, which feature adds greatly 
to the durability of the faucet. As the water is entirely excluded 
from the chamber of the cock when closed, the faucet cannot be 
injured by the freezing of the 
pipe. The body of the cock can 
be unscrewed from the shank, so 
that new plugs can be put on" 
when repairs are necessary. 

The Weaver basin-waste is a 
simple contrivance to take the 
place of the ordinary plug and 
chain. By pressing on the knob 
R, the lever L lifts the stopper ; 
by a slight turn to the right, the 
knob is held in place; by releas- 
ing the knob, the weight of the 
stopper causes it to drop into its 
place. The wings on the stem 
of the stopper serve as a guide 
and also a strainer : when choked up, it can be lifted out, and 

The improved bath-waste consists of a large cock, having an 
inch and a half hole through it, that can be shut off by a quarter- 
turn of the handle. This cock is attached to a connection which is 
soldered in the bottom of the tub, and facilitates very much the 
plumber's work in setting the bath-tub. A plate on the foot of 
the bath indicates the position of the cock. 

The double bath-cock referred to is made so that it can be taken 
apart for repairs inside the bath, without disturbing the connec- 
tions. It is virtually two Fuller cocks, one delivering hot, the 
other cold water through the same outlet : when both hot and cold 
water cocks are delivering together, the temperature of the water 
can be adjusted as desired. Thus the bather is not obliged to 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 111. 

stand until more hot or cold water is let in to make the tempera- 
ture of the water suitable. By screwing a coupling into the 
nozzle, to which is attached hose and sprinkler, a shower or sham- 
poo can be obtained, less severe than the old-fashioned shower 
from overhead. 

In this connection we will also draw attention to an arrange- 
ment of plumb- 
ing which is pro- 
posed by Col. G. 
E. Waring, jun., 
and is explained 
by the accompa- 
nying cuts. 

In Fig. 1 the 
soil- pipe is shown 
to be separated 
from the sewer 
by a water-trap 
outside the wall 
of the house, 
the sewer is sup- 
posed to be ven- 
tilated indepen- 
dently. At the 
lowest conven- 
ient point fresh 
air is admitted 
to this soil-pipe, 
which rises 
through the roof, 
and is capped 
by a ventilating 
cowl. On the 
first floor is 
shown a water- 
Ait INLET closet which dis- 
charges directly 




The peculiari- 
ties of this wa- 
ter-closet are an 
bowl F, Fig. 2, 
which is sup- 
plied with water 
from a service- 
box ; a flexible rubber tube A, which is supported in the position 
shown by the end J of the lever B, which has for its fulcrum the 
pivot O, which, as it passes through the sides of the soil-pipe, is 

FIG. 1. 

FIG. 2. 

surrounded by packing-boxes to guard against possible leakage of 
sewer-gas. The lever is counterpoised by the weight D, and is 
actuated by the lever C which has its fulcrum at K, and to which 
the power is applied at J by the handle of the water-closet. The 
dotted lines show the action of these levers. L is a brass valve 
ground to its seat, and is air-tight in every position when the water 
is not actually flowing through it. This is the only point at which 
sewer-gas can make its entrance into the water-closet. E is a por- 
tion of the soil-pipe chambered out so as to admit of the rising and 
lowering of the levers and the rubber tube. This arrangement 
allows the water contained in the bowl and tube, which is much 
greater in volume than in ordinary water-closets, to be discharged 
almost instantaneously into the soil-pipe, carrying with it all fsecal 
matter, which, as it bears so small a proportion to the containing 
water, can hardly stick to the sides of the soil-pipe as it descends. 
On the second floor, Fig. 1, is shown a set basin, here taken 
as a type to represent basins, tubs, sinks, wash-trays, etc., which 
is provided with check-valve and waste-plug as shown in Fig. 3. 
This basin has an overflow pipe F trapped at L, and made impervi- 
ous to sewer-gas by the check-valve shown in detail in Fig. 4, 
where B is a brass valve ground so as to make an air-tight joint 
with its seat, and light enough to allow any overflowing water to 

raise it. The entrance of sewer-gas by the waste outlet in the 
bottom of the bowl itself, Fig. 8, is prevented first by an ordi- 
nary C/)-trap, and next by the plug B, which closes with an air- 

FIG. 3. 

tight joint against the brass seating at the outlet. By the action 

of the weighted lever I, this plug constantly closes the waste 
outlet, whether the bowl be empty or full; 
and it is only at the time that water is actu- 
ally flowing through the waste-pipe that the 
val've is open. To open the valve and empty 
the bowl it is necessary to press constantly 
upon the knob E, thus applying power to the 
short lever J, which is connected by a rod K 
to the lever I counterpoised by the weight D. 
Immovably connected to this last lever, at its 
fulcrum, and turning with it, is a short lever 
or cam C, which raises or lowers the plug B. 
It is to be observed that the action of sewer- 
gas, supposing that any were to penetrate as 
far as any of these valves, would be simply 
to close them more tightly. 

In the attic is shown a flushing tank, 
arranged to fill at regular intervals, and then 
automatically send a cleansing flow of water 
FIG. 4. through the soil-pipe. The tank here indi- 

cated is Field's Flush Tank (see American 

Architect and Building News, No. 104), but a tumbler tank would 

fulfil the same purpose. 


[Held at Boston Oct. 17, 18, and 19, 1877.] 


THE Convention was called to order at ten A.M., the President 
being in the chair. 

MR. ROBERT BKIGGS, C.E., Corresponding Member, read a paper 
on the Relations of Moisture in the Air .to Health and Comfoi t ; 
in which he discussed at length the effect of the hygrometric con- 
dition of the air in connection with climate, temperature, and ven- 
tilation, and argued the disadvantage to health of a difference in 
hygrometric condition between the air in houses and that outside, 
opposing the practice of artificially moistening the air introduced 
in heating buildings. 

MR. McAiiTHUR mentioned the influence upon the air of a room 
of an aquarium of about eight superficial feet of surface. He 
had been obliged to discard such an one because guns and other 
iron objects kept in the room with it had become reddened with 
rust, not while the room was artificially heated, but in summer, 
from air coming in through the windows. He inquired what 
would be the effect upon air at a temperature of say seventy-two 
degrees of such a water-surface. He recalled his experience in 

FEBETIAEY 9, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


passing a winter on the table-lands of Mexico, where the air was 
excessively dry, so that meat dried up without putrefaction, and 
the inhabitants were in the habit of lying down on the ground 
wrapped only in their scrapes or blankets, and sleeping at any time 
at night or all night. In this dry climate the prevalent diseases 
were heart-disease and rheumatism. 

MR. BRIGGS thought that from such a water-surface as Mr. Mc- 
Arthur mentioned the amount of evaporation would be small, 
probably not more than a gallon a day, unless a large quantity of 
dry air were introduced into the room. Probably the amount 
absorbed would be from one-tenth to one-eighth of a grain for 
every cubic foot of air introduced. 

On motion of the Secretary, the thanks of the Institute were 
voted to Mr. Briggs for his paper, which was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publications. 

COL. GEORGE E. WARING, JUN., C.E., Corresponding Member, 
then read a paper on Sanitary Sicence, 1 in relation to house drains 
and their ventilation. The thanks of the Institute were voted to 
Col. Waring, and his paper was referred to the Committee on Pub- 

In the discussion that followed the paper, Mr. Me Arthur asked 
whether there were any means of ventilating the, public sewers of 
Boston, citing the example of Philadelphia, where, some years 
before, when he was putting up a very high building, the city en- 
gineers had asked permission to have a tall flue built in it and 
connected with the sewers, in order to ventilate them. 

The President called on Mr. E. S. Philbrick, C.E., of Boston, 
who was present, for information on this point, and for remarks 
on the subject of the paper. 

MR. PHILBRICK said that the whole present system of sewerage 
in Boston was patchwork, which had grown without uniformity 
during the last two generations, and was a fair sample of the de- 
grees of imperfection with which the whole subject of drainage 
had been treated throughout the country, and, in fact, throughout 
the world. There were some thirty or forty independent outlets 
into tide-water, many of them submerged by the tides, which had 
a range of from ten to fourteen feet. There was scarce any sys- 
tematic attempt to relieve the sewers of the pressure exerted on 
them by the influx of tide-water. About two years ago, the sewer 
department had issued an order to householders to connect their 
eave-gutters with the sewers, partly with a view to get rid of the 
rain-water rushing over the sidewalks and street-gutters, and partly 
to ventilate the sewers through the spouts ; but . he thought little 
had been done to carry out the order. He thought there were no 
connections with any tall tower or chimney, nor did he think that 
such relief was of any value ; for the amount of air that could be 

. problem was still far from being 
method was to leave man-holes at every street-corner, with per- 
forated covers, in order to have so many ventilating openings that 
the escape of bad air from any one would be insufficient to do harm; 

The plan which had been undertaken in Boston was to carry a 
large intercepting sewer round the south side of the city, gathering 
all the sewage and carrying it out into the harbor, where it would 
be delivered in deep water on the ebb-tide, so as to pass out to 
sea. This seemed to be accepted here as the necessary way of dis- 
posing of sewage. All the efforts made at great cost in England, for 
utilizing sewage by exhausting its noxious elements, had proved 
futile as far as economy was concerned, except where the sewage 
could be directly applied to the land for agricultural uses. This 
was impracticable in Boston, for lack of accessible land, however 
it might prove in other towns in the Commonwealth. It had been 
known, for many hundred years, that the proper way of disposing 
of effete matter is to return it to the earth to nourish vegetable 
growth ; but the means of accomplishing this had never been 
sufficiently discussed. 

In confirmation of Col. Waring's remark concerning the apathy 
of our people, he heard it said every week that since people had 
endured the present arrangements for some years, and perceived 
no harm from them, there was no need to be anxious about them. 
It was to be remembered, however, that while the sewage emana- 
tions were only one out of several factors necessary to produce 
disease, and a vigorous constitution might in nine cases out of 
ten resist them, they certainly could be traced as one predisposing 
cause of disease, which it was therefore our duty to eliminate if 
possible. The means for that elimination devised by different 
minds were extremely various. Doubtless most of them had 
merit, and were more or less adapted to particular cases ; but till 
the whole subject had been intelligently studied it would continue 
in its present chaotic condition. He thought that the apathy had 
begun to yield a little among plumbers. After hammering away 
at the subject for four or five years, with Col. Waring and others, 
he found the fact beginning to be recognized that a soil-pipe 
ought to be carried up through the roof. He thought that still it 
was omitted in more than half the houses built in Boston this 
year; and he had talked within a month with many plumbers 
who thought it a humbug, such was the tendency among all arti- 
sans to run in ruts, and such the difficulty of introducing a new 

1 Sec American Architect, No. 98, Nov. 10, 1877. 

idea when men think they have done well enough if they have 
done as their fathers did. 

One other point to which he thought it desirable to allude was 
the disconnection of the house-drainage from the sewer or cess- 
pool, a thing easier in a milder climate, but possible in ours. By 
this he meant not merely interruption of the connection by a trap, 
but a free ventilation of the house system. The soil-pipe should 
not only run up 'through the roof, but should have free access of 
air from below through an opening outside the house wall ; other- 
wise every descending column of water from the upper stories 
would drive the air in the pipe before it, especially if it was con- 
fined by a trap at the sewer, and force it out through the traps in 
the lower stories. This had been done probably in not more than 
one per cent of the houses in Boston. He was sorry to say that 
in the neighboring city of Cambridge an ordinance compelled 
every man to have on his own ground a depository of filth where 
it could be kept for more complete putrefaction directly under his 
own nose. Another thing of the same sort was the ordinary 
cylinder-trap. It would hold a quart or two of matter, which in 
the course of a week became horribly putrid ; and the flow through 
it occupied so little of its calibre that the rest was necessarily 
filled with grease and other deposits from the waters. 

MR. STONE requested more precise suggestion as to means of 
breaking the connection between the pipe and the cesspool as this 
proposition required, a thing which it was difficult to manage in a 
climate so cold as ours. In Providence their system of sewerage 
required that there should always be a trap between the house 
and the sewer, and a connection with the spout from the roof; 
and that the soil-pipe should be carried up through the roof, so 
that there was a circulation of air through the roof. There was no 
direct provision for ventilating the sewers other than the man- 
holes mentioned by Mr. Philbrick, but the engineer had recom- 
mended that in public buildings, and if possible in private houses, 
in the higher parts of the city, there should be flues connecting with 
the sewers, which would be, as had been said, but little help, yet 
some help. 

MR. PHILBRICK thought the best means of breaking the connec- 
tion between the house-drain and the sewer, in our climate where 
it was necessary to put the work about five feet below ground, was 
to introduce a trap outside, with water-seal, of any approved form, 
the simpler the better, and the smaller the better provided it 
would carry the volume of water with which it was taxed, one 
without square turns or corners to accumulate solid matter ; and 
then to connect the house side of the trap with the open air, which 
might be done by a pipe carried up to the roof, near the chimney. 
lie objected to the use of the down-spouts to ventilate the drains. 
This did very well in fair weather, supposing that the upper ends 
did not open near windows ; but if it rained, the water descend- 
ing by the spouts produced by its own entrance into the drains 
a pressure of air which must find vent. It was often argued that 
there would still be an ascending column of air in the centre of the 
pipe ; but this was not the fact, the water descending in a spiral 
against the walls of the spout with an accelerated velocity, carried 
a column of air with it, so that during a rain the spout could not 
act as an upcast pipe, and another must be provided. Moreover, 
whenever water was discharged from the soil-pipe it drove the air 
before it, and drew after it another volume of air from the sky, 
and for this action too a vent was required. For country houses 
where there was ample room he had provided such relief at a short 
distance from the house. He had made a vent in the drain-pipe, 
opening it directly into a little well or manhole, walled in with 
dry stone, which ought to go down four or five feet, or under some 
circumstances deeper than that. The gases driven out from the 
drain were then absorbed in the ground without coming to the 
surface, and he had not found any inconvenience or any percep- 
tible odor from them. 

COL. WARING said that the method described by Mr. Philbrick 
had been much discussed in England, and had been accepted as 
the only valuable one. But in our climate there was some danger 
of freezing. It had been his habit, in the case of country houses, 
to carry the vent-pipe away some distance through the ground, that 
the warmth of the soil might have an influence upon it. In one 
instance he had carried the pipe across the cellar, that the air there 
might warm it, and then through the ground into the back yard. 

MR. HARTWELL suggested carrying the pipe into a chimney- 
flue, provided there were no openings above from the flue into 
rooms. Mr. Cabot thought this dangerous, because of the risk of 
down-draughts into the rooms below, which were always likely to 
occur. He had always avoided this method. Mr. Philbrick object- 
ed that it was very difficult to maintain a close joint between a 
metal pipe and a brick flue. The expansion and contraction of 
the metal always broke the mortar in the joint, and it was impos- 
sible to keep it tight. Col. Waring suggested that the pipe might 
be turned into the flue, and carried up without a "break. 

Unfinished business was then taken up; the first subject of 
consideration being the report of the Trustees in regard to the 
position of honorary members. The President read the portion of 
the report referring to the subject. 

MR. RICHARDSON thought that the Trustees had full power to 
take what steps were necessary, under Section 9 of Article I. of 
the By-Laws. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 111. 

He was himself familiar with the circumstances in only one of 
the cases mentioned in the Trustees' report, that of a gentleman 
who had been elected au honorary member in 1807, he being then 
one of a firm of architects in full practice : since then his atten- 
tion had been turned mainly to landscape-gardening, and he was 
now less concerned with the practice of architecture than at any 
previous time within the past ten years; and Mr. Richardson 
thought it a hardship, in the case of this gentleman, to strike his 
name from the Institute roll without notice, by reason of a dis- 
qualification which had existed at the time of his election, and 
had continued to exist during the ten years since. 

MR. HAIGHT suggested that under the By-Laws the only thing 
which the Trustees were authorized to do, in case of any infraction, 
however slight, of any of the articles, was to request the parties 
to resign; and that the attention of the Board having been called 
to certain irregularities, they were obliged to notice them, and, not 
considering that it was advisable to resort to the harsh measure 
prescribed" for them, they preferred to come before the Convention 
and ask them what had better be done, and, if desirable, to request 
the Convention to make such order as they saw fit. He thought it 
would be well to refer the subject back to the Board of Trustees, 
with full power to act. Mr. Kichardson agreed, and Mr. llaight 
presented the following resolution, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That this subject be referred to the Board ol Trustees with 
power ; and wbcn the faet is brought to their notice that an honorary 
member of the Institute is deriving emolument directly or indirectly 
from the practice of architecture, that the Trustees be directed to take 
such action in the matter as shall be to the best interest of the profes- 

The President next called the attention of the Convention to 
the portion of the report of the Trustees relating to the Washing- 
ton Monument, which he read, and also portions of the reports 
from the Boston, Rhode Island, Baltimore, and Philadelphia Chap- 
ters, relating to the same subject. 

Requesting Mr. Cabot to take the chair, the President made 
some remarks, quoting from the report of the commission ap- 
pointed by the War Department to examine the foundations of the 
Monument, in confirmation of the opinion expressed by the Board 
of Trustees as to their insufficiency. 

In explanation of the apparent inconsistency between the sug- 
gestion of the Philadelphia Chapter that designs should be invited 
for completing the Monument from all who desired to compete, 
and the uniform effort of the Institute to break up the system of 
general competitions, he said that the Philadelphia Chapter con- 
sidered that in the case of a work so strongly appealing to the 
patriotism and interest of the whole country, every American 
qualified to make a design of that character would feel it not only 
a privilege, but a right, to be allowed to offer such thought and 
talent as he might be able to embody in a sketch, as a free gift for 
the service of his fellow-citizens. 

When the Monument came to be built, it would have to be built 
from detailed plans, probably in accordance with some one of the 
sketches sent in ; and it was the most natural course to employ the 
author of the sketcli to develop his idea in detailed plans, and to 
watch over their execution ; and for this service, which would be 
at a considerable sacrifice of time and money, the designer should 
be paid. 

In regard to the selection by which the country should be sure 
of obtaining in the end the best design, the President spoke of the 
suggestion of the Philadelphia Chapter that three engineers of 
the War Department should be associated with three members of 
the Institute; saying that in his opinion, the relations of archi- 
tects with engineers might be more cordial than they are, and in 
this particular case, that the engineers of the Department consti- 
tuting formerly the Topographical Bureau were well educated in 
the theory of architectural design in their West Point course; 
mentioning that the plans sent in by them, by order of the Depart- 
ment, for the extension of the Capitol, were superior to nine-tenths 
of those submitted by architects. In construction, of course, they 
were fully our equals, and the Philadelphia Chapter could not see 
why it would not be an honor and a benefit to the architectural 
experts to have the co-operation of an equal number of such highly 
trained engineers. 

The President continued, that although he had brought forward 
these considerations, so that if the Institute were to take any ac- 
tion in the matter, the resolutions of the Philadelphia Chapter 
might be regarded favorably with a view to their adoption by the 
Convention, nevertheless his own opinion was that it would be 
better and more dignified on the part of the Convention not to pass 
any resolutions on the subject whatever. He thought it undesir- 
able for the Institute to appear to thrust itself into the matter 
until called upon. 

Mr. Van Brunt thought the general feeling among the Chapters 
was in accord witli that of the President, but there was a question 
whether the Institute, as the incorporated representative and guard- 
ian of the interests of architecture in the country, had not a duty to 
perform, without regard to the personal feeling of its members, in 
connection with the most important of the national monuments. He 
proposed that the Trustees should bo, authorized to offer the services 
of the Institute to the Association in some such form as was sug- 
gested in the resolution he would present, which was as follows : 

Resolved, That the Trustees of the American Institute of Architects 
offer the services of the Institute to the Washington Monument Associa- 
tion, to assist them in considering the question of the completion of the 
Washington Monument in a manner commensurate with the impor- 
tance of the occasion and in accordance with the interests of art. 

Mr. Cabot and Mr. Me Arthur expressed opinions similar to those 
of the President. 

At the request of Mr. Stone the resolutions adopted last year 
were read. 

Mr. Ware moved the previous question on Mr. Van Brunt's reso- 
lution, which was lost. The whole matter was then, oa Mr. Ware's 
motiou, indefinitely postponed. 


FALL OF A WALL. Early on Sunday morning, Feb. 3, the per- 
son having the charge of the Seventy-first Regiment Armory, at 
the junction of Broadway with Sixth Avenue, New York, noticed 
that one of the side walls was likely to fall out. The police were 
notified, and the street was hardly cleared before some thirty feet of 
the wall partly fell. To prevent the fall of the whole building it was 
found necessary to shore up the weakened wall. The building, which 
was built about fifteen years ago, was originally intended for a hotel, 
and the foundations and lower part were substantially built; but 
when it was decided to turn it into an armory, various changes were 
made which weakened the walls. The coping of the main wall on 
the Broadway and Sixth Avenue fronts was carried up some three 
feet above the gutter, so that ice and snow laid in it continually iu 
winter, and the pressure of a snow-slide from the mansard roof is 
thought to have been the ultimate cause of the accident; but it is 
also said that the roof and gutters were in very bad order, and had 
caused the walls to become badly water-soaked. 

THE CAPE COD SHIP CANAL. The Committee on Harbors of 
the Massachusetts Legislature have begun a hearing relative to cut- 
ting a ship-canal across Cape Cod. This canal, if the enterprise suc- 
ceeds, will be 7Jy miles long, and 18 feet deep at low water at the 
south end. The estimated cost is 2,000,000. 

The Committee on Harbors has lately received the following re- 
markable communication : 

No. 52 SPENCEK STREET, ROCHESTER, N.T., Feb. 2, 1878. 
Committee on Harbors Massachusetts Legislature. 

GENTLEMEN, I have seen it stated in New York papers of the 
29th ult. that you are considering the project of cutting a ship canal 
across Cape Cod, the estimated cost of which is $2,000,000. Before 
deciding on that work, I respectfully ask you to examine a new pro- 
ject of mine, intended for the same purpose as a ship-canal, but capa- 
ble of construction much cheaper. The idea has been approved by 
eminent engineering authority as applicable to the Isthmus of Panama. 
It is to carry the vessels across in a tank containing water to float 
them, the tank to run on a massive railroad. At each end of the 
track it would descend in the harbor, the tank running down until 
the water in it was on a level with the ocean. It (the tank) would be 
opened by suitable gates, and the ship received or discharged. This 
plan can be made as effectual as a canal, and the advantage in first 
cost is so greatly in its favor that it must secure your earnest consid- 
eration. Very respectfully yours, 


THEATKE BURNED. On Feb. 5, at one o'clock in the morning, the 
Academy of Music at Chicago was burned. 

THE ENGLISH OBELISK. A site has been chosen for the Cleopatra 
obelisk on the Thames Embankment at the top of the Adelphi 
steps, between Charing Cross and Waterloo Bridge. 

SKETCHES OF MANCHESTER. A series of sketches, architectural 
and general, is shortly to be published in England. These sketches 
are taken from the sketch-books submitted for the prizes given by 
the Manchester Society of Architects. The subjects are found in 
Manchester and its vicinity only. 

With reference to the discussion in recent issues of the Journal on 
the question of Portland cement concrete, our Glasgow correspond- 
ent quotes the experience gained by the practice at the Rothesay 
Aquarium. He says: "Concrete tanks can be made practically 
water-tight by first using a good stiffish body of concrete, composed 
of just such proportions as should be used in order to make a good 
job, judging by the quality of the cement. Use clean sand, thor- 
oughly free from soil, and then give a coat, one inch in thickness, of 
pure cement, finished and polished as hard as possible. By adopting 
such a course of procedure the tank is practically water-tight. This 
is what was done in the large reservoir-tank at the Rothesay Aqua- 
rium, and it succeeded famously, whereas under the ordinary method 
it leaked like a basket." Journal of Gas-Lighting. 

AN OLD NEW ENGLAND HOUSE. One of the oldest houses in New 
England is said to be in Guilt'ord. Conn. It was built in 1039. An- 
other and possibly older house, for the date of its building is said 
by some to be 1(334, is Gov. Cradock's old brick manskm in Medford, 

An ARCHITECTURAL MODEL. A model of the New York Post 
Office, on a scale of one thirty-second of an inch to the foot, is exhibited 
in a Broadway window. It'was built from the plans, contains 2S4,000 
pieces, and occupied the time of one man working six hours a day for 
eight years. It is intended for the Paris Exposition. 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES R. OSGOOD & Co. 

[NO. 112. 



The Paris Exhibition, and the Appointment of Mr. Story. 
The American Exhibit. Fall of a Building in the Hay- 
market, London. Responsibility of a Building- Proprietor. 
Labor Strikes at Home and Abroad. Keport of the Chi- 
cago Underwriters on the Singer Building. A Sanitarian 

Co-operative Society at Edinboro' 53 



St. John's Church, Dubuque, lo. Houses in Chicago, 111. 
Details of the City Hall, Philadelphia, Penn. House at 

Brush Hill, Mass 56 




Letter from Chicago. Letter from Hartford 58 


THE appointment of Mr. William W. Story as one of the 
nine Expert Commissioners at the Paris Exhibition is one of 
the good selections of the Executive. No American is bet- 
ter qualified by cultivation, experience, position, and famil- 
iarity with European languages and customs, and personal ac- 
quaintance with men whom he will be called on to meet there. 
All these things tell much more than the politicians imagine 
who are ready to send the first " worker " who comes to them 
with a claim to represent us abroad in giving position and 
efficiency to those who have to take charge of our interests 
among foreigners, as well as in doing credit to those who 
send them. There is no department of the Exhibition in 
which they will tell more than in the fine arts, and none 
for which it would have been easier to find an incompetent 
commissioner. No doubt Mr. Story will do us credit in this 
department : whether our exhibit will do so, remains to be 
seen. A sub-committee on art has been organized in New 
York, of which Ex-Gov. Morgan is chairman, and Mr. J. W. 
Finchot is secretary. Mr. Pinchot has been highly com- 
mended for good service in the fine-art department at the 
Philadelphia Exhibition. The committee, without waiting 
the tardy movements of voluntary contributors, and possibly 
with a shrewd desire to secure a vantage-ground from which 
they can fulfil the necessary duty of selection, and of re- 
jection of the impracticable contributions which are sure to 
come whether suitable ones do or not, have sent requests for 
pictures to a large number of artists, some fifty or sixty of 
whom have already promised to exhibit. They have wisely 
determined to have no exhibition of the pictures before they 
are sent to Paris. We have not yet heard of any serious 
preparation for an exhibition of architectural drawings. Con- 
sidering how partial and inadequate the display was at Phila- 
delphia, where it was much easier to provide one, it is 
perhaps not likely that much will be done to secure a good 
one at Paris. And remembering this last exhibit, we may 
candidly say, in spite of its good points, that we do not see in 
it any great encouragement for setting our productions as yet 
in competition with those of the architects who are likely to 
be represented in the coming Exhibition ; the more so, inas- 
much as it is difficult to secure a salutary exclusion, and be- 
cause it is probable that not a great many of our architectural 
exhibitors would be there to profit by the comparison. 

As for the general prospect of the American exhibit, the 
Commissioner General hopefully announces that it will be 
creditable ; a word which may be used to mean a variety of 
things, without any of them being exactly what it says. As 
a matter of fact it can hardly be expected that after Congress 
had shirked and boggled over the simple duty of providing 
for it, till a year or so had sh'pped away, any thing more than 
a very slender American display can be got together ; we 
may only hope that the diminution of it will be in quantity 
and not in quality. The fact that the delay of the Govern- 
ment had left but a very small space in the Exhibition assign- 

able to the United States, will encourage selection ; and we 
are told that there is not nearly room enough in some depart- 
ments the machinery for instance for all that is offered 
even at this late hour. Two ship-loads of exhibits will sail on 
the 25th of this month, it is said. The French Government 
has notified our commissioner that the police of Paris will 
not be able to furnish protection for the American display, 
and has recommended that we send a military force for this 
duty. Unfortunately the standing army of the United States 
is not large enough to detail a squad of soldiers to mount 
guard over it, and so the Secretary of the Navy must come 
to the rescue with the marines. 

A SINGULAR accident startled the people of London a short 
time ago. A large new building on a great thoroughfare, 
the Haymarket, suddenly fell all to pieces, carrying with it an 
adjoining house, whose occupant it buried and killed. The 
building stood at the corner of the Haymarket and Panton 
Street, was the work of a skilful architect and of a good 
builder, and apparently of excellent material and workman- 
ship. It was six stories high, of stone and brick, with a 
considerable front on each street, supported on iron columns 
and girders, for shops ; and at the time it fell, the roof was 
just going on. No sufficient cause has been established for 
its fall, about which opinions are divided, some persons ima- 
gining that the foundations yielded, others that the mortar 
was bad, others that the ironwork gave waj- ; but there seems 
to be no particular evidence for any of these suppositions. 
What was verj- singular, the whole building tumbled together 
into its own cellar, both the walls falling inward, snapping 
the iron columns squarely like pipe-stems, and twisting the 
girders, a fact which suggests that the first giving way 
may have been in the interior, since buildings are apt to fall 
towards the part that goes down first. Owing to the way 
it fell, or because no one was passing, no one was injured 
except the proprietor of the adjoining house. The English 
building journals take the occasion to read a warning against 
the dangers of the modern habits of iron construction ; and 
certainly there is room for it. Setting aside the risks of con- 
structors whose knowledge is not up to the scientific standard 
of the day, we are engaged the best of us in building- 
experiments as bold and as hazardous as were the men who 
developed the mediaeval cathedrals ; and apparently with no 
more consciousness of it. When we read that' a church of the 
twelfth or thirteenth century fell down within fifty years after 
it was built, we shake our heads at the unscientific daring of 
its builders. Yet when we balance a huge building on the 
ends of a few thin columns, often with no lateral bracing, or 
next to none, we are using a construction as venturesome as 
that of the Gothic vault and flying buttress ; and all the 
while we are experimenting with a material of whose ulti- 
mate behavior under continued stress our knowledge is as 
imperfect as was that of the mediaeval builders concerning 
the principles of equilibrium on which their daring structures 

ANOTHER accident of a different kind, in London, brings 
out an example of severer application of law than we are 
used to here, though perhaps not severer than is wholesome. 
A Mr. Hackett was building a row of houses in Hackney, 
when one of them fell and killed a bricklayer. The coro- 
ner's inquest showed that the houses had been built with 
undue haste, and of inferior masonry. The District Surveyor 
had, while the work was going on, called the attention of the 
proprietor to the bad quality of the work and material, and 
had warned him that unless these things were mended he 
would be likely to find himself some day on trial for manslaugh- 
ter. The proprietor (although in a singular way he combined 
the callings of plumber and decorator) disclaimed knowledge 
of building-materials, in respect to which he confided in his 
contractor and his clerk of the works. The clerk of the 
works, being called, perhaps hardly showed himself worth y of 
so much confidence ; for he would not swear that there was 
concrete in the foundations, though he believed there was, 
nor could he tell how much loam had been put into the mor- 
tar. The eoroner's jury brought in an unanimous verdict of 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 112. 

manslaughter against the proprietor, who was committed for 
trial. It does not appear that any proceedings were taken 
against the contractor. 

THE strikes in England and in Massachusetts continue 
apparently without change, excepting that the carpenters and 
joiners of London have given notice of their intention to de- 
mand the same increase of wages (to tenpence per hour) and 
the same decrease of time that the stone-masons have been 
striking for. At the same time the difficulties of the masters 
seem to be in some degree relieved by their importation of 
foreign workmen, chiefly from German y ; a resort which the 
British workmen look upon with truly patriotic disdain, 
declaring that the German masons cannot do good work. 
One of the builders, who was summoned before a magistrate 
a short time ago by a mason who claimed to be paid nine- 
pence per hour, testified that he could get men enough and 
to spare at wages varying from fourpence to ninepence, from 
which it may be inferred that the vantage-ground of the 
strikers is slipping away from them. The work on the new 
Law Courts is still delayed, and is not up to the time de- 
manded by the contracts. In Massachusetts the Crispin 
strike goes on. The manufacturers still hold to their posi- 
tion, refusing to deal with or recognize the Order, and in- 
sisting on treating with the men individually. A good many 
non-union men are at work, many having been imported from 
without ; and there has been considerable violence on the 
part of the strikers. In Lynn, notwithstanding the resolu- 
tions against violence passed at the meetings of the Crispins, 
the disorders have gone so far as to threaten actual riot, and 
compel the organization of a large special police-force. 

THE committee appointed by the Underwriters of Chicago 
to inquire into the burning of Field, Leitcr, & Co.'s building 
have made their report. The stores, it will be remembered, 
took fire in the garret, where the water from the engines could 
not reach it, and burned downwards, killing several firemen 
by the giving waj^ of the staircase. The report is too meagre 
to give a clear idea of the building, but shows that though 
combustible enough, it was better protected against fire than 
most. It was solidly built, the roof covered with metal, was 
plastered mainly on wire lathing, and protected by iron shut- 
ters. It had two tanks under the roof, and stand-pipes with 
force-pumps and hose : whether there was any water in them 
or not, we are not told. There was also a Babcock fire- 
extinguisher on each floor. The interior construction was 
throughout of wood, excepting for the iron columns that sup- 
ported the floors.. Most of the committee's report is occu- 
pied with discussing the cause of the fire, which the}^ ascribe 
to a defective chimney. This, however, is not the point of 
general interest, which is the lesson that secondary precau- 
tions against fire are entitled to little confidence when there 
are radical vices of construction. It was, in fact, one of 
these secondary precautions that did the fatal mischief; for 
it was one of the iron tanks, breaking away from its supports 
under the roof, that killed the firemen, and, crashing through 
the stairs, carried the fire down into the basement. The 
committee lay a reasonable stress on the danger of building 
open elevators, which act as fire-flues from top to bottom. 

IN one of our earlier numbers appeared a communica- 
tion suggesting the establishment of a new profession, that 
of "house-physician" or "sanitarian," whose function it 
should be to examine and prescribe for houses that were out 
of condition, especially in .those matters that affect the health 
of their occupants, as physicians do for disordered men and 
women. Such a function has realty taken shape among us 
during the last three or four years, and we find here and 
there in our large cities a person who has devoted himself to 
it. But in Edinboro' people have gone a step further, and 
are forming a co-operative association for this purpose. The 
need of frequent inspection and frequent^ alteration of the 
sanitary appliances of houses, as they are built at present, 
has attracted general attention ; but the cost of consulting an 
engineer whose standing is such as to command confidence in 
his opinion is found to be so great that the plan has been 
set on foot, of organizing an association, with an annual 
subscription of one guinea, which shah 1 secure to all its mem- 

bers a proper supervision of their houses without additional 
cost. The association is to maintain a corps of well-edu- 
cated young engineers, tinder supervision of a consulting 
engineer of high standing ; and it will be their duty to exam- 
ine and report upon the dwellings of members once a year, 
and in special needs whenever they are called upon, giving 
advice and estimates for any alterations that they think 
necessary. They would be held to confine themselves to 
strictly necessary matters, and would be for obvious reasons 
forbidden to hold any pecuniary interest in patents or appli- 
ances which they might prescribe. 

[See vol. U., p. 338.] 

THE chief beauties of the detail in colonial work arise from its 
disciplined and almost universal refinement and dignity, as well 
as the absence of vulgarity or eccentricity even when display is 
attempted. These virtues, not too common in our days, lend an 
added cbarm to it for us. The use of classical detail was univer- 
sally agreed to, and the orders were naturally used by every car- 
penter; while so evident are the attractions of its detail, that the 
various societies of architects, giving voice to the general interest 
of the profession, are now proposing to sketch the old work with 
system. In view of this, one naturally inquires whence the in- 
formation of the old builders came, and whether tradition and 
copying, as in mediaeval times, could have led to such a varied use 
of Italian motifs. One asks whether there was not some more 
definite source of instruction for these carpenters in a new coun- 
try ; for to find this source might either enhance the value of the 
sketches, or else render them unnecessary. 

The English mansions which Nash and Richardson have 
sketched for us so thoroughly were of an earlier period than the 
building days in our country. Longleat, Hatfield, Holland House, 
and many of those structures which like Longleat were built under 
Italian care, or, like the others, bore a more or less Italian detail 
on their medieval forms, date from about the time when the 
Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. Steep gables vie with pediments 
in these compositions, and mullions and pointed arches stand side 
by side with the orders. Of such work no examples of moment 
were raised on our shores, for it was doubtless long before build- 
ings of any pretension were required by a struggling people. But 
this was not the case with movable objects, and this Jacobean 
period has been well handed down to us in the many pieces of 
furniture brought over or made by the early colonists. As is well 
known, the chairs reputed to have come over in the Mayflower 
might have laden a fleet, and the New England family that do;'s 
not possess one or more has feeble claim to aristocratic pretension. 
The bulbous legs and posts, the ill-formed pediments, and the 
other details now so much studied, appeared however, in our coun- 
try, in these forms alone. 

But meanwhile Inigo Jones made his two visits to Italy, and, 
full of enthusiasm for Palladio's work, designed in a pure Italian 
manner, with well-understood detail. He even added an Italian 
portico to the noble mediaeval cathedral of St. Paul. AVhen he 
died in 1652, Sir Christopher Wren monopolized all the important 
English practice, working always with much regard for group and 
line, and mechanical skill, but with far less care for detail than 
his predecessor. He died in his turn in 1723. Vanbrugh. Hawks- 
moor, Gibbs, Campbell, Taylor, Adam, Chambers, such are the 
more or less familiar names whose work occupied the rest of the 
century ; and the period when our colonial work was rich and inter- 
esting is thus included between the lives of Jones and Chambers. 
Their work is often reflected in it ; often it may have been actually 
their work. 

It is the period of rule and method ; of aliquot parts, modules, 
and minutes. True, this discipline is confined to details ; for, as 
in the case of the exteriors of the houses, the plans equally ad- 
mitted very varied and picturesque effects. These principally 
regarded the stairs. At the Holmes and Longfellow houses in 
Cambridge, the front and rear stairs start from opposite ends of 
the house, and separate again after meeting on a common landing. 
At the Ladd and another house in Portsmouth, they in different 
manners wind up in the coiner of the larger hall. At the Wins- 
low house in Plymouth, the stair-lauding crosses the door opening, 
and the portion left open above the lauding is filled in with twisted 

Yet, while picturesque effects add many charms to the old 
mansions, their distinguished and refined character still seems 
owing to careful rules and studied training in the orders and 
their details ; and I find that old libraries furnish the clew to all 
this, much more than might be supposed. So very many and so 
carefully prepared are the English works alone on architecture, 
which appeared in the last century, that while the sketches pro- 
posed by the various societies will be most valuable as records of 
the groups and combinations of old work, as well as studies of 
interesting details, yet they will hardly cover simple motifs not 
already engraved in these books. I have found a large copy of 
Batty Langley's classical work in an old loft in New Hampshire ; 

FEBRTTABY 16, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


and jvhile I doubt not that suclt books were common in the days 
when our early work was executed, I even think that-if studied, 
existing mantels, cornices, alcoves, etc., would probably be identi- 
fied in these books. 

Mr. Eastlake, in .his History of the Gothic Revival, speaks of 
English works on classical design by Shute in 1563, and Sir 
Henry Wotton in 1624. These I have not seen; but one can 
readily see others in our libraries. Gibbs's works, published in 
1739, included the engravings of St. Martin's Church in London. 
Batty and Thomas Langley, besides their Gothic book, which Mr. 
Eastlake ridicules, also published an excellent classical work, most 
of the plates in which are dated 1739. Ware's Architecture, which 
is voluminous, and has many plates of interiors, is dated 1756. 
Chippendale's book is dated 1762. and gives us furniture in the 
"most fashionable styles," which were evidently French; and it 
seems as if Gov. Langdon who built in 1784, or Jeremiah Lea 
whose house dates from 1768, had perhaps received a copy of this 
work before the Louis Quinze curves were cut on their great 
chimney-pieces at Portsmouth and Marblehead. This same Chip 
p'endale, whose chairs and tables, or their copies, are frequent in 
America, besides affecting a French taste, had a fancy for Chinese 
work, giving us designs for chairs and railings in the Chinese 
manner. Chairs of this make are to be seen at Portsmouth, and 
he seems an amusing forerunner to the Queen Anne Japanese 
designers of to-day. Swan's book follows these others in 1768, 
with many designs for mantels and other work, and Paine pub- 
lishes fine plates in 1783; while the third edition of the correct 
and elegant Sir William Chambers is dated 1791. In 1811 Asher 
Benjamin published in Charlestown, Mass., the second edition of 
the " American Builder's Companion," which contains most of the 
types of cornices, mantels, and other details to be seen about 
the houses of that date east of the Connecticut river, such as the 
Tieknor House on Park Street, the old Franklin Street houses in 
Boston, and the West Boston church, while about the same date, 
on the other side of the water, Thomas Hope published a series of 
beautiful drawings of furniture, inspired by the discoveries at Spa- 
latro and at Athens, and made familiar to us by the French furni- 
ture of the First Empire; and with him the Greek and Roman 
periods that we are intimate with are foreshadowed. 

These books, which are probably but examples of a larger num- 
ber, indicate how our forefathers obtained their knowledge. They 
are filled with designs of doors and windows, chimney-pieces, buf- 
fets, monuments, clock-cases, bustos, girandoles, tables, and chairs. 
Often the plates are very fine, but they rarely suggest the extreme 
delicacy and fineness of moulding so characteristic of the real 
work. Curiously enough however, while ramped rails and turned 
or carved balusters occur in these books, not one print have I seen 
of a twisted baluster such as were well-nigh universal in all houses 
of importance with us at that time. This is not because they were 
peculiar to this country; indeed, I have supposed ours were largely 
carved in England, and at any rate I well remember almost iden- 
tical patterns in London. Why they do not appear in the plates 
I do not understand, in view of their being the most conspicuous 
ornament in American work of that time. 

Almost all the designing found in these volumes is founded on 
a study of the orders, which is throughout held as almost synony- 
mous with the study of architecture. Mr. B. Langley thus urges 
this fact on his hearers : " 'Tis a Matter of very great Surprise 
to me, how any person dare presume to discourage others from the 
Study thereof, and thereby render them very often less serviceable 
to the Publick than so many Brutes. But to prevent this Infection 
from diffusing its poisonous Effluvia's any further," he, in short, 
peremptorily admonishes his readers to understand the five orders 
of columns, whose general proportions will not escape their memo- 
ries " after having practised them about half a Dozen Times." 




[A paper read before the Civil Engineers' Club of the North-West, Chicago, Sept. 
4, 1877.] 


Illustrates the case of a truss with an arched lower chord or tie- 
beam. It also shows the effect of adding or subtracting any given 
amount of horizontal force to each of the supports, such amounts 
acting in contrary directions. 

Diagram (n) is the equilibrium polygon for the set of forces 
acting on the rafters, and (in) for the set acting on lower chord : 
they are found as before described. Diagram (iv) is the polygon 
of forces for the lower set; and the double lines in diagram (v) is 
that for the upper set. The point Z on the closing line LL 2 (v) is 
found as before : on this point superimpose the point Z 2 (iv), so 
that the dotted line OR (v) represents and stands for the line 
MM 2 (iv). The whole polygon of forces (iv) might now be 
drawn on OR ; but we will omit this, and proceed to show the 
effect of altering the horizontal components of the re-actions., now, that a horizontal line be drawn through one end of 

the dotted line OR, and another through the other end. These 
lines are Mm and M 2 m 2 . Now, assume any point in either of 
these lines, and through it draw a line parallel to OR [or, what is 
the same thing, MM 2 (iv)] ; then the portion of this line lying 


between the horizontal lines Mm, M 2 m 2 , may be taken to represent 
the closing line MM 2 (iv), and the polygon as shown in (iv) com- 

This is don in (v) in two places ; the closing line in one place 
being represented by MM' 2 , and in the other by mm 2 , and the poly- 
gon of forces shown in (iv) completed. Either of these polygons 
may be taken, and combined with the polygon of forces for the 
upper set, and the strains on the various members of the truss 
drawn out in the usual way; the re-actions in the one case being 
LM and L' 2 M 2 , and in the other Lm and L 2 m 2 ; the letters used 
in one case being A, B, C, etc., and in the other b, c, etc. 

It will be seen that the strains on the members of the truss are 
different for each position of the polygon corresponding to (iv). 
Had the lower chord or tie-beam been straight, the strains in all 
of the members, except 
the tie-beam, would have 
been identical, as re- 
marked under the head- 
ing of Fig. 4. Indeed, 
it may be noted that 
portions of the tie-beam 
AM and A 2 M 2 are hori- 
zontal, and that, in the 
strain diagram, the points 
A and A 2 are identical 
for both positions of the 
forces corresponding to 



We have previously 
shown how the horizon- 
tal components of the re- 
actions could be altered, 
provided that the same 
amount that was added 
or subtracted from the 
re-action at one support 
was also added or subtracted, in a contrary direction, to the re- 
action at the other support. 

We will now show that this is but a particular statement of a 
general principle, which is, that, instead of the direction of these 
additional amounts 'being necessarily horizontal, they are parallel 
to the line joining the points of support. 

In Fig. 9, for simplicity's sake, the load is taken only on the 
rafters : (n) is the equilibrium polygon from which the point Z 
on the closing line LG (n) is found. The strains in the members 
of the truss are found as shown by LA, AB, BC, KB, etc. Sup- 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 112. 

pose, however, a line Z 2 Z 3 be drawn through Z, parallel to xy (i), 
then any point on this line Z 2 Z a maybe taken to represent Z, and 
the polygon of strains for that point will close. In the diagram 
there are three sets of strains shown, one for the point Z, to 
which the letters A, B, C, etc., belong ; another for Z 2 , to which 
the letters A 3 , B 2 , C 2 , etc., belong ; and a third point Z 8 , tx> which 
the letters A 8 , B 8 , C, etc., belong. 


It has been remarked, under the heading of Fig. 6, that, when a 
truss is loaded on both rafters and tie-beam, the re-actions at the 
supports which are obtained are not necessarily parallel. If it is 


desirable to make them so, and it often, if not generally, is, 
this figure describes the method of doing so. 

Diagram (n) is the equilibrium polygon for the forces on the 
rafters; (HI) the equilibrium polygon for the forces on the tie- 
beam ; (iv) the polygon of forces along the tie-beam ; and the 
double line in (v) the polygon of forces along the rafters. 

The points Z in (v), and Z 3 in (iv), are found as usual. Sup- 
pose the closing line S 3 U 3 in (iv) is placed so that the point Z 8 is 
superimposed on Z in (v), then the line SU corresponds and an- 
swers for S 8 U 8 ; there-actions being RS and UL, which are evi- 
dently not parallel to each other. Now, if lines S 2 G and U 2 K be 
drawn through the points S and U,- parallel to the line joining the 
supports of the truss, which in this case coincides with the tie- 
beam, then if any point be assumed on either of these two parallel 
lines, and from it a line parallel to SU be drawn until it meets 


the other line, this line may be taken as the closing line of the 
forces shown in (iv), those forces laid off from it, and the strain 
diagram completed. The problem now is to find such a point as 
will cause the re-actions at the supports to be parallel. To find 
this, lay off the line LX equal and parallel to SU ; then draw the 
line RX ; from the point S 2 , where this line crosses S 2 G, draw 
S 2 U 2 parallel to SU, until it meets U 2 K in U a then S 2 U 2 will 

be the closing line sought for, and the re-actions RS 2 and U 2 !, will 
be parallelt 

If the line RY be laid off equal and parallel to SU, and a line 
drawn from Y to L, then the line YL will be found to cross the 
line U 2 K at the point U 2 , thus checking the work. 

The complete polygon of forces corresponding to (iv) can now 
be drawn on S 2 U 2 , and the strain diagram completed. 


Is similar to Fig. 10, except that the tie-beam does not coincide 
with the line st joining the points of support. This does not 
affect the construction, though the lines N 2 N and QQ 2 , both 
drawn parallel to st, do not coincide with the lines of the strain 
diagram, as in the former case. 



THIS building is now approaching completion. It is built of 
native rock, of a light cream-color, relieved by finish of a harder 
stone not far different in color. The ground floor seats about 600. 
The site sloping towards the river gives a large Sunday-school 
room in the basement. 


This house, which cost about $45,000, is faced on all sides with 
Philadelphia brick. The belts, lintels, skewbacks, etc., are of 
Lemont sandstone. The interior is finished in hard wood. 


This house, which cost about $15,000, is of Lemont limestone 
relieved with bands, voussoirs, etc., of Columbia stone. 


The elevation is made on the line of longitudinal, section, 
through the northern entrance, and shows the screen behind which 
are the staircases to the Chambers of Councils. The columns 

and pilasters, with their pedestals, are of red and blue granite pol- 
ished ; and the walls of the screen, together with all the entabla- 
tures, are of Ohio sandstone. 


The hall of this house is lined to the ceiling with a wainscot of 
painted pine, with raised panels. The cupboards, mantels, and 
staircases are also designed after the style of colonial work. 

ROOFERS' TRICKS. Keeper Dugan, of the Jefferson Market Pris- 
on, New York, found the rooms on the two upper tiers flooded with 
water, Feb. 9. It was then discovered that throughout the entire 
surface of the roof the slates had not been properly lapped, and that 
consequently the snow had entered the loft, accumulating in large 
quantities. Complaints of the condition of the prison had been 
made to the Commissioner of Public Works from time to time, but 
had received no attention. 



f-EB. 16. 1575. 















nBOCtt 120 DEYCHSHEB S~ Bt>3ic!i 




FEBRUARY 16, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 



THIS is a book, of a kind of which there are many, that aims to 
strike midway between a complete treatise and a manual of rules 
and formulae, a thing which we need not say it is very difficult to 
do successfully. It takes up the whole subject of heating and ven- 
tilating buildings, with what succinctness, necessary in a 12mo 
volume of eighty odd pages, the reader may judge. There is a 
chapter on general principles of ventilation by exhaust and sup- 
ply, radiation direct and indirect, and currents of air ; one on the 
vitiation of air and the supply of fresh air, its flow in ducts and 
the means of moving it; on the production and transmission of 
heat ; on heating by water and steam, with size of pipes, circula- 
tion, grates and boilers ; on the humidity of air, and tension of 
vapor. The book gives a number of tables and a great many 
formulae for practical use ; but chiefly of a technical kind, taken 
apparently from various sources, and more or less from Peclet, 
correctly given, as far as we have had time to examine them, 
except for some typographical errors which seem to show want of 
care in proof-reading. These are strung together by discussions 
which are necessarily very brief and comprehensive, top much 
so to be always clear, and which are liable to the objection that 
always waits on such efforts, that they are unnecessary to those 
who understand the subject, and to those who do not, they give 
rise to more questions than they answer. The examples given 
and solved are of practical application, and with the formulae 
ought to be of service to those who have similar problems to deal 
with, and are not afraid of the necessary figures. 



THERE having been no quorum at the regular monthly meeting 
on the 1st of February, by reason of the severe storm, a special 
meeting was held at the Institute of Technology, on the evening of 
Friday, Feb. 8 ; Mr. John H. Sturgis, Vice-President, in the chair. 
After a discussion raised by the Committee on Elections regard- 
ing the powers of that committee, Mr. Van Brunt proceeded to 
read a paper on " The Growth of the Conscientious Spirit in the 
Arts of Decoration." 

The object of this paper was to prove that the accumulation, 
classification, and analysis of precedents in art, for which the last 
twenty-five years had been especially remarkable, had imposed 
upon the artist certain duties and responsibilities hitherto un- 
known; that a self-conscious element had been introduced into 
modern design by the necessity of making choice among various 
styles ; that this necessity implied, on the part of the artist, self- 
justification, self-denial, analysis, and, in general, conscientious- 
ness. The function of the older architects was confined^ to the 
consistent development of a certain set of forms. Their busi- 
ness was to assist in the growth of a style ; in this work their 
individuality was lost. The old architecture was rather a growth 
than a creation : the new architecture must be rather a creation 
than a growth. Hence modern monuments are permeated with an 
intense personality. The responsibilities of the modern architect 
are not satisfied by skill, ingenuity, invention, and the other 
qualities which sufficed for our ancestors : he needs also the learn- 
ing and spirit of research implied by knowledge of precedent ; he 
needs also the spirit of analysis and discussion necessary to enable 
him to make proper and judicious use of such precedent. 

These statements were illustrated by contrasting with our own 
methods of design those of the Greeks and Romans, the mediaeval 
artists and the Japanese, and by drawing attention to the fact that 
from the nature of the case, but few names of architects are pre- 
served to us from ancient times, and these names are shadowy and 

He concluded by saying that our present conditions oi lite must 
give to art in all its forms certain distinctive characteristics. These 
conditions involve the establishment of principles, and not forms, 
as standards of excellent work ; they make forms the language, 
and not the end, of design ; and they inculcate the enlargement 
and enrichment of this language by the study of nature and of all 
antecedent arts, to the end that we may express our thoughts in 
art as we would in literature, with an elegance, precision, and 
completeness, commensurate with our larger opportunities and our 
greater resources. Modern architecture has hitherto concerned 
itself mainly with the parts of speech, and given us exercises in 
grammar ; now we are prepared to give to art its true function, 
to instruct as well as to delight, to appeal to the intellect and 
heart as well as to the taste, to have larger scope and fuller mean- 
ing in all its expressions. 

Mr. Ware then made a few remarks substantially in agreement 
with the views expressed in the paper. He said that the conditions 
of success are undoubtedly different now from those heretofore ex- 

isting. This difference consists mainly in the fact that the greater 
freedom must beget the greater responsibility ; hence follows that 
moral element in design, which, as the paper stated, must needs 
confer upon modern work its essential characteristics. 

Mr. Cummings expressed some doubts whether the conditions of 
art are so different now from those of earlier times. He instanced 
especially the architects of the Florentine palaces, in the time of 
the greatest activity of Italian art, who, notwithstanding the 
knowledge of conflicting precedent which they must have pos- 
sessed, pursued their chosen style, without being diverted by their 
knowledge. This would seem to imply the possession of moral 

Mr. Ware replied that in this respect they did not differ from 
the architects of a later time, even so late as the first half of the 
present century. The Florentine builders could not have been 
blinder to the mediaeval work around them than the moderns have 
been, until lately, as regards certain phases of precedent art ; they 
could not have despised their Gothic precedents more than the 
disciples of Ruskin have despised Jones, Gibbs, Hawksmoor, 
Chambers, and the other architects of the English Renaissance. 
But the point of contrast between the conditions of art now and 
formerly is that a more scientific and exact knowledge of the de- 
velopment and significance of all the styles and of their relations 
with humanity, the more complete and thorough analysis and 
classification of them, have disarmed our prejudices, and placed us 
in a judicial attitude regarding them, calling for a more moral 
and intellectual treatment of design, establishing principles instead 
of forms. 

Mr. Sturgis, the Vice-President, agreed with Mr. Ware that the 
greater openness of mind in modern times was making us much 
more catholic in regard to style, and that the new external con- 
ditions of life, combined with our insatiable curiosity and thirst 
for knowledge, were creating among architects a very marked 
intellectual peculiarity in their work. 

Mr. Earle drew attention to the phenomenon regarding style 
now witnessed in England, where forms of the Early English Re- 
naissance, which until lately were denounced as barbarous, are 
now rehabilitated in new work. He asked if this does not indicate 
a want of the conscientious spirit. 

Mr. Ware considered that the revival of the Queen Anne and 
Jacobean styles, so called, is a natural recoil or revolt of the artis- 
tic mind from the undue control exercised over it by Pugin and 
Ruskin and their followers in the interest of the mediaeval revival. 
It seems to be a matter of feeling and impulse justified by the 
occasion, indicative of a greater catholicity o spirit, and not incon- 
sistent with the moral instincts of the new culture. 

After some further conversation, in which Mr. Martin, Mr. 
Thayer, and Mr. Van Brunt took part, the vote of thanks to Mr. 
Van Brunt, proposed by Mr. Earle, was passed. 

Mr. Ware then called the attention of the meeting to a proposi- 
tion of Mr. J. T. Clarke, a junior member of the Boston Chapter, 
to go abroad to prosecute some original researches in the antiqui- 
ties of Greece, and with a view to enlisting the sympathies of the 
Chapter, he called upon Mr. Clarke for a detailed statement of his 

scheme. . ... 

Mr. Clarke gave a general statement of the proposed field ot nis 
researches in Attica, Delos, Mitylene, Olympia, Phygalia, and 
Patras, where there are remains still unexplored ; he also proposed 
to visit Corfu, which promised to yield a rich return to careful 

After some further discussion of the subject, on motion of Mr. 
Ware it was voted to refer this question to the committee ap- 
pointed at the last meeting to consider the disposal of certain 
funds in the hands of the Treasurer, with instructions to report at 
the next meeting. The meeting then adjourned. 

' A Manual of Heating and Ventilation, in their Practical Application, for the Use 
f r mrjncers and Architects ; embracing a Series of Tables and Formulas for Dimen- 
sion^ of Heating, Flow and Return Pipes, for Steam and Water Boilers, Flues, etc. 
Bv F Schumann, C.E., United States Treasury Department, Corresponding Member 
nf the \merican Institute of Architects, Author of " Formulas and Tables for Archi- 
tects and Engineers." New York : D. Van' Nostrand, publisher, 23 Murray and 27 
Warreu Streets. 1877. 


[See vol. 11., p. 408.] 

Nos. 578, 581, el sea. We meet here with a name known in Paris, 
Mr. Hunt, who, it is said, studied under M. Lefuel. He dis- 
plays some schemes for the embellishment of Central Park in New 
York. These different designs, illustrated here by sepia-draw- 
ings, were not carried out. They include complete perspective 
views and some separate designs, a pedestal, and an equestrian 
statue. Unfortunately, we look in vain for any general plan, so 
that it is rather difficult to tell at first sight where such and such 
drawings belong. We much prefer the same artist's design for the 
Lenox Library (594 and 596). This is a "project," as we under- 
stand it in Europe, with plans, sections, elevations, and a perspec- 
tive view. Two large rectangular halls are connected by a wide 
vestibule; in front is a court; and at the rear are apartments be- 
tween the two staircases, which lead to the upper stories. Such is 
the plan very simply and pleasingly arranged. The halls contain 
hieh galleries, which are reached by winding staircases, concealed 
within projections, which likewise enclose the hot-air and venti- 
latintr flues. The principal elevation shows the court with the 
two projecting wings. The bays of the first story are built up to 
half their height; above is a high story embodying the principal 


The American Architect and Building News. 

[VOL. III. No. 112. 

feature, three wide arches supported by. columns ; and above 
this, forming an attic, is a third story. Each wing is crowned 
by a pediment with a bust. The design is simple and striking. 

Mr. Hunt also exhibits the photograph of a cast-iron store-front. 
It is Moorish in style, and not unpleasiug in aspect. I mention 
once more, by the same artist, a drawing for the New York Trib- 
une building. This is one of those whimsical constructions now 
the mode in New York, and which, it is to be feared, will have 
but too much success in the United States. What I am about to 
say may seem like a jest; but builders here vie in overtopping 
each other. When I shall have told you that the compound of 
brick and stone in question includes nine stories, that it is flanked 
by a tower which has thirteen, and that above this is a very 
high steep roof, you will admit the justice of my statement. 1 The 
monument is not pleasing: red bricks intersected by lines of black 
form a kind of textile design, which is pierced by a multitude of 
windows. Mr. Hunt was a member of the American jury in the 
architectural section, and was consequently out of competition. 

Mr. Fern bach (000 et seq.) seems to me one of the architects "of 
most mark represented at the exhibition. His drawings are very 
well and carefully made ; and his buildings seem to be perfectly 
adapted to their purposes, which is a very rare thing here. Next 
to a synagogue built on Lexington Avenue, New York, the motive 
of whose facade is very simple, he displays a building for an insur- 
ance company at Philadelphia. This is certainly one of the most 
happily conceived buildings in the city. An effective and well- 
studied view of a balcony and a perspective view of the staircase 
accompany a perspective drawing of the facade. Mr. Fernbach 
also shows two other structures built at New York : a drawing for 
a German bank, good in style, but not equal to the Philadelphia 
building, and a photograph of a German newspaper office [the 
Staats-Zeitung], The general aspect of these buildings is severe. 
Mr. Fernbach received a medal. 

Mr. Post (608 e>. set).) also fills a large space in the catalogue ; 
and his display, without offering the studious qualities of the pre- 
ceding, is not wanting in interest. Ilis chief production is the 
building for the Western Union Telegraph Company at New York. 
This brick colossus, completed scarcely two and a half years ago, 
is one of the most important monuments of the city. The lower 
division includes the ground floor and the story above. The prin- 
cipal door, flanked by two marble columns on each side, is 
crowned by a balcony, at the corners of which stand two bronze 
statues. The main body includes at first but four stories, above 
which is an enormous cornice with a balcony. At this height we 
are but half way up the building. From the balcony another 
structure rises. A high story serves as a base for immense roofs 
containing three additional stories. Finally, crowning the whole, 
comes a tower with a clock, and above this an octagonal roof sur- 
mounted by a platform, and carrying a flagstaff. The general 
effeqt is heavy, and far from elegant ; but we feel that this colos- 
sus might well shelter a whole world. It is, in fact, one of those 
industrial barracks which replace in this country, perhaps advan- 
tageously in the general embellishment of a city, the military 
barracks of our own country. Mr. Post exhibits in addition the 
Evening Post building, which is also of the barrack species; and 
a perspective view of a hospital. 

Under Nos. 553 to 504 is a series of photographs of churches 
of only secondary interest. The author, Mr. Richard M. Upjohn 
of New York, who received a medal, also exhibits under No. 506, 
a drawing for the State House at Hartford. We find in this last 
building a strange medley of styles and of schools. Turrets rest- 
ing on very short columns, which are themselves placed over 
classic Corinthian columns, a dome with a Gothic lantern, and the 
like, give to the building an air which recalls the drawings of 
Gustave Dore". Steep roofs and peaked dormers produce a chaos. 
Mr. Upjohn has a large practice; and in my opinion, the sanction 
of his example may, I venture to say, have a mischievous influence 
upon young New York architects. 

From 623 to 629 are to be found, perhaps, the most curious 
drawings of the exhibition, and which may serve as specimens 
[Why ? Eds. Am. Architect"] of American architecture. Notwith- 
standing the good intentions of the critic, it is impossible not to 
declare these drawings bad as regards both rendering and com- 
position. They yet give, I regret to say, the true note of the pres- 
ent architecture of the country. The construction is of wood and 
zinc; and in the whole composition there is neither method, plan, 
nor consistency. The windows are placed hap-hazard ; the roofs 
are tumbled together fantastically; here a turret, there a project- 
ing gallery ; here a part recessed, there another brought forward ; 
all this in the most purposeless fashion. It is the most complete 
disorder. The chief of these drawings is a design for a hotel 
at Santa Barbara, Cal. Imagine an immense barrack of five 
stories. Upon the sidewalk in front stand wooden posts reach- 
ing to the third story, and carrying a wooden roof forming a 
veranda, which puts the whole third story in shadow. At the four 
angles are four pavilions of two additional stories, making seven, 

1 It is well to recall here that ground for building-purposes In New York costs 
vastly more than in Paris or London ; that is to say, probably more than in any city of 
the world. To the many stories which ou- correspondent mentions, might be added 
the stories of cellars. We know at New York a restaurant in the second story of 
u cellar going down, the kitchen, etc., being below In the third. Ed. Kerne General 
de 1'Anhitei.ture. 

with roofs of two stories more, making nine. Cover the whole 
with steep roofs, sprinkle here and there flagstaff's with waving 
pennons, and you will have an idea of the general effect. If I 
dwell at length on this design, it is because it seems to have met 
wifh some approval. 

Under Nos. 630 to 642 come a series of churches, the most suc- 
cessful of which are Mr. Potter's. The arrangements are greatly 
at fault. No. 638 is especially distinguished for a craving after 
complications, fantastic clusters of roofs and the like. 

The library of Messrs. Potter and Robertson is more simple. 
If we except the singular arrangement of the roofs, the effect is 
agreeable. One feels in Mr. Potter's designs an attempt to devi- 
ate from the customary paths, and an effort after originality. 

Mr. LeBrun exhibits (678) the New York Masonic Temple. 
This building which cost, it is said, five million dollars, is yet 
very simply arranged, and is not without a certain grandeur of 
style. The proportions are judiciously studied; no excessively 
steep roofs, no pretentious endeavors, no whimseys ; the whole is 
praiseworthy, and indicates a serious and practical spirit. The 
building, to tell the truth, has rather the air of a palace than of a 
temple. For that matter, the American Free Masons form a rich 
and powerful body, and can afford palaces. The Masonic Hall in 
Philadelphia, for example, which is of granite, cost four million 

Messrs. Gambrill and Richardson are artists who in their re- 
markable pen-and-ink drawings (681 et seij.) seek rather a pic- 
turesque rendering than serious architectural qualities. Never- 
theless their display is well worth attention. There is great 
originality in the churches and court-houses which they show us. 
Notwithstanding many turrets and steep roofs, it is felt that their 
designs are thoroughly studied. 

Mr. Pohl (Nos. 704 el seq.) exhibits a scheme for the Universal 
Exhibition. The building, which consists of seven parallel gal- 
leries lighted from the top, is wanting in simplicity of detail. In 
appearance it is heavy, and would have missed to a very great 
degree the lightness and elegance of the main building as actually 
built. Mr. Pohl is a German, and studied at Berlin. 

Mr. Fairfax (711 et seq.) exhibits a scheme which secured him 
a reward ou the occasion of the competition for the exhibition 
buildings. His design is remarkable ; and that it was not ac- 
cepted is probably because the committee shrank from too great 
an expense. The drawings are on too small a scale to enable one 
to properly judge of the details. 

Nos. 721 to 751. Messrs. Schwarzmann and Kafka display side 
by side a collection of drawings, among which are the Memorial 
Hall and Horticultural Hall of the Philadelphia Exhibition. Mr. 
Kafka, a pupil of the Munich school, and who shares its merits 
and failings, had already appeared at Vienna in 1873. He exhib- 
its here a design for a casino, which was awarded a prize there. 
Some villas in the German style and interior decorations for 
houses complete this display, which is one of the best. Messrs. 
Schwarzmanu and Kafka built most of the principal buildings 
upon the grounds of the Philadelphia Exhibition. These struc- 
tures are in general rather simply arranged ; but they would have 
contributed something of monotony to the general effect, had there 
not been a certain number of other buildings to vigorously inter- 
pose, and break this uniformity of ornamentation. These gentle- 
men received a medal. 

I will finish by mentioning the exhibition by the United States 
Government in its special building, of drawings of the different 
public buildings of Washington. In general, these monuments 
are known, except, indeed, the new building for the War Depart- 
ment, an immense palace placed next the White House in an 
admirable situation. It is embellished with colonnades; and, 
seen from the Potomac, ought to offer a rather imposing appear- 
ance. It is nevertheless open to the reproach of a lack of origi- 
nality in detail; the different stories are too much alike. As to 
the interior disposition, which is said to be very good, the ab- 
sence of a plan naturally prevented me from judging. M. C. 
PICTOU, in the Revue Generate de I' Architecture. 





SINCE my last was written some remarkable developments have 
come to light, relating to the way in which our Court House half 
dome has been contracted for. On the 30th of July last the Board 
of County Commissioners ordered the architect to contract with P. 
J. Sexton to build " so much of the dome foundation as was 
necessary to enclose the building." It will be remembered that 
the building was well under way and the basement nearly com- 
pleted at that time. But there was a gap where it had been con- 
templated to erect the dome, and nothing could be seen but the 
heads of piles which had been driven during the previous winter. 
The architect executed the contract by simply writing a letter to 
the contractor, directing him to go on with the work. The letter, 
which has now been published, fixed the rates at which the vari- 
ous kinds of work were to be paid for ; and among them agreed 

FEBRUARY 16, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


to pay eighty cents per cubic foot for dimension stone masonry. 
The following sentence was also inserted : " All openings to be 
measured solid." The letter was indorsed by all the members of 
the late building committee. 

When the foundation proper had been completed, it appears 
that the architect ordered the contractor to stop work, and so in- 
formed the board. It now comes out that the order was stolen or 
suppressed. The architect refused to certify any more bills; but 
the board ordered the contractor to go on. He did so ; and the 
architect continued to send in certificates, and the board to pay 
them, until now nearly $50,000 has been paid. In fact, the work 
was only recently stopped, as I have said before. The architect 
now certifies that $25,000 more is due ; and the building commit- 
tee have recommended that it be paid. But the board has re- 
committed the report; and the committee have just concluded 
that the money is not due. Hence warfare between all the inter- 
ested parties. 

It is now a question for legal heads to determine, as to what 
amount of work was contemplated in the original order or con- 
tract. It will be important to know if a building can be enclosed 
by completing the foundations for only a part of it. If a gap 
in one wall only is meant to be " enclosed," is it essential that the 
enclosing process should go on as long as the wall does, or up to 
the top of the building ? and if a wall is thus to be enclosed, or a 
whole building, can it be done by constructing "foundations"? 
Here is a field for architecturo-legal inquiry never before equalled. 
The question also comes up as to whether the contractor received 
his instructions from the committee or the board. If from the 
former, the contract or order was unlawful, for it is the law that 
all contracts must be made by authority of the board. 

The new building to be erected by the Singer Manufacturing 
Company on the north-east corner of State and Washington 
Streets, on the site of Field and Leiter's retail store, which was 
partly burned, is intended to be a veritably fire-proof business- 
structure. Had it been only a question of repairing damages 
caused by fire, there woujd have been no special object in erecting 
a new one, as the fifth s'tory and roof only were destroyed. But 
when an examination was made after the fire, it was discovered 
that not only the heavy double girders, but nearly all the floor 
timbers, were rotten to the verge of giving way under their own 
weight. They were broken in many places by falling objects dur- 
ing the fire, so that it became necessary to prop many of the floors 
to make it safe for persons to go about. It seems to have been 
providential that the building took fire. This fact, coupled with 
evident errors of construction committed during the erection of the 
building, left no alternative but to rebuild the interior at least. 
In view also of defects in the foundations of the exterior walls, 
which gave considerable alarm during their erection, the company 
concluded to rebuild the whole structure. And in consonance 
with the custom pursued by this corporation for twenty years 
(broken only in the instance in question), it determined to erect a 
fire-proof building. In carrying out this scheme, the architect in 
charge, Mr. James Van Dyke, who has come from New York for 
the purpose, has determined to avail himself of the results of re- 
cent investigation, and avoid the faults so generally incident to 
so-called fire-proof building. The task is not an easy one to ful- 
fil ; for the question of combustible contents is more serious than 
combustible building. It is to be a retail store, and may eventu- 
ally become a wholesale warehouse. Iron beams, girders, and col- 
umns will be used throughout ; but they with-.all other constructive 
ironwork will be fire-proofed by non-conducting materials. Ele- 
vators will also be protected from the danger of communicating 
fire. In the old building there were neither self-acting traps nor 
enclosed shafts, and three open elevatoss allowed burning embers 
to fall from the roof to the basement, causing considerable destruc- 
tion by fire among the package goods there stored. The under- 
writers' report on this fire, just presented, reiterates the oft-repeated 
assertion that " elevators must be provided with automatic doors." 

The details of interior arrangement are not yet fully deter- 
mined, and may not be until a tenant is found. With regard to 
the exterior, the architect contemplates replacing the first story 
ironwork, and the stonework of the second, third, and fourth sto- 
ries. That of the fifth story was so badly burned that most of it 
will have to be recut. A sixth story will be added, showing a 
mansard roof on the exterior, but protected inside and out from 
the effects of fire. 

It is decided that Field and Leiter will not re-occupy the build- 
ing, as they have rented five double stores on Wabash Avenue in 
the immediate neighborhood. It may be of interest to note, with 
reference to the prevalence of dry-rot in a building only five years . 
old, that the internal construction of the old building was of iron 
columns and double girders ; that is, the girders consisted of two 
beams 12 x 14 inches in dimension, placed one on the other, and 
bolted together. The floor-joists, 4 x 14 inches in size, were let 
into the upper girder, cut sloping, and rested on the lower girder. 
This system of floor construction in wide stores has been exten- 
sively practised in this city, and has failed in many instances 
through the prevalence of dry-rot. Already several stores have 
been found to be in a dangerous condition, and have been recon- 
structed in consequence. The decay seems to commence between 
the two girders. Many have been found in this condition. It is 

greatest at the ends bearing on iron plates, and rapidly spreads 
through their entire length. It is communicated to the ends of 
the joists where they are inserted in the girders. The superin- 
tendent of buildings has several of the ends of joists from the 
Singer building which are of the consistency of cork, genuine 
examples of dry-rot. It is not found that the beams decay where 
they are built in walls and in contact with lime mortar. The ex- 
tent of decay in timber has doubtless been aggravated by the 
extensive use of green timber during the days of hurried building. 
Altogether it is a strong argument in favor of the use of iron, 
which is now cheaper than ever before, and within the reach of 
many who could not have employed it a few years ago. The pros- 
pect of its extensive use in the future, coupled with the recent 
discovery of its weakness as a fire-resister, points "with greater 
force than ever to the importance of adopting safe methods of 
constructing fire-resisting ceilings under the beams. 

P. S. Since writing the above, the following lucid opinion on 
the dome contract has been given by the county attorney: 

The question presented is, Is there any valid contract between the 
county and P. J. Sexton for the building of the foundation of the coun- 
ty's portion of the Court-House dome ? 

I find the following resolution in the proceedings of the board, of date 
July 30, 1877: 

" Resolved, That the contractor, P. J. Sexton, be, and he is hereby, 
instructed to build as much of the foundation of the dome, under the 
supervision of the architect, as is necessary to enclose the building, 
subject to the architect's valuation of the same." 

In my opinion, the above resolution is binding on the county, pro- 
vided Sexton did the work directed by the architect, necessary to en- 
close the building, in a good and workmanlike manner. The considera- 
tion to be paid is fixed by the valuation of the architect. Of course, if 
it should appear that the valuation fixed by the architect is so higli as 
to be exorbitant, and to amount to fraud, then the Board have the 
right to flx the compensation at what the work is reasonably worth. 

The memoranda shown me amount to nothing, except so far as they 
supplement and are within the provision of the resolution of the Board. 
The whole matter can be considered without reference to them. 

Respectfully, M. K. II. WALLACE, (Jountij Attorney. 

The county attorney has further explained to a reporter, that ho 
has passed simply on the validity of Sexton's contract for the 
building of the " foundation " of the dome, and nothing more. 
Whether the contract covered all the work done, was not sub- 
mitted to him. It seems also that the greater part of the last 
claim of the contractor is for cut-stone work used in the super- 
structure under orders of the building-committee. 



AN important case has just been decided in Hartford, before the 
city court, Judge Sumner on the bench. The case attracts atten- 
tion because of the precedent which the decision is likely to estab- 

A suit was brought against Trinity College by a stone-tnason in 
the city, for so-called services rendered Mr. Kimball, the superin- 
tending architect of the new buildings, for estimates upon a por- 
tion of the intended work. In the fall of 1874, on the return of 
the architect from London to this country with plans and detail- 
drawings, it was found necessary, before accurate estimates were 
called in, to have approximate figures ; and informal invitations 
were issued to several contractors and builders in the city, with 
the understanding that when final tenders for the work were called 
for, they should be invited to compete. The first estimates were 
rejected by the building committee, early in the following year, 
when upon examination it was found that to carry out the whole 
design would involve greater expense than had been supposed. 
Many important changes and modifications became necessary, as 
only a portion of the work could be built ; and upon the cost of 
various parts of the work included in the modifications the plain- 
tiff, at his own solicitation, was called on to offer estimates. 
Estimates of a similar character for stonework were also sub- 
mitted by non-residents who volunteered their services. Early in 
April, 1875, a meeting of the college trustees was held, and an 
appropriation for building made, it being then decided what 
blocks should be erected. Up to this time and in the interim be- 
tween the rejection of the first approximate estimates and the 
meeting of the trustees, it was thought that portions of the dining- 
hall and chapel would be built; and for estimating on those plans, 
and for time as above mentioned, the plaintiff brought a suit for 
the recovery of a bill presented. Plans for the buildings which it 
was decided to erect were finished and prepared for estimates by 
the middle of June, at which time invitations were sent out, not 
only to local contractors and builders, but to parties in New York 
and elsewhere, and all tenders were called in and opened on the 
5th of July ; the printed specifications stating that estimates would 
also be received for the dining-hall, and expressly announcing 
that the building committee would reserve the right "to reject 
any or all bids." The contract for light stone (upon which the 
plaintiff made figures) was awarded to parties out of town. 

Failing to receive at the hands of the corporation "justice," so 
called' the mason, Brabazon by name, had recourse to law, the suit 
being instituted in December, 1877, and but recently decided. The 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 112. 

claim against the college was for the exorbitant sum of $1,500. 
This, the plaintiff explained to the court, was but a portion of 
what was actually due him, which he asserted to be $4,500, or in 
other words about 2| per cent on the cost of the proposed work. 
The absurdity of the statement is apparent on its face ; and if the 
validity of such a claim were fully established, estimating would 
at once become a popular and lucrative employment. During the 
trial some interesting developments were made. As an offset to 
the statement of the plaintiff regarding the time spent upon esti- 
mates for the architect, the diary of the latter was produced in 
court, and from it was read the daily list of visitors at the office, 
by means of which the time of the figuring mason was computed. 
The diary showed that during the months of January, February, 
and March the plaintiff made twenty calls, half of which were 
devoted to the work of preparing estimates. Among the wit- 
nesses were many prominent local builders and contractors, whose 
testimony regarding remuneration for estimates showed that it 
was not customary to make charge for this class of work. The 
defence was grounded principally on the fact that the plaintiff was 
not employed by the architect, that his services were volunteered, 
and that he did not take out accurate bills of quantities, but gave 
approximate estimates. In three days time other parties completed 
more accurate estimates than did the plaintiff in the three 
months in which he was making up his figures. In many instances 
the plaintiff was asked for figures on different parts of the work, 
because he was on hand, and time could be saved. Had the 
architect presumed that charges were to be made for estimates, a 
building surveyor, whose special duties are the preparation of exact 
bills of quantities, could have been employed at an established 
rate per day. The plaintiff made the accusation that his estimate 
had been used to make terms with other parties, which was 
denied, and would have been a gross violation of the etiquette 
governing competitions. The decision rendered was in favor of 
the plaintiff, a weighty consideration being that the time and 
labor of one party had been given another party without compen- 
sation therefor, and that the plaintiff was in poor circumstances, 
while the corporation was wealthy (which, by the by, is a mistaken 
idea); and decision was made by the judge which awarded the 
plaintiff the sum of 200 in payment for his sendees. 

By this decision a custom long established has been set aside ; 
and if claims like that in the case above are always to be allowed, 
it is desirable that it should be known, and an additional item of 
expense will have to be considered. CIIETWOOD. 


Ancient Mycenae. Discoveries on the sites of Mycenae and Tiryns, 
by Dr. Henry Schliemann. Published by Scribncr, Armstrong, & 
Co., New York, 1878. 

A Manual of Engineering Specifications and Contracts. By Profes- 
sor Lewis M. Haupt. Published by J. M. Stoddart & Co., Phila- 
delphia, 1878. 

The Art of House-Painting. By John Stevens. Published by 
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1877. Price $.75. 

Cyprus: its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples. A Narrative of 
Researches and Excavations during Ten Years' Residence in that 
Island. By Gen. Louis Palma di Cesnola, Member of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences, Turin; Honorary Member of the Royal Society 
of Literature, London. With maps and four hundred illustrations, 
etc. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1878. 

Art Decoration applied to Furniture. By Harriet Prescott Spof- 
ford. Illustrated. New York : Harper & Brothers, 1878. 


FALL OP A BUILDING. A small brick building at the corner of 
Dwiglit and Delevan Streets, Brooklyn, belonging to the Cutting es- 
tate, which has been used for factory purposes, fell at one o'clock, 
A.M., Feb. 8, in a heap of ruins. The foundation is believed to have 
been undermined by rats, which are very plentiful about the premises. 

BBIDOE ACCIDENT. About seven o'clock, A.M., Feb. 10, one of 
the arches of Wie bridge over the Schuylkill River, at South Street, 
Philadelphia, fell, carrying with it in rapid succession nine other 
arches, and completely wrecking 300 feet of the bridge. The portion 
which gave way rested upon piles in the marsh on the western bank 
of the river, and its piling had been gradually sinking. A large 
number of workmen were engaged in shoring up the defective arch 
at the time the accident occurred, but all escaped uninjured. The 
bridge was built of iron, and cost originally $770,000. The loss by 
the accident will be about $100,000. 

THE NAVAL MONUMENT. The monument erected by officers and 
sailors, in commemoration of their comrades who fell during the war, 
has lately been finished at Washington. It stands on one of the best 
sites, near the western entrance to the Capitol Park. It is said to be 
more classic in treatment than any other monument in the city. 
Crowning the monument is a figure of Grief mourning for the fallen, 
and supported by History, who offers consolation by pointing to the 
record of their deeds. At the base in front, is a group of three fig- 
ures, Victory holding aloft a laurel wreath and oak branch, and 
flunked by Mars and Neptune. In a corresponding position at the 
rear, is a figure of Peace, surrounded by emblems of peace and indus- 
try. Mr. Franklin Simmons was the sculptor. 

THE NEW YORK STATE HOUSE. The new Capitol Commission- 
ers of New York, under Assembly resolution of the llth ult., submit 
the following estimate of the cost of completing the new Capitol, 
including dome, laying out of grounds, etc. 

Cost of building including dome : 

Granite $1,429,557- 

Sandstone 1,103,088 

Plumbing and gasfitting ......... 55,445 

Tiling of roofs 69,350 

Iron-works 208,680 

Carpenter-work 250,851 

Brickwork 233,292 

Plastering 102,500 

Tiling floor 133,500 

Marble 19,425 

Heating 83,000 

Elevators 120,000 

Terrace : 

Granite $238,496 

Sandstone 379,829 

Brickwork 154,472 

Tiling 56,300 

Carpenter-work 20,840 


Taking down buildings and laying out grounds . 


Total $5,198,625 

The expenditure thus far has been $8,276,615.36, making a grand 
total when completed of $13,475,230.36. The commissioners say that 
both branches of the legislature and the executive may be placed in 
the new Capitol by Jan. 1, 1879, by the expenditure of $800,000. 
$303,000 has already been appropriated for the immediate commence- 
ment of the work. 

As ILLUMINATED CROSS. St. Bernard's spire, Cohoes, N.Y., is 
to have a cross nine by five feet, made of 1,500 glass prisms. In 
the interior of the cross are to be numerous gas-jets, which will be 
lighted by the agency of an electric battery. 

MINIATURE WATER-WORKS. Blue Island is a suburb of Chicago 
of about a thousand population. To towns of similar magnitude, the 
following account of the water-works may be of interest: The works 
consist of a well, sunk at a cost of $300 ; a frost-proof stone tower, 50 
feet high, costing 1,650 ; a tank weighing 10 tons, 18 feet high, 24 
feet in diameter, and holding 58,000 gallons; and a windmill, 20 feet 
in diameter, having the power to lift 15 gallons per minute 90 feet 
high. The water has a pressure of 35 pounds to the square inch, and 
the hydrants are attached to a 6-inch stand-pipe connected with the 
tank at the bottom. The hydrants are supplied with 2-inch hose in 
such a manner that in case of fire the whole pressure can be turned 
on one hydrant in a few seconds. It is proposed that the water- 
mains shall extend from the town east on Vermont Street to Western 
Avenue, thence north and south. The Blue Islanders are very proud 
of this miniature water-works. Engineering News. 

A DECISION REGARDING SEWERS. In the Circuit Court of Pater- 
son, N. J., Judge Dixon has lately decided a question of considerable 
interest to municipalities. Mrs. Asahel sued the City of Paterson 
for damages caused by the flooding of her property during heavy 
rains, in consequence, as alleged, of the insufficient capacity of the 
street sewer to carry off the surface water. Mr. Williams, city coun- 
sel, asked for a non-suit, which Judge Dixou granted, on these 
grounds : The law authorized the city authorities to build sewers, and 
did not specify the size or capacity: those matters were left to the 
judgment of the authorities, who might make the sewers six inches 
or six feet in diameter; and so long as they saw that they were built 
in a good and workmanlike manner, according to their directions, the 
city could not be held responsible in damages to any person. More- 
over, no one was responsible for damages resulting merely from 
surface water. This disposes of a large number of cases which were 
to have been brought against the city for damages on account of the 
failure of the sewers to carry off surface water. 

BERLIN A SEAPORT. In Berlin a scheme has been proposed for 
making the German capital a seaport. It is suggested that Berlin 
shall be connected, by means of a series of deep canals, with the 
Baltic and German oceans ; the canals to be constructed to the 
mouth of the Oder in one case, and to the mouth of the Elbe in 
the other. It is said that only a few locks will be needed to regulate 
the influx of insignificant tributaries, and that the scheme is likely to 
pay a handsome return for the investment from the start. 

A PANIC IN A FRENCH CIRCUS. At Calais, Fiance, during a 
performance at a circus, on Feb. 3, there was a false alarm of fire, 
which caused a great panic. Ten persons were suffocated or trampled 
to death. Several others were hurt. 

To KEEP NAILS FROM RUSTING. The following treatment is said 
to keep nails from rusting. Heat a quantity of them on a shovel, and 
throw them, while quite hot, into a vessel of coarse oil or melted 
grease. The nails should not be so hot that the grease will be made 
to smoke freely. Cut nails prepared in this manner are improved in 
every respect. They are rendered tougher, and they will outlast any 
kind of wood, even though buried in the ground; while unprepared 
nails are completely destroyed by rust in a very short time. Probably 
melted parafline would be still better than ordinary grease, as it forms 
a very effectual coating, penetrating the pores and preventing the 
access of air or moisture. 

SELF-SUSTAINING MOTION. A German has invented a clock in 
which the winding machinery is operated by the alternate expansion 
and contraction of glycerine or other suitable liquid, which act on a 
pistou, motion iu either direction serving to wind up the weight. 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES R. OSOOOD & Co. 

[No. 113. 



The Supervising Architect's Report. The Case of Hunt vs. 
Stevens. The Court's Discrimination of Superintendence. 

Suit for Sketches of the Painter Ingres. The Philadel- 
phia Bridge. The Burning of the Excelsior Building. 
The Strikes in Massachusetts. The Castellani Collection. 

The Cleopatra 61 




House at Harrison, N.Y. Alterations to the Buffalo Rink. 

House at St. Paul, Minn. "The Hulk." Perspective 
Study 66 




Letter from Paris 70 

Letter from New York 71 


The Geological Footprints at Bellona, N.Y 71 


WE took notice some time ago of the report of the Super- 
vising Architect for last year, as it was made known through 
the papers. The printed report has now been issued, in its 
regular form of a slender octavo. It is' as concise as it is its 
habit to be, containing memoranda of the condition and prog- 
ress of the thirty buildings which have been in construction 
or under alteration in the Supervising Architect's office during 
the year ; a statement of the appropriations and expenditures 
made thus far for all buildings now under construction ; a list 
of contracts outstanding or completed during the }-ear ; and 
the usual tabular statement of the cost of construction up 
to date, of all the buildings in charge of the Treasury De- 
partment. These last now number one hundred and fifty- 
five custom-houses, sub-treasuries, post-offices, court-houses, 
mints, and other buildings, ranging in value from the New 
York Post Office, which has cost for site and construction, 
$8,984,706, and the Treasury Department at Washington, 
which has cost 86,618,304, to the two seal-fisheries in Alaska 
which together have cost $6,099. We recounted before (Amer- 
ican Architect, No. 99) the chief recommendations and some 
of the facts of the report. It contains photographs of perspec- 
tive designs for four new buildings, the combined custom- 
houses and post-offices at Albany, N.Y., Austin, Tex., and 
Utica, N.Y., and the court-house and post-office at Harris- 
burgh, Penn., as well as a drawing showing some slight 
further emendations of the Chicago Post Office, which, as we 
arc glad to infer from the report, must now, after all its vicis- 
situdes, be fairly under roof. Mr. Hill's designs show a 
marked divergence from the Gothic work of his predecessor, 
Mr. Potter, as Mr. Potter's did from those of his predeces- 
sor, Mr. Mullett, being mostly in a quasi-linlitm style, but 
treated with a good deal of freedom, and generally with 
breadth and massiveness that give them a dignity becoming 
their office, of which the designs for the buildings at Austin 
and Utica are good examples. It is rather to be regretted 
that it is not the habit of the Supervising Architects to publish 
plans of the buildings with their outward illustrations. It is 
impossible to appreciate the merit of an exterior without see- 
ing the plan from which it is deduced ; and if the similarity 
of requirements in different custom-houses and post-offices 
compels a certain monotony of planning, it is the more in- 
structive to see how this is made to consist with variations in 
the exterior treatment. A concise description of the arrange- 
ment and construction of the new buildings, when they first 
make their appearance, would also, we think, add materially 
to the interest and value of the reports. 

WE have received a printed report of the important case of 
Hunt vs. Stevens, to which we have lately alluded (American 
Architect, No. 109, Jan. 26, 1878). The report gives only 
the pleas and arguments of counsel, the charge of the judge, 

and the verdict : it does not give, what would have been of 
especial interest, an account of the testimony of the ex- 
perts called as witnesses ; so that it does not add materially 
to the information about the case before given in the papers. 
The turning-point of the case was the question whether the 
employment of a special superintendent by the client a 
builder whom Mr. Stevens selected and paid, apparently of 
his own motion, as building superintendent and clerk of the 
works should be held to have relieved the architect of 
responsibility for the excellence of the work ; though it had 
been paid for on his certificates. There was not in the agree- 
ment made by Mr. Hunt with Mr. Stevens any such disclaimer 
of responsibility as one would have thought prudent in such 
a case, Mr. Hunt's expression being only that he waived a 
portion of his fees in consideration of the employment by 
Mr. Stevens of some competent person as superintendent 
and clerk of the works, thereby saving him time and trouble, 
while he still agreed himself to superintend the building as 
architect. It is likely that a client as war}' and exacting as 
Mr. Stevens showed himself to be might have demurred at 
releasing Ms architect from responsibility, though he showed 
clearly enough that he preferred the mechanical supervision 
of a builder to that of the architect by his arrangement of 
deducting forty per cent a large allowance from his archi- 
tect's commission, and pajing it for Mr. Paul's services. 
However, the judge charged in effect that to thus deduct 
from the architect's commission for the purpose of paying a 
superintendent was really to relieve the architect from ac- 
countability for mechanical defects, in view of the statement 
in the memorandum that the abatement was in consideration 
of the tune and trouble to be saved him. 

THE charge of the judge on the matter of superintendence 
is of some importance, for it recognizes a distinction between 
kinds of superintendence which arc and should be known to 
be different, though the distinction is very commonly ignored. 
The words are : 

" While the contract devolves upon the plaintiff the duty of exercis- 
ing, as architect, a general superintendence over the construction of 
the building, to the extent of seciir; that his plans and specifications 
are substantially adopted and followed, and that no essential deviation 
therefrom is permitted, it is to be construed as exonerating and ex- 
empting him from responsibility for mere defects in material or work- 
manship, and for want of mechanical skill on the part of the various 
artisans, mechanics, and laborers employed in the construction of (he 
building, as well as from that close observation and supervision which 
would be requisite for the prompt detection of such defects." 

There are, in fact, two different kinds of superintendence ; 
and the difference, to which we have taken occasion more than 
once to call attention, is indicated as clearly as need be in 
these words of the charge. It is common for clients to con- 
found them, and so far as they are performed in ordinary- 
practice, it is usually expected that they will both be per- 
formed by the architect. Nevertheless it is quite desirable 
that they should be discriminated, and it would even be an 
advantage if distinct rates of compensation were assigned to 
them : because, in the first place, one of them cannot be prop- 
erly performed except by an architect, while the other may 
by a builder ; because, also, many clients who are willing to 
pay an architect for the first would prefer, like Mr. Stevens, 
to assume the second ; and because the architect's regular 
compensation is not sufficient in most cases to cover the 
second if it is as thoroughly performed &a many clients ex- 
pect, and as it may be. The appointment of clerks of the 
works is the best device perhaps that has been adopted thus 
far to meet this emergency, and may be recommended as a 
valuable safeguard either to clients who fear that they shall 
not get as much attention as they expect from their architects, 
or to architects who have exacting clients to deal with ; it 
being remembered that the architect retains the responsibility 
if the superintendent or clerk is his servant, and is relieved 
from it if he is the servant of the client. 

A QUESTION at law which has just been decided *in France, 
between the heirs of the famous painter Ingres and one of 
his patrons, touches an important issue of the rights of paint- 
ers and their sitters, and perhaps one that may be made to 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 113. 

covcr ag it certainty would be well if it could some privi- 
leges and abuses of photographers. One of the most cele- 
brated among the hundreds of portraits that Ingres painted 
is the beautiful portrait of Mine. Moitissier. He spent much 
labor over it, making a number of sketches and studies 
for it. These sketches he kept, as artists usually do. Not 
long ago the person into whose possession one of them had 
come, proposing to sell it, offered it first to M. Moitissier 
for about three thousand francs. M. Moitissier refused to 
pay this price, and demanded that the picture should be 
either given up to him or destroyed, claiming that neither the 
heirs nor the artist himself had a right to make use of the 
likeness of a sitter. The question was carried into court, 
and judgment was given that the sketches and studies made 
by an artist for a portrait were his property, and therefore 
should remain in possession of his heirs ; but subject to the 
especial restriction that they could neither be sold nor ex- 
hibited without the permission of their subject or the per- 
sons interested in his behalf. This decision may be fairly 
considered as having a bearing by analogy, though a some- 
what remote and indirect one, on the rule of practice which 
has never, so far as we know, been duly considered by the 
courts, though it is sufficiently settled by general usage, that 
the plans and drawings which an architect prepares in direct- 
ing the construction of a building shall be his property rather 
than his client's. 

IT is not easy, from any thing we have yet seen, to infer 
the exact reason why the South-street Bridge in Philadelphia 
gave way last week. The piling on which the fallen piers 
rested was thought to be insecure, and the work of shoring it 
up was going on. But the bridge had been closed for travel 
only one day, which betokens a pretty narrow escape for 
those who were in the habit of using it. Tho accounts of 
quicksands and infirm piling are curiously at variance with 
theories that are broached of piers sliding out sideways and 
breaking off the arches like pipe-stems. The fact remains, 
however, that a bridge of solid, or apparently solid, masonry, 
which had only been in use for two or three years, and which 
ought to have stood for a century, suddenly went all to 
pieces, some four hundred feet of it falling bodily into the 
swamp it crossed. It is expected that it will cost 8300,000 
to repair it ; but it might be worth while to make sure first 
how solid the construction is of the part which remains 
standing. The maj-or, who was one of the commission that 
built the bridge, now proposes to replace the fallen part with 
a solid causeway, and calls attention to the fact that the 
Market-street Bridge, which was built just before the Cen- 
tennial, its predecessor having burned, and which is crossed 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad, cannot be expected to last 
more than another year. He advises that this bridge be re- 
built in solid stone, and a hundred feet wide, advice that 
we may hope will be followed, at least as far as material is 
concerned. Philadelphia has had the handsomest bridges in 
the country : it would become her to have the best. 

THE burning of the Excelsior Building in New York, which 
destroyed two churches with it, is one more warning against 
the unsuitability of our present methods of construction for 
our present forms of building. The Excelsior Building took 
fire in the basement, no matter how, and being provided with 
an open elevator-well, the flames were carried directly up- to the 
seventh story, where they spread out under the roof. In a 
short time the bystanders saw a singular sight : the basement 
and the upper stories were all ablaze, whilo the second, third, 
fourth, and fifth stories were dark. The truth is, we have 
developed our buildings into new forms, while our construc- 
tion has lagged, and ia far too primitive for our present needs. 
It was comparatively safe to build small houses and shops 
three stories high, with wooden stairs, floors, and partitions, 
and open hoistways ; but when it comes to putting up the 
huge structures of New York seven or eight stories high in 
the same way, we find that such a construction is outgrown 
and is fatal. 

THE Massachusetts strikes continue, and in some places 
serious disorders have again been threatened ; but on the 
whole the position of the Crispins seems weaker, and the 
manufacturers are getting more independent by gradually 

filling their shops with outsiders. In Lynn, which has been 
the headquarters of the movement, there is comparative 
quiet, though the men, as represented by the board of arbi- 
tration of the Crispins, persist in their refusal to close the 
strike until the manufacturers discharge the new men. The 
manufacturers are willing to accept arbitration in the matter 
of wages, but reject it at the hands of the Crispin order, 
which they will not recognize, and positively refuse to dismiss 
their new hands ; and so the deadlock continues, but with 
increasing advantage on the part of the manufacturers, who 
have now, it is said, some four hundred non-Crispins at 
work. The last accounts indicate that in London the ma- 
sons, having spent something like thirty thousand pounds in 
a vain struggle, are growing disheartened, and the strike is 
giving way. Meanwhile there is an effort in Massachusetts 
by employers of women, on behalf of their operatives, and in 
direct opposition to all the aims of the trades-unions, to 
induce the State legislature to confer on women the right 
of making contracts for labor, and to repeal the law which 
restricts their hours of work to ten hours a day. 

THE question what shall become of the Castellani Collec- 
tion is still undetermined. The hope of preserving it to this 
country grows less and less, as the impossibility of raising 
the necessary $150,000 appears clearer, but the trustees of 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York have not given 
up their effort to secure its pottery. They think that it may 
still be possible to raise the sixty thousand dollars for which 
the}' hope to buy this part of the collection, although as yel 
only twenty thousand have been pledged. It is not likely 
that we shall sooti again have the opportunity to secure so 
considerable a collection of pottery, or one so valuable ; and 
it would be a decided check to the Museum if this should 
be taken away. United with the Di Cesnola collection, it 
would give at least the beginning and a broad foundation for 
a very ample and representative collection of pottery, one to 
which Americans would bring their additions from time to 
time with pride. Collections, like fortunes, grow rapidly after 
they reach a considerable size, and such an one as this would 
be a shining mark for patriotic contributions. The last 
word, however, received just as we go to press, is that the 
trustees have decided that Signer Castellani's price is too 
high, and that the collection is already packed to go to Paris. 

IT is perhaps not so much to be regretted if the negotia- 
tions for supplying New York with an obelisk have failed, 
considering the experience of the Londoners, who seem 
to find it even more difficult to mako room for theirs than to 
bring it across the seas. The question of its position ap- 
pears as far as ever from a settlement, and the last movement 
of Mr. Dixou has been to ask permission from the Metro- 
politan Board of Works to set it up at the top of the Adelphi 
steps, between Charing Cross and Waterloo bridges. The 
arrival at the London docks of the Cleopatra, as she is 
called, made quite a stir. Conspicuously painted, in red 
above the water-line, and yellow below, and with two red 
houses on deck, she attracted a great crowd as she was towed 
into the docks. Afterwards she was towed up and moored 
above Westminster Bridge, to give the public an opportunity 
of visiting her. 



IN our last article on labor we called attention to the 
tendency of working-men to form themselves into a class, 
and to use their collective force for the advancement of class 
interests over general interests ; to the disturbing and even 
dangerous influence this tendency was likely to have in mod- 
ern societ} r . The most serious aspect of the case, however, 
we passed over for the time, and that is its communistic as- 
pect. This, it seems to us, is so serious that neither poli- 
ticians nor employers of labor are justified in overlooking it ; 
so serious that it may, if it continues to grow as it has dur- 
ing the last ten j-ears, at any time lead either to legislation of 
aTery revolutionary kind, or to violent social disorders. The 
things that give weight to the movements of the working-men, 
and freight them with danger to society, are their coherence, 
and the fact that they almost all whatever the forms in 

FEBETJAEY 23, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


which they show themselves, and wherever they are brought 
forward involve attacks upon the right of possession, upon 
that security of property which is, after the security of life, the 
chief factor in all the progress of civilization, the chief bond 
of social order : in other words, they all mean communism. 
They are attempts either to compel an allowance from pri- 
vate means without giving what is commonly considered an 
equivalent for it, that is, to enforce a rate of wages above 
what the natural working of society fixes : or to extract a 
living from the public treasury, by ordering public works for 
the sake of making work, and fixing an arbitrary standard of 
wages ; or by demanding actual subsidies from government, 
bonuses, government loans, and distribution of public lands ; 
by the abolition of the poll-tax without restriction of suf- 
frage, that is, by claiming the right to spend the public rev- 
enue without contributing to it : or else it is by yet more 
aggressive measures, looking to actual spoliation or tyranny, 
by the dispossession, as proposed by the working-men's 
convention in San Francisco, of land-owners who have ac- 
quired more than they think proper, or by the plunder of 
corporations, or the abolition of contracts. Even the most 
moderate of these things arc to be accomplished, not by the 
ordinary means which work social reforms, by discussion, 
negotiation, and the growth of public opinion, but by force 
majeure, by legislation for class interests, by the banishment 
of those who interfere with them, the expulsion of the 
Chinese, by taking awaj- the right to labor altogether from 
those who do not support these movements ; by striking and 

We are not prepared to believe that the majority of work- 
ing-men accept all these aisas as their own, yet they support 
the trades-unions that pursue them ; nor that the trades- 
unions themselves will give their indorsement to all the 
means by which they arc pursued, yet the means are used in 
their name, by their members, and with no real resistance 
from them. Even the extremes of violence to which the labor 
troubles have from time to time given rise, or the utmost 
pretensions of the agitators whose business it is to incite 
the working class to mischief, have never met with any ade- 
quate disclaimer, much less with any real resistance, from 
those iif whose name they are urged and executed. Men in 
the heat of an eager struggle arc seldom scrupulous with re- 
gard either to means or allies. It was in the name of the 
working-men of San Francisco that attempts were made to 
burn the Chinese quarter ; and it was at the meetings of the 
same men apparently who have just framed their platform de- 
manding the abolition of Chinese labor, and the sequestra- 
tion of the property of land-owners, that Kearney proposed 
to lead his band of hoodlums to the City Hall, hang the gov- 
ernment attorney, burn the laws, and distribute the property 
of the Pacific Railroad. The worst riots that have occurred 
in the country since the draft-riots in New York which were 
themselves, if not instigated, at least inflamed, by class-feel- 
ing were the result of the strike of the most respectable 
trades-union in the United States, the Brotherhood of Lo- 
comotive Engineers. 

It is this recklessness of means, and this readiness to alli- 
ance with the criminal classes, that is the worst and the most 
threatening feature of the labor movement. It is perhaps 
not strange, when it is the doctrine of working-men that legis- 
lation ought to secure them the hours and wages the}- wish, 
and work to do whether it is needed or not, or aid and sup- 
port when work is slack, when they are taught to think them- 
selves entitled to a share in the profits of capital not of their 
own saving, it is not strange that they should grow to 
depend more and more on the state as their savior from the 
trouble of getting a living, and the public as a community 
from which they are warranted in getting as much as they 
can, and for as little as they can give in return ; that the line 
of demarcation between the working-man and the tramp 
should be so easily passed. The loss of the old gradations 
among workmen, the efforts of the trades-unions to level all 
down to one grade which necessarily approximates to the 
lowest, and the consequent facility with which men pass and 
repass between the conditions of workmen and vagrants, 
all these tend to obliterate the wholesome distinction between 
the industrial and the idle classes of society. The aggressive 
propositions to which the political leaders of working-men 
have accustomed them to listen are of a kind to invite the 
support of the worst members of any population ; and these, 

wherever they are at hand, gather round them by a sure 
predatory instinct, ready for any disorders, and delighting in 
opportunity for violence. That neither leaders nor followers 
are likely to stick at any allies, or any means, when it comes 
to a downright struggle, is clear enough to any one who 
reads the lesson of the last few months. 

Nevertheless, before we set apart the working-men and 
their ignoble allies for too exclusive a condemnation on the 
ground of their tendency to communism, it is worth while in 
justice to them to remember some influences which, though 
they certainly do not excuse their measures, do encourage 
the tendency. The actual spirit of communism, veiled under 
various aspects, is a more prevailing thing than we often give 
ourselves time to consider. There are many conspicuous 
persons and even classes who set themselves in the true 
spirit of the trades-unionist to extort their living from the 
world with the least possible return of service to it. It is 
natural that the working-man should take his cue from those 
whose success is visible to him in the things in which he can 
best distinguish it, in wealth and social or political influ- 
ence. The very avocations of the men who are to him the 
nearest examples, the contractors for whom he works, make 
their success turn more on the cleverness with which they take 
advantage of the condition of the markets than on rendering 
a good return in work for their profits. He sees the greater 
part of the world he looks at engaged not so much in sober 
work as in an aleatory scramble, for wealth which, if it is 
secured, comes out of other people. The successful specula- 
tor is to him an example of a man whose success is in turn- 
ing to his advantage the changes in his fellows' affairs, 
rendering absolutely no service to the world, but getting his 
part of its goods by mere cleverness of contrivance, and 
therefore taking what he gets from other men, or from the 
community, without an equivalent. He sees the successful 
politician neglecting the cares of good government to con- 
solidate his party, and secure his living or his spoils. Both 
these are to him types of a kind of success which he can 
admire, and which is a mere tribute exacted from society. 
If he lives in a countiy where there is a hereditary aris- 
tocrac^y, he sees these, to him the most enviable of men, 
living on properties and privileges whose reasonable descent 
he cannot trace, and rendering no return which he can 
estimate ; either living aloof in a luxurious privacy, or taking 
part in the world only to rule, which he, like his betters, 
regards as a privilege and not a service. We need not won- 
der greatly if he learns instinctively from the speculator to 
wring his prosperity from such chances to take advantage of 
his fellows as events put within his reach, or from the poli- 
tician to give his energy to the ascendancy of his party 
rather than to his work, or from the nobleman to think that 
the world owes him support, or from all three to make it his 
ambition to live upon the world and not to work in it. The 
truth is that there is the essence of communism in the belief 
that the world owes anybody a living, or in the purpose to 
wrest a living from it without making any return ; and it is 
the same thing in spirit whether it is held by a tramp or a 
footpad, by a workman or a granger, by a Wall-street specu- 
lator or a Prussian Junker, a ward-room politician or a king. 
With so many shining examples before him, we cannot won- 
der that the workman, who has no one to instruct him that the 
security of property is the foundation on which the fabric of 
civilization is built, should be tempted to rest his prosperity 
on the law of might, and contemn the rights of other people. 

At any rate there are many things to remind us how slight, 
on the whole, the barriers are that defend modern society 
from anarchy. If any cause should unite, not one brother- 
hood or one trades-union, but the working class in the 
United States, in such a movement as brought on the railroad 
riots of last summer, it is hard to say where we should end. 
There is no sign of such a movement, but we cannot say that 
it is impossible. Society exists by the poise of a great many 
nicely balanced forces, constructive and destructive. Though 
it may not be immediately endangered by those we have 
been discussing, it is well to have our eyes open to the ele- 
ments of instability that exist. It is not much, perhaps, 
that architects can do ; but it becomes them, since they con- 
tinually have to do with workmen, to keep some watch on 
them, to understand as well as they can their aims and feel- 
ings, and to be awake to what good influences it may be in 
their own power to favor. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 113. 



THE third paper first set forth the convenience, in making a 
perspective drawing, of putting into perspective the plan of the 
object to be drawn, and of sinking this plan so far below the rep- 
resentation of the object as to get it quite free from the picture. 
Plate III. affords further illustration of the use of the perspec- 
tive plan. The plan of the gate-house on the left is indeed below 
the picture, having in fact been drawn on another piece of paper, 
and removed, as suggested in a previous paragraph (47). But the 
plan of the one in the distance on the right is given, and it serves 
to determine all the principal horizontal dimensions. The plan of 
the principal building, the bam in the valley, is drawn above ife 
instead of below, as is sometimes most convenient, especially in 
high buildings, in the upper parts of which it is of advantage to 
have the perspective plan near at hand. It is often a convenience, 
also, to make several plans, set one above another, taken at differ- 
ent levels. In the plate, for example, we have first the plan of the 
walls, to determine the position of the doors and windows, and 
the apparent depth of the jambs, and then just above it the plan 
of the eaves, showing their projection, and the position of the 
brackets beneath them. As only the front part of the building is 
seen, only the front part of the plan needs to be drawn. In put- 
ting in the eaves, advantage is taken of the "vanishing point of 
45," V,, to make them equally wide on each side. 

In this plate the slope of the roofs and gables of this building, 
as well as of the smaller one with a hipped roof beyond it, is indi- 
cated by the same letters as in the previous plates, and their van- 
ishing points accordingly by V M , V 5 ", etc., as before. The gables 
of the little gate-houses are so steep that their vanishing points 
are quite out of reach; and these gables are, in fact, drawn by the 
method of diagonals, as described in the previous paper (54). The 
slope of the steps is given by V s " and V 5 "', and the trace of the in- 
clined planes of the bank by T L M 1 and T L M 1 '. Their position 
shows that the banks are a little steeper than the roof of the barn. 
The diagonal braces of the fence have nearly the same slope as the 
barn shed, converging to points just below V and just above V s '. 

In this plate the centre, C, is again quite out of the middle of 
the picture. The station-point, S, the proper position of the eye, 
is about six inches in front of C. 

The previous paper then took up the first of the two methods by 
which a line given in perspective may be divided up in any given 
proportion. It was shown that this, though called the Method of 
Diagonals, finally leads to the division of such a line by means 
of a triangle, one side of which is formed by the line to be divided, 
and one side by an auxiliary line, drawn parallel to the plane of 
the picture in any convenient direction and divided in the given 
proportion. The points of division are transferred from this aux- 
iliary line first to the third side of the triangle, by lines parallel to 
the perspective line, and directed to its vanishing point ; and then 
to the perspective line by lines actually parallel to the auxiliary. 

69. Both these steps are obvious and simple applications of the 
proposition that lines drawn parallel to one side of a triangle 
divide the other two sides proportionally. But it does not yet ap- 
pear what is the real direction of this third side of the triangle, 
nor in what plane it really lies; that is to say, the vanishing 
point of this line and the vanishing trace of this plane are not yet 

70. The other method of dividing perspective lines, called, par ex- 
cellence, the Method of Triangles, is a more direct application of the 
same principle. The auxiliary line, as before, is drawn parallel to 
the plane of the picture ; but the points by which it is divided are 
now transferred directly to the perspective line by lines drawn par- 
allel to the third side of the triangle. Plate III. is devoted to the 
illustration of this method. Fig. 7, 1 and 2, shows the difference 
between this method and the preceding. In each of the triangles 
here shown, the base is divided proportionally to the parts set 
off on the left-hand side. But in the upper ones the division is 
effected by the Method of Diagonals, as in Fig. 3, 5 ; in the lower 
ones the same result is reached, more directly and simply, by the 
Method of Triangles. 

71. This application of the principle in question, however, though 
more direct and simple, is in one respect less easy of adaptation to 
lines given in perspective. For the two systems of parallel lines, 
employed in the Method of Diagonals, may be drawn without diffi- 
culty, the first having the same vanishing point as the line to be 
divided, and the second being actually parallel to the auxiliary 
line, since that line is parallel to the picture. But in the Method 
of Triangles the lines by which the points are transferred are par- 
allel to the third side of the triangle, whose vanishing point is not 
known. It is accordingly necessary first to find the vanishing 
point of this line. 

72. This may be done at once, when, as in the plan of the eaves, 
at the top of the plate, the plane in which the auxiliary triangle 
lies is known ; that is to say, when its trace or horizon has been 
already ascertained. The auxiliary line here lies in the horizontal 
plane, and the given line lies in the same plane ; the whole trian- 
gle is accordingly in the horizontal plane, and all its lines have 

their vanishing points in the Horizon, the given line at V L, the 
auxiliary line at an infinite distance, and the third side of the tri- 
angle at V,. -This point is ascertained simply by prolonging this 
side until it reaches the Horizon. If now it is desired to find the 
position of the ten brackets that support the eaves, it is easy to 
lay off on this auxiliary line nine equal divisions, and to complete 
the triangle : by drawing lines parallel to the third side, the dis- 
tances set off on the auxiliary are at once transferred to the per- 
spective line by lines converging to V,. This auxiliary vanishing 
point is called the vanishing point of proportional measures, or 
simply the point of measures. The auxiliary line also is called 
the line of proportional measures, or simply the line of measures. 

73. It makes no difference, of course, at which end of the per- 
spective line, the line of proportional measures is drawn, so that 
it is parallel to the picture. The relative position of the doors, 
windows, etc., in the lower plan, for example, are laid off at any 
convenient scale on lines of measures, drawn from their further 
ends, and the points of division transferred to the lines to be 
divided by means of the points of measures V 2 and V 3 , both of 
which, of course, are also on the Horizon. But it is obviously con- 
ducive to precision to have the line of measures touch the nearer 
end of the line to be divided, since, in general, converging lines 
give more accurate results than do lines of divergence. 

' Neither does the size of the proportional parts laid off upon 
the line of measures affect the result. In Fig. 7, 3, the base of the 
triangle is divided into the same four equal parts, whether the 
parts taken on the adjacent side are large or small. Any con- 
venient scale may be used; and that scale will in general be found 
most convenient which makes the line of measures about as long as 
the perspective line to be divided, and which brings the point of 
measures within easy reach. 

74. In the same way a line lying in a vertical plane may be 
divided by means of a vertical line of measures; the point of meas- 
ures or vanishing point of the third side of the triangle and of 
the lines drawn parallel to it being now in the trace of the verti- 
cal plane. If a line lies at the intersection of two planes, it is a 
mere matter of convenience whether the line of measures is taken 
in one plane or the other, or in which trace the point of measures 
is taken. 

Thus the seven parts into which the length of the barn in Plate 
III. is divided may be taken either on a horizontal or on a vertical 
line ; that is to say, upon a line of measures parallel to the trac;j 
of either plane. Thus in the leftrhand side, the points at tha 
bottom of the wall, which determine the position of the doors and 
windows, may be got cither by means of a horizontal line of 
measures, as shown, with its point of measures on the Horizon, at 
V 4 , or by a vertical line of measures, namely, the corner of the 
barn, on 'which the same proportional parts are laid off at a some- 
what smaller scale, with its point of measures on the trace of the 
plane L Z at V 6 . Here the first triangle lies in the horizontal 
plane, and the second in the vertical plane, the first on the ground 
and the second in the side of the barn, as they seem to. 

75. If a line lies in a plane inclined to the horizontal plane, as 
each inclined line of the gable-ends of the barn lies in the plane 
of its roof, a similar procedure may be followed. A line of meas- 
ures may be taken in that plane, touching the given line at one 
end and parallel to the picture, the point of measures being now 
in the trace of the plane of the roof. 

7G. And as in the horizontal plane a line parallel to the picture 
is horizontal , and in vertical planes vertical, that is to say, in both 
cases parallel to the trace of the plane it lies in, so in the case of 
an inclined plane, a line lying in it parallel to the picture is paral- 
lel to the trace of the system to which the plane belongs. 

77. That this must be so, follows from the general proposition, 
that, if one system of parallel planes intersects another system, 
their lines of intersection are all parallel. 

For a line lying in any plane, and parallel to the plane of the 
picture, may be regarded as the intersection of that plane by a 
plane parallel to the picture. But the trace of the system of 
planes in which the line lies is the line in which a plane parallel 
to that plane and passing through the eye intersects the plane 
of the picture. We have thus two inclined planes parallel to each 
other, intersecting two vertical planes parallel to each other. Their 
intersections are accordingly parallel, and the line in question is 
parallel to the trace of the inclined plane in which it lies ; and 
since it is parallel to the picture, its perspective is parallel to itself, 
and also is parallel to the trace : Q. E. D. 

78. Moreover, if any plane of that system of planes is extended 
so as to cut the plane of the picture, that intersection is also paral- 
lel to the others and to the trace in question. 

79. The perspective of an inclined line can then be divided in 
any required proportion, as easily as that of a horizontal or verti- 
cal one, by drawing through one'end of it a line of measures par- 
allel to the trace of the inclined plane in which it lies, and taking 
the point of measures on that trace. 

Thus in the plate the position of the brackets or purlins on the 
gable of the barn is found by dividing each slope into six parts, 
by means of a line of measures drawn parallel to the trace of the 
roof in question ; and as the sloping lines of the gable lie not only 
in the plane of the roof, but also in a vertical plane R Z, parallel 

FEBRUARY 23, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


to the side of the barn, the position of the six brackets can be 
found either by laying off equal parts, on vertical lines, with points 
of measures on the trace of R Z, at Va and VT ; or by laying off 
equal parts upon lines of measures parallel to the traces of the 
planes of the roofs, that is to say, parallel to T L M for the left- 
hand slope and to T L M' for the other, with points of proportional 
measures at Vs in T L M, and V in T L M', respectively. 

In the former case the triangles lie in the plane of the gable-end ; 
in the latter, each lies in the plane of its own roof. 

80. It follows from the above, that if any object bounded by 
plane surfaces be cut through by a plane parallel to the plane of 
the picture, the line of intersection on each face will be parallel to 
the trace of the plane in which it lies. This is exemplified in the 
plate, where the dotted line, A A, running along the ground and 
over the barn, follows this law. If the front corner of the build- 
ing were sliced off parallel with the picture, this would be the line 
of the cut. The same thing is exemplified on the front corner of 
the other building. 

We shall find use for this by and by, when we come to the per- 
spective of shadows. 

81. Finally, just as in the Method of Diagonals we found at 
last that the auxiliary line, or line of measures, may be taken in 
any direction, at random, so here the same thing is true. For here 
too any line, drawn at random from either end of a perspective 
line, in any direction, may be regarded as the perspective of a line 
of measures beyond it, parallel to the picture and drawn parallel 
to the trace of the plane in which it lies. This trace then will be 
parallel to it ; and since the plane contains the perspective line, its 
trace must pass through the vanishing point of that line ; for the 
trace of a plane passes through the vanishing points of all the lines 
that lie in it (13 c) ; if then through the vanishing point of the line 
we wish to divide, we draw a line parallel to the assumed line 
of measures, we shall have the trace of a plane in which they both 
lie; and upon this trace the third line of the triangle, joining the 
other end of the perspective line with the last point taken on the 
line of proportional measures, will have its vanishing point. This 
point, the point of measures, can be found just as before, by pro- 
longing the third line, the base of the triangle, till it touches it. 

The principle that the line of measures may be drawn at random 
in any direction, the corresponding point of measures being taken 
on a line or trace drawn parallel to it through the vanishing point 
of the line to be divided, is illustrated in the division into five 
equal parts of the hip of the roof of the smaller building in the 
middle distance. Here the line of measures is drawn arbitrarily, 
at about 00, the auxiliary trace being drawn through V, the van- 
ishing point of the hip, and its point of measures, V, determined 
on that trace. 

The triangle here seems to lie in the plane of the roof, but in 
fact it has nothing to do with it. 

82. Moreover, since the only characteristic of this auxiliary 
trace, relatively to the conditions of the problem, is this, that it 
passes through the vanishing point of the line to be divided, it 
follows that any line drawn through the vanishing point of a given 
line may be regarded as the trace of a plane in which the given 
line lies, and will contain the point of measures corresponding to 
a line of measures drawn through either end of the given line 
parallel to it. 

83. This gives us, in other words, this famous proposition : 
Of any two perspective lines having the same vanishing point, 

one may be taken as the trace of a plane passing through the 
other; and if a third line be drawn parallel to the first, and touch- 
ing one end of the second, any parts taken upon this third line 
may be transferred to the second in their true proportions by 
means of a point of measures taken upon the first. 

The position of the vertical bars of the cresting upon the ridge 
of the gate-house on the left is determined in this way, five equal 
parts being laid off upon a line drawn from the further end of the 
ridge parallel to the eaves of the roof, as a line of measures, and 
the point of measures, Vu, taken on the eaves. 

The way in which the position of the vertical bars of the gate 
below is determined also illustrates this proposition. A line touch- 
ing the top of the gate is drawn parallel to the ridge-pole, which 
has the same vanishing point, Vi. Equidistant points are taken 
on this line, and transferred to the top of the gate by a point of 
measures, V, taken on the ridge-pole. This reduces the labor 
of dividing up a given perspective line in any required proportion, 
to almost nothing. 

84. Here, as in the corresponding case in the previous paper, care 
is to be taken not to fancy that the line of measures, and the tri- 
angle determined by it, really lie in the plane they seem to lie in. 

Li this last case the triangle lies in an, imaginary inclined plane, 
and is no more vertical, as it seems to be, than the point of meas- 
ures is on the ridge, as it seems to be : it is really in the infinitely 
distant trace which the ridge covers and coincides with. 

Plate III. also furnishes illustrations of two points of general 

The first of these is the use of the point Vx. the vanishing point 
of horizontal lines making an angle of 45 with the principal direc- 
tions, It and L, to determine V, when V" is given, the lines that 

slope up to the left being supposed to make the same angle with 
the ground as those that slope up to the right. If these inclina- 
tions are equal, the inclination of the planes R N and L M will 
be equal, as in the case of these roofs ; their lines of intersection, 
P, will lie in vertical planes making 45 with the principal verti- 
cal planes; their trace will be a vertical line passing through Vx, 
as shown in the previous paper (42) ; and V will be at the inter- 
section of this trace with T L M. If now T R N be drawn through 
V B and V, V will be found at its intersection with T L Z, and 
V N ' will be at an equal distance below. 

The point V 1 , which determines the direction of the line P 1 , at 
the intersection of the two banks in the further corner of the barn- 
yard, is found in like manner. 

The second point is illustrated by Fig. 8, which shows how the 
true direction of the lines Q or Q', whose vanishing points are at 
the distant intersection of the nearly parallel traces T R N and 
T L M', or of T R N' and T L M, may be obtained by means of the 
common device for directing a third line to the intersection of two 
given lines, as shown in Fig. 9. 

This is applied in the plate, Fig. 10, to find the true direction of 
the ^left-hand line of the hipped roof, just below the point C. 

The next paper will treat of the exact determination of the 
directions and magnitudes of perspective lines. 


SOME months ago the Health Department of New York City 
issued a pamphlet entitled "Defective Drainage of Dwelling- 
Houses." It was prepared by Drs. Russell and Post, Sanitary In- 
spectors, and Mr. Nealis, Sanitary Engineer of the Department. 
The pamphlet was widely circulated with the official indorsement 
of the Department. 

It may be said at the outset, that a literal adoption of the direc- 
tions set forth would lead to a decided improvement in the interior 
drainage of very nearly every city house in America. At the 
same time it would leave the house with grave defects ; and it is 
to be regretted that the committee did not qualify themselves for 
their task by a fuller study of the subject, and that they did not 
make their diagram conform more exactly to their written instruc- 

The diagram shows a four-story house, with a cellar where no 
water is drawn, a ground floor with water-closet and laundry trays, 
a main floor with no 
water, and a third 
and fourth floor each 
with bath, wash-ba- 
sin, and water-closet. 
The main drain is 
buried under the cel- 
lar bottom, and runs 
from front to rear of 
the house. Near the 
front, but inside of 
the foundation wall, 
a running trap is 
indicated, with a 
handhole at the top. 
Farther back, there 
rises a main soil- 
pipe which passes 
through the roof, and . 
is capped with a 
semicircular bend. 
The laundry trays 
on the ground floor 
stand near to the 
soil-pipe, but do not discharge into it. The appliances on the third 
and fourth floors stand near to the soil-pipe, and discharge into it 
through the outlets of the water-closets, which adjoin it. The 
laundry trays discharge by a long horizontal waste-pipe into the 
outlet of the water-closet which adjoins the rear wall. Below the 
point of junction, there is a trap from which a soil-pipe descends 
to the underground drain, quite near to the rear wall. This soil- 
pipe is neither ventilated nor vented. The underground drain 
passes beyond the rear foundation wall, and becomes the outlet of 
the rain-water spout from the rear gutter. We are justified iu 
holding the authors to their diagram, because they say that "it 
exhibits all that is essential, and illustrates the vital principles 
of efficient house drainage." Our comments upon it are these : 

1. In place of the underground drain, we should recommend an 
iron soil-pipe, starting just under the ground floor near the rear 
wall, and running out just above the cellar bottom through the 
front wall. The running trap in this drain, we should place out- 
side of the foundation wall in a covered well. We should make 
this trap a very deep one. 

2. For rear ventilation, we should continue the soil-pipe, full 
bore, through and above the gutter, independently of the rain- 
spout, capping it with an Emerson ventilator. 

3. We should admit fresh air to the soil-pipe inside of the run- 
ning trap, by one of several devices adapted to that end. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 113. 

4. The main soil-pipe (rising through the house) should not 
be turned over at the top, but should be capped with an Emerson 

5. If the -water-closet on the lower floor must discharge into the 
underground drain, as shown, we should ventilate the top of its 
trap. Arranging the drain as indicated in paragraph 1, the direct 
ventilation would be sufficient. 

6. The laundry trays should discharge with a trapped outlet 
into the soil-pipe which they adjoin. 

7. The traps of the water-closets should be connected by an air- 
pipe with the upper part of the soil-pipe, above the highest con- 
nection of a waste-pipe, to prevent siphoning. 

8. The bath-tubs and wash-basins on the third and fourth floors 
had better discharge directly into the soil-pipe, having traps close 
to each of their outlets. If to discharge through the water-closet 
trap, the pipes should lead into the dip of the trap, not into the 
air-space above the water-seal. If the trap at the basin and tub 
has a dip greater than the immersion of the outlet into the closet 
water-seal, it is this latter which will give way under the forcing 
effect of the flow. 

9. Under no circumstances should such long horizontal waste- 
pipes as are shown leading from the bath-tubs and the laundry 
trays be permitted if they can be avoided; and in the case in 
hand they might be avoided. 

10. In our opinion, for a private house, a six-inch soil-pipe and 
drain is needlessly and indeed injuriously large; the small flow 
of water constituting the waste of a single family will have its 
flushing power sufficiently taxed in keeping even a four-inch pipe 
passably clean. So far as the removal of obstructions is concerned, 
three-inch would be better than four-inch, but for free ventilation 
a four-inch pipe has decided advantages. 

Turning to the text of the pamphlet, the following points seem 
to us erroneous. The traps indicated, it is said, will " retain suffi- 
cient waste water to seal them against the passage of gases." No 
water-trap will prevent the passage of gases, and in those shown 
there would be danger of siphoning. 

We are told that gases permeate the water of the trap " when it 
has stood for a long time : " it has been known to pass entirely 
through an ordinary trap in fifteen minutes. It is recommended 
to curve over the soil-pipe above the top of the house : all curves 
offer resistance to the flow of air, and the course recommended is 
equivalent, so far as ventilation is concerned, to a reduction of the 
diameter of the pipe. It is recommended to ventilate " by a rear 
roof leader emptying into the sewer-pipes : " as Mr. Philbrick has 
shown, and as all sanitary engineers have known for years, this is 
a most dangerous and mischievous expedient. It is directed to 
drain yards and areas " by pipes emptying into the house sewer: " 
the manner of doing this should have been clearly indicated, for 
it is by no means easy to do it safely. 

" A persistently wet cellar should be provided with a separate, 
blind drain emptying into the trap of the house sewer.'' 1 This is as- 
tounding! Better a " persistently wet cellar" (with ample venti- 
lation) than even the possibility of the set-back of foul sewage 
which a drain arranged in this way is almost certain to expose us 
to. Such a drain should deliver, at whatever cost, into the street- 
sewer, or into porous ground. If into the sewer, there should be a 
decided fall to prevent the possibility of a set-back, a deep trap to 
prevent the return of currents of sewer-air, and an air-pipe back 
of the trap to insure the escape of air that may pass, in the event 
of possible unsealing, or by transmission through the water. 

The pamphlet closes with a recommendation of the universally 
condemned bell-trap to protect the outlet of a privy-vault, which 
privy-vault we should ourselves hardly undertake to recommend. 

It is not to be questioned that the effort of the authors was 
laudable and praiseworthy, and we repeat that nearly every city 
house would be benefited as to its drainage by a literal following 
of their advice. It seems necessary to say, however, that instruc- 
tions for sanitary drainage emanating from the health department 
of a great city should have been made to accord more nearly with 
well-known fundamental principles which are of record, and which 
are within easy reach. 



MR. MATTHEWS'S house is at Harrison, Westchester Co. It is 
built of the stone of the country, with red and yellow stone finish. 
It occupies a commanding situation, and can be seen for a long dis- 
tance. The interior of the building is carried out in a manner to 
correspond with the exterior, and is finished in hard wood. 


The drawings require little explanation further than to say that 
the rink runs through from Franklin to Pearl Streets, and that 
Pearl Street is seven feet higher than Franklin. This difference 
has been divided, making a flight of steps up from Franklin and 
down from Pearl. The total length of building is two hundred 
and thirty feet, the width within walls ninety feet. The passage 

through the centre is twenty-five feet wide, and the galleries above 
are set back as shown in order to gain light. The main construc- 
tion is the system of laminated wood ribs originally built to cover 
the whole space: upon these is built the open timber work and 
skylight; immediately below these ribs is a decorated sheet-iron 
cove; the balconies and bridges are of cast and wrought iron. 
The offices on the second and third floors are mere sashes and wood 
finish, while the shop-fronts on first floor are of brick, stone, iron, 
and plate-glass. The passage is paved in tile, and all interior 
brickwork will be Toronto brick with red bands, red joints, and 
white limestone finish.- The exterior is sufficiently shown by the 
elevation, the voussoirs being composed alternately of lime and 
Medina stone, and on the exterior the cornice above is of brick 
and stone, the spandrels being filled with encaustic tile. The win- 
dow over the entrance arches at each end will be tinted lead lights. 


This house was built in St. Paul last spring. It is of wood 
painted and sanded. Its greatest length is 54' 8", the greatest 
breadth is 34' 10". The basement is used principally for a laun- 
dry and work-room. The attic is used partly for a billiard-room. 
The contract for this house was taken at $5,500, exclusive of 
heating apparatus. 


" The Hulk," so called from its fancied resemblance to an old 
stranded ship, with its ropes for lifting the gangway stairs, its 
davits for raising the doors of the carriage-house, and the employ- 
ment of whale ribs and vertebrae for braces, railings, and orna- 
mental features, was built by adding an old barn and carpenter's 
shop together at Mr. Hunt's suggestion, and affords accommodation 
for horses, carriages, sleeping-quarters, and a large painting-room. 


See the " Paper on Perspective " in this number. 


[Hold at Boston Oct. 17, 18, and 19, 1877.] 

SECOND DAY'S SESSION, OCT. 19 (continued). 

THE report of the Finance Committee was submitted by Mr. 

The report of the Finance Committee was accepted, and Mr. 
Longfellow offered a resolution prepared by the Committee, ap- 
pointing a Committee of Ways and Means, which should take 
especial consideration of the best means to increase the member- 
ship of the Institute, and of its financial condition, and levying 
instead of the regular annual assessment a special tax for 1878 of 
fifteen dollars on every Fellow not member of a Chapter, and 
half that sum on every other Fellow, and on every Associate not 
member of a Chapter, and remitting the direct dues of Associates 
belonging to Chapters; directing, also, the said Committee to pre- 
sent to the Convention an estimate for the expenses of the year, 
and to levy upon the Chapters a tax, in ratio of membership, suffi- 
cient to make up the portion of such estimate not provided for by 
the special tax on members. 

Mu. HAIOHT objected that the resolution took from the Trustees 
certain functions which they were required by the By-Laws to 
exercise, and vested them in the new committee proposed. 

He raised a point of order that the change proposed involved a 
change in the By-Laws, which could not be made except after 
twenty days' notice. 

MR. LONGFELLOW said that the Committee had thought that it 
might be desirable to have an expression of opinion from the Con- 
vention on the point of order raised by Mr. Haight. He thought 
the by-law relating to the subject could be temporarily suspended 
by a vote of the Convention, in conformity with the general usages 
of similar bodies. 

In regard to Mr. Haight's remark that the proposed committee 
would take away some of the duties of the Trustees, he thought 
that new duties were rather created, which might indeed be given 
to the Trustees instead of the new committee, if the Convention 
so desired; the point of the proposition was in the duties to be 
performed, not in the persons who should perform them. 

In regard to the financial measures advocated, he wished the 
opinion of the Treasurer. 

MR. HATFIELD said that f r the first time in the fifteen years in 
which he had been Treasurer, there was this year a deficit, due, 
undoubtedly, to the action of the Convention last year in reducing 
the income of the Institute by about twenty-five per cent. The 
hope that the reduction of the dues would attract new members 
had proved fallacious. 

The measures proposed by the Committee on Finance struck 
him in some respects favorably, while in other respects he feared 
there might be difficulty in raising the money as proposed in the 
resolutions. As far as the prerogatives of the Trustees were con- 


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FEBRUARY 23, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


cernnd, he thought it very proper that a Committee of Ways and 
Means should be appointed out of the Convention, the legislative 
body, whose recommendations should be carried into effect by the 
Trustees, as the executive department, in the manner proposed; 
and he thought such a committee might be of great assistance to 
the Trustees. 

He thought the proposition to consider the resolution under a 
suspension of the by-law requiring notice to be given of any 
change, might, if carried into effect, render difficult the collection 
of the Institute dues from some members who were not attached 
to any Chapter, and whose payments were to be increased by the 

They might complain that they were not represented at the 
Convention, not belonging to any Chapter, and that they had a 
right to the prescribed notice of any change in the By-Laws affect- 
ing them. 

MR. WIGHT remarked that the action of the previous year, in 
reducing the dues from members twenty-five per cent, was a com- 
promise between the views of certain Boston and Chicago mem- 
bers, who urged a reduction of fifty per cent, with the object of 
increasing the membership, and those of the Treasurer and other 
gentlemen, who opposed any reduction; and was satisfactory to 
neither. It was a hasty, and he thought, unwise action. He 
thought the proposition of the Finance Committee a wise one, and 
a nearer approximation to what some of the members wished to 
have done last year. 

Mu. HATFIELD read some statistics showing that within the past 
three years there had been a considerable falling off of member- 

MR. WARE proposed two amendments, that the part of the 
Committee's resolution relating to changing the dues of Fellows 
not members of Chapters should be stricken out; also, that a 
clause should be added, that the suspension of the By-Laws should 
not take effect till it had the unanimous consent of all the Chap- 
ters. The committee accepted both Mr. Ware's amendments. 

MR. HATFIELD proposed to amend the Committee's resolution, so 
as to make the assessment on all Fellows who are members of 
Chapters ten dollars. Adopted. 

Mu. HAIGIIT spoke against the resolution, as substituting an in- 
definite for a definite provision of money to meet the expenses. 

MR. LONGFELLOW explained that the Committee's proposition 
provided just as definite a revenue as the old method, taxing the 
Chapters in some cases and members in others, but all in a fixed 
sum, instead of taxing each member a fixed amount. He thought 
the Chapters were as likely to meet their obligations as individu- 
als, and the revenue was therefore as certain in one case as the 

MR. WARE suggested, in answer to those who feared that the 
scheme of the Committee might be defeated in the Chapters, and 
therefore the Institute be left with a deficit, that the Treasurer 
should by vote of the Convention be authorized to levy pro rata 
upon the Chapters a sufficient amount to make up any deficit 
which should become apparent during the year. In this way, if 
the Committee's scheme were defeated, the deficit would be pro- 
vided for, and if not, there would be no deficit. 

MR. MCARTIIUR asked if the amount to be levied on the Chap- 
ters was indefinite, so that the Trustees might expend at their 
discretion, and the Chapters would be assessed for the amount. 

MR. HATFIELD and MR. STONE remarked that the Committee 
proposed was to report before the adjournment of the Convention the 
estimates for the year, and also to determine the deficit, and report 
the same to the Trustees, and levy the assessment on the Chapters. 

The resolution of the Committee as amended was then adopted 
as follows, by a vote of 13 to 2. 

Resolved, That a special Committee of Ways and Means for the com- 
ing year be appointed by the Chair, said committee to consist of three 
(3) members, one of whom shall be a member of the Board of Trustees, 
whoso duty it shall be to take special consideration of the best means 
to increase the membership of the Institute, and of its financial condi- 
tion. The Committee shall present to this and the next Convention 
estimates of the probable expenses of the ensuing years, according to 
which the amount of money to be raised for thoso years shall be deter- 
mined. The action of the By-Laws which regulate assessments shall 
be suspended. That for the year 1878 the Institute shall levy upon 
every Fellow not a member of a Chapter, an assessment of fifteen dol- 
lars ; and upon every Associate not a member of a Chapter, an assess- 
ment of seven and a half dollars ; and upon every Fellow member of a 
Chapter, an assessment of ten dollars. These assessments shall be col- 
lected by the Treasurer of the Institute in the usual way ; and no other 
assessments shall bo levied by the Institute on individual members. 
The remainder of the sum required by the estimate of the Committee 
of Ways and Means shall be levied by a tax upon the several Chapters 
in proportion to their number of members, both Follows and Asso- 
ciates, said tax to bo adjusted by the Committee, and submitted to the 
vote of the Convention ; provided that this resolution shall bo submitted 
to the votes of the Chapters, and tmlcss it is accepted by thorn, the 
method of levying the revenue herein set forth shall not be adopted. 

MR. HATFIELD remarked that the resolution as adopted did not 
embody the last suggestion of Mr. Ware. 

MR. WARE moved that the Finance Committee, in case the scheme 
should not be,: accepted by the Chapters, be authorized to levy a 
tax pro rata upon the Chapters to make up the deficit. This was 
adopted, and the Convention adjourned till evening. 


The Convention met at eight o'clock, President Walter in the 

The President appointed the following gentlemeni a Committee 
on Ways and Means : Messrs. Longfellow, Stone, and Richardson. 

Papers on Religious Architecture were then read, by Mr. Cady, 
Mr. Peabody, Mr. Cummings, and Mr. Haight. Mr. Ware also 
read a paper sent by the Rev. J. II. Hopkins. 

Discussion of the papers was deferred, to give place to the re- 
port of the Nominating Committee presented by Mr. Me Arthur. 

The Convention proceeded to a ballot, with the following re- 
sult : 

President, Thomas II. Walter, of Philadelphia. 

MR. WALTER accepted in a few words, and on motion of Mr. 
McArthur the thanks of the American Institute of Architects 
were presented to the retiring Secretary, Mr. A. J. Bloor, as fol- 
lows : 

Resolved, That the thanks of the American Institute of Architects be 
presented to the retiring Secretary, A. J. Bloor, for the indefatigable and 
faithful performance of the duties of the office for a period of four 

Resolved, That these resolutions be suitably engrossed, and communi- 
cated to Mr. Bloor. 


MR. LONGFELLOW declined the office of Secretary for Foreign Cor- 
respondence, on the ground of other pressing duties; and the Nom- 
inating Committee were requested to present a substitute. 

MR. STONK suggested that it was desirable that the Associates 
should avail themselves of their right to become Fellows ; then 
there would be no difficulty in filling the offices. 

A resolution was offered by Mr. McArthur, and adopted, that 
the Secretary should if possible notify the members of the I5oard 
of Trustees at least one month in advance of a meeting, of the 
subject which is to come up for discussion at the meeting. 

MR. BLOOR offered the following resolution, touching a recom- 
mendation of the report of the Board of Trustees : 

Whereas, It is of the first importance to the advancement of good 
architecture in America, that tho public administration of the building 
service of the country should bo infused with the scientific and artistic 
elements which belong to the profession of architecture, and not left to 
the merely mechanical tendencies which at present prevail iu it; and 

Whereas, A Committee on Examinations such as exists in connection 
with the New York Chapter, and which has official relations with the 
local building authorities, i.-i obviously the most practical vehicle for 
reaching and influencing tho governmental authorities: therefore 

Resolved, That the Chapters of the Institute bo recommended to 
organize Committees of Examination to act with their local building 
authorities, and spare no efforts to get the building service throughout 
the country into the well-organized condition, not only as regards' utili- 
ty and safety, but as regards beauty and architectural harmony, which 
prevails in the principal cities of Europe with results so satisfactory 
alike to the resident and the traveller. 

The resolution was referred to the Board of Trustees. 

MR. WARE, on behalf of the Committee of Arrangements, called 
the attention of the Convention to the remark in the President's 
address, that " the interest of architects demands, and the interest 
of society demands still more, that a proper diploma, after proper 
examination, should be given to architects before they are allowed 
to practise; " and offered a resolution that " in the opinion of this 
Convention it is important to adopt some means by which persons 
who have never pursued any systematic course of architectural 
study, and are wholly unfit to take upon themselves the responsi- 
bilities of the profession, may be distinguished from architects 
who have been properly trained, educated, and prepared for the 
practice of their art." Mr. Ware proceeded to say that sugges- 
tions of this sort had been made repeatedly both in this country 
and in England, but hitherto, partly from the reluctance of the 
profession to take the first steps, and .partly perhaps from a sen- 
timent in the community unfavorable to any form of privilege or 
exclusiveness, nothing had been done in either country. A change 
had manifestly begun in public feeling on this point, however, one 
indication of which might be seen in the frequent appeals in the 
newspapers for some means of protecting the community against 
incompetent practitioners ; and it seemed as if a proper time had 
arrived, if not for doing, at least for considering what might be 
done in this regard. 

MB. LONGFELLOW thought a resolution of the kind proposed was 
in itself inoperative. If a movement could really be made in the 
direction suggested, it would be very desirable that the Convention 
should express its mind as to any means for carrying out the 
movement; but it was a difficult question, and one which should 
not be taken up unless there were symptoms of a distinct outside 
impression that some action was necessary. Within two days the 
Boston papers had made a sort of appeal to the Convention to take 
the matter in hand, and he thought discussion very desirable. He 
proposed that the matter be referred to the Committee on Profes- 
sional Practice, with instructions to report at the next Convention, 
or at this if they found it practicable. 

MR. WARE suggested that the passage of the resolution would 
throw on the Committee on Professional Practice a great deal of 
labor, and would require them to take the responsibility of solving 
a very difficult question which had hitherto baffled the skill of the 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 113 

profession both here and in England. Ho hoped therefore that 
before the resolution passed, they might have the views of the 
gentlemen present, and especially of the President, whose sug- 
gestion it was. 

THE PRESIDENT thought it impossible to treat such a question by 
discussion in convention, or even in the occasional meetings of a 
committee. He thought it should be referred to the Committee on 
Education, rather than to that on Professional Practice, and offered 
an amendment to that effect. The resolution was adopted with 
this amendment. 

The Auditing Committee announced that they had found the 
Treasurer's report correct, and the report was accepted. 

THE TREASURER remarked that the new scheme of finance did not 
take effect till the next year. The deficit shown on the report was 
for the six months only since the last system had been in opera- 
tion ; and as this system had six months yet to run, the deficit at 
the end of the year would be double that shown. 

The Convention then adjourned. 


President Walter in the chair. 

THE PRESIDENT thought that instead of publishing the proceed- 
ings of the Convention in pamphlet form, it might be as well to 
print the report in the American Architect and Building News. 

It appeared that this journal had a larger circulation than the 
pamphlet reports had had, and it was voted that it be henceforth 
the medium for publishing the proceedings of the Conventions. 

The report of the Boston Chapter was passed over by vote, and 
that of the Rhode Island Chapter taken up for consideration, and 
the subject matter finally referred to the Board of Trustees. 

A desire having been expressed that the report of the Rhode 
Island Chapter should be published, the matter was referred to 
the Committee on Publications. 

MR. li. S. PEABODY read a paper prepared by MR. McKiM of 
New York, on " Colonial Architecture." 

MR. LOIUNG of Chicago read extracts from a paper on Terra- 
Cotta, showing what had been done in that material in the last 
four years. 

It was voted that Mr. Loring be empowered to publish portions 
of a recent paper on.Terra-Cotta by Mr. Sturgis, to which his own 
paper was in part an answer, with his comments thereon, in con- 
nection with the records of the Convention. 

The Committee on Ways and Means then reported the following 
estimates for the expenses of the Institute for the year : 

Secretary's expenses . 
Treasurer's " 
Expenses of the Convention 
Committee on Publications . 
Reporting Proceedings . 
Editing Report 
Incidental expenses 


The report was accepted. 

The Committee on Nominations reported that Mr. Longfellow, 
who had been chosen Secretary for Foreign Correspondence, and 
had declined, had withdrawn his declination, and would discharge 
the duties of that office. 

Mn. WAIIK called attention to the provision in the By-Laws by 
which a member elect is required to send to the Board of Trustees 
drawings and specifications of some of his work, saying that some 
good architects were unwilling to submit to this provision, and he 
would move that the trustees be instructed to waive it, where, in 
their judgment, it should be desirable to do so. 

MR. STONE thought this would be unwise. The Board of Trus- 
tees might appoint one of their number to receive such drawings, 
etc., which might be less objectionable to the candidate than having 
them submitted to the full board, but he thought the provision 
should not be abandoned. 

MR. WARE accepted this amendment. 

A suggestion was made that the Presidents of the Chapters might 
be authorized to examine plans submitted by candidates. One of 
the Trustees remarked that they had found a general reluctance 
on the part of elected members to comply with this regulation of 
late years. No definite plan was agreed upon, and the subject 
was dropped. 

On motion of MR. WARE, the Board of Trustees was requested 
to consider and report to the next Convention on the advisability 
of a change in the constitution by which practising members of 
the Chapters should be ipso facto members of the Institute, without 
another election by the Board of Trustees, the election by the 
Trustees being then required only in the case of candidates not 
members of any chapter : 

The following resolution was proposed and adopted. 

Resolved, That the Board of Trustees be requested to confer with the 

S roper authorities of the United States Government with a view to in- 
ucmg Congress to authorize the Treasury Department or War De- 
partment to make practical tests of all so-called fire-proof materials and 
methods of construction, and make reports thereon. 

MR. WARE announced that the Boston Society of Civil Engineers 
had placed in his hands a communication relative to the metric 
system. Referred to the Board of Trustees. It was voted to rec- 

ommend to the Board of Trustees to arrange for the next meeting 
of the Convention at Washington, D.C. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the Government of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, for its kindness in placing a 
room at the disposal of the Convention, and other courtesies ; to 
the Trustees of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, for the invita- 
tion to visit their building ; to the committee in charge of the Old 
South Church, for an invitation to inspect the Loan Collection ; and 
to the Boston Chapter, for its entertainment and civilities. 

MR. WARE invited the members to inspect the new mechanical 
workshops connected with the Institute of Technology, and see for 
themselves what the Institute was doing for professional technical 

The President of the Boston Chapter, MR. E. C. CABOT, then 
delivered the following address, after which the Convention ad- 
journed sine die. 


I am glad of this opportunity of saying a few words to you, 
and of expressing the feelings of cordial fellowship which the 
members of this Chapter feel towards their professional brothers 
from other cities. We hope we may have succeeded in making 
your stay agreeable. We all feel glad to receive you in Boston, to 
show you what we are doing, and to ask your advice and sympathy. 

In your walks about the city, you have had an opportunity of 
examining some of the most important works which have engaged 
us. Less than twenty years ago all this district of the city, where 
we DOW are, was water or mud flats: so that all the buildings are 
of recent date. A great calamity which at the time seemed irrep- 
arable swept away most of the business portion of our city; yet 
to-day one can hardly point to any trace of that terrible experi- 
ence ; and the district which it laid waste is now covered with 
finer, and, I hope, more durable structures. An examination of 
these sections of the city will show pretty well the present condi- 
tion of architectural taste and ability amongst us, and will, I trust, 
be found creditable. 

Some of us who can look back nearly half a century remember 
on this same burnt district pleasant old-fashioned streets, full of 
trees shading sumptuous mansions surrounded by broad gardens, 
and miss the air of quiet gentility which old Boston presented 
before the business prosperity of the city required the destruction 
of these comfortable homes. Now when that old colonial archi- 
tecture is receiving so much attention, we look in vain for those 
refined examples of wood and iron work which we so well remem- 
ber in those old houses. 

Then followed a period when the master-builder had lost his 
respect for precedent ; and, having things his own way, replaced 
this interesting work by blocks of granite stores in long dismal 
rows which seemed almost as if turned out by machinery. Their 
only merit, that of apparent substantialness, proved but a poor 

Thirty years ago, when I commenced practice in this city, there 
were but half a dozen architects, and several of these had been bred 
as engineers. There was but little sympathy between them ; their 
designs were carefully guarded from each other, and their libraries 
kept locked. We had few books of reference, and photographs 
were almost unknown. Twenty years later, a few members of the 
profession, which had in the mean time rapidly increased in num- 
bers, proposed to form a society of architects, and called a meeting 
of all persons who were practising in the city. About fifty assem- 
bled. Some articles of association were drawn up; a portion of 
those present signed them, and formed the Boston Society of 
Architects. This society, now a Chapter of the Institute, has held 
regular meetings since that time; at first fortnightly, and after- 
wards once a month. The meetings were at first well attended, 
and much interest was shown in the discussions. Then followed 
a period when but few came ; but the effort of those few was 
earnest for the best interests of the profession ; and, as young men 
joined our ranks, the meetings have increased in interest, and it 
is not unusual to have twenty members present. 

A topic for discussion is always announced previous to the 
meeting; sometimes a subject of practical or sosthetical interest, 
and sometimes a building. The discussions are made as informal 
as possible, architectural conversations, as it were. 

Of late the Chapter offers annual prizes for the best work in 
the architectural school of the Institute of Technology, and also to 
encourage excellence of workmanship among the mechanics of the 

The result of all this has been to promote amongst us the most 
friendly professional relations. As artists, we cannot live without 
sympathy; and through the earnest love of our work and this 
cordial intercourse we must look for the elevation of our profes- 
sional practice. 

GALVANIZED IBON. It is stated that one firm in Pittsburg pro- 
duces a large part of the galvanized iron used in the manufacture of 
cornices, window-tops, sills, etc., in this country. The sheets of iron 
are rolled, and after being dipped in acid to remove all scales and 
make them smooth, are dipped in the zinc or spelter, and drawn out of 
the pans or vats, first-class galvanized iron. Sheet-iron coal-buckets 
are first manufactured, and then zincked by the dipping process, and 
in this way are made water-tight. 

FEBRUARY 23, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 



[The report of Mr. John F. Weir in behalf of the judges of Group 
nbracing Plastic and Graphic Art.] 



GERMANY'S exhibit, as a whole, in painting was one of but aver- 
age merit, and we looked in vain for the works of some of her 
more distinguished artists. It was, however, so far characteristic 
as to enable us to form a just conception of the leading tendencies 
of this school. 

German art is divided into two distinct schools, those of 
North and of South Germany, and there are few points of re- 
semblance between them. The art of Northern Germany is in- 
spired by the influence of the Diisseldorf school ; that of South 
Germany by the school of Munich. The former is almost exclu- 
sively devoted to f/enre : the latter has been devoted to history- 
painting; and their styles are quite as distinct as those of two 
separate nations. The Munich school rose into prominence 
through Overbeck, Cornelius, Schnorr, and Kaulbach ; while the 
Diisseldorf school achieved its high reputation through Schadow, 
Lessing, Bendemann, Camphausen, Hildebrandt, Richter, lliibner, 
Becker, Knaus, the Achenbachs, and others, who have made recent 
German art favorably and widely. known. The Munich school has 
of late in a measure forsaken its strict adherence to history, and as 
a, school of art-discipline it is a formidable rival of the famous 
Ecole lies Beaux- Arts in Paris, in some respects perhaps surpassing 
the latter. With the character of Diisseldorf art we were made 
familiar in this country some twenty years since through the 
"Diisseldorf Gallery !> in New York, which for some time formed 
a great attraction, and was a very adequate exponent of the merits 
of this school. German art is always pure in sentiment, generally, 
of late, domestic in character, and actuated by the influence of 
subject rather than treatment. In technical qualities it is usually 
monotonous in color and precise in execution, not imaginative in 
any suggestive or subtile way, but carefully wrought out in story. 
These may fairly be said to be its more prevalent characteristics ; 
but there are not lacking superior qualities in the productions of 
German artists of the first rank that are unsurpassed in any 
school : this is particularly true of the works of Ludwig Knaus. 

In historical painting the German school is often formal and 
conventional, intellectual rather than emotional, cold and dry in 
execution ; but in domestic subjects the prevailing sentiment is 
always cheerful, healthful, and pure. In landscape, with the ex- 
ception of a few distinguished painters, the most notable being 
Andreas and Oswald Achenbach, the rendition is decidedly for- 
mal and mannered. Portraiture in landscape is more generally 
the aim, and there is little attempt to draw from the inspirations 
of nature the simple elements of form and expression which in 
the French school have made this branch attain the highest level 
of art. 

In the German exhibit the most attractive landscapes were 
"Storm at Vlissengen," by Andreas Achenbach; "Harvest in Hol- 
land," by J. von Starkenborg; "In the Park," by F. Hiddemann; 
and "Environs of Munich," by II. Von Poschinger. Mr. Achen- 
bach's picture was not one of his best, but it gave a good idea of 
the admirable quality of his art. " The Venetian Nobleman," by 
C. Becker, was likewise not adequately representative of this 
artist's best qualities. There are much finer examples of his work 
in some of our own private collections. 

In portrait-painting the most notable works were G. Richter's 
portrait of the Hon. George Bancroft; the Crown Prince of Ger- 
many, by C. Steffeck ; and "A Lady with a Rose," by G. Graf. 
There were no pictures of superior and conspicuous excellence in 
this collection, so that it is difficult to select any for special men- 
tion. The collection, as a whole, was one of about equal or aver- 
age merit ; and, while representative of the general characteristics 
of German art, it hardly did justice to individual artists of this 

In sculpture the German exhibit was not important, a bust, in 
marble, of Count von Moltke, by L. Brunnow, and a colossal 
bronze statue of Prince Bismarck, by H. Manger, being the most 


The exhibit of Austria in painting was a very creditable one, 
though the distinctive excellence of the collection was due to the 
conspicuous merit of a few works 'of unusual power, notably 
Hans Makart's immense canvas representing " Venice rendering 
Homage to Catherine Cornaro," which, in richness and splendor of 
color, in largeness of composition, and in facile freedom of execu- 
tion, is well worthy of high praise. This picture attracted a great 
deal of attention at the Vienna International Exhibition, and has 
been greatly commended by the press* It is of a style of art that 
is essentially decorative, but in that large sense in which many 
works of the Venetian school are so classed. The motive, or 
theme, is one which seeks expression through the medium of color 
rather than in form or the other elements of pictorial art ; and in 
this particular it is one of the most successful attempts of recent 
art. The drawing does not exhibit that knowledge of the human 
form which is a first requisite of the leading schools, but as a 

triumphant display of the charm and power of color united with 
a large style of composition it is in many respects masterly. It is 
also a successful manifestation of independence in art, guided by 
a true artistic instinct; and this is to be commended when suc- 
cessful, as it is in this case, in view of that tendency to exalt 
accuracy of detail at the expense of expression. A portrait study, 
by Charles Probst, has exceptional merit. The expression and 
attitude are very natural, and the technical treatment skilful. It 
was one of the best portraits of the Exhibition. Two portraits 
by Henry von Angeli are characteristic, though not representative 
of this artist at his best. It would have added greatly to the 
interest of the Austrian exhibit had Von Angeli contributed some- 
thing in genre, as, for instance, such a work as " The Avenger of 
his Honor," which is widely known. " The Page," by J. Canon, 
is particularly pleasing ; the coloring is rich and harmonious, re- 
minding us somewhat of Rubens, and the execution is free and 
finished. "Bathsheba," by A. George Mayer; "Pan and Bacchan- 
tes," by Eugene Felix; " Girl of Upper Austria," by Ernest Lafite; 
"The Nun's Reverie," by G. A. Kuntz, are all works of merit, 
though not excellent if we apply to them a high standard of criti- 

In landscape, Austria did not exhibit works of decided merit ; 
and perhaps nothing in this branch of art was more pleasing than 
the pictures of Louisa von Parmeutier. 

In water-color painting the pictures of Ralph Alt are worthy of 
mention ; and in etching the exhibits of W. Unger deserve high 
praise; they are admirable in some of the finest qualities of this 

While it is not an uncommon thing to confound the art of Aus- 
tria with that of Germany, a very decided distinction subsisted 
between the exhibits of the two nations. There was a marked 
evidence of a recent a"dvance in the progress of Austrian art, 
which finds no better illustration than in the works first cited, par- 
ticularly iu that of Hans Makart. 


Belgian is closely related to French art. It is well disciplined, 
vigorous, and generally unconventional. The Belgian exhibit was 
one of the best ; and, though we missed some names that would 
have given completeness to this representation, such as Gallait, 
Wappers, Baron Leys, Alfred Stevens, Willems, Lamoriniere, 
and Alma Tadema, who exhibited elsewhere, nevertheless the 
collection, on the whole, showed favorably the characteristics of 
this school. 

" The Confederates in the Presence of Marguerite of Parma," by 
Franz Vinck; " The Sculptor," by Victor Lagye; " Dante and the 
Young Girls of Florence," by N. de Keyser; " Saturday in the Mon- 
astery," by Franz Meerts ; and " Griseldis," by Jules Wagner, are 
the most prominent works in genre : and in landscape, " After the 
Rain," and " Before the Thunder-storm," by G. Van Luppen ; " Mill 
on the River Scheldt," by Jacques Rosseels; "Autumn," by F 
Keelhoff ; and " Using the Life-Boat," by Th. Weber, are the most 
favorable examples. "Deception," by Jean Portaels, though dis- 
agreeable in expression, exhibits great skill in technical treatment. 
" A Christian Martyr in the Reign of Diocletian," by Ernest Slinge- 
neyer, was one of the most powerful and impressive pictures of the 
Exhibition. There is a solemn thoughtl'uliiess in the conception 
of this admirable work, which places it in the foremost rank of 
recent art. Too high praise cannot be awarded those manifesta- 
tions of true art that rise superior to the ordinary level of external 
qualities which are apt to be over-esteemed at the present time. 
There is a silent power, a true dramatic interest, that stimulates 
the moral sense, in this picture, which cannot well be too highly 
commended. While we find the sensibility pleasingly affected by 
technical surprises, it is rarely that our deeper feelings are stirred 
as they are by this solemn and effective picture by Ernest Slinge- 

Belgian art has had a decided influence on the art of Northern 
Germany ; and geographical influences have in turn largely affected 
the style peculiar to this school. The influence of France on the 
one hand, and that'of Holland on the other, are not infrequently 
perceptible in Belgic art, which nevertheless has distinct qualities 
of its own that render this school deservedly famous. 

In sculpture, A. F. Bonre contributed several studies of animals, 
and P. Comerin some terra-cottas, that are worthy of mention. 


The exhibit of the Netherlands was fairly representative of the 
admirable qualities of recent Dutch art. While there is evident 
adherence to the traditions of this school, there are not lacking 
strong suggestions of external influences that are rapidly demolish- 
ing old distinctions of this kind. With such a mighty ancestry 
of famous painters, it would be strange if Dutch art were not of 
high order of excellence ; and something of this influence may be 
found in the works of C. Bischop. Two portrait studies, entitled 
" At Church" and "Dieuwke," were unsurpassed by any tiling of 
the kind in the whole Exhibition. Admirable in expression, in 
force of chiaroscuro, and in richness of coloring, these pictures are 
worthy of highest praise. The tones are clear and deep, and the 
roundness aud relief of the forms are rendered with great skill. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 113. 

" The Deacons of the Silversmiths' Guild Conferring a Certificate," 
by J. A. Stroebel, while tending toward the conventional, is never- 
theless admirable in many estimable qualities, broad and simple in 
treatment, and pure in tone. '-The Card-Players," by J. Israels; 
" On the Beach," by J. Bosboom ; "Gamblers, Seventeenth Cen- 
tury," by H. F. C. Ten Kate; "Norwegian Women," by II. A. Van 
Tright ; " Hauling up the Fishing-Boat," by A. Mauve ; " Haymak- 
ing in Normandy," by W. C. Nakkcn ; and landscapes by J. W. 
Bilders and J. F. Van Deventer, are well worthy of special com- 
mendation ; and " Still Life," by Miss M. Voss, was quite superior 
to any thing of its class in the Exhibition. 

On the whole, the exhibit of the Netherlands in painting was a 
favorable one. Wherever there is qvidence of a proper adherence 
to the style and methods that have prevailed with so much credit 
in the past, Dutch art maintains a high place, and in some respects, 
as in the works of Bischop, has qualities that are unexcelled at 
the present time. Landscapes and cattle-pieces abounded, and in 
genre there were not wanting examples of conspicuous merit. 





PAKIS, Jan. 20, 1878. 

ALMOST simultaneously with the Boulevard St. Germain, on the 
left bank of the Seine, the new Avenue de 1'Operawas opened. It 
runs from the Palais Royal to the new Opera, and gives for the 
first time a fair view of the latter. Had this avenue been finished 
at the same time as the Opera, the latter would have escaped some 
of its severest criticisms, for the great projection of the foyer and 
staircase hall formerly masked much of the main building. Al- 
though, perhaps, no sites in the world are more conspicuous or 
coveted than those on this avenue, I doubt if any one here looked 
forward with particular interest to what these buildings would be 
architecturally, and so no one is surprised to find them just like 
all other maisons-it-loyr, with shops on the ground floor. What 
with the uniform requirements of such apartment-houses and the 
strict city building laws, they have grown to be regarded as a 
fixed type in which no novelty can be expected. 

The American architect on taking his first walk in Paris is gen- 
erally attracted by the fine details he sees on all sides. Orders, 
mouldings, cornices, and graceful cartouches are well studied. 
But before long he awakes to the fact that whether near the Lux- 
embourg or the Pare de Monceaux, there is great monotony in the 
unbroken blocks of these handsome five-storied fa-sades. Fifth 
Avenue with its rows of brown-stone porches is not more monoto- 
nous; and then Fifth Avenue is not repeated all over New York. 
There are two reasons for this sameness of frontage. The first is 
that hired apartments are the usual lodgment of the population, 
the different stories corresponding to the various grades of wealth ; 
and the proprietors build them to meet the average wants of lodg- 
ers. Like all ready-made articles, they have little variety ; for any 
personal fancy or caprice of the builder, to which the picturesque- 
uess of streets is generally due, might injure the value to the 
average lodger. So a certain number of stories, windows, and 
balconies become the natural if not necessary thing. The more of 
the latter, the better ; for, though rarely used, an apartment with 
one commands a higher price. Again, as the height of the stories, 
with projection of cornices and balconies, are regulated by strict 
building laws, the problem to introduce variety is no easy one for 
the best trained architect. Strange to say, the maltons-d-loyer, of 
which Paris may be said to be composed, are not built by such, 
but by what are vulgarly called "boutique " (shop) architects, who 
rarely have had careful training either at the Ecole des Beaux-Arls 
or elsewhere. They have as draughtsmen succeeded to a business, 
or from influential connections stepped into a good practice. Not 
having the habit of making original designs. for few of them 
are called to build any thing but this one kind of building, they 
accept the current type. 

On the other hand, the young men who enter the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts are generally poor and unknown. Even if they gain 
the. coveted Grand Prix, which annually sends a student to Rome 
for four years, and on their return as proteges of the government 
have a chance at the public buildings, they, however celebrated, 
get little private practice. The wealthy banker or proprietor has 
personal acquaintances to whom he intrusts his building ; and 
one can count on one's fingers the, private edifices by well-known 
architects in the last hundred years. The result is that the best 
architects are ill off; and the costliest private architecture of 
Paris varies but in the sculpture of the consoles, or in the pattern 
of the gilt scrolls in the white-walled salons. In America we are 
apt to look to Paris as a city where art is fully appreciated ; but 
one hears among architects quite as much about the stupidity of 
the public in architectural matters as at home. Of course every 
thing is relative ; but it is certain that the French public is far less 
ignorant in all that relates to painting and sculpture than in the 
matter of architecture, which should really be the art of the 

I mentioned above the building laws, which are very complete ; 

and especially in that vexatious subject of party-walls and obliga- 
tions are most explicit. The strictness in regard to their facades 
is not however so conspicuously an advantage. No facade can 
have more than five stories, nor exceed twenty metres in height, 
and must then have a court-yard of at least forty metres area, 
and this height only on thoroughfares of at least twenty metres 
wide. There are three other classes of heights, varying with the 
width of the street. The height of roof cannot exceed one-half 
the depth of the building. Cornices cannot project more than the 
width of the wall at its summit. Balconies are only allowed by 
special permission, and then in streets ten metres wide; and 
except this no construction is allowed on corbelling. The minute- 
ness in regard to placing signs is at first sight ludicrous. For 
instance, names of streets must be five centimetres (2 inches) 
higher than the street-lamps. Flags are forbidden, and cloths and 
drapery can be used as signs only by the dyers. Lights and reflect- 
ors projecting more than 10 centimetres (G inches) must be un- 
mounted when not in use, or else allowed to burn all night, etc. 
This excess of regulations has hov. ver its virtue in matters of 
hygiene : for example, no story can ! e less than 2.00 metres (S 
feet) in height; and no room lighted or ventilated by a well can be 
used as a sleeping-room. No well can have less than four metres 
(10^ square feet) area. Water-closets must have direct ventilation 
with the open air, etc. Twenty days before breaking ground, the 
architect must send a complete set of drawings to the authorities 
to be sanctioned ; and a geological section of the ground turned up 
in the excavations must be sent in. Another notice is sent when 
the foundations arc finished, and again before the roof is put on. 
Besides this, there is continual government inspection to prevent 
bad or unhealthy construction. No chimney-flue can communi- 
cate with another. They must be round or with rounded corners, 
and cannot be carried obliquely at an angle greater than 30. No 
chimney-flue or wall of fireplace can be within 10 centimetres (G| 
inches) of a wooden partition or construction. The strict laws, 
and habit of using incombustible materials, almost preclude serious 
fires ; and one can live years in Paris and never see a burning build- 
ing. In four, years I have seen one, and that, though unchecked, 
merely burnt through from front to rear on the same floor, and did 
not pass through ceiling nor floor. This is the usual extent of the 
fires ; so the law, which makes the owner of the apartment where 
it originated responsible for all subsequent damage done, appears 
less preposterous. For putting out fires quite mediaeval laws still 
exist, and are in full practice in the provinces. The police have 
the right to catch any passer-by, and make him or her help in 
putting out a fire. One evening at Tours, on my way to an enter- 
tainment, I was suddenly arrested and ordered by an officer into a 
gang of men and women passing buckets of water to a fire out of 
sight several blocks off. As I was in evening dress I expostulated ; 
but, to the high satisfaction of the gang, I was thrust into it 
before the bayonet of one of the soldiers guarding it, for all were 
watching an opportunity to desert. Later a man was chased and 
cut at for running away. However, after getting thoroughly wet, 
I finally made my escape. It is no wonder that a French crowd 
runs from a fire as quickly as ours do to it. The French fire 
department seems primitive beside our fine organization ; and 
undoubtedly our engines are the most powerful in the world, but 
let us hope we may learn to do without them. 

There is another interference of the government in building, 
which would perhaps harass us more than any of the preceding 
cases. That is their high tax on building, in the form of a fixed 
tariff on nearly all external features : for instance, one franc per 
square metre for facade wall ; balconies, from ten to twenty francs 
per metre in length according to the projection ; per metre, window- 
guards pay five francs, gutter-pipes ten francs, Venetian blinds 
twenty francs, etc. Signs and all ornaments whether sculptured or 
painted are also taxed, as well as scaffoldings and temporary ob- 
struction of sidewalks. Surely such sumptuary laws ought to cut 
down profusion and useless ornament. 

Since writing in my last letter about the Palais du Trocadero, I 
have found some details in regard to the great circular theatre 
which is to be used for concerts and distribution of prizes. It is to 
be 50 metres (102 feet) in diameter, with an orchestra or stage for 
400 musicians, but so arranged that part of the parquet can be 
taken in and room made for 1,200 performers. The whole number 
of seats will be 0,000, of which 4,000 are in the amphitheatre. A 
large organ at the back of the stage will have bellows worked by 
steam. The height of the ceiling is 32 metres (113 feet). The 
whole is to be lighted by 4,000 gas-jets, and the ventilation will be 
effected by numerous reservoirs of hot and cold air. Among the 
curiosities to be exhibited at the " exposition retrospective " in the 
circular galleries of this building, are the principal pieces of sculp- 
ture and architecture obtained a few years ago by M. Delaporte in 
his government expedition to Caiubodgc, and which have been 
stored at Compiegne. There are " several finely carved statues of 
Buddha, a statue with eight arms, two kneeling giants with five 
heads and ten arms, two women nude to the waist, etc., capitals, 
entablatures, etc., exquisitely sculptured." The first part of the 
catalogue certainly sounds like a travelling circus show; but as 
they are of colossal size and from the ruins of Kimers, it will save 
their reputation. 

The last street novelty is the construction of two small light- 

FEBRUARY 23, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


houses on the Pont do la Concorde, which are to throw an electric 
light upon the facade of the Trocadcro, some twenty minutes walk 
down the river. Summer before last, driving home in the evening 
from the Bois de Boulogne, oue saw the Arc de Triomphe brightly 
illuminated, and could trace the light to a pencil of rays coming 
from the new skating rink, a capital advertisement. ' R. 



THE report of the Superintendent of Buildings for the year 1877 
shows some noteworthy facts which illustrate the drift of archi- 
tectural work in this city. More buildings at less cost would seem 
at first blush to indicate a meaner style of work, a poorer grade, 
and a lower class oi~ work ; but it is questionable whether this be 
so. Every indication points to the conclusion that it is the cost 
and not the quality which has been reduced; in other words, that 
we can build as well and as extensively as we did a half-dozen 
years ago, at something like one-half or three-fifths the price. 
The mechanics stand idle, material is offered at incredibly low 
prices, and contractors are ready to estimate on very close margins. 
There have been a great number of dwellings erected at costs 
below $10,000, to be occupied by families able to pay a rental of 
from $'25 to $35 per month ; plain, substantial, comfortable resi- 
dences for the middle classes, now the best-provided and most 
secure portion of the community. Several important buildings 
have been projected during the year ; among them the Seventh 
Regiment. Armory to cost 350,000, and the Jauncey Court build- 
ings on Wall Street to cost $225,000. In taking the figures it must 
be borne in mind that the estimates are placed upon the plans by 
the owners themselves. Generally they are the figure given by 
contractors, and for the average dwelling and tenement a glance 
at the sizes would detect any glaring irregularity in the estimates; 
but the finish in the interior may make a very great difference 
between houses otherwise similar ; and as the building department 
is mainly concerned with questions of strength and stability the 
inspectors are content when these arc secured, and pay little atten- 
tion to finish or ornamentation ; but on the whole, the estimates 
are pretty fair. Now and then some speculative builder will mark 
up the price to assist him in selling to advantage ; but with the 
usual practice of buildings to overrun rather than uuderrun their 
estimates, the figures below may bo very near the truth. The 
rule about including public buildings is somewhat mixed in prac- 
tice. Nominally the superintendent has entire control over all 
building operations within the city limits, but in the case of pub- 
lic edifices this is not strictly enforced : thus the Court House 
extension, now under the superintendence of Mr. Eidlitz, which is 
to cost nearly 500,000, does not appear in the reports. Nor do the 
anchorages and series of great arches and viaduct under the East 
River Bridge Co.'s control appear in the report. School-houses 
and engine-houses come for register, but seemingly only by 
courtesy to the building superintendent. 

Taking merely the general figures for the past year, in compari- 
son with the previous year, the statistics show : 


Plans for new buildings submitted . 700 

No. of buildings included in same . 1,379 

Estimated cost 815,893,240 

New buildings begun 1,1U1 

" " completed 1,277 

Plans for alterations submitted . . l.ttX) 

No. of buildings affected 1,177 

Estimated cost of alterations . . . $3,035,478 

Alterations begun 1,028 







Of the 773 sets of plans for new work submitted, 719 were 
approved, and 54 rejected. Of the 1,220 plans for alterations, 1,160 
were passed and 60 were rejected. Of the new work in progress 
over the city, there were on Jan. 1, 1877, 651 jobs, and on Jan. 1, 
1878, 726. In alterations the figures stood on Jan. 1, 1877, 125; 
and on Jan. 1, 1878, 124. In connection with this matter of build- 
ing statistics, I have been at some pains to go back over the record, 
and have collated all the official figures which are accessible. 
Prior to June 1, 1866, no registration of plans had been attempted. 
Under the old fire-wardens, plans were looked at and approved ; 
and in the first stages of the building department, plans were 
usually stamped and returned to the owners. The figures below, 
therefore, are for each calendar year since 1866, and for that year 
only from June 1. 

6f buildings judged unsafe from any cause, the work of the 
department has been carried as follows : 

























































Plans submitted. 

No. of buildings. 

Estimated costs. 














































































































630 ,5! M ,589 8319,732 ,( 120 


The following table is a complete exhibit of the work of the 
department for the past eleven and a half years. It would seem 
from it that the average cost of a new building in this city has 
been $13,741, and that with some additions of work not formally 
reported to the superintendent, the aggregate sum spent in adding 
to the plant and material on Manhattan Island has reached the 
enormous sum of about $350,000,000. The falling-off in the 
trade within the past few years is very manifest. The alteration 
column seems to run along with great regularity, in numbers as in 
cost ; but of new work the falling-off has been most marked. The 
table is a new and interesting one, and could serve as the basis of 
no slight argument and discussion for our builders and architects, 
but without further comment I give it : 


CHICAGO, Jan. 30, 1878. 

Sir, In your issue of Jan. 5, in the "Notes and Clippings," on 
page 8, there is an item accredited to a correspondent of the 
Rochester Democrat, in regard to " Geological Footprints in the 
limestone bed of Koshong Creek," at Bellona, N.Y.., which might 
mislead. Professor Berlin II. Wright, who has examined the so- 
called "footprints," says that they are not footprints at all, 
but simply are the result of the combined action of the atmos- 
phere and water, dissolving and washing away the softer portions 
of the limestone. His opinion is indorsed by his father, Professor 
S. Hart Wright, A.M., Ph. D., also by Professor S. Botsford Buck- 
ley of Austin, Tex. Professor Buckley obtained in Clark County, 
Ala. (many years ago), the fossil bones of the zeuglodon now in the 
Warren Museum, Boston, Mass. All of the above-named gentle- 
men are familiar with the geology of that locality. Professor 
James Hall, State geologist of New York, also indorses Profes- 
sor Wright's theory. Professor B. II. Wright says that the stone 
is the " Tully limestone," and that it. is overlaid with the " Gene- 
see slate," and the slate is overlaid with the drift of the " glacial 
period," which have since been worn away. I glean the above 
from letters published in the local paper, Yates County Chronicle. 



WATER TANKS. Alfred Wright, Secretary of the Chicago Board 
of Underwriters, has issued the following circular, dated Jan. 10: 

In view of the disasters which have resulted from the location of 
water-tanks in the upper stories of buildings where fires have occurred, 
and with the conviction that similar or still more calamitous conse- 
quences are likely to follow where such destructive agencies are per- 
mitted to exist, this board is forced to insist upon the observance 
of the following stipulations in their construction and arrangement: 
All water-tanks, if constructed of wood, must be open at the top; if 
of metal or other material than wood, they shall rest upon a founda- 
tion of brick, or some walls of solid masonry, or upon heavy iron 
girders, both ends of wkich shall rest upon solid brick or stone walls. 
On all buildings (with their contents) having water-tanks not con- 
structed in conformity with above standard, a charge of not less than 
10 cents per $100 will be added to the basis rate. This action shall 
take effect from this day; but on any building now provided with 
tanks not conforming to above requirements, if altered and con- 
structed in compliance therewith before March 1, 1878, this charge of 
10 cents will be rebated. If the change be not effected before March 
1, then the rebate will only be allowed from the date of the improve- 

THE OLD SOUTH CHURCH. The following statement concerning 
the Old South preservation fund may prove interesting: There has 
been paid for building and land, 409,000, and in addition for interest 
on mortgages and taxes and expenses, 20,500, making a total of 
$429,500. The treasurer has received money to the amount of $228,- 
500, or 53.7 per cent of the entire amount, enabling him, after meet- 
ing all current expenses and interest, to pay off the third and second 
mortgages on the property, and reduce the first mortgage from $225,- 
000 to $204,000, and leaving him with about 3,000 on hand. In 
addition to this, there are several thousand dollars of conditional sub- 
scriptions, the larger portion of which, it is thought, will be ultimately 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 113. 

BUILDING ACCIDENT. While workmen were engaged In tearing 
down an old building at Columbus, O., on Feb. 1C, the second section 
of the floor gave way, carrying with it one of the side-walls of the 
structure. Two laborers, who were caught by the falling debris, 
received serious injuries. 

A CURIOUS EXPLOSION. One of the most inexplicable explosions 
took place recently, at the Pine Iron Works in Montgomery County, 
Penn., when a teamster tipped a cart-load of hot cinders into a snow- 
bank. This apparently innocent action produced an explosion which 
is described as "fearful." Houses a hundred yards away were vio- 
lently shaken, and persons near by were burned and cut by the flying 
cinders. Even had the snow been chambered out by the hot mass, a 
hole would probably have been formed large enough for the rapidly 
generated steam to escape through without causing the explosion. 

vator in a clothing-warehouse in Cincinnati, on Feb. 10, whereby five 
persons were very seriously injured, reminds us that it would be well 
that these conveniences of modern life should be subject to the peri- 
odic inspection of a properly qualified officer. Such inspection would 
probably have averted the mishap in question; for the fall was occa- 
sioned not so much by defect in the design or construction of the 
elevator, although the safety-catch failed to work, as by the 
gradual wear and tear of constant use; for examination showed that 
the suspending wire rope was worn beyond the limit which could sup- 
port such a weight. 

E. I. P. It is said that since the attempted violation of Lincoln's 
tomb, the Mount Vernon mansion and the tomb of Washington have 
been connected by a burglar-alarm. 

NEW JOURNALS. The many processes by which illustrations may 
be produced cheaply, and with a degree of artistic excellence which 
often is remarkable, have enabled publishers of existing trade and 
technical journals to materially enhance their practical value by a 
liberal use of explanatory cuts. They have encouraged also the 
growth of new technical journals. The most recent of these is the 
Ucientific News, a semi-monthly of eight quarto pages, which prom- 
ises to cover very much the same field that is already occupied by 
the Scientific American. Another, which will cover a smaller field, 
is the American Machinist, a monthly journal of sixteen quarto pages. 
Of its character, the editors say, " Those who wish to recommend 
their wares to our readers can do so as fully as they choose in our 
advertising columns, but our editorial opinions are not for sale. We 
give no premiums to secure either subscribers or advertisers. We 
are not engaged in procitring patent-rights, or in selling machinery ; 
nor have we any pet scheme to advance, or hobby to ride." Another 
and more distinctively trade journal is the new weekly paper, the 
Dry Goods Trade. All these journals are published in New York. 

SEWERS AND THE RATE OP MORTALITY. In response to a reso- 
lution passed by the Chicago City Council, the Commissioner of 
Health has prepared a report relative to the prevalence of scarlet fever 
and small-pox at the locations of the greatest mortality. The report 
is interesting, if only to show the influence of sewerage on the city's 
health. The following table summarizes the statistics : 

Scarlet Fever. 









Feet of 



















































































































THE ROYAL ACADEMY. We are pleased to learn that Mr. Alfred 
Waterhouse, the architect of, among other important buildings, the 
Assize Courts, and the new Town Hall, both at Manchester, has 
been elected Associate of the Royal Academy. 

THE MANCHESTER TOWN HALL. Up to the end of August, 
Manchester Town Hal1 had cost 775,882, or about $3,- 

nating phosphorus from molten cast-iron has been invented by a 
bnemcld (England) gentleman. It consists in the employment of 
chlorine, which, being injected into or brought in contact with the 
iron, effects a separation of the phosphorus from the iron. The chlo- 
rine is applied in a gaseous form, which is done before the iron has 
been subjected to the air as, for example, in the Bessemer process, 
or m the ordinary puddling or other decarbonizing process. 

covery has lately been made in Vintimiglia, between Nice and Genoa. 
According to an old saying, the ancient Entemerium, the urbs mayna 
of Strabo, stood upon the Plains of Nervia. The French Govern- 
ment has given to Professor Girolamo Rossi the insignificant sum of 
600 lire with which to institute a search in this locality. At the 
very outset he has struck upon a magnificent amphitheatre, built 
entirely of cut stone from the neighboring quarries of Turbia. Its 
plan is an ellipse, the longer axis of which is 115 feet, the smaller 
about 100. In beauty and solidity it bears the characteristic marks 
of Roman civilization. The discovery has already attracted many 
visitors to the quiet little town. 

THE PORCELAIN TOWER. The celebrated Porcelain Tower, near 
Nanking, China, is described by a traveller, who says : " In the quiet 
evening we made our way out of the city by the south gate, through 
a well-constructed tunnel, and shortly stood upon an eminence over 
whose surface was a mass of debris, consisting of broken bricks, tiles, 
and plaster several feet thick. This was all all that was left of that 
which, for its historic beauty, the ingenuity of its construction, and 
its great cost, took rank with the wonders of the world, the famous 
Porcelain Tower. It must have been very beautiful in its perfection, 
if we accept the statements of its various historians, who differ so 
little in their accounts that one does for all. From them we learn 
its form was octagonal, nine stories high, tapering as it rose to the 
height of 261 feet from the ground ; the circumference of the lower 
story being 120 feet. The body of the pagoda was of brick, but its 
face was composed of porcelain tiles of many colors. Each story 
formed a kind of saloon, through which ran the spiral staircase lead- 
ing to the summit, and whose walls were covered with small gilded 
idols resting in niches, the entire apartment being richly painted and 
gilded. Each story was defined by a projecting cornice of green tiles, 
from whose points gilded bells were hung. The roof was overlaid 
with copper; and above it rose a mast thirty feet high, capped by a 
golden ball, and coiled about by an immense band of iron, appearing 
like rings from below. The base of this shaft was an iron ball formed 
of two halves, the outer surface of which is magnificently embossed. 
I say is, for one half rests where it fell, the only \angible thing in the 
mass of ruin. The other half, weighing twelve tons, being broken by 
the fall, was recast into a temple bell. Standing before the half 
which is left, we query, Who were they that fashioned this beautiful 
casting, worthy the hand of a master? Whose writing and inscription 
embellishes its face, unlike any Chinese workmanship? Whose skill 
was great enough A.D. 1430, to place a ball of iron thirty-six feet in 
circumference, weighing twenty-four tons, upon a pedestal 261 feet 
high? This ball was the receptacle for various treasures calculated 
to ward off evil influences, among which were ' night-shining jewels,' 
pearls, books, gold, silver, thousands of strings of 'cash,' satin, silk, 
and priceless medicines. The number of bells on the structure was 
152, and the interiors was illuminated by several hundreds of lamps, 
while the exterior required 128 to light it. It took nineteen years to 
build it, and cost $3,313,078. Of all this, not, one story rests on the 
other; lightning, fire, and war have laid their hands upon it, and it 
fell, its final destroyers being the Taeping rebels, about twenty years 
ago. It stood in the grounds of a large Buddhist monastery, which 
fell at the same a prey to the fanaticism and rapacity of the invaders. 
One work of art within the grounds escaped destruction, a pure 
white tortoise, bearing upon its back a perpendicular tablet with an 
inscription. This, with one solitary priest, keeps watch and ward over 
the ruins of bygone glory." Exchange. 

SEWER VENTILATION. The New York Sun advocates ventilat- 
ing sewers by iron tubes or shafts; about 16 inches in diameter, 
which shall be carried up some hundred or more feet into the air. In 
each of these shafts are to be placed eight four-feet burners. These 
with a fifty feet draught, estimating the rate of the upward current of 
air at 4 miles or 21,120 feet per hour, would exhaust 506,880 cubic feet 
in every twenty-four hours ; and by a small number of these shafts 
costing about $700 each, the air in the sewers of a large city could 
be changed daily. In addition to this, the soil-pipes are not to be 
trapped, but are to be carried up above the roof and left open; the 
object being not to allow sewer-gas to escape in that way, but to allow 
fresh air to be drawn into the sewers by the action of the gas-jets in 
the shafts: the current of air will thus always be in the direction 
away from the house. The cost of such shafts for the city of New 
York would be about $50,000. 

and G. Saporito-Ricca find that the strength of iron at different tem- 
peratures shows peculiar irregularities. The strength in a wire 
which is exposed to a dull-red heat diminishes, .with increase of tem- 
perature, from 14 to 50, then increases to 90, diminishes rapidly to 
120, remains constant to 200, sinks slowly to 235; then comes a 
sudden increase, which i? followed by a gradual diminution. The 
strength is greater at 300 than at 140. Dingler's Journal. 

A JAPANESE BELL. At the temple of Ularo, in Kioto, Japan, is 
to be seen the largest bell in the world, hanging in a tower on the hill, 
and is said to be very perfect in tone. By measurement it exceeds the 
great bells at Peking, China, and at Moscow, both of which are cracked. 
Where the bell was cast, and by whom, is lost in the shades of anti- 
quity. Chinese and Sanscrit characters cover the entire surface of the 
bell, but no modern Japanese scholar or priest can translate them. 
This bell is twenty-four feet in height, and sixteen inches thick at the 
rim ; and when the priests sound it (at eight o'clock every evening), 
its majestic booming is heard miles down the valley. None of the 
bells in Japan have "clappers," but are sounded by suspended levers 
of wood, used like a battering-ram, and striking the bell on the out- 

THE SUTHO TUNNEL. The Sutro Tunnel is 18,680 feet in length. 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES E. OSGOOD & Co. 

[No. 114. 

BOSTON, MARCH 2, 1878. 



The American Exhibit at Paris. Mr. Brassey on "Wages. 
The Strike in Massachusetts. The Tariffvillc Inquest. 
Fall of Houses in New York. Fire-Drill in St. Louis 
Schools. Correction 73 



The Orient Insurance Company's Building, New York. De- 
tails of the Same. The Taylor Mausoleum, Chicago. The 
Highland House, Cincinnati. The Staircase Competition 
designs 76 



The House-Painter's Hand-Book. Woodward's Ornamental 
Alphabets. Der Rohr-leyer. The Art Worker 78 




Advantage of the Metric System to Architects and Builders . '79 



TIIE appropriation for the Paris Exhibition once secured, 
and the commission organized, there seems to have been 
a commendable promptness in getting to work. Two gov- 
ernment ships, the famous Constitution and the Supply, 
arc announced as loaded and ready to sail for Havre with 
American contributions : they will probably be at sea before 
this paper reaches our subscribers. The narrowness of the 
space left for us in the exhibition building at this late day, 
and the quantity of things offered to fill it, have obliged Com- 
missioner McCormick to build an annex, at the charge of the 
Congressional allowance. This will take a piece from the 
slender appropriation, and the increased cost of guarding 
it another : an additional example of how delay, as well as 
haste, makes waste. We already hear that the Government 
has found it necessary to detail two additional vessels, the 
Wyoming and the Portsmouth, and may be thankful for the 
interest that this indicates ; but we suspect that a good deal 
may still be done to accommodate things to their places, by 
restraining the exuberance of those who exhibit bulky articles 
or collections. Most people will remember the fatiguing im- 
pression made upon visitors to the Centennial, especially in 
the Agricultural Hall, by enormous ranges of similar arti- 
cles where two or three specimens would have sufficed, or by 
huge models where small ones would have been better. We 
read that a lumber-dealer of Philadelphia has constructed a 
great trophy out of forty-three different kinds of native 
woods. The trophy occupies eight by twelve feet of space, 
and we may hope that its merit of design and execution 
justifies its size ; but that can scarcely be the case with a con- 
tribution which is expected from California. This is a pyra- 
mid twenty feet square and seventy high, gilded we presume, 
which is to represent the cubic volume of gold thus far taken 
from the mines in California. To it are to be added five hun- 
dred tons of various minerals as specimens, the cargo of a 
ship, as ships used to be built not so very long ago. It may 
be assumed that this gigantic contribution, if it gets to the 
Exhibition, will find its way to the annex above mentioned. 
It is a pity that there is not somebody to remind the people 
of California that, even in Paris, exhibition-buildings are not 
made on the scale of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific farms, 
and that in an exhibition of industrial art, skill and not bulk 
is the desideratum. However, the seventy-foot pyramid is 
doubtless hollow ; and if room is scant, the five hundred tons 
of minerals, after reserving sufficient specimens, may be 
safely stored under it, and perhaps still leave room for other 
things that it may be desirable to get out of the way. 

MR. THOMAS BRASSEY, M.P., well known in England for 
his interest in questions of labor and for his writings upon 
them, has lately read a paper at the Eoyal Institute of Brit- 
ish Architects, in which he gave a systematic account of the 
change in the wages and condition of workmen in the build- 
ing-trades during a generation past. lie finds that the aver- 

age increase in wages since 1853, making allowance for the 
diminished hours of work, is 44 per cent ; and the actual in- 
crease per day or hour in ten years from 18G5 to 1875 ranged 
in the different trades from 17 to 35 per cent, the least gain 
being that of the plumbers, and the greatest that of the com- 
mon laborers, while the general rise in most of the trades 
was about twenty per cent. Up to 1853 the uniform rate of 
wages among the trades had been for a long time five shil- 
lings per day. Then set in a gradual rise accompanied b}' a 
reduction of hours, which led the masters in 18G1 to introduce 
the system of payment b}- the hour, after which the rates of 
the different trades began to diverge. The reduction of 
hours had indeed begun somewhat earlier than the increase 
of wages ; and between 1847 and 1877 the rate, which had 
amounted to thirty shillings per week for sixty hours work, 
grew to an average of 39s. 4id. for fifty-two and a half hours 
work, which is equivalent to the advance mentioned above of 
44 per cent. If the only change had been in the time and 
the wages, this might not have increased the cost of building 
in any thing like the same ratio ; for, owing to the introduc- 
tion of machinery and improved processes, the price of most 
building-materials has been kept down to a comparatively 
small rise, and brick has even diminished in cost by about 
twenty per cent, while in man}' respects the efficiency of 
labor on the materials has been increased, as \>y hoisting- 
machines, mortar-mills, machines for dressing wood and stone, 
etc., but these improvements have been so far offset by the 
deterioration of the workmen and their slackness in work- 
ing that the cost of building has increased from 20 to 30 
per cent. As a striking example, Mr. Brassey quoted the 
cost of brickwork lately built bj- Messrs. Lucas for the 
North-Eastern Railway Company. The labor on this work 
would have cost at old rates 38 shillings per rod ; adding 50 
per cent for increase of wages, it would have been 57 shillings ; 
and they contracted for it at G3 shillings. It actually cost 
more than five pounds per rod, a loss to the contractors of 
55 per cent on their estimate. 

OF eourse these figures do not represent so much actual 
gain in the condition of the workmen, nor so much loss in 
that of the owners of buildings. A good part of it is to be 
set down to the depreciation of money : how much, it is not 
so easy to saj- among the continually shifting ratios of the 
prices of all kinds of articles. The cost of living has risen 
meanwhile very considerably, though hardly in the same 
degree ; for the better class of workmen and their families, 
while they work less, live in greater comfort than before. 
The laborers, on the other hand, have not gained in equal 
proportion, though their wages have risen more ; and the 
inference is, that they spend a greater proportion of their 
earnings in idle or mischievous wa}'s. Mr. Brassey is in- 
clined to think that the efforts of the trades-unions have had 
little effect in the rise of wages, which he considers to be a 
mere matter of supply and demand. As regards the broad 
general movement, extending over a generation, in which 
wages have kept pace with other things, he is probably 
right. But this is not the thing which is most troublesome. 
It is not a high or low scale of general prices, which only 
means the greater or less purchasing power of money, nor a 
steady movement in the price of one kind of goods or labor, 
it is the uncertainty and fluctuation of prices, which upset 
the solid prosperity of a community. For this uncertainty 
and fluctuation in the building-trades and other industries, 
the unions, more than any thing else, are responsible. And 
the deterioration of the workmen, the levelling down of the 
accepted standard to the performance of the poorer artisan, 
the diminution of the quantity and quality of work performed 
in a given time, are mainly to be charged to them, we believe, 
for they are among their special aims. Mr. Brasscy's 
remedy for the disorder into which labor has fallen, is a 
system of piece-work, or else of " set- work," a term with 
which we are not familiar, but which we understand to 
imply an agreement with a body of workmen to perform a 
given amount of work for a given price. We are inclined to 
believe that the hope of the immediate future lies in some 
such resource. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 114. 

THE Crispin strike in Massachusetts is practically ended ; 
the men having yielded, first in Lynn and then in Beverly, 
to the principal demands of the masters. The board of ar- 
bitration of the Order, which assumed to control the field, 
refused to give up its position. But the persistent rejection 
of their interference by the masters proved too strong for 
them, and in one manufactory after another the men made 
their terms independently with their employers ; generally 
going to work at the rates offered them, except where their 
places had been occupied by outsiders, who in most cases 
were retained. We find in the Boston Advertiser a list of 
twenty-five firms in Lynn who held their position through the 
strike. They employed in all 2,5CO men, of whom 2,214 
were thrown out of work, 2,100 'of them being actual Cris- 
pins, or participants with them. The average wages, says 
the Advertiser, were 14.05 per week, which gives a weekly 
loss in wages to the strikers of $29,505, or, since the aver- 
age duration of the strikes was six weeks, in all $177,030. 
Six hundred and fifty new hands were taken on during the 
strike, and their places are lost to the old men. It is believed 
that the strength of the Crispins is broken by their failure in 
this quarrel ; certainly one would think that their resources 
might be. The cost to the communit}' of L3'nn is of course 
much more than the mere loss of wages. The labor troubles 
and the depressions of business have reduced the weekly draft 
upon the banks for pay-rolls by about 45,000 below that of 
the same season last year. One manufacturing firm has 
been absolutely driven from the city, and four others have 
established branch factories elsewhere, to which their real 
business may be transferred if troubles recur. 

THE jury which has held its inquest on the Tariffville 
bridge disaster has been unable to agree ; but eight of the 
twelve have united in a report that will win a substantial 
approval. They find no evidence that the bridge had been 
meddled with (' tampered " is the accepted word), nor that 
the train left the track. They dispose of one foolish apology 
by saying that " running two engines together when deemed 
necessaiy is not at all censurable," and by quoting the words 
of one witness, that " any bridge that would not cany two 
locomotives ought not to carry one." They think that if 
the bridge was originally what it ought to have been, to 
which they do not commit themselves, it had deteriorated 
through neglect, exposure, or overstraining, till it was dan- 
gerously defective, both timber and iron becoming unfit for 
their duty. They lay the responsibilitj- on the directors of the 
Connecticut "Western Railroad, and " present and declare that 
in the construction and management of railways it is time to 
take a new departure : that in their construction the eternal 
principles of nature should not be violated ; and that in their 
management all, from the highest official to the lowest opera- 
tive, should at all times be held to a strict accountability." 
We believe, after reading the published testimony brought 
out during the inquest, that all these declarations accord 
strictly with the facts and with reason, and we rejoice to, see 
them made in this honorably uncompromising way, without 
fear or favor. We can only hope that the people of Con- 
necticut may henceforth find some way of bringing home the 
responsibility of such disasters to those whose duty it is to 
prevent them. One could have wished that the jury had ' 
gone one step further, and added to their report that the 
bridge was not so constructed as in its best estate to be safe 
under the load that was put upon it. It is said that a bridge 
at Say brook, not far off, is of substantially the same construc- 
tion as the fallen one, and then it is only a matter of chance 
how long it stands. The foolhardiness of ordinary construct- 
ors is at least as perilous to the community as the reckless- 
ness of directors and superintendents. So long as we find en- 
gineers and other so-called experts reckoning on a factor of 
safety of two as the correct thing, or wondering why bridges 
and other structures do not bear all the strain which their 
materials endure under test, so long we may expect to see 
their constructions tumbling to pieces and killing our fellow- 
citizens, unless we are ourselves so unfortunate as to be 
on or under them. 

WE have to add to our dismal record the fall of some un- 
finished houses in New York, by which two men were severely 
injured, and perhaps killed. A block of dwelling-houses, 

of brick with stone fronts, is building on Lexington Avenue, 
and had been carried up to the third floor. The morning 
after the violent rain-storm of last week, the workmen, on 
coming to their work, found that the earth under the rear 
wall of one of them had been washed away, and that the wall 
had fallen. The men had scarcely set to work, and one of 
them was still busy plumbing the walls of the adjoining house, 
when that too fell in a heap, burying him and another. No 
sufficient cause has yet been declared for the fall, but some 
opinion may be formed from the facts that these houses of 
brick with brown-stone fronts, of three stories and a base- 
ment, were to be built for eight thousand dollars each, and 
that according to a report of the specification the " girders " 
of the first floor were to be six by eight inches. The con- 
tractor, as is natural, insisted that the work and materials 
were the best, and could not imagine why they did not stand, 
lie could only suppose that the freshly-laid masonry had been 
softened by the storm, which, as he agreed with the inspector 
of buildings, was responsible for the damage. Yet people 
who build houses in the winter must expect to have them 
rained on ; and most persons would probably agree that a 
house which was liable to be beaten down by a heavy rain 
while it was building was not one that they would care to live 
in when it was finished. 

THE school-authorities of St. Louis have invented a new 
illustration of the dangers which beset children crowded into 
public schools. Some time ago the superintendent gave 
notice to the principal of the Devoll school to put his schol- 
ars under such discipline that they could all be got out of 
the building in two minutes or less. The principal accord- 
ingly arranged a sort of fire-alarm drill, as the chiefs jof a 
fire police do, or the captains of Cunard steamers, and 
directed the children, whenever certain strokes of the gong 
were sounded, to hasten out of school at a half-run. The 
first day's rehearsal went off successfully enough ; but the 
second tune the alarm was given, the children made too much 
haste, and two of them were thrown down, trampled upon, 
and considerably hurt. A praiseworthy object seems here to 
have been sought in a most indiscreet manner. It is haste 
in getting out that leads to almost all the danger when 
crowded buildings take fire ; and the thing to do by way of 
precaution would be not to teach the children to scramble 
out in a hurry, but to make them walls out as deliberate^ as 
possible. It is safe to say that when the exits are not cut 
off there is always time to clear a burning building, provided 
it is done leisurely ; but none to clear away a fallen crowd. 
The people of St. Louis have, on the whole, got their lesson 
at a moderate cost to the children on whom they tried their 
experiment, at least in comparison with those of a city in 
Iowa, quoted by the Globe-Democrat, where an experimental 
alarm was sprung from without upon a school-full of children, 
with the result of killing two or three and maiming many. 
It may be hoped that something will be learned from it 
besides the necessity of discretion in their drills. Eight 
hundred children were hived in this one schoolhouse, three 
or four times as many as ought ever, in our judgment, to be 
allowed in one such building, notwithstanding the common 
habit in this respect, unless, indeed, the building is "so 
subdivided by fire-walls, and so provided with exits, as to be 
equivalent to two or to several buildings. As for getting so 
many out in a hurry, eight hundred equals the effective num- 
ber of a regiment of soldiers, and we should be satisfied "to 
know that a well-drilled regiment of that strength, distributed 
in the twelve rooms of a schoolhouse, had been got out in 
two minutes under a sudden alarm. 

IN our report of the last day's session of the Institute 
Convention, printed last week, Mr. Peabody is said to have 
read a paper on Colonial Architecture, prepared by Mr. 
McKim. This is an error of the stenographer. Mr. Pea- 
body read a paper of his own, in place of one that was 
expected from Mr. McKim. It was printed in the American 
Architect of Oct. 20, 1877. 

TUB ROMAN FORUM. The Academy says the Minister of Public 
Instruction has ordered a re-commencement of the excavations in 
the Forum Romanum. The whole area as far as the Arch of Titus 
is to be uncovered, and the front of the Forum connected with the 
remains of the Palace of the Csesars. 

MARCH 2, 1878.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



[Kcad at the Eleventh Annual Convention of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects by P. B. Wight, F.A.I.A.] 

IN my first paper on the fire question, prepared for the Eighth 
Annual Convention, which was not read, but subsequently pub- 
lished in the American Architect, 1 the subject of prevention was 
outlined under two heads. The first, comprising the class of so- 
called fire-proof buildings, was not considered in detail. The 
second, relating to systems of what may be called for convenience 
" partial fire-proofing " and absolute exterior protection, was dis- 
cussed at considerable length. 

To resume the consideration of the first class, I will quote a few 
sentences in which it was referred to. After venturing the opinion 
that we were not likely ever to see a city entirely composed of fire- 
resisting structures, I said, 

" If, then, each new building cannot be a component part of a city 
wholly fire-proof, I submit to your candid judgment whether you do not 
take a fearful responsibility when you recommend the erection of a 
building wholly of incombustible, and consequently very expensive 
materials, which is to stand for years in the midst of others of a decid- 
edly combustible character. Experience has shown that such a struc- 
ture must be a veritable fortress against fire; and this is the case in few 
buildings I know of erected according to systems in use five years ago." 

Also the following: 

" The most valuable buildings that have recently been erected in our 
large cities are entirely unprotected on the exterior, reliance being 
placed upon the incombustible nature of the materials in them. They 
are in no sense fire-proof when standing among combustible buildings." 

First-class fire-proof buildings were described as those (I quote) 
" wherein the matter of cost is not an element to weigh against 
the use of any building-material or method of construction, so 
long as it is non-combustible, indestructible by time and the 
weather, and fire-resisting." . . . " In their construction the high- 
est scientific and artistic attainments will always bo brought in 
play. It will always be a matter of great concern how to make 
them secure against every contingency of fire, whether from inside 
or outside." 

It is but a few years since it was the generally accepted opinion 
that an incombustible building was fire-proof. And by an incom- 
bustible building I do not mean one simply constructed with iron 
beams and the heretofore-employed materials for bridging the 
spaces between them, and otherwise finished like those previ- 
ously constructed inside of wood; but one in which the materials 
throughout, except perhaps doors and floors which convenience 
demands shall be of wood cannot burn. But experience has 
demonstrated that such structures, though they will not burn, may 
still be destroyed. The new problem that confronts us therefore 
is, how to preserve the materials of construction from the effects 
of fire. It will not do to say that your house is fire-proof because 
there is nothing in it to burn. Houses are built for use. You 
cannot prevent people from putting combustibles into them. Per- 
haps they are built for offices ; but who is to say how much furni- 
ture the tenants are to use ? You cannot put up buildings for show, 
and then lay the blame upon the occupants if they are destroyed 
by fire. Take the case of office-buildings. Under severe scrutiny 
the accumulation of combustibles in them may be curtailed; but 
in the course of time other tenants come in, or the buildings are 
diverted to other uses. Consider the inflammable nature of a well- 
stocked and somewhat cramped architect's office. Look at the 
accumulation of cases and books in lawyers' offices, and see our 
public buildings stored with cases and documents often from 
floor to ceiling. A tenant may take two rooms, using only one of 
them for business. The other often becomes a storehouse; and so 
gradually that the owner is not likely to detect the illegitimate 
use made of it. Then the upper floors are often used for manufac- 
turing which can only be carried on in such structures, such as 
engraving or lithographing, with their accumulations of combus- 
tible materials in places not easily reached by water. Many offices 
are filled with sample-cases from floor to ceiling, and drawers filled 
to repletion. I am not supposing that the fire originates in one 
of these rooms, where it might be quickly stamped out, as was the 
case lately in the Palmer House in Chicago. But suppose it starts 
among some boxes accumulated in a basement, perhaps only left 
there temporarily to be removed in the morning. In the stillness 
of the night the fire creeps up a stairway or an unprotected eleva- 
tor, and communicates with a suite of such offices as I have enume- 
rated above, with wooden doors and open transom-lights, and doors 
standing open' between the rooms. Before succor comes a whole 
floor is in flames, and the incombustible yet unprotected materials 
of construction are in danger. Or, suppose a fire rages on the 
opposite side of a narrow street, and the wind sweeps the flames 
into the windows of a number of such rooms simultaneously ; the 
same results will follow. 

The sad experience of a few years has shown that the most 
treacherous and dangerous of these materials of construction is 
iron, the very mainstay and shibboleth of fire-proof constructions of 
ten years ago, and of some at the present time. 

As regards floors, there is no instance in which the filling 

1 See American Architect and Building Ifcws, vol. i., pp. 195, 203, 211. 

between iron beams has failed before the beams themselves; yet 
we have been discussing over and over again the various methods 
of doing this part of the work most effectually, when the vulner- 
able part has had no consideration. We have plastered the under 
sides of brick arches, and run elegant mouldings on the iron 
beams, which mouldings we have had as much as "we could do to 
make stay in place at ordinary times. Some have called this fire- 
proofing ; but a good fire will bring down these plaster mouldings 
in a few minutes, because they expand and crack, being heavier 
and thicker than the other plaster, and have adherence only at the 
edges. We have suspended ceilings beneath the beams and 
arches, putting an ordinary and cheap coat of plastering on an 
expensive structure of iron. This is much better. We have here 
the advantage of a confined air-space between the structure and 
ceiling. Still the plaster is thin ; and if it absorbs enough heat 
to expand the lathing, by which process it bulges out in places, 
away goes the plaster, and the laths are of no account as protec- 
tion to the beams. We have suspended sectional slabs of incombus- 
tible and non-conducting materials under the beams and arches 
at still greater expense, and with the addition of greater weights. 
This is better still ; but it is a double process. What we want is 
a simple one, which will give a proundwork for the ceiling, and 
support for the floor, by one operation, and at the same time obvi- 
ate the necessity of filling up dead space to get up to the proper 
floor level. Combined with this we want a positive protection for 
the beams, enveloping them on all sides. 

Thus far I think only three methods of constructing really fire- 
proof floors have been employed. The first is where a flat arch of 
non-conducting and incombustible material has been sprung 
between the lower flanges of the beams, the lower surface of the 
arch being below the bottoms of the beams. When the blocks fit 
well, and the edges next to the beams slightly cover them, the 
space between opposite blocks has the form of a dove- tail, so that 
cement filled in for the protection of the beams can never be dis- 
lodged. This method is the one employed by the fire-proof 
building companies of New York and Baltimore, and by other 
constructors as well ; the variations of different manufacturers 
being in the forms and materials of the blocks employed. With 
all these methods the ceilings are flat. 

The second method is that employed by Mr. William Ward in 
the construction of his private residence at Portchester, N.Y. It 
has been fully described in the American Architect and Building 
News J : it is therefore unnecessary for me to describe it in detail. 
As briefly as possible I will say that it is a modification of the 
French system ; but uses Portland cement and sand, instead of 
plaster and cinders. The beams are incased in a body of concrete, 
which is first allowed to harden. Ledges are left on the sides of 
this incasing concrete. At the level of these ledges is set a fiat 
centring, on which is spread one inch of concrete. Then three- 
eighths inch iron rods are laid from beam to beam a few inches 
apart ; then an inch of concrete ; then iron rods crossing those 
previously laid ; then one or two inches of concrete. The incased 
beams show below the ceiling, and the concrete in the spaces 
between them forms one homogeneous body with the concrete 
incasing the beams. Experiments have demonstrated that with 
this system of fire-proofing fully one-half of the iron usually 
employed in beams may be dispensed with, and that the formulas 
generally used for determining the depth and spacing of the beams 
do not apply in such cases. What formula can be used for them 
has not yet been determined. 

The third method of floor-construction is that employed in the 
Mitchell Building at Milwaukee, and devised by Mr. Loriug; the 
building being designed by Mr. Mix, architect. The beams arc 
incased with porous terra-cotta, there being one block on each 
side ; the two meeting at the under side of the beams. These are 
set with gauged mortar. They form skewbacks. Barrel-arches 
are not employed ; but at intervals of very nearly two and one-half 
feet, solid segmental brick arches are sprung across from beam 
to beam, the same as would be employed over an opening in an 
eight-inch wall. This leaves a series of open squares. The brick 
arches are connected by slabs of hard terra-cotta of cellular form, 
two feet long, one foot wide, and two inches thick each. The 
ceiling shows the incased iron beams one way, the segment arches 
the opposite way, and the panels of hard terra-cotta in the inter- 
stices. The surfaces of all the parts are rough enough to 
receive plastering. This has the advantage of being the lightest 
construction yet employed when iron beams are used. 

For girder protection the case is similar to that of a beam. The 
girder, however, is often exposed on the sides as well as the bot- 
tom, and needs more careful protection as it is more exposed. We 
find many buildings in which the girders are wholly unprotected. 
This is the case in the largest jewelry-house in New York. In most 
instances the girders are either incased with wooden furring and 
laths, plastered in the ordinary way, or with iron laths similarly 
plastered. These, as far as protection goes, are quite as imper- 
fect as the same process applied to ceilings. I have been informed 
that in some buildings girders have been enclosed with flat slabs 
of non-conducting and incombustible material. I do not know of 
any in which they have been buried in a solid envelope of non- 

i Sec vol. ii., p. 265. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 114. 

conducting and incombustible material, except the Mitchell Build- 
ing at Milwaukee. For this porous terra-cotta blocks have been 
cast to nearly fit the beams forming the girder, the blocks having 
straight exterior lines. The slab forming the bottom is bedded 
up against the girders, and the side pieces hold it after the manner 
of a dove-tail. The side pieces have bearings on the bottom flanges 
of the beams forming the girder. The whole is held together in 
a solid mass by the gauged mortar in which the terra-cotta is 
set, which fills all the interstices between the girder and the porous 
body. Plastering is applied directly to the porous body. There 
is a wide range of materials which can thus be applied to the pro- 
tection of girders, varying however in non-conducting properties 
and weight. 

In the older government buildings, isolated supports such as 
pillars and columns were either of brick, stone, or marble. These 
were used indiscriminately, on the supposition that they were in- 
combustible and consequently fire-proof. Stone and marble seem 
only to have been used in preference to brick where richness of 
effect and a slight decrease of dimensions was sought. It is need- 
less for me to call your attention to the imperfections of stone, 
granite, or marble as materials to resist fire in the interior of a 
structure. Where the room can be spared and sufficient strength 
obtained, brick will ever remain one of the most efficient fire- 
resisting supports. It is weakened in this respect, however, by 
the insertion of stone, marble, or granite bande. Where such 
are necessary, plates of cast or wrought iron should be employed. 
They may be very thin, and the' amount of heat absorbed by 
them can do no harm. Iron bands are useless to prevent the 
crushing of brick piers or arresting its progress, especially when 
the loads are central. 

Thirty years ago cast-iron came into use for isolated supports, 
the first columns having been imported from Scotland. They 
may now be seen at the corner of John and Pearl Streets, New 
York. Strange to say, all the columns then imported were not 
used at that time, but twenty years after were employed in another 
building. The use of cast-iron for columns is now almost univer- 
sal, and many in our profession have made their first concessions 
of their sense of architectural propriety to practical convenience 
in using them for fire-proof structures. It is not many years since 
the danger to be apprehended in the use of iron for columns, 
whether cast or wrought, became apparent. It seems to have been 
perceived in England before it was in this country. A cast-iron 
column expands considerably before it becomes sufficiently heated 
to be materially weakened. The expansion is very nearly one- 
twelfth of an inch to a foot, or one inch in twelve feet. It forces 
the superimposed load upward, and thus not only lifts the work, 
but is resisted by all the rigidity of the work ; this brings a strain 
on it that it was not calculated to bear, and it breaks as soon as it 
is softened in the least. It would stand a greater heat with safety 
if the load was not thus increased. If water is thrown on it the 
nearest side contracts; it bends, and the load, bearing on a curved 
support, breaks it, no matter what the co-efficient of safety may be. 
It docs not fly to pieces, as some suppose, on account of the action 
of water alone. It snaps off on account of the weight, even if 
moderately heated. If heated to the softening point, which is 
very nearly the melting point, it flattens and bends over. I have 
seen many of them with one end entirely melted off. It will thus 
be seen that it is not only necessary to prevent columns from 
melting, but to keep them from expanding. The expansion is a 
greater clement of weakness in columns than in any other part of 
a building. England was first awakened to the necessity of pro- 
tecting iron columns by the destruction of the Pantechnicon, a 
supposed fire-proof building, which contained many of them. The 
necessity for protecting them in fire-proof buildings of all classes 
became apparent to the writer. on seeing the destruction of the 
Chicago Custom House in 1871, due alone to the weakness of the 
iron columns on the first story. I had occasion to give some 
account of the destruction of this building, in this very place, six 
years ago. 

Dennet was the first to propose a method of protecting cylin- 
drical cast-iron columns, lie surrounded them with two and one- 
half inches of Portland cement, which was plastered around the 
columns after they had been wound with spirals of iron wire. 
This increased their diameters five inches, and made them quite 
bulky. He tried some interesting experiments with actual fire ; 
placed thermometers inside, and suspended fine strips of lead in 
them, to show that they would not melt. A double iron column 
has been used in New York for some years. The space between 
the cylinders is filled with plaster Paris. An iron-contractor told 
me that they were liable to burst in frosty weather, and conse- 
quently they put in the plaster in a dry powdered state. In case 
of the destruction of the outer shell by fire, which is most likely, 
the dry plaster is liable to fall out, and the supporting column be- 
comes exposed. These columns are heavy and expensive. The 
method of combining iron with a non-conducting and incombusti- 
ble material, calculated to resist heat, and at the same time receive 
an incombustible covering having a superior exterior finish to that 
of iron, invented by my then partner and myself a few years since, 
was the result of our observations of the effects of fire on the old 
Chicago Custom House. This is too well known to require ex- 
tended description in this paper. It has been employed iu the 

Mitchell Building before mentioned. The various methods de- 
scribed are the only ones known to have been employed up to 
the present time for the protection of floors, girders, and columns. 

Partitions, if required to be light and otherwise than of common 
brick, do not present the difficulties which surround the architect 
in considering the floor question. Many materials useless for 
floors may be good for partitions. Of those not generally known 
to the profession, but worthy of notice, may be mentioned that of 
James John of Chicago, and such as was employed by Mr. Ward 
in his house at Portchester. Mr. John strings heavy wires (about 
No. 10) from floor to ceiling four inches apart, and sets up 
boards one inch from the wire-work. He then throws gauged 
mortar against the boards until it is two inches thick, thus leaving 
the wires in the centre. He levels his work off, removes the 
boards, and thus gets a solid partition of two inches. Mr. AVard 
made similar partitions of the same thickness by setting up three- 
eighths inch iron rods, and filling in with Portland cement con- 
crete iu the same manner. Besides these materials porous terra- 
cotta bricks, as employed in the Mitchell Building, hollow bricks, 
or any of the manufactured building blocks containing hydraulic 
lime, make reliable partitions four inches or more in thickness, 
and not requiring any extraneous stiffening. 

Roof-construction does not need consideration here, because the 
problem is the same as floor-construction. Iron truss work for 
roofs must receive as careful attention as girders or columns. It 
is well to remember that the trusses of the Patent Office roof were 
entirely made of iron. 

With regard to the aspects of the fire question from the point of 
view of fine art, a new field for thought must be traversed. If we 
cannot reconcile these new methods to our preconceived ideas of 
artistic propriety, it seems to me that in the present exigency we 
would be recreant to the evident demands of necessity, were we to 
sacrifice the former or attempt any compromise with the latter. 
The present state of affairs only shows that the problem of fire- 
proof building is not yet fully solved in all its aspects. The stu- 
dent of art has a new problem before him. The reconciliation 
must come when we know more than we now do. It would be 
foreign to the purposes of the present discussion to make any sug- 
gestions bearing upon it. It concerns us now to be alive to the 
necessities of the moment; to avoid all methods of fire-proofing 
which have failed to stand tests whether experimental or drawn 
from experience ; to avoid expending our clients' money on methods 
of building which only hold forth false promises to those who con- 
fide in us ; to consider diligently the contingencies of danger which 
may arise in every case ; and to carry on scientific investigation 
until the end demanded is accomplished. It will not do to say 
that the case- is hopeless. The world will only laugh at us if we 
do. We may expect to hear such things from the unlearned, but 
opinions from such sources will not have the weight which attaches 
to the dicta of scientific investigators. 



THIS building, which is now nearly finished, occupies the upper 
half of the Jauncey Court estate on Wall Street; it is built of 
white marble. The other half of the lot is occupied by the build- 
ing of the Queen's Insurance Company. (See American Architect 
and Buildlivj News for Sept. 29, 1877.) 


This mausoleum has recently been built at Graceland Ceme- 
tery near Chicago. The interior is large enough to contain ten 
coffins. The shelves are of blue marble, polished edge, with 
white Italian-marble tablets. The ceiling is groined, Philadelphia 
pressed brick being used for the vault, and blue dressed granite 
for the ribs, corbels, and centre boss. The interior walls are faced 
with polished marble of different colors. The floor is of English 
encaustic tile. The walls are built of brick, faced with Westerly 
granite, the main portion of the building being rock-faced, the 
plinth and quoins at the corners pointed with margin draft line 
around ; the steps, window and door finish, cornice and roof, 
are patent hammer dressed. The shafts at the entrance are of 
red polished granite, the shafts in the louvre are of blue polished 
granite, the bases and capitals are of white Canaan marble. The 
doors and tracery of the tympanum are white Italian marble. 
The windows in the rear wall and tympanum are glazed with rich 
stained glass of appropriate design. The hardware is of solid 
bronze ; but the gate is of wrought-iron. The entire cost of the 
mausoleum is $10,000. 


The Highland House, which was built in the summer of 1870, 
is at the head of the Mount Adams and Eden Park Inclined Rail- 
way, and is a species of casino which is used for a restaurant, and 
for balls, banquets, etc. In the basement are the kitchen, 18 x 30 

MARCH 2, 1878.] The American Architect and Building News. 


feet, laundry, ice-cellars, bowling-alleys, etc. 
arrangement of the other stories. 

The plans show the 


We have been much encouraged both at the number and quality 
of the designs which have been sent in for our first competition. 
We have received twenty-eight drawings, of which we propose to 
publish two pages of four each. In many cases the drawings are 
of so nearly equal merit that it is difficult to draw the line be- 
tween them, and we cannot always be sure that those we select for 
publication are distinctly better than others which we omit for 
want of room. It may also happen iii some cases, that designs 
which are excellent in idea, or even in performance, are unsuited for 
reproduction by reason of inexperience or other fault in drawing. 
Competitors can, by observing how their drawings appear when 
reproduced, draw their own conclusions as to what changes they 
should make in their style of drawing, in order to reach the most 
satisfactory results in our pages. We wish, however, to draw 
attention to defects that are common to almost all drawings that 
we receive, crowding of lines and the want of perfect blackness 
in them. This blackness can always be best obtained by addin" 
to the India-ink a little lamp-black or ivory-black. 

We trust that those who have tried their hands at the first com- 
petition will continue as competitors in those which are to follow ; 
for it should be borne in mind that the real good to the individual 
is not the winning of a prize nor the publication of his design, but 
rather the strengthening of his powers as a designer by the solution 
of a real problem, and the instruction he will receive in studying 
the solutions that others have reached in the same premises. Wo 
regret that several designs have been received too lato to ba 
admitted to the competition. 


THIS book is worthy of a name not vulgarized by the use of the 
word art as an adjective. AVe protest that it is much too good to 
be Christened with such a commonplace abuse of good language. 
It is by no means a mere perfunctory piece of literary task-work. 
The hand to which the work was committed is too well-trained 
and too skilful, and the taste too just, to be content with any 
thing less than a thorough piece of work, within the essential 
limits of dilettanteism. These limits, however, are large enough 
to give space to an excellent and symmetrical historical compendium 
of the subject, not elsewhere to b"e found in such convenient shape, 
to a sufficiently correct statement of the question of materials and 
their applications to the uses of decoration, and to a modest and 
sensible sketch of the hall, the dining-room, the boudoir, the bed- 
room, the library, and drawing-room, as they should appear to 
meet the requirements of modern life, according to the views of a 
lady of good taste, breeding, and sound common sense. From the 
point of view of the artist, Mrs. Spoft'ord's elegant chapters only 
touch the surface of things, and give him no new thought or in- 
spiration. In other words, they do not pretend to be professional, 
and do not reveal any of the technical mysteries of the art of deco- 
ration. They will serve to make the art better known to the 
public, however, they will awaken a new and intelligent interest in 
the subject, they may purify and enlighten popular taste, and 
make the work of the artist better appreciated. Such books, 
therefore, have a raison d'etre from every point of view, and the 
artist may welcome them not as rivals but as allies in- the warfare 
of art against vulgarity. Among these books of amateurs we do 
not hesitate to pronounce that of Mrs. Spofford facile princeps. We 
further venture to say that even in the matter of practical sugges- 
tion it is quite as sound and much more copious than the well- 
known work on ".House Decoration " by the Misses Garrett of Lon- 
don, who are recognized as professional decorators, and who, so far 
as we know, are her only competitors among her own sex. 

The chapters entitled the Gothic Style, the Renaissance, the 
Elizabethan, the Jacobean, the Louis Quatorze, Quinze, and Seize, 
the Pompeian, the First Empire, the Moorish, the Eastlake, the 
Queen Anne, and the Oriental styles, which occupy about one- 
third of the whole book, are certainly excellent historical summa- 
ries, and as such we commend them heartily to the reader. They 
are temperate, just, and comprehensive. 'Mr. John Hungerford 
Pollen, in his South Kensington Handbook on Furniture and 
Woodwork, goes over nearly the same ground and in nearly the 
same space. He gives more names, dates, and facts, and is per- 
haps more satisfactory to the special student ; but Mrs. Spofford 
excels not only in the literary presentation of the subject, but in 
the manner of describing the' essential characteristics of the styles 
of which she treats, and their significance as illustrations of his- 
tory. In this last respect especially, we know not where to find 
a better piece of work. Her general statement of the historical 
proposition in the opening of the chapter on the Renaissance is an 
admirable answer to those who say that questions of furniture are 
unworthy of study, unworthy of the attention of intelligent 
minds. It is brief, and worth quoting : 

] Art Decoration applied to Furniture. By Harriet Prescott Spoft'ord. With 
Illustrations. New York: Uarper & Brothers, Publishers, Franklin Square. 1878. 

That it Las taken the historic movements of the world to produce 
the trivial things that constitute our household furniture, alknvinc 
that our furniture is trivial, and not as vital and necessary as temples 
and towers themselves, - seems, at first sight, a monstrous declaration. 
.But it is nevertheless true that the convulsions of empires and the 
epochs that have shaped the fate of races have also shaped the articles 
01 our daily use; and the events that have brought about our styles of 
new's't C l t es re h h ^ V u ?, failingly reactetl on our furniture, and produced 

The distinctions which she draws between the styles of Louis 
Quatorze, Louis Quinze, and Louis Seize, and her definition of the 
peculiar significance of these styles as illustrations and expres- 
sions of their respective epochs, are conceived with great intelli- 
gence, and set forth with a precision and clearness which leave 
little to be desired. As she intimates, it is impossible to look at 
the furniture of these three reigns, and not observe how license in 
the first became profligacy in the second, and how these qualities 
were restrained into decency in the third. There could scarcely 
be a better epitome of styles than such a statement. The picture 
of the contrast between the furniture of the reign of Louis Seize 
and that of his predecessors is an excellent example of the curious 
relationship existing between history and the minor arts. 
_ As for the " Eastlake style," she is more discriminating and 
just than we might reasonably expect an amateur in art to be. 
I he half of the civilized world which speaks English is so beset 
with moral ideas in art, the altar, the credence-table, the reredos, 
the pne-dieu, have been so secularized.,for use in modern drawin"- 
rooms, and principles have asserted themselves with such uncom- 
promising rigor, that a lay sister might devoutly embrace the 
straight-backed xirec'd, and eschew all worldly curves and profane 
blandishments in chairs, tables, and sideboards, without exposin^ 
herself to the charge of bigotry. But she is enabled to give to this 
singular and notable incident in the history of art its due place 
wit.hput overshadowing all other historical developments. She 
admits the wholesome influence of the sound principles which 
underlie its manifestations; she gives due credit to the honesty 
and durability of these manifestations, and to the ingenuity with 
which high principles have often been made not inconsistent with 
forms of beauty; but she will not relegate to the dusty oblivion 
of the garret all the comfort and luxury that are implied in the 
type of the Louis Quatorze arm-chair. 

"If the Eastlake, so called, is not all in itself that might be wished, 
if it is here and there a little inconsistent with itself, it yet represents a 
movement seldom if ever before effected by a single person ; audit, has 
succeeded in inaugurating a new regime, which bears the same relation 
to the loose and wanton Quatorze and Quinze i-fijiinc, that virtue bears 
to vice." 

In like manner the Queen Anne and Georgian revival is philo- 
sophically discussed, its historical relationships justly defined, and 
its details set forth with much of the feeling and sentiment, and 
with not a little of the knowledge and research, which are the 
essential requisites of the modern artist. Indeed, many designers, 
in reading what she has to say on this point, may add materially to 
their stock of information. She quotes from the discussions that 
arose in the Royal Institute of British Architects, and in the meet- 
ings of the Architectural Association, on this new revival, and takes 
issue with some criticisms of the Builder. She attributes to the 
style not only elegance and refinement, but dignity. " It makes 
none of the pretension of the Gothic, and has none of the weari- 
some iteration of the Classic. It seems," she says, "exactly the 
furniture to surround unostentatious people of gentle manners and 

It will be seen that, according to our views, this is on the whole 
no ordinary book. We took it up with a doubt and distrust begot 
of a title which, by mere association perhaps, savors of pretence 
and vulgarity, and of a prejudice that a litterateur could scarcely 
contribute any thing of real value to a subject requiring so much 
of knowledge, experience, and technical training, to understand it 
aright; and we have laid it down, feeling that in this book we 
have a possession which we hesitate whether to place on the shelf 
devoted to elegant belles-lettres, or on that where it would have the 
graver and rarer companionship of those who have written well 
upon matters of art and history. 

It is to be regretted, that although we can scarcely find fault 
with the quantity and quality of the wood-cuts, they serve simply 
to decorate the page, and have but little if any connection with 
the text. Indeed, the text does not allude to the prints more than 
two or three times ; and the eye which seeks among them for an 
explanation, a confirmation, or illustration of a passage especially 
requiring such aid, is doomed either to disappointment or perplex- 
ity. These wood-cuts are selected from Viollet-le-Duc, Pullan, 
Talbert, Shaw, and other authorities, without further acknowledg- 
ment than a brief and inconspicuous general notice in the preface. 
Talbert's name, by the by, we do not see noticed at all. It would 
seem that at least the recognition of a foot-note had been earned 
by those whose works have been borrowed to decorate these pages. 
Let us hope that in the next edition, which we trust will soon be 
reached, this oversight will be remedied; and, better still, that 
enough especial illustrations may be introduced to enable the 
unprofessional reader to have something more trustworthy than 
his own imagination to depend upon, especially in matters requir- 
ing such delicate discrimination as the distinctions between the 
styles of adjacent reigns. 


The American Architect and Building News, 

[VOL. III. No. 114. 


IF other writers of hand-books would give as clear and concise 
information upon the subjects they treat of, as Mr. Stevens has 
given in the little treatise before us, the task of the student and 
practitioner would be materially lightened. Apprentices, paint- 
ers, and architectural students should read it with attention ; and 
even older architects can learn much from its pages, and will for 
the first time, perhaps, appreciate the true meaning of certain 
stipulations and directions that they are in the habit of mechani- 
cally incorporating in their painter's specifications. The book 
treats of materials, mixing, qualities and properties of paints and 
oils, dry wood, wet wood, rain and dew, repainting, roofs, old 
paint, etc. The author has his peculiarities of style and opinion, 
but as a rule sticks to the practical treatment of his materials ; 
and although he does say, " Blinds should vary in color according 
to the style of architecture : for a Gothic house, they ought to be 
of a shade between the trimming and the body, and may be im- 

E roved by having the panels light and stiles dark," he usually 
;aves aside the aesthetic consideration of his handicraft. 


The first impression that one gets on looking through this quarto 
volume of eighty lithographic plates, printed on heavy cream-laid 
paper, is that the draughtsman who shall seek aid from its pages 
will inevitably add to the exasperation that almost always arises 
in the lay mind when compelled to decipher the title of an archi- 
tectural drawing. There are, however, some few alphabets or 
portions of alphabets that may, with proper caution, be used by 
the draughtsman in every-day work. Church Text, Old English, 
and German Text are all the regularly acknowledged alphabets 
that are given. Besides these there are two or three alphabets 
from old manuscripts, which give the book a certain antiquarian 
flavor, slight though it be. 


A new periodical appears in Berlin, bearing the title Tier Rohr- 
/e'/er, that is to say, The Pipe-layer; it has for a specialty the inter- 
ests of those who supply buildings with light and warmth, water 
and air. This branch of architectural engineering, which has made 
so rapid an advance in the last two decades, is of universal bearing, 
and of particular importance to public hygiene. It is true, almost 
all technical papers give more or less attention to the theme ; but 
having wider or different purposes in view, none of them have 
treated of the subject otherwise than as wholly subsidiary to 
these, until the new Plumber and Sanitary Engineer came to occupy 
the ground among us. The appearance of the Rohrlerjer, as a 
specialist, is a welcome accession to professional literature, and 
promises a record of every improvement in the methods of warm- 
ing and ventilating our structures and of providing them with 
water and gas. 


We have to record the appearance of a new fellow journal, 
the Art Worker* a monthly magazine of designs for decoration. 
Its purpose is sufficiently shown in the following extract from its 
prospectus : 

" The scope and purposes of the Art Worker are fairly indicated l>y its 
title; viz., to supply good design of the later styles, in response to the 
growing demand created by the increasing public interest in all branches 
of art-industry. Illustrations of examples of decoration, ornament, and 
furniture will constitute its principal feature; though, owing to the wide 
field to be covered, many other subjects will necessarily receive treats 
ment in its pages. The selections will be made with a constant view to 
technical and practical utility, and no effort will be spared to secure and 
maintain a uniform standard of excellence in the material." 

It is to be published in monthly numbers, of which two have 
been sent to us, containing six and eight quarto plates on tinted 
paper, lithographed from pen-drawings and very fairly executed. 
They include a number of spirited designs for furniture, glass, and 
painted decoration, most of them well drawn, some not so good, 
of a kind likely to be useful to people who are looking for sug- 
gestions, and representing very well the principal styles of work 
in vogue among us. Three clever figure designs from Mr. Charles 
Booth, glass-stainer, lead off the first number, and prints selected 
from the designs of Mr. E. W. Godwin and Mr. Hulme furnish 
no larger amount of foreign matter than may naturally be looked 
for in a new serial. It is a magazine of plates only, containing no 

DUBABLE PAINT FOB OUT-DOOB WOBK. Grind powdered charcoal 
in linseed oil, with sufficient litharge as a dryer. Thin for use with 
boiled linseed oil. 

' The Art of House-Palnting ; being & Clear and Comprehensive Record of the 
Observations and Experiences, during many years, of a practical worker in the art, 

E. Woodward, New York, 1877. 

The Art Worker, a Journal of Design. Published monthly by J. O'Kane, 31 
Park 1U)W, New York. Nos. 1 and 2. Price one dollar each. 



THE Cincinnati Chapter, which has been dormant for some 
months past, has at last roused itself to the realizing sense that it 
may still be of some use in the community : at least, it seems as 
though a decided effort was to be made to keep it in existence ; 
and to this end an election of officers was held on the 19th ult., to 
serve during the ensuing year, with the following result : 

President, James W. McLaughlin; Vice-President, Edwin An- 
derson ; Treasurer, George W. Rapp ; Secretary, Charles Crapsey. 
After this business was accomplished, a discussion was had as to 
the letting of contracts separately for the erection of buildings. 
Mr. Nash said that he had always advocated this mode of contract- 
ing, and had carried it into execution whenever possible. It 
worked better results to the owner ; it was better for the principal 
contractor, so called ; it was better for the sub-contractor; it was 
better for the architect. It compelled the architect to be very care- 
ful in the preparation of his specifications, in order to avoid any 
conflict of interests among the several contractors ; to define clearly 
and without question what each must do, and how he must do it. 
After the contracts were let, however, the architect had an easier 
task in dealing directly with the head of each department, rather 
than at second-handed, or through the principal. Mr. Nasli gave 
several personal experiences to support the ground ho held. He 
would urge the matter upon the attention of his fellow archi- 
tects, and hoped they would whenever occasion offered carry this 
practice into execution. Other members took similar grounds with 
Mr. Nash, the matter being thoroughly canvassed in the discussion 
which ensued. 


[The report of Mr. John F. Weir in behalf of the judges of Group XXVII., 
embracing Plastic and Graphic Art.] 

A MARKED feature of the exhibit of Spain was the prominence 
accorded historical subjects. The Spanish school of to-day is not 
surpassed in technical excellence nor in the profounder aims of 
art ; but as many of their strongest painters have pursued their 
studies in Paris, where their works are to be seen rather than in 
their own country, these have been more popularly classed with 
the French school. Zamacois, Fortuny, Madrazo, Agrassot, Ilui- 
perez, Valles, Gisbert, Vera, Escosura, and others, have made 
Spanish art favorably and widely known. The first united with 
extraordinary technical skill a profound and subtile meaning in 
his art. He was perhaps the most accomplished and piercing 
satirist of the time. 

The Spanish collection at Philadelphia contained several repre- 
sentative works of great interest. A very large picture of "The 
Translation of St. Francis of Assisi," by B. Mercade, was well 
worthy of study. The subject is treated with great purity of 
feeling, and indeed solemnity. The expression of the heads is 
very fine, and the composition simple and impressive. The picture 

ful ; the figures have great dignity and sim 

These pictures were loaned by the Museum of Fine Arts at Madrid. 

" The Two' Friends," by J. Agrassot; "The Burial of San Lo- 
renzo, at Rome," by A. Vera ; and " Sacristy in the Cathedral of 
Avila," by P. P. Gonzalvo, are also conspicuously worthy of com- 

In landscape the Spanish exhibit contained little that evinced 
marked sympathy with this branch of art; and in sculpture the 
only examples worthy of mention were " The Wounded Bull- 
Fighter," by R. Nobas, and "Dante " (in bronze), by G. Sunol. 

The impression gathered from the large historical works men- 
tioned above was a very favorable one, and in this style of art the 
Spanish exhibit was especially admirable. 


The Italian exhibit in painting did not do justice to the reputa- 
tion which this school now enjoys through the widely-known 
merits of certain Roman artists, whose works we here looked for 
in vain. 

Italian painting has recently acquired new life and vigor, partly 
through the influence of the French school, but mainly by a very 
praiseworthy return to the serious "study of nature, in lieu of the 
conventional adherence to formal traditions that had long been 
unfavorable to its progress. Within the past few years it has- 
made an extraordinary advance, and acquired thorough technical 
methods peculiar to itself, as well as great brilliancy of coloring. 
But the true excellence of this school was not represented at 
Philadelphia. The most noteworthy pictures in the collection 
were the " Evocation of Souls, from ' Robert le Diable,' " by R. 
Fontana; " The Interior of St. Mark's," by Luigi Bisi ; "Interior 
of the Choir of the Cathedral of Parma," by S. Marches! ; " The 

1 14-. 




W^UL ST. ir y: 







MARCH 2, 1878.] 

The American Architect and Building Xews. 


Kscort," by G. Fattori ; " Preparation for a Feast at Pompeii," by 
A. Scifoni; " A Grandmother's Admonition." by M. Cammarano; 
and two portraits by C. Maccari. the latter being specially com- 
mendable. It is to be regretted that a more adequate representa- 
tion of the merits of this school was not given. 

In sculpture the Italian exhibit was very large, abounding in 
what may be termed genre sculpture, in subjects of a domestic 
and familiar character that are better suited for pictorial represen- 
tation than for plastic art. The impression made by these works 
was not a favorable one. The display of remarkable subtlety in 
the manipulation of material, in the dexterous undercutting and 
intricate chiselling, which rendered many of the sculptures curiosi- 
ties rather than works of art, gave evidence of great skill in work- 
manship; but there was little that was essentially and vitally 
sculpturesque, and the collection, on the whole, was frivolous and 
unimpressive. There were, however, some works that bore evi- 
dence of a more genuine artistic aim, and among these may be 
mentioned "Modesty" and "Hope," by A. Botinelli; "Love is 
Blind," by Donato Barcaglia ; "Timidity," by L. Torelli ; " Youth 
of Michael Angelo," by E. Zocchi ; " The Flower," by C. Pietro ; 
"The White Hose," and "The Orphan," by P. Guarnerio; 
"Dreams of Youth," by G. Argenti ; "Boy and Swan," by 11. 
Perduzzi ; and ' Love's Nest," by 11. Perida. 

The wood-carvings of Luigi Frullini were worthy of admiration, 
exhibiting great beauty of design and very subtile skill in execu- 

The exhibit of Sweden in painting bore evidence of very decided 
merit. French and North German influences are plainly recogniz- 
able, and it is difficult to trace a distinctive national character in 
their art; but, on the whole, there is proof of sound discipline and 
true artistic aims. A most admirable portrait by Count von Rosen 
was not surpassed by any thing of the kind in the Exhibition. It 
is painted with rare skill and feeling, fine in color, and well drawn. 
An " Odalisque," by Hugo Salmson ; "Maid with an Open Letter," 
by G. Saloman; and "Market Day in Dusseldort'," by A. Jorn- 
berg, were the most noteworthy genre pictures of the collection ; 
and in landscape, "Birch Forest," by E. Bergh; "Fishing Har- 
bor," by Baron Hermelin ; "Beech Forest," by A. Kallenberg ; 
" Coast Scenery," by A. Nordgren ; " Moonlight Landscape," by 
II. A. Wahlberg; and "Summer Evening," by P. Ekstrom, are 
worthy of special mention. 

In water-color painting the most favorable examples were by 
Miss Anna Gardell. 


The Norwegian exhibit in painting resembled that of Sweden in 
character. The best examples of the figure bore evidence of for- 
eign training and influence, and, while they exhibited decided 
merit, there was little that was distinctively national. In laud- 
scape, however, this is less marked. 

The most important picture of the collection was " lluth and 
Boaz," by Otto Binding. This picture is a production of mature 
art, admirable in sentiment, in breadth and freedom of execution, 
and fine in color. The figures are thoroughly well drawn, and the 
landscape skilfully rendered. "A Fresh Breeze," by II. Gude; 
' "Birch Forest," by S. Jacobson; and "A Summer Morning in the 
Birch Forest," by J. M. Grimelund, are also commendable. 


There was very little in the Russian exhibit in painting of a 
character to warrant favorable criticism. The pictures displayed 
but little technical skill, and were generally dry and mannered. 
The most pleasing examples were " The Sunday Tea-party," by 
Alexis Koorzoochin ; " Ice-drift on the Neva," by A. Bogoliooboff ; 
and the landscapes of J. T. Aivazowsky. 



Sir, A client one day wrote upon my blackboard these fig- 
ures : " 24 cu. ft. 1296 cu. in. ; " asking what well-known measure 
they signified, and if they were the correct expression of the 
measure they pretended to designate. 

If I found myself vanquished, Mr. Editor, after wrestling for a 
time with this conundrum, ought I necessarily to feel mortified 
thereat, and could my client justly have argued that such ignor- 
ance of ordinary weights and measures unfitted me for the practice 
of my profession ? If, after that, my client put his question in 
another form by substituting for his figures the following diagram, 
ought I to have felt mortified when, though recognizing the 
measure and knowing its value in cubic feet, I could not certify 
to the correctness of its proportions ? 

For my own satisfaction I questioned a number of architects 
and builders, with the following result : 

The first builder was a Philadelphia!. He gave the value of 

the perch as 22 cubic feet. 1 The next was from Providence. 
Though accustomed to reckon his stone-work in cords and cord 
feet, he sometimes came across the perch, and therefore knew its 
value to be 24 cubic feet. Some masons he said, however, used 
the cubic yard. Another, from Boston, put it at 24J cubic feet, 

-51 t6'-f 

which is generally accepted as correct. Still another, who had 
done work in various States, made it a round 25 cubic feet for 
convenience, he said, of calculation ; but in cases where it was 
considered important that the value of the perch should be under- 
stood by both parties to the contract, he generally specified at the 
outset the number of feet it was to contain. 

As for the figures "24 cu. ft. 1206 cu. in.," none of the builders 
recognized them. I was therefore satisfied that they had it in 
their power to give the perch almost any value best calculated 
to suit their convenience without liability to conviction for fraud. 
All these builders, by the way, objected to the metric system on 
the ground that it would necessitate their learning their tables all 
over again. As for the architects, I found that to convey the idea 
of exact magnitude, the expression, " as big as a piece of chalk," 
or " as a good-sized fish," 
would be more useful ; 
and if my client had 
drawn the diagram of his 
perch as shown, I believe 
he would have hit upon 
a more unvarying stand- 
ard of weight and meas- 
ure than he found in our 
unfortunate land perch. 

Such, then, being the condition of things with regard to the 
perch, I resolved to make a test with some of the weights and 
measures in our tables still more familiar and more generally 
used, lest any one should object that I had taken the hardest I 
could find. I took the acre, the ounce, and the quart, and asked 
about them these very natural and practical questions : 

What is the length of one side of a square acre V 

How do the ounce and pound Troy compare in value with the 
ouiisce and pound avoirdupois? 

How do the milk, beer, and wine quarts compare with each other 
in value? 

I also asked what the following measures were, and what rela- 
tion they bore to each other : tierce, kilderkin, quarter, quartern, 
ton, and tun. 

Up to this day I have been unable to find a single individual 
who could answer correctly any one of the above questions ; and I 
ask you, Mr. Editor, if I am not safe in saying that there is not a 
man living in the United States who could give an exact answer 
to all four questions, simple as they appear, without referring to 
books ? It is enough to learn that the ounce Troy is greater than 
the ounce avoirdupois by ^fa, while the pound Troy is less than the 
pound avoirdupois by A'-j, and that the relation between the wine 
tun and the ton avoirdupois is expressed by the convenient frac- 
tion i2 |J|. 7 o^5 A1 (about), to see that I am altogether likely to be 
safe in my assertion. 

In the earliest stages of civilization and among savages, com- 
merce is generally conducted in the form of barter ; or, if some 
conventional standard of weight and measure is used, it has at 
least, in general, the advantage of simplicity, and a name indica- 
tive of its approximate value. With our wors'e than barbarous 
conglomeration of standards, where the name has been twisted 
and misapplied until it no longer has any relation to the sub- 
stance, a hundred signifying a hundred and twelve; twenty- 
eight, twenty-five; and a dozen, sixteen, or where the same 
name refers to different things, and where the whole is no longer 
equal to the sum of its parts, the opportunities for fraud and em- 
barrassment in all business transactions, and the waste of time 
and* money in all the various works of life, become so serious as 
to rank among the most formidable obstacles to the advance of our 

The only remedy I see for this evil is the universal adoption of 
the metric system; a system according to which the weight and 
dimensions of every material thing, whether solid, liquid, or 
gaseous, whether on land or on water, whether in the earth or in 
the heavens, and whether determined by the scale, plummet, 
balance, barometer, or thermometer, are ascertained by a method 
absolutely uniform, entirely simple, and equally suitable to the 
use of all mankind, resting upon a single invariable standard of 
linear measure, with multiples and submultiples, like those of our 
monetary system, exclusively decimal, with appropriate names, 
similar in all languages ; and itself secure against the possibility 
of change or loss through carelessness or accident or design, by 
being constructed on scientific principles, and copied for distribu- 
tion among the different nations of the world. 

The following problem, solved first by the English and then by 

> Solid contents of a wall sixteen inches thick (taking of the wall a piece which 
is a rod, pole, or perch in length, and one foot high). 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 114. 

the metric system, shows how much may be saved by the latter in 
our calculations. 


What is the solid contents, in cubic yards, feet, and inches, or 
metres and centimetres, of the brickwork in the walls of a reser- 
voir 19' 8" (6 m.) square, 22' 0" (0.7 in.) high (inside measure), 
and averaging 4' 8" (about 1.4 m.) thick ; and what is the exact 
weight of these walls on the foundations ? 

Also, what is the amount and weight of the water which the 
reservoir would contain ? 

Given weight of 1 cubic inch of water = 252.7453 grains. 

" specific gravity of brickwork = 1.0 

And it being known that 1 cubic centimetre of water weighs 1 
gram, or that 1 cubic metre of water weighs 1 metric ton, or 1000 

In the first solution 870 figures are used, and only an approxi- 
mately accurate result is possible. 

In the second solution only 74 figures are used to obtain an ab- 
solutely accurate result. 

In the second the answers may be read differently : thus, answer 
1 may be read, 277 cu. m. 018 cu. decimetres; answer 2 may be 
read, 414 tons 230 kilograms 800 grams, without changing the 
figures, but merely removing the decimal points. 

In the first solution there are twenty-jive distinct mathematical 
operations requiring the use of the pencil, or which cannot easily 
be performed in the head alone. 

In the second only two. J. P. PUTNAM. 

[The example prepared by our contributor proved only too convin- 
cing, inasmuch as to print his computation would have -involved the 
sacrifice o several other communications. Wo therefore beg our read- 
ers to accept the editors' assurance, or elso to prove by direct experi- 
ment, that the difference in figuring by the two systems is enormous. 



THE subject of the second competition is a bay-window, as seen 
from the' drawing-room in the second story of a eity house. This 
drawing-room is fourteen feet high in the clear. The width of 
the room is twenty feet, and the opening of the bay is not to ex- 
ceed ten feet. The plan of the bay. the scale of the drawings, 
provided they are included on one sheet of the prescribed size, 
and the materials used in construction, are optional with the 
competitor. The drawings required are a plan, an elevation as 
Been from within, showing how the opening is made to harmonize 
with the treatment of the drawing-room, a section showing the 
nature of the external treatment, and details to a larger scale 
than the principal drawings. The manner of supporting the wall 
over the opening of the bay should be indicated. The drawings 
must be received at the office of the American Architect and Builil- 
ing News on or before March 30. The conditions of this and of 
subsequent competitions will be the same as those which governed 
the first (see American Architect and Building News for Jan. 20). 
The scale of the various drawings should be represented graph- 
ically on each drawing. 


TOWN-HEATING BY STEAM. The experiment of heating the city 
of Lockport, N.Y., by steam under the Holly system, has, it is said, 
proved highly successful. The following results are reported: Three 
miles of pipe, covered with non-conducting material, laid under- 
ground, radiate from a central boiler-house; and fifty different dwell- 
ings and other edifices, including one large public-school building, 
have been thoroughly warmed all winter by steam thus distributed 
and turned on or oft' as required by the tenant. Dwellings more 
than a mile distant from the steam-generator are heated as readily as 
those next door. Steam-meters arc provided, so that each consumer 
need pay only for what he uses. It is stated that the system can be 
so developed as to furnish steam at fifty pounds pressure, transmitted 
through twenty miles of pipe, which could, therefore, supply power for 
engines and manufactures, and steam for baking and laundry pur- 
poses, for extinguishing fires, for cleaning streetsof ice or snow, or 
protecting hydrants from frost. The rates actually charged to the 
consumer do not exceed what his coal and wood cost him to produce 
the same result. 

THE WEST POINT HOSPITAL. After the United States Govern- 
ment had begun to build a hospital for the Military Academy at 
West Point, it was discovered that the records proved that not more 
than seven cadets had ever been sick at one time, whereas the new 
hospital would accommodate about three hundred patients. 

A RELIC OF THE EXHIBITION. Signor Guarnerio's immense bust 
of Gen. Washington, with which a little eagle was vainly trying 
to fly off, which afforded so much amusement to the visitors at 
Memorial Hall during the Centennial Exhibition, was lately sold at 
Philadelphia for non-payment of customs dues. One dollar was the 
highest bid that was made for it. 

BURNING WELLS. Near Green Sulphur, Ky., is a well which was 
bored by an old fanner some forty years ago, who expected to get salt 
water from which salt could be manufactured. The water was ob- 
tained, but so impure was it that the scheme was abandoned, and the 
unpleasant liquid poured itself into the Dix River. Some time after- 
wards one of a party of men while gigging fish by torchlight acciden- 
tally set fire to the surface of the river by dropping his torch. The 
flames spread rapidly in all directions, and the frightened inhabitants 
thought that the Day of Judgment was upon them. What flowed 
from the well, and was the cause of this conflagration, was of course 
petroleum. This has long since ceased to flow, and in its stead the 
shaft is filled nearly to the brim with a clear odorless brine which has 
this striking peculiarity, that, let a few buckets of water be drawn from 
the well, and the water will begin to boil and bubble furiously; then 
if a lighted match is dropped into the water, a column of fire will 
shoot into the air for several feet, burn for half an hour or so, and die 
down, only to shoot up again if more water is drawn from the well. 
Another and more remarkable burning well is near McConnellsville, 
O., where Mr. T. W. Williamson when boring for oil struck a vein of 
gas, apparently inexhaustible. Into the top of the boring three pipes 
have been fitted, through the largest of which about four-fifths of the 
gas escapes vertically. This has been lighted, and has for months 
burned steadily with a flame some twenty feet or more in height. By 
one of the smaller pipes gas is conveyed to a stationary engine which 
pumps oil from two neighboring wells, by the other, a three-quarter- 
inch pipe, gas is conveyed to the house where it is used for cooking, 
wanning, and lighting, to the exclusion of all other fuels. As the gas 
is remarkably pure, and burns with clear white light, no odor is per- 
ceptible about the house. 

CREMATION. Every now and then the advocates of incineration 
as a mode of disposing of the dead receive new recruits in this 
country and abroad, in persons who desire that their own bodies or 
the remains of their relatives shall be reduced to ashes; but it is easy 
to see that the commercial instinct has quite as much influence in the 
matter as the wishes of the deceased, or the belief of the survivors 
in the sanitary efficacy of cremation. That those who have built re- 
torts and furnaces should demand a fee for their services, is only 
just; but that a husband should give a public lecture on the process 
and results of cremating the body of his wife, is only more abhorrent 
than the action of the man who uses the ashes of his eight-day-old 
child as samples when negotiating with possible clients. 

ICE MACHINE. There has lately been shipped to New Orleans a 
huge ice-machine, whose capacity is fifty tons daily. The gas-com- 
pressing pump and frame is 13 feet inches high, and feet inches 
wide at the base ; the cylinders have 24 inches bore by 30 inches 
stroke, and weigh 48,805 pounds. The refrigerant is liquefied am- 
moniacal gas vaporized and again liquefied by mechanical compres- 
sion. The cold produced by the vaporization is 45 degrees below zero, 
Fahrenheit. The cost of manufacturing the ice in New Orleans will 
not much exceed one dollar per ton. 

A MOUND-BUILDERS' IDOL. The workmen employed on the site 
of the new penitentiary at Chester, III., dug up, the other day, a 
figure which is supposed to be a relic of the mound-builders. It is 
an image, supposed to be an idol, sixteen inches high, made of slate 
or soapstone, and in a sitting posture. On its breast and abdomen 
are numerous figures and characters, including the picture of a man 
in a sitting posture, an elephant, and a human foot, and on the back 
are a horse's head, a frog, a fish, a turtle, etc. On the head is a band 
inscribed with some characters which may be hieroglyphics. 

state that the moulder authorized by Government has started for 
Olympia, to take casts of the most recently discovered sculptures, viz., 
of the Apollo belonging to the west front of the temple, and of the 
Hennes of Praxiteles. When these reach Germany all the Olympian 
casts, collected now in the Campo Santo near the Cathedral in Berlin, 
will be publicly exhibited. The sculptures of the east gable are com- 
plete in all important parts. The above-mentioned Apollo the cen- 
tral figure is alone wanting to perfect the western pediment, a com- 
position far more remarkable for life and action than is that facing 
the east. 

TIN IN OLD RIVER-BEDS. Running water leaves on the earth's 
crust marks as permanent as any of the violent convulsions of nature. 
The discovery has lately been made in Australia, that the streams of 
the tertiary period, streams many millions of years ago, but now 
dried up, are vast storehouses of wealth. They are carefully searched 
out and worked for tin. They acted in precisely the same way as the 
rivers of our own day, washing away the lighter rock, and leaving a 
concentration of the heavy ore in their channels. They vary consid- 
erably in depth, according to the remoteness of their origin. In one 
of them a shaft has been sunk to 60 feet, and at that depth the 
ground is a regular river-bed, with, in some places, a collection of 
loose drift sand, heavily intermixed with tin-ore. It has been opened 
at that depth, to the distance, horizontally, of 2,000 feet, and explored 
by boring from the surface for 600 feet more. The width of the seam 
has increased from 18 to 400 feet, and it contains an average of three 
feet of what the miners call " pay dirt," that is to say, soil worth work- 
ing, for it yields about 1| per cent of metal, an excellent produce for 
tin-ore. Some of these deposits are discovered at 'only a few feet from 
the surface, a fact which shows that they are of much later date than 
the one referred to above, but still of immeasurable antiquity. The 
state of the earth also shows that these later rivers were not in action 
for very long periods, as the ore has been far less washed. Twenty- 
five of these tin-mines have already been found; and although the 
difficulty attending all new enterprises has retarded their develop- 
ment, yet within two years they have produced 2,059 tons of ore, 
worth about $1,000,000. 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES K. OSOOOD & Co. 

[NO. 115. 

BOSTON, MARCH 9, 1878. 



The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art. 
The Baltimore Soldiers' Monument. Railroad Bridges. 
A New Way of testing them. The Bill to appoint Unit- 
ed States Railroad Commissioners. Mr. Norman Shaw's 
Cloaca Minima. The Death of Mr. Bonomi. An Apology 81 




Insurance Building, Boston, Mass. Sketches from Rothon- 
burg. Study in Perspective. Designs for Staircases . . 84 



CORRESPONDENCE. Letter from Hartford 87 

COMMUNICATION. Spalling of Bricks 87 



THE Trustees of the Pennsylvania Museum and School of 
Industrial Art have issued their report for 1877, the first 
since the opening of the School and of the Museum. They 
report that the School, which has included classes in drawing 
and design, in geometry and projections, and in needlework, 
with lectures on art, has been well attended and prosperous, 
while they discreetly warn their friends that, decisive results 
are not to be looked for at once in such an undertaking. The 
Museum has proved popular, nearly a hundred and fifty 
thousand people having visited it between the tenth of May 
and the first of January, and the attendance on Sundays 
exceptionally large, especially during the favorable months, 
the number of Sunday visitors in September being over ten 
thousand. Among the articles in the Memorial Hall, and in 
addition to the things purchased at the time of the Centen- 
nial, are cited a collection of English pottery and porcelain 
from Daniell & Co., one of French and one of Spanish, all 
loaned at the instance of Mr. Cunliffe Owen, and a Persian 
collection purchased through him. To these are added the 
collections of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, a 
private one of lacustrine archaeology, and many valuable 
private possessions, all loans ; which with the old purchases, 
and the inevitable cork models of Windsor Castle and the 
Tower of London lately presented, should make up a valu- 
able and useful exhibition. 

AVHEN will people learn that the design of a monument, in- 
stead of being the easiest of architectural tasks, is one of the 
most difficult ? If we consider the crop which has sprung up 
since the war, we have to concede, that however it may be in 
other architectural work, we have by no means improved in 
the quality of our monuments in the last twenty years. The 
reason of this is probably, in part, that in the emancipation 
from rule which has followed the abandonment of traditional 
architectural forms everybody has come to think that he can 
design a monument ; partly that this same emancipation has 
led incompetent designers to trust to any idea that occurs to 
them ; and partly that in like manner the eye of the public or 
of those who select designs has lost the sense of propriety it 
derived from seeing only the severer and more monumental if 
commonplace forms of an older time, and is now pleased with 
vulgarities that in its days of greater fastidiousness would 
have shocked its sense of propriety. Yet we have very 
many more good designers, and better trained, than we had 
twenty years ago ; the power to do good work has increased 
greatly : the difficulty is that the number of bad designers 
has increased in a still greater ratio, with their freedom. 
The public, pleased with the new idea that everybody can do 
every thing, and judge of every thing, and deprived of its old 
standards of propriety, bestows its favors with a catholicity 
that makes no distinctions between the capable and the in- 
capable. We are led to say this by seeing in a recent num- 
ber of the Baltimore American the design of a soldiers' 
monument which a committee of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public is proposing, with the help of the Maryland legislature, 
to set up in Baltimore. It has been the custom to call Balti- 
more ' ' the Monumental City . ' ' Its monuments are many, and 

though they are not strikingly fine, most of them have a de- 
gree of dignity and elegance which gives the town, as one in 
walking about it sees them in vistas right and left, a charm 
that is not to be found in another American city. There is 
the more reason then that this city should be careful what it 
adds to their number. The design we speak of, the work 
of Mr. G-. Metger, nas a kind of square battlemented 
pedestal, with four curiously convoluted corner buttresses, 
upon the feet of which rest trophies, and between which are 
steps leading up to inscribed tablets that cover the faces of 
the pedestal. The top of the pedestal is dressed flat, and in 
the middle of it lies what the author calls a dome, octagonal 
and studded with stars. Out of this rises an octagonal col- 
umn of half the diameter of the dome. It has no base, but 
a wreath conceals its junction with the dome, and it has a 
high capital composed of American eagles with scrolls and 
shields. On the top stands a soldier, holding a flag. It will 
be seen that the designer has attempted an extremely perilous 
task ; and he has not succeeded. The monument is thirty- 
five feet high, and the details are of the kind usual with the 
manufacturers of cast-iron stoves. It is to be hoped that the 
members of the legislature will think carefully before they help 
to occupy any square of their fair city with this undignified 
and illiterate performance. 

THE lesson of the Tariffville bridge ought not to be lost ; 
but there is a great deal of work to do in appb/ing it. Pro- 
fessor Vose of Bowdoin College has been writing to the 
Portland Argus to complain of a bridge on the Maine Cen- 
tral Railroad, which he says has been in a very doubtful con- 
dition for six years. The railroad commissioners have in 
three successive years advised its removal, but it still stands, 
though it has been shored up in one or two places. Last 
month it was reported to have been tested by running a 
heavy engine over it at speed, a test which, as Professor 
Vose says, is simply that which is constantly repeated on 
every bridge till it falls, and means nothing more than that 
up to this time it stands. It is a pity, by the way, that 
when apprehension leads to testing a bridge, some means 
should not be found which does not risk two men's lives and 
a valuable engine. It is probable that the country is be- 
strewn with bridges no stronger than this or than the Tariff- 
ville bridge. Most of them were built for a lighter traffic 
than that they are now required to carry ; hundreds built by 
unskilful constructors and of perishable material are already 
falling into decrepitude. It is without doubt a severe tax on 
the roads to replace them, and will go hard with dividends. 
Most American railroads were undertaken with insufficient 
capital, and many on routes where there was not business 
enough to support well-equipped roads ; so that they had to 
be built as cheaply as possible, and can barely struggle along 
with dividends, or even without, by the most economical 
management. But then, roads should not be built unless 
they can be made and kept safe ; and the security of travel- 
lers must be preferred even to dividends. 

We learn since the above paragraph was in type that plans 
have alread3>- been mada for a new bridge on the Maine Cen- 
tral road, an example of improvement which we hope may be 
followed elsewhere. We have also heard of an ingenious 
invention for testing shaky bridges, which consists of a ten- 
der loaded with eighty tons of water, that is to be drawn 
across by a rope, at some distance behind the engine, and is 
so constructed that on the first intimation of an intention to 
yield on the part of the bridge, it can be opened and the 
water instantly discharged. The test ought to be admirable ; 
but the management of it would be, we should think, a pan- 
icky business for the operator, one into which the personal 
equation, as it is called, would enter largely, and which, 
considering the promptness with which many bridges go down 
when they have made up their minds, would require the stead- 
iness of an artilleryman, and the quickness of an astronomical 

UNDER these circumstances it is an encouragement to know 
that Mr. Garfield has brought up again in Congress the bill 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 115. 

presented by him at a previous session, and prepared by Mr. 
Adams, Massachusetts Railroad Commissioner. It author- 
izes the President to appoint a board of three general rail- 
road commissioners, who shall be engineers in the United 
States Army. They are to investigate into and report upon 
railway accidents throughout the United States ; inquiring 
into their causes, the number of lives lost, the means of pre- 
vention which have been, and which might have been, cm- 
ployed ; and making a special study of important cases. 
Special reports are to be made as promptly as possible on 
these particular cases, and general reports annually to Con- 
gress. The bill, as we remember it, does not go so far as to 
provide any penalties for accidents, or to give the commis- 
sioners disciplinary powers, and so could be considered only 
as the beginning of precaution in railroad matters. But 
such a commission as it proposes would at least be likely to 
be fearless and impartial. Its recommendation would carry 
a certain weight, and its blame would probably produce a 
certain effect ; though with the experience of England be- 
fore us, where the people arc better used to exacting respon- 
sibility than here, and where nevertheless the earnest repre- 
sentations of very able and efficient railway inspectors have 
failed to move the Government against the opposition of the 
great corporations, it is not worth while to expect too much. 

MR. NORMAN SHAW, who has won laurels by his_clevcrncss 
in the use of old forms in architecture, and to whom, per- 
haps, more than to any other, we owe the complicated revival 
which has gone under the name of Queen Anne, has lately 
been reviving an old appliance which had escaped the atten- 
tion, or else failed to attract the admiration, of his fellow 
architects. Most travellers in France notice, and seldom 
without more or less offence, we fancy, the outside drain-pipes 
which sometimes cover the walls of hoviscs in the old towns, 
in complicated lines, with hoppers under each window, into 
which the occupants pour their chamber-slops. Stimulated 
by the sanitarian enterprise of the day, Mr. Shaw has found 
a use for these contrivances which is abreast of the wants of 
this generation. He uses them for soil-pipes, making a 
break for the entrance of air as soon as a pipe passes through 
the wall (which is as early in its career as possible), where 
it leads into a hopper, the break and the hopper being re- 
peated at the surface of the ground. This keeps the pipe 
out of doors, and open to a free passage of air whenever air 
will pass through it, and by a free use of water he thinks 
that it is kept entirely void of offence. This discoveiy has 
provoked much discussion, and some admiration, in the 
English building-journals, but to our surprise we have not 
seen it either attacked or defended on the {esthetic side. 
From this point of view we cannot admire it, any more than 
we can admire the disposition, which we have seen in some 
English plans of considerable pretension, to fix the source 
of this adjunct in a place of -honor near the frontdoor, or 
the French habit of arranging it half way up the principal 
stairs. However absolutely successful Mr. Shaw's device 
may be, and we have some doubt whether it can be alto- 
gether so, it could at least do quite as well in a shaft of its 
own, we should say, as displayed on the fa9adc of his house, 
and to greater satisfaction of the beholder. lie has many 
admirers in thp United States, but we are glad to think that 
in the greater part of the country his invention would receive 
no encouragement, at least from the climate. 

WE learn by telegraph the death of Mr. Joseph Bonomi, a 
noted English archaeologist, the author of Nineveh and its 
Palaces. He was of Italian descent, his father, whose name 
he bore, being an Italian architect who emigrated to England 
in the latter part of the last century, and won distinction 
there. Mr. Bonomi was born in London in 1796. He stud- 
ied sculpture at the Roj^al Academy, and in 1822 went to 
Rome to continue liis studies. Travels in Syria and Egypt 
directed his interests to archaeology. He attracted notice 
by discovering in Syria the triumphal monument, described 
by Herodotus, which Sesostris set up on the coast. After 
fifteen years' absence he returned to England, and continued 
his archaeological work. He became the curator of the curi- 
ous and interesting museum bequeathed to the English nation 
by Sir John Soanc, the architect of the Bank of England, 

and still preserved in Soane's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
He devoted a good deal of time to the study of the great 
alabaster sarcophagus brought from the neighborhood of 
Thebes by Bclzoni, and enshrined in the crypt of the Soane 
Museum. In conjunction with Mr. Samuel Sharpe, he pub- 
lished in 18G4 a description of this relic, with a translation 
of its hieroglyphics. These, curiously enough, prove it to be 
the sarcophagus of Ormanepthah I., father oi' the Barneses- II. 
that is commonly identified with the Sesostris whose monu- 
ment Mr. Bonomi had discovered in his early travels. He 
made the drawings on the blocks for a work on Egypt, Nubia, 
and Ethiopia, illustrated also by photographs, for which in 
connection with Mr. Sharpe he prepared the letterpress ; and 
published several small works on Egyptian archaeology. He 
was a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature and of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, to the Transactions of both of which 
he contributed. 

OUR columns have been for some time past under a pres- 
sure of material for which we cannot be too grateful ; but 
which makes it reasonable that we should apologize to our 
contributors for clef's and irregularities in our use of their 
favors, and to our readers for the omission and backward- 
ness of things which they may expect to see. We shall be 
glad when we are able to enlarge our paper permanently : 
till then some delays and much compression are inevitable. 
Meanwhile, to any of our contributors who feel- themselves 
aggrieved at the freedom with which we are obliged to treat 
them, we can say that if they could only be. aware of the 
putting off, the rejections, and the rough handling to which 
the editors' contributions have to be subjected, they would 
feel themselves amply avenged. 


IT happened not long ago that a certain contractor in 1 
Brooklyn, who had put in a bid of twelve thousand dollars 
for some city work, being found testifying against a confed- 
erate with whom he had quarrelled that the bid was a 
" steal," and that the work could be done for six thousand, 
was confronted with his declaration before a committee at the 
time the contract was awarded, that it was a reasonable bid. 
This he accepted so cheerfully that the cross-examiner asked 
him how much conscience he had ; and he answered, the 
conscience of a contractor, no more. What the conscience 
of a contractor is according to the idea of this person may 
probably be inferred from one or two cases of special ini- 
quity, which have lately occupied the attention of the Board 
of Health in New York. One of these, the trial of a builder 
named Buddensick on the complaint of the Board, has been 
conspicuous in the New York papers. The inspector who 
examined two apartment-houses on East Fifty-Second Street, 
built by Buddensick and containing some eight families, tes- 
tified that he found in one an opening in a soil-pipe, through 
which its contents oozed out ; a lighted candle held near it 
was almost blown out by the escaping air ; higher up in the 
same pipe another opening let out more gas. Two persons 
were ill in the house, and one had just died, of what dis- 
eases was not reported. In the adjoining house the condi- 
tion of the plumbing was substantially the same ; and the 
inspector who had visited the house could thrust his lingers 
into the crevices at the joints of the drain-pipes. The 
builder was held in bail for trial. It is to be presumed that 
liis case will be in some sort a test case, as his manner of 
building is apparently a fair sample of what is common in 
the cheaper apartment-houses of New York. The New York 
Sun published some time ago a report of an examination 
made by the same inspector, Mr. Nealis, of another block 
of apartment-houses. These were five houses of some pre- 
;ension, with stone fronts, and arranged in suites for six, 
eight, or more families in each. The plumbing here was a 
ittle worse, it would seem, than in the Buddensick houses, 
;he soil and waste pipes being thrust without any packing 
nto the branches of the drains, the waste-pipe being only 
calked where it was in sight ; and with holes here and there, 
where lighted candles and matches were blown out. 

There is a plenty of evidence, that it would be simply 
;cdious to cite, which shows that this sort of work is by no 
means exceptional, and that thousands of people in New 
York are pretty steadily poisoned by the criminal negligence, 

MARCH 9, 1878.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


no, negligence is not the word, by the criminal care 
of builders and speculators in slighting their work. These 
faults are difficult to trace, for plumbing is work easily con- 
cealed, and it is the habit in these houses to case the pipes 
sedulously in such a way that they can only be reached with 
great difficulty. In the five houses just mentioned, the sys- 
tem was carried out with artistic breadth and completeness 
by ornamenting the walls and ceilings with gas-plugs here 
and there, which were simply ends of pipe thrust into the 
plaster, the houses not being piped at all. What the build- 
ing-contractors do in their way, other contractors do in 
theirs, until in many minds contract-work is become a syn- 
onym for bad work, and the whole contract system is com- 
ing into bad odor. 

The most obvious cause of the growth of bad building is 
the conversion of building into a business instead of a trade, 
the substitution of the speculative spirit for the spirit of the 
v workman. The cheap work of the day is done mostly by 
men who have never properly learned their trades, often by 
men who have never pretended to, and who therefore have 
neither the capability, nor the pride in good work, that belong 
to the well-trained mechanic. Men go to building, not be- 
cause they are mechanics or wish to be, but because the 
chances of trade allow them to make money out of it. Work- 
men have found out that enterprise and shrewd calculation 
will bring them to the top that is, will enable them to fall to 
building on their own account, and to making money faster 
than skill and faithful work. The commercial element in- 
stead of being the servant of the mechanical is its master. 
The contractor (of this class) does not buy his material and 
hire his men for the sake of his work, and expect to get his 
payment for doing it well : he regards the work simply as an 
opportunity for making certain trades in material and labor 
on which he hopes to be lucky enough to get a good profit. 
Since he neither understands his work thoroughly, nor takes 
any interest in it, of course he does it badly. There has thus 
grown up a class of builders who are in responsible positions, 
who control a very large amount of building, and exercise a 
great influence by the work they do, by their example, and 
by the training they give their workmen, and whose whole in- 
tent it is to turn out bad work. If we add to their influence 
that of a fever of speculation and eagerness for quick profit 
which leave but few men in business patient of the deliberate 
gains which make business safe ; the pressure of capitalists 
who are in haste to invest their money in buildings for the 
quickest and largest return ; and the pressure even of those 
who wish to build for their own use, but whom the luxurious 
habit of the day makes universally eager to put more things 
into their houses than their money will properly pay for, 
we have a conflux of influences which is enough to account 
for almost any degree of decadence. Finally, when we take 
into account a popular disregard of commercial and polit- 
ical honesty, which it is not our business to discuss, but 
which has spread over our country till no honorable man out- 
side its influence can either forget it or think of it without 
dismay, and remember the kind of adventurer that comes to 
the surface in politics and commerce, we must confess that 
the cheap and reckless contractor is not such an exceptional 
monster, after all. 

That the kind of conscience claimed by the New York wit- 
ness was a kind which pervades a large class of men who 
build houses, as contractors or speculators, must therefore be 
acknowledged. It is the kind of conscience which many 
people take for granted in those they deal with, and the ex- 
pectation of it naturally encourages its growth. Fortunately 
there are contractors and contractors, and every architect 
knows that it is always possible to find contractors who will 
fulfil their engagements squarely and honorably, and will 
take pride in doing their work well. If all buildings were 
directed by architects who respected their profession, or by 
other capable persons, dishonest contractors might be com- 
monly restrained from mischief or avoided. If everybody 
built or ordered his own house, the speculative builders would 
be driven from the field. If contracts were abolished, houses 
might be better built by clay's work at greater cost. But 
the contract system is not likely to be done away with, even 
by the legislation of the working-men's party, and there will 
still be contractors, the dishonest as well as' the honest ; nor 
will the}- always or commonly have architects to choose or 
control them. People will build houses for other people to 

buy and inhabit, and the speculative builder will still infest 
the land. What, then, is the protection to which we must 
look ? for protection is clearly become necessary. 

For that part of the public which cannot protect itself, 
since it takes its houses read}' made, buying or hiring what 
it can get, with an enforced preference for cheapness and an 
innate preference for what is showy or promises the rudi- 
ments of luxury, there is no protection, possible, so far as 
we see, but by legislation. The building-laws in our cities 
deal too exclusively as yet with such parts of buildings as 
concern their stability and their security against fire. To 
make them adequate they should contain stringent regu- 
lations as to the quality of plumbing and draining work in 
them. They will not be made duly efficient, in our opinion, 
until the severe penalties which are affixed to manslaughter 
are declared against persons to whose bad building fatal 
accidents or deadly illnesses can be traced. Such rigor of 
law is not unknown elsewhere, and is found salutary: the 
public safety seems to require it here. 

As to men who get their own houses built for them, the 
remedy is chiefly in their own hands, or their architects' ; for 
as we have said there arc always trustworthy contractors to 
be had, and for all kinds of work. The men who go deliber- 
ately into a trial of skill with contractors whom they do not 
trust deserve what may befall them ; though unhappily the 
casualties which follow are not likely to injure them alone. 
But it concerns architects to use all their influence not 
merely against bad building, but against the business connec- 
tions which lead to it. They ought fo do their best to make 
patent the distinction between good and bad builders, which 
cannot easily escape them ; to set their faces against the 
employment of the incapable and those of questionable hon- 
esty. Especially it behooves them to distinguish those who 
have jumped into their employment for the sake of specula- 
tion, from those who have properly learned their calling and 
honor it, and to turn them the cold shoulder. We know the 
difficulties that beset architects in this matter. We know 
how clients constantly urge them to build more cheaply than 
they ought, how often they are pressed to employ mechan- 
ics whom they distrust. We know that in the eyes of many 
clients the architect earns his fee in a great part as a cham- 
pion against the expected knaveries of contractors. We 
remember a case where a man of business, of mark and 
influence in his city, said to his young architect, who object- 
ed to pressing a certain contractor for a very low estimate, 
on the ground that it would lead him to try to cheat, 
" You can let him estimate as if he were going to cheat, 
and then take very good care that he doesn't." One cannot 
easily imagine a more demoralizing precept, short of a down- 
right recommendation to dishonesty, than this ; but it proba- 
bly represents the more or less unthinking attitude of a large 
class of clients. Architects need to resist it continually and 
firmly. The architect is in a certain aspect the servant of 
his client, as a lawyer is or a physician. But he is a good 
deal more than this. He is the director of one of the great 
departments of civil industry, and in this aspect is responsi- 
ble for his influence on the community, which may be and 
should be very great. It is his chief office as an architect 
to provide his community with good houses, churches, and 
the like, to live, work, and worship in. To this end he and 
the builder ought to work in honorable fellowship. It is a 
poor condition of things if then: common occupation degener- 
ates into a struggle to outwit and to detect. When the archi- 
tect accepts a position in which his chief duty is to keep the 
conscience of a contractor, it is a lamentable descent from his 
honorable place. 


GEN. DI CESNOLA'S discoveries in Cyprus, if of less curious in- 
terest than those of Dr. Schliemaun at Mycenae, are not of inferior 
importance as a contribution to the history of ancient art, and as 
affording material for the solution of some of the most-perplexing 
questions in respect to the influence of earlier civilizations upon 
that of the Greek race. 

Though the position and history of Cyprus might well have 
tempted explorers, very little had been done for the investigation 
of its antiquities previous to Gen. di Cesnola's researches. His 

' Cyprus : Its ancient Chips, Tombs, and Temples. A Narrative of Researches 
and Excavations during ten years residence in that island. By Gen. LOUJH i'aihia 
<li (A'Miola. With Maps and lliUBtrations. Now York: IlarpirR Urothere, 18i8. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 115. 

narrative of his ten years work is written with such animation 
and simplicity as to make his book attractive to the general 
reader, while his lucid and comprehensive description of the prog- 
ress of his discoveries, and of the works brought to light by his 
energy and intelligence, is such as to give to his work a higher 
quality than mere entertainment. 

We commend the book to all our readers. It has already been 
so widely noticed, that we may assume that its general character is 
already known to the mass of them ; and we therefore do not pro- 
pose to give a summary of its contents, but to point out the nature 
of the more important contributions to the history of ancient art 
made by its author's discoveries. 

So far as regards architecture, Gen. di Cesnola's investigations 
show that little is to be learned from Cyprus. The character of 
building here, as elsewhere, was determined by the materials at 
hand. Cyprus was not rich in good building-stone. The inti- 
mate relations of the island with Assyria, both directly and 
through Phoenicia, gave to its people acquaintance with the use of 
wood and sun-dried brick in structures of great size and splen- 
didly adorned. These materials the Cypriotes seem generally to 
have adopted; but in the plan of their edifices they followed 
Greek rather than Egyptian or Oriental designs. And the main 
interest of all the Cypriote antiquities lies in the fact that while 
they exhibit a native tendency of no great force of expression, 
they show the intermingling and counteracting effects of three 
great currents of African, Asiatic, and European influences, here 
where, more than anywhere else in the ancient world, the streams 
of these widely separated sources met. The result of their min- 
gling affords most instructive illustration of the obscure facts 
concerning the relations of ancient peoples, and the transference 
of the arts from one land to another. If, for instance, the works 
of art discovered by Dr. Schliemann at Mycenae are remnants of 
the civilization of the Achasan race in the Peloponnesus, the sim- 
ilarities between many o.f them and the productions of Egyptian 
or Assyrian art become more easily explicable when we find pre- 
cisely similar conformities in the earliest Cypriote works, at a 
period before the record of history begins, when the Greek race 
was already settled in the island. Oinyras, the legendary hero of 
Cyprus, may not have been of Greek origin, but his myth was 
wholly Greek : according to it, he sent armor to Agamemnon, 
which Homer (II. xi. 19) describes ; but failing to send the ships 
he had promised, Agamemnon, on his return from Troy, landed at 
Cyprus, expelled the king (who, according to another version of 
the myth, was slain by Apollo), and settled a band of Greek colo- 
nists at Amathus. Now, this tradition may or may not have a 
basis in prehistoric facts ; but no one who will compare the figures 
of pottery and of gold and silver work in Schliemann's and Di Ces- 
nola's volumes can fail to recognize the essential similarity, not 
only of execution, but also of design in .the early work from the 
island and the mainland. The Assyrian and Egyptian influences 
show themselves with more force in Cyprus, as was to be expect- 
ed ; but they do not there, any more than at Mycenae, control the 
character of the work. In both there is a new spirit, which 
after many centuries was to find expression in what is known as 
Greek art. 

Much is still left to be ascertained concerning this primitive 
period ; but if the remains discovered by Di Cesnola and Schlie- 
mann be studied in connection with the antiquities recently found 
by the late Herr Salzmann and Signer Biliotti at Rhodes, and 
with such fragments of the work of the same period as have 
been found in Crete and elsewhere, it will be seen that we al- 
ready are in possession of material sufficient to afford a tolerably 
wide and exact view of the characteristic features of Greek art 
in its earliest conscious stages. We have got behind the archaic 
period of historic art, to the productions of a period of indefinite 
dates and uncertain duration ; behind the Dorian invasion, to a 
time when the Achaean civilization was reaching the height that 
is indicated by the Homeric poems. To the student of the mean- 
ing of lines, and of the indications afforded by ornamental design, 
there is abundant evidence in the decorations of the pottery, and 
in the shapes and motives of the gold and silver work, of an art 
distinct from those of Egypt and Assyria, though still affected by 
their traditions ; distinct also from that of Phoenicia, and, on the 
other side, from that of Etruria ; an art that gives evidence of 
independence and capacity of growth, and which has in it the 
seeds of highest ultimate excellence. 

The very fact which has led to the disappearance of all the 
ancient architecture of Cyprus has been the means of the pres- 
ervation of much of the sculpture. The falling in of the walls 
of the temples when their wooden columns were destroyed, or 
their stone columns overthrown, did not injure the sculptures 
within them as if the walls had been of stone. Indeed, the fallen 
mass of clay formed a protection to the works buried beneath 
it ; and Gen. di Cesnola's animated and graphic account of his 
difficulties in unearthing the hundreds of marvellously preserved 
sculptures from the Temple of Golgoi shows how completely effec- 
tive that protection had, in the course of time, become. Few 
works of such ancient date have come down to us in such perfect 
freshness, and so free from defacement of any sort, as these stat- 
ues. In looking at them it is hard to believe that they are old ; 
and one cannot compare them with the mutilated fragments of 

the splendid statues which the Germans are discovering at Olympia, 
without a certain resentment at the freak of fortune in subjecting 
these latter works to a harsh treatment in such inverse proportion 
to their merit as works of art and their interest as monuments of 
history. For though the Cypriote sculptors reached a considerable 
excellence in the delineation of individual characteristics, and, 
owing to the quality of the stone in which they worked, succeeded 
in an often exquisite rendering of detail of wreath or hair, there 
is no work of their hands, among the multitude discovered by 
Gen. di Cesnola, that belongs to the higher regions of art, or 
that adds to the types of ancient beauty or ideal character. In 
the long line reaching in a series of extraordinary archaeological 
interest from the comparative vigor of an archaic period to the 
decrepitude of late Roman centuries, the art rarely breaks through 
the enfeebling limits of conventionalism. Cyprus was never 
wholly Greek : Tyre was nearer to it than Athens. 

The most remarkable of Gen. di Cesnola's discoveries was 
that of the treasury' at Curium; "a discovery," says Mr. Newton 
of the British Museum, than whom there could be no higher 
authority, " to which there is perhaps no parallel in the annals 
of archaeology." Here in a series of underground chambers, be- 
neath the fragmentary ruins of what may once have been a temple, 
was found the richest store of articles of gold and silver and of 
other precious materials that has ever been at once unearthed. 
The question when this treasure was accumulated and deposited 
cannot yet be determined, and nothing is known of the circum- 
stances under which the knowledge of its existence was lost. The 
multitude of precious articles of which it was composed bowls, 
vases, cups, dishes of gold and silver, rings, ear-rings, necklaces, 
bracelets, armlets, gems, etc. are of various periods from seven 
or eight hundred years B.C., to perhaps even later than the time 
of Alexander the Great, and are of different origin and workman- 
ship, Egyptian, Assyrian, Phoenician, Greek, and Cypriote. Many 
of them are of exquisite design and execution, and among the 
gems are some which belong to the very highest class of ancient 
works of the glyptic art. 

In a long appendix to Gen. di Cesnola's narrative, Mr. C. W. 
King, the well-known authority on ancient gems, has given an 
interesting and detailed account of the rings and gems in the 
treasure of Curium. This treasure is now the chief adornment 
of the Metropolitan Museum of the Fine Arts in New York, and, 
together with the other antiquities discovered by Gen. di Ces- 
nola, forms a unique collection, of the highest interest to the 
student of ancient art. The possession of such a collection in- 
volves a heavy responsibility; and the trustees of the Museum 
should lose no opportunity to add to their present invaluable 
store the works of other regions by which a consecutive view of 
the progress and character of classic art may be obtained by the 
student who has not the opportunity of visiting the great European 
collections. It is a great pity that the Castellani collection of 
ancient art has been allowed to leave the country. The Italian 
pottery is of no worth in comparison. 




SEE the " Paper on Perspective " in this number. 


The committee, after much consideration and considerable dif- 
ference of opinion among themselves, agreed at last to recommend 
the sketch signed " A. B. C. " for the first prize, and that signed 
" 1878 " (surmounting a shield) for the second. 

Of the twenty-eight designs submitted to them, they found sev- 
enteen to be good, and eleven to be poor ; drawing a line that sepa- 
rated those good enough to build from, or to receive a prize in the 
absence of any better ones, from those that were not. Of the 
whole number, there were seven that distinctly affected mediaeval 
details, and seven that were equally influenced by some sort of 
classical precedent, mostly of the modern Elizabeth- Anne fashions; 
two were in a nondescript style. The rest, twelve in number, 
seemed free from any particular historical influence, being designed 
on general principles, with more or less reliance for effect upon the 
forms suggested by the handling of the material employed, such as 
brackets, sheathing, panels and posts, chamfers, sinkages, and 
turned mouldings. There was, in general, a marked absence of 
merely decorative carving, the treatment being highly architectural. 

In giving their judgment, the committee were influenced by the 
excellence of the draughtsmanship, and the elegance or pictu- 
resqueness of the composition, as well as the principles of design 
involved, and apparent novelty of invention. But without an ex- 
haustive knowledge of precedent, to which they could not pretend, 
they could not, of course, tell whether things were really original, 
or only new to them. 

In addition to those which the editors have selected for publica- 








THE HEUcrraPRETnoCc. !0 Er.-sssiiiKEST Bwrot 



MAECH 9, 1878.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


tion, the committee mention with commendation those marked 
"St. Austell," "Essayon," "T-Square Pasha," "With Hope," and 
a fifth signed with a Japanese fan. The design by "Tempus 
Fides Vis," although published, was ruled out of the competition, 
because of the date of its receipt. 



THE first two of these papers were given to a general observa- 
tion of the phenomena of perspective, in nature and in drawings, 
and the last two to an explanation of the practical making of such 
drawings, certain data being assumed. ]t was assumed that the 
position of the principal vanishing points, giving the direction of 
the principal lines, had been already determined, with more or less 
accuracy, by the eye or by the judgment, and that their length 
had also been fixed in the same way. The discussion showed how 
the position of other vanishing points and the length and direction 
of other lines could then be determined, and how any of the Hues 
thus drawn could be divided up in any desired manner, that is to 
say, in any given proportion. 

It is necessary, in order to conclude this part of the subject, to 
show how these data may be more precisely determined. It is 
necessary to show how, when the real direction of lines is exactly 
known, their vanishing points may be fixed with precision, and 
how, when their real length is known, the exact length and posi- 
tion of their perspective representations may be determined. The 
position of the object to be drawn, the position of the picture, and 
the position of the spectator's eye, must of course be known also. 

85. Plate IV. shows how these questions are answered : Fig. 
1 1 showing in plan, and upon a reduced scale, the position of the 
spectator at the station point S ; that of the picture at pp, which 
shows the plane of the picture edgewise as it would appear looking 
down upon it; and that of the object to be represented at A. Two 
elevations of this object, which is a small house, showing its verti- 
cal dimensions, are given alongside; the plan and the two eleva- 
tions together giving exact information as to the magnitude and 
direction of the lines defining it. The picture itself is shown 
between the plan of the house and its own plan, just as if the 
plane of the picture, pp, had been revolved backward into the plane 
of the paper. 

86. The object is here represented as being about six times as 
far from the station point as the picture is, the picture being about 
eighty feet from the station point, and the nearest corner of the 
house about thirteen feet. It is this relation that obviously deter- 
mines the scale of its perspective representation, which would be 
greater if the picture were farther from the station point, or the 
object nearer, and vice versa. But we shall come to the question 
of scale presently. 

87. The first question is that of the direction to be given to 
the various perspective lines ; we must determine the vanishing 
points of these various systems of lines, horizontal and inclined. 
The horizontal lines belong to three systems, the directions of 
which are indicated in the plan of the little house as R and L, 
going off to the right and to the left, at right angles to each other ; 
and X, dividing the angle between them, and making an angle of 
45 with each. If now the spectator, standing at S, looks in a 
direction parallel to R, he will see the vanishing ^oint of that 
system of lines directly before his eye ; that element of the system 
which passes through S is in fact seen endwise, appearing as a 
point covering and coinciding with the vanishing point of the 
system of right-hand horizontal lines, which is in the infinitely 
distant horizon. The perspective of this vanishing point, V a , in 
the plane of the picture, will be found exactly where this element 
pierces the picture, that is, where it crosses the line pp. V L and 
V* can of course be found in the same way ; and the centre of the 
picture, C, the point nearest the station point and at the other 
extremity of the axis S C, is easily determined at the same time. 
Since R and L are at right angles, the triangle V S V L is a right- 
angled triangle, and S lies on the circumference of a semicircle 
of which V R and V 1 give the diameter. In the picture itself, 
just above, these points of course appear on the Horizon ; for since 
these lines are all horizontal, their vanishing points lie in the trace 
of the horizontal system of planes. T R Z and T L Z, the traces of 
the vertical planes parallel to the sides of the building, can now 
be drawn, as usual, through V" and V 1 ; and T PP', the trace of the 
diagonal planes, through V*. The vanishing points of any other 
horizontal lines and the traces or horizons of any other vertical 
planes could of course be found in a similar manner. 

88. It only remains to find the vanishing points of the inclined 
lines M and M', N and N', and thence, as before, the traces of the 
roofs, and the vanishing points, P and P', of their hips and valleys. 
This is easily done by the aid of the elevations, which show the 
real inclination of these roofs and gables to be 60 for the lower 
slope, and 30 for the upper. If the spectator at S, then, while 
looking at V* in the direction R, should raise his eyes at an 
angle of 30, he would see V M , the vanishing point of the upper 
slope of the gable, directly before him, the triangle V* V a S being 
right-angled at V. If now this triangle were revolved about the 

vertical side V E V", so as to bring the station point S into the 
plane of the picture at D", it would appear in the picture above 
as the triangle V* V D", the angle at D B being 30. 

Fig. 13 gives a perspective view of the plane of the picture p p 
with the eye at the station point S in front of it ; the triangle in 
question is shown both in its original position and also as it 
appears when swung round into the plane of the picture. 

89. It follows from this that if from V" the distance V S is 
laid off along the Horizon, we obtain the point D", and if from this 
point we draw a line at an angle of 30, we shall obtain V at its 
intersection with T R Z. 

In the same way D L and V may be obtained by setting off the 
distance of S from V L along the Horizon from V L , and drawing 
the line D L V", also at an angle of 30. 

The points D" and D l are called the right-hand and left-hand 
points of distance ; they show the distance of the station point from 
the right-hand and left-hand vanishing points. It is to be ob- 
served that D" is found on the left and D L on the right of C. 

90. V 1 " and V' will of course be seen as far below the Horizon 
as V* and V are above it, and V and V' will be at the inter- 
section of the traces of the inclined planes R N, L M, R N', and 
LM', as before. 

In the same way the vanishing point of every other horizontal 
line, as, for example, of V s , has its corresponding point of distance, 
found by setting off along the horizon its distance from S. Thus 
we have V x D x equal to V x S. 

91. By a reverse process, when the vanishing point of inclined 
lines is known, their real inclination can be discovered by drawing 
a line from this vanishing point to the point of distance of the 
horizontal line beneath them. Thus in the figure a line from V to 
D x gives the angle V D* V, which is the true slope of the line 
of intersection of the roofs. 

92. If the lines M and N have different inclinations, the point 
V p will of course not come over V s , and the distance must be meas- 
ured from the point of the horizon that it does come over. 

The vanishing points of the steeper slopes of the lower roofs are 
found in like manner at V 1 ", V N/ , etc. 

93. The exact direction of perspective lines being thus deter- 
mined, since the position of their vanishing-points is thus exactly 
fixed, it now only remains to determine their length, and the posi- 
tion of some one point in each. For such lines as are parallel to 
the picture this is easy. For every such line may be considered to 
lie in a plane parallel to the picture, the centre of which, or point in 
the plane nearest the eye, will have its perspective at C, the centre 
of the picture; the perspective of the lino in question will be par- 
allel to the line itself, and its length and its distance from the cen- 
tre C, and all other lengths and distances taken in that plane, will 
be less, as we ha-ve just seen (80), in proportion as the distance of 
the plane from the plane of the picture is greater. If, as in Fig. 
11, the plane m m is six times as far from the spectator at S as the 
picture p p, all lines in m m will be drawn at one-sixth of their 
original size, and be at one-sixth their distance from the centre. 
The front corner of the house, for instance, which lies in the plane 
m m, is so drawn. 

This imaginary plane m m, which is generally drawn through 
the nearest part of any object to be represented, is called the plane 
of measures, and, like the picture, is defined in position by the length 
and position of its axis, which coincides with that of the picture, 
but is generally a great many times as long. 

Its relative distance behind the plane of the picture is commonly, 
of course, much greater than that shown in the figure, in which, 
for perspicuity's sake, the picture is represented as being about 
eleven feet across and about thirteen feet from the spectator. The 
picture is commonly set only a few feet off, while the object repre- 
sented is often a hundred times as many. 

Fig. 13 gives further illustration of most of these points. To 
prevent a confusion of lines, the centre, C, is taken on the left- 
hand side of the picture instead of on the right-hand side, as in 
Fig. 11. 

94. It follows from what has been said that any line drawn in 
the plane of measures in any direction, horizontal, vertical, or 
inclined, is also parallel to the picture, and that its perspective will 
be parallel and proportional to it, but on a smaller scale. This scale 
depends on the relative distance of the picture plane and the plane 
of measures from the eye, or station point. If the latter is twice 
or ten times as far away, lines drawn upon it will be presented in 
the picture one-half or one-tenth full size. All lines in the plane of 
measures have their perspectives drawn to the same scale. 

It is common, in the case of large objects, such as buildings, to 
set the picture at just A, -Aj, or -^ of the distance of the plane 
of measures, i. e., of the qbject. Lines in the plane of measures 
are then represented ^j, T ^ T , or ^^ full size, etc. ; that is to say, 
on a scale of ^, \, or ^V of an inch to the foot. 

The centre of the plane of measures coincides in perspective 
with the point C, the centre of the picture (93). The perspective 
of any other point in the plane of measures may be found by lay- 
ing off its distance, according to the scale, in its real direction, in 
the plane of the picture. 

95. Fig. 12, iu which the various vanishing points and traces, 
and the points of distance D" and D L , are determined as in the 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 115. 

previous figure, illustrates this practice. The picture is supposed 
to be about six inches from the eye, as in the case of our previous 
illustrations. This is less than is desirable, but is as much as the 
scale of these illustrations permits. The front corner of the 
building, through which the plane of actual measures is taken, is 
supposed to be a hundred and ninety-two times as far away, that 
is to say, ninety-six feet from the spectator, or ninety-five feet and 
a half behind the picture, the scale of the perspective of that 
corner being one-sixteenth of an inch to a foot. This corner, being 
eight feet high, is drawn half an inch high. All other lines in 
the plane of measures are drawn to the same scale, which is in- 
deed the same scale as that to which the plan of the building is 
drawn in Fig. 11, and the elevations alongside. Dimensions can 
then be transferred directly from these drawings to Fig. 12, so 
long as the lines to which they apply lie in the plane of measures, 
as the front corner does. The line g I, for instance, called the 
ground line, or line of horizontal measures, in which the plane of 
measures intersects the horizontal plane on which the perspective 
plan is taken, is such a line, and any dimensions can be laid off 
upon its perspective at the same scale as upon that of the vertical 
line ; as it is parallel to the picture, the divisions of its perspective 
are proportional to those of the line itself. 

The front corner of the house is the line in which the planes of 
its front and end walls intersect the plane of measures : by pro- 
longing the planes of the other walls until they intersect the plane 
of measures, additional lines of vertical measures are obtained. 
In the same way every horizontal plane gives a line of horizontal 
measures, as is shown in the case of the two perspective plans 

90. For very small objects the plane of measures, and with it the 
object itself, is brought nearer, and may even coincide with the 
phuio o the picture. In this case lines lying in it are drawn full 

Sometimes, instead of taking the object of its real size at its real 
distance, we suppose a miniature of the object to be set up near at 
hand, of any convenient scale. In this case the object may be sup- 
posed to be close to the plane of the picture, and the plane of the 
picture to coincide with the piano of measures. 

This is illustrated in Fig. 11, in which a small plan of the house 
is drawn in contact with the plane of the picture, p p, just as a 
large plan, representing full size, is drawn in contact with the 
plane of measures m m above, the whole being drawn at a scale of 
sixteen inches to the foot. Or we may regard Fig. 11 as drawn 
on the same scale as Fig. 12, that is to say, full size, considering 
the plane m m to be the plane of the picture, six inches from the 
eye at S, with a miniature of the building, a model made to the 
scale of a sixteenth of an inch to the foot, just behind it. 

07. Having thus the means of drawing in any horizontal or 
vertical plane a line, lying in the plane of measures, upon which 
dimensions can be laid oil' by scale, we have now to transfer these 
dimensions to other lines in the same plane. 

If these lines also are parallel to the picture and to the plane of 
measures, the case presents no difficulty. It is only necessary to 
draw parallel lines from one line to the other. In the figure, for 
example, the heights laid off on the front corner are transferred to 
the other corners and to other vertical lines by parallel lines di- 
rected to the vanishing points V* and V L . In this way the ver- 
tical dimensions of every part of an object, and the position of its 
horizontal lines, may be determined. 

The length of any other lines parallel to the picture, horizontal, 
vertical, or inclined, may be obtained in a similar way from lines 
in the plane of measures parallel to them, and lying at the inter- 
section of that plane with the planes in which they lie. 

98. To determine the length of the horizontal lines not parallel 
to the picture, and to lay off given dimensions upon the perspec- 
tive of such lines, we can employ a method similar to the method 
of triangles described in the last paper. By that method we laid 
off upon such lines parts proportional to parts taken upon a line of 
proportional measures. We now propose to lay off upon such per- 
spective lines parts equal to parts taken upon a lino of real meas- 
ures. Any triangle will do to transfer proportional parts, but to 
transfer equal parts we must have an isosceles triangle ; for it is 
only in isosceles triangles that the parts into which the adjacent 
sides are divided by lines drawn parallel to the base are equal, 
each to each. 

This is illustrated by Fig. 11, in which the line mm, at the 
top, is the line of horizontal measures. The actual dimensions of 
the sides of the house and of the doors and windows are laid off 
on this line, and connected with the inclined lines of the plan by 
means of lines drawn parallel to the base of an isosceles triangle. 

99. It is plain that \\ hat is here done in the orthographic plan 
could be done in a perspective plan if we knew in what direction 
to draw these parallel lines ; that is to say, if we could find the 
vanishing point of the base of the isosceles triangle. 

And this is, in fact, very easy, for a simple inspection of the 
figure shows that the point of distance is the auxiliary vanishing 
point in question. If the spectator at S looks in the direction of 
the parallel lines by which the right-hand line 11 is divided, he 
will see D a , and in like manner D L is the vanishing point of the 

parallels by which distances taken on the line of horizontal meas- 
ures are transferred to L. 

' And that this is as it should be, is plain from a further inspec- 
tion of the figure. For the sides of the isosceles trrangles at the 
top are by construction parallel to the sides of the triangles 
S V E D" and SV L D L . These last are accordingly isosceles too, and 
their two long sides should be equal. The auxiliary vanishing 
points, then, should be just as far from the vanishing points as 
these last are from the station point ; as the points of distance are 

100. The points of distance, then, are the vanishing points of 
the parallel lines which will intercept upon a perspective line 
parts equal to those intercepted upon its line of measures. 

This is illustrated in Fig. 12, where, in the perspective plan 
parts laid off by scale on the ground-line, or line of horizontal 
measures, are transferred in their true dimensions to the perspective 
lines R and L. lu this way the length of the walls and the posi- 
tion of the doors and windows is exactly determined. These 
dimensions being already shown at the given scale in the little 
elevations, it suffices to transfer them directly from those draw- 
ings to the ground line with a measuring strip. 

In this way a complete perspective plan can easily be constructed ; 
the length of all horizontal lines and the position of all vertical 
lines will then be known. The length of vertical lines, which 
gives the position of horizontal ones, is easily obtained, as we have 
seen, from vertical lines of measures. 

The second perspective plan, above the other, gives the plan of 
the roof and dormers. 

101. Fig. 11 affords an alternative method of obtaining the hori- 
zontal dimensions; that is to say, the position of the vertical per- 
spective lines. If we again regard the plan at the top as the plan 
of a miniature house, or model, set six inches from the eye at S, 
and regard m m as the plane of the picture, in contact with it, we 
can, by drawing lines from every point in the plan to the station 
point, find just where every point will appear in the picture; the 
horizontal dimensions thus obtained can then be transferred 
directly to the picture in Fig. 12. They are shown by marks on 
the lower side of m m, and will be found to agree exactly with the 
dimensions obtained from the perspective plan. 

This method, which is called that of direct projections, is often 
more convenient than the other, especially when the orthographic 
plan has previously been prepared, and when, as in the present 
case, the subject is simple. But the method of. the perspective plan 
is more convenient for designing in perspective, or for making a 
perspective drawing, as often has to be done, from mere sketches. 
It takes up less room, in the vertical direction ; it is less laborious, 
though requiring perhaps more knowledge and skill ; and it has 
the advantage previously pointed out, that it enables the position 
of points at different levels to be separately determined, by the use 
of separate perspective plans, and enables several successive draw- 
ings to be made, if necessary, without repeating the bulk of the 
labor, since the perspective plan can be made on a separate piece 
of paper, and used more than once. 

Moreover, the points established on a perspective plan explain 
themselves : it is clear at a glance, and after any lapse of time, 
which denotes the door, which the window. In working by direct 
projection from the orthographic plan, on the contrary, it is almost 
impossible to remember which point is which, and much labor is 
caused by this confusion. 



THE regular monthly meeting of this Chapter was held on 
Friday evening, March 1, the President in the chair. 

Messrs. Longfellow and Peabody were appointed a committee to 
audit the Treasurer's accounts. 

The committee appointed with power to take action for the 
Society with reference to the proposed completion of the Wash- 
ington Monument at the national capital, reported that they had 
prepared and despatched the following letter: 

BOSTON, Feb. 28, 1878. 

Cliairman of the Senate Committee on Public Buildinr/s and Grounds. 

Sir, The Boston Chapter of the American Institute of Architects 
take the liberty of addressing you, and through you the committee of 
which you art) chairman, in regard to the Washington Monument. 

It is understood that there is now before the Committee on Public 
Buildings and Grounds, a bill to authorize the use of the appropriation 
voted by Congress last year, in strengthening the foundations of tho 
monument, and that without such authorization, in consequence of the 
report of the United States commission ou tho condition of the monu- 
ment, the appropriation cannot be so used. 

In view of the responsibility which thus rests on the committee, wo 
venture to call your attention to some considerations which seem to us 

The official discussions on tho appropriation of money for tho monu- 
ment have been chiefly conHued to tho question of its security; tho 
question of its propriety, which if not more urgent is at least precedent, 
has been until very lately entirely overlooked. 

The design was adopted before tho progress in art began which has 
distinguished the last generation of Americans, and when tho artistic 
resources of the country were slender. It was apparently selected with 

MARCH 9, 1878.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


little consideration, we believe also with little general approval. The 
work, originally a private undertaking, has been interrupted for many 
years, until it is now proposed that Congress, which has many times 
declared its own intention of building a monument to Washington, 
shall assume the burden of its expense, and the -greater responsibility 
of presenting it to the world as its choice. 

We believe that we represent the general judgment of our profession 
and of the great body of artists throughout the country, whose judg- 
ment on such a question should bo of value, when we say that if the 
structure is finished according to the published drawings, it will be 
altogether unworthy of its purpose. 

A national monument to Washington is the most important monu- 
mental undertaking which has been begun in the United States, and, 
when it is to be built out of the resources of the country, becomes the 
concern of all its citizens. 

To make a mistake in it will be a conspicuous and irretrievable mis- 
fortune, for once built there is no probability that it will ever be re- 

We would earnestly suggest, therefore, that this questionable work 
should not be adopted and the responsibility for it accepted by the gov- 
ernment, in the face of what we believe to be the general disapproval 
of persons who have studied the question of its design, and the general 
indifference at least of the public at large, without a serious inquiry 
whether the proposed form is the best for the monument, and is worthy 
of its object; and whether, if the present structure is retained, it cannot 
be turned to some more suitable form than is now intended: otherwise 
we believe it is right that the government should decline to lend its 
hand to it. 

Very respectfully, 

By their committee, 

(Signed) EDW. C. CABOT, President. 

JOHN H. STUKGIS, Vicc-Prcsidcnt.- 
HENRY VAN BRUNT, Secretary. 

A report was then laid before the Society from the committee to 
which was referred the application made on behalf of Mr. J. T. 
Clarke, junior member of the Chapter, for assistance in enabling 
him to make some original researches among the unedited remains 
of the Doric order, chiefly in Sicily, Corfu, and the islands of the 
Greek Archipelago, with a view to their publication under the 
patronage of the Professor of the History of Art at Harvard Uni- 
versity. This report commended the enterprise, and for its further- 
ance proposed the appropriation of 300 or $-100 out of the funds 
of the Society now in the hands of the Treasurer. At a late hour, 
after a long and animated discussion on this subject, the meeting 
adjourned, to meet at the office of the President at noon on the 7th 
of March, when the matter will be finally disposed of. 





A NEW phase of architectural work has recently been developed 
in this city, by the erection of a college secret-society building. 
Designs of this character are new to Hartford. In the present 
instance, the building is due in part to the late action of the au- 
thorities in placing the new Trinity College buildings at a distance 
from the heart of the city. 

The building or "hall," or "lodge," or whatever it may tech- 
i nically be styled is from designs by Mr. J. Cleveland Cady of 
New York, a former member of the college, and a " brother " of 
the organization which is the first of the several societies in the 
institution to build itself a lodge. The building stands upon, a 
high bluff, a few rods north of the boundary-line of the college 
property, and commands from any of its sides an extensive reach 
of country, being at the same time a particularly prominent object 
from the railroads entering the city on the 'west. It faces the 
street which runs along the ridge, and extends back fifty-six feet, 
presenting a frontage of twenty-nine feet, with an extension on 
the south containing a vestibule with entrance-hall beyond. It 
has two stories with a high basement, the water-table being six 
feet from the ground. On the north side a circular tower, thir- 
teen feet in diameter, rises seventy feet, and is embellished with a 
chimney corbelled out and built at an awkward angle. The chim- 
ney breaks the lines of the tower-cornice, and is carried up less 
than half the height of the roof, and capped by graduated cap- 
stones ; the escapes for smoke being arched openings in the four 
faces. The material of the building is New Hampshire granite. 
This is laid up in regular courses with rock-face, while the water- 
table, the bands, string-courses, etc., are of the same stone, axed. 
It stands upon natural rock, and is underpinned with a brick wall 
two feet thick. 

The architect has taken a wide departure from the stereotyped 
rules which, A>y a sort of tacit consent, seemed to govern the con- 
struction of many of the early society buildings at the older col- 
leges in the country, and has done away with that tomb-like ex- 
pression which was thought to be part and parcel of a good and 
appropriate Hesigu for such a building. Instead, we have numer- 
ous windows of ample dimensions, a modest gable, high-pitched 
roofs, a lofty tower, a prominent entrance, and, at various points, 
some bad carving. The whole study is a happy example of the 
value of careful design in any building, great or small. The 

front of the lodge is apsidal, and affords within an octagonal 
apartment; the exterior walls finding their counterparts in the 
interior brick partitions, in one of which is a roomy fireplace ; the 
corresponding angle-wall of the apartment on the ground-floor 
containing the entrance-doors opening from the hall in the exten- 
sion, or wing. From this hall a passage-way, extending the width 
of the main building, connects directly with the staircase-tower. 
The rear room on the ground-floor has two of its angle-walls 
treated like those of the octagonal room ; and this portion of the 
building externally is marked by a very wide opening under a 
segmental arch filled with a series of wooden-mullioned windows. 
The roof is double-framed, hipped, finished with iron cresting or 
ridge-tile. The extremities of the ridge bear enormous finials six 
or eight feet high, embellished with rosettes. A symbolic piece of 
design the " crux ansata," or the Egyptian symbol of life is 
placed upon the stem of the finial, and has both its faces highly 
gilded. The effect of the roof -finish on the tower is most excel- 
lent ; but the same criticism can hardly apply to the finials on the 
main building. 

The extension or wing on the south of the lodge presents a 
gable, finished with a coping and roughly-wrought finial; the 
main walls being pierced by two pointed windows with a circular 
window above. The three angle-walls of the front of the building 
have each upon the ground-floor double windows of ample dimen- 
sions, whose tympana show specimens of symbolic carving which 
are subjects for comment, even if the windows themselves are not 
open to criticism. Like many others of smaller dimensions on this 
floor, they suggest the old question, Shall pointed arches be fin- 
ished with a keystone, after the manner of classic work, or with a 
joint at the vertex? Mr. Cady adopts the former method in this 
instance, while but a short distance off is an example of the latter 
treatment, in the pointed windows and doorways in the new col- 
lege buildings. The lodge-windows on the first floor are arranged 
in groups of three, the width of a single window not exceeding ten 
inches; the heads are trefoiled, and the jambs slightly splayed. 
The tower-windows are narrow, and follow the rake of the stairs, 
with the exception of the upper ones, which are at a level, and 
afford a view in all directions. The building will be finished in 
hard woods, and, when completed, will cost more than $30,000. 

It has been rumored that the new Cheney block, built in this 
city from plans by Messrs. Gambrill and Richardson, and de- 
scribed in a former letter, is to undergo some alterations next sea- 
son. The square tower, forming the prominent feature upon the 
principal corner of the block, now finishes at a slight distance 
above the main building, by a pyramidal roof, conspicuously cov- 
ered with red tile. This roof, it is said, will be removed, and the 
walls of the tower carried up. The change will unquestionably 
enhance the architectural effect of the building, which is now one 
of the finest in Hartford, as well as one of the costliest. 

The new post-office in this city was bravely begun, is now par- 
tially finished, and will be completed in the near future, if the 
present bill before Congress asking for an appropriation of $240,- 
000, is passed. The post-office is irregular in outline, the length 
being 1 12 feet and the width about 100 feet. The material used 
is granite from the quarries at Clark's Island, where the stone is 
cut to measurement and forwarded. The building was one of 
those designed by Mr. Mullett. It is severely classic in detail, and 
is crowned by a roof of the orthodox style, two large towers serving 
to break up any chance of monotony of roof-lines. The work has 
been under the able superintendence of Mr. G. H. Gilbert, a local 
architect; and the building had been carried up to the first floor, 
when it was covered over, although immense quantities of stone 
were on the site, ready to be unboxed and put in place ; but this 
was an impossible step, as appropriations had been exhausted. 
The post-office is centrally located, and occupies a prominent angle 
on what is known as " State House Square," directly behind the 
time-honored building in which for so many years the Connecticut 
Legislature has met, and which is soon to be deserted for the more 
commodious and elegant quarters in the Capitol on Bushnell Park. 
Already three appropriations have been made for the post-office ; 
but of the large sums granted less than $150,000 have been ex- 
pended in Hartford. CHETWOOD. 


ST. Louis, March 1, 1878. 


Dear Sir, Your Cincinnati correspondent explains the cracking 
and spalling which he reports in the stock-brick facing of the 
walls of the new Shillito Building in that city, by the hypothesis 
that the backing of common brick must have settled more than 
the stock-brick, because of the greater thickness of the mortar- 
joints in the backing. This explanation hardly seems satisfactory 
in view of the facts that in this city, as doubtless in most others, 
it has long been the almost universal practice to back up stock- 
bricks laid with a very fine joint, with smaller common bricks laid 
with a much thicker mortar-joint; that such buildings have stood 
for many years, and that we have yet to learn of a case in which 
the stock-brick has cracked and spalled as reported at Cincinnati. 

One is tempted to question the quality of the stock-bricks used 
in the Shillito Building, or of the manner in which they were laid. 
A well-known cause of spalling in new bricks is the presence of 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 115. 

limestone pebbles in the brick-clay, which are converted into 
caustic lime by the process of burning, and then, expanding on 
exposure to moisture, burst and spall ofE the face of the brick. 
Very respectfully yours, 



THE dug-out is the primitive house of Kansas. In Minnesota, 
at an early day, a dug-out meant an Indian canoe hollowed out of 
the trunk of a tree. In Kansas it means a habitation for a new 
settler. Its name is indicative of its construction. An excavation 
is made to about five feet below the surface, and large enough to 
furnish the requisite room for the family. Usually it is located at 
the edge of a ravine or depression, so that the approach can incline 
from instead of to the entrance. In other cases, it is dug on level 
ground, the entrance descending four or five steps, as in entering 
a basement. The walls above the surface of the earth are built up 
of stones or sods to the requisite height of ceiling, and banked up 
by the earth dug out. The windows are necessarily above ground, 
which makes them high from the inside, and pretty low from the 
outside. The roof is given a sufficient inclination or pitch ; cov- 
ered with one thickness of common boards or poles, and above 
that with earth packed down so smooth and solid that no water 
will penetrate it. The sides are so solid and firm that they can be 
whitewashed or plastered, as is sometimes done by the extra fas- 
tidious, some even going to the extravagance of a brown muslin 
ceiling tacked to the under side of the roof-timbers, and white- 
washed. Where these extravagant ideas do not enter into the 
construction of a dug-out, one with one room, say sixteen by 
twenty feet, can be built with a cash outlay for lumber, nails, and 
windows, of about twenty-five dollars, the owner doing all the 
labor himself. Other rooms can be added as needed, though the 
resident of a dug-out usually has aspirations for a more imposing 
residence, and expends no more on these temporary structures than 
absolutely necessary. The dug-out furnishes a cheap and really 
comfortable cabin for the new settler of small means, being 
warm in winter and cool in summer, rarely if ever damp; and 
hundreds of intelligent, well-educated, Eastern-raised people are 
to-day living in them, improving their farms, and increasing their 
live stock, who in a few years will build comfortable houses, and 
surround themselves and their families with all the comforts and 
conveniences of life. The sod-house is another style of cheap 
house. This is made by running a breaking-plough about three or 
four inches deep, till a sufficient amount of material has been 
turned over, when it is cut into convenient lengths with a spade, 
hauled to the building-site, and laid up in walls like stone, only 
requiring no mortar. The door and window frames are set and 
built in the same as in a brick or stone house. When the walls 
have reached a sufficient height, a plank is laid on each side for 
a plate, and to this the bottom of the rafte/s are spiked. The 
gables are built up under the end-rafters, of the same material as 
the rest of the walls. The roof is made in the same manner as 
that of the dug-out, care being taken to have it properly supported 
in the centre. High-toned people trim the walls down smooth, 
and plaster them outside and in, which makes a very respectable- 
appearing as well as comfortable house. The cash outlay for a 
sod-house is about the same as for a dug-out. Concrete probably 
furnishes the cheapest material from which to construct a house of 
a permanent character, since all the materials requisite for the 
walls, except the small quantity of cement required, are found in 
abundance ; and in their construction no special mechanical skill 
is required, so that the settler of ordinary intelligence can mainly 
build his own house. The process of building concrete walls has 
been so often published, that it is not necessary to now give it in 
detail. Brick have been but little used, because stone is so 
abundant and is cheaper. Letter to the Chicago Tribune. 


REREDOS. A new reredos is building for Grace Church, New York, 
which will cost about $30,000. The altar of white marble, with eight 
red marble columns surmounted with white foliated capitals, will be 
twenty-five feet long. The reredos will be twenty-one feet high, and 
Gothic in style. The front of the altar will be divided into three 
panels, which will be richly inlaid with colored marbles. The base 
will be of green Genoa marble, and the columns on either side of it 
will be inlaid with Sienna and black marble. The cornice will be of 
carved marble of a dove-color, and above it will be a heavy string and 
sill course supporting the panels of the reredos. The institution of 
the sacrament will be represented in mosaic on the central panel, and 
on either side will be figures of two of the four Evangelists. All the 
panels will be surrounded with tracery, and the buttresses will be 
surmounted by white pinnacles with columns of Mexican onyx. 

A SINGULAR PHENOMENON recently happened at La Clappe, in 
France. A plat of ground planted with vines and olive-trees slowly 
sank in and disappeared, leaving a gulf of a funnel-shaped form 
about 120 feet in diameter at the surface and 40 feet at the bottom. 
At the depth of 100 feet may be seen a sheet of water, in which the 
earth, estimated at a quantity of 10,000 cubic yards, has been swal- 
lowed up. i 

first volume that the authorities were taking measures to preserve 
the light-house at this point from being undermined by the action 
of the tides. Cribs were built outside, but were washed away, and the 
tides have been crawling steadily inland. In 1857 the light-house was 
1,300 feet beyond low-water mark: now it is only one hundred feet 
beyond it, so that the water washes about its base, and is slowly un- 
dermining it so that its fall may happen at any time. The light- 
house is 170 feet high, and marks one of the most dangerous points 
on the New Jersey shore, where, in spite of it, many vessels have 
been wrecked of late. 

RAILROAD BRIDGES. A writer in Engineering News thus classi- 
fies the causes of 183 bridge accidents that have occurred in the United 
States and Canada since 1872, which he has been able to investigate. 
Accidents have befallen 57 pile or trestle bridges, 38 Howe truss 
bridges, 5 combination bridges, 17 iron bridges, and 66 bridges whose 
construction is indeterminate. The following causes are assigned: 
fire, 0; hurricane, 3; freshet, 26; undergoing repairs, 7; floor broken 
by train, 27; bridge knocked down by train, 54; square fall, i.e., lack 
of strength to support the weight of a train, 8; unknown, 52. 

SIPONTUM. As was recorded by a notice in No. 106 of the Ameri- 
can Architect, Sipontum, another subterranean city, another Pom- 
peii, is being disentombed in Southern Italy. It was discovered while 
cleaning a well, situated not far from Monte Gargano, in Apulia, on 
the Adriatic coast. The building first struck upon was a temple, ap- 
parently dedicated to Diana; then followed the long porticus, and an 
extensive necropolis has very recently been unearthed which is said 
to cover not less than four acres. Many important inscriptions have 
already been brought to light here, most of which luckily find their 
way to the National Museum at Naples. The extensive excavations 
receive the full support of the citizens and the archbishop of Manfre- 
donia, which latter city, one of those founded by the son of Frederic 
the Second, is built in part over the remains of the antique Sipon- 
tum, exactly as Dr. Schliemann found one town superimposed upon 
the yet existing remains of another at Hissarlik. Sipontum was 
originally a Greek colony, the foundation of which is of uncertain 
date. It was old when the Romans resettled all that country after 
the second Punic war. The name of the place then was Sipom, given 
to it, most likely, from the cuttle-fish (sepia) cast up on the neighbor- 
ing shore; from this the later Romans formed Sipontum in the same 
way as Tarentum, Hydruntum, etc. Sipontum, like other Apulian 
cities, never recovered from the awful devastations of the Punic war; 
still it managed to preserve its existence, while other ancient cities 
were disappearing so thoroughly that no tradition lingers even of 
their site. By the middle of the thirteenth century it was considered 
very unhealthy on account of its sunken position, and the marshes 
by which it was surrounded, the effect doubtless of the depression of 
the ground which had already taken place; so in 1251 King Manfred 
transferred its population to a new town, which he built in a higher 
and more healthy situation. Thenceforth old Sipontum was deserted, 
and handed over to the earthquakes, which seem to have dealt with 
it tenderly; not rudely shaking it into ruin, but wrapping it in clay 
and tufa sand so effectively as to hide it away for six centuries. 
Many relics have been found in the houses; but the city of the 
dead, with its immense number of tombs, promises to be the most 
fruitful field for research. Sipontum is generally associated in one's 
mind with its neighbors Apina and Trica, towns lying near by, whose 
names (Apinm et Tricot), since their destruction by Dipmede, have 
become proverbial for nothingness. Let us hope that Sipontum will 
not prove thus empty. Even though the matter may not be so mo- 
mentous as it is represented by the Italian journals, we may still 
expect from this discovery important additions to our knowledge of 
Roman antiquities and civilization. 

AN ELEVATOR ACCIDENT. Elevators seem to be as productive of 
accidents as stairs ; for as it is as possible to tumble up stairs as to 
tumble down stairs, so one cooped up in an elevator can vary the 
excitement of a breathless drop through four or five stories, by taking 
an equally breathless flight through the same space, and finish as 
fatally in the second case as in the first; this was the case in Paris, 
where, a short time ago, three persons were carried from the bottom 
of the elevator-shaft in the Grand Hotel Paris, and crushed against 
the ceiling. The accident was caused by the loss of the balance. 

A LOAN EXHIBITION. The Woman's Art Museum Association of 
Cincinnati have decided to hold during the month of May a loan col- 
lection exhibition, Mr. John Cochnower having generously tendered 
the use of his house (now unoccupied), No. 166 West Seventh Street, 
for that purpose. The objects desired for exhibition are bronzes, 
mosaics, ancient arrnoi', carved ivories, gold, silver, and brass work, 
enamelled metals and porcelain, antique furniture, pottery, artistic 
embroideries, pictures, engravings, statuary, glass, lace, tapestry, 
wood-carvings, etc. As it is well known that Cincinnati is rich with 
articles above mentioned, with others of like nature, the exhibition 
will no doubt be one of great interest. 

THE FLORENTINE WATER-WORKS. Among the most important 
enterprises of modern Italian engineering, are the new water-works of 
Florence. The object of the undertaking is thus stated in Giornale 
del Genio Civile: " To collect in a gallery, excavated near the city, 
the subterranean waters which filter through the sand and gravel 
which form the subsoil of the great valley of the Arno; to convey 
them into ample basins, from which, by means of powerful pumps, 
they may be distributed in canals, using the water of the Arno and 
Corliss steam-engines for motive force; and to establish ample reser- 
voirs, above the level of the city, to receive the excess or supply the 
deficiency of hourly consumption, the reservoirs acting like the gov- 
ernors of a steam-engine. " 



Copyright, 1878, JAMES E. OSGOOD & Co. 

[NO. 116. 

BOSTON, MARCH 16, 1878. 



The New Congressional Library. American Pictures at the 
Paris Exhibition. Report of the Trustees of the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts. Mr. Barry at tho Sheffield School 
of Art. The Study of the Figure. The New Boston Court- 
House. Restorations of the Cathedral of Florence. ... 89 



Hotel and Opera-House, Holyoke, Mass. House at Brook- 
line, Mass. Concrete House at Vorwohle. Designs for 
Furniture, etc. Parsonage House 92 


Haupt's Engineering Specifications. The Useful. The 
Metal-Worker. Maps 


CORRESPONDENCE: Letter from New York. Letter fron^St. John . 94 


Ventilation and Direct Radiation. Soot-stained Plaster . . ! 

IT is some years since a competition was held for designs 
for a new Congressional Library, a competition which re- 
sulted in nothing but the.awardiug of two or three premiums 
for preferred designs, and it may be believed that the need 
which was then felt is now more imperative. The librarian 
of Congress, Mr. Spofford, has kept it before Congress by suc- 
cessive recommendations in his annual reports, and in his last 
reminded them that the accumulation of a hundred thousand 
volumes since the need was first felt was crowding the library 
to such a degree as to greatly impair its usefulness. To this 
difficulty is to be added the insecurity of the books in their 
present position, to which we not long ago called attention. 
The United States Senate has lately passed a bill, which is 
now before the House, appointing a commission, and author- 
izing an appropriation, to provide plans for a new building or 
an extension. There are now in the library over three hundred 
and thirty thousand volumes, and a third as many pamphlets, 
a great part of which is rubbish, to be sure, owing to the law 
which compels it to receive two copies of every book pub- 
lished in thC country. The same provision which has swollen 
it so fast hitherto will, it has been computed, in the course of 
this century require for it a building two-thirds as large as the 
present Capitol. This ought to be reason enough for rejcct- 
, ing one of the schemes proposed, that the central part of 
the Capitol be extended to furnish room for the library. It is 
desirable that in due time the centre building should be modi- 
fied into unity of design with the wings, and plans for this 
were prepared long ago by the architect of the wings. But it 
is likely that there will always be use enough for all the space 
that can be added without injury to the effect of the build- 
ing ; while it is not likely that, even if some means is devised 
tokcep down the rising flood of literature, any space that 
could be so provided would be permanently sufficient for the 
needs of a library which will far outstrip all others in the 
country. Moreover, in spite of the convenience of having 
the books close at hand and under one roof with the halls of 
Congress, a library is a thing that more than most demands 
imperatively, for its well-being and security, a building of its 
own, isolated from all other uses. The difficulty of separa- 
tion might doubtless be substantially relieved by providing 
a working library of the more essential publications, for 
which there would be room enough in the Capitol, and which 
might consist of duplicates. Another proposition is to build 
a new library on Judiciary Square, where the old City Hall is, 
a situation inconveniently far from the Capitol, we should 
think. Still another is to build it on ground east of the 
Capitol, which promises better. It has been suggested, we 
understand, that in this case it may still be a building of 
divided uses ; but this again would be a serious mistake. 
However it is done, we trust it will not be in any half-way 
manner. A library brooks no rival ; and a building that is 
well planned for it, cannot be well planned for any thing else. 

hibition has after considerable labor made its final choice 
among a large number of pictures that were offered. About 
eighty have been accepted, mostly the work of New York 
artists, there being only three from Philadelphia and five 
from Boston. It is not reported that pictures have been 
received from any other cities. Of the whole number ac- 
gepted a dozen are water-colors. The contributions of 
American artists who are abroad are expected to add some 
twenty-five more to the display ; and of these it is rumored 
that the greater part will come from Rome, a thing which 
was hardly to be looked for, considering that the strongest 
colony of American painters has generally been at Paris, 
where the exhibition is to be, and considering also the promi- 
nence of the Munich colony of late. 

IT is said that the so-called Advisory Committee for the 
selection of American paintings to be sent to the Paris Ex- 

TIIE Trustees of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts have 
published their second annual report, which gives an encour- 
aging account of its administration and success. The Mu- 
seum was open to the public on every day in 1877 except in 
August, when it was closed for alterations. Lately it has 
been free to the public on Sunday afternoons ; and the 
average of visitors has been nearly as great on Sunday as 
on Saturday, the other free day. The whole number of visit- 
ors during the year was nearly one hundred and sixty thou- 
sand. Of these of course by far the greater number were 
on the free clays, when the average was about fifteen hun- 
dred. It appeared, however, that the number of visitors on 
the paying days, which was only sixty-three, increased in 
spite of the addition of Sundays to the free days. It is 
clear from the experience of this and the Philadelphia Mu- 
seum, which we mentioned last week, and of the Metropolitan 
Museum in New York, that the establishment of these means 
of general cultivation has not been in advance of the popular 
demand for them. The report of the committee on the Mu- 
seum dwells with reasonable emphasis on the importance to 
its usefulness of the School of Drawing and Painting, which, 
though independently organized, has been given house-room 
and the use of the collections by the trustees, and for which 
two additional rooms have been fitted up in the past year. 
To the students in' this school are to be added the architec- 
tural students in the Institute of Technology and the pupils 
of the Free School of Design at the Lowell Institute, to all 
of whom free access to the collections is given. The report 
shows that the principal running expenses are pretty evenly 
balanced by the current receipts ; the sale of the catalogues 
meeting the cost of issuing them, and a trifle more ; the re- 
ceipts from admissions balancing the pay of the attendants^; 
and the income from investments paying the salaries of offi- 
cers and the cost of heating and lighting, and giving a small 
surplus for the purchase of works of art. This assures the 
Museum of its own maintenance, but leaves its accretions to 
be chiefly the result of individual contributions. These are 
not lacking, and already the complaint is of want of room 
to display the collections. This want has grown so pressing, 
that a subscription has been opened with the hope of raising 
a hundred thousand dollars to build the remainder of the 
front wing of the building, the part now built being only a 
fraction of the complete design. Of this sum nearly ninety 
thousand had been raised at the last accounts, and there 
was little doubt that the work would be begun the coming 

AT a recent distribution of prizes at the Sheffield School 
of Art,. Mr. Barry, the President of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects, made a criticism which it would be 
well to repeat often, for the present at least, wherever there 
are schools of drawing of any serious purpose. He spoke 
with surprise and regret of the very small number of pupils 
in the school, a large one, who attended the class for the 
study of the human figure. This study, he said, was not 
only the highest branch of art, but by far the most useful, 
and the knowledge of it would do more than any thing to 
keep alive and vigorous the other branches of drawing and 
modelling. As an instance he mentioned the effect of it 
among the French as " seen in the broad, decisive and vigor- 
ous wly in which they handled ornamentation of all sorts," 
wc should add, in the refinement and grace of their work. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 116. 

The school in Glasgow is one of the old schools of art in 
England, having been founded by the efforts of the painter 
Haydon and a few others in 1843, before the " World's 
Fair " gave the impulse to the study of design which resulted 
in the South Kensington movement. The strength of the 
undertaking and the need it met may be inferred from the 
fact that in this town of Sheffield, a town smaller than Boston, 
given over more than any other to the condition of a purely 
manufacturing community, and to the deteriorating influences 
of trades-unionism, the number of scholars in the school of 
art has grown to nearly four hundred. Glasgow is a yet 
more striking instance of the popularity of such a school, 
where in a community of about six hundred thousand there 
are in a similar one thirteen hundred students. Theso are 
good examples for the manufacturing communities here. 
There is less to encourage in the fact that Mr. Barry should 
have found among the four hundred students at Sheffield 
only five or six who attended the classes for the study of the 


MR. BARRY here proclaimed an important and a much-neg- 
lected truth. There is no royal road to design, but that which 
comes nearest to it lies through the study of the figure. It is, 
of course, difficult for those who have not pursued the study 
to realize the increase of power which it gives, as it is for a 
near-sighted man to know how things will look to him through 
spectacles before he has tried them. Nevertheless it is true, 
and all experience shows it, that no other training gives the 
same power of line, and of composition, or so favors that 
directness, decision, and subtle unity of effect which we call 
style, and which is so wanting in most modern work. It is 
pretty safe to say that no one can be a great designer who has 
not learned to draw the figure. The study of other organic 
forms 'flowers, plants, and trees' such as has been more 
common of late, is the next best thing, but distinctly inferior 
as a means of training. In all the great ages of design, and 
among almost all nations that were skilled in it, the study of 
the figure has been predominant. The only exceptions of 
mark are in Indian and Saracenic work, which, admirable as 
it is in its kind, by reason of the natural aptitude of those 
who wrought it, is yet on a lower plane than the rest. It 
was at the foundation of Egyptian and Greek design, and 
the Roman owed to it what excellence it had. All the beau- 
tiful ornamental design of the early Renaissance was the 
work of artists whose main stud}- was to paint and carve the 
figure. Even in the thirteenth century, the golden age of 
Gothic architecture, though the common reliance was on other 
organic forms, the figure was always essential in an}' con- 
siderable work, and the sculpture of it had reached a point 
of excellence for which we too often forget to give it credit. 
In our day the French designers owe, as Mr. Barry inti- 
mates, their uneontested superiority, at least in skill, to their 
familiarity with it. Yet in our country there are but two 
or three schools where serious attention is paid to it, in 
spite of the great enthusiasm for all sorts of design which 
has sprung up. This is due probably to the fact that the 
study is exacting, and we are impatient of rigorous train- 
ing ; also, that it naturally comes last in a draughtsman's 
training, and that we are in haste to put an end to this 
training early, as to all others. But the neglect is none the 
less a serious shortcoming, and ought not to continue. 

IT has been a standing illustration of the impossibilities 
which architects were called on to accomplish, to say that 
their clients expected them to put a quart into a pint pot. 
It would appear that a way of accomplishing this, or some- 
thing very like it, has been discovered in Boston. Some 
time ago the mayor of that city sent a special message to the 
city government, calling their attention to the urgent need of 
a new court-house, a need which has long been felt and argued, 
and recommending that it be put on a lot on Beacon Hill, 
now occupied by a disused reservoir, and extended by the 
purchase of adjacent land. The Aldermen's Committee on 
County Buildings, to whom the mayor's message was referred, 
has reported that this proposal is too expensive, since besides 
the cost of the additional land, which they set at $214,000, 
the city architect, they say, estimates the cost of a new court- 
house upon it at 1,200,000. The committee therefore pro- 
poses an economical alternative. It would divide the courts, 

which are now crowded into one building, and build a new 
criminal court-house in the yard of the jail ; then pull away 
the present court-house, and build a new one on its site for 
the civil courts alone. By this, not only would the county be 
saved the expense of buying new ground, which is an intel- 
ligible economy, but there would be a still greater saving in 
building ; for according to plans prepared by the city archi- 
tect, says the committee, two new court-houses can be built 
for $500,000, which will accommodate all the courts and have 
eighteen rooms left over for the use of the City Hall, while, 
as we have seen, to build 'one will cost more than a million, 
that is to say, two court-houses arc cheaper by half than 
one. Unless there is some mistake in the figures, there is 
great ingenuity somewhere ; and an economical committee 
may well plume itself upon it. Nevertheless it is perhaps 
not well to commit the county too hastily to the duplex court- 
house, lest it should be discovered that by subdividing the 
civil courts and occupying paii of the Common three new 
court-houses could be built for three hundred thousand dol- 
lars, and perhaps have a whole one left over, which would be 
a yet more shining economy. 

Mu. CHARLES H. MOORE writes to the Nation, concerning 
the care of public monuments in Europe, to say that he has 
atcly seen the south transept of the Cathedral at Florence 
covered with scaffolding " for the purpose of carrying on one 
of the most foolish and destructive processes of so-called 
restoration, that, namely, of scouring off with strong acids 
all the old weather-stain, the golden color of ages ; of pick- 
ing out and replacing with new all cracked or broken frag- 
ments of mosaic ; and of tooling over the old sculpture." And 
again: " I found the delicate capitals of the window-shafts 
entirely unprotected, and freshly broken in many places by 
hips which the workmen had let fall upon them from above. 
The exquisite gable-crockets originally most wonderful for 
subtle carving of undulating surface, and spring of curvature 

-were ruthlessly hacked over and spoiled. I have ascer- 
tained that the intention is to go completely over the Cathe- 
dral in this manner, in order to make the old work look fresh 
and match the new facade now in progress." This is a kind 
of barbarism by which the traveller in Italy and even in 
France is frequently shocked. Aside from the beauty of 
the work which is thus attacked, there is here a peculiar 
cruelty in this treatment of the material. It is a character- 
istic of many of the buildings of Tuscany, due probably to 
the marble of which they arc built, that they acquire with 
time a rich saffron tint, the " golden color of ages " of which 
Mr. Moore speaks. This color, of which the cathedrals at 
Florence and Pisa are conspicuous examples, is hardly found 
elsewhere, not even, we believe, in the intermediate towns of 
Lucca and Pistoia, and is very different from the gray and 
blackish staining which occurs in other cities, in Venice, for 
instance. The annoyance of the visitor at seeing these two 
cathedrals spotted over in glaring white where stones had 
been replaced has been softened by the feeling that in due 
time the new material would grow into harmony with the old, 
and his natural inclination would have been to hasten the 
process by a slight stain on the new stones : there are few, 
we fancy, to whom it would have occurred to do it by scour- 
ing the old. As for the new facade, whose place in the gen- 
eral esteem is yet to be determined, most persons would 
have expected to wait patiently for it to adjust itself to the 
rest. Not many except its builders would, it is to be hoped, 
have thought of adjusting the venerable cathedral to it. 



As New York lies, it would probably be impossible to invent a 
system of tenement-houses, unless built with no windows at all, 
more perfectly adapted than is the present to deprive the homes 
of the poor of light, air, sunshine, and ventilation. The question 
has often been asked, " Can nothing be done to lessen the evils of 
tenement-houses in our large cities ? " Can nothing be done, for 
example, to get air and light into the sleeping-places of those who 
live in such houses? Is there no way of getting a window into 
every bedroom, or must the majority of the bedrooms of the poor 
be always, as now, dark and uu ventilated? Perhaps every day 
this q'uestion is now asked not by one only, but by a large and 
ever-increasing number among those who suffer, or see others 
suffer, under the evils and wretchedness resulting from the present 

MARCH 16,1878.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


system. No satisfactory answer to this question seems ever to 
have been made. Yet of its importance there can be no question. 
The evils are acknowledged ; the need of remedy is urgent. It is 
my aim in these papers to show that this question, though it has 
long remained unanswered, is not unanswerable ; but that, on the 
contrary, there is an answer ready, and a most satisfactory one. 

It is common to attribute the evils of New York tenement-houses 
to overcrowding consequent on the limited size of the island on 
which New York is built. This notion is so generally accepted, 
as to make the tracing of the causes of these evils backward, step 
by step, seem useless study. In giving attention to tenement- 
house plans, and in endeavoring to find their chief evils, and then 
to find the immediate and direct cause of each evil, and so, with- 
out preconceived notions, to trace the chain of evils backward, I 
found myself led in quite a different direction. There seems to 
be a more immediate cause for these evils than the size of the 
island, and one happily not beyond human control. I found in the 
imposition by the city of artificial restrictions on the distribution 
of areas and sale of real estate that which has immediately 
brought about these evils in New York, and would bring about 
the same results in however large a space. And I find that these 
restrictions, where they have been imposed in inland cities, have 
led to results identical with those we deplore in New York. 

The peculiar evils of the tenement-house system of the upper 
part of New York are not due to the limited size or narrow width 
of the island on which New York is built, as is generally sup- 
posed, nor are they due to overcrowding, but to the inflexible depth 
of 100 feet each of the up-town lots. The whole of New York 
above Fourteenth Street, that is to say four-fifths of the island or 
more, is laid out in lots all of one uniform depth. These lots are 
about 400 feet deep each. This is much larger than persons of 
moderate means can afford to build on. A shallow house would 
not pay on such a deep lot. By consequence, only very deep 
houses are built, in which only the rich can afford to live with 
comfort; in which people of moderate means cannot live with 
economy ; and which, for the very poor, and even for mechanics 
and artisans, become tenement-houses of a sort which can be lived 
in with neither comfort, true economy, nor decency. 

This is the Juggernaut under the pressure of which New York 
is fast becoming a city of only the very rich and the very poor ; a 
city where only the very rich live in comfort, and where those of 
moderate or limited means are driven, if they remain in the city 
at all, into boarding-houses, in the best of which many have to sleep 
in inside unventilated rooms. It has thus become a city which 
discourages marriage, and where it is impossible for the young 
of the better classes to marry and go to housekeeping without a 
provision far beyond that required in any other city on the conti- 
nent, or probably in the world. It has become a city where me- 
chanics and artisans, as well as day-laborers and abject poor, are 
herded in tenement-houses where nine-tenths of the bedrooms 
are darkened and uuventilated. It has become a city where 
manufiictures do not, as in Philadelphia (where operatives, me- 
chanics, artisans, and the like are happier, more respectable, more 
respected, because better housed, than anywhere else in the world), 
readily take the place of a departing or expiring trade. 

Imagine a city where official blundering had resulted in making 
( it impossible to buy flour or sugar or any other staple in parcels 
of either less or more than a hundred pounds, or cloth or textile 
fabrics of any width except in pieces of ten yards' length, and one 
will be able to form some idea of the absurdity of the system at 
present prevailing in New York, and which governs all dealings in 
real estate almost entirely throughout the upper, and by far the 
larger, part of the city. 

In Philadelphia the way in which the large squares are subdi- 
vided by lesser streets, and the blocks so remaining are again and 
again subdivided, makes it possible to buy pieces of land of an 
infinite variety of size and situation and shape and price. In con- 
sequence of this principally, for the city is shut in between two 
rivers, much like New York, Philadelphia has become the para- 
dise of mechanics and operatives. The number of persons who are 
owners of real estate there is thus enormous in proportion to the 
amount of real estate owned. This makes a vast number of citi- 
zens in proportion to the population of the city, who, though people 
of small means, are yet owners of real estate, and who thus have a 
stake in the community, and are members of that class, the exist- 
ence of which most conduces to the safety and perpetuity of the 

The same would be, in a much greater measure than now, the 
case in New York if lots of smaller size were procurable in fee 
simple, or on ground rent. And this would be the case whether 
the houses built upon them were intended for one or several fami- 
lies. An owner of a small piece of real estate has the same in- 
terest in the conservation of civil order, whether his property is 
occupied by himself only or by a dozen other families. But the 
smaller the size of such pieces of real estate, the larger will be the. 
number of holders. And not only this, but the better and more 
Comfortable will be the houses upon them for however many in- 
tended. Can any thing be worse than the majority of the so-called 
French flats which have become common in the upper part of the 
city, but which in Paris would not be allowed by law? They 
have, some of them, more dark, unventilated bedrooms than per- 

haps the worst of our tenement-houses. Nor can this well be 
avoided where such a house is built upon a lot one hundred feet 
deep, and but twenty-five feet, or perhaps less, in ' breadth, and 
where the only light and air to bo had is on the narrow ends of 
the house, or by wells of light which are adapted to disseminate a 
pestilence through a house, but not to allow it to escape. 

Would it not be well for owners of real estate to consider 
whether it would be to their advantage to run short streets 
through their property, from north to south, say of the width of 
Jauncey Court, and furnished like that with gates at the ends, 
which can be often enough closed to'retain a property-right in the 
street? Such a street, like a clle\\\ Paris, could be lighted and 
kept in order and policed by the city, and the lots along its sides 
could be of such shallow depth as might be found convenient for 
those desiring lots shallower than the customary depth in the city. 
Such lots could be leased on ground rent like the lots of Columbia 
College, the Sailors' Snug Harbor, etc. 'Would it not be well for 
those in charge of the interests of the institutions just named, 
and others like them, to consider whether, by acting on this sug- 
gestion, they would not be introducing a reform which would, in 
the end, become a benefit to all classes? Again, in planning flats, 
tenement-houses, and the like, would it not be well to plan them 
as shallow buildings, or blocks run through from street to street, 
giving light and air to every room of each flat or tenement, and 
divided from one another by such streets as above described ? 

Many attempts have been made to overcome the evils which 
have gradually arisen out of the New York deep lot system. But 
of those attempts, either those which have been carried out, or 
those which have only been recommended, I cannot find one 
which, if it accepts the present New York street-lot system, then 
effectually overcomes the evils growing out of it. \V r hen such 
attempts are meant to serve the tenement-house population 
by the planning or building of model tenement-houses, such 
houses either embody the usual tenement-house evils, or avoid 
them by means which are not of general application. They 
either have dai'k, unventilated inside rooms, or they avoid them 
by building on a corner lot. But these dark, unventilated, win- 
dowless inside rooms are the worst feature of New York tenement- 
houses, and are without parallel in any other country; and the 
New York up-town blocks contain each from forty to sixty city 
lots of which only four are corner lots. Buildings, or plans for 
buildings, however well meant, which embody the evils they 
should aim to avoid, or which avoid them by means not of general 
applicability, are not and cannot be models. 

Those who have or would enter upon such enterprises, and in 
proportion as their motives are high and unselfish, should take 
care not to be misled into supposing that excellence of their plans 
is proved by any financial success whether brief or lasting, which 
such enterprises, where put into execution, may have. Financial 
success does not argue excellence of plan. The worst tenement- 
houses in New York are financial successes. Nor again does the 
fact that the poor desert the old tenement-houses, and crowd into 
the new model tenement-houses, prove any excellence of plan in 
the latter. From what I can learn, all old houses, on whatever 
plan, bad or youd, will be deserted by tenants for new houses on 
whatever plan, whether good or bad. And all new houses 
(whether like Sir Sidney Waterlow's for instance, or better or 
worse) will, unless they cost too much, have a financial success, 
and a success otherwise in appearance for a time. Even conven- 
ience of plan should not be confounded with excellence of plan 
in a sanitary point of view. A house may be well planned, or it 
may be ill planned, from a sanitary point of view, and yet be very 
convenient. The convenience may be the result of much study 
and forethought. It is in itself an excellence. But it is not a 
sanitary excellence. Convenience is frequently, and in the city 
of New York almost invariably, at variance with sanitary excel- 
lence. And in New York this is the case not only in tenement- 
houses but also in private houses, and especially and to a very 
reprehensible degree, in most of the new flats and apartment- 
houses. Nor again should constant attention, any more than 
newness and convenience, be mistaken for excellence of plan. 
Constant attention, like that of that London lady who lives among 
her tenants, and collects rents, and supervises generally herself, 
and like that of a noble-minded lady in one of our own cities, and 
like that of all who from motives of charity or interest give Constant 
attention, will secure success in itself, or it will prolong a success 
owed partly to the newness or convenience of a house. But this is 
as much the case with bad as with good houses. With every new 
house at the start, special attention, and such as cannot bo de- 
pended upon later, is almost sure to be given to the character and 
demeanor of tenants. But whether special attention arises from 
philanthropic or only self-interested considerations, it is, though 
most worthy and commendable in itself, still outside the province 
of _plan, unless a constant factor, to be always counted on. 

Newness, convenience, and special attention ought to bring a 
very high degree of success and financial prosperity to any build- 
ing, however bad its plan from a sanitary point of view. And that 
success ought to continue as long as the newness and the special 
attention last, and there are tenants who can appreciate convcn- 
ince. But with time, and the falling-off of such more or less 
temporary attention, the success gradually disappears. Less 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. III. No. 116. 

active interest in the house or houses on the part of its owners, 
less close attention on the part of their agents, less careful tenants, 
less cleanly, houses, reduced rents, etc., in turn and gradually 1( 
low. As nearly as I can learn, this is likely to be the case, whether 
the plan built on is good or bad. 

What then is the plan that we should aim at ? A good plan 
the plan that is most needed, would seem to be that which would 
combine most economically the greatest sanitary excellence with 
convenience, and would depend least on newness and special atten- 
tion for its success. I should consider a well-planned house or 
tenement that in which not only good people could live commend- 
ably and with most advantage to themselves, but one in which bad 
people could live badly with the least harm to themselves or others. 

And in this connection we should bear in mind the difference 
between harm, and harm apparent, and not give our attention 
only and wholly to the latter. The main evils in bad plans are 
those of a sanitary nature, of which only experience and science 
have shown the danger ; while minor evils, such as inconvenience, 
poor appearance, etc., are immediately apparent. The New York 
system of building is a remarkable one for hiding the evils which 
are inherent in it. Take for instance such a tenement-house as 
is not uncommon in New York. It is twenty-five feet wide, 
over seventy feet deep, and it has four families on a floor. It 
fronts well on a wide street; it has, say, a brown-stone front; 

it makes a good appearance, 

and commends itself to out- 
siders. Each tenement in such 
a house consists of several 
rooms. But only one of the 
rooms in each is properly light- 
ed and ventilated ; for the ten- 
ements in such a house have, 
and, as will be seen from the diagram annexed, can have, windows, 
light, and air on but one of their four sides. The windows are on 
one of the narrow ends, and, as the tenements are three times as 
deep as they are wide, it will be seen that they are necessarily like 
cave-dwellings, dark and unventilated. If, in addition to such 
light as is received into the inner rooms by openings in the parti- 
tions dividing them from the outer room which has the windows, 
a sort of twilight gets into them also by means of wells of light as 
they are called in the body of the house, still these inside rooms 
are inadequately lighted. In most of them no bird would sing, no 
flower would bloom, no plant put forth green leaves. No human 
being can live in them except at a great sanitary disadvantage as 
to ventilation. Such wells of light, as before pointed out, are 
calculated to disseminate a pestilence through a house, but not to 
allow it to escape. 

Yet, bad as such tenements are, most persons would prefer to 
hire one in such a house, rather than in an equally well-appearing 
house if it stood upon a narrow street or alley, even though the 
tenements of the latter possessed every sanitary excellence and 
were in every part well lighted and ventilated by windows open- 
ing on the street and yards. For the credit or discredit of living 
in a wide or narrow street is immediately apparent. But the evils of 
the system embodied in a 25x70 feet tenement-house with no 
thorough draughts of air, and no adequate ventilation or light ex- 
cept in one room of each series, are not apparent ; they are con- 
cealed from outsiders wholly and always, and mostly from the 
occupants themselves, except in very hot weather. Few persons 
are very sensitive about bad air. It does not inconvenience them 
at least, not much. Few persons will take much pains to avoid 
it, especially if such avoidance entails any other sacrifices or in- 
conveniences along with it. Even among our wealthiest classes 
we have made our houses very convenient, but rather fever-breed- 
ing. We must expect that the poor, like the rich and the tolerably 
well-off, will prefer appearance and convenience, that first element 
of the luxury that we are all, and I suppose wisely, striving for, 
to any doubtful sanitary benefits. 

But z/ we concede that (1) bad air is bad for the health, that (2; 
in inside rooms there will be bad air, that (3) the chances are thai 
inside rooms will be frequently unventilated; and that (4) where 
a house is more than two rooms deep, and without windows on the 
sides, there must be one or more inside rooms in it ; and if, fur- 
ther, we concede that (5) a house two rooms deep cannot be made 
much more than about thirty feet deep, with economy, for a race 
of five-to-six-feet-high people; and (0) if we only put one such 
house on a 25 x 100 feet lot, then, it seems to me, that we must 
either be willing to let over two-thirds of our lot go unbuilt upon 
or we must have smaller lots. 



THESE buildings were erected for William Whiting, Esq., th 
present mayor of Holyoke, and are now rapidly approaching 
completion. The hotel-building is constructed of Philadelphi 
pressed brick, with finish of light Nova Scotia sandstone, and com 
prises stores on the ground floor, dining-hall, kitchen, parlors anc 
chambers on the second and third stories and a public hall on th 

ourth story. The tower is about one hundred and fifty feet in 
eight. On the exterior of the opera-house, light Philadelphia 
nd dark Holyoke pressed brick are used; and bands of black 
rick and panels of maiolica tiles are introduced. The central 
Table is further ornamented by two circular panels containing 
leads of Comedy and Tragedy. The auditorium includes an pr- 
hestra, parquet circle, and one gallery, and has a seating capacity 
f about eleven hundred. It is finished throughout in the Neo- 
3rec style. The plan is circular. The ceiling consists of a 
arge coved cornice, pierced by eight semi-circular lunettes (form- 
ng a series of furred vaults), surmounted by a flat dome, and is 
>rnameuted at the centre with a rosace, which serves as a ventila- 
or to the auditorium, and from which depends a large brass chan- 
delier. All the ornamental work is executed in papier-mache, 
in the two prosceniums, though merely decorative features, a