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Abbey. Excavations at Buckfast, 29 
Academy. Architecture at the Royal, 


Accident to a Load of Dynamite. Harm- 
less, 310 
Collapse of large Sewer, 250 
Explosion of a Water-Back, 61 
Fall of Buddensiek's Houses, 181, 193, 

205, 301 
Frozen Drip-Pipe causes Leakage and 

Explosion of Gas, 61 
Natural-Gas Explosions, 1 
Accidents to Workmen. How to treat, 


Adjudicated Architectural Cases, 14 
.Kr'ial Navigation, 2, 98 
African Sea. Proposed Inland, 34, 166 
Ailantus. The, 70 
Alloys of Iron. New, 49 
Alteratione. The Commission for, 213 
Ambulance Barrack. Prize offered for 

an, 290 

American Architect Routine. The, 13 
" Architectural Journals, 219 
" Architectural Journals. Re- 
port on, 231 
" Architecture. A Canadian 

on, 166 

" " Monographs 

of, 145, 205, 

" Electrical Progress, 31 
" Mail Device adopted in 

1'rance, 182 

Eddystone Light. A Tale of, 238 
Ingenious Swindles, 154, 202 
Missouri's Buried City, 226 
Painter's Story. A. 10 
Superstition. A Queer, 262 
Swindle. An Ingenious Austrian, 202 
Turner's Refusal ol an Offer, 46 
Antwerp. The Plantin-Moretua Man- 
sion, 137 

Arcade Itailway in New York, 265 
Arch. Strength of an Elliptical, 249 


Bronze Statue found at Rome, 220 
Buckfast Abbey Excavations, 29 
Delos. Explorations at, 49 
Discoveries at Rome, 142, 220, 262, 290 
Frescoes found at Rome, 262 
Forum. Excavation of the Roman. 


Lisgard the Curious, 8 
Prehistoric Armorer. The Workshop 

of a, 45 
Roman Idolater's House. A, 290 

" Tenement-Houses, 298 
St. Martin's, Canterbury. Discovery 

at, 310 

Zoan. Another Name for, 214 
Architect of the Capitol. Rumored 

Change of the, 169 
" convicted ot Bribery. An, 157 
" Modern, The, 41, 55 
" Responsibility of a Salaried 

Municipal, 182 

Architect Stable Competition. The 

American, 92, 10:!, 116, 117, 137, 145, 151 

Architect's and Builder's Pocket-Book. 

The, 159, 189 

" Commission Swindle, 25 
" Duties. Bill defining the Su- 
pervising, 21 
" Drawings. Ownership of an, 

" Fee. Computing an, 21 

Architect's Responsibility in France. 

The, 37. 74, 86 

" Suit for Commission. Wil- 
son vs. Lane, 70 
" Suits for Commission, 105, 

237, 298 

Architects. Licensing Minnesota, 158 
" Congress of French, 241 
" of Missouri. Association of 

the, 121, 182 
Architectural Association of Minnesota, 

" Cases. Legal Rulings on, 


Diplomats. German, 190 
Exhibitions, 266 
Journals. American, 219 
" " Reporton 


" Schools, 273 

Architecture. A Canadian on Ameri- 
can, 166 

" at Cincinnati, 33 

" Criticizing Landscape, 

" - A History of Roman, 70, 


" Monographs of Ameri- 

can, 145, 205, 233 
" Personal Equation in 

Renaissance, 15 
" at the Royal Academy, 

" Sketch of the History of, 

17, 27, 39 
Terra-Cotta, 267 
Armorer. Workshop of a Prehistoric, 


Arsenic Wall-Paper, 179 
Art Exports to America. French, 46 
" in High Monuments, 233 
" Recent Books on, 255 
" Works. Duties on, 105 
Artesian Well at New Haven. Failure 

of. 46 
Artists and the Washington Capitol. 

Female, 37 
Arts. Formation of a National Society 

of. 154 

Asphalt Paving, 14 

Association of Architects. Missouri, 121 
Wakefield, Mass. Home 

Fire Protective, 110 
Asylum at Kankakee. Burning ofan 

Insane, 49 

Austin Hall, Cambridge, 145, 205, 233 
Austrian River. Exptorine a Subterra- 
nean, 45 
Auvergne. Clermont, 101 

Baby-Brooder. The, 266 

ballooning, 2, 98 

Balloon Trains, 98 

Ballu, Architect. Death of Theodore, 


Band-Saw for cutting Stone, 122 
Bartholdi Statue of Liberty. Pedestal 

for the, 169 
Basement Floors for light Machinery, 

Bastien-Lepage Exhibition, and our 

Custom Laws. The, 64 
Baths in Vienna. Public, 22 
Battery. The O'Keenan Electric, 49 
Bauschinger's Fire Tests of Cast and 

Wrought Iron, 241, 310 
Bees. Brick-boring, 136 
Bennington Battle Monument, 78, 238 

Berlin Collections, 307 

" Museum of Plaster Casts, 223, 234 
" Parliament Houses. Heating and 

Ventilating the, 73 
Bermuda Graves, 250 
Bessemer Steel. Fraudulent, 1 

" Steel-Works in the U. S., 10 
Best Buildings in America. The Ten, 

86, 1(19, 130. 178, 282 
Bidder. Rights of the Lowest, 265 
Bill denning the Supervising Architect's 

Duties, 21 
" regulating the Height of New York 

Buildings, 181 
Blasting with Water, 94 
Boiler-plates. New way to determine 

the Thickness of, 50 
Bolivar, New York. Statue of Gen., 146 
Bonfire. The Ecclesiastical, 33, 82 
Books, 70, 94, 117, 202, 214, 273, 298 
" on Art. Recent, 255 
" A List of, 82 

Boston Buildings. Some, 226 
Building Law. -^a New, MS, IS?, 205 
Electrical Exhibition, 7 
Hollis Street Spire, 190 
Museum of Fine Arts. Report of, 170 
Public Library Competition, 37, 169 
Underwriters and the Fire-Loss, 205 
West Roxbury Park, 190 
Bourdais's proposed Tower for the Paris 

Exhibition. 122 
Bow-String Truss. A, 249 
Brain. Removing a Tumor from the, 62 
Breakwater. Clark's Floating, 274 
bribery. An Architect convicted of, 157 
Brick -boring Bees, 136 

" Kilns. Continuous, 82 
Bricks. Pressed and Ornamental, 195 
Bridge. Curious Mexican Suspension, 
" Girders. Rusting of Wrought- 

Iron, 301 
" London. Proposed New Tower, 

" Philadelphia Strengthening 

Chestnut Street, 38 
" over the St. Lawrence. Canti- 


" Swiss Concrete, 254 
Broken Limbs. How to treat, 146 
Bronze Statue found at Rome, 220 
Buckfast Abbey Excavations, 29 
Buddensiek's Buildings. Fall of, 181, 

193, 205, 301 
Buffalo School-House. An Ill-planned, 

Building Committee. To a, 309 

" Law. The New Boston, 109, 

182, 205 

" " for Cincinnati. Pro- 

posed, 238 

" " " Newport, R. I., 229 

" " The new New York, 193, 


" Stones of Indiana. 273 
Buildings in the U. S. The Ten, 86, 109, 

130, 178, 282 

" for the New Orleans Exhibi- 
tion. 133 

" United States. Public, 22, 40 
Bull-Rock Light-House, 190 
Burns. How to treat, 146 
Bnxton Sewage. Purification of, 237 
By-Products of Charcoal Burning, 106 

Caisse de Defense Mutuelle, 26, 241 
Cambering a Tie-Rod, 22 

Canadian on American Architecture. 

A, 166 
Canal. Th Panama, 230 

" for Paris. A Sanitary, 82 
Canals. European, 271 
Cantilever Bridge over the St. Law- 
rence, 242 
Capitol. Competition for the Denver, 

" Report on the Georgia State, 


" Texas State, 230 
" Trenton, N. J. Burning of 

the State, 157 
" "Washington. Rumored change 

of the Architect of the, 169 
Cases. Adjudicated Architectural, 14 
" Cattalia," Hospital-Ship. The, 4 
Casting and Factors of Safety, 114 
Cast-iron. Thomas-Gilchrist Process for 

making, 242 

"Cast-Steel." Fraudulent, 1 
Castle. Heidelberg, 20, 226 
Catalpa Trees on the Prairies. Plant- 
ing, 22 

Cathedral, Seville. History of the, 34 
Dedication of the Stewart, 


" Tower. Peterborough, 79 

Celebrated Timber Roofs, 259, 279 
Cement. Fresh or Stale Portland, 298 
" Keene's, 69, 94 
" Slag, 118 
Cements, 162 

" for Special Purposes, 70 
Centres for a Groined Arch, 169, 189 
Chaix Printing-office. Co-operation in 

the, 218 
Chamber of Commerce Competition, 

Cincinnati, 304 

Change in the Structure of Iron, 22 
Charcoal, 236 

" Burning. By-Products of, 106 
Chicago. Burning of the Langham Ho- 
tel, 145, 170 

Chihuahua, Mexico. Cathedral, 183 
Chimney Construction. Tall, 268 

' at Holyoke, Mass. Straight- 
ening a, 250 

" Moving a Factory, 301 
" Shafts. Stability of, 69 
Cholera. Inoculation for, 290 
" and Soil- Water, 106 
Church. Rape of a, 256 

" of St. Eustache, Paris, 135 
Churches. Combustible Modern, 33, 82 

in England. Country, 303 
Architecture Recent, 33 
Building Law. Proposed, 238 
Chamber of Commerce Competition, 


Inspector of Buildings Proposed, 229 
Printing-office Fire, 253 
Sub-letting Plumbing Contracts In, 


Cinder-Slag Concrete, 254 
Citis Ouvrilres of Mulhausen. The, 160 
Cities affected by Railways. Orowth 

and Population of, 38 
" in England. Increase of, 34 
City-Hall Competition. Richmond, Va., 

121, 129, 133, 153, 158, 165 
" Tower. Settlement of the 

Philadelphia, 25, 140 
Clark, Architect of the Capitol. Sug- 
gested Removal of Mr., 169 
Clermont, Auvergne, 101 
Cleveland Court-House for Sale, 286 


The American Architect and Building News. Index. 


Clock. A Wonderful Indian, 142 
Coal-Oust Bricks for Fuel, 50 
Collapse of a large Sewer, 250 
Collections. Berlin, 307 
Colonial vs. Old English Houses. Old, 3 
Color Printing. New Process of, 118 
Columbia College Cbair of Sanitary Sci- 
ence, 278 

Commiision on Alterations. The, 213 
" Architects' Suits for, 70, 

105, 237, 298 
" Computing an Architect's, 

" Swindling an Architect out 

of his, 25 
Commissioner of labor Statistics, 70 

" of Labor Statistics Ee- 

port on Pullman, 111., 
110, 141 

Commissions, 225 

Competition Evil to be cured by Persua- 
sion, 93, 121, 153, 165 
Competitions, 80 

" Permanent (French) Com- 

mission on, 290 
Boston Public Library, 37, 169 
Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, 304 
Denver Capitol, 213 
Pottawattamie County Court-House, 

Richmond City-Hall, 121, 129, 133, 153, 

158, 165 
Stable ($1,600), 92, 103, 116, 117, 137, 145, 


Toronto Court-House, 25 
Composite Masonry. Overloaded Walls 

of, 140 

Concrete Bridge in Switzerland. A, 254 
" as a Building Material, 247 
" Cinder-Slag, 254 
" Eoofs an 1 Kopf Coverings, 188 
" Struts used in Strengthening 

a Bridge Pier, 38 

Condition of the Building Mechanics, 25 
Congress of French Architects. The, 241 
Convent Ruins at Som*rville, Mass., 179 
Cooperation in the Chaix Printing-Of- 

flce, 218 
Cooperation at Pullman, 111. Possible, 


Cooperative System. Evils of the, 206 
" Labor Association. La- 

roche-Joubert, 194 
Corrugated Wire- Lath, 202 
Coterminous Excavations. 139 
Cotton Exhibition, New Orleans, 171 
Country Churches in England, 303 
Court-House Competition, Toronto, 25 
Pottawattamie, 58, 80 
for Sale. Cleveland, 286 
Crazy Roofs, 261, 286 
Crefeld Weaving-School. The, 98 
Criticizing Landscape Architecture, 295, 


" the work of Young Archi- 
tects, 214 
Cross, Northampton. Queeu Eleanor's, 


Cure for the Competition Evil. Persua- 
sion a, 03, 121, 153. 165 
Cypress of Santa Maria del Tule, Mex- 
ico, 202 

Cyanite. Fire-Resisting Properties of, 

Daly Building Law, New York. The, 

193, 310 

Damages for Delay. 74 
Decorative Tiles, 67, 111 
Delia Robbias. The, 124, 147, 173, 185 
"Dellwood," Minn. A Point of Con- 
struction at, 130, 166 
Delos. Explorations on the Island of, 49 
Demldoff. Prince, 106 
Denver Capitol Competition, 213 
Despatching Trains. New Feature in, 


Diplomats. German Architectural, 190 
Discobolus of Naucydes, 208 
Discoveries at home, 142 
Disintegration of Building Stone, 310 
Disposal of Sewage at Providence, R.I. 

Divining-Rod in every-day Affairs. The 

Doctors' Prescriptions. Bill to prevenl 

frequent Use of, 85 

D'Oeuch appointed Inspector of Build- 
ings iu New York. Mr., 97 
Dome. Etymology of the Word, 298 

" at Nice. Observatory, 285 
Drain a House. How to, 219 

" Testing with the Smoke-Rocket 

Drawings. Ownership of, 33, 85 

" Postage on, 33 
Dry-Dock at Hamburg, 310 
Dry-Goods District, N. Y. Probabli 

Effect of a Fire in the, 181 
Dry-Rot, 61, 224 

Dry Steam for Drying Lumber, 10 
Drying Lumber. Experiment in, 10 
Dublin Exhibition Building. The, 274 
Duties Oil Works of Art, Ki5 
Dykes of Holland. F. A. Peterson cut 

the, 253 

Dynamite Explosions. London, 85 
" Harmless Accident to a Low 
of, 310 

Eads Ship-Railway, 1 
Karthquake Investigations, 226, 289 
Earthquakes on Buildings. Effectof,22 
East Biver runnel, 26, 122 
Ecclesiastical Bonfire. The, 33, 82 
Echo in a Room. Cure for. 166 
Echoes in Buildings, 224 

Eddystone Light. A Tale of, 238 
"leanor'a Cross, Northampton. Queen, 

Elevated Railway. New Kind of, 2 
Elevator. Evolution of the, 226, 237 
Elevators. Steam and Hydraulic, 153 
Electric Battery. The O'Keenan, 49 
" Light Time-Test, 274 
" " Wire and the N. Y. Fire 
Commissioners' Tele- 
phone, 109 
" Lighting, 64 

" Railway at Plauen. Under- 
ground, 142 
;lectrical Exhibition, Boston, 7 

" Progress in America, 31 
;lectricity in the Atmosphere. Effect 

of, 22 

" dispersing Lead Fumes, 305 
lliptical Arch. Strength of an, 249 
Ellis, Architect, convicted of Bribery. 
Mr., 157 
;tnigrant Transportation Abroad, 14 


Artesian Well Boring. Failure of an, 

Bridge, London. Proposed new Tower, 


" Pier strengthened by Concrete 
Struts. A Philadelphia, 38 
Canal. The Panama, 230 

" for Paris. A Sanitary, 82 
Cantilever Bridge over the St. Law- 
rence, 242 

Chimney. Moving a Factory, 301 
Concrete Bridge. A, 254 
Dry-Dock in Quicksand. Building a, 


Elevated Railway. New kind of, 2 
Floating Breakwater. Clark's, 274 
Inland Navigation in Europe, 271 
Iron. Change in the Structure of, 22 
Irrigation Canals of Northern Italy, 


Light-House. Bull-Rock, 190 
Pneumatic Despatch between Paris 

and London, 177 
Railway in New York. The Arcade, 


Saharan Sea, Proposed, 34, 166 
Ship-Railway. The Eads, 1 

" " in the Provinces, 274 

Shoring of Buildings. The, 211 
Suspension Bridge. A curious Mexi- 
can, 130 
Tunnel under East River, N. Y., 26, 


" The Severn, 238 
Underground Electric Railway at 

Plauen, 142 

Washington Monument. The, 102,225 
Water-iJlasting, 94 
Ingland. Consumption of Imported 

Woods In, 86 
" Urbanizing of, 34 

Inglish Country Churches, 303 

" Forestry Schools. Need of, 302 
" Houses vs. Old Colonial. Old, 3 
Epidemics. '1 he Value of, 217 
Equation in Renaissance Architecture. 
The Personal, 15 

issays on Sanitation. Prizes for, 49 
saeii. iS*i 1Jr Ma'* ~*an Light used at, 
sterbrook, Inspector of Buildings, N. 

Y. Resignation of, 73 
Estimating by Quantities, 127 
Sucalyptus Trets in Great Britain, 86 
Suropn. Inland Navigation in, 271 
European Hours of Labor, 214 
Excavating for Wire-laying. Danger 

from, 169 

Excavation of the Roman Forum, 34 
Excavations at Buckfast Abbey, 29 

" Coterminous, 133 

Exhibition, Boston. The Electrical, 7 
" Building. The Dublin, 274 

" Buildings. The New Or- 
leans, 139 
" and our Customs Laws. The 

Bastien-Lepage, 64 
" of 1889. The Paris, 26 

" Manufactured Goods at 

Paris, 254 

" An Olden Incoherent, 141 
" at New Orleans. The Cot- 

ton, 133, 171 

" of Novelties at Philadel- 
phia, 170 

" Plans. Paris, 238 
Exhibitions. Architectural, 266 
Expansion of Iron, 140 

" Metals. The, 1 

Experiments on Cast-Iron Columns. 

Bauschinger's, 241, 310 
Expert in Lightning Rods. An, 214, 226 
Explorations at Delos, 49 
Explosion of Gas at Montreal, 61 
Explosions. Natural-Gas, 1 

London. Dynamite, 85 
at the Soncy Flats, New 

York. Mysterious, 193 
Explosive. A New, 74 
Exports to America. French Art, 46 

Factors of Safety in Iron Castings, 114 
Failure of J. It. Osgood & Co. 217 
Farm Buildings, 163 

" The Pullman Sewage, 70 
Farms. Success of Sewage, 182 
Fee. Architects' Suits for. 70 105 237 


Computing an Architect's, 21 
Female Artists and the Washinetoi 

Capitol, 37 

Ferstel. Helurich, Freiherr von, 244 
Fire on Cast and Wrought Iron. Effeci 
of ,241 

Fire and Iron Columns, 310 
" Protective Association, Wakefleld, 

Mass., 97, 110 

" Service of Small Towns. The, 97 
" Singular Cause of a, 82 
Fire-proof Building, 179 
Fire-proofing. A Question of, 154 
" Wood, 241, 256, 283 


Insane Asylum. Kankakee, 111., 49 
Langham Hotel, Chicago, 145, 170 
Printing Office, Cincinnati, 253 
State Capitol, Trenton, N. J., 157 
Fires. Loss by Forest, 85 
Fish and Sewage, 76 
Floating breakwater. Clark's, 274 
Floor. To Whom belongs a Jeweller's, 

Floors for Light Machinery. Basement, 


" Weights on Crowded, 188 
Florence. The Palazzo Vecchio, 293 
Flower-Markets. Metropolitan, 194 
Flues. A Question of, 164 
Forest Fires in America. Loss by, 85 
Forestry Schools in England. Need of, 


Forests a great Interest. Our, 106 
Forum. Excavation of the Roman, 34 
Foundations of the Church of the Sa- 
cred Heart, Paris, 253 
Fractured Limbs. How to treat, 146 
fraudulent " Cast Steel," 1 
Drench adopt an American Mail Device, 

" Architect. Responsibility of 

the, 37, 86 

" Architects. Congress of, 241 
" Architects' Society for Mutual 

Defense, 26, 241 

" Art Exports to America, 46 
" Commission on Competitions. 

Permanent, 290 
" Mechanics. Prizes and Medals 

for, 50 

reeziug causes Explosion of a Water- 
Back, 61 

r rescoes found in Rome, 262 
'rogmore Mausoleum. The, 46 
frozen Pipes. Accidents caused by, 61 
Tuel. Coal Dust as, 50 
" Gaseous, 160 
" Petroleum as, 142 
'umes dispersed by Electric Discharges, 

3as Explosions. Natural, 1 
" One of the Evils of Natural, 274 

jaseous Fuel, 166 

Tennevilliers. Sewage Irrigation at, 205 
Georgia Capitol. Report on the, 249 
" Marble Quarries, 274 

lerrnan Architectural Diplomats, 190 
" Weaving Schools. 98 

jlass. Mr. Siemeus's Tempered, 149, 

Glue Water in Mixing Stucco, 70 

Jold. New Process of Extracting, 134 

Joodwin Sands. Reclaiming the, 68 

Graves. Bermuda, 250 

3reek Polychromy. New Light on, 302 

greenhouses. Heating, 164 

'jreeuough's Washington. History of, 

Sroined Vault. Centres for a, 165, 189 
Gun. The Maxim Machine, 2 

Hardening Plaster. Juhle's Process for, 

Hastings, Architect. Death of Eastburn, 

tlay-burning Heaters. The Mennonite, 


Hay-chutes, 165 
Heating Greenhouses, 164 

" and Ventilating the Parliamenl 

Houses, Berlin, 73 
Heidelberg Castle, 20, 226 
Height of New York Buildings. Law 

restricting the, 181, 289 
" Washington Monument, 225 
Heliotrope between Reunion and Man 

ritius, 158 

Hinge for a heavy Door, 117 
History of Architecture. Sketch of the 

17, 27, 39 
" Roman Architecture. A, 70 


Hoeschotype Color-printing Process, 118 
Holland. Winter Trip through, 89 
Hollis St. Church Spire, Boston, 190 
Home Fire Protective Association a 
, Wakefleld. 97, 110 
Hospital Ship, the "Castatia," 4 
Hotel Fire, Chicago. The Langham 

145, 170 

Hotel-planning. Books on, 278, 298 
Hot-Water Pipes. Rubber Joints for, 1J 
Hours of Labor in Europe, 214 
Housing of the Poor in New York, 277 
Hugging, Architect. Death of Samuel 

Hydraulic and Steam Elevators, 153 

Icequake. An, 94 

Ice Palaces, 154 

Illustrations. Our, 118, 309 

Incendiary Steam-Pipes, 250 

Incoherent Exhibition. An Olden, 14: 

Incubator. An Infant, 266 

Indian Clock. A Wonderful, 142 

Indiana Building Stones, 273 

Initial Cuts. Our, 118 

Inland Navigation in Europe, 271 

" Sea. Proposed African, 34, 166 
Inoculation for Cholera, 290 
Inspector of Buildings, New York, Th 
New, 97 

nsurance Co.'s Report. Boston Manu- 
facturers' Mutual, 109 
" Decision. An Important, 250 
" Loss through a possible Fire 
in the Dry Goods District, 
ron. liauscbinger's Experiments on, 

241, 310 
" Castings. Factors of Safetv in, 


" Change in the Structure of,22 
" Columns and Fire, 241, 310 
" Effect of Fire on Cast and 

Wrought, 241, 310 
" New Alloys of, 49 
" " Method of Japanning, 278 
" Makers' Strike, 277 
" Spongy, 237 
" Thomas - Gilchrist Process for 

making Cast, 242 
" Tower, Paris. 1000-foot, 90 
rrigation Canals of Northern Italy, 202 
" Marlhorough, Mass. Sewage, 


taly. Irrigation Canals of Northern, 

lapan. Earthquakes in, 289 
lapanning Iron. New Method of, 278 
leweller'a Floor. To whom belongs a, 


lournals. American Architectural, 219 
" Report on American Archi- 
tectural, 231 
Juhle's Process for Hardening Plaster, 

Kankakee, Ind., Asylum. Burning of, 


Kansas Tree-planting, 274 
ieene's Cement, 69, 94 
Ceely Motor. The, 242 
Khartoum, 94 
Kidder's Architect's and Builder's 

Pocket-Book, 159, 189 
Kilns. Continuous Brick, 82 

,abor in Europe. Hours of, 214 
" Statistics. Commissioner's Report 
on Pullman, 111., 110, 
" " New Commissioner of, 

Landscape Architecture. Criticising, 

Langham Hotel, Chicago. Burning of 

the, 145, 170 

Largest Building in New England, 154 
Law. The new Boston Building, 109. 

182, 205 
" for Newport, R. I. Proposed 

Building, 229 
" New York Mechanics Lien. 278, 


" for New York. The Daly Build- 
ing, 193, 289 
" restricting Height of Buildings 

in New York, 181, 289 

Ajudicated Cases, 14 
Ballard vs. Tomlinson. Pollution of 

Subterranean Streams, 194 
Bill to prevent frequent Use of Doc- 
tors' Prescriptions, 85 
Bribery. An Architect convicted of, 


Buddensiek's Trial, 181, 193, 205, 301 
Building Law. The new Boston, 109, 

182, 205 

" " for Cincinnati. Pro- 

posed, 238 
" " for Newport, R. I. 

Proposed, 229 
" " for New York. The 

Daly, 193, 289 

Caisse de Defense Mutuelle, 26, 241 
Damage for Delay, 74 
Excavations. Coterminous Aston 

vs. Nolan, 139 
Insurance Decision. An important, 


Law restricting the Height of Build- 
ings in New York, 181, 289 
Liabilities of Tenants, 32 
Lowest Bidder. Mayo as. Hampden 

Co. Commissioners, 265 
Mechanics' Lien Law, New York. The 

new, 278, 291 

" " Lighting Rods, 22 

Ownership of Drawings, 33, 85 
Responsibility of Architect and Con- 
tractor in France, 

" " Architect and (Jon- 

tractor who disa- 
gree as to Meth- 
ods. 74 
" Salaried Municipal 

Architect, 182 

Suit for Commission, 70, 105, 237, 298 
" Martin os. But- 

ler, 298 

" " Wilson vs. Da- 

vis, 237 
" " Wilson vs. Lane, 

" as to Quantity of City Water 

Supply, 238 

Liabilities of Tenants, 32 
Libraries. Contents of some Paris, 105 
Library Competition. Boston Public, 

37, 169 

" San Francisco. The Sutro, 179 
Licensing Architects in Minnesota, 158 
Lien Law in New York. New Mechan- 
ics', 278, 291 

Light-House. Bull Rock, 190 
Light. New Form of Magnesium, 266 

JAN. -JUNE, 1885.] The American Architect and Building News. Index. 

Lightning Rods. An Expert in, 214, 


" on Trees. Effect of, 58 
Liquidated Damages for Delay, 74 
Lisgard the Curious, 8 
Architecture at the Royal Academy, 

Dynamite Explosions at the Tower, 

Monuments and Statues, 51, 75, 87, 99, 

National Gallery. Cost of Purchases 

for the, 166 

Report on Metropolitan Sewage Dis- 
charge, 62 
Temple Bar, 274 
Tower Bridge. The Proposed new, 


Wren's Towers, 238 
York House Water-Qate, 226 
Locusts. The Seventeen- Year, 302 
Loire. On the, 65 
Loss by Forest Fires, 85 
Louvre Paintings deteriorating, 136 
Lowest Bidder. Rights of the, 2B5 
Lumber Drying. Experiment in, 10 

" Product. Michigan's, 142 
Luminous Paint. New Applications of, 


Luzerne. A Universal Monument, 9 
Lyceum Theatre, New York, 170 
Lyons. Cinder-Slag Concrete at, 254 

Machine-Gun. The Maxim, 2 
Magnesian Light. New Form of, 265 
Marble Quarries. Georgia, 274 
Marlborough, Mass. Sewage Irrigation 

at, 133 
Mauritius and Reunion. Telegraphing 

by the Heliotrope between, 158 
Mausoleum. The Frogmore, 46 
Maxim Machine-Gun. The, 2 
Mechanic^' Lien Law. The new New 

York. 278, 291 
" Lightning Rods, 22 
" Present Condition of Build- 

ing, 25 
" Prizes and Medals for 

French, 50 
Mediaeval, 166 

Mennonite Hay-burning Heaters, 74 
Metals. The Expansion of, 1 
Metropolitan Sewage Discharge. Re- 
port on, 62 
Mexican Cypress. A Famous, 202 

" Suspension Bridge. A Curi- 
ous, 130 

Mexico. Strolls about, 63, 183 
Mezzotint Process. The, 10 
Michigan's Lumber Product, 142 
Microbe. Discovery of a beneficent, 

Minnesota Architectural Association, 46 

" Licensing Architects in, 158 
Missouri Association of Architects, 121 


Mistakes in Plumbing, 189, 225 
Modern Architect. The, 41, 55 
Moers. Death of Jean Baptiste van, 34 
Monographs of American Architecture, 

146, 205, 233 

Montreal. Explosion of Gas at, 61 
Monument. Bennington Battle, 78, 238 
" at Luzerne. A Universal 


" The Washington, 102, 225 

Monuments. Art in high 233 

and Statues, London, 51 

75, 87. 99, 123 

Morris at Work. William, 2% 
Mortgage on a Jerry-built House. Dan 

ger of taking a, 218 
Mortar, 298 

" Hints on Plastering and, 207 
Motor. The Keely. 242 
Mulhausen. The Cites Ouvrieres of, 16( 

Prizes. The, 134 
Mutual Defense Society. A French Ar 

chitectural, 26, 241 
Ins. Co.'s Report. Boston Man 

ufacturers, 109 

Museum of Decorative Art, Paris, 130 
" Fine Arts, Boston. Repo 

of, 170 
" South Kensington, 22 

Nankin's Porcelain Tower, 10 
National Gallery, London. Cost of Pur 

chases for the, 166 
" Society of Arts. Formatlo 

of a, 157 

" Subsidies to Artists, 37 
Natural-Gas Explosions. 1 

" " One of the Evils of, 274 
Naucydes. The Discobolus of, 208 
Navigation. Aerial, 2, 98 

in Europe. Inland, 271 
New Jersey. Sub-surface Irrigation in 

Newport, R. I. Proposed Building Law 

New Orleans Cotton Exhibition. The 


Exhibition Buildings, I:; 
Arcade Railway. The, 265 
Buddensiek, the Jerry-Builder an 

his Houses, 181, 193, 205, 301 
Building Law. The New, 193, 289 
Columbia College Department of San 

itary Science, 278 
Danger of Excavating for Wire-lay 

ing, 179 

Department of Public Works, 94 
D'Oench appointed Inspector of Bull 

ings. Mr., 97 

East River Tunnel, Proposed, 20 
Esterbrook, Resignation of Mr., 73 


Explosions at the Soncy Flats. Mys- 
terious, 193 

Fire Commissioners' Telephone Wire 
in contact with Electric- Light 
Wire, 109 

Fire in the Dry Goods District. Prob- 
able Effect of a, 181 
Law restricting the Height of Build- 
ings, 181, 289 
Lyceum Theatre, 170 
Mechanics' Lien Law. The new, 278, 


Pneumatic Despatch, 202 
Seney Collection. Sale of the, 230 
Statue of Gen. Bolivar and the Studio. 


" Liberty Pedestal, 169 
Tenement-House Building Co., 277 

Houses, 32 
Western Union Pneumatic Tubes. 

The, 250 

Niagara Park Bill. The, 170 
^ice. Observatory Dome at, 285 
"forth Walls. Take Care of the, 58 
Novelties at Philadelphia. Exhibition 
of, 170 


Ballu, Architect. Theodore, 253 
Hastings, Architect. Eastburn, 69 
Muggins, Architect. Samuel, 94 
Moers. Jean Baptiste van, 34 
Peterson. F. A., Architect, 253 
Sauvage, Architect. DesircS 

phile, 85 

Tinsley, Architect. William, 301 
Whichcord, Architect. John, 61 
Observatory Dome at Nice, 285 
Old Colonial vs. Old English Houses, 3 
Olden Incoherent Exhibition. An, 141 
O'Keenan Electric Battery. The, 49 
000-Foot Tower, Paris, 90 
Opera House, Paris. Proposed Removal 

of the, 10 

Osgood & Co. Failure of J. K., 217 
Ownership of Drawings, 33, 85 

Painter. Death of an Architectural, 34 

Painter's Story. A, 10 

Paintings at the Louvre. Deterioration 

of, 136 
Persian, 106 
?alaces. Ice, 154 

Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. The, 293 
Panama Canal. The, 230 

Eglise du Sacre Cceur, 253 
Exhibition of Manufactured Goods, 


" Plans. The, 238 

Site for 1889, 238 

Libraries. Contents of Some, 105 
Museum of Decorative Art, 130 
Opera-House. Proposed Removal of 

the, 10 

Paintings at the Louvre. Deteriora- 
tion of, 136 

Pneumatic Postal Service, 10 
St. Eustache, 135 
Sanitary Canal. A, 82 
School Architecture, 128 
Towers for the Exhibition. Proposed, 


Park Bill. The Niagara, 170 
Parliament - Houses, Berlin. Heating 

ml Ventilating the, 73 
Payment of Quantity Surveyors, 92 
Paving. Asphalt, 14 
Pedestal for the Statue of Liberty, 169 
Perils of Underpinning. The, 138 
Persian Paintings, 106 
Personal Equation in Renaissance 

Architecture. The, 15 
Persuasion a Cure for the Competition 

Evil. 93, 121, 153, 165 
Perugia, 243 
Peterborough Tower Controversy. The, 


Peterson, Architect. The late F. A., 253 
Petroleum as Fuel, 142 

quarried in Alsace, 142 
Callowhill-street Bridge. Rusting of, 

Chestnut street Bridge Strengthened, 

City-Hall Tower. Settlement of the, 

29, 140 

Exhibition of Novelties, 170 
Purifying Water by Air, 106 

Plymouth, Pa., Epidemic. The, 229 
Pneumatic Despatch in New York, 202 
between Paris and 

London, 177 
Pneumatic Postal Service, Paris, 10 

Tubes. The Western 

Union's, 250 
Pocket-Book. The Architect's and 

Builder's, 159, 189 

Pollution of Storage Reservoirs, 113, 141 
" Subterranean Streams, 194 
" Well-Water. The, 238 
Polychromy. New Light on Greek, 302 
Poor in New York. Housing the, 277 
Porcelain Tower. Nankin, 10 
Portland Cement. Fresh or Stale, 298 
Postage on Drawings, 33 
Postal Service, Pans. Pneumatic, 10 
Pottawatamie County Court - House 

Competition, 58, 80 
Pozzi e Piombt, 18 
Prescriptions. Bill to prevent repeated 

Use of Doctors', 85 
Preserving Timber, 166 
Prince Dernidoff, 106 
Printing-office, Cincinnati. Burning of 

a, 253 
" Press. Photography and the, 

149, 175 
" Process. The Hoeschotype 

Color. 118 

Prisons of the Venetian Republic, 18 
Prize for Design for an Ambulance Bar- 
rack, 290 

Prizes for Essays on Sanitation, 49 
" and Medals for French Mechan- 
ics, 50 

Process of Extracting Gold. New, 134 
Processes. Photographic Printing, 149, 

Protection between French Architects. 

Mutual, 26, 241 
Providence, R. I. Sewage Disposal at, 


Public Buildings. U. S., 22, 40 
" Library Competition, Boston, 

37, 169 
Pullman, 111., and the Labor Statistics 

Commission, 110, 141 
" Experiment. Another Phase 

of the.217 

" Sewage Farm, 70 
Punctured Wounds, 146 
Purchases for the National Gallery, 

London. Cost of, 166 
Purification of Sewage, 237 
Purifying Water by Air, 106 
Purity of the Atmosphere. Gas anc 
Electricity affecting the, 22 

Quantities. Estimating by, 127 
Quantity-Surveyors. ' Payment of, 92 
Quarrying Petroleum in Alsace, 142 
Queen Anne's Statue, St. Paul's, 304 

Eleanor's Cross, Northampton 

Quicksand. Building a Dry-Dock in, 310 

Railway. Eads's Ship, 1 

New Kind of Elevated, 2 
" in New York. r| 'he 4rcadt., 

265 ,' ' ' 

" at Plauen. Underground 

Electric, 143 

" in the Proviuces. A Ship, 274 

Railways affect the Growth and Popu- 
lation of Cities. How, 38 
Rain- Water. Storing Clear, 61 
Rape of a Church, 256 
Real Estate at Rome. Value of, 22 
Reflected Sound in Buildings, 224 
Reka, Austria. Exploring the River, 45 
Relief-Plate Process. A New, 133 
Renaissance Architecture. The Per- 
sonal Equation in, 15 
Replanting Blown-down Trees, 46 
Report on American Architectural 

Journals, 231 
" of Boston Mf's. Mutual Ins. 

Co., 109 

" of Trustees A. I. A., 76 
Reservoirs. Pollution of Storage, 113, 

Responsibility, 225 

1 Es 

Real Estate and Building Outlook, 214 
Schoolhouses. Improperly planned, 

Photography and the Printing-Press, 

149. 175 
Photo-lithographic Process. A Simple, 


Pipe-Joints. Rubber, 13 
Pittsburgh. Natural-Gas Explosion, 1 
Planning Hotels. Books on, 274 
Plans for the Paris Exhibition of 1889, 

" Right of Sanitary Authorities to 

retain, 19 

Plantin-Moretus Mansion, Antwerp, 137 
Planting Catalpa Trees on the Prairies, 


" Trees. Directions for, 115 
" " in Kansas, 274 

Plaster. Juhle's Process for Harden 

ing, 298 

" in Sculpture at Berlin, 223, 234 
Plaster- Work. Outside, 3 
Plastering. Hints on, 207 
Plumbing Contracts in Cincinnati. Sub- 
letting, 225, 229 
" Mistakes in, 189, 225 
" Sanitary, 183 

of Architect and Con- 
tractor in France, 37, 

of Architect and Con- 
tractor who disagree 
as to Methods, 74 
of a Salaried Municipal 

Architect. 182 
Reunion and Mauritius. Telegraphing 

by the Heliotrope between, 158 

Architect's and Builder's Pocket- 
Book. The, 159, 189 
Charles Blanc et son GZuvre, 255 
Geschichte der Franzosischen Kunst 

von 1789, 255 

How to Drain a House, 219 
Institutions of Architecture and Or- 
nament, 219 

Lexique des Termes d'Art, 255 
Monographs of American Architect- 
ure 1,233 

National Builder. The, 219 
Papers on Art, 255 
Revolver. A New, 206 
Richardson. Dr. W. B., 178 
Richmond City-Hall Competition, 121, 

129, 133, 158. 165 
Right of Sanitary Authorities to retain 

Plans, 19 

Rights of the Lowest Bidder, 265 
River Tunnel. East, 26, 122 
Robbias. The Delia, 124, 147. 173, 185 
Rocket for Drain-testing. The Smoke, 

Roman Architecture. A History of, 70, 


Roman Real Estate. Value of, 22 
Tenement-Houses, 298 
Forum. Excavations of the, 34 
Rome. Bronze Statue found at, 220 
Discoveries at, 142 
Discovery of an Isolator's 

House, 290 

Frescoes found in, 262 
Roofing Tiles. 5 

Roofs. Celebrated Timber, 259, 279 
Crazy, 261, 286 
Danger from Telegraph Frames 

on, 170 
Desirable Changes in Modern, 

and Roof Coverings. Concrete, 


Timber and Metal, 117 
Rope. A long Wire, 22 
Rotch Travelling Scholarship, 145, 217 
Routine of the American Architect, 13 
Royalty. A Question of, 105 
Rubber Joints for Hot- Water Pipes, 13 
Rusting of Wrought-Iron Bridge Gird- 
ers, 301 

Sacrg Cceur, Paris. Eglise du, 257 
Sabaran Sea. Proposed, 34, 166 
Sanitation. Prizes for Essays on, 49 
Sanitary Plumbing, 183 
Ambulance Barrack. Prize offered 

for an, 21(0 

Arsenic Wail-Paper, 179 
Atmosphere affected by Gas and Elec- 
tricity, 22 

Chair of Sanitary Science at Colum- 
bia College, 278 
Cholera. Inoculation for, 290 
and Soil-Water, 106 
Epidemics. Value of, 217 
Excavating for Wire-laying. Danger 

from, 169 

Fish and Sewage, 78 
Heating and Ventilating the Berlin 

Parliament-Houses, 73 
Hospital-Ship. The " Casta/ta," 4 
How to drain a House, 219 
Microbe. Discovery of a beneficent, 14 
Mistakes in Plumbing, 189, 225 
Pollution of Storage Reservoirs, 113, 

" Subterranean Streams, 


Prize for Essays on Sanitation, 49 
Public Baths in Vienna, 22 
Pullman, ill., 110 

" Sewage Farm, 70 
Report on the Metropolitan Sewage 

Discharge, 62 
Reservoirs. Pollution of Storage, 113, 

Right of Authorities to retain Plans, 


Sanitary Canal for Paris, 82 
Sewage Disposal at Providence, R. I., 

" Irrigation, 182 

" at Gennevilliers, 

" at irarlborougb, 

Mass., * " 

" Purification ot, 237 
Smoke-testing of Drains, 46 
St. Louis Wells. Testing, 217 
Stable Construction, 8 
Sub surface Irrigation Sewerage, 196 
Typhoid Fever Kpidemic at Plymouth, 

Pa., 229 
Water. Pollution of Well, 238 

" Purified by Air, 106 

Saracenic Architecture, 214 
Sauvage, Architect. Death of Desire 

Theophile, 86 

Saw for Cutting Stone. Band, 123 
Scholarship. The Rotch Travelling, 

145, 217 

School Architecture of Paris. The, 128 
" Buildings. Bureau of Educa- 
tion's Report on, 229 
" Houses at Philadelphia and Buf- 
falo. Ill-planned. 23d 
" Swimming, Bath. A, 37 
Schools of Architecture, 273 

" of Forestry in England. Need 

of, 302 

" A German Weaving, 98 
Sculpture at Berlin. Plaster, 223, 234 
Sea. The African Inland, 34, 166 
Seney Collection at New York, Sale of 

the, 230 

Settlement of the Philadelphia City- 
Hall Tower,25, 140 
Seventh-Day Baptist Church, Newport, 

H. I., 210 

Severn Tunnel. The, 238 
Seville Cathedral's History, 34 
Sewage Discharge. Report on Metro- 
politan, 62 
" Disposal at Providence, R. I., 


" Farm. The Pullman, 70, 110 
" and Fish,78 
" Irrigation, 182 

" at Gennevilliers, 205 

" at Mar Iborough, 

Mass., 133 

" Purification of, 237 
Sower. Collapse of a large, 250 
Sewerage by Sub-surface Irrigation, 196 

Ship Railway. The Eads, 1 

" " in the Provinces. A, 274 

Shower-Baths, 183 
Siemens's Tempered Glass. Mr. F., 149, 

Sketch of the History of Architecture, 



Tlie American Architect and Building News. Index. 


Slag Cement, 118 

" Concrete. Cinder, 254 
Slate Debris and its Uses, 82 
Sliding down Hill. Virginia, Nev., 238 
Small Towns. Fire-Service of, 97 
SmokeNuisance and Electricity, 305 

" Testing of Drains. The, 46 
Society of Architects. Missouri State, 


" of Arts. Formation of a Na- 
tional, 157 
" for Mutual Defense. A French 

Architectural, 26, 241 
" for Mutual Protection, 58 
Soil Water and Cholera, 10 
Somerville, Mass. Convent Kuins, 179 
Soncy Flats. Mysterious Explosion at 

the, 193 

Sound in Buildings. Reflected, 224 
South Kensington Museum, 22 
Specific Gravity of American Woods, 270 
Spire of Hollis-street Church, Boston, 


Splines, 22 
Spongy Iron, '231 
St. Eustache, Paris, 135 
St. Lawrence. Cantilever Bridge over 

the, 242 
St. Louis Wells. Testing and Closing 

the, 217 
St. Martin's, Canterbury. Discovery at, 


St. Paul's Queen Anne Statue, 304 
Stability of Chimney-Shafts, 69 
Stable Competition. The American 
Architect, 92, 103, 116, 117, 137, 
145, 151 

" Construction, 8 
Staircases, 199 

State Architectural Associations, 122 
Statistics of Labor. New Commissioner 

of, 70 

" Report on Pullman. Commis- 
sioner of Labor, 110, 141 
Statue of Gen. Bolivar, New York, and 

the Stuitio, 146 

" of Liberty Pedestal. The, 1C9 
" of Queen'Anne, 304 
" found at Rome. Bronze, 220 
Statues and Monuments of London, 61, 

75. 87, 99, 123 

Steam for Drying Lumber. Dry, 10 
" and Hydraulic Elevators, 153 
" Pipes. Incendiary, 81, 250 
Steel. Fraudulent Cast, 1 

" Works in the United States. 

Bessemer, 10 
Stewart Cathedral. Dedication of the, 


Stockslager Bill. The, 21 
Stone. Disintegration of Building, 310 

" The Victoria, 104 
Stones of Indiana. The Building, 273 

Storage Reservoirs. Pollution of, 113, 

Straightening a Chimney at Holyoke, 
i Mass., 250 

Street- Watering. A Suggestion as to, 301 

Strike of the Iron-Makers. 277 
I Strolls about Mexico, 63, 183 

Stucco mixed with Glue Water, 70 

Studio on the Statue of Gen. Bolivar, 

Sub-letting Plumbing Contracts in Cin- 
cinnati, 225, 229 

Subscription Bills of the American 
Architect, 13 

Sub-surface Irrigation Sewerage, 1% 

Subterranean Expedition in Austria, 45 

Suggestions. Some, 202 

Suits for Commissions. Architects', 70, 
105, 237, 298 

Sun-Kinks, 140 

Superintendent. How to become a, 68 

Superstition. A Queer, 262 

Supervising Architect's Duties. Bill 
defining the, 21 

Surveyor. The Quantity, 127 
] Surveyors. Payment of Quantity. 92 
Suspension Bridge. A Curious Mexi- 
| can, 130 

Sutro Library, San Francisco. The, 179 

Swindle. An Ingenious, 154 

" An Ingenious Austrian, 202 

Swindling an Architect out of his Com- 
mission, 25 

Swimming-Bath for a Scotch School, 37 

Tank. Size of Water, 154 
Telegraph-Frames on Roofs a Danger, 


" Lines of the World, 266 
Telephone. The Future of the, 26 
Tempered Glass, 149, 179 
Temple Bar, 274 
Tenant's Liabilities, 32 
Ten Best Buildings in America, 86, 109, 

130, 178, 282 
Tenement -House Building Co., New 

York, 277 
Tenement-Houses in New York, 32 

" Roman, 298 
Terra-Cotta. Architectural, 267 
Test of Electric Lights. Time, 274 
Testing Drains with the Smoke-Rocket, 


Texas State Capitol. The, 230 
Thickness of Boiler-Plates. New Way 

to measure, 50 
Thomas-Gilchrist Process for making 

Cast-Iron, 242 
Tiles. Decorative, 67, 111 
Timber and Metal Roofs, 117 
Preserving, 166 
Roofs. Celebrated, 259, 279 
Time-Test. Electric-Light, 274 

Tinsley, Architect. Death of Win., 301 
Toronto Court-House Competition. 25 
Tower Bridge, London. Proposed New, 

*' Controversy. Peterborough 
Cathedral, 79 

" Nankin. Porcelain, 10 

" for the Paris Exhibition, 1,000- 
foot, 90 

" Settlement of the Philadelphia 

City-Hall, 25. 140 

Towers for the Paris Exhibition. Pro- 
posed, 90, 122 

' Wren's, 238 
Tracing-Paper, A Method of making, 

Train - despatching. New Feature in, 


Transplanting large Trees, 176 
Transportation of Emigrants Abroad, 


Travelling Scholarship. Rotch, 146, 217 
Tree- Planting. Directions for, 115 

" in Kansas, 274 
Trees in Great Britain. Eucalyptus, 86 

" Effect of Lightning on, 58 

" on the Prairies. Catalpa, 22 
Replanting blown-down, 46 

" Transplanting large, 176 
Trenton, N. J. Burning of the Capitol 

at, 157 

Trip through Holland. A Winter, 89 
Truss. A Bow-String, 249 
Trustees, A. I. A. Report of Board of, 

Tunnel under East River, N. Y., 26, 122 

" The Severn, 238 
Tumor In the Brain. Removing a, 62 
Turn-Hall. Plans for a, 129 
Turner's Refusal of an Offer, 46 
Typhoid Fever Epidemic at Plymouth, 

Pa., 229 

Underground Electric Railway at 

Plauen, 142 

Underpinning. The Perils of, 138 
Underwriters and the Fire Loss. Bos- 
ton, 205 
United States. Bessemer Steel Works 

in the, 10 
" " Best Ten Buildings in 

the, 109, 130, 178, 282 
" " Public Buildings in the, 


Universal Monument at Luzerne. A, 9 
Urbanizing of England. The, 34 
Ursuline Convent Ruins at Somerville, 
Mass., 179 

Value of Roman Real Estate, 22 
Vandalism at West Roxbury Park, 190 
Vanderbilt's House. The Architects of 
W. H., 214 

Vault. Centres for a Groined, 165, 189 
Vecchio. Florence. The Palazzo, 290 
Venetian State Prisons. The, 18 
Ventilating and Heating the Berlin 

Parliament-Houses, 73 
Victoria Stone, 104 
Vienna Public Baths, 22 
Villages, Fire-Service of, 97 
Virginia, Nev., Sliding down Hill, 238 
Vivisection. An Instance of the Value 

of, 62 
Von Ferstel, Architect. Heinrich, 244 

Wakefleld, Mass., Home Fire Protection 

Association, 97, 110 
Wall-Paper. Arsenic, 179 
Walls. Overloaded Masonry of Com- 
posite, 140 
Washington. History of Greenough's, 


Clark, Architect of the Capitol. Sug- 
gested Removal of, 169 

Female Artists and the Capitol, 37 
Washington Monument. The, 102 

" Height of, 225 

Water Blasting, 94 

" Pollution of Well, 238 

" purified by Air 106 

" Tank. Size of, 154 
Watering the Streets. A Suggestion as 

to, 301 

Weaving-Schools, German, 98 
Weights on crowded Floors, 188 
Well at New Haven. Failure of an 

Artesian, 46 

Wells In St. Louis. Closing polluted, 218 
Whichcord, Architect. Death of John, 


Wickford, K. I. Rape of a Church, 256 
Windmills. History of, 221 
Winter Trip through Holland, 89 
Wire-laying. Danger from excavating 
for, 169 

" Lath. Corrugated, 202 

" Hope. A long, 22 
Wood. Fire-proofing, 241, 256, 283 
Woods. Specific Gravity of American, 


used in England. Imported, 86 
Workmen. How to treat Accidents to, 

Workmen's Houses at Miilhausen. 

The, 160 
Wounds. How to treat crushed, 145 

How to treat punctured, 146 
Wren's Towers, 238 
WroughHron Bridge Girders. Rusting 

of, 301 

York House Water-Gate, London, 226 
Zoan. Another Name for, 214 


[The figures refer to the number of the journal, and, not to the page.} 


Chinmey-Piece, Palais de Justice, Bru- 
ges, Belgium. (Gelatine), 479 
Crazy and Sham Roofs, 495 
Design for staircase and Newel, by H. 

A. Howe, 476 
" " Outside Door, by H. A. 

Howe, 476 

Fireplace for Dr. R. C. Greenleaf, 
Lenox. Mass. J. Ph. Rinu, Architect, 
T. H. Bartlett, Sculptor, 475 
Pulpit, etc., Seventh - Day Baptist 

Church, Newport, K. I. 488 
Staircase of Francis I, Chateau de Blois, 


" 11 Bargelio, Florence, Italy, 


Block of Houses for the Appleton Es- 
tate, Albany, N. Y. Walter Dickson, 
Architect, 473 
Cottage for Paul Von Marschuetz, 

Mount Lee, Fla., 489 
"Dellwood," House of A. Kirby Bar- 
num, St. Paul. Cass Gilbert, Archi- 
tect, 473 

Double House for C. H. Rutan, Brook- 
line, Mass., 488 

" " " Henry Wick; Cleve- 

land, O. Clarence 
O. Arey, Archi- 
tect, 489 

"Hoffman Arms " Apartment-House, 
New York City. Chas. W. Romeyn & 
Co., Architects, 474 
House at Birmingham, Conn. C. H. 

Stilson, Architect. 472 
" " Brookline, Mass. W. G. 

Preston, Architect, 482 
" " Cheyenne, Wyo. W. A. 
Bates & G. D. Kainsford, 
Architects, 476 

" " Swampscott, Mass. Sam. J. 

P. Thayer, Architect, 489 

" for R. S. Barnes, Washington, 

Conn. Hossiter & Wright, 

Architects, 496 

" " Edward Ellis, Schenectady, 
N. Y. Fuller & Wheeler, 
Architects, 474 

House for H. L. Richmond, Meadville, 
Pa. W. S. Fraser, Archi- 
tect, 493 

" " Dr. H. A. Smith, Cincinnati, 
O. S. E. Des Jardins, Ar- 
chitect, 493 

" Geo. P. Van Wyck, U. S.A., 
at Washington, D. C. Jas. 
G. Hill, Architect, 485 
" E. B. Ward, Newark, N. J. 
A. Morris Stuckert, Ar- 
chitect, 489 

" by Robt. Oyler, Architect, 477, 492 
" for cor. City Lot. E. K. Tilton, 

Architect, 485 

" " a 25-foot City Lot. E. K. Til- 
ton, Architect, 473 
" and Stable. Cabot & Chandler, 

Architects, 484 
"Kragsyde," House of G. Nixon Black, 
Manchester-by-the-Sea. Peabody & 
Stearns, Architects, 480 
Old Houses, Halberstadt, Germany, 480, 

Pesaro Palace, Venice, Italy, 483 

Row of Small Houses. Chas. A. Gitford, 

Architect, 496 

Semi detached Cottages at Dorchester, 
Mass. Frank E. Wal- 
lis, Architect, 474 
Houses, Montreal, Can. 
Andrew T. 
Taylor, Ar- 
chitect, 476 
for W. L. Van 
Kirk, at Pitts- 
burgh , Pa. 
Rossiter & 
Wright, Ar- 
chitects, 486 

Studies for Row of Houses for T. L 
Schurmeier, St. Paul, Minn. Cass 
Gilbert, Architect, 494 
Workingmen's Cottages, Miilhausen, Al- 
sace, 484 

I : < < I , I : s I \ STICAL. 

Allyn Memorial, Hartford, Conn. A. 
Fehmer, Architect, 490 

Cathedral of All Saints, Albany, N. Y. 
Robert W. Gibson, Ar- 
chitect, 490 

Cathedral at Cologne, 487 

" of St. Sauveur, Bruges, Bel- 
gium, 401 

" Orvieto, Italy, 473 
" of Notre Dame, at Rouen, 475, 


Church, Asbury, M. E., Philadelphia, 
Pa. John Ord, Architect, 486 
" of the Ascension, Greenpoint, 
N. Y. Robt. W. Gibson, Ar- 
chitect, 485 
" Christ, Danville, Pa. H. M. 

Congdon, Architect, 490 
" Notre Dame La Grande, Poi- 
tiers, France, 474 
" for Patersou, N. J. Charles 

Edwards, Architect, 472 
". Parochial, Chihuahua, Mex- 
ico, 486 
" St. Catherine's, Brunswick, 

Germany, 474 

" St. James Episcopal, New York 
City. K. H. Robertson, Ar- 
chitect, 487 
" of St. Etienne du Mont, Paris, 

France, 483 
" " St. Eustache, Paris, France, 


" " St. Peter, Caen, France, 496 
" (remodelled) at Wetherstteld, 
Conn. John C. Mead, Archi- 
tect, 495 

Convent of Good Shepherd, New Or- 
leans, La. Jas. Freret, Architect, 477 
Greenwood Chapel, Wakefield, Mass. 

Wait & Cutler, Architect, 474 
Old Hollis St. Church, Boston, Mass., 


North Porch of Chartres Cathedral, 483 
Pulpit, etc., Seventh -Day Baptist 

Church, Newport, R. I., 488 
Temple de Jerusalem, Bruges, Belgium, 


City-Hall, Vienna, Austria, 489 
Cathedral of St. Sauveur, Bruges, Bel- 
gium, 491 

" at Cologne, 487 
" " Orvieto, Italy, 473 
" " Rouen, 475, 492 
Chimney-Piece, Palais de Justice, Bru- 
ges, Belgium. (Gelatine), 479 

Church, Chihuahua, Mexico, 486 

" of Notre Dame La Grande, Poi- 
tiers, France, 474 
" " St. Catherine's, Brunswick, 

Germany, 474 
" " St. Etienna du Mont, Paris, 

France, 483 
" " St. Eustache, Paris, France, 


" " St. Peter. Caen, France, 4!)6 
Colleoni Monument, Venice, 487 
Continental Hotel, Brussels, France, 

Court- Yard, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, 

Italy, 496 

Grottd of Pozzuoli, near Naples, 4*5 
Leaning Tower, Saragossa, Spain, 488 
Maisou des Batchers', Ghent, Belgium, 


Minar of Kootub, India, 488 
Monuments and Statues of London, 475, 

477, 478, 479, 481 

Museum of Antiquities, Antwerp, Bel- 
gium, 493 
" " Natural History, Vienna, 


National Bank, Antwerp, Belgium, 4sl 
North Porch of Chartres Cathedral. 483 
Old Houses, Halberstadt, Germany, 4sn, 


Palais de Justice, Paris, France, 482 
Pesaro Palace, Venice, Italy, 483 
Savings Bank, Sens, France, 476 
Sketches of Dutch Brickwork, by C. 11. 

Blackall. 478 
" in Lavenham, Suffolk Co., 

England, 471 

" from the Palazzo Vecchio, 
Florence, Italy, by C. 
H. Blackall, 495 ' 
" Plantin - Moretus Man- 
sion, Antwerp, Bel- 
gium, by C. H. Black- 
all, 482 
Staircase of Francis I, Chateau de Blois, 


" II Bargelio, Florence, Italy, 

Street View, Vienna, 471 
Temple de Jerusalem, Bruges, Belgium, 


Tower for L'Exposition Universelle de 
1889, 478 

JAN. -JUNE, 1885.] The American Architect and Building News. Index. 


Town Hall, Ypres, Belgium. (Gelatine), 

Workiugroen's Cottages, Mulhausen, Al- 
sace, 484 


Furniture Sketches by Francis H. Ba- 
con, 491 
Old Clock, Worcester, Mass., 493 


Austin Hall, Cambridge, Mass. H. H. 
Richardson, Architect, 483 

Chimney-Piece in the Palais de Junice, 
Bruges, Belgium, 479 

Dining-Room, Harvard Memorial Hall, 
Cambridge, Mass. Ware & Van 
Brunt, Architects, 492 

Offices of the Mutual Life Insurance 
Co. of New York, Boston, Mass. Pea- 
body & Stearns, Architects, 486 

State Capitol, Hartford, Conn. R. M. 
Upjohn, Architect, 475 

Town-Hall, Ypres, Belgium, 487 


Christ Church, Danville, Pa. H. M. 
Congdon, Architect, 490 

Church (remodelled) at Wethersfleld. 
Conn. John C. Mead, Architect, 495 

Dlning-Hall, Memorial Hall, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. (Gelatine.) Ware & Van 
Brunt, Architects, 492 

Library and Hall for E. B. Ward, New- 
ark, N. J. A. Morris Stuckert, Archi- 
tect, 489 

Court- Yard, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, 
Italy, 496 


Adams Express Co.'s Building, Chicago. 
George H. Edbrooke, Architect, 477 

Bank, Citizen's National, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. C. Leo Staub, Architect. 4"8 

Building for Martin Ryerson, Chicago. 
Adler & Sullivan, Architects, 481 

Mercantile Trust & Deposit Co., Balti- 
more, Md. Wyatt & Sperry, Archi- 
tects, 491 

Store for Paxson & Comfort, Philadel- 
phia. W. Eyre, Jr. & W. E. Jackson, 
Architects, 472 


Allyn Memorial, Hartford, Conn. A. 

Fehmer, Architect, 490 
" Caitalia" Hospital-Ship, 471 
Crazy and Sham Roofs, 495 
Designs for Stained-Glass, by J. & R. 

Lamb, 484 
Enamelled Terra - Cotta Retable, by 

Luca delta Robbia, 485 
Grotto of Pozzuoli, near Naples, 485 
Roller-skating Rink for J. Bagley Es- 
tate, Detroit, 476 
Sketches of Dutch Brickwork, by C. H. 

Blackall, 478 
" in Lavenhain, Suffolk County, 

England, 471 
" at Manchester-by-the-Sea, 472, 


*' from the Palazzo Vecchio, 
Florence, Italy, by C. 
H. Blackall, 495 

Sketches from Plantin-Moretus Man- 
sion, Antwerp, by C. 
H. Blackall, 482 

Tower for L'Exposition Universelle de 
1889, 478 


Blake Monument at Mt. Auburn Cem- 
etery. Van Brunt & Howe, Archi- 
tects, 486 

Colleom Monument, Venice, Italy, 487 

Discobolus of Naucydes, 488 

Drinking Fountain on Boston Common, 

Griswold Mausoleum, Troy, N. Y. Rob- 
ert W. Gibson, Architect, 485 

Leaning Tower, Saragossa, Spain, 488 

Minar of Kootub, India, 488 

Monuments and Statues of London, 475, 
477, 478, 479, 481 

Statue of Johu Harvard at Cambridge, 
Mass. Daniel C. French, Sculptor, 

Tower (1,000 ft.) for the Paris Exhibi- 
tion, 478 


B. & P. E. R. Station, Dedham, Mass. 
Sturgis & Brigham, Architects, 484 

Continental Hotel, Brussels, Belgium, 

Law School, Harvard College, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. H. H. Richardson, Ar- 
chitect, 483 

Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, 
N. H. S. J. F. Thayer, Architect, 481 

Maison des Bateliers, Ghent, Belgium, 

Museum of Antiquities, Antwerp, Bel- 
;ium, 493 

ue Arts and Ladies' 
Library, Charleston, S. C., 

" " Natural History, Vienna, 
Austria, 476 

National Bank, Antwerp, Belgium, 481 

New City-Hall, Vienna, 489 

New Hampshire State Insane Asylum 
for Lady Patients, Bancroft Building. 
Rand & Taylor, Architects, 471 

Odd Fellows' Hall, Cambridgeport, 
Mass. Hartwell& Richardson, Archi- 
tects, 490 

Palais de Justice, Paris, 482 

Public Library Designs. Boston, 477 

Savings Bank, Sens, France, 476 

School and Chapel for Connecticut 
State Industrial School for Girls at 
Middletown, Conn. J. D. Sibley & 
Son, Architects, 485 

State Capitol, Hartford, Conn. (Gela- 
tine), 475 

Town-Hall, Ypres, Belgium (Gelatine), 

Y. W. C. A. Building, New York. R. H. 
Robertson, Architect, 494 


"Dakota" Stable, New York City, for 
Alfred C. Clark. Chas. W. Romeyn & 
Co., Architects, 493 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Asmo- 
dent, 485 

Design for a Cheap Stable by the " Au- 
thor." 482 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Cabby," 


Design for a Cheap Stable by "Country 
Gentleman " (T. H. Randall), 478 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Doris " 
(A. Q. Everett), 478 

Design for a Cheap Stable by "Hay- 
Foot Straw Foot," 4*6 

Design for a Cheap Stable by "Host- 
ler," 4KO 

Design for a Cheap Stable bj"Jav" 
(F. E. Wallis), 478 

Design for a Cheap Stable by '* Martin 
Chuzzletoitt," 482 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Much in 
Little Space," 493 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " New- 
port," 479 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Nyphte," 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Old 
Apple- Tree," 489 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Pen," 

Design for a Cheap Stable by " Bye," 

Design for a Cheap Stable by "Sir 

Roger," 479 
Livery-Stable, Devon, Pa. W. Bled- 

dyn Powell, Architect, 490 
Stable. Cabot & Chandler, Architects, 



( These figures refer to the pages.) 

Albert Memorial, London, 51, 52 

Barn of Mr. White, Brookline, Mass., 78 

Belfry, Hotel de Ville, Valenciennes, 

France, 141 

Bristol, England. Old House, 31 
Byron Memorial. The, 76 
Cabinets. Carved, 104, 111, 138, 220, 256 
Candlestick. Wrought^Iron, 7, 267 
Capitals from St. Sophia, 91 
Castle Ferrara, 247 
Chairs, 8, 219, 233, 285 
Chest. An Old, 207 
Church at Biddinghoe, Eng., 188 
" Biddestone, Eng., 151 
" Box, Eng., 178 

Brigstock, Eng., 303 
" Kdiogthorpe, Eng., 303 
" Garway, Eng , 303 
" Great Buiiworth, Eng., 149 
" Rothwell, Eng., 303 
Cottage. A $2,000, 137 

" Yorkshire, Eng. Old, 45 
Delia Robbia Sculptures. 124, 125, 126, 

147, 173, 17*, 175, 185, 186 
Doorways, 153, 183 
Dormer at Caen, France, 92 

" Lisieux, 162 
Dressing Table, 237 

Ferstel. Portrait of Heinrich von, 244 
Fireplace, 8 

" Palais de Justice, Bruges, 

Belgium, 103 

Fonts, 163, 282, 291, 303, 304 
Fountain to Watteau at Valenciennes, 


Hotel de Ville, Bruges, Belgium, 65 
House at Amsterdam, 89 

" of J. B. Reno, Sewickley, Pa., 211 
" " Sir Paul Pindar, London, 92 
La Pensee, 307 
Lewes Castle Keep, 79 
Lion, 293 

London Bridge. New, 30 
Mexican Sketches, 63, 64 
Monmouth Battle Monument Bas-Re- 
liefs, 15, 33 

Monument to Thos. Henry Burke,'19o 
" " Lord Chatham, 99 j '.^.d<Xt 
" The Colleoni, 198 
" to Dumas, Paris. Dora's, 171 
" of C. J. Fox, 100 
" The Gresham, 87 
" The Nightingale, 99 
" of Sir Francis Vere, 88 
" to the Duke of Wellington 

at St. Paul's, 123 
Morlaix, France. Old Houses, 3 
Niche, Barcelona, Spain, 116 

" Cathedral of V i 1 1 e I r a n c'h e, 

France, 114, 139 

" Church at Toulouse, France, 137 
" Sainte Chapelle, Paris, 128 
" St. Wilfred's, York, 149 
Old House, Yorkshire, 55 
Pump Cover, 159 
Roof of Christ Church, Oxford, Eng., 


Eltham Palace, 279 
Gray's Inn Hall, 280 
Hampton Court Palace, 281 
Lambeth Palace, 280 
Middle Temple Hall, 281 
Moscow Riding School, 282 
Westminster Hall, 280 
Rose Windows, 221, 224, 233, 237, 244, 259, 


Rouen Cathedral Nave, 19 
Screen. Gothic, 115 
Settee, 67 

Shrine of Henry V., Westminster Ab- 
bey, 87 
Staircases, Toledo, Spain, 135, 178 

" Tours, 160, 199 
Statue of Col. Beaurepaire, Coulom- 

miers, France. 113 
Robert Campbell, 102 
George Canning, 123 
Thomas Carlyle, 76 
Charles I, 52 
Lord Derby, 51 
" Diderot, 236 

C. J. Fox, 124 
General Havelock, 75 
" Lord Herbert of Lea, 76 

" Sir Rowland Hill, 127 

Lord Mansfleld, 100 
Military Courage, 268 
Sir Charles Napier, 75 
James Outram, 75 
George Peabody, 75 
" Robert Peel, 53 

William Pitt, 53 
" Prince Consort, Holborn 

Viaduct, 52 
" Paul Revere, Boston, Mass.. 


Richard I, 76 
John Stephenson, 75 
James Watt, 123 
William I of Holland, 103 
Statues for Blackfriars Bridge, London. 

Equestrian, 15. 32, 43 
Tomb of Queen Elizabeth, 87 
" Henry VII, 88 
" Mary, Queen of Scots, 88 
" at Meudon, France, 295 
Tombstone, Salem, Mass., 306 
Tower of San Pietro, Perugia, Italy, 243 

" Thaon, France, 196 
Towers at Maestricht, Holland, 270, 271 
Venetian Brass Lamps, 04, 140 
Woodlands Hall, Eng., 164 
Wrought-Iron Gate, 90 

" Work, 53, 101, 255 

Ypres, Belgium. Renaissance Building, 


[The figures refer to the number of the journal, and not to the page.} 

Albany, N. Y. Cathedral of All Saints. 
R. W. Gibson, Archi- 
tect, 490 

" " Houses for Appleton Es- 
tate. W. Dickson, Ar- 
chitect, 473 

Antwerp, Belgium. Museum of Antiq- 
uities, 493 
National Bank, 

Plantin - Moretus 

Mansion, 482 

Baltimore, Md. Mercantile Trust and 
Deposit Building. Wyatt & Sperry, 
Architects, 491 

Birmingham, Conn. House of A. R. 

Smith. C. H. Stilson, Architect, 472 

Blois, France. Staircase of Francis I, 

Boston, Mass. Crazy and Sham Roofs, 


" " Drinking Fountain on 

the Boston Common, 

" " Mutual Life Ins. Co. of 

N. Y. Building. Pea- 
body & Stearns, Archi- 
tects (Gelatine), 486 
" " Old Hollis St. Church, 

" " Public Library Designs, 


Brookline, Mass. House. W. G. Pres- 
ton, Architect, 482 
" " House of. C. H. Ru- 

tan, Architect, 488 

Bruges, Belgium. Cathedral of St. Sau- 
veur, 491 

1 Bruges, Belgium. Chimney-piece in the- 
Palais de Justice 
(Gelatine), 479 
Temple de Jerusa- 
lem, 493 
Brussels, Belgium. Hotel Continental, 

Brunswick, Germany. St. Catherine's, 


Caen, France. Church of St. Pierre, 4% 
Cambridge, Mass. Austin Hall. H. H. 
Richardson, Ar- 
chitect (Gelatine), 

" Harvard Memorial 
Ware & Van 
Brunt, Architects, 
(Gelatine), 492 

" " House and Stable. 

Cabot & Chandler, 
Architects. 484 

" " Statue of John Har- 

vard, 487 

Cambridgeport, Mass. Odd Fellows 
Hall. Hartwell & Richardson, Archi- 
tects, 490 

Charleston, S. C. Design for Art Mu- 
seum. W. M. Aiken, Architect, 473 
Chartres, France. North Porch of the 

Cathedral, 483 
Cheyenne, Wyo. T. House. W. A. Bates, 

Architect, 476 

Chicago, 111. Adams Express Building. 
G. H. Edbrooke, Archi- 
tect, 477 

" " Store of M. Ryerson. 
Adler & Sullivan, Archi- 
tects, 481 

Chihuahua, Mexico. Parochial Church, 

Cincinnati, O. House for Dr. H.A. Smith. 
S. E. Des Jardins, Architect, 493 

Cleveland, O. House for Henry Wick. 
C. O. Arey, Architect, 488 

Cologne, Germany. Cathedral, 487 

Concord, N. H. Bancroft Building, 
ing. Rand & Tay- 
lor, Architects, 471 

Concord, N. H. Union Depot. B. S. 
Gilbert, Architect, 

Crystal River, Fla. Cottage for P. Von 
Marscheutz. W. A. Bein, Architect, 

Danville, Pa. Christ Church. H. M.. 
Congdon, Architect, 490 

Dedham, Mass. H.R. Station. Sturgis 
& Brigham, Architects, 484 

Detroit, Mich. Roller skating-Rink. W. 
E. Brown, Architect. 476 

Devon. Pa. Livery Stables. W. B. Pow- 
ell, Architect, 490 

Dorchester, Mass. Semi-detached Cot- 
tages. F. E. Wallis, Architect, 474 

Florence, Italy. Palazzo Vecchio, 495, 


" " Staircase of II Bar- 

gello, 4% 

Ghent, Belgium. Maison des Bateliers, 

Greenport, N. Y. Church of the Ascen- 
sion. R. W. Gibson, Architect, 485 

Halberstadt, Germany. Old Houses, 480, 

Hanover, N. H. Dartmouth College Li- 
brary. S. J. F. Thayer, Architect, 481 

Hartford, Conn. Allyn Memorial. A. 
Fehmer, Architect 

" " State Capitol. R. M. 

Upjohn, Architect 
(Gelatine), 475 

Kootub, India. The Minar, 488 
Lavenham, England. Sketches, 471 
Lenox, Mass. Fireplace for Dr. R. C. 
Greenleaf. J. Ph. Rinn, Architect, 473 
London, Eng. Monuments and Statues 

475, 477, 478, 479, 481 

Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mass. "Krag- 
syde," House of G. N. Black, Peaboiiy 
& Stearns, Architects, 480 
Manchester-by-the-Sea. Sketches, 472 
Meadville, Pa. House of H. I/. Rich- 
mond. W. S. Fraser, Architect, 493 
Middletown, Conn. Industrial School 

J. D. Sibley & Son, Architects, 4B5. 
Montreal, Can. Semi-detached Houses 

A. T. Taylor, Architect, 476 
Mulhausen, Germany. Workmen's Cot- 
tages, 484 

Naples, Italy. Grotto of Pozznoli, 485 
Newark, N. J. House of E. B. Ward 

A. M. Stuckert, Architect, 489 
New Orleans, La. Convent of the Good 

Shepherd. J. Freret, Architect, 477 
Newport, R. I. Seventh-Day Baptist 

Church Details, 488 

New York, N. Y. "Dakota " Stables. C. 
W. Romeyn, Ar- 
chitect, 493 
"Hoffman Arms." 
C. W. Romeyn & 
Co., Architects, 474 


The American Architect and Building News. Index. 


New York, N. Y. St. James's Episco- 
pal Church. R. H. 
Kobertson, Archi- 
tect, 487 

" " Y. W. C. A. Build- 

ing. R. H. Robert- 
son, Architect, 494 
Orvieto, Italy. Cathedral, 473 
Paris, France. Proposed 1000 - foot 

t Tower, 478 

" " Palais de Justice, 482 

I" " St. Etienne du Mont, 


" " St. Eustache, 482 

Paterson, N. J. Proposed Church. C. 
Edwards, Architect, 472 

Philadelphia, Pa. Asbury M.E. Church. 
J. Ord, Architect, 


" " Paxson & Comfort's 

Building. Cabot 
& Chandler, Ar- 
chitects, 472 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Citizens' National 
Bank. C. L. 
Staub, Architect, 

" " House for W. L. Van 

Kirk. Uossiter & 
Wright, Archi- 
tects, 486 

Poitiers, France. Notre Dame La 
Grande, 474 

Rouen, France. Cathedral of Notre 

Dame, 475, 492 
Saragossa, Spain. The Leaning Tower, 

Schenectady, N. Y. House of E. Ellis. 

Fuller & Wheeler, Architects, 474 
Sens, France. Savings Bank, 476 
St. Paul, Minn. "Dellwood," House of 
A. K. Illinium. C.Gil- 
bert, Architect, 473 
" Houses for T. L. Schur- 
meier. C. Gilbert, 
Architect, 494 
Swampseott, Mass. House. S. J. P. 

Thayer, Architect, 489 
Troy, N. Y. Griswold Mausoleum. R. 
W. Gibson, Architect, 486 

Venice, Italy. Colleoni Monument, 487 
Vienna, Austria. Museum of Natural 

History, 476 

" New City- Hall, 489 
" Street View, 471 

Wakefleld, Mass. Greenwood Chapel. 

Waitt & Cutler, Architects, 474 
Washington, Conn. House of R. S. 
Barnes. Rossiter & 
Wright, Architects. 496 
Washington, D. G. House of G. P. Van 
Wyck. J. G. Hill, Ar- 
chitect, 486 

Wethersfleld, Conn. Interior First Ec- 
clesiastical Church, 495 
Ypres, Belgium. Town-Hall (Gelatine), 



Copyright. 1885, JAMES R. OSOOOD & Go., Boston, Mass. 

No. 471. 

JANUARY 3, 1885. 

Entered at the Post-Offlce at Boston as second-class matter. 


Recent Explosions of Natural Gas. The Expansion of Met- 
als." Frauds in " Cast Steel." The Eads Ship-Railway. 
Recent Improvements in Ballooning. A New Kind of Ele- 
vated Railway. The Maxim Machine-Gun 1 


THE " Castalia " HOSPITAL-SHIP 4 



A View in Vienna, Austria. Sketches at Laveuham, England. 
Drinking-Fountain on Boston Common. Insane Hospi- 
tal Building, Concord, N. H. The " Castalia " Hospital 

Ship 6 





TITHE dangers of natural gas fuel have been, strikingly illus- 
^J_ trated lately, by three severe explosions in a single day, re- 
sulting in the demolition of two houses, and the fatal burn- 
ing of one or two persons. The gas obtained from the wells in the 
Pittsburgh region issues from the earth under great pressure, so 
that it is not easily confined in pipes, and it has the additional 
quality of being nearly inodorous, so that its escape is not so 
quickly detected as in the case of coal ga's, and a leak is very 
likely to lead to a dangerous accumulation of the explosive 
mixture which it forms when diffused in ten or twelve times 
its bulk of air. In the first case reported, the occupants of a 
house in which the natural gas was used as fuel were awakened 
by a smell like burning paint. Two persons went together to 
the basement to see what the matter was, taking a lamp with 
them. Nothing seems to have attracted their attention, until 
the one carrying the lamp raised it above her head, when the 
accumulated mixture of gas and air at the top of the room ex- 
ploded, burning them both in a shocking manner, and blowing 
out the front of the house. There was in this case no reason 
to suppose that the gas escaped through the house pipes, but a 
leak was discovered in the street main, the gas from which is 
supposed to have forced its way through the ground beside the 
service-pipe, and so into the house. In the second case there 
were no gas-pipes in the house, and the nearest street main was 
thirty-five feet away ; but it is tolerably certain that gas must 
have escaped from the street-pipe, and have found a passage 
through the earth and the foundation wall into the cellar, 
where it accumulated under the ceiling, a little of it working 
upward through the crevices of the floor. The small stream 
escaping about the hearth of a fireplace in the first story took 
fire, burning with a blue flame which attracted the attention of 
one of the young ladies of the family, who called her brother. 
He, very naturally, proceeded to the cellar with a lamp to in- 
vestigate the phenomenon, but as soon as the cellar door was 
opened a violent explosion took place, completely destroying 
the house, which was of brick, and burying all the inmates in 
the ruins, fortunately without fatal injury to any of them. Of 
the third case, which occurred in Pittsburgh, the accounts are 
very meagre, but it seems to have resulted in the demolition of 
a store, and in damage to property in the neighborhood. As 
some of the wells produce enormous volumes of gas, one, we 

I believe, delivering something like ten million cubic feet a day, 
their capacity for doing mischief unless the flow is properly con- 
trolled is almost unlimited, and as at least one-half of the serious 
gas-explosions in cities are traced to gas from leaky street mains, 
finding its way through brick or stone work into cellars or sew- 

Iers, it is very desirable that the conduits for conveying natural 
gas, particularly when under its original tension, of one or two 
hundred pounds to the square inch, should be made secure be- 
yond a doubt by rigid inspection. 

CURIOUS illustration of the importance of remembering 
the expansion of metals under heat is found in a story tok 
in the Scientific American. It seems that a new railway 
connected with the Midland system, was recently opened for 
business in England. The track was laid in the winter, anc 
the engineer seems to have forgotten that steel rails wouk 
expand in warmer weather, or else to have supposed that the 

oefficient of expansion, less than one one-hundred-thousandth 
f their length for each Fahrenheit degree of temperature, was 
oo small to be appreciable ; so he laid the ends of the rails 
nearly together. In consequence of this oversight, when sum- 
mer arrived the track began to move. The ends of the rails 
were forced together by the expansion, and as they could move 
o further in the direction of their length, they were obliged 
o give way laterally, and the track spread in this way so 
eriously as to prevent its use, and the whole business of the 
oad was suspended until the rails could be taken up and relaid 
with a proper interval between them. For architects, the 
effects of expansion by heat are perhaps more commonly to be 
)bserved in steam-pipes than anywhere else, and careful pro- 
vision must be made for this in many cases. We saw, not long 
ago, an exhaust-pipe led into a ventilating-flue, near the top. 
The ventilating-flue was of galvanized-iron, and a long opening 
lad been made in the side, fitted with a door sliding vertically, 
,he exhaust-pipe passing through the middle of the door. The 
ralue of this arrangement was shown on turning steam into the 
)ipe, which expanded in a few minutes so much as to lift the 
upper end, and with it the sliding-door, two and five-eighths 
nches. If the pipe had been inserted without precaution in a 
>rick flue, as might readily happen if the architect or builder 
were careless, the first admission of steam into it would prob- 
ably have pitched the chimney into the street. 

RATHER baTefaced deception is said to have been prac- 
tised of late by certain English dealers in metals, in selling 
large quantities of steel made by the Bessemer or similar 
srocesses as "cast steel." Although Bessemer steel is literally 
cast in ingots on removal from the converter, the name of " cast 
steel " has always been understood in the trade to mean cruci- 
cast steel, which is made either by melting the best blistered 
steel in a covered crucible, or by melting pure iron, and carbon- 
zing it with charcoal. However made, crucible cast steel is 
the best and most costly form of carbonized iron, and sells or- 
dinarily at about ten times the price of Bessemer steel, so that 
whatever may be the merit of Bessemer steel as now manufac- 
tured, its sale under cover of a name appropriated to a far more 
valuable product is a disgraceful fraud. The first public inti- 
mation that such tricks were practised in the trade seems to 
have come from Dr. Webster, who was for many years Consul 
for the United States at Sheffield, and has recently written an 
official report on the manufacture of steel ; but some confirma- 
tion of his accusation is to be found in the fact that after the 
matter was called to the attention of the British Iron and Steel 
Institute, the Sheffield manufacturers refused to allow their es- 
tablishments to be inspected, and caused the annual meeting of 
the Institute, which the members wished to have held there, to 
be transferred to a distant place. 

TITHE Scientific American gives a very clever imaginary pict- 
"\j ure of Captain Eads's Tehuantepec sjiip-railway, accompa- 
nying it with a good deal of interesting information about 
the details of the scheme. Most persons know something of 
the general features of the railway, which is intended to consist 
of three parallel tracks, over which three double engines, pull- 
ing together, are to draw a huge cradle, containing the vessel 
which may need transportation, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
After a ship is fairly balanced on the cradle, and supported by 
the shores which can be placed in all directions about it, there 
seems to be no reason why it cannot be dragged a hundred and 
thirty-four miles over moderately easy grades, but the placing 
of a floating shell, loaded with three or four thousand tons of 
cargo, on the cradle, is a delicate matter, and the most inge- 
nious part of the scheme is the lifting pontoon by which the 
transfer is effected. In substance, this consists of a forest of 
hydraulic rams, which are submerged in the water of the dock 
as the vessel to be treated enters it. The rams are attached to 
a huge cellular raft of iron, and as soon as the ship is in posi- 
tion, the water which previously filled the cells of the raft is 
pumped out, gradually floating it, and lifting the vessel upon it 
out of the water. The railway cradle is placed on the pontoon 
before the ship is floated over it, in such a way that the pistons 
of the hydraulic rams can move between the timbers of the 
cradle, and as soon as the dischauge of the pontoon begins to 
lift the ship from the water, the rams are set in operation and 
the pistons pressed against the hull, supporting it with a force 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVIL No. 471. 

which can be very delicately regulated. When the pontoon has 
floated high enough to raise the cradle to the level of the rail- 
way, the shores are adjusted, and the valves of the rams 
opened, allowing the ship to settle into place on the cradle, 
which is. then drawn upon the track. A similar device unloads 
the vessel at the other end of the line. The road is nearly 
straight, so that the cradle, four hundred feet long, can move 
almost without interruption from one end to the other ; but five 
turn-outs are provided for, where, by means of floating turn- 
tables, the movement of the cradle and its load may be changed 
in direction, or the whole may be shifted to a side track, if 
desired, for inspection or repairs. It must be confessed that 
there is something attractive in the novelty and ingenuity of 
the whole plan, and there would be a considerable satisfaction 
in seeing it carried out, if not at Tehuantepec, perhaps at some 
other place. 

T T PLANAT indulges, in the last number of La Semaine 
I XI, des Constructeurs, in some very interesting anticipations 
* with regard to the future of aerial navigation, suggested, 
apparently, by a new experiment of Messrs. Renard and Krebs, 
who succeeded twice in one day in making a tour of thirty-five 
to forty-five minutes duration, returning in each case to the 
point from which they started. It is natural that this small 
but assured success should have called the attention of engi- 
neers and physicists again to the construction of balloons, and 
many suggestions have been made in regard to the best ways 
of building and sailing them, some of which will undoubtedly 
be tested before long. Reasoning from the examples of vessels 
to float upon the water, which gain in swiftness and in facility 
of handling with increase of size, the most obvious way of im- 
proving balloon navigation would seem to be by making the 
balloons larger, giving them at once greater steadiness and 
power, and enabling them to carry a heavier load of machin- 
ery to operate them. Nothing but metal would be suitable for 
balloons of great size, but with sheet copper, riveted like a 
steam-boiler, an envelope could be made, which would, within 
comparatively moderate dimensions, weigh only one-third as 
much, with its gaseous contents, as the air which it displaced. 
A copper balloon would be strong enough to admit of forcing 
through the air with all the speed which the machinery it could 
carry would be capable of imparting to it, and the next step to 
practical sailing through the air would be the invention of a 
motor lighter than anything yet known. Although Messrs. 
Renard and Krebs are believed to have employed in their bal- 
loon either a secondary electric battery, or a voltaic battery of 
great power, which is probably the best apparatus at present 
available for the purpose, few persons can think long over the 
problems of aerial navigation without arriving at the conclusion 
that the balloon motor of the future is likely to be a gas-engine 
of some sort. As hydrogen burns, or rather explodes, with its 
greatest force when mixed with eight times its weight of air, a 
balloon-engine, employing hydrogen, either compressed or not, 
as fuel, would draw eight-ninths of its fuel from the air around 
it ; or, to put it in a different way, a hydrogen-engine using the 
gas simply as a fuel. would, under such circumstances, do ex- 
actly as much work as a coal-burning motor consuming six times 
as great a weight of combustible matter. 

WITH a balloon of the dimensions which engineers now 
contemplate, the fuel necessary for driving it through a 
journey of moderate length could be taken from the gas 
which held the whole suspended in the air without serious 
harm, especially if the balloon were charged to a pressure a 
little above that of the atmosphere, so that the consumption of 
the gas in the motor would not, by reducing the tension too 
much, expose the copper envelope to danger of collapsing ; and 
M. Planat believes that this plan is likely to be tried. As to 
the advantages to be obtained by using the gas explosively, in- 
stead of as mere fuel, little is yet known, but if, as seems prob- 
able, investigation will teach us how to use more effectively the 
energy developed by explosions, it may be possible, as he sug- 
gests, to use a variety of substances in that way, in case hydro- 
gen from the balloon should not prove serviceable. Again, as 
M. Planat says, the apparatus of cylinders, pistons and cranks 
by which power is converted into motion in terrestrial locomo- 
tives seems heavy and clumsy in a balloon, and he calls atten- 
tion to the way in which the expansion of burning gases is used 
to urge forward rockets as a" possible indication of a method 
in which the explosion of charges of hydrogen may be made to 

push a balloon through the air, without the intervention of any 
heavy machinery whatever. There is material enough in these 
suggestions for many new, and perhaps successful experiments ; 
and so much interest is felt in the subject at present that we 
shall hardly have to wait long before some of them are tried. 

NEW kind of elevated railway is described in Le Genie 
Civil, as the invention of M. Angely, a French engineer ; 
the principal point of novelty about it being that the cars 
are hung below the track, and have, according to the illus- 
tration published with the account, much the air of trains of 
caterpillars crawling along the underside of a twig. Like the 
Meigs railroad, about which so much discussion took place a 
year or two ago, the track consists of a single rail, but the sus- 
pension of the cars beneath the rail makes it possible to carry 
two rails, constituting a double track, from a single row of 
posts; the rails being hung from the ends of a short T, or 
double bracket, securely fixed to the posts by means of collars 
in the middle, through which the posts pass, rising some dis- 
tance above, in order to give points of attachment for rods or 
cables, which sustain the rails at short intervals. In some re- 
spects this plan offers the best and cheapest solution of the 
elevated-railway problem yet devised. The posts are intended 
to be about forty feet high, and of plate iron, fixed in the ground 
by bolting to a mass of concrete. Spaced one hundred feet 
apart, they would occupy a comparatively trifling space in the 
roadway, and could be made perfectly capable of sustaining the 
double track, partly by means of the crcss-pieces, strongly made 
of plate and angle iron, and partly by the braces from the top, 
which would not only be economical, but might serve to stay 
the cross-pieces, so as to prevent them and the posts from oscil- 
lation under the unequal movement of the traits. The track, 
according to the plan, is composed of a long lattice-girder, but 
with supports every twenty-five feet, as shown, a special rolled 
beam might perhaps be advantageously substituted for this, and 
the only thing then needed to complete the double line would 
be the horizontal wind-bracing between the tracks. Compared 
with the system in use in New York, where a double track re- 
quires at least two rows of posts, besides four continuous lattice 
girders, and a forest of ties and braces, the Angely scheme 
seems to promise considerable advantages, and although we 
should say that for nervous ladies a trip in one of his cars 
would be only second in point of discomfort to a voyage in a 
balloon there are no prejudices which habit will not overcome. 

THE most efficient machine for killing our fellow-men yet 
invented appears to be the Maxim machine-gun, a utensil 
which any person can carry without difficulty into battle, 
and, having levelled it at his enemies and supplied it with a 
quantity of ammunition, he need do nothing more than turn a 
crank once, and retire to a place of safety. The gun then 
begins shooting by itself, and continues to fire bullets at any 
rate desired, from two a minute to six hundred, until its car- 
tridge-belt, which contains three hundred and thirty-three 
charges, is exhausted. The advantages, to a warlike person, 
of being able to kill three hundred and thirty-three persons at 
a single effort, without exposing his own valuable person to 
injury, are so obvious that there is likely to be an extensive 
demand for the new instrument among Christian nations, and 
no one should fail to acquaint himself with the principles on 
which it acts. Every one knows something of the machine- 
guns hitherto used, the Galling gun, with its six barrels tied 
together by bands, and the crank at its rear, being perhaps 
the most familiar, but all those hitherto used differ from the 
Maxim gun inemploying a continued force from the outside, 
generally applied to a crank or lever, to fire the charges, while 
the Maxim weapon loads and fires itself, after the first shot 
has been discharged, by utilizing the recoil of each discharge 
to effect the necessary movements ; an ingenious system of 
springs and levers, operated by the barrel, which slides back 
about half an inch at each explosion, extracting and throwing 
away the shell of the cartridge just used, putting another in 
its place, pushing the barrel forward again, cocking the ham- 
mer and pulling the trigger, and repeating the whole series of 
movements as the barrel slides back again by the recoil of the 
new discharge. With all its ingenuity and apparent complica- 
tion the new gun seems from the tests to be substantial 
enough for active service, and it is much to be hoped that the 
occasions for employing it will be rendered rarer by the very 
fact that its efficiency will make it dreaded. 

JANUARY 3, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


VITlIE almost universal use of wood in the construction of country 
J I houses owned by wealthy citizens is often a matter of surprise 
to foreigners visiting America. The early colonists, being com- 
paratively poor, naturally availed themselves of this material, which 
was at haml in abundance. Why the well-to-do American of to-day 
should continue to build his country house of wood is perhaps ex- 
plicable on the grounds that custom, rather than rational considera- 
tion, has guided him in his choice. Many writers and architects 
have found so much to admire in old colonial buildings that in recent 
years we have had a following more or less of the old work. With- 
out denying the many points of excellence in this work, it would 
seem that fashion and the love of the picturesque have given the chief 
stimulus in this direction. We can admire, on the exterior, the 
almost microscopic fineness of delicate members on cornice and bal- 
ustrade, and the pleasing effect of white and yellow paint, but at the 
same time it must occur to every thinking observer that much applied 
moulding and mitreing in wood is constructively objectionable. 
Sooner or later, depending on the care of the owner and his liberality 
in the use of paint, those mitre joints must open. The whole con- 
struction is at fault where any permanency is desired. 

The early colonial builders knew something about Classic architec- 
ture, but their own ideas were very limited, and they seldom rose 
much above the imitation of stone-work in wood. 

From an aesthetic standpoint, the regularly recurring horizontal 
lines of clapboarding have a hard, monotonous, inartistic effect, which 
is rendered still worse at the angles of the building by the straight, 
severe edges of the corner-boards. Contrasted with the less regular 
lines 6f masonry, the effect is poor. Architects have felt this ; hence 
the more frequent use, lately, of shingles for covering large wall-sur- 

If wood is still to be the main material used in country dwellings, 
Bonie improvement should surely be sought, by using in conjunction 
with it a material less inflammable and ui'>re enduring. To cover 
the roof with tiles or slates, and the wall-surfaces with cement instead 
of clapboards or shingles would be a step in the right direction. 
We find numerous examples of this construction in the domestic 
architecture of England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
As an illustration, we reproduce some sketches [see Illustrations] of 
houses in an old Suffolk village, Lavenham, which was one of the 
places visited this year by the London Architectural Association. 
Containing, in addition to its quaint old houses, a fine church, it is 
well worthy of a visit. Some sketches of wood-work from the inte- 
rior of this church will be given in a future number. 

The house in the sketch marked "a" was built about the year 
1650, and it is in a habitable state and good condition now. The 
wood-work is of oak, and the roof is covered with tiles, originally red, 
now a dark brown. The surface of the walls is plastered, and the 
ornamental scroll-work was no doubt worked on the wall while the 
material was in a soft state, in the same way as the fine plaster-work 
on ceilings of this period was executed. 

The villagers of Lavenham, with an appreciative eye for the 
effect of color, tinted the exterior plaster-work. Some houses were 
yellow, of a creamy color, others of red of various shades, from terra- 
cotta to " crushed strawberry ; " others again were pure white. The 
street views " b " and " c," one of which, " b," is reproduced from a 
water-color sketch by a member of the Scottish Water-Color Society, 
will give an idea of the picturesque grouping and sky-line. From 
almost any point of view the pleasing variety of color rich umber 
of the oak and the dark red of the tiles makes a fascinating subject 
for the water-color painter. The wall-surface of house " a " was col- 
ored a light red ; the repeated coats of color-wash and the action of 
the weather had softened the arrises of the ornament, and the effect 
of this work in low relief was very fine. 

In "d" and "e" an indication is given of the ornament on the 
wood-work. For the most part it was cut out of the solid, dentils of 
various forms, ribbon-patterns, incised work and carving in low 
relief were favorite modes of enrichment. If we consider the right 
treatment of wood-work for exteriors, all the ornament needed can be 
had liy moulding or cutting out below the surface of the timbers 
instead of building out and tacking on pieces, as the old colonists did. 
Still further, if carving is required, the best effects will be obtained 

by cutting with incised lines, with little or no modelling of surfaces. 
Tliis enriches without losing the value of the constructional forms 
whether in a corbel or a gable rafter. 

The capabilities of cement and its treatment are inexhaustible. 
First, there is the plain surface and different ways of finishing it in 
texture and color. There are simple, cheap and effective ways of treat- 
ing the wall-surfaces. The age and good condition of these old houses 
is a practical test of the material. It may, however, be urged by some 
that although such plastered surfaces may stand in England, they 
will not stand the test of the climate in this country. Nothing could 
be more trying than the moist atmosphere, the searching, heavy 
rains and the variable weather in England during the winter months. 
As plastered surfaces have not been used externally in this country 
except on a small scale, the practicability of such work has yet to be 

Appended is the opinion of a gentleman who has had a very 
extended experience in the use of cement, both in England and 
America. K. BKOWN, JR. 

THE subject in the foregoing article is one on which a great deal 
could be written, and I should be glad if the little I can say on the sub- 
ject would be the means of removing a wide-spread, but ungrounded 
prejudice, that appears to possess the minds of the majority of arch- 
itects in this country against the use of lime and cement for outside 

When we take into consideration the great variety of effects, both 
in color and form, that can be introduced so readily and by such 
simple means, it appears strange that the subject should have so long 
remained dormant. Doubtless many of our rising architects would 
like to indulge their taste in this direction, but for the fact that they 
have no confidence in external plaster-work ; they will argue that it 
will not stand the extreme changes of this climate. As a worker of 
lime and cement, who has had considerable experience in outside 
plaster-work, I must say that this assertion is simply ridiculous, when 
so many examples can be referred to, even on this continent, for I 
am told that in Canada, where the climate is even more severe than 
in the United States, there are many of the old houses with plastered 
exteriors now in good condition, that have stood the test for over a 
hundred years. 

If we compare the climate of this country with that of England, I 
think it will be readily seen that the atmospheric conditions are more 
trying to outside plaster-wjrk there than here. In England the 
atmosphere holds much moisture, which plaster will more or less 
absorb. Under such condit ons it would certainly appear to be more 
susceptible of injury by fro -I. Very often, in the fall of the year, a 
rainy season sets in ; everything is soaking wet for weeks, and then, 
suddenly, sharp frost will follow. This state of things certainly 
appears to me to be very much more trying to lime and cement work 
tluin the usually dry state of the atmosphere here; but we do not find 
that this work is affected, and numerous examples can be seen in 
England and Scotland which have stood the test for hundreds of 
years, and appear to-day as good as wlieii the work was first done. 

The methods adopted by our English ancestors in preparing the 
lime, especially for external use, were somewhat different from the 
present ways. Boiling the lime (unless it was for inside finish) was 
seldom adopted. In the spring of the year the lime was taken in 
large quantities fresh from the kilns, and as soon as possible sprinkled 
with water and allowed to slake to a powder ; it was then passed 
through a sieve, usually a quarter-inch mesh. Next it was mixed 
with a little sand and made into a very stiff mortar, piled into one 
large heap and smoothed all over on the outside, to prevent, as much 
as possible, the moisture of the lime escaping. The lime thus pre- 
pared would probably not be used for at least six, or oftentimes 
twelve months afterwards, as it was not considered safe from blister- 
ing until kept for that time. When this lime was brought into use, it 
was mixed with as little water as possible, then a sufficient quantity 
of sand was added, and the whole rendered plastic by the use of 
beaters. It will be perceived that mortar so prepared would be very 
tough. When hair-mortar was required, cow-hair of the best kind 
only was used, and it was as a rule well beaten and thoroughly 
hooked into the lime, so that the hair was well separated, and not in 
lumps, as is often the case in tUese days. 

There is another point that must not be lost sight of in the con- 
struction of those long-standing examples of half-timbered houses : 
this is, that the laths are usually made from selected English oak. a 
straight-grained as could be had, and split (the sappy parts being 
avoided) and nailed with wrought-iron clout nails. 

Thus far I have endeavored to show the process of preparing the 
mortar in olden times. The mode of application was much the same, 
I have no doubt, as at the present time in all good work, by first put- 
ting on and pressing well between the laths, to insure a good key, a 
fair coat of well-haired mortar, the surface of which should be made 
rough by scratching. This coat should be thoroughly dry before the 
next coat of mortar is applied. The second coat should be from one- 
half to three-quarters of an inch in thickness, the surface of which 
could be worked into simple ornamental forms while in a plastic 
state, or the surface could be finished in " slap-dash," which is simply 
mortar made very soft and thrown on to the surface of the plaster 
with a scoop. This is the commonest way of finishing outside plas- 
ter-work, and may be rendered very effective, particularly when color 
is used in the mortar. Another very pleasing way of finishing is 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 471. 

Atc.H'TCC'ri . 

"rough-cast" or "pebble-dash," which is done by throwing small 
pebbles or shingle into the mortar while it is in a soft state. 

Having thus far endeavored to show the practicability of outside 
plastering in this country, we must not forget in conclusion that we 
have the material : the limes of America are excellent, and we have 
the advantage of splendid natural hydraulic cements, which could be 
used with the lime and produce a mortar fully equal to any of the 
mortars used in former days. ROBERT JACKSON. 


TTTHE twin-ship " Castalia " was 
J 1 1 bought some little time ago 
by the managers of the Met- 
ropolitan Asylum Board of Lon- 
don to convert into an hospital for 
small-pox patients. The managers 
hatl the matter before them of 
making floating hospitals on pon- 
toons, and this vessel, the " Cas- 
talia," suited their views very 
well; they entrusted the conver- 
sion of the vessel into a hospital 
to Mr. Adam Miller, of lliches 
Court, Lime Street, London. 

It was decided to make five 
large wards of the old cabin 
arrangement, and to build five 
other wards on the top, and place 
them en echelon (Figs. 1 and 2), 
so as to have them at angles with the centre line of the ship ; giving 
more air, better light, and also reducing the number of patients in 
each ward ; in fact these upper wards are each a cottage-hospital of 
itself. The dimensions of the wards vary a little, but the height is 
23 feet, that is to say, the walls are 13 feet and the roof 9 feet. The 
windows are made similar to those in the hospitals on land, and are 
7 feet by 3 feet. 

The inlet of air is by slides worked by a screw, so that the quan- 
tity of air admitted may be graduated to the amount required. The 
air is drawn out by Boyle's extracting ventilators; each ward has 
two of those large ventilators, and, in the event of calm, close, sultry 
weather, there is fitted to each ventilator an air-blast, sent up from a 
large Farmer blower of Schiele's make, fitted in the engine-room 
below. This blast of air is sent up the pipes of the ventilators and 
causes an upward current of air to take place in these pipes. In 
this way the wards are kept cool and the air changed so many times 
an hour in each ward. 

Each of the isolating rooms, bath-rooms, and lavatories is fitted 
with Boyle's ventilators and air-inlets similar to the wards. The 
hospital throughout is heated by steam coils, fitted by Messrs. Rids- 
dale and Co., Minories, London, each coil having a separate inlet 
and outlet into silent blow-off pipes. The temperature in any com- 
partment may be raised or lowered as required, or as the doctor 

The upper hospitals with the isolating wards (Figs. 1 and 2) con- 
tain a large cubical space. There are attached to these upper wards, 
at each end of the vessel, out-houses for the use of patients ; these 
contain four bath-rooms, ten wash-basins, eight water-closets, four 
latrines or sinks, and two urinals. One hot-closet or hot carving- 
table (Fig. 4) is fitted up and heated by steam, in each of the end 
upper wards ; this is to keep the food warm for the patients. A 
scullery is also fitted up in each of the end wards for washing up 
dishes after meals. 

The upper hospital wards are built with coamings of plate-iron 15 
inches by -incli, rivetted to an iron deck, which covers the lower 
hospital (Fig. 7). Frames of angle-iron are rivetted at regular 
intervals to this coaming; they stand up 13 feet. The roof princi- 
pals spring from this height, and they are also made of angle-iron. 
The sides, ends, and roofs are planked with yellow deal horizontally. 
The sides and ends have also a cross-lining on the outside of Ameri- 
can yellow pine, making the thickness 2^ inches. The roofs are 
covered all with 6-pound lead, instead o cross-lined with yellow 

The lower wards of the hospital-ship are five in number (Fig. 3), 
and are arranged to make use of the iron bulkheads that are fixed 
across the two vessels, binding the hulls together. These divided 
the "Castalia" into first and second saloons, etc., for passengers. 
The sides and ends of the lower wards are made of iron plate ; the 
upper deck which forms the roof is plated all over with iron plat- 
ing and covered with 2J-inch pine deck-planks, caulked water-tight. 
The lower wards are thus really cased with iron. They are similarly 
supplied with lavatories, hot-closets, and sculleries, as the upper 
wards; two skylights are provided in each ward to assist in giving 
light from above. The windows are all made as large as possible ; 
they are 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 6 inches, divided into three sashes, 
similar to the upper windows. 

The means of ventilation are, of course, much greater in the lower 
wards than the upper ones; the lower wards being much larger and 
not so high in the roof, the height from deck to deck being 8 feet. 

At both ends of the lower and upper wards large isolating wards 
are fitted up. These rooms are provided for the purpose of isolating 
patients who may have been sent under the mistake that they are 

suffering from small-pox, and who prove, when examined at the ship 
by the medical staff, to be affected with measles, fever, etc. Every 
care is taken that patients with other diseases than small-pox shall 
not come into contact with any small-pox patients. 

The patients are brought to the hospital-ship by the ambulance- 
steamers and are taken first into the reception-room and are exam- 
ined, and are then allotted to the wards by the resident doctor. 
The separation of the sexes is rigidly enforced. The "Atlas" 
is now kept as a female hospital and the " Castalia " has been made 
a male hospital. The whole of the " Castalia " has been painted 
with Griffith's white paint and the Sanitary Company's enamel 
paint; every precaution has been taken, by painting, to prevent 
the germs of this disease from getting into the wood-work. Mr. 
Wythe, of Dalston, executed the paint-work. Messrs. R. and H. 
Green were the contractors to convert the " Castalia " into a hospital- 
ship. Messrs. Jas. Patterson & Co., of Ratcliff Engine Works, 
Stepney, supplied and fitted up all the machinery and pipes for the 
air-blas't and the pumps for throwing water, for the water-closets, 
washing decks, fire-hose, etc. The engines are of the compound 
type, with cylinders 10 inches and 20 inches respectively, with a 
stroke of 2 feet. They are constructed to drive the Schiele's fan, 
and also a dynamo-machine for the electric lighting if required. 

Very great attention and care was given to the ventilation of the 
hospitals. Professor F. de Chaumont, Dr. Bridges, Surgeon-Gen- 
eral Bostock, and Mr. Barrington-Kenneth discussed the matter 
fully and arranged that Boyle's air-pump ventilators should be 
adopted. They also fixed the dimensions of these ventilators for the 
several wards according to the space to be relieved. The ventila- 
tors were tested one day during a smart breeze, and the speed, reg- 
istered according to three anemometers placed in the ventilators, 
was at the rate of five hundred feet per minute, giving 50 per cent 
of the speed of the wind blowing outside, so that the atmosphere in 
the hospitals may be changed many times in an hour. l)r. Bird- 
wood has since found that he can raise or lower the temperature in 
a few minutes, and he has caused the wards (when empty) to be 
filled with smoke by burning greasy waste, brown paper, cayenne 
pepper, etc. The fan blo"wers were put on, and in from three to four 
minutes all the smoke was cleared off. 

The ventilators were made each with heads 6 feet in diameter, 
and were fitted with pipes varying from 3 feet 9 inches to 2 feet 6 
inches in diameter. The lower wards have two ventilators of 3 feet 
9 inches and eight of 3 feet 3 inches. The upper wards have four 
ventilators of 3 feet and six of 2 feet 6 inches. The lavatories and 
isolating-rooms have sixteen ventilators of 16 inches diameter. The 
cubical contents of the lower hospital are 73,465 feet ; the superficial 
area, 9,308 feet ; the window opening, 984.44 square feet. The 
cubical contents of the upper hospital are 84,607 feet; the superficial 
square area, 6,054 feet; the window opening, 1,792.52 square feet. 

To provide for the satisfactory embarkation of passengers, piers 
are provided at various points by which they can be transferred 
from the ambulance to the steamer free from contact with the public. 
The first of these is the Longreach pier, which is erected close to 
the hospital-ships lying off Purfleet at Longreach. The patients 
embark and disembark to and from the ambulance-steamers, and to 
the hospital-ships, as may be arranged. The pier also accommo- 
dates the laundry staff in going and returning to their work from the 
staff-ship " Endymion." It is 193 feet in length over all ; the mov- 
ing portion is 125 feet long, the fixed part is 68 feet in length. The 
pier is lined throughout with yellow pine, and roofed over with 
glass, so as to keep the patients and others from getting wet. The 
moving portion of the pier rests at one end on a pontoon, which 
rises and falls with the tide ; the other end is fixed to a stack of 
piles by a joint bolted to each of the girders, and also securely 
bolted on the piles. The fixed portion of the pier is also bolted to 
the same joint, thus making the connection of the moving and fixed 
parts. The pier is made so that ambulances may be taken down or 
up, with or without the horses. A porch lias been built upon the 
pontoon ; it is fitted with a waiting-room, stove, water-closet, urinal, 

A similar porch with conveniences is erected at the land end of 
the pier. The ambulances drive into U'' s porch to take in or dis- 
charge patients under cover. The Rotherhithe Pier at Acorn 
Wharf is of similar design and accommodation, but is not roofed in. 
The length of Acorn Pier is two fixed spans each of 84 feet, and one 
moving span of 125 feet, in all 293 feet. The contractor for both 
piers is Mr. S. Chafen, Albion Street, Rotherhithe. This pier at 
Acorn Wharf is for the accommodation of patients living in the 
southeastern districts. 

There is a pier building for Blackwall at Brown's wharf for the 
accommodation of patients living at the east end of London. This 
pier will only consist of a moving part of 125 feet in length, resting 
on a pontoon similar to the other in accommodations, etc. The 
wharf at which this pier is to be attached will be roofed in so that 
all the ambulances may be accommodated on the wharf, and shut in 
from the street, and that the public may be kept clear. 

The fourth pier is to be erected close to Wandsworth Bridge; it 
is to be for the accommodation of patients in that district. This 
pier will be similar to Blackwall Pier. These piers have been de- 
signed by Mr. Adam Miller, and are being erected under his super- 
intendence. The " Endymion " and the " Castalia " are connected 
by a covered gallery which will allow a certain relative motion of the 
two vessels. 

JANUARY 3, 1885.] 

TJie American Architect and Building News. 

There are, in connection with the " Castalia," three steamers for 
the ambulance service, viz., "Red Cross," "Albert Victor," and 
" Maltese Cross." The latest, the " Maltese Cross," built by Messrs. 
Edwards & Symes, Ctibitt Town, E., is designed with two hospitals, 
viz., one aft and one forward, and is made to carry twice as many pa- 
tients as the first steamer, " Red Cross," constructed by the same 
builders. The dimensions of this steamer are as follows : Length, 
132 feet; breadth, 16 feet 6 inches; depth, 7 feet 6 inches. The 
engines are of the oscillating type, with cylinders of 23 inches diam- 
eter, with 30-inch stroke, steam pressure of 40 pounds. 

The hospital arrangements for the patients in the matter of beds 
and conveniences, ventilation, etc., have been carried out to the 
instructions of Surgeon-General Bostock, who has taken a great 
interest in all the ambulance arrangements. The accommodation 
for the crew is put forward. The captain and medical officer are 
placed on deck abaft the boiler casing. The nurses have a berth in 
each hospital ; a store-room is made under deck, right aft the tran- 
som, for medical comfort. Filtered-water cisterns are placed on deck 
at each entrance to the hospitals ; a galley, with a cooking range, 
is fitted at one of the wings of the paddle-boxes, so that in the event 
of the ambulance-steamer being delayed by fog in the river the pa- 
tients would have the same comfort as in the hospital proper. 

The ambulance-steamers have also been designed by Mr. Adam 
Miller, and the "Albert Victor" has also been converted by him 
into an ambulance-steamer. Engineering. 


TITHE RE is no way to tell 
J| exactly at what time 
the art of making roof- 
ing-tiles was revived in Eng- 
land. But as the buildings 
of the Anglo-Saxons were 
usually of wood, rarely of 
stone until the eleventh cen- 
tury, and as the first in- 
stance of a modern or Flem- 
ish brick building in England 
does not occur until after the 
first half of the thirteenth 
century, it is not probable 
that roofing-tiles were made 
prior to building bricks. 

We have been making 
V building bricks extensively 
in the United States for 
more than three-quarters of 
a century ; but it is only 
within the past few years 
that we have accomplished anything in the line of manufacturing roof- 
ing-tiles. The following statement in this connection is, of course, 
purely hypothetical ; but we probably state the truth when we say 
that England has probably never discounted us, and made roofing- 
tiles before she made building bricks. 

In 1 784, tiles as well as bricks were subjected to taxation by George 
III, which burden lasted for two-thirds of a century, not being re- 
pealed until 1850. 

The plain tiles now in general use in England weigh from two to 
two-and-one-half pounds each, and expose about one-half their surface 
to the weather, four hundred of them covering " a square," or one hun- 
dred superficial feet of roof-surface ; the}' are sometimes hung upon 
the sheathing-board by two oak pins inserted through holes left by the 
moulder. Plain tiles are also now made with grooves and fillets on 
the edges, so that they can be laid without overlapping the usual dis- 
tance, the grooves leading the water. This may answer for some 
cheap constructions where lightness is also a consideration ; but the 
plan is a bad one, as they will be certain to leak in the driving rains 
and drifting snows, and they are also, if not very thoroughly burned, 
subject to injury by hard frosts. 

Pantiles were first used in Flanders, the wavy surface lapping 
under and being overlapped by the adjacent tiles. The English 
pantiles weigh from five to five-and-one-quarter pounds, expose ten 
inches to the weather, and one hundred and seventy-five of them cover 
a square, or one hundred superficial feet of roof-surface. Modifica- 
tions of the pantiles have been made in which the central portion is 
flat, and the edges turn up and down respectively. 

In England a gutter-tile is sometimes used, and forms the lower 
course, overhanging the lower sheathing board or lath, and is nailed 
to it. 

Sliding-tiles are used in this country and in Europe sometimes, as 
a substitute for weather-boarding ; holes are made in the tiles during 
moulding, and they are secured by flat-headed nails to the lath. The 
exposed face of these tiles, called the gauge, is sometimes indented to 
represent courses of brick ; fine lime mortar is introduced between 
them, when they rest one upon the other. Tiles of this character 
are sometimes called weather-tiles, and sometimes mathematical-tiles, 
the names being derived from their exposure or marking. They have 
a great variety of forms, having curved or crenated edges, and are 
also variously ornamented with raised or encaustic figures. 

Roofing-tiles were probably used in Normandy before being em 

>loyed in England, as the latter country always followed in the wake 
of its more energetic neighbors in all matters relating to architectu- 
ral progress. All the rich Norman mouldings were copied by the Eng- 
ish, and, as a great part of the knowledge of the art of manufacturing 
decorative tiles was derived from the Normans, it is not improbable 
,hat they are also indebted to them for a knowledge of the manufac- 
,ure of roofing-tiles. The Normans were an active race, and delighted 
n building; to dwell in and constantly beautify their magnificent 
castles seems to have been the delight and greatest pleasure of their 
jrinces and nobles. But of course no credit is due to the Normans, 
'or having originated the use of roofing-tiles, as they had been em- 
)loyed in the East, and the art of their manufacture was borrowed 
)y the Crusaders. The highly ornamental buildings of Byzantium, 
Palestine, and Syria, were very attractive to the Crusaders, and as 
many of the early Norman roofing-tiles correspond with features of 
Byzantine architecture, the analogy is a corroboration of the state- 
ment previously made. 

When roof-tiles are to be glazed, they are sometimes varnished after 
jeing burned ; the glaze is then put on, and the tiles are placed in a 
jotter's oven, and remain until the glaze commences to run. The 
;laze is usually made from what we call lead ashes, being lead 
nelted, and stirred with a ladle till it is reduced to ashes or dross, 
which is then sifted and the refuse ground on a stone and resitted. 
This is mixed with pounded calcined Hints. Manganese is sometimes 
employed to produce a glaze, which is usually of a smoke-brown color. 
Iron-filings are also used for producing a black color; for green, cop- 
per slag ; and for blue, smalt is employed, the tile being first wetted, 
and the composition laid on from a sieve. Cheap salt glaze can also 
be applied to tiles in the same manner as for earthenware sewer- 

Before proceeding to describe the method of manufacturing roofing- 
tiles we will first consider some of the advantages which accrue from 
their employment. Tiles when well made and thoroughly burned are 
indestructible, and are not affected by heat and cold. They will not 
crack and slide off the roof like slate, leaving the sheathing exposed, 
when subjected to sudden heat, as by the burning of an adjoining 
building. In addition to the fact that after doing service on one 
structure the tile can be taken off, and used on other buildings, there 
is the picturesque appearance which modern tile-covered roofs add 
to the architectural effect. Another great advantage for the tile- 
roof is that it is a non-conductor, and, therefore, cooler in the sum- 
mer season than other roofs ; the buff tile being lighter in color is 
preferable in the latter respect, as it does not absorb the rays of the 
sun. A final advantage which, although we mention it last, is of para- 
mount importance where cisterns are employed, is that the rain-water 
collected from a tile-rcof is much purer and more healthful than from 
any other kind of roof, as the tiles are very smooth, and no dust or 
soot settles upon them. 

Objections to roofing-tiles in this country, have heretofore been 
made to the effect that the tile was heavy, made of coarse clay, poorly 
burned, and that it would absorb a great amount of moisture, so that 
freezing and thawing would cause it to crumble, and in appearance, 
it was anything but handsome. Whatever foundation these objec- 
tions may have had in the first product of tiles, our manufacturers 
have now fully met and remedied these drawbacks to their use. 

Tiles should not be put upon a roof that has less than one-quarter 
pitch (a slant of six inches to the foot), although we have seen some 
roofs of less pitch which have proved quite satisfactory. A roof to 
support tile should be somewhat stronger than for shingles. Rafters 
2" x 6", spaced 18 inches apart and well stayed so that they cannot 
spread, form a good frame. The sheathing should be of white-pine, 
of even thickness, and close together. Generally, felt or tarred paper 
is placed under the tile, although it is not necessary to make the roof 
water-tight, but it impedes circulation and makes the roof warmer in 
winter, and adds but little to the cost. 

When the process of manufacturing roofing-tiles is conducted by 
hand, the method is about the same in the United States as in Eng- 
land, and but few improvements have been made in this mode of pro- 
duction during the past century, but by the machine process we are 
enabled to manufacture very satisfactory roofing-tiles at but a small 
cost when compared with the hand method of moulding. The clay 
of which the tiles are made is dug and spread out in shallow beds to 
disintegrate during the winter season, the water contained in the clay 
expanding and breaking it in every direction. At one time very in- 
ferior roof-tiles were made in England, on account of the careless 
weathering or preparation of the clay employed ; and in order to cure 
this, a statute of Edward IV required that all clay for tiles should be 
dug or cast up before the first of November, and not made into tiles 
before the March following. Sometimes when the clay has not been 
exposed to the frost it can be disintegrated by spreading it out in 
thin layers, and exposing it to a hot sun. 

Iron rolls are often employed to disintegrate the clay, and crush 
or separate from it all stones and gravel. The clay must next be 
tempered, that is, reduced to a homogeneous and plastic mass. Th 
usual form of pug-mill employed in England for tempering clay for 
roofing-tiles is generally six feet high, three feet in diameter at the 
larger or upper end, and two feet at the bottom. The clay is kneaded 
and thoroughly mixed by a revolving cast-iron spindle, which carries 
a series of flat steel arms, so arranged as to have by rotation a worm- 
like action upon the clay, which is pressed from the larger to the 
smaller diameter of the tub in which the clay is confined, and finally 
comes oozing out of an aperture at the bottom ; in this manner of 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 471. 

tempering, great cohesive power is given to the clay. After it issues 
from the bottom of the pug-mill, the clay is usually ready to bt 
moulded into roofing-tiles, the moulding is commonly conducted in 
a shed, and most of the manufacturers prefer to place their tiles in 
the open air, if the weather allows. 

The moulding-table or bench upon which the tiles are shaped is 
supported on four legs, which are placed well under the bench, leav- 
ing the two ends of the top of the table to project liberally. The 
coal-dust box 14" x 8", is at the left hand of the moulder, resting on 
the corner of the table, and the moulding-board, 14" x 10", is usually 
placed slightly to the right of the coal-dust box. The mould em 
ployed is 12" x 7|", and one-half inch thick, made of oak, and usually 
plated with iron. The moulder, when he wishes to form a tile, works 
a lump of clay with his hands into an oblong square, the mould is 
placed on the bench, and fine coal-dust sprinkled over it; the lump 
of clay is then taken up and dashed down into the mould with force 
the surplus clay is cut off level with the top of the mould by a 
brass wire strained upon a wooden bow, and the tile in the mould is 
finished by adding a little clay to it, if necessary, and smoothing the 
exposed face with a wooden tool. The moulded tile is then placec 
upon a thin board, first sprinkled with very fine coal-dust, and so the 
process is repeated, the lump of clay being added to, every time six 
tiles are moulded. 

The boy or off-bearer carries two tiles at a time, one on his head, 
and one on his hands to the floor, where they are allowed to remain 
for four hours out of doors in fair weather, and then collected and 
placed together, the nib end changed alternately, so as to hack them 
closely and squarely. The situation of this hacking should be dry, 
but not hot, and the tiles remain hacked for two days, so as to allow 
them to toughen. 

The set or curve form is then given by placing six of the tiles at 
one time on the top of the horse, which is a three-legged stool, hav- 
ing the top about three-quarters of an inch longer than the tile, the 
top being a convex curve to a radius of about ten feet and three inches, 
and having a height of about two feet and seven inches from the 
level of the ground. In placing the tiles on top of the horse, the nib 
end is reversed each time, and as they lie closely together, three quick 
blows are given to the tiles with a block, which is concave, so as to 
correspond with the convexity of the horse. The tiles are then again 
hacked and dried, and next carried to the oven, twelve at a time, with 
the edges of the tiles resting against the breast of the carrier. 

About nine thousand tiles are commonly burned at one time, when 
the old-fashioned Staffordshire oven is employed ; but with larger 
kilns the quantity of course can be increased. The time required to 
burn the small ovens of tiles is usually about from thirty-six to forty 

The manufacture of plain roofing-tiles such as we have described, 
can be conducted with a small capital, the process and requirements 
not being intricate or expensive. But to conduct the manufacture of 
all the tiles required for roofing, and the numerous other articles gen- 
erally made in large tileries requires a large capital, and a thorough 
knowledge of the business in all its details. To faithfully describe 
the manufacture of all the articles produced in extensive tileries 
would increase this paper to such an extent as to fill a large volume ; 
the principle of procedure is the same in each case, but no two dif- 
ferent articles are made or finished in a similar way, each requiring 
different tools and moulds. 

In the London tileries, which are the largest in the world, there is 
paid particular attention to the proper preparation of the clay for the 
particular purpose for which it is to be used; there not being the 
same haste to get the clay into the kiln that is so often shown by some 
of the smaller manufacturers. The first step in preparing the clay in 
the London tileries is the weathering, which is accomplished by 
throwing the clay into pits covered with water, and leaving it to soften 
or ripen. The clay is then usually passed through the rollers, and 
the stones taken out before it is put into soak, which is a term also 
used for the mellowing process. The kilns used for burning the wares 
produced in these extensive London tileries are usually conical in 
shape for more than one-half the height, about forty feet wide at the 
base, and have a total height of about twenty-five feet from the bot- 
tom of the ash-pit to the top of the dome, which is slightly convex. 
These kilns are quite expensive to construct, eight thousand dollars 
being about a fair average cost, as fire-bricks of the best quality are 
largely employed in the interiors. 

The manufacture of roofing-tiles is a comparative new industry in 
the United States ; but it is one which is now rapidly growing in pub- 
lic favor. With us, theliles are usually of three colors, red, buff, and 
black. The color of the red tile is produced by the employment of 
clay containing a large per centage of oxide of iron ; this is sometimes 
present in the beds with fire-clays, which are the class usually em- 
ployed for roofing-tiles; at other times, it is necessary to mix some 
foreign clay, containing a large percentage of oxide of iron with the 
material. The color is made deeper and more uniform by rubbing 
the tiles with finely-sifted red moulding-sand ; this should be done 
while the tile is quite damp, go that the sand can be made to adhere 
to the tile. The buff-colored tile is made of nearly pure fire-clay, and 
is slightly lighter in weight than the red tile. The black-colored tile 
is produced by washing it over with manganese dissolved in water 
before the tile is placed in the kiln, and in the process of burning the 
manganese is converted into a perfectly durable coatinj of great 
The small diamond tiles are 6" x 10", require 500 to cover a 

" square," and weigh 600 pounds. They are nailed to the sheathing 
with two five-penny galvanized nails, and are used more especially 
for towers, porches, dormer-windows, and in side panels for ornamen- 
tal purposes. 

Large diamond tiles are 14" x 8J", 250 cover a " square," and 
weigh 650 pounds. Two six-penny galvanized nails are used to se- 
cure it to the sheathing. This kind of tile is used more than the 
other forms for regular roofs, as it is lighter in weight, and less in 

The shingle tiles are the plain flat tiles, the manufacture of which 
we have described in this paper ; after burning they are three-eighths 
of an inch thick, have two counter-sunk nail holes, and can be made 
of any required size not exceeding 6" x 12"; they can be obtained 
from the manufacturers, who keep them in stock. Tiles have been 
largely employed in the Eastern States, and on some expensive build- 
ings for roofing and side ornamentation, as at the State Capitol at 
Albany, N. Y., on which building they are secured with copper wire 
to iron ribs. Tiles of this kind are generally laid so as to expose 
about five inches to the weather, which require 480 to a " square," 
the weight being about 1100 pounds. 

The pantiles measure twelve inches in length, by six-and-one-half 
inches in width at one end, and four-and-one-balf inches at the other, 
and if they are lapped three-and-one-half inches on the roof, 350 will 
be required for a " square," which will weigh 850 pounds. This 
kind of tile makes a strong roof cover, and can be walked upon with- 
out danger of breaking, and it is especially suitable for workshops 
and factories ; it is sometimes made with lugs to hang on to ribs, the 
use of nails being thereby avoided, which is desirable, as nails are 
liable to rust away where much bituminous coal is used. But the 
tiles are also made with nail holes to secure them to the sheathing- 
boards, as for private dwellings, etc. 

The varieties of tiles which we have just described are made at 
Akron, O., in large quantities, and are shipped to all parts of tho 
United States. In Lrigland and other portions of Europe roofing- 
tiles are mostly made by the hand method; but in our .country they 
are almost entirely produced by machinery. 

The crestings and finials used with tile require artistic treatment, 
and are generally made by manufacturers of terra-cotta. 




TfTlIE trustees of the New Hampshire Asylum, having long felt the 
J I need of a building for a certain class of patients, in which their 
surroundings may be as much as possible like those in a quiet, 
well-ordered home, have been the first within our knowledge to 
carry their ideas into effect, in a building shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration. It is called the " Bancroft Building," in compliment 
to Ur. J. P. Bancroft, superintendent of the asylum for more than 
twenty-five years. In the planning of the building the idea lias been 
to avoid all appearance of restraint, as well as everything to remind 
one of the ordinary hospital ward. There are fireplaces, open stair- 
ways and bay-windows, and a home-like, domestic look in all the 
arrangements. All rooms for patients face to the south, east or west, 
the north side being occupied by the stairways, storage-closets, etc. 
Each patient has a parlor with a bay-window, a bedroom, and a 
water-closet. The general sitting-room runs across the entire width 
of the building. It has a large octagonal end to the souih, and two 
fireplaces. Every room is heated by indirect steam, and has two 
ventilating flues, the flues being built in the partition walls, which 
are all of brick. The outside walls are hollow, so that no wooden 
furrings or lath are required. Connection with the main building of 
the asylum is obtained by a corridor about one hundred and fifty 
feet long, on the east side of which it is planned to build the 
special dining-rooms, serving-rooms, etc., the food-supplies coming 
from the general kitchen. The exterior shows a granite underpin- 
ning and brick walls. Terra-cotta and moulded brick are used to 
some extent, the latter being made at the local yard which furnished 
the other bricks. The roofs are slated, and there are no gutters 
except on the porch roof. The cost of the building was $37,000. It 
las been built by the day, in the most thorough and careful manner ; 
.he sanitary appointments especially have been studied and executed 
with great care. The decorations and furnishings of the rooms have 
>een done so as to enhance still further their home-like effect. The 
walls and ceilings are all harmoniously painted, each suite being dif- 
"erent from the others. 


APROPOS of the drinking fountain which has been accepted by the 
Boston City Government, at the hands of a San Franrisco cold-water 
enthusiast, and set up in a conspicuous position on the Tremont Street 
Hall, the Boston Evening Record offers the following fable: 

A Frog-Pond, rubbing its Eyes with Amazement, one morning saw 
n intrusive Drinking-Fountain near at hand. Accustomed only to the 
Jest Society, the Frog-Pond cried out: " Who are you, and what are 
our intentions ? " A Marble Smile played over the Fountain's Pacific 
features as it replied : " I am engaged by the Year, as a Protest against 

. 471 




U<4 ^"< T^'TT 1C* TT T-H j 

e VajftaJia iio/pital oliip, Ipndon, Cntf. 

MR. ADAM Ml L I. K R, E K G I N K K R. 


10. 471 iMERIGflN 1RGHITEGT flND ftlJlLDING fEWS, JflN. 3 I5b5 




3 1565 

to. 47 1 


* a 

\lo. 47 1 






SRGHITECT flND IUILDING fftws, JaN.. 3 Ioo5 lo. 471 


JANUARY 3, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 

Pure Art." Whereupon the Pond remarked ; " Seeing you are merely 
an Awful Example, perhaps you may Stay." 

Moral: Repulsive-looking strangers should be treated with Courtesy, 
for their Ugliness may be useful in making your Comeliness more Ob- 

This fable and the illustration we publish mutually explain each 
other so effectually, that we trust that other City Governments to 
whom similar gifts are now being offered, will see the wisdom in de- 
clining them " with thanks," 


FOR description, see article elsewhere. 


SEE article on " Old Colonial vs. Old English Houses." 


THE spire of the Votiv Kirche shows dimly in the distance, the 
spires in the middle distance belonging to the new City Hall. The 
rear of the Rathhaus shows in front on the right, and the buildings 
on the left are some of the apartment-houses for which Vienna is 


HE American Electrical Exhibi- 
tion now open in the building of 
the Massachusetts Charitable 
Mechanic Association, though per- 
haps not as complete in all its details 
as one could wish, is well worth a 
short visit by any one who is inter- 
ested to note the progress which elec- 
trical science has made in the last few 
years. The electric -light systems 
shown there are thoroughly represen- 
tative of the advancement which this 
branch of the science has made in the 
last few years. The writer remem- 
bers, at an exhibition of the Massa- 
chusetts Charitable Mechanic Asso- 
ciation, held, unless he mistakes, six 
years ago, the Wallace-Farmer arc 
lamp, which was then held to be one 
of the best arc lamps made, and the contrast between the jumping, 
changing, and altogether erratic light from them and the steady, 
clear, colorless light from the carbon pencils of the improved arc 
lamps in the exhibition to-day, is but a feeble indication of the im- 
provements made in electric lighting in various directions. 

Among the various ingenious pieces of mechanism shown at 
this exhibition, perhaps the one which attracts the most attention is 
the electric railway system which has its track extending around the 
gallery. It embraces more than is apparent at a first glance, for 
the pair of conductors which extends around the gallery, inside the 
rails on which the cars run, carries electricity not merely for turning 
the motor by which the cars are driven, but also to furnish light for 
the cars, heat for them, if it is desired, and light for various points 
along and around the route. The way in which the conductors are 
run separate from the rail and thoroughly insulated on their sup- 
ports allows the use of a current of electricity of rather high pres- 
sure, or tension, as it is usually termed, and by this means the use of 
the current for various forms of work is possible even at a consider- 
able distance from the point at which the dynamo-generators and 
engines are situated : in this particular instance they are about half 
a mile from the exhibition-building, and would undoubtedly work 
equally well were they placed at twice or even four times the dis- 
tance. As the use of electric motors for propelling cars, both on sur- 
face and elevated roads, is attracting much attention, it is interesting 
to observe how easily the current acting on the motor, which is 
capable of drawing forty-five persons round a curve of only twenty- 
five feet radius, is controlled by the attendant in charge, and how 
readily the current can be made to act as a powerful brake on the 
cars, by a movement of a small switch, very different from the mas- 
sive lever and connections used to reverse the direction of a locomo- 
tive steam-engine. The absence of dirt, noise, smoke and escaping 
steam is very attractive when one thinks of the progress of a train 
on the elevated roads in New York, and one rejoices to think that 
there is even a possibility of a change to such a motor as is here 

The electric lights are the most noticeable parts of the exhibits on 
the floor of the building, and the possibilities of ornamental work in 
this direction are well suggested by the combinations of lamps and 
globes of various sizes, shapes and colors, in chandeliers, large and 
small, and single fixtures in all sorts of places and positions. The 
Edison Company has a very complete display of the fittings used by 
them in their work, both in buildings and for carrying their wires 
through the streets, and the ingenuity displayed in overcoming the 
various obstacles which have presented themselves is worthy of great 
commendation. Besides these, they have a large number of incan- 
descent lamps, lighted every evening from the 250-light dynamo sit- 
uated in the basement and driven by one of the small, high-speed 

steam-engines which have been found most satisfactory for this class 
of work. 

The N. E. Weston Electric-Light Company also has a large num- 
ber of lights throughout the building, part of which are supplied by 
dynamos situated in the basement of the building, and part from 
dynamos in the factory on Stanhope Street. From this factory also 
comes the current for the railway around the gallery. This Company 
has three kinds of lamps on exhibition : their arc lamps, which are too 
well known to need description ; their small incandescent lamps, 
giving a light equivalent to sixteen standard candles each; and their 
large incandescent lamps, giving a light equivalent to one hundred 
and twenty-five standard candles each. These last have but recently 
been introduced, and seem likely to be of use in lighting large spaces 
when a steadier light is needed than is given by any of the arc 
lights now in use. The Weston Company has also several motors in 
different parts of the building, varying in capacity from one to five 
horse-power, and used for running a. printing-press and other machin- 
ery of different kinds, some requiring considerable power, and others 
very little, thus showing the applicability of electric motors to almost 
any work not requiring over ten-horse power. There are also in the 
exhibition several smaller motors, of proper size for running a sew- 
ing-machine or jeweller's lathe, for which current is supplied by the 
Weston dynamos, and the application of one of these to runnin a, 
model of a passenger-elevator suggests the possibility of applying The 
larger sizes to running elevators for actual work in buildings near 
the wires conducting the electric-lighting currents in our cities. 

Opposite the exhibit of materials of the Edison Company are some 
of the first fire-alarm instruments used in the city of Boston, there 
being both the boxes for sending the signal to the headquarters of 
the department, from the vicinity of the fire, and the apparatus for 
striking the number of this box on the bells through the city. As we 
compare the magneto generator used for this purpose in those times 
with the perfected apparatus now in use in the tower of City-Hall, 
we wonder that a successful system was ever developed from such 
beginnings, and admire the persistence of Messrs. Channinnr and 
Farmer, who developed the system to something like its present per- 
fection. In the gallery we find two systems of lire-alarm in which 
the heat of the fire itself gives notice of its existence, and, by inge- 
nious devices, gives further notice at any desired point of the loca- 
tion of the flames. These systems are both the result of close study 
of the needs in this direction, and seem likely, if at all generally 
used, to lessen the enormous fire-loss. One of these systems is com- 
bined with a watchman's-elock : the same wires are used for the 
registering apparatus for the watchman and the little "thermostats" 
which close the circuit and give the alarm in case of fire, thus 
making double use of them, and securing nightly testing of the com- 
pleteness of the circuit and battery. There are also two other 
watehmanVclocks exhibited in different parts of the building, 
one of which is so arranged that if the watchman fails to do his 
duty by going to each of the prescribed stations in the building 
within a given time, an alarm is given at any point desired within a 
mile or two of the building, thus giving additional assurance of the 
safety of the premises. 

In another part of the gallery is an ingenious system of railroad 
signals, in which notice of any occurrence likely to cause an accident 
is given not only by colored signals or lights near the track, but also 
by ringing a bell in the cab of the locomotive approaching the place. 
The arrangement of circuits, bells, and batteries in these devices is 
very ingenious, and worth some study on the part of any one inter- 
ested in such matters. 

The display of the Bell Telephone Company is interesting chiefly 
from an historical point as their collection of the different kinds of 
telephone transmitters and receivers, and the different forms of calls 
used up to the present time in their many " central offices," is very 
complete. There is also on exhibition, in working order, one of Mr. 
Edison's chalk-cylinder receivers, commonly known as the " moto- 
phone " or " motograph," an instrument which actually reproduces 
the vibration caused by the voice louder than they were spoken into 
the transmitter at the other end of the line. The difficulty about the 
use of this instrument is the necessity of frequently moistening the 
cylinder with dilute sulphuric acid, and of frequently adjusting 
the point which rests on the cylinder and transmits the vibrations 
to the diaphragm of the instrument. They have also a set of tele- 
phone instruments, which can be attached either to the transmitter, 
which they have placed in the BijDu Theatre, or to the metallic cir- 
cuit line which they have built to New York, and over which conver- 
sation is readily carried on many times a day ; the instruments in 
New York are in Mr. Edison's laboratory on Fifth Avenue, and any 
one who desires may have the opportunity of talking without difficulty 
with a person two hundred and fifty miles away. Mr. Edison has 
on exhibition a large number of his inventions in telegraphic work, 
among which are his last " quadruplex " instruments, which are now 
the standard instruments used by the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, and his instrument for automatically reproducing a draw- 
ing or writing made by a specially-arranged pen, at the other end of 
a telegraph line. This instrument proved too delicate for ordinary 
commercial work, but with careful adjustment can be made to repro- 
duce the movement of the pen with great fidelity. 

Two systems of conduits for electric wires are shown, both of which 
are intended to be placed along the curb of the roadway, and to form 
part of it, and are largely constructed of iron. One of them at least 
seems as if it might prove to be a practical system, and may be of 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 471. 

assistance in ridding our roofs and streets of the poles and wires 
which at present so disfigure them. There are also a large number 
of the various electrical devices used so largely in houses, hotels, and 
other buildings, such as call-bells, with the knobs for ringing them, 
electric gas-lighters, and burglar-alarms. Among these may be men- 
tioned the electric gong and apparatus for striking it, used by several 
of our railroads for giving the signal for starting trains ; this can be 
made to strike the gong automatically at the proper minutes during 
a whole day, being controlled by a drum set with pins, which is 
driven by impulses from the clock at the Observatory in Cambridge. 

There is also a set of telephone instruments to which is attached a 
device for automatically showing whether the line on which the in 
struments are placed, is in use or not. There is also a set of the 
instruments used by the Oram Time-Repeater Company, for indi- 
cating in the telephones of any central office the beginning of each 
minute throughout the day. 

The miniature theatre, lighted by incandescent lights, and around 
which are telephone receivers attached to the transmitter at the 
Bijou Theatre, attracts a great deal of attention during the hours 
when the play is going on at that theatre, and is really a very pretty 
and attractive sight during the evening. 

The exhibition of the working of an ocean cable is shown very 
completely in the little tent arranged by the cable company. They 
use both the flash of light by which all messages were sent until re- 
cently, and Sir William Thomson's " siphon recorder," which is a 
very fine glass tube, drawn to a point and filled with ink. A roll of 
paper is drawn under it, and the right and left movement of the 
point produces a wavy line in which the height of the undulations 
determine the nature of the signal sent. 

There are also on the lower floor, two incubators or hatching ma- 
chines, in which electric devices are used to control the heat supply, 
used to hatch the eggs; and with one of them there is also a similar 
arrangement for opening and closing the dampers of a heating-fur- 
nace, by a combination of clock work and electro-magnets, connected 
with a metallic thermometer, which closes either one of two circuits 
at any desired temperature, thus allowing the clock-work to open and 
close the dampers, and increase or diminish the draught. 

The Consolidated Electric-Light Company of New York, has a 
pretty little cottage, which they intend to light with incandescent 
lamps very soon, and their dynamo-machine is now in position in the 
basement. Indeed, the dynamo-machines of all the lighting com- 
panies at the exhibition may be seen there in full operation at anv 
time after dark. Taken as a whole, the exhibition is a good one, and 
shows forcibly the advance in electrical work during recent years. 



WE had not proceeded far on 
our way when vestiges of the 
former condition of things 
met our eyes. It was at a place 
only one hundred miles from Tehe- 
ran that we first realized the dread- 
ful state of danger in which the 
people had lived. We found a most 
remarkable village at which we en- 
camped. Supposing no information 
could have been procured, and an 
archieologist had come upon it by 
accident, he would have had a pro- 
found puzzle to unravel and explain. 
The name of the village is Lasgird. 
The people ascribe an immense 
antiquity to it, and say that Las, or 
Last, a son of Noah, drew on the 
ground the "gird," or circle, which 

' s tne P' an ^ l ' le structure. The 
hero of this legend is not very 
f am ilj ar to Biblical scholars in the 
west, but he is not unknown in Afghanistan. The Colosseum at 
Rome, although an oval, would convey some idea of the general 
appearance of Lasgird, only it must be conceived as built of mud, 
which is almost the only building material of this country. It should 
also be recollected that the one belongs to a period of good architec- 
ture, of which it is a celebrated monument, while the other may be 
said to be entirely destitute of any pretensions of this kind. 

The rude mud walls are thick and solid all round at the base, and 
rise some thirty or forty feet, where there is a line of doors, with 
here and there a small window between them. By means of project- 
ing beams, or branches of trees, over which smaller branches are 
laid, a kind of gallery is produced, bearing a strong resemblance to 
those simple forms of birds' nests which are formed of sticks placed 
on the upper branches of trees. The wonder is how the eggs do not 
roll over, or that the chicks do not tumble down to destruction. So 
it is with the galleries of Lasgird : there is no protection on the 
edge. Yet we saw women and children, sheep and goats upon them. 
A more frail and dangerous-looking arrangement it would be hard to 
conceive. There are two tiers of houses all round, and in some 
places there appeared to be three. All had these galleries in front, 
either to communicate with the next house, or, as some did not com- 
municate, they were only of use to come out upon to sit or work, or 

for the children to play upon. To us these places seemed the brink 
of destruction, while to the women and children it all appeared as 
safe and comfortable as if they had been monkeys. Of course there 
was no getting up to these galleries from the outside ; that would 
have suited the Turcomans. The means of going up was all on the 
inside. In some cases there are rough steps of mud, and in others 
there are inclined planes, half ladder and half road, made in the 
same way as the galleries. These lead up to galleries communicating 
with the houses, which were an exact repetition of those on the out- 
side, the only difference being that they were not so high up, and 
there were walls at places which did duty as a parapet, hence the 
certainty of falling over did not seem quite so great from the inside 
as on the outside. While looking at this strange structure from one 
of these upper galleries, an old woman of at least seventy years of 
age passed me with a child stuck in some primitive way on her back. 
A few yards from me was one of these means of ascent, formed of 
sticks, with the remains of mud hanging to it; it would have done 
for fowls to go up to their roosts upon. She clambered up on this 
to the gallery above, but that was not her destination ; her house was 
one up still higher in a corner, and to reach it she had to crawl up 
on the edge of a crumbling mud wall not above eighteen inches wide. 
On her left hand was a perpendicular descent, enough to make any 
one dizzy, and death at the bottom of it if a fall should occur ; , 
although on the other side there was only a few feet, if the old creature 
had slipped, the chances are she would have rolled down and fallen 
over the gallery with the baby on her back. The old lady went up 
very steadily, and reached her crow's nest in perfect safety. I could 
not help thinking that a few generations of this kind of thing would 
undo all our development, and that we would go back again to our 
original simian condition. 

The dwellings of the people were all in the upper part of the great 
circle, and the centre was filled up with strange moss structures, 
which are now falling to decay, as there is no longer any danger 
from the Turcomans. These places were for containing the grain of 
the village, and for receiving the live stock of the villagers when a 
raid occurred. One of a number of wells was pointed out to us 
within the circle, and we were told that they had three or four which 
were always kept in good order in the days of danger. There is only 
one entrance,to this circle, and that is by a small entrance scarcely 
four feet in height, to which there is a stone door working with a 
pivot and socket similar to the ancient stone doors found in the Hau- 
ran and other parts east of the Soudan. This stone door of Lasgird 
is a very rude one, being eight inches thick in some parts, and it tells 
its tale of the existence of great danger and the necessity for protec- 
tion. Sir Peter Lumsden had a long conversation with the Khet 
Khodah and some of the principal villagers, and it seemed that they 
not only ascribed the origin of Lasgird to the son of Noah, " Nu," as 
they called him, but they likened their strange dwelling-place to the 
ark". Extreme theologians, who identify the church with the ark, 
say all who were in the ark were saved ; all without were destroyed. 
This was exactly the case with Lasgird. When a chupao took 
place, all who got in were secure; all who were left outside became 
victims. A chronic state of war existed, and this fortified village 
was the result. The Government either could not or would not 
defend the people, and they had to take means for their own safety. 
Letter from Persia to the London Daily News. 


HE United States Census of 1870, gave 
the number of horses owned in the 
United States, as 8,690,219. When the 
Census of 1880 was taken there were 12,- 
1 70,296 horses, mules, and asses on the farms 
alone. Our own State of Illinois leads with 

Anything affecting the monetary value of 
this vast multitude is of importance to the 
individual owner, to the State wherein he 
resides, to the nation of which he is a citizen 1 
We appeal in vain to history to inform us 
when mankind first subjected this, the most 
noble of the brute creation, to his service in 
times of peace, and times of war ! The date 
is lost even to tradition, but that he served 
in the dawn of mankind, the sublime words 
of Job bear witness. 

"Hast thou given the horse strength? 

Hast thou clothed his neck with thunder? Canst thou make him 
afraid as a grasshopper ? The glory of his nostrils is terrible. He 
paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength; he goeth on to 
meet the armed men. He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted ; 
neither turneth he back from the sword." 

Prescott tells us of his service with the Spaniards in their con- 
quest of Mexico. In short, the debt of humanity to this noble ani- 
mal cannot be overestimated, and every language has been used to 
sing his praise ! 

The artificial restraint imposed upon the horse by mankind dur- 
ing so many centuries past has had its effect, and he resembles his 
master in many diseases. 

i A paper read July 15, 1881, by Augustine W. Wright, Member Western s< ci- 
ety of Engineers. 

JANUARY 3, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


From a sanitary point of view late years have witnessed great ad- 
vancement in the construction of buildings for mankind, and the cry 
for better stable accommodations has not been uttered entirely in 

Permit me to quote a few from the many writers upon this import- 
ant subject. 

John Stewart wrote : " Stables have been in use for several hun- 
dred years. It might be expected that the experience of so many 
generations would have rendered them perfect. They are better 
than they were some time ago. ... A damp stable produces more 
evil than a damp house. . . . Since 1788, when James Clarke's 
work was published protesting against close stables, there has been 
a constant outcry against hot, foul stables. Every veterinary writer 
who has had to treat of diseases has blamed the hot stables for pro- 
ducing at least one-half of them." Jennings wrote : " The most de- 
sirable thing in a stable is ventilation. A horse requires air equally 
with his master ; and as the latter requires a chimney to his sleeping 
room, so does the former." Henry W. Herbert, better known as 
Frank Forrester, wrote : " In a climate so uncertain, changeful, and 
in which the extremes of heat and cold lie so far apart, as in this 
country, the question of stabling is one of paramount importance. 
The stable, to be of real utility, must be perfectly cool, airy, and 
pervious to the atmosphere in summer ; perfectly close, warm, and 
free from all drafts of external air, except in so far as shall be needed 
for ventilation, in winter ; perfectly ventilated, so as to be pure and 
free from ill odors, ammoniacal vapors and the like arising from the 
urine and excrement of the animals, at all times perfectly dry under 
foot, and well drained, since nothing is more injurious to the horse 
than to stand up to its heels in wet litter. . . . Lastly, it should be 
perfectly well lighted, as well as thoroughly aired." 

Stonehenge wrote : " The horse, like all the higher animals, re- 
quires a constant supply of pure air to renovate his blood, and yet it 
must not be admitted in a strong draught, blowing directly upon him, 
or it will chill the surface, and give him cold. ... By common con- 
sent it is allowed that no stable divided into stalls should give to each 
horse less than 800 or 1,000 cubic feet." 

Youatt wrote : " It is not generally known, as it should be, that 
the return to a hot stable is quite as dangerous as the change from a 
heated atmosphere to a cold and biting air. ... It is the sudden 
change of temperature, whether from heat to cold or from cold to 
heat, that does the mischief, and yearly destroys a multitude of 

One more quotation from John Osgood, who, in speaking of city 
stables,' said: " Now, in the name of humanity and ordinary commer- 
cial thrift and sagacity) let this be stopped. There is no reason why 
stables should be horse hells ! No reason why they should vie with 
' The Black Hole ' in their inevitable cruelty, and gloom, and des- 
truction. These and city stables generally (with some exceptions) 
are a disgrace and a shame to a civilized community. So long as 
they continue as they now are, horses must die. There are no rem- 
edies for the sudden and violent diseases which will attend such 
poisonous air, and water, and food. The remedy lies in providing 
ample and well-ventilated stables stables well lighted, with stalls 
of ample dimensions, with escape pipes for the ammoniacal effluvia 
which arises from so many animals and their excretions, with more 
room for evaporations ; and then the chances would no longer be 
against every horse who passes through these doors, as they were 
against those ghastly ones who passed through Dante's gate, and as 
they went in, read above their heads : 

' Who passes here goes into everlasting hell.' 

"Improve the stables, then, and prevent disease. ... Do not in- 
sult a respectable animal who has come from the country to do his 
share of the work of the world, and has brought with him the memory 
of the sweet hills and skies, at least, by immuring him in one of those 
cramped, rickety, rotten, stinking, slovenly, damp dungeons, where 
a dumb beast would lose his self-respect and his courage beneath an 
oppressive weight of miasmas, and hideous, gloomy, nasty confusion. 
Stop this, or pray that horses may die ere the evil days come." 

The above, if it have weight, must convince you that badly-con- 
structed stables are responsible for many, very many, of the diseases 
among horses. The paramount importance of abundant sunlight, 
perfect sewerage, and good ventilation is now, fortunately, recog- 
nized almost universally in building human habitations, but how of ten 
ignored in providing quarters for the horse, the number sick and un- 
fit for duty most eloquently testifies. 

I will now describe a stable just finished for the North Chicago 
City Railway. It fronts south 125 feet upon Belden Avenue, ealt 
238 feet upon Jay Street, both of which streets are 66 feet wide. 
Along the west side there is an alley 16 feet wide, and 50 feet left 
vacant, extending to the car-house. On the north our property 
extends 12 feet beyond the stable. We therefore have light and 
ventilation upon four sides. The horses face north and south. In 
the rear of each row of horses there is an alley extending clear across 
the stable, 10 feet wide, with a sash door 7' x 10' at each end. An- 
other alley 9 feet 6 inches wide extends the length of the stable at 
right angles to the former, with sash doors 7' x 10' at each end. The 
stalls are 9 feet deep, and each horse is allowed 56 inches of width. 
Double stalls are, in my opinion, the best, when horses will stand qui- 
etly together. So many of our horses will not do this, that I alter- 
nate two single stalls with one double stall, thus allowing the foreman 
to place the horses who will not stand quietly in single stalls. The 
floor of this stable consists of 4 inches of asphalt with 2" x 4" scant- 

ling bedded therein, 16-inch centres, to which the wearing floor of 
2-inch pine is spiked. The stalls have an inclination of 2 inches, ter- 
minating in a gutter connected with the sewer. These gutters are 
covered with cast-iron plates 56 inches long by 6 inches wide, perfor- 
ated to allow the urine to pass into the gutter. These covers are 
moveable, and at least once a week the foreman of the stable sees 
that they are taken up, and that the gutters are thoroughly cleaned. 
Some disinfectant should be freely used. Between each row of horses 
there is a " feed-alley " 4 feet wide. By this construction the horses 
are not brought head to head to breathe each the other's breath, con- 
taminated, it may be, by disease which is thus spread from one to 
another. No food is wasted in placing it in the manger; and there 
is less danger of an employe 1 being injured, or perchance crippled for 
life by some vicious or frightened horse. At each end of these feed- 
alleys windows are placed containing 32 lights, 9" x 14", a size of 
glass I have adopted as a standard and use whenever possible, to 
avoid carrying a stock of different sizes. In these feed-alleys, beneath 
the floor, there are placed fresh-air ducts, extending from outside to 
outside of the stable, through which air is admitted, passing out into 
the stable through perforations in the cover, thus avoiding injurious 
draughts. Its exterior openings are protected by cast-iron grates 
built in the brickwork, preventing the entrance of all vermin, and 
especially the pestiferous rat ! In this stable there are nine ventila- 
tors, one located at the intersection of all alleys, for the exit of foul 
air. They are 6' x 6' at the lower end, and taper to 4' x 4' at the 
top, extending 8 feet above the roof. The four sides above the roof 
are movable (except the posts), inclining at an angle of 45, thus 
deflecting the air upward and doing away with all downward cur- 
rents, and permitting the opening to be reduced in cold or inclement 
weather, ropes extending to the ground floor for this purpose. We 
are indebted to the veteran in horse-railroad matters, John Stephen- 
son, for this admirable idea. It resulted from many experiments made 
by him upon ventilation while a member of the New York School 
Board. The gas-burners located under these ventilators assist in 
ventilation by heating the air, which ascends and increases the out- 
ward-bound current of impure air. 

The first story of this stable is 1C feet high, second story 7 feet at 
walls, and 9 at centre. Each horse has twelve hundred and sixteen 
cubic feet of space, an amount fully equal to modern theoretical re- 
quire-ments. The hay-loft can contain one year's supply, if needed. 
The feed department, with bins for storage, troughs 1 6 feet long, 4 feet 
high, and 3 to 4 feet wide for mixing feed, cut-hay room and horse- 
power to run the cutter is located upstairs. As we use shavings for 
bedding and can obtain them cheaply and abundantly in summer 
when the mills are busy, whereas they are scarce and high in winter, 
the bedding room is large. On the ground floor it is 16' x 50', ;ml 
extends open to the roof, with an addition, 16' x 70' on the second 
floor. The cost of bedding for the horses purchased in this way is 
one-half cent per diem each. 

The hospital, separated from the balance of the stable, is located 
at the north end, in the most quiet spot. Scales are provided upon 
which all supplies are weighed. An office for the foremen, room for 
grooms, another for conductors, and one for storage, are furnished, 
besides convenient closets, etc. I neglected to state that a number 
of catch-basins are provided to retain all shavings and solid matter 
that might otherwise get into and obstruct the sewer-pipes. These 
basins are 4 feet in diameter, and are cleaned out as often as may be 
necessary. They are trapped to prevent sewer-gas from entering 
the stable ; all the roof water is used to flush these sewers. The 
building will be whitewashed in the fall, for health and comfort. 

The above brief description will serve to give you an idea as to how 
far I have succeeded in putting in practice the requirements of the- 
orv. The stable has abundance of fresh air, contaminated air is 
removed, and there is good sewerage and plenty of light. The small 
percentage of horses in our hospitals most emphatically indorses the 

I think with Youatt that the stable should not be too warm in win- 
ter. Nature is a safe guide, and she provides the horse with a suit- 
able covering. The stable temperature in my opinion should not 
vary more than 10 or 20 degrees from the external air. Keep the 
stable cool, and, if necessary, throw a blanket over a horse while hot, 
just in from work, during severe winter weather. Our car horses 
pass twenty of the twenty-four hours in the stable, and the import- 
ance of thorough sanitary arrangements is, of course, thereby in- 
creased, as the majority of horses used in other lines of business 
spend scarcely more than one-third as much time in the stable. 

" A merciful man is merciful unto his beast," but the most refined 
selfishness, if intelligent, should cause each and every one with cap- 
ital invested in horse-flesh to give it " suitable stable accommoda- 
tions." Were my pen capable of expressing all I feel, most eloquent 
would be my appeal in behalf of the noble brute for whom I have 
ever entertained the deepest affection. 

A UNIVERSAL MONUMENT. A committee has been formed at Lucerne 
with a view to erecting what is called a " universal column." It is to 
measure 300 feet in height, and is to contain in its interior bronze bas- 
relief portraits of all the celebrated men and women of the present 
era. Another project of the committee is the building of a " mu- 
seum of the nineteenth century," to be dedicated to art, science, inven- 
tions, commerce, industry, and to contain the busts and statues of all 
distinguished persons of these domains. The cost is estimated at 7,000, 
000 to 8,000,000 francs, and is to be met by subscription, lotteries, etc. 
Chicago Evening Journal. 


The American Architect and Building News. [ VOL. XVII. No. 471. 


pneumatic postal-service throughout Paris, which has lately been com- 
pleted, has cost more than a million francs, and the length of the pipes 
is over thirty-four miles. This elaborate work was begun by M. de 
Couchy, who was director of French telegraphs under the empire 
seventeen years ago. The charge for transmitting a letter to any place 
within the fortification has been fixed at six sous. The service covers 
extreme points about seven miles apart. Under the most unfavorable 
circumstances a letter will be delivered to the remotest place, including 
its conveyance from the nearest station, within one hour. The saving 
of time and labor by the pneumatic postal service is expected to result 
in its adoption in other European capitals. Exchange. 

THE NOUVEL OPERA, PARIS. Parisians being proverbially fickle, it is 
not surprising that they have grown tired of the Opera House, which is 
so important a landmark in the city, and are wishful that they could 
recover the old house in the Rue le Peletier. M. Garnier's grandiose 
building does not pay, and there has been difficulty in finding a man- 
ager to succeed the unhappy M. Vaucorbeil. Two gentlemen have now 
undertaken the office. It has been suggested that the building should 
be demolished, and the site appropriated to some other purpose. The 
area is 11,237 square metres, and at 11,000 francs per metre the ground 
would be worth 33,711,000 francs. To this should be added the value 
of the materials, the sculpture and mosaics. The group of dancers would 
probably secure a high price from its notoriety. A new opera-house 
could then be constructed by the State. It may be noted, however, as 
an indication of the modern spirit, that it is gravely recommended to 
erect the building without calling in the aid of an architect. One of 
the causes of the change in feeling towards the Opera House may be 
the fear of the consequences of having a large number of unemployed 
men. There is a pressing need of work in the building trades in Paris. 
It was lately said in the chamber that two years ago there were 100,000 
masons in Paris, while at present there are only 70,000, of whom one- 
half are without employment. The Architect. 

AN EXPERIMENT IN LUMBER-DRYING. An interesting experiment in 
drying timber, made by the Stephenson Car Company of New York, 
some years ago, is detailed in the National Car Builder. It became nec- 
essary to devise some method of seasoning that should be quick, and an 
apparatus which should be able to handle a considerable quantity of it 
in a short time. The plan which was suggested was the application of 
dry steam in direct contact with the wood. Furnaces were at once 
erected, and preparations made for the work. When the lumber first 
came from the furnace, it was as bright and handsome as could be de- 
sired. The steam was used at a pressure of 250 pounds per square inch. 
On opening the sticks, the timber was found to have been completely 
ruined. The whole interior had practically been converted into char- 
coal, so that it could be crumbled in the fingers, and was of brownish 
black color. Even so small a stick as an army wagon spoke would have 
its centre portion so destroyed as to leave cracks of one-third of an inch 
running through it, while the surface exposed to the direct contact of 
the steam was apparently bright and sound. This, of course, put an 
end to all attempts to dry the oak by the use of high-pressure steam, 
and they finally adopted a heat of about 150 Fahrenheit as a maximum. 
With this they were enabled in three or four days to remove 400 pounds 
of water from a ton of green oak. An idea has been generally preva- 
lent that lumber dried by artificial heat loses something of its strength 
by the process. Just what this loss is, or how it affected the lumber, is 
not so generally known. The experiment detailed, however, shows 
that it is a carbonizing process, which can go on at low temperature, 
and this harmonizes completely with Count Rumford's experiments. 
He succeeded in completely charring thin shavings of beechwood, with 
a temperature, we believe, below 212. Springfield Republican. 

NANKIN'S PORCELAIN TOWER. The city of Nankin, once the capital 
of China, has for centuries been famous to the "barbarians" of the 
outer world for its Porcelain Tower, a relic of the splendor of its 
ancient days, before Pekin usurped its dignity as the seat of the 
empire. The place is now to a great extent a city of ruins, and the city 
proper has shrunk to one-fourth of its former dimensions. The Porce- 
lain Tower was built early in the fifteenth century, by the order of the 
Emperor Yung Loll, and as a work of filial piety. It was a monument 
to the memory of his mother, and he determined that its beauty should 
as far outshine that of any similar memorial as the transcendent virtues 
of the parent, in her son's eyes, surpassed those of the rest of her sex. 
No expense was spared in its erection, and its total cost is estimated at 
more than three-quarters of a million of our own money. The work 
was commenced at noon on a certain day in 1413, and occupied nearly 
twenty years in its completion. The total height of the Porcelain 
Tower was more than two hundred feet, or about equal to that of the 
monument of London, and it was faced from top to bottom with the 
finest porcelain, glazed and colored. It consisted of nine stories, sur- 
mounted by a spire, on the summit of which was a ball of brass, richly 
gilt. From this ball eight iron chains extended to as many projecting 
points of the roof, and from each chain was suspended a bell, which 
hung over the face of the tower The same arrangement was carried 
out in every story. These bells added much to the graceful appearance 
of the tower, breaking its otherwise formal and monotonous outline. 
Round the outer face of each story were several apertures for lanterns, 
and when these were all illuminated, we are told, in the magnificent 
language of the Chinese historian, that " their light illuminated the 
entire heavens, shining into the hearts of men, and eternally removing 
human misery ! " It is not difficult to imagine, however, that the 
appearance of the tower on such an occasion must have been beautiful 
in the extreme. On the top of the tower were placed two large brazen 
vessels and a bowl, which together contained various costly articles, in 
the nature of an offering and a charm to avert evil influences. Among 
these were several pearls of various colors, each supposed to possess 
miraculous properties, together with other precious stones and a quan- 

tity of gold and silver. In this collection, designed to represent the 
best treasures of the State, were also placed a box of tea, some pieces 
of silk, and copies of some ancient Chinese writings. The tower was 
demolished by the Taiping rebels in 1853. The World of Wonders. 

A PAINTER'S STORT. The Figaro tells an amusing story of the tricks 

of the trade in pictures. A broker named D had signed a contract 

with a poor member of the brush, to take all the latter could produce ; 
the consideration being two francs an hour ! The line of the painter 
was military subjects. As soon as he had finished a painting, the 
broker took it away, changed the signature to that of "A. E. Gau- 
bault," and sold it at a handsome profit. The consequence was that 
while the poor artist slaved during ten hours of the day at the rate of 
two francs an hour, and remained unknown to any but the rascally 
broker, the fame of "Gaubault" kept rising apace, and his pictures 
fetched higher prices every year. Tne painter happening to stroll into 
the Salon one day, recognized his handiwork, but not the signatures ap- 
pended. Consulting his catalogue, he discovered " Gaubault's" address 
at the rooms of M. Bernheim, the well-known dealer in the Rue Maffite. 
Hastening there he introduced himself to the dealer as "Gaubault." 
" All," exclaimed M. Bernheim, "I congratulate you; you have achieved 
wonderful success. I have been wishing to make your acquaintance 
for the past six years." "Oh," replied the artist, "but my name is not 
'Gaubault,' but Beauquesne," and he forthwith acquainted the dealer 

with his little contract with D . Since then the latter has vanished, 

and Beauquesne signs the canvases which made his pseudonym famous, 
and which in turn brought him to the notice of those who had been 
admiring them at the Salon for the past three years. Galignani. 

twenty-one Bessemer steel works in the United States, and one in pro- 
cess of building. These twenty-one works contain forty-six converters, 
and three converters are building. The total annual capacity of the 
works completed is 2,490,000 net tons of ingots. The plant building is 
that of the Benwood Iron Works, at Benwood, W. Va. The States 
that have Bessemer works are : Massachusetts, one, with two four-ton 
converters; New York, one, with two seven-ton converters: Pennsylva- 
nia, nine, with twenty-two converters, and one building, ranging in size 
from two-ton to ten-ton ; West Virginia, one, with two five-ton convert- 
ers, and one building, which will have two four-ton converters; Ohio, 
three, withfive converters, ranging in size from four-ton to ten-ton ; Illi- 
nois, four, with nine converters, ranging from six-ton to ten-ton ; Mis- 
souri, one, with twj seven-ton converters; Colorado one, with two five- 
ton converters. The first Bessemer plant in the United States was 
erected in Troy, N. Y., and made its first blow February 15, 1865; the 
second was erected at Steelton, Pa , and made its first blow June, 1867 ; 
the third was erected in Cleveland, O , which made its first blow Octo- 
ber 15, 1868. The largest Bessemer plant in the United States is that 
at Steelton, Pa., which contains two seven ton and three eight-ton con- 
verters. The next largest are the Edgar Thompson, at Pittsburgh, and 
the North Chicago, at Chicago, which have three ten-ton converters. 
The domestic works are now more than able to supply all domestic 
demands for Bessemer steel, and one of them recently received a 10,000- 
ton order from Canada for rails. Scientific American. 

THE MEZZOTINT PROCESS. The principle on which the process of mez- 
zotint is founded, and the process itself, may be thus described: A plate 
of bright copper or steel is " rocked" backward and forward, and in all 
directions by a tool having a sharp serrated edge till its whole surface 
is indented and torn up. A sort of warp-and-woof pattern is thus pro- 
duced upon it, while a pile like that of velvet is thrown up and evenly 
distributed over its whole surface. This pile, if charged with printers' 
ink, would print black; the pile removed by a " scraper," and the warp- 
and-woof pattern laid bare, the plate would print gray ; the warp-and- 
woof pattern itself removed, white because the plain surface of the 
plate would again be reached. If, however, instead of removing the 
whole of the pile only half of it be removed, a tint is obtained half-way 
between black and gray a mezzotint. The art, therefore, of the mez- 
zotint engraver consists in scraping away the metallic pile and in re- 
moving so much of the warp-and-woof pattern beneath it as he may find 
necessary to obtain the exact tints or tones he requires, and his skill lies 
in the precise value which he is able to give to each of these tones and 
tints. The instruments necessary to the purpose are three a " rocker," 
or " cradle," with which to lay the ground ; a sharp knife, or " scraper," 
with which to cut away the pile, and a burnisher with which to remove 
partially or entirely the warp-and-woof pattern below it. There is, how- 
ever, no hard-and-fast rule as to the exact fashion of these instruments, 
or even as to the method of using them, the earliest mezzotinters having 
had recourse to a variety of methods for "laying their grounds." Thus 
Claude, who, like Rembrandt, seems to have heard of the process and 
tried it on one of his etched plates, rubbed its surface with pumice-stone, 
and then burnished away the tint produced by it ; Evendingen used a 
process which the nature of his work does not render very obvious : 
Rembrandt employed the etching needle itself in such a way as to throw 
up with its point as much of the pile, or " burr," as he required ; Siegen 
had a method of his own, which produced an effect not unlike " stip- 
ple" (a mode of engraving previously in use); Rupert, whose work is 
singularly fine and painter-like, was contented to ground his plate as he 
went on, and in the degree necessary to each part of it, by the action 
of the burin or dry point with which he was actually working, his prin- 
ciple being not unlike that of Rembrandt. Turner obtained his color 
sometimes by the roulette, as in the etching of " Kirtstall Abbey," and 
sometimes, as in "The Calm," by a granulated substratum analogous to 
the warp-and woof pattern, produced by what is called " soft ground 
etching." Others again used special tools to obtain the effect of differ- 
ent tissues a rocker with a plain chisel-like edge, for instance, for 
silken materials, a tool with a serrated edge for grosser texture, and so 
on. Altogether, therefore, it will be scon that in the hands of a man of 
genius the modus operand! of mezzotint admits of considerable variety, 
while this very latitude of procedure renders it again peculiarly a 
painter's art. Seymour Haden in Harper's Magazine. 

JANUARY 3, 1885.J The, American Architect and Building News. 11 


During the year 1885 a series of Gelatine Pt ints, (Heliotypes) photographed from the natural object, will be 

These gelatine prints will be issued once a month to those subscribers only who will pay a dollar extra 
for the twelve prints. 



REGULAR EDITION: $6.0O per year ; $3.50 per half year. 

GEL A TINE EDITION (the same as the regular edition, but includes 12 Gelatine Prints) : $7.00 per 
year; $4.00 per half year. 

MONTHL Y EDITION (identical with the first weekly issue for each month, but contains no Gelatine 
Prints?) ' $>I-75 pet year ; $1.00 per half year. 


IT will greatly simplify our book-keeping and prevent future complaint, if those of our 
present subscribers who (having already paid to various dates of 1885) wish to receive the 
gelatine plates will make their remittances cover the entire year to January 1, 1886, by re- 
mitting at the rate of fifty cents for each remaining month, in addition to the dollar for the 
gelatine prints. 

Example : X. whose subscription naturally would end October 1, 1885. should, if he desires 
the gelatine edition, remit .$2.50 additional tliat is, $1.00 for the gelatine prints and fifty cents 
for each of the remaining months of the year. 

ADVERTISERS, whose contracts run through the entire year, receiving the American 
Architect free can secure the gelatine plates by remitting $1.00 for the entire year. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 471. 


(Reported for The American Architect and Building New>.) 

[Althnujjh to large portion of the building intelligence 
is iiroriilfrl bi/ their regular correspondents, the edito 
greatly ifesire to receive voluntary Information, espe- 
cially from the smaller and outlying tovxu.] 


'mi* of any patents here mentioned, 
ll detail illustrations, may be obtained 
iier of Patents, at Washington, for 

309 300. SASH-HOLDER. James F. Hamilton, Con- 
309,313.' - \ > ' '''' !: -" VXDLB. William \, Peck, Roe, 

!W9,32*. PKIMJKSS "oc sfcAKise LipiE. William I. 
Adams, Baltimore, Md. 

309,330. SKI-P - CLOSING HAyoa.wA,*. Philip V. 
Bail, Cowden, 111. 

M. Dwight, Detroit, Mich. 

309 351. Wict-i. eon SLOP-BUCKBTS. Frank Menke 
and Joseph Kroll, St. Louis, Mo. 


Chas! J. Shipley, Detroit, Mich. 
309,367. BBICK-MA.C in NK. Joel Tiffany, Hinsdale, 

309,338. SAW-H-AKDLE. William H. Hankin, Jr., 
B S09,3>( : 9?' WBBNCH. William P.. Heffron, Chicago, 

3 - 09 393 HJNOE. John H. Lawrence, Sterling, 111. 

309'395. TRAP. Fara S. McClellan, Paterson, N. J. 

309,400. JOINER'S PLANE. George D. Mosher, Bir- 
mingham, Conn. 

309,413. WEATHER-STRIP. Jacob J. Smith and 
Frank H. Schwartz, Lima, O. 

309.435. LADUKR-BHACKKT. John R. Bodell, New 
Salem, O. 

Burt, Diuiforlh, N. Y. 

309,438. TOOL-HANDLK. Cxrus Carleton, Provl- 

309,4'w.' ELEVATOR. Walter L. Folstead, Hich- 

309,459. ' MET u.i.ic HOOFING. Mlllard F. Hams- 
ley, Nashville, Tenu. 

309,472. KOivFiN'G- MACHINE. Henry A. Iieher, 
Cape Uirardeau, Mo. 


Charles H. Phillips and Wallace M. Taylor, Alpena, 

309,495. Hor-Am FURNACE. David McCreary Rus- 
sell, Washington, U. C. 

309 527. FiitK-Kst'Ai'E. G. Van Ness Covert, Far- 
mer Villagj, N. y. 

309,538. SC'KF.W-KLEVATOB. Lorenzo S. Graves, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

309,545. FIRE-ESCAPE. Otto Hirt, Carlsbad, Aus- 

309,549. BRICK-MACHINE. Joseph J. Kulage, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

309 560. SAW. Joseph Ledward, Westerly, R. I. 

309,551. ' TIN - SEAMING MAOBISK. William A. 
List, Wheeling W. Va. 

MANUFACTURE THKBKOF. Carl Schlickeyseu, Ber- 
lin, Germany. 

309, 080. WRATimB-SrKiP. George W. Snyder, 
Western College, lo. 


gelbach and John Christian Wieland, Philadelphia, 

309,589. BR4c'E.-MACHiNE. Gee,.T. Weber, Boon- 
ville, Mo..'.' 

309,599. TdANS >si- LIFTER Augustus R. Brand, 
Philadelphia) Pa. 

309,601. COMBINED J>oon-Kxrm AND BOTTON. 
Mary liroughton, Brooklyn, N. Y. 




BUILDINI! pKiotrrs. since our l:it report but one 
permit lifts beon granted, which is not of suineieut 
importance to iiote* 

BuiLDiNt; PI-:KM ITS. Hall St., us, !50' w Hopkinson 


Macnr. St., * 8, Cfi' w Hopkinson Ave., 3 two-st'y 
brick dwell., gravel null's; coat, each. 33, mil); ownei 
and builder, Jame* G. Porter, 403 Pearl St., New 
York; architect, Thomas 9-. Godwin. 

Meift-ale Aee., UB.15'eLorimer St., one-st'y frame 
skating-rink, gravel roof; cost, $3,000; owner, Elliot 
& Co., Flathush, L. I.; architect and builder, Ste 
phen M.-Uaii' 

Eaenjr' a ' n Hloeoker St., two-st'j 

irame (brick-tilled) dwell., tin roof; cost, $3,000 
owner and builder, Ernst Lourch, 61 Himrod St.; ar 
chitect, Th. Kngelhardb 

Ureetm Ape., u , 4iiO' e Nostrand Ave., 3 threo-Kl' 
lir.iwn .. tin roofs; cost, each, abt. .#, 

000; owner, Lewis B. Heed, Mansion House, lirook 
lyn; architect and builder, Geo. H. Stone. 

Lexington Ave., n s, 100' e Bedford Ave., IB two 
st'y brick dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, $4,000; own 
er, T. H. Hobblns, Keyport, N. J.; architect, Amz 
Hill; builder, E. K. Kobbins. 

Lee Ave., n w cor. Middletou St., one-st'y fram 
skating-rink, cement roof; cost, $3,000; owners, Heg 

nell & Wood, 57 Lynch St.; architect, E. F. Gay lor; 
builder, not selected. 

St. Mark's PI., late Wyckoff St., n s, 69' e Fourth 
Ave., three-st'y brick dwell., tin roof, wooden cor- 
nice; cost. $5,000: owner, H. S. Stewart, on prem- 
ises; architect, R. Pixou; builder, J, H. Woolley. 

Locust St., n 8, 125' e Broadway, tbree-st'y frame 
tenement till roof; cost, S4.500; owner, Henry 
Hoffman, 135 Leonard St.; architect, F. Holmberg. 

De JCalo Ai>e., A'o. 1336, a s, 250' w Hamburg Ave., 
flve-st'y frame tenement tin root'; cost, $i,BOO; own- 
er and buildor, Fred. Stemler, Wuydara St., near 
Myrtle Ave.; architect, F. Holmberg. 

Korth Fourth. St., No. 81, n s, 175' w Third St.. 
three-st'y brick tenement, tin roof, iron cornice; 
cost, $5,500; owner and builder, Wm. S. Collins, 81 
North Fourth St.; architect, A. Herbert. 

Bremen HI., A'os. 29 and 31, w s, 150' ji Adams St., 
two-st'y briek ice-house, tin root'; cbst, J7.000; own- 
ers. Daiienberger & Co.; architect, Chs-la* Stoll. 

Siui<Iam St., s s, 3sO' o Eft'oadway, two-st'y (brick-, 
filled) dwell., tin roof; cost, $!, 000; owner and build- 
er, Tereesa Lauzer, 11 Suydam St.; architect, John 
Herr. , 

Cedar'St. t s s, 88* 4f u Myrtle Ave., 2 threc-sfy 
frame (brick-fllled) tenements, tin roofs, eost, each. 
$3,500; owner and builder, Fr. Herr, T78 Broadwiy; 
architect, John H*rr. 

\assau Aue. a s, 30' e Lorimer St^, A three-st'y'. 
frame (brfck-fllled) tenements, gravel roofs; cost, 
each. $2,500; owners, architects and <^rpenters, 

Randall & Miller, 68 Nassau Ave.; mason, Van 


Van Cott Ane., li w oor, Oakland St., three-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) store and tenement; tin roof; 
cost, $5,609; owners, Hoeden & Kollmann, n e cor. 
Van Cott Ave. and Oakland St.; architect,' Fred. 
Weber; builders, Martin Vogel and Thos. Kepple. 

Vernon Aue., -A'os. 286-291, n s, 125' e Simmer 
Ave., 2 five and four yt'y brick and stone brewery 
and ice-house, tin roof, brick cornice; cost. ?60,0<)0j 
owner, Ferdinand Munch, 283 Vernou Ave.; archi- 
tect, Charles Stoll; builders, John Au'er and John 

Harmcm St., u s, 80' xv Central Ave., 10 two-st'y 
frame (brick-fllled) dwells., tin roofb; costj each, 
$2,700; owners, etc., Cozine & Gascoine, 307 Ever- 
green Ave. ,^ 

ALTEftATiONfl. WtltougAby St., n w cor. Briuge St., 
one-st'y brick extension, gravel mot; cost,, $3,080; 
owner, P. A. Pauieri on premises; architect, C.F. 
Eisenach; builder, W. Zang. 

Pacific St., a w cor. Henry St., add two^t'y, also 
three-st'y brick extension, tin roof; iron cornice; 
cost, $13,000; owner, Long island College Hospital; 
architect, W. B. Tubby; builders, James Ashfleld & 
Son and Martin & Lee. 


BUILDING PBBKITS: ^-Indiana Club, additional stofy, 
8349 Indiana Ave.; cost, $3,800. 

Allen Pinkerton ISstate, 3 two-st'y dwells., 533 to 
637 West Monroe St.; cost, $15,000; architects., Treat 
& Foltz; builder, E. Sturtevant. 

F. Bigdon. two-st'y flats, 97 Laflin St.; cot, f4,0do. 

Mrs. M. Willeys, to-st'y dwell., 2313 Washington 
St.; cost, $4,000. 

M. Flemmiug, three-st'y store and flats, SOS Blue 
Island Ave.; cost} $7,000; architect, F. Keltinech, 
builder, N.Provoat. 

C. Watrons, four-st'y flats, ''312 and 3J4 North 
State St.; cost, $15,Wio; archiltcts, Fro:nmnu;& 
Jebson; builder, A- Oarlspn. 

F. W. Campbell,', 3 three-st'y dwells., 4ST aid 4*9 
Jackson St.; cost, 515,001); architects, Edbrouke & 
Burnh;im; builders, 'Qampbell BroK-& Co. 

J. W. Brooks, two-st'y dwell., OS'S Jackson St.; 
cost, $5,000; architects, Kabrooke& Burn hum: build- 
ers. Campbell Bro*. it Co. 

J. W. lirooks, 2 threi>>t'y stores and flats, S79 and 
881 Polk St.; cost, Slii.OOO; architects, Kdbrooke & 

II. Copeland, 7 two-st'y dwells., Flouroey St., cor. 
lloync Ave.; cost. $16,000; architect, II. i>peland; 
(Milder, Wilkl*. ; 

New York. 

HOUSES. Mr. IvlivMnl Kilpitrick proiTOSos to build 
4 four-st'y brown-stone houses, on the n w corner of 
Mailison Ave. and Eightieth St. 

Mr. Wm. H. Hay's will. build a number of bouses 
on Xinety-second and Nineiy-third stj., b.,t. 
and Tenth Aves., all from designs of Messrs. 1>. & J. 

FLATS. For Messrs. Wm. and Philip Ebling, 6 five- 
st'y brown-stone flats and stores, a,r>3 to be built on 
the B e c'ir. of First Ave. and Seventy-second St., a^ 
a cost of $70-OM: from designs of Mr. 

For Mr. Peter ITbloin, 2 ttve-st'y. brick and brown- 
atone tenements and ^tores are to be built on tile 
e s of Fir Ave., b.'t. i'i^hl v-eighth and Eighty- 
ninth SW., at a oust of S2,\000; from plans of Mr. 
John Hrandt. 

:.. On the e of Thirty-tirst St., ITS' w </ 
First Ave., a 50' front piano factory is to be built by 
Messrs. Sl.ultz & Bauer. 

BUILDI.MI PisiiiiiTa. I'M St., -.Vo. 12, (ive-st'y brown- 
stone tenement, tin roof: cost. $is,ooo; owner, Chas. 
Boswald, 73 Ludlow St.; architect, W. Graul. 

Seventy-fifth St., s s, 100' w Boulevard, 5 three-st'y 
brick and stone dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, $16,- 
000; owner, Daniel D. liraudt, 38 liauk St.; archi- 
tect and builder, Win. J. .Merrill, 

Tliinl An-., \i,. 2DH), three-st'y brown-stone front 
store and club-room, tin or gravel roof; cost, 7.000; 
owner, Henry Budelinan, Jr., 117 East One Hundred 
and Eleventh st ; architect, A. E. Fountain. 

/'.'./ TH; ni ;/-/'.. urth ,S7., Xns. 337 anil 339 2 flve- 
st'y brick tenements, tin roofs; cost, each, $18,000; 
owner and builder, John Fish, 97 Ninth St.; archi- 
tect, Richard Berger. 

East Eighty-second St., No. 310, s s, 150' e Second 
Ave., one-st'y brick factory and stable, tin roof; 
eost, 82,500; owner, Wm. E. Seitz, 431 West Twenty- 
eighth St,; architect, A. E.Hudson; builder, John 
J. Kierst. 

Willis Ave., n e cor. One Hundred and Forty- 

B. F. Balle 
Second Art., s w cor. One Hundred and Fifteenth 

M uv-'->t'y li.-irk - to] *. . ' U'-ip-nei't, tin root'; cost, 
JU'ii. >>, '>wi '>' -1'J'i !>uil-:l, -I'.'hn Walker, 233 East 

One Hundred and Xhvrtjenth St.; Architect, J. H. 

,s'e~irf Ave-., w s, 22' s One Hundred and Fifteenth 
St., I Hve-st y brick ejorosaad ; -i^uents, tin roofs; 
cost, "iiOh, sin.000; owner, architect and builder, 
same as last. 

Pitt St., No. 14, five-st'y browh-ptone tenement, 
Unroot; cost, ?1,000; ow. nn \'.m Xatz- 

mer, 57 East Seventl ; it. * T m. Graul. 

Houtli"nt l)uleear<l, n e oor, Hull Ave., two-st'y 
frame, dwell., sliinnle roof; oo(rt,i,OOJ; owner, D. R. 
' "' 

Ken iuli, v esidnnt and "'reasurer, 111 Broadway; 
architect, . .Vlarsh; biiiklors, ,1. V. Heddeu & Son. 
One //. ln:il and Furl'i-third St.* A'oa. 691-697, 
u s, 300' e ' 'i'Ms Ave., 4 twVst'y av '. basement brick 
tin rouN; cost, eai'ij, S4,HO'i; owner, Charles 
Vnu Riper, 6f 3 biaat One Uiinijred ai|d Forty-third 
St.; achi!oct, Jl. S.'Bai. 

si.iVy , ' ' Av.. \, . tive-st'y brick 

tenement', t' . each, Sl.5,000; owner, 

Frank K.'i .., Nyic:;, N. Y,: architect, J. H. 

One Hundred, and Keaetilij-jiftk St., 's s, lOOf e 
Washingtna Ave,, 3two-st'y frame-'dirells., tin roofs; 
cost, each, S2,5IK>; "owner, Angus Macintosh, High 
Bridge; architect, Joseph Kirby; 

South St., part of piers 82 and 33, ^st River, and 
the bulkhead bet. said piers, one st'y and part two- 
st'y frame \covered with iron) freight-shed, gravel 
.st, SU2,000; lessee, The Loiif Island R. R. 
Co., J. K. Maxwell, vice president, Tlo Broadway, 
architect, Anthony Jones. . 

. One HuiiJretl and Twenty-second St., n a, 250' w 
Seventh Ave., 2 three -st'j brick and etoue dwells., 
tin ronfsr cost, 9acb, Ss,oo<i; owner, phebe Smith, 
1475 Broadway; architect, Geo. B. Pajham. 

Flip *t., -N'o. 55, live st'y brick faatory, tin roof; 
cost, S14,Oi"U owueia, Had way & Co.,.j2 Warren St.; 
architect, \Yu* Pistor. 

; Philadelphia. 

BUILDIWG PERMITS. Columbui Ape., B s, bet. Fifth 
and Sixth Sts., one-st'y store, 12' x 44'; H. M. Mar- 
tin, owner. 

Wallace St.; -Vo. 1811, flve-st'y building, 17' x 78'; 
Jas, P. Doyle, contractor. 

Pechtn St., above Shurs Lane, 2 twp-st'y dwells., 
1& x 42'; Wm. Kaynor, owner. 

I'rniikford Aim., A'. 2921, two-st'y store, 18' x 30'; 
George Kessler, contractor. ' 

QiKen'Slti \.< of Laurence St., threenst'y dwell., 20' 
45'; Joo. !)tfkln, owner. 

1 JSrnwtl St., bet. Delaware Ave. and front St., two- 
. st'y stable, 27' x 8)-'-, H. u. :allinger, oAvner. 

Xi-ltnol St., ef Ridge Aye., 2 staples, 32' x 58'; 
( ;,-n. V\"..o.l, c'nurji.-'tor. 

f.iiilieig A'*.,, bet. Haverford and IjaiKaster Aves., 
; two-st'y dwnll.jli' x 28'; J, Hayea, owin-r. 

Hiiltjf Ave., iiet. Twenty-seventh t. and Berks 
Hal), triangular shape, 4o' x 67' K 64/; Jiio. F. Betz, 
owner; Win. (ielte, architect. 

li'nurth St., between Browo and I'oSlar Sts., ice- 
house, 20 7 x Ji-'; Jas, P. Doyle, contraclor. 

"Columbia Are., between Carlisle and Fifteenth 
Sts., one-t'y inarble-shop, 24' x S5'; Chas. Uading, 
owner. ; 

Nice St., '.-.low Baker St., two^fy dwell., 16' x 30'; 
MoLanghlin &McNamara, contractors. 
Nojihange iu the o.uotati.)ii this week. 

St. Louis. 

Btni.niXG PF.K.MITS. Fifty-two permits have been 

i.^sii.'d s:,f.- <,,tr last rupoi t, uiueteen of which are 

.for uuimp.or'.:tnt frame houses. Of the rest, those 

wurtii '. or are as follows: 

John .suhuinac.her, two-st'y brick dvfell.; cost, $3,- 

lier, contra a-ir. 
C. B. - ;-st'y warehouse; cost, $9,000; 

C. G. Stil'Vl! ,-wingCo., thrce-f t'y machine-house; 
cost. $20,00 >: I,. Juugeiifeld '.dead), architect; sub- 
let. .; 

Frank Raffle t\vo-st'y brick store ad tenement; 

<-,.-t, .j5,nno: a u . let. 
1). M. Co., four-st'y brick, warehouse; 

t, two-st'y dwell.; co*t, $5,000; A. 
Henry Wan.-chaB'e, two-st'y dwell.; ost, $3,300; 

j. Bill .'-st'y stows and wells.; cost, 

.^ :,!i..'U; Ifenry I!.igen, contractor. 

Hugh L!rMiir.r & S m. two st'y dvreJJ.; cost, $4,- 
Olid: i). J. I leniy t?y, contractor. 


[At i'iinnati, O.] 

lati CUoiuber of Commerce eoiiLemplates 
.a n. -u building, and Invites designs 

Circulars can be obtained on application to the 
Clerk of the Board. 
471 GEORGE S. BUAUKJ&Y, Clerk. 

[At Toronto, Can.l 
TORONTO, Decenwir ^3, i84. 

licsigns, in competiticn fr u court-house, to be 
erected on Queen St., at tlie bend of fly St., in the 
City of Toronto, will be received by the 'Court-House 
Committee of the City Council up to noon of Wed- 
nesday, the 33d day of March, 1885. 

Premiums will be awarded as follows: "First prize 
the carrying out of the works as set forth in the in- 
structions; second, $500; third, $400; fourth, S200." 

All further information can be had on application 
at the City Clerk's Office, City-Hall Buildings, Toronto. 

Chairman Court-House Committee. 

>0. 47 I 

N 1RGHITEGT flND guiLDlNG fEWS, JflN.3 1555 

DESIGN No. 213. 






Copyright, 1865, JAMKS R. OSOOOD & Co., Boston, Mass. 

No. 472. 

JANUARY 10, 1885. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston aa second-class matter. 



The Routine of the Business Management of the American 
Architect. Rubber Joints for Hot- Water Pipes. Discov- 
ery of a beneficent Microbe. Asphalt Paving. Emigrant 
Transportation. Legal Rulings on Architectural Cases. . 13 




A Store, Philadelphia. Proposed Church, Paterson, N. J. 
House, Birmingham, Conn. Sketches at Mauchester-by-the- 
Sea, Mass 18 





Computing an Architect's Fee. Proposed Bill Defining the 
Duties of the Supervising Architect. Splines. Miscella- 
neous Questions 21 


TTFHERE are a few things which may be spoken of to advan- 
i tage at this time, in explanation of the routine of the 
business management of this journal. First, as to the 
delivery : every copy, except those for Boston and New York, 
goes through the mail, and, except in the case of large cities 
where there are many subscribers, each subscriber's copy is 
rolled. All copies intended for subscribers in large towns are 
made up in one or more large packages, and reach the office of 
delivery perfectly flat and uninjured; whatever treatment they 
receive alter this depends on the humor of postal-clerks and let- 
ter-carriers. We are in no way responsible for my folding or 
creasing of a copy, and yet we receive constant complaints. 
As cures for this evil we suggest a modest douceur for the let- 
ter-carrier, whose pouch is large enough to receive the journal 
unfolded, if it is made worth his while to think so, an enlarge- 
ment of the letter-slit in the office-door, or the establishment of 
a suitable letter-box at the lower entrance. As to delivery by 
hand, it is to be borne in mind that carriers are human and 
architects' offices are far above ground, so that a certain 
amount of shirking by a weary boy or man is inevitable. 
Next, as to remittances : A certain number of subscribers pay 
their subscriptions promptly at the end of the year, before they 
receive their annual bills, and yet complain that they imme- 
diately thereafter receive a bill, not stopping to reason out that 
the remittance and the bill crossed each other iii the mails. 
Changes in the dates upon the address labels are made once a 
month only, and if this is remembered we shall be spared 
another series of fault-finding. To prevent another line of com- 
plaints, which we anticipate, we will state that the gelatine plates 
will probably be issued with the last number for each mouth, 
though it is possible they may appear with some irregularity. 

adopted of carrying a stock of back issues. A person who 
intends to be a regular subscriber to a daily paper, but who 
chances to be cut off, never thinks of asking for the copies he 
has missed, and could not get them if he did. With us it- is dif- 
ferent, for we know the journal is kept and bound at the end 
of the year, and we have to provide for replacing missing num- 
bers, and should we provide too large a stock for this purpose, 
our loss would be great, as the expense of manufacturing such 
a paper as the American Architect is not small. In short, the 
system we follow is rather in the interest of our subscribers 
than in our own, and we must be allowed to continue to use our 
inflammatory bill-head, for, thanks to it, our losses through 
delinquent subscribers have been much lessened since its adop- 
tion. In conclusion we must ask our subscribers to be reason- 
able in their complaints at all times and particularly just now, 
when the division now making between "gelatine" and "regu- 
lar " subscribers vastly complicates our work and increases the 
possibilities of making blunders. 

WE must say a word, too, about our somewhat formidable- 
looking bill-head, which is the cause of our receiving an 
occasional insulting letter from a peppery subscriber, 
who cannot perceive the difference between saying the same 
thing in print, to all alike, and saying it in writing, to himself 
alone. There are two ways of conducting a subscription busi- 
ness : one, to cancel the subscription at its expiration ; the 
other, to let it run until the subscriber definitely orders it to be 
cancelled. The first is the fairest and most equitable for both 
parties, but it is only possible to daily papers or to magazines 
with large subscription lists, where a majority of the subscrip- 
tions do not terminate at the same date. The second is the 
course which has to be followed by technical journals whose 
circulation is restricted. The courts recognize that the onus 
in such cases rests with the subscriber, and the Government 
recognizes it by providing post-masters with printed forms for 
notifying publishers that a subscriber wishes to discontinue his 
journal. Take a concrete case, our own, for instance : what 
would happen if we should cancel all subscriptions at the date 
of their expiration ? The circulation would drop at once from 
thousands to hundreds, at the beginning of a year, since all but 
a few subscribe for the even year. Then would come a deluge 
of complaints from subscribers who felt themselves, and whom 
we felt, to be permanent subscribers, and a demand for the 
omitted numbers, which we might not have provided for. The 
matter is complicated, too, by the liberal policy we have 

N advertisement in the English papers reminds us of an 
experiment of our own, which may be of interest to our 
readers. The advertisement in question gives the. address 
of a manufacturer of india-rubber socket-rings for the joints of 
hot-water pipes. These rings are much used in and about Lon- 
don for jointing the hot-water pipes employed for heating 
greenhouses ; and having seen the method highly commended 
in the English horticultural books, we tried, not long ago, to 
get some rings for a small greenhouse in which we happened to 
be interested. No rubber manufacturers that we could find, 
however, had ever made or heard of such things, and Mr. 
Hitchings, of New York, an excellent authority on such mat- 
ters, although he knew that the rings were used in England, 
had never seen them applied, and thought they could not be 
obtained in this country. These difficulties only made us more 
anxious to try the experiment, and we had some rings made, 
according to our own rather vague idea of what they ought to 
be, which, however, succeeded very well, and have so far 
proved tighter than either the red-lead and oakum joints, of 
which four were used in connecting an expansion-tank, or the 
rust joints employed in another greenhouse constructed under 
our care at about the same time. In fact, only one of the rub- 
ber ring-joints has leaked at all, and this is already closed, as 
the English books explain it, by the gradual adaptation of the 
rubber to the inequalities of the two surfaces with which it is 
brought in contact. 

HE method of forming the new joint is very simple. The 
ring which we used is of round rubber, three inches in di- 
ameter, the diameter of the section of the rubber being 
three-eighths of an inch. The pipes on which they were used 
are four inches in external diameter, and the hubs are four-and- 
one-half inches. The ring is placed over the spigot end of the 
pipe, as near the end as possible, and the pipe then pushed into 
the hub. The ring rolls back, as the pipe is pushed home, but 
of course moves through a much shorter distance, and, by the 
time the spigot end of the pipe reaches the bottom of the hub, 
the ring has been rolled about half-way down, and remains 
there, compressed between the hub and the pipe into an ellip- 
tical section, the minor diameter of the ellipse being, about 
one-quarter of an inch. This compression causes the soft 
rubber to fill the irregularities of the castings, making a good 
joint with a comparatively rough pipe. As it takes but a mo- 
ment to apply the ring, and push the pipe into its place, the 
joints are very rapidly made, and they can be taken apart and 
re-made with equal ease if it should be necessary, while the 
elasticity of the connections permits adjustments of the pipes, 
after they are put together, which would be impossible if rust 
joints were used, without breaking the pipes, and could not be 
made without causing red-lead and oakum joints to leak badly. 
In our own case this quality of the ring joints enabled us to 
take out a pipe, and substitute a longer one, with a vapor pan 
on it, without disturbing the other connections, except to push 
the adjoining fittings far enough aside to allow the old pipe to 
be taken out and the new one slipped into its place. How du- 
rable the joints will be we cannot tell, although they are said 
to remain sound in England for " many years," and are much 
less liable than caulked or rust joints to leakage from the al- 
ternate expansion and contraction of the pipes. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VoL. XVII. No. 472. 

f JJ CURIOUS experiment was shown a year or two ago, in 
fl which a long glass tube was filled with earth, and sewage 
' poured in at the upper end. If the tube was long enough, 
perhaps six or eight feet, the liquid issued from the bottom 
clear and pure, its dissolved and suspended organic matters hav- 
ing been oxidized by the soil. If, however, before pouring in 
the sewage, a little dilute chloroform were allowed to filter 
through the earth, sewage subsequently applied passed through 
the tube without change, the oxidizing action of the soil being 
completely suspended. After some hours, or days, the soil re- 
gained its oxidizing quality. This experiment was believed to 
show that the oxidation of organic matters in sewage was 
something more than a chemical reaction, and that it de- 
pended, at least to a certain extent, on the presence of small 
living organisms, whose activity could be temporarily sus- 
pended by an anaesthetic, and with it the oxidation of the sew- 
age. This theory has now been confirmed by additional obser- 
vations, and the little creature which converts into fixed and 
harmless salts the putrefying impurities of such sewage as it 
can reach is believed to be a micrococcus somewhat resem- 
bling the yeast plant. Many and varied tests have been made 
to determine the conditions under which the disinfecting mi- 
crobe lives and acts, and a good deal has been learned about its 
habits. It is found that it flourishes best, and is most efficient, 
at a temperature of about ninety-eight degrees Fahrenheit, 
nearly the temperature of the blood. At higher or lower tem- 
peratures its action becomes more feeble, and ceases altogether 
near the freezing point, or above one hundred and thirty de- 
grees. Experiments to show its distribution in a clay soil, show 
that it is most abundant in the upper six inches, but is found to 
a depth of a foot and a half. Below that depth it cannot live, 
and soil taken more than eighteen inches below the surface has 
hitherto always failed to induce any change in nitrogenous solu- 
tions to which it was applied. These experiments cast a great 
deal of light upon many questions of sewage disposal by sub- 
soil or surface irrigation, and further tests, made with some ref- 
erence to this, would be easily made, and extremely valuable. 
It is found, for instance, that nitrogenous solutions, in order 
to be acted upon by the oxidizing ferment, must be alkaline, 
acid liquids remaining unaffected. This observation shows at 
once that where sewage is to be purified by irrigation, chemical 
wastes must be kept out of the drains. Normal house sewage 
is generally slightly alkaline, and in good condition for conver- 
sion, but the admission of the acid or poisonous wastes from a 
dye-house, metal-working shop, or manufactory of any other 
kind might render the sewage of a whole town incapable of 

T A Semaine des Constructeurs gives some details of asphalt 
paving, which have a good deal of interest. The account 
begins by mentioning that asphalt makes a better pavement in 
London than in Paris. The same material that is used in Paris, 
put down in London by French workmen, gives a smooth and 
durable surface, which remains good long after the same work 
in Paris would have been worn into holes and ruts. The rea- 
son of this is probably to be sought in the difference of climate. 
Nothing is so unfavorable to asphalt as alternations of heat 
and cold, and the mild, even English climate is well suited to 
it. Another cause of the inferiority of the Paris paving is said 
by La Semaine to be the continual digging up of the streets for 
laying drains, water and gas pipes. Although the trenches are 
immediately refilled, the earth in them is soft and compressible 
for a long time afterward, and an unyielding foundation is the 
first essential of every good pavement. The repairs of asphalt 
in London are also much more carefully made than in Paris. 
Every depression is attended to before it forms a hole : the im- 
perfect asphalt is taken out, and with it the concrete foundation ; 
the place is then cut out, with vertical sides, and in a square or 
rectangular outline, well into the sound surrounding pavement. 
If the subsoil is disturbed the place is filled to the proper grade, 
and allowed to settle for several days, and then thoroughly 
rammed. New concrete is then laid, and covered with boards 
until it has set properly ; and, finally, the asphalt coating is 
restored. Of the cheaper varieties of artificial asphalt paving 
the Grahamite, used extensively in Washington, is most favor- 
ably mentioned. This, as our readers know, is composed of 
sand, powdered limestone, and Trinidad asphalt, mixed with 
about twenty per cent of petroleum. The artificial pitch is 
added to the sand and limestone in the proportion of about one 
of pitch to one of limestone and five of sand, and the mixture is 
spread in two separate layers over a bed of concrete. A simi- 

lar pavement has been tried in Paris, and is found to answer 
very well in streets where the traffic is light. In much-fre- 
quented thoroughfares it does not last long. 

1TTHE American railway companies which depend for their in- 
J_ come in part on the transportation of emigrants might do well 
to observe the arrangements which have been made by the 
General Transatlantic Company of France to secure business of 
that kind by the certain method of making their passengers 
comfortable. As about twenty thousand persons a week cross 
the Atlantic, paying a good price for their passage, there is a 
constant competition among the foreign steamship companies 
for their patronage. The ancient days of emigration, when 
this country received as a citizen any one who chose to come, 
without inquiry as to his character, are now over, and every 
person who lands at Castle Garden is obliged either to show that 
he is capable of supporting himself here for at least a limited time, 
or to take passage home again by the next return ship ; so that 
the class of emigrants now carried is composed of people who 
have saved up some property, and having been accustomed to 
living in a certain degree of comfort, are not disposed to put 
up with the dirt and disorder which were once considered good 
enough for steerage passengers. The General Transatlantic 
Company has the reputation of providing carefully and liber- 
ally for its poorer patrons, but most of the emigration is from 
Germany and Switzerland, and the neighboring region, and 
the expense of travelling by rail across France to the port of 
embarkation at Havre adds so much to the cost of the journey 
that passengers who are obliged to economize prefer the longer, 
but cheaper route to New York by way of Hamburg, Bremen, 
or Antwerp. In order to offset to a certain extent this disad- 
vantage, the Transatlantic Company has now put on regular 
emigrant trains, running through every day from Basle, which 
is a great railway centre for the whole of Central and Southern 
Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, to the steamship wharf at 
Havre. The trains leave Basle at hours regulated by the tide 
at Havre, so that on reaching the ship, after a ride of twenty- 
one hours, they can embark and set sail without delay. In order 
to attract custom, the emigrant train is furnished with cars dif- 
fering completely from the ordinary third-class " coach " in 
Europe, but reproducing minutely the ordinary American pas- 
senger car. As with us, a clear passage is left through the 
whole length of the train, and the cars, which are very long, 
and hold eighty passengers each, are warmed by hot-water cir- 
culating pipes, and a boiler in one corner, just like those on 
our best-managed roads. Other luxuries, familiar to ire, but 
almost unknown abroad, are added, in the shape of a drinking- 
water reservoir, and a water-closet in each car, with a wash- 
basin ; and there are some special features, such as cradles, to 
the number of a dozen or more in each car, which must add 
greatly to the comfort of the families who travel in the trains. 
Very capacious places are provided for the hand-baggage, 
of which poor emigrants always carry immense quantities, and 
the Swiss, or Tyrolese, or German, or Piedmontese peasants 
can take their last look at the Ehine or the Alps from the win- 
dows of the car in which they remain, warm and comfortable, 
until they arrive alongside the ship which is to carry them to 
the New World. To the untravelled and simple villagers of the 
interior provinces, this is a great satisfaction, and it is no less 
for their benefit that the officers of the Transatlantic Company 
are enabled, by the same arrangement, to keep an oversight 
over the whole company, and guard them from the tricks of the 
swindlers and parasites, who, as Le Genie Civil says, profit by 
the ignorance of the poor emigrants to defraud them. The care 
of the company is not confined to mere oversight. To each 
train is attached a dining car, or rather, a refreshment counter, 
where meat, bread, and other viands are dispensed at cost 
price ; while coffee is distributed gratuitously through the whole 
train twice a day, and milk for children can be had at any time 
for the asking. 

COERESPONDENT asks us for references to adjudi- 
cated cases bearing upon the right of an architect to be 
paid for drawings and specifications for buildings not car- 
ried out. We are very sorry not to have been able to look up 
references in the law reports, but his counsel has undoubtedly 
done so. When the index to cases affecting architects and 
builders, which we have had for some time under way, is com- 
pleted, we shall be able to answer all such questions promptly. 

JANUARY 10, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 




rT is a truism 
to say that the 
qualities o f 
Gothic and o f 
Renaissance ci- 
vilization are 
graphically e x - 
pressed in their 
respective arts, 
and that the 
differences b e - 
tween these two 
arts constitute 
the most suggest- 
ive evidence of 
the conditions of 

of which they 
grew . .Keferring 

to arcliitecture in especial, I ask you to consider with me some of 
these differences, with a view to ascertaining the true functions of the 
men who were more immediately concerned in producing them. 
Writers of general history collect and analyze traditions, documents, 
and archives with infinite patience and industry, but the evidences of 
architecture are inaccessible to them, because those who have written 
upon this subject have confined their studies rather to its external and 
technical manifestations, as to a development of natural forces, than 
to the human interests, from which they proceeded ; the human wants, 
to which they were adjusted; the human skill, which gave to them 
character and direction. Behind every apparent form in architec- 
ture is a human motive, and a great monument, therefore, which is a 
concert of innumerable forms, must, as I conceive, constitute an inval- 
uable record of the civilization which produced it. It is not merely 
an incident in the history of architecture, but an incident in the his- 
tory of mankind. I am persuaded that the time is not far distant 
when it will be possible to predicate from the internal evidence con- 
tained in such a work, the true genius of the times, the bases of con- 
temporaneous history. Thus the Cathedral of Paris, to take a famil- 
iar example, if it could be properly analyzed, would be found to 
contain not only all that it is essential to know of the spirit of the 
Middle Ages in general, of the fall of the monastic orders, of the de- 
cay of feudalism, of the birth of civil liberty, but in specific detail all 
the religious, social, and poliiical life of the time; and this not so 
much because it is a great municipal and ecclesiastical monument, 
but because it is a work of art. 

Mediaeval architecture was a gradual and steady evolution of struc- 
tural forms, with but little influence from external traditions, and 
under exceptional conditions of enthusiastic devotion and religious 
zeal. It was saved from barbarism and savagery, first, by the learn- 
ing of the cloisters, and afterwards by the coherence of the lay archi- 
tects or masonic guilds, which preserved, developed, and transmitted 
a compact and consistent body of building traditions. The process of 
evolution progressed with amazing rapidity ; it pushed Gothic art to 
its highest expression in the thirteenth century, and in the fifteenth, 
this art had said all that it had to say ; it had become an architecture 
of tours <le force of conceits and grotesques ; as its strength failed, 
it became attenuated and affected, and at the end, the skill of the 
Craftsman triumphed over the inspiration of the artist. It was, I say, 
an architecture of structural evolution ; and so long as the evolution 
eontinueil in a healthy condition, it was as free from abnormal exam- 
ples as the evolution of any animal or vegetable type in natural his- 
tory. The successive buildings of the style were links in a continu- 
ous chain, each one essential to the development of the type. By 
tliis series of tentative processes the art of constructing roofs with 
small stones, progressed from the simplest and most timid vault to 
the most complex and daring, each step in the progress involving 
changes m jre or less fundamental in the supporting walls, piers, and 
buttresses, ami hence affecting the entire structural and architectural 
character of the buildings. 

But it should be understood that a mere evolution of structure can- 
not in itself constitute a style of architecture. We have in modern 
times, an evolution of structure, which, like the Gothic art, consist- 
ently "broadens from precedent to precedent; " absorbing into itself 
all the inventions and discoveries of science in the art of building ; 
but this evolution is in the hands of engineers; it appears in the 
steady and admirable progress of achievement in monumental works 
of severe utility, bridges, aqueducts, sewers, canals, embankments, 
factories. But this is not art, because unlike the Gothic evolution, 
it is not in the hands of artists. The function of the modern engi- 
neers, and that of the lay builder of the Middle Ages differ in this 
important respect: the one develops a theory of construction with a 
view to obtaining perfect fitness and stability in the most direct and 
economic way possible ; the other, in like manner, aims at fitness and 
stability by the use of scientific and technical methods, but lie confers 
upon his work beauty as well as fitness, grace as well as stability ; he 
decorates his construction. A Cistercian abbey, in its austere, unorna- 
mented construction, shows how a work of engineering may be made 
a work of art. A Christian abbey is no more a work of art, because 

1 A paper read before the Monday Evuuiug Club, by Heury Vau Brunt. 

of its superadded luxury of sculpture ami splen lor of color. The 
modern engineer gives us prose, the Mediaeval builder gives MS 

In the beginning of the period of the Renaissance the Gothic 
tree having exhausted itself with blossoms there was grafted into 
its enfeebled stock a new shoot, which, with the advancement of 
learning, and the growth of the human mind, gradually, but surely 
changed the character of the Medieval forms, until at length they 
disappeared entirely. Indeed, so completely did this new influence 
take possession of the human mind, that after hardly a century of 
transition, the vast poetic monuments of Mediaeval art 'became in' the 
midst of the new civilization not only barbaric enigmas, but objects 
of insult and contumely. Even the antiquary neglected them, until 
the middle of the seventeenth century, while Inigo Jones was build- 
ing a Corinthian portico on the west front of the old Gothic St. Paul's, 
of London. 

This new principle of art was based upon an architectural formula, 
the Classic orders. This formula was the standard by which archi- 
tecture henceforth was to be measured and corrected. If Medieval 
architecture was a system based upon the free development of struct- 
ural forms, that of the Renaissance was based upon authority and 
discipline. The Classic formula was recognized as the embodiment 
of the spirit of the antique world, by means of which alone, it was 
thought redemption from Mediaeval barbarism, and revival of civil- 
ization were possible. The essence of this formula was an arbitrary 
system of proportion composed of isolated columns or attached pilas- 
ters supporting entablatures. The former were composed of bases, 
shafts, and capitals ; the latter, of architraves, friezes, and cornices. 
Each of these divisions was further subdivided into mouldings, and 
as all these parts had developed together, and got their shape by mu- 
tual adjustment after many trials, as with the advancement of refine- 
ment artists became curious in respect to the shape and relative dis- 
position of these subordinate parts, the result was finally the highest 
expression of architectural style known to mankind. Though this deli- 
cate and precise mutual adjustment might have been reached in other 
styles, as in Gothic, it has only been reached in the Classic, and tha 
examples of it are the so-called orders of architecture. It is their 
advantage that they were developed in actual use not by theory, 
but by practice and that they grew into shape, embodying in their 
modifications the experience and feeling of successive generations of 
Greek and Roman architects. As they were received in the fifteenth 
century, they had undergone the final revision of the great Italian mas- 
ters of the Renaissance, who studied their proportions with the last 
degree of refinement, and recorded them exactly. They conferred 
upon the coarse Roman orders a degree of perfection rivalling the 
perfection of the Greek orders. The ancient Romans, in taking their 
forms from the Greeks, had vulgarized them ; but the Italian masters 
nearly restored the purity of the original type. So developed, these 
Classic orders are the key to almost all that has been done itj archi- 
tecture to our day. 

Now the Classic formula thus revived and rehabilitated, because it 
represented perfection of proportion, could have no career of evolu- 
tion in the Gothic sense. Perfection cannot be perfected; it can only 
be adorned. In fact, the essential principle of the architecture of 
the Renaissance is a scheme of decoration based upon a dogma of 

To our present purposes it is important to observe that the inven- 
tion and application of ornament to structure in process of evolu- 
tion is a very different thing from the invention and application of 
ornament to a rigid formula of proportion. The consideration of 
this difference brings us at once to the point to which I would draw 
your attention. 

" Architecture," says M. Veron, " even when considered from the 
aesthetic point of view, remains so dependent upon geometry, upon 
mechanics, and upon logic, that it is difficult to discover accurately 
the share our sentiment and imagination have in it." This is cer- 
tainly true of Gothic art, because its character rests upon geometry, 
mechanics and logic, applied to the harmonious and consistent evolu- 
tion of structure. But M. Charles Blanc observes of this architec- 
ture that " every structural necessity became a pretext for ornament, 
and the most capricious conceptions were in reality nothing more 
than contrivances for embellishing the work, forced upon the artist by 
the inexorable law of gravitation." This is equivalent to saying 
that Gothic art was an art of construction more or less ornamental. 
Now ornament is the product of sentiment and imagination, but the 
invention of ornament in such a service as Gothic art did not call for 
the highest artistic effort in this domain. The grouping of pinnacles 
upon buttresses, the filling of apertures with rich tracery, the fretting 
of sky-lines with crockets and finials, the decoration of wall surfaces 
with an embroidery of cusped arches arfd canopied niches this sort 
of work was not the labor of illustrious masters, but of nameless 
trained craftsmen ; nay, even the iconography and symbolism which 
crowded the porches were part of a hieratic system to which the 
men who produced it were in the position rather of humble catechu- 
mens or neophytes, than of independent artists. Their labors were 
didactic, like the labors of writers and printers. The composition of 
ornament for its own sake did not become a leading principle until a 
new style arose, based upon a rigid formula which was itself perfec- 
tion, and therefore, as I have intimated, incapable of progression. 
Under these circumstances, the variety demanded of art by the 
newly-awakened civilization was only obtainable either by distorting 
or degrading the formula itself, as was actually done in the eras of 
the Baroque, the Rococo, the Churrigueresque, or by overlaying it 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 472. 

with ornaments not necessary to constructive effects with construc- 
tive ornament, in fact. 

It is evident that this process of decorating without degrading 
the unalterable Classic type could not have been effected by tradi- 
tions, or by any such anonymous body of trained artisans as kept the 
Gothic evolution in a workmanlike track. The contingency called 
into existence the modern architect, with his books and prints and 
his archaeological equipment. The composition and application of 
ornament demanded a new and higher quality of invention and 
imagination, because ornamentation had become a far more important 
function in architecture. In short, the Gothic method resulted in an 
impersonal art; the Renaissance method necessarily led to a persona] 
art. If Gothic art was the development of principles of construction 
applied to meet similar requirements, each experimentarabbey or 
cathedral differed from its predecessor in exact proportion to the 
progress in the art of building vaults with small stones, not in pro- 
portion to the genius of the master-builder. The decoration of these 
structures was uot an essential incident in this scheme of general de- 
velopment. No single monastic or lay builder could impress his indi- 
viduality upon this mighty advancing tide. Its progress was made 
up of forces far too great to be turned this way or that at his bid- 
ding. He was the servant of evolution, and not its master; he made 
the evolution consistent, grammatical and beautiful, and in this disin- 
terested service bis name and character were lost. In like man- 
ner, if the earliest artisls of the Renaissance had discovered in 
the Flavian amphitheatre, (as the first Romanesque builders did at 
Spalatro), a new principle of construction, capable of indefinite 
expansion in the wider fields of the new civilization, instead of 
an order of architecture, and if Francis I had carried that principle 
back to France with the spoils of his first Italian conquest instead 
of a crowd of Italian artists, the guardians of the ancient for- 
mula, we might have witnessed the phenomenon of another imper- 
sonal art, to the development of which, in the course of time, the 
genius of Philibert de Lorme, Pierre Lescot, and the Mansarts would 
have done loyal but anonymous service. If on the other hand, in the 
twelfth century, it had been possible to invest a certain form and pro- 
portion of vaulting and abutment with such peculiar sanctity that it 
would have been impious to vary from it henceforth in any essential 
particular, decoration would have at once assumed the first, instead 
of the subordinate place in the architecture of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, and, instead of a series of nameless masons and 
master-builders, we would have had a catalogue of individualities as 
illustrious and specific as that which confers its peculiar personal 
interest on the history of the Renaissance. 

Now as to the evidences of the personal character of Renaissance 
art. Although the Classic formula was set up and accepted as abso- 
lute authority in the fifteenth century, although it has been used wilh 
veneration for four centuries up to the present time, and although 
every architect designing in the style of the Renaissance intends 
above all things to be correct in his use of this simple type, the result 
has been not monotony, not cold and colorless uniformity, but a variety 
of expression, hitherto unknown in art. Now in studying these vari- 
ations as they are exhibited in the buildings of the Renaissance up to 
the present day, we shall find that they are not capricious or acciden- 
tal ; there was one class of variations in France, one in England, one 
in Germany, one in Spain, one in Holland, one in Italy. These dis- 
tinctions of class are easily recognizable : they follow natural laws, 
they interpret national temperament or genius by a visible demonstra- 
tion. Thus the French Renaissance abounds in elegant variety ; it is 
nearly always refined, delicate in detail, and full of feeling and ani- 
mation. The English Renaissance is for the most part unimaginative 
and heavy, feeble in invention, prosaic and dull; but it was not with- 
out its single era of great and original development, at the hands of 
Wren, after the London fire. The German follows the French at a 
great distance; where it has not been merely imitative, its principal 
characteristic has been cold correctness and pedantry. The Spaniard 1 
handles the orders with great freedom, and overlays them with a sort 
of barbaric but ungrammatical splendor, which is almost Oriental in its 
profusion and color. The Dutch variation was homely and honest, 
like the people. But in Italy the natural birthplace of the Renais- 
sance, Vignola, Serlio, Palladio, Bramanti, Scamozzi first taught the 
world how true artists, holding alike to a rigid formula, could invest 
it with purity and delicacy ; how they could be correct without dull- 
ness, precise without pedantry, poetic without license. These were 
the earlier Italian development ; the later masters, betrayed by the 
contortions of Borromini, the undisciplined inventions of Bernini, the 
coarse magnificence of Michael Angelo, lost their purity in profusion, 
and vulgarized the type in their passion for grandeur. Still the Ital- 
ians were always the true masters of the Renaissance, and the rest of 
Europe went to school to them. But we have seen that though the 
architects of France, England and Germany tried to imitate the 
Italian manner, they were always French, English and German ; the 
national spirit betrayed them. All the forces of art were united in 
the desire to make the revised Classic forms cosmopolitan. They 
studied the same authorities, learned by heart the same formulas of 
proportion, copied the same monuments, but failed in their efforts to 
make a universal architecture. Indeed, there was not only a national 
impress left upon their works, but no two architects of the same 
nation could produce similar work. Each interpretation had a char- 
acter of individuality ; the phenomenon remains true to this day. 

A late writer very happily said that " architecture tells us as much 
of Greece as Homer did, and of the Middle Ages more than has been 
expressed in literature. Yet," he adds, " it has been silent since the 

thirteenth century." This latter proposition is after the dogmatic 
fashion prevalent in modern English criticism. It is equivalent to 
saying that the personal equation in modern architecture, rendered 
necessary by the adoption of a formula as the basis of design, has 
prevented the art from exercising its natural function as an evidence 
of contemporary history, as it did when design was confined to the 
development of a theory of construction, in the series of Greek 
temples and mediaeval cathedrals. The fact is that architecture, 
whether personal or impersonal, cannot be forced away from this 
function, even by the most determined exercise of the modern privi- 
lege of masquerading in the trappings of old forms of art. Indeed it 
is sufficiently evident that this very personal character imposed upon 
architecture by the conditions of the Renaissance, in rendering it 
more sensitive to exoteric impressions, has made it a more accurate 
exponent of the quality of the civilization which produced it than has 
been the case with any form of impersonal art, the characteristics of 
which must be largely due to internal forces. It is not so much its 
structural as its decorative character which makes the metropolitan 
cathedral a reflection of the life which swarmed about the market- 
place under its shadows, or entered its porches with banners. But if 
we survey the progress of mediaeval French architecture from the 
time of Philip Augustus, in 1180, to that of Charles VII, in 1422 
from !St. Bernard of Clairvaux to Joan of Arc ; though in this era 
more than sixtv cathedrals of the first class were built, involving an 
expenditure of more than $500,000,000 in our money (an activity 
in building operations unsurpassed in history), we shall find that no 
monarch and no court was able to impress upon it any characteristic 
which should enable us to distinguish any one phase of its progress 
as the style of Louis VI II, the Lion ; or Louis IX, the Saint; of 
Philip III, the Hardy; or Philip IV, the Fair; of Charles V, VI, 
or VII. There are no such styles; the art of these reigns was an 
evolution of forces, and, as such, it was an impersonal art. If any 
phase of this evolution is identified by the name of a sovereign, this 
is purely a matter of convenience in nomenclature; it is not signifi- 
cant of cause and effect, for the art refused to submit to the caprices 
of any court. 

On the other hand, when architecture had ceased to be a structural 
evolution, and was based upon a formula of pilasters and entabla- 
tures, enclosing imposts and arches, decoration, ornament assumed a 
function until then unknown, and there was a distinctive style corre- 
sponding to the character of each reign, often contrasting with 
curious abruptness. Thus we recognize a style of Francis J, free, 
elastic, poetic, romantic; of Henry IV, bold, coarse, grotesque, of 
Louis XIV, full of grandeur without, of pom]) and splendor within 
(Viollet-le-l)iic has called it "the new Renaissance") ; of Louis XV, 
frivolous, licentious, ostentatious, Rococo; of Louis XVI, decent, 
orderly, pure to prudishness; of the first empire, a theatrical display 
of imperial Roman properties, meagre and tarnished ; of the second 
empire, elegant, but profuse and luxurious, drawing its motifs from 
every historical source, but harmonizing them with a fastidious aca- 
demical spirit ; a style of to-day, too near to us to be recognized now 
in just perspective, but for which we will be held responsible in the 
next century. So there is a style of Elizabeth, of the Stuarts and 
Ttidors, of bloody Mary, of Queen Anne, and of Victoria. So also 
in Spain, as Fergusson says, the enthusiasm and exultation and pride 
of Ferdinand and Isabella, and of Charles I are well expressed in the 
architecture of their times, until Philip II substituted, for the joyous 
and sunny exuberance of his predecessors, a cold, academical formal- 
ism, in full sympathy with his iron rule. 

This scenic display is rendered possible by the fact, that the archi- 
tecture of these eras must necessarily be saturated with the sub- 
jective personality of the architects, in order to its proper adjustment 
to the spirit of the times. In fact, the composition of ornament is like 
the composition of poetry ; neither can be evolved from theory alone ; 
neither can exist in definite shape save by virtue of the individual 
character, attributes and mental equipment of the author. It is his 
genius which confers upon it all its specific quality. It is his knowledge, 
his training, his convictions, his taste, which so adjust ornament to a 
formula of proportion as to confer upon it especial character and in- 
terest. It is true that a large part of Renaissance ornament, as of all 
architectural ornament is conventional. The enrichment of the order 
is obtained not only by the imaginative arts of sculpture and paint- 
ing, which must necessarily be infused with personal genius like a 
poem, but by ornament of convention, which is common proj>erty, 
i. e., certain types of ornament applied by general acceptance to the 
decoration of the mouldings, and other details of the order ; but it is 
also obtained by a certain hardihood in varying its proportions. But 
the use of conventional ornament implies choice, discretion on the 
part of the architect, and these are surely personal qualities, and the 
variation of the proportions is an appeal to his academical training, 
to his knowledge of precedent, to his artistic feeling. If an ignorant 
man plays with proportions, the result is inevitably disgrace and vul- 
garity. He can produce successful results, only by an abnegation of 
himself, and it> only acceptable when he follows the Classic formula 
with unimaginative fidelity. It is only the scholar who can handle 
bis orders with freedom. The advancement of archaeological learning, 
the accumulation and accessibility of architectural precedent, in mak- 
ing it impracticable to the modern architect to build better than he 
knows, have inevitably forced him into an increasing degree of self- 
consciousness in his work, and in depriving his work of the grace of 
innocence and naivete, have made it a more sensitive index of his in- 
dividuality. The picturesque and romantic days of an impersonal 
architecture will return no more. 

JANUARY 10, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



IT is not possible to determine the 
exact date when the Hellenic na- 
tion, no longer connected with the 
Pelasgic tribes of Asia, began upon the 
outlines and ideas collected by their 
forefathers, to perfect a style of archi- 
tecture for themselves, suited to their 
character, religion and climate ; to com- 
plete that great work, the foundation of 
the art to which nation after nation had 
been adding its portion for a period of no 
less than three thousand years. The very 
earliest structures that have any claim 
to the term " art " are discovered in 
Egypt, and date as far back as 3900 
years B. c. It was then the inhabitants 
first conceived the idea of erecting for 
their chiefs and rulers indestructible edi- 
fices, wherein the embalmed bodies might 
repose, undecaying, in security and 
peace, until they should again be called 
into life, as their traditions led them to believe would ultimately be 
the case. It is interesting to trace the advancing steps through the 
centuries that intervened between this early date and the time of 
which we write. The research carries us up and down that myste- 
rious country, Egypt, about whose early history so little is definitely 
known, and of which so much is conjectured, and we contemplate 
with awe and amazement the great monumental excavations, elabo- 
rately decorated with hieroglyphics, by which each chief sought to 
hand down to eternity a record of his good deeds. As time proceeds, 
we find in place of rock-cut tombs enormous temples, gigantic pyra- 
mids, and lofty obelisks, and in each is seen an ever-increasing 
development of what may truly be called the germ of art. The 
authors are taking Nature as a copy, using pillars and columns 
roughly cut to represent bundles of reeds, and the tops of these are 
gradually formed to represent the well-known lotus-flower and other 
leaf forms common to the country. But as the glory of the monarchs 
of Egypt began to decline, the art was taken up by the Assyrians 
and Chaldeans, nations whose countries were at no very great dis- 
tance from Egypt, and whose principal commercial enterprises were 
carried on with that country. Here have been found temples of 
a character very different from any previously erected : buildings car- 
ried to a great height, instead of being all of one story. The deco- 
ration, too, is of a type that we have not met with before. The 
Chaldeans were a people devoted to the worship of the heavenly 
bodies, and they decorated their temples with the colors assigned to 
each of the seven planets to which they were dedicated. Their 
sacred enclosures were not surrounded with solid walls, but with 
simple, lofty columns, standing singly at a distance of many feet 
apart. But tlie Chaldeans, also, wise in all the mysteries of the 
unseen future, were destined to perish utterly from the face of the 
earth. From Chaldea we are led northward and westward, and 
through the entire length of Asia Minor, and in the examples now 
at our feet we find the immediate forerunners of the Grecian art. 

The Pelasgic races of Asia Minor and of Greece were intimately 
connected in friendly relationships for many centuries, until the 
Phrygian Prince carried away the beautiful Helen from Sparta to 
Troy, which outrage brought about a deadly animosity between the 
two countries, that took many years to die out. From this date, 
nearly five centuries, occupied with civil war, elapsed before any 
farther advance in the progress of the art can be noticed. Greece 
had been inhabited by numerous tribes, and the Hellenes proper had 
originally been but one among the many. Gradually they gained a 
reputation above that of any other tribe, and finally acquired an 
influence over the whole country to such an extent that all the other 
tribes became assimilated to them. 

By the middle of the seventh century B. c., mere utilitarian archi- 
tecture was giving way to more ornate erections, and when the 
country was at peace, and the Greeks were 
able to turn their attention to the arts of 
peace, many forms of great beauty were 
already discovered, and there were many 
examples of construction for them to im- 
prove upon. 

Even so far back as 2000 B. c., at Beni 
Hassan, in Egypt, pillars had been con- 
structed of a decidedly " Classic " form, 
and the Beni Hassan type was greatly 
improved upon by the architects of the 
great temple of Karnac, and it is difficult 
to refuse the evidence these examples give 
of the origili of the forms adopted by the 
Greeks. The earliest example of Grecian 
architecture of this kind appears to be of 
the date 650 B. c., and is the temple of 
Corinth. Very little of this now remains, but there is sufficient to 
show how extremely massive and ponderous it was. Next in time 
comes the temple of jEjina, probably a century later. But. the 

1 A Sketch of the History of Architecture from the commencement of the 
cian Art to the Reformation in England, by E. W. Gaiubier-BousfleM, A. R. I. B . A. 

temple of Theseus, at Athens, constitutes a link between the Archaic 
and the perfect age of Grecian art, more perfect than the temple of 
-32gina, but not so perfect as the Parthenon, its near neighbor in 
locality and date. The Parthenon, erected 438 B. c., is of the 

Doric order, and is an "f^^T" s _^L^ r ^T^~^I^sj_mtr'' 

excellent example of ' ^_ ~ ' =- '~~ ~ < 

true proportion in 
every particular. The 
height of the column 
is 6.025 diameters, 
which is an increase of 
one and one-half di- 
ameters upon the 
height of the earliest 
example, the temple at 
Corinth. With this 
order, sculpture and 
painting are essentially 
connected. The met- 
opes, the face of tbx 
pediments, and othei 
features were all 
carved and colored. 
This was the height 
of perfection to which 
the Doric order at- 
tained, and from this Doric Order (<>"">") 
date its decline began. The attenuation of its columns and the 
diminished height of the entablature are among the principal fea- 
tures of its decay. 

The Ionic Order, growing out of the declining Doric, takes up 
the lofty, slender columns, and gives them a proportion and perfects 
a style to suit them. This new order is much more complete in itself 

than was its forerunner, and 
depends less upon the assis- 
tance of color to relieve the 
dead stone. Those orna- 
ments which in the former 
were merely painted, were in 
this cut and carved. The 
scrolls which had so long 
been in use as a decoration, 
both in paint and cut in 
wood or cast in bronze, were 
in this style brought forward 
and placed in a most con- 
spicuous position, and were 
made to form the principal 
feature of the capital. A 
base was also given to the 
columns, but like all other 
details, of which the Greeks 
strove so earnestly to make 
us believe they were the 
originators, these bases have 
their antetypes in Egyptian 
temples erected fourteen 
hundred years before. The 
best example of this second 
order is the Erectheum at 
Athens, built 403 n. c. The 

original Ionic capital was never made to suit pillars in every 
position; it answered admirably so long as only a front view was 
obtained, but when placed at the angles of buildings, and two sides 
were seen, the architects had a difficulty 
before them which required an immense 
amount of study to overcome. The capital 
was originally square on plan, with the 
volutes at the front and back and abut- 
ting on the sides, so that at the. side of r 
temple there would be some score of col- 
umns with their voluted capitals facing the 
spectator, but the capitals at each end, having their voluted faces 
parallel with the front and back walls, presented their sides to the 
side of the temple, and created a discrepancy and formed an eye-sore 

most distressing to the painfully sym- 
metrical Greeks. The first attempt to 
improve this was to make a capital for 
the angle of the building, with two 
faces, and where the volutes met they 
butted at each other until each was 
forced beyond the base line at an 
angle of 45. This was so obviously a 
makeshift, that although an ingenious 
way of overcoming the difficulty, it 
did not satisfy its authors, and after 
many attempts, which still exist, their 
efforts were finally rewarded, for they produced a capital very beau- 
tiful in its form and thoroughly a lapted to its work in all positions. 
The arrangement was a square, having its sides all curved alike. 

The suggestions as to the origins of these two orders, given by 
Vitruvius, are as ingenious as they are innocent. He writes, "Ion, 

f*ts. -Me. so. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 472. 

the eon of Xuthus, building a temple to Diana, and seeking some new 
manner to render it more elegant had recourse, as before in the Doric, 
to the human figure, and gave to this new order a feminine delicacy." 
" That its appearance might be more lofty, he added a base in imita- 
tion of a shoe. The volute?, like the plaits of the hair hanging on 
each side, he gave to the capital, ornamented with fruits, or fes- 
tooned in flowers; and furrows or flutings were wrought down the 
columns, resembling the folds or plaits of a matron's garments. 
Thus he invented two kinds of column?, in the Doric imitating the 
manly, robust appearance without ornament, in the Ionic regarding a 
female delicacy, accompanied with ornaments pleasing and elegant." 
Vitruvius also gives a romantic origin for the Corinthian capital, and 
this is still held by many to be the correct story, but if we examine the 
existing examples we shall find that the earliest are unlike Vitru- 
vius's prototype, and that in reality this third order grew out of the 
preceding one, and was perfected 
through many years. " A marriage- 
able young lady of Corinth fell ill 
and died. After the interment, her 
nurse collected together sundry orna- 
ments with which she used to be 
pleased, and putting them in a bas- 
ket placed it near her tomb, and 
lest they should be injured by the - 
weather, she covered the basket with 
a tile. It happened the basket was 
placed upon a root of acanthus, which in spring shot forth its leaves 
These running up the side of the basket, naturally formed a kind 
of volute in the turn given by the tile to the leaf." " Happy Cal- 
limachus, a most ingenious sculptor, passing that way was struck 
with the beauty, elegance, and novelty of the basket surrounded 

with the acanthus leaves, 
and according to this idea 
or example, he afterwards 
made columns for the 
Corinthians, ordaining the 
proportions such as consti- 
tute the Corinthian Order." 
The Corinthian order 
was only introduced into 
Greece on the decline of 
the art, and it was left for 
the Romans to perfect an 
order, which in Greece 
never rose to the dignity 
of a temple order. For 
the capital the curved 
abacus of the late Ionic 
was used, and the bell- 
shape discovered to have 
been in use by the Egyp- 
tians was here introduced. 
To this they applied the 
acanthus, in conjunction 
with the Assyrian honey- 
suckle, the latter support- 
ing the scrolls at the angles. 
But to see this style in its 
peiiectiuii we must leave Greece and cross over to Rome. The 
form of the Greek temples was undoubtedly of Egyptian origin. 
Small peristylar temples were erected as early as the eighteenth cen- 
tury, B. c., and are common to all ages. The finest example of the 
so-called Corinthian order, then, is the 
temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome, which 
in richness and proportion, surpasses any- 
thing hitherto designed. But in the archi- 
tecture of the Romans we have a great 
change. The true Roman order was an 
arrangement of two pillars placed at a 
distance apart, bearing a very heavy en- 
tablature, which in consequence of its 
length had to be supported in the centre 
by an arch springing from piers; the columns were raised on ped- 
estals and placed in front of the piers. The arch was by no means 
a new method of construction, though hitherto it had only been 
used as a necessity, and not as a feature. Looking back again to 
the Pyramids of Egypt, which date from nearly 4000 years B. c., we 
find arch forms of the rudest construction, but perfectly adapted to 
their uses. Here is to be seen the pointed arch and the semi- 
circular, as well as the simplest constructive arrangement two 
large straight stones, raised one against the other over a space. It 
is true that the arches were all built with horizontal beds, and that 
the radiating bed was not known for centuries after, but the pointed 
arch to a drain or aqueduct at the Great Pyramid, and to the tombs 
in Asia Minor, are as true in outline as those of Christian churches. 
But to return ; in a few years time the piers supporting the arches 
were done away with, the pillars taken down from their pedestals, 
and substituted for the piers, the arch sprang from the top of the 
columns, and the entablature was placed at a greater height above 
the crown of the arch. The characteristic of Roman architecture is 
the exaltation to importance of plain surfaces, and the subjugation 
of the order to them. The rectilinear form of plan was preserved 

for a time, but where the architects were not confined in space, their 
plans exhibit a great amount of irregularity, and even circular temples 
were attempted, and successfully carried out. Roman temples were 
-- ^ extremely insignificant as compared with other 

// ^\ buildings in their cities, and our attention is 

turned to the Government Halls the Basilicas 
which were considered of far greater im- 
portance. These were long, lofty buildings, 
principally rectilinear, but generally finished 
with a semicircular apse constructed in the cen- 
tre of one end, in which were arranged the 
seats for the judges. An altar stood at the 
junction of the apse, and the main building at 
which -those religious ceremonies were performed, 
which opened and concluded all public business. 
The main building was divided in most Basilicas 
into aisles by pillars and arches, but in some 
cases it was left clear, and the entire space cov- 
ered by a roof of one span. These roofs were generally of wood, 
and of simple, utilitarian design. But what is this form of plan that 
we are describing, other than the origin of all Christian churches? 

J c 


=1 L 














.... Livida 1'onda, 
Che tra 1'infausta reggia e le prigioni 
LaDguidamente sta, genie sospesa 
Sulle misere teste, e chiude 1'eco 
Che sol ripete del dolor le voci. 
(Antonio Foscarini, a tragedy by G. B. Niccolim, Act 7, Scene IV}* 

TITHE Republic of St. Mark having fallen in the 
J| l fervor of the Democracy, the citizen Melancin 

proposed that the total destruction of the dread- 
ful prisons, the Pozzi and Piombi, and also of the 
boxes for secret denunciations, should be decreed, 
and that the lions should be knocked to pieces, that 
the sight of them as emblems of a blood-thirsty reg- 
ime, might not give uneasiness to the people in this 
new and joyful era. The citizen Widman applaud- 
ing the proposition, added that he, having gone, to- 
gether with other citizens to inspect those infernal 
places, had learned from the old custodians that by the ex-inquisitors 
two unfortunates had there been walled-in alive, some time before. 

One might expect that the horrified assemblage would have run in 
mass to demolish the wall which closed the door, and gathered the re- 
mains of the supposed victims, but it is not believed that such a thin" 
took place, because until now the above-mentioned door, or more 
precisely two of the doors in the prison are still sealed by single slabs 
of stone, forced against the lintels by iron wedges, and have the ap- 
pearance of having been so closed for some hundreds of years. 

He who visits the prisons of the Ducal Palace, which belonged to 
the Council of Ten, and are now called the Pozzi, mounts the loggia 
on the first floor inside the court, and trusts himself to the care of a 
guide, who, taking an oil lamp, precedes hiui into a dark room, and 
down a small staircase, leading to the first tier of cells. In order to 
enter these, one must stoop, the doors being rather low; over every 
one of them there is a hole, through which the food was handed to 
the prisoners ; one of the cells still shows the wooden sheathing of 
the walls, with a small shelf and the plank which served as a bed. 
Having turned the corridor, the guide reaches the staircase leading to 
the lower cells, and if he fulfils his mission conscientiously, he numbers 
with measured cadence the thirteen steps, so as to create the impres- 
sion of sinking underground, and reaching the prisons which are sup- 
posed to be below the level of the canal. We enter one of the cells, 
then another ; we read some of the inscriptions that the prisoners have 
scratched upon the walls; our attention is called to the fact that 
every door was closed by double iron shutters; we are told we enter 
the prison of Carmagnola, and that one in which the Doge Faliero was 
imprisoned. At the end of a corridor, feebly lighted by a small ap- 
erture, something resembling a step is pointed out to us; and we are 
x>ld it is the place where the strangling and beheading was per- 
: ormed, by means of a machine, of which some traces remain upon the 
walls. Into a niche, a crucifix was placed, to which the condemned 
prisoner could cast his last look ; the inclined pavement ends with a 
slab of stone which has several perforations through which, when the 



Jo. 472 

:^.~1 J 

ct ^elU 

^-"- ^r 



JANUARY 10, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


operation was finished, the blood of the victims flowed, and through 
the door, which is close by, and now walled up, the miserable re- 
mains were carried out. 

When he has given this last information, the guide silently retires, 
in order not to disturb the incubus which he has succeeded in awak- 
ening within our souls. But we went down in imagination only, and 
will remain there alone to complete our investigations. 

It should be time to make an end of the fables, and it would cost 
but little to confute them, if it were not for the closed doors, which 
attract even the attention of the visitor who has no prejudice what- 
ever. When the men of the Revolution, having seized the Palace, 
entered the Pozzi, they must have stopped before these doors, and 
with excited fancies believed the cruel legends, which, not corres- 
ponding with the ideas of justice of the Venetian Republic, were 
afterwards rejected. 

As we said, two doors at the extremities of a corridor are sealed 
with slabs of stone forced by iron wedges against the jambs. The 
frame-work of all the doors is of Istrian stone, but in the doors which 
are not sealed the lintel is cut at each end, so as to permit it to drop 
between the jambs, thus preventing them from falling together; while 
it simply rests upon the top of the sealed doors, thus indicating an- 
other construction. The outside of every lintel of the cells is en- 
graved with a Roman number, while no such thing is found on the 
sealed doors. Looking at the brick wall we perceive that the sealed 
doors were cut after it was built, and any person having knowledge 
of construction will recognize the cutting of the old bricks, the small 
portions of the new brickwork used to fill up the break, and the 
smoothing of the new plaster. 

Let us now go to the Canal della Paglia, to observe that portion 
of the facade of the palace, to which correspond the above-mentioned 





prisons. They are comprised between the two large landings ; one 
of the diamond-pointed stones, decorating the basement of the palace, 
is cut into a window, and it is through it that light is admitted into 
the corridor of the lower prison. In this same corridor are the sealed 
doors, which being cut in the wall on the side of the larger landing, 
once gave admission to its atrium. A most curious and puzzling 
thing ! and in order to explain it we must study the plan of the 
place. A plan which is directly to the purpose is one drawn in the 
year 1580, when the new prisons were to be erected upon the oppo- 
site side of the canal, and kept in the Library Marciana. On this 
plan, the Pozzi are inscribed " Prisons of the Chiefs of the Council 
of Ten," and we see also there, that the two doors communicated with 
the atrium of the landing; in the drawing one-half of the atrium is 
closed, and divided by partitions on which is written " Garden of 
the Prisons." The other half of the atrium is open, and inscribed 
" Riva " (landing). 

The existence of the two doors in the wall separating the prisons 
from the atrium may now be explained. We know that the Garden 
was the mildest prison of the Ten ; the name was perhaps given to 
it as a jest upon its mildness, being airy and light, while the cells 
were all in darkness; so we find on the 30th of April, 1599, one Ser 
Zuane Boldri imploring the chiefs of the Council to be returned to 
the " Giardino," from which he had been taken and put al scuro (in 
the dark). We may therefore believe that, when about 1550, this 
portion of the Palace was built, and with it the prisons of the Ten, 
which were afterwards named the Pozzi, it was found there was not 
space enough to put the prisoners while the cells were being aired, 
and that they stood in need of a commodious landing upon the canal. 
One-half of the large atrium, which is close by, was therefore closed, 
and through the old partition-wall the two doors were opened, one of 
which led to the " Riva," and the other one gave admission to a large 
room, which was named the " Garden." In the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, when the new prisons on the opposite side of 
the canal were built, the atrium being then reopened, the two doors 
were closed as we find them. The doors were made to meet the 
ordinary wants of a jail, and with the intention of giving an airing 
to the prisoners; both the art of opening and closing them after- 
wards when the new prisons were built, tells us of a human feeling 
which accompanied the inflexible justice of the Venetian Republic. 

In order to ascertain the level of the lower prisons, I measured the 
height from the pavement of the corridor to the small aperture made 
in the diamond-pointed stone of the basement of the faQade on the 
canal ; and comparing this measure with that of the outside from the 

same window to the high-water mark, I found that the pavement is 
one metre and five centimetres above it. 

Nicolini, the tragic writer, who, together with so many poets and 
historians of the beginning of the century, contributed to disseminate 
among the general public erroneous ideas concerning the Venetian 
Republic, which had fallen but a short time before, wrote regarding 
these prisons : 

.... " The livid wave 

That lies languidly between the palace of evil omen and the prisons 
Sighs suspended over the miserable heads, and shuts cut the echo, 
Which repeats only the sounds of sorrow." 

These writings will however retain a value for their poetical beauty, 
and remain as evidence of the current ideas of the writers, as Sterne 
called Locke's " Essay upon the Human Understanding " " a his- 
tory book of what passes in a man's own mind." But if there is any 
one left who believes the prisons are under ground, or even on a 
level with the canal, he may convince himself they are on the same 
height as the pavements of the atriums, and therefore higher than 
most ground floors of buildings of the present day ; yet see what ab- 
surdities have been current about them ! 

And fancy was not only at work about the closed doors, but as we 
said before, the cells acquired new importance through the names 
which were given them : it might not be superfluous to say that 
the Count of Carmagnola was shut up in the Forte, a prison which 
was on the sea side of the palace, over one hundred years before the 
prisons of the Ten were built, and that the Doge Faliero was still one 
century anterior to Carmagnola. 

The step of the corridor, and the holes in the walls are traces of 
a railing to shut off the head of the corridor; in the small niche a 
lamp was placed, there were also many others for the purpose of 
lighting the prisons ; and through the holes of the stone beyond the 
railing, the daily cleaning was accomplished. A lamp, a railing, and 
something else should not seem out of place in a prison. 



0NE of the most important 
points affecting the interests 
of the building trade and of 
building owners that have for a 
long time occupied the attention 
of a court of justice arose in the 
action of Gooding vs. the Local 
Board of Health for Ealing, tried 
a few days ago in the Queen's 
Bench Division, before Mr. Jus- 
tice Mathew, without a jury. In 
April of the present year, the 
plaintiff in the action contem- 
plated the erection of some shops, 
houses, and a lecture-hall in the 
Broadway, Ealing, and he accor- 
dingly sent plans of the proposed 
buildings to the defendants, and 
a , so gave no(ice (0 the defem ] an |. s 

of his intention to erect the buildings. The notice was given on a 
printed form supplied by the defendants, at the bottom of which was 
a foot-note : " See Regulations over." The plaintiff signed the 
notice, and observed this foot-note, but he did not read the " Regula- 
tions " referred to by it. On the back of the notice was printed a 
" Regulation " in these words, " All plans deposited will be retained 
in the surveyor's office for record." The plaintiff had also signed 
similar notices before. The defendants disapproved of the plaintiff's 
plans, and he was informed by them of that fact; but he was not in- 
formed by them in what respect the plans had not conformed with 
the by-laws, and when he wrote to them asking for information on 
the subject, they refused to give any such information. The plain- 
tiff then demanded a return of his plans, and as this was also refused, 
he brought an action for their detention, and the question arose at 
the time whether an Urban Sanitary Authority, acting under the 
Public Health Act, 1875 (38 and 39 Viet. c. 55), has power to retain 
plans, although they may have disapproved of the erection of the 
contemplated buildings. The sum to the paid to the architect was 
stated to be about 150; but this sum included his commission, and 
it did not appear what the cost of the plans alone would have been. 
It was contended on the plaintiff's behalf that there was nothing in 
the Act just mentioned which would give the defendants a right to 
retain the plans. The one hundred and fifty-seventh section of the 
Act empowers every urban sanitary authority to make by-laws respect- 
ing new buildings, and to provide for the observance of such by-laws 
by enacting therein such provisions as they may think necessary, as to, 
amongst other things, the deposit of plans and sections by persons 
intending to lay out streets, or to construct buildings; but this sec- 
tion, it was argued, gave no power to make a by-law which would 
deprive an intending builder of his plans altogether, and it was 
further urged that the "regulation" under which the defendants 
claimed the right to retain the plans was not contained in any by- 
law, and could not, therefore, have the force of a by-law. It WHS 
likewise contended that, although it might be reasonable that the 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 472. 

defendants would have power to retain the plans for purposes sub- 
servient to the Act, as, for instance, if they approved of them, to see 
that the work was carried out in accordance with them, it was not 
reasonable that they should retain them when they had disapproved 
of them. 

Mr. Justice Mathews was, however, of opinion that the "regula- 
tion " at the back of the notice as to the retention of the plans, was 
sufficiently brought to the plaintiff's attention, and that the provision 
made by it was reasonable. Judgment was accordingly entered for 
the defendants with costs. 

We are unable, whilst entertaining the fullest respect for the 
learned judge, to regard this decision as being otherwise than erro- 
neous and eminently unsatisfactory. The plaintiff has, we believe, 
since the action was commenced, sent in other plans, which the 
defendants have approved of, and has constructed his buildings, so 
that it is possible that the case may not be carried to a higher court ; 
but the question involved is, nevertheless, of such general interest 
and importance that we deem it desirable to direct special attention 
to it. If the decision of the learned judge in this case be correct, 
builders and building-owners in general may find themselves exposed 
to the inlliction of a serious burden; for, what one sanitary authority 
may legally do under the statute, referred to, all other sanitary 
authorities may likewise do. 

We cannot but think, however, that the real issue in the case now 
under consideration was seriously obscured if indeed it was not 
almost entirely lost sight of in consequence of the introduction of 
questions of secondary importance, such as the bringing of the " reg- 
ulation" to the attention of the plaintiff, and the reasonableness of 
the provision made by it. With regard to these points, the suspi- 
cion, we must confess, forces itself irresistibly upon us, that some 
confusion must have arisen both in the minds of the counsel and of 
the judge, between the case under discussion and certain cases which 
have been decided by the courts, from time to time, with reference to 
conditions printed at the foot or on the back of railway contract- 
notes and tickets. To us, although we express the opinion with all 
respect for the view adopted by the learned judge, these cases 
appear to have little or no bearing upon the present case, and the 
reasonableness of the regulation and the calling the plaintiff's atten- 
tion to it to be quite beside the real issue. The real issue, and 
indeed the onlv issue properly involved in the case, appears to us to 
have been whether the " Regulation " printed on the back of the 
notice signed by the plaintiff, when lie deposited his plans, was 
legally a by-law. In order that such a provision should amount to a 
bv-law, it would be necessary, we apprehend, that the terms of the 
Public Health Act, 1875, should have been complied with. On re- 
ferring to the one hundred and fifty-seventh section of that Act, 
which lias been already quoted, it will be found that the provisions 
which urban sanitary authorities are empowered to make for the 
observance of the by-laws which the same section authorizes them to 
make, are to be enacted "therein"; that is to say, they must be 
enacted in the by-laws themselves. But the "regulation" in ques- 
tion was not contained in any by-law, and was not even referred to 
by any by-law ; it was simply printed at the back of the form of 
notice of his intention to build, which the plaintiff was called upon 
to fill up and to sign upon depositing his plans; and although the 
foot-note on the face of this form called attention to the "regulation" 
at the back, it surely could not be correctly contended that the 
"regulation" would be binding upon the plaintiff, however pointedly 
his attention may have been directed to it, or however reasonable it 
might appear in its terms to be, if it was beyond the power of the 
authority to make such a " regulation," or if the statutory require- 
ments respecting it had not been complied with. The one hundred 
and eighty-fifth section of the Act provides, moreover, that by-laws 
made by a local authority under the powers conferred by the Act 
shall not take effect unless and until they have been submitted to 
and confirmed by the local Government Board, an enactment which 
had clearly not been complied with as regarded the "regulation " in 
question, inasmuch as it was not contained in any of the by-laws 
made by the defendants, and which appears to us to make strongly 
against the validity of the " regulation," and against its being binding 
on the plaintiff. Nor can we quit our notice of this case without 
referring to the high-handed course adopted by the defendants in 
refusing to afford the plaintiff any information as to the grounds 
upon which his plans had been disapproved. It is obvious that such 
a course may involve great hardship and injustice; but we believe it 
to be also wholly opposed to the spirit and intention, if not to the 
express letter, of the statute above-mentioned. The one hundred 
and fifty-eighth section of the Act declares that where a notice, plan, 
or description of any work is required by any by-law made by an 
urban sanitary authority to be laid before that authority, the author- 
ity shall, within one month after the same has been delivered or sent 
to tlieir surveyor or clerk, signify in writing their approval or disap- 
proval of the intended work to the person proposing to execute the 
same. It is, we believe, the law that a mere disapproval is of no 
avail if the person depositing plans, or the like, can show that no 
by-law has been disobeyed ; but it is obvious that if a bald notice of 
mere disapproval is to be held a sufficient compliance with the terms 
of the statute in the section just quoted, no person could have a 
proper opportunity, either of correcting any defect, omission, or 
error that might have been made in the plans or other documents 
deposited, or of showing that no by-law had, in fact, been disobeyed. 
Building News. 


TTLL who have heard of the 
r\ Castle of Heidelberg, or 
/ heard of its beauty and 
deep historic interest, will 
learn with regret that immi- 
nent danger threatens this 
ruin. In view of the pres- 
ent danger one almost for- 
gets the days of 1622, when 
the Thirty Years' War 
broke relentlessly upon this 
citadel of the Palatinate. 
The destruction then, as 
well as that which followed 
in 1689 and 1693, seem but 
the precursors of what is now 
coming. If the destruction 
at that time had been one of 
the inevitable attendants up- 
on honorable warfare our 
regret would be less, but it 
is impossible, even at this 
remote day, to pardon the 
treachery which, by a secret 
breach of promise, succeeded 

in blowing up the towers of the building, although, happily, failing 
in several cases. Moreover, not content with the sacking and py*te- 
matic firing of the remainder of the palace, there ensued a brutal 
massacre of the panic-stricken inhabitants, suddenly aroused by the 
sight of the flames bursting out of the windows of the castle where 
long had dwelt their princes. It seems almost incredible that to cel- 
ebrate this cowardly but terrible destruction, the conqueror Louis 
XIV, should have caused a brilliant Te Deum to be sung, and sev- 
eral coins to be struck, on one of which is to be seen his own portrait, 
with the legend " Litdovicus Magnus Rex Christianissimun," and a 
representation of Heidelberg burning, accompanied by the exulting 
phrase, Heidelberga delela. In the following century the adverse 
elements brought still further destruction to the castle. " On St. 
John's day, June 24, 1764," reports the journal of an old citizen of 
Heidelberg, " at 3 o'clock in the morning, the castle was struck by 
lightning, and so great a conflagration ensued that upon the same 
day, which was Sunday, the great octagonal tower and the wing 
toward town, even down to the church were on fire. All the wood- 
work above the Ritter Saal was soon reduced to ashes; from the 
flames there was no deliverance. On Monday the castle was still 
burning, several persons were injured, and the citizens had to be on 
duty day and night. On Tuesday, the fire somewhat abated, and on 
Wednesday, the peasants could be sent in to clean out the ruins." 
After this disastrous storm the hope was given up which had been 
entertained by Carl Theodor of making the castle once more the 
seat of Government. Vegetables were planted, and grain was sown 
in parts of the grounds, many statues were removed from their nooks 
to the new pleasure gardens laid out at Sohwetzingen, while the des- 
olate ruin itself was given up for more than half a century to be a 
common quarry. 

But notwithstanding the most strenuous efforts to prevent it, a 
destroyer more insiduous than any others has attacked the ruin in 
late years. On building the railroad which opens up the valley of 
the Neckar, the projectors of the road estimated that, instead of car- 
rying it along the river bank, it would be cheaper to conduct the 
track through the mountain on which stands the castle. Hence that 
disastrous tunnelling was begun, which remonstrances on the part of 
all Heidelberg could not prevent. The use of powder in excavating 
this formidable tunnel shook with tremendous force the very rocks 
on which had rested, hitherto securely, the great building. Had this 
disturbance occurred, once for all, the danger might have been slight. 
But it was only the beginning of a succession of earthquakes pro- 
duced by the ponderous freight trains which now continuously rush 
through the dark tunnel, making the hoary structure quiver afresh 
at every ominous warning. How great the damage already done is 
apparent to every one. In the massive walls of that part of the cas- 
tle built by Frederick V for his bride, Elizabeth of England, there 
may now be seen a yawning cavity so closely resembling an arch that 
a casual glance would lead one to suppose that the architecture here 
at least is sound. But more careful observation and perchance a 
falling block from the region of the supposed keystone, will convince 
one that this gap is but a terrible mockery of the true arch, and tells 
of the ruthless destruction caused by the railroad. The extent of the 
mischief done will, however, only be discovered by those privileged 
to be escorted through the ruins. In the building termed the Enlisch 
Bau the ruin going on is most apparent. Here, the massive and 
beautifully-cut stones are slowly but too surely breaking away. Fee- 
ble iron clamps inserted, and themselves now yielding, are all that 
hold these indispensable facings to the coarse inner masonry. After 
every frost, and even after every gentle snowfall, there drop from the 
facade of the Otto Heinrich's Bau, those beautifully-carved and deftly- 
shapen bits of sculpture which clothe this structure with its charms. 
These fragments strewing the ground each winter and spring have 
always been carefully collected and preserved. But still more immi- 
nent, although less evident to the unpractised eye, is the danger 

JANUABY 10, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


threatening the old clock-tower. In this apparently so stable build- 
ing, architects tell us that the great central pillar supporting the 
whole structure is already tottering, and that we need not be sur- 
prised at any moment to see the stately tower come crashing to the 

Is this destruction to be allowed its own free play ? Are these 
majestic ruins to be inevitably swept from their sunny heights ? are 
questions which come with great force to every one who has ever 
heard of Heidelberg Castle. That faithful band, the Schlossverein, 
led by the architect Seitz, has already succeeded in rousing the tardy 
Chambers of Baden, and the Grand Duke, who has long seconded 
the wishes of the citizens of Heidelberg, is now aided by his people. 
In March, 1883, the Chambers appointed two working bodies, to be 
subject to the Department of Finance. One of these, termed the 
Bau-bureau des Heidelberger Schlosses, is the active member of this 
trio, and in April, 1883, took its seat in the castle itself, occupying 
those parts which served originally as servants' and housekeeping 
quarters, and have latterly been rented to English tourists. The task 
at present set before these workers composed of two skilled archi- 
tects, an engineer, a sculptor, and a geologist, with their assistants 
is simply to make a thorough diagnosis of the malady from which the 
old castle is suffering. The remedy must of necessity be a matter of 
the future. Exact drawings of every part, comprising horizontal as 
well as perpendicular projections, are being made in the proportion 
of 1:10. In these the places ruined are marked by blue shading, and 
the stonecutter's marks, as well as the dimensions of the different 
blocks, are all noted. Especially important stones or parts of walls 
are, besides, marked with numbers, and then particularly described, 
while all architectural or sculptural ornament is represented in its 
actual size, and accompanied by an accurate account of the nature of 
the stone, and of its present condition. In addition to such detailed 
plans general views are also made, and in a separate paper are 
summed up all the important technical as well as historical points 
discovered in the course of investigation. The work accomplished 
by these agencies during one year is astonishing, and but too well 
confirms the fear of danger. In January last, 66,000 marks were 
unanimously voted by the Chambers of Baden toward covering the 
expense of these investigations, any surplus to be applied to the 

The universal interest felt in this rare creation, raises its safety to 
the high level of an international cause. To a wider public, the 
Schlossverein (hitherto admitting only residents of Heidelberg) has 
therefore now thrown open its doors. The castle asks for only one- 
twelfth of the sum which was raised for the completion of the Co- 
logne Cathedral, and as the necessary funds for that great monument 
were brought together by thousands of small subscriptions, so the 
Schlossverein proposes, by greatly increasing its membership, to aid 
in the salvation of the castle. An annual subscription of 3 marks 
(75 cents) constitute an ordinary member, and the payment of 50 
marks ($12.50) a life member. To all who thus become members of 
the society it sends an annual report of the transactions, thereby 
keeping up a lively interest in the work. In Heidelberg, the bank- 
ing-hou.-e of Kistner & Co. offered their services, and in New York, 
that of Knauth, Nachod & Kuhne. Lucy M. Mitchell in the New 
York Times. 


WATERTOWN, N. Y, December 23, 1884. 

Dear Sirs, Should the cost of the architects' plans be estimated 
in making up the cost of a building, upon which he would get a per- 
centage for his plans, when full professional services were rendered ? 
By answering the above, you will oblige J. W. GRIFFIN. 

[THE architects' percentage is reckoned on the cost, exclusive of his own 


ST. Louis, December 29, 1884. 

Dear Sirs, The proceedings of Congress have so rarelv a dis- 
tinctly professional interest for architects that the measure lately 
proposed to place American architects on the same footing in respect 
to Government buildings which their brethren enjoy in France, will 
perhaps take them so by surprise that they may fail to give it the 
attention it deserves. This is substantially the effect of the bill 
wliidi the Hon. S. M. Stockslager, of Indiana, presented before the 
House of Representatives, on the 4th inst., and which the American 
Architect has printed in full in its last issue. 

The author of this bill has laid it before the architects of the coun- 
try, doubtless, to invite such comment or suggestion of amendment 
as may conduce to its successful operation in case it should become a 
law. The bill seems practical as a whole, and generally well 
matured. Careful reading suggests, here and there, a change which 
might perhaps be advantageous. 

For example: while the Supervising Architect is a subordinate of 
thu Treasury Department, he is to be appointed, not by the head of 
that department, but by the President, subject to the consent of the 
Senate. Again, the Supervising Architect must have a chief assist- 

ant, but cannot select him ; this must be done by the Secretary of the 
Treasury. Doubtless, in five cases out of six, these appointments 
would in fact be made by their respective superiors, the President 
consulting the Secretary of the Treasury in naming the Supervising 
Architect, and the Secretary in turn consulting the Architect as to 
his chief assistant. By a slight change in the bill, this very natural 
and rather necessary mode of appointment would become the legal 

Then, since the office of Supervising Architect has no political 
bearings (or should have none), why require the consent of the Sen- 
ate to his appointment? Give the Secretary of the Treasury full 
power to select the Supervising Architect, and make him solely 
responsible; then let the Supervising Architect alone appoint all hia 
subordinates, and hold him alone responsible. That is, simply invest 
Government officials with the same powers and responsibilities which 
obtain in business life, and which are found necessary everywhere. 

If the appointment of Supervising Architect could be made for 
life, dependent only on competency and good behavior, and subject 
to removal only for sufficient cause, on conviction before a suitable 
court, it would be likely greatly to elevate the range of ability avail- 
able for this office. Such an honorable and secure position, even at 
the moderate salary of five thousand dollars a year, would have its 
attraction tor not a few able and experienced men ; but they would 
most certainly decline to give up their private practice for the 
rewards of a political office lasting but four years, even at a consid- 
erably larger compensation. Need it be remarked that this bill 
should be so framed as to place at the service of the Government, for 
its Supervising Architect, the best professional talent and highest 
personal integrity in the country ? 

Then is it not very greatly to the interest of the Government that 
the incumbency of this olfice should be as permanent as it can pos- 
sibly be, that it may constantly receive the accumulating benefit 
which every year of additional experience will give its architect? 
Men do not hasten to discharge their book-keepers, their foremen, 
their physicians, as soon as their experience begins to avail them. 
Why change to a new architect every four years, particularly when 
the Supervising Architect is no longer to do all the designing of Gov- 
ernment work, but is to be chiefly engaged in supervising, as his title 
imports ? 

Turning to Section 4, we find that the plans received in competi- 
tion for public buildings are to be submitted to a Board consisting of 
the Postmaster-General, Attorney-General, Chief Engineer of the 
Army, Supervising Architect, and an outside architect selected by 
the President. The Secretary of the Treasury is not included in 
this Board, although the buildings proposed are to be erected under 
his direction, and his experience or that to be found in his depart- 
ment would make his judgment valuable. Undoubtedly there would 
be frequent need to consult him on occasion of each competition, and 
were his name to be substituted for that of the Attorney-General, 
would it not be an improvement ? 

The American Architect has already pointed out the unreasonable- 
ness of the sliding scale of compensation proposed in Section 6, 
which reduces the percentage in proportion as the cost of the build- 
ing increases. The same section proposes an award of six prizes to 
unsuccessful designs " amounting in the aggregate to not more than 
one per centum down to one-half of one per centum, according to 
another sliding scale. By this scale the average reward to an unsuc- 
cessful competitor for a carefully-prepared design, completely worked 
out in every detail, so that its author can guarantee the cost to fall 
within the limit assigned, will be from one-sixth to one-twelfth of one 
per centum. Is it not broadly humorous to designate such a reward 
"a prize?" And what class of architects is such liberality in the 
way of temptations likely to call into activity ? 

It is not necessary that there should be six prizes beside the first 
choice. Four would be enough, or even three; but the amount 
offered for a prize should be sufficient for its purpose, or nona 
should be offered at all. Three to four per centum on the cost 
of the building, without any sliding scale, would be as little as could 
answer the purpose of a prize fund for the designs here regarded. 

Section 7 provides for advertising a competition for seven weeks 
beforehand. Were the building in question a grammar-school, or a 
block of stores, or a dwelling, and were the best architects likely to 
be much at leisure when the advertisement was made, and chanced 
to see the first copy, and were the prizes offered large enough to 
stimulate to enthusiastic effort, seven weeks might perchance be 
enough for the well-matured designs required. But Government 
work is apt to be of a complicated and unusual character; the best 
architects are most apt to be the busiest ones, too busy, often, to see 
the advertisement till it has run some weeks; the modesty of the 
prizes has already been noted. 

Probably the result would be that the day of decision would be 
postponed after its first announcement, and even then every one 
would perceive that much more time should be allowed. This would 
seem to be a matter which might best be left within the discretion of 
the Board which directs the competition in other respects. If there 
be a class of work in this country where every consideration would 
seem to urge the most ample allowance of time for its maturest 
development while in the designer's hands, it should be the costly 
structures which the national Government erects as visible monu- 
ments of its greatness and majesty. Six months would be little 
enough time in a busy season. 

Again, this bill requires the Board to abandon the plan selected in 


The American Architect and Building News. [ VOL. XVII. No. 472. 

a successful competition if the author shall fail to furnish the work- 
ing-drawings in full by the time appointed. Now the architect may 
die, or he may be sick, or for some other reason unable to deliver the 
working-drawings as required. Yet his design may remain much the 
best of all submitted, and the Board might be able to procure the 
working-drawing from some other source, if permitted. This would 
appear" to be preferable to requiring the abandonment of a fine 
design, simply because its author could not himself supply the work- 
in<*-drawings. Probably the Supervising Architect could in his own 
department find draughtsmen able to elaborate working details from 
a selected design of the kind which these competitions are expected 
to elicit, in case of emergency. 

When advertising for bids, it might be well to submit, with the 
plans and specifications, a blank form of contract, so that bidders 
would be fully informed as to what will be required of them if suc- 

Section 21 provides for the punishment of the Supervising Archi- 
tect, on conviction of malfeasance in olfice, by fine, and, at the dis- 
cretion of the court, by imprisonment for not more than two years. 
In the latter case it wo'uld seem very desirable that the punishment 
should involve his dismissal from olfice. 

Very respectfully, C. E. ILLSLEY. 


NEW YORK, N. Y., December 29, 1884. 

Dear Sirs, Will you kindly inform me on the following points. 
In vour issue of October 4, you describe the Lawrence building, as 
floored with four-inch splimd spruce; what is the special meaning 
of the word? In what width was this plank used? 

I have seen in your paper, mention of a pamphlet or article by 
Mr. T. M. Clark, on school-house construction, included, I think, in 
some Government report. Exactly what report should one apply 
for, in order to obtain it. Very truly yours, 


n. SPRPCK planks to be splined are grooved on both edges, and a hard- 
wood slip inserted .vhau tb ; planks are put together. This is done iustead 
of tonguing an I grooving, to avoid the wa<ta of material involved in form- 
Ing a tongue ou a thick pie :d. Tue plants iu thaLwrence building run 
from six to uiue inches wide. 

2 The panvihlet ou school-home construction is known as Circular No. 
4, 1880 on "Karal School Architecture, 1 ' and can be hail, if iiotout of print, 
by addressing the Um-eau of Education, Washington, D. C. Eos. AMERI- 


HABTFORD, CONN., January 3, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, What advantages are gained by cambering up the 
iron tie-rods of long trusses, instead of keeping them horizontal ? 

2. Djes dry quicksand have any deleterious effect on lime, when 
mixed for building mortar? 

3. Which is preferable, river or sea sand, when both are of equal 

4. What is the best filling for air-tight spaces around an ice-box, 
charcoal, cement, or air ? L. M. N. 

[1. No advantage is gained except the extra height under the tie-rod. 

2. Quicksand would be just like any otiier sand for mortar, except that it 
mi^ht be clayey, and would often be too flue for miking good mjrtar. 

River sand is preferable, because it is free from salt. 

4. The best tilling is a spongy substance, like h:iir, felt, or cotton Where 
this' is used, the real non-conductor is the air entangled in the fibres; but as 
the air is thus prevented from circulating, and carrying heat to the ice by 
ronrectiuu from the outside, the fibrous muss is a m >re efficient non-con- 
ductor than the air without it. If a solid substance is desirable, plaster-of- 
FarU is much the best. EDS. AMERICAN AacmTECT.] 


A LONG WIRE-ROPE. At Cardiff, in Wales, has been manufactured 
a wire-rope, 2,30J fathoms or 2 miles and 108 yards, long. The weight 
is 21 1-2 tons. Nearly 100,030 faihoms of wire were consumed in its 
production. The rope is to be used in working trains in a terminal sta- 
tion at Glasgow. 

TUB VALUE OP REAL ESTATE IN HOME. The advance of real estate 
in Rome is no less remarkable than its enhancement in other capitals and 
great cities. The Constanzi Hotel and grounds, purchased a few years 
ago for $60,000, are to be sold to a body of Jesuits for 150,000. It 
adjoins the Sallust House, which latter was bought fifteen years ago by 
a German named Spithover. He gave, in instalments, $3,OJO for the 
property. At the present time it is estimated at $350,000. 

which were set out by the Evansville & Terre Haute Railroad Company 
two years ago are now about three inches in diameter, and in three 
years more will be large enough for cross-ties. Some five years ago a 
Lawrence (Mass.) gentleman planted a few catalpa seeds, and now has 
several beautiful trees fully eight feet tall, which this year blossomed 
for the first time. Catalpas have recently been set out in the Boston 
Public Garden, and large numbers of them are being raised in Iowa, 
the idea being to use the wood for fence-rails. These trees grow so 
rapidly that the matter of raising them from the seed or twig is well 
worthy the attention of all interested in forestry. 

THE PUBLIC BATHS OF VIENNA. The public baths of Vienna are 
said to be the finest in the world. The building is situated in the heart 
of the city, and encloses a basin 156 feet in width by 578 feet in length, 
and varying in depth to 12 feet. The enormous quantity of water co'n- 
tained in this basin is renewed three times a day. The whole establish- 
ment has accommodation for fifteen hundred persons, and is open from 
May 1 to October 31, and from five in the morning until dusk. There 
is also a bath restricted to ladies, open from nine in the morning until 
one ; and the Vienna ladies are especially good swimmers. Exchange. 

ATMOSPHERB. At the Theatre Royal, Munich, tests have been made 
to determine the elevation of temperature and the amount of carbonic 
acid under illumination of the house by gas and by electricity. The 
thermometer was observed every ten minutes during the performance, 
when there was, on an average, an attendance of between five hundred 
and six hundred persons. The readings of the thermometer indicated a 
much less increase of temperature for the electric than for gas-light. 
Further, it was proved that while the electric-light did not render ven- 
tilation unnecessary, a less active renewal of the air within the building 
was required than when gas-light was employed. 

SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. -^ A parliamentary paper has been 
issued, stating that it is estimated that the various gifts and bequests to 
the South Kensington Museum would, if sold at the time they were 
received, have brought about 1,000,000. From 1865 to 1832-3 inclu- 
sive, the amount expended in the purchase of objects of art (originals 
and reproductions) available both for the central museum and for circu- 
lation to the provinces, has been 302,148; that for purchases for the 
National Art Library has been 52.665. The value of the bequests thus 
far exceeds the sum expended out of the annual votes of the depart- 
ment. Since the museum was opened, in 1857, up to the end of 1883, 
22,675,912 persons had visited it. Exchange. 

has decided, in Harris vs. Schultz, that a mechanics' lien may be filed 
against a building for the lightning-rods put on it. Judge Beck, in the 
opinion, said : " These rods are not different in character or purpose 
from metallic gutters, or spouting, or iron anchors. All are designed to 
secure buildings against the elements and forces of nature. Lightning- 
rods are for protection against electricity, gutters and spouting for pro- 
tection against rain, and anchors to give security against wind. It can- 
not be claimed that gutters and spouting and anchors are not a part of 
the building; nor can such a claim be set up against lightning-rods. 
They clearly become essential parts of the building to which they are 
attached. The labor and materials used in their construction are done 
and furnished for the building in contemplation of the statue, for which 
a lien will attach." Metal- Worker. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. During the last year work has been in progress 
on forty-two new buildings, under the direction of the Supervising 
Architect, of which number sixteen have been begun, five completed, 
and two others practically completed. The expenditures during the 
year on all new buildings, including sites, have amounted to $2,772,- 
413.58; for repairs and preservation of public buildings, $16i,102.32 ; 
for heating, hoisting and ventilating apparatus, and repairs to same, 
$135,000; tor vaults, safes and locks, $30,362; and for storage of silver 
dollars, $85.402.32. The Supervising Architect, in his annual report, 
refers to three conditions which, under provisions of existing law, 
operate to the disadvantage of the Government, viz. : 1. The limit of 
cost of public buildings appears in many cases to have been fixed with- 
out sufficient regard to tiie needs of the public service in cities where 
the buildings are to be constructed. 2. The appropriations made from 
time to time within the limits of cost are often inadequate for the 
proper prosecution of the work after its beginning. 3. Under existing 
law, no contract can be made binding the Government to an expendi- 
ture in excess of an existing appropriation. The remedies suggested 
by the Supervising Architect commend themselves to my judgment. 
Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

THE CHANGE IN THE STRUCTURE OF IRON. For fourteen years State 
Geologist Collett has been experimenting upon a theory that the best of 
iron, when subjected to continuous strain, would undergo changes in 
its structure which would, after a time, render its use dangerous, and 
that these structural changes were the explanation of many otherwise 
inexplicable accidents, particularly to railway bridges. He has lately 
undertaken a systematic investigation, which lias resulted in a confirma- 
tion of his theory. For experiment he took from the Wabash dam, at 
Delphi, a number of bolts and spikes, which were, when the dam was 
constructed, of the best quality of malleable bar-iron, as is shown by 
the battering of the head when they were put into tiie structure. Of 
these bolts and spikes, he found that seventy per cent of the whole 
number were as weak as cast-iron, while ninety per cent of those which 
were near the bottom of the dam were worthless; yet of those which 
were rotten, the tips where inserted in immovable rocks were fibrous and 
strong. When broken they showed polished ends to the connecting 
fibres, indicating that the continued vibrations of many years had pol- 
ished and rounded the points of fibrous structure. A similar effect is 
found in " the partings " or " horsebacks " in coal-mines, which become 
polished and striated by the continuous quiver and motion of the crust 
of the earth. Dr. Collett says that all car-axles, after a reasonable run, 
become crystallized two-thirds of the length from the hub and one-third 
from the outside extremity, rendering them worthless. On one Indiana 
railroad bridge he found that the bottom parts of the vertical strain- 
pieces were crystallized for from two to four feet in length, and, as a 
precaution against what would inevitably have caused a great catas- 
trophe, they were replaced. The matter is one of great interest to rail- 
ways, and the specimens which Dr. Collett has collected in his experi- 
ments are to be sent to the Stevens Institute of Technology, where an 
investigation of the subject has been in progress for several years, by a 
scientist connected with the Institute. Exchange. 

JANUARY 10, 1885.] The American Architect and Building News. 23 


During the year 1885 a series of Gelatine Pi ints, (Heliotypes) photographed from the natural object, will be 

These gelatine prints will be issued once a month to those subscribers only who will pay a dollar extra 
for the twelve prints, 



REGULAR EDITION: $6.00 per year ; $3.50 per half year. 

GELATINE EDITION (the same as the regular edition, but includes 12 Gelatine Prints): $7.00 per 
year; $4.00 per half year. 

MONTHL Y EDITION (identical with the first weekly issue for each month, but contains no Gelatine 
Prints,) : Jt>I-75 pet year; $I.OO per half year. 


IT w.ll greatly simplify our book-keeping and prevent future complaint, if those of our 
present subscribers who (having already paid to various dates of 1885) wish to receive the 
gelatine plates will make their remittances cover the entire year to January 1, 1886, by re- 
mitting at the rate of fifty cents for each remaining month, in addition to the dollar for the 
gelatine prints. 

Example : X. whose subscription naturally would end October 1, 1886, should, if he desires 
the gelatine edition, remit $2.60 additional that is, 1.00 for the gelatine prints and fifty cents 
for each of the remaining months of the year. 

ADVERTISERS, whose contracts run through the entire year, receiving the American 
Architect free can secure the gelatine plates by remitting $1.00 for the entire year. 


The American Architect and Building News. [Voi. XVII. No. 472. 


(Reported for The American Architect and Building News.) 

[Although a large portion of the building inteUiqenot 
it provided by their regular correspondents, the editor! 
greatly desire to receive voluntary information, cape* 
Mllyfrom the smaller and outlying towns.] 


[Printed specifications of any patents here mentioned, 
together ttith full detail illustrations, may be obtained 
qfthe Commissioner of Patents, at Washington, for 
twenty-Jive cents.\ 

Cook, Owego, N. Y. 

BRICK. ETC. Richard B. Easou and John J. McGil- 
vey, New York, N. Y. 

309,619. FIRE-ESCAPE. Tobias Hamilton, Centre- 
field, O. 

Inman. Highland Park, 111. 

309,631. KNOB ATTACHMENT. Charles F. Lang- 
ford, Brooklyn, N. ST. 

309,633. DOOR. Frederick J. Lee, Oswego, Kans. 

309,636. WINDOW. Eugene D. Maun, New York, 
N. Y. 

309,646. SAW. Jasper L. Purple, Owego, N. Y. 

PIPES. Thomas Dark, Buffalo, N. Y. 

MENTS. Joseph Morwitz, Philadelphia, Pa. 

309,755. DIE-STOCK. Bruno Wesseluiau, Hamburg, 

309,757. ELEVATOR. James Berry, Buffalo, N.Y. 

309,763. SAW-FILING MACHINE. David Chambers, 
Hull, Quebec. 

Charles T. Davis, Baltimore, Md.. 

Poulson, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

309,811. RADIATOR. Thos. H. Williams and Sam- 
uel D. Tompkins, Jersey City, N. J., aud John N. Mat- 
lock, Brooklyn, N. J. 

309,813. SHUTTER-FASTENER. William H. Both- 
well, Philadelphia, Pa. 

309,819. WASH-BASIN AND BATH-TUB. Charles 
Colahan, Cleveland, O. 

309,822. COMBINED LOCK AND LATCH. Ransom D. 
Crane, Wincheudon, Mass. 

309,827. SLIDING DOOR. Edward Drake, Pratts- 
burg, N. Y. 

309,836. TILE-KILN. Lindsey C. Farnam, Niantic, 

309,846. PAINT. Jonathan H. Greene, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

N. Hutchins, Lawrence, Mass. 

309.857. WINDOW-SHADS. Walter F. Morgan and 
George Kauffmann, Leavenworth, Kans. 

309,868. AUGER. Holcomb Olson, Olesburg, Kans. 

309,887. RATCHET-BRACE. Amos Shepard, Plants- 
ville, Conn. 

309,902. BIT-STOCK. John Watson, Buffalo, N. Y. 

309,929. FIRE-ESCAPE. John E. Ciokey, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

309,932. DOOR-CHECK. Martin H. Crane Cincin- 
nati, O. 

MADE THEREOF. Nathaniel C. Fowler, Boston, Mass. 

Griinzweig and Paul Hartman, Ludwigshafen, Ger. 

309,963. LOCK. Ernest Korbel and Louis Kurz 
New York, N. Y. 

309,973. FILE. Ludwig Miiller, Dresden, Saxony, 


olai, Cincinnati, O. 

309,986. TILE-KILN. John W. Smith, Kilmore, 

SASHES. Tuos. S. Smith, New Haven, Conn. 

309.989. RATCHET-DRILL. Thomas P. Somes, Re- 
vere, Mass. 

309,993-994. SELF-CLOSING HATCHWAY. Richard 
D. Thackston, St. Louis, Mo. 



BUILDING PERMITS. Since our last report but two 
permits have been granted, which are as follows' 
Henry Brinkmeyer, three-st'y brick building, e s 

The whole number of permits granted i o the vear 
1884, was 3,208. 


SCHOOL-HOUSES. Following are the new school- 
buildings in process of construction, with the 
amount of appropriation for each, all of which are 
in various stages of progress: 

Grammar school-house, Bennett district; cost, 

Grammar school-house, Huntington Ave.; cost, 

Grammar school-house, Hammond St.; cost, $86,- 

Grammar school-house, Minot district; cost, $40,- 

Primary school-house, Blossom St.; cost 876 769 35 

Primary school-house, Brighton district; cost, 
87 ,600. 

Primary school-house, Harrison Ave.; cost, $50,- 

Primary school-house, Parker St.; cost, $35,000. 

Primary school-house, Prescott St.; cost, $8,000. 

The above-mentioued buildings are well advanced 
toward completion. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Dikeman St., s s, 276' e Van 
Brunt St., three-st'y frame (brick-filled) double ten- 
ement-house, tin roof; cost, $3,300; owner, Rosa 
McLaughlin, 73 Dikeman St.; architect, F. D. Van 

Jieid Ave., n e cor. Hancock St., three-st'y brown- 
stone store and tenement, tin roof; cost, $12,0''0; 
owner, Chas. H. Althaus, 178 Second Aye., New 
York; architect, Carl F. Eisehacb; builder, not 

WyckoffSt., n s, 50' w Nevins St., four-st'y brick 
tenement, tin roof; cost, $8,000; owner, Mrs. B. Mc- 
Guire, on premises; architect, R. Dixon; builder, 
Owen Nolan. 

York St., s w cor. Hudson Ave., two-st'y brick 
store and dwell., tin roof; cost, $4,900; owner, Mrs. 
Mary T. Donohue, 186 Herkimer St.; builders, Ed- 
ward T. Rutan and James Sheriden. 

Steuben St., e s, 400' n Park Ave ., three-st'y brick 
tenement, tin roof; cost, $6,000; owner, Mrs. Coyle, 
25Schenck St.; architect, E. F. Gaylor; mason, Jas. 

North Elliott PI., e s, 279' s Park Ave., 11 three- 
st'y brick tenements, tin roofs; cost, each, $6,200; 
owner, Bryant McAleveney, 992 Bergen St.; archi- 
tect, F. D. Van Pelt. 

Hudson Ave., w s, 50' 8" s Concord St., four-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) tenement, tin roof; cost, abt. 
$6,000; owner, Jas. L. Dougherty, 625 Fulton St.; ar- 
chitect, Chas. E. Hebbard. 

Woodbine St., s s, 275' e Broadway, two-st'y frame 
(brick-filled) dwell., tin roof; cost, $3,000; owner, J. 
Esquirol, Woodbine St.; architect, Th, Engeluardt. 

Many Ave., e s, 20' s Rutledge St., 3 four-st'y 
brick tenements, tin roofs, irou cornices; cost, each, 
$8,500; owner and builder, Henry Grasinan, 112 
Marcy Ave.; architect, Frank Holmberg. 

Forest St., s w cor. Evergreen Ave., flve-st'y brick 
brewery, slate and tin roof; cost, 814,000; owner, S. 
Liebmann's Sons, Forest St., cor. Bremen St.; archi- 
tect; Th. Eugelhardt; builder, U. Maurer. 

Melrose St., No. 24, s e, 250' e Evergreen Ave., 
three-st'y frame tenement, tin roof; cost, $3,600; 
owner and builder, Chas. Gossinan, 36 Ellery St.; ar- 
chitect, E. Schrempf. 

Conselyea St., No. 179, n s, 200' e Graham Ave., 
three-st'y tenement, tin roof; cost, $6,800; owner 
D. Weber, 156 Grand St.; architect, A. Herbert. 

Broadway, n s, 60' w Van Buren St., three-st'y 
frame store and dwell., tin roof; cost, $3,500; own- 
er, A. C. Beardsley, No. 1159 Broadway; architect, 
F. Halmberg; builiier, not selected. 


Cha , 7 , _. 

berg; builders^ H. Bruchhaus'er and jTRuegerT" " 
ALTERATIONS. North Eleventh St., n w cor. Third 
St., repairs, new chimney, etc.; cost, $5,000; owner, 
D. C. Bobbins, 29 Monroe PI.; architect, W. Dobson; 
builders, Burns & McCann and C. Dankhasse. 

fort Greene I'l., No. 201, two-st'y brick extension 
gravel roof; cost, $3,000; owner, J. G. Burckle, 469 
West Thirty-fourth St., New York; architect, C. 

First St., Nos. 180 and 182, No. 180, new front only; 

Gaylor; builders, Jos. Rod well and Samuel Hough. 

Court St., n e cor. Butler St., new store front, 
also interior alterations; cost, $3,500; owner, M. 
Toomey, Twenty-eighth St., New York; architects 
and builders, M. Freeman's Sons. 


BUILDING PERMITS. A. Hierman, three-st'y flats 
245 Noble St.; cost, $4,000. 

Imperial Building Co., four-st'y store and offlce- 
buildiugs, 258 South Clark St.; cost, $100,000; archi- 
tect, L. G. Halborg; builder, John Griffiths. 

P. Hayes, two-st'y dwell., 713 North Clark St.; 
cost, $3,000; builder, P. Hayes. 

Mrs. C. Thomas, three-st'y flats, 12 Page St.; cost, 
$10,000; architect, Wilson & Moodry; builder, W. H 

Mary E. Sands, 6 two-st'y dwells., 862-872 West 
Adams St. ; cost, $12,000. 

Mrs. A. M. Parker, two-st'y dwell., 3667 Michigan 
Ave.; cost, $9,000; architect, S. J. Pierce; builder, 
W. H. Sliif. 

New York. 

THE business in building interests at the present 
moment is at a standstill, and architects are only 
making preliminary^)lans. 

BUILDING PERMITS. Stanton St., No. 229 flve-st'y 
brick tenement and store, tin roof; cost, $15,000; 
ow^s^, Adam Wetzler, 229 Stanton St.; architect, 

tects, A. B. Ogden & Son. 

Fiftieth St., a s, 200' w Ninth Ave., five-st'y brick 
tenement, tin roof; cost, $21,000; owner, Deborah 
Rosens" 1 ""!: 72 Kodney St '' Brooklyn; architect, K. 

Third Ave., n e cor. Forty-first St., flve-st'y briok 
tenement and store, tin roof; cost, $20,000; owner 
and architect, Jos. Spears, 2281 Third Ave.; build- 
ers, J. & W. C. Spears. 

Second Ave., w >, 75' s One Hundred and Fifteenth 
tw'nnn? 7 brick , 8 . tore a "d dwell., tin roof; eost, 

architect. J. C. Burne. 

Fifty-sixth St., B s, 100' e Ninth Ave., 4 flve-st'y 
brown-stone apartment-houses, tin roofs; cost $30 - 
000; owner, Charles Riley; architect, J. C. Burne ' 

One Hundred and Thirty-seventh St., No. 610, four- 
Bt y brick tenement, tin roof; cost, $16,000; owner 
Mrs. Mary Woods, 533 East One Hundred and 
third St.; architect, J. C. Bnrne. 

Eighty-first St., s s, 73' e Ave. A, flve-st'y brick 
tenement, tin roof; cost, $10,500; owner C. Haen- 
schen, Jr., 114 East One Hundred and Fifteenth St.; 
architect, John Brandt. 

Ave. C, Nos. 43, 45 and 47, one-st'y brick church 
slate roof; cost, $30,000; owner, St. John the Bap- 
tist Foundation, Francis H. Weeks, Treasurer, 11 
East Twenty-fourth St.; architect, Henry VauEhan- 
builders, D. C. Weeks & Son. 

Seventy-sixth St., n s, 328' w Ninth Ave., 12 four- 
Bt'y brown-stone front dwells., tin roofs; cost, total 
$210,000; owner, John S. Kelso, Jr. 30 East Twenty- 
second St.; architect, Wm. A. Cable; builder, Geo. 
E. Broas. 

Railroad Ave., e s, 190' 4" n One Hundred and 
Sixty-ninth St., two-st'y frame dwell., tin roof; cost, 
$4,500; owner, George Hey, 331 Broome St.; archi- 
tect, Julius Boekell. 

Ryer Ave., e s, 225' n One Hundred and Eighty- 
second St., two-st'y frame dwell.; gravel roof; cost, 
$2,500; owner, Drusilla Lynch, 312 West One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-fifth St.; architect and builder, E. C. 

One Hundred and Fifty-seventh St., n s, 200' n 
Tenth Ave-., three-st'y frame dwell., tin roof, cost, 
$4,000; owner and builder, C. R. Terwilliger, One 
Hundred and Fifty-sixth St., near Tenth Ave.; 
architect. H. Kreitler. 

West Tenth St., Nos. 270, 272anrf 244, four-st'y and 
attic brick school-house, tin roof; cost, $70 000; 
owner, City of New York, Stephen A. Walker, Pres- 
ident Board of Education, 8 East Thirtieth St.; 
architect, D. I. Stagg. 

Jay St., s e cor. Caroline St., 2 six-st'y brick stores 
aud lofts, metal roofs; cost, each, $21,000; owner 
Patrick Skelly, 137 West Fifteenth St.; architect, 
John B. Snook; builder, John Fish. 

One Hundred and Sixty-fifth St., n s, 25> e Tiffany 
St., one-st'y frame dwell., shingle roof; eost, $2,500: 
owner, Ada A. Morgan, 419 East Seventy-eighth St., 
architect, J. N. Gillespie. 

Ninety-first St., ns, 94' e First Ave., four-st'y brick 
factory, gravel roof; cost, $15,000; owner, John J. 
Schilliuger, 420 East Ninety-second St.; architects, 
A. B. Ogden & Son. 

Macdouyal St., No. 52, flve-st'y brick teneme nt, 
tin roof; owner, John P. Schweikert, 409 West Fifty- 
first St. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Ashmead St., between Main 
aud Wakefield Sts., 2 two-st'y dwells., 16' x 40'; also, 
three-st'y dwell., 15' x 26', Main. St., cor. Cumber- 
laud St.; Jno. D. Caldwell, contractor. 

Twenty-fifth St., above Masted St., three-st'y 
store and dwell., 16' x 45'; Jno. G. Ruff, contractor. 

Eleventh St., u w cor. Chestnut St., extensive 
front and interior alterations; Allen B. Rorke, con- 

BUILDING operations in Philadelphia during the past 
year showed great activity. The total number of 
new structures erected was 4,298, against 3727 In 
1883, and 2220 in 1882. 

St. Louis. 

BUILDING PERMITS. Fifteen permits have been 
issued since our last report, eight of which are 
for unimportant frame houses, of the rest, those 
worth $2,500 and over are as follows: 

A. R. Ennis, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $4,900; 
Ennis & Swope, contractors. 

C. Balfer, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $2,500; A. 
Wagener, contractor. 

Wm. Murphy, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $3,000; 
Wm. Murphy, contractor. 

William Stutz, 4 adjacent two-st'y dwells.; cost, 
$8.000; Hermann & Schumacher, contractors. 

M. S. Gray, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $8,500; Jno. 
Mahon, contractor. 

C. Hackeineier, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $8,000; 
Aug. Beiuke & Co., architects and contractors. 

A. Fenner, 2 adjacent two-st'y brick dwells.; cost, 
$3,000; Koenig, architect; A. Fenner, contractor. 

St, Paul. Minn. 

BUILDING PERMITS. W. H. H. Johnston, two-st'y 
frame double dwell., 40' x 40', w s of Floral St., be- 
tween Summit and Grand Sts.; cost, $5,000. 

William Byrne, two-st'y frame dwelling-house, n s 
of Martin St., between Mackubin and Aruudel Sts.: 
cost, $4,000. 

General Notes. 
ALLEKTOWU, PA. Koch & Shankweiler are to build 

a new hotel in place of the Allen House. 
ANSONIA, CONN. House and barn for W. Rowe; 
cost, $5,000; Palliser, Palliser & Co., architects, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
BEDFORD, MASS. A Catholic church is to be built 


BRATTLEBORO', VT, H. G. Carroll is about remodel- 
ing his summer house, at an expense of $7,000, from 
plans by J. M. Currier, Springfield, Mass. 
BRIDGEPORT, CONN. Francis Duffy is building a 
frame block for stores, cor. Broad and Whiting Sts., 
78' x 110' three-st'y; cost, $7,600. 

John Rockfeller is building an addition to Elm 
Hotel, three-st'y, brick; dining-room, 25^ x 50'. 

Geo. Hubbel is building two frame houses; cost, 

A. Carmody, frame house, cor. Columbia and 
Gregory Sts.; cost, $3,000. W. H. Worsam, archi- 
tect for the above. 

J. A. Herley, two houses on Prospect St.; cost, 

D. T. Crockett, house; cost, $8,000; Palliser, Pal- 
liser & Co., architects. 

T. Glasson, block of stores and tenements, Pem- 
broke St.; cost, $7,000. 

J. Burns is building a house; cost, $3,000. 

D. Nolan, house on California St.; cost, $3,000. 

J. J. I'belan is having a house built on Burroughs 
St.; cost, $4,000. 

R. H. Towusend, cottage; cost, $4,500. 

P. W. Wren, brick house, State St.; cost, $22,000. 

Palliser, Palliser & Co. .architects of above. 
BROCKTON, MASS. City of Brockton Fire Depart- 
ment Building, three-st'y, brick and granite, with 
stable, hose, and bell-tower; cost, $20,000; Eldred A 
Holmes, contractors. 













Copyright, 1885, JAMES R. OSOOOD & Co., Boston, Ma 

No. 473. 

JANUARY 17, 1885. 

Entered at the Post-Offlce at Boston as second-class matter. 


The Present Condition of Building Mechanics. Settlement 
of the Tower of the new City Hall, Philadelphia. The 
Toronto Court-House Competition. Attempt to Swindle an 
Architect out of his Commission. Mutual Defence a Cure 
for Similar Attempts. The Paris Exhibition of 1889. A 
new Tunnel under the East Kiver, New York. The Future 

of the Telephone 26 





Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy. Block of Houses, Albany, N. Y. 
House at Dellwood, Minn. House for a Narrow Lot. 

Design for an Art Museum 31 





The Ownership of Drawings. The Ecclesiastical Bonfire. 

Postage Rates on Drawings 33 


TTTHE New York Commercial Advertiser asserts that notwith- 
\_ standing, the almost unprecedented activity of building 
during the past year, thousands of men belonging to the 
different building trades are now out of employment in that 
city. There is, among real-estate owners there, a general 
feeling that carpenters' and masons' wages are too high, as 
compared with salaries in other employments, and with the 
cost of living, and in anticipation of the fall which is regarded 
as sure to come, hundreds of projects for building have been 
postponed. The winter is usually a dull season, but the tem- 
porary postponement of so many improvements has brought 
about a stagnation almost complete. The little work that still 
goes on is done by men from other places, particularly from 
Canada and New England, who are cut off by their more 
severe climate from work at home during the winter, and are 
glad to earn wages considerably lower than those fixed by the 
New York Unions. The Commercial Advertiser thinks that 
the Unions should recognize the difference in the demand for 
labor between winter and summer, and should provide a lower 
scale of wages, which could be accepted by their members at 
the season when cold weather and short days make their labor 
at once less needed and less valuable, without incurring the 
penalties attached to the violation of the Union codes; and 
although we are very far from wishing to see the incomes of 
the most useful members of the community diminished, it is 
plain that high wages during eight months in the year, and 
enforced idleness for the rest of the time, amount to less in the 
end than regular wages through the whole year, graduated 
according to the demand. Many stone-masons and bricklayers, 
who dare not, for fear of the Unions, work for less than the 
schedule rates, and who cannot find employment in winter at 
those rates, leave the country altogether, and pass the dull 
season in England or Scotland, and this winter the number of 
mechanics crossing the ocean eastward is said to have been 
exceptionally large. The cost of a voyage in the steerage to 
Liverpool or Southampton is hardly more than that of living in 
New York for the same length of time, and, once landed, the 
skilled workman is pretty sure of employment, at rates about 
which he is free to exercise his own discretion ; while an 
opportunity is afforded him, when spring opens, and work at 
high wages waits for him in New York, of making money 
enough to pay his passage both ways by purchasing in England 
a liberal outfit of clothes and tools, and selling them in New 
York, after passing them free of duty through the Custom- 
house, at a handsome profit. 

30ME slight movements have taken place in the City Build- 
ing at Philadelphia, due to the gradual imposition of the 
great weight of the tower upon the masonry below, which 
although not serious, are of interest to architects and builders 
who have to deal with large buildings. The tower, as our 
readers will remember, is to be the highest structure in the 
world, next to the Washington Monument, and being of very 
solid construction its weight is enormous. The piers anc 
foundation on which it rests have been carefully calculated 

iccording to the testimony of Mr. McArthur, the architect, so 
;hat the strain upon them nowhere exceeds nine tons to the 
square foot, but even with this prudent limit of compression 
'.here has been a settlement of the more heavily loaded por- 
ions, which has cracked and broken some of the beautiful pol- 
shed and sculptured stone in the interior. Mr. McArthur 
attributes this effect, no doubt correctly, to the filling of the 
lorizontal joints above and below the polished and carved 
stones out to the face of the stone. The brick backing settling 
most, the pressure of the walls is concentrated on the facing- 
stones, and the mortar between their exterior edges, hardening 
irst, serves to intensify the strain upon the angles, which have 
''flushed," or split off. If the foremen of the masons had seen 
;hat their men laid these joints " slack," so as to relieve the 
pressure at the extreme edges, the work would probably have 
emained intact. On the outside, in the same way, several 
ong stones, forming the architrave of a massive string-course 
over a row of arched windows, have broken in two, just over 
the keystones of the arches, by reason, evidently, of the settle- 
ment of the piers between the windows, in which one end of 
each architrave block was engaged, while the middle was held 
up by the less weighted key-stone. This is an effect so com- 
mon in such situations that one would think that masons might 
earn to leave the mortar out of the bed of such stones until the 
structure had settled, or else to make a joint over the key-stones 
of the arcade ; but heavy building is not yet common enough 
n this country to enable architects to rely upon the knowl- 
idge of contractors or their men. 

1IFHE city of Toronto advertises a competition for designs for 
J[ a new court-house, under terms which in some respects 
merit special commendation. Although far too short a 
time is given for preparing the designs, it is agreed that the 
drawings, with the description and estimate accompanying each, 
shall be submitted to a jury of three experts, to be named by 
the committee having the construction of the building in 
charge ; and the report of a majority of the members of this 
jury is to be accepted by the committee as final, and will be 
"by it strictly adhered to." It is furthermore agreed without 
reserve that the author of the design selected as the best shall 
be entrusted with the carrying out of his design at a commis 
sion, not of five, but of four per cent, on the contract price. 
This curious docking of one-fifth of the architect's pay is 
probably the work of one of the cheap economists who infest 
city councils ; and as the town is likely on account of it to for- 
feit all hope of interesting architects of ability and respectable 
character in its competition, we hope for its own sake that it 
will see fit, while there is yet time, to bring this item of the 
invitation into conformity with the intelligent and honorable 
spirit of the rest, and restore the rate of compensation promised 
to that recognized all over the civilized world as only fairly re- 

WE are glad to see that a peculiarly mean corporation has 
unexpectedly met its deserts in England, while trying to 
deprive an architect of his pay by means of what was 
intended to be simply a shameless swindle. The corporation 
in question, which deserves to have its name held up to scorn, 
was the School Board of the Great and Little Clifton District. 
This Board employed an architect to make drawings for a school 
building, and to superintend their execution. He performed 
his duties, so far as appeared, to the satisfaction of the Board, 
and then applied for his pay; but it was refused, and on bringing 
the case into court he was met with the cool response that his 
appointment, which was made by a vote of the Board, recorded 
on the minutes, and signed by the Chairman and the Clerk of 
the Board, was not sealed, and was therefore not valid ; under 
the statute which provides that contracts of corporations, relat- 
ing to matters involving an expenditure of more than fifty 
pounds, shall not be valid unless sealed with the corporation 
seal. One or two cases of the kind have already been decided 
in favor of the corporations claiming this protection, but in the 
present case the corporation, being a School Board, was sub- 
ject to special regulations, provided by the law, and explaining 
or modifying the application of the general statute. Fortu- 
nately for the poor architect, one of these special regulations, 
which the crafty School Board had overlooked, expressly pro- 
vides that the appointment of any officer of such a Board may 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 473. 

be made in the way in which the architect was appointed, and 
that an appointment so made shall be as valid as if made under 
seal. The architect, in the opinion of the judge, was an officer 
of the Board, and his appointment was therefore valid, and he 
was entitled to judgment in his favor. 

TIT HIS is only one among the numerous cases which come to our 
J. notice where architects, particularly the younger ones, are, 
to speak plainly, cheated out of their hard-earned pay on 
pretexts of the most flimsy and absurd character by persons who 
know the cost and annoyance in which a suit involves a pro- 
fessional man, and believe, with reason, that the poorer man 
will swallow his disappointment, and try to make up his loss by 
extra labor, rather than appeal to the law for redress. As a 
protection against the devices of these churls, we believe that 
such an association as the French Caisse de Defense Mutuelle 
offers a very great advantage. One of the first duties, for in- 
stance, to which the officers of this society have applied them- 
selves is the collection, under the guidance of two eminent law- 
yers, of records of all adjudicated cases relating to matters of 
building or professional service. This collection is to be indexed, 
and reports of new cases added as soon as they appear, so that 
the member who feels himself in doubt as to his rights has only 
to consult the officers of his society to be informed, both as to 
the propriety of his claims, and the best method of enforcing 
them ; and if he is compelled to attempt the latter, the society 
will undertake the case for him, paying all the court costs and 
counsel fees, and carry it through to a verdict, handing over 
to him the amount collected, less a certain small reserve to be 
added to its own funds. The improvement which such an as- 
sociation is capable of making in the bu.siness prospects of ar- 
chitects, particularly the younger ones, can hardly be realized, 
except by those who have the trials and disappointments of 
their early practice fresh in their memory, Apart from the 
management of suits, which need not be frequent, the fact that 
every young architect of good professional standing was backed 
by an association with ample funds, ready at a word to under- 
take the enforcement of his rights without any sentimentality 
or bashfulness, would secure for all the respectable members 
of the profession a considerate treatment, and an appreciation 
of the fact that their services must be paid for, which even the 
best of them do not now find universal. The bright example 
of the abler men has brought about a great change in public 
opinion within a few years, but there are still, thanks to the 
abuse of the competition system, plenty of people who pretend 
to believe that architects expect to work for nothing, and to 
put up with barefaced robbery from those who are rich enough 
to frighten them by threatening them with lawsuits. The time 
has quite come for administrating a few wholesome lessons to 
these gentry, and thereby completing the change in the popu- 
lar idea of the rights of architects, and in no way that we can 
see can it be done so well as by a Defensive Association such 
as we suggest. With the example before us of the French 
society, managed by the most distinguished architects and law- 
yers in France, we could hardly go far astray, and the two so- 
cieties could render each other invaluable assistance. 

1I7HE preparations for the Paris Exposition of 1889 have ad- 
J[ vanced as far as the selection of a site for the buildings, 
the Champ-de-Mars, the place of the last exhibition, hav- 
ing been chosen unanimously by the Commission. For compet- 
itive trials, and other matters where much space is required, a 
sufficiently large territory will be reserved at Vincennes. Al- 
though Vincennes is at the other side of the city, there is no 
real objection to separating the experimental part of the ex- 
hibition by a considerable distance from the mere show. In 
fact, each department might be in a separate quarter of the 
city with positive advantage to those who go to the exhibition 
to learn, rather than to stare at a huge jumble of things which 
do not interest them in the least. The choice of the compara- 
tively small Champ-de-Mars will save a considerable expense 
in construction, the Trocadero Palace, which formed one of the 
principal buildings of the exhibition of 1878, being close by, 
while the ground has already been graded and prepared for the 
purpose. For foreigners, who do not care how much money is 
spent in amusing them, this is an unimportant matter, but they 
have a reason of their own for being glad that the old exhibi- 
tion ground is to be used again, as it is far more easily and 
pleasantly accessible than any suburban village could be, and 
js surrounded by beautiful and interesting objects. To our 

mind, recalling the dreadful weariness of the journey among 
the Fairmount Park buildings, it seems extremely important to 
plan the group of exhibition halls as compactly as possible. 
Notwithstanding the conveniences of electric railways and other 
means of transportation, one has in hot weather a certain re- 
pugnance to crowded cars, even for a brief journey, and we 
imagine that it might be quite possible to plan buildings in di- 
rect communication with each other, where every kind of nat- 
ural and artificial product could be shown in perfection. We 
could also, for our part, dispense with the houses and side-shows 
which took up so much room at Philadelphia and Paris. There 
is obviously no necessity for lodging the foreign commissioners 
on the grounds, and national taste in architecture could just as 
well be shown in the decoration of rooms in the main buildings, 
which could serve as restaurants or exhibition rooms, as in 
separate structures. In fact, there is nothing which we should 
like better to'see than a series of rooms, not built for the pur- 
pose of advertising somebody's concrete blocks, but decorated 
by the best artists and architects in each country in emulation 
of each other. We have a fancy that our own country would 
come out of such a struggle with no small credit, and the idea 
has never been carried out on a large scale in any exhibition. 

TTTN important scheme is said to have been entered into by 
F\ some of the railway companies in New York, for cutting 
' a tunnel under the East River, from Eavenswood, on Long 
Island, to Blackwell's Island, and thence to the New York 
shore. This tunnel is to be built for the benefit of the Long 
Island Railroad, which will by means of it gain an entrance in- 
to the city, and an agreement has been made with the owners 
of the Grand Central Station for admitting the Long Island 
Railroad to the use of that station as soon as the tunnel is com- 
pleted. The bed of the East River is of hard rock, and the 
tunnel, although not a long one, will be very costly, so that if 
the project is seriously entertained it is perhaps only a part of 
some plan for raising the Long Island Railroad from a local 
line of very limited traffic to the position of a link in a chain of 
communication between New York and Europe. It is quite 
likely that the next ten years may see some improvement made 
in the present circuitous route from New York to Liverpool by 
way of Sandy Hook, and whether the future steamship route 
lies through Long Island Sound to Harlem, or ends at Mou- 
tauk Point, passengers, at least, are likely to choose railway 
transportation from the eastern end of Long Island to New 

PROFESSOR BELL is said, in a paragraph which is going 
the round of the newspapers, to have recently expressed 
the opinion that the telephone has not reached the utmost 
limit of development, and to have suggested the possibility that- 
some improvement might yet be made in the service afforded 
those who use it. We are sorry to say that the history of the 
telephone business does not give very flattering hopes of the 
latter contingency, but that the telephone is capable of devel- 
opment no one will doubt. To mention one point only, the 
sound delivered by the telephone receiver is estimated to be of 
about one twelve-hundredth of the force of that communicated 
to the transmitter ; and as it is our fortune to speak through 
the telephone to a good many persons whose natural voice has a 
force amounting to not much more than twelve hundred times a 
dead silence, we should hail with joy the adoption by the tele- 
phone companies of any device for magnifying the sounds 
transmitted through their instruments. Together with this 
should come facilities for communication through long dis- 
tances. Nearly four years ago we were told by officers of the 
telephone company that they " talked between Boston and New 
York every night ; " and that the opening of public communi- 
cation between those two cities was a question of a few weeks 
only; but although the same hopeful spirit pervades the an- 
nouncements of the company, the advancing years do not seem 
to bring long-distance talking within the reach of its subscri- 
bers. From other quarters we hear reports of communication, 
by means of other telephones, which is wonderful as compared 
with the operation of the instruments with which we are fa- 
miliar. With one, for instance, conversation has, it is said, 
been easily carried on between New York and Chicago, a dis- 
tance of nine hundred miles, and, more recently, communica- 
tion is said to have been hold between Boulogne, in France, 
and St. Petersburg, a distance of more than sixteen hundred 

JANUARY 17, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



URE.i II. 


N point of time we have now reached the 
middle of the fourth century, A. n. During 
these 850 years, the Christian religion was 
slowly and surely gaining ground, and the old 
worship of imaginary deities dying out. When, 
in the time of Constantine, the persecuted and 
scattered church, finding favor with the Em- 
peror, emerged from the catacombs, no build- 
ings were so suited for their services of wor- 
ship as the basilicas, and no others were large 
enough to hold the masses of people, who, 
attracted by the bold preaching and curious 
rites of the new religion and its followers, 
thronged together to see and hear for them- 
selves. The bishops and priests naturally took the seats provided 
for the magistrates, and the altar, still in its original place, served 
for the performance of Christian rites 
as it had done for heathen. At the 
end of the fourth century changes 
were introduced. The apse was first 
railed in, and then the altar, and the 
dais on which it stood, and which 
projected beyond the precincts of the 
apse. Finally the choir was formed, 
extending into ohe nave, and raised 
two or three feet above the floor of 
the rest of the building. The first 
Church of St. Peter, at Rome, 
erected at this time was a good ex- 
ample of the -peculiarities of these 
reformed basiliean buildings. The 
plan of the church proper is rectan- 
gular, having at one end a sanctuary, 
corresponding to the Gothic chancel, 
extending beyond the north and 
south walls of the nave. 

The nave was divided into five 
aisles, by rows of pillars supporting 
a horizontal entablature, above 
which rose a double range of panels, 
each containing a picture, and corresponding with the triforium of 
later date. Above these again was a clerestory, and then an orna- 
mental belt or cornice, and above 
that the wooden roof left open to 
the ridge. The columns in the 
side aisles were joined by arches. 
Externally the basilicas were 
very simple in design. The walls 
were of plain, unplastered bricks, 
and the windows had plain, arched 
heads, without any attempt at 
decoration. The front fa9ade 
was slightly ornamented with two 
rows of windows, three in each tier, and between and above these 
were painted in fresco on stucco, various emblematic figures. The 

whole was surmounted by a 

coved cornice, which appears 
to have been almost universally 
applied. In the Church of San 
Lorenzo, erected about 540, a 
triforium gallery was construct- 
ed, but this did not find favor 
with the architects generally, as 
it never was used in other 
churches. The church of Ra- 
venna, San Apollinare in classe, 
shows a great advance in the 
style, although it is still easy to 
trace the derivation of every de- 
tail from the Classic model. An- 
other specimen of the transition is at Parenzo, in Istria ; it possesses 
all the usual arrangements of a church 
of this date ; but some of its pillars are 
of the Corinthian order, while others 
are of pure Byzantine type. The Ro- 
manesque architects never attempted to 
vault their rectangular buildings, but 
frequently constructed domes over their 
circular ones. But here again the Ital- 
ians differed from their forefathers of 
Constantino's day, for the interior of 
their domes was not the outline of their 
, buildings. The dome was by them simply 
used as a ceiling, and was covered with 
an external wooden roof. True Romanesque had nearly come to 
an end with the sixth century, from which period to the commence- 

>A Sketch of the History of Architecture from the commencement of the Gre- 
cian Art to the Reformation in Kngland, by K. W. Gambier-Boiutteld, A.K.I.B.A. 
Continued from page 1, No. 472. 


aim and object was attained. 

ment of the ninth century, a time of continual wars, there was little 
opportunity to cultivate the arts of peace. The next two centuries, 
from the ninth to the eleventh, saw but tentative efforts in the ad- 
vance of art, but in the eleventh century we find that Gothic art 
has freed itself from the early traditions, cast-off Classic details, and 

is going steadily forward with a well- 
defined object in view. 

We must take up our study in the 
south of France, and commencing 
with the Province of Provence at 
the early part of the ninth century, 
the first new feature that attracts 
our attention is the stone vaulting 
of the churches. The plan is still 
the same, though slightly elongated, and not so wide as the basilicas 
of Rome. All the churches of this province from the date of Charle- 
magne can boast of vaulted naves, and this, too, on the principle of 
the pointed arch. The architects had great 
difficulties to contend with, and to follow and 
trace the various steps, in their progress 
towards the attainment of their ideas of 
correct stone roofing, forms one of the most 
interesting studies in the education of an ar- 
chitect. The introduction of the pointed 
arch at this date (820), is, as we have said, 
the principal feature of the architecture of 
the south of France. And the reason for its 
use is easily seen. The cathedral at Angou- 
leme has three domes along its nave sup- 
ported by the side walls, and by semicircular arches dividing the 

whole length of the nave into three 
squares. This arrangement answered 
very well as a roof, but was not pleas- 
ing either internally or cxternallv in 
general effect. And" with these domes 
it was impossible to use the one cov- 
ering to the nave for ceiling and 
roof. The domes made in proper 
proportion with the interiors ap- 
peared stunted and sunken on the 
exterior. Shams are never permitted 
in true art, and so long as there was 
felt to be a want of truth, so long 
did the architects struggle until their 
It took years to accomplish, and 

the lifetimes of generations were spent in the study, but each man 
added some little step in the right 
direction, and the end was at last 
reached. Oh, happy he, who had 
the satisfaction of completing the 
discovery ! The object to be at- 
tained here was one covering 
not a ceiling and a roof, but the 
two combined. The annexed dia- y 
gram will show the difficulty, and 
the result attained by the introduc- 
tion of the pointed arch. If a semicircular ceiling be used, in order 
that a sufficient water-shed may be obtained, an immense weight must 
be applied to the crown of the arch, but in the use of the pointed 
arch all this is done away with. With regard to the plans, a pas- 
sage round the choir was considered an essential, and this is the com- 
mencement of that exquisite arrangement known as the chevet of 
Gothic cathedrals. In order to have this passage within the walls 
of the church, a screen was erected round the choir, wholly inde- 
pendent of the construction of the 
church. Later on, chapels were erected, 
opening into the passage thus provided, 
and the most perfect and beautiful 
effect ever produced by Gothic archi- 
tects, and which perfected the plans of 
the cathedrals was now wrought out. 
Most of the churches being collegiate, 
cloisters are of frequent occurrence, 

but the outer wall of these is never in the form of unglazed windows 
as in English cloisters, but a range of small and elegant pillars sup- 
porting light and delicate arches is the uni- 
versal treatment. Spires were occasionally 
erected, but to the western walls was given the 
principal decoration. In the Province of Au- 
vergne we find a large number of square tow- 
ers, many standing quite separate from the 
churches, but each church has its central 
tower, while in Anjou, spires are in common 
use. As a general rule, the churches have only _ 
a simple tunnel-vaulted roof over the central 
aisle or nave; but the semi-vaults of the side aisles are constructed 
to form a solid abutment against the thrust of the main roof. The 
side aisles were formed in two stories, the upper of which was an ap- 
proach to the triforium of later years, and admits light through large 
windows in the outer walls, but as yet the clerestory had not been 

In Burgundy, we find another step has been taken in the progress 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 473. 

of vaulting; bold transverse ribs and plain intersecting vaults are 
added to the common tunnel-vault, but the semi-vaults, as in the 
South, are still used as abutments. But the same difficulty presented 
itself in roofing the intersecting vaults, and the architects were 
forced to use again the external wooden roof, but this was no 
longer a sham, one dome over another, which might be thought to 
be simply the exterior and interior of the same dome, but the roof 
was made of an entirely different form, and carried up at an angle 
from the wall-plates until the two sides met in a ridge, and thus the 
vaulting became again a ceiling, as in the early Romanesque. 

In the north of France we find that a very great stride has been 
taken towards perfection in the architecture of the cathedral, and 
other monastic churches. That which is commonly known as the 
" Latin style," has very many departures from the old lines, and tak- 
ing, as an example, the Church of Moutierender, near Vassy, to 
the east of Paris, we see that the characteristics are the subordina- 
tion of the side aisles 
to the central one, 
and a perfectly-defined 
-^-i- clerestory. The nave, 
~1~ or body of this church 
\ p dates from the elev- 
enth century, and is 
perfectly plain and 
devoid of all orna- 
ment, either painted 
or carved ; but the 
chancel, rebuilt in the 
thirteenth century, is an almost perfect example of true Gothic. In 
this church almost every step can be traced from the Romanesque, 
ami one sees at a 
glance what rapid 
progress has 


made in the art in the 
three hundred years. 
Every part of the later 
choir is fitly orna- 
mented, and though in 
many of its details 
there was great room 
for improvement, the 
style as here repre- 
sented is complete. 

The history of the 
round-arched, or Nor- 
man Gothic architect- 
ure, may, with only a 
few exceptions, be com- 
prehended within the 
space of one hundred 
years. No building in 
this style is known to 
have been commenced 
before the year 1050, and before the year 1150, the pointed Gothic 
had been thoroughly elucidated in the Norman Province. The Nor- 
man style embraces the very 
plainest, as well as the 
very richest work, from that 
characterized by the low 
square pillars and circular 
piers, to the florid decora- 
tion of which so manv ex- 

amples are to be found in 
England. The former of 
these exhibit but massive 
and clumsy remains of Clas- 
sical principles, but they 

display a grandeur and solemnity of appearance, consequent upon 
the solidity of the masonry, and the smallness of the openings. The 
piers of the earlier buildings were either entirely square, or else a 
succession of receding faces, capped by a plain, square abaci, the 
lower edge of which was chamfered. Isolated circular columns 

were also used, but at 
later periods portions of 
columns were attached 
to the square piers, and 
those facing the nave 
were carried up to the 
clerestory windows, and 
from their capitals 
sprang the ribs of the 
roof-groining. The ar- 
rangement of the bays 
in Norman cathedrals 
usually consisted of 
three tiers. The lowest 
opening was spanned by 
one semicircular arch. 
In the second tier or 

triforium were two smaller arches supported in the centre by a 
slender column, and these were enclosed by a larger arch, the span 
of which was rather less than that below it. In the third, or clere- 


Bl u/A 

story, there were generally three arched openings divided by small 
shafts, and forming either a window or an opening before a window 

in the thickness of the wall. These 
three arches occupied a space equal 
to the arch below them, and were en- 
closed in an arch, springing from a 
shaft which was attached partly to the 
wall, and partly to the shaft that 
supported the springing of the groin- 
ing. The western and southern door- 
ways appear 
to have been 
parts upon 
which the 
amount of en- 
richment was 
The arches 
were com- 
posed of a 
succession of 

arches enriched with bold mouldings resting 
on caps, under which were ornamented 
shafts and bases. The finest example of 
Norman Gothic as it was perfected in 
France is at the great Church of St. Eti- 
enne. Caen. This is three hundred and 
sixty-four feet long now, though originally 
it is supposed to have been shorter, and to 
have terminated in an apse. A chevet was added about a century 
later. At the western end was the principal entrance (lateral en- 
trances were not used at this date), and this was flanked by two 
towers. This, later on, became a most important feature in French 
churches; but it was not confined to the west end, when side en- 
trances were introduced, they were treated in a similar manner. 
The attempt made to erect towers at the intersection of the nave and 

transepts was not successful, 
and was finally abandoned in 
favor of towers and spires 
rising from the ground, at the 
ends and sides of the build- 
ings. Up to this time churches 
in Normandy possessed simple 
tunnel-vaulted roofs, copied 
from the South, but that which 
was admissible in the bright 
South would not suit the north- 
ern provinces, and larger win- 
dows were found to be a ne- 
cessity. Several attempts were 
made to meet the requirements, 
but they found a difficulty in 
piercing their walls without 
weakening the supports of the 
heavy roofing. They began by 
erecting their piers of greater 
size, until they were in themselves, strong enough to resist the 
thrust of the vaults. They next erected a quadripartite vault, 
making a square of the width of the nave, ignoring the intermediate 
shaft, and throwing a single arch across to every other pier. This 
was not satisfactory in its appearance, and a compromise was 
adopted, and a sort of inter- 
mediate vault spring from 
alternate piers was introduced. 
This gave the necessary height 
to the side walls, and conse- 
quently plenty of w i n d o w 
space, but though mechani- 
cally correct, from an artistic 
point of view it was very nn- 
pleasing. But in spite of 
all the ingenuity expended 
upon it during this hundred 
years, nothing was arrived at 
that could be called perfectly 

satisfactory. And now we i -^~<^'\ J 

come to a very important -<.'*'' ii ^~,>-. < 

point in our history, and one ltr ^JJJJ^? l *' Te < f "- - ^ ^.li 

to which particular attention 
should be paid. Our archi- 
tects had recourse to the 
pointed arch, and the problem 
was solved. This feature en- 
abled them to raise the side 
walls where they pleased, and the plan of the groining was altered, 
so that each bay was complete in itself. Great progress was made 
during the twenty or thirty years that elapsed between the erection 
of the Church of St. Etienne, and that of the Abbaye aux Dames. 
The triforium at the former was a great gallery, but in the latter 
was reduced to a mere passage. The bare spaces on the walls 


" N'V- 

x- s! *- 

ssfl /JL 

"VStt/LTlNfcv EAH BAY &A\ 1-tTS. 

JANUARY 17, 1 85.] The American Architect and Building News. 


were to be in need of decoration, and the stones were carved in 
simple geometrical patterns, which had hitherto been only painted. 



IHE work of bringing again 
to light the foundations of 
of the Cistercian Abbey of 
Buckfast, in Devonshire, which 
was begun in December, 1883, 
has an interest which may well 
extend beyond the limits of Eng- 
land. To the student of the past, 
the remains are like illustrations 
to the history of the reign and 
fall of the monastic power in the 
island ; to the architect the pe- 
culiarities of construction in the 
church, and the fragments of 
carved stone, which show every 
r successive style from Norman to 
* late-Perpendicular, have also a 
distinct professional value ; while 

to the uninitiated but thoughtful observer, to whom impressions are 
the compensation for technical ignorance, the ruined abbev, with its 
monkish owners under a vow of silence, will have the singular charm 
which belongs as much to its remoteness from that world which is too 
much with us, as to its traditions of another faith, among generations 
with other thoughts, aims, and standards than our own. 

Of twenty-six monastic houses in Devonshire suppressed at the 
Dissolution, Buckfast, and Tavistock Abbeys were the only ones 
which dated from before the Conquest, The reason for this is, 
briefly, that Benedictine monasticism in the west of England was 
much more slowly developed than in the east, the Saxon conquest of 
Devonshire not having been completed until the middle of the eighth 
century. The Saxon was the friend and champion of the Benedic- 
tine monk ; the native Briton, his uncompromising foe. The Saxon 
brought in Roman priests as he advanced; the Celt sullenly fell 
back inch by inch before them. Still " on the day, when King Ed- 
ward was alive and dead," to use the picturesque language of the 
Doomsday Book, the lands of Buckfast were vast and scattered, of 
almost the same extent in the reign of the Confessor, as in those of 
Henry VIII. Among the items of property, owned by the Abbey in 
the reign of the former king, were six hundred and seventy sheep, 
which is an indication of what was afterwards its chief source of 
wealth, namely : wool and woolen manufactures. This latter indus- 
try still remains, for a large wool factory, built on the site and out 
of the materials of the ancient abbey, seems by one of Times's pleas- 
antries, to be flourishing upon the misfortune of the former masters. 
Magnificent indeed, must have been the abbey buildings in the 
days of their greatness, covering several acres of land, owning nine 
manorial estates, which extended for miles around it ; the abbot rul- 
ing over all as a feudal lord, having the power of life and death. 

A traveller, one Mr. Laskey, in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1796, has left a valuable account of what he saw there in that year, 
but the masses of stones piled one upon another, which he describes 
have disappeared, in spite of his prediction that they were likely to 
remain in that state for ages to come. Mr. Hamilton marks 1 very 
clearly the three distinct monastic revivals which the abbey has seen, 
the first being between 1112 and 1145, when, through some circum- 
stances which do not appear to be clearly understood, the abbey was 
incorporated with the Benedictine Congregation of Savigny, known 
as the Gray Monks ; and it was at this time that its connection with 
the House of Pomeroy began. Ethelwerd de Pomeroi did not in- 
deed institute the monastery, the origins of which were Saxon, al- 
though several ancient accounts of Buckfast give him the credit of 
BO doing; but the grateful monks, after the manner of the Greek pan- 
egryists, ascribed to him this honor, on account of his munificence to 
the Benedictine house; for, as we shall endeavor to prove, architec- 
tural history shows that the abbey whose foundations have just been 
laid bare was erected at this period. 

In 1148, however, the thirty monasteries forming the Savigny Con- 
gregation, passed into the hands of the Cistercians, whose head, St. 
Bernard, was still living. The golden age of that reforming sect had 
just begun; the first fervor of an enthusiasm to purify monastic life 
from all touch of worldliness was upon the monks of that Order. 
Furs, rich skins, superfluous habits, soft beds, the "use of fat bacon, 
and other like extravagancies " were to be far from them. They wore 
no shirts, ate no meat except in grievous sickness ; no fish, eggs, milk 
nor cheese, unless on extraordinary occasions; they rose at midnight, 
sang psalms until daybreak, and spent their days in labor, reading or 
prayer. Empty conventionalities and dead forms were swept from 
their foundations by this advancing tide of passionate conviction. 
I he Order had one hundred and nine monastic houses in England 
alone at the close of the fifteenth century : VVaverley was thefirst, 
lintern, Fountains, and Furness were others; nineteen years after 
VVaverley, Buckfast passed under this rigid rule. Mysterious and 
stern the Order of St. Bernard seems to us ; its votaries lived under 
a vow of silence; yet one has written of it that the dyino- monk 
passed from the joys of Clairvaux to the joys of Heaven. 

1 " Bttekfast Abbry." A pamphlet by Rev. Adam Hamilton, O. S. B., 1SS4. 

Certainly Buckfast Abbey flourished at this time. The woolen 
trade began ; the kings, one after the other, confirmed the charter of 
its privileges all but King John, who appears to have been a little 
erratic in his dealings with the clergy; and it had one slight disturb- 
ance from King Edward I, who summoned the abbot to <rive reasons 
for his many claims to privileges, but who afterwards dropped the 
subject. Once this latter king came to Buckfast for the nWbiL doubt- 
less for pecuniary rather than religious reasons, and the old arch 
under which he passed is still standing over the roadway. But al- 
though these were the great days of the abbey, from the worldly point 
of view, yet they marked its decline. The rigors of the monastic 
life relaxed steadily under all this prosperity; wine was allowed 
among the monks ; no more dinners of beans or peas were served on 
the refectory tables ; and they could see no longer any religious vir- 
tue in digging in the earth, cutting wood, or carting manure!" Many 
people of culture and good family entered the abbey now, where 
meat and wine were to be had freely, combined witli education and 
spiritual advantages. It became a seat of learning, but for a short time 
only. Gradually the number of monks dwindled away ; the immense 
abbey had only thirteen .when the Dissolution came. Piety grow- 
eth cold but few persons come to religion in these days," wrote a 
mournful Buckfast monk, as early as the year 1400. * It is almost 
pitiful to read in the old chronicles the little items which tell so surely 
of a steady decay ; the broken silence which passed uncorrected, the 
aged abbot whose government was taken out of his hands by the 
brethren; the continual petty lawsuits between the abbots and their 
neighbors about the stealing of rabbits, and the blocking up of fish- 
ing-ponds. Yet, on the whole, the century preceding the Dissolution 
was a peaceful and uneventful time. The monks appear to have 
been generally kind and benevolent to the poor about them. If the 
enthusiasm of a fervid faith was passed, evil and excess did not come 
m its place ; no scandal attaches itself by chronicle or tradition to 
the failing greatness of Buckfast. The rushing wind of the Spirit had 
become an idle summer breeze. 

The day of little troubles was over in 1535. In that year the visi- 
tors appointed by King Henry VII I, made their appearance at Buck- 
tast. ihe abbot was dead ; they appointed one Gabriel Donne in 
Ins stead; a worldly man, with an eye to the main chance he seems 
to have been, and he surrendered his abbey to the kincr in 1538 re- 
ceiving an ample pension equal to $9,000 at present. 3 All the monks 
were allowed lesser sums yearly, except the prior, who received noth- 
ing, winch seems to show that he did not agree to the act of surren- 
der. 1 hen the monastic buildings were promptly sold to Sir Thomas 
Denne Is; the lead was stripped from the roof and disposed of; the 
five bells went with it, and the abbey buildings were left to the gen- 
tle death of time. But round them raged the battle between the old 
faith and the new. There was an attempt in 1549 to force the Prot- 
estant service upon the county. The people rose to arms, led by a 
descendant of those Pomeroys who had for centuries been the abbey's 
friends ; ten thousand peasants took part in it. Lord Russell marched 
against them, defeated them, burned and wasted the country for 
miles, and killed four thousand of the people. The Roman Catholic 
leaders were executed, and the last flicker of the spirit of the early 
religion was extinguished. The abbey passed from hand to hand 
until 1806, when a Mr. Berry bought it, levelled most of the walls re- 
maining, and built a new house out of the materials. This building 
was purchased in 1882, by Benedictine Monks of the Primitive Ob- 
servance, who had been expelled from France in 1880; and there 
they have retired to their strict and silent life, the first Order to re- 
store a monastic house in England since the reformation, and the 
third revivers of the ancient faith within Our Lady of Buckfast. 

Except the archway over the road, virtually al'l that remains of 
the old structure is what is known as the Abbot's Tower, an ivied 
rum which joins the north side of the newly-erected chapel, and this 
is believed to have served as an angle of the monastic buildino-s, the 
tradition which makes it the abbot's quarter is, of course, architectu- 
rally impossible. It is of the fifteenth century, more modern than 
the arch, and contains much that is interesting. It is 19 feet square 
and about 40 feet high, although the turret staircase at the an<rle' 
rises about 10 feet higher. The tower was divided in the monk's 
days by three floors into four chambers of varying heights, which are 
clearly indicated by holes where the massive beams were formerly 
inserted. The two upper stories were provided with fireplaces, now 
much mutilated, and with quaint little windows at the sides. The almost 
ruined stone tracery to the large windows of the upper chambers still 
exists, but that of the lower window is completely destroyed, only the 
rough jambs and relieving-arches remaining to show its'former posi- 
tion. No fireplaces appear in the two lower chambers, which were 
not so high in the walls as the others. In each of the four rooms is 
a rough opening where was formerly a door leading into the adjoin- 
ing buildings. The spiral turret staircase is quite perfect from top 
to bottom ; the doorways opening from it into the chambers are all 
destroyed, except the top one, which still keeps its original stone 
jambs and lintels. A curious and picturesque feature of the tower is 
a series of latrinal chambers, opening out of each of the three upper 
rooms. A stream of water, an arm of the Dart, once flowed beneath 
a part of the abbey buildings adjoining the tower, and a portion of 
the rough arch vault over it was to be seen until quite recently. A 
continuation of the same vault is known to be still remaining "under 
the modern Abbey House. The tracery of the upper windows" before 

* Sln-me Manuscripts, in 513, British Museum. 
3 " Hiitnrical Collection relating to Devon." 


The American Architect and Building News. [You XVII. No. 473. 

spoken of, is of freestone, and shows very beautiful and delicate 
details, while the remains of parapet, buttress, and weatherings which 
are mostly of the local granite or marble, are bolder and simpler in 
character, although of the same date. 

An association, calling itself the Buckfast Abbey Restoration Com- 
mittee, obtained the services of Mr. Frederick Walters, a London ar- 
chitect, and in December, 1883, began excavations on the site. These 
have already brought to light the complete plan of the foundations of 

the ancient abbey church ; the cloister, chapter-house, fratry, refec- 
tory, and kitchen have been clearly determined. The lay-brother's 
dwellings, which it is said have been found do not appear upon the 
plan. The church, which is nearly 220 feet long, shows some nota- 
ble architectural peculiarities. It is remarkable for its excessive 
length and narrowness, probably arising from the same reason which 
led to similar proportions in the Assyrian palaces, namely the inabil- 
ity of the builders of stone vaults to cope with great spans. The 
columns which separated the nave from the aisles, were supported in 
the foundation by massive continuous walls, instead of isolated piers. 
The transepts are divided into two unequal parts by solid walls, one 
of which continues across the chapter-house, and the southern end of 
this latter forms the eastern enclosing wall of the building. The ef- 
fect of these transverse walls was to narrow the transepts in the same 
way as were the aisles. Parallel transverse walls at the end of the 
church seem to denote most interesting constructive peculiarities in 
this position. It is to be regretted that the plan gives so little inform- 
ation as to the arrangement of the apses. A massive wall at the 
western extremity of the south transept probably marks the position 
of a staircase which once mounted to the dormitories above the clois- 
ters. This monumental ascent must have occupied all of that por- 
tion of the south transept which extended beyond the main body of 
the church. The details of the superstructure, specially the inter- 
columniations and vaulting, cannot fail to be of historic importance, 
and it is to be hoped that further information concerning it will be 
given us later on in the work. The monastic buildings appear to 
have had three distinct divisions; the domus conversorum, so-called 
by Mr. Walters ; the great square cloister, which was 95 feet from 
wall to wall, and 65 feet within the arches, in which the general rule 
that cloisters of abbeys were south of the church, while those of cathe- 
drals were at the north of the building, has been carried out ; and, 
grouped upon two sides of this cloister, the chambers of the monas- 
tery itself, in such a way that the accommodations of every-day life, 
kitchen, refectory, and lavatory were isolated from the chapter-house 
and fratry. The latrines and the chambers in the so-called Abbot's 
Tower were still farther removed from the dwellings of the friars, 
being wholly outside of the group. The identification made by Mr. 
Walters, of the halls in the east of the cloister as the domus converso- 
rum is at least questionable, as the comparative size of the halls does 
not agree with the small chambers for conversation usual in other 
monasteries of this character, where also they are invariably in more 
direct communication with the chapter-house. The striking archi- 
tectural parallels of the Cistercian abbeys of France would lead us 
to expect a mass of farm buildings on the east of the cloister. 

The word "slype," used by Mr. Walters upon the plan to desig- 
nate one of the chambers, is a stumbling-block, no such technical term 1 
being in use; but according to the analogy of Clairvaux, we should 
suggest that the space so indicated might have been the domus con- 

Viollet-le-Duc defines the topical arrangement of the cloister in 
Cistercian abbeys as follows; "An entrance adjoining one of the 
walls of the nave, with an entrance near one of the transepts; a gal- 
lery at the west, next to which lie the buildings of the lay-brothers 
(ttrangeres), or magazines and cells entered from without ; a gallery 

1 " Slyp" or " Blype " is au architectural term, nearly obsolete, however, and 
denotes a passage between walls. Eos. 

at the east opening into the sacristy, into the chapter-house, and the 
ecclesiastical offices; and finally, the gallery opposite to that adjoin- 
ing the church, communicating with the dormitory and refectory." 
This general form and arrangement, as well as the other interior ar- 
chitectural features, were mainly determined by synods of the ninth 
century, the officers of the church having previously lived in dwell- 
ings in the town, and the disposition thus adopted was retained with 
some modifications of detail, until the sixteenth century. Although 
abbeys had two cloisters according to the conventional form, no trace 
of the smaller one, that devoted to the more intimate requirements of 
the abbot, which should be behind the apse, is to be found in the plan, 
The Cistercians at first adopted as we know, a peculiar style of 
cloister, heavy, bold, undecorated, giving up delicacy for force, but 
this character began to be modified by the end of the twelfth century, 
marking the relaxation in the conventual line. 

The fragments of carved stone show, as we have said at the begin- 
ning of this article, every successive variety of style in the abbey 
building from Norman to late Perpendicular. The church and clois- 
ters appear to have been paved with encaustic tiles, the prevailing 
color being bright yellow, varied by blue and green in the body of 
the church, and laid in various patterns in the chapel and cloisters. 
Of course the relics found have been few, for barely the line of the 
walls is as yet excavated ; still some minor discoveries are of inter- 
est, a seal of a bull of Pope John XXII, a diamond pane of stained 
glass with the figure of a pelican, and two mediaeval spoons, being 
among them. Since the return of Mr. Walters to London the work has 
been going steadily on under the superintendence of the Rev. Adam 
Hamilton, one of the monastic owners of the site. 

Viollet-le-Duc gives a description of the little oratory of St. Jean- 
les-Bons-Hommes, between Avallon and Savigny in France, built 
towards the end of the twelfth century, in which the plan, simple as 
it is, contains all the chief elements which appear in the majestic ab- 
bey of Clairvaux, and apparently in other Benedictine monasteries 
of the same age. In the plan of Buckfast, now recovered, it is inter- 
esting to note how the simple form of this little Savigny priory un- 
derlies that of the Cistercian abbey which succeeded it. These ar- 
chitectural parallels of St. Jean-ies-Bons-IIommes and Clairvaux, 
enforce the arguments which are to be derived from the historical 
events related above to prove the Abbey of Buckfast, in the arrange- 
ment at present recognizable to be a creation of the twelfth century. 
It will be seen by these particulars that the importance of such a 
characteristic and eminently well-arranged monastic plan to archi- 
tectural history will not be inconsiderable. 

It is now intended to rebuild the abbey on its ancient foundations. 
When it is finished it will stand like its predecessor on the right bank 
of the Bart River, amidst the picturesque and varied scenery of Dev- 
onshire; three-quarters of a mile from the little village of Buckfast- 
leigh, with its one narrow street, and its houses built of the stones of 
the old abbey. Not far from its towers will be the remains of two 
encampments supposed to have been left by the Danes; across the 
moors, the green path still called the Abbot's Way, will mark for the 
visitor the post-road for the conveyance of wool in the days of the 
Cistercian Friars; and Dean Prior, not far away, will add its inter- 
est to a scene already rich in suggestion and romance, as the birth- 
place of Herrick, the spot where the greater part of his Hesperidea 
was written, and in whose churchyard he lies buried. M. G. M. 


TTJT last there is a pros- 
r\ pect that an old and 
/ obstinate grievance of 
Londoners is about to be 
"> a measure removed. 
After long waiting, much 
complaining, the sitting of 
innumerable committees, 
the proposal and rejection 
of innumerable projects, 
the lower Thames bridge 
scheme appears to have 
taken a practical shape, and to be in a fair way of being carried out. 
Yesterday the Court of Common Council was specially convened to 
hear the report of their Bridge House Committee on the question. 
The report was almost identical with the recommendations of the Se- 
lect Committee of the House of Commons which were issued last July, 
and it received the unanimous approval of the Court. 

The plan now accepted is not. indeed, final, since it only deals with 
a part of the question : but it is a beginning, and it is more than the 
proverbial half of the whole. It may be remembered by those of our 
readers who have followed the long history of this matter that some 
years ago the Metropolitan Board of Works took up the question, 
and that their engineer recommended three new crossings ; a high- 
level bridge at the Tower, a tunnel at Shadwell, and a tunnel at 
Blackwall. The high-level bridge was of course suggested with the 
view of not interfering with the passage of ships ; but its cost would 
have been enormous. With its approaches and with the two tunnels, 
the expense would have amounted to more than five millions sterling, 
a sum which could only be raised by some exceptional measure. The 
measure proposed was the continuance of the corn and wine dues ; but 
that was refused by the Treasury in a celebrated minute of Mr. Court- 
ney, and consequently the whole plan fell through. 




I*!-? SR OA D WA y. 

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EtE\/ATlON .^. 



N |[RC?HITEGT flXD BUILDING lEWS, JflN. 17 15o5 }|O. 4-73 






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JANUARY 17, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


Last session two bills were introduced, one promoted by the Board 
of Works for a subway about a mile below London bridge, and one 
by a private company for making a "duplex" bridge at tbe Tower. 
Both plans were discountenanced by the Select Committee to which 
they were referred, the one because the subway seemed to be not 
rightly placed, and the other because the duplex bridge was thought 
to be in many ways a questionable experiment. The Select Com- 
mittee then made their own recommendations, which included a low- 
level bridge, with a swing opening at Little Tower Street, and a tun- 
nel at Shadwell, the tunnel at Blackwall being deferred for the 
present. The convenience of this low-level bridge is plainly much 
greater for traffic of all kinds, and its cost much less than that of the 
high-level bridge would have been, while the interference which it 
would cause to the shipping on ,the Thames was thought likely to be 
small. The committee urged the corporation to take it up, believing 
the expense would not be greater than the Bridge House Estate could 
fairly bear. The Shadwell Tunnel was to be the affair of the Board 
of Works. 

It is to be regretted that the Board of Works at their last meeting 
determined to shelve the question of the tunnel and merely to apply 
to Parliament for permission to establish " free ferries " at Green- 
wich and Woolwich. This is avowedly a mere makeshift, and its 
proposal is not very creditable to the energy of the Board. The cor- 
poration, however, is on its mettle. With the fear of Sir William 
Harcourt before its eyes, it has undertaken to show the inhabitants 
of London and a hostile Parliament that it can and does work for 
the public benefit. The proceedings yesterday were singularly har- 
monious, and ended in the prompt adoption of the Bridge House 
Committee's report, recommending the immediate construction of a 
low-level bridge at the Tower. The precise position is from Iron- 
gate Stairs, at the bottom of Little Tower Street, which lies to the 
east of the Tower of London, to the narrow street called Ilorsley- 
down. Provision is to be made for the shipping by means, not of a 
swing opening, but of a " bascule " or lifting section, this being, in the 
opinion of the experts, the easiest and simplest method of opening the 
bridge. It is supposed that an average of three minutes will suffice 
to allow the passing of a vessel ; and as the average of vessels has 
lately been only 14.3 per day, and has never during the past year 
exceeded 23 per day, it may be supposed that the bridge traffic will 
never be stopped for more than an aggregate period of an hour dur- 
ing any one day. The length of the bridge will be 880 feet, its width 
50 feet, and the height of the centre above high-water mark 29 feet, 
which is the same as that of London bridg e. The gradients will not 
be steep; on the northern side, on which the bridge will spring from 
comparatively high ground, being 1 in 70, and that on the southern 
side, 1 in 40. There will be two piers only in the tideway, and be- 
tween them there will be a clear space of 200 feet for the passage of 
vessels, the movable part of the bridge, of course, starting from these 
piers. The committee do not dwell upon the great size and con- 
sequently enormous weight of this movable section, but we may sup- 
pose that the engineers see no insuperable difficulty in raising by hy- 
draulic machinery, two divisions each 100 feet long. Lastly comes 
the question of cost, and here the corporation estimate does not differ 
from that arrived at by the Parliamentary committee. It is to amount, 
including the expense of the necessary approaches, to 750,000, and 
this sum is described as " not beyond the resources of the Bridge 
House Estate." London Times, 



TTFHE plans show a building enclosing three sides of a court, with 
*J fountain and seats, and situated at the intersection of two streets ; 
the main entrance being on the principal street, with a side en- 
trance in the basement for the students and employes. The plan of 
this floor shows a large room for lectures or general classes, and gives 
moderate-sized rooms for special classes, which are further supple- 
mented by rooms for the same purposes in the attic. There are also 
rooms for the curator, janitor, the lavatories, coal and stores; a corri- 
dor or cloister paved with tiles and enclosed by casement sashes, gives 
access to most of these rooms, and the tower in the courtyard contains 
the janitor's staircase. The main entrance ball, is reached both by a 
wide stair-way from the basement and by broad steps from the street, 
flanked by the janitor's office on the left, and the library (which occupies 
the entire wing) on the right the book-room of the library is in two 
stories of eight feet each, lit by windows on either side of each story 
the remainder of this floor is devoted to statuary and casts. The log- 
gias on both stories being fitted with glass, act as supplementary gal- 
leries to this department. The principal room on the second floor is 
the picture gallery, lighted by a group of windows high up on the 
front ; the other rooms contain the special and loan collections ; the 
left wing being for water-colors, engravings and etchings ; ami the 
right wing being the collection of curios and bric-a-brac in glass cases. 
The raised floor of the chimney bay in the water-color room, and the 
stair-cases both here and in the corner of the library wing, and the large 
fire-places in each room offer points of vantage for the display of nu- 
merous collections. The janitor's apartments occupy one wing of the 
attic, and a series of studios the other. Building stones being a rar- 
ity in this section only the steps, water-table, sills and lintels are of this 
material; brick, in two shades of red, and a limited amount of terra- 

cotta are used elsewhere. The walls have air-spaces, and the interior 
construction is intended to be of the open timber or " slow-burning " 
method, except in the basement where tiled floors with abundant air- 
space under them are used. The interior wood-work to be of South- 
ern pine, staircases of iron. 


WE published, a few weeks since, a view of the cathedral at Siena, 
and now reproduce a view of the cathedral which is usually associ- 
ated with it in description, though it is much smaller and more sim- 
ple in design except the facade, which is covered with sculptures 
and paintings. As thirty-three architects have been employed upon 
it, it is difficult to say to whom the merit of the work properly falls, 
but the corner-stone was laid in 1290 for the erection of the buildin<* 
in accordance with the design of L. Maitani, who had just finished 
his work upon the cathedral at Siena. The building is 278 feet 
long, 103 feet wide, and 115 feet to the ceiling, which was built in 

N. Y. 




[T the last meeting of the So- 
ciety of Telegraph Engineers 
and Electricians, Mr. W. H. 
Preece, F. It. S., gave a most in- 
teresting discourse on the present 
condition and future prospects of 
electrical engineering in America. 
The author visited America in 
1877 in order to inspect the tele- 
graph systems there, on behalf 
of the Postal Telegraph Depart- 
ment ; and his second visit was 
paid during the recent meetin<*of 
the British Association at Mont- 
real and the holding of the Elec- 
trical Congress at the Philadel- 
phia Exhibition. 

After reviewing the work done 
at both of these scientific gather- 
ings, Mr. Preece went on to speak of the general progress of tele- 
graphic industry in the United States, remarking that since 1877 we 
in England had advanced more rapidly than our cousins, a remark 
which is contrary to the received opinion. It is to be taken, how- 
ever, in a scientific rather than a material sense, for as Mr. Preece 
states, the mileage of telegraph wire has increased from 200,000 in 
1877 to 433,726 in 1884, while the number of messages per annum 
has increased from 28 millions, to 48 millions, in the same space of 
time. The number of offices has risen from 11,660 to 13,600, and 
the capital invested from 40 millions to 80 millions of dollars. One 
telegraph novelty had indeed appeared, namely, the Delany multi- 
plex system. Mr. Preece speaks very favorably of this rapid tele- 
graph, and hopes to try it on the Postal Telegraph lines. The 
apparatus itself will, we understand, be exhibited at the forthcoming 
International Inventions Exhibition in South Kensington, 

Passing from telegraphic to telephonic operations, Mr. Preece 
alluded to the recent attempt to upset the Bell patents on the ground 
of Drawbaugh's claim to priority of invention ; an attempt which has 
for the present failed, pending an appeal to the Supreme Court. 
Judge Wallace has decided that notwithstanding the testimony of 
some two hundred witnesses who claim to have heard of, heard, or 
seen the Drawbaugh telephones prior to the date of Bell's patents, 
the evidence leads to the conclusion that Drawbaugh had not in- 
vented a practical telephone prior to that date. The case has 
extended over four years, and the interests involved are at present 
valued at 100 million dollars. The decision will, if unreversed, give 
an impetus to telephony in America by preventing threatened liti- 
gation. From 150, the stock of the Bell Company has risen to 250 
in less than six months, owing to the termination of the case in the 
Circuit Court. 

The telephone in America (to return to Mr. Preece's lecture) is 
used on a far more extensive scale than in this country, notwith- 
standing the fact that it is far more heavily taxed than here, one 
company being taxed as much as 75 per cent of its receipts. The 
reason of this is that it is a vital necessity to business, partly owinf 
to the excessive heat during summer. The charges for the use of 
the telephone are also much higher in America than here, the annual 
charge for the " law " exchange system employed by lawyers being 
44, while the ordinary charge is 35, as against 20 in London". 
In some American towns, however for example, Philadelphia 
the rate is 25, and in Buffalo they charge by results at a tariff of 
6, 5 and 4 cents per call according as the minimum number of calls 
is 500, 1000, and over 1000 per annum. 

The exchange system is very promptly worked in America, the 
maximum time of " putting through " being four seconds on the 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 473. 

Milwaukee lines. There are 10,600 subscribers to the exchanges of 
New York alone, whereas in all England there are only 11,000. In 
the whole United States there are 97,400 circuits, comprising 90,000 
miles of wire, and some 517,000 instruments have been manufac- 

Turning to electric lighting, Mr. Preece remarked upon the ex- 
traordinary progress it has made in the United States as compared 
with Great Britain. There are some 90,000 arc-lamps alight every 
nifht in the States, and in most of the large cities the streets and 
warehouses are brilliantly lighted by them. The contrast between 
New York and London in this respect was, as Mr. Preece stated in 
a recent lecture to the Society of Arts, most depressing. " On the 
evening of October 21st," he said, "I drove from the Windsor 
Hotel,New York, to the Cunard Wharf, a distance of about four 
miles, through streets entirely lighted by electricity. On October 
30th I drove from Euston to Waterloo withoui seeing a single elec- 
tric light." One manufacturer told him that he was turning out 
800,000 carbons for arc-lamps per month, and another that his out- 
put was 50 arc-lamps and 3 dynamos per diem. There are many 
central stations working regularly, both with arc and incandescent 
lamps, and more than one electric-light company pays dividends ; 
while the manufacturers seein to be full of work. 

The principal systems in use are, for arc, the Brush, Weston and 
Thomson-Houston ; but there are other systems not so well known 
on this side of the Atlantic, such as the Hochhausen, the Van de 
Poel, the Western Electric, the Fuller, and the Sperry. The chief 
incandescence lamps employed are the Edison and the Weston. 

In his lecture to the Society of Arts, Mr. Preece entered rather 
more fully into tliis part of the subject than at the Society of Tele- 
graph Engineers, and we will therefore refer to some of his observa- 
tions at the former place. 

The Weston system struck him as probably the best in the United 
States from a mechanical point of view. The great suspension 
bridge at Brooklyn is lighted by it, forming a very splendid specta- 
cle on a fine night. New York harbor will also soon be lighted. 
The dynamo is remarkably free from sparking, the " Foucault " cur- 
rents are checked, the resistance of the armature (.0011 ohm.) is 
so low as to be negligible, and the dynamo becomes practically 
self-regulating; while the electromotive force is a safe one, being 
only 70 volts when the machine is running at 1,000 revolutions per 

We need not follow Mr. Preece in his accounts of the various sys- 
tems above mentioned, as they will be found described in detail in 
our pages ; but we may mention that it is at length decided to light 
the streets of Ottawa with the Thomson-Houston system by power 
derived from the celebrated Chaudiere Falls. The Thomson-Hous- 
ton Company have already a central station at Montreal, supplying 
164 arc-lamps to the streets of the town at the rate of 50 cents per 
lamp per night, the lamps being lighted from dark till midnight. 
Here, as in the case of the Brush central stations, the current is 
carried by overhead wires erected on posts, the wires being of cop- 
per (No. 6 gauge) covered with asbestos and cotton. In Philadel- 
phia Mr. Preece inspected a Brush central station supplying nearly 
1,000 lamps and utilizing 1200 horse-power. There were 25 circuits, 
some four miles long, of overhead wires. The charge for each lamp 
is $25 per month, which is equivalent to 60 per lamp per annum. 

For street lighting the lamps are suspended from tall posts run- 
ning in a zigzag line and about 50 yards apart. An experiment in 
general illumination by eight Brush lamps on four iron masts 250 
feet hi<*h, which Mr. Preece saw at Cleveland, did not recommend 
itself to him, the streets below being lit by what seemed a very pale 
moonlight. We may add that the price paid in New York is 70 
cents per night, or 50 per annum for each arc-lamp ; but a fine of 
$1.40 is imposed on the lighting company every time a lamp is re- 
ported to have been out. This serves as a salutary check on the 
working of the system. 

Incandescence lamps are not used in America for street lighting, 
and for indoor lighting they have not been employed to the same 
extent as in England, although they have several central stations 

The Edison and the " tamadine " lamp of Weston are the most 
promising lamps on this system ; but the Swan and the Bernstein 
lamps are also used. The largest central station is that of the 
Edison Company in New York; but Mr. Preece saw a very inter- 
esting little station at lloselle, a small village in New Jersey, where 
three dynamos, in series, supply l,2001amps in three series by means 
of overhead wires. The charge was a cent per hour for each 10- 
candle lamp, a price equivalent to gas at $2.50 per 1,000 cubic feet. 
Aerial wires are in general use in the States, except in connection 
with the Edison system. They are in general of copper covered 
with hemp or cotton, and supported on poles erected along the curb- 
stones. High-tension currents are also in frequent use, and the 
immunity from accident is therefore surprising. Fires are, however, 
not so rare, and the currents often leak into the telephone wires. In 
fact it is becoming the practice to put safety cut-outs in the latter to 
protect the instruments from leakage currents. Secondary batteries 
have not received so much attention in America as in England ; but 
the Plante and Brush cells are both in use to a limited extent. 

Ship-lighting is becoming very common in America, many of the 
Hudson River and Lake Superior steamers being lighted by elec- 
tricity. So also are the ferry-boats of the Pennsylvania Railway. 
In short, Mr. Preece considers that electric lighting, as a practical 

problem, has been thoroughly solved in the United States, and that 
both here and there it will gradually become cheaper. Its peculiar 
advantages will lead to its general introduction, and one of these, 
which has been observed in America, is the prevention of crime. 
The chief of the New York police has even said, " every electric 
light erected means a policeman removed." No doubt there is some 
truth in the remark. Engineering. 


T this season of the 
year, when so many 
houses change hands, 
it may be useful to draw 
attention to the liabilities 
incurred by tenants. The 
following definition of dilap- 
idations is pretty clear, and 
might lead to a more ami- 
cable agreement between 
landlord and lessee if 
known. " Dilapidations are 
those defects only which 
have arisen from neglect or 
misuse, and not to such as 
only indicate age, so long as 
the efficiency of the part 
remains. But if the effects 
of time or age have pro- 
ceeded so far as to destroy 
the part, or its efficiency 
in the structure, this argues 
neglect or misuse ; it being the presumption that, at the commence- 
ment of his term, the tenant was satisfied that every part was suffi- 
ciently strong to last to its close." Under the ordinary covenants a 
lessee is liable for the efficiency of every part of the premises, even 
those parts erected during the term. If the parts can be repaired, 
they may be so treated ; but if the decay or injury has gone so far as 
to render repairs insufficient to restore the usefulness of the part, it 
must be made good. Thus, among the items the tenant is called 
upon to make good is that of roofing ; such as to replace all loose and 
broken tiles, to strip and retile where the laths are broken, or where 
the rafters, feet or purlins are decayed ; to restore all defective fillet- 
ing and pointing. Defective brickwork in walls, chimney-shafts, 
parapets and gables ; portions out of the perpendicular, or bulged or 
cracked, have to be made good, besides repointing where necessary, 
and refixing broken chimney-pots. Slated roofs also come under the 
same general clauses. Repairs to woodwork include such items as 
the following: making good to all loose or decayed timbers, whether 
injured by wet or dry-rot; to fix timbers where not straight, through 
neglect or decay ; to secure and make good all loose, broken or de- 
cayed weather-boarding, frames, skylights, wooden gutters, dormer 
boarding, and other external work ; also to make good broken or 
decayed wooden fences, door-frames, etc. ; to secure and make good 
all loose, broken or rotten floors; to fix up and relay where not 
level, occasioned by neglect, and to rehang where required all doors 
and shutters; replace broken lines, repair sashes, nosings to stairs 
where defective, and treads. Questions are continually arising re- 
garding the liability of the tenants to repair joiner's work, but it 
appears clear that the burden of repairs falls upon the tenant. With 
respoct to mason's work, all defective stonework, of whatever de- 
scription, falls upon him. Thus, broken cornice?, lintels and sills 
have to be made good by filling-in pieces; also broken steps and 
landings, both inside and out. In case of broken nosings, or of 
treads so worn down as to become dangerous, " the piecing is to ex- 
tend to cutting out the upper surface and filling in the depth of nos- 
ing with a slab of sufficient thickness to form a new nosing. Broken 
chimney-pieces, slabs and inner hearths to be made good or be relaid ; 
and loose and sunken pavings to be taken up and relaid. All panes 
of glass having two cracks in them to be reinstated, and also the 
makinsr good of all putty work. With respect of painting, it is 
usual for the tenant to repaint all wood and iron work for their pres- 
ervation, and where defaced, also on stone, stucco, or other external 
work. Inside painting is exempted, except in cases of misuse. To 
other trades the same rules apply; all broken fittings, fixtures, and 
parts of buildings to be repaired or made good by the tenant. The 
term " to make good " implies a renewal of the part, and ought not 
to be confused with the general words " to repair." The Building 

NEW YORK'S TENEMENT-HOUSES. Inspector Frederick N. Owen, 
who has spent three months in examining the tenement-houses of this 
city, made his report to the tenement-house commission lately. He 
found the following percentage of sanitary conditions : 

Building. Plumbing. Tenants. 

Good 35.47 2.08 36.87 

Fair 46.78 JW.83 54.20 

Bad 17.73 39.37 9.16 

This shows that the tenants, as a class, are slightly in advance of the 
buildings they occupy, and upsets the theory that the tenants make the 
buildings shabby. In point of cleanliness, the inspector places the Ger- 
mans first, and the French, English, Irish, Polish Jews and Italians in 
the order named. 

JANUARY 17, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



HE year 1884 
has stepped 
back into the 
past in a decent 
and orderly man- 
ner, and has left 
us its history to 
contemplate, and 
from its long ar- 
chitectural pro- 
cession as 'it 
marches by us in 
memory we 
gather bits and 
fragments that 
shall be unto us a 
' lasting benefit in 

an(i u IS wel1 to 
stop at these 

yearly mile-stones to contemplate the progress made, the work ac- 
complished, the good done ; and while we look on with feelings akin 
to satisfaction and contentment ; yet nothing has been erected that 
might not have been better, for whenever the time comes that archi- 
tectural perfection is reached it will then be time to close up the ar- 
chitectural world, and pass judgment on the quick and the dead. 

In a jaunt about the city, with feelings somewhat as expressed, one 
will come first and foremost to the Government Building on Fifth 
Street, from Walnut to Main, occupying half a block. Like the poor, 
this building is always with us, and like the poor, also, it furnishes 
items of interest. We find that the building is actually and finally en- 
closed, that the finished floors are being laid, that some of the inside 
finish is being manufactured and put in place, that the glass ($23,- 
000 worth) has been contracted for, that the plastering for the most 
part has been, or is being done, and altogether that in the course of hu- 
man events it will certainly be finished. The slow progress that this 
building has made, may be accounted for somewhat by the fact that 
during the summer months when work might be done, the appropria- 
tions have been exhausted, and during the winter months, when they 
have the appropriations, everything is frozen up, and they can't work. 
This building is now, and ever has been (since it started some twelve 
years ago) in charge of Mr. Samuel Hannaford as Superintendent. 

Leaving the Government Building for another year, we go down 
Walnut to Fourth Street, and behold the highest building that has 
yet been erected in the city; it is 66 feet front, ten stories high, and 
was designed for the Emerys, by Mr. Hannaford ; its height is per- 
haps its chief glory, and after looking at it for awhile, one will say, 
" Well, that's not bad," and pass on westwardly on Fourth Street, 
half a block to another street-front by Mr. Hannaford, for Messrs. 
John Church & Co., which is about 60 feet front, and only five stories 
high, and therefore only half as interesting as the Emery Block. 
Both these buildings are faced with Ohio freestone, of which this 
city is chiefly built. Farther down Fourth Street, corner of Elm, Mr. 
Hannaford is erecting for Mr. W. H. Derby, a store and office-build- 
ing, but as it is only up to the street-line, you can contemplate noth- 
ing but its futurity, as represented by piles of brick, lumber, stone, 
etc. Here, however, the architect has a larger lot (and a corner one 
at that), and we shall look for greater things from him, because of 
greater opportunities. 

The year will perhaps be easily remembered architecturally, on ac- 
count of the Court-House and the Art Museum, both in charge of Mr. 
James W. MeLaughlin, Architect. The Court-House was destroyed 
by riot and fire last March, and we find that the old walls (except 
the outside ones on the north, south, and east), have been torn down 
and the de'bris cleared away, and that work of rebuilding has already 
been commenced ; that the drawings have all been finished in an in- 
credibly short space of time, and contracts for the enclosing of the 
building have all been advertised for. and let according to the law in 
such cases made and provided. It is seldom, indeed, that a job of 
this magnitude has progressed so rapidly, smoothly, and satisfacto- 
rily. The front of the new building (and it really has only one 
front), has been designed by Mr. McLaughlin, more in the Norman 
or Romanesque than anything else, and will be entirely different 
from the old one, which was strictly Corinthian, even if the modil- 
lions of the cornice were of cast-iron, painted like stone ; but for 
that matter the entire building, stone and all, had the year before 
all been nicely and newly painted white. 

The Art Museum, located on one of the hills in Eden Park, pre- 
sents a solid and sedate appearance : it is built of local blue lime- 
stone, and trimmed with red granite ; the walls seem to be all fin- 
ished ready for the roof. This building has also progressed rapidly 
and well. 

Messrs. Mabley & Carew are to build corner of Fifth and Vine 
Streets, a new store 66 feet on Fifth, and 90 feet on Vine Street, five 
stories high, freestone fronts, tower on the corner, Edwin Anderson, 
architect ; cost not stated. Other than the foregoing, we hear of noth- 
ing in the way of large improvements, but there seems to be plenty 
of the smaller kind. 

Having mentioned the principal buildings, it is too much of a task 
to enter the smaller ones, except to mention, en passant, that at least 

six new churches are now underway, and most of them have been 
designed by Mr. A. C. Nash. 

Leaving the past and looking unto the future, we find a promise 
of interest in the competition for the new Chamber of Commerce 
Building, which is to be erected at the corner of Fourth and Vine 
Streets. The lot is 100' x 150', and is certainly a fine one, although not 
quite large enough, the money ($500,000) is ample, and the selected 
architects the best the country affords ; and they are to be paid $500 
each, whether or no their designs are accepted, and the successful 
one of course gets the usual commission. Besides the six invited, 
the field is open to all, only they don't get paid unless their pole is 
long enough to knock the persimmon. Whether this programme 
will be carried out or not remains to be seen, but we hope it will be, 
as it will afford us the only genuine competition ever had in this city. 
One peculiar feature of the competition is that, although the designs 
of one of the six invited architects may be placed as "most merito- 
rious," yet the committee do not bind themselves to employ him as 
their architect, even to prepare the plans, but will pay $2,000 to him, 
and have the right to employ an architect of their own choosing to 
perfect the plans. 

Of the total amount of building done last year it is as usual hard to 
estimate, as we have no reliable records kept; since a permit is onlv 
taken out when the street is to be occupied, and then the cost can 
be put at almost any figure. But the records from year to year, 
however, just as they appear on the books of the Boa'rd of Public 
Works, form a very good basis of comparison; and so we give the 
figures for what they are worth, with the advice to multiply by two 
in each case. 

Year. Permits. Cost. 

1880 636 $1, 521,700 

1881 569 1,832,600 

1882 600 3,952,300 

1883 773 2,670,900 

1884 747 2,958,000 

C. C. 

MACOX, GA., January 6, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, The question of ownership of designs, plans and 
specifications is one constantly arising in our practice. In your 
last issue appears a copy of the schedule for professional service 
adopted by the American Institute of Architects, and thev declare 
that " Drawings and specifications as instruments of service are the 
property of the architect." Our clients and the public demur, and 
say the above is a rule of the Institute, and not law. If this question 
has been decided by the courts, will you kindly inform your readers 
where the decisions can be found ? 

I am, very truly, ARCHITECT. 

[THE precedent on this point is the famous case of the British Govern- 
ment against the heirs of Sir Charles Barry, to recover the plans of the 
Parliament Houses at Westminster. This was decided in favor of the Gov- 
ernment, although, as architects throughout the world claim, unjustly, and 
in violation of the understanding implied in the contract between Sir 
Charles and the Government. However, as courts are likely to follow this 
decision, the only way to make sure of retaining property in the plans is to 
have an express understanding with the client beforehand. EDS. AMERI- 


BOSTON, January 10, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, The interesting design of a proposed church in Pater- 
son, N. J., again suggests the question : Will it constitute another 
example of a stone screen protecting an inside timber church, so 
constructed as to assure a total loss from the smallest fire in the 

In the practice of combustible architecture great progress seems 
to have been made. The rate of destruction of churches is now 
nearly two per week, a gain of one per week in seven years. Hospi- 
tals, asylums and alinshouses are now being destroyed at the rate of 
one every two weeks, against one per month a little while ago. 

Could you not give some inside plans and specifications for incom- 
bustible churches? 

Yours truly, E. A. 


CLEVKLAND, O., January 12, 1885. 


Dear Sirs, I received a letter from the First Assistant Postmas- 
ter-General, containing the following, which may be of interest to 
some of your readers, as I think there is still a misunderstanding in 
regard to the law on first and fourth class matter, and the distinction 
between various classes of architectural plans : 

" Drawings, plans and designs, when entirely in print, are only sub- 
ject to third-class rates of postage. Such printed plans or drawings, 
when they contain additional matter supplied by hand, as the addi- 
tion of lines, figures or words, become subject to letter-rates of post- 
age. Photographs have been held to be subject to fourth-class rates 
of postage. Blue-prints are classed with photographs." 

Yours truly, GEORGE F. HAMMOND. 


The American Architect and Building News. [ VOL. XVII. No. 473. 


nouueed at Brussels, on December 7, of M. Jean-Baptiste van Moers, 
the well-known architectural painter. He was but fifty-eight years oi 
age, and fell dead while working at his easel, palette and brushes in 
hand. His views of old Brussels that decorate the Salle d' Attente, in 
the Hotel de Ville, were painted before the boulevards, etc., had im- 
proved away portions of the picturesque lower town. His latest work, 
in which he is said to have surpassed himself, was the decoration, with 
views of Venice, of a dining-room for his friend, the animal painter, M. 
De Haas. Academy, December 20, 1884. 

HISTORY OP GREENOUOH'S WASHINGTON. For the past forty years 
and more, people have laughed at the cold air and naked form of 
George Washington, as he sits in marble at the east front of the Capi- 
tol. He has been the butt of all the jokes of senators, representatives, 
strangers and guides, for the past four decades, and even solemn Allen 
G. Thurman has aided in the ridicule. Still this statue has a longer 
history than any other at the Capitol. It was ordered by Congress at 
the end of Andrew Jackson's first term, and it took eight years for 
Horatio Greenough to make it. He did the work in Florence, Italy, 
and he made the statue in a sitting posture instead of pedestrian, as the 
Act of Congress demanded. It was designed, you know, to stand in the 
centre of the rotunda inside the Capitol. Well, when it was completed, 
in 1840, the next question was how to get it from Italy to America. 
Congress haggled over it for some time, and finally sent a man-of-war 
to bring it from Genoa to Washington. In the meanwhile Mr. Green- 
ough had started it on to Genoa. It weighed twelve tons, and it took 
twenty-two yoke of oxen to haul it. As it went on its way through 
Italy, it is said that the peasants thought it the image of some saint, 
and that here and there they knelt and crossed their breasts as it went 
by. When it got to Genoa it was found that it was so large that it 
could not be gotten through the hatchway of the man-of-war which was 
to carry it to Washington, and a merchant vessel had to be chartered. 
At last it arrived at the Washington Navy- Yard, and Congress was hor- 
rified to see that their pedestrian statue was sitting in a chair, and that 
it was nude to the waist. Henry A. Wise then said: "The man does 
not live, and never did live, who saw Washington without his shirt," 
and the country applauded the sentiment. But the navy-yard is not the 
Capitol, and it cost five thousand dollars to bring the statue from it to 
the rotunda. When it was gotten to the Capitol doors it was found that 
the statue, like the painting of the Vicar of Wakefield's family, was too 
large to go through. The masonry had to be cut away and the door 
enlarged. When it was finally put in, it is said the floor began to sink 
and a pedestal had to be built under it to support it. It was soon 
found, however, that the rotunda was no place for it, and finally, after 
a number of removals, it was taken to where it now stands in the bitter 
cold, bleak air of the Capitol plateau, where the winds can howl out 
Washington's agony as they go tearing by, and where his nakedness 
has " the boundless arch of the sky " for a canopy. Originally the 
statue was to have cost -3,000. It has already cost 44,000, and this 
sum is considerably increased at every removal. Washington Corre- 
spondence of the Cleveland (0.) Leader. 

THE EXCAVATION OF THE ROMAN FORUM. A correspondent of the 
London Timet, writing from Home, says: "The France informs the 
Parisian public that the pope has conferred upon the new Cardinal 
Ganglbaur, Archbishop of Vienna, the title of Santa Maria Liberatrice, 
in order to prevent that church, which stands between the Palace of 
Caligula and the Forum, from being thrown down in the course of the 
excavations ; and the JJiritto, remarking on the above, indignantly ex- 
presses its surprise at the Archaeological Commission and the Ministry 
of Public Instruction, for showing so much homage to the Vatican as to 
permit that obstacle to the completion of the excavation of the Forum 
to remain standing, especially as it is devoid of the slightest architec- 
tural or artistic merit. The France deserves thanks for having aroused 
the Roman press to urge the demolition of the church of Santa Maria 
Liberatrice. Being, as it is, an obstacle to the progress of the excava- 
tions, and possessing neither a living congregration nor any past histori- 
cal associations, it certainly ought not to be permitted to stand, in hom- 
age either to the Vatican or anything else. But it is untrue that the 
pope has sought to preserve the church by giving it to Cardinal Gangl- 
baur, for two sufficient reasons : first, that it is not and never has been 
on the list of the titular churches; and secondly, because a cardinal's 
title is only conferred upon him at the time when the pope, in public 
consistory, places the traditional red hat on his head. For that Cardi- 
nal Gauglbaur must come to Rome, and as he may not do so for months, 
the question which of the vacant churches shall be conferred upon him 
will only then, as usual, be taken into consideration. It is not the pope, 
but those estimable and wealthy ladies, Oblates, who have succeeded the 
vestal virgins as owners of the property at that corner of the Palatine, 
who stand in the way of the excavations. They have no objection to 
sell the church; but the price they ask for it is enormous, and although 
they have come down somewhat in their pretensions, the lowest sum 
they have yet named is half a million. In the meantime the works are 
to be continued by the demolition of the modern granaries, built among 
and against and almost hiding those magnificent, lofty walls behind the 
church of Santa Maria Liberatrice, belonging to a grand edifice at the 
base of the Palatine, regarding which nothing whatever is known, 
though many different names have been given to it. The clearance at 
this point will solve a most interesting problem, and doubtless have 
very important results. As the opening of the new Via Cavour con- 
tinues towards the Forum, the modern houses between the Curia and 
the temple of Antoninus and Faustina, which still cover the remains of 
the Basilica Emilia and other edifices on that side of the Forum, will 
be removed and the excavations there carried to completion. Some 
little time, however, must elapse before this can be done, and altogether 
the actual condition of Italian finances, and the greatly increased bur 
dens which the cholera and other disasters have brought upon the coun- 
try, leave little hope of much progress being made in antiquarian 
research this winter" 

SEVILLE CATHEDRAL'S HISTORY. A correspondent of the Cincinnati 
Enquirer says: There is something singularly attractive about all these 
old cathedrals in their age, their history and constant use through- 
out, whatever change of dynasty or form of religion the place contain- 
ing it must undergo. Perhaps this change has been exemplified 
nowhere else more markedly than at Seville, for Seville has rung the 
changes in forms of government and difference of rule almost as much 
as Rome. Seville was an old city in the times of Strabo, Pliny and 
Ptolemy, and the discussion, active then, still continues as to whether 
Seville was founded by Hercules or Bacchus, or in epochs less mytho- 
logic, by the Chaldeans, Phoenicians or the Jews. Up to the year 711, 
Seville was under the Gothic rule. Then it was that the Moors seized 
it, and the Sultan of Cordova put over it a governor of his own. In 
1144 the Sevillians became so proud as to wish for a king of their own, 
and the simple mode of making a monarchy of Seville was to put a 
crown upon the head of their ownViceroy. But the Sultan of Cordova 
did not take kindly to this deed, so he sent down an army to recapture 
Seville, whereby he lost his own crown, and Seville took possession of 
Cordova. In 1236, Ferdinand II, king of Castile and Leon, seized Cor- 
dova for himself, and Seville now declared herself a republic. Twelve 
years later Ferdinand II seized Seville for himself, and incorporated it 
in the rapidly-growing kingdom of Castile. Thus has Seville become 
in the space of five hundred years a colony of Rome, a dominion of the 
Goths, a kalifate of the Sultan of Cordova, an independent capital of 
the Moors, a republic, and a subject of the kingdom of Castile. On the 
same spot of ground now occupied by the ancient cathedral of Seville, 
worship has been offered up through all this time, each religion, though 
thoroughly despising, never ceasing to use the temples of its predeces- 
sors. A Jewish synagogue, a temple of Venus, a temple of Jupiter, a 
Mohammedan mosque, and a Catholic cathedral have all occupied this 
ground, each after its proper purification from the foul contamination 
of the rest. So to the stranger, of whatever faith, or of no faith at all, 
this cathedral of Seville stands on hallowed ground. All around it in 
rows are old columns of stone, partly sound, in places broken off irreg- 
ularly above, relics of forgotten structures, else all effaced. And as we 
look upon the crumbling walls of the present temple itself, the thought 
will not be suppressed: What will be the new religion to succeed all 
this? Will it be the faith of the great reformer, which has spread like 
the Hash of fire over so many of the lands of highest civilization, 
or will it be the faith of the reason which believes nothing not demon- 
strable to the senses, and which is gradually undermining all faith in 
the great intellectual centres of the earth? Will this old cathedral, con- 
secrated to the worship of the one God, built upon the ground where 
once was a temple to the glorification of many gods, will it give way' in 
its time to halls of science, wherein will be expounded the laws of 
simple Nature, which Jews, Goths and Moors, as well as Christians, 
must like obey? Qttien sale? But not in our day; certainly not here. 
Certainly not here in Spain, last of all. 

TUB PROPOSED SAHARAN SEA. With reference to the daring French 
project for flooding the desert of Sahara with what would be virtually 
i new sea, it may be well to recall the opinion expressed by M. Elisee 
lie'clus that at one period in the world's history the desert was covered 
jy a sea very similar to the Mediterranean, and that this sea exercised 
a very great influence upon the temperature of France, as compara- 
tively cold, or at any rate cool winds blew over it, while now the winds 
which prevail in the great expanse are of a much higher temperature, 
and are, in fact, sometimes suffocatingly hot. The appearance of the 
desert seems to support the theory of M. Elisjee Reclus, that it was at 
one time the bed of a sea of considerable extent, of which the great 
nland African lakes recently discovered are possibly the remains. The 
present vast extent and configuration of the African continent would 
also appear to support the conclusion that at one time it comprised a less 
area of land than it does at present. The serious question which 
arises, assuming that the theory of M Elise'e Reclus is substantially cor- 
rect, is, what will be the effect of the creation of a second African sea 
n the room of that which has disappeared? Would the temperature of 
France, and possibly even of England, be again reduced? It is a 
geological theory that, in the glacial period of the world's history, 
areat Britain was covered with ice and snow, very much as Greenland 
s at present. Some great influence must clearly have been brought to 
>ear upon France and Great Britain, which rolled the ice over so many 
mndred miles northward. What was this influence? Was it the large 
African sea which French enterprise is endeavoring to recreate? If it 
were, we should say that whatever the French may gain in Africa by 
the realization of a Saharan sea would be much more than counterbal- 
anced by what they would lose in France itself. Engineering. 

THE "UBANIZINO" OF ENGLAND. Apart from the political effects, 
;o which it is not our province to refer, of the new electoral division of 
the country, it may be regarded as a step toward what may be called 
he urbanizing of England. The rapidly-increasing pressure of popufa- 
ion on area must, if continued long enough, in time convert a populous 
sland into a group of towns. But the rate of agglomeration varies 
very much. Towns with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants, as a rule, are 
now hardly increasing in population; some of them are actually de- 
creasing, as are some rural districts. As a general rule the outer ring 
of the metropolis, and the towns of between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabi- 
ants, are most rapidly increasing. Most marked of all is the increase 
of certain seaport and waterside towns. In twenty-five towns classed 
as seaports, the increase of houses from 1871 to 1881 was 10.0 per cent; 
n Great Grimsby it was 71 per cent; and in Barrow-in-Furness 148 per 
cent in the decade. This determination of the population toward cer- 
ain centres of activity is a matter of primary importance as regards 
he building industry of the country, with a general increment which 
would double the population enumerated in 1881 by the year 1936. The 
actual rate of urban increase in the number of inhabited houses was 
5.6 per cent in ten years, against a rural increase of 11.0 per cent, and 
n the sixteen towns with populations between 100,000 and 200,000 each, 
which contain in all 408,000 houses, the increase in the decade has been 
n the average 21 5 per cent. The town builders are thus those whose 
activity is most apparent. London Builder. 

JANUARY 17, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



(Reported for The American Architect and Building News.) 

[Although a large portion of the building intelligent 
is provided by their regular correspondents, the editor 
greatly desire to receive voluntary information, five 
eiallyfrom the smaller and outlying towns.} 


[Printed specifications of any patents here mentioned 
together with fv.ll detail illustrations, may be obtame 
tfthe Commissioner of Patents, at Washington fo~ 
twenty-Jive cents.l 

309,998. BENCH -HOOK. Charles M. Van Vleck 
Uhrichsville, O. 

310,014. FIRE-ESCAPE. Chas. B. Anderson, May 
ville, Ky. 

310,033. ADJUSTABLE BUTT-HINGE. Robert G. S 
Collamore, Boston, Mass. 

310,046. SPIRIT-LEVEL. Albert D.Goodell, Miller' 
Falls, Mass. 

310,048. SPIRIT-LBVEL. William Grams, Sturgis 

310.076. HINGE FOB AWNING-BLINDS. Patrick K 
O'Lally, Boston, Mass. 

Papheo D. Pine, Worcester, Mass. 

310,084. LOCK. George W. Roberts, Walla Walla 

310.087. FIRE-ESCAPE. Clark E. Shelton, New Ha 
ven, Conn. 

310.088. BRICK. Arthur Sherry, Learned Station, 

310,100. JACK-SCREW. Walter W. Vaughn, Stock 
ton, Cal. 

310,116. HOT-AIR REGISTER. John F. Beale 
Washington, D. C. 

310,154. SPIRIT-LEVEL. Benjamin F. Tyler, Sa 
lem, N. J. 

310,156. SMOKE-CONSUMER. William Vogel Chi- 
cago, 111. 

310157. FILTER. Andrew von Weisenflue Scran- 
ton, Pa. 

310,163. PLANE.-William F. Achenbach, Reading, 

310,179. DOOR-CLOSER. Edward H. Brown, New 
York, N. Y. 

310,183. ELEVATOR. Philip F. Corbett, Boston, 

Edson, Cleveland, O. 

FACES. Henry SV. Johns, New York, N. Y. 

P. Marshall, Memphis, Tenn. 

310,218. LADDER. Joseph D. Norton and Leonard 
M. Norton, West Hampton, Mass. 

310.220. SASH-HOLDER. Chas. A. Paul, Mill Cen- 
tre, Wis. 

310,229. DOOR-HANGER. Obadiah Seeley, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 

310,232. LUMBER-STACKER. William T. Smith, 
Bozeman, Ala. 

310,242. BURGLAR-ALARM. James G. Batterson, 
Hartford, Conn. 

310,277. OPBN FIRE-PLACE. Isaac Hayes, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

310,292. CALIPERS. Frank G. Lilja, Springfield, 

ETS. Samuel G. MacFarland, New York, N. Y. 

310,300. PIPE-COUPLISG. William R. Middleton, 
Cleveland, O. 

310,312. WINDOW-SCREEN. Josiah K. Proctor 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. Ritchey, Pittsburg, Pa. 

310,341. WELL-CURB. Miciah Walker, Port Huron, 

310,344. BATH-TUB. Alexander M. Waterworth, 
Baltimore, Md. 

310,349. CHAMFERISG-PLANE. Richard V. Wicks, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

310,S52. TRANSOM-LIFTER. John F. Wollensak, 
Chicago, 111. 

310,355. WINDOW. Robert Adams, 17 Blackman 
Street Borough, County of Surrey. England. 

310,364. WEATHER-STRIP. Charles A. Binkly, 
Troy, O. 

310,372. SHUTTER -WORKER. Robert I. Brown, 
New York, N. Y. 

310,375. STEAM-RADIATOR. William G. Cannon, 
London Road, South wark, County of Surrey, Eng. 

rico, San Antonio, Tex. 

310,381. MARQUETRY. Amand J. B. A. Chatain, 
New York, N. Y. 

310,391. CHIMNEY-CAP. Henry S. Dickinson, Jer- 
sey City. N. J. 

310,401. WATER-CLOSET SEAT. Melchor Fox, Eau 
Claire, Wis. 

nand Frolich. New York, N. Y. 

310,406. WEATHER-STRIP. Stephen J. Gard and 
Jaroslav Zaruba, Goshen, lo. 

310,409. SPRING-HINGE. William Gilflllan, New 
Haven, Conn. 

310,421. BURGLAR-ALARM. Horace T. Helmbold. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

:->!<, i: 1 ,.'. AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHER. Chas. 
I.. Horxck, Hrooklyn, N. Y. 

I.4:I7, GU.VTE-FUO.NT. E.A.Jackson, New York, 
N . Y . 

310,145. HKATING APPARATUS. Eduard Knischo- 
vitz, Reudiiitz, near Leipsic, Germany. 


Pho3be S.Marks, 131 Cornwall Residences, Regent's 
Park, St. Marylebone, County of Middlesex, Eng. 

310,473. BENCH-PLANE. Wm. Steers, Brattleho 
ough, Vt. 

310,481. EASEL. Thomas C. Vail, Topeka, Kans. 

310,514. GRATE. John W. Houston, Bellaire, O. 

310,529. FLUSHING-SIPHON. Harvey C. Lowrii 
Denver City, Col. 



DWELLINGS. W. L. Stork, Esq., is to have erecte 
twenty-two (22) three-st'y and mansard marble an 
brown-stone dwells., near Boundary Ave. com. cor 
Bolton St., 16' 6" x 65' and 18' x 65',' and 20' x 65', t 
cost about $110,000; from designs by Wm. F. Weber 

BUILDING PERMITS. Since our last report nine per 
mits have been granted, the more important of whic! 
are the following: 

E. W. Haviland, 6 two-st'y brick buildings, e 
Stockton Alley, n of Mosher St. 

Morgan & Bro., 12 two-st'y brick buildings, e 
Hanover St., n of Cross St. 

Frank Guntertnan. three-st'y brick buildings, s s 
Henrietta St., bet. Sharp St. and Peach Alley. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Shawmut Ave., No. 771, dwell. 
20' x 40'; C. W. Geiler. owner. 

Kifhfield St., near Columbia St., dwell., 22' x 30' 
N. M. Robbins, owner and builder. 

Dudley St., No. 434, wooden storage, 12' x 25'; Ed 
H. Rice, owner; Michael Quinn, builder. 

Washington St., near Keyes St., Wooden dwell. 
21' x 36'; Hannah Kennedy, owner; Michael Ken 
nedy, builder. 

Falcon St., near Putnam St., wooden stable, 20' x 
25'; Mary A. F. Lambert, owner. 

Savin St., near Warren St., wooden dwell., 24' x 
30'; Lorenzo Base, owner. 

Centre St., near Pynchon St., wooden store, 20 . 
24'; H. B. Grant & M. Sargent, owners; Richardsoi 
& Young, builders. 

Granite St., near Mt. Washington Ave., woodei 
storage of scenery. 50' x 100'; Boston Manufacturing 
Corporation, owners; N. S. Wilbur, builder. 

Swett St., opposite Magazine St., wooden storage. 
90' x 256'; Bradley Fertilizing Co., owner; C. Feldon 
Jr., builder. 

North First St., No. 168, wooden storage, 40' x 44' 
Asa P. Moore, owner; Michael Driseoll, builder. 

Brooks St., No. 3, wooden mechanical building, 15 
x 30': John D. Finn, owner; U. G. White, builder. 

Ashland St., wooden church, 4:!' x 71'; Rosendale 
Baptist Church Society, owners; Alex. Rogers 

Florence St., wooden church, 43' x 71'; Rosendale 
Baptist Church Society, owner; Alex. Rogers 

South St., wooden stable, 30' x 80'; C. W. Clapp 
Co., owners. 

North Second St., No. 186, wooden stable, 30' x 80', 
S. Pinnell, owner. 

Ashley Are., No. 28, wooden store and stable, 18' x 
22'; G. (5. Green, owner and builder. 

(\)ttat/e St., wooden shed, 22' x 50'; Lewis S. An- 
drews, owner; F. W. Webster, builder. 

Hnlburn St., 2 wooden dwells., 36' x 105'; Gelder 
& White, owners and builders. 

Seai'er St., No. 206, wooden wagon-shed, 16' x l!0'; 
Augustus Packer, owner. 

Elm Hill Ave., wooden wagon-shed, 16' x 20'; 
Augustus Packer, owner. 

Illue Hill Ave., wooden dwell., 22'x30'; Patrick 
Daly, owner; J. H. Burt & Co., builders. 

Purchase St., cor. Hartford St., brick mercantile- 
buililing, 14'x42'; L. A. liullard, owner; Woodbury 
& Leighton, builders. 

Taylor St., brick dry-house, 51' x 112'; A. T. 
Stearns Lumber Co., owner; Collins & Morley, 

(rreen St., brick bowling-alley, 51' x 166'; Patrick 
Mehan, owner; Daniel Cuvlin, builder. 

Oliver St., brick restaurant, 16' x 266'; L. M. Childs 
& A. D. McDougall, owners. 

Taylor St., brick' mechanical building, 2:)' x 122', 
A. T. Stearns Lumber Co., owners; Collins & Mor- 
ley, builders. 

Clarendon St., brick storage, 15' x 15'; B. & P. 
R. 1*. Co., owner; G. F.'Folsom, builder. 

Neicbunj St., 2 brick dwells., 18' x 22'; Silas W. 
Morrill, owner and builder. 


BUILDING PERMITS. North Eighth St., s s, 150' e 
Third St., four-st'y frame (brick-filled) tenement, 
tin roof; cost, $5,600; owner, John Starkey, 331 
Fourth St.; architect, A. Herbert; builders, J. 
Starkey & Son. 

Clay St., No.i. 42 and 44, s s, 325' w Manhattan 
Ave., 2 three-st'y frame tenements, felt and gravel 
roofs; cost, *7,200 for both; owner, Thomas Thomp- 
son, 361 East Seventy-first St., New York; architect, 
James Denning: builders, James Nilen and John 

Judge St., No. 10, e s, 110' n Powers St., four-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) store and tenement, tin roof; 
cost, $4,000; owner and builder, Henry Kinn, 8 
Judge St.; architect, A.. Herbert. 

Monteith St., Nos. 53 and 55, n s, near Bremen St., 
2 three-st'y frame (brick-filled) tenements, tin roofs; 
cost, each, $4,200; owner, Henry Stubing, Monteith 
St.: builder, Henry Kempf. 

Nort/i Eighth St., No. 443, n s. 200' e Third St., 
four-st'y frame (brick-fllledi tenement, tin roof; 
cost, $5,500; owner, Matthew Smith, on premises; 
architect. A. Herbert; builder, not selected. 

North Ninth AY), s s, 150' w Fifth St., four-st'y 
frame (brick-tilled) tenement, tin roof; cost, $5,600; 
owner, I'. Booden, North Ninth St.; architect, A. 

Steaben St., w s, 90' s Park Ave., 3 three-st'y tene- 
ments, tin roofs; cost for all, 99,000; owner, James 
Cary; builders. Long& Barnes. 

Steuben St., w s 10*1 Park Ave., 3 three-st'y brick 
tenements, tin ro"'"i- wooden cornices; cost, each, 

$5,000; owner, James Carey, cor. Clermontand Wil- 
loughby Aves.; builders, P. J. Carlin and Long & 

Fourteenth St., s s, 247' 10' w Sixth Ave., 3 two-st'y 
brick dwells., tin roofs, wooden cornices; cost, each 
$2,500; owner and builder, Geo. R. Waldron, 529 Hal- 
seySt.; architect, Amzl Hill. 

Penn St., s a, 100' w Broadway, one-st'y brick Mu- 
nicipal Electric Light Co. plant, iron roof; cost, 
$8,000; owner, Municipal Electric Light Co., 104 
Broadway; architect, E. F. Gaylor; builder, James 

ALTERATIONS. Scholes St., n s, 75< w Graham Ave., 
two-st'y frame extension, tin roof, also beams put 
in first st'y and entire building filled in with brick- 
cost, $2,500; owner, Th. Kayser, Graham Ave., near 
Scholes St.; architect, John Platte; builder, Ulrich 

Nevins St., s w cor, Baltic St., raise roof 5'; also, 
one-st'y frame extension, gravel roof; cost, $3,000; 
owner, John S. Loomis, cor. Nevins and Baltic Sts.; 
architect and builder, John P. Free. 

South Portland Ave., No. 62, first flight) stairs re- 
built and house retrimmed; cost, $6,000; owner, A. 
A. Peck, Liberty St., n w Nassau St., New York; 
architect, R. H. Rowden; builders, Jeans & Taylor. 


THE YEAR'S WORK. Commissioner Kirkland reports 
34!)8 permits issued for the year ending December 31, 
1884; number of buildings, 4169, with 98,782 feet 
frontage; cost, $20,857,300, requiring an estimated 
outlay of $26,071,625. 

The increase for the year over that of 1883 num- 
bers 294 permits, 83 buildings, and an increased cost 
of $3,909,010, The large difference in cost is ac- 
counted for by the unusually large number of office- 
buildings and other expensive structures. 

Among the more important buildings are the fol- 

Armour. Kent & liensley, office-building; cost 

Home Insurance Co. .office-building; cost, $390,000. 

J. M. Loomis, office-building; cost. $300,000. 

Chicago Opera-house Co., opera-house; cost $500 - 

Marshall Field, office-building; cost, $400,000. 

John Q. Adams, office-building; cost, $135.000. 

P. C. & S. L. Brooks, office-building; cost , $250,000. 

W. D. Kerfoot & Co., office-building; cost, $80,000. 

Western Theological Seminary; cost, $75,000. 

Chicago <;as-l.ight Co., tank; cost, $50,000. 

J. Iv. Fisher, building; cost, $50,000. 

F. A. Kennedy & Co., bakery; cost, $50,000. 

Heissler & Gung, bakery; co'st, $60,000. 

Gottfried Brewing Co., brewery; cost, $100,000. 

H. Beidler, factory; cost, $60,000. 

Washington Bou. Skating Rink Co.; cost, $50,000. 

A. F. Troescher, warehouse; cost, $70,000. 

M.Ryerson, warehouse; cost, $50,000. 

Mrs. McCormick, warehouse; cost, $75,000. 

Thos. Moran, flats; cost, $00,000. 

F. C. Porter, flats; cost, $60,000. 

C. B. Blair, store; cost, $100,000. 

New England Insurance Co., store; cost, $56,000. 

J. P. Atwater, stores; cost, $50,000. 

P. Hoenschofen, stores; cost. $50,000. 

Conrad Seipp, stores; cost, $50,00. 

Armour, Dole & Co., building; cost, $80,000. 

H. B. Foss, dwells.; cost, $60,000. 

U. P. Smith, dwells.; cost, $80,000. 

J. Beecher, dwells.; cost, $50,000. 

Hoard of Education, school-house; cost, 875,000. 

Board of Kducation, school-house; cost, $50,000. 
SriLOJNG PERMITS. Board of Education, three-st'y 
school-house. 2527-2545 Lime St.; cost, $40,000; archi- 
tect, J. J. Flanders; builder, 1). H. Wilkie. 

Baird & Bradley, 2 three-st'y dwells., 1507 and 
1507^ Michigan Ave.; cost, $15,000; architect H. L 
Gay"; builder. D. H. Wilkie. 

D. R. Eraser, 2 two-st'y dwells., 390 and 392 War- 
ren Ave.; cost, $9,000; architects, Cobb & Frost; 
builders, Angus & Gindele. 

D. McGowan. two-st'y dwell., 71 North Leavitt 
St.; cost, $3,<'00; architect, Wm. Strippelman. 

P. C. Brooks, twelve-st'y office-building, 282-288 
Clark St.; cost, $220,000; architects, Burnham & 

Thos. Carey, two-sfy dwell., 263 Webster Ave.; 
cost, $3,000. 

Western Art Association, panorama-building, 127- 
131 Michigan Ave.; cost, $28,000; architect, J. M. 
Carreere; builder, J. W. Garvey. 

A. Geiss, four-st'y factory and dwell., 96 Wendell 
St.; cost, $10,000. 

Fred. Rose, store and dwell., 951 West Madison 
St.; cost, $4,400. 


JUILDING PERMITS. R. Nelson, 2 brick houses, 
Fourth St.; cost, $5,500. 

W, B. Wesson, brick hotel, Woodbridge St.; cost, 

C. C. Hodges, residence, cor. Woodward and Brad- 
shaw Aves.; cost, $7,200. 

D. Brooks, brick mill, cor. Warren Ave. and Fif- 
teenth St.; cost, $6,000. 

John Waterfall, brick house, No. 507 Cass A ve. ; 
Ave. ; cost, $7,500. 

N. Mitchell, flve-st'y brick block, Woodbridge St.; 
cost, $20,000. 

Donaldson & Meur, architects, brick building for 
American News Co.; cost, $25,000. 

Brick residence for Mrs. Green,-Joy St.; cost, $9 - 

Brick residence for T. A. Wadsworth, McDongall 
Ave.; cost, $7,000. 

J. Waterfall &Son, 3 houses, Cass Ave.; cost, *2'> - 

Mrs. Jacober, 2 brick stores, Gratiot Ave.; cost 

Mrs. N. Williams, brick house, Lamed St.; cost, 

Schmidt* Co., block two-st'y brick dwells., Eigh li 
St.; cost, $12,000. 

Mrs. Dudley, 2 brick houses, Second St.; cost. $11 

Thomas Manning, brick house, Miami Avo.; cost, 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 473. 

John Edwards, brick house, Elliott St.; cost, $7,- 

John Edwards, 3 brick houses, Nos. 46-48 and 50 
High St.; cost, $17,000. 

No new buildings of any importance being pro- 
jected at present. Building operations unusually 
dull this fall. 

New York. 

OUTLOOK. Prospects are very problematical, little 
actual work is on the architects' board, but a good 
many alterations are projected. 

PARTNERSHIP. Mr. H. Edwards-Ficken has associ- 
ated with himself Mr. Edward H. Clark, late with 
McKim Mead & White. The firm address being H. 
Edwards-Ficken & Edward H. Clark, Architects, 
Office No. 19 West Twenty-second St., N. Y. Mr. 
Clark used to be in charge m Mr. MeKim's. 
STORE. On Chambers and Rose Sts., a six-st'y 
building, with a frontage of 118' on Chamber St., 
and 78' on Rose St., is to be built for occupancy by 
the Mutual News Co.; from plans of Mr. Thos. R. 
Jackson, Mr. Michael Giblin. 

HOUSES. On the n s of One Hundred and Twenty- 
Third St., w of Mount Morris Ave., Mr. Anthony 
Smyth will have 3 three-st'y and basement brown- 
stone houses, 18' to 19' frontages, built from plans of 
Messrs. Cleverdon & Putzel, and from plans of same 
architects, Mr. T. O. Wright will have 4 three-st'y 
and basement brown-stone houses, 18' to 19' front- 
age built on the n s of One Hundred and Thirtieth 
St., com. 225' w of Sixth Ave. 

BUILDING PERMITS. Jerome Park, 3 frame stables, 
wood roofing; cost, each, $1,500; owner, Jerome 
Park Villa Sites Improvement Co., W. R. Travers, 
president, 3 West Thirty-eighth St. ; architect, W. 
H. Smith; builder, R. H. Casey. 

West Eighty-third St., No. 371, five-st'y brick flat; 
tin roof; cost, $30,000; owner, Thomas Cochrane, 223 
West Thirty-sixth St.; architects, D. & J. Jardine. 
Madison St., Nos. 313 and 315, 2 flve-st'y brick and 
stone tenements, tin roof; cost, each, $15,000; own- 
ers, M. J. and D. F. Mahony, 52 New Bowery; archi- 
tects, Babcock & McAvoy. 

Elton Ave., e s, 150' n One Hundred and Sixty-first 
St., two-st'y frame dwell., tin roof; cost, $2.800; own- 
er, Steven Garland, 759 East One Hundred and Six- 
ty-third St.; architect, Samuel Garland; builder, 
John Y. Anderson. 

Forsyth St., No, 152, flve-st'y brick tenement and 
store, tin roof; cost, $15,000; owner, Henry Gott- 
leib, 2 Second St.; architect, Julius Boekell. 

Seventh Ave., s w cor. One Hundred and Thirty, 
fifth St., 8 three-st'y brick dwells., tin roofs; cost, 
each $6,000; owner, Patrick J. O'Brien, One Hun- 
dred and Forty-third St., near Eighth Ave.; archi- 
tect and builder, Richard R. Davis. 

Third Ave., s e cor. One Hundredth St., 2 flve-st'y 
brown-stone front tenements and stores, tin roofs; 
cost, each, $20,000 and $18,000; owner, P H. McMa- 
nus, 110 East Ninety-first St.; architect, John 

Twenty-sixth St., s s, 22.5' w Ninth Ave., 3 flve-st'y 
brick tenements, tin roofs; cost, each, $18,000; own- 
ers, Watkins Bros., 304 East Forty-first St.; archi- 
tect, F. T. Camp. 

East One Hundred and Thirteenth St., five-st'y 
brick tenement and store, tin roof; owner, Bridget 
S. Sullivan, 412 East One Hundred and Thirteenth 
St.; architect, Andrew Speuce. 

West Twenty-ninth St., No. 221, five-st'y brick ten- 
ement, tin roof; cost, $9,006; owners, C. & J. O'Neii, 
242 West Thirty-seventh St.; architect, John F. Wil- 
son ; builder, day's work. 

Third Ave., w s, 125' 7" s One Hundred and Sixty- 
fifth St., four-st'y frame tenement and store, tin 
roof; owner, P. Garvin, 837 Cauldwell Ave.; archi- 
tect, Aug. Schmidt. 

First Ave., e s, 25' n Forty-fourth St., one-st'j 
brick Slaughter-House, tin or gravel roof; cost, $8,- 
000; owner, Marcus Fleischhauer, 348 East Fiftieth 
St.; architect, John Mclntyre. 

One Huii'lred and Thirty-third St., s s, 300 e Willib 
Ave., one-st'y frame dancing pavilion, tin roof, les- 
see, Aug. Baur, One Hundred and Thirty-second St 
and Willis Ave.; architect, J. H. Valentine. 

East Fifty-first St., No. 351, five-st'y brick tene- 
ement tin roof; cost, $18,000; owner, Horace W 
Fuller, 114 East Thirty-eighth St.; architect, W. R. 
Smith; builder, day's work. 

East Eightieth St., Nos. Ill, 113 and 115, 3 four-st'y 
brown-stone front dwells., metal roofs; cost, each 
$13,000; owner and builder. James Brady, 109 Est 
Eightieth St. ; architects, N. Le Brun & Son. 
ALTERATIONS. Walker St., Nos. 72, 74, and 76, inter- 
nal alterations, such as new stairs, new elevator, 
steam heating, ete., cost, $20,000; owner, Dr. Henry 
H. House, by his agents, Butler, Matthews & Co. 
149 Broadway; architect, John Mclntyre; builder 
day's work. 

Willoughby St., n w cor. Bridge St., put in a tie: 
of iron beams and put on new roof, etc.; cost, $6,000 
owner, Jacob Ruppert, on premises; architects, A 
Pfund & Son. 

Ninety-second St., n s, 85' w Second Ave., lowe 
present roof and put on an additional roof, rais 
walls about three feet; cost, $3,000; owner, Georg 
Ehret, on premises; architect, A. Pfund & Son. 

West Forty-second St., No. 115, one-st'y brick ex 
tension, tin roof; cost, $5,247; owner, R. S. Williams 
51 West One Hundred and Twenty-seventh St. 
architect, J. F. Miller; builders, E. W. Gardim 
and Thos. Wilson. 

Third Aoe., Nos. 1633 and 1635, put on a new rool 
new iron beams, 5 new windows in wall; cost, $6,000 
owner, Jacob Ruppert, 1639 Third Ave.; architects 
A. Pfund & Son. 

Third Ave., e s, 212' a One Hundred and Sixty 
Nimth St., raise one-st'y rebuild south wall., etc 
cost, $5,400; owner, David Mayer, 1304 Fifth Ave, 
architects, Schwarzmann & Buchman; builders, Lis 
& Lennon. 

East Forty-fourth St., Nos. 331 and 333, raise sec 
ond st'y, ne'w flat roof; cost, $3,500; owner, Freder 
ick Oppermann, Jr., 154 East Forty-sixth St.; arch 
tect, Charles Stoll. 

First St., Nos. 38-42, four-st'y and attic brick ex 
tension, tin and slate roofs; cost, $67,000; owner 
City of New York, by Stephen A. Walker, presiden 

Board of Education, 8 East Thirtieth St. ; architect, 
D. J. Stagg; builder, Joseph Spears. 

Elizabeth St., s e cor. Hester St., repair damage by 
fire; cost, $4,500; owners, Simon Bing, Jr., 130 East 
Seventy-fourth St., and Jacob Bookman, 9 East Six- 
ty-second St.; architect, Wm. Graul. 

One Hundred and Twenty-seventh St., s s, 150' w 
Third Ave., three-st'y brick extension, tin roof; cost, 
$5,000; owner, Thos. W. Beacom, 640 East Eleventh 
St.; architect, Chas. Baxter. 

Ninety-seventh St., Nos. 210, 212 and 274-294, build 
brick piers in cellars to support girders and repairs; 
cost, 5,000; owner, Washington Life Ins. Co., 21 
Courtlandt St. 

Water St., No. 61, repair damage by fire; cost, $4,- 
700; owner, John H. Caswell, exr., 11 West Forty- 
Eighth St.; builder, Lewis H. Williams. 

Fifty-first St., Nos. 103 and 105, put in iron girders 
and posts in first st'y, etc.; cost, $3,000; owner, The 

F. & M. Sohaefer Brewing Co., 112 East Fifty-first 
St.; architect, J. Kastner. 

Broadway, No. 540, five-st'y and basement exten- 
sion, metal roof; cost, $30,000; owner, Thos. Lewis, 
582 Lexington Ave.; architect, John B. Snook; 
builder, not selected. 

Fifth Ave., No. 254, lower floor takeout partitions, 
new store front with iron girders, posts, etc.; cost, 
$5,000; owner, Julia M. Coggill, Richmond, Va.; ar- 
chitects, Berger & Baylies; builder, M. Magrath, 


BUILDING PERMITS. Meehan St., between Musgrove 
and Chew Sts., 2 two-st'y dwells., 15' x 28'; Andrew 
Brachbold, contractor. 

Waterloo St., No. 2312, two-st'y dwell., 18' x 37'; 
Wm. Kutz, contractor. 

South. Third St., Nos. 255 and 257, six-st'y fac- 
tory, 40' x 181'; E. Cubberly, contractor. 

Bouvier St., above Columbia Ave., three-st'y 
dwell., 14' x 48'; G. G. Gandy, contractor. 

Tulip St., between Washington and Tyson Sts., 
frame church, 30' x 50'; Wm. W. Milner, contractor. 

South St., No. 190, one-st'y building, 20' x 40'; Jas. 

G. Miller, owner. 

Fifteenth St., e s, below Washington Ave., two- 
st'y box-factory, 36' x 40'; D. M. Hess, owner. 

Columbia Ave., between Twenty-fifth and Twenty- 
sixth Sts., two-st'y stable, 16' x 40'; Michael Cooney, 

Juniper St., below Pine St., altering dwell, to 
stable, 16' x 85'; Gulbat & Keefer, contractors. 

St. Louis. 

3UILDING PERMITS. Twenty-five permits have been 
issued since our last report, five of which are for 
unimportant frame houses. Of the rest, those worth 
$2,500 and over are as follows: 

Mary E.Kelly, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $2,500 
contract sublet. 

J. H. Wyth, two-st'y brick forge; cost, $2,500; A 
J. Cramer, contractor. 

Mrs. M. Curtis, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $5,500 
J. W. Barnes & Co., contractors. 

F. Fischer, two-st'y brick store and tenement 
cost, $7,000; C, Schwartzkoph, contractor. 

J. B. Cella, three-st'y store and offices; cost 
$7,000; fl. D. Fitzgibbons. contractor. 

1. W. Morion, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $22,000 
Peabody & Stearns, architects; Samuel Morrison 


THE past season has been a fairly good one for build 
ing interests in this locality. Quite a large numbe 
of moderate-priced buildings are in progress, opera 
tions being interrupted by decidedly wintry weather 
which is upon us. Wages rule low. Many gooi 
mechanics are unable to obtain employment at any 
price. The tendency of prices for building mate 
rials is toward depression, and the outlook for th 
coining year is, that building will be cheap; toi 
cheap, maybe, to indicate commercial health 
There is, of course, a logical reason for the fact tha 
the most building in our cities is projected an< 
accomplished when labor and materials are held a 
high prices. 

BUILDING PERMITS. Parlcwood St., cor. Woodruff 
Ave., two-st'y and basement brick dwell., for Chaf 
F. Milburn; cost, about $6,500; N. B. Bacon, arch] 
tect; Jas. Hales, builder. 

Jefferson St., near Eleventh St., two-st'y brio! 
dwell., for Thos. Duulap; cost, about $4,000; A. Lie 
bold, architect. 

Ontario St., block of 3 two-st'y brick dwells., fo 
Wm.C. Tate; cost, about $9,000; A. LiebolJ, arch] 
tect; P. K. Tappan, builder. 

St. Clair St., brick business block, 50' x 120 
three stories high, for J. T. Newton; cost, abou 
$14,000; J. E. Morehouse, architect; Schall & Cos 
tello, contractors of brickwork. 

General Notes. 
CLEVELAND, O. Mr. Geo. F. Hammond, architec 

late of Boston, has formed a co-partnership wit! 

Alexander Koehler, Esq., under the firm name o 

Koehler & Hammond, with offices in the City-Ha 

Building, Superior St. 
CONNERSVILLE,IND. Hodgson, Wallingford & Stem 

Indianapolis, have residence for A. M. Andrews 

cost, $3,000. 
DESERONTO, ONTARIO. F. S. Rathbun will com 

mence a brick house soon, to cost $6,500, from plai 

by Palliser, Palliser & Co., architects, New York. 
ELIZABETH, N. J. The corner-stone of a high schoo 

building of brick, was laid December 10th, with ap 

propriate ceremonies, W. H. Meeker, secretary 

Board of Education; Palliser, Palliser & Co., arch 

tects, N. Y. 
HADDONFIELD, N. J. C. H. Mann, of Philadelphi 

country house; cost,.J7,500; Palliser, Palliser & Co 

architects, New York. 
NEWPORT, VT. The citizens of Newport have gua 

anteed $5,000 for the new County Buildings to b 

built there. 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. Messrs. Walker & Nolan, arch 

tects, have prepared plans for a new chapel to b 

erected in the rear of St. Paul's Church. It will b 

a frame structure, with an auditorium 36' x 45'. 
Plans for the new Government building have ju 

been received from Washington. Bids will be r 

ceived by Architect Ellis up to the middle of this 

Plans are being prepared by resident architects for 
a new jail-building, to cost $60,000, and located on 
Exchange St. 

OCKVILLE, CONN. Henry Adams is building a frame 
house; cost, $15,000. 

Mr. Skinner is to build a frame residence, to cost 
$4,009, from plans by J. M. Currier, Springfield, 

HERRIL'S MOUNT, lo. It is announced that a new 
Catholic Church is about to be erected at Sherril's 
Mount, a few miles north of Dubuque; to cost up- 
ward Of $20,000. 

TATEN ISLAND, N. Y. Skating-rink, 250 feet long 
by 50' wide; also brick building, 50' x 50', two-st'y; 
club rooms, etc., for George Becbtel, Staten Island, 
to cost $50,000; plans and designs by I. M. Merrick, 
New York, N. Y. 

Fire-proof building, 25' x 50', two-st'y; for county 
clerk, Richmond Co., N. Y.; I. M. Merrick, archi- 

T. PAUL, MINN. F. L. Chapman, two-st'y frame 
dwell., n s of Holly St., bet. Dale and Kent Sts.; 
cost, $3,500. 

A. J. D. Haupt, two-st'y frame dwell., n s of Port- 
land St., bet. Grotto and Avon Sts.; cost, $2,600. 

Episcopal Mission, two-st'y frame double dwell., 
e s of Rice St., bet. Summit and College Sts. ; cost, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. A two-st'y and basement brick 
and stone school-house, 50' x 60', is to be built for 
the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, at 
a cost of about $20,000; from designs of the archi- 
tect of the Institution, Mr. Fred. C. Withers, of New 

WATCH HILL, R. I. Five cottages are to be built 
here for Wayne Griswold, Esq., of New York City, 
to be occupied next summer; Palliser, Palliser & 
Co., architects, New York. 

WATOHSHELL, R. I. Miss Adams, of Baltimore, is to 
have erected a two-st'y frame artists' studio. 30' x 
35', from designs by Messrs. Wyatt & Sperry, archi- 
tects, Baltimore. 

WATERBURY, CONN. Dr. Alfred North, house on 
North Main St.; cost, $16,000. 
W. E. Risley, cottage; cost, $5,500. 
Mrs. Dr. Dougherty, house; cost, $6,000. 
C. B. Webster, house: cost, $10,000. 
Palliser, Palliser & Co., architects, Bridgeport, 

WEIRS'S STATION, N. H. The railway station at the 
Weirs is to have an addition of 100' two-st'y, the first 
floor to be finished off as a first-class restaurant; in 
the second story there will be offices and sleeping- 

WESTTOWN, PA. The Building Committee of the 
Westtown boarding-school of the Orthodox branch 
of the Society of Friends report that they have the 
sum of $192,000 subscribed of the $250,000, towards 
building the new school on their property in West- 
town Township. The committee feel safe now to 
commence building, and the plans will be finally 
adopted in a few days. The structure will probably 
be of brick. 

WORCESTER, MASS. Worcester is suddenly thrown 
into a ferment because some of its leading citizens, 
notably Joseph H. Walker, have prepared a com- 
munication of a few lines to the City Council, ask- 
ing for a new city hall, which shall cost not less than 

Ransom C. Taylor has bought the Front Street 
estate of the Osgood Bradley heirs, opposite the 
Common, and will improve it by the erection of a 
business block next season. 

A new armory is to be built here, probably at the 
junction of Bridge, Mechanic and Foster Sts. 
WINCHESTER, VA. A brick Baptist church, 35' x 60', 
with a seating capacity of 350, and to cost $5.000, is 
to be erected here; from designs by J. A. & W. T. 
Wilson, architects, Baltimore. 

WINONA, MINN. The Bohn Manufacturing Company 
are now arranging to build a new saw-mill. 



\J [At Toronto, Can.] 

TORONTO, December 23, 1884. 

Designs, in competition for a court-house, to be 
erected on Queen St., at the head of Bay St., in the 
City of Toronto, will be received by the Court-House 
Committee of the City Council up to noon of Wed- 
nesday, the 83d day of March, 1885. 

Premiums will be awarded as follows: "First prize 
the carrying out of the works as set forth in the in- 
structions; second, $500; third, $400; fourth, $200." 

All further information can be had on application 
at the City Clerk's Office, City-Hall Buildings, Toronto. 

Chairman Court-House Committee, 


[At Cincinnati, O.] 
WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10 1885. ) 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
8 o'clock, P.M., on Friday, January, 23, 1885, for 
manufacturing and placing in position in complete 
working order, certain furniture for the post-office in 
the new custom-house building at Cincinnati, O., and 
also for U. S. buildings under control of this Depart- 
ment in various cities east of the Rocky Mountains, in 
accordance with the drawings and specifications, cop- 
ies of which may be seen either at this office, or at the 
office of the custodian, custom-house, Cincinnati, O-, 
where any additional information may be obtained. 

The Department reserves the right to reject any 
or all bids or part of bids, and to waive defects. 

Bids should be addressed to the Secretary of the 

Treasury, and endorsed "Proposals for furniture for 

Cincinnati," and " Proposals for furniture for various 

U. S. buildings east of the Rocky Mountains." 

473 H, McCULLOCH, Secretary. 


VOL. xvn. 

Copyright, 1885, JAMES B. OSOOOD Sc Co., Boeton, Mas*. 

No. 474. 

JANUARY 24, 1885. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 


The Competition for the Boston Public Library decided. Na- 
tional Subsidies for Artists. A Case of the Responsibility 
of Architect and Contractor in France. A New Feature in 
School Architecture. The Effect of Railways on the Dis- 
tribution and Growth of Populations. An American Exam- 
ple. Ingenious Repairs to a Philadelphia Bridge 37 




The " Hoffman Arms," New York, N. Y. House, Albany, 
N. Y. Cottages, Dorchester, Mass. Notre Dame la Grande, 
Poitiers, France. Greenwood Chapel, Wakefield, Mass. . 43 




The Architectural Association of Minnesota 46 


TTFHE competition for the Boston Public Library building has 
\j been decided by the award of the four prizes : the first to 
Mr. Charles B. Atwood of New York ; the second to 
Messrs. O'Grady and Zerrahu of Boston ; the third to Mr. 
Clarence S. Luce of New York, formerly of Newport, R. I. ; 
and the fourth to Mr. Horace F. Burr of Boston. Nearly all 
these gentlemen are already distinguished for their ability 
among the younger architects of the country, and unquestion- 
ably well earned the liberal prizes awarded them, and it is not 
their fault that none of the designs are regarded as suitable 

O o 

for execution. In fact, the competition seems to have been 
rather hastily arranged, and the competitors were confined by 
the requirements of a programme which allowed them far too 
little liberty in arranging their plan. It is as true in archi- 
tecture as in other things, that nothing but the unexpected is 
sure to happen ; or rather, to adapt the saying to the occasion, 
the best plan for a building is generally that which no one 
ever thought of before; and it is almost always a mistake to 
restrict designers to any model, or preconceived idea of what 
the arrangement of a given set of rooms should be. One does 
not always remember, for example, that there are five thousand 
and forty different ways in which a house of seven rooms can 
be planned; and he who would build such a house does best to 
allow himself the privilege of choosing any one of the whole 
number. With so important a structure as the Boston Library 
the number of possible arrangements is still greater ; and al- 
though certain requirements must be fulfilled, they are usually 
such as would suggest themselves at once to an architect of 
the most mediocre attainments. 

TITHE National Capitol at Washington seems to be in a fair 
\j way to be converted into a gallery for the exhibition of 
works by attractive female artists, if we may judge by the 
action of the Library Committee of the Senate, which reported 
recently in favor of the purchase of a portrait of the late 
General Thomas, said to be a colored photograph, by a Miss 
Ransom, at the remunerative price of ten thousand dollars ; 
together with another picture, representing the Electoral Com- 
mission, by Mrs. Fossett, for fifteen thousand dollars. Not 
having seen the pictures in question, we will not undertake to 
pass upon their merit, and indeed they could not well be worse 
than many of those which disgrace the Capitol, and belie the 
public taste ; but we are sure of a more important matter, that 
the ladies who painted them have no reputation which would 
justify the payment of such enormous prices out of the public 
treasury for their works. There are very few painters in the 
world who could get anything like ten thousand dollars for 
painting a portrait from a photograph, or who would not think 
-it a piece of very unprofessional impudence to ask such a price; 
and we are unable to imagine either how those who are in- 
trusted with spending the money raised by taxation from the 
people of this country can excuse themselves for wasting it in 
such inordinate compensation for work which would be dear 
at one-tenth the price, or how artists of honorable feeling can 
condescend to profit by such maudlin prodigality. 

H POINT of extreme importance to architects is discussed 
in a recent number of La Semaine des Constructeurs. It 
seems that a certain proprietor some years ago had a house 
wilt by contractors, under the direction of an architect. The 
ground on which the house rested was not perfectly firm, and 
he building settled, causing a few little cracks in the walls. 
The proprietor took possession, and lived in his house for sev- 
ral years without complaining, or apparently troubling himself 
bout these; but subsequently rented the house to a more 
>articular individual, who demanded that the cracks should be 
repaired. The proprietor went to the contractor, who sug- 
gested that an architect should be called in, to say what ought 
to be done ; but this proposition was refused. The tenant 
.hen, without further notice either to the contractor or the 
architect, called in an expert, who engaged workmen and had 
uch repairs made as he saw fit; and after all was done the 
)ill was presented to the original contractor, who very natu- 
rally declined to pay it. The correspondent of La Semaine, 
who tells the story, asks what are the rights of the various 

ITFO this question the editor replies that although the Code 
X Civil provides that " if a building constructed by contract 
shall perish wholly or in part, even through defect in the 
soil, the builder and architect shall be jointly responsible for 
,en years," it has been decided by the highest court that in 
order to make the architect responsible it is necessary that the 
edifice should literally "perish wholly or in part," or, in other 
words, that " the damage must be serious." It is natural for 
walls of masonry, and for the ground on which they stand, to 
ettle, and, although architects and builders can, and do, take 
:ertain well-known precautions to make the settlement uniform, 
it is impossible to foresee the direction and amount of all the 
movements with sufficient precision to avoid all cracking ; and 
10 long as the movements do not threaten the stability of the 
building, or make it unsuitable for habitation, neither the 
builder nor the architect can justly be held responsible for 
them. Moreover, even if there bad been in the case cited such 
serious disorders as to endanger the structure, the proprietor 
and his tenant mistook entirely the method of holding the con- 
tractor and architect to the responsibility defined by law. To 
enforce this responsibility, if the occasion demands it, the ar- 
chitect or the builder, according as the fault is with the design 
or the execution of the building, must first be notified, and a 
reference agreed upon, to which he must be a party, and when 
the extent of his responsibility, if any, is thus legally settled, 
he can be called upon to perform the duty which the law re- 
quires of him. The report of an expert called in by the pro- 
prietor or tenant, without the cooperation of the builder, is 
worthless, and cannot be used against the latter ; and an expert 
examination after the alleged defects have been repaired is 
likewise useless, since it is then impossible to say positively 
what the original defects may have been, and the responsibility 
of a builder or architect cannot be enforced upon anything 
short of definite and unmistakable evidence. 

NOVEL, but very commendable feature in school-house 
architecture has just been introduced in Edinburgh, where 
the famous High School, one of the most successful 
adaptations in Great Britain of Greek forms to modern every- 
day purposes, is to be enlarged by the addition of a gymnasium, 
and of a swimming-bath, in a separate building; or rather, a 
new janitor's house is to be built, and the old one altered over 
into a bath-house. The Scotch, like the Germans, have always 
been remarkable for their appreciation of systematic educa- 
tion, as distinguished from that picked-up information, mixed 
with misinformation, which so many persons mistake for knowl- 
edge, but the idea of teaching boys the second of the two great 
classic accomplishments in some reasonably efficient way seems 
never to have occurred to a School Board before. The appar- 
atus by which the youth of Edinburgh is to be instructed in 
this manliest of all manly exercises is very simple. The jani- 
tor's house is to have the floors removed, and a tank, thirty-two 
feet long, and fifteen feet wide, formed in the centre, with a 
platform around it, and dressing-rooms and shower-bath near 
by. Although of such modest dimensions, the bath is large 
enough for such a school, and it is safe to say that it will 
not be long in operation before its advantages will become so 


The American Architect and Building News. x [VOL. XVII. No. 474. 

obvious as to lead to the establishment of similar appenda 
ges to many other schools. 

fHE Builder calls attention to the tendency of building in 
England, and points out in a striking way the influence 
which railway management has upon the movement o" 
population in any country. Almost without exception th< 
great cities of England have gained in population within th< 
last ten years, while the country towns and villages have either 
remained stationary or have lost ; but it is rather surprising to 
find that among the cities those situated on the coast have 
gained the most. Apart from the pleasant seaside resorts, like 
Bournemouth and Hastings, which have recently become very 
popular as places of permanent residence, the seaports oi 
Grimsby, Hull, Cardiff, Gateshead, Hartlepool, and some others 
have gained from thirty to sixty per cent in population within 
the last decade, while Manchester, the second city in England, 
has actually declined during that time, and other interior man- 
ufacturing towns have either lost, or have gained very little. 
The fact that manufactures have been transferred to seaporl 
towns from the interior places, which depend on railways for 
their transportation, is too conspicuous to escape attention, and 
on examination it is found that the present system of freight 
charges on the English railways practically prohibits manufac- 
turing in the interior of the country, while it fosters the im- 
portation of manufactured products from the Continent in a 
most effective manner. Thus iron wire, which was once made 
in great quantities in Birmingham, is now brought by sea from 
Antwerp to London, and thence carried by rail to Birmingham, 
at a total expense of four dollars and sixteen cents a ton; 
while the railway charge for carrying home-made wire of the 
same kind from Birmingham to London is six dollars and eighty 
cents. Antwerp is about two hundred miles from London, and 
Birmingham one hundred, so that, supposing the expense of 
transportation by sea, and transhipment, to be only half that 
of transportation by land for the same distance, the Birmingham 
manufacturer pays eight dollars and eighty-eight cents a ton 
more than the Antwerp commission merchant for carrying his 
goods to London. We do not know the price of wire in Eng 
land, but, supposing it to be forty-four dollars a ton, the dis- 
crimination made against the Birmingham manufacturer by 
the railways amounts to an impost of twenty per cent in his 
largest market, to which his Continental competitor is ad- 
mitted free of duty. It is needless to say that no honest busi- 
ness can long sustain such a burden, and the wire manufacture, 
once one of the principal industries of Birmingham, has been 
transferred to the new sea-coast manufacturing towns, where it 
is in a measure independent of the railways. Another town, 
near Birmingham, is Wolverhampton, where nails are manufac- 
tured in grent quantities. The port most nearly in the direct 
route from Wolverhampton to Antwerp, the great distributing 
centre of the Continent, is Harwich. The present cost of trans- 
porting nails from Antwerp to Wolverhampton by way of Har- 
wich, where they are transhipped, is three dollars and ninety- 
two cents a ton ; while the charge for railway transportation 
alone from Wolverhampton to Harwich, about one-third of the 
distance to Antwerp, is five dollars and twelve cents a ton. It 
is evident that the exportation of nails from Wolverhampton 
to the Continent uuder such circumstances is out of the ques- 
tion, and the nail manufacturers who wish to supply foreign 
markets must either remove their works to the coast, where they 
will no longer depend upon the railways, or gwe up business. 

IN a less degree the same powerful, though unseen influence, 
is modifying the distribution of population all over the civi- 
lized world. It is not an insane desire to live in dirty tene- 
ment-houses that draws working people everywhere to the great 
cities, but the greater certainty that they will find work there, 
which comes from the concentration of manufactures in them ; 
and the concentration of manufactures in the cities depends 
upon the fact that the cities are what railway directors call 
"competing points," and that the same directors, in order to 
get away each other's business, are generally willing to carry 
goods between these and other " competing points " for less 
than cost, making up their loss by exorbitant demands from 
the manufacturers who have been so ill-advised as to build their 
works at points which are not "competing," and where they 
are in consequence at the mercy of the railway companies. In 
England, where combinations among the railway corporations 
have taken the place of competition, the number of "compet- 
ing point? " has been reduced so far that all the producers of 

the country are more or less in their power, and are unmerci- 
fully taxed in consequence ; while foreign manufacturers, who 
need not send their goods over English railroads unless they 
wish, are allured by low rates and special favors to do so. For- 
tunately for the Englishmen, the sea is near them, and by trans- 
ferring their business to the coast they can use a highway 
which is not subject to monopoly, but the process of transfer is 
costly, and before the interior of the country is quite deserted 
it may occur to some director that a railway line through an 
uninhabited country is usually unprofitable, and that a good local 
business, built up by patient courtesy and fairness, in a spirit 
of sympathy with the interests and needs of the people who in- 
habit the territory along the line, is far more remunerative to 
a railroad than the greedy extortion which treats persons who 
have the misfortune to need the services of the road as so much 
prey, to be plundered without mercy whenever they are caught 
at a disadvantage. 

TITO find an illustration of the operation of the same law in 
J[ this country, we have only to open the annual report of a 
certain Massachusetts railroad company which happens to 
lie before us. The railroad owned by the company is one hun- 
dred and forty-three miles long, but it connects with other roads 
to form a continuous route both between Boston and the West, 
and towards the North, and carries a considerable amount of 
freight between the Mississippi Valley and the seaboard. In 
its statement of the last year's business of the road, the report 
says that " The earnings from local freight per ton per mile 
have been three and forty-four one-hundredths cents," while 
the earnings per ton per mile, from " freight to and from other 
roads " have been seventy -eight hundredths of one cent ; and 
the earnings on freight to and from points west of the place 
where the roads connects with the westward system have been 
six hundred and nine one-thousandths of one cent per ton per 
mile. To put it in another way, this railroad has, through the 
year, charged all the manufacturers living on its line; and de- 
pendent upon it for transportation nearly six times as much 
for carrying their materials and goods as it has their competi- 
tors a little west of them, and four-and-a-half times as much as 
the ones to the north. 

VERY ingenious engineering operation was recently car- 
ried out in Philadelphia, for strengthening one of the piers 
of the Chestnut Street bridge over the Schuylkill River. 
The bridge, which was built, according to the account in the 
Scientific American, twenty-four years ago, consists of two 
metal arches over the river, with a pier in the middle, and two 
stone arches on each side, forming the land spans. The metal 
arches are each one hundred and eighty-five feet wide, and the 
stone arches between fifty and sixty feet. On the eastern 
shore of the river, the foundations of the piers and abutments 
rested on solid gravel, but at the western end of the bridge the 
gravel was overlaid with a considerable depth of silt, and, to 
save the expense of carrying the foundations down through 
this, piles were driven to the gravel, and the masonry built 
upon them. The piles were not very long, not more than 
thirty feet, according to the Scientific American's diagram, but 
the thrust of the metallic arch, w-hich amounts to about two 
thousand tons horizontal pressure, was sufficient to push them 

lowly over, through the soft silt, moving the first western pier 
laterally about eight inches, and deforming the stone land- 
arches seriously. A temporary expedient was adopted some 
;ime ago for checking the movement of the masonry, by plac- 

ng heavy timber struts across the opening of the land arches, 
jelow the level of the roadway, but these, though well placed, 
were liable to decay, and it was decided to substitute a perma- 
nent construction for them. On the suggestion of Messrs. 
Anderson and Barr, of New York, it was decided to secure 
;he necessary resistance by means of concrete struts, extending 
'rom the foundation of the pier next the great arch obliquely 
hrough the silt to the rock, some forty-five feet below. A 
railroad track runs through the arch most affected, and it was 
mportaut to avoid interfering with the passage of trains, so the 

ecessary excavation was entirely carried on through iron 

ubes, eight feet in diameter, kept full of compressed air, and 

extended downward through the silt by the gradual addition of 

lates, after the method so successfully adopted for building 
he Hudson River tunnel. Four tubes were constructed, at 
uch an angle with the base of the pier as to contain the line 

f thrust of the arch, and on reaching the rock were filled 
vith concrete, forming an incompressible and permanent brace. 

JANUARY 24, 1885.] 

The. American Architect and Building News. 



URE. 1 III. 


f HE invention of stained-glass caused a great 
change in the form of the windows. Sin- 
gle narrow windows of great height were 
" in use, but the desire for the display of color, 
and for the attainment of those beautiful effects 
produced only through stained-glass, led them 
to widen the windows, until they became over- 
poweringly large. 
But a farther 
step had to be 
reached before 

they could utilize the whole space be- 
tween the piers for windows. On the 
introduction of the pointed arch in the 
groining, the required height in the walls 
was gained, and it was only necessary to 
carry the masonry of the vault through 
the side wall, and rest it upon an arch, 
springing from the sides of the piers, 
and then the centre wall below this dis- 
charging-arch was free to be done away 
with, and was in fact a simple screen, 
filling the space from pier to pier. The 
pointed arch was then used for the 
windows and the nave arches, to match with the vaulting. The form 
of window then in vogue was not altogether pleasing in its effect. 
The simple lancets set in triplets, and enclosed with a single pointed 
arch, left vacant spaces of stone in the spandrels, and above the 
smaller arched 
windows, and this 
led the French to 
abandon the geo- 
metrical forms, 
anil to adopt a 
more flowing tra- 
cery. Having 
found the use of 
t h e discharging- 
arch above, they 
gave themselves 

up to the indulgence of all the vaga- fe/Vffifrt/t AK 
ries of the style peculiar to them- f*rt**fexi "* 
selves, and known as " Flamboyant." This was a great contrast to 
the style in use in England at (he same date, called the " Perpendicu- 
lar," or third pointed style. Every feature underwent changes, and 
the smallest and most insignificant mouldings were treated, as the 
styles altered, with care and taste. 

The shafts, columns and piers may bn particularly noticed. First, 

the square pier, 
with semi-shafts 
attached, singly or 
in groups. The 
hollow spaces 
were increased in 
depth, and then 
such an amount 
of elaborate small 
moulding was in- 
troduced that the 
deep hollows could 
not be obtained, 
and a waving 
moulding was the 
result. Of mouldings, the accompanying diagrams will show the 
whole history. The extra weight upon the buttresses, when the piers 
were made to carry the whole 
weight of the roof, necessi- 
tated an increase of weight 
to assist in the resistance of 
the roof-thrust upon the 
buttresses; hence pinnacles 
were introduced, and these 
were gradually used as or- 
namental features, apart 
from the necessity that gave 
rise to their invention. In 

the capitals there may 
still be traced a reminiscence 
of the Roman Corinthian or- 
der, but under a very differ- 
ent treatment. 

We have now rapidly run 
through the principal 
changes that took place, and 
seen the necessity of the hour 
provided for by the inge- 
nuity of the architects, and most of these apply to the Pointed 

J A Sketch of the History of Architecture from the commencement of the Gre- 
cian Art to the Roformation In Kngland, by K. W. GamWer-IJotisneM, A.K.I.B.A. 
Continued from page 2!), No. 473. 

Gothic in every country, although each nation treated every detail in 
a manner peculiar to itself, imparting to the stone characteristics of 
their own, adapting each new idea to suit the requirements of the 
climate, and then reducing the whole to perfect proportions and har- 
mony, and thereby perfecting an art whose existence began nearly 
six thousand years ago. Before we leave the subject, it would be 
greatly to our advantage to look more closely into the treatment by 
our forefathers of this Pointed Gothic style, for, starting upon the 
same lines as the French when first the pointed arch was introduced, 
they perfected for themselves a style which, for simplicity and beauty 
in the first place, and richness in the second, has not been equalled 
on any part of the Continent. 

It has been usual to date the introduction of the Pointed Gothic 
into England 1200 A. D., but the vertical principles from which it 
sprung were not fully developed for nearly thirty years afterwards. 
Though at first this thirteenth-century or "Early English" style, 

as it is called, had much of the heaviness of appearance of the 
former style, yet it soon effaced all semblance of Norman by the 
development of its own peculiar and beautiful characteristics of high 
gables and roofs, the elongated window, the slender shafts, the lofty 
pinnacles and spires, and the lancet, as well as the equilateral-shaped 
arch. The mouldings were alternate rolls and deeply-cut hollows, 
not parts of circles in section, but they were treated with a freedom 
quite opposed to the geometrically correct method of a few years 
later. Salisbury Cathedral, erected 1220, is a perfect example of the 
style. By the grouping of the simple lancet windows, bold and 
beautiful effects were produced, and in no other country of the globe 
do we find anything similar; this and the third period of English 
Pointed Gothic or " Perpendicular," of which we shall speak later, 
being peculiar to our country. The Early English style reached 
its perfection in the middle of the thirteenth century, and towards 
the end we find much less freedom in the treatment of features and 
detail, until at last geometrical patterns became the regular mode of 
decoration. The hollows of the mouldings are correct semicircles, 
and the rolls themselves are far less prominent. The window forms 
underwent a striking change. Take, for instance, a triplet of lancet- 
windows of the Early English : a lofty centre 
one, and one on either side, considerably 
shorter, and these 
three enclosed under 
one drip or label- 
mould. In the new 
style known as " Dec- 
orated," or the second 
period of English 
Pointed architecture, 
the jambs between the 
lights are reduced to 

mere shafts, the spandrels above are pierced, 
and one large window is produced, the upper 
part of which was filled with rich geometrical 

tracery. One of the most elaborate and beau- . 

tiful windows of this date is at Carlisle Cathe- >""**" " A <"* 
dral, and has been well illustrated by Mr. ^ AIIL ^ 
Billings, in his work on that cathedral. There was no end to the 
variety of decoration and ornamentation used at this date, and we 
find most singular ideas embodied in stone, showing how thoroughly 
the masons understood the use of that material, how to apply its 
strength in difficult positions, and how to make it conform in every 
wav to their wills. 

The English vaulted roofs were very superior to the French, the 
narrowness of the naves adding to the facility of construction. In 
all cases of early work, the vaulting shafts run from the ground 
through the clerestory, and terminate with the copings of the walls, 


The American Architect and Building News. [.VOL. XVII. No. 474- 

so that in this form they were evidently intended only to support 
wooden roofs, whose main timbers would rest upon the tops of these 
shafts. It may be that it was intended to cut them away down to 
the string-course, as was actually done at Norwich, in 1446, when 
the nave was vaulted ; but in the beginning of the thirteenth century 
the architects were content with such roofs as that at Peterbro', 
which is the finest example we possess. St. Albans Abbey, in Hert- 
fordshire, has a roof of corresponding pattern ; it is a horizontal 
painted wood ceiling. At Durham there can be no doubt that it was 
intended to erect a hexipartite vault from the alternate piers and pil- 
lars, but before the walls had reached the height necessary for the 
springing of the vaults, 

the science had so far 
advanced that the idea 
was abandoned, an 
brackets were introduced 
to give support to the 
quadrilateral vault that 
now exists. This was 
successfully carried out 
between the years 1233 
and 1284. The vaulted 
roof of Lincoln Cathedral 
may be taken as the first 
type of perfect English 
vaulting. The original 
form of the intersecting 
vault is that of two halves 
of a hollow-sided square 
pyramid, placed opposite 
one another in an in- 
verted position. Half 
such a vault is shown 
at A and A A. Tracery 
was introduced to con- 
ceal the sameness, but at 
length the angle, as at B 
was cut off. This was 
an improvement in the 
appearance, but it left aC| 
flat square space, which 
would have been awk- 
ward in a central vault, 
although in a side aisle, 
where the space was 
smaller, it was easily 
concealed by ornament. 
By dividing each face 
into two, the original 
lines were restored and the central space had a strong rib across it 
which gave it the necessary support. The sides were then subdivided 
into any number of parts, and thus a polygonal cone was formed (C), 
that, as Fergusson says, was so near a circle on plan that it was 
impossible to resist the temptation of making it one (>). " So 
far all was easy, but the flat central space resting on the four cones 
was felt to be a defect." There was only one way of getting over 
this, and the necessity gave rise to an invention that, as in the days 
when the pointed arch was introduced, changed the whole charac- 
ter of the art. By slightly raising this flat space in the centre, and 
thereby making it self-supporting, a graceful curve was produced, 
struck from two centres rising from the springing of the fan, and 
continuing to the apex of the groining. In section we now have the 

four-centred arch, and 
the last step in the 
problem had been 
reached and the efforts 
of a thousand years 
were crowned with suc- 
cess. This four-centred 
arch was soon adopted 
for windows, doorways, 
"and employed instead 
of the earlier forms 
for the nave and aisle 
arches themselves. 
This began the period 
of "Perpendicular," 
the least beautiful, so 
far as its details are 
concerned, of the three 

The geometrical 
forms lasted for little 
more than half a century, and the flowing tracery even a still shorter 
period. The Perpendicular was preeminently a constructive style, 
and nothing could be better, constructively, than the vertical lines 
running from sill to arch, strengthened laterally by various tran- 
soms; but the poetry of tracery was gone, the poetic inspiration 
of true art was giving way to the rule and the square. The very 
mouldings became flat and uninteresting, and in the place of rolls, 
fillets and hollows, large plain surfaces were introduced, giving 
an appearance of weakness and poverty deeply distressing "when 

compared with earlier work. The outbreak of the Reformation, 
the seizure and destruction of the cathedrals, abbeys, and other 
monastic establishments, brought to a close the church-building age, 
and with it died out the spirit of the art, never to be revived as 

. a national characteristic, 
never to be tended with a 
nation's love : dead forever, 
only to be used in imitation. 
And yet, can we speak of 
it as dead when the very 
stones themselves seem to 
speak again and forever, in 
the very silence of their 
beauty and solemnity? Do 
not the very mouldings live 
and smile in the play of 
light and shade that still 
surrounds them, as when they first were cut ? Art was never born, 
and art can never die ; it is, like the most precious minerals, hidden 
from human eyes, and can only be attained by deep research and 
almost endless care. Even when found, there still must be honest, 
willing, earnest labor before its glory is revealed ; it is jealous of 
itself and slow to expose its beauty to the light of day. 

We have taken a very rapid glance at the origin, discovery and 
development of the noblest 
of the arts. A very great 
deal more might have been 
said, and in fact a thorough 
description of each century's 
work would occupy volumes. 
The study of our art would 
take up the whole of a long 
life, but it is hoped that suffi- 
cient has been written to raise 
in the breasts of would-be 
architects an earnest desire to 
take up this study for them- 
selves, that they may learn 
the true principles upon which 
their future designs should be 
based, and in true love for 
their art do their utmost to 
preserve the pure spirit of 
harmony in every detail. 
Architecture is so essentially 
an art, and the possession of 
an artistic talent so abso- 
lutely a gift, that no one can 
realize its spirit who has not 
been born with the talent. A' 
Beautiful buildings have been AV 
erected by modern architects ' 
truly architects, masters of 
their art -and the student 
unable to visit Europe cannot 
do better than to consider carefully the effect produced, and that 
which has produced the effect. If he would ask, "How am I to 
know the good from the bad ? " let him understand that he is not 
meant for an architect ; he will never he more than a mechanical 
one. The instinct of innate art prompts the very soul of its posses- 
sor, and he sees in the building before him something he cannot 
as yet define, that clashes with his spirit, or else an indescribable 
beauty that makes him stand and gaze, and he repeatedly asks him- 
self : " What is it that constitutes that beauty ? " Earnest study is 
the next course for him, and he will at last experience that thrill of 
joy as he wanders up and down some old monastic church, and with 
the impulse of sudden conviction cries aloud, " I understand." 

lic Buildings was defeated, on the 8th inst., in its attempt to secure 
action on a number of bills for new public buildings in various parts of 
the country. A majority was in favor of consideration, but the opposi- 
tion was led by Mr. Kandall, who is an adept in dilatory tactics. It is 
generally considered that the committee has gone to the extreme in its 
liberality in the matter of public buildings. Several bills were passed 
at the last session and two have been passed at this session, one author- 
izing a new building at Waco, Texas, to cost $100,000, and the other, a 
building of like cost, at Carson City, Nevada. Besides these, the com- 
mittee has reported, and there are now on the calendar fifty-two House 
bills, six of which have passed the committee of the whole, and fifteen 
Senate bills. The House bills authorize a total expenditure of $6,127,- 
400, and the Senate bills 2,105,000 more, making an aggregate of 
8,232,400. While public buildings in some of the places designated 
probably are necessary, and it would be a measure of economy to pro- 
vide them, the necessity or economy of spending money for such build- 
ings at many of the places for whose benefit bills have been brought in, 
is by no means apparent. The two classes of bills are so linked to- 
gether, however, by an understanding between their friends, that it will 
be difficult if not impossible to separate them, or to consider any par- 
ticular bill on its merits, unless by a suspension of the rules. Even then 
the danger of "log-rolling" can hardly be avoided. The men who 
want $50,000 for a building at Wichita or Opelousas will be likely to 
receive the aid of men who are striving in behalf of an additional 
$500,000 for Louisville or $700,000 for Pittsburgh. New York Tribune. 

JANUARY 24, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News, 



IN approaching the 
consideration of the 
modern architect 
and his art I feel, to use 
Mr. Lowell's recent 
words, that there is lit- 
tle chance of beguiling 
a new tune out of the 
one-stringed instrument 
on which we have been 
thrumming so long. 
Without, however, af- 
fecting to say anything 
new, " where everything 
has been said before, and 
said over again after,"! 
desire to draw attention 
to a view of our art 
which has been singularly neglected, and which, to my mind, deserves 
infinitely more prominence than any words of mine can give it. 
What I have to say about modern architecture refers not so much 
to its archaeological triumphs, its teeming types and annual revivals, 
nor to anything that therein is, but to that therein is not. So also, 
what I would say about the modern architect refers not so much to 
his wide knowledge, his daring anachronisms and matchless manipula- 
tions of historic ornament, but to his shortcomings not to how he 
bewitches the general public by what he is, and what he could do if 
he tried; but to how the intelligent public may fairly be disappointed 
by what he is not, and what he cannot do. In a word, it is as to the 
scope or perhaps I should say the limitation of modern architec- 
ture and the ideal of the design (if he have any) to which I wish to 
draw your attention. Naturally I have chosen a subject which inter- 
ests me, and, in pleasing myself, I hope I may please you; or at least 
I may offer an agreeable diversion to brains sorely racked and tired 
with studies and designs in various styles and periods. There is, I 
am aware, some danger attached to the criticism of a close profession 
like that of architecture, which has a royal charter dating from the 
seventh year of William IV, and which knows how to consume its 
own smoke. As, however, my point of view is quite an impersonal 
one, and my remarks general, and as I come before you without a 
single half-brick in my pocket to heave at anybody, my harmlessness 
is manifest. I shall then speak my humble mind with all the direc- 
ness I can command, and trust to your kindness to take no offence 
where no offence is intended. 

It is idle to shirk disagreeable questions, and so I begin with a sim- 
ple proposition which covers much of the ground we shall traverse 
to-night. Is architecture, as practised by the modern architect, worth 
living for? It is a question I have more than once asked myself, hut 
I am not candid enough to confess to you what reply I gave to it. In 
placing it thus in the forefront of this paper, let me say that the very 
last thing in my mind is to propagate doubt, in the fold of the faith- 
ful where none exists ; or to shake the confidence of such practition- 
ers as are satisfied not only with the prospects of modern architecture, 
but with their own prospects and with the worth of their own contribu- 
tions to the great volume of immortal art. To my mind the question 
is most suitable to the present time. I will not say that a " crisis " 
is approaching in the affairs of architecture, because the phrase has 
lost all its potentcy by frequent repetition in the newspapers, where 
we understand that a "crisis" in national affairs is upon us every 
second day. But I will say that these are critical times for us. A 
strange calm has come. There is a sense of impending change. This 
is a time of felt uncertainty, of stranded purposes, of searchings of 
heart -a time when the issues of things connected with the arts of 
designs are hanging in the balances. This is a time, too, of disillu- 
sionizing alike for architects and for people, when we ourselves are not 
quite so confident about our method of pushing architectural design 
forward by means of impulses of an essentially fleeting nature, and 
when people are beginning to realize that every branch of architec- 
ture is well represented by outsiders, and when they are beginning to 
question the raison d'etre of the architect at all. This question is, 
then, a practical one, and one which it is desirable to face and to 
answer. It at once puts the modern architect and his art in their 
right place. It makes us compare ourselves not with ourselves 
(which is not wise), but with the masters of old who brought trained 
powers, sleepless ambition, and passionate devotion to their work. 
It has this good effect, moreover it at once breaks the spell of that 
direful boa-constrictor of art, mere professionalism. Yes, and in ad- 
dressing it to the Architectural Association, I cannot forget that I 
am speaking to those to whom the destinies of English design are to 
be committed, and it is for you to ask yourselves how you view and 
how you estimate the art you follow whether you look upon archi- 
tecture as a divinely inspired art that can rightly claim all the devo- 
tion of your being, or whether you take up architecture merely as an 
honorable profession and a gentlemanly calling. If you take up ar- 
chitecture as your vocation, to be followed with the ardor of a relig- 
ion, I am not sure that you will succeed in gaining riches or fame ; 
you may have to be happy with small opportunities and small gains, 
and have to live a life of quiet, unnoticed worth. But you will be 

1 A paper read by Mr. John r>. Sedding. at the second rrd!n iry meeting or the 
Architectural Association, on " The .Modern Architect." 

happy and contented and grateful all the same. If, on the other 
hand, you go in for architecture as a profession which only needs the 
efficient handling of a T-square and ruling-pen, you may, if you are 
a good, steady fellow, rise to be an eminent practitioner. And if you 
are a successful practitioner your rewards are great; you may have 
access to the best society, and to the best columns of the Times news- 
paper; you may be a lion at evening crushes, and wear brown vel 
veteen ; you may pose as the patron of the very fine arts, and be a 
judge of bric-a-brac, and a connoisseur of Queen Anne teapots, Chip- 
pendale chairs, and such like; you may even hope to be the F.S.A. 
and the F.R.I.B.A., and even the P.R.I.B.A., if you have paid your 
subscriptions and are alive when your turn comes. Nay, if as archi- 
tect and surveyor you have a sufficiently large and lucrative city 
practice, and have time for such things, you may aspire to reach the 
souls of the people by the art of your tongue as well as by the art of 
your hand, and almost succeed in adding M.P. to your other titles. 
And to win these rewards you have only to be a rough-and-tumble or- 
dinary man of the world, with a head on your shoulders, an eye for 
figures, a well-supported air of general competency, good business 
qualities, some power of gracious fooling, and the faculty of turning 
out just what the world expects from you with promptitude and de- 
spatch. But as for art, and the mastery of the crafts, and the power 
of color and form and all that sort of thing, you may neither have any, 
nor need your friends suspect that such things come within the make- 
up of the modern British architect! Of course it is ever the snare of 
enthusiastic youth to press inconvenient speculations home, and it is 
Because I am in the presence of the aspiring fledglings of artistic 
gifts and good parts who form the Architectural Association that the 
juestion as to the innate worth of modern architecture comes before 
:ne. In another place where the birds are not only fully fledged, but 
have feathered their nests, and, like Jeshurun, are not exactly able 
to soar I dare not hazard it, nor you either. Let it not be sup- 
posed that I have low opinions about architecture, or that I would 
willingly shake the allegiance of any young heart that has found 
peace in its pursuit. Let no waverer be downhearted ; there may be 
a lucrative future before him. Let him stick to his last, by which I 
mean his T-square and ruling-pen. 

To proceed. I said just now that this question touching the worth 
of modern architecture as a serious life's pursuit puts our art in its 
true place. Instinctively one feels that while it is applicable to the 
modern architect and his art, none but a fool would have put it to 
William of Sens, Jocelyn of Wells, Alan of Walsingham, William of 
Wykeham, Thomas Chard of Glastonbury, or to Bramante, Michael 
Angelo, Christopher Wren, Inigo Jones, or Adams or Chambers, and 
,here must be a reason for this. 

Again, none but a fool would ask the modern musician, or the 
sculptor, or the painter or poet if his art were worth living for. In- 
deed, here are living arts, each with its ideal conception to symbolize, 
each with its mission to stimulate, delight, and console mankind, anil 
to raise men's minds out of money-grubbing grooves into a less sel- 
fish, less sordid, less commonplace atmosphere. It is significant that 
in each of these cases the artist is his own craftsman ; he thinks his 
own thought, clothes it himself, and spares no pains in the elabora- 
tion of the clothing. He keeps no ghost, and if he does he is not 
thought to be respectable. But the architect's ghosts are legion 
on his premises and off them and he is not one whit ashamed. In 
calculating the place and mission of the modern architect, one is re- 
minded of what is happening in the bee-world just now. By the aid 
of an ingenious patent, ready-made cells are stamped out in wax 
(adulterated of course) of the correct shape and size, and when 
placed in the patent hive the bees forthwith complete the cells, and 
fill them with honey. And the very counterpart of this is happening 
in-the human world; the royally-instituted architect makes the cells, 
and the decorators and manufacturers fill them with honey. You 
know quite well that the English people have not to thank the Brit- 
ish architect for the poetry of their homes. You know that one of 
the noblest provinces of architecture, that of turning necessary arti- 
cles of daily use into works of art, has fallen from the architect's 
hands. You know that all the pretty things that dignify modern 
life come from the " largest furnishing establishments in the world " 
in Tottenham Court^road from those homes of champagne and 
shoddy where the red sealing-wax " Early English " furniture, and 
the wood coal-boxes adorned with roses and daffodils, and the cast- 
iron over-mantel china closets come from; where you may get a dozen 
very cheap high-class native oil-paintings at one counter, and a dozen 
very dear native oysters at another. 

Again, we must confess that the other contemporary arts I have 
enumerated have been affected for the better and not for the worse 
by the influences of the day. Each has won new triumphs, each has 
found out new chances of appeal, new domains for display. But not 
so architecture, for while it has gained nothing it has lost nearly all. 
In respect of the use of iron for constructive purposes, and of patent 
sanitary appliances, which builders and sanitary engineers have de- 
vised for us, we score something. Yet, however blessed the iron joists 
and D-traps are, and however lucky we are to be able to use them, 
the architects of old, who knew them not, were infinitely more accom- 
plished all-round men than ourselves; and I do not know that, after 
all, our houses are either more stable or more sweet and wholesome 
for body and soul to inhabit than the old homes of old England. 

But further. The practice of these arts of color, sound, form and 
word directly conduce to the development of artistic genius ; nor 
could you be a successsul composer if you had no musical geniup, nor 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 474. 

an eminent literary man without literary genius. Yet you can be 
accounted an eminent architect, and reap all the honors of the pro- 
fession, without possessing or feeling the want of artistic genius. In 
putting the case thus strongly, do not suppose that 1 am blind to the 
noble gifts and genius of certain architects working with us and shed- 
ding their helpful influence amongst us at the present time ; and, but 
for my resolve to keep this paper impersonal, I would name them 
and speak of them with all the genuine admiration and respect I feel 
for them. Do not mistake me on this point ; I speak of rank and file, 
and not of these. And I ask whether architecture as now practised 
ought not rather to be accounted as a "useful" than as an "orna- 
me'ntal " or, as some would call it, a "fine" art? I ask whether 
architecture can any longer be termed the " Queen of Arts," when 
all that remains of her is the skull and the feet, and the palms of her 
hands? I ask if it be not true that architecture has ignominiously 
resigned her throne, lost her honors, and bartered the sceptre of pre- 
eminence with which she has held sway from time immemorial, and 
only reserved for herself the sovereign right of levying a tax of five 
per cent on other men's labors? I ask whether it is not true that 
the engineer has (whether civilly or uncivilly it matters not, as the 
thing fs done) robbed the architect of one-third of his domain on the 
one side, and whether the decorator and manufacturer have not be- 
tween them robbed him of another one-third on the other side ? I 
ask whether the architect of to-day is, or need be, anything more than 
a paper-draughtsman to sit on a stool and invent new sorts of doors 
and windows? I ask whether his business in life is not that of a 
designer of shells of houses for decorators and manufacturers to fin- 
ish and furnish, and who varies this jackal occupation by occasional 
jobs for an engineer, who hires him to do the " pretty " upon a bridge 
or railway station? Yes; and such of us who like to see iron skele- 
tons clothed in shoddy ornament, may, after refreshing our bodies, 
refresh our souls at the York or Bristol railway station, and realize 
at the same time the mission and scope of the modern architect and 
his art. 

Now if you think that what I am saying is approximately true, 
you will agree with me that it is high time the position of the modern 
architect and the issues of his art were overhauled ; and when this 
shall be undertaken, I know no better place for the investigation than 
under the roof of the house which contains the Royal charter, granted 
expressly to a certain institute for the advancement of architecture 
and the various arts and sciences connected therewith. If it be for 
the better advancement of the arts and sciences that architects ab- 
stain from personal relations with them, then it must be granted that 
they are, with much self-denial and self-abnegation, fulfilling the ob- 
li"ations of the charter under which they are enrolled. However 
this may be, I cannot help saying that, to my mind, every celebra- 
tion of the Institute cotnmemmorates not the marriage, but the divorce 
of architecture from the arts and sciences connected therewith. I 
have laid before you evidences of this in what has already been said, 
and it would be easy to go on multiplying the proofs. Indeed, it is 
an undeniable fact that the arts and sciences which of old were ever 
indissolubly connected with architecture, have passed to the care and 
conduct of the specialist and the manufacturer. The British public 
goes to its shops and specialists for any matter connected with domes- 
tic art; and if you are a parson with wants, you go to an ecclesiasti- 
cal shop, and while one shopman is fitting on your coat, or taking the 
shape of your parsonic head for a new stiff hat, you can be ordering 
of another shopman a sculptured reredos, an altar and font and lec- 
tern, and that sort of thing. Yes, and I saw a striking letter the 
other dav, written by the head of a well-advertised carving establish- 
ment, which stated that, inasmuch as not more than half a dozen of 
the writer's architect clients could prepare their own details in an ar- 
tistic manner, he had started an office and a staff of clerks to do for 
the architects what they could not do for themselves. And remem- 
ber that the architects here referred to were of the Gothic school, 
which represents the best masters of detail. Even in the matter of 
building houses, the better sort of builder has his own staff of 
draughtsmen (or compiling copyists, as some would call them), who 
can invent new sorts of windows and doors, and draw convenient 
plans, and make pleasing combinations of colored materials after the 
approved fashion. The public may soon begin to inquire wherein 
the architects' clerks and the builders' clerks differ. The State, as 
you painfully know, has a very summary way of dealing with the 
architect, inasmuch as it entrusts its buildings to the engineers and 
officials of South Kensington, and maintains an office of salaried 
draughtsmen for carrying out public architectural works. And what 
is happening at Kensington, where engineers combine with orna- 
mentalists to" carry out the State's architectural works, mav happen 
in other cases ; for the public will see that, given a good builder, an 
engineer, and an ornamentalist, any building is possible. And the 
architect has only his own sloth and incapacity to thank for a state 
of things which in process of time will assuredly work his own extinc- 
tion. The experts he has called into existence have silently under- 
mined his position. He called in aliens to help him in his need, and 
the alien army is a standing menace to his position, and will in time 
dispossess him. Lacking science and lacking art, he is just nowhere 
if the scientist and the artist combine for his efiacement. There is a 
good deal of what Mr. Ruskin would call professional " bow-wow- 
wow " talked at our conferences and in the journals about the rights 
and wrongs of the profession ; but what cares the world about the ar- 
chitect so long as its wants are somehow supplied ? Although we abuse 
it, the world is fair in this respect, it values us at its own valuation 

of our worth. It knows we keep ghosts, and it makes no nicely- 
drawn distinction between an " expert " and a duffer I 

But in order to clear the way for some few practical observations 
I must arrange the subject under three heads : (1) What is archi- 
tecture, and what were the functions of the architect in old days ? 
(2) When, and from what cause did the change from the old to the 
new system take place ? (3) Is it possible for architecture under its 
present conditions to be carried out upon the old lines, and, if so, by 
what means ? Here are three points, each of which would serve as 
a theme for a long lecture, so that my treatment of each must needs 
be brief, and simply relative to the matter in hand. 

As to the first point, although addressing a professional audience, 
I cannot define architecture as building erected after an architect's 
design. One might as well say that the snuff-maker was the final 
cause of the human nose I There is building which is, and building 
which is not, architecture; and I would define architecture as imag- 
inative building: in other words, building which expresses the inven- 
tion or imagination of the builder, and which appeals by this means 
to the imagination of the spectator. If it is to answer to the descrip- 
tion of architecture, the building must have a soul as well as a body. 
The body is the structure answering to the primary purpose of its 
erection, and this body should be staple and convenient. The soul 
is that superimposed something extra to the body that something 
which is provided beyond the demands of mere utility, and which is 
really the expression of the builder's thought and his mode of appeal 
to the sympathy and imagination of the spectator. In this definition 
you get the three cardinal virtues of architecture represented 
namely, stability, which relates to science ; convenience, which re- 
lates to good sense; and beauty, which relates to taste. Naturally, 
the primary purpose of a structure, combined with other like condi- 
tions, settles its character and the fit extent of its decoration ; and 
yet, while it is quite fair to define the word architecture as the art 
of building nobly and ornamentally, you cannot gauge the value of a 
structure by the amount of its ornamentation. Dance, who built old 
Newgate, was an architect, and, although his structure has dead black 
walls of rough-hewn granite, relieved only here and there with niches 
and statuary, and a savage repellant air, it is imaginative building, 
and speaks directly to the imagination of the spectator of violence and 
doom in the true grim Northern manner. A mere builder would have 
put plain brick walls. And architecture all the world over has the 
same characteristic qualities however different the types and the 
styles of the art represented, however different the scale of the struct- 
ure, however different the culture and aims and methods of the 
builders -the architecture carries the impress of thought or inven- 
tion, or imagination befitting an ornamental art. Architecture is 
truly a human art, a volume and record of human thought. As long 
as the structure remains you connect with it the memory of the men 
who build it. For instance, the monumental art of the west front 
of St. Alban's Abbey is a more lasting memorial of its reputed father 
our only British architect than the cracked bell at Westminster. 
And so with other immortal specimens of other immortal artists, 
" soft-handed " or otherwise. As you look at the architecture of 
Egypt and Greece you associate it with its authors. The work is 
steeped in thought, instinct with invention and so far as its orna- 
ment is concerned eloquent of pleasurable labor. It represents 
problems of proportions. Ideas are expressed with mathematical 
accuracy. In Greek art we have, as I need not remind you, the sci- 
ence of building united with accuracy of design and execution. The 
arts and sciences are here united perfectly. The tide of tradition is 
represented in full volume, and the designer is the exponent of tra- 
ditions that commenced in Egypt, and Howed onward through the 
Greek and Roman and every other period till broken by the Gothic 

As I have just said, the architecture of the modern world answers, 
in all essentials, to the architecture of the ancient world, however 
different its aims, and character, and mode of appeal. With regard 
to the latter point, the Classic is a more intellectual art, arid demands 
a more intellectual appreciation. The Greek architect is a man of com- 
plete culture, learned in philosophy and geometry, and he addresses 
his peers. This explains why it is some of us find the heights of Clas- 
sic art cold, and the atmosphere that surrounds it bleak and grey. 
The modern architect, like the ancient, is the right man in the right 
place ; and, whether he be cultured or uncultured, prince or plough- 
man's brother, he is the most skilled man in the building crafts upon 
the job. The difference is that, being a Christian, he is no respecter 
of persons, and being a modern, he is no respecter of calculated 
academic rule, but speaks his thoughts simply and spontaneously, and 
addresses his art both to learned and unlearned, to rich and poor, to 
bond and free. 

But now, as I turn aside to define the functions of the architect 
under the old system, I at once feel the ground shake beneath my 
feet. For who can forget the storm of 1874, after Mr. Fergusson's 
unfortunate deliverance in the Quarterly Review upon this very head. 
The story of that time affords, I think, a really valuable glimpse into 
the secret motives of the British architect. The veil lifts for a 
moment, ami he stands revealed with the touchstone of his art in his 
hand. Directly the elevated position, the professional status and 
social level of the architect is threatened from below, an army of 
" soft-handed gentlemen " rush to the rescue. Never in the annals 
of art (or the history of the Institute, which is the same thing) 
had so much power of eloquence, so much literary talent, and so 
much genuine enthusiasm been evinced. The British workman was 

. 474 




S, JaN.24 


i W'i' i1 4 








Frank E-WallisAith 

(jHEENV/ooD ^HAf EL 

uitf *. PLOO?.. (HAfEL fLooft 


Sfc---i W'-w 


JANUARY 24,. 1885.] The American Architect and Building News. 


supposed to be on the march to Conduit Street, to demand enrollment 
as a Fellow of the Royal Institute, and to be, in this way, there and 
then constituted into an architect; and, although under the pressing 
exigencies of the case the parish beadle from the neighboring church, 
in all the majesty of his Sunday clothes, had been hired to watch the 
portals of No. 9, and although the Fellows had constituted them- 
selves into a vigilance committee, in day and night relays, to- guard 
their Magna Charta, something dreadful might have happened had 
the threatened invasion taken place. After all, however, the " un- 
emancipated " British workman stirred not, but abode in his 
breeches, where I will return to him anon. Looking back at the 
pitiful affair (and the literature of the episode is innocenth- printed 
in the Institute's transactions, " by order of the Council") I have 
only one remark to make, namely, that whereas the architects were 
preposterously alarmed lest the workmen should become architects, 
it never struck them to try themselves to become master-workmen, 
and so to gain the respect of the workshops by their own eminence 
in the crafts, rather than by giving themselves airs because of their 
professional status and soft hands. Luckily for me, it is immaterial 
to our purpose to inquire as to the social status of the architect as a 
person, or whether he had soft hands or hard. One thing is certain 
about him cultured or not cultured, hodman's cousin or not -he 
contributed the requisite amount of knowledge and theoretical 
science, and did not retain experts: he was in direct contact with 
the work as it grew up; he saw how things were done, and was not 
the mere figurer of details at an office ; he was the familiar spirit of 
the building, and not the distant dictator of its details. And besides 
having a general knowledge of handicrafts, he was master of at least 
one. Some architects were modellers, some carvers, some workers in 
marble, or in gold, or in ivory, and, plainly enough, we can infer that 
they worked in workshops, and not in offices or studios. "In 
Greece," Winckelmann says, "the best workman in the most humble 
craft might succeed in rendering his name immortal." 

Let us turn for a few moments to Italian mediaeval art, for we 
know so much more about the architects of Italy than of those of 
any other country, and they afford us a ready type of men whose 
functions covered every matter pertaining to construction and orna- 
ment. The Italian architect was engineer, builder, painter, decora- 
tor, sculptor, modeller, metal-worker, goldsmith, and the rest ; or at 
least you might expect that the same man could paint a picture, 
carve'a subject, draw and model a bit of ornament, make a gold cas- 
ket or an urn, design a dress or a fabric, build a church or a palace 
or a bridge. Thus we see how wondrously the arts were interwoven 
and technical skill was diffused in mediaeval Italy. One craft over- 
lapped the other ; there was no hard and fast line of demarcation 
between them, as with us, and no professionalism, and no Salvation 
Army of specialists behind the scenes. Naturally, the poor Italian 
architect had never heard of the Native Asian, African and Ameri- 
can styles so much in favor in our classes of design ; but had he pro- 
fessed to design any sort of building, he would not have left it to the 
expert to fill it with plaster-work, or marble, or wood inlays, or bas- 
reliefs and color devices, and his art would extend to the provision of 
gorgeous chests and furniture, and perhaps even to the dresses and 
portraits of his esteemed clients. Think of Da Vinci, with his 
superb power of color and form, of his magnificent designs and pro- 
jects in art and mechanics, and set this man, with his marvelous 
range, his almost superhuman grasp of mind and boundless ideal, 
against our puny selves poring over our D-traps and ventilation, and 
quantity-taking, Metropolitan Building Acts, etc., etc., and if, after 
instituting the comparison, you are satisfied with the scope and issues 
of the modern architect and his art, then I think you are eligible to 
be a Fellow of the Institute without further ado, and I will give my- 
self the honor of proposing you on the first convenient occasion. 
Now you cannot properly account for the high condition of Italian 
art in the Middle Ages by saying that the Italian people are a 
phenomenal people with art in the blood. If so, art would be flour- 
ishing in Italy at this time, and it is not. The fact is, that whatever 
art you examine, of any period, or of any country, you will inva- 
riabty find that the excellence of the work is only commensurate with 
the ideal. There is no luck, no chance about it; it is a simple mat- 
ter of cause and effect, and if the members of the Institute had as 
high an idea of architecture, and of the various arts and sciences 
connected therewith as they have of the privileges of the profession 
and of their professional status, English architecture would be very 
different to what it is. It needs no prophet to foretell that so long 
as the modern architect contents himself with grovelling views, anc 
consumes his soul in small things, so long will he grovel and dosiual 
things. In Italy, in the Middle Ages, there was a grand ideal to 
animate the artist and to sustain his art. Of course, many things 
conspired to favor art there and then, beyond the consanguinity will 
artistic races, which doubtless had its effect. Italy was then wha 
England is now, the world's emporium, the seat and centre of the 
world's commerce. There was wealth, and the desire to spend i 
upon beautiful things. There was the ambition of cultured nobles 
there was the inheritance of fine traditions ; there was a lovely cli 
mate and a flowery land ; there was the innate passion for beauty o 
a passionate and beautiful people. But what raised Italy to hei 
high-water mark of art was the measureless value set upon execu 
tion. What Winckelmann said of Greece is equally applicable tc 
Italy : the best workman in the most humble cratt might succeed ir 
rendering himself immortal. The designers themselves were master 
in the crafts they dabbled in, and they had technical knowledge am 

echnical skill. " Design " then meant something more than it at 
>resent does in an architect's office or in our classes of design. _ It 
neant the power to do as well as to draw. It meant executive 
lower and technical skill ; it meant that what the brain of the man 
ould conceive that the hand of the man that conceived it could 



TfHIS apartment building was completed within the past year, is 
I ! built of brown-stone, brick, terra-cotta, iron, and fire-proof mate- 
rial ; the base is of brownstone rough ashlar ; the bays of cast- 
ron, terra-cotta being freely used in the superstructure. The loca- 
ion, corner of Madison Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street, New York, 
s on property leased from the Hoffman Estate, from which it derives 
ts name, and by which it was built through the aid of Mr. Thomas 
vilpatrick. The building contains thirty-two apartments, is thoroughly 
ire-proof, and cost about $450,000. 


Tins church dates in part from 1252, but the south aisle was built 
in 1450, and the choir about 1500. 





DENCE. 1 I. 


TITHIS large and elab- 
I ^ orate report follows 
a tour of examina- 
tion in Europe, made at 
the order of the City of 
Providence, by Samuel 
M. Gray, its City Engi- 
neer, assisted by Charles 
H. Swan, of Boston. 

T h e investigations 
were made during the 
spring and early summer 
of 1884. Their chief 
purpose related to the 
disposal of town sewage, 
the object in view being 
to devise means for the 
relief of Providence 
River, which is now 
made most foul by the 
discharge of the sewers 
of the city. They in- 
cluded a personal exam- 
ination of the principal works in England and on the Continent, To 
supplement the knowledge thus gained, schedules of questions were 
submitted to those in charge of works of sewage disposal. Ihe re- 
plies from a certain number of towns, in response to these questions, 
are tabulated in three large supplement sheets published with the 

Mr. Gray's investigations related both to the disposal of sewage, 
and to systems and processes of town sewerage and cleansing. These 
are described, and some of their details are illustrated by plates. 

The crround covered includes not only the usual water-carnage sys- 
tems of sewerage but the various methods of dry conservancy ; the 
earth-closet, the movable tub, the ash-closet, the improved privy, the 
pail system and the Goux system ; also the pneumatic systems of Li- 
ernur and of Berlier, and the pumping system of Shone. 

Although containing little not already accessible in the literature 
of drainage engineering, this portion of the report is its best portion. 
It does not reach quite to the position of a hand-book, but it groups 
together in a convenient form much practical information, t rom the 
standpoint of the professional reader, the utility of this might well 
be questioned. It is really a thrashing of very old straw ; we had 
been told most of it before, and more than once. In the direction 
toward which most of it trends, we had been told more than we find 
here. This, however, is not the standpoint from which this part of 
the work should be regarded. 

The dead level bf local tax-paying citizenship, probably as dead a 
level in Providence as elsewhere, cannot be impressed by work done 
in and for the world at large. It must put its hand into its own 
pocket, and send afield its own engineer, whom it knows and trusts, 
and must make a good big book of the result of his researches and of 

lprn , , apd D i an for a Sewerage System and for the Disposal of the Sewage of 
the Cits- of P?oT?dencS. K!, bf SaTm.el M. Gray, City Kngineer. Cily Document, 
No. 25, 1884. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 474. 

his lucubrations. Then it is moved and moved to some purpose. 
What it gets may not be so good as what it might have got for less 
money in some other way, but what it gets it believes in and will act 
on : and so the world gets forward. 

From this point o view this publication may be justified. 
Apropos of nothing in particular, as it turns out, much attention is 
given to the relative merits of the combined and separate systems of 
sewerage, the latter first suggested in 1842 by Mr. Edwin Chadwick, 
and first carried out by Phillips in 1850-51 at Alnwick and Totten- 
ham. The report says : 

The experience of English engineers has led them to consider it im- 
practicable to exclude the rain falling upon private property from the 
foul-water sewers, because this would require two sets of house-drains 
in many cases: one for sewage, connecting with the sewer, the other 
for the surface drainage of the yard and roof, and leading to other 
channels. They consider that it would cause many complications, and 
that it would be an unwarrantable exercise of authority to require the 
construction of two sets of house-drains. They also consider that the 
admission of a limited amount of rain-water to the foul-water sewers is 
an important factor in maintaining their cleanliness, and the prevailing 
practice with them, when separation is attempted, is to exclude only 
the rain-water in the streets and public squares, and to admit Jhe rain- 
water from yards and the rear roofs of houses. 

Tiie practice in this country has tended towards a more complete sep- 
aration of the sewage and the rainfall. This is due in part to the 
extreme views of some of the advocates of tlie separate system, and in 
part, no doubt, to the difference between the climates of the two coun- 
tries; heavy rainfalls being more common here than in England. 

The separation of the rainfall from the sewage becomes important when the 
sewage must Jinally be pumped, and when it must be treated chemically or 
used in irrigation. On the other hand, the separation of the sewage 
from tiie rainfall becomes important when the rainfall passes into 
streams that must afterwards serve as the sources of public water-sup- 
plies. These conditions, demanding separation, are frequently found 
associated together. 

The question as to the necessity for separation, and of the proper 
method of removing storm-water, is further complicated by the fact 
that the first wash of water after flowing over the streets of cities, 
being contaminated with the droppings of animals and other filth, 
becomes a variety of sewage possessing nearly, if not quite all the con- 
stituents of ordinary sewage, except the peculiar germs of disease asso- 
ciated with human excrement, and except certain chemical products 
derived from manufacturing waste. By thorough and systematic scav- 
enging, the streets may be kept in such a condition that the storm-water 
may cause little harm if permitted to pass directly into the streams ; 
but this ideal of sanitary work is seldom attained, and the first wash- 
ings of the streets during storms are usually extremely foul. 

Another phase of the surface drainage of towns presents itself in the 
larger Northern cities in winter, when a thaw occurs after a long 
period of snow. The mingled accretions of snow, ice and filth, that 
have been weeks in accumulating, are then liberated in liquid form in 
great volumes, and require prompt removal. At such times the capac- 
ity of sewers receiving surface-water is severely taxed, ordinary sur- 
face channels are so obstructed as to require constant attention, and 
floodings frequently occur in lower districts, travel being greatly 
impeded, and property in basements and cellars being often damaged. 

The great cost of sewers large enough to convey all the waters of 
heavy storms has already been referred to, it being prohibitory in most 
instances. Consequently the question as to the best method of remov- 
ing storm-water is reduced to a consideration of the objections, from 
the sanitary or from the financial point of view, to the admission of a 
portion of the surface drainage to the sewers conveying sewage. 

The advocates of the separate system claim, among other things, 
that some of the earthy matters carried into the sewers by turbid storm- 
water, particularly building-lime, act as precipitants and cause the 
deposit of organic matters within the sewers, intermixed with deposits 
of road detritus, leaves and twigs, brought into the sewers by storm- 
water. These deposits, when not removed by the ordinary flow of sew- 
age or by flushings, must remain until the next heavy storm, and mean- 
while become the source of noxious exhalations. 

The essential difference between the two systems, as regards cleanli- 
ness and freedom from deposits, arises from the fact that in the sepa- 
rate system the substances to be removed are derived from domestic 
and manufacturing wastes, while in the combined system there are, in 
addition, the substances brought into the sewer by the storm-water. 
Thus, while the scouring power of the sewage in the combined sewers 
is, at best, no greater than in the separate sewers, and may in certain 
cases be less, the amount of deposits in them may be greater, and their 
nature may be such as to render them more difficult of removal. 
Another result derived from the use of small pipes, as in the separate 
system, is that a given volume of water, such as the contents of a flush- 
tank, will produce a greater scour and will more completely wash the 
interior of the sewer; or, to state it differently, a less amount of water 
will be needed to remove a given obstruction. 

Great stress is laid by the advocates of the separate system upon the 
more perfect ventilation of the sewers when their size is small, as com- 
pared with the ordinary volume of sewage flowing through them. 

It is also claimed that organic matter adheres to the upper portions 
of the interior of sewers of the combined system when they are con- 
veying storm-water, and remains after the storm has ceased, forming a 
slimy coating; that this soon becomes putrid and promotes the develop- 
ment of swarms of microscopic organisms. On the contrary, it is 
claimed that the sewers of the separate system, being filled every day 
to their maximum working capacity, afford less opportunity for the 
growth of noxious germs. 

A comparison between the separate and combined systems from the 
financial point of view cannot be made explicitly, as such a comparison 
must be based upon local circumstances to a certain extent. This 
much, however, may be said concerning it : 

The cost of a sewer depends upon a number of elements, some of 

which are independent of the size contemplated ; thus the cost of sheet- 
ing and bracing the trench, of pumping water from wet soils, and, to a 
very large extent, the cost of excavation, back-filling and paving will 
not be essentially reduced by diminishing the size of the sewer. The 
difference in cost occasioned by the use of a smaller sewer is, however, 
generally in favor of the smaller sewer. 

A comparison between the cost of a system of combined sewers and 
of a system of sewers from which surface and subsoil waters are 
excluded, will generally show that the latter can be built more cheaply. 
It should be remembered, however, that the greater cost of the com- 
bined system is offset by the provisions for the admission and removal 
of storm-water. If the necessities of the locality require that the sur- 
face and subsoil waters shall be removed by underground conduits, 
their cost should be added to the cost of the house-drainage sewers, in 
order to make the comparison valid. Should these underground con- 
duits be equal in extent to the system of house-drainage sewers, the 
cost of the entire combination will usually exceed the cost of a com- 
bined system. In most instances the conduits for surface and subsoil 
water need not be co-extensive with the house-drainage sewers, nor do 
they need to be placed at so great a depth. Consequently a great many 
places exist where a separate system would remain the cheapest after 
the addition of the cost of the necessary channels for removing the sur- 
face and subsoil water. 

This long quotation has been given as an example of the fairness 
of spirit with which Mr. Gray has endeavored to consider and to 
represent the moot questions arising in his discussion. A few of the 
suggestions, however, may be open to criticism. 

Too much importance seems to be given to the foul condition of 
street wash at the beginning of a storm. The instances which have 
long been referred to in sanitary literature as proving that the 
sewage of towns without water-closets is as foul as that from towns 
with water-closets were, for modern purposes, vitiated by the fact 
that in the non-water-closet towns referred to a vast deal of house- 
hold liquid, especially kitchen slops, is discharged through the street 
sewer. This becomes after decomposition as objectionable as does 
the discharge of water-closets and it is much greater in quantity. 
It is hardly fair to suppose that a modern town which is ready to 
spend several millions to secure a proper disposal of its sewage would 
neglect so obvious and important a feature of its cleansing processes 
as the removal of street dirt, horse-droppings, etc., by some better 
system than their delivery into public sewers during occasional rain- 
storms. This " ideal sanitary work " is fast being accepted as rudi- 
mentary and indispensable sanitary work. When the question of 
purifying the outllow of the sewers becomes serious, proper street 
sweeping will be adopted as a matter of course. 

As to the accumulations of snow, ice and filth which adds so much, 
and so much that is objectionable to the flow of the sewers in winter 
thaws, they are delivered into streams at a season when they are at 
least objectionable, and they do not of themselves constitute a suffi- 
cient source of nuisance to be regarded as an important factor in the 

Not only is the ventilation of the small sewers of the separate sys- 
tem more complete than that of the large sewers, but as the report 
indicates, the need for ventilation is relatively less, because of the 
absence of retained putrefactive deposits. 

As to the financial comparison made, there is one element of the 
cost'of large sewers which is overlooked : i. e., the cost, where the 
trenches are in unstable ground, of keeping the work open for the 
slower process of brick laying. With small pipe sewers, especially 
with prepared joints, the laying of the conduit occupies so little time 
that if the bottom can be kept to grade even for a few minutes the 
pipes can be put in place and the work at once closed in. It is true 
that the provision for the admission and removal of storm-water in 
the case of the combined system is of much value, and from the purely 
financial point of view it may at times, but by no means always, be 
cheaper to make such provision ; but surely, if any subsequent treat- 
ment of the sewage becomes necessary, if it is to be pumped or puri- 
fied chemically, or used for irrigation, the admission of storm-water, 

which means the complete pollution of the storm-water becomes 
a source of great added cost. The same is true of ground-water which 
is allowed to find its way into the sewer. 

It is not easy to conceive of conditions requiring the sewers for 
storm-water removal, and the removal of house drainage to be co-ex- 
tensive, consequently the suggestion that " the cost of the entire com- 
bination will usually exceed the cost of a combined system " cannot 
be accepted as a valid argument. There is no instance recorded of 
the greater cost of the sewerage of a city by the separate system than 
by the combined system, and it is doubtful whether one-half of the 
cost has ever been reached. 

In discussing the relative merits of the two chief systems of artifi- 
cial disposal chemical purification and irrigation the tendency of 
Mr. Gray's arguments and their natural deductions are decidedly in 
favor of the latter, as an adjunct of " separate" sewering. Whether 
on the score of cost or of the purity of the effluent, he shows the well- 
understood advantage of the application of sewage to the soil ; but 
when he comes to make his recommendations his heart fails him, and 

leaving his newly-acquired knowledge in abeyance, he advices the 
cheniical system for which, it is true, European experience gives ample 
precedent disregarding the serious defects that this experince has 
shown that system to possess. 

The problem presented to Mr. Gray for solution seems to have 
been this, and only this : To withhold from Providence River and its 
tributaries the foul matters now carried into them by the outflow of 
the sewers as at present constructed am] as to be extended hereafter. 

JANUAKY 24, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


To dispose of underground water or surface water or sewage as 
water, is no part of it; the sole aim is the suppression of the fouling 
of the streams and bay. In the solution of this problem he seems to 
have assumed either that it is necessary, or that it is a matter of in- 
difference to diffuse the foul wastes of the city throughout the whole 
mass of its drainage effluent, including the large amount of subsoil 
water, which his guagings show to be an important element of the 
flow, the storm-water falling on the covered and uncovered areas of 
the city, and so much of the water-supply as is used in fountains and 
elsewhere, as well as that which has already been fouled in its pas- 
sage through houses, mills, etc. 

If any radical criticism is to be made concerning the scheme it 
must relate to this fundamental part of it. 

Argument may be based both on the actual condition of the sewer- 
age of the city, and on its ultimate extension to the complete drain- 
age of the whole area, after its population shall have reached the 300,- 
000 for which provision is made. 

He assumes that the total outflow of the sewers will amount then to 
58,000,000 gallons per day. This includes 1-1 00th of an inch of rain- 
water per hour from the district drained, liquid wastes from manufac- 
turing establishments, amounting now to nearly 5,000,000 gallons per 
day, and 60 gallons per inhabitant, including ground-water. 

The present daily dry-weather flow is 3,000,000 gallons. There 
are about 50 miles of sewers carrying the sewage of 36,421 persons, 
and this, with the present mill flow is the chief source of the present 
fouling. To provide only for the purification of the present How 
would be unwise. Whether or not it is wise to provide now for the 
sewage of 300,000 persons depends entirely on the relation between 
interest on cost, and the cost of added construction when it shall be 
needed. In discussing the method of disposal adopted by Mr. Gray 
it is only fair to accept his figures. 

The plan is to construct, at a cost of $2,195,973, main and inter- 
cepting sewers to collect all drainage of whatever character from all 
parts of the area under consideration, and to lead the whole to Field's 
Point, some distance below the city ; that is, the whole excepting the 
excess of storm-water beyond l-100th of an inch per hour; when this 
amount is exceeded the surplus is to flow into the rivers, carrying foul 
sewage with it. 

Steam-pumping apparatus is to be provided at a cost of $275,133, 
capable of lifting 58,000,000 gallons per day to a height'of 28 feet. 

To these items there should be added for " engineering and contin- 
gencies " fifteen per cent, making a total of $2,841,772. 

The question now arises whether this effluent may be most effi- 
ciently treated by chemical process or by irrigation. Mr. Gray de- 
cides in favor of the former for the reason that an' acre of land would 
he required for each one hundred of the population, or 3,000 acres in 
all; that this land cannot be obtained in a suitable position ; and that 
the cost of sending the sewage to such land as can be obtained would 
be very serious. He seems to admit that, as we all know, the com- 
pleteness of purification would be greater if the sewage were applied 
to the land, but he believes that by chemical process it may be made 

He therefore provides for tanks, conduits, filter-press, mixing ma- 
chinery, etc., land, right-of-way, damages, etc., at a cost of $857,732. 

It would seem proper to add to this cost the capitalization of the 
annual cost of working and maintenance. It would be a moderate esti- 
mate to fix the cost of pumping at five cents for each million gallons 
raised one foot high, or $1.40 for each million gallons raised the whole 
28 feet provided for. The dry-weather flow is estimated at 60 gallons 
per person, which for 300,000" population, would make 18,000,000 gal- 
lons. Add to this the present mill waste (5,000,000), and we have 
23,000,000 gallons to be pumped per day at a total cost of $32.20, 
or an annual cost of $9,869.30. It would be moderate to estimate 
the cost of pumping storm-water for a year at $2,140.70 making the 
total cost of operating the pumps $12,000 annually. The capitaliza- 
tion of this annual payment at four per cent would be $300,000. 

The estimate does not refer to the annual cost of the chemical pu- 
rification of the sewage, but from the indications given, 50 cents per 
annum per person would be a low estimate. It is the lowest cost 
suggested in the report. This with a population of 300,000 would 
make an annual outlay of $150,000, which capitalized at four per 
cent, would be $3,750,000. 

Adding together the estimated cost of construction and the capital- 
ization of the assumed annual working-expenses, we have a grand 
total of $6,891,772. 

Providence is a very rich and prosperous city. It can afford to 
spend whatever is necessary to secure any needed sanitary improve- 
ment and to purify its harbor ; but it will hardly rush into an outlay 
of this magnitude without inquiring carefully whether or not the work 
can be done for less money. 

To be continued. 

M. Saillard, known through his efforts for the preservation of dolmens, 
has discovered the workshop of a prehistoric armorer or smith, on a 
steep rock by the sea on the southwest side of the Peninsula of Quibe'- 
ron (Brittany). It dates from the Stone Age. Polished lances, arrow- 
heads, axes and other objects are represented in great numbers and in 
every stage of manufacture, so that the discovery is most interesting, 
inasmuch as the objects illustrate the workman's method and process. 
Among the objects is also a meteoric stone worked into an implement. 
The skeleton of the workman was also found, the skull being very well 
preserved. N. Y. Evening Post. 



<TJ CORRESPONDENT of the London Times says that the under- 
rj ground phenomena found in certain portions of the southern 
/ and Adriatic provinces of Austria, including miles of under- 
ground caverns, lakes that disappear and reappear at regular sea- 
sons, and rivers that are swallowed up by the earth, and come to the 
surface again many miles distant, have recently been the object of 
much attention on the part of the Austro-German Alpine Club, and 
of the Club degli Alpinist! of Trieste. A section of the members of 
the former body determined some time ago to institute a systematic 
exploration of the subterranean course of the River Reka. Rising 
in the Sehneebarg, in Carniola, this mysterious stream suddenly dis- 
appears in the so-called Karst caverns. At San Giovanni di Duino, 
twenty miles distant from the spot where the Reka is lost, a river of 
corresponding magnitude is found issuing from the foot of a hill. 
This stream is known as the Timavo, which takes a westward course 
and discharges its waters into the Bay of Monfalcone. As to the 
identity of the Timavo with the Reka there cannot be a doubt, al- 
though until the present year no attempt had ever been made prac- 
tically to demonstrate the fact. The members of the Austro-German 
Alpine Club, who had resolved to explore the underground meander- 
ings of the river, made their preliminary reconnoissance on March 
30th last. 

Starting from the first great cavern, called the Rudolph's Dome, 
the expedition, consisting of four persons in two boats, proceeded on 
their eventful voyage. From the cavern just mentioned, the river 
flows for 200 feet through a narrow channel between two perpendic- 
ular walls of rock, estimated to be upwards of 100 yards in height. 
At the end of this channel, the explorers, whose course throughout 
was illuminated by the magnesium light, found themselves in a vast 
cavern, where they were able to land. Fastening up their boats, 
they proceeded for some distance on foot past several cascades and 
rapids. They followed the course of the stream without much diffi- 
culty for a considerable distance, after leaving the newly-discovered 
cavern, keeping to the left bank at first. At length they reached a 
spot where the river contracts to a width of barely twelve feet. Here 
they were compelled to cross to the right bank, which they did by 
help of a wooden ladder, they had with them. The advance now 
became more difficult, the explorers being only able to get forward 
by creeping and climbing. At length they came to the sixth water- 
fall, which the party was unable to pass. The river here runs be- 
tween two perpendicular walls of rocks, and suddenly takes a down- 
ward leap of over 20 feet. From the Rudolph's Dome where the 
start was made to the sixth waterfall, the distance is rather over a 
furlong, and requires half a day to accomplish. At the third attempt 
the four gentleman forming the expedition, succeeded by help of 
suitable ladders and other apparatus in getting over this cataract, 
and advancing some distance beyond it. They soon, however, came 
to a seventh waterfall, where they were compelled to turn back. 
They found that to make any further progress, it would be necessary 
to get a boat past the last waterfalls, as there is no standing room on 
either side of the stream, but sheer perpendicular walls of rock. The 
further exploration of the underground river will be resumed as soon 
as the requisite apparatus can be got ready. In the meantime the 
Alpine Club has decided to make the approaches to the Rudolph's 
Dome cavern more easy of access to the general public. The second 
cavern, which was discovered in September, is of far greater dimen- 
sions than the Rudolph's Dome, or any of the other caves of this dis- 
trict. Its height is upwards of 450 feet, so that it could easily con- 
tain the Cathedral of St. Peter's at Rome. 

With regard to the Italian Alpine Club, its committee has during 
the the past summer done some good service by rendering the splen- 
did cavern of Trebitsch, discovered by Herr Lindner, 40 years ago, 
accessible to the ordinary tourist. The cavern can only be approached 
by descending a deep shaft down which visitors have hitherto had to 
clamber on the bare rocks. The Club degli Alpinist! have now 
caused a series of ladders, seventy-four in number, to be fixed. The 
Trebitsch cavern is 300 feet high, 400 feet in width, and 1,000 feet 
in length. Through it flows a river, which several authorities believe 
to be Tdentical with the Reka and Timavo, but the hypothesis is re- 
pudiated by many observers. The question can only be settled when 
the Austro-German Alpine Club shall have accomplished the inter- 
esting task it has taken in hand that of following the subterranean 
course of the River Reka from its beginning to its termination. 


The American Architect and Building News. [ VOL. XVII. No. 474. 


ST. PAWL, MINN., January 9, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, The Architectural Association of Minnesota held its 
fourth annual meeting at 219 Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis, on Tues- 
day, January 6th, 1885, at which the election of officers for the en- 
suing year resulted as follows : 

President, Isaac Hodgson, of Minneapolis ; Vice President, D. W. 
Millard, of St. Paul ; Secretary, H. S. Treherne, of St. Paul ; Treas- 
urer, F. (jr. Corser, of Minneapolis. 

Board of Management : E. P. Bassford, of St. Paul ; A. F. Gauger, 
'of St. Paul; G. M. Goodwin, of Minneapolis, and VV. C. Whitney, of 

After the meeting the members adjourned to the West Hotel, 
where they partook of the annual banquet. 

The Association is in a nourishing condition, there bein forty-two 
members on the roll, twenty-five of whom have joined during the past 
year. Yours sincerely, 

H. S. TREHERNE, Secretary A. A. M. 

: . 


FRENCH ART EXPORTS TO AMERICA. The business of exporting art 
products from France to America has suffered greatly from the Ameri- 
can duty on pictures and other art creations. The American Consulate 
has just been compiling the statistics o the art exportation from 
France to the United States during tlie past three years. In 1882, the 
exports were of the value of $1,800,000; in 1883, 1,200,000; and in 
1884, only $600,000. N. Y. Commercial Advertiser. 

TURNER'S REFUSAL OF AN OFFER. It is a well-known fact that, 
during the later years of his life, Turner was unable to sell a large 
number of his pictures, although he seldom asked for them a higher 
price than the modest 200 guineas which was considered in those days a 
sum of money considerably beyond the market value of the artist's 
work. A certain Scotch gentleman, named Munroe, a famous collector 
of pictures, enjoying an income of from 25,000 to 30,000 a year, greatly 
admired Turner's genius, and finding him one day sitting solitary in his 
gallery, surrounded by some of his finest works, for which he had tried 
in vain to find purchasers, Munroe suddenly determined to make the 
artist an offer of a certain sum for the whole collection. " Let me have 
all these," he said, "and I will write you at once a draft for 25,000. 
Will you agree to that . " Turner appeared not altogether displeased 
at tills offer, but told his friend to go and walk about the streets for 
half an hour or so, and at the end of that time come back for his deci- 
sion. Tliis Munroe accordingly did, but at the end of the half-hour, 
greatly to his disappointment, Turner answered him in the negative, re- 
fusing to part with his pictures, even for a sum which at that time 
would be considered a very large one. Eight or nine of Turner's finest 
works were among those which Mr. Munroe would gladly have pur- 
chased with his 25,0t>0, but as these identical pictures have^ since 
become the property of the National Gallery, the admirers of Turner 
will no doubt rejoice that the Scotch collector was so unsuccessful in 
his generous bid. 'Pall-Mail Gazette. 

SMOKE-TESTING OF DRAINS. The only objection to the smoke-test 
for drains, hitherto, has been that it was troublesome and expensive to 
apply, chiefly owing to the weight of the apparatus used in applying it. 
It has been considered necessary to generate the smoke in an iron 
vessel on the surface of the ground, and from thence to pump it down 
by means of a centrifugal pump, or fan, into the drain to be tested. 
As both the generating vessel and the pump were heavy, the use of 
them involved the necessity of the engineer's going to and from the 
house to be tested in a cab, and also taking an assistant with him to 
work the pump. Acting upon a suggestion thrown out by my friend, 
Mr. A. B. Brown, the eminent hydraulic engineer, of Edinburgh, that 
the smoke required might be generated inside the drain by means of a 
" rocket," I have lately devoted a good deal of time to designing cases of 
different shapes and sizes, and getting them made and filled with a suit- 
able composition by Mr. James Pain, the well-known firework maker. 
On Saturday, in Christmas week, several of the engineers of the Lon- 
don Sanitary Protection Association, and myself met Mr. Pain's repre- 
sentative at an unoccupied house in Kensington, to try a number of 
different sizes and shapes of "smoke rockets," and give Mr. Pain an 
order for the one which seemed most suitable. The one fixed upon is 
10 inches long, 2 14 inches in diameter, and with the composition 
"charged rather hard" so as to burn for ten minutes. This gives the 
engineer time to light the fuse, insert the rocket in the drain, insert a 
plug behind it, and walk through the house to see if the smoke escapes 
into it at any point, finishing on the roof, where he finds the smoke 
issuing in volumes from the ventilating pipes. The house experimented 
upon on Saturday had three ventilating pipes, and the smoke issued in 
dense masses from each of them, but did not escape anywhere into the 
house, showing that the pipes were sound. If the engineer wishes to 
increase the severity of the test, he throws a wet cloth over the top of 
the ventilating pipe, and so gets a slight pressure of smoke inside it. 
The "smoke rocket" is not protected by any patent, and if any person 
wishing to try it writes to Mr. James Pain, 1 St. Mary Axe, E. C., for 
"Innes's Smoke Rocket," specifying the size, he will be supplied with 
any quantity. The plug used with them is made by Mr. Francis Bot- 
ting, of No. 6 Baker Street, and consists of two short frustra of cones 
put together small end to small end, with a central screw to draw them 
together, and a large rubber ring, such as one sometimes sees on the 
fetlocks of horses, round the circumference, so that screwing up the 
screw expands the ring, and unscrewing it allows it to contract. This 
plug answers for applying the water-test to drains as well as for the 
smoke-test. Cosmo Itincs in the Journal of the Society of Arts. 

FAILURE OF AN ARTESIAN WELL BORING. After an attempt lasting 
two years and a half, and involving an expenditure of over $25,000, the 
Winchester Repeating Arms Company has abandoned its attempt to se- 
cure an artesian well on its premises. The Arms Company was charged 
so much by the New Haven Water Company for its supply of water 
that an independent supply was sought, but, although the work occu- 
pied several times as long as was expected, no artesian supply has been 
obtained, and the manufacturing concern must remain dependent on the 
water company. The bore, six inches in diameter, had reached a depth 
of 2,400 feet about two months ago, when some maliciously-inclined 
person dropped down the bore several pieces of iron one day while the 
men were at dinner. These pieces of iron wedged in about fifty feet of 
steel boring tools, and when more than a month had been spent in try- 
ing to remove the contents of the bore, the work was abandoned by the 
contractor. The contract provided that payment should be made by 
the foot, and for some forty days before the boring tools reached the 
point where they now remain, the contractor had averaged a net profit 
of $115 per day. All the expense of trying to remove the obstructions 
was dead loss to him, and he now says that as a result of his contract he 
has lost two years and a half of his life without compensation and $1- 
500 in cash besides. A year ago he was $10,000 ahead on his contract. 
The obstructions in the bore weigh, he says, about 3,000 pounds. There 
is only one deeper bore in the world, and that is in a Pennsylvania oil 
well. The Winchester bore lacks only 240 feet of being half a mile 
deep. New Haven Palladium. 

REPLANTING BLOWN-DOWN TREES. The following account of how we 
reinstated several large trees blown down here last winter may be of some 
service sooner or later to your readers : The trees in question were limes, 
a hundred and thirty years old, ninety feet high, from ten feet to twelve 
feet in girth, and had been blown over with at least two and one-half 
tons of earth attached to their roots; indeed, it was this last condition that 
settled the determination to proceed with the lifting. The trees were 
first pollarded at a height of thirty feet from the ground, and even 
after tliis had been done, there could not have been a less weight than 
two tons of timber to be uplifted, but which was nevertheless done in 
a remarkably short time, and, comparatively speaking, in a very easy 
manner, by means of the following appliances, viz. : a common two- 
and-one-half-foot screw-jack and a crab capable of raising five tons, 
which had a one-and-one-half-inch rope attached, and common cart- 
ropes for stays and guides. These being all placed in position, it was 
found that no pulleys and shears would be needed. And so, the holes 
being duly prepared by breaking up the "pan" on which the trees had 
grown, and which, by reason of the roots not being able to penetrate 
it, was the cause of their downfall, a start to raise them was made by 
two men at the screw-jack, and as each few inches were gained, props 
of varying length, each one held by a separate man, were placed as 
directed by the superintendent, and in this way was secured the height 
obtained by every move of the screw-jack. As soon as the end of the 
trunks had in this way been raised to a height of from fifteen feet to 
eighteen feet, the crab was brought into play, and soon the trees were 
again in their upright positions, and having been well attended to as 
regards good soil, well consolidated about the roots, there can be no 
reason to doubt that they will not only live, but grow away as vigor- 
ously as ever they did. Should they do so, many besides myself will 
seriously consider whether or not it is worth while to be at all times in 
such a hurry to cut up noble trees that have had the misfortune to suc- 
cumb to a storm. W. W., in Woods and Forests. 

THE FROGMOKE MAUSOLEUM. The memorial service in the Prince 
Consort's mausoleum, on Sunday week, was somewhat altered from the 
programme which was used in the time of Dean Wellesley, and it was 
shorter than formerly. The musical portion of the service had been 
selected by the Queen and Princess Beatrice, and had been carefully 
rehearsed by the boys of the choir of St. George's. This mausoleum is 
one of the most splendid tombs in Europe, and it is a great pity that so 
bad a site should have been selected, for it is necessary to have fires 
perpetually burning, summer and winter, in order to keep the beautiful 
and very costly decorations from being injured by the damp. The 
building lies in a perfect marsh. The coffin of Prince Albert is enclosed 
in a sarcophagus of granite, which is in the centre, and which is large 
enough to contain two coffins, the Queen designing to be herself buried 
here. The crypt underneath contains nine niches, and was intended to 
be the burial-place of the Queen's children ; but, so far, it has not been 
used, as Princess Alice was buried at Darmstadt (there is a statue of 
her in the mausoleum) and the Duke of Albany in the royal vault. It 
was arranged that the Duke should be buried here; but the plan was 
reluctantly changed by the Queen, when it was found that he had left 
written instructions that his coffin should be placed in the family vault 
under the Wolsey Chapel. The Queen and the Duchess of Albany vis- 
ited the royal vault during the recent stay of the court at Windsor, in 
order to inspect the final arrangements which have been made for the 
disposal of the late Duke's coffin, which has just been enclosed in an 
oak case, on the top of which is a silver plate, with his titles, etc., and 
at the head is his coronet, on a cushion. The members of the royal 
family have always been buried in coffins covered with crimson velvet, 
with massive silver ornaments; but a few years ago, when the Queen 
paid her first visit to the sepulchre, she observed that the coverings had 
become ragged and faded, and orders were given that ail the coffins 
should at once be placed in new oak cases, on the top of which are the 
plates and coronets. The Duke of Albany lies on the stone table in the 
centre of the vault, with King George of Hanover, George HI, and 
the Duke of Kent. The other coffins are on the shelves on each side of 
the vault, which is entered through two gates, from a passage which 
communicates with the vault beneath the choir of St. George's Chapel. 
The Prince Consort's coffin was never really placed in the royal vault, 
but, till it wa^ removed to Frogmore, it stood on a bier in the under- 
ground passage just outside the gates of the vault. I believe that the 
Queen objected to her husband being buried, even temporarily, in the 
same place with George IV. London World. 

JANUARY 24, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



imported . : or The American Architect and Building Newt.) 

- untary information, esvt- 

naUyfrom the smaller and outlying towns.] 


[Printed inecjflcations of any patent there mentioned, 
together with full detail illustrations, may be obtained 
ffthe Commissioner of Patents, at Washington, for 

twenty-Jive cents.} 

310,550. LIME-PAINT. William I. Adams and Wil- 
liam R. Polk, Baltimore, Md. 

310.666. SHUTTER- WORKER. Julius Aars Dvblie 
Cummings, 111. 

310,679. SASH AND DOOR STICKER. John H Glo- 
Ter, Oshkosh, Wis. 

310.S96. HEATING-STOVE. Silas H. La Rue, Read- 
ing, Pa. 

310,603. FIRE-ESCAPE. Lewis B. McDonald Little 
Rock, Ark. 

BOOKING, ETC. Thomas Vaughan, Millvale Pa 

310,631. SHINGLING-BHACKET. George W.Adams 
Boston. Mass. 

310,633-634. STEAM-RADIATOR. Juan B. Arc! and 
John Chapman, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Barnekow, Newburg, N. Y. 

310,662. TERRA-COTTA PAVEMENT. John M Free- 
man, Steubenville, O. 

310.667. HOISTING- APPARATUS. Duncan Gil- 
christ, Ishpemiug. Mich. 

310,675. FIRE-ESCAPE. Tomas P. Hall, Toronto 

Charles Halstrom, Los Angeles, Cal. 

La Baw, Jersey City, N. J. 


Chas. Nichols, San Francisco, Cal. 

Charles G. Otis, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

310,714-715. STEAM-RADIATOR. William H. Pace 
Norwich, Conn. 

310,721. WINDOW-GUARD. John Polkowski, New 

310,731. LEVELLING-ROD. Robert B. Seymour 
Willet's Point, N. Y. 

310,738. ELEVATOR. Israel S. Smith, Sr., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

310,752. DOOR-CHECK. Alonzo B. Walker, Canton 

310,807. BALDSTER. James W. Ferer, Renova Pa 

310,818. PIPE-WRENCH. Jas. F. Guthrie, Somer- 
Tille, Mass. 

L. Holton, New Lisbon, O. 

310.825. BLOWER FOR FIRK-GHATES. Stephen C. 
HougUton, San Francisco, Cal. 

310,839. BENCH- VISE. William Mickel, Oneonta, 

310,844. DOOR-CHECK. Emil Niggli, San Antonio, 



BUILDING PERMITS. Since our last report eighteen 
permits have been granted, the more important of 
which are the following: 

John Flanuey, 3 three-st'y brick buildings, com. 
n e cor. Druid Hill Ave. and Wilson St. 

John T. Miller, 24 two-st'y brick buildings, s s Car- 
roll St.; and 24 two-st'y brick buildings, u s Ward 
St., bet. Bayard and Wooster Sts.; ami la two-st'y 
brick buildings, e s Bayard St., bet. Carroll and 
Ward Sts. 

Louis V. Wise, 5 three-st'y brick buildings, e s 
Carey St., n of Lafayette Ave. 

J. Bauernschmidt, three-st'y brick ice-house, w s 
Mount St., bet. Pratt and McHenry Sts. 

Jos. Haropaon, Jr., 5 three-st'y brick buildings, 
n B Patterson Ave., bet. Fulton St. and Bruce Alley, 
and 2 two-st'y brick buildings, w s Bruce Alley, n 
of Patterson Ave. 

Henry Weber, 12 two-st'y brick buildings n % Can- 
ton Ave., bet. Lucerne and Rose Alley. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Wood. Centre St., near Rock- 
ville St., dwell., 30' x 30'; owner, W. A. French; 
builders, Urquhart & Frazer. 

Grampian Way, n Savin Hill, dwell., 23' x 23' 6"; 
owner, Clarence A. Door; builder, James J. Einroe. 
Adams St., near Butler St., poultry-house, 8' x 12'; 
owner; William Brooks; builder, A. H. Pierce. 

Philips St., Nos. 24-26, cor. Longwood Ave., dwell., 
12' x 48'; owner, Bridget Coppinger; builder, A. H. 

Water St.. dwell., 20' and 16' x 39'; owner, Michael 
Downey, builder, A. C. Tully. 

Hyde Park Ave., cor. Richards Ave., dwell., 20' x 
2S'; owner, Michael Blackwood; builder, R. M. Ste- 

Spring Park Ave., cor. Centre St., wagon-shed, 20' 
x 25'; owner, Richard English; builder, Samuel 

Armandine St., cor. Milton Ave., dwell., 20' and 
25'x 28'; owner, Ephraim Moulton; builder, Ephraim 

W/titJield St.; cor. Wheatland Ave., stable, 22' x 
30'; owner, H. F. Cross. 

Washington St., cor. Walnut Park, dwell., 28' x 
34' and 3i'; owner, E. F. Dunbar; builder, A. J. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Seventh Ave., e s, 82' n Eighth 
St., three-st'y and basement brown-stone dwell., 
wood and tin roof; cost, $7,500; owner, Chas. Lone 
450 Ninth St.; builder, J. F. Wood. 

Bushwick Aue., w s, 17' s Grove St., 2 three-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, 
$3,600; owner, H. L. Bartlett, 805 Quincy St.; archi- 
tect, Frank Holmberg. 

Bushwick Ave., s w cor. Grove St., three-st'y frame 
(brick-filled) dwell., tin roof; cost, $3,600; owner, 
etc., same as last. 

JJuryea St., s e, 100' w Bushwick Ave., two-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) dwell., tin roof; cost, $320(1 
owner and builder, Wm. Widnall, 1073 De Kalb' 
Ave.; architect, John Herr. 

Seventh and Eighth Sis., 440' e Third Ave., G (three 
on each street) two and three-st'y brick dwells., 
gravel roofs; cost, each, $3,500; owner and builder 
Peter Donlon, 724 Sackett St. 

J)e Kalb Ace., u s, 100' e Reid Ave., 2 three-st'y 
brick flats; cost, each, $5.000; owner, Ella Ellis 65 
Devoe St.; architect, Ernest Dennis. 

Hamilton Ave., n w cor. Gowanus Canal, one-st'y 
frame store-shed, felt and gravel roof; cost. $24,000- 
owner, American Cotton Oil Co., 2 William St., 
New York; architect, Aug. llattteld; builder Hugh 

Smith St., n e cor. Hamilton Ave., four-st'y brick 
and bluestone mill; also, one-st'y extension, boiler- 
house; also, two-st'y extension, office, composition 
roof; cost. $30,000; owner, etc., same as last. 

Tenth St., s s, 90' w Fifth Ave., 5 two-st'y and 
basement brick dwells., tin roofs; cost. $3,800; owner 
and builder, Robert Little. One Hundred and Sixty- 
sixth St., near Forest Ave., New York; architect 
It. Van Brunt. 

Lexington Ace., a s, 200' iv Throop Ave., 5 two-st'y 
brick dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, $3,000; owner 
and builder, Jas. W. Stewart, 373 Quiucy St.; archi- 
tect, M. Walsh. 

Broadway, s w cor. Jefferson St. and Saratoga 
Ave., 4 three-st'y frame tenements, tin roofs; cost, 
total, $10,000; owners, R. & H. Goodwin, 868 Bush- 
wick Ave.; architect, J. T. Miller. 

Dean St., s s, 175' w Franklin Ave., two-st'y brick 
ice-house, tiu roof; cost, $8,000; owner, Budweiser 
Brewing Co., Franklin Ave., cor. Dean St.; archi- 
tect. J. Platte; builder, J. Raulh. 

Jefferson St., s s, 190' e Throop Ave., 6 three-st'y 
brown-stone dwells., felt and gravel roofs; cost, 
each. $5,000; owner and architect, William V. Stud- 
diford, 241 Broadway, New York; builder, not se- 

Evergreen Ave., w s, 50' n Troutman St., three-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) store and dwell., tin roof; cost, 
$4,000; owner and builder. Geo. l.oeffler, 78 Jeffer- 
son St.; architect, Henry Vollweiler. 

Van Jiuren St., s s, 1711' e Bushwick Ave., 3 two-st'y 
frame dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, S3, 000; owner 
and builder, Samuel Post, cor. Van Buren St. and 
Broadway; architect, H. Vollweiler. 

Moergreen Are., w s, 75' n Troutman St., tliree-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) store and tenement, tin roof; 
cost. $3,800; owner and builder, George Loeffier, 78 
Jefferson St.; architect. Henry Vollweiler. 

Van Buren .S7., s s, 11)5' w Bushwick Ave., two-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) dwell., tin roof: cost, $3,800: 
owner and builder. Samuel Post, cor. Van Buven St. 
and Broadway; architect, II. Vollweiler. 


BUILDING PERMITS. J. A. Wessel, two-st'y store 
and flats, 2903 Butler St.; cost, S3 900; builder M 

J. M. Williams, three-st'y store and flats, 175 East 
North Ave.: cost, SU.OOO; architect, E. F. Berlin- 
builder, G, Wolff. 

F. Heimberg, three-st'y dwell.. 36 Rees St.; cost 
$4,500: architect, J. Zittell; builder. J. Hellman. 

M. Walsh, two-st'y livery stable, 120 Twenty-fifth 
St.: cost. S8.000. 

F. C. Wells, two-st'y livery stable, Thirty-flfthSt.; 
cost, $10,000. 

J. Jansen, 3 cottages, 714-718 Shober St.; cost. S3 - 

J. D. Robertson, two-st'y dwell., Forest Ave.; cost 

H. Hooper, 3 two-st'y dwells., 206 Dearborn Ave 
cost, $10,000; architects, Burling & Whitehouse 
builders. Barney & Rodatz. 

Wm. Kensilla, 3 two-st'y flats, 39-43 Spruce St.; 
cost, $15,000; architect, A. Speycr; builder, F. C 

A. H. Lowden, 2 two-st'y dwells., 3247-3219 Rhodes 
Ave.; cost, $11,000; architects, Wheelock & Clay. 

New York. 

EXCHANGE BUILDING. The Building Committee of 
the New York Mining Stock and National Petro- 
leum Exchange have drawn up plans for their new 
building. It will be on Broadway. The ground will 
cost $700,000 and the building $500,000. 
STORES. For the Lorillard Estate, a six-st'y iron and 
brick store, about 4H' x 126', is to be built at Nos. 
138 and 140 Centre St., from designs of Mr. J. B. 

For Messrs. Jos. Andrade & Co., six-st'y basement 
and sub-cellar building, 25' x 145', is to be built of 
brick, stone and iron, at No. 95 Bleecker St., from 
plans of Messrs. Alfred Tucker & Co. 

From designs of the same architects, a seven-st'y 
and basement store and warehouse, 64' 6" x 119', is 
to be built on the s e cor. of Houston and Crosby 
Sts., for Messrs. G. Sidenberg& Co., the fronts to be 
of granite, iron, brick and freestone. 

For Mr. Carl H. Schnltz, a mineral-water factory 
is to be built on the corner of Ave. A and Twen- 
tieth St., from designs of Mr. Ed. E. Raht. 

Messrs. Donaldson Bros, will erect a factory for 
the lithographing business, on the n s of Park St., 
commencing 116' e of Pearl St. 

HOUSES. Messrs. A. Tucker & Co. are drawing plans 
for a four-st'y and basement brown-stone house, 23' 
x 65', to be built for Mr. Henry Maibrunn, on the s s 
of Seventy-eighth St., 148' w of Ninth Ave., and for 
a three-st'y and basement brick and stone residence, 
25' x 45', to be built for Mr. S. Adler, on the w s of 

Lexington Ave., 50' n of One Hundred and Eleventh 

BUILDING PERMITS. Seventy-third St., n w cor. Park 
Ave., 2 flve-st'y brick flats, slate and tin roofs- cost 
each, $45,000; owner, John N. Stearns, 10 West Fif- 
ty-eighth St.; architect, F. Carles Merry; builders 
David T. Kennedy and Myran C. Rush. 

Tenth Ave., e s, 26' n One Hundred and Fiftv- 
sixth St., three-st'y frame dwell., tin roof- cost 
$6,000; owner, Josephine O'Neill, 270 West Tenth' 
St.; architect, James Neafle; builders, Mansfield 
Scudder and Fred. Neafle. 

One Hundred and Thirtieth St., n s, 225' w Sixth 
Ave., 4 three-sfy brown-stone front dwells, tin 
roofs; cost, each, $12,000; owner, Samuel O Wright 
103 West One Hundred and Thirtieth St.; architects' 
Cleverdon & Putzel. 

One Hundred and First St., n s, 250' w Eleventh 
Ave., three-st'y and basement brown-stone front 
dwell., slate and tiu roof; cost, $12,000; owner Rob- 
ert T. Bellchambers, 317 Sixth Ave.; architect Jos 
M. Dunn; builders, W. T. Adams and Molholland & 

Seventy-first St., n s, 500' w Eighth Ave 7 four- 
st'y brown-stone front dwells., tin roofs; cost, each 
$12,000; owner, Owen Donohue, 505 WestFiftv.slith 
St.; architect, John Sexton. 

New Chambers St., Nos. 24-34 and Rnse St., Nos. 50 
-58, six-st'y brick store, tin roof; cost, $50,0011; owner 
Michael Giblin, 125 East Ninety-second St.- archi- 
tect, Thos. R. Jackson. 

Second Ave., s e cor. Sixty-fourth St., 2 two-st'v 
brick dwells, and stores, tiu roofs; cost each 
(53,000; lessees, Chesebro & Whitman, Seventy-ninth 
St., cor. Second Ave.; architect, R. Rosenstock 
ALTERATIONS. Ninth Ave., Nos. 278 and 280 repair 
damage by fire; cost, $10,000; owner and builder 
Hugh Getty, 337 West Twenty-seventh St. 

fifteenth St., Nos. 637 and 539, and 641 and 543 
rear two buildings, internal alterations, fitting them 
up for tenements; cost, $6,000; owner Jas Mulrv 
30 East Kighty-flrst St.; architect, Frederick Jenth' 
franklin St., Nos. 86 and 88, repair damage bv 
fire; cost, S5.500; owners, Isaac W. How 31 East 
Thirty-seventh St., and Wm. P. Draper, 604 Fifth 
Ave.; architect and builder. Henry Wallace. 

Fifth Ave., No. 240, one-sfy brick extension, iron 
and glass roof, etc.; cost '*'" "" 


BUILDING PERMITS. Poplar St., No. 1508, brick 
building, 15' x 33' 6"; D. N. Bleyler, contractor. 

Market. St., No. loll, store extession, 22' x 26'- 
Kister &Overn, contractors. 

Sixty-third St., cor. Vine St., two-st'y dwell 0' x 
23'; L. J. Roger & Bro., contractors. 

Qraniback St., between Indiana Ave. and Cam- 
bria st.., two-sfy dwell., 17' x 29'; Philip Fitzpat- 
rick, owner. 

St. I. (Ill i.-. 

BUILDING PERMITS. -Thirty-six permits have been 
issued since our last report, nine of which are for 
unimportant frame houses. Of the rest, those worth 
$2,~iOO and over are as follows: 

W. Patterson, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost $5 500 
^\. Patterson, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost $5'eoo' 
John Quinn, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost. $5 1100 ' 
Alex. MoKeohnie, fl adjacent two-st'v brick' stores 
and dwells.; cost, $8,00o; Alex. McKechuie, cou- 

S. D. Porter, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $2,500- 
Eystra & Morrison, contractors. 
? H . al te [ ld Burnett, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, 
$4,500; J. B. I.indsley & Son, contractors. 
Mrs. Halstead Burnett, two-si'y brick dwell cost 
,r,m.; ,1. B. Lindsley & Son, contractors ' 

$4,r, . 

Mrs. Halstead Burnett, two-sfy brick dwell.; cost 
viiOWj a. o, Lindsley &Son, contractors. 
? lk , ?. (i , uhma "' two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $5 - 
tractor MoNamara, architect; J. H. Keefe, con- 

Mrs. L. Riechmann. 2 adjacent two-st'v brink 
dwells.; cost, $5,000; Bisser Bros., contractors 
=, I?!' I," Kle o n "">". two-st'y brick dwell.;'cost, 
$3,240; Bisser Bros., contractors. 

Chas. Bieckel. double two-st'y brick dwell cost 
$3,500; P. Souerweine, contractor. 

St. Paul, Minn. 

BUILDING PERMITS. T. A. Prendergast two-t'v 
J a ' n ?. '? w 11 :; J on Ashland Ave.; architect, A. M 
Radclitt; builder. Thos. Fitzpatrick; cost, $4,000 
W. H. H. Johnston, two-st'y frame double dwell 

al st " bet - summit sjfcSa 

Wm. Byrne, two-st'y frame dwell., n B of Martin 
St., bet. Machubin and Arundel Sts.; cost, $4,000. 

McAllester Block,' to' be built bet. Sixth and 
Seventh Sts., on Jackson St.; cost, $29000- archi 
tect for both the above, Mr. Ulrici. 

Washington School, to be built on Eighth St.; 

Arlington Hill School, to be built; cost, $15 000 
Grand Ave. School, to be built; cost, $2,000; 'archi- 
tect for the above 3 buildings D. W Millard 

Horace Bigelow, two-st'y frame residence, 'corner 
Walnut and Exchange Sts.; architect, Charles T 

Minnesota Club House, building on cor. Fourth 
and Cedar Sts.; architect, Chas. T. Mould. 

General Xotes. 

ATHOL, MASS. R. Brookhouse is building a frame 
house, costing $5,000; from plans by E. Boyden t 
Son, Worcester, Mass. * 

BROCKTON, MASS. The School Committee urges the 

erection of a new high-school building 
CLINTON, MASS. Lyman Leighton is building a frame 
house and stable, costing $6,500; from plans bv Bar- 
ker & Nourse, Worcester, Mass. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 474. 

DCTDLEY, MASS. The Trustees of Nichols Academy 
are building a brick boarding-house, 40' x 51)' ; cost, 
815,000; E. Boyden & Sou, architects, Worcester, 

LA.WKEXCE, MASS. The mayor and aldermen have 
voted not to grant an appropriation of $40,OUO for the 
building of a public library, as recommended by the 

LESTER, MASS. The Lester Hotel Company is build- 
ing a frame hotel, three-st'y, 70' x 80', costing $23,- 
000; A. P. Cutting, architect, Worcester, Mass. 
OXFORD, MASS. O. J. Joselya is building a frame 
house, costing $15,000; from plans by A. P. Cutting, 
Worcester, Mass. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Adolph Sutro, says tbe San 
Francisco Chronicle, has been quietly at work for a 
number of years maturing a plan which will place 
him among the public benefactors of California. 
He intends to establish a free public library, and to 
erect a handsome building, and when all is complete 
to present it to the city. 

SPENCER, MASS. P. J. McDonald is building a frame 
tenement-house, costing $5,000; E. Boyden & Sou, 
Worcester. Mass., are the architects. 
SUTTON, MASS. A town-hall is being built, 40' x 60'; 
cost, $8,000; E. Boyden & Son, architects, Worces- 
ter, Mass. 

WESTBORO, MASS. The Methodist Church Society is 
building a frame parsonage, costing $5,000; from 
plans by Barker & Nourse, Worcester, Mass. 
WORCESTER, MASS. Walker Armingtoii is about 
building a block of brick with Sutherland Falls mar- 
ble finish, 56' x 126', tive-st'y, containing 35 tene- 
ments, and costing $45,OCO; E. Boyden & Sou, archi- 

Two brics and brown-stone school-houses, 94' x 
95', each costing 530,000, are being built, cor. Chand- 
ler and Gage sis. 

Genery Stevens is building a frame house and sta- 
ble on London St., costing $6,000. 

George S. Clough is about building a frame house 
cor. Merrick and Austin Sts., costing 68,000. 

E. J. Watson is building a cottage ami stable on 
Westminster St., costing $4,000. 

Mrs. A. F. Holman is building a frame house on 
Lancaster St., costing $5,<iOO. 

E. E. Carpenter is building a frame house on Brig- 
ham St., costing S2,500. 

John C. Woodbury is building a frame cottage, 
costing $2,500. 

John L. Parker is building a frame cottage and 
stable on Newbury St., costing $3,500; Barker & 
Nourse are architects for 9 houses last mentioned. 

Wm. H. Sawyer is building a bouse of brick and 
freestone on Lincoln St., costing 30,000. 

H. L. Stock is building a frame residence, cor. 
Main and Hancock Sts., costing .'$8,000; A. P. Cut- 
ting, architect, for last 2 houses mentioned. 



[Near Charleston, W. Va.] 

CHARLESTON (Kanawha Co.), W. VA., Dec. 30, lt<84. | 

Proposals for finishing Lock No. 2, of the Great 
Kanawha Kiver Improvement will be received at this 
office until 110011, of February 3, 1883, and opened 
immediately thereafter. 

r. Blank forms and specifications can be had upon 
application at this office. 


475 Lt.-Col. of Engineers, U. S. A. 


JLj [At Cincinnati, O.] 


Sealed proposals will be received at the offices of th< 
undersigned until noon of Tuesday, the 37th day 
of January. 1885, for 5,000 cubic yards of buildin;- 
limestone, for Messrs. Procter & Gamble. 

Specifications may be seen and forms of proposal 
obtained at the offices of the undersigned. 

Proposals will be received for all or partof the abov 
quantity, delivered either on the premises, at Ivory- 
.aale, Hamilton County, O., or on cars on the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad. 

The right is reserved to reject any or all bids. 


474 Civil Engineers. 

ficient bond with sureties, within a reasonable time to 
be fixed by said commissioners, in the sum of $15,000, 
to be approved by said commissioners, conditioned 
upon the faithful performance of his contract. 

Each bid must be accompanied by a sufficient bond 
with sureties, or a duly certified check payable to said 
county in a sum of at least five per cent of such bid, 
conditioned upon the giving the bond above specified 
within the time so fixed, provided such bid should be 
accepted. The work will cost several thousand dol- 
ars, and must be completed on or before the first day 
of November, 1885, Right reserved to reject any or all 
bids. J. G. MINER, 

Chairman Board of County Commissioners. 

Attest: G. A. HAYES, County Auditor. 

EKS. [At Washington, D. C. 


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 22, 1885. ] 
Separate sealed proposals for furnishing and deliv- 
ering the rolled-iron beams and sixteen plate girders 
required for four floors of the west and centre wings 
of the Building for the State, War and Navy Depart- 
ments in this city will be received at this office until 
154 M., on February 17, 18S5, and opened immedi- 
ately thereafter, in presence of bidders. 

Specifications, general instructions to bidders, an<j 
blank forms of proposal, for either the beams or the 
girders, will be furnished to established manufac- 
turers on application to this office. 

476 Colonel, Corps of Engineers 


\J [At Preston, Minn. 

PRESTON, January it, 18*5. 

The County Commissioners of the County of Fill 
more, in the State of Minnesota, will receive sealed 
proposals until the 3.5th day of March, 1885 
at 13 o'clock, M., at the office of the county audi- 
tor, in^the village of Preston, said county, for the 
remodeling of the county court-house in said village, 
and the building of 2 two-st'y brick additions thereto, 
and iron vaults therein, and the furnishing all mate- 
rials, in accordance with tbe plans and specifications 
therefor on file in the office of said auditor, which cat 
also be seen at the office ot Mayberry & Son, archi 
tects, Winona, Minnesota. 

No bids will be received except for the whole build 
ing complete as specified. 

The successful bidder will be required to give suf 



1 J [At Troy, O.] 

TROY, MIAMI Co., O., January 3, 1885. J 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
12 o'clock, noon, of February 11, 1885, for fur- 

lishing all the material and performing the labor nec- 
essary to erect a new court-house at Troy, in said 
County, according to plans and specifications on file 
at this ofiice. 

Bids must be made according to law, and must be 
accompanied by a bond (to be approved by the Board 
of Commissioners) for at least twenty-five per cent of 
,he amount of the bid; the bond to be conditioned that 
f work is awarded, a proper boudaud contract will be 
entered into. 

The Commissioners reserve the right to reject any 
or all bids. 

Blanks for bids and bonds can be had at this ofiice, or 
at the office of J. W. Yost, architect, at Columbus, O. 

Bids must be endorsed " Bid for Court-House, " and 
addressed to HORATIO PEARSON, 

474 County Auditor, Troy, O. 

[At Cincinnati, O.] 
CINCINNATI, O.. January 10, 1885. J 

The Board of Public Works of the City of Cincinnati 
will receive proposals until noon of January 31, 
1885, for the construction, erection and furnishing 
complete, ready for daily service, of the following ma- 

Two (2) ten million (10,000,000) gallon high-duty 

The engines will be of the compound, condensing, 
crank and fly-wheel type: to be erected upon a founda- 
tion now partially constructed, and to be finished ac- 
cording to contractors' plans, in the Front St. Pump- 
ing-House, Cincinnati. The proposals shall be sealed, 
mid addressed to the Board of Public Works and 
marked "Proposal for Pum ping-Engines." 

The successful bidder will be required to deposit with 
the Clerk of the Board of Public Works $3,01)0 in cash 
or U. S. Government Bonds as an earnest of his pur- 
pose to carry out his contract, and shall execute a boml 
with, two ('2) acceptable sureties, one of whom shall be 
a resident of Cincinnati, in such sain us may be deter- 
mined by the Board of Pubiic Wnrks, as a guarantee 
of his faithful performance of all the conditions of 
the contract. 

One-half of the cash deposit will be returned upon 
completion of the first engine, and the remainder upon 
completion of the second engine. 

The Board of Public Works reserves the right to re- 
ject any or all proposals. 

r'or specifications, forms of proposal and plans of 
present foundation, address JOHN W. HILL, 

Consulting Kngineer. 
CHARLES DOLL, President, 

474 Board of Public Works. 


") [At New "Xork, N. Y.] 


in accordance with drawings and specification, copies 
of which and any additional information may be had 
on application at this office or the office of the super- 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 

M. E. BELL, 


Supervising Architect. 

[At Jackson, Miss.] 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10, 1885. ) 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
2 P. M. , on the 31st day of January, 1885, for fur- 
nishing and delivering, ready for setting, all the pol- 
shed plate, polished plate ground, double-thick sheet, 
and double-thick sheet ground glass, and for furnish- 
ng and laying all the encaustic floor tiling required 
or the court-uouse, etc., at Jackson, Miss., in accor- 
iance with drawings, specifications, etc., copies of 
vhich (for each class) and any additional information 
nay be had on application at this office, or the office 
of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
,hose received after the time of opening will not be 

M. E. BELL, 

p LASS. 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 2, 1885. 

Sealed proposals, endorsed ' Proposals for Steel 
Castings," will be received at this Bureau until 12 
o'clock, noon, on Tuesday, February 3, 1885, 
when tliey will be opened in the presence of such bid- 
ders as may be present, for the steel castings of the 
turrets of the United States Steamship " Mi'intono- 
moh, as stated on requisition No. Ntx, from the New 
York Navy Yard, at which yard these castings must 
be delivered within three months after the contract is 
made, free of all expense to the Government. 

The castings must In all respects conform strictly to 
the schedule for the same, which accompanies and 
forms part of the requisition, and will be subjected to 
a careful examination and inspection at the works, by 
an officer or officers detailed by the Department for 
that purpose, before being received. 

Copies of the schedule and requisition will be fur- 
nished to those who are known to have the necessary 
facilities for doing the work, upon application to the 
Commandant of the New York Navy Yard. 

The proposals must be accompanied with the guar- 
antee required by law, that if the contract is awarded 
it will be promptly executed, and the names of parties 
who are to become the sureties to the amount of the 
face of the contract will also be slated. 

The Department reserves the right to reject any or 
all the proposals, as, in its opinion, the public interest 
requires. T. D. WILSON, 

474 Chief of Bureau 

[At Greeiisborough, N. C. 


WASHINGTON, D C., January 19, 1885. . 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office uiiti 

3 p. M., on the 24th day of February, 1885, for al 

the labor and materials, excavating, etc., concrete foun 

dations, brick, ntone ami iron work, wood floors, parti 

tionsanu roof-framing, slate and gal van i zed-iron work 

required for the basement and superstructure of th< 

court-house, post-office, etc., at Greeusborough, N. C. 


Supervising Architect. 

[At Kansas City* Mo.] 

SHINGTON, D. C., January 14, 1885. ) 

it ground glass required for the custom-house and 
jost-office at Kansas City, Mo., in accordance with 
ipecitication and schedule, copies of which and any 
idditional information may be had on application at 
his> office, or the office of the local superintendent of 
,he building. 

Bids mun be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

475 Supervising Architect. 

[At Memphis, Tenn.] 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10, 1885. ) 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
p. M., on the 5th day of February, 1885, for 
furnishing and delivering, ready for netting, all the 
polished plate, polished plate ground, double-thick 
sheet, and double-thick sheet ground glass; and for 
furnishing and laying all the encaustic floor tiling re- 
quired for the custom-house, etc., at Memphis, Tenn. f 
in accordance with drawings, specifications, etc., 
copies of which (for each class) and any additional in- 
formation may be had on application at this office, or 
the ottice of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
-=*- ^ M. E. BELL, 


Supervising Architect. 

[At Harrlsonburg, Va.] 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10, 185. ) 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
2 o'clock, P. M., on the 24th day of February, 
1885, for furnishing all the labor and materials, in- 
cluding stone, bricks, woodwork, etc., required for the 
construction of the court house, etc., building at Har- 
risonburg, Va., in accordance with drawings and 
specifications, copies of which, and any additional in- 
formation may be obtained on application at this 
office or the office of the superintendent, on and after 
January 23, 1885. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 

M. E. BELL, 


Supervising Architect. 

[At Buffalo, N. 



HINGTON, D. C., January 9, 1885. J 


Sealed proposals will be received at this" office until 
2 P. M., on the 31st day of January, 1885. for fur- 
nishing and putting in place the iron roof framing for 
the extension of the custom-house, etc., building, at 
Buffalo, N Y., in accordance with drawings and spec- 
ification, copies of which and any additional informa- 
tion may be had on application at this office, or the of- 
fice of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

474 Supervising Architect. 

[At Washington, D. C.] 
WASHINGTON, D. C., January s. lsS5. ). 
Sealed proposals for furnishing and delivering the 
cast-iron column and pilasters for four stories of the 
west and centre wings of the Building for the State, 
War and Navy Departments in this city, will be re- 
ceived at this othce until 13 M., on January 27, 
1885, and opened immediately thereafter in presence 
of bidders. Specifications, general instructions to bid- 
ders, and blank forms of proposals will be fun islied 
to established manufacturers on application to this 

474 Col, Corps of Engineers. 





VOL. xvii. 

Copyright, 1886, JAMES R. OSGOOD ft Co., Boston, Mau. 

No. 475. 

JANUARY 31, 1885. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 



The recent Disaster at the Kankakee Insane Asylum. Prizes 
for Essays on Sanitation. New Alloys of Iron. The 
O'Keenan Electric Battery. Explorations on the Island of 
Delos. A Method of determining the Thickness of Iron 
Plates. Prizes and Medals for French Mechanics. Coal- 
Dust Fuel 49 




The State Capitol, Hartford, Conn. Cathedral of Notre Dame, 
Rouen, France. Fireplace at Lenox, Mass. Monuments 
and Statues of London 64 



A Society for Mutual Protection. How to become a Super- 
intendent. One more Competition. Take care in building 
North Walls 58 


DEPLORABLE fire occurred recently in Illinois, by 
which one of the wards of the Eastern Illinois Insane Asy- 
lum, at Kankakee, was totally destroyed, thirteen out of 
the forty-five patients in the asylum meeting a dreadful death. 
The fire broke out in the middle of the night, and spread rap- 
idly through the woodwork of the building, tilling the whole 
in a few minutes with fatal smoke. The asylum is half a mile 
from the town, so that help could not reach it from outside, 
and, although a few pipes and hydrants had been put in for 
protecting the wards, the appropriations had not been sufficient 
to complete the water service, and there was practically no 
means at hand for checking the flames. It is well known that 
the insane are very difficult to control in case of fire, which 
excites and attracts them ; and although the officers and 
attendants worked heroically to save their patients, they could 
not rescue all. It appears from the evidence eiven before the 
coroner's jury that the superintendent of the asylum, Dr. 
Dewey, had repeatedly called the attention of the Legislature to 
the unprotected state of the building, but had not succeeded in 
obtaining the appropriation of a sum adequate for making a 
change; the Legislature having apparently dismissed the sub- 
ject with the easy assurance, which we find in the newspaper 
account, that "it was supposed that every precaution possible 
had been taken against fire." The character of these " precau- 
tions," which were, as we suppose, under the direct charge of 
the three State Commissioners, may be inferred from the fact, 
shown by evidence before the coroner, that the top of the hot- 
air furnace in the basement was only four inches from the 
underside of the pine floor-beams. This circumstance is quite 
sufficient to account for the fire, and the only wonder is that it 
had not occurred before. It seems that the superintendent had 
asked to have the floors over the furnace changed, but his 
request was disregarded, and after the joists had become thor- 
oughly dried out, a cold winter's night, with a little urging of 
the furnace fire, were followed by their natural consequences. 

BY the liberality of Mr. Henry Lomb, of Rochester, New 
York, the American Public Health Association is enabled 
this year to offer valuable prizes for essays on four sub- 
jects of importance to public hygiene. The first subject as- 
signed is that of " Healthy homes and foods for the working 
classes ; " the second is, " The sanitary conditions and necessi- 
ties of school-houses and school life ; " the third is " Disinfec- 
tion and individual prophylaxis against infectious disease," and 
the last is, "The preventable causes of disease, injury and 
death in American manufactories and workshops, and the best 
means and appliances for preventing and avoiding them." 
Two prizes are offered for each subject, one of five hundred 
dollars for the best essay, and one of two hundred dollars for 
the second in merit. The object particularly sought in invit- 
ing these essays is the promotion of original investigation, and 
the results of intelligent study will receive much higher consid- 
eration than laborious compilations from books. Essays in- 
tended to compete for prizes must be in the hands of the 
Secretary of the Association, Dr. Irving A. Watson, Concord 
New Hampshire, on or before October 15 next, and awards 
will be made at the meeting of the Association, in December 

TTLLOYS of iron are beginning to play an important part in 
r the industrial world. A year or more ago several pro- 
cesses were introduced for combining iron with a consid- 

rable percentage of zinc, giving a white, ductile, and malleable 
metal, not subject to corrosion, and, one would think, invaluable 
x>r the purposes to which tin plate and galvanized iron are now 
applied. More recently, an alloy of iron, copper, and manga- 
nese has been produced, containing about two parts each of 
copper and manganese to one of iron, which when cast in blocks 
is perfectly malleable and extremely tough. By adding zinc 

he alloy can be softened, so as to be capable of rolling into 
Dlates of any thickness. Whether an alloy containing so large 
a proportion of such expensive metals as copper and manga- 
nese would ever replace iron is doubtful, but the zinc and iron 
alloy promises to be of great importance. 

H REMARKABLE electric b.-ittery, recently invented by 
Mr. Edward O'Keenan, is described in Le Genie Civil. 
The construction of the battery is very simple, each ele- 
ment consisting of a porous cup, standing in a glass beaker, 
much like some forms of the Leclanche' battery ; but the re- 
agents used differ from those employed in the Leclanch^ 
battery. The negative pole is naturally of zinc, dipping into a 
solution of pure sulphuric acid in water, in the proportion of 
seven parts of acid to one hundred of water. The zinc is 
amalgamated, to prevent local action ; and in order to main- 
tain the amalgamation a small dose of persulphate of mercury 
is dissolved in the acid bath. The remainder of the battery is 
formed by filling the porous cup with binoxide of lead, and 
inserting a cylinder of carbon. The carbon prevents the for- 
mation of local circuits in the mass of peroxide of lead, after 
the deoxidation produced by the action of the battery has 
gone far enough to reduce a part of the oxide to metallic lead, 
while it remains itself unchanged, although it appears to con- 
tribute a small portion of electric force to that derived from 
the other reagents. The theory of the battery is simple: the 
zinc is oxidized and dissolved by the acid, and the oxide of 
lead is reduced, with so little loss from local circuits that the 
whole theoretical electro-motive force due to the chemical com- 
bination is said to be delivered at the poles of the battery until 
the action is interfered with by polarization, which finally cuts 
off about one-third of the force of the current. After the 
battery becomes inactive, through the solution of the zinc, or 
the reduction of the oxide of lead, which may take place in a 
year or two, instead of being thrown away, or the chemicals 
renewed, a current from a dynamo-electric machine is passed 
through it for a certain length of time, in a direction opposite 
to that of the battery itself. Under the influence of this cur- 
rent the battery is gradually reconstituted. The sulphate of 
zinc dissolved in the acid liquid is decomposed, precipitating 
metallic zinc on what remains of the cylinder or plate which 
formed the negative pole, and reviving pure sulphuric acid in 
the bath; while the metallic lead in the porous cup absorbs the 
oxygeu set free from the zinc sulphate, becoming reconverted 
into peroxide, which, as soon as the operation is finished, is 
ready to work with its original energy for another year. 

TITHE island of Delos has long been one of the most interest- 
J. ing portions of the world for the archaeologist ; not that 
the remains of antiquity which exist there are particularly 
important, but because the island, as the most sacred portion of 
Greece, the sanctuary of Apollo and Diana, occupied a posi- 
tion in the ancient world which must have given to the life of 
its inhabitants, and to the ceremonies performed in its temples, 
a character differing from auythiug known elsewhere. History 
tells us marvellous stories of the purity which reigned through- 
out the island. No dog was ever allowed to enter it, and no 
death was permitted to take place upon it, all persons suffering 
from fatal disease being carried, under strict laws, to the 
neighboring island of Rbane, that the birth-place of the sun 
and the moon might not be profaned by mortal weakness. 
Although the sanctity of the place was so great that even the 
barbarians respected it, and in all the wars between the Greeks 
and the Persians it was never invaded, the buildings which 
once stood there have almost completely disappeared, and 
nothing is left but the foundations of the temples. One of 
these has just been excavated by a French expedition, and 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 475. 

presents a very singular plan, the pronaos and the cella, or 
sanctuary, being separated by a long gallery, having a walk 
all around it, at the level of the floor of the remaining portions 
of the temple, and a large sunken space within. It is known 
that a famous altar existed at Delos, made, according to the tra- 
dition, of the horns of the goats or stngs killed by Diana upon 
Mount Cynthus, (he highest portion of the island ; and it is 
suggested that the sanctuary of the temple may have been the 
place of this altar, and that the long gallery which precedes it 
may have been built for the sacred dances which, as is known, 
took place before the altar of horns. In this case, the dan- 
cers occupied the sunken central space; while the spectators 
looked on from the surrounding platform. 

TT METHOD of determining the thickness of the iron plates 
rj[ in boilers or tanks, without cutting the plate, is described 
' in Le Genie Civil. Although the process is rather rude 
as yet, the theory on which it rests is a most ingenious one, 
and the principle is capable of being applied to a very extended 
range of similar tests. M. Lebasteur, the engineer of the great 
French railway company Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean, deserves 
to have his name remembered as the inventor of the process, 
which in his hands has given results of singular accuracy. To 
test the thickness of a particular boiler-plate, or portion of a 
plate, M. Lebasteur spreads on the plate which he wishes to 
examine a spot of tallow, about one one-hundredth of an inch 
thick, and makes a similar application to a bit of sheet-iron of 
known thickness He then applies to each, during a certain 
time, a small object, heated to a point as nearly constant as 
possible; using generally for the purpose one of the little 
cauterizing instruments made for surgical purposes. On the 
application of the hot, instrument the tallow melts, forming a 
circle of bare metal around the heated point, bounded, after 
the place has cooled, by a little ring of tallow, raised above the 
surrounding portions. If the c.-tutery 1ms been applied for tlie 
same length of time to each plate, the diameters of the little 
melted circles upon the two plates will be to each other in- 
versely as the thickness of the plates. The explanation of 
this of cour.-e is that in the thicker plate the heat of the cau- 
terizing tool is conducted away so rapidly by the larger mass 
of metal that a small portion only is made hot enough to melt 
the tallow on it; while in the thin plate the heat is less freely 
diffused, and the effect extends laterally to a greater distance. 
Sme variation in the results \v< uld probably come from the 
different chemical composition of plates tested, but it is worth 
noting that the direction of the fibres in the plates seems to 
have no influence whatever on the melting of ihe tallow. 

IT is interesting to observe that in France, that home of new 
social ideas, the better class of architects have of late years 
taken an important part in the movements which seek to 
improve the relations between workingmen and their employers. 
In the great strikes among the building trades which took 
place in Paris not long ago the Societc Centrale, the great 
French professional association, was appealed to frequently, 
both by the masters and the men, and its influence undoubtedly 
did much to promote the settlement of those deplorable 
disputes. Although connected ^more directly with the em- 
plovers than their workmen, it has been common with French 
architects, ever since the time of Viollet-le-Duc, and perhaps 
longer, to interest themselves in individual men whom they 
observe to be particularly skilful or intelligent; and for some 
time the Sociute Centrale has annually awarded medals to 
meritorious journeymen in all the building trades. This exam- 
ple of interest and good feeling seems to have encouraged 
similar sentiments among the master-builders, and a few days 
ago a number of architects, besides all the principal officers of 
the Societti Centrale. were invited to participate in the presen- 
tation of medals, given by the various associations of master- 
buiMers and mechanics to the workmen who had most dis- 
tinguished themselves by long and faithful service. The cere- 
mony was dignified by the presence of the Minister of the 
Interior, M. Waldeck-Rousseau, who explained the official 
view of the labor question in an excellent speech, and pre- 
sented, on behalf of the Government, an additional medal to 
the workman most distinguished in the award of the masters' 
recompenses, announcing at the same time the nomination of 
the president of the masters' association, M. Bertrand, as a 
chevalier of the Legion of Honor. The veteran among the 
workmen, who received both the masters' and the Government 

medal, was M. Asseline, who had been sixty-five years in the 
service of a certain firm of painters and glaziers ; while another 
medallist, M. Chardin, had been engaged fifty-two years in the 
shop of M. Gay, a joiner. The presentation of the medals was 
followed by a dinner at the Continental, of which three hun- 
dred and thirty masters and men partook, under the presi- 
dency of the Prefect of the Seine, and sentiments of regard 
and concord were expressed, by the delegates of the trades- 
unions us well as the masters, which, it is to be hoped, will 
not be forgotten when the next difference of opinion arises 
between them. 

HE economical manufacturers and railway engineers of 
France and Germany have long made use of the dust and 
refuse of coal mines by mixing it with tar and compressing 
it into cakes, which are sold at a low price, and when well made 
answer every purpose to which coal in lumps is applied. Le Ge- 
nie Civil gives an account of a new machine for manufacturing 
these coal-dust cakes, together with statistics of the cost of the 
process which are quite interesting. The most important pecu- 
liarity of the new machine consists in its appliances for keeping 
the coal-dust hot while it is mixed with the tar and pressed into 
moulds. In the ordinary process the coal-dust and tar are put 
together into a sort of mortar-mill, and the mixture is carried 
from this to the moulding-machines ; but moisture, if not origi- 
nally present in the dust, often is in the mill, and interferes se- 
riously with the cohesion of the particles ; so that the improved 
machine not only saves the labor of handling and transportation 
from the mortar-mill to the moulding-press, but secures by its 
heating devices the expulsion of all moisture, and economizes tar 
through the incipient softening of the bituminous portions of 
the coal. After the mixture of coal and tar is ready, it passes 
immediately into another part of the machine, where it is 
subjected to a double compression, which forms it into hard, 
brick-shaped lumps, weighing three pounds each, but moulded 
with grooves on each face, to facilitate the breaking of the 
lumps if that should be necessary. The operation of a single 
machine, set up in a factory by itself, requires the attention of 
a foreman, two firemen, two laborers, who supply coal-dust and 
tar, and four boys to load the bricks on cars, or pile them in 
storage sheds ; and the cost, for labor alone, is, in France, ten 
cents per ton of completed bricks. The coal required for heat- 
ing the dust and tar costs at most, even where the dust is very 
damp, eight cents a ton ; so that, even with an allowance of 
twenty per cent additional for contingencies, the cost of the 
product, exclusive of that of the coal-dust and tar, is twenty- 
two cents a ton. In most mining districts, coal-dust is a waste 
product, which can be had for nothing by any one who will 
carry it away, and tar, in soft coal districts, is not of much 
greater value; so that there would seem to be a prospect of 
considerable profit in the establishment of a similar manufac- 
ture in many parts of our own country. 

TITHE story of the fraud said to be practised by certain Shef- 
J. field manufacturers, in selling Bessemer or Siemens- Martin 
r steel under the name of cast steel, which has hitherto been 
appropriated to blistered steel, cast in crucibles, and worth five 
times as much as the Bessemer steel, is partly explained by one 
of the Sheffield journals, which says that tool steel is made by 
the Sheffield manufacturers of blistered steel and Bessemer or 
Siemens-Martin steel melted together in different proportions, 
according to the use which is to be made of the metal. Spring 
steel, for instance, is made of nearly equal parts of Bessemer 
and crucible steel, while razors and files contain from two to 
three parts of crucible steel to one of the inferior metal ; and 
shears and agricultural implements are nearly all Bessemer 
steel. There is no objection, certainly, to mixing the two qual- 
ities of steel in such proportions as may be found to give the 
qualities desired for making tools at a lessened expense, but 
even if the mixture were better than the best blistered steel, 
there would be fraud in calling it by a name intended to deceive 
the purchaser into supposing that he was buying a more costly, 
even if inferior product. Unfortunately, however, it rarely 
happens that business competition leads to improvement in the 
quality of goods at the same time that it reduces their cost ; and 
consumers of cutlery who have found the mark "Warranted 
Cast Steel," to mean one thing on Sheffield goods, and some- 
thing else on those from other places, will be likely to confine 
their dealings to those manufacturers whose expressions they 
can understand. 

JANUARY 31, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



ONDON, the metropolis of wealth and 
^ fashion, has also from the earliest 

times been the centre 
to which the ablest men of 
the country have come. It 
has offered an irresistible 
attraction to them. Here 
alone could those conscious 
of possessing exceptional 
gifts and capacities be cer- 
tain of finding their equals, 
and of securing the recogni- 
tion due to them. Omitting 
those whose pursuits neces- 
sarily brought them to the 
centre of affairs and of busi- 
ness, such as statesmen, 
lawyers, merchants, artists 
and actors, we find that 
literary men, poets, histo- 
rians and humorists, men of 
such varied intellects as 
Chaucer and Milton, Dr. 
Johnson and Goldsmith, 
. n . Dickens and Thackeray, 

Lord Derby, Parliament Square, r* ] I im I 

1 864. Noble, Sculptor. Carlyle a "^ M . aCa , ulll ' V ' Inade 

London their home, and 
identified their names with it. 

It may be worth while to consider in what manner 
London has done honor to its greatest citizens. To 
some, statues have been erected in its public places; 
to others, burial in Westminster Abbey or in St. Paul's, 
with or without a monument has been accorded ; and 
to some, again, who have been buried elsewhere, ceno- 
taphs or busts have been erected in one or other of 
these great fanes. . 

Of statues, in proportion to the vast extent of 
London, we have, perhaps fortunately, but few. It is 
only within the present century that they have been 
erected in the open air to others than our sovereigns. 
The earliest statue was that of Charles the First. 
From his time to the present each successive occupant 
of the throne has been honored in the same manner. 
Few of these statues, however, have come up to the 
level of the first. As is well known, the statue of 
Charles the First was the work, in 1633, of Hubert le 
Sueur, a pupil of John of Bologna, executed at the 
cost of Lord Arundel, the collector of antique mar- 
bles. It was probably one of the first which cast 
aside armor or classical costume, and represented its 
subject in the dress he ordinarily wore, and the horse 
with its usual caparison, minus only its saddle-girths. 
During the Commonwealth this statue was sold, with 

Harrison and four other regicides were hanged. The statue has great 
merit; it is worthy of its position and subject, reminding one not a 
little, from some points of view, of Vandyke's portraits of the King. 
We are indebted for statues of Charles 
the Second and James the Second to 
Tobias Rustat, a page of the back stairs 
of the royal palace, whom Evelyn men- 
tions as "a very simple, ignorant, but 
honest and loyal creature." He accumu- 
lated wealth through various patent offices, 
and showed his gratitude to his royal 
masters by lending money for the erection 
of their statues (without expectation of 
repayment). Of two statues of Charles 
the Second, one, said to be by Grinling 
Gibbons, is in front of Chelsea Hospital, 
the other at Windsor ; that of James the 
Second [see Illustrations], certainly exe- 
cuted by Gibbons, one of the best statues 
in London, stands in the quiet place at 
the back of Whitehall Chapel, near to the 
spot where his father was executed. 
1 he figure is in classical armor, with 
flowing robes. Gibbons received 500 
for it, a large sum in those days. 
William the Third remained without 
monument of any kind, even in the Abbey, 
where he was buried, till more than a 
century after his death, when an eques- 
trian statue of him was erected in St. 
James's Square by J. Bacon (1808). Of 
Queen Anne there are three existing 
statues, viz., in front of St. Paul's [see Il- 
lustrations], and in the centre of the two 
squares called after her. The best is ia 
Queen's Square West. George the First 
stands on the campanile of Bloomsbury 
Church. Of George the Second we had 

till lately a statue in Leicester Square: it 
was sunk into a pit, while the square was 
occupied by Mr. Wyld's Globe," and reap- 
peared so mutilated that it was removed 
and made away with. Few people would 
suppose that George the Third would be a 
good subject for a statue ; but when a young 
man his figure was slight and graceful. 
There are two statues of him, the one in 
the courtyard of Somerset House by J. 
Bacon, representing him in his early 
years, in a classical style with bare arms 
and legs, one of the most effective works 
in London. In front of it there is a 
semi-recumbent figure representing the 
Thames, of great power. He was still 
more happy in his second statue, an 

the express condition that it should be 
broken up. Its purchaser, a brazier, hid 
the statue against better times, and mean- 

while made a profit by selling supposed relics of it ; on the Restora- 
tion the statue again appeared, and was mounted on a pedestal, de- 
signed by the celebrated Grinling Gibbons, on the site where General 

^When we encountered some months ago in the Nineteenth Century this 
paper by Mr. G. Shaw Lefevre, First Commissioner of Public Works, Lon- 
don, it seemed to us that it missed much of its possible value, even to 
English readers familiar with the metropolis, because of its lack of illustra- 
tion. In the interest of American readers we have done what we could to 
supply the deficiency, and trust we have succeeded passably well, though 
as we have often had to work from small photographs and wood-cuts the 
results may in some cases be but caricatures of the originals. The reason 
that all statues here mentioned are not illustrated is simply that our agent 
after loug search was unable to procure the necessary views. EDS. AMKEI- 

Albert Memorial, Kensington. G. G. Scott, Architect. 

equestrian figure by Matthew Wyatt, in Pall Mall East ; one of very 
great merit, full of spirit, and with a certain charm of simplicity 
combined with action [see Illustrations]. 

The statue of George the Fourth by Chantrey, an equestrian figure 
of much nobility, was intended to surmount the Marble Arch, when 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 475. 

in front of Buckingham Palace, but has found a place on one ol 
the pedestals in front of the National Gallery [see Illustrations], 
and so far no fitting companion has been found for the correspond- 

Charlos I, Charing Cross, 1633. Hubert le Sueur, Sculptor. Pedestal by Grinlmg 


ing pedestal. The statues of William the Fourth in Cannon Street 
and of Queen Victoria in the Royal Exchange require no comments. 
Of other royal personages we have the Duke of York by West- 
macott, in 1836, on the top of the hideous column in Pall Mall 
[see Illustrations], far removed from his creditors, as the wits 

The Prince Consort, Holborn Viaduct. Bacon, Sculptor, 1873. 

of the day said ; the Duke of Cumberland, an equestrian statue 
of the worst style in Cavendish Square by Cheere; the Duke of 
Kent by Gagahan, in Portland Place ; an equestrian statue of the 

late Prince Consort by Bacon in 1873, on the Holborn Viaduct, and 
the gilded statue of the same Prince under the gorgeous canopy op- 
posite to the Albert Hall. It is the fashion in some quarters to de- 
preciate this memorial, but there is unquestionably much work of the 

greatest merit about 
base with figures in 
of statuary represent- 
and especially that of 
good. The Prince's 
one of that sculptor's 
unfortunately an 

it. The frieze round the 
high relief, and the groups 
ing the four continents, 
Asia by Foley, are very 
figure, also by Foley, is not 
most successful works, and 
avenue has been laid out 

"America." Albert Memorial, Kensington. 

leading to the back of the statue, which is its least favorable aspect. 
There is certainly no monument of modern times which excites more 
interest, or which gives so much pleasure to the public. 

Of statesmen, the first to receive the honor of a statue in the open 
air in London was ><^ William Pitt. His 

likeness by Chan- /t\^L ' re X * 3 a striking 

one and not want- /Srtr*S la ' n S * n dignity, but 

too ponderous. Sjllm^v^m ' Since his time four 

other Prime Minis- It&s^ssSyi' ters have been 

honored in the same ^^ IK-ii$&-Z.**j H!\ manner > an( ^ P ar " 
liament Square has | flR^JBiS-' ^ KA been devoted 

specially to t h i s MflMK^w,^ lM P" r P se - Statues 

"Asia." Foley, Sculptor. Albert Memorial, Kensington. 

of Canning by Westmacott, of Peel by Behnes [see Illustrations], of 
Palmerston and Lord Derby, and lastly and very lately, of Lord 
Beaconsfield by Raggi [see Illustrations], have been erected there. 
There remain places for two more on this sacred spot; one of 
these must necessarily be reserved for the only living man who was 

" Musical Composers." Armstead, Sculptor. From the Podium of the Albert 
Memorial, Kensington. 

the contemporary and equal of those already there. It is to be 
egretted that a statue of Lord Russell has not been also erected 
lere in place of the marble statue in the Central Hall of Westmin- 
ster. It would complete the group of statesmen of the era. Of the 

JANUARY 31, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


statues, those of Derby and Palmerston are inferior and vulgar; 
by far the best is the most recent, that of Lord Beaconsfielcf; it 
is a statue of the greatest merit, a striking likeness, and with that 
expression, inscrutable and slightly cynical, so well known to those 
who sat opposite to him in the House of Commons. It is with satis- 
faction that I look back to having selected this site for it, after con- 
sultation with Sir Stafford Northcote, and that it fell to my duty to 

, William Pitt, Hanover Square. 
Chantrey, Sculptor. 

Robert Peel, Cheapside. Behnes, 

take over the statue on the part of the Commissioners of Works at 
the ceremony of its unveiling. Looking down on the vast assembly 
on that occasion, with its expression of lofty unconcern, the statue 
seemed to invite as an inscription the well-known lines : 

Virtus, repulsre nescia sordidae; 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus, 
Nee sumit aut ponit secures 
Arbitiio popularis aurse. 

Hor. Od. iii. 2. 17. 

There is also another statue of Peel by Behnes in Cheapside, and 
within the last month a statue has been erected to Mr. Gladstone by 
Joy, in Walbrook [see Illustrations]. It should also be mentioned 
that there are statues by Westmacott of Charles Fox (1814) in 
Bloomsbury Square a figure most inappropriately represented in 
Roman costume, with bare arms and seated, and in other respects 
without a redeeming quality of a Duke of Bedford in Russell 
Square, and of Lord William Bentinck, by Campbell, in Cavendish 



TITHE claims of the chemical 
I processes of purification 
have been restated, and 
fairly set forth in the report. 
The same can hardly be said 
of its treatment of the irriga- 
tion alternative, where it 
would have been prudent to 
go a little deeper than to the 
mere reports of local engi- 
neers and sewage farmers. 
The general result of the for- 
eign works reported on being 
taken as a basis, it is assumed, 
without question, that one 
acre of irrigation area is re- 
quired for each 100 of the 
population, or, for a popula- 
tion of 300,000, 3,000 acres 
of irrigation area. 
There are several things to be considered in this connection : In 
the first place, a very large proportion of the storm-water falling on 
the surface of the town, frequently reported as " all," (lows to the ir- 
rigation-field, and provision must be made for taking care of it, in 
spite of the fact that during heavy rains the irrigation-area is already 
saturated by the same storm that increases the How of the sewage. 
Another is, that in many cases the amount of land used is greater 
than is now needed, provision having been made for the future growth 

1 Proposed plan of a Sewerage System anil for the Disposal of the Sewage of 
the City of Providence, K. I., by Samuel M.Gray, City Engineer. City Document, 
No. 25, 1884. Continued from page 45, No. 474. 

of tributary population, often because the effort is made to derive a 
profit from the irrigation, for which end the oversaturation of the land 
even during storms must so far as possible be avoided. 

An analysis of the facts and figures of irrigation-farms at once 
demonstrates the possibility of increasing, to a very considerable ex- 
tent, the number of persons whose wastes can be taken care of by an 
acre of land. These facts and figures are a part of the literature of 
the profession, and one does not need to go personally to Europe to 
get them. 

For example, at Gennevilliers 600 hectares of land (1.482 acres) 
dispose of 18,000,000 cubic metres (4,950,000,000 gallons) per annum. 
This is 30,000 cubic metres per hectare or 8,340,081 gallons per acre 
per annum, that is 9,151 gallons per acre per day. At 60 gallons per 
person, being Mr. Gray's estimate of sewage and subsoil water, this is 
equal to over 150 persons per acre. We happen to have an inci- 
dental reference indicating that the soil at Gennevilliers is capable of 
receiving a much larger amount of sewage, in the report of Marie- 
Davy's experiment with a large artificial area drained at a depth of 
six feet. This was covered with growing crops, and it received sew- 
age at the rate of 48,000 cubic metres per hectare per annum. Dur- 
ing the six months of the experiment, 24,000 cubic metres of sewage 
per hectare being applied, only 1,600 cubic metres per hectare reached 
the drains six feet below the surface. The rest was evaporated by 
the land and by the crops. This shows that a much larger dose might 
have been applied. What was applied was equal to 12,576,000 gal- 
lons per hectare, or 5,093,117 gallons per acre per annum, being 13,- 
953 gallons per day, giving at 60 gallons per person 232 persons per 
acre. This can be exceeded. 

Mr. Pontzen says, in his report on the sewerage of Havre, " Ex- 
perience at Gennevilliers has demonstrated that on permeable lands, 
the yearly irrigation may reach even to 100,000 cubic metres per 

By the calculation above made, this would give 487 persons per 

It is to be borne in mind, however, that the use of sewage at Gen- 
nevilliers is entirely at the discretion of the landholders" they use 
what they want and as they want it. The work is therefore con- 
trolled from the agricultural, and not at all from the purification 

Dr. Frankland, in his experiments on the filtering power of soils 
with reference to sewage, found that one acre of suitable land devoted 
to purification without reference to the agricultural result, would dis- 
pose of the sewage of 3,300 persons, and Bailey Denton considers it 
entirely safe to depend upon one-third of this capacity, apportioning 
the land where purification is the chief object at the rate of 1,100 pe 
sons per acre. 

All of this shows that it would not be imprudent with a porous sub- 
soil suitably drained to depend on an acre of land to dispose of the 
sewage of at least 800 persons, being less than one-fourth of Dr. 
Frankland's limit. This would reduce the area required by Provi- 
dence after its population shall have reached 300,000 to 375 acres. 
Therefore it would seem that Mr. Gray had discarded the compara- 
tively inexpensive and perfectly elHcient method of irrigation and 
adopted the very costly and less efficient one of chemical treatment 
without a full apprehension of present knowledge on the subject. 
With irrigation, the effluent would reach a high degree of purity ; with 
chemical treatment the purification would probably be sufficient to 
allow the sewage to be delivered into the river without causino- an- 
noyance to the people. Whether or not the delivery of the Targe 
amount of chemicals necessarily carried in solution in the effluent, 
and subjected to the action of the salt sea-water would have an un- 
favorable effect on the fish and shell-fish of the waters can only be 
conjectured. Mr. Gray gives us no light on this subject, for he does 
not tell us which of the many chemical systems he proposes to use. 

Were irrigation adopted, the area of land available on the Seekonk 
Plains (about 1,000 acres) would for many years to come, and doubt- 
less for all time to come, allow nearly the whole area to be devoted 
to remunerative agriculture. 

The foregoing calculations are based on the assumption that arti- 
ficial pumping and purification are to be applied to all of the sewage 
as Mr. Gray advises. All of the manufacturing waste, all of the 
subsoil-water, all of the rain-water falling on one very large area of 
the city, and a notable proportion of the rain-water falling on the 
whole city, without reference to its original condition, is first of all 
to be made equally foul, then all is to be pumped and all is to be 

Is this necessary ? If not necessary, is it good engineering or good 
economy to provide for it ? It looks like a sacrifice of public money 
in the interest of the professional reputation of one who either has 
failed to acquire the convictions which full knowledge of the subject 
must create, or has not the courage that such convictions should give. 

Mr. Gray has spoken favorably of the separate system of sewerage, 
as most engineers speak favorably of it in the abstract. That part 
of his report which I have italicized would seem conclusive. It is not 
worth while here to enter into a discussion of the merits or demerits 
of this system. The report itself accepts it for portions of Provi- 
dence. Let us see what, if it were applied to the whole city, would 
be its effect on the serious problem now in hand. Much of the exist- 
ing system of sewers could be converted into separate sewers without 
difficulty, and in the construction of the sewerage for the rest of the 
city the cost would average surely less than half of the cost of com- 
bined sewers for the same district. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 475. 

While many difficult questions would arise as to the disposal o: 
factory waste, street dirt, etc., which are too long to consider here 
no one familiar with the business of town sewerage will dispute the 
proposition that it is practicable to collect all of the filth of the city 
which cannot be conveniently removed otherwise, into a system ol 
separate sewers. This being done, the chief factor of the problem is 
changed from 58,000,000 to 18,000,000, the capacity of the intercept- 
ing sewers and of the pumps being reduced by 70 per cent. By leav- 
ing the subsoil-water outjof the account we should probably lower the 
chief factor to 12,000,000, and reduce the intercepting and pumping 
works by nearly 80 per cent. After such reduction let us again con- 
sider the alternative methods of disposal, whether by irrigation or by 
chemical treatment. Naturally, the cost of chemical treatment would 
be reduced measurably in proportion to the amount of sewage to be 
treated. On the other hand, the tax to be imposed on the purifying 
power of the soil would be very much lessened. 

Assuming that there is on the Seekonk Plains 1 ,000 acres of land 
available, the entire flow of 18,000,000 gallons per day, could it be 
evenly distributed over this 1,000 acres, would amount to less than 
two quarts per square feet of the whole area. The voids of a cubic 
foot of sand amount to more than two gallons, so that 18,000,000 gal- 
lons of sewage evenly distributed over 1,000 acres of sandy land would 
not saturate it three inches deep. It may be saturated three feet 
deep intermittently without disadvantage. 

There exists no precedent, and there is no rule for determining ex- 
actly how large a population can be provided for on an acre of land, 
if the waters are collected by a strictly separate system, no storm- 
water and no subsoil-water being admitted. The real tax on the soil 
is not in disposing of the organic constituents of the sewage, that 
which the population has added to it, but in getting rid of the water 
so as to leave its purifying agencies room to act on the filth, it would 
surely be perfectly safe to say that with 1,000 acres of land available, 
as on Seekonk Plain, arranged for intermittent delivery onto differ- 
ent areas, only one-third of the whole being in use in any given week 
or month, 18,000,000 gallons of sewage, containing the wastes pro- 
duced by a population of 300,000 would be perfectly disposed of with 
very little interference with profitable agriculture, leaving a fair 
chance that the irrigation-farm would be able to pay a good part if 
not the whole of the cost of pumping. The case would be still better 
with the subsoil-water excluded. 

The question whether or not it is premature to provide permanent 
works for a population so large as 300,000 can be answered better in 
the community to which it relates than elsewhere. All that it is worth 
while to say here is that so far as the limit of population can be re- 
duced, in just so far may the cost of disposal by either system and 
the cost of the construction of permanent works be reduced also. 

The data are not at hand on which to base an estimate of the cost 
of separate sewerage works and irrigation-disposal works to be con- 
trasted with the estimate given by Mr. Gray. This, however, may 
be stated definitely : The separate system is especially applicable to 
Providence, where there is generally a short and easy means for get- 
ting rid of storm-water. If properly applied there to the sewerage 
of a community of 300,000, with sufficient storm-water sewers, it would 
not cost in original construction so much as one-half the cost of the 
combined system. Its total outflow instead of being 58,000,000 gal- 
lons per day, would surely not exceed 18,000,000 gallons per day, all 
surface-water and subsoil-water being excluded. It would probably 
be more nearly 12.000,000. This volume of sewage, bearing the 
filth that it would, could be satisfactorily and economically purified 
by irrigation. 

If the people of Providence are prudent they will investigate this 
matter very thoroughly before committing themselves to the enor- 
mous expenditure contemplated in the report under consideration. 

As a rough estimate, hardly even that, but only a shrewd guess, 
these figures will probably be safe to put in contrast with the $6,891,- 
772 required to construct and maintain the works that Mr. Gray 
proposes : 

Probably when their adjacent property is fully occupied, along the 
50 miles of sewers now built, the population will be 100,000; for the 
remaining 200,000, by the same token, 100 miles of sewers would be 
needed. Combined sewers would cost probably over $20,000 per 
mile. This would add over $2,000,000 to the grand total, and make 
it in round numbers say $9,000,000. 

The figures for a separate system with irrigation works would not 
exceed the following : 

Arranging to exclude storm-water from the present lateral 

sewers, say 40 miles at 82,500 $100,000 

Mains to connect these, say 10 miles at $10,000 100,000 
100 miles sep-irate sewers with flush-tanks and subsoil 

drains at 87.500 750,000 
20 miles storm-water sewers (following the straightest 

course to the rivers), at $10,000 200,000 

Pumps and buildings 100.000 

5 miles force-main and sewer to irri<ration-area at $50,000 250,000 

1,000 acres, prepared for use, at $1,000 1,000,000 
Capitalization of pumping, 12,000,000 gallons, say $8,000 

per year (at 4 per cent) 200,000 


These are very liberal figures, ample to cover all contingent ex- 
penses, and leave the completely equipped sewage-farm* free of all 
charge, though it could probably be made to earn one-half if not all 
of the pumping outlay. 

This comparative estimate is of course only offered by way of il- 

lustration. Mr. Gray might show that the extension of the combined 
system would cost less than $20,000 per mile ; but on the other hand 
it is altogether probable that an exact, careful estimate of the whole 
cost of the alternative work proposed would be less than $2,700,000. 

It is quite possible that a careful study of the whole subject might 
show controlling advantages in the use of the combined system in 
certain parts of the city, if not in all of it ; it is possible that difficul- 
ties not here considered might prevent the considerable use of the 
separate system ; it is possible too, that there would be difficulties not 
apparent without a study on the ground why irrigation would not 
answer the purpose and why chemical treatment must be resorted to. 

These points are not intended to -be covered in this review. What 
is intended is to emphasize the principle that engineers in their pub- 
lie utterances on questions of the importance and magnitude of the 
one under consideration, where enormous outlay is at stake, and where 
the permanent interests of a great community are involved, should 
pay sufficient respect to the intelligence and discretion of fheir read- 
ers to set forth all of the controlling facts in the clearest way, and 
that they should in making their recommendations follow the deduc- 
tions which How naturally from their premises as stated. 



HE building is built of marble and is made fire-proof: except 
where groined arches are used ; it has iron and brick for floors 
and ceilings. The building fronts north and south for main 
fronts ; is 296 feet long, and 199 feet deep. Height to top of roof 99 
feet ; to top of figure on dome 256 feet. 

Over the entrances on the main fronts of the major parts of build- 
ing, the walls are supported by richly moulded and crocketted arches 
resting on carved capitals of marble, which are 25 feet around abacus, 
and these are supported on monolithic polished granite shafts, 3 feet 
4 inches in diameter. The tympana of these arches are filled with 
marble fields for sculpture illustrative of the history of the Stale ; 
on one is cut the Charter Oak. Above the arches to the sills of the 
second-story windows, the wall is richly diapered, beneath them and 
running entirely around the building is a belt-course, also diapered. 

It is intended that sculpture should form an important feature in 
the architecture of this building. There is a provision for twenty- 
eight statues, the canopies and pedestals, supported by richly-carved 
capitals, and the polished granite shafts and carved corbels are al- 
ready in place. Two of these have statues upon them, one of Jonathan 
Trumbull, and the other Roger Sherman. Besides these there are 
fifty-six bust panels, but only two have been occupied, one by Horace 
Buslmell the other by Noah Webster. The piers supporting the dome 
are of granite and brick : they are grouped together and for capitals 
have a continuous abacus which measures for each 288 feet. On this 
construction rests the dome, which is a dodecagon. The cupola which 
is entirely of marble is supported on a brick cone. The platform is 
18 feet in diameter; around the drum of the dome are galleries for 
ascent, which are built in the thickness of the wall, parts of the walls 
are 12 feet thick ; in the interior there is a whispering gallery. The 
pinnacles at the angles of the dome have for terminals marble statues 
by Ward ; they represent Science, Agriculture, Art, etc. The stair- 
cases are a remarkable feature in this building. The platforms and 
landings are of granite ; the balustrades with granite shafts and carved- 
marble caps and bases. There are forty-six polished granite shafts 
on the staircases. The entrances on the north and east fronts are 
through open vestibules, at the second arcades are the doors. The 
northern entrance is into a hall 28 feet high, and 42 feet x 55 feet, 
with a groined ceiling in brick, rising from piers and polished granite 
columns and centrally from coupled shafts with foliated capitals of mar- 
ble and carved bases. The southern entrance is intended for a car- 
riage entrance, and they pass through a colonnade about 90 feet long. 
The Senate Chamber is 50 feet x 40 feet, with a coffered ceiling 35 
feet high. The galleries are on each end of the room ; the wainscot- 
ing and finish are of oak ; on either side of this chamber are rooms for 
the different State officers, those nearest are 26 feet x 26 feet, all well 
lighted. The Representative Hall is 84 feet x 56 feet x 48 feet high 
with coffered ceiling. The gallery is behind the speaker and is sep- 
arated from the main room by coupled shafts with caps and bases of 
marble, and will seat 250 persons. The seats are arranged amphi- 
theatrically ; this room is finished in black walnut. 

The Supreme Court is on the second floor, 50 feet x 31 feet, and 
35 feet high ; it is finished in oak. 

The library is over the centre of the main front ; it is 55 feet x 85 
feet and 35 feet high, paved with encaustic tile ; it is finished in oak 
for bookcases, of very much plainer design than furnished by the arch- 
itect. The light shafts at the centre of the intermediate parts of the 
auilding support colonnades which extend from the ground floor to 
the roof, and give ample light and ventilation to the halls and other 
parts of the building. The building is abundantly light in every part, 
and from its open character forms many unexpected vistas. Some day 
perhaps the State will have the money to expend on stronger colors 
r or the interior. The building cost $2,500,000. 


THE Cathedral of Notre Dame at Rouen, of which only the west- 
ern facade is shown in M. Lheruiitte's etching, is one of the grandest 





ID. 475 





S g 

N iRGHITEGT HND llJILDING ItWS, JflN. 31 1B55 0. 475 






flND luiLDING fEVVS, JflN. 31 Ioo5 



JANUARY 31, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


Gothic edifices in Normandy, although remarkably unsymmetrical in 
plan. The principal parts of it date from 1207-80, but the central 
portion of the western fa9ade was erected by Cardinal d'Amboise, 
the favorite minister of Louis XII, in the sixteenth century. This 
front is about 180 feet wide, and is celebrated for the variety 
and richness of its carving. The two unfinished towers are o"f 
unequal height. The " Butter Tower," the loftier and more beau- 
tiful, 230 feet in height, takes its name from having been built 
with money paid for indulgences to eat butter during Lent. The 
central spire over the transept was destroyed by lightning in 1822, 
and replaced by an ugly spire of cast-iron, 492 feet high, in which a 
spiral staircase leads to the top. The interior of the Cathedral 
contains several stately monuments, notably those to the Cardinal 
d'Amboise and the Due de Brdze, husband of Diana of Poitiers. 
Henry II of England is buried here, and the heart of Richard Coeur 
de Lion here found rest. The Cathedral also holds the tombs of 
Hollo, first Duke of Normandy and his son, William of the Long 
Sword. Its interior dimensions are about 435 feet in length, nave 
and aisles 105 feet in width, length of transept, 175 feet, and height, 
90 feet. . It possesses three fine rose-windows. 

Le'on Augustin Lhermitte, who etched the original of this plate, 
was born in Mont-Saint-Pere (Aisne), and studied under Lecoq de 
Boisbaudran. He won a medal for painting at the Salon of 1874 
and another in 1880. As a painter he is one of the most worthy 
followers in the school of Millet and Bastien-Lepage, and ranks ex- 
ceedingly high as a draughtsman of the figure in charcoal. Hamer- 
ton, in his " Graphic Arts," praises him without stint, and a drawing 
of his, with one by Allonge, illustrates the chapter on charcoal 
drawing in that work. M. Lhermitte, we believe, has not before 
this etched many large plates. Several of his etchings of architect- 
ural subjects have appeared in the Portfolio. 


THIS fireplace, which is 16 feet wide, 12 feet high, and 8 feet 
deep, was executed in terra-cotta by the Boston Terra-Cotta Com- 


FOR descriptions see article elsewhere in this issue. 


[Gelatine Print, issued only with the Gelatine Edition.] 


COMING to our 
second point, 
we have to 
inquire when and 
from what cause 
the change from 
the old to the new 
system of archi- 
tectural practice 
took place. And 
here we must 
come back to our 
own country again, 
first, because we 
are speaking of 
English art, and 

secondly, because a similar change has not come over the architectu- 
ral practice of other countries. I will begin by saying that the old 
system had lasted in the world generally from the building of the 
Tower of Babel to the time of the Gothic revival. Ever since Eng- 
lish architecture was English architecture, it had been born and 
bred and fostered and propagated in English workshops. The 
Gothic revival meant not only confusion to architecture, but death to 
the art of the workshop. I do not mean for a moment that the art 
of the workshop, or the craft carried on there, was of a high order 
before the inauguration of the new condition of things, but I speak 
of one system of design as opposed to the other system of design. 
How could the arts of design flourish then, when, from the kin<* on 
his throne to the merchant on his stool, no one cared one dump" for 
art? Why, the very life of art, its sinews, its llesh and its bones is 
the living thought it contains and the living interest it creates. If 
there were no demand for literature, language would not be culti- 
vated; if there were no dancers, the piper would cease to play. 
Will the crafts develop their cunning if there is none to order and 
none to heed ? It was not patronage only that was wanted, but 
employment. People, when they are uncomfortable about the results 
of the Gothic revival, are fond of pointing to Gower Street as a jus- 
tification for the annihilation of traditional art. But you may 
depend upon it, had there been the demand for higher things there 
would have been the supply. However homely, or, if you like, how- 

1 A paper read by Mr. John D. Sodding, at the second ordinary meeting of the 
Architectural Association, on "The Modern Architect." Continued from No. 
474, p. 43. 

ever ignoble the art done just before the new stimulus came, the 
traditions of the better times still lingered on in the workshops, and 
the bricklayer, the carpenter and the plasterer who hung on were 
men with some notion of style and some love of detail. The early 
Queen Anne had its leanings towards the picturesque Elizabethan, 
and the houses of the period are singularly well adapted to English 
minds and English scenery, and their fittings are in nowise unworthy 
of the best traditions of the English workshop. I have purposely 
made this digression in order that I might insist upon the fact that 
so long as the traditional art remained in force, and the workshops 
were the nurseries of design, so long the old scope of architecture, 
and the connection of the architects with the crafts were maintained. 
And, while on this point, let me remark upon the significant fact that 
while certain architects still adhere to traditional art, English archi- 
tecture gained no advantage by their adhesion ; nor did they them- 
selves strike oil, and for the simple reason that, like the Goths, they 
swamped the traditional art of the workshop with their new-fangled 
types and rolls of details prepared by the soft-handed clerks in their 
offices, and accomplished the complete strangulation of traditional 
art. So it comes to pass that the tale of honored names of English 
architects passes on from Pugin to Barry, Scott, Street, Butterfield, 
Shaw, Pearson, Bodley, and Philip Webb, and leaves them shall 
I say V inconspicuous in the crowd. 

But I have yet to account for the decay of architecture before the 
Gothic revival, and also for the change from the old to the new sys- 
tem of architecturarpractice, and the explanation I offer for the one 
applies to the other. I have shown how low the arts had fallen at 
the beginning of this century through neglect, and I cannot see that 
you could expect that art should engage men's attention when you 
remember the vast number of social, political and religious problems 
that were then agitating England. Professor Seeley's valuable book 
on the " Expansion of England " has helped me to see why the fac- 
ulty for design died out with us in the eighteenth century, for he 
shows how entirely English interests were then centred in America 
and her other colonies. Think of the war-ships that had to be 
built, the armies to be equipped, the colonies to be fought for and 
occupied, and, later on, think of the machine-looms and steam-engines 
to be invented and perfected, and the railways to be made I How 
naturally does the engineer spring into existence amid the demand 
for the useful arts ! How naturally does the eye of the historian 
pass on to the record of that noble set of engineers and mechanists 
and mathematicians: Davy, Watt, Cavendish, Arkwright, Herschell, 
Stephenson, and Brunei! I And how natural that the men of genius 
should gravitate, not to the ornamental arts, as in earlier days, but to 
the useful arts ! Yes, one may well say that English science had 
produced a perfect vacuum long before the scientific investigator had 
discovered the way for himself, and that in an unsuspected direction. 

And now, having considered the origin of the engineer, who is one 
of the cuckoo intruders in the architect's nest, let us turn to the ori- 
gin of that still bigger bird, the ornamentalist or expert in the deco- 
rative arts. I said just now that the Gothic revival had inaugurated 
the change from the old system of architectural practice to the new. 
Before this revolution of taste took place, the architect was the lead- 
ing spirit of the building he designed, but he did not stand alone. 
His designs or models for stone, brick, iron, wood, and plaster work 
were backed by the traditional skill, and types and methods of crafts- 
men each of whom was more or less of an artist. The architect was 
only the prime minister ; the workmen represented the departments. 
He was only the president for the time being of a little republic of 
art. From what we know of Wren, Inigo Jones, and the Chambers 
and Adams, the architect was conversant with every branch of the 
work included in the structure. He supplied the plans and sketch 
elevations and the leading details (as in John Thorpe's case), but the 
hundred and one odd details required for afterthoughts and emergen- 
cies might fall to the conduct of the workman, who, at all events, 
would be quite competent to deal with them, if so required. Here, 
then, we have architecture carried out under the best auspices, 
where architect and workmen are in perfect sympathy in matters of 
taste, the designer has a fellow-worker in the handicraftsman, one 
craft helps and overlaps the other, the executive and the theoretical 
go hand in hand, like twin sisters, the structural and the ornamental 
proceed along the same lines, and we have building which deserves 
the name of architecture. The Gothic revival upsets all this har- 
mony of procedure, for the whole of the traditions of the past must 
be sacrificed, and new types, mouldings, traceries, carvings, groin- 
ings, decorations and the rest of it are introduced, about which the 
workman knows nothing and cares less. From henceforth you must 
look no more to the English workshops for the inception of types and 
evolution of ideas. The old "Temeraire" of English art having been 
sent to her last home, a bright new Venetian gondola takes her place 
and rides proudly out to sea, with seven Gothic lamps at her prow, 
an Oxford graduate and a few able enthusiasts to work the oars, fire 
off the guns, and take care of the cargo of sketch-books and roman- 
tic literature on board. Naturally the gondola is first attracted to 
Venice, but as time goes on the taste of the crew changes, and you 
find them flying about in all directions, and bringing home valuable 
spoils in the shape of numberless new sets of doors and windows to 
offer at the feet of a grateful people. And the merit of the new 
types consists in this, that they are quite unique in England, and 
that the British workman cannot move a step, as he copies them, 
without full-sized details of every part. Now, my explanation of the 
origin of the specialist decorative artist is this : having destroyed 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 475. 

the old system of art, the Gothic revivalist found himself unable to 
construct a new system that would work ; he had accepted a task 
which he was unable to cope with. He had a strong love of art, a 
true sense of the intimate relations of the lesser arts with architect- 
ure; but he found things too much for him, and, instead of raising 
an army of fellow-laborers in the workshops, he called into existence 
certain specialist assistants to aid him in the conduct of his practice, 
where he lacked time or ability to carry out the work himself. The 
mischief of the whole business has been that he was only a learner 
himself all the time he was carrying out works in various styles ; he 
has been only a blind man leading the blind. He was up a tree all 
the time himself, and the specialist has been found an indispensable 
help in supplying his necessities. 

I come now to my third point. Is it possible for architecture 
under its present conditions to be carried out upon the old lines, and 
if so, by what means ? To the first division of this point my short 
answer is, No and Yes. No, if the present conditions are to remain 
unchansed ; yes, if things change for the better. In dealing with 
the whole matter before us I do not want to arraign modern art for 
difficulties inherent to it, nor do I want to multiply the responsibili- 
ties of the architect. That some of the higher branches of an archi- 
tect's work have been abandoned is undeniable ; and I plead for the 
recovery of these at any cost. In claiming this I do not desire to 
extend the radius of the architect's proper work. I am even arguing 
for the lessening of his labors by bringing the handicraftsman into a 
more active participation in the work he has to do. This was the 
old system, and it is the only practical solution of the case. The 
question is, to what extent our present difficulties are inevitable or 
irremediable. I have no hesitation in putting at the head and front 
of our difficulties this of having to employ revived styles. Any sug- 
gestion that you or I can make which will indicate some way of miti- 
gating our sufferings in this matter will therefore be a boon. We 
are in for the use of all the various phases of the various periods of 
architecture, extending from the thirteenth to the eighteenth centu- 
ries, in England and abroad, and when it is remembered that the 
giants of the past had all their work cut out to master the capabili- 
ties of one style only, the vastness of our task is appalling. Every 
post brings us in a request, from this quarter or from that, for details 
of buildings which may each be of a different style. Add to this 
that one must keep touch with the progressive science of the day, 
and must be able to speak authoritatively of all the rival "sanitary 
specialties " and rival ventilating and warming schemes and electric- 
lio-litc, and hygeian rock and asbestos, and American joinery, and 
the scores of dodges for minimizing art in the workshop, and girders 
and lifts, and " Acme " this, or " Imperial " that, and " Eclipse " or 
" Last forever " the other ; to say nothing of having to pronounce off- 
hand upon Metropolitan Building Acts, and having to wade through 
surveyors' quantities and builders' accounts is it any wonder if the 
architect ets so tired out with the business side of his work that he 
gladly leaves the problem of art production and ornament to the 
specialist decorator and manufacturer? You will observe, too, that 
at conferences and in presidential addresses and that sort of thing, 
where it is necessarily to speak cheerily and respect the feelings of 
the profession at the same time, the architect has invariably only one 
sovereign remedy to suggest one patent salve is to heal all our dis- 
orders and that is the specialist. The specialist, either inside or 
outside of the profession, is to ease everybody and everything all 
round I The proposal is that there shall be a sort of inner circle of 
the profession. The profession is to keep a paddock for the prize 
animals, who are to be warranted to have only one gift each, and 
who are to run round the paddock in a given groove all their lives. 
And all the sectionally-gifted persons are to make up one entire con- 
crete architect, on the principle of making a quilt if you have enough 
patches to cover it. I grant you that, according to the present state 
of tilings, specialists must exist to do such things as these : to super- 
intend the imitation of old work ; to carry out decoration in a given 
style, Pompeiian, Egyptian, Classic or Gothic ; to restore or build 
Gothic or Classic churches, Elizabethan, Jacobean or Georgian 
houses, and the like. The question, however, arises here : Are we to 
go on imitating the styles of the past? Specialists are necessary if 
we do go on in our present courses; but if we are to get out of the 
mists and on to the hill-tops again, we must train ourselves for our 
future liberty. If we want to perpetuate chaos and will-o'-the-wisp 
art, I do not know that we can devise a better means to that end 
than the establishment of representatives of the rival styles and the 
rival trickeries of the day. But surely we do not want practitioners 
of one accomplishment or one ideal Surely we do not want to ruin 
and degrade the noble art of architectural design, by introducing into 
it that miserable division-of-labor system which (as Air. Morris points 
out) has in the case of our manufacturers reduced the workman to a 
machine, effaced his individuality, taken away all the pleasure of 
labor, and destroyed the standard of excellence. The making of 
architectural design deserves a better system of procedure than the 
manufacture of a modern pin ! Let us, then, listen no, not for a 
moment to the bewitching suggestions on this head. The disor- 
der of modern architecture is too deep-rooted to be remedied by the 
quackery of a specialist. We will not allow the great factory and 
machine system introduced in the great art that has fallen to the 
care of our unworthy hands. Let us rather take courage and look 
forward to the time when the jumble of styles will be cleared away 
or reduced to system, and prepare ourselves for an all-round practice 
in our vernacular that is to be. Depend upon it that it will not be 

the one-eyed, or one-legged, or one-armed, or one-idead specialist 
practitioner that will then be sought for, but it will be the architect 
with the most individuality, the most culture, the most skill, the most 
efficient training, that will be sought for and found most useful to the 
architecture of the future. 

But you may well now remind me of my promised suggestion of 
the means I would propose to bring about the redemption of the old 
ideals of our art. First, I would say, let architects determine at all 
costs to recover lost ground. Secondly, let architects endeavor to 
render the types now in vogue more malleable for nineteenth-century 
use in our workshops, by classification or otherwise, by which means 
new traditions may be established, and the standard of excellence 
raised to something of its old pitch. In regard to the first point, 
some of us have grown too old in naughty, slothful ways to hope ever 
to accomplish much in the personal manipulation of the handicrafts, 
but we are none of us too old to determine, God willing, that our 
younger brethren shall have better chances than we had at their age, 
better chances for modelling and drawing ornament, and for taking 
their share in the design of house-fittings and the like. None of us, 
moreover, are too old to help to dignify the labor of the workman 
whose dusty clothes soil the best Sunday-go-to-meeting coats of the 
members of the Royal Institute of British architects, as they acciden- 
tally come in contact with him in the builder's yard. We are none 
of us too old to help to establish new traditions for the workshop, by 
classification of types and features done in such a way that they may 
appeal to the workmen in a more practical, familiar and lovable way 
than they do now. 

May I divert your interest for one moment from that all-important 
matter, the modern architect and his art, and ask you to look at the 
British workman? What is his condition ? What are the issues of 
his life's work ? What have you done for him ? We left him in the 
eighteenth century, a magnate, according to his personal qualifica- 
tions, in his little parliament of art, the workshop, evolving architec- 
tural types, and putting his whole soul into his work. In those 
days he was an intelligent being, following his craft joyfully, because 
he excelled in it, and know what he was about, and had a felt place 
in the world. You have scattered those workmen, you have dis- 
solved these little republics of art that in old days held sway in 
every town and village in the land, and what have you put in their 
place? You have drowned the English handicrafts by opening up 
the sluices of a ceaseless tide of archaic types, and how has your 
eclecticism affected the British workman? Certainly you have with 
a vengeance directed his eyes to the wonders of old art, and you 
have given the charm of novelty to his every-day occupation ; you 
have introduced him to a very Pandemonium of tit-bit types; you 
have shown him how various have been the doors and windows in 
the buildings of past days; you have muddled his ideas and confused 
his brain, but you have done nothing to form his taste or settle his 
standards; you have added not one single pet-moulding to his tool- 
chest, nor helped him to pigeon-hole a single familiar feature ; he has 
no lasting impression of any piece of work you ever gave him to do. 
Had he had the origination of the changeful types that have passed 
before his eyes instead of you, he might have retained the same 
vague sense of things that you have yourself; but, as it is, his mem- 
ory is no more fixed about the patterns he has worked than the loom 
which turns out patterns mechanically. He is in for the deluge, and 
no soft dove comes to whisper hope in his ear. He is the slave of 
caprice, the plaything of fickle humors, the sport of mutable tastes 
and veering winds of fashion. What a long, dreary jest his life has 
been, and how, in his sober moments, he must sigh for the blessed, 
irredeemably bad art of the bad days before the deluge I Yet, in 
this much-abused, much-misunderstood, much-enduring, unheroic, un- 
trustworthy, misbelieving, self-seeking, wife-beating, drunken, con- 
ceited, shallow, Daily Telegraph-reading, school-of-art trained man 
behold the martyr of the nineteenth century. The Gothic revival 
proved the winding-sheet of his peace of mind, and one thinks that it 
had been better for his mental, his social, his moral and religious 
state, had the modern Gothic architect never been born I Nay, 
we of the Architectural Association would almost have preferred 
that he had been left daubing stucco walls and chasing those curly 
ornaments and smiling cherubs on tombstones, and making those 
moulded Jacobean pews that we find so fascinating when we go to 
study Gothic architecture in some tip-top mediaeval church. 

Just think of all the sad, bad, and mad architecture that has 
passed under the British workman's hand, say, in these last thirty- 
five years. In 1850 he was rearing a Norman apse upon the ruins 
of an old chancel that had been destroyed in the interests of morality 
and purism. In 1855 he was building a thirteenth-century hotel, 
with details cribbed from Salisbury Cathedral, and a bank adjoining 
it in the Ducal Palace style ; this took him some time. In 1870 we find 
him titivating an old Queen Anne house in a Gothic manner; and in 
1880 he was titivating a Gothic house in the Anglo-Foreign "Early 
English " Queen Anne manner ; and now, in this year of the archi- 
tect's salvation, he is satisfactorily completing the memorial of the 
nineteenth century, at the west end of St. Alban's Abbey, under the 
reputed direction of our all-accomplished, soft-handed, " emanci- 
pated," and only true British architect, Sir Edmund Deuison Beck- 
ett, Q. C. Now, I want to know if we cannot do something to 
regenerate the art of the builder's yard and to raise the workman's 
position, and, if no higher motive affects you, think how it is for the 
interests of the modern architect and his art that you look steadily 
into this matter and do your best in it ? I aiu firmly persuaded that 

JANUARY 31, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


there will be no good architectural design and no good execution 
until the craftsman can be brought to participate with the architect 
in the working out of architectural ornamentation. It is just one of 
those things about art which marks its divine origin and inherent 
dignity. You can get faultless mechanical work out of machines, 
and can get good mechanical work out of human machines; but 
noble hand-labor is only found where the workman uses his intelli- 
gence, and where he is able to express the individuality of the indi- 
vidual. I would say, then, begin the work of regeneration by throw- 
ing away all your petty professionalism. Give the workman his 
rightful participation in your aims. Let him see into your great 
mind. Make him something more than the transcriber of your hesi- 
tating lines ; lift him nearer to your own level of knowledge, so that 
he may know something of the essential qualities of the style he is 
working in, and may at least interpret your thought sympathetically, 
render in his own idiom the things you put before him, and find some 
way of escape for the soul within him. Thus, and thus only, will 
you get good architecture and good sympathetic workmanship. 
Thus, and thus only, will you effectually and fairly lift some of the 
crushing load of responsibility and labor from your own shoulders, 
and get the help-meets God made for you. The old architect lived 
long and saw good days, because he was thus helped. But Pugin, 
Scott, Street and Burges died young, and you know that the doctors 
say it is worry and not work that kills. This single-handed system 
of architectural design, where every detail must be supplied from the 
office, was too much for them. More than this, they were men of 
singular love of good workmanship, and nothing worried them more 
than to see their work carried out unsympathetically, or to find their 
designs carried out to a wrong scale, or their mouldings worked from 
the wrong side of the sectional line. 

I conclude this paper with two propositions which aim at the 
amelioration of some of the evils I have here enlarged upon. The 
first is as to the selection and classification of the architectural 
types now in vogue. The second relates to the provision of techni- 
cal education for architects and craftsmen. With regard to the first 
point, it is clear that no scheme of architectural design has ever 
been practised without a basis of work-shop traditions. Shall we 
then is it worth while to try and formulate our tentative styles 
and to systematize our distracted types, with a view to rendering 
things permanent and to assist the workmen ? If so, you must have 
a grammar and an alphabet before you can form words and sen- 
tences. Now it so happens that never since the world began has so 
much architectural knowledge been accumulated as is now stored up 
in the brains and on the shelves of the English architect. Why, 
then, should not these experts be set to work to formulate and ren- 
der into serviceable shape the leading mouldings and forms and 
features of the styles in vogue ? Why should not the destroyers of 
old English traditions do penance and make reparation for their 
naughty deeds, and build up new traditions? Why should we not 
have a well-arranged series of details of arches, capitals, bases, 
plinths, friezes, cornices, staircases, doors, windows, etc., for work- 
shop use V 

The second proposition is to have a technical college for the in- 
struction of architectural design, to be for the use of architects and 
craftsmen. If modern architecture showed itself in as attractive 
form to the public as English music does, the scheme would receive 
the attention which we who know our pitiful state think that it 
deserves. One thinks that if the scheme were started under proper 
auspices it could not fail to receive the support of the Royal Acad- 
emy, of the Institute of Architects, of the Architectural Association, 
and of all other public bodies who have any care for the advance- 
ment of the various arts and sciences connected with architecture. 
If such a college were set on foot one might feel perfectly secure 
about the architecture of the future, for it might be expected to 
bring about that harmonious cultivation of the crafts without which 
the practice of architecture is a delusion and a snare. Depend 
upon it, the hope of English architecture must come from the work- 
shop, and not from the architect's office. Cast aside, then, as un- 
worthy and profitless, the notion of specialists within or without the 
profession, and this for your own sake, your heart's sake, and the 
sake of the art of the future. Cast aside, also, the notion that 
the mere personal taste, learning, theoretical knowledge, or power 
of penmanship of the architect will avail anything for the real ad- 
vancement of art, unless the craftsman who works out his ideas 
reflects his accomplishments and can sympathize with his aims. 

What we want is not so much men who can design in many styles 
of more or less remote antiquity, or men who can sketch well, but 
men of aim who can lead the aimless, men who by their personal 
acquaintance with the handicrafts and personal participation in the 
production of ornamental art can build up new traditions for the 
workshop, restore the credit of English workmanship, and recover 
the lost ideal of the English architect. 

The President said he had throughout the reading of Mr. Sed- 
ding's amusing paper, been waiting to hear how he proposed to meet 
the difficulties of modern architectural art. He had made an on- 
slaught upon the Institute, and seemed to have a very low opinion of 
what it had done for architects, while the Association had also been 
hit very hard. According to Mr. Sedding the Gothic revival had 
been an absolute failure, but Pugin, Scott, Street, and Burges had 
carried out works of a class that were a source of admiration and 
study to all, buildings that could worthily hold their own with those 

of the past. It was true that men crowded into the profession whose 
work was abominably bad, and the same thing must have happened 
in all past times. Mr. Sedding had spoken of the divorce that had 
been effected between the architect and the workmen, but there were 
some architects, Mr. Sedding amongst them, who took as much 
interest as was ever done in the training of the workmen. He 
thought that the architect would be willing to stand hat in hand 
before the workman who took a pride in his work. The more the 
architect showed such a man that he respected him, the better would 
be the work executed. When Mr. Sedding had attacked all modern 
systems of working, the question arose what he proposed to set up 
in their stead. One of his proposals seemed to be to instruct the 
workman in ornament by establishing a technical college which 
should formulate and systematize our detail, but he believed that if 
the suggested standard form of any detail were adopted and set 
before Mr. Sedding, or any other well-known architect, he would 
decline to be bound by it. It seemed that all that could be done was, 
first, for architects to do their best in designing, and then try to 
interest the workman in the undertaking, and, secondly, to look 
forward to the establishment of some more systematic course of 
study, with some more definite aim than hitherto. 

Mr. Gotch agreed with the President that Mr. Sedding had drawn 
a gloomy picture, but he thought it was most beneficial that now and 
again they should hear an address from some one like Mr. Sedding, 
able to hit out freely all round, and to make every one discontented 
with himself and his work. Contentment was, in his judgment, the 
bane of life and the bar to all progress. It was a judicious discon- 
tent that had led to all improvements in the past. The lecturer's 
idea of educating the workman was very good, provided it could be 
carried into effect, and he should be very glad if the vernacular 
builders' details could be improved thereby. But the majority of 
our mouldings and other details of domestic work were turned out 
of machines by the mile, and it was impracticable for the architect 
to go and educate the machine. The fact was that the whole ten- 
dency of modern procedure was at fault. If the architect had carte 
blanche and a succession of enormously rich clients, to whom time 
and money were matters of little consideration, he might be able to 
turn out work of a higher class. The bane of modern building was 
the contract system ; practically, the architect had little or no oppor- 
tunity to alter his work while in progress, because of the fears of 
extras. He was not sure that Mr. Sedding was accurate in assuming 
that the system of employing specialists was entirely modern. He 
did not think that William of Wykeham and the other great mediae- 
val builders whose names we knew were practical architects ; thev 
were the clients who paid the men. Probably they never mastered 
details, and only set other people to work. The style in mediaeval 
times was simple, the examples were close at hand, and the number 
of possible variations were very limited. He was sure that in medi- 
aeval days they had quackery amongst architects, and he had that day 
noted an instance of this in the old play of " The Alchemist." They 
also had bad workmanship, probably more in proportion than we 
have, but most of it has been removed from sight by the merciful 
hand of Time ; and in the same manner of the work of the present 
day, only the good would survive to future generations. If the pub- 
lic wished for good building they could have it ; but all that was 
demanded was the cheapest buildings that would serve the purposes 
of the day and last the requisite number of years. 

Mr. W. Hilton Nash, in seconding the vote of thanks which had 
been proposed by the last speaker, said he believed that work as 
good as that of old times had been done during the Gothic revival, 
and instanced a little church in the Isle of Purbeck, built from the 
designs of a recently deceased architect, at a cost of 40,000, as a 
proof of what could be done by modern workmen. Many modern 
buildings in London would be, he believed, greatly admired by future 
generations, and amongst these he would only name the Keform Club 
and the British and Foreign Bible Society's premises, which he 
believed would always rank amongst the noblest buildings in the 
metropolis. We had at this time, notwithstanding all Mr. Sedding 
had said, many earnest and hard-working architects amongst us. 

Mr. Woods remarked that Pugin used to take a personal interest 
in instructing the workmen with whom he came in contact, and so 
did Burges. He concurred in Mr. Sedding's suggestions that a 
school might with advantage be started for instructing workmen in 
interpreting architects' drawings better than they now did. Still, in 
carving and other artistic details, better work was often turned out, 
where the workman was equal to his work, if he was not fettered 
with detailed drawings, but left in a large degree to his own re- 

Mr. J. Macland thought our schools of art would be more benefi- 
cial if the pupils were less restricted to mere draughtsmanship. 

In replying to the vote of thanks, Mr. Sedding said he had for 
many years adopted the plan of having the same builder, a Cornish 
man, associated with him in works of restoration in Bedfordshire, 
Somerset, London, and South Wales, and other parts of England, 
and had found it very advantageous. It had been a great privilege 
to meet and greet the same workmen time after time, and to know 
that they understood and could reproduce his drawings. All the 
older hands had died or had drifted off now. In these days, when 
the architect received from all parts of the country, and by every 
post, requests for details of every period, it was impossible to revert 
to the old system by which the workman was trained and able to 
meet minor emergencies as they arose. 


The American Architect and Building News. [ VOL. XVII. No. 475. 


BOSTON, January 22, 1885. 


Dear Sirs, I read with pleasure the article in the Architect of 
January 1 7, on the proposed formation of a society for mutual pro- 
tection similar to that now in operation in France, and trust steps 
will be taken at once to that end. There is everything to be gained 
by such an organization, especially by the younger members of the 
profession. I am glad the question has been proposed, and trust it 
will receive the attention it deserves. Yours truly, 



Dear Sirs, Please give best course to pursue to become a good 
superintendent. Have fair education, but no special training in this 
line ; have situation open as soon as I am able to fill it. 


[BKOIN by studying Clark's " Building Superintendence ; read and keep 
for reference "Notes on Building Construction;" keep Trautwine's 
" Engineers' and Architects' Pocket-Book " in your pocket, and study it at 
every spare moment; visit and observe all classes of building in course of 
construction, and cultivate the acquaintance of intelligent mechanics will- 
ing to answer sensible questions. Do this, and in the course of a few years 
you will probably become a good superintendent. EDS. AMERICAN ARCHI- 


Dear Sirs, I send you a gem. For magnificent cheek and subter- 
ranean ignorance it excels anything yet published that comes within 
our experience. Respectfully, ARTIFEX. 


Notice is hereby given that the Board of Supervisors of Pottawattamie 
County, Iowa, will receive plans and specifications for the erection of a 
court-house building to be built in the City of Council Bluffs, for Potta- 
wattamie County, Iowa, said building not to cost to exceed the sum of 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Said building to have three 
fronts, and to be fire-proof throughout. To be erected on a foundation 
of piles and concrete, the same as the United States court-house now 
being erected in the city of Council Bluffs, and it is expressly under- 
stood that the county will make no compensation for any plans and 
specifications filed that are not adopted, and will make no compensa- 
tion for the plans and specifications adopted unless the proposition for 
the issuance of bonds to build a court-house shall carry in this county, 
and parties filing plans and specifications shall make this agreement a 
part of their proposition, or they will not be entertained by the Board. 

The successful competitor shall furnish a bond in the penal sum of 
three hundred thousand dollars, to be approved by the board, that the 
building shall not cost to exceed one hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars, completed and ready for occupancy. 

The Board reserve the right to reject any and all plans. 

Plans and specifications to be filed with the County Auditor on or 
before noon of the second day of February, 1885. 

By order of the Board of Supervisors. 

T. A. KIRKWOOD, County Auditor. 

From Council Bluff's Nonpareil, January 15, 1885. 

[THB worst of all this is that half-a-dozen people calling themselves archi- 
tects generally imagine, in such cases, that there is money to be made some- 
how out of the job, and submit what they are pleased to term designs. 
Then thejlocal public, which of course sees no difference between this sort 
of individual and a real architect, immediately concludes that all architects 
expect to crawl after people who have jobs to dispense, and to fight with 
each other for them, and regulates its relations with the profession in accor- 
dance with this theory. Finally, the building begins to behave like most 
buildings constructed under such auspices, and caves in, or sags, or has to 
be torn inside out, to put in ventilation flues, or needs costly reconstruction 
in some other way; and the public thereupon adds to its previous stock of 
wisdom on the subject of architects the conviction that none of them know 
anythin" about their business. No one can blame the public much for this. 
It is not its business to investigate the qualifications of persons who call 
themselves architects; and if the profession does not care to guard itself 
against having its rewards and reputation taken away by cheap and igno- 
rant speculators, no one else will take any trouble about the matter. EDS. 


BURLINGTON, IOWA, January 23, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, The Jesuits of our city are building a large church 
edifice with a tower in the centre of its southern fa9ade. The walls, 
ten feet in height on the south and about half way on the east and 
west sides, are faced to the height of ten feet with cut-stone ashlar. 
The north side and the remainder of the flanks are carried up to 
the same height as the cut stone with rubble masonry of a very 
good character, all upon a rock foundation. The brickwork com- 
mences upon a level at top of stone-work and extends up 125 feet. 
There came a long driving storm of rain from the northwest. The 
followim' morning it was discovered that the tower was cracking 
badly on the north and sides as far as the rubble masonry. It was 
soon condemned and care taken to prevent danger to people who 
went to see it. It was found to lean towards the north about a foot, 
and gradually increasing its inclination and its crushing of the 

rubble masonry and the brick walls. Work was immediately com- 
menced to take down the north half of the whole tower, and finally 
the taking-down process reached the bottom, and it is now rebuilt 
with cement-mortar. 

The points that the writer wishes to make are for the benefit 
of the younger members of the profession, as the older ones 
know all about it, except, perhaps, the aged architect of this build- 
ing, who, it appears, did not know all about it. Be careful to have 
walls all around of the same material and method of construction, 
but on the north or shady side use finer and quicker- setting cement, 
or have the mortar joints smaller in proportion, so that they will 
become firm and solid as fast as those in the hot summer sun on the 
southern side. Be careful how you use iron and stone or brick col- 
umns in combination in store fronts where the openings are arched, 
as these materials do not work harmoniously together. 

There may be enough information for the young in the foregoing 
to find a place in your valuable columns, if not, you know where 
the waste-basket is. 



RECLAIMING THE GOODWIN SANDS. A scheme has actually been put 
forward at Ramsgate, Eng., to reclaim the Goodwin quicksands and fer- 
tilize them by conveying thither the sewage of Ramsgate through a 
tunnel. Exchange. 

EFFECT OF LIGHTNING ON TREES. A few days ago, during a vio- 
lent thunderstorm, a tall poplar on the Cour de Rive, a street in the 
upper part of Geneva, was struck by lightning. Directly after the 
occurrence Prof. Colladon made a minute examination of the tree. He 
asserts that the parts first struck are the highest branches, especially 
those most exposed to the rain. Thence the electric fluid runs down 
the smaller branches affecting almost the whole of them to the 
larger ones until it reaches the trunk. These large branches, and 
above all the trunk, being much worse conductors than the small 
branches, the passage through them of the fluid produces heat and 
" repulsive effects " whereby the bark and sometimes the wood are 
torn in pieces, the bits being thrown a considerable distance off. It not 
unfrequently happens that the upper branches and their leaves are 
destroyed; this is generally the case with oaks, which are often struck ; 
but the leaves and young shoots of poplars and many other trees are 
such excellent conductors that they do not appear when struck to 
suffer any notable injury. This rule is so general that, though their 
trunks may be rent and their bark torn off, not more than two or three 
poplars out of a hundred struck by lightning have their leaves shriv- 
elled or even discolored. This induction finds full confirmation in the 
condition of the poplar on the Cour de Kive, for it is not often in 
Switzerland that trees are struck by lightning early in May, when their 
leaves are young and tender. In this instance the principal and high- 
est branch of the tree, on its southwestern side, was the first with 
which the fluid came in contact. Its leaves and twigs, neither withered 
nor tarnished, were torn into minute fragments and scattered about on 
the ground. This was the effect, not of the lightning, but of the con- 
cussion of air, exactly as if there had been an explosion of dynamite 
or gunpowder, and the windows of two houses close by were broken in 
the same manner and by the same cause. Before even the professor 
saw the tree he had expected to find not far from it a spring or 
stream of water, for the presence of water near the root of a tree is 
often the determining cause of its attraction for the electric fluid. In 
effect, the professor found, about four yards from the poplar, on its 
north side, a leaden water-pipe, and close to it a drain filled with waste 
water from a laundry. The principal fissure in the tree was also on the 
north side, and half way between it and the water-pipe a plank lying 
on the ground had been pierced by a concentrated jet of the electric 
fluid as it flashed towards the pipe by the shortest route. Many trees, 
especially poplars, may be compared to buildings the lightning con- 
ductors of which are not continued to the ground. A building of this 
sort, if struck by the electric fluid, would in all probability remain 
intact in its upper part and be seriously damaged beneath the part 
where the conductor ceased. Hence, by far the safest part of a tree 
during a thunderstorm would be its topmost branches. This explains 
why birds are so rarely killed and their nests so seldom disturbed by 
lightning, while persons who have sought shelter under the spreading 
branches of trees are so often struck. The electric fluid, finding the 
trunk and the larger branches imperfect conductors, is easily attracted 
by surrounding bodies, whether they be bushes or human beings. 
Large trees, especially tall poplars, placed near a house may serve as 
very efficient lightning conductors, but always on the indispensable 
condition that there is no well or running water on the opposite side of 
the house, for in that case the electric fluid, if it struck the tree, might 
pass through the building on its way to the water. In 1864 a house at 
Lancy almost in contact with a poplar on one side and a marsh on the 
other was set on fire by lightning, and the path of the electric fluid, 
from the point at which it left the tree, across the room of the building 
to the marsh, could be distinctly traced. Hence, in erecting lightning 
conductors it is desirable that their lower extremities should terminate 
in a stream, a well, or a piece of damp ground. The plant most sensi- 
ble to electricity is the vine. When a stroke of lightning falls in a 
vineyard the leaves affected are turned red-brown or deep green, a 
circumstance which shows, in the opinion of Professor Colladon, that 
the electric fluid descends in a sheet or shower, and not in a single 
point, the number of vines touched sometimes several hundred by 
a single coup proving that the lightning has covered a wide area. This 
fact lends additional confirmation to the theory that lightning disperses 
itself among the smaller branches of trees and over ground covered by 
vegetation. Woods and Forests. 

JANUARY 31, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



; Re ported for The American Architect and Building Newt.) 

[Although a large portion of the building intelliqenct 
is proritled by their regular correspondents, the editort 
yreatly desire to receive voluntary information, eepe 
nalli/frrm the smaller and outlying towns.] 


[Printed specifications of any patents herementioncd. 
together with full detail illustrations, may be obtained 
ffthe Commissioner of Patentt, at Washington, for 
twenty-Jive cents.l 


Fdward Z. Ceilings, Camden, N. J., and Chas. F. Pike, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

310,882. FIREPLACE. William Crook, Salisbury, 


M. GlWln, Sheboygan, Wls. 

M. Glhlln, Sheboygan, Wis. 

310,892. PERMUTATION-LOCK. Chas. Hill, Los An- 
eel, f'al. 

Sio.noo. LATCH. Paul L. Maltble. Newark. N J. 

310.904. HEATING-STOVB. Preston K. MoMlun, 
Bement. 111. 


ren Wheat, Orleans, N. Y. 
310,931. SASII-FASTENER. Oliver Benson, Hms- 

31(i 060. 'WRENCH. Tohn L. Phillips. Sullivan, Tnd. 

Sir.964. MARKING-GAUGE. Ransom Steele, New 
Britain, Conn. 

310972. WATER-CLOSET VALVE. Herman C. 
Apel, Milwaukee. Wls. 

310.981. HOT-WATER RADIATOR. Wm. H. Brown, 
Indlnnapol's, Ind. 

31'>,98:i. Svsa- HOLDER. Frederick Burmelstar, 
Cleveland, O. 

311.020. WINDOW. William De Mann, New York, 
T^ Y* 

311,073. PULLEY. Wesley W. McChesney, Green 

311.024. WELL-TUBE. Frederick W. Miller, Brook- 


Michael T. F. O'Donnell, Boston. Mas'. 

S. Pmmll. Sea Cliff. N. Y. 

311.039. FIRF.- ESCAPE. Gottfried Schledt and 
John A. Rebard. Toledo, O. 

311 019 F\r".S'KW FOR MKKTINO-1HTL1 OF S ASH- 
ES. Frank A. Weston and Henry C. Frost, South Pu- 
eblo. Col. 

311.085-087. WATER-TRAP. J. Pickering Putnam, 
Boston, Mas". 

31I.08R. AUTOMATIC FtR"-EXTiNOiiiSiiER. Dan- 
iel Ci. Stillson, Somerville. Mass. 

311089-091. SRi.F-Ct.osi-.-o HATCHWAY. Richard 
D. Thankston. St. IxniK M". 

J. Conway. Bolleville. 111. 

311 IP. IiioiiTNi if- CONDUCTORS. Joseph K. 
Frl*k. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

311.120. ELEVATOR-GATE. Albert U. Grummann 
IndlanapolK Ind. 

311 LIB. BENCH-PLANE. Charles L. Mead, New 
York. N. Y. 

liam F,. Stnvens. San Francisco, Cal. 

311 152-m. HOT-AIR FURNACE. Edward A. Tut 
tie. Nw York, N. Y. 

311. IM. RKOIST Ett- FRONT. Silas Tuttle, Jr. 
Brook! vn, N. Y. 


COMPOSITION. C. Irvine Walker, Charleston, S. C. 



BciLmw PERMITS. Since our last report nine 
permits have been granted, the more Important of 
which ar the following: 

F. E. Yewell. 3 two-sl'y brick buildings, e s Bruce 
Allev, n of LunvaleSt. 

Ch'a. H. Callls. 12 three-nt'y brick buildings, e 8 
Broadwav, between Belair Ave. ami John St. 

Hv. S-hanmberg, 3 two-st'y brick buildmirs, 8 s 
Sterrett St., between Paca St. and Sterrett Alley. 

P. J. Dannenfelser. 2 two-sfy brick building 
(squire* e s McDonough St., between Blddle and 

John Malone. three-sfy brick building, w s Wil 
co% St., between Eager and Chase Sts. 

Helene Schmidt. 2 two-fy brick buildings, e 
Norris Alley, 8 of Twnsend St. 


THEATRE Papers have been signed by virtue o 
which the old Hollls Street Church pronerty passe 
into the control of Isaac B. Rich and William Har 
ris of the Howard Athenaeum. Plans have been 
made for changing the building into a theatre, to be 
ready for opening September 1. It will be fitted 1 1 
elegant style and will be modelled after the Globe 
but Its dimensions will be much less. The seating 
capacity will be about one thousand. 
BUILDING PERMITS. Brick fbnUma St.. cor 
Columbus Ave.. manufactory: Bruh Electric Llgh 
Co.. owners; L. P. Soule, contractor. 

Taylor St.. cor. Water St., planing-mlll, 23' x 69' 
The A. T. Stevens Lumber Co., owners and con 

Wonil'. Heath St.. storage, 15' x 18'; J. B. Mul 
vev. owner and contractor. 

Mulneu Are., cor. Heath St.. 2 dwells.. 20' x 32' 
J. B. Mulvey, owner; George Glgie, contractor. 

Taylor St., cor. Water St., planlng-mill, 22' x 39' 
d 41'; A. T. Steveus Lumber Co., owuers and con- 

and 41 

Know/ton St., dwell., 21' x 32': A. H. O'Neil, 
owner; H. T. Hutchinson, contractor. 

Blue Hill Aoe., cor. Water St., dwell., 18' C and 
25' x 46'; Chas. A. Young, owner; Frank H. Fulieu, 

Winship St., cor. Washington St., stable, 30' x 41'; 
Chas. Giltigan, owner; ChHS. Whitham, contractor. 

West Heath St.. So. 271, stable, 18' x 29'; Patrick 
Owens, owner; Chas. Whitham, owner. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Van Buren St., n s, 100' e Broad- 
way, two-st'y frame (brick-tilled) dwell., tin roof; 
cost, 83,000; owner and builder, Samuel Post, cor. 
Van Buren St. and Broadway; architect, Henry 

Stuyoesant Ave., B w cor. Madison St., 5 three-st'y 
brown-stone dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, $5,000; 
owner, Kate M. McCormick, 372 South Second St.; 
architect, Andrew Spence. 

Brrgm St., n s, 268' e Clason Ave., 3 three st'y 
brick'tenements, felt, cement and gravel roofs; cost, 
each, $4,000; owner and builder, T. W. Swimm, 394 
Gates Ave.; architect, Amzi Hill. 

Central Aoe., e s, 40' s Prospect St., three-st'y 
frame (brick-filled! tenement, tin roof; cost, $5,000; 
owner, Henry Matheis, 12 Central Ave.; architect, 
Geo. Hillenbrand; builders, H. Schachter and D. 

Statjy St., n B, 350' w Waterbury St., three-st'y 
frame (brick-tilled) tenement, tin roof; cost, (4,000; 
owner, H. King, cor. Ten Eyck and Hnmboldt Sts.; 
architect, Frank Holmberg: builder, John Rueger. 

Stai/ff St.. n s, 35U' w Waterbury St.. rear, two-st'y 
frame stable, tin roof; cost, $3,000; owner, architect 
and builder, same as last. 

Staijg St., s s, 35 1' w Waterhury St., 2 three-st'y 
framo (brick -filled) tenement?, lin roofs; cost for 
bntli. $7.50.1; owner and builder, Ulrich Maurer, 253 
Stngg St.; architect, Th. Engelhardt. 

Morrell fit., Ifn. 61, w 8,75' s Moore St., three-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) store and tenement, tin roof; 
cost, $4,000: owner, Chas. Keppell. 03 Morrell St.: 
architect, Th. Engelhardt; builders, M. Kuhn and 
John Kueger. 

Monre St. No. 186, s s, e of Bushwick Ave., three- 
?t'y frame (brick-ttlled) store and tenement, tin 
roof; cost, $4,0 10: owner and builder, Geo. Zoetter- 
lein; architect, Th. Ennelhardt. 

/>ro*p*ct /'/.. n s, 180' e Vanderbilt Ave., 2 three- 
st'y brick dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, $7,000; 
owner, Robert Furey. 149 Prospect PI.; architect 
John Muuiford; builders, Oweu Nolan and Joseph 

Lexinalon Ave., s s, 225' e Sumner Ave., 6 two-st'y 
brick dwells., tin roofs; ost, each, $3,000; owner 
and carpenter, Wm. Godfrey, 548 Monroe St.; mason 
Win. M. Gibson. 

Clinton St. e 8. '80' n Third PI., Cour-st'y brown- 
stone Hat, tin roof; cost, $8,000; owner and builder 
F. W. Fowler, 8 Verona PI.; architects, Partttl 

Magnolia St., s s, 175' e Central Ave., three-st'> 
frame (brick tilled) tenement, tin roof; cost, $4,5(i 
owner and builder, Fr. Keiser, Magnolia St.; archi- 
tect, Frank Holmberg. 

Cedar St., s s, 26' 4" w Myrtle Ave., 3 three-st J 
(brick-ttlled) store and tenements, tin roofs; cost 
each, $3,500; owner and builder, Fr. Herr, 778 Broad 
way; architect, J >hn Herr. 

Berkeley PI., n s, 1 W e Eighth Ave., 4 three-st 5 
brown-stone dwells., tin roofs; cost, each, $13,000 
owners and architects, J. H. Doherty & Bro.. 281 
Flatbush Ave. 

Guernsey St.. e s, 102' s Fourth St., three-st > 
frame factory and 2 one-st'y extensions, one brick 
and one frame, tilled in. gravel roofs; cost, 4,500 
owner, architect and builder, Samuel Self, 142 Man 
hattau Ave. 


BUILDING OUTLOOK. Although architects are ye 
unable to furnish information of work decided upon 
they report a brighter prospect now than at thi 
time last year. Stores and dwellings to be erectei 
will be of more superior character. 
STOREHOUSES. Already five large store buildings ar 
contemplated for the new Market Jackson Stree 
wholesale district, full plans having been drawn fo 

OFFICE -BUILDINGS. Two tall office-buildings wil 
probably be erected a short distance east, and othe 
large buildings in that district will soon follow, 

BUILDING PERMITS. Arnold Bros., flve-st'y store 
house, rear 149 and 151 West Randolph St.; cos 1 

A'ndrew Johnston, 8 one-st'y stores, 773 to 78. 
West Madison St.; cost, $10,000. 
New York. 

BANK The Emigrant Savings Bank will erect a 
No. 49 and 51 Chambers St. a new building, to cos 

Excu INGE. The New York Stock Exchange contem 
plate alterations to their building, for which com 
petitlve plans are being prepared. 

HOTFL The Grand Central Hotel is to be extensive! 
improved by the new lessee. Mr. F. T. Walton, late 
of the St. James Hotel. 

OFFICE-BUILDING. -Nos. 177 and 179 ^mdmy ar 
to be altered and improved, at a cost of $25,000, froi 
designs of Mr. Ferdinand Fish. 

HOUSES. On the s e cor. of Avenue A and Fifty 
eighth St., 13 three-st'y and basement browu-ston 
houses, !' 8" X 50', are to be built for Mr. Theo 
Schumacher, at a cost of $110,000, from designs o 
Messrs. Hugo Kafka & Co. 

BUILDING PERMITS. One. Hundred and Stxtu-thin 
St n s 310' e Courtland Ave., one-st'y brick four 
dry-building, tin roof; cost, $6,000; owner, Franci 
Keil, 163 East Fifty-third St.; architect, C. Steii 

""jlfoome St., n w cor. Marion St., seven-Bt'y brie 
store fire-proof roof; cost, $25,000; owners, Browi 
Ing, King & Co., 408-412 Broome St.; architects 
Win. Field & Son. 

West Twenty-ninth St., No. 220, flve-st'y brick 
workshop, tin roof; cost, $9,onfl; owner, Mrs. Mary 
Smith, 136 West One Hundred and Twenty-second 
St.; architects, D. & J. Jardine. 

Broadway, A'o. 545, extending through to No. 116 
Mercer St., six -st'y iron store, tin roof; cost. $60,000; 
owner, Samuel Inslee, 410 Broadway; architect, S; 
A. Warner; builder, not selected. 

Sixty-first St., s s, 100' e Eleventh Ave., 8 flve-sfy 
brick tenements, tin roofs; cost, each, $18,000; 
owner, Gotthold Hang. 1766 Third Ave.; architect, 
G. W. Spiizer. 

Orchard St., f> r o. 21, four-Bt'y brick store and 
dwell., tin roof; cost, $7,5 K): owner, Jacob Zimtuer- 
meier, 507 West Fifty-fourth St.; architect, M. L. 
Ungrich; builder, not selected. 

Division St., A'os. 184 anil 186, six-st'y brick tene- 
ment and stores, tin roofs; cost, $25,500; owner, 
Lewis Krulewitch, 192 Division St.; architect, Adam 

One Htmrlred and Thirty-fourth St., n w cor. 
Brown PI., 9 three-st'y brick dwells., tin roofs; 
cost, each, $4, WO; owners, David T. Davles, One 
Hundred and Thirty-fourth St., s w cor. Brown PL, 
and Anthony McOwen, Third Ave., cor. One Hun- 
dred and fifty-fifth St.; architect, David T. navies. 
East Thirty-first St., -iVos. 338 and 340, flve-st'y 
brick factory, tin roof; cost, $14.000: owner, Fred. 
Bauer, 591 Broadway; architect, F. Jacobson; build- 
er, Geo. W. Mulligan. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fourth St., n 8. 100' e 
Eighth Ave., 4 four-st'y brick dwells., tin and elate 
roofs; cost, each, $9.000; owner, E. H. M. Just, 35 
Great Jones St.; architect, M. C. Merrltt. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fourth St., n s, 161' 6" e 
Eighth Ave., 4 four-st'y brick dwells., tin and slate 
roofs; cost, each, $9,000; owner and architect, same 
as last. 

Tenth Ape., e s, Sixty-fourth to Sixty-fifth St., 8 
five-st'y brick tenements and stores, tin roofs: cost, 
each, (BH.BilO; owner and builder, Henry J. Bur- 
chell, 58 Kast Fifty-third St.: architect. F. S. Barns. 
Mailison Are., s e cor. Seventy-seventh St., six. st'y 
brick and stone apartment-hou>e, brick arch roof; 
cost, $140,000; owners, Wm. B. and Kd. Franke, 1267 
Broadway; architect, Win. B. Franke; builder, Ed. 

East. 8*venty-tixih S/., A'os. 185 and 187, 2 flve-st'y 
brick tenements, tin roofs; cost, each, $12,010; own- 
ers, S. T. Meyer & Son. 71 Broadway; architect, 
Arthur L. Meyer; builder, W. K. Lennon. 

Tenth Ave., s w cor. Sixty-second St., 4 flve-st'y 
brick tenements, tin roofs; cost, each, $18,000; 
owner, Gotthold Haug, 1766 Third Ave.; architect, 
G. W. Spitzer. 

Hester St., jVo. 51, flve-st'y brick tenement, tin 
roof: cost, $10,000; own*-r, Betisa Satenstein, 55 Hes- 
ter St.; architect, Wm Graul. 

Grand St.. No. 388, five-st'y brick tenement, tin 
roof; cost, $22,000; owner, Solomon Bachrach, 375 
Grnnd St.: architect, Wm. Graul. 

Ci-ntrf St., Xos. 13H anil 140. six-st'y brick and iron 
front building, metal roof; cost, $:,000; owner, 
P. Lorillard, 3 Mercer St.; architect, Jno. B. Snook. 
One llilililreil null Fiftieth St., s s, 70' 3" e Morris 
Ave.. two-st'y brick dwell., tin roof: cost, $5,000; 
owner, William Morrlssey, 416 East Thirteenth St.; 
architect;*, Berger& Baylies; builder. Peter Daly. 

West. Tllirtii-sixtlt St., A'os. 352 anil 354, four-sl'y 
brick school-house, tin roof: cost, $38,000: owner. 
City of New York Board of Education: architect, 

D. J. Stagg 146 Grand St.; builder, Wm. B. Pettit. 
ALTERATIONS. llroarlway, ,Vo. 697, s w cor. Fourth 

St., interior alterations; cost, $5,000; owners, Wm. 

E. Davies, Demarest, N. J., and Isaac W. Maclay, 
324 Palisade Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Broadway, Jfo. 507, repair damage by fire; cost, 
$5.350; owner, Chas. C. llalsey, 13 East Seventj- 
sevnntli St.; architect and builder, Henry Wallace. 

Rroatlwati, A"o. 557 and 559, passenger-elevator, 
etc.; cost, $3.000; owner, C. E. Datmold, H7 West 
Tenth St.; architect and builder, Jno. Downey. 

Mtiitlm Lane, A'os. 41 and 43. six-st'y brick exten- 
sion, old rear building removed, interior and front 
alterations to main building: owner, Chas. Knapp. 
on premises: architects, De Lemos \-Cordos; build- 
er, not selected. 

Grand St., A r o. 271, ne cor. Forsyth St., new side 
wall, vault, balcony, interior alterations, new stairs, 
etc.; cost. $8,000; owner, Samuel Cohen, 281 Grand 
St.: architect, J. Boekull. 

Third AKZ., iVo. 1398, one-Bt'y brick extension, 
gravel roof: cost, 118,000: owners, Ed. D. Jones and 
W. J. T. Duff, 1417 Third Ave.; builder, John Far- 

Oounerneur Slip, foot of Gouverner St., take down 
ami rebuild easterly wall and Internal alterations 
(to be fitted up for reception hospital: cost. $9,000; 
owners, City of New York Commissioners Charity 
and Correction, 06 Third Ave.; architects, N. Le 
Brun & Son. 

West Thtrtn-third St., ffo. 372, raise roof and a 
four-st'y brick extension, tin roof; cost, $5,000; 
owner. Catharine Taylor, on premises; arcbitect, A. 
E. Hudson; builder, not selected. 

Eightieth St., u s, 209' e Madison Ave., one-st'y 
brick extension, tin roof; cost, $3,000; owner and 
builder, Ed. Kilpatrlck, 353 East Seventy-eighth St.; 
architects, D. & J. Jardiue. 

West Thirtu-eighth St., A"o. 5, two-st'y brick exten- 
sion, tin roof; cost. $4,000; owner, J. F. Degener, 8 
West Twenty-ninth St.; builder, JohnDowuey. 


BUILDING PERMITS. North St., s s, between Fifth 
and Sixth Sts., rebuilding five-st'y store, 34' x 95'; 
Marriner & Buckingham, contractors. 

Forty-first S'., cor. Haverford Koad, workshop for 
Railway Co., 65' x 160'; Samuel Hart, contractor. 

Dickinson St., between Nineteenth and Twentieth 
Sts., 6 two-st'y dwelling-houses, 16' x 42'; F. & P. 
Gallagher, owners. 

Firth St., between Twenty-first and Twenty-sec- 
ond Sts., threo-st'y dwell., 15' 8" x 42'; Jas. Gillen, 

Chestnut St., between Twenty-third and Twenty- 
fourth Sts., skating-riuk, 112' x 220'; H. L. Thomp- 
son, contractor. 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 475. 

Main St., between Allen and Arrolt St., one-et'y 
skaiing-rink, 60' x 180'; B. F. Hill, contractor. 

Jficc St., w of Township Line, two-st'y dwell., 16' 
x 26'; Wm. Garvin, owner. 

St. Louis. 

BDILDINO PERMITS. Sixteen permits have been 
Issued since our last report, six of which are for 
unimportant frame houses. Of the rest, those worth 
$2,500 and over are as follows: 

C. H. I. A. Linky, two-st'y frame dwell.; cost, 
$4,00!); contract sab-let. 

Wm. Hoesner, 3 adjacent two-st'y dwells.; cost, 
$4,700; Ihlo & Dumeyer, builders. 

General Notes. 


chapel, school and dormitory buildings, for Rev. A. 

J. Donnelly, of St. Michael's Parish, New York; 

estimated cost, $60,000; I. M. Merrick, architect, 

New York. 
LONG BRANCH, N. J. Contract entered into with C. 

V. Wilson, builder, for the erection of two cottages 

for Philip Daly, Esq.; cost, $26,650 for both; James 

Thornton, architect. 
IiOS ANOELES, CAL. A State insane asylum is to be 

bnilt here. 
MILLBURY, MASS. The Unitarians have bought a lot 

for $2,000, and are soon to build a church. 
SHEFFIELD, MASS. The plans for a memorial to the 

late Dr. Dewey, says the Boston Advertiser, have 
Q assumed a form such as he would have been apt to 

suggest had he been arranging a memorial for some 
'- friend whom he loved. The committee proposes to 
cierect in the town of Sheffield, Mass., where he was 
i* born, and where he died, a simple building tit for 
othe purposes of the Friendly Union Society of that 
otowu. This will be a public library and reading- 
. room, will provide a hall for lectures, debates, and 

public amusements. 

Sioux FALLS, lo. Buildings and public improve- 
ments at Sioux Falls last year amounted to $140,000. 


[At Morgan, O.] 

Sealed proposals will be received by the Board of 
Education of Morgan Township, Butler County, O., 
for the buildiugof a brick school-house in Sub-District 
No. 4, of said Township, until 12 o'clock, noon, of 
the 12th day of February, 1885. 

Said board reserves the right to reject any or all 

Plans and specifications can be seen at the Township 
Clerk's Office in okeana. 476 

[Near Charleston, W. Va. 

CHARLE8TON(KanawhaCo.), W. VA., Dec. 30, 184. ( 

Proposals for finishing Lock No. 2, of the Great 
Kanawha Kiver Improvement will be received at this 1 
office until noon, of February 3, 1885, and opened 
immediately thereafter. 

D Blank forms and specifications can be had upon 
application at this office. 


475 Lt.-Col. of Engineers, U. S. A. 

[At Buffalo, N. 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 9, 1S85. 
Sealed proposal s will be received at this office until 
% p. M., on the 3 1st day of January, 1885. for fur- 
nishing and putting in place the iron roof framing for 
the extension of the custom-house, etc., building, at 
Buffalo, N Y., in accordance with drawings and spec- 
ification, copies of which and any additional Informa- 
tion may be had on application at this office, or the of- 
fice of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. " " T " r " 


Supervising Architect. 

[At Preston, Minn.] 
PRESTON, Januarys, 1885. 

The County Commissioners of the County of Fill- 
more, in the State of Minnesota, will receive sealed 
proposals until the 25th day of March, 1885, 
at 12 o'clock, M., at the office of the county audi- 
tor, inj the village of Preston, said county, for the 
remodeling of the county court-house in said village, 
and th building of 2 two-st'y brick additions thereto, 
and Iron vaults therein, and the furnishing all mate, 
rials, In accordance with the plans and specifications 
therefor on file in the office of said auditor, which can 
also be seen at the ofiice of Mayberry & Son, archi- 
tects, Winona, Minnesota. 

No bids will be received except for the whole build- 
ing complete as specified. 

The successful bidder will be required to give a suf- 
ficient bond with sureties, within a reasonable time to 
be fixed by said commissioners, in the sum of $15,000. 
to be approved by said commissioners, conditioned 
upon the faithful performance of his contract. 

Each bid must be accompanied by a sufficient bond 
with sureties, or a duly certified check payable to said 
county in a sum of at least five per cent of such bid, 
conditioned upon the giving the bond above specified 
within the time so fixed, provided such bid should be 
accepted. The work will cost several thousand dol- 
lars, and must be completed on or before the first day 
of November, 1885. Right reserved to reject any or all 
bids. J. G. MINElt, 

Chairman Board of County Commissioners. 

Attest: G. A. HAYES, County Auditor, 


\JT [At Memphis, Tenn.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10, 1885. . 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 

2 P. M., on the 5th day of February, 1885, for 

furnishing and delivering, ready for setting, all the 
polished plate, polished plate ground, double-thick 
sheet, and double-thick sheet ground glass; and for 
Furnishing and laying all the encaustic floor tiling re- 
quired for the custom-house, etc., at Memphis, Tenn., 
in accordance with drawings, specifications, etc., 
copies of which (for each class) and any additional in- 
formation may be had on application at this office, or 
the office of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

475 Supervising Architect. 



[ At Troy, O.] 


TROY, MIAMI Co., O., January 3, 1000. > 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
12 o'clock, noon, of February 11, 1885, for fur- 
nishing all the material and performing the labor nec- 
essary to erect a new court-house at Troy, in said 
County, according to plans and specifications on file 
at this office. 

Bids must be made according to law, and must be 
accompanied by a bond (to bo approved by the Board 
of Commissioners) for at least twenty-five per cent of 
the amount of the bid; the bond to be conditioned that 
if work is awarded, a proper bond ami contract will be 
entered into. 

The Commissioners reserve the right to reject any 
or all bids. 

Blanks for bids and bonds can be had at this office, or 
at the office of J. W. Yost, architect, at Columbus, O. 

Bids must be endorsed " Bid for Court-House," and 
addressed to HOKATIO PEARSON, 

475 County Auditor, Troy, O. 

[At Kansas City, Mo. . 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 14. 1885. 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
2 P.M.. on the 2rt day of February, 1885, for fur- 
nishing and delivering, ready for setting, all the pol. 
ished plate and double-thick sheet, and double-thick 
sheet ground glass required for the custom-house and 
post-office at Kansas City, Rio., in accordance with 
specification and schedule, copies of which and any 
additional information may be had on application ai 
this office, or the ofiice of the local superintendent of 
the building. 

Bids mu-t be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 

M. E. BELL, 


Supervising Architect. 

[At Scranton, Pa.] 


SCRANTON, PA., January 24, 1885. , 
Sealed proposals for the erection and completion of 
a county jail for l.ackawaun-i County, to be located on 
the corner of Washington Ave. and New Yurk St., in 
the city of Scranton, Pa., will lie received by the 
undersigned Commissioners of said county, at their 
office until Thursday, February 2ii, 1885, at 1O 
o'clock In the forenoon. Plans and specifications 
will be on file at the court-house in the city of Scran- 
ton, on and after Tuesday, January 27, 1885. The 
builder to whom the contract shall be awarded will be 
required to enter into bonds with at least two approved 
sureties for the sum of 820,000, for the faithfuljper- 
formance of the contract. Work to be commenced 
within thirty days after the awarding of the contract, 
and to be finished on or before April 1, 1887. 

The Commissioners reserve the right to reject any 
or all bids. WM. FRANZ ' 


County Commissioners. 
Attest: D. W. POWELL, Clerk. 478 

[At New York, N. Y.] 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 2. 1886. ) 

Sealed proposals, endorsed " Proposals for Steel 
Castings," will be received at this Bureau until 12 
o'clock, noon, on Tuesday, February 3, 1885, 
when they will be opened in the presence of such bid- 
ders as may be present, for the steel castings of the 
turrets of the United States Steamship " Ml'mtono- 
mnh. as stated on requisition No. 108, from the New 
York Navy Yard, at which yard these castings must 
be delivered within three months after the contract is 
made, free of all expense to the Government. 

The castings must In all respects conform strictly to 
the schedule for the same, which accompanies and 
forms part of the requisition, and will be subjected to 
a careful examination and inspection at the works, by 
an officer or officers detailed by the Department for 
that purpose, before being received. 

Copies of the schedule and requisition will be fur- 
nished to those who are known to have the necessary 
facilities for doing the work, upon application to the 
Commandant of the New York Navy Yard. 

The proposals must be accompanied with the guar- 
antee required by law, that if the contract is awarded, 
it will be promptly executed, and the names of parties 
who are to become the sureties to the amount of the 
face of the contract will also be stated. 

The Department reserves the right to reject any or 
all the proposals, as, in its opinion, the public interest 
requires. T. D. WILSON, 

475 Chief of Bureau. 

[At Erie, Pa.] 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 27, 1885. ) 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
2 P. M., on the 28th day of February, 1885, for 
furnishing and setting all the stone and brick work 
for the superstructure of the court-house, post-office, 
etc., at Erie, Pa., in accordance with specifications and 
drawings, copies of which may be seen and any addi- 
tional information obtained at this office or the office 
of the local superintendent of the building. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

476 Supervising Architect. 


Vj [At Cincinnati, O.] 


CINCINNATI, January 21, 1885. ) 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
9 1-8 o'clock, A. M., on Saturday, February 7, 
1885. for furnishing the carpenter and joiner work in 
rebuilding the court-house in Hamilton County, O., 
according to plans and specifications on file at this 
office and at the office of James W. McLaughlln, 
architect, Nos. 46 and 47 Johnston Building. The 
bids must be made on the blanks that will be fur- 
nished on demand by said Board. 

The Board reserves the right to reject any and all 
bids. By order of the Board. 

475 J. CLIFFORD GOULD, Clerk. 

[At Lynchburgh, Va.] 

WASHINGTON, D. C.. January 27, 1885. 1 

2 P. M., oil the 26th day of Feb-uary, 1885, for 

furnishing the labor and material, bricks, terra-cotta, 
stone, morlar, etc., and building complete the ma- 
sonry of the walls of basement and superstructure of 
the court-house, post-office, etc., building at l.ynch- 
hurgh, Va., in accordance wilh drawings and specifica- 
tions, copies of which may be seen and any additional 
information obtained on application at this office or 
the office of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified checV, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL. 

476 Supervising Architect. 

ERS. [At Washington, D. C.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 22, 1885. ) 

Separate sealed proposals for furnishing and deliv- 
ering the rolled-iron beams and sixteen plate girders 
required for four floors of the west and centre wings 
uf the Building for the State. War and Navy Depart- 
ments in this city will be received at this office until 
12 M.. on February 17, 1885, and opened immedi- 
ately thereafter, in presence of bidders. 

Specifications, general instructions to bidders, and 
blank forms of proposal, for either the beams or the 
girders, will be furnished to established manufac- 
turers on application to this office. 


476 Colonel, Corps of Engineers. 


J_j [At Harrlsonburg, Va.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10, 1885. ) 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
2 o'clock, P. M., on the 24 th day of February, 
1885, for furnishing all the labor and materials, in- 
cluding stone, bricks, woodwork, etc., required for the 
construction of the court-house, etc., building at Har- 
risonburg, Va., in accordance with drawings and 
specifications, copies of which, and any additional in- 
formation may be obtained on application at this 
office or the office of the superintendent, on and after 
January 23, 1885. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

475 Supervising Architect. 

VJT [At Jackson, Miss.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10, 1885. ) 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
2 P. M., on the31st day of January, 1885, for fur- 
nishing and delivering, ready for setting, all the pol- 
ished plate, polished plate ground, double-thick sheet, 
and double-thick sheet ground glass, and for furnish- 
ing and laying all the encaustic floor tiling required 
for the court-house, etc., at Jackson, Miss., in accor- 
dance with drawings, specifications, etc., copies of 
which (for each class) and any additional information 
may be had on application at this office, or the office 
of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL. 

476 Supervising Architect, 

[CopyrigM 1885, JAMES R. OSGOOB & Co.] 

Ilcliotype Printing Co., Boston. 

R. M. UPJOHN, Architect. 


VOL. xvii. 

Copyright, 1885, JAMKS R. OSOOOD ft Co., Boston, MaM. 

NO. 476. 

FEBRUARY 7, 1885. 

Entered at the Poet-Office at Boston as second-claw matter. 


Death of Mr. John Whichcord, Architect. Accidents caused 
by B'rozen Water-pipes. Storing Rain- Water. Dry-Rot. 
Report of the Royal Commission on Metropolitan Sewage 
Discharge. The Conclusions reached. One more Instance 

of the Value of Vivisection 61 





Museum, Vienna, Austria. Skating-Rink, Detroit, Mich. 
House, Cheyenne, Wyo. T. Semi-detached Houses, Mon- 
treal, Canada. Designs for Doors, Staircases, etc. La 

Caisse D'Epargne, Sens, France 67 




Death of Eastburn Hastings, A. A. I. A. Keene's Cement. 
Fire-proof Building. Where to run a Soil-Pipe. A His- 
tory of Roman Architecture. Glue- Water in mixing Stucco. 69 

TITHE profession of architecture in England has lost a most 
JL distinguished member iu the person of Mr. John Which- 
cord, recently President of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects. Mr. Whichcord, as we learn from the Builder, 
was born in Maidstone, in the County of Kent, in 1823. 
His father was a successful architect in that town, and took 
his son into his office as a pupil immediately after his grad- 
uation from King's College, London. After four years of pu- 
pilage, young Whichcord returned to London for study at the 
Royal Academy, and, soon after, crossed the Channel for an 
extended tour on the Continent. Naturally of an adventurous 
disposition, he formed the project, on reaching Constantinople, 
of going in disguise about the towns of Asiatic Turkey, whose 
fanatical inhabitants resent so fiercely the intrusion of unbe- 
lievers as to make ordinary travelling dangerous. He there- 
fore assumed the dress and manners of an Arab, and attached 
himself to a tribe, under whose protection he passed through 
the almost unknown region between the Bosphorus and the 
Euphrates. Thence he wandered to Syria, and, passing for a 
Mahometan, was admitted to all the mosques and holy places 
in Palestine without question. After several years of travel 
he returned to England, and entered into business, first 
iu partnership with the late Mr. Arthur Ashpitel, and later by 
himself, constructing in the course of a long and prosperous 
professional career many important buildings, among them St. 
Stephen's Club-House at Westminster ; the. National Safe De- 
posit Company's building ; the Grand Hotel at Brighton, and 
many banks and mercantile buildings. He found time in the 
midst of all his business to write a book on the " Polychromy 
of the Middle Ages," besides several other books, and many 
papers, on subjects of professional interest; and was an active 
member of various professional societies. In 1865 he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for Parliament, and in 1879 was chosen 
President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Al- 
though he held this office only two years, he did much to main- 
tain and extend the credit of the Institute, and was mainly in 
strumental in establishing the obligatory examinations which 
have already proved so valuable to the whole profession. 

TTTIIE Hydraulic and Sanitary Plumber mentions two acci- 
"j~ dents, very different in character, but both due to the freez- 
ing of water in pipes ; and at this season, when such freez- 
ing is an every-day occurrence, it is well to bear in mind the cir- 
cumstances under which seriom consequences may follow from 
want of care in dealing with the frozen pipes. In the first case 
a water-back in a range in the kitchen of the Metropolitan Ho 
tel at Canton, O., exploded suddenly with terrific violence, 
tearing the range to pieces, and sending fragments of iron 
through the windows to a distance of several hundred feet, anc 
throwing the cook, who fortunately escaped further injury 
across the room. On investigation it was found that the sup 
ply-pipes were frozen, and the explosion was due simply to th 
pressure of the steam generated in the water-back, and unabl 
to escape. We happened ourselves to observe a few weeks 
ago, a case iu which a similar catastrophe, from precisely the 
same cause, was averted, as it appeared, only by an imperfec 

ion in the leather washer of a coupling, which gave way under 

he pressure, allowing the steam to escape freely enough to 

prevent further mischief ; and every one who uses apparatus of 

any kind for distributing steam or hot water through pipes from 

a furnace or other heated point should, if the fire has been al- 

owed to go down in cold weather, make sure before quickening 

t again that the circulation is unobstructed. 

IN the second case, the freezing took place iu the drip-pipe 
attached at a depression in a line of gas-pipe. In very cold 
weather, especially where the pipes are exposed, a good 
leal of liquid is condensed from ordinary gas, and settles in 
he lowest portions of the pipes, often causing the street-lamps 
ind house-lights, beyond the depressed portion, either to go 
>ut altogether or to flare up and sink down alternately, as 
mbbles of gas are forced through the trapping liquid in the 
mains, to the just annoyance of those who use them. To pre- 

eut trouble from this cause, street mains are often provided 
with small wells at the low points, which collect the liquid, 
and keep it, out of the way of the gas current, until it can be 
jumped out, by a pump made for the purpose. For small 
jipes it is common to employ the simpler device of a drip, or 
short vertical pipe depending from the low point, with a cock 
at the bottom to draw off the accumulated liquid from time to 
irtie ; and, as the condensed liquid is mainly water, suchdrip- 
aipes are quite likely to freeze. In this instance the drip, 
which was on a pipe in a house in Montreal, froze hard enough 
,o burst not only the drip-pipe but the supply-pipe to which it 
was attached. The gas of course escaped very freely, and an 

xplosion followed immediately upon the arrival of a servant 
with a candle to investigate the leak. 

SIMPLE device was recently patented for separating the 
water which first runs from a roof in rains from that which 
falls afterwards. Every one knows that where rain-water 
:rom roofs is collected in cisterns for use, the first few minutes 
of a shower, particularly after a long drought, give a muddy 
low to the cisterns, on account of the mixture with the water 
of the dust from the roof; so that it is desirable to let the rain 
which first falls on the roof run to waste, and save only that 
which comes afterwards. A common way of accomplishing this 
end is to fit either a movable shoe at the bottom of the leader 
pipe, or a valve somewhere in its length, by which the current is 
thrown upon the ground until a change is made in the position 
of the valve or shoe, by which the water is directed toward the 
open mouth of the pipe leading to the cistern. The objection 
to this arrangement is that if the leaders are set to turn the 
water on the ground, some one must run odt in the rain to shift 
them when the roof has been sufficiently washed; and if they 
are kept generally turned to flow into the cistern, showers at 
night may carry a great deal of dirt into the cistern, before 
those interested in the matter can get out to change them. The 
patented apparatus, though not quite automatic, has the advan- 
tafe of not requiring attention wliile the rain is falling, if its 
proprietor will think to look after it when each shower is over. 
In substance, the apparatus consists of a barrel, or some simi- 
lar receptacle, having a fixed cover, with a floating lid under 
it. A hole is cut through the upper ltd, through which the 
rain-water passes from the leader ; and an overflow-pipe, in- 
serted in the side of the barrel above the fixed cover, extends 
to the cistern. A waste faucet is placed near the bottom of the 
barrel. The barrel should always be emptied before the com- 
mencement of a shower, and the floating lid will then lie at the 
bottom, leaving the hole in the cover free for the admission of 
the rain-water from the leader. The first drops which fall 
run into the barrel, and as this fills the floating lid rises, until 
it closes the hole in the fixed cover. The water is then diverted 
to the cistern, leaving the first flow, containing the washings 
of the roof, in the barrel, to be drawn off and thrown away at 
any convenient time. 

CCORDING to the Architect, an important series of ob- 
servations upon dry-rot in timber have been made by a 
certain Russian professor. The most interesting of his dis- 
coveries, which will, we hope, be confirmed by the experience of 
others, is that a thorough draught of air will destroy the dry- 
rot fungus within a single day ; and that if the exposure to a 
current of air is accompanied with the sunning of the affected 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 476. 

part, the parasite will lose its vitality in a few hours. A 
strong solution of common salt is extremely efficacious in check- 
ing the progress of the disease, as is also a solution of sulphate 
of copper, or of carbolic acid, or the aromatic tar obtained from 
birch-wood. The fact of the destruction of the dry-rot fungus 
by fresh air is of great importance, but it is very desirable that 
further investigation should show the limitations under which 
the action takes place. In the pure, though quiet air of the 
garret of a building with a slated roof we have known dry-rot 
to flourish and increase, although the place was as free from 
moisture as a room could well be ; and it would be difficult to 
find a more airy or sunny situation than that of the timbers of 
a wooden railroad bridge, which are said to rot from the influ- 
ence of the vapor rising from a stream flowing many feet below. 
Perhaps the size of the stick may have something to do with 
the result ; and it is well known that the framing of one piece 
with the end grain in contact wilh the side of another strongly 
favors the rotting of both. The whole subject is of extreme 
importance, and we can hardly imagine any way in which one 
or two young architects or students could do themselves and 
the public more service in these dull times than by making a 
systematic investigation, aided, if possible, by the microscope, 
of the circumstances under which the dry-rot parasite, the me- 
rulius lacrymans of the botanists, lives and flourishes, or starves 
and dies. All the material is at hand in every house. If any 
one will take the trouble to fill a shallow wooden box to the 
depth of two inches with earth, making a little hollow in the 
middle, and will then set the box on the floor, and keep the 
earth damp by oceasional watering, he will soon have an abun- 
dant crop of the merulius, which will spread from the wood 
over the earth on the sides of the little hollow, and will 
deposit among the particles of earth the tears, or globular 
clusters of spores, from which the fungus takes its name. With 
these spores the disease can be communicated, by inoculation, 
to the object set apart for testing. The infection can also be 
communicated in a different way, by such contact of a diseased 
with a sound piece as will allow the delicate threads which run 
through the substance of the diseased stick, often twenty feet 
away from the centre of the fungoid growth, to penetrate the 
sound wood ; and a series of experiments should be conducted 
with reference to each mode of contagion. It would be well, 
among other tests, to try the effect in checking rot of admit- 
ting air to the interior of pieces of wood by boring holes in 
various directions through them, as is done for the sake of pre- 
venting unequal shrinking in oak and other compact woods ; 
and the good or bad result of applying paint to the end of the 
grain, either by itself or in connection with painting the sides 
of the stick, should be carefully ascertained. To give an idea 
of the value of such experiments, intelligently conducted to a 
practical result, it may be mentioned that the present cost of 
preparing railway ties to resist dry-rot by the most efficient pro- 
cess now known is from thirty to forty cents each, or about 
eight hundred dollars for every mile of single track ; and a 
method for preventing or delaying dry-rot as simple as that of 
admitting air to the interior, if it were found to be effective, 
would bring a fortune to the inventor, and relief from a serious 
burden to the stockholders of thousands of miles of railway. 

0NE of the most important documents ever contributed to 
sanitary science has just been issued, in the shape of the 
final report of the* English Royal Commission on Metropol- 
itan Sewage Discharge. The Commission was appointed to 
inquire into the evils which were said to have attended the dis- 
charge of the sewage of London into the Thames, and, if they 
were found to be serious, to consider the best method of dispos- 
ing of the sewage in some other way. In the performance of 
this duty the Commission not only examined the condition of 
the Thames, and the effect of the sewage in fouling and chok- 
ing the stream, but studied all the practicable methods of sew- 
age disposal, and its report not only gives a valuable summary 
of the results now attained in practice by different systems, but 
the conclusions reached by the Commission are of special 
weight, as they indicate a conviction that the vast sewage flow 
of London can be successfully dealt with by methods which 
have hitherto been applied only on a much smaller scale. 

ITFHE opinion of the Commission, as summed up at the end 

JL of the report, is that the evils arising from the present 

system of discharging the London sewage into the Thames, 

nearly ten miles below the city, are such as " demand a 

prompt remedy," and it considers the discharge of the sewage 

of the city in a crude state into any part of the Thames as 
" neither necessary nor justifiable." To purify the vast mass 
of liquid, the Commission advises the use of some process of 
precipitation, which could be applied at the present outfalls. 
The liquid remaining after the separation of the solids sus- 
pended in the sewage might be allowed temporarily to flow 
into the river ; but as soon as practicable it should be further 
purified by intermittent filtration through land, and then allowed 
to flow into the river. The Commission further advises that 
in all future drainage works the sewage "should be, as far as 
possible, separated from the rainfall." Notwithstanding the 
enormous amount of the London sewage, the Commission 
believes that land enough for purifying it can be had, at rea- 
sonable cost, within a convenient distance of the outfalls. The 
disposal of the sludge deposited from the sewage would be a 
rather serious matter, but the Commission can think of nothing 
better to do with it than to have it " applied to the raising of 
low-lying lands, or burnt, or dug into land, or carried away to 
sea." None of these seem to be very satisfactory solutions of 
the problem. Low-lying lands filled up with sewer-mud would, 
we should say, be anything but favorable to the health of those 
who lived on or near them ; and all the other methods of dis- 
posal are costly, and bring no return whatever. It has often 
been proposed to make cement from sewage sludge, and good 
cement has actually been so produced, we believe, but the com- 
position of the sludge must be too variable to make the process 
a certain one, and the Commission appears to ignore it alto- 
gether in its report. It seems not impossible that the sludge 
might be utilized for gas-making by some process yet to be in- 
vented, and this may prove to be, after all, the most profitable 
way of disposing of it. Much of the organic matter contained 
in it would yield hydrogen by distillation, and if some method 
were devised for decomposing, at the same time, the water con- 
tained in the moist precipitate, perhaps a form of water-gas 
might be evolved of some value for heating, if not for lighting, 
and the mineral residue, after the distillation of the gas, would 
be at least more desirable as filling material than before. 

TTTIIE Scientific American quotes from the London Times an 
^ interesting account of a surgical experiment recently made 
with the happiest results at one of the English hospitals. 
A patient was recently admitted to the hospital, affected with 
a sort of paralysis which follows the formation of a tumor on 
the brain. Hitherto, such tumors have been looked upon as 
inevitably fatal, and nothing is usually attempted but the par- 
tial alleviation, by means of narcotics, of the patients' suffer- 
ings. Not long ago, however, it was discovered, through 
experiments upon animals that the different portions of the 
brain were connected with distinct groups of nerves running to 
other parts of the body, and that in case of lesions of the brain, 
the seat of the disease might often be ascertained by observing 
the manner in which the various nerves of motion and sensation 
were affected. By many trials with animals the connections 
of brain and nerves had been so clearly defined that operations 
on the brain had been successfully employed for affecting cer- 
tain nerves corresponding to the portion of the head on which 
the operation was performed. No surgeon had, however, ven- 
tured to use this knowledge in treating a human subject ; but 
Dr. Bennett, the physician in the present instance, having 
interested himself in trying to trace the locality of the brain 
tumors from the groups of nerves affected by it, became con- 
vinced that it was as yet of small size, and confined to a certain 
spot in the right side of the brain. Of course it was growing, 
and the fatal end of the disease could not be far off, but there 
remained a few days within which, judging from the results of 
the experiments upon the lower animals, it might be possible 
to reach and extirpate the tumor, the first in that situation 
which had ever been either cured or touched in a human sub- 
ject. The case was then explained to the patient, and he was 
shown that on one side lay the certainty of a few months of 
increasing suffering, with death at the end ; and on the other, a 
novel and dangerous operation, with a strong probability of 
fatal result, but affording on the other hand, a possibility of 
complete relief. The patient immediately chose to undergo the 
operation, and the skull was trepanned in the presence of a 
number of physicians at the exact spot which Dr. Bennett 
pointed out. Under the opening, as he predicted, was found 
the tumor, about the size of a walnut, and easily removed. 
The extirpation of the tumor was followed by immediate relief, 
and the patient was in a few days convalescent, with the pros- 
pect of many years of useful and happy life before him. 

FEBRUARY 7, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


TITHE most famous of 
* I the suburbs of Mex- 
ico is the villa Gua- 
dalupe, the scene of the 
most popular legend of 
the Catholic church in 
the New World. This 
was the apparition of the 
Virgin, on the hill of Te- 
payac, to a poor Indian, 
Juan Diego, in the year 
1531, a little over ten 
years after the Conquest. 
The marvelous tale 
spread rapidly and re- 
ceived universal credence 
throughout Spanish 
America. Nuestra Seno- 
ra de Guadalupe, Our 
Lady of Guadalupe, be- 
came the patron saint of 
Mexico. In her name 
the struggle for Mexican 
independence was con- 
ducted. The legend of 
Guadalupe has never, I believe, received the sanction of Rome, but 
neither has it been disapproved, for it may almost be called the 
corner-stone of the church in Mexico. Immense treasures hare 
been lavished upon the spot, a remarkable group of shrines has been 
established, and every year, on December 12, the anniversary of the 
Virgin's appearance, vast multitudes from all parts of the republic 
throng thither to do homage to their saint. Guadalupe is one of 
the favorite given names in Mexico, and it is applied to males as well 
as to females. 

The tramway cars run out to Guadalupe every half-hour, and it 
takes about half an hour to getthere. The road is a straight, broad 
causeway running near and parallel with the railway from Vera 
Cruz, which enters the capital over the ancient causeway. When I 
first came to Mexico over that route, I was puzzled at the sight of 
large sculptured tablets standing beside the track, seen for an instant 
through the gloom of the evening as the train dashed past. It seems 
that they were the twelve " stations of the cross," erected for the 
devout pilgrims to Guadalupe, but rendered useless through the 
occupation of the old causeway by the railway tracks. 

\Vhen within a few minutes of the villa, we pass the mineral 
spring and thermal baths of Guadalupe. People come out from the 
city as early as five o'clock in the morning to bathe here. The 
spring boils up in considerable volume in a basin amidst a pleasant 
garden. The water, which is aerated and strongly impregnated with 
iron, has an agreeable taste. 

The great cathedral church has a large open space in front and on 
one side ; it is chiefly of brick. Its proportions are noble ; it has a 
dome and four towers at the corners. The great interior, with tall 
columns and beautiful arches, is impressive, but its venerable dignity 
is somewhat impaired by the spic-and-span newness of its decoration 
of glossy white and glittering gold. 

A charming little garden adjoins the cathedral chapel and the 
tramway station. The heights of Tepayac, crowned with a chapel, 
rise picturesquely beyond. Crossing tins garden, we come to a 
circular edifice capped with a dome of glazed tile laid in zigzag pat- 
tern. This is the chapel of the sacred well, to which miraculous 
qualities are ascribed. The water boils up, a turbid, rusty brown, so 


uninviting in appearance that strangers, unless led by devotion, gen- 
erally refuse to drink. The taste is, however, not unpleasant, and 
the color comes from the large quantity of iron held in suspension. 

In this neighborhood the ground is covered with the wares of pot- 
tery-venders made in this neighborhood ; the pottery is a dark-brown, 
glazed, and is distinguished by its graceful shapes. Among the 
various vessels are some curious ones made in the shape of ducks. 

Across the way from the chapel of the sacred well, a long flight of 

irregular stone steps ascend to the chapel on the hill. These steps 
command beautiful prospects ; they are guarded, here and there, by 
massive walls with inverted arches, which, with the neighboring 
domes and towers rising above the housetops of the town form effec- 
tive bits of composition. A queer monument stands near the sum- 
mit : the prow, mast and sails of a ship are reproduced as faithfully 
as possible in stone. It was built by a Spaniard many years ago, 
having, when in great danger from a storm at sea, vowed to the 
Virgin of Guadalupe that, if he should reach land in safety he would 
erect this monument in thankful commemoration. 

The chapel at the summit is not particularly interesting architect- 
urally, but is ennobled by its magnificent site, which commands a far- 
reaching view over the beautiful valley and the neighboring great 
city. The pulpits in the interior are of elaborately and gracefully 
carved wood. This chapel occupies the site of the shrine of Tenont- 
zin, the goddess of the field and of corn, a mild Aztec deity who 
rejected human sacrifices, demanding doves, fruits and flowers. It 
was on this mountain that Juan Diego found growing the miraculous 
roses which, when he showed them to the archbishop, left the print 
of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe on his apron. Possibly 
it was for the reason of this being the site of the shrine of the mild 
goddess that the shrewd Church fathers chose it as the place for 
the apparition of the gentle Virgin whom they desired to see sup- 
plant the former in the affections of the natives, tenacious of their 
ancient faith. 

We descend the hill by a tortuous path on the other side. Upon 
the slope we come to a house where we pay six cents for the privi- 
lege of seeing the wonderful garden in the rear. We enter and 
stand amazed in the presence of a gorgeously glittering scene which 
appears like the transformation piece of a fairy spectacle at the 
theatre. It is on the rugged side of the hill, and the rocks are 
completely encrusted with a gay mosaic of broken colored crockery, 
such as might be obtained from innumerable mugs of the " For a 
Good Boy" style. These mosaics are arranged in decorative de- 
signs, and the whole covered with clambering vines and with a pro- 
fusion of blooming plants all about, makes an effective though bizarre 
sight. The side of one building is covered with this mosaic-work, 
showing figures of a cow and a monkey beneath a tree. 

Back of the town a massive aqueduct comes winding in from the 
mountains. It terminates in a richly sculptured fountain, dilapidated 
with age. The water pours down in clear cascades, forming a pleas- 
ant brook with grassy banks. Here, of a Sunday, crowds of Indians 
of both sexes may be seen washing their garments and bathing them- 
selves, in naive disregard of conventionalities. 

Rambling in the fields about the town, we came across a charming 

view of the cathedral in the distance, with its dome and towers fill- 
ing in the vista between a poplar and a palm. 

There are pleasant suburbs all about Mexico. The favorite spots 
for country homes are Tacubaya and San Angel. Tacubaya lies to 
the westward of the capital, a short distance beyond Chapultepec. 
It is a city of about eight thousand inhabitants. Lying on the slopea 
of the foothills, it is well drained and has pure air. Many houses 
here have beautiful grounds, which, however, are not visible from the 
streets, being either in the rear of the dwellings or enclosed by high 
walls, as in most European suburbs, affording only chance glimpses 
through the barred entrances. Suburban life in Mexico was in dis- 
favor for many years, owing to the prevailing insecurity and the dif- 
ficulty of communication ; but with the construction of the tramway 
lines, and with the growing security of an era of peace and tranquil- 
ity, it is growing in favor. Many cultivated people live in Tacubaya 
the year round, and many others have summer homes there. A new 
suburb is growing rapidly on the Castaneda hacienda at Mixcoac, 
between Tacubaya and San Angel. The lots there are sold on the 
instalment plan. 

There is a handsome street leading up to the barracks in Tacu- 
baya, between shady gardens where roses garland the high walls. A 
strip of delightful pleasure-ground, through which a clear brook 
swiftly runs, ornaments the street in front of the barracks, and here 


The American Architect and Building News. [You XVII. No. 476. 

the fine battalion band frequently plays. Farther up the street 
there is one of the grandest views of the two great snow-covered 
volcanoes to be had in the Valley of Mexico. 

The picturesque forms which all work of man seems involuntarily 
to assume in this country was exemplified in a brick-kiln which I 
came across in a stroll about Tacubaya. It was set in the midst of a 
field of maguey, and its proportions could hardly have been finer 

had they been intentionally designed for effect : particularly happy 
was the strong arched doorway, with rich, deep shadow. 

San Angel is also in high favor as a summer residence, but it does 
not contain such valuable estates as some of those in Tacubaya. 

The houses used for summer homes only are generally barely fur- 
nished, for a sort of camping-out life, but it is difficult to judge the 
interior of a house by its external aspect. San Angel lies near the 
mountains, in a charming situation. It is surrounded by market- 
gardens with a profusion of fruit and flowers. The hedges about 
the Indian huts in the neighborhood are generally a tangle of exqui- 
site roses, and in the early morning the second-class cars going into 
the capital are embowered with flowers for the market. Strawber- 
ries are grown here in abundance, and are to be had nearly through- 
out the year. 

Other pleasant suburbs are Thalpam, about twelve miles out to 
the southward, near the foot of the lofty mountain, Ajusco, and Atz- 
capotzalco, lying northwesterly from the city. An American friend 
never could master the difficult orthography of the latter place, 
which he always referred to as " that name on the street-cars." 


other illustration of the queer position which we occupy in matters of 
art is furnished by a lately published paragraph about the Bastien- 
Lepage exhibition to be held in Paris. It is well known that one of the 
most celebrated pictures by this lamented young painter, the Joan of 
Arc, is in this country, in the possession of Mr. Erwin Davis. Natu- 
rally it is the desire of the committee to obtain the loan of this master- 
piece, and Mr. Davis is reported to have generously consented. Owing, 
however, to the state of our tariff laws, the picture, having once before 
paid 10 per cent duty on its first entry, will have to pay another 30 per 
cent on its return, which, together with packing and transportation 
charges, will make necessary an expenditure of about $4,000, all of 
which Mr. Davis is said to have declared himself willing to bear. That 
is a pretty heavy penalty to pay for the crime of enabling one's poorer 
countrymen to see an important work which otherwise they might 
never have seen, and being desirous of doing honor to the memory of a 
deceased artist. Put this and the former item together, and add as a 
sweetening the Pedestal Fund scandal, and who will dare to deny that 
we are a great people ? New York Mail and Express. 




'EN years ago the electric arc 
was known to most persons 
only in laboratory experi- 
ments, performed occasionally to 
illustrate of the power produced 
by a large number of galvanic 
cells ; and the incandescent light, 
as now known in commercial 
use, was regarded as a vision- 
ary idea of learned experimenters. 
At the present time the arc light 
may be seen in almost any large 
town in the United States, while 
the incandescent light is already 
becoming a rival to gas in large 
factories and in some of our large 
cities. The factor which has pro- 
duced this great change is the dis- 
covery of the dynamo-electric 
J3ray7-L&,rnpy' generator commonly known as 

recently. . O yil..j ftrLM.> ^ "ty." ty ft" ? f ll ' iS 

JB5o JA machine it has been found pos- 
sible to produce large quantities 
of electricity, in what may be called commercial form, at a compara- 
tively small cost. A dozen years ago the galvanic battery was, to 
most people at least, the only means of producing a useful current of 
electricity, while now the " dynamo " is looked upon by any one at 
all conversant with the subject as the best method of producing 
any large quantity of electricity. There are two essential parts to 
this machine : a number of electro-magnets for producing what is 
known as a magnetic field, and a number of coils of insulated wire 
attached to a spindle or axle, by means of which they can be 
revolved close to the electro-magnets, and consequently in the mag- 
netic field. The result of the motion of these coils through this 
magnetic field is a current of eleotricity varying in quantity and 
pressure or tension according to the variation in the amount and size 
of the wire in the revolving coils and field magnets, the speed at 
which the axle turns, and the manner in which the coils are wound. 
The axle and coils attached to it are known as the armature, and to 
the end of the axle is attached a series of metallic strips for bringing 
together the currents produced in the coils ; this is called the com- 
mutator, and from it the combined currents are led to the metallic 
conductors, which convey them to the point where they are to do 
their work. In electric-lighting, these conductors are usually made 
of pure copper, because this metal offers comparatively little resist- 
ance to the passage of the current, or, in electrical language, has a 
high conductivity. They are also carefully insulated, or separated 
from all foreign substances which might divert the current from its 
proper course, and in some cases cause serious danger from fire. 

The lamps which are used in connection with the electric current 
for producing light are of two kinds, the "arc" and the "incandes- 
cent " lamp. The arc-lamp employs the electric arc which is formed 
between two carbon pencils withdrawn a slight distance from each 
other during the passage of a powerful electric current, and consists 
merely of mechanism for producing and maintaining the proper dis- 
tance between the carbon pencils, which serve very much the same 
purpose as the wick in an oil-lamp, as they convey the electric cur- 
rent to the point of combustion. They differ from the wick in that 
they furnish the material for the combustion, while the main source 
of the combustion in a lamp is the oil which the wick brings to the 
flame. The particles of carbon which furnish the light in an arc- 
lamp are torn off by the current in its passage, and heated to the 
greatest known degree of artificial heat by the process of tearing 
off, thus producing the very brilliant light with which we are all 
familiar. The objections to the use of this light are three : first and 
chief, there is great trouble in keeping the light at all steady, either 
in color or illuminating power ; second, the carbon pencils have to be 
renewed after burning seven or eight hours, although there are some 
lamps in which a second set of carbons is automatically brought 
into the circuit when the first set is consumed; and third, the very 
brilliancy of the light and the small size of the point from which the 
light radiates make the shadows of things near the light very large 
and very black. Tins is especially noticeable when one compares 
them with the large incandescent-lamps which are now coming into 
use, and which give a very steady and evenly-distributed light, and 
which seem likely to supersede the arc light for interior lighting, 
though the greater power of the arc-lamp will make it a better illu- 
minant for outdoor work, and perhaps for some large buildings, 
where steadiness of light is not important. 

The incandescent light is, when properly managed, the steadiest 
light which can be produced, and should burn from five hundred to a 
thousand hours before needing renewal. The light in them is not 
produced by combustion, but by the glowing of a very fine strip or 
filament of carbon, which is heated to a high degree by the passage 
of the current through it, but is not consumed, as it is in a vacuum 
in which there is, of course, no oxygen to complete the combustion. 
There are several kinds of incandescent-lamps, of which the best 
known are those invented by Mr. Maxim, Mr. Edison and Mr. Swan, 
but they differ only in the manner in which the carbon filament is 
prepared, as they and all other incandescent-lamps now in use 

FEBRUARY 7, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


consist of a glass globe in which the filament is placed, and from which 
the air is exhausted as completely as possible. To the ends of the 
filament are attached platinum wires, which pass out through the 
glass and serve to attach the lamp to the electric circuit. These 
lamps give off very little heat, and can be handled at any time while 
heated. The position of the lamp, moreover, does not at all affect its 
brilliancy, and it is thus possible to use it in forms and in places 
where a lamp giving much heat or depending on an upright position 
could not be used. The Edison Company in particular, have made 
festoons of these lamps placed in and among colored globes, so as to 
look like great masses of glass flowers brilliantly illuminated from 
within. Another advantage of the incandescent light is that it con- 
sumes no oxygen and does not give off carbonic acid gas, which ren- 
ders the air so injurious in large halls or offices lighted by gas. In 
Boston, for instance, several banking-houses have used this light for 
some time, and find it makes a visible difference in the character of 
the air in their offices, which before became disagreeable a short 
time after work began in the morning. 

These lights are now made of several sizes varying from the power 
of ten standard candles to that of three or four hundred standard 
candles. To compare them with gas we may say that a sixteen can- 
dle-power lamp is about equivalent to a six-foot gas-burner with a 
flat flame on Boston gas. These can be produced within one thous- 
sand feet of the source of power with an expenditure of a fraction 
more than one-tenth of a horse-power apiece, and the amount of 
power required is only slightly increased when the lights are placed 
within a mile or two of the source of power. It is, however, neces- 
sary to increase the size of the conducting wires in proportion to the 
distance, so that lights used at a long interval from the dynamo-ma- 
chine require a larger expenditure of money per foot for conducting 
wire than those nearer. Thus the conducting mains of the Edison 
Illuminating Company in New York City are of solid copper, and 
about an inch in diameter; it is necessary to lay two of these to com- 
plete the circuit, and it is easy to see that there must be a very large 
amount of copper in each mile of circuit. In spite of this large ex- 
pense it seems likely that in our large cities these lights can be fur- 
nished in large quantities at very nearly the same price we are now 
paying for gas, and this is quite as true of other lights, as it is of 
those manufactured under Mr. Edison's patents. In many of the 
large manufacturing establishments incandescent lights have been in- 
troduced with the most favorable results, as from the absence of heat 
and smoke they can be placed where it would be impossible to put a 
gas-flame, and thus can be brought to throw the light more exactly 
where it is needed. Here again the increased purity of air is a great 
gain, as any one who has been often in mills will know; and where 
the lights are produced by the same power that drives the mill they 
can be very cheaply furnished. 

There is a general feeling that there is necessarily a great risk 
both to human life and to property from the use of the electric light; 
but this feeling is not at all justified by facts. It is undoubtedly the 
case that if not carefully handled, or if conducted by improper appar- 
atus, electricity can do much damage ; but I believe less loss has been 
caused by electricity during the past year than by either gas or ker- 
osene, taking each in the proportion of the amount of light furnished ; 
and this too, in spite of the fact that electricity is an element of which 
we know but little, and which has come into use faster than any other 
illuminant. The arrangement of wires and other apparatus for se- 
curing freedom from danger in the use of electricity is a subject 
which has received much attention, and every electric-lighting com- 
pany has rules, which, if rigidly adhered to, would make the danger 
from their lighting currents very slight. 

In considering the problem of introducing electric-light into build- 
ings the first question will usually be how to obtain the necessary 
current. In most of our large cities there are companies who make 
it a business to furnish electric current either for lighting or power, 
but in mills or in buildings so situated that the necessary current 
cannot be obtained from an outside source it may be necessary to 
obtain a dynamo and power to produce the necessary current. The 
essential thing in power for electric-lighting is absolute steadiness of 
speed, especially for incandescent lighting, and this is best obtained 
from a water-wheel if one can be had, and next to this the power 
produced by a high-speed engine, as in these the decrease in speed 
at each end of the stroke is less than in an engine making a long 
slow stroke. When the current is furnished by a local company, it 
is usual to have them do all work of putting in wires and fixtures, 
and I would advise all persons intending to have wires put into any 
building to employ the services of an electric company for this work, 
and not to entrust it to men who are only accustomed to wiring for 
electric call-bells, gas-lights, and the like. The work of putting in 
wires for electric-lights is a very different matter from any other kind 
of wiring, and requires a knowledge of electrical resistance, and of 
the heating power of lighting currents which most of the bell-hangers 
by no means possess. In one house which I was asked to inspect 
quite recently, part of the work was done by men quite competent 
to do the wiring for electric-bells and gas-lights, but in wiring for in- 
candescent lights they had used nearly twice as large a wire in some 
places as was necessary, and in others had gone to the other extreme 
and used wire much too small. They had also placed the wire in 
such a way that a fire would have been almost inevitable had the 
wires ever been used for electric-lighting. Another caution seems 
appropriate in this place : in placing wires out of sight, it is much 
better to put them in grooves in a board coming flush with the sur- 

r ace of the finished wall, and to cover the grooves with a strip of 
noulding fastened on with screws, so that it can be easily taken off 
at any time to get at the wires. The reasons for this way of putting 
n the wire are, first : it is always desirable to be able to see any 
Dart of the wire some time after the building is completed, and if it 
s put behind the plastering this becomes impossible without cutting 
t in many places ; in the second place wire run in grooves in this 
way is much more likely to keep its insulating covering perfect than 
if it is exposed to the moisture which often collects on brick or 
stone walls, and which is always present in fresh mortar. I cannot 
express too strongly the feeling I have against concealed wires for 
electric-lighting, in connection with the risk of fire. When wires are 
n plain sight any trouble on them will probably be noticed before it 
causes fire, particularly if inside buildings, but with concealed wires 
it is very difficult to discover any disarrangement before the wire 
gets to a dangerous state. All wire for electric-lighting should be 
protected by a covering not easily removed and not inflammable. 
Parafine should be particularly avoided in the insulating covering, as 
rats are very fond of this substance, and are likely to gnaw the cov- 
ring off the wire to obtain the parafine. 

In all wiring for incandescent lights it is usual to introduce pieces 
of metal of low fusing point which will be melted off by any inju- 
rious excess of current, thus destroying the circuit, and stopping the 
Slow of the current before the conducting wire is unduly heated. 
These pieces of metal are called " safety strips," and are put in 
where the conductors leave the dynamo, and wherever the wire 
branches. All circuits whether for arc or incandescent lighting 
should be kept carefully away from water-pipes, gas-pipes, and other 
metallic bodies likely to make a connection across the wires or from 
one of them to the earth, and should so be placed that there shall be 
no danger to the insulating covering from tables, chairs, or other 
movable objects. If the precautions noted here are observed, and 
the wires and dynamos installed by persons familiar with this kind of 
work, and the whole handled in accordance with directions obtained 
From them, I believe electricity to be the safest method of illumina- 
tion vet discovered. F. ELLIOTT CABOT. 



N the afternoon of 
a faultless summer 
day we are steam- 
ing rapidly over the 
smooth waters of the 
lower Loire. For the 
last hour or two we 
have been stopping 
at or passing pictu- 
resque French vil- 
lages, the houses clus- 
tering down almost 
to the water's edge, 
or sheltered behind 
rows of trees ; the in- 
evitable cafd lies close 
to the wharf, its little 
outside chairs and 
tables deserted, as the 
steamer stops at tlie pier, and their occupants join the throng of 
peasants, men, women and children, who evidently regard its coming 
as the event of their quiet day. Church spires and towers dominate 
the scene at intervals as we glide along, and more than one large 
fabrique testifies that a lot of work is done on the river. Steamers 
and barges come and go, the banks on each side become more 
thickly populated, the buildings increase in number and in size, till, 
as the afternoon wanes, we run between a lofty cliff covered with 
houses on one side and an island with busy ship-yards on the other, 
and we are at Nantes, the Manchester of France. No approach to 
a city could be happier. As the houses rise terrace upon terrace, 
with the dome of a church here, the towers of the cathedral there, and 
handsome public and private buildings along the quays, the impres- 
sion is a very favorable one. We have some distance to go, also, ere 
the steamer comes slowly to her berth, and ever as we advance, the 
views become more interesting. It is a handsome town as seen 
under the light of the warm afternoon sun, and there is a freshness 
about the character of the streets which promises well for a closer 
inspection. At present, however, we are most interested in getting 
a comfortable lodging, and, as the steamer comes to a standstill, and 
our traps are seized by the ever-ready porter, we come to a little 
understanding with him and tramp off in his wake to a hotel. Along 
the quays we trudge, over a bridge, past the pillared Bourse and the 
brand-new post-office, till our guide, stopping at a little hotel over- 
looking the Canal St. Felix, we are ushered upstairs, and from the 
windows of our room what a prospect ! Before us is the glory of 
Nantes, its chateau, a high group of buildings surrounded by a moat 
and protected by great circular bastion towers and hoary walls. 
Fortress, palace, prison, barrack, it has been all in its time, and the 
whole history of the town seems written on its face. How we thank 
our friend, the porter, for such a lucky choice ! how we long for the 
morrow, when we can get inside I We feel almost impatient of the 
time taken up by dinner, that we may sally forth to inspect its formi- 
dable-looking exterior. The trim French waiting-maid does not 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 476. 

hurry, however, and, ere this can be done, the day is fading into a 
glorious, golden purple twilight, slowly but surely changing every 
minute, under the increasing silvery radiance of the full moon. The 
view of this grand old chateau on the quay, the gray cathedral tower- 
ing over it on the high bank above, the long rows of trees in the 
Place St. Pierre, with the upper town beyond, all bathed in this 
golden evening light, make up a picture never to be forgotten. As 
we sit between the lights, and watch the changing tints in the cloud- 
less sky, each pinnacle and turret of the old cathedral stands out 
sharp and clear in the wonderful atmosphere. Anon the moonlight 
obtains the mastery, we quit the fairy-like scene and wend our way 
into the lamp-lit streets. 

When we come to inspect the chateau next morning, we find it a 
cluster of buildings surrounding a court-yard of irregular shape 
approached by a draw-bridge over the moat. It was founded about 
the tenth century, but has been mostly rebuilt by Duke Francis the 
Second, about 1466, though some of the towers are older. The prin- 
ipal block of buildings on the right of the court-yard is now used 
as a barrack ; it dates from the sixteenth century, but has been 
recently restored under M. Menard. It is chiefly remarkable for 
the staircase-tower at one end and the splendid s'eries of dormer-win- 
dows along the Hank. They remind one of the better-known ex- 
amples at the Palais de Justice at Rouen, being similar in style and 
with equal richness of detail. Nearly opposite this barrack is the 
armory, and between them, but at right-angles, is the chapel. This 
chapel is late fifteenth-century work, but has been so much restored 
that a good deal of the old character has vanished. Here the 
Duchess Anne of Bretagne was married to the French king, the 
chateau being a favorite residence of the Dukes of Bretagne. In the 
court-yard is a famous well, covered with a splendid canopy of 
wrought iron-work, which fortunately the hand of the restorer has 
not yet touched. Historical incidents of many kinds crowd each 
other in such a place as thU : we can only mention such names as De 
Retz, Froquet, the Duchesse de Berri, Henry IV, Mme. de Sevign^, 
in addition to the great duke and duchess before mentioned, as a few 
of those whose presence haunts the spot. 

Next in interest to the chateau is the cathedral church of St. 
Peter. It is very good fifteenth-century work, with two west towers 
and three very fine doorways in the west front. The detail through- 
out is stronger and better, and the whole style less flamboyant than 
one usually finds in French work of this date. The fifteenth-century 
builders seem to have stopped short at the crossing, as the choir, 
with its fine apsidal chapels, is only now being finished. It has been 
carried out in the same style and with the same detail as the nave : 
the architect has cleverly caught the spirit of the old work in the 
most satisfactory manner. We regret his name has slipped from our 
memory, as this choir is certainly the purest and best modern French 
Gothic work it has been our lot to see. In spite of the teaching and 
the brilliant example of the great Viollet-le-Duc, the French archi- 
tects have never taken kindly to the Gothic revival; but here the 
old work seems to have been faithfully studied, and with the happiest 
result. When finished, the church will be one hundred and two 
metres long; the old nave is twenty-five metres broad by about 
thirty-seven metres to the crown of the vault, and the towers are 
sixty-three metres high. The remains of the old twelfth-century 
choir have been laid bare during thi: operations ; and a most interest- 
ing apsidal crypt, with its pillars and arches, is now opened up below 
the floor-line of the new choir. There must also have been a tower 
over the crossing at one time, as the piers are of great strength. It 
is curious, also, to observe at this point the work of several genera- 
tions of builders. We have twelfth-century shafts and capitals and 
indications of arches ; restorations and additions to them in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries, and again with Classic mouldings and 
details of the seventeenth century ; and lastly, a low-domed plaster 
ceiling of about the same date, and painted with figure-subjects. 
This, we presume, will be all cleared away when the new choir is 
thrown into the church : regretable, perhaps, but necessary. 

The most remarkable monument is that of Francis II and his sec- 
ond wife, Marguerite de Foix, in the fourth transept. It is an altar- 
tomb, built in 1507 by Michael Colomb; has recumbent figures of the 
Duke and Duchess on the top of the slab, with allegorical figures at 
the angles, and small statuettes in a kind of arcade round the sides 
and ends. Though late in style, the detail, Renaissance in charac- 
ter, is good, and the whole work is exceedingly well carried out. In 
the north transept is the classic monument of General Lamoriciere, 
built in 1879, from the designs of M. Boitte, architect, the sculptured 
figure by M. Paul Dubois, sculptor. Under a marble slab, which is 
supported by pillars of colored marbles, lies the figure of the Gen- 
eral, while at the four angles are statues in bronze, representing the 
four great virtues. It is an admirable work, and while following the 
lines of the old altar-tombs, is thoroughly Classic in feeling, and 
very carefully detailed. 

The most important church, after the cathedral, is that of St. 
Nicholas. It is a new church, from the designs of M. Lassus, Early 
French Gothic in style. It consists of nave and aisles, transepts and 
apsidal choir, with five chapels. It has a high clerestory and trifo- 
rium all round, and is vaulted throughout. It has a western tower 
and spire eighty-three metres high one of the landmarks of Nantes 
and a small jfleche at the crossing. It is a large, ambitious church, 
fairly well carried out, correct enough as to style, but hard and life- 
less as most modern French Gothic usually is. Its details lack the 
careful study which is so noticeable in the new choir of the eatheural, 

and, though the church is impressive from its size and great height, 
when one begins to look closer into the work, it is not nearly so satis- 
factory. The painted glass in the choir, also, is poor stuff, compared 
with the best of modern English work of the same style. This 
church is only another proof that French architects of to-day are 
much more at home in Classic than they ever will be in Gothic. A 
walk down the street to the church of Notre Dame de Bon-Port still 
further confirms this impression. It is a Classic church, with a 
fairly good dome, and was built about 1846, from the designs of M. 
Cbenantais. The dome is another of the landmarks, and forms a 
striking feature as seen from the river. In plan the church is a 
Greek cross, the dome being carried on four great arches. The 
eastern arm is the choir, the north and south arms the transepts, and 
the western arm, slightly prolonged, is the nave. Internally the 
church is architecturally simple to a degree, but it is enriched with 
much painted decoration in the way of figures and ornament of a 
very second-rate character, which goes far to destroy the otherwise 
good proportions of the interior. In spite of this, one feels the 
architect is at home in the style in which he is working, and the 
result is therefore more satisfactory than the would-be thirteenth- 
century stuff at St. Nicholas. 

Among the public buildings the Grand Theatre is one of the most 
noteworthy ; it was built by Mathurin Cruey in 1788. It has a fine 
octostyle portico of Corinthian columns, supporting an entablature 
and an attic ; on the latter are placed eight statues of the Muses, the 
ninth we are told "found a refuge in the Bourse! " The interior of 
the theatre was destroyed by fire in 1796, but was rebuilt in 1811, 
restored in 1844, and again in 1863. It is considered the chef-d'oeuvre 
of its architect, and one of the best theatres in France. If we mis- 
take not the same architect built the great theatre at Bordeaux, 
which is certainly one of the finest in the country. 

The Bourse just mentioned is also a fine structure. It is situated 
on the Quai de la Fosse, was built in 1792 to 1812, and contains the 
Tribunal and Chamber of Commerce. The west front has a fine 
portico of ten Ionic columns, surmounted by statues after the manner 
of the theatre facade, and in the same phase of French Classic their 
architects know so well how to use. Indeed the artistic treatment 
of this Classic work is one of the attractions of Nantes to an archi- 
tect ; it meets one everywhere, along the quays, in the streets and 
squares, in public and private buildings of all sorts and sizes; it is 
thoroughly at home, and notwithstanding the variety of its treatment 
it is never out of place. It seems indigenous, and what is more it gives 
the town an individuality of its own ; it never apes Paris, as the 
newer parts of Brussels and Rouen do ; it is always provincial, and 
so always interesting, giving Nantes the appearance of a well-built, 
well-to-do, handsome town. The traditions has also been well main- 
tained. The new Rue de Strasbourg is a handsome street, and the 
new Palais de Justice built about 1850 is a monumental work with a 
rich colonnade and a fine staircase ; it is also adorned with statues 
by M. Menard. The new post-office on the quay, but recently com- 
pleted, is thoroughly well-designed and has a business-like air quite 
in keeping with its purpose. The streets, especially in the older 
parts, say for instance from the cathedral to the theatre, are nar- 
rower than one expects to find in a town of its size, and the absence 
of any considerable wheeled traffic strikes a stranger. In the even- 
ing a carriage coming along the street is quite an event, and most of 
the people walk up and down the middle of the roadway. An arcade 
with three galleries, called Le passage Pommeraye, and built about 
1843, is considered one of the sights of the town, but it is a poor af- 
fair after the great arcade at Brussels. A much greater attraction 
is the Museum of Painting and Sculpture containing something like 
one thousand pictures and one hundred and fifty statues, busts, bas- 
reliefs, etc. The pictures include examples of all the great schools : 
Italian, Dutch, Flemish, German, Spanish and French, and among 
the busts is that of Crucy the architect of the Grand Theatre. Be- 
sides the foregoing, there is the Archaeological Museum, a collection 
of considerable interest, and there is a splendid public library, con- 
taining nearly one hundred thousand volumes, besides manuscripts, 
prints, pamphlets, etc., so that there is plenty to interest the visitor 
to Nantes. 

It was the fine old chateau and cathedral, however, that proved the 
principal charm to the architect. The magnificent view of which 
they formed the principal features was the first thing our eyes rested 
on in the morning, the last thing at night, as we sat smoking in the 
little balcony of our room before turning in. Whether under the noon- 
tide sun, or bathed in the splendid moonlight, those grand old build- 
ings were always impressive, always fascinating, speaking to us in 
tones far more eloquent than words. Thej' were among the last ob- 
jects on which our eyes rested as we ran slowly past them by rail, 
when we left the city on the way to St. Nazaire, as they will be ever 
the centre of the picture left in one's memory. 

The country between Nantes and St. Nazaire is not particularly 
interesting. The undulating character of the scenery falls away as 
we near the mouth of the river. At Savenay Junction there is an 
interchange of traffic. Here are to be met " all sorts and conditions " 
of Bretons of the type we are fast becoming familiar with, particu- 
larly the peasants, a comely reliable race, who without any great 
claim to personal beauty, look strong and healthy and are always 
more or less interesting. Almost across the river from Savenay is 
Paimboeuf, a picturesque village close to the water side. So is Basse- 
[ndre, a little higher up on the right bank. As we approach St. Na- 
zaire the air is clouded with the smoke of tall chimneys, and resounds 

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The American Architect and Building News. 


with the clank of machinery. Trade and not art is the presiding god- 
dess here ; great foundries and ship-building yards abound, and acres 
upon acres of docks : all the interest is centred in these. Here are 
ironclads being built for the French Government, there great ocean 
steamers for the Compagnie Transatlantique, one of the best known 
of the French-American mail-lines to Mexico, and the West Indies. 
St. Nazaire is their sailing port, and in the docks lie several of their 
magnificent fleets; with their red funnels and great bulk they look 
like veritable Cunarders, and at sea it must be difficult to tell the dif- 
ference. They make any one from ship-building England open his 
eyes and think : all the signs of a great seaport and a great future 
are here, and though we are told that the best workmen in the ship- 
yards are English, that does not get over the fact of our red fun- 
nelled friends being here in abundance, so that he who runs had 
better read. 

To the architect the only building of any interest in the place is 
the old church : it is probably of the sixteenth century or earlier in 
some parts; quite a seaport church with a good deal of timber in its 
construction. It has a great high-pitched roof tumbled about in cu- 
rious fashion, and a wooden spire of the most picturesque sort. The 
whole group is more of a study for a painter than an architect, the 
roofs and walls being full of delicious gray and brown tints; its site is 
also most effective, and the houses cluster around it almost lovingly. 

Internally the only subject of interest is a very fine reredos and 
altar of late seventeenth-century work ; it is in colored marbles with 
sculptured figures, a good deal knocked perhaps, but still in good 
preservation, if only it were rid of the dirty lace and tawdry paper 
flowers with which it is bedecked, it might have a chance of going 
far to redeem an otherwise uninteresting interior. There are also 
traces of an older edifice to be seen in the round arches of the nave 
or portion of the nave rather and in the timber-work of the 
roof, a portion of which is evidently very much older than the rest. 

St. Nazaire itself is a hot, sandy, dusty place in summer; it is in 
the position of a town which is growing, with partially laid-out 
streets and incomplete blocks of houses. Most of its people rush off 
at this season to cruise for sea-bathing, and we hardly wonder at it. 
It was with little regret, therefore, so far as St. Nazaire was con- 
cerned, that we found ourselves on board the steamer for England, 
and in the evening of another lovely day sailed down the few miles 
of the river and out over the bright waters of the Bay of Biscay 
towards Belle-Isle and home, but thoroughly delighted with our few 
days on the Loire. J. M. B. 



tTTHTS view shows one of the twin buildings which form the last 
J 1 ( work upon which Gottfried Semper was engaged, in cooperation 
with von Hasenauer. The scheme of their designs included a 
series of triumphal arches which were to connect the museum build- 
ings with the palace upon the other side of the street, so as to make a 
single composition of the several buildings. 








HE stu- 
dent of 
arc h i - 
tectural pot- 
tery when he 
seeks to find 
the earliest 
examples in 
plastics natu- 
rally turns to 
mia, and finds 
that the earli- 
est p o s itive 
record of a 

colored pavement dates back to about 521 n. c. It was at Susa, in the 
garden court of the Palace of Ahasuerus, who is probably the Xerxes 

of the Greeks, and is described as " a pavement of red and blue, and 
white and black marble." l 

The art of enamelling in glazed colors was well understood by the 
people of this locality, at the time when the pavement was in use, as 
well as at an earlier period, as will appear from the description of the 
peculiar enamelled coffins which were used. Blue was a favorite 
color, and the red and blue of the pavement may have been enam- 
elled tiles, and the white and black of marble. The colors employed 
by the ancient Egyptians were red, yellow, blue, sometimes green, 
and white and black, and these were the favorite colors employed in 
the architectural decorations of Nineveh and Babylon, and even after 
the lapse of centuries we find these same colors to-day predominantly 

It has been often stated that the floor of the Temple of Solomon 
was a colored pavement. The temple was finished nearly five hun- 
dred years earlier than the period already named, and it would be 
very interesting to know that the floor of this most beautiful build- 
ing was so paved ; but in Kings vi : 15, we are distinctly told that the 
floor of the temple was covered with planks of fir. 

The history of colored pavements probably followed the high per- 
fection in brick-making, which most flourished during periods of 
great extravagance. Diodorus of Siculus relates that the bricks of 
the walls of Baby^jn, erected under the orders of Semiramis were 
decorated with all kinds of living creatures portrayed in various col- 
ors upon the brick before they were burned. 

An idea which was once popular, to the effect that the art of paint- 
ing in enamelled colors, which afterwards became glazed or fixed to 
a clay body, originated about the ninth century with the Arabians in 
Spain, is clearly disproved by the glazed bricks of Babylon, the enam- 
elled tiles from the ruined cities of the desert, and the colored, glazed 
coflins of those Assyrian cities of the dead discovered by Mr. Kennett 
Loftus. These enamelled cotlins were in general use atWarka, Nif- 
far, Zibizza, and other localities throughout Chaldea. In form, they 
resembled a slipper, but in symmetry and elegance they were models 
of beauty, their general design and finish displaying a high knowl- 
edge of the art of pottery. The body was placed in the coffin through 
an oval aperture near the head, which was afterwards scaled with a 
close fitting lid, cemented down with very fine lime mortar. In order 
to prevent the bursting of the coffin by the confined gases, a semicir- 
cular hole was left in the lower end. The top was divided into square 
panels by raised ridges, which were sometimes plain, and at others 
very ornamental ; each panel or division was relieved by a similar 
diminutive embossed warrior, measuring about six and one-half 
inches. The small figure had its legs wide astride, a short sword 
belted on the left side, the arms akimbo, and the hands rested flat on 
a short fitting tunic. The head-dress was peculiar, and the general 
resemblance was similar to the figures on coins of the Parthian and 
Sassian periods. Glazing of rich green enamel covered the entire 
exterior surface of the coffin, and within the color was blue. The 
Arabs were attracted by the gold ornaments which these coffins con- 
tained, and often broke and despoiled them in large numbers. 

The art of glazing in fixed colors came to us partially through the 
Arabians in Spain, who derived it from India, and primarily from 
China. It is certain that the art of enamelling in the Island of Ma- 
jorca, where it reaches great perfection, was derived from the Ara- 
bians in Spain. 

Glazed decorative tiles were much used in Mediaeval times for pav- 
ing sacred edifices; they were sometimes called Norman tiles by old 
writers, from the supposition that they originated in Normandy ; al- 
though no tiles have as yet been discovered in England that coincide 
with the features of the Normon style of architectural decoration, the 
most ancient being apparently of the thirteenth century. The Nor- 
mans were a race quick to seize upon every art that would add to 
the beauty of their buildings, either externally or to the interior ; 
and after the return of the Crusaders in the twelfth century, many 
ornaments were added to their structures. When the Crusaders 
visited Byzantium, Palestine and Syria, they discovered buildings 
highly ornamented, and in which glazed tiles were used, and they 
were attracted by many of the architectural features. They carried 
back with them detail drawings of mouldings and designs, and among 
other things, glazed tiles, and most likely some knowledge of their 

The Abbey of Voulton near Provins, the hunting gallery of St. 
Louis at Fontainebleau, a chateau near Quimperle, St. Etienne" 
d'Agen, and many other buildings offer curious specimens of Nor- 
man tiles, and the employment of decorative tiles about the same pe- 
riod was not less common or much less brilliant in England. 

Stone had supplied the wants of the Normans until the twelfth 
century ; but from this time new ideas everywhere appeared at once ; 
tiles of" red earth of various forms were substituted for stone ; their 
surfaces were covered with a thin layer of white clay, in which were 
incrusted patterns of darker earth or vice versa. These baked enam- 
elled tiles were not so easily worn by the constant steps of the faith- 
ful, as they were trodden every day in the vast naves of the churches 
by the feet of the Christian multitude. 

The tiles were arranged in the pavements in a graceful chequer- 
work ; trefoils, rosettes, and scrolls of notched leaves were formed 
and combined into graceful borders. Sections of divided circles 
were ornamented with stars or heraldic suns; warriors heavily 
armed, clad in armor, and mounted upon richly caparisoned horses, 

"Esther i: 6. 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 476. 

were in active pursuit of one another; heads, busts, lions, eagles and 
all other things that fancy and heraldry could jointly invent, lent 
seeming life and animation to the cold pavements. Most of the or- 
namental combinations resembled the designs we are accustomed to 
see in the textile fabrics of the East ; and we are of course the less 
astonished at this when we remember the visits of the Crusaders to 
Syria, Byzantium and Palestine, where this character of ornamenta- 
tion was so largely employed from the ninth until the twelfth century. 

The Normans even at that early date, believed not only in massive 
details of construction ; but also in the cheerful effects of a harmo- 
nious combination of colors and designs for interior relief. 

All the rich Norman mouldings were copied by the English, and 
most likely a great part of the knowledge of the employment and man- 
ufacture of glazed tiles was imparted to them by their Norman 
neighbors, who were a most energetic race ; they took excessive de- 
light in building ; and their princes and nobles seem to have enjoyed 
their greatest pleasure in dwelling in and constantly beautifying their 
magnificent castles. But of course no credit can be claimed by the 
Normans for having originated glazed tiles, as this, like many other 
decorative arts of Western Europe was largely borrowed from the 
East by the Crusaders. Many of the early Norman glazed tiles 
correspond with features of Byzantine architecture, from which the 
Gothic styles are also drawn quite as freely as from the Roman. 

The encaustic tiles of the Middle Ages were produced by a method 
wholly distinct from that now employed. The Norman tiles which 
have been mentioned are of this character ; the process was com- 
monly adopted and employed in northern Europe from the twelfth to 
the fifteenth century, after which tiles of this character fell into dis- 
use. Parker states that the process of manufacture which, as it is sup- 
posed was commonly employed, may be described as follows : 

The thin squares of homogeneous clay having been moulded and 
allowed to dry gradually until of the proper firmness, a design in re- 
lief was impressed upon them, leaving the ornamental pattern in 
cavetto; into the hollows or depressions thus left upon the face of 
the tile, clay of another color was impressed : the clay usually em- 
ployed for the last operation was white or pipe-clay. The tiles were 
fully and carefully dried, and then partly burned, after which they 
were finished by covering them with a thin surface of metallic glaze, 
which was of a slightly yellow color, and in the subsequent process 
of fixing this glaze in the furnace, the white clay beneath the glaze 
was tinged, and the red clay received a more full and rich tone of 
color. In order to facilitate the equal drying of the tiles as well as 
the burning, deep scorings or hollows were made on the reverse side, 
and in addition the pavement was more fully held together by the 
cement, the bond being stronger for it. The sizes of these tiles 
varied from about four to six inches square, and their ordinary thick- 
ness was about one inch. It was necessary that the shrinking nature 
of the clay should be about equal, and there is not the least doubt but 
that ingredients were used to act as a check upon the more fatty clays, 
or otherwise most of the designs would be full of cracks from unequal 
shrinking, or the surfaces would bulge and be thrown upwards. Im- 
perfections of these characters are not wanting; but their general 
infrequence corrroborates the statement that ingredients were em- 
ployed to equalize the shrinkage in drying and in burning. Occasion- 
ally, either from the scarcity of white clay of suitable quality in some 
locations, or for the sake of variety, glazed tiles of this character oc- 
cur which have the design left hollow, and not fllled-in according to 
the usual process ; but a careful examination of the disposition of the 
ornament will frequently show that the original intention was to fill 
these vacant cavities as in other specimens. But instances also occur 
when the ornamental design was evidently intended to remain in re- 
lief, the field and not the pattern being left in cavetto. 

In the British Museum there is a portion of the pavement which 
was discovered in the ruined priory church at Castle Acre, Norfolk, 
and the glazed tiles which formed this pavement are among the old- 
est specimens employed in England. It has been stated that glazed 
tiles of superior make and finish have been discovered in the priory 
church at West Acre, Norfolk : this priory was founded by Ralph de 
Tony, in the reign of William Rufus, for canons of the order of St. 

The tiles from the pavement of the church in Castle Acre are orna- 
mented with scutcheons of arms, and on some appear the name of 
" Thomas." The execution of these tiles is very coarse ; clay of a 
different color was not employed to fill the cavities, and as a whole 
they are very much inferior to the Norman tiles of the same period. 

The term encaustic has also been applied to glazed tiles of the 
kind in which the coloring ingredients are mixed with the clay, and 
were it not already applied to denote the antique process of art 
which has just been described, and which is so manifestly of a per- 
fectly different nature, the term would not be inappropriate. 

The name majolica is applied to all tiles or earthenware having 
the ornament in relief, the embossed ornament and ground being dec- 
orated with various colored enamels. 

The art of manufacturing and enamelling majolica ware was lost 
for a long period, but in the fifteenth century, this ware and the art 
of imitating ancient productions were highly prized by the Italians, 
under the names majolica and porcellana, from the Portuguese word 
for a cup, and Ilobbia ware after the sculptor who re-discovered it. 

The first manufactory of this ware possessed bv the Italians was 
erected at Faienza, in the Ecclesiastical States, whence the French 
term faience, now much used had its derivation. The body of the 
ware was usually a red clay, and the glaze was opaque; the oxides 

of lead and tin, mixed with potash and sand, were the usual ingre- 
dients employed in producing it. 

This glaze was the re-discovery of Luca della Robbia, which, after 
the exercise of great patience and " experiments innumerable," he 
was able to apply not only mechanically, but with great artistic skill. 
Until he was past forty-five years of age Robbia's inclinations were 
towards sculpture, and both his finished and unfinished work of this 
period most decidedly establish his claim to a very high rank among 
Italian sculptors. Robbia executed one of the finest of the many 
cinque-cento tombs for the Bishop Benozzo-Federighi of Fiesole. 
A portion of the decorations of this tomb were enamelled tiles painted 
with fruits and flowers in their natural colors. Luca also introduced 
some changes by coloring his enamel for certain portions of the back- 
ground, such as the plants, draperies, etc. He left a large number of 
these works, which are exquisitely beautiful. The secret of Robbia's 
method of enamelling was always carefully guarded, and after his 
death his family made a system of polychromatic architectural deco- 
rations, and the knowledge was a great fortune to them. 

Robbia's son, Luca II and nephew Andrea, decorated the Ceppo 
Hospital at Pistoja, with a frieze which represents the seven acts of 
Mercy ; the work required eleven years for its execution, and the 
effect is very pleasing as well as brilliant. Luca II was employed 
by Pope Leo X to pave the Loggie of the Vatican with colored glazed 
tiles. Two of Robbia's other sons, Girolamo and Giovanni, also 
worked in Robbia ware, the first named went to France and was 
much employed by Francis I in the decoration of his Chateau de 
Madrid, in the Bois de Boulogne. 

Bernard Palissy, about the middle of the sixteenth century, which 
was a century later than the first productions of Luca della Robbia, 
manufactured a similar article, but differently ornamented, which is 
called " Palissy ware." This ware is remarkable for its faithful 
imitation of animals and plants, as well as for its beautiful and gently 
blended glaze. 

The patience with which Palissy prosecuted the discovery of this 
ware, his fortitude under successive failures in ovens and in burnings, 
his hard labor, loss of credit and consequent poverty and suffering for 
more than sixteen years, display energy and courage of a high order, 
and seem much more like a romance than a reality. The small fishes, 
frogs, reptiles, and grasses, which he used in ornamenting the ware, 
were taken from the rivers, marshes and fields, and before they had 
time to wither were quickly cast in some rapidly-setting composition. 
The mould was then carefully divided in any number of desired parts, 
and the animal or grass which served as a model removed, the grease 
with which the object was covered, making this quite easy without 
injury to the cast. The place of final manufacture of Palissy ware 
was at Saintes in France. 

Not long after Palissy, the Dutch produced a ware similar in de- 
signs to the Robbia and Palissy wares ; it was very substantial and 
well made, and they called it Delft ware; but it was utterly destitute 
of those beautiful and gracefully expressive forms and paintings for 
which the Ilobbia ware of Faienza is so highly esteemed, and for 
which it will probably be remembered until the end of civilization. 

The remarkable and beautiful pavement of the Chateau of Ecouen 
has often been ascribed to Italians, and the credit of producing these 
beautiful tiles is sometimes attributed to a member of the della Rob- 
bia family, at other times to a fugitive from the majolica manufac- 
tures, and some French writers have even credited them to the talent 
of Bernard Palissy. 

There is not the slightest question as to the origin of these tiles ; 
this indication of the place of their production is inscribed among 
the arabesques, A. ROUEN, 1542, and the receipt of Masseot Aba- 
quesne, enameller in earth, then living in the parish of Notre Dame 
de Sottevillelez, Rouen, for the final payment of this work was exe- 
cuted Thursday, March 7, 1548. 

The reputation of Abaquesne had been made previous to the pav- 
ing of the Chateau of Ecouen. In 1535, he decorated a " satte faien- 
ce " at the hotel known as the " Logis du Roi " at Havre, and in 
the manor-house of Bevilliers, near Harfleur, a pavement almost 
similar, inscribed 1536. In 1557, Abaquesne gave a receipt in full 
and clear of all demands for the making of a certain number of enam- 
elled tiles for the Sieur Durfe, as Governor of the Dauphin (later 
the young and shortrlived Francis II), according to the designs which 
Durfe had given him for that purpose. 

These tiles were possibly used in this " Chateau de la Faience'e," 
as Delorme styled it after being ousted from the direction of the 
works, and it is not at all unlikely that these same tiles found a place 
in the pavements of the chateau while under the direction of this 
identical Delorme in 1557. 

In addition to the colored tiled pavements the interior walls of all 
Mediaeval buildings were intended to be colored, and the color entered 
into and formed part of the original design, which in most cases has 
been lost from the practice of whitewashing them over, which so gen- 
erally prevailed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When- 
ever this whitewash is removed carefully, the original coloring ap- 
pears; but unfortunately in getting off the whitewash, the original 
thin coat of fine plaster which formed the gesso or ground to paint 
upon, is removed in company with it. In some instances the stone 
itself seems to have been painted upon, and the color mixed with wax 
varnish, which is impervious to moisture ; and although these have 
been treated to repeated coats of the worse than senselessly applied 
whitewash, the coloring still reappears, seemingly in defiance of the 
ignorance which ordered its application. 

FEBRUARY 7, 1885.] The American Architect and Building News. 



CHIMNEY-SHAFTS are exposed to 
the lateral pressure of the wind tend- 
ing to overturn the structure. This 
pressure may be assumed to act horizon- 
\a_ tally, and to be of uniform intensity at all 
"heights above the ground, without any 
appreciable error. The inclination of the 
surfaces of the chimney to the vertical is 
usually so small that it may be disre- 
garded in estimating the pressure of the 
wind against the shaft. The greatest intensity of wind-pressure 
used to be taken by Kankine at 55 Ibs. per square foot against a Hat 
surface directly opposed to it. Although anemometers have regis- 
tered much greater pressure than this, even as high as 80 Ibs. per 
square foot, we have it on the authority of Messrs. Fowler and 
Baker that the records of anemometers, as at present obtained, are 
utterly misleading and valueless for all practical purposes, and a 
gauge was made in the presence of a Board of Trade Inspector to 
register 65 Ibs. by the sudden application of a pressure not exceeding 
20 Ibs., the momentum of the index needle sufficing to cause the 
error. Mr. B. Baker, in his paper on the Forth Bridge, read 
before the British Association at Montreal, 1884, says : " Mr. Fowler 
and I are of opinion, therefore, as a result of our two years' further 
consideration, that the assumed pressure of 56 Ibs. per square foot 
(recommended to be allowed for by the Board of Trade Committee 
on Wind-Pressure) is considerably in excess of anything likely to 
be realized." 

The pressure of wind against a circular shaft may be taken as 
being equal to half the total pressure against a diametral section of 
that shaft. This result is obtained as follows : 

In Figure 1 let d c =/>, the force of the wind acting parallel to the 
diameter b a. Resolve this force into its component parts, acting at 
right-angles to one another at the point c, one of them,/c, being 
a normal to the curve ; we then have / c as representing the force 
of the wind acting towards the centre of the shaft, and/c =pcos. 
i d c f. Resolving this force,/c at. the point g, so as to measure 
the effective force exerted in the direction g a, parallel to the wind, 
we have the effective pressure P = p cos. 2 [_ c d f. This ano-Ie 
d c f ranges from to 90, and taking a 
sufficient number of angles we obtain cos. 2 
l_ d c f= about .5, therefore the mean effec- 
tive pressure of wind against the semi-cir- 
cumference, P = .5 p. 

In this manner we obtain that if the pres- 
sure on a square shaft be taken = 1, that on 
a hexagonal shaft may be taken = .75, that 
on an octagonal shaft may be taken = .70, 
that on a circular shaft may be taken = .5. 

If it is required to determine the stability 
of that portion of a chimney-shaft above the 
bed-joint c (/, Figure 2, 

Let A = the area of the diametral section 
of the shaft above c d, then the pressure of 
the wind against the shaft will equal 

P^p A for a square chimney, 
P = .5 p A for a round chimney, 

and its resultant may be taken as acting in a horizontal line through 
c, the centre of gravity of the diametral section. Let H represent 
the height of e above c d, then the overturning moment is : 
P H=p A H for a square chimney, 
P H= .5 p A H for a round chimney, 

and the least moment of stability of the shaft above c d should be 
equal to this. 

It is evident that this lateral pressure of the wind will tend to 
move the centre of pressure on the joint c d, towards the lee side. 
It is found in practice advisable so to limit the deviation of the 
centre of pressure from the centre of figure, that the maximum 
intensity of pressure at the leeward side shall not exceed twice the 
mean intensity. Let q denote the ratio which the distance of this 
deviation bears to the length of the joint c d, then we have the fol- 
lowing value as given by Rankine : 

For square chimneys 7 = ^, 

For round chimneys q =: ^, 

which is practically taking a factor of safety of 2 for round shafts, 
and ^ for square shafts. 

If we take a chimney the axis of which is not vertical, as in Fig- 
ure 2, it is evident that the least moment of stability is that which 
resists the overturning action of the wind in the direction in which 
the shaft leans. Let g be the centre of gravity of the part of the 
shaft above c d,fa. point in the joint c d, vertically below g, a the 
limit of deviation of the centre of pressure,/ equal the length of 
c d, q 1 the ratio which the deviation of f from the middle of joint 
bears to/, W the weight of the shaft above c d ; all the values being 
in feet and pounds; then the least moment of stability is 

which should equal the moment of wind pressure. 
have the equation : 

Therefore we 

PH=W ((?-?')/. 

Substituting the values of P II and q, this becomes : 
P A H= W (\ q l ~) j for square chimneys, 
^2 = W(\ <f)j for round chimneys. 

Let T be the mean thickness of the brickwork above the joint c d, 
and t the thickness to which the brickwork would be reduced if 
spread out upon a flat area equal to the external area of the shaft. 
This reduced thickness is given approximately by : 

In most cases, however, the difference between T and t may be 

If ro be the weight of a cubic foot of brickwork = 112 Ibs. gen- 
erally, we have : 

W= 4 A t w for square shafts, 
W= 3.14 A t w f or round shafts, 

and substituting these values in the equations above given, we obtain: 
p H (| 4 q 1 ) t wj for square chimneys, 
p H= (1.57 6.28 j 1 ) t w j for round chimneys. 
If we consider the chimney to stand vertically on its base, this 
becomes : 

p H = J t w j for square shafts, 
p H= 1.57 t wj for round shafts. 

In the above formulas the tenacity of the mortar has been disre- 
garded, and it should never be taken into consideration in designing 
new shafts, as many months from the erection must elapse before the 
tenacity of the mortar is appreciable. 

The foregoing formulas enables us to determine the greatest pres- 
sure a shaft will withstand when we have the dimensions, forms, and 
thicknesses of the masonry or brickwork of the chimney given, and 
also to find the value of J for each bed-joint when we have the pres- 
sure of the wind p and the external form and dimensions of the 
chimney given. 

A chimney-shaft consists of a series of sections one above the 
other, each section being of uniform thickness, and .each succeeding 
section diminishing in thickness from that immediately below it, and 
it is obvious that the bed-joints dividing the sections have less stabil- 
ity than the intermediate ones ; hence it is only necessary to apply 
the formulae to the former set of joints, including the joint at the 
ground line. 

The stability against wind of Messrs. Tennant & Co.'s chimney, 
St. Rollox, Glasgow, Prof. Rankine determined by the formula? 
herein given. From Chimney Construction, by R. M. Bancroft and 
F. J. Bancroft, 1885. 



NEWPORT, B. I., January 28, 18S5, 


Dear Sirs, At a quarterly meeting of the Board of Trustees 
A. I. A., held at the Bryant Building, in the City of New York, on 
Wednesday, the 21st inst., the Secretary stated that he was in re- 
ceipt of a letter from the family of Mr. Eastburn Hastings, an Asso- 
ciate of the Institute, conveying the intelligence of his decease on 
the llth of September, 1884. 

On motion, Mr. Henry M. Congdon was appointed a committee to 
prepare a minute of sympathy and respect. The following resolu- 
tions were presented by Mr. Congdon and adopted : 

Resolved, That the Board of Trustees, having heard with regret 
of the death, on the llth of September, 1884, of Mr. Eastburn Has- 
tings, long time Associate of the American Institute of Architects, 
desire hereby to express to his family their sense of the loss of one 
of their members, and their sincere sympathy with the relatives who 
mourn his decease. 

It was also resolved that a committee be appointed to communicate 
this resolution to his family ; that it be spread upon the minutes of 
the Board of Trustees and a copy forwarded to the American Archi- 
tect for publication. Respectfully, GEO. C. MASON, JR., 

Secretary, A. I. A. 


HULL, P. Q., January 29, 1885. 


Dear Sirs, I notice in your paper, the American Architect, which 
I get through Durie & Son, Ottawa, the advertisement of Keene's 
Cement, coarse and superfine. Please, if you possess the knowledge, 
give me an analysis of it, with the difference between the. coarse and 
superfine. In case you cannot supply the required information, 
please let me know who can, or if there is any book or work treating 
upon the same, and greatly oblige, 

Yours very respectfully, C. B. WRIGHT. 

[KEENE'S cement is of great service in furnishing the interior of fire- 
proof buildings, as can be seen at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the 
Morse Building in New York, and many others. The coarse is perhaps the 
most serviceable for upper works, as it is white and capable of receiving a 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 476. 

hard polish, while the snperane, as it is harder when set, is most suitable 
for skirtings, door finish, etc., and as both kinds are commonly painted, its 
inequality of color is not a material disadvantage. Both grades are pre- 
pared from plaster-of-Paris, as follows : lu a saturated solution of alum, 
made by dissolving in a gallon of water one pound of alum, are soaked 
eighty-four pounds of calcined plaster-o-Paris, introduced m small lumps; 
after bein<* exposed to the air for eight days, the plaster is recalcmed at a 
dull-red heat and then ground. A half-pound of copperas added to the 
cement gives it a cream color, and is said to increase its power of resisting 
atmospheric influences. EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 


BOSTON, MASS., January 26, 1885. 


Dear Sirs, " E. A." in a recent number inquires for plans of 
fire-proof schools and churches. It is easier to make plans for such 
than to get the public to pay for the extra cost of fire-proof building 
at the outset. It is considered cheaper to frame the walls with studs 
2" x 4", 12" apart, and form a series of flues, good vents for fire, all 
round, than to use heavier studs at wide intervals, with the space 
filled in with slabs of cement-concrete, as done by Lascelles & Co., 
of London. Plastering exteriors of frame buildings would be a step 
nearer fire-proof construction. R. B., JR. 


NEWARK, N. J., January 14, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, Will you kindly inform me if it is better to place a 
three-inch iron soil-pipe between the plaster and boards of a frame 
building or on the inside of plaster, where it will be exposed to view ? 
Yours truly, A. CONNELLY. 

[INSIDE, if it can be arranged so as not to cause too great disfiguration of 
the rooms. If it must go between the studs, it should be so arranged as to 
be accessible for its full heiglit from the inside. Eos. AMERICAN ARCHI- 



Dear Sirs, You will greatly oblige by informing me, through your 
paper, which are the best books on the " History of Roman Archi- 
tKcf.nrp .." from its earliest sta<?e. Verv faithfullv. 

lecture," from its earliest stage. 

Very faithfully, 



may find Batissler's "'Histoire de I' Art Monumental" as much to his pur- 
pose as anything which cau be found within a single cover. EDS. AMERI- 


FORT DODGE, IOWA, January 26, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, What knowledge have you of the use of glue and sand 
in the mixing of mortar made of stucco and plaster (gypsum) for 
rough or first coat work ? 

In this country for a number of years we have used for rough or 
first-coat work in plastering a mortar made of the above materials in 
the following proportions : one-third stucco, two-thirds sand, mixed 
with a solution of glue in water, to retard the setting of the mortar 
(about four quarts of glue-water to the one hundred pounds stucco) 
and we desire to ascertain how long these materials have been used 
in connection with stucco for making mortar. 

How long has glue-water been in use as a retarder in connection 
with stucco ? How long have sand, ground coke or cinders been used 
in mixing mortar with stucco? 

Give us all the information you have in connection with these 
materials for mortar, and send your bill to us. 

Very respectfully, S. S. MARSH. 

[\VE have never heard of the use of glue for the purpose our correspon- 
dent describes, and can find no mention of it in the books, but think it not 
unlikely that it may be more or less familiar to stucco-workers. At any 
rate we should think it might have suggested itself, through accidental 
observation, to some one of the many who habitually use glue moulds in 
their work. If it is a novelty, there will probably be many who will wel- 
come and profit by the hint now given. We imagine that the other mate- 
rials used in mixing mortar with stucco date from time immemorial. If any 
of our readers possess more definite information, they have here an oppor- 
tunity to air it and "send in their bill." EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 


THE AILANTBS. Many complaints have been made of the over- 
powering and offensive odor of the flowers of the ailantus trees 
planted in the streets of Paris and other large cities. According to 
M. E. Andre, it is only the flowers of the male trees which exhale 
this unpleasant scent, and he recommends that none but female trees 
should be for the future planted in public or other places where 
the peculiar odor of the males might be offensive. This would seem 
an important point for Americans and others who plant the Ailantus 
largely as a street tree. Woods and Forests. 

has nominated Col. Carrol D. Wright, of Massachusetts, to be Commis- 
sioner of Labor Statistics. 

Av ARCHITECT'S SUIT. The action of James K. Wilson, architect, 
against 1). Webster Lane and George Boshart was tried lately before 
Judge Koon and a jury. Mr. Wilson alleged that in the summer of 1884 
he performed work for the defendants in drafting the preliminary 
sketches and drawing the plans and specifications for a building pro- 
posed to be erected at the corner of Nicollet avenue and Ninth street. 
This labor was worth the sum of $840. This sum is unpaid as yet, and 
action is brought for the full amount. The defendants, answering, al- 
lege that the work was not worth $840; that before it was commenced 
at all they positively stated to the plaintiff that they did not wish to do 
anything about the building unless it could be erected for $20,000, and 
they did not wish him to begin the plans or do anything, in fact, unless 
he would take the chance of losing his work in case the building could 
not be put up for that sum. The contract was definite on this point. Mr. 
Wilson then went to work and completed his plans, but by his own con- 
fession a building could not be put up according to them short of $35,- 
000. They were therefore abandoned. The testimony adduced in the 
trial of the action seemed to establish this fact. The jury returned 
a verdict for defendants. St. Paul Pioneer Press. 

THE PULLMAN SEWAGE-FARM. The Pullman sewage-farm, and the 
results attained upon it, have received wide attention. As is pretty 
generally known, the Pullman farm is probably the most extensive 
example of the purification of sewage by the downward intermittent 
filtration system now in operation. The farm is situated three miles 
south of the city of Pullman, the sewage of which it receives, and to 
which it is conveyed through a large iron pipe. The farm has been in 
operation three years. In 1883, the produce was as follows : cabbage, 
120,000 heads ; potatoes, 7,958 bushels ; onions, 1,000 bushels ; squash, 
ten tons; turnips, 100 bushels; celery, 8,200 dozen bunches. In 1884 
the yield has been : cabbage, 200,000 heads ; potatoes, 6,400 bushels ; 
onions, 3,500 bushels ; squash, forty-five tons ; turnips, 500 bushels ; 
celery, 18,000 dozen bunches. This shows a decided increase in every- 
thing except potatoes, due largely to the increased skill acquired in the 
management of the farm and the application of the sewage. Full cars 
of produce have been shipped to various large cities, such as Vicksburg, 
Pittsburg, New Orleans, Atlanta, and Memphis. Orders have been 
shipped as far east as Hartford, and south as far as Galveston. There 
has recently been established on the farm a sauerkraut manufactory, 
and it is probable that a large quantity of this favorite composition will 
be manufactured. There is a dairy supplied by Holstein cattle on the 
farm. The undrained land, some of which was sown to oats, yielded 
twenty-two bushels to the acre in 1884. One hundred tons of hay were 
cut. About forty farm hands were employed this year. The superin- 
tendent of the farm sells the produce himself, no middlemen being 
allowed to manipulate it. The crop of 1883 paid 8 per cent on the 
investment; the crop of 1884 was larger, but the prices prevailing were 
somewhat lower. There is no question about the success of this farm, 
and its history is a valuable one for the numerous cities now consider- 
ing the question of how to get rid of sewage. The Sanitary News. 

CEMENTS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES. The value of a cement is, first, 
that it should become a strongly cohering medium between the sub- 
stances joined ; and, second, that it should withstand the action of heat, 
or any solvent action of water or acids. Cement often fails in. regard 
to the last consideration. For waterproof uses several mixtures are 
recommended, and the following may be mentioned : one is to mix 
white lead, red lead, and boiled oil, together with good size, to the con- 
sistency of putty; another is powdered resin, one ounce, dissolved in 
ten ounces of strong ammonia; gelatine, five parts, solution of acid 
chromate of lime, one part. Exposing the article to sunlight is useful 
for some purposes. A waterproof paste cement is said to be made by 
adding to hot starch paste half its weight of turpentine and a small 
piece of alum. As a cement lining for cisterns, powdered brick two, 
quicklime two, wood-ashes two, nfade into a paste, with boilod oil, is 
recommended. The following are cements for steam and water joints : 
ground litharge, ten pounds ; plaster-of-Paris, four pounds ; yellow ochre, 
one-half pound; red lead, two pounds; hemp, cut into one-half incli 
lengths, one-half ounce, mixed with boiled linseed oil to the consistency 
of putty. White lead, ten parts ; black oxide of manganese, three ; 
litharge, one ; mix with boiled linseed oil. A cement for joints to resist 
great heat is made thus: asbestos powder, made into a thick paste, with 
liquid silicate of soda. For coating acid troughs, a mixture of one 
part pitch, one part resin, and one part plaster-of-Paris is melted, and is 
said to be a good cement coating. Correspondents frequently ask for 
a good cement for fixing iron bars into stone in lieu of lead, and noth- 
ing better is known than a compound of equal parts of sulphur and 
pitch. A good cement for stoves and ranges is made of fire-clay with 
a solution of silicate of soda. A glue to resist damp can be prepared 
with boiled linseed oil and ordinary glue ; or by melting one pound of 
glue in two quarts of skimmed milk ; shellac, four ounces ; borax, one 
ounce, boiled in a little water, and concentrated by heat to a paste. A 
cement to resist white heat may be usefully mentioned here : pulverized 
clay, four parts ; plumbago, two ; iron-filings, free from oxide, two ; 
peroxide of manganese, one ; borax, one-half, sea-salt, one-half ; mix 
with water to thick paste, use immediately, and heat gradually to a 
nearly white heat. Many of the cements used which are exposed to 
great heat fail from tlfe expansion of one or more ingredients in them, 
and an unequal stress is produced ; or the two substances united have 
unequal rates of expansibility or contractility ; the chemical or gaj- 
vanic action is important. The whole subject of cements has not 
received the attention it deserves from practical men. Only Portland 
cement has received anything like scientific notice, and a few experi- 
ments upon water-proof, heat-resisting and other cements would show 
which cements are the best to use under certain circumstances. Build- 
iug News. 

FEBRUARY 7, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



(Reported for The American Architect and Building Neva.) 

[Although a large portion of the building intelligenct 
is provided by their regular correspondents, the editor! desire to receive voluntary information, espe- 
ttallyfrom the smaller and outlying towns.] 


[Printed specifications of any patents here mentioned, 
together with full detail illustrations, may be obtained 
tf the Commissioner of Patents, at Washington, for 
aoenty-Jive cents.] 

211.165. SKELETON TOWER. John S. Adams El- 
gin, 111. 

311.166. ELECTRIC-LIGHT TOWER. John S. Adams 
Elgin, 111. 

311.167. IRON GRATING. John S. Adams, Elgin, 

PIPES. T. W. Duffy, New York, N. Y. 

CLOSETS, URINALS, ETC. Win. J. Longley Mount 
Vernon, N. Y. 

311,2(12. WKENCH. Washington L. Parker, Spar- 
tanburg, S. O. 

311.204. FIRE-EXTINGUISHER. John S. Shrawder, 
Upper Dublin, Pa. 

311.205. WATER-COCK ATTACHMENT. Lawrence 
Shuster, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Michael J. Smith, New York, N. Y. 

311,221. LEVELLING-ROD. Henry F. Bean, Jack- 
son, Mich. 

VENTILATING-FLUE. James W. Evans, New York, 
N. Y. 

311,241. SAW-VI8E. Henry Plater, Findlay, O. 

311,245. SKYLIGHT. Eduard Heiin, Jersey City, 
N. J. 

311,248. CALIPERS. Stewart A. Jellett, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

311.252. WINDOW. Martin S. Millard, Kansas City, 

311.253. DUMB-WAITER. Stephen A. Morse, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

311,256. TRANSOM - LIFTER. August F. Pfeifer, 
Newark, N. J. 

Thayer, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Arthur M. Baker, New York, N. Y. 

311,288. SASH-FASTENER. William Brown, Dun- 
cannon, Pa. 

311.307. DOOR-SPRING. William Gilflllau, New 
Haven, Conn. 

FIRE-PROOF. John N. Glover, Chicago, 111. 

Hamilton, St. Joseph, Mo. 

311,327. HYDRAULIC LIFT. William H.Johnson, 
Westminster, County of Middlesex, Eng. 

311,342. HOPPER WATER-CLOSKT. Henry W. Man- 
sur, Boston, Mass. 

311,366. SASH-FASTENER. Benj. L. Hex, Lovetts- 
Tille, Va. 

311,369. ELEVATOR. Samuel T. Richardson, Balti. 
more, Md. 

311,386, SURVEYING-INSTRUMENT. Chas. E. Taft, 
Chicago, 111. 

311,^92. WEATHER-STRIP. Gustavus G. Wagner, 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

.las. Weathers, Indianapolis, Ind. 

311,401. PAINT. William H. Wilber, Buffalo, N. Y. 

311,442. LUMBER-DRIER. Horace J. Morton, Pull- 
man, 111. 

311,413. PORTABLE WATER-CLOSET. Charles C. 
Nash, Providence, K. I. 

311,448. SHUTTER-FASTENER. John S. Kyan and 
John Conway, New York, N. Y. 



GUANO WORKS. The Zell Guano Company are build- 
ing entire new works, consisting of mill-building, 
acid-chambers, elevator, storage-shed, etc., to cost 
about $100,000, from designs by W. Claude Frederic, 
architect; P. A. Hause, superintendent; F. H. 
Smith, consulting engineer. 

DWELLINGS. W. Claude Frederic, architect, has pre- 
pared plans for Jacob Sanm, builder, for 8 three- 
st'y and basement brownstone buildings (bay-win- 
dow fronts), ic. be erected on s s North Ave.', near 
Eutaw PL, on lot 100' x 140', to cost about $32,000. 
ADDITION. St. Paul's Eng. Lutheran (Jhurcli are to 
build a brick addition to Sunday-school building, to 
cost $2,500, from designs by W. Claude Frederic, 

BUILDING PERMITS. Since our last report ten 
permits have been granted, the more important of 
which are the following: 

J. D. Mason, two-st'y brick warehouse, 131 McEl- 
derry's Wharf. 

Isaac Eigengneer, 2 two-st'y brick buildings, e s 
Dallas St , s of Gough St. 

Ch. Schultze, three-st'y brick building, s s Shake- 
speare St., between Bond St. and Broadway. 

W. L. Stork, 22 three-st'y brick buildings, s s 
North Ave., between Bolton and Park Sts. 

Thos. H. Hanson, 3 tive-st'y warehouses, com- 
mencing n e cor. Lombard and Liberty Sts. 

Lawrence Turnbull, 13 three-st'y brick buildings, 
n s Preston St., between Greenmount Ave. and Proc- 
tor Alley; 1 three-st'y and 15 two-st'y brick build- 
Ings, e s Greeumount Ave., between Hoffman and 

Preston Sts., and 21 two-st'y brick buildings on the 
e s, and 20 two-st'y brick buildings on the w s Wirt 
St., between Greenmount Ave. and Procter Alley. 

The Labor Quotations remain unchanged. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Jiainbridge St., n s, 158' w 
Reid Ave., two-st'y brick dwell., tin roof, wooden 
cornice; cost, $4,000; owner, Kate Acor, 187 Bain- 
bridge St.; architect, Clarence Liniken; builders, 
Lewis Acor and C. Linikin. 

Palmetto St., No. 80, s s, 350' e Bushwick Ave., 
three-st'y frame (brick-filled) tenement, tin roof; 
cost, 84,000; owner and builder, David H. Scott, 762 
Monroe St.; architect, Ernest Dennis. 

Ji'ranl-lin Ave., e s, 76' n Park Ave., three-st'y 
frame (brick-filled) tenement, tin roof; cost, 83,500; 
owner, August C. Hodderson, cor. Franklin and 
Park Aves.; architect, Mr. Harverson; builders, Mr. 
Collins and Williams Bros. 

Bergen St., n s, 268' e Clason Ave., three-st'y 
brick tenement, tin, gravel and felt roof; cost, 
$4,000; owner, etc., T. W. Swimm, 304 Gates Ave. 

Sumner Ave., s w cor. McDonough St., four-st'y 
brick flat, tin roof; cost, $11,000; owner, W. A. 
Cuyck, 171 Stuyvesant Ave.; architect, Th. Engel- 
hardt; builders. G. Lehman & Sons and M. Metzen. 

Broadway, No. 791, e s, 25' n Adams St., four-st'y 
brick store and tenement, tin roof; cost, $8,000; 
owner, J. M. Otto, 453 Grand St.; architect, Th. 
Engelhardt; builders, J. Rauch and J. Hueger. 

Lynch St., n s, 122' e Harrison Ave., three-st'y 
frame tenement, tin roof; cost, 84,000; owner and 
architect, Jno. Platte, 244 Lynch St. 

Fourteenth St., n s, 197' 10" w Seventh Ave., 6 two- 
st'y brick dwells., tin roof, wooden cornice; cost, 

each, $3.800; owners, J. E. Skidmore Conhead; 

architect and carpenter, J. E. SkiUmore; masons, 
Buchanan & Riley. 

Meeker Ave., n w cor. Kingsland Ave., three st'y 
brick store and tenement, tin roof; cost, $9,200; 
owner, Peter Ruger, 275 East Houston St., New 
York; architect, Leonard F. Graether; builder, John 

Adams St., No. 11, n s, 100' e Broadway, four-st'y 
frame (brick-Hlledc tenement, tin roof; cost, $6,000; 
owner, William Goeller, Flushing Ave.; architect, 
Th. Engelhardt; builders, Ernst Loerch and John 

Stagy St., Nos. 275 and 277, n s, 225' w Waterbury 
St., 2 three-st'y frame tenements, tin roofs; cost, 
each, $4,000; owner, Mrs. Chas. R. B*ker, 244 Wash- 
ington Ave.; architect, Th. KngelUardt; builders, 
John Auer and Peter Kuuzweiler. 

Tompkins Are., w s, 25' s Quincy St., 4 four-st'y 
brick stores and flats, tin roots; cost, each, $9.500; 
owner and builder, Jas. W. Stewart, 373 Quincy St.; 
architect, M. Walsh. 

Tompkins Ace., s w cor. Quincy St., four-st'y brick 
store and flat, tin roof; cost, $12,500; owner and 
builder, Jas. W. Stewart, 373 Quincy St.; architect, 
M. Walsh. 

Quincy St., s s, 80' w Tompkins Ave., two-and-a- 
half-st'y dwell., tin roof; cost, 85,500; owner and 
builder, Jas. W. Stewart, 373 Quincy St.; architect, 
M. Walsh. 

Devoe St., n e cor. Leonard St., four-st'y frame fac- 
tory, tin roof; cost, $7,500; owner, John C. Andre- 
sen, 30,; Ewen St.; builder, C. Vincent. 

Eighteenth St., n s, 320' w Fifth Ave., 2 two-st'y 
brown-stone dwells., tin roofs; cost, |each, $4,500; 
owners, M. A. Schneider and Daniel Ryan, 152 Nine- 
teenth St. and 725 Third Ave.; architect, T. F. 
Hough ton. 

Broadway, Nos. 689 and 691, e s, 55' n Ellery St., 2 
four-st'y brick tenements, tin roofs; cost, $18,000; 
owner, Louis Stiltz, 693 and 695 Broadway; architect, 
Th. Eugelhardt; builder, John Aur and Jos. Wag- 
ner, Jr. 

Cedar St., Nos. 5n and 52a, s s, 137' 9'' e Evergreen 
Ave., 3 three-st'y frame (brick-tilled) tenement*, tin 
roofs; cost, each, S3, 090; owners, C. & G. Spoerl, 44 
Myrtle Ave.; architect, Th. Engelhardt. 
ALTERATIONS. drove St., n s, 183' 4" e Central Ave., 
raise 8 feet; cost, 83,500; owner and carpenter, P. M. 
Flood, on premises; architect, J. T. Miller; mason, 
H. O'Brien. 


BUILDING PERMITS M. H. McKillip, livery-stable, 
199 and 201 Erie St.; cost, $3,000. 

S. W. Rawson, 6 cottages, Taylor St.; cost, $6,000. 

S. W. Rawson, 6 cottages, Filmore and Harvard 
Sts.; cost, $6,000. 

J. Halloren, two-st'y dwell., 3229 Lasalle St.; 
cost, $3,500. 

A. Deluce, two-st'y flats, 3334 South Wood St.; 
cost, $3,50C. 

L. M. Giles, two-st'y dwell., 60 Oak St.; cost, 

Woodstone & Swanson, three-st'y dwell., 146 Cen- 
tre St.; cost, 83,000. 

S. Piggot, 3 two-st'y dwells., 200-204 Fremont St.; 
cost, $9,000; architect, S. Piggot. 

K. D. Reynolds, two-st'y dwell., 53 Thirty-second 
St.; cost, $2,600. 

New York. 

FLATS. At Nos. 228 and 230 East Forty second St., 
a Iive-t'y flat, 50' x 90', is to be built at a cost of 
about $48,icOO, for Messrs. Gordon Bros.; trom de- 
signs of Mr. A. Wagner. 

On the s s of Eighty-fifth St. between Madison and 
Fourth Aves., a six-st'y apartment-house, 41' x 92', 
is V> be built by Mr. P. Hraender, with front of brick, 
stone and terra-cotta; from designs of Mr. John 
Brandt; and from designs of the same architect 8 
flve-st'y brown-stone flats, 25' x 85' each, are to be 
built by Mr. George Muller on the s e cor. of Eighty- 
fourth St. and Second Ave., at a cost of about $140,- 

At. Nos. 68, 70 and 72 Norfolk St., 3 flve-st'y brick 
and stone tenements, 25' x 86' each, are to be built 
for Mr. S. J. Silberraan, at a cost of $60,000; from 
plans of Mr. W. Graul. 

FACTORY. On the ss of Forty first St., e of Tenth 

Ave., a seven-st'y iron front building 75' x 75', is to 

be erected for Mr. P. Pyribil, at a costof about $50,- 

000; from designs of Mr. Albert Wagner. 

BUILDING PERMITS. - Fifty-Jlflh St., n w corner 

Eleventh Ave., five-st'y brick tenement and store, 
tio roof; cost, $18,000; owner, James Brooks, 373 
West Fifty-sixth St.; architect, John F. Wilson. 

Eleventh Ave., w s. 25' 5" n Fifty-fifth St., flve-st'y 
brick tenement and store, tin roof j cost, $14,000; 
owner and architect, same as last. 

Twenty-second St.. n s, 117' 4" w Ave. A, five-st'y 
brick warehouse and factory, gravel roof; cost, $25,- 
000; owner, Carl H. Schultz, 76 University St.; ar- 
chitect, Ed. E. Rant. 

Seventy-second St., n s, 51' 2" e First Ave., five-st'y 
brick tenement, tin roof; cost, $15,000; owners, Ph. 
and Wiu. Ebling, St. Anns Ave. and One Hundred 
and Fifty-sixth St.; architects, Pfund & Son. 

Seventy-second St., n s, 76' 6" e First Ave., 2 tive- 
st'y brown-stone front tenements, tin roofs; cost, 
each, $12,000; owner and architect, same as last. 

Bleecker St., No. 95, six-st'y brick warehouse, tin 
roof; cost, $50,000; owner, Joseph Andrade, Lon- 
don, Eng.; architects, Alfred Zucker & <;. 

East Forty-third St., No. 203, five-st'y brick tene- 
ment and store, tin roof; cost, $15,000; owners, Hart- 
ley and Win. Haigb, 139 East Forty-third St.; archi- 
tects, D. & J. Jardine; builder, Wm. Haigh. 

Ninety-second St., n s, 130' w Fourth Ave., three- 
st'y brown-stone front dwell., tin roof; cost, $15,000; 
owner, Jacob Wicks, Sr., 508 East Eighty-seventh 
St.; architect, John Brandt. 

One Hundred and Forty-sixth St., n s, 400' e Tenth 
Ave., two-st'y brick dwell., tin roof; cost, $7,000; 
owner, Clifford Barbee, 207 West Fourteenth St., 
architect, Henry Fouehaux. 

Franklin St., No. 184, six-st'y brick tenement, tin 
roof; cost, $12,000; owner, Louis Meyers, on prem- 
ises; architect, Louis Meystre. 

West Forty -eighth St., No, 402J, five-st'y brick ten- 
ement, tin roof; cost, $5,000; owner. Simon Kay, 363 
West Forty-eighth St.; architect, M. C. Merriu. 

Deiancey St., s s, 25' w sheriff St., 2 five-st'y brick 
tenements, tin roofs; cost, each, $12,000; owner, 
Mark Riualdo, 220 East Thirty-third St.; architects, 
A. B. Ogden & Son. 

Norfolk St., Nos. 116 and 118, 2 five-st'y brick ten- 
ements, tin roofs; cost, each, 14,000; owner, Jacob 
Raichle, 227 William St.; architect, Julius Boekell. 

Ninth Ave.,n w cor. Ninety-fourth St., and s w 
cor. Ninoty-tifth St., 2 four-st'y brick tenements and 
stores, tin roofs; cost, each, $14,000; owner, John M. 
Pinkney, 716 Madison Ave.; architect, J. H. Valen- 

Ninth Ave., w s, 22' n Ninety-fourth St., 8 four-st'y 
tenements and store, tin roofs; cost, each, $13,000; 
owner and architect, same as last. 

East One Hundred and Fifty-second St., No. 628, 
three-st'y brick aud frame tenement, tin roof; cost, 
$5,000; owner and builder, Mattheus Meusch, on 
premises; architect, Chas. W. Wilier. 

Houston St., s e cor. Crosby St., seven-st'y brick 
warehouse and factory, tin roof; cost, $85,000; own- 
ers. G. Sidenberg & Co., 49 Mercer St.; architects, 
Alfred Zucker & Co., 346 Broadway. 
ALTERATIONS. One Hundred and 'Twenty^ninth St., 
n w cor. Tenth Ave., four-st'y brick extension to 
Grammar School, tin and slate roof; cost, $85,000; 
owner, City of New York, S. A. Walker, President 
Board of Education, 8 East Thirtieth St.; architect, 
D. J. Stagg, 146 Grand St.; builder, Joseph Spears. 

Third Ace., e s, 200' n One Hundred and Sixty- 
ninth St., four-st'y extension (on front) to Grammar 
School No. 61, tin and slate root; cost, 85,000; own- 
er and architect, same as last; builder, Thos. Over- 

Thomas St., Nos. 11 and 13, and 82 and 84 Worth 
St., three-st'y brick extension, iron and glass roof; 
cost, $4,000; owner, New York lieal Estate Associa- 
tion, G. P. Slade, treasurer, 110 Leonard St.; archi- 
tect, Richard Berger; builder, Wm. Slade. 

Third Ave., No. 1515, three-st'y brick extension, 
tin roof; cost, $5,000; owner, Louis Braecht, 1493 
Third Ave.; architect, John Brandt. 

West Fifty-third St., No. 45, repair damage by 
fire; cost, $5,000; owner, estate John S. Giles, 174. 
Canal St.; builders, James Hamel & Son. 

Broadway, Nos. 177 and 179, take out part of cen- 
tre wall on each floor to connect building, rearrange 
rooms, new stairs, elevator; cost, $20,000; owner, 
Geomauia Fire Insurance Co., 176 Broadway; archi- 
tect, Ferdinand Fish; builders, L. N. Crow and Ham- 
ilton & Henry. 

Broadway, No. 697, five-st'y brick extension (on 
lotfc ('-93 and 695 Broadway), tin roof; cost, $3>,000; 
owners and architects, Maciay & Oavies. 120 and 697 
Broa (way; builders, Win. Haigh and James H. 


Oermantfm Ave., No. 3046, three-st'y store, 14' x 
50'; Gottlieb Blenzinger, contractor. 

Sumac St., e of Kidge Ave., two-st'y store and 
dwell., IS' x 60'; A. A. Hariner, owner. 

St. Louis. 

BUILDING PERMITS. Fourteen permits have been 
issued since our last report four of which are for 
unimportant frame houses. Of the rest, those worth 
$ 2,500 and over are as follows: 

C. F. Buermann, two-st'y double dwell.; cost, $2,- 
500; W. W. Love, contractor. 

C. F. Buermanu, 3 adjacent two-st'y dwells.; cost, 
$3.(K)0; W. W. Love, contractor. 

Monk, three-st'y stores and tenements; coat, $3,- 
000; G. L Barnett, architects; sub-let. 

Jno, B. Link, two-st'y dwell.; cost, $3,000; J. H. 
Frye, contractor. 

E. Beggemon, double two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, 
$4,000; C. Sinnentkohl & Co., contractors. 

Mrs. D. Poertner, 2 adjacent two-st'y dwells.; cost, 
$3,500; C. H. Poertner, contractor, 
General Notes. 

CHARLESTON, S. C. The following permits were Is- 
sued during the month of January, 1886, for the 
erection of new buildings and the improvement of 
old buildings in the city; 

New buildings, 40 permits; reported cost, $34, 07/1. 

Old buildings improved, 9 permits; reported cost, 

Total permits for January, 1885, 49: total cost, 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 476. 

The report (or the same period of 1884 was 43 per- 
mits, and the reported cost, S27.U75. 

Mr W F. Carter has a contract to build 1 houses 
for Mr. S. .1. L. Matthews, 2 at the cor. of Tradd 
and Friend Sts., and 5 ou tne cor. of Tradd and Lune- 

EAU CLAIRE. Wis. Architect Radcliff of St. Paul 
has been selected by Rev. Father Collins, of St. 
Patrick's Church, to execute the plans for the new 
church to be erected the coming season. 

ELLENU VLB, DAK. A public meeting has been held 
at Kllendale, and a bonus of 2.>,000in promises and 
laii'l offered for the location of the peripatetic cap- 
ital at that place. 

HisriNos MINN. Arrangements have been made 
air I contracts signed lor the buildings of a large 
pork packing establishment on the river front at 
Hastings. It will bj ready for use next fall. 

NBWPURI', K. I. The City of Newport, U. I., have ac- 
cepted pUns for ttre engine-house and ward room, to 
be located in Third Ward; S. S. Ward, architect, 

RFD Wise MINN. Among the many residences to be 
built the coming summer is a costly one by Hon. 
William Eisenbrand. 

BOCHESI-ER, N. Y. Plans are being prepared for a 
malt-house for the Genesea Brewerv, to be built 
cor. of Kace and Cataract Sts, its cost, $25,000; O. 
Knebel, architect. 

The recent jail competition-work of preparing 
plans, has been awarded to Warner & Brockett ar- 
chitects; building to cost, S67.8W. 


[At Scranton, Pa.] 


SCRANTON, PA., January 24, 1885. 

Sealed proposals for the erection and completion of 
a county jail for Lackawaun* County, to be located on 
the corner of Washington Ave. and New York St., in 
the city of Scranton, Pa., will be received by the 
undersigned Commissioners of said county, at their 
office until Thursday, February 8;i, 1885, at IO 
o'clock in the forenoon. Plans and specifications 
will be on file at the court-house in the city of Scran- 
ton, on and after Tuesday, January 27, 1885. The 
milder to whom the contract shall be awarded will be 
required to enter into bonds with at least two approved 
sureties for the sum of $20,001, for the faitutul per- 
formance of the contract. Work to be commenced 
within thirty days after the awarding of the contract, 
and to be finished on or before April I, 1887. 

The Commissioners reserve the right to reject any 
or all bids. WM. FKANZ, 


County Commissioners. 
Attest: D. W. POWELL, Clerk. 478 




^_j [At Clarlnda, Io.] 

CLARINDA, Io., January 9, 1885. 

Sealed Proposals for building a court-house at Clar- 
inda Pae County, Io., will be received at my ofllce 
until la o'clock, noon, Wednesday, February 
18ttt, 1885. Plans and specifications will be on file 
at the court-house iu Clarlnda, on and after February 
1 and may be seen prior to that time at the office of 
Foster & Liebbe, Architects, Des Moines In. 

The right is reserved to reject any or all bids. 

Bv order of the Board of Supervisors. 

4$ R. II. LYMER, Auditor. 

[At Erie, Pa.] 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 27, 1885. ) 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
8 p. M., on the 28th day of February, 1885, tor 
furnishing and setting all the stone and brick work 
for the superstructure of the court-house, post-office, 
etc., at Erie, Pa., in accordance with specifications ami 
drawings, copies of which may be seen and any addi- 
tional information obtained at this office or the office 
of the local superintendent of the building. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
- M. E. BELL, 

[At Morgan, O.] 

Sealed proposals will be received by the Board of 
Education of Morgan Township, Butler County, O., 
for the building of a brick school-house in Sub- District 
No. 4, of said Township, until 18 o'clock, noon, of 
the 12th day of February, 1885. 

Said board reserves the right to reject any or all 

Plans and specifications can be seen at the Township 
Clerk's Office in Okeana. 476 


Supervising Architect. 


( [At Cincinnati, O.] 


CINCINNATI, January 21, 1885. ) 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
9 1-8 o'clock, A. M., on Saturday, February 7, 
1885, for furnishing the carpenter and joiner work m 
rebuilding the court-house in Hamilton County, O., 
according to plans and specifications on file at this 
office and at the office of James W. McLaughlin, 
architect, Nos. 46 and 47 Johnston Building. The 
bids must be made on the blanks that will be fur- 
nished on demand by said Board. 

The Board reserves the right to reject any and all 
bids. By order of the Board. 
479 J. CLIFFORD GOULD, Clerk. 

[At Great Kanawha River, W, Va.] 
BALTIMORE, JlD., January 24, 18*5. f 

Proposals for the iron-work of the pass of a movable 
dam on the Great Kanawha Kiver, West Virginia, lour 
miles below Charleston, embracing about'O 
pounds of wrought, and 97,0011 pounds at cast-Iron, will 
be received at the U. S. Engineer Office. Charleston, 
Kanawha County, West Virginia, until noon of Feb- 
ruary 14, I8H5, and opened immediately thereafter. 

Specifications can be had upon application to Mr. A. 
M. Scott, Assistant Engineer at Charleston. Drawings 
will be exhibited and all necessary information given 
at the Charleston office. ^ p CRAIG[nLL> 

477 Lt.-Col. of Eug'rs, U. S. Army. 


[At Providence, R. I ] 

PROVIDENCE, K. I., Janutry 27, 1885. 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office un- 
til 11 o'clock. A.M., Tuesday, February 10, 1885, 
for furnishing the following sizes of cast-irou water- 

Five hundred tons of 2240 pounds, six inches in di- 

Three hundred tons of 2240 pounds, eight iuches in 

To be delivered on wharf in this city. 
The delivery to commence on or before May 1, and 
to be completed on or before August 1, 188."). 

A bond satisfactory to the Board in the sum of eight 
lundred dollars, as liquidated damages, for failure to 
execute the contract within ten days, if awarded, will 
be required of each bidder, and a satisfactory bond in 
the SU'U of five thousand dollars conditioned upon the 
faithful fulfilment of the contract, will be required 
of the successful bidder. 

Specifications and forms of contract and of proposals 
lay be obtained on application at this office. 
The Board reserve the right to reject any or all bids. 
476 Board of Public Works. 

[At Farmington, Me.] 

January 26, 1885. 
Sealed proposals will be received at the Clerk of 
Courts Office, Farmington, Me., until 12 o'clock, M., 
Tuesday, February 17, 1885, tor furnishing the 
materials and erecting a court-house for Franklin 
County, at Farmington, Me. 

Plans and specifications may be examined and all 
information obtained at the Clerk's office in Farming- 
ton and at the office of U. M. Coombs, architect, Lew- 
iston, Me. 

Proposals will be received for the whole or a part of 
the work and materials. 
The right is reserved to reject any or all bids. 

F. W. PATTERSON, J County 

477 S? A K IA WEL"MAN, j Commissioners. 

[At Lynchburgh, Va.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C.. January 27, 1885. ) 
a p. M., on the 26th day of February, 1885, for 

furnishing the labor and material, bricks, terra-cotta, 
stone, mortar, etc., and building complete the ma- 
sonry of the walls of basement and superstructure of 
the court-house, post-office, etc., building at l.ynch- 
burgh, Va., in accordance with drawings and specifica- 
tions, copies of which may be seen and any additional 
information obtained ou application at this office or 
the office of the superintendent. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

47G Supervising Architect. 

[At Preston, Mlnn.l 
PBESTON, January 9, 188B. 

The Cou ity Commissioners of the County of Fill- 
more in the State of Minnesota, will receive sealed 
prop>sals until the 83th day of March, 1885, 
at 12 o'clock, M., at the office of the county audi- 
tor, in, tne village of Preston, said county, for the 
remodeling of the county court-house in said village, 
and the building of 2 two-st'y bricn additions thereto, 
and iron vaults therein, and the furnishing all mate- 
rials, iu accordance with the plans and specifications 
therefor on file in the office of said auditor, which ctu 
also be seen at tbe ofllce of May berry & Sou, archi- 
tects, Winoua, Minnesota. 

No bids will be received except for the whole build- 
ing complete as specified. 

The successful bidder will be required to give a suf- 
ficient bond with sureties, within a reasonable time to 
be fixed by said commissioners, iu the sum of 15,000. 
to be approved by said commissioners, conditioned 
upon the faithful performance of his contract. 

Each bid must be accompanied by a sufficient bjnd 
with sureties, or a duly certified check payable to said 
county in a sum of at le-tst five per cent of such bid, 
C mditioned upon tbe giving the bond above specified 
within the lime so fixed, provided such bid should bn 
accepted. The work will cost several thousand d d- 
lars. and must be completed o;i or before the first day 
of November, 1885. Riuht reserved to reject any or all 
blda. J. tt. MINErl, 

Chairman Board of County Commissioners. 
Attest: G. A. HAYES, County Auditor. 

[At Boston, Mass.] 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
18 o'clock, M., of Thursday, the 12th day of 
February, 1885, to be endorsed ' Proposals for Cast- 
iron Water-Pipes for the Cochituate Department," 
and at that time and place they will be publicly 
opened and read. 

Bidders are required to state in their proposals 
their names and places of residence. 

Each bid must be signed by the bidder and accom- 
panied by a written bond of a responsible person, 
giving his place of business or residence, and condi- 
tioned for the execution of the contract (with satisfac- 
tory security for its performance) witbin the time 
specified in this advertisement in case the bid be 
accepted, or iu lieu of the bond aforesaid, a sum of 
money or other satisfactory collateral security in the 
&ame amount may be deposited with said Water 

The amount of the bond required with the bid is 

The person to whom the contract may be awarded 
will be required to execute the contract within four 
days (not including Sunday) from the date of notifica- 
tion of such award and the preparation and readiness 
for signature of the contract. 

The delivery of the pipes on each contract to com- 
mence on or before April 15, 1885, and to be completed 
ou the 15th day of August, 1885. 

The estimate of quantities required and by which 
the bids will be compared is as follows: 
20 tons 4. inch pipe, class B. 
52 tons 6-inch pipe, class B. 
425 tons 8-inch pipe, class B. 
165 tons 12-inch pipe, class A. 
700 tons 12-inch pipe, class B. 
120 tons 16-inch pipe, class A. 
70 tons special castings. 

Specifications may be obtained and plans seen a 
the office of the City Engineer, City Hall, Boston. 

The amount of security required will be such sun 
as may be fixed by the Water Board after the pro 
posals are opened; said sum not to be less than one 
fourth nor more than one-half of the amount of th 

The sureties of the bond for the contract must b 
residents of Massachusetts. 

The Water Board reserves the right to reject any o 
all proposals, should it deem it to be for the interes 1 
of the city of Boston so to do. 470 

ERS. [At Washington, D. C.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C.. January 22, 1885. ) 

Separate sealed proposals for furnishing and deliv- 
ring the rolled-iron beams and sixteen plate girders 
equired for four floors of the west and centre wings 
f the Building for the State, War and Navy Depart- 
ments in this city will be received at this office until 
8 M.. on February 17, 1885, and opened immedi- 
ately thereafter, in presence of bidders. 
Specifications, general instructions to bidders, and 
'lank forms of proposal, for either the beams or the 
;irders, will be furnished to established manufao- 
urers on application to this office. 

476 Colonel, Corps of Engineers. 


"j [At Harrlsonburg, A a.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 10, 1*85. ) 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
8 o'clock. P. M., on the 24th day of February, 
188"> for furnishing all the labor and materials, in- 
cluding stone, bricks, woodwork, etc., required for the 
construction of the court house, etc., building at Har- 
risonburg, Va., in accordance with drawings and 
specifications, copies "f which, and any additional in- 
formation may be obtained on application at this 
office or the otftce of the superintendent, on and after 
January 23, 1885. 

Bids mut be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening wiU not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

476 Supervising Architect. 

[At Troy, O.] 
TROY, MIAMI Co.. O., January 3, 1885. I 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
12 o'clock, noon, of February 11, 1885, for fur- 
nishing all the material aud performing the labor nec- 
essary to erect a new court-house at Troy, iu said 
County, according to plans and specifications on file 
at this office. 

Bids must be made according to law, and must be 
accompanied by a bond (to be approved by the Board 
of Commissioners) tor at least twenty-five per cent of 
the amountof the bid; the bond to be conditioned that 
if work is awarded, a proper bond and contract will be 
entered into. 

The Commissioners reserve the right to reject any 
or all bids. 

Blanks for bids and bonds can be had at this office, or 

at the office of -I. W. Yost, architect, at Columbus, O. 

Bids must be endorsed " Bid for Court-House," and 

addressed to HOKATIO PEARSON. 

476 County Auditor, Troy, O. 

Ro. 476 




(Ro Model.) 


C. L. 


No. 277,952. 

SPECIFICATION forming pturf of Letters Patent Ho. 877,952, dated Ufay 23. 1883. 

Application filed Mj 3. 1B82. (Ko model.) 

To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, O. LEO STAUB, a citizen 
of Switzerland, residing at Pittsbnrg, in the 
county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylva- 
5 nia, have invented certain new and useful Im- 
provements in Fire and Water Proof Struct- 
ures; and I do hereby declare the following to 
be a full, clear, and exact description thereof, 
reference being had to theaccompanyingdraw- 

10 ings, in which 

Figaro 1 on Sheet 1 indicates a section of a 
fire and water proof floor and ceiling having 
separators fitted between the joists to divide 
the long air-space into compartments. Fig. 

i.- 2 on Sheet 1 indicates a plan of the joists, 
separators, and compartments of the floor 
shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 indicates a vertical 
section through a hollow partition, and Fig. 4 
on Sheet 1 indicates a horizontal section of 

20 the same with separators. Fig. 5 on Sheet 1 
indicates a section through a strong fire and 
water proof floor, with open but protected joists 
or beams. Fig. 6 indicates a section through 
another fire and water proof floor, and Fig. 7 

25 represents the plan of the top of the same. 
Fig. 8 indicates a sectional view of flooring, 
and illustrates a mode of fastening the same 
through the sheet metal to the sheathing or 
lower boards. 

30 In Sheet 2, Fig. I" indicates a cross-sec- 
tion of a doable fire-wall door, shatter, and 
elevator-hatchway door. Fig. 2" indicates a 
section of a light-paneled partition. Fig. 3" 
indicates an elevation of tbe same. Figs. 4" 

35 and 5" indicate, respectively, a vertical and a 
horizontal section of an incased rolled -iron 
beam tW supporting' 'the floor. Fig. 6" indi- 
cates a horizontal section through a protected 
cast-iron column. Fig. 7" indicates the sec- 

40 tion of a corner for a safe vault constructed of 
wood and sheet metal. Fig. 8" indicates a de- 
tail drawing of a construction of the same. 

Like letters of reference indicate like parts 
wherever they occur. 

45 The object of my invention is to produce 
fire and water proof structures such as build- 
ings, ships, steamboats, freight-cars, furni- 
ture, and safe-vaults, &c in a cheap, durable, 
economical, and efficient manner; and this ob- 

50 ject I have iully obtained by applying sheet 
metal entirely inclosed or incased with wood, 
and made aa air-tight as possible, to such con- 

structions, in the uiiuinfir hereinafter set forth. 

Heretofore, so far as I am aware, sheet metal 
has not been nsed in such a manner as to 55 
bring It up to the high standard it deserves as 
a protector against elementary influences. 
Generally it baa been exposed directly to the 
action of fire, water, and air. Consequently, be- 
ing a gwd conductor of heat, it offers little or 110 60 
protection against fire when used as a coveriug 
for doors, shutters, &c. T for experience liaa de- 
monstrated that heavy wooden doors will keep 
the fire off for a longer time, on account of the 
non-conducting and slow-burning properties 65 
of such material, than it cau be kept off by 
the use of ordinary iron-covered wooden doors, 
and when account is had of tbe facts that the 
metal in such cases is exposed directly to the 
decomposing influences of the air, water, and 70 . 
violence and to the general damage done by fire 
violence, sheet metal must be considered as 
the shortest-living building material. 

ID regular fire-proof buildings composed of 
incombustible materials, the iron beams and 75 
girders, which are inclosed and vaulted iu be- 
tween with brick, terra-cotta, hollow tiles, con - 
crete, &c., are subject to great expansion when 
exposed to a fierce, and thus cause a 
movement of tlie walls and the ultimate col- So 
lapse of tlio fire-proof floor-arches. In order 
to overcome this and the defects previously 
referred to, I propose, in the nse of my inven- 
tion, to protect or entirely inclose the sheet 
metal with wood that is, on both surfaces, 85 
and on the end with wood as air-tight 03 pos- 
sible so that it may serve for a lon<j time 
th rough itssplendifl capacities viz., first, us an 
air-tight material by taking off from the fire Us 
greatest power that is, the draft; second, asn go 
water-tight material to save buildings and 
stored goods from damage from water, which 
is often greater than that caused by fire; third, 
to rtilize its resistible strength and durability 
to fortify and stiffen constructions; fourth, to 95 
utilize its properties as a casing for girders, 
beams, columns, stoue work, &c., which are $ 
liable to great expansion from the influence of 
heat, and to rupture or disintegration from wa- 
ter during conflagrations. ico 

In the drawings, Fig. 1 indicates a water- 
proof floor and fire-proof ceiling. 

B indicates the flooring-boards, which are 
planed on all sides and are nailed to the Joists 




/ J' 



^ tj 


~" j 


C ^ 

LU" 1 ~~IU~ 

3 1 S 



J while laid diagonally. L indicates rectan- 
gular plates of sheet-lead, which are laid in 
between the sheathing and flooring-boards, like 
flags that is, their edges are not lapped over, 
5 but border each other and these sheets L are 
soldered together at the joints to form a con- 
tinuous level surface. The object of this ar- 
rangement is as follows : Lead will not corrode 
by the action of water ; second, the sheets may 

10 be readily soldered together, so that the water 
maybe entirely prevented from passing down- 
ward and injuring the ceiling; third, as the 
lead sheets do not lap each other their surface 
, is level, allowing the boards to be readily and 

15 tightly screwed together, preveutingair-spaces 
between them, and the lead is noiseless when 
persons are walking or goods are moved over 
the floor ; and, finally, as the flooring rests up- 
on a smooth level surface of sheet-load it is 

20 prevented from springing or yielding daring 
the movement of persons or goods over it. 
tjonsequeutly its fastenings are not loosened, 
and greater durability is obtained. 

In the construction of the ceiling, plates 8, of 
hard metal as sheet-iron, steel, copper, &c. 
are laid in a similar manner, and are fastened 
to the boards ]i with nails or screws, the joints 
being filled up to a level with iron or other 
hard and binding putty. 

30 F indicates the boards which form the upper 
portion of the floor and the lower portion of 
the ceiling. These boards F are laid rectangu- 
lar to the joists and are planed on all sides, bat 
are not tongaedand grooved iu the usual way, 

35 bat in the manner shown in Fig. 8, the tongue 
having a little more than the donble length at 
its top, in order to allow tho nails to be driven 
perpendicularly through the sheet metal, and 
not slant, as in the nsual manner, as otherwise 

40 the nails are apt to bend on the surface of tbe 
sheets and prevent an air-tight joint between 
the boards and the metallic sheets. In secur- 
ing these boards F screws are always pre- 
ferred, as it is easier to secure a very tight 

45 joint with the plates. 

It is evident tbat the application of toy im- 
proved form of floors and ceilings to old or 
new buildings would afford considerable pro- 
tection against damage by the action of fire 

50 and water; bu.t the long air-spaces between 
tbe joists and the studding of the nsual hol- 
low partition form a terribly dangerous row of 
flues, and to this cause is due the rapid and 
unexpected spread of fires, so destructive not 

55 only toproperty,bntalao to human life. There- 
fore I break up these flues by dividing these 
long air-spaces into short compartment* A by 
means of separators D, which are each formed 
of two pieces of board planed on all sides and 

Co inclosing a hard sheet-metal plate, S, of tbe 
same size between. To fix tho position of the 
separators correctly, small pieces of wood, a, are 
nailed to the joists, and tbe separators D are 
nailed aslant, to the joists against them, as is 

65 indicated clearly by tbe plan view of tho joists 
shown by Fig. 2. The top and bottom of the 
joists, as well as the joints formed with the 

separators, shonld be planed smoothly to get 
rid of dangerous air-spaces, for it must be un- 
derstood that usually the jointsformed between 
rough-sawed timbers leave from one to three 
sixteenths of an inch, which is sufliciont to ad tni i 
the headway of the flames. The hollow parti- 
tion shown in Figs. 3 and 4 is constructed upon 
the same principle. In tbe plan view, Fig. 4, ' 
T indicates the studding, which are to be 
planed on both sides against the boarding and 
on the joints formed with tbe separators D. 
These separators render the floors far stronger 
and stiffer than the usual way of cross-bridg- i 
ing, and the compartments A retard, break 
up, and deaden sound, thus taking up the place 
of tbe nsual deafening materials, which often 
cause moisture and decay of the wood-work. 
The air-spaces between tbe carriages or suit- .' 
porting-joists of wooden stairways should also 
be divided into similar compartments and bave 
tbe under side ceiled np, as shown in Fig. 1. 

In Fig. 5 a fire-proof and water-proof floor, 
forming a ceiling and roof, also is shown. < 
This is made of three layers of boards with 
two intermediate layers of sheet metal viz., 
lead sheet L on top, for the hereinbefore-de- 
scribed purpose of affording a noiseless and in- 
elastic casing, and steel, iron, copper, &c., < 
sheet S below, laid exactly as before described. 
The heavy timbers J, forming the joists or 
beams, are protected air-tight with the hard- 
metal sheets S and the boards B; but this 
shonld only be done with thoroughly dry and i 
seasoned timber, as otherwise it would caasc 
decay or dry-rot. This inclosing with hard 
sheet metal and wooden boards should be ap- 
plied as a protection to all wooden posts, col- 
umns, and heavy or combination beams and i 
girders, and in particular where they are con- 
stantly exposed to moisture. The construc- 
tion shown in Fig. G can also be used as a deck 
for ateam boats and ships when the joists J are 
carved at the top, or are replaced by curved i 
iron beams protected as shown by Fig. 4" on 
Sheet 2. 

In Fig. C, which shows another form of flre 
and water proof floor, ceiling, and roof, the 
ttmgoed and grooved boards F are laid diag- i 
onally and nailed or screwed to the rafters, 
joists, or beams. S indicates tho hard sheet- 
metal layer, as before. P are wooden boards, 
from ten to eighteen inches wide, planed on all 
sides, with rabbeted ends and sides to receive, i 
first, a lead plate, L, to make the floor water- 
proof by covering the joints of the wide boards 
P, and to then receive a hard-wood strip, H, of 
a trapezoidal form, so that a tight joint may 
be had when the latter is screwed down to the i 
lower boards. Fig. 7 shows the top of ibis 
floor and the cross-grained joints & of the 
boards P, covered in the same way, so that an 
ornamental as well as a water and air tight 
surface and joint is secured. i 

Where the end or edges of the floors and 
partitions do not ran against wood-work they 
should be provided with a grooved wooden 
frame, C, as shown in Fig. 1", Sheet 2, so that 

(No Modol.) 

C. L. 


No. 277,952. 

/' / 


8 Sheets Sheet 1. 


Patented May 22,1883. 



f* *Z 


2 Sheets Sheet 2. 



Patented May 22, 1883. 


the sheet metal may bo entirely inclosed iu 

As it is important that particular care should 
be taken in the construction of doors, fire- 

, walls, outside and inside shatters in ware- 
houses, &c., and to close the elevators, shafts, 
and hatchways at each floor, i form a doable 
door, as shown in Fig. 1", Sheet 2, of three 
thicknesses of wood, B, and two intermediate 

i plates, S, of hard sheet metal, the edges being 
protected on all sides by a grooved piece of 
hard wood, C, screwed and glued to the boards 
B, and the latter arc joined together by screws 
or nails, as represented by Fig. S", same sheet, 

; their heads being couceated and covered with 
putty p. This kind of fastening should bcap- 
pliod to each and nil constructions, except in 
cases where other kinds are s|>ecincally men- 

. When thin portions of wood are used to form 
the cabins, berths, and balk-heads for passen- 
gers and crews of iron steamships and steam- 
boats, as is usually tho case, they become ex- 
ceedingly dangerous, forming a row of tinder- 

; boxes to feed the fire. Ilence they und the 
doors and simurrs use'il in said rooms should 
be built as shown in Figs. 2" and 3". (Shown 
on Shoot 2.) 

Freight-cars and their partitions may hi- 

j built in the satin- way, and may be provided 
with floors, as represented in Figs. 1 and Con 
Sheet 1, this mode forming thin ami safe par- 
titions when put upright, the outer boards be- 
ing set perpendicular, and tho inner boards 

, horizontal. TLeroof of thocnrma.v beformcd 
substantially in the same way, and the usual 
rooling may be fastened to it to protect tho 

Iron constructions in general :is cast-iron 

. columns, piers, rolled and wrought iron beams, 
girders, trusses, &c. should bo entirely pro- 
tected with wood, or they ami tho structure 
which they support cannot be regarded AS safe. 
For this reason I propose to protect beams 

; as shown in Figs. 4" and 5" of Sheet 2, in 
which ',' indicates pieces of wood planed on 
all sides and fastened to the beams E by nit-aus 
of the bolts 0. As the iron beams have too 
rough a surface to allow the formation of air- 

- tight joints, thespaces should be filled up with 
the putty p. A strong top board, It, should 
be spiked or screwed down onto the pieces Q 
to receive the flooring. 

In cases of conflagrations, cast-iron piers 
; and columns supporting whole store -houses, 
&c. t become very hot, and when cold water is 
thrown upon them they are bound to burst, on 
account of the sudden and unequal reduction, 
of iheir tojtiperatiire and the consequent uu- 

- rqiul shrinkage, thus causing the entire de- 
struction of the buildiug and its contents. 
Hence I protect them as shown in Fig. 0" on 
Sheet?- Tfio cast Iron column E is incased 
first by the boards <j and , which are planed 

; anrt rabbeted. \Vbilo the boards n are grasp- 
ing Hie boaru> <j with theit rabbet, the bolts 

</ running through the cast-iron readers the 
whole tiling solid and air-tight The sheet 
metal S is then placed in position, and the 
outer boards are then secured, as shown by 70 
Fig. S, care being had, however, that the sheet 
metal is first screwed or nailed into position 
as air-tight as possible. The side walls, piers, 
&c., are subject to explosion during a fire, if 
they are built of granite, and, if built of lime 75 
and other stones that cannot stand tho fire, 
should be effectually protected through this 

In Fig. 7" a section of a comer of a safe- vault 
for buildings is shown, tuevanlt being built So 
with hard wood and inclosed sheet metal, S S 8 
indicating the outer layers of metal, sheet or 
plate steel being used iu this instance, and L 
indicating the inner layer of sheet-lead. Said 
inner sheets of lead, L, are used for the pur- 85 
pose of rendering possible the movement of 
articles within the vault wiM-ont noise or 
springing of the sheets. The hard - wood 
tongued and grooved Inmnls are laid rectan- 
gular alternately, and are bound at tho ear- 90 
HOTS by dovetailing d. I u order to hold the 
wood and metal layers air-tight together, small 
and largo bolts are applied in such a man- 
ner that if the outer layers were to become de- 
stroyed by fire the inner portion would still 95 
form a water and fire proof vault, being se- 
cured by the smaller bolts. The outside hard 
wooden boards, F, will be fastened OK is shown 
in Fig k S". All the bolts should grasp tho steel 
plates directly with their heads, and the lat- 100 
ter are to bo protected by hard-wood pieces ft, 
glued or puttied to the boards F. Tho doors 
of such vaults should be constructed in the 
same way; but all the rabbeted edges must 
be covered with hardwood to entirely cover 105 
the sheet metal on all sides, and to prevent 
the fire from attacking the steel and lead 
plates directly at their edges. 

I am aware that it has been proposed to 
form a fire-proof floor by means of layers of no 
boards ami intermediate layers of sheet-iron 
lapped at tho edges; but such a construction 
could not answer the purpose of my improve- 
ment on account of the following reasons: 
First, as the edges are lapped, tho flooring 115 
would rest on the double thickness at the 
joints, and would give elsewhere when per- 
sons or goods moved over its surface, and this 
springing would soon loosen the fastenings 
aud allow Urn upper boards to get out of place; 120 
second, the flooring would bo liable to spring 
and open up at the ends of the boards, thus 
allowing water used for cleaning, &c., to sink 
down outo the metal, so that it would become 
destroyed in a very short time; third, the 125 
springing luotiou would cause the sheet-iron 
to give a noisy, disagreeable sound when per- 
sons or goods moved over the floor; fourth, 
the lapped edges are neither air nor water tight; 
und, finally, this construction leaves air- 130 
spaces between tho sheet metal aud the sheath- 
ing and flooring, which is a great defect, as 


the sheets will buckle at the ends and allow 
free access of air between them in case of a 
fire; but, 

Having described my invention, what I do 
5 claim, and desire to secare by Letters Patent, 
is . 

1. In the construction of fire-proof struct- 
ures, a fire-proof ceiling, panel, casing, or par- 
tition composed of two or more layers of 

10 boards enveloping an intermediate layer or 
layers of sheet metal, said sheets of metal be- 
ing laid with their edges bordering or adjacent 
to each other, and joined and arranged sub- 
stantially as specified, whereby close-fitting 

15 joints are secured between the layers, and air- 
spaces are avoided, substantially as and for 
the purpose set forth. 

2. In the construction of fire and water proof 
structures, a water-proof floor, roof, or casing 

20 composed of layers of boards inclosing an in- 
termediate metallic layer composed of sheets 
of lead laid with their edges bordering or ad- 
jacent to each other, and then soldered to- 
gether to form a water-tight surface, substan- 

25 tially as and for the purpose specified. 

3. In a fire-proof structure, the combination 
of a fire-proof ceiling composed of layers of 
boards enveloping an intermediate layer of 
sheets of iron or other hard metal, arranged 

30 with their edges bordering or adjacent to each 
other, and a water-proof floor composed of lay- 
ers of boards enveloping an intermediate layer 
of sheets of lead having their edges soldered 

together, constructed and arranged substan- 
tially aa and for the purpose specified. 35 

4. In the construction of fire-proof struct- 
ures, the combination of a fire - proof celling 
and water proof floor, constructed and ar- 
ranged as specified, with a series of separators 
which are each composed of pieces of wood 40 
enveloping a sheet of hard metal, and are ar- 
ranged between the joists to divide their long 
air-spaces into short compartments, substan- 
tially as and for the purpose herein set forth. 

5. Iu the construction of fire-proof buildings, 45 
the combination, with the floor and ceiling, of 

a series of separators which are each com- 
posed of layers of wood enveloping a sheet or 
plate of hard metal, and are arranged between 
the joists to divide their long air-spaces into 53 
short compartments, substantially as and for 
the purpose specified. 

6. In the construction of fire-proof buildings, 
a fire and water proof floor, ceiling, or roof 
composed of an upper and a lower layer of 55 
boards inclosing an intermediate layer of sheet- 
iron or other hard metal, the upper layer of 
boards having rabbeted sides and ends, which 
receive a strip of sheet-lead, L, and a hard- 
wood strip, H, constructed and arranged sab- 60 
stan tially as and for the purpose specified. 



-if. RKBSK. 



VOL. xvn. 

Copyright, 1886, JAMKS E. OSOOOD & Co., Boston, Masi. 

No. 477. 

FEBRUARY 14, 1885. 

Entered at the Post-Offlce at Boston as second-class matter. 



The Retirement of the New York Inspector of Buildings, Mr. 
Esterbrook. Method of heating the New Houses of Parlia- 
ment, Berlin. A Contractor and Architect disagreeing as 
to Methods, where lies the Responsibility * Liquidated 
Damages for Delay. Discovery of a New Explosive. A 

Mennonite Heater 73 






Convent of the Good Shepherd, New Orleans, La. Statues 
and Monuments of London. Prize Designs for the Public 
Library Building, Boston, Mass. Adams Express Com- 
pany's Building, Chicago, 111. Design for a House. ... 79 



Competitions. Incendiary Steam-Pipes. A List of Books. 

Continuous Brick Kilns. Combustible Churches. ... 80 

0NE of the most important events which has occurred in the 
building world within a week is the resignation of Mr. 
William P. Esterbrook of his office as Inspector of Build- 
ings for the City of New York, which he has administered 
for something like five years with a faithfulness and cour- 
age that have made him a conspicuous figure before the public 
.11 over the country. Happily, we are not called upon yet to 
write an obituary notice of him, and need not enter into the 
particulars of that useful life which is yet to be completed, we 
hope, by many years of such service to his fellow-citizen^ as he 
knows how to give ; but the occasion affords us an opportunity, 
which we are not sorry to take advantage of, for speaking of 
the office which Mr. Esterbrook's resignation has just left va- 
cant in an impersonal way, and with more freedom than would 
be proper under other circumstances. Although all our readers 
know something of the regulations under which buildings are 
constructed in New York, few, except architects practising in 
that city, understand fully the vexatious restrictions often im- 
posed by the present laws, which, although in the main well- 
considered and useful, were framed with special reference to a 
certain class of structures, and are singularly inelastic in their 
application to buildings of a different character. As a conse- 
quence of this, it is not too much to say that millions of dollars 
have been worse than thrown away in New York within the 
last ten years, with the full knowledge of the owner, architect, 
and building inspector, in piling up brick and mortar in places 
where they were not needed, and where they occupied, to no 
purpose, ground which had been paid for at a rate exceeding 
the cost even of the useless masonry piled upon it. Of course, 
this is not the fault of the inspector, who has simply to enforce 
the law as it stands, whether lie approves its provisions or not, 
but it brings upon him an immense amount of direct and indi- 
rect pressure, under the mistaken idea that he can in some way 
exercise a discretion which the law expressly takes away from 
him. An inspector can, even under such circumstances, quietly 
shut his eyes to the violation of the law in particular cases; but 
it ought not to be necessary to say that this is the wrong way 
of exercising official clemency, and that the only method fair 
to all parties is to enforce strictly the provisions of the statute 
until they shall have been changed by legislative enactment. 
To this, the only true ideal of official integrity, Mr. Ester- 
brook's administration was consistently faithful. Understand- 
ing, quite as well as any one, the inconveniences of the exist 
ing laws, he labored longer and more earnestly than any one 
else to have them modified for the better, and it has been mainly 
owing to the jealousies and interested machinations of contract- 
ors and real-estate owners that the very provisions which the 
inspector urged for the purpose of relieving them from a use- 
less burden have been repeatedly defeated. Wherever any 
discretion was allowed the inspector, it has been exercised, so 
far as we know, with uniform consideration for the best inter- 
est of all parties. Where the safety of the public was con- 
cerned, his decisions, although seldom, if ever, unreasonable. 

were enforced with a vigor for which the citizens of New York 
will long have reason to be thankful; but many architects can 
testify that in respect to other matters the practical wisdom 
and intelligence with which their plans were criticised was con- 
stantly accompanied with a courtesy in pointing out defects or 
oversights, and in suggesting the best and most economical way 
of making improvements, which won for him the respect and 
regard of those most capable of appreciating such qualities. 

TTTHE Builder gives an account of the prize scheme submitted 
JL for heating and ventilating the new German Parliament 
House at Berlin, which is interesting in many ways. The 
scheme proposed is very carefully studied, and is worthy, so 
far as we can judge from the brief description, to be associated 
with the admirable architecture of the building. Although the 
building is not a very large one, as such structures go, the 
characteristic German thoroughness with which the theoretical 
principles of perfect ventilation are applied may be inferred 
from the fact that each of the four inlet conduits which supplv 
fresh air to the building is thirteen feet wide by seven feet 
high ; while the two aspiration shafts which carry off foul air 
have together a sectional area of two hundred and fifteen square 
feet. Of course, the requisite quantity of air could be forced 
in and out through smaller channels, but only at a higher 
velocity, and with the production of objectionable currents, but 
these dimensions are intended to permit the velocity of the air 
in the conduits to be reduced to a maximum of two metres, or 
about six and one-half feet per second. This is only about four 
miles an hour, so that the unpleasant draughts from the regis- 
ters, which give so much annoyance in many buildings other- 
wise well ventilated, will be entirely obviated. For warming 
the air hot water is used, in connection with a partial steam 
service. The building is for this purpose divided into four sec- 
tions, and each of these again into two parts, each of which 
has its own independent boiler and system of pipes. In each 
section one boiler and pipe-system heats the offices, lavatories, 
libraries or reading-rooms and dwelling-rooms which may he 
included in that section, leaving the committee-rooms, ante- 
rooms and legislative-chambers to be warmed by separate boil- 
ers and pipes, which may be thrown out of service without 
interfering with the use of the rooms permanently occupied. 
The two sets of boilers and pipes in each section are, however, 
connected by valves, so that either boiler will warm the water 
in all the pipes of the section, if any accident should happen to 
the other. 

TT7IIE air to be warmed is taken partly from the street front, 
X and partly, by a curious fancy, from the basin of the foun- 
tain in the neighboring square. The fountain sends up a 
considerable stream of water and spray, and the movement of 
this, together with the cooling of the air by the evaporation 
of watery particles, has the effect of bringing down about 
the fountain a current of air from a considerable elevation, 
washed free of dust by the spray, and nearly saturated with 
moisture, which is easily abstracted for use in the building by 
means of openings around the walls of the basin. On reach- 
ing the building the air receives a preliminary warming by a 
coil of pipes in the inlet-channel, and is then filtered through 
porous cloths woven for the purpose, and further moistened by 
spray and evaporating surfaces. It then passes into a series of 
collecting chambers, one of which is situated under each room 
to be heated. Corresponding to each warm-air collecting- 
chamber is a cool-air chamber, separated from it by x a narrow 
passage-way, called the mixing passage, and simple sliding 
doors admit air in various proportions from each chamber to 
the mixing passage, from which it is delivered into the room 
above. In warm weather ice-water is to be made to circulate 
through the hot-water coils, in the expectation that the air will 
be cooled by it to an agreeable temperature. The removal of 
foul air is effected through passages corresponding with the 
fresh-air conduits, and leading to two immense shafts at the 
end of the building. The current in these is to be maintained 
by coils of steam-pipe through which either live or exhaust 
steam from the main engine can be carried, assisted by fans. 
The cost of the apparatus is estimated at one hundred and 
eighteen thousand dollars, and this is probably a low price 
for it. 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 477. 

of the questions which vex our builders and architects 
are very much like those that trouble their French fellows, 
and it is interesting to find that at least one of the super- 
stitions current among contractors in this country prevails also 
on the other side of the ocean. A correspondent of La Se- 
maine des Constructeurs recently asked advice on three points. 
In regard to the first, he explained that a contractor was 
directed by the written order of the architect of an important 
building to use iron tie-rods and anchors of a certain size. On 
reflection the contractor came to the conclusion that anchors of 
the specified size would not be strong enough, and he expressed 
this opinion in writing to the architect, notifying him that he 
would not be responsible for the consequences of using such 
inadequate materials. The architect replied, also in writing, 
that the ties were strong enough, and that he refused to accept 
the letter of the contractor. On preparing to excavate for the 
foundations of the same building, it was discovered that the 
ground was very soft, yielding, as shown by actual test, under 
a load of about fourteen hundred pounds to the square foot. 
The architect was applied to again, and ordered that a footing 
of concrete should be put in. As the intended building was to 
be of five stories, with walls eighty feet high, the contractor 
was, with reason, dissatisfied with this expedient for over- 
coming the difficulty, but, not venturing to disobey the archi- 
tect without fortifying himself by good authority, he inquired, 
first, what a contractor was bound to do in case obedience to 
the positive orders of the architect seemed to him dangerous ; 
and secondly, how he could, in carrying out such orders, re- 
lieve himself of responsibility for mishaps which might follow 
from obeying them. 

TITO the first of these questions the editor of La Semaine re- 
A plies that the architect, as master of the work, is solely 
responsible for the consequences of following out, not only 
his plans and specifications, but his directions, and so long as 
the contractor conforms properly to these his responsibility is 
not engaged at all. In cases where unexpected difficulties 
come from the nature of the soil the French rule is to hold the 
builder and architect jointly and equally responsible for dam- 
age resulting from their neglect to take the proper precautions 
against the consequences of this unforeseen contingency ; and 
in the opinion of the editor of La Semaine the builder has in 
this case the right to consult and argee with the architect as to 
the proper steps to be taken. If the architect is, like the one 
in question, both ignorant and obstinate, the builder has in 
such a case the right, as a last resort, to refuse to go on with 
the foundation, and, on notice to the proprietor, to require the 
appointment of an expert to determine what shall be done. 

IN the third case another correspondent of the paper asks 
whether the usual clause in contracts providing for the for- 
feiture by the builder of certain sums as liquidated damages 
in case of delay is valid, if no reciprocal promise is made by 
the proprietor. This is a point constantly discussed among 
contractors here, most of whom maintain that such a clause is 
invalid unless a promise is made by the owner to reward the 
contractor in some way for keeping his agreement in regard to 
the time of completion ; or, as we have often heard it ex- 
pressed, unless the owner agrees at the same time to pay to the 
contractor, for every day that the building may be completed 
before the specified time, the same sum that he would exact 
from him for delay after that period. It is interesting to note 
that the French law, which is on this point the same as ours, 
holds that a clause in a building contract which provides for the 
payment of damages by the builder in case of delay is to be 
regarded as the expression of the voluntary intention of both 
parties, and maintained by courts, with the single reservation 
that the court may determine the actual number of days by 
which the completion of the work was delayed through the 
contractor's fault. 

TT NEW explosive has b,een discovered by M. Boca, a French 
rj engineer, who communicates an account of it to Le Genie 
' Civil. The discovery was due entirely to scientific induc- 
tion from some experiments made upon different specimens of 
dynamite, with a view to the determination of the effect on the 
explosive force of the various inert, or at least slowly com- 
bustible substances, with which nitro-glycerine is mixed to pro- 
duce the dynamite of commerce. Of late, in place of the in- 
fusorial earth which formed the splid portion of Nobel's dyna- 

mite, such substances as sawdust, powdered bark, and even 
gunpowder, have been used, probably for the sake of economy 
alone, without, except in the latter case, any reference to the 
influence which they might have upon the combustion of the 
nitro-glycerine ; but M. Roca, in testing a variety of samples, 
was struck by the difference among them in regard to energy of 
explosion, and discovered that if a portion of free carbon, suf- 
ficient to combine with the oxygen disengaged from the nitro- 
glycerine, was present at the moment of detonation, the effect 
was greater than where, as in the case of gunpowder, the solid 
portion alone furnished oxygen enough to burn all the free car- 
bon, without calling upon the nitro-glycerine for any. In fact, 
it appeared from experiment that the dose of carbon might with 
advantage be so great as not only to be itself oxidized into 
carbonic oxide by the oxygen of the nitro-glycerine, but to 
reduce the carbonic acid developed by the explosion of the 
latter itself into carbonic oxide. The limit of the advantageous 
effect of free carbon ceased here, and if more were added to 
the mixture, the cavities formed by the explosion in the lead 
cubes used for test were found simply lined with soot; but up 
to the limit necessary for converting all the carbon in the dyn- 
amite into carbonic oxide, the addition of a reducing agent was 
shown to be an important gain. This was confirmed by theory, 
which shows that pure nitro-glycerine, which is composed of 
six parts of carbon and two of hydrogen, combined with three 
times as much nitric acid and water, decomposes on explosion 
into six parts of carbonic acid, five of watery vapor, one of 
oxygen and three of nitrogen, while the addition of seven more 
parts of free carbon to the mixture causes the development, by 
explosion, of thirteen volumes of carbonic oxide, five parts of 
watery vapor, and three of nitrogen, or twenty-one volumes of 
gas in place of fifteen. As the power of an explosive depends 
principally on the amount of gas which results from its sudden 
combustion, it was evident that the addition of pure, or nearly 
pure carbon, in a condition to be readily combined with the 
other .elements, ought to increase materially the force of nitro- 
glycerine, and M. Roca experimented accordingly with an ad- 
mixture of sugar, as a highly-carbonized body immediately 
available, and found that three parts of this, mixed with seven 
parts of nitro-glycerine, detonated with a force from thirty to 
thirty-five per cent greater than that of pure nitro-glycerine. 
Many other organic carbonaceous substances may be employed 
in place of sugar, with various advantages. In comparing these 
simple compounds with the celebrated explosive gum, prepared 
by dissolving gun-cotton in nitro-glycerine, it is found that the 
latter is far inferior, having an energy very little superior to 
that of pure nitro-glycerine. 

HE Metal Worker gives an account of a curious form of 
heating apparatus in use among the Mennonites of Dakota. 
In remembrance, probably, of a custom very prevalent in 
Germany, and perhaps elsewhere, the Mennonites build their 
houses with four rooms, and at the intersection of the parti- 
tions dividing the rooms they build a sort of dome of brick with 
a chimney above, extending through the roof. The dome stands 
on four piers, placed in the line of the partitions, so that there 
is an opening from each room into it, which can be filled up 
with brickwork at pleasure. In using the furnace, or what- 
ever it may be called, all the openings are closed except one, 
which serves for the care of the fire, and the rooms without 
direct access to the fire are warmed by the heated brick walls 
of the furnace. The German stoves are often set in partitions 
in the same way, the stove doors opening into a hall or passage, 
from which the servants can keep the fire in order, while the 
porcelain or brick sides radiate heat into the rooms on the other 
side of the partition. In the Mennonite colonies there is, how- 
ever, special reason for keeping the fire shut out from the best 
rooms, as the fuel used is hay, which makes a dense and suffo- 
cating smoke on first lighting, and leaves a great deal of light 
ash to be blown about the room. At first sight this would ap- 
pear to be one of the most unmanageable and inconvenient of 
fuels ; but the hay is prepared by twisting very tightly while 
fresh or moist into ropes, which retain their shape when dry, 
and form a tolerable substitute for wood, burning so slowly 
that the furnace requires replenishing only two or three times 
a day. Cooking may be done with the same fire, by tak- 
ing out a part of the brick wall of the furnace in one of the 
rooms not used for feeding the fire. An iron box is inserted 
in the hole, and the brickwork made tight around it, and the 
oyen so formed is available for any purpose. 

FEBRUARY 14, 1885.] The American Architect and Building News. 



0F military heroes whom London has de 
lighted to honor, there are two statues 
of the Duke of Wellington, the one in 
front of the Royal Exchange by Chantrey 
[see Illustrations] fully up to the usua 
level of dignity of this sculptor, and the 
other by Wyatt, a mon- 
strous colossus, lately 
on the top of Deci- 
mus Burton's arch at 
Hyde Park Corner. 
On the recent re- 
moval of this arch, 
the members of the 
Royal Academy unani- 
mously petitioned that 
this statue should not 
be replaced over the 
archway, where its po- 
sition, they said, was 
utterly opposed to 
every canon of art, and 
in accordance with this 
the Government de- 
cided that the statue 

I Havelock, Trafalgar was not to be re-erected Sir Charles James Napie 
161. Behne.. the arc j, j tg de . Trafalgar Square. Ad- 

scent, however, has ams . Sculptor. 

rather aggravated than reduced the difficulties connected with the 
statue ; bad as it was when far removed from the eye, it is still worse 

James Outram, Thames Embankment, 1871. M. Noble, Sculptor. 
when brought within nearer range of vision ; its details are even 
worse than its composition as a whole ; its colossal size makes it most 
difficult to find an appropriate place for it. On a pedestal in its pres- 
ent position at Hyde Park Corner it would overtop and dwarf every- 
thing else, and make it impossible to decorate further this place. A 
committee composed of the most eminent advisers on such a subject 
that could be named, and including the present Duke of Wellington, 
have recommended that the statue should be recast, and that another 
statue should be made of the great Duke, of the ordinary heroic size, 

1 A paper by Mr G. Shaw Lefevre, reprinted, with added illustrations, from 
me Nineteenth Century. Continued from page 53, Ko. 475. 

better adapted to the place where, above all others, it is fitting that 
it should be erected. 

Lord Nelson at the summit of the well-known column [see Illus- 
trations] in Charing Cross, around which Landseer's very sketchy 
lions watch ; the very commonplace statues of Havelock by Behnes, 

and of Napier by Adams 
those of Lord Clyde by 
Marochetti [see Illustra- 
tions], and Sir John Bur- 
goyne by Boehm, in the 
Garden of Carlton Terrace, 
and Sir James Outram on 
the Thames Embankment; 
the military trophy [see 
Illustrations], in commemo- 
ration of the Crimean War, 
of three guardsmen sur- 
mounted by a gigantic Vic- 
tory holding out wreaths in 
both hands, well satirized 
by Punch at the time as 
the "quoit-thrower," a most 
gloomy erection by John 
Bell, and the graceful col- 
umn by Gilbert Scott in 
front of Dean's Yard and 
the Abbey in honor of the 
AVestminster School contri- 
bution to the roll of honor 
in the same war [see Il- 
lustrations] ; the so-called 
Achilles in Hyde Park [see 
Illustrations], a copy of a 
statue at Rome, palmed off 
upon the ladies of England, 
and erected by them as a 
tribute to the Duke of Wel- 
lington, complete the list of 
military monuments. 4 

The Thames Embank- 
ment appears to have given 
a great incentive to the stat- 
uary art. John Stuart Mill, 
an interesting likeness by 

John Stephenson, Euston Square, 1871. Maro- 
chetti, Sculptor. 

Woolaer, almost too realistic, and which reminds one especially of his 
customary attitude in the House of Commons, has been placed there. 
Statues of llaikes the founder of Sunday Schools, and of Brunei the 
engineer, and perhaps the worst example of modern statues, have also 
been erected in these gardens; while in the gardens at the back o 
Carlton Terrace leading to Pall Mall are Sir John Franklin [see Il- 
lustrations], a statue than which few are regarded with greater inter- 
est by the public, and Lord Lawrence [see Illustrations], a by no 
means satisfactory figure, in an attitude singularly at variance with 
his dignified and modest demeanor. 

Elsewhere in London are Dr. Jenner ia Kensington Gardens; 
Stephenson, the engineer, 
n Euston Square ; George 
Peabody in the City; 
^obden in Camden Town ; 
Lord Byron, a statue quite 
unworthy of its site in 
Hamilton Gardens ; Lord 
Herbert of Lea [see Illus- 
trations], one of the few 
reductions we have in 
L.ondon of Foley, a most 
Doetic conception, refined, 
graceful and full of 
Jiought ; and the more 
recent statue of Thomas 
Darlyle by Boehm, erected 
n Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, 
near to the house in 
which he lived so long, 
and one of the most inter- 
esting statues of the day, a 
nodel in design, likeness, 
and place, of what a 
memorial to such a man 
should be. There is also 

statue in marble of 
Shakespeare, a copy of 
hat in Westminster. 

. George Peabody, Royal Exchange, 87 . Story 

Abbey, erected at the cost 

p ij ii .. /-i ,. Sculptor, 

of Mr. Albert Grant in 

^eicester Square, surrounded by busts of Newton, Reynolds, Ho- 
;arth and Hunter, who lived in the Square. There is again the 
maginative and chivalrous work of Richard the First in Old Palace 
fard by Marochetti, but not well placed there. 

It will be seen, then, that the total number of statues is about fifty, 
f which eighteen are of royal personages, and of the remainder all 

1 See note at end of article. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 477. 

have been erected within the present century, and by far the large 
proportion in the last twenty years. There are no statues of tb 
greatest of English warriors, of Edward the Third, or Henry tin 

Fifth, or Blake, or Marl 
borough. There is non 
of Cromwell. Chatham 
is equally without tribute 
of this kind. Milton, in 
spite of his association 
with London, has no 
recognition except tha 
of a bust in the Abbey 
To Dr. Johnson a statue 
has been erected ai 
Lichfield, the place o: 
his birth, but none in 

The Byron Memorial, Hyde Park, 1879. T. Belt, 

London, where nearly the whole of his life was 
passed, and where he died. The statues by 
Foley of two celebrated Irishmen, Burke and 
Goldsmith, erected in front of Trinity Col- 
lege, are among the very best works of art / 
of modern times, but in London, where their ~ 
lives were spent, there are no statues of 
them in the open air. It was at least to be Lord He ' bert of Lea . Pal ' 
expected that the Benchers of the Temple Ma "' Foky ' Scu| P t0 '- 
Inn would have done something in honor o f one who was so lone 
connected with the Temple, and who was buried in their church 

Richard I, Old Palace Yard. Marochetti, Sculptor. 

A statue of Charles Dickens in some one of the many parts of Lon- 
don identified with his works would be appropriate. Compared 
with these it may well be doubted whether many of those to whom 

statues have been erected in the last twenty years are worthy of the 
honor. It is a question whether any statue should be erected until 
ten years or more have elapsed since the death of the subject. 
This would avoid many which are decided upon in the excitement of 
grief and regret immediately after death. What is still more to be 
deprecated is the erection of a statue during the life of its subject, 
except perhaps in the case of the most eminent. 

In any case it is not desirable that statues should be multiplied 
unduly. In the view of many people, London, by reason of its 
climate, is unsuit- 
able for statues in 
the open air, at least 
without canopies. It 
may be replied to 
this the suitableness 
of a statue depends 
wholly upon the 
work itself. Really 
good works of art 
like the best of those 
which have been 
named are certainly 
not out of place 
even in London; 
they rise superior 
to the conditions of 
the atmosphere and 
to their environ- 
ment. A bad statue, 
however, is intol- 
erable ; there is no 
escape from it ; it 
adds to the gloom 
of its neighborhood, 
it intensifies all 
other bad condi- 
tions, and is a pub- 
lic misfortune. A 
statue once erected 
in a public place can 
be removed only 
under most excep- 
tional circu in- 
stances. Too great 
care, then, cannot 

Thomas Carlyle, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. 


be taken by the authorities in consenting to the erection of a statue. 
There is nothing of which it is more difficult to judge the effect in 
advance. The small model of a statue may please, the full-sized cast 
in the studio may look well, but when the final result in bronze or 
marble is put on its pedestal in the place of destination, the result 
may be eminently unsatisfactory, and perhaps to none more so than 
to the artist himself. It may be a question whether, before giving 
final permission for the erection of a statue, it ought not to be 
required that a model in plaster, colored to represent bronze, should 
be placed on the intended site, and whether a committee of taste 
should not be the final arbiters in a matter so delicate and difficult. 




NEWPORT, It. I., January 28, 1SS5. ) 


Dear Sirs, I enclose herewith, for publication in your journal, 
;he Report of the Board of Trustees, A. I. A., presented at the 
Albany (eighteenth) Convention, October 22, 1884. 

NEWPORT, E. I., October 20, 1884. 


THE Board of Trustees for the year 1883 held four meetings after 
he Providence-Newport Convention, and your present Board has 

JOHN CHDRCHILL'S STATUE. The Duke of Rutland lately threatened to 
esign hi peerage if the statue of the Duke of Wellington were dishonored by 
emoval to Aldershot. What would he say if he saw the statue of as great a 
man in his day, the wonderful monument erected to the Duke of Marlborough, 
which stands in Marlborough Square, Chelsea. There, overlooked by houses 
nhabited by cabmen, in a circle which should be a garden but is only a waste, 
haded by the trees which still hint that what is now a barren desert was once 
i bit of refreshing green, stands one of the most remarkable of the memorials 
Jf the Flamboyant Georgian era. A figure in a full flowing bottom wig, sur- 
Tiounted by a helmet ot a late period, and enveloped in the Roman toga is 
ilted forward on its defaced pedestal. Its pose is not without dignity, and 
ts main lines are graceful. The faithful British lion, about the size of a 
nastiff, bounds at the figure's feet in affectionate intimacy. This is what 
emaius of what was once a representation of the Duke of Marlborough. For 
ome years it has been made the target for the cockshies of Chelsea boys, and in 
onsequence it is difficult to trace any resemblance to Lord Randolph Church- 
11 in the battered features. Imagination enough, however, to put a moustache 
n this Roman in a wig sees a great likeness. There is some talk of a move- 
ment to rehabilitate the garden and restore to some extent the statue, but in 
lie presence of the failure of the London Government bill, it is hardly likely 
hat anything will be done, unless the Fourth Party take up the matter and 
estore the statue in honor of the distinguished ancestor of its distinguished 
eader. Mr. Shaw Lefevre will do nothing. He has enough to do with the 
ther Great Duke, and has not time to take up the fine carving which once 
raced the walls of Burlington House from the dust of Battersea Park. London 
Better to the Liverpool Mercury, 

FEBRUARY 14, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


held nine regular, one adjourned, and one special meeting, eleven in 
all, which have been fairly well attended, with the exception of two, 
at which no quorums were present. Five of the above meetings were 
held in the office of the Treasurer and ten in the Institute room, No. 
81 Bryant Building, New York City. 

At the Seventeenth Convention, several matters of importance 
were referred to your Board and have received the attention of its 
members, collectively and in committees ; the results will be laid 
before } r ou in consecutive order. 

At the Seventeenth Convention Mr. T. M. Clark of Boston read a 
paper entitled the " Architect as a Sanitarian." This paper has 
been published in full in the "Proceedings." 

Mr. John Moser, of Anniston, Alabama, presented at the same 
time an elaborate perspective elevation for an Institute of Architects 
building, with an explanatory key. In accordance with a resolution 
passed by the Convention, this drawing, with its key, has been pub- 
lished in the American Architect, but owing to the impossibility of 
reducing Mr. Moser's drawing to the dimensions of the pages of the 
" Proceedings," the Committee on Publications were obliged to omit 
it from that volume. 

The annual Address at the Seventeenth Convention was delivered 
by the President in person ; it has been published in the " Proceed- 
ings" and in the American Architect. 

In preparing the "Proceedings" for publication, the Committee 
has endeavored to render them as full and accurate as possible ; 
they also, by vote of the Board of Trustees, inserted as an appendix 
a photo-caustic of a group of twenty-eight of the architects present 
at the Seventeenth Convention. Copies of these " Proceedings " 
have been sent to all Fellows and Associates, and to such other 
architects and laymen who have from time to time applied for them. 

At a meeting of your Board, held on the second of July, it was 
voted to send a circular to all Fellows and Associates, requesting 
those who might be in possession of duplicate copies of the " Pro- 
ceeding*" of the seventeen conventions of the Institute to contribute 
them towards filling up the breaks in the existing files (Appendix A). 
The result has been highly satisfactory, the larger number of dupli- 
cates coining from a past Secretary of the Boston Chapter. 

The Report of the Treasurer will be laid before you in due course. 

By the exercise of strict economy and the performance of much 
clerical labor by the executive officers of the Institute, the routine 
expenses for the past year have been met in full and much good 
work accomplished. Your Board would call attention to the neces- 
sity of making some special provision for defraying the annual rent 
of the Institute room in the Bryant Building. 

To meet this annual rental, the regular funds at the disposal of the 
Treasurer are inadequate. Up to January, 1884, this room was 
occupied on sufferance. At a meeting held on October 23, 1883, it 
was voted to send a circular letter to each Fellow and Associate, 
requesting financial aid to the amount of two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, for the rent of room for the current year. This circular (Ap- 
pendix B) was in general well received, and numerous subscriptions 
forwarded to the Treasurer. These subscriptions, and a guaranty 
fund provided by three members of your Board, enabled the Trus- 
tees to lease the room for one year. 

While thus responding" to the present needs of the Institute, many 
of the subscribers stated that in their opinion the matter should be 
brought before the Convention, and some permanent provision made 
for defraying the Institute rental from the general fund, and not by 
the individual subscriptions of members. Your Board would there- 
fore call your attention to the importance of providing a fund for 
the Institute rental, a matter which it deems to be one of vital inter- 
est, and one closely allied to its general work and influence. 

The sub-committee of your Board on a revision of the Schedule of 
Charges, Mr. Napoleon Le Brun, reported progress at the Seven- 
teenth Convention, and was continued to the present meeting. The 
report of Mr. Le Brun has now been printed and distributed to 
members, and will be laid before you for action. (Appendix C.) 

For temporary use, a new edition of one thousand copies of the 
.present Schedule has been printed during the past year. (Appen- 
dix D.) 

Since the members of the Institute last met in convention, there 
has been a marked increase in the numbers of both the Fellowship 
and Associate grades. Six Associates have been promoted to Fel- 
lowship, viz. : Messrs. Arthur Kotch, W. G. Preston, M. Fred Ball, 
W. C. Smith, Edward H. Kendall, and E. Townsend Mix. 

By first election six Fellow; have been added to the roll, viz. : 
Messrs. A. H. Stem, J. H. Stem, E. J. Hodgson, James G. Cutler, 
R. VV. Gambier-Bousfield, and John Ord. Twelve Associates have 
been elected, viz. : Messrs. P. L. Le Brun, Leoni W. Robinson, H. 
W. Kirchner, B. H. Enos, Charles G. Mueller, W. S. Wicks, Ed- 
mund R. Willson, F. W. Vogdes, J. McDonnell, F. W. Humble, 
Eugene II. Taylor, and David L. Stine. 

As a matter of discipline, two Associates have been dropped from 
the roll. One Fellow has died during the year, leaving the net gain 
on the list of membership for the year, to date, fifteen. There are 
now on the roll of the Institute eighty-one Fellows and ninety-six 
Associates, a total membership of one hundred and seventy-seven. 
Several applicants for both grades are now awaiting the action of 
your Board. 

More than a passing notice should be given to the death of our 
late Fellow, Henry Fernbach, who died in the city of New York, on 
the 12th day of November, 1883. Mr. Fernbach was an ardent 

friend of the Institute, thoroughly believing in the advantages of mem- 
bership therein, and aiding its advancement by all the means in bis 
power. He was one of the oldest members on its roll, having been 
elected to Fellowship, June 25, 1866. 

At the Seventeenth Convention several radical changes in the 
manner of electing Fellows were adopted, and all restrictions upon 
the number to be enrolled in that grade removed. The experience 
gained during the past year seems to vindicate the wisdom of that 
action. An increased interest in the work of the Institute has been 
developed and stimulated in all parts of the United States, and even 
in the Dominion of Canada. Applications for membership have 
been frequent, and each case has been carefully investigated before 
action. The lists of questions in regard to applicants for Fellow- 
ship have been regularly sent out, and have elicited replies, giving 
full and reliable information in regard to the character and profes- 
sional fitness of the candidates. 

Two Chapters have been added to our Institute Union: the St. 
Louis Chapter was admitted on the 16th of April, 1884; the Indiana 
Chapter, with headquarters at Indianapolis, on the 2d of July, 1884. 
The Secretary is now in correspondence with architects in Nash- 
ville, Rochester, Detroit and Buffalo, where the formation of Chap- 
ters is in contemplation. The rehabilitation of the Albany Chapter 
is also hoped for. 

Under date of April 5, 1884, the editors of the American Architect 
published an " open letter " to the profession on the subject of compe- 
titions. This letter (Appendix E) formed the text for much discus- 
sion among architects in general, and several Chapters of the Insti- 
tute intimated a desire to have some action taken in reference to the 
matter by the Board of Trustees. 

Your Board, in compliance with these intimations, prepared a cir- 
cular on the subject, including a reprint of the "open letter," re- 
questing the recipients to consider the points discussed in this letter 
from the standpoint, of their own views and experiences in connec- 
tion with competitions, both open and limited, and communicate the 
results of such consideration to the Secretary of the A. I. A. 

These circulars were distributed not only among all the members 
of the Institute, but to one hundred architects not members of our 
body. Many replies have been received from Institute men and 
others, nearly all endorsing the scheme proposed. Several respon- 
dents suggested amendments, and a few disapproved of the action 
altogether, on the ground that the system of calling for competitive 
designs was radically wrong. Your Board believing that the ques- 
tion of competitions, as brought forward in the "open letter," is an 
important one, voted to bring the subject to the attention of the 
Eighteenth Convention, through its Annual Report. 

During the past year calls for copies of the " Proceedings," both 
for single numbers and for full sets, have been unusually numerous, 
both from individuals and from public libraries, including the Biblio- 
theque Nationale, at Paris. As far as possible these calls have been 
met, but the earlier numbers of the " Proceedings " are now nearly 
out of print, and it is difficult to meet the requests on file. 

From the United States Department of the Interior a request has 
been received for a history of the Institute since 1875. Owing to 
the multiplicity of duties devolving upon the Secretary, this history 
has not yet been prepared. 

In compliance with a request from the Secretary of the New York 
and New Jersey Branch of the International Institute, for preserv- 
ing and perfecting Anglo-Saxon Weights and Measures, that your 
Board delegate one of its members to attend a meeting of conference 
relative to a representation at the Meridian Congress at Washington, 
D. C., Mr. O. P. Hatfield was requested to attend the meeting infor- 
mally, and to report its proceedings. Mr. Hatfield's report is not 
given herewith, in view of the fact that a member of the Interna- 
tional Institute is expected to be present at the Albany Convention, 
and present to your notice the aims and objects of the Society which 
he represents. 

In accordance with a general wish expressed at the Seventeenth 
Convention that the eighteenth be held in the city of Albany, your 
Board entered into correspondence with their fellow architects in 
that city. Finding that satisfactory arangements could be made for 
the work of the Convention, your Board appointed a committee on 
arrangements, consisting of Messrs. Emlin T. Littell, Walter Dick- 
son. Geo. C. Mason, Jr., and A. J. Bloor. Through the assistance 
and generous hospitality of the Albany architects, the committee 
were enabled to present the programme of exercises hereto ap- 

In summing up the work of the past year, your Board feels greatly 
encouraged, both by the steady growth of the Institute in numbers, 
and in the strong and increasing interest in its welfare which is 
everywhere manifested. Since the last convention the Secretary has 
received and answered about two hundred letters on the most varied 
subjects connected with the profession of architecture. The applica- 
tions for membership are constantly increasing, and were the Insti- 
tute possessed of the necessary financial resources, the work and in- 
fluence would be greatly enhanced. As it is, the Institute is rapidly 
becoming a power for good. The formation of new Chapters in the 
larger cities of the Union disseminates a more general knowledge of 
our" aims and objects among the laity who form our clientage, and the 
members of the Institute, individually and collectively, feel the stim- 
ulus of mutual association and respect. 

Respectfully submitted for the Board of Trustees. 

GEO. C. MASON, JR., Secretary, A. I. A. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 477. 

Since October 20, 1884, the following additions have been made to 
the Fellowship and Associate grades of the Institute. 

Fellows by promotion. Messrs. W. L. B. Jenney, Chicago, 111. ; 
David L. Stine, Toledo, O.; James Murphy, Providence, R. I. 

Fellows by first election. Messrs. F. M. Whitehouse, Chicago, 111.; 
Franklin H. Janes, Albany, N. Y. ; Robt. W. Gibson, Albany, N. Y. 

Associates. Messrs. John J. Deery, Philadelphia, Pa. ; F. B. 
White, New York, N. Y.; Adolph Fleischman, Albany, N. Y.; 
Franklin J. Sawtelle, Providence, R. I. 

Applicants for both grades are now awaiting action by the Board 
of Trustees. Very truly yours, 


Secretary, A. I. A. 


TTT HE indifference in this country to the merits of public monu- 
J I ments as works of art has become so general that any consider- 
ation of them beyond a statistical statement of their size, weight 
and cost with the usual friendly commendation of the prudent critic, 
seems out of place even in an art journal. 

It is perhaps because of this indifference, that the projectors of 
these structures are emboldened, not only to propose and execute 
novel designs, but to promulgate novel opinions concerning monu- 
ments, architecture and art generally. 

In accord with this sort of literary attachment to monumental con- 
struction is the report of the committee appointed by the Benning- 
ton Battle Monument Association. This report is, we venture to 
affirm, the most remarkable document ever written on any art sub- 
ject. On another occasion we shall remark upon it at length as an 
example of what may be accomplished in a new field. For the pres- 
ent we wish simply to refer to a few points. 

The report confines " monumental construction " to " two meth- 
ods," one to " size and grandeur of dimension," the other to " artis- 
tic conception and execution." The first being " altogether archi- 
tectural," the second, " principally sculptural," and it affirms that 
architecture and sculpture "cannot be successfully combined" in 
monuments, that it has "always failed," and is not likely to succeed. 

The authors of this report forget that there are as many varieties 
of " monumental construction " as there are varieties of genius among 
artists, and that the old world is replete with examples. They also 
forget that all recognized monumental structures, like the towers of 
Italy, Trajan's Column, the Column of the Bastile, the Egyptian Ob- 
elisks, the Great Pyramid and other famous monuments known to 
the world are regarded above all as great works of art, and their 
" size and grandeur of dimension " receive adoration because they 
exemplify the same elements of true art that are possessed by the 
best antique statues, and not because they have " size and dimen- 
sion " as pieces of masonry. Monuments combining architecture and 
sculpture are among the most treasured objects of art, and their num- 
ber is legion. There is hardly a church in Europe that has not one, 
and sometimes many examples, and they represent a combination of 
genius excelled in no department of art. If it is true that architect- 
ure and sculpture have not been successfully combined, what a sorry 
mistake the art and learned world has made in its love for the 
works of India, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, Italy and France. So too, the 
dwellers in the vicinity of these noble works, unlearned for the most 
part though they be, must be condemned for the admiration and pride 
in which they have been wont to hold these objects of their affection. 

It is somewhat startling to hear that the sculpture on the temples, 
palaces and churches, and on the monuments in the open air in these 
countries, is in the language of this report, " a mere insignificant de- 
tail and embroidery," " frittering away the simplicity and singleness 
of purpose upon which their effect depends." It is left to the civ- 
ilized American to thus tear away one of the delightful delusions of 
art, and to deprive a considerable part of mankind of one of its 
choicest comforts. 

Not only is the report dissatisfied with ancient monuments, but it 
would cruelly discourage any possible originality ; for it says that 
" it is out of the question " to discover " a new or original method " 
of reaching a height of several hundred feet in a monumental struct- 
ure. It might add that, taking the human form as a model, it would 
also be out of the question to make a new or original statue. And 
yet fine towers, obelisks, columns and statues are continually being 
added to the world of art, that artists and those who love art are 
content to think, do express " new and original " ideas through " new 
and original " forms ; and it is thought that the form of the tower, 

the obelisk and column are no more conventional than the human 
figure, all being subordinate to the mind of man, to be used as he 
pleases, rather than governing him by any arbitrary principle of art. 

The committee is not happy in its mention of tower and column 
monuments as examples of art. The Nelson Monument, the Duke 
of York's Column, the Towers of the New Houses of Parliament, and 
those of the Brooklyn Bridge, have not been classed among the best 
specimens of those styles of monuments. Perhaps it was not worth 
while to cite those well known, as they had already as a mass been 
condemned in the report in the following climax of destruction of all 
forms of ancient monuments. " No instance of either of these forms 
of monuments has yet been successful in commanding general admira- 
tion, or in filling the measure of desired expression." The reason 
given for this failure is that " They tell no story ; they appeal to no 
sentiment; their lips are silent; rather they have no lips and no 

It seems incredible that any one could make such statements ; and 
also a waste of time to answer them ; yet it is just such amazing mis- 
information that every department of art is obliged to combat in this 

It needs but little intelligence to condemn the structures cited in this 
report ; but little more to have named others that in some way have 
spoken to all the world. The monument to Frederick the Great 
seems to have a voice ; that of the Republic, in Paris, the Versailles 
Monument, the projected one to Gambetta, and many others seem 
to speak; and they are monuments composed of architecture and 
sculpture. The Column of the Bastile has not been so far regarded 
as a silent object. Of towers that commemorate and keep alive 
the dearest memories there are many. Not content with sending all 
the monuments of the world to perdition, the report also sits heavily 
upon poor architecture, as follows: "Of all the subjects of human 
exertion, architecture has, in its external qualities, displayed the 
smallest modern advances, because its supposed advances have gen- 
erally failed to stand the test of time." 


TTT HE sugges- 
I tion that the 
c onveyanc e 
of sewage to the 
sea may, after all, 
says the Times, be 
the most profita- 
ble method o f 
turning its con- 
stituents to ac- 
count will appear 
to most readers to 
possess the merit 
of absolute origi- 
nality. It is not 
put forward to- 
day for the first 
time, since Sir 
John Lawes tells 
us that he fore- 
shadowed it in his 

/ . evidence before 

/\onumental fountain- (o-vVattesu. \SJenci cnne/ the Royal Corn- 
France. dc/ijned.ty(Srpe^ijx: ^x" by.-f/io!lc: mission; and he 

now sets forth in 

some detail the leading facts on which he relies. Broadly stated, 
these are that fish must live upon something; that their great abun- 
dance upon the eastern and southern coasts of England, as compared 
with the western coast and with the coast of Ireland, supports the 
belief that their food is not derived entirely from materials native to 
the sea ; that their bodies contain nitrogen, phosphoric acid and pot- 
ash, substances in which sewage is rich, and from which it derives its B 
manurial value ; and hence, in plain words, that we may possibly do 
better by manuring the sea with our sewage for the purpose of rais- 
ing a fish crop than by manuring the land with it for the purpose of 
raising crops of corn or grass. Assuming that an acre of land, under 
favorable conditions and with abundant help from manure will yield 
a ton weight of corn annually, he tells us, on the unimpeachable au- 
thority of Professor Huxley, that an acre of good marine fishing 
ground will yield a ton weight of fish weekly ; and he quotes analy- 
ses to show that the flesh of fish does not differ materially in compo- 
sition from that of store cattle, although, when compared with cattle 
ready for killing, it is deficient in fat. As long as fish are only eaten 
by one another the materials for their growth are not removed from 
the river or sea in which they live ; but when six hundred thousand 
tons are caught annually by British fisherman alone, to say nothing 
of foreigners, and are either eaten by mankind or scattered over the 
fields as manure, the constant removal of fish material from the water 
must be supplied from some source or another if fish are to continue 
to multiply, or even to exist. They live not only upon smaller fish, 
but also upon innumerable forms of marine animals, and upon marine 
vegetation ; and there is no reason to suppose that what may be called 
the oceanic supplies of food are illimitable. On the contrary, it is more 
reasonable to believe that the sea, like the land, can be exhausted of 
the materials by which life is supported ; and that these materials, 


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o. 477 








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o. 477 


to. 4/7 


FEBRUARY 14, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


however abundant, are still present in definite quantity, so that thei 
constant removal must be balanced by an equally constant replace 
ment if the growth which they occasion and support is to be continuec 
without stint. At present the yield of fish on the eastern and south 
ern coasts is annually increasing; and Sir John Lawes suggests tha 
the increase may be due, in all probability, to the abundant nutrimen 
which our methods of sewage disposal cause to be poured into the sea 
He supports his argument by citing cases in which river fish have 
manifestly thriven in consequence of a supply of drainage ; and al 
anglers are familiar with the fact that the point of entrance of a drair 
is usually surrounded by a number of fish feeding eagerly upon th< 
materials which are brought down. 

The problem of determining the best way of utilizing sewage upon 
land has long been the despair of all who have devoted themselves to 
its solution. Most people can remember, many have cause to remem 
ber only too well, the not very distant time when sanguine promoters 
of companies were declaring sewage to be an inexhaustible source o: 
wealth, and its profitable employment to be the easiest of all under 
takings. The late General Scott, with a practical sagacity which time 
has justified, maintained an opposite view, and declared that the ma- 
nurial elements of sewage, however valuable in the aggregate, couh 
only be brought into a form fit for use at a cost which would be in 
excess of their value. He admitted that the manure contained in a 
given quantity of sewage might be worth a pound, but added that il 
could not be placed on the land for less than a guinea, and that all 
hope of profit from sewage was chimerical. The reason he assigned 
was not only the great comparative bulk of the water in which the 
valuable materials were suspended, but also the presence of quantities 
of road drift and other inert substances " profligate associates," as 
he used to call them by which the difficulty of separating what was 
useful was greatly increased. He said that the domestic comfort af- 
forded by a system of water-carriage must not only be paid for by the 
loss of all profit on the material, but that urban householders must 
think themselves fortunate if they could dispose of their sewage at 
only a trifling expense. Where, as in the poorer quarters of some 
manufacturing towns, there was no water-carriage, the manufacture 
of manure and of sulphate and muriate of ammonia would become a 
remunerative enterprise. The event, so far, has borne out General 
Scott's predictions. Irrigation, or the direct conveyance of the liquid 
to the land, has been attempted in several localities ; and, it is said, 
sometimes with a fair amount of success. Such success, however, has 
depended for the most either upon local conditions of soil, or upon 
enthusiastic individual superintendence ; and it has been relieved by 
a sufficient number of failures to prove that sewage farming is a less 
simple matter than has been asserted by some of its advocates. It is 
attended with the further difficulty that the farms are known or sus- 
pected to be unpleasant neighbors, and that they would generally di- 
minish the value of surrounding property for residential purposes. 

The suggestion made by Sir John Lawes is far too large a one to 
be treated summarily, and to be cither accepted or rejected upon in- 
sufficient evidence. It calls for prompt and complete scientific inquiry, 
such as might be undertaken with adequate assistance by Professor 
Huxley. In a country like ours, dependent upon others for a large 
proportion of the daily food of the people, every addition which can 
be made to our own resources possesses an especial value from the 
point of view of national independence ; and few things could be 
more important than such an increase of the fish harvest of our coasts 
as would tend to a much enlarged consumption of fish as food. It is 
manifest, if we may assume the general proposition of Sir John 
Lawes to be correct, that the best method of introducing sewage into 
the sea, whether directly or through the intermediation of an estuary 
or river, and also the nature and extent of the preparation which it 
should undergo, would be matters requiring the most careful consid- 
eration. It would be necessary to ascertain whether sewage was most 
valuable for the support of young fry or of larger fish ; since in the 
former case, it should, of course, be discharged into the estuaries 
which furnish the chief breeding grounds. It might then also be nec- 
essary that it should be freed from sludge and road drift by precipi- 
tation or other process, inasmuch as finely diffused solid particles are 
exceedingly hurtful to fish, choking their gills, and killing them by 
suffocation. It is by this action that some forms of mining industry 
are so injurious to the rivers, into which the water passing through 
the works is discharged. 

It must be remembered, too, that fish breathe by means of the free 
oxygen contained in the water in which they live ; and it is probable 
that the water which forms the chief bulk of sewage would be to a 
great extent deprived of oxygen, this having entered into combina- 
tion with the various organic constituents. We may assume, there- 
fore, that the quantity of sewage which could be usefully introduced 
into fish-bearing water would be limited in amount ; and that a vol- 
ume, which when poured into the sea would be highly useful, might 
nevertheless, if poured into the more limited space of an estuary or a 
river, be too large in proportion to the mass of water with which it 
would mingle. It is very probable, even if the present discharge of 
sewage is doing a good work which was not expected of it, that 
the conditions under which this work are done might be modified ben- 
eficially by the light of inquiry and research. The advantages of the 
water-carriage system, from the point of view of domestic cleanliness 
and convenience, are so obvious and manifold that it is not likely to 
be discontinued, even if it were shown that some different method 
was to be preferred on other grounds ; and hence the achievement of 
a veritable utilization of sewage, in a manner to imply its complete 

removal from the vicinity of dwellings, would mark a distinct advance 
in the great art of dealing profitably with refuse material. 


[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cos/.l 



FOR description see article elsewhere in this issue. 






TTTHE Bishop of Peterbor- 

ough the other day con- 
fessed to an uncomfort- 
able feeling that he might 
be "exhibited as 'a dread- 
ful example ' " on some 
temperance platforms. The 
fate the eloquent prelate 
professed to dread for him- 
self may be said, on other 
grounds, to be threatening 
the Chapter of his Cathe- 
dral. The difficulties that 
reverend body involved 
themselves in when like 
the Irishman who killed his 
pig to save it from dying 
they resolved to take 
down their central tower, 
the " magistra turris " of 
their noble minster, to pre- 
vent it from falling about 
their ears, may well render 

them a " dreadful example " to all other Chapters, whom it warns 
to look well to the stability of the ancient fabrics of which they are 
the temporary guardians, and if they call in professional advice to 
be prepared to follow it. " A stitch in time," we all know, " saves 
nine." It would have required many stitches to have kept up Peter- 
borough tower. Indeed, nothing would have sufficed to save it 

tenui tibicine fultam from falling but the complete reconstruction of 
its four legs. All were unequal to the work they had to do. How 
unequal was hardly realized till their demolition revealed the bad- 
ness of their construction ; mere shells of ashlar, filled in with rub- 
ble, without bond or proper cement. One poor crazy pier only kept 
its place by being splinted up like a broken limb. The wonder 
was, as with many Norman towers, how it had stood so long. The 
practised eye of the late Sir Gilbert Scott, fresh from his "colossal 
works at St. Alban's and St. David's when called in to advise the 
Dean and Chapter, at once detected the danger. His advice was 
sharp and decisive. The tower ought to be treated as those we have 
just named had been. Upheld by timber shores, the arches braced 
ith centreing, one by one the ruinous legs should be taken down 
and rebuilt in solid masonry, on a deeply-laid and sufficient founda- 
:ion. There was no difficulty, certainly no risk, about the work. It 
iad been accomplished again and again with perfect safety. One 
Dier had been thus treated by himself at St. Alban's; two piers at 
St. David's ; while at a still earlier date, the late Mr. Cottingham 
lad boldly removed and replaced all four piers at Hereford, without 
the slightest risk or disturbance of the fabric they supported. But 
he work would certainly be a costly one, and it was not urgent. 
There was no immediate fear of the tower falling. So the report 
was received, discussed, and shelved. Temporary measures were 
adopted to stave off any actual danger. Nothing, however, was done 
o remedy the original evil, and much precious time was lost. Mean- 
hile the crushing went on. Cracks widened, fissures yawned, new 
joints of weakness were developed, until, some two years since, the 
:ondition of the tower become so threatening that it was evident that 
neasures must be taken without delay to avert such a catastrophe as 
iad happened four-and-twenty years before at Chichester. In the 
neantime the great cathedral restorer of our age had passed away. 
The architect on whom his mantle had so worthily fallen, Mr. J. L. 
Larson, was called in to advise the Chapter. He felt as little doubt 
as Sir G. G. Scott had done that the lantern could be kept in its po- 
ition ; its shattered walls held together, and its tottering supports 
ne by one rebuilt. If the Chapter resolved on this plan he was 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 477. 

ready at once to carry it out. This, we think, would have been the 
wisest course. The original work would have been preserved intact, 
and (which would have been no small gain) the whole of the miserable 
controversy which has since arisen would have been averted. We 
should have been spared the letters and replies, statements and coun- 
ter-statements, hard blows dealt by practised hitters, never careful to 
spare those who have the misfortune to differ from them, and mu- 
tual accusations of bad faith, which certainly do not contribute to the 
amenities of controversy. There would have been none of the ruf- 
fled tempers and irritated feelings which threaten a breach between 
those who ought to live together as brethren; the Dean and his 
Committee with Mr. Pearson taking one side, the Canons another, 
the Bishop with questionable judgment supporting the Chap- 
ter against their head, and threatening to withdraw his subscrip- 
tion if the course favored by him were not taken ; and last, 
not least, we should not have seen a band of so-called "experts " 
making confusion worse confounded by the variety of their opinions, 
and the robust vigor with which some of them have made those opin- 
ions known ; while one of their number has introduced a new ele- 
ment into the dispute by producing a fresh design of his own, very 
pretty in itself, but such as certainly never stood, nor, if we may be- 
lieve an infallible authority, " se ipso teste," ever could stand, on the 
top of Peterborough tower; and finally, to make all things pleasant, 
Sir Edmund Becket dashing in, in a fine Berserkir rage. 

But all this is past praying for. It is no use crying over spilt 
milk. It was said to be cheaper to pull down than to strengthen and 
restore. And so the tower is down, and unless the cathedral is to 
continue in its present half-ruined state, with " maimed rites," bald 
and undignified, performed in an extemporized choir, fitted up, par- 
ish-church fashion, in the eastern bays of the nave, steps must be 
taken for putting it up again. On this all parties are agreed. But 
how this is to be done, in what form it is to be rebuilt, on that point 
the controversy rages. On the merits of this controversy as a ques- 
tion of good faith we have no call to enter. It is not for us to decide 
whether the terms of the original appeal for subscriptions have been 
adhered to, and whether the contract will or will not be broken by 
the adoption of Mr. Pearson's new designs. These waters are too 
troubled for us to care to fish in. We desire simply to call attention 
to the fact which is abundantly proved by speeches and letters from 
Dean Perowne himself, that the original proposal was to reproduce 
the lantern exactly as it was, without any alteration of its character, 
either by heightening its base, adding a fresh story, or in any other 
way. The Dean, in answering a letter of the " Society for the Pres- 
ervation of Ancient Buildings " in this case certainly, fulfilling their 
proper mission " si sic omnia ! " March 1st, 1883, states, " the 
tower will be accurately reconstructed stone for stone" (the italics we 
are told are the Dean's own), "every stone as taken down will be 
numbered and replaced." Again, speaking at Northampton on Jan- 
u*rv 20 of the same year, he said (as reported, in the Northampton 
Herald) that " they had taken the greatest care in taking down the 
tower to see that every stone was numbered, so that it might be put 
back again in exactly the same position as before. . . . and though 
of course they could not help the tower looking newer than before, 
vet in every other respect it would not only be exactly the same in 
appearance, but better in every way." 

It may be naturally asked what has caused this change in the 
Dean's line of action? Why has he thus turned round upon his own 
original plan? The answer, if we mistake not, lies in the discovery 
of a large portion of the arcade work of the " tres hystorice " of the 
Abbot Waterville's Norman tower, and of the eastern and western 
lantern arches, used as so much building stone, with the customary 
contempt shown by early builders for the work of their predecessors, 
in the new arches and the Decorated lantern. Much of this work is 
so good and so well preserved that it appeals loudly for restoration to 
its original situation. The appeal is not an unreasonable one, nor 
can we be surprised that Mr. Pearson should be ready to listen to it, 
and that the Dean should follow him in his desire to reproduce the 
twelfth-century lantern instead of that of the fourteenth. But we 
feel convinced that, though " the stones cry out of the wall " to be 
replaced, the cry ought not to be heard. We may reasonably lament 
the loss of Waterville's tower, especially now that we can see what a 
beautiful thing it was. But it is gone. For six centuries the eye 
has been accustomed to the lately demolished lantern tower. To 
adopt Mr. Freeman's words in his unanswerable letter to the Times 
of January 2, in its late was "an historical possession," 
stamping on Peterborough Cathedral "a personality" with which 
" nothing but the most urgent practical need can justify any inter- 
ference." The statement has been adopted by our leading journal 
that the late lantern tower is a thing of the past,' and that, as we must 
of necessity build a new tower, the nineteenth-century builders have 
as much right to leave their mark on the cathedral as those of the 
thirteenth had. But this is a mere attempt to throw dust in the eyes 
of the public. The lantern still exists ; disintegrated, it is true, but 
all but perfect in all its parts. As the Dean has told us, the stones 
are numbered ready to retake tlnir old places in the walls and win- 
dows. In the name of common sense and historical propriety may 
we not add, after what we have already quoted from Dean Perowne's 
letters and speeches ? in the name of good faith and promise keep- 
ing, let this unhappy controversy be ended in the only right and sen- 
sible way, by the reconstruction of the lantern as it was and as we 
all have known and loved it. The compromise suggested by the 
Canons namely, to carry out Mr. Pearson's design so far as the 

reconstruction of the lowest story of the lantern, with its internal Nor- 
man arcade, thus elevating the lantern about fifteen feet deserves 
the fate of all compromises. It is a half-measure, which will satisfy 
nobody. If the Chapter is to sin, it had better sin boldly, and adopt 
Mr. Pearson's design in tola, spire and all, though we question 
whether any one now living would see its completion. The recon- 
struction of the Decorated arches of the lantern follows as a mat- 
ter of course. The four Norman arches recommended by Mr. 
Pearson would be noble features, as they are at Durham if we 
had them. But we have not got them. And we have two arches 
which are very far from meriting the contemptuous language in which 
Mr. Pearson, enamored of his pet project, speaks of them, not now ac- 
tually in situ, but their voussoirs all carefully numbered and stored 
away capable of being re-erected in a few weeks' time. At St. David's, 
we have somewhat the same diversity in the lantern arches and the ar- 
cades above them. One arch is round, the other three are pointed. If 
all were round-headed, the effect would be more harmonious. Yet we 
do not find that Sir G. G. Scott, when restoring that tower, ever sug- 
gested any alteration of their form. Neither did he at Ripon, where 
the plea is far more urgent. For there the semicircular and pointed 
arches are not opposite to one another, as they are at Peterborough, 
and while the southern pier of the western arch has been altered and 
raised, that to the north, together with the semicircular arch above, 
preserves the unaltered Norman. There are few of our cathedrals 
and minsters in which we may not find blots we should be glad to re- 
move, omissions which might be made good, mistakes which could be 
rectified ; nay, pieces of downright ugliness to be acknowledged and 
deplored. The temptation may be great to add the deficient pinna- 
cles to the ponderous lantern tower of York Minster, and to supply 
a crown like that at Newcastle to the central tower of Durham, and 
to finish the western towers of Wells with the " tops " they so evi- 
dently require. But to do this would destroy the personality of each 
of these great churches. They might be the more beautiful for the 
addition, but they would cease to be the great historical monuments 
they are. For better or worse, in all their main features, we must 
accept our mediaeval buildings as they have come down to us, and 
be thankful for our unrivalled inheritance. It is not for us to intrude 
our own fancies upon them, or by destroying features which do hot 
happen to be our taste, and so blotting out whole pages of their ar- 
chitectural history to try to reproduce what they were when they 
came first from their original architect's hands. Our duty is an hum- 
bler and simpler one ; to repair the decays of time, to restore the dev- 
astation of violenoe and neglect, and so to hand down the glorious her- 
itage unimpaired to the generation to come. In the preservation of 
their magnificent western portico, unsurpassed by any Gothic design 
in Christendom, and the restoration of the ritual choir, with appro- 
priate stall-work and screens, to its old place beneath the re-edified 
lantern, to say nothing of the underpinning of the transepts, the 
Dean and Chapter of Peterborough will have enough on their hands 
for a long time to come, and may well be content with the modest 
lantern which satisfied their forefathers, and which, however much 
depreciated by the advocate of a lofty tower, is no mean specimen of 
Decorated art. The Saturday Review. 


ST. Louis, Mo., February 5, 1885. 


Dear Sirs, The seductive " Notice to Architects " from the super- 
visors of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, in the last issue of the Amer- 
ican Architect, is considered by " Artifex " a "gem of cheek and 
subterranean ignorance." As this sort of manifesto is neither beau- 
tiful nor rare, it fails to meet Webster's definition of a " gem," and 
as, by the editor's admission, a half-dozen or more responses may be 
expected from people who call themselves architects, there is small 
prospect that the supervisors of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, will 
soon blush at their own ignorance. On the contrary, the publication 
of their advertisement in the American Architect, with addresses and 
all particulars in full, is more than likely to increase their harvest of 
plans and thus confirm them in their " cheek." 

The usual comment is subjoined that a profession which "does not 
care to guard itself," etc., from abuse must not expect other people 
to do it for them. Such admonitions are unquestionably true and 
appropriate, but no method has yet been suggested of putting them 
in practice. There always arises the very pertinent as well as imper- 
tinent question which William M. Tweed addressed to the citizens of 
New York, when they grew restive under his swindling manage- 
ment, " What are you going to do about it?" 

The architectural profession is not fairly chargeable with indiffer- 
ence to its interests in this matter of competitions. The unfairness, 
the losses of time and money, the deception, the tricky frauds of 
every description which almost invariably attend competitions and 
always have done, and the indignities cast upon the whole profession 
thereby are well known, keenly felt, sincerely deplored by self- 
respecting architects everywhere. They exist to-day simply because 
no one has yet been able to devise a practicable remedy. It is 
seriously questioned in some quarters whether such a remedy is pos- 
sible short of the total abolition of competitions. 

Numerous schemes have been devised which would work admi- 
rably, perhaps, if they could be strictly carried out. Expert judges 
to make the awards, the names of competitors concealed, the public 
exhibition of designs, the award of the work at regular commissions 

FEBRUARY 14, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


to the successful competitor, the exclusion of all designs which vary 
from printed instructions, or whose cost will exceed the prescribed 
limit, a uniform scale and style for all drawings, excluding illusory 
perspectives all this, and much more that is equally good and 
equally useless, because there is no known way ot enforcing any 
of it. 

Some years ago the architects of this city prepared a praiseworthy 
scheme for the conduct of all future competitions, and quite unani- 
mously signed their names to it. It is the writer's confident belief 
that it was all ignored in the first competition which followed and has 
never i>een heard of since. Can anyone report much better success 
with similar efforts anywhere else ? 

Where on the one side there is a disposition to take advantage of 
the eagerness of " people calling themselves architects " to offer 
plans for nothing, and on the other side there are people recognized 
as architects who are ready to meet such owners and accept their 
degrading terms, it is vain to hope by any set of resolutions, of what- 
ever kind, to make competitions satisfactory to any but the success- 
ful one, or creditable even to him. 

As long as there is no recognized standard of training, knowledge 
and skill in the profession, people " who call themselves architects " 
may claim that their right to the title is as good as any. one's else, 
and the public cannot be expected to discriminate where architects 
themselves do not. Could our architectural associations set up a 
standard of qualification for an architect, and admit none to mem- 
bership except upon satisfactory examination or other evidence of 
proficiency, progress would be made in one direction ; but this has 
nowhere been attempted in this country, and is still something of an 
experiment with the British associations. 

Architects may require owners to appoint expert judges, but if 
they decline to do so who is to compel them ? A few architects may 
refrain from competing, but every one knows there will be a plenty 
of plans sent in. Moreover, there are a hundred ways of evading 
this requirement, as of every other. Who shall decide upon the ex- 
pertness of the expert? In the competition for the St. Louis Expo- 
sition Building one expert was a civil engineer, the other was a 
carpenter and contractor. How shall we make sure that the expert 
shall be mutually satisfactory to both owners and architects, then 
how shall we insure that the expert shall not improve his opportunity 
to his own private advantage V Such things have been charged before 

Again, it may be required that the owners shall award their work 
to the author of the successful design at the usual commissions. If 
the owners decline to do this, what then shall be done ? What sort 
of compulsion is to be brought to bear on them ? It has happened 
more than once that the committee on awards has refused to adopt 
any of the plans, and then has quietly arranged with the cheapest 
man to get up a plan according to their instructions, to embody as 
many as possible of the ideas they have gleaned from the other 
plans. How is this sort of sharp practice to be prevented? 

In whatever direction we turn we are met by these apparently in- 
surmountable difficulties in the enforcement of our regulations. 
They have always effectually prevented not only all reform, but all 
amelioration of the evils of competition. There is no real improve- 
ment, but rather a deterioration. On what ground can we hope for 
any different result in the near future ? 

It is somewhat remarkable that architects alone among the profes- 
sions are imposed upon in this way. When a man wishes to select a 
lawyer, he does not send for a dozen attorneys and invite each one to 
prepare all the documents necessary for his suit, with the expecta- 
tion that the one whose paper pleases him best will get the job. 
What sort of answer would the supervisors of Pottawattamie County, 
Iowa, get from the legal profession if they were to send out a 
" Notice to Lawyers," such as they have flung to architects ? And 
yet are not young lawyers as eager for employment as young archi- 
tects ? 

The medical profession likewise. Conceive a man's sending for a 
score of physicians to come to his house to look at his tongue, feel 
his pulse, write out a diagnosis, prognosis, prescription, etc., with 
itemized bill of costs, and tell them that he will pay for that one 
which suits him best. The public is entirely too well informed to try 
such experiments with the medical profession. 

Why should not an architect be selected in the same way as a 
lawyer or a doctor? Where is the necessity for competitions among 
architects as a condition of employment? 

It is doubtless vain, however, to expect that architects, so-called, 
will decline to compete as long as owners ask them to. It is possible, 
however, that if the public were properly informed of the delusive 
results of competition?, there would be less disposition to call for 
them and thus a reform be instituted in the right quarter. The his- 
tory of competitions from the owners' standpoints would be very 
instructive and serviceable in this direction. It would show that in 
almost every case the plans so selected have failed to meet the expec- 
tations of their owners, often with disastrous results, and that such 
is the natural if not inevitable consequence of this mode of proced- 
ure. Such teaching would be to the point and would find much 
more serious attention from owners than any resolutions which 
appeared to bo solely in the selfish interest of architects. When 
once they discover the truth that the only safe way is to select their 
architect as they do their doctor or their lawyer, on the basis of per- 
sonal qualification, and then consult him throughout the preparation 
of the design and its execution, a reform will have been initiated in 

the matter of competitions which will be at least as promising as any 
effort which has yet been made to control them. 

If this should seem to any one a long and tedious undertaking, let 
him remember for how many years effort has been making in the 
other direction with no progress at all. Note, also, how completely 
the public has been aroused within ten years on the subject of sani- 
tary science, to which at the start they were wholly indifferent, and 
consider that there are now hundreds of architects to every sanitary 
writer of ten years ago. Show them that the proposed change will 
be to their own advantage, and they will be quick enough to change 
their practice. C. E. ILLSLEY. 


January 24, 1885. 


Dear Sirs, To what temperature can a steam-pipe be raised by 
the steam passing through it ? 

An intensely practical mivn tells me that wood cannot be ignited 
by eren the closest proximity to steam-pipes in active service, and 
backs up his assei tion by a bet of $10,000, that any fire cannot be 
traced to this cause. 

The same person declares, in regard to tin-covered wooden shutters, 
that it is necessary to tin only that side of the wood-work that is to 
be exposed to fire. 

In case of a conflagration on the tinned side, would not air work 
through the cracks, and supply oxygen to the charred wood, creating 
a blaze, thus destroying the shutter? 

The practical man says the tin would melt off before the wood 
could be sufficiently heated to cause a blaze. What is your opinion? 


[THE temperature of steam, and of the pipe conveying it, increases with 
the pressure from 212 3 Fahrenheit at the atmospheric pressure to about 
388 at two hundred pounds to the square inch, and in a slightly diminish- 
ing ratio for pressures above. The following extract from the Commercial 
Advertiser for February 9, will show the " intensely practical man," that if 
the bet was actually made he will have to pay. " The recent heavy losses 
from tire ill the lower part of the city was attributed by firemen almost uni- 
versally to the use of steam as a heating medium, when the hot pipes are 
not properly protected. The idea that steam-heating pipes cannot set lire 
to wood is a popular error. One of the best proofs of their danger was af- 
forded about a year ago in the house of Gen. Wager Swayue, in Grammercy 
Park. Steam-pipes ran through a closet in the basement under the parlor 
floor, and thence into the library. An alarm of fire was given late one night, 
and when the firemen tore away the hard-wood partitions they found that 
the wood-work along which the steam-pipes ran was scorched. The fire had 
begun in a wooden box into which the steam-pipes entered before forming a 
coil in the parlor. It was easily got under control, but not before it had done 
about SlO.OOOdamage. The firemen are inclined to believe that much of their 
work iu the down-town districts is due to nothing else than the lack of pro- 
tection to steam-pipes." The second question we leave to be answered by 
the following letter from one much more expert iu sueh matters than our- 

BOSTON, February 4, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, If your correspondent desires to win the bet offered 
by the " intensely practical man," whose views have been submitted 
to me, he can safely take it. 

The persistent and obstinate adherence to a mistaken theory of 
such men as this " intensely practical man," is one of the chief causes 
of the loss of property by fire, for want of the commonest precau- 
tions in the construction and fitting-up of buildings. 

It would not be worth while to offer evidence on the subject to 
such persons, as there are none so stupid as those who won't see. 

We have in our office a piece of timber from the sill of a hotel 
which was set on tire by a steam-pipe, carrying steam at twelve 
pounds pressure, with the pipe adjusted in what remained of the 
timber just as it was in the building. 

We also have an example of oak wood reduced to fine charcoal, 
ready to break into combustion, whenever circumstances might have 
favored, and which was formerly a part of a large boiling kier, lined 
with cement ; the cement being held in place by nails whose heads 
were covered by it. The heat of the boiling water was carried by 
the iron nails into the oak of the kier, and would have set it on fire 
ere long had not a change in the method of boiling caused it to be 
taken to pieces, when its dangerous condition was discovered. 

The last fire for which we paid a small sum of money, which was 
caused by the contact of a steam-pipe with the wood-work, happened 
in a new addition to an old mill in the process of construction. The 
steam-pipe had been placed without allowing sufficient room between 
the end of the service and the wall for the expansion of the pipe. 
The thrust caused by the heat brought the pipe in cont*;t with 
the wood-work, and set the mill on fire. 

Your " intensely practical man " also shows that he knows nothing 
about the right method of preparing fire-doors of wood encased in 
tin. Covering on one side only makes such doors worth no more 
than an iron door, if as much. 

I quote below from third edition of our instructions on this subject. 
Very truly yours, E. A. 


"WEfind it necessary to repeat the warning against inadequate fire-doors, 
as we find that reliance still placed on several classes o-f doors in which we 
have no confidence, sueh as rolled or cast iron doors, corrugated or hollow 
iron doors, wooden doors covered with zinc; a metal which melts at alout 
TOO 3 Fahrenheit, wooden doors covered on only one side with tin. 


The American Architect and Building News. [ VOL. XVII. No. 477. 

" The wooden door covered with tin only serves its purpose when the wooi 
is fully encased in tin, put on in such a way that no air, or the minimum o 
air, can reach the wood when it is exposed to the heat of a fire. Uude 
these conditions, the surface of the wood is converted into charcoal; an( 
charcoal, being a non-conductor of heat, itself tends to retard the furthe 
combustion of the wood. But, if air penetrates the tin casing in any meas 
nre, the charcoal first made, and then the wood itself, are both consumed 
and the door is destroyed. In like manner, if a door is tinned only on oni 
side, as soon as the heat suffices to convert the surface of the \yood unde 
the tin and next to the fire into charcoal, the oxygen reaches it from th( 
outside, and the door is of little more value than a thin door of iron or a 
plain wooden door. 

" We submit the following specifications, drawn by Mr. W. B. Whiting, for 
making a fire-door or shutter that will resist fire longer than any other door 
or shutter known to us, the construction of the shutter varying from that o 
the door only in using thinner wood: 


"A door of the right construction to resist fire should be made of good pine. 
and should be of two or more thicknesses of matched boards nailed across 
each other, either at right angles or at forty-five degrees. If the doorway 
be more than seven feet by four feet, it would be better to use three thick- 
nesses of same stuff; in other words, the door should be of a thickness pro- 
portioned to its area. Such a door should always be made to shut into a 
rabbet, or flush with the wall, when practicable: or, if it is a sliding door, 
then it should be made to shut into or behind a jamb, which would press il 
up against the wall. The door and its jambs, if of wood, should then be 
sheathed with tin, the plates being locked at joints and securely nailed un- 
der the locking with nails at least one inch long. No air-spaces should be 
left in a door by panelling or otherwise, as the door will resist best that has 
the most solid material in it. 

" In most places, it is much better to fit the door upon inclined metal slides 
rather than upon hinges. 

" This kind of door may be fitted with automatic appliances, so that it will 
close of itself when subjected to the heat of a fire; but these appliances do 
not interfere with the ordinary methods of opening anil shutting the door. 
They only constitute a safeguard against negligence." 


PEOKIA, ILL., January 24, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, If space permits, give a list of the best books on 
architecture and building, ventilation and heating, gas-fitting and 
plumbing, brick and stone masonry, carpentry, and collections of 
plans for dwellings of moderate cost. (I have those published in 
your columns.) S. 

[CONSIDERING our correspondent's position and evident intention, the 
information he seeks should only be given after a careful consideration, 
which requires more time than we can at the moment command; for to 
answer satisfactorily we would have to compile a bibliography of the 
standard works covering a wide range. We will therefore mention a few of 
the desirable works only, and trust to answer more at length before long. 

Accepting as a condition that only English books are desired, we sug- 
gest the following : 

DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOP.-UDIAS. "Dictionary of the Architectu- 
ral Publication Society*:" Gwilt's " Encyclopedia of Architecture*;" 
Parker's " Glossary of Architecture ;" Nicholson's "Architectural Dic- 

HISTORIES. Fergusson's "Handbook of Architecture*;" Viollet-le- 
Duc's "Discourses on Architecture." 

CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS. "Notes on Building Construction*; " 
Thurstou's "Materials of Engineering;" Clark's "Building Superin- 
tendence*;" Dobson's " Art of Building." 

CARPENTRY. Tredgold's " Carpentry*;" Nicholson's "Carpenters' and 
Joiners' Assistant." 

LIMES, MORTARS AND CEMENTS. Gillmore's "Practical Treatise on 
Limes, Hydraulic Cements and Mortars*;" Reid's "Portland Cement;" 
Vicat's " On C'amcnt ;" Bumell's " Limes, Cements and Mortars. * " 

IRON. Fairbairn's " On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to 
Building;" Unwiu's "Iron Bridges and Roofs*." 

SANITATION. Latham's " Sanitary Engineering*;" Gerhard's "Hints 
on the Drainage and Sewerage of Dwellings*; " Waring' s " Sanitary Con- 
dition of Dwelling-Houses ;" Denton's "Handbook of Sanitation." 

HEATING AND VENTILATION. Peclet's " Heat and Ventilation*;" Put- 
nam's "Open Fireplace;" Billings's " Ventilation and Heating;" Box's 
"On Heat;" Galtou's "Healthy Dwellings;" Baldwin's "Steam-Heating 
for Buildings ;" Tomlinson's "Wanning and Ventilation." 

DRAWING. Ware's " Modern Perspective*;" Linfoot's "Architectural 

BRICK AND STONE. Dobson's " Bricks and Tiles;" Dobson's "Masonry 
and Stone-Cutting ;" Davis's " Bricks, Tiles and Terra-Cotta." 

DWELLINGS. Comstock's "American Cottages." EDS. AMERICAN 

"Standard and extremely desirable. 


OMAHA, NEB., January 20, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, I am anxious to learn if any continuous brick kiln, so 
well received all over Europe, and in use there since about 1864, 
has ever been employed in the United States, and if so; how ap- 
proved of by our brick manufacturers. 

Any information concerning this subject, or addresses of men using 
these said kilns, you may be able to give, will be thankfully accepted. 

Hoping to have the pleasure to hear from you at your earliest con- 
venience. I remain, yours respectfully, H. ROHWER. 

[WE believe you will find the information you seek in the Scientific Ameri- 
can Supplement, Nos. 1UO and 18ii. EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 


February 9, 1885. 

Dear Sirs, When I called for plans and specifications of the in- 
terior construction of a church of which you lately gave an interest- 

ing design, my purpose was to determine whether or not when 
constructed it would be a stone screen protecting an inside cellular 
wooden structure from water, in case a fire should occur in the cus- 
tomary way by which churches are now being consumed at the rate 
of about one-and-a-half per week in this country. 

To this, R. B., Jr., responds that I inquire for plans " for fire- 
proof schools and churches, and that it is easier to make such plans 
than to get the public to pay the extra cost." 

I made no such inquiry. I only wish to see some plans of churches 
in which the same materials now used in making the excellent exam- 
ples of combustible architecture may be otherwise disposed in such a 
way that a prudent underwriter might bet that they would ot be 
completely destroyed by a small fire starting in the cellar, at as low 
a rate as it would generally be safe to bet that they will be utterly 
ruined from the smallest spark of fire dropped anywhere. E. A. 


A SINGULAR CAUSE OF FIRE. A small fire recently, in the St. An- 
drew's tenement, in a suburb of Boston, was caused in the following 
remarkable manner : An unusually hot fire in a patent parlor grate 
stove melted the solder securing the end piece of the ornamental brass 
rod which extends over the stove door. The piece immediately dropped 
off and the resin with which the rod was filled to prevent its denting 
ignited, ran out and set fire to the rug and curtains. Fortunately, the 
tenants were in the room at the time and extinguished the flames 
before any serious damage was done. Had it been in the dead of night, 
the result would undoubtedly have been a heavy loss of life and pro- 
perty. When there is so much fireproof material with which such 
rods could be filled, it must be due to intense stupidity that such an 
incendiary article as resin should be used. The Weekly Underwriter. 

A SANITARY CANAL FOR PARIS. A project for a sanitary canal be- 
tween Paris and the sea has been brought before the French Academy 
of Sciences by M. A. Dumont. The author points out that although 
the experiments of the City of Paris engineers at Gennevilliers appear 
to show that irrigation is the best means of disposing of the drainage 
of Paris, it is very doubtful if the space available at the forest of St. 
Germain is sufficient for the purpose, the drainage waters of Paris 
amounting to over 100,000,000 cubic metres per annum. Hence his idea 
of a canal to the sea to carry off the daily accumulation of 300,000 
cubic metres of sewage. The starting-point of the proposed canal 
would be a covered reservoir at Herblay on the right bank of the 
Seine. From Herblay to a point on the coast between Dieppe and Tre- 
port the canal would be 152 kilometres long, and covered throughout. 
The route of this canal would be by Eragny (crossing the Oise by a 
viaduct 25 metres high), thence to Serif ontaine, Neufchatel, St. Martin, 
and Greges, to the Channel at a point 7 kilometres from Dieppe, and 
17 kilometres from Tre'port, where the current and trend of the coast 
would prevent any nuisance to these ports. Pumping would be resorted 
to at some points; but at the outfall, motive power could be obtained 
from the waters. A more important point in connection with the new 
scheme is that it would admit of the water being utilized for irrigation 
purposes en route, and during two-thirds of the year probably all the 
sewage would be thus disposed of. The estimated cost of the canal is 
sixty millions, and the expense of pumping would be largely covered 
by the sale of the waters along the track of the canal. The section of 
the latter would permit the flow of at least 500,000 cubic metres per 
diem. The scheme is well worthy the consideration of other crowded 
centres, since it unites the utilization of the sewage at separate districts 
along a considerable length of country, together with the advantages of 
a covered drain. It is, in fact, virtually a means of distributing sewage 
waters for irrigation purposes. For Paris the work would be highly 
jeneficial on the score of health. Engineering. 

he Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society was held on Wednesday 
evening, the seventeenth of December, the President, Mr. Thomas 
Cole, A. M. I. C. E., in the chair, when a paper, illustrated with experi- 
nents, was delivered by Dr. G. Selkirk Jones, F. C. S., upon " Slate 
De'bris and its Utilization." The author, after describing the composi- 
tion and geological formation of clay slate, called attention to the 
various substances which in the laboratory he had obtained from 
waste slate, or de'bris, such as crystallized alum, so much in demand as 
a mordant in calico-printing and other processes; secondly, a new 
iltering agent for sugar refining and water purification, this substance 
:ontaining a large percentage of carbon; thirdly, a substance which 
le named "Argilline," to be used in conjunction with lime for the 
hemical precipitation of lime. The author then showed an alumi- 
nate of peculiar composition, possessing good detergent properties, 
nd which, he said, had already found much favor among wool and 
ilk scourers, its efficacy as a detergent being due, firstly, to its powers 
is a remover of grease, etc. and, secondly, on account of its harmless 
action upon those delicate fabrics, the curl of the wool being uninjured, 
md the silk freed from the so-called gum without damaging the fibre. 
The slate debris was next shown in its prepared condition for the man- 
ifacture of French chalk, pigments, fullers' earth, earthenware, cem- 
ent, and concrete. Another feature of slate de'bris utilization was also 
minted out, viz., the manufacture of good and substantial bricks, sani- 
ary and other tubes, tiles, etc. The author showed by experiment the 
cleansing of dirty wool, selecting the worst specimen he could obtain, 
le also precipitated the solid matter from a gallon of very offensive 
ewage-water, leaving the effluent bright and comparatively pure. In 
peaking upon the question of sewage purification, and of our possible 
visitor, the cholera, the author remarked that this was not a question 
o much of cost as of national importance. From a sanitary and 
lygienic point of view, what, he argued, was 5,000 or even 10,000 a 
ear outlay compared with the incalculable advantages of pure drink- 
ng-water and the prevention of zymotic diseases among the commu- 
lity ? The exclusive rights in respect to the foregoing have been 
ecured at home and abroad ? The Builder. 

FEBRUARY 14, 1885.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



(Reported for The American Architect and Building Ncwe.) 

[Although a large portion of the building intelliqenc 
is provided by their regular correspondents, the editor 
yreatly desire to receive voluntary information* cspe 
twit y from the smaller and outlying towns.} 


[Printed specifications of any patents herementioned 
together with full detail illustrations, may be obtained 
V the Commissioner of Patent*, at Washington, for 
twenty-five cents. I 

311,487. VISE. Thomas G. Hall, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

311,489. ELEVATOR. Charles W. Hays, Orange 
!N . J. 

311,502. HOT-AIR FUBNACE. Abram Mann, Kan 
eas City, Mo. 

311,504. ELEVATOR. Volney W. Mason, Provi 
dence, R. I. 

311,509. FRESCO-WORK. Ettore S. Miragoli St 
Louis, Mo. 

311,610. AWNING FOB WINDOWS. Matthew Mon 
eyment, Philadelphia, Pa. 

311,518. STRAP-HINGE. Bartlett D. Palmer, Wha 
Cheer, lo, 

KILNS. Chester L. Ames, Oabery, 111. 

Leonard E. Clawdon, San Francisco, Cal 

311,569. COMPOSITE ROOFING. William Coaltas 
Stockton-on-Tees, County of Durham, Eng. 

311,575. REVERSIBLE LATCH. Daniel II. Fitzger- 
ald, Reading, Pa. 

311,578. SCAFFOLDING. John T.Haskell.Norwalk 

OF WATER-CLOSETS. Thomas Keyworth, Brooklyn 

ClSrKRNS.-George U. Moore, Philadelphia, Pa. 

311,604. DOUR-CHECK. Levi Pentz, Canton, O. 

311,606. STEAM-SUPPLY SYSTEM. Nathaniel W 
Pratt, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

3I1,6C8. PLOOHINU-CLAMP. Alonzo Redman, Chic- 
opee, Mass. 

311,637. LATCH AND LOCK COMBINED. Frederick 
J. Biggs. London, Eng. 

TORS AND HOISTS. Dominique Crespin de la Jean- 
niere, Paris. France. 

TUNNELS AND TUBES. Hayden H. Hall, New Ham- 
burg, N. Y. 

311.660. TILE-KILN. Gregory Jennings, West 
Cairo, O. 

311.661. FIRE-ESCAPE. Charles W. Joynt, Ma- 
kanda, 111. 

311,666. LATH. James Morrison, Jr., New York 
N. Y. 

311,669. FIRE-ESCAPE. Robert H. Nichols, Ayles- 
ford, Nova Scotia, Can. 

311,674. ASH-CHUTE. Henry Pashley, Brooklyn, 

311.676. ROOFING-BRACKET. Edwin Prescott, Ar- 
lington, Mass. 

Randall, Durand, Wis. 

H. Skerritt, Jersey City, N. J. 

ARTIFICIAL STONE. C. Irvine Walker, Charleston, 

311,697. DOOR-HANGEB. Warren E. Warner, Syr- 
acuse, N. Y. 

311*29. ASBESTOS PACKING. John Dewrance, 
Lambeth, County of Surrey, Eng. 

Gay, Paris, France. 

311.742. PNEUMATIC DOOR-CHECK. Willim Gilfll- 
lan, New Haven, Conn. 

311,732. FIRE-HOSE CASE OB Box. John T. Haw- 
kins, Taunton, Mass. 

311,753. DOOR-KNOB ATTACHMENT. Nathan 
Hawkes, Appletou, Me. 

David Hoke, Altoona, Pa. 

311,765. WINDOW-FASTENER. George H. Kan- 
macher, Columbus, O. 

311.783. ELEVATOR. William F. Rau and Conrad 
Munch, Cincinnati, O. 

311.784. SKYLiGHT.-Riohard H. Reille, New York, 
N. Y. 

311,800. CALIPERS. Charles H. Alapaw, St. Louis, 

311,805. FIRK-ESCAPE. Joseph H. Bowley, Ma- 
rengo, III. 

311,825. WEATHER-STRIP. Solomon Funk, Spirit 
Lxke, lo. 

311,827. WINDOW-SCREEN. Jay R. Graver, Lin- 
coln, Neb. 

311,836. DOOR STOP AND HOLDER. Sidney W. Jay 
and Michael J. Garvey, Toledo, O. 

311,845. HOT-AIR FURNACE. Thos. Nugget, New 
York, N. Y. 



WAREHOUSE. Chas. L. Carson, architect, has pre- 
pared plans for Solomon Frank, Esq., for a tive-st'y 
brick and stone warehouse, 28' x 94', to be erected 
on West Baltimore St., near Eutaw St., and to cost, 
$30,000; S. H. & .J. F. Adams, contractors. 

DWELLINGS. Geo. S. Brown, Esq., is to have built 17 
three-st'y brick and Cheat Ri/er stone dwells., 16' x 
40', and to cost, $3,500 each; com. cor. Harlem 
and Fulton Aves.; and 13 three-st'y brick dwells., 

12' x 30', and to cost, $1,000: near alley in rear o 
above; from designs by Frank E. Davis, architect 
Jackson Holland, builder. 

BUILDING PERMITS. Since our last report eixtee 
permits have been granted, the more important o 
which are the following: 

S. D. Price, 7 three-st'y brick buildings, n e cor 
Chase and Barclay Sts.; and 5 three-st'y brick build 
ings, s s Chase St., w of McKim St. 

J. M. Getz, 14 two-st'y brick buildings, w s Enso 
St., bet. Biddle and Chase Sts.; and two-st'y brick 
buildings, com. n w cor. Chase and Ensor St. 

John E. Phillips, five-st'y brick warehouse, n 
Pratt St., bet. Howard and Eutaw Sts. 

J. E. Emerson, three-st'y brick building (square' 
n w cor. Gilraor St. and Lafayette Ave. 

N. M. Rittenhouse, oue-sfy brick building 40' x 
60', s w cor. Oovington St. and Fifth Lane. 

George Zeller, three-st'y brick building, n w cor 
Jefferson and Chapel Sts. 

Mary A. Parks, 10 two-st'y brick buildings, s 
Nanticoke St., w of Cross St. 


BUILDING PERMITS. Greenpoint Ave., s s, 72' w Man 
hattan Ave., one-st'y frame skating-rink, with gal 
lery on one side, felt roof; cost, $7,500; owners, R 
Hall Bentoii and Eugene Fisher; architects an< 
builders, Randall & Miller. 

Scholes St., 8 8, 100' w Graham Ave., two-st'y brick 
stable and one-st'y brick engine-house; cost, $5,000 
owner, Henry Kiefer; architect, J. Platte; builder 
J. Rueger. 

Kutledge St., s s, 100' w Harrison Ave., 4 three-st's 
brick flats, tin roofs, wooden cornices; cost, each 
$7,000; owners and builders, Jacob Bossert ant 
John Auer, Heyward St., near Harrison Ave ; archi 
tect, J. Platte. 

North Twelfth St., at foot of street, two-st'y brick 
packing-box factory, tin roof, brick cornice; cost 
$15,000; owner, Pratt M'f'g Co., on premises; arobi 
tect, F. L. R. Swift; builder, not selected. 

Fulton St., s e cor. Lafayette Ave., 5 four-st'y iron 
stores and tenements, tin roofs, cost, $50,000; owner 
A. S. Robbins, 114 Sixth Ave.; architect and carpen 
ter, Joseph Platt; masons, J. De Mott & Sons. 

MacDougal St., n e cor. Ralph Ave., 2 three-st'; 
brick stores and dwells., tin roofs; cost, total 
$14,000; owner, Edw. F. Holtz, on premises; archi 
tect, T h. Engeihardt; builders, A. Sutterline and P 

Central Ave., Nos. 71 and 73, cor. Melrose St. 
2 three-st'y frame stores and dwells., tin roofs; cost 
total, $9,000; owner, Leonhard Eppig, 58 Centra 
Ave.; architect, Th. Eugelkardt. 

Jfalsey St., n s, 125' e Keid Ave., 3 two-st'y brick 
dwells., tin roofs, wooden cornices; cost, each 
$3,000; owners, Frederick and John Dhuy, 18- 
Chauncey St.; carpenter, John Dhuy. 


BUILDING PERMITS. J. Schlage, 2 two-st'y flats, 49 
51 North May St.; cost, $7,000; architect and build 
er, S. M. Walden. 

E. Batcheller, five-st'y factory, 42-44 West Mon- 
roe St.; cost, $35,000; architect, L. D. Cleveland 
builder, N. Barton. 

J. O. Boyle, two-st'y stable, 220-222 Illinois St. 
cost, $3,000. 

J. H. Cummings, two-st'y dwell., 515 Dearborn 
Ave. cost, $4,000. 

F. R. Goss, two-st'y store and flats, 1115-1121 Har- 
rison St.: cost, $6,000; architect, S. N. I'hilpot. 

G. N. Hull, 2 two-st'y stores and flats, 337-339 
South Western Ave.; cost, $5,000; architect, A. S. 

Geo. Heppish, 8 three-sfy dwells., 111-125 Sibley 
St.: cost, $30,000; architect and builder, Geo. Hep- 

Geo. Heppisb, three-st'y store and flats, 517 Tay- 
lor St. ; cost, $6,000. 

C. A. Brecht, two-st'y dwell., 597 Chicago Ave.; 
cost, $4,000. 

H. Schwinkendorf, three-st'y flats, 177 Tremont 
St.; cost, $4,000: architect, T. Reinhardt. 

J. Enerson, three-st'y Hals, 2K6 West Erie St.; 
cost, $4,000; builders, T. Tobiason & Co. 

W. J. Anderson, 3 cottages, 480-486 Armitage St.; 
cost, $2,700. 

W. C.. Houston, two-st'y dwell., Belleview Ave.; 
cost, $3,500. 

B. C. Chambers, 2 additional stories, 153-157 Dear- 
born St.; cost, $20,000; builder, E. Sturtevant. 

J. Henry, three-st'y flats, 133 California Ave.; cost, 
85,000; architect and builder, J. Henry. 

Mrs. M. Irving, three-st'y flats, 247 Thirty-seventh 
St.: cost. $5,000; architect, Geo. McDonald. 

A. Muoller, two-st'y store and dwell., 287 Cly- 
bourne Ave.; cost, $3,000. 

Mrs. M. E. Sands, two-st'y dwells., 491-503 West 
Jackson St. ; cost, $40,000. 

G. D. Pease, three-st'y store and flats, 993 West 
Van Buren St.; cost, $4,500; architect, A. Smith; 
builder, A. Dressel. 

New York. 

First-class builders have their pencils finely point 
ed, for hardly any work is yet on the market. Spec, 
ulative builders and owners of cheap tenements 
keep up the volume of projected buildings. 
.PARfMKNT-HousE. On the n e cor. of Lexington 
Ave. and Seventy-second St., a six-st'y apariuient- 
house, 45' x M>, is to be built at a cost of $100,000, 
from plans of Mr. Selig Steinhardt, 
HOSPITAL. It is proposed to have an additional story 
built on the building of the Mount Sinai Hospital, 
on Lexington Ate. and Sixty-sixth St. 
UILDING PERMITS. East Ninth St., Nos. 206 and 
208, flve-st'y brick and terra-cotta dwell., tin roof; 
cost, $32,000; owner, James Thompson, per E. R. 
Robinson, 150 Broadway; architect, G. B. Post. 

Riaington St., a w cor. Norfolk St., 2flve-st'y brick 
tenements, tin roofs; total cost, $38,lK)0; owner, 
Francis Keckeissen, 307 Fifth St.; architect, J. 

Norfolk St., No. 115, four-st'y brick stable, etc., 
tin roof; cost, $12,OOJ; owner and architect, same as 

Sixty-fourth St,, n s, 175' w Eleventh Ave., two- 
st'y brick factory, tin roof; cost, $12,000; owner, 
Henry liaabe, 235 West Fifty-third St.; architect 
J. Brandt. 

Allen St., No. 7, flve-st'y brick tenement, tin roof, 
cost, $21,000; owner, Chas. Pfeiff, 17 Eldridge St.; 
architect, W. Graul. 

One Hundred and Fortieth St., s s, 77' e Willis 
Ave., three-st'y brick dwell., tin roof; cost, $5,500; 
owner, A. F. Nickel, 298 Willis Ave.; architects, 
Ebeling & Hennricke. 

Madison Ave., e s, 350' n One Hundred and Seven, 
ty-ninth St., three-st'y frame dwell., tin roof; cost, 
$4,300; owner, Margaret L. Haughey, 1436 Lexing- 
ton Ave.; architect and builder, Robert H. Taylor. 
Melrose Ave., s e cor. One Hundred and Fifty-fifth 
St., three-st'y frame dwell., tin roof; cost, $4,5uO; 
owner, Wm. Conrad, 611 East One Hundred and 
Fifty-fifth St.; architect, Chas. Volz; builder, Win. 

Sixly-Jifth St., n s, 250' w Eighth Ave., 5 flve-st'y 
brick flats, tin roofs; cost, each, $30,000; owner, Jas. 
Philp, Fifty-first St. and Broadway; architects, 
Thorn & Wilson. 

Stanton St., No. 233, flve-st'y brick tenement and 
store, tin roof; cost, $15,000; owner, Frank A. Seitz, 
315 East Forty-second St.; architect, Jos. M. Dunn 
West Thirty-fifth St., No. 256, flve-st'y brick tene- 
ment, tin roof; cost, $16,000; owner, Lawrence Cur- 
nan, 260 West Thirty-ninth St. ; architect, Jos. M. 

Morris Ave., n w cor. One Hundred and Forty- 
ninth St., 4 four-st'y brick tenements and stores, tin 
roofs; owner, Mrs. Margaret A. Johnson, 2200 First 
Ave.; architect, Andrew Spence. 

fifth Aae., No. 793, two-st'y brick store and green- 
house in rear; cost, $1,000; lessees, Sarah 1. Hunt- 
ham and W. W. Hall, 245 West One Hundred and 
Twenty-ninth St.; architect, C. Abbott French. 

First Aae., w 8, 75' s Twenty-third St., four-st'y 
brick workshop, tin roof; cost, $4,000; owner, John 
Kreeb, 471 First Ave.; architects, Thorn & Wilson. 

Tenth Aae., 10' s cor. Fifty-first St., Bve-st'y brick 
tenements and stores, tin roofs; cost, $15,000; owner, 
Thurlow W. Coulter, 751 Tenth Ave.; architects 
A. B. Ogden & Co. 

One Hundred and Fourth St., s 8, 80' w Third 
Ave., five-st'y brick flat, tin roof; cost, $22,! 00; 
owner, Mary E. Bailey, 186 East One Hundred and 

Fourth St.; architect, Chas. Baxter; carpenter, 

Baxter, 108 East One Hundred and Twenty-fifth St. 
Jitrgcn Ave., s w cor. Rose St., 2 three-st'y frame 
tenements, and a two-st'y frame stable on rear of 
lot, tin roofs; cost, total, $12,000; owner, Henry Ahr, 
681 North Third Ave.; architect, Theo. E. Thompson. 
Ninth Ave., n e cor. Forty-fifth St. ,4 five-st'y brick 
tenements and stores, tin roofs; cost, three $18,ouo 
each, and one $26,000; owner, Win. Kankin, 332 West 
Forty-seventh St.; architect, K. Louis Ungrich. 

St-'contl Aae.. e s, 100' n Sixty-third St., tive-st'y 
brick workshop, gravel roof; cost, $17,000; owner 
and builder, Geo. B. Christiuau, 331 East Fifty-fifth 
St.; architect, Wm. Graul. 

Norfolk St., Nos. 72-76, 3 tive-st'y brick tenements, 
tin roofs; cost, each, $21,000; owners. H. & S. J. Sil- 
berman, 79 Canal St.; architect, Wm. Graul. 

Pier, foot of East Twenty-third St., frame and 
iron ferry-house, slate and tin roof; cost, $25 OOo; 
owner, People's Ferry Co., by Jos. J. O'Douohue 
44 West Fifty-fourth St. 

Walton Ave., w s, 250' n One Hundred and Fiftieth 
St., two-st'y frame dwell., tin roof; cost, $4,000; 
owners, Stephen F. Stafford and wife, t>05 Walton 
Ave.; builder, Stephen F. Stafford. 

Ninety-fifth St., s s, 199' S" and 224' w Ninth Ave., 
2 three-st'y brick dwells., slate roofs; cost, each, 
$6,000; owners, Edwin and Chas. Fraser, 13 .si. 
Luke's PI.; architect and carpenter, Louis Falk; 
mason, .James McGarity. 

ALTERATIONS. Gold St., No. 30, repair damage by 
fire; cost, $3,500; owner, W. K. Dodge, 262 Madison 
Ave., and D. W.James, Park Ave. ami Thirty-ninth 
St.; architect and builder, E. Smith. 

Allen St., No. 5, add one st'y; cost, $3,000; owner, 
Charles Pfeiff, 17 Eldridge St.; architect, W. Graul. 

West^ Twelfth St., A'ojf. 351 and 353, replace second 
and third floors, also repair brick walls; cost, S4,<nni; 
owner, Peter C. Ritchie, exr., 351 West Twelfth M.; 
builder, JohnL. Hamilton. 

Eiyhth Aae., Noa. 512 and 514, new store-fronts; 
cost, $3,500; owner, Courtland Palmer, Trustee, 117 
East Twenty-first St.; builder, A. Gibbius. 

West Fifteenth St., No. 318, three-st'y brick exten- 
sion, tin roof; cost, $3,.~)00; owner, Leopold Arnan, on 
premises; architect, John J. Tucker; builder, Wm. 
A. Vanauhotf. 

Second At'e., e s, Ninety-sixth to Ninety-seventh 
St., three-st'y,brick extension on rear, gravel roof; 
cost, $75,000; owner, Second Ave. R. K. Co., ou 
premises; architect, John G. Prague. 

Broadway, s e cor. Liberty St., internal altera- 
tions, such as new stairs, two passenger-elevators, 
new boilers, new plumbing, etc., fix up lorofticcs; 
cost, $50,000; owner, Mutual Lite Ins. Co., Nassau- 
Cedar and Liberty Sts. 


FACTORY. At Tenth St., cor. Filbert St.; Kisler & 
Oram, contractors, will erect from plans drawn by 
Collins and Autenreit & Co., architects; six-si y 
building for manufacturing purposes, 70' x lou', the 
material used will be bricks, Richmond granite and 
ornamental terra-cotta, the Tenth St. front will be 
of glass, and so arranged in the first st'y as to make 
3 stores if necessary; there will also be a boiler- 
house, two-st'y, 20' x 60', located in rear ou Remen- 
ter St. 

BOILDING PERMITS. Christian St., No. 1513, two-st'y 
shop, 18' x 29'; Thos. Smith, owner. 

North St., w of Seventy-first St., three-st'y dwell.; 
M. Boyle, contractor. 

Oxford St., No. 2514, addition to stable, 46' x 51'' 
Harry A. liears, owner. 

Weikel St., n w cor. of Ontario St., three-sfy 
dwell., 16' x 45'; L. Scbwab, contractor. 

Kensington Aae., n w cor. Cumberland St., one-st'y 
skaiing-nnk, 40' x 80': C. I. Schroe !er, owner. 

Jtover St., above Indiana Ave., two-st'y dwell. 10' 
x 27'; Dicksou & Bro., contractors. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XVII. No. 477. 

Karris St., e of Sepovia St., addition to building, 
15' x 34'; Win. H. Grisler, contractor. 

North Ninth St.. No. 41, back building, 16' x 36': 
Rea & Riley, contractors. 

St. Louis. 

BUILDING PBBMITS. Thirty-seven permits have been 
issued since our lat report seven of which are for 
unimportant frame house;. Of the rest, those worth 
92,500 and over are as follows: 

Emm Lingenfelder, 3 adjacent two-st'y tene- 
ments: cost, 811,000; M. Frederic!, builder. 

F. Reinor, two-st'y store and dwell.; cost, $3,300; 
H. Kilermann, builder. 

Chas. Kurz, 4 adjacent two-st'y tenements; cost, 
$6,50;); Thos. Gugerty, builder, 

Thorn Si Fullertin, 3 adjacent tw >-st'y dwells.; 
cost, $7,000; B Weber & Co., builders. 

Mrs. S. Doyle, 3 adjacent two-st'y dwells.; cost, 
$8,000; I. S. Taylor, architect; Jno. McMahon, 

Globe Panorama Co., one-st'y brick panorama; 
cost, $45,000. I. S. Taylor, architect; Goesse & Rem- 
luers, builders. 

Henry Hitchcock, two-st'y store and dwell.; cost, 
S3,()00; sub-let. 

Win. J. Nolker, 3 adjacent two-st'y dwells.; cost, 
$11.000; E. Jungeufeld, architect; Bothe & Ratter- 
mann, builders. 

Wm. J. Nolker, 2 adjacent two-st'y dwells.; cost, 
87,000; E. Jungeufeld, architect; Bothe & Ratter- 
mann, builders. 

Joseph bpecht, two-st'y brick dwell.; cost, $35,- 
000; Bothe & Rattermann, builders. 

Joseph Specht, two st'y stable, cost, $4,000; Bothe 
& Rattermann, builders. 

Gerst M'f'g Co., two-st'y brick factory; cost, $3,- 
000; Bothe & Rattermann, builders. 

Wm. Seaver, two-st'y brick restaurant; cost, $4,- 
000; A. Beinke & Co., architects; C. H. Poertner, 

Henry Tielkemeyer, 2 adjacent two-st'y tene- 
ments; cost, $3,200; A. Beinke & Co., architects; 

Mrs. B. Roth, '2, adjacent two-st'y tenements; cost, 
84,000; E. W. Black, builder. 

A. Vosse, two-st'y tenement; cost, $3,000; A. 
Vosise, builder. 

Mrs. W. Smith, 3 adjacent two-st'y dwell and ten- 
ements; cost, $3,001); B. Smith, builder. 

Washington, D. C. 

BniLniNG PERMITS. Since last reports the following 
have been issued: 

O St., between Twentieth and Twenty first Sts, 
11 w, 2 three-st'y brick dwells., for Gletm Brown, 
owner ami architect; cost. $9,000. 

E St., between Sixth and Seventh Sts., n w, one- 
st'y brick skating-rink, 74' x 159'; cost, $10,000; E. C. 
Gilbert, owner. 

K St., between Twenty-sixth St. and Twenty- 
seventh St., n w, 3 three-st'y brick dwells., for C. 
Henrich; cost, 87,000; C. A. bidden, architect. 

Fourth St., between E and F Sts., n w, tbree-st'y 
brick dwell., for Mrs. I. Johnson; cost, $5,000; Lewi's 
Stutz, architect. 

Thirteenth St., between M and N Sts., n w, 3 
three-st'y brick dwells., for Robert Portlier; cost. 
$14,000; C. A. Hidden, architect. 

Kiqhth St., between S and T Sts., n w, two-st'y 
brick dwell., for R. L. Parry; cost, $3,800. 

Nineteenth St., between Q and RSts.. n w, three- 
st'y brick dwell., for W. T. Okie; cost, $8,000; C. C. 
Martin, architect and builder. 

Mnniachusetts Ave., s s, between Twenty-first and 
Twenty-second Sts., n w, dwell., 52' x 61', four-st'y 
and basement, for Mrs. Anaslasia Patten, of Cali- 
fornia; cost, $90,000; Col. R. I. Fleming, architect 
and builder. 

General Notes. 

BEATRICE, NEB. Bank and office-building for Thos. 
Yule; cost. $10,000; Kills & Turner, architects. Mar- 
shalltown, Iowa. 

ELLSWORTH, ME. The people of Hancock County are 
to vote in March on the question of erecting a new 
jail, a court-house, and a registry of deeds. It is be- 
lieved that the expenditure of $.*0.000 or $40,(lOO will 
so remodel the present structures that they will meet 
the needs of the county, and this course will prob- 
ably be adopted. 

Lo KPORT, N. V. About 510 persons, representing 
different towns in Niagara County, crowd id the 
court-house February 7, and prooened against the 
passage of a bill, now in the State Senate, authoriz- 
ing the building of a uew court-house and ci ty-hall 
in Lockport. 
Los ANGELES, CAL. California will build a State 

Insane Asylum at Los Angeles. 

NATICK, MASS. Takawambeit Lodge, I. O. O. F., is 

draughting plans for a large brick structure, to be 

built ou its lately purchased site on South Main St. 

PEORIA, ILL. House for W. G. Sloan; cost, $20,000; 

Ellis & Turner, architects, Marshalltown, Iowa. 
BAYMOND, N. H. The town of Raymond has appro- 
priated $-5,500 for the erection of a building to be 
occupied as a shoe factory by F. M. Hoyt. 
BKI> OAK, IOWA. High-school building; cost, $15,000; 
Ellis & Turner, architects, Marshalltown, Iowa. 

Also, Ward school-house; cost, $10,000. 
SOUTH ORANGE, N. J. Miss Caldwell's gift toward 
the establishment of a Catholic university has been 
increased, and it is said that arrangements have been 
completed for a new and magnificent institution, to 
be located within fifteen or twenty mile* of New 
York. It is said that the site of Seton Kail College, 
South Orange, will be_ selected on account of its ad- 
mirable location and its accessibility. 
SWEETWATER, EiSTl'ENN. We are expecting to 
build a new church within two years. James A. 
Wallace, Pastor Pres. Church. 

Bids and Contracts. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. The lowest bid for concreting the 
foundation of the new Federal Building is for 
$5,471, made by John Cox, of Chicago. Of the eight 
other bids, the highest was for $15,l>37. 
BUFFALO, N. Y. The following is a synopsis of the 
bids for marble wainscoting and mantels at the cus- 

Burlington Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 
111., $10,288. 

Davidson & Sons, Chicago, 111., and Milwaukee. 
Wls., $9.446. 
^Lautz & Co., 861 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y., $12,- 

Pickel Stone and Marble Company, St. Louie, 
Mo., $11.107. 

Charles E. Hall & Co., 69 Charlestown St., Boston, 
Mass., $13.457. 

E. Fritsch, 515 West Twentieth St., New York, 

R. C. Fisher, New York City, $14,581.54. 
CINCINNATI, O. The following were the bids on the 
carpenter-work of the new court-house: 

James Gurren, $50.000; H. E. Holtzinger, $46 336; 
Henry Behrens, $45,265; Harwood & Sou, $40628- 
J. F. Nieber, $39,475; Robert Thorns, $58,900; Grif- 
fith & Son, $35,980; Jos. Cotteral & Co., $28,937.50. 
KANSAS CITY, Mo. The following is a synopsis of 
the bids for marble wainscoting and mantels for the 


Pickel Stone and Marble Company, 1851 Broadway 
Street. St. Louis, Mo., $14,940. 

K. Fritsch, New York City, $17,426.75. 

R. C. Fisher, New York City, $17,896.60. 

Vermont Marble Company, Centre Rutland Vt. 

MEMPHIS, TENS. The following is a synopsis of the 
bids for marble wainscoting and mantels for the cus- 

Burlington Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111., 

Davidson & Sons, Chicago and Milwaukee, $6,156. 

Pickel Stone and Marble Company, St. Louis, Mo.. 
$6,370 . 

K. Fritsch, New York City, $6,734. 

R. C. Fisher, New York City, $6,305. 
PEORIA, ILL. The following is a synopsis of the bids 
for marble wainscoting, mantels and floor-tiling for 

King & Bull, Peoria, 111., $14,034.37i. 

Burlington Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111., 

Davidson & Sons, Chicago and Milwaukee, $10,906. 

Peoria Steam Marble Works, Peoria, 111., $10.- 

Pickel Stone and Marble Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., $11,758. 

E. Fritsch, New York City, $9,100. 

R. C. Fisher, New York City, $11,012. 
TOLEDO, O. The following is a synopsis of the bids 
for marble wainscoting, mantels and tioor tiling: 

Burlington Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111., 

Davidson & Sons. Chicago and Milwaukee, $16,899. 

Lautz & Co., Buffalo, N. Y., S18, 932.91. 

Pickel Stone and Marble Company. St. Louis Mo 

K. C. Fisher, 97 East Houston St., New York, $18 - 

Vermont Marble Company, Centre Rutland, Vt. 


[At New York, N. Y.] 

Sealed proposals will be received at the Office of the 
Department of Health, No. 301 Mott St., until Feb- 
ruary 17, 1885, for extension of sea-wall on North 
Brother island. For full information see City Reconl. 
for sale at No. 2, City Hall. 477 



WASHINGTON, D. C., February 10, 1885. , 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
S P. M., oil the 3d day of iWarch, 1885, for furnish- 
ing and delivering properly boxed, free on board cars, 
water-closet apparatus, that may be required for pub- 
lic buildings during the balance of the present and 
the next .fiscal year ending June 30, 1886. in accord- 
ance with specification, copies of which and any addi- 
tional information may be had at this office. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, for 
$500, and those received after the time of opening 
will not be considered. M. E. BELL, 

479 Supervising Architect. 

[At Preston, Minn.] 
PEESTON, January 9, 1885. ^ 

The County Commissioners of the County of Fill- 
more, in the State of Minnesota, will receive sealed 
prop isals until the 23th day of March, 1885, 
at 1JJ o'clock, M., at the office of the county audi- 
tor, in the village of Preston, said county, for the 
remodeling of the county court-house in said village, 
and the building of 2 two-st'y brictt additions thereto, 
and iron vaults therein, and the furnishing all mate- 
rials, in accordance with (he plans and specifications 
therefor on tile in the office of said auditor, which cm 
also be seen at the office of May berry & Son, archi- 
tects, Winona, Minnesota. 

No bids will be received except for the whole build- 
ing complete as specified. 

The successful bidder will be required to give a suf- 
ficient bond with sureties, within a reasonable time to 
be fixed by said commissioners, in the sum of $15,000, 
to be approved by said commissioners, conditioned 
upon the faithful performance of his contract. 

Kach bid must be accompanied by a sufficient bond 
with sureties, or a duly certified check payable to said 
county in a sum of at least five per cent of such bid, 
conditioned upon thu giving the bond above specified 
within the time so fixed, provided such bid should be 
accepted. The work will cost several thousand dol- 
lars, and must be completed on or before the first day 
of November, 1885. Rightreserved to reject any or all 
bids. J. G. MINEK, 

Chairman Board of County Commissioners. 

Attest: G. A. HAYES, County Auditor. 


[At Chicago, 111.] 

Sealed proposals will be received as the office ot the 
Committee Clerk of the Board of County Commission- 
ers, Room 29, Court-House, up to 2 p. M.. Friday, 
February 3O, 1885, for the application of the six () 
steam-boilers in the basement ot the court-house; alt 
proposals to be submitted in accordance with the spec- 
ifications now on file at this offlje; the right to reject 
any or all bids is reserved. 

Proposals should be addressed to the undersigned, 
and indorsed " Proposals for apolying Smoke-Prevent- 
ing Apparatus." JAMKS C. STRAIN, 
Committee Clerk, Board of County Commissioners, 

Room 29, Court-House. 477 


-C [At Kansas City, Mo.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C., February 10, 1885. ) 
Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
2 P. M., on the loth day of March, 1885, for all 
the painting, polishing and glazing required for the 
custom-house, etc., building at Kans;is City, Mo., in 
accordance with specification, copies of which and any 
additional inform ttiou may be bad on application at 
this office, or the offije of the supe-intenddnt. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. E. BELL, 

478 Supervising Architect. 

[At Scranton, Pa J 


SCRANTON, PA., January 24, 1S85. ) 
Sealed proposals for the erection and completion of 
a county jail for Lackawann* County, to be located on 
the corner of Washington AVH. and New York St., in 
the city of Scranton. Pa., will be received by the 
undersigned Commissioners of said county, at their 
office until Thursday, February 2(i, 1885, at 1O 
o'clock in the forenoon. Plans and specifications 
will be on in the city of Scran 
ton, on and afier Tuesday, January 27, 1885. The 
builder to whom the contract shall be awarded will be 
required to enter into bonds with at least two approved 
sureties for the sum of $20,00 >, for the fait In til per- 
formance of the contract. Work to be commenced 
within thirty days after the awarding of the contract, 
and to be finished on or before April 1, 1887. 

The Commissioners reserve the right to reject any 
or all bids. WM. FRANZ, 


County Commissioners. 
Attest: D. W. POWELL, Clerk. 478 

[At Erie, Pa.] 


WASHINGTON, D. C., January 27, 1885. ) 

Sealed proposals will be received at this office until 
% P. M., on the 28th day of February, 1885, for 
furnishing and setting all the ptone and brick work 
for the superstructure of the court-house, post-office, 
etc., at Erie, Pa., in accordance with specifications and 
drawings, copies of which may be seen and any addi- 
tional information obtained at this office or the office 
of the local superintendent of the building. 

Bids must be accompanied by a certified check, and 
those received after the time of opening will not be 
considered. M. K. BELL, 

477 Supervising Architect. 

[At Great Kanawha River, W. Va.] 

BALTIMORE, MD., January 24, 18-5. } 

Proposals for the iron-work of the pass of a movable 
dim on the Great Kanawha River, West Virginia, tour 
miles below Charleston, embracing about 130,0 
pounds of wrought, and 97.000 pouudsnf cast-iron, will 
be received at the U. S. Engineer Office. Charleston, 
Kanawha County, West Virginia, until noon of Feb- 
ruary 14, 1885. and opened immediately thereafter. 

Specifications can be had upon application to Mr. A. 
M. Scott, Assistant Engineer at Charleston. Drawings 
will be exhibited and all necessary inform uion given 
at the Charleston office. 


477 Lt.-Col. of Eng'rs, U. S. Army. 


" [At Farmlngton, Me.] 

January 2(i, 18S5. 

Sealed proposals will be received at the Clerk of 
Courts Office, Karinington, Me., until 13 o'clock, M., 
Tuesday, February 17, 1885, for furnishing the 
materials and erecting a court-house for Franklin 
County, at Farmingtou, Me. 

Plans and specifications may be examined and all 
information obtained at the Clerk's office in Farming- 
ton and at the office of G. M. Coombs, architect, Lew- 
iston, Me. 

Proposals will be received for the whole or a part of 
the work and materials. 

The right is reserved to reject any or all bids. 
F. W. PATTERSON, 1 c t 

477 8 SA K IA WEL'LMAN. j Commissioners. 


\J [At Clarinda, Io.] 

CLARlNnA, Io., January 9, 1885. 

Sealed Proposals for building a court-house at Clar- 
inda, Page County, Io., will be received at my office 
until la o'clock, uoon, Wednesday, February 
18th, 1885. Plans and specifications will be on file 
at the court-house in Clarinda, on and after February 
1, and may be seen prior to time time at the office of 
Foster* Liebbe, Architects, Des Moines le. 

The right is rest- rve.l to reject any or all bids. 

By order of the Board of Supervisors. 

477 R. H. LYMEB. Auditor. 


VOL. xvii. 

Copyright, 1886, JAMES R. OSOOOD & Co., Boston, Mara. 

No. 478. 

FEBRUARY 21, 1885. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 



A Bill to prevent a Physicians' Prescription being used more 
than once. Analogy between Physicians' Prescriptions 
and Architects' Drawings. Forest Destruction by Fire in 
America. The Dynamite Explosions at Westminster and 
London Tower. Death of M. Sauvage, Architect. The 
Timber Consumption of Great Britain. Growth of Semi- 
Tropical Trees in England A French Case of Architect- 
ural Responsibility. Which are the Ten most Noted Build- 
ings in the Country 1 85 





Prize Designs for a $l,500-Stable. Statues and Monuments of 
London. Examples of Dutch Brickwork. Design fora 

lOnO-Foot Tower 91 

THE American Architect STABLE COMPETITION 92 



Persuasion, not Coercion, a Cure for the Evils of Modern Com- 
petition. Plans for a Turn-Hall. The History of Roman 

Architecture. Keene's Cement 93 


'TJ CURIOUS discussion took place recently in the Pennsyl- 
/j[ vania Legislature, upon a matter which bears a distant 
resemblance to the question of architects' services. A bill 
is now pending before the Legislature for eliminating irre- 
sponsible persons from among the druggists of t