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Full text of "American archives : consisting of a collection of authentick records, state papers, debates, and letters and other notices of publick affairs, the whole forming a documentary history of the origin and progress of the North American colonies; of the causes and accomplishment of the American revolution; and of the Constitution of government for the United States, to the final ratification thereof. In six series ..."

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^merican ^rc|)itie0: 



CONSISTING OF 



A COLLECTION OF AUTHENTICK RECORDS, STATE PAPERS, DEBATES, AND LETTERS AND 

OTHER NOTICES OF PUBLICK AFFAIRS, 



THE WHOLE FORMING 



A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 



OF 



THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES; 



CAUSES AND ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



AND OF 



THE CONSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT FOR THE UNITED STATES, 



THE FINAL RATIFICATION THEREOF. 



IN SIX SERIES. 



FIRST SERIES. 

From the Dirscovery and Settlement of the North American 
G)lonies, t6 the Revolution in Eng-land, in 1688. 

4 SECOND SERIES. 

From the Revolution in England, in 1688, to the Cession of 
Canada to Great Britain, by the Treaty at Paris, in 1763. 

THIRD SERIES. 

From the Cession of Canada, in 1763, to the King's Mes- 
sage to Parliament, of March 7th, 1774, on the Proceed- 
ings in North America. 



FOURTH SERIES. 

From the King's Message, of March 7th, 1774, to the Decla- 
ration of Independence, by the United States, in 1776. 

FIFTH SERIES. 

From the Declaration of Independence, in 1776, to the De- 
finitive Treaty of Peace with Great Britain, in 1783. 

SIXTH SERIES. 

From the Treaty of Peace, in 1783, to the final ratification 
of the Constitution of Government for the United States, 
proposed by the Convention, held at Philadelphia, in 1787. 



PREPARED AND PUBLISHED UNDER AUTHORITY OF AN ACT OF CONGRESS. 



i4i 



^ 

^ 



AMERICAN AR€HITE8t 



dPourtj) giertcs. 



CONTAINING 



A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 



OF 



THE ENGLISH COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA, 



FKOM 



THE KING'S MESSAGE TO PARLIAMENT, OF MARCH 7, 1774, 



TO 



THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 



BY 



THE UNITED STATES. 



VOLUME I. 




PUBLISHED BY M. ST. CLAIR CLARKE AND PETER FORCE, 
UNDER At;THOBlTY OF AN ACT OF CONGRESS, PASSED ON THE SECOND OF MARCH, 1833. 



«ie<tmjJJ>e 



WASHINGTON, DECEMBER, 1837. 



«l^« 



£ 

m 



PEEFACE 



We noAv submit to the People of the United Stales, the first fruits of our long 
and arduous lahoui'S. We oflier the present Volume as a specimen of tlie manner in 
Mhich our Work will he accomplished. The undertaking in which we have embarked 
is, emphatically, a J^ational one : National in its scope and object, its end and aim. 

The tendency of the present age has been justly and philosophically designated as 
historick. At no former period of the world has this characteristick been so strikingly 
manifested. The learning, the industry, and the sagacity of the most profound intellects 
have been devoted in exploring the deepest recesses, and in gathering the most widely 
scattered rays, for the purpose of pouring their concentrated lights upon the history 
of the past. The Annals of the remotest ages, and the most distant countries, have 
been examined with equal diligence and learning, and new and valuable lights have 
been thrown even upon the antiquities of Egypt, of Greece, and of Borne. 

The same tendency has been exhibited in developing the early history of existing 
Nations. Ancient records have been disinterred from tlie dust of ages, the most 
obscure receptacles of historick materials have been explored, almost obliterated records 
have been restored, scattered documents have been collected, and forgotten writers have 
been republished. A combined and vigorous effort appears to be making, throughout 
tlie civilized Avorld, together, to preserve and to scrutinize all the memorials w Inch can 
rescue the history of the past from the obscurity in which time has en^ eloped them. 

Nor has this important subject been allowed to depend, exclusively, upon individual 
means and private enterprise. In England, and in France especially, the Government 
has long since perceived and recognized the truth, that the national character and the 
national interests, are intimately connected Avith the success of these undertakings. 'I'he 
Publick Offices have been laid open and their rich treasures submitted to the inspection 
of the inquirer after historick truth. With a liberality deserving of the highest com- 
mendation, this privilege has been extended as well to foreigners as to natives, and 
Brequigny and Von lieaumer aie not the only instances in which the records of one 
Nation have been employed by the historian of another. This liberty has, in several 
instances, been accorded to our own citizens, and the Publick Offices in London have 
been opened, and Documents allowed to be transcribed, for the purpose of verifying the 
general history of the United States. 

Nor has this publick interest been confined within these limits. Large pecuniary 
expeuditm'es have been made with the view to promote these objects, and to aid in publi- 
cations for the completion of w hich the resources of individuals were inadequate. In some 
instances Governments have, themselves, undertaken the work, and by the instrumentality 
of their own agents, and the employment of their own means, have laboured in the dis- 
semination of such information as was calculated to illustrate their past history. The 
Record Commission of England, and that oi-ganized in France, under the supervision of 
the Minister of Publick Instruction, in conformity with the recommendation of 31. Gni- 
zot, are too well known to require more than this general allusion to them. 

If in Europe there exist sufficient motives to prompt to such undertakings, how infi- 
nitely more weiglity and more efficient ought they to be among us. These inquiries, ori- 
ginating in the liberal and inquisitive cliaracter of the age, may be expected to be most 
zealously pursued in those countries where freedom prevails. Designed, as they are, to 
exhibit the fundamental principles of government, tlie^^ might naturally be expected to be 
the most warmly cherished, where free institutions exist. Independently of this, all our 
historical memorials are of comparati> ely recent date, they are written in a language fa- 
miliar to all, they tend to illustrate existing institutions, and a bistorj^ w hich still retains all 
its personal interest. A complete collection of the materials for a history of this country 
would not only be a proud monument to the memory of our ancestors, w hose deeds they 
commemorate and whose opinions they embody, but would serve as an invaluable guide 
to us and to our posterity, by exhibiting the vital spirit w hich has pervaded the past, the 



PREFACE 

true foundations upon m liicli our institutions rest, and the essential principles upon which 
their existence and perpetuity depend. It would furnish an ample vnidication of those 
Mho have preceded us upon this sta-e,from the imputations Mhich ignorance and prejudice 
have lal)oure(l to cast upon their motives and their acts ; and our free institutions, hy hav- 
ing their foundations laid open to the world, and the whole plan of their structure exhi- 
bifed, will recommend tliemselves, more and more, to the philosophical inquirer, and to 
the aflVction and imitation of mankind. 

If history he philosophy teaching hy example, how infinitely instructive must be the 
history of such a country as this. The example which it presents is the purity of prin- 
cipk', the singleness of effort, the stern adherence to constitutional right, the manly sub- 
ordination to law, tile indignant hostility to usurpation, which are manifested in every page 
of our past history ; the philosophy it inculcates is — that the same purity of motive, the 
same respect for lawful authority, the same opposition to tyranny, the same vigilance in 
detecting the first insidious approaches of despotism, the same stem resolution in resist- 
ing its progress, which made us a Nation, are equally essential, as the means of preserving 
those liberties our fathers beciueathed to us, and those institutions which they framed. 

Even to this day much ignorance and much misapprehension prevail as to the princi- 
ples of the American Revolution, and the true character and tendency of our institutions. 
Nor is this ignorance altogether confined to foreigners, it exists, to a great extent, among 
ourselves. By many superficial persons, it is supposed that the American Revolution 
began with the battle of Lexington, and terminated with the evacuation by the British 
Troops of these Unileil Stales. It seems to be the opinion of such, that the whole his- 
tory of that IJevolution is to be found in the narrative of the campaigns of that War. 
Widely diflerent from this is the truth, as developed by history; widely different was the 
opinion of those who mainly aided in severing the connexion with Great Britain. " What 
do we mean by the American Revolution ?" asks one of the most prominent actors in 
those days : " Do we mean the American War? The Revolution was effected before the 
" War commenced. The Revolution was in the mind and heart of the people. The 
"i-adical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people was 
" the real American Revolution." 

Even this language may, without due reflection, be understood in a sense not contem- 
plated by its illustrious author. A full and careful examination of the history of the 
times will abundantly show, that so far as regards the nature and extent of their rights, 
and the foundations upon which they were claimed, there was, substantially, no revolution 
or change in the principles of the American People. The first emigrants to these shores 
brought with them, in their full vigour, in their original purity, and in their complete deve- 
lopment, the principles of the American Revolution. They abandoned their native homes, 
they crossed the ocean, braved the horrours of an inhospitable clime, encountered the 
perils of the tempest, of war, and of famine, to escape the burthen of governmental op- 
pression. They braved all, and encountered all, in the same cause for wliich their sons 
sul)sequently fought and bled. From the moment they placed their feet upon the soil 
of this Western Hemisphere, they asserted and maintained their independency of the 
Parliamentary power of taxation, and denied, to that extent, the authority of a Legisla- 
ture in which they Avere not, themselves, represented. Although the Colonies were, ori- 
ginally, settled by individual enterprise, and by insulated rather than combined efforts, 
yet the Colonists, at a very early period, perceived the advantages of union in repelling or 
resisting a common foe. 



The Colonial history is replete with evidence of the truth of the preceding remarks. 




- u deeply rooted and how Avidely diffused, 

even at these remote periods, were the true and essential principles which, subsequently 
expanding into maturity, produced the fruits of the American Revolution. In 1696 a 
pamphlet was published, recommending the imposition of taxes in the Colonies by au- 
thority of Parliament. It did not escape the notice of the vigilant friends of American 
Liberty. Two answers to this publication appeared, which seem to have attracted gene- 
ral attention, and in which the docu-iuewas broadly asserted and maintained, that no 
such right existed in Parliament, because the Colonies were not represented in that body, 
riie idea of combining their efforts in matters of common interest to all may be traced 
iKick to a period nearly as remote. In 1690 a communication was addressed by the 
General Court ot\MassucliU8elts to the Governours of the neighbouring Colonies, desiring 
them to appoint Commissioners "to meet, advise, and conchide upon suitable methods 



PREFACE. 

in assisting each other, for the safety of the whole land." Such a meeting was, accord- 
ingly, held, and evidence exists inducing the belief, tliat it was styled by the now familiar 
and revered name of Congress. 

Nor did the principles for which the Colonists contended originate on this side of the 
Atlantick. The doctrine that representation and taxation -were essentially and indissolu- 
bly connected, was claimed as a portion of English Liberty, as interwoven in the very 
structure of the English Constitution, and as recognised among the most ancient and 
firmly established principles of the Common Law. It was no innovation, serving as a 
cloak for rebellion and revolution. It was drawn from the most ancient and pure foun- 
tains of Liberty, and sanctioned by the authority of the most eminent judicial characters 
in the British Parliament. 

It is a source of honest pride, in reverting to the contemporaneous history of England, 
to contrast the characters of the individuals who, at times, it is true, with some modifica- 
tions, yet concurring in the great and essential principles upon which our ancestors placed 
themselves, sustained the doctrines which were designated as .fimerican, with those Avho 
originated and defended those measures of the Ministry which drove the Colonists first 
to resistance, and, finally, to a dissolution of the political connexion by which tbey had 
so long been bound to the Mother Country. Such an examination will conduct to the 
conclusion, that had the questions upon Avhich the controversy turned, assumed a judicial 
instead of a political character, and been carried for decision before the English Courts, 
tlie same eminent Judge, who first decided against the legality of general warrants, a\ ould 
have pronounced it to be the law of the land that tliese Colonists were not subject to the 
taxing power of Parliament. 

The Work, of which the present volume is a specimen, will cleai'ly imfold and develop 
the whole foundation of American principles, and will exhibit to the Avorld the most conclu- 
sive evidence that they were, without exception, grounded in strict right, based upon con- 
stitutional Law, and upon the well settled doctrines of the English Government : that there 
was no taint or tinge of anarchy, of insubordination to all authority, no novelty, no inno- 
vation. The important, practical truth will be clearly deducible from these premises, 
that if such be the foundations they must ever constitute the support of our institutions. 
Their beautiful simplicity, their fair proportions, their majestick symmetry, and their 
stable grandeur, will equally recommend them to our love and veneration, and to the 
respect and imitation of others. 

In the examination of the contents of these Volumes, a casual observer may, perhaps, 
at the first view, be struck with the character of much of the material which Ave have col- 
lected. A more mature consideration will satisfy, we apprehend, every mind, that al- 
though much of it has been drawn from perishable and ephemeral sources, no faithful 
portrait of the times could be presented, formed from other ingredients. 

A distinguished foreign jurist has said, that laws are not to be created, but must create 
themselves ; and the observation is equally true in its application to all that comes within 
the scope of legislation, whether political or municipal in its immediate character. Biirlie 
has, with his accustomed philosophical sagacity, remarked, that " to follow, not to force, 
"the publick inclination, to give a direction, a form, a technical dress, and a specifick sanc- 
" tion to the general sense of the community, is the true end of legislation." 

If this be true in any country, and under any institutions, most emphatically is it true, 
and ever has been true, among us. Without concurring altogether in the observation of 
De Tocqueville, iha.i the journals are the only historical monuments of the United States^ 
it may, without fear of contradiction, be asserted, that there exist no sources of histori- 
cal information in a free and enlightened country, so rich and so valuable, as its publick 
journals, and the proceedings and debates of its publick bodies and associations. It is 
peculiarly the case, at such times as those comprehended within the scope of our Work. 
Constitutions were to be formed, the whole frame of Government to be constructed, legis- 
lative bodies to be organized, and in this preliminary action, as well as in the movements of 
tlie machine when brought into life, publick opinion was to be the efficient and vital prin- 
ciple. This publick opinion must, necessarily, be created, as well as manifested, through 
the instrumentality of the means which have been indicated. 

It was urged on more than one occasion and by high authority in England, that the Ame- 
rican contest originated in, and was sustained by, the selfish or ambitious designs of a few 
leading individuals. That personal interest gave it birth, and sustenance, and support. This 
was only one of the palpable misrepresentations and gross delusions of the times. The pre- 
sent Work will show, beyond the possibihty of future rational doubt, that the roots of Ame- 
rican freedom had penetrated into every corner of our land and drew their active and living 
nourishment from every family fountain. Every reader of this compilation will perceive as 



PREFACE. 

oue of the most distinctly marked facts which it establishes, that the American Revolution 
was the act of the whole American People, and that all our institutions are the w^ork of the 
same creator. This we esteem as one of the most precisely taught lessons of our history, and 
if properly appreciated and applied, the most valuable which it inculcates. We shall learn 
that unless the People, as such, had worked out their own rescue from the oppression, which 
was rather seen in perspective than actually endured, all the personal influence and intellect 
of the great men of the day would have failed to accomplish this result. Happy will it be 
for our beloved country, if, drawing the obvious inference from this history of the past, every 
American citizen shall be impressed with the conviction that as he is individually interested, 
in the blessings which freedom confers, so there is imposed upon him the personal duty and 
sacred trust of vigilantly watching and manfully sustaining that liberty which has been trans- 
mitted to him. 

It would be unnecessary, on this occasion, to enter into a minute detail of the sources from 
which we have drawn the materials of this compilation. It may not be unnecessary, how- 
ever, to observe that, in the prosecution of eur labours, we have, personally, examined the 
publick records in each of the thirteen original States. We regret to say, that we have found 
these, in some instances, in a lamentable state of deterioration, confusion, and decay ; many 
important documents and publick proceedings appear to be irretrievably lost. We have, 
however, the satisfaction of believing, that the inquiries and examinations we have instituted, 
have, in some instances, been instrumental in rescuing many of inestimable value from the 
very jaws of destruction : and, in others, in awakening a feeling of interest in the memorials 
of our past history, which promises to result in a more persevering search for such as may 
still remain in existence, and a more careful preservation of such as have survived the haz- 
aids to which they have been exposed. No doubt is entertained, but that there still exist, 
not only in publick places of deposite, but in family archives, papers of great importance as 
illustrating the history of the times, and we would earnestly press upon individuals, in whose 
possession such documents may be found, a minute examination among them, and a careful 
preservation of such as possess general interest ; more particularly, the correspondence of 
the members of the various Committees, Conventions, Assemblies, and Congresses. Any 
communication made to the Editor of copies of such documents, or a notification of their 
existence, with the liberty of inspecting and using them, will confer not only a personal 
favour, but promote the general good. Papers belonging to the period of time embraced by 
the present Volume, which may be obtained hereafter, will be inserted in a Supplement to 
this Series of the work. 

Washington, December, 1837. 



CONTENTS. 



PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT ON THE KINGS MESSAGE OF 
THE 7th OF MARCH, 1774. 



1774. 
March 
7. 



11, 



16, 
23, 
30, 



April 
14, 



15, 



House of Lords. 

The King's Message relating to the Disturbances 
in America, and requesting Parliament to make 
provision for better securing the execution of 
the Laws, and the just dependence of the Col- 
onies upon the Cron-n and Parliament, - 
Papers, relating to the Disturbances in America, 
laid before the House by the Earl of Dart- 
mouth — 
From Massachusetts Bay, 
From New- York, 
From South Carolina, 
From New-Hampshire, 
From the Admiralty, 
From the War Office, 
From the East India Company, 
From the Treasury, 
Address to the King ordered. 
More Papers submitted by the Earl of Dartmouth, 
Papers relating to the Disturbances in America, 

to be considered on the 17th, 
Consideration postponed to the 24th, 
Consideration further postponed, 
Committee ordered to inquire into the Proceed- 
ings of Massachusetts Bay, 
Papers relating to the Disturbances in Massachu- 
setts Bay referred to the Committee, 
Lords who formed the Committee, • 
Address to the King for all Papers relating to 
Disturbances in Massachusetts Bay, received 
from Officers in his Majesty's service there, 
from July 7, 1766, which have not already 
been laid before the House, 
Papers called for in the Address of yesterday, 

sent by the King's command. 
Referred to the Committee appointed on the 30th 



11 



11 



March 
14, 



of March, .... 


. 


12 




20, Report of the Committee, 


- 


12-31 




House of Commons. 








larch The King's Message, 


- 


32 




7, Papers presented by Lord North, 


• 


32 




Lord North's Speech on presenting the 


Papers, 


222 




Motion for an Address to the King, 


- 


32 




Debate — Lord Clare, 


. 


33 




Mr. Dowdeswell, 




33 




Governour Pownall, 


- 


33 




Mr. E. Burke, - ' • 


. 


33 




Mr. Solicitor General, 


. 


34 




Mr. E. Burke, 


- 


34 


24, 


Lord George Germain, 


. 


■ 34 




General Conway, 


- 


• 35 


25. 


Colonel Barre, 


. 


• 36 




Address ordered, - . . . 


- 


• 36 





ON THE BOSTON PORT BILL. 

House of Commons. 
March The King's Message, and Papers presented this 



day, to be considered on the 1 1th, 

Papers presented by Lord North, 

Message and Papers considered, and ordered for 
further consideration on the 14th, - 

Petition from William Bollan, Agent for Massa- 
chusetts, presented, . - - . . 

Gallery of the House cleared, . - . . 

Message and Papers considered, 

Speech of Lord North, 

Fourth Series. 



7 
11 



14, 



35 
35 

35 

35 
36 
37 
37 



18, 

21, 

23, 



Motion by Lord North for leave to bring in Bos- 
ton Port Bill, 
Debate — Mr. Grosvenor, 

Governour Johnstone, 

Lord North, 

Mr. Dempster, 

Mr. Sawbridge, 

Mr. Byng, 

Mr. R. Fuller, 

Mr. Dowdeswell, 

Mr. Henry Cavendish, 

Captain Phipps, 

Lord George Cavendish, 

Colonel Barr^, 
Motion agreed to, 
Committee to bring in the Bill, 
Further consideration of Message and Papers re- 
ferred to Committee of the Whole House, on 
Friday next, the 18th, . . . . 

Lord North presented the Bill, 

Read the first time, 

Second reading ordered on the 21st, - 

Motion to print the Bill rejected. 

Consideration of Message and Papers postponed 

to the 23d, 

The Bill read the second time, 

To be considered in Committee of the Whole, on 

the 23d, 

Order for Committee of the Whole on the Mes- 
sage and Papers discharged. 
Message and Papers referred to Committee of the 

Whole on the Bill, 

House in Committee of the Whole on the Bill, 
Debate — Mr. Fuller, ..... 

Mr. Herbert, 

Lord North, 

Mr. Gascoigne, .... 

Mr. Montague, .... 

Mr. Byng, 

Mr. Stanley, 

Mr. Dempster, .... 

Lord North, 

Mr. Ward, 

Mr. Jenkinson, .... 

General Conway, . - - - 

Mr. Fuller, - - - - • - 

Mr. Charles James Fox, - 

Captain Phipps, .... 

Lord North, 



Colonel Barr^, .... 

Bill reported to the House, . . - - 
Third reading of the Bill ordered for to-mor- 
row, ..--•-- 
Petition from William Bollan, Agent for Massa- 
chusetts, offered by Mr. Crosbie, - 
House refuse to receive it, . . . - 
Notice of the rejection of this Petition, (Note,) - 
Petition of several Natives of North America, 

against the Bill, presented and read. 
Bill read the third time, - - - - - 

Motion of Mr. Charles James Fox, to strike out 
a clause of the Bill, - - - - - 

Rejected ------- 

Motion of Mr. Charles Fox to strike out another 

clause of the Bill, 

Rejected, - - - ' .,, " 
(Question on the passage of the Bui, 
Debate — Mr. Dowdeswell, - • - - 
Mr. Welbore Ellis, - - - - 
Mr. Edmund Burke, 



39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
40 
40 
40 



40 
40 
41 
41 
41 

41 
41 

41 

41 

41 
41 
41 
41 
42 
43 
43 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 



Mr. Van, 45 



46 
46 

46 

46 
46 
46 

47 
47 

48 
48 

48 
48 
49 
49 
49 
50 



XIX 

1774. 

May 

11. 



CONTENTS. 



XX 



Speech 



51 
5'2 
52 
5-2 
52 
52 
52 
53 
57 
07 
57 



56 



58 

58 

59 
59 

59 



60 
60 
60 
60 

60 

60 
60 
60 
60 

61 



Debate — Mr. Grey Cooper, - 
Mr. Anthony Ikcon, 
Governour Pownall, 
Lord John Cavendish, 
Mr. T. Towmshend, - 
Mr. Sawbridge, 
Lord Norili, 
Governour Johnstone, 
Mr. Sawbridge, 
Lord North, 
The Bill passed, " ' " , 

Remarks ou Governour Johnstone's 

(Note,) 

House of Lonls. 

March Boston Port Bill received from the Commons, • 

26, Read the first time, - - - " " 

Second reading ordered on the 28th, and the 

Lords summoned, ''''.' 

28, Petition of Suphrn Sayre and others. Natives of 

America, presented by Lord Wycombe, - 

Papers relating to the Disturbances in America, 

read, ------- 

Bill read the second time, . . - - 

Motion to commit the Bill, after long debate, 

agreed to, 

Committed to a Committee of the Whole House 

for to-morrow, 

29, Considered in Committee of the Whole, - 

Reported to the House, 

Third reading ordered to-morrow, 

30, Petition of William Bollan, Agent of Massachu- 

setts, presented by the Earl of Stair, 
Mr. Bollan heard at the Bar of the House against 

the Bill, - 

Bill read the third time, 

Passed, ....--- 

31, Royal assent to the Bill, 

Petition of Natives of North America, to the 

King, against the Bill, . . . - 
" An Act to discontinue in such manner, and for 
such time, as are therein mentioned, the land- 
ing and discharging, lading or shipping, of 
Goods, Wares, and Merchandise, at the Towti, 
and within the Harbour of Boston, in the Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Bay, in North Ame- 
rica," 61-66 

ON THE BILL FOR BETTER REGULATING THE GOVERNMENT 
OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 

House of Commons. 

March Committee of the Whole House ordered on the 
25, King's Message of March 7, and Papers pre- 

sentwi by Lord North, - - - - 65 
Papers presented November 28, and December 7, 
1768, January 20, 1769, and May 7, 1770, re- 
lating to his Majesty's Colonies in North Ame- 

i ■ rica, referred to the Committee, - - - 65 
Massachusetts Bay Charter, granted by King 
William and Q,ueen Mary, presented to the 
House on the 22d of January, 1740, referred 

to the Committee, 65 

28, House in Committee on the Message and Pa- 
pers, --..-.-65 

Lord North's Speech, 65 

His motion for leave to bring in a Bill for better 
regulating the Gtovemment of Massachusetts 

Bay, 66 

Debate — Mr. Byng, 66 

Sir. F. Norton, (Speaker,) ■ - - 67 

Lord North, 67 

Mr. Stephen Fox, - - - - 67 

Lord George Germain, - - - 67 

Lord North, 68 

Mr. Pownall, 68 

Lord North's motion agreed to, ... Qg 

Committee to prepare and bring in the Bill, - 68 

April The Bill presented by Lord North, - • - 68 

15, Debate — Lord North, 68 

Mr. R. Fuller, 69 

Mr. Dempster, 69 

Lord North, 69 

Mr. Dowdeswell, - - - - 69 

Governour Pownall, - - - 69 

The Bill read the first time, - - • - 70 

Second reading ordered for the 22d, - - • 70 

Bill ordered to be printed, - • • - 70 



1774. 

April 

19, 



21. 



25, 



27, 

28, 



Address to the King, for copies of Acts of the 
General Court of Massachusetts Bay, for sum- 
moning, returning, and regulating the choice 
of Grand and Petit Jurors, and copies of all 
other Acts of the said General Court, for the 
regulation of Townships and Town Meetings, 
Address to the King, for Letters and other Pa 

pers, 
The Letters and other Papers presented by Lord 

North, " 

C)rdor of the Day, for the second reading of the 

Bill, read, 

Debate— Mr. Fuller, 

Sir George Savile, - 
Mr. Wel'bore Ellis, - 
General Conway, 
Lord North, 
Sir George Yonge, - 
Governour Johnstone, 
Mr. C. Jenkinsoii, 
Mr. Harris, 

Sir Edward Astley, - • ■ 
Mr. Ward, 
Governour Pownall, 
Mr. Rigby, 
Governour Pownall, 
Mr. Charles James Fox, 
Sir Gilbert Elliot, - 
Sir Richard Sutton, - 
The Bill read the second time. 
To be considered in Committee of the Whole 

House, on the 27th, 
Acts of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, pre 
sented to the House pursuant to the Address to 
the King, of the 19th, 
House in Committee on the Bill, 
Report of Committee to be received to-morrow, 
Petition of William Bollan, Agent for Massachu 

setts Bay, offered by Mr. Dowdeswell, 

Debate — Mr. Dowdeswell, 

Sir George Savile, 

Lord North, .... 

The House refuse to receive the Petition, - 

Entries in the Journals of the House, of 9th of 

November, 1696, 19th of March, 1722, and 22d 

of March, 1722, read, 

Motion the Report of the Committee of the Whole 
House be received this day four months, 

Rejected, 

Report of the Committee of the Whole House re- 
ceived, ....... 

Bill ordered to be engrossed, . - . - 
Third reading of the Bill ordered for Monday 

next, 

May 2, Petition of several Natives of America, presented 
by Sir George Savile, 
Motion for the third reading of the Bill, 
Debate — Mr. Dunning, - 

Sir William Meredith, 
Mr. Stanley, 
Mr. T. To\vnshend, - 
Colonel Barre, - 
Mr. Stephen Fox, 
Marquis of Carmarthen, - 
Mr. St. John, - 
Mr. Byng, 
Mr. Rigby, 
General Conway, 
Lord George Germain, 
Mr. Charles Fo.x, 
Mr. Attorney General Thurlow, 
Mr. Edmund Burke, 
Lord North, 
Sir George Savile, 
Bill read the third time, and passed, - 

House of Lords. 
May 3, Bill for the better regulating the Government of 
Massachusetts Bay, received from the Com- 
mons, 

Read the first time, 

Read the second time. 

Considered in Committee of the Whole, 

Reported, with Amendments, - 

Amendments agreed to, - 

Third reading ordered for to-morrow. 

Petition from several Natives of America pre- 
sented, 



29, 



6, 

9, 

10, 



11, 



70 

70 

70 

71 
71 
71 
71 
72 
72 
73 
73 
73 
74 
74 
74 
74 
76 
76 
77 
77 
77 
77 

77 



77 
79 
79 

79 
79 
80 
80 
80 



81 



81 

81 
81 



81 
83 
83 
84 
84 
85 
85 
87 
87 
87 
88 
88 
89 
89 
90 
90 
90 
91 
91 
91 



92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 

92 



w 



XXI 

1774. 

May 

11. 



CONTENTS. 



XXIt 



10, 
19. 



20, 



Petition from William Bollan, Agent of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, presented, .... 

Motion that Mr. Bollan be called in, and heard 
at the Bar, 

After debate, Rejected, 

Bill read the third time, and, after long- debate, 
passed, ....... 

Protest, 

Notice of the proceedings of the Lords on the 
Bill, (Note,) 

Amendments agreed to by the House of Com- 
mons, on the 13th, 

Petition from Natives of America, in London, 
against the passage of the Bill, presented to 
the King, --.... 

The King's assent to the Bill, 

Speech of the Bishop of St. Asaph, intended to 
have been spoken on the Bill, 

"An Act for the better regulating the Govern- 
ment of the Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay, in New England," - - - 104-112 



92 

92 
93 

93 
93 

93 

96 



9G 
96 

97 



ON THE BILL FOR THE IMPARTIAL ADMINISTRATION OP JUS- 
TICE IN THE PROVINCE OF MASSACHUSETTS DAY. 

House of Commons. 

March The King's Message of March 7th, and sundry 
28, other Papers, to be considered in Committee 

of the Whole, on the 13th of April, - - 111 
April Order for Committee of the Whole postponed to 



13, 



21. 



the 15th, Ill 

Papers presented by Lord North, - - - 1 1 1 

House in Committee on the Message and Papers, 1 12 

Lord North's Speech, 112 

His motion for leave to bring in a Bill for the 
Impartial Administration of Justice in Massa- 
chusetts Bay, 113 

Debate — Colonel Barr^, - - - - 113 

Mr. Solicitor General Wedderbum, - 115 

Captain Phipps, - - - - 116 

Mr. T. Townshend, - - - 116 

Mr. Dowdeswell, - - - - 117 

Lord Carmarthen, - - . - 117 

Lord North, 117 

Captain Phipps, - - - . - 117 

General Conway, - • - - 117 

Mr. Van, 118 

Lord North's motion agreed to, - - - 118 
Committee appointed to prepare and bring in 

the Bill, 118 



25, 



The Bill presented by Lord North, - • - 118 

Debate — Mr. Sawbridge, - - - - 118 

Lord North, 118 

Sir Thomas Frankland, - - - 1 19 

Mr. Byng, 119 

Lord Beauchamp, - - - - 119 

Mr. Sawbridge, - - - - 1 19 

Second reading of the Bill ordered on the 25th, - 119 
The Order, for the second reading of the Bill, 

read, 120 

Debate — Mr. Dowdeswell, - - - - 120 

Mr. Dyson, . . . , . 120 

Lord North, 120 

Mr. Cavendish, - - - - 120 
Colonel Barre, - - - - 120 
The Bill read the second time, - - - 120 
Committee of the Whole House on the Bill, or- 
dered for the 29th, 120 

The Bill considered in Committee of the Whole, 120 
Report of the Committee to be received on Mon- 
day next, (May 2,) 120 

May 2, Petition of several Natives of America, presented 

by Sir George Sa-vdle, - . - - 120 

Report of Committee of the Whole postponed, - 120 

Report of Committee of the Whole received, - 120 

Amendment proposed by Mr. Wallace, - - 120 

Debate — Mr. Dunning, - . . - 121 

Mr. Wedderbum, - . . - 121 
Mr. Edmund Burke, - - -121 

Mr. W.Burke, - - . - 121 

Mr. Stanley, 121 

Mr. T. Townshend, - - . . 122 

Mr. Cornwall, 122 

Mr. Moreton, 122 

Mr. Phipps, 122 

Mr. Skynner, 122 

Sir Richard Sutton, - - - -123 



29, 



4, 



177-1. 

May 

4. 



Debate — Mr. Charles Fox, - . - - 123 

Captain Phipps, - - - - 123 

Sir George Savile, - - - - 123 

Mr. Sk}-nner, 123 

Motion to amend, by Mr. Wallace, wthdrawn, - 123 
Standing rule for exclusion of strangers strictly 

enforced, (Note,) 123 

Engrossment of the Bill ordered, - - - 124 

Motion to print the Bill negatived, - - - 124 

Third reading of the Bill ordered for the 6th, - 124 

G, Order read, for third reading of the Bill, - - 124 

Debate — Mr. Dempster, - - . - 124 

Mr. Grey, 125 

Mr. Paulet, 125 

Mr. Sawbridge, - - - - 125 

Colonel Barr6, - - - - 125 

Bill read the third time, - - - - 126 

Amendment adopted, on motion of Mr. Pultney, 126 

Debate — Mr. Fuller, 126 

Mr. H. Cavendish, - - - - 126 

The Bill passed, 126 

House of Lords. 
May 9, Bill for Impartial Administration of Justice in 
Massachusetts Bay, received from the House 

of Commons, 126 

Read the first time, 127 

13, Read the second time, 127 

16, Considered in Committee of the Whole, - - 127 
Third reading ordered for the 18th, and the 

Lords summoned, 127 

17, Papers presented by the Earl of Dartmouth, - 127 

18, The Bill read the third time, - - - - 127 
Petition from William Bollan, Agent for Massa- 
chusetts Bay, presented, .... 127 

Motion, that Mr. Bollan be heard at the Bar, af- 
ter debate, rejected, 127 

Motion, that the Bill do pass, - - - - 127 

Debate — Earl of Buckinghamshire, - - 127 

Lord Shelburne, - - - - 127 

Duke of Manchester, - - - 127 

Marquis of Rockingham, - - - 127 

Duke of Richmond, - - - - 128 

The Bill passed, 128 

Protest, 128 

Notice of the Debates on this Bill, (Note,) - 128 

20, The King's assent to the Bill, - - - - 128 
"An Act for the Impartial Administration of 
Justice in the cases of Persons questioned for 
any acts done by them in the Execution of the 
Law, or for the Suppression of Riots and Tu- 
mults, in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
in New England," .... 129-132 



ON THE MOTION FOR THE REPEAL OF THE PUTY ON TEA. 


House of Commons. 






April Mr. Fuller's motion for a Committee of the Whole 


19, to take into consideration the Repeal of the Du- 


ty of three pence per potmd on ' 
Debate— Mr. Fuller, 


rea. 


- 133 




- 133 


Mr. Pennant, - 




- 133 


Mr. Rice, 




- 133 


Captain Phipps, 




- - 133 


Mr. Stephen Fox, 




- 134 


Mr. Cornwall, 




- 134 


Mr. Edmund Burke, 




- 135-163 


Mr. Wedderbum, 




- 163 


Mr, E. Burke. 




- 164 


Mr. Charles Fox, - 




- 164 


Lord Beauchamp, 




- 164 


General Burgoyne, - 




- 164 


Mr. T. Townshend, 




• 164 


Lord Clare, - 




- 165 


Mr. Buller, - 




- 165 


Mr. Frederick Montague 




- 165 


Colonel Barr^, 




- 165 


Lord North, - 




- 166 


Mr. Dowdeswell, - 




- 166 


Mr. Fuller's motion rejected, - 




- 166 



ON THE BILL FOR QUARTERING TROOPS IN AMERICA. 

House of Commo-ns. 
April Leave granted, and Committee appointed, to pre- 
29, pare and bring in a Bill providing suitable 

Quarters for Troops in America, - - 165 

ilfay 2, The Bill presented by Lord Barrington, - - 165 

Read the first time, 165 



XXIII 

1774. 

May 4, Read the second time, . - - • 

5, Considered in Committee of the Whole, - 

6, Report of Committee of the Whole received, 
9, Bill read the third time, and passed, 



CONTENTS. 



XXIV 



165 
166 
167 
167 



Home of Lords. 
Jfay9,Bill for Guartering Troops in America, received 

from the House of Commons, • - - 167 

Read the first time, 167 

12, Read the second time, 167 

16, Considered in Committee of the Whole, • - 167 

Third reading ordered for the 18th, - - 167 

18, Third reading postponed to the 26th, - -167 

26, Rf>ad the third time, 167 

Lord Chatham's Spi>ech against the passage of 

the Bill, 167 

The Bill passed, 169 

J»»e 2, The King's assent to the Bill, - - - 170 
" An Act for the better providing suitable Quar- 
ters for Officers and Soldiers in his Majesty's 

service in North America," - • • 170 

ON THE BILL FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF QUEBECK. 

Hoiist of Lords. 
May 2, Bill for the government of Quebeck, presented 

by the Earl of Dartmouth, - - - 169 
Read the first time, 169 

3, Address to the King for copies of Instructions 

to Governours in America, ... 170 

4, Second reading of the Bill ordered, and the 

Ijords smmnoned, 170 

6, Copies of Instructions to Governours of Cluebeck, 
Nova Scotia, New- Hampshire, New- York, 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, East Florida, and West Florida, laid 
before the House, 171 

12, Bill read the second time, - - - - 171 

13, Considered in Committee of the Whole, - - 171 

16, Report of Committee of the Whole received, • 171 

17, Bill read the third time, - - - - 171 
, Amendment to limit the duration of the Act, of- 
fered and rejected, 171 

Bill passed, 171 

House of Commons, 
May Bill for the government of Quebeck, received 

18, from the House of Lords, - - - - 171 

Read the first time, 171 

Ordered to be printed, 171 

20, Address to the King, for copies of the Proclama- 
tion of 1763, and General Murray's Commis- 
sion, 172 

26, Presented by Lord North, - - - - 172 
Proclamation, of October 7, 1763, - - 172 

Greneral Murray's Commission as Captain Gen- 
eral and Governour of Quebeck, - - 175 
Order read, for second reading of the Bill, - 180 
Debate— Mr. T. Townshend, - - -180 

Lord North, 181 

Mr. Dunning, - • - - 182 

Mr. Attorney General Thurlow, - 183 
Colonel Barr^, - - - - 184 

Lord John Cavendish, - - - 184 
Mr. Serjeant Glynn, - - - 184 

Mr. Solicitor General Wedderbum, • 184 
Mr. Charles James Fox, - - - 184 
Mr. Dempster, - - - - 184 

Mr. Sawbridge, - - - - 185 

The Bill read the second time, - - - 185 

Committed to a Committee of the Whole House, 

on the 31st, 185 

31, Petition of Thomas Penn, on behalf of himself 
and John Penn, true and absolute Proprietors 
of the Province of Pennsylvania, and the 
Three Lower Counties on Delaware, present- 
ed by Mr. Baker, 185 

Petitioners to be heard by their Counsel, if they 

think fit, 186 

Petition of Merchants of London trading to Que- 

beck, presented by Mr. Mackworth, - - 186 
Mr. Mack worth's motion for copies of Reports 
from Major General Carleton, Governour, 
William Hey, Chief Justice, and Francis Ma- 
seres, late Attorney General, of the Province 
of Quebeck; and from his Majesty's Advo- 
cate General, Attorney General, and Solicitor 
General, relating to the said Province, - 186 



1774, 

May 

31, 



Debate— Lord North, 187 

Mr. T. Townshend, - - - 187 
Colonel Barre, - - - - 187 
Mr. Altorney General Thurlow, - 1 87 
Mr. Edmund Burke, - - - 187 
Mr. Mackworth's motion rejected, - - - 188 
Address to the King for copies of Reports from 
the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plan- 
tations, relating to the Province of Cluebeck, 1 88 
House in Committee on the Bill, - - - 188 
The Committee addressed by Mr. Mansfield, 

coiuisel for the Petitioners, against the Bill, 188 

Edward Watts examined before the Committee, 188 
Samuel Morin examined, - - - -188 
June 1, Copies of Representations of the Lords Commis- 
sioners for Trade and Plantations, of Septem- 
ber 2, 1765, and July 10, 1769, and Repre- 
sentation of the Board of Trade, of January 9, 

1765, presented by Lord North, - - 188 
Copies of Memorials from Quebeck, presented 

by Lord North, - - - - - 189 

2, Petition from the Inhabitants of Quebeck to the 

King, presented by Lord North, - - 1 89 
House in Committee of the Whole on the Bill, 189 
Examination of General Carleton before the Com- 
mittee, 189 

Examination of Mr. Maseres, late Attorney Gen- 
eral of Quebeck, - - - - -191 
Examination of Mr. Hey, Chief Justice of the 

Province of Quebeck, - - - - 193 

3, Petition of the Common Cotmcil of the City of 

London, against the Bill, presented at the Bar 
of the House, by the Sherifl^s of the City, - 194 
House in Committee on the Bill, ... 194 
Examination of M. De Lotbiniere, . . 194 
Examination of Dr. James Marriott, his Majes- 
ty's Advocate General, .... 195 
Motion by Mr. Baker, that General Murray, 
late Governour of Canada, do attend the Com. 

mittee, 202 

Debate— Mr. T. To^\-nshend, - - - 203 

Lord North, 203 

Mr. T. Townshend, - - - 203 

Colonel Barre, .... 203 

Captain Phipps, .... 203 

Mr. Charles Fox, . - - - 203 
Lord North, . - - .203 

Mr. Baker's motion rejected, ... 203 

6, House in Committee on the Bill, ... 203 
Governour Johnstone's objections to the Bill, - 203 
Mr. E. Burke's motion to amend, fixing the 

Boundary between Canada and New. York, 

agreed to, ...... 204 

Further Debate on the Boundaries of Quebeck, 204 

7, The Bill further considered in Committee of the 

Whole House, 204 

8, House in Committee on the Bill, ... 205 
Debate — Mr. Burke, 205 

Lord North, 205 

Mr. T. Townshend, . - .205 

Mr. Edmund Burke, - • . 205 

Colonel Barre, .... 205 
New form of oath proposed by Mr. Jenkinson, to 

be inserted in the Bill, . - - . 205 
Agreed to by the Committee, ... 205 
10, The Bill reported to the House, from the Com- 
mittee of the Whole, .... 207 
T. Penn, Esq., declined being heard by Counsel 

on his Petition, presented on the 31st of May, 207 
Amendment to the Bill, in relation to the South- 
ern Boundary of Canada, ... 207 
Mr. Mackworth's motion, to provide for Trials 
by Jury in Canada, ..... 207 

Debate — Lord North, 207 

Mr. Serjeant Glynn, - . . 208 

Mr. Attorney General Thurlow, - 208 

Mr. Dunning, .... 208 

Mr. Solicitor General Wedderburn, 209 

Mr. Byng, 209 

Governour Johnstone, ... 209 

Mr. T. Townshend, - . . 209 
Mr. Edmund Burke, . . .209 

Mr. Mackworth's motion rejected, . - 211 
Motion by Mr. T. Townshend, to make tempo- 
rary that part of the Bill which relates to the 
Legislative Council, rejected, - . .211 
Motion by Mr. Dempster, for establishing rules 

to be observed in making Ordinances, rejected, 211 



XXV 

1774. 

June 

10, 



13, 



CONTENTS. 



XXVI 



June 
17, 



22, 



Motion by Mr. Charles Fox, to secure to tlie 
Religious orders, their rights and properties, 

rejected, 

Motion by Mr. Dempster, to give the Canadians 
claiming it, the benefit of Habeas Corpus and 
Bail, rejected, ------ 

Bill read the third time, - - - - 

Mr. Cooper's motion that the Bill do pass. 
Debate — Mr. Charles Fox, .... 

Mr. Cooper, 

Mr. Ho^vard, ..... 
The Bill passed, 

House of Lords. 

Motion to agree to the Amendments made by the 
House of Commons, - - . . - 

Debate — Lord Chatham, . . . - 

Lord Dartmouth, .... 
Lord Lyttelton, .... 

Amendments agreed to, - 

Lords in the minority, .... 

Petition of the City of London to the King, 
against the Bill, ..... 

The King's assent to the Bill, - . - - 

The King's Speech to both Houses of Parlia- 
ment, 

" An Act for making more effectual provision for 
the government of the Province of Quebeck, in 
North America," 

" An Act to prevent the E.xportation to Foreign 
parts of Utensils made use of in the Cotton, 
Linen, Woollen and Silk Manufactures of this 
Kingdom," 



211 



211 
211 
211 
211 
211 
211 
211 



211 
211 
212 
212 
214 
214 

215 
216 

216 



216 



220 



1774 



MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE. 

March Letter from Mr. Bollan, Agent, to the Hon. John 
1 1, Erving, and others. Committee of the Council 

of Massachusetts. The King's Message of 
March 7 — the publication of his late Petition 
to the King — prepares a Petition for the Hotise 
of Commons — General Conway and Sir 
George Savile decline presenting it — the Lord 
Mayor consents to present it, - - - 225 
15, Letter from Mr. Bollan to the Committee. His 
Petition presented by Sir Joseph Mawbey. 
The right of Parliament to Tax the Americans 
denied by Lord Camden, - - - - 227 

17, Letter continued. Lord North's policy in re- 

gard to the Colonies. — Interview with Lord 
Camden, 228 

18, Letter from Arthur Lee, London, to Richard 

Henry Lee. Order of the House of Com- 
mons for leave to bring in the Boston Port Bill. 
Recommends prudence and firmness to the Co- 
lonies. Lord North's declaration, that he would 
not listen to complaints from America, until 
she was at his feet. Character of Lord North, 228 

22, Letter from Mr. Bollan to the Committee. Re- 

fused a hearing by the House, on hi.s Petition. 
The Port Bill read a second time. The Lord 
Mayor and Sir Joseph Mawbey offer to pre- 
sent another Petition, .... 229 

23, Letter from Mr. Bollan to the Committee. Has 

prepared his second Petition. Sir Jos. Maw- 
bey took it to present to the Hou.se. Objec- 
tions of the Speaker and Clerk. The presen- 
tation deferred, 230 

31, Letter from a Gentleman in London to his friend 
at Annapolis, Md. Encloses the Boston Port 
Bill. Little opposition to it in the House of 
Commons. The rise or fall of America now 
depends on the deliberations of a General Con- 
gress from the Colonies. A suspension of 
Exports and Imports recorMnended. If Bos- 
ton acquiesces the whole will be forced to sub- 
mission, 230 

April Letter from Mr. Bollan to the Committee. After 
2, various difficulties his Petition to the House 

of Lords was presented, and he was called in 
and heard in support of it. General Gage 
appointed Governour of Massachusetts Bay, 231 
Letter from Mr. Bollan to the Committee. Re- 
sumes his account of the proceedings on the 
Port Bill. His second Petition to the House 
of Commons presented by Alderman Crosby. 
Large majority against receiving it. The Bill 
passed by the House of Commons. Interview 



with Lord Temple. The Earl of Stair the first 
who spoke in favour of the Colonies in the 
House of Lords. Lord Stair refers him to the 
Duke of Richmond to present his Petition. — 
The Duke of Richmond refers him to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. Interview with the Earl 
of Dartmouth. Petition presented by Lord 
Stair. Mr. Bollan heard at the Bar of the 
House, in support of his Petition. The Lords 

pass the Bill, 231-235 

April Letter from Dr. Franklin, London, to Thomas 

2, Cushing. After his treatment at the Council 

Board he had ceased to act as Agent. Greater 
opposition to the Boston Port Bill in the House 
of Lords than in the House of Commons. Pe- 
titions of the Natives of America dravvTi up 
by Mr. Lee. Encloses a Letter from Leeds, 
dated March 20 — alarm of the Manufacturers 
— Emigrations to America, - - - 235 

2, Letter from Arthur Lee, Loudon, to Francis L. 
Lee. Punishment of Boston first step towards 
reducing all America to an acknowledgement 
of the right of Parliament to Tax the Colonies, 
and to a submission to the exercise of that right. 
General Gage appointed Governour of Mas- 
sachusetts to reduce the people to entire obedi- 
ence. Recommends a General Congress of 
the Colonies, at Annapolis, and a suspension 
of Exports and Imports, .... 237 

4, Letter from Samuel Adams, to Arthur Lee. Pro- 

ceedings of the Assembly, in relation to the 
Judges' salaries. Judge Oliver refuses to re- 
nounce the salary from the Crown — Contro- 
versy between the Governour and the Assem- 
bly. Policy of the British Government, if 
persisted in, will bring about the entire separa- 
tion and Independence of the Colonies, - 238 

5, Importance of the Commerce of the Colonics 

to the Trade and Manufactures of Great Bri- 
tain. Value of Exports from the West India 
Islands and the Northern Colonies compared. 
Troops furnished by the Colonies in the last 
war, 240 

5, Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. The wisdom and firmness of the Uni- 
ted Continent of America must be summoned 
to support their liberty. If Boston is not sus- 
tained, all the rest will fall the easy victims of 
Tyranny. The Sheriffs of London headed the 
Petitions to Parliament; they were the first 
in proposing, and active in getting them uj), 24 1 

7, An Apology for the late conduct of America, 241-245 

9, Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Governour 
Gage. Sends his Commission, as Captain- 
General and Governour-in- Chief of Massachu- 
setts Bay, with his Instructions ; He must en- 
force due obedience to the Boston Port Bill — if 
necessary, must use the King's Troops with 
effect. The Governour to reside in Salem, and 
the General Court to be held there, until the 
King shall authorize their return to Boston. 
His Majesty expects the offenders (in the de- 
struction of the "Tea) to be punished, - - 245 
March Copy of a Minute of the Treasury Board, (en. 

31, -.••'■ • X .. V T . .. 



April 
27, 



closed in the foregoing Letter.) Listructions 
to the Officers of the Customs, on removing the 
Port from Boston to Salem, - - - 

Letter from London. Advises the Colonies to 
imite in defence of American Liberty. Power 
of the Ministry — their hatred of liberty. Lords 
Chatham, Camden, and Rockingham, are 
friendly to America, . - - - . 
May 4, Letter from Lieutenant Governour Colden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. Destruction of Tea at 
New- York, ------ 

Account of the Proceedings at New- York, on 
the arrival of Captains Chambers and Lock- 
yer, with the Tea, (enclosed in the preceding 
Letter,) 

Account of all the Proceedings in New- York, in 
relation to the Tea, (Note,) - - 251 



April 
28, 



May 
12, 



- 246 

248 
248 



249 
-256 



COTJNCII, OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

March Governour submits a Letter from Lord Dim- 

16, more, 252 

3, Letter from Lord Dunmore, Governour of Vir- 
ginia, to Governour Penn. Claims Pittsburgh, 



XXVil 

1774. 



CONTENTS. 



XXVIII 



252 



March 
31, 



24, 



April 
11. 



8, 



7. 
11, 

21, 
9, 



21, 



22, 



261 



261 



OS within the County of Augusta, to be under 
the jurisdiction of Vi'rsriniu— Refuses to revoke 
the Commissions to Officers he has appointed 
there — Di>mands ample reparation for the in- 
sult on his Majesty's CJovernment in Virginia, 
in the imprisonment of Mr. John Connollj', a 
Magistrate appointed by him, . . - 
Answer of Governour Penn, to the Earl of Dun- 
more. Review of the respective claims of 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, in regard to the 
disputtxl Botmdary. Claims Pittsburgh to be 
within the Charter limits of Pennsylvania- 
justifies the conduct of Mr. St. Clair, in impri- 
soning Connolly, ... - 255-260 
Letter from Jonathan Trumbull, Esquire, Gov- 
ernour of Connecticut, to Governour Penn. — 
Connecticut Umds West of the River Dela- 
ware — requests Governour Penn to prevent 
settlements under claim of the Proprietaries of 
Pennsylvania. Has employed persons to take 
the lautudes of certain places beyond the Dek- 
^\•are, ...---- 

Letter from Governour Penn to Governour 
Trumbull, ■written by advice of the Council. 
Denies the claim of Connecticut to Lands be- 
yond the Delaware. Protests against the send- 
ing of persons to take latitudes of places with- 
in the jurisdiction of Pennsyh'ania, and denies 
the authority of the Assembly of Connecticut 
to do so. 
Letter from William Crawford, Westmoreland 
County, to Mr. Penn. Connolly sworn in a 
Magistrate of Augusta County, Virginia : he 
was furnished with blank Commissions for 
several gentlemen near Pittsburgh. A num- 
ber of Militia Officers appointed there by 
Lord Dunmore. Several musters of Militia 
have been held. Connolly constantly sur- 
rounded with a body of armed men — and 
obstructs the execution of legal process under 
the authority of Pennsylvania. Disturbances 
there — arrest and confinement of Pennsylvania 
Magistrates — Connolly surrounds the Court 
House with Troops— places Centinels at the 
door — has a private interview with the Magis- 
trates. Further disturbances. Persons arrest- 
ed by Connolly. Mr. Crawford recommends to 
the Governour to fix a temporary Boundary 
line, ...---- 

Dr. Connolly's Address to the Magistrates of 
Westmoreland County, at his interview with 
them, referred to in the preceding Letter, 
Answer of the Magistrates of Westmoreland 

County to the foregoing Address, 
Deposition of Henry Read, relative to the Distur- 
bances made in Westmoreland County by the 
Virginians, ..---- 

Governour advised by the Council to take no steps 
in relation to the Disturbances, until the return 
of an Express sent to the Earl of Dunmore, - 
Express sent to Virginia returned without any 
Answer from the Governour, . . - 
Letter from ^Eneas Muckoy, Pittsburgh, to the 
Governour. Taken prisoner by Dr. Connolly, 
and, on refusing to give bail, ordered to be sent 
to Staunton, ...... 

Letter from Devereux Smith, Pittsburgh, one of 
the Magistrates of Westmoreland County, ar. 
rested on a King's Warrant issued by Dr. Con. 
nolly. Will go to Jail at Staunton this day. 
The Council, after considering the foregoing Let- 
ters, advise the Governour to send Commis- 
sioners to the Governour of Virginia to con- 
fer with that Government on the means of re- 
storing peace and good order, and the establish- 
ment of a temporary line of jurisdiction. 
Letter from Governour Penn to /Eneas Mnckay, 
Devereux Smith, and Andrew M'Farlane. — 
Will apply to Lord Dunmore for their enlarge- 
ment — and has instructed Colonel Wilson to 
give bail, to release them from Prison at Staun- 
ton, ....... 

Letter from Governour Penn to William Craw- 
ford, and his Associates, of Westmoreland 
County. Will send Commissioners to expos- 
tulate with Lord Dunmore on the behaviour 
of the persons he has invested with power to 
disturb the peace of the country. As the Gov- 



1774. 



262 



263 



263 



263 



264 



264 



264 



264 



265 



265 



crnment of Virginia has the power to raise 
Militia, and there is no such in Pennsylvania, 
it will be vain to contend with them in the 
way of force. The Magistrates are, therefore, 
advised to conduct themselves \vith caution, 
and not to proceed with criminal prosecutions 
asrainst persons acting under the authority of 
Virginia, - - - - * " 

Jan'ry Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Ligonier, to Jo- 
15, seph Shippen. Petition for a Court House 
and Jail, in Westmoreland County, 

Feb'ry Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Ligonier, to Gov 



2, 



23, 



April 
4, 



4, 



7, 



13, 



ernour Penn. Dr. Connolly arrested by his 
orders, for requiring the Militia to meet. R-iot- 
ous conduct of persons under arms. Mr. Con- 
nolly has a Military Commission from Lord 
Dunmore, and his Subalterns are appointed. 

Paper enclosed in the foregoing Letter, read to a 
party assembled in arms, after Connollys arrest 
by the Magistrates of Westmoreland County, 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Ligonier, to Jo- 
seph Shippen, Junior. Disturbances are in- 
creasing. The People, principally, in favour 
of Virginia. Intends to remove his office to 
Pittsburgh, 

Letter from Joseph Spear to Arthur St. Clair. 
Virginians have had several musters \ait\y, 
one at Red Stone, Old Fort. Connolly has just 
gone to Red Stone, . . - - - 

Letter from TEneas Mackay, Pittsburgh, to Gov. 
Penn. Since Comiolly's return from Virginia, 
on the 28th of March, Pittsburgh has become a 
scene of confusion. Connolly arrested on the 
24th of January, and in prison a few days, 
when he prevailed upon the Sheriff to let him 
out to see his friends; instead of returning to 
Jail, as he had promised, he assembled a party 
of armed men, who guarded him from Red 
Stone to the frontiers of Virginia. Connolly, on 
the 30th of March, read to the Militia, assem- 
bli:>d at Fort Pitt, Letters from Lord Dunmore, 
approving his conduct, and promising him as- 
sistance. The men were assembled in obedi- 
ence to Lord Dunmore's positive orders, to hear 
the Letters read. Connolly arrested the Sheriff 
the next day, by a King's Warrant, and has 
had, ever since, armed parties in pursuit of the 
Deputy SherifT and the Constables; he is now 
in acUial possession of the Fort, with a guard, 
invested with Ci\'il and Military power to en- 
force the laws of Virginia — Lord Dunmore has 
enclosed him Commissions to fill up, at his dis- 
cretion, for Militia Officers. Indians alarmed 
at seeing parties of armed men daily. 

Letter from GJeorge Croghan to David Sample 
has long been convinced that Fort Pitt, and its 
dependencies, are without the limits of Penn- 
sylvania — will no longer submit to the laws of 
tiiat Province ; Virginia having, last Winter, 
extended the laws of that Government to this 
part of the country, 

Letter from Thomas Smith to Joseph Shippen. 
Disturbances in Westmoreland County. Con- 
nolly's proceedings — Officers appointed by 
him, under Lord Dunmore's authority, 

Representation of the Commissioners and Asses- 
sors of Westmoreland County to Gov. Penn, 

Letter from Tliomas Smith, Bedford, to Joseph 
Shippen, Jun. Continued outrages of the Vir- 
ginians. Three Magistrates of Westmoreland 
County arrested by Connolly, and now on their 
way to Augusta Jail, .... 



266 



266 



266 



267 



269 



. 269 



- 270 



271 



271 



273 



273 



VIRGINIA ASSEMBLY. 

May 5, Virginia Assembly, convened by the Governour, 274 
Speech of Lord Dunmore to CTeneral Assembly, 274 
Address of the Council to Lord Dunmore, . 274 
Address of the House of Burgesses to Lord Dun- 
more, 275 

12, Information, by Express, of skirmishes with the 

Shawanese, ...... 275 

1 3, Petition from the Inhabitants on the Waters of the 

f )hio, to the Governour and Assembly. Prefer 
the Government of Virginia to that of Peim- 
sylvania. State their grievances, their fears of 
the neighbouring Indians, and request the As- 
sembly to extend to them relief, ... 275 



XXIX 

1774. 

May 

13, 



CONTENTS. 



XXX 



Address of the House of Burgesses to the Govern- 
our on the foregoing- Petition. Disapprove the 
imprisoning Officers by either Government. 
Recommend a temporary boundary until the 
King shall direct a proper line to be fixed upon. 
Request the Ciovernour to exercise the powers 
he is invested with to suppress the Indian dis- 
turbances, ...--. 276 
March " A Virginian," approving the conduct of Lord 

3, E>unmore,(Note,) 277 

26, Letter from Pittsburgh. No disturbances with the 
Indians this Winter. More to be dreaded from 
the Pennsylvanians than the Indians, (Note,) - 277 

"Virginius" to Lord Dunmore. An Indian war 
inevitable. Urges the Governour to make pro- 
vision for the security of the frontier inhabi- 
tants, and be ready to meet the Indians, (Note,) 277 

Connolly will be at Pittsburgh till the middle of 
June to dispose of lots in a new Town, to be 
laid out, at the Falls of the Ohio, (Note,) - 278 



24, 



April 
7, 



COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

May 7, Mr. Tilghman and Mr. Andrew Allen appointed 
Commissioners to treat \vith Virginia, on the 
Disturbances in Westmoreland County, - 277 

7, Commission to Mr. Tilghman and Mr. Allen, 

Commissioners to Virginia, ... 278 
7, Instructions to the Commissioners, ... 279 
7, Letter from Governour Penn to Lord Dimmore. 
Informs him of the appointment of the Commis- 
sioners, and expresses his hopes that tranquil- 
lity may be restored between the Governments, 280 
1 8, Letter from Doctor Richard Peters to Henry Wil- 
mot, London. History of the purchsise, by 
Pennsylvania, imderthe Indian Deed of 1754, 
of the Lands west of the Delaware, claimed 
by Connecticut. The Pennsylvania purchase 
made openly in Council ; the Susquehannah 
purchase, by private individuals, from Connec- 
ticut, made secretly. The Indians, in Council, 
refused to sell any land to Connecticut, and re- 
fused to sell the Wyomink Country to either 
Pennsylvania or Connecticut. Treaty at Fort 
Stanwix, in 1768, 280 

April Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Carlisle, to Ben- 
28, jamin Chew. Colonel Stephens censured by 
the Council of Virginia, in 1 764, for sending 
the Militia out of that Government, when he 
sent relief to Fort Pitt, then besieged by the 
Indians, 282 

May 5, Letter from iEneas Mackay, Staunton, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. Interview with Lord Dunmore 
in relation to the claim of Virginia to Pitts- 
burgh, and the proceedings of Connolly. Lord 
Dunmore justified Connolly, who acted by his 
authority. Gave Mr. Mackay a Letter to the 
Sheriff of Augusta, directuig the discharge of 
the Pennsylvania Magistrates imprisoned by 
Connolly, 282 

April Letter from Lord Dunmore, Williamsburg, to 
26, Daniel Smith, Sheriff of Augusta, directing 

the discharge of the Pennsylvania Magistrates, 283 
25, Lord Dunmore's Proclamation — Directs the Mi- 
litia of Pittsburgh, and its dependencies, to be 
embodied to repel any attacks from Pennsylva- 
nia, or the Indians ; and orders all the inhabi- 
tants to pay quit-rents, and all publick dues, to 
Officers appointed by Virginia, - - - 283 
30, Extract of a Journal of the United Brethren's 
Mission, on Muskingum — Shawanese Chief 
killed by the Whites, on the Ohio — Indian war 
expected ; Virginians, on the Ohio, threaten to 
fall on the Shawanese settlements, and destroy 
their Towns. White people on the Ohio had 
killed nine Mingoes. At Pittsburgh it is not 
believed this was done by authority of the Gov- 
ernour of Virginia. Indian Council at Geke- 
lemuckepuck: Shawanese and Mingoes left it 
dissatisfied, and threatened to kill all the White 
people they met. Messenger from Mr. Crogh- 
an, at Pittsburgh, to the Delawares, Shawa- 
nese, and Mingoes, advising them to be quiet. 
The people there will endeavour to apprehend 
the Whites who committed the murder. Hopes 
entertained of a continuance of peace, - 283 

May Letter from a Missionary — More Traders arriv- 
21, cd, 284 



1774. 

Maij 

24, 

27, 



24, 



29, 



Litter from David Zeisburgcr, Missionary at 
Schonbrunn. Movements of the Indians: Pre- 
paration for war with the Whites, - - 285 

Letter from Mr. Zeisburger. Two parties of the 
Shawanese gone against the settlements. The 
Shawanese at Woaketameka, only want war. 
Lower Shawanese peaceable yet, - - 285 

Letter from the Cosh, alias John Bull. Three 
Cherokees have killed a trader. Mingoes kil- 
led by Virginians under Cresap, at the mouth 
of Yellow Creek. The day following they 
killed a Shawanese and a Delaware. Same 
party killed a Shawanese woman, and a Shaw- 
anese Chief; soon after fled, and left the settlers 
victims to the Indians. Indian Council at 
Woaketameka — Delaware Chief informed the 
Shawanese and Mingoes that the Delawares 
would not assist them, .... 285 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Ligonier, to Gov- 
ernor Penn. The Shawanese inclined to peace 
with the Pennsylvanians. The Virginians 
have struck them and they will have satisfac- 
tion. Met several Chiefs of the Delawares and 
the Deputy of the Six Nations, at Pittsburgh; 
they gave assurances of their desire for peace. 
Number of Indians killed by Cresap and (Jreat- 
house, thirteen. Cresap lately at Pittsburgh, 
with intention to pursue the blow he had 
struck; but Connolly forbid his attempting any 
thing against the Indians. Cresap declares 
what he did before was by Connolly's orders. 
An Indian war, if not a Virginia plan, is cer- 
tainly Connolly's plan. Country about Pitts- 
burgh harassed by the Virginia Militia. Sev- 
eral at Pittsburgh have associated and raised, 
and pay a company of one hundred Rangers. 
Inhabitants of Pittsburgh propose to stockade 
the Town. Delaware Indian killed by John 
Hinckson, and others, .... 286 

Speech of the Shawanese, directed to Alexander 
McKee, George Croghan, and the Comman. 
dant at Pittsburgh, Captain John Connolly, . 288 

Speech to the Chiefs of the Delawares and a few 
of the Six Nations, by Arthur St. Clair, at 
Pittsburgh, May, 1774, . - . .283 



MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE. 

May Letter from General Haldimand, New- York, to 
15, the Earl of Dartmouth. The accounts receiv. 
ed, had made known the plan of operation in- 
tended to bring Boston to a sense of order and 
decency, so that when General Gcage arrives 
they will know what to expect if they prove 
refractory. Many believe in New. York, that 
the people of Boston vnU. acknowledge their 
fault, and pay for the Tea, ... 

April Extracts of private Let ers from London, printed 



7, 



May 
16, 



on the back of the Boston Port Bill, and circu- 
lated in New- York, on the 1 4th of May, en- 
closed to the Earl of Dartmouth, in the prece- 
ding Letter, 

A " British American," New- York, proposes to 
raise by subscription money to pay for the Tea, 
ready to be tendered to General Gage, on his 
arrival. Hostile opposition to the Naval and 
Military Force coming out with General Gage, 
absurd, (Note,) 



KEW-YORK COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 



May 
16, 

17, 

ir, 



19, 



289 



289 



289 



20, 



New- York Committee of Correspondence, - 293 

Committee nominated at a Publick Meeting at 
the Exchange, .... 

Meeting called for the 19th, to approve of the 
Committee nominated on the 1 6th, 

Express from Boston, with Letters from the Com- 
nrittee of Correspondence there, suggesting the 
suspension of all Exports to, and Imports irom. 
Great Britain and the West Indies, (Note,) 

Meeting of the Inhabitants at the Coiiee House, 

Address of Mr. Low to the meeting. 

The nomination of the fifty gentlemen for a Com- 
mittee, on the 16th, confirmed, and Francis 
Lewis added, ..---- 

Address to the People, urging them to sustain 
Boston, (Note,) .... 

Dialogue on the Boston Port Bill— Conduct of 



. 293 
294 



293 

294 
294 



295 
- 295 



XXXI 



CONTENTS. 



XXXII 



1774. 



May 
23. 



23, 



24, 



30, 



30, 



31, 



31, 



June 
I, 
3. 



the Bostonians justified— Procerdings of the 
Ministry condemned — Non-Importation Agree- 
ment recommended, f Note,) - - - 

Isaac Low chosen Chairman of the Committee ; 
John Alsop Deputy Chairman, - - - 

LeUer from Jonathan Blake, Chairman of the 
Committee of Mechanicks, exprcssinsrtheir con- 
currence in the appointment of the Committee, 

Letters from Boston Committee of the 13th, and 
a Letter from the Philadelphia Committee read, 

Committee appointed to prepare an Answer to the 
Boston Letter, and to report this evening. 

Letter to the Boston Committee reported and ap- 
proved. EHfficult to determine what course 
ought to be pursued. Cannot give a decisive 
opinion. Congress of Deputies from all the 
Colonies ought to be convened without delay. 
The Committee cannot express any opinion on 
the exp.<lient proposed by the Boston Com- 
mittee, " 

Copy of this Letter ordered to be sent to Philadel- 
phia, ackjiowledging the receipt of a copy of 
their Letter to Boston, and approving the sen- 
timents contaim-d in it, - - ' .* 

Letter from Mr. Low, Chairman, to Philadelphia 

Committee, " * " ' j i' 
Rules of proceeding for the Committee adopted, 
Joseph Allicocke appointed Secretary, 
Committee appointed to write a Circular Letter to 
Supervisors of Counties, recommending the ap- 
pointment of persons to correspond with this 
Committee, - - - - ■ 
Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Lon- 
don. Many of the principal people of the Co- 
lony are sorry for embarking in the cause so 
far, and are ready to join the friends of the 
Ministry. The Minister, with a few Ships-of- 
War, could carry his designs into execution, 

(Note,) 

Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Lon- 
don. General Gage hissed at a publick dinner 
in Boston, for giving Governour Hutchinson as 
a toast. Respect shown to General Gage on 
his landing, all hypocrisy. The Presbj-terian 
Junto, or self-constituted Committee of Sons of 
Liberty of New- York, who have stood ever 
since the Stamp Act, offered the assistance of 
this City to Boston, in resisting the Parliament ; 
in consequence of this Letter the gentlemen of 
property met and formed the new Committee of 
Fifty. There is little doubt but all will be 
quiet in the Colonies in a short time ; the most 
bitter pill will be the acknowledgement of the 
right of Taxation in the Parliament. The 
Presbyterians are to blame for all the violent 
American Proceedings. The Government at 
home, can only rely upon the professors of the 
Church of Englandi. The Ministry have only 
to put an entire stop to smuggling, and make an 
example of some of the factious ringleaders in 
every principal city ; then America will give 
but little trouble, (Note,) ... - 
Letter received from Charles Thomson, Phila- 
delphia, in behalf of the several Congregations 
in that city, dated May 29, ... 

Copies of Mr. Thomson's Letter furnished to 
the Clergymen of New- York, . - - 
Letter from Isaac Low, Chairman, to Charles 
Thomson, ...--. 

Letter from the Committee to the Supervisors of 

the Counties, 

Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Scot- 
land. The power thrown into the hands of the 
Mob at the Stamp Act, was not extinguished by 
the repeal of that Act. It was the leaders of 
the Mob. who associated to prevent the landing 
of the Tea here, and for returning it — which 
they deliberately effected. The Committee of 
Fifty was elwAed in opposition to these leaders, 
with some difficulty. The management of 
affairs is now in the hands of men opposed to 
precipitate measures, and the Ministry will meet 
with little opposition, unless the Bill for the 
Administration of Justice in Massachusetts Bay 
should be passed, (Note,) - . . . 
Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Eng- 
land. The pretensions of Great Britain will be 
treated with resentment and disdain throughout 



295 
295 

295 
295 
295 



- 297 



298 



298 
298 
299 



299 



299 



1774. 



June 
6, 
4. 



7, 



10, 
3, 



10, 
11, 



11, 

24, 



299 

300 
300 
300 
300 



20, 



27, 



29, 



Juhj 



302 



302 
302 

303 



303 

304 



304 
305 



305 
306 



the Continent. The strongest determination 
exists through all America to maintain and 
defend their rights, (Note,) . . - 

The Committee order a Letter to be written to 
the Boston Committee, . . - - 

Anniversary of his Majesty's birth-day. Cele- 
brated by the King's Officers. Few of the 
people participated in the rejoicing, (Note,) - 

Letter from the Committee to Boston Committee 
of Correspondence. In their former Letter did 
not propose a suspension of Trade. Left that 
and every other resolution for the discussion 
of the proposed General Congress — adhering 
to that measure as most conducive to promote 
the grand system of politicks we all have in 
view. Ready to meet at any time and place that 
may be appointed, giving sufficient time for 
Deputies as far south as the Carolinas to as- 
semble, ..----- 

Letter received from the Committee of Correspon- 
dence for Connecticut, dated June 4, - 

Copy of a Letter from the Connecticut Commit- 
tee to the Boston Committee, enclosed in the 
preceding Letter to New- York. A Congress 
absolutely necessary — Should meet by the first 
week in August — New- York a convenient 
place, but prefer Fairfield or Norwalk, 

Committee direct Letters to be written to the 
Committee at Hartford, and to the Committee 
of South Carolina, - . - - - 

Letter to the Conunittce of Connecticut — Ap- 
prove of the Congress, chosen to speak the 
sentiments, and to pledge themselves for the 
conduct of the Colonies they represent, 

I^etter to Mr. Bernard Lentot, of Branford, 

Letter from the Committee of Correspondence of 
the Assembly of New- York, to the Connecti- 
cut Committee. A Congress the best means 
of restoring peace and harmony with Great 
Britain ; but this Committee have no power to 
take any steps in relation to the subject. If a 
Congress should meet in or near New- York, 
will assist with their advice, . . - 

Appointment of the Committee by the Assem- 
bly of New- York, (Note) - - - - 

Mr. Allicocke, for particular reasons, resigned, 
and John Blagge appointed Secretary to the 
Committee in his place, - . . . 

Letters received from Easthampton, dated June 
17; from Philadelphia, dated June 21; and 
from Boston, dated Jime 16, ... 

Mr. M'Dougall's motion on the most eligible 
mode of appointing Deputies to the Congress, 
debated and postponed to the 29th, 

Letters from Tryon County, dated June 22, and 
from Southampton, dated June 22, received. - 

Mr. M'Dougall moved, and was seconded by Mr. 
Broome, that the Committee proceed imme- 
diately to nominate five Deputies for the City 
and County of New- York, to represent them 
in a Convention of the Colony, or in the Gen- 
eral Congress, and that their names be sent to 
the Committee of Mechanicks for their concur- 
rence; to be proposed to the Inhabitants on 
Tuesday next, for their approbation, 

Postponed to Monday next, July 4, ' • 

4, Letters from Annapolis, dated June 26, with Re- 
solves ; from Shelter Island, dated June 7, with 
Resolves; from Suffolk County, dated June 
25 ; from the Committee of Mechanicks of 
New- York, dated July 4 ; also from Dutchess 
County, dated June '29, received, 

Mr. Booth's motion, seconded by Mr. De Lancey, 
for the Previous Question on Mr. M'Dougall's 
motion, referring the nomination of Delegates 
to the Committee of Mechanicks for their con- 
currence, ...... 

Yeas and Nays on the question, ... 

Mr. Bache moved, seconded by Mr. De Lancey, 
that the Committee now proceed to nominate 
five persons as Delegates to meet in General 
Congress, ...... 308 

Captain Sears moved, seconded by Mr. P. V. B. 
Livingston, that Isaac Low, James Duane, 
Philip Livingston, John Morin Scott, and 
Alexander M'Dougall, be nominated, - - 308 

Yeas and Nays on the Previous Question, on 
Captain Sears's motion. .... 308 



306 
306 

307 

307 

307 
307 



307 
307 



308 



308 
308 



xxxin 

1774. 

Jidyi, Mr. De Lancey moved, seconded by Mr. Booth, 
that the Committee immediately proceed to 
nominate five persons to be held up to the City 
and County, proper to serve them as Delegates 
in a General Congress, .... 308 

Philip Livingston, John Alsop, Isaac Low, James 
Duane, and John Jay, nominated, - - 308 

A Publick Meeting ordered to be called at the 
City Hall, on the 7th, to concur in the nomina- 
tion, or to choose others in their stead, - 309 

5, Address to the Publick. ©bjections to a Con- 

gress — Advises an humble Address from each 
General Assembly to the King, for permission 
to send some of their own bodies to England 
to fi.x upon a Constitution, (Note,) - - 309 

Answer to the foregoing Address, (Note,) - 309 

7, Letter from Jacob Lansing, dated Albany, June 

29, received, 309 

Committee appointed to meet a Committee of the 
Mechanicks to-morrow, to take the vote of the 
City on the five Delegates nominated by this 
Committee, and the five nominated by the Com- 
mittee of Mechanicks, .... 309 

Mr. Thurman's motion, to disavow the Proceed- 
ings of the Meeting held in the Fields, yester- 
day, of which Mr. M'Dougall was Chairman, 
as evidently calculated to throw an odium on 
the Committee, and to create jealousies and 
suspicions of their conduct, - - - 310 

Mr. M'Dougall moves for the Previous Ques- 
tion on Mr. Thurman's motion, - - - 3 II 

Yeas and Nays on Mr. M'Dougall's motion, - 311 

Yeas and Nays on Mr. Thurman's motion, - 311 

Mr. Lewis's motion, for a Committee to prepare 
Resolutions to be submitted to the People, - 312 

Committee appointed, - - - - - 312 

Mr. M'Evers's motion, for the publication of the 
Proceedings on the motion of Mr. Thurman, 312 

Yeas and Nays on this question, - - - 312 

6, Resolutions adopted by the Meeting in the Fields, 

referred to by Mr. Thurman. 1. That Boston 
is suffering in the common cause of the Colo- 
nies. 2. An invasion of the rights of one Col- 
ony is an attack upon the liberties of all. 3. 
The shutting up an American Port, to exact a 
submission to Parliamentary Taxation, is un- 
constitutional. 4. Suspension of Trade with 
Great Britain till the Boston Act is repealed, 
will save America. 5. Delegates from New- 
York to the General Congress instructed to 
unite in a Non- Importation Agreement. 6. 
The Meeting will support every measure of 
the Congress for securing the objects mention- 
ed in these Resolutions. 7. Provincial Con- 
vention recommended to choose Deputies to the 
Congress. 8. That Subscriptions be immedi- 
ately set on foot for the relief of the Poor of 
Boston. 9. The City Committee instructed to 
carry these Resolutions into execution, - 312 

8, Address of Francis Lewis and other Members of 

the Committee to the Inhabitants — their reasons 
for opposing Mr. Thurman's and Mr. M'Evers's 
motion. Withdraw from the Committee, - 313 

9, Answer of " One of the Committee" to the fore- 

going Address — Defence of the Committee, - 314 

Mr. M'Dougall declines a nomination to the Con- 
gress, (Note,) 315 

Publications relative to these Proceedings,( Note,) 3 1 5 
13, Committee, appointed on the 7th instant, report 

Resolutions, - - - - - -315 

Ordered to be printed and distributed in handbills 
for the consideration of the Publick, who are 
requested to meet at the Coffee-House on the 
19th, to express their opinion on them, - 315 

The five Gentlemen nominated by the Committee 

as Delegates to the General Congress, to be 

proposed to the Citizens for their approbation, 

at the same time and place, - - - 315 

19, Letter from Charlestown, South Carolina, dated 

July 8, with Resolves, received, - - - 315 

At the Meeting this day at the Coffee-House, a 
small portion of the Citizens only attending, 
the sentiments of the majority not ascertained 
on the Resolutions, - - - - - 315 

Committee appointed to take the sense of the Free- 
holders, Freemen, and Tax Payers in each 
Ward, on the Resolutions and the nomination 
of the Delegates, 315 

FOUBTB SeBIES. 



CONTENTS- 



XXXIV 



1774. 



July 
20. 



20. 



25, 



30. 
26. 



27. 



27. 



28. 



26, 



Resolutions adopted by the Committee: 1. The 
King of Great Britain is our rightful Sove- 
reign ; it is our duty to support his Crown and 
dignity. 2. All Acts of Parliament for taxing 
the Colonies, unjust and unconstitutional, par- 
ticularly the Boston Port Act. 3. Enforcing 
the Taxation in the Colonies, the true motive 
and main design of that Act. 4. It is the 
duty of all the Colonies to assist any one ao 
oppressed. 5. The meeting of the proposed 
Congress the most prudent measure in this 
alarming crisis. 6. It is premature for one 
Colony now to resolve what ought to be done 
by the Congress, who should be left free to de- 
cide on what they think best 7. Nothing but 
dire necessity can justify the Colonies in uni- 
ting on any measure that may injure our 
brethren in Great Britain. 8. If a Non- Im- 
portation Agreement should be adopted, it 
ought to be general, and faithfully observed. 
9. The Delegates to Congress should be so 
chosen as to pledge themselves for the good 
conduct of the People they represent, - - 315 

Mr. Jay's motion, to provide for the distresses of 
the Poor of Boston. 316 

Committee to consider of the means for their re- 
lief and to report with all convenient speed, - 317 

Committee to prepare Answers to the Letters re- 
ceived, - - - - - - -317 

Committee appointed to request the Committee of 
Mechanicks to appoint persons to join those 
appointed by this Committee, to take the sense 
of the Inhabitants on the Resolutions and the 
Delegates, - - - - - -317 

Address of Mr. Alsop, Mr. Low, and Mr. Jay, 
to the Publick. The sense of the City so un- 
certain, that they do not consider themselves, 
or any others, duly chosen as Delegates to the 
Congress, - 317 

Address of Mr. Moore, Mr. Low, Mr. Remsen, 
and Mr. Jay, to the Publick. After the rejec- 
tion of the Resolutions offered by the Commit- 
tee of Correspondence to the Meeting at the 
Coffee-House, on the 19th, they were appoint- 
ed on another Committee to prepare new Re- 
solutions. Their appointment irregular, and 
decline serving. They approve, with few ex- 
ceptions, of the rejected Resolutions, - - 317 

Letter, dated Boston, July, 1774, received, - 318 

Mr. Remsen's motion, that a Poll be opened in 
each Ward, on the 28th, for the election of five 
Deputies to the Congress, - - - - 3 1 8 

Unanimously agreed to, - - - - 318 

Committee to carry it into effect, - - - 318 

Amendment of the third Resolve, - - - 318 

Queries from Ulster County, (Note,) - - 318 

Note from the Committee, at Mr. Marriner's. to 
the Delegates nominated, desiring a pledge 
that they will support a Non-Importation 
Agreement in the Congress, until the Ameri- 
can Grievances are redressed, ... 319 

Reply of Mr. Livingston, Mr. Low, Mr. Alsop, 
and Mr. Jay. They believe a general Non- 
Importation Agreement would prove the most 
efficacious means to procure a redress of Grie- 
vances, - - - - - - -319 

In answer to this Reply, the Committee, at Mr. 
Marriner's, agree to support the nominated 
Delegates, 319 

Letter from Charles Thomson, Philadelphia, 
dated July 25, with Resolves, received, - 320 

Publication of Proceedings of yesterday, ordered, 
to correct a mistake in Mr. Holt's Paper, - 320 

The Publication of Mr. Holt, referred to by the 
Committee, (Note,) 320 

Philip Livingston, Isiac Low, John Jay, John 
Alsop, and James Duane, mianimously elected 
Delegates to the Congress, 

Committee on the distresses of the Poor in Bos- 
ton will report at next meeting of the Com- 
mittee, .-.---- 

Letter to the Committee of Correspondence at 
Charlestown, South Carolina. Resolutions of 
South Carolina much approved of Nothing 
but a strict union among all the Colonies 
can effect a restoration of the just rights of 
America. Will concur in every constitutional 
measure for obtaining a redress of Grievances. 



- 320 



320 



XX XT 



CONTENTS. 



XXXVI 



1774, 

July 

28. 



23, 



29, 



Augt 
7, 



22. 



29, 



Sept. 
5, 



19, 



29, 
30. 

Oct. 

7 



Three sets of Resolutions published in New- 
York, that si|?n«l by ilie Chairman, adopt»>d. 
Letter to the Committee of Correspondence at 
Philadelphia. After various contests on the 
appointment of Delegates, regular polls have 
been opened in each Ward in the Guy, which 
has given imiversal satisfaction. Letters sent 
to the several Comities of the Province re- 
questing their co-operation. Resolves and 
Instructions of the Provincial Committee of 
Pennsylvania, much approved, - 
Letter to Matthew Tilghman, Chairman of Com- 
mittee for Maryland. Resolutions of Mary- 
land much approved. The 1st of September 
proposed by Massachusetts for the meeting of 
Congress, agreed to by Eastern Colonies, 
except New- Hampshire, from whence no com- 
mmiication has been received on the present 
state of affairs, . . - - - 

Letter sent to the Committee or Treasurer of the 
different Counties in the Province. Suggests 
the e.xpediency of electing Delegates to Con- 
gress m the several Counties speedily ; or to 
express their confidence in the Delegates elect- 
ed in the City, . . . - - 
Letter from Elizabethtovvn. dated August 5th. 

received, . . . - - 

Conmiittee appointed to answer a Letter from 
Boston, ancf to wait on the Chairman of the 
Mechanicks' Committee, to request the Boston 
Letter to them, . . - . - 

Committee appointed to procure Collections to 
relieve the poor of Boston ; and to request the 
assistance of the Coumuttee of Mechanicks in 
making the subscriptions, ... 

Election of Delegates in Orange and Albany 
Counties, (Note,) . - - - - 
Letter to the Committee of Correspondence, of 
Boston. Explain the cause of their omission 
to write, and express their regret that the rec- 
titude of their intentions are doubted. Appeal 
to their Acts, Letters, and Resolves, to show 
their attachment to the general cause. Defend 
the Merchants against the charge of want of 
patriotism, made against them, in the Letter to 
the Committee of the Mechanicks. Request 
to be furnished with copies of the Letters that 
have given rise to the suspicions. The dis- 
tresses of the Poor of Boston have engaged 
the earnest attention of tlie Committee, 
Letter to the several Counties of the Province. 
Urges them to contribute for the relief of the 
Poor of Boston. The interest and welfare of a 
whole Contment requires that provision should 
be made for all sufferers in the common cause. 
Letter from Suffolk County, dated August 11, 
received. Colonel William Floyd elected a 
Delegate for that County, - 
Busine.ss of the ensuing Congress discussed, in 

presence of the Delegates, (Note,) 
Letter to Zephaniah Piatt, Dutchess Coimty. 

Delegates chosen in the City approved. 
Letters received from Kingston, August, 19 ; 
New- Windsor, August 26; Bedford, August 9; 
Mamaroneck, August 7 ; and White Plains, 
August 27 ; approving the Delegates chosen 

for the City, 

3. Reported attack on Boston, on the 2d, (Note,) 

Letters from Albany, August 27, and Pough- 

keepsie, August 31, approving the Resolves 

and Delegates for New- York, - • . 

Letter from Isaac Low, Philadelphia, received. 

Committee appointed to write to Richmond, Kings, 

Q.uefns, and Tryon Counties, requesting them 

to send Delegates to the Congress now sitting, 

or to approve of those now tliere, for the 

Province of New- York, - - . . 

Representation from a number of Inhabitants, 

signed by Joseph Totten, their President, 
Conmiittee call a Meeting of the Inhabitants at 
tlie City- Hall, this day, to consider Mr. Tot- 
ten's Representation, - - - . 
Conduct of the persons complained of in the Re- 
presentation, condemned, - 
5, Meeting of Importers called to consider advances 
upon Goods imported, 
ImportiTs agree not to put unreasonable advances 
on Goods, from the apprehension of a Non 



320 



1774. 



- 321 



321 



- 322 



- 322 



Importation : will discourage all Engrossers; 
and will dtcline dealing with all who attempt 
to defeat their Resolutions, . . - 

iVw. 7, Committee appointed to inquire what progress 
has been made in Collections for the Poor of 
Boston, - - - - - - 

Meeting of the Citizens called to appoint Com- 
mittees of Inspection, agreeably to the Conti- 
nental Association, . - - - - 

Committee appointetl to write to the several 
Counties, recommending the appointment of 
Committees of Inspection, . . - 

14, Letter to Daniel Dmiscomb, Chairman of the 

Committee of Mechanicks. Requests a Con- 
ference with that Committee on the appoint- 
ment of Committees of Inspection, 
Contributors for the Poor of Boston, in the seve- 
ral Counties, requested to transmit their Do- 
nations as speedily as possible to New- York, 

15, Committee, after their Conference with the Com- 

mittee of Mechanicks, consider their body dis- 
solved on the election of a Committee under 
the Association of Congress, . . - 

Election of new Committee of Sixty ordered, on 
the 22d instant, . . - . - 

The new Committee of Sixty elected. 



322 



322 



322 



323 



323 



- 324 



- 324 



324 



325 
325 



326 
326 



326 



- 326 



326 



- 327 



- 328 



22, 



May 
10, 
13, 
13, 



14, 
16, 

17, 

18. 

17, 

18, 



19, 



17, 



18, 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

The Port Bill received at Boston, (Note,) 

General Gage arrived at Boston, (Note,) 

To\vn Meeting in Boston — Advise the stoppage 
of all Imports from, and all Exports to, Great 
Britain and the West Indies, till the Port Bill 
is repealed, ...-.- 

This vote ordered to be sent to 11 the Colonics, 

Committee appointed to consider what measures 
are proper for the Town to adopt, in the pre- 
sent emergency, . . . - . 

Committee appointed to consult with Salem and 
Marblehead, ...... 

Paul Revere despatched with Letters to the 
Southern Colonies, (Note,) ... 

Election of Committee of Fifty at New- York, to 
correspond with the Colonies, on all matters of 
moment, ...... 

General Gtage landed in Boston. Sworn into 
office as Governour, and invited to a publick 
entertainment at Faneuil Hall, (Note,) 

Meeting at Faneuil Hall, Boston, recommend 
to the People patience, fortitude, and a firm 
trust in God, - 

Votes passed at this Meeting, ... 

Letter received in Boston from Philadelphia. 
Boston need not expect general support from 
the other Colonics. In Pennsylvania they 
will find none, ..... 

Letter from Samuel Adams, Boston, to Arthur 
Lee, London. Injustice and barbarity of the 
Port Bill. The Inhabitants view it with in- 
dignation. Have resolved upon a Non-Im- 
portation. Calmness, courage, and unanimity 
prevail. Suspect studied insult in the appoint- 
ment of General Gage, 

Letter from General Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. Occurrences at Boston, on his arrival. 
The Committee from Boston to Salem and 
Marblehead received little encouragement. — 
The Port Bill has staggered the most presump- 
tuous. The Assembly may be more inclined 
to comply with the King's expectation at Sa- 
lem, where they will be moved after the first of 
June, --..... 

TowTi Meeting at Providence, Rhode- Island. — 
Will unite with the other Colonies in measures 
for protecting and securing their rights. Re- 
commend a Congress of all the Colonies and 
Provinces, for establishing the firmest union 
between tliem. All the English American 
Colonies equally interested in the Proceedings 
of Parliament against Boston. Recommend 
the stoppage of all Trade with Great Britain, 
Ireland, Africa, and the West Indies, - 

Meeting at Chestertown, Maryland, on the i»r- 
portation of Dutiable Tea in the Geddes. No 
Taxes or Duties can be constinitionally im- 
posed without our consent. The Duty on 



328 
328 
329 
329 

329 
329 

330 

330 
330 



331 
331 



331 
331 



331 
331 



331 



293 



331 



331 
332 



332 



332 



333 



333 



xxxni 



CONTENTS. 



XXXVIII 



1774. 

May 

18, 



19, 
19, 



19, 



20, 



20, 
21, 



20, 

20, 



20, 



20, 



21, 



337 



337 



Tea unconstitutional. Whoever imports, buys, 

or sells it, stigmatized as enemies to America, 334 

Address to the Freemen of America. Conduct 
of Great Britain towards America, a system of 
oppression. Life, liberty, and property, are 
now but names in America. New- York, 
Philadelphia, and Charlestown, cannot escape 
the fate of Boston. An union of the Colonies 
will render harmless British vengeance and 
tyranny. Virtue, unanimity, and persever- 
ence, are invincible, - - - - 335 

Pablick Meeting at Farmington, Coimecticut. — 
Liberty Pole erected, and Boston Port Bill 
burnt by the common hangman, - - 336 

Letter from the Committee of Correspondence, at 
Westerly, to the Committee of Boston. Treat- 
ment of Boston by Great Britain worse than 
that of Carthage by Rome. The attack upon 
Boston, an attempt upon the whole Continent. 
The other Colonies will unite with the friends 
of liberty, in Boston, in support of the common 
cause, .-.--.- 336 

Letter from the Committee of Portsmouth, New- 
Hampshire, to the Boston Committee. The 
British Ministry are endeavouring to disunite 
the Colonies, that they may put down their op- 
position. A firm union of all the Colonies 
will prevent the cruel effects of the Port Bill, 

Letter to Lord North, attributed to Edmund 
Burke. The rights of the Crown, and the 
rights of the Colonies, under various Charters 
and Grants, ..-.-. 

Letter from a Member of the Virginia Assembly, 
Williamsburg, to his Correspondent in Lon- 
don. Resentment in Virginia, on account of 
die War sent to Boston. It is the universal 
determination to stop the principal Exports to, 
and all the Imports from. Great Britain. The 
Assembly, now in session, will agree on mea- 
sures to be adopted, before they adjourn, - 340 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of Philadelphia. — 
Committee of Correspondence appoint^!, - 340 

Letter from the Committee of Philadelphia to the 
Boston Committee. It is difficult to collect the 
sense of the People, or to advise what ought to 
be done, on this crisis. The general sense of 
this Province, and of all the Colonies, should 
be obtained. If satisfying the East India Com- 
pany for the Tea would end the controversy, 
there would be no hesitation on what ought to 
be done. A Congress from all the Colonies, 
preferred by the People of Pennsylvania, to a 
Non-Importation and Non-Exportation Agree- 
ment. Will endeavour to collect the sense of 
Pennsylvania, and the neighbouring Colonies, 
on these important points, - - - - 341 

Cluestions and Answers, on paying for the Tea, 
(Note,) 295 

Letter from Gouverneur Morris, New- York, 
to Mr. Penn, Philadelphia. Proceedings in 
New- York, on the appointment of the Com- 
mittee. His opinions on the state of parties in 
New- York. A safe compact for re-union 
with the parent state, is to leave internal Tax- 
ation to the Colonics, and to vest the regula- 
tion of Trade in Great Britain. His reasons 
for this as the only possible mode of re-union, 343 

To^^^l Meeting at Newport, Rhode- Island. — 
The Boston Port Bill subversive of American 
Liberty. The same authority may destroy 
the Trade of every other Colony. Will unite 
with the other Colonies, in all proper mea- 
sures, to place the rights of each on a perma- 
nent foundation, and particularly in a stoppage 
of all Trade with Great Britain and the West 
Indies, 343 

Company at Ne\vport for carrying on Woollen 
Manufactures in the Colony. Wool enough 
raised to clothe all the Inhabitants, (Note,) - 344 

Letter from General Gage to Governour Trum- 
bull. Informs him of his appointment as 
Governour of Massachusetts, and expresses 
his readiness to co-operate for the good of his 
Majesty's service, . - - . . 344 

Letter from the Boston Committee, in reply to 
one from sundry Gentlemen in New- York. 
Thanks for their unsolicited offer of assistance. 
Letters countermanding orders for Goods sent 



1774. 



May 
23, 



23. 



23, 



24, 



24, 



24, 



24, 

24, 



May 
24, 



26, 
27, 



29, 



30, 



by a vessel yesterday for London. The friends 
of Government, in Boston, procuring signers 
to an Address to Governour Hutchinson, and 
are endeavouring to raise money to pay for 
the Tea, 344 

Intelligence received at Philadelphia from Pitts- 
burgh. On the 26th of April, two Indians 
killed on the Ohio, near Wheeling. Michael 
Cresap believed to be concerned in the murder. 
Cresap had previously declared he would kill 
every Indian he met on the River ; and if he 
could get a sufficient number of men, he would 
mark a Village on Yellow Creek. Another 
party of Indians attacked by Cresap. Great- 
house and Baker cut off a party at Yellow 
Creek, 34.5 

Letter from the New- York Committee to the 
Boston Committee. Advise a General Con- 
gress of all the Colonies, to be assembled 
without delay; and some unanimous resolution 
formed, not only respecting the deplorable cir- 
cumstances of Boston, but for the security of 
our common rights, .... 297 

Address of the Episcopal Ministers and Wardens, 
in Boston, to Governour Hutchinson, - 346 

Governour Hutchinson's Answer, - - 346 

Address of the Justices of the Court of General 
Sessions of the Peace, for the County of Suf- 
folk, Massachusetts, to Governour Gage, - 346 

The Governour's Answer, - - - . 347 

Letter from Philadelphia to the Boston Commit- 
tee. The cause of Boston the cause of all the 
Colonies. Must be supported against the 
whole strength of Great Britain. By sea 
they will beat us ; by land they will not at- 
tempt us. We must suspend all Trade with 
Great Britain and the West Indies, and with- 
hold Flax-seed from Ireland. Stopping our 
Ports entirely, contemplated. We shall try to 
convene a Congress as soon as possible, - 347 

Meeting at Talbot Court House, Maryland, to 
consider the distresses of Boston. Determined 
to pursue every constitutional measure to avert 
the evils threatened by the Boston Port Bill ; 
to support the common rights of America, and 
to promote union and harmony between Great 
Britain and the Colonies, ... - 347 

Letter from the New- York Committee to the 
Philadelphia Committee, - . - . 298 

Letter I, to the Inhabitants of the British Colo- 
nies in America, on the present disputes with 
Great Britain, 348 



HOUSE OF BURGESSES OF VIRGINIA. 

Resolution of the House of Burgesses of Virgi- 
nia, setting apart the first day of June to be ob- 
served, by the Members of the House, as a day 
of Fasting, Humiliation, and Prayer, - 350 

Assembly of Virginia dissolved by Lord Dun- 
more, - - 350 

Association agreed to and signed by eighty-nine 
Members of the late House of Burgesses of 
Virginia, ...... 350 

Members of the late House of Burgesses remain- 
ing in Tovm convened by Peyton Randolph ; 
who, on considering the important Letters re- 
ceived this day, by express, from Boston, Phil- 
adelphia, and Annapolis, ordered the other 
Members near the City to be called together, 35 1 

Twenty-five Members met, and unanimously 
agreed to postpone the further consideration of 
the subject to the first of August ; when it is 
expected a Non- Importation Agreement will 
be entered into, and Resolutions to suspend, at 
some future day, Exports to Great Britain, - 35 1 
Juru 1, Divine Service, at Williamsburg, in compliance 
with the Resolution of the Burgesses, of the 
24th of May, (Note,) - - - - 351 



May 
29, 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Letter from Lord Dunmore, Williamsburg, to 
the Earl of Dartmouth. Resolution of the 
House of Burgesses to deny and oppose the 
authority of Parliament offered by Robert 
Carter Nicholas, Treasurer of the Province. 
Dissolved the Assembly, with the unanimous 



XXX IX 



1774. 



CONTENTS. 



XX. 



consent of the Council. Will not call another 
till he hears from the Earl of Dartmouth. Ma- 
ny of the dissolved Members state that if the 
full force of the Resolution had been adverted 
to, it would have met with strong opposition, 352 
May Meetiiip; at Annapolis, Maryland. The suffer- 

26, inp of Boston, the common cause of America. 
A stoppage of Trade with Great Britain will 
preserve North America and her Liberties. 
Gentlemen of the Law in the Province should 
bring no suit for the recovery of a debt due to 
Hn Inhabitant of Great Britain, until the Boston 
Port Act be repealed. The Inhabitants of 
Annajiolis will, and the Province ought, im- 
mediately to break offall Trade with the Colo- 
ny or Province which shall refuse to adopt 
similar Resolutions with a majority of the 
Colonies. Committee appointed to unite with 
others of the Province, to effect an Association 

to secure American Liberty, . . - 352 
2G, Objections to the Proceedings at the Meeting at 

Annapolis, on the 24th, ... - 353 

27, Another Meeting, held at Annapolis, confirmed 

the Resolutions passed on the 24th, - - 353 
30, Protest of a number of Inhabitants of Annapolis 
against the Resolution adopted on the 27th, 
asrainst bringing suits for debts due to Persons 
residing in Great Britain, ... - 353 

Letter from Daniel Dulany, Jim., Annapolis, to 
Arthur Lee. Notice of the Proceedings on 
the 24th. He opposed one of the Resolutions. 
The Resolutions are not to be obligatory until 
they are agreed to by a majority of the Colo- 
nies, and the several Counties of this Province, 354 

Resolutions adopted by the House of Representa- 
tives of the English Colony of Connecticut, 355 

1 . The King of Great Britain recognised as their 
lawful Sovereign, - . . - . 355 

2. The Lihabitants of the Colony have all the 
rights and privileges of Subjects bom within 

the Realm of England, .... 355 

3. The Assembly of the Colony the only lawful 
Representatives thereof, .... 356 

4. It is the right of the Inhabitants of the Col- 
ony to be governed only by their own Assem- 
bly, in Taxing and Internal Police, - - 356 

5. Admiralty Courts, with extraordinary powers, 
destructive of the rights of the People of the 
Colony, 356 

6. Carrj-ing Persons beyond the Sea, for Trial, 
unconstitutional, and subversive of the rights 

of the Colony, -.--.. 356 

7. A Port can only be shut up by the Legisla- 
ture of the Colony in which it is situated, - 356 

8. Closing the Port of Boston, by Act of Parlia- 
ment, inconsistent with the rights and liberties 

of the Colonies in America, ... 355 

9. Whenever his Majesty's service shall require 

the aid of this Colony, it wll be granted, - 356 

10. The well-being and security of the Colony 
depends on its connection with Great Britain, 356 

11. It is our duty, by all lawful means, to defend 

and preserve our rights and liberties, - - 357 

25, Meeting of Assembly of Massachusetts, - 357 
Counsellors elected, ..... 357 

26, Counsellors rejected by the Govemour, - - 357 
Govemour's Speech to both Houses. Informs 

them that after the first of June, in compliance 
with the King's particular commands, the Gen- 
eral Court will be held at Salem, - - 357 
25, Address presented to Govemour Hutchinson, by 

sundry Gentlemen of Marblehead, - - 358 

Govemour Hutchinson's Answer, - - - 358 
JuHC 3, Declaration of Marblehead, relative to the Ad- 
dress from sundry Inhabitants of the Town to 
Govemour Hutchinson; unanimously voted at 
a legal Town Meeting, .... 359 



NEW-HAMPSHIRE ASSEMBLY. 

May Assembly of New-Hampshire authorize the en- 
27, listment of three Men, to be posted at his Ma- 
jesty's Fort, William and Mary, under the com- 
mand of one Officer, .... ^qq 
Message from Govemour Wentworth to the As- 
sembly. He does not think it safe to entrust so 
important a Fortress to the care and defence of 
three Men and one Officer, , . . 350 



1774. 

May Committee appointed by the Assembly of New- 
28, Hampshire, to correspond with the Committees 

in the other Colonies, - - - - 361 

The Speaker directed to answer such Letters as 
he may receive from the other Colonies rela- 
tive to the Difficulties between Great Britain 
and the Colonies, and to assure them that this 
Assembly will join them in all measures for 
saving the rights of America, - - - 361 
The Govemour authorized to enlist five Men for 
Fort William and Mary, - - - - 361 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

May Address of Merchants and Traders of the Town 

28, of Boston, presented to Govemour Hutchinson, 361 
Answer of Govemour Hutchinson, - - 362 

24, Protest of the Merchants and Traders of the 
TowTi of Boston, unanimously votfd, at a full 
Meeting, against a Paper called an Address 
to Govemour Hutchinson, handed about, and 
signed, in a private manner, - - - 362 

29, Address presented to Govemour Hutchinson, by 

several Gentlemen of the Law, . . - 363 
Answer of Govemour Hutchinson, - - 363 

30, Letter from Bedford, Pennsylvania. Alarms on 

the Frontiers on account of the Indians. A par- 
ty of the Shawanese out, it is supposed to at- 
tack some part of Virginia, ... 364 

30, "Join or Die!" An Appeal to the People to unite 
in resisting the Parliament, and supporting Bos- 
ton, 364 

30, Address from the Magistrates of Middlesex Coun- 
ty, Massachusetts, to Govemour Hutchinson, 364 
Mr. Hutchinson's Answer, .... 365 

30, A Meeting of a number of Persons of all societies, 
in Philadelphia, determine to suspend all busi- 
ness on the first of June, the day the Boston 
Port Bill takes effect, (Note,) - - - 365 

30, Committee of the Society of Quakers inform the 
Publick that no person was authorized to repre- 
sent them at the Meeting for suspending busi- 
ness on the first of Jime, .... 365 
June 1, People of Philadelphia, except the Friends, sus- 
pend all business ; nine-tenths shut up their 
houses. The Bells were rang muffled; and 
Vessels in the Port had their Colours half 

hoisted, (Note,) 365 

6, Rector of Christ's Church, Philadelphia, ac- 
quaints the Publick that the Bells of that 
Church were not rang, on the 1st, with his 
knowledge or approbation: he specially di- 
rected there should be no observance of that 
day in any of the Churches under his care, 

(Note,) 365 

May Queen Anne County, Maryland, Resolutions. The 

30, cause of Boston, the common cause of America ; 
all legal means should be adopted to procure 
the repeal of the Boston Port Bill. All com- 
mercial intercourse with Great Britain should 
be stopped until that Act is repealed, and the 
right assumed by Parliament, for taxing Ame- 
rica, in all cases whatsoever, be given up. Com- 
mittee of Correspondence and Intercourse ap- 
pointed, 366 

30, Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Lon- 

don, (Note,) 299 

31, Bakimore County, Maryland, Resolutions. The 

duty of every Colony in America to' imite to 
obtain a repeal of the Boston Port Bill. This 
County will join with the Province to stop 
Trade with Great Britain and the West Indies. 
Provincial Ccngress recommended; to be held 
at Annapolis. Maryland should break offall 
intercourse with any Colony who shall refuse 
to come into similar Resolutions with a ma- 
jority of the Colonies. Committee of Corres- 
pondence appointed, 365 

31, Letter from Govemour Perm to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. An Express despatched to Phil- 
adelphia, from Boston, with a proposal to stop 
all "Tradi' with Great Britain. In consequence 
of this a Meeting was held, where the matter 
was considered and debated. It was resolved 
to petition the Govemour to convene the Gen- 
eral Assembly on the occasion. Should so af- 
frontive an application be made, will treat it as 
it deserves, 367 



xr.i 

1774. 

Miy Letter from Governour Franklin, Burlington, to 
31, the Earl of Dartmouth. Difficult to foresee 
what will be the consequences of the Boston 
Port Act. The Merchants of New- York and 
Philadelphia, though inclined to co-operate 
with Boston, unwilling to enter into a Gen- 
eral Non-Importation and Non-Exportation 
Agreement. A Congress has been proposed, 
but whether it will take place is uncertain, - 368 
31, Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Lon- 
don, (Note,) 299 

3 1 , Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. Doubtful whether the other Colonies 
will give Boston any thing but good words. 
The violent seem to break, and the People to 
fall off from them. The Assembly hurrying 
through their business, to avoid meeting at 
Salem, were suddenly adjourned by him to meet 
there on the 7th of June. The Officers of 
the Customs leave Boston to-morrow, and the 
Admiral has stationed his Ships. No design 
has yet appeared of opposing the Act. Many 
wish for the arrival of the Troops ; People will 
speak openly then, which they now dare not 

do, 368 

31, Letter from John Scollay, Boston, to Arthur Lee. 
Injurious effects that will be felt by the whole 
Province from the Boston Port Bill. Although 
it was intended to ruin the Town, yet out of 
this management of Lord North's, instead of 
despotism and tyranny over the Colonies, a 
foundation for peace and harmony with Great 
Britain will be laid. The Colonies do not 
wish for Independence, and they are too valu- 
able for the Crown to part with, - - 369 
31, Information of the Boston Port Bill received 

with indignation at Charlestown, S. Carolina, 370 
31, Letter from the Norfolk, Virginia, Committee, to 
the Committee at Charlestown, South Carolina. 
The time has come when the closest union is 
necessary. The Boston Port Bill is an attack 
upon the liberties of us all. We look to Charles- 
town as among those to take the lead in the gen- 
eral establishment of the rights of the Colonies. 
Fear Boston will sink under the weight of 
their misfortunes. Approve of the expediency 
of a Congress. If, after all, the India Com- 
pany must be reimbursed, every freeman will 
cheerfully join in the general expense, - 370 

June 1, Letter from Lieutenant Governour Colden, New- 
York, to the Earl of Dartmouth. At the 
time the Boston Port Bill was received in 
New- York, the men who called themselves the 
Committee, were, many of them, of the lower 
rank, and all the warmest zealots of those called 
the Sons of Liberty. The principal Inhabi- 
tants, at a meeting held after the Port Act was 
published, dissolved this Committee and appoint- 
ed a new one, of the prudent people of the city. 
No Resolutions have yet been adopted by this 

Colony, 372 

1, Letter from Major General Haldimand, New- 
York, to the Earl of Dartmouth. Since the 
late vigorous measures of Parliament, the loyal 
Inhabitants fear not to disapprove the rash pro- 
ceedings of their Countrymen. This has pre- 
vented the passage of Resolutions to stop Trade 
with Great Britain and the West Indies, - 373 
1, Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Scot- 
land, (Note,) - 302 

I, Fredericksburg, Virginia, Resolutions. Will 
concur in every proper measure adopted by 
the Colonies respecting Boston. Committee 
of Correspondence appointed, - . . 373 
I, Letter II, to the Inhabitants of the British Colo- 
nies in America. An examination of the Acts 
relating to America, - - - - - 374 

1, An Address to all the English Colonies of North 

America. Effects and consequences of the 
Boston Port Bill, 377 

2, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Kent County, Ma- 

ryland. Committee of Correspondence ap- 
pointed. Delegates to the Provincial Con- 
gress at Annapolis, chosen. Collections made 
for the suffering Poor of Boston, - - 379 

2, Letter from a Member of the Assembly of New- 
Jersey. Meeting of a Committee at New- 
Brunswick. Will do whatever may be gen- 



CONTENTS. 



XLII 



1774. 



erally agreed on. Have requested the Govern- 
our to convene the Assembly before the first of 
August, 380 

June 2, Letter received in Philadelphia from a Gentleman 
in Boston. Closing the Port. Proposition to 
pay for the Tea. General Gage ordered the 
removal of the Province Money from Boston 
to Salem. Treasurer refused to comply, - 380 
2, Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Eng- 
land, 302 

2, Letter from the Committee of Norfolk, Virginia, 

to the Baltimore Committee. The late Acts of 
Parliament viewed as fatal to the liberties of 
the Colonies, and as a publick robbery of our 
rights. The policy of attacking a Town or 
Province singly, will never so delude, as to dis- 
unite us from a joint and universal opposition 
of all British America, - - - - 371 

3, Letter from the Committee of Norfolk, Virginia, 

to the Boston Committee. Are not indifferent 
spectators of the distresses of Boston, under the 
cruel exertion of British power. Observed the 
first of June as a day of fasting and prayer. 
Consider Boston as suffering in the common 
cause, and feel bound by the most solemn and 
sacred ties to support them in every measure to 
regain their rights and privileges, - - 371 

3, Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to General 
Gage. Encloses Acts for the better govern- 
ment of, and the administration of Justice in, 
Massachusetts Bay. The King has nominated 
thirty-six persons for the Council of Massachu- 
setts. Mr. Oliver, of Cambridge, appointed 
Lieutenant Governour. Instructions. Vio- 
lences must be resisted with firmness. The Acts 
of Parliament must he obeyed throughout the 
whole Empire, ..... 38O 

3, Letter from the Committee of Correspondence for 

Connecticut to the Committee of Correspond- 
ence for Boston. The Assembly at their ses- 
sion, which closed this day, came to Resolu- 
tions relative to their rights and privileges. 
Resolves of Colonies will have more weight 
than those of the Merchants of separate Towns; 
and measures recommended by the whole 
tmited Colonies will have still greater weight 
and influence, - . . - . 304 

4, Letter from the Committee of Correspondence for 

Connecticut to the New. York Committee, en- 
closing a copy of the preceding Letter, which 
they have also sent to Rhode-Island and New- 
Hampshire, ...... 304 

4, The King's birth-day. Not a house illuminated 
at Charlestown; no demonstrations of joy, 
(Note,) 382 

4, Address to the People of Charlestown, South 

Carolina, 382 

4, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Resolutions. 
Duty of all the Colonies to unite for obtaining 
a repeal of the Boston Port Bill. A stoppage 
of Trade with Great Britain and the West 
Indies the most effectual means to obtain a 
repeal. Provincial Congress recommended; 
Members for Anne Arundel County appointed, 384 
Questions submitted to the consideration of the 
Committee for Anne Arundel County, (Note,) 385 

4, Letter received at New-York from a Gentleman 
of Philadelphia. Some of the friends of Bos- 
ton here are too warm, and wish to push all 
things into confusion. Our Letter, (of May 
21,) moderate, yet warm and firm enough, - 386 

4, Letter from Joseph Johnson, an Indian of the 
Mohegan Tribe, to Jonathan Trumbull, Gov- 
ernour of Connecticut, .... 386 

6, Letter from the Earl of Dunmore, Williamsburg, 
to the Earl of Dartmouth. Cannot tell to what 
lengths the People of Virginia will be indu. 
ced to proceed. Members of the late House of 
Burgesses, after the arrival of the Boston mes- 
senger, called a meeting of the People, and pro. 
posed to them to agree to the violent measures 
adopted at Annapolis, which, that they may be 
more solemnly entered into, have deferred the 
execution of it to the first day of Aiigust, 
when all the Members of the late House of 
Burgesses are required to attend, . - 387 

G, Meeting of the Freeholders, Merchants and 
other Inhabitants of the County of Prince 



XLIII 



CONTENTS. 



XLIV 



1774. William, and Town of Dumfries, in the Colony 
of Virginia, •*"■.'" 
June 6, Letter from Philadelphia to a Gentlenwn in Bos- 
ton. Reasons why Boston should not pay fof 
the Tea, --■■.•" 

6, Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
Township of Lower Freehold, in the County 
of Monmouth, in New-Jersey, . - - 

6, Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town of Nor- 

wich, in the Colony of Connecticut, legally 
wamtxl and convened, .... 

7, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Essex County, 

New- Jersey, called, . - - - - 
7, Letter from the Committee of New- York to the 
Committee of Correspondence in Boston, 

7, Offer by the Merchants and Traders of Marble- 

head, of their Stores and Wharves, to their op- 
pressed brethren of Boston, during the opera- 
tion of the Boston Port Bill, . . - 

8, Petition of sundry Inhabitants of the Province of 

Pennsylvania to Governour Penn, to call to- 
gether the Assembly, on occasion of the late 
Act of Parliament respecting the Town of 
Boston, ... - ■ ". .* 
Answer of the Governour. Does not think it 
expedient or consistent with his duty, - 

8, Meetmg of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the County of Frederick, in Virginia, 
and Grentlemen practising at the Bar, held in 
Winchester, ...--- 

8, Letter from Governour Wentworth to the Earl 
of Dartmouth. Took pains to prerail upon 
tlie Assembly not to enter into extra Provincial 
measures ; yet Committees of Correspondence 
were appointed. They were adjourned imme- 
diately, and, since then, kept under short ad- 
journments, in hopes to obtain a suspension of 
their votes. Dissolved the Assembly this day, 

8, Message from Governour Wentworth to the As- 
sembly of New-Hampshire. Measures en- 
tered into by the House inconsistent with his 
Majesty's service. His duty to prevent any 
detriment that might arise from such Proceed- 
ings ; therefore dissolves the Assembly, 

8, Expressat Williamsburg from Pittsburgh. Shaw- 
anese have declared war against the Whites, 

8, Letter III, to the Inhabitants of the British Col- 
onies in America, ..... 
Letter to the Author of the Letters to the Inhab- 
itants of the British Colonies in America, 

8, Address of the Boston Committee sent to the Peo- 
ple of every Town in the Province, with the 
Covenant, ...... 

Form of the Covenant sent to every Town in 
Massachusetts, ..... 

8, Address of Merchants, Traders, and others, of 
Boston, presented to Governour Gage, at Sa- 
lem, ....... 

CJovernour Gage's Answer, .... 

8, Resolutions of the House of Representatives of 

Massachusetts. Convening the General As- 
sembly at any other place than Boston, uime- 
cessarily, a great Grievance, 

9, Answer of the House of Representatives to the 

Speech of Governour Gage, at the opening of 
the Session, ...... 

9, Answer of the Council to the Governour's 
Speech, ....... 

13, Committee of the Covuicil presented the Address 
to the Governour. The Chairman not permit- 
ted to read it through, .... 

13, Messageof Governour Gage to the Coimcil. His 
reason for refiising to receive the Address. 
Considers it an insult to the King, and an af- 
front to himself, ..... 

1 1, Address of Merchants and others, Inhabitants of 

Salem, to Governour Gage, ... 

Answer of the Governour, .... 

11, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Harford County, 
Maryland, ...... 

11, Meeting of the Freemen in the lower part of 
Frederick County, Maryland, ... 

11, Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
the County of Essex, New-Jersey, 

11, Letter from the New- York Committee to the 
Committee of Correspondence for Connecticut, 

1 1 , Letter from the New- York Committee to Bernard 
Liutot. The hints he has furnished very pro- 



388 



388 



390 



390 
- 391 



303 



391 



391 



- 391 



- 392 



393 



394 



394 
394 



395 



397 



397 



398 
399 



- 399 



400 



400 



401 



401 



1774. 



Jvne 
13. 



13, 
13, 
13, 



13, 
13, 

13, 

14. 

14, 
15, 
15, 
15. 



16, 

16, 
17. 

17, 



17, 
17, 



17. 
17. 



401 
402 


18, 


402 


18, 


403 


18, 


305 


18, 




18. 



per for the consideration of a General Congress 
of Deputies from the different Colonies ; what 
can or will be done, must be submitted to the 
wisdom of their united Councils, - - 306 

Letter from Norwich, in England, to a Gentleman 
in New- York. Distresses of Manufacturers 
in England, in consequence of the measures of 
Parliament towards America, ... 404 

Intelligence at W'illiamsburg, Virginia. War 
with the Indians, 405 

Meeting of Mechanicks at Philadelphia, held on 
Thursday evening, the 9th, - - - 405 

Letter from George Clymer, Philadelphia, to 
Josiah Quincy, Jim. New- York and Penn- 
sylvania object to the suspension of Tr.ide pro- 
posed by Boston. Pennsylvania appears de- 
terminetl on the Congress. General Subscrip- 
tion opened for relief of Boston, - - 406 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Parish of 
Soutifi-Haven, in the County of Suffolk, New- 
York, - - - - - - - 407 

Meeting of the General Committee, Charlestown, 
South Carolina. General Meeting of the Col- 
ony called, to consider of the steps proper to 
be taken in consequence of the late hostile Act 
of the British i'arliament against Boston, - 408 

Letter from CharlestowTi, South Carolina, to a 
Gentleman of New- York. Merchants now 
generally in favour of Non- Importation, - 408 

Letter from Charlestown, South Carolina, to Phil- 
adelphia. Charlestown will join in whatever 
New-York and Philadelphia may adopt, - 408 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of Charles County, 
Maryland, 409 

Letter IV, to the Inhabitants of the British Colo- 
nies in America, - - - - - 4 1 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Borough of 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, - - - - 415 

Resolutions of the General Assembly of the Eng- 
lish Colony of Rhode-Island and Providence 
Plantations. Firm and inviolable union of all 
the Colonies absolutely necessary for the pre- 
servation of their rights and liberties. Dele- 
gates to the Continental Congress appointed — 
Instructions to the Delegates, ... 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the County of Dunmore, Virginia, - 

The British American, No. 4, ... 

Writs for an election of a new Assembly ordered 
by the Governour and Council of Virginia, - 

Address to the Gentlemen, Freeholders, and 
others, in the County of New-Castle, upon 
Delaware. Enumeration of Grievances. Meet- 
ing of the Inliabitants of the Coimty recom- 
mended, ...... 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town of East- 
Hampton, in the County of Suffolk, New- 
York, ....... 

Resolutions of the House of Representatives of 
Massachusetts. A Congress highly expedient 
and necessary, to consult upon the present 
state of the Colonies. Delegates on the part 
of the Province appointed. Discontinuance 
of the use of India Teas, and of the use of all 
Goods and Manufactures imported from the 
East Indies and Great Britain, recommended. 
Encouragement of American Manufactures, 
recommended, - - - - - 421 

The General Assembly dissolved by Governour 
Gage, ....... 422 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the Town of Boston, ... 423 

None at the Meeting in fiivour of paying for the 
Tea, (Note,) 423 

All the Colonies in motion. Subscriptions for 
support of Boston Poor, (Note,) - - 423 

Address of Merchants and Freeholders of Salem, 
to Governour Gage, .... 424 

Answer of the Governour, .... 425 
Meeting of the Inhabitants of Caroline County, 

Maryland, ...... 425 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Freemen of the 
City and County of Philadelphia, - - 426 

SpeecL of the Reverend William Smith at the 
Meeting, - .... 407 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
the County of Chester, Pennsyh-ania, - - 428 

Letter from Governour Franklm, Burlington, to 



416 

417 
418 

419 



419 



420 



1774. 



CONTENTS. 



XLVI 



June 
19. 



19, 

20, 
20, 

20, 
20, 

20, 
21, 
21, 

22, 
22, 

22, 



22, 

22, 

22, 

23, 
23, 

23, 



24, 



24. 



the Earl of Dartmouth, Transmits a copy 
of the Resolutions adopted at the Meeting in 
Essex County. Has refused to convene the 
Assembly in August. The other Counties are 
expected to follow the example of Essex ; but 
it is doubtful whether they will agree to a gen- 
eral Non-Importation. Their principal aim 
seems to be a Congress, .... 

Letter from Fort Pitt to Philadelphia. Connolly 
refused protection to three Shawanese who had 
escorted the Traders in with their Peltry; 
Sent a party to cut them off. Logan returned 
to the Shawanese Towns with thirteen Scalps, 

Letter from Boston to New- York. Attempts 

to procure an Agreement to pay for the Tea, 

defeated, ...... 

Address to the Lrhabitants of the Province of 
South Carolina, . . . . - 

Letters from southern parts of North Carolina. 
Inhabitants there, recommend that Collections 
be set on foot throughout the Continent for re- 
lief of the most distressed in Boston, 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of Frederick Coun- 
ty, iVIaryland, - . . - - 

Letter from Jolm Dickinson, Fairhill, to Josiah 
Quincy, Jun. The Colonies very unanimous 
in favour of a Congress, .... 

"An American." On the means of obtaining 
relief, ....... 

Letter from Cave Cumberland. Indian War 
caused by Cresap and Greathouse, 

Meeting of the Justices, Gentlemen of the Bar, 
and principal Inhabitants of Northampton 
County, Pennsylvania, .... 

Letter from England to a Gentleman in New- 
York. State of affairs in England, 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the County of Westmoreland, in Vir- 
ginia, 

Maryland Convention. Delegates to the Con- 
vention. Resolutions. — Duty of every Colony 
to unite against Boston Port Bill. Should 
stop Trade with Great Britain if the Act is 
not repealed. Instructions to Deputies to the 
Congress. Subscriptions to be opened in the 
several Counties for distressed Inhabitants of 
Boston. Deputies to the Congress appointed. 
Will break off Trade with the Colony, Prov- 
ince or Tovra, that shall refuse to unite in such 
measures as may be adopted by the Congress, 

Reflections on appointing Delegates to the Gen- 
eral Congress. Different modes of appointing 
examined. The appointment by Provincial 
Conventions recommended, ... 

Letter from the General Association of Congre- 
gational Ministers in Connecticut, to the 
Clergymen in Boston, .... 

Answer to the preceding Letter ; prepared but not 
sent, through the confusion of the times. 

Address of the Justices of the County of Wor- 
cester, in Massachusetts, to Governour Gage, 

Answer of the Governour, .... 

Letters from Fort Pitt. White Inhabitants killed 
by the Indians, 

Extract from the Proceedings of the Town of 
Windham, in Connecticut. Addresses to Gov- 
ernour Hutchinson, an insult to the Town of 
Boston, ....... 

Letter from Richard Henry Lee to Samuel 
Adams. His Resolutions prepared to be of- 
fered the day before the Assembly was dissolv- 
ed by Lord Dunmore. After the dissolution, 
proposed to the Members the plan of a Con- 
gress. Indian War has compelled the Govern- 
our to call a new Assembly. When they 
meet, will adopt measures for redress of Griev- 
ances, 

Letter from Samuel Adams to Richard Henry 
Lee. Inhabitants of Boston encouraged to 
persevere by intelligence from every part of 
the Continent. Lord North has made no pre- 
paration for the effects of such an union. 
Address to the Publick, from the Committee of 
Charlestown, South Carolina, appointed to re- 
ceive and forward Donations for the Poor of 

Boston, 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
Spottsylvania County, Virginia, - 



428 



428 



430 



430 



433 



- 433 



434 



434 



435 



435 



436 



437 



438 



441 



442 

443 

444 
445 

445 



445 



445 



447 



448 
448 



June 
27, 
17, 



May 
23, 
24, 

25, 

26, 

27, 

June 
28, 



28, 



28, 



May 
29, 



June 3 



449 



306 



450 



1774. 

June Extracts of Letters received in Philadelphia, from 

24, Pittsburgh. Connolly's proceedings against 

tl»e Pennsylvanians, .... 

24, Letter from the Committee of Correspondence 

appointed by the Assembly of New- York, to 
the Committee of Correspondence for Connec- 
ticut, - - 

25, Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 

the County of Bergen, in the Province of 
New-Jersey, ---... 

26, Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 

mouth. The General Court dissolved by Proc- 
lamation outside of the door. Several Gentle- 
men, encouraged by the late Resolutions of 
Government, are endeavouring to procure a 
compliance with the Boston Port Bill. Nei- 
ther New- York, Philadelphia, nor Boston will 
agree to a Non-Importation, though a Con- 
gress of some sort may be obtained. The ar- 
ri\'al of Troops has given spirits to the friends 
of Government, ..... 

27, Peace Talk from the Creek Indians sent to Au- 

gusta, Georgia. General Meeting of all the 
Warriors of the Creek Nation called. The 
Cherokecs have engaged to join the Creeks 
in case of War, ..... 

27, Meeting of the Committee of Correspondence of 

Norfolk and Portsmouth, in Virginia, - 45 1 

27, Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
the County of Morris, in the Province of East 
New-Jersey, - ..... 452 

27, Letter from Huntington, to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Enclosing Resolutions unanimously 
adopted in Tovvti Meeting, ... 453 

21, General Town Meeting of the Inhabitants of 

Huntington, in Suffolk Coimty, New- York, 453 

27, Letter from Captain John Connolly, Pittsburgh, 
to a Gentleman in Philadelphia. Has sent a 
detachment to protect the Settlements about 
Red Stone from the Shawanese, - - - 454 



450 



451 



COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Meeting of the Council, at Philadelphia, - 454 

Report of James Tilghman and Andrew Allen, 
Commissioners appointed by the Honourable 
John Penn, Esq., Governour of Pennsylvania, 
to treat with the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Dunmore, Governour of Virginia, on sundry 
publick matters, - - - - - 454 

Letter from James Tilgliman and Andrew Allen, 
Williamsburg, to Lord Dunmore, - - 455 

Letter from Lord Dunmore, Williamsburg, to 
James Tilghman and Andrew Allen, - 456 

Letter from James Tilghman and Andrew Allen, 
Williamsburg, to Lord Dunmore, - - 457 

Letter from Lord Dunmore, Williamsburg, to 
James Tilghman and Andrew Allen, - - 459 

Letter from James Tilghman and Andrew Allen, 
Williamsburg, to Lord Dmimore, - - 461 

Letter from Governour Penn, Philadelphia, to 
Sir William Johnson. Requests his interposi- 
tion and influence to induce the Six Nations to 
become mediators between Pennsylvania and 
the Shawanese and Delawares, - - - 461 

Letter from Governour Penn to Lord Dunmore. 
Danger of a general Indian War, unless Peim- 
sylvania and Virginia prevent further progress 
of hostilities. Conduct of Doctor Connolly; 
his Military operations dangerous to the peace 
of the Colonies in general. Hopes Lord Dun- 
more does not encourage Connolly in the out- 
rages laid to his charge, - - - - 46 1 

Letter from Governour Penn to Arthur St. Clair. 
Measures should be taken to prevent the re- 
moval of the White Inhabitants from the Fron- 
tiers, and to induce those who have gone to re- 
turn. Has convened the Assembly, who will 
adopt measures to afford effectual relief; in the 
mean time he will send further supplies of Am- 
mmiition, 462 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Ligonier, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. Alarm among the People. A 
company of one hundred Rangers formed for 
defence of Frontiers, .... 453 

, Letter from John Montgomery, Carlisle, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. People in Westmoreland Coun- 



JXVII 

1774. 



CONTENTS. 



XLVIII 



June 
3, 



5, 



10, 



12, 



12, 
10. 



14, 
16, 

19, 
20, 



22, 



- 4G3 



4G4 



464 



4G5 



465 



ty in great conftision ; in want of Arms and 
Ammunition; unless specxlily furnished they 
must leave the Country, * " ' . 

Letter from John Montgomery, Carlisle, to Wil- 
liam Allen. Distresses of the Country. Dela- 
ware Indians well disposed, but Shawanese de- 
ttrmint-d on war. Chie hundred Men raised to 
ran^e from Fort Pitt to Ligonicr. Other pre- 
parations for Defence, . . . - 
Indian Intellis'ence. Traders on the Muskingum 
safe ; the ShawTinese had taken preat pains in 
protecting them. Shawanese quiet. A party 
of Mingoes out; gone agamst that part of 
Virginia where their friends were killed, 

Letter'from Arthur St. Clair, Liiurel Hill, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. Has hitherto thought there 
would be no war, now thinks otherwise, 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Ligonier,to Govem- 
our Penn. Encloses Letter from Mr. Crogh- 
an, ..-.-.- 

Letter from George Croghan to Arthur St. Clair. 
Employing the Rangers, in Pennsylvania, has 
alanned Connolly. Measures of Connolly to 
prevent settlement of disputes, ... 465 

Letter from Ale.xander M'Kee, Agent for Indian 
Affairs at Fort Pitt. Hostilities between In- 
dians and Virginians. Indians have given 
proof of their pacifick disposition. Reason to 
tear the war will become general, - - 466 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair, Ligonier, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. Inhabitants of the Frontiers 
alarmed, and retire to the Forts, or leave the 
Country. In the Valley they still make a 
stand. The intention of the Indians will soon 
be known, ...... 466 

Letter from Devereux Smith, Pittsburgh, to Gov- 
ernour Penn, ...... 467 

Letter from Devereux Smith, Pittsburgh, to Dr. 
Smith. Extension of the Virginia Settlements 
the cause of the dissatisfaction of the Indians. 
Account of the origin and progress of the In- 
dian hostilities. Connolly determined on a 
war with the Indians. His violent proceedings 
against the Pennsylvania Magistrates, - - 467 

Letter from .(Eneas Mackay, Pittsburgh, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. - - - - • -471 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 
A further account of the proceedings of Con- 
nolly, and of the Indian War. Delawares still 
friendly to Pennsylvania, - - . - 47 1 

Letter from William Thompson, Cumberland 
County, to Governour Penn, ... 473 

Letter from Lord Dunmore, at Williamsburg, to 
Captain John Connolly. Approves his build- 
ing a Fort at Wheeling, and of marching into 
the Shawanese Towns. Ad\nses him to make 
prisoners of as many Women and Children as 
he can; and not to make peace mitil the Indians 
are effectually chastised, .... 473 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair, at Ligonier, to Gov- 
ernour Perm. Two of the principal Traders 
arrived safe at Pittsburgh, under protection of 
Sliawanese Chiefs. Connolly ordered out a 
party to make prisoners of the Shawanese 
Chiefs. Those about Fort Pitt, (now Fort Dun- 
more,) intent on a war. Has had a meeting with 
some Six Nations and some Delawares, and 
made them a present, in the name of the Gov- 
ernour. Logan returned with thirteen Scalps 
and one Prisoner, and says he will now listen 
to the Chiefs, ...... 473 

18, Proclamation by John Connolly, at Fort Dun- 
more. Prohibits intercourse with the Indians, 475 

Extracts from Mr. M'Kee's Journal of Indian 
Transactions, ..... 475-483 
JMay 1, Message to King Custologa, Captains White 
Eyes, Pipe, and other Chiefs, 

3, Conference, at Colonel Croghan's, between seve^ 

ral Chiefs and Captain Connolly, and others, 

4, Arrival of several Delaware Chiefs, 
."i. A Condolence held with the Six Nations, Dela- 
wares, Shawanese, Munsies, Mohegans, and 
Twightwees, .... 

9, Speech delivered by several Chiefs, Six Nations 
and Delawares, to the Governour of Viririnia, 

16, Message from Custologa, by five principal Men 

of the Delawares, ..... 473 

17, Answer to Custologa's Message, ... 473 



- 475 

475 
476 



- 476 



477 



1774. 

May 
21, 
21, 
25, 



Message received from the Delaware Chiefs at 
Newcomer's Town, .... 

Answer to the Message of the Delaware Chiefs, 

Answer of the Delawares to the Condolence 
Speeches, . . . . - 

Answer of the Shawanese to the Condolence 
Speeches, ...... 

Speech of Arthur St Clair to the Six Nations 
and Delawares, .... 

Speech to the Delawares, on receiving their An- 
swer to the Condolence Speeches, 

Reply of Captain White Eyes, . . - 
June 1, Arrival of Moravian Indians, ... 

5, Messengers from Newcomer, with intelligence. 

Answer sent by the Messengers, ... 

Answer of Lord Dunmore, at Williamsburg, to 
the Speech of the Six Nations and Delawares, 
at Pittsburgh, May 9th, 
Ja-«« 9, Message sent with Lord Dunmore's Speech to 
the Six Nations and Delawares, 

Letter from William Thompson, in Cumberland 
Coimty, to Governour Penn, ... 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair, at Ligonier, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. Connolly has sent in pursuit of 
the Shawanees who escorted the Traders, 

Memorial from the Inhabitants of Pittsburgh, !» 
Governour Penn. Request relief from their 
sufferings under the arbitrary proceedings of 
Doctor Connolly, . . . . - 

Statement of the Grievances of the People of 
Pittsburgh, occasioned by the tyrarmical con- 
duct of Doctor Connolly, ... 



26, 
26, 



May 
29, 



22, 
26, 



25, 



25, 



478 
478 

- 479 
479 

- 480 

480 
481 
481 
481 

482 



482 



483 
483 



483 



483 



484 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

June Letter from the Committee of Correspondence of 

28, the Assembly of Pennsylvania, to the Commit- 
tee of Correspondence of Massachusetts Bay. 
The great cause of American Rights should 
be left to the Representatives in every Colony. 
Until this shall be fairly tried and fail, no other 
mode should be attempted. A Congress, con- 
stitutionally chosen, to ascertain our rights, and 
establish a political union between Great Bri- 
tain and the Colonies, would effectually secure 

to Americans their future rights and privileges, 485 
Remarks on the preceding Letter, (Note,) - 486 

27, Address to the People of Boston, on paying for 

the Tea, 487 

27, Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the Town of Boston, at Faneuil Hall. 
Correspondence of the Committee ordered to be 
produced and read. Motion to censure and an- 
nihilate the Committee. Gentlemen in favour 
of the motion patiently heard ; at their request 
the Meeting adjourned tmtil to-morrow morn- 
ing. The qtiestion then taken, and the mo- 
tion rejected by a vast majority. Conduct of 
the Committee approved, .... 439 

29, Protest against the Proceedings of the Town 

Meeting in Boston, held on the 27th of June; 
against the doings of the Committee of Cor- 
respondence, and against the Solemn League 
and Covenant, ..... 499 

29, Proclamation by Governour Gage, for discour- 
aging of certain illegal Combinations. The 
League and Covenant an unlawful instrument, 
and the Letter of the Committee accompany- 
ing it, scandalous, traitorous, and seditious. 
All persons cautioned against signing the Co- 
venant, - - - - . - -491 
Remarks upon the Proclamation, (Note,) - 492 

29, Meeting of the Freeholders and Freemen of the 

County of Richmond, in Virginia, - - 492 
Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
Prince George's County, Virginia, - - 493 

30, The British American, No. 5, ... 495 
July 1, Letter from London, received in Philadelphia. 

Men in power in England wish for an Indian 
war, as a means of humbling and reducing the 
rebellious Colonies. Policy of Great Britain 
in regard to the Colonies, is to divide and con- 
quer. Nothing but an union of the Colonics 
to stop Trade will save America, - - 498 

1, Meeting of the Freeholders of James City Coun- 
ty, Virginia, ---... 499 

1, Tea, at Portsmouth, in New- Hampshire, re-ship- 
ped by order of the Town, - . , 499 



XL IX 



CONTENTS. 



1774. 

CONSTITCTIONAL POST omCB. 

Jvly 2, Mr. Goddard's Proposal for establishing an Ame- 
rican Post Office has been warmly patronized 
in the Eastern Colonics, and preparations have 
been made for the conveyance of the Mail, - 500 
Plan for the establishing a new American Post 
Office, 500 

lU'ry Letter to Lord North. Dismissing Dr. Frank- 
5, lin from the Post Office one of the most for- 

tunate events for America. The Americana 
will set up a Post Office of their own, and put 
aji end to the precedent, so often referred to, for 
Taxing them, (Note,) - . . . 500 

28, Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Bos- 

ton. Our tame submission to the Post Office 
Establishment has been constantly urged as a 
precedent for all other unconstitutional Acts. 
If we oppose it now, with manly firmness, we 
cannot fail of success. Mr. Goddard's Plan is 
well calculated to save the cause of Liberty, 

«■ .,J^°'®') 500 

March Mr. Goddard at Boston. He has received the 

17, greatest encouragement from all the Colonies 
through which he has passed. At a Meeting 
in Boston, it was determined to unite with the 
Southern Colonies in support of this measure 
for the recovery of American Liberty, (Note,) 500 
Heads of a Subscription Paper, for the establish- 
ment of an American Post Office, laid before 
the Committee of Correspondence at Boston, 
(Note,) 501 

29, Mr. Goddard at Salem, on the subject of estab- 

lishing a Post Office independent of the un- 
constitutional Laws of a British Parliament, 

(Note,) 501 

April Mr. Goddard at Portsmouth : At a Meeting of 

15, the Committee of Merchants, Traders, and 

other Inhabitants, a Subscription to support the 

American Post Office, unanimously agreed 

upon, (Note,) 502 

21, Letter from Philadelphia to a Gentleman at Wil- 
liamsburg. The Post Office as established is 
an infringement of American Liberties ; but the 
new one proposed can scarcely succeed under 
Mr, Goddard. The Merchants of Philadel- 
phia have preferred Mr. Bradford for the pri- 
vate Post set up between that place and Phil- 
adelphia, (Note,) 502 

21, Mr. Goddard at Boston, with Letters from To\vns 
to the Eastward, expressing their concurrence 
in the establishment of a Post Office, on consti- 
tutional principles, throughout the Continent. 
The removal of Dr. Franklin from the Post 
Office has added fresh spirit to the promoters 
of this salutary plan, (Note,) ... 503 
May 5, The Subscription for establishing an American 
Post Office has been liberally patronized. — 
Mr. Goddard will return homeward, rejoicing 
in the great success which has attended his en. 
deavours to rescue the channel of publick and 
private intelligence from the horrid fangs of 
Ministerial despotism, (Note,) ... 503 
19, The report that the Constitutional Post Rider 
between Philadelphia and Baltimore, with a 
large sum of money entrusted to his care, had 
absconded, is untrue, (Note,) - - - 503 
June 2, Mr. Goddard at New- York, with important de- 
spatches for all the Southern Colonies, the plan 
for establishing a Constitutional American Post 
Office having met with the greatest success in 
all the great Commercial Towns ia the North- 
ern Colonics, (Note,) .... 503 
16, Information of the proceedings in the Colonies for 
the establishment of an American Post Office 
received in London. When General Gage ar- 
rives in America, he will stop the career of the 
new Post Riders and their employers, (Note,) 503 
July 6, Letter from Philadelphia to a Gentleman in Wil. 
liamsburg. Objections to Mr. Goddard. At a 
Meeting of the Mechanicks, they refused to 
hear read Letters relating to the establishment 
of the Post Office, as the Americans had enough 
to do already, (Note,) .... 503 
16, The Deputy Postmasters General of North Ame^ 
rica alarmed at the progress making to establish 
a new Post Office, (Note,) ... 504 
25, Letter from Baltimore to a Gentleman in Wil. 
liamsburg. A complete plan of establishing a 

FouETH Series. 



1T74. 

new American Post Office has been executed 
throughout the New England Governments. 
Mr. Goddard will leave here for Williams- 
burg, to lay his plan before the Convention, 

(Note,) 504 

Aug. Mr. Goddard's Plan for establishing an Ameri. 
1 1, can Post Office was agitated at the Convention 
in Virginia, \vho considered it worthy the at- 
tention of the General Congress, and, as such, 
particularly recommended it to the Delegates 
from Virginia, (Note,) . - . -504 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

July 3, Letter from Boston, received in New. York. 
Distresses of the People there ; their patience, 
resolution, and firmness. The League and 
Covenant very generally signed, notwthstand- 
ing the Governour's Proclamation, - . 505 

4, Letter from Carlisle, received in Philadelphia. 
Connolly's attack on the Shawanese, who pro. 
tected the Traders. Letter of thanks from 
Ijord Dunmore to Cresap, who first began the 
quarrel with the Indians, .... 505 

4, Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 

Orange To\vn, in the Province of New. York, 506 

4, Opinions in London of the state of affairs in the 
Colonies. The faction in Boston composed of 
Smuggling Companies, Mechanicks, Mer- 
chants indebted in England, and those who 
are fascinated with the extravagant notion of 
Independency. Seditious Committees appoint- 
ed to influence the other Colonies. From Let- 
ters and other intelligence, it is evident that no 
permanent or vigorous measures of resistance 
can be adopted to support the Boston Rebels, 507 

4, Address to the Inhabitants of the Province of 
South Carolina, about to assemble on the 6th 
of July, 508 

4, Letter from Governour Wentworth, in New- 

Hampshire, to the Earl of Dartmouth. Twen- 
ty-seven chests of Tea landed and stored at the 
Custom- House. The Consignee agreed with 
the Committee of Portsmouth to re-ship it. 
Mob prevented from destroying the Tea. Ves- 
sel with the twenty.seven chests sailed for Hali- 
fax, June 30, 512 

5, Letter from a Gentleman in London, to his Cor- 

respondent in Philadelphia, . - - 513 

5, Letter from Governour Penn, Philadelphia, to 
the Earl of Dartmouth. Temper of the Peo- 
pie very warm. They consider Boston as suf- 
fering in the common cause, 
5, Address to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies 
in America, (Note,) - - . - . 
Reply to the preceding Address, (Note,) . 

5, Letter from Governour Grage, at Salem, to the 

Earl of Dartmouth. A number attended the 
late Town Meeting, to make a push to pay for 
the Tea, and annihilate the Committee of Cor- 
respondence, but were out-voted by a great 
majority of the lower class. Has done all in 
his power to spirit up every friend to Govern- 
ment ; and there is now an open opposition to 
the faction. The terrour of Mobs is over, and 
the Press is becoming free, ... 

6, Address of the Justices of the County of Ply. 

mouth, to Governour Gage, ... 

The Governour's Answer, .... 

6, Letter from Governour Wentworth to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. Went with the Council and the 
Sheriff and dispersed an illegal Meeting, held 
for the purpose of appointing Delegates to a 
General American Congress, ... 

6, Letter from Lieutenant Governour Golden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. After a continual strug- 
gle of many weeks in the New. York Commit- 
tee, they have carried the nomination of Depu- 
ties to the Congress. These transactions are 
dangerous and illegal, but cannot be prevented. 
The Province every where, except in the City 
of New- York, perfectly quiet, - - - 517 

6, Meeting of the Inhabitants of the City of New- 
York, convened in the Fields, - - - 312 

6, Letter from Alexandria, in Virginia, to a Gen- 
tleman in Boston. Subscriptions for the relief 
of the Poor in Boston, - - - - 517 



- 514 

300 
399 



514 

515 
516 



516 



lA 

1774. 

July 

6. 

6. 



CONTENTS. 



Ui 



7, 
7. 

8, 

8. 
8. 
8, 
8. 



518 



Mminffofthe Freeholders, Merchants. 1 raders, 
and other U»habitants of the County and Bo- 
rouffh of Norfolk, in Virginia, - - 
Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Governour 
Ponn Requires him to exert every power the 
Constitution has placed in his hands to defeat 
any attempt to insult the authority of Great 
Britain, - • - ",',.' 
Letter from the Earl of Dartmftuth to Lieutenant 
Governour Golden. Hopre the People of IN ew- 
York will not, by their rash proceedings, ex- 
pose themselves to the just resentment of l^r- 
liament, --•"""" 
The British American, No. 6, " , -^. 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabitants 
of the County of Culpepper, in Virginia, - 
Proclamation of Lord Dunmore. Prorogues the 
Assembly from August U, to first Ihursday 
in November, - - - " " 
Letter from Governour Hutchinson, I^ndon, to a 
Friend in Boston. Urges the payment for the 
Tea, by the Town of Boston, ' , '^ " 
Resolutions unanimously adopted by the Free- 
holders and Inhabitants of Hunterdon County, 
in the Province of New-Jersey, 
Letter from Charlestown, in South Carolina, re- 
ceived in New- York. Account of the Meet- 
ing held in Charlesto^vn, on the 6th, - - 
Resolutions unanimously entered into by the In- 
habitants of South Carolina, at a CJeneral Meet- 
ing held at Charlestown, in said Colony, on 
Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 6th. 
7th, and 8th days of July, - - - ■ 
British Subjects in America owe the same allegi- 
ance to the CrowTi, and are entitled to the same 
rights with Subjects born in Great Britain, - 
No Taxes can be imposed on the People, but by 
their own consent, ""'"," 
It is a fundamental right of his Majesty s Sub- 
jects, that no Man shall sufTer, in person or pro- 
perty, without a fair trial, - - ' . , ." 
Sending a person beyond the Sea to be tried is 
oppressive, illegal, and highly derogatory to 
British Subjects, . - - - " . , " 
The Statute of Thirty-fifth of Henry Eighth, for 
Trial of Treasons committed out of the IGng's 
Dominions, does not extend to the Colonies, - 
The Boston Port Act, and the Acts relating to 
the Government of Massachusetts Bay, are of 
the most alarming nature to all America, 
though levelled immediately at the People of 

Boston, """""■] 

It is the duty of all the Colonies to assist and 

support the People of Boston, by all lawful 

ways in their power, - - - - 

Delegates to the General Congress appointed, 

and instructed, . . . - - 

While the oppressive Acts relative to Boston are 

enforced, will contribute towards their relief. 
Will, by all means, endeavour to preserve har- 
mony and union amongst all the Colonies, 
Committee of Ninety-Nine appointed, as a Gene- 
ral Committee of Correspondence, 
Names of the Committee for Charlestown, 
Address of Francis Lewis, and other Members of 
the Committee, to the Inhabitants of tlie City 
and Coimty of New- York, ... 
Reply to the Address, by " One of the Commit- 
tee," - 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabitants 
of Esaex County, in Virginia, . - . 
General Meeting of the Freeholders of the Coun- 
ty of Fauquier, in Virginia, ... 
General Meeting of the Freeholders and Liliabi- 
lants of the County of Naiisemond, iu Virginia, 
Letter from Charlestown, in South Carolina, to a 
Correspondent in Boston. Proceedings on the 
Resolutions adopted in Charlestown, 
Account of the Meeting held in Charlestown, on 

the 6th. 7th, and 8th days of July, (Note,) 
Death of Sir William Jolmson, (Note,) - 
Letter from MiUs Brewton, Charlestown, South 
Carolina, to Josiali Q,uincy, Jun. Massachu- 
setts will not fall for want of friends ; if Boston 
does but persevere, her sisters will work out 
her salvation without the Musket. A Sloop 
load of Rice sent to Boston, and will soon send 
more, ....... 



1774. 
July 

U'. 

12. 

13. 



519 

510 
519 

522 
523 
524 
524 
525 

525 

525 
525 

525 

525 

525 

526 

526 
526 
526 
526 



526 
5'26 



8, 

9. 
9. 
9, 
II, 
11, 



11, 
12, 



313 

314 
527 
528 
529 

531 

531 

645 



14, 

14, 
14, 
14, 
14, 



Committee of Inspection appointed at Portsmouth, 

in New-Hampshire, ",',,■ * 7 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants ol 

the County of New-K.nt, in Virginia - 

Letter from Governour Wentworth to the ii-arl 
of Dartmouth. The Meeting of Representa- 
tives at Portsmouth, dispersed. At a private 
meeting a Convention cnlled to meet at Exeter, 
on the 21st, to appoint Delegates to the Con- 
gress, - - ■ T, .',,■" *r 

Express at Williamsburg, with intelligence of 
skirmishes with the Indians. Militia ordered 
out by the Governour, - - ," , , . ' 

Meeting of the Freeholders, and others, Inhabit- 
ants of Chesterfield County, Virginia, - 

General and full Meiting of the Inhabitants ol 
Gloucester County, Virginia, - ' ' 

General Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabit 
ants of Caroline County, Virginia, 

The British American, No. 7, - • ' 

COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



. 534 



535 



536 



536 

537 

- 538 

539 
541 



545 



545 



546 



546 

546 



July 
14 Meeting of the Council at Philadelphia, 

June Letters laid before the Board, containing favour- 

29, able accounts of the disposition of the Indians, 
Conclusion of Extract from Mr. M'Kee's Journal 

of Indian AfUiirs, (see page 483.) Conference 
with the Indians at Pittsburgh. Address from 
the Chiefs of the Delawares. Speech of Cap- 
tain White Eyes, 

30, Letter from John Montgomery, at Carlisle, to 

Governour Penn. Shawanese seem well dis- 
posed. Logan returned with thirteen scalps. 
Says he is now satisfied, and will set still until 
he hears what the Long Knife will say, 
July 2, Letter from Richard Lee, President of the Mary- 
land Council, to Governour Penn, 
4, Letter from Arthur St. Clair, at Ligonier, to Gov- 
ernour Penn. Large body of Virginians m 
motion. Colonel Henry Lewis ordered to 
Kenhawa; Major M' Donald to Wheeling; 
Cresap. and three others, to raise Ranging 
Companies, ''"''', 
8, Letter from .^neas Mackay, Joseph Spear, and 
Devereux Smith, at Pittsburgh, to Joseph 
Shippen, Junior. Captain White Eyes has 
returned, with assurances of friendship from 
the Shawanese, Delawares, Wyandots, and 
Cherokees. Dr. Connolly continues his au- 
thority. The persons of the Magistrates are 
daily insulted, their property forcibly taken, 
and their lives threatened. Various instances 
of his outrages, .... - 547 

12, Letter from Arthur St. Clair, at Hanna's Town, 

to Governour Penn, 548 

17, Letter from Arthur St. Clair, at Ligonier, to 
Governour Penn. Virginians determined to 
put a stop to the Indian Trade with Virginia. 
Connolly and two others have an exclusive 
privilege to carry it on, on the Frontiers of 
Virginia. The laying out of a new Town 
proposed. ...... 



547 



549 



534 



July 
14, 

14, 

15, 

15, 

15, 

15, 

15, 



15, 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Province of 
Georgia called, to be held at the Liberty Pole, 
at Savannah, on the 27th, . . - 

Chiefs of the Six Nations on their way to hold a 
Congress with Sir William Johnson, 

Meeting of the loyal and patriotick People of the 
County of Henrico, in Virginia, 



^""••"j — *- --, -, , 

Meeting of the Freeholders of the County of Mid- 
dlesex, in Virginia, 



Meeting of the Inhabitants of the County of Din 
widdie, in Virginia, . - . - 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
County of Middlesex, in New-Jersey, . 

Delegates to the General Congress of Commis- 
sioners of the English American Colonies, ap- 
pointed by the Committee of Correspondence of 
ConiKclicut, ...... 

Three of the Delegates having resigned, others 
appointed on the 3d August, ( Note,) 

Proclamation by General Gage. Deserters who 
return by the 10th of August, to be pardoned ; 
on failure of so doing, to expect no mercy, 



549 



550 



550 



551 



- 552 



55J 



. 554 



554 



555 



LIII 

1774. 

July Provincial Meeting of Deputies, chosen by the 

15, several Counties in Pennsylvania, held at Phil- 
adelphia, July 15, and continued, by adjourn- 
ments, to the 21st, 

List of the Members, ..... 

Letters from Boston, of May 13th, read and con- 
sidered, .--..-- 

Alleg-iance to the King of Great Britain acknow- 
ledged, ------- 

Unconstitutional Independence on the parent state 
is abhorrent to our principles ; and our desire 
is, that harmony may be restored. 

Inhabitants of the Colonics entitled to the same 
rights that British born Subjects are. 

The power assumed by Parliament to bind the 
Colonies, in all cases whatsoever, imconstitu- 
tional, -...-. 

The Acts of Parliament relating to Massachu- 
setts, unconstitutional, oppressive, and danger- 
ous : and the People of Boston are suffering 
in the common cause, . . . - 

A Congress should immediately assemble, to 
form a general plan of conduct for all the 
Colonies, -..-.. 

Suspension of Trade will be agreed to by this 
Province ; but a statement of Grievances and 
claim for Redress, in the first place, would be 
preferred, ...... 

If any proceedings of Parliament shall, in the 
opinion of the Congress, render other steps 
necessary, this Province will adopt and carry 
them into execution, . - - . 

Venders of Merchandise ought not to take advan- 
tage of a Non- Importation ; but sell for the 
same prices as heretofore, - - - - 

People of this Province will break 03*311 dealing 
of any kind with any Colony that shall not 
adopt such general plan as may be agreed to 
in Congress, --...- 

Subscriptions for the distressed Inhabitants of 
Boston to be set on foot throughout the Prov- 
ince, ....... 

Thanks to Mr. Dickinson, - . . - 

Mr. Dickinson's Reply, (Note,) - - - 

Instructions from the Convention to the Repre- 
sentatives in Assembly, - - . - 

Argumentative part of the Instructions, 

16, Meeting of a respectable body of the Freeholders 

and other Inhabitants of the County of Surry, 

in Virginia, 

16, Contributions from Maryland, for the relief of 
Boston, - - 

1 5, Meeting of a number of Freeholders and Inhabit- 

ants of the County of Sussex, in New-Jersey, 

16, Letter from the Committee of Boston to the Com- 

mittee of Baltimore, - - . . 

1 8, Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabitants 
of York County, in Virginia, - - - 

IS, General Meeting of the Freeholders and other 
Inhabitants of the County of Fairfax, in Vir- 
ginia, ....... 

PENNSYLVANIA ASSEMBLY. 

July Assembly, convened by the Governour, met this 

18, day, - 

Message from the Governour. State of Indian 

affairs, -.-.... 

19, Committee of Correspondence lay before the 

House Letters from Massachusetts Bay, 

Rhode-Island, and Virginia, . . - 
Letters to be considered on the 21st, 
The Convention now sitting, may be admitted, to 

hear the debates of the House, on that day, - 
Petition from Northumberland County, 
Ninth Resolution of the Convention laid before 

the House, ------ 

Governour's Message considered, . - - 

20, Letters from Benjamin Franklin, with some 

papers on publick affairs, communicated to the 
House by the Speaker, - .. - - 
Payment of the Rangers raised by the Magis- 
trates of Westmoreland County, authorized, 

21, The Convention waited on the House, and sub- 

mitted their Resolves and Instructions, 

22, Letters from Massachusetts Bay, Rhode- Island, 

and Virginia, considered in Committee of the 
Whole, 



CONTENTS. 



555 
555 

555 

555 

555 
556 

- 556 
550 



556 

556 
556 

557 



557 
557 
557 

558 
564 



593 
593 
594 
594 
595 

597 

602 
602 



603 
604 

604 
604 

605 
605 



605 
605 
606 

606 



1774. 

July 

22, 



21, 



23, 



July 
19, 
19, 



19, 

19, 

20. 
20. 



20, 



21, 



21, 
21, 



Resolution, that there is an absolute necessity for 
a General Congress, to consult together on the 
state of the Colonies, unanimously adopted. 

Delegates to the Congress appointed. 

Committee to prepare Instructions for the Dele- 
gates, -...--- 

Paper signed " a Freeman," handed about among 
the Members of the House on the 21st, against 
the appointment and proceedings of the Con- 
vention, (Note,) . . . - 

Letter received from Major Hamilton, command 
ing officer of the Barracks, - . - 

Committee to examine the Barracks, 

Instructions to the Delegates appointed to attend 
the Congress, --.--. 

Letter to the Speakers of the several Assemblies 
of the Colonies, . . . . . 

Answer to the Governour's Message, 

Adjourned to Monday, the 19th September, 



LIV 



606 
607 

607 



- 607 

607 
608 

608 

609 
609 
610 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Resolutions adopted and published by the New- 
York Committee, - - - - - 315 

Meeting of a majority of the Committees from 
the several Townships in the County of Mon- 
mouth, of the Colony of New- Jersey, - 610 

Address of the Justices of the County of Suffolk, 
in Massachusetts, to Governour Gage, - 613 

The Governour's Answer, - - - - 613 

Address of the Freeholders and Tradesmen of 
Easton, in the County of Bristol, to Govern- 
our Gage, ------ 613 

The Governour's Answer, - - - - 614 

Letter from a Gentleman in Bristol, England, to 
his friend in Philadelphia. Publick opinion 
in England strong against America. No- 
thing but firmness on the part of the Ameri- 
cans will ensure them the victory, - - 614 

Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. Merchants have not repeated 
their attempts to comply with the Port Bill, 
with the spirit he hopal for. Some disaffected 
persons in Charlestown, have sent some Rice 
for the support of Boston ; and a few Sheep 
have been sent from some other places. When 
the Congress assembles, the Boston Faction . . 
will probably pay the other Colonies the com- 
pliment of taking their advice. The virulent 
party at New- York is routed. Philadelphia 
is moderate. The Fast Day appointed by the 
Faction was kept as generally in Boston, as if 
it had been appointed by authority, - - 615 

Meeting of the Freeholders of Hanover County, 
Virginia, -....- 615 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabitants 
of Stafford County, Virginia, - - - 617 

General Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Dis- 
trict of Wilmington, in the Province of North 
Carolina, - - - - - -618 

Circular Letter from the Wilmington Committee 
to the Freeholders of the several Counties of 
the Province of North Carolina, - - 619 

The British American, No. 8, - - - 620 

General Meeting of the Committees of the several 
Counties in the Province of New-Jersey, at 
New-Brunswick, on the 21st, 22d, and 23d 
days of July, -.-..- 624 

The Inhabitants of New-Jersey are firm and 
unshaken in their loyalty to the King, and 
detest all thoughts of an Independence on the 
Crown, --.... 624 

The claim of the Parliament to make Laws to 
bind the King's American Subjects in all cases 
whatsoever, unconstitutional, and oppressive, 
and we are bound to oppose it by all constitu- 
tional means, ------ 624 

The late Acts of Parliament relative to Massa- 
chusetts, subversive of the rights of his Ma- 
jesty's American Subjects, - . - 624 

The most eligible method to procure a redress of 
Grievances, is to appoint a Congress from all 
the Colonies, empowered to pledge, each to the 
rest, the honour and faith of their constituents, 
inviolably to adhere to the determinations of the 
Congress, --..-- 624 

General Non- Importation and Non-Exportation 
Agreement recommended, ... 624 



LV 

1774. 

July 

21. 



21, 

21, 
23, 

23, 



20, 
20, 

5, 



10. 



July 
25, 



25. 
25, 
26, 

26, 

26, 

27, 
27, 

27, 
27, 
27, 



CONTENTS. 



LVI 



27. 



Collections to be made throughout the Proriuce, 
for relief of Boston, ... - 625 

Delegates to the General Continental Congress 
appointed, and instructed, ... - 626 

Proclamation by Governour Gage, for the en- 
couragement of Pirty and Virtue, and for pre- 
venting and punishing Vice, Profanity, and 
Inamoraliiy, ------ 625 

Address to the worthy Inhabitants of the Town 
of Boston, -..--- 626 

Letter from London to a Gentleman in Philadel- 
piiia. The storm against Doctor Franklin 
much abated. Opinions in England on the 
late measures against America. Many per- 
sons in favour of the Colonies. Granville 
Sharp warmly on their side, ... G28 

Letter from Governour Gage to Governour 
Trumbull. Encloses him affidavits relating 
to the treatment of Mr. Green. Expects tlie 
accused persons will be apprehended and 
brought to trial, 629 

Affidavit of Caleb Scott, - - - - 629 

Affidavit of Francis Green, - - • - 630 

Representation of Hezekiah Bissell, Benjamin 
Lothrop, Timothy Liirrabee, and Ebenezer 
Backus, to Governour Trumbull, of the treat- 
ment of Mr. Green, - - - - 631 

Letter from Governour Trumbull to Governour 
Ghige. Has inquired into Mr. Green's com- 
plaint and finds others put a very different face 
upon the transaction. Full provision is made 
by Law for such offences, and Mr. Green may 
obtain the satisfaction his cause may merit, - 633 

Letter from Governour Sir James Wright to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. Carolina in great wrath 
about the Acts of Parliament relative to Mas- 
sachusetts Bay; and have come to some very 
indecent Resolutions. There are in Georgia 
some malecontents and Liberty People, whose 
conduct he cannot answer for, . - . 633 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the County of Elizabeth City, and 
To\vn of Hampton, in Virginia, - - 634 

Reflections on the measures proper to be adopted 
by the Congress ; and suggestions for the con- 
sideration of the Delegates, . . - 634 

Town Meeting in Boston. Circular Letter to 
the Tovms relative to the Bills for vacating 
the Charter of Massachusetts, - - - 637 

Meeting of the Freeholders of the County of 
Albemarle, in Virginia, . . - . 637 

Letter from the New- York Committee, to the 
Committee of Correspondence, at Charlesto wn. 
South Carolina. 320 

Letter from Governour Grage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, 638 

General Meeting of the Inhabitants of Georgia, 
held in Savannah, . . - . . 638 

Account of the Meeting, (Note,) - . . 639 

Paper by Josiah Martin, in behalf of the Sugar 
Colonies, (Note,) 639 

Meeting of a very respectable body of the Free- 
holders and other Inhabitants of the County 
of Accomack, in Virginia, ... 639 

Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the County of Princess Aime, in Vir- 
ginia, - 640 

Letter received in Philadelphia from London. 
Resolutions of Philadelphia, Maryland, and 
Virginia, esteemed very inoffensive, and as the 
mere ebullitions of a set of angry men. Mr. 
Hutchinson is much courted by the Adminis- 
tration. Americans, both at Court and in Lon- 
don, daily ridiculed. The Congress must 
agree not to purchase or use the Manufac- 
tures of Great Britain until the Acts are re- 
pealed, as the only means of preserving the 
Liberty of the Coimtry, - . . - 64 1 

Address to the Inhabitants of New-Jersey. De- 
fence of the measures of Parliament, a denial 
of the authority of Great Britain to impose a 
Duty on Tea, absurd. Cautions the People 
against the madness of some men, who are 
inflaming their minds and hurrying them into 
an open rupture with the Mother Comitry; 
when, involved in the horrours of a Civil War 
to the ruin of their liberty, they may be com- 
pelled to submit by force, .... Q42 



1774. 

July 

28, 

28, 
22, 



Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabit- 
ants of the County of Buckingham, in Vii' 



28, 

28, 
28, 



28, 



28, 
28. 

28, 
28, 
29, 

30, 
30, 



30, 



30, 
31, 



gmia, 



- 643 



AU!^. 



Proclamation of the Governour of Pennsylvania, 
for the apprehension of John Hinckson and 
James Cooper, - . . - 

Letter from Guy Johnson to Governour Penn. 
Death of Sir William Johnson. Has had a 
Conference with the Si.x Nations, who will send 
Deputies to the southward to accommodate 
matters, ....--- 

Account of the death of Sir William Johnson, 
on the 11th instant, (Note,) - - - 

Governour Penn advisinl by the Council to write 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, and inform him of 
all the late proceedings in Pennsylvania, by 
the Committees and the Assembly, 

Letter from Boston, received in New- York. — 
Firmness of the People there. Encouraged to 
persevere from all the Colonies, - - - 

Address to the Gentlemen of the General Con- 
vention of Virginia. Stoppage of Trade with 
Great Britain will not procure a redress of 
Grievances. It is better to throw aside all tem- 
porizing methods. Let the Congress demand 
a ratification of our claims from the King and 
Parliament. If denied, we shall be prepared 
for the ahernative. With the Sword our fore- 
fathers obtained their rights — by the Sword it 
is our duty to defend them, . . - 

The British American, No. 9. If Great Britain 
should attempt to enforce the legislation of Par- 
liament in America, the Americans must draw 
their Swords in a just cause, and rely on that 
God who assists the righteous. Thomson Ma- 
son avows himself the author of these Letters, 

Address to the People of Pennsylvania. Rea- 
sons why the Tea should not be paid for. 

Letter from the Committee of Correspondence, of 
New-Jersey, to the Committee of Boston, 

A Brief Examination of American Grievances : 
being the heads of a Speech at the General 
Meeting at Lewestown, on Delaware, - 

Letter from the Committee of New- York to the 
Committee of Correspondence at Philadel))hia, 

Letter from the New- York Committee to Mat- 
thew Tilghman, Chairman for Maryland, 

Letter from the New- York Committee, to the 
Committee or Treasurer of the different Coim- 
ties, -.---.. 

Letter from Governour Penn to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. The Resolutions of the Assem- 
bly rather a check, than an encouragement, to 
the Proceedings of the Convention, 

Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. The prevailing opinion in England is, 
that the Colonies mean nothing — they must 
be divided by the arts of the Administration. 
Their opposition should be early and vigor- 
ous, .-..-. 

Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Fears there will be a want of union 
among the Colonies. Without this, any expe- 
dients they may adopt will avail little, 

Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. A general suspension of Commerce, 
until our grievances are redressed, is the only 
safe and sure measure. I'he Ministry believe 
that the terror of their measures will make all 
America silent and submissive, . . - 

Queries relatitig to the Resolutions of some 
Gentlemen, styling themselves a Committee 
of the City of New- York, (Note,) 

Letter from Lieutenant Governour Bull to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. An universal spirit of 
jealousy is raised against Great Britain. Ex- 
emption from Taxation is claimed, but by their 
own Representatives. This spirit of opposi- 
tion to Taxation so violent and universal, that 
it will not be soon or easily appeased, - 
1 , Convention of the Representatives of the Freemen 
of the Government of the Counties of New-Cas- 
tle, Kent, and Sussex, on Delaware, meet at 
New-Castle, ---... 

List of the Members, . - . . , 

Resolutions adopted at a General Meeting of the 
Freeholders and Inhabitants of the County of 
New-Castle, on Delaware, on the 29th of June, 



- 644 



645 
645 



645 



646 



647 



648 
654 



657 



658 



321 



321 



322 



661 



- 661 



661 



662 



318 



663 



663 
663 



664 



LVIt 

1774. 

July 

20. 



CONTENTS. 



LVIII 



1, 
2, 



2. 



3, 



Resolutions adopted at a Meeting of the Free- 
holders and other Inhabitants of Kent County, 
on Delaware, on the 2()th of June, 

Resolutions adopted at a General Meetings of the 
Freeholders and other Inhabitants of the Coun- 
ty of Sussex, on Delaware, on the 23d of July, 

Letters from the Committees of Correspondence 
of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, the 
Dominion of Virg^inia, the Colonies of Rhode- 
Island, South Carolina, and Maryland, read, 

Grievances of the Colonies, under the Acts of 
Parliament, ...--. 

Deputies to the Cong-ress appointed, 

Instructions to the Deputies, . . - - 
Aug. 1, Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Act of Parliament prohibiting the 
shipping of Utensils used in the manufacture 
of Cotton, Wool, or Silk, - - - . 

Condition of the Town of Boston, - - . 

Letter from Lieutenant Governour Golden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. The Deputies from New- 
York, to the General Congress, moderate men. 
Though great pains have been taken in the 
several Colonies to uiduce the People to enter 
into Resolves, they have succeeded only in Suf- 
folk Coimty, ----- 

Letter from Wilmington, in North Corolina, to a 
Gentleman in Boston. Subscriptions for the 
relief of Boston. At a meeting of six Counties 
in Wilmington, it was unanimously resolved 
to assist Massachusetts by every legal mea- 
sure, .....-- 

Letter from Wilmington, in North Carolina, to a 
Gentleman in Boston. Two thousand Pounds 
subscribed for Boston : very considerable will 
be contributed at Newbem and Edenton; Sub- 
scriptions on foot in every County. The Ves- 
sel, with a load of Provisions for Boston, goes 
freight free, and the Master and Mariners navi- 
gate her without receiving one farthing wages. 

South Carolina Assembly meet at eight o'clock 
in the morning, . . . . - 

Ratify and confirm the Proceedings of the Gene- 
ral Meeting of Inhabitants on the 6th, 7th, and 
8th of July, 

Message from the Assembly to Lieutenant Gov- 
ernour Bull. Request him to distribute among 
the poor Settlers. Arms and Ammunition to 
protect them against the Indians, 

Assembly prorogued by the Lieutenant Govern- 
our at half past eight o'clock, - - . 

Notice of the Proceedings of the Assembly at the 
Session held yesterday, . - - . 

Letter from Lieutenant Governour Bull to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. The Assembly met pri- 
vately and punctually at eight yesterday morn- 
ing. I immediately went fo the Council Cham- 
ber and prorogued them to September 6, but 
they had, previously, passed their Resolutions, 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Lieuten- 
ant Governour Colden. Encloses an Order 
in Council disallowing certain Acts, 

Representation of the Board of Trade to the 
King, of the 12th of May, with reasons for dis- 
allowing certain Acts passed by the Assembly 
of New- York, 

Order in Council, of the 6th of July, declaring 
the Acts void, and of no efiijct, 



- 664 



665 



666 

667 
667 
667 



668 
669 



- 669 



2, 



3, 
3, 



3, 



COUNCIL OP PENNSYLVANIA. 



670 



670 
671 



- 671 



671 



672 



672 



672 



- 672 



673 



- 673 



Aug. Letters and Papers submitted to the Council, by 
4, the Governour, ..... (374 
New Town to be laid out at Kittaning, for accom- 
modation of Traders and Inhabitants of Pitts- 
burgh, 674 

6, Letter from Governour Penn to Arthur St. Clair, 674 
Message from Governour Penn to the Chiefs and 

Warriors of the Shawanese Indians, - - 675 
Message from Governour Penn to the Chiefs and 
Warriors of the Delaware Indians, - - 676 
July Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 
22, Friends of Pennsylvania determined to abandon 

Pittsburgh. Kittaning most suitable place for 
a new Town, --.-.. 677 
13, Deposition of William Wilson, a Trader, taken 

by one of Connolly's parties, ... (577 
19, Letter from John Connolly to Arthur St. Clair, 



1774. 



Complains of the depredations of the Indians. 
Will no longer be a dupe to their amicable pro- 
fessions, but will pursue every measure to offend 

them, 678 

July Letter from Arthur St. Clair to John Connolly. 

22, Ample reparation ought to be made to the In- 
dians, and an honest intercourse established 
with them ; this would be a more cheap and 
easy manner of re-establishing peace than any 
offensive operations whatever, - . . 078 

26, Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 

Further account of Indian affairs. No pros- 
pect of accommodation between the Shawa- 
nese and the Virginians, . . - . 679 

24, Deposition of David Griffey. Indians near 

Hanna's Town, 680 

23, Speech of the Delawares to Mr. Croghan, - 680 
Intelligence from Captain White Eyes, - - 681 
Address from Mr. Croghan to Captain White 

Eyes, 681 

Answer of Captain White Eyes to Col. Croghan, 68 1 

25, Letter from iEneas Mackay to Arthur St. Clair, 682 
Aug.%, Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 

Favourable accounts from the Indian Nations 
about the Lakes. Most of them disposed to 
continue in friendship with the English, - 682 

25, Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 
It is impossible to tell what will be the conse- 
quence of the Virginia operations. Lord Dun- 
more must soon see the necessity of a peace. 
Goods seized by Connolly's orders, and per- 
sons confined in the common Guard-House, 683 

27, Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 

Mr. Butler was not only made a prisoner, but 
treated with insult and abuse. I'his has been 
done by Mr. Campbell, Connolly having gone 
to meet Lord Dunmore, - - - - 685 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Aug. Address to the People of Virginia. Urged to 
4, unite their utmost endeavours, by all means in 

their power, to prevent the ruin they are threat- 
ened with, ...... 685 

I, Convention of Delegates from the different Coun- 
ties in the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, 
begun at Williamsburg, on the 1st day of Au- 
gust, and continued, by adjournments, to the 
6th, 686-690 

After the first day of November, will import no 
Goods, Wares, or Merchandise, from Great 
Britain, nor British Manufactures from any 
other place; nor purchase any that may be 
imported, ...... 637 

Will neither import any Slave, nor purchase any 
that may be imported after the 1st November 687 

No Tea to be imported hereafter ; and that which 
is on hand, not permitted to be used, - - 687 

No Tobacco to be exported after the 10th of 
August next, unless American Grievances are 
sooner redressed ; and the Inhabitants of the 
Colony advised to refrain from the cultivation 
of it, 687 

The breed of Sheep to be improved, and their 
number increased, to the utmost extent, - 687 

Merchants are not to take advantage of the scarci- 
ty of Goods, but to sell at the present prices, 688 

No Merchant or Trader to be dealt with, after 
the first of November ne.xt, who will not sign 
this Association, - - - . . 688 

If any person shall, after the 10th of August 
next, export Tobacco, contrary to this Asso- 
ciation, he shall be considered an approver of 
American Grievances, .... 688 

All alterations of these Resolutions that may be 
made by the General Congress, with the con- 
sent of the Delegates for Virginia, shall be 
binding upon the Colony, ... 688 

The Inhabitants of the Colony requested to make 
liberal Contributions for the relief of the dis- 
tressed in Boston, ..... 688 

Instructions for the Deputies appointed to meet in 
General Congress on the part of the Colony of 
Virginia, ...... 689 

A Summary View of the Rights of British Ame- 
rica, set forth in some Resolutions intended for 
the inspection of the present Delegates of the 
People of Virginia, now in Convention, - 690 



1774. 

Aug. 

5. 



9. 

9. 

10, 



CONTENTS. 



m> 



10, 



10, 

10, 
10, 

11, 

12, 
12, 

13, 

13, 

13, 

14, 



14, 



16, 



Proclamation by Governour Sir James Wright, 
doclaring the Meeting of the Inhabitants of 
Georgia, proposed to be held at Savannah, on 
the lOlh inst, under the pretence of consulting 
together for redress of grievances, or imaginary 
grie^-anccs, unconstitutional, illegal, and pun- 
ishable by law, 

Letter from the New- York Committee to the 
Boston Committee of Correspondence, 

Letter from the New- York Conunittee to several 
Counties of the Province, - - - - 

Resolutions enterwl into at Savannah, in Georgia, 
at a General Meeting of the Inhabitants of the 
Province, assinibled to consider the state of the 
Colonies in America, . . . - 

His Majesty's Subjects in America owe the same 
allegiance, and are entitled to the same rights, 
with their ft^Uow-subjects in Great Britain, - 

As protection and allegiance are reciprocal, the 
Americans have an indisputable right to peti- 
tion the Throne on every emergency. 

The Boston Port Act is unconstitutional. 

The Act for abolishing the Charter of Massachu- 
setts Bay, is subversive of American Rights, 

The British Parliament has not the right to Tax 
his Majesty's American Subjects, 

It is contrary to the Law of the Land to take any 
person to Great Britain, to be tried for an of- 
fence committfxl in any of the Colonies, 

Will concur with the other Colonies in every 
constitutional measure to obtain a redress of 
Grievances, ...--- 

Committee of Correspondence appointed. 

Letter from London to a Gentleman in Boston. 
The Ministry, by their emissaries, will try to 
bring about disunion when the Congress meets. 
It is not prudent to rely on any support in 
England ; the Colonies must depend on their 
o\\n» unanimity and steadiness. Massachusetts 
should not enter into any violent measures 
without concert with other Colonies, particu- 
larly Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
Poughkeepsie Precinct, in Dutchess County, 
New- York. Refijse to comply with the re- 
quest of the New- York Committee of Corres- 
pondence, to elect Delegates, . . - 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
Township of Rye, in West-Chester Comity, 
New- York, 

Meeting of the Committee of Charles County, 
Maryland. Tea shipped in the Mary and Jane, 
Captain George Chapman, now lying in St. 
Mary's River, to be returned to London, 

Meeting of the Committee for Frederick County, 
in Maryland. Resolutions in relation to the 
Tea stripped in the Mary and Jane, 

Town Meeting at Providence, in Rhode-Island. 
Instructions to the Deputies from the Town in 
the General Assembly, .... 

Comicil of North Carolina. Address of Govern- 
our Martin. Considers it his duty to advise 
with the Coimcil on the measures to be taken 
to prevent the assembhesof the People, 

Proclamation of Governour Martin. Requires 
all persons, as far as in them lies, to prevent the 
meeting of certain Deputies, appointed to be 
held at Newbern, on the '25th, ... 

Letter from Colonel William Preston, atFincastle, 
in Virginia. Incursions of the Indians. A 
number of the Inhabitants on the Frontiers 
killed, 

Letter from Governour Sir James Wright to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. Two meetings of the Li- 
berty Folks have been held in Savannah. Ho 
will transmit all the particulars, 

Letti'r from a Gentleman, in London, to his Cor- 
respondent in Williamsburg. Policy of the 
Ministry to attack one Colony at a time. Ame- 
rica has no friends in Great Britain. Nothing 
but an Association strictly observed and enfor- 
ced, to stop Exports and Imports, will procure 
a repeal of the Acts, - . . - . 

John Hancock, Colonel of the Company of Cadets, 
having been dismissed by Governour Gage, 
tlie Company agreed to return their Standard 
to the Governour and disband themselves, 

Letter from Silas Deane to Governour Trumbull, 



699 
323 
323 

700 



701 

702 
703 

- 703 
704 
705 

705 

70G 

707 

708 



1774. 

Aug. 

14, 

18, 



15, 
Oct. 

13. 

Nov. 3, 



Oct. 1, 



700 


Nor. 
29, 
Dec. 6 


700 
700 


Aug. 
17, 


700 
700 


18, 


700 


18, 


701 
701 


20, 



20, 



708 



709 
710 



20, 

20, 

22, 

22, 
23, 



23, 
25, 

24, 



- 711 

712 
713 
714 

714 
715 

715 



716 
716 

717 

- 718 

722 

724 

. 724 



The Rev. Samuel Peters of Hebron, Connecticut. 
Account of an attack on him by the Sons of 
Liberty, ..... 

Statement of Mr. Peters's affair, by the Bolton 
Committee, ...... 

Resolves drawn up by Mr. Peters, 

Mr. Peters's Declaration, . . . - 

Letter from Thaddeus Burr, in Boston, to Govern- 
our Trumbull, ..... 

Further account of Mr. Peters, " ." ' 

Letter from the Reverend Samuel Peters, in Bos- 
ton, to his mother, in Hebron, " ." " 

Letter from the Reverend Samuel Peters, in Bos- 
ton, to the Reverend Doctor Auclimuty, at 
New- York, 

Saul Aylford and others, to Governour Trumbull, 
on Mr. Peters's affair, .... 

Hezekiah Huntington and others, to Governour 
Trumbull, on Mr. Peters's affair, 

Address to the People of Pennsylvania. The 
opposition in the Colonies to the measures of 
Parliament condemned. The principal diffi- 
culties have been caused by the influence of the 
Smuggling interest in the Colonies, 

Letter from a Gentleman, at Red Stone, to Wil- 
liamsburg. Wagatomica and five other Shaw- 
anese Towns on the Muskingum, destroyed in 
July, by four hundred Virginia Troops, under 
the command of Major M'Donald, 

Courts at Great Barrington prevented from pro- 
ceeding with business, . . . - 

Letter from Matthew Griswold to Governour 
Trumbull. Account of an attack on Mr. In- 
gersoU, of Great Barrington, 

Letter from Josiah Quincy, Jun., to John Dick- 
inson. Defends Massachusetts on the charge 
of breaking the line of opposition. At the re- 
quest of many warm friends to the country, he 
will soon embark for England, in the hope that 
he may do some good the ensuing Winter, at 
the Court of Great Britain, ... 

Letter from John Dickinson to Arthur Lee. The 
Colonists now know what is designed against 
them. All classes arc united in sentiment. The 
People in general look forward to extremes 
with resolution, . . - . - 

Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
Borough Town of West-Chester, in New. 
York, - - - - - - - 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of Norfolk, Virginia, 
on information received that nine chests of Tea 
were imported in the Mary and Jane, 

Letter from the Committee of Correspondence of 
Boston, to the Committee for New- Jersey, 

Address to the inhabitants of New-Jersey. This 
Country was settled for the sole purpose of 
Trade ; and an absolute submission to the Laws 
of the Mother Country was one of the terms 
under which our forefathers settled. Under 
these terms they lived and prospered; and we 
have grown rich and lived happily. Should 
the Congress listen to the folly of the times, 
and think the Colonies were not planted nor 
protected for the extension of Commerce, but 
for a new Empire, then will our Country be- 
come a scene of blood and distraction; we can 
have no recourse but in Arms, ... 

Proclamation of Governour Gage, to prohibit all 
persons from attending a Town Meeting at 
Salem, on the 2.5th, 

Town Melting at Salem. Governour Gage or- 
ders the Meeting to be dispersed, and brings 
Troops to the Town. Members of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence arrested, for calling 
the Meeting without the permission of the Gov- 
ernour, . 

Letter from Governour Sir James Wright to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. Every thing was done 
that could be thought of to frustrate the at. 
tempt of the Liberty People in Georgia, but 
could not totally prevent it. If the meetings 
are suffered, there will be nothing but cabals 
and combinations in the Province. The Ex- 
ecutive power is too weak to rectify such 
abuses. Prosecutions would only be laughed 
at. No Grand Jury would find a Bill of In. 
dictment ; and persons attempting it would, 
probably, be insulted and abused, - .731 



725 

726 

726 

727 
728 



728 
729 



7,30 



Lxr 

1774. 
Aug. 

25, 



24, 



25, 



CONTENTS. 



24, 



25, 



26, 



Abijah Willard, one of the Mandamus Counsel- 
lors for Massachusetts, compelled to resign, - 731 

List of the Mandamus Counsellors appointed by 
the King, (Note,) - - - - - 731 

Letter from Taunton, in Massachusetts. Daniel 
Leonard, a Mandamus Counsellor, fled to 
avoid the friendly cautions of his incensed 
neighbours, ...... 732 

Letter from Taunton, in Massachusetts. Two or 
three thousand person* will be assemblixl to- 
morrow to request Colonel Gilbert not to ac- 
cept the office of High Sheriff, under the new 
Act ; and to desire Brigadier Ruggles, a Man- 
damus Counsellor, to quit the Coimty imme- 
diately. It is more dangerous being a Tory 
here than in Boston, - - - - 732 

Proceedings of the first Provincial Convention of 
North Carolina, held at Newbern, - 733-737 

List of the Delegates to the Convention, - 733 

Letters from the Committees in the other Colo- 
nies, with the Answers, presented by Mr. 
Hewes, and considered by the Convention, - 733 

Three Delegates to General Congress to be ap- 
pointed, ------- 733 

Allegiance is due to the King of Great Britain, 
as the rightful Sovereign of this Province, - 734 

We claim no more than the rights of English- 
men, and it is our duty to maintain those 
rights, 734 

To be taxed without our own consent, is a gross 
violation of the Grand Charter of our Liber- 
ties, 734 

As the British Subjects in North America cannot 
be represented in Parliament, any Act of Par- 
liament to Tax them is illegal, - - - 734 

Duties imposed by Act of Parliament for raising 
a Revenue, illegal and oppressive, - - 734 

The cause in which the Inhabitants of Massa- 
chusetts now suffer, is the cause of every honest 
American, -...-- 734 

The Boston Port Act is a cruel infringement of 
the rights and privileges of the People of Bos- 
ton, 734 

The Act of Parliament for regulating the Police 
of Massachusetts, is an infringement of the 
Charter of that Province, . - . 735 

Trial by Juries of the vicinity, is the only lawful 
Inquest that can pass upon the life of a British 
Subject, 735 

No British or East India Goods permitted to be 
imported after the first of January, 1775. No 
Slaves to be imported after the first of Novem- 
ber next ; and no East India Tea to be used 
after the 10th of September next, - - 735 

No Tobacco, Pitch, Tar, Turpentine, or any 
other article, to be exported to Great Britain, 
after the first of October, 1775, unless Ameri- 
can Grievances are redressed before that time, 735 

Venders of Merchandise are not to raise the 
prices of their Goods in consequence of their 
Resolves for Non-Importation, - - . 735 

The People of North Carolina will break off all 
Trade with any Colony on the Continent, 
which shall refuse to adopt and carry into ex- 
ecution such general plan as may be agreed 
to in the Continental Congress, - - -,. 735 

Deputies to the Congress appointed, - - 735 

The attempts made by the Minister upon the 
Town of Boston, a prelude to a general attack 
upon the rights of the other Colonies, - 736 

Committees to be appointed in the several Coun- 
ties, to see that the Resolutions of this Conven- 
tion are properly observed, - - - 73(3 

Instructions to the Deputies appointed to meet in 
General Congress on the part of North Caro- 
lina, 736 

Proceedings signed by the Members of the Con- 
vention, 737 

E.tpressat Williamsburg, from Pittsylvania Coun- 
ty. Lidian Intelligence. Lord Dunmore, with 
fifteen himdr(;d Men ; and Colonel Lewis and 
Colonel Preston, with twelve hundred, against 
the Indians, 737 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Govemour 
Penn. Directs him to desist from extending 
the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania up to the new 
Maryland line, during the minority of the Heir 
of Lord Baltimore, , - - . . 733 



1774. 

May 

16, 



21. 



Sept. 
26, 



Aug. 
26, 



27, 



27, 
27, 



29, 
29, 



27, 
29, 

30, 



31, 
30, 

30, 



30, 



30, 



31, 



LXII 

Letter from Govemour Penn to Governour Eden. 
Mr. Harford's Guardians have refused to give 
any instructions on the subject of the Boundary 
run and marked by the Commissioners; he 
will, therefore, issue a Proclamation himself, 
extending the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, - 738 

Letter from Governour Eden to Governour Penn. 
The Guardians of the Proprietor of Maryland 
having declined signing the Return of the 
Commissioners, can do nothing in relation to it, 738 

Letter from Governour Penn to Richard Lee. 
Has made official notification of the lines run 
by Mason and Dixon: and the jurisdiction of 
Pennsylvania will be extended to those lines, 739 

Letter from General Brattle, at Cambridge, to 
General Giage. Military preparations in the 
Province. Minute Companies. Medford Pow- 
der removed from the Arsenal, - . - 739 

Letter from Colonel Adam Stephen to Richard 
Henry Lee. Ordered to the Ohio, by Lord 
Dunmore, which prevents his attending the 
General Congress. Procuring a supply of 
Arms and Ammunition of the utmost impor- 
tance. — This should be privately considered 
by the Congress, 739 

Resolutions adopted by the Inhabitants of Pala- 
tine District, Tryon County, New- York, - 740 

Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. The whole Province in commo- 
tion ; popular fury never greater than at pre- 
sent. In Worcester they keep no terms, and 
openly threaten resistance, - - - 741 

An account of the manner in which the Donations 
for the support of the Poor of Boston has been 
applitd, --..--. 743 

Letter from Boston. The new Counsellors 
driven into Boston. The Judges at Great 
Barrington turned off the Bench. The Pro- 
testers and Addressers to Mr. Hutchinson have 
fled to Boston for refuge. The Province will 
soon be declared in open rebellion, and the 
King's Standard hoisted, - - - . 744 

Timothy Paine, a Mandamus Counsellor, com- 
pelled to resign, 745 

Letter from Governour Wentworth to the Earl 
of Dartmouth. Delegates to the Congress, 
from New- Hampshire, elected. State of affairs 
in the Province, 745 

Town Meeting at Providence, in Rhode-Islandl 
Arms for the County to be made fit for use. 
Providence ought not to become an asylum for 
persons who have made themselves obnoxious 
to the people in any other part of America. — 
The Town Council requested to remove and 
eject all such persons, . - - - 745 

Town Meeting at Providence, in Rhode- Island. 
Magistrates required to preserve the Peace of 
the Town, 747 

County Court, at Springfield, sign an engagement 
not to do any thing whatsoever, under any au- 
thority, derived or pretended, by the Act of Par- 
liament, for the better regulating the Govern- 
ment of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 747 

On the meeting of the Superiour Court at Bos- 
ton, Chief Justice Peter Oliver on the Bench, 
the Jurors refuse to be sworn, - - - 747 

Reasons of the Grand Jurors for refusing to be 
sworn, ...-.-. 748 

Reasons of the Petit Jurors for refusing to be 
sworn, ..-.-.. 749 

Meeting of the Committees from every Town and 
District, in the County of Middlesex, and Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Bay, - - - 750 

Committee appointed to consider the Act for the 
better regulating the Government of the Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Bay, ... 7.50 

Report of the Committee, - - . - 750 

Adopted by the Meeting, - - . - 752 

Towns in the County recommended to elect Dele- 
gates to a Provincial Congress, to meet at Con- 
cord, on the second Tuesday in October, - 752 

Address to the Inhabitants of Pennsylvania. — 
Petitions and Remonstrances to the King and 
Parliament will have no effect. We should 
not implore, but demand our liberty, - - 754 

Address to the Delegates appointed to meet in 
the General Congress, - - . . 754 

Queries proposed to the People of America, - 755 



liXin 

1774. 
Sept. 
1, 



CONTENTS. 



LXIV 



1, 
2, 
2, 



7, 
2, 



5, 



759 



761 
762 
763 

763 

764 
764 



S. 



Address to the People of America. Considera- 
tions on — 1st, A Petition to Parliament, with 
a firm declaration of the rights of Americans. 
2d, A suspension of Trade with Great Britain, 
till the Acts be repealed. 3d, A suspension of 
all our Trade with Great Britain, Ireland, and 
the West Indiis, till the Acts be repealed, ^ - 756 
Letter from a Virginian to the Members of Con- 
gress at Philadelphia. The Colonics have 
advanced from one extravagant claim to ano- 
ther. Their most zealous advocates are asham- 
ed to plead a cause which all others condemn. 
Parliament has a right to Tax the Colonies, 
and cannot depend upon the uncertain mode of 
Requisition, ------ 

Letter from Governour Martin to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. The People of North Carolina 
have followed the rest of the Continent in ca- 
balling and forming Resolutions upon the late 
measures of Government Docs not know 
what the Committees have done, but whatever 
measures may have been taken, the combina- 
tion is assuredly, at least, indecent and inglo- 
rious, - - - - " " . " 

Powder taken from the Charlestown Magazine, 

by order of General Gage, . . - 

Judge Danforth and Judge Lee, Mandamijs 

Counsellors, compelled to resign. 
Colonel Phips, the High Sheriff of the County, 
gives a pledge not to execute any precept un- 
der the new Acts of Parliament for altering 
the Constitution of Massachusetts Bay, 
Lieutenant Governour, Thomas Oliver, compel- 
led to resign his seat as a Mandamus Counsel- 
lor, 

Mr. Oliver's statement of the circumstances un- 
der which he resigned, - - - - 

Letter from St. John's Parish, in Georgia. Ac- 
count of the Meeting at Savannah, on the 10th 
of August. Contributions from St. John's 
Parish for the Sufferers at Boston, - - 766 
Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. State of the Colonies much changed 
since Mr. Hutchinson left America. Several 
of the Counsellors have been obliged to seek 
protection under the Troops in Boston. Some 
have been maltreated; many have resigned. 
He intended to send Troops to Worcester, to 
protect the Superiour Court and the Coun- 
sellors, but ascertained that no Court could 
proceed on business there. In Boston the 
Judges met, but could get no Juries. The 
Counsellors were afraid to proceed to Salem ; 
he was, therefore, compelled to assemble them 
in Boston. Proposes to send to New- York, 
Philadelphia, and Quebeck, for the Troops 
there. Civil Government is near its end. — 
He will avoid any bloody crisis as long as 
possible, ------ 767 

Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart 

mouth, 769 

Letter from a Member of Parliament to Colonel 

Charles Lee, .--... 769 
Letter from a Gentleman, in London, to his Cor- 
resjwndent in New- York. Disputes of the 
New- York Committee published in all the 
London papers, and have been disadvantageous 
to tlie cause of the Colonies. The Ministry 
are waiting anxiously to hear the result of the 
Congress; they still expect the Colonies will 

beg for mercy, 771 

Letter from London to a Corrospondcnt in Bos- 
ton. The measures of the Colonies should be 
calm and temperate. None of their Resolves 
should contain reflections on Great Britain. — 
The East India Company should be indemni- 
fied by the Bostonians, and submission made 
for tlie insult offiTcd to Govemmrnt, - - 772 
Letter from Governour Penn to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The Congress met this morning. 
The detcnnination to oppose the Boston Acts, 
and the power of Parliament to Tax America, 
universal throughout the Colonies ; there is, 
however, great diversity of opinions as to the 
proper modes of opposition, - . . 773 
Rpport of an attack on Boston, by the Men-of- 
War and Troops, on the 2d, received in New- 
York by express, 325 



1774. 

Sept. 

7, 



8, 



8, 



5, 



C, 
9, 



10, 
10, 



9, 
15, 
10, 



11, 

7, 

12, 



13, 



Letter from Georgia to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Those in favour of an immediate Non- 
Importation Agreement there, are far in the 
minority. As the Colony is situated, it would 
be highly ungenerous for Georgia to meddle 
with the disputes in which the rest of the Col- 
onies are engaged, ----- 773 
Letter from Lieutenant Governour Colden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. The populace are now 
directed by men ofoproperty, and the former 
demagogues have lost their influence. Men 
now speak in favour of Government with 
greater freedom than for years past, - - 773 
Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Govern- 
our Penn. The appointment of Deputies, by 
the different Colonies, to meet in General Con- 
gress, has given the King great concern. An 
humble representation to the King from each 
Colony would have greater weight than one 

from the Congress, 774 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to the Earl 
of Dunmore. E.xpresses the King-'s dissatis- 
faction at the ill treatment of the Indians on 
the Ohio by the People of Virginia, and of the 
proceedings of Connolly, under a commission 
from the Government of Virginia, - - 774 

The County Courts, in Virginia, will do no 
business previous to a Session of the General 
Assembly. At the next General Court there 
will be no Trials, except in Criminal Cases, - 775 
The Selectmen of Boston inform General Gage 
of the alarm of the People at his preparing to 
erect a Fortification on the Neck, - - 775 

Address of the Selectmen of Boston to General 
Gage, on his fortifying the entrance to the 
Town, and the abuse and assaulting of the Peo- 
ple passing in and out of the Town, by the 
Guards, ------- 775 

Answer of the Governour, - - - . 775 
Resolutions adopted at a Meeting of the Dele- 
gates of every Town and District in the 
County of Suffolk, in Massachusetts, - - 776 
Committee appointed by the Delegates in Suffolk 
County, to wait on Governour Gage, and in- 
form him of the alarm of the People at the 
Fortifications making on Boston Neck, - 779 

Address of the Committee to Governour Gage, 779 
Answer of the Governour to the Committee, - 779 
The Answer of the Governour not satisfactory. 
Another Address unanimously voted to his Ex- 
cellency, ...--. 780 
The Governour declined receiving the second 

Address, 781 

Thanks to the Merchants of New- York for re- 
refusing to let their Vessels transport Troops 
and Ammunition to Boston, - . - 782 

Thanks to Mechanicks of New- York, for refus- 
ing to make Chests for transportation of Arms, 
or to contract for building Barracks at Boston, 782 
Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Lieutenant 
Governour Colden. The Contraband Trade 
between New- York and Holland deserves his 
particular attention. The number of Vessels 
from Holland for that Province is evidence of 
the extent of that illicit Commerce; which is 
now particularly alarming, in consequence of 
the large quantities of Gunpowder shipped 
there for New- York, . . - - 782 

Letter from Israel Putnam to Captain Trumbull. 
Tea arrivetl at Salem, ... - 783 

Letter from William Cooper to Israel Putnam, 
Chairman of the Committee of Correspondence 
for Brooklyn, in Connecticut, - - - 783 
Letter from William Cooper, in Boston, to a 
Gentleman in New- York. Explaining the 
manner in which the Donations made for the 
Poor of Boston are applied, . . - 784 

Committee appointed by the Town of Boston to 
receive the Etenations and employ the Poor 
Sufferers by the Port Bill, - - - 785 

Letter from Governour Wentworth to the Earl 
of Dartmouth. Proceedings at Portsmouth, 
in New-Hampshire on the arrival of thirty 
chests of Tea there, on the 8th inst. Vessel 
sailed with the Tea for Halifax, on the 1 1th. 
I'hough this Province has so far been moderate, 
yet the union of the Colonies, in sentiment, is 
not divided or lost in New-Hampshire, - 736 



LXV 

1774. 

Sept. 

14, 



14, 



CONTENTS. 



LXVI 



15, 
15, 

15, 
17, 
17, 

17, 

19, 

19, 



Sept. 
19, 

20, 

21, 
26. 



28, 
29, 



Sept. 
20. 



21. 

21, 
21. 



Letter from Fredericksburg, in Virginia. Fur- 
ther Indian Intelligence. Liberal contribu- 
tions made in Fredericksburg, for relief of the 
Poor in Boston, . - . - . 

Letter from Joseph Spencer to Grovernour Trum- 
bull. Doctor Beebe, a Tory, tarred and 
feathered by the friends of Liberty, in East 
Haddam, has applied to him for a surety of the 
peace against some of those concerned in it. — 
He has declined, and asks the Governour's ad- 
vice on the subject. He believes if one should 
be granted it would not be executed to advan 
tage, 

An Army of Observation for the Colonies pro- 
posed in Connecticut, . . . . 

Resolutions adopted at a Meeting of Delegates 
from the Towns in the Counties of Hartford, 
New- London, and Windham, and a part of the 
County of Litchfield, in Connecticut, 

Proclamation of Governour Penn, establishing 
the Lines of Jurisdiction between the Prov- 
ince of Maryland and the Province of Peim- 
sylvania, and Counties of NeAV-Castle, Kent, 
and Sussex, on Delaware, ... 

Proclamation of Lord Dunmore, requiring all his 
Majesty's Subjects, west of Laurel Hill, to pay 
entire obedience to the Laws of Virginia, and 
forbidding the exercise of any authority there, 
by the Province of Pennsylvania, 

General Carleton arrived at Q.uebeck, 

Address of the Clergy to Guy Carleton, Govern- 
our of Gluebeck, ..... 

Address of his Majesty's Subjects, in the City of 
Quebeck, to Governour Carleton, 

Letter from Caesar Rodney to Captain Thomas 
Rodney. Action of the Congress on the Re- 
solves of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 

Letter from Samuel Adams to Dr. Chauncy. 
The Suffolk County Resolves read in Con- 
gress with great applause. America will sus- 
tain Boston to the utmost, ... 

Letter from Caesar Rodney to Captain Thomas 
Rodney. On the late false report of the attack 
upon the Town of Boston, by the British Ships 
in the Harbour, fifty thousand Men, from Con- 
necticut and Massachusetts, well armed, were 
on the march for the relief of the Town, 



PENNSYLVANIA ASSEMBLY. 

The Assembly met, pursuant to their adjourn- 
ment, on the 23d of July, .... 

Letter from Dr. Franklin, dated London, May 7, 
laid before the House, .... 

Governour has no business to lay before the House, 

Message from the Governour. The Indian Dis- 
turbances not yet at an end. The Governour 
of Virginia is still prosecuting an Expedition 
against the Shawanese. The Troops on the 
Frontiers should be continued in pay. 

One hundred Rangers to be kept in pay until the 
14th of October, ..... 

The Treasurer ordered to pay the Overseers of 
the Poor of Philadelphia, one hundred Pounds 
for tlie support of the French Neutrals, 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The Country People are exercising 
in Arms, in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and 
Rhode- Island, and threaten to attack the 
Troops in Boston, to which place the friends 
of Government are daily resorting for proteo 
tion. The Commissioners of the Customs 
afraid to remain in Salem, have come to Bos- 
ton, where the Governour is also obliged to 
reside, .---... 

Resolutions adopted at a Convention of Commit- 
tees for the County of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, held by adjournment on the 29th of Au- 
gust, and continued, by adjournments, to the 
ii 1st of September, .... 

Meeting of Freeholders in Boston. Instructions 
to Delegates in Provincial Congress, 

Convention of the several Towns of the County 
of Cumberland, in Massachusetts, 

Sheriff of the County required to attend the Con- 
vention, --..--- 



787 



- 787 



787 



1774. 

Sept. 

21. 



788 



789 



790 
791 

791 

792 



792 



793 



793 



794 

794 
794 



794 
794 



795 



795 



- 795 
798 
798 
799 



He subscribes a Declaration that he has not acted 
under the late Acts of Parliament ; and that ^ 
he will not, without the general consent of the 

County, 799 

Committee appointed to draw up the sentiments 
of the Convention, - . . . . 799 

22, Report presented by the Committee, and unani- 
mously accepted, - - . . 799-802 

24, Meeting of the Selectmen and Committee of Cor- 
respondence of Boston. Consider it inexpe- 
dient for the Mechanicks, or other Inhabitants 
of the Town, to assist the Troops, by furnish- 
ing them with Artificers, Labourers, or mate- 
rials of any kind to build Barracks, - - 802 

24, Letter from J. Warren to the Publick, with an 
E.xtract of a Letter from Samuel Adams, dated 
September 9th. Gentlemen of the establish- 
ed Church of England, among the most reso- 
lute defenders of the rights of the People of the 
Continent, 802 

24, Declaration of Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
To^\Ti of Rye, in West- Chester County, New- 
York. They have not been concerned in any 
Resolutions entered into in regard to the dis- 
putes with the Mother Country. Disapprove of 
the hot and furious proceedings, in consequence 
of the disputes, and declare they will live and 
die peaceable Subjects of George the Third, 803 
Apology of Abraham Miller and others, for sign- 
ing the above Declaration, ... 803 
Apology of Timothy Wetmore, another sub- 
scriber, (Note,) 803 

Letter from the Committee of Mechanicks of Bos- 
ton, dated September 8th, to the Committee of 
Mechanicks of New- York, - - - 803 

24, Resolutions of the Committee of Mechanicks of 

New- York, on receiving the foregoing Letter, 804 

25, Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 

mouth. The Carpenters in New- York refuse 
to come to Boston to build the Barracks, but 
the Boston Artificers have undertaken the 
work. Nothing but e.xtravagances and milita- 
ry preparations heard of from Boston to New- 
York. The support Massachusetts receives 
from the other Colonies, is beyond conception. 
The disease is now so universal that there is 
no knowing where to apply a remedy, - 805 

26, Accoimt of the transactions at a Meeting of the 

Freeholders of the County of Middlesex, in 

England, 805 

Engagement signed by John Wilkes and John 
Glynn, at tlie Middlesex Meeting, - - 806 

26, Inhabitants of Worcester, in MassachuseUs, from 

the age of sixteen to seventy, form themselves 
into Military Companies, and choose Officers, 806 
27 Application of Doctor Warren to General GSage, 
for information as to his intentions in erecting 
Fortifications and purchasing Military Stores, 806 
Answer of General Gage to Doctor Warren, - 806 

27, Meeting of the Committees of Boston and the 

neighbouring Towns. Resolve that any person 
who may supply the Troops at Boston with 
any thing for the annoyance of the Inhabitants, 
shall be deemed an inveterate enemy of the 
People, 807 

27, Letter from the Joint Committees of Boston and 

the neighbouring Towns, to every Town and 
District in the Province, .... 807 

28, Letter from Colonel William Preston, at Fincas- 

tle, in Virginia. March of Virginia TrOops 
to meet Lord Dunmore at the Great Kenhawa. ; 
Attacks of the Lidians on the White settle- 
ments, ....... 808 

28, Letter from Maryland to a Gentleman in Lon- 
don, 809 

28, Handbill published at New- York. Supply of 

the British Troops, 809 ;|i 

28, Proclamation by Governour Gage. In conse- 

quence of the disordered state of the Province, 
will not meet the General Court at Salem, on 
the 5th of October, and discharges all persons 
elected as Representatives from giving their 
attendance, ..-.-- 809 

29, Letter from the Committee of Correspondence of 

Boston, to the Continental Congress. Account 
of the attack upon the House of Joseph Sco«, 
upon the discovery of his selling Cannon to 
General Gage, 810 



FocBTH Series. 



LXVII 

1774. 
Sept. 
29, 

Oct 1, 

1, 

3, 



CONTENTS. 



l.SVIIl 



3, 



3. 



5, 

6, 

7, 

7, 
8. 

8, 



Meeting of the Inhabitants of New- York, con- 
vent by the Committee, at the request of Jo- 
seph Totten, - - - " , " „ " 
Proclamation by the King, for dissolving the Par- 
liament, and calling another, " '. ' 
(Considerations on the propriety of adopting a 
general Non-RemitUince, as one of tli<> means 
of obtaining a repeal of the Boston Bills, 
Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The other Colonics have espoused the 
cause of Massachusetts with great viohnce, 
though some arc more moderate than others. 
The Congress is still sitting, but much good is 
not to be expected from their deliberations. 
The Boston Artificers have refused to work on 
the Barracks. A Provincial Congress will 
soon meet, when it is supposed measures will 
be taken for the government of the Province, 

Letter from Governour Penn to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The Congress is siuing, but as they 
have agreed to keep their Proceedings secret, 
he can furnish no account but what is found in 
the Newspapers, .... 

Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. The opinions of the People have be- 
come more favourable to tlie Americans. As 
the issue of the Congress would probably re- 
quire \'igorous measures, the Parliament has 
been dissolved, and a new one ordered. 

Proceedings at a Meeting of the Livery of Lon- 
don, at Guildhall. The Candidates pledged, 
if elected to Parliament, to endeavour to pro- 
cure a repeal of the American Acts, 

Letter from Lieutenant Governour Colden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. Several of the Counties 
in the Province refused to unite with the New- 
York Committee in sending Delegates to the 
Congress. Almost the whole of the Inhabitants 
of the Counties wish for moderate measures. 
At a meeting held last week the conduct of 
the persons who attempted to prevent the Mer- 
chants from sending Supplies to Boston, was 
highly disapproved, . - - - - 

Handbill received at New- York from Boston, 

Memorandums for a Report, on providing perma- 
nent Barracks for the Troops at Boston, 

Address to the Inhabitants of New- York, 

Meeting of Importers of Goods from Great Bri- 
tain, in the City of New- York, 

Meeting of the Lihabitants of the Town of Stam- 
ford, in Connecticut, - - i - 

Letter from London. Reasons why the Ameri- 
cans should persevere, and oppose with vigor- 
ous measures the Tyranny of the British Go- 
vernment, ...... 

Letter from James Lovell to Josiah Cluincy, Jim., 



PttOVINCIAL CONGRESS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Oct. 5, Members elected to serve in the General Assem- 
bly of Massachusetts, meet at Salem, 
7, Their Resolutions on the refusal of the Govern- 
our to admit them to the usual oaths. 
Provincial Congress formed, ... 

Names of the Delegates from the several Towns, 
Adjourn to meet at Concord, ... 

1 1, The Provincial Congress meets at Concord, 
■■ John Hancock electwl President, and Benjamin 

Lincohi Secretary, 

12, Committee appointwi to take into consideration 

the state of the Province, 

13, Address to tho Governour reported by the Com. 

mittee, read and accepted, with one dissenting 
voice only, ...... 

Committee to present Address to the Governour, 

1 4, Constables, Collectors of Taxes, Deputy Sheriffs, 

and Sheriffs, directed not to pay over Money ; 
but to retain it in their hands, subject to the 
order of the Towns, Provincial Congress, or 
General Assembly, ..... 
17, Answer of Governour Gage to the Address of 
the Provincial Congress, - - * . 
Referred to the Committee on the state of the 

Province, ..... 

iietters said to be wTote by the Rev. Mr. Peters, 
referred to the same Coinmittoe, ... 
18, The Galleries ordered to be cleared, and the 
doors of the House to be kept shut during the 
IXbattg in tile Congrvss, . , . , 



327 
810 



811 



814 



- 815 



1774. 
Oct. 

18, 
19, 



20, 



21, 



815 



817 



819 
820 

821 
821 

328 

827 



828 
948 



829 

829 
830 
830 
834 
834 

834 

- 834 



835 
83G 



836 
837 



- 837 



837 



22, 



24, 



25, 



26, 



27, 



837 



28. 



838 

838 
838 
838 
838 

- 839 



A Reply to be made to the Answer of the Gov- 
ernour, ....-•- 
Reply to the Governour reported, read, and re- 
committed ; reported again, considered, and 
laid on the table, - - - - - 
Report from the Committee appointed to inquire 

into the state and operations of the Army, 
Committee to consider what is necessary for the 

defence and safety of the Province, 
Report relative to Pa\-ment and Collecting of out- 
standing Rates and Taxes, ... 

Resolution relative to the Counsellors and others, 
who have acted in obedience to the late Act of 
Parliament, for altering the Government of 
Massachusetts Bay, .... 
Committee to publish the names of the Mr.ndaraus 
Counsellors and others, who have acted under 
commissions derived from the Act of Parlia- 
ment, ..-...- 839 

Committee to report a Non-Consumption Agree- 
ment relative to British and India Goods, - 839 

Committee to examine Rivington's Newspaper, 840 

Resolution adopted, recommending the total dis- 
use of India Tea, - - - - - 840 

Report of Committee, on Defence of the Province, 
read, and deferred, 840 

Consideration of the Report resumed, and recom- 
mitted, - - 840 

Consideration of the propriety of sending Agents 
to Canada, referred to the next meeting of the 
Congress, - 840 

Day of Publick Thanksgiving throughout the 
Province recommended, .... 840 

Report on the Safety and Defence of the Province, 
amended, and recommitted for further amend- 
ment, - - - - - - -841 

Committee to consider of the most proper time to 
provide a stock of Powder, Ordnance, and Ord- 
nance Stores for the Province, - - - 841 

Committee on Non-Consumption Agreement di- 
rected to report forthwith, - - - 841 

Debates of the Congress to be kept secret, tmtil 
leave shall be given to disclose the same, - 841 

Committee report that now is the proper time to 
provide a stock of Powder, Ordnance, and 
Ordnance Stores, - - - - - 841 

Committee to determine what Quantity shall be 
provided, and an Estimate of the expense, - 841 

Consideration of Report on the Safety and De- 
fence of the Province resumed, and recommit- 
ted for further amendments, - - - 84 1 

Committee on Non-Consumption Agreement or- 
dered to sit forthwith, .... 842 

Committee to inquire into the state of the Stores 
in the Commissary General's Office, - - 842 

Report on the quantity of Powder and Ordnance 
Stores necessary for the Province, - - 842 

All matters which shall come under the consi- 
deration of the Congress, to be kept secret, - 842 

Report on the Safety and Defence of the Prov- 
ince, 842 

Report considered and adopted, ... 843 

Committee to consider what Military Exercise 
will be best for the People of the Province to 
adopt, 845 

Committee of Safety appointed, ... 845 

Five Commissaries appointed, ... 845 

Three General Officers appointed, - - 845 

Committee, to sit during the recess of the Con- 
gress, appointed, ..... 845 

Receiver General to be appointed to.morrow ; 
and Members particularly enjoined to attend, 845 

Reply to the Governour's Answer recommitted 
for amendments, . , , . . 845 

Receiver General appointed, ... 846 

Report of Coinraittee on the state of the Prov- 
ince, relative to the removal of the Inhabitants 
of the ToOTi of Boston from thence, read, and 
recommitted, ...... 846 

Report relative to Collecting and Paying out- 
standing Tuxes, read, and adopted, - - 846 

Committee to report a Resolve relative to a Non- 
Consumption Agreement, ... 847. 

Committee to report on an equal Representation 
of the Province in Congress, at tlie next meet- 
ing, 848 

Constitutional Coimscllors invited to attend Con- 
gress at the ne.\t meeting, , , . . 848 



LXIX 

1774. 
Oct. 

28. 



CONTENTS. 



liXX 



29. 



The Resolve for a Non-Consumption Agreement, 
presented and adopted, . - . . 848 

Report on the Warlike Stores in the Commissa- 
ry General's Office, .... 848 

Report on a System of Military Exercise for the 
Province, ...... 848 

Consideration of the state of the Executive Courts 
of the Province, referred to the next meeting 
of the Congress, . . . - - 849 

Committee of Safety directed to write to the Con- 
tinental Congress, showing the grounds and 
reasons of the proceedings of this Congress, 849 

Reply to the Governour's Answer agreed to, 
unanimously, and a Committee appointed to 
present it, ...-.- 849 

Committee to publish certain parts of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Congress, passed on the 26th 
and 28th, ...... 

Two Members added to tlie Committee of Safety, 

Adjourned to the 23d of November, 

CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Oct. 9, Letter from Montreal, to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Opinions of the Inhabitants of Canada 
relative to the Quebeck Act, ... 
General Meeting of the English Inhabitants of 
Montreal, 

10, Letter from Eliphalet Dyer, Roger Sherman, 

and Silas Deane, to Governour Trumbull. — 
Proceedings of the Congress, ... 

1 1, Account of the arrest and imprisonment of Sam- 

uel Dyre, of Boston, . . . - 

12, Proclamation of Governour Penn. Inhabitants 

and Magistrates of the country west of Lau- 
rel Hill required to pay due obedience to the 
Laws of Pennsylvania, without the least re- 
gard to the Proclamation of Lord Dunmore, 

12, General Committee of South Carolina recom- 

mend the non-importation of India Tea, and 
the non-exportation of any Arms or Ammu- 
nition whatsoever, - - . . . 

13, Letter from Sir James Wright to the Earl of 

Dartmouth. Protests and Dissents of the 
People in different parts of the Province, show 
that they are against any Resolutions; and 
that those attempted by a few in Savannah, are 
held in contempt, ..... 

14, Address from the County of Worcester, in Mas- 

sachusetts, to Governour Gage, 
AnsTier of the Governour, .... 



851 
853 
853 



853 
853 



854 



855 



856 



857 



867 

868 
869 



OrA. 

13, 



CONNECTICUT ASSEMBLY. 

Meeting of the General Assembly of the Eng- 
lish Colony of Connecticut, . . . 

To«Tis in the Colony ordered to provide double 
the quantity of Powder, Balls, and Flints, they 
were before obliged by Law to provide. 

Cannon at New-London to be mounted, and kept 
fit for service, with a proper supply of Pow- 
der and Balls, .... 

Fifteen thousand Pounds, in Bills of Credit, to 
be bsued, ...... 

Ta.xes levied on the Polls and rateable Estates in 
the Colony, ...... 

Instructions and Regulations to the Overseers ap- 
pointed by the Assembly for the Mohegan In. 
Qiaiis, ....... 

Memorial of Zebulon Butler and Joseph Sluman, 
Agents for the Town of Westmoreland, 

Memorial of Ebenezer Hazard, of New. York, 



858 



- 858 



- 858 
858 



858 



859 

859 
861 



PENNSYLVANIA ASSEMBLY. 

OcM4, New Assembly meets, .... 869 

List of Members, 860 

Edward Biddle chosen Speaker, ... 869 
Approved by the Governour, ... 870 
15, John Dickinson added to the Deputies from Penn- 
sylvania to the General Congress, now sitting, 870 
Entertainment to be provided for the Members of 
the Congress, on Thursday next, - - 870 
17, Message from the Governour. Recommends 

keeping the Rangers a longer time in Service, 87 1 
19, The Rangers to be kept in Pay until the first of 

November, ...... 871 

Answer to the Governour's Message, • .871 

21, Adjourn to the 5th of December, ... 371 



1774. 

Oct. 
14, 



16, 



16, 
18, 



17, 



17, 



19, 
19, 

20, 

20, 
20, 



20, 
20, 

21, 

22, 

24, 
24, 

24, 

25, 
26, 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Express from Lord Dunmore arrived at Wil- 
liamsburg, with the Speeches at his Conference 
with the Indians, ..... 

Speech of Captain White Eyes, 
Answer of Lord Dunmore to the Delawares and 
Six Nation Chiefs, ..... 

Intelligence from Captain Pipe, at a Conference 
with several Delaware and Mohawk Chiefs, - 
Speech of the Mohegans to the Shawanese, 
Answer of the Shawanese, .... 

Reply of the Mohawk and Delaware Chiefs to 
Lord Dunmore, ..... 

Speech of the Big Apple Tree, a Mohawk Chief, 
Answer of Lord Dunmore, .... 

Reply of the Delawares, .... 

Speech of Edmund Burke, on offering himself a 
Candidate to represent the City of Bristol in 
Parliament, ...... 

Letter from Dr. Samuel Cooper to John Adams, 
Proclamation of Governour Penn. Officers of 
the Customs prevented by a Mob from seizing 
a quantity of foreign Sugar that had not been 
entered at the Custom House, nor the Duties 
paid. All Civil Officers required to bring the 
Offenders to justice, ..... 

Letter from Captain Arthur St. Clair to Joseph 
Shippen, Jun., ...... 

Speech from Captain Pipe to the Governour, in 
answer to his Messages sent to the Shawanese 
and the Delawares, .... 

Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. Additional Troops expected from 
Quebeck, New. York, and Newfoundland. 
Despairs of any overtures for paying for the 
Tea, unless recommended by the Continental 
Congress, ...... 

Circular Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to 

the Governours of the Colonies, 
Order of the King, in Coimcil, prohibiting the 
exportation of Gunpowder, or any sort of 
Arms or Ammunition from Great Britain, 
General Committee of South Carolina recom. 
mend Merchants and others, as they prize the 
tranquillity and happiness of America, not to 
take advantage of the publick distresses by rais- 
ing the prices of imported Goods, 
Address to the People of Halifax County, in 
Virginia, ..... 

Tea at Annapolis, in Maryland, imported in the 
Brig Peggy Stewart, from London. Acknow- 
ledgement of the Owners of the Tea, that they 
had committed a Inost daring insult, and an 
act of the most pernicious tendency to the Li- 
berties of America ; they ask pardon of the 
People, and voluntarily burn the Vessel with 
all her Sails and Colours flying, - 
Thanks to the Merchants of New- York, who 
assisted in providing Barracks for the Troops 
at Boston, ...... 

Address to the Inhabitants of New. York. Rea- 
sons for their paying obedience to Great Bri- 
tain, and the advantages they will derive from 
submission, ...... 

Resolutions of sundry Inhabitants of Frances 
Town, in New-Hampshire, ... 

Letter from Silas Deane, at Philadelphia, to Go- 
vernour Trumbull. The greatest unanimity 
has prevailed through the whole of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Congress, - - . . 
Proclamation of Governour Wright. Grants of 
Land in Georgia, ..... 

Proclamation of Governour Wright. Treaty 

with the Creek Indians, at Savannah, on the 

20th inst. Trade with the Indians renewed. 

Letter from Quebeck to a Gentleman in Boston, 

Instructions to the English Gentlemen of the 

Committee of Montreal, from the Canadian 

Farmers, - ' - 

Association signed by the Ladies of Edenton, in 

North Carolina, 

Letter from Joseph Reed, at Philadelphia, to 
Josiah Quincy, Jun., London. Instead of divi- 
ded counsels and feeble measures in the Colo- 
nies, all now is union and firmness. The Mem- 
bers of the Congress part with each other on 
terms of the utmost friendship, 



871 

872 

872 

874 
874 
874 

875 
875 
875 
876 



876 

878 



878 



879 



- 879 



880 
881 



- 881 



- 882 



885 



886 



886 
888 



888 
889 



1137 
891 



891 



891 



- 892 



LXXI 

1774. 

Sept. 
5. 



CONTENTS. LXXii 



12, 
14, 



17, 



19, 
22, 



24, 



26, 



27, 



28, 



CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. 

Meeting of ihe Delegates chosen and appointed 
by ihli several Colonies and Provinces, in North 
America, to hold a Congress at Philadelphia, 
Members present from the several Colonies, 
Peyton Randolph elected President, 
Credentials read and approved, . - - 

For New-Hampshire, . . - - 

Massachusetts, 

Rhode-Island, 

Connecticut, 

New- York, 

New-Jersey, 

Permsylvauia, . - - - - 
EKdaware, . . - - - 

Maryland, 

Virginia, 

South Carolina, . . . - 

Richard Henry Lee, from Virginia, attended, - 
Rules of Order adopted, - - - - 

Reverend Mr. Duchd requested to open the Con- 
gress with Prayers, - - - - - 

Thomas Jolmson, Jim., from Maryland attended. 
Committee appointed to state the Rights of the 
Colonies, the instances in which they are vio- 
lated, and the means most proper to obtain a 
restoration of them, - - - - - 

Committee appointed to examine and report the 
several Statutes which affect the Trade and 
Manufactures of the Colonies, - - - 
President authorized to adjourn, from day to day, 
when there is no business, ... 

Matthew Tilghman, a Delegate from Maryland, 
attended, ------- 

William Hooper and Joseph Hewes, from North 
Carolina, attended, - . - - - 
Henry Wisner, from Orange County, in New- 
York, attended, . . - - - 
George Ross, from Pennsylvania, and John Al- 

sop, from New- York, attended, - 
Delegates from Massachusetts presented the Pro- 
ceedings of the Joint Committees of the Towns 
in the County of Middlesex, at Concord, on 
the 30th and 3 1st of August, ... 
Richard Caswell, from North Carolina, attended, 
Resolutions of the County of Suffolk, Massachu- 
setts, on the 6th inst, laid before the Congress, 
Resolution of the Congress, approving of the 
Suffolk County Resolutions, ... 

Contributions from all the Colonies for supplying 
the Sufferers in Boston, should be continued, - 
Report of the Committee appointed to examine 

the Statutes, brought inJand laid on the table. 
Referred to the Conamittee appointed to state tlie 
Rights of the Colonies, .... 

Merchants and others in the several Colonies re- 
quested not to send to Great Britain any orders 
for Goods, . . - . - 

Report of Committee on the Rights of the Colo- 
nies, brought in and read, - . . . 
Copy of the Report made out for each Colony, - 
The Report considered, .... 

Congress will now consider only such Rights as 
have been infringed since 1763, postponing 
the consideration of the General Rights of 
America to a future day, .... 

Conmjittee appointed to state the Rights, brought 
in a Report of the Infringements and Viola- 
tions of American Rights, 
Consideration of the Report deferred, 
Congress, in the meanwhile, to deliberate on the 
Means to be pursued for a restoration of our 

Rights, 

John Herring, from Orange County, New- York, 
attended, ...... 

Consideration of the Means for restoring Rights, 
resiune'd, ...... 

Further considered, ..... 

Importation of all Goods, Wares, and Merchan- 
dise, whatsoever, from Great Britain, or Ire- 
land, prohibited after first of December next, 
None exported from Great Britain, or Ireland, 
after that day, shall be used or purchased in 
the Colonies, ...... 

Resolution offered by Mr. Galloway, declaring 
the Colonics hold in abhorrence the idea of 
being considered Independent Communities, - 



893 
893 
893 
893 
893 
894 
894 
893 
896 
896 
896 
897 
897 
897 
898 
898 
898 

899 
899 



899 

900 
900 
900 
900 
901 
901 

901 
901 

901 

904 

904 

904 

904 

- 904 

904 
904 
905 

905 



905 
905 



905 

905 

905 
905 

905 

905 

905 



1774. 

Sept. 

28, 

29, 

80, 



Oct.l, 



3, 



4, 
5. 



7, 

8. 



10. 



Mr. Galloway's Plan for a proposed union be- 
tween Great Britain and the Colonies, - 905 
Meansof restoring the Rights, considered, - 906 
Further considered, ..... 906 
Further considered, ..... 906 
Exportation of all Merchandise whatsoever, from 
the Colonies to Great Britain, Ireland, and the 
West Indies, prohibited after the 1st of Sep- 
tember, 1775, unless American Grievances are 
redressed before that time, ... 906 
Committee to prepare a Plan to carry into effect 
the Non- Importation, Non-Consumption, and 
Non-Exportation resolved on, - - - 906 
Simon Boerum, from King's County, New- York, 

attended, ^06 

Means of restoring the Rights, further considered, 906 
Committee to prepare an Address to the King, 

requesting a Redress of Grievances, - - 907 
Instructions to the Committee on the Address, - 907 
Matters proper to be contained in the Address 
considered, ...--- 907 

Further considered, 907 

Further considered, - - - - - 907 
Instruction to the Committee on the Address, - 907 
Address from William Goddard received, - 907 
Means for restoration of American Rights fur- 
ther considered, 907 

Letter from the Boston Committee of Correspond- 
ence laid before Congress, ... 907 
Letter to be considered to-morrow, - - 908 
Consideration of means for restoration of Rights, 
resumed, - - - - - -908 

Instruction to Committee appointed to prepare the 
form of an Association, .... 908 

Letter from Boston Committee considered, - 908 

Committee to prepare a Letter to General Gage, 908 
Letter from Boston further considered, - - 908 
Opposition of the Inhabitants of Massachusetts to 
late Acts of Parliament approved by Congress. 
If the Acts are attempted to be enforced by 
Arms, all America ought to support them in 
their opposition, - ... - 908 

Letter from Boston further considered, . - 908 
Removal of the People from Boston, so impor- 
tant in its consequences as to require the utmost 
deliberation. If absolutely necessary, they 
should be recompensed by all America, - 90S 

People of Massachusetts advised to submit to 
a suspension of the administration of justice, 
where it cannot be procured under the Charter, 909 
Any Person who shall act under any authority 
derived from the Act of Parliament, altering 
the Government of Massachusetts, to be held 
in detestation, as a wcked tool of the despo- 
tism, which is preparing to destroy the Rights 
of America, ...... 909 

11, Letter from the Congress to General Gage, - 909 
People of Boston advised to conduct themselves 

peaceably towards General Gage and the 

Troops, 909 

Committee to prepare a Memorial to the People 
of British America; and an Address to the 
People of Great Britain, - - - - 910 

12, Plan for carrying into effect the Non-Importa- 

tion, Non-Consumption, and Non-Exportation 
Agreement, reported by the Committee, - 910 

Consideration of the Rights and Grievances of the 
Colonies resumed, - - - - - 910 

13, Further considered, 910 

14, Further considered, - - - - -910 
Resolutions declaring the Rights and Grievances 

of the Colonies, 910 

Letter from several Gentlemen, in Georgia, read, 912 

15, Plan of Association further considered, - - 912 

17, John Dickinson, from Pennsylvania, attended, 913 
Plan of Association further considered, - - 913 

1 8, Plan further considered, amended, and ordered to 

be transcribed, to be signed by the Members, 913 
Address to the People of Great Britain reported, 913 

19, The Address considered, amended, and recom- 

mitted, 913 

Memorial to the Inhabitants of the Colonies re- 
ported, 913 

20, The Association read and signed, - - - 9 1 3 
Fac simile of the Signatures to the Asssocia- 

tion, - - . . . Opposite 916 
Memorial to the Inhabitants of the Colonies fur- 
ther considered, 916 



LXXIII 

1774. 

Ckt.2l, Address to the People of Great Britain, - - 917 
Memorial to the Inhabitants of the Colonics, - 921 
Committee to prepare an Address to the People 
of Q,uebeck, and Letters to the Colonies of St. 
John's, Nova-Scotia, Georgia, and East and 

West Florida, 928 

Committee to revise the Minutes of Congress, 928 

Address to the King considered, recommitted, 

and Mr. Dickinson added to the Committee, 928 
The seizing a Person, in America, to transport 
him beyond the Sea, for Trial, declared to be 
against the Lavsr, and ought to meet with re- 
sistance and reprisal, .... 928 
22, Peyton Randolph unable to attend the Congress, 

Henry Middleton chosen President, - - 928 
Address from Christopher TuUy received, - 928 
Journal ordered to be printed, ... 928 
A Congress to be held on the 10th of May next, 
unless redress of Grievances should be sooner 
obtained, recommended, .... 928 
Letter from Congress to the Colonies of St. 
John's, &c., 929 

24, Address to the People of Q,uebeck reported, con- 

sidered, and recommitted, .... 929 
Address to the King reported, ... 929 

25, Address considered, approved, and ordered to be 

engrossed, ...... 929 

To be sent to the Colony Agents, to be presented 
to his Majesty ; and the Agents requested to 
call in the aid of such Noblemen and Gentle- 
men as are firm friends to American Liberty, 929 
Committee to prepare a Letter to the Agents, - 929 
Thanks of Congress to the patriotick Advocates of 
Civil and Religious Liberty who have espoused 
the cause of America, both in and out of Par- 
liament, 929 

26, Letter to the Colony Agents, - - - 929 
Address to the Inhabitants of the Province of 

Quebeck, 930 

Address to the King, ..... 934 

List of the Colony Agents, .... 933 

List of the Delegates who attended the Congress, 938 

CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Oct. Letter from Govemour CJage to Peyton Ran- 
20, dolph, in reply to the Letter from the Con- 
gress, of the 10th of October, ... 

Letter to Peyton Randolph, late President of 
the American Continental Congress, from an 
Inhabitant of Massachusetts, against the Pro- 
ceedings of the Congress, and defending the 
conduct of General Gage, ... 

Letter to General Gage, from Williamsburg, in 
Virginia, ...... 

Letter from John Dickinson to Arthur Lee. The 
Colonies have taken such grounds that Great 
Britain must relax, or involve herself in a Civil 
War. A determined and unanimous resolu- 
tion animates the Continent, 

Letter from John Dickinson to Josiah Quincy, 
Jun. The most peaceable Provinces are now 
animated ; and a Civil War is inevitable, unless 
there be a quick change of British measures. 

Letter from Colonel Charles Lee to the Duke 
of — . All orders of men, throughout the Col- 
onies, are enthusiastick in the cause of Free- 
dom. The People have Arms, and are expert 
in their use, ...... 

Letter from Govemour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The Provincial Congress, it is report- 
ed, had in agitation the embodying of fifteen 
thousand Men, to be ready, at a moment's warn- 
ing, and to be supported by the neighbouring 
Provinces. It is the intention of the Congress 
to assemble the old Council at the next meet- 
ing, to form as complete a Government as pos- 
sible for the Province, .... 

Letter from Josiah Quincy to Josiah Gluincy, Jun., 

Letter from Govemour Penn to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, ....... 

NavA, Address of the Grand Jury for the County of Es- 
sex, in New-Jersey, to Frederick Smith, Chief 
Justice of the Province, .... 

Letter from a Gentleman, at Bladensburg, Mary- 
land, to his brother, in Glasgow. Virginia is 
raising a Company of Men in every County. 
Maryland has begun to raise Men in every 



CONTENTS. 



27, 
27, 



28, 



29, 



30, 



989 



939 
945 



- 947 



947 



949 



31, 
31, 



1. 



950 
951 

952 



967 



1774. 



Nov. 
2, 



2, 

3, 

2, 
2. 

2, 



2, 



3, 



4, 
5, 



5, 

6, 
6, 



LXXIV 

County also. To the Northward they have 
large Bodies ready for the field. Regulation 
of prices of imported Goods, ... 953 

Circular Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to 
the Governours of the Colonies. Requires 
Returns every three months of the state of 
their respective Councils, .... 953 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Lieutenant 
Governour Coldcn. Requires him to be par- 
ticularly attentive to prevent the importation of 
Gunpowder ; he has every day intelligence of 
the Americans purchasing large quantities of 
Arms and Ammunition in the different Ports 
of Europe, 953 

Council of Pennsylvania authorize the laying out 
a King's Highway, from the Wind Gap, on the 
North side of the Blue Mountain, to Wyoming, 954 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Governour 
Penn, dated August 26. Requires him to de- 
sist from extending the jurisdiction of Pennsyl- 
vania to the line run by the Commissioners of 
that Province and Maryland, ... 954 

Proclamation of Governour Penn, requiring Ma- 
gistrates and others to desist from exercising 
jurisdiction beyond those places where it has 
been heretofore exercised, until his Majesty's 
pleasure shall be known in the premises, - 955 

Letter from Governour Penn to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. Explanation of his motives for issuing 
the Proclamation for extending the jurisdic- 
tion, 955 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 
Report of the Battle between the Indians and 
Colonel Lewis, ..... 955 

Address of the Committee to the Freeholders and 
Electors of the City and County of Philadel- 
phia. Recommend the election of a new 
Conwnittee, under the Association of the Con- 
gress, - 956 

Letter from Lieutenant Governour Golden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. The Congress broke up 
last week. Their measures do not meet with 
applause in New- York ; on the contrary, the 
City is rather dissatisfied. The Merchants 
dislike the Non-Importation, and the Farmers 
will not bear the Non-Exportation. A great 
majority in the Province disapprove of the 
dangerous measures of the New England Go- 
vernments, ...... 957 

Letter from an Officer at Boston, to his friend in 
Edinburgh. The Faction at Boston is very 
low. All ranks of People are heartily tired 
of disorder ; and as soon as the determination 
of Great Britain to despise their Resolves and 
Petitions, is known, all will be quiet, - - 957 

Letter from Doctor Chauncy to Josiah Gluincy, 
Jun., London. The Colonies are united in 
their resolution to defend their Liberties. All 
wish for a restoration of harmony, and dread a 
bloody conflict; yet this they will universally c' 
go into, rather than submit to the tyrannical 
measures imposed on them, ... 953 

Letter from Governour Perm to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, 958 

Charge of William Henry Drayton, one of the 
Judges of the General Sessions of the Peace, 
for the Districts of Camden and Cheraws, in 
South Carolina, on his Circuit, the fifth and fif- 
teenth days of November, to the several Grand 
Juries, ...--.. 959 
Presentments of the Grand Jury for the District 
of Camden, - - - - - -961 

Presentments of the Grand Jury for the Cheraws 

District, %2 

Address of the Petit Jury of Cheraws District, to 
Judge Drayton, ..... 962 

Resolutions adopted at a Meeting of the Officers 
under the command of Lord Dunmore, con- 
vened at Fort Gower, .... 962 

Sheep not permitted to be sent from New- York 

to the West Indies, 963 

Letter from Joseph Reed to Josiah Gluincy, Jun. 
The Quakers have directed their members not 
to serve on the Committee for carrying into 
effect the Association of Congress ; yet, in Phil- 
adelphia, there is no fear that any discontented 
spirit dares oppose the measures necessary for 
the publick safety. There is more fear for 



1774. 

Ntm. 
7, 



7, 
7. 



CONTENTS. 



1.XXVI 



7. 
7, 

7. 



8, 



8, 
9. 



10. 

10, 
11, 

11. 

12, 

12, 
14, 

14, 
15, 
15. 

15, 

15, 



15. 



16, 

16, 



New- York, where there has been a strange 
delinquency the whole Summer, 
Meeting of tlie Inhabitants of York, in Virginia, 
and Procec-ding-s of the County Committee, on 
the arrival of Tea, - :,',,',. 
Meeting of the Committee and other Inhabitants 
of Gloucester, in Virginia, on the arrival of Tea, 
Concession of John Prentiss to the York and 
Gloucester Committees, for importing Tea, - 
Meeting of the Inhabitants of the City of Phila- 
delphia, to make arrangements for electing a 
Committee, - - - ■ " . " 
New- York Committee recommend the election 
of a Committee of Inspection, for the purposes 
expressixi in the Association of Congress, 
Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, 
Leuer 'from New- York to a Correspondent m 
London, - • - " ' * 

Meeting at Marblehead, in Massachusetts. Ap- 
pointed a Committee to execute the Associa- 
tion ; and fixed a day for choosing Militia Of- 
ficers, - - - - " ■ * 

Meeting of the Committee for Westmoreland 
County, in Virginia. Resolutions relative to 
David Wardrobe, . . - ■ 
Letter from David Wardrobe to Archibald Pro- 
van, of Glasgow, dated June 30, 
Proclamation of Governour Eden, 
Meeting of the Inhabitants of Anne Arundel 
County, and the City of Annapolis. Com- 
mittee of Observation and Committee of Cor- 
respondence appointed, . - - - 
Address of the Merchants, Traders, and others, of 
Williamsburg, to Pej-ton Randolph and the 
other Delegates, . - - - - 

Answer to the Address, - - ■ 

Proclamation of Governour Gage, against the 

Resolves of the Provincial Congress, 
Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Commerce, 
concluded on the 20th of October, between 
Georgia and the Creek Indians, 
Concession of Nicholas Austin, to the Committee 
of Correspondence of Rochester, in New- 
Hampshire, ..---- 

Proclamation of Lieutenant Governour Bull. 

Trade opened with the Creek and Cherokee 

Indians. Revokes all Indian Trade Licenses, 

and requires new ones to be taken out. 

Committee of Observation for Baltimore County, 

in Maryland, appointed, . . . - 

Political Observations, without order, addressed to 

the People of America. . - - - 

Reply to the foregoing. . . - . 

Another Reply. - - - - - - 

Letter from the New- York Committee to Daniel 
Dunscomb. Chairman of the Committee of 
Mechanicks. . . - - 
New- York Committee having agreed to dissolve, 
appoint a day for the election of a new Com- 
mittee, ....--- 

Letter from a Gentleman at Amsterdam, to a 
friend in Philadelphia. A Vessel there load- 
ing with Ammunition and Arms, stopped by a 
Cutter sent from Dover, . - . . 
Letter from Nathaniel Appleton to Josiah Quin- 
cy, Jun. It is the universal voice of the Peo- 
ple, that they will sacredly observe the recom- 
mendations of the Grand Congress, 
Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The Proceedings of the Continental 
Congress astonish and terrify all considerate 
men. Though many of their Resolves neither 
can nor will be observed, it is to be feared they 
will be generally received. Barracks have 
been provided for the Troops ; and by various 
means. Provisions for six months have been 
obtained, ...... 

Letter from Grovcmour Wentworth to the Earl 
of Dartmouth. Violent proceedings in some 
parts of New-Hampshire. No hopes of a 
legal establishment of the powers of Govern- 
ment in the Province, until they are efTectually 
restored in Massachusetts, - . . . 
Proclamation by the King. Copper Coins for 
Virginia, ..... 

Meeting of Inhabitants of Calvert County, Ma 
ryland. Committees of Observation and Cor 
respondence appointed, . . . , 



9G3 



9G4 
9G5 



965 



- 965 



967 
908 

969 



970 



. 970 

971 
972 



972 



973 
973 

- 973 



974 



974 



975 

- 975 

976 
977 
978 



- 329 



330 



- 979 



980 



1771. 

Nor. 
16, 
17, 



18. 

18, 

18, 

19, 

21. 
21 



981 



- 981 
r 

- 982 



982 



21, 

22, 
22, 

22, 



23, 
23, 



983 



985 



985 



- 986 



987 
987 



987 



989 



Rt-^olutions of the County Congress of the County 

of York, in Massachusetts, 
Meeting of the Freeholders of Henrico County, 
Virginia. Committee of Observation appoint- 
ed, .....-- 
Meeting of the Inhabitants of Charles County, 
Maryland. Committees of Observation and 
Correspondence, and Delegates to the Conven- 
tion appointed, . . . . - 
Meeting of the Inhabitants of Frederick County, 
Mainland. Committees of Observation and 
Correspondence, and Delegates to the Conven- 
tion appointed, ..... 
Address of the Committee of Mechanicks, of New- 
York, to the Delegates who represented the 
City in the General Congress, . . - 
Answer of the Delegates, . . . - 
Address to the People of New- Jersey. Condemns 
the Resolutions of the Congress. There are 
no instances of Laws so severe, or any regula- 
tions so inimical to Liberty, as their Resolves, 
Tomi Meeting at Providence, in Rhode-Island. 
One hundred and twenty-five Pounds voted for 
the distressed Inhabitants of Boston, 
Letter from Dr. Joseph Warren, to Josiah Quin- 
cy, Jun. It is the united voice of America, 
to preserve their Freedom, or lose their lives 
in defence of it. The Resolutions of the Con- 
gress are not the effect of inconsiderate rash- 
ness, but the sound result of sober inquiry and 
deliberation. If the Acts of Parliament are 
not repealed the wisest step for both Countries 
is to sejiarate, and not spend their blood and 
treasure in destroying each other, 
Maryland Convention, - . . - - 
Several Counties not being represented the Con- 
vention adjourned to the 8th of December, 
Meeting of the Freeholders of Elizabeth City 
County, Virginia. Committee of Observation 
appointed. 
Letter from an -Officer in the Army at Boston. 
As to the Colonists taking Arms to resist the 
Force of England, it is mere bullying. Any 
two Regiments here ought to be decimated, if 
they did not beat in the field the whole Force 
of the Massachusetts Province, ... 
Committee of Sixty Persons elected in New- 
York, for the purposes mentioned in the Asso- 
ciation of Congress, ..... 
Address of the Magistrates of Frederick County, 
Maryland, to the Deputies from the Province 
to the late Continental Congress, 
Address of the Grand Jury of Frederick County, 

Maryland, to their Deputies in the Congress, 
Letter from Lieutenant Governour Bull to the 
Earl of Dartmouth, .... 

Committee of Observation, for Warwick County, 
Virffinia, ...... 994 



Nov. 
23, 



24, 



990 
991 

- 991 



- 991 



991 



- 992 



992 
993 



993 



993 

993 

993 

993 
993 



25, 
26, 

28, 



MASSACHUSETTS PROVINCIAL CONGRESS. 

The Provincial Congress meets, agreeably to 
their adjournment, on the 29th of October, - 

Walter Spooner, one of his Majesty's Constitu- 
tional Council, desired to attend the Congress, 

John Adams and Robert Treat Paine, of the 
Continental Congress, desired to attend. 

Members of the Continental Congress required 
to report their Proceedings, ... 

Dr. Appleton appointed Chaplain, ... 

Proceedings of the Continental Congress reported, 
read, and committed, .... 993 

Petition from Officers of the Minute Men, in the 
Northwest part of Worcester County, read 
and committed, ..... 994 

Commiuee to prepare a Plan for the Defence and 
Safety of the Government, required to set forth- 
with, 994 

Committee to publish a list of the Mandamus 
CoiiiiselloMkand others now in the Town of 
Boston, fortnwith to prepare a Report, - - 994 

Committee to ascertain the number of Constitu- 
tional Counsellors now in To\\ti, - - 994 

Committee to devise means of keeping up a Cor- 
respondence with Montreal and Quebeck, - 995 

Committee to prepare Form of an Order with 
respect to the Treasurer's Bond. - - 995 

Committee to take into consideration the state of 



Lxxvn 



CONTENTS. 



LXXVIII 



1774. 

Nov. 
29, 



the Manufactures, and how they may be im- 
proved in the Province, . . - . 

Committee to make an estimate of the loss and 
damage of every kind, occasioned by the Acts 
of Parliament since the operation of the Port 
Bill, - 

Committee to state the amount of the Sums which 
have been extorted from us since 17G3, under 
certain Acts of the British Parliament, 
30, Members to attend the Continental Congress 
on the 10th of May next, to be appointed to- 
morrow, ...... 

Letters from Doctor Franklin to Mr. Gushing, 
read and referred to the Provincial Committee 
of Correspondence, . . . . - 
Dec. 1, Report of Committee on Proceedings of Conti- 
nental Congress, read, considered, and recom- 
mitted, ....... 

Thanks of the Congress to the other Colonies, for 
their Donations to the Town of Boston, 

Committee to call upon the Secretary for a list 
of the Mandamus Counsellors, . . . 

2, Report of Committee on the state of the Prov- 

ince, ....... 

Members to represent the Province in Continental 
Congress, chosen, ..... 

3, Report of Committee on the state of the Prov- 

ince, considered, ..... 

5, Committee to prepare an Address to tlie Clergy, 

desiring them to exhort the People to sustain 

the Congress, ..-.-- 

Report on the Proceedings of the Continental 

Congress adopted, ..... 

6, Committee to correspond with the Inhabitants of 

Canada appointed, . . . . - 
Brief to be circulated through the Province, to 

promote Donations for the Sufferers in Boston 

ajid Charlestown, . . . . - 
Address to the Clergy, . .... 

Mandamus Counsellors who have published a 

renunciation of their Commissions, 

7, Committee to prepare a true state of the number 

of Inhabitants, and of the Exports and Imports 
of the Colony, ..... 

8, Resolutions reconmiending the encouragement of 

Manufactures in the Province, . . ^ 
Two General Officers chosen, ... 

9, Committee on an Address from the Baptists to 

the Congress, ...... 

Report of Committee relative to Publick Moneys 
in the hands of Constables and others, adopted. 

Committee on a Plan of Military Exercise pro- 
posed by Captain Pickering, ... 

Report of Committee on Address from the Bap- 
tists, adopted, ...... 

Committee on Letter from the Town of Hard- 
wick, ....... 

10, Report on Letter from Hard wick, 

Address to the Freeholders and other Inhabitants 
of the Towns and Districts of Massachusetts 
Bay, 

Report of Committee on the state of the Province 
relative to assuming Civil Government, consi 
dered, and laid on the table, 

Returns of the Officers and Men, of the Minute 
Men, and the Militia to be made. 

Report of Committee on the state of the Province, 

E.xpense of transmitting the Address to the Cana. 
dians to be paid by this Government, 

The Congress dissolved, .... 



Nov. 
25, 

25, 



26, 

28, 



30, 



995 

995 

995 

996 

996 

996 
996 
997 
997 
997 
997 

997 
997 
999 



999 
1000 

. 1000 



1001 

1001 
1002 

1003 

1003 

1004 

1004 

1004 
1004 

. 1005 
e 

. 1006 



OORUESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Meeting of a great number of the Freeholders of 
Chesterfield County, Virginia. County Com- 
mittee appointed, ..... 

Meeting of Freeholders of James City County, 
Virginia. Committee of Observation appoint, 
cd. 

Committee for the upper part of Frederick Coun- 
ty, Maryland. Punishment of John Parks, 

Address of Committee of Correspondence to the 
Freeholders of the County of Essex, in the 
Province of New- Jersey, - - . . 

Addrr-ss of the Committee of Philadelphia to the 
Publick, ...... 

Committee of Observation for Philadelphia Coun- 
ty. 



1774. 

Nov. 
30, 



Dec. 1, 

2, 



1008 



1009 



1009 



1010 



1010 



4, 



4, 



5, 



5, 
5, 

5, 



Queries addressed to the Committees of Observ- 
ation, on the Pamphlet, " A Friendly Address 
to all Reasonable Americans," - . .1011 

Meeting of Freeholders of Prince George's Coun. 
ty, Maryland. Committees of Observation and 
Correspondence, and Delegates to the Conven- 
tion appointed, . . . . -1012 

Meeting of Freeholders of Elizabethtown, Essex 
County, New- Jersey. Committees of Observ. 
ation and Correspondence appointed, . .1012 

Letter from Governour Wentworth to the Earl 
of Dartmouth. The measures recommended 
by the Continental Congress received, impli. 
citly, by the People, as matters of obedience. 
Exportation of Sheep prevented, by order of 
the Committee, . - . . .1013 

Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn. 
Attempt of Mr. Connolly to enforce the juris, 
diction of Virginia, at Pittsburgh. Mr. Scott, 
a Pennsylvania Magistrate, arrested by Con- 
nolly, on the 12th of November, and brought 
before Lord Dunmore, at Fort Burd, - - 1013 

Lord Dunmore arrived at Williamsburg, from his 
expedition against the Indians, having brought 
them to terms, and made a Treaty with them, 1014 

Letter from Red Stone. Causes of the Indian War 
traced from the Treaty made by Colonel Bou- 
quet, with the Shawanese, in 1764, to the at- 
tack of Captain Michael Cresap upon a party 
of Indians, in April, 1774, . . .1015 

Letter from the Camp, on Point Pleasant, at the 
mouth of the Great Kenhawa, dated October 
17th. Account of the Battle at that place, on 
the 10th, 1016 

Letter from Staunton, in Virginia, of November 
4th. A further account of the same Battle, 1017 

List of killed and wounded Virginians in the Bat. 
tie at Point Pleasant, on the 10th of October, 
(Note,) 1018 

Message from Logan, an Indian Warrior, to 

Lord Dunmore, 1020 

Speech of Logan, a Shawanese Chief, to Lord 

Dunmore, (Note,) ..... io2C 

Address of the City of Williamsburg to Lord 

Dunmore, ...... 1019 

Answer to the Address, . . . - 1019 

Address of the President and Professors of Wil- 
liam and Mary College to Lord Dunmore, . 1019 

Address of the Borough of Norfolk to Lord Dun- 
more, 1019 

Answer to the Address, .... 1020 

Meeting of the Freeholders of Richmond County, 
Virginia. Committee of Inspection appointed, 1021 

Committee of New.Castle County, Etelaware. 
Approve the Continental Association. Recom. 
mend to the Inhabitants, from si.xteen to fifty 
years of age, to form themselves into Military 
Companies, ...... 1022 

Meeting of the Inhabitants of Reading, in Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. Committee of Obser. 
vation appointed, ... . io23 



1006 


8, 


1007 






9, 


1008 


10, 


1008 


15, 




20, 


1007 


23, 



ASSEMBLY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Dec. 5, The Assembly meets, 1023 

Report from the Members deputed, in behalf of 
this Province, to attend the General Congress, 

Resolutions of the Congress considered, . 

Further considered, and unanimously approved. 

Deputies to the Congress, to meet on the 1 0th of 
May next, appointed, .... 

Committee to prepare Instructions to the Depu. 
ties appointed, ..... 

Message from the Governour. Recommends re- 
pair of Barracks in the Northern Liberties, 

Answer to the Governour's Message. The House 
does not think expedient to repair the Bar^ 
racks, ...... 

24, Instructions to the Deputies considered, and the 
further consideration postponed to the next 
Session, ...... 

Adjourned to the 20th of February next, - 



1023 
1023 
1023 

1023 

1024 

1024 



. 1024 



1024 
1025 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Dec. 6, Letter from London to a Gentleman in ^ew. 
York. First information of the Resolves of 
the Congress of the States of America, - 1025 



■a 



LXXIX 

1774. 

Dec. 

6. 



CONTENTS. 



I.XXX 



6, 



7, 



Mcetino' of the Freeholders of Essex County, Vir- 
ginia. Committee of Obserration appointed, 
Committee of Isle of Wight County, Virgmia, 
6 Meeting of Freeholders of Princess Anne Coun- 
ty, Virginia. Committee of Observation ap- 
pointed, - - - -• ", ," 

C Re-^ulations, for the sale of Goods imported after 
The first day of December, adopted by the 
Philadelphia Committee, - " , , y^ " 
6, Letter from Governour Penn to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. Philadelphia and several of the Coun- 
ties have appointed Committees to enforce the 
Association, --■"■' 
Meeting of Freeholders and other Inhabitants of 
Jamaica, in Queen's County, New- York. Ap- 
prove the Resolutions of tKe Congress. Com- 
mittee of Correspondence and Observation ap- 
pointed, - - - - " , " " 

Meeting of Freeholders of Ne^rark, m Esses 
Countj', New-Jersey. Committee of Observa- 
tion appointed, - - ' , " -■ 
Address of the Committee to the Delegates for 
New-Jersev, in the Continental Congress, - 
dueries of the' Committee relative to Rivington's 
Newspaper, - - - " ,, " , ' 
T, Letter from Lieutenant Governour Colden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. Proceedings in New- 
York on the Resolutions of Congress. Dis- 
pute between the smugglers and fair traders 
will probably defeat the Association. Men op- 
posed to the Congress on the Committee ; they 
at present support the measures of the Con- 
gress, to prevent dangerous men from taking 
the lead, ..---- 

8. Meeting of the Freeholders of Caroline County, 
Virginia. Committee of Observation appoint- 
ed, ■""""" 1 
8, Meeting of the Deputies appointed by the several 
Counties of the Province of Maryland, at the 
City of Annapolis, by adjournment, on the 8th 
of December, and continued till the 12th, 
Proceedings of the Continental Congress unani- 
mously approved, . . - • - 
Woollen, Linen, and Cotton Manufactures recom- 
mended, ....-- 

Advances on the prime cost of Goods regulated. 
Suits not to be brought in any case for any Per- 
son who violates the Continental Association, 
None but Members of Committees to meddle with, 
or determine, any question under the Associa- 
tion, . - - - - 

Will support, to the utmost of their power, any 
Colony where an attempt shall be made to 
carry into execution, by force, the assumed 
power of Parliament to Tax the Colonies, 
Inhabitants of the Province, from sixteen to fifty 
years of age, to form themselves into Military 
Companies, ...... 

Ten thousand Pounds to be raised by the Coun- 
ties for the purchase of Arms and Ammuni- 
, tion, .....-- 

Committee of Correspondence for the Province 
empowered to call a Meeting of the Conven- 
tion on the 24th of April next, - 
Contributions for the Suffering Poor of Boston to 
be continued, ------ 

Committee of Correspondence appointed. 
Delegates to the next Continental Congress ap- 
pointed, ------- 

Colonies and Provinces generally requested to 
enter into such Resolutions as have been 
adopted by this Province, for mutual defence 
and protection, ..... 

9, Letter from Savannah, to a Gentleman of Phila- 
delphia. Meeting at Savannah, on the 8th. 
Georgia will unite with the other Colonies. 
Large Donations made for Sufferers in Boston, 
9, Meeting of the Freeholders of Prince William 
County, Virginia. Committee of Observation 
electee. Resolutions adopted on tire 21st to 
enforce the Continental Association, 
10, Circular from the Earl of Dartmouth to the 
Governours of the several Colonics. The 
Resolution of Parliament to sustain the King 
in carrying into execution the Laws of tho 
-fast Session, will put an end to the expecta- 
tions of the Colonies of receiving support in 
their unwarrantable pretensions, 



1026 
1026 


1774. 

Dec 

10, 


1026 




1026 


10. 


1027 


10. 




10, 



1027 



- 1028 
r 

- 1029 



- 1029 



- 1030 



- 1030 



1031 

1031 

1031 
1031 

1032 



- 1032 



- 1032 



1032 



1032 



1033 

1033 
1033 

1033 



1033 



1033 



1034 



12, 



12, 



12. 



12, 



12, 



13. 



13. 
14, 



14, 



1034 



14, 



16, 



16, 



Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Lieuten- 
ant Governour Colden. Does not think the 
assistance of the King's Troops to quell^ the 
disturbances at Bennington, under the Ne\y- 
Hampshire Grants, ought to be called for until 
every other effort has been foimd insufficient; 
and hopes these disputes may be settled without 
the risk of bloodshed, .... 
Meeting of Freeholders of Ne\vtown, in Queen's 
County, New- York. Committee of Observa 
tion appointed, . . . - 
Letter from London, to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Advantages to the Colonies from an 
union with England. Parliament cannot 
make the first advances towards reconcilia- 
tion, ■ " 

Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. The American writers, by their pro- 
tensions to Independence, and their claims to 
exemption from Taxation, have ruined the 
cause, ....--- 

Meeting of the Freeholders of King and Queen 
County, Virginia. Committee of Observation 
appointed, - - - - - - 

Meeting of Henrico County, Virginia, Commit- 
tee. The Resolutions of Congress to be con- 
sidered by the Committee as the sole rule of 
their conduct, respecting their present engage- 
ments. Committee of Correspondence appoint- 
ed, ...-.-- 
Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town of Dan- 
bury, in Connecticut. Resolutions to support 
the Congress. Committee of Observation ap- 
pointed. The Inhabitants requested to contri- 
bute liberally. Money or Provisions for Boston 

Sufferers, 

Letter from Boston to a Gentleman in New- York. 
It was moved on the 10th instant, in the Pro- 
\incial Congress, that Arms be immediately 
taken up against the King's Troops; a Mem- 
ber stated such a move was infamous, as the 
Members knew that neither Connecticut, nor 
any of the Southern Colonies, meant to op- 
pose his Majesty's Arms. At PljTiiouth they 
are now beating up for Volunteers to attack 
the Troops, ..---. 
Letter from Captain Wallace to Vice Admiral 
Graves, dated on board his Majesty's Ship 
Rose, at Newport, Rhode- Island. The King's 
Cannon upon Fort- Island carried off by the 
Inhabitants, ...--- 
Letter from Sir James Wright to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. Attempt to raise a flame again in 
Georgia, since the return of the Carolina Dele- 
gates from the Congress, whose Resolutions 
and Proceedings have sanctioned Rebellion, 
Letter from Arthur Lee to Richard Henry Lee, 
Letter from Newport, in Rhode- Island, to a Gen- 
tleman in New- York. The People there 
have declared themselves openly against Gov- 
ernment. The Publick Authorities have dis- 
mantled the King's Fort, and moved the Can- 
non and Stores to Providence, - - . 
Letter from Governour Wentworth to Governour 
Gage. This day about four hundred Men 
proceeded to his Majesty's Castle, William and 
Mary, and carried off by violence one hundred 
barrels of Powder, belonging to the King ; to- 
morrow, it is expected, they will carry off the 
Cannon and Arms. Tho persons who took the 
lead in this enormity are well kno\Mi, 
Letter from Captain Cochran, Commander of 
Fort William and Mary, to Governour Went- 
worth. Informs him of the storming of the 
Fort, and the seizure and removal of the Pow- 
der, - " 

Letter from Governour Wentworth to Governour 
Gage. Last night many Cannon, and about 
sixty Muskets, were taken from the Fort. 
Portsmouth is full of armed Men, who appear 
determined to dismantle the Fort entirely. 
Letters from Portsmouth, in New- Hampshire, to 
a Gentleman in New- York. Further ac- 
counts of the seizure of the Powder and Can- 
non at Fort William and Mary, 
Address of the Council of Virginia to Govern- 
our Dunmore, ... 
The Govemour's Answer, - - - 



- 1035 



- 1035 



1035 



- 1036 



1037 



1037 



1038 



1039 



1039 



1040 
1040 



1041 



1041 



1042 



1042 



- 1043 

1043 
1044 



K 



1774. 

2>fc. 13, Meeting of the Freeholders of Northampton 
County, Virginia. Committee of Observation 
appointed. The Association to be considered 
the sole rule of the Committee's conduct in 
every emergency, .... - 1044 

Letter from the People of Northampton County, 
Virginia, of the 30th August, to the Coimnit- 
tee of Donations, at Boston, ... 1044 

Reply from David Jeffries, of the Committee of 
Donations, Boston, of the 30th of September, 
to John Harmanson, and others, of Northamp. 
ton, Virginia, ...... 1045 

15, Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of 

Dartmouth, 1046 

16, Committee for Caroline County, Virginia. Re- 

commend to the People of the County, as they 
would avoid being considered enemies to Ame- 
rican Liberty, not to have any dealings with 
certain Merchants, charged with violating the 
Association, -.-... 1047 

16, Meeting of Freeholders of York County, Penn- 

sylvania. Committee of Observation ap- 
pointed, 1048 

17, Meeting of the Freeholders of Charles City 

County, Virginia. Committee of Observation 

appointed, 1049 

17, Town Meeting at Providence, in Rhode-Island. 

Committee of Correspondence appointed, - 1049 

17, Letter received in London from an Officer in 

Boston. It is beheved, from certain circum- 
stances, that General Gage means to strike 
some stroke of importance soon, which the 
Americans are little aware of, - - - 1049 

18, Letter from Arthur St. Clair to Governour Penn, 1050 

19, Letter from Lieutenant Governour Bull to the 

Earl of Dartmouth, .... 105O 

19, Philadelphia Committee order the Association of 
the Butchers, in the City and Suburbs of Phil- 
adelphia, to be printed, .... 1050 
19, Meeting of Committee for Fairfax County, Vir. 
ginia. Irish Linens imported in the Ship 
Hope, from Belfast, directed to be sold agree, 
ably to the Tenth Article of Association, - 1051 
19, Meeting of the Committee of Observation, for 
Gloucester County, Virginia. Committee of 
Correspondence appoint^, - . t 1051 

19, Committee of Observation for Elizabethtovm, 

in New-Jersey. Resolution relative to Riv- 
ington's Gazette, ..... 1052 

20, Letter from London to a Gentleman of New- 

York. Efforts of the Ministry to accomplish 
their designs on the Colonies, ... 1052 

20, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Chester Comity, 
Pennsylvania. Committee of Observation ap- 
pointed. Provincial Congress recommended, 1052 

20t United Colonies extremely active and zealous in 

the common cause, ..... 1053 

20, Letter from a Gentleman in Boston to Mr. Riv- 

ington. Account of the proceedings at Ports- 
mouth, in New. Hampshire, and the capture of 
Fort William and Mary, .... 1053 

21, Meeting of Committee for Halifax County, North 

Carolina. No dealings permitted with An- 
drew Miller, who has refused to sign the Asso- 
ciation, 1055 

21, Meeting of the Committee for Prince George's 

County, Maryland. Eight hundred and thir- 
ty-three Pounds to be raised by subscription, 
and ten Companies to be enrolled in the Coun- 
ty, 1056 

22, Meeting of Freeholders of Orange County, Vir- 

ginia. Committee of Observation elected, - 1056 

23, Circular Letter from the Committee of Corres- 

pondence of Philadelphia, to the Committee of 
Inspection of the several Counties in Pennsyl- 
vania, .--.... 1056 
22, Letter from Timothy Ruggles to the Printers of 

the Boston Newspapers, .... 1057 
Association proposed by Mr. Ruggles, to be sign, 
ed by the People of Massachusetts, to oppose 
the Congress, and support the King, - - 1057 

22, Letter from Arthur Lee to Richard Henry Lee, 1058 

23, Meeting of Inhabitants of Williamsburg, in Vir- 

ginia. Committee of Observation appointed, 1059 
23, Meetmg of Freeholders of Accomack County, 
in Virginia. Committee of Observation ap- 
pointed, 1059 

23, Meeting of Gentlemen, Freeholders, and others, 

FOCETH SeEIES. 



CONTENTS. 



LXXXII 



1774. 



of St. Mary's County, Maryland. Commit- 
tees of Observation and Correspondence, and 
Delegates to the Convention, appointed, - 1060 
Dec.23, Meeting of Committee for Anne Arundel Coun- 
ty, Maryland, 1060 

24, Committee for Anne Arundel County, Maryland. 
Resolution relating to Thomas Charles Wil- 
liams, and Mr. Williams's acknowledgement, 1061 

24, Letter from Governour Dunmore to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. Every County in Virginia has 
its Committee, and is, besides, raising an Inde- 
pendent Company, for the avowed purpose of 
being employed against Government, if occa- 
sion requires. There is not a Justice of the 
Peace in Virginia that acts, except as a Com- 
mittee-man. The Association will defeat it- 
self The Non-Exportation Agreement will 
produce distress ; and Manufactures cannot, 
advantageously, be carried on in Virginia, - 1062 

24, Meeting of the Inhabitants of King's District, 
Albany County, New- York. Will, at the 
risk of their lives, suppress every Meeting, 
Association, or Combination, which may, in 
any wise, obstruct the due Administration of 
Justice, under the King, in the Province, - 1063 

24, Address from " A Watchman," to the Inhabit- 
ants of British America, - . - . 1063 

24, Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York, 1065 

24, Letter from Philadelphia to a Member of the 
British Parliament. A Manufactory of Gun- 
powder begun in Pennsylvania, where there 
are Gunsmiths enough to make one hundred 
thousand Stand of Arms in a year, - - 1066 

26, Letter from Philadelphia to a Member of the 
British Parliament. The Ministry who be- 
lieve the military preparations in the Colonies 
have been recommended and taught by Gene- 
ral Lee, are entirely mistaken. The Ameri- 
cans were determined to seal their love of Li- 
berty with their blood, long before they heard 
the name of that Officer, .... 1066 

26, Letter from London to a Gentleman in Vir- 
ginia. The Petition of the Congress favour- 
ably received in England. Lord Chatham 
commends both the Petition and the other Pro- 
ceedings in the highest terms, - - - 1 067 

26, Letter from London to a Gentleman in Virginia. 
The universal approbation the Proceedings of 
the Congress meets with in England, has dis- 
concerted the Ministry, who appear unwilling 
to retract, and unable to proceed, - - 1067 

26, Letter from Arthur Lee to Richard Henry Lee, 1068 

26, Letter from an Officer in the Army, at Boston, to 
a Gentleman in Edinburgh. The Army is 
in high spirits, and the Town is quiet. "The 
back settlements, in general, disapprove of the 
Non-Importation Resolves, ... 1068 

26, Letter from Governour GSage to the Earl of 

Dartmouth, 1069 

26, Proclamation of Governour Wentworth, for ap- 

prehending and bringing to condign punish, 
ment those who were guilty of the treason- 
able insults and outrages at his Majesty's Cas- 
tle, William and Mary, on the 14th and 15th 
of this month, ..... 1069 

27, Account of the seizure of Powder and Arms, at 

New. York, 1070 

28, Humble Petition and Memorial of the Assembly 

of Jamaica, to the King's Most Excellent Ma- 
jesty, in Council, 1072 

28, Address to the Inhabitants of North America, in 

general, and those of the Province of New- 
York, in particular, in defence of the Con- 
gress, 1074 

29, Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town of Fair-- 

field, in Connecticut. Approve the Associa- 
tion, and appoint Committee of Observation. 
Committee to attend a County Congress, and a 
Committee of Correspondence, appointed, - 1 075 

30, Letter from Governour Eden to the Earl of 

Dartmouth. The People of Maryland will 
undergo any hardship, rather than submit to 
the Tax on Tea ; and will support the Asso- 
ciation, even if it causes the total ruin of their 

Trade, 1076 

30, Meeting at Oyster Bay, in Queen's County, 
New- York, called to choose a Committee. — 



UCXXIII 

1774. 



CONTENTS. 



LXXXIV 



The Meeting determined to be illegal, and ad- 
joumed without transacting any business, - lOTo 
De«.30, Letter from Joseph Trumbull to Govemour 
Trumbull. A supply of Ammunition should 
be procured, at tlie Colony's expense, as early 
as possible, • - - ■ " "' 
30, Mectijig of Freeholders and other Inhabitants of 
Boston. Report on the Letter from General 
Gage to Peyton Randolph, President of the 
Congress, adopted, and to be forwarded to Mr. 
Randolph. Thanks to the Colonies, for their 
liberal Donations. Delegates to the Provmcial 
Congress appointed, - - - - 10/7 

30, Letter from Thomas Gushing to Josiah Qumcy, 

Junior, ." '0^0 

31, Letter from a Mercantile House at Yorkshire,^ m 

England, to a Gentleman in New- York. The 
Resolves of the Congress will have no effect in 
England. Parliament cannot take notice of 
them. Manidactures in England in a flour- 
ishing condition, and Trade scarcely ever so 
goodVfore, '080 

3 1 , Letter from Govemour Penn to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. A general disposition every where to 
adhere to the Resolutions of the Congress. In 
Philadelphia the Committees have undertaken 
to regulate the disposition of all British Goods 
imported since the first of December, - - 1081 

3 1 . Lihabitants of Maryland forming Military Com- 
panies, ...•'•.•■- 1081 

1775. ^ ^ 

Jan. 2, Meeting of the Freeholders of Richmond Coun- 
ty, Virginia. Delegates to the Colony Con- 
gress appointed. Instructions to the Delegates, 1021 

2, Meeting of Inhabitants of Charles County, Mary- 

land. Delegates to the Convention, and Com- 
irdttees for general Subscription in each Coun- 
ty, appointed. Members added to the Commit- 
tee of Observation, - - - - - 1081 

3, Meeting of the West India Merchants, in Lon- 

don. Letter from the Planters. General 
Meeting of Merchants and Planters called, - 1082 
3, Letter from London to a Merchant in New- 
York. Proceedings of the Congress has 
alarmed Lord North, ... - 1083 

3. Meeting of the Freeholders of Middlesex Coun- 

ty, New-Jersey. Committees of Observation, 
for the several Districts of the County, ap- 
pointed, - - - - - - 1083 

16, Meeting of the General Committee of Observa- 
tion for Middlesex County, New- Jersey. Pro- 
ceedings of the Congress approved. Commit- 
tee of Correspondence appointed. Ministerial 
writers endeavouring to effect a disunion of the 
Colonies, condemned, .... 1083 

4, Circular Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to 

the Governours of the several Colonies, direct- 
ing them to use their utmost endeavours to pre- 
vent the appointment of Deputies to the Con- 
gress, in May next, .... - 1085 

4, Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. The Manufacturing Counties begin to 
suffer, ,....-. 1085 

4, Letter from London to a Gentleman in Virginia. 
Meetings of Merchants and Planters. The 
West India Planters fear ruin, if the American 
Acts are not repealed, .... 1085 

4, Meeting of the Merchants and others concerned 
in the American Commerce, at the King's 
Arms Tavern, London, .... 1086 
Speech intended to have been spoken at the 
Meeting of the North American Merchants, 
at the King's Arms Tavern, ... 1087 

6, Letter from London. Account of the Meeting of 
the Amciican Merchants, at the King's Arms 
Tavern, -- 1087 

9, Letter from Leeds to the Printer of the London 
Evening Post, contradicting the representa- 
tions in a Letter from Leeds, referred to by Mr. 
Barclay, at the Meeting, on the 4th, - - 1088 

16, Letter from David Barclay, enclosing the Letter 
from Leeds, referred to by him at the Meeting, 
on the 4th, ,...,. 1089 

21, Letter from Samuel Elam, at Leeds, avowing 
himself the writer of the Letter to Mr. Bar- 
clay, and sustaining the representations there 
made, of the effects of the American Associa- 
tion on British Manufactures, . , , ^089 



'^'''' Letter from Manchester to a Merchant in London, 
enclosing a copy of a Letter from a Merchant 
in New- York, countermanding orders for 
Goods, - - 1091 

Jan. 4, Meeting of Committee for Charles City County, 
Virginia. Direct the sale of Goods recently 
imported, ...... 1091 

4, Letter from Lieutenant Govemour Golden to the 
Earl of Dartmouth. If he finds there is not 
a majority of the Assembly, which meets on the 
1 1th, in favour of prudent measures, will pro- 
rogue them. There is still a majority of the 
respectable people in the City, who promote 
peace and discountenance violence, - - 1092 

4, Town Meeting at Barnstable, in Massachusetts. 

Refuse to purchase Arms or Ammunition, en- 
courage Minute Men, or send Delegates to the 
Provincial Congress, .... 1092 

5, An Epistle from the Meeting of Sufferings of the 

Quakers, held in Philadelphia, for Pennsylva- 
nia and New- Jersey, .... 1093 

5, Address from a FreehoWer of Essex, in New- 
Jersey, to the Committee of Essex County, 
condemning the Resolutions of Congress, - 1094 

5, Reply to the Address to the People of New- Jer- 
sey, dated November 19th, - - - 1096 
Address of the Committee of Correspondence of 
Albany, in New- York, to the Publick, - 1097 

5, Letter from the Albany to the New- York Dele- 
gates in the Continental Congress, - - 1098 

5, Letter from the Committee of Correspondence, at 

Newport, in Rhode- Island, to the Philadelphia 
Committee. The Association strictly adhered 
to by the Merchants of the Colony, - - 1098 

6, Letters at CharlcstowTi, from West Florida, with 

information of the state of Indian affairs there, 1099 
6, Meeting of Freeholders of several Towns in 
Ulster County, New- York. Approve the As- 
sociation, and all the other measures, of the late 
Congress, - - - - - .1100 

6, Letter from the Boston Committee of Donations, 
to the Philadelphia Committee, - - - 1 100 

7, Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Lieutenant 
Govemour Coldcn. The affairs of the Colo- 
nies have come to a crisis, and will be taken 
up by Parliament immediately after the holi- 
days, 1101 

Memorial of Colonel Thomas Ord, for a location 
of five thousand acres of Land in New- York, 
for his services, enclosed in the foregoing 
Letter, - 1101 

7, Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. The Resolves of Congress have pushed 
matters to an extremity, and render a complete 
decision of the dispute inevitable. The ques- 
tion now is. Whether America shall be inde- 
pendent of, or subordinate to, the Parliament, 1101 

7, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Woodbridge, in 
Middlesex County, New- Jersey. Committee 
of Observation appointed. Determination to 
carry into effect the Association, - - 1102 

9, Letter from a Merchant in London to a friend in ' • 
Virginia. There is no disposition in the Cabi- 
net to give America any redress. The Colo- 
nies should preserve their union, and provide 
themselves with Manufactures, Arms, and Am- 
munition, for it is more than probable they will 
have occasion for them, - . - - 1104 

9, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Epsom, in New- 
Hampshire. Pedlars to be tarred and feather- 
ed, and forfeit their Goods, ... 1105 

2, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Exeter, in New- 
Hampshire. Unanimously adopt the Associa- 
tion, appoint Committee of Observation, and 
Delegates to the Convention, to meet on the 
25th, - - - - - - - - 1105 

9, Meeting of the Freeholders of Morris County, 
New- Jersey. Unanimously agree to abide by 
the Association. Order the election of Commit- 
tees of Observation by each Township of the 
County, and elect a new Committee of Corres- 
pondence. Rivington declared an enemy to 
tlie Country, and his Newspaper to be discoun- 
tenanced for the future, - - - - 11 06 

9, Letter from Samuel Adams to the Committee ap- 
pointed in New- York to receive and transmit 
Donations for the relief of the sufferers in Bos- 
toijj - • -. - - - - 1105 



LXXXV I 

1775. 

Jan. 1 1, Meeting of Merchants, Traders, and others, con- 
cerned in the American Commerce, at the 
King's Arms Tavern, London. Petitions to 
Parliament adopted, and ordered to be pre- 
sented, .-.---. 
A circumstantial account of the Proceedings of 
the North American Merchants, held at the 
King's Arms Tavern, Cornhill, London, 



CONTENTS, 



LXXXVI 



1775. 



1107 



- 1107 



PROVINCIAL CONGRESS OF SOCTH CAROLINA. 

Jan. 1 1, List of the Members of the Congress, 

Charles Pinckney chosen President, 

American Bill of Rights, as declared by the Con- 
tinental Congress, approved. 

Reasons assigned for not stating all the Griev- 
ances, (NotP,) ------ 

The Association approved, - - - . 

Debates on agreeing to the Association, (Note,) 

Thanks to the Continental Congress, for their 
wise and spirited exertions in behalf of Ameri- 
can Liberty, ...... 

No action for any Debt to be commenced, except 
in certain cases, without the consent of the 
Committee of the District where the defendant 
resides, until it shall be otherwise ordered by 
the Provincial Congress, . . - . 

Committees for the several Districts and Parish- 
es, for carrying into execution the Association, 
and for determining upon applications relative 
to law processes, ..... 

Regulations in relation to Rice, if the exporta- 
tion shall be continued after the 10th of Septem- 
ber next, ...... 

Committees for exchanging Rice for other com. 
modifies, ...... 

The raising of Cotton, Hemp, Flour, Wool, Bar 
ley, and Hops, reconrniended, 

Publick Storekeepers to be appointed to receive 
and sell Wool, and the Linen, Woollen, and 
Cotton Manufactures of the Colony, 

The present Provincial Congress to continue un- 
til the next General Meeting of the Inhabit- 
ants, ....... 

The Parochial and District Committees requested 
to use their utmost endeavours to obtain liberal 
Donations for the relief of the suffering People 
of Boston, ...... 

Deputies to the American Congress, to meet on 
the 10th of May next, appointed, 

Address to Lieutenant Governour Bull, complain- 
ing of the long and still continued disuse of 
General Assemblies, .... 

Answer of the Lieutenant Governour, 

Inhabitants of the Colony recommended to be 
diligently attentive in learning the use of 
Arms, ...... 

Friday, the 17th of February, set apart as a day 
of Fasting, Humiliation, and Prayer, and Min. 
isters of the Gospel throughout the Colony 
requested to deliver suitable Discourses on the 
occasion, ..... 



1109 
1110 

- 1110 

1111 
1111 
1111 



1112 



1113 



1113 



1114 
1116 



- IIIG 



- IllG 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NEW-JERSEY. 

/aw. 11, Meeting of the Council, 
13, 



The Governour delivered a Speech to both 
Houses, ...... 

18, Committee to prepare an Address in answer to 
the Governour's Speech, . . . . 

24, Address reported, amended, and agreed to, 
26, Address presented to the Governour, 

Governour's Answer, . - - . . 
JFkJ. 10, Proceedings on the case of a Challenge from 
James Murdock to Lord Stirling, 
13, Adjourned to March 14th, . . . . 



1116 



1116 
1116 



1117 
1118 



- 1118 



■ 1118 



1117 

- 1117 

1117 
1118 
1119 
1119 



1120 
1121 



/an. 11, The Assembly meets, - - . . . 1121 
List of the Representatives, - . - .1121 
Speech of the Governour to the Council and 

Assembly, ...... 1121 

Governour's Speech read and committed to Com- 
mittee of the Whole House, ... 1123 
House in Committee on the Governour's Speech, 1123 
Speech further considered in Committee, - 1123 
Further considered, ..... 1123 

Further considered, 1123 

Committee to prepare an Address in answer to 

the Speech, 1124 



13, 

16, 

17, 
20, 
21, 
23, 



Committee to bring in a Bill for the Support of 
Government, ...... 

/a«.24. Proceedings of the Continental Congress, com 
municated to the House by the Delegates, 

Proceedings of the Congress unanimously ap- 
proved, ---.... 

Delegates to the Congress to meet in May next, 
appointed, ---... 

The Delegates instructed to Disagree to any Pro- 
position in the Congress to give some Colonies 
more Votes in the determination of Questions 
to bind the whole, than to others, 
25, Governour's Speech further considered in Com- 
mittee, ----... 

Committee to prepare a Petition to the King, 
praying a redress of Grievances, 
27, Bill for Support of Government, read, and second 
reading ordered, .... 

30, Address to the Governour read, and second read' 

ing ordered, . . . . . ^ . 

31, Message from the Governour, wth a Letter from 

Colonel Robertson, requesting to be allowed 
for Sheets furnished the King's Troops, 

Address to the Governour read a second time, con- 
sidered in Committee of the Whole, amended, 
and agreed to, - 
Feb. 3, Petition from a number of Inhabitants of Not- 
tingham, in Burlington County, praying some 
measures may be taken to settle the Disputes 
between Great Britain and the Colonies, 

Address of the House presented to the Govern- 
our, ....... 

Answer of the Governour, .... 

6, Proceedings on the Bill for the Support of Gov. 

ernment, ...... 

7, Governour's Message, received on the 31st of 

January, considered. Refuse to allow Colo- 
nel Robertson's charge of three hundred and 
fifty-four Pounds, seven Shillings and six 
Pence, for Sheets furnished the King's Troops 
in this Colony, ,;.... 

8, Petition from the Inhabitants of Nottingham re. 

ferred to the Committee appointed to prepare 
an Address to the King, .... 

10, Proceedings in regard to James Murdock, for 

Challenging a Member of the House, 

11, Petition to the King reported and considered in 

Committee, *».»». 
13, Further considered in Committee, agreed to, and 

ordered to be signed by the Speaker, 
Speaker permitted to enter his Dissent to the Peti^ 

tion, on the Journals of the House, 
Adjourned to March 14th, then to meet at Bur^ 

lington, ....... 



1124 



- 1124 



- 1124 
1124 



1124 



1124 



- 1125 
d 

- 1125 



1125 



- 1125 



- 1125 



- 1126 

1126 
1127 

1127 



1129 



1130 
1131 



1131 



- 1132 
1134 



1134 



CORRESPONDENCE, 



PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Jaw. 11, Letter from Connecticut to a Gentleman at New- 
port, in Rhode-Island. The whole Militia of 
the Colony ordered to train, and a quantity of 
Powder and Lead to be provided. The time 
is near when we must gird on our Swords ; the 
united Forces of America will be able to 
withstand all the Troops England can spare, 1 134 

12, Resolutions adopted by the Committee of Darien, 

in Georgia, ...... 1135 

Association of the Freemen, Freeholders, and In- 
habitants of the Province of Georgia, - 1136 

13, Meeting of the Freeholders of Charlotte County, 

Virginia. Committee of Observation appointed. 
Proceedings of the Committee, - - - II 38 
13, Letter from Hartford, in Connecticut, to a Gen- 
tleman at New- York. The Governour and 
Council met on the 4th, and have ordered Pow- 
der and Lead to be purchased at the publick 
expense ; and the Militia is mustered every 
week. Nothing but a spirit of Independence 
would suffer matters to be carried to such ex- 
tremities, ..... 

15, Letter from Bristol, in England, to a Gentleman 

in New- York, ..... 

16, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Anne Arundel 

County, Maryland, Committee of Observa- 
tion appointed. The Committee authorized to 
elect Delegates for the County to the Provin- 
cial Congress, and to nominate a Committee 
of Correspondence. Every person in the 
County who shall refuse to contribute for the 



- 1139 



1139 



LXXXVII 



1775. 



CONTENTS. 



LXXXVIII 



- 1140 



1141 



purchase of Arms and Ammunition, shall be 
considered an enemy to America, 

Objections to the Proceedings of this Meeting, 

(Note,) - - 

/«».16,Meeting of Freeholders and other Inhabitants of 
Prince George's County, Maryland. Mem- 
bers added to the Committee of Inspection, and 
to the Committee of Corrrspondt nee. Dele- 
gates to the Provincial Congress appointetl, - 
16, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Baltimore County, 
Maryland. Proceedings of the late Provin- 
cial Convention, approved. 

Delegates to the next Provincial Congress ap- 
pointed, - - - - - - ■ 

Members added to the Committee of Observation, 

Name of every person refusing to subscribe for 
the purchase of Arms and Ammmiition to be 
returned to the Committee, - - - 

Forming the Inhabitants into Military Companies, 
and resisting with force, illegal attempts upon 
their Property, not repugnant to the Oaths of 
Allegiance, ------ 

Subscriptions to be opened throughout the County 
to supply the necessities of the Suflerers at 
Boston, ------- 

Committee to purchase Powder and Lead, 
16, Meeting of the Committee of Bucks County, 
Pennsylvania. Approve the Proceedings of 
the Congress. Agree to support the Associa- 
tion. Recommend raising Money for sup- 
port of Poor Inhabitants of Boston ; and ap- 
point Committee of Correspondence, 

16, Committee of Berks County, in Pennsylvania. 

Recommend the Inhabitants of the County not 
to sell Sheep to Butchers, preserving the Wool, 
being of the greatest consequence, 

17, Meeting of the Supporters of the Bill of Rights, 

in London. Members of the Society who 
have seats in Parliament, requested to exert 
themselves in bringing to justice the advisers 
of the measures for establishing Arbitrary 
Government in the Colonies, - - - 1145 
17, Meeting of the Committee for Fairfax County, 
Virginia. Ammunition should be immediately 
provided; and the Inhabitants of the County 
requested to form themselves into Military 
Companies, ------ 1145 

Association proposed for the Inhabitants of Fair- 
fax Coimty, ------ 1145 

Meeting of the Committee of Observation for Bal- 
timore County, Maryland. Charges against 
the Rev. William Edmiston, - - - 1146 
Meeting of the West India Merchants and Plan- 
ters, in London, assembled to deliberate on the 
measures necessary to be pursued on this very 
unportant crisis, 1147 



1142 



- 1142 

1143 
1143 



1143 



1143 



1143 
1143 



1144 



1144 



17, 



18, 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF GEORGIA. 

Ja».18, Meeting of the Assembly, - . - . 1152 
Speech of Giovernour Wright to both Houses, 1 152 
Alessage from the Upper House to the Commons, 1 153 
20, Address of the Upper House of Assembly to the 

Governour, - - - - - -1154 

Answer of the Governour, - - - - 1155 

Address of the Commons House of Assembly to 
the Giovernour, - . . . . II55 

Governour's Answer, ----- 1156 

Resolutions Declaratory of the Rights of the 
Colonies, ------ 1156 

.(Association entered into by the Provincial Con- 
gress of Georgia, assembled in Savannah, on 
the 1 8th of January, and subscribed by forty- 
five Deputies, on the 23d, \vhen they chose 
Noble Wimberly Jones, Archibald Bullock, 
and John Houston, Delegates to represent that 
Colony in the Continental Congress to be held 

in May next, 1158 

Letter from Georgia, datetl February 18th, to a 
Gentleman in New- York. Proceedings of the 
Assembly, and of the Continental Congress, 1160 
Committee for St. John's Parish, Georgia, at 
Charlestown, on the 23d of February, to wait 
on the General Committee there, - - 1161 

Letter from Lyman Hall, Chairman of a Meet- 
ing held in St. John's Parish, Georgia, dated 
February 9, to the Committee of Correspond- 
ence of Charlestown, in South Carolina, - 1161 



1775. 

Jan:20. Message from the Committee of St. John's Pa- 
rish, to the Committes of the several Parishes 
of Georgia, in Congress, on the 18th of Janua- 
ry, 

Another Message to the Committees of the seve- 
ral Parishes in Congress met, on the 20th, 

Answer of the Parishes met in Congress to the 
St. John's Committee, . . - . 

Resolutions of the St. John's Committee, 

Resolution of the General Committee at Charles- 
town, South Carolina, of February 8th. Will 
have no Trade, Commerce, Dealings, or In- 
tercourse, with the Colony of Georgia, 

Chairman of the General Committee at Charles- 
town directed, on the 24th of February, to 
write to the Committee of the Parish of St. 
John, in reply to their Letter of the 9th inst., 
that they cannot trade with them ; and refer 
them to the Continental Congress, 



1162 

1162 

1162 
1162 



1163 



- 1163 



19. 



CORRESPONDENCE, PROCEEDINGS, ETC. 

Jan. 18, Meeting of the several Township Committees of 
Hunterdon County, New-Jersey. Approve 
the Association of the Continental Congress, 
and appoint a Committee of Correspondence, 

Association signed by a number of the Inhabit- 
ants of Dutchess County, New- York. No 
leg;al authority in America, but what is derived 
from the King. They will defend themselves 
whenever attacked on any pretence not war- 
ranted by the Laws of the Land : They will on 
all occasions exercise all their rights under the 
Laws of the Land, notwithstanding the Asso- 
ciation of the Continental Congress ; and will 
enforce obedience to the authority of the King, 
whenever called upon to do so, - 

Letter from Montreal. Parties in Canada, 

Letter from Shrewsbury, New- Jersey, to a Gen- 
tleman in New- York. At a meeting of Free- 
holders, on the 17th, it was determined that the 
appointment of a Committee was not only use- 
less, but would disturb the peace and quiet of 
the Township, . . . - 

Meeting of the Freeholders of Fincastle Coun- 
ty, Virginia. The Association of the Conti- 
nental Congress approved and subscribed, and 
a Committee of Observation appointed. 

Address of the People of Fincastle County, Vir- 
ginia, to the Delegates from that Colony, who 
attended the Continental Congress, 

Address from the Committee of Correspondence 
of Jamaica, in Queen's County, to the Dele- 
gates who represented New- York in the late 
Continental Congress, .... 

Answer of the Delegates, - - - - 

Letter from Massachusetts Bay to a Gentleman 
in London. The Colonies will submit to no 
terms without a restoration of their rights ; 
England cannot dragoon them out of their Li- 
berties. The Congress have drawn a constitu- 
tional line : they have claimed exclusive juris- 
diction over all internal concerns, and have left 
Great Britain the sovereignty of the Ocean, 

Meeting of the Committee of Charles County, 
Maryland. No further restraints to be laid uj)- 
on the bringing of suits at law, than is done 
by the last Provincial Convention, 

Proclamation of Governour Dunmore. Peace 
with the Shawancse, who have agreed not to 
hunt on this side the Ohio, nor to molest pas- 
sengers on that River, - - . 

Proceedings of the Convention for the Province 
of Pennsylvania, held at Philadelphia, Janua- 
ry 23d, and continued by adjournments, until 
the 2Sth, 

List of the Members, - - - - - 

The City Committee and each Coimty Commit- 
tee to have one vote in determining every ques- 
tion, ....... 

Proceedings of the Continental Congress ap- 
proved, --..--- 

Members of the Assembly to be instructed to 
procure a Law prohibiting the importation of 
Slaves into tlie Province, . . , 

In case the Trade of Philadelphia shall be sus- 
pended, in the present struggle, assistance to be 
given to the Inhabitants of die City, 



18. 
i8. 



20, 



20, 



19, 



21, 



21, 



23, 



23, 



1163 



1164 
11G4 



- 1165 



1163 



- 1165 



1166 
1167 



1167 



11G3 



- 1169 



1169 
1169 



1170 



1170 



- 1170 



1170 



LXXXIX 



CONTENTS. 



1775. 

/fflzi.23, In case of opposition to any of the Committees, 
in carrying the Continental Association into 
effect, to be assisted by other Committees, - 1 170 
If the British Government shall determine to ef- 
fect a submission to the late Acts of Parliament 
by force, it is the indispensable duty of the Peo- 
ple to resist, and at every hazard, to defend the 
Rights and Liberties of America, - - 1171 

After the first of March next, no Sheep under 

four years old, to be killed, - - - 1171 

Betting up of Woollen Manufactures, in as many 

different branches as possible, recommended, 1171 
Raising and manufacturing of Madder, Woad, 
and other Dye Stuffs, necessary in Woollen 
Manufactures, recommended, - - - 1171 
Extended cultivation of Flax and Hemp, recom- 
mended, 1171 

Making Salt, Saltpetre, and Gunpowder, recom- 
mended, 1171 

Manufacturing of Copper, Tin, and Iron, and 
making Steel, Paper, Glass, and Wool Combs, 
recommended, ..... 1171 

Printing Types made at Germantown, recom- 
mended to be used by the Printers, in prefer- 
ence to imported Types, - - - - 1 172 

Cultivation of Barley for Malt Liquors recom- 
mended, to render less necessary the consump- 
of Foreign Liquors, .... 1172 

American Manufactures to be used in prefer- 
ence to all others, - - - - - 1 172 

Societies to be established, and Premiums award- 
ed, for the encouragement of Manufactures, - 1 172 
Any Manufacturer or Vender of Goods, who shall 
sell at extravagant prices, to be advertised as 
an enemy to his Country, - - - - 1 172 

Committee of Philadelpliia appointed a Standing 
Committee of Correspondence, - - - 1172 
20, Letter from Samuel Adams, Chairman of the 
Committee to receive Donations for the Suf- 
ferers in Boston, - - - - - 1172 

24, Letter from Connecticut to a Gentleman in New- 
York. People are preparing for the worst ; 
a Park of forty pieces of Cannon may be form- 
ed in the Spring, and our Army will be pretty 
expert in most of the manceuvres, - - 1173 

24, Meeting of the Inhabitants of Frederick County, 
Maryland. Association and Resolves of the 
Congress, and Proceedings of Convention ap- 
proved. Committees of Observation and of Cor- 
respondence appointed. Committees through- 
out the County appointed to receive contribu- 
tions for purchase of Arms and Ammunition, 
and the Committee of Correspondence author- 
ized to contract for any quantity of Powder 
and Lead, - - - - - -1173 

24, The Testimony of the Quakers, given forth by a 
Meeting of the Representatives of said People, 
in Pennsylvania and New-Jersey, held at 

Philadelphia, 1176 

24, Letter from Connecticut to a Gentleman of New- 
York. Preparations of the Governour and 
Council to supply the Colony with Ammuni- 
tion and Arms, - . - . . 1177 

24, Letter from Marshfield to a Gentleman in Bos- 

ton. Troops sent by General Gage to Marsh- 
field, to preserve the peace, at the request of the 
Loyalists of that place, 7 - - - 1177 
26, Letter from Boston to a Gentleman of New- York. 
A number of the principal Inhabitants of 
Marshfield having signed General lluggles's 
Association against the Liberty Plan, the Fac- 
tion at Plymouth threatened to make them 
recant, or drive them off their Farms : General 
Gage sent Troops to protect them, and there 
has yet been no appearance of the Plymouth 
Rebels, ------ 

25, Meeting of the Committee of Northumberland 

County, Virginia. Persons published in the 
Gazette for Gambling, in violation of the Ame- 
rican Continental Association, ... 
Ja7s.25, Meeting of the Council of Pennsylvania, 

Affidavit of Samuel Whitcsill, Keeper of the Jail 
of Westmoreland County. Jail attacked, and 
Prisoners released by Major Cormolly, on the 
24th of December, 1179 

Proclamation of John Connolly, dated Fort Dun- 
more, December 30. Forbids the payment of 
Ta.xes to Collectors appointed by Pennsylva- 



- 1178 



1170 
1179 



1775. 
Jan.25, 

25, 



1179 
- 1180 



nia, and authorizes the seizure of all persons 
who may attempt to enforce the collection, - 

William Crawford, President of the Court, in 
Westmoreland County, superseded by the 
Governour and Council of Pennsylvania, for 
joining with the Government of Virginia, in 
opposing the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, in 
that County, --.... 

Letter from Philadelphia to a Gentleman in 
New- York. The Addresses to Governour Col- 
den has had a great effect in Pennsylvania : 
the New- York Assembly is revered there by 
all sensible men, for their undaunted resolu- 
tion in first making a stand against lawless 
usurpers of Power, and violators of Liberty. 
The Assembly of Pennsylvania will, it is 
hoped, rescind their approbation of the Pro- 
ceedings of Congress, - - - - 1180 

25, Convention of Deputies appointed by the several 

Towns in the Province of New-Hampshire, 

held at Exeter, 1180 

Approve the Proceedings of Congress, - - 1180 
Appoint Delegates to represent the Province in 
the Continental Congress, to be held in May 

next, 1181 

Committee to call a Provincial Convention of 

Deputies when they shall think it expedient, 1181 
Committee of Correspondence appointed, - 1181 

Address to the Inhabitants of the Province, - 1 181 

26, Meeting of the Freeholders of Pittsylvania Coun- 

ty, Virginia. Committee for enforcing and 
putting in execution the Continental Associa- 
tion, appointed, - - . - - 1 182 

26, Meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
the Precinct of Shawangunk, in Ulster Coun- 
ty, New- York. Approve of the Continental 
Association. The Pamphlet, " Free Thoughts 
on the Resolves of the Congress," burnt, - 1183 

26, Address to the People of America. The leaders 
in the Colonies aim at Lidependence. The 
consequences of their obtaining an Indepen- 
dent Republick considered, . . . 1 1 83 

26, Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in An- 

napolis. A motion made in the Assembly of 

New- York, this day, for examining the Pro- 

_ ceedings of the Congress, was thrown out, - 1188 

T.Hemarks on the vote in the Assembly of New- 

o8jI -- York, against taking into consideration the 

;,., Proceedings of the Continental Congress, - 1188 

27, Letter from Baltimore to a Gentleman in New- 

York. From the late conduct of the Council 
and Assembly of New- York, the happiest con- 
sequences to the country are anticipated. — 
Some persons in Baltimore have had the im- 
becility to approve of the frantick proceedings 
of certain Men, who lately styled themselves 
Delegates to a Provincial Congress, - - 1 190 

27, Letter from New- York to a Gentleman in Bos- \ 
ton. Notwithstanding the late vote of the As- 
sembly, there is no cause to fear New- York 
will depart from the Association. The As- 
sembly has existed since 1 769 ; and many of 
the Members, having long since forfeited the 
esteem of their constituents, are looking for 
favours from the Crown for themselves and 
families, ...... 

Meeting of the Freeholders of the Precinct of 
Hanover, in Ulster County, New- York. The 
Association unanimously approved. The 
Pamphlet, " Free Thoughts on the Resolves 
of the Congress," publickly burnt, 
Declaration of Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
Township of Jamaica, in Queen's County, 
New- York. Never gave any consent to 
choose a Committee, or pass any Resolves. 
Utterly disapprove of all unlawful meetings 
and tyrannical proceedings. Will continue 
faithful Subjects to the King; and acknow- 
ledge no Representatives but the Assembly of 
the Province, - - - - - - 1 19 1 

27, Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The Towns in Massachusetts have 
become more divided, notwithstanding the en- 
deavours to keep up their enthusiasm. A de- 
tachment sent for the protection of Marshfield 
and Scituate, upon their application. This is 
the first instance the assistance of Government 
has been requested, 1698 



27, 



27, 



1191 



1191 



XCI 

1775. 
Ja».27, 



28. 



CONTENTS. xcii 



30, 

30, 

30, 

30, 
30, 



30, 
30, 



31, 



Feb. 



Feb. 



Feb. 1 
1. 



Votes and Resolves passed at a Convention of 
Committees for the County of Worcester, in 
Massachusetts, . . - - - 

Letter from a Merchant in Annapolis, to a Gen- 
tleman in Philadelphia. They have defeated 
an insolent plan of levying Money upon his 
Majesty's faithful Subjects in Anne Arundel 
County, to raise a fund for the express purpose 
of purchasing Arms and Ammimition, to join 
the treasonable purpose projected by Adams 
and the Eastern Republicans, to carry on a 
formal Rebellion in the Colonies, 

Answer of the Governour of his Majesty's Prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania, in America, to the seve- 
ral heads of Inquiry, relative to the present 
state and condition of the said Province, trans- 
mitted by the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Dartmouth, in his Letter of July 5, 1773, 

Letter from Governour Penn to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, . . - - - 

Meeting of Freeholders in the Precinct of Wall- 
kill, Ulster County, New- York. Approve of 
the Association of the General Congress. — 
" Free Thoughts on the Resolves of the Con- 
gress," burnt, ------ 

Letter from London to a Gentleman of New- 
York. Commission sent to General Gage, to 
try and execute certain persons in the Colo- 
nies, ...---- 

To\vn Meeting of the Inhabitants of Ridgefield, 
in Cormecticut. Refuse to adopt or conform 
to the Association of the Continental Congress; 
and protest against the Congress and their 
measures, as unconstitutional, and as counte- 
nancing licentiousness. Acknowledge the 
King as the rightful Sovereign, and the King 
and Parliament as the rightful Government of 
the whole British Empire, ... 

New- York Committee appoint Sub-Committee, 
to observe the conduct of all Vessels that arrive 
after the first day of February, - . - 

Letter from New- York, to a Gentleman in Bos- 
ton. There is now no chance of the Assem- 
bly's aiding or abetting the Congress. The 
friends of Government are open-mouthed 
against the Proceedings of the Congress ; and 
no one dares, among gentlemen, to support 
them, ....... 

Meeting of the Freeholders of Westmoreland 
County, Virginia. Delegates to the Conven- 
tion elected. Instructions to the Delegates. — 
Committee of Observation appointed. 

Letter to Lord North. Proposes settling the dif- 
ferences with the Colonies, without subjuga- 
ting the Americans on the one hand, or impair- 
ing the supreme authority of the Parliament on 
the other, ..... 

Letter from Thomas Cushing to Arthur Lee. — 
The People are not dismayed at the King's 
Speech ; and if an attempt is made to carry the 
Acts of Parliament into execution, by a Mili- 
tary Force, the People of America wU make 
the last appeal. They are determined Life 
and Liberty shall go together, ... 

Letter from Annapolis, to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Thousands in Maryland would return 
to their duty and allegiance, but for the cun- 
ning of their leaders, which has rendered re- 
treat so difficult. Every man in private must 
think the Congressmen, and their sattelites the 
Committce-Men, the truest, though absurdcst, 
tyrants, that any country ever had cause to 
complain of, - - ... . 

, Letter from Colonel Adam Stephen to Richard 
Henry Lee, ---... 
Letter from Boston, to a Gentleman in Philadel- 
phia. The report that the Gluakcrs in Boston 
opened their Shops, on the day of Publick 
Thanksgiving, is without foundation, and pro- 
pagated for the most vile and malevolent pur- 
poses, ---.... 

Letter from Governour Franklin to the Earl of 
Dartmouth. Had hopes that the Assembly 
would not approve the Proceedings of the 
General Congress; but, by the artful manage- 
ment of those who espoused the measure, it 
was carried through the morning it was pro- 
posed, 



1192 



- 1194 



1194 

- 1698 



1201 



1202 



1775. 
Feb. 2, 



1202 



1203 



1203 



- 1203 



- 1204 



- 1208 



1208 



1209 



1210 



- 1697 



Declaration of sundry Inhabitants of Ridgebury, 
in the Town of Ridgefield, that, at the Meeting 
on the 30th of January, they did not vote with 
the majority against adopting the Association 
of the Continental Congress, - - - 12lt) 

4, Letter from London, to a Gentleman in Philadel- 
phia. Does not know how soon communica- 
tion with the Colonies may be cut off by hos- 
tilities. The Americans have many enemies 
in England, ...... 121 1 

4, Letter from Philadelphia, to James Rivington, 
New- York. May assure his readers that Mr. 
Dickinson has declared that " he was really 
alarmed at the proceedings of the Committee. ' 
He formerly took the lead ; at the late Provin- 
cial Congress he did not speak at all. In spite 
of the arts of the fiery Republicans, Associa- 
tions are concerting to counteract the authority 
of unconstitutional Congresses and Committees 
of all sorts, 1211 

4, Address to the Americans. It is the duty and the 
interest of the People to of5<;r terms of reconci- 
liation to the Parent State. The Congress have 
adopted such irritating measures, as disqualify 
them for offering terms of accommodation, - 1211 

Q, Meeting of the Freeholders of Lancaster County, 
Virginia. Committee to carry into effect the 
American Association, elected. Delegates to 
the Convention appointed and instructed, - 1213 

6, Letter received in New- York, from London. — 
Nothing can be more false than the represent- 
ations of hostile intentions against America, 
formed by the present Administration. The 
Americans should make the first advances to- 
wards a reconciliation. A Petition from the 
Assemblies will be attended with success, if 
their claims are accurately limited and defined, 1214 

6, Letter from Philadelphia, to a Gentleman in 
New- York. A faithful adherence to the As- 
sociation in New- York, will go far to remove 
the infamy which will fall upon that Province, 
whose defection may tend to defeat the virtu- 
ous struggles in which we are engaged, - 1215 

6, Meeting of the Freemen and Inhabitants of New- 
towTi, in Connecticut. Refuse to adopt or con- 
form to the Association, and protest against the 
Continental Congress, and their measures, as 
unconstitutional, and tending to licentiousness, 1215 

6, Town Meeting at Danbury, in Connecticut. — 
Refuse to appoint Delegates to meet the Coun- 
ty Congress, to be held at Fairfield, on the 1 4th 
instant, and rescind the vote appointing a Com- 
mittee of Inspection, - - - - 1216 
6, Handbill distributed through Boston. Let us 
seize our seducers, make peace with the Mo- 
ther Country, and save ourselves, - - 1216 

6, Letter from Boston, to a Gentleman in Philadel- 

phia. The Tories are perpetually holding up 
to view the terrifick consequences of Treason 
and Rebellion ; but they bellow to the winds. 
So generally are the principles of Liberty dis- 
seminated among the People, that nothing but 
Arms can suppress it, - - - - 1216 

7, Proceedings of the Committee of Obser^iition for 

the Borough of Norfolk, in Virginia, on a 
complaint against Dr. Gordon, ... 1217 

7, Address presented to General Gage, from Six 

Towns in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, 1218 

6, Meeting of the Merchants, Traders, and others, 
in London, concerned in the American Com- 
merce. Report of the Committee appointed to 
present the second Petition to the House of 
Commons, ...... i219 

7, Meeting of the Merchants, Traders, and others, 

in London, concerned in American Commerce. 
Report of the Committee appointed to present 
the Petition to the House of Lords, - - 1220 

8, Address of the Merchants, Traders, and Manufac- 

turers, of Birmingham, concerned in the Trade 

to America, to Mr. Edmund Burke, - - 1221 

8, Meeting of the Committee for Westmoreland 
County, Virginia. Pedlars required to pro- 
duce proof to the Committee that their Goods 
were imported before the 1st of February, - 1222 

8, Letter from Doctor John Connolly to Colonel 
George Washington. Wishes to nave informa- 
tion how he is to proceed with the Mingoe 
Prisoners, ...... 1222 



XCIII 

1775. 
Feb. 9, 



CONTENTS. 



3ECIV 



Meeting of the Conunittee of Correspondence of 
Brentwood, in New-Hampshire. Will abide 
by the advice of the Continental Congress. 
Pedlars not permitted to sell, and persons who 
trade with them, or entertain them, to be treated 
as enemies to the Country, - - - 1222 

10, Committee of Portsmouth, New- Hampshire, for 
carrying the Association of the Continental 
Congress into execution, discountenance Ga- 
ming, 1223 

10, Letter from London to a Gentleman in Virginia. 
Parliament have declared Massachusetts in re- 
bellion. Americans must now look firmly 
forward. Submission and Chains, or. Resist- 
ance and Liberty, is the alternative, - - 1223 

10, Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. Determination of the King, and pre- 
parations in England, to make the Colonies 
submit, 1224 

10, Letter from London to a Gentleman in New- 
York. All hopes of conciliation between 
England and her Colonies, are entirely at an 
aid. The King and Parliament have pro- 
nounced their destruction. Fleets and Armies 
are preparing with the utmost diligence for 
that purpose, ...... 1225 

10, Information received at Williamsburg, from the 

Indian Frontiers, and from Pittsburgh, - 1226 

10, Premiums offered by the Committee of Bedford, 
in Pennsylvania, for the encouragement of In- 
du.stry and Manufactures, .... 1226 

10, Address of the Grand Jury to his Majesty's Jus- 
tices, assembled at the General Quarter Ses- 
sions of the Peace, for the City and County of 
New- York, 1227 

10, Letter from Connecticut to Mr. Rivington. A 
Presbyterian Minister, near North- Haven, has 
declared he had practised the Military Exercise, 
with the intention of going to Boston against 
the King's Troops, 1227 

10, Letter from Massachusetts to a Gentleman in 

London, - - 1227 

11, Letter from the Committee of Correspondence for 

Bedford County, Pennsylvania, to Joseph Read. 
Approve of the Resolves of the Convention, 
and bound by them, .-..■« 1229 
1 1, The Royal Standard erected on a mast seventy- 
five feet high, at Shawangunk, in Ulster Coun- 
ty, New- York, by a respectable number of his 
Majesty's loyal Subjects - . . . 1230 
11, Letter from Kent County, in Delaware, published 

in the Pennsylvania Ledger, - - - 1230 

Letter from the Committee for Kent County, Del- 
aware, February 15, to the Committee of Cor- 
respondence for Philadelphia, in relation to the 
Letter published in the Ledger, of the 1 1th in- 
stant, 1231 

Letter from Philadelphia to Mr. Rivington, Feb- 
ruary 16. Tyranny of the Committee — they 
are aiming at a general Revolution, and pro- 
mote every measure to overthrow the Consti- 
tution, 1231 

Letter from Philadelphia to a Gentleman in New- 
York, February 20, Proceedings in regard 
to the Letter said to be from Kent County, in 

Delaware, 1233 

13, Thanks of the Common Council of London to 
Lord Chatham, for offering his Plan for con- 
ciliating the differences between Great Britain 
and the Colonies, ..... 

Answer of Lord Chatham to the Common Coun- 
cil of London, ..... 
13, Letter from London. Nothing will move the 
King and his Ministers, but absolute submis- 
sion or a successful resistance. The Ministry 
affect to believe there will be no resistance, 
and assure themselves of the defection of New. 
York, 

13, Committee of Elizabethtown, in New- Jersey, di- 

rect the suspension of all Trade and Inter- 
course whatsoever, with Staton Island, in New- 
York, 

1 4, Meeting of the Committee of York County, Penn- 

sylvania. Recommend the collection and pre- 
servation of Gunpowder; encourage Military 
Associations; direct the transmission of Con- 
tributions to Boston ; and appoint Delegates to 
the next Convention, . . , , 1235 



1235 
1236 

1236 

1239 
1239 



1233 
1233 



- 1234 



- 1234 



1775. 
Jt!& 14, Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabitants 
of the City and County of Burlington, in New- 
Jersey. Association of the General American 
Congress, read and approved, and Committee 
of Observation appointed, .... 

14, Two Inhabitants of Ridgofield not permitted to 
remain for the night in Wethersfield, but sent 
back to Ridgefield, under an escort, 

14, Resolutions adopted at a Meeting of the Delegates 
from the several Toutis in the County of Fair- 
field, in Connecticut, .... 
Association of the Liberty Men of Ridgebury, in 
Fairfield County, Connecticut, ... 

14, Letter from Samuel Adams to Arthur Lee, 

15, Meeting of the Committee of Observation for the 

Township of Hanover, Morris County, New- 
Jersey. Will enforce and comply with every 
Article of the Association of the General Con- 
tinental Congress; will have no dealings with 
James Rivington, and will discountenance any 
Post-Rider, or Carrier, who shall bring his 
Pamphlets or Paper into the County, - 1240 

16, The Governour of Pennsylvania presents to the 

Council the complaint of Mr. Waterhouse, In- 
spector of his Majesty's Customs, that the Ma- 
gistrates and Sheriff of Chester County had 
refused their aid in preventing the rescue of a 
Vessel seized on the Delaware, with contra- 
band Goods, - - - - - - 1241 

Letter from Francis Welch, a Tide- Waiter, dated 
February 8th, communicating a statement of 
the facts in the case complained of by Mr. 
Waterhouse, ...... 1241 

•i^'he Council are of opinion the Magistrates and 

'SiA - Sheriff could not legally afibrd the assistance 

that was required of them, - - 1242 

16, Letter from the Committee of Correspondence of 
Philadelphia, to the Committee of Correspond- 
ence of New- York. The frequent publica- 
tions in New- York, of dissensions in Philadel- 
phia, are false representations. The Commit- 
tee have not met with the least impedunent in 
carrying into execution the Association. The 
Inhabitants of Pennsylvania continue immove- 
ably firm to the cause of Liberty, and will, \vith 
inviolable faith, observe the conduct prescribed 
by the Continental Congress, ... 

16, A Ship at New- York, from Glasgow, with a 

cargo of Dry Goods, which did not arrive 
within the time prescribed in the Association, 
not permitted to land her cargo, 

17, Letter from Adam Stephen to Richard Henry 

Lee, - - - - - - 

17, Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The King's Speech has cast a damp 
upon the Faction ; but they still entertain hopes 
that the Resolves of Congress will work in 
their favour. The loyalty in the New- York 
Assembly has had a very good effect, and it is 
said they are changing their sentiments at Phil- 
adelphia, ...... 

17, Meeting of the Freeholders of the Tovm of Ply- 
mouth, in New-Hampshire. Instructions to 
John Fenton, Representative of the Town in 
the Assembly, . , . - . 

17, Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 

mouth, ...---- 

18, Meeting of the Committee of Cumberland Cotm- 

ty, Virginia. Premium for the manufacture of 
Gunpowder, ...--- 
Address of the Committee of Cumberland County, 
to the Delegates who represented Virginia in 
tlie late Continental Congress, ... 

19, Letter from Boston, to a Gentleman in New- 

York. The Provincial Congress, distracted 
and divided in opinion, separated without do- 
ing any thing more than is in their published 
Resolves ; the principal object of their meeting 
was to cajole the men of property, but no im- 
pression could be made on them. Their dupes 
drop from them very fast, and it is expected the 
few Demagogues will soon be left alone, 

20, Meeting of the Freeholders of Hanover County, 

Virginia. Delegates to the Convention chosen, 
andlnstructed to consent to the imposition of 
any Tax the Convention may judge proper for 
defraying the expense of any measure neces- 
sarily adopted for securing American Liberty, 



1243 

1243 
1244 



- 1244 

1245 

1708 

1247 
1247 



- 1248 



1248 



xcv 

1775. 
JrtJi.20, 



CONTENTS. 



XCVI 



20, 
20, 

20, 

20. 
21, 

21. 

22. 
22. 



1249 



- 1249 



1249 

1250 
1251 

1251 
1251 

1709 
1252 



1252 



Meeting of the Committee of Observation for the 
Township of Woodbridge, in New-Jers'y. 
Suspend ail Trade and intercourse with the 
Inhabitants of Staten Island, except such of 
ihem as have openly approved the Association, 
20, TowTi Meeting at Marshlield, in Massachusetts. 
Refuse to adopt the Resolves and Recommend- 
ations of the Continental or Provincial Con- 
gresses, or any illegal assemblies whatsoever. 
Vote the Thanks of the Town to General 
Gage and Admiral Graves for theix assistance 
and protection, - - " , T, ■" 

Protest of sixty-four of the Inhabitants of Marsh- 
field, against the Proceedmgs of the Town 
Meeting held tliere on the 20th of February, 

Address of the Inhabitants of Marshfield, assem- 
bled in Towni Meeting, to General Gage, 

Answer to the Address, - - - 

Address of the Inhabitants of Marshfield, assem- 
bled in Town Meeting, to Admiral Graves, 

Answer of Admiral Graves, - " " 

Letter from Governour Gage to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, ------ 

Letter from Joseph Warren to Arthur Lee, 

Resolutions adopted at a Court of Common 
Council, held at Guildhall, in London. The 
Americans are justified in their opposition to 
the late Acts of Parliament affecting the Colo- 
nies, . - - - - '. e 

Proclamation of the Governour of Georgia, of- 
fermg a reward to any person who will give 
information against one or more of the persons 
%vho rescued certain Goods seized by the Cus- 
tom House Officers at Savannah, and tarred 
and feathered a Tide-Waiter, - - - 1253 

Meeting of the Freeholders of Augusta County, 
Virginia. Delegates to the Convention chos- 
en. Instructions to the Delegates, - -1253 

Address of the Freeholders of Augusta County, 
to the Delegates from Virginia, in the late 
Continental Congress, .... 1255 

Answer to the Address, .... 1255 

Address of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
the County of Botetourt, to the Delegates from 
Virginia in the late Continental Congress, - 1255 

22, Plan of an American Manufactory, - - 1256 

23, Pilots at New- York ordered not to bring up 

the Ship Beulah, and Sub-Committee of Ob- 
servation appointed to observe her conduct 
Soon as she receives Supplies, is to be de- 
spatched without being permitted to enter the 
Harbour, 1257 

23, Proceedings at a meeting of the Coinmittees of 
Observation of several Towns in Suffolk 
County, New- York, .... 1257 

23. Association signed by one hundred and forty-one 
Freeholders and Inhabitants of the To^vn of 
Reading, in Fairfield County, Connecticut 
Will defend, maintain, and preserve, at the 
risk of their lives and properties, the preroga- 
tive of the Crown, and the privileges of the 
Subject, from all attacks of any rebellious body 
of Men, and any Conmiittees of Inspection, or 
Correspondence, . . - . . 1258 

Names of seventy-four of the signers of the As- 
sociation, published by order of the Committee 
of Observation, for the Town of Reading, - 1259 
List of all the Signers to the Reading Associa- 
tion, communicated to Mr. Ri\'ington, by John 
Lyon, one of the subscribers, ... 1260 

23, Address to the Provincial Congress of Mas- 
sachusetts. Enumeration of some of the in- 
stances of cruelties, insults, and indignities 
inflicted on the quiet and peaceable Subjects of 
the King, in Massachusetts, ... 1260 

22, Instructions of General Gage to Captain Brown 
and Ensign DBemicre, to go through the 
Counties of Suffolk and Worcester, and make 
sketches of the Roads, Rivers, Towns, and 
places for Encampment, and to ascertain, what 
Forage and Pro\isions the Counties could sup- 
ply, 1263 

Narrative of Ensign DBemicre of the Examina- 
tion of the Coimtry, under General Gage's In- 
structions, ...... 1263 

26, Regiment of British Troops under the command 
of Colonel Leslie, land at Marblehead, and 
march to Salem, 1268 



- 12G9 



1269 



27. 



Jan.il, Goods, under the Tenth Article of the Association, 
thrown overboard at Cliarlestown, by order 
of the Committee of Observation, 
27 Philadelphia Committee. Recommend the total 
disuse of East India Tea, in compliance A\ith 
the Third Article of the Association, 
Meeting of a number of the Freeholders and In- 
habitonlsof the Townof New-Milford, in Litch- 
field County, Connecticut Protest against 
the Towi of New-Milford's adopting the Re- 
solves of the Continental Congress. Acknow- 
ledge the King and Parliament as the Consti- 
tutional Government over every part of the 
British Empire, . . . - 

Letter from Philadelphia, to a Gentleman in 
New- York. A motion in the Assembly, to 
petition the I^ng, strenuously opposed. Mr. 
Dickinson acquired fresh laurels in the De- 
bate. The motion will be rejected by a great 
majority, .... 

Letter from Philadelphia to Mr. Rivington. The 
opposition to the Congress has done some good 
in the Assembly. Should the Assembly agree 
to petition, it will be done in a very dutiful style, 1270 



27, 



28, 



1270 



- 1270 



1271 



COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Jan.25, The Governour submits information of further 
violences committed by the People of Virginia, 

in Westmoreland, 1271 

Letter from Robert Haima to the Governour. 
Attack on the Jail of Westmoreland County 
by the Militia and People of Virginia, 
8, Letter from John Carnaghan to Governour Penn, 
with four Depositions respecting the attack on 
the Jail of Westmoreland County, - - 1271 

13, Letter from Robert Hanna, and others, to Gov- 

ernour Penn, on the same subject, - - 1273 

14, Letter from Devereux Smith to Governour Penn. 

Complains of the proceedings of the Virgi- 
nians, and encloses Depositions, ... 
March Letter from Governour Penn to Lord Dunmore. 
1 , Remonstrates against his proceedings in relation 
to Westmoreland County. Will forbear to 
take any steps in the affair fill he has an an- 
swer to this Letter, which he expects by the 
return of the Express, .... 



1274 



1276 



PENNSYLVANIA ASSEMBLY. 

FcJ.20, The House met pursuant to their adjournment. 

Speaker communicated a Letter from the Speaker 
of House of Assembly of New-Jersey, with 
Resolves, approving the Proceedings of the 
Continental Congress, .... 

Instructions to the Delegates to the Continental 
Congress considered, .... 

Message from the Governour, recommending a 
Petition to the King for the redress of any 
Grievances which the People apprehend they 
have reason to complain of, ... 

The Governour's Message considered. 

Further considered and postponed, 

Consideration will be resumed on the 8th of 
March next, ...... 

March Motion that the Doors be opened on the 8th, for 



21, 



23, 

24, 
25, 



4, 
7, 



9. 



13. 



15, 



the Inhabitants to hear the Debates, 
Message from the Governour, requesting pro'vi- 
sion to be made for a number of Indians, re- 
cently arrived at Pliiladelphia, 
Representation and Petition from the American 
Philosophical Society, . . . . 

Consideration of the Governour's Message re- 
sumed, and Committee appointed to prepare an 
Answer, ...... 

Answer to Governour's Message considered, 
Motion to Recommit rejected, . . . 

Ordered to be Transcribed and sent to the Gov- 



1275 



1273 
1277 



1277 
1277 
1277 

1277 

1278 



- 1278 
1278 



1280 
1280 
1280 



ernour, . . - 
Answer of the House to 
sage. 



the Governour's Mes- 



- 1280 



1280 



The Speaker laid before the House a Letter, 
datetl the 24th of December last, from William 
Bollan, Benjamin Franklin, and Arthur Lee, 

William Morton chosen Speaker in place of Ed- 
ward Biddle, who is prevented, by sickness, 
from attending the House, ... 

Adjourned to the first of May next, 



1281 



1282 

1282 



XCVll 



1775. 



CONTENTS. 



XCVIII 



1775. 



NEW-YORK ASSEMBLY. 



/ftw.lO, Meeting of the Assembly, . - - - 
13, Speech of Lieutenant Governour Golden to the 
Council and Assembly- Advises them to peti- 
tion the King for redress of Grievances, 

Committee appointed to prepare an Address, in 
answer to the Speech, ... 

Consideration of the Speech referred to a Com- 
mittee of the Whole House, 

Committee appointed to correspond with Ed- 
mund Burke, Agent of this Colony at the 
Court of Great Britain, laid before the House 
several Letters received from him, 
17, The Speaker, from the Committee of Corres- 
pondence, laid before the House several Letters 
and other Papers, .... 
18, Address of the Council, in answer to the Lieu, 
tenant Governour's Speech, 

Answer to the Council, .... 

20, Address of the Assembly, in answer to the 
Lieutenant Governour's Speech, 

Answer of the Lieutenant Grovernour, 
26, Message from the Lieutenant Governour. Boim- 
dary of New- York and Pennsylvania, 

Motion by Colonel Ten Broeck, that the House 
take into consideration the Proceedings of the 
Continental Congress, ... 

Colonel Philips's motion for the Previous Ques- 
tion, ....... 

Message from the Lieutenant Governour, 

The Speaker laid before the House a Letter from 
ihe Speaker of the Assembly of New- Jersey, 
enclosing simdry Resolutions passed by that 
House, 

On the motion of Colonel Livingston, the House 
agreed to take into consideration the state of 
the Colony ; to enter such Resolutions as they 
may agree to on their Journals, and to prepare 
a Petition to the King, ... 

On motion of Mr. De Lancey, the House agreed 
to send with the Petition to his Majesty, a Me- 
morial to the House of Lords, and a Repre- 
sentation and Remonstrance to the Commons, 

Committee appointed to prepare a state of the 
Grievances of the Colony, 
Ftb. 2, House in Committee on the Lieutenant Govern- 
our's Speech, ...... 

7, Message from the Lieutenemt Governour, 

Speech further considered in Committee, 

16, Colonel Schuyler's motion that certain Letters 

be published ; Rejected, .... 

1 7, Colonel Woodhull's motion for a Vote of Thanks 

to the Delegates from New- York in the late 
Continental Congress ; Rejected, 
21, Colonel P. Livingston's motion for a Vote of 
Thanks to the Merchants and Inhabitants for 
their firm adherence to the Association of the 
Grand Continental Congress; Rejected, 
23, Report from the Committee to prepare a state of 
the Grievances, referred to a Committee of the 
Whole House, .... 

Mr. Thomas's motion for taking into considera- 
tion the necessity of appointing Delegates to 
meet the General Congress on the 10th of 
May next ; Rejected, . . . . 

Speech of Mr. Brush, of Cumberland County, on 
this question, ...... 

Speech of Mr. Wilkins, of Westchester County, 
March The House in Committee on the state of Griev- 



27, 

28, 



31, 



1281 



1283 

- 1283 



- 1283 



- 1283 



- 1284 

1284 
1285 

1285 
1286 

- 1286 



- 1286 

1287 
1287 



1287 



- 1288 



1288 

- 1288 

1288 
1288 
1289 

1289 



- 1289 



- 1290 



- 1290 



1290 

1290 
1293 



March, Resolutions of the Committee of the Whole, pro- 



1 



16, 
23, 

24, 



25, 



28, 



31, 



31, 



1304 
1307 

- 1308 

1309 
1312 

1813 

1313 



1316 
1318 



1321 
1321 

- 1321 



1322 

1323 

1323 
1324 
1324 



9, 



11, 
13, 



ances of the Colony, .... 1297 

State of Grievances further considered in Com- 
mittee, 

Proceedings and Votes on the Report on the 
Grievances of the Colony, 

Committee appointed to prepare a set of Resolu- 
tions agreeable to Colonel P. Livingston's mo- 
tion of January 31, ..... 

Report of the Committee ; Resolutions agreed to, 1302 

Committees appointed to prepare a Petition to the 
King, a Memorial to the Lords, and a Repre- 
sentation and Remonstrance to the Commons, 

Letter from Edmund Burke, laid before the House 
by the Committee, ..... 

Letter from William BoUan, Benjamin Franklin, 
and Arthur Lee, dated December 24, laid be- 
fore the House by the Speaker, ... 

Message from the Lieutenant Governour, 

Fourth Series. 



- 1297 



- 1297 



1302 



1303 
1304 



1304 
1304 



viding for the support of the Government in 
the Colony for the year, .... 

Petition, Memorial, and Remonstrance, reported, 

Message from the Lieutenant Governour. Dis- 
turbances in Cumberland County, 

Proceedings and Votes on the Petition to the 
King, 

Votes on the Memorial to the House of Lords, 

Proceedings on the Representation and Remon- 
strance to the House of Commons, 

The humble Petition of the General Assembly of 
the Colony of New- York, to the King, 

The Memorial of his Majesty's faithful Subjects 
the Representatives of the Colony of New- 
York, in General Assembly convened, to the 
House of Lords, ..... 

The Representation and Remonstrance of the 
General Assembly of the Colony of New- 
York to the House of Commons, 

The Petition, Memorial, and Remonstrance, di- 
rected to be forwarded with all convenient speed 
to Edmund Burke, ..... 

Message from the Lieutenant Governour, 

Proceedings and Votes in regard to the Cum- 
berland Riots, - - - . 

The Speaker directed to transmit to the Speakers 
of the several Houses of Assembly, on the 
Continent, copies of the List of Grievances, 
and the Resolutions thereof, in consequence ; 
and the Petition, Memorial, and Remonstrance, 

Proceedings and Votes in relation to Riots in Al- 
bany and Charlotte Counties, ... 

Reward for the apprehension of Ethan Allen, 
Seth Warner, and others, .... 
Apr. 1, Committee of Correspondence appointed, 

3, Adjourned to May 3, 

PROVINCIAL CONGRESS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Feb. 1, List of the Members, 1323 

John Hancock chosen President, ... i328 

Committee to take into consideration the state and 
circumstances of the Province, ... 1328 

The Reverend Dr. Appleton appointed Chaplain, 1328 

Monitors appointed, ..... 1328 

Committee appointed to consider the Resolutions 
of several Committees respecting the working 
of the Inhabitants of Boston for the Troops, 

Debates and Resolutions of the Congress to be 
kept secret, ...... 

Committee to publish in a Pamphlet some of the 
doings of the late Congress, 

Committee to prepare an Address to the Inhabit- 
ants of the Province, 

Delegates to the Congress in May next, to con- 
tinue to the 31st day of December, and no 
longer, 

Troop of Horse raised by John Sawyer and 
others, of Rowley, - . . 

The Secretary empowered to adjourn the Con- 
gress in the absence of the President, - 

Inhabitants recommended not to supply the 
Troops with any thing that may enable them 
to annoy the People; all who do so to be 
deemed inveterate enemies to America, 

Address to the Inhabitants reported, considered, 
and recommitted, 

Again reported, considered, and recommitted. 

Committee to prepare a Resolution recommend- 
ing the saving of Linen Rags, . - - 

Committee of Safety appointed, with power to 
muster as many of the Militia of the Province 
as they shall deem proper, completely armed 
and accoutred, to oppose any attempt that may 
be made to carry into execution the late Acts 
of Parliament, ... 

General Officers appointed to act imder the au- 
thority of the Committee of Safety, 

A number of Letters, said to be from England, 
read and referred to the Committee on the state 
of the Province, - - - - - 

Address to the Inhabitants of the Province, again 
reported, amended, and agreed to. 

Address from the Committee of Correspondence 
of Scituate, in relation to a number of British 
Troops now stationed in Marshfield, read and 
referred, .... 



2, 
3, 



4. 



6, 



7, 



9, 



1328 



1329 



- 1329 
it- 

- 1329 



1329 



- 1329 
1329 



1330 

1330 
1330 

1330 



- 1332 
1332 



1332 
- 1332 



- 1334 



% 



CONTENTS. 



xcix 

1775. 
Feb. 9, Committee to bring in a Resolve empowering 
the Committee of Safety to take possession of 
the Warlike Stores of the Province, 

Committee to bring in a Resolve directing how 
the Ordnance in the Province shall be used, 

Committee to make a return of the Officers and 
number of the Militia, and Minute Men, to 
report, as soon as possible. 

Committee to prepare for publication the Names 
of the Mandamus Counsellors who have refused 
to resign, ...--- 

Inhabitants of the Province requested to preserve 
all their Linen and Cotton Rags, to aid an Es- 
tablishment for making Paper, - - - 

10, Committee to observe the motion of the Troops 

said to be on their road to Cambridge, 

Committee to sit in the recess of the Congress, 
with power to regulate the Constitutional Army 
wiiich may be raised in the Province, 

Committee to revise the Commission of the Com- 
mittee of Safety, ' ' ' ' 'r 

The Secretary directed to publish the Names of 
the Mandamus Counsellors now in Boston, 

Petition from the Delegatesof the several Tow-ns 
in the Counties of Hampshire and Berkshire, 

11, Committee of Siifety authorized to appoint a 

Commissary to deliver Warlike Stores to 
the Constitutional Army when they take the 
field, ..-'.--- 

Committee of Safety requested to possess them- 
selves of all Bayonets and other implements of 
war, purchased at the expense of the Province, 
and not now in their possession, - 

Committee appointed to report a Resolve, ex- 
pressing the determination of the People, coolly 
and resolutely, to support their Rights and Pri- 
vileges, at all hazards, 

1 3, Committee appointed to inquire into the state of 

the Militia, ..... 
Committee to inquire what is necessary to en 
courage the making of Saltpetre, 

14, Report of the Committee on the state of the Mi- 

litia, - - 

15, Committee of Correspondence of Boston directed 

to open and establish an intimate correspond- 
ence and connection with the Inhabitants of 
Q,uebeck, ....-- 

Resolutions for the encouragement of the manu- 
facture of Saltpetre in the Province, 

Conunittee to bring in a Resolve holding up to 
the People the imminent danger they are in 
from the present disposition of the British Min- 
istry, ....... 

Inhabitants of the Province requested not to trade 
with Pedlars, .-.--. 

John Whitcomb elected a General Officer, 

Militia and Minute Men earnestly requested to 
spare neither time, pains, nor expense, in per- 
fecting themselves, forthwith, in Military Dis- 
cipline, ..-...- 

Conduct of the Committees of Correspondence 
of Plymouth, and other Towns, approved, - 

Conference with a Committee from Connecticut, 
IG, Committee appointed to correspond with the 
neighbouring Governments, 

Day of Fasting and Prayer throughout the Prov- 
ince appointed, - - - - - 1 342 

Injunction of Secrecy on the Members removed, 1343 

Adjourned to March 22d, to meet at Concord, - 1343 
March Met conformable to adjournment, and the Rev. 



- 1334 
1334 



- 1334 



1334 



1334 
- 1334 



1335 
1335 
1335 
1336 



1337 



- 1337 



- 1337 



- 1337 



- 1337 
1338 



1339 
- 1339 



1339 

1340 
1340 



1340 

1341 
1341 

- 1342 



1775. 

March 

30, 



April 
I, 



3, 



6, 



6, 



22, 



■24, 



27, 

28. 
29, 

30, 



Mr. Emerson appointed Chaplain, - - 1343 

Debates and Resolutions to be kept an entire 
secret, 

Committee to receive the Returns of the Officers 
of the Militia, ..... 

Any relaxation in putting the Colony in a com- 
plete state of Defence will be attended \vith the 
-r.'. utmost danger to the Liberties of the Colony, 
and of all America, 

Rules and Regulations for a Constitutional Army 
reported, ...... 

Considered and recommitted, ... 

Consideration resumed; recommitted for addi- 
tions, -.--... 

Report from Committee on the state of the Prov- 
ince relative to what movement of the Troops 
should make it fit to call the Militia together 
to act on the defensive, .... 1345 



1344 



1344 



1344 

1345 
1345 

1345 



7, 



10, 
11, 



12, 



13, 



On notice for assembling the Forces of the Col- 
ony, the Members of this Congress to repair 
without delay to the place to which they shall 
be adjourned, ...--- 1345 

Committees to sit immediately, that the Congress 
may adjourn to-morrow, ... - 1345 

Mandamus Counsellors who have refused to pub- 
lish a renunciation of their Commissions, - 1346 

Report of Committee appointed to receive Returns 
from the several Colonies, recommitted, - 1346 

Constables and Collectors required to pay Pub- 
lick Moneys immediately to the Receiver Gen- 
eral, 1346 

Committee appointed to prepare Rules for the 
Provincial Army, report. Report passed, and 
afterwards recommitted, .... 1347 

Address to the Stockbridge Indians who have en- 
listed as Minute Men, .... 1347 

The Towns and Districts requested to choose 
Delegates to a Provincial Congress, to meet 
on the last Wednesday of May, if Precepts are 
not issued by General Gage, calling a General 
Assembly to meet on that day, ... 1348 

Committee on the state of the Province to col- 
lect the late intelligence from Great Britain, 
relative to sending reinforcements to General 
Gage, and report to the Congress what is best 
to be done, ...... 1348 

Immediate attendance of all absent Members re- 
quired, ....--- 1348 

Letter to the Reverend Mr. Kirkland, with an Ad- 
dress to the Mohawks, .... 1349 

Rules and Regulations for the Massachusetts 
Army, - - 1350 

Committee on the application of the Committee 
from Boston, and others, report that the Papers 
lie for further consideration at some future 
day, 1356 

Letter to the Committee of Inspection of the 
County of Bristol, advising them to keep the 
Militia, and especially the Minute Men, in the 
best posture of defence ; but that they act on the 
defensive only, until the further direction of the 
Provincial Congress, .... 1356 

Application from Billerica, and from the Com- 
mittee of Boston, again committed, - - 1357 

Conference with Governour Hopkins, on the pre- 
sent state of Pubiick Affairs, ... 1357 

Letter to the Selectmen of Billerica. Approve 
their conduct in relation to the assault on 
Thomas Ditson, 1357 

Letter to the Committee of Correspondence for 
Boston and other Towns. Request that the 
Militia and Minute Men act only on the defen- 
sive, until the further order of the Provincial 
Congress, ...... 1357 

Committee on the state of the Province report 
relative to raising and establishing an Army ; 
and that Committees repair to Connecticut, 
Rhode-Island, and New-Hampshire, to desire 
their co-operation, ..... 1358 

Conmiittec to draught a Letter to each of the Col- 
onies, ....... 135S 

Committee to consider what number of Men 
should be raised by the four New-England 
Governments, for their general defence, - 1358 

Letter to the Colonies of Connecticut, Rhode- 
Island, and New- Hampshire, - - - 1 359 

Instructions to the Delegates appointed to repair 

to the neighbouring Governments, - - 1359 

Committee to take into consideration the particu- 
lar state of the Town of Boston, appointed, after 
a long debate on the propriety of advising the 
Inhabitants to be moved from thence, - - 1360 

County Committees appointed to report a true state 
of their respective Towns and Districts, with 
respect to their having observed the Resolu- 
tions of the Continental and Provincial Con- 
gresses, .....-- 1361 
Report of the Committee on the state of the Prov- 
ince, relative to exercising the Minute Men in 
Battalions, and paying them for the time they 
spend in that service ; after long debate, re- 
jected, 1361 

Committee of Safety directed to form six Compa- 
nies of Artillery, to be in readiness to enter the 
service of the Colony when the Army shall be 
raised, 1362 



CI 

1-75. 
April Report from the Committee to consider the pro 

13, priety of removing the Inhabitants from Bos- 
ton; after long debate, recommitted, - - 1362 

1 4, Committee of Donations of Boston recommended to 

afford to any poor persons desirous of removing 
from Boston, such assistance as may enable 

them to do it, 1362 

Committee of Safety directed to apply to a suit- 
able number of persons to be in readiness to 
enter the service of the Colony as Field Offi- 
cers, when an Army shall be raised, - - 1363 

15, Day of Humiliation, Fasting, and Prayer, ap- 

pointed, .-.--.- 1363 
The Members, on their return to their respective 
Towns, ordered to use their influence to pro- 
mote the Military Discipline, ... 1364 
Adjourn to Wednesday, the 10th of May next, to 
me«t at Concord, ..... 1364 



CONTENTS. 



CII 



1775. 



COMMITTEE OF SAFETY OF MASSACHUSETTS. 
1774. 

Nov. 2, Committee of Supplies requested to procure and 
deposits Provisions at Worcester and Con- 
cord, 1365 

8, Committee of Supplies requested to procure all 
the Arms and Ammunition they can, in the 
neighbouring Provinces on the Continent, - 1365 
15, Committee to get seven large pieces of Cannon out 
of Boston, to some place in the country, in 
such manner as they may think most prudent, 1365 
Vec. Committee of Supplies to procure certain Mihtary 

20, Stores, 1366 

Committee to examine the Commissary's Store in 

Boston, and report what Surgeons' Stores, and 
Stores of other kinds, are there, - - 1366 

1775. 

Jan. 5, Eteacon Cheever authorized to receive Cannon 

and Mortars, -.--.- 1366 
25, All the Cannon, Mortars, Cannon Ball, and Shells, 
to be deposited in Worcester and Concord, in 
the same proportion as the Provisions, - 1366 

Feb. 3, Committee of Supplies directed to report to the 
Provincial Congress their transactions since 
their appointment, . . - . . 1367 

13, Committee of Supplies desired to purchase all 

the Powder they can, ... - 1367 

Committee to receive from Colonel Robinson four 
brass Field-Pieces, and four brass Mortars, 
which, in case of a rupture with the Troops, 
shall be for the use of the Artillery Companies 
of Boston and Dorchester, ... 1367 

21, Committee of Supplies directed to procure tea 

tons of Brimstone, and all kinds of Warlike 
Stores, sufficient for an Army of fifteen thou- 
sand Men to take the field, ... 1357 
The Powder now at Concord, to be removed to 
Leicester, 1368 

22, Committee of Supplies directed to procure one 

hundred Bell Tents for Arms, one thousand 
Field Tents for Soldiers, ten tons of Lead Balls, 
and to have thirty rounds of Cartridges for fif- 
teen thousand Men, made, ... 1368 

On arrival of more Troops, the Province Arms, 
at Cambridge, to be removed to Worcester, 1368 

On intelligence of the arrival of more Troops, the 
Provincial Congress to be assembled imme- 
diately, 1368 

23, Committee to direct the Commanding Officers of 

the Militia and the Minute Men, throughout 
die Province, to assemble one fourth part of the 
Militia forthwith, 1368 

24, Hospital Stores to be procured and sent to Con- 

cord, 1369 

March Receiver General to pay to Doctor Warren and 
7, Doctor Church, five hundred Pounds, for the 
purchase of such articles for the Provincial 
Chests of Medicine, as cannot be got on credit, 1370 

14, Watch to be constantly kept at the places where 

the Provincial Magazines are stored, - - ] 370 
Watch to be kept at Charlestown, Cambridge, 
and Roxbury, and Couriers to be forwarded to 
the Towns where the Magazines are placed, 
when sallies are made from the Army by night, 1370 
23, Ton of Musket Bullets now arrived at Concord, 

to be lodged with Colonel Barrett, - . 1370 
April The Stores at Concord and elsewhere, not to be 
1, removed without written orders from the Com- 
mittee of Safety, 1370 



Considerations on the Measures carrying on with 
respect to the British Colonies in North Ame- 
rica, 1369 

Address of the People of Great Britain to the 
Inhabitants of America, - . . - 1413 

Taxation no Tyranny. An Answer to the Re- 
solutions and Address of the American Con- 



gress, 



- 1431 



An Answer to a Pamphlet, entitled " Taxation no 
Tyranny;" addressed to the Author, and to 
persons in power, ..... 1449 



PROCEEDINGS OF PARLIAMENT ON THE ADDRESS OF THANKS 
TO THE KINO. 

1774. Howe of Lords. 
Nov.QQ, Meeting of the Fourteenth Parliament, - 1461 
State of Parties in England in relation to Ame- 
rica, (Note,) 1461 

House of Commons required to attend immedi- 
ately, 1461 

Lord Chancellor's Speech to both Houses. Com- 
mons directed to choose a Speaker, - - 1462 
30, Sir Fletcher Norton presented to the King as 

Speaker, by the House of Commons, - - 1464 
Informed by the Lord Chancellor, that the King 

approves the choice made by the Commons, - 1464 
Address of the Speaker, claiming the Privileges 

of the Commons, ..... 1464 
Reply of the Lord Chancellor, in the name of the 

King. Allows them all their Privileges, - 1465 
King's Speech to both Houses. Informs them 
that a most daring spirit of resistance and dis- 
obedience to the law, still prevails in the Prov- 
ince of the Massachusetts Bay, - - - 1465 
Address of Thanks to the King, moved by the 

Earl of Hillsborough, .... 1466 

Amendment offered by the Duke of Richmond, 1466 

Opposed by Lord Lyttelton, - - - 1 466 

Supported by Lord Camden, - - 1467 

Amendment rejected, .... 1467 

Protest on rejection of the amendment, - 1467 

Earl of Hillsborough's motion agreed to, - 1468 

Committee to prepare the Address, - - 1468 

Address reported and agreed to, - - - 1468 

Dec. 1, Address presented to the King, at his Palace, at 

St. James's, 1469 

The King's Answer, ..... 1469 

6, Address and Answer ordered to be published, - 1469 
House of Commons. 

iV(n).29,House formed, 1469 

Sir Fletcher Norton chosen Speaker, - - 1470 
Dec. 5, The King's Speech, reported to the House, by the 

Speaker, 1471 

Address of Thanks to the ffing, moved by Lord 
Beauchamp, - - - - - -1471 

Amendment offered by Lord John Cavendish, - 1472 

Debate— Lord North, 1473 

Mr. F. Montague, - - - - 1473 

Go vernour Johnstone, ... 1473 

Mr, Charles J. Fox, - - - 1473 

Mr. Hartley, .... 1473 

Colonel Barre, .... 1473 

Sir George Macartney, ... 1473 

Lord Carmarthen, .... I473 

Sir William Mayne, - - - 1473 

General Smith, - - - - 1473 

Mr. T. Townshend, - - - 1474 

Mr. Edmund Burke, - - - 1474 

Mr. Van, 1474 

Mr. Wedderburn, . - - - 1474 

Amendment rejected, ..... I474 

Lord Beauchamp's motion agreed to, - - 1474 

Committee to draw up the Address, - - 1474 

6, Address reported and agreed to, - - - 1474 

7, Presented to the King, .... 1476 
King's Answer to the Address, ... 1476 



ON SUPPLIES FOR THE YEAR 1775. 

House of Commons. 
Dec. 7, The King's Speech considered, ... 1475 

8, House in Committee on the motion to grant a 

Supply to his Majesty, - - - - 1475 

9, Committee of the Whole report that a Supply be 

granted, 1476 

12, House in Committee to consider of the Supply 

granted to his Majesty, .... 1475 



CONTENTS. 



CIV 



cm 

1774 

Dec. 1-2, Mr. Buller's motion that 16,000 Men be employ- 
ed for the Sea Service, for the year 1775, - U76 
Debate— Mr. T. TowTishcnd, - - - 1476 

Mr. BuUer, '476 

Mr. Lmtrell, }477 

Colonel Barr6, ... - 1477 

Mr. Hartley, - - - - 1477 

Mr. Duller," - - - - 1477 

Mr. Luttrell, {477 

Mr. Buller's motion agreed to, ■ ' , , " 

13, Resolutions reported from the Committee of the 
Whole, for the employment and pay of 16,000 
Seamen, and airreed to by the House, - 1477 

Debate— Lord John Cavendish, - - " j478 
Lord Beauchamp, - - - • \^'° 
Mr. Cornwall, - - " ' }f;° 

Mr. Burke, jf^° 

Sir William Mayne, - - ' \%i 

Mr. Hartley, - - - " j^'.S 

Lord Beauchamp, • - - - 147 J 
Lord John Cavendish, - • - 1479 
Lord Beauchamp, - - - ■ J 479 
Captain Luttrell, - - - " 1479 
Mr. Rose Fuller, - - - * 14"9 

16, House in Committee to consider further of the 

Supply granted to his Majesty, - - - 1479 

Lord Barrington's motion, that 17,547 Men, 

Commission and Non-Commission Officers 

included, be employed for the year 1775, - 1479 

Debate— Mr. Rose Fuller, . - - - 1479 

Lord Barrington, - - - - 1479 

Mr. Fuller, 1479 

Lord North, 1479 

Mr. T. Tow-nshend, - - - 1479 

Lord North, 1479 

Go vernour Johnstone, - - - 1479 

Mr. Fox, 1482 

Lord Clare, 1482 

Mr. Rigby, 1482 

Mr. Cruger, 1482 

Sir William Mayne, - - - 1484 

Lord North, 1484 

Mr. Hartley, .... 1484 

Lord Barrington's motion agreed to, - - 1484 

17, Resolutions reported from the Committee of the 

Whole read and agreed to, ... 1484 

19, Resolution for providing Ways and Means for 
raising the Supply granted to his Majesty, re- 
ported to the House from the Committee of the 

Whole, 1485 

Debate— Lord North, 1485 

Mr. Hartley, .... 1485 

Mr. Rose Fuller, .... I486 
Mr. T. Townshend, - - - 1486 

Mr. Rigby, 1486 

Mr. Edmund Burke, - - - 1486 
Sir William Meredith, - - - 1487 

Mr. Burke, 1488 

Mr. Cornwall, .... 1488 

Resolution providing Ways and Means, agreed to, 1488 
Inesolution of the Cabinet, (Note,) - - 1488 

22, Parliament adjourned to the 19th day of January 

next, 1488 



1775. 
ON THE BILL FOR SETTLING THE TROUBLES IN AMERICA. 

House of Commons. 
Feb. 1, Provisional Act for settling the Troubles in Ame- 
rica, and for asserting the Supreme Legislative 
authority and superintending power of Great 
Britain over the Colonies, presented by Lord 

Chatham, - 1503 

Lord Chatham's Speech on presenting the Bill, 1503 
Earl of Dartmouth's Reply, - - - - 1504 
Bill read the first time, .... 1504 

Objections to the Bill in America, (Note,) - 1505 

Motion by the Earl of Sandwch " That the Bill 

be rejected," 1507 

Debate — Lord Lyttelton, .... 1507 
Earl of Shelburne, - - - 1508 

Duke of Grafton, - - - - 1508 
Earl Gower, .... 1509 

Lord Chatham, .... 1509 

Earl Gower, - - - - 1510 

Lord Camden, .... 1510 

Earl of Chatham, ... - 1510 
Earl Gower, - - - - 1511 

Earl of Hillsborough, - - -1511 
Duke of Richmond, - - - 1512 

Duke of Manchester, - - - 1513 

Earl Temple, - - - - 1513 

Question on the motion of the Earl of Sandwich 

taken, and the Bill rejected, ... 1514 
List of the Minority, 1514 



Jan. 
19, 



23, 



ON LORD CHATHAM S MOTION TO RECALL THE TROOPS 
FROM BOSTON. 

1775. House of Lords. 

Jan. Papers relating to the Disturbances in North 
20, America, presented by the Earl of Dartmouth, 

by his Majesty's command, ... 1489 

Lord Chatham's motion to recall the Troops 
from Boston, ...... 1498 

Debate— Lord Chatham, .... 1493 

Earl of Suffolk, .... 1498 

Earl of Shelburne, - - - 1499 

Lord Lyttelton, .... 1500 

Lord Camden, - - - - 1501 

Lord Chatham, - - - - 1501 

Lord Townshend, .... 1502 

Earl of Rochford, - - - - 1502 

Earl Gower, - - - - 1502 

Marquis of Rockingham, - - 1502 

Duke of Richmond, - - - 1503 

Earl of Rochford, • - - 1503 

Lord Weymouth, .... 1504 

Lord Chatham's motion rejected, ... 1504 
List of the Minority, - - - - 1504 

Energy of the Cabinet, (Note,) - - - 1499 



24. 



25, 



ON THE PETITIONS RELATING TO AMERICA. 

House of Commons. 

Papers relating to the Disturbances in North 

America, presented by Lord North, - - 1513 
Lord North's Explanations relative to the Papers, 1513 
Papers referred to a Committee of the Whole 

House, . - . - - 
Petition from the Merchants, Traders, and others, 
of the City of London, concerned in the Com- 
merce of North America, presented, 
Mr. Alderman Hayley's motion, that the Petition 
be referred to the Committee of the Whole 
House, to whom the Papers from North Ame- 
rica had been referred, .... 
Sir William Meredith's motion to amend, so as to 

refer to a separate Committee, 
Debate — Mr. Burke, 

Sir Gilbert Elliot, - 
Mr. T. Townshend, 
Lord Clare, ... 
Mr. Fox, ... 
Lord John Cavendish, 
Lord North, - 
Sir George Macartney, 
Captain Luttrell, 
Lord Stanley, 
Motion to amend agreed to. 
The Petition referred to a Committee of the 
Whole House, ..... 

Petition of the Master, Wardens, and Commonalty 
of the Society of Merchants and Venturers of 
the City of Bristol, presented by Mr. Burke, 
Motion to refer it to the Committtee of the Whole 
House, to whom has been referred the Papers 
from America, ..... 

Debate — Lord North, 

Mr. Burke, 

Lord North, 

Governour Johnstone, ... 
Motion amended, and the Petition referred to the 
Committee of the Whole House, to whom the 
Petition of the Merchants of London is referred, 
Petition of the Merchants, Traders, and Manu- 
facturers of the City of Bristol, presented by 
Mr. Cruger, ...... 

Petition of the Merchants and Traders of the 
City of Glasgow, presented, ... 

Statements of the Value of Exports from Great 
Britain to the Colonies, from 1772 to 1774, or- 
dered to be laid before the House, 
Petition of the Merchants, Manufacturers, and 
Traders, and other Inhabitants of the City of 
Norwich, presented. 
Petition of the Merchants and Mantifacturers re- 
siding in the Town and Neighbourhood of 
Dudley, in the County of Worcester, present 



- 1513 



1513 



1515 

1515 
1516 
1516 
1517 
1517 
1517 
1517 
1517 
1517 
1517 
1518 
1518 

1519 



1519 



1520 
1520 
1520 
1520 

1520 



1521 



1521 
1522 



- 1522 



- 1523 



ed. 



1523 



3, 



6. 



ev CONTENTS. 

1775. 
Jan.25, Petition from the Inhabitants of the Town and 

Neighbourhood of Birmingham, - - 1524 

Sir George Savile offers to present a Petition 
from Dr. Franklin, Mr. Lee, and Mr. Bollan, 
requesting to be heard before the House, on the 
Petition from the Congress to the King, - 1524 

26, Stotemcnts of the Value of Exports and Imports 

to and from North America, and the West In- 
dies, from the year 17G2, ordered to be laid be- 
fore the House, - - - - - 1 525 
Second Petition from the Merchants, Traders, 
and others, of the City of London, concerned 
in the Commerce of North America, present- 
ed by Alderman Hay ley, . . - . 1525 
Motion, by Mr. Hayley, for discharging the Order 
of Monday last, for referring the Petition of the 
Merchants, and others, of London, to a Com- 
mittee of the Whole House, ... 1526 
Debate— Mr. Hayley, - - - -1526 
Mr. Hotham, - - - - 1526 
Mr. Hans Stanley, - - - 1526 
Mr. Hayley, .... 1527 
Mr. T. Tovvnshend, - - - 1527 

Mr. Lewis, 1527 

Mr. Jenkinson, .... 1527 

Mr. Edmund Burke, . - • 1527 

Mr. Fox, 1529 

Colonel Barrd, - - - - 1529 

Mr. Wedderburn, ... - 1529 

Lord North, 1529 

Lord George Germain, ... 1530 

Mr. Fox, 1530 

Lord North, 1530 

Mr. Hayley's motion rejected, ... 1530 

Petition referred to same Committee with the 

others, 1530 

Petition of the Merchants and Manufacturers of 

the Town of Manchester, presented, - - 1530 
Petition from the Merchants, Traders, and Manu- 
facturers of Wolverhampton, in the County of 
Stafford, presented, - - - - -1531 
Petition of the Merchants and Tradesmen of the 

Port of Liverpool, presented, - - - 1531 
Petition of William Bollan, Benjamin Franklin, 
and Arthur Lee, requesting they may be heard 
at the Bar of the House, on the Petition from 
America, offered by Sir George Savile, - 1532 

Motion for receiving the Petition rejected, - 1532 

Notice of the Debate on this Question, (Note,) 1532 
House in Committee, on the American Papers, 1533 

27, Statements of Exports from England to the Colo- 

nies in North America, in 1773, presented, - 1533 

Petition of sundry Merchants, Factors, and 
Manufacturers, of Birmingham, in the County 
of Warwick, presented, .... 1533 

House in Committee, on the Petition from the 
Merchants, and others, of London, concerned 
in the Commerce of North America, . - 1533 

Reasons of the Merchants, for declining to be 
heard at the Bar of the House, - - - 1534 

House in Committee, on the American Papers, 1534 
31, Papers presented by Lord North, ... 1534 

Statements of Imports and Exports of British 
Plantation Tobacco, ordered to be laid before 
the House, 1535 

Petition of the Manufacturers of Felt Hats, and 
Dealers therein; as also, of the Shoemakers, in 
the Town of New-Castle, in the County of Staf- 
ford, presented, ..... I535 

Petition of the Manufacturers and Traders in 
Earthen Ware, residing in Burslem, Tunstall, 
Colridge, Shelton, Hanly, Stoke-Lane, Dclf- 
Lane-End, and places adjacent, in the County 
of Stafford, presented, .... I535 

Mr. Burke's motion for an Inquiry into the man- 
ner in which the Petition from Birmingham, 
presented on the 25th, was procured, - - 1536 

Debate on the motion, - . - . . 1536 

Mr. Burke's motion rejected, ... I537 

House in Committee, on the American Papers, 1537 
Feb. 1, Petition of the Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, and 
Assistants, of the Borough of Leeds, in the 
County of York, presented, - - . 1537 

Petition of the Merchants of Leeds, trading to the 
North American Colonies, or having property 
there, presented, ..... I538 

Papers presented by Lord North, ... I539 

House in Committee, on the American Papers, 1539 



CVI 

1775. 
Feb. 2, Petition of the Planters of his Majesty's Sugar 
Colonies, residing in Great Britain, and of the 
Merchants of London, trading to the said Colo- 
nies, presented, - . . . -1540 



ON A JOINT ADDRESS OF THE TWO HOUSES TO THE KING. 

House of Commons. 

Feb. 2, House in Committee, on the American Papers, 1541 
Motion of Lord North, for an Address to the 
King, declaring the Province of Massachusetts 

Bay in actual rebellion, . - . . 1542 

Debate — Mr. Dunning, .... I542 

Mr. Attorney General Thurlow, - 1543 

Colonel Grant, .... I543 

Amendment proposed by Mr. Fox, - - 1543 

Debate — Mr. Grenville, . . . .1544 

Mr. Cruger, 1544 

Captain Luttrell, .... I544 

Mr. Cosmo Gordon, . - - 1547 

Mr. Burke, 1547 

Mr. Solicitor General Wedderburn, - 1547 

Amendment offered by Mr. Fox, rejected, - 1547 

Lord North's motion for an Address, adopted, - 1547 
Statements of the Imports and Exports of the 
Sugar Colonies, ordered to be laid before the 

House, 1547 

Accounts of Imports and Exports presented, - 1548 
Report from Committee of the Whole, on the 

American Papers. Address to the King, - 1548 
Motion, by Lord John Cavendish, that the Report 

be recommitted, . - - . . I549 

Debate — Lord John Cavendish, ... I549 

Lord Lumley, - - . . I549 

Mr. Wilkes, (the Lord Mayor,) - 1549 

Captain Harvey, .... I552 

Sir William Mayne, ... I554 

Mr. T. Tovvnshend, . - - 1556 

Mr. Joliffe, 1556 

Mr. Hans Stanley, .... 1556 

Lord Irnham, . - . . 1556 

Mr. William Adam, - - - 1559 

Mr. Scott, 1559 

Governour Johnstone, ... I559 

Sir Robert Smythe, - - - 1564 

Mr. Burke, 1564 

Mr. Solicitor General Wedderburn, . 1565 

Colonel Barre, ... - 1565 

Lord North, 1565 

Mr. Mackworth, .... 1565 

Mr. Sawbridge, .... 1565 

Motion to recommit the Report rejected, - - 1565 

Amendment proposed and rejected, - - 1565 

Resolution reported by Committee of the Whole 

agreed to, ...... 1566 

Committee to draw up an Address, - - 1566 
Address reported and agreed to, . - - 1566 
To be communicated to the Lords, at a Confer- 
ence, 1566 

Conference with the Lords requested, - - 1566 
House in Committee, on the American Papers, 1566 
The Address presented to the Lords in Confer- 
ence, ..-..-- 1567 
Managers of the two Houses in Conference on 
the Address. The Lords agree to make it a 
Joint Address, ..... 1567 
The King has appointed to-morrow to receive 

the Address, 1567 

Petition of the Manufacturing Hosiers, of the 

Town and County of Nottingham, presented, 1567 
Lord North's motion, to postpone the further con- 

sideration of the American Papers to the 10th, 1568 

Debate— Mr. Fox, 1568 

Lord North, 1568 

Consideration of Petitions postponed to the 15th, 

and of American Papers to the 1 0th, - - 1568 
The King's Answer to the Joint Address of the 

two Houses, presented yesterday, - - 1569 

Hoiise of Lords. 
Feb. 2, Papers relating to the Disturbances in America, 
considered, .--.-- 
Further considered, " " " " ' 
Message from the Commons, desiring a Confer- 
ence with this House, upon the state of his 
Majesty's Colonies in America, 
Managers of the Conference appointed, - 
The two Houses in Conference, 



7, 



10, 



3, 
7, 



1569 
1569 



1569 
1569 
1570 



- 1570 



- 1571 

1571 
1571 

1572 
1572 
1572 
1572 
1573 
1574 
1575 
1576 
1576 
1577 
1578 
1578 
1578 
1579 
1579 
1579 
1580 
1581 
1581 
1582 
1583 
1584 
1584 
1584 
1584 
1584 
1584 

1585 
1585 
1585 

1586 
1586 



1587 



1588 
1589 



1590 
1590 



1621 
1589 



1589 
1589 
1590 
1591 
1591 
1591 
1591 
1591 
1592 
1595 
1595 
1595 



cvii CONTENTS. 

1775. 

Feb. 7, Address delivered at the Conference, reported by 
the Lord President, . . . - 
Motion, by the Earl of Dartmouth, to agree to 
the Address, . . . . - 

Marquis of Rockingham's motion for the Previ^ 
ous Question, --.--• 
Debate — Marquis of Rockingham, 

Earl of Pomfret, .... 

Earl of Denbigh, .... 

Earl Gower. .... 

Lord Mansfield, .... 

Lord Camden, .... 

Duke of Grafton, .... 

Lord Mansfield, .... 

Lord Lyttelton, .... 

Duke of Richmond, 

Lord Mansfield, .... 

Lord Lyttelton, .... 

Earl of Rochford, .... 

Earl of Shelburne, 

Lord Mansfield, .... 

Earl of Shelburne, 

Duke of Richmond, - - - 

Earl of Sandwich, .... 

Duke of Richmond, 

Earl of Sandwich, .... 

Bishop of Peterborough, 
Duke of Richmond, ... 

Duke of Manchester, ... 
Lord Ljntelton, .... 

Lord Mansfield, .... 

Lord Camden, .... 

Earl of Dartmouth, ... 

Notice of the Debate, (Note,) ... 

Previous Question put, and resolved in the Af- 
firmative, ...... 

List of the Minority, (Note,) ... 

Protest, 

The Main Question, on agreeing to the Address 
put, and resolved in the Affirmative, 

Protest, 

Petition of the Merchants, Traders, and others, 
concerned in the American Commerce, read, 
and laid on the table, .... 

Petition of tlie Planters of his Majesty's Sugar 
Colonies, residing in Great Britain, and of the 
Merchants of London, trading to the said Colo- 
nies, read, and laid on the table. 
Statements of Imports and Exports, ordered to be 
laid before the House, .... 

8, The Lords informed the King will receive the 
Joint Address of the two Houses to-morrow, 
at his Palace of St. James, - . . 

10, The King's Answer to the Address presented 
yesterday, ...... 

ON ADDITIONAL SUPPLIES FOR THE YEAR 1775. 

House of Commons. 
FeA. 10, Message from the King, requesting additional 
Forces by Sea and Land, .... 

13, House in Committee, to consider further of the 

Supply granted to his Majesty, - 
Mr. Buller's motion, that an additional number, 
of 2,000 Men, be allowed for the Sea Service, 
for the year 1775, • . . . 1 

Debate — Lord North, 

Governour Johnstone, ... 

Lord North, 

Lord John Cavendish, 
Mr. Cornwall, .... 

Mr. Charles Fox, .... 
Captain Walsingham, ... 
Mr. Temple Luttrell, 
Mr. Sawbridge, .... 
Mr. Buller's motion agreed to, ... 

14, House in Committee, 

Lord Barrington's motion, to augment the Land 

Forces with 4,383 Men, Officers and Non- 
Commission Officers included, . 
After Debate, agreed to, ... 



1596 
1590 



ON LORD north's RESOLUTION FOR RECONCILIATION. 

House of Commons. 

rd>.20,House in Committee, on American Papers, - 1597 

Lord North's Conciliatory Resolution, -' . I598 
Remarks on the introduction of this Resolution. 

(Note-) - 1598 



CVIU 

1775. 

Feb.2Q, Debate— Lord North, 1597 

Governour Pownall, ... 1600 

Mr. Charles Fox, .... 1605 
Mr. Jenkinson, .... 1606 

Mr. Welbore Ellis, - . . 1606 

JNIr. Adam, 1606 

Mr. Cornwall, .... 1607 

Mr. Ackland, .... 1607 

Mr. Dundas, .... 1607 

Sir Gilbert Elliot, .... 1607 
Colonel Barre, .... 1607 

Lord North, 1608 

Mr. Edmund Burke, - . - 1608 

Mr. Dunning, .... 1610 

Question taken, and resolved in the Affirmative, 1610 
To be reported to the House on Friday morning 

next, 1610 

Authentick Speech of Lord North, on introdu- 
cing the Resolution, (Note,) ... 1599 
Circumstantial account of the Debates in the 
American Committee, on Lord North's mo- 
tion, (Note,) 1600 

Lord North's explanation of his Resolution, 

(Note,) 1602 

24, Report of Committee of the Whole deferred to 

Monday next, ---... 1610 
27, Resolution of the Committee of the Whole re- 
ported to the House, .... I6II 
Lord North's motion to agree to the Resolution, 1611 

Debate — Mr. Scott, 1611 

Mr. Ackland, . . - - 1611 

Mr. Temple Luttrell, - . - 1613 
Sir P. J. Clerke, .... 1617 
Mr. Hartley, - . . .1617 

Mr, Thomas Powys, • - .1618 

Lord North, 1619 

Mr. T. Townshend, . . - 1619 

Sir Richard Sutton, - . .1619 

Mr. Charles Turner, . . . 1619 

Mr. Hans Stanley, ... 1619 

Mr. Alderman Sawbridge, . - 1619 

General Burgoyne, . . .1619 

Governour Johnstone, - - . 1622 
Question taken, and Resolution agreed to, - 1622 

ON THE BILL FOR RESTRAINING THE TRADE OF THE 
NORTHERN COLONIES. 



House of Commons. 
fe J. 10, House in Committee, on American Papers, 

Lord North's motion, for leave to bring in a Bill 
to Restrain the Trade of the Northern Colo- 
nies, --..... 

Debate — Lord North, 

Mr. Dunning, .... 

Mr. Attorney General Thurlow, 

Mr. Solicitor General Wedderbum, - 

Mr. Speaker Norton, ... 

Governour Johnstone, 

Mr. T. Townshend, 

Sir George Savile, ... 

Sir W. Meredith, .... 

Lord John Cavendish, ... 

Lord Beauchamp, .... 

Mr, Burke, 

Lord North's motion agreed to, . . . 
Report of Committee of the Whole, 
Leave granted, and Committee appointed, to bring 
in a Bill to Restrain the Trade and Commerce 
of Massachusetts, New- Hampshire, Connecti- 
cut, and Rhode-Island, and to prohibit such 
Colonies from carrying on any Fisherj' on 
the Banks of Newfoundland, or other places, 
therein to be mentioned, .... 
Statements of Duties and Excise on Imports and 
Exports of West India Produce, and of the 
Tonnage of all Vessels employed in the Trade 
between Great Britain and the Colonies, order- 
ed to be laid before the House, ... 
Accounts of Exports presented, ... 
Consideration of the Petition of Merchants, and 
others, of London, concerned in the Commerce 
of America, postponed to the 8th of March, 
Statements of Exports and Imports, ordered to be 
laid before the House, .... 

Petition of the principal Manufacturers of the 
Borough of Bridgeport, in the County of Dor- 
set, on behalf of themselves, and thousands of 



1622 



1622 
1622 
1623 
1623 
1623 
1623 
1623 
1624 
1624 
1624 
1625 
1625 
1625 
1626 
1626 



13. 
15, 



1626 



1626 
1626 



1627 
1627 



CIX 



1775. 



CONTENTS. 



ex 



others, Inhabitants of the said Borough, and 
places adjacent, presented, - - - 1 627 

JVi. 15, Letter from Lord Dunmore, dated December 

24, 1774, presented by Lord North, - - 1628 

Petition of the Merchants and Master Manufac- 
turers of Woollen Goods, of the Towns of 
Wakefield, Halifax, Bradford, Huddersfield, 
and Country adjacent, interested in the Trade 
to America, presented, .... 1628 

Accounts of Imports and Exports of Sugar pre- 
sented, 1629 

17, Address to the King, that he will direct to be laid 
before the House, an Act of Assembly of Vir- 
ginia, passed in the year 1684, ... 1629 

Bill to Restrain the Trade, and prohibit the Fish- 
eries of the Northern Colonies, presented by 
Lord North, 1629 

Second reading ordered for Thursday, - - 1629 

American Papers to be considered in Committee 
of the Whole, on Monday, the 20th, - .1629 
20, Accounts of Imports and Exports presented, . 1630 
22, Petition of the Merchants of Whitehaven, in the 

County of Cumberland, .... 1630 

Petition of the Merchants, Linen Drapers, and 
principal Inhabitants of the Town and Neigh, 
bourhood of Belfast, in the Kingdom of Ire. 
land, presented, . . . - -.1631 

Petition of the Aldermen, Sheriff, principal 
Manufacturers, and Inhabitants of the Town 
and County of Nottingham, presented, - 1631 

" Act for the better preservation of the Peace of 
Virginia, and preventing Unlawful and Trea- 
sonable Associations," passed by the Assem- 
bly of Virginia, on the 16th of April, 1684, 
presented, (Note,) 1632 

Petition of the Merchants, Traders, and others, 
of the City of London, interested in the Ame- 
rican Commerce, presented, ... i633 

Second reading of the Bill postponed until to- 
morrow, 1634 

24, Letter from General Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, dated January 18, presented by Lord 
North, 1634 

Other Papers from America presented, - - 1634 

Petition of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Commons, of the City of London, in Common ' 
Council convened, presented at the Bar of the 
House, by the Sheriffs of the City, - - 1635 

Bill read second time, and committed to Com- 
mittee of the Whole, .... 1636 

Petition of Merchants, of London, referred to 
same Committee, and may be heard by them- 
selves, their Counsel, or Agents, against the 
Bill, 1636 

City Petition referred to the same Committee, - 1637 
28, Petition of the People called duakers presented, 1637 

Petition of the Merchants, Traders, and principal 
Inhabitants of the Town and County of Poole, 
presented, ...... i637 

House in Committee, on the Bill, ... 1638 

David Barclay, as Agent for the Committee of 
the North American Merchants, called in, to 
examine Witnesses in support of their Peti- 
tion, 1638 

Examination of Brook Watson, ... 1638 

Examination of Stephen Higginson, - - 1645 

Examination of John Lane, .... 1648 

Examination of Seth Jenkins, ... 1650 

March Account of the Imports of Tobacco into Scotland, 
I, from 1760 to 1775, presented, . . - 1651 

Account of Imports and Exports presented, - 1651 

House in Committee on the Bill, ... i651 
6, Bill reported to the House from the Committee 

of the Whole, 1651 

Examination of Benjamin Lister, in support of 
the Petition from Poole, . . . .1651 

Motion made for the engrossment of the Bill, - 1653 

Debate — Lord Howe, 1653 

Mr. Charles Fox, .... 1553 
Mr. Jenkinson, ... 1553 

Mr. T. Town.shpnd, ... 1654 

Mr. Henry Dundas, - - . 1654 

Lord John Cavendish, ... 1554 
Mr. Rice, . - - - . 1654 
Mr. Edmund Burke, . - - 1654 

Lord Advocate of Scotland, - - 1656 

Question taken, and resolved in the Affirmative, 1657 

Third reading ordered for Wednesday next, - 1657 



1657 



1657 
1657 
1658 
1659 
1659 
1659 
1659 
1660 
1660 
1660 
1660 



1775. 

jWar.8, Bill read the third time, .... 

Amendment offered by Mr. Hartley, to permit 

the Colonies to import Fuel and Provisions 

brought coastwise from any part of America, 

Debate — Mr. Hartley, .... 

Lord North, ..... 

Mr. Burke, 

Lord Clare, ..... 
Mr. T. Townshend, 
Mr. Charles Fox, .... 
Governour Pownall, ... 
Mr. Henry Dundas, ... 
Question on the Amendment taken, and rejected, 
Bill VasseA, 

House of Lords. 

March Bill to Restrain the Trade of the Northern Colo- 
9, nies, received from the Commons, . . 1661 

10, Second reading of the Bill ordered for Wednesday 

the I5th, and the Lords summoned, . . 1661 

15, Petition of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Com- 

mons, of the City of London, in Common Coun- 
cil assembled, ...... 1661 

Petition of the Merchants, Traders, and others, of 
the City of London, interested in the American 

Commerce, 1661 

Bill read the second time, .... 1663 
House refuse to permit Mr. Barclay to put Ques- 
tions to the witnesses, .... 1663 
Seth Jenkins examined, .... 1663 
Brook Watson examined, .... 1667 
Benjamin Lyster examined, .... 1668 
George Davis examined, .... 1669 
Molyneux Shuldham examined, ... 1669 
Sir Hugh Palliser examined, - . . 1670 

16, Motion by the Earl of Dartmouth, to commit the 

Bill, 1670 

Debate — Marquis of Rockingham, - . 1670 

Earl of Carlisle, .... 1673 
Duke of Manchester, - . . 1673 
Earl of Denbigh, .... 1674 
Duke of Manchester, ... 1674 
Earl of Denbigh, .... 1674 
Viscount Dudley, . - . . 1675 
Lord Camden, .... 1675 

Earl of Sandwich, (see Note,) - -1681 
Earl of Shelburne, - • . 1683 

Earl of Suffolk, - • . . . 1684 
Earl of Radnor, .... 1684 
Earl of Suflblk, .... 1684 
Earl of Radnor, .... 1684 
Duke of Grafton, .... 1685 
Marquis of Rockingham, - . 1686 

Lord Camden, .... 1686 

Question taken ; Bill committed to a Conamittee 
of the Whole House, .... 1687 

20, Bill reported, amended, and ordered for a third 

reading to-morrow, - - - . -1687 

21, Bill read a third time, 1688 

Amendment offered by the Earl of Buckingham- 
shire, 1688 

Debate — Duke of Manchester, ... 1688 
Lord Chancellor, .... 1688 
Duke of Manchester, ... 1688 

Earl of Effingham, - . . 1689 

Earl of Dartmouth, - . . 1689 

Amendment rejected, ..... 1689 

Bill passed, 1689 

List of the Minority, 1689 

Protest, 1689 

" An Act to Restrain the Trade and Commerce of 
the Provinces of Massachusetts Bay and New- 
Hampshire, and Colom'es of Connecticut and 
Rhode-Island, and Providence Plantation, in 
North America, to Great Britain, Ireland, and 
the British Islands in the West Indies; and 
to prohibit such Provinces and Colonies from 
carrying on any Fishery on the Banks of New- 
foundland, or other places therein mentioned, 
under certain conditions and limitations," - 1691 



ON THE BILL TO 



RESTRAIN THE TRADE OF 
COLONIES. 



THE SOUTHERN 



House of Commons. 
Mar. 3, American Papers presented by Lord North, - 1697 
Letter from Governour Franklin to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, dated February 1, - - . 1697 



cxt 

1775. i_ -r* 1 f T^k- 

Mar.d, Letter from Govemour Ponn to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, datedJanuary 30, ■ " " T 
Petition of iho Merchants, Linen Drapers, and 
principal Inhabitants, of the City of Waterford, 
in the Kingdom of Ireland, presented, 
8, Letter from Govemour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, dated January 27, presented by Lord 

North, ■ 

Mr. Hartley's motion for an Address to the King, 
requesting him to direct a copy of a Letter 
from the Earl of Dartmouth to Lieutenant Gov- 
emour Golden, dated December lOth, may be 
laid before the House, . . . - 

Debate — Mr. Hartley, . . - - 

Mr. Rigby, 

Mr. T. Townshend, 

Lord North, 

Mr. Fox, 

Mr. Hartley's motion rejected, . . - 

House in Committee on the American Papers, 



CONTENTS. 



CXII 



13, 
15. 



16, 
17. 



20, 



23. 

27, 
29. 
30, 



1698 



1698 



1698 



1699 
1699 
1699 
1699 
1699 
1699 
1699 
1700 
1700 



9, Accounts of Exports and Imports presented, 

Petition of Gentlemen, Merchants, and Traders, 

in the Woollen Manufactory at or near Hud- 

dersfield, in the West Riding of the County of 

York, presented, - - - *, ," 

Petition of the Manufacturing Hosiers of the 

Town and County of Nottingham, presented, 1700 
Permission granted to the Petitioners to be heard 

before the Committee if they think fit, 

House in Committee on the American Papers, - 

Motion by Lord North, for leave to bring in a 

Bill to Restrain the Trade of New-Jersey, 

Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and South 

Carolina, ..---- 

Debate — Lord John Cavendish, . . • 

Sir William Mayne, . . - 

Mr. Hartley, .... 

Lord North, 

Question taken ; motion agreed to by the Com- 
mittee, ------- 

Reported to the House, - - - - 

Leave granted, and Committee appointed to bring 

in the Bill, - 

Bill presented by Mr. Cooper, and read first time, 1702 

Second reading ordered for Thursday, - - 1702 

Accounts of Duties, Di'awbacks, and Imposts, 

presented, ------ 

Petition of the Clothiers and other principal In- 
habitants of Trowbridge, in the County of 
Wilts, presented, - - - - - 

Second reading of the Bill postponed until to- 
morrow, - - - - 

Bill read second time, and committed to a Com- 
mittee of the Whole House, - - - 
House in Committee go through with the Bill, 
Report of the Committee of the Whole to be re- 
ceived on the 23d, ----- 

Report postponed to the 27th, ... 

Report further postponed to the 29th, 
Report to be received to-morrow, - - - 
Bill reported from the Committee of the AVhole, 
Debate — Mr. John Luttrell, - - - - 

Mr. Temple Luttrell, . . - 

Lord North, 

Amendment, relating to Delaware, proposed by 

Lord North, and agreed to, - - - 

Bill ordered to be read a third time on the 3d of 

April, 

Papers presented by Lord North, - - - 
Letter from Govemour Gage to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, dated February 17, - - - 
Letter from Govemour Gage to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, dated February 20, 
Apr. 3, Third reading of the Bill postponed, 

Estimate of the charge of maintaining and sup- 
porting the Civil Establishment of his Majes- 
ty's Colony of Nova-Scotia, for the year 1775, 
Estimate of the Civil Establishment of his Ma- 
jesty's Colony of Georgia, and the Incidental 
Expenses attending the same, from the 24th of 
June, 1774, to the 24th of June, 1775, 
Estimate of the Civil Establishment of East 
Florida, and other Incidental Expenses attend- 
ing the same, from June 24, 1774. to June 24. 

1775. 

Estimate of the Expenses attending General Sur- 
veys of his Majesty's Dominions in North 
America, for the year 1775, ... 1712 



- 1700 



1701 
1701 



1701 
1701 
1701 
1702 
1702 

1702 
1702 



- 1702 



1702 



1703 

1703 

1704 
1704 



1704 
1704 
1704 
1704 
1704 
1705 
1706 
1708 



- 1708 



1708 
1708 

1708 

1709 
1709 



1710 



1710 



1711 



1775. , , . 

Apr. 5. Bill read the third time, 

Motion made that the Bill do Pass, - 
Debate — Mr. Hartley, 
Lord North, 
Sir William Mayne, 
Mr. Rigby, 
Marquis of Granby, 
Lord North, - 
Mr. Alderman Sawbridge, 
Mr. Alderman Bull. 
Sir John Duntze. 
General Conway. - 
Mr. Rigby, ... 
Mr. T. Townshend, 
Question taken ; the Bill passed. 
House of Lords. 
Apr. 6, Bill to Restrain the Trade of New- Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and South Ca- 
rolina, received from the Commons, 

Read the first time, 

7, Bill read the second time, - - - - 
10, House in Committee, go through with the Bill, 

Third reading ordered for the 12th, 
12, Bill read the third time and passed. 

Lords dissenting, 

" An Act to Restrain the Trade and Commerce 
of the Colonies of New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, to 
Great Britain, Ireland, and the British Islands 
in the West Indies, under certain conditions 
and limitations," . . . . - 



1712 
1712 
1712 
1712 
1712 
1713 
1713 
1714 
1714 
1714 
1715 
1715 
1715 
1715 
1716 



1716 
1716 
1716 
1716 
1716 
1716 
1716 



1716 



ON THE PETITION OF THE WEST INDIA PLANTERS 

House of Commons. 
MaT.8, House to go into Committee on the Petitions, on 
the 15th, - 

15, Witnesses directed to attend the Committee of the 

Whole, 

House in Committee on the Petitions, 

16, House in Committee, . . . - - 
Mr. Glover appeared as Agent of the West In- 
dia Planters, and Manager of the Evidence in 
support of their Petition, which was presented 
on the 2d of February, . . - - 

Mr. Glover's Address to the Committee, 
George Walker examined, - - - - 
John Ellis examined, - - . . - 
Evidence summed up by Mr. Glover, 
Petition and Memorial of the Assembly of Ja- 
maica, to the King in Coimcil, dated Decem- 
ber 28, 1774, presented by Lord North, 
20, House again in Committee on the Petitions, 

Witnesses examined on the Petitions from Not- 



1721 

1721 
1721 
1721 



1721 

1721 
1722 
1731 
1733 



1743 
1743 



27, 



tingham, ---..- 1743 

Debate on the objection made by Mr. Van, to a 

question put to one of the witnesses, by Mr. 

Burke, 

Remarks of Mr. Bailey on the conduct of Lord 

North, in relation to the Petitioners, 
Petitions to be further considered on the 27th, - 
Consideration postponed for one week, when the 

subject dropped, - . . . . 



1743 

1744 
1744 

1745 



ON MR. BURKe's RESOLUTIONS FOR CONCILIATION. 

House of Commons. 
March Mr. Burke's Resolutions for Conciliatioij with 

22, America, ...--- 1745 

Debate— Mr. Burke, 1745 

Mr. Jenkinson, .... 1776 

Lord Frederick Campbell, - - 1777 

Question taken, and the Resolutions rejected, 1778 

ON MR. hartley's PROPOSITIONS FOR CONCILIATION. 

House of Commons. 
March Mr, Hartley's Propositions for Conciliation with 

27. the Colonies, 1781 

Debate— Mr. Hartley, - - - - 1781 

Sir Cecil Wray, - - - - 1791 

Lord North, 1791 

Sir Cecil Wray, - - - - 1792 

Mr. T. Townshend, - - - 1792 

Lord William Campbell, - - 1792 

Mr. Lyttelton, .... 1792 

Sir George Savile, ... 1792 

Mr. Vyner, 1792 

Mr. Tuffiiell, .... 1792 

Mr. Hartley's Propositions rejected, - - 1793 



CXIII 



CONTENTS. 



CXIV 



1775. 



ON THE AMERICAN MUTINY BILL. 



House of Commons. 

March Leave granted to bring in a Bill to render more 
24, effectual in his Majesty's Dominions in Ame- 
rica, the Act for punishing Mutiny and Deser- 
tion, ....... 

27, The Bill presented by Lord Barrington, 

28, Bill read the second time, . - . . 

30, Considered in Committee of the Whole, 

31, Ordered to be engrossed, . . . . 
Apr. 5, Read the third time and passed, ... 

House of Lords. 
Apr.G, Bill to render more effectual in his Majesty's Do- 
minions in America, the Act for the punishment 
of Mutiny and Desertion, received from the 
Commons, ...... 

7, Bill read the second time, - . . . 

10, House in Committee on the Bill, - . . 

11, Read the third time and passed, . . . 
"An Act to amend, and render more effectual in 

his Majesty's Dominions in America, an Act, 
passed in the present Session of Parliament, 
entitled, ' An Act for punishing Mutiny and 
Desertion, and for the better Payment of the 
Army and their Quarters,' and for extending 
the provisions of the said Act to his Majesty's 
Marine Forces in America," 



1793 
1793 
1793 
1793 
1794 
1794 



1794 
1794 
1794 
1795 



. 1795 



ON THE BRITISH FISHERY BILL. 



House of Commons. 

April Motion of Lord North to consider of the Enconr- 
1 1, agement proper to be given to the Fisheries of 

Great Britain and Ireland, .... 1805 

Debate— Lord North, 1805 

Mr. Burke, 1806 

Mr. Thomas To\vnshend, - - 1806 

Mr. Connolly, - - - - 1807 

Mr. Burke, 1807 

Lord North, 1807 

Motion agreed to, 1807 

27, House in Committee on Lord North's motion, . 1807 
Lord North's Explanations, .... 1807 

28, Resolutions reported by Committee of the Whole, 

for the Encouragement of the Fisheries carried 
on from Great Britain and Ireland, agreed to, 1809 
Committee to prepare the Bill, - - - 1811 

JWay4, Bill presented by Mr. Jenkinson, - . . 1811 
9, Read the second time, . - . .1811 

11, Considered in Committee, - . . -1811 
17, Read the third time and passed, . - - 1812 
House of Lords. 
3fayl8,Bill for the Encouragement of British Fisheries 

received from the Commons, - . .1812 
19, Read the second time, . - - . .1812 
22, Considered in Committee, and read the third time 

and passed, . . . - . .1812 

ON PROVIDING WAYS AND MEANS FOR 1775. 

House of Commons. 
May 3, House in Committee to consider further of the 
Ways and Means for raising the Supply grant- 
ed to his Majesty, . - . . . 1811 
Resolutions offered by Lord North, - .1815 

Debate — Lord North, 1813 

Mr. Hartley, .... 1815 

Mr. Vyner, 1815 

Mr. T. Townshend, - . .1815 

Lord North, 1815 

Governour Johnstone, . - - 1816 
4, Resolutions reported from the Committee of the 

Whole, 1816 

Agreed to by the House, - - - - 1818 



ON THE REMONSTRANCE OF THE NEW.YORK ASSEMBLY. 

House of Commons. 

May\5, Representation and Remonstrance of the Assem. 

bly of New- York, offered by Mr. Burke, - 1819 

Mr. Burke's motion, that the Representation and 
Remonstrance be brought up, - . . 1819 

Motion by Lord North to amend by inserting, in 
Mr. Burke's motion, after the word Remon- 
strance, the words " in which the said Assem- 

FouRTH Series. 



1775. 



bly claim to themselves rights derogatory to, 
and inconsistent with, the Legislative authority 

of Parliament," 1819 

Debate— Mr. Burke, 1€19 

Lord North, - .... - 1819 

Mr. Cruger, 1820 

Mr. Cornwall, .... 1821 
Mr. Jcnkinson, . . . .1821 

Mr, Aubrey, 1821 

Mr. Fox, 1822 

Governour Johnstone, ... 1822 

Lord North's motion to amend agreed to, - 1822 

Mr. Burke's motion, as amended, rejected, - 1822 



ON THE PETITIONS FROM QCEBECK. 

House of Lords. 

itfay 17, Petition of his Majesty's loyal and dutiful Sub- 
jects, settled in the Province of duebeck, pre- 
sented by Lord Camden, - - . . 1823 

Debate — Earl Gower, .... 1823 

Lord Camden, .... 1823 

Bill offered by Lord Camden, to Repeal the 

Q,uebeck Act, 1826 

Motion by the Earl of Dartmouth, that the Bill 

be now rejected, 1826 

Debate— Earl of Dartmouth, . - .1826 

Duke of Richmond, . . .1827 

Lord Lyttelton, - - - - 1827 

Duke of Manchester, - - - 1829 

Earl of Rochford, .... 1829 

Earl of Bristol, - - - - 1829 

Lord Lyttelton, - - - - 1830 

Earl of Sandwich, - - - 1831 

Earl of Bristol, - . . . 1831 

Earl of Sandwich, - - - 1831 

Archbishop of Canterbury, - - 1831 

Earl of Shelburne, - - - 1831 

Lord Mansfield, - . . - 1834 

Lord Camden, - - . - 1834 

Question taken, and the Bill rejected, - - 1834 

List of the Minority, 1834 

House of Communis. 

MaylS, Petition and Memorial of his Majesty's ancient 

Subjects, Seigneurs, Freeholders, Merchants, 

Traders, and others, settled in his Majesty's 

Province of Quebeck, presented, - - 1833 

Sir George Savile's motion for leave to bring in 

a Bill to repeal the Quebeck Act, - - 1836 

Debate — Sir George Savile, ... 1835 

Mr. T. Townshend, - . - 1836 

Mr. De Grey, .... 1836 

Mr. Howard, - . . - 1836 

Lord North, 1836 

Mr. Fox, 1837 

Sir Robert Smythe, . - - .1837 

Colonel Barr^, .... 1838 

Sir W. Meredith, .... 1838 

Colonel Barre, .... 1838 
Question taken, and Sir George Savile's motion 

rejected, 1838 

ON THE MEMORIAL OF THE NEW.YORK ASSEMBLY. 

House of Lords. 

MaylS, Memorial of his Majesty's faithful Subjects and 
Representatives of the Colony of New- York, 
in General Assembly convened, presented, - 1837 
Motion by the Duke of Manchester, that the 

Memorial might be read by the Clerk, - 1837 

Debate — Earl of Dartmouth, - - - 1837 

Duke of Manchester, - - - 1838 

Earl of Buckinghamshire - - 1838 

Earl of Denbigh, - - - - 1839 

Earl Gower, .... 1839 

Duke of Manchester, - - - 1839 

Earl of Hillsborough, - - - 1839 

Duke of Richmond, ... 1839 

Earl of Sandwich, ... 1839 

Motion by the Earl of Sandwich, to amend the 

Duke of Manchester's motion, by inserting 

after the word Memorial, the words, " the con. 

tents thereof, not having been opened," - 1839 

Debate — Duke of Richmond, . - - 1839 

Earl Gower, - - - - 1839 

Lord Camden, .... 1839 

Earl of Effingham, - - - 1840 



CXY 



1775. 



Amendment proposed by the Earl of Sandwich, 
rejected, ...... 1842 

Question taken on the Duke of Manchester's 
motion, and the House refused to permit the 
Memorial to be read, .... 1842 

3fay26, Speaker's Speech to the Xing', - - - 1841 
King's Speech to both Houses, ... 1842 
Parliament prorogued to the 27th day of July 
ne.Tt, - 1844 



1774. 



PETITIONS TO THE KING. 



Jan. 10, The most humble Petition of his Majesty's an^ 
cicnt and loyal Subjects, Freeholders, Mer 
chants, and Planters, in the Province of Que 
beck, in North America to the King, - 
15, Memorial of the Freeholders, Merchants, Plan- 
ters, and others, his Majt'stj^'s ancient and 
loyal Subjects, now in the Province of Quc- 
beck, to the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Dartmouth, one of his Majesty's principal Se- 
cretaries of State, - - - - - 

March Letter from Francis Maseres to the Committee 
19, of the Petitioners for an Assembly in the 

Province of Qucbeck. Has presented the 
Petition and Memorial. Ministers believe the 
Province is not yet ripe for an Assembly, and 
prefer for the present a Legislative Council, 
nominated by the King. Advises them to 
declare that the British Parliament has su- 
preme authority over the Province, both of 



- 1843 



1844 



1774. 



Feb. 



CONTENTS. cxvi 

Legislation and Taxation, and that such au- 
thority shall continue after the Establishment 
of an Assembly, - - - - - 1845 

Petition of divers Roman Catholick Inhabitants 
of the Province of Qucbeck, signed and trans- 
mitted to the Earl of Dartmouth, his Majes- 
ty's Secretary of State for America, - - 1846 

Memorial in support of the requests made by his 
Majesty's most obedient and most faithful new 
Subjects in Canada, 1843 

Petition of his Majesty's most loyal and dutiful, 
his ancient Subjects, settled in the Province of 
Qucbeck, 1849 

Humble Address and Petition of the Merchants, 
Traders, and others, of the City of London, 
concerned in the Commerce of North America, 1850 

Address and Petition of the People called Qua- 
kers, to George the Third, King of C4reat 
Britain, and the Dominions thereunto belong- 
ing, - - - - - - - 1852 

Humble Address, Remonstrance, and Petition of 
the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Livery, of the 
City oi London, in Common-Hall, assembled, 1853 

The King's Answer, delivered to the Lord 
Mayor, by the Earl of Hertford, Lord Cham- 
berlain, - - . - - - « - 1854 

Letter from the Lord Chamberlain, to the Lord 

Mayor of London, 1854 

May 2, Mr. Wilkes's, the Lord Mayor's Answer, to the 
Letter from Lord Hertford, the Lord Cham- 
berlain, ■ . 1854 



Nov. 
12, 

1775. 
March 
23, 



April 
10, 



11, 



List of the Delegates appointed by the several Counties of the Province of jMaryland, to the Convention which 
met at Annapolis, by Adjournment, on the Eighth day of Dece.hber, 1774, and continued 
till the Twelfth day of the same month. (See page 1031.) 



For St. Mary's County. — John Allen Thomas, Jeremiah 
Jordan, Richard Barnes, John De Butts. 

For Charles County. — John Dent, Daniel Jenifer, Thomas 
Stone. 

.For Calvert County. — John Weeras, Alexander Sonier- 
ville, Richard Parran, Edward Reynolds, Benjamin 
Mackall_, 4th. 

For Frince George's County. — William Bowie, Robert 
Tyler, Edward Sprigg, John Rodgers, David Crauford, 
Joshua Beall, Osborn Sprigg, Walter Bowie. 

For Frederick County. — Charles Beatty, Jacob Funk, 
Henry Griffith, Thomas Price, Richard Brooke, Jo- 
seph Chapline, Upton Sheredine, Thomas Sprigg Woot- 
len. 

For Anne Arundel County, and City of Annapolis. — John 
Hall, Thomas Johnson, Samuel Chase, William Paca, 
Matthias Hammond, Charles Carroll, Barrister, Charles 
Carroll of Carrolllon, Brice T. B. Worthington, Tho- 
mas Dorsey, John Weems. 

For Baltimore County. — John Moale, Thomas Cockey 



Deye, Walter Tiiliey, Benjamin Nicholson, William 

Buchanan, John Boyd, Samuel Worthington, Charles 

Ridgely. 
For Harford County. — Thomas Bond, John Love, Josias 

Carvile Hall, John Paca, Aquila Paca, Francis Holland, 

Aquila Hall, Amos Garret, Richard Dallam. 
For Cecil County. — John Veazy, Joseph Gilpin. 
For Kent County. — Thomas Ringgold, Joseph Earle. 
For (^ueeji Anne County. — James Hollyday, John Brown, 

Thomas Wright, Turburt Wright. 
For Caroline County. — Hemy Dickenson, Benedict Brice, 

William Mellefon, Joshua Clarke. 
For Dorchester County. — John Dickenson, Thomas En- 

nalls, Matthew Brown, Josiali Richardson, Zachariah 

Campbell. 
For Somerset County. — Peter Waters, George Dashiell, 

Samuel Wilson, Josiah Polk, Henry Waggaman, John 

Winder, Luther Martin. 
For fVorccster County. — Peter Chaille, William Purnel], 

Samuel Handy, Smith Bishop, Nehemiah Holland. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY, &c. 



PROCEEDINGS, PAPERS, AXD DEBATES OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS AND HOUSE OF COMMONS, ON MEASURES 

RELATING TO THE AMERICAN COLONIES, DURING THE SEVENTH SESSION OF THE 

THIRTEENTH PARLIAMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



I. THE KING'S MESSAGE, OF SEVENTH MARCH, 1774. 



HOUSE OF LORDS. 
Friday, March 4th, 1774. 

The Earl of Dartmouth acquainted the House " That 
" his Majesty had given directions, that the several Papers 
" received from America, relating to the Disturbances there, 
" with regard to the importation of Tea, should be laid 
" before the House ; and that the same will be delivered 
" on Monday next." 

Monday, March 1th, 1774. 

The Earl of Dartmouth acquainted the House, " That 
" he had a Message from his Majesty, under his Royal sign 
*' manual, which his Majesty had commanded him to deli- 
*' ver to this House." 

And the same was read by the Lord Chancellor, and is 
as follows ; (videlicet,) 

George R. 

His Majesty upon information of the unwarrantable 
practices which have been lately concerted and earned on 
in North America, and, particularly, of the violent and 
outrageous proceedings at the Town and Port of Boston, 
in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with a view to ob- 
structing the Commerce of this Kingdom, and upon grounds 
and pretences immediately subversive of the Constitution 
thereof, hath thought fit to lay the whole matter before his 
two Houses of Parliament, fully confiding, as well in their 
zeal for the maintenance of his Majesty's authority, as in 
their attachment to the common interest and welfare of all 
bis Dominions, that they will not only enable his Majesty 
effectually to take such measures as may be most likely to 
put an immediate stop to the present disorders, but will also 
take into their most serious consideration, what farther regu- 
lations and permanent provisions may be necessary to be 
established for better securing the execution of the Laws, 
and the just dependence of the Colonies upon the Crown 
and Parliament of Great Britain. G. R. 

The said Message was then read again by the Clerk. 

The Earl of Dartmouth, (by his Majesty's command,) 
laid before the House copies of all Letters, &;c., received 
from America, relating to the Disturbances there w ith regard 
to the importation of Tea, together with a list thereof; 
which was read by the Clerk, as follows; 

Massachusetts Bay. 

No. 1. Extract of a Letter from Govemour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 4th November, 
1773, received 17lh December, enclosing. 

No. 2. Copy of a Letter to Thomas and Elisha 
Hutchinson, delivered at their house in Boston, 
2d hovember, 1773. 
No. 3. Copy of a printed Paper, posted up in the 

Town of Boston, on the 3d November, 1773. 
No. 4. Copy of a Narrative. 
No. 5. Copy of a Narrative. 
No. 6. Copy of a Letter from Govemour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Milton, near Boston, 6th 
November, 1773; received '25th December, enclosing. 



No. 7. Copy of a Letter from Mr. Richard Clarke 
and Company, and Benjamin Faneuil and Compa- 
ny, to John Hancock, Esquire, dated 4th Novem- 
ber, 1773. 
No. 8. Copy of a Vote of the Town Meeting at 

Boston, the 5th November, 1773. 
No. 9. Copy of a Letter from Thomas Hutchinson, 
Junior, to John Hancock, Esquire ; (no date.) 
No. 10. Extract of a Letter from Govemovix Hutchinson 
•to the Earl of Dartmouth , dated Boston, 15th November, 
1773 ; received 3d January, 1774. 

No. 1 1 . Copy of a Letter from Govemour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 2d of December, 
1773 ; received 27th January, 1774, enclosing. 

No. 12. Copy of a Petition of Richard Clarke and 
Sons, Benjamin Fancuil, and Thomas and Elisha 
Hutchinson ; and of the Proceedings of the Coun- 
cil thereupon. 
No. 13. Extract from the Massachusetts Gazette, of 

the 26th November, 1773. 
No. 14. Copy of a Paper printed at Boston, dated 
1st December, 1773. 
No. 15. Copy of a Letter from Govemour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 15th December, 
1773; received 2d February, 1774. 

No. 16. Copy of a Letter from Govemour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 17th December, 
1773 ; received 27th January, 1774. 

No. 17. Copy of a Letter from Govemour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 20th December, 
1773; received 14th February, 1774. 

No. 18. Extract of a Letter from Govemom Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 24th December, 
1773 ; received 14th February, 1774, enclosing. 

No. 19. Extract of the Minutes of the Council of the 
Massachusetts Bay, on the 21st December, 1773. 
No. 20. Extract of a Letter from Govemour Hutcfnnson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 4th January, 
1774 ; received 13th February. 

New- York. 

No. 21. Extract of a Letter from Major General Haldi- 
mand to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated New-York, 3d of 
November, 1773 ; received 10th December. 

No. 22. Extract of a Letter from Major General Haldi- 
mand to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated New-York, 2Sth 
December, 1773 ; received 4tli February, 1774. 

No. 23. Extract of a Letter from Major General Haldi- 
mand to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated New-York, 5th 
January, 1774 ; received 5th February. 

No. 24. Copy of a Paper referred to in Major General 
Haldimand's Letter of the 5th January, 1774. 

No. 25. Extract of a Letter from Major General Haldi- 
mand to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated 2d February, 1774 ; 
received 2d March. 

No. 26. Copy of a Letter from Govemour Tryon to the 
Earl oi Dartmouth, dated New-York, 3d November, 1773; 
received 10th December, enclosing. 

No. 27. Copy of a printed Paper, intituled, " The 
Alarm,No.l," dated New- York, 6thOctober,llT3. 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



8 



The 



Copy of a printed Paper, intituled, " Thi 
n, So. 2," dated New-York, 9th o( October 



No. 28. 
Alarm, 
1773. 
No. 29. Extract from a printed Paper, intituled, " Tne 
Alarm," dated New York, 19th October, 1773. 
No. 30. Copy of a Letter from Governour Tryon to the 
Eari of Dartmouth, dated Netv- York, 1st December, 1773 ; 
received 10th Jarniary, 1774, enclosing. 

No. 31. Memorial of the Agents of the East India 
Company, praying that the Tea shipped by the 
Company, may, on its arrival, be taken under the 
protection of Government. 
No. 32. Minutes of Council relative to the Tea ship- 
ped by the East India Company. 
No. 33. Copy of a Letter from Governour Tryon to the 
Earl of Dartmouth, dated New-York, 3d January, 1774; 
received otli February, 1774. 

No. 34. Copy of a Letter from Governour Tryon to the 
Eari of Dartmouth, dated New-York, 5th January, 1774 ; 
received 5th February, enclosing, 

No. 35. Extract from the Minutes of the Council of 
New-York. 

South Carolina. 

No. 36. Extract of ;t Letter from Lieutenant Governour 
Bull to the Eari of Dartmouth, dated 24th December, 1773 ; 
received 28th January, 1774. 

Neio-Hampshire. 

No. 37. Extract of a Letter from GovemoysiWcntworth, 
to the Eari of Dartmouth, dated New-Hampshire, 17th 
December, 1773; received 2d March, 1774, enclosing. 
No. 38. Notification of the Selectmen of the Town 

of Portsmouth. 
No. 39. Resolves of Portsmouth, in New-Hampshire, 
respecting the Teas. 

Admiralty. 

No. 40. Copy of a Letter from the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty to the Eari of Dartmouth, dated the 20th 
January, 1774; received the 21st, enclosing. 

No. 41. Copy of a Letter from Rear Admiral Mon- 
tagu to Philip Stephens, Esqr., Secretary of the 
Admiralty, dated Boston, 8th December, 1773. 
No. 42. Copy of a Letter from the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated 27th 
January, 1774 ; received the same day, enclosing. 

No. 43. A copy of a Letter from Rear Admiral 
Montagu to Philip Stephens, Esqr., Secretary of 
the Admiralty, dated Boston, 17th December, 1773. 

War Office. 

No. 44. Copy of a I^etter from Lord Viscount Barrington 
to the Eari of Dartmouth, dated War OfEce, 28th January, 
1774 ; received 29tli, enclosing. 

No. 45. Copy of a Letter from the Honourable Alex- 
ander Leslie, Lieutenant Colonel of the Sixty- 
Fourth Regiment of Foot, to Lord Viscount Bar- 
rington, dated Castle William, December 6, 1773. 
No. 46. Extract of a Letter from Ditto to Ditto, dated 
17th December, 1773. 

£aj< India Company. 

No. 47. Copy of a Note from the Chairman of the East 
India Company to the Eari of Dartmouth, dated 20th De- 
cember, 1773 ; received 21st, enclosing, 

No. 48. Account of Tea exported by the East India 
Company to his Majesty's Colonies in North Ame- 
rica, with the quantities, and to whom consigned. 
No. 49. Copy of a Note from the Chairman of the East 
India Company to the Eari of Dartmouth, dated 23d De- 
cember, 1773 ; received 25th, enclosing. 

No. 50. Extract of a Letter dated Boston, 18th Oc- 
tober, 1773. 
No. 51. Extract of a Letter from New- York, dated 

5th November, 1773. 
No. 52. Extract of a Letter from New- York, dated 

5lh November, 1773. 
No. 53. Cony of a Letter relative to advices received 
from Philadelphia and New-York, dated 21st De- 
cember, 177.3. 



No. 54. Copy of a Letter relative to advices received 

from Philadelphia, dated 21st December, 1773. 
No. 55. Copy of a Letter relative to the exportation 

of Tea to Boston, dated 21st December, 1773. 
No. 56. Copy of a Letter relative to the exportation 

of Tea to South Carolina. 
No. 57. Copy of a Letter relative to the exportation 
of Tea to New-York. 
No. 58. Copy of a Note from the Chairman of the East 
India Company to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated 24th 
December, 1773 ; received 25tli, enclosing. 

No. 59. Extract of a Letter from Philadelphia, dated 

5th October, 1773. 
No. 60. Extract of two Letters from Philadelphia, 
dated October 5th and 30th, 1773. 
No. 61. Copy of a Note from the Chairman and Deputy 
Chairman of the East India Company to the Eari of Dart- 
mouth, dated lOih January, 1774 ; received 15th, enclosing, 
No. 62. Copy of a Letter from the East India Com- 
pany's Agents at New-York to the Court of Di- 
rectors. 
No. 63. Copy of the Memorial of Henry Wiite and 
others. Merchants, to the Governour of New- York. 
No. 64. Copy of a Letter from an Agent of the East 
India Company to his Correspondents in London, dated 
Boston, 15th November, 1773. 

No. 65. Copy of a Letter from an Agent of the East 
India Company to his Correspondent in London, dated 
Boston, November, 1773. 

No. 66. Copy of a Letter from an Agent of the East 
India Company to the Chairman, dated Boston, 17th No- 
vember, 1773. 

No. 67. Copy of a Note from the Chairman of the East 
India Company to the Eari of Dartmouth, dated 21st 
January, 1774 ; received 25th, enclosing, 

No. 68. Copy of a Letter signed " Anglo Ameri- 

canus," to the East India Company, dated Boston, 

17th December, 1773. 

No. 69. Copy of a Note from the Chairman and Deputy 

Chairman of the East India Company to the Earl of 

Dartmouth, dated 26th January, 1774 ; received the same 

day. 

No. 70. Copy of a Note from the Chairman and Deputy 
Chairman of the East India Company to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, dated 26th January, 1774 ; received 27th, en- 
closing. 

No. 71. Copy of a Letter to the Delaware Pilots and 
• to Captain Ayres, dated Philadelphia, 27th No- 
vember, 1773. 
No. 72. Declaration of Messrs. James and Drinker, 
Agents for the East India Company, at Phila- 
delphia. 
No. 73. Postscript to the Pennsylvania Gazette, of 

24th December, 1773. 
No. 74. Copy of a Letter from Messrs. James and 
Drinker to the Directors of the East India Com- 
pany, dated Philadelphia, 28th December, 1773. 
No. 75. Copy of a Letter from Messrs. Tliomas and 
Isaac Wharton, Jonathan Brown, and Gilbert 
Barkley, to the East India Company, dated Phi- 
ladelphia, 28th December, 1773. 
No. 76. Copy of a Note from the Chairman of the East 
India Company to the Earl of Dartmouth ; received 3d 
February, 1774. 

No. 77. Copy of a Letter from Thomas and Elisha 
Hutchinson, Richard Clarke and Sons, and Benjamin 
Faneuil, to the Directors of the East India Company, 
dated 2d December, 1773. 

No. 78. Copy of a Letter from Ditto to Ditto, dated 
17th December, 1773. 

No. 79. Copies of two Letters from Messrs. Smith, 
Leger, and Greenivood, to the Secretary of the East India 
Company, dated 4lh and 18th December, 1773. 

No. 80. Copy of a Note from the Chairman and Deputy 
Chairman of the East India Company to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, dated 9th February, 1774 ; received 10th, 
enclosing, 

No. 81. Copy of a Letter from Henry ff'hite, Abram 
Lott, and Company, and Pigou and Booth, to the 
Directors of the East India Company, dated Neiv- 
York, 27th December, 1773. 



9 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



10 



No. 82. Copy of a Letter from Henry fVJiitt, and 
others, to Captain Benjamin Loclcyer, of the Ship 
Nancy, dated New-York, 27th December, 1773. 
No. 83. Copy of a Note from the Ciiairman and Deputy 
Chairman of tiie East India Company to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, dated 15th February, 1774 ; received 16th, en- 
closing. 

No. 84. Questions proposed by Francis Rotch, an 
owner, and James Hall, master, of the Ship Dart- 
mouth, with the Answers of the Consignees. 
No. 85. Questions proposed by James Bruce, master 
of the Ship Eleanor, with the Answers of the Con- 
signees. 
No. 86. Copy of a Letter from Mr. Botch, owner of 
the Ship Dartmouth, to Richard Clarke and Sons, 
&c., dated Boston, 6th January, 1774. 
No. 87. Copy of a Letter from Richard Clarke and 
Sons, and Benjamin Faneuil, Jun., to the Directors 
of the East India Company, dated Castle William, 
January 7th, 1774. 
No. 88. Copy of a Letter from Richard Clarke and 
Sons, and Benjamin Faneuil, Jun., to the East India 
Company, dated January 7th, 1774. 
No. 89. Copy of a Letter from Mr. Mitchell, Secretary 
to the East India Company, to John Pownall, Esqr., dated 
16th February, 1774; received 17th. enclosing, 

No. 90. Copy of a Memorial of the East India 
Company to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated 16th 
February, 1774. 

Treasury. 

No. 91. Copy of a Letter from Grey Cooper, Esqr., 
Secretary of the Treasury, to John Pownall, Esqr., dated 
7th March, 1774, enclosing. 

No. 92. Copy of a Letter from Mr. Mather, acting as 
Secretary to the Commissioners of the Customs in 
America, dated 7th October, 1773, to John Robin- 
son, Esqr., Secretary to the Lords of the Treasury ; 
received 14th February, 1774. 
No. 93. A copy of a Letter from the Commissioners of 
the Customs in America, to the Lords of the Treasury, 
dated Boston, 4th January, 1774 ; received 14th Februa- 
ry, 1774, enclosing. 

No. 94. Copy of a Letter from the Collectors and 
Comptroller of the Customs at Boston, to the Com- 
missioners of the Customs there, dated 17th De- 
cember, 1773. 
No. 95. Copy of a Letter from Ditto to Ditto, dated 

23d December, 1773. 
No. 96. Copy of a Letter from Ditto to Ditto, dated 

31st December, 1773. 
No. 97. Copy of a Protest of James Bruce, James 

Bruce, Jun., and John Finney. 
No. 98. Do. of Hezekiah Coffin and others. 
No. 99. Do. of Francis Rotch and others. 
No. 100. Depositions of Samuel Hunt and others. 
No. 101. Do. of Thomas Rick and others. 
No. 102. Do. of miliam Elliot and others. 
No. 103. Do. of Alexander Hodgson. 
No. 104. Do. of James Bruce and others. 
No. 105. Report of Arthur Savage. 
No. 106. Do. of Robert Parker. 
No. 107. Memorial of Francis Rotch. 
No. 108. Do. of James Bruce. 
No. 109. Do. of Hezekiah Coffin. 

Ordered, That the said Papers do lie on the table. 

Ordered, That an humble Address be presented to his 
Majesty, '•' To return his Majesty the thanks of this House 
" for his Majesty's gracious Message, and for the communi- 
" cation his Majesty hath been graciously pleased to make 
" to this House, of several Papers relative to the present 
" state of some of his Majesty's Colonies in North Ame- 
" rica. 

" To assure his Majesty that this House, truly sensible 
" that the peace and good government of the Colonies, 
" and the preventing any obstructions there to the Com- 
" merce of this Kingdom, are objects of their most serious 
" attention, will enter upon the consideration of these 
" Papers with an earnest desire to make such provisions 
" as, upon mature deliberation, shall appear necessary and 



" expedient for securing the just dependence of the said 
" Colonies upon the Crown and Parliament of Great Bri- 
" tain, and for enforcing a due obedience to the Laws of 
" this Kingdom throughout all his Majesty's Dominions.'' 

Ordered, That the said Address be presented to his 
Majesty by the Lords with White Staves. 

Ordered, That the Papers delivered this day by the 
Earl of Dartmouth, (by his Majesty's command,) toge- 
ther with his Majesty's most gracious Message, be taken 
into consideration on Thursday, sevennight ; and that tiie 
Lords be summoned. 

Friday, March 11, 1774. 

The Earl of Dartmouth, (by his Majesty's command,) 
laid before the House more Papers from America, relating 
to the Disturbances there with regard to the importation of 
Tea. together with a list thereof, 

Which was read by the Clerk, as follows : 

No. 1 . Extract of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 28th January, 
1774; received 8th March, enclosing. 

No. 2. Extract from the Boston Gazette, of 27th 
January, 1774. 

Ordered, That the said Papers do lie on the table, and 
that they be taken into consideration on Thursday next. 

Wednesday, March 16, 1774. 

The House being moved, " That the consideration of 
" the several Papers laid before tliis House (by his Majesty's 
"command,) relating to D'lstwhances'm America, and also 
" his Majesty's most gracious Answer in relation thereto, 
" be adjourned till to-morrow sevennight ; and that the 
" Lords be summoned." 

The same was objected to. After short debate, the 
question was put thereupon. It was resolved in the Affirm- 
ative. 

Wednesday, March 23, 1774. 

Ordered, That the consideration of the several Papers 
laid before this House (by his Majesty's command,) rela- 
ting to the Disturbances in America; and also his Majesty's 
most gracious Message in relation thereto, which stands 
appointed for to-morrow, be adjourned till Monday next ; 
and that the Lords be summoned. 

Wednesday, March 30, 1774. 

Ordered, That all the Lords who have been present 
this day, be appointed a Committee to inquire into the 
several Proceedings in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
in opposition to the sovereignty of his Majesty, in his 
Parliament of Great Britain, over that Province ; and also 
what has passed in this House relative thereto, from the 1st 
of January, 1764. 

Ordered, That the several Papers laid before this House 
relating to Disturbances in the Colony of the Massachusetts 
Bay, be referred to the said Committee; and the said 
Committee is hereby empowered to send for Persons, 
Papers, and Records. 

Their Lordships, or any five of them, to meet to-morrow, 
in the Prince's lodgings, near the House of Peers ; and to 
adjourn as they please. 

The Lords present, who formed the Committee, were : 

Tlie Duke of Gloucester; Lord Apsley, Lord High 
Chancellor; Earl of Gower, Lord President; Earl of 
Hertford, Lord Chamberlain. 

Dukes : Beafort, Ancaster, Chandos, Montagu. 

Earls : Suffolk, Denbigh, Westmoreland, Stanford, 
Sandwich, Doncaster, Rod ford ,Abercorn, Loudon, March, 
Marchmont, Stair, Roseberry, Dartmouth, Macclesfield, 
Waldegrave, Asburnham, Bucks, Hardwicke, Faucon- 
berg, Ilchester, Northington, Spencer, Hillsborough. 

Viscounts : Montague, Townshend, Falmouth. 

Hon : Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbu- 
ry; Richard Tcrrick, Bishop of Lonrfo/i; Edmund Keene, 
Bishop of Ely; Sir William Asburnham, Bart., Bishop of 
Chichester; John Hume, Bishop o( Salisbury ; John Green, 
Bishop of Lincoln ; Charles Moss, Bishop of St. Davids ; 
Eihnund Law, Bishop of Carlisle; John Hinchcliffe, 
Bishop of Peterborough ; William Markham, Bishop of 
Chester. 



11 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



12 



Lords: Abergavenny, Wilhughhy, Br., Cathcart, Ca- 
dogan, King, Godolphin, Moiitfort, Eds:cumbe, Sandys, 
Bruce, IVafpok, Mansfield, Lyttchon, Wycombe, Scars- 
dale, Boston, Pelhavi, Camden, Sundridge. 

Thursday, April 14, 1774. 

The Earl of Btickinghamshirc reported from the Com- 
mittee appointed to inquire into tlie several Proceedings in 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, in opposition to the 
sovereignty of his Majesty in his Parliament of Great Bri- 
tain, over that Province, and also what has passed in this 
House relative thereto, from the 1st of January, 1764, 
" That it is the opinion of this Committee, that the House 
" be moved. That an humble Address be presented to his 
" Majesty, that he would be graciously [)leased to give 
" directions that there be laid before this House, copies or 
" extracts of all Letters and Papers which have been receiv- 
" ed by his Majesty's Secretaries of State, or the Commis- 
" sioners of Trade and Plantations, from the Governour, 
" Lieutenant Governour, or other Officers in his Majesty's 
" service in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in iS'ew 
'•■ England, containing advices of any proceedings in the 
" said Province in opposition to his Majesty's sovereignty 
" in his Parliament of Great Britain, over the same, from 
" the 7th of July, 1766, which have not been already laid 
" before the House." 

Which Report, being read by the Clerk, was agreed to 
by the House. 

And the Hou'=e being moved accordingly — 

Ordered, That an humble Address be presented to his 
Majesty, " That he would be graciously pleased to give di- 
" rections that there be laid before this House, copies or 
" extracts of all Letters and Papers which have been receiv- 
" ed by his Majesty's Secretaries of State, or the Com- 
" missioners of Trade and Plantations, from the Governour, 
" Lieutenant Governour, or other Officers in his ftlajesty's 
" service in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in Neio 
" England, containing advices of any proceedings in the 
" said Province in opposition to his Majesty's sovereignty 
" in his Parliament of Great Britain, over the same, from 
" the 7th of July, 1766, which have not been already laid 
" before the House." 

Friday, April 15, 1774. 

The Lord Chamberlain reported, " That the Lords with 
" White Staves had (according to order) waited on his Ma- 
"jesty with their Lordships' Address of yesterday ; and 
" that his Majesty was pleased to say ' he would give 
" directions accordingly.' " 

The Earl of Dartmouth, (by his Majesty's command,) 
laid before the House, the several Papers in their Lordships' 
Address of yesterday, relating to the Disturbances in Ame- 
rica, together with a list thereof; \yhich was read by the 
Clerk, as follows : 

No. 1 . Extract of a Letter from Governour Bernard to 
the Lords of Trade, dated Boston, 7th July, 1766. 

No. 2. Extract of a Letter from Governour Bernard to 
the Earl of Shelburnc, dated Boston, 7th February, 1767, 
with enclosures. 

No. 3. Extract of a Letter from Governour Bernard to 
the Earl of Shelburnc, dated Boston, 21st February, 1767. 
No. 4. Extract of a Letter from Governour Bernard to 
the Earl of Shelburne, dated Boston, 21st March, 1768. 
No. 5. Extract of a Letter from Governour Bernard, to 
the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 30th of May, 
1768. 

No. 6. Answer of the House of Representatives of 
Massachusetts Bay, to the Govemour's Message, the 30th 
June, 1768. 

No. 7. Printed account of the Associations at Boston, 
and the Proceedings in consequence thereof. 

No. 8. Extract of a Letter from Sir Francis Bernard, 
Baronet, to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, the 
1st of June, 1769. 

No. 9. Extract of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, lltli July, 

1769, with an enclosure. 

No. 10. Copy of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 27lh March, 

1770, with an enclosure. 

No. 11. Extracts of Letters from Governour Hutchinson 



to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 27th April, 
and 21st May, 1770. 

No. 12. Extractof a Letter from Governour i/i/fc^jnson, 
to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 6th July, 1771 ; 
with a copy of his Message to the House of Representatives, 
and of the Answer of the said House. 

No. 13. Copy of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 28th November, 

1771, with enclosures. 

No. 14. Extract of a Letter from Governour JE/u/cAinson 
to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 29th May, 

1772, with an enclosure. 

No. 15. Extract of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson 

to the Earl o( Dartmouth, dated Boston, 23d October, 1772. 

No. 16. Copv of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson 

to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 30th October, 

1772, with enclosures. 

No. 17. Copy of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson to 

the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 3d November, 1772. 

No. 18. Printed copy of the Votes and Proceedings of 

the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the Town of Boston. 

No. 19. ExtractofaLetterfrom Governour jywicAiwsonto 

the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 22d February, 1773. 

No. 20. Printed copy of the Speeches of Governour 

Hutchinson to the General Assembly of the Massachusetts 

Bay, with the Answers of the Council and House of 

Representatives. 

No. 21. Copy of Petition and Remonstrance from the 
House of Representatives of the Province o[ Massachusetts 
Bay, 14th July, 1772. 

No. 22. Copy of Petition to the King from the House 
of Representatives of 3Iassachusetts Bay, dated 6th March, 
1773. 

No. 23. Copy of a Letter from Governour Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 14th February, 
1774 ; received 5th April, enclosing, 

No. 24. Copy of Governour Hutchinson's Speech to 
the Council and House of Representatives, and 
their Answer. 
No. 25. Copy of Requisition from the House of Re- 
presentatives of Massachusetts Bay, to the Judges 
of the Superiour Court. 
No. 26. Copy of a Remonstrance of the House of 
Representatives of Massachusetts i?«y, against the 
Chief Justice. 
No. 27. Copy of Vote of the Council and House of 
Representatives of Massachusetts Bay, for adjourn- 
ing the Superiour Court; not consented to by the 
Governour. 
No. 28. Copy of Governour Hutchinson's Answer to 
the Remonstrance of the House of Representatives 
against tb.e Chief Justice. 
Ordered, That the said Papers be referred to the Com- 
mittee appointed to inquire into the several proceedings 
in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, in opposition to the 
sovereignty of his Majesty in his Parliament of Great Bri- 
tain over that Province ; and also what has passed in this 
House relative thereto, from the 1st of January, 1764. 

Wednesday, April 20, 1774. 

The Earl of Buckinghamshire reported fi'om Report fmm 
the Lords' Committee, appointed to inquire into po'Jm'd'focou^ 
the several Proceedings in the Colony of Mas- '"i""'' P"'"^ 
sachusetts Bail, m opposition to the sovereignty <-i>ionyoi .wnJ- 
01 his Majesty m his Parliament oi Great Bri- 
tain over that Province ; and also what has passed in this 
House relative thereto, from the 1st day of January, 1764, 
as follows: — 

That in obedience to your Lordships' commands, the 
Committee have met, and taken into consideration the mat- 
ters to them referred ; and having attentively read and consi- 
dered the several Papers which have been laid before the 
House, relative to the Proceedings in the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, in opposition to the sovereignty of his Ma- 
jesty in his Parliament of Great Britain over that 
Province ; and having also carefully inspected the Journals 
of the House, from the 1st day of January, 1764, to the 
|)resent time, they find that, on the 2d day joumai., April 
of April, 1764, a Bill was brought up from the ^' "■'^• 
Commons to your Lordships, intituled, '' An Act forgrant- 
" ing certain Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations 



13 



KING'S MESSAGE, IMARCH 7, 1774. 



14 



" in America ; for continuing and amending, and making 
" perpetual, an Act, passed in tlie sixth year of the reign 
"of his late Majesty, King George the Second, intituled 
" ' An Act for the better securing and encouraging the 
" Trade of his Majesty's Sugar Colonies in America;' for 
" applying the produce of such Duties, and of the Duties to 
" arise by virtue of the said Act, towards defraying the ex- 
" penses of defending, protecting, and securing, the said 
" Colonies and Plantations ; lor explaining an Act, made 
" in the twenty-fifth year of the reign of King Charles the 
" Second, intituled ' An Act for the Encouragement of the 
" Greenland and Eastland Trades, and for the better se- 
" curin« the Plantation Trade ;' and for altering and dis- 
" allowing several Drawbacks on Exports from this King- 
" dom, and more effectually preventing the clandestine 
" conveyance of Goods to and from said Colonies and Plan- 
" taiions, and improving and securing the Trade between 
" the same and Great Britain." 

April Mh and That this Bill passed the House on the 4th 
*'*• oi April, and received the Royal assent on the 
following day. 

The Committee having perused the Report of the 

Dtmuhrr uth, Board of Trade, of the 11th day oi December, 

"Ti 1764, and the Papers laid before his Majesty 

Hepiwuiaiion therewith, find in the said Papers the strongest 

or llu- Board ol . ' , /• i 31 i 7 

Trade to iiii asscrtious by the Assembly ol the Massachusetts 
»j«t>- Bay, of their sole right to pass laws, particu- 

larly of taxation ; and of their resolution to invite the other 
Colonies to combine with them in measures to prevent the 
King, in his Parliament, from passing any such laws; for 
instance, in a letter to Mr. Manduit, then Agent 
ExtracuVroin of the Province, which was drawn up by a Com- 
I.nh"-'Huus!.''of niittee of the House of Representatives, and 
?f'tl['c;li''n')"ar afterwards approved by the House, they used 



Maisachuicits ji,g following exoressious 

Bm, 1st, Sth, . °i '1 1 1 

1 III, and utii " Provmce should nave 



JUM, 17M. 



; " The silence of the 
been imputed to any 



" cause, even to despair, rather than be con- 
" strued into a tacit cession of their rights, or an acknow- 
" ledgement of a right in the Parliament of Great Britain 
" to impose Duties and Taxes upon a People who are not 
" represented in the House of Commons ;" and in the same 
letter they avowed and authenticated the doctrines advanced 

in a certain pamphlet, intituled, " The Rights 
o?.Vb,'Kikfrom of the Brt^w/j Colouics asserted and proved;" 
Sdof'the'CoUk written by James Otis, Esq. ; which pamphlet, 

amongst other things, says, " That the imposi- 
" tion of taxes, whether on trade or on land, on houses or 
" ships, on real or personal, fixed or floating property, in 
" the Colonies, is absolutely irreconcilable with the rights 
" of the Colonists, as British subjects, and as men." 

■loiirnaii Feb- The Committee find that, on the 28th day 
ruaryii, 1795. gf February, 1765, a Bill was brought from the 
Commons, intituled, "An Act for granting and applying 
" Stamp Duties and other Duties in the British Colonies 
"and Plantations in America; towards further defraying 
" the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the 
" same ; and for amending such parts of the several Acts 
" of Parliament relating to the Trade and Revenues of the 
" said Colonies and Plantations, as direct the manner of 
" determining and recovering the penalties and forfeitures 
" therein mentioned." 

That the said Bill received the Royal assent on the 22d 
of the same month. 

That on the 17th day of December, his 

Majesty declared, in his most gracious Speech 
from the Throne, "That tiie matters of importance which 
" had lately occurred in some of his Colonies in America, 
" were the principal cause of his Majesty's assembling his 
" Parliament sooner than was usual in times of peace." 
No. 17. '^ appears to the Committee, from the voles 

Vote, of the of the House of Representatives of the Colony 

HouNe nf Rep- -n-- , r^' r ^ ^ \ r i 

re.entaiivr», ol Massachusetts Bau, ol the oth ol June, 1765, 

June Oth, 1765. , •' ' , . ,, mi . 

that they came to a Kesolution, " That it was 
" highly expedient there should be a meeting, as soon as 
" might be, of Committees from the Houses of Reprcsent- 
" atives or Burgesses, in the several Colonies on the 
" American Continent, to consult on their then present 
" circumstances, and the diflicultics to which they were re- 
" duced by the operation of the late Acts of Parliament, 
" for levying Duties on the Colonies, and to consider of a 
" general Address to his Majesty and the Parliament, to 



December 17th. 



" implore relief; and that letters should be forthwith. pre- 
" pared and transmitted to the respective Speakers of the 
" several Assemblies, to invite them to accede to ,y,,, j„„e sn, 
" this proposition :" and further, that on the Sth ""*' ^°'''' ""• 
of June, they did actually elect three persons to be their 
Committees ; and also voted £450 to bear their exi)enses. 

Your Committee find, in a letter from the no. 21. 
Governor to the Lords Commissioners for Trade ^tru'T'uiM, 
and Plantations, dated August 15tl), 1765, an ;f,"*;i;"'''i'JIiji 
account of a violent riot at Boston, in resistance comnn>*i™en 
to a law passed by the Legislature of Great Plantations 
Britain, in which an attack was made upon Mr. Oliver, 
Distributer of Stamps, and carried to the length of pulling 
down and destroying his houses, manilbstinii a resolution, 
if they could have found him, of putting him to death ; 
upon which occasion the backwardness and indisposition of 
the Council to support the peace and good order of Gov- 
ernment, were very ajjparent. Also, in another x„. 22. 
letter from the Governor, ihxted August 31st, fjfjfJfJt'TOo'J 
1765, to the said Board of Trade, they find IZ^'J-I'I^'a^ 
that the mob attacked the house of Mr. Storey, 
Register of the Admiralty, which they demolished ; they 
also took all his books and papers, amongst which were 
the Records of the Court of Admiralty, and burnt them, 
and searched about for him, with an intent to murder him ; 
they also pillaged the house of Mr. Hallowe/l, Comptroller 
of the Customs. But their most violent proceeding was 
against the Lieutenant Governor, whose house, plate, 
books, and manuscripts, to a very great value, they totally 
destroyed. And, in this great extremity, the Council 
being, as the Governor observes, dependent upon the peo- 
ple, refused even to concur with him in his proposition of 
giving notice to General Gage of the then situation of the 
town of Boston. 

It is remarkable that this commotion entirely To.zt. 
arose out of the town oi Boston ; for though it i.f,r'(rj' i.tteito 
was given out that many People out of the 'ilaifai'^'ciiJit 
country were concerned in diis affair, upon in- ^/„'j"Tjth ami 
quiry, it was found that such persons living out '"'■' ""■ 
of Boston as were seen in the crowd, were there merely as 
spectators. 

In Governor Bernard's letter to the Board of xo. m. 
Trade, of October 12th, 1765, he says, " That ,,»"(/v'leite"o 
" the real authority of the Government is at an Vrade,"o«<p4o- 
" end ; some of the principal ringleaders in the '^'''' '""• 
" late riots, walk the streets with impunity ; no Officers dare 
" attack them ; no Attorney General prosecute them ; no 
" Witness appear against them ; and no Judges sit upon 
"them." 

And during the general disorder, the Gov- ao^Iml^'Ber. 
ernor thought it necessary for some companies 'i";^f%["n"'Jy 
of the Militia to be mustered, with the unani- c«atoy.fl"»rwi 

1 . ,■ ■ /-< Ml 1 I nfi- • ^cvemOer Hit, 

mous advice of the Councd, but that the Militia ires. 
refused to obey his orders. No. 71. 

, , /. 1 1 1- 1 . . 'J Kxtr.ic-tof a ret- 

And we find that so little attention was paid ter from Gov- 

to an Act of the British Legislature, by the ,"'7. pnvZit 

Council and House of Representatives, that ,^;,1o^".i,!j|^"j' 

they resolved in a joint Committee, on the •25th j,,,^;,";,?-;;,, „f 

of October, 1765, that it should and might be thicouiKiianci 

... . I o • ? House (.f Itt ()- 

lawfiil to do business without stamps, notwith- rMentativi,, 
Standing the Act of Parliament to the contrary. 

On the 14th day of January, 1766, upon the joumai>, ymK- 
meeting of the Parliament, after the recess at "'" ''"''' ''""• 
Christmas, his Majesty was pleased to declare himself in a 
most gracious Speech from the throne, in the following 
terms : 

" My Lords and Gentlemen : When I met you last, I 
" acquainted you that matters of importance had happen- 
" ed in America, which would demand the most .serious 
" attention of Parliament. 

" That no information which could serve to direct your 
" deliberations in so interesting a concern might be want- 
" ing, I have ordered all the Papers that give any light 
" into the origin, the jjrogress, or the tendency, of the 
" Disturliances which have of late prevailed in some of 
" the Northern Colonies, to be immediately laid before 

" you. 

" No time has been lost, on the first advice of these 
« Disturbances, to issue orders to the Governors of my 
" Provinces, and to the Commanders of my Forces, in 
" America, for the exertion of all the powers of the Go- 



15 



KINGS MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



16 



January <3. 



January 27. 



January 38. 
February 10. 



" vernment in the suppression of riots and tumults, and in 
" the effectual support of lawful authority. 

" Whatever remains to be done on this occasion, I coin- 
" mit to your wisdom, not doubting but your zeal for the 
" honor of my Crown, your attention to the just rights and 
" authority ot the British Legislature, and your afleclion 
" and concern for the welfare and prosperity of all my 
" People, will guide you to such sound and prudent resolu- 
" tions as may tend at once to preserve those constitutional 
" rights over the Colonies, and to restore to them that 
" harmony and tranquillity which have lately been inter- 
" rupted by riots and disordere of the most dangerous na- 
" ture." 

In the dutiful Address which was voted the same day, 
the House assure his Majesty, " of their hearty concur- 
" rence with his Majesty's most salutary intentions; that 
" they would exert their utmost endeavours to assert and 
" support his Majesty's dignity and honor, and the legisla- 
" tive authority of this Kingdom over its Colonies ; and 
" that they would take into tiieir consideration the most 
" proper methods to provide for the restoration of tranquil- 
" litv to those Colonies which had been disturbed by such 
" violent and dangerous commotions." 

Upon the same day all the Papers relating to 
joam.K IMS. jj^g information and advices received from Ame- 
rica, of the riots and tumults there, were laid before the 
House. 

More Papers relating to America were laid 
before the House, which, together with the other 
Papers, were referred to a Committee of the whole House 
for Tuesday, tiie 28th. 

More Papers were laid before the House, 
and referred to the said Committee. 

The Committee met, and after several ad- 
journments, on the 10th oi February, following, 
the Chairman reported several Resolutions, which were 
agreed to by the House, as follows : 

" 1. Resolved, That the King's Majesty, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, 
and Conmions of Great Britain, in Parliament assembled, 
had, hath, and of right ought to have, full power and au- 
thority to make Laws and Statutes of sufficient force and 
validity to bind the Colonies and People of America, sub- 
jects of the Crown of Great Britain, in all cases whatso- 
ever. 

" 2. Resolved, That it appears to this Committee, that 
Tumults and Insurrections of the most dangerous nature, 
have been raised and carried on in several of the North 
American Colonies, in open de6ance of the Power and 
Dignity of his Majesty's Government, and in manifest viola- 
tion of the Laws and Legislative authority of this Kingdom. 
" 3. Resolved, That it appears to this Committee that the 
said Tumults and Insurrections have been encouraged and 
inflamed by sundry Votes and Resolutions, passed in seve- 
ral of the Assemblies of the said Provinces, derogatory to 
the honor of his Majesty's Government, and destructive of 
the legal and constitutional dependency of the said Colo- 
nies on the Imperial Crown and Pariiament of Great Bri- 
tain. 

" 4. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee, 
that an humble Address be presented to his Majesty, to 
desire that his Majesty would be graciously pleased to give 
instructions to the Governors of the several Provinces 
wlicre the above mentioned Tumults and Insurrections have 
happened, that they should, in his Majesty's name, require 
of the Asseniblies of the said Provinces, to make proper 
recompense to those who have suffered in their persons 
or properties, in consequence of the aforesaid Tumults and 
Insurrections ; and to assure his Majesty that this House 
will, upon this and all occasions, support the lawful authori- 
ty of his Crown, and the rights of Parliament. 

" 5. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee, 
that all his Majesty's subjects, residing in tiie said Colonies, 
who have manifested their desire to comply with, or to as- 
sist in, carrying into execution, the Act for laying a duty on 
Stamps, or any other Act of Pariiament, in the British 
Colonies in North America, h'd\e acted as dutiful and loyal 
subjects, and are therefore entitled to, and will assuredly 
have, the favor and protection of this House." 

" Ordered, That an humble Address be presented to his 
Majesty, pursuant to the fourth Resolution." 



On the 5th of March, & Bill was brought war.Ajth. 
from the Commons, intituled, " An Act for the 
" better securing the Dependency of his Majesty's Domin- 
" ions in America upon the Crowti and Parliament of 
" Great Britain." 

Which Bill received the Royal assent on the 18lh of the 
same month. 

And also a Bill intituled, " An Act to repeal an Act made 
" in the last session of Pariiament intituled, ' An Act for 
" granting and applying certain Stamp Duties, and other du- 
" ties in the British Colonies and Plantations in America; 
" towards further defraying the expenses of defending, pro- 
'•■ tecting, and securing the same; and for amending such 
" parts of the several Acts of Parliament relating to the 
" Trade and Revenues of the said Colonies and Planta- 
" tions, as direct the manner of determining and recover- 
" ing the penalties and forfeitures therein mentioned.' " 

VVhich Bill received the Royal assent on the March isih. 
18th of March. 

Whilst the Bill for repealing the Stamp Act was under 
deliberation, petitions from the Merchants of the city of 
Bristol, from the Merchants of Glasgow, from Edtvard 
Montague, Agent for the Colony of Virginia, and from 
the Merchants of the city of London, in favor of the said 
repeal, were received and read. 

On the 2d of June, a Bill was brought from juneu. 
the Commons, intituled, " An Act for indemni- 
" fying persons who have incurred certain penalties inflicted 
" by an Act of the last session of Pariiament, ' for granting 
" certain Stamp Duties in the British Colonies and Plaa- 
" tations in America ;' and for making valid all instruments 
" executed or enrolled there on unstamped paper, vellum, 
" or parchment." 

Which Bill received the Royal assent on the 6th of 
the same month. 

It appears by a letter from Governor Ber- j,„ ,„_ 
nard to the Earl of Shelburne, dated Decern- £»'">'< of » let- 

ipr Iron) *jOv. 

ber 24tb, 1766, that the Governor, by advice Brrnm rf, to tho 
of the Council, ordered the Mutmy Act and *urn<-, Bottm, 
three other Acts to be printed by the Printer "^' ' 
of the Laws, in the interval of the adjournment of the 
Assembly. Two companies of Artillery being driven on 
shore by distress of weather, and the said Act of Parlia- 
ment having been consulted, the Council advised the 
Governor to order the Commissary to supply them with 
what they demanded under the Act, which was done. Upon 
the meeting of the Assembly a Message was sent to the 
Council, and carried by five members, to inquire " by what 
" authority Acts of Parliament were registered amongst 
" the laws of that Province ; and whether they knew of 
" any Act (meaning of Assembly) requiring the registering 
" of Ordinances (their term for Acts of Parliament) which 
" their Legislature never consented to." 

The Committee find that, on the 12th of j„„n„], 
March, 1767, the Ixird Wycombe (by his Ma- ^"^"^Aiith. 
jesty's command) laid before the House copies 
of letters, &.c., from his Majesty's Governors in America, 
which were ordered to lie on the table. 

That on the 3d oi April more copies of let- ApriiM. 
ters from his Majesty's Governors in America, 
were laid before the House, and ordered to lie on the table. 

That on the 14tli of May, it was ordered 
that an humble Address should be presented to 
his Majesty, " That he would be graciously pleased to 
" give directions that there might be laid before this House 
" copies of all Reports made to or by the Commissioners 
" of Trade and Plantations, together with all Orders and 
" Proceedings made or had by the Secretaries of State, or 
" his Majesty's Privy Council, relating to the Bill passed 
" by the Governor, Council, and Assembly of the Massa- 
" chusctts Bay, for granting compensation to the sufferers, 
" and of free and general pardon, indemnity, and oblivion 
" to the offenders in the late times, from the time of the 
" receipt of the said Bill." 

That on the 18th day of May, pursuant to May isth. 
the said Address, the Lord Wycombe laid before 
the House, a copy of the Report of the Committee of 
Council, &ic., wliich papers were ordered to lie on the table. 

That on the same day it was ordered, that an humble 
Address should be presented to his Majesty, " That he 
" would be graciously pleased to give directions, that there 



May 14th. 



17 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



18 



May 32d. 



Jutu t3lh. 



" might be laid before this House, copies of such prece- 
" dents as had been, or might be found, of Orders in Coun- 
" cil, declaring Acts of Assembly in America, to be null, 
" illegal, or void; togetiier with Reports of the several 
" Attorneys, and Solicitors General, or either of them, in 
" similar cases, read at the Council Board on the 9th in- 
" stant." 

That on the 22d of May, the Lord Wycombe, 
(by his Majesty's command,) laid before the 
House copies of such precedents as had been found, of 
Orders in Council, declaring Acts of Assemblies in America 
to be null, illegal, and void ; together with Reports of the 
several Attorneys, and Solicitoi-s General, or either of them, 
in similar cases. 

Which Papers were ordered to lie on the table ; and from 
a perusal of them we find that several Acts of different 
Colonies have been, from time to time, declared by his 
Majesty in Council, to be null, illegal, and void. 

That on the 15th of June a Bill was brought 
juncin . ^p j.^^^ ^1^^ Commons intituled, " An Act to 

" enable his Majesty to put the Customs and other Duties 
" in the British Dominions in America, and the execution 
" of the laws relating to Trade there, under the manage- 
" ment of Commissioners to be appointed for that purpose, 
" and to be resident in the said Dominions. 

Which Bill received the Royal assent on the 29th of the 
same month. 

That on the 18th of June a Bill was brought 
up from the Commons, intituled, " An Act for 
" granting certain Duties in the British Colonies and Plan- 
" tations in America ; for allowing a drawback of the duties 
" of Customs upon the exportation from this Kingdom of 
" coffee and cocoa nuts, of the produce of the said Co- 
" lonies or Plantations ; for discontinuing the drawbacks 
" payable on china earthen ware, expoited to America ; 
" and for more effectually preventing the clandestine run- 
•' ning of goods in the said Colonies and Plantations." 

Which Bill received the Royal assent on the 29th of 
June. 

No. 116. ^ Th^ Committee find that, on the meeting of 

No. 117. \ the Assembly of the Province of Massachusetts 
M«Mg,fron. Bay, on the 2Sth of January, 1767, a Message 
the Hi.uie of y^ag ggnt to the Governor from the House of 
to (iovemor Representatives desiringto be informed, " Whe- 
«id i'lra'prilate " tlier any provision had been made at the 
SLr«,''dai " expense of that Government for the King's 
r4''«.T'mh; " Troops lately arrived in the harbour of Bos- 
i767,aiso us. ' u (fy„ ." a„(} that after having had the Minutes of 
Council (by which it expressly appeared that the provision 
for the Artillery companies at the Castle, was made in pur- 
suance of the then late Act of Parliament) laid before 
them, they replied that, " In giving orders, with the advice 
" of the Council, for making provision for the Artillery 
" companies at the Castle the Governor had acted in an 
" essential point against the plain intention of the Charter, 
" by which alone, and that only, according to such Acts as 
" are or may be in force within this Province, the Governor 
" and Council were authorized to i.ssue money out of the 
" Treasury ; " adding, " That it was still more grevious to 
" them to find the Governor stating, as the foundation of 
" the proceeding, a late Act of Parliament, which to them 
" appeared as great a grievance as the Stamp Act, which 
" took away the unalienable right of freedom from all 
" Taxation, but such as they should voluntarily consent to 
" and grant." 

No 115. Governor Bernard was obliged in his Re- 

t^r'Troin'ooT joinder, 14th and 18th Fc'6n<nry,1767, carefully 
Beniarii to Kir\ to avoid giving the Act of Parliament as the 
loB, i4ih and foundation ot the provision made : he would 

laih Frf. 1787. , . » 1 1 1 .u r »i 

otherwise not have had the concurrence ol the 
Council ; for though the greater part, he believed, had a 
due respect for Acts of Parliament, not one of them would 
have dared to avow it in that instance, and at that time. 
Journal. jtfarcA The Committee find that, on the 2d of March, 
2d, 1768. 1768, a Bill was brought up from the Commons, 

intituled, " An Act for the more easy and effectual recove- 
" ry of the Penalties and Forfeitures inflicted by the Acts 
" of Pariiament, relating to the Trade or Revenues of the 
" British Colonies and Plantations in America." 

Which Bill received the Royal assent on the 8th of the 
same month. 

Fourth Series. 2 



It appears to the Committee, that by a cir- cTrcui^u^'r 
cular letter from the House of Representatives ron<aii>ed in 
of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, address- toK-'sMiiZnt. 
ed to all the Assemblies upon the Continent of fX^rn'mt'. 
North America, they desired the assent of 
those Assemblies to their sentiments and proceedings ; ac- 
quainting them, that they had represented to his Majesty 
that the Acts of Parliament of Great Britain, imposing 
duties upon that Province, with the sole and express pur- 
pose of raising a Revenue, are infringements of their 
natural constitutional rights, and desired them to point out 
any thing further that might be necessary to cany their 
system into execution. 

In this year the Assembly, at the election oo^'a^nmrd', 
of the Council, left out all the Crown Officers, '"'" «> Lord' 
which measure had been before adopted, in "th. "k, ''ma 
the years 1766 and 1767. 'S.Z.'^'' 

In the beginning of May, 1768, subscriptions ^^ j^, 
were made, and Associations entered into, for gov. arnoVrf'^ 
the non-importation of goods from Great Bri- nes, and May 
tain ; but tliis last measure was at that time ' ' ^' 
defeated by the merchants in the other Colonies refusing 
to concur in it. 

On the 9th day of May, 1768, regular seizure „. '^°- '^^. 
was made by the Collector and Comptroller of """''' 'i-"" "f 
the Customs, of the sloop Liberty, belonging f- sMiJnU ; 
to Mr. Hancock, of the town of Boston, which ''""no^'it'j!" 
occasioned a most violent tumult ; the Collector • nS^^.f Vh^ 
and Comptroller, with the son of the Collector, 'f"',h"'cu™^. 
were attacked by a numerous and outrageous 'p ">i- 1"''''"''" 

111 11 • *''*^ ' reasiir)-, 

mob, who beat and abused them in a most cruel Junemb,n6%; 
manner ; and in the night attacked their houses, 
broke the windows, seized on a boat belonging to the Col- 
lector, which they carried away in triumph, and afterwards 
burnt. The Commissioners of the Customs expecting the 
same treatment, the riot still continuing, thought it pnident 
to retreat for safety till midnight with their families, to the 
houses of some persons in the neighbourhood ; and after- 
wards, upon conviction that their lives were in danger, took 
refiige on board his Majesty's ship the Romney, then in 
the harbour of Boston ; and for their further security, from 
thence into Castle William. During the time of this, their 
perilous situation, they applied several times by letter to the 
Governor and Council for protection, but couM procure no 
assistance whatsoever ; and were finally told, in a letter 
from Governor Bernard, dated June 13th, that " After 
" several hours deliberation of the necessity of taking some 
" measures to preserve the peace of the town, and what 
" those measures should be, the Council had come to 
'• resolution that, as there appeared to be no immediate 
•' danger of further violences, they were of opinion that it 
" would be best to refer this matter to the consideration of 
" a Committee of both Houses, and that therefore the 
" Governor at present could not let them know what kind 
" of aid and protection they might expect to receive." 
The consequence of which was, that they received no 
protection whatsoever. The disorder and con- ^.^ ^^ 
fusion remained in this state unnoticed till the J.""™''' "'j^J 
22d July, when the Governor moved the Coun- «"d swh July, 
cil to take into consideration some measures for 
restoring vigor and firmness to Government ; but on the 
29th of July, the Council made a reply to what had been 
proposed to them by the Governor, in which they state, 
" That the disorders which happened were occasioned by 
" the violent and unprecedented manner in which the sloop 
" Liberty had been seized by the officers of the Cus- 
" toms." 

In consequence of this disorderly state at N„,ra'tiv''poftiie 
Boston, two regiments having been set thi- '?"■ ,''„"^'" 
ther from Halifax, m order to support the 
execution of the civil power, and preserve the peace of 
the town, strict orders were given, and repeated to the 
troops, not to quarrel with the townsmen, by whom they 
complained they had been frequently ill treated and in- 
sulted. 

On Monday, the 5th of March, 1768, at nine at night, the 
alarm bells were rung, as in cases of fire : the fire said to be 
in Kings street, and the People thereby led thither, where, 
finding the alarm false, they joined a multitude who had 
been braving two companies at the gates of their barrack, 
and threatened with death the centinel who was posted at 



t9 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



•iO 



Cafiuiiu Prtt- 

f«ll*« COiC. 



the custom house, where the King's treasure was lodged. 
Tlie ceniiiiel being surrounded was forced to retreat, and 
call for aid, wliicii brought Captain rrvston, Captain of 
the day, with a party Iroin tiie main guiird, to extricate 
hira. 'I'liat ofiicer used his utmost endeavours 
to prevent mischief, notwithstanding wliich, the 
rioters by blows and every act of aggravation, 
drew upon themsLlves the fire of several of the soldiers, 
by which some pt-rsons unfortunately were killed ; and upon 
the Governor's olier.ng to obtain tiie Coinmandiiig Oliicer's 
consent to remove one of the regiments to tlie Castle, and 
to station the other so as no opportunity of disputes with 
the townsmen shoulJ remain, the Counc.l insisted tliat both 
.J, ,„ regiments should go, giving fur a reason that 
(.i.ui. g'.v. tlie People would most certainly drive out the 
rhr*KT'-uf troops and that tiie inliahiiants of otlier towns 
Sr-^'l- would join with Jhston in it; an.l several of 
Marc',, 1774. ^^^^^^^ declared, that they did not judge Iroin the 
general ten.per of the People only, but they knew it to be 
the determination, not of a mob, but of the generality ol 
the principal inhabitants; in consequence of which both 
ref'inients were accordingly removed. 

". In the Petition presented to the Governor 

petili.m'?^'.i.e by several People of consideration, in pursuance 
r"<°m°r' of a resolution of a town meeting, held at that 
fr.TTVr™ time, they disavow the Legislative authority of 
""■'"• this country, and assert that it wculd be better 

for them to struggle against it, than tamely to relinquish 

their rights. , , , , r _■ u 

And the Assembly absolutely refused, by a 
*mw°'r"f'ihe ^reat majority, to rescind their former order 
"""■»I'iv«Tf of sending circular letters to the other Colonies, 
IL^'uMhV'of- though tliey had received a positive requisition 
wrmir.juntJo, from^hc Crowii to that pur|)ose. 

An Association was entered into the beginning 
s?r°"'v«n«, of August, wiion most of the merchants of 
Mi"Zg.'.'\"'il Boston entered into and subscribed an agree- 
Ttl'T "'"''"^ ment, that they would not send for, or import, 
any kind of goods or merchandise from Great 
Britain, some few articles of necessity excepted, from the 
1st of January, 1769, to the 1st of Januari/, 1770 ; and 
that they would not import any tea, paper, glass, or 
painters' colours, until the Act, unposing duties on those 
articles, should be repealed. 

It was also voted in a town meeting of the 
vrJ^l% «t freeholders and other inhabitants of Boston, 
the town nif I- Sevtemhcr 12th, that the levying money within 

inr »t Bm on, , ^r ,^ . I- , 1 • r .1 

September uiii. that Proviuce, lor tlie use and service ol the 
1768. Crown, in other manner than the same is grant- 

ed by the great and general Court or Assembly of the 
Province, was in violation of the said Royal. Charter, and 
the same was also in violation of the undoubted natural 
riffhts of subjects, declared in the aforesaid Act of Parlia- 
ment, (meaning the Act of Succession,) freely to give and 
grant tiieir own money for the service of the Crown, with 
their own consent in person, or by Representatives of their 
own free election. 

They also voted tliat, as the Governor did not 
think proper to call a general Court for the 
redress of their (supposed) grievances, the town should 
tlien make choice of a suitable number of persons to act for 
them as a Committee in Convention, w'ith such as migbt 
be sent to join them from the several towns in that Pro- 
yince, in order that such measures might be consulted and 
advised as his Majesty's service, and the peace and safety 
of his subjects in the Province, might require. 

They also voted tliat, as t'lcre was at that time a pre- 
vailing apprehension in the minds of many, of an approach- 
ing war with France, in order that the inhabitants of that 
town might be prepared, in case of sudden ('anger, that 
those of the said inhabitants who might at that time be un- 
provided, should he, and thereby were, requested duly to 
observe at that time the law of the Province, whereby it is 
required that every listed soldier and other householder, 
(except troopers, who by law, are otherwise to be provi- 
ded,) shall always be provided with a well fixed firelock, 
musket, accoutrement, and ammunition, as in the said law 
Is particularly mentioned, to the satisfaction of the com- 
missioned officers of the company. 

Tliey also voted that a letter should be written 
to the several towns \a the Provicce, zs follows : 



" Gentlemen : You are already too well ac- no.iis. 
quainted with the melancholy and very alarming Jv',',',"Ii'.l' sfu^I 
circumstances to which this l^rovince, as well .t'^.'.'.^.Iif;!';^ 
as America in general, is now reduced ; taxes, i?"*- 
eciually detrimental to the commercial interests of the 
Parent Country and her Colonies, are imposed on the 
People without their consent; taxes designed for the su|)- 
port of the civil Government in the Colonics, in a manner 
clearly unconstitutional, an^l contrary to that in which, till 
of late. Government has been supported by the free gift of 
tiie People in the Ameririin Asseiablics or Parliaments; as 
also for the maintenance of a large stand.ng army, not for 
the defence of the newly acquired Terrltorits, lut for the 
old Colonies, and in time of peace. Ti:e decent, humble, 
and truly loyal applications and petitions from the Kcprt- 
scntatives of this l*rovince, for the redress of these heavy 
and very threatening grievances, have hitherto been inef- 
fectual, being assured from authentic intelligence, that they 
have not yet readied the Royal ear. Tne only elfect of 
transmitting applications liitherto perceivahle, I as been a 
mandate from one of his Majesty's Secretaries of State to 
the Governor of iliis Province, to dissolve the General 
Assembly, merely because the late Ilcuse of Representa- 
tives refused to resc'nd a resolution of a former House, 
which implied nothing more than a right in the American 
subjects to unite in humble and dut ful petitions to their 
gracious Sovereign, when they found themselves aggrieved. 
Tiiis is aright naturally inherent in every man, and express- 
ly recognised at the glorious revolution, as the birth-right 
of an Englishman. 

" Tnis dissolution you are sensible has taken pla?e. The 
Governor has publicly and repeatedly declared that he 
cannot call another Assembly ; and the Secretary of State 
for the American Dejiartinent, in one of liis letters, com- 
municated to the House, has been p 'eased to say, " That 
" proper care will be taken for the support of the dignity of 
" Government ;" the meaning of which is too plain to be 
niisundeistood. The concern and perplexity into which 
these things have thrown the People, have been greatly 
aggravated by a late declaration of his Excellency Govern- 
or Bernard, that one or more regiments may be expect- 
ed in this Province. 

" Tlie design of these troops is in every one's apprehen- 
sion, nothing short of enforcing, by military pows r, the 
execution of Acts of Parliament, in the forming of which 
the Colonies have not, and cannot have, any constitutional 
influence. This is one of the greatest distresses to which a 
free People can be reduced. 

" The town which we have the honorto serve, have taken 
these things, at their late meeting, into their most serious 
consideration : and as there is in the minds of many a pre- 
vailing apprehension of an approaching war with Fratice, 
they have passed the several votes which we transmit to 
you, desiring that tliey may be immediately laid before the 
town, whose prudentials are in your care, at a legal meet- 
ing, for their candid and particular attention. 

" Deprived of the counsels of a General Assembly in this 
dark and dillicult season, the loyal People of tliis Province 
will, we are persuaded, immediately perceive the propriety 
and utility of the proposed Committee of Convention, and 
the sound and wholesome advice that may be expected 
from a number of gentlemen chosen by themselves, and in 
whom they may repose the greatest confidence, must tend 
to the real service of our most gracious Sovereign, and the 
welfare of his subjects in this Province, and may happily 
prevent any sudden and unconnected measures, which, in 
their present anxiety, and even agony of mind, they may 
be in danger of failing into. 

" And it is of inipoitance that the Convention should 
meet as soon as may be ; so early a day as the 22d of this 
instant, ISeptember, has been proposed for that purpose ; arid 
it is hoped, the remotest towns will by that time, or as soon 
after as conveniently may be, return their respective Com- 
mittees. - 

" Not doubting but you are equally concerned with us, 
and our fellow citizens, for the preservation of our invaluable 
rights, and for the general happiness of our ceuntry, and 
that you are disposed, with equal ardour, to exert yourselves 
in every constitutional way for so glorious a purpose." 

The Committee observe, that it does not appear to them 
that any steps were taken to suppress these measures, or 



31 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



22 



that they were noticed* of by the Council, or any of the 
Civil Magistrates. 

The Committee tliink it necessary here to insert the fol- 
lowing extracts. 

Journals, Ko- Tlio first extract is from his Majesty's most 
vemi,era,nus. g^jj^io^s Spcechfrom the Throne, on the Hth 

day of JSovcmhcr, 1768 : 

" At the close of the Inst Parliament, I expressed my 
" satisfaction at the appearances whicii then induced me to 
4* believe, that such of my subjects as had been misled in 
" some parts of my Dominions, were returning to a just 
" sense of their duty ; but it is with equal concern that I 
" have since seen tliat spirit of faction which 1 had hoped 
" was well nigh extinguished, breaking out afresh in some of 
" my Colonies in JSoith America, and in one of them, pro- 
" ceeding even to acts of violence, and of resistance to the 
" execution of the law ; the capital town of which Colony 
" appears, by late advises, to be in a state of disobedience to 
" all law and Government, and has proceeded to measures 
" subversive of the Constitution, and attended withcircum- 
" stances that manifi.st a disposition to throw off their de- 
" pendence on Great Britain. On my part 1 have pur- 
" sued every measure tiiat appeared to be necessary (or 
" supporting the Constitution, and inducing a due obedience 
" to tiie authority of the Legislature. You may rely upon 
" my steady perseverance in these purposes ; and I doubt 
" not but tliai, with your concurrence and support, I shall be 
" able to defeat the niischevious designs of those turbulent 
" and seditious persons, who, under false pretences, have 
" but too successfully deluded numbers of my subjects in 
" America, and who^e practices, if sufiered to prevail, cannot 
" fail to produce the most fatal consequences to my Colonies 
" inunediately, and in the end, to all the Dominions of my 
" Crown." 

The second extract is from your Lordsiiips 
y«t«rm <rr9t - jj^,jjc^,[ ^ddress to his Majesty on his said most 

gracious Speech : 

" We feel the most sincere concern, that any of our fel- 
" low subjects in North America, should be misled by fac- 
" tious and designing men, into acts of violence, and of 
" resistance to the execution of the law, attended witii cir- 
" cumstances that manifest a disposition to throw off their 
" dependence upon Great BritcAn. At the same time that 
'• we shall be always ready to contribute to tlie relief of any 
" real grievance of your Majesty's American subjects, we 
" mostunfeignedly give your Majesty the strongest assuran- 
" ces, that we shall ever zealously concur in support of such 
"just and necessary measures, as may best enable your 
" Majesty to repress that daring spirit of disobedience, and 
" to enforce a due submission to the laws ; always consider- 
" ing that it is one of our most essential duties to maintain 
" inviolate the supreme authority of the Legislature of 
" Great Britain over every part of the Dominions of your 
" Majesty's Crown." 

The third extract is from his Majesty's most gracious 
Answer to your Lordships Address : 

" Your zealous concurrence in every measure 
s<n-irti fi 1 1 1. ;; ^Y,^^ (..^f, bring relief to my People is well known 

" tome, nor do I doubt of the attention that you will always 
'• give to any real grievances of my American subjects. 
" The strong assurances 1 receive from you at the same 
" time of your determination to vindicate the just Legisla- 
" live authority of Parliament over all the Dominions of 
" my Crown, deserve my warmest approbation. 

The Conunittee find that on the 15th of 
°""" "" ' Novcm'jer, the Lord Harwich acquainted the 
House, "That he had received his Majesty's commands 
" to lay before the House, Papers relating to the late Dis- 
" turbances in America ; and that the same would be laid 
" before the House in a few days." 

J J That accordingly, on the 28th o( November, 

the Lord Harwich laid before the House, 

copies of all Letteis, &,c., relating to the late Proceedings 

of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, together with a 

list thereof, which was read by the Clerk. 

That on the 15th of December, the House 

December ^ 5th. i r ii • i * 

came to the lollowmg resolutions: 
" 1 . Resolved, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in 
Parliament assembled. That the votes and resolutions, and 



•Sic 



proceedings of the House of Representatives of Massachu- 
setts Bay, in the months of January and February last, 
respecting several late Acts of Parliament, so far as the 
said votes, resolutions, and proceedings, do import a denial 
of, or to draw into question, the power and authority of his 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the J>ords 
Spiritual and Temporal, and Conmions, in Parliament as- 
sembled, to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and 
validity to bind the Colonies and People of America, sub- 
jects of tlie Crown of Great Biitain, in all cases whatsoever, 
are illegal, unconstitutional, and derogatory of the rights of 
the Crown and Parliament of Great Britain. 

"'2. Resolved, by the Lords Spiritual a7id Temporal in 
Parliament assembled, Tliat the resolution of the siiid 
House of Representatives of the Province of Massachu- 
setts Bay, in January last, to write letters to the several 
Houses of Representatives of the British Colonies on the 
Continent, desiring them to join with the said Hcuse of 
Representatives of the Province o^ Massachusetts Bay, in 
Petitions which do deny, or draw into question the right of 
Parliament to impose duties and taxes upon his Majesty's 
subjects in America ; and in pursuance of the said resolu- 
tion, the writing such letters in which certain late Acts of 
Parliament, imposing duties and taxes, are stated to be in- 
fringements of the rights of his Majesty's subjects of the 
said Province, are proceedings of a most unwarrantable and 
dangerous nature, calculated to inHame the minds of his 
Majesty's subjects in the other Colonies ; tending to create 
unlawful coinjjinations, repugnant to the laws of Great 
Britain, and subversive of the Constitution. 

" 3. Resolved, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in 
Parliament assembled, That it appears th.at the town of 
Boston, in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, has for 
some time pa-n been in a state of great disorder and con- 
fusion ; and that the peace of the said town has at several 
times been disturb^'d by riots and tumults of a dangerous 
nature, in which the officers of his Majesty's Revenue 
there have been obstructed by acts of violence in the exe- 
cution of the laws, and their lives endangered. 

" 4. Resolved by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in 
Parliament assembled. That it appears that neither the 
Council of the said Province of Massachusetts Bay, nor the 
ordinary Civil Magistrates, did exert their authority for sup- 
pressing the said riots and tumults. 

" 5. Resolved by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in 
Parliament assembled, That in these circumstances of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, and of the town of Boston, 
the preservation of the public peace, and tiie due execution 
of the laws became impracticable without the aid of a mili- 
tary force to support and protect the Civil Magistrates, and 
the Officers of lis Majesty's Revenue. 

" 6. Resolved by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in 
Parliament assembled, That the declarations, resolutions, 
and proceedings, in the town meeting at Boston, on the 14th 
of June, and 12th of September, were illegal and unconsti- 
tutional, and calculated to excite sedition and insurrection 
in his Majesty's Province of Massachusetts Bay. 

" 7. Resolved by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in 
Parliament assembled, That the appointment at the town 
meeting, on the 12th of September, of a Convention to be 
held in the town of Boston, on the 22d of that month, to 
consist of Deputies from the several towns and districts in 
the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and the issuing a 
precept by the Selectmen of the town of Boston, to each 
of the said town? and districts for the election of such 
Deputies, were jiroceedings subversive of his Majesty's 
Government, and evidently manifesting a design in the in- 
habitants of the said town of Boston, to set up a new and 
unconstitutional authority, independent of the Crown of 
Great Britain. 

" S. Resolved by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in 
Parliament assembled. That the elections, by several towns 
and districts in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, of 
Deputies to sit in the said Convention, and the meeting of 
sucli Convention in consequence thereof, were daring in- 
sults offered to his Majesty's authority, and audacious usur- 
pations of the powers of Government." 

It was then ordered, " That an humble Address be pre- 
" seiued to his Majesty, to return his Majesty thanks for 
" the communication which he has been pleased to make 
" to his Parliament, of several Papers relative to public 



23 



KINGS MESSAGE, MARCH 7. 1774. 



34 



Jan. ao, 1769. 



•' transactions in his Majesty's Province of Massachusetts 
" Bay. 

" To express our sincere satisfaction in tlie measures 
" wiiicli liLs Majesty has pursued for supporting tlie Consti- 
" tution, and inducing a due obedience to the authority ol 
" the Legislature. 

•' To give his Majesty the strongest assurances tiiat we 
•• will effectually stand by and support his Majesty in 
" such further measures as may be found necessary to main- 
" tain the Civil Magistrates in a due execution of the laws 

■ witiiin his Majesty's Province of Massachusetts Bay. 

" And as we conceive that nothing can be more inime- 
•• diately necessary either for the maintenance of his Ma- 
" jesty"s autiiority in the said Province, or for the guarding 
" his Majesty's subjects therein from being furtiier deluded 
"■ by the arts of wicked and designing men, than to pro- 
•' ceed in the most speedy and effectual manner for bring- 
" ing to condign punishment the chief authors and insti- 
" gators of the lale disorders, to beseech his Majesty, that 
^ he will be graciously pleased to direct liis Majesty's 
" Govemor of Massachusetts Bay to take the most effec- 
" tual methods for procuring the fullest information that can 
"■ be obtained, touching all treasons or misprison of treason 
■' committed within his Government, since the 30th of 

■ December last, and to transmit the same, together with 
•" the names of the persons who were most active in the 
••' commission of such offences, to one of his Majesty's 
" principal Secretaries of State, in order that his Majesty 
■" may issue a special commission for inquiring of, hearing, 
" and determining the said offences within this Realm, 
" pursuant to the provisions of the statute of the thirty-fifth 
•' year of the reign of King Henry the Eighth, if Jiis 
" Majesty shall, upon receiving the said information, see 
'•' sufficient groiuid for such a proceeding." 

And a Message was sent to the House of Commons, 
to carrj' down the said Resolutions and Address, and de- 
sire their concurrence thereto. 

On the 20th January, 1769, Lord Harwich, 
(by his Majesty's command,) laid before the 
House more copies of letters relating to America, which 
were ordered to lie on the table. 

On the 9tli of February, the Resolutions and 

"^m ■ j^djifess^ sent to tlie Commons on the 15tli of 
December last, for their concurrence, were returned agreed 
to, with some amendments, which were read and agreed 
to, and notice thereof sent to the Commons ; and the said 
Address was ordered to be presented to his Majesty by 
both Houses. 

On the 14th of February, the Lord Chan- 

"""^^ cellor reported his Majesty's Answer to the said 
Address, as follows : 

•' My Lords and Gentlemen: The sincere satisfaction 
" you express in the mea-sures wliich I have already taken, 
■' and the strong assurances yo\i give of supporting me in 
" those which may be still necessary, to maintain the just 
" legislative authority, and the due execution of the laws, 
" in my Province of Massachusetts Bay, give me great 
" pleasure. 

" 1 shall not fail to give those orders which you recom- 
" niend, as the most effectual method of bringing the authors 
" of the late unhappy disorders in lliat Province, to con- 
" dign punishment." 

Which Address and Answer were ordered to be printed. 

vidt BwoUa. ^^ *'°''' "°^ appear to the Committee that 
acKi Aiidn-w.-. the censure of the proceedings in the Province 
°Jt "^viiiim'n^ of Massachusetts Bay, and of the conduct of 
ui frt. mi. ji,g Council and otlier Civil Magistrates, ex- 
pressed by both Houses of Parliament, in their Resolutions, 
and their approbation of the measure of sending troops 
thither to support and protect the Magistrates, and theOfli- 
cers of the Revenue, produced the good effect that mi"ht 
reasonably have been hoped for. A disposition to deny the 
authority, and resist the laws of the supreme Legislature, 
continued still to prevail, not only in Hagiiious publications 
in the daily newspapers, but also in a variety of violent and 
unwarrantable resolutions and proceedings of those mer- 
chants and others, who had subscribed to the agreements 
for non-importation of goods from Great Britain. 

Meetings of the Associators were represent- 
vide ' Prii'.i.-a ed to have been held, in as regular a manner 
*^S(ioii.«nd as any other meeting authorized by the Consti' 



tution. Committees were appointed to examine Jk^pn^^'ng) 

the cargoes of all vessels arnvnig from Great <h™-"r- Wjcs 
Britain; and regular votes and resolutions of 
censure were passed in those meetings upon all such as 
refused to concur in those unlawful Associations; their 
names were published in the public newspapers as enemies 
to their country ; and the mandates and decrees of those 
Conmiittees* meet with a respect and obedience denied to 
the constitutional authority of Government. 

in some cases goods imjKjrted from Great Britain were 
locked up in ware-houses, under the care of these Com- 
mittees, in order to prevent their being sold ; and, in one 
or two instances, they were i-e-shipped to Great Britain. 

On the 31st of 'May, 1769, the General 
Court met at the court house at Boston, j)ur- vi<i.' sii"mn- 
suant to his Majesty's writs, and the first step x^.^/^Tjlmr, 
the Assembly took, before they proceeded on nee.''"' ■'"'"' 
any other business, was to send a Message to 
the Govemor, asserting that the having ships in the harbor, 
and troops in the town of Boston, was inconsistent with 
their dignity and freedom; and, therefore, that they had 
a right to expect that he would give orders for the remo- 
val of the forces, by sea and land, from that port, and from 
the gates of the city, during the session of tlie Assembly ; 
and, at the same time, the House came to several resolu- 
tions to the same effect as the declarations contained in 
their Message to the Governor. 

The Governor having in reply to their Message, acquaint- 
ed them " That he had no authority over his Majesty's 
" ships in that port, or his troops in that town, nor could 
" give any orders for the removal of them," they then 
proceeded to the election of Counsellors, in which election 
not only the Lieutenant Govemor, and other officers of 
Government were excluded, but also several other gentle- 
men who had been of the former Council, and who (the 
Governor represents) shewed a disposition to support the 
King's Government, to acknowledge the authority of Par- 
liament, and to preserve tlie People from a Democratic 
despotism, and were otherwise distinguished by their integ- 
rity and ability. 

On the 13th of June, tlie Assembly sent an Answer to 
the Governor's Message, of the 31st of May, in which he 
had told them that he had no authority over the King's 
ships or troops. In this Answer they assert that " By the 
" principles of the Constitution, the Governor of thatColo- 
" ny has the absolute military command ; that the sending 
" a mihtary force there to enforce the execution of the laws, 
" is inconsistent with the nature of Government, and the 
"spirit of a free Constitution ; that the unwillingness of a 
" People in general, that a law should be executed, was a 
" strong presumption of its being an unjust law ; that it 
" could not be their law, as tlie People must consent to 
" laws before they can be obliged, in conscience, to obey 
" them." 

h appears by a vote of the Assembly, on the 
8tli of July, that they have declared that all F.xireciuiGo». 
trials for treason, misprison of treason, or for ^"'IC Kiri'rf 
any felony or crime whatever, committed or ";."7fh'a°,''/mh 
done in that Colony, ought of riiiht to be had •'|''V "'^' ™- 
and conducted within the courts of the Colon v; «'''"'"'» '•""■e 

d, , . . -^ ' House nf Hep- 

that the seizing any person or persons, re- rMcmntivn, of 

siding in thsit Colony, suspected of any crime ""*"'•'"'''• 
whatsoever, committed therein, and sending such person or 
persons to places beyond the sea to be tried, is highly de- 
rogatory of the rights of British subjects, as thereby the 
inestimable privilege of bcnig tried by a Jury from the 
vicinage, as well as tiie liberty of summoning and produc- 
ing witnesses on such trials, v>'ill be taken away from the 
party accused. 

On the 6th of April, 1770, a Bill was brought 
up from the House of Commons, to your Lord- ^".Tto/^"' 
ships, intituled, " An Act to repeal so much of 
" an Act, made in tiie sevenlli year of his present Majesty's 
" reign, intituled, 'An Act for granting certain Duties in 
" tiie British Colonies and Plantations in America ; for 
" allowing a drawback of the duties of customs upon the 
" exportation from this Kingdom, of coffee and cocoa-nuts, 
" of the produce of the said Colonies or Plantations ; for 
'• discontinuing the drawbacks payable on china earthen 



»Si«. 



25 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



26 



May 7th. 



" ware, exported to America ; and for more effectually 
" preventing the clandestine running of goods in the said 
" Colonies and Plantations ; ' as relates to tlie Duties upon 
" glass, red lead, white lead, painters' colours, paper paste- 
" boards, millboard.-^, and scaleboards, of the ])roduce or 
" manufacture of G'rent Britain, imported into any of his 
" Majesty's Colonies in America; and also to the discon- 
" tinuing the drawbacks payable on cliina earthen ware, 
" exported to America; and for regulating the exportation 
" thereof." 

Which Bill received the Royal assent on the 12tli of 
April. 
.ipriimh. ^" t''6 30th of April, it was ordered '' That 

•• an humble Address should be presented to his 
" Majesty, that he would be graciously pleased to give 
" directions that there be laid before this House, copies of 
" all narratives of any disputes or disturbances which have 
" happened between his Majesty's troops, stationed in 
" North America, and the inhabitants of any of his Ma- 
" jesty's Colonies there, since the 24th day of June last, 
" received by the Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasu- 
'• ry, and of his Majesty's Secretaries of State, or any other 
" public officers, together with copies of all orders and in- 
" structions .sent to the Governors, Lieutenant Governors, 
" Deputy Governors, Presidents of the Council of any of 
" his Majesty's Colonies in North America, or to the 
" Commander-in-chief of his Majesty's forces, or any offi- 
" car, civil, or military, within the same, relative to such 
'• disputes or disturbances." 
Hay 4ih. -^n*' t'l'-it on the 4th of May, the Lord Hai-- 

wich, (by his Majesty's command,) laid before 
the House, several Papers relating to the late Disturbances 
in America, pursuant to an Address to his Majesty, for that 
purpose, on the 30th of April last, together with a list 
thereof; wiiich were ordered to lie on the table. 

The Committee find that, on the 7th of May, 

the Lord Harwich, laid before the House, (by 
his Majesty's command,) a Narrative of the late transac- 
tions at Boston, and the case of Captain Thomas Preston, 
of the twenty-ninth Regiment of Foot, which had been 
transmitted to his Lordship, from the War Office ; and the 
same were ordered to lie on the table. 

On the 14th of May it was ordered, that 

an humble Address should be presented to his 
Majesty, that he would be graciously pleased to give di- 
rections, that there be laid before this House, copies of the 
Earl o{ Hillsborough's letter of the 13th oi May, 1769, to 
the Governors of the several Colonies of North America ; 
together with the Speeches of the Governors, referring to 
the said letter, and the Answers of the Assemblies to the 
same, so far as they have been received. 

And on the 15th, the Lord Harwich laid 

before the House, by his Majesty's command, 
copies of the Earl of Hillsborough's letter of the 13th of 
May, 1769, to the Governors of the several Colonies of 
North America; together with the Speeclies of the Govern- 
ors, referring to the said letter, and the Answers of the 
As.semblies to the same, so far as they have been received ; 
together with a list thereof; which were ordered to lie on 
the table : and the same with the other American Papers 
presented in tiiis Session, were also ordered to be taken into 
consideration on Friday next ; and the Lords summoned. 
N-o.-isfi. The Committee find by Lieutenant Governor 

v^mlr" wl °/T Hutchinson's letter of the 27th of March, 1770, 
»","'' i.'",*;n,'" tl'at when the troops were in the town, the 

E.irl of Hillt- . . c X r^ .. i 

btrtugh, iiaitd Commissioners ot the Customs were sensible 
' ' ' they could have no dependence upon them, for 
if any riot had happened, no Civil Magistrate that he knew 
would ha\e employed them in suppressing it ; those who, 
from a principle, would have been disposed to it, refusing, 
and giving this reason, that they must immediately after 
have left the country ; and that just the same principles 
pre\'ailed with respect to the troops, which were said to be 
unconstitutional, although established by an Act of Parlia- 
ment, it being alleged that it was an Act which did not bind 
Colonists. , 

Lieutenant Governor Hutchinson, in his 

letter to the Earl of Hillsborough, of the 27th 

,"""■*""«';;•' , April, 1770, complains, that he has never been 

U-tli-r lo Karl i . ' , . r i_ 

HiiMtrmghM able to obtain the advice or consent of the 
jiMjfoy, 1770. Council to any proposal made for discounte- 



May mil. 



MttV l.'th. 



No. 327. 
Vide Li'-iilcii. 
tut Govimor 



nancing the usurpation of the powers of Go\-crnment by 
the town of Boston. That he had used the negative 
powers given him by Charter, in excluding Mr. Hancock 
from being Speaker pro tempore, and Mr. Gushing from 
the office of Commissary General, to which offices they 
had been elected ; but adds, that this was doing but little, 
as he could not remove any of those who were actually in 
office, some of whom were more inflammatory than any out 
of office; he further says, that they were then attempting 
to compel all the importers, of what they call contraband 
goods, to send them back, and that he was not sure they 
would not succeed ; that all goods which they have not 
enumerated are called contraband. That tea from Hol- 
land may lawfully be sold ; tliat it is a high crime to sell 
any from England. That Mr. Hancock offered to send 
one or more of his ships back, and to lose the freight ; that 
several of the importers pleaded that they should be utterly 
ruined ; but the Boston zealots had no bowels, and gave for 
answer, " That if a ship was to bring in the plague, nobody 
" would doubt what was necessary to be done with her ; but 
"the present case is much worse than that." In the same 
letter the Lieutenant Governor observes, " That the Boston 
" principles obtain more and more in the remote parts of the 
" Province, and the Representatives of seven-eighths of the 
" town appear, in the present session, to be favourers of 
" the non-importation measures. That their internal dis- 
" tresses may, in a course of years, force them to desist, but 
" that the distress at present, and it may be for some time to 
" come, lies principally upon the friends to Government, 
" who run the risk of importing goods, and then are com- 
" pelled, by the ruling power, to keep them unsold, or to 
" ship them back ; that he made an attempt that day to 
" prevail upon a merchant of the first estate and character, 
" to induce him to promote an Association, but to no pur- 
" pose; and that he gave him for answer, ' that, until Par- 
" liament made provision for the punishment of the con- 
" federacies, all would be ineiFectual, and the associates 
" would be exposed to popular rage." He observed further, 
" that the last year, when the King's speech, and the Ad- 
" dressses of the Lords and of the House of Commons first 
" came to them, the heads of the opposition were struck with 
" terror, and the seditious newspaper writers laid aside their 
" pens for five or six w-eeks, but as soon as the apprehension 
'■ of vigorous measures ceased, their fears were over, and 
" they became more assuming and tyrannical than before, 
" and although the terror was not so great the present year, 
" yet it was visible ; but now, that they expect nothing will 
" be done, they are recovering their spirits, knowing there 
" is no power within the Government to restrain them. 

The resistance to the custom-house officers 
still continued to manifest itself upon every oc- i-nt" from 
casion,in consequence of which, on the 18th of vemo"'HutcT. 
May, 1770, atideman of the customs, who had miZl"^^.''^ 
seized a small coasting vessel belonging to Con- ""'j^^'^"'"'- 
necticut, and a few casks of sugar, for breach of the Acts of 
Trade, in the evening was seized, stripped, and carried about 
the town, three or four hours, besmeared with tar, and then 
covered with feathers, and followed by a great number of 
disorderly People, 

The Committee do not find in your Lordship's Journals 
of the years 1771 and 1772, any material proceedings rela- 
tive to the matter to them referred. 

Though in the year 1771, things remained 
tolerably quiet in the Province of Massachusetts i,i,.^i°;,on'Go- 
Bay, yet the disposition to disavow the authority "™7,„ farfrf 
of Parliament, occasionally broke out in the miMorough, 

IT /-ill 1 • Julytxh, 1771. 

House ot Assembly and town meetings ; ac- 
cordingly, in an Answer from the House of Representatives 
to a Message from the Governor, on the 5th of July, 1771, 
they say, that " They know of no Commissioners of his 
" Majesty's Customs, nor of any revenue his Majesty has a 
" right to establish m North America; that they know and 
" feel a tribute levied and extorted from those, who, if they 
" have property, have a right to the absolute disposal 
''of it." 

At the same time, the disposition to import ko.4». 
goods in defiance of the laws of Revenue and i.icuten«nt go- 

■/_, .... . vt'i-nor Hutch- 

Trade, and to support such iniquitous practices, in«r. w Eari of 
by insults and open wolences upon the officers ^^J^^aetb, 
whose duty it is to carry the said laws into exe- ""• 
cution, broke out upon many occasions ; and, as usual, the 



27 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



23 



Magistrates declined stiving their assistance and support, 
though applied to for that purpose ; which a]ij)cars in the 
case of Arthur Savage, Comptroller of his Majesty's 
Customs at Falmouth, who was forcibly taken out of his 
house in the ni£;ht, by several persons disguised and anned 
with pistols and other dani^erous weapons, wlio put him in 
the utmost danger of his life, and not only ohlij^ed him to 
divulge the name of the person who had lodged an informa- 
tion, but also to swear to the truth of his information, de- 
claring at the same lirr.e, that, if ];e disi-o^ered whotliey 
were, they would take his life ; aiul that upon his applica- 
tion to tiie Justices, who were then sitting, they declined 
the examination of the evidence he brougiit to prove tiie 
fact. 

xo 310. Things remained much in the same state in 

"*"• j*"/,^''//" the year 1772. The continued ill temper of 
innuxii. Mr:<, thc People at Jioston was maniiested bv tJieir 
Bttiun c.aitiie mstmctions to tiieir Kepresentatives. 
^Mav u(ix. (_T|)on the news of his Majesty's granting sala- 

(•^^"thJciim- "es to the.Justices of the Supreme Court, tlie 
""rtmouM'o?!^ most inflammatory pieces were published in the 
(.*fr i3.i, 1772. newspapers, and tlie Selectmen of Boston or- 

No. 332. , 1 ' • -J !• 

Addn-u,^ Ort« dercd a meetmg to consider ol mea-iures upon 
'' ' ' ' that occasion ; which meetin!; voted an Address 
to the Governor, in which they say, " That, tlie frechold- 
" ers and other inhabitants of the town of Boston, legally 
" assembled in Faneuil Hall, bog leave to acquaint his Ex- 
" cellency, that a report has prevailed, which they have 
" reason to apprehend is well grounded, that stipends are 
" affixed to the offices of the Judges of the Superior Court 
" of judicature, &c., of this Province, whereby they are be- 
" come independent of the grants of the General Assembly 
" for their support, conti-ary to the ancient and invariable 
" usage. 

" Tiiat this report has spread an alarm among all con- 
" siderate persons who have heard of it, in town and country, 
" being viewed as tending rapidly to com))lcte the sy.^tein 
" of their slavery, which originated in the House oi Com- 
" nions of Great Britain, assuming a power and authority 
'■ to give and grant the money? of the Colonists without 
'• their consent, and against their repeated remonstrances. 
" And as the Judges hold their places during pleasure, this 
" establishment appears big with fatal evils so obvious, that 
" it is needless to trespa.ss on your Excellency's time in 
" mentioning them." 

The Town Meeting afterwards appointed a 
oav°rnur' Couuiiittce of Correspondence, to write circular 
2;ri''!rf'™«r°. letters to all the towns in tiie Province, to in- 
ZVti-nZ'iib tl'ice them to unite in me;isures upon that occa- 
Muii"'"'r'' ihu ®'°"' "''''"^*' Committee met on the 2d of No- 
.ou-i .nil pro- vcmber. 1772, and made a report, contahiina 

Cft-dineij (if ihe i i • i- ^ 

t.>wiio?B.«™, several resokuions contradictory to the supre- 
mj.""'"'*"'' macy of the British Legislature; and after 
setting forth, that all men have a right to remain 
in a state of nature, as long as tliey please, they proceed to 
draw a report upon tlie natural rights of the Colonists, as 
No.M<. .™^?' chri<;tians, and .suhjects, and form a list of 
ptinu-d voir, infringements and violations of their rights: one 

•nd Tirocet-d- c ^\ r c i • i • "^ ^'^^ 

tnff.ofis.fr..- Ol tlie Inst ol which contains an assertion, that 
illliiiun«" "If the British Parliament have assumed the pow- 
fu'.",rm., •','>„,:". ers of legislation for the Colonies in all cases 
i^^'"'"' "'"• whatsoever, without obtaining the consent of the 
inhabitants, which is ever essentially necessary 
to the rightful establishment of such a le:.nslation. 

They al.so consider it as an infringement of tiieir rights, 
that a number of new officers, unknown to the Chaiter, have' 
been appointed to superintend the revenues; whereas tiie 
great and general Court or Assembly of that Province had 
the sole right of appointing all civil officers, excepting only 
such officers, the election and rcnslitution of whom isln tl;e 
said Charter exjiressly excepted, among whom these officers 
are not included. 

They likewise complain of it as a giievance, that his 
Majesty has been jileased to apply £ 1 500 sterling, annually, 
out of the American revenue, ior the support of the Go- 
vernment of this Province, independent of tlie As-jembly ; 
and th;it the Judges of the Superior Court, as also the 
King's Attorney and Solicitor General, are to receive their 
support from, wjiat they call, tliis grevious tribute ; which 
tliey say, will, if acc(ira])!ished, complete their slavery. 

Six hundred copies uf ibis report were circulated in the 



towns of the Province, with a pathetic letter addressed to 
the inliabitants, who are called u];on not to doze any 
longer, or sit supinely in inditference, whilst the iron hand 
of oi)|)ressioii is daily tearing the choicest Ihiits from the 
fair tree of liberty. 

On the (Jtli of May a Message was brought 
from the House of Commons to your Lord- 'J™,''""!'-;, "''' 
shi]!S, with a Bill, intituled, " An act to allow a 
" draw back of the duties of Customs on the exportation of 
" Tea to any of his Majesty's Colonies or Plantations in 
" America ; to increase the deposit on Bohea tea to be sold 
" at the East Lirlia Company's sales ; and to empower the 
" Commissioners of the Treasury to grant licences to the 
" East In Ha Company to export tea, duty free;" which 
Bill received the Royal assent on the 10th o{ May. 

It appears to the Committee in the Answer N0.339. 
of the Council to the Governor's Speech, at i wil ,"c;l!',* 
the opening <^i the session, that t!;ey declare tr,\TmV''i°m- 
" Thev are of opinion that tlie Parliament can- ;•""•■' >»>■«■■<* 

not, constitutionally, levy taxes, in any form, >'»«. 
" on his M;ije3ty's subjects in that Province." 

And the House of Kepresentative upon the „ '•'»••';"■ 

11 1-^1 . . Hnnv lif Iti-p. 

same occas-ion. declare, that 11 there have been ■■ "•"miiv.-i »n- 
in any late instances a submission to Acts of »'»'• sp..ih. 
Parliament, it has been, in their opinion, rather ""' ^'"''•'^'^• 
from inconsidenition, or a reluctance at the idea of contend- 
ing witii the Parent State, then from a conviction or 
acknowledgment of the supreme legislative authority of 
Parliament. 

The Committee of Corresnondence appear ,. '•■'' ^■'■ 
to iiave used tlieir utmost endeavours to work "•• '""i Gov. 
up the minds of the People, not only for their K«i'i'''.!r''/Mr". 
own, but also the Southern Governments, to ]vi'"'''in3'.'iith 
l)revent the importation of Te;is from the East j^'elalj^^ms"*^*: 
India Company, and accordingly on the 3d of 
November, 1773, a mob of about five hundred persons, 
committed several outrageous acts of violence, ai^ainst the 
persons to whom it was expected the Tea in question would 
be consigned, insisting tiiat they should engage and pro- 
mise not to receive or sell it ; that if they did, they would 
be voted enemies to their country, and must expect to be 
treated as such hereafter. They tiien forced open tiie doors 
of the ware-houses of Mr. Clark, and tore them off the 
liinges, and entered with great violence, attempting to force 
their way up to tlie counting-house, but were driven back 
by the persons who were in it. 

A Committee then of the freeholders and „ N"-303. 

Cnpv ttl a *(»le 

Other mhabitants, attended Mes.srs. Thomas '•' y '"V 
and Elisha Hutchinson, supposed to be two of Km.Nav. isiii, 
the consignees, and requested them to resign "xosrs. 
their appointment, and upon their refusing, pJiM,','! il.'T*!^ 
voted tiieir answer unsatisfactory. Governor 'is;'',7"3i''inHi 
Hutchinson did every thinij in his power, »■;'! '"(*,''*/'"'■ 

. 1 rf-, .1 *i. 1 c/iinttm* I. lif r 

witiiout the Council, for the preservation of <" -O"- 2. i'm. 

the peace and good order of the town, and Extmi.faiet- 

thought that if lie had the aid the Council might h'„>JI"!',ok "w 

have given, his endeavors would have been nZlthfn'c's"^', 

more effiictual. '"'••'■ '""' ''"' 

On the 7th November, 1773, a lar<;e number cup''; f.tl; u^e r 

of People beset the house of Mr. Ilutchinson, fj"" ooxmar 

I r ,• I • I II --' nt'tr/Niisun to 

but not nndiiig iiiin at liome, proceeded to Mr. k-h "f onn- 
Clark^s, another of tl'e consignees, where they fl»«6/,', su'wrr. 
committed great disorders; broke the glasses ''''■""■•.'"".'<<' 



and frames of the windows, and did considera- '"'" '^ 



a eitpy uf lh« 
Piliiiiiii of 
Ki./.niil Clark 

bledamaire. After this riot the Govern* r iin- =""isoi..ii«i>- 

. ~ """ rnuruit, 

mediately summoned a Council, and laid before ""' ^.'P/"""' 

, , ■' . . ' , . anil tlisha llul- 

tiiein the necessity of some measures being r/..n.i)ii, ai,d of 
taken; but tiie Council declined advising; or If !\'i^".,uuSi 
directing any measures for landing the Tea ; ''"'""'"'"• 
suggesiini, that tliey then would of course advise* to a 
measure for procuring the payment of the duty, and there- 
fore be advising to a measure inconsistent with the declared 
sentiment of both Houses in the last winter session of the 
General Court, which they apprehend to be altogether 
inexpedient and improper. 

After tlie arrival of a sliip loaded with Tea, copy"t-aT»P" 
a meeting of the Peoide o( Boston, and the v'"'uku,i B»f 

' , , . lit itiii.vnua Orft 

neighbouring towns, was held, on the 29th of i»> r73,iiiG«Y. 
November, and continued, by adjournment, till 1. i'uTofJdr)«. 
next day, when a motion was made and agreed 
•Sic. 



J 



29 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



30 



to, new,, con., that the Tea should be not only sent back, 
but that no duty should be paid tiiereon. 

It was also voted, ncm. con., that Mr. Rotch, owner of 
the vessel, ;uid Captain Hall, the master of tiie ship, at 
their per.l, should not suffer any of the Tea to be landed ; 
it was also vottd, that Gov. liuUhinsons conduct, in 
requesting the Justices of the Peace to meet to suppress 
all riots and unlawful assemblies, carried a designed reflec- 
tion upon the People there met, and was solely calculated 
to serve the views of "Adinini-stnition. They afterwards 
voted that the Tea brought by Captain Hall, should be 
returned, by Mr. Rotch, to England, in tl.e same bottom 
in which it came; it was also voted, nam. con., that six 
persons should be appointed to give due notice to the towns 
in the country, when they should be required so to do upon 
any iinjjortaiu occasion. 

They also resolved, that if any person or persons should 
hereafter import any Tea from Great Biitain, or if any 
master or masters of any vessel or vessels in Great Britain, 
should take the s.tnie en board to be imported to that 
place, until the said unrighteous Act should be repealed, he 
or they shoald he deemed by that body an enemy to his 
country, and tiiat t!)ey would prevent the landing and sale 
of the same, and the payment of any duty thereon, and 
that they would efl'ect the return thereof to the place from 
whence it came. 

They also resolved that these their votes be printed, and 
sent to England, and all the sea ports in the Province. 
Befove they separated they voted that their brethren in 
the country should be desired to give their assistance upon 
the first notice that should be given. 
' \'o. ,109. After tl:e dissolution of this Assembly of the 

firrc/.v.'/'L" People, what is called the Committee of Cor- 
<•*'"''"""'■-»;' respondence, called in Committees of other 
Biiitii. Dec. towns, or other persons to jom with them, kept 
up a mihtary watch and guard eveiy night, to 
prevent the landing any Teas, and appeared to be the 
Execut'oners of the resolves and orders passed at the 
aforesaid Assembly. 

The consignees having retired to the Castle, the owner 
of the first ship that arrived was the principal person ap- 
plied to, and he was sent for repeatedly by these Commit- 
tees, and was frequently required to send back the ship 
with the Teas; he pleaded, "That he could not get a 
" clearance at the custom-house, nor a pass for the Castle ; 
" and that if he should be able to get his ship out of the 
" harbour, bDth sliip and cargo would be forfeited in every 
" part of the King's dominions." Tliis was not thouglit 
satisfactory, and tlie next morning another Assembly of the 
People met and chose a Moderator. At this meeting it 
was determined, that Mr. Rotch, the owner of the ship, 
should demand at the custom-house, a clearance of the 
Teas for England, which was done the 15th, when the 
Collector and Conq)troller refused to grant it. 

v„. 310. He tlien was obliged to demand a permit 

fo'.Ttlm''//;;;. '"'■om tl'e Naval Office to pass the Castle ; after- 
"''/jn«",S,l ^^^''''^ ^^ "'^s sent to the Governor to apply to 
mi"m''' ' ''"" ''"'^ *'"' permit, who soon satisfied him that 
no permit could be granted until the vessel was 
regularly cleared. He returned to town that evening and 
reported this answer to the' meeting. Lmnediately where- 
upon nunibers of the People cried out a mob! a mob I left 
the house, repaired to t'le wharfs where tliree of the vessels 
lay aground, havin;; on board three hundred and forty 
chests of Tea, and in two hours t'me it was totally de- 
stroyed. A sufficient number of People for doing the work 
were disguised, and these were surrounded by numbers, as 
svell of tiie inhabitants of lioslon, as of other towns. 

xo.59:. The Committee observe, tJiat many persons 

ralPv. "h^g"; of consideration in tl;e town oi Boston took the 
Mw'.'r^ov. Ie;id in the proceedings of this meeting, for 
4iii, 1773. whose names they beg leave to refer your 

Lordships to the papers themselves. 

j...i™ii ^(h On tlie 4th of March, 1774, tiie Earl of 

March.ai*. Drtrt;noM</t acquainted the House, "That his 
" Majesty had given directions that the several Papers 
" received from America, relating to the Disturbances tlieie, 
" with regard to the Impojtation of Tea, should be laid 
" before the House ; and that the same would be delivered 
" on Monday next." 

The Earl of Dartmouth acquainted the House " That 



" he had a Message from his Majesty, under March, nik, 
" his Royal sign manual, which his Majesty '"*• 
" had commanded him to deliver to this House. 

And the same was read by the Lord Chancellor, and b 
as follows ; (videlicet :) 

" GEORGE R. 

His Majesty, upon infomiation of the unwarrantable 
practices which h.ave been lately concerted and carried on 
in Noith America, and part;culai,ly of the violent and 
outrageous proceedings at the town and port oi Boston, in 
the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with a view to ol)- 
structing the commerce of this Kingdom, and upon grounds 
and pretences immediately subveisive of tiie Constitution 
thereof, hath thought fit to lay tlie whole matter before 
his two Houses of Parliament, fully confiding as well in 
their zeal for the maintenance of his Majesty's authority, as 
in their attachment to tlie common interest and welfare of 
all ills Dominions, that they will not only enable his Majesty 
effectually to take such measures as may be most likely to 
put an immediate step to the present disorders, but will 
also lake into their most serious consideration what farther 
regulations and permanent provisions may be necessary, to 
be established for better securing the execution of the laws, 
and the just dependence of the Colonies upon the Crown 
and Parliament of Great Britain. G. R." 

The Earl of Dartmouth, also, (by his Majesty's com- 
mand,) laid before the House, copies of all letters, &,c., 
received from North America, relating to the Disturbances 
there with regard to the Importation of Tea, with a list 
thereof. 

It was ordered, that an humble Address be presented to 
bis Majesty, " To return his Majesty the thanks of this 
" House for his Majesty's gracious Message, and for the 
" communication his Majesty hath been graciously pleased 
" to make to this house of the several Papers relative to 
" the present state of some of his Majesty's Colonies in 
" North America. 

" To assure his Majesty, that this House, truly sensible 
" that tlie peace and good Government of the Colonies, 
" and the prevent"ng any obstructions there to the com- 
" merce of this Kingdom, are objects of their most serious 
" attention, will enter upon the consideration of these Pa- 
" pers with an earnest desire to "make such provisions as, 
" upon mature deliberation, shall appear necessary and 
" expedient for securing the just dependence of the said 
" Colonies upon the Crown and Parliament of Great 
" Britain, and for enforcing a due obedience to the laws 
" of this Kingdom throughout all his Majesty's domin- 
" ions." 

And the said Papers and his Majesty's most gracious 
Speech were likewi'^e ordered to be taken into consideration 
on Thursday sevennight, and the Lords summoned. 

On the 11th of March, the Earl of Dart- j^^^^^„^ 
mouth (by his Majesty's command) laid before 
the house more Papers from America, relating to the Dis- 
turbances there with regard to the Importation of Tea, to- 
gether with a list thereof; and the same was read, and 
ordered to lie on the table ; and to be taken into conside- 
ration on Thursday next. 

On the -^Gth March, a Message was brought ^ 

from the House of Commons, with a Bill intitu- 
led, " An act to discontinue, in such manner, and for such 
" time, as are therein mentioned, the landing and discharg- 
" ing, lading or shipping, of goods, wares, and merchan- 
" disc, at the town and within the hajbour of Boston, in the 
" Province of jMassachiisetts Bay, in North America. 

On the 28th of March, a Petition of Mr. „ ^„,.^ 
i:iayer, and others, natives of Amencaywns pre- 
sented and read, praying the said Bill may not pass into a 
law; which -was ordered to lie on the table. Then the 
House took into consideration the several Papers in his 
Majesty's most gracious Message ; and the said Bill was 
read a second time and committed. 

On the :30th of March, a Petition of fHlliam 
Bollan, Esq., Agent for the Council ol tlie 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, was presented to the House 
and read ; and he was called in, and heard at the bar; and 
being vvithdrav.n, the said Bill was read a third time and 
passed ncm. diss. ; and receiv<?d the Royal assent on thei 
foUpwing day. 



31 



KINGS MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



32 



», ^. It ap-nears to the Cominittee, that on the 

LfitrrrroroGo- aSlh of Jdmuinj a great lumibcr ot rioters in tne 
]^MVMvC town of Boston, committed a most inluiman 
w^rMih act of violence upon the person of Jolm Mal- 
jaHuan. 1774. ^.^Ij^ g preventive officer for the port of Fal- 
mouth, in Casto Bay, who imd lately seized a vessel in 
that port for want of a register; no complaint of irregulari- 
ty was made against him, but it was thought proper by the 
above rioteis to punisli him by tarring and feathering hiin, 
(but whhout stripping him.) and carrying' him about in deri- 
sion. This unfortunate man having afterwiu-ds been fre- 
quently hooted at in the streets, was provoked on the '25th, 
by a tradesman, who, he alleged, had sevei-al times before 
affronted him, to strike him witii his cane ; in consequence 
of which a warrant was issued against him, but the con- 
stable not being able to find him, a mob gatliered about 
his house in the evening, and having broke his windows, he 
pushed through the broken window with his sword, and 
gave a slight scratch to one of the assailants ; soon after 
which the mob entered his house, lowered him by a rope 
from an upper chamber into a cart, tore his clothes off, 
tarred his head and body, feathered him, and dragged him 
through the main street into King Street, from thence to 
Liberty Tree, and from thence to^TAe Neck, as far as the 
gallows, where they whipt him, beat him with sticks, and 
threatened to hang him. Having kept him under the gal- 
lows above an hour, tliey carried him back in the same 
manner, to the extremity of the north end of the town, and 
returned him to his own house, so benumbed by the cold, 
having been naked near four hours, and so bruised, that his 
life was despaired of. It appears that none but the lowest 
class of the people were suspected of having been concerned 
in it ; and that Mr. Malcolm having for some time before 
been threatened by the populace with revenge for his free 
and open declarations against the late proceedings, had oc- 
casionally indiscreetly given them provocation. 

The House of Representatives of Massachu- 
ci^mor' sett's Bay, on the 1st o( February, required the 
SfJf;"n„" Chief Justice Oliver, and the four Judges of 
fti^arf u°h', l'>e Superior Court to declare, whether they 
ItesVir^."'' ™' "Of Id receive the grants of Assembly for their 
salaries, or accept their support from the Crown, 
and were answered by the four Judges, (they being fearful 
of making themselves objects of popular resentment, one of 
their number having been previously brought over to that 
consent,) " that they would receive their salaries fi:om the 
" Province ;" but by the Chief Justice, " that he would 

N0.34J. "continue to accept his support from the 
I^mtraDce^rf " Crown." On the 1 1th of February, they re- 
uie HouK of monstrated to the Governor, " That the .said 
of Mmtachu- " Chiel Justice 1 eter Oliver, havmg received 
•Eainu th« " his Salary and reward out of the revenue un- 
" justly and unconstitutionally levied and ex- 
" torted from the American Colonies, and being determined 
" to continue to receive it, contrary to the known sense 
" of the body of the People of the Province, had thereby 
" proved himself an enemy to its Constitution, placed 
" himself under an undue bias, and rendered hhiiself dis- 
" qualified to hold his office any longer." And not having 
procured his removal from the Governor in consequence of 

xo.343 '''^"^ remonstrance, they passed a vote to 
Copy of » vote adjoum the Superior Court, which, by law, is 

of the Coiincil ^ , , , , ,' . ,- , y »i i "^ , ^,, . 

and Ho.m- of to bc held on the 1.5th ol I'ebrtwry, to the 2-2d 
Ft^rm"y''ui", of that month, to which the Governor refused 
'"*• his assent, and complains that he now considers 

himself as acting altogetiicr on the defensive, avoiding his 
consent where he cannot justify it, destitute of any aid from 
any part of the Legislature or Executive Powers of Govern- 
ment in maintaining order, when the breach of it is caused, 
or pretended to be caused by such Acts of Parliament, or 
such exercise of his Majesty's authority, as the People are 
taught by their leaders to call grievances. 

Which Report being read by the Clerk, 

Ordered, that the said Report be printed.* 

•m the SprinfT of 1774, I Brit out with Mr. and Mrs. IzanI, to make 
a lour of France ami Italt/ : but provions to my jroinf;, I drew up a 
pierc pntitli^l " A Truo Stitc of the Proccodinirg in the Province of 
.VantachuKtf Bay," which h is been attributed to Dr. Fianklin, be. 
Ciuisa it was left wit)i him, as agent, to hive it printed. The purpose 
oi It w.ns to remove the unjust iind injuriouH impresi-ions made by a 
Ruport of a C'ommittae of the House »f Lorde, on the same aubicct. — 
Arthur Lee, Vol. I, p. 262. 



HOUSE OF COMMONS. 
March 1th, 1774. 
The Lord North acquainted the House, that he had a 
Message from his Majesty to this House, signed by his 
Majesty ; and he presented the same to the House ; and 
it was read by Mr. Speaker, (all the members of the House 
being uncovered,) and is as iollowetli, viz : 

GEORGE R. 

His Majesty, upon information of the unwanantable 
practices whicli have been lately concerted and carried on 
in North America, and particularly of the violent and out- 
rageous proceedings at the town of Boston, in the Province 
of Mussachusctis Bay, with a view of obstructing the com- 
merce of this Kingdom, and upon grounds and jiretences 
immediately subversive of the constitution thereof, have 
thought fit to lay the whole matter before his two Houses 
of Parliament, fullv confiding as well in their zeal for the 
maintenance of his Majesty's authority, as in their attach- 
ment to the common interest and welfare of all his Domin- 
ions, that they will not only enable his Majesty effectually 
to take such measures as may be most likely to put an 
immediate stop to the present disorders, but will also take 
into their most serious consideration what further regulations 
and permanent provisions may be necessary to be esta- 
blished, for better securing the execution of the laws, and 
the just dependence of the Colonies upon tlie Crown and 
Parliament of Great Britain. G. R. 

The Lord North presented (o the House, by his Majes- 
ty's command, copies of the same Papers that were this day 
communicated to the House of Lords. [See folio 5-10.) 

Mr. Rice then rose, and after remarking on the very- 
critical situation of the whole Continent of North America, 
and enlarging on the imminent necessity there was for vin- 
dicating the controlling right of the British Legislature 
over the Colonies,* moved, " Tliat an humble Address be 
" presented to his Majesty, to return his Majesty the thanks 
" of this House, for his Majesty's most gracious Message, 
" and for the communication his Majesty hath been gra- 
" ciously pleased to make to this House, of the several 
" Papers relative to the present state of some of his Ma- 
" jesty's Colonies in North America. 

"To assure his Majesty, that this House will, without 
" delay, proceed to take into their most serious considera- 
" tion his Majesty's most gracious Message, together with 
" the Papers accompanyiug the same ; and will not fail to 
" exert every means in their power, in effectually providing 
" for objects so important to the general welfare, as main- 
" taining the due execution of the laws, and securing the 
"just dependence of his Majesty's Colonies upon the 
'' Crown ;ind Parliament of Great Britain." 

* Tlie presentment of tlie Papers was accompanied with a comment 
upon them, and ])articularly tlioso that related to the transactions al 
Boston, in wliich the conduct of the Governor was described and ap. 
plauiled ; and that of the prevailing faction represented in the most 
atrocious lifrht. It was said that he had taken every measure which 
prudence could suggest, or good policy justify, for the security of the 
East India Company's projierty, the safety of the consignees, and the 
|)resinving of order and quiet in the town. Evi-ry civil precaution to 
prevent the mischief that followed had been usid in vain. His Ma- 
jesty's Council, the Militia, and the corps of Cadets, had been all 
separately applied to, for their assistance in the preservation of the 
public peace, and the support of the laws, but all without eff.'ct: they 
refused or declined doing their duty. The Shfiriff read a Proclama- 
tion to the faction, at their town meeting, by which they were com. 
inanded to break up their Assembly ; but tile Proclamation was treated 
with the greatest contempt, and the Sheriff insulted in the grossest 
manner. 

That he hail it undouhtedlj' in his power, by calling in the assis- 
tance of tlie naval force which was in the harbor, to have prevented 
the destruction of the Tea; but that as the leading men in Boston had 
always made great compl tints of the interposition of the army and 
navy, and charged all disturbances of everj' sort to their account, he 
witli great prudence and temperance, determined from the beginning 
to decline a measure which would have been so irrit iting to the minds 
of the People ; and might well have hoped, that by this confidence in 
their conduct, and trust reposed in the civil power, he should have 
calmed their turbulence, and preserved the public tranquillity. 

Thus, said the Ministers, the People of Boston were fairly tried. — 
They were left to their own conduct, and to the exercise of their ^^ 
judgments, and the result has given the lie to all their former profes. ^B 
sions. Tliey are now without an excuse, and all the powers of Go. '^m 
vemnicnt in that Province, are found insufficient to prevent the most 
violent outrages. The loyal and peaceable People of a mercantile 
town, (as th y aff'ctto bo peculiarly considered,) have given a notable 
proof to the world of llieir justice, moderation, loyalty, and affection, 
for the Mother Country, by wantonly committing to the waves a valu. 
able commoility, the propurty of another loyal mercantile body of sub- 
jects, without the pretence of necessity, even supposing that their 
opposition to the payment of the duties could justify such a plea; as 



KING'S MESSAGE, MARCH 7, 1774. 



84 



Lord Clare said, he agreed with the honorable gentle- 
man, and hoped he should find this measure carried through 
with unanimity ; he should therefore second the motion. 

Mr. DowdeswclL 1 would be very far from offering 
any thing on the present occasion, which might wear the 
most distant appearance of opposition, or a desire to im- 
pede measures of such high consideration. Nevertheless, 
I cannot consent to give my voice, by any means, lor what 
I am convinced in my soul is wrong ; and though 1 do not 
mean to divide the House on any particular opinion I may 
entertain on the subject, 1 wish lo have it understood, that 
I do not approve of the present hasty, ill-digested mode of 
proceeding. 

Governor Pownall. I think the motion for an Address 
extremely proper, as it can mean no mere than to return 
thanks to his Majesty for the present communication. 

Mr. Edmund Burke then n)oved, that the entries in the 
Journal of the House, of the 8th day of iSovcmLcr, 17G8, 
of so much of his Majesty's most gracious Speech to both 
Houses of Parliament, and tiie Address of this House 
thereupon, as relates to the state of his Majesty's Govern- 
ment in North America, might be read : 

And the same was read accordingly. 

Mr. Burke also moved, that the entry in the Journal of 
the House, of the 9th day of May, 1769, of so nmch of 
his Majesty's most gracious Speech to both Houses of Par- 
liament, as relates to the state of his Majesty's Colonies 
in North America, might be read : 

And the same was read accordingly. 

Mr. Burke also moved, that the entries in the Journal 
of the House, of the 9th day of January, 1770, of so 
much of his Majesty's most gracious Speech to both Houses 
of Parliament, and the Address of this House thereupon, 
as relates to the state of his Majesty's Government in 
North America, might be read : 

And the same was read accordingly. 

Mr. Burke also moved, that the entries in the Journals 
of the House, of the 13th day of November, 1770, of so 
much of his Majesty's most gracious Speech to both Houses 
of Parliament, and the Address of this House thereupon, 
as relates to the stale of his Majesty's Colonies in Ameri- 
ca, might be read : 

And the same was read accordingly. 

He next desired the Clerk to search for the supposed 
Resolutions that were entered into by the House, in obe- 
dience and conformity to tliis communication from the 
Throne ; and none being to be found, he resumed his 
speech : Sir, (addressing himself to the Clerk,) 1 am tho- 
roughly satisfied of your integrity and assiduity in the dis- 
charge of the station you now fill ; but however high you 

they had nothing to do but to adhero to their own Resolutions, of non- 
consumption, effjctually to evade the revenue liiws. 

It was concluded upon tlie whob, that by an impartial review of 
the Papers now before them, it would manifestly appear, that nothing 
could be done, by eithi^r civil, military, or naval offic -rs, to effjctuate 
the re. -establishment of tranquillity and order in that Province, with, 
out additional Parliamentary powers to give efficacy to th:;ir proceed, 
ings. That no parson employxl by Government, could in any act, 
however common or ligal, fulfil the duti?8 of his office or station, 
without its b;ing immediately exclaimed against by the licentious, as 
ein infringsmont of their liberties. That it was the settled opinion of 
some of tile wisjst men, both in England and America, and the best 
acquainted with the aifiirs of the Colonies, that in their present state 
of Gov .rnment, no measures whitso:!ver could be pursued that would, 
in any degree, remedy those glaring evils, which were every day 
growing to a more enormous and dangerous height. That Parli u 
ment, and Parli imont only, were cap.bb of reestablishing tranquil, 
lity among thos;; turbulent Puople, and of bringing order out of con. 
fusion. And that it was therefore incumbent on every member to 
weigh and consider with an intention suitable to the great importanca 
of the subject, the purport of the Pipers before them, and totally lay. 
ing all prejudices aside, to form his opinion upon the measures most 
eligible to be pursued, for supporting the supreme legislative aulhori. 
ty, tlie dignity of Parliament, and the great interesUi of the British 
Empire. 

This if* the substinco of what was urged by the Ministry upon the 
subject whi-n th:y presented the Papers; but, as things were to bo 
brought to a crisis with the Colonis, and very strong moa*ures were 
resolved upon, it was apprehended th it the merchants would be af. 
fected, and make some opposition. To prevent this, all the public 
papers were systematically fdlad with writings on this subject, piint- 
ing the misconduct of the Colonies in the strongest colours, and in 
particular, urging the impossibility of tiie future existence of any 
trade to America, if this fl igrant outrage on commerce should go un- 
punished. 

These, with many other endeavours to the same end, were not with, 
out an eifect. Thj spirit raised ag ;inst the Americans became as 
high and as strong as could be desired, both within and without the 
House. In this temper a motion wai made for an Address to the 
Throne. — Ann. Regia. 

Second Series. 3 



may stand in my estimation, 1 would much sooner suppose 
you guilty of some fatal negligence, which now leaves us 
at a loss lor those proceedings, than presume the House to 
have so far forgot its duty to its Sovereign, its country, and 
its constituents, as to omit what was so strongly recommend- 
ed to its consideration from the Throne, as well as what 
was in its nature so essential to our most important inter- 
ests. And even you. Sir, (to the Speaker,) 1 should not 
hesitate to charge as guilty of some improper conduct on 
this occasion, sooner than the House. 

Mr. Solicitor General. Tlie honorable gentleman over 
the way has endeavored to entertain us with an epigram, 
but it wants one of its most essential requisites, it seems 
rather too long. Foregoing therefore the wit, which here 
comes in somewhat unseasonably, 1 should imagine that 
the grand object we ought to labor to accomplish, on the 
present occasion, would be unanimity. The voice of this 
House should be that of one man. It is not what this 
Administration has done, what that has omitted, or the 
mixed errors of a third, that we are now to consider. It is 
not this man's private opinion, or that man's ; the particu- 
lar sentiments of this side of the House, or the other. We 
are arrived at a certain point, and the question now is, in 
what manner we shall think proper to act. The proposed 
Address by no means precludes us from giving our opinions 
freely, when the matter comes properly before us, accom- 
panied by the necessary information. When this informa- 
tion is properly digested, let us proceed coolly and with 
deliberatif.n. We cannot yet determine, whether the de- 
pendence insisted on in the Message, may be proper to be 
vindicated or asserted. We cannot even say but it may be 
entirely relinquished. We do not pretend to judge what 
sort or degree of connection may be necessary to be kept 
up for our mutual benefit. It perhaps may be prudent to 
grant them other charters, to enlarge those they already 
have, or to enter into commercial regulations different from 
those which at present bind them. 

Mr. Edmund Burke. The learned gentleman, who has 
now held forth with so much ingenuity, and so great an 
appearance of candor, has left his epigram liable to the 
same objection which he made to mine ; it is not short 
enough. Besides, he forgets to enumerate one of the 
qualities which distinguish an epigram, and which mine had: 
it, I think, carried a sting with it. The learned gentleman 
suggests (and I presume he speaks from authority) that 
the several Governments in America may be new-modell- 
ed ; that connections different from those already existing 
may be formed, and commercial regulations, planned on 
another scale, take place. But I will venture to inform 
him, that an English Government must be administered in 
the spirit of one, or it will that moment cease to exist. As 
soon, I say, as the civil Government of those Colonies shall 
depend for support on a military power, the former will 
that moment be at an end. The spirit of English legisla- 
tion is uniform, permanent, and universal ; it must execute 
itself, or no power under heaven will be able to effect it. — 
[Here Mr. Burke entered into an historical detail of the 
weakness and violence, the ill-timed severity and lenity, 
the irresolution at one time, and the invincible obstinacy 
at another, the arrogance and meanness of the several Ad- 
ministrations, relative to their conduct towards the Ameri- 
cans for the last seven years. He observed, with some 
degree of severity, on the act of political indemnity, pro- 
posed by the learned gentleman, and his endeavors to con- 
found all parties, as equally involved in the cause of the 
present confusions now prevailing in that country, contend- 
ing that all dissentions, occasioned by the attempt to levy 
a tax there, gave way to perfect tranquillity on the repeal 
of the Stamp Act.] 

Lord George Germain. The honorable gentleman who 
spoke last has taken great pains to expose the conduct of 
different Administrations, and to extol those who advised 
the repeal of the Stamp Act. For my part, however great 
the abilities and good intention of those gentlemen might 
have been, I was of opinion, tiiat it should not be repealed, 
and voted accordingly. It is now contended, that that 
measure produced tlie desired effect, and that on its passing 
every thing was peace and tranquillity. I know the con- 
trary was the case, and we had evidence at your bar which 
proved, that the Americans were totally displeased, because 
in the preamble to the repeal, we asserted our right to enact 



35 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



36 



laws of sufficient force and authority to bind tliem. I am, on 
the whole, fully convinced, that the prej^ent situation of affairs 
in that country, would have never been, and that the People 
there must and would have returned to their obedience, if 
the Stamp Act had not been unfortunately repealed. 

General Conway. 1 by no means agree with the noble 
Lord in any one argument lie has made, or conclusion he 
has drawn from tiieni. 1 attribute the very disagreeable 
situation we are now in to the weakness of our counsels, 
and to a series of misconduct. The noble FiOrd attributes 
the present distracted state of that country to the repeal. 
1 believe he has neither fully attended to the immediate 
effects of that measure, nor to those which have followed 
fixjni a contrary conduct, or he could never have given such 
a judgment. The operation of both are known, and 1 leave 
the House to judge, which was the healing and wliicii the 
distracting measure. 



Colonel Barre. 1 shall agree with the motion for an 
Address as a mere matter of course, not holding myself 
engaf^ed to a syllable of its contents. A right honorable 
gentleman near me, (Mr. DoivdesweU,) has very fully 
proved on a former occasion, tl)at our present peace estab- 
lishment is a ruinous one : and that it eats up that fund 
which should be appropriated towards relieving our burdens 
or preparing for a war. I have the most authentic infor- 
mation, however improbable it may appear, that the ex- 
pense of our military at this moment, exceeds that of 
France. These may be matters well worthy of our con- 
sideration in the course of our proceedings. It may induce 
us to make a very considerable saving in that service. 

The motion for the Address was then agreed to. 

Ordered, That the Address be ])resented to his Majesty 
by such members of this House as are of his Majesty's 
most honorable Privy Council. 



II. THE BOSTON PORT BILL 



HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

Monday, March 7, 1774. 

Ordered, That his Majesty's most gracious Message 
[folio 32,] together with the Papers this day presented to 
the House, [folio 5 — 10] by the Lord North, be taken 
into consideration on Friday morning next. 

Friday, March 11, 1774. 

The Lord North presented to the House, by his Ma- 
jesty's command : 

No. 1. Extract of a Letter from Governor HutchiTison 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 28th January, 
1774; received 8th March, inclosing, 

No. 2. Extract from tlie Boston Gazette, of the 27th 
January, 1774. 

Together with a list of said Papers. 

And the said list was read. 

Ordered, That the said Papers be taken into considera- 
tion at the same time that the Papere presented to the 
House by the Lord North, upon Monday last, are ordered 
to be taken into consideration. 

The order of the day being read, for taking into conside- 
ration his Majesty's most gracious Message of Monday last, 
together with the Papers which were presented to the 
House by the Lord North, upon Monday last, and this day, 
by his Majesty's command. 

The House proceeded to take the same into considera- 
tion. And his Majesty's most gracious Message was again 
read by Mr. Speaker, all tiie members of the House being 
uncovered. And the said Papers were also read. 

Ordered, That his Majesty's said most gracious Mes- 
sage, together with the said Papers, be taken into further 
consideration upon Monday morning next. 

Monday, March 14, 1774. 

A Petition of William Bollan, Esq., Agent for the Council 
of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in New England, was 
presented to the House, and read, setting forth, that the 
English America)i Colonies were deduced and planted by 
the adventurers and settlers, at their expense, in foreign in- 
hospitable lanils, acquired by their vigorous efforts, made 
under the authority of their princes, granted with the en- 
couragement proper for this spirited and noble enterprise ; 
and that the several princes, by whose authority the Colo- 
nies were established, and the numerous nobles and other 
worthy persons, of whom several were men of tlie greatest 
accomplishments, endued with the wisdom proper for ob- 
taining and preserving Empire, by whose advice, aid, and 
concun-cnce, they were undertaken and advanced, were so 
tar from understanding that these adventurers and settlers, 
who by their travail, expenses, labors, and dangers, should 
enlarge the public dominion, should thereby, contrary to 
natural justice, lessen their public liberties ; that, from the 



many letters patent Royal, made and passed for obtaining 

and regulating new dominion, and the whole history of their 
settlement, it manifestly appears, it was the intent of all 
parties, that tlie settlers, and their posterity, should enjoy 
the same ; whereupon, they became adventurers ; and, in- 
spirited by their confidence therein, with their long and 
quiet enjoyment of tiieir public rights, overcoming difficul- 
ties, perils, and liardsbips, inexpressible and innumerable, 
they raised the King's American Empire out of a dreary 
and dangerous wilderness, with so great and continual in- 
crease of commerce, that of late years it hath given em- 
ployment unto two-thirds of the British shipping, with a 
comfortable support to no small part of the inhabitants of 
Great Britain, and great addition to the dignity and 
strength of its Naval Empire ; and that, by the statute law 
of this Kingdom, it is clearlj supposed, and in effect fully 
declared, that the Colonists were well entitled to the En- 
glish right, and the lands they inhabit free ; and that the 
Acta Regia of Queen Elizabeth and her successors, where- 
by the acquests of new dominion were made and establish- 
ed, and security given to the adventurers, planters, and their 
descendants, of the ]5erpetual enjoyment of tlieir public 
liberties, having, as tiie Petitioner presumes, never been 
laid before the House, nor tiie Colonies ever yet had any 
opportunity to ascertain and defend their invaluable rights, 
and the House, as the Petitioner is advised, now having 
under their consideration the state of the Northern Colonies, 
the Petitioner therefore prays, that he may be permitted to 
appear, and lay before the House, authentic copies of the 
proper Acta Regia, and to support the matters herein con- 
tained, in a manner suitable to their nature, and to the in- 
clinations of the House. 

Ordered, That the said Petition do lie upon the table. 

The order of the day then being called for, the House 
was silent for a few minutes, when Mr. Cornwall rose, and 
moved that the gallery be cleared. This occasioned a 
vehement debate. Colonel Barre said, that if the motion 
was insisted on, the ladies would be oliliged to withdraw. 
Mr. C. Fox ^vas of the same opinion. Mr. Jtiikinson con- 
tended, if it was proper to shut the gallery on Friday, 
against strangers, it was much more so then. Mr. T. 
Townshcnd desired that the standing order might be read, 
which being complied with, he observed, that it contained 
no exceptions, for the order recited that all strangers should 
be taken into custody. Mr. Grtnville remarked, that it 
was easily seen from what quarter the present motion origi- 
nated, as he could perceive that applications had been ma- 
king ever since the House met, for the purpose now intend- 
ed to be carried into execution, though the authors did 
not choose to appear publicly in it themselves. 

The majority of the House did not seem to approve of 
the motion, when it was first made ; but the interference of 
the Speaker at length turned the scale, and not only the 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



38 



gallery but all the rooms and avenues leading to it, were 
cleared about four o'clock. 

As soon a.s the House had resumed its former tranquiU 
lity, it was 

Ordered, That the order of the day, for taking into 
consideration his Majesty's most gracious Message of 
Monday last, together with tlie Papers which were pre- 
sented to the House by the Lord North, upon tlie 7th and 
11th days of this instant, March, (by his Majesty's com- 
mand,) be now read : 

And the said order being read accordingly, 
The House proceeded to take the same into further con- 
sideration. 

And his Majesty's said most gracious Message was again 
read by Mr. Speaker, (all tiie members of the House beuig 
uncovered.) Upon which. 

Lord North rose. He said it contained two proposi- 
tions : the one to enable his Majesty to put an end to the 
present disturbances in America, the other to secure the 
just dependence of the Colonies on the Crown of Great 
Britain. His Lordship observed, that the present disor- 
ders originated in Boston, in the Province o( Massachusetts 
Bay; and hoped that the method he should propose to the 
House would be adopted. He should confine himself par- 
licularlv to those disturbances which had been created since 
the 1st of December. He said, that it was impossible for 
our commerce to be safe, whilst it continued in the harbour 
of Boston, and it was highly necessary that some port or 
other should be found for the landing of our merchandise 
where our laws would give full protection ; he therefore 
hoped that the removal of the custom-house officers from 
the town of Boston, would be thought a necessary step ; 
and that the consequence of that would produce one other 
proposition, which would be, the preventmg any shipping 
from endeavouring to land their wares and merchandise 
there, by blocking up the use of that harbour; he said he 
should move for leave to bring in a Bill for those two pur- 
poses. He observed, that this was the third time the offi- 
cers of the customs had been prevented from doing their 
duty in the harbour of Boston ; he thought the inhabitants 
of the town of Boston deserved punishment ; he said, per- 
haps it may be objected, that some few individuals may 
suffer on this account who ought not ; but where the au- 
thority of a town had been, as it were, asleep and inactive, 
it was no new thing for the whole town to be fined for such 
neglect ; he instanced the city of London, in King Charles 
the Second's time, when Dr. Lamb was killed by unknown 
persons, the city was fined for such ; and the case oi Edin- 
burgh, in Captain Forteovss affair, when a fine was set 
upon the whole ; and also at Glasgoiv, when the house of 
Mr. Camj)bell Avas pulled down, part of the revenue of that 
town was sequestered to make good the damage. He ob- 
served, that Boston did not stand in so fair a light as either of 
the three before mentioned places, lor that Boston had been 
upwards of seven years in riot and confusion, and associa- 
tions had been held against receiving British merchandise 
so long ago. He observed that proceedings were openly 
carried on in the beginning of last November, to the 17th 
of December, denying the force or efficacy of the laws of 
this country, to be exerted in the harbour of Boston; that 
during the above time, there was not the least interposition 
offered by the inhabitants of the town ; that at their public 
meetings, they had regularly given orders for nightly 
watches to be appointed, consisting of a large body of 
persons, which were to prevent the landing of the tea. As 
the merchandise of Great Britain, this surely was highly 
criminal, and a direct opposition to the execution of an Act 
of Parliament ; and as the tea belonging to the India Com- 
pany had remained twenty days in the harbour, without a 
clearance, they were afraid lest it should be seized by the 
custom-house officers, and by that means landed ; they 
therefore fiestroyed it on tlie 20th day. That this appeared 
to be a violent and outrageous proceeding done to our fel- 
low subjects, by a set of People, who could not, in any 
shape, claim more than the natural privilege of trading with 
their fellow subjects. Tliat Boston had been the ringlea- 
der in all riots, and had at all times shown a desire of 
seeing the laws of Great Britain attempted in vain, in the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay. That the act of the mob 
in destroying the tea, and other proceedings, belonged to 
the act of the public meeting ; and that though other 



Colonies were peaceable and well inclined towards the 
trade of this country, and the tea would have been landed 
at New York without any opposition ; yet, when the news 
came from Boston, that the tea was destroyed. Governor 
Tryon, from the advice of the People, thought that the face 
of things being changed since that account was sent, it 
would be more prudent to send the tea back to England, 
than to risk the landing of it. His Lordship observed that 
Boston alone was to blame for having set this example, 
therefore Boston ought to be the principal object of our 
attention for punishment. He proposed one clause to the 
Bill, which, he said, would prevent the Crown from re- 
storing the re-establishment, till full satisfaction was made 
to the East India Company for the loss of their tea. He 
said, he did not propose it by way of tax, but by way of 
restitution to the injured, who were our own subjects ; and 
to let it go forth to the world, that the Parliament of Great 
Britain will protect their subjects and their property ; that 
the Crown, by that clause, will not even then be obliged to 
restore the custom-house, unless his Majesty is thoroughly 
convinced that the laws of this country will be better ob- 
served in the harbour of Boston for the future ; this resti- 
tution entirely depended upon Boston alone. He should 
be happy to have those, who had been the promotei-s of 
these disturbances in Boston found out, and that they might 
be obliged to make good the damage to the East India 
Company ; but as those persons are unknown to us, Boston 
will, no doubt, endeavour to find out such persons, or pass 
acts of their own Assembly, to levy such money in the most 
equitable and just manner. We have only to request it for 
the East India Company. He said that this Bill was not 
all he meant to propose ; that other parts, of more nice 
disquisition, will remain for the future consideration of Par- 
liament. There, perhaps, might be other methods propo- 
sed that were better than this ; but he had as yet found out 
none that deserved a preference. Some persons had pro- 
posed that the fishery might be taken away ; but this, he 
observed, would affect the Colony at large. Others pro- 
posed tiie Straits trade ; and this would be liable to the 
same objection. No method of punishment ever came 
from him, but with great regret : he therefore hoped for 
that unanimity in a vote of this sort, which would give 
strength to the measure. It had been said, that we owed 
this proceeding of the Americans to our own ill conduct in 
taxing and repealing ; but if gentlemen would recollect, 
when the Stamp Act passed, there was hardly a dissenting 
voice ; and when it was repealed, it had the consent of a 
great majority of that House; that the doctrine then laid 
down was, that external duties were our right, internal 
taxes theu's; that when the repeal of the Stamp Act took 
place here, the clamour raised against that Act in America 
had subsided ; that the non-importation agreements, it was 
true, were not remedied, because they ceased of themselves. 
It was my fate, he said, to propose the repeal of the duties 
laid on in 1767, and to continue the Tea Duty only. The 
reason was, I thought, the non-importation agreements 
would break up of themselves ; which was afterwards the 
case. It was proposed by some, that the Tea Duty should 
be taken off; it was urged by others, that it would then 
become a monopoly of the Ea^t India Company ; nor did 
I think the giving up the duty to the East India Company 
of consequence enough to venture the struggle of the Le- 
gislative authority of this country. If they could sell tea 
cheaper than any other People, they would certainly have 
the market to tiiemselves. His Lordship observed, that at 
Boston we were considered as two independent States ; but 
we were no longer to dispute between legislation and taxa- 
tion, we were now to consider only whether or not we 
have any authority there ; that it is very clear we have 
none, if we suffer the property of our subjects to be de- 
stroyed. He hoped that all would agree with him, both 
peers, members, and merchants, to jiroceed unanimously to 
punisli such parts of America as denied the authority of 
this country. We must, he said, punish, control, or yield 
to them. He did not wish to molest without an offence 
given ; he therefore proposed this measure to day ; and 
observed, if such conduct was followed, it would tend to 
cement two countries, as important to the one as the other ; 
he therefore moved, "That leave be given to bring in a 
" Bill for the immediate removal of the officers concerned 
" in the collection and management of his Majesty's duties 



39 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



40 



" and customs from the town of Boston, in tlio Province of 
" Massachusetts Bay, in North Amtrica ; and to discon- 
•' tinue the landing and discharging, lading and shipping, of 
'' goods, wares, and merchandise, at the said town of Bos- 
" ton, or within the liarbour thereof." 

When Lord North sat down, there was a perfect silence 
for some minutes. 

Mr. Grosvenor got up to second the motion, and con- 
demned very much the proceedings of Boston ; he said, 
they were all entirely owing to the repeal of the Stamp 
Act. 

Governor Johnstone desired to know, if it was to be left 
to the Crown, to what part of America the custom-house 
should be removed ? 

Lord North said, a clause was intended to be inserted in 
the Bill to leave that matter to the Crown. 

Mr. Dempster observed, that should this indemnification 
to the East India Company take place by way of tax, it 
would be collected over America, and thereby injure tlie 
property of People who had been entirely innocent of this 
afiair ; that when he spoke formerly so much about taxa- 
tion in general, he meant not as to the right which we had, 
but only as to the prudence and policy of the measure. 

Mr. Sawbrid^e got up to speak, but the noise of the 
Flouse being great for the question, he sat down, he said, 
till gentlemen had done coughing, and the House had done 
calling for the question ; that though he could not be heard 
now, he should sit cooly till he could. The House being 
little silent, he said, he always gai-e his genuine opinion, 
and he was now, and always had been, of such opinion, 
that this country had no right to tax America; that it 
might be said by some People here, that America Is not 
represented ; that if this country had a right to take a sin- 
gle shilling out of an American's pocket, they have a right 
to take the whole. He then sat down a second time, the 
House being noisy, and said though he could not be allowed 
to speak long, he could sit long ; and observed, that this 
destruction of the tea was entirely done by a mob unarmed ; 
and Uiat if a requisition was to be sent to Boston to make 
satisfaction to the India Company he made no doubt but 
what it would be complied with. He said, he was against 
the motion. 

Mr. Byng sa\d, he only meant to ask the noble Lord one 
question, whether this measure was not preventing the 
English ships from trading there, and a punishment on 
ourselves ? 

Mr. B. Fuller said, the Bill brought in would shew 
whether it was a punishment upon A or B ; that he should 
therefore reserve his opinion until he saw the Bill, 

Mr. Dowdesioell rose, upon which the House thought 
the debate would continue ; he said, he was of opinion 
they were going to do very great mischief, and should 
think it his duty to give that opinion in tliis early stage of 
the Bill: he said, this Bill was to punish the town of 
Boston: why will you punish Boston alone? Did not 
other towns send your tea back to England, and refuse 
the landing? Have they committed no offence? He asked, 
if there was any evidence of a general concurrence of the 
inhabitants of Boston ; he said, the examples of punishment 
the noble Lord had mentioned, were not similar to the pre- 
sent case ; that the counties being obliged by law to make 
good the loss between sun and sun, wal; an old established 
law, not made for a particular purpose ; that this Bill 
would be an ex-post-facto law ; that the case of a corpora- 
tion was different from the present ; the corporation chose 
their own officers, the magistrates of the town of Boston 
were chosen by the Province at large. Would the House 
nor hear what Boston had to say in its defence ? Would 
the House condemn without evidence, in the absence of 
the parties? He should trouble the House no more at 
present ; he thought they were going to do a wrong act, 
nor could he think, that the cases of London, KHnlwgh, 
or Glasgow, could at all be brought as examples of pun- 
ishment in this case. He disapproved much of the Bill, 
and said, he should give a negative to it. 

Mr. Cavendish approved of the proposition ; but hoped, 
il the merchants of this country could any way be injured 
by it, that time would be given tlioin to come and petition. 
Captain Phipps said, he felt no reason to imagine that 
any opposition to the Bill at Boston could be effectual : 
That It was no new thing to direct and order a port for the 



reception of the trade of America; that harbours were in 
great plenty there ; that all authority had been trampled 
upon in that country for many years; that if our subjects 
could not trade to Boston, they must go where thev could 
trade with safety ; that he did not attribute the disturbances 
to the Stamp Act, or the repeal of it. When he was in that 
country, he thought that that Act might have been put in 
execution ; that the repeal might be proper. He imagined, 
one of the provisions that would be adopted by the House, 
would be to repeal the Declaratory Act, which, he said, was 
tlie most absurd and unconstitutional Act ever passed. Let 
America alone, and it would return of itself to obedience, 
and do not let us scare!) for trifling taxes, by way of expe- 
riment, to try our power ; the moment they see that taxa- 
tion is not for effectually collecting of money, but for 
experiment only, they will always oppose you. 

Lord G. Cavendish said, lie was not sure but the object 
before the House would be prejudicial to our trade ; that 
he looked lo the mutual interest of the two countries ; that 
they were united by proper measures, and, he hoped, they 
would be kept so ; he wished tiiat no idle ideas of superio- 
rity might prevail, for that country which is kept by power, 
is in danger of being lost every day. 

Colonel Brrre said, he was urged to rise to discharge 
his duty in not giving a silent vote upon the occasion. The 
proposition before tlie House, he could not help giving his 
hearty affirmative to ; that he liked it, harsii as it was ; he 
liked it for its moderation ; and arirued, that the noble Lord's 
{Nortfi) conduct would be of the same stamp throughout. 
He said, I think BoUon ought to be punished, she is your 
eldest son. |Here the House laughed, and some members 
observed by him, that he would be a proper person to 
direct the admission of Irish members into the House, as 
he had hinted a day before that office for Mr. Bigby.] 
After the House had laughed heartily, he said, I mean ycur 
daughter, she is a noble prop ; she gave herself that form 
of constitution she now has ; cherish and support her. He 
wished to see an unanimous vote in the onset of this busi- 
ness ; that when Boston saw this measure was carried by 
such a consent, they would the more readily pay the sum 
of money to the East India Company ; that he hoped, 
if they did, that the Crown would mitigate the rest of 
their punishment ; if the Crown went further, perhaps 
they could not do it witliout, as Governor Tryon ob- 
served, at the muzzle of your guns ; that we had given 
America limited and prescribed means to acquire wealth ; 
that he hoped they would leave the rest of the matter to 
themselves ; that he had often thought, in the coolest hours, 
that America ought not to be taxed by this country. 
Endeavour, says he, to take the power of taxing out of 
their Assemblies, and it will be strongly opposed ; he 
meant not to stick to experimental taxes ; the tax of the 
Stamp Act was made to please this side [meaning Mr. 
Grcnville's friends] of the House. Go, says he, to some 
great request at once, and if they wont comply with it, try 
then your power. You have been paying £4,000,000, 
for doing of nothing, only for teasing and scratching ; I wish 
to see a fair decided line at once ; I dent, says he, see any 
appearance of war at present ; now is your time to try, in 
a civilized manner, your power over the Americans ; other 
of your enemies are not in a condition to take part with 
them. I am not in office, that my advice can be taken ; if 
I was, I should give it freely. If office comes to me, it 
comes as an atonement for repeated and unmerited affronts. 
I shall at all times speak the language of a free and disin- 
terested member. 

The motion of Ixird North, for leave to bring in the Bill 
was then agreed to; and I^ord North, Mr. Onslow, Mr. 
Charles Townshcnd, Mr. Attorney General, Mr. Solicitor 
General, Mr. Bice, Mr. Cooper, and Mr. Robinson, were 
ordered to prepare and bring in the same. 

Ordered, That the further consideration of the Message 
and Papers be referred toaCoinmittie of the whole House. 

Resolved, That this House will, on Friday morning 
next, resolve itself into a Committee of the whole House, to 
consider of the said Message and Papers. 

Friday, March 18, 1774. 

The Lord North presented to the House, according to 
order, a Bill for the immediate removal of the Officers con- 
cerned in the collection and management of his Majesty's 



I 



41 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



42 



duties of Customs, from the town of Boston, in the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay, in North America; and to discon- 
tinue the landing and discharging, lading and shipping, of 
goods, wares, and merchandise, at the said town o{ Boston, 
or within the harbour tliereof: and the same was received ; 
and read the first time. 

Resolved, That the Bill be read a second time. 

Ordered, Tiiat die said Bill be read a second time upon 
Monday next. 

A motion was made, and the question being put, that 
the said Bill be printed ? 

It passed in the Negative. 

The order of the day being read, for the House to re- 
solve itself into a Committee of the whole House, to take 
into further consideration his Majesty's most gracious 
Message of Monday, the 7th day of this instant, March, 
together with the Papers which were presented to the 
House, by the Lord North, upon the 7lh and 11th days of 
this instant, March, by his Majesty's conmiand ; 

Resolved, That this House will, upon Wednesday morn- 
ing next, resolve itself into the said Committee. 

Monday, March 21 , 1774. 

The Bill was read a second time, and committed to a 
Committee of the whole House. 

Resolved, That this House will, upon Wednesday movn- 
ing next, resolve itself into a Committee of the whole 
House, upon the said Bill. 

Wednesday, March 23, 1774. 

The order of the day, for the House to resolve itself into 
a Committee of the whole, on the Message and Papers, was 
discharged, and the Message together with the Papers, was 
referred to the Committee of the whole House, to whom the 
Bill for the immediate removal of the officers concerned in 
the collection and management of his Majesty's duties of 
Customs, from the town of Boston, in the Province of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, in North America ; and to discontinue the 
landing and discharging, lading and shipping, of goods, 
wares, and merchandise, at the said town of Boston, or 
within the harbour thereof, is committed. 

The House then resolved itself into a Committee -of the 
whole, on the said Bill. 

Sir Charles Whitworth took the Chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Fuller said, he intended to make an alteration in the 
Bill, by first substituting a fine before the blocking up the 
port ; lie should tlierefore propose, that the words " from 
and after," be left out, in order to insert one of his own. 
He said, that Boston was a port of the gi-eatest consequence 
to this country of any existing ; that the Bill before them 
was totally unprecedented ; for that the case of Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and others, that had been mentioned, was not in 
the least similar; that the penalty of blocking up their 
ports was too severe for the first offence ; that when the 
nation came to know the contents of this Bill, he was sure 
they would be dissatisfied with it ; that the Bostonians, 
upon the first rcsistence, will tell you they will not remit 
the money which they owe you ; that nothing but confed- 
eracies would spring up among tliem ; that he was strongly 
of opinion, that this Bill could not be carried into execution 
without a military force; that if we sent over a small 
number of men, the Boston militia would immediately cut 
them to pieces ; that if we sent over a larger number, six or 
7,000, the Americans would debauch them ; and that by 
these means we should only hurt ourselves. I would 
begin, said he by an amercement; nor would I wish this 
Bill to take place, until they had refused the payment of 
it. He should apprehend, that about £15,000 would 
make amends to the East India Company, and would in 
some measure be a relief to poor Malcolm (the custom- 
house officer, who had been tarred and feathered.) It was 
always a rule in law, he said, where damages are done by 
unknown persons, that the community should be made to 
pay ; he therefore wished that the House would adopt the 
proposition he had made. 

Mr. Herbert opposed the measure which Mr. Fuller 
proposed. He said, the proposition would by no means 
relieve us, but throw us into greater difficulties ; the Bos- 
tonians would certainly resist the payment of the fine ; 
that we must then have recourse to this method. The 



measure proposed was still more likely to be resisted than 
the Bill, because the fine would be laid on all America, 
which would induce others to join in the opposition, who 
before were not concerned in it. He said, the Americans 
were a strange set of People, and that it was in vain to 
expect any degree of reasoning from them ; that instead 
of making their claim by argument, they always chose to 
decide the matter by tarring and feathering ; that the 
method now proposed in tlie Bill would become more a 
punishment by their refusal than by their compliance ; that 
the Americans alone were the persons by whose behaviour 
the lenity or severity of the measure was to be proved : he 
therefore should agree to the Bill, in preference to the 
amendment proposed. 

Lord North opposed the amendment. He said, howe- 
ver great his obligations were to the candour and public 
spirit of the honorable gentleman who made the motion, yet 
he differed much from him in the amendment proposed. 
His lordship observed, that tliough the honorable gentleman 
had said it was the first offence, yet upon recollection he was 
very sure he would not be of that opinion, as the People at 
Boston had begun many years ago to endeavour to throw 
of all obedience to this country ; that, indeed, this was the 
first time that Parliament had proceeded to punish them. 
He said, I am by no means an enemy to lenient measures, 
but I find that resolutions of censure and warning will avail 
nothing ; we must therefore proceed to some immediate 
remedy ; now is our time to stand out, to defy them — to 
proceed with firmness, and without fear ; they will never 
reform until we take a measure of this kind. Let this Bill 
produce a conviction to all America, that we are in earnest, 
and that we will proceed with firmness and vigour ; that 
conviction, will be lost, if they see us hesitating and doubt- 
ing. It will be enough to shew that Great Britain is in 
earnest. The merchandise now will be landed at Marble- 
head, in the port of Salein, which is putting Boston about 
seventeen miles from the sea with respect to foreign trade. 
This restriction will be continued as long as they persist in 
their proceedings ; it will operate severely or mildly against 
them, according to their behaviour; if they are obstinate, 
the measure will be severe ; if not, mild. I believe that 
Boston will not immediately submit to a fine, nor to the 
intention of the present Bill, unless it comes attended with 
a mark of resolution and firmness that we mean to punish 
them, and assert our right ; it is impossible to suppose but 
some of our own People may in some degree suffer a little, 
but we must compare those temporary inconveniences 
with the loss of that country, and its due obedience to us ; 
they bear no comparison ; and the preference must certain- 
ly be given to the latter. The honorable gentleman tells us, 
that the Americans will not pay their debts due to this 
country, unless we comply with their disposition. I believe 
things will remain much in the same state as they did upon 
a like occasion ; they threatened us with the same thing if 
we did not repeal the Stamp Act ; we repealed that Act, 
and they did not pay their debts. If this threat is yielded 
to, we may as well take no remedy at all ; their threats 
will hold equally good to the fine proposed by the honorable 
gentleman, as to the operation of this Bill. I hope we 
every one feel, that it is the common cause of us all, and 
such an unanimity will go half way to their obedience to 
this Bill. The honorable gentleman tells us, that the Act 
will be a waste piece of paper, and that an army will be re- 
quired to put it in execution. The good of this Act is, 
that four or five frigates will do the business without any 
military force ; but if it is necessary, I should not hesitate 
a moment to enforce a due obedience to the laws of this 
country. Tlie situation of the troops in that country has 
been such, that no magistrate or civil officer of the peace 
has been willing to call forth their strength on proper 
occasions ; it will become us to find out some method 
whereby the military force may act with effect, and with- 
out bloodshed, in endeavouring to support and maintain the 
authority of Great Britain; but I hope that this Act will 
not, in any shape, require a military force to put it in 
execution : the rest of the Colonies will not take fire at the 
proper punishment inflicted on those who have disobeyed 
your authority ; we shall then be nearly in a situation, that 
all lenient measures will be at an end if they do; but if 
we exert ourselves now with firmness and intrepidity, it is 
the more likely they will submit to our authority. If the 



43 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



44 



consequences of their not obeying this Act are likely to 
produce rebellion, those conse(juences belong to tliem, and 
not to us : it is not what we have brought on, but what 
they alone have ocrasioned ; we are only answerable that 
our measures are just and equitable, l^et us continue to 
proceed with firmness, justice, and resolution : which, if 
pursued, will certainly produce that due obedience and 
respect to the laws of this country, and the security of the 
trade of its People, \vhich I so ardently wish for. 

Mr. Oascoi^HC said he diiiered nuich from the proposi- 
tion made by Mr. Fuller, as an amendment to the Bill. 
Will gentlemen consider w]i;;t sort of Acts of Assembly tiie 
Bosionians have lately passed ? They have sent over one 
law, to be appro\ed of by his Majesty, for the raising and 
purchasing twelve pieces of brass caimon ; these, he sasd, 
were to be produced against the present proposition of 
amendment. Do these proceedings look with a peaceable 
eye to the proposition of his honorable friend ? It is not, says 
he, the acts of tarring and feathering only that shew their 
displeasure to persons who have oftended them ; tliey have 
other modes of punishment, which they make use of by 
way of argument and reason; the house of any pereon with 
whom they are displeased, they immediately daub over with 
excrement and tar, by wliich means the wjiole family is 
obliged to quit it. These People, he was afraid, would 
hardly ever be brought to reason ; for the moment a person 
otfered to argue, the reply was, either tarring, feathering, 
or daubing the house. The Bill before tiiem now, he ap- 
prehended, would brinj!; these tarring and feathering casuists 
to a little better reason ; nor did he imagine that a military 
force would be in the least necessary : as their meetings 
were chiefly made up of merchants, the prescribing limita- 
tions to their trade would be the only way to bring such 
merchants to their senses. 

Mr. Montague (second son of Ix)rd Sandwich) rose for 
the first time in the House. He said, that it was usual to 
begin by making some sort of apology to the House as a 
virgin orator; that he should, for tiie present, wave that 
custom, but should venture what little he had to say with 
as much propriety and decency as he was able. He said, 
he was the youngest member in the House, and therefore, 
might more properly lay his thoughts before the House, in 
order that they might hereafter be corrected by men more 
able, and of greater experience ; and that he miuht at last 
be induced to give his vote at least rectified with some 
sanction of autiiority. He expatiated much on the load of 
debt which this country had incurred on obtaining America 
in Germany : that we had spilt the dearest and best blood 
we had in the attainment of it ; that it had been the result 
and deliberation of our Councils to obtain tlie possession of 
it by any means, and at any risk whatsoever ; that it had 
been the darling object of this country, ever since we pos- 
sessed it, to cherisli and nourish it as the main prop and 
support of the constitutional body of Great Britain ; that 
after all these struggles for the possession of such a jewel in 
the crown of this country, it would be madness, it would 
be folly indeed to the last extremity, were we not to pursue 
the most determined conduct to preserve it; the giving up 
that gem which we have so carefully and so diligently po- 
lished, or neglecting to enforce that due obedience, and cul- 
tivate the friendship, would be as it were an actual surren- 
der of all our right and claim. He spoke much upon the 
indulgence that had been shewn to the Colonies by the 
mother country, and observed, that we had re*-,eived nothing 
in return but contempt of Government. Was this filial 
friendship ? Was tliis that debt of gratitude which was 
owing to this country? Or was this that bond of mutual 
connection which ought to have subsisted between the 
mother country and its Colonies? He said, he looked 
upon the unity of legislation to be as essential to the body 
politic, as the Deity was to religion; that the disorders 
abroad had entirely been owinij to our weak Coiuicils at 
home, and condemned much the tame, unmanly proceed- 
ings of Government towards the Avuricaiis. Those acta 
of the Americans call now loudly for that power and diat 
interposition wliich has been so long, and with so much 
danirer to this country withheld. I>etus now proceed, and 
consider wjiat it is most prudent to do in the present situa- 
tion of things, rebus sic stantibus. Let us consider whether 
the Bill before us w ill not l)c the most proper method that 
nan be adopted. The Bill, he said, would ojicrate as a res- 



torative and palliative; but if the amendment was adopted, 
which was proposed by the honorable member, it would 
indeed produce a punishment, the sting of which Great 
Britain would in some n)easure feel. He expatiated also 
upon gentlemen in that House, who had been clamorous 
against the measures of Government, with a view to make 
diemselves jKipular: he termed diem a faction, whose very 
existence had arose merely as it were from the vilest ex- 
crement of the eartli. He begged pardon for having de- 
tained the House so long ; as they had been so kind and 
indulgent to him in the attention which they shewed, he 
would conclude with giving his hearty approbation to the 
Bill, as it bore on its face those distinguisiiing lines which 
ought to be tiie true characteristic of every British Minister, 
moderation and courage. 

Mr. Byng. i rise. Sir, to speak my mind upon tliis 
Bill. Whatever principles I have hitherto adopted, be 
tiiey right, or be tliey wrong, I have always adhered to ; 
and as I live with such opinions, I hope I shall die in them. 
Men's characters are known after their death, and to have 
steadily adopted one uniform set of principles, from which I 
have not deviated, I hope will not be deemed factious. 
This Bill will prevent all importation of goods to Boston, 
and thereby create that association in the Americans which 
you have so much wished to annihilate. You are not 
punishing tl;e Bostonians ; you are punishing the English 
merchants. Tliey. Sir, would petition this House ; but 
they might petition it in vain. I am against both tlie 
amendment and the Bill itself; I therefore propose, that 
after the words, " not to import goods," the words "except 
of jBrt/ijj/i merchants," be inserted. 

Mr. Stanley said, that the place where trade and mer- 
chandise could not be landed in safety was not a port ; it 
was therefore proper that some other port should be found 
out where the subjects of this country might land their 
merchandise in safety. 1 think, said he, the Bill which is 
now before you, as far as it can convey punishment will be 
unavoidable ; something must be done ; an immediate reme- 
dy must be had, and I think, none can be adopted so free 
from objection as the Bill before you. 

Mr. Dempster said, that he knew of no Act to which he 
gave his hearty consent in a more willing manner than to 
that which was for the repeal of the Stamp Act ; he said, 
our disorders had arisen from our attempts to tax the 
Americans by that odious Act ; he was very sure the de- 
struction o{ America uould be certain if we should ofTer to 
tax it. Have we not, said he, given an extent of power to 
his Majesty , to prevent the port of Boston from ever being 
reinstated if tlie King should tliink proper ? What limit or 
line is drawn to define when it will be proper, right, and 
just, that the port of Boston should be reinstated ? He said, 
the dignity of Parliament was by no means concerned in the 
disputes with our Colonies ; and that we should treat them 
as our children, nourish and protect them. 

Lord North rose to explain. When he mentioned the 
threats of Boston were not to be depended upon at the re- 
peal of the Stamp Act, he said, he did not mean to rip up 
wantonly the mention of the repealing the Stamp Act ; 
that he begged to be understood in that light, only to siiew, 
that the threats o( Boston, at that time, in not paying their 
debts, unless the Stamp Act was repealed, were not always 
to be depended upon. 

Mr. Ward said, he was surprised to hear that we were 
not now to tax America ; that he was equally surprised not 
to find that unanimity which he expected upon the present 
Bill ; that he himself was much against the repeal of the 
Stamp Act ; that he had presented four petitions from his 
Constituents in favour of the repeal, but, that he. at the 
same time, told them he must be against them. He ap- 
proved, he said, of this Bill, because there was no other re- 
source left ; that we were drove to the wall. He disap- 
proved, he said, of the amendment. 

Mr. Jenldnson. I think Great Britain right ; I com- 
mend much the measure of the Stamp Act, and, as the 
honorable gentleman, (Mr. Grenville,) who was the au- 
thor of that Act, has been much praised and commended 
for another Bill, (^le Election Bill,) I beg leave to throw 
in my hearty approbation of my honorable friend for the 
Stamp Act. VVhat, said he, is to become of all your trade, 
if the proceedings of the Bostonians are to become a prece- 
dent to the rest of the Colonies ; we have gone into a very 



m 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



46 



expensive war for tlie attainment of -4menea ; the struggle 
we shall now have to keep it, will be but of little expense. 
General Conway observed, that the right honorable 
gentleman who spoke last, had spoken with some degree 
of wannth, which the present debate, lie apprehended, did 
not at all call for. 1 will just say one very short word, he 
said, in favour of the Bill. I am particularly happy in the 
mode of punisiimentthat is adopted in it, but I disclaim any 
thing in the debate that tends to call up old sores, or create 
anger. I was much for the repeal of the Stamp Act, and 
am not ashamed to own it ; nor do 1 think that that measure 
was the reason of these disorders. 

Mr. R. Fuller said, we all agree, that the Bostonians 
ought to be punished, but we difier in the mode of it. He 
did not insist any farther. 

The debate ended, and the blanks were filled up in the 
Bill. It was then read. 

On the question u]3on the clause, which vests the power 
in the Crown to restore the port, 

Mr. Charles Fox said, he should give it his negative, as 
it was ti-usting the Crown with that power which Parlia- 
ment were afraid to trust themselves with ; and if he did not 
succeed in his negative to tiiis clause, he should object to 
the clause following, which seemed to militate against the 
measure adopted in this, as a restraint was then laid upon 
the Crown until the East India Company were made satis- 
faction. This Bill, he said, was calculated for three purpo- 
ses ; the first for securing the trade, the second for punish- 
ing the Bostonians, and the third for satisfaction to the East 
India Company. He said, the first clause did not give a 
true and exact distinction by what means, and at what 
period, the Crown was to exercise that power vested in it ; 
lie thought that application for relief should come to Par- 
liament only, and that the power of such relief should not 
be lodged in the Crown. The quarrel, he said, was with 
Parliament, and Parliament was the proper power to end it; 
not that, said he, (in a kind of sneer) there is any reason to 
distrust his Majesty's Ministers, that they will not restore 
the port when it shall be proper ; but I want to hear the 
reason why this clause should be so left in the judgment of 
the Crown, and the next clause should be so particularly 
granted, with such a guard upon his Majesty, to prevent 
him from restoring the port until the East India Company 
shall be fully satisfied. 

Captain Fhip])s said, that nothing surely was so proper 
as to allow the Crown that power which always had been 
attributed to it, that of mercy ; his Majesty cannot deprive 
the People of a port without the leave of Parliament, but 
he may certainly give one ; as to the power being lodged 
in the Crown, of restoring the port upon proper contrition, 
it is highly proper, and not in Parliament, for Parliament 
may not be sitting at the time when the trade of Boston 
ought to be restored ; that power wliicli has a right to give 
a port, has also a power of appointing quays and wharfs ; if 
the power was not lodged in the Crown, quays and wiiarfs 
might be made at places totally inconvenient to the custom- 
house officers, and thereby prevent the collection of his Ma- 
jesty's revenue. 

Lord North. The test of the Bostonians will not be the 
indemnification of the East India Company alone, it will 
remain in the breast of the King, not to restore the port 
until peace and obedience shall be observed in the port of 
Boston. I am ready to admit a clause to secure those 
wharfs and quays which are now in use, to be the same 
when the port shall be restored. He observed, he had 
been charged witli changing his opinion ; that the declara- 
tion which he had made tended chiefly to the punishment of 
the Bostonians, and that the Bill particularly adhered to the 
views of making the India Company satisfaction. He be- 
lieved tlie House would do him the justice to say, that he 
had declared botli those measures to be his intention at the 
first setting out of the business, as well as to restore tlie trade 
to a proper footing ; that he hoped he had never deviated 
Crom them, notwithstanding what the honorable gentleman, 
(Mr. Fox) had charged him with ; that he should never be 
a.shamed, at any time, to give up his opinion upon good 
grounds ; it would be the height of obstinacy not to do it, 
when he saw any good reasons to guide his opinion to better 
judgment. 

Mr. Van said, he agreed to the flagitiousness of the of- 
fence in the Americans, and therefore was of opinion, that 



the town of Boston ought to be knocked about their ears, 
and destroyed. Delenda est Carthago : said he, 1 am of 
opinion you will never meet with that proper obedience to 
the laws of this country, until you have destroyed that nest 
of locusts. 

Colonel Barre said, he had very little tiioughts of 
troubling the Committee upon this clause, but for an expres- 
sion which fell from an honorable gentleman under the gal- 
lery, delenda est Carthago. I should not have risen, said 
he, had it not been for those words. The Bill before you is 
the first vengeful step that you have taken. We ouo'lit to 
go coolly to this business, and not trouble our heads with 
who passed, or who repealed the Stamp Act, or other taxes. 
We are to proceed rcbiis sic stantibus. Tlie proposition 
made ye I tliought a moderate one, though I must confess I 
hate the word fine ; it is a tax, and as long as I sit here 
among you, 1 will oppose the taxing of America. This 
Bill, I am afraid, draws in the fatal doctrine of submitting 
to taxation ; it is also a doubt by this Bill, whether the port 
is to be restored to its full extent. Keep your hands out of 
the pockets of the Americans, and they will be obedient 
subjects. I have not a doubt, but a very small part of our 
strength will, at any time, overpower them. I think this 
Bill a moderate one ; but 1 augur that the next proposition 
will be a black one. You have not a loom nor an anvil but 
what is stamped with America ; it is the main prop of your 
trade. Parliament may fancy that they have rights in theo- 
ry, which I will answer for, they can never reduce to prac- 
tice. America employs all your workmen here : nourish 
and protect it, that they may be supported. 

The clause objected to by Mr. Charles Fox, passed in 
the Affirmative without any division, but one or .two nega- 
tives being given against it. 

The Committee then rose. 

Sir Charles Whitworth reported from the Committee, 
that they had gone through the Bill, and made several 
amendments thereunto. 

The amendments were agreed to by the House ; and 
several amendments were made by the House to the Bill. 

Ordered, That the Bill with the amendments be en- 
grossed. 

Ordered, That the said Bill be read the third time, to- 
morrow morning, if the said Bill shall be then engrossed. 

Thursday, March 24, 1774. 

Ordered, That the said Bill be read the third time, to- 
morrow at twelve of the clock. 

Friday, March 25, 1774. 

Mr. Crosbie offered to present a Petition of William 
Bollan, Esq., (styling himself agent) for and in behalf of the 
Council of tlie Province of Massachusetts Bay, and likewise 
of himself and the other inhabitants of the town of Boston. 

And a motion being made, that the said Petition be 
brought up ; it produced a short, but wann debate.* 

And the question being put, the House divided; yeas 40, 
nays 170. 

So it passed in the Negative. 

A Petition of several Natives of North America, was 
presented to the House, and read; setting forth, 

* In the progress of the Bill, opposition seemed to collect itself, 
and to take a more active part. Mr. Bollan, the agent of the Council 
of Massachusetts Bay, presented a Petition, desiring to be heard for the 
siiid Council, and in behalf of himself and other inhabitants in the 
town of Boston. The House refused to receive the Petition. It was 
said tliat the agent of the Council was not agent for the Corporation, 
and no agent would bo received, from a body corporate, except he were 
appointed by all the necessary constituent parts of that body — besides, 
the Council was fluctuating, and the body by which ho was appointed 
could not be then actually existing. 

This vote of rejection was heavily censured. The opposition cried 
out at the inconsistency of the House, who but a few days ago received 
a Petition from this very man in this very character; and now, only 
because they choose to exert their power in acts of injustice and con. 
tradiction, totally refuse to receive any tiling from him, as not duly 
qualified. Were not the reasons equally strong against receiving the 
first as the second Petition? But what, they asserted, made this con. 
duct the more unnecessary and outrageous, was, that at that time the 
House of I^rds were actually hearing Mr. Bollan on his Petition, as a 
person duly qualified, at their bar. Thus said they, this House is at 
once in contradiction to the other and to itself As to the reasons 
given against his qualification, they are equally applicable to all 
American agents; none of whom are appointed as the Minister now 
required they should be-and thus the House cuts oft all commumca. 
tion between them and the Colonies, whom they are affecting by their 
acts. — Ann. Kegis. 



47 



BOSTON PORT BILL, 



48 



That the Petitioners, being natives of his Majesty's Do- 
minions in America, and deeply interested in every pro- 
ceeding of the House, which touches the Hfe, hberty, or 
property, of any person or persons in tlie said Dominions ; 
and that the Petitioners conceive themselves and their fel- 
low subjects entitled to tiie rights of natural justice, and to 
the common law of England, as their unalienable birtliright; 
that they apprehend it to be an inviolable rule of natural 
justice, that no man shall be condemned unheard ; and that 
according to hnv, no person or persons can be judged 
without being called upon to answer, iind being permitted to 
hear the evidence against tiiem, and to make their defence; 
and that it is therefore witii the deepest sorrow they under- 
stand that the House is now about to pass a Bill, to punish 
with unexampled rigour, the town of Boston, for a trespass 
(MJimnitted by some persons unknown, uj)on tlie properly of 
the East India Company, without tiie said town being ap- 
prized of any accusation brought against them, or having 
i)een permitted to hear the evidence, or to make their de- 
fence ; and that the Petitioners conceive such proceedings 
to be directly repugnant to every princi|)al of law and justice ; 
and that, under such a precedent, no men, or body of men 
in America, could enjoy a moment's security ; for if judg- 
ment be immediately to follow an accusation against the 
People of America, supported even by persons notoriously 
at enmity with them, the accused, unacquainted with the 
charge, and, from the nature of their situation, utterly inca- 
pable of answering and defending themselves, every fence 
against false accusation will be pulled down ; justice will no 
longer be theii" shield, nor innocence an exemption from 
punishment ; and representing to the House, that the law in 
America ministers redress for any injuries sustained there ; 
and they can most truly affirm, that it is administered in that 
country with as much impartiality as in any other part of 
his Majesty's Dominions ; in proof of this, they appeal to 
an instance of great notoriety, in which, under every cir- 
cumstance that could exasperate the People, and disturb the 
course of justice. Captain Preston and his soldiers had a 
fair trial, and favourable verdict. While the due course of 
law holds out redress for any injury sustained in America, 
they apprehend the interposition of Parliamentary power to 
be full of danger, and without any precedent. If the persons 
who conmiitted this trespass are known, then the East 
India Company have their remedy against them at law ; if 
they are unknown, tlie Petitioners conceive that there is not 
an instance, even in the most arbitrary times, in which a 
city was punished by Parliamentary authority, without being 
heard, for a civil offence not committed in their jurisdic- 
tion, and without redress having been sougin at common 
law. The cases which they have heard adduced, are direct- 
ly against it. That of the King against tlie city of London, 
was for a murder committed within its walls, by its citizens, 
in open day ; but even then, arbitrary as the times were, the 
trial was public, in a court of common law; the party 
heard, and the law laid down by the Judges was, that it was 
an offence at the common law to suffer such a crime to be , 
committed in a walled town, tempore diumo, and none of 
the offenders to be known or indicted. The case of Edin- 
Imrgh, in which Parliament did interpose, was the commis- 
sion of an atrocious murder within her gates, and at^orava- 
ted by an overt act of high treason, in executing, aganist the 
express will of the Crown, the King's laws. It is observa- 
ble, that these cities had, by charter, the whole executive 
power within themselves ; so that a failure of justice ne- 
cessarily ensued from the connivance in both cases ; howe- 
ver, full time was allowed tliem to discharge their duty, and 
they were heard in their defence. But'neither has time 
been allowed in tliis case ; nor is the accused heard ; nor 
is Boston a walled town, nor was the act committed witiiin 
it; nor the Executive power in their hands, as it is in those 
o{ London and Edin'mrgh; on the contrary, the Governor 
himself holds that power, and has been advised by his 
Majesty's Council to can-y it into execution ; if it has been 
neglected, he alone is answerable : if it has been executed, 
perhaps at this instant, while punishment is inflicting here 
on those who have not been legally tried, the due course of 
law is operating there, to the disr-overy and prosecution of 
the real offenders; and the Petitioners tliink themselves 
bound to declare to the House, that they a])prchend a pro- 
ceeding of executive rigour and injustice will sink dixjp in 
the minds of their countrymen, and tend to alienate their 



affections from this country ; and that the attachment of 
America cannot survive the justice of Great Britain ; and 
that, if they see a different mode of trial established for 
them, and for the People of this country, a mode which 
violates the sacred principles of natural justice, it must be 
productive of national distrust, and extinguish those filial 
feelings of respect and aftcction which have hitherto attach- 
ed them to the Parent State. Urged therefore by every 
motive of all'ection to both countries, by the most earnest 
desire, not only to preserve their own rights and those of 
their countrymen, but to prevent the dissolution of that 
love, harmony, and confidence between the two countries, 
which were their mutual blessing and support, beseech the 
House not to pass the Bill. 

Ordered, That the said Petition do lie upon the table. 
Tiie order of the day being read, the Bill was accor- 
dingly read the third time. 

Mr. Charles Fox, then proposed as an amendment to 
the Bill, to leave out the following clause : — 

" And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid. 
" That whenever it shall be made to appear to his Majesty 
" in his Privy Council, that peace and obedience to the laws 
" shall be so far restored in the said town of Boston, that 
" the trade of Great Britain may safely be caiTied on 
'• there, and his Majesty's customs duly collected, and his 
" Majesty in his Privy Council shall adjudge the same to 
" be true, it shall and may be lawful for his Majesty, by 
" proclamation or order of Council, to assign and appoint 
" the extent, bounds and limits, of the port or harbour of 
" Boston, and of every creek or haven within the same, or 
" in the islands within the precincts thereof; and also to 
" assign and appoint such and so many open places, quays, 
" and wharfs, within the said harbour, creeks, havens, and 
" islands, for the landing, discharging, lading and shipping, 
" of goods, as his Majesty, his heirs, or successors, shall 
"judge necessary and expedient; and also to appoint such 
'• and so many officers of the customs therein, as his 
" Majesty shall think fit ; after which it shall be lawful for 
" any person or persons to lade or put off from, or discharge 
" and land upon, such wharfs, quays and places, so appoin- 
" ed within the said harbour, and none other, any goods, 
" wares, and merchandise, whatever. Provided always, 
" That if any goods, wares, or merchandise, shall be laden 
" or put off from, or discharged or landed upon, any other 
" place than the quays, wharfs, or places, so to be appoint- 
" ed, the same, together with the ships, boats and other ves- 
" sels, employed therein, and the horses or otlier cattle, 
" and carriages, used to convey the same, and the person or 
" persons concerned or assisting therein, or to whose hands 
" the same shall knowingly come, shall suffer all the foifei- 
" tures and penalties imposed by this or any other Act, on 
" the illegal shipping or landing of goods." 

And the question being put, that the said clause stand 
part of the Bill ? 

It was resolved in the Affirmative. 
Mr, Fox objected to another clause : he had objected to 
these two clauses in the Committee. He said, he now- 
made his objections, in order that it might appear on th(> 
Journals that somebody did object to them. He then 
moved as a further amendment to the Bill, to leave out the 
following clause : — 

" Provided, also, And it is hereby declared, and enacted, 
'• that notliing herein contained shall extend, or be con- 
" stnied, to enable his Majesty to appoint such port, 
" harbour, creeks, quays, wharfs, places, or officei-s, in the 
" said town o{ Boston, or in the said bay, or islands, until it 
" shall sufficiently appear to his Majesty, tiiat full satisfac- 
" tion hath been made by or on behalf of the said town of 
" Boston, to the United Company of the East Indies, for 
" the damage sustained by tiie said Company, by the 
" destruction of their goods sent to the said town of Bos- 
" t:m, on board certain ships or vessels as aforesaid, and 
•' until it shall be certified to his Majesty in Council, by 
" the Governor or Lieutenant Governor of the said Pro- 
" vince, that reasonable satisfaction hath been made to the 
" officers of his Majesty's revenue, and others, who suffered 
" by the riols and insurrections above mentioned, in the 
" month of November." 

And the question being put, that those words stand part 
of tiie Bill ? 

It was resolved in the Affirmative. 



49 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



bt} 



On the question, that this Bill do Pass : 

Mr. Dowdeswell said, he rose to give his dissent to pass- 
ing the same into a law; tliat he had not the least degree 
of timidity in rising to oppose it ; that he always thought 
the proposition totally unjust and unfair. By the Bill, a 
person is to understand, that the commerce of all his Ma- 
jesty's subjects is interrupted ; and, said he, I cannot give 
my assent to it, until I hear the complaints from the differ- 
ent manufactures of iron, leather, wool, Stc, and the mer- 
chants of this country, which complaints, 1 imagine, the 
liurry of passing this Bill totally prevents. It is not, says 
he, that any other goods are interrupted in the port of 
Boston, but those which are charged with a duty from 
hence. Look to the consequences of this Bill ; you are 
contending for a matter whicii the Bostonians will not give 
up qfiietly. I remember, said he, when it was held a 
doctrine in this House, by persons of great and extensive 
knowledge, that wc had no right to tax America, There 
is now no such opinion ; the question was then, " Whether 
" with the profits which we receive from all our manufac- 
■'■' tures exported hence, it would be a wise measure to tax 
■" America V What is the reason, said he, that you single 
out Boston for your particular resentment ? Have there 
been no other towns in America which have disobeyed 
your orders ? Has not Fhiladclj)hia, New York, and 
several other Provinces, sent back their tea ? Has not the 
East India Company suffered nearly as much damage from 
the tea being sent back, as indeed where they have landed 
it ? Charlestown is the only place where they have suf- 
fered the tea to be landed ; and what have they done ? 
They have put it into a damp cellar, and the whole has 
become rotten and useless. You find yourselves mtich at 
a loss about this Bill, and are hurt, because the innocent 
are likely to be involved in the same punishment with the 
guilty. You are now going to censure them, in the same 
manner as was done in the case of Edinburgh, and Glasgow, 
where the l*eople at large were to suffer for the neglect of 
their Magistrates. There is a great difference between the 
Magistrates of Edinburgh, and those of Boston ; those at 
Edinburgh are chosen by the People ; those at Boston are 
not ; they are appointed by the Council, and the Council 
are elected by the Province at large. You are going to 
appoint a new port, where there are neither sufficient 
wharfs, quays, or ware-houses for carrying on business. 
You hereby punish the British merchants much more- 
severely than the People of Boston. The folly and child- 
ishness of carrying on such a project is certainly very evi- 
dent. All that you have effected, is to carry your mer- 
chandise seventeen miles further from the town of Boston, 
so that the Bostonians shall be obliged to be at an addition- 
al expense in conveying their merchandise from the port 
of Salem by land. You ask why the Americans do not 
pay their debts? If you stop the exports, you will of 
course stop the payment of those debts. Now, Sir, let us 
consider how this Bill is founded upon principles of justice ; 
if Parliament continually passes Bills, sometimes to punish 
the person, at other times the places, you will, by and by, 
have your hands fully employed ; you will soon inflame all 
America, and stir up a contention you will not be able to 
pacify. The passing this Bill in a week or so, does not 
give time to the injured persons in America to petition this 
House for redress. I rejoice, that you have at least had 
one petition from the natives of America residing in this 
country : the language of that petition bears the face of a 
well written, unanswerable argument ; it is no common pe- 
tition: it is the strong and pathetic language that tells their 
own feelings, and those of their fellow subjects in America. 
I wish to hear some arguments offered against what is con- 
tained in it, for it will be said, both here and in America, 
that such reasons and arguments deserve an answer. 

Mr. Wdbore Ellis said, he did not rise to answer the 
honorable gentleman to the first part of what he ad- 
vanced, being arguments which had, in a fornner debate, 
been urged and sufficiently replied to. He said this beha- 
viour of the Americans was the most direct opposition to 
the laws of this country that could possibly be conceived. 
If this country, said he, has not a right to pass a tax on 
Am.erica. they have no right to pass any law whatsoever 
relative to it. The present Bill confirms no tax ; it enacts 
none; it imposes none ; the tax upon tea was introduced to 
prevent tea being smuggled into that country. The hon- 
FouRTii Series. 4 



orable gentleman (Mr. Dowdawell) has said, this Bill 
was unjust and unwise. I differ much from him, and think 
it both just and wise. This Bill makes it expedient for 
them to do their duty, and puts the Bostonians upon the 
inquiry to find out who were the parties that committed 
this riot; the persons or magistrates in the town, not in- 
quiring into the proceedings, are much to blame, and I can- 
not think this Bill in the least unwise. Can it, Sir, be un- 
wise, unless it is unwise to maintain the authority of this 
country, and to punish those who have been the a<)-"-ressors 
against its laws? The honorable gentleman, he said, had 
mentioned that others were guilty, and why were they not 
punished ? There is, said he, a different degree of crime 
in each of them, and some are more to blame than others. 
It is treason in the Bostonians, and can only be deemed a 
high crime and misdemeanor in the others ; but, in my 
mind, it appears to be wise, first to single out Bostonas the 
principal ringleader of the whole disturbance, and begin this 
punishment there, in order to see what effect the proceed- 
ings will have ; 1 therefore think this Bill wise, prudent, 
and just. 

Mr. Edmund Burke. I trouble you. Sir, in the last 
stage of this Bill, because I would not appear petulant 
when my objections nm to the whole of it. I never knew 
any thing that has given me a more heart-felt sorrow than 
the present measure. This Bill is attempted to be hasten- 
ed through the House in such a manner, that I can by no 
means assent to it ; it is to be carried bj' force and threats 
into execution ; and you have even refused to hear Mr. 
BoUan, the agent, declaring him to be no agent for Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, or not properly authorized by them to pre- 
sent such petition ; you have not now one left in Englaiul 
to be heard in behalf of any of the Colonies ; the only ob- 
struction that this Bill has had, has been owing to its own 
vis inertia ; but persons who oppose this Bill, are immedi- 
ately put to the same kind of punishment in the public 
Papers which offenders in America are. Ix)ok, Sir, into the 
public Papers, you will see Cinna, and a thousand other 
Boman names, throwing out their invectives, and tarring 
and feathering all those who dare oppose the Bill. I sup- 
pose 1 shall reap my share for this opposition : but, Sir, at 
all events, I will enter my protest against this Bill, and will 
mount my little palfrey, and speak of the injustice which 
the Bill contains with the greatest confidence. The griev- 
ance which is stated in the Papers before you on the table 
appears to be an universal resistance from all America 
against any goods or merchandise that shall be loaded with 
taxes. — He desired that that part of General Haldiman's 
letter, declaring the resolution of the Americans not to sub- 
mit to receive goods with duty upon them, might be read ; 
he read the extract he had made in his place ; he said, the 
whole meeting in the town of Boston consisted of six or 
seven hundred men of the first rank and opulent fortune in 
the place ; that the proceedings were conducted with the 
utmost decency. He said, this was not a meeting of mean 
persons, but that the acts of resistance were all counte- 
nanced by universal consent. Observe, said he, that the 
disturbances arc general ; shew me one port in all America 
where the goods have been landed and vended ; the dis- 
temper is general, but the punishment is local, by way of 
exchange. Whether it will be effectual or not, I do not 
know; but, Sir, let me paint to this House the impropriety 
of a measure like this ; it is a remedy of the most uncertain 
operation ; view but the consequence, and you will repent 
the measure ; give orders at once to your Admirals to burn 
and destroy the town ; that will be both effectual, proper, 
and moderate, and of a piece with the rest of your pro- 
ceedings, cventus tristis. One town in proscription, the rest 
in rebellion, can never be a remedial measure for general 
disturbances. Have you considered whether you have 
troops and ships sufficient to enforce an universal proscrip- 
tion to the trade of the whole Continent of America 1 If 
you have not, the attempt is childish, and the operation 
fruitless. Only, Sir, see the consequence of blocking up 
one port; for instance, that of Virginia Bay; which, if 
you do, you will destroy the tobacco trade, and thereby 
bring, as it were, a certain ruin on your own merchants at 
Glasgotv and Elinburgh. This Bill has been thought a 
vigorous, but not a rigorous punishment. It is my opinion 
that you might even punish the individuals who committed 
the violence, without involving the innocent : I should ap- 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



52 



prove inucli of ilr.ii; but, Sir, to f.ike away the trade from 
the town of Boston, is surely a severe punislinient. Would 
it not be a risoroiis measure to take a\vay the trade of the 
Thames, for instance, and dirert the merrhandiseto be land- 
ed at (fravescnd! 1 call this Bill most unjust, for is il 
not fundamentally unjust to prevent tlie parties who iiave 
offended from hein;; heard in their defence ? Justice, Sir, 
is not to be measured by geographical lines nor distances. 
Every man, Sir. is authorized to be a magistrate, to put a 
stop to disturbances which he perceives to be conunitted 
against his Majesty's peace ; but did you expect that the 
People wiio were not present at sucii disturbances, would 
be equally punished for not aiding and assisting in putting 
an end to those riots which they never saw or heard of? 
This, Sir, is surely the doctrine of devils, to require men to 
be ))resent in every part of America wherever a riot hap- 
l>ens: but this Bill involves those who have never in the 
least been guilty ; and then you again say, tiiat the distur- 
bances whicii did happen ought to liave been iuniiediately 
put a stop to by the People o( Boston, and that they were 
bound to preserve the good order of tiie town ; but. Sir, I 
have too mucii reverence for the image of God to conceive 
that the honorable gentleman (Mr. WcJborc Ellis) does 
reallv and trulv imbibe such a doctrine. He then read part 
of Colonel Lsslie's letter. No. 45, wiierein the Colonel 
said, that neither the Governor, nor the Council, nor any 
of the custom-house olHcers, have ever yet applied to nie 
for any assistance ; if they had,l could most certainly have 
put a stop to all their riot and violences, but not without 
some bloodshed, and firing upon their town, and killing 
many innocent People. VVhy, Sir. did not the Governor 
at once send for this assistance? Was it contrary to, or do 
you think he would have broke dirough his instructions, if 
iie had endeavoured, by such ways and means, to ))reserve 
the public peace, and prevent violences from being com- 
mitted ? The fault of this Governor ought not to be the 
means of punishinent for the innocent. You have found 
that there was no Government there. Why did not the 
(iovernor exercise his authority ? Why did not the ships 
execute their duty ? What was the reason they did not 
act ? Why is not Mr. Hancock, and the chief People, who 
are known, punished, and not the innocent involved with 
the guilty in one universal calamity ? You, surely. Sir, 
cannot have power to take away tiie trade of a port, and 
■<all it privilege ! Why was not your force that was pre- 
sent applied to quell the disturbances ? How came they to 
be so feeble and inactive? How are you sure that the or- 
ders and frigates which you now send will act better ? I 
cannot think this, by any means, a pmdent measure, in 
blocking up one port after another ; the consequence will 
be dreadfid, and I am afraid destructive ; you will draw a 
foreign force upon you, perhaps, at a time when you little 
expect it ; I will not say where th:it will end ; I will be 
silent upon that head, and go no further ; but think, I con- 
jure you, of the consequence. Again, Sir, in one of the 
clauses of the Bill you proscribe the property of the People 
to be governed and measured by the will of the Crown. 
This is a ruinous and dangerous principle to adopt. There 
Ls an universal discontent throughout all Amerirn, from an 
Internal bad Government. There are but two ways to 
govern America ; either to make it subservient to all yoitr 
laws, or to let it govern itself by its own internal policy. I 
abhor the measure of taxation where it is only for a quarrel, 
and not for a revenue; a measure tiiat is teazing and irrita- 
ting without any good effect ; but a revision of this ques- 
tion will one day or other come, wherein 1 iiope to give my 
opinion. But this is the day, then, that you wish to go to 
war with all America, in order to conciliate that country to 
tliis ; and to say that America shall be ot)edient to all the 
laws of this country. 1 wish to see a new regulation and 
plan of a new legislation in that country, not founded upon 
your laws and statutes here, but grounded upon the vital 
principles of Eniclish lilierty. 

Mr. Grei/ Cooper said, he could not agree in the 
doctrines laid down by the honorable gentleman who spoke 
last, that the Bill was unjust or unwise ; it was. in his 
opinion, a temperate and pmdent law, to preserve the trade 
of this country, and protect the peace of America ; he was 
sorry to find that honorable gentleman in particular should 
be upbraiding (iovernment for not making use of militaiy 
force : nor should he have expected that such u proposition 



woidd have come from him. It has been said that the 
Ameiicans cannot be heard in tiieir ow n defence before this 
measure takes etl'ect. Look at the papers on the table, 
where you see the resolutions of their public meetings or- 
flered to be sent over here, that we might be acquainted 
witii them. After such a defiance, can it be expected, 
that thev would come over here to be heard, and say any 
thing at your bar but what they had already told you, and 
sent to you expressly in the |)apers on your table, where 
they refuse a direct obedience to all your laws ? It is asked 
ai;ain, Sir, whether the individuals are not to be punished 
when they are found out? I appreliend. Sir, that this 
measure by no means excuses the guilty persons from being 
brouuiil to condign punishment. The IJlaik Act of this 
country is a similar case with regard to this Bill, where the 
hundred are fined in the penalty of £200 for not suppress- 
ing the offences mentioned in that Act, such as cutting 
down trees, breaking hanks, and other misdemeanors. The 
whole hundred, in this case, are not present at the commis- 
sion of the crime, yet they are ]ninished for it ; nor docs 
that fine excuse the criminal from beins: particularly punish- 
ed, where the aggressor can be found out. The Bill before 
you is a law for the protection of trade ; it is a mild measure, 
if they obey it; if they oppose it. the result of it will onlv 
make the punishinent. The resolves at Boston I consider 
as direct issue against the Declaratory Act ; they clearly 
proved a determined resolution in the Americans to oppose 
every law of this country ; hut the Bostonians alone have 
carried into execution what otliers have only resolved. 
This Bill, Sir, I look upon to be the act of a father chastis- 
ing his son on one line, and restoring the trade and peace 
of America on the other, and therefore I highly approve of 
the measure. 

Mr. Anthony Bacon said there was not a port in New- 
England but what had suflicient ware-houses for the re- 
ception of all the merchandise of Great Britain. 

Governor Potvnall said, that he had always been of 
opinion, that internal taxes could not legally be laid, but 
that he agreed in external ones; tlrat there wanted a revi- 
sion of the general laws relating to America; he said he 
wished that the Tea Duty was repealed, but he did not 
think this the proper time or season to adopt the measure. 
There ought also to be a review of die Governments; the 
Americans have a real love for Government ; tliev love 
order and peace, [here the House laughed;] he said, I do 
aver that they love peace, for I look upon this to be the act 
of the mob, and not of the People, and wait but a little it 
w-ill regulate itself. 

The Lord Advocate said, the question had been very 
fully argued, and he should iiive his heartv affimiative to 
the Bill. 

Lord John Cavendish spoke a few words airainst the 
Bill, and said, he should give his negative to its passing in 
its jiresent foim. 

Mr. T. Townshend spoke also against the Bill, and said, 
he should be against its passing into a law. 

Mr. Sawhridge said, the offence of destroying the tea 
was done in the night time, and not tempore diurno : tliat 
this was an ex-post-facio law, and that the law of the Black 
Act, which had been mentioned, was not in force before the 
offence was committed ; that as far as that, or any other pre- 
cedent participated of this law, so far thev were most ini- 
quitous ; that it was an act of cowardice in the Minister to 
come to Parliament to ask tor that which had been allowed, 
and was in the power of the Crown to order and direct : he 
meant, he said, the removal of the custom-house officers, 
and other things mentioned in that Act, the preservation of 
the peace, and the executive authority in that country. All 
these might have been done by the Crown, without apply- 
ing to Parliament, but die Minister was timorous of pro- 
ceeding himself, and wanted to skulk behind the protection 
of the Legislature. 

Lord North said, he rose to explain himself, and was 
sorry to commit an offence to the House at that hour of the 
night, and especially as it would be to the disturbance of 
the neighbourhood, who are totally innocent, [alluding to 
the charge that had been made by Mr. Saivhridge. that the 
innocent People in the town of Boston would suffer equally 
with the offenders ;] nor am L Sir, ashamed, at any time 
to take shelter under the Legislature. The honorable 
gentleman says, the Minister might do certain things. 



1 



53 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



54 



wliich are to be enacted in that Bill, without application 
to Piii-liaiiient, such as changing tlie custom-house oilicei-s, 
ordering the peace to he preser\'ed, and a better regulation 
of internal Government to take place ; but that they could 
not block up a port, or make it illegal for the landing, la- 
ding, and shipiiing of goods in any place heretofore granted, 
without the aid of Parliament. 1 will not undertake to say 
what will he the consequence or event of this measure; I 
ain strongly of opinion it will be salutary and effective ; 
but I will say, that it was not in the power of the Minister 
to sit still and take no measure. I believe. Sir, that no 
prosecution in that country, according to its present Ibrni of 
Government, will be effectual; 1 was tiierefore nuich for 
adopting the measure pro])osed. It certainly may be right 
to direct a prosecution against those individuals who may be 
found offenders ; but can the honorable gentleman be of 
opinion, from what he has seen and read from the papers 
on the table, that ;uiy obedience will be paid to such a 
])rosecution, or that it will be in the least degree effective ? 
This measure will certainly not excuse the individual of- 
fenders, any more than the fine upon a county, between 
sun and sun, will excuse the person who committed tiie 
robbery. This is no ex-post-facto law; they committed 
the offence of destroying the tea, knowing and declaring 
at the same time, the law which they offended against. 
The Committee of Boston, Sir, gave the directions lor the 
destruction of the tea, and have declared their resolution 
of resistance to the obedience of our laws ; yet we are de- 
sired to hear them ; to hear those very persons who have 
declared to you, and to all the world, that they intended 
this violence against the law ; therefore, it is said, Sir, by 
some honorable gentlemen in this House, that we ought 
not to proceed in this measure till we have heard these very 
People, who are the great offenders, say at your bar, in 
tJieir defence, that Great Britain has no authority to tax 
them : they can make no other plea ; they can make no 
other declaration than what they have already done ; but. 
Sir, we must adopt the measure, let what will be the conse- 
quence. I hope and conclude it will he a happy one. Is 
this then the best measure in the present case ? It certainly 
is : I hear of none other preferable, or I would adopt it. 
It is to tell America, that you are in earnest. If we do not 
mean totally to give up the matter in question, we must as- 
sert our right at this time, while we can, whilst it is in our 
power. Instead of our treating America like a foreign 
enemy, America has treated us like one ; disavowing our 
authority, and declaring against all obedience to the laws of 
Great Britain. We are threatened again, by one honora- 
ble gentleman, lest a foreign enemy should, in this emer- 
gency, start up — he stopped short, and said he would say 
no more upon that head. I suppose he meant that this 
foreign enemy would lay hold of America during our con- 
test. Time of peace. Sir, is the only season for adopting 
regulations. This is the crisis, then, in which that contest 
ought to be determined. Another honorable friend of mine 
is for repealing the Tea Duty. 1 am of opinion. Sir, that re- 
pealing any measure whatever, at this moment) would stamp 
us with a degree of timidity, and would produce a totally 
different effect from what I expect this measure will do. 

Governor Johnstone, I find so much difficulty in pro- 
nouncing my sentiments at any time, that unless the House 
is kindly disposed to hear me at this late hour, I shall 
patiently sit down, because I am conscious it will require 
their greatest indulgence, to enable me to express myself 
in a manner worthy of their attention. A modesty becom- 
ing my situation prevented me from offering my opinion 
before, when I saw men of so much superior ability rising 
from the beginning of the debate. 

It may ap|)ear arrogant in a member so inferior, as I 
confess myself to be, to offer objections to a Bill so exten- 
sive in its consequences, under every consideration, espe- 
cially after it nuist have been so maturely considered, in 
every article, by men so distinguished by their talents, and 
high stations in office, besides the general applause which 
has followed the Bill in its rapid progress through this 
House : nevertheless, though naturally diffident of my 
opinion, when I had the good or bad fortune (I dont know 
which to term it) of prognosticating to the Chairman of the 
East India Company the consequences of sending this tea, 
on their own acrovmt, to America, and that the event has 
literally fidfilled my words, as it is well known to some 



members now in my eye, it makes mc more confident in 
warning the House of what I apprehend will be the con- 
sequences of this Bill. 

I told the Chairman of the East India Company, first 
in conversation, on asking my opinion, and afterwards by 
letter, that the evidence might appear in the progress of 
things ; that I conceived the East India Conqjany export- 
ing tea, on their own account, was, under every consider- 
ation of their situation, and institution, wrong, but, under 
the present discontents and disputed matters of Government 
in America, criminally absurd, because they were pre- 
senting themselves as the butt in the controversy, where 
they woidd probably come off with the loss of the whole. 
The event has justified my prediction ; for whatever repay- 
ment the Company may obtain from the town of Boston, 
under these cruel coercive measures now proposed, (the ef- 
fect of which I still doubt,) yet the Company must remain 
great losers, even if the other Provinces, equally culpable, 
are made to refund the loss arising from their conduct, 
because it was not supplies of cash, at a distant period, the 
Company wanted, hut an immediate supply, to answer a 
temporary exigency, which a combina'tion of the enemies 
of the country iiad produced. 

I now venture to predict to this House, that the effect of 
the present Bill must be productive of a General Confed- 
eracy, to resist the power of this country. It is irritating, 
tempting nay, inviting men , to those deeds by ineffectual 
expedients, the abortions of an undecisive mind, incapable 
of comprehending the chain of consequences \jhich must 
result from such a law. I am not one of those who believe 
that distant Provinces can be retained in their duty by 
preaching or enchantments ; I believe that vorce or 
POWER, conducted with wisdom, are the means of securing 
regular obedience under every establishment ; but that such 
Ibrce should never be applied to any degree of rigour, unless 
it should carry the general approbation of mankind in the 
execution. However much such approbation may prevail 
at the particular moment in this House, it is impossible to 
believe the sense of Great Britain, or the sense of Ame- 
rica, can go to the punishing a particular town, for resisting 
the payment of the Tea Tax, which is universally odious 
throughout America, and is held in ridicule and contempt 
by every thinking man in this country. The question of 
taxing America is sufficiently nice to palliate resistance, 
if the subject had never been litigated in this country ; but 
after the highest characters in this State had declared 
against the right of this country to impose taxes on Ame- 
rica, for the purpose of revenue ; after the general voice of 
the Senate had concurred in repealing the Stamp Act, 
upon that jyinciple ; after those men, who had maintained 
these doctrines, had been promoted by his Majesty to the 
fii-st stations in the administration of civil and judicial 
affairs, there is so much mitigation to be pleaded in favor 
of the Americans from those circumstances (allowing them 
in an error at present) that every man nmst feel the height 
of cruelty, by enforcing contrary maxims, with any degree 
of severity, at first, before due warning is given. 

It is in vain to say Boston is more culpable than the 
other Colonies. Sending the ships from thence, and obliging 
them to return to England, is a more solemn and deli- 
berated act of resistance than the outrage committed by 
persons in disguise in the night, when the ship refused to 
depart. That of blocking up the harbour of Boston, to pre- 
vent the importation of British manufactures, or the expor- 
tation of goods, which are to pay for them, is a mea- 
sure equally as absurd as if the Parliament here, upon 
the resistance which was made to their resolution, by the 
riots at Brentford, and other disturbances in the county 
o{ Middlesex, had decreed by way of punishment, that the 
freeholders should have been prohibited from sowing of 
wheat. For whose benefit do the inliabitants of Boston toil 
and labour ? The springs in the circle of commerce bear so 
nicely on each other, that few men can tell by interruptinn 
one, the degree and extent to which the rest may he 
exposed. By excluding the importation of molasses, and 
the exportation of that spirit which is distilled at Boston, 
the whole Guinea trade will be affected, and in conse- 
quence, the sugar trade, that depends upon it. In extending 
this kind of punisliment to the other Colonies, every one 
must see the danger ; and yet, if it can be approved for one, 
the same arguments will hold good to approve or reject it 



JOT 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



56 



respecting tlie other ; but let any man fisure to himself the 
consequences to this country, if a similar punishment was 
applied to the Colony of Virginia ; £300.000 a year dimi- 
nution in revenue, besides the loss of all the foreiiin contracts, 
and perliaps of that beneticial trade forever. Notwithstand- 
ing the general approbation which has been given to this 
Bill, ancrthe loud a])plauses which have been re-tfchoed to 
every word of the noble lyord in explaining it, yet no man 
will be bold enough to say, thai this partial pimisinnent is a 
remcdv for the general disease. And yet without knowing 
what is to follow, no man can be vindicated (oven supposing 
the Bill right in |)art) for giving his assent to it. Those 
gentlemen who are in the secrets of the Cabinet, and 
know how assuredly every proposition from them is adopted 
by this House, may be excused for their sanguine accla- 
mations in favour of the measure, but the general mass, who 
must be equally ignorant with myself, of what is to follow, 
can have no excuse for giving their assent so readily for pun- 
ishing their fellow subjects in so unprecedented a manner, 
and their eager zeal serves only to shew how ready they 
are to obey the will of another, without exercising their 
own judgment in the case. If the Government of this 
country is resisted in America, my opinion is, instead of 
removing the seat of Government in the Colony, and forc- 
ing the elements to bend to our will, (which is impossible) 
that an effectual force should be carried to the heart of the 
Colony resisting, to crush rebellion in the bud, before a 
General Confederacy can be formed. In the present case 
we abandon the Government, and drive the inhabitants to 
despair, leaving the multitude a prey to any ambitious s])irit 
that may arise. For my own part, I am convinced, from 
experience in the Colonies, that good Government may be 
conducted there upon rational grounds, as well as in this 
country ; but the ])ower and means of governing, rewards 
and punishments, are taken from your supreme executive' 
Magistrate in every sense, and then you are surprised that 
all order and obedience should cease. The Colonies can only 
be governed by their Assemblies, as England by the House 
of Commons ; the Patent Oftices, as well as those in the 
Customs, which were formerly given at the recommendation 
of the Governors, to men supporting Government, and resi- 
ding in tiie Provinces, are now in reversion three or four lives 
deep, to men living in this country. The command of the 
military, which was another gi'eat source of respect and 
obedience, is likew ise taken from the Governor : so that in 
truth he remains an insignificant jjageant of state, fit only 
to transmit tedious accounts of his own ridiculous situation : 
or, like a Doctor of the Sorbonne, to debate with his 
Assembly about abstract doctrines in Government. 

I am far from wishing to throw any blame on Governor 
Hutchinson, or to condemn him, like the town of Boston, 
unheard. The absence of the man and the general clamour 
against him, will restrain me from saying many things 
respecting his conduct, which appear reprehensible ; but 1 
cannot admit a passage in the speech of a noble Lord to 
pass unnoticed. His Ijordship alleges, " That the Governor 
" could not apply to the Admiral in the harbour, or to the 
•'' Commanding Officer of the troops in the castle, for the 
•' protection of the custom-house officers, as well as teas in 
••' question, without the advice of his Council." But I beg 
leave to inform the noble Lord, as I served in that station 
myself, that there is a volume of instructions to every Go- 
vernor on this subject, whereby he is commanded under the 
severest penalties, " To give all kind of protection to trade 
••' andconmierce, as well as to the officers of his Majesty's 
•' Customs, by his own authority, without the necessity 
••' of acting throui;li his Council." Nor can I conceive a 
passible excuse for ihe destruction of those teas, while two 
men-of-war lay iu the harbour, without the least application 
having been made to the Admiral for protection, during so 
long a transaction. 

The fij-st essential point in those disputes which are now 
likely to become so serious by the weakness of Adminis- 
tration, in tills country, in followin!,' no connected plan, 
either of force or of favour, but constantly vibrating between 
the two, is to put ourselves in the riglu, and for this j)ur- 
ix).se I would reconnnend the innnediate repeal of the Tea 
Duty, which can be vindicated upon no principles, either of 
commerce or policy. Men may allege this would be giving 
up the point ; but if we have no better points to dispute 
uj)on. I am ready to yield the argument. Raisin" taxes 



in America for the purpose of revenue, I maintain to be 
unnecessary and dangerous. A Stamp Act, as a measure of 
police, varied for the difTerent Governments, and leaving 
the revenue raised thereby to be appropriated by the respec- 
tive Legislatures, I hold to be a measure of the highest effi- 
cacy, for maintaining a due obedience to the authority of this 
country, and prolonging that ilependence for ages to come. 
How far it can be executed, alter what has already passed, 
I am rather diffident, but of this I am certain, that in case 
Great Britain is dejirived of excr.uting a measure of that 
nature, which by pervading every transaction, secures the 
execution in itself, she has lost one of the greatest enijines 
for supporting her influence throughout the Enqiire without 
oppression. Some men who are for simplifyin<r Government 
to their own comprehensions, will not allow they conceive 
that the supreme legislative authority shall not be para- 
mount in all things, and taxation being fullv comprehended 
in legislation, they argue, that the power of the one nuist 
necessarily follow that of the otiier; and yet we find man- 
kind possessed of privileges which are not to he violated 
in the most arbitrary countries. The Province of Langue- 
doc is a striking example in refutation of the doctrines res- 
pecting taxation, which are held by such narrow observers. 
The Kingdom of Ireland in another instance in our domin- 
ions. There is not one argument which can apply for 
exempting Ireland from taxation by the Parliament of 
Great Britain, that does not equally protect the Colonies 
from the power of such partial judges. Every man should 
now call to his remembrance by w hat obstinate infatuation 
Philip n, came to lose the L^nited Provinces. Can it be 
supposed that in a nation so wise as Spain was at that 
time, that no man perceived the injustice and futility of 
the measure in dispute ? But I can easily suppose, from 
the pride of authority, where our vanity is so much flatter- 
ed, that no man durst venture a proposition for receding 
from that cruel measure, after it had been resisted by 
violence. 

These arc the general heads. 

The particular objections to the Bill arc, fii-st for con- 
tinuing the punishment, " until satisfliction shall be made 
'• to the India Company," without stating the amount, or 
what that satisfaction sliall be. Next, " until peace and 
" good order shall be certified to be restored," when it is 
impossible, as to the subject in dispute, that such certificate 
can ever be granted, because the custom-house officers are 
removed, and all trade and commerce prohibited. The 
numerous disputes and litigations which nmst necessarily 
arise in carrying this law into execution, on contract 
made by parties before they could be apprized of it, and 
the despatch of ships in harbour, under the limited time, 
without any exception for the desertion of seamen, or 
wind and weather, is altogether melancholy to consider ! 
The power given to the Admiral or Chief Commander, to 
order the ships returning lioni foreign voyages, to such 
stations as he shall direct, is wild, vexatious, and indefinite.. 
That of permitting his Majesty to alter the value of all 
the property in the town of Boston, upon restoring the 
port, by aflixing such quays and wharfs as he only shall 
appoint, for landing and shipping of goods, is liable to 
such misreprasentation and abuse, that I expect to see 
every evil follow the exercise of it, and it must create 
infinite jealousies and distraction among the People. 

I am therefore of opinion, that this Bill, both from the 
principle and manner in which it has been passed, and 
from forelTjnning the general regulations that are intend- 
ed, and which ought at least to accompany it, instead 
of quieting the disturbances in Boston, it will promote 
them still further, and induce the inhabitants to cut ofT 
all communication with your ships of war, which may be 
productive of mutual hostilities, and most probably will 
end in a general revolt.* 

• To ihe Printer of the Nortolk Intelligencer. 
Remarks on Governor Johnstone's Speech in the House of Commons. 
Sir: — Political debates, from tlio misguided rafje of the Speakers, 
often rise to an enormous height ; indeed, it requires a long course of 
exi)erience to determine tlic real interest of the State in every impor. 
tant point that occurs. The loudest cavillers against the measures of 
Government after running their splendid career, become lordly efB. 
gies of .State, and exhibit a striking portrait of the complexion of the 
tim<s. In the British annals, the transformation of violent zealots for 
public liberty into its most inveterate enemies, clearly proves that tlie 
gilded top fur which ambition panta, has an irresistible attraction ; 



57 



BOSTON PORT BILI.. 



58 



Mr. Saicbrid^c said, lie rose again, just to blame the 
Minister for beinj; timid in doing his duty without the au- 
thority of Parliament. He was very certain, he said, that 
there' were three thini!;s in the Bill ; that there was this, 
and this, an<i this things which the Minister might have 
done without skulking behind the Legislative authority for 
shelter; that indeed the fourth, of stopping up their port, 
he believed it was proper to apply to Parhanient for ; but 
he was very certain that this, and this, and this, might have 
been done without the aid of Parliament. 

Lord North. Sir, 1 have been formerly blamed for being 
the onlv ostensible Minister of this country. 1 am now 
charged with not coming forth and doing the duty of an 
acting Minister without applying to Parliament. 1 never. 
Sir, am ashamed to have the sanction and direction of Par- 
liament as the rule and guide of my conduct ; but. Sir, if I 
had done, as the honorable gentleman who spoke last, 
wishes me to have done, this, and this, and this, I had done 
nothing, unless 1 had come to Parliament forthat. and that, 
then the main object, what the honorable gentleman thinks 
I ought to have come to Parliament for, and without that, 
he allows I should do nothing ; but however he may wish 
nie to have done this, and this, and this, of my own head as 
a IMinister, the honorable gentleman, (fond as he is, and 
always has been, of prerogative,) would have disagreed to 
my proceeding, and objected against it. 

The Bill was then Passed without a division. 



HOUSE OF LORDS. 

Saturday, March 26, 1774. 

A ^^essage was brought up from the House of Com- 
mons, by Mr. Cooper, and others. 

With a Bill intituled, " An Act to discontinue, in such 

but the douceurs of the Court have been dealt witli so cautious a hand 
of lute, and so accurate an iuspaction into the meritsof the candidates, 
that miiny officious pretenders liave retired into the vale of discontent, 
dispirited, unbctViended, and defeated; common observers do not 
readily trace tlio various transactions and refinements which the pa- 
triotic character undergoes before it can be ripened into , modern 
maturity ; a retrospect into certain promotions will confirm the truth 
of this assertion, and it is as demonstrable to the full, that the twinges 
of the political gout are as severe and incurable as the corporal. 

I shall now, !Sir, with steady attention garble those passages in the 
honorable gcntleman^s speech, which never would have attracted my 
notice, but for the influence it seems to have had over the minds of 
some very narrow connoisseurs here. It is with the strictest deference 
to the sago politicians in this part of the world, that I offer a few re- 
marks. I will then first warn those who entertain so high an opinion 
of it, to weigh maturely the arguments it contains; they will then 
find otlicr doctrines blended with those they so warmly adopt, rather 
unfavourable to the sticklers for a commonwealth. The elegant 
modesty of his exordium would have merited applause, had we not 
discerned its excessive decline through the whole course of the debate. 
He is not unacquainted with the elaborate logic of the ancients, nor 
insensible that eloquence on all subjects, has strong pretensions to 
lit'.'rary ebteem, for he aims at profound sagacity in developing the 
principles of moral philosophy. 

" I now venture to predict to this House, that the effeot of the pre, 
"sent Bill nmst be productive of a General Confederacy to resist the 
" pow'-T of this county. It is irritating, tempting, nay ! inviting men 
" to those deeds by ineft'ectual expedients, the abortions of an undo, 
"eisive mind, incapable of comprehending the chain of consequences 
" wliioh must result from such a law. I am not one of those, who 
" believe that distant Provinces can be retained in their duty, by 
"preaching or encliantnients; I believe that force or power, con. 
"ducted with wisdom, are tlie means of securing regular obedience 
" under every establishment; but that sucli force should never be ap. 
"plied to any degree of rigour, unless it shall carry the general ap. 
"probation of mankind in the execution." 

If the melancholy prospect of affairs, heightened by alarms from 
the Iniliiins on the frontiers, presents to our view, evident symptoms 
of commercial decline here, whicli is the greatest mart for trade in the 
Colony; I cannot imagine, that tliinking men would be so mad, as 
to form a general revolt. If courts of justice agree to annihilate 
themselves, it nmst bo wholly, cannot bo conditionally. Can this con- 
sist with the loyalty and good manners we profess for the Prince, or 
that virtuous fortitude which combines society in an indissoluble 
union? Can acts of injustice obtain the sanction of unanimous con- 
DOtkt? How ibstracted and refined is the gentleman's reasoning, to 
anticipate the general approbation of mankind, as if in an ingenious 
combination of speculalivo sentiments, could destroy tliat dispensing 
power which is the iiKister-wheel, or that discerning policy whicli is 
ijitcrwoven in the frame of all Governments. He goes on — ■ 

" But aft"r the highest characters iu the State had d.clared against 
"the right ofthis coimtry, to impose taxes on Aiiifrica for the purpose 
"of raising a revenue; after the general voice of the Senate had con- 
"curred in repealing the Stamp Act, upon that principle, after tliose 
' "men who had maintained these doctrines had been promoted by his 
" Majesty, to the first stations in the administration ol' civil and judi- 
"cial air.tirs ; there is much mitigation to bo pleaded in favour of the 
" An}eriea7iii Irom those circumstances, (allowing them in an error at 
"present,) that every man must feel the height of cruelty by enforc- 



" manner, and for such time as are therein mentioned, the 
" landing and discharging, lading or shipping, of goods,. 
" wares, or merchandise, at the town, and within the har- 
" hour of Boston, in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
" in North America ;" to which they desire the concurrence 
ofthis House. 

The said Bill was read the first time : 

Ordered, That the said Bill be read a second time, on 
Monday next, and the Lords be summoned. 

Monday, March 28, 1774. 

The Lord Wycombe jiresented to the House, the fol- 
lowing Petition of Stephen Sayer, and others, Natives of 
America ; 

The same was read by tlie Clerk, as follows : 

To the Right Honorable the Lords Spiritual and Tem- 
poral, in Parliament assembled, the humble Petition oj 
several Natives of America, showeih : 

That your Petitioners, being Natives of his Majesty's 
Dominions in America, are deeply interested in every pro- 
ceeding of this right honorable House, which touches the 
life, liberty, or property, of any person or persons in the 
said Dominions. 

That your Petitioners conceive themselves and their fel- 
low subjects to be entitled to the rights of natural justice, 
and to the common law of England, as their unalienable 
birthright ; that they apprehend it to be an invariable rule 
of natural justice, that no man shall be condemned unheard ; 
and that, according to law, no person or persons can be 
judged without being called upon to answer, and being per- 
mitted to hear the evidence against them, and to make their 
defence. 

That it is therefore with the deepest concern, they un- 
derstand that there is now before this right honorable 
House, a Bill of Pains and Penalties, to be inflicted on the 

"ing maxims with any degree of severity at first, before due warning 
"is given." 

When men grow adepts in the theory of rebellion, and form BC-hemea 
to emancipate themselves from the control of the laws ; when they 
consider all requisitions from Britain, as unjust, all acts of Parlia. 
ment as tyrannical, the mode of punishment must be extraordinary; 
the levy of one pound irritates as much as one thousand ; and as to 
the conduct of certain members in the House of Commons, I cannot 
think their principles impeachable, who advise the promotion of the 
patriotic zealots, if their preferment could restore the peace and har- 
mony of the State. I do not mean to impeach the member's know- 
ledge of agriculture ; yet, I think the comparison relative to sewing 
wheat bears a very far-fetched analogy to the Bustonians punishment. 
Most of the remarks relative to the event of the Act, are too vague to 
aftord any insight to the most prying observer. How are the People 
to cloth and support themselves during the execution of his Quixotte 
schemes ? He is confounded in his own ingenious doubts, and leaves 
the arduous task of unravelling all to the good natured world. But what 
gleams of consolation do tiiey derive from the following assertions : 
" If the Government of this country is resisted in America, my 
" opinion is, instead of removing the seat of Government iu the Colo- 
"ny, and forcing the elements to bend to our will, (which is impossi- 
"ble,) that an etfeotual force should be carried to the heart of the 
"Colony resisting, to crush rebellion in the bud, before a General Con, 
" federacy can be formed." So that you aec this great man is not an 
invincible proselyte to moderate measures, but would chastise in cases 
of urgent necessity. 

Can tumultuous meetings remedy the defects of law ? Is there not a 
discretionary power in the civil police to summon the posse comitatus .'* 
Has it not been deemod strictly legal in Britain, to strengthen that 
body by military aid, on great emergencies ? But when men, in high 
offices of civil trust, connived at the base resolves of an immaculate 
body of select citizens ; the Governor could not consistently with his 
duty interfere, without infringing those rights they pretended they 
met to secure ; had he taken any steps at all, he must have suppressed 
the whole meeting; and their heart-felt groans for expiring liberty 
would have re-echoed to the inmost recess of his jialace. His inter- 
position would not have been official, and they never would have al- 
lowed the greatness of the emergency to supersede the force of their 
chartered rights. His reasons for repealing the Tea Duty, are ex- 
ceedingly futile ; he thinks it cannot be vindicated ; a dogmatical as- 
sertion, of a similar stamp and spirit with the rest. His remarks upon 
inherent privileges are ridiculous. Can any charter grant destroy the 
fabric of that Government which gave it birth ; at any rate, the pre. 
cedent would bo far more ignominious for Great Britain to yield to 
America, than America to testify her allegiance to Britain. The disputes 
and litigations which the Bostonians have brought upon themselves, 
they must abide by the consequences of. They have baffled the expedi- 
ency of the wisest laws ; such crimes are heinous, and richly deserve 
capital punishment. If the People of Boston act with discretion, they 
may receive continual improvements in trade ; let them comply in 
time, and earnestly seize this grand criterion, to distinguish their real, 
from their pretended friends, and the happy consequences resulting 
from such a timely avowal of their allegiance, and cemented by the 
constant practice of virtue and good manners, will discover a firm zeal 
for their Prince, a virtuous fortitude in themselves, and be an eternal 
memorial of that discerning policy which is the essential character 
ifltic of a free and loyal People. OB.'SERVA.TOR. 

Norfolk Borough, June 30/A. 1774. 



59 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



60 



town of Boston, for a trespass, committed by some persons 
unknown, upon the property of the ImsI India Company, 
without tlic said town havin<; been apprized of any accusa- 
tion being brou!;lit ai;ainst tiiem, or permitted to hear the 
evidence, if tlierc be any, and to maiie llieir defence. 

Tliat the Bill takes away immecrialely from the inhabi- 
tants of the town, the use of property, to the amount of 
several hundred thousand pounds, vested in quays, wharfs, 
stores, 8ic. Tiiat it will restrain many thousands of his 
Majesty's subjects from subsistlnir tliemsehes and tiieir 
liimilies, by their usual employments : that it w ill punisli llio 
innocent for the ;:uilty ; and even should all the reparation 
r(;fjuired by the Bill be made, the restoration of that pro- 
jierty, or any part of it, is suffered to depend solely upon 
ijie will of the Crown. 

1 our Petitioners conceive such proceeding to be directly 
ropuijnant to every jirinciple of law and justice : and that 
under such a precedent, no man. or body of men. could 
I'ujoy a moment's security; for if judgment be immediately 
10 follow an accusation, the accused, unacquainted with the 
charge, and debarred from defenfling themselves, every 
fence against liilse accusation will be pulled down, justice 
will no longer be a shield, nor innocence an exenq)iion 
from punishment. 

Your Petitioners beg leave to represent, that the law in 
America, ministers redress for any injury sustained there ; 
and they can most tmly affirm, that it is administered in 
that country with as much iiiq)artiality, as in any other part 
of his Majesty's Dominions. In proof of this, tliey appeal 
to an instance oi great notoriety, in which, under every cir- 
cumstance that could exasperate the People, and disturb 
the course of justice, Captain Fnston and his soldiers had 
a fair trial, and a favourable \erdict. The due course of 
law thus manifestly holding out redress, they cannot but 
(consider the interposition of Parliamentary power to be its 
imnecessary, as it is arbitrary and unjust. 

Your Petitioners conceive, that this right honorable 
House, being the supreme judicature of this A'ation, are too 
well acquainted with the inviolable rules of justice, to re- 
ifiire any further objections to the Bill against the town of 
Boston, now under consideration. 

They therefore trust and pray, that this right honorable 
House will not pass a Bill, which is to condenui and punish 
jjersons unheard, and therefore deprived of that privilege, 
which every principle of justice, and every practice of law, 
allows to the meanest individual : the privilege of hearing 
and controverting the evidence against liim, and maintain- 
ing his innocence. 

And your Petitioners, as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 
Signed, 
Stephen Saycr, John Peronncau, 

IVilliam Lee, Peeke Fuller, 

Benjamin Franklin. E'lward Fenicicke, 
fVilliam Middlcton, IViUinm Middleto,'., Jim. 

Henry Laurence, Th'imas Finckney, 

Ralph Jzard, William Hascl Gihhs, 

Isaac Motte, Thomas Bromfteld, 

John Ellis, Joshua Johnston, 

Hugh Williamson, John Hobson, 

Thomas Barker, Daniel Bowley, 

John Boylston, John Allci/nc, 

Arthur Lee, fFilliam Blake, 

Thomas Ruston, John Ballendine, 

Philip Neyle, J. Williams. 

Edward Bancroft, 
Ordered, That the said Petition do lie on the table. 

The order of die day being read, for taking into con- 
sideration the several Papers laid before this House, (by his 
Majesty's command,) relating to Disturbances in America ; 
and also his Majesty's most gracious Message in relation 
thereto; and for the Lords to be summoned : 

And the said Papers were accordingly read by the 
Clerk. 

Then the order of the day being read, for the second 
reading of the Bill, and for the Lords to be summoned : 

Tiie said Bill was accordingly read the second time. 

It was moved ■' to commit the Bill," which being ob- 
jected to ; 

After long debate, the question was put thereon ? It was 
resolved in the .\ffinnative. 



Ordered, That the said Bill be committed to a Com- 
mittee of the whole House. 

Ordered, That the House be put into a Committee 
upon the said Bill to-morrow, and the Ix>rds be sum- 
moned. 

Tuesday, March 29, 1774. 

Tlie order of the day lieing read, the House was put 
into a Committee of the whole, upon the Bill. 

The Bill was supported by the l^ords Mansfield, Goiaer, 
Littleton, fVeymuuth, and Suffolk: it was opposed by the 
Dukes of Richmond, and Manchester, the Marquis of 
Rockisisrham, and the Lords Temple, Shelburne, Camden, 
and Stair; but the principal arguments were between the 
Lords Mansfield and Camden. 

After some time, the House was resumed : 

And the Lord Boston reported from the Committee, 
•' Thai they had gone through the Bill, and directed him to 
" report the same to the House, without anv amendment.' 

Ordered, That the said Bill he read a third time to- 
morrow, and that the Lords be summoned. 

Wednesday, March 30, 1774. 

The Earl of Stair presented to the House a Petition of 
William Bollan, Esq., Agent for the Council oi' the Pro- 
vince of Massachusetts Bay. 

The same was read by the Clerk as follow s : 

To the Right Honorable the Lords Spiritual and Tempo- 
ral, in Parliament assembled, the Petition of William 
Bollan, Esq., Agent for the Council of the Frovinn: of 
Massachusetts Bay, most humbly shoieeth : 

That the " Bill for the immediate removal of the oflicers 
" concerned in the collection and management of his Ma- 
" jesty's duties of Customs, from the town of Boston, in the 
'' Province oi Massachusetts Bay, in North America ; and to 
'■ discontinue tlie landing, discharging, lading, and shipping, 
" of goods, wares, and merchandise, at the said town of 
" Boston, or within the harbour thereof," at present depcnc'- 
ing under consideration of this right honorable House, con- 
tains various provisions proposed to be enacted, inconsistent 
with the ancient and just rights, lawful possessions, usual 
comforts of life, and common social benefits, with other im- 
portant interests of the Petitioner's constituents, long lield 
ill amicable conjunction with other inhabitants of Boston, 
and the Province, and the other Colonies, and the most de- 
sirable connection with innumerable persons employed in 
manufactures, trade, and navigation, in Great Britain, 
whereby they have been well maintained, and praspered ; 
and moreover, with the general circulation of American 
commerce, from which so great benefits are dailv recei\ed 
by this Kingdom, in various ways. 

That the merchants of Boston were not jiartakers of the 
offence committed in the iate destruction of the tea there, 
nor of any other act of violence ; nevertheless, if the present 
Bill be enacted, they will become the chief sufferers, totje- 
ther with numerous British merchants and manufacturers. 

Wherefore your Lordships Petitioner humbly prays 
that he may be heard before this riglit honorable House, in 
order to prevent these provisions from passing to be enacted. 

W. Bollan. 

Which done, 

The said Mr. Bollan was called in, and heard at the bar, 
against the said Bill.' 

He is directed to withdraw. Then the said Bill was 
read the third time. 

The question was put, " whether this Bill shall Pass r " 
It was resolved in the Affirmative, Ncmine Disscntientc. 

Thursday, 7V/«rc/i 31, 1774. 

His Majesty being seated on the Throne, adorned with 
his Crown and reiral ornaments, and attended bv his offi- 
cers of State, (the Lords being in their robes,) the Com- 
mons with their Speaker, attending; the Royal assent was 
pronounced severally, by the Clerk's Assistant, to thirty- 
nine Bills, beginning with the Boston Port Bill. 

The following Petition of the IVatives of America, then 
in London, was presented to the King, on the nioming 
of the 3l9l of March, before he went to the House 
of Ixirds : 



61 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



«t 



7'o the King's iiiost excellent Mnje.sti/. the humble Peti- 
tion of several Natives of America, shoireih : 

That your Majesty's Petitioners are natives of your Do- 
minions in America, and Ijear most true and cordial alle- 
•rianoe to your Majesty's Royal person and family. 

Tliat allei!;iance and protection bein!,^ reci])rocal, your 
Petitioners look up to your Majesty for protection under 
the common law of tiie land, which is their birth-right. 

That, according to law, no man can be condemned to 
punislunent witliout beini( called upon to answer, nor with- 
out an opportunity of hearing- the evidence ai;ainst him, and 
defendintc his innocence. That in violation of this law , and 
of every principle of natural justice, a Bill is now ofiered 
lor the Royal assent, calculated to inflict pains and penal- 
ties, with unexampled severity, upon your Majesty's loyal 
town of Boston, in the Province of Massachusetts Bay ; the 
said town beino; unap prized of the proceedings, and not 
heard in its defence : that such Bill, if it receive your Ma- 
jesty's assent, will immediately take away from the inliabi- 
tants of the town of Boston the use of property to the 
amount of several himdred thousand pounds, vested in 
quays, wharfs, store-houses, &c. ; will restrain many thou- 
sands of your Majesty's subjects from procuring subsistence 
for themselves and their families, by their ordinary occupa- 
tions ; may endanger the community, by violent commo- 
tions from so many men rendered desperate, by being de- 
prived of their daily bread ; and, \\hat cannot but do the 
last violence to the Royal justice, will punish the innocent 
for the guilty. 

Your Majesty's Petitioners most humbly represent, that 
this Bill is the more unjust, as the trespass it is meant to 
jJunLsh, has not been prosecuted in the Courts of common 
law in America, where only according to law and the con- 
stitution, it is cognizable. That the interposition of this 
Bill is as totally unnecessary as the mode of it is unjust ; 
because, your Majesty's Courts in America, are open to the 
redress of any injury sustained there; and justice is so little 
liable to perversion, that under every impression of popular 
prejudice. Captain Prt/ston and others had, in this your 
Majesty's Province of the Massachusettt Bay, a fair trial, 
and a favourable verdict. 

Your Majesty's Petitioners ■ do therefore humbly pray, 
that your Majesty will be most graciously pleased to sus- 
pend your Royal assent to a Bill, calculated to condemn 
and punish their countrymen unheard, and fomi a prece- 
dent, which will take away every securit) and protection, 
under the law, from all your Majesty's subjects in America. 

Ajid your Petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 



William Lee, 
B. Franklin, 
John Ellis, 
H. Laurence, 
miliam Blake, 
Robert Izard, 
Charles Fuller, 
Isaac Motte, 
Thomas Barker, 
William Middleton, 
Thomas Ruston, 
Petke Fuller, 
Joh. Williams, 
Robert Izard, Jun., 
Philip Neyle, 
J. F. Grimkb, 



Walter Izard, 
Edward Fenwicke, 
Thomas Pinckney, 
William Middleton, Jun. 
John Boylstov, 
John Ballendine, 
John Ward, 
Jos. Johnston, 
John Hobson, 
Daniel Bowley, 
John Perronneau, 
Arthur Lee, 
Joel Poinsett, 
William n. Gibbs, 
James Marshall. 



Anno Decimo Quarto Georgii III. Regis. 

An Act to discontinue in ntch Manner, and for such Time 
as are therein mentioned, the landing and discharging, 
lading or shipping, of Goods, Wares, and Merchandise, 
at the Town and jvithin the Harbour q/" Boston, in the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, in North America. 

Whereas dangerous commotions and insurrections have 
been fomented and raised in the town of Boston, in the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, in Ncu< England, by 
divers ill-afl'ected persons, to the subversion of his Majes- 
ty's Govenunent, and to the utter destniction of the jniblic 
peace, and good order of the said town ; in which commo- 
tions and insurrections certain valuable cargoes of teas, 
being the property of the East India Company, and on 



board certain vessels 1\ ing within the bay or harbour of 
Boston, were seized and destroyed : and w hereas in the 
present condition of the said town and harbour, the 
connnerce of his Majesty's subjects cannot be safely carried 
on there, nor the Customs payable to his Majesty duly 
collected ; and it is therefore expedient that tlie oiKcers of 
his Majesty's Customs should be forthwith removed from 
the said town ; may it please you Majesty that it may be 
enacted, and be it enacted by the King's most excellent 
Majesty, by and with the advise and consent of the Lord< 
Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons in this present 
Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, 
that from and after the lirst (lay of June, 1774, it shall not 
be lawful for any person or persons whatsoever, to lade or 
put, or cause or procure- to be laden or put, oft" or from 
any quay, wharf, or other place, within the said town of 
Boston, or in or upon any part of the shore of the bay. 
commonly called the Harbour of Boston, between a certain 
headland or point, called Nahant Point, on the eastern side 
of the entrance into the said bay, and a certain headland or 
point called Alderton Point, on the western side of the en- 
trance into the said bay, or in or upon any island, creek, 
landing place, bank, or other place, within the said bay, 
or tieadlands, into any ship, vessel, lighter, boat, or bottom, 
any goods, wares, or merchandise, whatsoever, to be trans- 
ported or carried into any other country, pro\ince, or 
place, whatsoever, or into any other part of the said Pro- 
vince of the Massachusetts Bay, in Neiv England; or to 
take up, discharge, or lay on land, or cause or procure to 
be taken up, discharged, or laid on land, within the said 
town, or in or upon any of the places aforesaid, out of ai\\ 
boat, lighter, ship, vessel, or bottom, any goods, wares, or 
merchandise, whatsoever, to be brought from any other 
country, province, or place, or any other part of the said 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in Neiv England, 
upon the pain of forfeiture of the said goods, wares, and 
merchandise, and of the said boat, lighter, ship, vessel, or 
other bottom, into which the same shall be put, or out of 
which the same shall be taken, and of the guns, ammuni- 
tion, tackle, furniture, and stores, in or belonging to the 
same ; and if any such goods, wares, or merchandise, shall 
within the said town, or in any the places aforesaid, be 
laden or taken in from the shore into any barge, hoy, lighter, 
wherry, or boat, to.be carried on board any ship or vessel 
outward bound to any other country or province, or other 
part of said Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New 
England, or be laden or taken into such barge, hoy, 
lighter, wherry, or out of any ship or vessel coming and 
arriving from any other country or province, or other part 
of the said Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in Neu- 
England, such barge, hoy, lighter, wherry, or boat, shall 
be forfeited and lost. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That if any wharfinger, or keeper of any wharf, crane, or 
quay, or their servants, or any of them, shall take up or 
land, or knowingly suffer to be taken up or landed, or shall 
ship oft", or suffer to be waterborne, at or from any of the 
aforesaid wharfs, cranes, or quays, any such goods, wares, 
or merchandise ; in every such case, all and every such 
wharfinger, and keeper of such wharf, crane, or quay, and 
every person whatsoever who shall be assisting, or otherwise 
concerned in the shipping or in the loading or putting on 
board any boat or other vessel, for that purpose, or in the 
unshipping such goods, wares, and merchandise, or to whose 
hands the same shall knowingly ceme after the loading, 
shipping or unshipping thereof, shall forfeit and lose treble 
the value thereof, to be computed at the highest price 
which such sort of goods, wares, and merchandise, shall 
bear at the place where such offence shall be committed, 
at the time when the same shall be so committed, together 
with the vessel and boats, and all the horses, cattle and 
carriages, whatsoever made use of in the shipping, un- 
shipping, landing, removing, carriage, or conve3'ance of 
any of the aforesaid goods, wares, and merchandise. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That if any ship or vessel shall be moored or lie at anchor, 
or be seen hovering within the said bay, described and 
bounded as aforesaid, or within one league from the said ba\ 
so described, or the said headlands, or any of the islands 
lying between or within the same, it shall and may be 
lawful for any Admiral, Chief Commander, or commissioned 



68 



BOSTON PORT BILL. 



64 



officer, of his Majesty's fleet or ships ol war, or for any 
officer of his Majesty's custowis, to compel such ship or 
vessel to depart to some oiIkt ))ort or harhour, or to such 
station a.s the said officer shall appoint, and to use such force 
for that purpose as siiall be found necessary ; and if such 
ship or vessel shall not depart accordin<:ly, uithin six hours 
after notice for that purpose c;iven by such person as 
aforesaid, such ship or vessel, touether with all the f;oods 
laden on board thereon, and all the <runs, ammunition, 
tackle and furniture, shall be forfeited and lost, whether 
hulk sliall have been broken or not. 

Provided alway.i, That nothino; in tliis Act contained 
shall extend, or be construed to extend, to any military or 
other stores for his Majesty'suse, or to the ships or vessels 
whereon the same shall he laden, which shall be commis- 
sioned by, and in the immediate pay of, his Majesty, his heirs 
and successors : nor to any fuel or \ictual brouLdit coastways 
from any part of the Continent of America, for the neces- 
sary use and sustenance of the inhabitants of the said town 
of Boston : provided the vessel wherein the same are to be 
carried, shall be duly furnished with a cocket and let-pass, 
after having been duly searched by the proper officers of 
his Majesty's customs at Mnrblehead, in the port of Sahm, 
in the said Province of Mnssncliusdts Bmj ; and the same 
officer of his Majesty's Cusioms he also jiut on board the 
said vessel, who is hereby authoriz.ed to go on hoard, and 
proceed with the said vessel, together with a sufficient 
number of pereons, properly amied, for his defence, to the 
said town or harbour of Boston ; nor to any ships or vessels 
which may happen to be within tiie said harbour of Boston, 
on or before tlie the first day of June, 1774, and may 
have either laden or taken on board, or be tliere with intent 
to load or take on hoard, or to land or discharge any goods, 
wares, and merchandise, provided tiie said ships and \ essels 
do depart the said harbour within fourteen days after the 
first day of June, 1774. 

And be it further enacted Inj the authority aforesaid, 
That all seizures, penalties, and forfeitures, inflicted by this 
Act, shall be made and prosecuted by any Admiral, Chief 
Commander, or commissioned officer, of his Majesty's fleet, 
or ships of war, or by the officers of his Majesty's Customs, 
or some of them, or by some other person deputed or 
authorized, by warrant from the Lord High Treasurer, or 
the Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury, for the time 
being, and by no other person whatsoever ; and if any 
such officer, or other person authorized as aforesaid, shall 
directly or indirectly, take or receive any bribe or reward, 
or connive at such lading or unlading, or shall make or 
commence any collusive seizure, information, or agreement, 
for that purpose, or sliall do any other act whatsoever, 
whereby the goods, wares, or merchandise, prohibited as 
aforesaid, shall be suffered to pass either inwards or out- 
wards, or whereby the forfeitures and penalties inflicted by 
this Act may be evaded, every such offender shall forfeit 
the sum of five hundred pounds for every such offence, and 
shall hecome incapable of any office or employment, civil or 
military ; and every person who shall give, offer, or promise, 
any such bribe or reward, or shall contract, agree, or treat 
with, any person, so authorized as aforesaid, to commit 
any such offence, shall forfeit the sum of fifty pounds. 

And he it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. 
That the forfeitures and penalties inflicted by this Act shall 
and may be prosecuted, sued for, and recovered, and be 
divided, paid, and applied, in like manner, as other ))enal- 
ties and forfeitures inflicted by any Act or Acts of Parlia- 
ment, relating to the trade or revenues of the British 
Colonies, or Plantations in America, are directed to be 
prosecuted, sued for, or recovered, divided, paid and 
applied, by two several Acts of Parliament, the one ]iassed 
in the fourth year of his present Majesty, intituled " An 
" Act fof granting certain Duties in the British Colonies 
" and Plantations in America ; for continuinir, amending, 
" and making perpetual, an Act, passed in the sixth year of 
" the Reign of his late Majesty King George the Second, 
" intituled, An Act for the better securing and encouraging 
" the tr.ule of his Majesty's Sugar Colonies in America ; 
" for applyinj; the produce of such duties, and of the duties 
" to arise by virtue of the said Act, towards defraying the 
" expense of defending, protecting, and securing, the said 
" Colonies and Plantations ; for explaining an Act made 
" in the twenty-fifth year of the Reign of King Charles 



" the Second, intituled, An Act for the encouragement of 
" the Greenland and Eastland Trades, and for the better 
" securing the Plantation Trade ; and (or altering and 
" disallowing several drawbacks on exports from this King- 
" dom, and more effectually preventing the clandestine 
" conveyance of goods to, and irom, the said Colonies and 
" Plantations, and imi)roving and securing the trade betw een 
" the same and Great Britain ;" the other passed in the 
eighth year of his present Majesty's Reign, intituled, " An 
" Act ibr the more easy and effectual recovery of the 
" penalties and forfeitures inflicted by the Acts of Parlia- 
" ment, relating to the trade or revenues of the British 
" Colonies and Plantations in America." 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That every charter party bill of loading, and other contract, 
for consigning, shipping, or carrying any goods, wares, and 
merchandise, wh.atsoever, to or iVoni the said town of Bos- 
ton, or any part of the bay or harbour thereof, described 
as aforesaid, which have been made or entered into, or 
which shall be made or entered into, so long as this Act 
shall remain in full force, relating to any ship which 
shall arrive at the said town or harbour, after the first day 
of June, 1774, shall be, and the same an hereby declared 
to be, utterly voiil, to all intents and purposes whatso- 
ever. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. 
That whenever it shall be made to appear to his Majesty, 
in his Privy Council, that peace and obedience to the laws 
shall be so far restored in the saiil town of Boston, that 
the trade of Great Britain tnay be safely carried on there, 
and his Majesty's customs duly collected, and his Majesty, 
in his Privy Council, shall adjudge the same to be true, it 
shall and may be lawful for his Majesty, by Proclamation, 
or Order of Council, to assign and appoint the extent, 
bounds and limits, of the port or harbour of Boston, and 
of every creek or haven within the same, or in the islands 
within the precinct thereof; and also to assign and appoint 
such and so many open places, quays, and wharft, wuhin 
the said harbour, creeks, havens, and islands, for the 
landing, discharging, lading, and shipping of goons, as his 
Majesty, his heirs, or successors, shall judge necessary and 
expedient ; and also to appoint such and so many officers 
of the Customs therein, as his Majesty shall think fit ; after 
which it shall be lawful for any person or persons to lade 
or put oft" from, or to discharge and land ui)on, such wharfs, 
quays, and places, so appointed, within the said harbour, 
and none other, any goods, wares, and merchandise, what- 
soever. 

Provided always, Tliat if any goods, wares or merchan- 
dise, shall be laden or put off from, or discharged or 
landed upon, any other place than the quays, wharfs, or 
places, so to be appointed, the same, together with the 
ships, boats, and other vessels emjjloyed therein, and the 
horses, or other cattle and carriages used to convey the 
same, and the person or persons concerned or assisting 
therein, or to whose hands the same shall knowingly come, 
sliall suffer all the forfeitures and penalties imposed by this 
or any other Act on the illegal shipping or landing of 
goods. 

Provided also. And it is hereby declared and enacted, 
that nothing herein contained shall extend or be construed, 
to enable his IMajesty to appoint such port, harbour, creeks, 
quays, wharfs, places, or oliicers, in the said town ofBo'ston, 
or in tlie said bay or islands, until it shall sufficiently ajipear 
to his Majesty, that full satisfaction hath been made by or on 
behalf of the inhabitants of the said town of Boston, to 
the United Company of merchants of England, trading to 
the East Indies, for the damages sustained by the said 
Company, by the destruction of their goods sent to the 
said town of Boston, on board certain ships or vessels, as 
aforesaid ; and until it shall be certified to his Majesty, in 
Council, by the Governor, or Lieutenant Governor, of 
the said Province, that reasonable satisfaction hath been 
made to the officers of his Majesty's Revenue and others, 
who suffered by the riots and insurrections above men- 
tioned, in the months of November and Dvomber, in the 
year 1773, and in the month of January, in the year 1774. 

And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, 
That if any action or suit shall be commenced, either in 
Great Britain or America, against any person or persons, 
for any thing done in pursuance of this Act of Parliament, 



65 



BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



66 



tlio defendant or defendants, in sucli action or suits, may 
plead the general issue, and give the said Act, and the 
special matter in evidence, at any trial to be had thereupon, 
and that the same was done in pursuance and by the au- 
thority of this Act ; and if it shall appear so to have 
been done, the jury shall find for the defendant or defen- 



dants ; and if the plaintiff shall be nonsuited, or discontinue 
his action, after the defendant or defendants shall have 
appeared ; or if judgment shall be given upon any verdict 
or demurrer against the plaintiff, the defendant or defen- 
dants shall recover treble costs, and have the like remedy 
for the same as defendents have in other cases by law. 



III. BILL FOR THE BE ITER REGULATING THE GOVERNxAlENT 
OF THE PROVINCE OF 31ASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



HOUSE OF COMMONS. 
Friday, March 25, 1774. 

Resolved, That this House will this day, after the House 
shall have ))roceeded upon the other orders of the day, re- 
solve itself into a Committee of the whole House, to talie 
into further consideration his Majesty's most gracious Mes- 
sage of Monday, the 7th day of this instant, March, together 
with the Papers which were presented to the House by 
Lord North, upon the 7th and 11th days of this instant, 
March, by his Majesty's command. 

Ordered, That the several Papers which were presented 
to the House by the Lord North, upon the 28th day of 
November and 7th day of December, 1768, and the 20th 
day of January, \ 769 ; and also the several Papers pre- 
sented to the House by Mr. Vice Ciiamberlain, upon the 
7th day of May, 1770, from No. 1, to No. 9, inclusive, 
relating to his Majesty's Colonies, in North America, be 
referred to the said Committee. 

Ordered, That tiie Paper, intituled " Massachusetts 
" Bay Charter, granted by King fVilliamand Queen. Mary, 
" in the tliird year of their reign," which was presented to 
the House upon the 22d day o( January, 1740, be referred 
to the said Committee. 

Monday, March 28, 1774. 

Resolved, That this House will immediately resolve 
itself into a Committee of the whole House, to take into 
further consideration his Majesty's most gracious Message 
of Monday, the 7th day of this instant, March, together 
with the Papers which were presented to the House by the 
Lord North, upon the 7th and 11th days of this instant, 
March, by his Majesty's command. 

The House accordingly resolved itself into the said Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker left the Chair. 

Sir Charles Whitworth took the Chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Lord North rose and said, he meant now to open the 
plan of the Bill which he proposed to bring in ; and as it 
might very well be understood by gentlemen in that House, 
from the Papers relating to America, that then laid before 
them, that an executive power was wanting in tiiat country, 
and that it was highly necessary to strengthen the magis- 
tracy of it; that the force of the civil power consisted in 
the posse comitatus ; and when it is considered, said his 
Lordship, that the posse are the very People who have 
committed all these riots, little obedience to the preserva- 
tion of the peace is to be expected from them. There 
appears to be a total defect in the constitutional power 
throughout. If the democratic part shows that contempt 
of obedience to the laws, how is the Governor to execute 
any authority vested in him ? If he wants any magistrate 
to act, whom he knows will be willing to execute the laws, 
he has not the power of appointing one, nor of removing 
one that will not act ; the Council have alone that power, 
whose dependence is on the democratic part of tlie consti- 
tution. It appears tliat the Civil Magistrate has been, for a 
series of years, uniforndy inactive ; there is sometliing radi- 
cally wrong in that constitution, in which no magistrate 
Fourth Series. 5 



for such a number of years, has ever done his duty in such 
a manner as to force obedience to the laws. If the Govern- 
or issued a proclamation, there was hardly found a magis- 
trate to obey it ; the Governor, of his own authority, can do 
nothing ; he cannot act, or give out any order, without 
seven of the Council consenting ; the authority of that Go- 
vernment is in so forlorn a situation that no Governor can 
act ; and, where there is such a want of civil authority, can 
it be supposed that the military, be they ever so numerous, 
can be of the least service ? For I shall always consider 
that a military power, acting under the authority and con- 
troul of a Civil Magistrate, is part of the constitution ; but 
the military alone ought not, and cannot act without the 
controul of the Civil Magistrate. How was it possible for 
the military to maintain good Government when they were 
not called upon by the civil authority ? I propose, in this 
Bill, to take the executive power from the hands of the 
democratic part of Government ; I would propose, that the 
Governor should act as a Justice of Peace, and that he 
should have the power to appoint the officers throughout 
the whole civil authority, such as the sheriffs, provost, 
marshal, &,c. — The Chief Justice and Judges of the Su- 
preme Court excepted. I would have them only remova- 
ble by his Majesty, under his sign manual, and upon good 
representations made here. Every gentleman will naturally 
see the impropriety of such irregular assemblies, or town- 
meetings, which are now held in Boston ; I would have 
them brought under some regulation, and would not suffer 
them to be held widiout the consent of the Governor, un- 
less upon the annual election of certain officers, which it is 
their province to choose. Their juries are improperly 
chosen ; I think a degree of regulation highly necessary ; 
I am always ready and open to hear those matters discussed, 
and inclined to alter my opinion, when I hear better reasons 
for adopting any other mode of putting the civil magistracy 
of that country upon a good footing ; but until the execu- 
tive power is free, it cannot act ; our regulations here are of 
no import, if you have nobody in that country to give them 
force. Some immediate, as well as permanent remedy, 
must be adopted. I therefore propose the present Bill, 
which I apprehend will effectually purge that constitution 
of all its crudities, and give a degree of strength and spirit 
to the civil magistracy, and to the executive power. I 
therefore move you, Sir, " That leave be given to bring in 
" a Bill for the better regulating the Government of the 
" Province of Massachusetts Bay." I propose that this 
Bill shall be brought in, and lie upon tlie table, for tlie in- 
spection of the House and gentlemen who wish to make the 
propriety of such a Bill the measure of their conduct. 

Mr. Byng said, that he could not be at all surprised at 
hearing that the Governor of Boston had no power, when 
lie had not a single place in his gift. It was now become a 
fashion, he said, to give awaydiose places of emolument to 
men of this country, widi reversions to one, two, or three 
sons ; to men who had never been of the least public ser- 
vice to this country, in his apprehensions, [meaning Mr. 
Bradshaic] Whilst places continue to be given away to 
men of this country, the emoluments of which arise from 
the labour and sweat of an American brow, it will undoubt- 
edly, and very property, totally annihilate the power of any 



67 



BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



68 



supreme officer in thai country. Men look up to their su- 
periors, and obey tlieir directions according to the emolu- 
ments received from Uiem ; and when once their is no de- 
pendence in it, there will be no obedience. 

Sir F. Norton (Speaker) said, he only got up to know, 
whether there was to be an Assembly left to the Arnerican.i 
or not? For he was not able to say, from what lie had 
heard from the noble Lord, whether tlie Assembly was to 
be annihilated or not. 

Lord North assured the right honorable member, that 
there would be nothing; in this Bill that affected either the 
Assembly or the Council in iJieir legislative power. 

Mr. Stephen Fot. Can there be any thing so necessa- 
ry to alter as that Govermnent which can neither govern 
nor manage itself? The People of Boston have behaved 
in a most outrageous manner, militating against every prin- 
ciple of law and justice, combating against its own consti- 
tutional power, and totally subverting every idea of order 
and regularity. Would you let these men go on in the 
chaos of disturbance ? Would you wish them to proceed 
so precipitately to their destruction without once lending 
the aid of your deliberations to rescue them from the self- 
conceived and false opinions which they have imbibed. I 
ho]>e. Sir, this House will lend its advice, and endeavour to 
save these hot-headed Americans, not by violent measures 
but by firm and manly proceedings. 

Lord George Germain. It may not be improper. Sir, 
I hope, to throw out a little upon this occasion, and to ask 
for further information, to know whether this is to be the 
extent of the proposition with regard to the salutary 
measures that are to be made and taken in tiiis Committee, 
during this whole Session ; if so. Sir, I should be glad to 
give my poor opinion, and add my mile of preservation to 
that country. I could have wished that the noble Lord, 
when he was forming this scheme of salvation to this coun- 
trj^, would have, at least, considered that there were other 
parts of the internal Government necessary to be put under 
some regulation. I mean particularly the internal Govern- 
ment of the Province of Massachusetts Baij. I wish to 
see the Council of that country on the same footing as other 
Colonies. There is a degree of absurdity, at present, in 
the election of the Council. I cannot. Sir, disagree with 
the noble Lord, nor can I think he will do a better thing, 
than to put an end to their town meetings. I would not 
have men of a mercantile cast every day collecting them- 
selves together, and debating about political matters ; I 
would have them follow their occupations as Merchants, 
and not consider themselves as Ministers of that country. 
I would also wish, that all corporate powers might be given 
to certain People in every town, in the same manner that 
Corporations are formed here ; 1 should then expect to see 
some subordination, some authority and order. I do not 
know by what power those are to be formed, but I wish 
that they may be formed by some. Again, Sir, 1 think 
that the method of Grand Juries ought to be much attend- 
ed to ; tliey are now chosen for life, and have a yearly 
salary, and these are the men to whom your life and pro- 
perty is entrusted. Your People know to whom to make 
application, when law and justice are wished to be subvert- 
ed by favour and affection. Your Petty Juries are elected 
annually, so many persons in each town ; to these men of- 
fenders know how to apply ; and when any riot happens 
between the military power and the People of the town, 
the Jury, being taken principally out of that town, the 
power of life and death of the offender is lodged in those 
who are offended. These juries, I think, require great 
regulation ; they are totally different from ours, and in my 
idea, carry with them not only the highest degree of ab- 
surdity, but are subject to be led aside to commit the high- 
est and most palpable enormities against justice and the 
laws of the lanfl. I would not wish to protract the noble 
Lord's Bill, by lengthening it out to a degree which he 
does not wish it to go, nor to oppose the measures which 
he has already adopted. I would wish to bring the con- 
stitution of America as similar to our own as possible. I 
would wish to see the Council of that country similar to a 
House of Lords in this. I would v.ish to see chancei-y 
suits determined by a Court of Chancery, and not by the 
Assembly of that Province. At present tlieir Assembly is 
a downright clog upon all the proceedings of the Governor, 
and the Council are continually thwarting and opposing 



any proposition he may make for the security and welfare 
of that Government. You have. Sir, no Government, no 
Governor ; tlie whole are the proceedings of a tumultuous 
and riotous rabble, who ought, if they had the least pru- 
dence, to follow their mercantile employment, and not 
trouble themselves with politics and Govermnent, which 
they do not undei-stand. We are told by some gentlemen, 
oh ! do not break the charter ; do not take away their 
rights that lu-e granted to them by the predecessors of the 
Crown ; whoever. Sir, wishes to preserve such charters, 
without a due correction and regulation ; ^^ hoever. Sir, 
wishes for such subjects, I wish them no worse than to go- 
vern them. Put this People, Sir, upon a free fooring of 
Government ; do not let us be every day asnerting our 
rights by words, and they denying our authority, and pre- 
venting the execution of our laws. Let us. Sir, persevere 
in refining that Government which cannot support itself, 
and proceed on in the manner we have begun, and I make 
no doubt but, by a manly and steady perseverance, things 
may be restored from a state of anarchy and confusion, to 
peace, quietude, and a due obedience to the laws of this 
country. 

Lord North. I thank the noble Lord for every propo- 
sition he lias held out ; they are worthy of a great mind, 
and such as ought to be adopted ; and indeed I cannot say 
that at present there is any objection to what is proposed 
being regulated at some future period ; if any thing can 
tend to the relief of the present distresses in America, it is 
the unanimity of this House, and of men of such abilities as 
the noble Lord, in the projection of measures necessary to 
be taken. Every proposition the noble liOrd has mentioned 
coincides with my mind; 1 see the propriety of them, and 
1 would wish to adopt them. It is not my proposition to 
close this Committee before other measures may be ofliered, 
which, for any thing I know, may have a degree of prefer- 
ence to those I have this day proposed. I, for my part. 
Sir, shall think of the propositions made, and receive them 
to be canvassed by greater wisdom and abilities than mine. 
1 am clear, with the noble Lord, that the constitution of 
this charter ought not to prevent Parliament from inter- 
fering to regulate those matters in America, which the in- 
digested measures of their charter have, perhaps, precipi- 
tately been, in some degree, a means of preventing the 
peace and quietness of that country from being restored. 

Mr. Phipps got up, but the House being noisy, he was 
not much attended to. 

Mr. Fownall used much the same kind of arguments 
he had done in the former debates, and gave a judicious 
account of the Government of Avierica. He concluded 
with giving to the Americans the character of a conscien- 
tious, good, religious, peaceable set of People, and said that 
there was not in all liis Majesty's Dominions a more re- 
spectable set of persons existing. 

Lord North's motion was then agreed to, and 

Mr. Speaker resumed the Chair. 

Sir Charles Wkiticorth reported from the Committee, 
that he was directed by the Committee to move the House 
that leave be given to bring in a Bill lor the better regula- 
ting the Goveniment of the Province of the Massachmctts 
Bay in North America. 

Ordered, That leave be granted to bring in the Bill ; 
and that Sir Charles Whitjvorth, the Lord North, Mr. At- 
torney General, and Mr. Solicitor General, do prepare and 
bring in the same. 

Friday, April 15, 1774. 

The Lord North presented to the House, according to 
order, a Bill for the better regulating the Government of 
the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in North America : 
and the same was received. 

Lord North, on presenting the Bill, (after the breviat 
was read, containing the projiositions wliich in moving for 
the Bill, he had mentioned as the ground of it, with this ad- S 
dition and alteration, " that the nomination of the Council ^ 
should be by the Crown,") said, in this Bill there would 
be no negative voice in the Council ; nor was the Lieu- 
tenant Governor and Secretary to be of the Council, unless 
nominated by his Majesty ; that the Council would have 
much the same power as before, except the nomination of ' 
judicial officers ; that he had altered the mode of choosing 
of juries, from the hints that were thrown out the other day 



t 



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70 



in the debate by a noble Lord, (George Germain;) that 
the principle on which our juries were formed seemed to be 
highly approved of, and that of the juries of America dis- 
approved of; that he had now adopted the mode of choice 
as near the method of choosing the juries in England as 
possible ; that this was a regulation of a very nice kind ; 
and if gentlemen did not like to have it made part of the 
present Bill, it might be separated and made a Bill of 
Itself. 

Mr. R. Fuller gave notice, that he intended to move for 
a Committee to inquire into the Tea Duty on Thursday 
next, to see whether or not it was possible to repeal that 
Act before the present one took place. 

Mr. Dempster desired to ask the noble Lord, by whom 
the Governors and Judges were appointed formerly, and 
by whom paid ? 

Lord North said, the Judges were paid by the Crown ; 
and that their salaries were to accrue out of the duties 
cliargeable on the tea. 

Mr. Dowdeswell said, he was unwilling to let the day 
pass without some observations on the Bill, as it was 
brought in upon a different plan to what it was moved. 
He observed, that Government had now received sufficient 
advice for regulating their conduct, and coming to some 
decision about what was proper to be done ; but the further 
tJiey went, the worse they were ; that the House had now 
a Bill before them, which was calculated to destroy the 
charter of the Province of Massachusetts Bay ; that if, in- 
deed, we were now to make a new charter for governing 
and regulating the number of emigrants that are daily 
going to America, we should, perhaps, make it in a diffe- 
rent manner, and suit it more to the disposition of the times : 
but I wish, said he, to see no new charter granted. The 
Americans have laboured with unwearied industry, and 
flourished for near fourscore years under that democratic 
charter ; they have increased their possessions, and im- 
proved their lands to a pitch we could not have expected, 
and we have reaped the benefit of their labour, yet you are 
now going to destroy that very charter which has subsisted 
to the mutual benefit of both countries ; the charter which 
they have, breathes a spirit of liberty superiour to any thing 
either of the former or present times. It was granted in 
King William's time, and is more adapted to the spirit of a 
free people, than any charter that can possibly be framed 
by any Minister now ; but, I hope, before this Bill passes, 
that you will, at least, recollect yourselves in a cool, dispas- 
sionate manner, and look upon Americans as your children, 
and call them by whatever name you will, rebellious or diso- 
bedient, that you will consider, at the same time, that they 
are froward children, that there are also peevish parents, and 
that the ill-humour and disposition of a child is oftentimes 
brought about by the petulant obstinacy of a foolish parent. 
The ridiculous doctrine that parents are apt to instil into 
their children, of " you shall do it — you shall do it," is 
oftentimes the means of enforcing the same disposition in 
the child, of " I wont." I hate that absurd obstinacy, of 
" you shall," and, " I wont," between parent and child. 
You are not now contending for a point of honour ; you are 
struggling to obtain a most ridiculous superiority, to which 
1 hardly know a name bad enough to stamp it with. The 
regulations which you are going to enact, will be so inade- 
quate and so improper a remedy, that, in my opinion, it 
would be better to give up the whole, than to correct in 
such a violent and imprudent manner ; let me at least advise 
temper in your proceedings, and that whatever is done, 
may not be effected with rigour and severity. 

Governor Pownall rose to give tlie House an account of 
the mode in which juries were chosen in America ; the 
House at first did not much attend, but his extensive know- 
ledge in American affairs, soon drew that attention to what 
he said, which his abilities so justly deserved. He gave an 
account in what manner the Council were chosen hereto- 
fore ; that they were elected by the whole Legislature, and 
not (as had been mistakenly represented) by the People at 
large ; that the Selectmen were a kind of Aldermen, 
much the same as those in Corporations in England ; that 
about forty were chosen in each town, after which the re- 
maining ones were generally appointed as persons proper 
to serve upon juries, from which five or six people were 
taken, as occasion required ; that the Grand Juries were 
struck off from capital men, who were appointed for that 



purpose. He said great inconvenience would arise from the 
town meetings not being held without the consent of the 
Governor ; that all business of a municipal nature was done 
at a town meeting ; that these towns were, in many places, 
three hundred miles from the Capital, and that business 
must stand still in many instances, in these towns, till the 
Governor's consent could be obtained. He concluded 
with expressing a wish that the laws of the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay, as far as related to the present Bill, 
might be laid before the House. 

The Bill was then read the first time. 

Ordered, That the said Bill be read a second time upon 
this day sevennight. 

Ordered, (on the motion of Mr. Doivdeswell,) That 
such a number of copies of the said Bill be printed, as shall 
be sufficient for the use of the members of the House. 

Tuesday, April 19, 1774. 

Resolved, That an humble Address be presented to his 
Majesty, that he will be graciously pleased to give direc- 
tions, that there be laid before this House, a copy of an 
Act of the General Court of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, made in the fourth year of the reign of King William 
and Queen Mary, entituled, " An Act for regulating of 
" Townships, choice of Town Officers, and setting forth 
" their powers ;" and also copies of all other Acts of the 
General Court of the said Province, for the regulation of 
Townships and Town Meetings. 

Resolved, That an humble Address be presented to his 
Majesty, that he will be graciously pleased to give directions 
that there be laid before this House, a copy of an Act of the 
General Court of the Province of Massachusetts Buy, 
made in the seventh year of the reign of King William the 
Third, for summoning, returning, and regulating the choice 
of Grand and Petty Juries ; together with copies of all other 
permanent or temporary Acts of the said General Court, 
relative thereto. 

Ordered, That the said Addresses be presented to his 
Majesty by such members of this House as are of his Ma- 
jesty's most honorable Privy Council. 

Resolved, That an humble Address be presented to his 
Majesty, that he will be graciously pleased to give directions 
that there be laid before this House : — 

Extract of a Letter from Governor Bernard to the Lords 
Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, dated Boston, 
7th July, 1766. 

Extract of a Letter from Governor Bernard to the 
Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 30th May, 1768. 

Extract of a Letter from Governor Hutchinson to the 
Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 6th July, 1771 ; with 
a copy of his Message to the House of Representatives, 
and of the Answer of the said House. 

Extract of a Letter from Governor Hutchinson to the 
Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 29th May, 1772. 

Extract of a Letter from Governor Hutchinson to the 

Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 22d February, 1773. 

Copies of the Speeches of Governor Hutchinson to the 

General Assembly of the Massachusetts Bay, with the 

Answers of the Council and House of Representatives. 

Copy of a Petition and Remonstrance from the House of 
Representatives of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
of the 14th July, 1772. 

Copy of a Petition to his Majesty from the House of 
Representatives of Massachusetts Bay, dated 6th March, 
1773. 

Ordered, That the said Address be presented to his 
Majesty by such members of this House as are of his Ma- 
jesty's most honorable Privy Council. 

Thursday, April 21, 1774. 

The Lord North presented to the House, pursuant to 
their Address to his Majesty : — 

No. 1 . Extract of a Letter from Governor Bernard to 
the Lords of Trade, dated Boston, 7th July, 1766. 

No. 2. Extract of a Letter from Governor Bernard to 
the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 30th May, 1768. 

No. 3. Extractof a Letter from Governor Hu/cAi/ison to 
the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, 6th July, 1771 ; 
with a copy of his Message to the House of Representa- 
tives, and the Answer of the said House. 

No. 4. Extract of a Letter from Governor Hutchinson 



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BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



72 



to the Earl of Hillsborough, dated Boston, Q9th May, 1772; 
with an Enclosure. 

No. 5. Extract of a Letter from Governor Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, iiti February, 
1773. 

No. 6. Printed Copy of the Speeches of Governor 
Hutchinson to the General Assembly odhe Massachusetts 
Bay, with the Answer of the Council and House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

No. 7. Copy of a Petition and Remonstrance to the 
Kins, f'om tl'e House of Representatives of the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay, dated 14th July, 1772. 

No. 8. Copy of a Petition to the Kin<(, from the House 
of Representatives of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
dated 6lh March, 177:3. 

Together with a List of said Papers ; and the said List 
was read. 

Ordered, that the said Papers do lie upon the table, 
to be perused by the members of the House. 

Friday, April 22, 1774. 

The Order of the Day, for the second reading of the 
Bill, was read. 

Air. Fuller said, he did not rise to make any debate, for 
he was not enabled as yet to form any opinion whether the 
Bill before the House was a proper one or not; as copies of 
the charters which had been ordered, were not yet laid 
before the House, he would venture to say that no man 
knew the constitution of that Government ; it was, there- 
fore, impossible for him to say, in what manner he would 
correct and amend it. 

Sir George Savile said, he had not troubled the House 
before on the occasion, but he could not help observing, 
that the measure now before the House was a very doubtful 
and dangerous one ; doubtful as to the matter and proprie- 
ty of regulation, and dangerous as to its consequence ; that 
charters by Government were sacred things, and are only to 
be taken away by a due course of law, either as a punish- 
ment for an offence, or for a breach of the contract, and that 
can only be by evidence of the facts ; nor could he con- 
ceive that in either of those cases there could be any such 
thing as proceeding without a fair hearing of both parties. 
This measure before us seems to be a most extraordinary 
exertion of Legislative power. Let us suppose a lease 
granted to a man, wherein was a covenant, the breach of 
which would subject him to a forfeiture of his lease — would 
not a court of justice require evidence of the fact ? Why, 
then, will you proceed different from the line which is al- 
ways observed in courts of justice. You are now going to 
alter the charter, because it is convenient. In what manner 
does the House mean to take away this charter, when in 
fact they refuse to hear the parties, or to go through a legal 
course of evidence of the facts ? Chartered rights have, at 
all times, when attempted to be altered or taken away, oc- 
casioned much bloodshed and strife ; and whatever persons 
in this House may have advanced, that they do not proceed 
upon this business but with trembling hands, I do also as- 
sure them that I have shewn my fears upon this occasion, 
for I have run away from every question, except one, to 
which I gave my negative. I do not like to be present at 
a business which I think inconsistent with the dignity and 
justice of this House ; I tremble when I am, for fear of the 
consequences ; and I think it a little extraordinary that Mr. 
Bollan should be admitted to be heard as an American 
Agent in the House of Lords, when in the House of Com- 
mons he was refused. I believe it is true, that the facts set 
forth in his petition to this House, were different from those 
which he presented to the House of Lords ; in one declarinu' 
himself an inhabitant of Baton, and in the other omitting 
it. I cannot conceive it possible to proceed on this Bill 
upon the small ground of evidence which you have had. 

Mr. Welbore Ellis. I must rise, Sir, with great diffi- 
dence, when I differ from the honorable gentleman who 
spoke last, whose abilities are so eminently great; but I 
think, that chartered rights are by no means those sacred 
things which never can or ought to be altered ; they are 
vested in the Crown, as a prerogative, for the good of the 
People at large ; if the Supreme Legislature find that those 
charters so granted, are both unfit and inconvenient for the 
public utility, they have a right to make them fit and con- 
venient: wherever private property is concerned, the Le- 



gislature will not take it away without making a full recom- 
pense ; but wlierever the regulation of public matter is the 
object, they have a right to correct, control, or take it away 
as may best suit the public welfare. The Crown may 
sometimes grant improper powers with regard to Govern- 
ments that are to be establislied — will it not be highly pro- 
per and necessary that the Legislature, seeing in what 
manner the Crown has been ill-advised, should take it into 
their consideration, and alter it, as far as necessary ? It is 
the Legislature's duty to correct the errors that have been 
established in the infancy of that constitution, and regulate 
them for the public welfare. Is a charter, not consistent 
with the public good, to be continued ? Tlie honorable 
gentleman says much bloodshed has been occasioned by 
taking away or altering of chartered rights ; I grant it ; but it 
has always been where encroachments have been made by 
improper parties, and the attack has been carried on by 
improper powers. He also says, this form of Government in 
America ought not to be altered without hearing the parties ; 
the papers on your table, surely, are sufiicient evidence 
what they have to say in their defence. Look only into 
the letter dated the 19th of November, 1773, wherein the 
Governor applied to the Council for advice, and they neg- 
lected giving it to him ; and also wherein a Petition was 
presented to the Council by certain persons who applied 
for protection to their property during these disturbances ; 
the Council, without giving any answer, adjourned for ten 
days, and the Governor was not able to do any thing himself 
without their opinion. Look again, Sir, into the resolution 
which the Council came to when they met again, stating 
the total insufficiency of their power. This, surely. Sir, is 
an evidence competent to ground this bill upon. We have 
now got no farther than just to alter these two parts, as 
stated by themselves. Surely, Sir, that form of Govern- 
ment which will not protect your property, ought to be 
altered in such a manner as it may be able to do it. 

General Comvay. What I intend to say, will not delay 
the House long. [The House being rather noisy, the Gene- 
ral said, I beg leave once more to say a short word.] I am 
very sure what I intend to say will little deserve the atten- 
tion of the House, but the subject is of that importance, that 
it requires it. The consequence of this Bill will be very 
important and dangerous. Parliament cannot break into a 
right without hearing the parties. The question, then, is 
simply this : have they been heard ? What 1 because the 
Papers say a murder has been committed, does it follow 
they have proved it ? ' Audi alteram partem' is a maxim 
I have long adhered to ; but it is something so inconsistent 
with Parliamentary proceedings not to do it, that I am as- 
tonished at it. The Council are blamed, because they did 
not give that advice to the Governor which he wanted. I 
think, Sir, the Governor might have acted alone, without 
their assistance. Gentlemen will consider, that this is not 
only the charter of Boston, or of any particular part, but 
the charter of all America. Are the Americans not to be 
heard ? Do they not choose to consent and agree about 
appointing an agent? I think there is no harm, upon this 
occasion, in stretching a point ; and I would rather hear Mr. 
Bollan as an agent of America (though he is a little irregu- 
lar in his appointment) sooner than leave it to be said, that 
this Bill passed without it. The House being vociferous, 
he said, I am afraid I tire the House with my weak voice; if 
that is the case, I will not proceed, but I do think, and it is 
my sincere opinion, that we are the aggressors and innova- 
tors, and not the Colonies. We have irritated and forced 
laws upon them for these six or seven years last past. We 
liave enacted such a variety of laws, with these new taxes, 
together with a refusal to repeal the trifling duty on tea ; 
all these things have served no other purpose but to distress 
and perplex. I think the Americans have done no more 
than every subject would do in an arbitrary state, where 
laws are imposed against their will. In my conscience, I 
think, taxation and legislation are in this case inconsistent. 
Have you not a Legislative right over Irelandl And yet 
no one will dare to say we have a right to tax. These 
Acts, respecting America, will involve this country and its 
Ministers in misfortunes, and I wish I may not add, in ruin. 

Lord North. I do not consider this matter of regulation 
to be taking away their charters in such manner as is repre- 
sented ; it is a regulation of Government to assist the Crown ; 
it appears to me, not to be a matter of political expediency, 



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BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



74 



but of necessity. If it does not stand upon that ground, it 
stands on nolliing. The account whicli has just now been 
read to you is an authentic paper, transmitted to Govern- 
ment here, shewing that the Council refused, in every case, 
their assistance and advice ; and will tliis country sit still, 
when they see the Colony proceeding against your own 
subjects, tarring and feathering your servants ; denying your 
laws and authority; refusing every direction and advice 
which you send ? Are we, Sir, seeing all this, to be silent, 
and give the Governor no support ? Gentlemen say, let 
tlie Colony come to your bar, and be heard in their defence ; 
though it is not likely that they will come, when they deny 
your authority in every instance. Can we remain in this 
situation long ? We must, effectually, take some measure 
to correct and amend the defects of that Government. I 
have heard so many different opinions in regard to our con- 
duct in America, I hardly know how to answer them. 
The honourable gentleman, who spoke last, formerly blamed 
the tame and insipid conduct of Government ; now he con- 
demns this measure as harsh and severe. The Ameiicans 
have tarred and feathered your subjects, plundered your 
merchants, burnt your ships, denied all obedience to your 
laws and authority ; yet so clement, and so long forbearing 
has our conduct been, that it is incumbent on us now to 
take a different course. Whatever may be the conse- 
quence, we must risk something ; if we do not, all is over. 
The measure now proposed, is nothing more than taking 
the election of Counsellors out of the hands of those people, 
who are continually acting in defiance and resistance of 
your laws. It has also been said by gentlemen — send for 
the Americans to your bar — 'give them redress a twelve- 
month hence. Surely, Sir, this cannot be the language 
that is to give effectual relief to America ; it is not I say, 
again, political convenience, it is political necessity that 
urges this measure : if this is not the proper method, shew 
me any other which is preferable, and I will postpone it. 

Sir George Yonge. It appears to me, Sir, that it is un- 
answered and unanswerable, what has been advanced by 
the honorable gentleman who spoke second, that the parties 
should be heard, though even at a twelvemonth hence. 
Nothing, Sir, but fatal necessity can countenance this mea- 
sure. No body of men ought to be proceeded against 
without being heard, much less ought the regulation of a 
whole Government to take place, without the parties at- 
tending in their defence against such alterations. 

Governor Johnstone. I see, Sir, a great disposition in 
this House to proceed in this business without knowing any 
thing of the constitution of America ; several inconvenien- 
ces will arise if the Sheriff is to be appointed by the Go- 
vernor ; the jury will of course be biased by some influence 
or other ; special juries will be most liable to this. [Here 
the Governor gave an account of the different riots which 
had happened in England, and compared them with what 
he called the false account of those from America.] I im- 
pute, says he, all the misfortunes which have happened in 
America, to the taking away the power of the Governor. 
No man of common sense, can apprehend that the Go- 
vernor would ever have gone for two or three days in 
the country during these disturbances, if he had had the 
command of the military power. The natural spirit of 
man would be fired, in such a manner, as to actuate him to 
show resistance ; but in this Governor no power was lodged. 
I disapprove much of the measure which is before us, and 
1 cannot think but its consequences will be prejudicial. 

Mr. C. Jenlcinson. I rise, Sir, only to observe, that if 
the Colony has not that power within itself to maintain its 
own peace and order, the Legislature should, and ought to 
have. Let me ask. Sir, whether the Colony took any step, 
in any shape, to quell the riots and disturbances ? No, 
they took none. Let me ask again, whether all the checks 
and control that are necessary, are not put into the com- 
mission of the Governments ? Much has been said about 
hearing the parties, and taking away tliis chartered right ; 
I am of opinion, that where the right is a high political 
regulation, you are not in that instance bound to hear them ; 
but the hearing of parties is necessary where private pro- 
perty is concerned. It is not only in the late proceedings, 
but in all former, that they have denied your authority 
over them; they have refused protection to his Majesty's 
subjects, and in every instance disobeyed the laws of this 
country ; either let this country forsake its trade with 



America, or let us give that due protection to it which 
safety requires. 

Mr. Harris. I cannot see, Sir, any reason for so wide 
a separation between America and England as other gen- 
tlemen are apt to think there ought to be ; that country. Sir, 
was hatched from this ; and I hope we shall always keep 
it under the shadow of our wings. It has been said, no 
representation, no taxation. This was the system formerly 
adopted, but I do not find it authorized in any book of 
jurisprudence, nor do I deem it to be a doctrine either rea- 
sonable or constitutional. 1 insist upon it, they are bound 
to obey both the Crown and Parliament. The last twelve 
years of our proceedings have been a scene of lenity and 
inactivity. Let us proceed and mend our method, or else 
I shall believe, as an honorable gentleman has observed, 
that we are the aggressors. 

Sir Edward Astley. If we have had a twelve years' 
lenity and inactivity, I hope we shall not now proceed to 
have a twelve years' cruelty and oppression. By the reso- 
lution and firmness which I perceive in the House, it seems 
to indicate a perseverance in the measure now proposed, 
which 1 deem to be a harsh one, and unworthy of a British 
Legislature. 

Mr. Ward found fault with the charter being left too 
much, as to the execution of its powers, in the People, and 
he could not think that the Lesislature was doing any thinf^ 
which it had not a right to do, as he had looked upon all 
charters to be granted with a particular clause in it, ex- 
pressing that it should not be taken away but by the 
Parliament. 

Governor Pownall. Sir, the few words that I shall 
trouble the House with on this occasion, will be directed 
simply to facts, and to the rectifying some matters of fact 
respecting the constitution of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, which some gentlemen, on both sides the House, 
seem to me to have mistaken, and to have mis-stated. 

As to opinions, I shall never more trouble the House 
with mine on this subject. While the affairs of America 
remained on that ground, that opinions might operate on 
measures of policy, I never withheld mine, poor as they 
may have been — I always avowed them openly and pub- 
licly. In this House I delivered my sentiments explicitly 
and directly. It was my duty so to do — I consider it as of 
perfect obligation ; and I hope I have fulfilled that duty. 
I could not but think it a matter of imperfect obligation, 
even to obtrude my sentiments, and the best information 
that I could give, in other places, out of this House. I 
hope I have not there exceeded my duty ; 1 have ex- 
pressed the same sentiments at all limes, and have given 
the same opinion in what I have written to America. All 
tended to one point — the pointing out the grounds of recon- 
ciliation and peace. 

The case at present ceases to be matter of opinion — it is 
come to action. The measure which you are pursuing will 
be resisted, not by force, or the effect of arms, as was said 
by an honorable gentleman on the late occasion, but by a 
regular united system of resistance. 

I told this House, (it is now four years past,) that the 
People of America would resist the tax which lay then 
upon them — that they would not oppose power to your 
power, but that they would become impracticable. Have 
they not been so from that time to this very hour? I tell 
you now, that they will resist the measures now pursued, in 
a more vigorous way. You will find them prepared for 
such resistance, not by arms, but by a system of measures. 
The Committees of Correspondence in the different Prov- 
inces, are in constant coinmunication — they do not trust 
the conveyance of the Post-Office — they have set up a 
constitutional courier, which will soon grow up to the 
superseding of your Post Office. As soon as intelligence 
of these affairs reach them, they will judge it necessary to 
communicate with each other. It will be found inconve- 
nient and ineffectual so to do by letters — they must confer. 
They will hold a conference — and to what these Commit- 
tees, thus met in Congress, will grow up, I will not say. 

On the other point, should matters ever come to arms, 
you will hear of other officers than those appointed by your 
Governors. When matters once come to that it will be, as 
it was in the late civil wars of this country, of little conse- 
quence to dispute who were the aggressors — that will be 
merely matter of opinion. It is of more consequence at 



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76 



this niomeni so to act — to take such measures — that no 
such misfortune may come into event. 

I hope the House will excuse my trespassing on their 
patience — it is the last time that 1 shall speak on this sub- 
ject. If, however, the knowledge which my situation must 
necessarily have supplied me with, can enable me to be ot 
any use in matter of information, on any points which come 
before you, I shall constantly attend in my place, and in my 
place be ready to answer to any questions on such matter, 
as any gentleman may wish to receive information upon, as 
far as 1 may be able to inform him ; and in this light 1 beg 
leave to state, that althougii by the charter of the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay the Governor is obliged to take with 
him, not simply the advice, but tlie consent of the Council, 
in the nomination of judges and other civil officers — yet it is 
from the power of the Governor's commission held under the 
broad seal, that all the commissions in the Province are de- 
rived ; and cease with the determination of that commission. 
All those officers, except the Attorney General, even the 
Sherifl's, which an honorable gentleman had conceived not 
to be so, and which the present proposed Bill directs to be 
appointed and removed by the Governor, are according to 
the powers and privileges of the present charter, appointed 
by the Governor in Council. The difference is, that in 
those Governments which are established by the King's 
patent commissions, the whole act of appointment is in the 
Governor — which act, indeed, he is by his instructions di- 
rected to do in the Act. He is the sole efficient : he may 
advise with the Council, but he is not bound to take their 
consent — he is not incompetent to the act, without their 
consent. His commission gives him full power to act — if 
he acts without the advice of his Council, he does, indeed, 
break through his instructions, and may incur his Majesty's 
displeasure ; but yet the appointment is good to all intents 
and purposes. The first is the act of legal power, derived 
from the commission ; the second, is a matter prudential, 
with which the mode of the act is properly and wisely ac- 
companied. 

In the charter under consideration, the matter of instruc- 
tion was made a component part of the act — by which the 
Council were made a component part of the Governor, and 
so far forth of the supreme executive magistrate. This I 
have always thought to be an original and radical blunder. 
If the Bill, as it was first proposed, had gone no farther than 
to the remedy of this error, I think there could not have 
been a reasonable objection to it — but of that I shall say 
no more now — 1 have already given ray opinion on that 
point. 

Another gentleman (misled by a construction which some 
Governors have made of their powers) thinks that the 
Council are so much, in all cases of Government, a part of 
the supreme executive magistrate, that if they refuse to act 
with the Governor, he cannot do any act of Government 
either civil or military. I know of no Act in which they 
are constituted such part, but in the case of the nomination 
of civil officers. In every other, the Governor, both by 
the charter and by his commission is, perfect and complete, 
supreme executive magistrate. I am sure I can speak from 
fact ; — 1 have, as Governor, without communion of power 
with the Council, done every civil act of Government, 
which the King, actuating the powers of the Crown, does 
here within the Realm. And as to the military, if it had 
been my misfortune to have been Governor in these times, 
and if the interposition of the military had been necessary, 
I would not have applied to them for their aid — I would 
have sent them an order. I am sure there is no officer 
within the Province would have dared to have disobeyed it. 
They must have obeyed. The power to give such order 
is, both by the charter and the conmiission (which are both 
under the broad seal,) in the Governor, as Commander-in- 
chief; and I know of no revocation of it, but by the mere 
letter of a Secretary of State, which could have no effect ; 
but which was at the same time one of the most dangerous 
measures ever taken. 

Upon this ground, supposed to be the fact, that the 
Council are part of the executive magistrate, it is alleged as 
matter of crime against them, that they refused to act with 
the Governor at the time of the late riots ; by which the 
powers of Government were suspended, the power of the 
•barter misused, so that the Governor could not act ; but as 
I have shewn that this is not the fact, the allegation of crime 



vanishes : yet I must own, and I must say, that as it is al- 
ways for the benefit of the public, that the Governor should 
advise with, and liave the advice of his Council — that as it 
is always of benefit to Government, that he should take 
with him and be supported by the authority of his Council, 
and, especially, in this Province, where the authority of the 
country is of more solid effect than in any other — the 
Council, and every member of it, are highly biameable, are, 
indeed, inexcusable, whenever they refuse to advise, when- 
ever they withhold their authority from the aid and support 
of Government. 1 do not know whether they be not liable 
to censure in refusing their assistance, as they are by the 
charter expressly called Assistants; but surely their conduct 
was inexcusable, when, instead of assisting, they sought 
and took occasion in the midst of these disturbances, to 
bring forward as an act of Council, a report fraught with all 
the matters of contest and dispute, which were the very 
grounds taken as principles by the People engaged in the 
disturbances. Thus far as to matter of fact; as to matter 
of opinion, I shall not trouble the House with it. [The 
few words afterwards spoken by way of explanation, were 
so far from signifying that the People were going to rebel, 
that they were expressly spoken to obviate that misappre- 
hension of what had been said.] 

Mr. Rigby. LTpon my word, Sir, what was just now 
said is very worthy the consideration of this House; and 
if, from what the honourable gentleman says, it is true, and 
I believe he is well informed, it appears that America is 
preparing to arm ; and that the deliberations of their town- 
meetings tend chiefly to oppose the measures of this coun- 
try by force. He has told you. Sir, that the Americant 
will appoint other officers than those sent by Government 
to command their troops. He has told you that a Post- 
Office is established on their account from town to town, in 
order to carry their treacherous correspondence from one to 
another. He has told you, the Post-Office revenue will 
soon be annihilated. If these things are true. Sir, I find 
we have been the aggressors, by continually doing acts of 
lenity for these twelve years last past. I think, Sir, and 
speak out boldly when I say it, that this country has a right 
to tax America; but, Sir, it is matter of astonishment to 
me, how an honourable gentleman, (General Conway) can 
be the author or bringer in of a Declaratory Law over all 
America, and yet saying at one and the same time, that 
we have no right to tax America ! If I were to begin to 
say that America should not be taxed, and that these 
measures were not proper, I would first desire my own 
Declaratory Law to be repealed ; but being of opinion that 
the Americans are the subjects of this country, I will de- 
clare freely, that I think this country has a right to tax 
America ; but 1 do not say I w^ould put any new tax on at 
this particular crisis ; but when things are returned to a 
peaceable state, I would then begin to exercise it. And I 
am free to declare my opinion, that I think we have a right 
to tax Ireland, if there was a necessity so to do, in order 
to help the mother country. If Ireland was to rebel and 
resist our laws, I would tax it. The mother country has 
an undoubted right and control over the whole of its Colo- 
nies. Again, Sir, a great deal has been said concerning 
requisition. Pray, in what manner is it to be obtained? 
Is the King to demand it? Or are we, the Legislative 
power of this country, to send a very civil, polite gentle- 
man over to treat with their Assembly ? How and in what 
manner is he to address that Assembly? Is he to tell the 
Speaker of it, that we have been extremely ill-used by our 
neighbours, the French; that they have attacked us in 
several quarters ; that the finances of this country are in a 
bad state ; and, therefore, we desire you will be kind enough 
to assist us, and give us some money ? Is this to be the 
language of this country to that ; and are we thus to go 
cap in hand ? I am of opinion, that if the Administration 
of this country had not been changed soon after the pass- 
ing of the Stamp Act, that tax would have been collected 
with as iDuch ease as the land tax is in Great Britain. I 
have acted, with regard to America, one consistent part, 
and shall continue in it till I hear better reason to convince 
me to the contrary. 

Governor Powtiall to explain. I apprehend I have been 
totally misunderstood. I did not assert the Americans 
were now in rebellion, but that they are going to rebel ; 
when that comes to pass, the question will be, who was the 



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78 



occasion of it. Something lias been said relative to requi- 
sition : I think I gave several instances wlierein the same 
had been complied with in time of war. 

Mr. Charles Fox. I am i;lad to hear from the lionora- 
ble gentleman who spoke last, that now is not the time to 
tax America: tiiat the only time for that is, when all these 
disturbances are quelled, and they are returned to their 
duty ; so, I find, taxes are to be the reward of obedience ; 
and the Americans, who are considered to have been in 
open rebellion, are to be rewarded by acquiescing to their 
measures. VVlicn will be the tune when America ought to 
have heavy taxes laid upon it ? The honorable gentleman 
(Mr. Right/) tells you, that that time is when the Ameri- 
cans are returned to jieace and quietness. The honorable 
gentleman tells us also, that we have a right to tax Ireland; 
however, I may agree with him in regard to the principle, 
it would not be policy to exercise it ; I believe we have 
no more right to tax the one than the other. I believe 
America is wrong in resisting against this country with re- 
gard to its l^egislative authority. It v\as an old ojiinion, 
and I believe a very true one, that there was a dispensing 
power in the Crown, but whenever that dispensing ]30wer 
was pretended to be exercised, it was always rejected and 
opposed to the utmost, because it operated to me, as a sub- 
ject, as a detriment to my property and liberty ; but. Sir, 
there has been a constant conduct practised in this country, 
consisting of violence and weakness, I wish those measures 
may not continue ; nor can I think that the Stamp Act 
would have been submitted to without resistance, if the Ad- 
ministration had not been changed : the present Bill before 
you is not what you want ; it irritates the minds of the 
l^eople, but does not correct the deficiencies of that Govern- 
ment. 

Sir Gilbert Elliot said, there was not the least degree of 
absurdity in taxing your own subjects, over whom you de- 
clared you had an absolute right ; though that tax should 
through necessity, be enacted at a time when peace and 
quietness were the reigning system of the times : you de- 
clare you have that -right, where is the absurdity in the ex- 
ercise of it ? 

Sir Richard Sutton read a copy of a letter relative to the 
Government of America, from a Governor in America to 
the Board of Trade, showing, that at the most quiet times, 
the disposition to oppose the law"s of this country were 
strongly engrafted in them, and that all their actions con- 
veyed a spirit and wish for independence. If you ask an 
American who is his master, he will tell you he has none, 
nor any Governor, but Jesus Christ. I do believe it, and 
it is my firm opinion, that the opposition to the measures of 
the Legislature of this country, is a determined preposses- 
sion of the idea of total independence. 

The Bill was then read a second time. 

Resolved, That this House will, upon Wednesday morn- 
ing next, resolve itself into a Committee of the whole 
House, upon the Bill. 

Monday, April 25, 1774. 

Mr. Gascoigne presented to the House, pursuant to their 
Address to his Majesty : — 

No. I. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the fourth year of the reign of King 
William and Queen Mary, intituled " An Act for regula- 
" ting of townshij)s, choice of town officers, and setting 
" forth their power." 

No. 2. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the sixth year of the reign of King 
William and Queen Mary, intituled, " An Act to enable 
" towns, villages, and proprietors in common and undivi- 
" ded lands, &,c., to sue and be sued." 

No. 3. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Mttssachuictts Buy, in the fifth year of the reiijn of Queen 
Anne, intituled " An Act for a new choice of town officers, 
" on special occasions." 

No. 4. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the ninth year of the reign of 
Queen Anne, intituled " An Act directing the levying and 
" collecting of county and town assessments." 

No. 5. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the second year of the reign of King 
fireor^ethe Fourth, intituled, " An Act for the better regu- 
" lating of town and proprietary meetings." 



No. 6. Extract of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the first year of the reign of King 
George the Second, intituled, "An Act in addition 
to an Act for highways." 

No. 7. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the seventh and eighth years of the 
reign of King George the Second, intituled, " An Act in 
" explanation of, and farther addition to, an Act, intituled, 
" an Act for regulating of townships, choice of town offi- 
" cers, and setting forth their power.' " 

No. 8. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the sixteenth year of the reign of 
King George the Second, intituled, " An Act in furdier 
" addition to an explanation of an Act, intituled, ' an Act 
" for regiUating townships, choice of town officers, and 
" setting forth their power.' " 

No. 9. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the twenty-ninth year of the reign 
of King George the Second, intituled, " An Act for revi- 
" ving and continuing sundry laws, that are expired, or 
" near expiring." 

No. 10. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the thirtieth year of the reign of 
King George the Second, indtuled, " An Act in further 
" addition to an Act, iiitituled, ' an Act for regulating of 
" townships, and choice of town officers, and setting forth 
" their power.' " 

No. IL Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the first year of his present Majesty's 
reign, intituled " An Act for the better regulating districts 
" within this Province." 

No. 12. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the second year of his present Ma- 
jesty's reign, intituled, " An Act for reviving andcontinu- 
" ing sundry laws, that are expired, or near expiring. 

No. 13. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the seventh year of his present Ma- 
jesty's reign, intituled, " An Act for reviving and continu- 
" ing sundry laws, that are expired, or near expiring." 

No. 14. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the tenth year of his present Ma- 
jesty's reign, intituled, " An Act for reviving and continu- 
" ing sundry laws, that are expired, or near expiring." 

No. 15. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the twelfth year of his present Ma- 
jesty's reign, intituled, " An Act for regulating town-meet- 
" ings in the town of Danvers." 

No. 16. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the seventh year of the reign of 
King William the Third, intituled, " An Act for Grand 
" Jurors serving at the Quarter Session of the Peace, and 
" punishing defaulters of Jurors attendance." 

No. 17. Extract of an Act passed in the Province of 
the Massachusetts Bay, in the seventh year of the reign of 
King William the Third, intituled, " An Act for holding 
" of Courts of General Session of the Peace, and ascertain- 
" ing the times and places for the same." 

No. 18. Extract of an Act passed in the Province of 
the Massachusetts Bay, in the eleventh year of the reign 
of King William the Third, intituled, " An Act for the es- 
" tablishing of Inferior Courts of Common Pleas, in the 
" several counties of this Province," 

No. 19. Extract of an Act passed in the Province of 
the Massachusetts Bay, in the eleventh year of the reign 
of King William the Third, intituled " An Act for esta- 
" blishing a Superior Court of Judicature, Court of Assize, 
" and General Gaol Delivery, within this Province." 

No. 20. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the twelfth year of the reign of 
King William the Third, intituled, " An Act relating to 
" the office and duty of a Coroner." 

No. 21. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the third year of the reign of King 
George the First, intituled, " An Act for the more effec- 
" tual preventing default in the appearance of Juiors." 

No. 22. Copy of an Act passed in the Provuice of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the twenty-third year of the reign 
of King George the Second, intituled, "An Act for the 
" better regulating the choice of Petit Jurors." 

No. 23. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the thirtieth year of the reign of 



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RO 



King George tlie Second, intituled, " An Act for the 
" better regulating tlie choice of Petit Jurors." 

No. 24. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of tlie 
Massachusetts 6ay, in the thirtieth 3ear of the reijfn oi 
King George the Second, intituled, " An Act in addition 
" to an Act, intituled, ' An Act for the better regulating the 
" choice of Petit Jurors.' " 

No. 25. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massarhusctts Bay, in the thirty-third year of the roign of 
King George the Second, intituled, "An Act for the better 
" regulating the choice of Petit Jurors." 

No. 26. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the thirty-third year of the reign of 
King George the Second, Intituled, " An Act in addition 
" to an Act^ intituled, ' An Act for the better regulating tlie 
" choice of Petit Jurors.' " 

No. 27. Copy of an Act passed in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in the seventh year of his present Ma- 
jesty's reign, intituled, " An Act for reviving and continu- 
" ing sundry laws, that are expired, or near expiring." 

Together with a list of the said Papers. 

And the said list was reiid. 

Ordered, That tiiesaid Papers do lie on the table to be 
perused by the members of the House. 

Wednesday, April 27, 1774. 

Ordered, That the order of the day, for the House to 
resolve itself into a Committee of the whole House, upon 
the Bill, be now read. 

And the said order being read accordingly, 

Ordered, That the Paper, intituled " Massachusetts 
" Bay Charter, granted by King JVilliam and Queen Mary, 
•' in the tiiird year of their reign," which was presented to 
the House upon the twenty-second day of January, 1740, 
be referred to the said Committee. 

Ordered, That the several Papers which were presented 
to the House upon Monday last, by Mr. Gascoigne, be re- 
ferred to the said Committee. 

Ordered, That the several Papers which were presented 
to the House by the Lord North, upon the 7th and lltli 
days of March last, and the 15tli and 21st days of this in- 
stant, April, be referred to the said Connnillee. 

Then the House resolved itself into the said Committee. 

Mr. Speaker left the Chair. 

Sir Charles Whitworth took the Chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker resumed the Chair. 

Sir Charles fVhitvorth reported from the Committee, 
that they had gone through the Bill, and made several 
amendments thereunto ; which they had directed him to 
report, when the House will please to receive the same. 

Ordered, That the Report be received to-morrow morn- 
ing. 

Thuhsday, April 28, 1774. 

The order of the day, for receiving the Report was 
read ; and 

A Petition of William Botlan, Esq., stylmg himself 
Agent for the Council of his Majesty's Province oi Massa- 
chusetts Bay, in New-England, being offered to be pre- 
sented to the House, by Mr. DowdesiceU, which Pethioner, 
he said, desired that the Bill for regulating the Civil Gov- 
ernment, and the Bill for the more Impartial Administra- 
tion of Justice, might not pass into a law, until he should 
have time to receive an answer from the above Province to 
letters he had sent. 

Mr. Dowdeswell said, after the part I have taken in the 
progress of these affairs, and the direct manner in which I 
have expressed myself on fonner occasions, I shall have the 
less to trouble the House with on this occasion. The pe- 
tition I have now brought up is, in the matter of its request 
so reasonable, that I cannot persuade myself the House will 
reject it. I should wish the affair might be seriously con- 
sidered. What is the present stage of your progress? 
You are carrying through an Act tliat is to work a total 
change in the chartered constitution of a free country, in 
order to prevent riots and an improper conduct in the mob 
of that country ; — and lest in cai-rying that Act into execu- 
tion, you meet with a resistance that you expect, (and in 
that very expectation jirove that they may resist vvitliout 
the imputation of an unexpected crime,) you hrin<r in 
another to regulate the trial of offenders, by which you 



destroy the trial by jury, and drag the People across the 
Atlantic 10 give evidence in Westminster Hall: regulations, 
the flagrancy of which has been sufficiently ex|)osed, and 
branded in the manner they deserve. The Agent of the 
Province, alarmed at so weighty a resentment, and so cruel 
a punishment on the constitution and liberty of his country, 
for the evil actions of t!ie scum of the People, presents a 
petition to you. What is the purport of it ? Only to pray 
you to suspend your judgment until he can recei\e instruc- 
tions from his constituents ; — that is, lie begs a whole 
country may not be condenmed witl:out a single person au- 
thorized by it to appear in its defence. Now, Sir, I think 
the pi-ayer of this petition so perfectly reasonable, that it 
a])pears impossible to be rejected out of the Court of In- 
quisition. It is no in<juiry whether your measure is just or 
uot ; — we may admit it to be, in our opinions, just, ])roper, 
and political ; and yet assert the necessity of hearing the 
Province before you condemn it to a severe punishment. 
I will not say it is wrong to act thus — I say it is imjjossible 
— common justice — the feelings of mankind, condemn it. 

Sir George Savik spoke ably on tlie same side of the 
question, as did Mr. Burke, Mr. T. Townshend, &;c., who 
all urged how highly cruel it was to pass a law against any 
body of People, without hearing either them, or their 
Agent, in their defence. 

To the aguments of the above gentlemen. Lord North, 
made the following reply : 

I do not rise with a design to attempt answering every 
objection that ingenuity can frame against the measure. 
The most ingenious man will iiever be able to sketch a 
plan, however simple, to which objections may not be 
started. The only point at present before us is, should 
we delay passing these Acts, in order to hear what the 
town of Boston can say, in defence of themselves. Is there 
or is there not propriety in such a delay ? I reply, that it 
would be absurd ; the fact of their crimes is authenticated ; 
we want no fresh proofs ; no gentlem;m has expressed any 
doubts ; we should therefore wait to hear how they might 
exculpate themselves (that is, the Council and Assembly) 
and lay the blame on the mob possibly ; we should suspend 
our measures, to know what recompense they would make ; 
we should stop to hear their concessions. Are the friends 
of these acts every moment to recal to the minds of their 
opposers, the sentiments they were full of at the opening 
of the business ? " Go to the bottom of the evil, or let it 
" alone ; no more palliatives." So, Sir, if the town of 
Boston makes concessions and recompenses, our business 
is done, and our purpose answered. Very far from it — 
these Bills are not brought in for one or the other : they are 
to prevent such horrid evils in future ; to regulate the con- 
stitution on the plan of other Colonies, that flourish under 
their constitution as much as Boston with its anarchy, and 
to indemnify the legal executors of your decrees. View 
the affair in this light, and all you objections fall. Let the 
whole Colony appear at your bar, and every argument 
they can use, every concession they can make, will all be 
relative to the past, not to the future. These Bills Sir, 
have much more uscfol and more necessary dLStination, 
the prevention of future evils. Should we now delay the 
progress of this important business, in order to go back into 
our old system of palliatives, under tiie pretence of hearing 
what arguments may be used in defence of the most 
atrocious actions ? 

The. motion \\as also very strongly opposed by Mr. 
Wedderljuijif,, Mr. Dyson, he. 

The House was moved, that the Proceedings of the 
House, cf the 14th day of March last, on receiving the 
Petition of Wi Ham Botlan, Esquire, Agent for the Coun- 
cil of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in New Eng- 
land, miiiht be read : 

And ti;e same were read accordingly. 

And the question being but, that the Petition he 
brought up ? 

The House divided ; Yeas, 32; Nays, 95. 

So it passed in the Negative. 

The House was moved, that the entry in the Journals 
of the House, of the 9th of November, 1696, of the 
proceedings of the House, in relation to ttie Bill for 
attainting Sir John Fenwick, Baronet, of High Treason, 
might be read: 

And the same was read accordingly. 



I 



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82 



I 



Tlie House was moved, that the entries in the Journals 
of the House, of the 19th day of March, \T22, of the 
proceedings of the House, in rehition to the Bills for inflict- 
inoj certain pains and penalties upon John Flunlcctt and 
Georffc Kelly, alias Johnson, might he read : 

And the same were read accordingly. 

The House was also moved, that the entry in the 
Journals of the House, of the iJ2d day of March, 172iJ, 
of the proceedings of the Hou^e, in relation to the Bill for 
inflicting certain pains and penalties upon Francis Lord 
Bishop of Rochester, might be read : 

And the same was read accorflingly. 

Tlien a motion being made, and the question being put, 
that the Report of the Committee of the whole House, be 
received this day four months. 

It passed in the Negative. 

Ordered, That the said Report be now received. 

Sir Charles Whitworth accordingly rejwrted the amend- 
ments of the Committee, which were all agreed to by the 
House except one. 

A clause was then added to the Bill authorizing the 
Court, where an action is depending, to grant a view, upon 
application of either of the parties. 

Another clause was offered, to be added to the Bill, 
that no Sheriff shall continue in office longer then one 
year ; and no Sheriff, or Lender Sheriff, shall continue more 
than two years successively. 

And the said clause was once read, and, with leave of 
the House, withdrawn. 

Then an amendment was made, by the House, to the 
Bill. 

Ordered, That the Bill, with the amendments, be en- 
grossed. 

Friday, April 29, 1774. 

Ordered, That the Bill for the better Regulating the 
Government of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in 
North America, be read the third time upon Monday 
morning next, if tiie said Bill shall be then engrossed. 

Monday, May 2, 1774. 

Sir George Sitvile presented a Petition of several 
Natives of America, to the House, which was read ; setting 
forth, — 

That the Petitioners are again constrained to complain 
to the House of two Bills, which if carried into execution, 
will be fatal to the Rights, Liberties, and Peace of all Ame- 
rica, and that the Petitioners have already seen, with equal 
astonishment and grief, proceedings adopted against them, 
which, in violation of the first principles of justice, and of 
the laws of the land, inflict the severest punishments, 
without hearing the accused : Upon the same principle of 
injustice, a Bill is now brought in, which, under the pro- 
fession of better regulating the Government of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay, is calculated to deprive a whole Province, 
without any form of trial, of its chartered rights, solemnly 
secured to it by mutual compact between the Crown 
and the People. The Petitioners are well informed, that a 
charter so granted, was never before altered, or resumed, 
but upon a full and fair hearing ; that therefore the present 
proceeding is totally unconstitutional, and sets an example 
which renders every charter in Great Britain and Ameri- 
ca utterly insecure ; the a))pointment and removal of the 
Judges, at the pleasure of the Governor, with salaries 
payable by the Crown, puts the property, liberty, and life, 
of the subject, depending upon judicial integrity, in his 
power. The Petitioners perceive a system of judicial 
tyranny deliberately at this day imposed upon them, which 
from the hitter experience of its intolerable injuries, has 
been abolished in this country. Of the same unexampled 
and alarming nature is the Bill, which, under the title of a 
more impartial administration of justice in the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay, empowers the Governor to withdraw 
offenders from justice in the said Province ; holding out to 
the soldiery an exemption from legal prosecution for mur- 
der; and, in effect, subjecting that Colony to military 
execution. The Petitioners entreat the House to consider 
what must be the consequence of sending troops, not 
really under the control of the civil power, and unamenable 
to the law, among a People whom they have been indus- 
triously taught, by the incendiary arts of wicked men, to 

Fourth Series. 6 



regard as deserving of every sjjecies of insults and abuse ; 
the insults and injuries of a lawless soldiery are such as no 
free People can long endure ; and the Petitioners appre- 
hend, in the consequences of this Bill, the horrid outrages 
of military oppression, followed by the desolation of civil 
commotions. The dispensing power which this Bill intends 
to give to the Governor, advanced as he is already, above 
the law, and not liable to any impeachment from the People 
he may oppress, must constitute him an absolute tyrant ; 
that the Petitioners would be utterly unworthy of their 
English ancestry, which is their claim and pride, if they 
did not feel a virtuous indignation at the reproach of disaf- 
fection and rebellion, with which they have been cruelly 
aspersed; they can with confidence say, no imputation 
was ever less deserved ; they appeal to the experience of a 
century, in which the glory, the honour and the prosperity, 
of England, has been, in their estimation, their own ; in 
which they have not only borne the burden of Provincial 
wars, but have shared with this country in the dangers and 
expenses of every national war ; their zeal for the service 
of the Crown, and the defence of the General Empire, has 
prompted them whenever it was required, to vote supplies 
of men and money, to the utmost exertion of their abilities ; 
the journals of the House will bear witness to their extraordi- 
nary zeal and services during the last war, and that but a 
very short time before it was resolved here to take from 
them the right of giving and granting their own money. If 
disturbances have happened in the Colonies, they entreat 
the House to consider the causes which have produced 
them, among a People hitherto remarkable for their loyalty 
to the Crown, and affection for this Kingdom. No history 
can show, nor will human nature admit of, an instance of 
general discontent, but from a general sense of oppression. 
The Petitioners conceived, that when they had acquired 
property under all the restraints this Country thought 
necessary to impose upon their commerce, trade, and 
manufactures, that to property was sacred and secure ; they 
felt a very material difference between being restrained in 
the acquisition of property, and holding it, when required 
under those restraints at the disposal of others ; they 
understand subordination in the one, and slavery in the 
other ; the Petitioners wish they could possibly perceive 
any difference between the most abject slavery, and such 
entire subjection to a Legislature, in the constitution of which 
they have not a single voice, nor the least influence, and in 
which no one is present on their behalf; they regard the 
giving their property by their own consent alone, as the 
unalienable right of the subject, and the last sacred bul- 
wark of constitutional liberty. If they are wrong in this 
they have been misled by the love of liberty, which is 
there dearest brithright, by the most solemn statutes, and 
the resolves of this House itself, declaratory of the inherent 
right of the subject, by the authority of all great constitu- 
tional writers, and by the uninterrupted practice of Ireland 
and America, who have ever voted their own supplies to 
the Crown, all which combine to prove that the property 
of an English subject, being a freeman or a freeholder, 
cannot be taken from him but by his own consent. To 
deprive the Colonies therefore of this right is to reduce 
them to a state of vassalage, leaving them nothing they can 
call their own, nor capable of any acquisition but for the 
benefit of others. It is with infinite and inexpressible 
concern, that the Petitioners see in these Bills, and in the 
principles of them, a direct tendency to reduce their 
countrymen to the dreadful alternative of being totally en- 
slaved, or compelled into a contest the most shocking and 
unnatural, with a Parent State, which has ever been the 
object of their veneration and their love. They entreat 
the House to consider, that the restraints which examples 
of such severity and injustice impose are ever attended 
with the most dangerous hatred, in a distress of mind, which 
cannot be described. The Petitioners conjure the House 
not to convert that zeal and affection, which have hitherto 
united every American hand and heart in the interest ot 
England, into passions the most painful and pernicious ; 
most earnestly tliey beseech the House, not to attempt 
reducing them to a state of slavery, which the English 
principles of liberty, they inherit from their motlier country, 
will render worse than death ; and therefore praying the 
House will not, by passing these Bills, overwhelm them 
with affliction, and reduce their countrymen to the most 



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abject state of misery and liuiniliation, or drive to the last 
resources of despair. 

Ordered, That the said Petition do lie upon the table. 

The order of the day, for the tliird reading of the Bill, 
was read ; 

A motion was made, and the question being put, that 
tlie said Bill be now read a third time r 

Mr. Dunning. There seems to me to be a system of 
tyranny adojncd throughout the whole of the three Bills 
which have been brought into this House, one of which is 
passed, and the other two are now under consideration. 
AV'hiie the first proposition stood single, 1 mean tlie Boston 
Port Bill, 1 did not think it of sulHcient magnitude to 
oppose it, till it was followed by these two others. It now 
appears to me, that the inhabitants of Boston are mucii in 
the same condition as prisoners surrendering at discretion, 
as it is in the jiower of the Minister to allow or disallow 
the restoration of its port and trade. (He then gave a 
long history to tiie House of tlie manner in which the 
Bills had been moved for and brought in ; he animadverted 
on the contents of the three Bills, and commented on the 
preamble of the Bill now before tiie House.] I have not, 
said he, heard of, nor do I see any overt act of treason 
stated in tlie preamble of tiiis Bill, so as to authorize the 
severe punishments which it enacts : we are now, I find, 
in possession of the whole of that fatal secret, which was 
intended as a corrective for all tiie disturbances in America; 
but it does not appear to be either peace or the olive- 
branch — it is war, severe revenge, and hatred, against our 
own subjects. We are now come to that fatal dilemma, 
" resist, and we will cut your throats ; submit, and we will 
tix you" — such is the reward of obedience. There appears 
to me nothing of a system or jilan throughout the whole 
that has been adopted or intended, because the Bills have 
been so altered, in the Committee, that there is scarce a 
word remaining of the original plan, if there was any ; 
the preamble of the Bill now before us seems to have a 
presumption of open resistance, of which no proof has as 
yet been had, or appeared at your bar, so as to countenance 
such an assertion ; if indeed, that military guard, which 
was appointed by the town, had been employed in the 
manner as the preamble mentions, it might then have been 
deemed an open resistance, but nothing of that kind hap- 
pened ; the whole resistance that was made was by a few 
rof the mob, urged on by the impetuosity of riot and distur- 
bance. Had any thing appeared that bore the least simi- 
larity to treason or rebellion, my honorable and learned 
friends would have told us that it was treason, and I will 
give them credit for their willingness upon such an occa- 
sion ; but if there was treason, there were traitors, and 
they would have been known and punished ; and if not 
known, they would at least have been inriuired after ; but 
as no inquiry has yet been set on foot, 1 will be bold to 
say, there was neither treason nor traitors. We seem to 
be in a strange condition, not knowing wliom we have to 
deal with, nor in what manner to act. If gentlemen will 
look into the charter, it will be seen that the Governor 
complained without cause of the want of power ; it was 
the ignorance of the Governor ; he had power, but did not 
know it; and I think that tlie gendemen who had the 
planning of these Boston Bills, have made alterations in 
the Government of Massachusetts Bay, without the pre- 
vious ceremony of knowing the old one. There must be, 
and certainly is, a complete legislative power vested in the 
Assembly of the Province, to have given this power to the 
Governor, had the charter been deficient, I mean for the 
preservation of peace and good order. [He spoke a lone 
time to prove that the constitution of Massachusetts Bay, 
was in no manner defective, but that the defect was owing 
to some unknown cause ; and, said he, to what I profess 
I do not know.] When 1 talk of the Minister, I mean to 
speak with all due respect to the noble Lord, though I do 
not consider him as the immediate actor of all this. I 
know not the age, the person, or the sex, but that I may 
not be wrong, I will use the language of Acts of Parlia- 
ment, which I imagine will comprehend, and will say, he, 
she, or they ; to that person or pei-sons alone do I mean to 
address myself. Let me ask, said he, whether these mis- 
cliiefs arising from the charter, are peculiar to Massachu- 
setts Bay 1 Are there no deficiencies in others ? Yet it 
is said an alteration is necessary to make the charter con- 



formable to the Royal Government. Now, do you know 
tliat when you have altered it, it will not be dissimilar to 
many of the others, when the ignorance of the Govern- 
ment of one Province appears to me to be as great in those 
who are to alter it, as in the others. 1 find great fault. 
Sir, that the whole of this arrangement is to be under the 
direction of the Crown ; and that the whole civil and mili- 
tary ])ower of that country is to be totally at the disposal 
of the Ministers of this. 1 really think the motto of this 
Bill should have been Tua Casar tctas. He then went 
through the different clauses of the Bill, objecting princi- 
pally against the prisoners being brought over here, as eoii- 
laiiied in the last Bill; and that diliiculties would arise 
which would convince gentlemen who had a concern in 
the management of these affairs, that what they had done 
had tended to disunite the affections of the American sub- 
jects from this country ; and, instead of promoting peace, 
order, and obedience, would produce nothing but clamour, 
discontent, and rebellion. 

Sir William Meredith said, that if necessity gave a 
right to tax America, tlie stale of our finances at the close 
of the last war fully justified the Stamp Act. That he 
acknowledged the supremacy of Great Britain over Ame- 
rica ; but that the Legislature of a free country must not, 
in taxation, or any other act of power, deprive the subject 
of his right to freedom i:i person and projjerty. The 
security an Englishman has in property consists in this, 
that no tax can be imposed ujion him but by the very 
members of Parliament who pay the tax themselves, 
equally with all those on wliom they impose it ; that no 
man had any thing he could call his own, if another could 
take his property, and use it, either for his advantage, or 
in order to prevent the diminution of his own fortune ; 
but that such taxes only might be raised as were conse- 
quential to regulations of trade — «uch were port duties. 
That a tax similar to that upon tea was imposed by the 
25th of Charles H., since that time upon molasses, and 
other articles, which the Americans had acquiesced in. 
That he (Sir JVilliam) never ajiproved the tax upon tea ; 
had opposed it, as he would always oppose the taxation 
of America. But now, that the Americans had not 
only resisted the Act of Parliament, but laid violent hands 
on the merchants' property, it was high time to regulate 
the course of justice, so that our merchants might trade 
thither with security. That the present Regulation Bills 
went no further. That they established the trial by Jurv 
in America the same as in England ; whereas the juries 
were now appointed according to the mere will and plea- 
sure of the Selectmen, some of whom had been fonvard 
in committing tliose excesses that occasioned the present 
uneasinesses. That the Council was now appointed by 
the Assembly, and could contrcul every act of the Go- 
vernor ; the execution therefore of every law enacted by 
the British Parliament, was at their option ; but that all 
executive power must be subservient to the legislative, 
otherwise the IjCgislature itself would be a mere cypher. 
We must therefore either relinquish at once the right of 
enacting laws, or take the execution of them out of the 
hands of those fhat have denied our authority to make 
them. That we had better break at once all connections 
with America, than encourage our merchants to trade 
thither without the full protection of the laws of their 
country, both in securing their effects, and in obtaining 
redress for such injuries as they may sustain. 

Mr. Stanley. These Bills certainly affect the interior 
policy of America, and are intended for the better regu- 
lation of its internal Goxernment. Whatever may be the 
opinion of that propriety of regulation with the American, 
I know not ; but their submission to the laws of some 
country is necessary, as I cannot conceive the indepen- 
dence of an American Colony to exist, whilst the balance 
of power remains in Europe, supported and protected 
by armies and navies. These People must resort to some 
State, and it must be to a Protestant one ; and were they 
to unite themselves with any other State than this, they 
would meet with a yoke and burden which they would not 
wish to bear. It is said by some, that this is driving them 
to a state of slavery ; by others, that this proceeding will 
be ineffectual. As to the latter, if we do not go far 
enough, we are certainly on the right side ; but I cannot 
sit still, and see with indifference the authority of this 



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country submitting to every indignity they shall offer us. 
There are but two ways of governing mankind, by force, 
or by consent. Mankind are to be governed by legal 
power, acting by prescribed rules of law and justice ; and 
a measure established on this doctrine, deserves the con- 
currence of the House. [Here he gave a long account of 
the rise of the American Government, and sheued, that 
an inattention to it, in its infancy, had induced the A7ne- 
ricans so to think of themselves, as to throw the Govern- 
ment into a wild democracy ; that it was not till after 
the Restoration that any degree of attention was paid 
them : He then read an extract from some old papers, 
shewing that the Americans had, so long ago as King 
William's time, refused obedience to the prerogative in 
many instances.] America, says he, is not now to be 
governed as it might be a hundred years ago ; and how 
is it possible that tiie Council should, in any shape, have 
power, when it appears, that if any person, of moderate 
passions towards the degree of respect or authority to 
this country, is chosen of the Council, and is inclined to 
assist the Governor, he has always soon after been dis- 
placed ? Let me ask gentlemen, if the property of the 
subjects of this country had been injured in France, would 
they have thought it a prudent conduct to have sat still 
and done nothing ? I had much rather that this dispute 
had passed nine years ago, but I would rather meet the 
attack now than nine years hence ; and I should blame 
myself much if, by any vote of mine, I should separate 
so valuable a Province from this country. 

Mr. T. Towiishend. The importance of this subject, 
and the melancholy consequences which are likely to 
ensue, deserve the serious attention of this House. 1 am 
not in a hurry to adopt the opinion of Administration, but 
I should" be the lowest wretch upon earth if 1 suffered 
private opinion to be smothered. I was determined to 
give support to the most plausible method that was pro- 
posed, and I will say, as to this method. Si quid novisti 
rcctius istis, candidus imperti, si non, his utere mecum. 
I am much averse to the meddling with charters, but 
when 1 see the inconveniencies that arise from the town- 
meetings, I don't think myself unreasonable in wishing to 
adopt an amendment. 1 think the Juries are properly 
altered, according to the constitution of this country, nor 
have I any objection to men being brought over to England 
to be tried, if it is impossible to find men of cool dispo- 
sition and proper temper to try them in that country ; 
and if I see this Bill left to the e^xecution of the abilities 
of General Gage, I fear not the success of it. I remem- 
ber, Sir, that men who were the most violent in opposition 
to the Stamp Act, at the time it was agitating, afterwards, 
when they found it was likely to pass, were applying 
(or Stampmaster's places. I wished much Sir, to have 
coupled this measure with another; I mean the repeal 
of the Tea Tax, which we might have done without 
showing the least timidity, but shall content myself with 
giving my affirmative to the present Bill before you. 

Colonel Barre. The question now before us is, whe- 
ther we will chuse to bring over the afi'ections of all our 
Colonies by lenient measures, or to wage war with them ? 
I shall content myself with stating — [Here he gave a long 
history in what manner Mr. Grenville, as an able financier, 
wished to search for means to liberate this country from 
its load of debts] that when the Stamp Act was repealed, 
it produced quiet and ease : was it then in the contem- 
plation of any sober, honest mind, that any odier tax would 
1)6 laid on for at least a century? He blamed die late 
Mr. C. Toivnshend, with all his eloquence, for loading 
America with a tax ; nor was he, said he, sufficiently 
cautious in choosing proper Commissioners for executing 
his trust ; it was this which disgusted the inhabitants of 
Boston, and there has been nothing but riots ever since. 
It is the duty of the governing State to correct errors 
and wrong opinions. (Here he read several extracts of 
Mr. Dickinson's (of Vhiladelphia) book, entitled, " Fai- 
mer's Letters," and from Mr. Otis's book, entitled " The 
" Rights of the British Colonies."] You sent over troops, 
said he, in 1768, and in 1770 you were obliged to recall 
them. The People were fired at by a lawless soldiery, 
and seven or eight innocent persons were killed. They 
were carried about the town as victims of your revenge, to 
incite the compassion of the friend&^^d relations of the 



deceased, and next morning you were forced to order the 
troops out of town. He condemned much the behaviour of 
Governor Hutchinson, as an accomplice in the present 
disturbances, and commended the beliaviour of Governor 
Tryon, who, knowing that he could only land the tea at 
the muzzle of his guns, pnidendy sent it back to England. 
All other Colonies, he said, had behaved with nearly the 
same degree of resistance, and yet you point all your 
revenge at Boston alone ; but I think you will very soon 
have the rest of Colonies on your back. You have 
blocked up the port of Boston ; 1 supported you in that, 
and I think 1 have no great guilt on that head, as I 
thought it was a measure arlopted to produce ^ compromise 
for the damage the East India Company had sustained. 
You propose, by this Bill, to make the Council of Boston 
nearly similar to those of the other Royal Governments ; 
have not the others behaved in as bad a manner as Bos- 
ton ? And it is ray opinion, tliat the office of Council, 
being chosen by the Crown, will become so odious, that 
you will not get a respectable man that dares to accept 
of it, unless you have the military officers for tlie Council, 
whom I think, in my conscience, will behave well. Let 
me ask again, what security the rest of the Colonies will 
have, that upon the least pretence of disobedience, you 
will not take away the Assembly from the next of them 
that is refractory. [Here he blamed the House very 
much for not receiving the petition of Mr. BoUan, who, 
he said, had corresponded with the new Council, and had 
been allowed and received at the public offices as Agent 
for the Colonies.] Why, said he, will you pretend to 
alter the charter of that constitution, of which you know- 
not its present form of Government ; for, he said, he had 
observed that the late Governor of Boston (Governor 
PownaU) had been, during the different stages in which 
the Bill had been debated, going from side to side of the 
House, to give information about the Government and 
its laws, many of which he remembered ; some few the 
Governor had forgot. In France, Sir, it is a custom, 
said he, to judge upon one-sixth, seventh, or eighth, of 
a proof — the unfortunate Calas, of Thoulouse, was con- 
demned upon eight hearsays, which in France amounted 
to a proof; but, surely, a British House of Commons 
will not condemn on such evidence ; and I hope never 
to see Thoxdouse arguments [here a member observed 
he meant too loose arguments] admitted as proof here. 
I do not know of any precedent for this Bill — it is impos- 
sible to put it in execution — and I will tell the House 
a story that happened to us when we marched at Ticon- 
deroga ; " The inhabitants of that town looked upon 
" the officers of the corps as men of superior beings to 
" themselves, and the youngest amongst them, I will 
" answer for it, was highly treated, and indulged by the 
" fair sex to the utmost of our wishes, even their wives 
" and daughters were at our service ;" and if the same 
degree of civility prevails, think you that it is possible 
the execution of this Bill can ever be observed by your 
army ? I was of the profession myself, and I beg leave 
to tell the House that I am no deserter from it. I w-as 
forced out of it by means which a man of spirit could 
not submit to. I take this opportunity to say again, tliat 
I am no deserter from my profession. [Here it was 
strongly imagined, that the Colonel meant to give a broad 
hint to Administration, that the line of his profession was 
not disagreeable to him.] I think this Bill is, in every 
shape, to be condemned ; for that law which shocks Equity 
is Reason's murderer; and all the protection that you 
mean to give to the military, whilst in the execution of 
their duty, will serve but to make them odious ; and what 
is so to others, will soon become so to themselves. I 
would rather see General Gage invested with a power 
of pardon, than to have men brought over here to be 
tried ; and the state of the case upon the trial, I mean 
in America, would, I am sure, justify such pardon. You 
are, by this Bill, at war with your Colonies ; you may 
march your troops from North to South, and meet no 
enemy ; but the People there will soon turn out, Jike 
the sullen Hollanders, a set of sturdy rebels ; a perpetual 
exertion of your authority will soon ruin you ; therefore, 
let me advise you to desist. Let us but look a little 
into our behaviour. When we are insulted by France 
and Spain, we negotiate — when we dispute with our 



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Colonies, we prepare our sliips and our troops to attack 
them. It lias been the lanj-uage of a noble Lord, that 
when America is at our feet, we will forgive them, and 
tax them ; but let me recommend lenient measures, and 
to 50 cap in hand to your subjects ; if you do not, you 
will ruin them. The great Minister of this country (Lord 
Chatham) always went cap in hand to all : his measures 
were lenient and palliative ; but we have now adopted 
another system. In one House of Parliament '• we have 
pa.ssed the Rubicon,^'' in tlie other " ileknda est Carthago." 
[He gave a history here of tlie dilferont state of finance 
in which France was : that it was superior in every degree 
to this country ; that tlieir establishments were lower in 
point of expense ; and that France was more ready and 
fit to go to war than we were ; and tliat during these 
troubles with oar Colonies, France would not lie quiel;] — 
But I see nothing, said he, in the present measures but 
inhumanity, injustice, and wickedness ; and I fear that 
the hand of Heaven will fall down on this country with 
the same degree of vengeance. 

Mr. 6'. For. I rise. Sir, with an utter detestation and 
abhorrence of the present measures. It is asserted by 
many gentlemen, that tliese measures are adopted to keep 
up the regard of tiie People, b\it I can by no means 
acquiesce in that ; a\\ these Bills have no (|ualilies relative 
to those lenient measures. As to the second Bill, it has 
a most wanton and wicked purpose ; we are either to 
treat the Americans as subjects or as rebels. If we treat 
them as subjects, the Bill goes too far; if as rebels, it 
does not go far enough. They have never yet submitted, 
and I trust they never will. We have refused to hear 
the parties in their defence, and we are going to destroy 
their charter without knowing the constitution of their 
Government. I am utterly against such measures as these, 
which can tend to nothing but to raise disturbance and 
rebellion. 

The Marquis of Carmarthen. I do not mean to trespass 
long at tills hour of tlie night ; but there is not a person in 
the world a stranger to the practices carried on in America, 
with a direct intention to throw off their dependance on 
this country. The opposition which they fomented, was 
not made on acconnt of the tax, but a systematic measure 
of opposition to every part of the law of this country. 
It might have been tliought by sober-minded People, that 
the repeal of the Stamp Act would have brought them 
back to a sense of their duty : but, alas ! Sir, it had a 
contrary effect. [He read an extract of a letter from 
Governor Bernard, setting forth, that " upon coercive 
" measures being adopted in this country, the Americans 
" seemed to give an acquiescence ; but whenever lenient 
" ones were the system of Administration, they have 
" always been turbulent and riotous."] It has been ob- 
served, Sir, by an honorable gentleman (Colonel Barri) 
that a great Minister (Lord Chatham) ])roceeded u[)on 
cap-in-hand measures. I do not agree with him on tiiat 
point, as I never heard that Minister celebrated for that 
part of his character. I always understood that his mea- 
sures were deemed spirited and vigorous, and that he was 
the farthest man in the world from making use of cap-in- 
hand measures ; his character was of a far different nature. 
But I refer the House to all the panegyrics that have 
been passed on that noble Lord, for confirming what I 
say. But, Sir, the time may soon come, when that noble 
liord will have an opportunity, in the other House of 
Parliament, to adopt and make use of those cap-in-hand 
measures which the honorable gentleman has just now 
attributed to him, as a part of his character ; but 1 strongly 
believe his synem will be of a different kind. 

Mr. St. John. I rise. Sir, to take up a few minutes of 
the House's time, and to make a few observations upon 
what has been said. It has been stated that this Bill is 
taking away all the rights of the Americans in one day, 
and that it is a total destruction of their charter. What is 
this. Sir, but a gross misrepresentation of Parliamentary 
proceedings ? I hold it, Sir, imprudent to meddle with 
chartered rights, but in cases where the rights of that 
charter are exercised to the detriment and injury of the 
People. Sir, Parliament has saved America from the 
jaws of tyranny, by amending their constitution ; and to 
say that we have no right to alter their Government for 
such purpose, appears to me the highest absurditv; we 



are perpetually altering and ameliorating our own constitu- 
tion, upon emergencies ; is there then no emergency at 
this present instant, when your officers are obliged to take 
shelter in your castle ; when the magistrates refuse to 
execute their authority to keep the ])eace ; when your 
ships are plundered, and your trade obstructed ; and 
whenever a ])erson endeavours to reform the constitution 
of that country, he incui-s nought but pains and penalties ? 
Is it no defect, that the inhabitants, when they meet to 
choose their officers of the town, that they determine u]ion 
points that go to the very vitals of the constitution ? Not 
to correct these deficiencies in their constitution, hut to 
give up the points which they contend for, would be a 
base surrender of the rights of posterity. It has been 
said, this law is partial, but that that partiality is applica- 
ble only to the People of Boston, who have been the 
ringleaders of the whole disturbances ; that it is slow, I 
agree, because measures of this sort, when adopted on the 
line of security, proceed with an aUentive step. But I 
cannot agree that the measure is hostile ; if it is, it is 
hostility adopted for the prevention of bloodshed. Have 
we not been provoked to this from the manifold injuries 
Avhicli this country has received ? It is not, Sir, the 
strength of America that we dread ; tliey have neither 
men, amiy, nor navy. What then have we to fear — do 
we dread the loss of our trade ? No, Sir, the avarice of 
the Americans will prevent that. They threaten us with 
not paying their debts; but I am afraid, if we give way 
to them, they \vill not allow tliat they owe us an)- : 
however. Sir, let us not proceed weakly nor violently, but 
with resolution and firmness. I approve of the system 
that is adopted ; and with regard to a fair and impartial 
trial in that country, 1 think it not only improbable but 
impossible ; I therefore wish well to the present Bill. 

Mr. Bi/ng. I am sorry. Sir, to find that we are not 
now proceeding in our judicial capacity, but in our legis- 
lative one ; I could wish that we instilled into the measure 
more judgment, and less of our jiower. It is said this 
measure is adopted to prevent bloodshed ; is it then that 
you send armies there for that purpose ? It has been said, 
that Parliament has bowed its head to every Minister as 
often as measures have been adopted. It bowed when 
the Stamp Act was made! It bowed when it was re- 
pealed I I wish, however, in this present instance, it 
would for once not be quite so civil. It has been said, 
tiiat these Bills are for amending the constitution. Will 
gentlemen call that amendment a good one, which directs, 
that the Judges' places shall be at the disposed of the 
Crown ? Surely not. It has been said, Sir, that there has 
been treason and traitors, but that the traitors are not known. 
There can be no treason without traitors, therefore en- 
deavour to find out the traitors first, that they may be 
punished, to save the destmction cf an innocent People. 
It has been urged, that this Bill is only for a slioit time ; 
but the same argument that operates for its continuance 
for an hour, will operate equally for its perpetuity. 

Mr. Rigby. 1 ri^e. Sir, only just to contradict an 
opinion which has been imbibed, that, in the debate the 
other day, I wislied to tax Ireland. I only used it as an 
argument in my speech to tax America, but never expres- 
sed a hint that it was proper to tax it. It has also been 
observed, that 1 treated requisition in a ridiculous light ; 1 
did so ; and I think any requisition to the Americans for 
their quota of their taxes, would be both ridiculous and 
ineffectual. But the honorable gentleman's (Mr. Barri) 
ideas of requisition, go no further than furnishing provision 
for a regiment. Tiie honorable gentleman has taken three 
or four days to consider of my speech, in order to give it 
an answer. I say stand and deliver, to the Americans, 
just as much as I say to my constituents, when I give my _ 

vote to passing the Land Tax Bill ; but the honorable gen- 9 
tieman was very desirous to have a fling at me. I desire, 
Sir, to support the present Ministry, because I regard 
them ; because I have respect for their abilities and resolu- 
tion. That great Minister, Sir, who has been so much 
famed for cap-in-hand measures, did make his country too 
big for any one, even himself, to govern. There is not 
a symptom that any of the People out of doors are 
displeased with our measures ; but I am told quite the 
contrary. America, at this instant, is in a state of down- 
right anarchy ; let us give it a Government. I always, Sir, 



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speak, when I like, and hold my tongue when I think pro- 
per ; and whatever weight and force 1 may have been re- 
presented to have, connected with my friends, 1 would give 
it in support of the noble Lord ; I would vote, Sir, for 
these measures, were I upon my oatli, \vhich seems now to 
be the fashionable Parliamentary test [alluding to those ob- 
jections he always made to the oath of the Connnittee 
appointed to try controverted elections ;] and w hether 1 
am upon my honour, or my oath, i will give a hearty 
concurrence to these measures. 

General Conway. I would not take up the time of the 
House at tiiis late "hour of the night, but for a very short 
time. I never did maintain that Great Britain had no 
riffht to tax America ; I said taxation and legislation had 
no connection ; I allowed tJiat we had an abstract right 
to tax Ireland, and also America, in die Declaratory Act ; 
but 1 do not know the time when it w ill be proper and 
right so to tax. This measure will throw- us into great 
dirticulties, which 1 do not know when we shall get out 
of The tax upon tea does nothing for our revenue, it is 
no object ; as long as you continue the doctrine of taxing 
America, you will never be at rest. Where is this olive 
branch I have heard so nmch talk about ? It is not to be 
found in these measures. I do not wish to see tiie military 
protected from the laws of their country ; if they commit 
an offence, why not leave them open in the same manner 
as others are ? I have said, " that we are the aggi-essors," 
and I say so still ; after so many innovations of the Stamp 
Act, and other taxes, 1 am for cap-in-hand measures — 
for lenity and tenderness to the Americans. There is 
an universal right in persons to be heard at this Bar in 
judicial cases, when they apply for it ; but I rise, Sir, 
only to lament what 1 cannot prevent ; and that this 
spirit may be rightly directed, 1 do hope that the Ameri- 
cans will wait till better times ; for I tliink it is better 
to have peace with America, and war with all the world, 
than be at war with America ; because, if they are 
at peace with us, they will contribute to support us in time 
of war. 

Lord G. Germaine. I hope I shall be excused, Sir, 
for trespassing a few minutes on the House. I should 
be sorry to be a supporter of those measures, which are 
termed wicked and tyrannical ; but as I cannot think that 
this Bill has any such designs, 1 shall readily adopt it. 
Tlie trial of the military has been much objected to. 
What is it, Sir, but a protection of innocence ? Will you 
not wish for that, Sir? America, at this instant, is no- 
thing but anarchy and confusion. Have they any one 
measure but what depends upon the will of a lawless 
nmltitude? Where are the Courts of Justice ? Shut up. 
Where are your Judges? One of them taking refuge in 
your Court. WHere are your Council ? Where is your 
Governor ? All of them intimidated by a lawless rabble. 
Can these men expect a fair trial ? No, Sir, at present they 
liave no existence as any part of the executive power. 
It is objected, that the Judges receive their salaries from 
the Crown, and not from the People. It is to me a matter 
of surprise, that any gentleman could think seriously a mo- 
ment, tiiat this Government wanted no amendment. It 
has been said, give up the Tea Tax : Can you give up the 
Tea Tax, without the constitution ? Support your suprema- 
cy, whatever you do ; legislation cannot but be part of it. 
It has been observed, that we negotiated about Falkland's 
Island; I wish. Sir, we could negodate with the Aine- 
rirans upon the same terms. If they would do as the 
Spaniards did, that is, disown the fact, and give up the 
point in question, we might then negotiate. The Ame- 
ricans, it is true, have made this claim several years, of 
exemption from taxation, but they have never yet carried 
it. Great Britain, is desired to be at peace with her 
Colonies, by an accjuiescence in their claim ; but do you 
call such a submission to be a peace ? 1 really think the 
(ii-st Bill, for blocking up the port, is the only Bill of pains 
and penalties, when you deprive that port of its trade ; 
and this was tlie Bill to which the honorable gentleman 
(Colonel Barre) gave his hearty concurrence. The Bill 
before you is not such a Bill : there are no pains nor 
penalties ; their Government will be restored, and private 
property protected. It has been said, go to the King's 
Bench with this complaint, as in former times; but let me 
ask gentlemen, whether thev can ameliorate or alter their 



charter ? No, Sir, they can do nothing but say ginlty or 
not guilty, by forfeiting their charter. It is incumbent on 
every man to give his opinion from his own breast upon 
this great occasion ; but Sir, I cannot help once more 
condemning that mob of People, which, under the profes- 
sion of libeity, carries dark designs in its execution ; but 
my utmost wish is, that these measures, in tlieir conse- 
quences, may turn out well, and contrary to what has 
been apprehended. 

Mr. C. Fox. I take this to be the question — whether 
America is to be gov(;nied by force, or management? 
I never could conceive that the Americans could be 
taxed without their consent. Just as the House of Com- 
mons stands to the House of I^ords, with regard to taxa- 
tion and legislation, so stands America with Great Britain. 
There is not an American, but who must reject and resist 
the principle and right of our taxing them. The question 
then is shortly this : Whether we ought to govern America 
on these principles? Can this country gain strength by 
keeping uj) such a dispute as this ? Tell me when Ame- 
rica is to be taxed, so as to relieve the burthens of this 
country. I look upon this measure to be in effect taking 
away their charter ; if their charier is to be taken away, 
for God's sake let it be taken away by law, and not by 
a legislative coercion : but I cannot conceive that any law 
whatever, while their charter continues, will make them 
think that you have a right to tax them. If a system of 
force is to be established, there is no provision for that in 
this Bill ; it does not go far enough ; if it is to induce them 
by fair means, it goes too far. The only method by 
which the Americans will ever think they are attached 
to this country, will be by laying aside the right of taxing. 
I consider this Bill as a bill of pains and penalties, for it 
begins with a crime, and ends with a punishment ; but I 
wish gentlemen would consider, whether it is more proper 
to govern by military force, or by management. 

Mr. Attorney General Tliurlow. The form of the 
present law was adopted to give magistracy that degree of 
authority which it ought to be vested with for the execu- 
tion of the laws ; but this Bill carries with it no degree of 
severity, unless the pleasure of disobeying is greater than 
that of the punishment. To say that we have a right to 
tax America, and never to exercise that right, is redicu- 
lous, and a man must abuse his own understanding very 
much not to allow of that right. To procure the tax 
by requisition is a most ridiculous absurdity, while the 
sovereignty remains in this country ; and the right of 
taxing was nevei' in the least given up to the Americans. 
Their charter is mere matter of legislative power ; and 
whoever looks into that charter, will see that no power 
whatever was meant to be given them so as to controwl 
the right of taxation from Great Britain. 

Mr. E. Burke. I have little to say. Sir, with hopes to 
convince the House, but what I have to offer, 1 shall 
do with freedom. It has been asserted, that the nation 
is not alarmed, that no petitions of discontent are received. 
How can persons complain, when sufficient time is not 
given them to know what you are about ? We have now 
seen the whole of this great work ; 1 wish all was good 
that it contained. I am afraid a long series of labours and 
troubles will succeed. The question that is before you 
is a great one ; it is no less than the proscription of 
provinces, and cities, and nations, upon their trial ; except 
that when the saints of God are to judge the world I do 
not know one of greater importance. I will endeavour 
to comply with the temper of the House, and be short 
in what 1 have to offer. [The HoUse being noisy, several 
members going out, soon after which he got up and said,] 
I find. Sir, I have got my voice, and I shall beat down 
the noise of the House. Why did I compromise ? [Here 
he produced the letters from Ijord Hillsborough to the 
Americans, which declared, that his Majesty, or his Mini.«;- 
ters, had not any intention of laying any further taxes on 
Amenca.] He dwelt some considerable time on the 
words which the letter contained, as a sort of declaration 
to the Americans that they should not be taxed. If you 
govern America at all. Sir, it must be by an army ; but 
the Bill before us, cairies with it the force of that army ; 
and 1 am of opinion, they never will consent without force 
being used. 1 have to protest against this Bill, because 
you refuse to bear tlie parties aggrieved. Consider what 



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von are doing, when you are taking tlic trial over the 
Atlantic seas, three thousand miles to Great Britain ; wit- 
nesses may be subpoened, and called upon by tlie prisoner, 
as many as lie ])leases. Let me, for Clod's sake, wish that 
gentlemen would think a little more that a fair trial may 
be had in America ; and tiiat while the King appoints the 
Judge, there is a degree of fairness that People should the 
Jury. Repeal, Sir, the Act which gave rise to this 
liisturbance ; this will be the remedy to bring peace and 
quietness, and restore authority ; but a crcat bluck book, 
and a great many red coats, will never he able to govern 
it. It is tnie, the Americans cannot resist llic force of 
this country, but it will cause wranglings, scuffling, and 
discontent. Such remedies as the foregoing, will make 
such disturbances as are not to be quieted. 

Lord iWorth arose to answer Mr. Burke. He desired 
leave to look at Ixird Hillshormgh's letter, as he had 
not a copy of it ; and explained tlie passages in that 
letter very' different from what Mr. Burke had: he read 
the words, " That neither the King, or any of his Minis- 
ters, wished to tax America." His Ixjrdship observed, 
Tiiat this was not an expression that carried with it a 
denial of the right, but only a wish that no further taxes 
" should be laid on." A man, says he, is not factious, 
that says America may be taxed ; tlie letter contains an 
opinion, that no further taxes, at that time, ought to 
be laid. I am sorry to hear a charge thrown out, that 
these proceedings are to deprive persons of their natural 
right. Let me ask of what natural right, whether that 
of smugslins, or of throwing tea overboard ? Or of another 
natural right, wliich is not paying their debts ? But surely 
this Bill does not destroy any of their civil rigiits ? You 
have given them a Civil Magistrate and a Council, which 
they had not before ; you have given the innocent man 
a fair trial in some Colony or other ; and if he cannot 
get a fair trial in that country, the whole being in a 
distempered state of disturbance and opposition to the 
laws of the mother country, then, in that case, and in 
that only, he must be sent to Great Britain. All that 
these Acts profess to do, is to restore some order to the 
Province. None thai admit the least degree of sovereignty, 
can possibly deny the provision of this Bill ; it is not 
a military Government that is established, but the altera- 
tion of a civil one. 1 am sure that this is adopted as the 
best method at present ; I do not say it wjU succeed, but 
I hope for the good consequences of it ; and if the 
Massachusetts Bay is to be governed by management, 
this is the only remedy. By what means is authority 
to be maintained, but by establishing that authority from 
Parliament ? 1 do not know, Sir, what is the proper time 
to lay a fresh tax on America ; but this I know, that this 
is net the proper time to repeal one. We are now to 
establish our authority, or give it up entirely ; when they 
are quiet, and return to their duty, we shall be kind, 
whether by repealing this tax, or what not, I cannot 
tell; but this 1 will answer, that when they are quiet, 
and have a respect for their mother country, their mother 
country will be good-natured to them. 

Sir George Savile. I shall say not a word of preface 
at this late hour ; I do not hold it improper to take this 
into consideration in a legislative ca])acity, in ])reference 
to a judicial one ; but I hold this to be i principle of 
justice, that a charter which conveys a sacred right, ought 
not to be taken away without hearing the parties, either 
in a judicial or legislative way, which has not been done, 
but from their own declaration in the papers on the 
table, and which I, in my mind, do not think sufficient 
evidence. 

Then the House divided: 
Yeas, 239 ; Yays, 64. 

So it was resolved in tlie Affirmative: 

And the Bill was accordingly read the third time. 

And after several amendments were made, the Bill was 
Piissed. 

Ordered, That Mr. Cooper do carry the Bill to the 
Lords, and desire their concurrence. 

Thursday, May 12, lTt4. 

The Bill was returned from the House of Lords, with 
several amendments. 



Friday, May 13, 1774. 

Tlie House proceeded to take into consideration the 
amendments made by the House of Lords, which were 
severally agreed to. 



HOUSE OF LORDS. 
Tuesday, May 3, 1774. 

A message was brought up from the House of Commons, 
by Mr. Cooper and others : 

With a Bill, intituled, " An Act for the better Regula- 
" ting the Government of the Province of the Massachu- 
" setts Bay, in Acmj England," to whicii they desire the 
concurrence of this House. 

The said Bill was read the first time. 

Ordered, That the said Bill be read a second time on 
Fnday next; and that the Lords be summoned. 

Ordered, That tlie said Bill be printed. 

Friday, May 6, 1774. 

Tlie order of the day being read, the Bill was accord- 
ingly read a second time, and connnitted to a Committee 
of the whole House. 

Ordered, That the House be put into a Committee 
upon the said Bill, on Monday next, and that the I^ords be 
summoned. 

Monday, May 9, 1774. 

The order of the day being read, the House was accord- 
ingly adjourned during pleasure, and put into a Committee 
upon the Bilk 

After some time, the House was resumed. 

And the Ix)rd Boston reported from tlie Committee, 
that they had gone through the Bill, and made several 
amendments thereto. 

Ordered, That the said Report be received to-morrow. 

Tuesday, May 10, 1774. 

The Lord Boston reported the amendments made by 
the Committee of the whole to the Bill ; 

And the amendments were severally agreed to by the 
House. 

Ordered, That the said Bill, with the amendments, be 
read a third time to-morrow, and that the Lords be sum- 
moned. 

Wednesday, May 11, 1774. 

Upon reading the Petition of several pei"sons, Natives of 
America, whose names are thereimto subscribed, taking 
notice of two Bills depending in this House, the first, inti- 
tuled, " An Act for the better Regulating the Government 
" of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New 
"England;" and the other. Intituled, "An Act for tlie 
" Impartial Administration of Justice in cases of persons 
" questioned for any acts done by them in the execution of 
" tiie law ; or for the suppression of riots and tumults in the 
" Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New England ;" 
and ])rayin^, " that the said Bills may not pass into a 
law," 

It is Ordered, that tlie said Petition do lie on the table. 

Upon readini; the Petition of William Bollan, Esquire, 
Agent for the Council of his Majesty's Province of iV/a«««- 
chusctts Buy, in New England, taking notice of a Bill de- 
pending ill tliis House, intituled, " An Act for the better 
" Regulating the Government of the Piovince of the Mas- 
" sachusctts Bay, in New England ;" and praying, " this 
" right honorable House will be pleased to suspend all 
" other proceedings therein, until he can give the Council 
'* notice thereof, and they can prepare their defence, and 
" give proper corjiorate authority for the regular defence of 
" their corporate rights and privileges; and that he may be 
" heard by their Lordships in support of this Petition ;" 

It is Ordered, that the said Petition do lie on the table. 

Moved, " That Mr. Bollan be called in, and heard at 
the Bar?" 

Which being objected to ; 



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94 



I 



After debate, 

The question was put tiiereupon ? 

It was resolved in the Negative. 

The order of the day being read, for the third reading of 
the Bill, intituled, " An Act for the better Regulating the 
" GoverniiieiU of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, 
" in New Enirland" and for the Lords to be summoned, 

The said Bill was accordingly read the third time. 

Moved, " That the Bill, with the amendments, do Pass ?" 

Which being objected to; 

After long debate,* 

The question was put, " whether this Bill, with the 
amendments, shall Pass ?" 

It was resolved in the Affirmative. 

Dissentient. 

Because this Bill, forming a principal part in a system of 
))unisliment and regulation, has been carried through the 
House without a due regard to those indispensable rules of 
public proceeding, without the observance of which, no regu- 
lation can be prudently made, and no punishment justly in- 
flicted. Before it can be pretended, that those rights of the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay, in the election of Counsellors 
Magistrates, and Judges, and in the return of Jurors, which 
they derive from their charter, could, with propriety, be taken 
away, the definite legal offence, by which a forfeiture of 
that charter is incurred, ought to have been clearly stated, 
and fully proved ; notice of this adverse proceeding ought 
to have been given to the parties affected ; and they ought 
to have been heard in their own defence. Such a princi- 
])le of proceeding would have been inviolably observed in 
the courts below. It is not technical formality, but sub- 
stantial justice. When therefore, the magnitude of such a 
cause transfers it from the cognizance of the inferior courts, 
to the high judicature of Parlianrent, the Lords are so far 
from authorized to reject this equitable principle, that we 
are bound to an extraordinary and religious strictness in the 
observance of it. Tlie subject ought to be indemnified by 
a more liberal and beneficial justice in Parliament, for what 
he must inevitably suffer, by being deprived of many of the 
forms which are wisely established in the courts of ordinary 
resort, for his protection against the dangerous promptitude 
of arbitrary discretion. 

'idly. Because the necessity alleged for this precipitate 
mode of judicial proceeding cannot exist. If the numerous 
land and marine foi-ces, which are ordered to assemble in 

* Tho Bill pissed (the Commons) by a prodigious majority, after a 
debate wliich lasted with uncommon spirit for many hours. Equally 
warm debates attended tlie Bill in the House of Lords. The objec- 
tions were nearly the same witli those made in the House ol" Com. 
mons, with p-^rlicular reflections upon the greater rapidity witii whicli 
it was hurried through the House of Lords : and the peculiar impro- 
priety in a court of justice, of condemning the Colony, and taking 
away its charter, witliout any form of process. The Lords in oppo. 
sition, cried out against a Bill altering the constitution of a Colony 
without h iving so much as the charter contiining the constitution so 
altered, Ijid b- fore them. Tliat the Bill had also altered the courts 
and tlie mode of judicial proceedings in the Colony, without an offer 
of tlie slightest evidence to prova any one of tlie inconvonieuces, 
which wore stated in gemral terms in the preamble, as arising from 
the pres^:nt mode of trial in tile Province. 

Tlic absolute necessity of a powerful and speedy remedy for the cure 
of a Gov 'rnmcnt, wiiich was nothing but disorder, was, in substance, 
tlie principal reason alk^ged for tho omission of inquiry and evidence, 
and the supersrjding tho ordinary rules of judicial proc 'eding. Besides, 
the Ministeri il Lords denied, that tlio process was of a penal nature ; 
they insisted that it w;is beneficial and remedial, and a great improve- 
ment of their constitution, as it brought it nearer to the English 
model. This again was denied by the Lords of the minority, wiio 
said tliat the taking a^vay of francliisos granted by charters, had cvjr 
been considered as penal, and all proceedings for tliat purpose con- 
ducted criininjlly. Otherwise, it was said, nothing could be safe in 
any man's hands, tho taking away of which another man might con- 
sider as bon^ficiil. Tliat a Council holding their places at the 
pl-:a8urc of tho Crown, did not rosomhio the House of Lords ; nor 
approach in any thing to tlie perfection of the Briiisit constitution. 

The debate on tho third reading was long, but tlie division only 
twenty to ninety.two. — Ann. Regis. 

This Bill occasionod several long and warm debates. But the 
Lords still keeping their Mouse shut, and not even admitting tho 
memb rs of tho House of Commons, unloss lo deliver Bills, and then 
to depart iminedi itely, it is not known that any account of these 
debates has been preserved any where. 

At the beginning of the next Session, (which was tho first Session 
of the fourteenth Parii imont,) tho Duke of Manche.iter recommended to 
the House a relaxation of tho standing order, excluding all strangers 
from admission below the bar of the House; and also recommended 
the admission of the members of the House of Commons, as formerly. 
Both rocoinmendations were agreed to ; and from that time the debates 
of the Lords have been preserved. — Pari. Deb. 



Massachusetts Bay, are not sufficient to keep that single 
Colony in any tolerable state of order, until the cause of its 
charter can be fairly and equally tried, no regulation in 
this Bill, or in any of those hitherto brought into the House, 
are sufficient for that purpose ; and we conceive that the 
mere celerity of a decision against the charter of that Pro- 
vinc-3, will not reconcile the minds of the People to that 
mode of Government, which is to be established upon its 
ruins. 

3dly. Because Lords are not in a situation to determine 
how far the regulations, of which this Bill is composed, 
agree or disagree with those parts of the constitution of the 
Colony that are not altered, with the circumstances of the 
People, and with tiie whole detail of their municipal insti- 
tutions. Neither the charter of the Colony, nor any ac- 
count whatsoever of its courts and judicial proceedings, 
their mode or exercise of their present powers, have been 
produced to the House. The sliglitest evidence concern- 
ing any one of tlie many inconveniences stated in the 
preamble of the Bill to have arisen frow the present con- 
stitution of the Colony judicatures, has not been produced, 
or even attempted. On the same general allegations of a de- 
clamatory preamble, any other right, or all the rights, of 
this, or any other public body, may be taken away, and 
any visionary scheme of Government substituted in their 
place. 

4thly. Because we think that the appointment of all the 
members of the Council, which by this Bill, is vested in the 
Crown, is not a proper provision for preserving the equili- 
brium of the Colony constitution. The power given to the 
Crown of occasionally increasing or lessening the number of 
the Council, on the re]X)rt of Governors, and at the pleasure 
of Ministers, must make these Governors and Ministers 
masters of every question in that Assembly ; and by destroy- 
ing its freedom of deliberation, will wholly annihilate its use. 
The intention avowed in this Bill, of bringing the Council to 
the platform of other Colonies, is not likely to answer its own 
end ; as the (Colonies, where the Council is named by the 
Crown, are not at all better disposed to a submission to the 
practice of taxing for supply, without their consent, than 
this of Massachusetts Bay. And no pretence of bringing 
it to the model of the English constitution can be support- 
ed, as none of those American Councils have the least re- 
semblance to the House of Peers, so that this new scheme 
of a Council stands upon no sort of foundation, which the 
proposers of it think proper to acknowledge. 

5thly. Because the new constitution of judicature pro- 
vided by this Bill, is improper and incongruous with the 
plan of the administration of justice in Great Britain. All 
the Judges are to be henceforth nominated, (not by the 
Crown,) but by the Governor; and all, except the Judges 
of the Superior Court, are to be removable at his pleasure, 
and expressly without the consent of that very Council 
which has been nominated by the Crown. The appoint- 
ment of the Sheriff is by the will of the Governor only ; 
and without requiring in the person appointed, any local or 
other qualification ; that a Sheriff", a magistrate of great im- 
portance to the whole administration and execution of all 
justice, civil and criminal, and who, in England, is not re- 
movable even by the royal authority diu-ing the continu- 
ance of the term of his office, is by this Bill made chang- 
able by the Governor and Council, as often, and for such 
purposes as they shall think expedient. The Governor 
and Council thus entrusted with powers with which the 
British constitution has not trusted his Majesty and his 
Privy Council, have the means of returning such a Jury, in 
each particular cause, as may best suit with the gratifica- 
tion of their passions and interests. The lives, liberties, 
and properties of the subject are put into their hands 
without controul ; and the invaluable right of trial by Jury, 
is turned into a snare for the People, who have hitherto 
looked upon it as their main security against the licentious- 
ness of power. 

6thly. Because we see in this Bill the same scheme of 
strengthening the authority of the Officers and Ministers of 
State, at the expense of the rights and liberties of the sub- 
ject, which was indicated by the inauspicious Act for shut- 
ting up the harbour of Boston. By that Act, which is im- 
mediately connected with this Bill, the example was set of 
a large important city, containing vast multitudes of People, 



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BILL FOR G0VERN:ME\T OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



96 



manv of wliom must be intiooent, and all of whom are un- 
heard, by an arhitnuy sentence, deiirived of the advantage 
of that port, upon whirli all means of acquirin!; their liveli- 
hood did immediately depend. This proscription is not 
made determinable on the payment of a tine for an offence, 
or a compensation for an injury : but is to continue uniil 
the Ministers of the Crown shall think fit to advise the 
Kin<; in Council to revoke it. Tiie les^al condition of the 
subject (staudinK uuatlainted by conviction for treason or 
felony) ought never to depend upon the arbitrary will oi 
any person whatsoever. This Act, uncxam()led on the 
records of Parliament, has been entered on the joiu'nals of 
this House, as voted ncminc disscnticnte, and has been 
stated, in the debate of this day, to have been sent to the 
Colonies, as passed without a division in either House, and 
therefore as conveying the uncontroverted univereal sense 
of the nation. The despair of making effectual opposition 
to an unjust measure, has been construed into an approba- 
tion of it ; an unfair advantage has been taken on the final 
question for passing that penal Bill, of the absence of those 
l^rds who iiad debated it for several hours, and strongly 
dissented from it on the second reading, that period on 
which it is most usual to debate the principle of a Bill. If 
this pixx>eeding were to pass, witjiout miimadvei-sion. Lords 
might think themselves obliged to reiterate their debates at 
every stage of every Bill which they oppose, and to make 
a formal division whenever they debate. 

Tthly. Because tliis Bill, and the otiier proceedings that 
accompany it, are intended for the sujiport of that unadvised 
scheme of taxing the Colonies in a m:\nner new and un- 
suitable to their situation and constitutional circumstances. 
Parliament has asserted the authority of the Legislature of 
this Kingdom, supreme and unlimited over all the members 
of the British Empire. Bvt the legal extent of this au- 
thority furnishes no argument in favour of an unwarrantable 
use of it. The sense of the nation on the repeal of the 
Stamp Act was, that, in equity and sound policy, the taxa- 
tion of the Colonies for the ordinary purposes of su})ply, 
ought to be forborn ; and that this Kingdom ought to satisfy 
itself with the advantages to be derived from a flourishing 
and increasing trade, and with the free grants of the Ameri- 
can Assemblies, as being far more beneficial, liir more easily 
obtained, less oppressive, and more likely to be lasting, than 
any revenue to be acquired by Parliamentary taxes, ac- 
companied by a total alienation of the affections of those 
who were to pay them. This principle of repeal was 
nothing more than a return to the ancient standing policy 
of this Empire. Tlie unhappy departure from it has led to 
that course of shifting and contradictory measures, Avhich 
has since given rise to such continued distractions ; by 
which unadvised plan, new duties have been imposed in 
the very year after the former had been repealed. These 
new duties afterwards in part repealed, and in part con- 
tinued, in contradiction to the principles upon which those 
repealed were given up ; all which, with many weak, in- 
judicious, and precipitate steps, taken to enforce a compli- 
ance, have kept up that jealousy, which on the repeal of 
the Stamp Act was subsiding ; revived dangerous questions, 
and gradually estranged the affections of the Colonies from 
the mother country, without any object of advantage to 
either. If the force proposed should have its full effect, 
that effect we greatly appreiiend may not continue longer 
than whilst the sword is held up. To render the Colonies 
permanently advantageous, they must ba satisfied with their 
condition. Tliat satisfaction ^ve see no chance of restoring 
whatever measures maybe pursued, except by recurring, in 
the whole, to the wise and salutary principles on which the 
Stamp Act was repealed. 

Richmond, Abingdon, 
Effingham, Rockingham, 
Leinster, Fitzwilliam, 

Portlanri, King, 

Ponsonby, Abergavenny. 
Craven, 

A Message was sent to the House of Commons, by the 
former Messengers : 

To return the said Bill, and acquaint them, tliat the 
Ijords have agreed to the same, with some amendments, to 
which their Lordships desire tlieir concurrence. 



Monday, May 16, 1774. 

A Message was brought from the House of Commons, 
by Mr. Cooper and others : 

To return the Bill, and to acquaint this House, that 
they have agreed to their Lordships amendments made 
thereto. 

Thi'rsday, May 19, 1774. 

The folloicing Petition from Natives q/" America, then in 
Ivoudon, against the passage of the Bill, was presented 
to the King: 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 

The Petition of several Natives of America, most humbly 
showeth : 

That your Petitioners, being your Majesty's n)ost faith- 
ful subjects, are obliged to implore your gracious interposi- 
tion, to protect them in the enjoyment of those privileges, 
which are the right of all your People. 

Your Majesty's Petitioners have already seen with un- 
speakable grief, their earnest prayers rejected, and heavy 
penalties inflicted, even on the innocent amonsr their coun- 
trymen, to the subversion of every princii)le of justice, 
without their being heard. By this alarming procedure, 
all property was rendered insecure ; and they now see in 
two Bills, (for altering the Government of Massachuxctts 
Bay, and the impartial administration of justice there,) the 
intended subversion of the two grand objects of civil 
society, and constitutional protection, to wit. Liberties and 
Life. 

Your Petitioners most humbly represent to your Majes- 
ty, that to destroy or assume their chartered rights, without 
a full and fair hearing, with legal jiroof of forfeiture ; and 
the abrogating of their most valuable laws, which had duly 
received the solenm confirmation of your Majesty's Royal 
predecessors, and were thence deemed unchangeable with- 
out the consent of the People ; is such a proceeding, as 
renders the enjoyment of every privilege they possess, un- 
certain and precarious. That an exemption of the soldiery 
from being tried in the Massachusetts Bay for murder, or 
other felony, committed upon your Majesty's subjects there, 
is such an encouragement for licentiousness, and incentive 
to outrage, as must subject your Majesty's liege People to 
continued danger. 

Your Petitioners and their countrymen, have been ever 
most zealously attached to your Majesty's person and fami- 
ly. It is therefore, with inexpressible affliction that they 
see an attempt, in these proceedings against them, to 
change the principle of obedience to the Government, from 
the love of the subject towards their Sovereign, founded 
on the opinion of his wisdom, justice, and benevolence, into 
the dread of absolute power and laws of extreme rigour, 
insupportable to a free Peojile. 

Should the Bills above mentioned, receive your royal 
sanction, }'our Majesty's faithful subjects will be overwhelm- 
ed with grief and despair. 

It is therefore our earnest prayer, that your Majesty will 
be graciously pleased to suspend your royal assent, to the 
said Bills. 



Stephen Sayre, 
William Lee, 
Arthur Lee, 
K Im und Jmn ings , 
Joshua Johnson, 
Daniel Bowley, 



Willicm H. Gibbs, 
William Blake, 
Isaac Mottc, 
Jhnry Laurence, 
Thomas Binckney, 
Jacob Rend, 



Benjamin Franklin, John F. Grimke, 

Tliomas Busten, Philip Neylc, 

Edward Bancroft, Edward Femvicke, 

Thomas Bromfield, Elward Fenicicke, Jun. 

John Boylston, John P tronneau, 

John Eilis, William Middleton, 

John ll^tlianu, William Middleton, Jun. 

John Ailcyne, Ralph Izard, Jun. 

Ralph Izard, ' William Heyward. 

Friday, May 20, 1774. 

His Majesty being seated in the Throne, and the Com- 
mons attending with their Speaker, the royal assent to the 
Bill was pronounced by the Clerk's Assistant. 



•f* 



BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY, 



98 



A Speech intended to have been spoken on the Bill for 
Altering the Charters of the Colony of Massachusetts 
Bay.* 

It is of such great importance to compose or even to mo- 
derate the dissention.s, which subsist at present l)et\veen our 
unhappy country and her Colonies, tliat I cajuiot help en- 
deavouring, from the faint prospect 1 have of contributing 
soniediing to so good an end, to overcome the inexpressi- 
ble reluctance I feel at uttering my thoughts before the 
most respectable of all audiences. 

The true object of all our deliberations on this occasion, 
which 1 hope we shall never lose sight of, is a full and 
cordial reconciliation with North America. Now, I own, 
my Lords, I have many doubts whether the teiTors and 
punishments, we hang out to them at present, are the surest 
means of producing this reconciliation. Let us at least do 
this justice to the People of North America, to own, that 
we can all remember a time when they were much better 
friends than at present to their mother country. They are 
neither our natural nor our determined enemies. Before 
the Stamp Act we considered them in the light of as good 
subjects as the natives of any county in England. 

it is worth while to inquire by what steps we first gained 
their affection, and preserved it so long ; and, by what con- 
duct we have lately lost it. Such an inquiry may point 
out the means of restoring peace, and make die use of force 
unnecessary .against a People, whom I cannot yet forbear 
to consider as our brethren. 

It has always been a most arduous task to govern distant 
Provinces, with even a tolerable appearance of justice. 
The Viceroys and Governors of other nations are usually 
temporary tyrants, who think themselves obliged to make 
the most of their time ; who not only plunder the People, 
but carry away their spoils, and dry up all tlie sources of 
commerce and industry. Taxation, in their hands, is an 
unlimited power of oppression : but in whatever hands the 
power of taxation is lodged, it implies and includes all other 
powers. Arbitrary taxation is plunder audiorized by law : 
it is the support and thee sscnce of tyranny ; and has done 
more mischief to mankind, than those other three scourges 
from heaven, famine, pestilence, and the sword. I need 
not carry your Lordships out of your own knowledge, or 
out of your own Dominions, to make you conceive what 
misery this right of taxation is ca])able of producing in a 
Provincial Government. We need only recollect that our 
countrymen in India, have in the space of five or six 
years, in virtue of this right, destroyed, starved, and driven 
away, more inhabitants from Bengal, than are to be found 
at present in all our American Colonies ; more than all 

* Tliis Speech by the Bishop of St. Asaph, who voted against the 
Bill in the Hous3 of Lords, though not delivered in the House on 
that occasion, was written and published by him at the time. It is 
considered especially proper to insert it here, because none of the 
speeches, in the " long debate" on the question, have been preserved. 
His reasons for the publication, given in the Advcrtisnient, are as 
follows : — 

" The Author of the following speech might justify his manner of 
publishing it by very great authorities. Some of the noblest pieces 
of eloquence, tlie world is in possession of, were not spoken on the 
great occasions tliey were intended to serve, and seem to have been 
preserved merely from the high sense that was entertained of their 
merit. 

" The present porformance appears in public from humbler but juster 
motives: fVo'U the great national importance of the subject; from a 
very warm desire and some faint hope of serving our country, by 
suggesting a few of the useful truths whieh great men are apt to 
overlook. 

" Tlie .\uthor has abstained most religiously from personal reflec. 
tions. He has censured no man, and therefore hopes he has offended 
no man. He feels most sensibly the misfortune of ditlering from 
many of those wliom he wishes to live and act with ; and from some 
of as much virtue and ability as this kingdom affords. But there are 
also groat authorit-ies on the other side ; and the greatest authority can 
never persuade him, that it is better to extort by force, what he 
thinks may be gained more surely by gontlo means. 

*' He looks upon pov/cr as a coarse and mechanical instrument of 
Government, and holds tiie use of it to be particularly dangerous to 
the relation that subsists l)etween a mother country and her Colonies. 
In such a case he doubts whether any point ouglit to be pursued, 
which cannot bo carried by persuasion, by tlio sense of a common 
interest, and the exi^rcisa of a molnrate authority. He thinks it 
unnecessary to lay down the limits of sovereignty and obedience, and 
more unnecessary to figlit for them. If we can but restore that 
mutual regard and confidence, whicli Ibrmerly governed our whole 
intercourse with our (Jolonies, particular cases will easily provide for 
themselves. He acts the part of the truest patriot in this dangerous 
crisis, whether he lives at London or at liosloii, who pursues sincerely 
the most lenient and conciliating measures ; and wishes to restore the 
public peace by some better method than the slaughter of our fellow, 
citizens." 

Foi^TH Series. 



those formidable numbers, which we have been nui-sing up 
for the space of two hundred years, widi so much care and 
success, to the astonishment of all Europe. This is no 
exaggeration, my Lords, but plain matter of fact, collected 
from the accounts sent over by Mr. Hastings, whose name 
I mention with honour and veneration. And I must own, 
such accounts have very much lessened the pleasure I used 
to feel in diinking myself an Englishman. We ought 
surely not to hold our Colonies totally inexcusable for wish- 
ing to exempt themselves from a grievance which has caus- 
ed such unexampled devastation ; and, my Lords, it would 
be too disgraceful to ourselves, to try so cruel an experi- 
ment more than once. Let us reflect, that before these 
innovations were diought of, by following the line of good 
conduct which had been marked out by our ancestors, we 
governed North America with mutual benefit to them and 
ourselves. It was a happy idea that made us first consider 
them rather as instruments of commerce than as objects of 
Government. It was wise and generous to give them the 
form and spirit of our own constitution ; an Assembly in 
which a greater equality of representation has been pre- 
served than at home ; and Councils and Governors, such 
as were adapted to their situation, though they must be ac- 
knowledged to be very inferior copies of the dignity of this 
House, and the majesty of the Crown. 

But what is far more valuable dian all the rest, we gave 
them liberty. We allowed them to use their own judgment 
in the management of their own interest. The idea of 
taxing them never entered our heads. On the contrary, 
they have experienced our liberality on many public occa- 
sions: we have given them bounties to encourage dieir in- 
dustry, and have demanded no return but what every State 
exacts from its Colonies, the advantages of an exclusive 
commerce, and the regulations that are necessary to secure 
it. We made requisitions to them on great occasions, in 
the same manner as our Princes formerly asked benevolen- 
ces of their subjects ; and as nothing was asked but what was 
visibly for the public good, it was always granted ; and they 
themselves did more than we expected. The matter of 
right was neither disputed, nor even considered. And let 
us not forget that the People of New England were them- 
selves, during the last war, the most forward of all in the 
national cause ; that every year we voted them a consider- 
able sum, in acknowledgment of their zeal and their ser- 
vices ; that in the preceding war, they alone enabled us to 
make the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, by furnishing us with 
the only equivalent for the towns that were taken from our 
allies in Flanders ; and that in times of peace, they alone 
have taken from us six times as much of our woollen man- 
ufactures, as the whole Kingdom of Ireland. Such a Co- 
lony, my Lords, not only from the justice, but from the 
gratitude we owe them, have a right to be heard in their 
defence ; and if their crimes are not of the most inexpiable 
kind, I could almost say, they have a right to be forgiven. 
But in die times we speak of, our public intercourse was 
carried on with ease and satisfaction. We regarded them 
as our friends and fellow-citizens, and relied as much . upon 
their fidelity as on die inhabitants of our own country. 
They saw our pow er with pleasure ; for they considered 
it only as dieir protection. They inherited our laws, our 
language, and our customs; diey preferred our manufac- 
tures, and followed our fashions with a partiality that secur- 
ed our exclusive trade with diem, more effectually than all 
the regulations and vigilance of the custom-house. Had 
we suffered tliem to enrich us a little longer, and to grow a 
little richer themselves, their men of fortune, like the West 
Indians, would undoubtedly have made this country their 
place of education and resort. For they 'looked up to 
England with reverence and affection, as to the country 
of their friends and ancestors. They esteemed and they 
called it their home, and thought of it as the Jews once 
diought of the Land of Canaan. 

Now, my Lords, consider with yourselves what were the 
chains and ties that united diis People to their mother 
country, with so much warmth and affection, at so amazing 
a distance. The Colonies of other nations have been dis- 
contented with their treatment, and not without sufficient 
cause ; always murmuring at their grievances, and_ some- 
times breaking out into acts of rebellion. Our subjects at 
home, with all their reasons for satisfaction, have never 
been entirely satisfied. Since the beginning of this centu- 



BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



100 



ly we have liad two rebellions, several plots and conspira- 
cies; and we ourselves have been witnesses to the most 
dangerous excesses of sedition. But the Provinces in 
North America have engaged in no party, have excited 
no opposition ; they iiave been utter strangers even to the 
name of Wiiig and Tory. In all chiuiges, in all revolu- 
tions, they have quietly followed the fortunes and submitted 
to the Government of England. 

Now let me appeal to your Lordships as to men of en- 
larged and liberal minds, who have been led by your office 
and rank to the study of history. Can you fmd in the 
long succession of ages, in the whole extent of human af- 
fairs, a single instance, where distant Provinces liave been 
preserved in so flourishing a state, and kej)! at the same 
time in such due subjection to their mother country ? My 
Ijords, there is no instance ; the case never existed before. 
It is perhaps the most singular phenomenon in all civil 
history ; and the cause of it well deserves your serious con- 
sideration. The true cause is, that a motlier country never 
existed before, wJio placed her natives and her Colonies 
on the same equal footing ; and joined with them in fairly 
canying on one common interest. 

y ou ought to consider this, my Lords, not as a mere 
iiistorical fact, but as a most important and invaluable dis- 
covery. It enlarges our ideas of the power and energy of 
good Government, beyond all former exanq>les ; and shews 
that it can act like gravitation at tlie greatest distances. 
It proves to a demonstration that you may have good sub- 
jects in the remotest corners of the earth, if you will but 
treat them with kindness and equity. If you have any 
doubts of the truth of this kind of reasoning, the experience 
we have had of a different kind will entirely remove them. 

The good genius of our country had led us to the simple 
and happy method of governing freemen, which I have 
endeavoured to describe. Our Ministers received it from 
their predecessors, and for some tune continued to observe 
it ; but without knowing its value. At length, presuming 
on their own wisdom, and the quiet disposition of the Ame- 
ricans, they flattered themselves that we might reap great 
advantages from their prosperity by destroying liie cause 
of it. They chose in an unlucky hour to treat them as 
other nations have thought fit to treat their Colonies ; they 
threatened and they taxed them. 

1 do not now inquire whether taxation is matter of right; 
I only consider it as matter of experiment ; for surely the 
art of government itself is founded on experience. I need 
not suggest what were the consequences of this change of 
measures. The evils produced by it were such as we still 
remember and still feel. We suflljred more by our loss of 
trade with them, than the wealth flowing in from India was 
able to recompense. The bankmptcy of the East India 
Company, may be sufficiently ficcounted for by the rapine 
abroad and the knavery at home ; but it certainly would 
have been delayed some years, harl we continued our com- 
merce with them in the single article of tea. But that and 
many other branches of trade have been diverted into other 
channels, any may probably never return entire to their old 
course. But what is worst of all, we have lost their confi- 
dence and friendship; we have ignorantly undermined the 
most solid foundation of our own power. 

In order to observe the strictest impartiality, it is but 
just for us to inquire what we have gained by these 
taxes as well as what we have lost. I am assured that 
out of all the sums raised in America the last year but 
one, if the expenses are deducted, which the natives 
would else have discharged themselves, the net revenue 
paid into the Treasury to go in aid of the sinking fund, 
or to be employed in wiiatever public services Parliament 
shall think fit, is eighty-five pounds. Eighty-five pounds, 
my Lords, is the whole equivalent, we have received 
for all the hatred and mischief, and all the infinite losses 
this Kingdom has suffered during that year in her disputes 
with North America. Money that is earned so dearly 
as this, ought to be expended with great ivisdom and 
economy. My Lords, were you to take up but one 
thousand pounds more from North America upon the 
same terms, the nation itself would be a bankrupt. But 
the most amazing and the most alarming circumstance is 
still behind. It is that our case is so incurable, that all 
this experience has made no impression upon us. And 
yet, my Lords, if you could but keep these facts, which 



I have ventured to lay before you, for a few moments in 
your minds (supposing your right of taxation to be never 
so clear) yet I think you must necessarily perceive that it 
cannot be exercised in any manner that can be advanta- 
geous to ourselves or them. We have not always the 
w isdom to tax ourselves with propriety ; and I am confi- 
dent we could never tax a People at that distance, without 
infinite blnndei-s, and infinite oppression. And to own the 
truth, my Lords, we are not honest enough to trust 
ourselves with the power of shifting our own burthens 
upon them. Allow me, therefore, to conclude, I think, 
unanswerably, that the inconvenience and distress we have 
.felt in this change of our conduct, no less than the ease 
and tranquillity we formerly found in the ))ursuit of it, 
will force us, if we have any sense left, to return to the 
good old path we trod in so long, and found it the way 
of pleasantness. 

I desire to have it understood, that I am opposing no 
rights that our legislature may think proper to claim : I 
am only comparing two different methods of government. 
By your old rational and generous administration, by 
treating the Americans as your friends and fellow-citizens, 
you made them the happiest of human kind ; and at the 
same time drew from them, by commerce, more clear 
profit than Spain has drawn from all its mines ; and their 
growing numbers w-ere a daily-increasing addition to your 
strength. There was no room for improvement or altera- 
tion in so noble a system of policy as this. It was 
sanctified by time, by experience, by public utility. I will 
venture to use a bold language, my Ijords; I will assert, 
that if we had uniformly adopted this equitable administra- 
tion in all our distant Provinces as far as circumstances would 
admit, it would have placed this country, for ages, at the 
head of human affaire in every quarter of the world. My 
Lords, this is no visionary or chimerical doctrine. The 
idea of governing Provinces and Colonies by force is 
visionary and chimerical. The experiment has often been 
tried and it has never succeeded. It ends infallibly in the 
niin of the one country or the other, or in the last degree 
of wretchedness. 

If there is any tnith, my Lords, in what I have said, 
and I most firmly believe it all to be true, let me recom- 
mend it to you to resume that generous and benevolent 
spirit in the discussion of our differences, which used to 
be the source of our union. We certainly did wrong in 
taxing them : when the Stamp Act was repealed, we did 
wrong in laying on other taxes, which tended only to keep 
alive a claim, that was mischevious, impracticable, and 
useless. We acted contrary to our own principles of 
liberty, and to the generous sentiments of our Sovereign, 
when we desired to have their judges dependent on the 
Crown for their stipends, as well as their continuance. It 
was equally unwise to wish to make the Governors inde- 
pendent of the People for their salaries. We ought to 
consider the Governors, not as spies entrusted with the 
management of our interest, but as the servants of the 
People, recommended to them by us. Our ears ought to 
be open to every complaint against the Governors ; but 
we ought not to suffer the Govcnioi-s to complain of the 
People. We have taken a different method, to which no 
small part of our difficulties arc owing. Our ears have 
been open to the Governors and shut to the People. 
This must necessarily lead us to countenance the jobs of 
interested men, under the pretence of defending the rights 
of the Crown, But the People are certainly the best 
judges whether they are well governed ; and the Crown 
can have no rights inconsistent with the happiness of the 
People. 

Now, my Lords, we ought to do what I have suggested, 
and many things more, out of prudence and justice, to 
win their affection, and to do them public service. If 
we have a right to govern them, let us exert it for the tnie 
ends of Government, But, my Lords, what we ought 
to do, from motives of reason and justice, is much more 
than is sufficient to bring them to a reasonable accommo- 
dation. For thus, as I apprehend, stands the case. They 
petition for the repeal of an Act of Parliament, which 
they complain of as unjust and oppi-cssive. And there is 
not a man amongst us, not the warmest friend of Adminis- 
tration, who does not sincerely wish that act had never 
been made. In fact, they only ask for what we wish to 



101 



BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



102 



be rid of. Under such a disposition of mind, one would 
imagine there could be no occasion for fleets and armies 
to bring men to a good understanding. But, my Lords, 
our difficulty lies in the point of lionour. We must not 
let down the dignity of the motlier country ; but preserve 
her sovereignty over all the parts of the Briiish Empire. 
This language has something in it that sounds pleasant 
to the ears of Englishmen, but is otherwise of little 
weight. For sure, my Lords, there are niediods of making 
reasonable concessions, and yet without injuring our dignity. 
Ministers are generally fi-uitfiil in expedients to reconcile 
difficulties of this kind, to escape the embarrassments of 
forms, the competitions of dignity and precedency ; and 
to let clashing rights sleep, while tliey transact their busi- 
ness. Now, my Lords, on this occasion can they find 
no excuse, no pretence, no invention, no happy turn of 
language, not one colourable argument for doing the great- 
est service, they can ever render to their country ? It 
must be something more than incapacity that makes men 
barren of expedients at sucii a season as this. Do, but 
for once, remove this impracticable stateliness and dignity, 
and treat the matter with a little common sense and a 
little good humour, and our reconciliation would not be the 
work of an hour. But after all, my Lords, if there is 
any thing mortifying in undoing the errors of our Ministers, 
it is a mortification we ought to submit to. If it was 
unjust to tax them, we ought to repeal it for their sakes ; 
if it was unwise to tax them, we ought to repeal it for our 
own. A matter so trivial in itself as the three-penny 
duty upon tea, but which has given cause to so much 
national hatred and reproach, ought not to be sufiered to 
subsist an unnecessary day. Must the interest, the com- 
merce, and the union of this country and her Colonies, be 
all of them sacrificed to save the credit of one imprudent 
measure of Administration ? I own I cannot comprehend 
that there is any dignity either in being in the wrong, or 
persisting in it. I have known friendship preserved and 
afliection gained, but I never knew dignity lost, by the 
candid acknowledgment of an error. And, my Lords, let 
me appeal to your own experience of a few years back- 
ward, (I vsrill not mention particulars, because I would pass 
no censures and revive no unpleasant reflections,) but I 
think every candid Minister must own, that Administration 
has suffered in more instances than one, both in interest 
and credit, by not chusing to give up points, that could 
not be defended. 

With regard to the People of Hoston, I am free to own 
that I neither approve of their riots nor their punishment. 
And yet if we inflict it as we ought, with a consciousness 
that we were ourselves the aggressors, that we gave the 
provocation, and that their disobedience is the fruit of our 
own imprudent and imperious conduct, I think the punish- 
ment cannot rise to any great degree of severity. 

I own my Lords, I have read the report of the 
Lords Committees of this House, with very different senti- 
ments from those with which it was drawn up. It seems to 
be designed, that we should consider their violent measures 
and speeches, as so many determined acts of opposition 
to the sovereignty of England, arising from the malignity 
of their own hearts. One would think the mother coun- 
try had been totally silent and passive in the progress of 
the whole affair. I, on the contrary, consider these violen- 
ces as' the natural cftects of such measures as ours on the 
minds of freemen. And this is the most useful point of 
view in which Government can consider them. In their 
situation, a wise man would expect to meet with the 
strongest marks of passion and imprudence, and be pre- 
parecl to forgive them. The first and easiest thing to be 
done is to correct our own errors ; and I am confident we 
should find it the most effectual method to correct theirs. 
At any rate let us put ourselves in the right ; and then 
if we must contend with North America, we shall be 
unanimous at home, and the wise and the moderate there 
will be our friends. At present we force every North 
American to be our enemy ; and the wise and moderate 
at home, and those immense multitudes, which must soon 
begin to suffer by the madness of our rulers, will unite to 
oppose them. It is a strange idea we have taken up, to 
cure their resentments by increasing their provocations : to 
remove the efibcts of our own ill conduct, by multiplying 
the instances of it. But the spirit of blindness and infat- 



uation is gone forth. We are hurrying wildly on without 
any fixed design, without any important object. We 
pursue a vain phantom of unlimited sovereignty, which 
was not made for man, and reject the solid advantages ol' 
a moderate, useful and intelligible authority. That just 
God, whom we have all so deeply offended, can hardly 
inflict a severer national punishment, than by committing 
us to the natural consequences of our own conduct. In- 
deed, in my opinion, a blacker cloud never hung over this 
island. 

To reason consistently with the principles of justice 
and national friendship, which I have endeavoured to es- 
tablish, or rather to revive what was established by our 
ancestors, as our wisest rule of conduct for the government 
of America, I must necessarily disapprove of the Bill 
before us ; for it contradicts every one of them. In our 
present situation every act of the legislature, even our 
acts of severity, ought to be so many steps towards the 
reconciliation we wish for. But to change the Government 
of a People, without their consent, is the highest and most 
arbitrary act of sovereignty, that one nation can exercise 
over another. The Romans hardly ever proceeded to this 
extremity even over a conquered nation, till its frequent 
revolts and insurrections had made them deem it incorrigi- 
ble. The very idea of it implies a most total abject and 
slavish dependency in the inferior State. Recollect that 
the Americans are men of like passions with ourselves, 
and think how deeply this treatment must affect them. 
They have the same veneration for their charters that we 
have for our Magna Charta, and they ought in reason to 
have greater. They are the title deeds to all their rights 
both public and private. What ? my Lords, must these 
rights never acquire any legal assurance and stability ? Can 
they derive no force from the peaceable possession of near 
two hundred years ? And must the fundamental constitu- 
tion of a powerful State be for ever subject to as capri- 
cious alterations as you may think fit to make in the char- 
ters of a little mercantile company, or the corporation of a 
borough ? This will undoubtedly furnish matter for a more 
pernicious debate than has yet been moved. Every other 
Colony will make the case its own. They will complain 
that their rights can never be ascertained ; that every thing 
belonging to them depends upon our arbitrary will ; and 
may think it better to run any hazard, than to submit to the 
violence of their mother country, in a matter in wliich they 
can see neither moderation nor end. 

But let us coolly inquire, what is the reason of this un- 
heard of innovation. Is it to make them peaceable ? My 
Lords, it will make them mad. Will they be belter go- 
verned if we introduce this change ? Will they be more 
our friends ? The least that such a measure can do is to 
make them hate us. And would to God, my Lords, we 
had governed ourselves with as much economy, integrity, 
and prudence, as they have done. Let them continue to 
enjoy the liberty our fathere gave them. Gave them, did 
I say ? They are coheirs of liberty with ourselves ; and 
their portion of the inheritance has been much better look- 
ed after than ours. Suffer them to enjoy a little longer 
that short period of public integrity and domestic happi- 
ness, which seems to be the portion allotted by Providence 
to young rising States. Instead of hoping that t'leir con- 
stitution may receive improvement from our skill in Go- 
vernment, the most useful wish I can form in their favour 
is, that heaven may long preserve them from our vices and 
our politics. 

Let me add farther, that to make any changes in their 
Government, without their consent, would be to transgress 
the wisest ndes of policy, and to wound our most impor- 
tant interests. As they increase in numbers and in riches, 
our comparative strength must lessen. In another age, 
when our power has begun to lose something of its superi- 
ority, we should be happy if we could support our authori- 
ty by mutual good will and the habit of commanding ; but 
chiefly by those original establishments, which time and 
public honour might have rendered inviolable. Our pos- 
terity will then have reason to lament that they cannot 
avail themselves of those treasures of public friendship and 
confidence which our fathers had wisely hoarded up, and 
we are throwing away. 'Tis hard, 'tis cruel, besides all 
our debts and taxes, and those enoi-mous expenses which 
are multiplying upon us every year, to load our unhappy 



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BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



104 



sons witli the hatred and curses of North America. Indeed, 
my Lords, we are treating posterity very scurvily. We 
have mortgaged all the lands; we have cut down all the 
oaks ; we are now traniplins; down the fences, rooting up 
the seedlings and sajjliiigs, and mining all the resources ot 
another age. We shall send tlie next generation into the 
world, like the wretched heir of a worthless father, without 
money, credit, or friends ; with a stripped, encumbered, and 
perhaps untenanted estate. 

Having spoke so largely against the principles of the 
Bill, it is hardly necessary to enter into the merits of it. 1 
siiall only observe, that even if we had the consent of the 
People to alter their Government, it would be unwise to 
make such alterations as these. To give the afjpointnient 
of the Governor and Council to the Crown, and the dispo- 
sal of all places, even of the Judges, and with a power of 
removing them, to the Governor, is evidently calculated 
with a view to form a strong jxirty in our favour. This I 
know has been done in other Colonies ; but still this is 
opening a source of perpetual discord, where it is our in- 
terest always to agree. If we mean any thing by this 
establishment, it is to support the Go\ernor and the Coun- 
cil against the People, i. e. to quarrel with our friends, that 
we may please their servants. This scheme of governing 
them by a party is not wisely unagined, it is nnicli too pre- 
mature, and at all events, must turn to our disadvantage. 
If it fails, it will only make us contemptible; if it succeeds, 
it will make us odious. It is our interest to take very 
little part in their domestic administration of Government, 
but purely to watch over them for their good. We never 
gained so much by North America as when we let them 
govern themselves, and were content to trade with them 
and to protect them. One would think, my Lords, there 
was some statute law, prohibiting us, under the severest 
penalties, to profit by experience. 

My Ijords, I have ventured to lay my tliouglus before 
you, on the greatest national concern that ever came under 
your deliberation, with as much honesty as you will meet 
with from abler men, and with a melancholy assurance, 
that not a word of it will be regarded. And yet, my 
Lords, with your permission, I will waste one short argu- 
ment more on the same cause, one that I own I am fond 
of, and which contains in it, what, I think, must affect 
every generous mind. My Lords, I look upon North Ame- 
rica as the only great nui-sery of freemen now left ujjon 
the face of the earth. We have seen the liberties of Po- 
land and Sweden swept away, in the course of one year, 
by treachery and usurpation. The free towns ui Germany 
are like so many dying sparks, that go out one after ano- 
thw, and which must all be soon extinguished under the 
destructive greatness of their neighbours. Holland is little 
more than a great trading company, with luxurious man- 
ners, and an exhausted revenue ; with little strength and 
with less spirit. Switzerland alone is free and happy with- 
in the narrow enclosure of its rocks and vallies. As for 
the state of this country, my I^rds, I can only refer my- 
self to your own secret thoughts. I am disposed to think 
and hope the best of Public Liljerty. Were I to describe 
her, according to my own ideas at present, I should say 
that she has a sickly countenance, but I trust she has a 
strong constitution. 

But whatever may be our future fate, the greatest glory 
that attends this country, a greater than any other nation 
ever acquired, is to have formed and nursed up to such a 
state of happiness, those Colonies whom we are now so 
eager to butcher. We ought to cherish them as the 
immortal monuments of our public justice and wisdom ; 
as the heii-s of our better days, of our old arts and man- 
ners, and of our expiring national virtues. What work of 
art, or power, or public utility, has ever eijualled the glory 
of having peopled a continent without guilt or bloodshed, 
with a multitude of free and happy commonwealths; to 
have given them the best arts of life; and Government, 
and to have suffered them under the shelter of our author- 
ity, to acquire in peace the skill to use tiiem. In compa- 
rison of this, the policy of governing by influence, and 
even the pride of war and victory, are dishonest tricks and 
poor contemptible pageantr)'. 

We seem not to be sensible of the high and important 
trust which Providence has committed to our charge. 
The most precious remains of civil liberty, that the world 



can now boast of, are lodged in our hands ; and God forbid 
that we should violate so sacred a deposit. By enslaving 
your Colonies, you not only ruin the peace, tlie commerce, 
and the fortunes of both countries, but you extinguisii 
the fairest hopes, shut up the last asylum of mankind. I 
tliink, my Lords, without being weakly superstitious, that 
a good nian may hope tiiat heaven will take part against 
tiie execution of a plan which seems big, not oidy witii 
mischief, but inqjiely. 

Let us be content witli the spoils and the destruction of 
the East. If your l^ordsliips can see no impropriety in it, 
let the ])lunderer and tlie oppressor still go free. But let 
not the love of liberty be tlie only crime you tliink worthy 
of punishment. I fear we shall soon make it a part of 
our national character, to ruin every thing that has li.e 
misfortune to depend upon us. 

i\o nation has ever before contrived, in so short a space 
of time, without any war or public calamity (unless unwise 
measures may be so called) to jjestroy such ample resour- 
ces of commerce, wealth, and power, as of late were 
ours, and which, if they had been rightly improved, might 
have raised us to a state of more honorable and more 
permanent greatness tiian die world has yet seen. 

Let me remind tlie noble Lords in Administration, that 
before the Stamp Act, they had power sulHcient to answer 
all the just ends of Government, and they were all 
completely answered. If that is the power they want, 
tiiough we have lost much of it at present, a few kind 
words would recover it all. 

But if the tendency of this Bill is, as I own it appears 
to me, to acquire a power of governing them by influence 
and corruption ; in the first place, my I^ords, this is not 
true Government, but a sopiiisticated kind which counter- 
feits the appearance, but without tlie spirit or virtue of the 
tmc : and then, as it tends to debase their spirits and 
corrupt their mannei-s, to destroy all that is great and 
respectable in so considerable a part of the human species, 
and by degrees to gather them together with the rest of 
the world, under the yoke of universal slavery; I think, 
for these reasons, it is the duty of every wise man, of 
every honest man, and of every Ensrlishman. by all lawful 
means, to oppose it. 



Anno Decimo (Quarto Georgii III. Regis. 

An Act for the Better Regulating the Government of the 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New England. 

Whereas by Letters Patent under the great seal of Eng- 
land, made in the third year of the reign of their late 
Majesties King William and Queen Mary, for uniting, 
erecting, and incorporating, the several Colonies, Territo- 
ries, and tracts of land therein mentioned, into one real 
Province, by the name of Their Majesties Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in iSeiv England; whereby it was, 
amongst other things, ordained and established, that the 
Governor of the said Province should, from thenceforth, be 
appointed and commissionated by their Majesties, their 
heirs and successors; it was, however, granted and ordain- 
ed, that, from the expiration of the term for and during 
which the eight and twenty persons named in the said 
letters patent were appointed to be the first Counsellors or 
Assistants to the Governor of the said Province for the time 
being, the aforesaid number of eight and twenty Counsel- 
loi-s or Assistants should yearly, once in every year, for ever 
thereafter, be, by the General Court or Assembly, newly 
chosen : and whereas the said method of electing such 
Counsellors or Assistants, to be vested with the several 
powers, authorities, and privileges, therein mentioned, al- 
ihouffh conformal)le to the practice theretofore used in such 
of the Colonies thereby united, in which the appointment 
of the respective Governors had been vested in the General 
Courts or Assemblies of the said Colonies, hath, by re- 
peated experience, been found to be extremely ill adapted 
to the plan of Government established in the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay, by the said letters patent herein-before 
mentioned, and hath been so far from contributing to the 
attainment of the good ends and jjurposes thereby intended 
and to the promoting of the internal welfare, peace, and 
good government, of the said Province, or to the mainte- 
nance of the just subordination to, and confonnitv with, the 



105 



BILL FOR GOVERNMEIVT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY, 



106 



laws of Great Britain, that the manner of exercising the 
powers, authorities, and privileges aforesaid, by the persons 
so annually elected, hath, for some time past, been such as 
had the most manifest tendency to obstruct, and, in great 
measure defeat, the execution of the laws ; to weaken the 
attachment of his Majesty's well disposed subjects in the 
said Province to his Majesty's Government, and to en- 
courage the ill disposed among them to proceed even to 
acts of direct resistance to, and defiance of, liis Majesty's 
authority : and it hath accordingly happened, that an open 
resistance to the execution ol the laws hath actually taken 
place in the town of Boston, and the neighbourhood tliereof, 
within the said Province: and whereas it is, under these 
circumstances, become absolutely necessary, in order to the 
preservation of the peace and good order of the said Pro- 
vince, the protection of his Majesty's well disposed subjects 
therein resident, the continuance of the mutual benefits 
arisiiii; from the commerce and correspondence between 
this Kingdom and the said Province, and the maintaining 
of the just dependence of the said Province upon the Crown 
and Parliament of Great Biitain, that the said method of 
annuallv electing the Counsellors or Assistants of the said 
Province should no longer be suffered to continue, but that 
the appointment of the said Counsellors or Assistants should 
henceforth be put upon the like footing as is established in 
such other of his Majesty's Colonies or Plantations in 
America, the Governors whereof, are appointed by his 
Majesty's commission, under the great seal of Great 
Britain : Be it therefore enacted by the King's most ex- 
cellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the 
I^ords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this 
present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the 
same, that from and after the first day of August, one 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-four, so much of the 
charter granted by their Majesties King William and 
Queen Mary, to the inhabitants of the said Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, in New England, and all and every 
clause, matter, and thing, therein contained, which relates 
to the tune and manner of electing the Assistants or Coun- 
sellors for the said Province, be revoked, and is hereby re- 
voked and made void and of none effect ; and that the offi- 
ces of all Counsellors and Assistants, elected and appointed 
in pursuance thereof, shall from thenceforth cease and de- 
termine; and that, from and after the said first day of 
August, one thousand seven himdred and seventy-four, the 
Council, or Court of Assistants of the said Province for the 
time being, shall be composed of such of the inhabitants or 
proprietors of lands within the same as shall be thereunto 
nominated and appointed by his Majesty, his heirs and 
successors, from tinv? to time, by warrant under his or their 
signet or sign manual, and with the advice of the Privy 
Council, agreeable to the practice now used in respect to 
the appointment of Counsellors in such of his Majesty's 
other Colonies in America, the Governors whereof aie ap- 
pointed by commission under tlie great seal of Great 
Britain : provided, that the number of the said Assistants 
or Counsellors shall not, at any one time, exceed thirty-six, 
nor be less than twelve. 

And it is hereby further enacted, That the said Assis- 
tants or Counsellors, so to be appointed as aforesaid, shall 
hold their ofiices respectively, for and during the pleasure 
of his Majesty, his heirs or successors ; and shall have and 
enjoy all the powers, privileges, and immunities, at present 
held, exercised, and enjoyed, by the Assistants or Coun- 
sellors of the said Province, constituted and elected, from 
time to time, under the said charter, (except as hereinafter 
excepted :) and shall also, upon their admission into the 
said Council, and before they enter upon the execution of 
their offices respectively, take the oaths, and make, repeat, 
and subscribe, the declarations required, as well by the 
said charter as by any law or laws of the said Province now 
in force, to be taken by the Assistants or Counsellors who 
have been so elected and constituted as aforesaid. 

Anil he it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. 
That from an<l after the first day of July, one thousand 
seven hundred and seventy-four, it shall and may be law- 
ful for his Majesty's Governor for the time being of the 
said Province, or, in his absence, for the Lieutenant Gover- 
nor, to nominate and appoint, under the seal of the Pro- 
vince, from time to time, and also to remove, without the 
I'onsent of the Council, all Judges of the Inferior Courts of 



Common Pleas, Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, llie 
Attorney General, Provosts, Marshals, Justices of the 
Peace, and other officers to the Council or Courts of 
Justice belonging ; and that all Judges of the Inferior 
Courts of Common Picas, Conmiissioners of Oyer and 
Terminer, the Attorney General, Provosts, Marshals, 
Justices, and other olHcers so appointed by the Governor, 
or, in his absence, by the Lieutenant Governor alone, shall 
and may have, hold, and exercise their said offices, powers, 
and authorities, as fully and completely, to all intents and 
purposes, as any Judges of the Inferior Courts of Common 
Pleas, Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, Attorney 
General, Provosts, Marshals, or other officei-s, have or 
might have done heretofore under the said letters patent, in 
the third year of the reign of their late Majesties King 
f-Villiam and Queen Mary ; an}- law, statute, or usage, to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

Provided ahvays, and be it enacted, That nothing herein 
contained shall extend, or be construed to extend, to annul 
or make void the commission granted before the said first 
day of July, one thousand seven hundred and sevent}-four, 
to any Judges of the Inferior Courts of Common Pleas, 
Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, the Attorney Gene- 
ral, Provosts, Marshals, Justices of the Peace, or other 
oiKcers ; but that they may hold and exercise the same, as 
if this act had never been made, until the same shall be 
determined by death, removal by the Govenior, or other 
avoidance, as the case may happen. 

A7td be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That, from and after the said first day of July, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and seventy-four, it shall and may be 
lawful for his Majesty's Governor, or, in his absence, for 
the Lieutenant Governor for the time being of the said Pro- 
vince, irom time to time, to nominate and appoint the 
Sheriffs without the consent of the Council, and to remove 
sucii Sheriffs with such consent, and not otherwise. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That, upon every vacancy of the offices of Chief Justice 
and Judges of the Superior Court of the said Province, 
from and after the said first day of July, one thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-four, the Governor for the time being, 
or, in his absence, the Lieutenant Governor, without the 
consent of the Council, shall have full power and authority 
to nominate and appoint the persons to succeed to the said 
offices, who shall hold their commissions during the pleasure 
of his Majesty, his heirs and successors : and that neither 
the Chief Justice and Judges appointed before the said 
first day of July, one thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
four, nor those who shall hereafter be appointed pursuant 
to this Act, shall be removed, unless by the order of his 
Majesty, his heii-s or successors, under his or their sign 
manual. 

And whereas, by several Acts of the General Court, 
which have been from time to time enacted and passed 
within the said Province, the freeholders and inhabitants of 
the several townships, districts, and precincts, qualified, as 
is therein expressed, are authorized to assemble together, 
annually, or occasionally, upon notice given, in such man- 
ner as the said Acts direct, for the choice of Selectmen, 
Constables, and other officers, and for the making and 
agreeing upon such necessary rides, orders, and bye-laws, 
for the directing, managing, and ordering, the prudential af- 
fairs of such townships, districts, and precincts, and for 
odier purposes ; and w hereas a great abuse has been made 
of the power of calling such meetings, and the inhabitants 
have, contrary to the design of their institution, been misled 
to treat upon matters of the most general concern, and to 
})ass many dangerous and unwarrantable resolves : for reme- 
dv whereof, Be it enacted, that from and after the said first 
day of August, one thousand seven hundred and seventy- 
four, no meeting shall be called by the Selectmen, or at 
the request of any number of freeholder of any township, 
district, or precinct, without the leave of the Governor, or. 
in his absence, of the Lieutenant Governor, in writing, ex- 
pressing the special business of the said meeting, first had 
and obtained, except the annual meeting in the months of 
March or May, for the choice of Selectmen, Constables, 
and other officers, or except for the choice of persons to 
fill up the offices aforesaid, on the deatli or removal of any 
of the persons first elected to such offices, and also, except 
any meeting for the election of a Representative or Repre- 



107 



BILL FOR GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



108 



sentatives in the General Court ; and that no other matter 
shall be treated of at such meetings, except tlie election oi 
their aforesaid ofiicers or Representatives, nor at ajiy other 
iiiectini;, except tlie business expressed "ui the leave given 
by tlie Governor, or, in his absence, by tlie Lieutenant 
Governor. 

And wliereas the method at present used in the Pro- 
vince of Massac/iusetts Bay, in America , of electin;;: ])ei-sons 
to serve on Grand Juries, and other juries, by tiie free- 
holders and inhabitants of tlie several towns, affords occasion 
for many evil practices, and tends to pervert the free and 
impartial administration of justice : for remedy whereof, 
Be it further enactvil by the (iiithority nforcsaid, That trom 
and after the respective times appointed for the holding o( 
the General Sessions of tlie Peace, in the several counties 
within tlie said Province, next after the month of Stjitem- 
ber, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-four, the 
Jurors to serve at the Superior Courts of Judicature, Courts 
of Assize, General Gaol Delivery, General Sessions of the 
Peace, and Inferior Court of Common Pleas, in the several 
counties within the said Province, shall not be elected, 
nominated, or appointed, by the freelioldere and inhabitants 
of the several towns within the said respective counties, 
nor summoned or returned by the Constables of the said 
towns ; but that, from thenceforth, the Jurors to serve at 
the Superior Courts of Judicature, Courts of Assize, Gene- 
ral (iaol Delivery, General Sessions of the Peace, and In- 
ferior Court of Common Pleas, within the said Province, 
shall be summoned and returned by the Sherifis of the re- 
spective counties within the said Province ; and all writs of 
Venire Facias, or other process or warrants to be issued 
for the return of Jurors to serve at the said Courts, shall be 
directed to the Sheriffs of the said counties respectively, 
any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding. 
Provided always, and be it further enacted by the au- 
thority aforesaid, That wherever the Sheriff of any county 
shall happen to be a part)-, or interested or related to any 
party or person interested in any prosecution or suit de- 
pending in any of the said Courts, that then, in such case, 
the writ of Venire Facias, or other process or warrant for 
the summoning and return of a Jury, for the trial of such 
prosecution or suit, shall be directed to, and executed by, 
the Coroner of such county ; and in case such Coroner 
shall be also a party, or interested in, or related to, any 
party or person interested in such prosecution oi' suit, then 
the Venire Facias, or other process or warrant, for the 
summoning and return of a Jury for the trial of such prose- 
cution or suit, shall be directed to, and executed by, a 
proper and hidifferent person, to be appointed for that pur- 
pose by the Court wherein such prosecution or suit shall be 
depending. 

And that all Sheriffs may be better informed of persons 
qualified to serve on Juries at the Superior Courts of Judi- 
cature, Courts of Assize, General Gaol Delivery, General 
Sessions of the Peace, and Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas, within the said Province, Be it further enacted by 
the authority aforesaid. That the Constables of the respec- 
tive towns, within the several counties of the said Province, 
shall, at the General Sessions of the Peace, to be holden for 
each county, next after the month of September, in every 
year, upon the first day of the said Sessions, return and 
deliver to the Justices of the Peace, in open Court, a true 
list, in writing, of the names and places of abode of all 
persons within the respective towns for which they serve, 
or the districts thereof, qualified to serve upon Juries, with 
their titles and additions, between the age of one and 
twenty years, and the age of seventy years ; which said 
Justices, or any two of them, at the said Sessions in the re- 
spective counties, shall cause to be delivered a duplicate of 
the aforesaid lists, by the Clerk of the Peace of every 
county, to the Sheriffs, or their Deputies, within ten days 
after such Sessions ; and cause each of the said lists to be 
fairly entered into a book, by die Clerk of the Peace, to be 
by him provided, and kept for that purpose amongst the 
records of the said Court ; and no Sheriff shall empannel or 
return any person or persons to serve upon any Grand Jury, 
or Petit Jury, whatsoever, in any of the said Courts that 
shall not be named or mentioned in such list : and, to pre- 
vent the failure of justice, through the neglect of Consta- 
bles to make such returns of persons qualified to serve on 
such Juries, as in and by this Act is directed, the Clerks 



of the Peace of the said several counties are hereby required 
and commanded, twenty days at least next before the 
mondi of September, yearly, and every year, to issue forth 
precepts or warrants, under their respective hands and 
seals, to the respective Constables of the several towns 
within the said respective counties, requiring them, and 
every of them, to make such return of persons, qualified to 
serve upon Juries as hereby respectively directed ; and 
every Constable failing at any time to make and deliver 
such return to the Justices in open Court, as aforesaid, 
shall forfeit and incur the penalty of five pounds sterling to 
his Majesty, and his successors, to be recovered by bill, 
plaint, or information, to be prosecuted in any of the Courts 
aforesaid ; and, in order that the Constables may be the 
better enabled to make complete lists of all persons qualified 
to serve on Juries, die Constables of the several towns shall 
have free liberty, at all seasonable times, upon recjuest by 
them made to any officer or officers, who shall have in his or 
their custody any book or account of rates or taxes on the 
freeholders or inhabitants within such respective towns, to 
inspect the same, and take from thence the names of such 
persons qualified to serve on Juries, dwelling wuthin the re- 
spective towns for which such lists are to be given in and 
returned, pursuant to this Act ; and shall, in the month of 
September, yearly, and every year, upon two or more 
Sundays, fix upon the door of the church, chapel, and 
every other public place of religious worship, within their 
respective precincts, a true and exact list of all such persons 
intended to be returned to the said General Sessions of the 
Peace, as qualified to serve on Juries, pursuant to the di- 
rections of this Act ; and leave at the same time a duplicate 
of such list with the Town Clerk of the said place, to be 
perused by the freeholders and inhabitants thereof, to the 
end that notice may be given of persons duly qualified vvho 
are omitted, or of persons inserted by mistake who ought to 
be omitted out of such lists ; and it shall and may be law- 
ful to and for the Justices, at the General Sessions of the 
Peace to which the said list shall be so returned, upon due 
proof made before them of any person or persons duly 
([ualified to serve on Juries being omitted in such lists, or 
of any pereon or persons being inserted therein who ought 
to have been omitted, to order his or their name or names 
to be inserted or struck out, as the case may require : and 
in case any Constable shall wilfully omit, out of such list, 
any person or pei-sons, whose name or names ought to be 
inserted, or shall wilfully insert any ]ierson or persons who 
ought to be omitted, eveiy Constable so oflending, shall, 
for every person so omitted or inserted in such list, con- 
trary to the true intent and meaning of this Act, be fined 
by the said Justices, in the said General Sessions of the 
Peace, in the sum of forty shillings sterling. 

Provided always, and be it chactcd by the authority 
aforesaid. That in case default shall at any time hereafter 
be made, by any Constable or Constables, to return lists of 
persons qualified to serve on Juries within any of the said 
towns to the said Court of General Sessions of the Peace, 
then, and in such case, it shall and may be lawful for the 
Sheriff of the county, in which such default shall be made, 
to summon and return to the several Courts aforesaid, or 
any of thein, such and so many jiersons dwelling in such 
towns, or the districts thereof, qualified to serve on Juries, 
as he shall think fit to serve on Juries at such respective 
Courts ; any tliinsr herein contained to the contrary thereof 
in any wise notwithstanding. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That every summons of any person, to serve upon any of 
the Juries at the said Courts, or any of them, shall be made 
by the Sheriff, or other ])erson, ten days at the least before 
the holdinu' of every such Court; and in case any Jurors, 
so to be summoned, he absent from the usual place of his 
habitation at the time of such summons, notice of such 
summons shall be given, by leaving a note, in writing, under 
the hand of such Sheriff, or person, containing the contents 
thereof, at the dwelling house of such Juror, with some 
person iiiliahiting in the same. 

Provided always, and be it further enacted by the au- 
thority aforesaid. That in case a sufficient number of 
persons qualified to serve on Juries shall not appear at the 
said Courts, or any of them, to perform the service of 
Grand or Petit Jurors, that then, and in such case, it shall 
be lawful for the said Court to issue a writ or precept to 



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BILL FOR GOVERMVIENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



110 



the Sheriff, requiring him to summon a sufficient number 
of other persons qualified to serve on Juries, immediately 
to appear at such Court, to fill up and complete the num- 
ber of Jurors to serve at such Court ; and such persons are 
liereby required to appear and serve as Jurors at the said 
Courts accordingly. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That no person who shall serve as a Juror, at any of the 
said Courts, shall be liable to serve again as a Juror at the 
same Court, or any other of the Courts aforesaid, for the 
space of three years then next following, except upon 
special Juries. 

And, in order that the Sheriffs may be informed of the 
persons who have served as Jurors, It is hereby further 
enacted by the authority aforesaid, That every Slieritr 
sjiall prepare and keep a book, or register, wherein the 
names of all such persons who have served as Jurors, with 
their additions and places of abode, and the times when, 
and tiie Courts in wiiich they served, siiall be alphabetically 
entered and registered ; which books or registers shall, 
from time to time, be delivered over to the succeeding 
Sheriff of the said county, within ten days after he shall 
enter upon his oflice ; and every Juror, who shall attend 
and serve at any of the Courts aforesaid, may, at the expi- 
ration of the time of holding every, such Court, upon ap- 
plication to the Sheriff, or his Deputy, have a certificate 
immediately, §Ta^M, from the Sheriff, or his Deputy, testify- 
ing such his attendance and service ; which said certificate 
the said Sheriff, or his Deputy, is required to give to every 
such Juror. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That if, by reason of challenges, or otherw'ise, their shall 
not be a sufficient number of Jurors for the trial of any 
prosecution for any misdemeanor, or any action depending 
in any of the said Courts, then, and in such case, the Jury 
shall be filled up de talibus circumstantibus, to be returned 
by the Sheriff, unless he be a party, or interested or rela- 
ted to any party or person interested in such prosecution or 
action ; and, in any of which cases, to be returned by the 
Coroner, unless he be a party, or interested or related to 
any party or person interested in such prosecution or action ; 
and, in any of these cases, to be returned by a proper and 
indifferent person, to be appointed by the Court for tliat 
purpose. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That in case any person summoned to serve upon the 
Grand or Petit Jury, at any of the Courts aforesaid, or 
upon the Jury, in any prosecution, action, or suit, depend- 
ing in any of the said Courts, shall not appear and serve at 
the said Courts, according to the said summons, (not having 
any reasonable excuse to be allowed by the Judges or 
Justices at such Court,) he shall be fined by the Judges or 
Justices of such Court in any sum not exceeding tlie sum 
of ten pounds, nor less than twenty shillings sterling. 

And be it further enapted by the authority .aforesaid, 
That every Sheriff, or other officer, to whom the Venire 
Facias, or other process or warrant, for the trial of causes, 
or summoning of Juries, shall be directed, shall, upon his 
return of every such writ, or other process or warrant, 
(unless in cases where a special Jury shall be stuck by 
order or mle of Court, pursuant to this Act,) annex a 
pannel to tlie said writ, or process, or warrant, containing 
the christian and surnames, additions, and places of abode, 
of a competent number of Jurors, named in such lists, 
which number of Jurors shall not be less than twenty-foin-, 
nor more than forty-eight, without direction of the Judges 
or Justices of such Court of Session, or one of them, who 
are hereby respectively empowered and required, if he or 
they see cause, by order, under his or their respective hand 
or hands, to direct a greater number ; and then such 
number as shall be so directed shall be the number to be 
returned to serve on such Jury. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That for the trials of all actions or suits depending in any 
of tlie said Courts, the name of each and every person who 
shall be summoned and returned as aforesaid, with his ad- 
dition, and the place of his abode, shall be written in several 
and distinct pieces of parchment, or paper, being all as 
near as may be of equal size and bigness, and shall be de- 
livered unto the officer to be appointed by the Court for 
that purpose, by the Sheriff, Under Sheriff, or some Agent 



of his ; and shall, by direction and care of such officer, be 
rolled up all as near as may be, in the same manner, and 
put together in a box or gliiss, to be provided for that pur- 
jiose ; and when any cause shall be brought on to be tried, 
some indifferent person, by direction of the Court, may and 
shall, in open Court, draw out twelve of the said parch- 
ments or papers, one after anotlier; and if any of the 
persons, wliose names siiall be so drawn, shall not appear, 
or shall be challenged, and such challenge allowed, then 
such person shall proceed to draw other parciiments or 
papers from the said box, till twelve indifferent persons 
shall be drawn ; which twelve indifferent persons being 
sworn shall be tlio Jury to try the said cause : and the 
names of the persons so drawn and sworn shall be kept 
apai't by tiiemselves in some other box or glass, to be kept 
for that purpose, till such Jury shall have given in their 
verdict, and the same is recorded, or until such Jury shall, 
by consent of tlie parties, or leave of the Court, be dis- 
charged ; and tiien the same names shall be rolled up again, 
and returned to tiie former box or glass, there to be kept, 
witii the other names remaining at that time undrawn, and 
so toties quoties, as long as any cause remahis then to be 
tried. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That it shall and may be lawful to and for the Superior 
Court of Assize, and Court of Common Pleas, upon motion 
made on behalf of his Majesty, his heirs or successors, or on 
the motion of any prosecutor or defendant, in any indict- 
ment or information for any misdemeanor depending, or to 
be brought or prosecuted in the said Court, or on the 
motion of any plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant, or defen- 
dants, in any action, cause, or suit whatsoever, depending, 
or to be brought and carried on in the said Court, and the 
said Court is hereby authorized and required, upon motion 
as aforesaid, in any of the cases before mentioned, to order 
and appoint a Jury to be struck for the trial of any issue 
joined in any of the said cases, and triable by a Jury of 
twelve men, by such officer of the said Court as the Court 
shall appoint ; and for that purpose the Sheriff, or his 
Deputy, shall attend such officer with the duplicate of the 
lists of persons qualified to serve on Juries ; and such offi- 
cer shall thereupon take down, in writing, from the said 
duplicate, the names of forty-eight persons qualified to 
serve on Juries, with their additions, and places of abode, 
a copy whereof shall forthwith be delivered to the prosecu- 
tors or plaintiffs, their attorneys or agents, and another 
copy thereof to the defendants, their attorneys or agents, in 
such prosecutions and causes ; and the said officer of the 
Court aforesaid shall, at a time to be fixed by him for that 
purjiose, strike out the names of twelve of the said persons 
at the nomination of the prosecutors or plaintiffs, their at- 
torneys or agents, and also the names of twelve others of 
the said persons, at the nomination of the said defendants 
in such prosecutions and suits, and the twenty-four remain- 
ing persons shall be struck and summoned, and returned to 
the said Court as Jurors, for the trial of such issues. 

Provided always. That in case the prosecutors or plain- 
tiffs, or defendants, their attorneys or agents, shall neglect 
or refuse to attend the officer at the time fixed for striking 
the names of twenty-four persons as aforesaid, or nominate 
the persons to be struck out, then, and in such case, the 
said officer shall, and he is hereby required to strike out the 
names of such number of the said persons as such prosecu- 
tors or plaintiffs, or defendants, might have nominated to 
be struck out. 

And he it further enacted, That the person or party 
who shall apply for such special Jury as aforesaid, shall not 
only bear and pay the fees for striking such Jury, but shall 
also pay and discharge all the expenses occasioned by the 
trial of the cause by such Special Jury, and shall not have 
an)- further or other allowance for the same, upon taxation 
of costs, than such person or party would be entitled unto in 
case the cause had been tried by a Common Jur)', unless 
the Judge, before whom the cause is tried, shall, immedi- 
ately after the trial, certify, in open Court, under his hand, 
upon the back of the record, that the same was a cause 
proper to be tried by a Special Jury. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. 
That, in all actions brought in any of the said Courts, 
where it shall appear to the Court in which such actions 
are depending, that it will be proper and necessary that 



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Bir.L FOR ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



112 



the Juroi-s who are to try the issues in any such actions, 
siiouki have the view of the messuages, lauds, or phice in 
question, in order to tiieir better understandiuif the evidence 
that will be given upon the trial of such issues ; in every 
such ciise tiie respective Courts in which sucii actions shall 
be depending, may order the Jury to the place in question, 
who tiion and there shall liave the mailers in question 
shewn them by two persons to he appointed by the Court; 
and the special costs of all such views as allowed by the 
Court, shall, before the trial, be paid by the ])arty who 
moved for the view, (the adverse party not consenting 
thereto ;) and shall at the taxation of the bill of costs, have 
the same allowed him, upon his recovering judgement in 



sucli trial ; and upon all views with the consent of jiarties, 
ordered by tlie Court, tiie costs thereof, as allowed by the 
Court, shall, before trial, be equally paid by the said 
parties ; and in the taxation of the bill of costs, the party 
recovering judgment shall have the sum by him j)aid, al- 
lowed to him ; any law, usage, or custom, to the contrary 
notwithstanding. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That if any action shall be brought against any SherifT, for 
what he sliall do in execution, or by virtue of this Act, he 
may plead the general issue, and give the special matter in 
evidence ; and if a verdict shall be found for him, he shall 
recover treble costs. 



IV. BILL FOR THE LMPARTIAL ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IIV 
TIIE PROVINCE OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



HOUSE OF COMMONS. 
Monday, March 28, 1774. 

The House having had under consideration, in Commit- 
tee of the Whole, on Friday, the '25th instant, the King's 
Message of die 7th, and sundry other Papers, received the 
Report diis day, and granted leave to bring in the Bill lor 
the better regulating the Government of the Province of 
Mnssachmetts Bay. 

Sir Charles fVhitworth, dien acquainted die House that 
he was directed by the Committee to move, that they may 
have leave to sit again. 

Resolved, That this House will, upon Wednesday fort- 
night, the 13th day of April next, resolve itself into a Com- 
mittee of the whole House, to consider further of the said 
Message and Papers. 

Wednesday, April 13, 1774. 

The order of the day, for considering the Message and 
Papers, in a Committee of the whole House, was read : 

Resolved, That this House will, upon Friday morning 
next, resolve itself into the said Committee. 

Friday, April 15, 1774. 

Tlie Lord North presented to the House, by his Ma- 
jesty's command. 

No. 1 . Copy of a Letter from Governor Hutchinson to 
the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 14th February, 
1774 ; received 5th of April, enclosing, 

No. 2. Copy of Governor Hutchinson's Speech to the 
Council and House of Representatives ; and their 
Answer. 
No. 3. Copy of a Requisition from the House of 
Representatives of Massachusetts Bay, to the 
Judges of the Superior Court. 
No. 4. Copy of a Remonstrance of the House of 
Representatives of Massachusetts Bay, against the 
Chief Justice. 
No. 5. Copy of the Vote of the Council and House 
of Representatives of Massachusetts Bay, for ad- 
journing the Superior Court, not consented to by 
the Governor. 
No. 6. Copy of Governor Hutchinson^s Answer to 
the Remonstrance of the House of Representatives, 
against the Chief Justice. 
Together witli a list of the said Papers. 
And the said list was read : 

Ordered, That the said Papers be referred to the con- 
sideration of the Committee of the whole House, to whom 
it is referred to take into further consideration his Majesty's 
most gracious Message of Monday, the 7th day of March 
last, together with the Papers which were presented to the 



House by the Lord North, upon the 7th and 11th da\s of 
March last, by his Majesty's command. 

The order of the day, for the House to resolve itself into 
a Committee of the whole on the said Message and Papers, 
was read, and 

The House resolved itself into the said Committee, Sir 
Charles IfTiittoorth in the Chair. 

The Papers presented this day were then read ; when 
the reading was finished, 

Lord North rose, and said, he meant now to propose a 
third Bill, which he hoped wouh' eflectually secure the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay from future disturbances. 
The Bill that he meant to propose was, to give every man 
a fair and hiipartial trial ; that the Juries of that country it 
was true, were not established after the manner in which 
our Juries here were, and therefore were not so likely to 
give to each offender that impartial trial, which, by the laws 
of this country, he was entitled to ; for if it shall be found 
in that country, that a man is not likely to meet with a fair 
and impartial trial, the Governor will be empowered to send 
him to any of the other Colonies, where the same kind of 
spirit has not prevailed ; but if it shall be thought that he 
cannot have such fair and impartial trial in any of the Colo- 
nies, in that case he is to be sent to Great Britain, to be 
tried before the Court of King's Bench, the expenses of 
which trial were to be drawn for on the Customs ui 
England. Unless such a Bill as this now proposed should 
pass into a law, the Executive power will be imwilling to 
act, thinkuig they will not have a fair trial without it. I 
would not, said his Lordship, wish to see the least doubt or 
imperfection remain in the jjlan w Inch we have adopted : if 
there does, the consequence may be that it may produce 
bloodshed ; that the whole plan may be clear and decisive ; 
that every part of it may be properiy supported ; and I tmst 
that such a measure as this, which we have now taken, will 
shew to that country, that this nation is roused to defend 
their rights, and protect the security of peace in its Colo- 
nies; and when roused, that the measures which they lake 
are not cruel nor vindictive, but necessary and efficacious. 
Temporary distress requires temporary relief; I shall there- 
fore only propose this Bill for the limited time of three or 
four years. We must consider, that every thing that we 
have that is valuable to us is now at stake : and the ques- 
tion_ is very shortly this : Whether they shall continue the 
subjects of Great Britain or not ? This I propose as the 
last measure that Parliament will take ; after which, it re- 
quires, that his Majesty's servants shall be vigilant in the 
execution of their duty, and keep a watchful eye over every 
encroachment against the power we shall now pass, and not 
suffer the least degree of disobedience to our measures to 
take place in that country. Such a watchful and carefid 
eye to prevent the first rise of disobedience, may be a sure 
peventive agauist future mischiefs. The customary relief 



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BILL FOR ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



114 



of troops that is ordered for that country, is ordered, in the 
first place, to Boston, four regiments being the usual relief. 
Governor Hutchinson comes liome, and his Majesty has 
appointed General Gage as Commander and Governor in 
Chief, a man whose great abilities, and extensive know- 
ledge of that country, will give him a superior advantage, 
and his occasional residence there will prevent him from 
shewing any impolitic partiality to the Americans, and 
thereby enforce a due observance of those measures which 
we have taken, and shall send out. There is one thing I 
much wish, which is, the punishment of those individuals 
who have been the ringleaders and forerunners of these 
mischiefs. Our attention will be continually active in that 
point. A prosecution has been already ordered against 
them by his Majesty's servants, but I cannot promise 
myself any very good effijct until this law shall have reached 
the Province. We must particularly guard against any il- 
legal or ineffectual proceedings, or else, after all our trouble, 
we shall find ourselves at last in the same dilemma we 
were in at first. We must observe a perfect innocence, and 
a conscientious avoidance of the breach of any laws. His 
Majesty's servants, I make no doubt, will be thoroughly 
watchful against such breach, nor will they at any time pro- 
ceed upon slight grounds. They have the happiness to be 
assisted by the ablest lawyers, who have both great reso- 
lution and abilities ; and guarded by such outlines, I make 
no doubt, that tiie spirit of disobedience, which has hitherto 
unfortunately prevailed, will be tempered and brought to 
reason by a due observance of those measures which we 
have now taken, and, 1 trust, will secure to us the blessings 
of peace, radicated out of the boiling disturbances and vio- 
lent spirit of opposition in that country. When those 
measures are pursued with that resolution, and those abili- 
ties which I have mentioned, I doubt not the event will be 
advantageous to this country. I have no more. Sir, to add 
but with permission will make the motion, " That the Chair- 
" man be directed to move the House, that leave be given 
" to bring in a Bill for the impartial administration of justice, 
" in the cases of persons questioned for any acts done by 
" them in the execution of the laws, or for the suppression 
" of the riots and tumults in the Province of Massachusetts 
'• Bay, in New England." 

[It was observed that Lord North trembled and faultered 
at every word of his motion.] 

Colonel Barre. I rise. Sir, with great unwillingness to 
oppose this measure in its very infancy, before its features 
are well formed, or to claim that attention which this House 
seems to bestow with so much reluctance on any arguments 
in behalf of America. But I must call you to witness that 
1 have been hitherto silent, or acquiescing, to an unexpect- 
ed degree of moderation. While your proceedings, severe 
as they were, had the least colour of foundation in justice, 
1 desisted from opposing them ; nay more — though your 
Bill for stopping up the port of Boston contained in it many 
things most cruel, unwarrantable, and unjust, yet, as they 
were couched under those general principles of justice, 
retribution for injury, and compensation for loss sustained, I 
not only desisted from opposing, but assented to its passing. 
The Bill was a bad way of doing what was right ; but 
still it was doing what was right. I would not therefore, 
by opposing it, seem to countenance those violences which 
had been committed abroad ; and of which no man disap- 
proves more than 1 do. 

Upon the present question I am totally unprepared. 
The motion itself bears no sort of resemblance to what was 
formerly announced. The noble Lord and his friends have 
had every advantage of preparation. They have reconnoi- 
tred the field, and chosen tiieir ground. To attack them in 
these circumstances may, perhaps, favour more of the gal- 
lantry of a soldier than of the wisdom of a senator. 

But, Sir, the proposition is so glaring; so unprecedented 
in any former proceedings of Parliament ; so unwarranted 
by any delay, denial, or perversion of justice in America; 
so big with misery and oppression to that country, and with 
danger to this — that the first blush of it is sufficient to alarm 
and rouse me to opposition. 

It is proposed to stigmatize a whole People as persecu- 
tors of innocence, and men incapable of doing justice ; yet 
you have not a single fact on which to ground that imputa- 
tion. I expected the noble Lord would have supported 
this motion by producing instances of the officers of Go- 
Fourth Series. 



vemnnent in America having been prosecuted with unremit- 
ting vengeance, and brought to cruel and dishonourable 
deaths, by the violence and injustice of American Juries. 
But he has not produced one such instance ; and I will tell 
you more. Sir, — he cannot produce one. The instances 
which have happened are directly in the teeth of his propo- 
sition. Captain Freston and the soldiers, who shed the 
blood of the People, were fairly tried, and fully acquitted. 
It was an American Jury, a Nexo England Jury, a Boston 
Jury, which tried and acquitted them. Captain Preston 
has, under his hand, publicly declared, that the inhabitants 
of the very town in which their fellow-citizens had been 
sacrificed, were his advocates and defenders. Is this the 
return you make them ? Is this the encouragement you 
give them to persevere in so laudable a spirit of justice and 
moderation ? When a Commissioner of the Customs, 
aided by a number of ruffians, assaulted the celebrated Mr. 
Otis in the midst of the town of Boston, and with the most 
barbarous violence almost murdered him, did the mob. 
which is said to rule that town, take vengeance on the per- 
petrators of this inhuman outrage against a person who is 
supposed to be their demagogue ? No, Sir, the law tried 
them ; the law gave heavy damages against them ; which 
the irreparably injured Mr. Otis most generously forgave 
upon an acknowledgment of the offence. Can you expect 
any more such instances of magnanimity under the princi- 
ple of the Bill now proposed ? 

But the noble Ijord says, " We must now shew the 
" Americans that we will no longer sit quiet under their 
" insults." Sir, I am sorry to say that this is declamation, 
unbecoming the character and place of him who utters it. 
In what moment have you been quiet? Has not your 
Government for many years past been a series of irritating 
and offensive measures, without policy, principle, or 
moderation ? Have not your troops and your ships made 
a vain and insulting parade in their streets and in their 
harbours ? It has seemed to be your study to irritate and 
inflame them. You have stimulated discontent into disaf- 
fection, and you are now goading that disaffection into re- 
bellion. Can you expect to be well informed when you 
listen only to partizans ? Can you expect to do justice 
when you will not hear the accused ? 

Let us consider. Sir, the precedents which are offered to 
warrant this proceeding — the suspension of the Habeas 
Corpus Act in 1745 — the making smugglers triable in 
Middlesex, and the Scotch rebels in England. Sir, the 
first was done upon the most pressing necessity , flagrante 
bello, with a dangerous rebellion in the very heart of the 
Kingdom ; the second, you well know, was warranted by 
the most evident facts : armed bodies of smugglers marched 
publicly without presentment or molestation from the 
People of the county of Sussex ; who, even to their Ma- 
gistrates, were notoriously connected with them. They 
murdered the officers of the revenue, engaged your troops, 
and openly violated the laws. Experience convinced you. 
that the Juries of that, and of the counties similarly cir- 
cumstanced, would never find such criminals guilty; and 
upon the conviction of this necessity you passed the Act. 
The same necessity justified the trying Scotch rebels in 
England. Rebellion had reared its dangerous standard in 
Scotland, and the principles of it had so universally tainted 
that People, that it was manifestly in vain to expect 
justice from them against their countrymen. But in Ameri- 
ca, not a single act of rebellion has been committed. Let 
the Crown law ofiicers, who sit by the noble Lord, declare, 
if they can, that there is upon your table a single evidence 
of treason or rebellion mAinerica. They know. Sir, there 
is not one, and yet are proceeding as if there were a 
thousand. 

Having thus proved, Sir, that the proposed Bill is with- 
out precedent to support, and without facts to warrant it, 
let us now view the consequences it is like to produce. A 
soldier feels himself so much above the rest of mankind, 
that the strict hand of the civil power is necessary to con - 
troul the haughtiness of disposition which .such supenority 
inspires. You know. Sir, what constant care is taken in 
this country to remind the military that they are under the 
restraint of the civil power. In America their superionty 
is felt still greater. Remove the check of the law, as this 
Bill intends, and what insolence, what outrage may you not 
expect ? Every passion that is pernicious to society will 



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BILL FOR ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



116 



be let loose upon a People unaccustomed to licentiousness 
and intemperance. On the one hand will be a People who 
have been long complaining of oppression, and see in the 
soldiery those who are to enforce it upon them ; on the 
other, an army studiously prepossessed with the idea of that 
People being rebellious, unawed by the apprehension of 
civil conlroul, and actuated by that arbitrary sjiirit which 
prevails even among the best of troops. In this situation the 
prudent officer will find it impossible to restrain his soldiers 
or prevent that provocation which will rouse the tamest 
People to resistance. Tlie inevitable consequence will be 
that you will produce the rebellion you pretend to obviate. 

I have been bred a soldier ; have served long. 1 respect 
the profession, and live in the strictest habits of friendship 
with a great many officers; but there is not a country 
gentleman of you all, who looks upon the army with a 
more jealous eye, or would more strenuously resist the set- 
ting them alK)ve the controul of the civil power. No man 
is to be trusted in such a situation ; it is not a fault of the 
soldier, but the vice of human nature, which, unbridled by 
law, becomes insolent and licentious, wantonly violates the 
peace of society, and tramples upon the rights of human kind. 

With respect to those gentlemen who are destined to 
this service, they are much to be pitied. It is a service, 
which an officer of feeling and of worth must enter upon 
with infinite reluctance ; a service, in which his only 
merit must be, to bear much, and do little. With the me- 
lancholy prospect before him of commencing a civil war, 
and embruing his hands in the blood of his fellow subjects, 
his feelings, his life, his honour, are hazarded, without a 
possibility of any equivalent or compensation. You may 
perhaps think a law, founded upon this motion will be his 
protection. I am mistaken if it will. Who is to execute 
it ? He must be a bold man indeed who makes the at- 
tempt. If the People are so exasperated, that it is unsafe 
to bring the man who has injured them to trial, let the 
Governor who withdraws him from justice look to himself. 
Tlie People will not endure it ; they would no longer de- 
serve the reputation of being descended from the loins of 
Englishmen, if they did endure it. 

When I stand up as an advocate for America, I feel 
myself the firmest friend of this country. We stand upon 
the commerce of America. Alienate your Colonies, and 
you will subvert tlie foundation of your riches and your 
strength. Let the banners of rebellion be once spread in 
America, and you are an undone People. You are urging 
it with such violence, and by measures tending so manifestly 
to that fatal point, that, but that a state of madness only 
could inspire such an intention, it would appear to be your 
deliberate purpose. In assenting to your late Bill I resist- 
ed the violence of America, at the hazard of my popularity 
there. I now resist your phrenzy at the same risk here. 
Yon have changed your ground. You are becoming the 
aggressors, and offering the last of human outrages to the 
People of America, by subjecting them, in effect, to mili- 
tary execution. I know the vast superiority of your dis- 
ciplined troops over the provincials ; but beware how you 
supply the want of discipline by desperation. Instead of 
sending them the olive branch, you have sent the naked 
sword. By the olive branch, I mean a repeal of all the 
late laws, fruitless to you, and oppressive to them. 

Ask their aid in a constitutional manner, and they will 
give it to the utmost of their ability. They never yet re- 
fused it, when properly required. Your Journals bear the 
recorded acknowledgments of the zeal with which they 
have contributed to the general necessities of the State. 
What madness is it that prompts you to attempt obtaining 
that by force which you may more certainly procure by 
requisition ? They may be flattered into any thin", but 
they are too much like yourselves to be driven. Have 
some indulgence for your own likeness ; respect their sturdy 
English virtue ; retract your odious exertions of authority, 
and remember that the first step towards makinj; them con- 
tribute to your wants, is it to reconcile them to your Go- 
vernment. 

Mr. Solicitor General Wcddtrhurn. I take this Bill to 
be nothing more than conveying a general security to all 
persons whatsoever, as well as the military. It is necessa- 
ry there should be a reform of the laws, and a proper secu- 
rity under such magisterial authority. The Americans do 
not attack the law, otherwise than attacking the Legislature 



that made it. It is not this nor that law that is particulai'ly 
disagreeable to them ; they say, no laws shall be put in 
force there: you say, all laws shall. A singular case may 
happen of not meeting with that fair trial which is expected ; 
this Bill will be a remedy for it ; it is a temporary relief 
for the limited space of three years. They have, m that 
country, an unwillingness to obey all Magistrates, who have 
authority from this country, acting under its laws ; nay, 
they even dispute the commission, and may not allow the 
appointment ; a trial, in such a case, would certainly be 
doubtful. The revenue law gives the power of trial in 
another country ; this case is a direct precedent of that 
impartial trial at which you want to come ; for if you can- 
not have it in one county, you must remove and try to 
find it in another. No man will deny me the doctrine, 
that such fair trial ought and must be had. It is now no 
longer a question of expediency, it is a question of necessi- 
ty ; and it will he found necessary, at all events to break 
into their charters, if you mean to produce that subordina- 
tion which you are seeking ; but I hope, and firmly wish, that 
even the idea of your authority being known to them, will 
at once prevent the exertion of it. I agree with tlie 
honorable gentleman, that the olive branch ought to go in 
one hand, but the sword should be carried in the otlier. 
Peace will be established upon proper princii)les, when there 
is a power to enforce it ; and your authority once establish- 
ed, I would tlien drop the point of the sword, and make use 
of the olive branch, as far and as much as possible. I could 
very easily tell the colour of all which has already happened 
in America, and the ground from which it arose ; but 1 
stop short, hoping that when they see and know that you 
have both courage and firmness to jjroceed in your plan, it 
will prevent even the exertion of this necessary measure. 
I would not have them be too confident in our weakness 
and irresolution, but adopt the measure of reformation, as 
arising and occasioned by our firmness and courage in the 
exertion of those powers which are entrusted to us for the 
preservation of the peace of our Colonies. 

Captain Phipps. I commend much, and am glad to 
hear of, the appointment of General Gage. I think his 
abilities and knowledge of the People of that country will 
sufficiently ensure to him their affections, and be a means of 
inducing them to obey those measures which are to be exe- 
cuted under his direction ; and as much approve of the re- 
moval of one of the worst, one of the most exceptionable 
servants the Crown ever had, I mean Governor Hutchin- 
son. I wish to see the Bill before us without the trial by 
Jury, for I always apprehended that the advantage of such 
trial was from the vicinage, and by men who knew the cir- 
cumstaoces, as well as the characters of the ofl'enders ; nor 
do I wish to see men sent to England to be tried. These 
men in America are all brought up to mercantile business, 
and I do not know any recompense or satisfaction whatever 
that can be made to a man for the loss of his time in coming 
here and going back. I wish much for unanimity, becaust 
I think it would add a chief support to our measures ; but 
I think it impossible to send a man from America to be tried 
here, when we are three thousand miles asunder. It would 
be better that America and England were separated en- 
tirely, than to offer to bring men here to be tried. I wish 
this Bill to go on without that trial by Jury. I wish much 
also the removal of" Governor Bernard, because he was the 
first man who opposed a revenue law. He did it upon the 
same principle as a smuggler does, because he would lose 
by it. If this Bill goes on in its present form, it will extort 
from me that opinion ininy vote of affirmative, which I am 
unwiUing to give. 

Mr. T. Townshend. I cannot. Sir, agree with my hon- 
orable friend, in approving of the removal of Governor 
Hutchinson. The Bill is one of those measures to which 
I can easily give my consent as, I think, it contains a secu- 
rity that the lives of innocent men may be safe. I approve 
much of the appointment of General Gage ; and as I do 
not find that the troops are with him, 1 nmst express a wish 
that they may be able to arrive time enough to prevent a 
riot, sooner than to quell one, and to let America see we 
do not want to quiirrel with tiiemupon mere punctilio ; do 
not let us, for God's sake, when we have asserted our au- 
thority to all that we wish to do, and enforced that obe- 
dience, continue that little paltry duty upon tea; let us, 
then, nobly lay aside those little, teazing, irritating measures. 



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having once gained the grand point of peace and submis- 
sion to our laws. 

Mr. Dowdesrvell. I am the last man to entertain pre- 
judices against Juries. I revere and honour the institution. 
1 rejoice also that Governor Hutchinson is removed, be- 
cause he has not acted as he ought to do, either towards 
this country or America. 

Lord Carmarthen. I do not mean, Sir, to trouble the 
House long, but I hope I am justified, by the importance 
of the question, in delivering my sentiments. Great 
Britain neither can nor ought to sit silent, and behold the 
riots and disturbances that have been committed in Ameri- 
ca ; committed, I say, by a People sent out from this coun- 
try, as it were from our own bowels ; to see these men 
disobey the laws and precepts of Great Britain, and to sit 
tamely, and take no notice, would be insipid conduct, high- 
ly unworthy the British Legislature. For what purpose 
were they suffered to go to that country, unless the profit 
of their labour should return to their masters here ? I think 
the policy of colonization is highly culpable, if the advan- 
tages of it should not redound to the interests of Great 
Britain. I cannot see this Act in any other light, than as 
giving that same degree of relief to every subject in Ameri- 
ca, in the same manner as it gives protection and security 
to the military ; I shall therefore give it my affirmative, 
and hope, upon some future day, to express my further 
sentiments upon that part relating to the trial by Juries. 

Lord North. I rise once more to wipe off the aspersion 
that has been thrown upon Governor Hutchinson, and I 
am much surprised to find that it was the sentiment of even 
one gentleman in this House, that the removal of Governor 
Hutchinson was considered as part of the merit of this 
measure. I do not know a man who has a greater share 
of merit ; nor did I ever hear any charge brought against 
him. He was shamefully abandoned in the execution of 
his duty, by those who ought to have supported him. 
Governor Hutchinson had before this affair desired and 
obtained leave to come home. A shij) is now arrived at 
Bristol, in which he had taken a passage, but as the go- 
ven.ment of the Province, in those disturbed times, would 
have fallen into the hands of the Council in his absence, in 
case of the death of the Lieutenant Governor, who was 
then very ill, he chose rather to adhere to his duty, and 
stay in that country, to endeavour to quiet those alarming 
disturbances. This surel}'. Sir, was acting the part of a 
faithful servant of tiie Crown; I would only tell the House 
that Governor Hutchinson is not recalled home upon ac- 
count of any misconduct ; and that he is not here at pre- 
sent is certainly a mark of his duty, and deserves the thanks 
of this Assembly. 

Captain Phipps rose to explain, and said, that he did 
not blame Governor Hutchinson for his conduct without 
reason, which he would give to the House ; he thought 
liim culpable upon two occasions, the one for suffering his 
son to be appointed a consignee of the tea, and the other 
for setting at defiance the Assembly. 1 think him also 
highly blaineable (says he) for not acting without his Coun- 
cil. Here seems to be in him a pretended mildness, and a 
determined prepossession of irritation. 

General Conway. We ought not. Sir, I think to dive 
into People's characters ; the more important business re- 
quires our serious consideration ; the measure that is now 
before you is full of difficulties ; it has given a serious turn 
to his Majesty's Ministers ; and this Bill is the produce of 
many laboured hours, whicli we may felicitate ourselves 
upon. I shall not give my opinion now. I am for this 
plan, and for giving it its due consideration, though I am 
apt to think that this measure will have no other tendency 
than a distrust of the Americans. lam a friend to Ameri- 
ca. There must be a kind of connection with Great 
Bntain, whicli is necessary for the carrying on the 
measures of Government. Let us preserve temper in our 
proceedings. The Americans have obeyed the laws, ex- 
cept that of taxation ; and 1 should be glad to hear how 
this olive branch, that is so much talked of, is to go out. 
Nothing less than non-taxation, in my opinion, can be the 
olive branch ; if the system of taxation is to be maintained, 
I am sure it will give trouble enough ; but if his Majesty's 
Ministers have tiie least thoughts of putting an end to the 
taxation, let them adopt it now at once, and it will put an 
end to every thing. 



Mr. Van. I do not rise to give the House much trouble, 
but just to make one observation upon what an honorable 
gentleman has said ; that if we will not tax that country, 
they will return to their duty. I do most heartily agree 
with him ; I believe they will ; but if they opjiose the 
measures of Government that are now sent out, I would do 
as was done of old, in the time of ancient Britons, I would 
burn and set fire to all their woods, and leave their country 
open, to prevent that protection they now have ; and if we 
are likely to lose that country, I think it better lost by our 
own soldiers, than wrested from us by our rebellious children . 

Lord North's motion was then agreed to, and the Com- 
mittee rose. 

Sir Charles Whitworth reported from the Committee, 
that he was directed by the Committee, to move the House, 
that leave be given to bring in a Bill, for the Impartial Ad- 
ministration of Justice, in the cases of persons questioned 
for any acts done by them in the execution of tlie law, or 
for the suppression of riots and tumults, in the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay, in the Province of New England : 

Ordered, That leave be granted to bring in the Bill ; 
and that Sir Charles Whitivorth, the Lord North, Mr. At- 
torney General, and Mr. Solicitor General, do prepare, 
and bring in the same. 

Thursdav, April 21, 1774. 

Immediately after presenting the Papers this day, [See 
folio 70.] 

The Lord North presented to the House, according 
to order, the Bill : 

And the same was read the first time, upon which, 

Mr. Sawbridge arose, saying. Sir, I am astonished at 
the noble Lord's proceeding, in bringing in a Bill of the 
utmost consequence, at a time when there is so thin a 
House. [There were only forty-one members.] It is an 
improper time ; it is taking us by surprise ; it is cowardly. 
But, Sir, I should think myself highly unworthy a seat in 
this Assembly, were I to suffer so pernicious a Bill to pass 
in any stage, without giving my hearty negative to it. I 
will oppose it every time I have an opportunity, although I 
do not imagine I shall be much attended to. This is a Bill, 
Sir, of such a ridiculous and cruel nature, that I really am 
astonished how any person could think of making it. 
Does the noble Lord think that a man who chances to see 
a person murdered in America, will come over here as an 
evidence against the aggressor? Does the noble Lord 
think that any American would hazard a trial here, or 
that he would expect to have justice done him, if he was 
to come over ? Then a person would be brought over here 
to be tried, and you would have evidences only on one 
side ; but I imagine if those evidences should not be 
sufficient, evidence here, who never saw the transaction, 
would be procured, and the criminal acquitted. I plainly 
foresee the dangerous conseqences of this Bill ; it is meant 
to enslave America ; and the same Minister who means to 
enslave them, would, if he had an opportunity, enslave 
England; it is his aim, and what he wishes to do; but I 
sincerelv hope the Americans will not admit of the execu- 
tion of these destructive Bills, but nobly refuse them ; if 
they do not, they are the most abject slaves that ever the 
earth produced, and nothing that the Minister can do is 
base enough for them. 

Lord North. Sir, I think myself called upon to vindi- 
cate my conduct for bringing in the Bill in so tliin a 
House.' Sir. was I to know there would be few members 
attend ? I did as I promised I would do, which was, to 
bring in tlie Bill as soon as it was ready ; it was but just 
finished when I brought it, and I little expected to have 
any debate upon it in tins stage: I thought, Sir, the debate 
would be upon the second reading ; it usually is so ; and 
I sincerely hope when this Bill is read a second time, 
that we shall have a very full House, and let every 
gentleman give his opinion upon it. I wish to have it 
thoroughly discussed, and if it should be found to be a bad 
Bill, in God's name throw it out; if found otherwise, yon 
cannot he too unanimous in assenting to it ; the more una- 
nimity there is, the stronger effect it will have. As to its 
being meant to enslave America, I deny it, I have no such 
intention ; it is an unpleasant, but necessary step to bring 



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iliem to a sense of their duty ; that assertion has much 
the same truth in it as what has been before said, that the 
Americans had seen their error, and were wilhnu; to satii^fy 
tlie India Company. Sir, there is a ship arrived, I tiiink 
her name is the Fortune, Captain Gorcham ; she arrived 
in Boston harbour the latter end of February, or beirin- 
ning of March, 1774, I cannot say which ; she was loaded 
with tea ; the inhabitants came immediately and unloaded 
her, and emptied the contents of her cargo into the sea. 
Is this, Sir, seeing their error ? Is this Sir, reforming ? 
Is this making restitution to the India Company r Surely 
no gentleman will, after this, urge any thing in their 
defence. The honorable gentleman has said this Bill is 
a pernicious one ; 1 trust, when gentlemen come to consi- 
der it, they will see it is quite otlierwlse. 

Sir Thomas Frankland rose only to acquaint the 
House, that he, yesterday afternoon, after the House broke 
up, was shewn a letter whicli a friend of his received 
from Boston, dated March, 1774, which mentioned the 
tea being destroyed, which was the cargo of Captain 
Goreham, as the noble Ijord had mentioned. 

Mr. Byng. Sir, I cannot help rising to oppose tiiis 
Bill. I agree with my worthy friend, that it is a most 
jiemicious Bill, and, I fear, made with no good intention. 
1 really am surprised at the noble Lord, who said, his 
wish was to make their laws in America as near as 
possible to our own. Is this Bill any thing like it ? 
No, it is quite the reverse ; dragging People from one 
country to another to give evidence, is such a proposition as 
I never heard before, nor could have thought of; but, 
Sir, every person must know, and will allow, that the 
noble Lord finds his other two Bills are so defective and 
dangerous, that no pereon will venture to put them into 
execution ; he is therefore obliged to have recourse to a 
third, to indemnify such persons as shall be concerned in 
executing his destructive project. I shall oppose this Bill 
every time I have an opportunity, and I trust every lover 
of his country will do the same. He further said, that 
whatever professions of candour were thrown out, he should 
trust to them with great caution ; that for his part these at- 
tacks made abroad, seemed to be intended to prepare men's 
minds for measures of a similar nature to be enforced at 
home ; and that the conduct and complexion of public 
measures in general wore the appearance of a systematic 
design of enslaving the People, as well in Great Britain 
as the Colonies. 

Lord Beauchamp. I really am surprised, Sir, to hear 
an honorable gentleman say, that every person must know 
that the two former Bills are defective. Sir, I will ven- 
ture to say the fact is otherwise ; every person must 
allow they are necessary for the preservation of peace, 
and restoring the Americans to a sense of their duty. 
Does the honorable gentleman think the soldiery at Boston 
will act without they are indemnified ? No ; they could 
not. No person would execute the laws half so well, was 
this Bill not to pass. I think it a necessary Bill ; it will 
make their trials by Juries like oui-s, which are so much 
approved of; and I shall give my hearty affirmative to it. 

Mr. Sawbridge. Sir, I rise to explain to the noble 
Iiord why I think it a pernicious Bill. I am certain, that 
however willing I might be to bring an offender to justice, 
was I to see a murder committed in London, my love of 
justice might induce me to go to any part of the country 
to appear as an evidence ; but I assure the noble Lord I 
would not go over to America on any account, nor for any 
mandate that he could issue ; and I believe that the noble 
l^rd will allow, that not any sum would induce him to 
go over now ; therefore we have the same right to imagine, 
that People in America will not come over here. I make 
no doubt but Government will take care to bring over 
evidence in support of their side, but they will not trouble 
themselves with evidence on the contrary ; therefore all 
your trials will be ex parte, and nothing but a mockery 
of justice. I do not mention this as an advocate for Ame- 
rica, but mention it as an Englishman. 

The question on the second reading was then put : 

Resolved, That the Bill be read a second time. 
Ordered, That the said Bill be printed. 
Ordered, Tliat the said Bill be read a second time on 
Monday morning next. 



Monday, April 2.5, 1774. 

The order of tiie day, for the second reading of the 
Bill, being read, 

Mr. Dowdeswell said, he did not mean to oppose the 
Bill now, but he meant to present a petition from the 
Agent of America, Ix^fore the third reading ; and he would 
then confine his debate to the injustice of preventing the 
parties to be heard at the Bar, on the validity of their 
charter. To this point only he should direct his opposi- 
tion, and he meant to do it, and collect all his force 
against the two Bills ; the one for the regulating the civil 
Government, and the other for the impartial administra- 
tion of justice, in regard to trials, on the third reading, 
which was apjiointed for Monday. 

Mr. Dyson desired leave to observe, that neither in one 
case or the other of the two Bills, did the House proceed 
as a court of justice, but in tiieir capacity as a legislative 
body, regulating and controlling the deficiency of charters 
which had been granted by the Crown. 

Lord North said he intended to move for commitment 
of the present Bill for the 29th, and for the third reading 
of them both on the 2d of May. 

Mr. Cavendish wished to be informed from the Hou'e, 
whether it was the usual custom of Pariiament to debate 
the principle of a Bill, after it had been committed ? 

Colonel Barrc said, he thought the Bill deserved to 
be opposed in every stage on the principle on which it was 
framed ; but on the third reading, was as proper a stage 
as any. He had considered with himself, and weighed in 
his own mind the grounds upon which this Bill was form- 
ed ; and the result of his deliberation was, that it will be 
odious to the persons for whose benefit it is intended, by 
being odious to the People ; and that it will be oppressive 
to America at large. 

The Bill was then read the second time, and committed 
to a Committee of the whole House. 

Resolved, That this House will, upon Friday morning 
next, resolve itself into a Committee of the whole House, 
upon the said Bill. 

Friday, April 29, 1774. 

The order of the day being read. 

The House resolved itself into a Committee of the 
whole on the Bill, Sir Charles Whitworih in the Ciiair ; 

After some time spent therein. 

The Speaker resumed the Chair, 

And Sir Charles Whitivorth reported from the Com- 
mittee that they had gone through the Bill, and made 
several amendments thereunto. 

Ordered, That the Report be received on Monday 
morning next. 

Monday, May 2, 1774. 

A Petition from several Natives of America, against 
this Bill, and the Bill for the better Regulating the Go- 
vernment of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in North 
America, was presented by Sir George Savile. [See folio 
81.] 

The order of the day, for receiving the Report of the 
Committee of the whole House, to whom the Bill was 
committed, being read, 

And it being half an hour after two of the clock, on 
Tuesday morning. 

Ordered, That the Report be received to-morrow 
morning. 

Wednesday, May 4, 1774. 

Sir Charles fVhitworth, according to order, reported fronj 
the Committee of the whole House, the Bill willi the 
amendments, which the Committee had made ; several of 
which were disagreed to, and the rest were, with amend- 
ments to several of them, agreed to by the House. 

A clause was offered by Mr. fVallace, to be added to 
the Bill, for taking away ap]ieals in the Massachusetts 
Bay, in cases of murder, during the continuance of the 
Act. 

And a motion being made, that the said clause be 
brought up ; 

Mr. Moreton desired to know if the appeal for murder 
did actually exist now in the Colonies ? 



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i 



Governor Johnstone desired to know if it was to extend 
to tlie trial of those sent to England? 

Mr. Wallace answered them botli, by saying, he meant 
it should extend, in both cases, as far as the Bill purported. 

[This brought on a debate concerning tlie appeal for 
murder being to be taken away in general.] 

Mr. Duruihig. Sir, I rise to support that great pillar 
of the constitution, the appeal for murder; and I am not 
satisfied that a precedent should be instituted in order to 
operate as an example for the taking it away in Great 
Britain, as well as the Colonies. This clause considers 
it now as an existing law in America ; I cannot say that I 
look upon it in that light ; but this is not the first time this 
question has been agitated in this House, and has been 
called and treated as a remnant of barbarism and gothic- 
ism The whole of our constitution, for aught I know, 
is Gothic. Is it then, the present idea to destroy every 
part of that Gothic constitution, and adopt a Macaroni 
one in its stead ? If so, it is a system of ministerial des- 
potism that is adopted here ; when a political purpose is in 
view, things may be adopted that may tend to operate as 
a precedent, that may become at last prejudicial to the 
public welfare. I wish. Sir, that, in every step of this 
matter, gentlemen would be a little more cautious, as I 
much fear the system would soon be adopted in England; 
it is a proposition produced on a sudden ; and as in its 
extent it may turn out dangerous, I shall dissent from it. 

Mr. Solicitor General Wedderburn. I confess. Sir, 
that this part of our constitution has never appeared to 
me as essential ; it is very much of a footing with a trial 
by ordeal. Till laws and society took place, there was 
no other method of deciding between right and wrong. 
There is now no law in being to prevent trial by battle ; 
and not in very ancient times was it that the Court of 
Common Pleas attended in Tothill-fields to judge of the 
trials. None but the wife of the deceased, as a female, 
can appeal; and this may be compromised by a sum of 
money ; it may be reduced into a civil suit ; but by being 
adopted in the manner proposed in this clause, it can 
operate to no bad purpose ; nor do I conceive that the 
liberty of this country will be at all in danger, as it is only 
for a temporary expedient. 

Mr. Edmund Burke. I don't controvert, in an adverse 
line, what is advanced by the learned gentleman. There 
is nothing more true than that man has given up his share 
of the natural right of defence into that of the State, 
in order to be protected by it. But this is part of the 
whole law, which you ought not separate, or else you will 
soon lay the axe to the root of it in England. If there is 
an appeal for rape and robbery, you ought to have one 
for murder. I allow, that combat was part of this appeal ; 
but it was superstition and barbarism to the last degree. 
I cannot, in any degree, consent that the common law 
should, in any case, be taken away from one part of his 
Majesty's subjects, and not from the other. But as this 
is a question of great magnitude, whenever it comes on 
with respect to Great Britain, I hope then humbly to 
offer my opinion on it. 

Mr. IV. Burke. No man has the least doubt but the 
learned gentleman (Mr. Wallace) is fully acquainted with 
every part of the law, ancient as well as modern ; but 
1 think. Sir, he should have brought you in a Bill to have 
repealed the law in England first ; but when this great 
question comes on, I shall readily give my opinion on it. 

Mr. Stanh.y entered deeply into the pohty of our con- 
stitution, and dwelt a long time on the repeal of the law 
respecting a])peals in general. I think it is hard, says 
he, that a man should be tried twice for the same offence, 
and when you have an advantage by knowing his secrets 
and defence. I apprehend that criminal laws were made 
to save the lives of persons, and not to destroy them ; 
that the power of grace or pardon is constitutional, and is 
a very valuable and glorious prerogative in the Crown ; 
and a trial is not complete without it. There never was 
an instance wherein the trial by appeal was instituted, 
that it was not for the sake of obtaining a sum of money ; 
and it is part of the law that it may be reduced into 
such compensation, the whole being allowed to be a civil 
suit ; but taking it in its utmost sense, it is nothing but 
barbarism and cruelty ; and I wish to abolish it as an 
improper part of that code of law for which we are so 
much famed. 



Mr. T. Toimshend. This is a question, Sir, which 
has frequently been before the House, and has as often 
been rejected. I cannot agree to the repeal in part, 
unless I hear reasons given for the abolition of the wfiole, 
or at least better arguments than those 1 have heard, to 
induce me to give my opinion to abolish that part which 
relates to America. 

Mr. Cornwall. The appeal for murder, Sir, is incor- 
porated in tile law of England, either as a natural or 
political right. Is then, Sir, the redress of a particular 
injury to be remedied only by a sacrifice of the lives of 
others ? Every body knows that manslaughter is a bar to 
appeal. But, Sir, can it be intended as a wise, pohtical 
institution, that after a trial by jury, a single individual, to 
satisfy his revenge, may overturn the solemn judgment 
and verdict of a jury ? It appears to me, upon examina- 
tion, to be neither a political nor a natural right, and i 
should be soiTy to give my negative to the clause. 

Mr. Moreton. I think the provisions of the Bill right : 
but I did not apprehend that the question would have been 
debated in this manner; nor did I think that such an ex- 
tent would have been in view ; so that an example in future 
might have been brought of this, to attack one of the 
greatest pillars in this constitution, the appeal for murder. 
If the prisoner is to be sent here, were is the use of 
taking the appeal away in America 1 I only wanted that 
you should not give a constitution of appeal for murder 
to the Colonies, when in my own mind I am convinced 
they have it not, nor is a part of their law ; and as I 
think that they have no sucii power of appeal, I cannot 
vote for this clause. 

Mr. Phipps. I would wish to give. Sir, to every man 
in America, the same kind of right that we enjoy our- 
selves ; did they not carry with them all the privileges, 
laws, and liberties of this country ? If they have a right 
to part of those laws, they have a right to the whole. 
I think the appeal for murder ought to be sacred in this 
country ; and whatever doctrines gentlemen may imbibe 
from Mr. Blacksione, I cannot conceive them to be of 
tliat authority which ought to guide and direct us. There 
is not a more insidious way of gaining proselytes to his 
opinion than that dangerous pomp of quotations which he 
has practised ; it conveys some of the most lurking doc- 
trines to lead astray the minds of young men. To talk of 
the finger of nature pointing out law, is to me an absurdity ; 
but I would not advise gentlemen to seek for law in the 
channels of these times. The rust of antiquity dims the 
sight of his readers ; but if a man will open his eyes, 
he will find that the finger of nature will never point out 
the principle of law. The great argument which I dwell 
upon is, that the appeal for murder is the law of the land ; 
I am also for j)reserving mercy in the Crown ; I think it 
the brightest jewel in it ; but I think that it is a blight 
that will destroy all our harvest if it is without controul. 
I cannot. Sir, give my consent to this part of the law 
being annihilated. 

Mr. Skynner. We are got now upon the most impor- 
tant question that can come on. I think the cause does 
not want advocates ; and therefore it might be improper for 
me to give my opinion ; but. Sir, it is no unnatural thing, 
that the death of a relation should be attempted to be 
redressed, and that the friends of the deceased should 
seek for justice. The appeal for murder. Sir, is considered 
as a civil action, and to go on hand in hand with the 
criminal prosecution ; and surely. Sir, there is nothing 
then so exceedingly savage or barbarous in it, if it may be 
compensated by civil action. But let us consider how this 
will operate in the Colonies ; let us consider in what man- 
ner this action can be brought ; the Americans cannot 
make use of it unless their constitution allows it : a writ 
must first issue out of the Court of Chancery ; but as 
they have no such Court in that country, it cannot take its 
rise there. A writ of this kind can only issue when the 
person is in the actual custody of the Mai-shal. In the 
process which you have laid down in the Bill before 
us, bail is allowed to be taken for the offence ; so that 
he never can be actually in the custody of the Mar- 
shal. Therefore, at present, as their constitution stands, 
I look upon the writ of an execution of appeal to be 
impossible there. The Americans will think that we 
are breaking into their civil rights ; and I think it highly 
improper to introduce the appeal for murder in this in- 



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124 



stance, as it is not necessary. But, Sir, I cannot sit down 
without saying a few words in defence of that able person 
alluded to, now a great Magistrate, who has thought there 
is something in our constitution worth preserving. And 
sorry 1 am to hear that great and able writer has received 
any reproach or admonition in this Senate ; and I believe 
the honoPiible gentlemen (Captain Phipps) is singular in 
his opinion upon this head ; and I am glad to find there 
are no strangers in the gallery,* for his own sake, to hear 
what he said. But, Sir, I am of a different opinion from 
that honorable gentlemen ; and 1 dare say the House will 
agree with me when I think that book one of the best 
that ever was written upon the laws of this constitution, 
and will do more honor to himself and this country than 
any that ever yet appeared ; and I am sorry to hear him 
reproached even by an individual, when I am sure the 
greatest honor will redound to this country from that able 
perfomiance. 

Sir Richard Sutton. Sir, I do not think that the appeal 
for murder ought to be partially taken away ; if you take it 
away from any part of the Dominions, you should take it 
from the whole. 1 am much against the measure, because 
I think it vindictive and cruel. 

Mr. Charles Fox. I am for taking away the appeal for 
murder entirely, but I am not for taking it away in part. If 
die appeal is allowed, you take away the power of pardon- 
ing in the Crown. I look upon the power of pardon as 
much a right in the subject to claim, as part of the trial. 
Suppose a criminal should be tried and convicted, and he 
should appear to be out of his senses, in this case he is cer- 
tainly not to be hanged, the pardon being the only mode of 
saving his life. Appeal for murder is the only instance in 
our laws in which satisfaction is allowed to the injured by 
the blood of another, as it may be compensated by a sum 
of money. I shall vote against this clause, because I think 
the Americans have a right to the same laws as we 
have. 

Captain Phipps rose to explain himself with regard to 
Mr. Blackstone, and said, however he might have repre- 
sented his performance, he was glad to find it was so well 
defended by the warmth of friendship ; that he had heard, 
and was sorry to hear, that book had undergone some 
regulations with regard to its eligibility, which he hoped 
was not true. He sat down rather chagrined to find his 
opinion with regard to that work was singular. 

Sir George Savile. Sir, the appetite of revenge is, 
like that of hunger, never to be satisfied. There are 
certain rights which we bring into society which we give 
up for the good of the whole; the passion of revenge 
seems to be under that description ; and in this instance 
only the blood of another may be conii)ensaled by civil 
action. But I will not contend that to be a civil suit 
which ends in hanging, which the appeal for murder does 
when not compensated for ; but it is necessary that men 
should give up certain rights which tiiey enjoy for the 
good of society at large. 1 would wish a fair and impar- 
tial trial to be secured, which 1 think is already done in 
the Colonies without meddling with the appeal for murder. 

Mr. Skyimcr. Sir, I only rise to explain, that the ap- 
peal for murder may be reduced to a civil action ; that 
there also lies an appeal b robbery and rape ; and if the 
woman who had been injured, wiien the man was under 
the gallows to be hanged, should marry him, he would, by 
the ancient law, be saved, because all her civil right would 
he vested in lier husband by that act, and therefore com- 
pensated for as such : by that act she vests those civil 
rights, which he had deprived her of, in him as her hus- 
band. 

Mr. Wallace then, with leave of tlie House, withdrew 
tjie motion. 

Mr. R. Fuller. Sir, I am the more convinced by what 
1 have heard to day, that the whole law relative to the ap- 
peal for murder, ought to be repealed. I will therefore 
give notice, on some future day, when 1 shall make the 
motion. 

Mr. Dunning desired to know whether his learned 
friend (Mr. Wallace) had made any jirovision against a 
faulty indictment. 

Mr. Wallace said, he had not, as he did not diink it nc- 

• The standing order, for the exclusion of strangers, was strictly 
enforced during the progress of the three bills relating to the Distur- 
k&nces in America. 



cessary ; that if the prisoner returned, he might there be 
indicted again. 

Mr. Dunning said, so, then, it is intended that the 
prisoner may go over again if he chooses. 

Mr. Wallace then offered a clause to limit the continu- 
ance of the Act to three years, from the first day of /une, 
next ; which was agreed to. 

Ordered, That the Bill, with the amendments, be en- 
grossed. 

A motion was made, and the question put, that such a 
number of copies of the Bill, with the amendments, be 
printed, as shall be sufficient for the use of the members of 
the House ? 

It passed in the Negative. 

Ordered, That the Bill be read the third time, upon 
Friday morning next, if the said Bill shall be then en- 
grossed. 

Fhidav, May 6, 1774. 

The order of the day, for the third reading of the Bill, 
being read : 

Mr. Dempster. I do not apprehend. Sir, that the Bill 
before you is at all adetpiate to the purpose intended ; nor 
do 1 think that experience warrants the assertion, tiiat a 
fair trial cannot be had in the Colonies. Surely. Sir, the 
bringing men over to England to be tried, is not only a 
direct breach of their constitution, but is a deprivation of 
the right of every British subject in America. I should 
have thought that a power of reprieve, lodged in the Go- 
vernor, after conviction, would have been fully sufficient, 
without bringing men to England. Whenever murder is 
committed, it must inevitably go off with impunity ; for 
whenever any person present shall find he is to go over the 
Atlantic as an evidence, to the detriment of his familj^ and 
his fortune, there is no doubt but that he will evade the 
necessity of his appearance as an evidence. This, Sir, 
will be a means of subjecting the People of that country 
to assassination, in the room of legal trial ; and the invaria- 
ble consequence has always been, tliat when a fair trial 
cannot be procured, the revenge of the relations of the de- 
ceased will exercise itself in this kind of cruel assassination. 
1, perhaps. Sir, may be wrong in my ideas ; but I have 
looked into the history of that country with care and cir- 
cumspection, and it has inspired me with the highest vene- 
ration for those who were tlie first settlers ; they emigrated 
when that Star Chamber doctrine was practised in this 
country. Oppressed as they thought themselves by the 
niotlier country, by the cruelty of those arbitrary laws, 
sooner than suffer themselves to be opj)ressed by tyranny, 
they choose rather to combat with tygers and Indians in 
America, than live in a place where ojjpression and tyran- 
ny nded. It it no new thing. Sir, that they have refused 
to comply with the payment of taxes demanded from this 
country ; tliis exemption is a very old demand of theirs, 
and supported by tlieir charier. Imprisonment of two 
persons, who held this kind of doctrine, was made in the 
time of Sir Edmund Andrews, who w as tlu n Governor ; 
and the Americans passed a law, declaring that this coun- 
try had no right to tax ; it is true, when that law came 
over here, it was rejected. Let gentlemen consider, that 
if we tax America at this present period, her trade and 
every thing else will decline. 1 think that Boston has the 
most merit with this country of any place I know ; she is a 
most valuable ally, or a subordinate Colony ; take it in 
either sense, her possession is inestimable ; but I really 
fear very much, that the Americans are to be thus treaterl 
without the parties beine heard. I do not like to see public 
liberty and tlie riushts of persons infringed. There are two 
articles in tliis Bill, which 1 cannot blame the Americans 
for resisting ; I mean that of the Council and the Judges 
being chosen In the Crown : the ancient way which tlieir 
charter directed of chosing their Council, was far more 
eligible; they were men at a certain age, to which experi- 
ence generally adds wisdom, that were elected Council ; 
but this is a new system, that carries with it neither experi- 
ence nor wisdom ; and I think the change unnecessary, 
thougii not oppressive. I think the office of Sheriff is 
more oppressive, because he is an engine of power in the 
hands of the Governor ; nor do I approve of taking away 
the town meetings ; there is but one precedent of this kind 
to be found in history ; but 1 could wish, on the present oc- 
casion, that a second had not been made. [He concluded 



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126 



in praise of the character of Dr. Franklin, whom he called 
the ornament of human nature ; and said he thought him 
highly praise-worthy, for those very acts for which lie had 
been so much blamed.] 

Mr. Grey. I think this House and the nation at large, 
owe their best thanks to the noble Lord who has brought 
forward this business ; and 1 must allow, that nothing but 
necessity, in urgent cases like these, warrants a deviation 
from the constitution ; the law should not be invaded on 
every frivolous pretence, but this requires the serious atten- 
tion of the whole Legislature. It would be cruel to the 
last degree, when your subjects are employed in preserving 
the peace, not to give them the utmost security in the exe- 
cution of their duty. But let me ask. Sir, in what situation 
will that Navy and Army be, that has no protection for the 
execution of the laws which you have vested in their hands? 
Will you leave them a sacrifice to the rapacity of the re- 
vengeful dispositions of the relations of those unhappy men 
who may fall by their hands, in the execution of their duty ? 
I cannot think this Act will operate in any shape to the 
detriment of the People, if they return to their duty ; if 
that is the case ; if they do return, and he obedient, the Act 
will be a waste piece of paper ; but the trial of persons in 
England will seldom take place, I apprehend, as nothing 
but the most absolute necessity will drive the Governor to 
have recourse to the Act. 

Mr. Paulet observed, that nothing was ever more just 
than the measure proposed In the Bill before the House ; 
that it was the most cruel thing to let a man lie even one 
hour in prison, in expectation of being tried by a Jury 
whose minds were biased ; but for the sake of justice, a 
voyage across the Atlantic would surely be thought, on 
such an account, an undertaking not pregnant with much 
danger. 

Mr. Sawhridge. I hope. Sir, the House will hear me a 
few words, as it is the last opportunity I shall have. The 
opposition I have given to these measures, does not proceed 
from a settled disposition against Administration, nor do I do 
it for the sake of popularity ; it is for the love of that liberty 
which I have always been strengthened in, and bred up by 
education. I had rather bear the badge of the parish, than 
that of apostacy. It has been urged in debate, that this 
country has a right to pursue those measures adopted in the 
Bill, and that necessity is the ground and argument which 
urges it on ; but pray. Sir, let me ask, who is to be the judge 
of that necessity ? A nation, surely, cannot be called a free 
nation, where another has a right to drav/ money out of 
their pockets ; but I cannot understand how any one can 
agree with these measures, and deny the right of taxation. 
If you exercise an authority which does not belong to you, 
or if you force an illegal authority, they have a right to re- 
sist. I do not see any necessity for bringing over the 
People to be tried by a Jury in England; I think the 
Crown should have lodged a power in the Governor to 
pardon, and I should have thought it the brightest jewel in 
it on this occasion. You say, that the Governor is to use 
his discretion with regard to their having a fair trial ; but 
by this Bill the Governor, I say, is not the judge of that, 
for it must be upon the oath of a witness ; he must believe 
that witness, and no discretion is left in the Governor. No 
man will become a voluntary evidence on such an occasion ; 
he will sooner fly from that situation, than be transported 
to England. By that means justice will be evaded, as 
evidence cannot be had, and the People will soon take 
upon themselves to revenge their own injuries. 

Colonel Barrc. Sir, I think it oriminal to sit still uppn 
the final decision of this question, as I cannot, in any shape, 
approve of this measure. I think the pei-sons whom you 
employ to execute your laws, inight have been protected 
in the execution of their duty in a less exceptionable man- 
ner than that Bill proposes. Your Army, Sir, in that 
country, has the casting voice ; and it is dangerous to put 
any more power into their hands. Consider, Sir, how long 
they will bo content with Ad. per day ; I am afraid not long. 
You have had one meeting already, you may soon have 
another ; the People of America will receive these regula- 
tions as edicts from an arbitrary Government. The heaviest 
offence they have been guilty of is, that they have resisted 
that law which bears such an arbitrary cast. I want to 
know if we in this country had not resisted such arbitrary 
laws in certain ancient times, whether we should have ex- 
isted as a House of Commons here this day ? I object much 



against the doctrine which I have heard laid down, that the 
particular exigency of the case countenanced the measure. 
1 do not apprehend the Americans will abandon their prin- 
ciples ; for if they submit, they are slaves : I therefore exe- 
crate the present measure, in the manner proposed. 

The Bill was then read the third time. 

Mr. Pulteney. Sir, I will comprise in a few words 
what I have to say : I do not apprehend that the Legisla- 
ture can tax a particular county, without shewing some 
degree of partiality to others, nor can they justly do it. I 
think the principles of this Bill may be tolerably equitable, 
and I do believe it will produce a fair trial ; but as there 
are some defects in the form in which it now stands, with 
regard to the errors and flaws that may be in an indictment 
I will offer a clause, by way of rider, to give power to a 
Jury in England to find a Bill of indictment, in order to 
correct such a deficiency. 

Mr. Pulteney, then offered the following clause, which 
was thrice read, and agreed to by the House, to be made 
part of the Bill, by way of rider: 

" That in case, on account of any error or defect in any 
" indictment, which, in virtue or under the authority of this 
" Act, shall be transmitted to any other Colony, or to 
" Great Britain, the same shall be quashed, or judgment 
" thereon arrested, or such indictment judged bad upon 
" demurrer, it shall and may be lawful to prefer a new in- 
" dictment or indictments against the person or persons 
" accused in the said Colony, to which such indictment, so 
" quashed or adjudged bad, shall have been transmitted, or 
" before the Grand Jury of any county in Great Britain, 
" in case such former indictment shall have been transmit- 
" ted to Great Britain, in the same manner as could be 
" done in case the party accused should return to the 
" place where the offence was committed ; and the Grand 
" Jury and Petty Jury of such other Colony or county in 
" Great Britain shall have power to find and proceed 
" upon such indictment or indictments, in the same manner 
" as if the offence, by such indictment or indictments 
" charged, had been committed within the limits of the 
" Colony or county for which such Juries shall respective- 
" ly be empannelled to serve." 

Various other amendments were agreed toby the House, 
and the Bill was amended at the table accordingly. 

Mr. Fuller. Sir, I will now take my leave of the whole 
plan, and will give you my free opinion of it: you will 
commence your ruin from this day, if you do not repeal 
the tax which has created all this disturbance ; you will 
have no degree of confidence with the Americans ; People 
will not trust you when your credit is gone ; you may, I 
say, date your ruin from this day ; and, I am sorry to say, 
that not only this House has fallen into that error, but that 
the People of this country approve of the measure. I find 
the People wish for the measure proposed in this Bill, as 
much as the majority here : it is not all owing to the junto 
of a ministry that these measures are taken ; it is the People 
at large who, I am sorry to say, are misled : they are in 
an error, but a short time will prove the evil tendency of 
this Bill. I think the present Bill beai-s the least injury of 
any of the three ; but if ever there was a nation running 
headlong to its ruin, it is this. 

Mr. H. Cavendish. Sir, I am very glad to hear that 
there is a majority in this House for these measures ; but 
am much better pleased that the country in general ap- 
prove of them in as high a degree. 

The question then being put, that the Bill do Pass ? the 
House divided; 

Yeas 127 ; Nays 24. 

So it was resolved in the Affirmative. 

Ordered, That Mr. Cooper do carry the Bill to the- 
Lords, and desire their concurrence. 



HOUSE OF LORDS. 

Monday, May 9, 1774. 

A Message was brought from the House of Commons 
by Mr. Cooper and others : 

With a Bill intituled " An Act for the Impartial Ad- 
" ministration of Justice in the cases of persons questioned 
" for any acts done by them in the execution oi" the law. 



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BILL FOR ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



128 



" or for the suppression of riots and tumults in the Province 
*' o( Massachusetts Bay, in Neiv England;" to which 
tiiey desire the concurrence of the House ; 

And the said Bill was read the firet time. 

Ordered. That the Bill be read a second tune on 
H'cdnesday next ; and that tlie Lords be summoned. 

Ordered, That tlie Bill be printed. 

Fkidav, May 13, 1774. 

The order of the day being read, the Bill was accord- 
ingly read the second time, and committed to a Committee 
of the whole House. 

Ordered, That the House be put into a Committee 
np<in the said Bill on Monday next. 

Monday, May 16, 1774. 

The House, according to order, was adjourned during 
pleasure, and put into a Committee upon the Bill. 

After some time the House was resinned : 

And Ijord Boston reported from the Committee, that 
they had gone through the Bill, and directed him to report 
the same to the House, without any amendment. 

Ordered, That the said Bill be read a third time, on 
fVednesday next ; and that the Lords be summoned. 

Tuesday, May 17, 1774. 

The Earl of Dartmouth (by his Majesty's command.) 
laid before the House more Papers relating to the distur- 
bances at Boston, together with a list thereof; which was 
read by the Clerk, as follows : 

No. 1. Copy of a lietter from Governor Hutchinson to 
the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 9th March, 1774 ; 
received lStho( May, enclosing. 

No. 2. Extracts from the Boston Gazette. 
No. 3. Copy of a Letter from Governor Hutchinson 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated Boston, 21st March, 1 774, 
received 13th of May, enclosing. 

No. 4. Copy of the Resolution of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, concurred in by the Council. 
No. 5. Copy of a Message from the House of Rep- 
resentatives to Governor Hutchinson. 
No. 6. Copy of Governor Hutchinson's Message to 
the House of Representatives. 
And the titles thereof being read by the Clerk, 
Ordered, That the said Papers do lie on the table. 

Wednesday, May 18, 1774. 

The order of the day being read, the Bill was accord- 
ingly read the thud time. 

Upon reading the Petition of WiUian. Bollan, Esq., 
Agent for the Council of his Majesty's Province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, in New England, taking notice of a Bill de- 
pending in this House, intituled, " An Act for the Impar- 
'• tial Administration of Justice, in the cases of persons ques- 
" tioned for any acts done by them in the execution of the 
" law, or for the suppression of riots and tumults in the Pro- 
" vince of Massachusetts Bay, in New England ;" and pray- 
ing this right honorable House, " That the same may not 
" pass into a law ; and that he may be heard by their I^rd- 
" ships in support of his Petition," 

It is Ordered, That the said Petition do lie on the table. 

Moved, That Mr. Bollan be called in, and heard at the 
Bar. 

Which being objected to ; 

After debate, 

The question was put thereupon ? It was resolved in the 
Negative, 

Then it was mored "That the Bill do Pass ?" 

Which being objected to ; — 

A debate en'^ued. 

It was opened by the Earl of Buckinghampshire, ^^ho 
confessed this to be the most e.xccplionahle of the Ameri- 
rnn measures, but thought it was excused by necessity. 

He was answered by I^rd Shellnirne, who spoke with 
great ability, spirit, and knowledge, of the subject. 

The Lords Denbigh, Sandwich, and the Ix)rd Chancel- 
lor, were the chief supporters of the Bill. 

The Dukeof M«?(fAe«/cr spoke with that grace of man- 
tier and elegance of language which so peculiarly distin- 
guish him. 

The Marquis of Rockingham spoke late in tlie debate. 
His speech lasted near three quarters of an hour; and 



never was more attention given to a speaker on any occa- 
sion. He spoke with all the weight and authority of an 
able statesman, and all the feeling of a patriot, deeply con- 
cerned for the interest of his country. He entered fully 
into the civil policy which had originally given rise to the 
disturbances in America, and had in consequence produced 
bills and regulations so ill calculated to allay them. He 
took post upon the measure of his own administration, the 
repeal of the Stamp Act, on which he argued with great 
force. He insisted that that repeal w as no more tiian a re- 
turn to the ancient policy of Great Britain, from which the 
tax had been a deviation. He then stated the new taxes 
laid on after his removal from office, as originating from no 
plan or policy whatsoever, but merely as the result of pique 
and jjassion ; that they were in effect confessed to be so, 
because they were afterwards repealed for the greater part, 
as being laid by the avowal of Administration itself, in con- 
tradiction to all the principles of commerce. — That the Tea 
Duty, equally uncommercial and unproductive, was left as 
a pepper-corn, merely for tlie sake of contest with America. 
as the Ministry had likewise avowed. He censured very 
severely the doctrine of taxing for the sole purpose of ex- 
ercising an invidious right, and insisted that taxes ought to 
be for the real purpose of supporting Government, and not 
purely to irritate and stir up dangerous questions. That 
the Stamp Act was a great object, and might have produ- 
ced in time considerable revenues ; but to risk the Avhole 
trade of England, and the affections of the Americans, in a 
quarrel with the Colonies for pepper-corns, he thought a 
very unwise proceeding. After this, he entered into the 
particulars of the Bill, and, among other things, in answer 
to the difficulties asserted to be laid on officers without 
such protection as was given by tliis Bill, he said that he 
thought the condition of men of honor and sensibility to be 
far worse under this Bill ; for that no acquittal could be 
honorable, where tlie prosecutor had not the usual means 
of securing a fair trial. He concluded with a very em- 
pliatical recommendation of temper, as necessary in all 
things, but particularly in measures of this nature, and in 
subjects of so much delicacy : his own remarkable calmness 
and steadiness of mind, gave additional force to this part of 
his speech. 

The Duke of Richmond spoke last in the debate, and 
with his usual spirit, pointed his answer chiefly to what 
fell from the Chancellor and Ix)rd Sandwich : he concluded 
with recommending to the perusal of the House, a pamph- 
let, called " Considerations on the Measures carrying on 
'■ against America," and the Bishop of St. Asaph's Sermon, 
preached 1773, before the Society for propagating the 
Gospel, as containing the soundest doctrines and the best 
policy. 

After long debate,* 

The question was put, " Whether this Bill shall Pass ?'" 

It was resolved in the Affirmative : Contents, 43. 
Non-Contents, 12. 

Dissentient. 

1st. Because no evidence whatsoever has been laid 
before the House tending to prove that persons acting in 
support of public autliority, and indicted for murder, can- 
not receive a fair trial within the Province ; which is the 
object of this Bill. On the contrary, it has happened that 
an officer of tlie Array, charged with murder, has there 
received a fair and equitable trial, and been acquitted. 
This fact has happened even since the commencement of 
the present unhappy dissentions. 

2dly. Because, after the proscription of the port of 
Boston, the disfrancliisement of the Colony of Massachu- 
setts Bay, and tiie variety of provisions which have been 
made in this session for new modelling the whole polity 
and judicature of that Province, this Bill is an humiliating 
confession of the weakness and inefficacy of all the pro- 
ceedings of Parliament. By supposing that it may be im- 
practicable by any means, that the public wisdom could de- 

*Tlie Bill p.'.ssnd the Hous.i on Ih- 6tli of May, and being carried 
uj) to tlio i^oli8^ of Peers, occjsionod w;irm d^b t-s upon tlic same 
priiicipl's upon whicb it was discussed in tlic Housi of ('oninions. 
Tbo Ijords of the minority (!ntor3d on this, as on the fonnpr Bill, :i 
very s'ronff Protnst. Noitliur Houst' was full during tbo dtbatit on 
this Bill, :is till.' argiun-nts on the two latter Bills, had boon all along 
very muc',1 blended ; and the parties had tried their strength by divi- 
sion on the Bill for altering the Massai-husett» Charter. On both ques- 
tion*, however, the numbers of the minority had all along continued 
very low and disproportioned. — Ann. Regit. 



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130 



vise, to obtain a fair trial there, for any who act under Go- 
vernment, the House is made virtually to acknowledge the 
British Government to be universally odious to the whole 
Province. By supposing the case that such trial may be 
equally impracticable in every other Province of America, 
Parliament does in effect admit, that its authority is, or pro- 
bably may, become baleful to all the Colonies. This we ap- 
prehend is to publish to all the world, in terms the most em- 
phatical, the little confidence the Supreme Legislature re- 
poses in the affection of so large and so important a part of 
the British empire. If Parliament believed that any con- 
siderable number of the Peojjle in the Colonies were wil- 
ling to act in support of British Government, it is evident 
that we might safely trust the persons so acting to their fel- 
low Colonists, for a fair trial for acts done in consequence 
of such support. The Bill therefore amounts to a declara- 
tion that the House knows no means of retaining the Colo- 
nies in due obedience, but by an Army rendered indepen- 
dent of the ordinary course of law, in the place where they 
are employed. 

3dly. Because we think, that a military force, sufficient 
for governing upon tliis plan, cannot be maintained without 
the inevitable ruin of the nation. 

Lastly. Because this Bill seems to be one of the many 
experiments towards an introduction of essential innovations 
into the Government of this empire. The virtual indem- 
nity provided by this Bill, for those who shall be indicted 
for murders committed under colour of office, can answer 
no other purpose. We consider that to be an indemnity 
which renders trial, and consequently punislmient, imprac- 
ticable ; and trial is impracticable, when the very Govern- 
or, under whose authority acts of violence may be commit- 
ted, is empowered to send the instruments of that violence 
to three thousand miles distance from the scene of their of- 
fence, the reach of their prosecutor, and the local evidence 
which may tend to their conviction. The authority given 
by this Bill, to compel the transportation from America to 
Great Britain of any number of witnesses, at the pleasure 
of the parties prosecuting and prosecuted, without any re- 
gard to their age, sex, health, circumstances, business, or 
duties, seems to us so extravagant in its principles, and so 
hnpracticable in its execution, as to confirm us further in 
our opinion of the spirit which animates the whole system 
of tlie present American regulations. 

^ Richmond, Portland, 

Rockingham, Manchester, 
Leinster, Ponsonby, 

Fitzwilliam, Craven. 

A Message was sent to the House of Commons by the 
former Messengers : 

To acquaint them, that the Lords have agreed to the 
said Bill, without any amendment. 

Friday, May 20, 1774. 

His Majesty being seated on the Throne, and the Com- 
mons attending with their Speaker, the Royal assent to the 
Bill was pronounced by tlie Clerk's Assistant. 



Anno Declmo Quarto Georgii HI. Regis. 

An Act for the Impartial Administration of Justice in the 
cases of Persons questioned for any Acts done by them 
in Exemtion of the Law, or for the Suppression of 
Riots and Tumults, in the Province of the Massachu- 
setts Bay, in New England. 

Whereas in his Majesty's Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, in New England, an attempt hath lately been made 
to throw off the authority of the Parliament of Great 
Britain over the said Province, and an actual and avowed 
resistance, by open force, to the execution of certain Acts 
of Parliament, hath been suffered to take place, uncontroul- 
ed and unpunished, in defiance of his Majesty's authority, 
and to the utter subversion of all lawful Government : and 
whereas, in the present disordered state of the said Pro- 
vince, it is of the utmost importance to the general welfare 
thereof, and to the re-establislinient of lawful authority 
throughout the same, that neither the Magistrates acting in 
support of the laws, nor any of his Majesty's subjects aiding 
FoUBTH Sk&ijbs. 9 



and assisting them therein, or in the suppression of riots and 
tumults, raised in opposition to the execution of the laws 
and statutes of this realm, should be discouraged from the 
proper discharge of their duty, by an apprehension, that in 
case of their being questioned for any acts done therein, 
they may be liable to be brought to trial for the same 
before persons who do not acknowledge the validity of the 
laws, in the execution whereof, or the authority of the Ma- 
gistrate in the support of whom, such acts had been done: 
in order therefore to remove every such discouragement 
from the minds of his Majesty's subjects, and to induce 
them, upon all proper occasions, to exert themselves in 
support of the public peace of the Province, and of the au- 
thority of the King and Parliament of Great Britain over 
the same ; Be it enacted by the King's most excellent Ma- 
jesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present 
Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, 
that if any inquisition or indictment shall be found, or if 
any appeal shall be sued or preferred against any person, 
for murder, or other capital offence, in the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, and it shall appear, by information 
given upon oath to the Governor, or, in his absence, to the 
Lieutenant Governor of the said Province, that the fact 
was committed by the person against whom such inquisi- 
tion or indictment shall be found, or against whom such ap- 
peal shall be sued or preferred, as aforesaid, either in the 
execution of his duty as a Magistrate, for the suppression 
of riots, or in the support of the Laws of Revenue, or in 
acting in his duty as an Officer of Revenue, or in acting 
under the direction and order of any Magistrate, for the 
suppression of riots, or for the carrying into effect the Laws 
of the Revenue, or in aiding and assisting in any of the 
cases aforesaid ; and if it shall also appear, to the satisfac- 
tion of the said Governor, or Lieutenant Governor respec- 
tively, that an indifferent trial cannot be had within the 
said Province, in that case, it shall and may be lawful for 
the Governor, or Lieutenant Governor, to direct, with the 
advice and consent of the Council, that the inquisition, in- 
dictment, or appeal, shall be tried in some other of his Ma- 
jesty's Colonies, or in Great Britain; and for that purpose 
to order the person against whom such inquisition or indict- 
ment shall be found, or against whom such appeal shall be 
sued or preferred, as aforesaid, to be sent, under sufficient 
custody, to the place appointed for his trial, or to admit 
such person to bail, taking a recognizance, (which the said 
Governor, or in his absence, the Lieutenant Governor, is 
hereby authorized to take,) from such person, with suffi- 
cient sureties, to be approved of by the said Governor, or, 
in his absence, the Lieutenant Governor, in such sums of 
money as the said Governor, or, in his absence, the Lieu- 
tenant Governor, shall deem reasonable, for the personal 
appearance of such person, if the trial shall be appointed to 
be had in any other Colony, before the Governor, or Lieu- 
tenant Governor, or Commander-in-Chief of such Colony ; 
and if the trial shall be appointed to be had in Great 
Britain, then before his Majesty's Court of King's Bench, 
at a time to be mentioned in such recognizances ; and the 
Governor, or Lieutenant Governor, or Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colony, where such trial shall be appointed to 
be had, or Court of King's Bench, where the trial is ap- 
pointed to be had in Great Britain, upon the appearance 
of such person, according to such recognizance, or in cus- 
tody, shall either commit such person, or admit him to 
bail, until such trial ; and which the said Governor, or 
Lieutenant Governor, or Commander-in-Chief, and Court 
of King's Bench, are hereby authorized and empowered 
to do. 

And, to prevent a failure of justice, from the want of 
evidence on the trial of any such inquisition, indictment, or 
appeal, Be it further enacted, that the Governor, or, in his 
absence, the Lieutenant Governor, shall, and he is hereby 
authorized and required, to bind in recognizances to hi^ 
Majesty all such witnesses as the prosecutor or person 
against whom such inquisition or indictment shall be found, 
or appeal sued or preferred, shall desire to attend the trial 
of the said inquisition, indictment, or appeal, for their per- 
sonal appearance, at the time and place of such trial, to give 
evidence: and the said Governor, or in his absence, the 
Lieutenant Governor, shall thereupon appoint a reasonable 
sum to be allowed for the expenses of every such witness. 



131 



MOTION FOR REPEAL OF DUTY ON TEA. 



132 



and sliall thereupon give to eacli witness a certificate, in 
writins;, under his liand and seal, that such witness has en- 
tered into a recognizance to give evidence, and specifying 
tiie sum allowed tor his expenses ; and tiie Collector and 
Collectors of the Customs, or one of tliem, within the said 
Province, upon the delivery of such certificate, are, and is 
hereby authorized and required, forthwith to pay to such 
witness the sum specified tlierein for his expenses. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
That all prosecutors and witnesses, wlio sliall be under re- 
cognizances to appear in any of his Majesty's Colonies in 
America, or in Great Britain, in pursuance of this Act, 
shall be free from all arrests and restraints, in any action or 
suit to be coinmenced against them during their going to 
such Colony, or coming to Great Britain, and their ne- 
cessary stay and abiding there, on occasion of such jirose- 
cution, and returning again to the said Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. 
That all and every his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, and 
other Justices and Coroners, before whom any person shall 
be brought, charged with murder, or other capital crime, 
where it shall appear by proof, on oath, to such Justices or 
Coroners, that the fact was committed by such person, 
either in the execution of his duty as a Magistrate, for the 
suppression of riots, or in the support of the Laws of Reve- 
nue, or in acting in his duty as an Officer of Revenue, or in 
acting under the direction and order of any Magistrate, for 
the suppression of riots, or for the carrying into effect the 
Laws of Revenue, or in aiding and assisting in any of the 
cases aforesaid, are hereby authorized and required to admit 
every such person so brought before him or them, as afore- 
said, to bail ; any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary 
thereof in any wise uotwithstandiig. 

And be it further enacted by the avihority aforesaid, 
That where it shall be made appear to the Judges or 
Justices of any Court, within the said Province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, by any person, against whom any inquisition 
or indictment sliall be found, or appeal sued or preferred 
for murder, or other capital crime, that the fact was com- 
mitted by such person, either in the execution of his duty 
as a Magistrate, for the suppression of riots, or in the sup- 
port of the Laws of Revenue, or in acting in his duty as an 
Officer of Revenue, or in acting under the direction and 
order of any Magistrate, for the suppression of riots, or for 
the carrying into effect the laws of revenue, or in aiding and 
assisting in any of the cases aforesaid, and that he intends 
to make application to the Governor, or Lieutenant Go- 
vernor of the said Province, that such inquisition, indictment, 
or appeal, may be tried in some other of his Majesty's 
Colonies, or in Great Britain, the said Judges or Justices 
are hereby authorized and required to adjourn "or postpone 
tlie the trial of such inquisition, indictment, or appeal, for a 
reasonable time, and admit the person to bail, in order that 
lie may make application to the Governor, or Lieutenant 
Governor, for the purpose aforesaid. 

And be it further enacted, That the Governor, or in his 
absence, the Lieutenant Governor, if he shall direct the 
trial to be had in any other of his ftlajesty's Colonies, shall 
transmit the inquisition, indictment, or appeal, together 
with the recognizances of the witnesses, and other recogni- 



zances, under the seal of the Province, to the Governor, 
or Lieutenant Governor, or Commander-in-Chief, of such 
other Colony, wiio shall immediately issue a commission of 
Oyer and Terminer, and deliver, or cause to be delivered, 
the said inquisition, indictment, or appeal, with the said 
recognizances, to the Chief Justice, and such other persons 
as have usually been Commissioners of Oyer and Termi- 
ner, Justices of Assize, or General Gaol Delivery there ; 
who shall have power to proceed upon the said intjuisition, 
indictment, or appeal, as if the same had been returned, 
found, or preferred before them; and the trial sliall tliere- 
ii])on proceed in like manner, to all intents and purposes, 
as if the offence had been committed in such ])lace : and 
in case the Governor, or, in his absence the Lieutenant 
Governor, shall direct the trial to be had in Great Britain, 
lie shall then transmit the inquisition, indictment, or ap- 
peal, together with the recognizances, of the witnesses, and 
other recognizances, under the seal of the Province, to one 
of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, who shall 
deliver, or cause to be delivered, the same, to the Master 
of the Croun Office, to be filed of record in the Court of 
King's Bench, and the inquisition, indictment, or appeal, 
shall be tried and proceeded upon, in the next term, or at 
such other time as the Court shall appoint, at the Bar of 
the Court of King's Bench, in like manner, to all intents 
and purposes, as if the offence had been committed in the 
county of Middlesex, or in any other county of that part of 
Great Britain called England, where the Court of King's 
Bench shall sit, or else before such Commissioners, and in 
such county, in that part of Great Britain called England 
as shall be assigned by the King's Majesty's commission, in 
like manner and form, to all intents and purposes, as if such 
otience had been coinmitted in the same county where 
such inquisition, indictment, or appeal, shall be so tried. 

And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid. That 
in case, on account of any error or defect in any indict- 
ment, which, in virtue, or under the authority of this Act, 
shall be transmitted to any other Colony, or to Great 
Britain, the same shall be quashed, or judgment thereon 
arrested, or such indictment adjudged bad on demuiTer, it 
shall and may be lawful to prefer a new indictment or in- 
dictments against the person or persons accused in the said 
Colony, to which such indictment, so quashed or adjudged 
bad, shall have been transmitted, or before the Grand Jury 
of any county in Great Britain, in case such former in- 
dictment shall have been transmitted to Great Britairi, in 
the same manner as could be done in case the party accused 
should return to the place where the offence was commit- 
ted ; and the Grand Jury and Petty Jury of such other 
Colony or county in Great Britain shall have power to 
find and proceed upon such indictment or indictments, in 
the same manner as if the offence, by such indictment or 
indictments charged, had been committed within the limits 
of the Colony or county for which such Juries shall respec- 
tively be einpannelled to serve. 

And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, 
That this Act, and every clause, provision, regulation, 
matter, and thing, herein' contained, shall commence and 
take eflect upon the first day of June, one thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-four ; and be, and continue in force, 
for and during the term of three years. 



V. MOTION FOR REPEAL OF DUTY ON TEA. 



HOUSE OF COMiMONS. 

Friday, April 15, 1774. 

Mr. Rose Fuller, gave notice that he intended to move 
on Tuesday next, for a Committee on the Tea Duty, to see 
whether or not it was possible to repeal the Act, laying 
tliat duty, before the Bill for the better regulating the Go- 
vernment of Massachusetts Bay, took effect. 



Tuesday, April 19, 1774. 

Mr. Fuller moved, that an Act, made in the seventh 
year of the reign of his present Majesty, intituled, " An 
" Act for granting certain Duties in the British Colonies 
" and Plantations in America ; for allowing a Drawback of 
" the Duties of Customs upon the exportation from this 
" Kingdom of coffee and cocoa nuts, of the produce of the 



133 



MOTION FOR REPEAL OF DUTY ON TEA. 



134 



I 



" said Colonies or Plantations, for discontinuing the draw- 
" backs payable on china earthen ware exported to Ameri- 
" ca; and for more effectually preventing the clandestine 
" ninning of goods in the said Colonies and Plantations," 
might be read : 

And the same was read accordingly. 
Mr. Fuller then made the motion of which he had given 
notice : 

" That this House will, upon this day sevennight, re- 
" solve itself into a Committee of the whole House, to take 
" into consideration the Duty of three pence per pound 
" weight, upou Tea, payable in all his Majesty's Dominions 
" in America, imposed by the said Act ; and also tiie ap- 
" propriation of the said duty." 

On offering it, he declared that the Boston Port Bill, 
and the other regulations, would be totally ineffectual 
without repealing the Tea Duty Bill. He said he was 
very sure that the motion would be productive of a great 
deal of good ; and that it could not possibly do harm. He 
spoke much to the temper and feelings of tlie House ; and 
the arguments which he used served rather to point out the 
former considerations which the House had had upon this 
question, and that the subject of taxation of America was 
no new matter. After a short opening, he concluded by 
making the preceding motion. 

Mr. Pennant seconded the motion, and said, he wished 
much it might go to a Committee, because he thought the 
principle upon which the Bill was established, as set forth 
in the preamble, was unjust and impolitic ; that it changed 
the nature of their constitution, and it took away the power 
which had always been held sacred to an Englishman, that 
of levying their own money ; that it was similar to raising 
the ship mgney in King Charles' time ; that those who 
condemned that measure must of course condemn this, the 
one being as arbitrary and unconstitutional as the other. 
He said, he subscribed to the supremacy of Parliament, but 
he thought there was a plain method for raising by requisi- 
tion the money which we wanted ; that the People of that 
country would be better able to ascertain how, and in what 
manner the same ought to be raised, on account of the local 
circumstances which might attend it. The People of 
Boston would be the first victims to our resentment ; repeal 
this Bill, said he, and you will meet with support from the 
rest of the Colonies. 

Mr. Rice. This, Sir, is a motion upon the plan of re- 
conciliation, and there is no man would go further than my- 
self to correct any thing that 1 thought would be the means 
of bringing about such reconciliation ; but I cannot concur 
in any thing that endangers the supremacy of Parliament. 
Let us but consider the consequence of such a repeal at 
this present time. Whenever we have made the least con- 
cession, they have always required more ; they will think 
that we acknowledge that we have no right, if we should 
repeal this law. The objection has hitherto been made on 
the ground of taxation. I will consider truly what that 
ground is ; but I very much fear that they object to that 
controul which may be improper to take off; they submit- 
ted to external taxation ; to internal, they always objected. 
1 will take that period, then, as the fixed era for their al- 
lowing taxation, by the repeal of the Stamp Act, as an in- 
ternal tax. If you repeal tiiis Act, you will allow that you 
have no right. I desire to keep my stand here, and not to 
give up that autiiority which I am clear in. I wish no 
new taxes to take place, but I wish to keep the right and 
controul, which if you give up, you part with all. The in- 
terest of America is the interest of Great Britain, and I 
would wish to make their happiness the object, and to do 
that which would be satisfactory to tJieir minds ; but, in 
this present case, I am greatly afraid if you give up this, 
you will be required to give up much more. 

Captain Phipps. I should be the last person in the 
House to give trouble, if the importance of this question did 
not urge me to it : but I cannot take the acts of the Pro- 
vince of Massachusetts Bay to be the opinion of all Ameri- 
ca, nor those of a few designing interested men in Boston, 
to be the disposition of the whole Province at large. I per- 
fectly agree that the Americans cannot resist, and that the 
doctrine of supremacy is good ; but I tiiink the Americans 
have a real security in Parliament, which is, that you can 
do notliing that docs not affect Great Britain equally 
with America. I will consider the present measure as an 



act with which they cannot comply, or, more properly they 
will not. In the light, then, of a mercantile tax, it is tri- 
fling and ridiculous; as a matter of revenue, it is absurd. 
If they cannot resist, they will find some means of avoiding 
it. God and nature has given them an extensive coast, 
and of course an opportunity of smuggling. You will in- 
jure the manufactures of this country in a very high 
degree ; I do not mean by tlieir non-importation agree- 
ments, but by making them prefer the manufacture which 
is worse than yours, Irom your enemies, to those of this 
country, which is better. May the right long remain in 
the expediency of not exercising it ! 1 would only have it 
called for at particular times, when the emergency of af- 
fairs requires it, and when the whole of Great Britain and 
America are to receive equal benefit ; but if you exercise 
that right when you have no occasion or urgent reason for 
raising a revenue, you will throw the quiet man of that 
country into the factious man. But how can you expect 
an obedience of that country, when the emoluments of it 
are taken from them to supply the luxuries of men who 
live in this ? The Province of Virginia, before Lord 
Botetourt was made Governor, was annually plundered of 
£.5,000 per annum, by the non-residence of fonner Go- 
vernors. I knew a person in that country who held eleven 
offices, the emoluments of which were appropriated to the 
support of men of bad description in this. I approved 
much of the Stamp Act, as a necessary measure to destroy 
that nest of small petty-fogging attorneys, whose business 
it was to create disturbances and law suits, and live by the 
plunder. There is a wide difference between giving up 
a right and exercising it, but I cannot see that Parliament 
in fact gives up that right, when they say it is not expedient 
to exercise it. I therefore wish much for the repeal of this 
Act, which I think you will one day or other be forced 
to do. 

Mr. Stephen Fox. I rise. Sir, much in favour of the 
motion on your table ; and I think the only reason that has 
been urged against it, is, that America cannot resist. Do 
not, Sir, let us exercise such a conduct merely to show 
our power. I am far from saying we ought not to exert 
this power upon proper occasions, but to make use of it by 
way of irritation, is to me the highest ill policy, as well as 
absurdity ; I shall therefore give my hearty affinnative to 
the motion. 

Mr. Cornwall. I wish gentlemen would take into con- 
sideration the justice of their former proceedings, and the 
policy and expediency which the present times require 
and occasion. I do not love entering into the long debates 
which have formerly happened upon this business ; I think 
it wrong, and wish only to pursue the present expediency 
of the measure. The proposition which we are now 
called upon to decide, is simply this : Whether the whole 
of our authority over the Americans shall be taken away ? 
It has been said we have irritated the Americans by taxes 
that are neither for the purpose of revenue, nor for com- 
mercial regulations. That tax will be found to produce 
much more than gentlemen think ; and however little it 
may produce, the taking it off at this time would be both 
inqiolitic and imprudent. Much has also been said about 
gaining the affections of the Arnericans. If this were a 
new question, I should think the gaining of their affections 
is worth a thousand times the produce of the Tea Duty. 
It is true. Sir, that England is loaded with a debt of a 
very considerable amount, on account of the last American 
war ; and it is but just and right that they should bear their 
proportion of expense. Gentlemen say, that the propo- 
sition should have been made to them by way of requisi- 
tion. If I saw or apprehended the least inclination from 
them to assist us in any other mode as to taxation, I would 
readily give up this particular tax ; but has any one offered 
any tiling on this head ? Has any person been authorized 
to treat; or any ambassador sent on tliat occasion ? I 
would meet them half way in this proposition. It has 
been said, that all their labours are centered in this coun- 
try, and that we should injure ourselves by laying tliis tax. 
I look upon the interest of this country to be so nearly 
connected with that, that our own actions will be the guide 
of their security. America does not meet you on the 
mode of taxation, but upon the question of right; and, for 
my part, I cannot comprehend the distinction between in- 
ternal and external taxation. You repealed the Stamp 
* 



135 



MOTION FOR REPEAL OF DUTY ON TEA. 



136 



Act : did America then receive this boon of repeal cheer- 
fijUy? Disturbances have been fomenting and growing 
ever since. Some few years past you repealed three or 
four of these taxes ; I wish much the debate on this ques- 
tion had then been agitated. The question now is, 
whether it is prudent to repeal this tax at this critical junc- 
ture? The Americans say, restore us to the same situa- 
tion we were in before tiie Stamp Act passed. Suj)pose 
we do, we put them in a worse situation than they are now 
in. The consumer of a pound of tea before that Act took 
place paid twelve-pence, by this Act he pays only three- 
pence, the consumer therefore certainly gains nine-pence 
by every pound he uses. This tax upon tea is certainly 
not uncommercial, because tea is much cheaper now than 
before ; and therefore I think it cannot have any aspect 
of grievance as a commercial tax. What, then, are we to 
expect, if we shew such a pusillanimous timidity in repeal- 
ing this tax, merely because they object to it ? On the 
question of right, they will certainly consider us in a more 
contemptuous light than they ever yet did. Let me ask 
what answer will they give, when, after tiiis, the Ameri- 
cans shall voluntarily apply to repeal the duty on wine, 
fee. ? The same principle that operates for the repeal of 
this, will go to that. I do not see what answer you can 
give, nor where the complaint is likely to stop, until you 
have given up the whole, and, by that means, America 
itself. If you persist in the measures you have begun 
with, I think there is not a doubt of your succeeding, and 
of becoming, if I may use the word, victorious ; but I would 
have this victory obtained by a firm, consistent, just, and 
manly conduct. I do not see what line of discrimination 
you can draw ; for many parts of America have, in a 
measure, disobeyed the precepts of this country, and be- 
haved much in the same manner as Boston. It has been 
said, and it is a doctrine I readily agree to, that you ought 
to twine the olive branch round the sword ; but if, Sir, 
they will return to their duty as they ought to do, the 
sword will have no edge. Let us not give way to false 
conceits, or factious proceedings ; be calm, and persist in a 
just conduct. Deep as our debt is on account of America, 
you will be deprived of a fourth part of the revenue, in the 
day when the system of taxation will be found necessary 
for carrying on the supplies of war, and the exigencies of 
Government ; and when business must be stopt, without 
some resource of supply, there will not then be found two 
voices about taxing America. 

Mr. Edmund Burke. Sir, I agree with the honora- 
ble gentleman who spoke last, that this subject is not 
new in this House. Very disagreeably to this House, 
▼ery unfortunately to this nation, and to the peace and 
prosperity of this whole empire, no topic has been 
more familiar to us. For nine long years, session after 
session, we have been lashed round and round this mis- 
erable circle of occasional arguments and temporary 
expedients. I am sure our heads must turn, and our 
stomachs nauseate with them. We have had them in every 
shape ; we have looked at them in every point of view. 
Invention is exhausted ; reason is fatigued ; experience has 
given judgment ; but obstinacy is not yet conquered. 

The honorable gentleman has made one endeavour 
more to diversify the form of this disgusting argument. 
He has thrown out a speech composed almost entirely 
of challenges. Challenges are serious things ; and as he 
is a man of prudence as well as resolution, I dare say 
he has very well weighed those challenges before he 
delivered them. I had long the happiness to sit at the 
same side of the House, and to agree with the honora- 
ble gentleman on all the American questions. My sen- 
timents, I am sure, are well known to him ; and I thought 
I had been perfectly acquainted with his. Though I 
find myself mistaken, he will still pennit me to use the 
privilege of an old friendship ; he will permit me to 
apply myself to the House under the sanction of his 
authority ; and, on the various grounds he has measured 
out, to submit to you the poor opinions which I have 
formed, upon a matter of injportance enough to demand 
the fullest consideration I could bestow upon it. 

He li:is stated to the House two grounds of deliberation ; 
one narrow and simple, and merely confined to the ques- 
tion on your paper; the other rfiore large and more 
complicated ; comprehending the whole series of the Par- 



liamentary proceedings with regard to America, their 
causes, and their consequences. With regard to the latter 
ground, he states it as useless, and thinks it may be even 
dangerous, to enter into so extensive a field of inquiry. 
Yet, to my surprise, he had hardly laid down this restrictive 
proposition, to which his authority would have given so 
much weight, when directly, and with the same authority, 
he condemns it, and declares it absolutely necessary to 
enter into the most ample historical detail. His zeal has 
thrown him a little out of his usual accuracy. In this 
perplexity what shall we do, Sir, who are willing to submit 
to the law he gives us ? He has reprobated in one part of 
his speech the nde he had laid down for debate in the 
other; and, after narrowing the ground for all those wlio 
are to speak after him, he takes an excursion himself, as 
unbounded as the subject and the extent of his great 
abilities. 

Sir, when I cannot obey all his laws, I will do the best 
I can. I will endeavour to obey such of them as have the 
sanction of his example, and to stick to that rule which, 
though not consistent with the other, is the most rational. 
He was certainly in the right when he took the matter 
largely. I cannot prevail on myself to agree with him in 
his censure of his own conduct. It is not, he will give 
me leave to say, either useless or dangerous. He asserts, 
that retrospect is not wise ; and the proper, the only proper, 
subject of inquiry is, " not how we got into this difficulty, 
but how we are to get out of it." In other words, we 
are, according to him, to consult our invention, and to 
reject our experience. The mode of deliberation he re- 
commends is diametrically opposite to every rule of rea- 
son, and every principle of good sense established amongst 
mankind. For that sense and that reason, I have always 
understood, absolutely to prescribe, whenever we are in- 
volved in difficulties from the measures we have pursued, 
that we should take a strict review of those measures, in 
order to correct our errors if they should be corrigible ; or 
at least to avoid a dull uniformity in mischief, and the unpi- 
tied calamity of being repeatedly caught in the same snare. 

Sir, I will freely follow the honorable gentleman in his 
historical discussion, without the least management for men 
or measures, Rirther than as they shall seem to me to 
deserve it. But before I go into that large consideration, 
because I w^ould omit nothing that can give the House 
satisfaction, I wish to tread the narrow ground to which 
alone the honorable gentleman, in one part of his speech, 
has so strictly confined us. 

He desires to know, whether, if we were to repeal this 
tax, agreeably to the proposition of the honorable gentleman 
who made the motion, the Americans would not take post 
on this concession, in order to make a new attack on the 
next body of taxes ; and whether tliey would not call for 
a repeal of the duty on wine as loudly as they do now 
for the repeal of the duty on tea? Sir, I can give no 
security on this subject. But I will do all that I can, and 
all that can be fairly demanded. To the experience which 
the honorable gentleman reprobates in one instant, and 
reverts to in the next, to that experience, without the 
least wavering or hesitation on my part, I steadily appeal ; 
and would to God there was no other arbiter to decide on 
the vote with which the House is to conclude tliis day ! 

When Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in the year 
1766, I affirm, first, that the Americans did not in conse- 

?uence of this measure call upon you to give up the former 
'arliamentary revenue which subsisted in that country, 
or even any one of tfie articles which compose it. I 
affirm also, that when, departing from the maxims of that 
repeal, you revived the scheme of taxation, and thereby 
filled the minds of the Colonists with new jealousy, and 
all sorts of apprehensions, then it was that they quarreled 
with the old taxes, as well as the new; then it was, and 
not till then, that they questioned all the parts of your 
legislative power ; and, by the battery of such questions, 
have shaken the solid structure of this empire to its 
deepest foundations. 

Of those two propositions I shall, before I have done, 
give such convincing, such damning proof, that however 
the contrary may be whispered in circles, or bawled in 
newspapers, they never more will dare to raise their 
voices in this House. I speak with great confidence. I 
have reason for it. The Ministers are with me. They 



137 



MOTION FOR REPEAL OF DUTY ON TEA. 



13S 



at least are convinced that the repeal of the Stamp Act 
had not, and that no repeal can have, the consequences 
which tlie honorable gentleman who defends their measures 
is so much alarmed at. To their conduct, I refer him for 
a conclusive answer to his objection. I carry my proof 
irresistibly into the very body of both Ministry and Par- 
liament ; not on any general reasoning growing out of 
collateral matter, but on the conduct of the honorable gen- 
tleman's ministerial friends on the new revenue itself. 

The Act of 1767, which grants this Tea Duty, sets forth 
in its preamble, that it was expedient to raise a revenue in 
America, for the support of the civil Government there, 
as well as for purposes still more extensive. To this 
support the Act assigns six branches of duties. About 
two years after this Act passed, the Ministry, I mean the 
present Ministry, thought it expedient to repeal five of the 
duties, and to leave (for reasons best known to themselves) 
only the sixth standing. Suppose any person, at the time 
of that repeal, had thus addressed the Minister:* " Con- 
" dcmning, as you do, the repeal of the Stamp Act, why 
" do vou venture to repeal the duties upon glass, paper, 
" and painters' colours ? Let your pretence for the repeal 
" be what it will, are you not thoroughly convinced, that 
" your concessions will produce, not satisfaction, but inso- 
" lence in the Americans ; and that the giving up these 
" taxes will necessitate the giving up of all the rest ?" 
This objection was as palpable then as it is now ; and it 
was as good for preserving the five duties as for retaining 
the sixth. Besides, the Minister will recollect, that the 
repeal of the Stamp Act had but just preceded his repeal ; 
and the ill policy of that measure (had it been so impolitic 
as it has been represented,) and the mischiefs it produced, 
were quite recent. Upon the principles therefore of the 
honorable gentleman, upon the principles of the Minister 
himself, the Minister has nothing at all to answer. He 
stands condemned by himself, and by all his associates, old 
and new, as a destroyer, in the first trust of finance, of the 
revenues ; and in the first rank of honor, as a betrayer 
of the dignity of his country. 

Most men, especially great men, do not always know 
their well-wishers. I come to rescue that noble Lord out 
of the hands of those he calls his friends ; and even out 
of his own. I will do him the justice he is denied at 
home. He has not been this wicked or imprudent man. 
He knew that a repeal had no tendency to produce the 
mischiefs which give so much alarm to his honorable friend. 
His work was not bad in its principle, but imperfect in its 
execution ; and the motion on your paper presses him only 
to complete a proper plan, which, by some unfortunate 
and unaccountable error, he had left unfinished. 

I hope, Sir, the honorable gentleman who spoke last, is 
thoroughly satisfied, and satisfied out of the proceedings of 
Ministry on their own favourite Act, that his fears from a 
repeal are groundless. If he is not, I leave him, and the 
noble Lord who sits by him, to settle the matter, as well as 
they can, together ; for if the repeal of American taxes de- 
stroys all our Government in America — He is the man ! — 
and he is the worst of all the repealers, because he is the last. 

But I hear it rung continually in my ears, now and 
formerly, — " Tlie preamble ! -wliat will become of the 
preamble, if you repeal this tax?" I am sorry to be com- 
pelled so often to expose the calamities and disgraces of 
Parliament. The preamble of this law, standing as it now 
stands, has the lie direct given to it by the provisionary 
part of the Act, if that can be called provisionary which 
makes no provision. I should be afraid to express myself 
in this manner, especially in the face of such a formidable 
array of ability as is now drawn up before me, composed 
of the ancient household troops of that side of the House, 
and the new recruits from this, if the matter were not clear 
and indisputable. Nothing but truth could give me this 
finnness ; but plain truth and clear evidence can be beat 
down by no ability. The Clerk will be so good as to turn 
to the Act, and to read this favourite preamble : 

" Whereas it is expedient that a revenue should be rais- 
" ed in your Majesty's Dominions in America, for making 
" a more certain and adequate provision for defraying the 
"charge of the Administration of justice and support of 
" civil Government, in such Provinces where it shall be 
" found necessary ; and tovinrds further defraying the ex- 

• Lord North, then ChancoUor of tlio Exchequer. 



" penses of defending, protecting, and iteUring the. taid 
" Dominions." 

You have heard this pompous performance. Now 
where is the revenue which is to do all these mighty 
things ? Five-sixths repealed — abandoned — sunk — gone — 
lost for ever. Does the poor solitary Tea Duly support 
tl)e purposes of this preamble ? Is not the supply there 
stated as effectually abandoned as if the Tea Duty had 
perished in the general wreck ? Here, Mr. Speaker, is a 

precious mockery — a preamble without an Act taxes 

granted in order to be repealed — and the reasons of the 
grant still carefully kept up ! This is raising a revenue in 
America! This is preserving dignity in £n^/anrf / If you 
repeal this tax in compliance with the motion, I readily 
admit that you lose this fair preamble. Estimate your 
loss in it. The object of the Act is gone already ; and all 
you suffer is the purging the statute-book of the opprobrium 
of an empty, absurd, and false recital. 

It has been said again and again, that the five taxes 
were repealed on commercial principles. It is so said 
in the paper in my hand ;* a pajjer which I constantly 
carry about; which I have often used, and shall often 
use again. What is got by this paltry pretence of com- 
mercial principles I know not ; for, if your Government 
in America is destroyed by the repeal of taxes, it is of 
no consequence upon what ideas the repeal is grounded. 
Repeal this tax too upon commercial principles if you 
please. These principles will serve as well now as they 
did formerly. But you know that, either your objection 
to a repeal from these supposed consequences has no 
validity, or that this pretence never could remove it. This 
commercial motive never was believed by any man, either 
in America, which this letter is meant to soothe, or in 
England, which it is meant to deceive. It was impossible 
it should. Because every man, in the least acquainted 
with the detail of commerce, must know, that several 
of the articles on which the tax was repealed were fitter 
objects of duties than almost any other articles that could 
possibly be chosen ; without comparison more so, than the 
tea that was taxed ; as infinitely less liable to be eluded 
by contraband. The tax upon red and white lead was of 
this nature. You have, in this Kingdom, an advantage 
in lead, that amounts to a monopoly. When you find 
yourself in this situation of advantage, you sometimes 
venture to tax even your own export. You did so soon 
after the last war, when, upon this principle, you ventured 
to impose a duty on coals. In all the articles of American 
contraband trade, who ever heard of the smuggling of 
red lead, and white lead? You might, therefore, well 
enough without danger of contraband, and without injury 
to commerce (if this were the whole consideration) have 
taxed these commodities. The same may be said of glass. 
Besides, some of the things taxed were so trivial, that the 
loss of the objects themselves and their utter annihilation 
out of American commerce, would have been comparative- 
ly as nothing. But is the article of tea such an object 
in the trade of England, as not to be felt, or felt but 
strictly like white lead, and red lead, and painters colours ? 
tea is an object of far other importance. Tea is perhaps 
the most important object, taking it witli its necessary 
connections, of any in the mighty circle of our commerce. 
If commercial principles had been the true motives to the 
repeal, or had they been at all attended to, tea would 
have been the last article we should have left taxed for a 
subject of controversy. 

Sir, it is not a pleasant consideration, but nothing ia 
the world can read so awful and so instructive a lesson, 
as the conduct of Ministry in this business, upon the 
mischief of not having large and liberal ideas in the man- 
agement of great affairs. Never have the servants of the 
State looked at the whole of your complicated interests in 
one connected view. They have taken things by bits 
and scraps, some at one time and one pretence, and some 
at another, just as they pressed, without any sort of regard 
to their relations or dependencies. They never had any 
kind of system, right or wrong, but only invented occa- 
sionally some miserable tale of the day, in order meanly 
to sneak out of difficulties, into which they had proudly 

• I>or(l HilhboTougk'f Circular Letter to the Oovornors of the Co- 
lonioa concorniiig tlie Repeal of some of the Duties laid in the Act 
of 1767. 



139 



MOTION FOR REPEAL OF DUTY ON TEA. 



140 



strutted. And they were put to all these shifts and 
devices, full of meanness and full of mischief, in order to 
pilfer piecemeal a repeal of an act, which they had not 
the generous courage, when they found and felt their error, 
lionorahly and fairly to disclaim. By such management, 
by the irresistible operation of feeble councils, so paltry 
a sum as three-pence, in the eyes of a financier, so insig- 
nificant an article as tea in the eyes of a piiilosopher, have 
sliaken the pillars of a commercial empire that circled the 
whole globe. 

Do you forget that, in the very last year, you stood on 
the precipice of general bankruptcy? Your danger was 
indeed great. You were distressed in the aflairs of the 
East India Company ; and you well know what sort of 
things aie involved in the comprehensive energy of tliat 
significant appellation. I am not called upon to enlarge to 
you on that danger, which you tliought proper yourselves 
to aggravate, and to display to the world with all the 
parade of indiscreet declamation. Tiie monojjoly of the 
most lucrative trades, and possession of imperial revenues, 
had brought you to the verge of beggary and ruin. Such 
was your representation — such, in some measure was your 
■case. The vent of ten millions of pounds of this com- 
modity, now locked up by the operation of an injudicious 
tax, and rotting in the warehouses of the Company, would 
have prevented all this distress, and all that series of 
desperate measures which you thought yourselves obliged 
to take in consequence of it. America would have fur- 
nished that vent, which no other part of the world can 
furnish but America, where tea is next to a necessary of 
life, and where tlie demand grows upon the supply. I 
hope our dear-bougiit .East India Committees have done 
us at least so much good, as to let us know, that without 
a more extensive sale of that article our East India re- 
venues and acquisitions can ha\e no certain connection 
with this country. It is through the American trade of 
tea that your East Itidia conquests are to be prevented 
from crushing you with their burthen. They are ponderous 
indeed ; and they must have that great country to lean 
upon or they tumble upon your head. It is the same folly 
that has lost you at once the benefit of the West and of the 
East. This folly has thrown open folding-doors to contra- 
band ; and will be the means of giving the profits of the 
trade of your Colonies, to every nation but yourselves. 
Never did a People suffer so much for the empty words of 
a preamble. It must be given up. For on wliat principle 
does it stand ? This famous revenue stands, at this hour, on 
all the debate, as a description of revenue not as yet known 
in all the compreliensive (but too comprehensive !) vocabu- 
lary of finance — a iireavibularij tax. It is indeed a tax of 
sophistry, a tax of pedantry, a tax of disputation, a tax of 
war and rebellion, a tax for any thing but benefit to the 
imposers, or satisfaction to the subject. 

Well ! but whatever it is, gentlemen will force the 
Colonists to take the teas. You will force them? has 
seven years struggle been yet able to force them ? O ! but 
it seems " we are in the right. — The tax is trifling — in 
" effect it is rather an exoneration than an imposition ; three- 
" fourtlis of the duty formerly payable on teas exported 
" to America is taken off; the place of collection is only 
" shifted ; instead of the retention of a sliilling from the 
'• drawback here, it is three-pence custom paid in Amc- 
" rica." All this. Sir, is very true. But this is the very 
folly and mischief of the Act. Incredible as it may seem, 
you know, that you have deliberately tiirown away a large 
duty which you held secure and quiet in your hands, for the 
vain hope of getting one three-fourtlis less, tlu-ough every 
liazard, througli cert^iin liti'^ation, and possibly tlirougii war. 

The manner of proceeding in the duties on paper and 
glass, imposed by tlie same Act, was exactly in the same 
spirit. Tliere are heavy excises on those articles when 
used in England. On export these excises are drawn 
back. But instead of withholding the drawback, which 
might have been done, with ease, without cliarge, without 
possibility of smuggling ; and instead of applying the money 
(money already in your hands) according to your pleasure, 
you began your operations in finance by flingin<'' awav 
your revenue ; you allowed tiie whole drawback on 
export, and then you chari!;ed the duty, (which you had 
before discharged,) payable in the Colonies, where it was 
certain the collection would devour it to the bone, il" any 



revenue were ever suffered to be collected at all. One 
spirit pervades and animates the whole mass. 

Could any thing be a subject of more just alarm to 
America, than to see you go out of the plain high road of 
finance, and give up your most certain revenues and your 
clearest interests, merely for the sake of insulting your 
Colonies ? No man ever doubted that the commodity of 
tea could bear an imposition of three-pence. But no 
commodity will bear three-pence, or will bear a penny, 
when the general feelings of men are irritated, and two 
millions of People are resolved not to pay. The feelings 
of the Colonies were fonnerly the feelings of Great Bri- 
tain. Theirs were formerly the feelings of Mr. Hampden, 
when called upon for the payment of twenty shillings. 
Would twenty shillings have ruined Mr. Hampden's for- 
tune ? No ! but the payment of half twenty shillings, on 
the principle it was demanded, would have made him a 
slave. It is the weight of that preamble, of which you 
are so fond, and not the weight of the duty, that the 
Americans are unable and unwilling to bear. 

It is then, Sir, upon the principle of this measure, and 
nothing else, that we are at issue. It is a principle of 
political expediency. Your Act of 1767 asserts, that it is 
ex])edient to raise a revenue in America; your Act of 
1769, which takes away that revenue, contradicts the Act 
of 1767 ; and, by something much stronger than words, 
asserts, that it is not expedient. It is a reflection upon 
your wisdom to persist in a solenm Parliamentary declara- 
tion of expediency of any object, for which, at the same 
time, you make no sort of provision. And pray, Sir, let 
not this circumstance escape you ; it is very material ; 
that the preamble of this act, which we wish to repeal, is 
not declaratory of a right, as some gentlemen seem to 
argue it ; it is only a recital of the expediency of a certain 
exercise of a right supposed already to have been asserted ; 
an exercise you are now contending for by ways and 
means, which you confess, though they were obeyed, to 
be utterly insufficient for their purpose. You are therefore 
at this moment in the awkward situation of fighting for a 
phantom ; a quiddity ; a thing that wants, not only a 
substance, but even a name ; for a thing, which is neither 
abstract right, nor profitable enjoyment. 

They tell you, Sir, that your dignity is tied to it. 1 
know not how it happens, but this dignity of yours is a 
terrible incumbrance to you ; for it has of late been ever 
at war with your interest, your equity, and every idea of 
your policy. Shew the thing you contend for to be rea- 
son ; shew it to be common sense ; shew it to be the 
means of attaining some useful end ; and then I am 
content to allow it what dignity you please. But what 
dignity is derived from the pei-severance in absurdity is more 
than ever I could discern. The honorable gentleman has 
said well — indeed, in most of his general observations I 
agree with him — he says, that this subject does not stand 
as it did formerly. Oh, certainly not! every hour you 
continue on this ill-chosen ground, your difficulties thicken 
on you ; and therefore my conclusion is, remove from a 
bad position as quickly as you can. The disgrace, and 
the necessity of yielding, both of them, grow upon you 
every hour of your delay. , 

But will )ou repeal the Act, says the honorable gentle- 
man, at this instant, when America is in open resistance to 
your authority, and that you have